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.tu:;e li/uo 


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PR0i'!!:3o0R CLARA A. F'^LSOi-I 
THE OHIO •','EdL].<:Y;aJ U]XlVi^]R.iITY, 



...,ALYSI3 0_^ THE .iOURv^JCOIo JuARt.^TiRo lb, TIE L'R^^.A AxT:!!:-. i-OLISR/]. 

ji' ,.ciuter&che . 

jurnailie it Pa YiaS, 

-*oursa."ali . 

Ld. I'ontuixie, 

DcUiCourt . 




La Jtij^e . 

Voltuira . 



vjuyot de ...erville. 



Colle . 

Poinsinet de Sivry, 

oddtiine . 

BectUiaa.rcj^ . 

THE T^E'n-^LOP.. -tlj.T Oi THE riOURGSOIo. 

I. Tne Fttiiily o.i i.cliar^... .• 

A. The DeBceadants oi' i... Jour do. in. 

::,. The Dedceuaaiilo ol Hd r^^ti. ^ on . 

J. The Debcenoc^nt ii of Arnol.he. 

P. Tlie oi' i3eliae. 

E. The Descenaunts oi :.c..r^>in, 

j: , Otner j-oiiJre&^ue Tyjjeti. 

II, Txie xiour^eois in .;^.uily, 

A. Ti'^ bcur(_;eoi^ . .i^btiua :.utjbcaid tind 'Vile. 

3, Tiici rji, iri^,eo io /twrent. 

1. T e T.rc.;iioi^ P^re.-.t. 

1.. Ti-'j uro-vth or th^ I-\i.ail- '"' . 


li [. li.-i Ri^w 

^IcDb -JwiioO i oUii ni,ii r" 'eo iii. 





Tiie subject oi" LLio c it;.^drt..t ion -ru-Si lirdt t, cer- 

•uin ^oiiito .'/liich cuue >- st-jn-; i,, t}\ ■ ^Y^nch Literct'ir--^ '•rt: - 

inary in tii3 v/inter ol' iyOh-6, At lirat 1 ^vuroo&ed jiivin^ it c 
...uah broctd-^r treatment tiuxn tii^^earti in the resvilt, but before 3 
ii^d ci<^ns fur in my reoe^^rch I round t/ie la^.teriul taKin-^ on such 
volume tiiat it o<7ctt beccur.e necessary to lixiiit either tli^ fi.-lri rr 
tne _^jsrioa. The hundred years that ae^^arates y.oliere Irom rter.u- 
o^ rchbiis fcriiiS in itseli' so exact an e^^och' oi' t^^ French dra^ — .... 
I vv^.ci averse to curtc^ilin;^, iz by treat in.c onlv one jjart ol" it; 
therei'cre I retained the ^jeriOQ originally fixed upon, but aban- 
aonned many of the ihinor subjeotfa of investi^^ation. So this dis- 
sertation as it stands is merely the history of the bourgeois ^.„ 
literary creation, cv drci^.tic; ty^^e; o-nd to this is joined the . 
.- ^' ^ relation of this i. , onre knof/n as tV.e drame 

bou r^ eciij . ■-. relation which seeuied to me not tc have ben: suf i W 
ciently considered. This is all thir. b + '!^' ■ ijuri^ortf; + • b-^ : r^" ->- 
subjects, criminally included in it, .yicii as the aocial and i^olit- 
ical history o r -i ^ - >ir ir-.-P -:,. class Hnv-ir^ this period, ■"'■-^ ■• 'ir- 
geoisi, in tri.e contemporary novel ana ii^eiuoire, the influence of t'i.=i 
■Ent^lisn novel •'' dra^.. ..., on Prenclx coiaei -'' ■' -^ ^ i, + ^--..,'-, 

tur,' - tiiase suoj acts luust av/ait investit,ation at ti^e :-ands of 
iconomjt. ^ ^v..._t.... • ■- '^. 



t;ii3 idecta ol" kurivaux iron, those ol uctave Peuiliet, tli^ re La! ions 

of Lc^xiiio Lu ^TtA^uinte oii ujie one hc^nd from those of iuaxiiue vuioi 

to lixirguerite Lttro^ue on the other, huo thia to say: 

j^:i xuciii. f,e..^i.t. . . lUais non, il lue sul'lit da vous avoir k- 
indi-iue lo theme. C'est a vous d'aciievor ce divelo^^ment pur un 
efiori ns reflexion u^rsL-nelue. Vous >ouvez suivre ce j.<aral.Lele 
jus^u'en s.3b moindres details. Vou,j y trouverez une aii-ple uiatiere 
a jjiiil^OoOjjher sur I'art dru,i.k.i,t i^ue. C'eat un i.roceds d'e'tude a ^-eu 
^res aemblab ie <*<. celui aont u^e k, Saint-ikiarc-Girarciin oanb ^on ex- 
cellent cours de litterature dran^ati^ue. II x^rand une j^awsion 
^uel^uun^'oie, I'aniour mate mil, i^ar exaiiiple, et la suit d'oeuvre en 
oeuvre a travers les siecleij, i;iar4Uant les dilfersnces ^u'cnt 0.^..- 
^.ortees dans 1 'expr^Dsion d'un iiiezne ^.ejitiiiisnt los rs'volutiona oe 
iLoeurs. Aj^.^li'^uez la mens iiietiioae, non ^jIus a. une passion ni a. '^n 
curactera, inais a un sujet, a une idee; elle est tout avjssi in^je- 
nieuse, ^ilus iiardie et plus feconaa en trouvailles ori.^inales . ' 

It is this ^jc^ratiraj^-'h ol' ... Sarcey's that nas, mere or lass, 

ou^^csted to ius the io"^. oj. the present study of a draj..ic.^j.u '-jps. 

licivinj^ become intereotea in C3rt<^in bourgeois of tjie theater and 

ojieir relcttion to tn-s u^^j^er social cla^oeo, it ^■:^^i..'nu i^ i.-r^ i... 

.vould be interesting to tr<y.oe txie aevelo^mient of such a Ciiaracter 

tnrough a certain s it,nif icaj. t u-^riod cf French dranu:!. Tne L.t^ji. 

sux^erf ic ic^l ac iUaintance v/ith tne a\io.iect shows .... Jourdain in 

. •i ... 5 

±<ii\j, ex :ct .... Vanderic in xi->u, tjii^^uiu I'iu :.^i ii^dr'ej.^ uj i.u cjhial'j i:. 

time, but by a veritable cliatjm o^jened oy the upheaval in society, 
in jjhilOo>-'_ij;iy , La j(.;.'.-i.o. 'JWiy LiVl L^^x^ii L.'.is .>auj-jci, as . . Ot^ .■ - 

cey su^o«i=^^i c.-'ici follow it from wor^t to v.vrK acrooo tiid centuri'j^j, 

quarante Ans de Theatre, Ptiris, 1901. Vol.V,. p. liil. 

-' Jentilhoi.- . ., . '. xuso^jhe san.., le bw-voir. 

aiore complete revolution in cut-tojus Mua nsvar i. 
Li.c.t, .v^iioii oe^.u-rutes the a^ie ol" Louis XIV froi/i t>ie ex^ooh of 1/ -y, 
l^as thib revolution lelt its luur^ on tiie tiieutor? /i.a the b. 
becouies luore or letis iiii^jortunt to society, b.o he becLiuea iuore cui*- 
bitioub or more ratii^nea, i*d he (leiUcinclo his rijita or ^.a-tiently 
recieves Jiis rebulis, will his imuge on the sta^e follow his lao- 
ticnb with the ictithiulneso ol' a ohi*,do.'/? Id the .ciiivnj^e i'ro... . . 
■ . .rciiin to k., Vanderie t^rcidutil und loc^ici-l, or is it sudden ana 
unticoounteiblii ? Do the tvjjea created oy Loliere die vith hiia, or 
ao i.ey ijer&ist, only to be re^jletced slowly by others? These are 
1.3 ^.rincii^o-l -iueations that I have tried to answer in this stud;- 
1^1 tiiQ coi^ic tneuter froni the death of koliSre to the i^roduciicn 
of tiie drctxiies of Seaumarci^ 

i-et -IS run over rctt- idly the chief events of the x^eriod. Tne 
yadi.r before i,.oliere's aeath, lo72, sa.v Louis XIV begin the war wit. 
:ioll^na vi.icn //as to be the lo.5t hrillicint Oxisiy-ai^n of hi^j r-.; 1^.-1. 
This Ha.r '.vas terminated in 1678 with the treaty of x.ixiiweeen, which 
liu-ifiija U;.e J J. i:..:i.jc c^ j:r:.aice's ^lory, iYoiu this trebly to xocjo is 
the a^-Oc^ee of Luuia ' rei^n. In lOSo caii.e the Revocation of the 
Edict 01 ].o.ntes, ^iic .vitn it oe^ian the decline of France's ijo-ver. 
The huguenot Lierchants ana artisans, ta^iin^ refu^^e in Sn^land and 
-oix.aiu, turxicia i.-eir j^ains into tne coffers of these arc/.-ene^uias 
of Louis, ana took the field in their arxuies a^^jainst hiih. 1686 s..^*' 
-i.i .vej-aarit, '^^ tns j^ea^ue ol Au^jSburti, which forxneo a union of 
o..ain, }iollc*.nd, oaxon;y, th. Palatinctte a^'aiu^t 

ol Rijowicx, wiiich t^^ ■'•' ■ c*---^" -■-• -.-"v;.., ,^ 

v/iiich held exI'liiUiitod xier ^trantjtii. In lYGO Louiw' ,_,ri^nci-6un, jr'xd- 

liij^.e d'Anjou, bec^.. . . . jli^ve -. j^.^iin, una a. on ui'ter w... 

Wur oi' the S^ciniih Succ^ibaion. In thij »Vctr j^Tctnce bustaiue 

jruai-ing discibters of Blenh.siiu, Raiuiilieo, unci i-uli^lci^uet, 
v/iiicii arove her ouccieob ivel.y iron. i3ciVuria and tlie l-'etnerlunda. 
•war vua ended ixi 17x3 by the Peuce oi' Utrec:-t, u-^uin unfctvorcii. . 
±'r&.nce. Oiice luore Si.e iiu<,d ria^ed everytliin-, una ioot, und I'uund 
nerseir at the end witii notliin^- gained, and an enoruious debt con- 
tracted, and 3 til.;, inoraasinji. The Great j> onurch died in 1715, 
leaving; 3"rance aevaated by famine, bowed luider an ov3rwheli..,.,f , 
debt, y/ith linances hoj^eleasly coniubed, and witii tne incoir^petent 
n&bies every ^jath oi' advancement to the raen who .-'^,_.-. 
aolven her ^^ru blends. Tnio was tiie condition oi' the country tl'ia t 
Piiiliiv_:^e d'Orl'ans undertooiC to rule i,.s Re^jent in 1715. The ^j...... 

01 the Regency, from 1715 to 1723, v/as laarJced oy the wildest uro- 
.^__„„^, , extrccVa.^a;.C9, .v.nri financial fcllj''. Thio was t--=! ^ ^- '^ of 
Jojui La,v and the x.-istj ioo ip^. i Bubble, and the entire body social, 
Iruu the Ret^ent and his court to the coc-xcs and .valets, s^^eculated 
in stocxs. The buoole ours t in 17^,0, axid Lo-W avoiaed iiia oblitia- 
tions by leo-vin^ Prance. Tne government could not esca^^a :->■ .:. rii- 
ly, ana //as left in a juore chaotic al«.te, financially, tlian before. 

The thirties found irance with a medaling f in- .ir ii; Pcli^i/i 
affairo. The .question of this unh uuntry was settled teiuiJO- 

r^ril if. "17..' ■• .. ^ „ ,. ,. .-.. „, ..:.._ '.A su.-orf ic i ..1 

c: .., i.ii oer; , uiLuatiii iea hj t; i 

17o<'3 cinci 1740. ,;rfxt ishe beccniie invclved i . 3ilji..u.:, 'Vurt., 

iiiO to j.Y'»i, 111 .vi.acii. i>;*-^ oiaeu ;iiti. j'V'ij^ia. to v/rott Jiioiii.. 
.,. ria Taeresn.. Im IV^'-i Cc%i':5 the Peuce ol Aix-lc. -Ci'iu^jxili. , 
tviius diocreditabia lu irunce. TiiC r'aiLyt'-donr was now ut tiie ;. 
oi' iil'laird, tuid t^overned iYctnce b.- her cai/rices, una i hrew her ir.- 
rii^eiiC3 invciric^bly on tu^ tiiae ci Uij .vronij. Tiie Pec^-ce &i i.ub-trto- 
burr in 1766 er.ded the Seven Years War, uad bo I', tre.. ty uao .lur 
.vere uasubtrouto to Trc^^ice. T:-:i vary aiat^jter -v^b weiooiuea ct 
by tiae ^eOijie, who seeinsd to find in it tha diocrsdit oi' ti:e inc . - 
^etriat auux>3o in ^ne Cjdb oi -Ruroxve. Tha old nobility -vaa ^^oor ..r.^ 
wea/:, lh.e new, I'ormed froni the ever rising bcurgeoiaie, wab j..Uo!:in,- 
cr.Q arrogant. The Pomj^.ad had by thid time been re_i:lc».ced by ti.? 
r>u Barri-, biit the cJir^n^-e was net I'cr the better. In 177^; came t.t..- 
r^-rtition 01 i-'olv^nd, anci v/itn it the end o! France's inil:-.jnce in 
the East. In 1774 trie Treaty of /-ainardji gave tc Russia th^ con- 
trol or tna Bl^Cji. Je«. ^^ortb, and the saiue year saw the final ex- 
tinction of i''rance's ho^^es to ieize fne .etnerlands. And thi^ 
ijouia t:.3 .'/e 11--. e loved died, leaving to nis grand-son .ne acci^. - 
lation of nearly t>txty years of nebt, dishonor, oiia folly, A.ia 
alter xxiiu caii.e Loui^ >rvi and i.arie /.n t o i ne t ■'.e , tne Liore ana n.(.re 
hopelesb strut^^jls *-^ ravel the finaricial tan^jle, and finall. 
crc^sn oi i/.:i9, 

/ind v/lfickt ol .social "conditicn:^ duriiv' all th . e? T 

-■^■^ 01 iaooiju^' m j:i"ai.oa m .li. o i^ no-. 

. XIV the^ifaia endeavoren i 
^.r., ...u extrc.vatc.i:c=, ^ .^na ci tMb rci^n, it. .rui. nt 

^uebtion betw e two cicxSbes aj to ii.. /ealth : : , 

........ .... .... ...L^er or it there, ana vare c.t tne title 

it3<3li-. Int h.2 iiutuul ciian^e of wo^ition bet-.veeii the neb 

u.,. Third T?st^te during tiie :>uccedQin^ rei^n, ....ney i. the ,.ra..o' 

luctcr. Th.^ ..rrivc.1 oi tae financier z,.uriced the eliwax of m, ...._ 
^.-■--~ ,,.-..^...-^ , ,.^ ;isoiadity of the fiauaoier tc tne dti^-. d 
the bourgeois to t.rr. this ,.ro^,.erit. to social advantage. 

Tae great c......^e o..^.L..a ,viLa tae Regency. Baudrillart, in 

ni. "Kiistoire du Luxe" J Bu..b u,. the condition of afi . ..t t,hi^ 
lime cvt) 1 . . .. . : 

Le lan.e da " riohe", emj,loye ,.o,ir dasi„nsr li olc.»sa 

'■nfa'a'"ra "'■^'■"^-= ^ =^ --,'^"- ^in.:»llar, o.ruateri. t'l^u^ ! 
^cvxiL a ee>c.rat,, 4U on nocicie la Re,jence. 

,,. ,"!''^^f "^^^''^ '^ i ^y^i- s^^ ^'-^r-tout une cl.^ae noble et une 
ci.o.a rotur.ere. L'iaee ae ^ri.^it tous le. .utre. 
r^nreo de uiotinctioa. 

Loui^^ XIV avait cree ou Qeve.o,.,.a une autre aort^ ae .r- i- 
naace. Ix av.i. confie le. haut. e.,lois civil, at .ilit:[;;; ... 

cct.a !r ;■ ra ""'"," ■"" "'■-'«-• " '-'■ .a. U, da. lor.. 
. i...s J.. ±.,1 raprcce .] uii.erai.en t,„t„i, la „r 

^ riciiH -.=> ,, • ^^et,.re ia nobleaae en vue. 

' <' 

Tcut .tte^te axoro eel: a revolniion o.aV« - , r - r ^ 

ij .i^..-^ siJcLe, c'lt, iiidr, Iter sux- xn ii;6tc<.,ili:. oi /ai. . 
I'ie, iiH dix-iuii t i irue , j^ucr a !&. }u<utjb'- bu,i^ 

On dibuit 1j aygtoi-.e fie TebCii. rtea . \,:\ < xViv. le ■;,. ^ i' ;.,^ 
^/3b xuC ts ris I'ont lue Irb-iiuire ou ciH,;liiceii.enL dfi. ir'eas. L'ii._ 
nution mmiciine re^ eji hc-ut. "Kli -a regurc. ■ ir d'elia, 

bouvent en baa. ' 

111 auch c^ bouietj' 'iie iiiiuJicier ueoaiue u.1 L-jjO-veriux, >..Xi 
I'iriiiiicier cti-iue I'rom the bo\j.r^ecibie. Such men o,s Helve ^iua, lit. 
Po^jeli niera , ar^d liLiOorrie Cciiae I'rui. ti.e Uiiddle-clccio . L&.',7'6 sy^ 
iiad oo U|jbet conoitiont; ti'iat it v/as the euiiier lor the a;. 
uecGrie the ^reat in the £,eneral c]rici.c3, 01 yvxi^i^ iiLporto-uce is 
Ic-ct thbt the financier was necessary to the ^overnii^ant. The Re- 
cent round the iinanceo oi tne xiin^&om in a desperate case, c^co 
ixdo^^tea aebj..erate rejueoi'tSi. He allo'.ved etiv^uette to be reiaxet. 
ran^s to 136001116 conlubea, and "^ave over mor^ and uora j..o.ver into 
the iujids ol tiie linanciers. In tJrie meanwhile, the nobility san/c 
lower and lovve r alon^ the lines oi' i t^ conventional vices, ^.i;r, 
adOj^ted in ia.daition the vice ol cUi>idity, sivposed to belong by 
ri. hts to the b:ur;;-ecis ie. The .vilt' soheuies of LhV ir .= ■' ^^vtr•/.' .- 
e,aiice to a dizzy ^ji^oe, axid nobles and bourgecio were confuseo in 
tiie eiiort to s.,enr; en .^ scale beyond anything hitherto ^nc m.And 
as thexiobilixy aoujjted tiie vice of theiuidole cl-.os, tne l^^tter 
retimed tr^e ccini- liuen^ b- i-.ooiiiiiinti the vices of th:^ ni, i)iiii- . I' 
ib no// the bour^^eoibie txic»,t ^.ets tne exa^.^jle of ivjcury; to .luot' 
' r ■ L rt once ruore : 

Triote ciuaiosenient de la cla^-se elevee. La hi.:ite noblCiJoe ic 
ii'.: be xuontre i<lab ^ue ooim .e une claose de Sj.>eculateurb . El te 

t"-' '• -i. 

ra , J. J a'art^efit, ouniA .'jxebb'^ 

„. .e i>.a.^ ci'une j.iiviiiere prua^ue cciuplete en ceire n»iure decii^ivo, 
oe lUi iuit .-jOS cur..cte ret. i>rOijr^j ci-i.,...e sa rcii;.(.-n d'etre. I,.. 
A o:.::^s-3 Be loiid citinb i<x cxn^tia r-ci.e. Elle j^^nnd xofa vic2ii 

vices .inelb bOut-ila? L'.wi.cur ae I'argent, lu i.c-j^ion deL, .''(uib- 
bcciiceb liicvte'rialisc, lo IV.bte tjror^i-ier .lU^ lei. vriiiea i. riii i3. 

erit leur Jionueur a sacriiier ou j^u'elieb reaijlucsiit i-ur ime 
-iit^nificence iyluo scliae, yciv aet; ,,-uta de iLeil ■ "" alci . 

C'ebt la aeoiieLuiiCS iiiC rule aVajA lu decueance x^olit. i^ue. 

..c*:., 1 c. ^j-j , in tiiic inoc^u, o!:ru-.-;le Icr wealtli i.^rriti -^ 
>,t.rt ; no .vay bO ei...b,v tc earn Lii^naj ad to ruar ry it. The nobled 
......*oea ^..11=^, .-- i^d:geoi:j wanted ranic; lair exc^-<^.._i ^., u- 

oery. The i^c.r.iUi3 a'Oibe ail'ianjeo himseli to li.lla. Andre, a^-ed 
t'.7u, uii c.. iio ^uerst ion ol an annul-*- ntij. i..- ..ivrriage , <.-.. 
on i tb ccnoULjic^.tion; the iJoiute d'PJvreux iiiarrieo iv.lle . Croizat, 
■_£:. a^^i. -o = r i^x c> u^o.ic.. -ix' , iiuiuetirue laC/cey; i-.. o'Evre'-y. ..^...0-.^^. .jec>...- 
iiij. rici-, a. nuib the liiarriaji^e, and the rriends 01 ii. Croizat con- 

i-ii. Uii vii':; .1^" V C i -i^ . .0 *: u. "'.; ICnb .Vloit ui.~: ^^m'^zz, 

. » 'I 

. or ib mi^alli...uce o. jjrivilef^ie li;..itsd to noble:aen; noble-//oxaen . 

u.j.^^ j;iU.j.j.^-5 j.Li ii; i'..x^ '=. oc; xi~ Vrilliter-j ..j.^i--ieo ... x.-uicr. 

Baudrillart .^ives a full acccvuit 01' thio atate ol' rs iii 

ii-c ol ti -u^^, .:^ .. '.-.- utvof j.i.i. not !»*.. t e r ii> x .i,:: ui..*'t,ec 

!. 17j7, ,ve jr;no--7 iroxu Voltaire; one ol the coni..j.. ire. tors i;....lic. 

-,; DaiXiicu^ ,.-.0 ■,.. . jTi-^ m ';ii(. u:; r. , 'j.>^iiiV ■ . 'o , t/^jo rrj^iGdni, 

aayb Voltaire, /vab 

roy^.iu^e. II i.renuit i^ noia de '--ou l>..invill ierb , ;.•. rce ^/il xv^.iX 

_,ei:o ci'caiciireb, ^.-e ijiira ricneiiaeti runnels- 
1,. ^wc.iiltiS lA Id. noblriusj'.- 

oeiaideo i.Jriio tromtjiidoiis ijc.ver cuni'er. ../-inters:, to, 

i.j bcurgeoibie lurniohed the ihixriiitra.oy I'tol: its roiiKS. 

}n voit cieicx .j.ue 1l-„ "bcurgso Ibie jjossedait deux tcrands ale. 
i^.rce at ei'aVcnir; elle ,^.unv or i^ar lb. riio.ii:i5 trb. Lure et a'c..- 

surt-it I'uvenir et les hioyena ae ric/.esbes ^jar lea linancierb : 


ue lie ciaose pi.uvuit deL. IdTo dia.vuter le ^>.-uvoir u ce tierj-e' 
.j^ui granoassait si dei;iefcirrei. ent? 

The ascendancy oi" tlie bourgeoio oatea i'ro;ii thetime ol the 
..:, 3fioy and of Ltcvv, bvt it bj^ no iiiean.-i reached its ai.cge;- then. 
Thiij ".Vias merely the Cijeninti ol'iered, and the ohre-vd tradea...en t 
tiieir uovantage I'rcih it and held it. Manufactures ^ao. coniiLerce 
7ore in their handa, and the QXjj^.nnion of enter^^riseb, trade, s^.ec;- 
ulation, ai'.d the grovVth of gre^t, dates froKi the c^ 
ctttendant Upon the wila dchemes of Phili_i,;pe d'OrlenavS. Even afte/ 
t/^e treiatieb of 1748 and 17oo, v/hich -.Tere en tiie whole diboreditu- 
ble to ±Tanoe, coifiL^eroe ex^-cwnaed enormuublv, and ti.e e^.ochs 
;.i».rjced oy he^^vy increa,be in ex^.orts. And the clasb benefitted by 
o.ll tiiib yrosi^erity vvab the bourgeoibie; the iherc^icintb ice^jt get", iri, 
nciier ou:d rioiier, .rhile the government Tc^n further and further 
in aebt tc tnio Tnir^-Sbtate, tne only cdusu* tJ:.Le<.t hctd money to lein.,-* 

In the meiaiiwhil^, it vras not only in i.^attera of vice and ex- 
tra vugunoe thb.t tne nobl.-^c ^ir.(\ hour 'scis were ajL-'prot nhn]. ■ c.n- i-.n- 
o*:ier. In oLjier a.iia better airectiona the lineL^ .ticn -.vera 

being broji-n ccwn. The turn of th? ce.'iturv ji;; rr:& i. decline in 

titivaaa.ra oi 
i.i:u_..iici . .au,.liie bw.Jr\,t}oio aiu uot at-r;l i...' 

. ^; .,iLn rivdjii.^, liie n&bj.e in hia iuore i ioial ut 'Xitsi; 

aicittai's 01 oniture, benevoidnce, literature, betj-i«» -*^46- 
nc ^.i^iiOiiCi^iiy , the li.ei.ber ol ti.e iidddle oluHi:^ Vcib *.axin{^ hi. 
ueside hio ii^ore luvorsd brother; ttnd tr.e noole c>.cJ<no//lc;d^^ec. t: 3 
^.ic.ce v;&n tjiUo honestly. The xuotjt brilliant saloxi of the lu.t;.er 
-.ctli of tne csiitijrv, tiLix.1 oi iji:e. Geoii'rin, •.velcoii.eo witliiri it6 
:veoiw aours the best of the beu.;x e- ritj iroii. a.l _ cit^av^aj, 
. nc. ito bourt^eois. iuistreats nuii^oerea cj-^oni-, t'.er Gorrebi.oAQeiitia 
.. ",.^^iii., una aiJiong her yersonc^x iriendu the ^.ing oi -o- 

IcvHri <a.nQ the rnUi/hine of x'rance, li-,tely coiae from Vienna. The 
...oax t-ruLccrucic salon of xhe tiiue, i^rnijic^v. ovor oy ui.j i..c.r-j.uiu 
du Defictnd, bocisted tia itti brii.teot sT,c.r Julie ce I'Es^. iinsoe, 
..... 01 nc cicJcno//le..^ea uirth whatever. And tlie i.:n ci. vnooti 
.vitti theae acilonti tnrcve, Voltaire, Diderot, RoubiieciU, beauiriar-, 1^: i.i.r^..e,, a ' axc'i.-u jrt , ■//jre the aono of .'/txCoii- 
....^.eri>. Ox ^hoeiuaiiers, and wiiat not. It muo t not he ior-:;otten 
ii^l ... ce; ••■oxt;..ire //as Dorn ^r.rouet, and tiiat k. ue iiecauiici.rci.^..i,., 
.-aj born Caroi^, a.nd that i... a'7ileiabert waa born v/iti: nc naxue Wi...' 
o-'rti L...^. L iiti ii.Lta un^ i.e„i*.imat3 ri^iit to clairu. 

Ar.d as the oouryKCib aovanceo thus in vveo. 1th anr) ci.i. 
*.i-jrj lo cieve J...^.aa in ..i.,f.'.r.^';. i^^ia aistrust .veniL-.ox:' 

, jopardc. ; tiir.olrtin:- frc. ire e.^- 


',om (jj ti.ti mil, ae •v&a not, in a j.>03.i' v..^ 

0'3ini_, iieaiea him; huli-Wi,%y up, iie Can t>ee t/je hairintb above hici 
^Gcu^. iea by a class tiia.L iiata not clii..:jed ti.ers, but tluJ rje-^n 

uorii to trio&e berene eievatioiio : Wxy toxioiiia not lie hiiuseir iinlii' 
i.e aoceiit Uiut he ixt^o hall accoiapli^hed? The i.hiloaoijhj'- of Rous- 
tjecU ib beginning to jjerculcLe tii.rou^_,h thd oour^euibJe. 

Leon x'ontciine, in an e>.j3llent work on "Le Theatre et T^ 
PhilosOi.-ihie au X\''IIIe .jiecle", hi>.s ohoAfn tiie relation that exist-^--; 
between these two exorsasions of the Zeitg eist, and hovv clcoely 
the drama of trxe centurv rollov;ed the trend of i^hiloaophic thought. 
»Vliile the object of iii^- own stud: of a certain feature cf the drajL. 
of triis i-eriod is in ihe r.ain purely literary, still it will be 
inxereijtJng to se-; to what extent the theater //as the reflex arxi 
eXijre^&ion of the society of tiie tiiue. V/ili the charit^e effecter. i, 
the i.osition of the bourgeois in the boay social be follov/ed by 
a cori-et>^.ondine, ci^an^e on tne stage - will the b ou r;; e o is ge nt i 1 - 
no:.Jue foive \va^ to tiie csntilhojij.e bour^ec_is_? . 

Such v/as ti.e ori^in^l intent ana sccx-je oi tne present stiid".'. 
ny tite time, iiowever, ti^at it had proj^ressed as far as the lo 

ci ti.e eiv;htee:j-ith ceiitury, ti^e time ,vhen the new o rame was cccupy- 


in, thri attention oi all the most ijupcrtant drajiic tists, I baQxti tc 
conoiaer .vhetiier thic aetaileo wording cut of the development ol' 
lue Dourj^eois could not in soiLe way contribute to the better under- 
stancin,; oi the r;eneois ol thij ,'^enre. In viaw oi . lact t("Uj.t 

tiie vuric u.^ Uivius^ ax-x-xiea t -aiauu^^ea lonu 

.a t'.vi. cl tr.ode xnco:. in vo. -uc: varo "druiue buur^jeoib" cl 

ie uouri^eo ib d" , mi^ut we nut rettdonably exx^njct to iinti a aaie 
^cnrijction between the bourgeois ctt. a clitv,racter und trie I'cnr. of 
dru,mcttio coiiij^jcbiticn v/hioh bore his n^jriio? 

. regard to the numets all ixed to thia ^jenre, tiiere iii . 
room here to disGuss their dii'l erenceii, nor to ininire irxto tjie 
ori^:in oi each. It aeeino to i' been largely a iiu ir-aj^litt in;: e.. 
erciae, this dillerenti^. tiUjng the vi'.rioub t'onua of a^.. ela- 
tion, and aij nearly aa .ve c^in tell at thib diatance, tYiey al 
about the same Uiing. Ttie naxiie of "coiaedie larmcyante" waa ajj- 
jjliad in deriaion to Vne comjjOD iticna ol j^iveli i ae la Oha^'^aee, 
-Vi.icn he hiiiiaelf called aizii^ly "coiaeaiea". The Abhe Deafontainea 
advit-ed hiiri to call thera "drai-.ea", cr b:- a nai;.?: ol hia o'^'m inven- 
tion, " rox;.o.nea i ea " , after tne axialo£.-y of "coiaedie" anci. "tra^eaii". 
Voltaire accrna the iaeci of a "trat^eaie bourgeoiae", out coii.^.lace , 
l^y adiaitto tiia". J^anine haa j.^ointa in coiuiion with the "coiii'idie at- 

tenori^aaate ". iJiderot s^jeaka ol "corned ie aerieuae" ana "tr^ - 

J bourtjeoiae " , bwt c iatinj^uiahes be two en Lheiu. Beaiui^arciiaia 

jalla it "t^ araiuati-iue serieux" anc "draii.e", I.eaa ing apeajca 
ol the "bur^erlicne^ Traueraj,.iel" , Pern^^jn Lans ori beat au:i.a Uj. 
-i'l-iotion in i^ia excellent book on "i.ivelie ae la. Ciiauase e at li. 

^oi..icie Lan..oyc.nte. " Re^iara 1:1^^; the iiai^ea i.e aaya : 

Reijertoire au T/ieatre j-rancaia, XIII, i>.lo. Preface to ..anine. 
^De Ic Pc'' " ^iitude a-.r le ti.iue oerieiix. 

, . i.L n' 'iljerBiiue eo;jer; i i ■^. 

L^ J.. ..t iu ivr-:!jt, r3r-j iLr...-. . ^ i; 

,>,.,. ..>, 411' il I. - I,,..- .i!ilir;,uer rlu dru.'i.^ i-*;!"- 

il on ciiiere j.jt.r o«. a.^tur..- et ^./.^r ieb ori._,iiieo. 

I'civeiiture le now cle ar. " \<.\ii ce ^ui b'elci.^uuit oe^ 
li.ijoi.iuea de lu truiic^die ei cia lo. coii.edn -e. ^ 

.* T • 


T}ie 4i;eotion I 'nuv>i tried to solve 1:^ ■l-ib: in ^vjiut d=^re • 
Witt, tiia bL>ur£:eoia, the indiviauL^l, a luctcr in the draiiia b cur^ ^ j 
In tr.. in^'' to deterniine the uttit-de ox the critics u^jon this ijoir 
'//a .^ rd juiiiruiit/tiu ci. i unoe by the cunbit^uity in the fuQanin(_; oi. ii.:' 
word "bcurjjsoia ". In its ni:vrrowest u^j^. licution, oi" coi.. , t ^jer l^.j-uiuo ^^ ^^s iuerchant cluss, the middle ciLss, * ^ 
clc^ss or '.viiich iw. Joiirdiiin is so conSi^icuous a .neiuber. It has, 

:.OV/-Vei', c..XiUl:-rfl" iuU^viiiiij^ ./iiiuj: -t ^i adO^jted u^ Jci'tc, Ji: ..;ai. jid, 

wnoiu it iiiii^lies "i-.ri'vate " , "dcu^e btic", iind, as far as it rei'ers . 
ai--!. LL' iiucial x'^iii<., c.ijy ti-ixiji Udiu.v i....; royal gc'-.l.ijc, j.i- i..-ioe 
.'.Titers, "vie bGur(3,ec iae" , "i^iilieu bourgeois", a.eans not?ii.: ^ 

or letso '.iian "vie uoiu:^^ L.i i> e " , "ocxiaiticu ^.x'ivee". 

In our exaiiinaticn 01 .vhat the critics hciVe to Sc.y about th; 
i.9r&Lii:.c J. (,i ■ J- J ax"u..ia o^^ux'^^t; ^ j .s , it. .7ij.j. uj j. 1. luxu cLx.Vi.xi jx^ l to 
divide then, into thr;3 ^jroUj^^s: 1st, those vtho use tlie v/ord "i.....r- 
_tioi;i" I:', iz^ rjrou.aeij t ^exise, ^xxg u.ocut, v/hooa xx-s^-xiiiji^ Li-jre 

■jt ; £ixd, thoos v/hc use it^uouj5ly, and .vith v;>ioiu i t is ix..- 
x-oijt) .1 UJ.U to Iuj._ IX. .•.iiijxi seiiSc: oxidy -a/:e it; t.r.u ox"o, ix^ui^i .<x..c 
Nse it in its nc.rrcvve;i t seixse of "xuidn le-class " . 

jrirat. Tjfi'J Ci'lli-^^ oi-ij l-i. 1^ OI'v..x'^ ./.i L.- 

■ - \7ere 
..ote to , 

.jro I. J vji". wj": I. -L Luj iorui Li-e„. ./.^re i^l^iih^ 

, . con.itictea i L witi. tiv-j iasa oi u u.] 

ci-^a _^ ai'ouiiiicx. i j^a j. JiiCi iiu j^ot; .111 .vl.ioh it lo JX- - 

^dvi3>-.t)le to driiW tiie i*cT,or& ci the aru.,..ri 1 tum this ciu;^£,. T-isy 

cciiceri: iKi.„j'j j jjiiei Ij v/ith th'3 icc'.. l n . .; t i'.U;at c 

z^.r&at I rcjiu the woea and exii_;d..cia3 0.' ^.Tivats lile, urA .. 

CIO xuenticn tiie ijeracm'iel, it ia only tu inbi&t tiiat i t be 

ent J. rorii tnut 01 trb.t;edy: xjuii^elv, tricit. vv/;ich aeuit .vith Kin^ib a.nd 

^.rinces c^aa i..i..iaterb oT »ta,te. 

Voltciire tii-xceo t^ie .vord in tne dtinbe, i^yjureiitli' ^ 01 "i-t. 

jc 1.1-", -Viidii. iic; re,-uu lultio Lj^ it eu of u trc,.^e'cie Uij.xr^ jo la 'j . 

rie biiVii : 

Il(juu no o ud J. .L -J } uouuonne avec raisun to ^l j« j..-! uiL\-<j.'- 
d'une tra^eciie, bour^jeoitie. liii si'iet, i.iue &erait iU'uae intr,^ 
iragi^ue entre ae.. iiOiiii.ies du conauun? Je derait saule^.e.jt avilir 
le cotaurne; ce o>3rc^it iiiu.n.iU3r a Ic^ Toio I'objet de la tra^^ci 
ae Ic. coiiiGdie; ce cierait une eci^^ece bcttarde, ua monstre, n4 oj 
i ' i..-j./.ao;^^.ac3 oe ^airo uae ccii.eciia e t, uae ' r^^j^eiaa v;rit..ble. 

■'Vitxi Voltcire, iio./ever, it ia ;^cre a ii^atter 01' dili ex-entid ii 

oi //crco i/w.n oi lact^.. jr .. rincij.>l3£5. Only six yeari dter ■. 

aDova cjy.^rebt. ion 01 Xii& Ox^inicna, he v/ritea : 

Oa e. all Gaxis un livre, et re^^ete daiia '■xn autre, ^u'il ej t 
iiaivOoij ible vjLi''aji i^0ixu.i^ b u-^lexi^exit vs^tueux, sana iatri^^-ue, mxHo 
^..ouions, ijui;iae plaire ^\\r 1^ acliie. G'eot un injure I'aite .^u 
4^^nre Ui; alle auit stre re_ijOUSiJet^, et n-^ ^.^eut I'etre plus 

TiUo ^jiecrf v/as ooo rate , u.nct 'lie li-ia . . ThoxuJijOa 
Voltaire hi;.. ceil. la .Ac ..rel.v.C'3 he aoi^it., Lx^at Piderot 

claix-'iea. not nere o _ii- 

vvltii t:>e 

p ■ ir"t^ 

1 ' (■ i H , 

x'iaerot nijiiasii .-^aveb nochin,; ex,wlic.i iiUes.tion, huv . . 

vrtrv iittl-3 .- ^-.. in any oaae ub^tit tiie ch.., rt^ctei^, ../^ t., 

Gc^r:";:' out h.ib ^r inoijjies . ribcriminc^ting umontj the Vctrious aorta 

of trat,edy, ne aelineo one ci.t>:''lo. tratiedie 4Ui aurait x^our ob.!«>- 

iios nialheurs domes t i. iues " , thit> is ua nde.r c^o »ve OcwH £;et to ...n 

extjreb:.. ion from Jiiiu on thib subject. Leasing develops ti^.^ ^.^.^ 

idea in his lecture on La_ Pere de Jaiui lie : 

DooS bilrcerliciie Trauers^.iel I'lcit an dem franzo'sisch'^n ..unst- 
richte r, .vsloiisr die Sara seiner i.>:cition bejL^unt ^^einac'rit , einan 
sehr i^rundlichen Vertheid i^^er tjel'unden. Die Jj'ran/.bsen biili(ren 
suist selien et.vas, .vovon sie kein kuster '.inter sich .selbst i 
?ie I'lainan von i'i'irsten und Helden xojinen eine Jt'Icice Pon^^ und ....^,, ,.- 
tSt gebsn, aber zur RuhrunjT tra^^en sie nichts bei. Das Un^lucic 
derjenigen, derau Uuistanae den unsrif^en a^i nac/.oten xoMuen, aius:^ 
ri..t-'rliciier Wei sen aiu tief-jten in iinsere Seele drin^^en; und .ven ;;ir 
iiiit Il'dnigen ^^itleiden l-iaben, sc i:aben vvir e^i. iuit ihnen -tils luit 
i^enscnen und nicht alo uit - oniaeu. i-iaciit ihr otand schon oi'tero 
iiire Uaial.Le v/iciitit^er, so UiacKt er bie dar -m nicht interessanter. 
I.ii.erhin ia0£,en i^a.n?.e Volicer carein vei-wicicelL werden; unsere HyiL- 
j,.c. t/de eri order t einen einzeln Gei^,er^btc.;ld, unct. jin Staat is t ein 
viel zu abstrciOiCter jica^rif - |*ur unbere Sii.i>iinauii£,en. ^ 

To Les^iiit^, uien, the "burt^eriiciies Trauerb^ael" laearis L,iL.^...-, 

doiaeotic traj^edy, one not conoernaa uitli Kings and heroeiS, Of 

...odem cri .ics. La as on alone ..eexua to have had a clear ide.-i of * . 

re.iuirek*ents a rd liiaitaticns of the druine b ourse oi s, or .^t least 

ne alone ho.s exx.ressed his ideoui clearly. In his ''j\ivel.^ a?. !<.■>. 

J..^ussee |;. L:. Joued -'e La,r:uOVii..ute " , - .^.sns hi^ ,,.ter on "Les 

Ori^ines de la Ccmedie L^^riuoyante" ;vith the following vary suae 

definition ^.j. 

('^ Ici Poeb i ~ - 
*" our .is c:. 

15 te^, 1' 

/.'L"cr: , 

Vol. IV, ,.4 
..Tunl, 1/ ;y. 

^rJvee, "vert ' 'etre, dunti un& ctCtii>r. 

ruve, ^ji-.riKjib , ts L ^iui iioua exoite u, lu vertu an no.ib 

^ttendritiiiunt t. •! l-;^ uiiurtuaso el i^ii fiOUb rij.iaa.rit <.',j;tj.l- •■• ■ -• 
^^^n tricuiipne. It. Ciu.UiL,tie -i an Jut 1' iii"veut ^iir. 

III lie 1 ifc,Ji.t oi tiiid c.lei..r tatate^uant, t.-ere c^n be no ciuubt 

tlwit .v::eii L^abuii riuysa "vie buur^e v. iae " in tlxe I'ollcv/ing i.adsu^e, 

uieuno wlicit he doea by "condition privee" in tl-ie ona Juat 4Uoted. 

The rollowiUt^ io I'roLi hie review oi" Lenient a "Goii.euie an jjYance 


C.U X^nile oiecie. " 

» r 

Ainb i leo reluticx.o ce ItJuilj-e et Isnra c..ltera.tiona , les 

L.j.rectiono et leuro Lroubiea, Icuro werveraiono, laurb revultea. v 
It ' 

conttict ae^.;es, et de^ institutions, en un L.ot, aana notre i 
de a ^jU ' introduiseut lea pr.iibiona, tel e^st le doruaine d ont li 
noureau -enre j..rena Losaeabion dea le jjreruier joxir, Et il develo, - 
^e faon action dans le cadre ordinaire c.e la vie bourgeoise, par;'.i 
leo ooina, lea intereta, lea aiuuaejiients ..j^ui font 1 ' occujyation du 
i-ubiic, eiitre gena tel sur la acene ciue no La aonuues, no\is de I'or- 
oiiootre et dea lo^ea: de tel^e aorte ^ue Ic-. j^Jece eat bi-n r: ^ 
j..lein-i..ied avec nout. . ' 

Second^ Tne ij.eai.iiici in the lorei_,oing j[..asaagea ia clear enc . 

V/e Goice now, however, to tr^ree authorities tuat r<> tiier leave ua i:. 

the d-rJi as. to the ext^ct ai^nif ication t}:ey wish to atti^ch to tiie 

word "bourgeoia. It aeenaS ^robable, thougn, that Sainte-Bsrive 

;..ftano the . ^ Lanaoxi .v?ien he aays : 

Selcn cette theoried.e. cel.te de 15eauiiiarchua3 ) (^*\\r\ fi 
aens ennemi du granci gout, ii suflirait de tranaoorter 

aiiii^. lex:.ent toute action eiiio.ivante et attendriaaante de x^.. vi 
bcur^^ecioe . r le tiiilltre ;/Our avoir atteint le ^lua h. ^+ i..- • 
1 • art .* 

Cnarlco Joret, in h / ol Utnoli ' a "i.ivalie ae 1.. J. 

slrl° ^ebei._.._.. _-_-^,-^i^^. . _.^^ ____ -^sr_bi_;^bur^er^i jh3_pwine;i_t;- _ 

7 1" 'l« ^P^ri.-. . 1 ■. Revie.ved by -J.' T.wariao.'! In Rev-'.-^ <j^?a I'-V'ix 

, ondeo , . . '.' . ^J:3 i i.oro... , . • . 

in Li *. ', ^r,^;. .Li';, ■3r'...^i(iiijO£._ •_:;• i-,j,-.' ■ -'• 
J - - 

■;n riic'i die '-^ner:'.. ■.<. L:;.Ci;. iiiciit; rii-^hr tr .,: :' i .^ b ; I 

T '^^ t ,-,: -u:.(ie iC 

Ti.^\. '-.r ., ... ..A.!^ car 'ia^_(iua. 

Kei:ri Lien, in iiia trei..lj.ui^iit of Diderot ia Petit ce .f 
^ iuollii3 ra.ti.ex- to./a.rci. tiiS .lurroasr sienje oi 

"bour^^eoio" : 

II (i .6 .]J)ia3rot ) n'^ ^our out aa j_.rca3ui^:ir u Jj.^ i.c3,. j le^ ri- 

ionu. non .uoixit; ricjio - le^ cisvuiro aeo hoiuiiieii , l3o ctotiuXib o tv^- 
ItiirstJ sarieii iatis , .^I'i, stunt lo ^lus coicucuuco, jxu^jjanteroiit tout. 
eno=?iubl3 et I'ateudus ot I'utilite c.u genre. Or les devoirs d^^ 
/xui^iiJies, c ' ebt-^.-aire d* bi^ur^eoib , sont tT la. I'.iib ac/^isa-ux et 
doiuet^ti .ues. II l./it dune .jredenter our 1^. t^cene le& "cona itii_rij " 
aeo o et leuro "relations aa laiiiille". 

luex-ot so.-me la r^jj^^l du drax^ie iiiora.1 et iiiorcdibut^ivr , o': 
le^. i.3r6(.-ni.a£;etj boiirgeoio "but.t iionorab" d ' c.vsnt-'raii *^ r i.^u^i^.^ 

Tixird. 11 tuebe .iUotutioria ^.ra 6Jnbie,ucud, we oo::,r3 n^.v to o ■ • 

....... oritics .i..-^ ...>vd walked straig^i.t into tl'ie i^nare la,icv l^r * 

f'.jct or tirie un'Ara.r:, l '. word "bourtieois. " The iiU'r-rence tnat 

u r- urge w 1 ^ i,.„ with buurr_i:.> i.. j.-c^i \A.cters .; o <.^ i.c.'.iiriil '^i;.-,, 

but .ve will soe luter wx.ether it i;^ jubtil" ied "oy the rat;i.:^rb c! 

genre, and by the ex.-.iixijle3 o: ' •• " mres it^ell'. Janin oa.yii: 

Revonoiib au Pere de j^iuiiilxe, i.'.us^ue enlin c'est an ?ere de 
xcuuille v^ue coui, .^.'.ce la drcoue xuoderne; xjuib.iue le ijr-^jiiier ^ui a ■ 
i'iaee de ''■■■■< --r^ dctnb la irai^eaie lea ,/aao ioiio bouri:eo 1^533 et le^: 
..eros boi.. .^ , c est Diaerot. Ida J leconcta 4 .e sen >.. tenr :. .. 

teiiUe rie toute^^ oes lorces, par »es ijrace^yteii et ^.aj^son exa^i^^le, 

^c-r sas tnjorirb ^"^.^si bien .^ue ^jcir sea oe'.ivraa ' vor. 

;.^ ■ . vous racrivjr a. cet'e idea: -De3 buur^jeoib, nar^.. (. ' ■• - 

.al "Hes bour.^ev'ii. .iU< ^leurantl - FJ:, .jo'Tr.^uoi .•.-:, 
i>ria? /.-voub ctoiiC |ue le b,ourgeoio ait eta ^ 

''ribtoire da ': ^ .. ..- -< , ^ - : ^ , /,-. "'' ■; ^ ■ '' '^'■' 

r 1900. ^M. , ..... -'/fS. 


.' * 


_iU.*.re iiiurttlll .'.t I'roidat!., (*iAtour de celt? n.ere ^ui b-e; 

i.tuiTt i<tur ses eniuntb ^ni &9 i^erdent, il se aoit xjutise xjIub d'une 
trar;edie. . . . Voilia. ni>i;c, -^race a Dirierot, le bcurr-eoiii entr^i 
lu, tra.^odie, jus.^u a ce ^ue liAi-rurjiue, le bourgeoia, dovinu lu. . 
Locra.te, l"..aoe ^jla^e au pevq.l-a t;, aon tour d^iis la tratje'die ; jubi'j' 

.'eiifin, le ;t'-''''-ii''l'^t '^'^t uribtcorate da la rue, laabe ijlace 
cai.;^ j.a trat^edie cOjx ariotocrates du ba^^rie. Ainai, tru,v,e'oieo your 
les rcit^, trcigadiap pu'>r las ^rauda iiai.;_,ne'.(ri5, tra^^ec^ieo _i>iv.r 1 •' 
at ir >.i3, trat^'edias pcur le ;tjeuijle, , truge'd ierf pour le iS at. .i^ 

^t .^.. -r^pat^; Agai..c5i..nori at Robert i,.a,caira, Iphi,_^e;iie et Vircv^^, 
c 116 ce ucnde a. eu tsa tru^;edie a. tson to'-r. Certea, ce n'i- 

t ..j..oi 4113 1' entendaierit lei ^ra.noji i.K.rtres de I'^.rt.'^ 

Txisre is no aoiibt or Jauin's meaning here; Wi:2ther as 

oxaot as he iii definite, and. '.TrLether he Cctn i"ind c..... ..rraxit . 

.....' l-.e bays, eitner in Liaerot's theories or his j,^ractice, io i . 

■.•.a t^ aet aniline luter. 

Viiiet is 4".ute as delinite; he aao-s: 

o.,i' J... scene, ^u uix-se^jtieiixe oiac.^., ^- ..■.•.,,.-...„.. '•" - 

dicule ua tenue .:our telle. ' k\i dix-huitie'r.e, elle y acpier-f 
i^.^. ortance avoviee; oi aes bourgeois y figurent, ce n'est ^ 

ite de bourtieois -qu ' on s'en 11104133; on rid iculiserait 
o.^. nubltfSbe. CetLe dis^JOoition devait coiiciuir^ , ': . •= ' 
-. trb,gedie bourgeois b, au drai..e. * 

ljru;;-tiere, in nis "T^voluf- •! rra.i.e Bourgeois", r: 

cri.-in ci ti^e ne.v ^iinvQ to the saiue c:i=tn^,e in th3 status 01 t.'.-= 

le claao, .vitjTi ,7nicJ:i tne drain^^ is su^jvosea to concern it;. 

T.V. v-i,^ ■( 1 • •,. ' ie .... _i,jerd de jour 3:- ■: un u-^ax i,lus *u. 

isi3, la tidrs etat s' a 
:e, Mrend une coiiisci -snce noiivelle de ses ar^^iLt.. Leo 
i -es ijaraiusent i;lua ciio^i^ates, le^j ab.*s ^^lut. i:.. 

: „.juro oont "gros de huine", coiui.e air^. bientot la . 

"aiiaiucT dt; .j.istiij^" - ou d'e'^alite, poor ijiieux dire... 3erait-il 

pObjible 4ue, ai.- ' . de j^jro^jo^ande et d actn.n t ;i 

{.iQ le tiidatre, u.. .-. ..'... ^ -.--i xh ^-as? ^u'cn n^. x.rifc i^a.i an .-. ;- 


- - '~: L 
„>j^- Jir tater 

C'est ce ju' , ..ji^urs; et du C- 

couo ti-iicdo, - ^u.i ne sd t;OiiLia.rae i-" », vcus le vo.ysz u;9£ex, ^ui :. 

ae lit trb^eois avec lot oouieoie, sous lea ixrua de coriieo \ -. Ui r...... .... 

et de tra.£-jea ie bou r^^eoise , 

. . _^ . On veut eValer lu al^^nite.dea uveaturea de lu vie btj;- 
^-^i^- i. lu cii^nite Q'.3 oel-tei dej herotj iru,_^i.iue& , Ig.-j ii^-. . 
■b'are de .g'ca.iille . et oeux de i... Vanaerk, aux CataatroiJJ'ieB < 
oj^ . triaio 0.; aeb LubdctC ic -3b . '' 

i-oni-i j>cu4r(ier, in "Le ^ji3o>.lri: ae dea<.^in3 - ' Le r-j-ij. 

oa.Xid le Scivoir'", ascribes ^o oedtiine una "Diderot 

lavin^ ti.Jir sce.'ieo in o, Uuur^eoit) oetting; - " uunr^ci. 3 b e 

j-,Oijulc. i r3 " : 

o=:aw^ii:e, auiij une uction .jui/je uo..j..' r:aus ':; inaii^:;:! o-'t- 
£^eo3b, ci^itctit a la bcene deb i<robleiueb suciuiix. .... 

Et. dd ljIlio. ui'in uue iu lecon Tut ,jlub ujcebbibia a, lev i.Mlo, 
d-iin ^ue. celxe-ci ^^ut tro.iver a.u ti^eutre des dxeiiijjles. i-ossiblas •-. 
ai'.ivre 3t a. lixettre en j^^r^tii-iue dans i' orainc.. ire de lu v it^ , ii(i.;. 
Tiaerot) vouluit ^ue les j^sruonnu^jes du arui^e I'Ubtient ji:uii.ib dciriL. 
le iiiilieu bourgeois et iueiiio j^jO^juI.^ ira , aeijouillss do 1 'uiireole^ 
lej^Biiduire .iui ceint le iront de^ herob de tru^edie et .^ui les 
eloit,n-ant trop d-J nous.^' 

Jir. . , Pellijoier, .vritirit^ ol" Lu JjLuUbse.3, yi^.s tVxib to s...: ; 

i^ij c'est seuleiiicxit duus bes pieces j.j0btariearjib -iu'ix ir^.u- 
gura un no./vauu j;^-tire, Ici oouiOaii .Leriiiov^nte cu drcoae b.''.rgeois. 
. . . . .Lu no'...veu'.-.te de ce j^enre ooiibibta u e^uouvoir les iurixieb en r^- 
^rs''sentunt 1.. vie uourgeoise, viui, jusLiu'ulors, n'uvi>.it c^uer-i^eto 
:^iae sur la sc^ne ^ue ^^our o.ivertir, isous r-etro^ivons lu I'ide-- . 
b'o -" riu Picer ' ■' u'c-x^reb luLiriexie il c ai^i'osja, b C'l: Pc^re de x- -.. — 
...i-i oon i'il- r ;l. ' 

To b'oiu M.J.J '.aj o^iuion» on this ^oint, v/e lii. 
result: lUaer.- . . ._, - ;Jier-jc. .r-^, 

o^ues ;;.i T;.ei^ir-3 jL'run^uib. . . . 

„.-. ..idale cl.%.5.., iiut iir.ii*. :?.,t. thoiaijelVHri ./i t li i.^: ... 

icintj;3 and ..rixioad ; v/niie iidiiaon, wx.o nai (jiven -xbjeot the 

-ulleut .:id ht^dt. -re.-tiuant uiuuiig cunteiiiijorary critics, aeiinea '.i; 
dr^oiid vvti a c uiuxJOti i t ion d^jiiling /vith oni^ruct&ria of "condition ^^ri- 
ve;." =!-r!^Vi vr» .nd Lion do not ma.jfCj it iuits clenr ...-.^-r^l:' 
.vii. t they maan by "bour.^eois", .vhile 3runeti^ra, Jci.nin, Viiiet, 
Pellisiaier, ..nd ?0UiUier say deiinitely thcit the dra/iie bou r^-aois 
dricwls .vith clic..rc>.cters drajvn Iroiu tha bouri_;eoi£5ie. To ae i -vhetiier 
,;.-oe last-nctiiied critics v/ttrranted in their narrow ci.,j^.licaticn 
cl' the //ord "oourgeoio", aiid to gee to wjiat extent the drazue //uo 
infl\ieriOed u, l.'.d deveil.iJ...:-Ix^ o± li^e bourgeois v. a a drcv.:.L...-ic '-Si-'^, 
is the ^econaary object oi' the x^resent study. 

Juot tv id.v Words c^ uj.- me thoroix-^i.ii^iss witn ...■. !.,.■-■ j. 
covered tne t;r"C;^J^ci witiiin the ^^eriod under 'discussion, j^ej;! nin_ 
..^.:. X /<c, Oi.c: .,-cu.i bciore the death cf I-oliere, .-.uu -.;.<. ii.^^ .vith 
i79<:, the year of i^ i.e r e Cou^jable . I ivave exaii.ined two jiundrec 
i..^. ;.'.„ bi x con.edies, I have had at rn'j uisjjooai i 
xjlete .vurJis ol' Eeauxuc^rclriais , Dancourt, Destoucbes, Piderot, 
rL:i^Xia:u, aaa Vi^xt^jre. I ncive iiao live ci tj.e j.jxu.. s oi _^ Jj^uUn- 
oee ^.t ricnd , and iicve been able tc control tl^e other five in '.lie 
e;-j- .vorii. *.i Lanson on "^.ivel.ia ae la Cj-au;;sei- ei, J.^ ^ci.i-'-iJ 

li^riaoyante. The i-l^ys oi" r.arivaux have 'd^^n exctudned in 
col ..bracin£^ sixteen comedies; and I ht^ve had at hund 

jt3d I'roii. the wc-ics oi' Pircn iwia "Pufre..... . 

b.^ :;a 

* ^ X ^' .1 I 

vreb c3o Auteuro ;v.ii.i.jue:j " , ■ iviut, aixty— t /o cuuiSdlas, nearl. 
ol vviiicii lid «i/itiiiu our ^jorioG. i'or tii'i dacari- late; 

ce nin^i the decith of i',,oliere, i'cMrnal*^ " 3ont ■ 
. Aeve" iia,D been of grsu.t aervice. Tne biblic^r^i-iiy oi tiiase 
I'cai ciiiQ c. criroiiolo^jiijiil li ... 

_-ejiClix c. t ' ci Oi tixio atua; . 

'J L ^ n r; ; ■ t I J ' , r, i 


The diecuBsicn of any topic that has to do with the drajsia of 
the late aeventeenth or the early eighteenth centuries must start 
with Moliere. His figure so dominated the comedy of }tiB time, and 
that of the period following, that his shadow stretches, long and 
and Vroad and heavy, far into the following century. 

This is true of the conic type of bourgeois as it is of other 
matters pertaining to the comedy cf Moliere i it is sme thing like 
forty years after his death before Le Sage cones forward with a type 
or bourgeois quite new, and even Turcaret acknowledges a shadowy an- 
cestor in Harpin of La Comtesse d ' Es carbagn aa . And it is not until 
Destouches, well on in the twenties of the eighteenth century, that 
we find an author with sufficient originality to free himself en- 
tirely from the Jloliere tradition, and to abandon his point of view 
in regard to the bourgeois. Almost every character drawn from the 
middle classes, up to Destouches* time, has been done first by Mo- 
liere, and, almost without exception, done better. This may or may 
not have been conscious Imltationi at all events, it has been found 
convenient to treat the various types of bourgeois as though they 
were descendants from the prototypes to be found in Moliere, For 
the sake of brevity, too, I have found it convenient to adopt a 
kind of Moliere nomenclature, using such names as the M. Jourdain 
type, the Harpagon type, the Arnolphe type, etc. It Is merely to 
make this nomenclature intelligible, and to bring out clearly just 
what I mean by each title, that this chapter on the bourgeois in 

30 to oq'^vt oi 

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Moliere le rreflxed to the present study of the bourgeolB fron 
Moliere to Beaumarchaie . It is in no eenee an exhaustive treatment 
of the type, which, properly done, would furnish matter for a die- 
sertation in itself, but a mere sumjaarj^ of the various bourgeois 
types as Iloliere conceived thera. Tliere is, so far as I can find, 
no monograph on this subject, though there has been much said, nat- 
urally, on the various cloaracters in articles dealing with the plays 
in which they occur. 

In/ftoliere's earlier farces, those preceding Les Precieuses^ 
Ridicules , there is little of any value. In these it is difficult 
to tell in just what stratum of society he intends to make his char- 
acters move. In fact, it matters very little where they come fron, 
as the interest lies entirely in the intrigue, and not at all in 
the characters. It is only by a sort of process of elimination 
that we can list some of these personages in the middle class. We 
know they are not peasants nor nobles nor servants nor churchmen, 
and so put them down in the great class that erabraced those members 
of society that were none of these. Unfortunately, a name in Mo- 
liere means little or nothing in determining social status. Sga- 
narelle, for instance, in Le Medecin Volant is a valet and buffoon, 
and in Le_ Cocu Irfiag^in_aijre and L'Ecol e des Maris is a solid bour- 
geois. Gorgibus, of Les PJl©,t;i<J,H.Bes R id le .lies, is an out and out 
bourgeois, but it •'/ould be going too far on the authority of the 
name alone to pronounce all the characters of this sarae appellation 
in the early plays to be bourgeois; the most we can venture is to 
say that there is no proof to the contrary, and in t?ie absence of 
such proof we i-yd.y examine them for bourgeois traits. 

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The earliest pla.y that has come down to us, La _Jalousi£ du Bar * 
'boullle , contains t.vo characters that may "be j osaibly included under 
the head that we are considering. These are Earhouille himself, and 
Gorgibus his father-in-law. There is nothing whatever in either of 
them to assign them to any one clasK of society, except the process 
of elimination above referred to. These is very little of interest 
in any case in this early farce, though as we are to study later the 
8ta*-B of the bourgeois fa^nily, it may be \vell to notice the domestic 
trouble existing in the household of Barbouille, and the fact that 
Gorgibus sidcjs with his daughter. The second play, Le_ liedecin Vo- 
lant, has another Gorgibus, but there is nothing to be noticed a- 
bout him. L'Bto urdl (1*^53) contains three old men, Anselme, Tru- 
faldin, and Pandolphe, and of the three Anselrae is worked out with 
considerable clearness. He is credulous, avaricious, and amouroua, 
three characteristics, which Moliere will later use in three of his 
greatest bourgeois creations, but there is nothing in Anselme to 
show that any especial reference to the bourgeois was intended. 
Trufaldin and Pandolfe exiiibit no traits of any sort v/orth laention- 
ing. Le Pep i t Aiaoureiuc (1C56) gives us another miser in Albert, 
and a conventional father in Polidore, but neither is brought to the 
fore, and neither can be proved to be bourgeois. 

All this amounts to little or nothing i but when we come to Les 
Precie u ses Ridicules (1659) we come upon fully developed types in 
whose case there is no possible chance of mistaking the social status 
Gorgibus is a bourgeois, and could not conceivably have been anything 
else. As to his daughter and niece, Madelon and Cathos, the point 





of the play would "be absolutely lotst if they wero anything "hut the 
>>ourgeolse8 they are. In these three charact^irB, Gorgibue on the 
one side, and the girls on the other, Moliere haa produced the dra- 
matic contrast that he will bring out still more strtnigly in IJI. and 
].Ime. Jourdain, and which nearly every author who has occasion to use 
the ambitious bourgeois will find it convenient to employ. This 
contrast is between the two girls on the one hand, two "pecquea pro- 
vinciales," aping the manners of the affected ladies of quality of 
their time, scorning co.'omon laanners, and fearing nothing so much as 
the danger of being "au dernier bourgeois;" and Gorgibus on the other 
hand, bourgeois to the core in the aense in which we use the word 
today: matter-of-fact, prosaic, hard-headed, impatient of show and 
pretense, and especially keenly alive to the riducule to which the 
affectation of Madelon and Cathos expose him among the members of 
his own class. These three people are not incidentally bougeois; 
they are essentially so, and the intrigue of the play turns on char- 
acteristics that are inherent in the class. Therefore they take 
rank as bourgeois par excellence a head of some later and more fully 
developed characters, whose peculiarities are not, however, those 
that we naturally connect with the middle class. 

Tt will be some time before we meet such significant figures 
again. Gorgibus of Sganarelle ou L£ Cocu Imaginaire (1660) might 
easily be he of the sane name in Les Precieuse s J ^i d icul^B so far as 
many of his qualities are concerned. He, like the earlier Gorgibus, 
attributes some of Celie's unconventional ideas on marriage to the 


sort of literature a'ne Hhb been asairailating, and ordtsrs her to a 
jilalner course of reading. He is wore brutal, ho^vever, than the 
other Gorgibus, and ,^o so far as to threaten physical violence to 
his daughter. Avarice, too, is a controlling motive with hiiu, and 
he is the first of the long line of fathers who are looking for prop- 
erty qualifications in a son-in-law, and with whom a daughter's 
preferences weigh as nothing against the purse of the rich suitor. 
Patter than Gorgibus is Sganarells of this same play, who exhibits 
certain traits that will later be characteristic of M. Jourdain. 
He is as vain and as self-eatisf iedj he finds his wife unreasonable 
to desire anything better than his own "personne chanuantej " and he 
thinks that he r.iay still "passer pour beau." Above all he is 
gifted with M, Jourdain's open-mouthed credulity, and finally, with 
his lack of physical courage. The scene of his struggle between 
the demands of honor and prudence, between the integrity of his home 
and the integrity of his body, in which corabat discretion at last 
proves to be much the better part of valor, is perhaps the best 
scene of all to prove that Sganarelle did not belong to the class of 
the cape and sv/ord, whose members supposed to wipe out affronts 
of this nature ?n blood. 

So far as fatuity goes, and satisfaction with his own personal 
charms, this Sganarelle is repeated in the one of the sane name in 
L'Eco le dejs M ar is . The latter, guardian of a young girl, is sure zsiuz 
neither his ward nor any other girl could resist him. To this 
vanity he adds the gullibility that also distinguished Sganarelle 

the imaginary cuckold, and the tyranny and selfiahneeu that wae the 
characteristics of Gor^^ibua in the same play. KelfishneBs is hia 
predo'oinating note, and in all his schemes for the bringing up of 
wards there is not one v/ord that points to anything else than the 
gratification of the future husband: of the desires of the girl 
herself, not a syllable. In this he rtisembles the later character 
of Arnolphe, for whom he is indeed a sort of charcoal sketch. 
Ariste, his brother, is the another of those foils who are introduced 
the better to bring out the points to be ridiculed in the pretago- 

In Arnolpht of L'Bcole des Pemnies (1663) we have the full-length 
figure for which the last Sganarelle was the study. Selfish, cyn- 
ical, brutal, yet credulous and gullible as a child, anourous and 
infatuated, he is the eternal type of old laan in love with young 
girl. I have used his name to cover the type of superannuated lo- 
vers who insist on fixing their hearts many years beneath them, 
By no means all of the characters that I hove listed under the head 
of the Arnoljhe type are endov/ed with all of his traits, but the 
name has been founti convenient to designate any man in love with a 
girl many years younger than hiraself. In this play we have, too, 
Chrysalde, the coramon-ssnse friend of Arnolphe, who is a develop- 
,Tient of Ariste, the brother of Sganarelle of L' Bcol e des Maris. 
He is not so important in himself as for the soke of the contrast 
he affords to the selfish and unreasonable attitude of Arnolphe. 

In L£ )iariage Force (1664) we have still another Sganarelle, 
w?io is drawn much after the pattern of the Cocu Imaginaire. Like 
him he is impressed with the beauty of his ov/n person, and its irr 




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reeiatiTjility, and like him, he is afflicted by a regard for hia 
personal safety. Dorimene, of this sarae play, is another case of 
the tourgeoiae a la mode , of which we had samples in Madelon and 
CathOB, only where they aped the intellectual affectations of the 
prec ieu ses , this Dorimene patterns her clothes and general bearing 
on the example of ladies of quality, and has a lackey to carry her 
train. Alcantor, her father, is as glad to be rid of her as Gorgi- 
bus was anxious to dispose of his daughter and niece. 

In Don Juan (1665) there is one scene between the hero and M. 
Diiaanche, a merchant, that is not so illustrative of the bourgeois 
character as of the attitude of the noble towards the tradesman. 
Don Juan prevents M. Dimanche from presenting his bill by overwhelm- 
ing him with compliments and assurances of his regard and friend- 
ship i but after all li. Dimanche is rather out-talked than daziiled 
by the honors thrust upon him. 

Sganarelle and M. Guillaume of L' Amour Medecin are entirely 
conventional and outside of the plot, though Sganarelle is of in- 
terest as one of the arbitrary fathers that we will see fuuclx of in 
the comedy to come. Le Medecin Malgre Lui^ (1666) contains Geronte 
and M. Robert, but they too are shadowy and indistinct. In fact, 
there is nothing in any of these four characters except their najnes 
to indicate their social stratum. Coming to Tartuff e (1667)however, 
we have the powerful figure of Orgon, with his foil, Cleante. As 
to Tartuffe himself, it would be difficult to assign him to any 
class of society: the hypocrite is universal. But the house}iold 
of Orgon is bourgeois through and through. Orgon does not, it is 
true, exliibit any traits that might not be ascribed to a man higher 


to i a > 

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up or lov/er down in the social scale than himself, though some of his 
charactrjristiCB aro those that we have como to connect with the 
stage bourgeois of his time. Chief of these is his credulity, his 
ductility in the hands of Tartuffei add to this his obstinacy, his 
lack of gallantry toward his wife, his absolute brutality toward 
his son and daughter, and we have a figure very well-defined and 
very unprepossessing. Perhaps //hat lingers longest in the eye after 
seeing Orgon is his insane violence toward Damis his son, and he may 
be taken as the arch-type of that sort of parent in whom the cries 
of nature were absolutely stilled. Cleante, his brother-in-law, 
is the calm, dispassionate, clear-sighted, and reasonable foil to the 
gulled' and infatuated Orgon. 

In L'Avare we iiave one of the greatest bourgeois that Moliere 
ever drew, in the miser himself. Miserliness is by no means confin- 
ed to the merchant class, but the bourgeois is proverbially careful 
of his money, and this iiaportance attached to it is one of the hall- 
marks of the stage-bourgeois of this time, and for many succeeding 
years. There is, it is true, a difference between avarice and mere 
regard f i r money, and it must be said that the miser was never used, 
after Moliere himself drew him, as protagonist, and that no play 
after this hinges upon miserliness as its cardinal point. There 
will be many who will be ready to sacrifice other interests to the 
acquisition of money, and many who will regard money as the indis- 
pensable good of life, before which all other interests are as 
naught. But this does not constitute miserliness. Harpagon 
summs up in himself once for all the characteristics of the man 


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who would sell his soul for money, and to whom the mere pOBseBoion 
of money is the thing to be sought, and the parting with it for any 
purpose whatever the pant^ to be avoided. Moliere does not spare one 
ugly stroke in bringing out the features of his miser. As in the case 
of Orgon, Harpagon's worst trait is his readiness to sacrifice hia 
children to his greed, and his apparent hatred for his children, at 
the first sign on their part that they will interfere with his gains. 
He may well stand with Orgon as the type of the unnatural father, but 
I have used him as the ancestor of that line of bourgeois who put 
money above every other possible consideration, especially that of 
social advancement, and , after that, above the calls of family af- 

The Oronte of M. de Pourceaugnac is quite conventional, but 
after him we come to the greatest bourgeois that Moliere has left 
us, and the one who set the pattern for most of the portraits of 
bourgeois for a half-century following, without ever being equalled. 
This is U. Jourlain, the Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670.) In most of 
the cases since Gorgibus of Les Precieuses Ridicules the bourgeois 
that we have found miglit conceivably have belonged to another class 
of society without greatjy altering the point of their presentation. 
But if M. -Jourdain were anything else than a bourgeois, he would 
cease to be M. -Jourdain. His whole b*ing is absorded in the strug- 
gle to make himself over into a person of quality, and he brings 
to it an energy that is quite equal to that of Harpagor. In amassing 
wealth, or Arnolphe and Sganarelle guarding their wards from the 
approach of young men. M. Jourdain has every attribute of the 

J. f,.., - 

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mlnation to "be and do as one to tlie manner born, all these traits 
mark him as the great prot-,ype of the class of climbing bourgeois; 
and it is his model that the followera of Moliere will oftenest 
attempt to pattern their own creations on, without ever once coming 
up to the original, or near to it. 

And as M. Jourdain stands as the example of his kind, so 
is Mm©. Jourdain the best case of the foil that is so often intro- 
auced for the sake of contrast. Nowhere else do we find the better 
qualities of tiie bourgeoisie so well brought out. The more extrav- 
agant her husband grows, the clearer becomes Mme. Jourdain' s own head. 
She can much more keenly appreciate the depletion of their coffers 
by Dorante's borrov/ing than the honor accruing from being allov/ed 
to lend to such a distinguished creditor. The splendor of her 
husband's attire does not blind her the fact of its unsuitability 
to a man of his age and station, and she is wholly unimpressed by 
his attainments in the realms of rhetoric and phonetics. This shrewd, 
hard-headed cominon-sense makes Mme. Jourdain worthy to be the pro- 
genitress of a long line of solid middle class descendants who will 
be keenly alive to the ridicule cast upon themselves and their fam- 
ilies by the follies and extravagance of some less evenly balanced 
member of the household. 

After we leave L£ Bourgeois Gentilhomme we will find no such 
fine exaiaples of the middle class as M. and Mme. Jourdain. Oronte 
of Les Fourberies de S cajpin (1671) is interesting chiefly as the 
father of a wayward son, whom he protects against his will, as it 
were, and whom he rescues frota tlie m;^thical x ii'att-eliip in the midst 
of prostestations at the folly that ever took him aboard such a 


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ship. Without btiirii; so brutal s.£ Oregon or Harps-gon, he is quite as 
unfeeling, and is a good, example of this cort of fatJi^jr, .vho, m;- 
tjie way, is not new, "but ie at least as old as Terence. La C om - 
tesse d ' Escar'bagna s (1671) is at best a mere farcical sketch, "but it 
contains the gem of character that is lo hecome a towering figure 
in LeSage's hands. This is the tax-collector, Karpin. He is the 
lover of the Comtesse, and has probably been as flattered "by her 
noble preference as M. Jourdain was by that of Dorimenei but vihen 
he finds that he has been deceived by her, his rage breaks forth 
with a brutality of which the bourgeois ^enti l horni ne would have been 
incapable. Harpin is on for but one scene, but this one ie strongly 
prophetic of Turcaret, 

In Les Fepinies S avantes (1672) we are in a frankly bourgeois 
atmosphere once more. Les Pemxnes Savantes is a sort of develloped 
Precieuses R id i cul e s , but with one great difference sc far as our 
interests are concerned: whereas Madelon and Cathos v/ere precieuses 
from fear of being "au dernier bourgeois", Philaminte, Amiande, and 
Belise are apparently smitten with the beauties of precioaite itself, 
and social calculations play no part in their game. Philaminte 
especially is much too strong-minded a woman to be blinded by so 
vulgar a thing as rank: we feel that if the choice for Henrietta's 
hand lay betv/een a poet and a marqule, the. marquis would stand but 
a poor chance of v/inning Philaminte 's favor. She may be precieuse , 
but she ie far from being r)recieuee r id i cule . What is of far great- 
er interest to us than the learned vagaries of the lady pedants is 
the picture that is given of a bourgeois household, and especially 

, 9l>njBiflnA , »isitttialir.^^ . " 

rrvr\ rf 

r r.. 



:J>orTT 9i£ 8;tae'te^«r 

r Ci f 1 r . - "» ':! Ci 



.tJt ec' irtti ©axIaS 

> • 

.!■ 'Si ni 19 

of Chrysale. Chrysale Ib a Bort, of compovmd of Gorglbue of Lea 
Precleiisee Ridicules and Time. Jourdain. Like Mine. Jourdair. he has 
zo contend with a certain extravagance in hie Bpoueo v/ith v/hich he 
is not in sympathy, and like GorKituB he ie Bwaraped in the flood 
of learning poured upon him hy the female memhers of hio household. 
Chrysale is one of the hest examples v/e have of the hourKeois entire- 
ly satisfied to be bourgeois, and the dignity of his stand is only 
a little lessened b^ his submission to his strong-minded v/lfe. 
A milder and less blustering example of the common-sense type io 
Arlste, the brother of Chrysale. 

One of the best types of the play, and one v/hich had the most 
imitations, is Belise, the sentimental sister of Chrysale and Ariste. 
This spinster, whose head has been turned by much reading of Mile, de 
Scudery, believes that her nieces suitors are in love v/ith her, and 
only use the nieces to cover their pursuit of the aunt. Pacts 
and arguments are alike unavailing to move leliee from this comfort- 
able illusion. The authors v/ho followed Moliere found this sort 
of woman higlily amusing, and her progeny is numerous. I have 
given the name of the Belise-type to the vain, silly, sentimental 
middle-aged woman, infatuated with a man half her age, and fatuous 
enough to believe that her full-blown charms are now, as always, 

In Uoliere's last play, Le Mal a de Imag ina i re (IfiVS) we have a 
bourgeois household, hut nothing especially characteristic of the 
class. Argan himself is as clear a figure as any Moliere ever 
drew, but there particularly middle-class about hypochondria. In 
fact, it is a malady much more likely to attack the men and v/onen 

-> aTo 

i-^:r.Q srfit 1:0'' :}'luatuT 

of leisure than the "busy tradesman. In addition to hie ima/^inary 
lllneBS, however, Argan has some traits that are more easily recog- 
nized as "belonging to his clasjs, at least to his class as it was con- 
ventionally represented on the stage. He in far frora generous; 
hypochondriac that he is, he cavils at the price of his drugs; and 
when he selects a suitor for Angellque he is not uninfluenced by 
the fact that Thomas Diafoirus will inherit from his unci© as well 
as his father: this, as much as the fact that the young man is of a 
profession most likely to prove useful to his future father-in-law, 
causes Argan' s choice to fall on him. Still another quality of 
Argan 's that we have learned to attribute more or less to the 
bojirgeoises is his indifference to his daughter's interests when 
they interfered with his own. He is altogether the selfish and un- 
reasonable parent that we have known since the early Gorgibus and 
Sganarelles. Ac usual, this extreme and extravagant specimen has 
set ever against him a person of sound common sense, only in this 
case of Eeralde, the brother of Argan, has more than the ordinary'- 
degree of shrewdness and reason. Moliere, since the time of his 
first farces, has been waging war on the doctors; now he gathers 
together all his arguments emd puts in Beralde's mouth a formal 
arraignment of the profession. In all hie career Lloliere had never 
save in the case of Tartuffe, so forsaken satire and come down to 
cold and merciless logic as he did in the long scene between Beralde 
and Argan, in vhich Bsralde lays bare the stupidity and chicanery 
of the medical profession. He, with Cleante of T artuffo , and 
Ariste of Les Pemjnes Savantea is the best example of this clear- 
Ill, 3. 

•^iJ^X^'i OiiiiU 


•1.1 i 'J * 


sighted and sound-heuded bourgeolB that Jlol'lere has left ub. 

To Bun up, then, Moliere'e treatment of the bourgeoio: his 
greatest character in this clasB, the one who ie first and always 
bourgeoiB, and could not exiet as an^^-thing else, is ]^. Jourdain, and 
it was he v/ho left the fullest line or descendants among the char- 
acters that followed i-oliere's own time. With hiia may be classed 
xiadelon and Cathos, in their etriving to acquire the manners and 
graces of ladles of quality, and Dorimene of Le IJ.ariage Force , who 
has a lackey to carry her train. Close behind il. Jourdain the Gen- 
tleman Bourgeois come llarpagon the Iwlicer and Argan the Hyprochon- 
driac. They are both in their way as great as he, but not so es- 
se^ntially bourgeois. Philaipinte, Amande, and Pelise, the Blue- 
Stockings, stand in a class by themselves, unless we admit to it 
Madelon and Cathos, who would be so if they could. Belise is also 
distinguished for h'3r Bentimentality and vanity, Eelise naturally 
suggests Arnolphe, and Sganarelle of L'Ec ole des jia r is , each of whom 
is as fatuated by a young girl as she is by the suitors of her 
nieces. Orgon stands as the arch- type of the harsh, selfish, ty- 
rannical father, and he has many followers in greater or less de- 
gfees of brutality and unreasonableness. Harpagon, Argan, Geronte 
of Las Pourberies de Scapin , Gorgibus of Ggnarelle, Sganarelle of 
L' Amou r L ledecln , none of these seems to have the interests of his 
children at all near his heart. 

Prom the time of Les PrecieuBes Ridicules on, it was Lloliere's 
custom to pair off these ludicrous or disagreeable cliaracters with 
others '.vhose conjiion- sense served as a foil to t;-eir extravagance. 


aw aa«»Xiii.' 



■--.i - 

Thus the precleuBCB therasolves have uorgiDus, and the learned la- 
dles ha'ce Chrj-'salt.' and Aricte; and if Chrysale and Gorgibua are 
themselvee a little rUliculuus at times, they err in the right di- 
rection. Sganarelle of L'Ecol e des jvl ar ig ic balanced by Ariete, 
Arnolphe by Chryeale, Orgon by Cleante, and Argan by Beralde, and 
in none of these ia there any hint of ridicule. They do, however, 
serve merely as a back-ground for the folly of the I'rotagonists , 
and can hardly be held to b* the ancestors of the class-conscious 
bourgeois v/ho cane to be a la mode late in the following century. 


Grouxyed oy Autiiors. 

Ui:-ij Xi '. ::-i\'.^ 


Le ])euil, ItiVii. 
Jrioi^in j.-ooecin, 1674, 

Le T'dUil, Lr")?:;. 

Tiiiiante, d on cl Pirante, v/iahintj to money v/hic>i nis 
Tfa-thor will not give ii.ii., re^.r^dentrj to .TuCkiUOiuin ,. hij i at her* a 
receveur , t>u».t his iia.tlier ij> de...Q, and so obtiu.in3 iuone;/" o/zin^ to 
the Latter. Timunte io secretly muri-ied to Bubet, the duMtyLurj .- ol 
Jac>iUeiLin. ; . 

Pirante : avuricicua. 

Jribijin i.eduoin, 1G74. 

Lioidor and Gena.lde, lather cind sen, are in love nith Axumo, 
dauj^hter ul' tiie j.;h7ti icii.u li.irobolan und Ida wile i'eliujiLe. Lisicu 
io lavored by the i'ather, Jeralde by the liiother. The wiix ex li.-i 
L. tier i^rovc. il;3. 

Li..mur; i:. xov-.- .xin u, young j^irl. 

...irobolan and jseiiarite, jiiena^e in •.viii-jh the v/il'e ib lu.. titer. 

Tiie 1..70 i'^rcOii oi ])'HuuteroohQ .vhioii iii4.vii livcri ur-i 

ii:.i>urtancj in the ^tud.y cl' bourt^eoia or cin.v otiier onuracter. T: 

tiie rirjt, Le i euil (1672) , tiiere ii> u latiicr, Pirunte, //Ko i 

by hitj don to be oiuaa in luoaey luiitterd. 

II ri'entejid juh ruit>on. 
Quel ^jerel II id 't .^ler joindr:^ luu t^cirnijon: 
Je j^urs ; at, i^o'ir tout I' ae nes belt.3ii ijcirolet., 
Ayuiit u lu' e.^ni^jer, j'eii.i-iorte vin,jt i^iotoleo.' 

In the second, Crioj^in 1 ode cin (IS 74 ) ve Yut-v-i, riralt, IlilsiGc;-, 

.vho, ia.t cu\ ix^e ^ seventy, is r^ is son's rival for t.VE Yiaiid ci 

Ale in:. '.Ve hitve also in j..irabol;i.n and Felitinte a, cou^-le very 

s^roiieily suei^-^est in^- Jhrysale una pliiluu.inte ; i-irobolan is full cl 

o.L^ ..ivruo c.uo...t the nuturc>,l rm.ster of .x house until Feliants a^^- 

^, .'/Jrio does not so much usur^j authority as assume that her 

i. ■cij..iiU ^j^r-j ;s ".vith her in a 11 possible part The .vncie, is very jv.olieres.i'je , includijig tiie conventional fling at the 

>i i Lj .'. 'J .L '.-. J ii> . 

' (■ 

^Ku •;1L :'],.loZo-L'/09. 
li. J'LUI 2).<] VldiS.loo.i-iyiO. 

JOiv,.. IlLjLii'i, 

Le xestin ae Pieri'e, lu7Y, 

JORj\EIL.uJi .xaD JJE vis:?. . ., - 

Lb. Divineredj3, ou Le^ x'hux Encjiitiiteiaentb, 1.7/9. 

Lu. Pivineraoae , ou Lea Paux Enohi.inte:;iea lo, 1(379. 

Ti'iis ■.Via.ti ix cuuiedy rained, oa the btu-t^e by ti-e tricti ol the 
cslebrated. _ijoiiciier ana re^^utad aorcereso, L.o,db.iiie ^..ontvcisin, 
iMo.'in i.6 Ici Vcial n. Ti^e ocsxies ■iu'e Ic^id in the iiouda oi' ....e. .To-, ti.e iirophstesi , urrl are entirsl.y ei.isodio. Gns o.V the cixar- 
L-otero aeaxcin^, nar aid ij i»..'ailet, a bour^^eois .viio wishes to asaiim'; 
a b.vord to vvin his la.d^, b^ut ha;i net 3\ii'ric ient courage. Joiia. Jo- 
bin j..roviaeo lAm //ith a i.ia£;ic s.vora, to lue wearer oI ■.vhicii aarj^er 
is ii,4Uoo . uie . The ii^iu^a Gi'i.-.uilet is excellently drawn, as a. 
bcijrgeoia at once ycu^ijo'da ^..lic. co'.v<y.rdl;'. 

Ill ^^_^ : i V i !■" : vj o.itj (lw79 ) ciic >./ the j^uliti 01" ijucJobi- ^ 

ailrtt, "I'ild d'un jiToa buur^^oio ^.i a aea i^istoiea i^u j'iaux, " 

ao i.ii kiJocribeo jiiiuseli, }le consulta iier- eiuout a love ai 

Though he io ■.vi^t.y axio not '.vithout i^erdoik.. 1 Ciu. r'.u, tJ.e li^d^ ol' 

choice iriaists on his ubjumiuj a s.vorc. and erite rin-^ the urKiy. ' -^ - 

i'cinurt;e, iie naturiilly i'ears blows; but lie ia not for ct.11 t;t-.t l;.4Cr:' 

in^j in courage. ?Ie haa u ii.ean.-j ol' redraad all hia a;;n: Nnea af- 

irunlad, he declare.^ tiiat ^^e h_6 ^^one six ^lO nthj .'/ Si^eaiiini:; 

to tiie of Tender. lie leels liiiiisell natun.tlly to -var, and 

every nit^xit arecuus of the ixiu.iinenL deadly brsach. hie i^i not aire - 

Si^onsive to the eifect oi luilitar;- oostiuue, ant after having us- 

Je ne suia yv.v> laal fait, non, et je lui oioais de 
petitea choseij ■ avaient bien de I'es^^ril. (1,11.) 

Goniiue je n'ai jai..ais ete a l'ar.^iee, j'ai tant scit 
jjeur a'^tre battu. (1,11.) 

^ C^uand ^iuel.iu'un la'a j oue' un li.iir, je suis dea six 

:i.o is sans lui parler. (I,il.) 

^ Je aula nature lleiriBMt .^orte a la guerre, et il ne 

se i^asae ^joint de nuit .^ue je no iiie batte en donuan^. 
....Je faia des L-,erve illes , et il n' y a ^jas encore trois 
jours iue, m'ltant arii-e' de pied on ca^j dans ma chainbre, 
je lua cn^irme de ina mine laartiale en xiie reg^.rdant dans 
un iuiroir. Je ru'eacriiiu^ i enauite deux haures durant 
contre tous les personn^-t^e s de la ta^dsserie, et je sens 
bien .j_Uti je chiiniailleraia vertei(»ent contre dea ,^ens ef- 
fec'.ifs, ^ais il y a une j.^etite diff iculte' .^ui m'arr^to. 
....Un coujj de canon ou de moua^uet ne re^^arde ^ on 
il va, et bleaae un hoiuiiie de coeur coxiijue un autre. O'ela 
est iifiijertinent, et je ne sache rien de ^jIiis facheux 

iJO>ir un brave Vous voye/ ijien lu't^voir /^eur ccnu.e 

je 1'ri.i, ce n'est ^.^oint laiuariiuer de c oirate "^Kw^ 

n'avez .j^u'a^ .i ;e jamais je ne i^ui-ise etr:? bl-^sje, 

^yet vi\.icnid jo ne orciiadrai rieu, on vei'/', 
urave G^.;u -J ;i,i_.; 

oUiiied uriLor unci iL-^viaj adiaired jiiin^..;!! 'i. t. , 

^roaie.i'^t) oi valor with the tuijeatry. i.e la sure lie Coulci c^vuil 
ciguindt rec.l ^hiOijle^ .were it nu L tluxl he I'eurs one tiiiuij: ui*,;mon- 
uux ^i3 ..liU i.i,ij.Lu..o ^j'.; no raa;-3Gtertj ci' i>ero;iis, unri uj^i' lay io.y a. 
iLun oi' c ourui^e uo .veil u^ unv other. /'.e inniiitii IhuZ Ihiti Tear 1:^ 
not incoii-ijatibla ^vith co.mL^e, and that all the aorceroBd liaa to 
do id to reud<:ir niui ijivulnarable, and iieo^jle .vill aee wuat tne:/ 
.vill bee. As I'cr bein^i //ell-,jdid - let Jier rsnde/ the name ol 
ailet iciUiOUo, anc tier lortune is inade. , 

After recaivini, the i-a^ic s.vcrd, he iuis an encounter .vith. 
Du Olos, a ojnl'ederc(,Le oi Ljae .-Tobin ' a, ,vno iiad been in hidirti .vitn- 
in ear-shot, and v/f^at id to be done. He indults (jilet, ana 
txien alio.vd hiuideir to be didarxiiad by him; whereujjon J-ilet departs, 
delij-hted v/ith hid Excalibur. 

In the fourth act ne a^i^eara a^ain; he str .td in garbed as a 
cavalier, and tells of his ^jrowess ,\fith tiia s.vord. He inauj.u.- -..?. 
jLevalier, ;^id i^ aisariaed; Ujjon which Ij-^e.Jobin»ind ti^at the 
Jiievalier also has an encnanted d./ord, and tnat he miist first make 
sure that his victii.. is not ^^rotected as ne nii^alf is. lie departd 
SHyinc^: "A x.>resi5nt ^ue lae voila ccverti, Je ^jaraerc*.! tout iuun ccu- 

ra^je jjour 1 arxec. Je i>ars, a.'-^uit en Alletuagne Adieri, 

-— aai'.e .''obin, .jub ." a ce .^-je vt.-d i;.e vo:'iez ir.aitre de ca;:.^.. " 

' e vous in.^ui^tez ;^oint j-our l' argent. Je duis 

I lid d'un gros bour^ieoid .^ui a des oistoles ./ar iuonce^^'jx. 

II b'aiywelle Oiiristo^he vjilet; et si ua.r v«,tro L.oyen j\<- 
vais i^n n.ettre on creait le nora dCi^' Gilets, a 
luoi, Je vous ferai riche. 'I,ii.) 

"^(IV, ,.) 



AULT, - i. 

j-3 1 njrcure ..idunt, gu La. •ionJ.aie. duna Titr-?, 1>',S6, 

:;e a lu Ccur, iVOli 

Le ;..orcure ual..uit, 1686. 

Oronte, tiie cousin ci' tlie eaitor o-f Le_ L.e rc'.'.re (jalojrt, ii.i. 
the littler' a naiiiS cuia ^jo.-jition Ic^r a snort tirne. To hxih come va- 
rioiis i^eoj^^le on oud ineso .vith tna jo;;rnLil. Trie o'omedy is enti 
e^.iboclic, and we are cojicerned witn two aoenes only, ;Vliich iiitro- 
duce bourj^eois chi^.raotero . Tl'.e^e aoene;^ occur in the i'irst act, 
and introdiice i'i...w.ichaat, who //isnes t^. ^.rocure a title throu^^h tht 
good oi'iicea or the j,.e re u re .ii.. Ihx n t , and luiie.Gui lleir.ot, who viaiies 
to correct cl,a_^;erEiion^ cast u^^on her by the journal. 

i.:.ltic]riaut : aiLbitioiis. 

iaue.Uuilleii.o t : vain. 

ie CI .1 J i. 

b !. ui>x' i^-^b 't'-' '-'XcUuine. Tnc liraL ib iJ^..^'. ul i,.icj. , 

to tjie aui/j.><jbed eaiLor oi' Le_ i,.arc,.rc D^a, . iie iVi^iJiee Ic ii-ci^r;. .<. 

^ ..'le; li^ur.i'.iiae , to (Viioni lie ib ucce^Aa-ule .in ci.1. thint^a sxoaj^. 

ruixk; tl-iereiwre he ^rct-ys Oronte to a,aoii:;ri hiiu a, title in his Unr- 

ni»,l. \71ic5n the iL^ttsr deivarti , L.i,.ic.ik(.ut reijlieo ti-^^t it is noU. 

unusual that he iu deriandiat^. his> iather, he 3a,./& , h>*ci been ^ >i(.c;- 

tor ana }iij (^rcindiuther cin cii-otj-i-^cur:/ ; btill he -voulci lijrce to be 

£,rctited on to suKie £j;oud old btocji, iiouse ./Jiobe iicuue iiu6 died 

ou". . Jiow iiiany oI the .^^resent nobles are bearing their real n^juea? 

ne HdiLs; ii tiie de.d oould -valk again, latliero cuid sons wouIlI have 

.j.vve isuLie dill iculay in reco^jnizin^ one another. At last last he 

/ .;,..;il LC'.cs leo jours vuus en I'trvitea a-itar.t. 

Tout voub aavient ^.^Oobiole atant je ^ue vous etes. 
Vob i«.ercureo sont ^jle ins de nobles 4ue vcus f'aites, 
De ncjjs oi bisuornus, 3 ' il lauo dire dire cela, 
.^u'on ne ^-eu:, etre noble et x^orter ces nuus-la. 
1:6 jiie reiusez ^.as ce .iue Je void aei.iande. (I,...) 

? Urerx'ez-i.iCi d.^.j j^.;.elj_ue vieil.Le tijje; 

Jherchez 4uel.iU.e uiaisoii dont le noin aoit ijeri; 
..joutez line branche a .j^uel-iue arbre oourrij 
Eiil'in, jjour xa' oolit^er, invente;i q.ue l^ue fable, 
Ii]t ce 4ui n'cst ^-'as vrai, randez-le vr>i isei.-blablo . 
. . . .Croyeii-vous ^u'a la cour oiicicun ait oon vrai noz.i? 
De tant de ^rando soit;xieuro dont le xiierite brilie, 
CciiilrjiEn ont abj lire le noiu de leur iainilLel 
Si les li'iorts revenaient, ou a 'en haul ou d'en bas, 
Les i^eres et les iils x:e -^e connaitrtiient ^jaia . 
Le sei^ne'ir d'une terre un ^ cons iue'r«.^ble 
En ^^re'iere le noiu a son noxu veritable; 
Je no..-, de ^^ere en fils, se iierpe'tue a ;. '.i ■., 
Et ciniuante ans a^^res on ne d'ou I'on t^ort. 
Je n 'escro^uerai ■>oint vus soina ni vos ji>i*roles; 
.T'u.i certiiin ciiaiuiint de ^uatre-vin^i ts ^jiBtoleia. (I,L.) 

.-•..ii'.ii L-^±'<i^cii I'.. „ 1 :.Lu .-.vr;. An u i'>;iui.i^ lit , ... . i,. i iil^jau t ra.vlieij 

•,;.-t jli trie riijrue xur. jiiii. ii' ii'3 ivi so ;.>t. ^ir. /.a 

J.'. I J..1 1..0--.1.X , w- .vill couault a. proles^ iori:*.! tJ<'2''i'^t-"i-'-*(ji^t,. 

Iiiiiiiedicx tely a^.ori ti.e uo^^^rture cl i^.kicii.u.ut, enterb .vjii-^.iiui 1- 
lemot, wl;(j ccraplalus tiiu t t *je btory oi' u bcirj^eoise, .vi.c 
latde ov-sr a bed-curtt^in into c. njantle, hcto apj^eured in the j.eruure . 

and tiiat tniii c)ouri;,eoiae wut; s iie lierseli . Siie doas not deny the 
fact, ana she aoes net deny tiiat she 1.-3 ■bcvir^eois; hut she dru/- 
dibtinct line between herseli' and the lever clcuabes of the bour - 
gecisie . '"hen Oronte promises to luakd re^jaration for the stor; 

the bed-curtain, and to eji've her uer r.ill title of audit rice des 


comptes , ohe begs hi Hi not to naiX-e hi a flattery I'Mlsojue. 

\'/hile d.nci i.jiie.GuilleiLct are b6t}i xnerely silhouette^, 

t}iey are suli'icisntly clect.r ones, mid illustrate, the one the ccn- 

ventional uj^bition of the bourgeois, cind tne o"her t'aa li^iddle-clajo 

eccnoiiiy -d-nd +he dravniti of linej inside this clciss. 

'Parbleul t.*nt pis poi-ir vous d'etre si fonoaliste; 
Adieii. Je vais chercher un genedilOt;;iste, 
'rlui , -Ajur viuel^ues louis ^i-.e je lui >Jonr;<3rai, 
..e fera sur-le-criiuup venir d'o'u je vo^idrai. (1,2.) 

'Pour le L'iot de bour^ieoibe, vn j.jeu trop repeie, 
Les bourgeois de ixiti, bc: rte ont de lo. j_Uctlite. 
Q,Ui.uid vous vouarez eorire cijustez nievo. vus c«.ntes, 
St sachet .j_ue je suis auaitrice des cciujjtes. (I,j.) 

Loue2-i..oi, je vou.-j prie, ijii_ijarGei.tiulei.ent. 

J'ai pour lc<. flctterie une h^iine invinoible, 

oi loi'.er sano flatter vo'-o j^^c.ruit ii;.ijO:ibiblo, 

j 'aix...e vo i l, doni. , 

■'x.o ...'.„oire ou a ■i-'i;. . . . 


'j, X'.'i-, J.- J-'.J :' J 1 

i-j i X 1. i J : .1 i Jl , . lo 9 .5 . 

.1 GuUi^e Encijcinteo, 16^:". 

Le J. lore lit in, 16oo, 

Ttiib coiuedy very closely reoeiubleti L' Kcolo aeo i''e:i.:;.3o , a-. iiu 
into one uct. ha-VijUt^euLe i^ the ;_:'i;vrdian oi liortense, unci. -.vish-^.. 
iiiitro' }iGr. She is ke^jt clodely c;uta.rd3d iroxa the ut*, -i fit ions of 
lover, Ti:;iAnt8, but tne;' have contrived to _tJl"-i'i <* '^^'K/' oT eticaxje. 
Larx.>u.iiejLe diooiuises hiiuosll' ua an old cousin oI Fortenae, ard vis- 
its iier ^vith ti-e i' ea oI bringintj her tc reii.t,Lri. Hortense, vjio i^i 
iniitructea oi iiis identity, telxc: hiiu rrtinxly cl all ti.e .va:» in 
v/hicli she ana Tiiicvnte have triCriea nim. . Thi^- reCL.lls very stronjl. 
the siiiiilar scene between Ai;;nes and Arnoli^rie, .vith trie difference 
that ilortense kno.vs K^^riectly //ell wiiat she 11, doing. This is tlie 
best scene of the cumedy; in the donoue.i.ent Har^.^j^eme is literally 
Cc'.^i.t in hit, tr^^v, the latter being an iron cage desij^ned for 
Tiiiiante; }.^ri.acieii.e enters it to test it, and io cauejiit .una iie Id 
v/nile Tiiiiante esca^.es .vith Kortense. 

.^.ri.ut^Oi..e : jealous and brutal ^Uccrdian. 

In one coi.iea.j , .Le. x ler ■ ;i' (i^ o.i) Lii l-'ontivine ia.j an 

jxoelienl jji-rtruit., tnut cl VixVijUi^euie . inaj :!wi\/Ut, - 

ci Oi-ur^ieuid, o.>i intereats us net throu^jh his bo^irgeois traits, 

out by hid re u3:..b lance to koliere'a bourt^eo io, Arn>. .1^-/16 . 

is an extreiae exujaple oi" the jeitlous old c^Da-rdian unci lover; 

strict to the ^/uint oi ori^toility , cind threcitens tc ±:ill Horteiise 

ra", tiian let lier ^o from under his ivower. Tinante Ccills him 

"la brutitl }.Liri^ci^eiue", una i.i-^rinet'. e omua niti u^j in a. lid'> oi a.d- 

J^joiveo .vcrthy oi" ti£ ^jreat lubulist: 

i^on, le diable, e/inaiui de to us lea aen-z da bieii, 

Le dictole 4U ' on connait diable, et ^iii ne VLiit rien, 

3st jfloins jaloux, lioins I'ou, .^oina meoiiant, u.oins biza,i .,■ 

.',.oins envieux, Hioirid lou^j, iuoins vila in,;i.oins livartj, 

iVi-oir^a sceler^t, ino ina chien, iiioin^j truilre, racins Intin, 

^ue n'edt poTir noa pe'cnes ce m...-Joit i'lurentin.' 

He Keopa Jiid -vara under locii and iiey, c^nd barely lets her cut 
ol' >i.ib ai^ht to tilea^j; but havi,'v^ iiis 3m;i oi;:ic.nii in s^jite cl' all 
these i^recautionti , he dist^uises himseli' us yie r ccusin, and sounds 
I'le:- as to ner r3al vie//s on the s":bjeot of Ilccrj.ju.c>eiue. These he 
learns, '.vith the traditional result to listener^; the entire scene 
(oc.9) 01 tiieir intervie.v is comic in the extreiue, Har^^igeii.e n. 
-.t ■.v;iat ne is rinding out, aid at t..e saiiie tiine iiiij.velleri Dy his 
curiosity to learn more. In the end he is tne victi;u of the mea- 
sures he yi.iH taken a^-ainst the life cl' Tin.ante. 

.jC . 1, 


T JARTU.^' DAI'JJOuhT, l:v.,l-l'/^.>. 

Leb i'unaa Verdua, Xuw-. 

Le Jhevulier u lu j.odc, luo7. 

La reauL^tion das .Tcueuaas, loi-iV. 

La. j..uid ou d.-3 Ci-JUi-'^tjiis , lij8o, 

L'Ete des Coquettes, 1690. 

La xolie Enchere, 1690. 

Lia. Pcir isienne , lcjl)l. 

La. ieiiih^e d' Inirio'-i-eb, 15'J*:. 

Les Boui'tjeoia ed a la ^.ode, I69ki. 

La uttzette, 16^J^. 

L'Oi^lru a,. I Vilxu^e, 169 o. 

L' Lui^roiLxjtu de uctrnison, 16'Jo. 

Les ''eiidanijea , 1694. 

Le Tutdur, i69o. 

Lu I-'oire da jieaons, 169 o. 

Les VendeUieieo ae dureone, 1ij9j. 

La. j;oire St-GerziJia. In, 1696. 

Le j..oulin drJ Ja voile, 1696. 

Lea Efciiix. d-3 Lourbon, 1696. 

X^eo VaCcLiices, 16 9t). , . 

Renaud et An.iide, 1697. 

Lu Loterie, lu9iZ. 

Le Ciici.rivc«.i~i, 169 7, 

Le Re tour de^, Ori'iciers, 1697. 

Les Curieux de Corny ie^nSf 1698. 

Le ixuri Re'^ruave', 1698. 

Les i'^Js, lu99. 

Les Enrciiits de raris, 1699, 

Le. Vert-Cici-lant , 1699 . 

La i''ete de Villa^je, ou Les oourgecises de Q,ualite, 1700i 

Les Troi.-j Cousines, IVGc. 

Jolin-iuaillard, 1700. 

L' Ox-era teur Barr^-, 1702. 

L' InooaiiM, 170,i. 

Les Aiiiants i.-cti^nili^iiea, 1704. 

Le ualaut Jardinier, 1704. 

Circe, 170j. 

L' hui>ro.u^t\i de Livr,/, J./0.6. 

T'lvert isijeiiieno de oceaitx., 170.6. 

Le 'iaole joiteux, 1707. 

La Trtiihisori Punie, 1707, 

i-jiduiue Artua, 17 OB. 

Li... Jomedie deo Jojaeaiens, 1710. 

L'Ai.iOur Ojiu.r iic ii^ri, x/lO. 

Les Agioteurs, 1710. 

\ '. 

« 1 ' -•- 

ounoho i'cin^a, i'/lii. 

_>^^ .. J.^o ..oc-.urnea du Cuura, 1714. 
Le j-rix as l'Ar4aeij liij, 1/ — . 
lix ji.e t e jnj.j 3 ic s s ae a /ui.uiir a , 1 '/ i<'i * 
Jjii. 1)6 route du I'haraun, IV — . 

Les Funds Perdus, loo-. 

« r 

v.-.Oronte ia tae i uther ol Valare, ^.^e .tie rti rite is t?ie inotlier 

» /^ ' 

of Anj-eli^ua. I^.Oronte -vi^jiieb to Kii,rry An^eli^ue, uue . Uerunte 

v/isjieb to j-arry Vule r3 , Vu,iere ^^rid j-.ri<_,3liviua '.vio.! to iiiirry euch 
otiier. By a trick at the bioniri^i of trie contri.^ct, the yoiing 
^eui^le cire irian'iea, urid tjie oldtir coux^ls L'xuat be tiuiiai'ied to tai: oti-sr-. 

....Oronte: kmol^Aie. 

i.jiie .ueruiito; Beliae. 

i^e j:-eva.li3r a la i:.ode, lo8 7. 

Tnib ccajedy, the sjcona tix-it Dancourt //rote, id also iiii^ 
Dtiii'.f ouuvcxiuin.:^, ad il do^d, the t^retit wiiaractor or ^.jac.r'a Lin. 
The Jhevalier de Viiielonta ine, seriously in love .Tith Lucile, at 
Lue ai.i'..e ^.xiiAS iii^j-So xove tx-e the Baronne and to i.irie..Patin, acj^i,-.- 
tinji locins Iroifi them. Ljiid.Patin id aou^iit in iiiarria^je . , 

bon OL -.r^d v. la , ^.iia livj iau^er is aiaei.i by 1,., Serrefort , iuue. Pa uiu ' d 
brother-in-ia.v, .vjio wiahes lurt/isr to iii^<.rrj Jiis uu.iii^ite/' Lucij.e to 
x....;.i£ici.uu'i. ijiju. Tjiu i.iot concerns the CJhevalier's ai'l • 

.ronn.; , . .ij. and Lucile dciCi. .^cove: is relu- 



~ ill -' 

vu 1 ia r , ana ,,-iiid . x^a tin 1" •, i 
, >^ . .... .^ ..„■/ .<,-iiw.u.;i. v...^.'.j. V vJ 'Jhtjvul ie r ) . In the ena the 

:htiVcwlier is aniniitsked, and ;.ji.3. Putin nan- irt;3 ; .l,.i,;ii.-i(i, und Lucii..;, 
. it;aud'a son. 

kii»e.Palin:, ^>rs3 trfut ioub, rid.iouiuua , du^je, arr'o, 
i-eliui.L, iihrevid. 

1*1. Serre fort ; bcxirgS'A z d_e bon s-3ns . 

• ^ ..., , ,ri . . n ■ It M II ■ . / 

Lc. .cti.son de Ocii.iiJcioiiy , 160! ".' 

An excel! -jnt cor^dy of bourgeois ix-inners. L.onsiaur and 
c_.e arnard ln-ve a country, vvhich r-adai/.e i:9ej.J3 full of 
,juestb of noble cc/nnections, thr^reb:,' hojjing to i.j.rther her 
sci. ...:-,- xor rising in iiociety. Monsieur objecbd to the foil, — . : 
ax^.ende, also to the assurance and in.Tolenoe of his hi>jri-born 
r-;v.o.. _. In his deiipair of get'.ing rid of his count r;/ ho:-.; , 
threatens to biorn it down, ile finiilly grants his dau^^hter i.ariane 
to Erasto, i-n conciition that he taiS the house off of his iiiinds, 
and j'itve the honor and ejqjense of K:ee^:)ing it up. 

i_mc./-Gra(.rd: asj..iring, extravagant. 
. 3 ma ra , c ciiircc n -s 3 /i^ .? b ou rge o i s .• 
. r if lard, the nu...e, friend o:. inic^rd. 

Vliie des 'J . ^ . , . 

Tjiito co.ieuy ooxi0.2rn;j uo only i: 

iich ri;'iuric itjx' , ai.t,ii(jlin, -btriii(_,t. ol Ani.itiii^ne, a. cu- 

4u.>r Vri. .'e t:-i.k3j no ^vroiuinent ijcirt in the acliuri, iind ia reiyietie/, 
ed ao bi'vi^tJ " I'ete tu Ajioeli^'.ie cirid her I'rienda. 
i.. Putin: I'iiictncivir, jjltLyed o.y u 00iUelt>2. 

Til .f'ciie "Hlnc/iere, IGyO. 

i.jfie.Argctn te, thoutili SaVit^iely unnatural to her no n T^raste, is 
sentiiuent.cti to the ijoint ol imbecility, a lu is in love with a bo;;, 
wiio is in reality Ant^eli-i.ue, diaguijed, and the a.veetheart of 
Eraste. In tiie end, oi ooarae, Sraate ".nd Ane^eli-iue i»-arry. 

ivjttie. Argante : sentimental, tyraanous. 

La Par is is nne, 1691. 

Concerns tiie adventures oi An^eli..iue, ti^e Parisieiine, and iier 
various lovers. One oi these, Dairds, is bourgeois, but has lio 
di stinjuisJiinji characteristics, exce^jt a certain lacii oi ^^h-sical 
courage, and a coiii. .on-serioe readineos to yield the field to his 
son Eraste, :fhiin he sees that the latter is t/ie j[jreferred suitor. 
Tnis rectSonableii':;ss is a a till luore striding trait iii Oli.'Qije, 
Ange 1 ivi • i.e ' a inotiier, vvjio, while she hc«,s arr-^nged tne i^a tch .vith 
Da;ids throu^i ti.e stress oi her i>overty, is unvvillirjg to force h.2r 
daucjhte r into it against lier -viil. She is one of tiie luost attrac- 
tive jiiotners in ijancourt. 

01i.'!.|je : lovinj and r',^.ibO.'iab l-'i i..otlier. 

-X ci J. 1. 

Tiiid coi.iad,. in u(iiii.|iortant, una ia nutioiaa ii^jre oni 
reii-itrii ol" ic.Duouia, a vvidover wiio ia Si^^^n cunbAlaci I'oi' J.ib //il'e'a 

Les Boiiri^soises a la ...ode, l-.A-i^i. 

Thiij coiiitedy is the Tirdt ol" mua^ Ijiit Dancourt wrote, dealin.- 
.vith the libertine bour^ieois, at ype tlt.t icay be said to have been 
born and to h^ie died .vith him. The intriejue a}ities I'rom the coiii- 
^xicationtj in t»v o bourgeois households, tnose ol" ...Sinio/; and hia 
v.'ile An^eli^ue, j.nd i-.G-ril'iardc.nd his aiie Ara:i.inte. iCach ol" the 
;:.en in in love «vith tlie othar's v/ife, .vliile trie woiren do not re- 
turn the ari'ection, bat inajce luli confidante^ ol' each other, and 
accs^.t the attontiono for tne rr.oney they get out. of it. As for 
the c}iaract-5rd of /uii^eli.iue ana Arafuinte, they are not so xjCfteri 
dra-vn as tjiat of Llnie .Patin; these vvoia^jn scorn the bourgeoisie, out 
iiave not the energy to try to get out of it as did Ijiie .Patin, or 
as ./ill zi.e .b purge o is es de Q.ualite do later. Tne."/ are idle, ex- 
travagjante, .Aid eiinu^^^j^s, rather than ca.a:jit ious , and jvant rather 
me i^ieu-burea of a lady of viuality tlian tiie VaXik. . There it, aib^.. 
a sub-plot aea ling with the love of tJie Jhevalier a/xl ^.ariani , 
'-'.uugi.Ltir ui j-..Diiaon. Tlie Gj-evalier turns out to be Janot, -.:.ti sun 
of tne siiOijai i|jer Ivjoe . Aiael in, but Larianii ioar/ies him notiVA tns ta.i.i • 
ing this. 

An.jsli.^ue : extra vat^ante, blciseii, ore tentious . 
Araiidnte: " " " 


1. .oiinun: iiuertifie. 
... vjrii itira; " 

.iuv3. Ax^ei ill : iu.iLj'ii'ul iiio titer. 

Lit jctze c t,e , lijdo. 

Ciitciudre ciucl Ant>eli^ue -vitili to liitiro'. tjie;/ t^re o^jx. cbed :.., 
ner xc. Gruiileiuin, unci aiaed by her ci'.xnt, ..jiie .Pa me lij. G! 
couroe Guilieiiiin io oiitv/it'.ea in tne e na . The comedy hcia no Veilue 
loi- ua ixcrj^jt iitj j^ivinj^ an exaiaple of the convent ionitl 
father in Guill'^iuin, una of u decided lacz o.t brotherly love "bet.v^. anci .ji.e .Pernelle . 

Guilleiain: tyrajinous fatiier. 

A -. . !■ . 

Le Tuteur, 169 5. 

.... .-.erixcira, j<;ut^rdian of Ane,eli.iue, icesps a.vay all suiiuro, in 
oraer to iiiarry H'^v xiiLit>elf . Dorante, An^el ivi'.ie' s lover, introd-icea 
hiiiiocj-j i.-L'. 01.;:; xiu.'.orf in t-'ic ^-.itie of a x-'ci.inter. An axi/j^j-iuent is 
ari:une,ea, L-.ise niard diacovei's An^eli.iue in the garden, about to 
leave, ..a^.. .^liti him oj- ,..^ rendez-vo'.is ana ^jer:i uade.-: l^.^J^. 
on a dreft.^ of iiers ctnd me-i t Dorante. Thi.i i-e aoes, and la diacov- 
erou .^^ Anjiel iiue o uncie, . UieChevalier, .vhc , t inding . .Be. nc^. a 
dres.-jed in .voiuc^n's clotheii, it> ;.eibuanerl ne is intsano, ana 

i-i XV 

ing to our jt^ux'^jOsa; i'le is a iuiijly the oonventiona j. 

Tiiio it) u. iivel., I'urce, to ejive tiid I .ii irHvj . 
.voaia Lu,i.e ct-liiiost as ii.uch a^.tice us ihe iyla;;,' ita<iil'. In so 
it oonceriio tiie bourtitjoib ciiurttclertj, the ^jiot it; a3 luiio-va: 
L.ur irictra, rich linajioiar, wioueu to niurjv Cicldlidrj, a young 
coquet, i.e odci'eti^ iiiirriea t^^ Ciilunm-a. uriilc^rd'a duugixter ..a.ri- 
ane lov«fci and io Icvea by jj]rat>te, -vno in l;;.rn i^ loved by i.jas.Ar- 
gante . The lat i^er is an ola 004.10 lie; bourgeoise , .vith t.vo ac- 
iCno"v/ledv,ed aona and an unacicno.viedijed daUtjnter, only a }ayx.o- 
ohetioal J-roabaad. Tiie daiA^hter is tVia tiod-daUj^nter Ox ifrifi'ard, 
and is po^jiilarly su^jj.josed to be his da^-ij^hter. There is a boijr- 
.;^eois couijle, tloe notary auilleiuin cuid his .i^iie, of v/hom i^.Gui llo- 
iiiin is Car n/inji on an a 1 fair .vith a. lit t la e;irl from the Ojjera, and 
..j^acoiie nas an arrangejuent v/ith a J/iQ-Vuiie r. These paojjle all iue r. 
„u the i'oire de Besons, and c ci.vlica tions are niiruerous. As uo.xc^x, 
the bourgeo is are dojjed qj the nobles, by the young ^.^eople, and b. " 
^I'osine, an intrigante. In the end Eraste ruiirries liiriane, dhe 
uxirriage of Glitandre una Jidalise is i^ublisiiea, and ... .Cjriifard 
..jiie .Argante find consolation in each otiier. The ^.'ii.-y is ^jmiiu.^^^ 
Uie liiost extreme excuu^--le of the loose code 01 morals umong the 
bourgeois .vhicn Dan court is fund of ex^^iuiting. 

^-.Cirif fctra : Arnoii^ne. 

^-. ovx^ a.^ : libertine, vain, pretentious. 

iiaiie.yi.rgantc : " " " , sentimental. 

i.jiie . auill eiiiin : libertine. 

This uciiueUy io unim^jj rUvnt I'wr ^ur _t>uri.uo>jo, dAu 
iiitroduaea in Vivien a sort ol" k. de Pourceau=i;no,c, u ivrovirica<.^i 
lover who cornea to ouriisne to Uictrry i.a.rin.nd. ile it luuae g;;iimu 
and i.cii"iu,ne iiJ<a.rrieo Jlitundre . A^i'iune's i'uther, i«.. Thoiuasae, ■, 
Liiough a, bourgeoiti, i'n^.^ no dist in£i,aidjii):i£; c/iaracleri jtic;i. 

Vivien: i<i. de Pcvircec».Utinti.c. 

U-. .I'Oire St-G3riik«,in, 1096. 

Tnia coiiijci^ Cunoenib the anaoing Gri,.,l''iiri'ciQdi, ricn linan- 
cier, .vho is a. durt of a bcurgeoiii Ton Tuan. V.e has, or has u<u.d, 
ai'iai jts -vitn the viabcun laay Urbine, v/it/i tiie jireton ije-A^uiit Vi- 
coj.e, with the Praisaan fc;ris8tte liirotte, and -vith Angela que. 
all meet at the i'oire ot-Cienrain, and with the hal^j of Jlitandre, 
icver of y-Jigelique, the Chevalier, brother of ''roine, ..lle^ i^^oua- 
set, gjo-rc iiande de f o ire , anutiie Vcielo, they \Aauia.i>tS. i^..c'arfciae 1. 

.... j;..iiaael: ijurse^jrci-.a, fatuous, cynical, libertine. 

. ji.e ...iaraoux: sentiiuental, but not etSijecialLy ridiculous. 

Le j.xuiin de Javeiie, I59u. 

±j^ ...(-■■< lin is tw u ±arces in one, and the t «/g are not j.>in-'; in 
any .vay in the inori^ue. The iessor farce concerns .o , 

^.n^.jfo. olaicn:.ecj... t^j.u ^'.^ j.v>jLug.., '.u^ ir .vives, and ti.e 1 •■ 
laiLc:r, i.i. uriiiiuuain ana I'orante. ine iiUBbanab lie in a;.bus. at 
L/.d de Tave lie , c. ^.^i. >. ^ ^-x-ce of uSi. .^uci, a.^, ,■., ; 

Ji '.J I. i:.. eci, ctiici j j .oij . dimu ir It". 

, , ,. r cra^rofi ;ancl ^>ctj.'ecl lor i^ ..bti.nd.-- . 

iiiuan j^jiot aeula .v i ui iiic; uij^. in£j ol .... Junivet, ric. 

;jio ijijo-,; unci U.o JnoVctlier. 'lu^i jL-i.-laooO t;*rni o 

aauo^iter of u. iitunaredb, but ^anivet Jdarri --.3 lie r nct.v itiia Landin^j;, 

sayinfi Ihixl il' ane ikid i.i<.ide hersell' intu tt. Coiuteodc, ahe oculd do 

i^uch E^rduter^is by iiim. 

i... Ganivet: vain, I'ai.uous, ^lillible, iJuruej..^ro'ad, brutal. 

i... Simonneau, cucj^iold. 

... Du Rol. et; " 

laiie. SiuiOnneuu: libertine. 

..'.e. Da Ruliet : " 

.ea Eaux de .oourbon, lo9t3. 

This cor.iedy baa lit lie in it Tor oiir i^uryoae. It is a v/ater- 
in^;-i^lfc»ce icxrce, in vaiicii, aLfion;^ others, a Presidente coines to 
iirinA Lne .vatei'a. She in a saiuple of a £^idriy old bo'.i.rgeoise. 
Tiiere is an intri^_,ue in .viach j3abet, tne dtvUtiiiter of x^.u-ro^net, 
o'J.t.vits ner Jc^tjier in tne lijatter o! her marriage. 

La Presiaente: giday. 

.... GrojinaL: cross to Babet. 

I^es Vaoances, ln9o . 

Ti.i o Guasd;/ deals //i th a ^^t^rvemi K.easunt, Or in)ci.-.Jdin , .vj-.o has 

I'ixVix X ei' c f u^uj j^cu i.^, Ui. - it is Olitetndria who .-iwo 
iiictuuia be inii u ^eu.bunt aun not.c. b airfc-joio , he doea not ci-ncrjrn 
.*o, but »•« iicive tiiq gr'eliier am i\jne . Perrinei.i.e, tv/o e^ciiiL^ xc.-. 
cl inbintj; tuid cuflbiticub Doiirgeoia. 

.... de la ParaiJiiicrdiere : x^re tentioua. 

kum . Perririijxxe: ^jrettiiitiiv ij, libertine. 


Fwenavid et Ariiiide, 1697, . 

This itj the entirely convent iona.! coiaedy ol' tJxe buirgeui^ 
Lrr0(3nu,(j ATiio »vibne£j to iiJtcri'y iiio dtiijghter to tin old iiiun. arot^riciC t.,^. 
notnint; eSi.-eGica.liy charactei' is lie , nor hixh j.i'ilcioi3 ier . Tne only 
iu^jortciiit ciio.ructe r lor our ^urx^oiie ia i.oiie . Jiaxuinet, vvno ib an 
extriaiae case of .elitie. 

i^jue . Ja^uinct,: Sentiiuental. 

Le Jj-iarivari, 16a 7. " 

uAue . Loricart }ii^i^ h<=ited her nuabana so tiioroughly tJoat she io 
lajiing it out on nib aaiu^jhter, thoui;h ^he ha;ji>ens to be her own 

dciUt^.ter as well, anc on tlrie ni^ce ana brotner o! her luw„ ..,.v... . 

Jhe is in li^ve <vitn Tixibaiit, ner t^aroener, ijaasant though he iti, 
and ner daughter ana niece consent to txie carriage tu a... . er ;heir 
own a Hairs vvith Clitandre and liraste. 

hjae . Loricart ; cross, luolish, aentixaeatal. 

Cleonle ; ner orotner-in-la^, bourgeois oj. c lUJion-senso. 

.j 01 ) xc i 

i.jini. Tiiwttib ^yreijirf llic law to ti'ie cirni^ , debLifio iier 
auUijittir Hdiiriette to i.. J\ttivine<.iu, utii ler niece laubexie 
res Baliveuux, while the oirls thembalvea priil'ar the oliicerj 
Jlitandre ixiia SrtiBte. Toinet^e, tiie .jiitict, tuj/£b u hcuiG, luix^.v.. 
Pes balieve tiicit Isabaile lovaa uriay^ unci he tnxa^.^ 
hia iiO'.vn I'or Clitundra's b.vord. In this style he di^ixjleuyes 
Thoniia.3, vvho Ijived aei' niece to Jlitundre. Jhe 1 ihoa ulao tiie 
piii^ineiyia only a, ^vict6u.nt, ujia -^ivea i.enriette to Vlruate. Trie 
chiel value oi' thia cciriedy lor ub ia the cnurc^cter of Balivei-c.iA, 
a very i>oinpouB boui'geoia. 

iialiveaux: vain, ridiculous. 

ivjne . Thoiijas : tyraiino;ia. . 

^es Jiirieuicde 'Jo%. i'ejj;ne, li398. 

This coined./, or rather farce, concerna the ex^jerienceo ^x 
four or five bourgeois /mo ^o from Pariij to Joniiviegne to see tne 
arii;y. luiie . Robin, jvho is *vild v/ith adiuiration for the anu:- , finds 
asuii-or in the ^jerson >^f tne Cheva.iier, wno niarrieo her in conoi- 
ds r;.t. ion of her ttiirty tho .isand .ecus. lu. Loufflart and ' . ' .1- 
enLin dubjected to all sorts of indif^nities at the hc.nda of 
tne 3olai^rs, even tnreate/ied .vi th the woode/i horse; 
ofi by i^r-uiism^ Aii^^eli^.^e {Valentin to Olitanare. 

i.jue . HoSiln: ,;ilri for ti^ aruiy, tOid for tn ^ 'nevulier. 

kessrea. i^.oufi i<a,rt anci Valentin: ridiculous, orojvai' . . 

^.jr.e . Valenti:>: rio__ ... ., 


a Jo :.;.: 

.'.ilidii, u :iii±.i<^i, iLiaUxJi^uui'ii J hi.-i ./iie io cio^: '1,, 
arovViieci Jiiih, iuia it io ./itii aiiiicuitj tjiat . r..iiao 
jt»ai.Liri' 01' her irmucence, even .viien Juiien retunid. Juiien Uija 
Julienne tire j^jacduntb, una au do nol ccncern us, tnoUt;;li luue. Juli- 
enne is a. tyijiciil cl imber, i,ji.e . A^atiie ia c. but>ybcdy a.ncl ■f-iile- 
bearer, in love .vi'-h Ciic^rlot. 

j.ine . Agathe : sentiiiic jitu.1 j=;oQ6i^j. 

-T,eo !']iilantj ae Paris, ln99. 

Tiiis Gouedy t;i"v«^ij '^tj in lic^rxjin tne utjliest lather in -nancoui't., 
i.e is in love .vitn Clixtiene, tind .visnes to i^it his son into ^ri^v. n, 
u.nd iiis ciij,U£^.:-te r into u convent, t^nd to ma.Ko /lis sister sign over 
ner i^ro^jerty to him in her lile time, ana then }ie .vill ;iiurry eii- 
L.jer.e. nls aesic;ns are irustrc.tea by the siire.'/dn-iss oi',Arganta , 
nis sister, and bj tiie aid oi t iie servants ana of iurie. Brichuiuiv;, 
an intr it^cinte. 

Har^jin: brutal, a.varic io-'.is, rascally, ridiculo-to. 

i....e. Argante : Kindl,', siire.vd, loving to niece and neijhew. 

-js Vert-Gala.nt, 1.j09 . 

This coLiedy suggests a faoliau oi" the ii.iddle ages. ;...Tarif, 
a^ioteur, enaeavoi-s to seduce iuue. Jero;..e, tiie ^H'q ol iiis iraend ud 
neighbor. Si^ te -^.. -• husl3t.nQ and j ..(.e . Tar if about ' '■ , . 
gv, ;.j:.tir Concert a i.jlan Tor the jtiunibiiiuent oi Taril. j.. Je'ro"i.i3 
i^ret3naL> to leave Lo^rn, Taril" a 

I >"■ 1 - o 

ctnd one c. ..^ ■ i..-- - Mer c . , . 

i_h8vv, una Lejjin3, nia dervunl ; iat-ar ... Ja . 

excu.jed hiiiLoeli' on tiie ylea. that he was on hia n ^ 

and haci droio^ea in c^auiJly. Vl^her^3UiJon, tn.3.y ull inaiat ■ 
titice iii3 bath tnere. Tiiio he duea, and i... Jeroiue beint, a d./er, 
Tarir is treated to tiir-se dips o! tjreen d.vs. Lex^ine ivrouxiaea to 
red tore him to hia crit;inal ccicr il h:; .vii.L consent to the; ..-r- 
riage oi' hio niece Angeli.i^je to Eruste. This he does, arid LcyXi.e, 
gets Javotte, the niece oi i... Jerome. Tne larce is int-ireti t ing 
also in the character of Eraste, a youn^; oilicer iiirho ia ashaii^ed 
oi' beinti tj-.e nejjnew oo. i'... Jercuie, even fiuen ine latter ol'iers him 
ilia business. The two woii^n are lirst c aiains to the i.srry '.vives 
ol Y/indoor. ... " . ■_! ■ .* , 

Tar it: libertine, rascally, avaricicus, vain: 

Jeroine : genial, i^inaly, a little aiiibi '.io^^us, tibuut to buy a 

f . title. 

Enaste : oi..icer, aohaiued oi being bourgeois. 

iiaes. Jeroiae and Tar if : jvives. 

La i'ete qu Village, ou Les iiourgeoises de ^ualite, 1700. 

The bourge oi ses de 4'ulite are rv.Air : ijao. J^landine . , le of 
a i^rocureui", L'Elue, .v if e oi an Elu, ijoe . Gariuin, ^vife of a .yo..X'J;. 
iLerciiant, ^nd La Greffiere, .vidow of a ^jreffier. The .(.atter as 
sou^it m iaarriage by ... Ka^uart, also a j.jrocureur, out. sj.j aixiis . 
a title. Tiie entire cowedy is concernea ./ith t o of ii.c 

lour 'wO Dfea^K. into .j.r; i:.^rji j.i ■,^,- . j^u ■.: .■„ 

dxce_,."L iu!i ^1 „--.....-, — . Can no'l Icuit to h.^^it iut^o iivi* t,;iiB 

I'idi;, out miist ijuah l/ieir husbtincis intu it by n.e. lu. 
' ^^ . Bleindinettu xija.j<ea Jrier husband buy r,ne Darouetc.; ol ....... 

and i.jfie. Cariiiin j.jurGimde,-i Tor hard tue oii'ice of Preaident, v/iiich 
is not indeea uooie, but tv step on the l^.ddet t/itit lettds '..i^. iroiu 
the ijoaition ol' a./i : len laerchunt. Ab lor L'Eluij, ahe _i>uatiea oil' 
the sta^ie eurly in the oec^nd cict, but. ii^-ir iJArting reiuaric is that 
her huabi-tna ahali ceaarf to be an Elu, or he ia no "i.Tiahand of hers, 
La .jret'i mre ia tric/ied into rucirrying k.j>fav.iuart, but he ijromiaaa 
that she shall be isno-vn as the Gomteaaa de la Ma'iuardiere , jvhere- 
u^jon ahe oiieerfully reai^na to An^ieli-^ue tlie G-iate u_ijon vvhom she 
had fixed her air.hitious de3i^ins, and vvhoae lci.nd und title ;... :;a- 
^uart had bought in. After Le Jhev aliar a jU ^..ode , thia coi;iedy 
ia eaaily the best of T)ancourt's .'/orr:. 

J.jTie . 31itndine<..u, La oreixiere, L'Klue, avjue. Gannin: auibi 
Vain, ■ixtro.Vi. _;.;.nt ,• ridiijUo;.j, 

LLea^rs. rilandineaii and ]\aq.uart, coinrtion-senae bi^urgeuis. 

oolin-n.ail_:.i.rG, 1701. 

The otory of ^irnolphe una Agnea. k. Robinot ia about to 

Litrry hia .'/ard An^^oli.iue, . »viiO io an luve v/ith Eraate. 3ne 

t(, x/iarrj' RulDinot, and at t/^e gaiueB attendant on the si;.^nir; 

contract, i^roi.'Ooea a game of blindinan'a buf J. (Golin-iwailiard ) . 

V/}iilci hLoanot ie Blindman, Angeli^iue, Eraste, and lirie. Briliara, 

ai;nt ol Robinot, oiip a.vay. 

Robinot: /i.rnoj.. . u lat iiii_i-.a. o . 

..jrie . ,- riii...i ( : 

J. iji'.a. . . ; c. •.' 

, . . . uiier, 1Y04. 

sent to Lucile, liiils to arrive, but inate^.d cluod u ('>J"clonor'o 
cii-_ r iiit ice. iu. Dubuiojjoxi acaiGCb to t,ive Lucile to ^ . Jdon, u 
rich old luun. }le is uttractea to this by Guton'b re^/itat ion for 
econcm,y, but the latter ib u^^ijure titi;>' ret;alirig Luoile luObt e^. 
Va^jcx nt ly . lYAii cjives Bubuisson s oi;j3 thin^;^ to think about, unci 
the Lieeuitiiae it t re. ns ij i re t> th^-t the u^.j.rentice is Leandre, uid t. 
trictt trie re&tivities are his aoin*^. i.* Orgon a_t.j.ear3, cind the 
...atch is consuniiuated. 

iv., Orgon: kind lather. 

^.-. Dubuiboon: atern lathe^r, btingy. 

Le L'iaDle jioitaux, 17U7. 

A larce /;hic;h corioerno -Ub in the ci-aracter oi" ;'jje . L'^cat., 
the v/ile oi' a dyin^ i^rocuraur^' .vnu seoares to ner^e 11' alx the iu- 
ri.eritance, but is Trightenec cut ol it b;- tlie belie! tiic.t she bees, 
and y.ears her aec.d jiUoband, 

i^ie . Luca s : avar ic ious • 

Le Second (Jhaijitce du Diable Jioite:>x, 1707. 

wJiie. oiiiion believes ner h/.aband to be dsad; in this beli-,i 

i>x:e ariu , .*. j. i '..^ jv^^,... v. ,^j ^ entertaining two ooldiers, "■'' -^ ^.^^ ■.^>.^- 

ior and t ij2 xiiajor, .vitii the Ub-x-».l i;redii.eotion lI the bour 
lor ^.lE tr ...7. 1/.. Ji:iion <^nd the r'^biririrr 

Tne ■ ia 

Lhri : 
ai.U//ij;, 1. ' e b 

'lO h 

bourj^^eoisa iu;..^o.i jiji horaeli like- u lcia> u! .iUuiit^'. 

iw. Siiac-n; 1 irUvnaitir. 

La. ijoioedie dea Cuj.iadieno, 1710. 

1^. Ljr iji, u rich old bo a rt;s c i. o , has niirried L"'C;ile, luuci; 
ycun^er, and i-'Ocr, but l- oourfcieuibe ii.:-r&ell'. Ti-e j.jlot iius to do 
viti-i ix c ^'i^jc<.n.y ol' ^vlayars -viio enroll in tiiair libt iiio dau^^iiter, 
A.nt;elL|Ue, hio niece, It>abelie, uiid tr.d xrieiia ox tl£ l'a..Al.\, l_ar- 
t an . Ti.e only thing timt concenib us iis tLe ci^racter of j... (Jri- 
chardiii, 6^-ich id sli^^.tly, h'lt ayiii_ijatiiet ically , t.a a b 
teois .-. littlfi j^oiiit-oud, arxi vain, but j^enial vitUxl. 

Les .K4i'-'''^6urb , 1710. 

Lea ..^io t eur a io a coiled:' ol' usury. Ti^e i.rincijjal usurer is 
^rw..-v-xj.n; ou-cjrs are Zaciiarie, n-ia ^^oaiatiier; Gra-iUiuet, hio ^.^,rl- 
ner; Dubois, his cousin; and Caxigr^ne. Duriixon, ci ^jrocura.jr, is 
^^rt and pa. reel .vitii tiiem. Tlie j^rinci^jal .voLien are x..u.e . o^.vo. 
iier niece Suzon. . Sara wiai^ao to i'.u.irr;:,' Tra^ulin, Tra, ola , 
.xai-cio I u ii.^^rr^r 3i>.-vou, out i^..i:eto love to lOiie. Sara, ;ii^!-j^ 

o IU.1, r ry Jlitaudre. T:-e old Zacik-.ria also .viaiLes to Uia: .;on, 

■ . :. oara. '.'ra^.clin co/iixu ; 


X ., X O .'. n V U 1 

a casKet to Su;:on, ann ti.c 

^res lor iiij 

Li Zacl£*rie c^na i.jue . our.., vvno aarry eucii uLJi«r. T-. 
; ;i3u , i.u..„-v:;i , ^- ^ xo t ill liie. iiitritju-s, but in lau .^ 
u..ur.y nhich i^ lunii^iivia. The ci:uruoter ul" Trax.olin vvoviid h.^ve 
o^......i. o.. ./loii-^---. '^' '^"TCc.rat liad not been ^.1. . 

:.dur bej-i-re. 

Trfa-i^olin: usurer, iubcd. 

Jruviuinet: " " 

Zuchurie: " " 

jOue . Oca. ra. : a e xit ixa a nt a 1 . 

i.5 rrix ae I'Ar-iUebUbe, 171- . 

X... x..a.rtin ofiers as prizes at an archie ry .jontest. t. •-;;-. + 
irancs and tne cl^oice oi' £;irls in the village. Among tne ocntjs- 
tants ard Durante, the lover of j.. v,.artin's dau^i:ter oo;-l".i"; --. 
Pruneau or Tours, .vho Tails more or le ^s under the s^eii oi i,.i±^ . 
Giraua'a ciiarias; cjinda... de jirascassalc, who has coine to comj.)ell 
-..<xrtin to marry his sister, in luiri iliaent o! tt ^.roiuise (jiven b. 
h.'. s dececi-sr^d !)(r-tiirtr. The cuuedy is oi" interest to us chir-i'l - I'cr 
uhe ci:iaractero oiu-lii . uiraut, '.vho is an extre.i.e example ol' the 
sentimental bourgeoise, and ol . . . .rtixi, .^^h^J in aVeirlcicus and 
.vantj.n;^ in physical coura^ie. 

ii-1 1 e . i ra u t : s i 1 1;/ , 
. artin: aVLiricii.''..s , rT! l;, . 

.1, 1/--. 

I let re e, 
■ ,i . T ' 1 o u ;^ .ore e, tru.j' 
:vet,iu..rii' b Le Jo.tC.r . iu^, i*. uuur^^rfuiij.j , , .. 
jiench. Gurd-blibii'iJ, I'-aa^ueraairij ub ttn it;&.lictn burcii, k 
^^Va.oticii.lly a. ^enubiiiiti jioube . ilere come iiobility una b 
bru5,(leob'i.b br a.5^de »sciis , and ^re cdi ri'3;oe' 

.;.!:c. ill '113 ir aeool-tion me ,.c.j..bler3 > r^.^ Cvnteru^jli.t ing luiiint: <x 
uo-.t < i.iiiying 11^^011 tne river, ^3 tne luvv aoes> not ever tnc- 
oeine. At thio juncture tiie btircn is •'amic<,,.icea, end ijcohdaea to 
h.Ac^ji.e re;i Lj. LUoiL n. AOisoiUoCii uniiiioeaea Oj- Lx^e 1 mo uxvcixdj j-cviec, 
tyisy ixli bit acwn to a lit.tle cj<^iae beTcre su^^j^jcr, ri£ikinii disccv,- -, 
ana are axj. but guliea a aeccna laiue b:,- ::.c baron, .Viio enlers .ri- 
der a fuci-bK, cui a (ierj(ian. iie is driven out thib , and Belise 
V07b no c 10 gaiiiDjuO in luture - ./ixn ^jeo^j-e vvearint;^ inaaocs. 

BelibS ; giddy, dit>}ionest, and c:,nical. 

rvt<rtoiin: i;er orotiier-m-ic.v, ooiijuon beribe bovirt,ecib . 

In the first of his extant comedies, (Lets Fends Purdue, 168-) Ban- 
court had given us two characters worth conaidering. They are M, 
Oronte and lime. Geronte, rather conventionally paired off, each 'being 
in love, he with her daughter, she with his son. Mme. Geronte is muc;: 
the nore fully drawn of the two, and ie a very good specimen of tlio 
Belise type. She is some forty-five or fifty years old, and in love 
with a inan young enough to "be her daughter's suitor. The case would 
seem to "be not unusual--it certainly was not unusual on the stage-- 


if we may "believe llerlin for it. Merlin advises his master to 
take the goods the gods provide, as do other young uien in liia sta- 
tion, who arc "beloved and maintained "by wealthy old "bour'^eoises. 





Une veuve, un peu sur le retour a la verite, est anour- 
euse de vousj le grand malhe^r! Elle est assez foils pour 
se persuader que vous I'aimez aussi; quel accident! Dans 
cette pensee, elle vous donne la raeilleure partie de son 
"bieni cela est fort chagrinant! Graces aux petits soins 
que je prends, vous n'avez pas seulement la peine de 
souhaiter; cela est "biei] rude I Sans faire la raoindre de- 
marche qui paraisse intaressee, vous voyez pleuvoir chez 

gueres tolen user de votre fortune! uombien y a-t-il 
de jeunes gens a Paris, des mieux batis et des plus hu- 
pea, qui sous de pareilles conditions voudraient toute 
leur vie etre obliges de faire asaidument leur cour a 
Melusine et a Urgande meme, si elles vivaiont encore. 
^ Ah,^ mon pauvre Merlin, qu'ils en seraient bientot 
degoute's, s'ils etaient dans le meme etat ou je suis 

Donnez-vous un peu de patience, nous aliens examiner 
le reste. Premierement, je tombe d'accord avec voua 
qu'une vieille amoureuse est un tree facheux animal. 
Mais enfin, Madaiae Gerante n'est pas si fort avanc^e dans 
la carrierei elle n'a que quarante-cinq, ou quarante-hult 
ans tout au plus; et ce n'est, a proprement parler, qiz' 
une demi-viellle. II est vrai qu'elle est un peu pres- 
sante, elle veut que vous I'^pousiez aujourd'huii cela 
est violent, et je ne vous conseille pas de le faire. (1,1.) 

A little later Merlin adds: "11 n'y a point d' extravagance que 
de vieilles gens amoureux ne soient capables de faire." (1,3.) 

no I.' 

U£h 1 

f! 3'0" rXr'r.e + 

dio Ob Bje 
-f bio yri^ Lsevr vcf fci 

5l s ^JJ0cf9•I 9l ^Jrs 

t ■ 

,9roI nl 


9V er 



-f ;j-as 

J !>- 

T eii nsYOiii el 


riv aeXXa ia , 

3t. or. 

:U a j& 9nxaul9M 

.aT 9l 


LOiV Jai/ 

( .2,1) TsXXi9lT sJb 

Gifts, money, jewelc, all that ie no great affliction, argues the 
'lecious Merlin; he agrees witli Vulere that «n eld woman in love 
is a totherBOine eort of creature, but reminaB iiira that after all 
the lady is not more than forty-five or forty-eight yeare eld. ^Alien 
Ii£nie. Gerante herself appears, ehe is all Isliat v/e have teen led to 
expect; infatuated and creduloue, she drinks in ail tziat Merlin hae 
to tell her; she Iciarns that Valere has been talking about her in 
his sleep, and has applied such terms to her as his heart, his 
lovely child, his dear darling, }iis adorable little wife; and she 
very naturally finds him quite obliging to dream of her in such 
terms. With this type of woman, fatuousness and vanity seeE: to go 
hand in hand; like Ilary Stuart, Time. Gerante has v;igs for each day 
of tlie v/eek, and a complecticn to suit the several occasions; and 
she finds herself equally irresistible in all of them. 







bme. gerante: 

:mE. gerante: 




UME. Gerante: 

As-tu entendu quelque chose de ce qu'il disait? 

Ah! il disait les choses du monde les plus tendreE. 

Et quoi encore? ^ 

Des choscB dont vous allez etre charme....Il vous 
appellait ^on coeur. 


Sa belle enfant. 

Tout de bon? 

Son aimable mignonne. 


Son ^ador^ble petite femme.... Je voucjraic que voi6 
euseiez e'te la pour 1' entendre. 

Cela m'aurait fait bien du plairir. Merlin. .... 
Ce pauvre garyonlCela est bien obligenat au moins, Ll- 
cette, de faire des songes de noi dans ces termes-la( I|4. 

Le chatain clair vous sied admirablement bien, Madame. 

Et le blond, Lisette? ^ 

AhJquand vous mettez du blond, vous etes corjuiie cob 
pet its angea de cire. 

Le ncir ne me va pas trop mal aussi. 

Comment? vous i^tes charaante en toutes manieresj 
male les cl4eveux noire, surtout, ne servent pas peu a 
faire paraitre la blancheur de votre teint. 

Comment I'ai-Je aujourd'hui, Lisette? 

All, bona Dieux! tout de lye et de rojses. 

Plus de quatre personnes me I'ont deja dit, (1,5) 

.in ni eXdxctdiaei'ti: \lLaiJiiO lleai&i' 


; '([r^r.s 





- T 

.1 ot;.' 

: IJ 

When she and M. Oronte meet, there enBuee a conversation that 
Biifficlnntly reveals them both. There le bowine on one aide and 
curteeioB on the other, there are mutual complimentB, there are 
asBurancec tliat were it not for the son and daughter they eliould be 
obliged to marry each the other; and through it all they etrut and 
fret, zhe one displaying his new coat, the other her most recently 
acquired conplexion. And neither for a moment relinquishes his 
intention to marry thirty years beneath him. 

So we have them; M. Oronte, pompous, amorous, ridiculous; Lime. 
C-erante, vain, artificial, doting, silly, sentimental, and bo+h of 
them making a frantic clutch at the outward seeming and the emotions 
of tlieir past youth. 



Tres humble eerviteur a mon aimable bru. ^ 
Comment, mon gendre, vous avez I'air tout-a-fait 
conqu^rant aujcurd'hui. 

M. oroiite: 



Vous trouve:^ done, Madame, que j'ai quelque mine 
avec cet habit-la. 

La meilleure du monde; et je vous assure que si na 
libert6 n'etait engages, vous lui donnerie2 un terrible 
aasaut . 

A Dieu ne plaise, liadarae, que je fisse un pareil^ 

cliagrin a mon fils Mais vous, Madame, vous voila 

plus belle que jamais. 

Je ne sals comment cela se fait; car ^e ne prends 
aucun EOin pour cela. 


Q,ue je serais heureux, l»ladame, d'etre aussi digne 
des affecticns d'Angelique, que vous I'etes de la ten- 
dresse de Valere! 

MME. GERAIITE: Angelique a de^^trop bons yeux. Monsieur, pour ne 
pas rendre justice a tout ce que vous valez, (1,6.) 

) VJili. : 




.^'(, 9JJp jt 



The next conedy, Le Chevalie r u l a ]l ude(l6b7) gives ua the 
finest figure 'Dancourt ever drew, in Mme. Patin. She Ib M. Jourdain 
in petticoatB, ehe exhibits all his salient points, and even adds 
a few of Iter cwn. One would sa^' that the lypc Aas accentuated in 
\,ho fuiaaie. Like M. Jourdain elie is posseBsed "by the itch for 
nobility; she is pretentio^e, vain, fatuous^-she is the easy proy of 
the noble leeches; but she is not ridiculous from feeblenesu of 
mind; it is rather the strength of her character, raisdirected, it 
is true, and carried to excess, that brings her to ridicule. In 
the midst ofher follj-^ she retains her bourgeois shrewdnofc-s and 
hard-headednesB, and crushes dov/n opposition in her own fariily 
with an insolent assurance of v/hich M. Jourdain would have been 
incapable. Moreover, she is keenly conscious that hhe is a bour- 
geoiee, and the verj- word is an overwhelming insult » and she rages 
at being one. "J' enrage centre ma desinee de ne m'avoir pas fait 
tout d'abord une femme de qualite." (1,3.) Her entrance at the 

mme. pat iii: 




Qu'est-ce dene, Madaxie? Q,u'ave2-vous? Que vous 
est-il arrive? Que voup a-t-on faiu? 

Une avanie... Ah! j'etouffe. Une avanie... je ne 
eaurais parler, un siege, 

Une avante? A vous, Ivladane, une avanie? Cela 68% 
il possible? 

Cela r'est que trop vrai, ma pauvre Lisette. J'm 
mourrai. Quelle violence! En pleine rue, on vient de 
me manquer de respect. 

Conment done, Madame, manquer de respect a une 
dame corame vous? I-Iadati Patin, la veuve d'un honnete 
partisan qui a gagne' deux millions de bien au service 
du roi? Et qui sent ces insolents-la, s'il vous plait? 

Une marquise de je ne sais comiae^nt, qui a eu l'ai>- 
dace de faire prendre le haut du pave' a sen carrosse, 
et qui a fait reculer le raien de plus de vingt pas. 

Voila une marquise bien impertinente. Quoi?votre 
personne qui est touts de clinquant, votre grand carrcae 
dore qui rouleji^our la premiere fois, deux^gros chevauc 
gris-pommele's a longuee queues, un cocher a barbe re- 
trouBC^e, six grandi- laquais, plus chamares de galons 
que les estafiers d'un caroustel, tout cela n'a point ii:ipri 

idnoo I,:! 






• 5p"^;}r*>X.T 

rise of V^e curtain is ^ade in a state of speechless fury at the in- 
solence of a certain 'narqnis who has claimed the right of way for 
her carriage, and who has silencod }ier remonstrances hy a "Taisez- 
vous, ■bourgeoise. " And at this overwhelining insult lUae, Patin has 
lost the power of speech, and has driven home in a consuming r ^^e. 
As regards their views of iioney, the ho-rgeois falls into two 
classes, the one v/hich regards iioney as the best of all possible 
blessings, the possession of which aore than makes up for the absence 
of blood; and the second class, which would gladly barter all they 
have to enter the charmed circle, IMe, Patin belongs distinctly to 
the second of these classes. She feels, indeed, that :aoney ought 
to have its weight, and her rage at the marquise is aggravated by 
the fact that fro;n the depths of an old carriage, drawn by two star- 
veling horses, that beggarly marquise had had her insulted by ragged 
lackeys, while she herself has a great gilded coach, two fat horses, 
dapple grey and with long tails, a coachman with retroussee beard, 
six tall lackeys, itore strungover with gold lace than the ushers 
at a tourney. No laatter; the "Silence, bourgeoise", crushes her, 
and she declares that she would rather be the most necessitous ;:iar- 
quise of the entire court than to be left the widow of the richest 
financier of France, 

respect a votre marquise? 
?.C'.lE. PATIN: Poi,'^* ^^ tout, c'est du fond d'un vieux carrosse, 

traine par deux chevaux etiques, que cette gueuse^de 

ijiiirquise .'^'a fait insult '?r par if^s laqua^s tnns de- 

gi'.enilles, , ^ 

LISETTE: A}ii mort de ma vie, ou etait Lisette? Que je lui 

aurais bien dit son faitj 

l£'!^, PATIIT: Je I'ai pris sur un ton proportionne a mon equipage; 

mais elle, avec un taise z-vous Eourg eols^e , n'a pense 

faire tomber de raon haut, 

LISETTE: BourgeoiseJ Bourgeoisei Dans un carrosse de velours 

craraoisi a six poils, entoure d'une cre'plne d'orl 

^■.lE, PATIN: Je t'avoue qu'a cette injure assorarnante, je n*ai 

pas eu la force de r^pondre, j'ai dit a non cocher de 

tourner, et de m'sunener ici a touts "bride. (1,1.) 

To Mnie, Patin, iv.oney is nothing beblde a ;.':reat naiae; ylie even 
thinks that poverty is a distinguishing i/iark of nobility, and wishes 
to heaven that she were so poor that she had to wallc for lack of a 
carriage, if walking would nake her a Miirquise, Lisette reminds her 
that birth does not insure an income, while money can easily buy 
position, but !ime,Patin is unshaken in her conviction that a p:reat 


name is, after all, a fine tning to have, 

LISETTE: Au raoins, Tladame , il faut prendre cette affaire-cl 

du bon c6te, Ge n'est pas a votre personne qu'ils ont 
fait insulte", c'est .! votre nom. Que ne vous depfTchez- 
vous d'en chanfrsr? , 

}i!lE. PATIN: /"^'y suis bien resolae, et j 'enrage centre ma des- 

tinee, de ne ra'avoir pas fait tout d'abord une femrae de 
qualite, ^ 

LISETTE: Eh, vous n'avez pas tout-a-fait sujet de vous 

plaindre; et si vous n'etes pas encore fainme de qualite', 
vous etes riche au moins, et cojrme vous savez, on achete 
facile-'iient de la quality avec de 1' argent; naais, la 
naissance ne donne pas toujours du bien, 

IME, Patin: il i' imports, c'est toujours quelque chose de bien 
chanaant qu'un grand, nom, 

LISETTE: Eon, bon, Madaiae, vous seriez, "la foi, bien enbar- 
rass^e, si vous vous trouviez comme ^ertaines grandee ^ 
daiaes de par le monde, a qui tout manque, et qui malgre 
leur grand nom, ne sont connues que par un grand noiabre 
de creanciers, qui crient a leurs portes depuis la matin 
jusques au soir, 

iiQ/IE, .PATIN: C'est-la le bon air, c'est ce qui distingue les 
gens de qu.ilit/, 

LISETTE: ^ Lla foi, i£adame, avanie pour avanie, il vaut mieux, 
a ce qu'il me sei-able, en recevoir d'une marquise que 
d'un marchand; et croyez-moi, c'est un grand plaisir de 
pouvior sortir de chez soi par la grande porte, sans 
craindre qu'une troupe de sergents vienne saisir le car- 
rosse et les ciievaux, Q.ue__diriez-vous, si vous vous 
trouviez reduite a gagner a pieda votre logis, comme 
• quelques- unes a qui cela est arriv^ depuis peu? 

mm, PATIN: Plut au ciel que cela me fut arrive, it que je 
fusse marquise J 

LISETTE: }iais, :.Iadame, vous n'y songez pas, 

M?/[E» PATIN: Oui , oui, j 'aimerais .mieux "St re la marquise la 

plus endittee de toute la cour, que de demeurer veuve 
du plus riche financier de Prance, (1,3.) 


t « 

To enter the nobility, Iliae. Patin fuels that it be>ioovR8 her 
to draw a line behind her, and she befjan by drawing it between hor- 
self and her nearest relatives. She finds that her niece nas un- 
pardonable assurance to dare sit beside her in her carriage, and to 
walk beside her in the street, instead of keeping respectful distance 
behind; though here indeed comes in along with class pride that per- 
sonal vanity which Dancourt is perennially fond of assigning to his 
middle-aged bourgeoises. It is not only that Lucile's presence with 
her betrays a common bourgeoisie, but that people look at her in- 
stead of at her aunt. Her intentions in regard to her family are 
set down in vigorous tenns, and she makes it clear that M, Serrefort 
can base no claim to being her brother-in-law on the slender cir- 
cumstance of having been the brother of her late husband. 

To }Sme, Patin bourgeois is bourgeois, and she recognizes no 

7 ' 

MME. PATIN: La resolution en est prise, il faut que je davienne 

marquise, quoi qu'il en coute; et pour cet effet, je 
vais abf:clu2ient rompre avec ces petites gens, dont je me 
suis encanaillle, Ccminen^ons par M, Serrefort, 
LISETTE: M, Serrefort, Madame J votre beau-fre'rej 

\}ME, PATIN: FrSre de fau mari, soit; mais, ion raari etant 

iTiort, dieu merci, M, Serrefort ne m'est plus rien, Cepen- 
dant , il serable d ce crasse^uc-la qu'il ne soit de quel- 
que chose; il se raele de censurer aa conduite, de con- 
troler toutes mes actions. Son audace va jusqu'a vouloir 
rae faire prendre de petites jaaniSres coeu'ie celles de sa 
femrae, et faire des comparaisons d'elle a moi, llais, ^ 
est-ii possible qu'il y ait des cans qui se puissenL ne- 
connaitre jusqu'a ce point-la? ..,,11 n'y a pas jusqu'et 
sa fille qui ne se donne aussi,des airs, Allons - nous 
en carrosse ensemble?^ -ell^ se place dans la fond a !aes 
cotes, Soimnes-nous a pied? ella marche toujours eur la 
r.iShe ligne, sans observer ^ucune aistance entre elle et 
moi. ... Ce qui, i.i'en d^plait encore, c'est qu'avec ses 
rninauderies elle attire les yeux de tout le nonde, et ne 
laisse pas aller sur noi le moindre i)ctit regard, (1,3^ 



shade nor d spree within the class; law cr trade, horji..e dc ro 'be or 
financier, it is all oiio to her. Concorniag i^rci-osed match 
Y'ith M, Migaud, the sollicitor, she says: "Vrainient, je serias 
hien avancee, C'est un heau nom que celui do Mada.tie MiguudJ J'ai- 
laerais autant deiaeurer Madane Patini .... Rol^e ou finance, tout 
n'est egal; et depuis huit jours, je )ae suis resolue d'avoir un 
nom de cour, et de ceux qui emplissent le plus l^bouche," (1,3.) 
To get this niouthful of a name, there is one direct way, and 
that is to "buy the heurer of it for a hushand. The fact that the 
Chevalier de Villef ontaine has not a sou is an advantage rather 
than otherv.'ise, "J ' en ai suff isaitient pour tous deux, et il y a 
meiae quelque justice a ce que je fais. M, Patin n'a pas gagne trop 

legit imernent son hien en Normandie; et c'est une espece de resti- 

tuticn, que de relever avec ce qu'il ni'a laisse, une dee ineilleures 

maisons de la province," (1,3.) 

As for M, Migaud, whom she has already promised to marry, she 
makes short work of him; she tells Lisette that she will pick a 
quarrel v/ith him, and the pretext for the quarrel is characteris- 
tic of her ambitions. She has recommended to his protection and 
patronage a Baronne; she herself calls her an old bore, but it is 
pleasant to patronize a Baronne, and at Migaud 's demurring at 
taking up the cause, she Tvorks herself into a fine rage. She has no 
notion of imying hei'self open to the Imputation of being so ugly 
and of so little consequence that a recommendation of hers would 
count for nothing in putting a judge on the side of her proteges . 
At last she dismisses the unfortunate M, Wigaud pereraptcrily: 
"Ah, Monsieur, point de replique, je vous prie, Je fais enten- 

dre, si je ne me trompe, C'est a voub dn prendre voB tnesureB la- 
desouB, Llsette, ei la peryonne dont je vout ai parle vient ici, 
qu'on le fasse avertlr chcz Aruiinte, ou je vait jouer au revcreie. 
Monsieur, je vous doune le lien jour," (1,4.) 

But if she is flint to bourgeois connections, she is frost in 
the sun before the Chevalier, Here she is not altogetlier the am- 
citicus bourgeoise making an advantageous marriage, but the silly 
middle-aged woman in love with a young rflan, a sort of Eelise-type 
that Dancourt has given us over and over, and which is hardly to be 
found after hin. At the first interview betv/een the bourgeoise 
and the nobleraan she informs him that she is at home to no one but 
him, that she visits no one but TA'omen, that he need fear no rivals i 
and at the most ordinary compliment from him she breaks out with: 
"Qu'il est obligeant, et qu'il dit les choses u.s oonne grace." {l,«j 

Such is the figure that Dancourt draws for ua full-length in 
the first act. The intrigue develops these, and e/aphasizes espe- 
cially her independence cf her bourgeois relatives and her fatuous- 

^ 'IIE, PATIN: Je vouB ai fait attendre, Monsieur le Chevalier; 

nais, vous me devez savoir gr^ de ne me pas trouver che i 
moi, Coxame je n'y veux "etre que pour vous, je suis bien 
aise de me dirober aux importunit^s de quelques gens qui 
se croient en droit de me parler a toute heure, et a qui 
men gens n'osent fenaer la porxe au nez, quoique je leur 
aie corrunand^ plus ue ciille fois de le faire, 

LE CIS-'VALIER: On est trop paye, Iladarae, du chagrin d'avoir attendu 
quand on a le bonheur de vous voir un moiient, et j'atten- 
drai toujcurs volontiers, quand je serai sur de ne pas 
attendre inutilement. 

MME, PATIN: qu'il est obligeant, et qu'il dit les choses de 

bonne gracel Au moins, Monsieur le ^Chevalier, Lisette 
m'a rendu compte de votre honnetete; vous ne vouliez pas 
qu'elle rae vTnt avertir, de peur de me d^tourner; mais, 
j 'aurais ete bien fach^e centre elle, .... II n'y avait 
uue des fernmes, au moins; et vous n'avez point de rivaux 
a craindre, (1,8. ) 

nesa and tl'-'l-^^^'ili'^y ii; t:;e iirea'j;n.;e of iioiij ai.iiaj.rt!i'. " jh 
IZ, Serrefort, her brother-in-la\v, he, hi.icelf a ty^JO of the tourgeois 
de ton sens, remonstrates with her for her folly, ahe listens with 
open impatience, and reminds him that she is a widow, thank God, 
and independent of everyhody save herself. She has given orders 
that she is at ho;ue to no one but the Chavalier, hut 1^, Serrefort 
creaks through the cordon, line. Patin hears down upon hi:n with: 
"Ahi [onsie^ir Serrefort, quel dessein vous ajaene? Vous m'auriez 
fait plaisir de rue souffrir seuie aujourd'hui; .nais, puisque vous 
voila, finissons, je vous en prie, De quoi s'agit-il? " (11,2,) 

This is the tone she takes throughout the intervie//, he re- 
monstrates with her for her folly, she calls for a chair, as she 
foresees that the gentleraan is going to put her to sleep, hut begs 
him at least not to preach long. He suggests that if she rid her- 
self of her airs she would not lay herself liable to such insults 
as she had just receivedj she reminds him that it is not for him to 
reproach her for the affronts to which she is exposed as his sis- 
ter-in-law, but v;arns him that henceforth s^e will publish it 
abroad that he is no brother-in-law of hers. And when he, in one 


of the strongest speeches of the play, points out how ;:iuch more 
sensible would be a plain but substantial bourgeois turnout than 
the conspicuous equipage which calls down the scorn of the nobility, 

/ Je voudrais bien savoir, vous dis-Je, si vous ne feriez pas^ 
iiiieux d* avoir un hon carrosse ^ double 

de drap couleur d' olive, avec un chiffre entoure d'une cordeliere, 
un cocher ynaigre, vetu de brun, un petit laquais seulement pour 
ouvrir la portiere, et des chevaux ciodestes, que de proi'iener par 
. la vill'? ce somptue.Mix equipage qui fait demander qui vous etea, 
J^ ces cheTaux fringants qui ^claboussent les gens de pied, et tout 
cet attir^il, enfin, qui vous fait ordinairernent ne^oriser des gens 
de qualite, envier de vos Igaux, et maudire par la canaille, Vous 
devrlez, Madame Patin, retrancher tout c,e faste qui vous environne, 


the envy of the hourgeoisie , and the curses of the rabble, "ello 
tonsse. crache, et se mouche," and at last cutu him off with: "Oh 
.laa, I'.onsieur, en un not comrae '^n mille, je pretends vivre a ma 
Tianiere; je ne veiuc point de vos conseils, et ne raoque de vos re- 
monstrances, Je suis veuve, dieu '-.erci, Je ne depends de personne 
que de moi-meme, Vous venez ici me inorigener, corairie si vous aviez 
quelque droit sur me conduite; c'est tout ce que je pourrais souffrir 
a un "lari," (11,2, ) 

V'e have already seen how she resents her niece's assumption of 
equality with her, vrncn Lucile appears she lays down the law to her 
explicitly, and requests her, aciong other things, to refrain from 
c:-iiliiig her aunt, since there is about to be established bet-ween them 
ii vast difference in station, ' 

LUCILE: J'attendais avec impatience que raon pere sortit, 
raa tante, pour vous dire une nouvelle, qui vous fera 
voir que je suis autant dans vos interets, que mon pere 
est contraire. ^ ^ 

IDSE, PATIN: Que vous soyez dans mes interets, ou qu'il n'y solt 
pas; c'est pour laoi la ;ieme chose. 

LUCILE: Je vous demande pardon, jua tante; mais, j 'ai une 
dernangeaison furieus^ de vous voir feroae de qualite, 

MME. PATIN: Vous aurez bient'ot ce plaisir-la, et je vous conseil- 
le par avance de comaiencer de bonn^ hsure a garder avec 
raoi certain respect du vous dovez etre, et o\i vous auriez 
peut-etre peine a vous accoutumer dans la suite, 

LUCILE: Coi.t'ie done, ma tante? 

IOCS* PATIN: Def aites-vous surtout de raa ta nte , et sorvez-vous 
du not de Madame ,^ je vous prie, oiT demeurez chez votre 

LUCILE: Mais, ma tante, puisque vous etes joa tante, poLirq-,ioi 
faut-il que je vous appelle autrement? ^ 

ICvIE, PATIN: Cost, qu'etant femme de qualite, et vous ne I'e- 
tant pas, je ne pourrais pas honneteiJient etre votre 
tante, sans deroger on quelque fajon, (11,4,) 

Fnen, hov.'ever, she learns that Lucile is h^rst/lf ahcut t '^^ Vjecome 
i lady of iiuality, hxi-r cuange of front is audaun ana connJi'iLe, and 
her condescension comic to a degree. 

In illustration of her ductility in the hands of the Chovilier 
-ay he cited the scene in which i^he comes upon a liat of nia :.;_3- 
-resaeB--oae of v/hoia, by the way, is La Magnifiviue Marchande , rue 
^es cin<^ Di^:iant a , a 1^ Pol ie des 3 ou r g e o_ i a e_3 - - an d confronts hiia 
vvitxi it, he "barely takes the trouble to justify himself, and that 

ith the raost transparent effrontery, which does not serve to hide 
his indifference. But she accepts it all, as well as Crispin's 
gauzy explanation, because she wants to be convinced, "Ah! QhaV' 
alier, que vous etes wechantj Je sens bien que vous ne trompez, et 
je ne puis n'empecher d'etre trompee," (111,4.) "Je serais bien 
aise, Chevalier, de vous confondre a force de tendresse. Je vaux 
vous cruirci aveugle-iient , je ra'abandonne a votre bonne foi. Si voub 
etes assez perfide pour en abuser, vous en serez d'autant plus 
coupable." (111,5.) 

The scenes that have been given are sufficient to bring out 

the figure of lime, Patin in three diraensions, and only references 

will be necessary for what reniainB. The last scene quoted is an 

exajaple of all her dealings v/ith the Chevalier; flimsy excuses on 

his part which ill conceal his mocking indifference as to whether 

she learns the truth or not, and on her side an overreadiness to bo 

convinced, that swallows ever:/tliing, and does not strain at a 

caLiel. Act IV, scene 2, is almost a repetition of 11,4; she uas 

7 Vraimt;:nt, je suis bien aise, ma niece, que malgre la rjiauviise 
education* que votre pere vous a donne'e, vous preiiiez des sen^: b 
dign^s de I'honneur que je vous lais, ae voulcir etre votre •', 
Voila de quoi vous avez profite a ne voir, et vous m'avez cette 
-bligation, (11,4.) 

the moot indlnputable proof of liis entaiigleiaent with o';her v/omen, 
bu". it o'lds with tlie Chevalier's asking her for money v/hich he saye 
he owes to the Earonne, and Mme . Patin repliee: "Si voua etec 
veritablement dans ce deeeein, j'ai de 1' argent, Chevalier, venex 
dans men cabinet." 

An incident occurs in the last act which is almoet too farci- 
cal bo be of value in summing up Mme. Patin j this is the duel to 
which the Baronne challenges her, and in which B}ie shov/8 the fal- 
tering courage of Bob Acres, Eetween tv/o men, such a scene v/ould 
count in emphasizing class differences, and in fact Dancourt raalces 
a lack of physical courage a hall-mark of his bourgeoisi but it is 
hard to take it seriously in the present instance. (V, 3. ) 

In the end, when the Chevalier, Mme. Patin and Lucile are 
brought together face to face, and his perfidy stands revealed 
v/ithout possible shelter, she accepts the evidence; but even then 
we feel that it is well that M. Migaud cones before her wrath has 
had time to cool, and she herself tells him: "Oui, monsiour, il 
seiable que mon laquais ait devine ma pensee, et vous venez tout a 
propos profiter de mon depit." 

Dancourt v/ill give us no fuller or finer figure than line. Pa- 
tin; silly bourgeoises we will have in plenty, and we will find 
then striving t'- climb into the nobility; but nowhere will we meet 
with such all-consuming arabiticn, such a, irenijy for positicu, or 
such singleness of aim in attaining the object. 

As for the other bourgeois in this play, they hardly count, 
being only foils to Mme. Patin. They may be taken as the earliest 
exeunples of the bourgeois de bon sens , especially M. Serrefort, the 

r •■■--'•fir' ' f'i^ir 

.:t nA 

iff ?; i."fi. ' :i ' r I-;') 

. .jDJo'jl ■ ICj" 

-iJ ■ TO isIXul on aw svi^ X±- 


:Oi,jidiiiHi ^i1 iW 

. r.\ T t '*r ( : 


&i> aioe. 

brctnei'-ii-i-iaw. He is a fine si^ouiuien ol the, conii'ion-Benue , 
unpretentious t^^'pe of the middle claee, who feels keenly the ridi- 
cule ccLb-t cn his fariily by his i3is(.i5r-in-laM'' s folly. Enough bas 
ceen i^ivcii anou'. j.iiii m uo.ijiec tioa \.i'v>ii Jiiue , i'^'.in ^^u renae-'" I'drii^cr 
iiuotation here unnecessary. 

In an excellent little comedy that follovws close on Le Cheva- 
lier a, la Mode, La Maison _de Carapagne (1688), Dancourt has again 
used social ambition as the base of the intrigue. In this case it 
is Ivime, Bernard vho longs to improve her positior, and adopts as a 
^neans a country-house which is always open to people of quality. 
Needless to say that the la.tter take all possible advantage of lier 
hospitality, to the disgust of M, Bernard, who is of the type of 
M, Serrefort, He resorts to heroic nieasuree to insure his house 

MIffl, BERNARD: Vous serez toujcurs de la meme huneur, et desormais 
il n'y aura plus racyen de vivre avec vous, 

M, Bernard: Non,inorbleu, 11 n'y aura plus luoyen de vivre avec 
moi, car je n'aurai bient'Tt plus de quoi de vivre, Je 
voudrais de'ja que cela fut, pour ne plus voir tout oeci, 

MME. BERNARD: .Mais vous prechea toujours luisere. 

1,2£E. BERNARD; 

C'est que vous m'y plongez, dans le uiae^e. 
En verite, Monsieur, cela est horrible J. et il 
semble que je ne sois devenue votre feuime que pour 
etre deshonorefi dans le raonde par vos Lianieres, ^ 
M, BERNARD: He venUebleu, I.ladajue , je P\.iis ruine' par les votres, 
T.D.CE, BERNARD: Si vous saviez toutes les impertinences que vous 

^aites dire ds vous? 
M, BERNARD; , Si vous vous corrigiez de toutes celles que vous 
faites? (Sc, l-i.) 

?3£E, BEJiNARD: II n'y a pas jusqu'a vos i^aysans qui se plaignent 

que vous ne voulez pas qu'ils raccoramodent les ci^einins du 
village pour rendre votre maison plus difficile a abcrder, 

M, BERNARD: Oui , morbleu, et je voudrais que les trous et les 

ornieres fissent casser le cou a tous ceux qui viennent 
ici, (Sc.14) 

against invasion, and trusts that his noble visitors will break 
their necks in \he ruts he had purposely left in his roads. No 
such serious accident supervenes, but the Contfispf^! de Prefanne on 
on her way to Bourgogne is upset near the no use, not altogehtar 
to Mme. Bernard's displeasure, but greatly to the disgust of her 
husband, who finds }iimBelf punished where he had sinned, since the 
mending of the carriage will occupy sorae tv/o or three days, during 
which the unfortunate Contesses will be the guest of the Bernard's. 
Tor," say Jfine. Bernard, "can one refuse hospitality to a lady of 

One can not. lime. Bernard, like most of the 7/onen of her type, 
cannot refuse hospitality or anything else to a lady of quality. 
Her line ia narrow, but distinct; ambition is her distinguishing 
mark, and she seems to have achieved her ends fairly well, at 
leapt to such a degree that her house is frequented ty the nobility. 
And this in face of M. Bernard's very vigorous disapproval; hence 
we can imagine her to have not a little of Mne. Patin's generalship 
and disregard of obstacles. 

We will not stop over L'Ete des Coquettes (1590), v/hich con- 
tains the character of M. Patin, a financier, but which furnishes 
nothing of value; M. Patin is sinlply a rich bourgeois 'ffho offers 

^MMME. BERITAKD: Le pauvre femme! n'est-elle point blessee? 
LISETTE: Non, Madame, mais son carrosse est bien rompu. 

M. BERNARD: H6 bien, qu'on le racconinodo. 
LISETTE: On dit qu'il faudra deux ou trois jours pour le 

mettre en ^tat de marcher. 
MME. BERITARD: Je suis a demi coneole'e de cet accedent, puisqu'l 

est arrive pres d'ici, llous profiterons de la/inau- 

vaise aventure. 
1>I. BERilAKD: Quoi! vous aller. . . ■ % 

M.1E. BERilARD: Peut-on so ^dispenser d'offrlr sa ^on a une de qualite? (Sc. 15.) 






entertairiaient to Cidalise m tix-j ahsence or iiiij oiTxcurB on tiiuir 
summer cai.ipaign. It is the first of many plays of Dancourt in 
which the ■bourgeoisie is brought into contrast with the array, to 
the advantage of the latter. Ore speech of Clitandre, an officer, 
may be quoted to show the attitude of the army on the question. 
M. Patin asks hiin: "He bien, vous revenez de I'annee; quelle nou- 
velle?" To vv}iich Clitandre replies: "Tout le Donde revient, et les 
bourgeois n'ont qu'a deguerpir, M. Patin." (Sc. 24.) 

In La Folle Enchere (1690) we have the note a trifle strained; 
here J&ie. Argante is in love with a young Cavalier v/ho is in reality 
a girl, Angelique, disguised. While this fact adds piquancy to 
the intrigue, it makes very little difference in the character of 
ttiie . Arfrante, which is altogether the conventional one, such ai: v/e 
have stuaied in Ivlme . Gerante ( Les ?onds Perdus .) Tlie vanity, the 
silliness, tlie sentimentality, the credulity are all there. As 

usual, it is the servants v^ho give us a glimpse of the lady before 


siie enters, and sketch the credulous old coquette to the life. 

The fly in JIme. Argante 's ointment is the fact that she iiaa a 
grown sen, and she is put to it to reconcile this fact with her 
claim *'-■■ :'outh. She thinks that her son does net lend liimijelf 

MERLIN: Donne-t-elle de bonne foi dans le parfait amour? 

est-elle bien persuad^e... ^ 

LISETTE: Et comment voudrais-tu qn'elle ne le fut pas?Glle 

est 5;,ieillote et tres coquette: un jeune garccn,cu qui 
parait I'^tre, du molns. tout des plus beaux, et des 
raieux faits, s'attache a lui en center; elle serait 
bien ennemie d'elle-meme, si elle ne le croyait paa.... 
II lui dlt qu'elle est juene ct jolie: y a-t-il rien 
de plus facile a persuader? Elle est bien contente d '- 
elle depuis quelque temps. 

MERLIN: Et les miroirs ne trcubier.L-xle point un peu b<^:. 

petit contentement? 

LISETTE; Bon, les niroirelje parirais qu'elle s'est mis en 

tete que le gout change pour les visages, et que les 
plus ridds deviennent les plus S la node. (Sc,4,) 

properly to her BchomuB oi' juvenility. She coiuplalntj that ho wearo 
"brov-T, uli-s or, purpose ^o "htslie hor, and sayr, evorywliGrc that he is 
tiiirtj-r-ve ^ caro olci, ..iicreati ke is but twenty, anu even oc, she 
herself wad .'ic young when he v/as born that, it is notliing short of 
a r.iiracle t}iat he was born at all. 

Wliile speaking of thia son, we nay stop for a lAoment to note 

Mother phase of Mine. Argante's character: her positive iiatred for 
her son. She is the first in uiat line of unnatural parents v/hich 
is only too long in the comedy of this period. Merlin speaking 

Eraste, says of her*. "C'est une etrange mere, franchernenti et 
la noble aversion qu'elle a pour vous merite assez la petite fripon- 
nerie que nous aliens lui faire." (Sc. 2.) And again: "Une raere, 
parcequ'elle est niaitresse de tout le bien, se croira en droit de 
faire enrager monsieur son fils." (Sc, 3.) 

We have seen hov/ more than willing v/as Mme. Patin to be the 
dupe of her Chevalier, even when he scarcely took the trouble to 
deceive her; Mme. Argante is in mucli the saijie case v/ith her Cointe. 
In spite of all she hears of his attentions to other v/OExen, she says 
that iiiiM will never have the strength of mind to scold him. To the 
suppositions Comte himself she says: "Je vous aime trop, je croie 

'^MME. ARGAIITE: "^1 porte expres des perruques brunes, et il dit 

partout qu'il a trente-cinq ans, pour m'erapecher de 
paraTtre aussi jeune que je le suis, 
LISETTE: Le raechant esprit J il n'en a pas encore vingt jega^e, 

, Assurement il ne los a pas; et quand je^Xe fis, 
j'etais si jeune, si jeune, que c'est miracle que je 
l»aie fait. (So. 5.) 



Tu sais les termes ou nous en sotnines, et tu vois^ 
bien par les manieres, qu'il ne tient qu'4 moi de I'e- 

pouser He bien, Lisette, il est dans la meue ^ 

disposition pour une douzaine d'autres Ahimalgre 

tout ce qu'on m'en dit, je n'aurai pae la force de le 
querreler. (Sc. 11.) 

: ..tS o: 


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tout ce quo voub me dites, Je veux toiit ce que voub voule?. ; voub 
n'auriez pas de f;;loire a me temper," (Sc. 11.) 

There is nothing especially original ahout IHe , Argante, though 
it must te said that she is a r^ood example of her type: possibly 
gulliliility is iier dominant characteristic, with the conventional 
vanity and sentimentality behind it. On tiiu other hand, ehe ic the 
first exap'ple of the harsh, and unnatural mother, though this side of 
her character is not especially developed. 

As though to make up for Mj;ie . Argante's conauct toward herBcn, 
Dancourt drew in his very next comedy, La Paris lenn e (1691) as at- 
tractive a picture of a mother as the comedy of this time v/ill 
afford. Olimpe ic about to marry her daughter Angelique to the old 
M, Damis. "Eh, que veux-tu qu'elle devienne?" she says to Lisette, 
"Je I'aime, et je ne cherche point a la contraindre; mais, je n'ai 
point de bien a lui donner; et cette inegalite d'age, qui se trouve 
entre Monsieur Damis et elle, lui fera d'autant noins de piene, 
qu'elle n*a point encore assez d'esprit pour faire des reflexions. 
(Sc. 7.) Later, when Lisette has made clear the state of Angel- 
ique's heart, and the danger of crossing a young girl's will in 
these matters, Olimpe reflects: "La resolution en est prise: jc n'aii- 
torissrai point ma fille a manquer a ce qu'elle doit; et si quelque 
jour elle n'est pas contente, elle ne m'accusera pas d* mcins d'a- 
voir sacrifie son repos a men entetement ou a I'avarice." (Sc.21) 
To her daughter herself she says: "Approchez , Angelique, et ne me 
deguieez rien, vous n'avea point a vous plaindre de mes manieres, 
et je ne vous faisais violence que parceque je ne croyaie pas vous 
la faire." (Sc. 22.) 

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DaraiB Is a matcli for oiimpo in klndneet; ana reabonunieneBB. whon 
he finds out that ths auccesBful suitor for Angel ique's imnd is his 
own sen Eraste, he accepts the situation phlloBOvyiicall y, and not 
without humori when everj^ono is expectir:/^ an exylosicn, he turnc to 
Olimpe with: "IJa resolution, Madame, est qu'on les marie, et tout au 
plus vite, ilB seront fort "hien ensemble, il n'y aura du moins qu'un 
menage de gate." CSc. iJ5.) 

Damis exliihits alsu that lack of physical courage that Dancourt 
is fond of attributing to hia bourgeoie. W}ien Angelique has cajoled 
him into escorting a young man out of her appartments , as a suretj' 

for the latter* s safety, Damis suddenly "becomes dreamy," and re- 


questB his valet LaVigne to keep close to him. 

Damis and Olimpe are both good specimens of the kindly, reason- 
able 'parent, the reverse of the type usual in the circumstances in 
which they are placed. 

La Pemme d'lntrigues (I632)need hole for only a -.icment, while 
we listen to a remark of a nev/ly-bereaved idower. "Vous me ecup^on- 
nez de pleiner ma femme?" says II. Dubois, "Vous vous moquez de moi, 
je pense; m^douleur est bien plus raisonnable. " ^(i/ /j) 

The second of Dancourt 's great plays dealing v/ith the anbiticna 
of the bourgeoiee is Les Bourgeoises a la J^ode (1692) . In this 
the intrigue is better than in the Chevalier, but there is no char- 
acter comparable to lino. Patin. Dancourt did well to confine 
himself to one of the kind when he drev/ Mme . Patini she is his 

A^TGET-IQliE: Vous voila devenu reveur, qu'avez-vous? 

DAMIS: Moi? je n'ai rien. Mais, je songe que vous me 

faites faire vine corv^e^bien inutile, et un personnage 
g^ui ne convient gueres a mon age. Hoilservir d'escorte 
a un jeune homme! ^ 

LA VIGNE: ^ II serait plus natural qu'il vous en servit; loais, 

a la pareille... La premiere fois qu'on voudra voub tuer.M 

DAMIS: La Vigne? 

LA VIGNE: Monsieur. 

DAMIS: Ne me quitte pas, e-u moins. (Sc. 17.) 

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greateat ^itjura, aad ha ia never happy in differentiating between 
aimiTar c'naracters in the eamo play. The "oonr^^eois i sa a la mode are 
two, >.n 1 *''^»> ''-oiirf^ooiaea de c^ u allt e will lae four, "but in each caae 
it is 3»erely the aamo temperament axemplified in a number of people 
instead of one, 

•Hi:^ bourgeoises a la mode are Jvlme. AnPTt"!lique Simon and Mme, 
Arsninte Crriffard. To?rether the two repr^^aent a type distinct 
enough, but they are not olearly differentiated each from the oth- 
er, ©ft'-n in their scenes together their speeches mi{:ht be inter- 
chcint: id iijiout losB to the sense or probability. However, ve will 
study then separately, and afterward try td draw the dividing line, 
if one can be found, 

Angelii^uf: is much the more important, and enters the action 
first, Araminte not appearing till well into the second act, 
Lisette ths maid sives h rapid but distinct sketch of her, with 
that clear-sisht -Jdness Tvhich servants on the stage and in real 
life have the opportu nity of acquiring. Speaking: to Angelique 
herself she sums up her reasons :^or being perfectly happy: fair, 
'-ciir..-. '^'■fiVisTv. in teTTifTQnt J 1 nved hv .t.!!, lovincr nonr! tixrept h8r 
husbv;;:;!, .^..j r.i:ja not o->'(;nauoh, havin£, no uo.iainant passion cKCr^pt for 
her pleasures -- still she seeks to trouble the calm of her life by 
perpetual frivolity, same Lisette describee to Prontin the 

^11 ne tient qu'^ vous d'etre parfait heureuse: belle, 
Jeune, bien faite, spirituelle, vous etes aimee de tous ceux qui 
vous voient, et vo ua avez la bonlieurjle n*aim^r personne que votre 
mari, qu^; voua n'ainea g'jeresi vous etes sans aucune pnssion dom- 
inante, ^je celTe do vos plaisirsi vous avez en noi une fille de- 
vouee a tous vos sentiments, rjuel'iue deraisonnables qii'ils pui3:38nt 
etre, et vous rje cherc'nez qu'a troubler la tranquilTlt-i de -rotre 
vie par dea inegitlites p^rpetualles, (I, -.) 




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( . , I ) .aelXeif? 

daily rou'^.ine of Angelique's life, how s'.e *urnB -irh* lr.*o day, 

going to boa m the morning ana gti ■. tint; u,y ttt evtuin^, an i tiuac 

that Bhe and Aramint« aro about to h«gin giving littlrt gangling 

parties, AJdd to this tii« ren\_|irk of tho Chevalier, who sayBiT'wat 

line fenme de fort bon sens, qui almfl leo plaisira, le jeu, Ic. 

paignie" (I, . . ) , and that of Jrontin: "Madfime la Notaire, une d«8 

plus grandee depenaieres '-iu'il y uit au monde; 11 ne lui aantiue quo 
de 1 'argent," Hn-' v>"' have tho main points in Angeliciue'a character. 
Idleness, indolence, ennui, oxtravagftnce, diacontent, -- here is no 
energetic lime, Patin. Not that ahe lacks ambition, or that she la 
not disnontoritiid first :ind forerncat at l^eir™ a bouri^eoiEe , T'Ut she 
lacks tiic Vigor to ritie oui or her apLaie, Her aiiaatisiciction 
with the bourgeoisie includes her husband, naturally, Lisetto 
overstatea her affection when she says that Angelique hardly loves 
her i-u.i5band. Not that ahv hittes hiB»» t^a Aramir!""*^ dv .^b hers J that 
would require iflore energy than Angelique haa at her conurjand. But 
ahe is totally lndiffer»)nt to him, and ashamed of him and indepen- 
dent of }iim. When Lisotte raenticns the gambl^i^ii jjctrtiea that tliey 
are about to start at Angolique's, Frontin inquires tf hejr husband 
knovks anything about all this, Liaette aaya not yet, but even if 
ht did, what difference would it ukike? for hf is not altogether 

"^ FPOFTIM: Bon jcur Lise^te. Ta meitresae est-elle habillee,? 

LIoi:.'.:TE: Oui, maia_c'est un« grande nerveilTe, -^t noua 

n*avoiis i-aa coutujne d'etre ei diligentea, 

FEONTIN: Et saia-tu bien qu'il edt' pr*B de inidi? 

LIL'ETTE: Cela ne fait rien. CoLiine ncua ne ncus couchona 

que le matin, noua ne noua levona que le solr ordi* 
nairer)«-n \, 

FBONTIN: Et vc-ua voua procienez toute la nuit. 

Oh cela ^va bien changer, Mrnaieur le Chevalier 
a conseille a Madame d'etablir ici avec A)- ' 'e 

petitea p-irtiaa de plaiair et de jeu, \\'. rti- 

rona plus si aouvent, et dana le fand 11 y a quelque 
raiaon, 11 vaut mieux recevoir chez soi ooii!pagni*,qi|a 
de I'aller chercher en ville, (I, 3,) 

'(I, ^.) 



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-ne fcnjs mlrf lo I) 

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-n.. 'At. Tr in hid own hcui^o, Frontln adds that the rejjort is that 

Angel i'iue paaaea off her iiuaband for her steward, and that there 


are a thousand "bourgeoises who malce sorvanta of their huahands. 

Still "nore significant are Anreliques own remarks about her 
1,.,..-- - -} j^,^£i v^Qj, social position. She sighs to find horself the 
"ife of a simple not.'.r7, she feels that she v/as horn to he a mar- 
quise; her chief grievance seeros to ho that she dares not slander 
people, pick i^uarrels with other women, -'H.] laugh at their follies. 
When one has wit, it is a shame not to ho able to exhibit it, 
merely for want of birth and station* 

Non pas encore, Mais quand cela sera, ne le Ter- 










ANGE] iqiiE: 


ra-t-il pas bien sans qu'on lui dise? c'est un hon 
qui n'ost pa; tout-a-fait lo maltre, comme tu sais, 

^onlpour faire la fenme de qnalite, on dit que 
ta naitresse le fait quelquef ois passer pour son 
homme d'affaires, 

Le grand malljieurj Bst-ce ici la seule maison de 
ta connaisaance ou lea maris ne sent que lea preniera 
domea>_tiques de leurs ferames? ^ ^ 

II y a mille hourgeois dans ce gout-la, (I, 3,) 

Que veux-tvi que j e te dise? je suis dans dos 
situations qui ne me plaisent loipt du tout. 

Be quo! vous plaigner-.-vous? 

De quoi je me plains? N'est-ce pas une chose 
horrible, que je ne sois que la fenime d'un notaire? 

Oui, e*t d'un notaire qui s'appelle Mcnaiei;r Si- 
TiOn encore: cela est chagrinant, ^J e voue I'avoue, .-■t 
vous n'avei'. ni I'air ni les marieres d'une Mad,> .e Si- 
mon. ^ ^ ^ 

M'est-il pas vrai que j'etais nen pour etre tout 
au molns marciuise, Lisette? 

Assuremrii t, Mais aussi, Madame, ne faites-vcua 
pas come si vous I'stiez? , 

Non, vraiment, ma pnuvre Lisette, je n'ose medire 
de personne, Je ne puis risquer " ^ '^'e jetite 

querelle avec des ferames qui me. '. ^^' ^^- suis 

privee du plaisir de me moquer de mille ridicules, 
Enfin, Lisette, quand on a de 1' esprit, il eat bien, 
fach.eujc, faute do rang et de naisr nee, ^'e nc pcuvoir 
le mcty'o dant tout son jcur» 

He , ' " ■ T contraindre? Qui vc^. 
tlont? . 3 toute a /yotro £^?nie, c^ iz 

i)ar donner ^ jouer, recevez grand nondej 11 y a mine 
bourgeolsej des plus rr' '-res qui n'ont point d'autre 
tltre pour falre les : (ie consequence, (I, 5,) 

T,.. . ":aaL a. 

-[Di.frj.iE JO 

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As for her Irdifferrtnoe to her huB>)and, notVing could prove 

i* V.^ttf- *■.' r-n Yr-r trtal tack o'^ Jea7orpy, Pr^rti m"* T y hr^r ^ 

-,^t.:<jci hai< to ao witn this subject, v.:i!;!. i;:.e m: oru.i iixse'te non- 
chalantly that her huahand 1b In love with Ararr.inte, that Aramlnto 
rrl*ten to tell her 8Ci Vexed? W-iv nhonld she he? Aranlnte 

Ined, f I' 6he herself j^o nu', jwctlou.^, Lltsette agrees wifi 

er that Jealo^jay Is a hourgools j^ Vision, miknowri,to people of 
quality, and the mistresB replies that it is not even worth talking 
about. Her first interview with the Chevalier ^Vrc:,. ,, itilt 
stronger light on her regard for her hushand,*' Let us do Angelique 
the justice in passing to say that she is not In love with the 
Chevalier -; ..ny other nohlo hanger -i^ on. In this first Inte^rview 








Hon marl est amour eux d'Arai^inte. 

Lul, Modamet serait-il possiihle? 

EllG r.ip "^ '^crit, 

Et vous n*^tes pas plus intrigue'e? 

Ir.trigbt^eJ par ^luelle raison? Cottt iu;H.,t' ."l- 
uie^kmies, et tu sais que je ne suis pas Jalouse, 

Vous avef- raison, la^Jalousie est une passion 
he -■■-, qu»on ne connalt presque p?u8 cher. les 

i> 5e qualite. 

Pi, itierite pas seuleraent que l*on y fasse 
attention, P^rlons d* autre chose, (I, 5.) 


Mais, quelle di 
sez epiharrasse, vous 
a ce que vous me dit 

Je songe a la. p 
Ari'iinto, Madame, 

^ S'il *tait un p 
eut l*osprlt.,o 

Pour l*eBprit^d 
r«t.ondrej et nalgre 
n'etlez point un ppu 
qu'il pourrait faire 

InteVesBoe dans 
r : p- - ior, 

pi- _ ' :trn ■' 

(II, ^.) 

stracticn, Cheval 
mf r^pon'iei'. sans 
assion de Monsleu 

eu rnolns villan, 

•Aramirte, j*ose 

!• avarice de votr 

troji Interftssee 

i^r? vous parals- 
faire attention 

r votre marl I'Our 

et qu'Aranilnte 

quasi vous en 
e ^poux, si vous 
dans les deponses 

ses depenses, moi? Qu*on le 

" ' ' n • y 

r 80S 

1. que j • 

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: TfilJHOKA 


1 J iH'X 

(. :iT) 

she plotB with th« Oievaller urn her hue'bKnd'B paosic 

Ararnihte to pecuniar; ar-counti in othor worde, that A'- 'Into ih all 
Simor , ar' -■^^-" + '"^ '^ree of thtan ah '^^ *' -^ .';pollc. A- ■'^- 

lique p.c::ur«s the Chevalier that she la entirely ready <o tirn 
h»r huahand oyer -^o the spoilers; let them rwln him, provided that 

Kxtravut:once ic cne cf A^r.^Telique's r/orst, Money 
to spend sir must have, and ahe is as unenrupulous ahout getting 
it r3 ^. e is carai'pri- ir s'^r>r,ding i". T.\f* intrigue is m'/irly wo- 
vaii ai out. c. diitrrionu v.i^icii, ciie tt*li;i i.ti j ur;.iiand, siie ^--i^j ^ucit, hut 
^hich ir reality ahe is holding till she can p twn it in safet:v. 
But ?'- - is not s-^lrir^yi she spends, .md she is willing to payj hut 
s'.t? xb uv. 'vil.ix.,^ .o taJce.'the troubV- * r^" >• •i"-^ i ^ or-.c, o-^ 

the bills as they cone in. F/ien Jtie, Aiaelin, the m.:;rchant, presents 

her, Ane-^liaue says, "Voyons. , Pour 1 ' idee d'une ( oiffur e extra or ^ 
dinaire, Ahl je me reccnnais a la coiffure: maiis vo-i r « ^-■iC,\v,'■ r-rst 
furieuseraent long, vous croyez que Je lirai tout cela, Mcidct,.iC Ajirtiin, 
je puis trop paresseuse," 

j|o>- j 1 depend p •!'"•=■ o* M,.r V, nsTi'ii ,1 m;.v "h !st 1-ii» Rhowri hy an inter- 
view she has witli hli.i. If Aiigelitiue seoiri^; unuul^ ir.deiendent /.ure, 
it must be remeuhered that M. Sijion is far from being blameless i 
that he is ordeovorin^ to enter ut^on a liaison with Ar.-<jninte, and 

that An(5eli(iue kno-. i: ' ' . She c.aup .a the easy expedient of putting 
him promptly ir. the wrong, and of refusing to treat the matter 
seriously. He is atiri-rised to find her at home fOr once; she re- 

. if-a that fc}!-; ' "■ " "'^eaduche, but that she underitands 

that }ie is in a had humor, and hound to scold. He renonstiittea 
wit her for her way of life, and she tells hiiu that he is split- 


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inp ^>^r head, and that he raust soften hit tone, il" he v.anta her to 
liateu t^ liim. Let iiim tjuoia cooii^ aiia sensibly, ana tsne proui^eb 
to liBten in the sawe temper, vni he be long in his reriarks? 
Because &he vould be under the greatest obligation if he would make 
them short. And all the while c. ■; callB }iim "inon fils, non y>^i.L<. 
I'.ari, rjon cher petit mari," until he loses all patience and begs 
her to drop such terms; where upon she complains that the more civil 
she is to him, the sharper he is toward her. At last he brings out 

a good round "morbleu," at which she screams for Lisette in 


affected fright, 

M, srXN: Ahi V0U6 voila done au Icgis, IJadane? c'est une 

grande merveille, oui, 
ANGEL I QUE : :_^ Bon jour, laon cher petit mari, Lisette dit i^ue vcus 

etes de mauvaise hu^eur, et que ^vous voulez gronder, est- 

il vrai? J'ai un mal de tete e'pouvantable, au moins, je 

vouB en avertise, 
M, SIMOK: H^, le ruoyen de vous bien porter; voue devriez etre 

inorte, depuis ie tempa que voue vivez comrne vous faites, 

lie rougissez-voua p nnt de , , , 
AITGELIQIJE: Ah, men filS, vous m'ebranles tout le cerveau,' adou- 

ciiisez ,1'aigreur de votre ton, je vous prie, ou je re'- 

raonce a vous ecouter, 
M, SIMON: Co::iment, iiadacie , vous croyez .,, 
ANGELIQIJS: Oh, querellez done de sens fro id, je vous prie, je 

vous prometB de vous e'couter de meine, 
:.I. SILIOK: II faut que j 'aie une belle patience, 
ANGELIQ'JE: Serez-vous long dans voa rejnonstrances , mon fils? 
M, Sli'ION: Oui, M^i.daine, et tres long .., 
ANGRLIQ;JE: Si vous vQuliez quereller en abre'ge, non petit rnari , 

je vous aurais bien de !• obligation, 
M, SIMON: En abrege, Madaiae? Et ie moyen de refermer en i-.u 

de mots tous les sujets de plaintes que vous 'ae donnez 

tous les jours, 
/ANGELIQUE: Moi, je vous donne des sujets de plaintes «iu- vous ^ 

ae donnez tous les jours,^ 
ANGELIQUE: Lloi, je vous donne des sujets de plaintes, -aon fils? 
".. yi":o.\: Oh, que diantre, :aon fils, ;on petit nari, su^ipri- 

nione tous ces terraes-ia, s'il vous plaft, tr'Sve ae dou- 
ceurs, je vous i^rie, 
ANGELIQUE: ^ Com/aent done, Monsieur, quelies ;naniere8 sont les 

votres? Plus j'ai d'honnetete pour vous, plus vous wez 

d'aiijreur pour uoi; en verita', je n'y cornprenda rien, et 

je su^s fort scandallsee de votre procSdo, 
li, sr'ON: He, morbleu, je suis outrts de votre, mol. 

Lisfltte fliea to rescue of her persecuted miatreBS, and 
under her protection the remonetrance f^ooe on. It pnenis that the 
chief c;tM3« for conplaint has "^'een thttt Anp;.^*' j ^ n^ver to "b* 

foujo^ a'u huir. If .'5i « .vii'. pi uniee to sta;, „ imLir , ue will con" 
sent to itnything, T"uia io Axigelique's opportunity, and uhe is not 
slow to profit by it, 61:.e ^sks to have corapany aonetinea, Mon- 
sitiur is chftnned, and suggests Ararainte, and further skctchee an 
evening u la hcurgoois , Thier ideae on this point do not coincide, 
LnJ Ang(-liq,ue*s notion of an evening at hone includeo ladies of 
quality -- none lower -- and a concert occa.Bicnally, Almoot before 
he has time to consent to thiio muG^i., she pursues advantage and 
outlines a progranane which provides for eve^. day in the week. 


:'.. sriON: 

M. sn:0N: 

ANGEL I que: 
7 M. sikon: 


M. SIMOW:,ue; 

1. SIM OK: 

M. 3I1101J: 

Ah, que les maris eo.'t ir.cci' c"';s avHC leurs bi- 
zarrei'ies perpetuellesi J« voudicu. s nien savolr qui 
peut causer voa emportenents, 

Cciarfient 'lone, Mas enportensn ts? Je n'ai que trop 
de "ouceur de par tous Ic s diables. 

Ah, juste CielJ Toujours dans la bouche dea Laots 
a effaroucher lea personnes les moins timidps. 


Voufl jure;;, Monsieur, vous jurez, vous me faites 
trembler: Liso'te, hola, quelqu'un. (IV, 5.) 

Nous auron^ son rcari quelquefois, nous verrons ma 
niece la Greffiere qui fait des v«rs, ma cousire 
I'Avocate^ son beau-frere qui est plaisant, sa soeur 
la Conaeillere, non oncle lo Medecin, sa feinne et ses 
enfants, nO'S nous divertirons * mftrveilles 

O^i i>our cela, non, njon fila; je vous prie, hors 

•, qui -x les jnanieres (]e condition, je^ne votix 
; .o des fecuQea ue qualite, s'il vous plait. 

He iiien oui, des feijraoe de robe, 

Non, Monsieur, les feLimes d'epe'^o. C'est raon 
faible que lea feimncs d'^j-'-, je^vjus I'avoue 

He Lien soit, <ies d'epee, tout comme tu 


Nous dohnerons de petits concerts ouelnnefolB, 
De :• conctirts ici dans ma aaison? 

Oui, raon file; < <■ 'a:. us voulez que j'y deneure 
toujours, il faut bi- : je ra'y divertisse. 

(IV, ^.) 


V c J. 

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. nj;f>ht tnirfT 

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I 1 -- •\tiIlBijp 


fli -^iib uOijXVui.^ lux.f rMv. -i;'>.i- i .•. eo;ixi Jjo 

-Xcf afi'- ' ■"•'•■'• >'Mr:nf'fnn"'rfi: ;tr08 siliin^ cpT "up ,iiA 

I up 

ao Oij 

f9 ^ R 

9b ^»i 




m anoiTev t 

• • • • • 

a'fo ■■ , «- 

noffl : 
• • • • 

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»■ '. '> i» - , . r 

:> ■•■ • 

b ano-f'^ 

ioi a' 


(.a ,vi) 

:lIOMia .M 
: — :a 

:V[0MI8 .K 


Three days cf the week bhall be given up to muaic, three more to a 

supper and cards, and on the seventh there shall tc ruading, cor.ver- 


eaticn, fashion- talk, gosi>ip, and slander. 

Tills scene serves to round out Angelique's character from the 
sketch we had already had of her. It shows her independence of 
her husband, her indifference to hin, her extravagance, her ambi- 
tions, her desire for airiuseraent at any cost. As for lier aiabition, 
however, it must be noted that it is of a different sort from that 
of lime. Patin, for instance; Angelique does not so much car; tc 
enter the aristocracy as to mix in their scciety and to irAx^u-zs 
their manners. It may be said that Angelique v/as not a widov/, like 
Mme. Patin, and therefore the entrance to society by v/ay of matri- 
mcny viaa barred to Ixerj but a really ambitious bourgeoiso .vculd have 
made her husband buy a title, as v/e shall see Mme. Blaiidineau, one 
of the bourgeoises de g^ualite , doing later. 

To come now to Araminte, v/e shall find her a auch fainter fig- 
ure than Ang6lique, though resembling her in many particulars. 
She never appears on the stage except with Angelique, and v/e infer 
rather than know that y}ie is possessed by the same ennui, indolence, 
and extravagance that afflict Angelique. V/liat we do know is that 
she is indifferent alike to the fact that her husband is in love 

Mais, llonsieur, il ne faut de la n^usique trois jcurs de la 
semaine seulementi trois autres apres diner, on jovera quelques 
reprises d' ombre et de l&bquenet, qui seront suiv-^s d'un grand 
souper, de uaniere que noe n'aurons qu'un jour de reste, qui 
sera le jous de ccnverationi nous lirons dcs ouvrages d' esprit; 
nous debiterons des nouvelles, nous nous entretiendrons des i::Odes, 
nous nedirons de nos amies i enfin, nous enploierons tous les 


.rer trop 
-unes, il 
faudra que nous ayons un portier, s'il vous plait. 

(IV, 5.) 


wi :}2 Angelique and tl:at Angulimue'tj iiushund is in lovo vjith her. 
One V'^ry positive noto that she does havn in a good four tiquare 
hatred cl' iitir iiuai-and, who really seoLits tc bo ucre difficult than 
M. Simon. The first conversation betv/een Araiain'-e and Anr;elique 
serves to illustrate the c}iaracters of hoth Araminte and her hus- 
band. Siiu iiUii j,'t!d -iic nii^niy :;;.•■; tici^t, j-h uu v j.i;e> ./u^ t; ^i- en- 
rage her husband, whose whius have readied the point of insanity, 
and threaten to unbalance her own nind. Now obliging to excess, now 
brutal tc the point of furyi sometimes content with the thing 
tiiat had vexed him a quarter of an hour before scolding without 
reason, -- how live with sucli a man? It is all this that has kept 
her awake, not the unimportant fact that M. Simon it, ir. love v/ith 



ARAMINTE: He' bon jour, mon aimable petite. 

ANGELIQ,UE: Ma ciiere bonne, cocunent te portes-tu? 

ARAMINTE: Comme une femme qui n'a pas domii depuis vingt- 
quatre heures. 

ANGELIQIIE: Qui a done trouble ton repos? 

ARAMINTE: Ne t'allanues point, ce n'est pas ton mari, je ne 
I'aine pas, au mo ins. 

AJTG'^IQ.b'E: Tu as fait une belle conquete, et je t'en felicite. 

ARAX!INTE: ^ II ne tient qu'a moi de le ruiner, tout son bien est 
a men service.... Qu'il ne sache pas que vous e^es de 
mes ccnfidentes, je vous prie. 

ANGELIQIJE: Je n'abuserai pas de ton secret. A quoi as-tu 
passe la nuit? ^ 

ARAI.TINTE: A chercher dans ma tete tous les moyens imaginables 
de faire enrager mon mari. , 

ANGELIQUE: Ah! ces idees t^ font plaisir, je ne m'etonne plus 
de te voir un si bon visage. 

A-RAMINTE: C'est un honme qui perd I'esrrit, et qui me le fait 
perdre. II veut et ne vei^t plus dans le noment^mene. 
Tanfot complaisant jusqu'a I'exces, puis aussitot brut^ 
a la fureurS quelquefois content d'une chcsf^ qui lui de- 
plait un quart d'heure apres. II quarelle toujourc eans 
sujeti et pour vivre en repos avec lui, on ne sait jamais 

quel parti prendre II faut que vous n'aidiez a le 

rendre raisonnable, et 2 me venger de ses caprices 

Pour moi, je ns saurais mieux faire enrager mon bourru, 
qu'en lui attrappant dc I'argent, (11,5.) 
(The speeches of liiaette aru omitted from this quotation, as 

irrelevant to the characters of Ang^lique and Araminte.) 


Tiioee two husbiindB, Meatre. Griffard und flimon, are the i^ini 
exaniplee of a type that is conunon cncu^^li in Dancourt, and scarcely 
to be found after himi that is, the libertine bourgeoio. There 
is no necessity for quotation further than wliat hao already been 
given. T'oe point lies in the situationi each is in love with other's 
wife, and would deceive his friend as v/ell as his wife. In tiie face 
of this situation, I.I. Simon loses any claim to "being classed araong 
the bourgeois de bon sens, with whom his remonstrances v/ith Ang^lique 
might other'.viss cast him. As for M. Griffard, he adds stinginess, 
irascibility, and even brutality to his other Bins. 

To sum up then: Angel ique is the idle, extravagant wona^ 
bored with her bourgeois existence, ashamed of her bourgeoisie, a 
little pretentious, but not ridiculously so, fond of the company 
of ladies of quality and imitating their uannery, but shov/ing no o- 
verweening desire to enter their ranks, careless v/hether her husband 
loves at homes or elsewhere, but also indifferent to alien attentions 
to herself. Araminte is the bosom friend of Angelique, and had pre- 
sumably the same tastes and views, though they are not brought out 
clearly in her casej and added to these qualities a verj' vigoroue 
hate for her husband. These are not figures of the dimensions of 
Mme. Patin, but they are at least not imitations of her, in situa- 
tions where there is every temptation to repeat an earlier success. 
The husbands of these two, Messrs. Simon and Griffard, are unattrac- 
tive types of the libertine. Still .another characer to oru purpoiiC 
is Mme. Amerlin, the merchant, the mother of the pseudo-chavalier. 
Here v/e have a mother who loves her scape grace son in spite of his 
conduct, and v/ho is rpoud of him even when he denies her and his 
entire class. 

The little comedy of La Gazette (1693) concerne us cliiefly for 
tVi.' rnfilly rwlatlons that It 'level ops. In it we have fatT^-r ^utI 
daughter, brothei- ami sister, uunt and niece, M, fruineinin is a 
strict fahter, Vut not a "brutal one, "On penaera ce qu'ori voudra, 

he tells An^olique, "mciis jc v^uy que vous penslez ronme mol, 

vouL'," Mr.ia, Pernelle m ^..n a.u! apt old lady vvm) juvea her niece, 

chiefly, it would seem, to crosB her hrother. There is more 

oaoke than fire in all this bickering, however, and in the end father 

sister, and daughter are happily reconciled. 

The play is of interest, too, for one or two remarks made anent 
the bourgeois which are not without value. We have the usual 
contrast betv/een the army and the bourgeois, and the usual ref*^r- 
ence to the softness of the bourgeois heart for a unifonp, Cli- 
tandre is a youn^ officer who has spent the winter in Paris, and 
has employed his time ir tl^e converi^.ional way, instead of att^riding 
to affairs of war. He sa^^s that he Eiust rest up fron the fatigues 
of the campaign, and his sergeant says that it is hard on the bour- 
geois to have him 6<»ne on them to rest up, "The; would have a fine 
right to complain," anawere Clxandrei "we defend their frontiers, 
can they pay too dearly foi the pains people of quality take on 
their account?" 

This is the accepted attitude of the military toward the 

civilian: if he has his fighting done for him, he must not refuse to 

pay the bills, 

"^LE SEBOKKT: D'honnetes bourgeois ont blen a^fqlre que ce soit 

chez eux que vous veniez vous delasser. 
CLITAJJPPE: W?, sent bien en droit de se pl&indre, vraimentj 

On defend I'ete leurs frontieres, peuvent-ils trop 
payer I'hiver Joutfcs les peines que se donnent lea 
(^ens de qualite? (Sr. '7.) 
''(Sc. 4.) 

M Bt 

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no mnai \:i ilfUj^ 'U- 

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Jnoa ell 

t* I r r. ,.-.'«■■ 

(.^ .of?)' 

Le Tutnur (1*^5) con.tiiria th.^^ character of M. Bern.-.j <:., t turt 
of Arnoliihe who wishes to marry his ward, Angelique, Thn drawing 
is entirely convunt ional , nnd there Is notMn?; thet lends Itself 
especially to quotation* Tlie hUTior linB . oituations, on« of 

whlth finrlB Bernard dreHses in wornttn's clothes, with the rt>Bult 
that he 16 believed to he insane by Angr^llque's uncle, 

Tho next co aedy , La 1*0 i re de Beaona (■'•'^'■) ^ -^ luch richer in 
bourgeois types. It contains the figures of, Argante, and 
M. Guillemin, both of them iiretentious and vnin, ind libertine as 
well; Ifcne. ArgMnte is also n. Belise t^Tie, and is natohed by M. Grif- 
fard, v.ho followa Arnolphe; while Mine, Guillemin squares matters with 
her huDband by having amours of her own, 

W." v.'iTi ncnrjider IT^e, Arganto first, as the most complex. One 
fent-ire Uxcii, f^ti (-j.riguishes her acaong !Danoourt*8 bourgeoises, and 
renders her almost unique in all the cOTaedy of the period, is the 
fact th .t she has a more than dubious past, iFe have already seen 
the husbands of the bou r ^eolso^s a la node straying from their own 
f irssidos , and we all have more of than and in this same play; and 
WW will hav^ wives who wear lip-htly their conjugal bonds, and 
wander 'rom the narrow path. But Mrne, Ar^ante is <, woman with three 

children and no visible husband or any remains of rne, though she 
pGses as a widow. Her position is not, however, above suspicin, 

as Fr '■'^; ^ '"•^' vvrv f>'^ iVT-- *f>T!R hpr, Arcor^^'n^ to T'-'-o.^ir »^ . r.nnple 
nre equally Gkep«ical in regard to the ancestors s-na the husband 
that Ifine, Ar-ante lays claim to, though nobody doubts the existence 

pvlyffSi'' .pjft IT'. tA , 


na &ali 


K i:vvOrj» 

tlji; evjsrf »W ..t; i^.;; r. 


I X. 

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.WOblV i 

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tA ,f)i 

of the children. She i3 ftlao rdi'Orted to havo a nii;r;t ■ ivunt 

who is not in a convont, nor is yet hor nlocej she is staying with 
M. Griffard, her preamaptlve god father, who ia really hor father, 
as Mme, Argantft is her ^'•> '^t^r, B )t ^or .all these drawbacks Vme, 
Argante has her pretentions; there is not a little of Vbnv, Patln In 
hcr» "II n*y a ici ^^ue moi de feome do q^ualite, je pense," she 

says to Prosiiie, Shf^ h ^^ h r;?- ^;f 'nnt-! O'lr. *l:r3<i or. the younp; Erante, 
and has the vanity and asaumi^txon of youth tj.ut aeem to "be the ne- 
cessary accompaniment of this particular sort of folly, 

Tlfrae, ArpFinto ha;^ no idea of marrying; into the Vours^eoisin, 
ly.en slie learns that the ferry haa capsi:^ad, she declares that she 
will stay in Beaons forever hefore she will trust herself to it 
again; on v;hich the Ah\je suggests that she should establish herself 
at Besons; the Bailiff is a widow^,:-, nnfi it would be a good cliance 
for her. She turns upon him \.ith: "Un Bailli le Besons, Monsieur 
I'AhheJ Un Bailli, , »?.egardez-iaoi 'oien, ai-jo I'air d'une Balllive, 
Je vous trouve admirable," 

M, Guillemin, like Ifoie, Argante, is more interesting in the as- 
pect of his moral shortcomings, but he too has his pretentions, 
and struts liko a peacock in the ironiccil ^littery cf r!i,'!.T.i Inn 
and Prosir..-;, Ho smugly admits that he heis '.V4ys of winning a wo- 

"Jc»louBO, moij moi jalofiyej ...,0h, je ne suis point du^tout 
Je t* assure: quund on est faite coung moi. et qu*on se conntiit, la 
■ ' ■ '■ ' 'on 'onr.ait r' , .... 7r '^ "t, 

, "._ ■ honneur (a 1 -e) et d . 'on 

8* est atis^ -de porter des visages dans le monde, il n*y a fueres 
^ • qu'clle ' p. se " ■ ^f --- - '^ jf> 3^:13 

, iQ, et jr .core, ^ ' " •=>." Shie is equal- 

ly sure of herself where Eraste is concerned; '*J'ai .iu^'';out j.our 
Srv.ate, 11 m'aime cela Huffit, J. ' ^. k la voillo d© '*' ■ *.... 

II ne tient qu'a moi d'^ouser Ei , te dis-Je, ct ( rd^ra 

^■\3 a se faire," (So, 4,) 

*{Sc. 0.) 

• e 
ri ft . <I . 

Bt oriw 

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I ir 

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ee J 

man's heart which are unknovm to i prince, or even a, financior — 

this "even" is significant -- and that the fxtrt is well known, thoufji 


't^ nrtver boasts of it, A tolling atrok.. i, -3-. at, at *' '^ ■* -t, 

7,'liura on being acouaed hy Frosiiirt of not loving t^^e prettiest wife 
in all Franco, he ropllBs: "Fi, aimer sa ferojTio, cela est-ll pormia a 

un galant hcriine? et se .aarie-t-on pour ccl :■- r];,in Tg nondo? A 

moins >iue d'etre du derniar bourgeois,.," 

H.' lives up to his theories. In fart, the rn^ra,^;t? Ouillenin 

seems to he a free and easy one: monsieur ^ is entortainin.=f a little 

girl fro\a the Opera, while i a adenine conuolos herself for his ahsonce 

with the Chevalier, The insolence of the Chevalier vfhen he ranotB 

his mistress's liushand speaks volviraes on the attitude of the nohle 

toward the bourgeois. Trosine sums up the wViole unsavory situation 

when she bids M. Gaillorain: "Jusqu'au revoir, monsieur Guillemin. 

On va vous envoyer la petite fille d'Opera, afin que la partie soit 

quarree Bon, madaioe, il ne s'est donne une femme que pour V 

forme, et il n'est aussi que pour la forme." 

7 CIDALISE: Comment, ma charrflante; saves-vous bien que Mon- 

sieur Guillerain ent en coramerce ayec ce qu*il y a de 
plus agr^ables libertines dans la monde? 

M. (rUILLEHIN: C'est bien de I'honneir que vous me faites, Ma- 

dame • 

FRO^INE: Tout lotaire qu'il est, il ne se fait pas une 

affaire de disputor le coeur d'une coquette a nn 
Prince, et * un fi *ie, 

M, GUILLEMIN; II y a^une m^ ' ^. _ . se faire aimer, que ces 

messieurs-la ne connalssent pas mieux que d'autres, 

CIDALI3E: II est ■ ' ' pr^foVe, vous dis-Je, 

HMB. ARGAlfTB Je n»ai . ^ : ne a le C7-oirri, 

M, GUIJJ.EWIN: J- ne m'*en vante jamais, et cela se salt d»ail- 

laijrs, Madarne. 

CIDALTSE: .... 4^ie ne scuff re-t-on point pour lea daiiies i il 

aime le bZeau sexe, cleat sa folie. 

M, GUILLEMIN: Ah, Madame J (Sc. 1.) 

Bh, bier , venez, vous et-js le maitre: raaia point de mauvHiae 
humour tiurtout, ou nous vous mettrons dehors, "Je vous en av-^rtis, 
....Toi^t cela s'rx.f:cornfnodera, ni^;b laiaea; avec nous autres /^ens de 
iiualite il fnut bien qu'un notaire soit bon hom/ne, (Sc, n.) 
^(Sc. C,) ^(Gc. 11.) 

i: v.. 

A - ,.' t; u i 

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ft IfTf 

IIAt f.' XXDV 








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UJ- . 

t, . , JC 

To sum nji 1a ycij'-ti no BoHon-' , t>io raost coniiplcuouB elaiaent is 
thft Tow plane of morals nmonQ the bourgf^ois r^fpresented. W*i have 
in Griffar-i and Vbae, Argunte the aurvivoro old llnl-; . ./h^cii 

has laft a very tari'-'l'ble cvi<?enco in the person of Chonchette, to sqy 
nothing of two sons of Mrirt, Argante pure inconnu , M. and Ifcna, 
GuillaTnln are living in opon disregard of tho marriage tie, and 
seem Indeed to have married "or form's sake, in order to love elae- 
where. In other lines we have Griffard duped and played "by the 

younr Cidalise, while Mne, Ai-f^ante ia striving to get Erayte, 
M, {Tourdain is represented Ty the vain an'i pretentious Mme, Arf^ .nte 
and the fatuous M. OuilTemin, 

In Les V^^ndanges de Suresne (1695) thi-re is ro onti cTiaracter 
over v;honi we need linger long, though there are :; fev? traits that 
it will he Tell to notice. Wo have no such moral shortcomings as 

we had in our last comedy, thorxgh lime, Desmartins woul<l seem to he 
inclined to he light of love, if v."e may take Thihavit's word for it. 
She has heon spending a fortnight in Suresne, ostensibly to drink 
milk, hut Th.ihaut puts a different interpretation on it, "Ben, pal- 
sangue du lait, vous vcus gausaea de nous: alle y pronal t hian de 
hon vin de Chainpagne, qxie de hian gr's Monsieux apporticrit de Var- 
sailles, A la verite dres que son mari la venait voir, alle etait 

toujcurs malade ; quaiid il n':' a etait plus, tatigue qu*a]1^ kb por- 
tait hianj" 

11, Thomasseau is the reverse of a loving parent, Ifcvif;. Duhuis- 
son congratulritee hl'.i on his appraorhlncr r-trri' ■^. "Que vc us allaz 
passer cgreahlouont In r^stc dc vos jourL;!" "Jc t'on reponds," he 
replies, "Je me defais de ma fill©, et Je l*nnvole dana lo fonds de 


la province, " 
'(So, 5,) ''(Be, 1^,) 





JfLnX "t 

btOT r' 


.soiJon oo; llsv 

oh -P^- 

*ir.'" :-f5 fr'-<nr.a 

-to-; fis r.rr.:^,«c.r 
-aircrnO .f. 

I r , T II M t 


T « 

(.> ..: ,r.G) 

(..-: .0:.) 

FlnfilTy, wo have in Vivian a sort of M, rle Pourcoaugnac , who 
comes up from -the provlnros to win a "bride, nnlv to Ibo made sport 
cf. Tricked and cheated out. of Marianne^ - ■• -1 romfort to he 

toll at 1 st "by Lorange that "Joune et nignut con-ane voub etss, 
▼0U9 ne manquerez pas de bonne fortune." 

In Ly Foire St. G»^rtaain (ln96) we hav) ' '■' r-^ -'i-^r^^^r-H who are 
quite unif^ue, TVio first of these is M. Farf^ilel, y, rich financier, 
vho cornea to the Foire St, Gormain to carry on vaj-i ous affairs of 
an amatory nature. In a,conversfition with M"'"'-, Mr.urjr,et, a shop- 
keeper at the fair, he sets f cr th liis ovra character atlnirably. In 
reapoiise to a compliment from her, he says that he does not love wo- 
men, hut that they are all crazy for him. Hr permits them to flat- 
ter *■"-"! selves, he promises marriage to one, fortune to nnothcr, 

ffives suppers here, presents there, and excureions in another place; 

sum total, ho amuses them all, -- and marries none, 

Tliis is ejiough to shew him somrithing mc>--^ ^ "• r-orse than a 

'min'^upe, self-satisfiod and ridiculous; hut he develops a much 

more sinister aspect, which takes him entirely out of the rajiks of 

th t- *rrC .1,1 e.-is;' M, Jourd^j in • s, and puts him yr-^'inr on the sifift 

or the Don Jua.i's, He ^oes on to toll hoiv he seduces a girl ty 

giving employment to her hro^hers or her couaine, and then nlth- 

dra"Finc: it when he has satlrflcd himself, 11? icr.ldes that he has 

MLLE, MOII "SET: Vou6/et°s le raortel Te r'^-'^r. rovrn^:r ct 1« rlus 

couru cinene connaisse, 

M, PARFADEl: Et .-(vec tou" cela je ' .'--'" '-U 

elles 80nt toutt^s folios ■ , Je h _ u co- 

tiuet de mon naturel: jo les se flatter; Je dls 
iVT je veux epouser I'une Je prr-"'^ • -"- ' ■"- ""' for- 
tune 1*^ I'riutre; Je donne dcs r' ox, 
des proiiionades; sorame totale, ,ie lea , ct Je ne 
conclus rlr-i, OhJ cela me donne ur „■ . i relief 
dans If? mo fide, 
7 (Sc. 16.) 

orfw , f> 

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o^ «^ ,)i "^ 

nfki:vlV at 

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to Hti.^ 

vol J- - : u ; 

-i'^Il ot r(tsri+ e 

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, ^ I . ;- ~fX 




B&ejLflu*; ti;i ,1 Jj« 

rToj-: > 

J . u^n 

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Bth et 

-tJKA'? .7^ 

(.31 ,08 ) 

(.1-. ,L'ci) 

found a aafn nnd easy way io distinction by awbarklng An fifiancej 
the way of war ia <JHiig«rou.s, that «f the "bar aorious ani lahorioua; 
"by shlninr in finrnccj, ono has pTeasurea, cnn runn n: rlaka, and 
on<^ ia .«, rajjbect'jd iti.-iii in ..oniety. At ^/resent iie ia about to 
:aarry a girl -- a rich girl -- whose mother is something of a prudo; 
therefore he has fiorart to the fair incof^nlto , l ent on keeping two 
as.'jignati ona, one with a Parisian i^risetto, the fither with a Bi e- 

. 7 


"L'agreahle chose qu'un lihertin sexagenaire," exclaima 
inie. Mousset, and we agree with hr.r, Thij Pcirfadel ia not 

M, FAKFADEL: ^uand quelcjue petite personne me ^50nne dans la 

vue, je donne d'ahori) de I'emploie a ses freres, ou a 
se. cousins, Quand j*ai soupe' trois ou quatre fois 
avec olle, Icrac, jc l3S revoLjue, 

ItLLE, MOUSSE^: Cliaoun se distingue a sa maniere. ^ 

M, FAEFADEL: J'ai choisl Ir- "oonne, rioi. La maniere de se di^ 
tirii^uer ct la guerre est dangereuse; celle de la rohe 
est trop serlfiuse, et trop penihlej il n'eat rlen tel 
que de hriller dans la finance, ...,Je n'cii que du 
plalsir, je ne cours point dans le risque, et je suls 
poui"tantt an homme considerahle, au raoins, 

MLLB. M0US3ST: ^Bt considere meme. Je gage qu'il n'y a point 

de mere, qui ne' soit ravie de vous voir frire les toux 
yeux a sa fille, 

M, FARFADEL: Qh, pour; cla oui, je t'en repondo, Je aula a ii 
veil.Te d'en epouser una tcute des plus jolias. •••• 
J'ai nea raisons. Cette fille est riche, et ce qui 

fait^que je viens ici i^: Itq ■ ';i,ourd'-"ui, c'est que 

la mere oat une prude q ' *c4J t Mer.agftrj je ne veux 
paa manquer cette affaire, elTe eat serieuse: raais 
quand la dupe st^s- une fois emharqu^e je ne »u1r pas 
d'humeur a me contraindre, et je ne rejcttoral dans 
la 'baf^atelle, 

m.LE. MOUSSET: ....lit quel rendez-vous vous attire a la Foire, a'il 
vouH pl-tit? 

M. FARFADEL: J'y en ai deux, Mademoiselle Mousaet: un chez tol 
avec une petite grisette, .,, En attendant je m'en 
vais nhe:^ Laigu, ou se doit trou-';">r U't^ [f^tite Bre- 
tonne de ta connalssanoc, 

(Sr. ".) 
^(Sc. 17.) 


o* ^ 

w n» 


ni IV 


,jee8uo¥ ,6irii 


AT .11 

,B*f .X 

n "* £. r 

• f ---, i I, ^T 

• • • • • 

• ••• .B'-lIOf, 



<o nn et j" 


:TKa8U0y .K.IJM 


r h I 

I'e. , 



rro v*L 


: .TSOA'SKA? .M 

60 much the fatuous fool, vain as he is, as a perniclour. seducer, 
Besidos the affairs already rnnntioned, his projeoted marriage with 
A'T '"ilque and his liaisons ' -< fl^i ^Te little Bretonno and the Parisian 
grisette, he has loved and ridden away froia the OMscon Urhlne, 
Altogether he is the most lecherous character that Dancourt ever 

Tlie saccnd original diaracter in La Folre St, Germain is lirne, 
Bardoux, in ^lOee situation with the Gascon Chevalier de Castagnac 
there is a refreshing novelty. Here we have a middle-aged hour- 
geoiae iii love with a young nohle, hut not in any way silly, vai n 
or gullihle; and the Chevalier does not attempt to decfiive her, and 
stranger still, does not try to get money out of lier. In fart, 
■ne, Bar'''f^'H'< seems much more like h good ciuiat matro^' '"■^ orderly 
hahite than like a widow ahout to contract a second marriage, 
Bho is discreet, Ta^t not altogether proof Hgainst sentiment. She 
savR \n -n aside to Mile, Mousset: "Qu'i"! '^'^sprit, qu'll s'eronce 


LK rrar/'ALlEB: 


Je V0U8 ai fait attendre, Monsieur le Chevalier; 
mei. s j'ai mes heures marquees, et je me suIb fait une 
regie de vie, q^ue la raison et la hiers^ance ne me 
perniettent pas de deranger, 

Je me donne an dialle, ICadarne, si Je snir ■>-i'^v- de 
l»!Jus louahle q,ue cette r^gularite dont vous faites pro 

T "^ 1 Ifi per^f tactions moralpp, ou la jjeste r/i'etouffe, 

Je tache de me conservHr la reputation que les 
jjj-eini^res ann^es de mon veuviige nr'ont acq^j ise ...I-a 
d^i'iurche que je fais aujourd'hui jour taut de vous 

doiiner un rende;;-vcuB a la Foire J'ai dit chez 

ricl que J'allais visiter lea ijritOj'nit-iB ue I'Ahhaie,, 
, ,F-t avec toutus ces pr'^caut ions, Monsieur If; Chovalie] 
si l*on ne volt avec vous, je hasapde etranp;ement ma 

re-j.utat ion, 
^(Sc. 25.) 

(Sc. ?5.) 

p.t srf pjB nlBV ,Ioo^ BSJO: 


Of*!' Yi-^WB nebujti bn 

ft iKv -villa VBT/ vru' rl &Oi: 

f , n . . 

-t r^ >' tMr ' ^ "^ 


'ff'^OjBT/rrn rr,ritviJt*fO ht 


.' 6 vol ni seloes 

-,•■ r.;ir .--.(•? .-..-r-' r^ffi • ^r.r'- t.^o ,-.■> 

emeaa xitah . M 


•5.p" :,t0Cf; 


;rin ai 

bX ; 

, eT 

• • • 

OdrlKin ,Eu'}l 

(. . ^i) 

J'tov r»m no* ' 

Altogethrir, she is not repreBented as in the least degree 
ridiculous, and la not introduced for comic pruposea; th-^ wvnie 
episode of herself and the Chevalier is merely to help along the 
intrigue of her daughter Angelique and Clitajndre. 

Le Moulin cie^jj[.^velle^^(l6 56) gives us not only a fine fill- 
Isngth figure in the character of Ganivet, but presents an unusual- 
ly frank picture of the exploitation of the hourgeoisie hy a 

paraHltio nohility. It is the situation that we will have a little 

later in Turcaret, and is indeed not/ v'/orthy to stand "beside that 

masterpiece, as far as the latter concerns the intrigue of the 
"bourgeois and the Baronne. In the present instance it is Ganivet 
wno is infatuated "by the ComteBse, and she accepts his attentions, 
even to the point of contemplating marriage with him, simply for 
the money she can get out of the transaction. In a conversation 
with rinette her attitude is very clearly defined. Ganivet is a 
"bourgeois, granted; "but he has money enough to live iilce a gentle- 
man; he is rich, she has nothing; he is too ridiculous for a lover, 
"but for a hus"band he will do srery nicely. The cynicism of it all 
comes out in the Chevalier's part in the scheme. "Does ho know 

^FIKETTE: Monsieur Georges Ganivet J le plus "bourgeois et le 
plus ridicule de tous les ha"bitants de la oonns ville de 
Paris, sans contredit, ^ 

LA COXTESSE: He bien, d'aocord, c'est un "bourgeois: mais il a 

de quoi vivre en homrne de qualite; il est fort rich^, et 
je n'ai point de bien; il est tres ridicule, J 'en con- 
viens, mais snfin,,, 

PIlfETTE: MaiB, mais, vous I'aimez tsl qu'il eat, n'ast-ce 

LA COMTSSSE: Je I'aime, laoi: moi, je I'aime? Au contraire, je ^ 
veux I'e'iSpouser; il est trop fat pour un iniant, je pre- 
tends en faire un mari , Que trouves-tu 1^ d' incompatible? 

PIITETTE: Rien du tout, vraimant, au contraire; et sur ce 
pied-la vous pourriez bien avoir moins de tort que je 
ne pense, Mais, le Clievalier que devlendra-t-il? vous 
I'aimez, il vous aime aussl. 

about ii^i iaiiiLcuidB?" aska Finette. "Do.;-i nj know?" cinBV/eroe the Com- 
tesae, "he needs money for his caiiipaigii, I need a hustand to put 
in the Bucaaar with: M, Gavinet is exactly what v/e both need," 

This last speech of the Comteatse refers to a circ-unatance of 
which Dancourt has made dramatic capital again and again: the war 
that was going on at this time, taking all the young nobles away 
froai the court for the summer campaign, during which time tho la- 
dies were forced to put up with bourgeois attentions, fiora sheer 
ennui, when for nothing moia serious. The scene im.aediately follov/- 
ing one jus- referred to presents this state of affairs even more 
fully. Mme. Bertrand, hostess of the Moulin de Javelle, is tiur- 

LA COJ-ITESSE: Point, Finette, nous avons cru d'abord que nous 
nous aimions: mais nous ne voulinns que nous tromper 
touB deux, je t' assure, 

PIITETTE: Quoi, Madame... 

LA COMTESSE: Oui , te dis-je, nous en soramea venus aux eclair- 
cissements, nous ne nous estimons presque pas meiae, 

FINETTE: Et vous eteB de si bonne intelligence? Sait-il lea 
veu* que vous avez pour Monsiexir Ganivet? 

LA COJZTBSSBt s'il les salt? II a besoin d'argent pour faire sa 
caMpagne: j 'ai besoin de marl, moi, pour passer le'te: 
Monsieur Ganivet fera notre affaire a l»un et a I'autre. 


IME, BERTliAITD: Mesdaiaes, votre trfis humble servante. He', c'est un 
petit miracle de vous voir. Vous nous avez bien aban- 
donnes, d'ou vient done cela?^ 

LA COMTESSE: Tout le mcnde est 2, 1 'armee, ma chire enfantj les 
parties de plaisir sont supprime'es, ce ne sont presque 
plus que das partis d'ennui que celles qu'on fait a 

MME. BERTRAJTD: Est-ce que vous vous etes mise dans I'e'pee? Je vous 
ai Tue si fort dans la robe, 

FINETTE: Eon, dans I'epeel nous sommea baissees d'un cran, 
'.ladarne Bertrand, nous donnons dans le bas bourgeois: ^ 
A I'heure qu'il est, on se prend ou I'on peut: en ete 
c'est une saison tnorte, 

LA COMTESSE: Tais-toi, done, folle. 

MME. Bertrand: He, allez, allsz, Madame, nous savons cela mie;ix 

que personne, et je ne sais combien de damet^ qui sont ici 
tout I'hiver avec des Dues et des Marquis, n'y viennent 
presque I'ete qu'avec des procureurs et des petita maT- 
tres de quartler St, Honore: encore ne sont-ce pas les 
plus mal partageea. (Sc,4.) 

) AJ 

, ?7.W 

prised to find thQ:ii cv: .;:e 'Toulln 1- -^voiv- nrrisent coEipan;)/. "V^e 
have come down a peg," explains Pinette, "Just now we take what we 
can get. Summer is a dead season,'* "^e know that better than 
anyone," replies the hostess, "and I don't know how roany ladies who 
are here all winter with dukee and Marquis come in summer with 
solicitors and fopB of Quartier St. Honors: and they are not 
the worst off, either." 

As to Ganivet , we have no need to recur to Pinette's charac- 
terization; .he sii07.'s himself very plainly when he enters, and it is 
a very ugly display that he laakes. Silly and vain, Dancourt'a 
hourgeois often are, "but not usually repellant; Ganivet, however, 
is repulsively brutal, more so than any other I know in all Dancourt, 
On his way to the Moulin he has picked up a singer, and they have 
been upset en a heap of stones just outside; the lady, it seems, 
has been rather seriously hurt. When her condition is reported 
to him, he orders her to be taken to a room, and his horse to the 
stable, and coLiplains that merely becaus^e he had bruised her hip, 
scratched hor elbows, bumped her head, and stepped on her face, 
she had called him a clod hopper, a coach-horse. "Oh! dame,je 
I'ai plante la; je n'aime pas qu'on me rudoie, moi," 

^GANIVET: Parbleu, je n'y saurais que faire: elle a verse; n'ai- 
je pas verse' aussi, moi? .,,,Si toutes las fillea et les^ 
f emmes qui versent faisaient autant de bruit qua celle-la, . • 

NICOLAS: Alle dit qu'alle est toute voulue, Monsieu, et 
qu'alle ne saurait remuer. 

(xANlVET: He bien, qu'on la mette dans une chambre, et mon 

cheval dans une e'curie; je n'ai jamais vu de fille si ^ 
delicate. .... Tenesj, parce qu'en arrlvant Je I'al versee 
Bur un tas de pierres^ qu'elle a peut-etre la hancee 
meurtrie, let coudes ecorcheo, et quelque bosse a la 
tete; et qu'en me relevant je lui ai appuye moii talon un 
peu torme sur le visage, a ue qu'elle dit, elle m'appelle^ 
maladroit, cheval de carrosse: OhJ dtuae , je I'ai plantee 
la; je n'aime pas qu'on me rudoie, moi, (Sc,32,) 

In the face of this, he has his pretentions to being a peraon 
of quality, cuid hit vanity is a gold mine for the Coiatesae and the 
Chevalier. Tha lady calls him Monsieur le Baron de Ganivet, then 
Monsieur le Baron; and he orders supper lavishly, and gives Ber- 
trand four louie-d'or; whereupon the Chevalier: "Voila de helles 
manieres, Madciiie la Coifltesse," And the Comtesse: •*Ah! que les gens 
de qualite savent "bien faire les choses." The quarr;;,' is now loose, 
and the pack in full cry. The Chevalier had never seen such a 

^(Ganivet se proiaene en se donnant des airs.) 
LE CHEVALIER: Avez-vcus jaraais vu de seigneur a la cour mieux fait 

que ce J eune gentilhosime-la, Madaiae? 
GANIVET: Oh, pour cela, Monsieur le Chevalier, voue avez des 

bontes, . . , 

LA COir'FSSE: Je n'en connais aucun qui ait cet air-la. 
GA>JIVET: Ahi quel conte, Madame. '^ 

LE CHEVALIER: Ne lui trouves-tu pas une physionomie tout-a-fait 

agrlable, Einette? 
GANIVET: Oh.' taieez-vcus done, vous nie faites rougir. 
NINETTE: Elle est des plus insinuantes, et des plus naturel- 

les qui se portent . 
GAj'TI'/ET: He , f i done, laorbleu! Quel conte, vous dis-jej 
LA COMTESSE; He I vous ne parlez pas de son esprit, qui est du 

plus fin, Qu plus vif, du plus .,, 
G/UTIVET: He, mais, morbleuj Madame, quel peste de con^e!^ 
EINETTE: Quand quelques voyages S. la cour auront passe la-, 

desBUS, Madaiiie. , ,La ccur fait bien les gene de qualite. 
GANIVET: Vous m'avez prorais de m'y mener, Monsieur le Che- 
LE CHEVALIER: Je n'ai garde d'y aanquer. 

GANIVET: J'y ferai bonne figure: je suis riche, da, Madame. 
LA COMTESSE: N'est-c^e pas votre dessein d'acheter une charge, et 

de vous y e'tablir? 
GAJTIVET: Vraiment oui, que faire a Paris? Oh, je veux devenir 

courtiean; j'epcuserat* quelque courtisanne, belle et de 

qualite: c'est le moyen de parvenir, n'est-ce pas? He, 

tenez, ica mere lae I'a. toujcurs dit que je ferais fortune 

par les feioiaes. 
PINETTE: Les raeres predisent juste, quelquefois, 
GA>IIVET: Oh diable, la mienne n'etait pan une sotte: elle 

avait fait fortune par les hommee, elle. 
LE CHEVALIEi^: Oui! ^ 
GANIVET: Ah! Si mon ^ere I'avait laissce faire, je serais enccrt 

bien plus de qualite que je ne suis: mais c'^tait un 

jaloux, un bisarre, un hcuine incouinode. 
FINETTE: Le riaicuiel Ne voulcir pab que sa fumme lui iii; 

des enfants de qualite'? 


. rLAvy 

gentleman at the court, the ComteBBe knovrs no one v/ho has BUch 
an air, 'P'lnette finde his appearance tc be one of ti'e greatest 
chaj-m and ini;enuou8neBB; the ComteBBe calla a^^entl^n to hie 
brilliant wit, Ganivet bimperingly rejecte all this, but reminds 
the Chevalier that he h ;8 promised to take him to court, 'n.ere. 

GANIVET: ^ \1 avait cette folie-la. Et ne m'a-t-il pao toujcure 

eleve comine un je sais qui, uoi, conme un sot? 
LE CHEVALIER: Est-il possible? 
GANIVET: Bon, si je n'avais eu un beau naturel, je serais le 

plus grand benais qu'il y eut au monde. 
LA COMTESSE: Cela n'est pas croyable! 
GAMIVET: Je me donne au diable, si cela ne serait ccmme je 

le dis: mais il avait beau me tenir la bride haute, je 

prenais le mords aux dents quelquefoie. 
PINETTIK: Et vous faisiez de belles galopades, je pense? 
GA>7IVET: Oh, je vo'^e en reponds: a Charenton, k Saint-Cloud, 

4 Vincennes, a Charonne; et toujours avec des femmes de 

qualite, et en carrosse, da; et je n'enivrais a ces 

parties-la, je m'enivrais. Oh, cela forme bien 1* esprit 

d'un jeune homme I , ^ 

LA COMTESSE: Vous ne devea votre education a\i'a vous-meme. Et 

depuis la mort de Nonsieur vctre pere... 
GANIVET: Ma tante et lui, ont ^t& trouss^s en moins de trois 

senaines, et j 'herite de tout cela. Ne suis-je pas bien- 

EINETTE: Oh, pour cela oui, vous avez ete de'canaille en bien 

peu de temps. 
GANIVET: II y a encore un homme ;t Paris qui dit qu'il est mon 

oncle, parcequ'il est le frere de mon pere: mais a* mo Ins 

que ce ne^soit pour heriter, j e ne reconnais point cette 

LE CHEVALIER: Et^il fait bien. ^ 
GAIUVET: J'etais hier prie' d'un noce de quelque espece de 

cousin comrae ^a; mais je n^y ai pas voulu aller, 
LA COMTESSEl Quand on s'est une foie mis dans le grand monde,,, 
EINETTE: Et quand on s'est aussi avant que lui, sur tout... 

Vous ne sauriez croire toutys le*bonnes fortunes qu'a 

ce petit horar:ie-la, Madame. 
GANIVET: Et tou.tes femmes de qualite, an. moins; je n'en connais 

point d'autres, 
LA COLITESSE: Je le crols bien, Mais ne craignez-vcus point les 

affaires qui peuvent arriver,,, 
GAMIVET : Bon, les affaires? Oh Dieu merci, j'entends les 

affaires aussi bien qu'un autre. 


lieing rich, he expects to rut =1 ^no<\ -Pl^ure, Vipf^nme h courtier, and 
marry a lady of quality. He is thus far only ridiculouB; he becomeB 
thoroughly repellant when he refers to hia luotiier in the "brcadeBt 
rarraa, and hinta that he would he a person of quality had it not 
heen for a jealous husband; and where he thinks that he is in great 
^ood luck that his father and aunt died within three weeks of each 
ether, leaving him the entire inheritance. He is aaore agreoahle 
:;ven Whan he tells of his outings in the suburbs, where he gets 
drunk like any gentleman; and when ha acknowledges the acquaintance 
of ladies of quality only. 

This sort of think keeps up through the next scene, in which 
Lolive comes in disguised as the Vicorate de la Jugulardiere, and 
overwhelms Ganivet v/itJT attentions. It v/ill be necessary to quote 
little frosi this scene, as it adds nothing to ivhat we already 
know of the rian: it develops siraply his colossal vanity, his gull- 
ibility, his credulity, his towering social arabition, and his 
lick spittle fawning upon the nobles,. He has one speech in this 
scene, hov/ever, which we may quote in illustration of his material- 
ism, and of the cowardice that Lancourt is fond of attributing to 
his bourgeois. Lolive has offered to get a regiment for Monsieur le 
Baron de Ganivet. "Oh, non, non, point de charge ou on tue, quel que 
charge ou on vive: la, quelque charge, a boire ou a manger; j 'aims a 
boire et a manner, c'est-la ma folie," 

This comedy shows too a most deplorable state of bourgeois 
iiorals. The Moulin de Javelin is nothing more nor less than the 
restaura.'ib aujc c aniaeLs pari^xcuiiers oi laodern Palais-Royal farce, 
Mmes. Simonneau and DuRollit have an assignation there with their 

lovet-B, and ara Burpribecl by -!>:.; ir r.r^V.uaclB; ar.d th'j intriguo that 
fellows is in every detail fauiillL»,r to ijiaygoera of une iiite 
ninettienth cantury. Of course the sympathy of th^^ author and the 
audience id -..'ith the liclit-i-iannered ladies and their lovers, and in 
the end Luey eat t.i»i supper oider-^u -li.iu payed for hy the huobande. 
It is pleasant to know, howe\'er, that this conduct was sufficiently 
rare on the part of "bourgeoiBes to call for coniraent from the host, 
who cannoL nave been exacting on the score of loose morale. "Mox - 
gue' se paut-il que ce ne soit-la que des bourgeoises? alles avont 
les magnieres blan de qualite." 

We have already seen the ca^upaign cooly outlined by the Com- 
tesse for the fleecing of Ganivet; that the bourgeois was regarded 
as legitimate prey by the nobles is further shown by a speech of 
Lolive, the Chevalier's valet, "Nous jouissons de plus de vingt 
i-nille livres de rente en fends d' esprit et de savoir-faire. Nous 
avona des droits sur tous les provinciaux qui viennent debarquer 
a Paris, sur lea enfants de famille qui entrent de trop bonne 
heure dana le monde , sur l as bourgeois c ^ui veulent contr ef aire les 
gens de !^ual_it_e, sur les successions qui tombent en raaina jiiineurs." 

Le Moulin de Javelle is one of the most important comedies of 
Dancourt for our purposes. It gives us the clear-cut character of 
Ganivet, brutal and cynical, but vain, purse-proud, gullible and 
fatuous; it gives us, too, a pair of frail wives and a pair of 
cuckold husbands. 

It will b'i some time before Dancourt will give us jn other 

figure full as Ganivet, but in t}ie meant irae he draws some sil- 
houettes that are fr 
'(Sc, 23.) ''(So. 24.) 

houettes that are from tre life. One is of the Presidfjnte in Les 



( .i^i ,00)^ < 

Ej»u:c dg I.owrboii. (1696), who appears in only one scene, and has no- 
thing whatever to do with the intriguej but she ia an interesting 
sketch of a giddy old i-'^^iy "ho ganhles all ni,5}-it, goes to bed at 
ten m tne morning , and attends all tlie laidnight suppers that tjne 
is bidden to. Then she complains to her physician that the wattira 
are not proving beneficial. 

There is a ref<irence, too, to a certain Baillive who "ioge 
depuis queliiue tanips cheux alle ie certains droles de malades qui 


-^vont plus de sante que Monsieur le Bailly, sur raa, parole; il ne 
leur faut morgue point d'iaux a ceux-la, et la feaime Is sait bian, 
da: mais atanpandant ils ne laissont pas d'en boire pour attrapper 
1 ' homme, " 

In the doctor Grognet v/e have the conventional stern parent 
.vho has ideas of his o\7n a) out the disposal of daughter's 
hand, and will hear of no opposition. His choice for Babet is the 
Baron Saint-Aubin, and he has chosen on solid f^rounds. The ?aron 
"est un horame riche , sans enfants, qui iai assure la moitie de son 
bien, et qui n'a pas deux mo is a vivre." Against such advantages 
as these Babet 's preferences naturally count for nothing. 

All these ur^j merely SKetches, however, and the combined 
strength of La Presidenta, La Baillive, and Grognet do not make it 
necessary to stop longer witri Los Eaux de Bourbon. More important 
tc us is Les Vacances (1696), in v-hich we have as two minor char- 
acters LI. de la Paraphardiere , a greffier, and }Me. Psrrinelle, v.-ho 
are of the vain and ostentatious sort. One scene especially 
brings this out, in '. ' ich Ifcie. Perrinells complains of the impudence 
of Aiigelique, the daugiiter of Gr imaudin, the parvenu peasant. She 
^(Sc.l2. ) 

ijiari Hi 

finds t'lat trie miaerabla c:.dteau of trie Griraau'iin'B la ^t-ivj little 

to put on airs about--}iad monsieur seen her own little hou3« at 

Clignancourt? Indeed he has; oharmingi amd has iiadame seen his at 

the Pre St. Gervais? 

In Ifine. Perrinelle we liave also one of those faithless hour- 
geois wives who are beginning to be all too farailiar in Dancourt. 
She is arranging an elaborate affair v;ith Clitandre, and has sent 
her husband to Bourges so that he will not be in their v/ay as he 
was the year before. S' e is of the regulation Belise stamp: "He, 
par quelle heureuse destinee 1 'amour prend-il ainsi le soin de nous 
rassembler a la campagne, raon cher enfant?" 

Grimaudin is a peasant, not a bourgeois, but his attitude 
toward his son and daughter is quite in the approved bourgeois 
style; none of these, however, either Mme. Perrinelle or the Gref- 
fier or Grimaudin, is fully enough developed to rank among Dan- 
court's best creations, 

7mME, PEIlRINELLE:Mais je voudrais bien savoir ou cela peut pr-jndre 
tjut I'orgueil dont cela est petri? Quoil parceque son 
pere, que j 'ai vu petit clerc^chez mon oncle I'Auditeur 
au sortir de calotin, a trouve I3 secret de s'approprier 
un mauvais chatijau, 4i i dans Is fonds n'est pas grand' 
chose? ^ 

LE GRRITIEH: Non, vraxment, cela ne me parait pas b1 j oil que 
je 1* avals oiii dire. 

TffllE. PERRINELLE: Pi, ce ne sont que des masures. Vous avez vu ma 
petite maison de Clignancourt? 

LE GREITIER: Si je^l'ai vue? II n'y a ni cour, ni jardin; male 
ai cela pres pour une maison de campagne, c'est bien la 
plus jolie chose,., ^ 

MME. PERRINELLE: U' est- 11 pas vrai? quells vue! c'est raa folie, a 
raoi, que la vue J ^ 

LE GREITI^ilR: Voijs avez bien raison., il n^^j a rien de ; neces- 
saire a la campagne. Et dites-rnoi un peu, n'etes-vous 
pas venue chez moi au Pre ^Saint-Gervais? .... C'est un 
petit endroit bien trousse, n'est-ce pas? Je n'y ai 
gu^r^s qu'un demi arpent d'enclos: mais cela est menage. 
Voila ce qu ' on appelle des maisonp de campagne. (Sc.y.) 

(Sc.Id, ) 

Renaud at Arniide (1697), however, furnibhes a weli-deveicped 
case in Mme. Jaquinet. Sh-; lackb none of thi? v/ell-known requirementB 
for a perfect Bpeciiaen cf the Beliee. Ker niece Mimi, who in a lit- 
tle pitcher with large ears, telle how she has v/orked her way into 
her aunt's good graces by telling her that she is young, pretty, 
well formed ur.d witty, all of which ie taken in good faith. She fur- 
ther tells }iow her aunt takes her to the Operci, and how a nan comes 
every evening tc the box to talk with the lady, and how he calls her 
Armide and she calls him Renaudj and hov; in the tender passages of 
the opera they hold hands and :;iake eyes at each other. 

Itoe. Jaquinet's first care on her entrance is to send a foot- 

man to engage places at the Operai then she dismisses Mimi, and 

Lieette and she engage m a conversation \/hich brings cut most of 

Miae, Jaquinet's points. She has no intention of making Mimi her 

heiress; if she is ever so unfortunate as to need heirs, she hopes 

/'MIMI: ^ Oh si fait, si fait, ma tante m'aime uien, je te 

reponds d'elle. Je la caresse taut, je lui dis qu'elle 
est jeune, jolie, -bien faite, spirituelle; elle crcit 
tout cela, car elle est un peu folle, et elle v\e baise, 
elle me oaise: et raci je lae raoque d'elle, au raoins, je 

t'en avertis Si vous savez comnie elle est amou- 


LISETTE: Vctre tante amoureuse? 

MIMI: Elle ne croit pas que j 'y prenne garde: mais je 

vois tout, moi, .... II vient un petit homjiie causer avec 
elle^dans sa lege touteii les fois que nous Dillons a 
1 'Opera. 

LISETTE: Je ne m'etonne plus qu'elle y aille si souvent, Et 
entendeii-vcuB ce qu'ils disent? 

MIMI: Si je I'entends? Oh, ils sont tous deux bien amou- ■ 
reux Gt bien ridicules. II I'appelle Annide, eiie I'ap- 
pelle son petit Renaud; et quand quelque endroit de 
I'Op^ra leur fait plaiair, ils se serrent les mains, lis 
se regardent , ils font de& mines: et laoi je creve de 
rire. (Sc.5.) 



to have some of her own niaking. She has plans for a marriage in 
the imniediate future, and Bl:e launches into praises of the "plus 

aimable enfa.nt, le plus J oil petit houiiiie" on ».'ho she has fixed her 



It ia tiie Opera, apparently, that has gone to l.Ime. Jaquinet's 
head; she finds herself unahle to tpeak without, breaking into 
couplets. When Clitandre, who is, of course, the lover of h^r 
niece Angelique, and feignd madness, is brought into her presence, 
we have a remarkable scene in which she sings of her legal affairs 
in a stanza beginning: 

On j uge mon proces, je vais solliciter, 
after which she and Clitandre have a sort of alternating 

LISEITi;: Vous avez-la une aimable petite niece, Madarae 

Vous en ferez voti-e h^ritiere, apparement? 
pJlSE, JAQUIA'ET: Mon h^ritierej elle mon heritieVeJ Oh si par malheur 

j 'ai jamais des h^lritiers, ^je pretends bien qu'ils soient 

de ma fa^on, s • il vous plait, 
LI3ETTE: De votre fapon, Madame? 
;JJE. JAC^UIlvET: He vraicient oui, de ma fapon, 

LISETTE: Vous ave^ done des vues pour le mariage, Madame? 
iaiE. JAQUIITET: Si j 'en ai? la plaisante demandei Si j'en ai? Oui 

vraiment. j'en ai, et de tres belles, et de tree vives, 

et de tree prochaines. ^ 

Au temps heureux ou I'on sait plaire, 
II est aoux d' aimer tendrenent. 
LISETTE: C'est 1 'Opera tout pur, Madame; je vous entends, 

vouB aimez? 
..„-Ltt, JAQUIliiET: Oui, ma chere Lisette, le plus aimable enfant, le 

plus joli petit hommei tu le verras; il doit venir ici, 

je veux lui donner aujourd'hui un petit regal dans mon 

apparteraent, , j 'ai pris toutes mes mesures pour cela, et,, 
• • • • 

,... Tu es une fille d' esprit, j e vcux te faire vour mon 

petit homuie , afin^que tu m'en di ton sentiment 

II sera de ton gout, j'en suis sure, il est enchants de 
moi , tiens, mon enfant. 

II fait Ba gloire de me plaire, 
Et tout son bongeur de me voir. 
LISIIlftE: Celc^st bien tendre. 

laJE. JAQ,UI1:eT: U'est-ll pas vrai^ II perd 1' esprit, te dis-je, et 
il i:.e Id fait perdre a moi, voila ce qui est admirable. 

(Sc,6, ) 

lot iA 

: afan 

: •'•, I'f ffiil^-^i^ d F; 

tr-;;pvj8 ajJoV 

191 a& h: 

-; . no ; 

,ab ,*TJ/q .tuot BtoqO'I ctes' 

• -':-vr, . 

LLi't oitiJ «9 uT .... 

X 8i3 


.06 JruoJ c^^ 

aiiy, Xjt- 

ey J 

.eq J'. 



rjr, . w 

irala " eaaily M : :, J. 

In L (T-v ri-- ( ) ■ ■" n M-"-!'^. L - 

ill i '1 -^ ' ■ ■'"' "■ '"' ' "' ^tl^'i yi' '"'" t ■' '" ' ^-' t 

\\b.\ old woman, M^.' ';"- :rine' giv<»!^ us >--' 

. Icnovtr t.h'»i'- miBl ' . "A"' 

MME. .TACJUIlfB?: Taisez-vous, mon frere^ v' tiU« vojk 

M. GROGHAC: E* ■ ■ M' ' ' ir, m- 

1,01171:;: C-- i"- 

CLITANDREC " ^e): A- 1.;, v^... ' , ^, .,..■..,? 

IfME. JAqUINET (.;.e '. ae a la ^ ): 

On J * , jrt ' ' 

J- . :.ujony ' :^ 

Mo*i J ' un vieux <"ou 'uie ma *"' 


- I 

CLITANDRE: A , ..J .1 ^ 

MJ.n.l''^. .TAQUIirST: V''- e vtjo qi'l j 

CTITAi'DRa: P::-' -J^ v 

ItME, .TA'^UIMET: N'- 

clita?^dre: V 


A • ■ 

n'ne . . (Sc.;-") 

• • • 

T.'- . ■ V,,.) 

(^- . .) 

: 'J J 



(. . ) 

enrager, de coutanei ails ne veut jamais ce ^wt; je voulons, 
8t alle veu* to\;jours ce quo jn ne voulons i^as; at si je fais tout 

^ 7 

ce que j« .^uis, raoi, pour avoir I'honneur de Bes bonnes cr^'- ■ " 

lime. Loricart's experiences wit'i the late M. Loricart do not 
seem to have been 3apecially happy, and her disposition has suffered 
fron it. She has hated him so that she is now taking it out on his 
daughter; and v/hen ..lathurine suggests that his daughter is also ^er 
own, she replies that all one's relatives are enemies. This dis- 
lilce for her daughter on general principles is whetted by Ange- 
lique's opposition to the conventional marriage for money v/hich 
her mother wants to contract for her, and peace is arranged at last 
only by mutual concessions in tho matter of marriages. Contrary to 
the rule for bourgeoises, who, when they cast about for a young 
husband, usually select one from the nobility, Mrae. Loricart wants 
to make the fortune of someone who will be grateful for it, and 
pitches on her own gardener, the peasant Thibaut. He, hov.-ever, 
does not seem sensible of the advantages of the matc}i, and prizes 
the rights of his youth above worldly glory. A good part of the 
intrigue concerns his parrying the amorouB advances of lime. Lori- 
cart, and it finally reaclies the point where she pursues him \'/ith 
a stick . Opposed to M:ne. Loricart is her brother-in-law, Cleonte, 
who is a solid specimen of the bourgeois d£ bon s ens . He sides 
with his nieces, and !• t c god out of the machine to the plot. It 

* Lui? c'est l3 pluB grand cheval de caroase, le plus grand 
brutal. Diftu veuille avoir Bon ame; il a bien fait de nourir, je 

n'y pouvais plus vivre II m'a donne^bien des ciiagrine; mais, 

ou je ne pourrai, on je les rendrai bien a^Mademoiselle sa fillo. 
*••• Je ne saurais que te dire, le beau-frer«j, la fille, la ni^ce, 
je n'airae point du tout cette parentl-la. On n'a point de plus 
grands ^nnemis que ses parents, ce sont des espions qui controlent 
perpetuelieaent tout ce qu-j vous faitss, (Sc.ll.) 





will not be necessar;,- to quote froiii nla scenes v/ith Mine. Loricart, 
as the./ ard repetitions of those tiiat Mme. Patin sustained with her 
trother-in-law, M. Serrefort. 

Le Ret our des Officiora (1697) contains also a scheming mother 
in idjae. Thomas. She does not share tne usual "bourgeois enthusiasm 
for the army, hut prefers the solid advantages of the lav/. Her 
daughter Hsnriette £ind her niece Isaholle, however, make up for her 
chilly attitude toward the army, and -"elcome the return of the uffi- 
cers. This is the main part of the intrigue, hut the character 
that most concerns us here is that of M, des Balivea^ox, a counsellor 
who is iTiade to helieve that his only chance of winning Isahelle 
lies in his putting aside the robe for the sword. Here is a type of 
the bourgeois de la robe , and as good a one as Dancourt has given 
us. Baliveaux is a pompous old fellow, who is afraid that his real 
rank will be mistaicen and slighted. "Aliens done, Maturin," says 
he to his lackey, "ne quittez point ma queue, de peur qu'on ne me 
prenne que pour un avooat, Je suis un conseiller, entendez-vous?" 
His pomp of circumstance is revealed especially in a scone between 
him and this Maturin and Toinette, the maid. Des Baliveaux' first 
concern is that Toinette shall knov; exactly v/hat is his rank, and 
that Maturin take care not to drop his train. Toinette agrees 
that one can net too well sustain the prerogatives of the law, 
and he tells her that he sustains them well in every way, even 
to having a quarrel on with the Presi dent, though he has been on 
the tench but three days. The resulting trial would be called 
even now, were it not for the love he bears for the fair Isahelle, 



which coxn]jellB him to abandon all else. 

Tclnette tells him that hit; only chance for I«a"ije;iifc; iie« in 

exchaubing hi^ roue ior a t>.;u?(i; -nd Just hare CliLcuaare eiiterB, 

and there is an overflow of mutual compliiaentB, Dea Baliveaux calls 

/DES BALIEAUX: II faut avouer que j 'ai "bonne nine conune ^a, c'eet 

une telle chose du'une charge de rohe. 

TOINETTE: Que vois-je? Monsieur I'Abhe 6,^'6 Baliveaux en rohe 
longuej Vous Beriez-voua fait procureur ou commissaix-e? 

DES BALIVEAUxT regardant derriSre lui): Procureur ou cocunissnirej 
Maturin? ^ 

MATURIN: Je ne lacherai rien, Monsieur, ne vous houtea pan 
en peine, 

DES BALIVEAUX: Je suis ccnseiller, ne voyea-voue pas hienv 

.... ..., •.., II lae faut un laquais pour porter ma queue quand je 

fais des vieites, et j 'ai oublie d'amener le mien, par- 
• ce que je n'ai qu'un cheval. ^ 

TOINETTE: ' On ne peut trop soutenir les prerogatives de la loi» 

DES BALIVEATIX: Oh, allez, allez, je les soutiens bien de toutes 

manieres, J'ai deja du querelle avec notre presi^ient, et 
si il n'y a que trois jours que je suis recu, ...« Get 
animal-la veut que Je ne m'asseye qu'au bout d'en has, 
parceque je suis le dernier venu, et noi je suis de raeil- 
leure luaison que lui. Oh, je lui rivai 1' autre jour 
son clou; il me dSchira raa robe, et il m'appella sol* en 
pleine audience devant tout le inonde; iriais cela n'en de- 
meurera pas la, , , , 

.«•( Je^lui revaudrai^ sur raa parole, Le proces est deja 
commence; et si je n'etais pas si amoureux, je pousseraie 
la chose bien plus vigoureusement, Mais I'ariour me de- 
bauche , je quitte touo pour le^s beaux yeux de Mademoi- 
selle Isabella. (Sc.ll.) 

-'CLITAirDRE: Mais que vois-je? Ah, CielJ le joli magistrat, 

I'aimable petit homrne de robe! 

DES BALIEAUX: Rai , hai, hai, hai. 

CLITAMT^^^T: ' Tl 9<3t fait au touf. Quelle phyaionomiej 

DES BALIVEAUX; Eai, hai, hai, qui est ce raonsieur-l5, Toinette? 

TOINETTE: Un off icier, des parents de la fajiiille, Tachea de 
gagner les bonnes graces de cet hogjne-la, c'est lui qui 
peut tout sur !• esprit de votre naitresse, 

DES BALIVEAUX: Laissez-moi faire, je vais lui fairs un petit com- 
pliment bien trousse, Bon-jcur, Monsieur, votre servi- 
'teur, coiament vous pcrtez-vous? 

CLITANDRE: A vous rendre toutes sortes de services. Que je 

vous embrasse, mon charmant Monsieur; que je vous etouffe 
de caresses, s'il m'est possible, 

DES BALIVEAUX: Hai, hai, hai. H^ bien, vous voyez, je me fais 
airner de qui je veux. 

TOINETTE: Cela est vrai. Vous avez un visage qui frappe 

CLITANDRE: Que j »envie votre sort, mon cher Monsieur, ot votre 
profession, surtout. (Sc,12,) 


• TTCTi'TT''' ' 




Toinette'B attentlcn to the fact that he v/ine aff cotton at sight 
In whatever quarter he v;iBheB, and Toinette agrt-ea t-u-tr. hu has a 
striking face. Clitandre envies his profeseicn, and here it devel- 
ops that he, Clitandre, is in love with a young person whose aunt 
greatly prefers the robe to the sword; the lady being, of course, 
Isabelle. Des Bali\feaux, unav/are of the identity, gladly exchanges 
his robe for Clitandre 's soldier gear. His next appearance is in the 
guise of a captain; he bows and scrapes, and is the very humble 

-^ DES BAIIVEAUX: (en Officier) Votre tres-humble valet, Mesdanes. 

Vous voyez un nouvel Officier qui avait bien de 1 • impa- 
tience d'avcir I'honnexir de posoeder I'avantage de vous 

faire ses tres-humbles revei-ences, 
MME. TH011AP: ' Comment, c'est Monsieur des Baliveaux? 
DES BALIVEAUXs A vous tendre mes tres-humbles services, Mesdaiaes, 
MI£E, THOMAS: Coianient done. Monsieur, cuel equipage est-ce la? 

Ne 'm'av'^a-vcus pas nand^ que vous e'tiez conseiller? 
DES BALIVEAUXs Conseiller, moi! je ne l«ai jamais e'te. He' f i done, 

MadaiiiS , ne parlez point de cela. 
:.C.IE. THOMAS: Vous ne vous etes pas fait recevoir conseiller, 

DES BALIVEAUX: Non , vraiment , Madame, ^le Ciel m»en preserve; j 'aine 

tro? Mademoiselle votre nie*ce pour faire une sottise 

coKcne cella-la, et je sais bien qu'il ne lui faut que des 

HENRIETTE: Que je te trouve heureuse, ma cousine, et qu'il est 

gracieux dans cet h* it -la J 
DES 3ALI^/35AUX: Oh, Madenoiselle, tres-humble serviteur, serviteur 

tres-humble, ^ ^ ^ 

ERASTTi^: ' Je n'ai jamais vu de general qui eut cet air-la, 
DES BALIVEAUX; Serviteur : tres-humble, Monsieur, tre*B-humble serviteur 
ISABHLLE: Quel . amas de nerite et de channesj il n'y a pas 

moj'-en d'y re sister, 
DES BALI\n'l/UJX: Vous me confondea, vcue xa'extasiez, Mademoiselle. 

Ma pauvre Toinette^ que je te suis redevable, 
TOINETTE: Votre tres-humble servante, monsieur, votre servante 

tres-humble, ^ 

DES BALr/TilA.IJX: Oh 9a, ^a, Mada^ie Thomas, procedons un contrat; 

j'ai une rage d'etre votre neveu, 
IOCS. THOMAS: J':, vous : conseille de la mod"<^rer, Monsieur, car vous 

ne'le serea point assurement, 
DES BALF7EAUX: Coi^ime elle se moque, Toinette. Allona done, je 

n'aime ^joint les semblants, mol, je parle tout de bon, 
MME, THOMAS: Et je vous parle s^rieusemen*. aiissl; vous n'e'tes pas 

conseiller, vous n'aurez pas ma niece, (Sc,15,) 

VXiiJiH Zti^ 

Afl 2ar 

'T.i/vS: gsn 

servant of everybody. He Ib no couneellor, and never haa been -- 

perish the thought. He is left almost literally with one leg in 

the air v/hen Mme. ThoniaB tells hira curtly that "no robe, no Isabelle*. 

He loses Isahelle, but he is of the stuff that is sustained 
and soothed by an unfaltering trust in Itself, and -in superior to 
any merelj'- external reverse. He accepts his defeat philosophically: 
"Cela est vrai, son coeur est pour moi. Oh bien, bien, qu'il I'e- 
pouse, je ne ni'en souci gueres. Je suis capitaine tcujourc, j'y 

donne con consentement aussi, je veujc signer le corAtrat et etro de 


la noce: nous verrons qui serra le plus sot de nous deux," 

Des Baliveaux is the best picture that Dancourt has given us of 
the Lian of lawi pompous, vain, ostentatious of his rank, he adds 
to these qualities the more general ones of gullibility, credulity, 
and avidity of personal flattery. 

Lea CurieiiX de Compiegn e (1698) is given over entirely to the 
exhibition of the relations of the bourgeoieie with the army, al- 
ready referred to in La Gaae tte, Le Moulin de ^a-yello t Le Re tour 
des Officiers, and others. Here, as alv/ays in Dancourt, the bour- 
geois admires blindly the anny, and the officer has a thorough - 
going contempt for the tradesman, v/hom he considers legitimate 
game for the roughest practical jokes. In the case of the Cheva- 
lier, he plays upon Mme. Robin's infatuation for the anny to r.ake ai 
advantageous marriage. What he really thinks of the lady may be 
learned from a conversation he has with Mme. Pinuin, a sort of Mat- 
rimonial bureai. He refers to her as "cette gaillarde bourgeoise 
qui a toujours un pied en I'airi" he does not find that her taste 

^{Sc. 17.) 

. v; 


for tile ar..iy aiaLinguoiiiea ncr in uny v;a;'-- "ij (jou-u cuu .rop tiene- 
ral"-- but in favor of thirty thouaand crowns of ready uiontiy he 
thinks he will be able to conquer his repugnance. 

When Mine. Robin iierself raakes her aijpearance, it is with a 

glddyness of deportment and an extravagance of language that make 

Mme. Pinuin ask if the air of the camp has not given her vapors. 

^mm. PINUIN: 








C'est Madame Robin. 

Qui? cette gaillarde bourgeoise qui a toujours un 

pied en 1 'air? 

Elle-meme, justenient. 

He I c'est la jaaitresse de Monsieur Mouflard, un de 

ces messieurs que j'ai log^s chez vousi c'est avec 

lui qu'elle est venue de Paris, ils yont fiance's 

depuis quatre jours. 

Elie se defiancera si vous voulez, I'air du namp lui 

a donne une noble aversion pour son fianc^, j t un 

gout pour tout ce qui s'appells horoiiie d'e'peo. 

OhI cadedis, lo gout est trop ge'neral, 

Vous en profiterez seul, et de trente mille ecus 

d' argent comptant que je vous off re de sa part, aux 

conditions de ^1 'epouser. 

Trente mille ecus, Madame Pinuin! je ne ne sens point 

de repugnance dans cette affaire. Agis done, ach^ve, 

termine, je me repose sur tes soins et sur mon merite: 

elle m'airae sans trop me connaitre; quand elle me con- 

nartra, qui pourrait-elle me preferer? (Sc. 4) 

Ah, la charmantf chose ,^ la laagnifique chose, qu'une 
annee! Le delicieux se'jour que celui d'un canp!... On 
ne doit plus se soucier de mourir quand on a vu cela. 
Pour moi je ne me sens pas, je suis ravie, je me 
meurs de plaisir, je me meurs de plaisir, je me meura 
de plaisir. 

Comnient done, qu'avez-vous, Madame? Est-ce que le 
camp vous donne des vapeurs? 

Ah! ma chere Madame Pinuin, il fait dans mon coeur 
et^dans mon esprit des revolutions a quoi je ne 
m'etais pas attenduei Je suis dans des ravissements! 
Quel charmant spectacle! Madame Pinuin, quel charmant 

On ne voit point de cela a Paris, . 
Oh, vraiment non, il va bien de la difference. Nous ^ 
vimes avant-hier passer tous les e'quipages de I'anne'ei 
il n'y a point d'ambassadeur qui en ait un si beau... 
Que de chevaux! que de chariots! que de mulcts?... 
Quel agreable tintamare! la satisfaisante^chose! 
quel ordre! quelle magnificence! Cela plait, cela 
charme, cela ravit; quo cela est beau, que cela est 
grand, que cela est excellent, que cela est superbe!... 
Ah! je t'ai fait confidence de ma faiblesse, la bour- 
geoisie me put horriblebl ?ment ^ I'heure qu'il est, 
et je m'aimerais mieux simple Cavaliere que la plus 
honorable bourgeoise de Paris. (Sc. 9) 




Death has lost it:: sting for Mme. Robin when once bIio has seen the 
army; at present t}i0 bourgeoisie is a Bteno}i in }ier nostrils, 
and 8}'ie would rather bo the simpleet Cavaliere than the most hon- 
orable bourgeoise of Paris. Here we may have LLe true daughter of 
Mine. Patini it will be retiembered that she would rather have b€-^(!r the 
most necessitous narquis of Prance than the widow of the richest 
financier. As for the general tone of thib con^versat ion, it could 
not be better sumried up than in Muie. Robin's ov/n words: "Nous avons 

beaucoup de sjonpathiei il est si bouffon, si bouffon dano le con- 

« 7 

versationi moi, je suis si folle, si folle dans mes uianieres.'' 

There is another bourgeoise in this play v/ho demands at least 
our passing attention. It is iime. Valentin, whose note is personal 
vanity, though Hiie is not the dupe of it. Mnie. Pinuin, who ie 
trying tc 2iakc secret signs tc Angcliquc tlaat she has scnething of 
interest tc tell her, is surprised by Mme. Valentin, and thinks it 
best to conciliate her. She finds the lady mucii changed, but goes 
swiftlv en to add that it is for the better. Mme. Valentin finds 
even this an equivocal ccEipliment;as she regards her beauty as cf 
the type v/hich does not admit improvement i siie v/as quite as lovely 

at fifteen as she is nov/, and in her father's shop v/as knovm as "la 

belle parf umeuse. " 

*MME. PIITUIN: Helas, ma chere Madame, que je vous trouve changee! 

MME. VALENTIN: Change'e, Madame? voila un fort sot compliment, et 
je no suis point en age de paraltre change. 

MME. PINUIN: Ah vraiment, c'est en bien que vous I'etes, I^adame, 
et vous embelliseii; a vue d'oeil. 

MME. V/LENTIN: Comment, j'embellis? Tr6dame, JIadame, un visage 

taille comme le mien n'a pits grand besoin d'embellir., 
J'etais a quinze ans toute aussi aimable que je le 
suis Madame i et si vous m'aviez vue au Jasgunin Pleuri. 
dans la boutique de feu men papa? C'etait moi qu'on 
appellait la belle parf umeuse, afin que vous le 
saclxiez. (Sc. 13) 

''(Sc. 9) 




iae li i&i 

ja£9 uaio^ 


iBooriupQ n£ 


M. Valentin, tlie husband cf t}iio lady, ynd M. Mouflard, the 
fiance vl Maio . RoMn, cuv, a i .lui i. i.j oub figure in this-, piece, Vu-^ ^, "■ 
is the result rather of tlie farcical tricka played upon them by the 
eoldiers than of anything that they themselves say or do. They 
have an exceedinely boisterous time of it, and are finally threat- 
ened with the v/ooden horsei and at last, thoroughly frightened, 
they accede to all demands made by the soldiers, one cf v/hich is 
that Angelique shall marry Clitandre. As for the Chevalier, he is 
true to his bargain, and marries Wme, Robin, when he has assured 
himself that her thirty thousand crowns are in cash. 

This play throv/s lif^ht on the bourgeois more by its intrigue 
than by the characterization. Still, Mme. Robin is a ver;- distinct 
figure, a nd the epitome of the rage of the bourgeois for the sol- 
dier. Mme. Valentin is noticed here for her arrogant vanity. 

In Le JIari Retrouve (169B) we find one personnage who, while 
not bourgeois, but a paysanne parvenue , still is struggling on the 
lower ru.ngs of the social ladder, and makes one remark so charac- 
teristic that it may v>fell be quoted. This Mme. Julienne has ambi- 
tions for her niece, not for herself, and when Clitandre presents 
himself for Colette's hand, Julienne says. "Dame, acoutez, je pre- 
tends que ce fasse fracas dans le pays, et que tout le tnonde saclie 
que vous serez mon neveu ... Le Bailli nn crovera de depit, et je 
m'en vaie faire prier de la noce toutes les meunieres des environs, 

pour qu'al]ee aient la rage am coeur de voir Colette devenir grosse 


Madame . " 

Mane. Agathe is a delightfully original figure. She i'* a tale- 
bearing busybody, v/ho delif7;ht8 to tell the news, especially bad 

^(Sc. 2) 



■ Htori .*/ hene 

t , : IT 

,T9bJ*Bi ijaxac to a^nui t&wol 

.i>?.+ oj.fp erf II ;*slTei 

ci ) '. y ■'. I ;' .' "'1.1 i "-'. ■ . V-' L ci : 1 ^ I . 


.jrwii e'eitcJ-eloO I&amixi 

, a''jfirj si ansi) aJSOiSiT: ooBJst so ?i;p sbne: 

"-'■ i- 

B-i J8l Jnei e'ijp ijjoq 

" , dniBbsM 



news, ae when elie a)inounceB to Mrae. Julitnne that her husband is 
Btill alive, or to Chariot tiiat Colette is about to niarry Clitandro, 
Her championing of lime. Julienne againat her huabund ie drawn 
to the life. She ie repre8<inted ao being in love with the young 
peasant Chariot, who is himself in love with Colette. Shu accepte 
with equanimity the position of second clioice, eecuree his pro- 
uise that he will marry her if jie cannot £;et Colette, ai^d tlien 
sets about to promote Colette's wedding to Clitandre. Her efforts 
are succesBful. 

If we do not stop longer v/ith Le Mari Re t_r ouy e , it is because 
none uf tile cnaraclers is sLiicLiy boui'geoisi Mme. Agathe ao uiraes 
seems to be, though once at least she lapses into peasant dialect. 
(Dame, acoutez, si sti-la est fou, ilonsieur le Bailli n'est pas 
trop eage; ils discnt comme ca tous deiot, c^ue vous avea fait noyer 
vctre mari.^ 

Les Enfant a _ de ^aris (1699) gives us M. Harpin, v/ho has many 
claims upon our attention, and none of them a pleasant one. Per- 
haps his most disagreeable aspect ie to be seized in his treatment 
of liiE c}-.ildren. Of his son he saye: 

De mon fripon de file je viens, 
D'apprendre encor d'agreables nouvellee! 


Je voudraie qu'il soit mort, le debauche, I'infame! 
Le perdu. Devenir arioureux d'une ferimej -^ 
As for his daughter, he wishes to put her Into a con"^/ent, but 

wants her to propose it he;:self; Pinette suggests that he offer 

her an unv/elcome suitor. He suggestB a Norman President of 

7(Sc. 8.^ ''(So. 17.) ^(I, 8.) 

, oii>:: 

b 8i 

:iJ.^w JOjd 

is issel iA a-.' 

^;S Bl-Jt:t5 X 

oii &:- 



it iooqeiB 9lcfB93i>-^BaiJb v^ 


.'b ic 


I I 

'kfd ,7ri9 

?, I = 




eighty years, and an ugly Sv/ise ■bunlceri but Finotte proposeB a 
certain young lawyer, und lie accepts her ar.iendraent. The object of 
this viclence ie that he uay be able to seize the property right- 
fully belonging to hie children, and then marry Climene, who is in 
reality his eon's beloved. He would alec have his tister, Mme. Ar- 
gante, sign over to him her riglits. He cxpreseeB his satisfacticn 










Votre fille est fort chagrine d 'avoir 

Ordre dc vous, de ne plus voir 
Ce jeune adoleecent que noiis croyons qu'elle aimei 

Et si I'on pouvait plus avant 
Paire aller son depit, quoiqu^il paraiese extrene, 

Je gageraie que^d'elle-meEie 
Elle prendmit ■bia^-^c^ le parti de couvent. 

Et corrmient faire 

pour augmenter ce depit-la? 

Je vous le garantis des aujourd'hui novice; 

Mais y donnerez-vcus votre consentement? 

De tout mon coeur. II sorait beau, vrainent 
Qu'elle eut de bons desaeins sans que j'y repondisse! 
Mais pour I'acheminer a cet heureux moment, 

Qu'est-ce qu'il faudrait que je fisse? 
Le void. Son chagrin vient naturelleraent 

De ce qu'il faut qu'elle bannisse 
Ce jeune Cavalier qu'elle aime e'perdi-inent; 

Et je voudrais qu'en ce moment, 

Pour irriter son amoureux caprice, 
Vous paruscie*. vouloir lui faire absolurr.ent 

Epouser. . .la, . .quelqu' autre ainant, 

Mais quelque amant qu'elle ha'isse. 
C'est bien dit, je connais un Pre'sident Nonuand, 
Dont le nom seiil est pour ei^le un supplice, 
Je vais lui coirunander de 1' epouser. 

^ CoKiment? 

II paraitrait trop d' injustice 
A la vouloir ainsi pourvolr bizarrement; 
II a quatre-tringt ans, Monsieur; plus finenent 
Cachone de vos desseins 1' innocent artifice. 

Proposons-lui ce banquier Suisse, 
Elle le halt encore assez passablement. 

Ce banquier Suleee est laid terriblement, 
Ce serait exiger un trop grand sacrifice. 

Et c'est pour cela justement; 

Car je ne pretends nullement 
Qu'en tout ceci ma fille m'obefsce. (l, ^, ) 


..•;jov q\ tSTTaiai 


'i'prin rtorr .tiro.* ?f 

■ qO 





t.i rrsr 


ic'ui u^li.1 ^; X0&3 .^:^oj xiu'jj'- 

at the turn affaire are talcing In the following monologue: 

Cela prt'nd, c« rie son "hie, \in aaaez "" ' ^ ' V, 

i^ue je seriila hei:reux le reete tie ma vie, 

Si je pouvals au gre de mon envle, 

Ro^lnr mol-iAeine mon destanj 

Falre onfenner mon fils, cloitre.r ina fille, 

lI'aHQurf^r la succeBBior, 

Bt in*acq.uerir ainsi la reputation 

De hrave pere de famlllej 

(II. ".} 

It is nf^'- "'pcessary "i c deal further v.^fi-i H-'-v-ir's case; v;e 

■ ave seen enougii to shovif liis leading qualities i trutality, cuni.irg, 

avarice, fnd, in his dealings v;ith Climene, fatuousness. In most 


t r 


X ijoVia 

plnrslrg rcint.rR''t to Harpln we "bf^ve. his t; ietor llrns, Arrr.ntP, who han 
rtnil 3ovi-. Ji-. xier nephew and mx. i u, rjid helps then to outi^lt their 
nnatural father, 

Le V- rt-G "" . nt (1099), ar excellent comedy of bourgeois man- 
iit), a nuir"""-' ^f fine types j II. '""'d ILne, J'- -'■■pie , S, 'mv' Uii*'. 
Tarif, i'nd Sraatti, all afford mattei- for coiijjiderati on. 

To dispopo of the slightest sketch first, Br-iste -- his real 
Hrl-!- ~- If. s r.'it''^r>r n-l^inpT f<T lai-iri-T a^ ,1 younr T onrff-cle 
1.0 io ui\ ofricfcr Ir. tlie king's an.iy, unU has fcreswoin hie liourgooje 
onnectlons, "Moi, cfficier de dragonBi* he says, "aller logor 

'ler, un teinturinr, eye l*oi\ salt qui est vaou cnclfj C*est a quoi j-. 
e pui ' rt, mn piiuvre Lcp ine," These seutiroents do not 

. revent him, however, froci contemplating marriage with tl:e niece of 
"■'■'.e aaj-otevr farif, Lepine rfinavVs on the inconsistency of Ills 

'■■■ , ctjid Brubte lepli-a; "po.u vxuoi non? ■" ne rougis I'Olnt 
'9 ma famille, mais je n*ai f^ue f aL re d'afficher c^ul Je suis en al- 

■^ ent demeurer f' r. Monsieur Jerome, J*ai des mesures a £;arder avec 


,i.T.+ /-TUiers de mes caiaarades," 

.. / ^ 

Tliis uncle, II, Jerome, is as pleasing a "bourgeois as any that 

Dancourt has drawn. He is very fond of -fl is "frlpon de neveu* that 
'^-.-: Ji:.ft .-in, the wars, and sa^.-s r.' V^-nt *Jr- T»sl tn-ijoi^rs 
inie , moi, i^uoiNiiic cc ne fut qu'un vaurieni ct J'^^i utc conroe c " | 
oul, (juand j'etais Jeune, il ne pas me marcher sur le pied, 
non plus 'iii'a presr-nt, Viens cs grand coiiuin, que Je t'cmhrasLie, " 
He has pluriB for ■:.:;■;; ,''uture of this nephev/, u.i:d we can forgive 
one little touch of vanity and sm'bition in the face of his generoa- 
'*",«'• "Je suis riche, J'ai plus de deux cents mllle francs de "bien 
^(Sc. 1.) " 

A . ' 

• fiA'T e. 

Jtoffi> p &?' * n I 

.voC r 


I &i.^i: ,-' j' 


&Bsi& icrr 

+ 11 

■5« -J. 

iot; b 

^ ^ 

I r, nion deeseln ept do te donner ma jilnre et mea prntlrjueB, ot 
lo ' . r Iy-.:. au plutot Mil tro," 

Tiierrt is a recently isc.iuired lime, J-Kome in Mih f Hinily , and it. 
is refreshing to heR»- the terras ir which her husband ejieaks of 

'. "O'll, j*ai prls uno T -roFre r»*joiile, TiffTle et ;e 'bonne 

' iLiir-ur, ....Ellfi ijime tout ce que j • 4^e , le plaisir, la ■bonne 
cherej elle recoit mes amis parfaitement liiei', elle sera ravle de 
t'avoir au logis," Later, after Braste has made her acquaintance, 

j-e says: "Votre charmante epouse nous a reous le plus gracleusenent 
•u monde, et vous ete loge et meu'hle comme unf ina.ncier , mon 
oncle." Ad his uncle replies: "C'est ta nouve]le tante qui m*a 
ns ce gout-la, C*est une ainahle ferame, de 'oon esprit, de 

" orne conduite, et tu en verras des ce solr cles preuves ronvaincan- 

tee." It is pleasant to record that the proofs are convincing, and 

*" .' "is faith in his wife is in every way Justified, and his af^ec- 

"■icn honestly returned. 

Upright and straightforward himself, K« Jerocie is without sus- 

pirinr of the villiany of others. Of T'^rlf Te says, indeed, that 

he is "teriace*, hut he adds: "C'est mon compere ct men ami." 


Fi-cn Mr:.?. Tv-rif isclosos her hushande treachery to him he 

^MME. TiT-if: 




'.^JE. TAB IF: 

Un , 



pensez. t 

mouche v 

qu'a don 



tant que 




'THIS le B 

^(Sc, 7.) 

C'?st un grand f riper que mon mari, Uonsieur 

doucemerit, Madame, , 

grand dehi^.uchS, un sc^Dprat, 

1^ comme v ■ '^^5^ vous autree fer-im^S', v..Hb 

oujours dv: 'e nous autree, Mais quelle 

ous a passe de nouveau devant les yeuy? E* 

c fait votre mari? 

choses qui vous r«»;3ftrdent pour 1« molna au- 

mol, Monsifcur Jer^ , 
8 encore? ^ 

coi-nee vous viendront a la tete, (juwnd je 

tSc. 9. -'(Sc. r.) 


nrrtfif v.T . -^ ^ 

SU 9 


aiuui I 






T y- 

-aua *uo( 

.tK-ft ,f.- 

'•a ? 



( . . ^c ) 


i. . ) 


treats It a£ a Jokr, mkI refuses at first '„o "!.,;] iva It, taking 
Tarlf*s part against hie wife. Mme, Tarif Biicceeda at last in 

.utkirr; Msi Trclieve it, Ijowevor, a.rif] at th« same time clears Ifcie, 

As for Tarif, whoti we have thus introduced, he is all feat his 

/ r f 

wife pays of hliri, a "grfiTi<^ frii-on, grand detauche, «c«leryt," 


Z\ xK.ij'^Vj wO M. J'.i V/L..O only for the purpose of teducing ItjIb 

wife, Lil ertine bourgeois v/e have had "before, hut never one w^o 

so couil'ined treachery with his lihertinftge. Although Tarif is in 
the end hrought ri^lit-ahout, and nade sport cf, he is i,o Sir John, 
'■hough the two women fairly well represent the Merry Wives. Tarif 
is a siniBt':ir figure, keen and alert, laying well his plans of sed'io- 
-■' , f-r 1 i.lways or, tilt? watrfi for traps. His final dip in the vat 
cf grccn <i.-jQ is a Blatter tiO'o of force than trickery. With all 
this shrevt/dness, thoiigh, he has his vanity and ostentation, m-rks 
of the "bourgeois of a more hamileBB sort. As fney elt down to the 


iDSE. T/J^IF: 



JEROifE : 

'.'y^.. TARIF: 

ilu'est-ce ciue ce peut-etre? 

II ■ '-'■ •r\ci\xr f'.vrj. rtp votre feinmo. 

Dl J(?ru.t;? He J fi, fi, vous revea, Madame, 
, il n'y a rien de plus vral, iTous allez ce aolr 
a Ik campagne? 


II soupe cliez vous av8c elle, et voila le mar- 
-"L," pourquoi 11 a affaire. ^ >^ 

Q[uelle peste de marlagej Vous avez reve cela, 
cela ne j^eut pas etre.^ 

Cela n*' vous parait pas poeBihle,iiiais cela est, 

Vous ave/. ""olen ralson, les cornes me vtennent, 
Et qui vous a dit cela, " 3 Tarif? 

Mtulane j'ror^te elle- , q^ui n'er a avortie. 

Oh, c'est une ^hrave fetirnej 

^ Jer<^: ^J BTie n^est done pas d'accord avec 
■• li, . . .0 pied-1*? 

Fon, vrainieT't. I" y a je nn sals comhien de 
" :' i.t ) ;,route: 11 n'est - tiue 

31"! e n'ji pa;j voulu V' 

•--r, de 

peur d© noisei elle me l*a dit a moi, et nous sonr-i^s 
ronvenues de le V.erner «t de hous ncnjer do lui, 
r'etii aujourd'hu: oi.- In jiartlh fif> ';ilt. (Sr. " , ) 


Z on 

... , y> 


-r^r ? .-^ 

rf A frt.'%k«r 


1J3 fl(*ai ,t» 

'O 9}j 

rl si f,H 




,<»f •{ <.M . .^ 



' . rO 


• TT 


(." . o) 

tl 9'; 

supper ordered for }inie . Jerome, he cannot refrain from referring to 
its cost: "Je ne sais 8i ce maraud de rotisseur m'aura envoye de 
"bonne viande: inaiB H me I'a bien fait payer. Ce faisan-la coute 
douze francB, ietj deux ^jsrdrix neuf livres dix sole, et treize 
francs I'oieeau de riviere et lu "becasse. Cea coquins-la gagnet 


lus que nous," 

We have, tnen, in Le Vert-Galant the clearly-drawn figure of 
Tarif, avaricious, treacherous, libertine, and ostentatious; the 
scarcely less important one of M. Jerome, the v;eii-to-do old 'bour- 
geois, fond of his wife, fond of his nephew, and with only a little 
taint of vanity; ready, moreover, tc avenge his v/rongs by a prac- 
tical joke, thereby showing a sense of hiomor rare in his kind. We 

ava, too, Mne, Jerome, a faithful and virtuous wife, ...nd ^lline . Tarif, 
a betrayed one, plotting to punish the raan who would wrong them 
bothi and finally Eraste, an officer ne bourgeois, ready enough to 
profit '^-j t]ie goods of the bourgeoisie, but not .iO willing to ac- 
knowledge his provenance from the class. 

We have already considered tv;o of Dancourt's long plays which 
are given over entirely to the exhibition of the climbing bour- 
geois, or, more emphatically, bourgeoise: Le Chevalier a la Mode 
and Lea Bourgeoises a la Mode . We come now to the third, and by no 
means the v/orst , La ?ete de Vil l age , or, as it is much better 
kn own , Lea Bour g eoise a d e Qualite (1700), 

In this play Dancourt has scattered the shot that he econo- 
mized so well in the castj of Mme, Pat in, and so has fallen wider of 

:he bull's eye. Here he gives ua four bourgeoises for one, and 
Mfiie. Blandineau, La Greffiere, L'Elue and Mme. Cainiiin are social 
7(Sc, 13,) 

aspirants not differiutj greatly in kind or degree, "but four pat- 
terns out from the saine cloth. These " omen exliiloit few qualltiwu 
that w; iiav3 not met in Miue. Patin, hut her traits are more or less 
distrihuted ainong thera, For instance, La Greffiere is, like her, 
the dupe of a noola lover; Mue, Blandinaau has all of her insolence 
and assurance in dealing with her sober and scandalized relatives, 
though La Greffiere io far froia "being huiable. The latter is out- 

raged at the sound of gi»ef f iere .as Mioe , Patin had lost ^aer si-ieec 


at the v/ord hourgeoise ; and Mzie, Blandineau calls for her lackey to 
carry her train, that she raay not he confused with the populace* 
And all four are one in their frantic scaling of zYiq social laaaer; 
even the humble Ilnie . Carrain, who, being but the vifife of a woolen- 
merchant, cannot aspire to the nobility at once, buys an office 
for "aar husband out of her savings, and laakes herself a Presidente 

by way of a good beginning, just as La Greffiere proposes to be a 


Ccmtssse for a start, v/hile waiting for better things to come. 

What Les Bo urg eoises de Qual ite does add that is lacking in lie 
Chevalier a la Mode is the rending jealousy of T:he women among 
theiaselves, and tae atmosphere of insane extravagance, although the 
lattar is characteristic also of the Eourg eoi ses a l a Mode . 

Mine. Blandineau iriakes her entrance calling on Lisette for her 
scarfs, not the bordered or the fringed one, but the gauze one, or 
else the lace, M. Blandineau comes in, and tihe demand* money, 
pointblanc. Where are thw tv;enty-five louis-d'or that she had 
yesterday? She has gambltd, she has lost, slic has paid up, she is 
going to gamble again, she aust have more, WiVj should she not 
gamble? What better can one do to put in one's time in ;:he ccun- 
^1, 5, ■^11,3, -^1,6, ^11,5. >^I, 5, 






hv« a&ob 

ji 9 

I \^ K'i\^ rf. 


£.La. .M 

,3 J"^ P 1 1- 



try. Since she hai5 been j;cod enough to burj' herself dovm here 

with hie tireeome fajj-.ily, eJiould he object if slio finds an agree- 
able society cor-iposed of ladies of quality and younc men of the 

/}J^J. PLAIiDIirEAU: Aliens, vite raes coiffes^et non ecliarpe. , 

LISETTK: Laquelle, madame? celle a r^seau, ou celle a 


MME. BIiAinDIlIEAU: Non, celle de gaze ou celle de dentelle, mademoi- 

selle Lisettei les autres sent des hcuBses, dcB capa- 
rajjcns qu'on ne saurait iorter. All!— -vous vcil3. , inon- 
sieur Blandineauj je suie bien aise de voue troiVer 
icl^ Donnei:-r.oi de 1' argent, je n'en ai plus, 

M. ELAIIDIIJEAU: ^ De I'argent Madame? vouts aviez hier vingt-cinc 

lou«s d'or. ^ 

IDiiE. BLAKDIJIEAU: Cela est vrai, Monsieur. J'ai jcue j'ai osrdu, 

j'ai paye, je n'ai plus rien; je vai-e rejcuer, il n'en 
faut d' autre en cas que je perde, 

M. PXANDINEAU: Mais, ma fenmie. 

laTE. BLA}4DBTEAU: He fi done. Monsieur Blandineau, que de fajone. 

. Au lieu de me remercier d'en prendre du vcTtre. 

", TiIAIiDIirEAU: Vous remercier! 

^. FXAMDIlffiAU; Oui, vraiiisnt, c'est un bien cial acquis qui ne 

fait point de profit; je perds tout ce que je joue. 

M. BLAirDIIJl^AU: He, i.ourquoi jouer, Madane Blandineau? 

MliE. BLAiroillEAU: Pourquoi jouer, Monsieur? pourqtioi jouer? je 

vous trouve adriirable. Que voulez-vcus dene qu'on 
fasse de mieilx, et i. la campagne svirtout? J'ai la 
complaisance' de venir avec vous dans une chaumiere 
bourgeoise avec votre ennuyeuse famllle: il se trouve 
par hasard dans le village 'des femmes d' esprit, des 
personnes'du monde, de jeunes gens polis; il se forme 
une agreable societe de^plaisir et de bonne cliere; 
e'est le jeu qui eat I'wne de'toutes ces parties: et 
j^ ne jouerai pas? Non, Monsieur, ne oomptez pointy 
la-des6us, et donne2-mci de I'argent, s'il voue plait, 
ou j'en emprunterai: raaia ce sera sur votre cor.r:te. 

M. BLA]jDINEAU: Oh bien, Madaiiie, vcil^ encore dix louie d'or; 

mais si vous les perdez... 

iOiE. BLAJmil-JEAU: Si je me les perde pas je les depenserai, ne vous 

nettez pas en peine, A propoe, c'est aujourd'hui la 
fete du village, nous, sojim^es lee plus coneide'rables ,on 
scupe ici ce soir, je croio que vous en etes bien et 
duement averti? .. , ' 

... iLAIvDIlfEAU : Quoi, votre dessein ridicule continue, et liiuitjra 

t.out ce que je vous en 4.i dit?.., 

MME. BLAlJDIirEAU: Ce sont voa discoure, Monsieur, vob remonstrances, 

qui ont acheve de d/tenuiner, 

M. BLAJIDIlffiAU: l^darae Blandineau, vou& me ferez faire des chosee. 

MME. BLAIIDIirEAU : Monsieur Blandineau, vous me pousserez 5 des ex- 

treraites, , , 

Iff. BLAND IIIEAU : Je vcus dcfie, Madame Blandineau, de faire pie 

que vouB faites. 

■ rr ' t-. 

world, who put in their time gamhling? Therefore, more money, or 
iii.v will borr • ^ *■ on hie account. She threatene to do unmention- 
ahle thingB if he continue to croeu herj he defies her to do woree 
than Bhe has done. Is she then a libertine, a coquette? She is 
worce tha'T that, ehe is extravagant. She nnnounces a supper for the 
evening, and on his reraonstrance menaces hiiii .viui violins, a band, 
a concert, a ball, an opera even, if he holds out against her sup- 
per. No wonder poor U* Blandineau^ at his wit's end, cries out 
"Quel aiandonnement! Q.uel desordre!" 

But for all iiae. Blandineau's prodigality and giddiness, she is 
nobody's fooli she is shrev/d and hard-headed, she knov/g what she 

Mnts and how to get it. Por silliness and vanity and extravagance 
in manner and speech we must look to her sister, La Greffiere. 

his lady is a widow, and has vlftwe upon the subject of a second 
jparriage; LI. Blandineau, her brother- in-lav/, approaches her with 
the suggestion of a match, Monsieur IJaquart, Procureur de la Cour; 

ilME. BLAlvDi:;EAU: Comrient done. Monsieur, suis-je une libertine, 
une coquette? 

U, BLAiJDIIIEAU: Vous etes pis que tout cela, liadame ma fenrae. 

Quelle extravagance de rassembler huit ou dix feTn:;ieB^ 
plus ridicules I'une que 1' autre, qui ne sont assvre- 
ment pas de vos amies, pour leur donner 2 souper? 
leur faire manger votre bien? 

LuIE. BLAllDIlTEAU : Que vous avez l'Si:e crastse, Monsieur BlandineauJ 
que vous avez I'ame crasse. et que vous savez peu ^ 
vous faire valoir! j'aine a paraTtre, moi, c'est-la 
ma folie. ^ 

M. BLAJiDIJIEAU: Et vous devriez vous cacher d'etre aussi peu 
raisonnable. . . 

laiE. PLAMDIIIEAU: Vous vo yez , Monsieur, comme vous vous revoltez 

contre le souper: Oh bien, nous aurons les viclons, de 
la musique, un petit concert, le^bal, et une eepece 
d' opera, meme, si vous continuez a me contredire. 

M. BLftNDIliHAU : Ah, quel abandonnement! quel desordre! maie quand 
vous aeriez la ferame d'un traitant, vous ne feriez 
pas plus d' i'apertinences. 

23^. BLA}rDi:rEAU: C'est ma soeur qui fait cette depense-la, ne 
vouc chagrinez pas. (I, 5.) 

J 11 J i. . U : 


^v -i- r -s -,». , 

she receives It with ccorn: Madar.e Naquart, indeed", a fine name 
that. M. Blandlneau ver^' natr,rall.y asks v/ho she Ib herself -- daugh- 
ter of an hulssle r, widow cf a greff ler, and sister-in-law of a 
procureur . She greff iere ? she >'eEr;e him to drojj that name; her 
hushand ma:-- have "been greffier; but he dead and out of the v/ay, she 
has no title at present; she feels herself destined to distinctions 
that will put an end to all familiarity with her relatives; she 

will start with a Conte, and from husband to husband, from dowry 

to aowry, she will rise to dizzy heights. At this point, overcome 

by the vision of glory, she loses her head entirely; the contem- 
plation of her own grandeur hatj flown to her brain like strong 
wine, and she shouts: "Hola ho, laquaie, petit laquais, grand 

'LA GEEPPIERE: Un veux garden a moi? Un procureur, Lisette? 

Llonsieur I.'aquart! Je serais jAIadame Naquart, moi? Le 
joli nom que Iladame NeiquartI c'est un plaisant visage 
que Moijsieur Na_quart de songer a r.oi, 

LISETTE: H^ fi, Madame, 11 faut faire chatier cet inso- 

lent-la. # ^ 

11. BLATIDIl'IEAU: Coi.Tment done; he, qui etes-vcus, s'il vous plait? 
fille d'un huissier qui 6tait le pere de na femme, ma 
belle-Boeur 3. moi, qui ne suis que procureur au ChsTte- 
let, veuve d'un greffier a la peau, que vous avez fait 
mourir de chagrin. Je vc us trouve admirable, Madame 
la Greffiere. 

LA GPEFPIERE: Greffiere, Monsieur? Supprimez ce nom-la, ,ie 

vous prie. Peu mon mari est mort, la charge est ven- 
due, je n'ai plus de titre, plus de qualite, je suis 
une pierre d'attente, et destin^e sans vani':e a des 
distinctions qui ne -vous perraettront pas avec moi tant 
de familiarite que vous vous en donnez quelquefoio. 

M. BLAJII»I]>rEAU : Vous etes destinee a devenir tout-afait folle, si 
vous n'y prenez garde. Ecoutez, Liadame ma belle- 
Boeur, 11 se presente une occasion de vous donner un 
mari fort rjn->e et fort honnete homme: si vous ne 
I'epousez, vous pouvez compter que je ne vous verrai 
de ma vie. 

LA GREEPIEKE: Vous deve? '•-'ien aussi vous attendre, quand Je 

serai Comtesso, et vous procureur, que nous n'aurons 
pas grand commerce ensemble. 

M. BLAlIDIlffiAU : Comment ComtessQl Allez, vous etes folia. 

LA GREHTIERE: Je debute par la, c'est assez pour un coramence- 
ment, mais cela augraentera dans la suite; et de mari 
en mari, de douaire en douaire, je feral mon chemin, 
je vous en r6ponds, et le plus brusquement qu'il me 
sera possible. 

L. BLAJtDIlTEAU: II faudra la faire enferraer. (I, 3.) 

' tufi ' 3 nil 

Aj'i oxi 

.r '<•:.». 

laquais, qu'on prenne ma queue. Avancez, cocheri montez, madaoe; 
apres vouc, madane; ehl non, madeime, c'eet mon carosBe, Donnez- 
mci-la main, chevalier; mettez-vouo la, coratin, I'oucha, coc>i<>r. 
La iolie chvse qu'un equipagel la joiie chose qu'un equipage!" At 
v/hich M. Blandineau very justly reroarko: "Voila un equipage qui la 
menera aux Pe tites-llaisona. " 

In La Greffiere, personal vanity is almost as strong as amTai- 
tion. She not -only wants to be fernme de c onditiori, "but she thinks 
that such UH her natural station; and, like Beliae, she regards 
her mature charms as irrestihle, and thinks that the gallants 
approach her niece only as a means of access to her. She and the 













C'est la saison des revolutions, quo la fin des 
siecl:J8, et tu vas voir d'assez .iolis changements dans 
ma desl^inee. 

He, quels changements, encore? 

Je serai des aujourd'hui feiame de condition, 

Penme de condition? Cela ne me surprend point, 
vous etes taille'e pour cela, et vous en avez toutes 
les manieres. 

C'est sans affectation, cela m'est naturel. 

He! quel heureux petit seigneur aura le "bonheur 
de vous faire fsnuae de condition? 

Le petit CoLite, ma chere Lisette,^ le petit Conte. 

Qui, 1^ petit Cornte? celui qui etait anoureux 
de votre niece? ^ 

Dis, qu'il feignait de I'etre pour s'aprocher de 

Ah, le petit fourbe. 

ITo-is avons hien cu duit cela, n'est-ce x^as? 

He, au'etait-il besoin de conduite la-dedans, 
vous ne dependez que de vous. 

L'agre'ment duraystere, uon enfant, 1 'ag^renient du 
mystere, j 'avals meme dessein qu'il m'enlevat: Oh! Je 
crois que c'est un grand plaiair, d'etre enlevee. 

Oui, cela a son merite. assure'ment. 

Nous nous serions raaries en caclietfce, incognit o, 
sous seing priv^, pour ??viter les manieres bourgeoises. 
. , . .Mais le plaisir de faire enrager de pr^s mon beau- 
frSre le procureur, qui est un fort ijnpertinent per- 
sonnago, la joie que^''aurai d'e'tre tenoln du d^pit do 
ma soeur ot de ma niece, et de jouir par nes propres 
ye'J-X du desespoir de toutes les fermes de ma connals- 
sance, naus a fa .t prendre la re'solution de faire ce 
mariage a leurs barbes. Oh, cela est bien satisfai- 
sant, je te I'avoue. (II, 2.) 

^(I, 4.) 


p.rrz.p.r[n bt; 



r.omte are to be married, they would have }iad an elopi ment and a 
Becr«!t wedding, to avoid bourgeois manners, V it that slifi v/lBhed to 
gladden her eyes with the spite of ner sister ana niece ana friet.ds 
.'/hen they should see her become Comtasse. 

The does not have to wait until the wedding to enjoy the 
wraoii and envy of }ier sister and the other ladies of lier acqualn- 
tance. The mutual jealously of the four bour geoise s de c^u al i te is 
one of the leading notes of the play, and it is brought out nov/here 
better than in the scene imraediately following the one just quoted, 
one. rlandineau and }ier cousir^ L'Elue, sweep into the presence 
of La (ireffiere and demand an account of the incredible and ridic- 
ulcus report that is going about the village. La Greffiere bland- 
ly inquires v/hat report. "-^y, that she is to uarry the Comte; 

landineau finds tliat quite improbable, ifer sister assures her/ 

7tE. BLAllDI'iJEAU : Qu'est-ce que c'est, done, ua soeur?^ II se re- 
pand in bruit dans le village qui zne parait des plus 
^•ET.UE: Et a raoi, des plus rfdicules. 
a (jREPPIEP.R: En quoi done, ridicule? et qu'est-ce que c'est bruit, s'il vous plait, mesdames? 
. LAirDIirEAU : ^ue vous allez epouser monsieur ie Corate, un 

homrae de qualite', un petit e'tO'^rdi qui n'a rien. Oh! 
je ne trouve point cela vraisemblable. 
LA OREPPIERE: Cela n'est j^as moins vrai, ma soeur, me voila 
romtessej et, grace au ciel, nous ne figuerons plus 
•. BLAJTOIKEAU: Coratesse, vous? vous, Comtesse , ma soeur? 

Dites madaue, Madaae I^landineau, et madane tout 
uourt, entandez-vous? 
'.~'., BLAlT)I'''n5AU: tout co-:rtI All! je n'en puis plus, La 

aO'-iur Comtesse, et moi procureusel Un siege, et tot; 
' 'jchez , T.isette. 
S: : adiune, madamel hola done I madane! ^ 

-. : Vous seriez Comtesse, vous ma cousine La 'rreffieio? 

•7FFI3JIR: Ah! plus de cousinage, Iladarne ''•^Vae, plus de 
cou3i2vage. ^ ^ 

I.* :^&\S\ Un fauteuil auf-si, :ot, du secours; a rici, Lisette! 

.... Je in'affaiblis, je suffoque, j 'agonise, et je 
n'en vais uourir de mort subite. 
'"rE. BLAilDIirBAU: Ecoutez, ma soeur, il n'y a ;m'un raot qui aerve. 
Vous voulez le porter plus beau que moi, parcequo vous 
%teB ;ion ainee, 5 'a toujours e^ votre fureur: nais je 

it is none the lees true; whereupon the other ladlea shriek and 
faint, and Lisette flies to their assistance. V/hey they recover, 
.'.'hich the^ do very quicily, they announce their intention of coming 
up to her in raiik. La Greff iere deals the final blow when she 
refers to them as 'tourgillonnes''i at this word the ladies announce 
themselves to be severally m an anger, a rage, and a fury, and 
i-oreaten to take entire leave of their aensee. 

fortunately for the sanity of the three, I/toe . Carmin, the 
woolen-merchant's wife, arrives at thid point to announce her ccn- 
ing promotion to the rank of Presidente , and they fall upon her 
with one accord; and the scene ends by the declaration of Mine, 
Blandineau and L'Slue that their husbands shall raise them to the 
nobility if t:iey wish henceforth to consider them as their wives. 

me separerais d'avec raon raari, s'il me laissait avour ce 

deboire-la, Vous i^errez de belies opposiLiuris, laidsez 

L'ELUE: II, ne faut pas que la faraille demeure les bras 

croises, dans cette affaire-ci, il faut otgii", il faut 

reiauer, ma cousine, 
LA GRES'PiaRE: Oh, remuez-vous, rerauea-vouB, je me rerauerai aussi, 

moi, je vous en reponds, 
LISETTE: Mort de ma vie, que de mouvement! Voill, une famille 

bien seiiiiliante! 
LA GRE7?IERE: Mais, viaiment, je las trouve admirables, elles 

m'empecheront de m'elever,de faire fortune: ces bour- 

gillonnes-la sont si i idicuLes, , . 
MME. BLAlIDINEAUrBourgillonnes, Madame L'Elue, bourgillonnes J 
L'ELUB: Ah, CielJ bourgillonne, moi qui suis, par le grace de 

Dieu, fille, soeur, et niece de notaire, et femiiie d'un 

Elu, 'ma cousine, 
M?.IE, BLATTDINEAUtSt moi, ma cousine, qui ai eu plus de treize mills 

francs en roariage, tant en argent comptant, qu'en nippes 

et bijoux. Je suis dans une colere,,, 
L'BLU B: Et moi dans une rage. 
LA (ElBPFIERE: Oh je dsvisndrai furieuse, aoi, je vjua ^iv. d.v2r.ib, 

prenez-y garde, (II, 3,) 

7(11, i.) 



:M ..:-v.M 

And so on to '-he. end, a whirlwind of insane vanity, extrava- 
f;ance and folly. Ana at the very last no corrective is adminis- 
tered, but they attain their goals: Mme . Blandineau nakes her hus- 
"band over into t]ie Baron de Boistortu, and Lu Greffiere, triciced 
into laarryiuti the bour^eoj-a i... Naquart , is aiJiJeased u^' the title of 
Comtesse that he has bought for her. Then only are the sisters 
reconciled; and the curtain descends at last on their plans for 
future greatness. 

Of the four bourge oises de i^ualitj: we need consider only two, 
AS L'Elue and lliue. Canuin are but reflections of these. The two 
sisters have in coroiaon a consiuning a-:ibition to rise from the bour- 
geoisie, and to figure as ladies of quality, Mme, Blandineau is the 
independent, self-reliant sort that takes what she wants with a 
high hand; she la distinguished further by a serene disregard for 

^MME. BLAND IWEAU: Ma chere soeur,,,,je vous felicite de devenir 
Ccrutesse, f ^licitez-moi d'etre Baronne, 

LA OPIEITLHIRE: Vous etes Baronne, ma chere soeur? v 

'ME, BLAJTDIMEAUtOui, ma chSre Comtesse; c'est une*^aire faite,.., 

je ne suis plus raadaroe Blandineau, je suis la Baronne de 
, Boistortu a I'heure que je vous parle, 

LA GRE5TIBRB: , , , ,Ma soeur la Baronne, votre soeur la Comtesse en 
est ravie, et voila notre fanille fort illuetre'e, au 

laoins Aujourd'hui fait, plus de familiarite avec 

cett6 bourgeoisie-la, je vous 1-; denande en ijrace. 

MIJE. BLAlTDIlTEAUtOh, vjila qui est fini, je vous I'accorde, Kadame 
la Comtesse. (111,8.) 

^ LA GREFFIBRE: Je veux trois grand laquais des mieux faits de 

Pans Nous logerons ensemble. Madane la Baronne, 

MME. BLANDI'TEAU:Bt nous prendrons un Suisse a frais coa luns, lladane 
la Comtesse? 

LA (tREFTIjIRE: Oh, pour cela oui, tres volontiers. Je le savais 

bien -que je serais de qualite, et que je ferais figure. 
Voub mc regrettereii, petit vilain, vnns rae regretterez: 
roais je "serai bient^t veuve. Allons, Jlonsieur le ?iagiB- 
ter, voyons vctre petite bagatelle, en attendant le 
souper; et quand on aura servi, que le Maltre-d'hotel de 
ma soeur la Baronne nous avertisse en ce'r^monie, (111,10) 

ni i& 

V) auov 

?Cf.'? ^.' x.u?v ?T, 



, riO AJ 

money, so long as the spending of it will procure zhe bocitti' cf 
ladies above her raiik. La Greffiere is the silly, sentimental, 
gushing, extravagant coquette, in love v/ith u young man, but not 
inconsolatle \/hen she comes by a title ir' marryiiig another. 

It Is v.'orth while, too, to consider the two bourgeois de bon 
sens in thiij play. M. Naquart has made a vow to render one vonan 
reasonable, imd thinks that the crazier she is when lie takes her, 
the greater \;ill be hib merit in taming her. He selects La 
Greffiere a.B the fittest for the exploit; La Greffiere, ?mo scornB 
the ides of being Mne, Naquart, out who is at last v/illing io be 
M, Faquart's wife, if she can be known as tlie Contesse de la Naquar- 
diere. M, Blandineau ±h not so philosophical as M. Naquart; possibly 
Decause liis experience is trying to make over a foolish woman into 
a wise one is behind hiiu. M, Blandineau is an enemy of the super- 
fluous, is contented with the necessary, and kno\/s of nothing in 
the v.orla so fine as the simplicity of past times; Muie, Blandi- 
neau wears scarfs of guaze and lace, gambles, loses, pays, and gam- 
bles again; gives suppers, and threatens to go on to violins, con- 
certs and aji opera, if she is contradicted. In the end, both of 
the women have their way; M, Blandineau must buy the baronetc;^ of 
Boistortu, that his lady way be Baroness; and if La Greffiere is 
tricked into marrying M. Naquart, still she gets to be a Comtesse, 
and, at the curtain, the day seems still far distant whern M. Naquart 
v.'ill succeed in making his one v/oman reasonable, 

^ (T ;. \ 


In Colin-Maill ard (l/Oi) we iiitve an Ax-iioii-iie in M, Pccuiot m.u 

an Agnes in Angel ique. Robinot is a widower, about to enter the 

"bondB a second tine. "Je Buis un bon hunair. , qui airae la paix et la 

traiuiulllite, et j'ai toujours regarde une fenme, moi, comma un nal 

necessaire, conime une de cee choses dont on ne aaurait se pat.Ber 

dans la vie, et qu'il faut prendre bonnes ou inauvaisee, " We are 

not told that he has brought u;-' Angelique--he is ^'ifir guardian-- on 

the plan formulated by Arnolphe , but he is led to believe tliat the 

result is much the same as in the case of Agnes, and that his v/ard 

is a most ingenuous young person, n c'^-'ild, in fact. She appears to 

be fond of the "thousand little games which must ariuse young girls 

sometimes, to take their rainds off other things," but especially 

of blind man's buff, Robinot has the complacence to join in these 

ga; es. "Croirais-tu bien, tout barbon que je suis, que je passe 

quelquefois des heures entieres, avec mon petit domestique, a 

jouer a Colin-Maillard avec elle? cela la divertit, cela la di- 

vcrtit: surtout lorsque je fais Colin-Maillard, moi, elle saute, 

elle rit, elle gambade, elle est dans une joie qui n'est pas con- 

cevable," His language to Angelique is that of an amouroue and 

self-satisfied lever of middle age: "Me voila de retour, mou- 

tonne, et tu seras mariee des ce soir, conirae tu le souhaitee, *••« 

La pauvre enfant, commo elle m'aimej ,..,Ah, mignonne, je ne me 

Bene pas de joie, et j e vais cabrioler comme un jeune homiae de 

quinze ans," 

At the games attendant on the wedding, Angelique again expresses 

a preference for blind man's buff, and v;hile Robinot is blindr.ian, 

she and Eraste slip av/ay. In this they are aided by Mme . Brillard, 

^(Sc.l.) *(Sc.l.) -'(Sc.l.) *(Sc.23.) 


Robinot'8 aunt, a deli{;litf ul eld lady who, bourgeoibe thoupji she 
is, calls to mind Pailleron's Ducncsse de Raville. "Je vous Valse 
les mains, nion neveu, Iloni, Ic vieox feu, qui pense aiauser une 
fille de seize ans avec dee inenetriers de village, et doe .i eux 

d'enfants. Ce n'est ni I'eeprit, ni lea oreillesj c'eat le coeur 

- 7 
qu'il faut aniuser a cet ape-la," 

L e Cral an t J" ar d i n i e r ( 1 7 04 ) furnishes three more or less dis- 
tinct sketches. One is M. Dubuisson, who wishes to marry his 
daughter to the rich eld M, Caton, and another ie M. Caton himself, 
DubuiSBon admits that Caton, although rich, is ugly and niserly, 

but thinks that the latter 'lua-lity will go toward making a happy 


home. These two figures are not especially well developed, riov/ever, 

Caton, when he appears, shov/s no evidences of "liserliness, and 
Dubuisson himself becoraes reasonable, and yields up his daughter 
to the man of her choice, 

A somewhat nore positive type is M. Orgon, though he appears in 
only one scene. He is in eearoh of his son Leandre, v/ho is mas- 
querading as the gallant gardtner, VHaen he finds him he emlyraces 
him, crying: "Ah, mon flls, raon cher enfant, je t'ai cru uort , je 
te retrouve, je te pardonne tout," To M, Dubuisson he says, con- 
cerning the extravagances of Leandre: "Que cela ne vous inquiete 
point, quelques depenses qu'il puisse faire, j 'ai assea da bien 


pour le soutenir," 

--••-■''••--••■•"•'•(•••----■•>->>>'«-..^-»-.-.«»^>>«-.-^-._..^._...___«._.-.__-^-.^___ _. 
^ iniFj» DUBUISSONtMais savez-vous bien que votre fille hait 1 la mort 

ce M. Caton, que vous voulez qu'elle jfpouse? 
M. DUBUISSON: Ma fille n'a pas tort, c'est un vilaln horarae: mais 

il est fort riche, et en cliemin de le devonir davantage, 

cela fera une bonne maison; ^c 'est un qui ne d^pne- 

serait uas une pistole raal-a-propos. 
MME, DUBUISSON: fenea, on file, c'est un vilain, un ladre, un 

vieux coqum qui a vecu jusqu'ioi d'une maniere fc-rt 
, , serrSe, (Sc.i,) 

'(Sc,5.) '*(Sc,24,) 

We need Btop with La^ Diabl.e Boi ^eux (1707) only long enouj^h to 
gld-noe at the character of iJuc, Lucas, ShL.- is greedy and tricky, and 
is v/atching at the "bedside of her dying husband to cheat his ne- 
phe\'f and niece out of ^Voir share of the inheritanc-j , The intrirrue 
concerns zaa sciieuie Dj \/mcii sae la ;aad(i uo oe. leve tnat she sees 
and heara the spirit of her late husband, and so la frightened 
into relinquisriing her plans for disinheritance, 

Le Second Chapitre du Diable Boiteux (1707) furnishes two 
slight sketches and one very fully drawn figure. The first two 
are Mne, Siiaon and a Presidente , who are leading an idle and hored 
existence which suggests Angelique of Les Bourgeoises a la Mode 
and the PresidentB_ of Les E aux de Bourhon . The third is the much 
.acre important character of M, Simon, in the Prologue, This M, Simon 
is not exactly a niser, cut a financier who has spent his life in 
piling up money, without ever learning to enjoy it, A conversation 
"between M, Simon and the Devil Asmodee relates M, Simon's rise in 
the world through the help of Pillardoc, the Devil of finance. The 
first part of it reads like a page from Gil Bias, and possibly is 
suggested "by it, as Dancourt ov/es the whole idea of Le Dial'le 
Boiteu x to Lesage. 
-^LE DIABLE: En arrivant a Paris, qu'est-ce que raon confrere 

Pillardoc fit de vous d'ahord? 
M. snOTC: ' Page chez un horrune d'affaires, ^ ^ 

LE DIABLE: Page chez un hororae d'affaires J voila un beau debut J 
M. smON: , Oui, oui, page: j e portals la queue de Madane , qui 

etait bien jolie, et qui avait bien des af;uints. 
LE DIABLE: ^ Je lis souviena de cela, je I'ai fort conntf*-, elle 

etait une de mea el eves, 
U, SHION: H^bien, s'il vous en souvient, vous vous souvenez 

done bien aussi que les intrigues de Madame rapportaient 

beaucoup, et qu' outre cela, pour recompense, on me fit 

portier en sortant de page. 

m^^'lj.'- aa'^ 


He startB as a pa.i<:e to a businesa inan ; by secondinK the arnours 
of liis mistress he passea on to porter; in this position he nakee 





}.I. SEION: • 


CeiA est hien nohlel Portisr, er. sortant de page! 
Voila passer par tons lee grades. 

Cela rae valut de 1' argent. Ceux que avaient affaire 
de Monsieur, ceiuc aui avaient affaire jJ Madame, il .n'en 
venalt de tous cotes; je ine trouvai au bout de trois ans 
plus de huit mills livres. Monsieur le Diable; et le 
Seigneur Pillardoc les rait entr© les mains d'un Agent 
de Change, qui avait ^t4 page comine^ raoi, et qui, en me 
rendant quinze et demi pour cent, y trouvait encore au- 
tant de profit pour lui, a ce que j'ai su depuis, par 
I'explrit^nce que j'en ai faite, 

Voila d'heureux commenceiri'Snts, Monsieur Simon, 

Ce n'est rien que cela, les suites ont ete bien 

He bien? 

II y a d'heureux: incident«i 
dans la vie. Le laari ae Madame 
d'un autre financier plus riche 
de la laisser entrer, et ne lae 

d'heureuses conjonctures 
s'avisa de devenir jaloux 
que lui; il me defendit 
donna rien pour cela: ie 
financier me donnait, il entra tuujoura: le mari le sut; 
et par bonheur pour moi, voyez quelle Itoile, il me 
donna cent coups de baton, et me mit a la porte, Voila ce 
qui a fait ma. fortune, Monsieur le Diable. 

La fortuns se sert de toutes sortes de moyens pour 
favor iser les gens qu'elle aime, 

Depuis ce temps-la, pour faire enrager le juari, 
I'anant me prit en_^aiuitie'; il me fit son cojamis, me mit 
dans une ^affaire ou je gagnai beaucoup, puis dans une 
autre, ou je gagnai davantagej^, et puis encore dans ^'au- 
tres , tant qu'a la fin je me trouvai dans une ou j'etais 
I'associe du mari de Madame. II en enrageait, et mci je 
me qiorguaia , je faisais le gros dos pour le braver, mais 
il n'osait plus f rapper de^sus, 

Je Id crols bien, Et "etes-vous encore son associef 

Je suis devenu bien pis, je suis son gendre. 

Cette jeune coquette que vous ra' avez dit qui vo\is 
fait tant enrager, c'est act fill e? He, dites-iaoi un peu, 
Monsieur Simon, quel usage faites-vous de tout ce bien 
que vous avez gagnl dans les affaires? 

Quel usag^? Je m'en sera pour en gagner d' autre, je 
n'ai jatiais depense un sol mal-apropos pour mon plaisir, 
Je travaille jour et nuit a faire travailler mon argent, 
afin qu'il augnente: le Seigneur Pillardoc ne me pre- 
chait autre chose. .,,,Je n'ai que t > i x^nte-quatre ans, 
Monsieur le Diable: quand j 'aurai anaoee encore quelque 

chose de pi as, je song? 
je jouera' de la vie. 

rai a me ret\rsr-, je 
)?rologue, ) 

rae divertirai, 


eiKht thousand livreB, v/hich he invests. He loses this position 
cy furthering the advanoes of a financier, a lover Q-f his mistress, 
but is taken up by this sarae financier to spite the jealous hus- 
nand, his late jaaster. This financier uakes him his clerk, and 
then launches him in various enterprises, in -.vhir;'-! ''oe proves '^is 
mettle. At last the fortunes of finance raake him the partner of his 
for.uer master, "ho rages, "but dares not object; and from partner he 
■becomes his son-in-law. And ^vhat use has he made of all this mo- 
ney? asks Asmodee, He has put it to work to make more, and has 
spent not a sou for pleasure; he is only sixty-four, and when he 
has gathered together a little more he will retire to enjoy life. 
At this the devil launches into an exposition of the proper use of 
aoney by a financier who has arrived,-, and calls his attention to 
this one who has built a palace wherein to live after the manner of 
satraps; to that on^; who has bought the house of a noble, and still 
finds it too small, and builds to it, and tears dovm the neighbor- 
ing houses to nake room for his garden. Those are men; those are 
the people who know how to live. To which M. Simon piteously replies 

'LE DIA3LE: Est-aela saison d*tn jouir, que celle que vous 

prenez, lalheureux? ^Jlegardez Monsieur Marsouin, votre 
(^onf r^re , ^qui fait batir un palais superbe, pour y vivre 
a la naniere des satrapes, dans le luxe et dans la mo- 

plus consoioines. Quelle chere fait-il? quelle depenstf 
quelle magnificence dans sa maison? qu:il nombre de va- 
lets? quels Equipages pour lui, pour Madame? II a achete 
la maison d'un Seigneur, et elle est trop petite pour le 
contenir: il y faut aj outer deux ailes, e-^ abajtre aux 
environs vingt maisons bourgeoises qu'il a achetees pour 

faire un jardin ^ 

M. SIMON: Ce n'est pas ma faute, Monsieur Asmodee, j'ai tou- 

j ours eu bien envie de faire coirune ces Messleurs-l.l, mais 
Pillar !of". m'en e 'Pechai-^ , et il m'a toujours scuffle' un 
esprit d'^varice et de l)aasease, jdont je sens liien que 
votre f requentation me pourra gue'rir, (Prologue.) 

o.i ::!^r.\v 


^ -alt 

t1 91 

that }'e >iH6 always wanted to do like those fnen, "but that Pillardoc 
•K3.B cnnstantl:' InB.oirinr: liim with a spirit of rreed and me-i- • , 
; v;hac:i r.e noped tJ^at Asmodee'tJ cciapaiv woula c^ru iixui* 

Tharu is as nuch aennon as farce in aJ.i this, for the Dancourt 
cf thest? days is becoming serious j M, Simon is not ridiculous nor 
ii-i£.'.l, out rather to "be pitied because tha devil of finance has 
ivan hirn to further and further endeavor to amass riches, and hae 

Lven him no time to learn how to enjoy them, 

/ r 

The fitjure of M, Grichardin of La Co aedie des Co aediens (1710) 

..ile s;/Tapatheticall2/' drawn, has yet some traits that remind us of 
.2 Bourfc ^eois Gentllho.'aae, At a word in praise of his daughter he 
^arka: "Cela est adnd.rable , cette fille-la est coimie inoi, elle a 
I du talent pour toutes les ohooes d'esprit," And on being tricked 
into playing a role in an isiproraptu comedy, and being told that he 
has played it naturally, while not knowing that he was pl-iying, ha 
cries cul: "Par ma foi, voila iiui est plaisait, j'ai fait cela 
de moi-aeme, OJ-I je suis un habile homme," This reminds one ir» 
^eeistably cf M, Jourdain speaking prose without knowing it, 

^(Sc. 1.) '(Sc. 10.) 

, t 

In 1710 Dancourt produced his one financial play, L es Ac:i _ o - 
+ — , Dancourt had already made good drai.iatic use of Le Diahle Boit — 

eux , and allows signs of "being familiar with Gil Bias; and I can not 
help thinking that if Turcaret liad not appeared in 1709, v/e should 
not have had Les Agioteurs in 1710, The finar.oier is not Dancourt 's 
fcrt, Wien he has introduced hiui }ieretoi"ore, it uub Keen to ridicule 
his social aiahitions and pretensions rather tliAin to expose the devious 
ways hy which he carae into hie wealth. He is not at home in his 
subject, sone of his scenes read lik':? the pagei? of a ledger. Tr/o 

mdred years make a vast difference in the appeal of a pla./, hut 
I cannot t^-'lnk that Les Agioteurs could ever have been intelligible, 

,ich less interesting, to a public unfamiliar v/ith the details of the 

The central figure in the pla^/ is Trapolin, modelled, there is 
every evidence to show, upon Turcaret. Strangely enough, Trapolin 
is without Turcaret* 8 social ambition, the one point in which Dan- 
court vould have been on farailiar ground. The first scene in v;hich 


Trapolin appears , blaming hie clerk for unnecessary leiitncy, is 

ptrongely suggesti^/s of that bet\.'een Turcaret £.nd Rtifle (Turcaretlll , 6, ] 

'^TRAPOLIN (en sortant de son cabinet) 

Oh parbleu, vous n'y entendez rien^en coraparaison de 

moi, ilonsieur Craquinet: il faut connaitre ton monde, et 

savoir a propos serrer le bouton aux emprunteurs que 

ieurs affaires pressent , 
ZACKARIE: A qui en avez-vous , mon filleul, vous i-e parraisez 

bien emu. , 

TRAPOLIN: J'achevais de donner des instructions a cet ignorant 

de Monsieur Craquinet, qui n'eiitend non plus le fin des 

affaires, , , ^ 

ZACHARIE: II a pourtant ete pendant plus de quinze ans ...aitre 

Clerc , tant les Trocureurs que chez les Notaires, 
TRAPOLIN: He bien J avec ce grand fond d'e'tude et cette heu- 

reuse education-la, c'est le moins d^tenuine personage,.. 


The scene is, however, mana^^ed in a masterly fashion, and the char- 
acter cf Trapolin oet before us v;ith a great economy of words. To 
trade upon a man's necessity, to catch hirn in a trap ajid then squeeze 
him, to throttle him v;hen he is down, is Trapolin's policy, and he 
pursues it without mercy. The remaining scenea of the first act 
are fiiven over to the details of money lending, and show Trapolin ••".f 
shrewd as iie is merciless. In the next uct his duplicity begina to 
shov;, and here we become involved in the intrigue, Trapolin wish- 
es to marry Suzon, but her aunt, lime. Sara, has money--she is the 
relict cf a usurer--and Trapolin is endeavoring co i.ricic her out 
of part of this under a promise of marriage. 

Prom this point we are led further and further along the 

winding ways of finance, and v;e soon find ourselves involvea in 


<x laoyrinth. Some of the scenes are strongly reminiscent 

of L'Avare, and remind us too of .'.loses in the School for 




Savez-vous bien ce qu'a fait cet animal-la? ,...11 a 

prete ""reize mille francs de papier, a rendre da.ns six 
mois, tout en esplce, et il n'a fait faire le billet que 
de quinze, , 

....Parbleu, noue somraes ruines, si cela continue; 
quinze nille fran(C« "lOur treize, au bout de six moisi 
II n'y a pas de I'eai^ * boire,,,« Et avec qui fait-il 
cette affaire-la? car c'est ce qui rne cnagrine. ,,, Avec 
un nouveau traitant, qui est oblige dc3 payer aujourd'hui 
partie de ses avances, pour n'etre pas exclus d'un trait^I 
,,«,Eh, fi, fi', cela crie vengeance, 

AsBuri^ment, C'est un imhicille que Monsieur Cra- 
quinet, et qui ne sait pas prof iter de 1' occasion; il 
faut etre plus ftmjie, Cosunent va 1(j courant aujcur'hui? 

Je ne sais, je n'ai point vu le t}iermomStre , je ne 
suis pas encore scrti; 'I'ais il ira comi':e nous voudrons, 
0,uand on est trois ou quatre bureaux de bonne intelli/rience. 

Quels fonds avons-nous? cela nous reglera. 

Quantite de papier, et fort peu d'argent; ex pour 
ne pas nanquer quelque bonne affaire, il faut incessam- 
ment faire de I'espece, (1,8.) 

7(11, 5, 13) 



Sv MiJ jTrai^olir nnver hao th^1 moiiay liy Iilf, but rnuat Ijorrow from 
^riend, itHclv of course inal<.o8 tl-n int»»r^^»t hlr> '^r. T^iroiigh it ell 
nc»i>ase;? to stiil in +";•? ""-"'= '"■'* *'' •• It,., but lio <-,■!, ,->- 'irhee when 
■ (* refuBeb to ^ . C" ' oy whid " ...,, Clitandre 

i to "be t.':e li. ^ f) .11, to whom Trt^ii'^ii • • ;-- 

rrc.p*.ly entri;-.t.->f' r rf.pVr- ^T-^'^ inr-O!"^.- - en, S-T.or Fif^rrlrs 

Clitttiidrn, .i A. i.ciati t} ". onuLct for BL-uurity; i;r.a i". lauat Ve i-i.ici 
Trai*olii^ flxV.i'nlte uiwi: more concern for t^e safety of 1 is 
;;t than grief at the loss of Su/.on. 

In the track of Trapolin comv «. koi ■."■ j •, i i-» diBciplos 

■ imitatoraj there are, Cra^juinet, his partner-, Dul^ois, >iis cou- 
J Dv.rillon his friend, and Gangrene, another f^'.;lc-'-fvr « 
T' 'jr r.: t-11 pale vefl'T-tions r-^ •^'ftir mRet«r, ^or, o.b we.fc,a7e 

-d eleewh.«re, Dancourt does not oxcell in differeritlatl- c 

e tyjiBs W Z. 

ijlinpse, an'' '"^ '">iom Trapolin, * ^" z^*^ son, says: 
"I e t^u'un virtux avare est cajjtJ.le de faire, I"' '-st 

l-lu« ladre iTae jamais," There is M, '. Sara, *h« widow of 

Za'-':arlr»s partner Ir usury, av.rl who is nr.-^ inttlng "^ er hurhand^s 
aoiu^ lio idle sinco hi3 dout!., Sl-a ii«,- xouued Irapclii. ten 
usand crownij upon his promise of marriage, and so coraTii nee 
irnh?y in h^r vJngle j^reon -^h^ Hnr; acfn nm\ -^he B'^lise. Of 

er\^':'uuyoul ive ix xue ^rowoi i ejirtrV cji "Y t-t-il i:<.iiin)al plus 
preesant (ju'une vlftlTle A.-.onreuse?" LfstTy, \. ' ve Urhi'^e, 

•vho is putting the uourlcus gains of her la-tfl fathor to wood 
-r-irT •■•*»^ J ohansc' ijURrt'-'- <■" rasldence, and he.,- .» ^ .., 

n, "C* -1 •; ^ livilf i^e v^je j'al ar-uis an c\ t 

7(V, ".) -=(11 ^.) ^(11, -.) 

(I P'fl 




(.- ,11)'^ 

(.r ,11) 

(."" ,v) 

de quartier. On a'en serait moque dana le votre, .... ais duns 
le Eauxbourg dans le uarais, les rangs eont Bi heureueernent 
,- riv,rrn>ii)M , m je 1 * ofi v f iii t telle figure que l'i>r' veut, sans ai^pre- 
eiider ia inedisance," 

Such aro the "bourgeois charactorb of Los Agioteur s. Add to 
these afev; najnes just an they are found in the Ta"ble des Ver s onnage s , 
a-id '«\re will get a still :mcr^ distinct impression of the atraosp}iere. 
.";;icaneaville; D'Argentac; Briponi La Baronne de Vapar-tout, Jeou- 
euse; Le ..arquia Daudinet; I>Qne , de Ilalprofit. It is the world of 
lurcaret, where every body is trickster or tricked, and not a few 
of treri are "both. But Dancourt was here v?orking out of his 
element, and this, one of his few five-act plays, is not for a 
raouient to be ranked with the three fine plays we have already consid- 
ered, dealing with the social daahitions of the "bourgeois: Le Chev- 
aljgr a li }.lode, Les Bour;j;eolBe3 a l a .'.lode, and Les_ Bourgeoise s de 
Q,".al '":■? . 

Le Prix de I'A rquehuse (171-) furnishes tvo characters of in- 
terest. The first of these is M, Martin, v/ho thougii fond of uoney, 
is not the typical raiser, as he says in a monologue: "Pour moi dix 
.Tiille francs de plus ou de joins ne sont pas une affaire; :iais ce 
sont dix raille francs d'argent co:iiptant, et di'^raille francs d'ar- 
gent ccT'iptant, au teraps qui coiirt, ne derangent rien dans un coffre 
"fDrt,"^^ajiOn , ouia never nave caid that ten thci;sa:id lra:;cs aore 
o'- less was no great matter. There is, hov,ever, a suggestion of 
Harpagon's "sane dot" near t}\e end of tht3 play, here Dorante, the 
j-over of Jiartin's daughter h'ophie, begins in a romantic vein: "Ellf 
est i^cur :aoi d'un prix inestiiaable; et si Monsieur ne s 'oppose point 
a mon honlieur. . . " and Martin interrupts with: "Je ne m'oppos^ r-iei; 

^(iir^o " ' 


J u^ 

< rx JL * *Mi\ijii. ff 4 

neve 'J :T! 

v> « r: - 

ie sf ii'op 

I 1JJ0 

Aft-^r nucV "i-^r^-! of t;;e saiae sort cf thlnp;, slie coiaeu to the 


pcin': ujiu t-jii.fe 'Ax... that she i.^i.-^ iidd a dreara about the Archer, Love, 

This Bsuae Archer flew ^t the head of a whole company of archere, 

:id led them to her, where she stood all drr3a tV e sh.ade. 

Love took a f^oldsn arrow and pierced her hc^.-t, v/hereat all the 

archers did lilcev;ise, so that she was riddled, hut felt no pain, 

Sli3 ends this extraordinary recital with an operatic verse quite 

in the raanner of Arraide. Wr.en II, Pruneau arrives on the scene, sh-i 

promptly recognizes in hiiii one of t; e archers of her dreaia, and 

meets his advances much lore than half way. And in the end she 

ca-ries him off, a half -willing hut resigned "bridegroom. 

In his l;.st coraedy, La Di.rou te^ du jPharaon (171-) Dancourt gives 

UB one fine figure in Belise, the gamhling bourgeoise, and another 

not; so distinct, in har brother, Bartolin. Of Eelise and her v/ay of 

life her maid Harton says: "Nous menons une vie assez joyeuse, 

grosse chere, nombreuse caiapagnie, grande raaison, bon equipage, J.a- 

dame votre soeur qui n'etait que lingers, s'appelle aujourd'hui 

Madaiae la Baronne , dans I'esperance de la devenir," This 

Belise, who has f oi saicen her shop to conduct a gambling house, has 

in her not a little of the cli:3iber, and regards the exchange of the 

"}ILLE, CtIRAJT: U^Peu, rnon frore,^ Je serai debarrassee de vous,_, 
vous dere- d^barrasse de noi, nous serons d^barrasses 
I'un de 1' autre, Quel excis de plaisirj quel ravisse- 
menti (Be, 5.) 

' Je I'ai vu cette nuit , ce channant petit dieu; il planait les 
airs, il volait a la tete de toutes les bridgades des chevaliers de 
I'arquebuse, et les oonduisait dans un petit bcis ecarte^ ou J t^ re- 
vais ^ I'oabre, II a tirl de son carquois une fleche doree, qu'il 
m'a lancet} ':out droit au coeur et comne si c'eut ete Is signal, ou 
plutot un avis aux chevaliers de I'objet ou leurs traitr dt-vaient 
8 'addresser; je les ai tous vus me coucher en joue, le feu prendre, 
leurs coups partir, et je m'en suis trouvee toute cribl/e, .... 
Cela ne m'a point fait le .loindre mal, le cro Iriez-vouB? .... 

On n'en est jarials offensee, 
Et je voudrais avoir a tous laoiaents 
Le plaisir d'en etre blessee, (Sc,5,) 


(Sc. 2;£.) ^(Sc. 1.) 


chop for an Hotel : ' . r" _ ... 

cunnl .in fooli , djid cyricle i a^oiic > 

brother's r^^^iarV clf^n, s'^- rn~ 

t^'Tit "bons . Irr:, M 'j.fur inon frei ' ^e 

- ir ni d'nglot Me r.ela., , . ,J ^ Je vis, 

■ - -.^'-o".:^ - ^r,,.^^ t,.T*,,^g point. 

IT n'y a 4,ne lea tjotb \iui viveiit de leur; e.a , IbS raVjil«=»a gens 

vivent de cellea d*autrui, i^ : I vow- lisona, j r-ut- 

etrs r,r? vous raraitrai -1e si co:'-,dar.-'.ra"V;l_n, " 

With B;;l itic c..i3:.; lo no e::cite:aer.t • , it il j. ;.'..itter of 

marked cards and loaded dice, Sht-' r ; it ea wi ■ "^w, how- 

ever, and recei-ved a heavy fire fn^ mtir;- *-''"T1;" 

it wi"'" ci Ik;.! ^e. T^.ii^ Ai_fa 'i l^^i;:; . 

any niore than does the repeated rminaskir . ricua Baron, 

"Allons nous mettre a table, q}ie le "hal continue*, jie cette avf^T;- 

" ire nous corrije >■ - "• ' -^^" ravagar..e 'i ■ ' ' '' " jwuer avRc des 


Tn-^. Coratesse, herself a desperate gamhler, draws a vigoroub 

.. r.-r +v.^ r ■ of "■■'■> r'u.rr--' imcr . ■! . , "C etlt consell- 

le - .'a dit ce uiatin v^iie cetta groose m^rcl ctjide de Jorure en avait 
vendii i^our douze sillle francs, a moitlff ie porte, et 'iu'elle avalt 
perdu f-p.t arrpnt To mnno Icnr, ,,.jl- renvrn "^rij '.nr re^arer 
cette porte, qui le raettait en situaiicn di; t^xro ■. w.-i^ueroute, a 
risc^ue six cf b cju'l? -n-ait da caisae, 11 les a por- 

duos ji;squ'a'- '. itr so"" , L- Cils a v -nlHsolTe, jo'jr 

rernei":'- < -., deur ^ ' '"^nveni^" ts, rnene destinee. L PViaraon a 
tout englouti, Jua(.iu*aux grajone qui ont Joue les lettres de 
change qu'cn leur avalt donnees a recevoiri 11 y a garrison dane 
le logis, la lanqu'^ ■'>■'* ." 

• « ■ • 





• • • 


With ■ D.'Mroi}rt r''oae. 


M . P tin to Belise. T" ^30 we- L , 

,-. , vice V'=' ' ' r'.ad 'in .1, 

V't'tterBi finantie Vent ^ut .t iiovriful v^eaijoii rndg and Vje wete 

slowl;,r "but steadily rearT^lrf^ the place wh^ro he could dictate his 
tprr;s, I* wnr, not. ^ir-fj-". r, at. t.',1?« rcrt n*r I'.mirrnni ■ T) ■.■-*. 

', Hib i^rouiust Is Mtit;, Patin ai.d after 
her the other women of lier tj^-pe, Truf iiaters of Ifine. Patin nre 

t'T.^ ''c'- ^ i^'P^S" ?? P-^ . ?i^^7?-^? . ' Mno. B"' ■•■'' r '■ -r'^ La Cfrf^f-f^^vp 

ci>i.l L'Blue and Ifine, Carmin i and at no ver;- remote '.e^i""^'' ff kinshiX' 
come Mme, Bernard of La r iaison de CHi.tpar,ne ar. I Miie, Argante of La 
Poire i'? B-: ■-■"/■^s f:.)v'' Ifme. lohi'- - " Lea prrie ux^ ;'g- Cf , .<f__ ^ . A"" 

^ u X 1. ^. awn Tj.,_-j_, o I.' i ' J t.' : •>'- «, 'J 1'.: j. c. J- ^. Oil 1 J 0.' J 
•tieants good in atteininr^ it, A ore indolent ano frivolous t;^c is 
rcprrsn-ted "by the T ^c'jrgecis ^ OG a la r-iod ^e, AnseMnue and her -friend 
Av^--. I. .r, T ^-o-;,- ,.,,,- + ^v.v, -^ '^-"!Towed hy Li. P- ■' ' t< of La 

JJHOX Bour'i.-ou ^ ^c'.n.'i Mme. Simon and Lc Preaidente of L S"C _ c'iu C. .i- 
^ ^ itre ■• Dial J - BoiteTi>» Into the pretentious class fall a few 

J D . Baliveatix nr Lr^ Re tour dos pfficlnrs, 

3... ivo-'. r.f Lo Mojiin _ .; _ o J;-.vello helongii herti too, as do also 
PL'.rfadel of L- Foiro S"-. G^iD'aln . Guilleraiii of L., Foire /!e Brit^. ■ !:i^ 
-' " T-rif o" L'- V^rt-Oalant . 

Next "CO -^-i.e lourgeoise who ri-idiherael" cua Ly her 

social struggles, Dan^ourt loved to paint h'^r who lost her dignity 
ir ■ " '" £i;ed lo-r i-a'Tuir, • j d 

. .y 


J, ..r - i ' 


I ' 



often tt noble or at least an officer. Mine, Patin herself comes un- 
cltjr this }.ead, though it is pro'batle in her catie that the title 
of the Chevalier counted for more than hit. , ;i.,.. Oth:jr8 ol this 
staiap, among those whoia -ve have already mentioned in the first 
class, are La Greffiere and Mine, Argante und Mnie , Rohin, The two 
c£t;t dafined characters in this sort, are Iliiie , Jacq.uinet of Renaud 
et Armide and Mlie. Giraut of L; Pri x d'Arc juehuae , who are sentL^sn- 
tai to the point of imbecility. Not far behind these is the first 

bc„.^^ a that Dane our t drew, Ifce . Gerante of L es Fond s P erdi: ^s__, 

Mne, Loricart of Le Cha r ivar i so far forgets her dignity as to fall 
in love wii^h ner peasant gardener; Mnie. Bardouz of L a Foire St.^G; b re- 
main , on the other hand, preserves her dignity entire in hor love 
paasage with a young luan, . Mme, Argante of La Folle En ciigrc!, Ilnie, 
Agathe of Le Mari Retrouv ^e, and Mme, Sara of Les Ag i oteurs are still 
others in this list. 

Closely allied to these women is tr^e type of old ^aa seckiag 
marriage v/iti a young girl, frequently his v;ard, Dan court has left 
a few of these; M, Robinot of Colin-Maillard is the best exauple of 
the doting and fatuous old aan. Others almost ae good are Oronte 
0^ Les F or._d.s Pe rditjs and Bernard of Le^Tu^ejor; Griffard of La Fcire 
cie Be song "belongs here as well, 

Lancourt has drawn no great miser, and has not paid a great 
deal of attention to the money question until comparatively laoe 
in life, Auiong those who have a respectful consideration for 
money may be mentioned Ganivet of Le Moulin de Javelle and if, Ca-^nn 
of Le Galuat J ard ini e r _ and Miae . Lucas of Le Diable Bo'it eux .^r.a M, 
Simon of the second chapter of the same, Tiie iist of rogues in 


A^py „., + ^, -.>«.: i3 longer, "' •■ "-•-•■ ^ ,-f>,,,.,i- i'l*"' r---.scality 

in '' ' ■- L'-t- A^i;'_^.<-. jj. , ' "iit,fc*i'iii.ti TrUi>oliji, -at, of the 

sharpers froci an artistic poir*" of view, Zar • J', Hi i i-ift, Dk- 
>.ois, '' "n.r".Tir;„ r- . -T TTFi H:.rr rn of Icb E ■fc.r.^.s f^9. 

V-vii, H ;.j T...... L - Vrrt-G . u '. . -: n y-Tiuue-: ' L F ■ S' . Q-r- 

maln» fJie one ' onan to "be :^ s Bel ise, of st rtomerly 

of our author, La .Qf^rmr''-^ d ^ ) Pharaon , 

T; ^ bourgeois d .^ 1 oii b'.-;,B did not axji-eal to our author, and 
he has never used him exrej t ae a foil +n i.-n'^onagea who were con- 
oX'icuously lacicir.- -i^ ■ v... o j^ ^ jj , 0" tl.i. >■•'• ve v-^^-^ =• list si'f- 
ficiently long, aiid most of hia hcst types in hib favorite £; enre 
are offset "by one or two sound-headed people e style of Mr.n, 

Jourdain, Mme, Patin has M, Serrefort ~ M, M"l::r,i(i; Mi". Plani""- 
:eau and L. §reffiere have M. Blandineau and M« Na^iUi-ro; line, Bnrnarc^ 
has M, B-rnard, lime, Lcricart has Cleonte, and Beliso liaa Bartolin, 
We have ii. this class, too, v. ffivr v:onen Tvho shov; unexi ^ctRd common- 
sense: Mno, Argante of Let; EiL^a. ts je P.^rii ., BrilJart of 
C : jr-H. illard a and Ifines. Tarlf and j'^.rorne --:'' L .; V -t-ff-.l^.:: . 

Danroi.rt has y. 'larV chapter en houvgeois rnoralB, Mr r^- than 
once L'-i:i riourgeois c;:,^:.. selves mention Marital fidelity lls a dis- 
tinctly middle-class virtue, and a thing to "be ashamed of rather than 
otherwise. In theii efforts to navigate the social sea, they cast 
overboard Tiorality as useless Bullast, Neit-.'n j^.% ras a monopoly 
on vice a la mode , and Duncourt it. i^i^artial in his arrai,n;nment. 
M. Tarif of Lc V--rt-Galant is th'j most repellant because he comhines 
hyjocricy to the hushand with >;is lihertinafjC, Hot much better, at 

7 J 







erfj aj- ^oxTooi^xl 

least in Intention, -■'■-■■ H-^ssrs, Simcin al flrlffar'l r'" I,t'B "BourrMO Ises 
a la VLcrlc arid Prti- " La Foirc St, Gor. .« . i .Moaod Mmyo'luil] emin 

of L ; F oi !>■ de_ ^Bi^a .>_ ■ i a ■ . • - .■i^-.hi-^'- room to accu8« t'.--j other, and Mne, 
Argante of the saiae i>lay is an extreme exaiajjle of the bourgeolse 
who haa +''r"^'"' 'if^»- '>'ir> f^'f^r +1 ^ ■^^''log Hfrnt-i, S'. 'inwinf^-iu -i^v^ D'lRol- 
lot of L r : I (i u .1 1 1 ;^ _^.ij ;_ /.' V'C' 'A 'j^ '^^^ ^ i-^air of friSiC., "-'.o v/ear their 
conjugal "bonds lit^htly. 

"D^.TCur* Mttln ^r -a" on *"'''^'' fillnl nnd putHrnpl -'^"'ation 

in x:"..: '; '>iu ftt.iily, -xn' ••j.ii': he 'ji.'-';i u'j.;' la alv.'ay* inc -cental • 

He furnishes more examjjles of harsh parents, and nore Tigorous ones, 
than of the indulgent and loving father or -nother. Some three or 
four of -'■ ' ■'atter he does give us, however. Daanls nnd Olimrie arid 
Orgon of Le Galant Jardinier are really lovahle types, and Mr/ie, Aae- 
lin 0^ Les Bourp^Ho ^ isea _ i la Ho de has a naternal yearning for her so^i?^ 
grace son, almos'^ i --i Bpi + ^ f^^ " -^rself, it wo-jT'' seei.i, 0<^r.^r.A ^n 
these are sunh unlovely si-'ecint^ns ;■. a Grognat of Les E aux di^ }Jo .rhon 
Duhuisson of le Galant Jardinier, and Guilleinin of La G-^.i^ette; lit- 
tie hettflv a-'-f ?.tno. krrnnti' o-T La Foil ? Eruviere , Ifcne, Lnrlrsrt of 
Le Chai"^iVwi.^:' _i . aiui Itae., Ti-iOmnn o£ L^i R.'tour lea Off icio raj>_ ___ 

It cannot "be said that Dancourt shows any regular linn of de~ 
vslop.-nor.t in '^is ho'-irprsols types. Hir. xKJcxJt :-p'^rlaTty ^. o the climher, 
and this scyz .le gave over .. ■.! over again -l Qu»t fruit- 

ful period, the last thirteen -irteen years of rfat century, 

A.'" is his tl"!** way f^iv ^■'V-' ■•■ ^ Tee =».nd diver- 

tisaeieats, •" . . , , ■ rrni his attention fr>r a 

tlae ahout "'^lO, 


r • 

-8iiiA . 


'o no. -fO 



AVID Ar (iraYS, i(;4(j-iv 

Le jwuet, 11)91. 

Le aronaeur, ir,'„x. 

L'Avoout Pat.elin, 17(!. 

Le virondeur, liii'l, 

i-.Gr iciic^rd, tno occlder, ia in love with Clarice, //ho is her- 
seli' in love .vith Terigmin, Grich<3.rd' o son. Uricliixrd hcin .r(;inibed 
hia daugliter portenae to i,.ondor, who iove.-o i.j.nd ia beloveo b./ her; 
b'it her fttther iuia cn,.in£^ea jiib laind and la ubout to ^^ive her to 
xo.ael, is, rela.tive o! Jlurlce. ^jriciuxrd ia crooa and craubed oeyo nd 
al... ii.Gciijure, ana nib cnildrei; a c^ -:(»;. li ah ti.eir ends b.v i^retending 
to Want exactly the OiJ^^Odite df v/iiat they really de:jire. ,r.t last, 
or course, i,.ondcr luc^rx'ies Kortenae ana Terignan Clarice. 

i.i.Lrricijara, croso and tyraruiical. 

L'Avocat Patelin, lYOo. 

This is an ei^^hteenth century version ol tna Farce a:: Path^lli. 
ol .vhich all tiie ixn^jortant Teatures have oaen ^.e^jt. Tne oiie^^yiierd 
A^rnelet steals six score sheei^i Iroxa iv..Gui llauve, a dra^.^^.r. A,:-:neij 
eiu^jloys as his council ti.'e lawyer Patelin, ?iuo niiuseli nas xiio^naj-jea 
to wlieedle tlio crrai^er out ol six yards oT cluth. At the trial ■ 
ara^.er continually Torgets ti^e uiain obj-ict oi nis :ii-iit to claim hio 
cloth Iroiii the la.vyer. The she^/nerd ans.vers notiiin^ bv.t "be i" to 
all .^^uestions , beint_; r.^jnaered iiiibeuile, ti.; i^.v. er tiXi-lains, b. 
biu.vs that ouil^ ..., . d. 7. 

t.u L 

undo. ,...: v.j..drittiori. UnAc -mts of torttii-,-? ..i .i rl.-;.t.h h" ^,)ii 

judfcje, the drui^er s.i^ns the ccntrdCt tnat aentb :.i, 

■ir '.vhich lie :^roiiiideb . 

iove e^-ijorio ia in.'! ijiece i.i i u aiioiiea 

wjiicii luObt concerns us id tiiat oiiw.uuii.ltiuve , th3 drctjjer, wiio Xia,ii 
wixaj oourgeoitj traiLa. 

i..,vjuiliuume; avariciou6, oi inethodicul ou.sin-esu habits, . 
to his .. ., 


^" Le G rondeur (1691) Brueys deliberately set hlmsolf to 
find a character new to the comic sta^e; the same psLBBuf^e illus- 
trates his mental processes in chocsinf^ this type, and what he did 
with it after he had chosen it. In a conversation with his 
brother, A)-iste, Grichard claims that he is neither a rascal, nor 
a miser, nor a liar, nor a prattler; to which Ariste consents, but 
reminds him that while he has none of these vices which have been 
ridiculed upon the sta^e, he has one which is more inconvenient 
to society at large than any of those. One may live occasionally 

at peace with a rascal, a miser, or a liar, but one can never have 


a single moment's rest with a scold. 

The difficult character of M. Grichard is sketched by his 
children and by Catau, the servant. On being bidden to see if 
Grichard has returned, Catau replies: "Bonlrevenu. Ehlne I'en- 
tendrions-nouB pas s'il etait au logis? cesse-t-il de crier, de 
gronder, de tempeter tant qu'il y est? et les voisine eux-Kienes 
ne s'apercoivent-ils pas quand il entre ou qumd il sort?..... 
De le contenter? ma foil il faudrait etre bien fin. Avouez que 

' M. GBICHARD: Je ne suis, je pense, ni fourbe, ni avare ; ni men- 
teur, ni babillard comme vous i et... 

ABISTE: ^ 1\ est vrai, vousji'avez aucun de ces vices qu'on 
a joues jusqu'a present sur le theatre, et qui frappent les yeux 
de tout le nonde ; raais vous en avez un qui empoisonne toute la 
douceur de la vie, et qui peut-e^tre est plus inconmode dans la so- 
ciete que tous les autres: car enfin on peut ai moins vivre quel- 
quefois en paix avec un fourbe, un avaro, et un menteuri maif/on 
n'a jamais un seul moment de reiJOL ^avec ceux que leur cialheureux 
temperament porte a etre toujours faches, qu'un rion met en colere 
et qui se font un triste plaisir de gronder et de criailler sans 
cesse. 1, 7, 

.aysiiHH "^ "TT3UITUA aivAn 

Oi i&a ^ItjtuT; ia (XCdl) ftl 

-ai' i.^ 

4 nl .#- u ;fx li^rtw 

•ton ^ £n .i ai • , irf 

nsscf er ' miri >i 

in n 

\;IIfinoiBtfOoo f"i , aod^ lo ^ ■« .lAftt a^iAl i£ ^i«iooa oi 

'18 « 

eld x,(S b»dQi9':i- i«.fox-" . > mtrndo iluoi'^'' .i. 

li 8»s oi t " nO . iir> ^^<i ii,;£ rietbrirto 

?tToa li ibrt irr> {/r> Ix b/tjBU]) Eiiq ali-;t' ■^^v :o 'a ©n 

-netii in j e*«V8 i^ ,f- in jSanetq q{, .ait's '♦n f^% 







•-' J I ij 

/ C' 




tv { 




■Y . 

• • • V -■ J 

I - .• . , 










anija iti t Ci.^x-io ob io t »b Tiaisiq a^anJ nu ^not fia iup c)"9 

/' , "^ .96890 


c'eat un tflrrihle mortel que monaiebr voItb pere?" "Noua a tuaatiu 
oblige'a de le souffrlr tel qu'il est,** BiRhe Horteneo, and thia 
would aeem to "ba the watch word for a duiiful dau<?htor, 

M. Grichard being a vidower, it is naturally hxa children 
who come in foi- the largest share of l:ia harshneaa. The convar- 
sation between himself and his brother, already referred to, con- 
taina several iiidicationa of his attitude toward his son and 
daughter, Ariste inquires if Terignaii and Hortense had consen- 
ted to his will in ref^ard to their xaarriages: "J'auraiB bien 
voulu voir le r.ontraire," growls the iScold. Arxs'.e resanda him 
further that he had promised Clarice to his son, and that now he 
intended to marry her himself. "Bon!" sneers Grichard, "jromise 

,., Qu'il compte la-dessusj" Even Brillon, a younger son, v/hom 


his father is said to love a la r a^ e comes in for his share of 

the parental brutality. He brings his Latin exercises to his 
father for his approval, to have the book flung in his face, his 
ears boxed, and to receive such epithets as fripon , pe tit d r ole , 
j^end^rd, p eti t enra ge , and maraud. 

In Grichard, Brueys may have found a new type, but he can 

^CATAU (a M. Grichard) Monsieur, voici Brillon qui voua cherche, 
GRIOHAKD: que veut ce frij^cn? 

BKILLOK: Mon pere, mon pere, j'ai fait aujourd'hui mon theme 
sans faute; tenez, voyez. (il lui donne un papier.) ^ 

GRICHABD (lui jetant le papier au nez.) Nous verrona cela tantot. 
BEILLOK: 3h! mon pere, voyez-le a cette heurej je voua en prie, 
M. GPICHAKD:J3 n'ai pas le loiair. 
BRILLON: Vous I'aurez lu en un moment, 
GRICHARD; Je n'ai las mea lunettes. 
BRILTO:.: Je vous le lirai, 

GRICHARD: Ehl voila le plus preaaant petit drole qui soit au 

BR'ILLOK: Je vaia vous le lire en fran^ois, et puis je vous 
le lirai le latin. .. (lisant) "Les homines. .. "Au moina ca n'oat pas 
du latin obacur, comjne le thime d'hier: vous verrez que vcus en- 
■/(I, 2.)i(I, 7.)j|l, 2.) 


n « n . 

' r "» f 4 

t* [ ' ; 1 r»A * • 

• nr ' 4a 




•V « ■ f*'^ i -* T' 


•x£ woa i^ 


lT/^ X ^^ (Y 


£* r ft «• \ f 


I t 


! ai i; 

o-, r:t,,- _. 

1 9rfJ 

a 1 ii *• 

, 9 I^M •'-•'- •-■ 

■> "■'■•^ ,lj^*doi '- 'T 


"fb tL 

3Ji-f J'. ' ... 

^1 aPU''.o-i 
(.■^' ,1) 

1 • I 


not be said to have made It a comic one, Thore Is nothing to 
laugh ■•■ "iv '''^-1 ■'n.ardi even the Hanclng Bcene is not turnef^ * <" ^ is 
ridicule. We have only to t}. iiUc of U, Jourdain to knov/ wiiat 
Moliere would have done with such opi)Orturlty, (Jrichard ie 
not ridlru? oijr< ; ho ir. simp^.y hateful, i-md so uy^natural as to he 
entirely outsaue pa3.e of our sympathits, and almost of our 

Brueys givt^s us a very much hetter figure in L * Ave cat Pate- 
lir (1706). This is Ouillauiiie tr-« uraper, who descetids in a 
direct lirH from both Harpagon and M. Jourdain, These two ances- 
tors serve to correct each other in him, and the excellent busi- 
ness sense of tlie miser curbs the fatuousness and vanity of the 
pretentious bourgeois. The best scene of the farce, that in 
which Patel in wheedles Guillaume out of his cloth, illustrates his 
r.v-r.v^^T.^rirp ^rom these tvo progenitors. The whole scene is 
strongly reminiscent cf Proaine's cajoling of tl^e Avare, but with 
this difference, that Harpagon is proof against Proslne's most in- 
sin;atlng flattery, v/hereas Guillaime is in the end the victim, 
though by no means the easy one, of Pate3in*B wiles, Vaity 
proves a little too strong for avarice at last, and M. Jourdain 

tcndrez bien celui-ci, 

GRICHAED: ( apart) L^- 'ardj 

BRILLON(lisart) "Les i ciui^ne rient Jamais et qui grondent 
toujovrs sont eer.iblables a ces betes feroces qui,,." 
GRICHABD(lui donnant un soufflet,) T; •■:! vh dire a ton sot de 
precepteur qu'il te donne d'autres * ., 

BI'ILLON(pleurant) Oui^^ ouii vous me frappez quand je fais bien, e"^, Jt ne vevix jIue etudi^r, 
V, GRICHAED: Si je te prends!.,, 
BRILLOK: Pesto soit des livres, et du latin! 
GBICHARD: Attends, petit enrage'lattends J 

BRILJ^OK: Oul, oul, attends,^, ,Qu' on m*y rattrapej , , ,Tenez, 
vcila i:our votre soufflet. (il de'chire son theme.) 
GRICHARD: Lft fouet, maraudile fouet!,,. (a part) Ce pe- 
tit maraud abuse tous les jours de la tendresse que j'ai pour lui, 
^(11, 18.) 1,R,9, 

'0 £ ' ' ■ Of bias ecf ion 

a nl 

ax JJ^l:.lL>x :i . .0.7 atexIoM 

9rf o* •« r r j-on 

• ita I0-. nx 

fi rrt • . ) Tir 

-u^-'j;:'.. u /vT .Mi.: . . * ti.'ixj. j.■)a^li) 

-Jietfrf ir?' vt 9vt33 eio^ 

nx "^ aiu 10 . I/O : 8jjoj:^:i5»j e*iq 

ax " "oj-fsCf ''".xffw 

-nx ' 

,rnx*rif^ *" ■''t fine p-ft - . "tf?:fi- '""■ - "'b 

■^JxaV . :.. ci* '.^ ■. bxiJ ^in <;ci ii.-^ionJ' 

ni a9vot<j 


T f»r: 


^© ,n M :V • 

t • t • 

nvlX aeb ;}• 1 

• son; . . . ! ' ' . , . o 

t t 

t) .J- i etJ-ov tU' 


ffives up what Hari^afron would never have ^.arted wi1.h. Pateliii 
skilfully bepins by complimenting him on hie commercial shrewdness^ 
on his taste xh color us applied to stuffs, passes on to his 
scholarship, an<i win'la up with a tribute to his personal charms, 


And the cloth is his. 









PAT>iIls : 











Vous faites^ pourtant plus d'affaires vous seul que 
touB les negocitants de ce lieu. 
C'est que je travail le beaucoup, 

C'est que vous etes, ma folj le j^lus habile homine de 
tout ce pays. (examinant la piece de drap.) Voila \xi 
assez beau drap. 
Fort beau J 

Vous faites votre commerce avec uno intelligence! 
OhJ monsieur! 

Avec une habilete merveilleusej 
Oh! ohJ ^monsieur! 

Des m^eres nobles et franches qui gagnent le coeur de 
tout le mondej 

Oh! point, monsieur! » 

Parbleul la couleur de ce drap fait plaisir a la vue, 
Je le crois, C'est couleur de marron. 
De r.iarron? que cela est beau! Gage, raonsieu: Guillaume 
que vous avez imagine cette couleur-la? 
Oui, oui, avec mon teinturier. 

J^ I'ai toujours dit, il y a plus d'esprit dans cette 
tete-la que dans toutes celles,du village. 
Ah! all! ah! ^ 

tant le drap.) Cette laine me parait assez bien condi- 

C'fest *ure laine d'Angleterre. 

Je I'ai cru..,A propos d'An^leterre , il me semble^ 
moysieur Guillaume, que nous avons autrefois ete a 
I'ecole emsemble? 
Cliez monsieur Nicodeme? 

.Tustement. Vous etiez^beau comme 1 'amour. 
Je I'ai oui dire a ma mere, 
Et vous appreniez tout ce qu'on voulait. 
A dix-bu-t+ ars ie savais lire et ecrire. ^ 
Q,uel domma^e que vous ne vcus so^^ez applique aux 
grandes chosesj Savez-yous bien monsieur Guillaume, 
que vous auriez gouvorne \w etat? 
Comme un autre. 

Tenei., j 'avals justeniorit dans 1 'esprit une couleur de 
drap comme celle-la. II me souvient que loa femme 
veut que je me fasse un habit. Je songe que demain 
matin a cinq heures, en portant vos trois cents ecus, 
je prendrai peut-'etre de ce drap. 

OJ t 





-Y ( r ^ 1 1 ■ 

Jt. '.•I'l (;•! ' * ti !»■ 

eJieo E 


• n/oe:-^ ' 


: fi V rn 

i.^ AO 



-xb«j 1 n; 

I I 1 


9b 1 


After all, a raan is hardly to be called a miser because he 
wants thfi noney for his goods. Guillaaiie is ratl^or the typical 
trades.iian, keon, shrowd, ami ;nj aiiodical. The launoionut; vith 
which hft opens thu second act ia adTnirahle as an exiositlon of 

GUILT, AUT'i:^: Je vous le garderai, 

PATELIN(a part): Le garderai/ce n'est paa la mon oompte 

Comhirtn, iti'.nsienr Guillaume, .ne ferez-vous payer • 
I'aune de ce drap? , 

VoyonB,.,Un autre paierait, oia foil six^ecus; mais, 
allons... je vous le liaillerai a cinq 'icus. ^ 
Le Jiiif! Cela est trop honnete. Six fois cinq ecus, 
ce sera just-3ji«nt. . , 
Trente ecus. ^ 
Oui, trynte ccusi le compte est hon. . .ParbleuJ r.our 



renouveler connaissance , il faut que nous raan/^ions 
deiaain a diner une oie dont un plaideur m'a fait p 


GUILLAUflE: Une oiei je les aime^fort. ^ ^ 

PATELIN: Tant miei^xiTouchez la; a deraain a diner. Ma fennne les 

apprete a uiiraclej... Par na fcilil ine tarde qu'elle 

me voie sur le corps un habit de ce drap. Croyea- 

VQUS qu'en le prenant demain laatin il soit fait a 


Si vous ne donnez du te.i^B au tailleur, il vous le 


he sera ?;rand dornmaEe! 

Faites rnieiix, Vous avez, dites-vous, I'arj^ent tout 


Sans cela je n'y son^erais pas. y^ 

Je vais vous le faire porter chez vous pa|i un de mos 

/^argons, II me aouvient qu'il y en a la de coupe 

juste.-nent ce qu'il vovis en faut. 
PATKLIN(prenant le drap.) :Cela est heureux. 
GUILLAUME: At^endoz, II faut auparavant que je I'aune en votre 


Boni est-ce que je ne me fie pas a vous? 

Donnez, donnen ; je vais le faire porter, et vous ra'en- 

verrez par le retour,.. 









Le retour. . .Non, non ne detournez pas vos gens: je 
n'ai que deux pas a faire d'lci chez moi. . .Conime vcus 
dit-5S, lo tailleur aura plus de temps. 
Laissez-moi vous donner un gar^on qui ne rapportera 
1 ' ari?;ent . 

EjTil point, point, Je ne suis glorieiixi il est pros- 
que nuit, et sous ma robe, on prendra ceci pour un 
sac ie i ruces. 
GUILLAU'ffi: Mais, monsieur, je vais toujours vous donner un Rar- 


con pour me. . . 

Eh!point de fapcn, vcus 'ij.s-je.,.A cinq ht^.ures pre- 
cises, trois cent trente «cus, et I'oic a ■liner.,,Ohi 
^a, il se fait tard: adieu, Tion cher voisin, servi- 
teur..,EhI serviteur. 1, 6. 








■*ffj^ < " 111 'j'-^.-'ir 

• • ■ ■ 


8or. 9f) nv ty-'i 8U0V 
ftqjroo 9b fiX JB nt 

-na'm e»ov 
ai/ov emr lOO. . . 

-ao'. ; 

IxiO.. . 

■:i X '-• I. J , c- ■^' c; 

I ^J ' V ' \ .1 ' . I '-* .^ ■-' V .' ■ I 

-ov T0iio non- ,ir9xlu-> rbt;::*^ i l^'\ sa Ix ,Ji3Q^ 
.9 ,1 . tiffs:? iv-t«a !j^, , ,txic-.> 




character as well as a good dramatic device for proinotinfc the 
action. This aonolofl:ue is not too lonf: to be riven in full: 

II est du devoir d*un hontne blen regie do recapltulur le 
matin ce qu'il s'est propoae de faire dans sa journee; voyons un 
pen, Premierenient Je dois recevoir a cinq heures trois cents 


ecus de M. Patelin pour une dette da feu son perej plus trente 
ecus pour six aunes de drap qu'il prit hi«r ici; item, une oie a 
diner chez lui, appret'=J8 de la main de au f emme ; apres cela, com- 
paraitre a 1 'ajournement devant le jup;e, contre Agnelet, pour 
six vingts raoutons qu'il m'a voles, Je pense que voila tout... ' 

As for rruillaume's attitude toward his son Valere, it is 
quite the convsntional attitude of the father in comedy. He 
tells him frankly that he suspects him of "being the accomplice 
of the shepherd, A^nelet, in the theft of the sheejo, and on being 
assured that Apnelet serves then faithfully, he replies: "You, yes; 
but not me," The paternal harshness is not insisted on, however, 
and it is only fair to (Juillaume to add that his suspicions of 
Valere's honesty are altogether warraiitod. 

1. ai, 1.) 

nir E (, «e anjii) B-tija*! si oa 'a Il'up an ni^Ata 

-T T ■ i r r 

J»«J nO; , . 77 1- a ■;)r< 



-oror> ,Alor> apT'j^ ; hh 9/ •> tsnib 

-J I jO 


ai *i ,t ' 'roT bA 

•oxIqiHOMOi, iijit gfixso io in d alL^t 

,-iov&wOi' ,n:) I •'.»r.: Jon j-urf 

1:o:.i o:^ emtmilxuC) o^ Tijsl: i^Cno el :fi nan 

' -""^^ Q . ''TSljiV 

(.1 ."^ .1 

•JUJiiyOIS REUJ'IAKD, luj.)-lV09, 

Lri J>ivorc;e, luv'i. 

In. T)e.-icente d'Arleiui/. :nlero, i 

L' £i r^onneL, jj"ortujit);j , - 

Lei Jritim_ue cle I' »*. .-jOJiHr;- xui i. u.i-.-o , l'.'.-jO. 

Lrts yilLe;i Errautea, loOO. 

La GOviUetxe, 1>".91. 

Lea Jhinoia, l'i9ii. 

Lii But^uetoe do VulCc<.in, ii-b.j. 

L'AU(imentution de lu tiu^iuette de Vulcain, 1696, 

Attexiriaz-iuoi uous I'Onue, 1094. 

Ja. ]<Q.ibbuace rt'/uiiadis, l'i95. 

Ijfi. i'oire St-Cienaain, lG9:j. 

Lii .Suite de 1^ i'oire St-Geri^aia, 1690. 

Lrj. iereiictde, 169 -. 

L=3 Bui, 1096. 

Le .Toxieur, 1696, 

Le Distrait, 169 7. 

.'^e Ccxrnuval dc Veniae, 169v,i. 

r.e'iiiocrite, 1700. 

Le Re tour Imprdvu, 170G. 

Les ij'clieo Aiuoureuse^, 1704. 

Le ].js.ric«.^e de la j^'olie, 1704. 

Les Menechjues, 170b. 

Le Le'j^iitaire Univ:3ro = x, x/ow. 

La Jritio[ue du Le^^citaire Univerdel, IVO'3. 

Leo Doulii i td (;ion reyra o ente i ) . 

Lea Vendcinge a, ou Le 3ailli d' Aiiierea (non re^vreoar.ooe } . 

La Jo^uet'e, ou L' de^ Daiuea, 1691. 

The only part of t.h.i.i ooiaedy thiit concerns ua iS' that n'nich 

relcvtes to Arle^uin, JSailli ds i,.ctine. He cauea up to paria iron 
Le _j:tna , to oecoj-.a LLe avutor ol' JcloiJjine. -..a a^-jeciitl 

..vera ion to l^uililia iron. j,.o.ii.rt, anu inaiats on ixio becoiuinj; a 

i:iar4-'ia. He iii..,Ci-.i'.;.utes one, .vhi^jn :.ivei> rioO t Antri^rte. 

Iji L:.%i end he retiirna to Le * o;, hix..ii''li. 

IjU .t'CirJ ol- jCTi^i^L 1;., X v.). 

TJ-. joi'iorjriio tha love ol" uti olc 

.VLrthinaaa. It iti ti;e jitMu lit.ii oi' Arno^.^ii« a:i:. j^, net. , 

^.ij: ,• ici:Cti, iji VLtj-u:;: o>. u.i '.iixy lor one or two ac^....o ..;.v.ving ti.e 

eatiwcition in viiicji u bcurtieuid is h'-^ld by nio aervunta. 

Lc. o'lite de la i'cire St-Geniiiiin, lo96. 

Tjiio j.c-iuc vjcu'-viino t}i.e bcurgeoib yixir iV.. ..aiv.. .ui.., .,.ci^..iaeii)h.rd, 
'.vho are ejulled by the yd^ir ol intriotintt) , AB:le.iuin and Coloiubina, 
under '.jir li.^.c;^ rrjo^.-jctively of the jlaron de Group i^i.^.c u,nd Le'oncr 
T]ie Icitier j^retend love icr the bourgeoii. couple, c^no in u. jealoub 
contest ci . ; i.:^ -wni the hxxsband and //ifs vie with eacii. uoii.^i to sec 
7/hich can bestow tiie riiost upont he two triclc.'itors. The pl.>.y is 
vt.j. ..ule to Uo ebi^ecially tor tlxe character of iiiae. Jac^ueuiard. 

I;'.. JaC4ueiuard: libertine, gullible. 

Line . Jac-iueiijard : Vkiin, libertine, gi^llible. 

La serenade , l;i9o? 

Llx Sere nade iij the dtory of tJie rivi.lry oi fatiier ..i,r., 

u^aa .., ...^xiare ixi L' Avare ana e.-.vloyed by iitmy o.^^.-^ient writer^. 

i^.urixun .vibJies to ruarry Leonor, and is iiUxJi->orta( 

r % 

..J..G . Ar£,-an te . Leonor i- .. love ;;ith Vale re, ' ^v.,. ^^ ... .^ / .>. ^,. .. 

ocapin, Valei-e's valet, iiuperijonateb an Italian i;.usiGi , .■•i- 

n i'j ci i.' 

ill' ri^;uin^ Vulei-e tind Leonor and. l..„x. ^.: rvi.\.ni^, 


tie jiia.rriat;e ol iaij aon and Leonor on cundi'. 

k.urilon: avuricious, crcso I'utiisr, in love -vit. irl. 

j.jue .Argante, stern motlier. 

La Bt-l, l.'.9f3. 

Le Bia.! is Regnurd's I'irst coxuedy in verse, and is tlie I'irst 
^iece thiit can be called real cciaedy. M.De Sotencoi^r, bourgeois 
or Vfetlttise, coiueii Uj^j to Paris a suitor i'or the hund ol Leonor. i.e 
ia ac jo;.;i^unied '^ii' his cousin L.athieu OrocKet. Leonor xjrei'er:^ " — 
lare, ana the plot concerns trie tric.:ino ol' De Soteiicour by '^^ale'r o, 
the Gascon i'ijac, ..:... txe valet and soubrette. In tiie end pe Sot- 
encour returns to Paj-aitse without his bride. 

De Dotencoiir and Crochet; vain, pretentiouo, ridl>ra4.o\is, cour.-ie. 
vjeronte: ^tina I', a j-ittle I'ona of ii.Oiisy. 

Le Joueur, lu9ii. 

Vale re, the Qaiiubler, is in love with Angelique, and tihe >.vith 
him. Durc^nte, the uncle ol Valere, is also a suitor ol A^^j^ei i.iue. 
Geronte, Vali^^e's i'at ler, aoeb his best to cure his vice and to 
bring about his roitrriage .vith Aiioeliviue, but "'alere's own lolly 
frustrates all his lather a f>i rn-rf s vi.r- his good. Angela 

.'ith it all till Valere jjavmo 1\^t ^jortrait; then she goes cv 
valere ia nc isco.. 

I^orunte: u: i^jhe nut iiiivde riciic 

.itruit, 1097, 

Leiuidre, the Absent-i<-inde(i , i.s i r. i r.^rp vith ni. --in.^, t.i ■ 
Chevuiier io in love ■.vitii loabelie. Tne lutter'a motner, . 
viroi^nac, it> deter iu^'^n' f.h..t. Isubell'S ol'.c^ll rj-..r.--.- L^^ndre. 3he i- 
made to believe tha.x LeL.ndre's uncle haa d ibiniier itea hiia, c.nd .-jO 
coniients to Isabell!^. 's L.urriare -.v'th t,h,^ Vi.'^v.^li-,? r. 

Ajne. Jrognac : ruirsh, brattil, tyrcinnici^l. 

Le Re tour Iiriprevu, 1700. 

This comed3', drawn froiu the kostellu.ria of Plj-:''itus, concerns 
tKxe extra vaj^ance of Valere, the u-nex^jected return oi his father 
fjeronte, tind tiie trici:s cf j\.erl:n tc KSOiJ V..lere'o folJ. ies i'roLi 
his father's icno.vlecijie. This aitioation >ias a sort of bac^inj-up 
:n L-;clle ana her aunt, iune .BertEand, ,vhosa relnticni. 
same as those cf Valere an'.' his father. I/i.Ge'ronte i=. triuiced C" ' 
of twenty tho-iScina francts, and en tiieir bo in;; restored, he forrix' 
all, and consents to ti-ie marriaije of Valere with Luoile. 

Jeronte: stinjjy, but not unnaturul or tyrannical. 

.^.ji.:.ertx;urici: i,enaiule ana canborious of her niece. 

Leo j.-'Glied AL-0ur'iU;->3^, 1704. 


need not be re.-.^'.cd here. Tne onl,/ onaracter:^ tmt concern ua 

. rj oi' ■pej\o;;hon, her bent on I'orcin 

^ er Isa- 

mental bill;.' '.voiiiu-n. 

Le I^egcttaire 'T.iiversel, 1708, 

Ti.iiJ GOiuedi' .vitii the eii orts ci' .^11 concerned to ; 
iilrabte the Sole lieir oi hib uncle Geronte. In thi^ .;lot tire invclv- 
ea Erabte hinibell, his Vtxlet Crib^jin, c-.n^ Geronte 'b howociceeijer 
Lisette; it ib ulbo looked uijon 'Arith favor "by l.jae .Argante, '.vrio to bee iier duugJ'iter IbtiDeiie in the .Vc<.j ol' coxiiino ia.t Ge- 
ronte 's fortune by a rridrriage with Tilraate. Crispin impers(.na.t3b f.e 
dying Geronte to ti^o noturieii, and aru.vs tip a. I'alse .vili. 
itriperboructeb ti^e ne^jhe// t'roi;^ i' :; niece in 

order to ^jut .jc^runie out j notion ox i; in^i. Ir. 

the end Geronte dibcovera ttie facts about tiie lalrt: 'vili, 
u^j all, eveii ji.ib ^.re tentiorib tu i;3a.'je.l.a.a, ^.uo. latb U-.e '-vili reiutin, 
on conaiticn that certain notes be r'a turned to iiiiu .vhich have been 

tricy.ea out of ii.ii!.. 

. . - • 

^.. Gere . 

cit^reubie . 

!i.-.ue .Argante : any'.. 

...ricio!^, b'lt no 


Regnard will not bo found nearly so fruitful in bouTgeois 
tjTpee as we found Dancourt. In the first place, the total nvun- 
ber of his plays is little over half th-Tt of Dancourt. I have 
been able to finri but twenty-seven, includ-ng *" f^rrlcal sketch- 
es he wrote for the Italian comedians — a.nd, in the i.>joond place, 
the bourp;eois was never his quarry. He touches on the class 
occasionally, but there was no+hing especially ridiculous 
in the middle class men and v.omen for him. Moreover, Regnard 
was no .r;reat delineator of character i plot was what concerned him, 
and he could lausr}'. iust as p:aily at the confusion of the nobles 
as at the undoing oi an ambitious bour^yuia. In all cases in 
which he does introduce the class, it ia merely incidental, and 
the intrigue is never hung upon their foibles. 

In the dozen or more farces written for t?:e Italians, there 
is little that is serious enough to hold our attention. The 
first character of the slightest importance to us, is found in 
La Coquette (1691); it is the Bailli of Maine, impersonated by 
Arlequin, and it must be said that there is a great deal more 
Arle quin than Bailli in the part, Wliat there is serious in 
it is a very obvious ropy of Monsieur do Pourceaugnac, Th>e 
provincial who ctines *.c Pans to p;et hiiiself a r-tife^ who is 
tricked at every turn, is induced to talce a ridiculous disguise, 
and finally sent home cnpty handed — there is nothing new in all 
that. What Arlequin adds to the part is a shrewdness and double- 
dealing of his own, which keeps him far from being the dupe of 
his Parisian friends. When he assunes the role of Marquis to pleas 

eio; nl L '\ oe ' Jon riv b■^ 

t»V/. I ..: .1 ;)iJJi.J ti ev.&iq till 'iu Tad 

:;jt ,n8V9B-' t OJ t need 

,90£Xq uriri'v . •— rirl'"j*T '- o*^ f ■'■D'rvT sr' ep 

,miri b»n-' Jolvi < j 'lo 0:1 cj-;;v 

eelcfon arid" to ©ff bfi« 

©r[T ,nc oJ i/ ai Jiiiiv eiJJ^i ex 

fix bnuot ai,au oi ©- ©r[;t lu ta^Oi^-cjrfno *BTJt^ 

^(f be:tano<---<^' " ■' ,<*.-f'..v "r. f r rjtj»j| s'^.-^ Rt * :- :fT"r) s.ttf>.rr.on oj 
•HOfli lA*b *. i'S. O'Ui Is iiji'i bxi a t-a j^A.fc, ^'x i>iUi ,niL'psnA 

ni auoxtse ai 019 -fJ- ;t>i-IW .t'tiiq er'.- nx 

el Of{v jeliv. ^5 'ti' Oj aJ:"(*iS[ w* .isxcuavoT4 

.eexmeib er li^ oj ai .nfoj \;i»-v9 txi bssfoxTt 

XIjs fix wen Bnlii^ort p^ ..-Yc.''t — bebxierf \f-i<'- a-u, r fn'-n -/[.fiinlt hct. 

-s . ji. bnri B'-^ .. a aX J- ^ oi Bbi>ib . -tA j^;iW .Ji^xlcf 

lo eqjjt ©rfl snied nirf ,.3 eiri lo i^nxJissb 

■" 1 0+ etupt&y to eloT ef;'' aftn;jea£ ?"' rr«. ru .ebnoxt"': nBxexii:^ eirf 

Colorabine, no ohh appreciates the ubBurdity of hia position more 
than he hinself , and he exanrnerates it. with alJ the pusto ir the 
world. He never ceases to be the awagfjering and extravagant Ar- 
lequin. On Holomhlne ' s entrance he pref^.-nds to be dazzled by her 
beauty, and cries: "Ne voub etonnez pas Mademoiselle, si vous me 
vou^^ez reculer trois pas au frontispice de vos charmee: voub avez 
des yeux capables d'embraoer tout le bailJi&ge de mon coeur; et 

depuis qu'on portt» des bouches, on n'a jamais bouchonne un bouchon 


si Vouchonnable. " In the conversation that follows concerning 

the difference betv/eeri Parisian and provincial customs, he shows 
himself to be decidedly well versed in metropolitan manners, and 
there is not the slightest hint of the provincial dupe about him. 
He has an infallible eye for a pretty woman, and Colombine, Margot, 
or Mme, Pindaret, it is all one to him. As to his masqueracJing 
as a Marquis, the whole performance is much more of a satire on 
the Marquis than on the provincials. He enters, "en marquis ri- 
dicule," singmR and dancing, "He bien, morbleuj Madame, les 
airs de cour nous sont-ils naturels? (II fredonne) La, lore la. 
Vous allez voir comme Je chamarre une danse serieuse. He! La- 

quais, Laquais! lache-nous un coup de chanterelle," After ex- 


hausting Mme. Pindaret in a violent minuet, he turns to Colombine 

"^ARLEQUIN: He bienj Xiademoiselle , ne voub avais-jc pas bien 

dit qu'il n'y avuit guere de Marquis plus ridicule que 
COLOJtBINE: A VOUB parser sinrerement , pour un marquis de 

nouvelle impression, vous ne jouez pas mal votre role, 
et I'on croirait que vous I'auriez etudie toute votre 
AJ?LEQ,UIN: Etudieimoi, etudie! Palsamb]eu! vous ne le prenez 
pas ria3 . Itudin* Voua x\*i savei; done ;. as que jc suis 

hoirune de qualite? A peine sais-je ecrire nion nom 

le diable m'emporte, si jamais j'ai eu d'autres livres, qu'tan al- 
manach avec un parfait marechal, Bon! que nous fuut-il a nous 
autres gens de cous? Beauccup de bonne ocinion, eauvoudree de 
quelques grains d'ef fronteri«. (Ill, 7.) 7(ii^ 4.) -^(m, 6.) 

r nol 


T?»rf ',:cr 

•nil riuo- 

tl'i ^o 

•►r? t) 

Mfio on ,9 on 





iiu i:jij .Ml jii! 3lim.> 




'C I'JV 


( • 

no e T 

iJ ,ej. 

^o fTBrt,-^ u 

BfiK oW 


•«X t' 

-jeT •..T .- 

Ti'^T S»r. T'J f.iroV 

OO Oj Bl 



ci'/or: fi 

alcfisih qT 

to ask if she ever aaw a more ridiculous Marquis than himself. 
He urges his ignorance in proof of his nobility, aliloglng that he 
can barely write his name, and that he knows no other book than an 

It is hardly worth while to stop even ^.s long as we have 
with this Arlequin, except to show that the Moliere tradition v/as 
far from being dead, though it is embroidered in various colore 
of the Italian comedy, 

A second farce which at first sifiht seems to promise some- 
thing of interest to us here, is L a Foi re St . C -eypc U n {169b) in 
which much of the intrigue is concerned in curing an old doctor 
of his love for his tard, Angelique. Here is the Arnolphe situa- 
tion, bu" there is an absolute lack cf sericusness in working it 
out, Tt is the most extravagant hoi se-play from end to end. One 
little scene may be quoted, however, as throwing a light on the 
attitude of the servant class to the bourgeois. A porter, who 
has accompanied Octave, a young officer, to the stage, speaks to 
the doctor, believing that he is still addressing Octave, 

Aliens, Monsieur, depeclionsi je n'ai pas le temps 
d'attendrei j'ai chaud, et je pourrais n. 'enrhumer, 

LE DOCTBTIB: Que veux-tu done, mon ami? , 

LE POPTEUB: Ah! j'etais bien nigaud! Je croyais parler a un 
officier, et ce n'est qu'un bourgeois, Je m'en vais 
prendre L:on ton pour les bourgeois. (Hai>t.) Aliens, de 
1' argent. 7 

The same critici8n3 applies to La Suite de la jF o ije St. Ger- 
main . (1696), It is a crazy little farce, but it has a situation 
and at least one character that are better developed than in the 

^(I, 4.) 

• i,X9<^jiix 1 nxt: 



i»/ 1 ■ p • f . . ri 



biii lo 

ni '■ 





,. r * r t + .: 



rrt' « t*»r- 

^*.r» .+!^ ■■-■ 


lO « tti. Jl 


(.i- ,1) 

precodlriR play. Arlequin and Color-bine set about to /^et money 
fropi ^^' •■- hourgeoiB couple, M, and Mm«, Jaquemard, To thii. end 
Arletiuin calls himself the Baron de Groupignac, and Colomhine 
takes the name of Leonor, Under these disguises they accept the 
attentions-^- and the money—- of the Irfatuated tiourgeois pair. 
Ifine. Jaq^ueraard is thtt more fully presented. She sweeps in, rust- 
ling in gold and scarlet hrocade, and fluttering with riVbons. 
She is the conventional tourgeoise, vain and feather-trained, anx- 
ious to get rid of her husband to make room for one of more noble 
birth. She affects to scorn her simple little dress, but finds 
it necessary to put on something striking in order not to be taken 
for a shop-keeper. She is as independent of her husband as the 
woman of her type usually is, and scarcely takes the trouble to 
conceal her intrigues from him. 

7 \ ■■*■ 

L'EPIirE: Serviteur a roadame Jacquemard. Que vous etcs 

brillament et elegamment misej quel bel habit! 

MME. j;iCQ,UEMAKD: Vous ^voyez , monsieur de I'Epine; c'est un pejit 
deshabille a bonnes fortunes, que je me suis donne 
expres pour venir a la Poire, 

L'EPIMK: Ah, Madame! vous etes si belle, que vous n'avez 
pas besoin de toutes ces parures-la pour plaire, 

lOCE, JACQUEMARD; On a beau etre jeune, mignonne, pou]^onne, ces 

fripons d'hommes sont si interesses, qu*a noirs qu'ila 
ne voient briller I'or dessus et dessous, ils s'imagi- 
nent qu'une femme est un garde-magasir , et ils veulent 
I'avoir pour moitie de^ ce qu'elle vaut, ,,,0n attrajje 
aseez I'air 'le qualite', conuae vous vo;/-ez, Mon marl ne 
sait pas que j'ai ce petit deshabille-ci. C'eat le 
surtout des menus plaisire: il est deja tout fripp^, 

L'EFINI";: Mais si -"otre mari vous trouve avec cet a^M^te- 
ment, 11 pourrt'. bien jeter I'habit par les fen- trcs, 
sans songer que vous aeriez dedans, 

MIffi, JACQUEMARD: Oh! J e ne crains rien, 

L'lIFINl!;: II faudra, Madame, que vous veniez voir mes 

momies d'Egypte, .,,M, le baron de Groi.pignac m*a pro- 
mis qu'il s'y trouverait: Je sais qu'il ne vous est 
pas indifferent. , 

MME. JACQUliMARD: Je n'al rien de cache pour M, de I'Bpinei jo con- 
nais oa discr^+ ion, et je lui avouerai qur je me sens 
si f rappee de ce M. de Groupignac, que ji mon batier 
de mari etait mort, Je n'en ferais pas a deux foia; 
et je I'epouserai d'ab**<;' »« lui donnant tout men 
bien. Sc. 4. '** 

n .M jSlsjuon aio not^ 

.1X1*1 . 



sicfon f»tnC' "^o sno to* rc»r-i 

aiiaxi : yo ,Bao"fi^ eiJ'^rxi 

ne^iiid 9cf oJ^ .*on 19J)-10 nl 

io — brtis — 'fl 

\'T)joi at srfB 

•■n Ot 8:/0X 

••'.. I-. ."),' uJDSXii; '. . .dj-!j.L 

.flii. ri Ifioonoo 

eors t 

tl*9q_ Oil .+ B9'0 JP 

snnob e x e j, ; 



a ax 

^ ( U kj 

o jiitid"a-. -'0, . . 

'.aupr>A.x .Sim 

: iuo 



-OTq «*n ojL ' 

tee auov ha Ix'up &Xi^ii ot, :.:ii.rt^v»/- ' 

-noo et ; '-t 9^ »M luoq 9;^')iio ©fc noiT t£*n »L : 

ej' . - . . ^ . . 

i — - .. , . — „^ — J , . - - — , 11 — 

iaiol xi/et) £ asq 8 ' j\, .Jtotn .■ir^9 liatr. 9b 

nod Jjjoj' ^nannoh * -nuij'b Ibt- •'£ 9t ^© 


The next scene, in which Mme. Jacqueriarrt meets the falae 
Baron de GroupiRnac, is too farcicul to be taken seriouely, but 
it is excellent fooling, and reads like a burlesque on some of 
Dancourt's scenes in wliich the bourgeoises come fane to face with 
their high-born admirers. Gross flattery on the one hand and 
unhesitating credulity on the other was the rule, and Rcgnard has 
seized upon them fo]- exaKgeration, M. Jacquemard, who appears 
later, ic only a pendant to the character of Madame, and need not 
be dwelt upon, save to mention that he is as eager for Colonbine 
as his wife is for Arlequin, 

La Ser enad e (1696.) contains two characters that are 
slightly but distinctly sketched. The first of these is Mme, 
Argante, the mother of Leonor, a stern parent who v'ill permit no 
trifling on the subject of her disposal of her daughter's hand, 
Leonor 's own preference in the matter is not of the slightest con- 
sequence, and when she ventures to object to her mother's choice 
she is met by such adjectives as, "petite ridicule, •• and "petite 
importinente, " We are not told how she receives the news of 
Leonor 's outwitting her in the end, M. Grifon, the father of 
Valere and the suitor of Leonor, adds to his harshness toward 
Valere the ridiculousness of an old man in love with a young girl, 
and the ugly vice of avarice. Tie last named is his strongest 
passion, much stronger than his love; he asks Scapir. to furnish 
him a serenade cheap, and in the end yields Leonor to Valere in 
the hope of recovering his necklace. He is In no mood for for- 
giveness, however, and when he finds that he has lost the necklace 
as well as Leonor, he gives them all his general blessing, "Dou- 
ble pendardl AhJ je suis assassinel Quelle maudite journeel Non, 
je ne veux jamais entendre parler, ni de fils, ni de maitresse, 
^(Sc. 8.) ^(Sc. 7.) 

OB , ■ r 

bn£ . . r- ,' . ^ /+ 


at .H' . na 

•nx aii ax tt£l J >j oXsw^ ad 

■'A lol at A^iw aid bb 

STB :''B:f-^ nr:- .* ii--fr -f". ': :.*(i\- (. 

.M. iix ii.-, . ,. Xa 

on ■ ■. "io "I ex£."t ,oiji«^lA 

soion'o a' ,0 o;t at aa 

gj-itnir* bn;-.: * , rjf.r';. r •> .■ -r p./^t.'- ' : ' '',:•» •- r -} .-*?» 

10 cv;;-,i{ :;.u; a ; son atis t- ' . .,iX 

lo la.-iJ^il edd , . orl* rtl Tf-rf j?: a*-t 

,Xtip :;. ..' , ^.. aVOl ,-a "io cJ, i»;«iV 

;tae?5,noTJa ein a. . ooi\r <:X^i' siii bna 

nx aibiiV ,Ti u( - a j& fliiri 

-to^ To"^ boom on nl ai ©^ . r Bx(;t 

e?>!" '"'<•"»!■'• (^ « ''^ *■ 1 r • , -f f- ,| +.;rft jjTn.v;"; /■.,: r,. ■"■'■•v.'Oif aa^fT'-" " " 

-jjoC!" t:^n^aiiiil<i >> aiii i^X*> iab»w a»Vxji t»ii ,-ionoeJ gb XX<»w tm 

," ' ! 'i, t*tibW£rc nf.Liik\Q J 'v •>;;.-;&(..'. Lj. i .-: er, IriA if) ; eXcf 

jSaaaTtx^H ©b ^.> , >. . . i. ..„ ^.. , . , ^ v,.^ .-,>. .v.,^ ^^^a.„„v, xjjst en q\, 

(.V .0^)' (.8 .38)^ 

ni d'amour, ni de mariage, et Je voub donne a tous lea diables," 
"Tant mlRux:" remarks Marine, "voi la pout-otre la premiere chose 
qu'il alt donnee de sa vie," M. Mathleu, a usurer who is intro- 
duced, is not clearly enough drawn to deserve nore than mention, 

Bernard' ^ first fully developed bourgeois, and in many re- 
spects his best one, is De Sontencour, of Le Ba l (1696), and not 
far "behind him comes his cousin, Mathieu Crochet, This precious 
pair is not exactly striving to enter a higher sphere of society, 
but they assume at times an elegance of language at greatest oHds 
with the essential coarseness of their tone and manners, and are 
at all times vain, fatuous, pretentious, and correspondingly ri- 
diculous. Thus De Sotencour malces his entrance with an apostro- 
phe a l a tragediej and continues till he breaks off to describe 
in the most intimate detail his lady's physical perfections. 
Among other things, he says that she is neither a blonde nor bru- 
nette, but a bright bay, W}ien Lisette remarks that vomen under- 
stand the art of make-up, Mathieu Crochet proposes that the lady 
should be examined by experts before they invested in her, but 

De Sotencour replies that if all purchasers insisted on such a 
formality the merchandise would remain a drug on the market, 1 
entire scene is very coarse, but it can hardly be said to be a 


*■ Trop heureuse maison, et vous murs trop epals, 

Qui cachez a mes yeux le plus beau des objets, 
Qui dans vob nolrs detours recelez Leonore, 

Faites de votre pis, cachez-la mieux encore. ... (Sc, 7, ) 

CROCHET; OhI cousxn, n'allez pas acheter chat-en-poche. 

Pour savoir si 3a belle est droite ou de travers, 
PaitHs-la visiter avant par des experts, 
S0TET:C0UP: Bon, bon: va, s'il fallait (lue cette marchandise 
Put sujet a visite avant que d'etre prise, 
Malgre tant d •acheteuri;, Je ta jure, cousin^, 
^u'elle demeurerait longtemps au magazit . (Sc, 7.) 
26 J 


-o it' B ,o- . " . • se p t^B ri*Mp 

.110 ^JlJtiLii. • ^.1.1 ui ,.uy.i>JU 

... I 

ton , ai , ?rfo te- e^Of^^^a 

abbo ^8 j; to so n£ ;- fd" 

ecfi. • .■a:-' ■ ■< iyi 

.enoicTor . exlJ nX 

-c/tri' TOn !».brto.C'f \ + .t^n si: ^'■lA 

turf ,tf»rf ni i B.-^f^ !X» Y<f i uor{8 

iJ riOiJc: .1') w.'jdj-b ix j: 1! ti*:' 'JiJJi^ '. ■ ij j.x Jxaj ayxx-^'.' ^ xxi ; 'J . aCI 

B •'rf «♦ biflc 00 VIST el sfTftoe e-titna 

ja-rov^'i.t et' uo ©Jlo f 

©e. . . • ; • '^^ 

(.^ .08) 

(.as: . 

coareeneBS of the lourgeoisie; Liaette is as bad aB the men, and 
it is the license of the timna in general and of Kagnard in parti- 
cular rather than a fling at the middle class . 

When Leonor makes her appearance, De Sotencour holds forth 
again that her eyes are the north and the pole whither turns the 
compass of his desires. 

The two have brought their appetites with them from 7alaise 
and make no scruple of demanding food and drink from the father- 
in-law elect, Tliey seem to regard their appetites with pride 
rather tham otherwise, and Crochet remarks that he has been fast- 
ing for three days in order to cut a woi'thy figure at the table. 
They are vain, too, as vain as was ever M, Jourdain. De Soten- 
cour remarks to Leonor: "^oi bien fait, vous gentille," while 
Corchet's complacency ic moniimental, When his cousin says that 
in their family there are no fools, and the Crochet, for example , 
has more sense even than avoirdupoids, the latter admits it; 

Le cousin me connait. Oh! je ne suis pas cruche 
Tel que vous rae voyez. (Sc. 8.) 


De Sotencour gives him the further reconmendation of being a lady- 

'Vos beaux yeux desormais sont le nord ou le pole 
Ou de tous mes ciesirs tournera la boussole, (Sc,8,) 

^Depuis trois jours je jeune, afin d'etre capable 
De pouvoir digneiaent faire figure a table, (8c, 8,) 

-*Dan8 ma faraille, ajr raoins, on ne voit point de sots. 
Lui, par exemple, il a plus d'eaptit qu'il n'e*t p;ros, 
, (Sc.B.) 

SOTraiCO^m: Lui,,.c'est la coqueluche 

Dcs filxes de ?alaisc, II c'-^udie rn droit. 
Et salt hout nori C ijhjs ;^ir \f. ho ;t de aon loipit. 
CRC-TIET: Oh! quand on a du code acquis quelque teinture. 
Pros des ferames de reste on sait la procedure: 
Nous autres du barreau, nous sommes des gaillards. (Sc,8) 

,B .1.03 


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killer, and Crochet agai.i concurs, 

De Sotencour has the traditional cowardice of the bour- 
geois, and in an encounter with the Gascon Bar en ' 'uivos Much aa 
Itoe. Patin does btefora the rapior of the Baru, . V.xt 

perhaps the lionuaa suitors ar« brought to their hifjiitist poirut of 
ridicule when the fat Crochet enters dressed for the "ball as Cu- 
pidon. Here l:is self-conceit is proof against eviiri the irony of 
Lisette, and when she exclaias: that the la;lieB will take him for 
Cupid's very self, he calaly rsplies: "IJ'est-il paa vrai?" 

Besides these two, we have in Le B a l a father who proraises 
to be a valuable specimen of the tyrannical parent, but who has 
stirrings of nature in the last scene. This is Geronte, and his 
tyranny is, as not infrequently happens, linked to a certain appre- 
ciation of the value of money, Speakin,'? of his giving Leonor to 
the "maudit Bas-Nonaand," Merlin asks Lisette, if Geronte was not 
dying of shame, and she replies that according; to fJerontrt the Nor» 
man has over one hundrijd. thousand ecus , ind that that was as good 
as so many virtues to make a husband. He is a good father, how- 
ever, and at the end says to Leonor: 

Oublions le passe, ma fille, en cette affaire; 
Je n'ai point pre'tendu forcer tea volonti^s, 

Le J oueur (1696) contains the only two characters that Reg- 
nard ever contributes to the class called the bourg eois de bon 
sens . These are Geronte and Dorante, the father and uncle, re- 
spectively, of Valere the Gambler. The play is a diatriV«- 

J' les feimaes, dans le bal, 

Le prendront pour 1 'Amour en propre original, (Sr.l',) 

^MERLI'l: , Dis-moi: Uonsieur Geronte, 

Pei-o de Leonor, ne raeurt-il point de honte? 
LISETTB: Ce Kormand a, dit-il, pluB ie cent nilTe ecus; 

^Et pour faire un raari,, c'est autant de vertus. (Sc.4.) 
^{Sc.16.) (Sc. 20,) ASc, i;:^.) 

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astainat fcaralnF?, and the Btronfrtatit arp;uraent8 aRalnst the vine are 
put in rJernnte's mouth. In the sceno with the profosaiona] 
trickster, Toutahas, it la (Jeronte who coariB off with the honors. 


His ar/i^uiaents are bourgeois, which Is another 'vord for sound. To 


Valero himslef he Is severe, but not brutal, and not a .vhlt nora 

stern than the young man's follies ilemand. That }xe is really 
fond of Valero and cherishes for him the feelinps that we should 
expect froTJi a father, is ^3hown by his monologue at the end of IV, 
when he belinves that Valere has forsaken for good and all the 
gaining table: he thanks heaven that his paternal care has been 
able to lead his son into the narrov? way, and exolaimsl on the 

happiness of a father who sees his son return from the primrose 


path. In the end, Indeed, he casts off his son, -but it is only 

after the latter has forfeited all claim to consideration. Even 

/ S'il est quelque joueur qui vive de son gain, 
On en^voit toua les jours raii'.lft mourir de falm, 
i^ui, forces a garder une longue abstinence, 
Plcurant d'tivoir trup uis a la rejcuissance, (I, 10) 

'pour la dernlere fcis, non file, Je viens vous dire 
Q,ue votre train de vie est si fort scandalr x, 
Que vous f.i'obligerez a quelque eclat facheux. 
Je ne puis ret>;nir na bile davantaia;e, 
Et no^sHurais souf:5rir votre libertinaf^e. 
Vous "etes pilier-ne de tons les lansquenets, 
Q/;i sont, jjour la jeunosse, autf^nt de trebucriets, 
'iJn bols plein de voleurs est un plus sur passage; 
Dans ces lieux, jour et nuit, ce n'est que brigandage, 
II faut opttir des deux, etre ^upe cu fripon, ...• 
Votre coniuite oiifin ri'enf la.'uiie ile courrouxi 
Je ne puis vous souffrir vivre de cette sorte: 
Vous m'avoz oblige de vus feruier ma porte. (I, 7.) 

Graces au ciel, mon fils eat dans le bon chonin; 
Par raes soins paternels il s te la pent» 
Ou I'ent.-aiijait du jeu la p .. ardente. 
Ah J qu'un pere est heureux, jui voit en un raoiaent 
Un cher fils revenir de son ega'-eniflnt J (TV, IP) 

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in the face of the paternal malediction, our sympathies are with 
the father, -incl in no wiBo enlisted on the sldo of the worthlesB 
Valere and his rascality valet, Hector, What lay be done with 
the Sritne naterial, but with far different intention, will be seen 
if, •\ r Geronte and Valere and Hector, we read Geronte and Lean- 
dre and Scapin, 

Unfortunately, not so £!;ood a plea for Geronte 'e fraternal 
affection can be made as for his paternal. The uncle, Dorante 
and the nephew, Valere, are rivals for Ani^elique' s hand, and one 
at least of Geronte 's confessed reasons for favoring the suit of 
his son is the hope of spiting his brother. 

In the case of this Dorante, Regnard has foregone an easy 
ridicule of middle-age love, Dorante's relation to Valere and 
Angelique is much that of Arnol^jhe to Horace and Agnes, bu here 
the mature and sensible lover carries the day over the young mad- 
cap, and Angelique gives her hand to Dorante, 

We have seen that Geronte had really his son's welfare at 
heart, and that it is only against his will that he finally casts 
him off. Mine, Grognac of Le Distr ai t (ln97) is made of sterner 
st iff , and is a deal more unaraiable. Not that she keeps all her 
rancor for her daughter; she has enough and tc spare for everyone. 
She is dravm with vigorous lines, and from the moment of her en- 
trance at the rise of the curtain there is no doubt of her char- 
acter. It is not subtle nor finely shaded, but it has the merit 
of distinctness , In her scene with Valore her first four 

' Fils indigne de moi, va, je te desharite, 
Je ne veiix plus te voir, apr^s cette action, 
Bt te donne cent fois ma raaladiction, (V,8,) 

•^ Mon frere en son euaour n'aura pas trop beau jeu, 
lion, quand ce ne serai t ^ue pour le contredire, 
Je veux rompre 1 'hymen ou son amour aspire; 
. . . .cha^ginrtr mon frere et marier mon Ifils, (I, 9,) 
(I, 1.) 


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sjjeochea are raonoayl Tabic, and the rest would better be: they gain 
no boftnesB from elaboration, Slie appears moat violent, hov/ovor, 
in her relations with her daughter. Her first r,.feroflce ^^' Isa- 
belle is an abrupt intiuiry as to her occupation i on "being told 
that alie is at }ier toilette, the mother declares that she does 
nothing >)iit stand before her mirror frorn inornln,:^ to nlpht; she 
ends with a preeiup :ury ci/..ii(iaria for h«r .o co.Mii^ ^uv/u, W>ien laubelis 
does appear, she is bidden to make a curtsey; lov/er; lower yet. 
Heavens, what ignorance, not to know how to make a curtsey after 
three years of dancin^^ lesaons. She is told to hold up her head; 
more still. Must she always stoop when she walks? Let her throv/ 
out her ohouldsp chest and keep her shoulders hack. At an inno- 
cent reinark from Isabelle, she is jeered at in a couplet in which 
"reptile" rhymes with "imbecile, " followed up he a reference to a 

"grosiie bete," And to all this she adds Isabelle is hypocrt 
tocal, and is to be watched, Isabelle is putting it very mildly 

/ MME. (JHOGNAOrQue fait raa fille? 
LISfiTTK; ^ Elle est, Madame, a sa toilette, 

JOSE, CrROGNAC:Tou^ours a sa toilette, et devant un miroirj 
Voila tout son emploi du i.aatin jusiiu'au soir, 
. , , ."Belle occupation, vraimentj t^u'elle descende, 

Dites-lui de raa part qu'ici je la deraande, (I, 2.) 

■^ "Venez, mademoiselle, et S£^lue2 les gens. 
(Isabelle fait la reverence.) 
Plus has, encore plus pas, cielj^uelle ignorance! 
Ne savoir pas encor fair=! la re'v/rence. ^ 
, "Hepuis trols ans et plus qu*elle apprend a danser! 
....Levez la tete, Encor, Soyea droite, Approchez, 

Paut-il ^toujo.irs tendre le dos ^uand vo\is .'narchez? 

Prescntez mieux la gor^'^e, et baissez cett? epaul« 
Eh. Jbienjvit-on jamais un esprit plus rej^tile? 
Pui3-je avoir jamais fait une t^^lle imbecile? 
C'est une grosse bete, et qui n*est propre a rien, 
,..,A ces siuplicittjs qui awftent ie sa boucho, 

A cet air si naif, croi'lalt-on qu'elle y touciie? 
Mais c'est une eau qui dort, dnnt il faut se gurder 
....Allnns, vite, rentrez: faltes ce qu'on ordonr»>. (I, 4) 

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whan she rafHrs to lior mother 'a "bruauqe huiieuri" it 1» an abrupt 

tamper wh^ch does not stop short of phyaical violence: 

Que J'auraib de plaisir, avec deux oons sonrriety, 
A vt'M'-'-r plelnrtrni->n t Irh if^rcmt.i in'on n'n ''aits, ^ 

And she further aco lares frankly: 


La f^arde d'une fille est un trop lourd fardeau. 

There is no relnnting in the fifth act for Miae. (rrcnac, 
Tr^cKud and outplayed, t3}ie exclaims in a rage to Vulere, tr.t; unole 
of the succesaf j1 suitor, that he may finish his v/ork aa he began 
it, as for her, she intends to set ahout breaking up the marriage. 

The violent character of Mme, Grop:nac has alwa;/3 been oon- 
sidered a blot on this comedy j the Abbe Pelegrin, in Le Mercure de 
France in 1751, calls her, with strange anti-climax, "unc gron- 
dcuse insupportable ot unc nauvaise racro." Certainly these terme 
do not seem in the least too severe for her, 

Mne, "Bertrand of Le Re tour Imprevu (1700} is cut somewhat 
on "■be same pattern, though Lucile ia her niece, and not her 
daugVitor, One can hardly blame the bourgeois aunt for disap- 
proving of a niece who, without a penny of visible income, lives 
alone in a great house, and makes h-^r fortune by drinking, eating, 
singing, laughing, gambling, and faring forth, '■And riches come 


'^ Fasse qui le voudra lee frais du mariage; 

Vous I'avez comnence, finnissez votre ouvrage: 

Et je pretends, de plus, qu'en forraant ces liens, 

On les s^pare encore et de corps et de biens, (V, 10) 

Cf, Oeuvras Completes de Regnard, ed, V. (Jarnier, Paris, 1810, 
Tome II, page 342, , 

^ LISETTB: Ella bolt, , chante, rit, joue, se promene; 
les biens nous v^ .. .: en lornantj^ je voua en aaaire, 
MME, BERTRAirO: Bt la reputation se perd de meme, Elle ver-- 
ce qui lui arriverai elle n'aura pas un so*' de moi. 
bien,.,. Tout le profit qui vo)is en derietrei o'^eflbf- 
one vous mourrif:'. toutea de\ix a I'hopital, et deshono- 
reas oncore. (Sc,l.) /(HI, 9.) ^ (III, 10.) 
J(III, 10). 

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while we sleop," explains Lisette. "And reputation goee the 

same way," sagely adds Mme, Bertrand, 

This sfune cornedy contains another character over whom we 

may stop for a moment. This is Geronte, the father of Valere, 

He is said to be a vilain. a ladre, a f eBse-mathleii-ani? -.Vh n e he 

is hardly all that, he certaii ly gives to money its duo iraportancq 
and almost his first reiaark is: "Les enfants ont hien do I'obli- 
gation aux peres v^ui se donnent tant de peine pour leur lalsser du 
bien," This Geronte is very thrifty throuf;hout, and it is 
with the concealing of his son's prodigality from him that the 
intrigue is mainly concerned. He is wheedled out of twenty thou- 
sand francs, but in the end he forgives the tricks that have been 
played upon him, on condition that his aoney be returned. He is, 
after all, a genial sort of miser: "MalheureuxJ ' Mais... qu' on 
me rande mon argent, je me sens assez d'liumeur a consentir a ce 
que vous voulea: c'est le moyen de vous erapecher de faire pis," 

In Geronte and Mme, Bertrand we have, then, a man inclined 
to be miserly, and an aunt somev/hat scolding, but neither of them 
are extreme types, though both arn thorouglily bourf;eoi3. 

In Les Fo li es Anoureuses (1704) we have a very clearly con- 
ceived ficfure, and a very diaaffreoable one, in Albert, He is the 
guardian of Agatlie, and, after the conv«:iticnal manner of guar- 
dians, wishes to marry her. His opening soliloquy, delivered 
while he is prov/ling about the garden, shov/s him to be the suspi- 
cious, aelfish, rough old man that Ai nolphe was. He regrets his 
cowardly complacence in allov/ing Agathe br-^ space in the 
garden, and iecides to have everything put under bolt and bar 

/(Sc. 12.) ^(Sc. IT.) ''(Sc. 23.) 




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forthwith. Walls and locka, he thinks, arn calculated to ktjep 

girls cood better than any misplaced gentleness, Lisette, in the 

same scene, Tivee f'^ither tpstimony to his suspicious nature, 

Tuia tjror.t; it-x-s.^. .-j :: ^m in a worso ligVii , ^et, than -^-^ tui 

old man suspicious of tlie younf: girl he is in love with; it shows 

him to be of a type of brutality that t.utp him quite beyond the 

pale of sym^ath^y. On Lioette's conf >....<. r to a trick that they 

have played upon him, he turns upon her furiously, v/ith the threat: 

Je ne sais mair tenant qui rolient mon courage, 

Que de vingt coups de poing au mililieu d\x visage,,. 

When Agathe intercedos, she gets much t}ie same rienane: 

Vous pourrle? bien ici, 
Vous, la belle ,attrapor quelque gourmade auasi, 

Pror-i bninr oyer-svsi.icious , ''-ov/ever, he passsea to the point 
of utter imcecality in ciioo&ing for :.xa confident ciu'i ctccomplice 
the ver^ I.isette who has just shown herself devoted to her mis- 
tress. Also, however^ much he may suspect Agathe* s lovers of 
trying to steal her tiway, he seoms to think that his personel 


' Depuis plus de six nols ma lache complaisance 

Met f* chaque mometit en defaut ma prudence; 

Btpour laisser Agg^he^a I'aise respirer, 

Je n'ai, par bonte d'ame, encor rien fait murer. 

Ce n'est point par douceur qu'on re'id aixgee les filles; 

Je veux, d.u haut en has, fare attacker des p;rilles, 

Bt que de bons barreaux, larges comme la main, 

Puissent servir d' obstacle a tout effort humain, (I, 2.) 

■% (3hi?z vous, toute la nuit, on n'entend d'autre chose, 
(Ju'aller, v^nir, rnoiiter, ferrnur, '5>- "'"e, ouvrir, 

Crier, tousser, cracher, fternuer, . -r, 

lorsque. par grand hasard , quelquefois Je sommeille, 
Un bruit affreux de clefa en sursaut me rivollle, (I,r^ 

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charms relieve him from any dancer from the lady's own defection. 

The rest of the play only servea to 'bring out thoae char- 
actrtristica i at the end, when Eraste an^I Agathe have elope. i, he 
recognizes himself as "vaillard trop crudul.j," hut the self -avowal 
does not tend to soften him; he lilcena the deceitful sex to fire, 
famine, plapue and war, and consiirns it to the devil that made it.*^ 

Along .vith Mme, GrugnciC of L e Diat r fc.-t , t'lia Albert is the 
most disagreeable character that Regnard has left behind him. His 
next play, L es Meiiochaes (170L) contains no one that even ap- 
proaches these t'.vo, Lemophon, the fatner of Isa'belle, ia aridng- 
ing a match for her in which money is the prime consideration: 

and in which the younp; man's prospect of sixty thousand crowns 
count foi tiuj-t-i UL, rauc/i au his wit and virtue. In the scene in 
which he broaches the subject of her marriage to Isabelle, he at 

^lILeti sentiments aussi sont conformes au votre: 
Je veux me rnarier, Riche comnie je suis, 
On vient tous les jours proposej^ d-sa partis 
Qui paraissent pour moi d'un tres-grand avmtage; 
Mais je reponus t^ujours iju'un autre amojir m'engagei 
i^ue men coeiir, prevenu de ta rare ben :]te. 
Pour toi seule soupire, et q.ue, de ton cate'', 
Tu n' adore que noi, .... 

Oui, nignonne, 
J'ai declare I'amour quix)0ur moi t 'aiguillone, 
,,., Qu'au fond de ton coeur 

Pour moi tu nourrissais une sincere ardeur, (II, 2.) 

■* Et toi, sexe trompeur, plus a craindre sur terre, 
Que le feu, que la faim, que la pestr; ot la guerre, 
De tous les gens de bien tu dois etre maudit; 
Je te rends pour jamais au diable qui te fit. (111,12) 

•3 Un jeune homme doue d'esprit et de vertus, 
Possedant, qui plus est, soixante taille ecus. 
D'un oncle qui I'a fait unique l^gataire, (I, 5.) 

s^dii, 4.) 


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first threatHHs to hocomp sevt3ru, but Isabolle's apparent ac- 
quiOBcencc in hia UgbIimuj 'dkeB his weapons out of his hands, and 
he is after all a -very natural sort of father, 

A much mora valuable charactcsr from our standpoint is 
Demophon's sister, Ara.^'-^''^^-*. Here i- ^ Belise worthy to stand 
beside Dunnourt's beat cruritions in the genre. She is in love 
with the Chevalier Menechine, and is aa vain and credulous and 
sentim-^n tril ft:-- .mv o-^ h^r class. She Tialc^s h'?»" *^n*»"anpe in a 
rapture, exclaimin£; tha^ today she will see Mcnacrune; she breaks 
off to ask Lisette how she looks, and drinks in greedily the sou- 
brette's flattery. When the Qievalier enters, he tells of a 
dream he has had about iior, v/hich recalls the dream of Valere 
about Mme, Gerante in Dancourt's L es Fonds Perdus . In a speech 
which is an excellent satire on the florid pastoral style, he 
describes how he saw }ier emerge from the waves with the bearing 
of H Venus, while zephyrs played about her, Arartiinte is natural- 
ly interested in this dream, and breaks in to ask if she was that 

Venus, and if in that disguise she was charming, as well as noble 


and divine? Though she does not say so in so many words, she 

ARA3JITTTE: Nous r'i^QT "' "-ohme aujourd'hui, Quelle joiej 

Je ne puis _ . : r en place, ni chez noi, 
Pareil f?mpressenent doit I'agiter, je croi. 
Comment me trouves-tu? dis, Finette, 

FnrSTTE: ^ ^ flharraante, 

Votre beaute aurprend, ravit, enlove, enchante, 
II seinbltT que 1' Amour, dans ce jour si r" mt, 
Ait pris aoin par mes mains do votre aju. it, 

ARAMILE: Cette fille toujours eut le sro'ut admirable, (I, 3.) 

'? Vous aviez de Venus et I'habit et la minej 

Cent mille amours poussaient une conque marine, 
Bt les zephyrs badins, volant do toutns parts, 
Paisaient au r^re dos airs blotter des e\endards. (1 ,3, ) 

Et J'etais la Venus flottatit sur ce canal? 
..,.Do rrace, ditoa-;aoi, parlant since'rement , 

Sous 1 'habit de Venus, avais-Je I'air charraant , 

Le port noble et divin? (1,3.) 



oi an 

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no » fx;ri»a rfw 

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i \;J: 

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Ci J ' I *Jj r i I . 



. J- C .1. 

. ..r 0(1, . ., 

douhtletis find? " i- "ory obMginji to Jreajr. oT h»'r in such tonnB, 
ae lime. (Jerante found Valera, 

Whatever >ior comijlacency for the Chev.iliar, Ararnlnte has 
ncna for her l^rother, Wl m h,^. approaches hor on the suhject of 
maklnfc over her property to Iccihelle as a part of the latter 'a 
marriage contract, resorvinc for herself the use of it until h«r 

death, she telTa hlTn flatly that she lnt?;n'ls to marry and havn 


children of her own. When De;aophon j..ruvea beyond refutation 

that she is soniew> at over fifty, she retorts th;it auch can • ot 
■be the r^.gp, no matter what his j-roofp, ?.rd that she will live 
to hury i-v oliildren, i,.j,i'i <.-.r<: :i±t> ua'i.'-,-: u«r. 

As with the rest of her kind, money stands no chance with 

Tout ixioj: ■'■'-' est a vous, et no 1 'iparRne pas, she says 
to the Chevalier, But when she helievos herself to be deceived 

by him, she illustrates the truth of Congreve's line about a 


wftrr?.r, htrrned, and reproaches hiin with her benefits. In the end, 

cheated out of fee Clevalinr, Araiainte takes lllia tv;in brother, 
Menec>ui.e, but with very bad grace, and to spite the Chevalier and 
her own family. 

' Jusq.'a ma mortj Vraiment, ce projet me plait fort! 
Vous vciis etes prornic, il faut vous di?. ■ "tro. 
L'age, comi^e je crois, peut encor rae p. re 
D'aapirer a I'hymen, et d'avoir dea enfants, (I, '^,) 

Votre erco n'es.t qu'ur sotj 
Bt Je sais fort bien, moi, que cela ne peut^^tre. 
Ma jeunesue a non teint se fait bseoy connaltre, 
..«.J"e pi eteiids en'errnr, avec l*aide de Dieu, 

Les enfants que J'aurai, vous et ma niece. Adieu, (I, 7) 
-^ II a fait de non bien un assez long usape: 
J'ai fait a cies depens son (lernier Equipage; 
Et si de see malheurs je n'avais eu pltin, 
II a'jrHit tout au lot r fnit la campacne J pied, (111,5) 
^(11, 5.) '*'(V, 7.) 

Jbn.-3 nHX 

(?,I),u^.. .A . 


/.;..T» .T 





i.tatjl J.x 

.(III) , b _' i .j ' 

0[, S 

(.'t' ,v. 

8t.) xa cr& 

(.a .ID' 

In his last acted comedy, Lo Lej^a taire_ .U.", i .'v.t'.r » Hjl (1708) 
Regnard haH drawn in Geronte a true Krandoon of the Malade_ Ima^i- 
naire, \>ut one whose stock ie strangely crossed with the strain of 
Harjjagon. This hypochondriac Legrudes the cost of his medica- 
ments, and is making up his mind to ilf- rnth>^r tVan si^end more on 


his curing, seeing that the house is no longer .North the reiairs. 
One can hardly imagine Argan thus hargainlng with his doctors, 
and wishinp, to save expenses by dying at once. Later, when Li- 
sette wishes to be remembered in his will, he promises: "Je t'en 
ferai," and adds to himself: "Fourvu qu'il ne m'en coute rieu," 

Geronte is also of the line of Arnolphe, in that he is 
about to narry Isabelle; but this motive is lost sight of in the 
midst of the "lethargies" and the mad complications arising out 
of Crispin^B various disguises. Geronte proves at latJt a good 
and conplacent uncle, and gives his benediction without rancour, 
except for the suppositious nephew and niece who hfeve paid him 
a visit. 

After all, a much more unprepossessing person is Ifcne. Ar- 

gante, the mother of Isabolle, She is perfectlu ready to force 


her daughter into a marriage with Geronte: 

* <^ 

Ma fille sait toujours obeir quand j'ordonne, and we feel 

Oui , ,1*airaerais assez ce que tu me j.roposes; 
Maia il faut tant d'argert pom se faire so^igner, 
Que, juisqu'il fnut mourlr, autaiit vavit l'«pargneri 
Ces portt^iurs des seringues ont pris de^ airs si rogues. 
Ce i^'est qu'au poids de l*or qu*on acbete leurs di oguec, 
Qui pourrait e'en patiser et raourir tout d'un coup, 
D*^ son vivant, sans doute, epargnerait beaMcoup. 
....("est tout argent perdu dans cette occa&ior: 
La maieon ne vaut pas la rei'aration. (I. 4.) 
■* Mariez-vcus tous deux, c'est tier^ fait; j'y consens: 
Ifais, surtout, au plus tot procreez dee enfants 
Qui i^uiBsent heriter de vous en droite ligne; 
De tous collat&raux I'engeance est trop 'laligne, 
Detestez, a*Jamias, tous ne^eux bas-Nornands, 
,Et nieces, que le diable cunene ici du Mans. (V, 8.) 
-*(II, 12.) I'd, 7.) 

iL I •»' 

no o 


O* 9f 

c el 

.♦tfrf I 

^*) f-H 

I t.. 


lO to 

-tA .sr^ at 'f. 


_£ cj ^ *> 



r f^ri 




(.'■ .V) .. 

that Eraate and laabe] le would have stood a poor c-.lianco of re- 
ceiving the maternal bonediction if Eraate >iHd not succeeded in 
making himself his uncle's sole heir. 

In an uripuhliBhorl frasr^^nt calTpd Leg Venda.nfie8j ou Le 
Ba i T 1 i d ' A n i tn 'o^s , thoie la prouiiit; oi aoa^e excellent bourgeois 
types, but the fragment is far from being complete, some of the 
most promising characters mentioned in the cast not appearing on 
the scene, such as a Procureusf j. a Greff Inrtj ...rni tt Procuruer . 
We have however, sketches of M. Trigaudin, the venal Bailli 
d'Ani eres, and of his frugal wife, that are \»igorously projected. 

As I have said before, Kegnard made no speci<p.lty of the 
bourgeois, and the type is spare in propoi'tion to the voliine of 
his work. In his early farces written for the Italian players, 
there is nothing of importar oej the Bail li de Maine in La Cociuette 
is a sort of M. de Pourceaugnac ; the Doc^tev£ in La Poire Sjt,_frer^ 
main a kind of Arnolphe, and M, and Mrne, Jacquemard of La Suite 
de la Foire St^.^ Gemain are a licentious couple of whoa neither 
can reproach the other with infidelity. Coming to the comedies, 
we find Dancourt's great genre, that of the pushing and ambitious 
bourgeois, almost untouched. Two cases somewhat alMed to this 
class we do have in De Sotencour and Mathieu Crochet of Le Bal , 
The case of the money-lovers is a little better, and we have good 
examples in Geronte of Le Re tour Iiriprev u. Demophon of Les Menftchjtves 
and Geronte and Mine, Argante of L e Leg at a ire Uri 1 v t^ r b e ^ l , Arnoli.he 
is represented by this latter Geronte, and again rnoat unpleasant- 
ly by Albert of Lea Folies Amourrtuaes. Beliee has but one des- 
cendant, >>ut in that one the family traits are strongly narked J 

to en fooq » boo.''s 

al bn 


no ' 


sd* Jo 

^ rfl « 

boo-) 9T. 



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j^ ,uxo;3;> u; jci 

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.♦8 '»TJ-of bI ©fc 


eg e*' ..1 ow 


t J' 

, Jili-i'iitiO 

this is Artunlnte of Leja_ MenticliJiio b . A fe m iarftnts we 
have, ranging from Oeronte of Le J o ».e u r , who is severe only to be 
kind, throuch Demoi>hon of Lea M e n e c lim e g . who ie more anoke than 
fire, an.l Mme, Arganta of L e Le ^atair e Be i ^ who has the dic- 
jjoaition, without the opportunity, to exercise her tyranny over 
her fiaightcr, up to Mi.:e. Grognac of Le Diatr_a_i_t i who ie the moat 
brutally t;yrannical nother that Regnard or any other playwright 
of hie perloH has furniahed. 

All these characters are more or less epiaodic, and there 
is no development to be discovered in t]je treatmon* of t.heip. 
As compared with Dancourt, who was contemporary, and began earlier 
and finished later than Regnard, it can only be said that while 
the bourgeois was of utmost importance to the latter, v?ith Regnard 
he was incidental. 

ew B^rtft { wftl A 

-alb f 

tuoin ftdJ ax oxiw , 

al aJtx(i 



■leiltjee ob^*^ • • " 


_ r .. + ,.-- • 

on ■! 

.->■! «A 

vv}-jj";j }-.iviii;]a<; j)ijj;Ki^;j-,Y, u>-,'^-x(.i 

L'Rb^^rit. de Don trudiu tion, ivuu. 

1a3 j)(jubie Veuvcii^e, IVOi:. 

Lix Coquette de Villo-tje, 171:^. 

Ix. Recoa jiliat ion iiOriuLincie, 1719. 

L.e Dedit, 1719. 

^ iuciric^e^e luit et. rc(axju, 17/1. 

L'^s^jril de Contruai o tion, 17CC. 

jijMd.Oronte ia xjoysasaed oi' the a..irit oi" cticn. Srie 
contraaicto everyone, including ):iqt husband and daurhter. /ai^-e- 
li^iue vvioLes to ii^riy Valere, a,nu hati her father' £> condent; but to 
ijain her mother 'a it it> necet.bary to luaice her believe An, /- 
li^iUe anct her iatl" really want tl£ -t-r.e i.iatch which ui.e. Ore r.te 
^iroj^^otied v.-itn Thibaudcis, a rich peasant u^^atart. '.'H^ereuivon ..jue . 
Oronte, believin^i tiiat ai.e v/ill be obligini^ aoiuebody ii «he carrie. 

out t:iii. luitch, irkjisjtd on ti.e union witn Valere. 

ioue : stern luotiier, crotao, and avar icic'ib . 

Lc! Double Veuvat,e, 1702. 

Tii3 Ooiuteaae iixiices her steward's wiae .believe that \\.qv husband 
is aead, and the stev/ard is jsiade to believe tne saii^e ti-irj^ about 
i.i.s .vile. sioX'sx ei;cleu.vor to nide tiie ir joy en i.Oi.r inj ti:ii, ni^r.vs, 
ti.eir oisa^-'i. oiiiti.-rtiit at linainji t/iiit it is not true. The oc. 
concerns us only icr a reihcw^k oi tne './idov; about tiie .vays ol 
nobilit;, .vitn tue bouri:,eois. 

Le Deal t. , 1' i '■ . 

.-eiibe :•: iMt,,^, a or] r^:..a.:M\ :V; Tilt.; 

i.rciuii,ea tneir no^no , ^erc, to jive uii:. one i.unurea tnotiaand 

^_ _- ■..•3ir lu^. . ■? , but are -viti-iiclc ....^ ...... 11 

..rebrtnt cLin. ]le :vi»}ies to jitirry Ibubelle, but can not Tor want ol 
io vaiat, i'rontin, cciues to the re^cvie, and by imi^rtion.^- 
I.U1,; L. i^rave deneiaCiial to j.jleaae the jjruae Belize, and a gay ycui;,. 
cijev.-lier to s-iit the iiiaclcaij /i-rtU'iinte, he .-e^ii each ol tna l.^triea . 
in tiiii notion oi murr iai^e . They each ^ive v.^iere a a'uri ol' r., 
ney to avoid ^^a; infj their ded it » The comedy io ^ii iiu^jortant aave 
icr the cnarcj.Gter.-i oi" the tv/o aunts, a r jri tl:ey are entirely conven- 


jielisse; jjrude, in love with young luan. 

Araxiiinte : oilly ana looliaii, in lOiVe v/ith youn^,, iii^.n. 

Le l,.ariage la it et roinpu, 17k.l. 

A young wioow id beinj xorced hy her uncle's wile to ruarry 
•he latter's brother, though she id in love v/ith Valerc. 'ViT.ii the 
hel|j oj. t. .'id nobtedd ol tiie inn, a double ol the late husband ol' 
v/idovv id produced, ana ir> i^aliaed oi'i" u^jon tJxe ^oncle and aunt arrl 
Li^e . rooi^ective fir^oiu at> an obstacle to the oif^niut^ ' cent 

. .• ti.e real Diuiiib iiad been ct lover, t.ui^nt^ iiJa.riy others, ol" tiie pre 
sidente, txxe a'.uit in liueotion. She alone dete.jto ti.e I', 
..o'veri3s:i tc d^je^.K, on c^ccount of c-ertain dai;:cif-:in, . o^i^erd cl' t.^.^ 
real DtUuio .'uAcn i^it. ii-^jertjOiio-tor hi<.d in }.id :i<.>.naL>. 

J*-. Preaioente; :libertii: , 

Dufresn^/, in the seven comedies I luive exui:.ined, I'urniahes 

iit^j.c; ox iuiureat. There ure no ne'.v ty^/ei., no fully d^i v; .Luea 
i3i;ecimens oi" old oneb. All tiiat v;e iiave is an occ^.tiionul trtiit or 
j>;j.rii-nce to si.ov; thiit the ccnventicnal ty^ye -Hx'^ not Ci.c.iit_^iii^ 
:.iij hands. 

L' Esprit de ContrL^aictic n (1700) containb a saaiijle of the ove r- 
bearint^ hiother in J.j5^e . Oron te . Thio lady, whose delight it is to 
j^iitradict, tries in vain to find out her daughter's ^^refer-:..^^ in 
rejjard to xiiarriajje, evidently to the end that slae may cross her; 
..'hen she finds ?i.eri>elf baffled in trying to detenid/ie Angeli^ue's 
..ill, she turns on iier with:"vcu3 me xjcussez a bcut, taisez-vous. 
On dira encore iiue j 'o-i torti cei>endant c'est vous, oui ^'-^i 
votre esprit q^n'on peut a^i^eler vraiment un esprit de contraaict i-.. 
Je ne puis plus vivre avec vous : une f i 1 le c oi:i;uO cela est un vrai 
fleau dCTiesti^ue ; je veux ni'en de'faire absoluji.ent. Oui, .uadeii-oi- 
selle, je vous luarierai d§ s aujourd'hui. Voila deux i^artis 4ui se 
^..resentenB : Valere d'un ccte, monsieur Thibauctois de I'autre. "e 
ne vous lerc^j j^.^^ I'honneur, non, de vc^js donner le choix: vcus 
epou&erez cefai de o aeux ,iUe je juj_;erai a propos." 

Like Grichard the Grondeur , she dete ru-ines to lucirry An^^eli^ue 
to ' does not want, and sV^ believes t/iio one to be 

Valere. V/iiei. oi.j (.ti .v>^i- vers that ;^^v.'^ i^<^ ueen tricked, o,.e doclv." 

"Je desherite lu. lilie; je ne veux jiiiiii^is vo«r uon : 

^. . . ♦ 

oe..are d avec l ...ri; .10 feral pendro ^^ .v. -.ire et ^.^., ^." 

... .i. 

9[. ; 

1 . . . ., , - 

iHj^ to i^i-i^rove oocicil o' jT tiiO Crcuteo by ner ler'^ 

liiciT rica.jie,ijlanb to liiur fy her to i^.Thibaudoici, ^n ii.._ 

pc^rvenu, Vriua to tiia btjt'er born but '-e . 

7/ith Le Doubl e YciiYu^e (I70c. ) .ve need btc^i only Ibric en(j .-. 
to note ix siiort conversation '.'id-iich is indicutive of the .-.ttitude 
of the iioble towura the bonrteoia.. Tjie Goiutetiue hc^kj udiced. the 
.vidow of her late ste.Vi^rd for u loan of ten thouaand cirov/ns : "je 
voiia en I'rie, je vous enjjrie," jhe reiterates SiS tihe leaves, t-n d 
the v/idov; reiuains reiuains enraged at the cavalier >.<.'.' itiiae o. 
lady. , . 

Le Ded_it(1709) contains two fig'are^ tiittt orojidde .vej..^, out 
really auiount to little. halite aridAraiiiinte, the two aunts of 
Vai'3 ra, are two t:/jjes of tha old vo/tiaxi in lovo --vith a youn,_j li-ai, 
v/ho io jn reality the valet of their ne^^hew. Belize is a prude 
una Ara::.inte an extra va(_^ant fool, Dut tj\2y are entiraly convention- 
al, ana not ivcrth oons idarir.t; lcni^;er, 

Iji ti.<i jr'ies iaente of Le Iiiariage fa i t et rcii.x/U (17;-:i) re a 
v/ell-drawn fit^'ure, and an origini-.l one, thov.rih i>ancourt hao jiven 
us soi.xe tjia t are nicre or lesfc» of her /.iad. Jier _,.ortrait io vitjuT- 
oiioiy sAetched in a I'e-ff .vordri by tue Aunt and tne Hostesia. 

L>^ ITSUVE: (d^'un air acct riat re ) Je vous an i^rie, dit-alie, Je 
^T: ,ria. 

i'R03IJ>;"3: "Elle vous ^^rie d'un :.Ar... 

LA VEUVE: Oes ^ens de ^ualite. . . 

i-'ROoIkE: Le jyren.':ent sur tan ton... 

LA VET.TVE: Jroient lue Ici.'.'--- r-ieres... 

x''RO.SIi\"E: Sent dea coiui-ux.. .-i. TTn jr&.nd se l^ jul .>rio 

un bourgeois de I'^i luira ~ . ' 

c^-irit >::i .jri ■ -^ver - - ■ i, -- . ; 


.. :, .......V.......:, -ate, lU'Jji-ri- 

orite, iSuris foi. 
To .v/.icii ti'id iiusteuu re^^iioij: ■ 

i'iere, prune, at jjeat^nte: 
J'ttcheve le portruAt, joi^jnons-y la f'ctdeur; 
C'e^t elliS-meuiS. ' 

Thiij Pr4rt id elite iti an a dm i ruble svjeciiiien oi' tlio .70j:i..ii /ho 
riiles iier uui)Uiu\;j. u;; _^.re l jiiciiu^ to vield tc liiia on ever^, j^^..mj^: 
point, viiiie in reality hia judgment -.itiitb continually on her a. 
One CI viic source tj oi uer ^ji. .;&■ r uver him is her potie ua <.* ^.Tuae. 
S}ie hfiu in I'act a lurid and viiried past, in which has figured, 
aiiiong u'uiur XLVtjrj, jj^, the late husband of the WidOvV. .ji.. io 
naturally alariaed at the re^^ort that this is at ill alive, an*. 
aajo an ena zc xier prat^ent respec La.j-i ^i ty . Still, her courage doo::. 
not desert her, and she thinics it possible that she luay not be 
recognized under -^er ^.resent chiiracter, and blesses her stars ti^. . 
she has h.ia the siirewdnes j to ciianj^ie her m^i^e rroi:i time to tiuie in 
her ciie c^-ijrtsa ^j r^:__,re l,,j . 

She suspects the .^genuineness o-f tliiu re::,Qsc itated TiaiLi s, and 

naa tlie coura£v,c lo j..i^. oii..- aiiair to the supreme test in Wiiich she 

risks ail to gain all. She comes face to iace with iiiin, and }ie> nut : -^o .,i_iii /-■= i.-r, Tu-: ^^>..i.-^ lo i^ers, '.'i'len ihe ontiraly adv.>..- 

^ JielasJ ^uand je I'ainiai j'e'tais bie/i diri'erente 
De ce ,ius je auis. Llais au ^.lus vite j^artoas, 
-iue j'ai bien fai'^ -^ ' voir pris ijariois de faoc nc.-.I 
i..on histo4re n^ |. .voir e'te suivie. 

rieureux ^.ui pout cacher 1.^ ijiciticl de sa vie 
Pcur se la ire ^.ar l';.utre un reno; I 

C'e;it dans tout Z^e ..V'Ar tres sei,.- '. . . ^ '. . 

u-i flijii il: 

iLv;[ '^.\.i,,.yi 

on the other dide. Tlio Pretiidente io not ox, 

uuxi^^w -^ .vi'"^' ••:^ ■' •' "-" -■'^'" ''^^ I'iurriutje oT her brMi 

ihe vVido.v. 

It must not be iiht.jined that v/e .. l-^'-. ' ^r-riuy ^jrohl ■. 
■2, or that tile Pre J ideate xa uny fallen hercane of Dui;iu3 i ilb 
>.;■ .c'l;....^. :" .T', /!■ , in^ ti. ,yilit;^t,(^ h-irs^ll' xa 1,r. live t;.o 

life cf an r.oneit //oi.iaxi. Kot in tne leHSt; the presidente id no 
x-e\v i^tdt-len. She i ii reore^onted as uno^'i'^K-thotic thro-.i^fi'iO'.iv , 
if Dufresny iiitd. any object than to axiiioe for L-.ii evening, it 
'.•/Kb to preach ae_,ainot x^rudery. This, j-vt least, is what the lat.t 
;ch of the false Daxi^is v/ould laad us tc conclude. 

' Cui, voua etea heureux ^^u'une ^>rude ait eu _t^eur; 
CJontre ias iaX-ti'-Xt, 411 'une ^^rude reduite 
Ait asse2 de .>udeur pour inas>.iuer sa conduite; 
Jhorfe rare "L ^.re^entl L'on en trouve ai i^eu 
Q^ui ijrennent encor sciii de hien Cctcher leur jeu. 
Tout bien condiaere, fn.nah^ c-o ;';et terie 
Est un vice liio ina tjra:. a i.ruderie. 

Les fexujiea ont baniiii c _.uora.tea aoin;^; 

Le aieclo y fC^c^^iX-:: . " ..iiu, j'-:.' '■: " ■■ • ..-j ...^. jn.j. 

AI.AIN RENE LESAflE, 1668-1747. 

Cruspin Rival de son Maitre, 1707. 
Turcaret, 1709, 


Crispin Rival de son Maitre, 1707, 

Angeli^^ue, daughter of M. and lime, Oronte, is Yjeloved by Valer« 
She is, however, proaised in marriage to Dafais, whom her parents 
had never seen, the match '-.iviug been arranged through M. Orgon , 
the father of Dainis. In tiie uaanwhile Damis nas oecn obliged to 
contract a ;narriage with a young girl in Chartres, and Crispin, the 
vale* of Valere, impersonates Damis, in order to get the dowry, 
Crispin t:iua ceco:n3s ti.e rival of his master. The plot is discov- 
ered only when M, Orgon comes on the scene, 

lime, Oronte i vacillating, sentimental, vain, 


Turcaret, 1709, 

A comedy of knavery. The Chevalier plunders the Baronne, the 
Baronne plunders Turcaret, Turcaret plunders society in general, 
and the servants plunder all these without discrimination. 

The Baronne is an impecunious widow in love with the Chevalier, 
but is obliged to accept the attention and the presents of Turcaret, 
a wealth:/ financier, who professes to be a widower, but who has in 
reality a wife whom he keeps on a pension in the province. The 
Baronne intends to larry Turcaret in the end, but will first fleece 
him to zr.ii extent or uer ability i in the meanwhile -• she is pas- 
sing her gleanings on to the Chevalier, She dismisses Marine, an 


, no 


• nltiv , nea .ani^JilliOi*. -■'■rO . 

.1! ' XI« tebntflq Bitij&r'xea etii bna 

nx ajBii. or{w *ucf ,towoblw ■ £ 

on'T .sonlvo' no « y,iJfcXsbT 

-u i »bi11 IXiVf ju- ,^: .-r.T' ujtnoi«€ 

-acq ax 9xfa — si lo ^i 

OB - :] .Tf'i 

outspoken servant who is really in her intereste, and takes into 
her service Lis tte, a soubrette who is hand in hand with Prontin, 
ti.e rascally vulet of the Chevalier. She iiiujiagea to ;^et Prontin in- 
stalled as valet to Turcaret, in which place he is supposed to fill pockets and those of the Chevalier, while in , _-.y he is work- 
ing for himself and Liscette. Turcaret is ir.e aupe of theza ail, A. 
M, Puret appears with a note i-resumablj given by the Baronne and her 
late lUsbEuid, and tries to collect it; at her i.rof escions cf dismay, 
M. Turcaret offers to pay for her, after which xt aevexopa that 
Puret is only a tool of the conspirators to drav/ ;nore money from 
Turcaret. Rumors cf Turcaret' s impendinc; ruin are heard, whereupon 
all a^reii to iiaice hay v/hile the sun shines. Into this complication 
come Mme, Jacob, a dealer in second-hand clothes aiid Turcaret 's 
Bister, and Mme, Turcaretlrr, v;ho has come up from her province under 
the iiiruJie of Comtesse, and who has already entered upon intrigues 
with the Chevalier ana the Marquis. All come together at the Ba- 
rcttne's as guests at a supper which Turcaret is to pay for. In the 
■lids* of explanations and recriminations, Turcaret is arrested for 
insolvency, the Baronne learns through Prontin of the duplicity 
of the Chevalier, and dismisses him, and Frontin and Lisette^left 
alone, gloat over their salvage from the wreck, and the 
descends as ProuLin sajs: "Voila le regne ue M. Turcaret i iui , le 
mien va commencer". 

Turcaret : vain, conceited, pretentious, arabitious, brutal, 

cynical, cowardly, libertine, dishonest. 

Mme. Turcaret ; vain, pretentious, libertine, 

Mme Jacob : ambitious. 


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HThlle Leaa^e has left us but two comedies, the bourgeois char- 
acters contained in them are worth far moro ^ han those foimd in all 
uie cooiedies oetv/eon Moliere' and hirn, ix.iviii.y3 excepting iiancourt. 
Even Dancourt has left no one figure so fine and full as Turcaret, 
nor has he created any ahsclutely new tj-pe, as Lesage has in this 
character. Before we corae to Turcaret, howevt-r, we have Lu dispose 
of the smaller comedy, Crispin Rival de son Maitre, 

In Crispin Rival de son Maitre (1707) there are three bourgeois 
characters, M. Orgon and M, and Mrae, Oronte. The first iv-o of these 
may be dismissed with a word; La Branche says of M, Oronte: "C'est 
un bourgeois fort simple, un petit genie". The same careless 
praise can as T;ell be awarded to M, Orgon. Not so v.ith Mme. Oronte, 
who is distinctly original. The type of wife that Moliere and Dan** 
court have made us familiar v/ith is the raasterful kind, who rolds 
the renins of the government with a firm hand. Mme, Oronte is the 
sport Oi every wind that blows, "Adieu! la girouette va tournerVI 
says Lisette, as Madame abandons a position she had promised to de- 
fend at a word from rier husband. La Branche says to her: "Une 
femme de vingt-cinq a. soixante ans ; une ferume qui s'aime, et qui f?st 
d'lin esprit tellement incertain qu'elle croit dans le meme moment le 
pour et le contre". 

"Une fenime ^uj. s'aime". Here is the second point about Mme, 
Oronte: she is vain, and simperingly sentimental, Lisette r*»minds 
her: "Vous m'avez dit, par example, que vous haissiez monsieur Oronte 
la premiere fois qu'on vous le proposa, parce que vous aimez un 
officer qui mourut au siege de Candie", And Mme. Oronte sir;}-8: 

(1) Sc. 2. (2( Sc, 5. 

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"II cr.t vrai ; •et si co t a'rrre ''rtrj'cn ne fut r'ls "nort,. Je n'-aMrai^ 
jcUaais ej-ouse monaieur i^TuriLd", Liaette m eaKa of Valere uu 'i ': 
lover of Angelique, Mme, Oronte simpere: "A propos, voue ra'en faites 
mj^venir: il nous re^ardait hier, Anrelique et mol, avec dea ye\>x 
si jassionnes, Etes-Tous bien assurie, Lisette, que c'est de ma 
fille qu'il est aincureux"? 

When Crispin makes his entrance as the false Daunia, he heaps 
flattery on Mnie, Oronte, which f.Vi--> accepts, bridlinp; prettily the 
while. He points her out, and inquires: "Voila sans doute I'airaable 
enfant qui m'est destinee"? And he continues, with an audacious 
mirt'ire of comliment and coarseness: "Malapestel la Jolio faLaillel 
je I'orais volontiers aia femrae de I'une, ot ma .'aaitresae de 1' autre 
.... Quel airjquelle graceiquelle nohle fiertej VentrehleuJ ana- 
da.-ne, vous etes tout adorable! . , . Mon pere me le disait bien: Tu 
verraa iViadaine Oronte J c'est la beaute la plus piquantei ' And to 
all this she replies with: "Cela est trop galantj "and"Fi done". 

Mme. Oronte has, however, her good points, and is far from being 
an unsympathetic character. She is, above all else, a gentle mother. 
When Lisette tells her that Angelique does not wish to marry Damis, 
she rep"'-ies: "Moi, la contraindre? moi, gener ma fille? A Dien ne 
plaise que je fasse la Jioindre violence a ses sentiments? Dites-moi, 
Lisette, aurait-elle de 1 •aversion pour Daiais"? And it is she who 
intercedes for the rascally valets when they are found out, 

Mme, Oronte, v/ith her v/averin?-, ir.'istinct lines and her fading 
colors is a": r.esi a pastel; Turcaret is an sau-forte, bitten in with 
firm, bold lines, and standing out with all the clearness that high 
lights and heavy shad>**-8 can lend to a portrait. For the first 

(1| Sc. 4. (i;| So, 7 






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time since Moliere a new type is nreated, and a definite addition 
made to the comic theatre. Turcaret'e iiodel is not to be found in 
Uclipro, thoufjh if we can imagine Moliere endowing one man ^-Ith thn 
nore onaesirable traits of "both U. -Jourdain and Tartuffe, .ve 2ia,y 
form some idea of what the type would have been in his hands. There 
are hints of the character in Dancourt's i'arfadel of La Poire St. 
Gernain and in Ganivet of Le Moulin de Javelle, but it is left for 
Lesage to develop the character in its highest possibilities. 

The presentation of Turcaret's character is a masterpiece i 
before he comes on have words dropped about hi^n to prepare us 
for his coming. . Marine, the best soubrette since Dorine, furnishes 
some of the most valuable details concerning him. In the first 
sc;?ne, she sketches t'le impecuniosity of the Baronne, the timely 
appearance on the scene of M, Turcaret, his undesirable character, 
the desirability of having him for a husband, but the uncertainty of 
"ettins; him in this quality; she advises the Baronne to profit by 
tr.e proaigu-lity of her lover, and if then he fails her, she will at 
least have the debris of his fortune. Marry him therefore, or ruin 
him; and if her reputation suffers in the process, she can still 
find some whimsical - or needy - gentleman who will make all riffht by 
a marriage in oiood form.' In all this there is the cynicism that 

(l) II ne vous restait plus que vos meubles, que vous auriez ete 
oblip;ie de vendre, si la fortune propice ne vous eut fait faire la 
precieuse conquete de M, Turcaret, le traitant .... 
qui n'est pas un homme fort aimable, et qu'aussi vous n'aimes jruere, 
quoique vous ayez dessein de I'epouser, comme il vous I'a -romis; 
il, Turcaret, ais-je, ne se presse pas de vc rolCi , et vous 

attendez patiemnent qu'il accomplisse sa pre...; , r„ ce qu'il vous 

fait tous les jours quelque present considerable Profitez des 

pre ■ "ites de M. Turcaret, en attendant qu'il vou: ' ise, S'il 
y - ■ , a la vorits' en ^n parlera un peu dans le , n.^is vcme 

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marks t'le whole i lay ; "tant pis pour lea dupes" mi^ht be the secon- 
dary title of comedy in which financier, noble, gentlewoman, valet, 
and Boubrette are all ^ont on -'.akinR the most out of a culli-lff v/orl.i» 

So are v.e prepared for Tucaret'a entrance. To anticipate lor a 
moment, and collect in one place the judfToiGnt of the other charac- 
ters on Turcaret, I will quote from v^irious parts of the play. After 
his first exit, Marine exclaims: "L'excellent sujetill a de I'ar.f^ent, 
il est prodi/Tue et credule: c'est un homme fait jour les coquettes", 
A little later the Baronne herself says: "J'ai de 1* esprit; M, Tur- 
caret n'en a f^uere. Je ne I'aine point, et il est amoureux". Near 
the end of the act, we have another light turned on the intrigue. 
The Chevalier, who has been making professions of devotion to the 
Barorne, says to Frontin, "Si jamais je me brouille (avec elle), ce 
ne sera qu'aprSs la ruine totale de '.I, Turcaret", "Qu'apres sa 
destruction, la, son aneantissement'V inquires Frontin, "Je ne 
rends des srins ,i la coquette que ^. cur I'aider a ruiner le traitant", 
coldly oDserves tne nobleman. And towards the end of the play when 
the action is drawing to the climax, the Chevalier remarks: "Je me 
charge de cela: reposez-vous sur moi, M, Turcaret est un bon sot". 

It will be noticed that in all these judgraents the prevailing 
note is Turcaret's gullibility. This is perfectly just from the 
standpoint of those pronouncing upon him, Turcaret, shrewd man of 
affairs, is as wax in the hands of the Baronne and her crew of noble- 
men and menials. Throughout the first half of the play we have this 

aurez ^^our vous en diSdommasrer de bons effets, de 1' argent comptant, 
des bijoux, de bons billets au porteur, des contrats de rente, ^et 
vous trouverez alors quelque gentilhorame capricieiix, ou malaise, 

qui rehabilitera votre reputation ^par un bon raariage II faut 

s'attacher a '!. Turcaret, rour I'epouser, on pour le ruiner, 
(1) I, 6. (2) I, 8, (3) I, 9. (4) IV, 3, 


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i-r-atie of his chuiacL.t i.iuiaLcJu uj^on; it is noi uriLix me u.ira act 
that his more sonibre colors begin to show. His entrance is heral- 
ded by the arriveil of a note for ten thousand ecus, and by a short 
verse i.roffering it. The Baronne reads this veree alouu, i-no it 
will be observed that the last line especially h >3cidedly com- 

mercial flavor, 

Recevez ce billed, charmante Phil s, 

Et soyez assures que won aiiie 
Conservera toujours un^ternelle flajniie, 

Co;iiiiie il act certain que trois et trois font six- 

Wlien li3 inters a moment liter, ne is complacency itself in 

LA 5AK01n1<(E: Je suis ravie de vcus voir, M, Turcaret, pour vc'^ 

faire des compliments sur las vers que vous in'avez en- 

■■. TURCAFJ;T(riant) : O'lil ohl 

LA BAROirifE: 3avez-vous bien qu'ils sont du derni.^r galant? Ja- 

mais les Voiture, ni les Pavilion n'en ont fait de pa- 

M, TURCAEET: Vous plaisantez, apparemment? 

LA BAKONNE: P9int du tout. 

M. TUkCAaET: Serieusement, madame, les trouvez-vous bien tournes? 

LA BAROIi'NE: Le plus spirituellement du ;aonde, 

M, TURCARET: Ge sont pourtant les premiers vers que j'ai faits de 
ma vie, 

LA BAROJmE: On ne le dirait pas. 

M, TJRCARET: Je n'ai pas voulu emprunter le secours de quelque 
auteur, oom-ie cela de pratique, 

LA BARONNE: On le voit bien. Les auteurs de profession ne pen- 
sent et ne s'expriment pas ainsi: on ne saurait les scu- 
^c:\.^ar d- Ico B\cir faits. 

M, TIIRCARST: J'ai voulu voir par curiosite ai je serais capable 
d'en composer, et I'amoiir m*a ouvert 1' esprit, 

LA S/JPO^n^E: Vous etes capable de tout, monsieur, il n'y a rien 
d' impossible pour vous. 

MARIFE: Votre prose, ir^onsieur, merite ausai des compliments: 
elle vaut bien yotre poesie, au mo ins. 

M, TURCARET: ^11 est vrai que ma prose a son merite: elle est 
signee et approuvee par quatre f ermiers-j-cneTraux, 

MABIIIE: Cette approbation vaut mieux que celle tie I'academie, 

LA BAP.OliliE: Pour moi, je n'approuve point votre prose, nonaieur, 
et il me ort^na envie de vous quereller, 

M, TURCATLfiT: L'oCi viint? 



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receiving her compliments on his effort, oaicinK a feeble show of re- 
jecting them, Lhat is about ao sincere as her own professions of un- 
willincness to accept his bank-note. He rwniarks that the v.-T-.e^s are 
a home-product, and not the ''.'ork of a professional, whose uxa others 
are wont to call in; she assures him that no one would mistake them 
for such. She r-yproaches him for seomin- •^,0 imarine that such rres- 
ents as the note are r.ecessarv xo attacr. x.-jr ■'.o :11m, ana aeclarus 
that she loves him no better for thati whereupon he exclaims at her 
frankness and sincerity. His pretension to good society comes out 

LA EAPOn'E: Avez-vous perdu la raison cle m'envoyer un billet au 
porteur? Vous faites tous les jours quelque folic comme 

M. TirFCARET: Vous vous moquez. 

LA BAPiOlIirE: De combien est-il ce billet? Je^n'ai pas pris 

garde a la somme, tant J'^etais en colere centre vous, 

M, TUKCARJ'T: Noni il n'est que^de dix mille ecus, 

LA BAP.OKIIE; Co-Tunent dix raille ecus? Ahjsi j 'avals su cela, je 
vous I'aurais renvoye sur-le-champ, 

M. TUECARET; Pi done J 

lA BAF.O!f}'E: ^ Mais je vous le renvArrai Je suis plus off en- 
see du motif que de la chose mene, ...« En m'accable»«nt 
tous les jours de presents, il semble que vous vous imaf^- 
inez avoir besoin de ces liens-la pour m'attacher a vous, 

M. TUBCARET: Quelle penseej Non, madaaie, ce n'est point dans cette 
vue' que, , , 

LA BARON^I-IE: Mais vous vous trompez, monsieur: Je ne vous en aime 
pas^davantage jour cela, ^ 

M. TUBCAIffiTt a part): Qu'elle est franchel qu'elle est sincere! 

LA BAEOin^nS: Je ne suis sensible qu'a vos empressements, qu'a vos 

M, TUFCARET(a part): Quel r,on coeur! 

LA BARCIv'I'E: ^ 0,u'au seul plasir de vous voir. 

II, T" T(a part): Eile me charme. Adieu, charmante Philis, 

LA B.- :: Quoii vous sortez sitot? 

M, TITHCARET: Oui, ma reine, Je ne viens ici que j^our vous saluer 
en passant, Jo vais a une de nos assemblees pour m* op- 
poser i. la reception d'un pied-plat, d'rm homme de rien 
qu'on veut faire entrer dans notre compacnie, Je revien- 
drai des que je pourrai m'^chapper, 

LA BAROlTliE: Fusrier.-vous deja de re tour J 

MABIIJE: Adieii, monsieur i je suis votre tres humble servante. 

M, TURCAKET: A propos, Marine, il me senble qu'il y a lonrttjiiiis 
que Je ne t'ai rien donne, (il lui donne une poipnee 
d'argent), Tiens ; je donne sans compter, moi, (l, 5,) 

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when he explains f ;. ^ ' • ,n r-rin^ (.n *.c "in'.- .l.-. ? or. .-i.'-.n^ nl ,•■•!=•. ^f,<,r 
m'opposer a la recoplicn a'ui; pied-i-i..t, u'um i. coxae Ue lien qu'or. 
veut entrer dans notra compagnie". Then, as he leaves, etill a- 
nother side of hi3 character is revealed in a flash; givlnc Marine 

ndful of :;ioafc:^ ,he says: "Tiens, je donne sans compter , moil'. 
The stroke is worthy of Moliero. 

The next time he .Tiakes an appearance he is in a different 
mood. Marine, dismissed by the Baronne for Ler free speech. , x.c*t} 
gone straight to Turcaret and laid hare the plot of the lady and the 
Qievalier to fleece him. He enters in a "blind fury, and applies 
such epithets as perf ide , delovale ^ f eloune , traitresae ^ to the 
lady of >!is heart. When, at last, he has exhausted his vocabulary 
of vituperation, he passes on to more tangible marks of hib displeas- 
ure: "Oh! V us n'en serez pas quitte pour des reproches", he cries, 
"ne croyez pas que je sois assez sot pour rcr.'ii-re avec vcus sans 
bruit, pour me retirer sans eclat: je veux laisser ici des marques 
de men ressentiment. Je suis honnete ho:rjne: j'aime de bonne foi; 
je n'^i que dea vues legitimes; je ne cra^nb pas le scandale, moi, 
AhJ vous n'avez pas affaire a un abbe: je vous en avertis". With 
this he goes into her chambre and smashes the mirror and the por- 
celain, Tiien he is more ready to listen to reason, and the Baronne 
scon convinces him that he has been the gull cf Marine in believing 
her stories against her mistress, and that it is really she herself 
who is all truth and good faith. She drives him with a stiff bit, 
and though the thick hide of his vanity is proof against trie Keen 
lash of her irony, once at least she flicks him on the raw, and he 
winres, Pr-^a'-mahly nuGtinr- Marine, sha says: "'Is there anything 
so ridiculous to aeo as a. colonel's wiuov, 

(1) II, 2. 

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1', Turcarot , j.thcut birth, witliout ii.t , e lOkv- 
est 1 earinR. . I " 

"Ska^. i^i.v ^^ualif icationt) ^xctxtm", says Turui^rt^t, '•wi.u.i, ia^-r^i.e ib 
a brazen wencii". 

But the Baronne soon has Lia under control a/^ain, and. Turcaret 
resjonds readily to her handling of the reins, "AKree", she -cc^ t, , 
"that you are a ver> weak specimen". "Yes, inudame", "An easy 
gulli""I cigree, Aiii Marine] you rascal of a Marinel" But his vani- 
ty soars abovr alii the Baronne, c.t rer tenderest, asks, "But serious 
ly, monsieur, do you believe that a heart could hesitate an instant 

between you and the Chevalier"? "No, lAadame, I do not think ao; but 

I .^Ti afraid so". And ne gives her to understand that this is not 

-113 iirst affair; he is exjerienceu m reaovmg imi-eaiiaents I'rou the 

path of love, and has assigned many inconvenient cousins, uncles, 

and hus'i;ands to ]..ositions in the i.rovinces - even so far away as 


(1) LA BAF.OKNS: "Est-il rien de si riaicule, "me disait-elle a tous 

moments", que de voir la veuve d*un cclonel songer k e- 
pouser un M. Turcaret, un hoi.une sans naissance, sans es- 
prit, de la mine la plus basse?,,," 
M, TIJRCABET; Passons, s'il vous, sur les qualites; cette 
Marine -la est une impudente, (II» -■) 

(2) LA BAF.0.'7JE: Convenez que vous etes un homme bien f aible, 
M. TUBCAFST: Oui, .nadame, 

LA }•. "E: 7ne fraiiche dupe, 

V. T ...^>T: J' en ccnviens, (a part) An! JJarine, coquine de Ma- 
rine! (II, ;. ) 

(3) LA BAROl'NE: l/L^is serieuaement, monsieur, croyez-vcus qu'un coeur 

puisse balancer ur. instant entre vous et le Chevalier? 
H, TURCAKET: Non, .iicdame, je ne le crois pas i mais je le crains. 


(-) :.I, TUPCAEET: Je ±u^ v.jjnnerai, une uii'ftc : .evince 

C'est ma maniere d'Icarter les j. -. a,., Aiil coubien 

de cousins, d'oucles et de marie j*ai faits directeurs en 

ma vie! J" 'en ai envoye jusqu'en Canada, (11,2.) 

ft I 



*^ (?) 



This luat remark reveals a certain*or Istlc cf Tin-' 

also shows his fatuity and self-satisfaction, of which we iiave al- 
ready had -narks, and of which further proofs abrund. When the "Ba- 
ronne presents to him the arch-scamp, Froii'j.n, ^6 new Vl^^j.,, Tur- 
caret finds that he looks a bit innocent; and when she compllmonts 
hiin upon his knowledge of faces, he replies caLnly th:at he has an 
infallible eye for such, thereby provinfr at once his complacency and 


gullibility. The Baronne thinks that Fio ntin v;ill lose his ingen- 
uousiieaa in Turcaret's office, and Turcaret agrees that he will, but 
adds that sharp wits are not altogether necessary, that outciie of 

hiiaself and two or three others there are a;::on~ -iic i-nu-ici^rs only 


YBTry ordinary intellects. 

Turcaret always gives without counting; when the Baronne begs 

him not to go to too great expense on her account, he replies: "El;! 

fij madame, fij vous vous arretez a des minuties". He assures her 

that the mirrors, i-orcelains and furniture that he has "bouglit for 

her are in exquisite taste, for he himself has chose* them; and that 

he is a connoisseur in everything, especially in architecture^ Fnen 

Frontin asai res him that he has been born under a lucky star, as 

everybody has a great weakness for him, Turcaret answers that this 

(1) p. 12. (:) pp.7,», 10. 
( 3 )LA BARONNE: . .,.oi°ur, voilS. le «r = rr«on qn^ je veu^: vnv.-, •lr-.'--^^, 
'J[, TURCARET: II paralt un peu innocent. 

LA B'" ^: 0; - v.:- 3 vous ccnnaissea hi'-^-' en phyi^^ I , 

M. T _ .;: J'ci 1 coup d'^oeil infallible, ... Qu -nrenui- 

t-'J ,,, Ce ,r:^r90n-la, madame, est bien niaisj 
LA E'" ': II £0 deni :' dans vos bureaux. 
M. T ..:'. 0':.J ^u'oui, .le, ohi qu'oui, D'ailleurs un tel 
esprit n*est pas necessaire pour faire son chemin. Hors 
^lOl e' deux oi; ' ^3 autres, 11 r/y a parmi nous que des 
genies asHez. 3. (II, S.) 
(4)11, 3. 
(5)M, TURCARET: Je vions, oiaaaiae, ae vous a.- -" - -••■ ^^e 

francs de glaces, d2 porcelaines : - sont 


a I 


;dUiics>j vu 

■ ) 


is not the result of a lucky star, "btJt of i'ls 0"t rr. . /vnd a 

fin-^T touch, bourgeois in the extreme: whnn the Chpvali-'?r inanireB 

if r.e 13 fond of miisic, Turcaret answers; oi je I'a. , ijpetitei 

ju suis ahonne a 1' Opera", 

With Turcaret 's own reference to his lihertinism, v/e cone to 

one of his darker sides; "■"-■ nsrect of the bourpeois that iloliere 

barely touches in Lu. Jourdain, but of which Dancourt has made ccn- 

sidfrabDe capital. It is enouD"h that Turcaret, vith a wife of his 

ovn sustained on a pension in the provinces, should bo courting the 

Baronne;; but we have other testimony than riis nwn that this affair 

was only one in a list more or less extended, YOaen the Baronne 

assures the Marquis that Turcaret is "un horame de bien et d'honneur' , 

the Marquis r'-^plies: "Aussi I'est-il, .riadame, aussi l*est-il, II 

' :.ime le blen des hororaes et I'honneur des ferrmes: il a cette repu- 

tation-la". But it is his ovn sister, Itae, Jacob, -ho goes riost 

into detail over this niatter, and tells about his loving all v/oraen 

except his ovn wife; of his always havinp: some p;irls to pluck and 

£heat him, whom he imaf^ines that he is deceivinp;, because he promises 

to marry them, 

d'un gout exquisi ilsJLes ai choisis moi-inerne, 

LA BAPONNE: Vous etes universal, monsieur; vous vous connaissez 

a tout, ^ 

M, TUBCARET: Oui, £!;races au ciel, et sur-tout en batiment, Vous 

verrez, vous verrez 1 'hotel que je vais faire batir. 


(1) FRONTIK: Je ne sais pas, nonsieur , sous quelle heureuse etoile 

vous etes ne, mais tout le nonde a naturellement un n;rand 
faible jour vous. 
M, TIIPCAHET: _Gela ne vient point de 1' etoile, cela vient des 
manieres, (IT.1,9.) 

(2) IV, 4, 

(3) III, 5. 

(4) Sl.s'., JACOB: C'est un vieiix fou, oui a tou jours alme toutes les 

femnies, hors la sienne. II jette tout par les fenetres, 

I < 

c H .t 

•I ' r ,\ ^ ( . -.'"II r ■, 

r- o T "^ .-: t/ ^ ' 

J aX 

ii'inally, in one rreat Boone, we iiave the i'urcaret' that is .af- 
ferent from all that have p;one before bin, and ho v.ill hav:- mo auc- 
cessora till .ve come to Isidore Lechat of Lea Affaires son t lea 
A""fairffa (190c:), Heretofore we have t-.^n consi . erin? a lurcaret 

who i in the presence of } is social bettera, and who cringes before 
them, is plucked by them, and ridiculed by them to his very face, 
iJow we co.iae to Xurcaret in the privacy of an interview with his con- 
fidential clerk, and dealing in the business that has put him in a 
position *.o ^ivf- ten t>oiisarid rrown notfts + o Baronnes, At O'nc'- +he 
foppery ana sycopi.i.vncy drop from r.iai, ana he beco:aes the hard-hea- 
ded, pitiless, Cynical man of business, riis clerk, Rafle, rims over 
the day's business with him, and Turcaret's comrients are brief al- 
w :-.„ s , and alv.'ays <.irectly to the point, i'irst there is the young 
man who has borroY.ed from I'urcaret, and being unable to pay, has 
confessed to his uncle, the President, who is endeavoring to ruin 
the financier: "- eir trouble for their pains", says Turcaret, "I 
am not easily frightenec". Then the cashier for whom Turcaret has 
become security wi*« has just failed for two hundred t} ousand ecus - 
"By ly orders-jL know where he is". He rromises to jrotect a youn;- 
man just embarking on ?- career of crooked finance, in consideration 
of a share of the spoils. Finally, there is the -nan ■■^ho had bought 

des qu'il est amoureux: c'est un ponier perc'=^ .le ne sais a 

qui il eat attc ■ ' ' t-ment; mais il a toujours quelques denoi- 
aellea qui le j:..— , .-i I'attrapent; et il s'imarine lea attra- 
per, lui , parce qu'il leur promet de les epouaer, I. 'est-ce pas la 
un grand sot? (IV,a,) 

1) Mj^ RAFLE: , Premierement , cet enfant de famille a qui nous pre- 
tanes ^ ' '.- ee troir mille livres, et a qui je fis faire un 
billet , r votre ordre, se voyant sur le point d'etre^ in- 

qui^te pour le paiement, a uJclare la chose a son oncLe le pre'aident, 
qui, de concert avec toute la far.iille, travaille actuellenent a 
<>1 KOus terdre, 

M, TUhCAKhi'T: Peine perc'ue que ce trnvail-la. . . Laissons-lea venir: 
je ne prends paa facilement l'ei)Ouvunte, 


-fs lerroo n- -f ?.< 

■7a *• '^••r- ; ':r i^i , " r r ^.-^ r 


« I 


-rr ■ ■ 

tv"'--'- ^'1 1: n.-- 

1 f<:i va',' 

Ti-s^ f Tn .-'ffi'^ 

• rs l^lJ:^ef r 

:- '.■>-,. 

.t T r? T : / r £ h r\r. .n- rv; 

■ri-< -■^'f irT RVRn 

81/06 f>( 

■-if^ * rt'i 



n e 


^ t»x; 


Ovr OtiVi^ o' 

* an eup t- 


a position in Valogne, and v/ho had piven trust for fifteen thousand 
francs, nr^ri ^-nd h^^n left in the lure'-:. At heart, he was too r-ood - 
"Too pcoodi j.'oo rood] Vllay then .id he go into business"? he naH 
written be^f^ing Turcaret to have pity on him; "Wasted paper, uselesB 
letter". And to see to it that he was not recalled; "I will sefl 
to IT, rather that he is r-jcalled; the office will return to me, and 
I will sell it to ajicther at the same oriceV, 

M, KAPLE: Ce caisaer que vous avez cautlonne , ^et qui vlent 

de faire banqueroiite de deux cent nille ecu|i,., 
■i. TURCAI-.ET: C^est p^r mon ordre qu'il... Je sais ou 11 est, 
M, RAPJJb;: Ilais les procedures se font centre vous; 1' affaire 

est serieuse et pressarte. 
M, TUT-iCAKST: On I'accommodera. J'ai pris mes mesures: cela sera 

regie demain, 
:.I. KAFLE: J'ai jeur que ce no soit trop tard, ^ 
IkI. TJI.CARET: Vous etes trop timide... i^vez-vous passe chez ce 

jeun/e homme de la rue Quinquempoix, a qui j'ai fait avoii 

une caisse? 
K. FuAJLE: Oui, monsieur, II veut bien vous prete^ vingt mille 

francs des preniers deniers qu'il touchera, r condition 

qu'il fera valoir a son profit de qui pourra lui rester 

a la compagnie, et que vous prendrez son parti si I'on 

vient 4 s'apercevcir de la manoeuvre, 
M. TimriATOlT: Cela est dans les regies; il n'y a rien de plus 

Juste, Voila un garpon raisonnalile, Vous lui direz, 

monsieur Rp.fle, que Jc le proter^erai dans toutes affaires 

,,, Y a-t-il encore quelque chose? 
M, BAFLL: Ce rrand homme sec qui vous donna, il y a deux niois, 

deux mille francs pour une direction que vous lui avez 

fait avoir a Valopine,,. 
y. TIIRCARET; Eh bien? 

M, RAPLE: II lui est arrive en malheur. 
il, TUKCARET: Quoi? , 

M. RAFLE: On a sui pris sa bonne foi; on lui a vole quinze 

mille francs,., Dans le ford, il est trop bon, 
M, TTOCARET: Trop bcnl Trop boni Eh pourquoi, diable! s'est-il 

mis dans les affaires? ,.. Trop loni Irop bonj 
M, RAPLE: II m'a e'er it une lettre fort touc'^:antg' par laquelle 

il vous prie d'avoir t iti^ dp lui, 
M, d<h.y: Papier perdu, lettre inutile, , ^ 

a[, x>,r : Et de faire en sorte qu'il *-e soit point rovoque, 
M, Tl -; Je ferai plutot en/sorte qu'il lo soit: l^emploi me 

revien-'^^a; je le donnerai a nn autre pour le meme prix, 
M, RAF"^; C'est ce que j!ai pense co'^me vous, , ^ 

M, Tl -: J^.girais centre mes intorets? je meriterais d'etre 

casse a la tete de la compagnie, (III,^.) 

t-i rf I ; M ■ 


'. R?i T^hC J '?P ; . : f 

i" i 

b:i& , 

^'^■^ f 


ctua ii. 




.:n .T -r {• : '^ 



•ia oJ 



-". r.-.r-, 

em s. 
• xi 

eite'f) aie 


Wor*' V rom rinlon-i i' pps to Turrarot arehis v if n T.nd his slater 
Ifme. J:.coD, The larttjr 13 a dealer iii serorid-hana ciot,;.ir.g, aria 

er chief "-rievance arainat her brother, is that, beinR in business, 
he does not use hia influence to enable her to cut a figure in Paris. 
'•H^lasi holftsi je devrais fair« dans Paris une fif!;ur«... Je devrais 
rnuler carrosse, ma chere dame, ayant vn frere, comme j'en ai un, 
dans lea affaires", {iV,6 r^ As we have already quoted, she shcwr 
no Icve for this 'rrother, only spit^^ and envy; stilJj'A'hen his humil- 
lation comes, she alone has any coiapaasion for him: "Mon frere entre 
les de sec crec.nciers? , , , Tout denature' qu'il est , je suis 
tr-iohe^p r\p non aT^^ftur: i-i vais emplover tout -'lOr; rredit r our Ivi ; 
,1 e sens que je suis sa sceur". Have v;e .-ore an early cri ^ san£, 
or is It, -nerely to heip:hten the comic effect of Mme. Turcaret's 
next sp-="^ch? "Et noi je vais le chercher pour I'accabler d* injures; 
jc sens que je suis sa femme". <V,8, )- 

As for Mme, Turcaret, although she does not appear on the stage 
in ; erson until the fifth act, she is a matter of discussion as 
early as the second scene of the first act. She as sroken of as 
the Comtesse, hov/ever, which is the name she has afs'jmed on comin.r: to 
Paris, VThen Frontin presents her portrait to the Baronne, he tells 
how the Chevalier ca""-^ ' '' ' '■ " her acquaint£vnce, M rir.e shrewdly 
guesses that this comtesae is some bourgeoise, and later, when she 



C'est une caquete, madaTie, ciue nous avons faite 
sans y > •*•, Nous rencontr"^ " ' ^ ' e com- 

tesse c" .. _ ..i lansquenet. ,,,. ^ , -J. H 

repondit, pour rire, a ses minauderles, Elle, qui aime 
le s' ' , a pris la ciicse fort B'* ' ^. """' le nous 
a, ct- .n, envoy^ son portrait, •" .as 

sen] er.ent son nom, 

Je vais parier que ceT.te coratr - "■ ->st q\- "" 
dame nc-'-nHe. Tnute^sa farnille b ae c 

pour lui faire tenir a Paris une petite pension, que les 
caprices du jeu augmentent ou dimimient. |I,2,) 

0-t B? 

\ . 



. Ja© li' 


a V 

'f ^ " .-, 

;x 10 


: i\j V I (.■ 

)B ax 

on (Seaod-jTioO 9:1' 

O 4 


sees her i ortrait, id -ntif i«s j the "Coloase de j rovinclcle" 
that they had rt'cently •'"+ "t +^f» Van, v^'O -eeded to bo coaxed so 
much to r-^move her mask, ano wliom nohody knew when she did remove it. 

Later the Marqula, who has encountered this same Comter 
a ball, describes her *o ♦he Chevalier; thf> mr.v-rnation is at once 
ininnini\tive of t>o personality of Mme, lurcarat and of the MarquiB* 
estimate of women. It is however, the woman herself who reveals 
her c^rrn'-t?''^ *o "r ir. a flarh ar, the vain, shall ov/, self-satisfied 
queen oi ucur.' eois. acciet,^' x:: u ^ roviiicxal town. It is as stron?: a 
light on such society in the eighteenth century as is Dorine's pic- 
ture of the same life in the seventeenth, tainted for the Vienefit of 
Mariana about to become the bride of Tartuffe, Her description of 

) MARINB(prenant le portrait): Attendez,,, Ahl justenent c'est ce 

colosse de provinciale que nous vimes au bal il y a troia 
jours, qui se fit tant prier pour Bter son masqije, et que 
personne ne coimut quand elle fut demasquee, (I,?,) 

) LE -lARQUIS: J'y allai I'autre jour un peu chaud de vir: j'etais 
en pointe; j'aga5ais les jolis masques, J'aperpais une 
taille, un air do gorge, une tournure de hanches. J'a- 
borde, je prle, je ]:resse, .I'obtiens qu'on se deraasque, 
je vols une p-^rsonne, , . 

LE CHEVALIEB: Jeune, sans doute? 

LL IS: Non, assoz vieilleJL ^ 

LE :— --LIKR: Mais belle encore, et des t lus af-reables? 

LE -lAROUlS: Pas trop belle, 

LE CHEVALIER: L'a":our, a ce que je vcis, ne t*^aveu,r;le pas, 

LE ItARQUIS: Je r-inds justice a I'object ai-.e, 

LE CHr.VAI.IER: Elle a done de 1' esprit? 

LE MAEQUIS: OhJ pour de 1' esprit c'est un prodiz^t! Q,u-il fl'X>: 

de penseesi quelle iroar;! nation J elle me dit cent extra- 
vac^ances qui me charm^rent, 

LE "" ""XIEH: Quel^fut le resultat de 1:. conversation? 

LP. .'IS: Le resultat? Je la reonenai chez elle avec sa co.m- 
pafenie; je lui offris mes services, et la vieille folle 
les accepta, 

LE CHEVALIJIR: Tu I'as r-vue de puis? . 

LE MARQUIS: Le^lendeiiain au soir, des que je fus leve, je me 
rend is a son h'otel, 

LE CHEVAI.iaR: Iiotel pr-rni, apparemment? 



life In V.ilofrne is worth auotinr at Innrth. 

ffo with it, and has her lovers, as any marquise or comtesBe, The 
intrigue with the Chevalier and the Marquis recalls that of Mme, 
Patln with the Chevalier a la Mode, In fact, these t.vo v/oinen nu"' 


M.^RQUIS: 0"x, hotel -^arni. 


CKrJVAl.I?JK: ^ bien? 


AIARO.UIS: Ela bien! autr^ vivac 

f olifis , tencires protestat 

itie do conversation, nouvelles 
ions de ma part, vivas reparties 
nna ce piaudit portrait que j'ai 

ai pas rsvue depuis, Elle m'a 
onse, Elle m'tittend aujo-ird'hui; 

dois faire, Irai-je, ou n'lrai- 

de la sienne, Elle me do 

perdu avant-hier; je ne^l 

ecrit: je lui ai fait rep 

raais j^ ne sais ce que je 

je pas? que me conseilles-tu? c'est pour cela que je te 



pressi. La 




lis si j 'y vai 
con.ioncture e 
c'est courir 
qu'en dis-tu? 

ela sera laalhonnet^. 
s aussi, cela paraitra hic.n ea- 
st Jolicate, Marquer tant d'sn 
apres une femme: cela est "bien 

1) MME. 

TURC/vRET: Vous etes trop poll, monsieur le marquis. Ces 

flatteries-la pourraient me convenir en irovince, ou je 
"brille assez, sans vanit^. J'y suis^ to, j ours a I'affAt 
des laodes; qn ae les envoie toutes des le iioraant qu'elles 
sent inventees, et je puis me Vcinter d'etre la i.remiere 
qui ait porte des pretintailles dans la ville de Valogne. 
.... Je l*ai mise sur un piedj j'en ai fait un petit Paris, 

par la belle jeunesse que j'y attire OhI je ne vis 

pas co.'ome un§ dame de cacipagne , iu inoins. Je ne me tifins 
point enfermee dans un chateau; je suis trop fait^^our 

sociftte, Je 

demeure en 

ville, et j'ose dire que mc 


est ecole de politesse et de galanterie pour les jeuijes 
.Tens On joue chez moi; on s'y rasserahle pour medirei 

on y lit tous 
a Saint-Lo, a 
de Vii'e et de 
.^alantes, des 
niers qui ne 

les ouvrages d' esprit qui se font a Cherbourg^ 
Coutances, et qui valent bien les ouvrages 
Caen: j'> dunne aussi <-i " • fetes 

soupers-collations. K. ^ — ^. . ^cuisi- 
savent faire aucun raROul, a la vJritei mais 

ils tirent les viandes 
plus ou de moins elles 
balsl ?fou8 en donnons 
Cela est d'une pro; 


3 • * • . . 

si a-pro;; ^ ^ 
seraiant , -. 
souvent. Que 
':.... Les d. 

.- ...J pour savci ' 
son deguisemont favori. 

premieres daraes du 

quer, et chacune a 

est : n? 

LISETTE: -- se dec^uise en Amour 

-MME. TURCABET: Ohlpour cela non, 
LA BAR6nNE: V- us ^rouB 'en 
MME. TLTRCARET: En Venus, . 're, 

tour de broche de 
Et pour les 
on s'y divertitj 
" ' ■?. jont les 
: ien mas- 
Devinez quel 

en V 


;n Grsce? 


En Venj.s? Ahjmadame, que v 

ouB etes bien deguiseo! (V,?) 

• • • • 

I i 

• • • • 

I 1 


i:i cO'.oinon, and I.tne, T-'-^- '-■<:, is t nt r ; ,-,,>-.. nf the am- 

"bitiouB bourf^eolse "between Dancourt and D' Allninvul, 

Leaarre repri«sents a mile-stone in the development of the bour- 
geois in the "Eighteenth contury, Dancourt had drawn on^- -reat 
figures of women, but in all his fifty-three plays, ti.ore ij no 
character conparable to Turcaryt, Turcaret is at once a continu-incf. 
of the Moliere tradition of the bourgeois; and the "ber.innlnrr; of a new 
era. On one side nti ^ay well be said to descend from M. Jourdain: 
he is, he is jjompous, he struts and plumes himself, he boasts 
of his acquired tastes and his native graces, he fa.vns upon the no- 
bility, and holds it an honor to be plucked by them. But there is 
behind all this much sterner stun' than ':he genial M, Jourdain 
could boast; Lesage seems to fear hio subject aa Molie-re feared 
Tartuffe. The matter passes jest; "aere at last is a bourgeois who 
is to be ridiculed indeed, but whose pov/er is to he dreaded; here 
is the first great step tov;ard that freedom from the old tradition 
which could not consider the bourgeois seri'j'tsly, Turcaret with 
his rascality and meanness is by no means vi.o idec.l that Diderot 
and Sedaine will have in mind, but who can say that Lesage is not the 
first in his century to make a serious comedy out of bourseois con- 

Evt-n if Lesage has not left tts Turcaret he would deserve special 
mention for his b'ouigeois portraits: Miae, Turcaret, vain, garrulous, 
conceited, shallow, is dravm from the life ..•: i.'^ ^-lovinces; while 
Mme, Oronte, of Crisp in Riva l dp son Maitre. is as good in her way 
as Mme. Tur carets, though not drawn in s 'ch vigorous lines, 

(1) pp. 


• ax Sn^JiS-aiir: 

on at s 


iil.^\ cX i;ii 

jcf biwoo 

j-on hXroo ;fox ■^•■■ 



J.'In^Tut, 171k,. 

I.'Irre&oiu, 17 lo. 

lie I..iQiSci.rit, 1715. 

L:i Vriijla Lariucje, 171o, 

L'ObstiiClfl Iifii^revii, ou L'Obstucle sans ObaUi.oie, 1/lV. 

Le Philosojijhe L.arie, on Le i..uri Jionteux cte l'l']tre, 17>-7. 

L'^nvieux, ou La ^Jriti^ue du rhilOBOi^he l.;irie, 17Jt,7. 

Les PixilotiOi^heti Aii.. 'ir-: ux, 17o0. 

Le GlorieuK, 17.iii. 

Le Diasiijaieur, cu L'iionnete i'ViiJonne, 17oo, 

.Le Tcuubcur i,octurne, i75G (i^/roQuoed 17G2. ) 

L' Aaibi tio:ix. et 1' Indidc ^-^ '.e , 17.iV. 

L'Enfant (iute, 1741. 

L>-:: .,xi,ria-,e de Ra^ionae et ae Jolin, om La eilleo de Vil_ 

L'AiiiOur Use, 174ie. 

L'j-oi'.ii.e oirii^ulier, 1747. 

La i'orce du Mature 1, 17 jO. 

Le Jeune lioi^.e a I'S.jre'.^ive, 1751. 

La FaUb^e A^nes, l/b9. 

..o Curieux Iriijertinent. 

j.e Vindicatii. 

Le Vi;esor Cache. 

Le Tj^ yOt, 

Le j.jn.ri Jonfiaent. 

L' Archi-i.^eatsur, ca Le Vieiix Vcu Du^je. 

Leb Petes de I'Inconriu. 

.La Fete de la j.yniijhe Luxece, 

Scene de I'Aiinabla VieiLLard. 

Scene du TraCc.obier. 

Scenes An^laises, tiree;i o.e xa ^'.iiiedie intitiilee 

Scene au irTu tiiei. 

Scexus de Thalie et j,.eliJOCiene. 

L'ln-rsit, 171^,. 

.-eronte wishes to :!u.crry his diau^? tor Isabellr- to "nari-is, to 
..'hose lather ^ .ui.-::: u .jn^ution. Tsabelle wj.o..-o i .^.i.; 

Jleon, "but iier li^tj-c^r rci'u.-, 3s, because GIhcji i^ 

1 X i wL' -J (J !, ; .L ^^1.. .ii 

To. 1-, 

il.e. . 

. he rinds Dar.iis to be uii i.l for ce/'taii. 

JeiX': ■: • .......:. ;r, but. .v.i ta u. ., 

i/lrredoxu, iVio. 

Dorante the irresoluts is linctjrtain /aiicii o.ia oi' two 6ii3 
Julie and Geliiiii3ne, he iuux'ry; tiie cuae ia .j.l;;u cciuxjli ciitcn 
j; ti.e fcsOt t.jiat i.jiie . Ar^^axite, Iheir liiOta^r, iuiH ul.l the m-^.,,.. , . 
iii beaidei more LhiLn ready to :xtrry him. After Tive acts ol" }ies- 
itatiu;., ,^rries Julie, .vhile zue Jhevuiier Uietrr-ieo Jel-..*. . 
. }jori3.n 'je ' s last line it* : . 

J'Aurtiib mieujc Tait, je crcis, d' QiJ<^<.LS^r Jeli;-iiie. 

ijiie. Ar^nte : sill;, sentiii.entt. 1, vuin, ajiit^urous . 

Lys iinOi. : autoci"L.'^4c i"a.tiier. ; :. 

ir-yrante : reasonable l"c»ther, v/iro rule.; b;' love rcitiier tjiin 1' 

e Triiile ijifctricv^je, 1716. 

Oronte, lather ol Vixlere ann Isabelxe, whisheti toifitrr • l:is 
oon to b.n old Oumtecsoe, c^nd iiis d^.u^ixiter to .a.. i..iciic.ut, since slic 
rel.'ijes to eater a convent. Tiie youii^ xjeu; le un"uj:Jt.e iiit'-..:rs lor 
Ui.ciui>eiTes, ho-vdver, and Vulere becretli/ iiiurrieo Julie, v/hile Isu' 
belu.c: ./eai ti.o xjian ol' tier choice, Cleon. tiince Oronte h;ai.sel. 
Gontru-ijtea ci secret lutir '.n (Jeliii^ene, tlier^j 

done . \ I.. yci.rci<.n ali. 

uiTjiiic: , .inei 1'. , avaric:: 

his i: 'ivclved './u.;, o:i.|jr '- .: '' 

vji ii>-.i iio uij ia tjie Tfiiiiticn betwuun Lisiiu. n .^.nd hiij slh 
both cure in love ./ith Julio, c.nd Liaii..iju yioxaa hor to hin. in thjj 
liO^je tha.t sjiie i^^^y be able lo I'dlorm hiiii. J:;li'3, iLO/ever, .^iiclre, o.iter diacovorin^ iier ion^-lotit in Iji:; old 

Lidiuion: ria.rt3h una t/rurmical, but /iuviri^ hit; don' 

L.ycanare: the btociv lon^^i-lobt iatner, ci^^ ^ctrin^j in the i ii'th ^..ct, 

Le Tiiilotooijlie i.ja.v-ie, ou Le .,-uri honteux de I'rltra, 17ii7. 

Aristc, a i^}iilooOijher, is becretly rtit^riied to i-ali'f-^. 
leurb tlie ridicule oi hib i'riendb ii' the iiarriage io divi;lt,ed, e-j- 
i^sciaily vi«xt of tho ...itrviuia d.^ Ijautet. Thib i(iarq_uis ^.. ^.... ix. ^^v 

.vith i..elite, ' not xno.vint; tnat tjna i;^ Aribte'o //ile; also, '.ieronte, 
i.riste'i. uncle, Irojui whom Le ex^.ecta to inherit, urrivet^ ...... ^ 

j^roijosition that Ariate m lo loarry hij^ ^ '.e^.d^AXr^i.ter ^ unde. 

dib iiii... i; J. ■.c.-nce . Under the sli\ ol tiiebe c i , ....^i'- 

ria^e is me(.d« ^^ublic, anr. ti^e xnctniuis cont.(t:les hiii.tiex- 
^ '.^j^.i,.L^:_iiiQr , Aribte'b xc-. .Ji.i, ^uin-on, io i.i. j.-'^'^'''^-'^'''-'" - » 

juivj elated to inb^iire tearb, ..•: iu.ij little to do Hi' 

^cti^. n. 

Creronrii: tjentilxiOijUuu v/ii .. ; 

irascible, , -'icx'- 

Li^-ii..-.., -- - ...- --- .'iob li. io '.ho 

arid Vulere. laabeiie i .i in love ./itii ti.a Jcjiita dti 

LUaatful hero; Vuiero is in i 'lit Liae'. e, 1.. 

Lisei.te turns out to be Ccn^t; i.ce, the long-loa*. aioter ol' '.Ji.. 

Jojiite, Lycunarci, tiieir iu.ti-di', returnii l*^ cuix.iiG vj-tici.^c: 1,.. 

Ll iiijiible t/io Cuiutii, una to ix.inuunca hi.-i /eatun^tion to nib 

.-i(.nx. The reiutiona bet.veen the unoereuionioua Liaii.on ttnd 
iiia l-iaugiity aun-in-lctw ai^ict I'urniali t}ie Cuiurid;.-, while tha ^jdhc,' 
ic intereat ia aupi>iied. by tlie r^MiAon oi the ae^.ti. . lunal;;. 

Lisixuon: bcurt:/:eoi.-3 ubobli, bruaiue, a una fu^n, lilj^rtind, 

".e Diso i^jateur , 1756. 

A veraion of th3 ator;,- oI Tinicn ol' A^^hena; the onxy i/art 
ccncerna ua ia ti^at '.vnich relates to ^eronte, tha uncle ol" vJlrion 
• iiC S.^endthrii t. He cojuea u^j to Paria, ia at I'irst to boiiovf 
that Cleon has becoitie aa iuiaerly as hiiaaa li , alter.vard discov-i \ 
the, ana enters into a scherue .vitlx the Baron and .''"'.ilie tu 
cure Clc^on ol' hit, _.. rodit:alit^-. 

Geronle : a i-iaer, hut an uncle really i'v^nd ol ii:i 

^ X a n t vjct. 'V '-^ 9 i. / '£ X « 


J iti . /li 

di.'.Jji. tero, oOi/iiie urin P-ich^Tir; 

1^ ,. .- ,:., 

iaObt iiu^orUtJice to ua i;s .... ' ■• ' o"'Ciica.teij.u, one ox' t.j»e ^ ' -j, 

..i.o is o. rioii 1 iiicviioier, tmu .v/.o slunuij u^.. I'or tt.o clic.nii..,. ol' his 


L'Aiuour Use, i74ii. 

Lis idor &nd Isabelie are two ^j-iCiv^le ^ait luiddle liie, 7/ho 
i^.ve been contracted to marry in tiieir youth, and •-vish still to 
t:ive the imxireas ion truit each ia laitiiiul to the Each hi.j, 
ho.vever, fixed ailecticns on a lauch younger individual: Lisiaor on 
iint^eii.]_ue, Isabelle on tne chevalier. T/.e youn^; ijeo^-le are, or 
course, in love ;;ith each otiier. Lioidor and laabelle, in order 
to del'er the iuarriage which each believes *hG other .vants, wretand 
to iiave a niece and a nej.>hev/ to •nhoiii they are devoted In the end 
the lour are j^juirea oli consistently -vith their ages. 

Lis ido r : Arnoljjhe . 

Isabelie : Beiise. 

Le Jeune }iouii-.e a I'Si^reu-ce, 1751. 

Leandre , son oT Geron'^, i^ _ • i-tine a nd ; '■Wrirt. 

ue advice of Lisii...,ij, anfii cla friend c ,-, c-nd b 

heli> Lf .T-as^ui 1., Leandre'o v^...,.,, vj.-:.^i. ■ : ... ^.j... oon believe he nix:i^ili is banjcru^jt thrGi;(^h nis scn*^ 

ot 'oc 

15 u lA.d axcvi 

ol' : 

vi; t, ion, 

^ I int. ox idoltctrv. It id only by I'or^: 

Li to 

Tlie earlier comedies of DeatouclioB aru dlBtinf^uished by a 
number of especially tyrannical parents, in marked contrast with 
t'oe sort of parent he introduced later. The firnt of thi^ee is 
in his second cozasdy, L'In£rat_ (1712), and it; cailod, like so many 
fathers in Destcucnes, Geronte. This Geronte, like many of the 
others, 'in-s decidad to marry his dauj^hter, Isahelie. dii-ection 
where iier neart is not ensaged, and the inclinationa -jl cae girl 

re held to be of less than no value. That parental authority be 
maintained, that a debt pf his o"vm to the father of the prospective 
groom be paid -- is the main object in marrying Isabelle, To 
the suggestion of his brother, Ariste, that he consult his daughter 
on the affair, he replies that it is not necessary; that he has a 
»-ight to dispose of her; that a father, being t"--^ --'tier of the en- 
tire family, ought to impose the law on his children. To all 
Ariste 's arguments he simply repli8» that he wills it so, and that 
he is the master. It will be noticed th.^t in all this Ariste taksg 

ARISTE: ^ AVGii-vouis ocnsulte sur ce point 

Le gout de votre f ille? , 
GERO!TTE: Est-il done neoesoaire 

De prendre son avis sur une telle affaire? 

De ma fille, je crois, j 'ai droit de disposer, 
ARISTE: Mais pour avoir ce droit, en^faut-il abuser? 

Saches done si Damis eat aime d' Isabella; 

Car enf in, . , 
GERONTE: Oh parbleuj Vor.s m.3 la donnez telle. 

II faut bien qu'ii lui plaise, etant choiai par moi. 

Un pdre a sea enf ants doit imposer la loi, 

II sat le souverain de toute sa famille. 
ARISTE: Oui: mais, quand il marie ou son fiis, ou sa fille, 

II doit rabattre un peu de cette autorite, 

Et ne point trop voulolr ce qu'il a projette; 

Autrement, c'est aller jusqu'a la tyrannie. .... 

Quelles sont voa raisona?,,,, ^ 

GERONTE: C'eat que le veux, et que j e auia le raaitre,(I,l) 

?.'■ .+' 

erf , 



xliw il ,*ieo 

8b :^ 



a humane and common-aenua stand, which is not without ita eignifi- 
canoo in the light of the later devalcpinont of the fathor in Dee- 
touches' hands, 


Wl:en Isa"be4.1© enters, Oeronte first tricks h;r into a c:;nf2B- 
aion of her love for Cleon, and then curna on nar in lui-y, cuils 
her ••friponne" for having dared to love without his pennispion, and 
ends with a threat of a convent if she continue to disobey him. 

But it is not in his relation to Isahelle that Gercnte Is of 
the ij;reatest interest to us herej besidea his personal preference 
for Damis, he is actuated by the fact that Cleon is noble. In his 
scene v?it}i Ariste, he finally condescends to give his objections 
against Cleon, which are tiiat the latter would think he was marry- 
ing beneath liiin in marrying Isabella, and would make her -- as v/ell 
as her father -- suffer for it. More than one rich bourgeois, he 
says, has done this to regret it afterward. Later, in a scene with 

>' GERONTE{en fureur): Q"oiJ Vous I'aiiaez, friponne? 

"aIT, ah, vous vouB piq.ue2s de belle pass ion J 
Et VOUB osez aimer sans ma permission? 
Mon perel 

Indigne fillej 

Helas, je suis perdu! 
Osez-vouB bien encor vous -lOtrer a ma vue. .,,, 
Si vous n'obSisses, an couvent danc trois j ou^s . 
Vous fera repentir de vob folles amours, (I, 3,) 



Je veux etre (maitre ,,»4SLns^tou,joursima famille; 

II croirait fairs grSce en e'pouseint ma filie. 

Puis, maltre de mon bien qu'il douhaite d'avoir, 

II ne daignerait plus s'abaisser a ^rae voir; 

Et ma fille par lui ha'ie et meprise'e, 

A^mille de'plaisirs de verrait exposee. 

Des qu'elle be i^laindrait: Allea, lui dirait-on, 

C'est bien assez pour vous de porter un grand nom; 

Vous n'etes qu-- bourgeoise, entendez-vous, ma mie? 

llorbl'juj^ Je souffrirais une telle infaLile? 

Je me de'pouillerais pour avoir des raepris? 

Non, non, je ne veux point de grandeur a ce i^rix. 

J'ai du bien, mais enfin je n'ai point la faiblesse 

De vouloir voir ma fille ou marquise ou duc}ieBse; 

II en coute trop cher. Plus d'un riche bourgeois 

Ayant fait ce faux pas, s'en mordu les doigta, (I, 1.) 


' I ) 

'■'leon, he again takOB his stand for the dirnlty of thu Viourgeo isle; 
he is satiBfijd .■.ith his i^uurtieois estate, and wants a son-in-law 
who will not think himself above his wife. Here again, however, 
the validity of his argument suffdrs a little from the fact that 
ht; -las a very lively presuii oj.iaent of 'n.i\i uwu jjuaj.-j.un undex- sucii a 
regime, Finally, he has a scene v/ith Isuhelle which is prophetic 
of LaChauBsee; he tells her th it with the husband he has chosen for 
hena there will be no monsieur or raadeune, but tr.e names of husband 
and wife; these fine names, long since banished "oy pride, will be 
conformably to ancient cu6toms, their tenderest and most magnificent 
titles. This Geronte, like many of the bourgeois of 'Destauches, is 

Dispensez-moi, Monsieur, de faire une sottise, 

Et Boyeis informe pour une bonne fois, 

Que je veuz m'en tenir a 1 ' etage bourgeois, 

Je pretends que men ^endre aime a" vivre en famille, 

Je ^'eux qu'il considere et che'risse aa fille; 

Q,u*il soit doux, complaisant, sincere, officieux, 

Qu'il ne puisse parler ni de rang, ni d'ayeux, 

Q,ue de me nenager il se fasse une affaire, 

Et se tie.nne honore de m'avoir pour beau-pere. 

Or, si j'ltais le v^tre, avouez francheraent, 

Konsieur, qxie tout cela tournerait autreuent; 

'la faiiiills a vcus voir, n'oserait pas pretendre, 

Je serais oblige' de respecter laon gendre, 

Et meme, si j'osais I'appeler, de ce nom, 

On me CjDmmanderait de regler mieiix non ton, ^ 

Vous ha'i'rez na fille, et d'un vain titre ornee, 

Elle viendrait chei: raoi pleurer sa destinee, 

Tandis qu'on vous verrait briller a nes dpjiens, 

Et rire du bon-horjaue avec les courtisans, (II, 5,) 

De vos hauts sentiments daignez un peu descendre, 

Et recevez I'epoux que j'ai choisi pour gendre, 

II n'esiP point releve par des titres pompeux, 

llais il m'aine, il vous aime, et c'es^ '^e que Je veux; 

Vous ne vous direa point ni monsieur, ni, madarae, 

II sera votre epoux, et vo\iB serez sa ferine; 

Ces beaux nons consacr^s a la society, 

Et banni par I'orgueil et lj_inf ide'lite', 

Seront, conf orme.-ient aux coutum«;B antiques, 

Vos t-=tres Iss plus doux, et les plus magnifiques. (Ill ,' 

(. ,r 

hard to classify; to Tsabelle he is utterly unfeeling, and ia as 
harsh and tyrannical as any of the long line of unpleasabt parents 
that have preceded him. In his stand for the "bourgeois aa hourgeois 
however, he "belongs to the fast growing class that feels that it 
does not depend for its dignity upon an alliance with the nobility; 
and in the case of this Geronte, he boob clearly the figure that 
the "bourgeois family cuts in such an alliance, Ariste, his brother, 
is of a humane type that foreshadows the importance soon to be 
laid on the fanily bond. 

In the next play, L'Irresolu (1713) we have the old and the new 
type of father represented in Lysimon and in Pyrante, the fathers 
of the two heroes of the play. The first scene is taken up with 
a long conversation betvyeen fnese two in regard to the best way to 
bring up a son; Lysimon is old-fashioned, and insists on the absolute 
authority of the parent. He does not in any way consider tne in- 
clinations of his sons; of the eldest he has made a magistrate, of 
the second an abbe, and of the third he is about to make a musketeer, 
notwithstanding that his efforts in the case of the other two have 
been unattended with any conspicuous success. Pyrante, on the 
other hand, has joined gentleness to authority in the bringing up 
of Dorante, and claims that the result has justified the course. 
The key-note of the conversation is readied v/hen Pyrante declares: 

Je cherciie son gout, il se conforme au mien. 
Lion fil3 est mon ami, coiarae je suis le sien, 

to which Lysinon impatiently replies: 

Ma foi, vous radotei:, je vous croyais plus sage. (I, 1.) 

These two practically pass off the stage after the farst 

'"(iri'r ' " 

!to .£ 


rsnt: r^DSii 

scene, not to reappear until very near the end; at last, however, 
Pyrante is ahle to convert Lyaimon to hie methOB, and there ie no 
doubt as to which plan DeetoucheB honors with his aiJproval, 

A much more fully developed, if u more hackneyed, flfj;ure, i8 
ladaine Argante, the mother of Julie and Celiinene, She makes her 
entrance inquirinf; eaporly for Dorante, and announces her intention 
of marrying him. She is the usual type of eld coquette; ehe flat- 
ters herself that she has made an impression on him: 

J'ai vu qu'il me trouvait encore aosez aimahle , , , 
and with reason: 

Ca, Nerine, apres tout, est-ce que j e me flatte? 

N'ai-je pas des attraits? ,,,, 

Pour moi, je pretends etre encor dans ma .ieunesse.f TI ,(^ r V 
T-'hen Dorante and lime, Argante come into each otncr's preijence, 
the lady is of a coming-on disposition, while Dorante, though 
pushed on by Prontin, who wants to see her money in the family, 
has scarcely a word to say?' Madame is not discouraged, however; 
she finds his embarrassment a proof of his love, and discovers wit 
and passion in his most ordinary speech. She does all the wooing, 

' -ine, Argante: J'aime son embarras; 11 enprlme sa flarame 

Mieux que tous les discours,,, 
DORANTE: , Oui, Ilada/no il suffit... 

..-«IE. AEGAlfTE: Que sa reponse est pleine et d'araour et d'esprit, 

• • • • 

^a^faites-ECi I'avea do tous vcs sentiments; 
Seccndes mes soupirs par des transports charmanto; 
Dites que ma beaut e vous charme et vous enflarjne; 
Dites que mon portrait est grave' dans votre ajae; 
Et que, si notre hymen ne se fait dans ce Jiour, 
VouB allea expirer de tristesse et d'amour, 

• • • • 

C'est 1' ordinaire effet dos grandes passionB. 

liais vos tendres regards ont de; ..ions.,, 

De grace, f inissez un si chamu. . _ ^e, 

Je n'y puis plus tenir. A quand le raariage? (1X1,3.) 

-^ ( . ) 

and in the end InBists on a definite understcindlr!'' a'bout the wed- 
din.j,. At this point the Chevalier arri'- ■ fers himself to 
j.Iiae. Argante. In thlB offer he is unexpoctodiy backed by Dorante 
who advlBes the lady to accept the new suitor. After she has 
thoroughly convinced herself t.j at Dorante ie really more than ready 
to give her up, and that it is her daughter Julie that he wants, 
she first refuses him her daughter, and then sweeps out v/ith the 
nhevaller, exclaiminrr to Dorante: 

Pour toute recompense, 
N'attendez de mu part que haine et que vengeance. 
In the end, however, she Is hroupht around by the Chevalier 
to peiTuit the marriage of Dorante with Julie, while she trantifers 
her mature affections to the Chevalier; t-ut having arragned matters 
"betvifeen his friend and Julie, the young nohle proceeds to marry 
Cleimene, and line. Argante is left at the end of the play still un- 
attached, hut, it is to he Inferred, still unresicned. Her char- 
acter throughout belon£» rahter to farce than to comedy, and is 
a conventional, though extreme, case of the Belise t^j'pe. 

• Ai^res tout, 

Ce garden est aimahle, et peut venir a bout 
De bannir de men cosur I'infidele Dorante, 
Qu'ilp* faudra d'effcrtsj Son image charmante 
Malgre moi me surprend, m'agite, mais 3nfin...(lV, C.) 

7 (III, 4.) 

In the next cowedy, Le T'-ij-le Marla ft% fT71f) there is the 
character of Oronte to clnim our attention for a noment. lit,- . 
■bourgeois, hut has no especially churacteriBtic traits of his claeBj 
he is, however, an extreme cape of the sort of father in vopue 
in the earlier comedy and is also a worthy descendant of Harpagon 
in certain aspects, 

Tlfte first scene is a monologue by Oronte, in which he depictg 
himself admirahly". His v/ife is dead, he has mourned her for from'a 
sake, and ^as rejoiced secretly in his freedon; her death, however, 
has not left him the absolute liberty he had hoped for: he has a 
son and daugliter, on whose account he is obliged to keep within 
the bounds of decency. His daughter refuses to enter a convent; 
she must, therefore, be married: vexations exigrency for a father 
who loves his money better than his daughter. 

He decided to marry her to an old-school-f riend and contempo- 
rary, M, Michaut, and his reasons for the choice are those of Har- 
pagon arranging the marriage of Elise: "Monsieur Michaut a ' of f re 
a la prendre, sans que je lui donne rien: sa proposition rae con- 

Mon, J e ne p\iis etre parfaitement heureux, J 'avals une f erain^ , 
elle est morte. Je I'ai pleuree pour la forme, tandis que je me 
rejcuiseais en eecret d'etre d6livre d'un tyran qui controlait 
toutes mes actions, et qui voulait disposer de mon coeur apres 
vingt-ans de laariage. J"e croyais que sa mort me laisserait litre: 
je suis esclave de mes enfants, qui m'obligent 3 me contraindre et 
5 garder des bienseances sur lesquelles je n'oserais paeser sans 
me faire t^'-mpaniser par la ville. J'ai un fils plus grand que moi: 
quelle mortification pour un pere qui n'est pas dans le gout de 
renoncer au mondej J'ai une fille aimable et bien faite; elle ne 
veut point se faire religieuse; il fuut done la marier. La fa- 
cheuse necessite pour un p^re qui aime son bien plus que_^8a 
fille J Quel parti doia-je prendre? II faut que je tache de les 
amuser engore quelque temps, pour me donner celui d'arraiu^er mes 
affaires a ma fantaisie, (Sc, 1.) 



vlent. His reasonb for forcing the amourous Comtease on Va- 
lere are similar: "il n'eBt pan question ici ni d'ajaiour, ni de re- 
spect. Lea propositions que ne fait madame sent el avanta^^^reus gb 
pcur V0U6 et pcur mo\, que vous nj sauriez mieux faire que de I'e- 
pouser," It worth while to notice this father of Deatouches' 
earlier work, not so much for his own sake as for t)ie contrast 
th. t iis affords v;ith the parent of his later comedies, 

Destouches is one of the last to show us this old type of 
father; he is also the first to intorduce paternal and filial ten- 
derjiess as a noving spectacle on tne stage. He may he said to unite 
the two types in the sincls character of Liaiwoii, of the Ohat acle 
Imprevu (1717), \71ien it is remotahered ihat this Lisiiaon wishes 
to marry Julie, who is "beloved also by his son Valere, It will oe 
seen that Destouchos had admirable opportunity to draw a striking pa^ 
trait of the unnatural father. He is not slov/ to avail himself of 
it, and Lisiiaon is a particularly unlovely samplu' of the tyrannical 
parent, Valere off-jrs a suggestion, and is promptly obliterated; 
he is tol^ that his opinion is not in the slightest way called for, 
that his room rather than his company is desired with all possible 
haste, is called a fool and a libertine, and is finally ordered 
away, But the later Destouches, the moral and reforming Destouches, 

VALilRE: Pour moi, men sentiment,,, 

LI3i::0IT: On a blen affaire de votre sentiment, Taisez- 

vouB , Afotre proces et ca mar, . ^ Je suis presse', moi, 
de me defaire de ce libertin-la; il faut faire sa 
nooe, dea demain, parce que Je compte me marier en 
meme t'iaps, moi i^ui vous parle. 

7AL3RE: Vous, lacn pere? 

Lisr.1017 Qui, men fils. 

VALEnE: Uais songe:ij-vou8?, . , 

LISI?50>': Je songe que vous e'tes un sot. Tournez-no^. les 

talcns. (I, 4.) 
7(Sc. V.) /(Be. 10.) 



Is already bri,^;;tnning to shov/. It would go hard v7lth thla Doe- 
toucV.oa to allow so unf (?<?! In:-: a father to ro his way •■:-'+>oiit i 
Gh;.\n£;e of huart, . The uaaiiLO D^rnQB hard, it coniea liit'j; ant 
he Is In oh» end no inBensihle to the tpuch of nature, and he plve* 
up Julie for his son's pood. His speech of renunciation is a 
strange one; unwillint,, u.itsracious, betraying affec*^-""^ not 30 raucli 
as a consideration for his aon's welfare, it is yet the apeeoli of 
a father who can not see his son go quite to the dORS. At all event, 
this outburst of recalcitrant affection is better than the brutal 
stolidity cf a, Miuc , GrcBnac (L e Pi at rait ), wiio finds the charge of a 
daugntar too heavy for her; it is an improvement, too, on the sen- 
timent of our author's own Oronte, just quoted ( Le T rip le I.Tariage ) , 
who wisnes to sweep th3 board clear of his children to leave room 
for his own moves. 

This play Is the first of Destouches in which the long Icct 
father appears. The denoi;ment is brought about \sry much like tnat 
of ^'AKare.; when the match between Leandre and Julie seems impossible 
Lycandre appears to announce that Julie's parentage is not at all 
what it has been supposed to be, but that she is his daughter. And 
Julie, true to her kind, gives the cu du san;; that is expected of her! 

AhJ je dois vous reconnaitre a la tendresoe quo j 'avais pour 
vous et a celle dent vous m'avea toujours honcree. 

It is not, however, until the Phi 1 s ophe Ma_r i e (1727) that 

^Lisri01'l(^ Julie) : Je ne suis pas raolns embarrasse' que vous. J'ai 
eu la fausse finesse de c!j?nner ma parole a non fils, j^ersuad^ que 
la comtesse ne vous le c§»derait jan4ts; si je m'en dedis, il va 
prendre ce pretexte pour fai^re tant de sottises et d' extravagances 
que je serai oblige de le desheriter. Un eclat de 1. sorte ac' 
de le perdre dans le nonde; et, quoic^u'il ne merite ^lus ma tc _ — . 
je ne laisserai .i-as d'en etre afflige. 0>il 5a ma cliere Julie, Je 
triomi'he de la faiblesse que j'avia s pour vous, ' ' 'ranee 
de prevenir la pertfi de n^n fils. Dalgne2^>ne t. vous 

conjure. Ccnsentea a I'epouscr; je auis aur que vo» charmca , votre 
bon esT^rit, votre v.:rtu, li retireront de tous ses egarenonts. (111,4,; 

i(V, l:;.) 


la : '.('dc , 
f -I ' ae r , I.isiiaon , 

1 ove of :ne Piii i 
uve und l." -.ed f la: :• , 

, Ariate, 

u ./ i t;;1 ^;;e. 

•^ rc-Bl'ect a'-iountinr; aliiotjT; 'o awe. Tho sr^retiu laid on 

•I" ' , . ■ '1-. seem muwkiah uiil over-emphatic according to lat- 

er standarls, is refr.ia" in^^Ty wTio"! 

up. The ai-cctrtc' ' 

his anger ia new indeed, I 

"ae tc.Tlo hiin t'.at a G'='rrf>t -v. 
ther ex. osea i.i.'i ■ " 

af tttr 1 1 

1 n.'s (I 

riUf^ ul. 

a Cr 

- auiiur 

iM the com- 
it5f uiOi'ti oilan 

,1 tn Yis fr," 


vrath, to such a point does he 

hl.Ti, Ar ■■ Lisi'io" is a fnth^^ vrYo fff f '?ct i '^'^ "^.f^^-its this return. 
Instead n ^..u.i:,j i i -j.' L^i:, ^i '"i^j-u^jv "t son, 

we have the son sharing gladly with th^^ fat'oer, latter proul 

to »"eceiv-' "bountjr at these hands. A>id--iTiore novel still— we find ti»o,:. disrefjarding laoney, i.i.tting '-,... , -^ " ^ "' '^- • '■'■=. prosper* ' "• 

inheritance from tlie uncle, the unregenerate Gr'^rontw who scoffs at 
this reversal of traditional relations. Would Braste, seokin.g to 

nr.r'^pt;. Sole Heir (1708) ' - -^m .l^rA,] +r, ^ tl his un'^"l'=' 
Oercnte t,aa,t ae Vc^luud the patornal hlesuiiig laorr: than t}ie avuncular 
crowrts? uid hidden him he More circu-'isiject in his language, on i,ain 
of cert-i. ■ ■-' disrespectful truf-^s fro:i him himself? A IstH 'Jct-'s h'' "f 
t,j.:.i-, i,;:u .loru i a!:a ".i.e sneers of -is uncle only ct.iiira hi:". z.u his 

ARISTE: ^ C'f;ji iu' , "Ipn, 

Porme depuis deux ans a I'insu de 
M'expoae tot ou tard i sa juste colere, 
DAMON: De: X mots I'apaiseront, Son amitUf pou ••• 

ARISTE: Mci. ;: Je craina sa doult/r hien plus '^ue <rroux, 

Vous aavez a quel point je I'aim^ et le r.jspectei 
Lh tendresse pour lui lui dt^viendr^ s'specte, 
S*il est instruit enfin d*un hymen con + ract^^ 
Sans son oonsGntone.-,t, sans I'avoir c ' "■ ' , (l,c.) 


'error' rnifcT/:--?"*? ib 

:K ■ : :A 


: ' "'a 


i r■1^, 

'ache 30rry 

avmy; A>*1e*:« is 'm^'^'^ 

- ■ s 

his f i T- 3 t ''■<-' 


3 i on oiiH of 





Sa vi 


J • ne 
vi' - 

Mr. -. f 

Vos h 
J" 'en 

Mo ii 
On Vi 
A son 
JP 8U 

Se CO 

site, on tout terajja, n^* r.ei' 
ii-voi.a a ce j.nint raortlf ie 

* --■ 
1^1. '17. eat 


I'il -n'iiit tt Olive l-on fily JMB(in' 

I'ourrai jamais ^in*acc[uitter ei.virs li-J, 

ta men 

._- j1 Vous 1-v 

lis, de ce "bonheiu- 
sa durete rn' 

• I 1 ) 1^ 


et -aon fils tcut ciioC-.-iV,!--;, 
t et, piiiscju^il nons rassF!ri-i"hle, 
^jti veiuc me rejoui , 
' "le (I'en jouir , 
•I seul T..artaii;':5, ^ 
fals "bion plus de cas (jue de votre heritage j 
nc"^'3, ^ son egard, soyea plus circonsiject , 
til fous me voi's manquer de resiect, 
sphe Imh^cile! Ur i<ere, d'ordinai- 

fils tout au noins f ournl'^ ■■ " ■acebL^ 
tout au reliours: le fila, _ rlix ... 

is plus glorieux do vivre a sets d^pena 
'il vivait anx miens, Oui, ma vive t^indresse 
aplait 5 le voir I'appui '^e ma vieillease, 
rients inconnus a votre nauvais coenr, (III,"'".) 

LISI'ION: Si voDs etes f'ache de ne voir de retour, 

J-^ suls pret a jjartir avant la fin du jour, 

ARISTE: Moi. fache de vous voirl ciell quelle injnstioei 

A.'Olr un tf»l souxjjjon, n*es''- me mettre au supplice; 
C^ue j*exT ire a vos yeux s*il est plaislr punr 'rioi 
y-\-,)a rrir^_n6 c^ue le plaisir que J'ai qu- "•'' j<=> -"ous voisj 


Jourquoi me parler a 'ei.i 
rot'-e pere, et ae plus vctro 

Su1b-Ju pas V( ^ , _ . 
Oui, votre ami, mop fllsj et j"ai "bien 
D*un fils dont lf> hon cneur 




D'un fils de qui I'amoar, de qui 
Ont depuis si long-tt^;ox^a prevenu 


lietj de I'etro^ 

t ponriaitre, 

■ a • 

ARISTE: Votre l5onted'3cid. 

Hais quand Je veux parler mon reupect m'ini; 



c ~ 

(. ^ .III) 







, i 


' r 


It ia rather remarkable taat this r-i betweiin father and 
son is the i:iain source of pathos in the play, v/iien so good an op- 
portunity lay in the nef^lected wife, Melite. Onl,,- seven years 
later La Ch.auaaee will draw tsarn for flvi^. ants fro--. ■'Vis Bituatl'"'n. 
But llelite is ::u Conatanco, sixO ai;d Ariijte ;;eem to nave been roar- 
ried long enougli + ^ast the first bliish of tendorness, and 
there is nothing nore ardent tlian p. natural desire on her part to 
have her position nade clear tu l;:c world, ui.u o:: :iis a fear oi 
finding himself in a ridiculous position. 

AristG, Lisimon, and Melite have been considered here at this 
length because the family relation ar.iong tl^.,--.. _o leading to the 
bourgeois drana. Strictly speaking, they are not bourgeois, but be- 
long te the s:nall gentry. We come now, however, to a character 
who, is he has not been born bourgeois, has taken liis atand finuly 
with that class, and exliibits all the traits of tlidse indigenous 
to it. This is Geronte, the brother of Lisimon and uncle of 
Ariste, with v/hora we have alreaay had sorae actiuaintunce, Tne gir- 
cuinstances of his belongings to the bourgeoisie are set forth hy 
Lisimon, v/ho announces v/ith concious virtue that he has remembered 
his rank and remained poor in it, v/hile Gerunte, becoming financier, 
has uaae a rich comiaoner out of a r;our gentleman, G.'#rcnt,ti reminds 
him that the cormoner is performing the duties of a father, and 

LIRIMOir: ^ ^ Moi, dans ma pauvrete', 

J'ai songe qui j'etais, et me suis resT'ec-^e', 
Des malheurs imprevus ont cause ma ruine, 
r>ans me faire oublier une noble criffinei 
Mais vous, vous avez fait, devenu financier, 
D'ur. pauvre gentilhomiae un rich|fe rotuier, 

GEROIITR: AliI vous vi6la bien gras avec votre chim5re! 
Pour vous le roturier fait 1* office de -li^r^t 
A ce fils bien aime vous ne laisseroa rioni 
Et moi, Je le narie, et lui laissc un e'l'^Js bien, 
Plesserai-je par la votre delicatesse? (111,12,) 

sarcastically inquires if jus bequeathing }iic ^'Toverty :o Ariut'i 
V. ill '.vound Lisinon's eenslMli ties. The sarcasm is lost on Lisi- 
nion, who rravely replies >..^ .. j act is fii^e, •'-'! »-eotor^i8 his 

It is puttinr it Mildly to say that Geronte is materialistic. 
He inquires hluntly •/.ri- has ruado his 1-ro^'-_r;r r,o r,.> ■■? "r-^ honor," 
replies Lisinon irielodraiuaticallor. "Jar^rcn t/^at no or.e ui.dti .i^wanus, 
though i'. sounds striking," frrunts Geronte. "But f 

profit strikes and av/akens v^ou," mildl.- retorts Lisiraon. "Before 
daylight," aaas Geronte, 

Geronte is looked upon with unqualified disapproval Yjy the 
other characters in the play, Ariste says that hiy aj-proaCh is 
an ag{,,ravation of ills, and the Marquis finds liiu c. .iwat coarse 
and hrutal individual', irascible temper and sharp wit render 
him intolerable,* But i - is safe to say that on the stage of tiie 
present da;-- he v/culd be regarded as a sin:.ipathetic, ...„Uf-h co/.iic, 
character, and would be much more to the nind of the audience than 
the 'A-iiijTipering Lisimon. There is no doubt, h^Jwever, about Pes- 
touches* intentioni he wishes to 'nake liin distinctly odious, and 

'^LISII^ON: Noni I'action est belle, et vous rend la noblesse. (lll,12j 

GEROXTE: Ilais qui vous a rendu si pauvre? 
LISIi:0II: 1.1c n honneur, 

GERONTE: Jargon qu'on n'entend point, quoiqu'il frappe I'oreille. 

LISliiON: .'.ais celui de profit vous frappe et vous reveille. 

GERONTE: Avant le point du jour. (111,121) 

ARISTE: Ail! bon dieu! quelle voix a frappe uies^oreilles! 

C'est ::ion oncle lui-L.e'i.'.el Autre surcrcit de .TiauxJ (11, '3.) 

^ LE IdARquiS: 

Qui, cc/'oncle d'Ariste est . iginal. 

Jamais hoii.;.e ne fut plus grossier, plus brutal, 

Je n'y saurais tenir. Sen huiiour intrai table 

Avec beaucoup d' esprit le rend insupportable. (1)1,1.) 


Lh ■]■ 


ly of 

1- erf ore* 

I ] ['J _v (17:^?) D- 

is _^ od 4. o J. oii I -.' '- L ■ ^ - ■. 
L -irnedj called Le B 

V ' A 4 A. *- • 

T ' : Liijirit.;-. ic tj^^pe, a:5d h:iS v.^ol 

ci.s 1 ar i.m 

• f* #"»v^rt ' 

-V p <fr^^ftr^r, (Ki^ -^Vin TlOV^l**" "Ir 


i"<'Vid of 
' :-.2 3, 

ave turned iiia uead, since it can cone hetvifeen }iim a.d hie epite/ 
The Comte, boaster he is, .^liveB a true plcturt; of tlie 

real state cf affaire In '■' f rw.s^ if thia f"... ltd hour- 

ecj.s. Pttsquin saytj Liaiiuijn x^oldE thai, iiia xiiii..uiiae fortune 
s at least comparable to iii rth, that the Coint.e rei-iliee tiiat 

Lieiijion y/oula like '.c ).iake people telieve this, but that he docs 
elieve nothing cf the sort; that, in spite ui nxa Liuney , iie feels 
he neceeaity of tiie lustre shed hy a brilliant alliance. Avarice 

- b at first the passion of the parvenu, but, that beinp settled, 
orlaly honors are the goal cf their awbition, Lisim*..]:, c .-. . ui' ti 

. ucki' father, and he himsQlf a recently made noble, han not found 

satisfaction in the heaping up of v/ealth, and now v/ishes to graft 


..imself upon the old nobility. 

It must be roiuembered that this same Conite is the member of the 

Ola nobility througii whom the grafting is to be done, and that the 

effect of his rij^hteous scorn for tiie parvenu is soiaev/hat weakened 

'LISIHON: II faut que je sois bien possede du denon 

Pour acuffrir leg hauteurs d'un pareil roaoi.:ont, 

Et que I'a^ibition m'ait bien tourni la tete, 

Puisque dans ;non depit son empire in'arrete. (111,10.) 

PASQUIN: D'ailleurs, il coiipte fort que sa richesse immense 
Est du moins comparable a la haute naiseance. 

LE COlCTE: II veut le faire croire, et pcurtant r:'en froit rien. 
Je vois flair; ,1e suis £5ur que, inalgre' tout son bien, 
II sent qu'il a besoin de se donner du lustre, 
Et d'aclieter I'^clat d'une cilliance illiistre. 
I?3 ces noriies nouveaux c'est la I'anbition. 
L'av.';rice est d'abord leur ?;rande passion; 
Hais ils c.hangent d'objet des qu'elle est satisfaite, 
Et courent las honneurs quand la fortune ept faite. 
Lisinon, r ouveau noble, et file d'un pere lieurtsux, 
Qui le. c'onhlant de biens n'a pu coinbl«r ses voeuoc, 
Scu'oite de s'enter aur la vieille noblesse, (111,1.) 

by hie arrogance and self-satisfaction. Still, there is nothlnrr to 
show that his estimate of Liaiincn is not entirely just', he ia still 
-h(3 strurrrling bourgeois, *honri: iic does r<n^ ,'1c openly, but 

rat-ier asiiunies that he haa attained the end I'ur .//ilch ho is striv- 
ing. He is, withal, the :::ost disagreeable specimen we iiave yet 
jncounteredi he is the bluff, sv/aggerinr kind, v.'h.c can r, rud 
candor and familiarity frankness, and in zu^n v/uri;L L;or: of rrag- 

art, the man who boasts of his vices. 

His entrance is characteristic. He attempe to kiss Lieette, 
and tlien goes on to inquire about the suitors for Isabelle's hdiid. 
Is cne of them "vif, alerte, etourdl, bien plants, bon vivant"? His 
son-in-law must be all these. JDoes he love good clieer, and drink 
deep? No teetotaler for him. As for his wife -- she r:iust go to 
the country, or at least they must have a bigger house, so tliat 
they may live under the sane roof without knowing it. Is tJiis be- 
cause he really wisries to be rid of his wife -- he tries to seduce 
Lisette iiimeaiately afterward -- or is it zha.'. Pr-jjuge a la .Mcde 

hat LaChaussee will give us, v/ith appropriate tears, two years later? 

LiSHiON: Bonjour, ma chere enfant, Embraat;u-..ioi bien fort,,. 

Comment done! tu me fuis? 
LISETTE: ResGrvee ce transport 

Pour jnadarae, 
LISIMON: Kh! fi done! tu te moques, je pende: 

J'arrive de canpagnej et, plein d* impatience 

De te revoir, j 'accours, . .Quel est ce gar^on-la? 

Tete a tete tous deux? J^ n'aiine point cela, 

Je gage qu'avec lui tu n'etais pas si fiere? 
LISETTB: Nous nous entretenions du comte de Tufiere, 

Son iiartre. 
LISIMON: Ce seigneur que I'on m'a propose 

Pour ma fille? 
PASQUIN; Oul, mqnsieur. 

el b: 



I t 



It if. prol^aMy +■*■ ^ •^ornor, for 
Li«ettrt. F-af. '^.- ^^i-ka of his wife, 
si-eaics or v<=^r, is r 


who says: Mciua lO n'est ■' 

LISIMON: Madauo >i»-'- .-^^ -■-? J'^-i 5'. — ' ^ -■ : 

Si poui" me ciiicoiiier ia<*uciiiie ebt cissei; folle, 
Madame sur-le-champ, par le pouvoir que j*ai, 
Bn meme temps qn^ tni recervra eon conge. 

yly to Philinte, 

LISIMON: Je buis tres d' 

Sur C8 qtJ*on m*cn e'r.rit, a 1^ cmoI, . ^ ■-•. 

On Me le vante fort; et l*on rnc fait entendre 
^u*il '-'Sv hoif.n '' '!•(>*, ('e (-jrcinde qv '"' '; 

Ma.if> es":-!! vif, ., etourdi, Yiif^.v 5, 

"B- vivant? car je venx tout cela i^our na fil^e. 

P/."-^"'J: Vo .l^ f>-:;tHs SOI. I ■ 't, et c'est i ^* 'il hrille. 

I. : : ■Bo^.J >iine-t-il l£. i, et "bjoit-il ' ^.? 

PAS<4uIN: T)ia"blHf il est le plus fort de tout le regiment, 

II a^fait son chef-d'oeuvre en Al"" - - "isae. 

LISIMOJJ: Voila laon }iora;nei il fa;;t quo 1 •ctr ' .,e, 

LISETTE: Qui? ^Philintet 

LISIMON: Lui-aeiae, II iae cajole «n va.j.ii; 

C**iPt vr\ Vmmip Mui rnet Iri tiers d'*»t.n ^inns b< n vin] 

C _ 't, en CHS fa^ons cittes, 

M ■--. .^-.L^^ae u. for'--^ d'j co j ■. tes, 

}1 •'■ "buveur d'eaul FTt-il rrinco, morl " I 

Jci la ruis. Nous allons voir "heau jeu; 

C->/>- na ..;;, dit-Ci), le deatino a laa. fille, 

S -• " ~ '! qu(} je auls le oh«f do /ua fainille, 

Lv Mon -xhsolu d'elle et de v; 

Que j't,- „.x di^pos^r? ... Ifc^.la 

ITSETTE: Oui, Monsieur, 

LISIMON: Tu^.Iirus a ..ia c}i«rt^ 

Qu*il faut que des r-" t;(jj>- elle a^. 

LISETTE: E"! pourquoi done? 

LI?;tW0N: Pourquoi? ... C -i 

Bollf: deriandel 

ITSETTE: Mais... 

LISIMON: . , ^ 


./inuip i£ne. 
^ ie je suis icl 



• n 1.1 1 r *? , 

elle at mr 
xr que 

(I, •.) 




9 ) 


( - ^ T > 

uf ris tion vuLere ;ie a^iya ■'^nat nc is 

Le portrait de sa more, un sot, un freluquet, 
^ui fait li^ iDel eaprit et n'a que du caquet,* 

This latter remark aervea to illuBtruij lit. iuyx'/Lo:'. .uwurd 
his soil as v/ell us hia v/ife. His attitude is nuch the sane in 
reciiard tv bbth; his relations with his son do nothing to redeem 
his unfaithl'ulness to his wife. In the rnidst of his libertine pro- 
posals to Lisatte, Valere enters, and imiuires what the trouble is, 
only to be dismissed suxamarily to look for his mother. Tie can 
p,r-iv-nely enter upon the simpliest speech v-' +- oMt v^'n-f .-let witli the 
:ucst savage retort; and in the way of physical violence, Llsiir ■ 
(3oes even further than J/Iiae, Grognac, who had threatened to box her 
daughter's ears: hf? threatens to put Valere cut of the house on 
pain of being oeaten to aeath; a lacre figure ofsppech, a:- ^btliJee, 
but none the gentler for that. 

^VALEPE:' ?Ion pere, qu'avez-vous? 
LISIMON: Rien, ' 

VALERE: ' Etes-voub nalade? 

LISIMON: Non; je rie porte bien. Que voulea-vous? 
VALERE: Qui? Moi? 

On criaitt au sec ours; et, plein d'u.'i Juste ^ffrci, 

Je Buis vite accouru. 
LISIMON: O'est prendre trop de peine, 

L.lsette me suff it. • ■ - ' 
VAIERE: Male,,,, 

LISIMON: Vctre aspect me gene. 

VALERE: Moi, vous quitter en ce pressant besoinj 

Je n'ai garde, a coup sur, Lisettf, j*^aral r.cln 

De monsieur. Sortez vite; allei^ dir-^ '.a/ mere 

Qu'elle vienne au plus tot. 
LISIiJON: Eh J Je n'en ai que falre, 

Bourreau! (1,7.) 

VALERE: Mais, mon pere, apres tout... 



r^iis ui)lte against his wife and Fon ia Buff iciently acrid to 
counteract resentment of f^^e Comte'e "'muteur. Ho .■i-.J:oB up his 
.,\ind yo 'break off all rela*'''>i!> v.-i-t-^ fii-- ''.'n-^f. , v/mri }-.e wisheB '♦"o 
make his aon-in-l.iw, but pauritjs to reflect that if he doee bo it 
v/ill mean the triunphe of his v/ife and Bon, and chanpee Vis ;nind\ 
Finallv, "-is r- c> ,, .^,j._l and Tiis paternal affection Ir . ''.orroon nut- 
burst rear t: e end of the pl<*y, Lisiiaon :ic- r^cir.g one of thoso 
personna&ee so frequent in Destouches who suddenly chan{£e their way 
of living in the fifth act. 

To return now to Lisimon'E more essentially bourgeois traits. 

These are best illustratrfd in his scenes with the Conte. He 

sv.'a^'rers in, not in the least eabarrassed by the Cerate's frir-idity, 

and eubrac6s him; announces that they will drink deep togetlier, 

7je vais rcLapre.^ At tendons j Si j e prends ce parti, 
De raon autorite ne voila depart i; 
Je ferai triorjpher et non fils et ma feiaiie, 
Et monsieur desormais dependra de madaraej (111,10.) 

/■h^Ji^jt^i^-^xiiOl doncj j 'aurai su faire un miracle incroyable, 
En rendant aujourd'hui ma ferarie raisonnable, 
(Chose qu'on n'a point vue , et qu'on ne verra plus), 
Et mes enfants rendront mes travaux superflus 
Un chef-d' ceuTre si beau deviendrait inutile 
Hon, parbleuj Gardez-vous de ra'echauffer la bile, 
Ou vous aurez sujet de vous en repentir, 
Et mon juste courroux se fera ressentir, (V,3.) 

LISIMOIT: i'laia, apres tout, mon fils, 

Croyez-vous que d'un fat j'e'coute les avis? 

t • • • 

J"e veux le fciire, moi, mourir sous le baton; 
Ou le gueux, des ce soir, quittera ma maison. 

• • • » . 

Le portrait de sa mere, un sot, un freluquet. 

Qui fait le bel esprit et n'a que du caquet. (III.lU.) 

:.'• a 


( .^,V; 


trusts that the Comte is not ill? He chilly, Bits dovm in t}ie 
proffered fauteuil, insists on waivlnp all ceremony between then, 
and swiftly slips into tuto ieaen t . His skin is elephantine ar:;ain8t 
the :onte'6 irony, and hie plumes himself on f (» franlcnesB and 
plainness of his manners. Vhen the haufht;- notlernaii insists on 
his observing a distinction, he coolly takes his stand, and flatly 
tolls him that if he v-'ishes to he hie son-in-law he nust come dovm 


a peg; otherwise, no bargain. He announces further his motto, 

Le Cionte 
mon qui 1 
LISIllON: • 

iisiHON: • 



se leve nonchalamment , et fait un pas au-devant de Lisi- 
' embrasse . 

^ Cher Comte, serviteur. 

(a Tasquin, bas . ) 

Cher CorateJ "u'ous voila grands amis, ce me senble, 

I'a. foi, je suis ravi que nous logions ensemble, 
(f roidement , en se rasseyant.) 

J'en suis fort aise aussi. 

ParbleuJ nous boirons bien, 

Vous buyez sec, dit-on'r' .'oi, je n*y laisse rien: 

J"e suis inpatient de vous verser rasade, 

Et ce sera bientot . , .Mais etes-vous nalade? 

A votre froide raine, a votre sombre accueil.; . 
LE CGLITE: (a ?asquin, qui presente une chaise a Lisii.ion): 

Paites asseoir inonsieur. . .Non, offrez un fauteuil. 

II re le prendra pas, mais... 
LISIMON: Je vous fais excuse; 

Puisque vous me I'offrez, trouvez bon que j'en use, 

Que je m'etale aussi; ear je suis s^.b fH^-on, 

]Ion c>ier, et cela doit Vous servir ^de le^on; 

Et j e veux qu'entre nous toute cerenonie 

Ties ce raeme moment pour jamais soit bannie. 

Oh ja, mon cher garyon, veux-tu venir chez nol? 

jTouB serons tous ravis de diner avec toi, 

Me parlez-vous, monsieur" 

A qui done, je to prie? 

A Pasquin? 

.Je I'ai cru. 

Tout de bon' Je parie 

Qu'un peu de vanete t'a fait croire cela" 
LE ^'^— ^^- ; Mon; mais je HUis peu fait a ces iaaniei"es-la. 
I.:. Oh bien, tu t'y feras, m.on enfant: p'"- 1 ^■•^- ti'^nnes, 

A mon age, crois-tu que je forme les raiennes? 
LE COKTE: 7ous aurez la bonte d'y faire vos efforts. 
T.I-IMO'J: Tiens, chez moi le dedans gouverne le de^-ors: 
e suis franc. 

Quant a moi, j'ain.j 1;-, politesse. 



) + ^r»ri 



which is: "D,m;u i.nrst, , > cd appetite, a:;u u:.uv« aii, no putting- 

U i 1 • 

Later he appears to yield to the Cotite's ideas of propriety, 

but it is only to p:ain his end. He ia i. ;i-. .^. luiuuted, . . «. 

'•.he next act finds him with alJ } ia old a:;t;iir£r.'Ofc. A . .'nv signing 
of the contract, he makes a fuller statement of )iia irinciples, 
as he signs }:Js nanie uith a flourish: "Antoine Lisi... . , Baquire, 

LlSIIaOlJ: J'oi, je ne I'aijie point; car c'est u; e traltresse 
Qui fait aire souvent ce qu'on :ie pense pas. 
Je hais, je fuie ces gens qui font les delicats, 
Dont la fiJre grandeur d'uu rlen se forriialiye, 
Et qui crai'-.t qu'avec elle on ne fai.iiliarise i 
Et ipa uaxinie a raoi, c'est qu'en_tre bona Jvais 
Cer'.aine potito ecarts doivent etre perrais. 

LE COFTE: D'ar.iis avec aiais en fait la difference. 

IIsriON: Pour liici, je n'en fais point. 

LE COKTE: Lt!t3 t.,t;:i;5 utj lua uaissancj 

S 'nt ur peu delicats sur les distinctions, 
Et je ne suis aini qu'a ces conditions. 

LISIL'ON: Ouaisl vcus le prenes l.aut, Eccute, nc^. ch r conte: 
Si tu fals tant_^le fier,^ce n'est pas la lion cocipte, 
IJa fille te plait fort, a ce que I'cn m'a dit; 
Elle est richie, elle est helle, elle a heaucojxp d' esprit: 
Tu lui plais', j'y souscris du ('Ifeilleur de non c;.ne, 
ID'autant plus que par la je contredis ma ferirrie 
Qui voudrait m'engendrer d'un gra/id coiiipliLienteur 
Qui ne dit pas in i:iot sans dire une fadeurj ^ 
KaiB aussi, si t;u veux que je sois ton heau-pere, 
II faut haiseer d'un cran, et chan^j;er de uaniere, 
Ou sinon, raarche rul. 

LE COMTE: (has, a Pasquin, en se levant brusque'-can*. ) 

Je vais le prendre au r;ot. 

■°ASQUI1T: Vuus en nordrei. vos dcigts, ou je ne suis qu'un soti 
PourAlii faux point d'hunneur purdre voLre fortune? 

LE COI'TE: ]frais si ... 

Lisimon: To^ute contrainte, en un ciot, m* importune. 

L'heure au diner pressei aliens^, veux-tu venir? 
IJuus aurons le loisir ae nous entretenir 
Pur nos arrangements; muie coruuen^ons par boire: 
Grand'soif, "con appetit, et sur-tout point de eloirf: 
C'dst u.a devise. On est a son aise chez jioi, 
Et vivre coinme on vtut c'ost notre unique loi; 
Viens, et, sans te goumer avec uoi de la sorte, 
LaisiSiu, e- entrant chez nous, za grandeur a la porte, 

(11, lu.) 

. :\ 

w^, :iu 

and soverign lord ol" a i.;illion ecus." Wjien tii.. Corate inquires 
aarcas-.ically if i.iuriu',' iy a ^itlc, re is told that it if;, and ono 
ijiore crx±±ic.iiz lx-uu iixti j..!i, a:.d iha- oam: noccB count ior liliu 
than parcliruents of nobility. 

In all tnis, it raust be renei'rnered that DestcucheB* rame is 
not Lisiinon, lu. .^^c CoMtei ■^-i'"- '-^-ac. u-c; ia^.ci 't; ; lu i.t.Mi . - 1 /ib and 
their al-surdity are all -i-.e better set off by LAciiaonUs abtiucip- 
tion of equality. Put this does not jTevent LiBiiuon frou being 
a clearly conceived and "well defined figure. It is a little hard 
to place hicii at tiiaes it v/uuld seem that he belongs bo tiic clatis 
that rates mone; above all else, and takes no account of social 
positioni bu"-. efter all > i»i. iinrp.rftnonicujsnesB is a sort of v-histling 
to keep up iiis courage, ana zie suo;.iits to all sorts of indinnities 
at the hands of the Gonte before he v/ill give up the brilliance of 
a noble match for his famil;-. 

LISIMON: Antoine Lisinon, ecuyer. .... , 

Et seigneur suzerain, . ,a' un i.illion d'ecub. ^ 

LE COllTE: Vous vcus uioquez, Je croie? L'are.x'nt est-il un titre? 
LISIKON: Plus brilliant que les tiens, ct J'ai dans £ion pupitre 

Des billeFs au porteur dont je fais plus de caa 

Que de vieux parcheciins, nourriture des rats, 

II a raieon, 
LE COHTE: Pour moi Je tiens que la noblesse.... 


OhI nous au'res bourgeois, nous tenoi.:^ • ^-.^^ i'espece.... 

(V, 5.) 

Tiiis Lycandre is t'ne fovin^alw ^r :.^arb on ')<-p t.nuciies 
draws in this play, &e LisxiJiuii auu 121 Le i':;:>lt. t;Oj.i:e LuiTj-c , He is 
le full-length portrait of The Fu the r , as he is to be in the hands 
r Diderot and Seciaine. I see no reason v.'}i^' L£ Glorieux :.iay not "be 
r garded as a full;," duvcxopea arcuut; rvui i^^uia , unless it is that 
^le family difficulties and their solution do not occupy absolutely 
ie foreground of the play. They do, however, sustain no inconsi- 
uerahle part of the interest i and on*3 hos only 10 read over the per*- 
functory reunion of Anaelme v/i th Valere aiid Hariane, and tnen turn 
the restoration of Lisette to Lycandre and the Comte to realize 
--le distance chat separates Le Glorieux frora L' Avaro . Anselwe 
..pears in the fifth act, in v/nat is pracically cue last scene, 
.;d the reunited faraily is hustled together tc araooth the way for 
:ie weddings. Moliere v/as not thinking r.iuch ahout Valere and 
'ariane, ana still less about Anselmei Harpagon './as his niark. Des- 
-;uches, en the other hand, calls his play Le Glorieux , and tr.en 
rites the entire first act without finding room to introduce the 
oastful hero. This first act is given over largely to the preca- 
icus situation of Lisette--Fnere before have ^ve had a sericus 
rving maid? --and to her aggressive virtue. 

Un coeur tel que le r.iien meprise let- riciiei^ses, 
Quand il faut les gagner par de tellea bassessee, 
she exclaims with concious rectitude, and the effect upon tlie 
>->udience of Destouches raust have been much the same as it is today 

v.hen tho heroine of melodraum veato the t int tliat ra^;^a are 

royal raim<ij\t when W'>rn for virtue •« aaVst;. A Llbfttto hno, too, 
a re^^ard for t'l^ brcprintli-;s: 

U.. aKiricti^Q en J'onae est c- ' , 

she tells Viilere, Tat is what Ponela will insist on a little 
Inter. (1740). 

In art IV t}.^^ f vni] > reimion xo str^ nd "the 

lost father large on tlie horizon, LiS'^tt ne to 

■:nov/ that the Comte is }ier hrother, hut net alto^ethp-r sarpriood, 
S'.c givas tiio^ first cr i J \x 3 a:ic^ cf tho cnntr^*'"' we can 

^ind, and she gives it with vigonous lunge: 

Sana douto, nous scrtons do la -ziana farailla, 
Oui, T ^^ f>oiate est 't^'i ^■'"sro J ">+ "-^-^ l"'-"' ''^ I'ai vu, 
A travore sea uieprib, moix coear ' ■; 

De raon flaihle pour lui je ne auis plus surprlsa. 
In *V.= la^tst art, the fa-ii"'.-,' rennlon io distinctly to fy^.r. -^ore, 
•aid 0- .or inrorosta are suhazui^ry, T:- . oOcibtful Co:ate io h-.i-ibled, 

to "be fiure, "but he eats Ills humble pie acknowledging the sacred tie 
that hinds -Cather and son,. Lisette, the real '"heroine, finds her 
father and receives V.-ilere as a rev/ard " " '• t ■ - v ^ ^ ' ■" n virtue, 
■' '.rt curtain descends on virtue rewarded, fraud exx^osed, a hero 
chastened, and a long separated faiily restored to integrity: Hov/ 
far --■ v.-e from the trag«2die hour^-.-wiie? 

In t^a next play, Lo ^ t3v.r, {IT'^?) ' " -?re is 

not 90 hourgHois, eltl- to charastt-^rs O' ioa, >tit it con- 

tr.ina one portrai* ' -^I'l^.-. any that Destoij(j>ies ' '^ ^.-.r* i .*-ind 

^(I, ",) ^^(IV, -.) 

'*-r,-: f 



r I -^ -/*. •* 


. .no^ 

woH :\:' 

p.-^ be 


(. ;VI) (. ,1) 

him: that of Geronte, an adi-ilrablt; full-length portrait of the 
miser; the man who loves money for money's sake, and not for what 
it can "buy. This miser is the uncle of leon, the spendthrift. 
Ty is unfortunate for our purpose that the comedy is concerned 
with the nephew instead of the uncle; the latter does not appear 
until the third act, -ind disappears early in Lhe fourth; but while 
he is on the stage his presence counts. His first scene is v/ith 
Pasquin, the valet of .'Jleon, and dinette, the raais of Julie. He 
has come to 7arls looking for his nephew, v/hen he is met by the 
valet and maid, and assur^id that leon has become a miser as elope 
as he himself. "Good," says Geronte, "They say that avarice is a 
vice, but to lay way of thinking the pleasure of acquiring infinitely 
surpasses that of spending," 

Later, he himself gives a full picture of the joys of avarice, 
and Harpagon himself never went more into detail than this. It is 






Fort bien, lua douce amj^e; 
j'ais vouB ne parlez point de son economie: 
G'est l3 point capital, 

Bonl II est trop raesquin, 
] rop dur, 

lie dis-tu vraiV 
_, ^ , Demanded a Pasquin, 
£on menage a present va jusqu ' a' 1 'avarice, 
OhI le brave gar^onj ,,, On dit que c'est un vice,,, 

.:ais, a mon sens, le plaisir d'araasser 
Surpasse infiniraent celui de deponser. 
Voila ce qu' il dit. 

Mais c'est do^nc un autre homme? 
Qui, r onsieur. t;ave2-vouB qu'a pre'sent on le no.-nme 
r.e petit ilarpagon? 

7ouB ne flattsz. 

Qui? nous, 
Je VOUB Jure qu'il est aussi ladre que vous: 
■■'est tout dire. 

Oui , ma foi. 

Rur mon honneur, jey' 
De surprise et de joie.,, II faut que tout-a-1 "^aur 
Je I'embrasse. (Ill, 3,) 

the v'^r-" soul cf the rniser that speakB here; the joy ol living lioc 

:.u . 

ill luu fuct, that one has coraforts i;.nd lu..,ii -.-a, but In the 

knowledge that one nay have then if he desires. It can ever con- 
sole one for injury arid insult: 

La canaille, 
Quan.d je passe, in'insulte et ir.e siffle souvent: 
J'entre, j'ouvre laon ccffre, et puis non cher argent 
lie console. 

It i^ust be confeKsed, however, that apart froM Geronte's 

excessive love of sioney, he is far fron being as disagreeable a 

personage as the Avare, He has a real fondnesr for Cleon, enters 

upon a sciieiue to save hiin froci hiiiiself , &.nd is.; capable cf a certain 

hunor which, if soraewhat ironic, is better than Harpagon could have 

risen to. It is a pity that we see sc little of him, but the 

sketch, unfinished as i i is, is t:-e best t/.e century affords 

of this particular subject. 

Plus on air.el' argent, et moins on a de vices: 
Le soin d'en ariffi;aBer occupe tout le coeur; 
Et Ciuiconque s*y livre y trouve son boaheur. 
Un ani qu'on implore, ou refuse ou cliancele; 
L'argent est un ani toujours prompt et fidele. 
Le plaisir d'entasser vaut seul tous les plaieirs. 
Des qu'cn eait que I'on peut replir tous ses d^sirs, 
Qu'on en a lee Lioyens, notre ame est satisfy ite^ ., . 
J)e tout ce que je vois je puis faire 1 'emplette, 
Et cela me suffit. J'adraire un beau chateau ... 
"II ne tiendrait qu'a luol d'en avoir un plus beau," 
lie dis-je. . . . J''aper_5ois une fernne charmante, . . 
"Je I'aurai si je veux"; et cela me ,contente. 
Enfin ce que le monde a de plus precieux 
]lon coffre le renfenne,^et je I'ai tous mes ;;/eux, 
Rous tia nain; et i ar la, 1 'avarice qu'on blame, 
Est le plaisir des sens et le charae de I'ame. 

(Ill, 5.) 

In the little play J. 'Enfant c;ate (1741) we havrj flrat a 
Ba:aple of the sacredness of the faiaily tit», and secondly a 'bDurgeolB 
Wiio stands firmly on the rijrhts of money. /iB to the first,, 
the neglectdd eldor daugiiter of .iie . Argante, allows no appeal froti 
the injustice of her mother; if Fulcherie is the favorite, that 
siifl^ily shows her mother's good taste. At all events, ^>'e prefer- 
ence is inspired hy nature. It is sad that the mother does not; 
axperienco a change of heart at the end, as do so iTan;r of Jjcb- 
touches' disagreeahl^j characters, hut she does not; when the t'en- 
tie oophie, having bereft .'ulcherie of her favorite suitor, kneels 
to 'me. Argante for pardon, she is met with: 

, - Otez-vous, insolente, 

Je suis au desespolr." 


In this point it is a strong contrast to L' B oole d^.sJieres of :.a 
?haussee, to appear three years later, hut otherwise it is as moral 
as the story of Cinderella. 

Tn M, de I'Teuchateau, the financier, we have a figure \7ith the 
sturdy and self-reliant qualities of Lisinon of J-^e Glorieux, with- 
out any of his coarseness or insolence. This bourgeois gives, in 

'Lisette, taisez-vous, et respectez ma nere; 
Je ne saurais souffrir qu'on ose la bla^ner. 
Ri d'elle, plus que moi, ma soeur se f ai •; aimer, 
l^ois-je trouver mauvais, et voir comcie urie injure 
Les effets d'un penchant qu' inspire la nature? 
lie suit-on pas les oix, parlojis de bonne foi, 
En aim^nt une soeur plus aimahle que moi? 
J'la mere a le gout bon; je vols que bout le uonde. 
Loin de le condanner, I'approuve et le seconde. 
Tout ce qui vient ici, court ^ncenser ma soeur, 
Sans qu'on daigne me dire un seul mot de douceur. 
Je ferais done en vain valoir le droit de I'ainee; 
Pour vivre dans I'oubli je sens que je suis neo; 
J 'en ai pris le parti sans aigreur et sans fiel, 
nt n'ai de volonti^s que les ordres du .'iel. ' ;c. 2.) 

?(SC, 17.) 

^ a&' 


as few words as raay be, thti position of fne rich man w^-"-i regards 
his money as a title to respect, but does not presura; upon it to 
ape the nobility. Mis speech to the omte is the speech of the 
self-respecting man ^vho knows his class and its advantages, and has 
no desire to avail hiraself of the false glitter of a purchased 
rank. The bourgeois is becoming more and more class-conscious. 
Later, to be sure, in his suit to Pulcherie, he reminds her 
that with his money he can buy her the titles that her rieart de- 
sires, but it Is plain that he cares nothing for them in themselves, 
except as they help him to win the affections of Pulcherie, 

LE COMTE: L'aimable Pulche'rie, aussi fie're que belle, 

Veut des titres, mon cher, et j ' en ai vingt pour elle; 
Ilais les tiens, quels sont-ils? Des mill'' one? Ma foi, 
0,ui n'a que ce merite, en a fort peu, je crot. 

HEUCHATiilAJ: Je le crol comme vous; mais souffrez que je pense 

Qu'un grand bien nous tient lieu de titres, de naissanc* 

Lorsque ne gatant point ni 1' esprit, ni le coeur, 

II nous sert de moyens pour vivre avec honneur; 

Pour etre gene'reux sans orgueil et sans faste, 

Et d'un riche insolent paraTtre le contraste. 

Si 1 ' on ne peut citer une foule d'aie\uc, 

On s'en fait croire digne; et cela vaut bien mieux 

Que le sterile honneur d'une naissanca illustre, 

Sans moyen , ni desir, d'en augraenter le lustre. ( c.8) 

IJEUOHATEAU : Mais songez que je suis en etat , 

E'acqueVlr, si je veux, et le rang, et 1' eclat, 

Vous aurez sur mon coeur un pouvoir despotiquej 

lies biens vous porteront jusques ou vous voudrez, 

Et, selon Vos desirs, vous en disposerez, 

Je puis vous offrir tout, exc-^pte la naissance, 

9,ue I'on volt trop souvent languir dans 1' indigence, 

Eprouvant a regret que les titres pompeux, 

DepourvuB de moyens , ne rendent point heureux. 

Le vrai bonheur consiste, a ce quej'entends dire, 

A pouvoir parvenir a ce que I'on desire: 

Or, avec la richesse, on n'a qu'a 8ou}"aiter, 

Et I'on p-'rvient a tout, quand on peut l^acheter. 

PLILCIHERIE: '-oi, je n'estine rien de ce que I'on achete. 

La naissance et le bien sent ce que je souhaite; 

I'un sans 1' autre, pour moi, n'est ni touchant ni beau: 

Et je ne puis souffrir un homme tout nouveau. 

Quand on se nesalie, on doit mourir de honte; 

Et j'en mourrai. (Sc. 12,) 

-9b &".. 

In L* Amour Use (1742) we have a conv-intional pair of rnlddle- 
aged sentimentaliate in Lisidor and laabelle, eac^i of w^io'i wants 
to marry a person nuch younfrer. The types are not eapecially weii- 
drawn, however, and add nothing to the regulation type of lellse 
and Arnolphe that we have encountered so many times. Tt nav he 
ren:-'.rked, though, that these two do nothing ridiculous, where there 
is every opportunity for it. The ridiculous hourgeois never ap- 
pealed strongly to Destouches, and the age for such a figure was 
rapidly passing. 

Le J eune Homme a I 'Epreuve (1751) is an excellent specimen of 
the drame "bourgeois, from which the old comedy has not quite dis- 
appeared, v/e }iave still tho elaborate intrigue, and the eternal 
presence of the valet and maid; "but of the latter even Pasquin has 
"become serious, and joins forces with his master's father to save 
that master from the consequences of his folly. The play is 
mainly concerned with, the correction of the ways of the young liher- 
tine and spendthrift, a subject which Destouches had already essayed 
in Le rissi pateur; hut here the feature that comes to the front is 
the doting love of the father, which makes him spare the rod and 
spoil the child, ind the respect of the son for his father. It is 
a drama of family life and family relations as surely as are Le Pere 
de Fami lle and Le Philosophe sans 1q savo ir, to follow within ■^'-'^ 
next decade and a half. 

The author wastes no time on persiflage of valet and maid at 
+^'=> rise of the curtain, hut occupies himself at once with the 
follies of L^andre, Geronte is complaining to Pasquin of his son, 
hut asks nothing tetter than to "be convinced that his son Is good 

at heart, and when Pasqiiln nentlono Leandre's affection for his 

father, the old man's readinetiB to believe iilm on his word la al - 


most pathotic. In the next scene we hive Llsiraon, the hearty, 

sound-headed, and occasionally aharp-tongued friend of the fanlly, 
assuring the old man that his son Is overwhelmed with f^rief at the 
sorrow he has caused his father, and that he is after all an iionest 
loan and a good son, temporarily apoiled uy "bad coiapany. Geronte'B 
repli«8 are made according to the stage directions, "en pleurant" 
and "attendri'I Llsiraon' s sche:^ie is to let the young man helieT* 
for a V'rief season that he has ruined his father, while Ge'ronte's 
instinct is to fo at once to his son and tell him that all his 
debts are paid. It is a strange spectacle for the day, and one 
which nnst have given the jaded t^e?itrp r-oerp ? new sensation, t'-it 
of a too-lcvlng father obliged tc back hiinself by a friend in 







BbnJ bonj Tenez, tout mecontent que voue etes de 
lui , je gage que vous I'idolatrez encore, 

Hon, je le haiB,..0?i} Je le haisi ,,. Tu rTS? 

Vrainent oui; je sais ce que c'est que la haine 
d'un^pere coni:ie vous, pour un fils aussi aimable que 
le votre. 

Au fond, 11 a du bon; n'est-il paa vrai? 

C'est le neilleur coeur du raonde; sa tendresee 
pour vo\iB est inconce'vable, 

Je I'ai ttfujcurs dit; mais Lisiwon rx\Qx\ veut t\%vl 
croire, et ne me permet-plus, depuis quelqu'e t'^mps, 
dtccuter la tendresse paternelle, (I, 1.) 

Laissez-lui touJc"rs croire qu'il eat £ 
de dettes, et que vous n'etes nl en etat ni 
Icnte de les payer, et je vous jure qu'il se 
suff isament. ^ Je sais qu'il est tres-rr.ort 

s'etre attire votre disgrace, et qu'nu milie 
debauches et de ses diss'' pat lone , cause'es pa 
mauvalses ccrapagnies Qu'i^l a f re'quente'es^, 11 
serv^ le coeur d'un honnete homnie, et raene d 
(en pleurant) L'un bon file, 

Oui, mon ami, ^ Quelques-uns de ^es anii 
de foi, m'ont aesure qu'il gemit aincerement 
causer tant de chagrins, et qu'il mei'rt de p 
vouB ne soyea informe de see desordres, et d 
les dettea dent il ae emit accable; 11 
main Ice mrvenvj n 'ai^ra les ulua i re 

en ve- 
ra puni 
if ie' de 
u de ses 
r lea 
a ccn- 
'un bon fli§ 

e, dlgnea 

de vcus 
eur que 
e toutea 
•he STUB 
' ; et 


order to "be Bufficiently stern, V/Tien Ms eon com-^B into hie pre- 
sence, h« maJces a fine show of severity, Imt soon his "raorbleux" 
are mixed up with "mon enfant" and"mon cher filp," and he Is hur- 
ried off as soon as possitle hy Lislmon to keei) V'iin from "iving 
away the '.vV.ole scheine. 

The positions thus taJcen up are kept throughout the play: Li- 
Simon sternly holding to the chastening rod, Geronte thinking at 
every raonant that the puniahiaent has gone far enough, and finally 
urging that all young men do as Leandre has dona, and that boys will 
be boys. He is at last brought ■ o see, however, that it is this 
very indulgence that has ruined Leandre, and acknowledges the JUB- 

1 'autre Jour il lu'amena trois de ses creanciers, me 
priant a genoux de les satisfaire. , 

endri): A genouxl Le pauvre enfant J II rne fait uitiej 




GER0>TTE( a1 




Toutes les fois qu'il vient me voir, je lui dis 
que vous "etes ruine de fond en comble, que c'est lui 
qui «h est 1' unique cause, et que, sans rnoi, vous 
succc.beriez, ^ 

Que vous "9pond-il, ^dites-mci? 

ii pieure, il ge desole, il est pret a se tuer. 
tendri): Peut-ci- avoix* an iieilleur enfant? Aliens, je vais 
Te trouver, , , .pour Iuj. dire qu'il est quitte, et que 
je lui pardonne, (I, 2.) 

Ah{^ Vous voilal I^onsieuri- Vous etes bien hardi de 
vous presenter devant no-} >Je vous I'ai-je pas d^fen- 
du? Qiie cela ne vous arrive rlus, 

IJon, i^Ionsieur, je vous le promets. Je cherc'-ais 
ici Pasquin, et je ne croyaie pas voue y trouver. 

En un mot, je ne veux plus vous voir. ( bas a 
Lisiiao n) Ahi mon ami, je n'en t-uis plus! 
) : ^"brtez au plus vite. 

Cola suffit, lucn pcrc. 

ilofi perei Ne m'appellez plus ainsi; car, enfin, 
voyea-vous, raon cher fils? ...Je auis dans une fureur'., 
J'espere pourtant , , . ,Kon, je n'espere plus rien... 
Vous etes un indigne. . .ub, , .Adieu , mon enfant; tachez 
d'etre plus eage, je vous en prie, ou par la morbleauj,, 
( bas a Li Simo n j ; Je sors, car je ne me possede par. T \ 

Que nous scmraes barbaresi 

Q,ue8 vous etes pusillanii-iei ithj ilorbleu, soyez 
homme une fois: vous n'avez que trop joue le role de 


^ > -i 


« • 

t : 


tice of Lisimon's acherae, nis closing worde are: "Je aula charma 

de trouver ';" fily ciirine d" ma tendreeee; ne Bov-^-^y. f oxio qu'a par- 
tager raa J oie, " 

As for L-.andre, feather brain that he is, he shows himself 
not unv/ort,hy of his father's Icve. Tn the midst of hiu folly he 
has kepi- l\iB filial respect, and says he v/cuid receive a swora 
through hie body rather than to be lacking in this regard toward hie 
father. And again, in a monologue in which he reviews his crop of 
wild oats, he says: "Est-il un hoome sous le ciel plus a plain- 
dre que tioi? J'aime mon pare, et je le faia perir." 

Considering Le Jeune Hoiam e a I' Epreu ve neither Diderot nor 
Sedaine can claim absolute novelty in introducing to the stage their 
St. Albins and their Vanderks pere et fils. 









pere, prenez enfin celui de maitre, et 
vouB impoaer la. loi de suspendre et de 
faiblesse. ^ 

T'ais, toute reflexion faite, raci: 
nous pas fait assez souffrir ce pauvre 
reduiaant au dernier dees^poir? . , . ,Ap 
des folies de son age: si on punissait 
ment tous lea jeunes gens qui lui resserablent , on 
bouleversent tout ^aris , 

Dites plutot que tout Paris rentr 
I'ordre, et que les vices n'y trioraphe 
comme ils font. Qui est-ce qui renve 
C'est la Jeunesse, 

I'ThJ I-T'est-elle pas faite pour le renverserV 
Chaque age a see fonctions. 

connencea par 
cacher votre 

cher aBil,n'avon8 - 
enfVit, en le 

res tout J ce sent 
aussi severe- 

erait dans 
raient pas 
rse I'ordre? 

(IV, 1.) 

S'il succombe a la tentation, c'est un jeune 
hortime perdu sans resource. 

He bien vous 1 'abn^donnerea sans retour, 
Q.uel serait mon d^sespoirj Je 1 ' uime aveugle;nent , 
C'est ce qui I'a gate. Aimer trop un fils, et 
le lui faire trop sentir, c'est fairs runt fois i-is 
pour lui que de le hair et de le rialtraiter. 

Je ne le vois que trop p*-esentemoiit, (V, 2.) 

Au ton tiue vous^prenea avec r.ioi, je prevois que 
V0U8 Manquere25 bientot de respect a votre peVe, 

r.loi? Je me passerais plutot mon e'pe'e au travers 
du corps. ^ (I, 4, ) 

*(V, 11.) ^(I, b.) 

r -M,-. 

I" Tnrrarot la t^o ^IrH*. *(> hrefik 




I ^) 

■'' 'rn-ia as 

He Is not ■ nor at 


L'O' . *.aolf-i I-ur'-vui "but e^ren in tMs la' 

i'. P 


"L'l . 0-1 a W(; have an out-nU'l-Oi- 1 ctf 

""it -r, T' f- B'"'i-e type is rrapr-isentefl ■■ -■ !,I •, A 
■'- Ty I, ■ '■ " L'A ■ . \V.\ r 

■t of Aruu'-x-'--'-'^ '^ L-^: 
: : ospocially i . 

I:- c'ru-tn "'L'l 

1 . (=•*} — 


-: 11 .-.T • 

L'lr Ci5-li 

•.vil I 7-1;' .. r<1 

, . Ii Qr-ri/'->^^ c-r le PI'. IT osoJie Mar " ^ 

. /-\ -1.-^ .T 



1 » 

H-"^ ■'.s rei'rofio'-Qil "'T " I:T 1m- _ ^'ir* •■•1 r'"^' i*+v 

cojrs'i^ Hs ]jisiiv>n*: 

I'* Tj'<ii ' L^"' .X we 

'id 'J I 'I >; :.i X J J 

'lOurrrtwiB -•,-? '"it 11' ' ! ii 'c " ric i\ o. fiif^" : ''Is "hour- 

ois, •' ■ pgiirni 


ha.s alrearJy '^ + * ■-•-•,,■?+• - * •>,-.:•. — 

f:eois simplicity to show t' at >ie is not to ^e ■'iB poai- 

ticn, Tnat he is not altoretlier at his ease s ea- 

iot^-. protest too ■■ucji, I^'ot thtt^ i: s}<inpathetic i far Tron it. 

Destouchfls dOGS not approve of '^>lm any more ' Cr-?rontQ, a,' 1 

''C hc.-o pairtet! 1 his ^Ip-'tp ■ In rrVi-irv rrlrr; " " i^, --"^a^- 

ing cxun harsh, without s-^adin^ or iiar-:!'. ir "'j-.e rcerit of 

vigor and distinctness. We havo in Oeronte of Le Dl !)_ ; j ipat;iir a 
iiser frank tv.iA rM+spolc-en, ' " ■■'^c npenly 

claims t" at no.' "hri great'-^t '^•-■'J', 

., . .1 A , ^-^ 

to disguise his x-?-ssioni he is almost syrui-K ^-t;al affec- 
tion for Cleon, ht. ' linly not ridicu" . !> ' ^ Tikft 'tim, 

•■"'• '"onewlat like Lisinon o" Le Glo r it; ...■., , , o lattt^r^ 

c er, is H* do Neuchatoau of L'E " '-n t Ga 1- h , who stands firmly "by 

the right of honest rioney to a social position "beside a diahoneat 

, • T i i ivjprished nohility. 

Tr j.e idea of a h is w'lom one c< rioualy ic c^r- 

' ; "^ ;■ ') vat ion of D>j: " , " "o?- h 

T ■:■ ■ :' . ■ ut i" \s not his ^-r, .-,*■. r-Kt, TT.-; ■■ on.' *o l^it'-c- 



L J 

" A .- J 

HVf a -Til 11-1-)! own in L- 

, , ' ■) .. 

r: \ 

. I 


:ev ccrv 



cace i'/ 
o" A 

, has l.'eri! trap-b ' 
I- '- --^ect 


the hands of So 


JOSj-IPH J-'K ]. 

Leo Trois j)'reres Rivuux, 1713. • Trois Irires Rivaux, IVlo. 

A itirce Concerning tha rivulry ol tna thr e Lrutnera Li 
lor the iicind oi Angeli^iue, dan^jhterof K, and I'dne. Philidor. 'Ine 
is no ciiarciOta rization in it, and tJie only Inin^; to be noted is a 
scene bet.Vcen tiie ±hilidors, //ho ni^y be taican to be a n.ore or laoi 
t^/i^ical bourgeo iij menii£,e. 

^.x>.n.. .^co xcit bei.ixid iiiii* ons rt. rue, L;a Trolb Fror 

(IVlo), .vjfa oil ountctinb the bi.VtJ"t.<2 oio CiUiTucterd ul.... ana .aiie . 

idor. Tliestt tv/o are entiraly c onvent iunal, ana ^jretsent t)' ■ '; lal 

'Dickering:, nouscliOla. Aa j... Pliilidor }iii/t:iolI yiila it: 

.... Vcitre mere et luoi ijari'ail jiuent d'uocord, ^ 
(Je iUi n'urrive ^^ub a^3:x;<. loib au ^-lus I'anna'o). 

Tiiei"e in a blig;Lt echo oi' Ciiryhiale in i,.. Pi.ilidor'a biUkJtrjrin 

beJdnd iiis wife 'a baci<: about beinj^ tiie niaater ol" ^he hoaaa, biit 

oiiere ^s notJiint, oi' hib c ciiiplacency vhen riie lady ncea H>i^3ar. I' 

iii a feiir ligirit and no I'^vortj betvvjen them, cna ;/hen isue , ri-ilio... r , 

on discovering what she sivijoses to be a couiHi'-mity ol int-aresto 

for once, exclaims: 

Ehl vite, siiibra.-^sons-nous, 
Aliens, Taisons la ^>aix, ;iion ch^^r ^..etit ei^ouxi 

the cjier e uoiix s o •an.b bored rather than otherj/ibe, ana rei--iieo: 

D'oii vient done tout -a-co^ij un exces de tendresde 
Q,ue I'on j-iaraonnerait a peine a ba iikiitreobe? 

x.aturally there is little oona idurat ion ior An^eliviue's ^jre- 

fcrenoeb in Urie Hiat ler ol' ua triiaony, ana they show theuibelvas to ■.' 

b lc rn jvarents; but the entire ^jiece ib so iarcical that ii can .. 

be taxen as indicative of anything in the ,vay of serious 

01 ciiai'ui J L.^ r. 



:/Indiacret, I'liij, 
^ea Oritinaux, 175o, 

L'Sciiitn^a, on C^tiund eh>.~c^ ^i.'^,. ..u.i-ie? 17i54, 

L'Enf'ajit Prbdif^ue, lYviG. 


La .tTinoeade de liavurre, 1745, 

Le Te:iiole de la Gloire, 174 j. 

La Prude, 1747, 

..anine, 1749. 

La i'eiijuie ^ui a raison, 1749, 

occra, t,e, 17bu. 

L'EcooSaise , 1760. 

L'Ecueil du .Sage, 17G2 (re^jrc-'aente coiimie Le Droit du 3oi£;n;i:ur, 1 

La "omedie Pameuse, 

Ji-cirlot, ou La Cumtesde da uivry, 1767, 

Le Dexjositaird, 1769. 

Le i^aron d'Otrante, 

Les Deux Tciineaux, 

L'Indiscret, 1725. 

This is the story of a voun.-; man, Darnis, who did not kn^.. 
to liold Jiis tongue. Jlio indiscretions lead to his losing ti.o 1^. 
v.- ..1^ J .uice, Hortense, tc his ii^ore seir-ccntained riv..^, ^iitan- 
dra. The first scene, between DcUuis and his luotner, EUj,^her..i3, is 
the only ^jart of the play which in c..., ....y concernii ' ■:!'^ vr -^3. 

Les Criijinaux, 17i2. (Placed i.riv:.i. il./ in 1722?) 

This comedy details tne story of the ui,urt;eois faiuily con^ij 

in^ of the President, the x'residente, tiisir _ , . 

tu tiie Comte des Arrets, and a youn^.er daut_i.ter Piuic , n love 

;Vi ti. the Oii^vuliar ■-, . 

'l-o ^. da Cai^-Ve:"., a sea-cupta. . 3iure "iage c.-n be ac- 
1 Ji;h-. 

aidcover Lii«3 ir two loni_:-loat Ci.ill. 

113 r. T--.^ .'■'•'■>•„ - -o'tu-blii not uc i.flxcn 

of tii« iTebident tuid Prosidet. te cUiCi tne J'u J - , 

:-.3l;;,t iontj bcLvve^.n t.ic ccnite and hib wii'j, a I., x^icul boi«*gecis-nL i 

i.'Eniant ProdiLjue, 17^56. 

it. Supheuun iius two tionSjEu^jheiiicn lilo <=.zid i'ierenlut. The 
eiaer hao sj^Uciiidered iiid ;jub3t<a. noe in riotous liviu^, anct ij 
cixut oil by his ir.ther. The ycioni^er son, ±ierenlut, ia u, b(. ut to 
laarTy Li&e, the dau^.'.ter ci" Rondcn, who inoiato tliat ixll ol' Eu^.i. 
if.c<n's ^.roi^ertj be iiiU-ae ever to i'ierenlat at hits d-satli. Lib e ht.a 
been the sv/eetheart oi Supheini^n f ild bel'.^re his disaj^._.<earance, c 
Qoes her best to aelay the '.veadinfj. Jiiot beicre tne ccntract is 
tiitjned, Eu^heiaon iueeto a strari^er v;ho has seen Kujjheiucn x i i& in 
^enurj caia ra^^s, and >iis heart bcitena to'<Vc.rd him. At this juj. _ 
ure tiis i-rodi^al hiiubell' a^y^-ear^, in a chastened frame oi ^.-inri. 
..e meetb Lioe, deienrta her from thean^er of hia brotiier, io r.^o . 
oiled to hib lat/xer, and all enatj .vr^j.1. Pierenfat Xl. ooj-i^^eu u 
u.i^rry tie de Cr<.ujjiilaG, .viio urj^.aa a i^rior claii.i. 

i-london caid Fie reciicwt : bourgeoib of tne old t.y^,e, iuaaienul 
iiic. t e r ii-. 1 , 

JiU|j/idi„wn j^ J re : unnc^^,^ y fat/ier. 

- -r. ine, I'/'iJ . 

• !-• I J. 

conti-ive5 la U.rovv auijijiciuii i^ii' ..uJiine'o viru-ie, 
JUi t tud sUi>^jOtjecL lover in her lathiar. The cuiuto cloiiu^.! 
uicir.''iu^3» una its itooe^ ttjQ. Tj. ire iriteroat o I 

idinderi Ui/on the roi.jcuitic xove ol tiie nouij lor t,. 
a.ria iu lull 01 tiie ri£j, ci" fcan, o«.na tu^ ux^irib ■. 

lit ieiiiiie yiUi ci Rctibon, 1749. 

11.. Duru h&a been abbant iroiu hoiije lor t^ve Ive ^eu,r.j, unci h.^^ 
eiitrurfted hia house and his s^-n and duugi.ter to t};.i2 care oi i.i^ 
.•;iie, wiUi Btrict injunctiorio aii to thriit in the i.ianat3ei!.ent ol 
ij.^ xorj;.er, and ctdvantcAjjeois bourfc;eois iuarrifaiges iL.r -u.-sr. 

jle returns to lind hiLS household i^iven ovar to vjia t he re^iaras t. . 
exuiaVatiaiioe , and his dau£ji:ter uiarried to a xijar4uis, ni^ sen tc 
tliB liiar.iuio' aioter. The novelty' ol" the i^lay lies i Jt 

:nat ta^e wile is Juotiliea, and huaband vvorijtea, in tiii; 
L'l econofliy. 

iv-. i'urv : btini.y, . puru: reasonable and .vise. 

jrii^on: li-iser. 

Lord ...oiii .J been driveji Iroiu ocoLla.n.. 


, .. . jc.l'e V. ^ . Tj.k- J . 

iL/i'-untite yoiui^ ocotoji (_,ii".L, .vj..o j.. 

:;-, :,er - i.l"' living relutive. Liiiduiie io iii love .vi t' 

.,ora i,-urr<a.^ , wiio ii<a.B oebtrtea, i or her, Lttdy r, itoii. 

i:ii,l ir^;c-v te^ -jst ci' Linaanj i'cr coiiS|.iirciCy, cirid it k. 

"oJiroiic^Ji tiie ixiLervexit ion ol h'ruei. :a^,iiij}i brt. 

ifior, tiiit Lindane is oaved iruu ^jri^oii. ui' co iroe ajie io i 

uuufeiiioiir 01 Lora ^.unrotje, auu tiio icii.iiiy iroub^ 

by Lord i^urray'a obta.irii/i£^ ci.n tdi.neaty for Lord Lonrc)3-3 , t.nd 

Biicr ry ing Linduiie . 

Jrreei^ort: bcurosoib, blunt, outs^vOKen, even rude, .. • - - 

C4.nd Wc^riii-iieL-rtea. 

Le I'rcit du aei,_,neur, IVGii. (Thio xjlc»,y aiu not receive tnio titl 
until 1YV2, but ;/as re. ^^^ relented in IVO;. aa L'l^c^uil au 3u,_e . ) 

Acantiie, a viliat^e oi-'"!. i^ be in^ loroea by jier a^ 
a iLiir riatre .vitn tne Tanner, .i,.athurin. She feels herocli abo". 
ana io ebj^ecia-ily druv/n to.vard Lc»ure , an obaour^ olu 
liviHti a retirea lile in a cot'at-;e in t*ie .vouds. relore " 
rictus oan tajie j^^lcce, Acantne luxisj t tsU-biuit tu a lii teen-iuij. * 
.rivcite inter'V. . tn tija iuar^uib: '.i.j r r it av , 

intervi;i>j, i^o lui" olTeri/i 

rei'i.. , : 

JLl iCv 


Vol';airo furnishes vtjry little *"'"^ ^j.'.^ i;i b-^cly- 

ing t}ie history of the bourgeois type. Co.-'iecly was not Voltaire's 
strong point, and lie is apt to wear the 1" - statelinese 

deuanded "-^'^ ^'r.e cothurnus . He has yf ■-/ ylr. v.^-ir- ..ois 

It all, altliough two of the instances v/}iich iie dues present are 
fully worked-out t:'pes. Ke is of nuch more value to the history 
o'** "^"ho drat:ie ''nn'ir'-Rols, as he tric^-l it, never .. , ''lOiirh v/ltli- 
. :nspicuou6 success. 

In his first comedy, T. 'Indiscret (l"25), • one scene 

.vhich we need notice; this is the first, hetvveen the indiscreet 
Daiiis and his uotixer, Euphernie. She gives her son t'ood v/orld ad- 
vice sonev^iiat after the fashion of Polonius to Laertes setting out 
froa Denciark. The quality of this advice is of less interest to 
us than the tone of affection and raoderat:' "'■ 
it is delivtjred. 

His second conedy, L'3s Originaux (17^2), is rauch mere imi^ortant 
to us, first on account of the "!-■■- i>-!Teo is milieu in pi ■'■■■>-■' ^^ , 
next because of the undoubted tendency it shov/s towara .^^o e.xploitin.- 
of the fa-lily tie, both uarital and parental, as a source of dra- 
matic interest. Voltaire was always drawn to the dra:ie, t: • .e 


EUPKE}.:iE : 

N'atter.dei; i;as, ncn fils, qu'avec un ton severe 
Jo deploie a vos lyeux I'autorit^ de mere: 
Toujoura prete a me rendro a vos justes raisons, 
Je vous dpnne un conseil €t ncn pas des leyona; 
C'est Moncoeur qui vous parle, et rxn experience 

Pait que ce coeur pour vo'ub sc trouble par avance 

ITnn; il n'est.poi't ailleurs, r.r^ ", je vous ' , 

Uie r.ere plus tendre, une aniti' .•, pure: 

A vous plalrt! a janais je borne toia ries voeux, 

Soyez hewrei^x, mon fils, c'cst tout ce que ? v. :.. 

(8c. 1.) 

:, *fO 

Irsists on a distinction of ternB. He fiiida tl.'j idea of a t rap^ e - 

lie "bourreoise a>i8urd., i^'i*- fcl'^'i+E *"•■> > .j-r '■ n -i ^" -f a coned ie a*- 

•:er!drissant>i , "by whicli }ie iiieans a coiaedy *. i • ■ 1.c interest. 

The apj-ilication of tiiia idea to conedy seeir.t: to "be an innbvntion 

•■•■^ '"--r, r.-! L ns Ori£:in a'.^> is indlfri:tal-" - v/nn 

; ..ayed i^rivately in 1722, ye:irr roi'cre Lu riiiic .::o]..:u ..:-r::J , 1:1 ■.v:.::cj:i 

"Testonches first essayed to treat serioxislj"" of il tond, 

-^nd in w;iich }ie introd'jced a *er/ier situation between fn-^''--;er and 

tC'-; and it was nc"^ • ■■^M ^ ccl: t after Les r i^ inayj-: La 

Chaussee Vrouglit out Le PrGjrt^e _ a la llpde, in wMc ? 

•elation of }ii.s>'and ar-'d wife the inainsprlng of thn action. A" least 

Voltaire sa^ .- . ....:j , lyyed 1- "'"TT' ?■--: vr^., - vin+- 

To consider first the purely bourtieois lua cures of the play, 

/e have tv/o sketches, cf t':e President and his v/ife, that protaise 

■ ell, "but revt-ir f:c'-'« to fulfillment. TTu nenace is li-Mm tially tie 

conveii^icnai one of :iie old conedy; a father and noti^cr raore or less 

ridiculcuB, an elder daughter riarried to a noMe who scorns her, 

j.:'id a ycun;'-c' dau-htc"^ in Invc '.vith anoti:Gr nc'^-le. Fanchon, the 

';: ad e t ■: e , .rivet; a rapid shetcn of iier fatner ana ;;o-iior, LTLL^er and 

Tother-in-lav;, which put the lie nape hefore us at a atroke. Un- 

"ortunatel}/, the President and Pregjdente , when they do appear, are 

entirely farcical, he being bound up in his astrolory, and shr:^ j.-; 

^T'ref ace to I'anine. 

Preraierer.ient, non pere eat un vieux president rich*© et bon- 
horanie, fou de 1 'astrologie, ou 11 n'entend rien. ^ ila mere est la 
li.eilleLrp fcTnrae de monde, folle de la medecine, ou el"' ^ '-■•itord 

out a: Bsi peu: elle paeue sa vie a faire et a tuer .lades. 

i-a soaur ame'e est \xr\Q t^rande creature, bienfaite, fclle de son 
'^nari, qui ne I'cst point du tout d'elle. Son i/iari, mon Veau frSre, 
;st un soi-disant pirand seigneur, fort^vain, trSe-fat, et rempli de 
c'.: *" "-it -ci Je c " ':-"otre encore plus folle que 

tou^ ...-- -i.vouB m'ai^.-...- .. ,.j... o.;. cerement q.ue voui- vp--. >,-, de 
rae I'abburer, (Sc,;;', ) 

ring. ■,>- far i.r.e most i/nportan u r'jla- 

:icn bet.v/eon the Cor!r':e tu 'vi-^n. v/'-.ic cic, c^ ■■. ' 1 t',;dfi 

ci z:.ic iiociu zo.'Jiira :ce 

. ..inst alicv/infcT bLuy al'fecticn for onds v/ife, jBition of the 

^omtesse in the matter Is ahsolutely that of es of J.a 

' • • • ' 

. spark of atiroitioni in fact, when she finds thut ushand is 

jnly a shai;i Coute, ahe thanks God for it, i.ref erriiip; har liushand's 
love to his title. As for the Conte, tiis fact ...-^^^ he has onlj' as- 
sumed the title lias nothing to do v/ith our thesis, except as he is 
an exanple of a ■bourfreois buying up a little and making way 
through sjieor el'f rontt-ry. Ker attitude toward his v/ife is alto- 
-rether the conventional one, and he may be regarded for the mouent 
-.13 a real noble. His indifference toward his v;ife seems to be real , 
in Vv'liic]-!. point he differs from tho heroes of Destouclios and La 

uriaussee, ou": i^ ia backea by the idea zha.z any ;• courtje of 


:.ction would be bourgeois in the extreme. He does not spare the 

LA COI.ITESSE (a_ _sa _ner£) iHelael, vous me traitez de veuve; il 
est trop vrai que je le suie. Vcus m'avez riariee, et je n'ai point 
de iiiciri: monsieur le coiu^e s'est mis dans la tetc qu'il derogerait 
£ ' il m'aimait. J'ai le malheur de respecter des noeuds qu'il he- 
E^lige, et de 1 'aimer parce qu'il est mon mari, il ne meprise 
parce que je suis sa fenme: je vcus ao^oue que j'en suis inconsoable . 

]?AJ:JCHOM: Laraoyer pour un n;ari qui n'est peut-etre pas si grand 
seigneur qu'il le ditl ....0,ui a plus de dettes que de bie;., plus 

,Un petit froluquent idolatre de sa fip'ure, et qui est plus lonr' 
uemx^s que nous a sa toilette, qu4 copie tous les redicules' de la 
cour sans en prendre une seule bonne qualite, qui fait 1' important, 
qui .... (11,1. ) 

ais vous^ m'avez epouse, madane; "vous m'avez Jpcuse pour etre dame 

' es avec qui vous 
, Moi. .ie vous ai 

^ ... _^ , , . _. 

de qualite, pour prendre le pas Bur vos c* 
avez 6t6 elevoe, rcur les fairy crever de 

n . 

feelings of his wife in speaking to her on the autject, and tella 

flatly that n'm 'i.u^ married '■i." ^n ^^'•f'^ ■ \Ht-.' Vier ftiends 
.jealous, as Ym has laarrled her for litsr aov/ry. As Tor t^e reoion- 
strancea of lier fathe>' and mother, he would have them understand that 
he does not intend co ooon to take \xp the V'our.Tecis st-'le of lifu, 
and t; liiti •./ifii le '..ij Comtasae Des-Appro-us , s::e ib -co BUOLam t;:a 
dignity appertainins to her rank, and havy nothing in common with 
her husband hut name, arms, and livry. In nologue he reveals 
himself still nio;K, and further ^uakes plair. '-e i i) a act;; 

v/ithout fortune or "birth, who has made hie way alone. He explains 
his resources at length in a clearing up oi 'Ct, in v/hich 

he shov;s tliat a merchant's widow had "been valuable ■ ^i--.'t^ to 

Ha is finally trapped into a declaration of love for his wife 
" .■^- '^ scheme much like that of Mariana of ^'^^ >-' ■dted grange; he 
jirtlds then, but only conditionally: "Voub avsi: touchs laon coeur; 

epouse ,.,Je vous ai epousee, madaiue, pour ajoutsr deux cent mille, 
ecus a aon hien, De ces deux cent mille ecus, j'en ai dej a nanse 
cent mille; par consequent, je ne vous dois plus que la moitie des 
egards que je vouis devais, Quand j'aurai mange lea cent laille au- 
tres, je serai tout-§.-fait quitte avec vous, , . , ,Croyez-aoi , le 
president et la pre'sidonte onti beau faire, .i R n-s veux pas vivre 
sit*ot en bourgeois; et puisque vous otes loadame la conitesse Des- 
Appr'ets, je veux que vous soutaniez votre dipnite, et qua vous 
n'ay-^z rien de coiaraun avec votre inari quc le noui, les armea, et 
le livreeu, Vous ne savez pas vutre luoiide; vous uoua imatint: 
qu'un marl ec one ferame sont f^iits pour vivre enseiabla: quells xueu, 

(II. 6,) 

(ad honores) , j 'ai le noble plaisir de la mepriser, (ll, >; , ) 

^ Premierement , j'ai^l'air d'un grand seigneur; j 'ai epouse 
d'abord la^veuve d'un negociant qui m'a t^nrichi, et ^ui es* -■ .i; 
j 'ai acliete des terres; je rae suis fait comte; j ' ai epouse , 

JQ veux qu'elle soit comtesse toute sa vie, 

(III, 1^,) 

vos ;:orUet; i ' tf;!.porttint; ijur laee defauts. On mv .le corri^-e pae "cout 

d'un coup: je vivrai aVuc vous en bourgeo.Bj ja voub aimerai; roale 


ciu'on n*en auche riun, s'ii vo le plait," 

The GomtsBsa is ., ;!i ». uiiiiyau u . leBtiai i.^y vt.uuuub -ind forgiving. 
The glitter of a title does not in the'isast blind her to the va- 
lue of real love; her ia&t remar^, when the Comte saye that he 
Bhould liice .'lis v;if^' to he Comtssas all iier days, ,^: "Dieu ra'en 
preservsi j 'ai ete crop maltraitee sous ce titre. Contentez-voua 
d*itre fils de votre pare, gendre de votre heau-pere, et inari de 
votre feinme," 

ITor Is thie the only romantic feature of Leg Origiuaujc. Most 
unexpectedly we find ourselves in the midst of a family reunion 
in the last scene; the wife of M. Du Cap-Vert, whoii he has itunured 
i.n a convent tv;enty years before, and wnon ho l^as fondly hoped to 
be dead, appears, and finds not only her husband, but their 
two sons in the Comte and the Chevalier, Even the j^iovernesa to 
whom the ciiildren have Ijtjen entrusted is there to share the happy 
occasion. This last-act situation, whin^ Moliere ejnploys in the 
denoue'-aent of L ' Ava r e , has absolutely no exemplar from Moliere to 
Voltaire, as far as I have been able to discover. We will soon 
see to what excell-int use Destouc}ies and La Ghaussee put it. One 
last point to be noticed is that the bourgeois are not here brought 
to ridicule through their pretentions or •'^'^■'"-' + ^ ons. The original- 
ity of the Pres ident and g're Bidente has nothing absolutely to do 
with class distinctions, and the only place in which the difference 
is emphasized is in the Comte's treatment of his V7ife, 

■^^ Ij^'j^/ifant proaigue (17i6) v/e have very rauch the sajne mixture 
'^{lU., 9.) ^{111, 12.) 



or 1 lie old and t^e nev/. The main part ci' ' ntrigue concerna 

the Vrlnslnc; togetl-ier of a SHuaratad family, while "two of the char- 
acters are of the old type of coarse and rnatsrial honrf^eoiB, 

The most interesbint; o] ivntsse two t^'i» t.; m ncnuL-i, whose 
daughter Liee is about to marry, against her will, Fierenfat, the 
younger son of Euphemon, In his conversation in the first scene 
with Euphemon on the subject of this marriage, Kondon defines him- 
self very clearly. Perhaps his most distinguishing characteristic 
is his avarice. He enumerates his proepective son-in-law's fail- 
ings in the way of vanity and foolishness, but winds up with the 
declaration that he is miserly and every miser is wise. He shows 
himself to be a father of t) < old style in his reference to Liso, 

and assures Euphemon that v;hen he says "Love," Lise will love vrith- 

Z. 5 

©ut fu»'''f>er ado, \'nien Lise appears, in tlis next ac^ns, she is 

Va, va, laiase, qu'importe? 
Tous ces defauts, vois-tu, sont coime rien, 
Lorsque d'ailleurs on amasse un groe bien, 
II est avare; et Lout avare est sagi.-, 
©hi cjest un vice excellent en nenage, 
Un tres bon vice. (I, 1.) 

Assurement . , Ma fille a de I'honneur, 

Elle obeit a mon pouvoir supreme; 

Et quand je dis: "Allons, je veux qu'on aime," 

Son coeur docile, et que j'ai su tourner, 

Tout aussitot aime sans raisonner:^ 

A mon pjiaisir j'ai petri sa j eune aue . (I, 1.) 

4 ApproGho-3, venez, Lise; 

Ce jour pour voua est un grand jour de crise, 

Que je te donne un mari jeune ou vieux, 

Ou laid ou beau, triste ou gai, riche ou gueux, 

N.; sens-tu pas des desirs de lui plaire, 

Du gout pour lui, de 1' amour? ,.,. 

Ecoute, toi: je te^jin laariivkille) 

Tant soit pj^u fat, et par trop renchiri; 

Mais c'est a moi de corrlger mon gendre: 

To':, tel qu'il est, c'est ^ toi de le prendre, 

T)9McuB aimer, si vous pouvez, tous veux: 

Bt d'oblir a tou^ ce que je veux: (i, j.) 

C'est Ir. tcr. lot.' 


ie friddan accaiJt a iiusband .from :\er fat.ier'B na,na witnout fltopi^lng to 


rumaon about it. In a scene a llttls later, both these character- 
isticB, hi3 avarice and hia tyranny, cons o-it ciij;^-!.^', as well as 
the grasping spirit of Fieranfat and tii-i ;^.u-'iaibili L;i: ul' Liae, 
Wn^n Rondon inciuiree of Piorenfat what ritjivc thb Baronne haa ac- 
quired over him, he is told that she haa none; that he had engaged 
himself only under conditions, reserving the '■ " d.^ek a 
richer \/ife; the disinheriting of his elder brother giving hira 
the freedom to love \;here he claoso, he had proposed for the hand 
of Lise, and : "Argent comptant fait st baau-pera st t.e^'^dre," Rcn- 
doii finds nixii quite tjeiaaiuie ao to arrange the matter, uut Liae 
objects, and when Pierenfat pointb cut to her the opinions cf Cu- 
jas on the suhj'^ct, she replies that Nature has ri.chts above tlioBe 
cf Cujas, Rondo:": stixi iuaiacs cri uhe necessity' oi money, lu"U 
Liss holds that virtue is more indiepensahle. There are various 
references to Rondon' s greed and general unpleasantness; the Ba- 
ronne, accusinij the ficklenesa of Pierenf at , sa^s: "C'es^ dc I'ar- 


R or DON: 
LISE: • 




Detrompea-vous , "beau-pere, 
Je n'ai jamais requis cette union: 
Je ne promis que sous condition, 
Me reservant toujoure au fond de I'^ie 
Le clroit_dn prendre une plus riche Cer;, 
De raon aiaa I'exiieradation, 
Et tous S9S biens en ma possession, 
A votre fille enfinm'ont fait pretendre: 
Argent comptart fait et beau-pere et gendre, 
II a rs-ison, ma foil j'en suis d'acccrd. 
Avoir ainsi raison, c'est un grana tort, 
L' argent fait tout: va* c'est chose tree sure, 
HStons-ncvs done aur ce pied ds ccnclure, 
D'4cu8 tournoiB scixante pesanta sac 
Finiront tut, malgre* les Croupillacs 

• > ■ • 

Et la nature et I'honneur cnt leurs droits, 
Qui valent ;:iieux que Gujaa et voa iois. 
.,.,11 faut du bien, 
II faut du la vertu, (TI, 5.) 


BJb I if'.' ti 


l^cnt 41 'ii itLiio," and Kondon a'lyverB :it; '"' ?" 

This sapie Baronne calls him "un plat LourgeoiB, le coq de ce can- 

ton," and JaBmin rufere to hiai hb "un hohuno ase-jz ' ruBquo et bourru? 

Fierenfat has hoen mentiontsd already cti> v. ..ii.ln.. a,nd anxicna 
tc dstopcil hia "brotlior cf Li© liiheritcince; this cupidity is his 
moBt dibtinguishing trait, with fatuousness ccminp: cloBe aftor it. 
Both of tliese come out unpleasantly in his first scene v/ith Listj, 
in which he congratulates her on his having secured the succession, 
and on henhaving secured him.'' Rondou, ready as he is to receive 
Pierenfat ao a son-in-law, sees his character perf ftct.iy , and sums 
him up as the king of insipia pcidants, dull-facad, grave and tjlooroy 
idler. It ib rare that we have a young raan drawn with such Hiarked 
bourgeois features as Voltaire iias given to this young President, 

Before leaving the cnaracteriiiticb of the play which hark hack 
to the old genre, we may pause for a moment to listen to what the 
Baronne has to say about the position cf Fresidente, to v/hich she 

^J-j I'avouerai, cette donation 
Doit augnenter la satisfaction 
Que vous avea d'un si beau carriage. 
Surer oit de hi ens est I'aime d'un'ine'nage: 
Fortune, honneurs , et digiiitttj, j'e crois, 
AbondauEient se truvvnt avec uoi; 
Wt vous aurez dans Cognac, a la ronde, 
L'huiineur du pas sur les gens du beau laonde, 
C'est un plaisir bien flatteur que cela: 
Vous entendrez murciurer: "La voila." 
En vsrite, quand j:'excUfiine au large, 
Mon rang, raon bien, tous Iss droits de lati charge, 
Les agrements que dans^lf.- monde j'ai, 
Les droits d'amestie ou jc 6u;.t subrcgl, 
Je vous en fais laon compliment, luadarne. (I, 4.) 

Et vous, incnsisur, le roj des pedants fades, 
Quel sot d-Smon vous force 3 courtiser 
U Mi I'aronne ^af in de I'ahuser? 
C'est bien a vous, avec oe plat visage, 
Dg vo 18 donner des airs d''ctrti volagel 
II' vous sied bien, grave et trista indclt-nc, 
De vous nielfr du aiit-'. er de 
C'e'tait lo fuit de voLrs ft-u de frere; 
, ' H t»\) is , vais vousl (II, '.■•) 

"out'n s'ne nev.r even n^ciic. lo Prqt3iau-i":t' ; . j.zja Zivjxr i-'iriio:\ 

md their bearing; but in age onj grew lees hard to please. 

The characti^re of f^s play thnt look for\7arri to t^^n comedy of 
rears are the Euprirrnont. , ^ ' ^ ,- 1 _-_ nnd f ^Ig , EupheiiL-i. ^ " • ■. xo exaotly 
of the type that DestoucheB wae making fa(fllliar in Buoh characters 
.3 Ly^Tandre, of Le (rl orin'ox. He has no ot'.er note than t}'at of 
tearfulness. In >>is first scene he sa:/-8: 

Cher arii, ,j e suis na 

Pour n'etre rien qu'un iJere infortune, 


and he lives up to his destiny, I^ t'-iis Ra:ie sc-mo Rondon prr^.v--!B 

■'imself a heavy jester, and insists on reviev/mg and yiarrowine; 

details of the elder son's profligacy. To all of this Euphexncn 

■^ Eh hlen, dans mon pri-nte-^ps, 

Je ne parlais a\ix Presidents; 
Je ha^ssais leur personne et leur style; 
•;:ais veo I'ace en est .loins difficile. (11, o.) 

' HOIIDON: ~ais 'tax. amei quel traif, d' extri'.Yagiu.nua J 

Le lihertin, raon Dieu, '-iue c'etait lai 

Te scuvient-il, vieux heau-pere, ah, ah, ah, 

Ou'il tj vola (ce tour est h9£;atelle) 

C'hevaux, hahits, linge, meuhles, vaisselle, 

Pour (^quiper la petite Jourdain, 

0,ui le quitta le lendsuiain matin? 

J 'en cii hien ri, je I'avoue, 
F.rPHE^OIT: ^ ' Ahi qU'-lB charaes 

Trouvez-vous dooc a rappler mes lannes? 
RONDON: Et sur un as mettant vingt rouleaux d'or,... 

He hei 
.TJiJPHEIIOlT: ' * Ceoseii, 

Ta scuvient-il encor, 

Quand I'etourdi dut en face d'ef^lise 

Se fiancer a ma pei:ite Lise, 

Dans quel endroit on le trouva cache? 

Cororaent, pour qui? ....Peste, qvel deoauc'nej 
EUPHELaON: Epargnez-moi ces Indifiines histcires, 

D« sa conduite iwpressions trop noirea; 

Ne suis-je pas at sez infortune? 

Je suis sorti des lieux ou je suis ne 

Pour iri'^par>jner, pour oter de ma vue 

Ce qui rappelle un malheur qui .me tue: ("t, ttv^ 

Votre ooiTiLjerce ioi vous a conduit; 

Hon aiaitie, rnn do'uleur vcus y suit, 

• ' _ :-le8: VouB prodi^u^ea sans cetse 

L. '-t'3; '''.).J6 1:.-:. v^rite hlesse, (l, 1.) 

<(1, 1.) 

rt^i-Lco vviL.. iLi^.;_,iit> ^..i'.cl tears, and prayer uaae renav?ing an 

uiispeakui)l» i^rief. But it ia not until i- n ho learns nev/e 

cl" the prodif'ial, how }ie is subBlsting or. husks, and is noar to 
death, that his tears iiave full Itiavo to flow, IIo motiier in La 

ChaubBee snov/s more- senBioiiite in her maternal yuarninca thun doea 
Euphemon us ha bids iiia younger son deftir hiu luarriago until teart* 
have c0ciW3u to fall for the elder. in all, of thia, cf course, Lia; 
ably sjupi^j-ots zx\t u;ij.api-y xatuer v.itA ner own taournintj for tiie 
stray profligate, and Rondon and Piorenfat show characterislic 
naiiineBS of heart. 

As for the prodigal himself, v:e see hiiu onlj- xu --Ik Li-tst es- 
tate, Ke is all repentance, all contrition, Ke returns a thor- 



LISE: • 



FT '^"^AT: 

Ev . •::: 


Devers Bordeaux cet hommc a vu mon f ils, 

Dans les prisons, sans secours, sans habits, 

Mc^rant de faim; la honte et la ::riBteBSe 

Vers la tombeau conduisaient sa jeunesye; 

La ualadie et I'exces du iaalheur 

De son printemps avain/St sech^ la fl.:iur; 

Et dans son sang la. fievre enracinee 

Pre'cliJ ttait sa darniere journee. 

0;uand il le vit, il 6tait expirant: 

Sails doute, helas! il est mort i. present. 

Voila, laa foi! sa pension pai/t/e, 

II serait raortj 

N'en sois point effra^ce; 
Va- que t'iiiiporte? 
AjiJ monsieur, la paleur 
Do son visage efface la cculeur, 
Elle c-at, iaa foij sensible: ahi la friponnei 
Poisqu'il est mort, aliens, je te pardonrie, 
Mais upres tout, laon pere, voulez-vjus. . .? 
Ne craignez rien, vous aerez son epoux: 
C'est mon bonheur, Mais il aerait atroce 
Qu'un jour de deuil devint un jour de noce, 
Puis-je, ,mon filo, ineler ^ ce festin 
Le centre- temps de igoij just a chagrin, 
Et sur voB fronts pares ae fleur-s nouvelles 
Laisaer coule/' laes larrnea patarnelles? 
T)onneii, ^laon fils, ce jour a nos soupirs, 
Et iifferez I'heure de vob plaisirs: 
Par une joie indiscrete, inseriLj :.; , 
L'iionnetete' aerait trop offerise'e. 
Ah! oui, monsieur, ^' ■ -ouva vos douleurs. 

(II, ;,) 

^agiily r.'".. >jti,Mi<;.i -.":..^. .-i.., oonfoBBing hio foiiy, and a.nxlcua .. 

i'or the i ort;i vfiuuati of -liB fat}ier and Line, In ono inutanco he 
givea vent to an oufbreak which is the vtury eeeenco of molodrara.i. 
It lb -.:vc! ac.iine T/iiera Fierenf^t, halievln,": that Lise ia urifaithful 
':o :iii::, lusjulis fier, ;Aiid Eupheiuun f lis , urciti;:>iid as a oegga:', and 
scorned as such, comes to the rescue of virtue .n uiatreaa. Vol- 
taire was fond of such contracts, and in mmy ways he wight "be 
called the fatiis;. ol mod<im mclodrair.i',, PinctiL,, , .: .j coene of re- 
conciliation hetv/een father and son is really touching, and is in 


tho most approved vein of tearful fifth acts. 

^ Je 8uis, suis un malheureux .nortel, 
Je suis un fou, je suis un criniinel, 
Qu'on doit hair,^que le ciel doit poursuivre. 
Et qui devrait etre mort. (Ill, It) 

*LIoi, I'oser voirl raoi, lii^cffrir a seo yiux, 
Aprls mon crime, en cat etat hideuxj 
11 1.13 faut fuir un pere, une raaitrestc: 
J'ai de tous deux outrage la tendresse; 
Et je ne sais, o regrets superflasi 
LequGl doB deux doit ine ha'xr le plus, (lit. 


ELTPHEJiON : Ij'ILS : ( k i c ol er e, et_ I'lettan t la main_ 8_ ur la garde de aon 
epee ) ; "' "Save.: -vo us vlfus 'Ta Fr e? 

LISE: Eh] noderez... 

EiJPHEIiOJ'.EILS: Monsieur ie president, 

Frenea un air un peu mo ins irapoaant, 
Moins fier, mcins Jiaut , mcins juge; cur riii^ta.L-:- 
N'a pas 1'h.oniieur d'etre ^mcor votre femme; 
Elle >i'e8t point votre ^naitr^sse aussi, 
E>i! pourquoi done gronder de tout ceci? 
Vos droits sont nula: il faut avoir su plaire 
Pour oDtenir le droit d'etre <in colerw. (17, 4,) 

^Su"iiS.iON PERE: Que vois-je? o cielj 
EITPHK/lON EILS( aux pieds de son pere ); Alon pere, 

Connaissea-rao'i , d^cidez de mon sort; 

J 'attends d'un mot ou la vie ou la vort, 
EUPIIEJiON PERE: AhJ qui t'amene en cette conjoncture? 
EirPHKION FILS: L.^ .--epentir, I'amour et la nature. 
LISE: A vos genou:-: voub voyea vos enfants: 

Oui,__^ncv'- avons les rnemes sentimenta, 

Le meme coe jr, , , ^ 
EUPKE^Oll I?ILS(en mon t ran t Li s e ) ; HelaSj^son indulgence 
"TTc: raes fu/'eurs a pardonne 1' offense; 

Suivez, Buivtja, pour cet infortune. 



Voltaire aays in the Prwi'ac-' to L 'E nfant Prodlgue : "Si la uu,;u:- 

" f « 

die doit etru la, repreaentat Ion dus moeurB, cott* lilaco senble 

etre a8«ez dw c« caractere. On y volt un melanfje de O'jrieiix et d« 
plaisati.tari* , de comi^ue it ue touchant," It niuat hft aaid that he 

Buccesded much better in ^.le Bariouu ^Jeirta than in the comic. 
Truth to Bay, is no comic part co it. Rondon and Fiarenfat, 
who are intended to -represent this side of life aB it is, fail ut- 
terly CO raioe a laugh. Tliej. are in very striicmg contrast to 
the two Euphemons and Lise, out it is hy their materiallBra, tneir 
greed, t}ieir l;-ick of response to the feelings of nature, rat'-^er 
than "because of any great coralc qualities, Voltaire waa strariiieiy 
wealc wlien it came to dHpicting the foihles of humanity on the 
stage, and this is possibly one reason why we never find the ri- 
diculous bourgeois in any of his comedies . Rondon and Fierenfat 
belong absolutely to the old type of bourgeois by the liualitiee 
just cited, but tliey never for a moment shov; ms a comic side. 

Na n in e (1749) has roany points of interest for the student of 
the dratae, and in its preface Voltaire makes one of the most im- 
portant contributions to the definition of this troublesome genre 

L'exeiftple heureux que 1' amour a donne, 
Je n'espsrais, dans ma douleur norteile, 
Que d'expirer aiiril de vou8 et ^'elle; 
Et si je vis, ah! c'est pour Jieriter 
Ces sentiments dont j'ose me flatter, 
D'un laalheureiix vous de tournez Id vue?^ 
De quels transports votre arie est-ella eiiue? 
Est-ce la haine? Et ce fils condat.ine'. , , 
EUPHETION PEI^E ( Be_ levant e;t_ 1 'embras sant . ) : ^ 

C'est la tenlTreaae, nt hout fjtft. ;..trdomie, 
Si la vertu regno anfin dans ton S/aa; 
Je suis ton p8re, (V, u,) 

■Xf-V. L 



oV t.0. 

that ha.a coia-J down to uo . This preface Ima«ady "been treated, 
and we need only repeat here that the author asslgna the play to 
the class of comediea at t endr i Baan t as . Its theme la the love, not 
tragic, but romantic, of tr.e Comte d'Olban for the serving -maid 
Nanine, his anp:uiah at her supposed unfaithfulness to him, and his 
relief at finding that the supposed x'ival was only her father. 
It proclaims the supremacy of love to rank, and is in ev<3ry way 
prophetic of 1789; hut the ctiaractars are aJLl eitlier noble or 
peasant cind so v/e cannot stop longer vv'iti\ it. A cciredy 
which ia very much more important to js is Lu F iiune ^ui A R aieon 
(1V49), for in it we have the conventional bourgeois menag e of the 
earlier ccnudy, but with the moral and conclusion eAcn.:tly rBverssd, 
We have had over cuid over again t/re ambitious bourgeoise opi^osid 
by her plain-iiinded relatives; tut we have only to think of Le Che » 
vulier a la ^lode , Lgs_ Bourge o is es a la. Mod e , or L_ 'E G_c le des Bour - 
ge^oj^ to remember what was the trend of th-^ verdict en such a me- 
nage . It usually ended in humiliation ar d defeat for thn push- 
ing aemijer, or at best in ridicule at the very succdss or l.^r 
schemes.. Note the difference in La Fer/j-ie Qui A Raison: the ver>' 
title tells us v/hat to expect. Hero the husband has left hone for 
twelve years, having first adjured his wife ^:o practice zn.'^ strict- 
est economj'-, to establish their sen at the bar, and to arrange a 
double m:.tch '.k'ith the son and daughter of his ag«nt, Gripon. Y^nat 
dees he find when nc i *i'.L.iriB? A ;:oUb6hold maintained along tho 
most extravaganjf lines, a son unacquainted with the very rudiments 
of the law, and a mazTiage ccnsummatsd v/it}i. a Marquis and his sis- 
ter. And now Voltairs, instead of deriding the ,.ife, «,« Dancourt 




or D'Axlainvai \;oulci have uoiie, or taking her to taek, at* ■'-.ha moral 
Destouchee v/ould havu l<iien temptud zo «'&, ^o u.i, ^lainB .. u ucfend ti.c 
v/ifa ir. a bet speech at the eiid. The chain^ le nature of 

the Liourgeoib on the etage can, iiOB&ibl, n no way laore strik- 

ingly sliov/u tliar " , coiapiiring L'Euol.^ ± v "•_, -'- _i l -■•'-■ (17 2^) with La 
Fetniie Qui A Kaiauji (17 'tS), 

The charactera of H. abd lixaa. Duru may best le snudied togeth- 
er, L-'t us say at once that tViyr- is no sug'piestio-i of ridicule 
about iiiie. Durui sju^ la reprssented uti v/ishing to ov loyal to her 
husband, yet acting on her own better judgLient, The marriage of 
h«r son .ir.d dau/^ii-^ser to the Marquis and his sister, doeu not strike 
-vB' lor a moiuent, far as the wiedOL'i of io la ciocerneai 
the only point at issue is: May she dispense with her husband's 
consent in such a matter? The Marquis gives an illiffiiinating flash 


in the direction of the absent M. Duru, and line, Duru herself sums 

up her cvm character and thav of her husband in the speech in which 

she tells wha^: had been his plans for her during his absence, and 

'^De votre cher mari j e ne juis pas le fait; ^ 
Du bcul nom de marquis sa grocse aiao e'oonnee 
Croj-rait voir sa maiison au pillage donnee, 
II aime fort I'ajgent; il connait peu 1' amour. (I, 1) 

* II eut i'art d'aiuasser et de garder du bien, 
En 'cravaillant beaucoup, ax, ne d^pensant rien, 
II me recoiiimanda, quand il quitta la France, 
De fuir toujours le monae, et surtout la defense: 
J'ui deVense beaucoup a vous bien clever; 
Jialgre* moi 1»; beau-racnde est venu me trouvcr, 
Au fond d'un galetas il ; e'ieguait roa vie, 
Et iJlus honneTsement j e me suis etablie. 
II voulait que son fils, en bonnet, en rabat , dans le i^alait. la robe d'avocat: 
Au I'e'giment du i"ci je le fis capitaine, 
II pretend aujourd'hui, sous ^eine ae sa }iaine, 
Quu ae ucnsicur Gripon et la fille az le file. 
Par un beau mariage avoc nous soient unia, 
Je 1' empecherai bien, j 'y suis fort r^aoiue. (I, c.) 

how blie has carried thorn cut. Avarice Itj ''. Purii'B wuret falling, 
and it all })l8 plane, while ]vlri.-i, DuiU cafaB lor it not 
at aii, "but lor a Beenl> pOBiti&n in Bocitttiy a Gr«at rtsal, 

V.Tien M. Durvi n:aku« iiitj .intrancu , he doeu not V.nlle thti reputa- 
tion for .Krticu ;'-iveii uy zne A:arquia tinci oy j.iine , i.'uru. Hie first 

reiaark is on the general decadence of thin>2;s in Trance since hio 


rtOBence, hie next ie on the extravagance which he finds reigning 

in hiB home. He finds his household a frightful scandal, v/hich 

will have to he looked to; and on liib soekinK for an explanation, 

he finds that everybody had just gone to bed, at nini o •clock in 

the morning, after a night of gaiety. But the moral of the whol« 

comedy lies in the last scene, when ilonsieur and Madame have their 

reckoning, and each defend© his lin-3 of conduct. It in especially 

■^Quelle reception, apres douze ans d'absencei 
Comme tout se corrompt, corarne toux change en Franca (II, 

^ Quoi! ma femme infidcie a cs p' 

A quel horrible luxe clle e'est siuportce! 
Cette maison, je crois, du diahle est habitee; 
Et i'y vettrais le feu, sans les de^^enB i:iaudir.8 
Qu'a bruler leB maisons il en coute a Paris, (II, .5,) 

3 Quant a men menage, 

C'est un scandal i! affreux, et qui me pousB* about, 
II faut tout observer, accouvrir tout, voir tout, (II, 

Se ccucher, quand il est neuf heures du laatin? 

.... Quelle vie J et quel horrible train J (Ix, c,) 

M. DURU: Vous n'etes point ma femme: elle etait nenagere; 
Elle coueait, filait, faisait "^res inaigre cliere, 
Et n'euo point a mon bien porte le coup mortal 
Par^la main d'un filcu, noiuma iaaitre d 'hotel; 
N'eut pojnt joue, n ' eut point ruine na faniille, 
Ne d'un laaudit luarquis ensorcele' ma fille, 
N'auiait pae a laon tils fait perdre Hon latin, 
Et fait d'un avocat un pimpant ^aigrefin, 
Perfidel voila done la belle recompense 
D'un travail de dcuze ans ot de am confiance? 
Des soupers dans la nuitj L midi, petit jourl 
Aupres de votre lit, un oisif de la courl 

' ■ 5 

interec- > pic' the old re-ine of tMnrs, "he" ..--rtc'ul^ -.vaF 

od, parunthetically, tlie picture given "i , uiiBer Gri^ori of 


aa.-.,,.: tL-.r's v;ay of lif*',) To M, Duru'B o"' ' •:^f;t inns his wife .. •£■ 

v:l". .reaw ticod senae .ndinp: j.erself re of confcrt 

and decent livinfj;, as opposed to a life cf penury in the iiidut of 

Et porvant en pulDlic le honteux etalage 
Du rouge enlualne' qui peint votre -isagei 
C'est ainei qu'a profit vous placiez ^laon argent? 
Aliens, de cet hotel qu'on d^niche a 1» instant, 
Et q.u'on aille a'attendre a son second etage, ,,., 
}SM1\ D'IRU:Je piris avoir des torts; y^^ous, quelques jp^rjug^s: 
liod^rez-vous, de grace; ecoutez, et juge*. 
Alors que la nisSre aT tou? deux fut coi'uarme, 
Jy ne fis des vertus propres a ;3a fortune; 
D'elever vos enfants je pris sur "nci les soins; 
Je me refusal tout j^our laur iaisser du lijoins 
Une education qui tint lieu d 'heritage, 
Quaud vous antes acquis, dans ■^o'^^^s heureioc voyage, 
Ui, peu de 'oien conii-ais ^ ma f iclelits; ^ 

J*?n sus placer le fonds; il est en surete, 
.... Yntre hien fi'accnit; il servit, en partie, 
A .iflus donner a tous une plus doiyfce vie, 
Je voulus dans la roiie Aever votre fils; 
II n'y Poirut pas propre et je changeai d'avis, 
D-? r30n premier etat je "soutins I'indirrence; 
Avec le neme esprit j'use de I'ahondance, 
On doit compte au pulslic de 1 'usage' du hien, 
Et qui I'ensevelit" est ;;iauvais citoyen; ^ 

II +*ait tort a I'etat, il s'en fait a soi-aeiae, ^ 

Faut-il sur son coraptoir, I'oeil tr-ouhle et le teint oleine 
Manquer de necessaire aupres d'un coff re-fort, 
Pour avoir du quoi vivre un jour apres sa icort ? 
AhJ vivez avec nous dans une honn'ete alsance, 
Le prix de nos travaux est dans la jouissance; 
S'aites votre bonheur en renplissant n_os voeux, 
ET:re riche n'est Y-^len, le tout est d''?tre heureux, (ill, 5 J 

^ C'est dans un autre esprit que Phlipotte est nourrie; 
Elle a trente-sept ans, fille honnete, accomplie. 
Qui, seul avec f?ion fils, conpose ria naiaon.; 
L'et^ sans even tail, et I'hiver i ', 

Blanchit, repasse, coiid, cornpte c^ ..^ ^.,- J, .j , 
Et Bait nanquer de to\)^ aucsi hien .^ue !aoi-m?, 
Prends eXenple sur elle, afin de vivre heurcux, (il, i.) 

plciitjf , Ix. Is in thia defyiiBo of Lime. Duru'a Lhat the gist of tr.o 
whole play lies, and t:iat we see the distance tj-avelled binco Dan- 
court, It :;iuat be added, too, that M, Dviru yields in pruni-it- 
ings of iJaternai .ina rt<.trital Affection, nriu ^xdcii.h ina juatico of 

his wife's course, adding only the proviso tha ' is not to 

Spend his entire fortune. 

In L'Ecossai Be (l7''-0) Vclta'rs is ■- --i-^ '.vorst. The play is 
a mixture of aJl the sifiations knoi^n i.oix lance and laelodra/aa, 
noViT worn tlireadoare, though they may have been novel then, Tlostile 
houses, wandering and unfortunate girls, equally unfortunate and 
proscribed fathers, the villainesH who will leave no stone unturned 
to accoraplib/i her rival's ruin, the "blunt and rude person who turns 
out to be the good genius, and rescues virtue ii distress, the 
pardon received it tiie last laoacr.'C , ana presented uy the son of 
the hereditary enemy -- all tliis is very familiar to us now in 
the playa written for the masses. Lord Monrose is an exisreue c-tse 
of the unfortunao3 father, and sighs and groans T:'irough five acts. 
Lindane -- such is the name that Voltaire conceived for his Scotch 
girl -- has a chance chroughout to prove that she holds virtues far 
above rubies iv. price, and says explicitly that she haa nover ex- 
perienced a happy moment in all her eighteen year^ All 
these 'we have had before, and they do not greatly concern U3 , as not 
Lindane and her father are of the nobility. But in Freeport we 


^a, raes enfants, roa fem-ne, 

Je n'ai pas, dans le fond, une si vilaine a?ue, 
Msb enfants sont pourvus; et , puisque de sonbi'^n, 
Alors que I'on est mort, on ne pent garder rien, 
II faut en depenser un peu pendant sa vie: 
Ilais ne raangea uas tout, madame, je vous prie. (IIC,",] 

(. ,vi) 

have the English merchant an Voltaire conceived him, or, whit la 
much ncru proha'Hle, as he wanted his audienc- to conceive hiin. 
This ciiarac":ei- ia a jiuuramatic in the '^Ai^rt- ':!■; , i.-i i,:iat he exliibite 
that contraut within hins elf faat ie uo dear to the makers of thie 
sort of play. Rough exterior, "but a kind heart: 
Kind hearts ire more than coronets 
And simple faith than Norman "blood, 
Prom the moment of his entrance, Preeport behaves himself as 
no Englishman ever did, "out as a Icirge part of t^R v/orld today 
believes that the Englislman does behave. He is introduced in the 
cast :;s a "gros negociant de Londres," and he makes his appearance 
"vetu siiapleiaent, )naia proprement, avec un large chapeau," In a 
conversation with Pabrice -- who is a British inn keeper, though his 
name would not indicate it -- he is abrupt and laconic, but not un- 
kind. So soon as he liears there is an interesting girl in the 
house, he announces his intention of paying her his respects, and 
before the astonished Pabrice can stop him, he orders his chocolate 
and the newspapers to be served in her room, and proceeds to enter. 
The virtuous Lindane is naturally scandal ized as well as f :-ighten- 
ed, but he seats himself, keeps on his hat, and reads his papers, 
glancing now and again at Lindane and Polly, her maid. He inquires 
why Lindane aoes not also sit, he introduces himself as Pr«^--^ i^r^-t , 
honest broker, ricli; she may inquire at the Exc/iange, H«3; AsauraB 
her that he has no intention of disturbing her, and that he in- 
tends to go on with hiG reading, whil^ i;li3 dosp her emtroidcrj', 
and takes hsr c;iocclatTj with him -- or v.'i-cr.oui: nun -- as aiie pl^'as-'s. 
He tells her that he understands that she is poor and virtuous, 

ai5 II 


,vIIo? bns 


mita the priue and a , it's 1 . 

f'lat it ia h^ia ruutc 

T,''nr<'-, ijvir.irlf nw. r •'-*•" rl •^■".- *.o dnfo-i rer T.T^.:it 1 en from ^Y 

vary sus}.icon of taint, .>■ .~.a liC .. while thanicx:.j! wi+h 

o-rea'*- senRiMlj-'-e for his kirdnessj ht; inaists, "but aV^ ia adaria' , 
and he Is finally corrqpe^led to louvc Ms j 1^". Pahrice to 

!)• ai^plled to the v-'ants o_ ::ie uiu i • f. "rui to ;. DiiririiF^ one of 

Lindane's debates with }ierself en t'::-.? i ropriety of acceptin,": 


(Preeport s* aa.ed pros d'unti t.ahle, lit_ la r , jette 

uii coup ''oeil snr lindane et sur Polly i 11 ote 3<' ..-.^--i-. -.t le 
r»>r"et«) Mudaiae, ijourquoi ne vous asseyez-vouB nas qua.nd je sjnis 
absis?....Je is'^jia tres connui Je n'appelle F ^ t, loyal negocian, 
r-Lciiei ijif on.iea-vous a la bourse, ....Je ne i- , ' .'Is loint voua 
incO'T^inoder i je irunds tnes aises, prenoz loa votrosi je lis les r,n- 
zettes; travaillez en tapisserie, et prenaz du chocolat avec raoi,.,, 
cv bans :ioi. . ,coj:i/ae vuas voudrez, ,,,,Bcoutc2:, Je ne pas l.Oififitj 
a coipllTnenti on m*a dit de •"o\is,.,le r.lus grand "hlen t^u^on piilsse 
"ire d*un»» foant?: vous etes pauvre et vertueusei naia on ajo^ 
viue vous et«s fiere, et cela n'est pas 1)160, ,,,,En un not, ^ 
de_^l'orsi)eil ou ncn, peu m'imi.fjrte, ^J*ai fait un voyage a la Ja- 
maique> <l«i i^'s- vtiIu clnci niillc guinecsj jn * 3 fait \jnr. loi 

(et ce doit etre celle de tout hon Chretien) .nn^)- voujoura lo 

dixieme de ce q.-e je gaj^ne ; c*est une dette que ma fortime doit 
payer a I'etat "" -■ ^ux ou vius etos...' ' ^ • "^ten, et 

dont vous ne v ^ is convenir, Voil*. cin<i cents 

pui»Teea payee. Point de re)nerci>aent, point de recoMnaissancei 

- • - % {' " ' » ^ • -^ - X. ) 

L' J ^-r.t a : 

pauvret'^s avcc un ton Bi ' ici'io? le_ nj^i ■?_3_t veM]jj_ f^ 

ao'__2. IT ! ^ 'trul i'l' __ >ia>j sa . 30lt 

Tite?^ d; " '-. tout r q, ebl »- 

Je I'^V! r? Je no la oonnais ] . RuasUrez-voua , 

' -t flu tout, S' • ^ ., • . n:.^^ _^ . ,. 

V aard , nt "oi «» ' .^r^ ■" In "hr .,.. 

coii»inr» vous vous avi - ' ' ■!. S •• , 

je m'en ] — • >--' . f; , ' ' - 

-'•-■-. s: 

(II, .) 

• • • • • 

• > 

Cenoroslty fro a a atrH?.i;«'V^ PrHeport turf 'i '"^In i>ai'«r , 

finin f1-,. uf -J I ..NiMH "- +' " .> Vit-.rr V:,,I .-^ r. .■ » "^ 

71- lb rtfrordB '.ilri : uir Li. 

to rtxolHiia on Viib incl' -r 


FrjoijOi-t. I i3, aftoT giving a. i if^' ncl to F^ ^ -• 

Ion, t'nn BGvyry fi-AZ-.^tf^er , ''e 'lotea +h" ', _ . "U 

my lordi a<K - . j.r li'-ixii- " - 


vais ecrxvains," He coaceives .iika 

L- ■ Murray: "Q J 'irrai-Je tonjoifB c ? Q, 

lers ia alv/ays his e3y9nt.ial goodaeae o'' :;«ctrt. T'le lO'dlodranatic 
cliaax cornea, in which Lindaiie, throuj^i the s of 

/ifVed La.rly Al^.on, is threaten^^'i •'"■'' rr'^.i>- ^ -icei it iii 

Preeport w}j.o co.'.ies forward to go security foj- i-jri at which trait 
of .Tiagninirnity Fabrice re'iarks: "Tout le iionde ne place i^e-s ainsi 
so^- :-rn:on'-.", and Prooport repT^in^^: "En 1* irnvlnyr-t v faire i-. , 

c'eaz lo placer aii plus -iaut intt-;et," I u.^ -n V^i~air»i*to ac;.t;. i.; 
of tliiii-a liiat t}:ia I'luut uroker, w}.o jievei* felt ir 

o*" love, should auccivr.''' "i)efore th-fi n^^lti'T^ o^ar'ns of J. . He 

io, -ov/aver, a ^iuo-. uijcr, a.jiii ViHiidb ";i>-:i uv Lot- I Murray vri'-'' 

out rancor: "Mc i a)ni, je me <ioutaiB Men ^oe cetta domoisolle n'a- 
tait i»a3 falto i-innr mi j nr.ia, apres tout, ell o en honne 

'(IV, I.) '(III,;.) -'(v,"..*) 


(..,V) {. ,111) ' u-,/i)^ 

Lj '' 

, " it *hrtre u.r-t t- pcin^a i.i ;;: 

nrn wcrf .,. Lr- D " ('7Gi') 1- 

aelodraiaa 530 ;l"ar *'^ V"l»-^^rf*3 h-^-Hrt; It ( CT.-;- 

vali'-r)-, *■■"•- _ j: _ .a trA. ^M.-t --' ^Ijut ( ), 

iisti"«8s (A ), ri d _ ;/ _ S/-,'_;^ ^ Acr'.nthe' 

'^' - no1">ility or Viht l-marincf In ii-f'ni^-.-al , ) nt In-nti 

of "betra:--^^! '' (T . ) , 

^s , exc«i.'t ' ■> the cjetiertil way ' -.ts «i.~ . !, 

Ther« 13 one character who iiakfls speeches w''i<" lot "bo igi'red, 

Vo.-/rt '.-Mr , Hlbt' : .i--^ i -! ;•■ -T-^tYvi »>' , 

i a >jOurt;;iJCiL. ; "nut. ho .ielivoru t\7o addr<;. aro >; ;-cid» ' 

spirit i'^ 1789.' T first of theye Is • it of 


of fnan, anr! an inquiry into "'• orteditary j ■^ItH •■••-•»: , ^'^cfir^ sVptc' 

^s the rise in th« world of the rich iicui, ' . nne 

the descen.'ants df my lorii will he paying t' 'urt ' cvmt a 

'^.v th.H.t "T^.rrr in >'i;": audience were to "' 


^ Som;^- "-•"•'•'- ^.e'tria 

D*un seul limon, do Tait cr ^ris?? 

N'-ivons-nOua pas co j, 

E u^ '• ' , . ., . , . :..^ . 

U' "^ f^ ^ noug 

■^' i.i'i'eixx, oar noub j.-^e 

Sw _ a cent centre •? n ' ' 

De vf:;r rs tju*'ine ae^ ~ 

C' itre * ■ • 3r;ta 

C . . ^:ir fai ^ -. . 're - 

Qi.'-'i J • i:'.s seul, a tout ' . '^ 




. -if 

(. J) 

I c: -^c-^. (i^'T) 


for killing . . C ' 

eV' r ''or ■vil'l ^^ 13 MarLi-iij, 

On ^.eut ^u: 

X" . ' ^.. .,- 7 foil - Jnli-: 

good KiUo H n>-i IV, -fr/ of 

'" • ^tiu-.tlon, Tc 1:- s--^ j ^" ^ ": !■■:■ ' " o of -nffi.-- 

- . ■ - ' - ' 

of this . t.ation i ..hly ir-ii-alr^-.) "by ihe ^act that 

^00'' one +i)r*"s . V' ' sure niltd 

Wjic I t- ;. •; o J <J 1 H i ■. r- ^ L D ' ' j • ' o ^ • ■ . 

pr-' the e'^ua' i fra 

A non n^ 

C:.;- J . . .0 * ' a: 

P ■ 10 i !■:■■ 

J ^t J. ^ 

M'- ■" 

D .'gneur nr; Jour lea 

J- • . (I,'.) 

Mil, .) 





, I 


( . <x; 

(. ,11)' 

?ottafe, 'n '■ H Is 

^' ■ ;.i i -I,: I ' 

' y 


_■:. H e- 

.'^-' mr-rs .! one or ' " ■ . T^ >' ;j " 

con- . , "tly, treat id i Koii-lon of I'Bu".. ■ Pv-'i,r^-i;r! 

a:-'^! D L.. ;^? Q, -. ^ I^vw-.i ^^*^ '''■''^' ^eg'ilS'^-i^'^ "hoiir'Twr.ia^ 

"but aj " '^rl^ •...;ij. :'.Miv'i ic ingly dnc . ?[ib j. im' v a. . jl«.m 
Preoport of L'S'^nssaise ^^ y.r. En.^liah Ijrokt^r of "hlunt nar 
weir^.-] Vr^trt, thf "oerny o-c f^.ll p>"><t»^nse, -<'• > !li ; . Din" > "f" I.ii P-- ^ >? 

j ^ . " . _A jv-i.-. 



A ; r^ 


■, 1' 

Le ii'a.jiOaiti n. Loncirio, ^i-i. 

Las vSi'iorij TroiUjjeuro, oii L'i.ou^ue d^i Jour, 1V40, 

Le .-jci.,_e Etuurci, 174:-). 

Le Prun^uis uu Lonarea, lYiiY. 

'.■;iaa.nte, a yoiirio Ent^lioii v/icio-v, hi^a U.r.-ie ^ii^ur^, tv .nrjncji^ 
L^iT-iUid, ti }?reno}i bu..rcii, c-.i.d. cai l^]n{jlij/i luercliunt, .Tc<.C4U8b Rcjbii' lather, x.!. .vuoiii the choice is lei't, dec idea thiit dj 

h;-.s politenes-j v/ithout cojiiii.on sense, tliii t the iiiercht,nt J'ia;i jt^use 
.viLiiuuL i.oj.1 1 iiieij;i , ii-uu '.uut it la only tixe uu.roj'^ lh^-vL uu.uu iii 3;i 
Lhe two in their neceodury ^.rOi^orticna . The only thc^t 

.Tf^c iueti Robbii': bourgeois ^jroud oi his conaition. 

In Le .: rci-ngu ia a._ Luna res (IVr-V ) 7*6 ,-.cijay civt^o <u. ncve^ 

vure o! an Enj^jliah bonrt'sois, v/ho ricjur3d under tt.o cunven^ _ 

ntuue 01' Ja.j.ua3 Roooil. Unl 'jrtunatel,/, inc ty^je is uo ct.nv :^1 

a.s tlie na-ae ; Rosbil ini aiuiijly tlie i''renc}iiiic<.n' s ida^. ol an E:..: -- 

zhixt io currdnt to this dviy; taciiurn, lc.conic, lra.ruc, una cuts;^/C- 
Jcen to the x^cint oi bruttxlity, i^ncrunt of the most alemen' 
rules or iJOlitaneso. Even Lord JruiT, m j.jrOiJOSini_; hi:ii to .>;iict.n^-, 
describes hiiu as "un ricna neijocic.nt, Tort horjiete hox;uae, et ini 
n'est iJixB ifio ins raisonnable pour etr-a un ijeu sln.ji.ilier. " Ana di- 
nette, Eliante's trench vvaitin^-iLa id, suras hiin u_tj us : "Jaciuoa "-^- 
oil"? LiisericordG I c'est oien l'An,i_;lais Is i-lua dis,;jracie".)Jt, 13 
Jilas taciturne, le ^vlus bizarre, le xjIus ij;ix>Gli, ^ue je cr.n;-L, -;j^ ,^ " . 

7/hen Kosbil' 3o;.i3o on, he is laconic to a de^^ree ; he rj.ica x-'i- 
nette leave oil her curtesies v/iich luCc^n nothing, bids her call 
iiim Jacques Rosbil", and not Konsieur, and final .y ia;ixes 'his re- 
volutionary stateiaont: "I care nothin^^ for an imaginary nobility. 
T/ie real gentleiaen are the honest x^eoole: vice only i;. coLLiuonl'T 

<jC • .J • 

^ ROSSIi' : x'^iniasez, cvec toutos vos reverences -lui n- 
jI-.J^TTE: Vous eteo* si ci^eil et si nonn^te a 

l'er;a.ra de^ autres, vj.u'on ne oe 1^. ;jse ^vas de I'etre e. ' 

VC'.'.S . 

R0o3Ii!'; orbia^e encore inutile. Venons a;; fait. 

Eliam.e? . . . .Je 1 .' .-i..pelle Ji'ac^ues Ro.^bil , 
luonbi'iur. Je v.. us ai dit oejit fuis, iLa 
la zxi'afi li'^ieoit 1-2.. wreilles: ii :, .^ ti~j. 

le i>ort-3iit 1 I'lO-i'ie d'une /lobl.. 

Le=. vrais * ..>; i^ ' 

liice to du b;>.i 

LKOLOR-.TEA.*-JjiRIdTI.;.'; 60\\J, D' : VAL, c.lVuu-17j6. 

./Kcole des Bourtjeoid, 17).-. 

iaud. Abi'ahiiUi, a ■.vealLK;, ./ido.r, v/iahea to bro k oi':' 
betvveen her daugiiter .-ienjamine and Dcauib, to vvixom ahe is ccniruc-. o.. 

Thiri is done, ca.d a ne'.v irxt'-'^ici-'-s arrcn-ftn .-/i^.n a i-ovar '.y-a tri- 

noble, iuri ...ui^nib de iv-oricaae. iJiCy jl ind out vviiiit xiie luar.i is 
reuij.. liiii'iicb oi tliam b; o^j3r:iii'_' a letter adaressed t, t,j.,^i:.^ b-,;.t, 
.vritten to a friend o! the lijar^uia', .viiom he inrunaa th. ia 

about to "a ' encariai Her" . At thia the projected inarricL^e is brc- 
ken oil, and iSeigaiiane iriarriea Daiuis. 

iaue. Abraiiaju: ai;-bitioua, atriving, arrogant. 

.... ik.athieu;coi!irxn sense bourgeois. 


The last formal attack on tlie bourgeois and }ii8 accial prti- 
:enaions is delivGred by D'AlIainval in his Ecols des Bour^jeols 
(1728). This is all that its title would lead one to expect, though 
it might better have been called, perhaps, L'Ecole des Bourgeoises; 
for D'Allainval, like Dancourt, points his satire at the women of 
the class, who seeru to have been the aspiring uerabers cf the fajn- 
ily. The .rccagonist is . Abraham, .mo recalls forcibly M:;;e. 
Pat in and the Bourgeoises de Qualite . She is bent on marrying her 
daughter, Bergaiaine, to the Marquis de Moncade, and in anticipa- 
tion already refers to the bourgeois as :.o another class, ranlcing 
herself v/ith the ladies of quality. Benjamine, contrary to the 
rule for young persons in old comedy, is herself quite ready to 

throw over lier bourgeois lover, Daiiis, for the Marquis. The rifst 

scene is a conversation between laotner and daugliter, in language 

."CE. ABRAl-IAJ!: Enfin, aa chere Benjamine, c'RRt done ce soir que tu 
vas etre I'epouse de' monsieur le raarquis de Moncade. 
II :rie tarde que cela ne soit deja; et il iie semble que 
ce moment n'arrivera jamais. 

BEN JM'ilK^ : J' en suis plus impatiente que vous, lua mere; car 

outre le plaisir de me voir femme d'un grand saigneur, 
c'est que cor.une cette affaire s'est traitSe depuis que 
Damis est a sa campagne, je serai ravie qu'a son re- 
tour il trouve mariee, our m'apargner ses reprc- 

IITTI. ABARrlAM: Est-ce que tu yonges encore a Damis? 

BRNJAillJfB ; Non, ma Mere. Mais que voulez-vous? ^ II est neveu 
de fe\i non pere, nous avons ete eleves ensemble i je 
ne connaissais personne plus aimable que lui; j ' ig- 
norais qu'il ex\ fut. Je lui trouvais de d' esprit, 
du i.ieritoi il e'tait amusant, tendre, coiuplaisant. 
II m'aimai je i^aimai aussi. 

IiC.IE. ABRArlAiM: Qu'il perd aup^ Ss de ce jeune seigneur! qu'il est 

defait! qu'il est petit! qu'il est mince! Son merlte 
parait ridicui;, sa tendresse mauasade. C'est un 
petit hoiiu.'ie d. palais, la tete pleine de livres, at- 
tach6 a sea proces; un bourgeois tout uni, sans i.ian- 
ieres, ennuyeux, douceruex a donner des vapeurs. 


iifJ-Jjiii L'ilw' l^J .. 


•I9i'{ Tev 

I'JlZiJH'ivV.'.UO £j S 

t - 


'4 9i. t^ 

wi;ic:.. io;.uij oeiiiive Si-iaoii-ii ui ^liu ooau monde, Benjaxaiiiu iiaa 

a fleeting reijret for Daa:ais, but when Iner mother i>ro!jentB the va- 
rious ridx'ajitafees , yuyaica.! cina othsrvvise, of the Marquie over the 
uou; ^.tiuitj buitor, Benjaiiiu ^t ready to ehout: "Vive le ilftrni. ' &' ,:., 
Moncade!" Miae, AhraJiam bay a that bouri^eoiesB, who do not unde 
the manners of society, would call t}ie JTarquls 'bearing rudo and in- 
discreet; but that ladies of quality api-ireoiate its worth, and that 
it is they who have establisnea the vogue of such manners, 
renders ingenuous thaiiks to the poverty of the Marquie, for without 
his debt to her mother t}\is pleasant state of affairs '.vcuid never 
have (joLxe about, Hera v/e have t.he frank bargaining of noney for 
blood, vhich more than a century later will give us Sacs et Pare he - 
mine and M, Poirier, It j.s perhaps the first time It '■-■as been so 
baldly stated. Money in itself it a i.iatter or ind*fferonce to Mi^ie. 
Abraham v/hen rank is in the balance, 

Thic lady is c>,s avid of flattery and as eiisily clupect by it as 
any in Dar.court's long list. Her first scene '..ith zne 2iarquis it; 
strongly reminiscent of those of Mme, Patin with her Chevalier; 

BEl^VAJIINE: Vive le r.iarunis de Moncade! Lti beau point de vuo! 

quelle le'geVet^l quelle vivacite'j quel enj ouement,' quelle 
ncblescej quelles graces eiir-tcutl 

M1£E. ABRAHAM: Les bourgeoises qui ne sont pas connaisseuses en bona 
airs appellent ce~la etourderies, indiscretions, impel- ^ 
itesses; mais cela est chamant, Les fei.uies de uualite 
en sentent tout le prix; et ce sont elles qui les ont mis 
sur ce pied-la, 

BENJAJ.ilNE: Que j 'ai de t^races a rendre a la mauvaise •* : 

ae ;ionsieur le Marquis J 

MME. ABRAHAM: A ea mauvaise fortune, dis-tu? , 

BElTJAZilKE; Du aoinp, Bj'a mere, est-ce au derangenenc ., ^tis 

affaires que ^.q le aois; et sans les cent lulle frurcs 
qu'il vouB devait, je ne I'aurais jai.iais co :u... Jt 



I e»yrV 


n : 


he rarely takes the trouble to be civil i in hie very flattery 
there is insulting irony. But Miue . Abrahaia sees none of thisi and 
in the end tiie Mariiuie accepts ti purse of a thousand louib with 
the air of conferring a favor cy taiing it. 

In favor of uie Marqule, Mru'^. Abraham is .iiore tiian willing to 
make a clean sweep of jier own relatives. W>ien he graciously per- 
mits her -.(j Invite soma of iier family ana "chat of her late husband 
to ihe wedding, she r-jj.'lies: "Ce ne sont que de petits bourgeoie. 
Voila de plaisants visagesi lis auraient bonne grace a se trouver 

avec toiis vos seigneurs! Cost une >ionte que jc veux vous 

r- I' 


^31. ABRAHAJi; 


LB MARquis: 

Comient diable! madarue Abraham, comment diable!' je 

n'y prenais paB £ard«= : quel ajusternen^J quelle parure! 

quel air de ccnquete! Que la peste m'etouffs si vous 

n'avez encore des retours de jeunessetoui, jui, et on 

ne vous donnerait jamais I'Sge que vous ave£. 

Vous 'etes bien obligeante, li'icnsieur le Marquis, 

Non, je le dis conmie je le pense, Quel age ave2- 

bien, Madarne Abrahani? Mais, neme nentez pas, je suis 


Monsieur le Marquis, je corapte encore par trentej 

j'ai trente-neuf ana. ^ 

Ail! l^ Abraham, cela vous plait a dire. Trente- 

mur, si consomme, si sage; 

neuf ansi avec un esprit si mu 
cat .e elevation de sentiments, 

ce goiit noble, ce vis- 
age prudent? Vous me tronpei- assurement. Vous avez 
trop de merite, trop d' acquis, pour n* avoir que trente 
nevS anc. Oh! ma foi! voua pouve£ vous ucnner hardi- 
ment Ici cinquantaine, et suiis crainte d''3tre atftien ^ie. 
MME. AERAHAIi(a pari) On s ' en faciiurait d'un autre, laais il aonnc a 

tout ce qu'il dit une tournure si polie. ( haut) Mon- 


LE }.:arouis(i; 

re ho- 

sieur le ].!iU"quiB, le notaire a-t-il passe 

tel pour TOus faire signer le contrat? 

Non, pas -ncorej nous cignerons ce soir, 

Jaurais 6te charm^ que vous y eussiec vu lea avan- 

tages que je vous fais ( Lui ^ 'rese ntant une 

bour se ) Et, voila, jt avance, une "obTa-se de .lille 
louiE, pour faire les faux frais de vos noces. 
renat t_la bourse j^racieueemcn t . ) E}i"bi^nl madanie, don- 
nez done. . .Etes-vous ccntc.nts? Er verite, vous faites 
de r.ioi tout ce que vous vculez. Jo me donne au 
diable, il faut que^ j'aie lien de la complaisance! 

(I. 10) 

(II, c.) 



("i-.-t } 

(. , 

Of H. Mathieu, her lirother, s}ie says: "II a I'eBFrit c:' lo! 
J'avaie cru qu'en epousant une flllf 'f^ <Tvi,r'ion cojnrie il a fait, 
cela 3e decrasBerait ; rnais point du -.cut. J ;c sale ou j'al pe- 
che un si sot frere!... Voila* coimne etait t^ votre psre." A-.d 
after the brea> v.-ith hir. over Pr.r;'r rlre' £3 narralge, she sayv she ie 
.'lad to be ou: fro:., 'uidcr th'j p.ece2i;ity ol uaving hiia at the ■/,t!<i- 
.iin£. It is a good riddance, and she intends to do the sajne by 
J.11 >3r faviiil;-.^ 

In this l^rother v/e have again the Moliere type of the cormnon- 
sense foil to the foolish, the Chrysale to Philaminte. M. Mathieu, 
shrewd, hard-headed, clear-aighted, and sensible, ie used to set 
off his sister in her frenzied struggle for position. Ho hears 
the r\mor that Mne. Abraham is about to riarry Benj amine to the Mar- 
:-'j;is, and enters into convulsions of laugliter over it; as the ladies 

. .are his ninth, he thanks that thf?:- -■arp arrrv at -t-V.e ab- 
surdity of the ri-mor, and he finds their attitude en ti»e subject 
r.ore fitting than h is own, and promises to go forth, and stop the 
runor, W.ien he realizes at length that it' is qviite trve, he is 
stupefied, ana er.asixvcru to reason his sitter ou": ci ..ur loily, 
onli' to be ruet with scorn and anger. He adduces the example of his 
ov/n ?, in v/hich he has played the role o' Gesrge Dan- 
dir. .-c: Angelique Oi' u. ^iJ"! ^'^ noble faitiily,- Mr.e. A'^r^.b.::: 
art; -rs that his wife treated him onl;/ too v/ell, anci ;ngth he 

Ben! bon! ... Ah! qu'il se defachera bientot: il t'aime. Je 
ne suIb pas trop f^che'e, ?.oi, qu'il nous boude un peu; cela 1'/- 
loignera d'ici pour quelques jours; et je n'aurais pas ^ete fort 
contente qu'on I'eut vu figurer isi ce solr, en qualite d'oncle, 
par.'-i les seigneurs qui viendront sans doute a tea n'oces; c'est un 
assez raecb.ant plat que sa jersonne. Dieu i, nous en voila de- 
faites. Je veux uusei eloin:ner tous nos . . .*.s; co. oont gents 
qu'il ne faut plus voir desomiais. (1.4.) 

/(I. 8.) 

tak':E '■■ia ■yuvc, throateni.ii ithhold ■i: fcriune fror;> Benja- 
line .if she does not marry hia choice, Darnie; a menace which, \y 
*",he way, moves the ladies not at all.^ Later, lie reforn again to 
.ir. ^ 'n case: "}ILon propre exeniple ct celul de tant de bourgeoifc; 
lui se i5ont rial trouves de parellles alliances me faisaient trem- 
"blar que ma niece ne tom'bat en de niechantes mains," 

In P'njanilne v^e have a novelty, ■inri alnioat a unique case for 
the century. Benj amine siiares her iuotner's ajnhitions, and is de- 
cidedly an embryonic "bourgeoise de cjualite* . It is u remarkable 
fact that in the rreat luass of eld comedy the bourgeois cualities 
develop only in tiie adult of the species. Even Muliere rartixy 
--.'oubles himself about, his jeunes jji'omlers and ingenues . His 
Cleantes and Valeres ai;d Damis, his Marianes and Luciles and 
Elisss, give no hint of their bourgeois parentage; it is the 

■<M. MATHIEU: Ma soeur, ina niece, que je vous regale d'une nou- 
velle qui court sur votre compte. . . .Elle va vous rejcuir, sur ma 
parole! Cn vient de dire que. . .Oh! , ^j£. foi! cela est trop pla^- 
sant!....On vient de ne dire aue vous i.iariez ce soir Benjamine a 
un jeune signeur de la cour, a un Marquis. Est-ce que cela aa .ous 
fait pas plaisir? ...."Qui! ma soeur? ai-je dit,..Oui, votre soeur, 
"votre propre soeur, madame Abrahair . . .Non! ton! quel peste de 
"ccntel ...Rien n'est plus vrai... Eh! non, je ne vous crois point, 
"Quelle apparence? la veuve et la soeur d'un banquler, et qui fait 
"encore actuelleiuent le coranerce elle-mene, donner sa fille a un 
"marquis? aliens done, vous vous moquez! ..." Mais vous ne riez 
pas, vous autres,...Ma foi, vout-. avez raison de vous fSclier toutes 
les deux, vous avez plus d' esprit que moi; et j'ai eu tort de 
prendre la chose en riant; je ne pensais pas que c'etait vous don- 
ner un ridicule. .. .Eaiesez , laissez-moi faire; je m'en vais re- 
trouver ces inpertinents nouvellistes, et leur laver la tete d'im - 

ville? On vous regardera partout comme des fclles CoinBie'nt 

done! la chose est-clle vraie? . . .Y songez-vous? C'est un seigneur 
rair.^....Et Benjamins y sera-t-elle a son aise? Vouaallez eacrifi^- 
a votre vanite le bonlaeur e'; le repos de sa vie. . . . 'Qu'au -.oins taon 
exemple voi;s ^touche, Riche banquier, par un foi entetement de 
noblesse, j'e'pousai une^fille qui n'avait ijour bien qiie ses aieiiXt 
quels chagrins, quels nepris ne ra'a-t-elle fait essuyer tant qu'elle 
a vecu..,.Je n'etais sen iriari qu'en peinture olle craignait de de- 
roger avec raoi: en un not, j'etais le George Dandin de la couedie. X^-^, 

•nob < 



On ev 



.' i th Re,:Mara aiiU D-jt: -o',c:i'jij u.':d Diirtcourt. But Be;;,iu..'i '.'j ia a 
lose relative of Antoinette Poirier, near -y and a. half 


It is not alone ^ ■"' -''•^" charaf "• -'^f- ■'■■'' }'>■''='. Abraham and x:er 
daughter that D'Allainvai drives liome hia ieason zo the "bourgeois. 
The play ahounds in speeches which throw a vivid lin;ht on the 
social condi ' ' '1 -1^ ' •** ■"^'"' «poch. We ha^,^ , i -r.Ki- cited ""'i'-^ nnhappy 
example of M, Mathieu aa of one v/ho had sxporienced the scorn of the 
nohle for the middle class. Tlie Marquis scarcely takes the trou- 
"hle -^o conceal ':is c o r. t -^nip t v/lien he Is in Mi'iC. AT-rc,'!.-n' s ■"T*>jHonce , 
and '.vhan he ia alone hi:; feelings overfic.v, and he aocj.j.row th:^t 
he is at the end cf his resources for dissembling, and that if the 
wedding did not occur that evening he '-vould certainly he unable 
longer to contain himself. The denouement is brought about by a 
letter cf liia falling into the /lands of hia prospective fatriily, 
a letter to his friend^ the Diike, in v/hich he invites hira to be 
oresent at his v/cdding, for "c'est ce soir que je in'encanailie, " 
The Ccmmander oTsserves that one of his greatest pleasures ir to 
'.vatch a bourgeois put on airs ■v/}ien a gentleiian of quality addresses 
her. And, finally, Pot-de-Vin, buffoon and scanp that }ie is, 

bears nost sii3;nif icant testirnon;'- to the eagerro.-ss of the bourgeois 

Les sottes gens, Marquis, que cette fair.ille! II y aurait, raa 
foi! pour en mourir de ii^lre. , .Mais il y a d^ja huit Jours que cette 
comedie dure, et c'est trop, Heureuseiiont elle' f inira ce scirj 
sans cela je desecpererais d'y pouVoir tenir plus long-temps, et 
je les onverrais au diable eux et leur argent. Un homme noi 
I'acheterait trop, (I, 11.) 

^ Un de nes grands plaisirs est de regarder une bourgeoisc quand 

v.n homiie de condition lui en<Jonte." Pour faire I'ai- "'' ■, elle 
fait les plus plaisantes mines du r.onde: ce sor)t dos rees,_ 
'lie se rengorge, elle s'St^ancuit , elle se flatte, elle se ri t a 

Tille-r.'T-ie ; on voi^ -—n visage u:i air de satisfaction et de bonne 

opinion. (Ill, IC.) 

i(III, 3.) 

to Eiarry their dauc" ruined 

.^ealin^ iiora v;it:; Chri;iv-anti cv Jev/s? MLi.aa;.:e it; a i.c r, 

Co.'uiander t "J'al- 

-uid Ben j amine, it gives room for queBtion, 

T" ■ siu'i up: Miae , Abraham is absolutely of the type estanltshed 
.... ...^ developed by Dci"-^-- ■■■•+ ; arabltious, ?•">■■•'-' ''fer- 

ant to money -.vhen the sacrifice of it would secure station, ti'.-ir- 
reliant, independent of her sober relatives, slie is a true daugh- 

)r of V'-.r- . v--^\^-\, Benjamine is follov/int': h... ..-iher'.; hinge, 

ai^d M, Llathieu in the chastened widov/er of a lady of quality. 

^ Depuis que la bruit s'est repandu que nonsie^jT- Tt marquis 

epouse madenoisells Benjamine, dans'toutes les ru- - . je passe je 
suis arrete' par un noiibre infini de f'^ros financiers et d'agio- 
•^eurs: "EliJ M, Pot-ds-vin, me disent-ils, men cher M. Pot-da-vin, 
"j'ai .me fille unique, belle co>:me 1 'amour, et des millionsj . . .Mes- 
"sicurs, 11 n'est plus temps; j'en suis fach^; monsieur le Mn.rquis 
"a fait ij.r. dedit . . .Eh! nous le palerons avec plaisir; nous I'ache- 
terons tout ce qu'^il vaudra. M. PoL-de-vin, voila ma bourse, . ,M, 
"Pot-de-vin, voila nille Icuis, . .Prenec i llvrez-nous sa main,.., 
"O/'il Spouse na fillej vous le prouvez, si.vous voulea... Au 
' -'^s, t>arlez-lui de nos richesses," (Hj ^•) 


I. .il*^ 

P.-.ILI.i''' i; rOIo30;i, lu.i>J-XV4.^, 

Le Vri^cureur Arbitre, l'< 
L' Imj[jroiiiiJtu de Jaiuijaiine , j./.)o./ 

^- i^rocureur Arbitre, 175i8. 

A little comedy showiritj a n hcneat xjrocureur in the i^erscn o: 
Aribte, One episode concerns tv/o old i;ien, Geronte. and Lisidor, 
dib^.-ute concerning cv treabure found by Lisidor on i^rox^erty 'bou^ilit 
rru:^ Geronte. Each insists on the other's talcing the trj..o ; s . 
Ariste is us^ed to settle ti^e disi-ute, and ^iives it to A^^e'nor and 
Isabelle, the children of the disputanta. 

v-/ A. 'Jt 

or the two Cuifjsdieij tiiat ?iave c oi^ja rlov/u Iron, i-'oi. 
^.w_;. - .....iaent ojix.. ... ... „..,, Le Pro c ur.iur Arbitre . Tni^ ...... 

ia Uiiii-iue in de^.'ictintj uii honest _^jrocur-3ur, anci in the fi^.i-ires ol' 
tv;o old inen, disputiiii^ over a treasare, not i^tj tc; wiajh ah.i"': • vo 
it, but as to wiiich ^iiJiili aocej.-t it. j.o oi'j oi't is xnade tc ri- 
when there in every o^.i^ortuni tv for it. It ia to be noticed luarel. 
for tiie SbLJie oi Uie Ci^-ntruat it ixiiorda in these j,jart iculurs -.vith 
the coi.-ed:/ J+at hcin. jjrededed it. 

riE.RPJj] J-AKU'lT '■> 'i ^,-j-J>l w/^jX, liJ3'3-l/tJo. 

Ai'Lii-iaia Pulx i^ur I'AiLour, 1720-. 

la Surijriise de I'Aliout, I'l'c.'i-., 

Lti. Dcutale Incons tciiioe, 17^6. 

La .ieconde Surx^rise de I'Auicur, 1727, 

Le Jeu di3 I'AiiiCur et du uasard, 1760. 

L'Eoole deo ii.ere3, 1752. 

Les deriiisntia IndiLjcrets, lYo^.. 

L'heureux Strataiiai-e, 17oo. 

La j.-eijriye, 17o4. 

Le Petst-Lititre Corri'_,i^, 17c>4. 

La j..ere Conlidente, i73o. 

Le Legs, 17o6. 

Lea j'a'Oiiseb Com laauceb, 1757. 

Lea Sinceres, 17o&. 

L'Eureuve, 1740. 

Lu ±r6juge Vaincu, 1746. 

L'Ecole des Leres, 1752. 

1j;i9 . Argante to uiarry lier daughter Angeli^ue, .vho is 
jubt out or a convent, to the elderly .... Lcuaib. Anj^eli^ue i^ in 
love 7iM-i his son Eraste. The true state of affairs is d ejccvered 
at a Eiasquerade, and after some threatening the parents yield to 
thi - ncli r. ;.ticns oi' I'lrubte and .-.ngeli^ue. 

i.ji.e . Argante: ratiier severe, ^ in the end yielding. 

... D„:..i3 : ver; couiplacent parent. 

L*i Jeu de l'Ai..our et du Jiaaard, IVoO. 

..^Orgon an ...nges a inariuage between his dau£,i;ter Silvia and 
I^ura.ate, the tion of an old friend of hi.-:, but on condition tj. 
young _i^jecple please each otiier. Dorajite, cuuing to ^^a.; a Vxsix,, 

\ 1 

± ,>. iJUi-*jV ' 

\ X 

;'i i3i:ytij^:. 

ui;ie ib '.von b^' Dorci,iile. 

. »v./i'rroiiI (.Gilt- -I.'-- .i.\. \j^_iifcP .u*. -ictoc. icc'jii^i • 

A younji noble leucia Angeii^' ij to believe tliitt ho loves h . , 
and niuketi his ijrOj.jOs it ion in the muue o! ^. -^-iend, v/iiich obvi 
lucvSks his own ^roiJoatil. A^^tjelii-iue joyfully accej.jts, .■/.■irin he br? 
i'or.vard irontin, his valet, c.s trie i'riena i... ...„u ^.. ..j...^. An^^e*- 

li^ue no.v rel'uses, in sj^ite oi" her iiiot>.er ' s tliret-.ts, a.nd then he. 
lover, havin^^ jjut her love to this tetit, substitutes hiPisell' £or 
his valet. 

. ..e . Argante : harsh and unledlin^. 


r.A-ny in D>-^ i^.u.r:irv ^ it is o reli"" "- - -- ■ p, ,,., 

iour " ape of Marlvaux, H' -'^' 

i" i . ot Jii ■ - -ne to Ailfrod "- Mi^- >-;t, ti . 

r-.>-f> nr.'P^ . . x^._^ 

-• 4. 

i^ cr:l;,- ' . -^ct cf ' - . ■ ae3i 

sider hi^n, 

T .^.'-n If lit""" -e"tr"' "•- - r s'- r: 3 s s Ir llariva-ax; I'srr , Ar.i^-.inte, 

thn rricther for v/':ose ^ -^ " L'E.-cIj les M'*-'.-3 (■<'--'■)■ 

has a daughter Ai'-.relifiue, vrho, being fresh from tlie convent, avowe 
tl^nt she h--.3 no v/ill hut h^r aof;'er*s, F. - M' ■ , Argante detects 
^' • -"-■ ■^••nce c' •■ independent -' " "• ' •""'-' -"-.•tlopp.d one, i- 

her '*'"i ^*^i* an^er I'^j.s a moraeiitary hlnze: "I ^ ! Est-cc 

la le fr"lt ''es >?olnp <^ue Je me stila 'lonnp" ■r%c''!'^ vc--,-. 
^.^..-^ * ^. v,.rt;:? ''' ■ -■- ^es intrirue^ " .. ;. ;ui V- ■ '' ^-- 
dre d'u e r3dijcatlr- ' -jTalt toute entiere! W hien, jeune 

pxtravagante, 4tr) romront, plus austere mv^ raoi, ne re'r^ondra dee 

•areTaanta de v ^>-'> ,-,.-.• r,» s^t the •f' ■ i-* (lulcklv ■'v->-'s its- 
self cut; IE* Dairtis, Wiio iias taxich -norf; ( auae for ■ int t' . n 
Mnio, Arga;ite, advises hor:"Votre fille a tort; -iiala elle eat vnr- 
t'lG'iS'?, ^t :* "r^^T ^ '.s i-^n-rci^ c:**-!!'?!- tont n* ne 
rc^alre," And *' Mii;. . iin-. Arr:>.ntf? ropli • : : "A" "• • ., 
^(Sc. 19.) 

A : 



T ,, r 

- C f ' "f 

I 10 ■ 

? r-/- 

A •'.; 

(.^': .a) 


vral voB rcnsell ." 

T if U. Damis l^lnself .^rfert nxnra])V Ivl-.r 

"ather.' 'T- ■ ^ Tl^"- ' '' -" ■ ^'■■•- ' •"■" A '■" •■ "" '■■' U. D; 

^ays ^r'vjly to hi.. t:ion: "A; proi^^ez , Brauto ; j.i3 j'i»l ertcn 

1u vic^nt ?e m^omTir "• .. . ^ • imiirud'^nne de 'esHeiriB, 

,.ugur tc: ' , t) _ 
f It. He o>. Silvia 

"ith tho son i." ^ ■ ^r v^.. 'i + icn tvp-* 

:-oung people then.sel v-s. j (.n^l.i _ ;■ ..t;-', I" ' ■ ^ ::■.• ;li- 

"" r, tVey have 'o sa: ord. He even forrids ler 

ho Viavo any regard for his owri v/is'ies in +>i« ^natter, W-en Silvic.. 

''>•■•'— •^-'•cr to n.u,..., \^<t hauitatef. .-.\.,- X^ cifraid sh--^ 








is abusing lis kindnnsB, '■e replies; "HV' 1 ;. . , auuse, V , dans ro 
Ton«1e 11 : 

Ton«1e 11 fnut etre un peu ti op hon ppur T^tro HBeer. ,•' 

^ Dans 1 '•■-r'^ier voyctge que je fis en province, j'ar- 
retni ce ■ -la avec ^-.on iiern, q^ui est mor intlm^ pt 

anni'^n n-.i^ ir.HiH-rt^ fut iT cor'ditlon vc-/a vus i l;ai- 
rier. * tous "eiix, '-t uuc vou:.- aurif^:' :3-i'- ere liV-rte %? 
VCU8 txpliciuer 3a-de;3sus; Je te defends toute c-..rii,.lai- 
B * r.ion ' '. Si "■ -^e ne te 

•r • : _ :«a 1. . tl , -1 t;: • 

11 r»:i art 'o ■"[' 

• • • • • 

SILVIA: iJaiB i j'oBais, ^ , ^. . is, li-ir unf^ l-Tn.-: 

'.jui me • l<=>Mt, i^e m*i.rrorder utt^ "race iv.i ne trarqul"''' 
ait • ••--.. 

M. OPGOir: , "a rhoso CEt fair. '-.e ■• • t-r crMe. 

SILVIA: WlP est tr.?3 fnisyhle, 'j p)»^ ce ne 

soit -r ' ' i "■ ontos. ^ 
M. OPaOli: K ^ a,^ Vh, -anu ce rcule, 11 -^ ut otre nr\ 

i uu trop ''on i.c.:jr I'^tre c'.tjijez, ('','''.) 
^(S . •0.)i(S . -0.) e^7^> 



(. . ^ 

. )M.f . 

of socU U2::clar5tar.cii^i.:^ .uid ,,..Ma i'cliw.Vi.. -i^j aiaouti : j.j lati;er ana 
■I daughter that \s liardly to te niatched in French coiasdy, 
T^lariva'.'x d-^es not -orr-ach, and he doea not r.^dersccrt;; "but ce 

-id Silvia, 

In the delicious l-'ttle oonedy of L'Eprnuve (1740) we :iave a 
sterner 'liae, Argente and a i^entle r Angelique t:ian those of L'Ec ole 
yjea Mrres, In one bcens, indeed, Mms. Argant'S. comportB herself as 

una-nial:ly as it is posailole for any one to do iii Ilarivaux, her 
bp;-o.x ^i>, aa Prontin tells i.^r, -jl' "une rudesse ins out enable," 
A-ngjelique iiae refused the suitor of wi'-Oiu her mother approves, and 
has drawn dovni the maternal wrath: "Je devcre ica cclere, etourdi, 

ingrate C^. -S etse;...,,Jf i.. -, ,, .;.r,-.i-r-r:-' i r- -.-.-^.^v,-! r-j 

:aais je la d^sh.rits si eiie continue u.o rcpondrc stuoci iial .*ux 
chli^jations que nous vous avone, meesieurB. . . .^lerci de -aa vie i 
qu'elle I'acceT^ts. -"i .i -3 -'la renu^-icei'' It to onl .■.r!CQ''vf:ance cf 

a still izcra C2iira;._e i,.ii:2r -ujaat can cal^n "Dr;.La ix^e, Arganre, 

Mariv.^.iix, as I h^ve said, cc tea 1 -y of 

the ho , '■ 30?ie of the a:o3^-les cf the f-^ -.le "'inht v/ell 

iw";i i';»OL'i;d ji" jiiu ill til'..- ij.1 ' ;:' Ji : cjt. '._;.,„_ Xl:. LI :iy u--ii a ^. xi, J: , _ 

and of real tenderness v/i ^ dlin . t. 

J.uAin"iI'] i:IV. 

Lh Pre juge ci la ocie, l7o; 

/j-.t'tr _t>our , y--... r, iil^.. 
L'Ecule des lereMia, 174 . 
Li<. ijouve muiK. e, lY-iV. 

A i'la.v in tjieKie vtjry lixe Le Piu looOx^he . a ri e . Purvt-l icvea 
his wire Conatcince, but uiiocts inciif lerence toward hyr, on acco. . 
01 ti^e ijrevctiling jjrejudice agc^inat corijuga,! aiiection. j:e ij 
brought about b;' jealous j' to conies 3 iaiu love lor her. There is 
a beconaary jjlot involving the love affairs ol Sophie, t.he cousin 
of G<^nstance, anoDaiiion, tJie friend of Durval. Soijhie reiuaes to 
marry Daiuon because 01 tie uiiha^.^jy exuerience of Cojifctance. There 
are no boui'tieo ii> ciiaraoter.s in the play. 

..clanide, 1741, 

L.elaniae nuii :n ner yonui ujiide a secret iiiur raat^e against th-i 
.vishes of her parents ana of the parents of lier h '.iband. Trie mar- 
riage io diooolvea, ana j-eiv*/iide is separated iron* her ivasbai. 
cast off by her ovm family. At tlxe openiriti of the play she is 
living v/itii :ier oon ^'arviane, .vxjo supposes iier to do his a---Jil. 
l^c*rviane is in love v/itn Rosalie, anc ?iaa for rival tiie elcerl, a'Orvigny. r.e Ciiallenges tiieiiiar^uis, a:ia it is 
that kelaniae tolls I-iiju that he is her ;-. .1.. I:. 
. i;w >..^..iZea in ti.'.; uic. _^mj.o ■.^^-.v xo;i^_^ xu^ . i-u^.', umc. . 



-injas or. 
rnul una rilif-tl 1cv.t. t.. 

L'Ecole l: .^3 ,!er3S, 17^4. 

The Argantes, of . urtini^ue, huy>2 httd two childiv , 
daughter. ' t'.tii daughter iutii been sent, at two yearj of ace, ' ■-: 
;_ convent in France, and iane.Argant has never seen lier attain, 
/.rgaxits are now livinfj in P:_ri3, where laiie.Artiiant as^irea to ■b^:,''' 
iisr acn a mar^uisat ; he styles himself mar^uia, in the riieanv/hile, 
and cissuiueij all the aira of one. :.. Ar-^ant, during all this, feel. 
that e jiality iti an , isiperative lei'.v, and has not ceased to yearn r. 
liis daUf-hter; he haiii iinally taice n her from the convent and intr^- 
ducea /.er into the household as his niece ^.ariarine, in the hc^ 
tl^iat she Kiay win the good graces of her mother. :.;arianne does ;.^. ■ 
understand the real situation, any more tJri^in does 
feels strangely drav/n to her. iuue . Argant, on the other hand, .-j . - 
pects :..ariarine of beirig her husband's iuistrei:.3 , and is .vitii difli- 
c'ilft' persi-u.ded of the contrary. It is on ;■ wiien tlie son lAaOO- 
l;t,vei3 to tiie extent of kidnap ^^ing a young girl< that nis ji.otiier'a 
heart turns tc i^ .-da light er . In the end the son is br. bac: 

iioiiie ana forgiven, ai^id the curtain falls on a reunited cJid 
rttij.ily. The la'.vs o. nature iiad the duties of th? p. .rent t . 
'..heme of thic. ^.la^. Tue ArgaiA housoliola ii> jois. 


A ^l. 

.'.JO. Gouveriiaute, LV4V . 
Tiie tjieiue ol' 

•iin unjubt deo io . 

iii u conve. . 'liin ^iri 

r^nae, . ...ition oi' jovf^nieui, 

near to ooiuijx'owit. inc^ heraeli' witli yo\jnr; duinville, '.viio j. 

•ue Zi.e sen ci tJie jua(_;e .uiona aecii^ici; lua.. r^^iaea ts\e ^c.vernetib. 

This Jndri-e h^b Ijeen trying; to inuKe re]^.arc..t ion , "o it ]va.a 1 

01' ii^e ruii-ii^ . .-fii ti-e Piv^voriunity oilers t-G ao so hy r- 

ricL^a ol" his son to An^aii^ue, lie tiltvdly doss so, . 
i...^i:iiit; j^i'io'.vn iier iaen^.ii.y. i,^terj'iu,i iiiiu iiii_^i ciiaoii'^u _. 
txieice here once liiore . There ure no bour^ieois in tiid oliLy, 
i-jOVtirncus ueiiJt^ rdu,j..:.y ;.. ooii.tcioce . 


--. .._o------- 

liivelle de La Chave.i^pe and Jiis relation to the Coned le Lar- 


inoyante havr ■ ^,;.v.. i v. ,.,... i^ created ''' ' Lanacn; t:..LB, and ti.e fact 
that in oi'il; one of hia plays, L'Ecole des Il£re s , does he deal v/ith 
a bourgtoie mlaieu , will make our treatiient of him In this place 
comparative"! '■ ■^'^t.i- :■ , ne?.' _ .enough ■^''' e>;";.i'-> "- .- rtsferencee 
oO the varit'UB ^-la:. a in another chapter. It i.iuet te remem"bered 
that the on.ject of this treatise is not to study the history and 
develot'nent of 'hti drane nourreois, "hut the developnent. of ''•■■,' 
"bourgeois cliaracter, and to see v/hat is the relation, if any, be- 
tween this and the rise of the ^enre known as -he drajr.e "bourgoois. 
We v/ill ourselves, therefore, to nothinp- v/hat is La Chaussee's 
treatment of tiie varicus points taken up j.n x.::e hj.stury of the 
Bourgeois since IJoliere's time. 

The theme of Le Prej u^e (l'^35) is conjugal love, a subject 
that has been treated sericvsly only once befoi't;, as far as I have 
been able to find. This is in Le Philosophe Marie (1^27), in which 
Destouches presents almost tiie identical problera, that of a man in 
love with iiis wife and ashamed to acknowledge it. The treatment is, 
hov;ever, very different. JJelite is far frori being so lachrjTuose 
and invertibrate as Constance. Dar.on strikes Constance's note in 
the fiftli line of t'ne r,lav: 

Epouse vertueuse autant ciu' inf ortuneu, 

and Constance continues to be as virtuous as unfortunate to the last 

line. She has the firm conviction of t)ie later eighteenth century 

Niveile de La C'naussee et la Couedie Lannoyante. G. Lanson, Paris, IH)?? 


biq h 

ii oa 7inxa 

* . 

roir.e that a woman's rreatcat c}\arm is her eeneiMll te; when 
L urine, out of patience, advises her to adoi>t stringent meaeures 
with Durval, Constance che.iects: 

Je ne ve\uc emploj'er que mes uniques arnea. 
nnd to Plorine's query: 

Kill qui sont-ellea done? 

replies: Les soupirs et les larmes. 

rhe relations cf r.'onstance and Durval reed no'-. Ve notic-art at 
greater length, since they are no*: courf^eois, ana u:e conjugal 
yoke has figured in the history of the "bourgeois only cis a burden 
more or less tolerable. One of the stock situations in old coraedy 
.vas that of a husband and wife stru/siKling in opposite directions, 
though only Dancourt represents the bourgeois as a really unfaith- 
ful spouse. The main theme of the play, tliereforo, is a ncgligsablc 
quantity, and we juay pLss on to one or tv/o features v/hich have 
occurred regularly in the bourgeois up to this tine. One cf the 
most important of these is the parental and filial relation, and 
we >!ave three examples of the fonder in Le I^rejuge , illustrating the 
one the earler rule for parents, the other two tlie later and more 
a_ la liiode . V/e nay be sure that so virtuous a wife as Constance 
would be a fond r-.other, and v/e are not disappointed. V/e are, hew- 
ever, rather surprised to htar tender and humane sentiiTients issu- 
ing fona the lips of the reasonable and tyrannical Durval. V.Qien 
he suspects Constance of . infidelity , he tells her that they are 
.0 separate forever, but generously allows her to resume her dowry; 
he wishes to keep only one thing v/hich v/hich her owes her, tiie thing 
dearest of all to his tenderness i this is their daughter. Jo all 

which the virtuous and unfortunate Constar.ce sinhs that she wishes 

erely to depend inion Ms nountyi c\s for ht^r daughter, it would 
..ave "been sv/eet !:.c ^re ;t; the onl-.' tliinr of '■.is left "-.o her, 1'-ut -- 

j.y ;3i.z avcia Zi.c ■.vcca ci' .ctiiv:r, a;,a, Lein^, wet i^j^a faitriful 

' her father, "be dearer to him. 

It is certain that Constance has not inherited her natcrnal 
instincts fron her, .fie frivolous eld Ar^taut, -i.ia lixsk 

la, wlaile not exactly severe witli his daugliter, Is im- 

atient and derisive toward }^er, and refuses to take her r-iarital 
aiscoinf orts seriously. iie sides v/ith his son-in-lav/, and v/hen the 
latter suspects Constance's fidelity and laj-s a trap to test her, 

:,d is cauf->it in his own trap, Argant, instead of neeting him with 
indiiznation, merely tells Durval that his scheme is badly thought 
, out, and that one is lucky if he succeeds in catching a woman. Ke 
is sorry for hin, "but what is to be done? She has the upper hand, 
and nov; the onl>' thing for hin *c do is *o ""-enp silent and ro ep.ev.' 
ist be remenoered in all th-is that La C^iaussee attacics only one 

rejuaice at a titie; tlie lack of uarcntal love is iict nla target iicrc, 

and he is reserving }\i; araunition -'^ r L' Ecole des l^eres . 

DURVAL: V'ivez en reprenez ce que je tiens de vous: 

Je n'excepte qu'un bien, que ,ie prefeVe a tons, 
Ce fruit de n.on a/aour, si cher a na tendresse; 
C'est de " v- - ".r bienfaitS Is seul qui '.n' intlresse. 



. . • . 

Jouissez de ces biens que vous voulsz me rendre; 

De vos seules ijontes je veiix toujours dependre. 

A l'ef;ard Lie iia fille..,.il u'eut ^te bien doux 

De garder le seul bien qui me reste de vous. 

Puisse- t-alle eViter les luallieurs de sa raere, 

N'dtre pas mo ins fidele, et vous etre plus chtTreJ (1"7,11) 

Vous avez fait une rude enterprise; 
Vous n'y revicndrez plus: vctre bisque est mal prise. 
Pour convaincre une fe:'ine il faut Men du bonheur..., 
Rarement (?m epoux en vient a son honneur, 
Je vous plains; . ais que faire? Elle a harre ijur vous". 
II faut, en attendant, se taire et filer doux. (IV, 14.) 

Ir^ ..■■'j (1' il) Wo itave i.-^ci. .iano aza .e of affairs as in 

Le Prej;.i;:o. Tiie j.iain charai. ters are no"ble, tiio .^ain inttvjeet con- 
'-■.erra i.-elar.ide and 1-or 'r.usl-and, rrd Mer relation to her £;cn ii'. cf 
oiily bccoiiuary l,;:^iorcaiu;e. i:. rjei^-i^'J- -ij s< n, j. ". la uowj.t^rii 

.ade at all cletir Juat w^iy a nctiier chould be paasin;': "larself ( f f 
:o nor son as Jiia aunt, v/'iile livin^r cent tantly in iilt:. presence. 
..elanide's attidu.-ti .cwaru .'um aun is oi\tj of .i..vr....Luut> tutela^^o, 

Either tlian of tenderness, and the entire scene of iier revelation 

to liim leaves us singularly cold. Ard although Darviane at the end 

jxclaimB : 

(7 i.i3re la I'lus tendre et la pi lis adorable! 

one cannot help suspecting that the line is in-Tfoduced t,o rhyme 

vith "deplorable" in the line bcf cr-3. hela.iide speaks v/it]' nuch 

.ore rjal concern of 'aer own parents, in deploring the fact tiiat 

ihey have cast her off, than she ever uses in speaking of Darviane, 

Az for Darviane, he is altorrpthe^ ■^'"ti rivch er.irrnocod in r.ncalii? to 

vaice very :-iuCx- :o xii^ar-c t-ie :-o:.icn^oub rovela"':ions aii ~c his pareri-;- 

.£,0, -.hough he does have one monologue in which he reviews his sit- 

.:ation in v/orda befitting Oedipus or Orestes. 

V """* ' 

Ills ine done laisse que leur iniinitieV 

De toutos douleurs c'est la plus iraportune; 

i^on pardon m'eut ete plus char que iua fortune. (11, 3.) 

J Ce monsieur d'drvigny, tiu'on veut que je revere, 
Serait-il d la fois r.ion rival et mon pere? 
Lui?.,.Daris ce doute affreux ^-'^ se confond '— ••'•i, 
liaine, desir, terreur, eLjoi- ur, effroi: 

Je ne dsiiele rien dans ce trouble funes-e. 
Qui n'en fera sortir?, , .Ilais Theodon iie reste; 
II est instruit. Allons, et tac'icr.s d 'arrac/i-jr 
Le rialheureux secret que 1 ' on vei't r.e cacher. (I'^/^i ^•) 
7(IV, •-.) 

Hov/ever, v/i ' 'lis )'r<Hill action fr^- '-.p.ndnrress of 


<■• r. ^z'-iiy f-Je, La Chaucsee can not altofiother froo himself fror. 

t"".^ cor''<''er tioiol vij^v; vA:en it ronos ■'".o ^''aVi^'' n -arria^'c fcr .rv.c^r 
and rcaiiiu- , ri:jeo, consiai:;!" : :• j.rcijo.s^ c; e i^r^uis J'or 

the hand of Kof.alie, uses to her da hich vv-ould 

PU"'''eEt a r'iot'"er from Ko!';nara. S'.o tsllf^ ^"'■r flatly that she I'lay 

!• - *• '"■:" -cii .^uis today, ^^j- .; ( into a cc :o, .v;i i-oy/ . '^'ronpt 

ohedience ic the only excuse ahe vrill listen to. Thiy .^orisee is 
tiie only example v/e have in La Chaucsee c" ;t>ier forcing her 

daugiiter's v/ill in the . ^.-^ ..>• ,r --.-r- -iai-e , -.>i- lie v/ill 

furnish an extreme cass of a. partial iiother, singling ou*, one of 
ner children for her love and henefios, while sii^ totally neglecte 

acsmg over for a Dicment L' iiicole aes j-^ercis , v/jiich comes next 
in point of tine (l"44, let us exajiine La G/uuernunte (1747), which 


o-^fers nan- v-oir.ts cf rer^onihlance to Me Ian id e . "cri.' arain ".'c iiave 
a Lioc-aer- living wil:. ::er Ciiild, tine a aaut;;r;i:er, iiuasi::^ iier- 
self off LO t is daugliter as a governess, instead of an aunt, 
"ere once more, we rmst ask: VQiy? There ic absolutely no cird^i- 
stance in her past life v/hich v,i...xu .:u^>i omtesse a'Arsfleurs 

ashamed to nalce herself knovm to her daughter, and no present ex- 
pediency which denands such., conccjaliaent . On the contrary, An/je- 

^ La prompts oheissance est la laeillcjure excuse; 
C'est la seule, en un inot, que je piaisse adopter. 
Ainsi, oilslle, il vous plaira d'opter: 

Le coi^. . ., ^r d'un c'Stc', de 1' autre ee ' T'hynenee, 
Vous-meme deciaez de votre destine'e; 
Acceptuz des ce '_0'ax d . : , 

Ou dsiurninez- ._ .! - . ,ir de -... , 

On vouij off re un hohlieur 406 vous n'osie^, ] i^t.'tendre , 

Le mariiuis d'Orvigny viynt de ne faire entendre 

Qu'il ve\i+ yien partaker sa f'jrtuns av«c vous: 

C'est - endre ar:our qui vous -n epO'.-x. (11, 6) 

could, to prtiveiiceci a. unce ii.-. n,:r- i.;o ;i;.Li,r ' t; rovolation, i u 
-jssee sacrifices all for tny sake of a roiaantic and touching 
situation, wd the cl cr.rinr-u-;:; .'(cj-k r.^t •r:''-': til f'le fifth 
act. An ...tiiur.iUL \ia.& 'jccupi'ja j.r. i r-juicj.;./, up 'jar i xi.w-ji ' a u ^.^-cic^i- 

.9nt for Rosalie, count of /lis "etat," or his lack t:' it, so 
-he Gouvernar.te goes a'bout seppratinfr Anf^elique fron Tainville, 

ecause, forsoc.-^.h, Anreliqi^e's fE^'^-^ '"■ ~ '-^r.- ...■;-,,.-i v,, .^amvilles. 

ven when the President discovers iic-r idenity, and insists on 
making reparation hy the ohvious v/a;'- of carrying tv/o younfr peo];le 
vho are really in love with each otl'i'^r, yo-,--.r. . ^e i?till 
. sfusee, and says that she and Angelique -will leave, "from grati- 
-ude." The cannot consent to young Tainville's losing his fortune 
:hrough the."^ , -i'^' It is only v/hen the ^aronne steps iri v/ith the 

ffcr to niaki, t^Lic pair hdr heirs that the Gcuvernanto yields. 'a 
object, apparently, is to keep the heroine in a heartrending sit- 
uation as long as possible , ohlig:ed to crTOse ''f^Jiv Gaurht,'>-'s v/ill 

<ii' th^t daughter's uv/ri f^oca, ana to lis vun ;c .uj repruaciies 

-hich are her portion for this liHerference. 

^ ?i. nous fuyons ce n'est que par reconr.aissance 

Llais dois-je conscntir qu ' il parde sa fort me? (V, 6.) 

^Que jr:i' iciporte a prosc^nt, pourvu que je vous fuie? 
\.Q vous attendee plus, ypres m' avoir traliie, 
0,ue je veuille avec vous passer /nee tristes jours: 
''on, entre vous et r.ici c'on est fait pour toujc^r^. 
Je s^Fpo^tcrai tout pourvu qu'on lious acfpNaro, 
■^'un zele arier, toujours trop i neon side re', 
Porte ju8qu'& l'e>cc#s le plus iramodere, 

Et qui vient de m'^ter le hon}ieur de ma vie 

T.aisuez-mci , je vous prie: 
T'ans toutes vos raisons je ne veux plus entrer. 
Quelle fatalite nous a fait rencontrerl 
Je rendais rrac.o au ciel d ' un yrosent si funeste, 
Aveugle que j' eta is. I (v, 4.) 

This eitaatlon glvee the Gouv'?rnant£ oj^portunity for many 

melting tears, and raany proteBtations of affection in monolot^ueB' 


and in asides , and long recitals of the griefs of the mother whom 


Angeli'^ue has n -ver to her knowledge seen, and whom she helisvea 

to "be dead. And Angelique is not ineenslhle to that cri du s q.\\^ 
that has hecome so sonorous hy this time. In spite of her iiapa- 
tience at the Gouv-:;mante»s meddling, and in the very midst of her 

indignation at it, she breaics off to wonder at the source of tne 


strange power that this woman has over her, Angelique's anger, 

however, is more effective for stage purposes than her aensih ilite _ 
and the whole scene of the revelation is decidedly taivie from 
the moment that she abandons her indignant stand, aiad hecomsB im- 
pressed hy her mother's tears, 

'o tendrease du sang, doux charme de _ma vie, 
Qui devrais des long temps m' avoir e'te' raviej 
Quel etat m'as-tu fait prefeVer a lu. niort? 
Grand dieuj lorsque j 'y pense, e'ta't-ce 1* raon sort? 
Mais je n'en rougis point, la caus'"" en est trop chere, 
Continuons les soins da la plus tendre^ mere; 
Avant que de rentrer dans ce cloltre e'carte 
Ou la main d'un parent a daigne' par honte' 
Assurer mon destin, consoromons mon ouvrage. 
Ah, cjelj penaets enfin qu'a travers un nuage 
J'acheve de verser sur I'ohjet de ^mes pleurs 
Les seulB bien qui me soient reste's de mes raalheurs; 
Et du laoins qu'au defaut de tout autre avantage, 
I'usage des vertus lui serve d'heritage. 
Voyons ce que sur elle ont produit mes avis, 
Et si pour son honheur elle Iss a suivis. (II, 1.) 

Votre merej Jugez 4e sa douleur morte^le; 
Peignez-vous son ^tat et son adv^-^rt^i he , ''tc, (II, 2,) 

-^Ah! vous faites de moi tout ce quo v cus voulez, (II, 2) 
Ne laa voila-t-il pas sensible a* ses doulsurs, 
Et presque hors d'etat de soutenir aes larmes? 
Quel est cet ascendant? ou prenes-vous vos armes? (V,4,) 


For our purposea, "by far the most important play of La Chaue- 
3ee is L'Ecole dea M'Tres (1744.) In th^ f^.rst place, the milie u ie 
bourgeois, and in t}ie eecond it is entiroiy concerned with the 
parental and filial relatl on. It is a lesson to unfeeling mc'rhers, 
md is the fullest and most explicit treatment of the subject 
that we have met. Besides the Argant's, who are the prLn6ipal 
fainily of the play, we have the Doligina, pare and f i 1 s . Doligni 
file is in love with Marianne, andhis father v/ants him to narry 
Mile, Argant. These two are, of cours", the same, but this fact is 
unknown to father and son. At first Doligni p?re bids fair to be 
a fine example of the stern bourgeois parent forcing his son into 
a marriage for aoney» To his eon's objection that he does not 
know the lady in question, the father replies that ho coes not knew 
her himself, but that she v.'ill have twenty thousand ecus. The son 
t,till objects that he knows nothing about he rlap p earanc e or her nind; 

the father repeats that she is rich, and that as for intellitjenci , a 


woman has always enough of that, Doligni flls, however, seems to 

understand -that this is largely bluster; he munaurs in an aside: 

11 cessera d''etre inflexible. 

And sure snougla, Doligni p ere goes to M. Argant to withdraw his 

ac.n's proposal for the hand of Argant 's daughter, saying 

•..;ciu nis. son loves elsewhere, Argant inquires is his son has his 

'^DOLIGNI T-^ILS: I.Iais je ne connais point mademoiselle Argant, 

DOLIGNI PERE: Ni moi , mais elle aura vingt mille ecus de rents, 

DCLIGNI FTLS: Eh| quand eile en aurait quarante,,, 

DOLIGNI P]]]KE: Ge serait encore mieux, 

• , • t 

DOLIGNI PILS! J' ignore comae elle eet d»esprit et de figure, 
DOLIGKI PERKi Elle esx richs. A 1 • e'gard de I'esprit, Je t'assure 
Qu'une femrae a la longue en a toujoure asses, 
Elle est jeune, au surplus; et tout ce que j'er. sais, 
C'est qu'a* quin::e ou seise ans on est du raoins jclic, 

(I, 1.) 





j'a-is.'f'cc: r;' 


Ot^ 6 1i 

f TA'^ 




{.-^ .^. 

pBnulee.ion, ttud is told that the >oung man* 6 ci.oice >'.'iil luake tii.e 
happinesB of father and bon. It is only just that bucIi paternal 
ccDpliance Bl^ould -.. : jv/arded by the dii.v.cvt-ry *•.'• at Mar an: f: ai.d 
. Argant arc identical 

Put the Doligni twain are a "bit asido fron the question. The 
delect of tViii incral c .;ru dy is to teach parents cf mere tiian >::;3 
child tc Isvc -hen ulx s^uallv, othervjise one viixl ..e aiBai^^jC-a^su 
in the object of one's favor; and the family chosen to illustrate 
this etiiical point is composed of Monsieur and Madaiae Argant, their 
sen the i;arquis and their daughter Marianne, The intrigue is ori- 
ginal, even at a time when family reunions in the fifth act were 
becoming general. We have the familiar situation of a child living 
in close contact v?ith an unknown parent, but Vtfith this differ^-nce, 
that the motiier is as ignorant of the relationsliip as che daughter 
is. In the case of the dauglater, however, the ties of blood are 
not to be deceived; long before her iaentity is revealed to her, 
Marianne declares that she makes no violent effort to gain her 
aunt's favor -- she supposes that Mme, Argant is her aunt -» but that 
a feeling that she cannot understand sustains her obedience,' B. 
the mother the crl du sang does not make itself audible until much 
later; she supposes that her daughter is still in the convent 

''doLIGIII PERE: ^on fils,a ce sujet, implore ma pfcti^e, 

11 aime eperdument une j eune pereonne^^ 
Diej;e de sa tendresse epde mon amitie*, 

M. AEGMIT: II a done votre aveu? ^ 

DOLIGNI PERE: Mais cui: je le lui donne, 

.... Son choix fera mon bonheur et le sien. (11, 8.) 

* En tachant de gagner I'amltle de ma tant«, 
Je ne Jie faisais point un effort violent. 
Que dis-^e? un sentiment que j e ne puis comprendre 
A liion obeiseance a servi da soutien; 
Et mon cceur, etonne' de se trouver si i.,^UL.i.-., 
If'a je crois, rien omis pour me'riter le sien, (II, 9) 

...ere she liiib 1 r, a.i;d v.'lijrj, s' c •nV.inlca, ahe ia far het.'.or 

ijatisfied than biie \fould V,£: in the v/orld, J:,.;- -- "Lt; sang parle >..■ 


lien," uaya ^^ •' .jir.njiB, : -d tliou'-li in ui... -v. inte, it 

speaks './ith no uiicortaiu .ic'.ei Ai'vdr ..iavlii;;^icctea t]ie un- 
v.av].:' of bein/; M^Argant's nis'i'-rer: , '-r.ins to find 

" -TEOlf jtrrr-.-el" drav.'-, ■ oward t'l:^ s rival, -lous air sj;e 

car. starc-Ji/ ".'uiii';. : .t3r., us si:e '.iuytj '^lons j-uriii'-ne , tstill un- 

known tc }ier, .. -r tard:' naterral desires are at length fully awal:- 
aned. Pincilly tiie ixyetoinr is entirely cleared up, ar.d t'-ie realij:ea 
that j;ariu..:.u"^, ■•• ■-■ :r daugliter, by rsasoii of tlio jo^r she exper- 
iences on beholding herX At; for 1.. Argant, /.e is in the nnha^'p;'' si+''- 
uatlon of 2e(?ir.£; himself unable to help I'arianne out of her pre- 
dicaifient by reason of -" character of his wifg, and the fact that 
the property is here to do wltli as she pleases, and if slie pleases 
to bestov/ it a. 1 on: her son, it is not for hira to say her nay. He 
can only weep, and he uoes so v/hen he nentions ^larianne. He recalls 
.. '.rongly Lycandre of Le Cxloriet^c, as :-arianne recalls Lise?:'«:e of 
tliat play. 

Fo "luch fcr the relations of father and r:othc-r to daughter; 
v./.-jn i: co::'js zo '.le son the siCua:;ion it;. ;;i, .lis. r-j\ -^n^au., a: ...'--iit. 

ciell d'une rivals est-ce la le langage? • 

J'ai peine a resister a son air ir.f.:eiv) 

Je n'en avals jauais ete si bien frappee. (V,8,) 

J ^ Si ■i,,c.^^cv connai^sez, 

(Je suis riere, excuses des desir^ empresses ;) 
Vous pouvez --'er tracer ur.e iciage fidels, 
Paites-MOi son portrait, , .Qoui J vous ne I'osez -as? 
Je ne ne flatte point qu'elle ait autant d'appas 

Que vous en avez en parta/^e, (V,8.) 

Ferieji-voua? ^1 ut au ciell Dites-noi qui vous etec. 
I-a ni^ce..,.81 j'en crols dee transportr pleiya d'l.; 

VouB devaz ra'^tre bien plus chore. . , . 
Cette Jeune orii.eline, ou tant de beauto' brillo, 

(. .j;':.) 

be uncierBtcod that this son hae taken, vfVh the connivance of his 
mother, the title and estate of a MarqulB, against the tlrae when 
hi8 father will consent to buy him a ma r , q . u , iaH.t. . Tliie fact adda a 
addiuicnal aiotivd to be studied, one v;aP:xave not yat encountered in 
La ChaustKie, but v/hich is all too faniliar in the earlier cocfidieB', 
This bourceoie Marquis is the only instance in cur author of the 
climber. This dMl:iition of the son, and the resi-tJCMvu attit-.aes 
of his father and mother tovi^ard it, are so intimately connected 
that it will be v/ell to atud;;/- the three together. 

As for the Man-iuis -- LaChauesee calls him cy no cLr.t'i- name, 
and we must perforce call him so, though he is none -- Rosette, the 
suivante , gives a sufficiently distinct sketch of him and his kind. 
He knows how to choose his clothes v-'ith taste, he dresses witn an 
elegance that others seek in vain to copy, he is luxurious and 
frivolous, he apes the people of quality, he loves pleasure, and 
he contracts debts — ^ind does not his mother intend to make a cour- 
tier of him? As usual, the means of advancement will be a nar- 
riase> and as usual also, it will be a frank bargain of money for 
blood. The nature of such marriages is iiiade manifest later in a 

Que votre fils adore, et que vous cherissez,,, 
DOLIGNI PERE: "Eh bien,..Vous vr us attendrissez, 
:j. AEGAJfT: Cette niece, .,,,,, .Marianne est ma fille, (II, S,) 

/ Quoj 1 trouvez-vouB mauvai s qu'il soit I'horime de France 
Qui Bait le mieux choisir une etoffe de goutj 
Qui s'nabille e,t se met avec une ftle'^ance 
Qu'oii cherche 3k;opi';r sans en venir a bout? ^ 
Lui reprocherielE-vcuB, dans I'humeur ou vob etes, 
Qu'il alne un peu le luxe ^t la frivoliie'; _^ 
Qu'il cherche &. ressembler aux gens de qualite; 
Qu'il aime le plaisir, et contracte dee dettes? 
Et n' en voulez-vous pa» faire un homne de cour? (II, 1) 

Ifl.EE, ARGAJTTE: Je pretends que mon file ait un brilliant etat, 

Je veux, par lee grands biens qui so^t en ma puiseance 

Suppleer au defaut d'une illustre naissance, 

Et que dans le grand monde il vive avec eclat, (II, l) 



(, ,xi) . 

t- « 

B u ; • J , 


conversatiu .. ■ Mma, Araf^nt , it which slie telle Mra that 

a girl cf f.uua uirth and connection hao Icon i^ropoLod, and to wliich 
;i. Arganljsapiely i-eplieB, that eif^nifioB t'mt ahe has nothinr;; f 
i^oes on to eay that her son is ricli cnciiKh ir. liiB ov/n ri^ilit, ar.d 
•"ould not cor:ie acroBB eo scod a outince af^ain, I'lonsieur inquires 

'.■'-•:%', '■■ e ct^-'er side exacts, and it told thL;t she has onl/ to i-ro- 

liae her property to th>^ couple. 

The Marquis has all tVe foppery and fucliehneBB of a real 
r.lood of th.e court, Kis esta-tlishrient is coriplete with su_i£S££, 
coureur, and inai t re - d ' : o o t el , He jests at honest love and nai-riage 
•.■:ith a c^micism tl:at f oreshadov/s the lilague of La Contagj o n, Hs 
o-rranges an a'bduction, carries it out, is overtaken and v/ounded, 
Hnd stands in grave danger of tl:e Bastille; and it is only the in- 
tervention cf his hourgeois father ard his rioney that restore him 
-0 society, atid the pruyers of his v;ronged and neglected sister 
that restore him to his mother's favor. There is this, hov/ever, to 

.2IS,ARGA1TT: On propose une fille ainahle et de naissance, 
Et qui meme appartient a plus d'une i)uis6a?i.ce, 

■I. ARGAHT: C'eat-a-dire qu'elle n'a rien, 

:.23;,ARGA1TT: lion fils est assez riche, Un si grand nariage 

,Lui procure, entre uutre avantage, 
Une entree a la coar, avec un regiment, 
II no trouverait plus d' occasion si hslle, 

-AI, ARGAJ'T: Qu'cxigc-t-cn de vcus? 

r.L.iE. ARGAITT: Ehi iiaiB ai-parerjaent 

Que j 'assure aon hien, (11, 7,) 

LE J.'IARQIJIS: Est-ce que I'oi' aime encore? 

:D0LIGKI PILS: Est-ce qu'on n'aime plus? 

LE ilARQIJIS: De quel T); ^'S vfens-tu? 

DOLIGNI FILS:Du paya cu I'on aime. ^ 

Lfi MAftC^UIS: ^ Ou diantre as-T;u vecu? ,,,, 

De vert i able earxur? A I'autrei 
]Ton, j e n'en vis Jamais a la ville, a la cour; 
Et si j '^i heaucoup vu, riais beaucoup, 
,,,,LeTout dos plaisirs, la fortune, la gloire, 
L'interet., 1 'a' cur-propre, et senhlatles raisons, 
Bnra^ient a forLitr entre eux des liaisons 
0,1 n'ont rien de I'a-iour qiie It nom, (1, r>,) 

• it *^>.i:P hoi.jijf-diij Marquis: M. J -rjain, II 

:3elf ri(: oul I'la, 

fro. " , ? • L.-i C'.uws'j 

to acfiounf. ;. n" ^Isioi i' :' . 4 

9 *• im ■■i**^.w» ^ ■■■■■§ 

T" "oil to the Mariiiila is provided I'l ^is f i •':•-' *ir, H. A -t" , 
" ' is 130 "'■ender an'l +<^Hrfirl when Marianne i ^nl , "^las not 

"is :.u', f'LH 1)li'' c'.'loration that his wife 'i.r^, H ' a i-in 
'.sely, an'.i not too well. He is an excellon^ ; Its of t 

.:^e of the con "lon-aent- "^eois, and ia MorH t'lan uaually s'ls- 

ji„.,,7 r.y i^enae '^''•*v-- -Ugnity of his cIhss. R-* ■:.. "v, ' vo- 


:.^' absence he is scatidalized to find himself nr^nd at 

M. ^HAITT: Vous avez i-'ris un sulsae? 

LE ?yIAKQJIS^: Oui, HiOneieur, 

M, ARCrAirT: , , Ponrii^u:', 

LE HARi^UIS]^:'J ouisae yat a la poi-te un snenhle liec^asaire. 

M. ARGEIJT: I" - f ■ ■ . 

St::-il I'ic. ? 



fj .1 







^ • 


yort ! ; '^ 

Pur^ I.?"! 

l^iix uois ' 


^ it iri T ' 



lii- . _ :^ ■ r 

I 4^'.(ji d®nc, : -ibi ? 



-^' ■ 

c ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ - .^ 

ollOuUii 1.10 fl O 


... , - ^« •- '- 


vi^ - ■ ■ 

p.. ■ * 

rtir lie 


- ■ I - 1.' - . , 




Oe r^>j>roo>i«» rn^ t 



» f 1 



T? ' 


i.x on tr' 


U G ii*> 


■A .M 

Vv a sir' L tF» . 


• 3 UJ 

L,. Chaussee, M. A; 

A > • 

' -'r-rl'-d adnlBaicn 
! e Ui;t!.ii:L>t the ' 

u,rt of 
a 'becoit.e 

•^ A 

i-.r-..,1'- f, 

M . -A 

tlLbiolda frc 

jiortals ch.ouT ■'. "• ovo "'1'^'^^ ~orl.f3rFitp lovt^." E 

.HJ sh 

s}ie loves h*^r aon to the joint 

JLt> sais viue chez l^js ;;r^ndo il oat ai'*oriae, 

Que chez 1-as i^ens d'uvi nioindr- Aa^^fi 
C^' ricic';"-? r.^nis s'est iripiitronise'; 
II s'us" meme gliase j usque dans la rcture: 
M .3 il n*ost pas rioins vral qu'll "hleaae la nature, 
Pcur Chez r^' , c*''' •"" r: I'^aTt, il -^^ ^-^ point de cowra, 
S ("^eT:, on ' ..n no^i ^^ li», 

Q 1^ lie lAn.^ nst le r.1 'olfi 

Q ' ijuiss*^ -.,,,.i.-.v- I It. ,y JQ,,j-g^ (11^",) 


M "r Airr :?/■•■ ^ 


}0iE.ABrrA:TT:J , 





Co ' -riu! Lj^ui voas fait boui.-irt^r? 

'.-^ 1 consi i' ? 

soit .^ • ... .- V 
s'e.'it-il 'lone ia:3L*? 

(IT, .) 


O .t" UI-; 3. i I J. i*;. J 1. 1;- t; j. ;. 

'-tiiHiB for aim, sj-ould 
■brilliant natch for liim; 31. Art 
his son'ir- toeing a tiarqur i «- ^^ilenced ''■^- ' ■ ■ >-i 
ful arfjiuner t of mc , "le property "^ i.. 

Then, too, ads *:■ e Xv. . -ustom! 

ono in f^rnr.ce v,. , iving t.\;c cliildrer . 1 '.iv-h; onG cf "l^Gm in a 
convert t. z.iaz i^na nay double ^.-^.e DeneiivS o: 
her husband replies that equality is the lav/ of nature.' 

When the sen gets into trouble, however, r the heretofore 

iiidulgent mother v/ho "becones proportionately t-.t;;:i uud refuses to 
forgive, and it is the calmly moderate father :h'j celestiall;- 

virtuous daughter who plead jfor his pardon. It is granted, thou;-:. 
with ccndJtions, and the play closes v/ith a i;- i.iece in morality 
"by I'. Art^ant, in which he states in so many words that one can 

. i jj a r re' 

.i by the 

. in ov.n ; 
Ik he only 

".:ie o'i-ierv .o v/iacii 

m^. AEGAIfT: 

M. ARGAin: 


Est-ce une nouveaute? Suis la seule en T"rance? 
Nous avcns deux enfants; mais 1' usage n'abso_ut, ■ 
Si^'en laisse un des deux au fond d'une clo"ture, 
L 'egalite, madame, est la loi de nature. 
II n'en faut avoir qu'un, quand on veut qu'il ait tout. 

T-'s suites n'en seront funestes que pour moi: 
Idole de mon coeur! malheureuse cliimere!^ 
File indignel AhJ Ic Ciel te devait une mere 
Incapable d'avcir le rtoindre aiuour pour^tol, 
Est-ce au fond de mon sein qu'il a yjulse ses vices? 
Pour lui ^seul j'ai laisse ma fille dans I'oubli, 
La noitie d^ men sang y reste enaeveli: 
Je faisais a I'ingrat lee ]lus grands sacrifices; 
Et vcila tout le fruit que j ' en vais retl_rer! 
Ma honte est mon salaire! Helas! qui I'cut pu croire"^ 
Pour detacher mon coeur il faut le dechirer: 
:. i« je remporteral cette affreuse victoire. 
Va, nc haine coramance ou mon erreur finit. 
( !.l. APGA IJT) : Trionphes . . . ,le ,Clf3l me nunit. 
El:!' ne s^Sparec point mon inte'ret du votre: 
Sans nous rien reprocher gemlssons I'un et I'autre 
Sur les e'garemonts de ce fils trop in,';rat .^ 
Si je I'ai tou^Jours vu d'un oeil un peu severe, 
Je n'e-i avals pas moins des eritrailles de pere. (V,f) 


L.. C" 

•al ull 

L P' 

effect. L. C" 

£;iven 0V-. 

■ e en ■ 

1 at ion of tht) 





Melanide ' 


'''Erf in, V voyez au co.iIdI- _ a voeux, 

Er. u:.r ses ©nfants, c'est soi-nerae ^iii^on iiiine. 
Mais, iunr jonlr d* :::•■" -"--^ - '- eureux, 

II THut a^ - , '" • - 

Corai>tez -^u^on ne parvi»jnt ^tt ur suirene 

Qu'en i>Hrta/^ec<St so" T - - •^*'-^ ^' . (V,10.) 

(.01,7) . 

Arle4''-i^-^5*2ucHlion, 17.:. 

.a ...e'troiiiii.iie , IVo.. 

i.''ranc^. leu, a .vei^ltJiy i-aia i^otir-jd b cur ,_;•.■; o jo , i^ aXTlicted .vi'> j. 

house cili .^oets. Among others in Damis, for whom he daatines his 
daufihte r Lucile . Lucile is, ho vever, in luve v/ith l")ora.iits , -.vhc i.^ 
introduced into ths ho^ose to play a role in one o- 'a 

comedies, DLuuis has been sent to Paris by his uncle, Laliveau, z 
study law, arid Baliveau coiiies to the house o! i-'rancaleu also, 1. 
in^; lor L^j.iis . lie tuc is inauced to taice a -ole in '^he coiixegy. 
Da;,iis hLascir is not in love .vith Lucile, but iiiia .ines hirasell' t 
be 30 with a certain letdy of Baose jSretagne whose verses a^^^ear 
the Lercure . This lady is no other tliL>. n PranCcilau, Daj.ii.^. 
a ijlay at the Coi;.edie, oixt it is liissed; i'rancaleu re cct;ni/-:es m 
in it, hoz/e'cer, and still offers I^^^cile to the hii^sed i^oet. At ■ 
^.ru-i 3r of Lucile herseil', hojevor, a/id t^.^.t of Iioruiii.e, backed by 
the consent of Dauas , he ,"ive:i Lucile to ^.oi-cwnte, andDaiais cons^ . 
..elf with the luuses. 

i'rtincaleii: poetry-i!i£.a, but net ridiculouB; fr-.e from be 
lastes; lovir%- aiia reasonable father. 

Jialivea^i; .jr .1, c . .aiis' 

vocation, .aiuuic-..& n 



••^■•-« aQiV^aai^s 

In La^Itetromanla (1738) Pirori has given us two excellent types, 
of contraetinp nature, in Francaleu and haliveau. In li'rancaleu we 
have, for thej first time, a l^ourgeois taking the center of the 
stage for some other ijurpose than to make the hutt of rudicule. 
And Francaleu is still a subject of humor; he is not one 6f the un- 
fortunate fathers beloved of Destouches, 1 ivelle and Diderot. }Ie 
is as far from the P e ^_e ji e _P um i 1 1 e as he is from the Bourge ois Gen- 

Let us consider the sit'aation in La Ile troma n ie^ for a moment, 
and see what Koliere would have done with it, V7e have a bourgeois 
of middle age or more, ^one daft on poetry, writing six-aut tru,- 
gedies, producing then at licme , wclociaing tc }iio hcuss ail pccts, 
and offering his daughter to one of them in marriage. Here is a 
subject essentially I.Iolieresque -- how v/ould '^oliere have handled 
it? V/e can imagine how, if \;'e can imagine M, Jourdain, havinp- 
learned to distinguish prose from poetry, sitting dov/n in dresfiiri.r- 
gown and slippers to compose a tragedy; we can imagine Dorante and 
Dorimeno, posing as poets, or at lyast as patrons of poetry, flat- 
tering him till he yielded up a gclden harvest; and we can imagine 
the comments of :ime. Jourdain and ITicole on the efforts of the muse. 
How,, on the other hand, does Piron show us his metromane b o urgeo is»? 
Francaleu's six-act tragedy is not, perhaps, worth more than I^. 
Jourdain's would have been; but the man himself: 

C'est un fort galant hor.ime; excellent caractere, 

x. 7 
Bon aiiii, bon mari, bon citoyen, bon pere, 

says Dainis, and though he Roes on to add tha.t no one ia perfect in 
this world, and that Prancaleu'e fnil Inp; is to flood his hearere wit 
bad verses , yet he does not deceive himBelf as to their excellence: 

Tout le premier lui-meme il en raille, il en rit. 
And when one can laugh at himself, he is uecure from th':; ridicule 
of others. 

The best point about Francaleu is his geniality; iialiveau says: 

L'heureux tenperaiaenti i.Ia .ioie en est extreme. 

Gai , vif, aimant a rire; enfin toujours le r/ieme, 
'i'ld ITranoaleu sa^s of >iimself : 


^nfin, je veux c.hez moi que tout c^ante et tout rie. 

He is willing, as Dumis has said, to be the butt of the laughter, 

so long as laughter there is: 

J 'achieve de brocher une piece en six actes. 
La rime et ia raiaon n'y^sont pas trop^exactes; 
Mais j'en apprete mieux a rire a mss depens, "^ 

And Jrancaleu is generous, too; not only generous in material 
things, but in the way hardest for an artiso ■. ■j be generous: in his 
appreciation of the work of others. And his admiration for poetry 
is as discriminating as it is sincere; he is in reality a poetry- 
lover, fine and honest, rather than a luetromane . His love of the 
art has refined from him all the grosser taates that ¥;e have learn- 
ed to attribute to the boiirgeoie, BeBide ooetry. money is a vain 

^lloie 4 I'humanite, si parfait que I'on f ut , 
Toujours par quelque faible on paya le tribut: 
Le sien est de vouloir rimer nalt^re' Minerve , 
De s'etre, en cheveux gris, avise de sa verve; 
Si I'on pent nomrner verve une demangeaison 
Qui fait honte S. la rirae, alnsi qu'a' la raison, (I, is.) 
(I, ^S.) (II, 1.) (II, 1.) (I, ^.) 

thing; surely there is non." of tho mieer in the nan who can say 
that, if the poet to whom he destined his dauf'^ter is poor, he hiir- 
self ■''^an enoup:h for both; that he will have raads one man happy, 
which is a celestial pastime; and that hy this favcrincr an honest 
poor man, he will h^ave made raeric as good as raoney, for once. 

If he is not of Harpagon's family, no more is he of M, Jour- 
dain's; he sees a nohility in genius, not in rank; and if he feels 
that he is above his class, if he can speak of 

Prejuge populaire, esprit de bourgeoisie, 
It is because he scorns the narrowness and materlalisTa of its 
views. His cnly burst of temper in the play is when he turns on 
Baliveau, the matter-of-fact uncle of the poet, and tells him that 
'.e is unworthy of a nephew who had already honored him too much; 
that his argument is merely popular prejudice, middle-class spirifc, 
always an arras against poetry, and t>\at a work of art is quite as 
rood a title to nobility as a capito ulat , this last being the po- 
sition on which Baliveau founds his pride of plice.' 


..ISETTE: • 



Ma fille est rlche et belle. En un mot, je la donne 
Au premier qui lui plait: je n'excepte pereonne. 
Pas meme le poete? 

, ^ Au contraire, c'est ^ui. 
Que je prefe'rerals a tout autre aujourd'hui, 
Jt^ ne !« crois ^jas rlche. 

Eh hien, j'en ai de recte. 
J" 'aural fait un heureux: c'est passe-temps celeste. 
Pavorisant alnsi I'honnete hoinme Indigent, 
Le nerlte une fois aura val.'. I'argent. (II, 2.) 

Oncle indigne a jamais d' avoir part a la glol'-e 
D'un neveu qui, deja, vous a trop honore', 
Savez-yous ce que c'est que tout ce long narre? 
Prejuge popul;iire, esurlt de bourgeoisie, 
De tout temps gendarme' contre la poe'sie'. 
Mais apprenez de moi qu'un cuvrage d'/clat 
Anoolit bien autant que ie capitoulat. (V, -*,) 
«(V, 4.) 

He has his cwn otar.dard of excellence, ar.d is not owaysd "by the 

vcjaj.o'. of tije vxu^vi. A iJdet !.s Uoiii ^^ i^vv-'t, and Lucile 
is destined for DaJiie, aftar his failure at the comedie as "before. 
And upon this Baliveau, Baliveau the practical, gives hiin tlie 

testimony, v/hich v/e can all eci^o,, that he i« h r'-'^^nd very rare 


and very perfect. 

This sunny, genial Francaleu, v/ho likes to have everything 
singing and laughing around hira, is lovai:le in all things, "but in 
none more tjian in his tenderness to his daughter Lucile, Damis 
says that he is a./ good father, and he himself says that though it 
be contrary to tiie custom of tho time, and though he should be re- 
garded as bereft of his senses, .12 intends to satisfy his daiughter 
in all respects; she herself shall choose her husband, and shall 
listen only to her own heart in a choice which is to be }ier ruin 
or her happiness. And Lucile says that he has never abused his 

rights as a father, but that it has always been a genei^ous law with 


'im that she is zo loako herself happy in her own way. In no aspect 

■1<AiICALSU: Vous paraissez emu? 

rALI-v'l^AU: _ Je I3 suis en effet, 

Vous etes^un ami bien rare et bien parfait, 

Un precede si noble est-il imaginable? (V, 5.) 

Le penchant satisfait repond de la conduite^. 
C'est centre le torrent du siecls interes^se'; 
Mais lae regardat-cn coaime un pere insense', 
Je veux viu'a tous egards tia fille soit contente; 
Que I'epoux qu'elie aura soit selon son attente; 
Qu'elle n'ecoute qu'elle et que son propre coear 
Sur un choix qui fera sa perte o^'. son bonheur; 
Qu'elle s''jXijliquo 3nfin la-desous s-ins fin;: sat.-. (IT. 2 

D'un ivere, je le sais, l'autcri^r.c tupre:ue 
Indique ce qu'il faut qu'on hai'sse^ ou qu'on aime; 
I'lais de ce dro^it jamais vous ne futee jaloux, 
Aujoard'hui m^ae enccr vous voulie^, disiez-vous. 
Que par mon propre ciioix je U3 rendisse houre.iiie; 
Vous vous en etiez fait une loi gen^reuse; , 
Et c'est ainsi qu'un pere est toujours adore, 
yX que moins il est craint plus il est -e'voye', (V,y,) 

will Prancaleu aiJpettr -i- -^ pltfasinf; •'aii n-. ' •• f.i-^MHr v.ho le 
adored and reverid by iiia daug}iter, una i: uu uIhk lea^c-d, 

B.i.liveau is, ptirhaps , a better rspreauntatlve of the new 't.'ype 
of bourt'eciB tl'.a;i is jprancaleu, v;hoS(? fint; esthetic ueru^i lifts 
him beyouQ claaK d:.s'^.i::cia.cMb ana raaicoe r.ici one ol u!ie exect v/ho 
of theineelvee fom an aristocracy of taote, Baliv^ittu 16 u bour- 

geois to "ps rccognliied at bijiht. He ib nover ridiculous; but ha 

16 intensely practical and hard-headed and clear-cighted. He is 
not insensible of the honor accruing to a Cap: toulat , and hu thinks 
that a nephew should devflcp the financial side of his future as 
veil atj :;iie esthetic. He regards iiis fr-'erd*.: u-i.ia as a mild form 
of insanity, apparently, a thing to be huiaored lather than censur- 
ed. And he has a sufficient sense of hutior to see the figure he 
cuts when he consents to taVf' - >- t ir fH^ ylay. His meeting with 

^BALIVEAu; Poui- vous v.ue^i;Uib-j e ^laireV 

HIAIJCALEU; Dans la piece du jcur prendre un role de pere, 

BALI\T?AU:' Un role, a moi? 

rRAITCALEU: Sans doute, a \^ou6. 

BALI\rKAU: ^ ^ C'est tout da 

ZRA2JCALEU: Oui; n'etes-vcus pas bien de I'age d'un barbon? 

BALIFEAU: ■ Soitj mais... 

JRAIICALEU: Vous en aveij les dehors? 

BALI7?tAU : J c 1 ' av u e , 

FRAIJCALEU: As sea I'hiineur? 

I^ALIVEAU: Que trop. 

FRAJJCAIjMJ: F.t tant so it peu la ucue? 

EALIVEAU: ■ Avec raison. 

PfiA'iriALEU: Et puis le ^role n'est pas fort. 

BALIVEAU: Quel qii'il soit, J 'y re'i-ugne, 

FRAIICALEU: 1.1 faut faire un effort. 

BALIVMU: E"' I fiS que diralt-cn? 

VRAJICALEU: Que vculiez-vcuc; qu'or. diet? 

BALIVMU: Un capitoul? 

PRAXCALEU: Eh bien! 

BALIVEAU: La gravite? 


BALIVEAU: Ka noblesse, d'ailleurs? (II, 1.) 


Da-iaie, his nephew, to .Viiom . ij^ltic: ie 

d?liclous, and hie: "J'ai ri, me voila dcsairme," ia a confoBbicn 
v.':~.i'' ■ '■'''' "■'• ■"'■^ 1 ,^on irnpostjible * ': ^'^■■■^ Tif. ,-.-,-Lr nf Hegri-..-. 
Debtuuc'ittts, Aii IVu-ough this scene, BalivetiU a; gues afea ' i'." 

irofeasi; • '■' hard oourgeoie n-uenee, Ijut without 

rl-;'.t .r "'•rutallty, H' 'Jf'-R i^dpIi -.rproved t.fsr.'.'o ;.« inrrat , 
"oourregtu, t?colerat , and ;, e like, buu he is nG~v dungoi'oue. He 

maJies hla position plain in a later scene with Prancaleu, in which 
his views, if they are not idealistic. s.t l^aet can net he called 
unr^asj-ixailc . And riiiaiij-, re is caivarie oi a ne'ieroue aa';;ira:.ion 
of this idealistic friend of his, and the fine trihute v^e have 
just read d<j«iB him no less h.onor than it does IFrancaleu, 

To eoju. i'.ide t>ien: La Me t r organ i e c ly e ^ ■.iO hourgeois w}:o are 

huncrous hut never ridicj;loiis; T'rancaleu the Tnexromane, hut also 

the generous critic, the unfailing friend, and the just and reascn- 

ahle father; and Baliveau the practical, hut also the forgiving 

uncle, and the friend v;}-;o can appreciate idealism, while he does 

not affect it, 

' Ce temple pretendu 

(Pour parler ton jargon) n'est qu'un pays perdu, 
Ou la necesBite', de travaux consiunee, 
Au sein du sot orgueil se rei^ait de 
Elhl raalh.eureuxi croie-rr.oil fuis ce terroir ingrat; 
Prehds un parti sclid'e, et fais choix d' '.at 
Qu'ainsi que le talent- Is hon sens autci ._, 
Qui te distingue, et ncn qui te singularise , 

(III, ^.) 



Ou le gcni'-. heureux brille avec dignite; 
Tel qu'enfir le harrea"; 1 ' cf f re a ta vanite'. 

Api>rendas ae laoi qu'c;i r;^ vcit ^^^-^r 
Les hcnneurs en ce s:iecle acc'v llir la rnisej'e; 
Et que la pauvrete, par 'avilit, 

Faitu pour degrader, rare:.:-m: a:'.:;obiit. 
Porgez-vous des plaisira de tcu';-Jb Its eape'ces: 
On fait comm.e on I'entend quand on a vos .richesses; 
''[ais lui, que voulez-voua qu'il devienne a la fin? 
Son partage ai?sure c'est la soif et la fain. (V, -i.) 

*^Page 5, note 1, 


Ije I<'orce, 17.53. 

TJie titury ui u.i;i cci;»ed;y is, up to a certuin point, ui-:.uiji, 
exctctij ii:e ator^ ol' L* i<;te de Icl St^-Uxrtin. Cleante, id ;;icLrr-ied 
to Jiu.rice, uut ^fl'ithout the coa sent ol' hiu Tctther, Or.,on. Jxuiij 
is introduced to Orgaon ati the niece of his Irienn, Li^iifi.on; ne 
i'aixs m love .viti- her aiid deciuret. his puosiun; mn v^ ■i^jun oi.d 
tells hiiii siie is already iijarried, but thc^t iier uncle withholds his 
CO rise I.e. Ort,on undertakes iier defense to her uncle, anc" ;.^ so 

\'iel L tiiat he is unable to urge any reiusi.l \-j'nen x^e finds tliat 
Clarice ia v^.rried to Cleante, and tlriat it is he' himseli ..:-•- is 
■.7itj:i.ji.olaing iiis consent. 

In tiie liltie coiuO; Le Ounaeiitei-^en t X''orce (I'/.V'Q , 
ville has iei't ci. sample oi jomedie lanuoyu,ate in litLie. Clt-- 
rice is a i ul i^'^ aeveiuijea Jici^^mc, .7;-.o Cc'.n ;. t,ii.e 

sliLJiitetit x-'i'O'vooation. On l:er I'iri^t introoutit ion to Or, on Bh(i in 
so overcoiae vvith terr'or liiiio she swoons; 'aixa is gi-'ocl, ou'. jiiiJ. 
better is her ex^. I< ol' it: "En voya,nt monsieu-- j'tii cm voir 
un i^ei-e ^ue je cii.e-"iii ir;iinii:ient Les truiti^ a'ua ^eVe ai^r^^i 

de la pari'aite ven-^ ration I'ont toujourii uae iiuxjression ^jrc- 

iGiiQe dur I'ei^jrit a ' uae lixie t.|Ui sait son devoir." 

'nQVQ -le have the filial note clearly sounded; Cleante, t«.c, 

_tjroiess^i3 iJi'OiJcr uCiitiucni^ to.vara^j Jiis father; "Je ne j>uis vivre 

heureux sans la ^josseosion de Cltirice; niais je ne ^ji'is I'etre a'.iijs i 


sans J. a:.,.iLie de luun ^-ire." And Orgon, tiiouyi ne aoes not SJicv 

the feeling: tloat is scon to be deeiiied fittin;;: icr a pe re de faiaill-.; 
is not Darren oi "Vo,,i.s ivi'arrachez xanuea, " j.e exc la hiia 
to Clarice after a recital of her woos. 

Th^" c^iiis^id la.riuo.-ante .vas ^-'e x^ervi lie's gexire ; L£ Jonsente - 
J'^gJtt Torce ;vas tlie only one of nis inany jjieces that succeeded, cine 
latei- i. ; .vrote one oaixea Les 'EjjOUx Kevmis, which .vus so liiv-e U-. 
Pauss e j^j-itipci-thie t/iat its .^v. thor was obliged to prove that he .vas 
out of Paris .Vi.c:.! ^. .-'^j^oje's teariui coii.edy was ./roduced, ctnd 
so co,.j.(i na,ve nad no^e of it. 

:c.->. ^Jcp. -^Jg.1. ^.jc.l7. 

J^Rei^ertoire au T-'-ac. 

; o i s , 


A co/ued:/ v/h; LS Tartaric.; in n. ... j t, 

„ ^•--■■'^ T •' ■'^'our^eois, t; 

t,o bo. Cleon, ti;e j,.ecj^i>t , /ias w. jiiiuiiell in 

or >;-:r , luve to Flori3G, th.T ■.vido.VGd s'^ter of 

Reroute. j.e exit-ertuinb liiCiu uutii b^ iiio t>jici.rj.j tind- oitin.^ tjivsec 
Plorioe h. L, a duu.jhter, Chlue, .v}iOia Geronte v/ishes to .liirry to 
Valere, u youn^ mun or the na i^hbor^ood //hu iia-b been s^jenain^i be:..;; cxt Paris. On his return "Valere, ins, irad by Cl'sV.., 
belf =>o object ioriLvble to Geronte that the Iw-.tter witJidra/zs his 
sii;...ort I'ron^ Valere ' s suit I'cr jhlce. Cleon io the snr.jrce in the 
^ra.jS in the //jiole intrii_;ue, in the coni'idence of everyboay, anc 
traachero -iii to them all. J.e is finailly unmasxced, I'irst tc I'loi'ij'j, 
throu£;ii the ol" Lisette, and next to Geronte tiirou^h tne co:idn^' 
to lii^ht of certain letters in v;hich ha hus i.ajd his respects tc 
Geronte and his faii.ily. j.e is Oj.vj.-osed in all /.is i::Oves b;- Aristj, 
the sound-headed friend of tiie fujuily. 

Geroji'.e: ^..^ d-heartea , ^./iain bourgeois, affectionate, obs' - 
nate, a-ix^ed byClecw., but '-ioldin,^ to res.:,, in t:.n, 

i'lorise: cross to cJhloe; elderly co^ 

Ariste : clear-sigi^.ted, .vi th Go;M_on-s Jii,.j . 

Prti^ J;;llevillo s 


cule on ' ' :' . T 
■traversed ai'"' MoTiere, one hap 
T--'.rtnf^ ^ _, "bios n . 

. P- - - , 

T iriH 

ana i 

L ;- M ^ i^' -nt with 

. e Or, 

A ■ : , ■ . B 

t, CI- 





■ C' 

him of thrt old traits only th 

fjr-ia-lciw in tho eigiity yeara which liad elni^oed, ad left in 

iii.lity of ' ■ 'iinipd. 
No Gorunto ■" ■ ■•'•'>.. i' ■ ,.?''> chl----^ ■ " 

theae is a, ■|>t;li'i>f thu ls a ^.T-t soil jjcilly otrons v/ill, 

whereas .^-s'tringQ of hia diater Ploi-iso, and 

' rr '. . L ■ nv^M-.. . v^ 

i>ridf5b \:^i i^ijcilit^ xii '.liXCi. B ^ -, j-ack- 

iviij, I ia firot scene with Lioette " • and ov..-r 

m accc 

soon -jec'S F"^ ■ :■. ij^i or Hie' 

• ^ is f 

-> ^ C i .4 ^ ■ 


, i^^. . 


.-,Ji ' 1 yfiU , 


. . 


' P 1 PI ■t-ri s»»« ?' -..If* f. 

<''nnn«s.., \T 

lost, H-^' d<)-^^ lo: 

,- 1 

■.,.:. A ■ 

or Cr'^roiita's chnrfcictor, a litt" i 

lr,t,.rTi ■ V-\*y ' s hi., ' is 

nij.rri-H' ' " C" 4 


Gf->'. r.o^s worst point i; Tuct^, C^ *-. 

=ir'1 a-,T«n +' -;p la attrilutaVl ■- . K.- 1.'. 

CI :■. I':'. J'-^ it^ -iu'o'i rie, et iiu'ori ^ne div^rtissej 

i; . -^ ■■ .■ ^ - ■ ■- • •• - -. 3 

cheerful, A/i i >.ies'- ^TI is Lisette*'' -• •^-' _ • n ] fjssei 


S...- 1' . -. :.. ... ... mr j- ... ... ' . 

C*'Js* ScL fill^, il ^!Jt vraii y.i.iis 

SI JO r . (in.» 

-^ ^ ^ . . . . • 

Ma aoeur vientl tu v.s voir si J'c. 












lu j. 


• y ■>, 



• gronde. 

a ae 

' t: 


mn. " - 

1 . 



-'(1, 2.) 

I I 





XX -i^ 


(. «I) 

' n f^ ^. ' F> ^ ^ f T 1. * " 

Vti\^r ■. H 

^0 3 3 ip ii' ■ J' ^ , Ct 


J . soon 

xt de t, that Oero; ' ' . A . 

C'MoA cc-ie i _ -o;;j-u-i.'-'., uf it, .. ;.uttins u;. 

"better taste, I is not sur;^ri3inf; " " nia scene 

G'^""*e a"H^n^''^'if3 Y'Te^"'^*? r'A^s'^, es^'ed'e."' Vila H.ttlt'Juo is 

■ C" |un, I " ■ ^ A '- 

7.ince "nira of Valere's " ' ' V ' - 

jei-'* ' :? fo'"" last ' ^ '>•: ?s 

' •-'■ora'blt? ai<ien<!s, ■.:■.'.'■ dedlares .i.ool" • . ,: ■ ; :^ ■...;, ".-. 

^Y 3 n'e s aochan-t, -'s it? xouver, l'.^- ■ ? 

V , ' . 'v're. (I/-.) 

«2 IT J •■ i, 'ol;^- ^'•'... 

Bonjour, . ^^' 'C, q"e je ' .lccc, 

Cc " ' "' * IJ , . ,M':t foi, .•jolcx ■ 

(J_ /' ) P -■ 1 I j>; l*ai V 

J ra»on , plus hu col^. 

pi'. • ■ - n " — f 

(^ A T V . • • ~ , : 

C» -^, ^. • • .da,':) 

M "• -.'frivol '. (III,''.) 

4- - 




• • • ■ • 

* I 

A-< ■ T > 


t r 



7 ' 

,land.?7-. Taker all ir, all, O'^^rcnte is a . e ".est Bort 

cviit;ec-LB: .-.cou-iivL...: .'Li, a J......! friend, .- •.■^ ruBent- 

snZ, "but equally hard ease i-ouued, no-'. iirctoutiouB, 

ot in ^.■■:? t^llg'itcst G ridic'.ilouB , bJcVi is t je as 

S' '-"--: '"';'■ sidu wiu. Geruri .lave cc ciiaracter liarks V'acic 

3 tne Moliere tradi-i.:' on uicre truly than Goronte hiiaself, Tr.ia is 

Ariste, '..lio ver:" ci -s'-f resenloles Cleantft or tartj-ffe, TVirough- 

c- lay h3 inovoe chocking Gleon's i.ianoeuvros, unci lo a.:: all t]ie ;;:derato, clean-sighted, cloan-heart ed frisnd u.nd mediator, 

Pi"Vap8 tliese Ciiaractoristics corae out Tjcst in Lia replv '.c Gleon's 

oecious argUiiient in favor cf slander. 

It is unpleasant to turn froia these two to Plorise, Kara, 

.jain, there is opportunity for ridicule in this elderly Belise, 

■ ut Greaset lias. not availed himself of it. In Y^eA' relations v.'ith 

'Leon, Florise is foolish, hut not once does her cond-act provoke- .. 

:ile, Ind'5 3d, snch is Gleon's c^miciSM and cruelty in his dealing 

1 J. .-er t'.'iat \<^-. ^x-Liost tender her our s;/;^apathy, expecially after 

^ (^ V-^l-^^g ) ^k Ariste; ) 

Ailojis, j e t a pardonn^^ , , , Et nous, rncn cher aiai , 

Je sens tiu'on en revien"^. toujours aux Isonnes i^ens, (IV, 10) 
* On n'a rien a repondre a de tclles iaaxiri3B:- 
Tout est indifferent pour les ames suhli^nes, 
Le plaisir, dites-vou;3, ' y ^agne;_^en verit/e', 
Je n'ai vu,que 1' innui chei; la iciechancete, 
Oe jart^on eternel de la frcido ironie, 
L'air d3 deniRrerfient , I'aigreur, la jalousie, 
Ce ton '-'ieiuc, ces petits i:iot3 sans fin, 

Toujour^ ... -J un air qui voiidrait e'cre fin; 
Ces indidcretione, ces rapports infldsles, 
15B Iriisees faussett's, cee trahisons cruelles; 
T^ut cela n'est-il pas, a le hien defi-iir, 
L'imase da la /laine, et la nort du plaisir? 

'•ler oufburat rrd, which alitioat ruatcroc her dit'- 

jaurhter, .'or riri;t ;• ce tc.tMlo 

El.le est si pen fomec, i sotte, e'itr»- 

,-enz, arisin- ^'rc::: ■ji- ' V/hen 

''hloe ccmes irto 2ier .mother' s rrecence , "riBgo 

-ets for fole res' r^se: 

Voviii e-tes aujcurd'hui coiffeo • ■^■■■:^^^ '--revirl 
fter which riatemal remark Plorise leavee her to hev/ail hsr lot 

"c Lisp+.te. The poor cliild says she does ever:/thinc in hencwer 

to mollify her r.other, i-'m -^ .-■.u-i-^.-^':-'^ ' "^ • <- o ■■• ■^ -, -.•=■! ig that it 

Is her mother's intention tc put l^er into a ccuvent, to which 

^hloe replies: 

}!a mere es' la naitresee, il I'a favt cheir: 

Pi'isse-t-elle a oe prix cec-yer cie i^.ie .lairj 

Aussi re voit-on plus sont ces caracteres, 

L'aisance, la franchise, et les plaisirs sinccres. 

On est en garde, on doute enf ir, si I'on rira. 

L' esprit qu'on veut a"voir gate celui o.u'on a. 

De la joie et du cceur on perd I'lieureux lanpage 

Pour I'ahsurde talent d'un triste persiflage. 

Paut-il done s'ennuyar pour etre du hon air? . . . (IV,7, ) 

'^C'est trop scuff rir ici la hcnte ou je ru'ahaisse; 
Je rougis des ^gards qu'employait na faihlesse. 
"^ii hien! allee, ncnsieur: que vos talents t>ur nous 
Epuisent tous les traits qui sont dicres de vous; 
He partent/Ie trop has pour pouvoir nous atteindre. 
Vous etes dciaasque; vous n'^etes plus a^ craindre. 
Je ne denande pas d'autre eclaircisser.ent, 
Vous n'en -i^ritez point. Partes der^ ce mcnent; 
He me voyez Jaji:aie. (V,r).) 

^ Ce qu'elle cbt devant voue ne vient que d'er.harras. 
On imaginerait que vous ne I'ainez pas, 
A vous la voi'r traiter avec tant de rudcsse. 
Loin de I'encourager, voub I'effrayez sans cssae, 
Et VCU8 1 'ahrutiesez des que vous lui ]>arlez. 

^(1,4.) ^(1,6.) ^(1,7.) 



?•-'• lov?a V-l-i -, 

pi r,,--1 r;^t. 

Tl: i s 

■ l-t. 

. C-r 

In iio:' 
tjon ?ni' hif^li noral 

•rue, clear (.haruotorizatio.';, 

,'oOie aj 

t}'CEe of W 

Chausao.-! , M. J' - ria 

'^ i -"• 




Q, -Li oi'ia-j-j done ai 

-.V-' . .^aus iilluz Yotre clie-iii.. 
ii! uui^me suit c^uaiid verrei-je l:i "in? 
' r l*ainiti'/ d*' raa n^r^^ i 

j» — . ^ 

Du cliarr; 


J* •: sacrlf iftrais, 


Ejj';-il '^ueliiue nia?-> 

■^ ^Ui»j.i' a'oa-oi" t; ui'd JO.Lxei 

fris toD^ ■'1"^ '' T i 'Taire: 

AlX -! 

n nM 

"l o 

J. J 




. (^^ ) 


13 riJ^SKOT, iVi.-.-i^ ., 

Pere . 17dC. 

riorval, friend oi' Clairville, .is torn bet,v,3en love I'or Uda 

returned by Rosalie. The situation iii i'urther c auijlicated 

i uc _ .j^i^i- ^ox.;j Luixce, LJid L.a.uLei" ui Cxuirv , is in love vac-n 
] orval. TriO atiuoSj-here is cleared .vhen Lvsiraond, the l'at>.er ol 
ivu^it^iiri, i"c; lax ii^j i xuiii .ji.u i' iuu, ana r-3Cu^r^i/; jo j.o-'Vt^J. ad riis 
n;-tural son, and so a s tiie bi'otiier ol' Ros..iis. Dorval ac- 
uo^.to wwii;ita.i.ce , et. a Lliairvilie iiixri'ies Rosalie. The i..iiieu is 
not bo;ir£i;eoio. Jldirvilie is certainly noble, and ti-:e v robabilit: 
lii liiut Lysii-itna u.iiu iii^j iUi..ii.; are iucxi c^s .veil. 

In Diaerot tJ-e 0..I/ im. i io 

in r:}:,,.r^oterti -. j.-urcieuis . It iu i.^ero i.. u ^aea; ion ox' 
•ec;.nicc.iity , ciS UiG re ia not tne L>lit;/iti5ii t evidence 
ucteriotios .^bout any oT ti.em. In the Pere cte jia.riiille tiie nuiuss 
D' Orbeb^iorx .-ina Suint-Albin |jUt tiie beixrera ol tLeij. outdia'.' 
;.;iddie cli db, though the^' luay huve "been no iiijjher ^ 
gentry. The ^uebtion in Le j i la x .aturel -is not ^uite so eu&, 
dreter...ine . There is no doubt aa to Clairville; it his nume .vjre 
not enougxi to indicate hib ranK, .ve have oeaidea his own airec*. 
tes t iiuony, a txi tiiat ol Dorval, .vho exclaiiiis at Glairville'a dcter- 
Liinatioxi lo go into trade. CltLirville reels tl'ic*.t hia lacj:: oi' for- 
tune is a oar to his union .vitii Rosalie, a th annoMnces : "Je commer- 
cerai." Jiorval asKs:"Avec le nom que vous porte/-, u,'ariez-vous ce 
c....ra,je?" and. Clc.irville ref.irxis : 

"Q,u'aiJijelS2-vo.ts ccurai^e? Je n'en trouve j.joint t*. ccia. Avoo 
une aiue Here, un caractere inflexible, il est tr-Ox. inc --rtain que 
j'ftbtienne de la laveur, la fortune dont j'^^i besoin. Celle qu'or' 
I'ait i^ar 1' intrigue est j^jronq^te, i..ais vile; ^jar les , ;__,lor- 
ieuse, hiais lente; ^jar le>i ta-xento, toujours ail'lijile et iiiediocre. 
II est o'autres e".ats qui lusnont r^i .-ideiaoat .^ la richeose; xiitis 1 '^ 
coijiiuerce est ^jresqite le seal ou leo grandes fortunes sent ^ rc^.cr- 
tionii35a ...:. trciV-.^il, tt l' iiiaus trie , aux darigers .^ui les r 
honii^tes. Je coercerai." 

This soeecii tliat Jlairville, and ^^robably Pi , ..•as 

less iiu^jressed .vith tne di^^nit.) 01 cciuu.arce t^ian vitii its adVi^n- 

"-ci.^es; he regcirf.o i t as r.ciiest, but soaroel,", ,;loricus. 

..0 ii.tians ti.e s^.-o-^ch of .^ocu. ii.u ' t> V. i;go rii ^A .■' --.ureiiv. 

jiiic}. . , , - 

tor. ii.u ue„u.:.i. ic oi u.-,iuL ^.u^.i (Jlairviiie ■'II^,-:, no 

An to tlie otiiera, , uud uwi L.i3 ac n unc; 

te r, :-j.>3r3 io not .. .ble \.u ii.uv/ where ti^ej be lon{_,«id, 

Cci,n only 3uni.iL.e Ij.e ^^robubi ii tj . Tue luut tiju t Dorval ia Ci-.. Jr- 
vij. J ' £> i.iuij . iuLi...c',L; i.riorid, t IaJ li^ct t/io, t Clia.irvi lie ' & vii^.^r 
J oils 1-cs. uc e ia vviiliiij urid c^nxioua to Jiiar ly him, ttiid tlie rftill i.or, 
i-i.^jui' ti\.r' t fact txui . uoth. Glairville and ii.L;j oioi^.;i i.uvtj;. ^ t. - 
fectly all along tiie circuiustariceo ol" Dorval's paternity, ar- 

blO'o i^ii Jiio o c .<••.>.; i ^e oil, till.. „. c 1^ uty iiu>. .; J. i,j .u ; a ■/ •..-...: li ax^'S^o^'- '^ — 

ti-esa lactri, in tiie abaenoe of uny contn.ry eviderue, Vi.uIcl cjj iuj" 

ol Glairville. 

Txiiu jyoint is o.-. xii'^-r^oo jj; o:.'^ j.^^je ol i.. j.'^.ve j^j.^ -. v, : ii.ti.i) .._ 
the tiraiaa v/ho see in Diderot an innovator .vho placed his drai^atic 
^itui-itions in a u o..j.-^o.. .1..^ netting. Thit, .vjiuis .^ .;^oL,i.,. ;., c.^ .veil 
<*s tJ:ii.t ol' t;.e strict iixeanin^j ol ti^e .vera boiirjjeoia, .vilj. be taaei. 
'u^j in oji-r o.'-ijc^ |..ici.i oi»ci.;^vter . 

oM^'hlis, lYO(;-lVtU. 

Lao ..od'.ira ciu Viiavo . I'/iJCJ. 
Beverlei . i'/(38. 

Lea lioauro du Tei..XJd , IVbCi. 

7}iii, nOijendb Tor ito irite. ore (,n 

itd atiiios^jhere tnan on itb intri,;/'ie. Loricate ii in Ici/e -vita 
Julie, *'r' rid '-'+■='• -J' Geronte, ^'r.-A. ueront;-?, .vho i.-. entir^l- under 
tLe oiiuiiiD 01' nib oiater tiia Goxateabe, ^^ived Juiie on aer aavice *c 
Uid i-^kir-^uib . On linain^^ out tit ci iHcA-aK btill tli^ iija-r^uio ' real o^ 
ion or niiii, he reccvlla hid ^^rcruibe tuid p;ived Julie to Porante. 
■Jeronts is a ^ccd-neurted 'bourgeoio, i^ririini^ hin.balf on hid solid 
benae, out altacnint., too e^reat iiii^^ortance to money. Trie Coiutebie 
io irivolouo c.nd .-; ..itel', and h^.., . tLe viceb oT >. raul Ocm- 
teaoe, tnoue;n ane rian oeen uorn a ocurgeoioe. 

-nev^irlcii, 17o8. 

This drai.;^ ib tc^rcen airectly frcia "The Gcii.:eb ver" . b-' "^^d-vard 
. If 06. It teiib tae b tory oi' Jieverly, an ']nE;li»ijiian, .vi.o . 

rained hiusell and hia J/aiiiiiy by ;ai!il)lir,- . . ...i villain is StUKeii, 

a i>rete;rided I'rierid 01 tj.e i'aii.iJ.y, vvho i;j in realit l ■ 

].me . Pi3Vr;r , . _ "averlei b -r c;ards ar'd 1 

cije. jieve-rlei 1. "^ x^riooa lor t. 

Lrc*noi>ort oi deo^^cir trie .-. i ^ . ... ies i.. 

an,.. . . 

. o; I iJ 

. >..L. * - 

L DSiJi 


Saurin has left "boiiind him two plays '.vhich bir;i of intcjrest to 
us: one a dranie which is pretentious hut unascceasful , the other a 
comedy slight to insignificance, hut containing two characters 
clearly sketched and pertaining to ourstudy. This latter is Leg 
Iiiloeurs d u Temps (1760). 

The pair contrasted the one with the other in this comedy is the 
bourgeois CJeronte and his sister the Contessa. 'Chier characters 
depend each bo much upon the relation to the other that it will he 
beet to study them together. In the first scene f'idalise, a friend 
of the family, is giving Dorante a few instructions as to how to win 
Julie's hand. To this end she sketches the brother and sister, 
Julie's father and aunt,. Geronte, she says, for lack of wit, 
prides himself on good seneei plumes himself on his wealth, and 
believes a millionaire to be the first man in the world. Ke has 
his private poet who forms his opinions for him, and writes for 
him adulatory verses. The Comtesse, in the meanwhile, the penniless 

Croyez-vouB que pour epouser cette enfant-la, ce soit a elle 
qu'il importe^de plaire? ...A qui-; monsieur? A son pere; et bien 
plus encore, a la Comtesse sa tante, qui gouverne tout ici, et mene 
par le r\^z son pron-homine de f rers . . , . Je vous avais pourtant bien 
mis au fait: je vous avais dit que le pere de Julie, riche- financier, 
faute d'esprit, se piquait de bon sens; qu'il se iijiraitt sans cesse 
dans son opulence, et croyait qu'un raillionnaire etait le premier 
homme du nonde; . . . .''onsieur Geronte, sans faire cas des talenti',^a 
cei-enuant ur homme qui lit pour lui les nouveautes: c'eet son ^areme 
en fait d'esprit, qui lui fournit des jugements tout faits, e^ le 
met en etat de parler a* tort ^t a travers de tout ce qui parait. 

II est celui (i.e. 1'crt.cle) de monsieur Ge'ronte qu'il a pris 

pour le heros de ses vers. On vous les montre, ces vers, qui de ^ 
monsieur Geronte ne font pas moins qu'un grand homme, um homme d'etat, 
et vous n'applaudipRCE pas de toutes vos forcesi . . . Je vous avais 
dit que cette digne soeur de "eronte, demeure'e veuve d'un hoinme de 
c^ualite qui I'a lalpcee sane bien, aimait fort a medire, et sur-tout 
a medire de monsieur son frero, qu'elle traitB-de petit bourgeolc; 

o.^ :1 lo ttiti ii . 

10 : au 


.0 initi i oOi 

0? noicffilST i i.TT OB 

t. rr.^F^.r" c'!ci'i:. ■ti.-"'-'' r., ■ . ""' ''rjSSO^ '"' 

.X ,,£l 10 

■jn« ,iijlii&w axii iio lifeBiuirt asrawlq <ssuea >iOo-i ao cit>A>l"i 

f.-t?-tv ^.;-: ^nii/i -tol anolniqo aixi axmoT ^ '"' t^n.r *^-^ 

: brii' nx ,9B8BJino"' erfT . .. Ihiiti iuxii 

'l-^n^''"'^' .-■'cm -r.- jtioqa luon- 'f- «!'> -•• 

A '^" A. . . ?» XI 'up 

eX tJJJp ^±Jb 8 

8U , 


r- r 

• • t 

widcw of a man of qualitv, ...... -cr "brother under her control, Yxit 

despieeis him at the Bome tine. She treats him ae a "petit hour- 
geoic," and lier mania ie not <o he hie Kister. Cidalice contraete 
the straiRhtfonvardneBB and frankner--; cf T)crante'6 iiandliru- cf tliis 
Ir^rotlier and sister with the artfulneab cr zIlq JTarquie, ./he, v.-iien he 
was with the Comteose, ridicules Geronte's ostentation, his coarse 
pride, his pretentious tone, and his borrowed tastes; while with 
Geronte himself he corimends his sound sense, assures him that it is 
worth all the pretended v/it in the world, and adds that men like 
him form the pillars cf state. 

The characters this presented hj' Cidalise are developed v/hen 
Geronte and the Comtesse first cone into each other's presence. 
Geronte boasts t^t ^he hall-room is decorated with taste, for the 
has seen to it himself. He then goes on to reprove her for her 
frivolity, her turning night into day, cnlj'' to be told that the 

que sa fureur etaut de n^ voulloir point ^trp la poeur de ce frere, 
qui cependant a pour elle un respect imbecile, qui n'af-it que par 
ses ccnseils, ne voit que par ees ^/eux. (Sc. 1.) 

■^ Voyer le Tarquis, votre cousin: peut-on mieu^: prendre qu'il I'a 
fait le ton de ces gens-ci? II est vrai qu'il ^est homme de ^cour. 
Est-il avec la r'ontesse? Ir mal qu'il dit du frere assaisonne' les 
louanges qu'il donne a la soeur; il le raille^impitoyalbement sur le 
ridicule de son faste, magnifique et mesquin a la fois", sur son cr- 
gueil grossier, sur sen ton avantageux et has, sur ses prouts d'^n- 
prunt. Est-il avec monsieur Geronte? "Voil^ une "bonne, t'3'te! 
dit-il en lui frappant sur 1 • epaule. . .Vous ne vous "vous e'tes pas 
ai:ius^ a la bagatclio, vcuti c.veii fait votre cheminl^ "O.u'est- 
ce que tout 1' esprit du raonde au prix de ce bon sens-la? "Ma foil 
pre» de vous et de vos semblahles tous ncs pretendus eeprits ne sont 
que des sots I gens comroe vous, ajoute-t-il, sont "bien neces- 
sairee a un etat; ils en sont le soutien et la ressource. (Re, 1.) 


LA COJITESM Eh bien! r.i^nsieur, tout est-il pre"t pour le bal?_ 
GERONTE: J'ai raoi-mome. fait ajuster la salle, et avec gout, 

j'ose jji'en vanter. .Te ne vous parle point de la de^pensei maiti, en^ 
v^rite, ma soeur, je voudraie bien que pour l'in':t^rr;t de p.ante 
vous priesiez des plaiairs. 

--?';■■'■ +]:.■»■■'" » a« mJ^r^ a.+ j 


Oil J 

sun is meant only fcr the coiaiaon hardi he replies that tlie pleaBuree 
of the people are the only real^ i:hat tlie others are only vanity and 
the mask of "boredom. Geronte follottB up tliis lead wi'h a plea for 
the dignity of ruone, , ana cit.ii.iB .nut uoney oonsti Lutes -iie oni; 
real worth. Hissietor I'eplies thai in the midst of his wealth rank 
imposes on him and his likes, and Geronte sadly admits that it is so: 
"Parce que nous Bor.:jries des sots. Cela est plus fort que nous, il 
est' vrai. " 

It is hard to classify Gerontej he certainly is clear-sichted 
enough to see the folly of the Coratesse's v/ays, and his assumption 
of common-sense is not altogether unwarranted; hut he is dazzled by 
rank, a;: he confesses: "Apres tout, le Marquis est un homjne de la 
"couri ma fille sera presentee: elle peut un jour avoir le tabouret. 
"... Cela est bien flatteur. . .Ouij la C'cmtesse le dit, et il faut 
"bien que cela soit puisque la plupart de mes confreres marient 
"ainsi leurs filles." 

moins fatigants. Dites-moi done quel charme vous 
trouvez a^veiller toute la nuit, pour dormir tout It 
jour? Est-ce q^;y 1'3 i'laiair d'an baau soleil... 

LA COI'TTDSST?: "Ehl monsieur, c'est un plaisir ignoble! Le so- 

leil n'est fait que pour le peuple. 

GEROIITE: Ma soeur, j'ai lu quelque part qu'il ■:\.^\r a de 

vrais plaisirs que ceux du peuple, qu'ils sont I'ouv- 
rage do la nature, que lee autres aont les enfants de 
la vauit^, et que sous leur masque on ne trouve que 
I'ennui. (So. 12.) 

GEP.nilTE: L'argent, morbleujl'argent; voila ce que j'ap- 

pelle du m^rite, raoi: je veux un merite qui rapporte. 
Ditesmoi ce qu'un horame a, je vous dirai ce qu'il 
vaut. II n^y a que cela de reel. Esprit, naissanc-j, 
qu'est-ce que cela produit par an? ....Men dieu, ma 
soeur, pares que vous etes de qualite, vcua vous 
piqucii do graiids sentiments: je m'attache au solide , 

LA CO'ITESSE: On volt cependant qu'au milieu de vob rlchesaes 
la qualiti^ en impose a vous et 1 vos semblahles. 

GERONTS: Parce que nous sommes d«s sots. Cela est plus 

fort que nous, il est vrai." (Sc. 12.) 
^Pc. 17. 

u»b :. jaTfi*^'' 


".aalXil 8^uyI lanifi" 


As for l.h« coiatcii^ue, she is of the type alreeidy uxemplified oy 
the make-balieve luarquioin La ChauBBOo's Ecole de e lileres . Eour- 
geoia born, "but ti'il'd by xaarrlage, sho Jiaa th« bearing of one born 
to rank. Thie lady, who claims that the sun was niade only for the 
common herd, while the people of quality shone by night, is over- 
whelming in her scorn of the b o u rj;_e o_l sie ; she treats her brother 
as a "petit bourgeois," and finds that "cee petits bourgeois ont 
des idees bien etranges." But, aside from the inherent absurdity 
of such remarlCB, she is not ridiculous; ahe carries herself with 
aplomb , rriddy and feather-brained as she is. This bourgeoise Com- 
tesse has acquired the manner to v/hich it is supposed one must be 
born. It is to be noted, too, that Geronte is not ridiculous 
through any assumption of rank. When he v/ishes to distinguish him- 
self, he assumes philosophy, not birth. The age of the Encyclo- 
pedia is upon us. 

Before passing on from Les Moeurs du Temjja, we may stop for a 
moment to notice a remark made by Dorante concerning ilolierej he 
thinks that I^ioliere .vould find many subjects for portraiture wait- 
ing ready to his hand if he should come back to earth. At which 
the liarquis rails, and inquires if he thought anyone of consequence 
would go to see his plays if he should return, that old ^^loliere? To 
which Dorante J "OhJ non; car du bon, du vrai ccraique, la mode on eat 
passee. Le rire est devenu bourgeois. On raille, on persiffle; 
mais on ne rit point," 

^ ^ (Sc. 14.) 

T)OPvAIITEi Apprenez vous-msae, monsieur, qu'on ne doit point 

appel3r usages ce que pratiquent peut-etre une dou- 
zaine de folles et autant de pretendus agreables, dont 
T^oliere, s'il revonait au monde, nous donnerait de 
bons portraits. , 

LE MARQ,TTIS: Rh! mais, ton vieux Iloliere, si, comme tu die, il 
revenait^au monde, croic-tu que Iss gens comma il faut 
iraient a ses pieces? 

DORANTR: Oh! noni car du bon, du vrai comique, la mode en est 

passee. Le rire est devenu bourgeois. On raille, on 
persiffle'. nais on ne rit point. f^<- ■' - ^ 

i-lilkJ H'liJ Jill 


JStT-'-tJi-^U^J L 

sTJToq To'i eJD« 

C'-JJ.:' f 

nil Ijjjjov. 9TexIc 



sjTf.e"fo(T rioinliw 



We need not stop with !Bovorlel, aa it is moraly a faithfiil trans- 
lation of Ed/^ard T'oore's The GameutT, produced in 1753. There 
is nothing ITrencii in it, ana it la only raeniionea ue suo^ing that 
the public taste of the day apparently demanded such fare. The 
?everly family is suppood to belong to the merchant ci , but there 
is not a line in the entire play that could not with equal force be 
spoken by a noble, and the whole could transpire as easily in a 
chateau as in a private dwelling. The effect is much that of the 
conventional drame of the day; that is to say, what would now be 
called melodrama. Only virtue is a little whiter, and vice a shade 
blacker, ohe heroine a bit more saintly and the villain a triffle 
darker, than in even the most pronounced melodrauaaas of Voltaire. 
family affection is played upon to the utmost, and the center of the 
plot is the wifely devotion of Mrs. Beverly, while the horror of 
Beverly's own death is intensified by the attempted murder of his 
son just before the father's death. But all this is to be found 
in the English original; and Saurin's chief interest for us lies in 
the two clear little silhouettes that he has left in M oeurs jdu 
Temps . 

oil' -nt-vs'i 

t ; 

ar.i 'to JjiJVi-! 

T -':i r; ^-InO . • -jjTtdl&n i>o.fIr,o 

" noau fcevc nolo oc^^'lB vl'. 

.rT.ti-.rh >i • -■: ^auh 

J„J\ i \.' 1.. .•. J ■ , - -1. / .'.' . 

Thi-o ia ti lit Lie coiueay ol u.tain.jria, in v/hich lii.-3' 
vviao.v, to .vhicL o oi..e on^oe&o .ivel,-' hsr int inun t ;.. , 1 d Jici. 

-L-o;;, IV ^.u<3L iKiiu i.liJo I. V. £jCi^ <.i. -u-jci: xii^_ Jul' 1.1. ■:> VSTd eo, .,i. m;;.-i 

v/iio sint^b , and ia, i.-ar.^uio ;iLv eu.oroiaero jvLile ti.e ludiea ^Ic..,/ 
cards. The intri.^uc, i^.'^i. ..lo ii io , v;of^o-;;.o Lhe rivdi^, ui L;.td 
i-^r^uid ana Lijiiacr lor the hana ox LiJcile, the daughtrir of Ar^- 

Aru.i:.inte : idle, blasee, ijoses a.i a ijatrGneri:.^ cJ.' li terc-.ture 


In tij.e litli rcjLe_(iVo4 ) , i^cifiai; 

w-.eicii oi' tue :juur,:ecoa e ^rec i u.u-,^ , , or, rather, o3 ; ■ 
ab u c uinoiiisjviur oi Lud a.rtti una oi ii t^raiurv, , Jiiixs Arci. i- 

on txie aUi^^e ane ia r.^j.jretodjited tLta u Viiin uau i>ii<j.l.L(j,v rft-uc^u, ijt-,u! 
ci, ii-cirryiUi, her atiu,;,i.ter Lucila to tx.d i.^tr^uia, thoutih oii-e r-Jiin- 
^uioj.tfb thit) object vvithoiit .*ny ^reat coacerii. iler cniei' o.iiu iii 
lil'e is to De^uiie jier ieitjure liioii.ento, ol .ViiiaJ^x aJi.i h^d i.^^ny. 
rut .viiitt is more to the i>oint thun cinytnin^i thc-vt Arcoainte heroeli 
£>u.y» or Qoeo i=> the oAetch tiu.vt Lioet'e ^ivet> oi her ciiid her iiinri, 
uexore &h2 UiJ^-etirti, Lisette ^rssenta her tu) the widow cx c. i inc*n- 
G ier who iicia never taAen the ca,re to ctiecK the buoo. ing whiuia oI .;iie, ijo tiTi-at at j.jrodent me i^ j.>-re bruinsd, v..l.. 

.' ;i- <:Xu»/ii'l-J i/-ia.t aUii t'i.i.iKd or iVLc^'. 

! • 7 .ler, ■ ■ ■ . ■ ■';' — . to s: : • ' ' . 

a.l//ciys eiLijty, iter xi.ii:a never iale, aiie triLi.^ in turn tuicen mij uMni:. 

1 *• I 

• i^ voub oir^i cionc bien ainuerei^ent ce .^ue j3 ^^enae d Aru- 

ijiinte; u^\a ^our vous inai.iUjr xso ruoyeno ae lui jylcire, dio^ 
iii'ex;, jo vouo en jL>rie: elie li'y ^juj eiie-iuOniC . o^. . - 
e.Lie j^i:u*iti oe .xu'eile ...en^e, ce ^u'elle daoire, ce ^u'sLi-^ vei;t? 
' ' ve aej.jUi,j cieixx una a ' un lo rt c, ho:n. .e , luuia ^ue bOo u.- 

tiunti Qo.ns Ic. iii-aite liixi^nce eiu,jecjii.i ient de veiller un ,jeii oc . 
i.»ent iiiu^ riQicalea nu-ioau/il^ ac aun ei-cuae, ej.xe a. c/io.i ' ■ j.... 

i-our son iaoie cette iiberte extreiue .lU.i , aiinb I'eo^yri^ .iol: 

Irfi.^.e, linit toujoura ^j^r rondre pej.ible l'exr;rv;ice de in 
7. r-ct-f.cir co.iUetid et aeuaiblti, incertoL-ino et ui. -i 

-lG ouour viae, I'ea^irit JcviLciis oiaii; no:u^ avons ^-^.. — 
^ii'ae It. i.iUsiiUe et le^ y^iix.^ cj.iijija, lio i... oto e* le.:, 
:.i^ueb. isotrri conujite eat le ro...ji : i 1^. ^ - 

jiiste iUi nou;:, ' 

.c i.; '..r. ■■■.A 1\.. " , . . J ... , ^ ,r ... . ' 


ill ti.J 


btli.u J Sob .It; o/iti ti 1 Ot.j iij ^a.vuii'ld . J f.colofi ctUi; Ja.t' 
^nd An.ivride, .vere terrioij. in eurne^t; Antj-inte . 
;.'.itJ:i the ctrto , c^jic turns hor iji'juck u_^vOii i^er ^ x^t^-t t& 

f ti-ii^e ol' Cci.rQt>. 5til-L, oU>jii c«,b> »Jie i^, ai..e iij tJtie only deocerifK.: ' 
ti.t.t rjijl^h.mte Cc<.n clcvii.. irx tj.j Ortutur.v, b-iid tha. only .vciiaer io 
t.,i.d it bhoulc l[ ueen Isit t^c Inte uo j.cindinet to rioioiile l. 
„.ovs.-ai-t //iiicii. .vi*!3 T.i^e very lil'e ci tw-s li terart world o! t/iiij 
2j3rioa. otill i,.orc3 reiiiiirK.c-.ble ij it tha ', Arctiu-inte iw net brc'. ,j t c 
a.irioiLi. ti-rou^i. jier uc;ir£jecib iict.lor;, at a, tiina WJ.en.tJn:i riVcilrie^ 
of ivjae .Geol'3 rill a-nd ti.e -^^r.iUiiie cm J'lei'icti^c //ere lu^ttera ui ^^u; 
c^.,^..tjj:i . ^u.i tii^ ic.cT, ti.c..t /ir<a,i..inta is tt o oTir£;^;ec.Lo3 ib o;ij.y 
tioned b./ Libette, not brou^]it into i^ic^y in any vV;.." ; and she, li.rcj 
-i..i .../uiiLci^ o« Ol .^jijb ..-ceur b ou TeiLj^s , ;vith x^erisol con^jobure ub- 
the i!i<a.nner to which she ib not born. 


lu^juid el Dea hotiuia, 1766. 

]\j^ Kondd, iinuru: It^r, i.^ in lov-=; ;/ltx: . ttr iau/.e , the 
oi r^u^jiiia, ii..rjC/ tiirt r riiiciiv.: ier. Deo RoiicLiii iic^ij cvli" 

•iooe, oiii iie ib tr^ iii>j to rid hii..ok3ir . 

Kiit/.Vii Gi tnio intrigue, una. u^eo j^io raiu.viefrje to ^ji' ^ 
i.ii.rriv.^8 or Leo r.cntuio witi^ j..cir u.nne , cAlthouj^n rt^^.l retvocr, ii 
ti.u-^t iie 1 licvTi) tiiLil iid i^iiiiosii .viix os cvbc^aaoanea in tiia oude oj 


iiiiirriui:,e ol nio atuir^i.ter. itaria,nne ciidcOiVera t>^e aHir witi. 
Jontoobe, uut lortii'VtjD l^o; a ixt in tn? Du^^uio ccn- 
l\sj>oOb hio object in pr'^venting the icirriajie, ad. i» lor^ave , 
^11 exiCio I.e., . Ti.ers^ ^^re no eo^eoiauij- bciir^jecis trai ■ 

x^l. y, .vhicn it, ..a exa:i.j../le oI the drama bcurgecia . 


Colle's Dupuls et D38 Ronais (1763) is interesting more for the 
novel view of family relations it affords than for any bourgeois 
traits. Dupuis is a financier and a bourgeois, and Des Ronais is 
a financier, though his name and his intrigue with the Comtesse 
would seem to indicate that he is not 'bourgeoio. On the other hand, 
rienard, the friend of the family, tells him that Dupuis, touched 
by his love, preferred an alliance with him to core brilliant 
matches, to people of the court. There is nothing whatever in D-^s 
Ronais' speech or '"haracter to place him in either category; and to 
whichever rank he belongs, there is still the significant fact that 
the title of the Comtesse has no weight in the balance against the 
natural and bourgeois charms of ^ferianne. Having referred to this 
preference, there In no need further to analyze zhe character of 
Ces Ronais, v/ho is simply the conventional love of comedy, with 
somewhat of the melodramatic cast v/hich lovers are taking on by 
this time. 

Th-re is room for fuller study in the case of Dupuis, although 
he exiiibits no startingly bourgeois traits. It may be mentioned 

CLENAKD: _Tous deux places dans la haute finance, 

Le meme etat forma d'abord la convenance; 
Mais, plus riche lue vous, touche de votre amour, 
II pref ere pourtant votre ^simple alliance 
A des partis puissunts, a des ^ens de la cour...(I, '6.) 

z ' 

DES RONAIS: J'ai pu ceder a la Comtesse ^ 

Pour qui je n'eus jamais que du mepris, 

Et j'ai trahi lachement la tendresse 

De I'objet dont je suis e'pris, 

De Marianne que j 'adore. 
Que je n'ai pas cesse d'adorer un moment! 

Par bonheur du moins elle ignore 

Ce passager egarement... 
Depuis un nols qu'il dure il a fait raon tourment. (1,4.) 

' ni .: or ?(Br^ sase^^rrrnn sri+ '••o ?Iv+i7 *'rf:t 

rfo 9Xl:f da\,lJ3na o* Terl;f'ijjTt i)e9n on nJt eT 

V- ,vbpmr.r> to evo f'^ ""fOD 9rii x^^y^i-P. el orV ,• 59T 

;u ^iJi.:.*JO ;--> , -v a .rr-vvjx i'^'ji.:- oaJ->J ;JX .: *>i,u> l iJVA t ri ^iiw i.tvy,.,u.3 

.> ,aia<T!.!CI lo 98^0 ed^ nt xbuia tetiut to*) ctoot t T 

------. .-- -^- --« .--..-. 

jeonc"''' '■■* " ■•■' ■'■- ■■--' ■■• ~" MTr. ^ 

6 9"i;tov 9D onoi/oj ,ai-/ov ei^ q ,bx.'V' 

OOP-' r ,.-.,...,.- . -.-•'-._. _j-T 

, . .TUOO jrI , A 

-. T A irr^r 


,ai:Tt, ix;o*T 

9- ^a 

• - 


in passing that, in his choice of a aon-in-law, money influencea 
him as little as rank. 

Plus rlche que vous, touch© de votre amour, says Clennrd to 
T)e8 Ronais. It is a husinesa partnership that has first auj^f^ested 
to Dupuia the Idea of an alliance with Des Ronaia, >ut there nas been 
no thought of gain. It is not, however, in his relationa with his 
son-in-law to he, that "OupuiB is unique, but with his daughter. The 
intrigue of the play hingee on his putting off of his dauf:hter'a 
wedding day; and though his reason for this is in a measure selfish, 
in that he is afraid that he will be abandoned after her marriage, 
yet at the bottom of the feeling there is a very tender love for 
Marianne. Sarcastic and suspicious toward T^es Ronais, though em- 
bracing him with Marianne in the term of "ces deux chers enfants, 

que j'aime," it would be hard to find in raid-century drame a more 

tender or tearful father; never did father so love his daughter, he 
tells Marianne, and in her he has placed all his hopes of happiness. 
Even in his stage-directions, Colle is carefal not to let us forget 
that this is a comedle larmoyante; we have such side-lights as "d'un 

'^v.p.2, N.l. '^v.p.4,n.l. 

^"DUPUIS: t^'iiS. i^l affQ.ct-ie'.jx et avec le plus^ ^rand att en- 

drissement ) , 

^^laia une verite constante, 
0,ue tu vois que je aena^. qui toujours presente, 
Et que mon coeur se plait a te perauader, ^ 

C'eat que je t'airae, et que jar-iaia un pere 
N'airaa sa fille a.tant que moi... 
(la se r r an t tendrement entre sea braa) 

'Ua ciiS're enFant, j^'ai ^mia Vn toi 
Ma felicibe tout entie'ra... 
(la voj/^ant t_aiit on flejirs . ) 

""T'.eti'Ti'na lea laVmes ^ue je voi. 
Si tu aavaia pour toi juaqu'ou va ma tendreaae. 
L'excea de sa delicatease. . , ^ 
Tu aentirais que c'est bien malgre moi 
0,ue j'afflige ton coeur; que malgr^ laoi j • emploie . . ( 1 ,8) 

iw enrr.eilfB na "^o sebt erf* elf/'fuT ot 

1 u J j;;>iw u 

u't ^iri no aegnlri x,^lq^ sxio lo euSiT^ni 

,o:; jBonoijntoe ecf lltY! ed iadi biiiTl^ ax ©xi d-actj^ ni 

.s !to Bi 3 b60BXq a^ii ©ii tsrl ril i)n£ ,ennaxTj 

.n,^.q.v .X.T{,S.q.T^ 

gX oBVjB ^_© XiJtuioejyj& noj rw'jb) : SIU'TUCr 

ioi i 

. (tneaoaai'ii) 
sm; BXJBir 

oi, sf- ■'■-•• ■■" 

;ja TU:. 







^b 863X9 'J 

■ I aifiiiinya u':' 

ton affectueiLX st avec le plus f:rand attendriBoement, " and "la ser- 
rant entre aao braa." A litti« later, 'Oupuia confoaaea that it is 
not without pain that ho defera the weading oi* znc zv/o ciiildren for 


whom he profeBaos 80 much love. 

The third act is exceedingly tearful, and containing Dupuis' 
full statement C his reasons for putting off the marriage, and the 
asai ranees of Marianne and T>gb Honais that his fears are vain. It 
contains some set speeches of "Oupuis' on the fata of the abandoned 
parent, and it is only at the very end that he consents to the im- 
mediate union of Marianne and her lover, and even then he claims 
that it is against his better Judgment. 

There is a great deal of the drame bourgeois in all this, but 
practically nothing of the bourgeois as a character. I may repeat, 
however, that Dupuis' giving his daughter to T)e8 Ronais when the 
latter had neither money nor rank in his favor is a very far cry 
from the old bourgeois type of parent with a marriageable daug}iter. 

DUPUIS: Ahl ce n'est point sans une peine extreme 
Que je suspends, que j'eloi^e 1' hymen 

De ces deux chers enfants, que j 'aimel . . . (I , 9,) 

^DUPUIS: Eh! ma fille! on ne voit dans le monde 

Que des pdres abandonnes 

A leur solitude prof-onde 
Par des enfants, souvent qui les ont ruines, 

Ilais en voit-on d'assez bien nes 
Pour oser en public faire leur compaignie 

r>e ces vieillards infortunes? ... 
lis leur feront et par ceremonie, 

Une visite ou deux par moia; 
Seront distraits, reveurs, immobil^^s et froids; 

"^ans un faut^iuil viendront e'etendre; 
Parleront peu, ne diront rien de^^ tendre, 
Et 8 'en iror.t apres avoir bailie" vingt fois. (Ill, 5.) 

-* J- w 


X cu^-.i &s. 

r el D9V 

, 5«r«vp, 



al: an aid To J^fii 

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nrriiJ:-!!:" "^o no tr.u Z' 

^L'ci ,ai 

YT : 

airf nl ainei ton \:9norn t- 

•'uorf Mo srCi mot't 

9; •■ 

80 !xlA 
■ tup 

w - ■/ ti . 

. ..Eaxu*3 

tijsl A 

olIcTuq no Tsao ' 

(.. ,-i-ii^ .CiO"! w^UXT 

jq ^tnoTelnsT 

. ^i)Cj,-i. 

hi. V. aiders i .- a lu^rc'tuxni .vith. it ituuily ooaj'.^i. . 

■^ rat'ictrit reiieoliniv un tn- 

ea li.-,' o^.-ic.Aer tc . i. Ti.e i'ut/iar 1- ...1 th . . 

enae^.vora t*. Qia.->Uc<.aa tii.o youue, iLu-in iruui iic_,i.tino t/.a cr.iix. 
. . tr. utie. 'i'ue lather eXj.^lb,iMb nib rei.l n-^nK, .vhich ib tmt, or . ■ J ■.: .,..t .vho iiccCi ra^oued iiii.- c.i 

..'.■-ile tiiri auel ia beiUfj 1 uu^^iit Vu.iiderx j4er e io .Vc.i ■ 

. _ *■ . .0 //ibi-5 6 hii(. to cush u lett re d'e _ 

Thi.^ . .aerK aoe^, cviia iiUiieaic^tely cater VuriaerK i ilb una Peb- 
^urvjixe lila enter, the younei Ueai-c^rvil .e hc.vanfi been Vuimeri^'b 
ttntat&ni&t in th-j auel. JJeSi^ct-rville ht-.a I'irea lirbt; Vanaeric liad 

. nib ^jibtcl into xne air, ^.<na i.lter 
hia excuaeb. Ti-e i.'lay enda -vil. ,itea ici,.-il. jiarat 

Li irirf;.; ci-i^j ana c>.d...iration batvveen the '''anc 
vii.ij. . 

" f X u Q re , iD - , , . , 

iri.OiAbI' Gl nio vJXci,o>> . 

.i£ i 


?'. . Vanderk pert ? of Le Ph llosophe aans la a avolr is not merchant 
born, but he is at the sane time the boat exejaplif ication of the 
dignity of his class. The very fact that he voluntarily abrogateB 
his rank as a baron, and prefers to keep the business and of the 
Dutch merchant who had adopted him, strengthens the thesis rather 
than weakens it. The ,'^lorif ication of the bourgeoisie as a class 
is most perfectly accomplished in this play, v/hich is veritably an 
enthronement of the merchant and his kind. 

In the very first scene in which he appears, we have the de- 

tails of a bourgeois home, M. Vanderk, on the eve of his daughter's 

wedding, is in consultation with his steward as to the arrangements 
for the following day. No detail is passed over, and even the ser- 
vant's table receives his attention. As for the clerk' table: "Qua 
la table des commis soit servie coiume la mionne." He is the plain 
man of the people with no pretension, no snobbishness. And a 

' i'i, VAiOERK, Air-OIITE, T3eux Ilonuaes, porta nt de IJ^ar^en.! ^^i^s des ho ttes 
II. VA^TDERI-C: (Se_ retou rnant, dit aux port ear s qirQl"~a]pe rgo i t71 

Allei; S. ma cafsse^ Je s c end ez^t r o is raar c'lie s", et non- 

tes-en cinq, au bout du corridor. 
A1T70I1IE: Je vais les y mener. 
M. VAilDERK: lion, rests. Les notaires ne finissent point: au 

reste, ils ont raison; nous ne voyons que le present, et 

ils voi»fet I'avenir. Hon fila est-il rentre? 
AITTOINE: -^on, monsieur. Voici les rouleaux de vingt-cinq 

louis que j'ai pris a la caisse. 
M. VAirDERK: Gardes- en un. Oh! ca, mon pauvre Antoine, tu vas 

domain avoir bien de I'embarras. 
AlITOIIIE: N'en ayez pas plus que moi. 
i:. VAIIDEHK: J 'en aurai ma part. 
AMT0I1\T]: Po'irquoi? P.eposez-vous sur moi. 
K. VAIIDERK: Tu ne peux pas tout falre. ^ 

AITTOIirE: Je me charge de tout. Ima.fJiinez-vous n'etre qu' invite': 

vous aurez bien assez d' occupation de recevoir votre monde. 


.iotem ioci ei ' 

Ba£- Jd^ 9ilJ lO flOij xJOXli'iwIa 91 5iltrifjit 

rtii TtlffjBitltsT aJt xlolxiw ,"^clq aixl^ n± bedsllqmooo& xIctoalToq dec. 

-»i) Qdi evBxl ew jBifisqqa ©li iioiiiw at eneoa JaTi'i \,'i«7V t»iij ftl 
8 •isJ^rij^JJBi) aixi \o sv© add- no ,>{t©i»n£ .sxuoxi aJtc f b Jo sllBi 

-loa ofiit txifYti ins ,T&vo ieaasq al lisiitib Ovi .vt,u jirii*ujLi.</'i -. J 

©i/P i.riJ Tot aA .nol:ittei&B alri aevisot ^i a'^n^v 

.ciaeniibXcTd^ona on ,noxanbJb~iq on lioiiw ©Iqoaq exij 'lo n&ra 


-non i. uijoiu aioij s.t-; 

."isnoxn Y b^I atar ©T. 
JJB :J-nxoq t sn aenixicfon aea jt ,no'i'! 

*^. +rw,...,-{q ^^ ^^^^ cno^ov ©n ai''"'- ''■"" "• ^''' • ' >-t 

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i^nxo-.tgnxv ©i) xjjb©Xjj. ioio :3TiIC 

asv \ ©TVUBCT rorn ,Bn JKO rfB-g; 

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.torn lira auov-i; 

iBctivftt 'up et^e'n auov-ssnl;,-. .;tuo^ L 

.t 9T*3V Ti0V80©T ©1) noicTSquuoO ' Jb S9B8B nsxn at>TL'e BJJOV 

temperate man; there is to be no profusion of wine on the Borvantfl' 
table. He even provides apiainst accidents, and orders the reser- 
voirs to be filled in case of conf lap;ration from the fireworks, 

?ut L'.. Vanderk is the rather as well as the Merchant. llore 
than the melodramatic Ecole dea lleree^ (La Chausee) , more yet than 
the pretentious but lugubrious P^re de ZTaMille , is t}ie Philosophe 
sans le sa voir the dramatization of the Family. This first act, 
which amounts to little dramatically, contributing, as it does, 
rothin;? v/liatever to the action or exposition, is a charming picture 

of the bourgeois in his family. 11. Vanderk' s first question on en- 

, 7 
tering is "Mon fils est-il rentre?" , and one by one they are in- 

troducedi Lime, Vanderk, the daughter Sophie, the groom elect, and 
finally the son, and among them all is an affection and good under- 
standing that we have met with before only in Le Jen de 1' Amour et 
du Kasar d. Husband and wife, brother and sister, parents and chil- 
dren, have for one anotiier a sentiment tender but healthy, and never 
mawkish. The son-in-law, too, is welcomed into the family on sim- 

::. VAimEEK:: 


K. VAirDER?:: 


I, 4. V. 2, 

'^u auras un norabre de doraestiquea etrangsrs; 
c'eet ce qui m'effraie, aurtout ceiuc de ma aoeur. 

Je le sais. , 

Je ne veux pas de debauche, 

II n^y en aura pas. 

Q,ue la table des commes soit servie cornme la 

Oui, monsieur, 
^J'irai y fa^re un tour....J'y veux recevoir ieur 

santo, et bolre a la Ieur La table des domes^iques 

sans profusion <^u. c5te du vin Un demi-louis a 

cliacun coraiae present de noce: si tu n'as pas assoz, 

avance-le Je crois que voila toiit,.. Les laagasins 

fermesi que porsonne n'y entre passe dix heures. , , i^ue 
quelqu'un reste dans les bureaux, et ferme la porte 

en dedans J'ai entendu parlsr de quelques 

fusses, de quelques petards; mon fils veut bruler sea 

)nanchettes Aie toujours soin que lea reeervoira 

soient plains d'eau. (I, 4.) 
n. 1 . 

-isttt»"i exiJ a~iiii(io htm ,aJii8i>Xi»a4» Jan 

'(,•' n»i ■* 



- J&" 

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. \i .ttn-.iif \t[{ nt n fnr.';-f:fn-f nri' to 

ml! h- 

&AO \\i Ui 

ai) art J ,7tTt 

-Wis iio %i ds o^nx l»©iaoal9w ax ,doJ ,w*.l-ii- 



a si; eXcffi: 

.niv ub ^. 

OolOo ^1 

v'rr en. 

3'» abl tiUi nioa 

■ U 6>v 

04 6 

.1 .1' 

pie, friendly tenae. Note that here is ;i hour/^eoia p;lrl inakinp: a 
bourgeois match and that tne occasion is one for family rejoicing. 
Note, too, tiiat that Sophie refuses tlie bridegroom's arm, but 
passes him on to her mother. Oonpare this with the situation at 
the end of the old comedies, where the successful auitor wrinf;8 at 
last an ungraciout consent from the out-witted parents, accompanied 
more often than not by the threat of disinheritance. The only 
action in this act is the Innocent little trick played "by Sophie on 
her father, but it is an entertaining act for all that, and at its 
end we feel that we have had a prlimpse of a wholesoviQ interior. It 
is accomplished draiiatically too, in a sense, in that the characters 
reveal themselves without help from the author. And there is a 
pleasing absence of preaching, though M. Vanderk comes near it when 
he says to Sophie: that all his own and her mother's efforts up 
to this time have tended only to draw down upon the son and daughter 
the blessings of heaven, and that the good conduct of parents is the 
benediction of children. This sounds very much like preaching, 
but compare it v/ith \l, Argant's peroration at the end of La Chaustsee'e 
Ecole deg _ Jle r eB , As for sentiment, compare it v/ith Destouches* 
Oronte cf Le^ Tr iple^ Mariage, v/ho complains that he is the slave of 
his chilaren, who oblige him to observe decencies beyond which he 
dares not go, v/ithout being the gossip of the city. 

^V. VANDEKK: Ma fille, epart-ne a ta mere et a moi I'atten- 

drissement d'un pareil moment: toute nos actions 
jusqu'a present ne tendent qu'a* attirer eur toi et 
sur ton frere toutos let favours du ciel. Ne perde^ 
jar;ai8 de vue, ma fille, que la bonne conduite des rem 
et mere est la be'ne'diction des enfante. (I, 8.) 

1,1. V. Destouches, p. 13. 

In the second act, after a short monolopue by Vanderk f llw in 
'vhich t}ie caueo of the duel is shadowed forth, v/e have the fireat 
scene between father and son, as fine a treatise as the century, or 
any century, can furnish on the dirnity of the merchctnt's callin,";. 
The son is surprised that at the sif-ning of the marriage contract 
his father, whom he has known as plain M. Vanderk, sipins himself 
chevalier, baron de Favieres, de Clavieres, and v/hat not. He is 
then a gentleman? Is it possible that, even if he had been the 
poorest of nobles, he has taken a trade? A man T\a.y be the plaything 
of circumstances, but are there any circumstances stringent enough 
to force a man to descend from the highest rank to the-- lowest, 
he is about to say? Then the father replies that the strictest 
account that a father owes to his son is the honor that he has re- 
ceived from his ancestors, and goes on to tell him of the duel 
which obliged hin to leave his home in his youth, of his adventures 


VAjrDF.R}': "PlLs: 

?TLS : 

PE}- E : 
PETaK : 

Quelle fatalitel jo ne 
semblait que j'avais un pre 
commer^ant. . .un cominer^ant. 
aufait, et je ne souffrirai 
j 'auratitort tant qu'on voud 
mon^ere! ...un jour de noc 
quietudes, toute sa douleur 
ma soeur, cette pauvre Vict 
famille, Ahl dieuxl...que 
reculer d'un jourl (II, 2 

voulais pas sortir; il 
ssentiment: n' importe. .Un 
..C'est I'etat de mon p5re, 

jamais qu'on I'humilie: 
ra; uiais. . .Aiijmon p^re!,.. 
e...Je^vois toutes ses in- 
, le desespoir de ma mere, 
orine, Antoine, toute une 
ne donneraia-je pas pour 

I'lais, mon pere, on voient de lire le contrat de 
maraige de ma soeur: nous I'avons tous signe. Ouel 
nom avez-vouB done pris? et quel nom m'avez-vous 
fait prendre? 

Le votre. 

Le mien! eet-ce que celui que je porte?,., 

Ce n'est qu'un surnom. 

Vous vouB etes Litre' de chevalier, d'ancien baron 
de iSavieres, de Clavi«*reB, de... 

Je le Buis. 

Vous etee done gentilhomme? 



Vous doutez de ce que je ais. 

iJJJ 11 

'!0 as. 

at sea, v/here he met the "Hutch nt;rchant v/hoee name he bears. He 
goes on to enlarge upon the power and dignity of the merchant's 
estate, which ie second only to that of the kinp;. '^ay, more; for 
when kings come to war, it is the merchants who bring about peace 
through the necessity of commerce. There are but two conditions 
above that of the merchant: those of the soldier and ma^^istrat. 
He has revealed all this to his son thu ? late because he has feared 
lest the pride of a great name shoiild become the germ of hie virtues, 
while he wished that he ov/e them entirely to his own sense of right. 






Non, men pere; maie est-il possible?.., 

II n'est pas possible que je sois gentilhomme? 

.Te ne die pas cela; mais est-il possible, fus- 

* — # — - — £ J — — 

Biez-vous, le plus pauvre des nobles, que vous ayez 
pris un etat? . . . 

Mon file, lorsqu'un homme entre dans le monde, 
il est le jcuet des circonstances. 

En esit-il d'assez fo_;-tes pour nous faire descendns 
du rang le plus distingue au rang... 
Achevez : au rang le plus bas, 
Je ne voulais pas dire cela. ^ 

Ecoutez: le compte le plus rigide qu'un pere 
doive a son fils est celui de I'honneur qu'il a re^u 
de ses ancetres. Asseyez-vous.. J'ai ete el ere' par 
votre bisaieul: mon pere fut tue fort jeune u la te"te 
de son regiment. Si vous etiez moins rais/'onnable 
je ne vous confierais pas I'histoire de ma jeunessei 
et la voici:^Votre mere, fille d'un gentilhomnie 
voicin,_^ a *ete ma seule et unique passion. "Dans 
I'age c*u on ne choisit pas, j'ai eu le bonheur de 
bien choislr. Un jsune officier, venu en quartier 
d'hiver dans la province, trouva mauvaic qu'vm enfant 
de seize ans (c'etait mon age) attirat les attenttions 
d'un autre enfant, Votre mere n'avait pas douze ans. 
II me traita avec hauteur; je ne le^supportai j-as: 

nous nouB^ttimes Je fus force de quitter la 

province: votre mere me jura une Constance qu'elle a 
eue toute sa vie; je m'embarquai, Un ^bon Hollandais, 
proprietaire du batiment eur lequel j'e'tais, me prit 
en affection. ^ Nous fumes attaque's, et je lui fus 
utile (c'est la ^ue j'ai connu Atoine): Le bon 

chand m'asBOCia a son commerce Le ciel a b^nl ^ 

forturje, jc ne peux pas etre plus heureux, je suie 
estirce: tfioici votre soeur bien etablee; votre beau- 
f rt*re reraplit avec honneur une des premleVes places 
dans la robe. Pour vous, mon fils, vous serez ditrne 
de moi et de vos aieux: j'ai deja* remis dans notre 

li ma 

7 0t~ R 

■ rf 
I h. 

;I "tJoJi 



In the third act we have the tense scene in v/hich the son telle 
his father of tlie duel, and of the circumstances which had given 
rise to it. How, being in a cafe, he had heard a young tian refer 
to merchants and traders as rascals and wretches, and how upon his 
repititlon of these renus he had rejlied that only a boor would make 
such remarks; v/hereupon they luft the cafe, and were separated, only 

famille tous les biens que la necesisite de ee^vir le 
prince avait fait sortir des mains de nos am^tres: 
ils seront a vous ces biens i et si voi^c pensez lUe 

■PILS : 

7 ILS % 



^•aie fait par le coramerce une tache a^ leur nor;i, c'est 
a vous ^de I'ef facer; mais, dans un siecle ausei 
Iclaire que celui-ci, ce qui peut procurer la no- 
blesse n'est ^as capable de I'oter. , 

Ahlmon pere, je ne le pense pas; n.ais le prejuge 
est malheureus^ment si fort...^ 

Un prejugeiun tel pre'juge' n' est rien aux yeux de 
la raison, ^ 

Cela n'empeche pas que le commerce ne soit vu 
coKune un etat, . , 

O.uel etat, mon fils, que celui d'un horarne qui 
d'un ^rait de plume se fait obeir d'un bout de I'uni- 
vers a I'autrft! Son nom, son seing n'a pas besoin, , 
comme la nonnaie d'un souverain, que la valeyr du metal 
serve de caution a I'empreinte; sa personne a tout 
fait; il a signe, cela suffit. 

J' en conviens; mais. 

Ce n'est pas un peuple, ce n'est pas 

une seule 
en est 

nation qu'il sert; il les sert toutes, et 
servi: c'est I'homme de I'univers. ^ 

Cela peut etre vrai; mais enfin en lui-meme 
qu'a-t-il de respectable? ^ 

"De respectable! ce qui legitime dans un gentil- 
homme le^ droits de la naissance, ce qui fait la ^base 
de ses titres, la droiture, I'honneur, la probite. 
....Ouelques particuliers audacieux font armer les 
rois, la guerre s'allume, tout s'embrase, I'Burope 
est divlsee; mais ce negociant, ginglais, hollandais, 
russe ou chinois, n'en est pas moin^ I'aiai de mon 
coeur: nous somiaes sur la superficie de la terre 
autftnt de fils de soie que lient ensemble ^les nations, 
et les raraenei^t a la paix par la necessite du ccm- 
rcerce. Voila, raon fils, ce qu'eet un honnete nego- 
ciant Je ne connais que deux e'tats audess^uc du 

commer^ant (en supposant qu'il y ait des differences 
entre ceux qui font le mieux qu'ils peuvent dans le 
rang ou le ciel les a places); je ne connais que deux 
^tats: le magistrat qui fait parler les lois, et le 
guerrier qui defend la patrie. 

J suis done gentilhonune? Pourquoi done me 

1 I. 

rn ^ V* r*f^i 

only to make an engageinent to meet. "Ahimon f ilnlpoiuquoi n'avez- 
V0U8 pas penee que voub aviez votre p3re? je penue ei eouvent que 
j'ai un fils," aayfj M. Vanderk pe re . "C'eat parce que j'y pen- 
sals , " replies the son. 

Trom this point the play is concerned v/ith the duel, and with 
the return of the duelists, \^anderk f ils and Desparville f il« . un- 
harmed to their parents. The ausl turns out to be bloodless, but 
before the denouemen t Ae have a scene vi/hich is the very essence of 
the t^ra^edie_ bourgep i se . While II. Vanderk pere 1e waiting in the 
greatest suspense for the three knocks on the door by which Antoine 
is to announce the fatal outcome of the duel, M. Desparville pe re 
comes to him aiid asks him to render him a service. How? Py 
honoring a lettre d'echange for him. This JI. Vanderk does, and 
without discount. Unwitting benefit to one's enemy is not new-- 
Don Juan rescues the brothers of Dona Elvirej and there is certain- 

PERE: Par une prudence peut-etre inutile: j'a.i craint 

que I'orgueil d'un grand nom ne devint le germe de vos 
vertus; j'ai desire que vous les tinssiez de voua- 
meme. Je vous ai epargne jusqu'a cet instant les 
reflexions que vous venez de faire, reflexions qui, 
dans un age moins avance, se seraient produi tes avec 
plus d'anertume. (II i 3.) 

FILS : L'histoire n'est pas longue: la pluie qui est 
survenue hier m*a force d'entrer dans un cafe". Je 
jouais une partie d'e'checsJ j'entends a* quel que s pas 
de moi quelqn'un qui parlait avec chaleur; il racon- 
tait je ne sais quoi de son pere, d'un marcliand, d'un 
escompte de billets; mais je suie sur d'avoir entendu 
tr§B distinctment: •'Oui...touB ces negociants, ,touB 
ces comrier^ants sont des fripons, sont des rjiiserables." 
Je ne suis retourne, je I'ai rega^rde; lul,^sans nul 
egard, sans nulle attention, a ^e'pete le meme discours. 
Je me suis leve', je^lui ai dit a I'oreilJe qu'il n'y 
avait qu'un malhonnete homme qui put tenir de pareils 
propOB. Nous soinmes sortis, on nous a separes 

PEI^K: " Et vous cherche^ querellel Ahimon f ilsl ^pourquci 

n'ave2-vous pas pense que vous aviez votre pere? .le 
pense si souvent que j'ai un fila. 

PILS : C'est parce que j 'y pensais. (Ill, ?.) 



') n q L 

.- . ., r r » T- 

i! TfTcrr: 

1) 9 


ly no novelty in money paatjins from the hnnrte of tlio bourgeois to 
tVosft of tho noljle -- M, Jourdain ohlipied Dorante and Dorlrnnne In 
3^;>iilrtr vise. But. that the hourS'^'^'' . t the nohle under 

ohligatlon to hiip,and without loos of dignity to himself, is surely 
an innovation i and th«t the honest exchange of money shouH he mfide 
a serious dramti ' ^ , ^^attin'- *" 'h*- +"■ -^ Incidents of every- 

day life, is tht! dra»iatii.«tion of the comfionplace i and that is the 
point to which the new ?^enre had heen striving; for the last twenty 
years i of whic}i La rhaussew Vpri a dim r o .f.-.nfi m ^ .tnr'^ hich Diderot 
dreajned of hut nev^r attained. 

If L^ Phllosopho sans le savoir marks the ciilinlnation of the 
drame hour.^eois, svirelv M. Vanflerk is thr "triitrtmhant bortravnl of 
The Father, Tiie i)lay enda wi ^h no Bolsmn declaration of the holi- 

ness of paternal love, hut M. Vanderk leaves the stage saying: "A'l, 
"messieursj ah, mes enfantsj je auis dans I'ivresse de la plus 
•grande jcie, ( a sa f e/nme , ) Madaia, voila notre fils. ( 11 amhr asse 
son flls i l e fils '?.'^ihra^3 t; sa _ra.-3r e. ) T}ie interest of the drama -- 
and he it remarked, it has inter^^st, a fact which alone differenti- 
ates it froia the majority of its species -- centers entirely in 
Vanderk pe-'e . He is at no time the drivelling; ^t=re Infor time , such 
as we have known from Destouches* Lycandre to Diderot's D*Or>>es»oni 
he is first and last the philosopher, an<' a philosoj^^her who acts 
instead of preachinp. 

The play is th^ glorif ic-it ion of fanily life and the family 
tie. There is no love int'^reets -- the hridegroom is not t-^ven dis- 
tinguished hy a name, hut is called i ^rcf^ident in the c;<.ste, and 
the s-?n': !re when he appears; at all events he and So^ihie soon fade 

^ V. 11, 

^- + ff.'j 1) (r ."(ft V r 

r:i firuLl't-tu ba*- e^fifctotf bej^ilcfo niiii-'iuol .U -- ^ Oi - " l ^'i > • 

p \"^ ^o no ' " T^ 

'J. .'-Oil f)_;j !' iijT-ju _ • 

J. J. J «J.| ' ' r- :-- ■n-ii.)^lA V . o_; , > J. '_, -: t 

1 -r; ,- xllevxib Sil;}' Mai.T on tn BJt aS « &";a^ jftftbnrV 

.- ■ _^ bslfjir) fcJt .tjjcf ,f vcf fr' 

.11 .V 

from view. '.ihariuin^: and patlietic ae is tiiu love of Victorine for 
Vanderk f ils , it is not In the leaut .-j leadint: motive; ac Vanderk 
r ere is the ^ather, eo in the young Vanderk above all the Ton, 
doing hattle for the dignity and honor cf liis father's claatj. liie 
theme of fanily unity, almost unknown hefore Deistouches, hut de- 
velO]ied hy hin, though never as a leitmotif ; carried on by llarivaux 
and riron, thoug}i still without thrusting it into first place; 
recognized hy LaGhaueeee as a ne\. source of tears, and deemed worthy 
of a play to itself; used by Diderot for his dramatic masterpiece, 
the very title proclaiming its purpose--to this tiiene T'edaine, with 
much less trumpeting, but with much greater result, added v/hat none 
of his predecessors had been able to do: interest and naturalness; 
and moulded it into a play that can be acted as well as read, and 
which has already survived its first performance by almost a century 
and a half. 

r-IEP.N'K AUaU.TJTlA J. lAIS, 1/ 

Loo Deux ij..ib, iTiv. 
Ixi i..ero GoUiJiible, 179L;. 

^H6 L'eux Aiiiib , i'//0. 

Less l'eux .".ii.i j io c-<. I'ounaen on ' ot-sru oi icinuera 

_,enorc.l. Saint -Aluaxi is u lctri>.3r ^enera.1 colle;oLino ^-'i- ttixes 1'. 
the age::tb cl ths cau^ci-jiy, i... c£ii»,,i3 lu c io th'3 Gci.i.ector e.eiiert.1,1 ut 
LyoHb . li.elc'-c hab a aon, iv..-iluc 1 ilij , una u Iriena Aureixy, 
i..erc:iu;it . Aure i±y irui.j a auu^ihte r, Pci,.*lirie, xi.o'/i. uo J.ib niece, ^ 
broue,i"it u^.' m ...e li.\.c a riouoe. otn Dc^iut-Albcin ^nd i.elL^c ;. ilo ^^rc 
in clove /vitii x'..uliae. On tne cic^y oi tne Oj^eninc, ol tli'3 ijl.-.;,', 
_-elciC leu rrio tiiut Aurelly ,vili be unable to laset payxjient the I'cl- 
io.vint, aay, ov/iUti to certain coxuijlicat ion^ iii hi.j (ie^ooito at 
±-ariio. To aave tAo irieiici l roiu banicruptoy, j..elc.u ^civtriceij iMve 
i.unarea tiioubanu ircuicb oi taxeti 7/nioh r;e ii^i,b coi.:octod, .vit--. 
no.vever, let .injj Aurelly Anc-7 th^.t itvd.oeb not vion.e iroru nio de- 
^.Obit ;n ±-'a.riii. >..t tii.\o juno-cure Saint-.-. Ibt.u a i>.'o o/.ly aiv^yecxra, . 
Qeii-anQb tj:e aii.ount .vhich i-.elac hitid re^jorted in nib uoa^esbi. i:, 
anc ne , oidn t-i-ilban, iu-^b airean^ ^vroi.iioeu to ti .in 

Pa.rin. j..elc.c beiri; una ile tc jt;roaiJce the aUiu, io accnbed 
:jez/-i^,::.ent , ..u'.a tnreu.te!ie(i //itii exijobure .'jy b^int-Alban, ■■. - 

li-'oOb to let nja. i»c.v^ ev9/; T..rrt:; nc^yb ol" (,rv.oe ti, re: l-..ue 
'''■'- u.^-jt^- lo it^^.: oi J ..^ .1 

^uvea lor K-iUiiiiii, ' ^ never 

ne t.ellL i..^.r oi " , .-..,.-:£, t!...l : 

.:,..u :.ot iier uiiOXd, ..^ijQ i>i. 'tit.-i V 

cle.ri:: ol' ...eii.c'a nun.e . o..i int-Alhan cjoHo .":; ; t. .. to r:>^..]r, 

on iv.eluc'd ei.ioezzleiuent, ajria in tiriatitiiae Aure iiy jyrciaides nim 

i-'ii.iiine ' a 1-iand, oubject, ho.vever, t>. Lr^r ounaent. Paulina i-icid 

c^lreucty conl'e.-^aed Jie r love I'or j'.el&o j. ilj> , ancl t3ciint-j->.lbctn t^' 

T';' rot'; 'o ^ro.-.^ niij >;l;TJiii. In 'he g no , Aur.T 17r' ' .-. ca.. 

r;Jveo,i.-i tne Uoe to wjiin tne live lumnrea thousiaaa raiiiaing irtinc. 

i^c.a ueen i>ut, cinn the ^vlay enda Afith. ti.e reUi.icn . .g J'r: 

^"hlle "'eauniarchaiB in his threti dranetj ( F.u^:enie , '[_eB ''leux 
Ajnis, and La Mere Coup aMe) contir'buted largely to the genre tlmt 
had come i/iore and nore into vogue for the last thirty years, and 
th High his two coraedies (Le^ Barbie r de Seville and Le ^lariage de 
"Figaro ) point in every line to the v/iping out of class distlnctionB, 
yet he is singulary disappointing in the matter of real bourgeois 
types. If "^igaro had been a bourgeois instead of a servant, he 
v/ould have been the most valuable find of the century for our pur- 
poses. The characters in gu genie are all noble, and "Plnglish no- 
bles at that; and they are all noble in the Mere ^^ oupabl e, unless we 
except the Trishnan, 3egearss, who seens to belong to no class in 
particular, unless it be the military. In Les Tjevjc Ar.A s , }iov/ever, 
the milieu is entirely bourgeois, arid we have at least tvo excel- 
lent specimens to illustrate what the bourgeois had become in the 
last third of the century. 

These two are the two friends themselves, Aurelly and Melac. 
They are so intinately associated t'.iat it will be better to study 
them togetlfir, though it will be found that Aurelly v/ill occupy 
the most prominent position of the two. Melac is the most important 
character of the two, and tjie action centers around >.is sacrifice to 
his friend. P-ut his importance lies mucii more in what he does than 
in what he says, and the best characterization of >iim is to be found 
in the sketch we have already piiven of the story of the play. - ore- 
over, like many of the sensible heroes nf eit;uueenth century, 
he is so softened, .so yeilding, so ready to obliterate hiiaself for 

^pp. 1 and 2. 

iir- f + 

to bfti"i elH'etiljkjv 

'J ^ . ^ ^ L -*.J 

ictsriJ aJbnsiit sn^ ovi sae r 

'pd' srf IXjtw ;t - b3iss.0(\ lecfeni.-tni c 

/:Il9iyA ;rar(j^ imuot ed Hi- ^ '•■ ' 

oi mxxi to noij^eai i ^^ 

othera that hio outline is blurred, and at the e;id we have only a 

confUBsd i;npret3Blon of tears and sighs. Not so with Aurelly: one 

could not inprove on the distinction that the author himself siakea 

/ ee a 

"between the two, v/hen he describes -^elac in the ca etdj ^ ' ph i 1 o s op he 

sensible" and /Vurelly negociant de Lyon, homrie vlf, honnete, franc 
8t naif." 

The first point to be noted about Aurelly is that lie ia a no- 
ble newly created. It would sesia that this honor was one to be co- 
vet'id as much as in the days of K. Jourdain, and did not dispose 
other merchants r.iore kindly toward cne fortunate raeiaber of "heir 
class. Speaking of his iupending bankruptcy, Daoins, his cahaier, 
says: "Cea lettrea de noblesse encore lui font tant de jalouxl.... 
il n'y peut-etre pas un negociant dans Lyon qui ne fut bien aiae 
au fond du coeur..." But Aurelly hinself is no bourgeoia ^'•^entil- _ 
hoam e . We have reached the time when commerce mat honor the nobil- 
ity. He himself refera pointedly to a new noble gross with money 
and swollen with pride, who had taken pains to speak to him since 
his recent elevation, and trusted that he vould now leave commerce 
to the common herd. "On the contrary," replies Aurelly, "I can 
in no better way recognize the new benefit which I owe to it than by 
continuing to exercise it vith honor." -There is in all of Aurelly's 


I, 9. 

AURELLY: Ce nouveau noble, si plein de sa dignite, si gros 

d' argent et si bouffi d'orgueil, qu'il crolt toujours 

se coi'imettre lorsqu'il salue un roturier Celul 

qui, jusqu'i 1 • epoque de mes lettrea dq^oblesse, ne 
m'avait jamais regarde, a'avise de me conpllmen*er 
aujourd'hui d'un ton superieur: "Je mo flatte Im'a- 
t-il dit) que voua quittez enfin le commerce avec la 
roture." . . . . "Au fcontrair^e, nonsieur, ai-je r^pondu; 
je ne puia r-iieux reconnaitre le nouveau bien que je 
lui dois, qu'en continuant a I'exercer avec honneur.^d, 

^T^rf + 

■on Fs >. 

">" :t;r 

eais rrf. 

tax B 


f s? Oo Ylb-- ai?'^e*T ^fpfji'tlrf ^H .vi t 




8peec)ies a sense of the dictnity f commerce which recalls Vunderk's 
defense of trade. lie states his views moat clearly to f^aint-Alban, 
when he says, that the virtues of the philosopher and the scholar 
are all very well for the individual who practises them, "but that his 
own halance for nerit is the utility that one's virtues and talsntis 
have for others. He himself, for instance, with his nulherry-or- 
chards and his silk-mills, gives eraploionent to a vast number 
throughout the kingdom. lioreover, all the money that is taken out 
of a country by war is brought back by commerce. All the citizens 
feel the importance of this task, but the merchant alone fulfills 
it; at the moment when the soldier is resting, the merchant has the 
happiness to be in his turn the man of his country. 

A second point to note about Aurelly is his uncompromising pro- 
bity, a standard which he sets for himself, und v/hich he demands that 

' 3 AIM T- ALB AN: 


Recevez mon compliment, monsip'ir, sur la distinc- 
tion flatteuse que vous venez d'obtenir. Le plus 
digne usage des lettres de noblesse est, sans douto, 
de decorer des citoyens aussi utiles que vous. 

Utiles. Voil^ le mot. Q.u'un homme soit 
philosophe, qu'il sot savant, qu'il soit sobre, eco- 
nome, ou brave: eh bien! . . . . tant mieux pour lui. ^'ais 
qu'est-ce que je gagne i. cela, moi? L'utilite dont 
nos vertus et nos talents sont pour les autres est la 

balance ou je pese leur merite Moi. par exeinple 

(je me cite parce qu'il en est question), je fais 
battre journellement deux cent metiers dans Lyon. 
Le triple de bras est necessaire aux apprets de mes 
soies. "es plantations de rauriers et mes vers en 
occupent autant. Mea envois se detaillent chez tous 
les merchands du royaume. Tout cela vit, tout cela 
gagne; et I'industtie portant le prix des mati^eres au 
Cfintuple, il n'y a pas une de ces creatures, a com- 
mencer par moi,^qui ne rende gaiement a I'Etat un tri- 
but proportionne au gain que son emulation lui pro- 
cure Et tout I'or que la guerre disperse, -nes- 

sieurs, qui le fait rentrer a la paix?^ Oul osera dis- 
puter au commerce I'honneur de rendre a I'Etat e'puise 
le nerf et les richesses qu'il n'a plus? Tous les 
citoyens sentent I'iraportance de eette^tache: le ne- 
gociant seul la remplit. Au moment jou le_^ guorrier se 
repose, le negociant a le bonheur d'e'tre a son tour 
1 'homme ie la patrie. (II, 10.) 

ts . X ..: "^^x 


n i ;j •. 


laq ,io 



e-very man shall meet. Ha makea no allowance for misfortune, and 
holds that the man who fiiils through inahillty lu even more dulpa- 
ble than he v/ho doea so froiu rascality, for the latter is known and 
watched, while the former ruins more people because they are not on 
their guard a/rainst him. The conversation between Aurelly and Me- 
lac on this point illustrates excellently the characters of the two, 
and the contrast between them. It must be renombered, .>iowever, that 
a great deal here is for dramatic effect, as Aurelly is on the eve 
of bankruptcy himself, and Helac is about to sacrifice himself for 
his friend. This point in Aurelly 's character is further brought 
out when he belives Melac to be an embezjsler. He is as pitiless 

:.:5T.AC : 


}iELAC : 




Je ne vols j.amais ce temps de crise sans eprou- 
ver un aerreiiient de coeur sur le sort de ceux a qui 
il peut etre fatal, ^ 

Et moi, je dis que la pitie qu'on a pour les 
fripons n'est qu'une raiserarable faiblssse, un vol 
qu'on fait au honnetes gens. La race des bons est- 
elle eteinte pour?... 

Je ne parle^point des frip/ons. ^ 

Les mal/ionnetes gens reconnu§ sont raoins^a 
craindre que ceiix-ci: I'on s'en raefie; leur reputa- 
tion garantit au noins de leur mauvaise foi i:ais 

un raechant qui travaille vingt ans a passer pour un 
honnete horame Dorte un coup mortel ^ la confiance, 
quand son fantone d'honneur disparait: I'exemple^de 
sa fausse probite fait qu'on n'ose plus sff fier a 
la veritable. 

Hon Cher Aurelly, n'y a-t-il done point de fail- 
litea excusables? II ne faut qu'une mort, un retard 
de fonds, il ne faut qu'une banqueroute frauduleuse 
un peu considerable, pour en entrainer une foule de 
malneureuses . ^ 

Jlalheureuse ou non, la surete du commerce ne 
permet pas d'adnettre ces subtiles differences: et les 
faillitsB qui sont exe;fiptes de mauvaise foi ne le sont 
preaque .iamais de t&raerit^. 

Ilais c'est outrer les choses, que de confondre 

^ ^ Je voudr^ois qu'il y eut la-dessus des lois si 
severes, qu'elles forcassent enfin tous les hommes 
d'etre justes. '' « 

KhI non ami, lea lois contiennent les mechants 
sans lea rendre raeilleurs; et lejB moeurs les plus 
purea ne peuvent sauver un honne*ta ho;:miQ d'un malhe,ur 

J i^D 

:oward hin in particular ats ho had "been toward all dofaulteru in fren- 

erai. He is willing to make .■^ood the deficit, hut he ceaaoB to 


call such a man friend. It is only when Bahins explains the cause 
of Melac's shortage that Aurelly throws himself at his feet and begs 
for forgiveness. 


liEIAH : 


^^EI.AC : 



7^LAC : 



L'onsieur, la probate du ijegociant imports a trop de 

gens, pour qu'on lui fasse grace en pareil caa Je vas 

plus ]^oin. Je soutiens que I'honneur dee autres eat en- 
gag^, a ce que celui qui ne pays pas soit fletri publique- 
ment. .,,.Oui, fletri. S'il est malheureux, entre mourir 
et paraitre indigne de vivre, le choix eat bientot fait, jo 
croix. Q.u'il meure de douleur; mais que son exeraple ter- 
reble augmente la prudence ou la bonne foi ie ceux qui 
I'ont sous les yexix, (I, 11.) 

II m'est affreux de vous affliger: mais je r\* en puis 
donner aucund.e. eclaircissement) , mon ami. 

Je rougirai touts :na vie d'avoir ete le^votre, si 
vous etiez coupable d'une si basse infidelite. 

Rougissez done, je le suis. 

Vous I'etesl.... Avez-vous eu 1' imprudence d'obliger 
quelqu'u" avec ces fonds? Parlez. -- Au raoins vous avez 
une reconnaissance, un titre, une excuse qui permette a 
vos amis de s' employer pour vous. 

Tous 1 ^s pertes du mcnde rae toucheraient moins que 
1' inpossibilite de justifier ma conduit©. 

Vous gardez le silence avec moi? 

Plus vous etes mon ani, moins je puis parler,^ 

Votre ami? ne le suis plus "Si c'etait 

moi?" me disait-il ce matin. --Ainsi done, en defendant lee 
malhonnetes gens, c'etait ta cause que tu p^laidais? 

Je n'ai plaide' que celle ates inf or tune's. 

Avec quel san?:-froid ...Je rnourrais de douleur, si 
rien de semblable... 

Arr.i , je n ' en suis que trop certain. 

«t tu soutiens rues reprochesi , 

Plut au ciel que j'eusse pu les eviter! 
. . . . , ^ 

Les voila done, ces philosophes! Us font indiffer- 
remment le bien ou le mal, selon qu'il sert a leurs vues! 
....Vantant a tous propos t =? T-'-^rtu, dont lis se moquent; 
et ne songeant qu'a leurs intere^s, dont ^ils ne parlent 
jamais! ....Comment un principe d'honneteto les arreter- 
ait-il, eiLX qui n'ont jamais fait le bien que pour trora- 
per irapunement les hommes! (Ill, 2.) 

\ , . . 

' ■■>..r-" >n 



alb Bd »'?io 


'•f., . 

I f 

■•f!..:x/o eei uq eaaii© ' (, ©up 


1 .. 


As to Aurelly'e relatione to Pauline, his dauf^hter, they are 
merely the conventional kind "brouKht into fashion hy Dea touches and 
perfected hy La "hausseo and Voltaire. There oeeiius to have been 
something peculiarly affecting to the eyes of the mid-century dra- 
matists in the spectacle of a parent living in the presence of an 
unacknowledged child, and Aurelly, for all his firmness and hard- 
headedness in business matters, does not fall behind any of the 
most laclirymose fathers wiien it comets to revealing her paternity to 

Altogether, l:>eaumarchai6 may be said to have divided Sedaine's 
Vanderk- into two characters, and to have strengthened the peculiar- 
ities of each, though he gives no one figure so true as Vanderk. 
The latter has two leading cliaracteristics : his sense of the dignity 
of his class, and his sensibility. Of these two, Aurelly exempli- 
fies the first, adding to it a pitiless standard of probity, and 
Melac typifies the second, ".ng even more resigned in adversity 
than was the good Vanderk. In fine, had it not been for Le Phil- 
osophe sans le s avoir, Les D eux Amis would have marked the culmina- 
tion of the bourgeois as a serious, dignified, and worthy type; as it 
is, the falling-off from the master-piece of Sedaine is slight, and 
the specimens afforded clear and full and well-rounded. 


r .-t.^o 


In tne preceding chupter I huve taken up one by one the au- 
tiiors vho have iiaed the bourtieois as dr.uiicttic materii^l, nave ana- 
lyzed at greater or less length all suoh charuoterLi, und have '^iven 
at the end of the treatment of each cttithor a 'brief siuiinury of his 
Dourgecis ty^yes, and his developaient frori his earlier to his later 
jjerioQo, in cases where such develOi-ment could be discerned. In 
the present chu.pter I .visn to consider each type of bourgeois se^j- 
arately, and trace its chronological developuuent throuj^h the va- 
rious authors. 

Of these bourt^eois types, I -vill treat first tnose v/nose ori- 
gin is to be found in ectrlier comedy, notably in that of L.oliere, 
types -^Jhich had already been created and were '.veil established be- 
fore the period on \7hich I am at work. I will trace the develo^j- 
ment or decline of these ty^es ti^rou^hout our period, or until 
disapi-earcinceof tnem, which is tne fate of luany. After exiiaustin^ 
these old t^/i^es, I will take up the new ones, tliose that have their 
origin -.athin this ejjcch, and which corx.e into their fullest devel- 
Ojjiaent just at the f it. 

?or the saice of convenience in treatiuent and nonienclatnr? , 
v/ill assii^i© tJ'*. t tiie old ciuj.racters tire det)Cenaants of the charac- 
ter^ ol j.oliere; tiiis dees not necessarily i.vply tliat tliere //as 
conscious ii'aitation in ever^ casv-i, but iusrjiy tiivl li,e dithor w;.s 
v/orking alon^: lines alrcjady laia down. In tlii^ .vay wixi be treat- 

.J i: ■ 

foolidli, --Jlliblia bourgeoi J, striviiv", to eiitor a hi, her social 

t>iJtLi.:l'ii f .ili'a w a J. .1. i. ii^ L I, ^ ci i- t L ij c^L'.[»j.i4 .-liS clllib -i L. J. o ii , ox i^^/^ju- 

fc,oii, the luiser ;/ho ^jut ii.oney a-bove all earthly t^ood; ol Arnoliyhe, 
^iiti old man infatuated -vith a young iiirl; ol his oounteri-cn o i.cxi.,, 
who conoidered heraelf to be irrestibie to all youn^ men coii-int-; 
within the field of her char.^.o, c/id .vl:o i^ above c^xj. ot-nerB the 
silly and aentiiuental old woraan; of r'ar^jin, the financier, of Phil- 
aminte the blue-stoCiiing, and of Argan the ..^'^>ochondriac . The 
sectioiib of thij luonograph that treat these lines of descent .vili. 
be follo.7ed oy others dealing with the bourgeois in hit. xc^..j.x^. re- 
lationo, conjugal, _jjarental, and filial. In the^e relatione, es - 
i^ecially in those between parents and cnildren, we will have the 
development of tiie fai..ily tie, Uj^jon vvhioh io to be built in a 
large degree the i.^., ^^nre known as the draiue . I'inally I wil: con- 
sider the birth and rio9 ol the new type of the bourgeois, thie 
bourgeoi s de bons sens , the verj o^.., osite to tixe tj ^e ^± ...Jour- 
dain, who //as the bourgeois ^-.^r excellence in j.oliere's hands. To 
establish this contrast between the old Kind, tl)a ^...-^.^0.., ov^jicj.- 
ly aiiibitious class, and this nev/ one, which reaches ito hig}iest 

point under the hands of the ^^^i ^..ithors tixat I consider, i^ 

trace the i»i** of the first and tne rise of the second, is one cf 

tiie iu.iin objects of the j^re^^^j.^v ^v,..^.,. 

-t :A.f 

ti-X"! U^^ 

jj - * _' . . 

A. The DeBoendctiita oi . jurdain. 
or ixli tiie xines of deocent through Koliera's bourgeois i^ro- 
t;eny, "by far trie zuost proliric is that which >ia3 its rise in M. 
.ToKrdain, Tne reason for this is not far to seek; in Le Bourse o I3 
Jentilhoimae the characteristics of the middle cla.&a are set out in 
the clearest and most unflattering lir-;ht; in the matter of social 
aijbition, pretention, vanity, gullibility, fatuity - i.i.Jourdain ib 
the very i;iodel and pattern of the comic boxir^eois, as are not liar- 
pafron, Ghrysale, Arnolphe, or Orgon. j\jot tiicit all ti.e deacendantc; 
3x:iiDit all these traits in the fullness that I_.J"ourdain exhibits 
them; but by one 01 thexa or by a combination of d, number of them, 
tJie threat mass of the bourgeois of the theater during the thirty 
cr forty years lollov/ing Lloliere's death betrays an ancestry tiiat 
st,a.rto v/ith La .Bourg eois G entilhomii ie. As might be ex^^ected, the 
most immediate descendants show the strv:.ni_,3s t resei-^blance to their 
ijrciienitur; before ti^e decade follo'/^intv; his ap^jearance is out we 
have the poii^pous and cov/ardly k.Gilet of La Divineress e ; i:..Gilet, 
v/iio aescrioes nimseli as witty and handsome, and brave to rashnes i, 
except when lie remembers tliat ca.mon-balls are as lixcely to stri..e 
J. brave man as any ot?ier; and ?/hode exploits with his ma'^ic sword 
recall irresistibly t'ue immortal duel with iiicole. A fe.7 years 
later we have the office of Le Lie r cure Galant . to i.vhich oome the 
^jretentious and ambitious l.;.;'£ichaut in search of a. ready-tiade fam- 
ily tree, and tiie vain i-jue. Guillemot, to correct a re^'Ort vvaich iu.o 

■iJ ,; 


- ciijj&Y mJtoI -ij 

.visiies to make it thut there are dibtinctionb //i tr. . 

cla.js, ajia tiiiit ijxie id an auai trice aes con.^jted . 

These threa ciii-.racters are 4uite in line .vith tlie L.i'eat lucdel; 
It lij Duncourt, ho./evsr, wnose .vork motot nearly a^.^roachea ti«*t oi 
i, cliere in tue prssentation of tiie bourgeoib. In Tuct, the ridi- 
cuj.oub bourgeoib iiiight be aaic tc oe Dancoiirt'a literary Si^eciait;/, 
and trie very titles of tv/o of his beat ^jlaj^s, Lso jsoure^eoises de 
w,^:tulite ar:d L6s Sourge oiseb a la i.ode , hark bacK to i.-oliere's ^jro- 
tctyj^e. To tiie!iei.tation of this sort Da::court devctsd his 
best energies and fro;:i it he drew his finest types. Three oi ma 
longest and best i^l-aya - the two just mentioned and Le Chevalier 
^ lu_ . ode , - c^re concernea entirely with trie ex^jloitat ion of ti£ 
as^oiring bourgeois, aiia his greatest characters fiirnish the exa:;-- 
ples 01 this s^-ecies. The //omen a,re his es^^ecial quarry; ijua. Pa- 
tin, of Le Cheval i er a la .,-ode . is easily his greatest fig'^re, and 
ei..ox-aceo in i.irssii a±i qualities tiiat uiotinguioii tiie ^a^^ir- 
ing bourgeois: ambition, energy, determination to aoc o:!i;;lish her 
object, contam^t lor icind, :-bject oerviiity to tne i.obles, 
combined with constmang ra^e at tneir hau^^^htiness . Of her stuff 
ci e i^dti axo . i...e x our oourgeoises ce qua lite , ..Ji.6.r.ia::riineau, j^ 
lireffiere, L'Elue, and i.jae.Garniin, four women i^laced in different 
tjocial ^.ooi.iun^, out eacr. striving'; to better ii-^rself and to Keep 
the otliers down, ana all of them aiiiing at final nobility as u 
goal, ^..ore ^.at terns froi:i iii.e i.iaterial ure i.s,.e, n^r.i^ru of I£l_ !..a i - 



J uS.' 

uSi Ji.; 

.eeic-s a ainj- lo asj. 

- *> 1 

j.iui. cfidiuj 

.f! n- 

,hnL^ n\ ~ii'.- 


; L -L. o . 

^. t^ii ae :i^- ■> 

teiry ... -..t^it rioe& jiCt L.. 

i.or j^roilereu. i40bi>it&.I .:»e. Art^iinte l-I Lcl '} ;'cir <: hd, ,/i.., 

in ^.'ite ol' r^Vivioiis tixiort-oo;.,ir: i, in n.crc.lit- , r. l^ri- ci 

.^uulit.. , ana ^rowa iriaijjii..i.Mt ta. • _edlii-n liu.. ii^rvj' -. 

ii..-;iixf; aiiO iiiie. Robin oi Lea Ouriev x de Joru j^j i e^^ne , tc ;}io;L "he 
Dourgeoisie iia a. stencil in the notitrila, ixno. ■•lYio would rb-tiier be 
i.l:e sii-i-leiit CcLV>..l iero than the most honorable bourgeoiae oi' Purio. 
Oi' fa. sojuevviiat aiiieroiit t;,i;e froiu all thetie, tjie t.v^je oi' the iole 
uiin lu>a'.ricu5 and bored, the ;reuteiit exe..i; io An.-eli us, cT 
Le J iJo;..r£eoii3eb i^ It. ..octe , anc close by her stands her Iriena Ara- 
ijante; alter tYisai I'ol'lo'.v the Pre^-j iriente ol Les " '^aux (je Bourhon , .. 
_ id: y old lady .viio gaiubies ull ni^ht and ^ioes to bea at ten in ti.e 
iuornin^v;; and ;j.:e . Siiiion and tiie Presidante ol' Le Se cond Cija^ijtre du. 
riable Joiteux , yiio are leading the saiue idle ai\d bla^e e^v-istence. 
The rien cf this tvjje are not naarly so iwur.ercui. or ir..;.ortant c.3 
the woiuen. Periiaps the best is Ganivet oi' Le_ luouli n oe Javelle , 
//•.obs Taiiity and ostentation and presuiiipticn dc net ^.r--^ vent hi; fr. 
being revoltingly brutal; and aiter him Des Baliveaiix c:i Le heto'-.r 
des O'^l icier s, .Yiio it> overcoi..R by a sense oi L: .. cv.-n n i nit- i„s 
counsell&r, ana .vno is a s^jlenciia ty^je ol' the bcurejeuis de la r^^ 
Others l-.sre re, s.^ch ..g •ari'acel cf La j;oire St-^erxi. , d-j.ille- 
li-in of I^ ^^0 ire a_3 ^>eson^, ^...u Tarif ol Le ''/ert - ud.L.^i'it , .vno are 
vicious ratiicr tri^n rioic'.'lov.L:, v.-ill be ccn^iderf^Q uncier v..- 
rioub other heads; stiii, tie;, have ti.eir streaics oi vanity and 

lo at 


> - 


., :. J ;: tut ion. 

As to ueveloiviitMil ixj uii^ traatiuerit oi tliia t:/, it en hu.rd- 
1;/ be aevid tiiut Dctxicourt had uny« Kib lineiit ciiurciotar, ..i.e. 
is ia the tiecond i-lc^y he .vrote, a.rid the pl<a.y tiiat cofueb nec^re 
thia, both in icind una exoellence, ii; intrigue ua v/ell aa in chdr- 
acterization, lollcwb uitter thirteen years ol' hib moat I'ruitlul 
^eriod. jiet«veen these two (Le Chevci. lier a Ic^ Mode , 1687, ti-nd Lep 
..Gur^eo i bea ae^ .^u£>llte , 17u. ,) coiLe the ^.lays tljat' contain all tiie 
other cijaru-cters tl-iat have just been mentioxiea, ey-ce^jt the two 
Iroiu Le .;3econd Cha^.itre ou Dia r^le .r.> oiteux , but in no ijeroex^tiblfi 
order. Ai'ter 1700 he scarcely toucheo oii the tyi^e, •jivir.g us onl; 
ti.e alignt silhouettes oi" ijiie. Sii.iOn and the Presidente. ..richc;.r- 
din oi La Couie die ce.. Ooi:.ediens is xuuch too genial to i'all entire- 
ly .vithin this class, yst his jjleasure ever his t-uccess in acting 
a roie unwittingly reininds one periorce of x..,Joixrduin speaking 
prose. Belise oI I^ De rout e pii Pharaon has disjyosed oi her sjiop 
lor an i.otel , but sne is i^^ucJi xuore the triCiCster tiian the iool. 
Tnese £ioaiiied ty^^es are ti.e only one^ that Dancourt luriashed ai- 
\^r the bej/inning oi' the century. 

On the .vixole, it may be said that of all the authors succeed- 
ing ..oliere, Danccurt most faithfully iollo^vs the tradition oi tV: ; 
bourgeois gentil noiuiue, expanding it to include t/ie bourgeci se de 
^uo^lite . }^xce^.t for t/nia erudition of the sex, the ty^.e receives 
notning ne.v at Ais iiands, tiiougii on the other aiue it rarely, 
far belL.,v the atanacrd that iuliere hii..self . i^^ve acknov/led^- 

ed. V/iti. o..e one exce_.tion of L' Al^a -iJiV..!, too, rt is 

/^tf.'^ 71- . . .n'iP 


i .. L ^.■-^^^' ..jiA'j ^ ;, 

J.Ij. i ^ 

f u c* j6x u X * i ■ 

J ticii 

i« a. 

triiy cue to : .. bonri;:euisi'. In th,3 hunds ol" ot?ier authors, th 

isj u. bu;,orc! ilk. Le cliarttcter, li , u ne be tVie ijrotaf;oi:x i-.i , ;.- ao 

brought forward for tie exjloituticn of other 4UHlitieb Vxian his 

sociiil cvSpiraticns . 

After r'aacourt th4b type i't.llb raj. inly into decline. Re^nur' , 
who was his contemxjorary, leaves us but four who can o^ r..i„ i^tre^o 
be included in this class. These are i.. am line. Jac^u.enarri, tlie 
vain and gullible pair in the little sKetch called I& Suit e de 1^ 
10 ire St - Genua in , ana PeSotancour ana hia cousin I.athieu Crochet, 
o. ..^ ..g-l. The last two are a pair of cci^rse, vain, self-satis- 
fied, fatuous provincials vVho cciue up from jioni^andy to contract a 
ir-atch for DeSotencour. The;/ are the ■ rincij..c- j. .. ^-ures in tlie wli.; , 
but Le -rial is only a one-act comedy, and one of the author's ear- 
liest. After thi.i he does not even touch on this ty^ycj. x..G'.;il- 


lauiue of L Avocat Patelin is cap^.ble ol bein-j; ti^illec t}irou;;h his 
vanity, and allows the lawyer to ■■valk off with the cloth unpaid i _ 
after references to tiie draper's ci^an.i of person and his business, 
capacity. Still, he yaelds only after a lont^ stru^^^le, and jn tYv- 
end it is his tihrewdnesB ard stinginess that compell our atten- 
tion, rather ti-di ilj.o vanity-. Turcaret include^ 0.1. ung his i.any 
undesirable qualities ostenttJ. ion, seif-satisf action, et 'to fatuit . 
He cringe;, before the nobility, and is as easily BianiijUlated in 
tne hands of tne Bb.ronne as v/as eve r 1,., Jourciain in those of "Po- 
rante ana r^riii.sne. Turcaret stanoo cij.oi:u ..o tlie bourf;eols 
f ourYJe ,' 'out his ./asii:. :ial 1 not be 1 \ r- 

I J i ¥ - . 

.;xv;>T^j, a*;oioJ- 

s.:ro ax 


iisve ii.. 

LiU T9J-'tA 

ova'j; lj 

• r S^■ * »£ 9 iij- awo 1 1 >. 

i L>.ii -i ;- i-.o 

, ,;... J. . . i; 

ull, uno her 6ister-in-li.i.w, i«;;iie »Tuoob, wculd liKe to 

v^ ,w V..W-. ...^^v., ...... . ri be poa..^ -w, if trne n^d iier ri iito . 

,-roiii Turcaret, 1709, it is a long jui.;^. to ..ji.e. Abr..>ujr. of L' Ecole 
^_^_^ ..v^uri^eoi s/ IVt' , but there ia nothing tc be l"c.i;nd heVn- .. 
..-me. *tora]ricju D' All^ inval arew the ^irei^teot woiuan since Dtincourt, 
:xiic. the lo-at bourgeoid ol' her kind in tiie ce/itury. ohe it; LOiibi- 
tious lor her duu^nter, not I'or hersell, but to aiurry Benjta.xine to 
the . ...r^iuis de konctide slie dii:.i.layKi all tns eneri^y, all tr.e ceter- 

ixiincvtion, and all tne lolly oi' luue.Patin striving to laaice herbell' 
„ ..i.eva liere . 

•Vith Ljiie.Abraj-iani one ^,reat tyx:>e endb; triat is, t e type ci 
bourgeois who was socially aiubitious, and v/iio was renrierea ridic-.i- 
lous by thio arribition. Alter thio .ve rui-ve a till bourgeois -viio ^-.ij- 
pire to enter the nobility, mio buy titles, or aabUUie tiiem '.vitnout 
buying thein; but tor tne iLOst j,jart they are accei^ted at their own 
rating, and in manners and speech dilier not an iota I'roni those 
born to loity station, 

Destouches furnishes tne earliest exaruple r.t t.hii. in Lisimon, 
ol Le Glorier.x. Tnis Lisiii.on is a bour^^ eois ancplj., c.nd rei^resc. 
for the first titue a bourgeois v/ho has attained tl.o cul &f his 
aiubitions. He is rej-resented ciscrint^int, before t/.e nobility and 
_.urchasin;^ .- ^tle for his dau^iter; •■■•=»+ "'le claiuis tlnat axa cro.v,i„ 
are a i itle no less tiiaii old parclunents, ard he exa. iterates hit 

. .- 1 I; 1 

ulxii 'isJiA ,ii^LJiu,iii.xi o j; 

oavi- ,-jLli< 

j'r. n-o Joa i^itiD d: 

l^.v t!u.-i lie in not da.zzleri. by hia title, uo 11, brutal ana rei^m- 
jiva, bu I no', i cr a iiiui..eiit ridiculoub; the tiiiiO y^iu iii.i.urer.ti^, 
come when a l)Ourgeuifa can meet a noble on hia t^round. Vol- 
taire rurnitiJrieb a dill'erent ty^^e in tlie Coiiite aea Arrets ol Lea 
Orifc^inau x, .vLo is no Ooiiite, but huq treats niu bourtjeois wil'e in 
tiie custo\i.,r\' cavi^lier iuanner adoj,jteQ by tiie noble to.vard tne boi-r- 
fjeoib; yet, I'or all this, his iin^ni.eri, are weix-aoouiaed, bnd not i 
be ciotineiUibhed from those of a e,enuine noble. Voltaire (^ives us 
a dii'ierent sort of bourgeois still in i,jiie,Duru oi La reiu..e -^ui A 
Raiaon , .vno arran^jes noble alliances f c r her son aric dauri;nt8r, a,na 
who defenas i.erself on the ^,rcund of coiiu;.on sense, contending tl'ia'. 
iiiOiiey ai-.^>lied to sccia.1 advanceiaent is well invested. There is 
nothin-i es^^ecially novel in such a sentiii^ent, but tiie difference 
lies in the fact that her ar^uii:ents are endorsea by the autiior, 
ana tr^at she is eii^^^hctically The Woiaan '',1io Is Rig}it, I«.Ghaussos 
contributes Lme.Arejaiite of L Ecole des ±-^£Qs^ who encourages her 
son to style hiniself a marquis even before he has bou;::ht the title, 
but here attain there is no awkr.vardness in ty^e false ijosition; all 
the vices and (-.f fectations of the nobility are rei-roduced faith- 
fully and /without intention of caricature. The stojie is true of 


the Coxiitesiae in Les ^..oeurs de Tem^s , save tiiat sue is really a 

(Jouitesse, Lnough bourgeois born, 

A study of the dates at which the foregoing, chan^cters a^)- 
i-eared /.'ill snow tii.t.t tn^j >^;ibitious bourgeois iiad i^racticaliy 

''iVo...'.iu,..563."^±749.Cf . H?7/ -^ J/V.*^ . . .5vj. 


. nx ^ 


;j . V X r . . J . . 1 

■ tJ^-tC 

^J :iL 



n. -^ 

!'io i.redOiuiiaa.fice Lelore t}xut tii^.e i;i due Icir^jel 

respundo so naurly to tm>,t of Daucourt, iuude uLi-oi^t no viae of thii; 
sort I.J. i.^^.Tt^eois. After 1700 t}ie only great s^jocimens are Turca- 
ret and ^uncAbrahctni. 7ith Destcuci.eii begins u new tyjje, the t:,<ije 
,1.^1 "boUt^ht or asburr.ed a title, but witliout the sacrifice o^ .-hul- 
ever dif^nity it iya.y have oQaa ijcsse-sed of before. Tliis ty^e is 
continued, at lonij inten^ials, ^y LaChaussee, Voltaire, axiL. ouurin. 

As this class //ay to another, the cOi,^..on-sense boi.:r^eoii,, 
and ...D i..e disiia^^i-eci ranee of t?ie one involves the rise of tie ot.'.- 
er, the j^henoiuenon of its passing; .vill be further discussed undar 
oj.= head of the latter ^jerire. 

The Bourgeois ajid the iu.oney-Q,uestion. 
^ifte r x...Jourdain, it is Har^aj^on -vho has left 1;.= fullest ii;. 
of descendants, but this line fails by much of being so nucieroi^s 
or so vigoroi^o c.o ii^ , of tlie bourge ois ^entilho..: c. There i^ .il 
i..i ser in the later coriedy th^t even aj..,-r&aches L.oliere's ,~reat r.o- 
el; avarice is neve r .xiade t}ie subject of tlie iAi.y, ^.nu i^ r.^. ;. ..^j.^. 
Uj- to any esx,ecial ridicule or aversion. Still, thie stiajry be r- 
^:;ec is io b„ ;iu i..=ii.iia l^Cr:iii^, ixaa if v-j u.^j. .a^; i;i i:ii: i....ily th'. 
indiviauals v/ho attach ^^reater iiuijortance to h.oney tl^vn to raiji, 
ve (J....1 -=t to^'Cther ^.'i^..^ ^^ I'l.-o^. co tuuxt: c L/1-..j.-i^ny . 


^Ji K- \J i. '^ , 

1+ --'i ' '■- ..- ' 'I-"- iij no rolfa.'.- 

tliese two lui!.iiies, tnotie ..Juarai^in ui- . ..- 

t^uisiiiu;^ trait oi' the aocial asijirciit ib iiiii indili'erGnce tc 

c^iid liis •.Yiliinjae^ii to l..vish it in rurtherauoe ^^ :Lioria. 

They iill htive a sustaining sense oi' the ixuportunce cf luoney, L.r.d 

ul^ liiie tc iaar.3 u i'lourish oi' it, but tliey are not stingy, ana 

they all, liJie Turcaret, ^ive wit^iout oouutine,. To be sure, they 

ure occasionally indignant that iiioney does not count lor more in 

the social .vorld, (.s v/hen isJiie.Elandineau exclaims : "i..oi. ... .^ui c.: 

eu xjIus ce treize luille francs en uaria^e, tant en argent coiuj^ta;.'. 

..^u'en ni^.-^yBs et 'bijoux"; or v/hen lijne .Patin's ru^^e is inriax:.ed a- 

e,airist the insolence ci' tlie "be^^garly juar^uise vith her rafj._,ed lac- 

eys, her ola carria^^e, and starveling horjeti, in face of Y.^.r o./n 

daji^-led i^rays and gildea coach and ^old-laced focti-en, ^ut, li^e 

i.ji.e .Patin, they soon recover their balance and would rather be tL^ 

iLO;it necessitous iiiir>.i.uise oi the //hole coxri tlian to 'be left 

ul' the richest financier in France, 

( ' 

joefore Daxicourt there ia only the insignificant Pirante cf Le 


Deu il, ol whom we .<no:! only tiiat he refuses to e^uip liis sen for 

the ca^-i^aign; and Dancourt hiubelf, v;hc is sc rich in exarujjles of 
the firtjt cl..^.. , furnishes aln.ost nothing of interest here. Ricn 
iuen ana nouiexi he x^as in jjlenty, and financiers even, but aliiost 
•Aathout exc2_,jticn thoy i^re u^jn, t/i.^iir i,»oiiey to rr . -ote th^ ir so- 
cial aiiiit. . .^ ...e t-iere are, litie i.-,xiernard of La a^a i s en ae Caui- 

^-.•. ;ie, i...i31ano iii i Les .Bour ^^-eoises de .^ -. . . 1, .viic object 
' --r-- r-- ^ -- 

. I 


;e ui' tiiei r .viv^i.. , 
ity o! tiiS^je .voi.iea i .a be vary luilivir tc cuIj 

atin.y. Some otiiers wc who ure ava.rioioui ei. , -j 

cievioub w^ys o! iirietnce throw theui rather into the cliitia oi tjjs 
rc.dc<a.l& thcin the iuitoert>; uiaong tijeae < Hur^jin of Lcs Knl'cai_ti_ ne_ 
Pari a , ./i.o coiiteiuivl&.ted putting hia son into i>rit.on una :.- 

ter into c^ convent, ana ci.e<a.tin, his sister out of j^er suoce-si on, 
in oraer to insure tc hiuiself t/.e li-uuily fortune; k'.Tarix, o^ Lj 

Vert - aalc -nt , ,vho io (jertainly not overrated .viien hio iriend oe- 


ocribes itiiu as tena ce ; A^e, Lucas of Le Dia ble i±^j-y'^'^;^t '--(^ -i^^ 

.vatchin^- by her husband's to his niece and ne 
out 01 Lj.eir inheritance; all ox tie crocked ci.arujters m 
Les Agiote urs, esijecially the old Zacl^arie, .vI'lo coiues closest oi 
a.11 Dancourt's nxney-lovers tc Karxia^on. But the luisdr, as sulij., 
had no real interest for Dancourt, and the rich man 'aus valuable 
him only vhen iie oe^jan to buy his way into society. j;or ti^e 
that hoarded his iucney and loved it as money, he hitd no drarriitic 
use. I:, all his iilty-three plaj/s, ^.,6iu.on oi Le oecona Qiia^i tra 
du Triable .Boit eux is the only personage //ho furnishes us anythin 
ci value c.s to Dancourt's ideas on tiiis subject, ana even u^rc i\ 
is brought out in a ccnversati&n in .vhich th.e devil does most o: 
t-.e tu.l-r.infc;. As t^ Ciiaracter, i-.iiaiaon is sympatic-; uic 
other.vise, and even so ai.. cunts to little, a^.^-et^rin^- only in the 
^.rclogue ana ti.e last <.cx, oi cue ccii.eay. 

Re^jiinrd is n.orc fniitf.'l in ti^e matter of Uiisert,, ,-s 

^ 16'-j9 .Cl'.jif. •' . ._ Jifi.-^lKy/. ■ ., ./Vj/iVlO. 'f. jyy/'lVO?. '!.. .f^3. 

. i . - ■.. 


La .jeranctae , ,.rice oj «. ^rji-^iniiuc •, 

says, wiian ne consit^na tiie entire cou.ijany lo ia.ii tue cieviisi ui n , 
Li.LcL. 11 ./CIO .iic i.irst tliirii_, i.c /jiid ever ^iven tiwuy, .Vc /u^vc, i,>., 
Geronte oi Le Re tour ln.^^revu, <viio lorgiveb axi his sou's rcliiea 
iv. r,at bacK the HiOiiey he iius be -an tricked ont ol'. Geronlc >.'x 
gal refjards u hundred thousand crcwiijas the equivalent of ^ 
virtues in ^ ^v, n-in-law, ana Iien.ojjnon ol' Les ^■en3G;.....^o .^r.^^co ^n ..^c 
daugi.ter a suitor wiio ib _,iited with wit and virtue, ano "wriat io 
;..orc ^., .oint, sixty thousand crovms." i'inally, there lo ^-.e 

tnard Geronte, lie oi Le_ Le^^atair e U niversel , -vho, tiiough a hypo- 
criondriac, l)e-;rudgeo the j.irice of iiis liiedecine. The oaiiie , -^..,, i r- 
nisneo a luore unlovely figure in i-.jue,Are,ante, a mother -.vho is .vil- 
ling for }ier dau^;/;ter to i^arry ti'iS nej,jhew if the latter o^ii n.aije 
Xi.imself his uncle's sole heir; if not, Isabelle iuarrieo the uncle. 
A good Bijeciiiien of tiie luiser, or rather of 1.1 c oting:/, ic 
the dra^.e r Guiliauoie, of L' Avocat Patelin , though in Guill^uiLe 
avarice stru^-^^les with vanity, and in the crucial instance the lat- 
ter carries t}:e day. Still, the abiding impression of Guillauiue i^. 
not of a fatuous du^je, but of a.n exceedingly shrewd tradesniixn, c 
.voula be a inatch for anything less than the cunning of Patelin, 
ijne.Oronte of L' ESj^r it de_ Contradic tion is .villiui,, .w -cr.\, ;ier 
daugnte r to a ricii j^^arvenu j^veasant, somewiiat as Tlt^riJUr^on flu ild diu - 
,^ofae of Elioe. De^ leaves tnr ,. o.^.^^^.^ ^.j ■....-. .... :.^y-lover. 


tar reiuociti i..^ oe^ju-.e .*. iiaii i-uiu ...uiil tJi.rjrcr^ i^e iitiT i '.i. : 
necetjbity j. lovetj iiia laorie,; iuoro tiiun hid di.*.' 

ujrv.ntc uj. L:3 -L\,i. i.L& Ox}"ie i».L>rie hi*.£j a?!tjcii'ted hid noble ranA. ■ 

into trade, oLoutl;, deleiidu iiiii ri,,Kt to d... no. Last c.nd 


^rei.teiit, -uare i^ ueronte of L^ 'Diaa i j.v at3ur . the "bsjt i.^^-- oj. n-i- 

ter tiince iu.r_,ja£iOii, one who osts forth in detail t:.e joys of ava- 
rice, ana cx.*!..^ ti^a t the ^>oat>e3S ion of luLney^ not vhat luoney can 
ouy ^ is t aa j;reu.te;3t cjood of liie. It iuust be aoaed, "no.Yever, Vn..' 
on tiid Hi.oie aJi'Lnte ia a dyiii^js-vtiietic fi.^'^re, a rd ha^ none of l^ar- 
yc;.gon'b brutal iualitias. 

Voltuire ars.-; in Rondon and Fierenfat, of L' 7.r.i : ^..t rruc.ii,^-..-ci , 
a urecious ^jixir tiiat put money above all other ijoaoible advantages, 
^iiQ in i...i'.i;'u, ux _^ j.-e.i-i..d Q,ui A R^i. i s c n , a close -fist yc :iu:i0o.nd 
//no is out.vitted by his wife, she holding thixt 3ooiti.l ^ooitlon is 
^r-ii 31'a.uli iL x'xjj.eb .'iO^rued u^v. Gri^^on, of this jjxa;', io i.xre 
liKe tjie conventional iuis:ir, and tlioujh slij^htly sketched, is i^..- 
^jort-ant. Tie outlines a sci-ex^e lor iioj-sei-uld rej^iiae tnat .voaid h^^ve 
&^..ealGd to ha.ri.'agcn. jj'incilly, ueronte of Les Iv.oeurs du T eni^iS , 



;.oiu^ Li.c. . i.ii^.i^„.- i.^ i;,c; onx^ ori I = .'■ i;.n : "Te 11 iiie Wiiat a i^*.n, I ..'iii 
tall .. ou .vliat he is .vorth, " 

In t^ix i-jiiw i .. /ij.^ Lie cxi-i n Xi-cit t:.e '. ^ .. hartvUj^on is far 

from beinf^ so well-aefined a.s wus that of k.Jourdain; t}ie cho.raG- 
tsr ~^L ':i.^ ^aiii^r io ...uCi. ii.or^i o^.ur^,.aic Li;. a injiaeixt^i. Tnere are 
some gooG _ijortraits, such cis Geronte of Le_ T'iss i^^ at eur .aw. Griocn 

;,..^n^Y:;7.-:. .«?,^, .. . .2vy\/..;. J.. .V^7 

;H nz v.( 




. ■ , in none ii cvvuri- ubed aa - 

iKixtic Qdvice. A^uny, it -le, but>e ti^e ir j l^ on 

btand^rd, if not sc pOoitivei. ,eronte ul' Lea I ceura d'' _, 

atill ;Vith ci, lurrLin,,, sejiae oi"o.vna f'urnia/i a. 
nobilit.,- as ijaruhjuents, iiut alter all, this latter feelin^: ia 
realJ., tiie davniiif:; oi' class-ccnsciouaneas, ol a sense or class -di - 
nit;;; found ^^^rly in s' an unlovely exauijyle aa Liaiiuon of Le 
ulcrirfujc , it .vili in tj.e end lottd to such serene tradeoiii::;n VanaerK 
and Aurell.\ . But this line ol cl« ■boiirt;;aoia '.vill a'ali 
under a dii;.erent head, and v,i i 3 treated by itoell'. Hence it 
L-ay be disrei_:arded Tor tlie liiomsnt. Kere I nt^ve coiisidered only 
tnoae in -.vnciu iiiioerlineaa , at injiness^ or tTirii't v/as a leading- c/iar- 
ticteriatic, and I have found t}-e line to be Liore or less tenuous; 
one .viiich can scarcely be tended a line at all, but reith-r c. series 
ol o^yoradic cases, croi^i-in^ out whenever an individual ijlay?/ri;;iit 
iiii^^>ened to fe^?! ti^e naea oi' this sort ol character. 
/.i'ter considering the lines oi x».,Jourdain «.;.<,; KajJiJu^on, i.^ 
aDibitious and the avc^riciout>, we h,,.ve exhausted in larf^e ii.eaaure 
the lax».iliea v/uift;*. oc^u clairu uooei. ■„ from i.-olier-j. .e ;.L-ve, i.o /- 
ever, in the comedy ol this century, a lew scattered characters 
-i.L^u iic^ii. Oc^ojv, axio unsc i ous 1^;' jjs; iic*_jJD , '.o the ty^.j'ssi oi iv.t j-iere, 
but they rei^resent advejititious branches oltl^e great family, i.nd 

^t. n ii&ii'ux^' Oc said to O oii^a ', a. ■- U i. « iJIiUi'j O-t at;.-.oc: ■ . I , u . i x_ , J.OI' 

Le Philoso^^iie s<Ans le ocvoir, oonaine, IV^iD.Ci . .J3> 


. lence .-.. . j^cir. 

olifctructerb in .vhic/- i.oliere uret^tea lue t:/iJt.'o kjuch iur u-ix. 

Of ti;ese, one ol' ti.e :.u;.t r.uji.eroua ia the l'a,;/ ol Arnul.jJi . 
Under thia Qenoiuination 1 iiave includea all tiie ola ;i.:'ii in love 
./ith ti young t;irl; *. i , ^ he sure, i i^ only one cl' Arnol .he ' .s 
cvilit-.ritifcib, but it io ojie bo oiten coiiibinea with hie, 4uuli- 
tie;-. , Kio tjeli 1 -:--' ne;>.. , V.i .. inspicion, ut tiiriG£j his sl.^J-^r briitul 
that v/e sriu,!! not £:;o lar aiuibo to r'eier to tie e/iLirti uxc.t.o 0.0 
progeny of t"i".e old i;ia.n wiio condvictea ti.e School for ".Yive s. 

The I ira t ctise 01' tnia type ocours in t/.e ye-.r Tolxowi/i 
iiiro's death, and ia tc be Tcund in Gr iapi n ksdec in. LisiGor in 
thib play, beint^ tr.e rival ol Lis own son for the hand ol the 
younti Alcine, perhaps sug ehts more btron.-ly Harxi/a^on in hio ri" 
ry v/ith Cleante; but he has none 0.1 the i-..isei"'s other truitc, a in 
in f^iGt is but a shufiowy fi, -ar^. .J. !■•.?! l.ftrit. ...\c.\-. ole. rer ■■. 
better is hariJa£-;eirie ol Le j/lorentin . Tiiis play ol La J}"ontaine's 
1. itjht be said to be L'Ecole oes i''eiiiLxe s in one act; tiie intri -.le 
:nucn t;-e saiue, ana the character ol Harpagln.e is so directly pa t- 
ternea dter thtit cf Arnolphe that it is hard to oelieve thci.t it 
is CO inc iae:.tal. iCven t>ie best sceiie in it, ti:e one in .vnic n 
pagei..e, disguised, raesticno his .vard about her relations with Ti- 
uiante, is mere than su^geotive ol tne similar one betv;e":n Arnol_t. 
< An.eo . There io tiie ScOiie curiosity to li nd out tiie v/orst, 
binea with raj^e and le^.r at wliat tiie worst j.-iay be. 'Ve have trjs ciinnin^-, the sai.;e suspicion, the saue brutality, tlut .73 r. 

'D'Hauter. . . . V^, '^ .t^ift'^y . Cr.'il./'A 

St; ,JL. 

« * 

ic led rd i.. 

cr nune oi Ariiolyr-e'c cuiu.iajj. Al'ter i^.Robinot the best case :i. 

eurlietit extant play, and it in somewliat ccnvei.t i onal in t. 

geli.xue, >viiile her ...other is in love .vith his acn. The youn^ ,eo- 
^le, ^x o..,.-io^, ^u .vith each other. .,..._.....,. ... ...... ^ ri- 
diculous throuyri his auiouroubness and his assuuption of youth, and 
.-io o .3 ii -consG iv." ■, .ji.^ oo X.. la.d i-iL-itter oi' iii.- ^.■.^ i.^..!^. j. <^- .. i'._ 
In I^ j'oire ae Be so ns .ve have tne oia libertine, Griiiard, c 
c^uu ^y L..^ cu '-i-'i^'ii 'oy tu-^ .^■•■'^u Cidalise, .^^1... in Le Tuteur .•le liave 
Bernard, vi^io copies neu.rer to Arnolplie in tiftct it io uio /hem 

he vy.^oj. re ^c .i..- 1. ^, . ^.^ of these ci-aracters io e 
strong, thou^^h there is one t^ood scene in .vhich Bernard ^d 

i;i vr\....t-,ii b clothes t, i^ j-.±tyj.ciii Q-. •/..lii. ^ J. AiTl • ^ 

^....soed off for insane. 

Regnara ±^ ....^^^^. u^'.'.er in ii w, 
sunac^e, iivii'i,:: lucro ^.victures and clearer ones tiiui. 
Arnolpin; ..uu yir_.;'^.) oituation, ...... u ^.^ ... 

' It . » \^ J >.L < 

'i/(i. Cf. ./W. "^ . .. H^ . c\:.i>.Uf ■ f9. 





icircictii to be ereu uc i . riiou, 

.■ i:ui>e 01 ti:C I'u Lner in rivcir;- /iti. , 

rice la .^iVLii^^ir ti..-ii xovo, >. 

in the hope .1 tjetti. Oi-; stolei. ... Joueur tljere is 

every O:..oort.i.nit:' to develop tJie sjtuaticn oi L' -.Gu in dea 
but here, straxirje to acij'-, it is Dorunte, sensible, ii.idd le-a.tjed 

lover, v/r^o carrisb t!i.e auy over ti.e Uiu;J}ler, xiit, nej^jiie-Y. Thia 
Don^.nte ha.a no ijoint^ whatever in coiaruon vith Arnolpiie exce^jt fix-.i 
he it> in love with a woruitn uiixisli ycrmger tlu-i; hixiseir. he is ari 
oiltOf^ether ayiLpathetic cliuracter, and .';ever ridiculous throi^^^li }.:.^ 
love or otjie rjrise. ueronte, oi' J.^ ■.-,eg><.t u ire Univ-: x' ae 1 , is ijlar;. :.. 
to ijcirry Isabelie, but thia motive is lost in the ii,i r, ..'iiirl ol 
events insjtie,i^ted by Eraate anci Crispin, ^y iar txie be^t, as will 
&.3 the mcbt un^jleasant, siiuple cititis ciii.ra.cter to be i't and in 
Ret^nard is Aloert, oi he a £pii_e^ i\...o--'r e use^ » ..3 i^ o'-ni oroL:-er lc 
Arnolphe, ana h<^a all hib suspici , .1 hit , even more 

thaii ills orutaiity, Alucrt, aiOiitj aizii i*^ x-ul. '^ iia.i\-c<t^c ... 

is by all i;.eans tJ^e most I'a:. a-cti Here s ^ - 

toty^je , 

Alter Rejn--Ard ,.n': Rancour t, the ty^^e Icvn^^uiojieu utterly. In 
all ti'ie rest oi our ^jericu (170-1770), * '" 
one exa; :plc o.: Arnoli-h:^, that a very i^^int ^i.-. 

. \.. l.> i.l,.j ic. or ;, _ _^'^ 

..c-.s riL ..rted Tr- 

,'.Ci'. .mi .../?■/, ^ . . .179-, 



o^. .■ . in L\^' , - 

-6, u luay oi ui- 
oil tiie en^^aL'enient to i.iarr" :al lor ^ 

ler iitii'o, but De&toucjL3b doetj aot iiuprove tjie Oi^.ortuni . 
Lisidor ncr IdubelJc is i leitat ridiculous, a ixl tt^ .vhole ia 

treated v/itii tiiC ^rtiviLy ti^t Det.toucjies broujiiil to j..0o t oI nio 

Ir^ Cv^ucluaicn it nixy be iitiid tiiiit tiie Araoljyhe-t, ^^e .vas ne" 
one ol wide ct-iJi^eul. It isi limited i>rti,cticcilly to I^aiiccurt a.nd Kef;; 
riard, una oi ixieoe tiie loraier trec<,tea it on..^ ixi^ii-nea rteuly. 
xiotJrii n^; ib addea to Lclilre's i^crtrai t, ^.rd ti.e be^t cases are 
those tiiat cane near-est to the original Arnolphe: La jj'ontaine's 
Ilarpat;ei.,e ana Re^cnard'o Albert. 

As a sort ci companion ijieoe to the ^jroup ol" Arnolphes th-:Ct 
vie have just studied v/e ii^ay consider the collection of uc^i.e... ,.t.; 
Jriave Belise lor an ancestor. In this e^roup it i.,Ait:,x be re. e;-. 

tiiat it is Selise the silly and sentimental, .-elise the j.. 

not Belise tne blue-stoc.:ints, tiiat is ta^cen as the protot. .3. ..■ 

f eni: ie » savantes will be con-'^icered lat,f3r c. 
dan to cl Piiilaminte . 

3tra,i:_;e t^ -a^ , ..elise lias Icl't .. , u^o 
VijxVi Arnolphe, t: tiiia it> • 

icuxe . 

cr . . . '(^•^ 

i_ 1 \^ * . k <i 

i .'i 


icie t 

ide la j-ovc .ii<.i.i;, 

v/Oi .is. ^jur.A, i^e.-. . Olten indeed he c C; , 

cuid it io iiCL ..^ ,Vt.,;ij 'j^-i^-v '-"■-' ^"^ ./i iji. ijj. >,;.e t'-vo motiv 

u.ore strongly in u ,,iven uuoe. 1 .j'c^tin, i'or oe ; sh? 

■v]iether ruor .th tljan with his titl: 

tL aetanuine. xicvevir, vc. co.ig kicuaG-i.':;. .aea ati Kiue.r... 

aer^^ell' to be in otlier instc^-ncea, va usuy believe tiiut here, 

her reuaon v/o'axa aoxa x-d i tiii.oLloao we i.. la ij^-oo/., la :c..ti ri t-i u^-a- 

I'lict, ia-nd tha.t her inflection lor tr^ Chevalier .vould wanea 
ii hiii nobilit.;, a...u ^-^^'-''^sd o^juricuo, iuiu. iia-.i ii au ,/.' -'i.^ 0:.-^ vc^xi', 
iiad been for the oil in^^,, an ola one would lii'.ve as .veil. 

In •..-.: vdj'., I'ir&t or hi3 extant coiii8dies. Lea ^..ull:. ^erdus / 
I'rc.iioo'art riub ^'iveii u^ one oi his beot fii_ .f the ^eli:^ .:i, 

.:^.xi uaa .-.,j btf ua^.^iii ao ^ i.iOGel ^"' ' ^ " ^' i^S, i^.'i.u' , 

v/ho itj a .-.'iaovv turaed liit:;, and in love vvith llie yuan,- Valere, i. 
ijiiXj, Voiiii, isir-cc j.^'vj !■_ .',o , iaiL- tuatei^ . u rrsc.iax., ^ . ^i.^e t.i.a;. 

into aa ecstacy on being told that Valere talkb about .her 

.,-0.^., ..... o.-i. ./ ..;I'iJ .J... ^i i. U.J Oa ou: lo. v,>..-iit^' £. 

hand -in hand v/ith sentii!xeat..lit:, in . Bii aa these. 

^.yXuUuSc i-rir^jwii iii iiiir iVit^a t ■ ii j-u^ , a.iU ' -ir^ :._ rt, 

w--. -.^ as . to ai'^-e.-r. 






in Reu<4.\ici et A. 

L.i^ iJ C XH ^) J. -. 

dunce oii into . 

cl" tir3ir ^ixiit yo Jtli, they are tiie ver^' niodel 
ov^rt, -.^1 w, ^.,.r exce 

^nd worldly consiaerut ions in nit^rrTa^e i^re I'ur J^rou., ti.eui. '.'/•; 
c-lreua^ ^^^.v^.. >. . . 

il.e is, beinii du^ed, but slie closes lier eyes i : l.^.oly .no. lenc. 

, 3 

^ .^aid to her own undoint^. iii*ii;e,A '' f •■' Le j .ari ^, - ■,. .. -v . 

ubout t}ie bUiiinaoS with worthy bourgeois shra.vdness, and b3.r,_ 

.vith iier ., ^ c^...uria.^us to ta,K.e ' ■^■'' 1 '^ Cwi;j„ i. - „^-.- '"'' 

ikji;e,3a.rdtiix of I*x l-'olre St- Gcni:ain lac.nb^-es her hlTa ir without loss 
ol" dignity, cind h..^ .^ .v^-'^e^ lov'^>- ■'"' " ...iT;.->y .-eceiver -^ >- ' '- ■- ?x- 
^loit:^ On the oti'ier Yiund iu..e .Loric^tr t o i Le Ciifi.r i vc4.ri ccnde- 


enda to Ic'-^ ■'-^'- .easant ^-^a-rdener, _,.„. ..vj. 

suitor, kiae.Arfeunte o! I^ jclle En one re is i^ecuiictr ^..^ii- 

tion cl' bein. t.lie rivul o'' '"'■'" ^ sen, as t.-_ ^, -'...,^ -.... ..i„.- ,. . 

she ailects is _n reality An^eli^ue in dio^uise. ?erba._[js the 
stroo-35t ne'e ir. :. /.a . Argaate ' s i^er.-.onali t. . if, 
^rasj^in^i lor yo.itn, cc;..bin5d .dtii a positive iiu-trea lor 

..•:.v^ betra.'S ne r c(..v3 .Ar.:a.-ite of i^ _ i^ir ; ae beaor-r 

^■-. lea wxdow,. txicio^^n no i.uoo.uia ncis 1.1 .' luria 

_ , . . jr..^lity, aha i _ . ..vei.t.i __ _ , , 

• V -*. • 

■^ o.:f. ^5>ii9o.3r.. .<?f. -^ 







.'lertjeir no iuawii b . She xuta ioanen Tra..uli;. o- 

love ui 1'.. irsi . 

Tiiti ri la ii O ^.ti rc^i- ■- i IJ X:J Clc: V'- XO^j: .^:- t iiUi'u luul'-,-: i,i...ui ii. ..i-u j...^ : 

ol" ether ty^jes oi" Dancourt. One oi" tiie best eAo-inples of tiie genre 

ib in Le Prix de_ i' Ar-ju ebuae , next to hia Ictbt i. . . ^ tci,nce 

b c/iat-j ' xijvs vj.ii'v^ ^-^i^^rii se^^ctriites tuese t<v^ x-^-'-'^-'^* s^na in x-.-/!, 

iibuiit c. third of the way in his active j.>eriod, comes Renaud et Ar- 
iuioe, .v;.j.tjj» oic.:.i.ib c lose beside the two lueji i ioi;.3u . .:.= ^z^^ j..._t>v..- 
tant ones ocnir <a,t scattered dates over the entire ^jerica at irr- - 
ular iiitc: vax^ .._. i lexi nothini^. 

rtegnard, .v.'io bur^asbed ]3ancourt in liis Arnol^jhe-tVijeb, i...j 
VJiX... '. :>^ j3:;x^oe. Ti-ib ib Ara^.iinte of Les Lentjcjiix.j- , -vj.i^ bU;_,_,rioLa 
Lji.e. vjerante oi Leb i-'onds Perdus, though bhe is much more roxi.ant ic 
thati bi^fs, riua uuso iioL ti. . . _ . o. caujjarison to Venus overb-c*, ■. ^^ 


.er charmo. Alter Regnard there ib little. T?ie tv/o sisterb, oe- 


lib6 c^iiu nx (.■..:. i lite , uj. -.g -- gi'^l J. '. , ^l ..i.Xot; ,/-X-.-, Uii. Liii'n UUt to U'i 

merely biCetc^ies. Slight as t,uey are, however, they oj-e aifieren- 

-OX. lOo- 

-ibly tne best case alter Dancourt ib i.xue.Oronte oi Cris^^ in Rival 

'.' e son i-xi. 1 1 :'•<:; , >.',.u, oxi^ U ^J-.^u^i. o, 1 w. lj o:.-:; ^..i: v v^;. ■, v^^ C '^* 

lyci Jc, e'b chcracter cra.ving. 
'\ .>vr. ^ .v»>.-' . . .,^J' .!•<<. 




■ -*/. 

...oliere in •. ..:. t ^ _ . 

tiv.vjtect ii. ii.^r uwu ci.urn.s. ' ■ioLuaci«j,i ooni-ri iju te.. l.vo no 

muuruUb ...iia Tutu- . id loabelie, oI I,' AiuO 'ir liae , irom tthoO'^ 

^nd bela.'>^<J ..i;>.sjicn no ]rr.i,,,or is dra//n. The ItvSt '3x.-.ii.,-le *,na.t -ve 

/ 3 

lino io Jjioriaa, ol Le i^.ecn c».nt , who lo detestable ru ttier tiiuri ri- 

dioulous, but who almost aoinpela our syiu^^utiiv bv reL.aon of the 
cruelty ai.e aixl'iera at the J'ii.inds oi' the lieVhairt, 

Here c.guin, as in the caae oi' Arnolphe, there is nc ret^ 1 ^ 
oi deBoent, Dancourt used the type roany times, and with good dn*- 
xLatic eflect; after him the caaea are acat tered and sx.oradlc. 
Tnose examjjiea tiiat do occur after him coiiie early in tha omtury ; 
alter IVlo vve liave only the two characters 01' Ic>abelle and Tloritic, 
in lV4ii u.nd 1745 resxjectively. Ti^ere io no threat variation here 
from the type of the ori^iinal Beliae, exce^jt that the late examijle„ 
cease to be ridiculovis. 

It must be rfaia in aefense of the Belirf-sd, however, tha^^ the" 
v/ere sincere in ti.eir al'fectiona, and that selfish calculat: 
rarely antared .ntc -^i-s ir .',... trltionial schemes. In fact, tie 
blague uf t ij5 d;. y referreo to true love as something diotinctly 
boia"geoiij. "Je suis entraine'; j^.ar un i<enc}ia,nt ^i tend re , ^ue ,' 
puis y resister," t>ays tne Baronne in Tu rcaret . "Un pRiiOi^nt t^n- 

dre?" replies karine, "Ges faiDie3ses vous ant-el ie,? '. 

fii voud aimez coai^e liuri vieilj..' ucurgeoiae." The same was . 

^ '. 

be tr-ie c: f tn ; men, ^.s riuen Cris^^in re.;.ari:j in Jja. Gazette :"re. 1 ;r^ 

...... .zzi.^ . i^ti.^ . . yn/ . . "^ 



•ii a* 

? " 

:■;. Th-i r .u-To Oj?' JiAlvPIN. 

liar, in, the linuncier o! Ic^^ Coiuteaae d'E sGarbatinas ^ is &. weax- 
ly ancdstur to found a. line oi deacent. j:a G!Ji.ie3 on but in cne 
o}:ort scoiie, and in thia he fails tc exJiibit i: n-- ..^ traitb 

vhich caia3 al terward to characterize the financier, dtili, iu iiis 
yliabilitv in f.'f.p. h.-^^nda o! the Ccmtesse, hia coarseneso, uia un- 
;,overned rage on lindin^ hiusell deceived, he liiuy astiiiiue the anceu- 
torsiiip or the i'ew I'inanciers that occur in our per-icd. ".Tliat i^ 
chieriy IfccCKine; in the character ol Karj^in, tJiat v/e una in tie 
Liost notcxble oi' hia deocendants, io any sign ol" ional trick- 
ery, any inaict^tion or the devious liiethods or linance. otiii, I'rc; 
his attitude tcAfurd the Gumteaae, we Kiay constriict fr.r ourjelveb 
his position to'.vard the sifialler men oi' bi^iness tiiioiu xiq i'^ iwa in 
nio ^vc.ver. Eriel' clS are liia speecnes, oi.37 rhrj.nuece *o convey the 
iiVression oi' the sense o! j^.ower thctt cojiies 1 roir. tne control ol 
2re.^t nioncy interests, which -'ivi^s Uie financier a certain c isa 
eT>-en in the ^^rasance of tnose v/hom he regardo as nis social .. 
ior.v . 

Tne line of Harj-in's descendants is not lon^' , and is ccnfi. 
t,c Ha;! court and Ls Sajie, with a disl_- :;.cendant in Beuiauaro:. 
Laiico'^t, like Loliere, is much more interebted in tne social 
ohcrt-cci:.ln.Tb ct hiri f 1 n;-^ri i: i e r r^ th:r. in i.-,v arv ..ur.Ll i. r I'ir^in,:' ". 
obli lUi l_. . . lin o ' ' 

//mi. ... )•;.., 1.. 3,1'., c; 

Oil ici ara , turns «. r. -, v, ije kLei\- '. .vhc >ja.d enric ie d ii i 

bell" in lintuice. y. liUicii iit^ure thc^n eitiier ox' tij^se is Fur- 
ludol Gi Lo. ±'uird Sl- JerukA-in . .'•lo.ael'ti luua _. _i hr; -"t i., --■, : .. 

out it XL, i irkxiice liu.t e,iveb iom. ijO//er lo jxerciae thia oent tu iti 
lulleat. he tel.Lto hov; iie aoducea a. f-;i rl by ori'ering em^loyimsil -^ 
aey Drotii-jrj, tajia tiien jvitharu./iii^ it wiien he liiis ucug. .^iibiien hia 
object. lie iilao UiUiouncej t/Uit he hcva iuund. a. aul'e ana easy .vay 
lo cibtixiction uy eiupuirKing in iiniaice; tJna vifcy oi war ib dunter 
tii^t ci t;ie bc:r dull una Itibcrious; by b dning in linL.nce, one j-i..., 
i^leiitiuretj, one runs no rioda, ana one in a. respected i.ib.n in bocie- 
ty. TiiroHg^ii it all he s; .nowa tjie conlidenoe, ti'ie unscrupulous/iess , 
the riurauebs, tiiit tiie /vays of i inttnce oreed in u jiK-.n, A;^ a. char- 
ciCter he io 4Uite a^^ v<.i.luarjle as tiie more ^jretcint ir.ii^ uiic^rcic ters 
ol iieij Ae.iote urs, tnoug,ii tr.e latter ^\y^ ..^uch mora direct teatiiiio- 
cvj ab to ti;e exict fliethoaa oi" chicci-nery. The .rreatest one oi tr^ s 
is Tra^olin, wno would, however, be much ^^rea te r il Turoarat t\xxo. 
net xijade nia aj.v^.ec. ranee ti.e year bei'ore. In TraijClin'a actions 
ve aea iicw it ib aix done. To trade on a man's neceaaity; tij 
catch hiin and s^uee/ie hhii dry a/id turn hiiu locae; to held Jiim '.uider 
once iie is do/zn; to alio.v iio iridlin^^s ol luerc. or nuiiu*;. - no 

. -j^.unc t icua viaitingd ui conociejice - interiere vit/i seizin;- 

\:i-^ ..^.in ci;axice : tiiia ia uo«v a iii.ji rises in the lin&ncicl .vurid. 
In Tr-. in coixies a horae ol ^.i.cir^-ers : Zaci.arie n is . > - 

.r»»r. . .for 




Puriiion nib I'riend; .irid iJo d oo i 

Tnere ib even i.i.d ol(» j .n.d.iSarc^, cur >„iA<.i.d';i 

uaviriuua businesij. o'Taiifje to ai^y , in thid cci. i' Tiuiicoiirt the 

Gnl. one ■.'.•iiC J -■-ot ;.d.1r.L, to oonia^ is T'rbir. , 

is fai/t'.!.ciinji I'ur her own advunceiLe at wnat /le r miserly latner uctQ 
-^ bj-eri. Besidet; th3 f ore^: c int., Pancoart has ;:iveri ub in tr£ re- 
cital ci .'.. Sif.'iL'ri oi. L£ Seco nd vji^a^itre d_u P ictuie .be itdux u. detc^ 
account ot the rise oi a irA^e to the ^.obition of i^urtner taia son- 
ini-lfa-v.' 01 hia one-tiiiie eii.ployer - all tliroUgh tixe power ol linc^nce. 
finally, in Tarii of Le Vert- Ga.lcv.nt , ■•ve riave a ciiariiCte' whose fi- 
na.nciu.i luethodb not .^iveii, but wiioae avarice, r-navery, treuc - 
ery, arid leci.ery .^-ut hira in the class of the financiera we have 
jubt noticed, and very near the bottom of tl^at ciai,b. 

But ;,reater than an.y or a.t' of these crei-tions of T>a/,ccurt 
lb Turcc^re t . In Turcaret l^e S^c^e created a new ty^e, for ti.s :: 
time since the death of ..oliere. Certain su,-;- ebtions u^y be f^'u-iri, 
to be aure, in i-oliere: the rage oi Harbin at tu'-. ceceit of ' 
Goai'esce is auplicatec ol Turcaret a:-ainst the Barcrj:e; 

fleecing at the hands of tl:e nobles is f orebitadowed in i... ' ii. 

■.vith Porante and Dorirnene. rJut even cillov/in',' for t>iio, '"•'.: rcKr^t 
stands out in hib f ul i-leniith us a ^je . his charau te risti^ l. 

are largely those v/e liave just ascribed io Tra; olin - ulv; 
ifieiu^bering tiiat -"urcaret ai-peareci a year before Trai-oii... jAe 

jiei ') :l in ^iji^in.-- the t, ._ . i . le san.t^ .v^r : i 1'' sa:: v 

'i707.c^. iHJ.'^ ^^i.-' it^. 

v.^. i^.^l 

£.-V DlLu . 

i 1 . O. ~> *^ 


if I 



. it ^U : , wUb -in, 

tii iiio bociui aicie ,v i ;.uve hia ic^tuo -smit^jj - ju^; //riteo ver^eo I, 
Uis Burcuie. ciuci reudti tiei. t^. her; hit, ^.ulLi bill '.. - i.-^ id ti.? 
Vc^cj.e 1.x ia.i t, ior tiie and r^'.e (.^iidvulie r ; ana h io cot^raeneoL, 
urd DC v..ra&nneato - iit^ I'lies in u r\ . o ti.e Buroiine'^ 

iiiirrors aiia v/iie/i iie belie vesa iii;^.oelI tu be trici^ed b.; 
J. , Al LO£jet?.er, as reijuloive, b Jt as coii<^^-ilii;i{^ , d f\ ",re -js t- . 
centur, .vii.. mrnisii. Alter Le oUi^e tne interaot in ti..; I'i ac^r^ a ijr 
seems *o have .vaned. Years l^.ter, at t iria very and ui" cur x-'9i^i<Jd, 
:ie h..vve ii.elac, o: Les Deux Ax^is , //ixo is a tcx-col 

cri.^inc^l iic^rj-an. But .vnat a citferencel k^lc^c j..eculj.tec t,. bave c.. 
irirind I'roiii ruin, and io re^jresentea throu^;ix'ai o.. sy-a^ati^etio, 

seir-s;-'j ''il ic inc^;, even sell' -martyring I'riend, and tiie lovir^ f;.-. 
i.e -vili be considered uiider l;..ter neaa... 

The financier, tj^en, must be regarded a.- crei.tion ex- 

cel.Le.'ice ol" Lcj oa^^e. Daucoi-rt's c^re^itest character ui tiiic> sort, 
Tra^ olin^ io luoaelea directly upon T ^rcaret, thoii.-ri it li.u^t bd 
gretntea to Dc^ncourt tiiat iie dre.v j;'ariu.aei ana Tarix a.rjd i«-,3i. 
all of tjxem fine fi^^ures in their 'iVa:', :'Saro be.cre Turcp.ret made 
liis a^oearance. Turcaret is, for t/.e fir..i t iiue , aoistiiiCft ad- 
dition t. , , aiid the onl;- -/-.nder is -jat success 
aid not ^^ivc: rise tu ruore iii.itator&. Tliio i 
dered at in vie.v ol ti. 

*he bourgeois linanci-^r rc-.c.o..en r,it> c..cgee, Ccii-e Lu. ^ 
£oj._. hi .is case t.'ie draji^itist . be said 




tiie riucinoidr in i'ea.1 lild .vao '.iiicl 

Le 3c.,-e, a^ he i^aa been in t.**; tixi.e of ii-oliere. 

The nuiuber ui" ty^te^ rciau.inint, tiat s eon. ve t.heir i^rova- 

..ccuorf in jLoliere so lew thjcit tJie:,' i;iL.y ba treiited tc,_,.. u.. ./ . 
t_,c.n "J.e hyijOCiionariacj iiiii bvi '^ one re^^reoBi.tL:^:. ive , Gercnte oi Le 
ajefc,c^tc>ire "Jniverael . Tnio Cieronte wouln i^ec . t rc^ce deooent ira 

buth Ar£b.n iancl Har^ja^iOn, u6 his cuae io a btranj^e ruixture of h\-i>G- 
ci.^tii-ri:^ -xiiu avurice. He i& even mere miserly tud-n Ar^,-^', ".'•'-■ ^■- 
be^ruiii^e^ the ^jrice ol nis dru^a tiitt he cecicei thf-t he Ciij^ht a^i 
v/eli die at once - the old house is not jvorth trie repairs they ar^ 
^iittiriei on it. Pnilai.iinte the blue-atoo-iint, lias one belatso. anc 
very lauch uodii'ied disuiijle in Ara;-inte oi Le Jerclt^ ; Araiuinte ...^ .. - 
ever, io not in the least serious in her ^.retentions to iuu.niing, 
. ..u .--x-co up music civi. iriathex^atics, only in tne interval betv --' 
co^s arid monj4.ayt>. k. de r'ourceaur.nac is not r^^eo is , but he 

It) re^ i v, o.i.i"^..i(L uj two provincial deocenoc^nts v/ho are ^^ , :..i^. 

botn very earl% , Vivien oi Leo Vendc^rifcjes de Suresne , arc tne 


Bailli de i,.aine Cj. .c^nturd's La Jciuette , .vhosc T.t*^ie tc u^ l ^ ii;>- 

yairea by tne fact tiuxt the Ldilii ia only ArlOiUin in disguise, 

iu U- '.J. CctOt;ij Lj v- xc^'.- Oj . -L uC la 1 lovers j-o i...c; 

01 t t'e criminal PourceaULnac : tiie;;. cu.;. ar is for a bride, t r 1 c j^e Q L^tn_' i-iLfcC^o >^^ ^l ^ ox , u ii(.. x .ii^*.i.-j.^/ *j'-. .i'. tji^oK. to ^- ^ ~ 

vince ./itu no wiie, but with ...uuh ex^'erieaoc :ers. 


i .. :.. ■ .. .-.■ . ,,■ ...J . _-. ,.r, . ... ^ 

1V':R.''t-., .\t(. * >, in,, ■ -■ , v; .;.,ji.^, .j.ji^;'^. ■ .'-t.,itj^....vj..,. .\Dv, . . . ,%l 



1 1. 

Ill ituctyi..ij • U: ■ .. _ .. 

ly to be Kficwn c».;i tne druihO . ti-^ cm.iaa i^ o- --iriju...o , \:.'^. con^jciie ^t-, - 

i^ >..>. .^ , .--_ . . V.itj ru^.c<.nria>j.ue , and tiie tra;;ed i- -- - ■:.ioe_, 

tiie i'ttiiiixy I'elw-ticriij oa' ^urc*u.c>unt i:uijGrta.ace. This ,jenr3 i-ua 

or trci-tjedy 
ite> very roots in tiie Tcunily, and tlie comedy^- by I'ar the u.^st oi- 

ten the trc4,ged.y - uriti-ss i'roin tan^jled doindsitic t,iir«ada. In ^jiace 
ul' Aridroii-aiUe the aethroned i^rincess, we have i.eia.n.idG, tjie abcui- 
douned ..''iie; lor lieriuione re^judiated at tr.e ai^ar we nave xiIUi:^rini3 
eritra. jjed into a laLse itarriatie. i\ct tJitt doxuestic tra._j .. x^ - 
ti-ing of recent tiiiieo; in the house oi' i;i%o it is a^ old ab Oeci- 
i^us , But in lower T<i.n!£. the faitj. les:j v/ife and tie undutiful son 
•vere subjects Icr :.xirth, ..nd iurnisned lortli ..any a cojuedy. 
ijoint ^-. -..3 new drajnej/as thia : Could faudly tnijedy be c^^rrieo 
seriously into the lower v/alks of life, and conild not a father fe-x 
as tiie loss of a oon ^Yx^ti such a loss did not involve the 
extinction of a dynasty, ana could not a wife suffer as keenly fro 
the defection of her husband when no insult to her r.....i- ...... .n- 

tu.iiea? The authors oi tie drair e a.., liea this theory f aithif ^jIIv, 
and where Den Roari^iUe sustains the honor of the Sijanish gn.nde , 
Vanderk .- il s riain tains the di^^nity of his iuercriint fati;er; Thesee 

Kiourns for t ^e rr.urderert i'lij^yolyte, ]3'0rbes.--on wel^ ......... .^ .... 

^r^LiS, the errant St-Albin; i..onime sees kitiiridate ann Xii.i«.^ros, x. - 

ther c.... ... . ■ \..^ . ^ >- 1 •^^r i-^and, t}".e uouvernc. '■ ' - 


•.tj \*i, . 

oi--nc.nt e>^erience of se'iin,- her t>0(. do rival;. 

.elaniae. La. 

SfVcir, .ecc^me. 

*■ - ^ 

fsn^^ . .- feli/oD 

J.4JV. 1 


' 0L\t3.-.t 

I'or t};t! . , . .,..^„ .. .. w,..i, .. .. ^ v.. 

trcijjeay out oi rcyc^ iiiea nun t>uc ea^iul o 

tiie i/oint ior us to settle; vluxi intereatb ub ib : Dia ti: 
concei-tion oi' t re clij^iiity or tJrie l'<^.:Aiy tia arise iroiti is. cfic 
the bourgeois I'&iuily relations, and did the tra^^edle bour(;-eoise, 
so called, deal exclusively, or even maihl;'', .vith t^ie boutrgeois? 
The treutii^eat oi the bourgeois faii^ily iray be .vith ,•. riv;_ ■,' . e 
carried on under tv«o heads. In the lirst we .vill oonsiaer ■ 
jUfeial relation, in the second the ^^arental and lilial reltJ. ions. 


The liiurriage tie ainon^ the bourgeois in the ueriod tlia' ./e u.i 
s iUG„ in^^ is not, on tlie Ai:0le, a galling one. The iii -matched 
Xjair has always been, and alv/a;''s will be, a ruar.^: lor the shafts oi 
the coiidc u-utnor, b nc tiras ^^eriod is no exception. oOi^etii,.eo i; 
is a mere ifji^tter ol i"arce; soiuetives it he:.t, a luore direct bj 
on our suDJect, as .vjien the aiiijit-ions and extra vaj^ance ci t.. 
JO beyond the inclination or the jyurse oi the thrifty husband. 

01 actual iiuu^craiity ti.ere i;j little among the Lour^cGi;^ .- 
v/e leave T>ancourt; he, however, e<,ivea a lurid ijicture of marital 
afxairs, iJid hci.£ leit us more libertine bovirf^eoi^ ^.'lan l.±x ti. -j cc;. 
ic au 'hors lo;;, hiij. in the next ceiitury. '?he bcur/.eci^ i^ 
naturalxv lovit.aux to ti.^ iiu^mu^e vow, it wouxu t^e '.^., 
violates it, it i& wi Lh tue senoo \j- 

tiiictxy ^ Xc. ii.cae. i^.ore 'iian uuce i' lo ^u.- je crjclaa<'l' 

boure;ecio to be in lov.i ./it}i c .ife, arid in *. 



;:obia.iL.-, Uiici .vunders ii oiir; be lu'-jreiy bu* ' 

Tlie wor&t, ire, re» 1 poin.t ui vie ;, inc. V in ■Hiin- 

jcurt i;j ^'b.rit..uel, cl I^ x o i r e St -cJ e niu . i n . lie ia u -ort 
.■'uun, ixi.d is Cttrryin^j ^n ^.-riairs with varicua v/oii.^n ut cnue. He 
id nut, to "be sure, ut-r ied, i-na ./(..Id S:i'2iVi luirdly Ic ciji.e under 
'..i.:i hecj.'.: 01 tls bourgeois in the fai-ily; but as he ia about to 
.^rri An^e'l-i^ue, and is, in fact, at t re fair in disijuise .. c. j 
bein^:; recognizee ]jy her and her mother, aid hi till, on the very ev i 
oi -.i^i v/edain^, is ke ;ying two a^^j. ointments with otlier ,7^^-^.^, i.j 
;jx. y be taxcen as a fair s£jji_-le of the oort ci ^^usband he is u.bout 
zc uec-iiie. /-.iter hira Tarif of Le_ Vert-G alant is as bad c-.d a/.., o. 
them; he c cmbines faithlessness to iii s .vife wit/, a breach of tr 
.vitri. x.ii ^ r iena, "Ci-e ansusijec tin*^' Jerome. His v ii y uc;;i h)di> i.iii. 
as a rasccil, libertine, «.'i a villain, and the e^-itijets seeiu nene 
tec si,run£3, i*^eo.-iro . .jii;.oji ...nd Grifiard ol j^es uTour,_,ijoi^ -;ii ^ _x^ ^.o-. 
.-ay each the rec ix^rocal c ccij^liifient of loving, each, the other's 
v/ii e in a sort oi laa ies-chant^e lij^ure; it inay be aciaea ti^^t each 
lady kno*vs of her huoband's infatuation, each u^Ljiea a confidante 
01 tj-.e other, ana nei:.;.er r=:oo..tu it in tl.c least. TxiO a')iiij..a;i 
;..e.'.t-, e of La i^'oir e ae Besuus hctve arraiitred for tiieCi-^alves the ^ar- 
tie carr-i -■ so i..uci. ii. vo^^.-ie j.ii L.orrjrn ^rt^noi. j..v;Iilu ,.^..u Litxi-.j^^. : 
lias formistresb a certain littlo f'irl of tic Opera, o hs i. 

tertu-T ningi the C :c:\,..j.i^.r , It i.-, i',.. u -i i--L;.. , j ii r...: x 'i':.\^:.:. .. V..1- 


J 1 

,< <-. 

^*J^ ■ 


parioa: "i'i, cti^ier si* leu. . --li vermis 

et ae luitrie-t-on x^our celu a . luonde? ik. ilc . . '.ro rtu 

aex-i-iier bourgeLla," . ....cj,Ar(_;a.nLe i-.l tiie ^fcui.e pl'^v is an oui-ar:c 

lib>irtine, though it ii^ btrcuinin.; the point a little to inc L 

i^er in the cltuio ol" libertine ./iveb; tilie hi^ci never htid t*. nujr)u.::a 

.;ho:i. she,ht be unlaithlal to, tlio.i^i. jier ci.ilai re iri evi- 

»:: . .QV old lover ax^^jeL-rd, too, in Li.GrilTard.' Kiae. Siriionne^ 

ajna i.j2.e,du Rcliet ol Le kc^^l in de tTave liie are the irankly Trisxy 

'.vivea ol' iiiodern Pa Ici i d -Royal I'arce, ana outv/it their hubbaiiCo c^nd 

feat)t tiieir lovers cji tiie bupj,.er orueroa ana ijuid lor by tt.'3 ionue.' 

Outside 01 rancoiirt the libertine bcurge^ib scarcely existd. 

Regnfc.rd gives us one i&rcioal pair in i'... did ;..i.:e. Ja^uantird oi La 

ouita cie 1^ i? oire ot-Grer itiain , a pair th&": is libertine ;n intention 

only, and rather dazzled o^/ the noble birth ol the mas.i^'.arading 

iirleviuin and Goloiubine tiiirin misled by any i^^uourous desires. Du- 

irusny arav/s in the Presideiite of Le i«-.aria_s^5. -cait et £^^-^2i t*- wife 

./iti. u dubious ^.iost, but t/ie best or the genre after Dancourt are 

Turcai-et and his wile, Se^^arated for years, ne living- in Poris 

and -^1^ in the provinces, he is iuc;-king arrange«.ents to ina.rry the 

Biironxie, arici she numbers the chevalier- arid tije niiir^uis a/iiOng her 


Y/hen v/e xeave the cases ol actual infidelity to tlis itarria' >-; 

bond, ana c;c;..2 tc ii.ose of mere aoiuestic inleiiJiv:,, oi incon.pati- 

ule teLxperar.ents, tho list is wch longer. The. earliest la the 

^c^c; u- J, iroi-iu j.cin ..:.a ;.i^ .vii;, j::;iia;.ie, ai. ; ' ' jii* Jt jroc;.;i ' >. On. 
^ . . -^.^.^ ....... 


,^.ij I . 




...eclgi cin . Ti^e . ..iltiui 

it luiibt be remeiubered u^ui Lea ^ e^uitd b duvmitea 

only t.vo yec^rs beicro. There Ja the suiiie blustor: 

ol' tiie liusband before the wile, t.nci the auiue cui.jjxicii'icj 

./i.en in her presence. Jj'^liante, ho.vovcr, nae^ hi;;, not bc 

o^^enly i^.oing; counter to hia .vil.i, as b,>;^ t}ic..t he a.(_,r jl. .. 

.vith her in everj^ jjO;3iiible j^ari. iculc. r. 

Dcxncourt, as usucil, the b -Iji oI il.L.^titrc.ti>jZi lor 
tl;e ill-iii<..tcriea i-c-ir. The ^otit intereetintj cuseb in a it 
as we are Ciaking, in v/hich we are se.klng distinctive!;/ b. i.j 

traits, are those in 7/hich the ailierence existin^j bet-ween tiie 
nusband and wife arises from undue aiubiticn on the part of onr 01 
thej:., i^oiiere's great excuiiple of thib i o, 01 course, k. and 1...^, 
Joi'rdain, in which the husband is t?ie a=/;,raocor. Pciiicourt reverse, 
the situation, and furnit-hss two in 'vhich the wife is ccik 
un anibition disa^-^ruved of "by her husband. The first 0.. ^..^Jae it> 
that of k. and ume. Bernard ol L^ iuaison ae Ca!-.i^a^,ne . in vj.iLin j.i ■,- 
sieur aeclo-res tliat he is brouc^ht to poverty by kadaiae' s extrava- 
gance in entertaining iier noble e^uests. The second is ve. 
the j.>air tliis time being k. and :;jrie.Blcuidine..u of Lei> ^our^ e„ i^-^^ 
ae i^;.uali t e ; in thi,o case the i/ife is still More ,;il( ixtrava- 

i_;anL, anc uore independant, .vhile the liubband is driven ^.o ii.ore 
strin^^ent cteasures than .'/as the case .vith the couple who inliabitec 
tiie country iiouae. A sacona oou r->;;eo ise ae ..jUali te, '.i..; .Lxue, <^^>- 
^arentl:/ treatb l^er in n.uch r;.o.l . ... 


:j iioi. .^ . . . .^^rr.i^ 

vjref X iere ' b iXxti.irQk>.dlixnc. ri bu to Ui.e eotute lI ci ■ , lecv-- 

t.h2 ;.u'.s>e declc-rino tl... I txie Elu bi^iill buy ucx' . , 

ix Lua^nd 01' hers. 

We have already s^oicen ol' tl'je faithlesb/iess ol ik.,oi 
.jriil'ard to the bour fc.ecdaes h la mode, and tlie indirrerenoe 
their vviveti to their doberticn. Theae t^vo meua^jes are the be^* 
^nd lulleat te5ti::.ony ti^t Tancourt lias ..iven Uo on thia bubjecl. 


Tj.e chiei eirievaxice ol Arie^eli^ue aejaiast iiei" i/.isbc^nd ia that he iu 
bourgeoia, and tu this ^.itj be added her utter indejjendance, c^ 
ing to insolence, her extravagance in iiia despite, Jier innilier- 
ence to hia liaison A'itii her friend, Arandnte, -dnc: her .vilii;. 
t>. rum hiiu, "Intereaaeo dana ses de^enseu, luoi? •^a on le r 
ji.evalier, pcurvu ^ue j ' en j^rolite, ,je ti* ^j pr-3n(irai d'autre inte're' 
^ae Cdlui ae ^artager sea deijoiiillea . " Araiidnte ia even iixre e;.. ■ 
£6 Lie, and ^^ai^^es a sleepless ni^^ht thinxcin,. ut dl the i^,. 1? 

ways to eiirae/e her husband. V/e ]:«^ve see.., toe, Tarif's ini'ic 

in Le Vert-Ga id-t ; .aae.Tarit exliibits acorn lor iihi. rati^er tiu^ji 

:, and ooe=: atraight to tell Jeroiue ana hia v/ile all about it. 

Tiiile apeakin;^ of tMs coiiiedy, it i-iay be reiitirkBa that h.., and .j..e. 

•Teroiiie furniah the only Ct^ae of a reasonaoly fa i inf ill and 

coUjt^le in all Dcncourt, or in all the C(-i;.eriy wi, to P^tcuohea and 

ixri. Griausoae. 

ii. L£ c'.'^cu jiQ Ji.o.2^i tre du TdciOlg: no i t eux , . '..e 

Pre'aid-^nta <j.rd juat oi', tii. ^.■';ler tuin tf.eir : , 

. .%\i. ^ . .\\l. ' . ^.. -I'O' 

v/cid decia. in tixio ccn/ieutiu be citef aoo- 

: .^iacwsi ctnu oxie .viau.ver ; inLiue, Lc/rioa.rt oi Le Jitc>r Ivurl ;.<.lo i.^. 
her ;..->t>bi.i.nd so that oh-.. ^ evervboi'iy tj;ut belc iiu, evci 

his dttUt^hter, thoiit>h the l«,tier Ija-iJ^-e/io tc be r^er c^vn dL.U(<;hter aa 
.veil; the ■.7idc«( oj.-j io ctLliac l.<- veuve )</ J/ L yiro xuptu do io in hc»,ste to iiiarry the I'irsit coiixer to riu heraelf oI t .= 

hated ntoiie ci the deoea^ed; wJale k.Dnbois of La neiu. r: d' Intrit; 
rei..arxb : "Vcua me boui/gonnez de jjleurer i.^ ie-a^.e? Vous vouo . 
de aioi, je _tjentie; iija douleur eat bion j^lns ra is o nnad le. " 

After Dancourt tne oases of infelicity become jaore aca Pterin . 
The Philidor hcuoeiiold in Les Trois Frers.^ Ri vaux contend bitterl 
and regularly, ana their a^^ro-zin^; on any oiie subject i^ rare e- 
nouj^h to call for co-.a^.eno; juOnsieur says hhjiself that tni^ oces not 

occur above once a ye<>.r. The j-resiaent ana rresidente of Le ...>r - 


ia=^e fait at ri.!^k}L recall strongly Lirabolan and i^'eliante oi _Jri& ~ 

^ i jdec in, for the wife has .iUite her own way, th0U(i;h at;.. ec.ri;i.; 
to yisld cuulinually to her husband, 

I\n iiiteroo and isolated case is tiiat of the Coir.te ar;d 
..•,eise aeii Arrets, in Voltaire's Les Critjixjc^ux . It is Xi^erely 
the s iti^ation of Geor^eo iJanain reversea; tiic^t is, cf o. titled 
husband aid a bourgjeois wife. \ ....% tl.e .i.uL,Dand is only ..i oj..urio'Ui, 
noble dues not concern us here. It is stran^^* that Dancourt, •/:• . 
all his fertility in. uriiit^int, the bourr^eois to riaiouie, never 

.xV.i.jf. .MV/ . .^63, 


1 » 

thoui^rit of .,jiutn! . _ .- ■ _ - .. - 

tiiiowo Us nt. - 

ini're^uentl ncbla id /uore thun .villi n^^ to be eatr<x^^,ed : 

considerixtion - but he never ca.rii>.s such ui'i'uir^ bej'ond ' ci- 

din^i da;- . In Lea ori^;inaux the scorn of tha Cciate I'or nis b'- r- 
geciije .vil'e, tind es^.eciaily his scorn lor t\e bour^ecia liuijit, ti 
iovinti one's wile, ia aix ver^ Ci^vulier, uli very ccxiventicn..! , 
very much in tlie old iiitinner. l^ot so the ut itiide- o:' ' ^a3 ; 

she cares nctnin^ icr ner tiule, but a cireut cieul for her ;.usbana ; 
W.UC .'hen in the exid it i, rovettled tlv..t he is no uox.ite, hj ex- 
i>res^es re^jrets on her ucccait, e; ue ia relieved to be ria oi a 
tie under •.•.'■hich she hud ijiov.'n only unlic!.j.^ijinesib. '.Ve -viij. return 
tids novel iittitude in a ii.oi::ent, but first let us looJv ^t the Ar- 
gantes, in L Ecole dea eres , a.nd c*,t the mena^^'e Duru m La i'Sla hS 
^v.i a r ais on . Here .ve ik^ve tixe ola situation of an ai..bitiG'ib etna 
jxtraVc^t^ant ..'ife mated v.'ith a thrifty hustand. In tne iirst case 
it is the plain bourgeoib ii..Argante ,vno re^-rvves the ^j retention 
..jia osten".a*icn of his wife and son; but in the secuiiCi tne h.oral 
is btrar^ely revej'sed, and in tins case it is the v\rife v/ho is 
rifc^i-L, and into whose mouth are put s^^eecr-es aef enaii-^^ iiie ra^^.t, 
cf tne bour^^eois ie tc ntjble aiiiances. 

Tu reL.-rn i,o .^.es Orijj i na^u x; in the cliaracter of Zi^i ccxtesae 
>ve have for t}ie fir^t time conjugal love treated s.^rii-uoly, to thj 
Yery ^..uint ui Jeo^lousy .ve have riad before, ^\c ofienceG 
i^ride, but not tender love for a husb-..nd, ;..nd real suf ferine: froii. 

)*■- •-» •JIT' , •'• m^ f^ , 

1 Ji i .■ 

-.. r ti 

nR,;i.^ct. .- 

..M.rx d, an ..ctio-. .*! cl...-- 

j. iioiat I. ... . i«*t,e relu-liciri !*> //iti. . ■ , 

_c/ iculiv. It ii jiUCii thio-t tj.e ; ol Aritite iio ^r^,^-^- 

eo /vitho --t jest, but at the Siaiiie time Peatouciies iuxa not aru,.vn 

tears as Lt*. Cliawasse drew them froiii the id.axitica.1 bituation e- 

yearn lo-t. . 

here v/e are 'brou^i'it to a I'ull atoiy, so I'ar as our v;or/. is 
concerned. We tot-;d -ing the boiirgeois meria ge, enueavorint; ic. 

rina, ir i^osj^ible, wi.etner the aeriouo coribiderat ion oI the bo'jr- 
geois v.i:: oh caii.e into vo^'.e about t ido tiiiie haa anything, to do 
yfith tne ribe oi the tra^^e die bourgeo ib^ , bounded as it is u_^on 
the far.'.il" relation. But just here, J liot aa tlie relation bet'.veen 
husbana ana tfile begins to be true u. d tender and even lachryracde, 
the line of bour^ieoito iiouseholds becoxiies auddenly extinct, or ne^. . - 
ly so. Ariate ana ..elite themselves, ol Le Philo scj-he ...arie , ar-. 
not bov. rf^eo is , but oi tne ouiall G,entry. In t'.vo of La Chaiissc^o ^^ 
^-La.yo aealintj with tiiis theuie , Le_ Preju^ ^ a la i>.ode arid ^^ela iiiae, 
^1 tsL: characters concerned are noble j and in La Pauss e Am Ij^ atr ig^fv. 
.ve are xel't in doubt about the social status ul Sainflore a. m oil- 
vie, t. t...:iir nai:.eo are not bourgeois. Oi" great vali;e tL 
st"-«aent ol' ti.e drarue, these i>lays are of none .vl^atever to the st - 
dent ci ' .'£ bair»:ecio c;...n.cter; aid to one studying the reL.t.icn 
ol t;.e boirge^^ia to tue araxue tneir value is only nego.tive: t. . 
ii.erel'- .;,..o'.7 the.* a bour;,eois li.dlieu vui, not nee 


''Deft>tcucxies,l/:c-.V. Jf .i- •U'^."' '^ "• 1" i.ooa, I'/oa.Cl . x- .5n 

^1741. Jf .^..JIO, *-17-.. .iJ-i^^'. 

.ti .A 

T oitii £ 

.L . , C .- 

li 1 i ^\. , ^ 




.^■\ • 

."lie cire boi^trj^eo i b, b'M otiur.1.n t> 
criti'i**!. "■'^^ d i t Cci.n not be counted ut all in 

otiier. In Le PJiilOoC jjhd bano le^ •^o.v oir it Aroula ae^iin uL lir^i . -. 
tiiout^i ti»e true una l:ecilthy collection exi«tinf- be ' v; en 
VanderJi i.dtr>-t be re^iurdect aa beuring on the bubject; but here u- 
j^etin we iii'.ibt reiueL.ber tiiut L.VunaerK in a. Dutcli ii-ercijiint only b;, 
cnoice, cind tiiat he is in rettlit.y u, French noble. 

To tiuiii Ui> tlie uourgeoib ii^enufc^e ^ then, I'or our _yericd, i 
be baia tiaat durinj^ the t jjne iimiieairi.tely suGceeainii i.oliere'b ae^.-. 
the trciCition oi ti:e bickering cou^^le, thek. una Iv^e.Joii rciainb, 
the Jnryauletj a r i. PiU luiiiintes, ccntinued to furnish luatsriai lor 
couied.". Dancourt Jria,s ^.iven a nuiuber oi' this liind, some of theiii 
interesting c^ j^^/res entin.j a couple divided on the subject oi t>wwi. - 
taubition. Ixifont ano Dufresny contribute exaixi|jleb, but not es- 
^eciali^' iruj^^ortant ones, aud La Chausse - aun Voltaire carry it, c^- 
loni3 intervals, into the forties, where tixe last case occurs in La 
ieii^e 4ui a raio on , 1749. On the v/iiole, these f&inily dilierencei 
are han^leaa; the cases of actual infidelity in carriage are con- 
fined alrxst entirely to T>ancourt, though Turcaret is a notable 

T)ancoart £,ives or^e exaiiixjle cf a husband ana .vife saneiy aevct- 
ea -.0 edch other's interests, in L, and Lme. Je'rome. 
first Ubeo tii.e Uiarital relation oS u. sericUa subject icr ar..;..^, ^:. 

17J:V, ax. e'e carries ii otili further, ani. brings it 

'ivt-b.jf. .SV7. ZTi:e^ater, Kdwara . c > re . '.. .Jedaine, IV'ib.Ci. .yj 



.■■ ^^ 

t(j tnf} , oint 1. :i ; but t^e i;-^ .\..c)e», 

and Lu Jiia-Utitae , ..^ 3eduirie, do i.v t oo-'a' i(. . -^ 

icii::ilieB. Voltciire ^ivea tl.e one e^^.i-j-le cl a. levin, 

ni-te .*nd no^jlected wli'e who isi t<.t the siune time ix bonrgeoibe. 

So l.-r, tnen, ua the conjugal relc-tion it. conC':jrne . ve 

t'Toved that u bourgeoib jiou:ieiiold it. not necetjaary to a druiua b-iii' 
Ujt'On dcinebtic intdrobt. In I'tict, the e-vidence i& ..oati; in *j.j 
other direction, since the gre«a.t ejaiiui^les ol' domestic v/oe ure to 
oe lijund in the fc^iidlies of nobler. Tiiut it ,vu,s ^.odtiible to et>- 
tablibh such interest in ct bourgeois ;i:ilieu is oroved t(: tho Coji- 
teoae in Lea Qrl^in c-.ux; on the other l^i^nd, that the old biciceriiic: 
cou.ji-le j-'eraibted into thits tiius, ib biic/n oy U^^ L'Bcole aes iv.eres 
and 2^ j'eiiii.e -.jui a raiaon. JTci' further testiiuony in retjard 
coniiection bet.vaen tue bourj^^eoib and tns tr.^ije^'aie bor« his 
;.,,.-.e, v/e .vill hc*ve to lo^.i-. to the re 1^. ion between j^^orentij ai.c 
ci.ildren, as tl-iis, even i..ore than the livrltal tie, .vas a n.Obt 
rniitiul aource oi interest in the new ^enre. 

Ix the testixixony in the of tlrie bourgeois inena ^-e and itb 
bearing; on the tra^^ecie bo artjeo i be&eei.ib to be bCiiiewhat inconclusive 
Ol. vocv-vnu ui i.;.e scarcity of exauiivles, this will not be foiaid to 
be the case v/ith tlie relation of the ijarent and ciiild. Thei-e are 
fe</ coiLedies jh ....ach at le^io .. liiia much of a j.. .,ix^. :.;l. u. l 
aentod, u rd a coiu..:on iiieans of starting tiie int ■ is to eatab- 

li=,a ci. difference oi i.^ lijww i^i: ..'..-rir^, .. .. iriiuuiiiai '" ■ ■ ■ ".vibe. the fa." 

ter en tUc c . . 

loaat tl'ie f irat r.itir oi .arivc , ..^e^ in 

.vhich tiie i^evrentb ^re on C-ns iUeuticn an 

r ticn on the other. Still, dil'Jers/ice .f Oi^inion, or even .vili, 
need net have en^^end ered the i;, nxur^j br'jtal ". i^ n..-. 

unusuu.1 to find. J'or ure fiiero wantin^j j.^. rontd .u^u se :iu tc ue 

.'.c^ -iiu.tur..l, oJid hate their cuildrsn on tisnertil |jr inci.-lei; . 

It io LC _tjur_ijcse i irst to te^ke Ux> thib ty^^e ol Mnroc^Si enable and 
tyfannoiio parent, tracinji it iroi:. :..olieVe until its dit., 
i;.(i6. to follow thio with a study of the sort of ijarent ixi ./noi:i 

Si rini-;s of nature are not driso \xy , the type whi ah ^^raduc. . 

into tj.e sent iix.ental iLud lachrymose parent of tiie draaie . 

1. TliE TYBA.'.i;OTJS P^J^ST. 
In the case of tie ^/arant and cidld, tenderness aeeiiis to i.u\ - 
a.vaicea late. Tyranny and brutality unc. sheer unreasoning hate v/ere 
the r.ile, and kolieVe hiuisclf .set the patterii. .., n^ver are.v ^n 
Ue,lier bcand than tiie triangular one of Ort;,on, ■, ana T.^rtu; 
and ....„c.^^n ....V, Jleante, i^aronte ao c Leandre, c.v a.o.r froc b^^.i_ 

saiui^los (^i ir.e loving lather and dutilul son. I cu^i not clai. . 

thi o tyrt.. ....,, ... >. .. :-'-"^ '.j ..,.,_... d., ■ '• it, ^.. ., i: j.o o>*j. j. . ^- . ;..- 

ly frii.iuent in tne bourjjeois house/iolc. to ve a aetailed 

..atj lei't o oiui if 11- ,ve e^. 

ranto tc h;5. . ^ , , ■ 



c e - , ' i lit L -- 

hiii Svju iiiio prison in oi> . itj aru- 

tul unu re>.L:iiLaat . ._ detirc , i .Arn-.r.te ut' 

Lb. .b'olxe Ef.Ciiere , .vno is auid tc huve a. noble avurtil h'^r . 

he chiei reubon ;^iveu beixie, thut hi a obvious, age belies her cm 


^retenceb of youth, iuiie, Lor i cart ol Le Jhurivari iiu^ 

i.ubbccnd so vigorously that she hii'-es ner dauj^hter by hlni for ti'^'" 


u-easure, Grognet <of Lea Eaux ae B o'arbon is ourt a/hi julien ' 
aaat_,i 'er, iJabet. iixami^les of _t'"-rento wno t-r'a not exactly unn,.tur- 
d, out who iitiVe oecided inie'.vs u^.cn a daughter's tractubili tv in 

the matter or marriage, are uuilleiuin ol' La Gaxet ■. , i .Tuoniu-L, i 

4. . ^ 

Le_ Ket our dee, 01 1 1 c i e rs , i^one. Valentin ol -.ea Curieux da JoiCjjie gne, 

and Dubuisdon ol Le Galant Jardi n ier . TheraiL, nc ^.^ro'3i^t ible d^- 

vei' i'lnent in Dancourt's treatiuent ol" tnis characteristic. 


Brue^'s gives ua two excellent saa^wiles ol" thi: .. . 


.};-3 title of the first i.'lay, Le_ Grcnde_3£, tells us what to ex.ect; 

this Uian wj;0 scolas at everytning is nor. liicrJly to s are nio c.'-il- 
dren. His dajjthter regt'-rds him with no deej.;er feelin^i txian one ;i 
toleration, but toleration Decoiues a virtue in the j, se tf s . 
father as vJrichard. He sneers at the idea of Ke-.^^int^ a ijcouiiai 
xik-ae to hio eldest sen, a-na the youn;v;er one, ■:noiii he it> su.ld t^ 
love liii-idly, is treated .vitli revoltin£^ brutali" . '. . ciuxrc., 

rueys set out doiiberatel:' to draw r-. cic^racter new • v/Luse foioxe.s ik.o not yet been ey:.>loi tea, la this ne aucoe 

ouL he does not liuooo^d in irio.atir:g it CouiiJ. Avarice is . ' 

?7. * u«-' in.' 1*^2.' . . I ho. 

,<»<i J 


■ .XI '1^1^, . -.ulsijve x^eriiCiiuii L:. . i.ion better ii, iiib i.icj i.- 

ic.ujjie, in L' Avocut Pc^tel in, -.'io huo strLrii; juapici 
cibhcii. ~ ., . It is onl: iilt^-.uue tc urtd t 

^iciona t^re .^uite we ii-i'o .nrieci. 

Rejjnard ^ivea u& tue ii.oot unlovely' , cdler./ oi dtinu 
rents thci+ the century aii'orcLs, cs.nd tn^^ ht^rsh is o, nc 
];.ean3 al.vays the la-tiier. In La 3er e iia.d.o ve ht-ve i.jiie .Argc".!' , 
coas not lor a moiiient ccnijider her db.ugi:ter's inolinutiona ii, 
ran^^ing a uiar/iage lor her, cjid .,..;irit'ufi, .vho c-,daa jeu.lo'iay of iii- 
3on Vccllre to his natural harcii.ess tov/ard iiiiu. Tiiis rivair.' be- 
tween ana son is //ell thouj^li!. oI by the earlier ,.l itj.ors of 
tue ce;.tury, ana one oi' .vhich tney .-iecm .^ever tc tire. ^e rente ^^ 
Le Bal ana ne oi tiie saiue nauie in Jje Joue',.ir seeiii at first si^^nt '. c. 
be haroh anc. unnaturul, but the I'onuer m the end conoeaes his 
daughter's A-ishes, .vhile it is only t}ie GaLibler's lollies 
last t-'m his I'a^iher utterly against him. The saxue deiense can bi 

urged lor ^me.Fertrana, (<vho is not indeea a luother, but 

, J' 

Le Re t Gu r l::.jjrevu . Ii d/S is stern to her niece, it is no luore 

than that niece calls acvn u n her ov/n head. 3y fa.. vorst o. 


the lot iti x,jue .GrOt-^ruiC , oi L£ I_istrc».i_t, .v/.o stanns as Li.a u.oael, 

not only m Re£;nc.rn, b..t in c^ll contejiij^jorary oomea^, , oi 

tally i^niiat r^. i^ ; :' . o.'ie lu^ij not <- ■^'... 

Isckbelxe, ana in tTio -^nt; dcjciarri.. o'trnen ol 


.vlxich u xuutii ■ . 

ul Le Lc feci, t ex ire U nivefad l. j;er ■ 

liu:: t^ obey '.viien aits oro ^ra. 

Dui'reany cjontributeb c.. lairi. -iXiUA^jio in i.jue.Oro; 

-.' Ma^.^rl t cia Jout jt. ion , ricugh her inconaiaerute traut-i.-errt. ol 
iier da.Uc,i.ter ib only yctrt and ^Jcircel v/ith her generiiliy cx-ntrciuj 
ry ri iSx-iOb it ion. Deatouches, //ho, iis .ve aritll see, jave ua the 
lira I Cp.bea oT the new tyjje &f ^jcirent, licta also left a aue oi lie 
./crat ul' tiieold. In one ol hij, very I'irat coi.iedieb, L' In^rut , he 
.*aa drawn Geronte, a lather who makes categorical st.itemen ts about 
the vviiole duty oi a da t,_^i.ter tue aii-ount oi c oao iaeration tloat 
siioaid ue accorded her ^jrelerencea in iijatriu.ony. A i^t;.'jr .io the 
aovereic;n oi' nia I'aii^aly, and aiiould iiUijObe the law Uoon it. The 
suitor selected 'by him muat .ert'orce j.jle ae his daugiiter, being 
chosen by him. The arbitrarineso ex^resaed in nia earlier s^eechea 
is bad enoU;jh, out his treacher:' to Isabelle ia stiii verse. 'e 
triCiCS her into c. confesaion oi" J':er love i'or Gleon, and ^-'-len flies 
into c^ ra^^e .vit}^ her for i-iaving dared to love .vithont his ;-er^ia- 
bion, a ixi hreatena her .vitn a convent. Yet, even thus earl; , 
thsra ib u, difiererice oetween thia ueronte u..-.a ti.e convei.tlontil 
stern x^arent. We hcive nad cases - notably in Pancourt - in viiich 
till i^arent iiioioted on the daughter's xuarrying a nooie, L.. 
v/as contrary to th3 Dictates of the da-f^'/iter ' a o-vn heart. r....rr: 
tne dij.rere;ice xiere: iieroiito obj.icta to Jicoii, pecu'iae uo. la nooie, 
^nd because he, GerL-me, tiiinxs th«t ailiancea witn nobi^^^ ure id 
:iO t,o'-a ior l.rj ijvj.a*t_^coao l^u- ii. ^^ . '^ .vii.i j^t^Vt^ Ov 

^ \i%,^ \i5; n\: ^jj. 


xt* .lit 


»* ' t 

sense of tir? dir'ni*^ o. 


:xcl ciiid urii uAi. a L' Iii;.n . , r j i^ Uiio 

the Ctibe in L Irreaolu. in .viiich ./e iiuv fatl.erb, 

eld iCuC/Ol una one or tno naw, fiinj ai-cuoa at ienc^l}! tue beal nietli- 
tris of briAeiint; u^/ Ci^ildren. Lit>ii;.on id lor the urbitr<:4.r:/ .va , 
iiG hah carrido theories into ^jractice by uabi^^nint^ to i^ia aons 
i-rcfeii oiona I'or ur.ich t}iey were in no "uy fitted L, or in- 

•jlin^tiou, Pyrc^nte, on tha other iiana, join& iieatlene^. 
itv in the brinjing up of his son, anr in the end he convertb Li^ - 
liion ic hio ATu,;. of t:iinicin£^, Destoucneb niiubeif inaiLiyUtabiy aidc^o 
against th.e ^ tv.crc.tic ^.^Ic-.n. Oronte, of Le Tri^-ile La^rit-.^-e, ia en- 
tirely, in t.-e oxu btyle, t^nd o^jeno tne ^jlcy with a ii.oxioj.o,_, .kj in 
.vhich he ae^.lores the .joss^aw ion of children, /jiich obli-^eb niui "o 
.b^:irv'3ii ti.e c cnventi oik.ii t ies . To a father not ^et rSc^dy to re- 
■\re it is ei;ib<=.rrao5 in^ to have c fcon teller thian hiinielf ; trnd tc 
a faci-.-ir iovea nio raone;- wore than nib d^^J.^J^'ter it ib cl vexa- 
tiouij necessity to h^ve to .. off, bt -.Till nc • 

ir.zo u o ■. !.v^j;i i,. in _,ibii_on oi i, uo^j ic^ci i l^i.^^rivu //e i-^Vd once luorj 
a mixture of the old ana nev. . ib as a'Jtocr^tic ..brw^t c»b 

any of ^-.5 iuv..jri3 oi t.^-j oia bt; li , » . '.. ii* Li.c ei.c: ne .vi Li^araWb 
i.ib c.ait icr J^lie'.. - lor .vhici; Vaiere i& hib riv.^l - in tuj 

z.o^/C ■.-■-Uc oji-i ...(.;.. O'i uoxo , u iuij..ij..03 \ .i i e ro lor L . r. , 

-ine.Ar . _ _-^*^ G ate i.. . urt ol 

rent in :^-j^ '. . ^-ji.eo ' ^.i.:' .vurtc, d .t o.'.s ib u. ■ ;;orc ._iii_;oifjt^ one. 

'i'- • -^iv/ in' . ■ .::g. ' ^n 



. i i 1 LAt V O. 



i;..^ hs uver tiie I'avt i'«r> cp , ^;Lore. 

i<.r .. vjr. i.<.rge b}lt»r^J ':r8£i.t,i.err ma oT iJuTei.' - 

. .:ind cl' which he rua-y be said to bcj -. . ... -. - . 

be .veil to rQnieuioer tluit he }u\b joxr.t; vor.v clSc. 
^..^ w-a. 

After the eurl^- yeiirs of I>estoi;cheo thici sort of .jurent de- 
clines ra^vidlj . i»-ci.rivuux iiuo leit two exu^ijlea , only om :.. 
is of Diuch vtilue. ifjne.Ar^ante of Ii'v!c_G:Le d^^_ :..3r:is .^ji.veo her 
dtiUghter d baa jiiirter of un hour when &he learnsj _ ^ha ha-s dc- 
ceivea her, but in tiie erd she shows herself complacent. Ljjie.Ar- 
gante of L' "H!^>reuve , on the other hand, ii. us harsh and cr-iel _3 ar. 

mother of Reynard's i.icturing. Voltaire contributes b".;t one case 


in RondOi., i-i L' ^ni'ant Prodi-jue , 7;ho is arbitrary in .._. . 

Lise's Diarriage, and ~^iiO ccnbines, as is not inlrs^uentl;^' the c 
t}ie desire for a rich son-in-la7/ with the disijObition ct. cvBrridi 
his aaUfohter'i* '.viihes . lu^e .Argant of La JJiaussee s I^coxe ne. 
iias ^-l^ced her dau-j/iter in a convent at the age of tvo, and rei 
to tc.Ae her froiu it now thd she is grown. This wouxd a-diiu to be 
•-j'.^ act of .ji Tinna'^rrtL 1 .x'hsr, but it must be roueL.hered that b ra 
had aone tnis out ox excessive love for her so: , aud ney- 

er b2-^n '..arianne, ..Jid :.}tj.t cS socn as she does se . her, thc'ij.l; . 
Gau^i.Ler's relationsuixj to . . .ef^iria ., 

.o^K, c^;;a .V :: ,-et at last ti.e cri d_u ^_ ^ . .»'; et.r ol tu-j 

tii_t^ .Vail avtii" .^tr..iii3o. . c.n oOi d-:- c o. 


,.ith t. . •. . 

areaael ma ^jroveQ iiia xinjhi^j witii .oliere iina t-jie euriier a.utn»vr... 
i'xaritie is cruel and lid.rsn to Cnioe, una it i3 no v»lli**'t'it)/i iv- 
'.rge that the motive oi' her uctiona .vuj JQ<Alo'..iay. Later thian thij 
the t.y^e doeij not ooji^r ct ull. 

The fulLeat, a.^, well as i }'e linij-l, diboubaion ol t re relcvtion 
(,! jtvurents to c 'dldren, mua t c uiiie Hiter //a rit^ve exaiuined tne ritje 
&r thri nevif vuriety of Tcu-.ily tie. For tiie j.jrebent it .vixl be e- 
nough to say, that the unfeelia^. harsn, and even brutal fali jt - 
and not anire..iU3jU. Iv ;uotner - WaS the rule .^luong tixe earlier .. - 
'.i.^ra. Danconrt, Brueya, 'Dutrasny , and e;-:.;ecially Eegnard, liave 
used scarcely any o'.her tj^^je. Debtoic-'ieo otcirtert with soiiie ulec^r 
co5b oI it, but a^^ijarently undsr ^jro'uest, and alaraya .vith oi^..c o^ 
disc^i/i. roVoil; ana at -*j..l events, abandons it early Tor ti£ Oi^.-oiite 
extre;;.e, ijxrivaux haa one slic;l'it but dit^tinct ^^ icture, Voltaire 
cr.j - theae in 174C and 17o6 reSi/sctiveloy - anc Grrea^et cloaeu U\ . 
line in 1745 v/ith a.n exaiawle that belongs with the Vfci\, -^cij-a-^o 

'^, TKli c;R0\7TH Oj^' TliE J.'i^..ILY TIE. 
In tne i^raceo iui^ bection 1 endeavoraa to ahc ooniinvic^uce 

and tL'2 extiiiotion oi' the type oi' ^jcrent unreaoon^.ble , , 

Iriarah, overb'ic.rinj. , severe ' ' x" brult^lit. , . . ' 

imao ^iven us at ita .vorat in Ori:on .-.nd Kar^^cif^on. In t.hi^ 
I .vil i^o ul t , :- 



i'u.iiil;' otiiection, ^^'■j^, ..'i.i i-i'ia'3 "■ 

^.l^.cc in u.e^..^^ oi. t:-3 i„j.u-c ..^. ...r:, , i.-^ ^vc ..^^in itn 

rulj-eot develOx'iijfsnt, ti.e P^re q£ l..«ua lia a iri the Philofeo, no ^^-^e. 

Xri ijci. voir . 

I ccLn tiiiriK or no acei.e in ^woliere .viiere ii*iialy t.j.iecticn 
..(^xuo ci.ny proii-v "^ ^.1^*06. 0ns uui^ula reunion ttiere lo, to be 
oure, thttt d-t tlie end cf L' Avure , wherj Anbsliiie iinds ;iia Icn.- los*. 
Ci.iicirea in Vale re a.n6 ^^<a,riane, Jut Anselrue i» &t uuviouoly neus 
jx L^iC-i.lnc). , uno ti-ie .vi-ole e^. id ode so li-uch in Ui3 nc^' re oi what- 
,. i..-wii^, thi^t it leL-veij us cold. At beat .ve can oaij ou.j T,.-.a.o vs 
' i-re ruucii i;.cre concerned .vith the itict tljat Cleunte xiii.v no.v xu.rr^/ 
...a^ricjne, ..iio Vc^llra Elise, tlian that a bereaved iaoi.c: iia^, recov - 
ed hib XiA.\.A\-j» 

':^j z^ i:.e t-iiLiu of Iiestcuches there are few oc^^^-o i.-^ _,uditive 
i-xfection fur a. ciiild, axi' v/e laus i Scx".iofy o.Arij'rJive s with a li,.tited 
n >ui.ije r i>i. c^-i.— ^-xes in which the parent is noi chjqoj. . tely unrectwi... 
bis to the sen or ociUt^hter . ; in which tne conauct is only auch «.t. 
wouxi-i. u- uj.. -cted by ordin«.ry justice, vUid in '.vjaci. jyu.i -i»iu.x tAiiuu- 
tion x'lt-yo ^'^ i>r«jiuinent j,.art. And such aentii^ant c^s ib to be fouiid 
in li.cow ■=!i:.j' j.1^. ^.xl_^6 is usvit^a ;:iere mat -ti ^j. >. j^<eech or t./L, 

or c device i or clec^rin/, u^. the situation at the end, wiiere it is 
necssuar^ ^^.^ i -. . . ^^^ j. .j ', cri.i^uo^ ^j.\^ '- '.jiu c-vij^encies ^i 

xove aii'c»irs of tue ., ouuo i-cc^.ie. ] . '. i 1 "pea ' 

J c9C 

DSIT., : 

in lour instu;ioed id . iJliHi£i!i ' - ~ 

. -.m two oasea, .. a Olii . , 

aity *o'-ild contn-tct u ii-c^rricifcie o! mon^./ It r jur cict Je,'A''-'"t ti 

not vifisjii to lorca iier .Vi . , '.£> tm oUitir in Piiiuis, -vio .ocd-na,- 

t irartly fields ti.e lieid to his son .iueu he lind. 

is tii3 ijr3i:orr'i6. suitor. Ti.e other t.vo ma tia-nced o. litt,!-; 

^oaitive. Or^on of le uvxl^ ii L ■"''arninier ia ovsrjoyea at linair.. 

son .vhoi'4 he hud oeiieved to be dead, cj.nd ior^jives <a.lL 


beiore. ijiia . Aanelin o! Lea ^ o'lrj^eoises a la_ ...ode hixs t. 

niea her and hio entire cla,oa, but a/ie lovea hiiu in a^vite c^ 
sell', and ia ^/roud oi' hia very asaniLi'tion o! nobility wjiich ;iic^> 
him ashcjiied to a.(i^iioMxea(^e her. 

Re^nc^rd, .vnc excelleo in ara.ving tha C4.rbitra.ry i>o.rejit, ac^-r^d- 
ly touched on thia tyjje. At beat ,;e iittve only thje two ieroiitew 
ready iuantioned: ne oi L3_ Bal and he oT Le Joueur. Both oi the^e 
TatiJiera iiave _t<uinta ol relutionahi^ .vith the old atyle, Diit in the 
endOeronte oi Le 3a 1 aaaurea Leonor thcit he ha.a no intention oi" 
lorcinei her .vixl, wnile ti^e I'atner or ti^e Ci^iabler exclaixas: "1 o-v 
havi^y ife> ti i'atner vvho Siris a dear son return Troju the .vaya of er- 
rur." Ana even as iie deiivera hia i'iaal liialedict ion tu nis aoi;, 
ie feel tiiat he hits lirat done all that he honestly corUd to we.ui 
him tcvih his lolliDS. 

"ffiieii we reach Des touches we enter u^jon a new era. In one ui 
tlae earlieat ci hit, extant cciuediea i'dnd the du.vninr of this 

- ss'' ■ \n: '^i' . . Mk ... .\n. 



I'tiiui ly aeiil , it, :i 


coiitciinia Ariote, viio it> not inae.d lU.itirill ^ ^urent, it^ uc • 

up in Oy>>osition tc hia Dro'injr Qeronte, '.vtio ia h^rwJi v^r-u 
ous to ilia atuit^iiter. Ariate tirgnea icr tlie ri^-nta of the dau. /.tor, 
and contenda tiia i in the flatter of njarrlaije a fat:ie; ni.i^ .±u o.oai- 
cate hia cutiicrity in favor ci the .vi^i^sa of the c^iild; ofnervio j 

ciUthcrity de^-enerates into mere tyranny. The year a ! ■^ - ,' 1:._^: . 

' 2 

cauie L' Irreaolu . in viiich .ve ijave tne iiiuch more i.Ooitive t>ue o: 

Pyna.nte. here is a father who ia an out-and-out advocci-c >.j. ti. ■ 

nevv a:;'Stem of brin^iut; u^ a son, and who ia i>lc.oed in formal ccn- 

ircSt to a father of the old school. Pyrante stands ^^.^ x-wcxj . 

axid reaaon and .moderation, and iiia vi^^/a are beat exjjreoaed in 'hi 

coUi-let : 

Je charcha aon ii<o\\% ^ il ae ci.niorju3 au i:.ien. 
i. on 1 ila eat jac;n cuiii, co-ni-i.e ,j e snia xe aisn. 

^.ost si£;nificant of a.11, at tne end Pyrante converta Lioimon tc 

ovrn methods, ojid ^--rovea that hia ia tne .va: j.jroauctive of the o . 


The two ty^jea oi j^-'ctrent may be a..cid to bt3 joined i 


^le ch-aracter of Liaiiiion, ox L Obatau le In.^. revu . Thia Liiimcn i^ 

us iicr^^ii ana abrut.t and disa^reable a.o uny in tiie vj. .liery .: 

arbitrary iJu,rentii, but at the end he feela tiia otirrin,:a ci n^tur* , 
iie is hia son 'a rival, b'.it he (Vithdrc<.7s from tiie fiexa m the he ^ 
that 7ulie i.-a; be <-ble ti- influence Val(?re for >(.d. f^:.t a 

ji^<Arci.ct er ^ ^.xt. *. i^r .^ ^. -.iJo ;, 


>.Ut- ■ 

u.ucli u.a i.n^TJiiue ducn in L' Av>.rd . Tiiio io iraL cu.. 

ItOiiily reunion in tiio iiitu u,c t ainue . uii-ire, but it it; fur rrcin 
beme, tiie icijt. J.iie, li-c , thd rtiwut^iiter ol L„/candre, bt«rto 
ouor.ia ui VoicSia ai. LeririL, t^'- cri ou s^^risi* 'V^'^^ «i^2 t;rie^:"A}iI je 
dois vcu; j reconnui 're c» lu tenurei^ije ^ue j c^vuitj ^.-uur v^^jt,." 

Tiiib oentiu^eiit ol til 3 bona between lather u-nd ciiild is more 
j-roncuncea in Le_ Pii.iio^L^ ne ^.u r i e . riere Ariste, .vho nab u odoret 
iOcirriae^e on iaib conbcienoe, hsoituteo to tell his, but nixia 
tiiciL ji3 f3ia.rb iiib ocrx-ovV i.'.ore tr^tn ii.ia un^er. Aribte ib exxjectint: 
cJi inheritance i rcin nib Uf:cle,out ne doeb not heaitctte to te±i uiii\ 
thcit ixe Vaiaeb iAo lutner'd blebain^j above the im.-rita.nce, Jihen 
the ancle ac&rxb at tjie iather. Liaii/.on, tiie lath^^r, toe, ia in .. 
new jj^oditi on, I'or he ib I'inaiiciully dejjtandhcnt u^von hia don, cinQ ne 
holds niiiib^li honoraa bo to be ^vlaced. ijut rij^ht iiera tnera ib c. 
Liob t sijniricunt lact to ue noticed: Libii..on una. Ariate are 
bour^eoib, out ^^entilshoifii..eb . Tnib i'act iiaa nn iifi^i^rtant benring 
on li.e iiiial ^uebtion -vjiich ia to be bclved if ^jooaible: la ijie 

chan^^e in "-he ftuuily relation the reaO-t oi c. clian.'^s in the tree.t- 

. ? 

iLBiit ol tiie ouare;eoio. 


We ure not yet on bourti-eoia ground in Le^ Glo ri^ux, .Viiere .ve 

nave txie I'^ll-len^th ^.^ortrait ol tlie lather as th 3r, Qvcn 

iiiore didtinct tmui in Le Philos ^'iyji? i.., rie . The ic^tner 
ler are Lycandre aiio iiioette, c^n > .-..e aituation i. i bc c; 

lo tne •iieloaraLif^.tic avitiior: tht»,t ol' tiie luti'ier or motiiHr liv; , 

' - ni-^-. .^3^. 

: iJtrO-J Jil 

,1 : ai-oi 


aoiJ . 



Tli0U(5h oujt. . Ui .. 

u^^oIj. .1 one, in tt.e. re^i »..i . uie, and Uiuch u^ ... . 
^rec^riuao ^otjitiun, una her vei^li^i^^ tc her 

i>3:xb tue drawini,, oi tne tiee cl blood to.Va.rd ner 

relo,Lionsj .vi^xi i-e.'- i',.iti.;r, o^iior^ v.i^ ve Ix t;.;j uiter the reve lu'. iv n 
oi" hiti identity, i^re teiioer in tiie exJ.reiwe. Tiie ^^- - lo ul- entiral. cGo''^.iea -rith tf.e briHe^in^ tO£_;ether of ti;e;-. 

'ii:ort'..i;, lor our i-urj.ode£3, al-l ti.3 ijeraon-i cono^rnsfi ..r^ ii : 

In L'llnlivrrt uc.te ./e. h^ve ,a .-iovel ci.n-bin.ctic a ai c-n laJTiat 
u.utiier end a Torgivint, di-iu^htar. Sox-hie holu-. — 

^.rel'ers Pulcheris, it io a.t the di(jt«,te.-j oi n,-;tiir*j, uu- i 

event tne uiother'ti coarse ci' actiofi id not tt^ be \.j.uaijtioned. 

j'iu^lly, in Le_ Jeune_ Hoiik,.e u_ l' E..rrfiVe /ve ^ueet with a pic.;, 

built i u.-.on the lilial and x.aternal r-alc^tion. I'- .... 

the corx-eotinei and cjiaotening ol d. rodie,i.^l a on, vhijh it, nc 

be oure, a novel tiian.e, but .vhi ch Deiitc'ichesi xianoles i.-. .. _ 

..■-lich ne haa bean e^ro'.vint aince hia ecirlidot ^jlaya . Loaiidre has 

been ruined, not tnroujih the severity ol hio , i^ 

over inauij^ancei and even vhen the I'a -i^er, Jeronte, j^'es tie udvi 

^ojlity 01 ici-ying: on the rod, he ib heic. tc hi^ 

resolute LiLiix;;on. He i'indb it in.j^vObbible to be atern v/ii.n ni; 

and hib _. ,- . .. - oeverity enas in end 

too, ex;rei-oed ^reat love c na rco^.eot 

1 / .1. Ji ..- .^¥y/ ^t^x.^i.^.i^i. 




;aea uui.GoLic aitu^.tiono to exc vt ioni< l1 ri , 

foivet) a-Jicii bituutlaio c. ^/roiuUieiit ^ l«ce i r: tne , in '.vhicn t... 
occur , txiid linalx; he buildta a i-luv eutiroiy ui^cn tne fijjiily bond ■ 
j-.nQ tlid i li-. o ccntuininc. tnio t. Itii.. tion ar) Idd in c jsoiij 

.i.ilie u wiln the very notc^ule exceytiotui ci Le_ PiiilcjCx^ he j. ariG uno 
Le ulor_itvax. 

Voltaire .Vat; eaijeoitiliy fond, ol uaing; tiie tie bet./eer. .'^ 

ana ci:ildren, aila nicde it ti.e center ci several cl' ■••/hat he calls coiueoieo att'j nc riooant'3g_. In L' Indiacre t , tne ;. irst scenr-, bj- 
t.veon ihe inaiocreet iiero c.nd iiis n^otnar, E'ij,>, iz not e^jj^.e- 
ciaii:- toiic/une,, out Eupheiida doeb a^yi^ear o.a a. xind^sensi l3 ncUi- 
er aavising a son v/isely lor his own .^ccd, ^nd is in most •7},ol:i60ii„ 
ccntraat to aOine oi tiie ii'Le-drix^onii .vno i«^ve aone cjaty as L.otLero 
in soiiie ci' tiie earlier cccedy. Les Ori ^ir... jx contains a la;i.ily 
r-j.nicn. at the ana, but ia not notable lor its tendernead ci osnti- 
luent, the xaeetinj^ bein^- r.ierely a device to help alorjg the aenoii'- 
^rtn^.. In L Em an t Prooi faUe, ho'vever, v/e ]iave thia oentinient 
laiuily lie, una tie main interest of tie rl^y hin^ea 
this feelint. R'Ji^heiucn ^ J^re in the aii^^uished, T7e-'>pi.. ? ci 

iM-tiier that Destouches liun introduced in Le Philosoj^^he :..c.rie 
i£_ alorie\-x, am .vhich Diderot' will oej. _ in a little later. 
iCu^vheuioii io c. <vho loves his son in a^^ite oi' his I'clli.-a, 
is i.vercoiiie c.t i:.<i- ^. -. . - - . ;.ror. i 


-J /■• 

.a iij.ii i^ ; 

L uc tne on ^cc il .i 

lud tiu'cie exi-.Ui>lv3o Juoi. uited, v.-e j:nG.v ti^cit Liie i!;u^>iiej..ont> ' 

iiu^-hetiiie ul L* Inn 1^ ^; ret iuc..y be :& , 1 cr iJ..L .ve tola to ■ 
trury^ In the x^L.^o tiiut I'ciioA', \^olt.-are ciodo not utjain utiG ti-ic- 
Liu .ii^tiuiti itviuily to illubtrate tne tenderneot; of tiie tieo ui o.i. 
In L ^cojoott_itoe, in Le JJrclt ou Jei^ neur. c.nci an JiUxrio_t, ebi.rioiul- 
i.- in uie 1 ir^-t, we iittve the uniicii.j,.y aiici lu chryiiiose x>ci fen , „ij' 
tne aatilul Cidia, but. t.-.e i'cu..ily in eixch Ccss ia noble. So the 
sj'-^te ot a.H'<u.irii in Voltaire ia a;i lollo.vs: he uiane fre^UdiiL <o 
'domeotic intercut uo dra.^iiitic liiuterici-l, c<,nd guve Jtj scuie oi t/.j 
• jisnaible x^^^^Si-tB ti.nd ci.ildren, but he vaso bovrgeois uriC. 
nobleb in ubc^it e-^ud x^ro^^ortion. 

i.-urivcs.ux, .viio oi"^So us little of Vcilue on a. .;/ x^'^'^ni m coii- 
nection /vith the bourtieoi,a, nao drc^.vn, ir. t.vo inbtancea, ^ic 
^f ti. e boi^rgeoib i-Cvrent that are jj lea a ant to cc nteiux- ii^tw; . x^.Tvauii 
ul L Ecoleb ae b x^ere a icrgives his bcn freely uiid readil:/ v/nen n. 
...xriGo iiiit to be tiie ouccebafui buitor at,uinbt himocLx, .uiu i...OrtjL/n 

■ T T • ^~ 

ol Le Jeu ue_ _! Aiiiour et au iiu. aurd ib ti mobt Qeli^^itful ejujii^jle of 
.. .1..U .vwd consiaertite father aliov/ing hib duu^^ter Lu it^ixo.v ..^ 
cictatea ol ner neu-rt in ciA^o^iUtj c. i^u^, cuia even inoi i>tiii^, 
... i.c:' ._vi;^ lio -\,^^rd for nib r-r,,- .,,. ,, _^,^^^ ^^ ^..-ioc 

lixe thi i^ Orjion oi luurivaux, out xx.uch i. ea, i^ 


Li ill 

.11 01 

I X - IT; - .'*■ SJ. 


<ibO csbj- 

. L . . i^ ^ kl ^ 

A'i t 




Kinrin: , 

t.c;r . luve uaI'J resi ijoniiblene t^a , 

aii.'-ot ae ...ervilie, in tho una ■ 
..^.ia CQUie du(Vn to uo , Le O cnoante iuant jjxrce , uaed • . . . ^^^.-^ ..>,.. 
con;ji,'ic'.;o',io ly. Clettnte rei.-.inab c no «t, rcr; i;' c. Le Pr . 1 1 • 

cs ciphe .uri e, in tha* iie Jruid b. aecrat, ukarriiAge .-/i-ic/. .^- ..-- . . - -.. 
' ocnjics tc nia 1^1; er; u tm ue ^oea tiia.n Arlale ■u'nen j ; 
decia.reb tritt ne Co.n neiti»er liv-f without the ijosdssjicn of :... 
nor without tii.e love cl }iiii i"o.tner, Clarioe heraell , .the. 
s'.voc na In tiie j^^.rede;-ce cl' her latiier-in-iiiw, ex^l^lna t>je cir- :.- 
atctiice bj ti.e IciC-t ti.cit he reasiub.leci her own i'cit/.er, .Thorn nYis c: 

iohed inl inii5l;> , andr'Leo traits d'un j.^ere aigne de j.>. ^ , -•- 

icxite venerution I'uit toujouro une i.rcionde im^jreots ion :i''r I'iTi^.i 
d'une iille ^^1 salt ocn d avoir." The i«.i. ily in Le^ donaen tei'Lent 
■i'orcl ib a^.^.etre fitly bunrgecis, 

— Jhi^U;=iaee utjes the t/.axue cf^l love .^^ ^.., v, .....r 

tv7o ol his jjIc^j.!^ L ?]ccle ci_es ...ares und La G;Guverncipte_, ;..o.>ceb i * 

* J' 

1 ■" lal lUii/Ort^nce with ccnju-.'&.l love in i^eianide, , ,,. % .^ _ 

i.. i^roiuinent ^^lace in Pc^n elct cimi L hmi^ ie oe j?crt "Jne. Oi these, 
jie la ^icty oe didregjarded, ^.d it xa only u more or lea. 
01' tiie En^^liah ori^inul; ol' the otners, L' Bcol e de s .^.v q^ i-inc 
-' oe Forj^^nne only hc^va ii bom-t:«cia i..ilie i . 1 • ;ira'. 

;^ve ' lar ct*&° ver i ;i.ild, acn, t^nd unn^ -...,. ^_. ^erent ■... .... ..■ ^ ..c^o ..„,i 

k 7 



>J.^ - ..* 



ic. id, , ! . 

Quet> no ^ ijco i.dr, c nci 1 r; in 

into ccntouct .vitii. iier i.i^Uiitid ac^u^ji.ter. T.'.iti d i in,,, i io;. , : 

tiio iii&ther aot;.^ ti.e iaeut.ii^ ol' hdr ui.iid, iu t/ ;roe 

cl the (>ne U5i;ull> ufiected b: ..^^Uiisee unrt ot. 

tjie one in .vhich tiie |..a'-?iit ocaa not Knuv the ^.ai'ent. Thia io 

Cc-.6e in i..dlonid e und 1*^ 'juuveri!c>.nte. In L Vx'::2 ° d^ Fort utie rri , 

ui lection Icr nis oczi it) rounded en rjc^aon ixiiU cciiii,.v,n-a onse, t'.n 

inflection thiit rf^l isea tc .^i^o.v hib &cn to miijce iiin^eii' riai- 

b.y aowUiiiing a title to -.viiici. he ht.ia nc ri^ht, or by iii<.4.r!-"ine, ii. >- 

- ncDle Icur.ily; 

In Joixo 3 i^lcy 01 Du^u_is_ e^ !Deb Ronu_io_, I'u^.uiii io 
:. . ..c.rrii^fe,e ol hia Ociu^^hter with "Pes Ron^iti, and is not even 
straighti'crv/ard in iiib op^odition; but t '£ reason lor i*iii ^otji'.ao.. 
ib dii>tinctlj nuvei: it is j.ib very c^mut xcvo lor hi s» di.u-.ntar 
Liiiit iLh.jCBb hiiii rciuse her to Deo Kor.uio, t* nd tixG letxr oi U'-. Liit_, ie. 
cLone by hi& deserted iiSurt. luijuii ib a. i iricnci -^r, 

Ijiderot wo'.ild be of £;reat tii.^jortance ^.t ^. u*je, out i^-ia 
tv/o x^L^ys, Le Pere_ u_e_ jcu^ilxe .cUid !.e j ila ["uturel, c 
.vitn _.-eople .'-no are either nuble cr ol nnaeiined oocicJ. t,tc.t.o. 
Thib I'uct in itdell io to be noted, ainc-; no one eLse in th-^ ce..- 
tury tried do harci, j,..eri'«.>,i'b, to b ii Id u^ t/ie n 
oertdiiil;, no one eltie worKea .vith o.icK .. di&tinct aen^e ittu.' 
.Vc^b c^n innovator. And l\.r tnii. .^.ir^-ooe J'iucr>.- 
bo:r;^3oiri l\.iiiiiy. i'»o luo 

• - r 

:i L 

iijc .;ia. 

. lil lii. U 1 Jj>- i. 


. G Oi 

j^eoio. .Miiciieve : , 


^e sc^vcir i. uicat I ul Uiy c 

rental teiiaernaoii ub ti.tJ center aiiri tiiej^e ol' t 

v.nly one, ^jerha-ija, tiiat .vould iuove do i;j U.e o[i,^:.teol 

tine atate today. 

Beiiuuj3.rchnis .vaa ebi^eciully iond ». i' thij tJ, ana intr 
it three ^, uot to tji>eai cl the otiirtling^ denouei..cnt in Le 
...ariuac ce j i j^aro , in v/hioh i,.arceline f.urna out t o be li^ luc 

i:ii^a.rc. It lifcurea in ail tnree ol his drcuueb , tut tn Bu^;enle ... 


-a 1 ere JoUt..c.ble the criaracterb are xiobla. In Lea Jjt ., , ho.vever, there are two cabes to iilubtrnte the streii^jth cl' 
ti.e laiiiily tie aiiion^; tne bourgeois. The relations oi tiie ^..eiaCa, 
t^ere ana i iij , are stroxit^ly reiainiscent oi thoae oi the Vaaderi<o, 
c^nd biiow trxat c. ycung Hian oi the boiir^eoibie coula delena hj.^ la- 
tiirir ' b iioncr as notl^ as ]Jon Rodri^o. As i or Aureliy, he is ij; 
-Li. si olc, old sitUi-.ticn ol brinj^ing- u>> his dau J.te: in itjnoraiice li 
iier reLs.tiori to him. The scene oi his revelation oi r. elf to 
i s as touching; as any in Des touches or La Jmuisbee, and lixuc. ojtte. 
;:iana£,ed, Beaujiiarci.ais ' i^ro^ortion oi bcurr^eois to ucbleo in iiis 
ceding wit J., this tneiiie is, thereicre, one to t-'.'o, ir .ve c 
liie inlays in .vnich ti.ey occiir, or two to t/zo, ii we taxCB t^eL. b: ies, as Lea iJe^-oc / contains tfio instances. 

ior tne ^ei'ioa oi our study tu>: Lioii oi tr-e ^^arbut • 

oi.iiC .vould seeui, ti.en, to ; 'iier cuiiior... 


HOT J"o 

, X f X ,.>i1j 


is a 1' 



:;»a.r ilcicje. Dctxiccurt t,jvei li t, le sloe ou Uiio . 

excexo ill lita i_.oi'tix^^.\^x. ci t.i.ij tj^^e, Eairet>ii.' ji-utri- 

ex;.i-x^le, a.u(t l.^ej lu .ic;i;t3ti iu iiio earlier i^i^ya iaOo t 

Ij . Alter tiiia it laliti rc^viciij' iiito ubi:/u.iice. i..:i,r jv^-ux o. 

■i.uc Co o:i ix, aiiG Voltaire ^^iveo une excuux-le ol it; thetje t)i tii ir. 

the tirtieti; unci ^jre^uet ^iveo the It.ot t^ireat cuse o- it m IV:.. 

Tlie ether, ti.e o^.^. uiiite t^.^^e, rijjii 0.0 tiiiia dibu^ieurb , . 
court tjives c* lev/ j^Jti-rei.tii wir^o crfi-.l ,yith t.'isir ciiilaj'^n rfi).oo;ifa.;jl. 
una alxectioij^. teiy, ^uo. Re^nurd lurniK-iiea .vjic «ur not c. ooC- 

coeLi to their cnilcrea'a hu-i.^^^ineoi. . ' ujs z.e 

negut'ive t„._t'^^' Dea'cucnetj ii? ihe lirat icrxi^ll^v to advance ti£ 
riiititsj 1 the ci.iid, ud ne i^ tiie 1 i rs t to o.>^reciute tn,; e. 
ca.ijiZa.1 to be louna in ti.e ^.uvri [ita.1 una liliul relation. rJ 
tnio interest to ^j. ijiore ana Liore j.jrojuinent ^luce, ujitii ixc^^xx, 
iiiJiceo it tne leuain^ i.»otii' in one 01' hiti hu-ter ^^^ . Tnia lojat, 
i.ovever, olm£ d'ter Voltuire cjia !*„ Ji.i*.ut.iiee iiud uccOi-i^ii. 
iauiiie thixit^. Voltuire <»uo i_i'.iox to loiio< j'St) tou 'jiie*>' leua, tinn 

.faea thj Tuiiiily bona ^ n-oiiiber 01 tiiuei>, ri.„ relyin : t, i or 

the iiiu in interest,, in L ' K n li. n t Pro d i jj ue , aiiri luter in ju. r - 
lot. L-ci Ji^tAi-ioii'j -3; Uoea it in thrjo indtc«.ni;efa , u ri; ' t/.r-.v t:'«i 
__ til e ^jlot on it in Lu ■(ou\ernt^jAd . ,-.oc t^nn i'ir, 

- lovin(_, ux.a reuaoiiable ^j t^r-:t tit t- , , 

u.otiJ t.. . . ^n it. 

iiave r eiii^jloyei it «.» tjie a&boiute center ui the action, uuea it 
i^rciiiinently in till tnree ol" his on^iuea . 

And uwvv icr tne orux: Hovv iuuch oi c;.!! thic tn.i/iaijired in '.n^ 
oourjseoio iciiuily? Wtitj rcuuily tii'iectiun contiiddred un eaaent it. i.j., , 
^r even eoj-.ecic.ix>, i/L ouurjeoic tr^^it? Oiuit ci/i^^ trw earlier, uno 
LiCrely negative exKi-.^-les iron: ■panccurt a rn Reynard, and beginning 
vvitJi Deotoucnet., who was ti^e iirot tc liiaKa rec,i orcouo-tic capital 
out ol ttiib tamily interest, .Te ] ind tixe icllowintj j.jro|jcrtion: 
tne Dour^jeoib JfiOVJaeLola is the ocene oxL' Irresolu , L' jjni'ant uTw, 
ana Le Jeune P IoiLLie a 1 '3^.reuve, cl T^ea tcucxiea ; Le Jong ^ntein ent 
xcroe ol Guyot de i,.orvil.La; L' Er^ian t Prcai^ue oi Vi-ltw.ire; L' ^ccl - 
ges .s ere s oi La Chaubtsee; Duijuio et ])es Ronaiji ol Co1j.j3; cuu. Le_£ 
1 eux .■•juiat . el 3eauiao.rciiait>. On the other hand, tne iiii li 3u oi titi_^ 
clc.iuiS th-i very iuiijorta.nt i-ilayti Le Phi lo ^op he i..arie and Le .rlo - 
rieux o! Dea toucheij ; L' Ecoao a iae , Le ]")roit d_u deie;ne ur. and Q,u^c - 
xu > , ox Voltaire; I.':eianide and La. Gouvern ante, ol La Ciiausaee; Lj 
J ila ..aturel dna Le_ rcre ae jaiuille . oi ])iderct; arid Eu£jen_ie and 
±fi ±^£? Coujjable , oi EeauHjti, rchais , Le Phi lcsophe a ana _j^ o c^voir 
cj. oedaine can not be counted on eiuier aiae, a>i tne Vccnaerxa are 
in reality noble, "^.houj^t living a boure,eoia life. 

Tiie coxiclu&icn muat be, then, tiia t tru-ge aie bou rse else 
vao o.> iiw i.i-^v...^ confined to a, ^eraonnel dr^.m iroL. -..v, ^/.^.^ ^^^ao 
cxuao. I i. w^.jD nut, inaeod, deal jvith xinta and i-rincea, butit 
rj^r^ra^ ....■i'^..\o t. iio Oi.; v...i. j -; I'o ..a uei:. ..o b '^ C-^^. I irj j.^^ ' 


5 - JL'^l., JiJ^ lu , J U.L 


JXj. >j!:;'1 IIX 

III. TIIR KIu>E 0I< T;;1<] CLAoo-^OiioJI lo. 

Tiie UL ux'£_,c!oiiii it> aivided hilu t^wo (_rea,t clabueu. Th.o one .vj 
iiuve btudied; it ia tiie clttiio ol wliich i.,,luMr(iiAn in the iiuiiiort<a.l 
type, the bourgeois strue^iling and afi^irln^:, Be :!Kint; to ria uii:.^-2-l^ 
of his bourgeoisie, t.-.nd aiding a.1 all j^oiatsa u nobility into //hich 
lie is striving to lorce an entrance, c..nd by which in the meantixDe 
he is ullo.ving hiinsel! to be UiUlcted. The ot} includes 
tliose bourgeois vrtio are at least satislied to be I'ranKly bourgeois 
aiid later those who viill be i.rowa ol trjeir bourj:^eo is ie. iJotn these 
types have their rise in ...oliere, but their devalopL.ent ex.'-.ioii-s 
■.idel^ oillering ^jhenoi/ieria ; or r^vtner, only the second class can 


be said to develop aite r i.clierj ' s tii^e. The I'irst we have lu its 
apogee in I-loliere's oun Bourgeois Genti lho;.iiia ; and 1 roiu hin. it 
declines steadily-, thou.^h it never disa,;^e^.rb entir3ly irom the 

One point is to be noted about the old class oelore tux^in^ u^, 
the ne'A/: while the bs. iring bourgeois endures lorever on the sta-^e 
- as he endures forever in society - he soon ceases to be j- 

lout.. k.Jourdain, co we Jcno/;, was f'raiiiily so; Pancourt modelled 
iiiii^elf closel3A on . oliere, and Regnard did t> o, in so I'ar cis he 
treated the t^ pe at c^ll, though Regnard never Drings the social 
str'ig le to the Icreoround; Corneil".te and I>e Vise', nouisauxt, 
Le da6_,e, ana Brueys introduce t/ie ty^e, but not proi^ineiitly ; D'ai- 
lainval is ohe last to maKe a play ol tiie bourgeois in xixt. L;oiuic 

^Sx-^ect. neutouclies t,ive8 a I'ull-lenjvith study ol ;tied be ir- 

_eoio, but .v^^ot^, no : ... .... .......' . ;- 



!,-s.ire, I'ointi.ii. 

Liie Uour^eoib oi' ouoidl ue ../irat iciu, b'^t tin; i i^ at t 

own crdcvtiuria; ti.e^ re^:u(^iii/^e no i; ill -jrenos oef.voen U-io oi 
buya or a6t>'.<iueb his title, a td './.e oiu? who )3 i . 

Ad l\.r tiift o,^,.Oi. ite olaSti, tnat ia, tno clcJiJt> wit; ciial 

ii.i/Dition, i.oliere hiUiSell" delined tno tvpe aa ..'e htiva it icr xouj 
ye&ra alter nia Qec«.tix: a tj^e ne^^ative n^ i.her then j^o&itive, 
t^ood bourgeois who ia driven to take a coim.. on -sense sia/iu u^^jo- .^j 
01 the lolly 01' anotiier, ii3U«.lly that oi t^^e iiittriiuonial ycxe ;. 
r^tixer than rroc. an innate seno3 of the dignity of the toourgeciai j • 
01 this tyjje the gre...t exeuii.lars are i»jiie, Jourdain and Ghrysale, 
on the IV.rcical, Gortiibus of Le_3 Pre'cieuses Ridic 'x^^ . Bir- 
i e r as txie^, miiy in detail, the three uave nnis in coiuiuon, ti^at tji2 
are iceenly ^ilive to tiie absurdity of their faiuilies' pretentioiii., 
uiHd aeex ZL cool ti^air enthusiasii. by hara-he^.ded arguments and un- 
sym^atj'.e tic facto. 

Dancourt, v/ho follov/s J',.oliere so cloaely in his deiineciiion 
of t >ve bcurgeoii* on hio riaiculous side, is not luore ^^u^itive 
he in drawing txie ojj.osite t:vi^e. r'is sensible bourgeois are neyer 
anytiiing but ixiere fi.ilt> to tie foolish ones. iiOie.Paiin oi Le Cue - 
vc>lier a la ..ode li^io set over against her i<..Serrefo: , • bro" 

in-larf, and ,,..i..iga. ud, her suitor; ijne . .'ie ma rd of La . >. x^ -i. r.'s J-^.- - 

^rt-gne and iUiie.ilandineau of Lea .duurgeoisos do ^u a.1 ite , oacn ii> 

oa^anced Tay a coiuiu on -sense husband, Belise ^ x l^ lie rout e du Phar.. - 

* ■»' 

i.n t)j her orotiier J^artolin, .Loricart of Le Jhariv ari o. 

'- .7.Cf., .7-2/- il. ' ■ • »3U . .\Si, . ■ Ub' 



uiiilon. ^sct ull t'le (3XcUii^^lei> in '.];io Oluii;i a.:-: ...'.., 



liidiu are, j.;Liti tArtjUnto oi Let> ZuiuatJ cia ■t a.ritj ia ;^iire(i /vitii n-jr 
iauouroi^i fend iiiisi3rl^\y broUier, iiar^jin; Laiie.Iirillurt oI C ^- .. a . . - . : .. - 

io>rd. r^tto uli. tho b^^unci oarua iier ae^.tAaw l 

"i'il o.nd i.iae . Jerciiie o! Le_ Vart -gc^ lant 've have aoxLe-t.^- :j xi.^, 

iicuiita-loviijt,, virtuona .vives. 

Laiaving Danco^irt , .ve coii.e to r)estouciies; and ue-f - . ' -: • 
once an aavaace tu«vt..rd soxiie i-iiinti more ^jOoitive. In L iii^rwct , ^e- 
; i^nte Oi ^-Otjati his daughter Isabslle's Uiuvrici-^e to Cleon becaise tr. . 
letter id a noble, ana he coueo out lull ^na btrun^; ugain^- 
-.j-liance oT the bouri^eoiii with the noble, and holc^ ■ .^c. L aothin.j 
can cciiia ol ouch a union out uni^p^jinesb for the bourgeois .vile 
L.nd her loij.ily, aercnte'b luotiveb ere aeliiuh, if you v/ill, in 
Uiut ne hi^i c*. very cle«r ^.^revision ol hio own looo oi ai(-,nity n- 
uer the new rec,i»ue of tnin^a follo'.ving auch a iiiirria^ie. •" 1'. 
a i^oint in hij ic^vor that he leeld that thi3 bourisSci-j iiua a Qi^init. 
Lu xv,o^, a di^^nity not to be boUt^ht for any false luster shed b. c, 
title in the foiiiilj, 

Teistouchea' ne^rt f 1^^ ;re is thiat of Geronte iu _^ ; .. \.j.:.^<..^.,. ■ 
■i-griG , /r.c i o, to reverbe tha ii.olier3si>iUe title, a t^e.:tilhcai..e bo-.*' - 
gecito . Thio Geronte has voluntarii., .*uc i.wuiiijcu ■ ;~ ucuility ll 
tu-jtc! Ui< tfuae, ana vif:,orou»»ly aelendo ii\u O' . It io ^t'Lo^'m^ 

r, ~i.- 

.\-4sf . . .\H\.^" . . sxi: . . -ZXV^' . . :ii^. 


.ft'K ., Lidii.ion, v/no ..5ute^: 

there -vith. Wjien .V3 cuue to Liciiiiion oi Le Glorl-j -i:c. 
once more inverted, i^nd vve return to t>ie .. clier,. i;.cdel. 
a&a uttti iaed .viia t ... .va.d tstrivinc; lor, and 1. ^n 

uieiiiber ol tiie titlea Ji;Ttt.3. He la urrant^in^^ c. m.^to: 
ter which will clinch atixi ti^^i.ter i..old Oa the nc. 
•i^l'ter iall there is ^^ ctiiierence between hhr. ^ind the ol- . Ve 

itj unctbadhed u,t tiie indolence of his jjroSi-ective son-in-law, ^nd 
li^eets iii.pudenoe V7ith iii;j.judence. I'inally, he aeclareb lor 
r.iiat ilia uioney io a i^ood uud buliiciejit title, a& ^^ocd ao re- 
sulting froxii birth. Le;i5 e.iuivocal than '.his Libi:uon, ho.veve r, ia 
De- jN"e achate 1 of L r^n: ant Gate . :ie haa all the ^elf-relia. - n 

t.elf-r3i5^.ect of Lioi.uon ^iic. oi Geroiite ol L' In,;ra t . ;/i • 
their unpleasantnebo . He holaa that a c.2'i3rous, honorable, '.iLa- 
tentatious boartieois is ^uite aa good a.a the ^v0i3tie3.v0r oi ^ line 
.lame -.vho ha^- neither the means nor dOoire to adr 
of tJTJat name, iinally, Lisiiuon of Le .Jeu-.e Hoix.j a I' Ej.raTv e i. 
line speciiuen of ty:e soiind-neaded, so una -hearted bour^^ecis, th^ 
class aitotinction is not emphasiaed in his case. 

iJoiiiing iio'/V CO D'Aliainval, we find attain tiie net:ative ty^.e of 
the coimiion-senoe bourgeois, triat v;JiicJri is used merely c*fc a loil 
the citibitioub ones. In L' Ecole aes Bo urt^eois it is . .ieu / '.. 

is set over a.jainat hjixe.Ao c.i.i.uMi and he uter. ;iio ]>'A1- 

lainvcl ioll07/a .'.olier? and Tiancour' , . in th:; more iiupo;- 

taat cxiarcj.0 1 3rci , (,■ ■ 


nox J 

.L.ti 1 

JC Jl-.V 

ol' ixii 

boarK^Jo io who are jitr 


t, not ol U.V , 

t,enerooitv. Arid i/.e year ocioro these u,.j..eb.rad v/e .'. ■"■• \^ :_i_L_i:.- 
gulo ci Lc a ol I'>e ooiij^y. TLio i-ic^ coiitu.iikj in iiur i * - 

ure c! .Tu.c^ues RoisiJil', an; E/iiilial^ luercVutnt, /le ia the '■■ 
Enr^liai'ua.^n btiii. in vo£c,ue on the contiriOiiLcii 6tc.,^e, 2 otr . 

v.-i jveynote of the ti^ne .vhen he oci\ s : "-Te me lao lu.e d'une nobleaae 
ii..uoin..ire. Leu vra-is ^ieiitilt^hoju.-eb oe tiont lt3£i rlon!let^^6 -jeao; i. 
; ' .^ue le vice de rot.irier," 

Pirou'ti t.vo oouTtjeoio in Lc^ iLetro;i.^nie Jiake no a^i^ecid yro- 
i.:.-o^.Lon ol the ri^^nto of tii.e bourgeois c laaa , but ti --■;' '-- .'ort,.:,' 
exfcvi:-j..'les 01 reoi>ectcible ana jeli -re Di^eoti .it.: oitizen,3 conduotinij 
tjje;uL.elvea with ditiiiity in aitucitionb 7;ji.i ch ui^ht euoi-.. ■. . r^ii- 
derea ridiciloua. Bcilivetiw urgxxea irom the ot^Kd-jjO int oi ooiind 
coi.i. .un-ijende, and in the unideai isjtic, luiijoetic, mt; tr er-of-i.. ^ . 
^.er;3on tl:ia. t .ve ti-ice todtiy aa tne sti.ndard of tiie Middle cl.-^a ; 
..■;.ile Francaleu t.olaa tiiut. the rei.! a^jirit of bourgeoisie ..^..^ _ 
in a IcCx.: of t&tite, und un adherence to iuo;.te ria 1 iatanaa.rd6, ;„iia 
i:^. cc orilliant .'ioVjh of letters is a title in itw-^.^ ^^ ...-oili*. 
This is the uni^^ue case, j. s far c^ I inx-ve been able 
o ou .1 v^'^iu J.O criticis in^i hisi oArn for the j-jCo.- .^^^^., ... . .^^ . 
.^.la cities .vnich are toda^ coxa^jrioeo under tiie broacer si^niiicc^nc^ 

'He uA^nt ex,. act ravolutioxiary treat 


u , ij -^ 




. . -w u Oi vi 

• ; v: ^ .* , i\ * 4 ' I w i i \J X c*. i . V I I ^ ■ i . 

i iric..ux 'lacily 

o^iiriuiia, and io only h:t^)^ y ti^ .r^ lin i^iah «. m.iui - 

iiad only u:: .:eb6 . E'.ii<i .--ire ^nci I'i lb ox_ L/j?ni_£Ai.t 

i-Tcc' i /ue c^rs hanrfliad witii s.i'.t'i^ t' ^''i thou^jh Roncion and ^ . • ...... 

.r ; extr:nr.9 exa:..^ leb oi' the old ty^je. l..r>' or j_^ Fetrajie vj^ul a 
Rtti-^ii ^^^brfes ilia wife's scheiaa f ci* a nuble allictnce Jfor — - -.. 

aren, but ma inotive in av.n.rice ia avarice liiuch uiore thti.n d: 
and it is plainly jvjne.Duru wl-o liaa "he ai'/.hor's b.ytiiivc.tny. Tiio 
I'inedt bourgeois tiiat Voltaire ever dre:i is i'n?0;.jort, tiie "'^^njlioii 
...... vj..^nt ol' L EcQjoa ise. Ke, Hah T^c^viea Rosbil, is the ^^.v ^^ 

Eneilisijni..ji tJiai ilourialieb on the l^rench sta^je, and the liice oi' 
.vhich never exiatea 0^:1" it, Bli^nt, unoeren.oi.ioui: t^ ■.. 
rudeness, desj.jiain£j all iiUjH, even ol br-Bdin^;, scorjiing icin^a i;.rxi 
lords alixe, on tlie Jruind j^enerous and ....^......a,..^ ..^ ...■ .. de r-=5,, 

he shov;s , luuch ^lore than any ol Voltaiirt'o ota^r bourt^eoi s, the 
ccnbcio^jsnesa ci cl; a.'id t^s indeijendonce of ranic ^.. ^ w^ .lv,.. .... 

the ^yart of real .vorth. i'irjally, tho •.£-h t}ia cl«j.ruct3rs in Lft Tiv^i . 
du 3eip;neur and -^harlot are net bonrgeoio', tiic. . c... ... ^>.,„- 

aafjes in each or ti.ei-i contrasting the _ijrivil:e£^eb of tlie neb lea 
tho^- ^^ V..3 third estate, tnat Icoi-: lor-.vard une.iUiv.-.v...^u.. . ^. .. 
ueronte of L^, .^.ec^iaiit is unashuUied ol aitner r..i. iii 

or hia provincialisiii, and AriBte, of X've ^ ., ^.^. -^ .. ^^..^., 

sensible '.yue tiiat reckliS tiis Arista >av.>n t5s . 

Tltib bourr^euit. io ierei^e in tiie coiiouioiiaiio^jo '^l the c oj. 

iiib ciriba, aud relUijeb u. ra-cay-uu^ae iUiuiiy tree Iruu a ^^ rcf ejij i on- 
ctl geneiilocjitj't . I.a is ourupulo >t>ly honeot ni hia »uOiiey ti.lii.iri>, 
a.xiQ thia iijiirib'ty io xjuulicly reco^ii€i:.^ci, J;'inully, he Qoetj not, 
like Volta.ir3'a iree^'Ort, buoU^in hi^ ovn bourj_,eoiri dignity oy ao- 
bi;ibinc; the nobility; he hua the ^rea.te;;jt rsb^ect lor this oi.ob. 
Hia '.vard, ker^nie, is the daUj_;i.ter of a "vicomte, and Brice rei'-ibeb 
to allow hib Sun to liiarry her, on account ox' their Qiir'3r.-?nce o i 
btation. It ib ti.e Vicuii.te d'Elbon .vl.o oti'er^ Keranie to 
the youn^- bour^eoio, out oi tJ.e i^;reat raj^ara i.-i hc^s for tne lat^jor. 

Sedaine's Vanderic, oi' Le P hilcuo^-ihe a ana le a avoir ^ •^"ibt.^inb 

even aiore lorxiialiy the honor ol hiti In a scene devoted en- 
tirely to the eXi^loitaiion ol thib liieaxe, he placeo the merciric-.nt i: 
a i^obition oi rebj.jonsability becona in the state only tc that cl 
the xuagistrate and the acldier. iie hixnsell" has yiven j^j '^^'■^ ranic 
to '.vnich ne .vab born to enter tr.ib clab^, ana tji.a -fliole ^-lay hin^^i. 
u^jon tne duel t*,bout to oe fout:;ht by Vanderrc I'ils t^ aVMn^je certain 
abj^.eraionb Cc.dt u^jon the claab by a youii^ nobi . : aae tk ^.e ^e 

rei^roosntb txie cultiination oi thi^j clabb that io bU^tainea by ^ 
sense oi the d^tjaity oi be in^j Ub-Ji'l. ocurcely lesb succebsi il, 
ii07/ever, ib Aurell; . ' .3a I'eux Auib_, in vhoL-. ;naib .. . 

dro^v/n ti.e tjutri^eois recently •itleri, /iio, 
'1 V :3 J. . j-i . --» IV ,^.'ji .^ .35^,^jl / /O.Ci . . .:fiy. 

nl . a... 


iOQjj ieoD tiiJ HuL^i 



. tj, c^ 

in re^-iy to u uui^ijiiiiiOiil ttUi t, t.'o best Ubii ol .l-'^tler^j oT no. 

is tb Qecor^i.te citizeno ut. uaei ul a.o niiiiti^ il', deiivero .a line 

Sijoech in .vjiio/i iie cicimo utility u^ ti..^ dt^ndi.rc b. :tiA 

3ho ila be jadi:;ed, ana judtied by t.'icit btu.nQcird, he oi"! ers Die laer- 

cnt^nt as the bene una aine.v ol the dtute. In }iiii ii4*r-riite bell- 

relic'.nce tuio c ojkiciuuo .vorth, /lUrei.L:, io not inleriur ic "^h. 

t.noue,h. ne i=- ;.v.., in o x.rfr refaj..'ects ac tic a cu-.TUcter. 

The rise una dviveluj^^iuent o! thia ty^e ol tjcur^jcoid, aeli'-re- 
a^^ectine; -.nd retij.jectin^ his cluss , is i., irly coincidont wiVa thj 
x'ise 01 tlxe b^-zurt^eois to a. x-lt^ce ol iiLj^ortr^ujce in th'D boc 
The oiJiJortun ity ol' tne bGur^ieuio tit tiie time ol liiC re , it is just at this time that Des touches ta^es up the character 
ao. a subject i ur serio;i,j dra.i.atic treataient. As, in tlie pro,:r-3sc; 
cl the century, the f^overmiivint gets closer ana closer linan- 
cial straits, uiiO so becoi.i9s more anc iiiore nej;jenoent on tiie ..ic:. - 
ea classes, so aoes the bourgeois on the statue assuuie .- ii.ore di;^- 
niiied and o eir-reli.LUt mien. Introduced ana aeveloj^ed Uj Pes- 
tcuches, De Bcisay ana Poisson carry ir. on in --i modifien I'on-i, 
Piron £i;ivea t.vo line ciXa.UxJ lea ut it, Volto^ire car.ies it Ic^r to.Vo.r- 
a ravolut ionciry attitude, cuid finally it culiuina t.3d in La Gnaio^oj, 

.'define, ^nd rea.umctrch», .vno aach ouilds a i^la. 
and inte^^rity oi ...erchant cl.-uss. 

One linal s^uery: " Moii : ne.v 

ci V 1 :>,/ in r>r ■ , i r^t ,_;e n 1 ^ o^'; r_avist\? 

, &cil' 

em i i 

ibii'i cti J i 

■ e.ii '1 J 

af.'on od ,ciSci.. 

i ixa 

..'e licvVv. ..j.i .v^., ^ , i. ..i.ij tiie L.. .^r" iiia.n bj no neana cc. ...... 

ihe I'iviiiiliaa oi' < ^v ot 

could transpire in the houaoholri ol' u noble. In ao f£>.r b.i> 

trt^geaieb are luid in ti^e liouoa oi Vne biur^e- io, it cun be said 

that &Mch a serious sitiitLiicn would Ynxxe been iiiiocoaible i.. . , 

A'ith the old t.vjje ol' ricnovtlous bcuroeois ll.vored by i.oliare and 
rancourt: it io only alter he Jiiid become hiitiaelf u serious anl 
sell'-reliant citizen that he coula be u^ed lor i^rave cri- 
ses, lies touches, who is the i irst to introduce thi^j ne,v Vr-y^., io 

also tJie rirst to si.aaow lorth the d Vciixe ; bet his use or the t.vo 

i o 
innovations^ by no means oarallel. His best exaxu^jlCv of draniTi 

I'oundea on l'a,.i.ily rait-, t ions occur in Le_ Philcsox^^he Larie and Le 

ulorigux , but neitner oi these is laid aiuong bourgeois characters; 

.vnile the be^t Si^eciiuen oi tne seir-re^ijectin^-; bourgeois io T^e 

cliatel 01 L'RnTant Gate , ;/r.o has absolutely nothing to dc 

I'amily ties oi any sort. Piron's i'rancaleu is at once a /cina i'a- 

iher and a sensible oourgeois; Voltaire, on the ot/ier i...:. , ^re- 

£,ents ji'ree^jort, his one ^^reat exa;Lj..le of this t 'pe uf bot.'.ri^auis, as 

.•/■ithout family connections of any Kind, and in his i-^.^.:-. * ..,..„ ^.. 

the doiiiestic tie, the bourgeois either aoes not in-vei-.r, or if he 

doe.., i.v^es not insist on ciass differences. La Ghu'.i — -^ 

uses the family reli.-tion to excess, has but one exai.ple c 

cort of bourgeois, and Diderot does not consider this ^ 

sort. It is not until we coniO ti. ine u rchciis * 

find tiie X^o combined, r.'-i --v •-.■■: yv^r.^' - r-;-^ii :.; .-. r-^ -r' r f r. ;.. 

beinti eonol.isive, lor not .. t;uuc>.-xi o, c^iici 

3 i. 

.t .Jd-i 

,u&iiOj;i::t cif. 

oJ . ^ ;i i t 

"cSU SiiS lvll:i.. 

. i *> on >ii -. c 

Jllij T9riJ 


:.• ^ i. i - ■ o ^ yjj. ^ i. » w- 

t/.'*^ Ociae^^ in Wi.ioii lie Qi.i^/ioya tjia noble. 

It iiiUot be oaiQ, tji^n, t/u.Lt the ueveio JlIl^;nt oi i ie 

ouu r^eoi^ie oi th2 clua^i-c tnac ioua bu';r^-eoi6 Is ayncnronoue, oo 

not iatcraeijcjiiueiit. T:ie xuust t-'^at c^fi be cliti^ea on ttxr: 

in thiat -a. certc-in ruiiuber - not tj.e ^/rtat-ter nuif.ber nor tL.t luoj t iru- 

^jortctat ci*j>eii - oi draLie^ ctre luia in bourj^eoio lu.i.ilie^, 

such ciro. 11.80 vo ila uaen iiri^jOJaS ible i':^. a not tirie bourj^eoib iiiin- 

seli bee oiue .x serioua draiiiu-tic ciio-rticter. hut tnat tne aaveloi^iuj r/ 

oi the d rcui.e VaU heliV^d b^ mis new ty^je , or ti-u. t tr.3 ^r^....:; 

not hcive arioen -vitliout the ^arAdlel deveiUi.:i.en^ oI the coi.j.>.i.- 

;>en3S bourgeois, I Ccionot i'ind c.ny evidence tc sno.v. Tn^ voric 01 

I'iaerot o.nd La, GiricUbaee i.a une4u.iv0cu.lly <a,j>^viabt such a ccncluiji. , 

tiie y 
//ii.ile Les t'^ucnes, Voltc-^jre, and Beaumarchais are divided, bi't^^l^c 

iiirov/ tjie weie^nt oI tna ir heaviest i/lciys it. 

1 xuust, tiiereiore, bide with LanbOxi in hij dei'inition ol' tiiC 

arume buu rv;eoio y .vhich ia that it deala :;ith jjeraona >.. urivo^e 

liie; and i-jjaiont thoae aritica vrno vie// the genre as a concetjcicn 

to the increaoinii iiu^jortance of tne bourgeois, in occiety. ;r.Intrc St'V. 

. i 


i • 

oUi.J.vAJ . . 

Aa actch tjeoticn in tjie i/rvioeui/iL. uiii^^i .'it}: a 

bUiiuctry, ciiid. atj the :.'\jrK oi ctut^nur xii-..j b':^;!! aui ii.ii.riiit!u ii* 
chuoter aiiclya iii^i the uiiM.r;..otera, it .vi i.L nut be nooe... 
into detciil in \ne. yrBaent tjGCtion, oi .vhich tiie object io to ^iv 
in brie^ b^u.ce and cuii^jrehenoibie lorin tite oubbtunoe oi tiie cc 
bions rriuclied in this oiudy. 

We Tina that throUoiiout the period the bour^ieoiji never i'l.. 
aa a subject for drai-iitic treatn.ent . 7or ci-bont the i'irot lorty 
yeuTo oJ. ter ^..oliere'd death, that ib, until auojt 1710, ne ij ^.l- 
.vay3 the ct'iidc type, und ia not considered ao a serioua lueniber oi 
bociety. Tnio is n<r..turc..l, ab auring thio tiii^e Gouiady and 1. 
/^re btili v/eii-deiinea oenrcb, txnd tjxe bcurgeci& couio not 
all:/ ri,--are in tragedies. All ti^e ciiaraoters i'rot. 
clabb Qurinci txiio tiae Icllovv luore or lobs i^aithlully tne ty^. Ob 
eatablionea by i.-oli3re, am ol tiieae ty^jea it is iu.Jourdain, th.^ 
bourg^eoio ridicu.le par excellence , who iiwb the luoat adherents . 
Dancourt eyxeiisa in tne delineation ol tnio I'Ji^a, Kext in ire- 
v^uuncy Oi occuraxice coiuSotiia n.iaer, the aebjenaant cl 
in t}iii type Ree,iiard io li^Obt at hGi^ie, Uiou^h the be i^ tr*. 

Regnara out little c* t bebt. Alter tiiS boiirgecis Uiade riaic 
bccial i^re or o^. c^varice, come thco, //lio lay Thei^b-; ives 
Oi>en to u^ricion b.v their va^-'ari love, 

be in,-; to iu^i^.n 

. »j --. i c . ^ v^ i u 

ait sW 

»J i- ' d Sj Ci J 

— li.fc\ 



j-...dE>intj oi' TiciKOonrt ciuc Regnard am; li.Jir ■■ 

becoui.3 j..ucii mora ax.orudic, ouii not be o^ ici Ic oono^i 

re<iuL.j.r line d.z.'ter tnio tir:.e. Pure , ixn :.oii 

it, uido ba^jun to I'cili into abevanoe'i' thio ti::!^, /. jr 

long intarvcila, D' Al^d. inva.1, Piron, a.f:.d areua:* ^^iv^i briiti 

ainjjleb ol' the oln ijoincay, uiK^ in u.1.l Li.e^a^i t^.c bo-ir 

but only in the i^loij oi t.-^e i irot-n.LineG io lie uo oliore ore-v ]..i.., 

As Tor Le ;jat>e, nio T.'rcc.rat io a nex cx'eatioii, ^jli^ced i. 

_,i3nr3, and 1;:^ .vitliout dedceaaanto, a^j iie is ^jr'ac tic ally .vit 


With thio decline ol coiiisdy, tr.a ^.Tovince ol the oc 

naturally lii..iteQ, but a nev; liela io o^^eri to hiu. in the __, 

...Mch taxes an oil ijial x^cuition on the ctu.;je ii. thirti.^. , 

thouj<;h Leotoucji-aij lx..(i bean exweriuient ij\-^ «i tr. it i^r twenty year-,^ 
031 ore. But the old bo'Jrgeoii) deed not lit into '.Jiic nev; rr^i^ie, 
and oide by side '.vi th this ne-i draiuatic t^enre ^rc 73 ii^j a new c;n-. - 
:i*itic tyjuie . T/iid nev; ty^^e ot Dourgeoio begins b^ bsi: 
ridiculous, ana irom tnio he j^uooes to u. lacre yooitive i.oo-iti. 
aound aeiioe, aell -reliance, and class -consc ioub dair^ni' . 
these t.vo, tne ne.v arc.-::.e and ti^e new ocjrgeois, _ro.7 • 
it car\ not be 6aid tiiat eitJier /;ao dc 

its inception. Oi: the o^har h.wid, it io s. j. 

.-a L either coula exi;jt inde^venf of ti 

cases - lii, , jt - in 

bour.^i eo ;i^ w odax vi'.ri n^ _, .. ..i 'i.^vj. , ...,;, . 

senie buur^je^Jb t^- be loitmi in tj.u , .;*■■; i. fn; 

tiie cirtniie under ciruu.iott*i:cetj ti^, '^ i.c-v-a a^lnlu^ to ac 
^ ..tit.! .iUcxiticij Llic*. ^ io t ii., u,ioj. t^.:,- htl.. ■; . It i .> 1 

tiu*t both th-3 arui .e u.ncl ti.e clu.oo -uun^ ji oiib boiirjiSi-io ^ ... . ... 

cuLuini^tion in tiie iicuds ex Uie octme i:.c<.ot .to, .-: 

Seduine, ana tiiiat Lrt^ t'eux /- ^.ia uJia L^ ?i:l loo '> /^.ihe oc^.i o i 

both suo'oaosiul gru. .Jo , bo ti^. decti .vitii trie aen-.i •jI;, ^ 
^■iuia, iaUQ are, iioa t iiu^urtunt of ..ill, rounded Uoon ths ■.■. 
bourriaois virtues u^.on th^; iiiu,intei:.-vnce oi bour^ooi^ < , 

honeiity, o-na inte^rit.v. 

That thia interaej..3nd3iice, '.viiic/i ;ic<o xj-i^a ex..":. 
critics, do56 not,t, I riccve triea to oi.o v in ti.-3 ^^riL- 
;^<iges. I have also triea, bj Co.r.^ii;l ai^iilyais oi churactara ..^ri ' 
lixid tro-cin^ ol iuotivea t^xia iinsc oI descent, to I'oilu/ s" 
the ciit^n^e thut look ylace in the bcur^eoia :...^ a . ic t;. ^.e ir; 

^..Jourdciin to ..eo^ro. VaiidcrjC .^nd .(.'.'.rexly, to bridj^e 
.nich aejjci..>"a.teb Le jjourssoia Cien tilnci-L .--?. Iroin L'3o 33eux huA^, _>:-o- 
auced juot one nunurea yaurs cn^art,aiKi to 1^ ase to . int 

.■lib cii^.neie lollo-.v.:, the oubvert.ion tju^t '.'uo t<.i,ivin^ ^.jlc-ce in ^-^.i- 
ety, 11 thivi atudy contrioutea in the uli^^itteat _: 

niotory ol" the jrench atat^e, or in <.. b "ouasr ^en^e 

ol idea in the century t. to t;.cT :re.i.t :• . 

Jljj cc 




[,io .-;XA. I, 

itiTL.Le T)euil. r>'Hauterooiie. 
it>V4.L'0iubre de kcliere. T)e Breccuit. 

Crispin kedecin.]'>'huuterGche. 

JritJi^in luU.-> ioiari, D'i^luuterocLe, 
lo77,Le i-ebtiri de Pierre. Th. Jorneilie. 
lii79,La rivineretise . Th. Uurneille et T<e Vise. 
1681, Le Triomjjhe ae I'Aiiour. Anonyuioub. 
1683, Le kercure Galtint, iJuuratiUlt. 

Le I'loreiitin. La l>'ontaine. 
1686.L' a Bonne i'ortujid. huron, 

?Lec. i'onob Perduss. Daiicourt. 
li)o7.Le ChevKlier a la ...ode. Dancourt. 

La Desolation deb Joueude^. Dancourt. 
lt>88,La iwiiiaon de Oampd^ne . Di^ncourt. 

La vJou^.e Enciiarjtee. La j;'ontc*ine, 

Le Divorce. Re^jnard, 
1689, Ija Deacente a'Arle4.uin aiix Enl'era. Ref^aard, 
1690,L'Ete deb Coquet tea. Dancourt. 

La i'olle Ttlncnere. Daiicourt. 

Lea Jj'ilies Errante*. Regnard, 

L'Hoiiui.e a Sonne fortune. Re^nara. 
1691. Le Grondeur. J3rueys. 

Le iviuet, £rueys. 

La Paribienne. Dancourt. 

La Coquette. Ret^nard. 
169k. Les Bourtieoiseo a la .^-ode. Dancourt. 

La je/iiuie d ' Intrif^iued. Dancourt. 

Leb Jhi.ioib. Re£;ncirc. 
169,5. La Gazette. Dancourt. 

L' liiiijroiiii.tu ae Garniaon. Dancourt. 

Jja 3aguette de Vulcain. Regnard. 
1694, Lea Vendangeb . Dancourt. 

Ati endez-;,.oi aoua I'Orn.a. Regnara, 
169.^, lii .^'cirs de Beaona. Dancourt. 

Le Tuteur. Dancourt. 

Lea Vendangea de Surciane. Dancourt. 

La ifoire LJt-Gerj.iain. Regnard, 

La " .iaaiUiCe d'Aiaadia, Regnard. 
1696, Leb Baux de honrhon, Daxicoiirt. 

Jja jroire St-Geriiu.iin. Dc^nccurt. 

Le koulin ae %Tiivelie. Dancourt. 

Jjea Vacancea. DaiiCOurt, 

Jje Bal. Regnard. 

Le Jouer.r, I.egnard. 

La berenade, Regnard. 

La ouite ae la jj'oire 6t-Geni.ain, Retina. ro. 






Ijl* Loterie. l\.ziocurt. 
Le Retuur aea Ollioieri. Pancourt, 
Renuuci et Ari-iuo, Duiicourt. 
lie Distrait. RerjUo-ra. 
li)9.].Lxiti Jurieux cie Ooiu^j iej_,iie . ])Q.ncoart, 

:,e lUiri Retrouve. Duiicourt. 
ioyy.Letj Km'untij de Peirio. Dt^ncourt. 
Leo Pseb. runccurt. 
Le \'ert-Giilcj"it. rtii-court. 
Le Jcirnavul de Venit-e. Regiicrd . 
Ll. i..ij.lade iujio ii.aliidie. Dui'reiiny. 
170G.C&lin-i».uil.Lc-rG. Dixncuurt . 

Leo iourt^eoioeo de Q,Uttiite'. D<..nooart. 
Lea Troio Gc'Ubineb. Duncourt. 
L'Eb^jrit de Jontrc.aio tion. Dufreany. 
Deiiioc r i te . Ke ^na rd . 
].« Re tour Li.^re'vu. Re£,na.rd. 
l'/01.l!lsOi-.e a la Jour. Jioursault. 
lYOo.L'Oi>erci teur iic»rry. Da.ncourt. 
Le Double YeuYu.^e. Jjxx:-^. y,. 
170o.L'/Jidrienne. 3aron. 
-. = . L' Incoarni. Dancourt. 

1704.i7O4,Le Galant Jardinier. Dauccurt. 
Les Aiiianto i..a£>nii i^ues. Dance urt. 
Le ixtriaeve de la i'olie. Regnard. 
Lea i'olies AuiOureTisea. Keo/iard. 
1705. Circe. Dancourt. 

Le Divertiiiseiaent de Sccu'.y^. Dancourt. 
L' Lujjroiaiitu de Livry. Daricourt. 
Leb LenecJiiiies . Rej^nard. 
1706.L'Avocat Pateiixi. Lrueys. 
170V. Le riabla Boiteux. Daiicourt. 

Le .-Jecond 'Jliaxjitre au Diable ilciteux. Dancourt. 
-La Trahibon r'uni. Dancourt. 
Jribjjin Rivd ae son i.c.itre, ]je tjat;e . 
17G3,J«ua.Gaaie Artuo. Dancourt. 

Le Le^atairo Univerbel. Refinara. 
La Jritiviue du Le,iata.ire TIniverbel. Regnard. 
1709.TurCcvret. Le oac>e. 

Le Jciloux Debabuse. Gairuv istron. 
1710. Ici Comeaie aea Jomeoiens. Dancourt. 
L'/juour Ji^ariatan, Dancourt. 
Les A^ioteurb. Dancourt. 
171.1 .Gei-'hale et Procris. Dancourt. 
1712.oanGho ^anja. Daiicourt. 

L'Ine;rat, JJeo touciieb. 
1713.L' Im^v roxii^^tu de ouresne. Dancourt. 
L'Irrebolu. DebtouciiC w,. 
Le^ Truii; jfrereb Rivauj'.. lii.j.cnt. 
1714. LtJo ieteb r.ucturneb c.u Ji. ir^.. 


I'/IV ,L'ObL.tcicle lati>rc . .:rie b. 

1V13,Jk>. j. etaiiii^ii icoba ci;;.. riaiiccurt. 
1719, La Reuonu iliat ion i.onauad.e. Dulreany. 

Le Tec it. Pufreonv. 
171:0. Arle4.uin Poll i.ur I'/m.our. i.^t^rivuKx. 
17iil,Le J uriai_e r«it et roiuju. Durrcouy. 
17:c£,Le Jalcnt Joardu.r. Le Uraud. 

IL-rle^^uin-Deuociliou. reiron. 

La 3ur^.rit;e de I'/^ji.onr. , .rivt^ux. 
17k:o,T£i rouble Inconstaixe. i.ja,riviunx. 
17<;5,Le liabillard. T)e rioioby. 

L'lndiscret. Voltt^ire. 
17<!7.Le rran9ais a Londrea. Tie Boidsy. 

Le PhilobO^jhe i..arie. beat ouches. 

L'Envie '.!:<.. Deb touches. 

Ijx oecorid Sur^jrise de I'Aiaour. ..arivaux. 
lV2o,L'Ecole dso iScurgeois. r<'Allai:ival. 

Le Procureur /irbitre. Poiason. 
173L. Lsb PhilobOijlieo j-juoureux. Deotouoheb. 

Le Jeu ae I'AiuOur et du Hiiaara. i.^arivaux. 
17oL.Le Glorisux. iJestouciiea. 

L'EcclSjJ des .>,ereb. l>..-.rivaux. 

Leo Sar_entb Indibcretb. j,:a,rlvaax. 

Leb Ori^iiiaux. Voltaire. 
17oo,Le ribb ix^ateur. Debtouches. 

Le Rendez-vo'Ob . j!Ui<a.n. 

L' Iiiij,.ronixjtu ae Caiii^yajine. xoisson, 

L'Heureux Strala^eii.e. :v.arivaux. 
IV.j'r .La Pu_;^.ills. Pat^an. 

La j^eivriae. i.c^rivau... 

Le P3tit-..aitre Jorri£_;e. i..arivu.ux. 

L'Kc: c,n.:d. Voltaire. 
lYoo.Le Prgju^e a la :,.ode. !«,. Chaussee. 
' Jjck Lere Jonridejite. I_arivaux, 

175ii,La Tfaii.bour J'octurne. TiebtcuciiSb. 

Lc Legs. i..o.r ivaux. 

La . 3trciucJiie. Pircn, 

L ' Er^ la n t Pr oa i^^ ue . Voltaire, 
lYoV. L' Ambitieux et l'lndiscret. De&tcuciieb, 

Leb Pauobes CoiiI idenceo . j.arivuux. 
175'^.Le3 CriKlniiUx. I''ai3an. 

Le Jen^j.'iteii.eiit Puree. u.ijot r ■ rville. 
17oi9. Lab Sinceres. I;jiriva:j.x, 

La Soii-naizibile . j-'ont-oe-Voble. 
1740, Leb P'ehors TroM^, aurb. I^e Boiusy. 

L ' Ex> re uve . i^a ri vaux. 

L' Oracle. o..irit-F< Jx. 
lV41.L'Enlai.t G^Tte'. 

'..::.—•;> ' . ■• -t. . 

i7'T-- , L'Euole aa.D i.ereij, Ltt Ji.i*^t>etj. 
174ij,Le oatie ?)tc^rai. Pe !-'cibb.y, 

Lo i.-eciiu.iit . >.;x'e t>u it . 

La. Priime^ije ue jiuVc^rie. Voltciire. 

Le Tei:.ivle c.e lu. uloir ?. Voltu.ire. 
174G,Le i-TojUfeie Vu.iiioit. i...riv.^ux, 
1747,L']-; 3ii)^-ulier. Iie&touciiej . 

La iouvvernc^nte , Lu Jj-au jaoe. 

La rrude. Voltccire. 
1749, Lu PeMiie ^ui a l^aioon. VoltaiB. Voltaire. 
IVjO.Ija i'oros ou Mature 1. J''estcvicheb. 
IVol. L' Lu^^er tinerit . DeeiLifa.his . 

Le Jeune Hojiiuo a I'Ei.reuve. Letjtc. iOiietj . 

1752. Le Livin de Village. Fvcuaseau. 

IVbo.Ias P^o'JTi Qe Bastien dt Bastierme. i'a.'Va.rt. 

17b6,La G04uette Corri^ea. o^..' de la iccue. 

1 ■; Ci T. v- 11 .JO terras Tio trii-^Voc 1757. Le X- i lb Aatar-3l. Diderot. 

Socrate. Voltaire. 
1760. Les 1 ce'i. rb du Tercps. 3aurin, 

L'Scobijuibe . Voltaire. 
17ol,Le P^re de jj'aiuille. Diaerot. 
17oi:.Le ri'oit du 3ei^neur. Voltciire. 
17tj5.Dupuib et Deb Eonaib. Jolle. 

iuifiet'ie et Lubm. Pavart. 
1764. Le Oercle. Poinoinet de oivry. 
1765. Le -'hilobOivhe bans le bavoir. Sedaine. 
1767,Kugenie . Beaiixuarc/jaib . 

G^iarlot. Voltc^cire. 
17G8.Iieb iaubbeb Ini ioe liteb. ISartne. 

Beveriei. oa.rin. 

lit. uageure Iiu^jT'ev-je . Sedaine. 
17 r'l.Le Bcurru-Bientaibant. uoldoni. 

L'yjiii de 1^. I. L.ibon. iviarmontel. 
17 74, La ?ci.rtie cie Cha^jbe de Henri IV, Golle. 
lv7j,Le i:c.rbier de Seville. Saauxnarol^ais. 
17/b,Leb Truis Sultaneb. i'avart, 
177T,L'i'Vi!iaxit Bcumi. iv.onvel. 

17 79, Leb Reveries Renouvele'eo deo Grecs. i'avart. 
17h.l.Le Jaloux banb ;jaour. liubert, 
176.j.Le .Jeducteur. De ^.ievr«. 
1784. lie i.aria^e de j'ifjaro. Be<ii^iUiroi.aib . 
17.;i3iL' Inconb •.aiit . Jcllin d ' Harlev ill e. 
17.';V,Le3 f^Iiuiraib. Andrieux. 
17'} i..T.'Oi.jtiinibte. Jolj-in d ' j:c. rlevi lie. 
1790, Le TartulTe ae^ i,.oeurb. Ji.^ron. 

Le Piiilinte liere. j;'abre d' : lii3. 

L' Intri^:ie ■,_ . ■■ ■• ■•- . ' h.-- -•' * ^ - . 

179r.. Le Vie IX Jexil 

k'UCi'.j -lilOSji lATsi JAi'i ■,?, ]U-:TKR..nJ';i) 


Le Prix de 1' Ar iUebii3t3, 1714-1713, 
Jjia, D^route avi Pu-ruon, 171b, or ia.ter. 

Le Vinaact..if. 

Le Tresor Ota-che. 

Le Ifii^oi. 

Le ivxir'i Coniident. 

L'Archi-i,.enteiir» -^"'^ Le Vieux Dupe. 

Les ^-'eteb ae I'lnconnu. 

Lci i'ete de la h^yzii^^he Lutece. 

ocene ae I'AiUiixble Vie.illcvrd. 

Jcerie du Trau.'-as.ier. 

oceneb /jTi- iai 666 , tireeb de la Coiaedie intitulee Lu Toiuj^ete 

.jcene qu Protiiee. 

cScene ae Tiialie et ielyOiaene. 


liinette a let C^-ur. 

Le Grand. 

L ' / .ve u-e le C la i rv 0.7 ...i . t . 


Les .>>,.-'i-ait6 (non re^.re ^-jntee ) , 

Les VendanK,e3, eu Le --ailli d' Aaie res (non re^.re oentee ) , 


L^ Cciiieaie i'aiieuse. 
Le faron d'Otrante. 
Les Deux Tonneaux. 


A. ■,VUR.>J Oi'' JRlTIJIdi ..i;JTUHY COliSULTh;'!'. 

i. Loin- '<^-' -t Ic. Sociate uu XVllI .;^ .•';■. -T. ..... 


Diderot, l.'ioi. Toiiie III. 

i5et<.Uiiia.rciic<,ib, I, 11, III, 1. . I. 

o, ^.i&toire de Id. Litterat'.vre !Drcu-<..t i^ue. Jules Janin. 

Jhaj.tero on Diderot and 2eauir4e, loiue IV, 

'i, jLii-^oire ae Xci Lit terutiire jrj.ri9aise au Dix-Fuitieiu-j oi^jc- . 

jjto.r A. Vinet. i: .^ . riri -; t i o.i. ..rib, 

5, Portruitb Lit teru.ires. 0./^. oainte-Beuve. Pc-,.rib, . 


u. Leadinti'o HamDurt^iiiohe Draiuatur.>>ie , erlautert vcn i'ri^dricn 
Dciiroter -'nd Ricii^rd Thiale. halie, . 

7. Le TiiStttre et la Ph.ilosox^hie fa.u XVIIle oiicle. L ..nti^in- 

Paris, 1.578 

ij • 

.Hio.'_ir3 au Luxe x^^ive ei ^^uijxij ae^^uid 1' aix'.i^ d te Juw-i..'' 
noo jo'.Jrb, H.Br.iidrill.rt. Paris, . 

9. I'Jivel^e de la CLauaasa'^ Leuen und V/erican, ;;iitrc.^ zur 
Litteraturgeschichte de.;. 18.Jh. ';s unci insbsbondere zur Ent.'/ic*.- 
lan^ts^e s i-; "a -■ Vit.s n ^: r * J c...i|d ia Lanuo,y<^iit i . " 

vcn Jchanneb Uthoi , ilbrcna. 
Reviewed in Litter^ t^ fur £;erL-<.*niac. :iisc/:e 

Puilolo^ie, oy JWrlea .fforet. IV, jj.obo-o^v, 

iO. i.ivella de la Gliauboe.: . Joiuedie 1. . a. Lanson. 

Pari. , 

J. L. T;.e ^'Tench 3t.. 

Reviewea oy jc ; ;*. V/«ouorc 

... ; .c in 

7-.-- 3a.turna:' Revid.v, June i.. 

.iClia. 1 

Ic.. .La ijoiueflie en i'rui^fj 
Reviev/ed oj Li.Lc^. 

. ■'! 

lo, Volwuirc: ai. . . /.Mr 

Zeitbo\\rit't i'lir rranzoaohiachTn Ai^n ',it e 

_- . . .-fiie en jfTttuca au XVIIle rji.cii?. /.loo : /o r u . - . . 

iuodern jjciHi^ ua-^e ■ooco. V, ^j. /I. {i.-.'i^O,) 

irj. i3aeum<a.rc}u.ij, L'Hoi!i.e et l'Oen"vre, Ci.U^rro 

Revue asa 1)3\ol i..Oiiciea, l''J, ;.547, (_ . . 

L'Ancie!! Re{;ii-ue. 6!ue ed. K./^.Taine. Pari^, . 


11, Histoire de 1>^ Lit *^ ^r;, tiir-i lYanjiuitie deijuis ^ _ ines 

jud^u'u nos jonrb. J.DeiiiO^^.eot. P..ris, 'x 

18, j^e l'j.'jti.T,re ciU XVIIe oiecle. La Jcxueaaa. ' loior , v ..^ruej.. 

Jhajjter on Lea Successeurs de koliere. Paris, lilOi 

19, Le Theatre an iYance. L. Petit de .Tullaville, Paris, Ti 

LO, StudebCrit i^uesj sur It., Litteruture i'Taavsuide. 

r-erdinand Srunetiere. Pari a, 1^9' 

Voltaire, I,'>l. 

" , IV, ,;.iin7. 

.-1. Eturieb aur lev Litterature irancaioe. Preaiiere Se'rle. 

Rene Douiuic. Parid, .l 
j'.ij:.ay on ridsrot. 

■Ivclution de la Trar-eaie clc.aoi^ue en TT&jue roui^iiti^ue. iurantz. Revue deo Cour.'j et Qcnfe'rences. V.^j.359. lo9i' 

k,5. Les Ebonies d-i TJieitr^ i'ranpaio (I'-v.-jri-lSbC, ) 

i)'erdifU-nd Brunatiare. P..ris,i 

<i4. .--'iotoire de ia Lan^ue et de lu _^i. . Jr.-'.ua-j ^r.u.yuio-.^ tiOo 
Ori^inei. a 1900, Publiee 3c\o Ici rireotion de L, Petit de 
Julleviile. Paris, ^ 

Toii.e VI. .VIII Sieole. o.;345, Le Tn^atre. :-i Lie;.. 

.-o. Le TiA'.-.r-B da Seda ine - "L'? »'}.ilo^o.., , iit, le ... .-. " 
.-ionri , Hev'ie dc- ^ojil c;;\; ''I !,,.». bO ..'. ^ 

h'^ :"o et Cv. riTferr - ;iceo . IX, . 

.,7. . 

,;jo. IX, 1.. 

RUijene Li. 

o\t .1x1. j\ji.^^".' i.xi 1.1 u rS Id . >. J. I r. 1 ■ .":: ■< i J u 

oJ). Jliiouia de Li* '-er^-ture jrrancui.'-je. ■ cierie. 

o4 . Preciij Q'3 It-- LitteVdure x'ra.nct^ibe . j. P-;i.iit^- i'Br . .-io,''. 

O.J. iiistcire de 1^. .i."it lera-ture j:'<j aao Ori:jinec o. 

L. Peti^' '•■■ T-al.Laviiid.. x^. ....... 

3, -HiDITl.. iJ^,.;-TIJ AUTKORo USED. 

1* JO. ..'ijilJTI^ . 

1. Ke..ertuire dii Tneatre Frh-npiaib, ... rtecuoil ded 1r<~^^.- 
Coi!.edie;i rabte^o c^u Theatre aej.7:d3 ."lotrcu. Avec deo 
cna-iue .-."ateur, et I'SiSiiji-exi da Oi.c...iue Piece, i^w: 

J... Pet i tot. i'uri 

^, Le.. Conteuiijora-irib de i>.oliere. ..'il de Jc^.eriieb, ^..r-^o 

ijeu Co::;."Aes, joueeb da 1650 u 16^0. 

Victor -.'i.uriiol. K.."ii>, 

o>. Ji ii'3-a'O.r.ivre aei, /.uteurb Coiui raeb. Pc^rib, 

« ' ' ' I 

4. Oeiivres Coxiipletea ds Beuiiiuurai-c. ib . Preoed-aes ri una lotic 

. icj^ro. viii^ue , jj... r i... Louib Loliind. Pctria, 

^. Lab Oe^ivrsa oj T _„...,.'.. . . •" . , 

I, Oeiivreb Dr-uj-^^t i^iueb c .ju.ilt 

so hf 

bio.^;rLi.^.ni ^u.^ at iitleru , . 

Re:uc-r- ■• ■ iue ir'iece,. i>cA,r .... .■■ i .•. 

10. Oeuvras Jciiu.leteb ae Voltaire. Pa.rj . 


11, Oeuvres Jiioibieo cte DiaI retsr.y. 

Oeuvreo JlxOiaiea de La j.^. .^^:je. i^ri^, 

16. Oe-.ivreb Choisies de i^arivaux. . , 

14. Theatre Cnoiai de ivjiriVc*..^'L. j^ . ae i,.aribc.. 
avec une Pralcce ^-ar ?. Sarcey. 

Id. ii;e*tre Choibi de .vi.arivaux, avec une Introdiiction >»ar 

L. . Lo . i b , o Ic^ nd . Pa r .i b , ? , 

16. Oeuvrai) da jr'iro/.. Precedees d'une i.otiue d'a.^rea des ])ocu- 
luexits ;.ouvea.ux, ^^r Eaouard i'ournier. Pario, 

-jiio, i'ebruiiiw 19, I'd'/b. 1 

receivizit^ the aet;;roe ol A.fJ. The .vet.r 189j-6 I talent in ^-raaiiate 
study cit the Univei o I 1,^ ux , iciii^iii., .'.i:.ii'.^ in Hcii^aij.,- 
i_r.d Ene'lish. I tock tlie desire e oi. i..c.dter ol' Arts ; .iii nnivai 

sity in 189t3. x:x.. ±.:>u IQ 1901 I vrctd l:io ixuj i^^r in . rci^n ^t 
Jase oc/iGol 01 Aivlied ocience, Cleveland, arid durln^ ti^e lust 

i.ree yei.-.r3 o! thio _t^eriua 1 .v^.o u oi-../i;tfiiL c<, l Western Reserve 'j.-ii' 
varsity, follov/inj^ courseo in Rop.u^jice liun^uciges. Old Ent>libh, uiri 
j:reiiCii History. In 1901 I entered the iTohji^ .-uj....ins University, 
arid have s^jent tnere tiie yeucb 1901-3, tinn 1905-6, Vrom 190o to 
1905 I Witd Aso is tcuit-Prolessor oi' Rciu.-i.or^ .<^ngu.i'^s:i in Indituni-i 
'J/iiversity. -i,.y time ai the Johiis iio^jjcins J-kis been s^^ent entir-. 
. .. .^..e study of Run.a/iCe Lun^^uaijes, ■.'.i... ■. ^I'inj u.y siBCohu . -... ; 

so t'ortuncite us tv. iiola the i'ellov/siii^y in tnis aei.urtii.ei. . 

■ r :i_ ...^ :.iard yoc. ; ..-.c; jj'elic.vohi^. i^^/ Jourtesy. 1 .visi. ..-s 

*.hio c... on .;;ity to ex_i-re3o iiiy i_:ratituae to Prol'eosor Glaru A. 
x.uu..-v/n, 0^ ti^e Ojiio V/esleyiin University, to v/hose inutru 
: uteres t I eve ...., lir^t iLi^^ulae to.VL.rd '. 

•_j,den, J. Jo.:- 

, i ^3 u . 

' i J G . 

cei v- 

. ^lOiiL S/l 

i ,' \ I'iKBji 




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