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Full text of "Bow, Chelsea, and Derby porcelain : being further information relating to these factories, obtained from original documents, not hitherto published"

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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 



Mrs. Stella Langdon 
















Author of "Life of Joseph Wright, of Derby," "Manna/ of Wood Can'iii.t;." etc. . ftc, 








IT will be seen in the following pages that some dates and 
theories relating to the Bow, Chelsea, and Derby Porcelain 
Works, and their products, which have been so long 
accepted, must be greatly modified, and an earlier date given 
to the foundation of the Derby fabric than has hitherto been 
assigned to it. 

This uncertainty has partly arisen from the fact that 
Duesbury's name has always been so intimately associated 
with these three factories, that writers who lived towards the 
latter end of the eighteenth century have neglected to go back 
beyond Duesbury when dealing with the origin of these 
ceramic industries ; so that we have but meagre particulars 
of the persons who were the actual pioneers, or sufficient data 
to enable us to identify, with certainty, many of the unmarked 
products of these three factories. 

It has occurred to numerous students of ceramics that in 
many of the unmarked examples attributed to one or other 
of these factories, there was much uncertainty as to their real 

Jewitt's " Ceramic Art of Great Britain " discloses from 
authentic sources the information that Duesbury was not in 
Derby, but in London, in 1750, the year in which it is 
generally supposed that the Derby works were established 
by him. 

Mr. Nightingale, in his researches amongst the newspapers 
of the period when these works were newly established, 
brings to light certain advertisements that again create doubts 


as to the correctness of the generally accepted theories, and 
he deduces therefrom that we, to-day, attribute examples to 
wrong factories. 

A short time ago a quantity of old deeds and documents 
relating to these factories, and which have not been hitherto 
perused by any writer on this subject, came into our posses- 
sion as a gift They prove conclusively that Mr. Nightingale 
was right, and that many objects, hitherto supposed to have 
been made at Bow or Chelsea more especially the former 
must be attributed to Derby. 

The late Sir A. Wollaston Franks, whose death is deplored 
by all antiquaries and lovers of ceramics, on being shown 
a portion of these documents, impressed upon the writer 
the importance of giving the new information to the students 
of ceramics, and correcting, from authentic documents, some 
of the present theories that have hitherto prevailed among 
writers on the products of Bow, Chelsea, and Derby. The 
present volume is, therefore, the outcome of the advice thus 
given by Sir A. W. Franks. 

Whilst we can establish the earlier date to a Derby factory 
from written evidence, it is unfortunate that no data exists 
to allow any specimen being absolutely assigned to its maker. 
The only information we possess are the words, " Darby " and 
" Darbishire," given as the place from which these early 
examples originated, and the years 1751-2-3. But how much 
earlier it may have been in existence rests at present only on 

The advertisement quoted by Mr. Nightingale as having 
appeared in December, 1756, gives a list of goods then made 
as "fine figures, jars, sauceboats, services for deserts, and a great 
variety of other useful and ornamental Porcelain after the 
finest Dresden models all exquisitely painted in Enamel, with 
flowers, insects, India plants, &c. . . . This and the following 
days will be sold some of the finest of the Derby Porcelain and 
Foreign China." We have here a list of productions that 
denote, in variety and quantity, the output of no very small 


factory, nor else of a factory very recently started ; it is 
needless to observe that the establishment of a porcelain factory 
is, at any time, necessarily a somewhat slow process. These 
goods could not, therefore, have been made by Duesbury, who 
was only just starting his works in 1756. 

It is disappointing for us to be unable to positively indicate 
the factory ; unfortunately the local records do not help us 
to elucidate, to any great extent, these interesting points. What 
up-to-date information is available will be given here ; and 
further research may, in time, help to unravel this interesting 
ceramic mystery. 

I have to acknowledge references to the following works : 
A. Wollaston Franks' " Notes on the Manufacture of Porcelain 
at Chelsea," Mr. Nightingale's "Contributions," Professor Church's 
" English Pottery," " The Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire," 
by A. Wallis and W. Bemrose ; Jewitt's " Ceramic Art of 
Great Britain," and J. Haslem's " Old Derby China Factory." 


Elmhurst, Derby. 





CHAP. I. Mr. Nightingale's Notes John Crowther Duesbury's 

Work-hook alludes to Bow products Thos. Frye - i 


CHAP. II. William Dueshury In London as an Enameller 
Dealers who employed Duesbury Fac-simile Pages 
of Duesbury's Work-book Miss S. Duesbury 
Longton Hall - 6 

CHAP. III. Site of the Chelsea Works in Lawrence Street 
Lease of Site to Cox by Sprimont Plan of Site 
Copy of Lease to Duesbury and Heath Chas. 
Gouyn Sprimont Lagrave Plan from Ordnance 
Survey shewing Site of Chelsea Factory Duesbury's 
demolition of Chelsea Kilns Value of Old Chelsea 
per ounce Early China Ware Bodies 20 

CHAP. IV. Sprimont's Illness : Affidavits relating thereto 
Style of living The Case, Duesbury v. Burnsall 
List of Goods said to have been Stolen Francis 
Thomas 38 




CHAP. V. The Cause of the Discontinuance of the London 
Periodical Sales Reprint of the Chelsea and Derby 
Catalogue of 1774 or 1775 - - 5 

CHAP. VI. List of Moulds, Models, etc., belonging to Duesbury 
in 1795 Extracts from Sales Books Visitors to 
the London Show Rooms Goods supplied to 
Royalty - 67 


CHAP. VII. Early Derby Porcelain Importance of Early Derby 
fabric Nightingale's " Contributions " What and 
where are these Second Dresden Derby Figures of 
1756 Cockpit Hill Pot Works Early Figures 
Andrew Planch^ Miss S. Duesbury Notes by 
Locker and Keys Woodward's Pipe Kiln First 
Figure made at Derby - 95 

CHAP. VIII. Site of the Duesbury Derby Porcelain Works 
John and William Hutton Date of foundation of 
the Duesbury Derby Works, 1756 Convent of 
St. Joseph View and Plan of the Works - - 107 

CHAP. IX. Duesbury's Biscuit Body Haslem's error as to date 
of Derby Biscuit Professor Church Beauty of 
the Biscuit Body Figures of boys for Clocks 
Vulliamy Correspondence Rossi, the Modeller 
Mr. Flight, of Worcester China Works Vulliamy 
and Royalty Portrait Medallions China Trinkets 
White Derby China Grinding Mill for China 
Materials The most useful Church in Derby 
J. J. Spengler Isaac Farnsworth William Hopkin- 
son William Billingsley William Pegg Zachariah 
Boreman Cosway, the miniature painter Edward 
Withers J. Banford George Lynn - - 112 



CHAP. X. Holdship at Derby, 1766 Chas. Sheen Curious 
Agreement with J. Musgrove Lord Rawdon 
Duke of Clarence Curious Custom at Derby 
The " Rodney " Jug Edward Withers The 
" Hutchinson " Vase - - - - - - 140 


Longton Hall Porcelain -Nightingale's "Contri- 
butions " Duesbury's connection with Longton 
Hall Particulars of Longton Porcelain Factory 
Marks Paste Figures Chronology Bow, Chel- 
sea, and Derby Factory Marks - 151 

INDEX - - - - 169 


Plate No. 




Portrait of William Duesbury 



Bow Group, Two Strolling Players 


Fac-simile Pages of Duesbury's Work-book 

9 to 1 6 


Bow Statuette of "Kitty Clive" 



Chelsea Rose-water Ewer and Dish - 



Chelsea Group, "The Music Lesson," by 



Chelsea Statuette 



Chelsea-Derby Vase - 



Derby Group, Russian Shepherd, daughter, 
and youth 



Plates made at Chelsea and Derby 



Plates made at Chelsea and Derby 



Portrait of Sarah Duesbury, by " Wright, of 
Derby " 



Plan of Duesbury's Works at Derby - 

1 06 


View of Duesbury's Derby Porcelain Works 



Derby Statuettes, Shepherd and Shepherdess - 



Chelsea Trinkets 



Original Drawings by Billingsley 

I 3 


Plates made at Derby 



The "Rodney" Jug and " Hutchinson " Vase - 



Longton Hall Bowl and Cover ; Statuette, 
" Sampson and the Lion " 



Longton Hall Figures 

I 5 6 

The Collotype Plates in this Volume are produced by 
Messrs. Bemrose &* Sons, Limited. 



Bow Statuette, Figure of Girl and Dog - viii 

Bow Statuette on pedestal xvi 

Chelsea Bonbonniere - 1 9 

Plan of Chelsea Factory Site . 21 

Site of Chelsea Factory on Ordnance Survey - 32 

Chelsea "Slip" Mill 3 6 

Chelsea Smelling Bottle Figure 37 

Chelsea Scent Bottle 49 

Chelsea Shakespeare Scent Bottle 51 

Chelsea-Derby Tobacco Stopper - 93 

Derby Bisque, Two Virgins adorning Pan - 94 

Derby Statuette of a Boy for Clock - 95 

Derby Bisque, Two Virgins awaking Cupid 96 

Site of Woodward's Pipe Kiln - 105 

Tobacco Stopper, First Figure made at Derby - 106 

The Convent of St. Joseph, Derby - - no 

Chelsea Smelling Bottle Figure - - m 

Figure of a Boy made for Clock r 113 

Medallion of Mrs. Wm. Duesbury - 119 

Water Engine-house and Grinding Mill, Derby - - 125 

A Rose, painted by E. Withers - 147 

Seascape by G. Lucas - - 149 

Derby Bisque, Three Virgins distressing Cupid 150 



Longton Hall Statuette, "Winter" - 151 

Longton Hall Vase - 152 

Longton Hall Candlestick - - 163 

Longton Hall Dish - 164 

Bow Marks - - 165 

Chelsea Marks - 165 

Derby Marks - - 166 







MOST writers on Bow Porcelain suggest that these works 
were established about 1744, by Heylin and Frye. 
Mr. Nightingale, whose " contributions towards the 
History of Early English Porcelain," are, unfortunately, so 
little known to students of Ceramics, through being " privately 
printed," states : " But I find no notice of the Bow products 
mentioned in the Londo'n newspapers before 1757." 

It is worthy of note that the five early English Porcelain 
Factories came into public notice by means of advertisements 
in the public papers, within a period of seven years, thus : 

CHELSEA, in the General Advertiser, Jan. 29th, 1750. 
LoNGTON HALL, in Aris's Birmingham Gazette, July 27th, 

Bow, in a Birmingham and Derby paper, in 1753 ; in 

London papers, 1757. 

WORCESTER, in the Public Advertiser, March 2oth, 1756. 
DERBY, in the Public Advertiser, December, 1756. 


In connection with these advertisements of the several 
porcelain factories, it is curious to note that Bow porcelain 
was advertised in the country papers, at Birmingham and 
Derby, in 1753, or four years before it was advertised in 
the London papers. The Derby Mercury was an early 
established and important paper of the Midlands at that 

At first the Bow factory appears to have produced " the 
useful rather than the ornamental." On Nov. 5th, 1753, 
however, Bow advertises in Aris's Birmingham Gazette " a 
person is wanted who can model small figures in clay 
neatly." And in 1757 paragraphs in the papers relating to 
the sale mention figures. 

Mr. Nightingale writes : " Towards the end of the year the 
following paragraph was inserted ; it appeared on Dec. gth, 
1757, and was several times repeated : 

At the Bow China Warehouse in Cornhill are great Variety of 
useful and ornamental Wares of that manufactory greatly 
improved : And for the Convenience of the Nobility and 
Gentry, their Warehouse on the Terrace in St. James's St. 
is constantly supplied with every thing new, where it is sold 
as at Cornhill, with the real Price marked on each Piece 
without abatement. 

"The sale advertisements of 1758 show that many of their 
services were decorated with the old brown-edged Japan pattern, 
and that they were painted by artists brought from Dresden. 
This is not the rich style of ornament which we are accustomed 
to call Old Japan, but is an earlier indeed the earliest mode 
of Japanese decoration on porcelain.* The design is very 
simple, and consists of a tree of the prunus in flower, with two 
quails or partridges, sometimes with hedges and wheatsheafs, 
all on white ground, with a narrow edging of thick foliage in 
red. It is of this kind, but with the pattern very much 
elaborated, that the bowl preserved in the British Museum 
is composed. It was presented by Thomas Craft in 1760, and 

See Sir W. Franks' Catalogue of his Collection of Oriental Porcelain, p. 67, 
2nd ed. 



Two Strolling Players, seated, with 

dog at their feet ; the man is singing, 

his partner accompanying him on the 


Richly coloured (no gold) on a scroll 

H. 7 in. 



was described at that time as being painted in the Old Japan 

" In 1 763 affairs were at a very low ebb at Bow ; Crowther, 
the only remaining partner, became bankrupt, and his stock 
was sold in the following year. The annexed is a copy 
of the advertisement in the Public Advertiser of the sale 
which took place in May, 1764": 


On WEDNESDAY next, and the following day, at the 

^HE remaining part of the large STOCK-IN-TRADE 
1 of JOHN CROWTHER, a Bankrupt ; This Col- 
lection is removed from the Manufactory at Bow, near 
Stratford, and the Bow warehouse in Cornhill ; consisting 
of a large quantity of the finest Porcelain, chose out of the 
said Collection, in curious figures, Girandoles and Branches 
for Chimney Pieces, finely decorated with figures flowers &c. 
Dishes, Compotiers, Leaves &c. fine Deserts of the fine old 
Partridge & Wheatsheaf Pattern, and Variety of other 

The factory appears to have been carried on for some 
years later (Jewitt says by Crowther), as it was not until the 
year 1776 that Duesbury bought the plant of the Bow factory. 

In the old documents we find but few allusions to the 
Bow Factory Duesbury's work-book supplying the only refer- 
ences to this factory ; they will be found in the fac-simile 
given on pages 9 to 16. 

It is very likely, however, that some of the moulds and 
models enumerated in the list of 1795, on pages 69 to 85, 
may have come from the Bow Factory, when purchased by 
Duesbury in 1776, but, unfortunately, they are not so designated, 
although the word " Chelsea " occurs on many occasions. 

The following are examples of the figures made at Bow, 
and enamelled by Duesbury during 1751-3 : 

2 Groups of Bogh bird candlesticks ... 36 

2 P r of Bogh sesons ... ... ... 12 o 

i large group of Bogh figars ... ... 40 

6 Bow doggs ... ... ... ... 60 

i F r small figars Bow ... ... ... 26 


I large group of Bogh figars 5 o 

8 Botcs Bogh ... ... at each o 9 

P r Bogh figars .. 3 O 

From the Bow memoranda we obtain particulars of figures 
and groups that wre made there, and on comparing these 
with some figures entered in Duesbury's work book, when he 
assigns no factory, we may safely attribute them to Bow 
thus : " Minerva of two sizes ; Flora ; imperial shepherd and 
shepherdess ; the new shepherd and its companion ; Cupid ; 
gentleman and lady ; boy and girl ; fluter ; fiddler ; harlequin ; 
Columbine au Pierrot or clown ; tambourine player ; sportsman ; 
cook ; Dutch dancer ; woman with chickens ; Turk and com- 
panion ; female figure ; birds on pedestals ; swans ; boars ; 
squirrels ; buck and doe ; goat ; and toys of all sorts." 

To make this work as complete as possible, we shall 
borrow from Professor A. Church's introductory remarks to the 
notice he wrote on the Bow factory, for the Catalogue of Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber's collection, quoting her ladyship's remarks, 
" which no one could with more authority supply." The collec- 
tion, given to the nation by Lady Charlotte, is now in the 
South Kensington Museum : 

" It is probable that the china factory at Bow, in Essex, 
originated with the patent, dated December 6, 1744, taken 
out by Edward Heylyn and Thomas Fryc. Frye was manager 
of the works until 1759; he was an artist of considerable 
power ; his portraits in mezzotint are well known. The Bow 
works were called New Canton. In the year 1776 this factory 
was bought by W. Duesbury, of Derby." 

" The porcelain made at Bow was of two kinds. The earlier 
body contained a kind of porcelain clay associated with sand 
and potash ; in the later composition bone-ash and pipe-clay 
were substituted for the porcelain clay, while a lead glaze 
was used." 

" The white tea services and other table pieces of soft 
porcelain decorated with the ' prunus ' blossom in relief have 



In White Glazed state. 

Mrs. Clive, nh Rafter, represented the 
part of " Mrs. Riot a fine Lady," and 
Woodward that of " A fine Gentleman," 
in Garrick's clever and amusing Satire of 
Lethe. Mrs. Clive took her farewell of 
the stage in this character in 1769. 

H. 10 in. 



been identified as made at Bow by means of specimens and 
moulds disinterred on the site of the works themselves. A 
bowl, authenticated as painted by one of the Bow decorators, 
and made at the works, is preserved in the British Museum ; 
the material and ornament of this specimen have served to 
identify some doubtful pieces." 

" Much china for domestic use was made at Bow ; we know, 
from the memorandum books of the factory, that the pro- 
ductions of Chelsea and of other factories were often copied 

" The greater part of the porcelain made at Bow was 
unmarked ; an anchor and dagger, generally painted in red 
enamel, occurs on a good many pieces. An arrow, with an 
annulet on the shaft, has also been assigned to this factory. 
A monogram of "f" and "^ conjoined occurs on some vases, 
and other pieces painted in blue, most probably the mark 
of the manager, Trios. Frye." [See Appendix for the marks 
used on Bow porcelain.] 

There is still considerable doubt amongst collectors as to 
the marks used at the Bow Factory. We are inclined to think 
that, generally speaking, the anchor, when used alone, denotes 
Chelsea. In coming to a decision, the body, style of modelling, 
and painting must be considered. We have noticed, in many 
Bow figures, that the " repairer," or maker of the figure, has 
used a knife, or other knife-shaped tool, to " cut up " or 
sharpen the figure after it has left the mould, and before 
it has gone into the kiln ; whilst Chelsea has generally the 
usual smooth and rounded form left by the mould, and the 
figure has been finished with a wet brush, as is the custom 
to-day. This peculiarity will be noticed not only on the 
drapery but also on the arms and legs of the figure. 



IT is impossible to write the biography of William Duesbury 
without calling attention to the fact that he rose from 
somewhat humble conditions, by his energy- and business 
qualifications, to a position of eminence and affluence, earning 
the good opinion of those amongst whom he came to settle. 
His establishment of the Derby works, the purchase and 
incorporation of the Bow and Chelsea works with the former, 
and the monetary aid which he was enabled to obtain 
from the Heaths, the Derby bankers, testify to his tact and 
energy no less than the confidence that was reposed in him, 
and entitle Duesbury to a position in the last century 
porcelain world somewhat similar to that occupied by that 
contemporary great master in the earthenware world Josiah 

William Duesbury was born on the 7th of September, 1725 ; 
at some date unknown he married Sarah James, of Shrewsbury, 
and he died in November, 1786. His work-book shows that 
he was working as an enameller to the trade, in London, 
in 1751, when he would be twenty-six years of age; from 
other sources we learn that he was at work at Longton 
Hall before he came to Derby in 1755-6. 

The purchase of the site of the Derby Works, alluded to 
by William Hutton in his " History of Derby," took place in 
the names of John and Christopher Heath, the bankers, on 
the I Qth of April, 1756. And another deed was executed on 
August ist, 1780, after the failure of the Heaths, in the name 
of William Duesbury. 


Mr. Jewitt proves from various sources that Duesbury was in 
London during 1750-3. Amongst the old documents that 
have come into our possession is Duesbury's work-book, in 
his handwriting, giving an account of the work he executed 
as an " enameller on china " to the trade in London during 
the years 1751-3. The earliest date mentioned in the work- 
book is 1742, when Duesbury would be seventeen years of 
age ; we find references to fifteen entries for cash received, the 
dates being generally one week apart, which suggests weekly 
wages, the amounts of which range from 143. 6d. to 2 2s. od. ; 
so it is possible that at that date Duesbury may have been 
learning enamelling at Bow, Chelsea, or Battersca. The next 
date that occurs is 1751, when the goods which he has enamelled 
are enumerated, with the names of those for whom they 
were enamelled and the charge carried out, as shown in the 
fac-siinile pages. The book shows that there were 382 single 
objects enamelled between May I4th and 3 1st, so that 
Duesbury must have been a considerable employer of labour 
at that early date. 

On perusing the following fac-siinile pages taken from the 
work-book, the reader will find much interesting information. 
From the fact that the figures, etc., are here and there 
specified as Bow, Chellsea, Darbey, Staffordshire, we are led 
to the conclusion that dealers were in the habit of buying 
porcelain in the white glazed state, and having it " enamelled " 
or coloured by such men as Duesbury. 

In corroboration of this Mr. Tiffin in his "Chronograph" 
of Bow, Chelsea, and Derby states " Bow uncolourcd figures 
with glaze were published by this factory." 

Chelsea -- "From the earliest period figures made here, 
simply in white with glaze." 

The only factories mentioned by Duesbury in his work- 
book are the following : " Bow or Bogh," " Chellsea," " Darbey," 
" Darbishirc," and "Staffordshire." The bulk of the articles 
enamelled were figures, the exceptions being such as " 6 doz. 
flowrs" 6/- ; "a pair of imbost jars" 3/- ; a pair of round 


jars 3/- ; " a pair of leaf jars 4/- " ; "a playt paynted," " pair 
of baskets," " a pair of large double branches 4/-," " 3 pair 
of Lyons 6/-," "five jars becars," I pair branches stoks gilt 

Si; &c. 

It appears that gold, at this early period, was but little 
used in the decoration of porcelain, and this fact aids us to 
fix an early date to pieces decorated only with colours. 

Amongst the dealers' names for whom Duesbury worked 
are found, " Thomas Turner " * (" Turner, before he went out 
of Town i iis. od.") "Things to enamil M r Turner, (Pair of 
Stags, Sovoy figars") &c, "Waring," " Berns," "Williams," 
"Michill," "Turner & Coy.," "Shall & Co.," " Shawbranks," 
" Morgan," " Woodward," " Milles," " Proctor," " Girings," 
" Littler & Co.," " Foy," " Thos. Goodwyn," " Acton," " Flint," 
"Cradock," " Rogars, Holliwell St.," "Bland," "Shaw," 
Smallwood a pencil maker. We also learn that in 1752 
Duesbury paid Frederick Vorgewits 6 igs. od. for "collors"; 
that Duesbury's charge for enamelling " Mr. Woodward " and 
Mrs. (Kitty) Clive was at the rate of 3/- each ; this was in 1751. 

Some fac-simile pages from Duesbury's work-book are given 
on pages 9 to 16. 

We can also by the descriptions fix a date when many 
objects were made, and learn what great progress the ceramic 
industry had attained in 1751-3. A memorandum at the 
beginning of the book tells " how to color the group, a 
gentleman Busing a Lady gentlm a gold trimd cote, a pink 
wastcot crimson * and trimd with gold and black Breeches 
and socs the lade a flowrd sack with yellow robings a black 
stomegar her hare Black his wig powdrd." 

* The Schreiber Catalogue has a note relating to Turner, whose stock was sold 
in 1767. The dealer whose stock was thus sold is commemorated by Walpole 
in the following absurd anecdote, which occurs in a letter of his son on the 
subject of the late earthquake : " Turner, a great china-man at the corner of next 
street, had a jar cracked by the shock ; he originally asked ten guineas for the 
pair, he now asks twenty, ' because it is the only jar in Europe that has been 
cracked by an earthquake.'" Walpole to Sir Horace Mann, Arlington St., 
19 May, 1750. 

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Another extract reads "1751 To dress the Turk Sold r 
cap the front Blue Back red of it the Wast Cote and Sheus 
Blue the Sandals Yellow Breeches Red and Belt." 

On carefully comparing the articles enamelled by Duesbury 
in 1751-3 with those enumerated in the 1756 catalogue of 
the Chelsea Sale it is easy to recognise many of them as 
having been made at Chelsea, when not so named in Dues- 
bury's work-book. 

The more important figures and other articles mentioned 
in 1751-3 are: "Two large Bottles paynted with .gould 
\ is. od., Jupiter & Juno, Bow harlyquins, King Charles 
& pedestal, blind figars, set of Seasons, Bagpipers, pair of la 
Dresden figars, pair of large Chinese men, Chellsea nurs, a 
pair of Baccosscs, Shepherd & shepherdess, Chellsea dancers, 
P r Chellsea Doctrs, 3 Jews with long beards, 3 men with cap 
in hand, a p r of Faulkeners, a p r of Staffordshire ladis, a p r 
of Mascoraders, p r - of musick figs, Turkish ladies, p r of bottles 
small, a p r Chelsay Boys with Besons, Bow seasons, 3 p r 
Staffordshire phesants, Harlyquin & a Punch, a fisherman and 
its companion, a tea cettle, 2 p r of Savoy figars, a harty- 
choake, a plate, a p r of Staff Shepardis, a musick fig r , a 
Venus, 2 groups of boys." 

We regret that the old documents throw no further light 
upon the relations of Duesbury with the Longton Hall works. 
We know from other sources that Duesbury had lived there, 
and that his father was also residing at the place when the 
Longton Hall works were in existence. 

The late Miss Sarah, daughter of the second Duesbury, in a 
letter to the writer dated August, 1870, states "Amongst the 
old papers was a deed of gift from a former W m Duesbury, 
a worthy leather seller of Cannock (called Cank) in Stafford- 
shire of all he possessed, on condition of being kept in all 
things by his son the remainder of his days. Which was 
done in the cottage which stood on the ground, before the 
building of the big house. (This refers to the Derby works ; 
the " big house " was the place where Duesbury lived.) An 


old friend of mine, M r Horrocks, a lawyer, remembered being 
taken to eat cake and drink wine the day of King George III rds 
coronation at this cottage. This is an undoubted fact, and 
further my grandfather lived some time at Longton Hall, 
Staffordshire, before settling in Derby." 

Mr. F. J. Jessopp, a solicitor, nephew to the Miss S. Duesbury 
alluded to above, wrote a letter to a Derby paper, loth of May, 
1865, in which he states " that Duesbury was proprietor of 
some china works at Longton as well as Derby." 

The late Sir A. W. Franks was enabled by the care- 
ful analysis of the body of Longton Hall porcelain made 
by Professor Church, and by other means, to identify the 
peculiarities of the porcelain made at this early established 
factory, where candelabra and figures, along with useful 
porcelain, were made to a considerable extent by Littler and 
others associated with him. [See Appendix.] 

After a careful study of Duesbury's work-book, we come 
to the conclusion that Duesbury, being an enterprising man, 
and having become thoroughly acquainted with all the best 
factories then in existence and the goods they made, by 
enamelling them for the trade, decided to go a step 
farther and become a manufacturer himself. He had pro- 
bably saved some money whilst enamelling in London ; we 
may surmise that some local circumstances led him to choose 
Derby and Longton as his future sphere of work. His 
father was settled at Longton Hall ; he appears to have 
stayed there more or less in 1754-5, an( i probably joined or 
assisted Littler in his factory there, whilst it is certain he must 
at the same time have been in communication with Heath 
and Planche at Derby, as we find him in 1756 converting 
seven dwelling houses into workshops, aided by Heath's 
money in addition to his own savings, and what he obtained 
from his father under the deed of maintenance he contracted 
with him at this time. 

We gather from various sources that Planche had been 
making small figures prior to 1756, even if he had not been 


making the large figures enamelled by Ducsbury in 1751. 
We have elsewhere expressed the opinion that very probably the 
Cockpit Hill works had been making these early Derby 
figures ; there is nothing unreasonable in suggesting that 
Heath, the man of money, would willingly have entered into 
an association with such a practical man as Duesbury, aided 
by Planche, as per (unsigned) agreement mentioned by Jewitt, 
which is dated January, 1756, when Ducsbury was busy 
preparing the Derby factory, mainly devoted to the making 
of figures, for which at this period there was a great demand. 
In this assumption, founded as it is on the information at 
our command, we have a clue as to the early Derby figures 
not yet identified, and their manufacture, leading on to the 
establishment of the Derby works, and later on to the 
purchase and absorption of the Chelsea and Bow works, by 
Duesbury. To these factories, from the evidence at present 
in existence, we may add Longton Hall, for it is possible 
that the "Staffordshire" figures, etc., alluded to in Duesbury's 
work-book were from Longton Hall ; if so, this indefatigable 
man Duesbury had become the proprietor of the four factories 
Bow, Chelsea, Derby, and Longton Hall and so must be 
considered as probably the largest manufacturer of porcelain 
in England of that period. 






AMONGST the old documents are the lease of the Chelsea site 
to Sprimont, and the release by Sprimont to James Cox, 
dated the twenty-ninth day of September, one thousand 
seven hundred and sixty-nine ; and, further, from James Cox 
to William Duesbury and John Heath, on the ninth day of 
February, one thousand seven hundred and seventy. The 
deeds are of so much interest that they are here given in 
extenso : 

Deed To all to whom these Presents shall come Nicholas 
Chdsfa 6 Sprimont heretofore of Chelsea in the County of 
x Middlesex now of Knightsbridge in the same County 
Esquire sendeth Greeting Whereas by Indenture of 
Lease bearing date on or about the third day of March 
one thousand seven hundred and fifty nine and made 
or expressed to be made Between Henry Porter of 
little Suffolk Street in the Parish of Saint Martin in 
the Fields in the County of Middlesex Gentleman 
of the one part and the said Nicholas Sprimont 
of the other part the said Henry Porter for the 
considerations therein mentioned Did demise Lease 
set and to farm lett unto the said Nicholas Sprimont 
his Executors Administrators and Assigns All that 
Mesuage or Tenement situate in Lawrence Street in 
Chelsea aforesaid heretofore in the tenure or Occu- 
pation of M 1 ' Lagrave and then of the said Nicholas 





Sprimont his Undertenants or Assigns And also all 
that piece or parcell of ground then in the tenure or 
Occupation of the said Nicholas Sprimont whereon 
the said Nicholas Sprimont then had and now hath 
several Workhouses Shops and Kilns by him erected 
and built for the manufacturing of Porcelain abutting 



East on Lawrence Street aforesaid West on Garden 
Ground of the said Henry Porter North on a 
Mesuage or Tenement then late in the Occupation 
of the said Nicholas Sprimont and South on the 
Mesuage or Tenement of the said Henry Porter 
thereby demised containing in width from North to 


South as well in the front as in the rear thereof 
eighty five feet little more or less and in depth from 
East to West as well on the South as on the North 
side thereof ninety feet little more or less together 
with all and singular ways Waters Watercourses 
Paths Passages Lights Easements Cellcrs Sollars 
Profits Commodities Advantages rights privileges and 
Appurtenances whatsoever to the said Mesuage or 
Tenement and Ground belonging or in any wise 
appertaining or therewith or any part thereof held 
used occupyed or enjoyed or accepted reputed 
deemed taken or known as part or parcell thereof 
To hold the said Mesuage or Tenement Ground and 
premises with the Appurtenances thereby demised 
unto the said Nicholas Sprimont his Executors 
Administrators or Assigns from the feast day of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary which was 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and fifty nine for and during and unto the full 
end and term of fourteen years from thence next 
ensuing and fully to be compleat and ended at and 
under the yearly Rent or sum of twenty four pounds 
clear of all Taxes and deductions whatsoever payable 
quarterly as in the said Indenture is mentioned and 
also Subject to the Covenants and Agreements on 
the part of the said Nicholas Sprimont his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns therein expressed and 
contained Now therefore know Ye these presents 
Witness that the said Nicholas Sprimont for and in 
consideration of the sum of five shillings of lawful! 
Money of Great Britain by James Cox of Shoe 
Lane London Merchant to the said Nicholas 
Sprimont in hand paid at or before the Executing 
of these presents the receipt whereof the said 
Nicholas Sprimont doth hereby acknowlege Hath 
bargained Sold Assigned Transfered and set Over 


and by these Presents He the said Nicholas 
Sprimont Doth bargain Sell Assign Transfer and 
set Over unto the said James Cox his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns All that the aforesaid 
Mesuage or Tenement piece or parcell of ground 
and all other the premises with the Appurtenances 
which in and by the said hereinbefore in part 
recited Indenture of Lease were and are demised 
to the said Nicholas Sprimont and all the Estate 
right title Interest time and term of years benefit 
profit property Claim and demand whatsoever both 
at Law and in Equity of him the said Nicholas 
Sprimont of in and to the said Mesuage or tenement 
ground and premises and every or any part thereof 
together with the said hereinbefore in part recited 
Indenture of Lease and all benefit and advantage 
of the Covenant or Agreement in the said Indenture 
of Lease contained for the said Nicholas Sprimont 
his Executors Administrators or Assigns to take 
down all and every the Workhouses Work Shops and 
Kilns and other Erections and buildings of him the 
said Nicholas Sprimont Erected and built on the 
said piece or parcell of Ground hereby Assigned or 
any part thereof and which are with the Materials 
thereof by him the said James Cox as Assignee 
of him the said Nicholas Sprimont or by his 
Executors Administrators or Assigns at the end or 
other sooner determination of the said term of 
fourteen years to be carried away Sold and disposed 
of to and for his and their own use and benefit 
in pursuance of the Covenant of the said Henry 
Porter in the said Indenture of Lease for that 
purpose contained To have and to hold the said 
Mesuage or Tenement piece or parcel of ground and 
all other the premises hereby assigned or intended 
to be hereby Assigned with the Appurtenances 


unto the said James Cox his Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assigns for all the rest residue and 
remainder of the said term of fourteen years by 
the said Indenture of Lease demised therein now 
to Come and unexpired Subject Nevertheless to the 
payment of the yearly Rent or Net sum of twenty 
four pounds in and by the said in part recited 
Indenture of Lease reserved and which from and and 
after the twenty ninth day of September one 
thousand seven hundred and sixty nine shall be 
come due and payable for or in respect of the said 
mesuage or tenement ground and premises and 
Subject to the Covenants Conditions and Agreements 
in the said recited Indenture of Lease contained 
which from thenceforth on the Lessees or Assignees 
part are to be done and performed And the said 
Nicholas Sprimont doth hereby for himself his Heirs 
Executors and Administrators Covenant promise and 
agree to and with the said James Cox his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns that he the said James 
Cox his Executors Administrators and Assigns pay- 
ing the said yearly Net Rent or sum of money in 
and by the said in part recited Indenture of Lease 
reserved from the twenty ninth day of September 
next and performing fullfilling and keeping all and 
singular the Covenants Conditions and agreements 
in the said recited Indenture of Lease contained on 
the Lessees or Assignees part to be done and 
performed shall and may from time to time and at 
all times hereafter peaceably and quietly have hold 
use occupy possess and enjoy the said mesuage or 
tenement ground and premises to and for his and 
their own use and benefit for and during all the 
rest residue and remainder of the term aforesaid 
and at the end or other sooner determination thereof 
take down all and every the Workhouses Workshops 


and kilns and other Erections and buildings of him 
the said Nicholas Sprimont erected and built on the 
said piece or parcel of Ground hereby Assigned or 
any part thereof and carry away Sell and dispose 
of the same and the Materials thereof to and for 
his and their own Use and benefit in pursuance of 
the Covenant of the said Henry Porter in the said 
Indenture of Lease contained without any let Suit 
trouble denial Eviction or hindrance whatsoever of 
by or from the said Nicholas Sprimont his Executors 
or Administrators or any person or persons lawfully 
claiming or to claim by from or under him them 
or any of them In Witness whereof the said 
Nicholas Sprimont hath hereunto set his hand and 
Seal the fifteenth day of August in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty 

Sealed and delivered 
by the said Nicholas 
Sprimont being first 
duly Stamped In 
the presence of 


x' \ To all to whom These presents shall come James 
/ Stamp A Cox of Shoe Lane London Merchant Sendeth 
Greeting Whereas by Indenture of Lease bearing 
date on or about the Third day of March One 

Deed leasing thousand seven hundred and fifty nine and made 

the Chelsea 

Works by Cox or expressed to be made between Henry Porter 

f Little Suffolk Street in the P arish of Saint 

Martin in the ffields in the County of Middlesex 
Gentleman of the one part and Nicholas Sprimont 
then of Chelsea in the County of Middlesex Esquire 
of the other part the said Henry Porter for the 
Considerations therein mentioned Did Demise Lease 
Set and to ffarm Let to the said Nicholas Sprimont 
his Executors Administrators and Assigns All that 
Messuage or Tenement situate in Lawrence Street 
in Chelsea aforesaid heretofore in the tenure or 
Occupation of Mr. Lagrave and then of the said 
Nicholas Sprimont his Undertenants or Assigns 
And also all that piece or parcel of Ground then 
in the tenure or Occupation of the said Nicholas 
Sprimont whereon the said Nicholas Sprimont then 
had and now hath several Workhouses Shops and 
Kilns by him Erected and Built for the Manufac- 
turing of Porcelain abutting East on Lawrence 
Street aforesaid West on. Garden Ground of the said 
Henry Porter North on a Messuage or Tenement 
then late in the Occupation of the said Nicholas 
Sprimont and South on the Messuage or Tenement 
of the said Henry Porter thereby Demised contain- 
ing in width from North to South as well in front 
as in the rear thereof Eighty five feet little more 
or less and in depth from East to West as 
well on the South as on the North side thereof 
Ninety feet little more or less together with all 
and singular Ways Waters Watercourses Paths 
Passages Lights Easements Cellars Sollars Profits 


Commodities Advantages Rights Priviledges and 
Appurtenances whatsoever to the said Messuage 
or Tenement and Ground belonging or in any wise 
Appurtaining or therewith or any part thereof held 
used Occupied or Enjoyed or accepted reputed 
deemed taken or known as part of parcel thereof 
To hold the said Messuage or Tenement Ground and 
Premises with the appurtenances thereby Demised 
unto the said Nicholas Sprimont his Executors 
Administrators or Assigns from the feast day of 
the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary 
which was in the Year of our Lord One thousand 
seven hundred and fifty nine for and during and 
unto the full end and Term of Fourteen Years 
from thence next ensuing and fully to be Com- 
pleat and Ended at and under the Yearly Rent or 
Sum of Twenty four pounds clear of all Taxes 
and deductions whatsoever payable quarterly as in 
the said Indenture is mentioned and also Subject 
to the Covenants and Agreements on the part of 
the said Nicholas Sprimont his Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assigns therein Expressed and contained 
And whereas the said Nicholas Sprimont in and 
by a certain Deed Poll bearing date the Fifteenth 
Day of August One thousand seven hundred and 
sixty nine under his hand and Seal for the Con- 
siderations therein mentioned Assigned over to the 
said James Cox his Executors Administrators and 
Assigns The said Messuage or Tenement peice or 
parcel of Ground and all and Singular other the 
premises in and by the said Indenture of Lease 
Demised and thereby Assigned and all his Estate 
and Interest therein (together with his benefit and 
Right of a Covenant therein contained for the 
Tenant or Lessee to take down and Sell the 
Workhouses Workshops Kilns and other Erections 


and Buildings at the end of the said Lease) for 
the then remainder of the said Term to come 
therein Subject to the Rents and Covenants in the 
said Indenture of Lease as in and by the said in 
part recited Indenture of Lease and Deed Poll 
relation being thereunto respectively had may more 
fully and at large appear Now know ye that the 
said James Cox for and in Consideration of the 
Sum of ffive Shillings of lawful Money of Great 
Britain to him in hand paid by William Desbury 
and John Heath of the Town of Derby in the 
County of Derby Porcelaine Manufacturers the 
Receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged Hath 
Bargained Sold Assigned Transferred and set over 
and by these Presents Doth Bargain Sell Assign 
Transfer and set over unto the said William 
Desbury and John Heath their Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assigns All that the aforesaid Messuage 
or Tenement peice or parcel of Ground and all 
other the Premises with the Appurtenances which 
in and by the said hereinbefore in part recited 
Indenture of Lease were and are demised to the 
said Nicholas Sprimont and by Him Assigned to the 
said James Cox and all the Estate Right Title 
Interest time and term of Years benefit Profit 
Property Claim and Demand whatsoever both at 
Law and in Equity of him the said James Cox of 
in and to the said Messuage or Tenement Ground 
and Premises and every or any part thereof together 
with the said hereinbefore in part recited Indenture 
of Lease and all benefit and advantage of the 
Covenant and Agreement in the said Indenture of 
Lease contained for the said Nicholas Sprimont 
his Executors Administrators or Assigns to take 
down all and every the Workhouses Workshops 
and Kilns and other Erections and Buildings of 


him the said Nicholas Sprimont Erected and Built 
on the said Peice or parcel of Ground hereby 
Assigned or any part thereof and which arc with 
the Materials thereof by him the said James Cox 
as Assignee of him the said Nicholas Sprimont or 
by his Executors Administrators or Assigns at the 
end or other sooner determination of the said Term 
of Fourteen Years to be carried away Sold and 
disposed of to and for his and their own Use and 
benefit in pursuance of the Covenant of the said 
Henry Porter in the said Indenture of Lease for 
that purpose contained To have and to hold the 
said Messuage or Tenement peice or parcel of 
Ground and all other the Premises hereby Assigned 
or intended to be hereby Assigned with the 
Appurts unto the said William Desbury and John 
Heath their Executors Administrators and Assigns 
for all the rest residue and remainder of the said 
Term of Fourteen Years by the said Indenture of 
Lease Demised therein now to come and unexpired 
Subject nevertheless to the Payment of the Yearly 
Rent or Net Sum of Twenty four pounds in and 
by the said in part recited Indenture of Lease 
reserved and which from and after the Twenty ninth 
day of September last past is or shall become due 
and payable for or in respect of the said Messuage 
or Tenement Ground and Premises and Subject to 
the Covenants Conditions and Agreements in the 
said recited Indenture of Lease contained which 
from thenceforth on the Lessees or Assignees part 
are to be done and performed And the said James 
Cox doth hereby for himself his Heirs Executors 
and Administrators Covenant Promise and Agree to 
and with the said William Desbury and John 
Heath their Executors Administrators and Assigns 
That they the said William Desbury and John 


Heath their Executors Administrators and Assigns 
paying the said Yearly Net Rent or Sum of 
Money in and by the said in part recited Inden- 
ture of Lease reserved from the said Twenty ninth 
day of September last and performing fulfilling 
and keeping all and Singular the Covenants 
Conditions and Agreements in the said recited 
Indenture of Lease contained on the Lessees or 
Assignees part to be done and performed shall and 
may from time to time and at all times hereafter 
for and notwithstanding any Act Matter or thing 
whatsoever done committed or suffered or to be 
done committed or Suffered by the said John Cox his 
Executors Administrators or Assigns or any other 
person or persons whatsoever lawfully Claiming or 
to Claim peaceably and quietly have hold Use 
Occupye possess and Enjoy the said Messuage or 
Tenement Ground and Premises to and for his and 
their own Use and benefit for and during all the 
rest residue and remainder of the Term aforesaid 
and at the end or other sooner determination 
thereof take down all and every the Workhouses 
Workshops and Kilns and other Erections and 
Buildings Erected and Built on the said peice or 
parcel of Ground hereby Assigned or any part 
thereof and carry away Sell and dispose of the 
same and the Materials thereof to and for his and 
their own Use and benefit in pursuance of the 
Covenant of the said Henry Porter in the said 
Indenture of Lease Contained And the said William 
Desbury and John Heath do hereby for themselves 
their Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns 
Covenant Promise and Agree to and with the said 
James Cox his Executors Administrators and 
Assigns by these Presents That they the said 
William Desbury and John Heath their Executors 


Administrators and Assigns shall and will well 
and truly pay or cause to be paid all such Rent 
as shall become due and payable on the said 
recited Indenture of Lease (for and in respect of 
the said Premises hereby Assigned or mentioned or 
intended so to be) from and after the said Twenty 
ninth Day of September last And also shall and 
will well and truly observe perform fulfill and keep 
all and Singular the Covenants and Agreements in 
the said recited Indenture of Lease contained and 
which on the Tenants or Lessees part and behalf 
from and after the said Twenty ninth Day of 
September last are and ought to be Observed 
performed fulfilled and kept and shall and will 
well and truly save harmless and keep Indemnifyed 
the said James Cox his Executors Administrators 
and Assigns of and from the Payment of such Rent 
and performance of such Covenants In Witness 
whereof the said James Cox and William Desbury 
and John Heath have hereunto set their hands and 
Seals the ninth day of ffebruary in the Year of our 
Lord One thousand seven hundred and seventy. 

Sealed and delivered (being JAMES COX 

first duly Stamped) in the 
presence of 


We learn, from advertisements quoted by Mr. Nightingale, 
that " Chas Gouyn had preceded Sprimont as proprietor and 
chief manager of the Chelsea works." This deed, however, 
introduces a new name, thus : "All that Messuage or Tenement 
situate in Lawrence Street in Chelsea aforesaid heretofore in 
the tenure or occupation of Mr. Lagrave and then of the 
said Nicholas Sprimont his Undertenants or Assigns." 

Who was Mr. Lagrave? Probably of French or Flemish 
extraction. Had Lagrave been making china on this site 


previous to Sprimont? We have instituted enquiries at the 
Goldsmiths' Company, thinking Lagrave might have belonged 
to that Company but there is no record of the name. 
The deed goes on to recite " Whereon the said Nicholas 
Sprimont then had (1759) and now hath (1769) several 
Workhouses Shops and Kilns by him Erected and Built for 
the Manufacturing of Porcelain." From this, it is evident 
that Sprimont had been manufacturing " Porcelaine" on the 
Lawrence Street site for some time previous to 1759. The 
advertisement from the Daily Advertiser of May I5th, 
1750, headed "Chelsea Porcelaine," unfortunately gives no 
address, save "that the Sale-warehouse at the manufactory 
there will from henceforward be constantly open," but further 
shows that Gouyn was still manufacturing elsewhere, and 
selling through a dealer named G. Stables. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. Randall Davies, F.S.A., 

and Mr. Reginald Blunt, for 
calling his attention to an 
error* in the first edition of 
this work locating the site of 
the Chelsea Factory, caused 
by the writer being misled 
through the omission of a 
copyist in locating in Chelsea 
some land called Pedlar's 
Acre, which really belonged 
to Lambeth, and which was 
leased by Duesbury from 
Kinman, but we have no 
further information as to 
Duesbury carrying on this 
pottery. The plan on page 21 
refers to this property. 
An apology is due and is sincerely tendered to Mr. C. H. 
Read, F.S.A., to whom the writer submitted an early rough proof, 

* This error only occurs in a portion of the edition of this Work. The Publishers 
will supply corrected leaves on application to anyone possessing an incorrect copy. 





but, unfortunately, not accompanied by the original deeds, or 
the error would have been at once discovered by Mr. Read. 

From the evidence now available it appears that the deeds 
Sprimont to Cox and Cox to Duesbury relate to land situated 
just south of the corner of Justice Walk, in Lawrence Street. 
Mr. Reginald Blunt has kindly placed at my disposal the 
following local information as regards the Factory buildings at, 
and near, this corner, which he has got together in his carefully 
written "An Historical Handbook to Chelsea," p. 164. 

"The Parish Rate Books date from 1754 and are in excellent 
preservation, and not only are the names of occupiers of par- 
ticular premises available from that date onwards . . . but 
the names of Sprimont, of Cox, of Lagrave, of Thomas, of 
Duesbury, of Boyer, and of Burnsall, are all clearly and 
repeatedly entered. 

"In another letter to Mr. Mayer, written in 1847, Faulkner 
says : ' In the year 1842 the site of the China Factory buildings 
was let upon a building lease, and on digging up the grounds 
for new houses a large quantity of the rubbish of the China 
Factory was turned up, among which were some very interesting 
specimens of the ware in different stages of progress, both 
glazed and unglazed, a variety of which I have preserved as 
great curiosities. . . . In the Illustrated Polytechnic Review, 
Vol. II., for the year 1843, is found* a particular account of 
the digging up of these China fragments with my signature 
affixed, and I am now very glad that I happened to be present 
at the discovery of these curious remains.' 

"Faulkner, in his History (1829), says, 'The Chelsea China 
Manufactory was situate at the corner of Justice Walk, and 
occupied the houses to the upper end of the street (i.e., Lawrence 
Street). Several of the large old houses were used as show- 
rooms. It has been discontinued for more than forty years, 
the whole of the premises pulled down, and new houses erected 
on the site.' 

* Mr. Blunt searched through the volumes of this Review at the British Museum, 
but failed to find the account referred to. 


" The houses are not numbered in the early Rate Books ; but 
the route followed is quite clear, and there seems no doubt that 
the houses referred to were all towards the top of the street. 
In 1756-7, indeed, it appears that 'Mr. Spriemont' also rented 
the first (westernmost) of the row of five houses facing the 
river, next the old church, which are entered as ' Waterside ' or 
' Church Row,' and in the latter year there is also a third house 
(Lawrence Street) entered in his name ; but these were no- 
doubt merely warehouses or show-rooms, and not parts of the 

Mr. Blunt further writes : " At the western end of the 
long arched cellar under the little 'Prince of Wales' public- 
house, at the corner of Justice Walk and Lawrence Street, I 
have examined some remains of cylindrical dome-topped briclc 
structures, which can hardly have been anything but kilns, and 
have always been so regarded by the tenants of the house." 

To summarise the history of the Lawrence Street site, we 
learn that Sprimont leased the Lawrence Street property for 
fourteen years, from March 3rd, 1759, re-leasing it to Duesbury 
and Heath, through James Cox in 1770. This lease ran 
out in 1773. Duesbury then obtained from the then lessor, 
Wm. Govvan, a lease for a further seven years, which expired 
in 1780. On the same lease is a memorandum that Gowan- 
agrees to continue the lease for one year, i.e., until 1781. 
Duesbury was at this time evidently hesitating whether to close 
the Chelsea Works and remove moulds, &c., to Derby, but he 
resolves to continue at Chelsea, as the deed is again endorsed 
thus: January 1st, 1781, "I do hereby further agree to grant 
Mr. Duesbury a lease of the aforesaid premises for three years- 
from Lady Day next ensuing, and for the same rent and 
conditions within mentioned. Wm. Gowan." At the expiry 
of this extended lease, being Lady Day, 1784, Duesbury gave 
instructions for the demolition of the kilns, workshops, &c., 
provided for by the lease. Thus ended the glories of the 
"Old Chelsea Factory," which produced, a century and a 
half ago, porcelain that is unsurpassed to-day, and is, in 


Administrators and Assigns shall and will well 
and truly pay or cause to be paid all such Rent 
as shall become due and payable on the said 
recited Indenture of Lease (for and in respect of 
the said Premises hereby Assigned or mentioned or 
intended so to be) from and after the said Twenty 
ninth Day of September last And also shall and 
will well and truly observe perform fulfill and keep 
all and Singular the Covenants and Agreements in 
the said recited Indenture of Lease contained and 
which on the Tenants or Lessees part and behalf 
from and after the said Twenty ninth day of 
September last are and ought to be Observed 
performed fulfilled and kept and shall and will 
well and truly save harmless and keep Indemnifyed 
the said James Cox his Executors Administrators 
and Assigns of and from the Payment of such Rent 
and performance of such Covenants In Witness 
whereof the said James Cox and William Desbury 
and John Heath have hereunto set their hands and 
Seals the ninth day of ffebruary in the Year of our 
Lord One thousand seven hundred and seventy. 

Sealed and delivered (being N JAMES COX 

first duly Stamped) in the 
presence of 


We learn, from advertisements quoted by Mr. Nightingale, 
that " Chas Gouyn had preceded Sprimont as proprietor and 
chief manager of the Chelsea works." This deed, however, 
introduces a new name, thus : " All that Messuage or Tenement 
situate in Lawrence Street in Chelsea aforesaid heretofore in 
the tenure or Occupation of Mr. Lagrave and then of the 
said Nicholas Sprimont his Undertenants or Assigns." 


Who was Mr. Lagrave ? Probably of French or Flemish 
extraction. Had Lagrave been making china on this site 
previous to Sprimont ? We have instituted enquiries at the 
Goldsmiths' Company, thinking Lagrave might have belonged 
to that Company but there is no record of the name. 
The deed goes on to recite " Whereon the said Nicholas 
Sprimont then had (1759) and now hath (1769) several 
Workhouses Shops and Kilns by him Erected and Built for 
the Manufacturing of Porcelain." From this, it is evident 
that Sprimont had been manufacturing " Porcelaine " on the 
Lawrence Street site for some time previous to 1759. The 
advertisement from the Daily Advertiser of May 15th, 
1750, headed "Chelsea Porcelaine," unfortunately gives no 
address, save " that the Sale-warehouse at the manufactory 
there will from henceforward be constantly open," but further 
shows that Gouyn was still manufacturing elsewhere, and 
selling through a dealer named G. Stables. 



The extracts from the deed of 1759 and 1779, giving 
measurements, and the mention of a wharf " near unto and 
opposite the said hereby demised premises," and the plan on 
the 1779 deed, enable us to exactly locate the site of the 
Sprimont-Duesbury works. 

Sprimont's deed to Cox, then to Duesbury, 3rd March, 1759, 
reads : 

" All that Mesuage or Tenement situate in Lawrence Street 
in Chelsea aforesaid heretofore in the tenure or Occupation 
of Mr. Lagrave and then of the said Nicholas Sprimont his 
Undertenants or Assigns. And also all that peice or parcel of 
Ground then in the tenure or Occupation of the said 
Nicholas Sprimont whereon the said Nicholas Sprimont 
then had and now hath several Workhouses Shops and Kilns 
by him Erected and Built for the Manufacturing of Porcelain 
abutting East on Lawrence Street aforesaid West on Garden 
Ground of the said Henry Porter North on a Mesuage or 
Tenement then late in the Occupation of the said Nicholas 
Sprimont and South on the Mesuage or Tenement of the said 
Henry Porter thereby Demised containing in width from North 
to South as well in front as in the rear thereof Eighty five 
feet little more or less and in depth from East to West 
as well on the South as on the North side thereof Ninety 
feet little more or less together with all and Singular Ways 
Waters Water Courses " &c. 

N.B. The size of ground is less in 1759 than in 1779. 
Query, was the house pulled down next the river Thames, 
as it is not shown on the plan of 1779. 

Deed, Duesbury to Wm. Kinman, Founder, of Snow Hill, 
London, dated i8th August, 1779, reads: 

" All that wharf piece or parcel of ground containing from 
North to South on the West side or front thereof next to 
River Thames fifty feet of assize little more or less from 
North to South on the extreme East side or rear thereof 
fifty feet of assize little more or less from East to West, 
on the North side thereof one hundred & twelve feet of 


assize more or less, and from the West to the South side 
thereof one hundred & twelve feet of assize little more or 
less which premises are more particularly described and 
delineated in the plan or ground plott thereof drawn in the 
margin of these presents . . . . Sd W m Kinman &c. and his 
& their servants workmen horses & carts & carriages and 
vessells craft and boats and sole right of bringing mooring 
laying & plateing any craft or vessell crafts or vessells or any 
other thing or things whatsoever in the said River of Thames 
near unto and opposite the said hereby demised premises &c." 
Mr. Charles H. Read, F.S.A., who is conversant with the 
district, has kindly checked over the measurements, and 
location of the site ; it is satisfactory to be able from 
documentary evidence to define the actual site of this historic 

Another deed leases the Lawrence Street property from 
Wm. Gowan to Wm. Duesbury from March 25th, 1773, for 
seven years ; and further agrees to let same premises on 
October 27th, 1779, for one year certain after the expiration 
of the above term. On January 1st, 1781, Gowan enters 
into the agreement to grant Duesbury a lease for three 
years. It will be noted that Heath's name no longer appears 
as Duesbury's partner in this deed. 

Sprimont leased the Lawrence Street property for fourteen 
years, from March 3rd, 1759, releasing it to Duesbury and 
Heath through James Cox in 1770. The lease ran out 
in 1773. So Duesbury carries on the lease for a further 
seven years, which brings us to 1780. Then Duesbury takes 
it on for one year, evidently hesitating whether to close the 
Chelsea Works, and remove moulds, &c., to Derby, but he 
resolves to continue at Chelsea, and leases the premises for 
three more years; this brings us to the year 1784, when 
Duesbury gave instructions for the demolition of the kilns, 
workshops, &c., provided for by the lease. Thus ended the 
glories of the " Old Chelsea Factory," which produced a century 
and a half ago porcelain that is unsurpassed to-day, and is, in 


some instances, more precious than gold itself. We had the 
curiosity the other day to ask one of our leading dealers 
if he would put a magnificent rosewater ewer and tray, made 
in Chelsea's best days, into the scales, and it worked out 
at the price asked to 8 per oz. troy. More delicate 
pieces would weigh less, and be worth more per ounce. 

Dr. Johnson visited the Derby Works in 1777, and Boswell 
relates the following : " The china was beautiful, but Dr. 
Johnson justly observed it was too dear ; for that he could 
have vessels of silver as cheap as were here made of 


The late Sir A. Wollaston Franks, in his " Notes on 
the Manufacture of Porcelain at Chelsea," quotes from Robert 
Dossie's "Handmaid to the Arts," in 1764 "There have 
been several similar compositions used for the imitation of 
china-ware in the works set on foot in different parts of 
Europe, and among the rest I have seen at one of those 
carried on near London eleven mills at work grinding pieces 
of the Eastern china, in order, by the addition of some 
fluxing or vitreous substance which might restore the tenacity, 
to work it over again in the place of new matter. The 
ware commonly produced at this manufactory had the 
character correspondent to such a mixture, for it was grey, 
full of flaws and bubbles, and from want of due tenacity 
in the paste wrought in a heavy and clumsy manner, 
especially with regard to those parts that are to support 
the pieces in drying. A very opposite kind is produced in 
another manufactory in the neighbourhood of London, for 
it has great whiteness, and a texture that admits of its being 
modelled or cast in the most delicate manner ; but it is 


formed of a composition so vitrescent as to have almost the 
texture of glass, and consequently to break or crack if 
boiling water be suddenly poured upon it, which quality 
renders it unfit for any uses but the making of ornamental 
pieces. A later manufactory at Worcester has produced, even 
at very cheap prices, pieces that not only work very light, 
but which have great tenacity and bear hot water without 
more hazard than the true china ware." 


Mr. Solon calls our attention to a pamphlet in the 
British Museum which describes a similar process in use 
forty years earlier than that described by Dossie, namely : 
" Hill, A. Instruction how to make as good china as was 
ever sold by the East India Co. London : G. Roberts, 
1716" and further says, "The process consisted in grinding 
the Eastern porcelain into powder, and by mixing the 
powder with fluxing and plastic materials they succeeded in 
obtaining a paste with which vases, etc., were formed. 
A comparison between the date of the pamphlet and that 
of Dossie's work seems to show that the process was more 
than experimental, and had been carried on during many 



Group of a Shepherd and Shepherdess 
beneath a bocage of hawthorn in full 
flower ; he has his arm round her neck, 
and is teaching her to play on the flute. 
At their feet are two lambs and a dog ; 
a third lamb is on her lap. Base of 
elaborate scroll-work, with flowers in full 
relief, all beautifully painted in colours, 
with rich gilding. 

Mark : an Anchor in Gold and R 

(the sign of the Modeller, Kmibiliac). 

H. 154 in. 



years. It would be interesting to fix the connection, if any, 
between that curious manufacture, and the origin of the Bow 
and Chelsea Manufactories." 

I am indebted to Sir H. Howe Bemrose for the drawing 
of the " Slip " Mill, which was found in his collection of 
old Chelsea documents. 

We find from the old documents that in 1790 and 
previous thereto, there were " casks of broken Indian china 
sent to Derby." So it appears that the custom of using 
Eastern china ground as an ingredient, alluded to by Hill and 
Dossie in 1716 and 1764, was practised not only at Chelsea, 
but at Derby, to some extent, many years after. 





IN the trial of Duesbury and John Heath v. Burnsall, Mr. 
Sprimont, through illness, was unable to appear as a 
witness ; the following affidavits are of considerable 
interest, giving as they do an insight into Sprimont's means 
and style of living. His apothecary, Thomas Evans, says 
" Nicholas Sprimont goes out every day in his carriage," and 
"that he purposes setting out for Dorsetshire, to his country 
seat for the summer season in a few days." This affidavit 
is challenged by Susannah Protin, sister-in-law to Sprimont 
(who witnessed the deed of sale of the Chelsea Works to 
James Cox), and by Margt. Taylor ; the former reminds 
Evans that he is not a surgeon as stated in his affidavit, 
but an apothecary, and that his medicines did not agree with 
Sprimont, hence his discharge from further attendance. 

This serious illness occurs in 1769, the year that Sprimont 
sells the Chelsea Works to James Cox ; and Protin states 
" Nicholas Sprimont hath, for a long whiles past, been in an 
ill state of health," so that to ill-health we may attribute 
the sale of the Chelsea Works by Sprimont to Cox. 

In the King's Bench 

William Duesbury & John Heath Plaintiffs 
Between and 

David Burnsall Defendant 

Richard Way Attorney for the abovenamed Plain- 
tiffs in this Cause upon his Oath saith that he 


was much surprised at reading the Affidavit of one 
Thomas Evans made by him on this Cause as to 
the Health of M r . Sprimont (who is as this Dep'. 
verily believes a material Witness for the said 
Plaintiffs) insomuch that on perusing the said 
Affidav*. He this Deponent yesterday in the After- 
noon went to the said M r . Sprimont's House at 
Knightsbridge when after some time he was per- 
mitted to see the said M r Sprimont who was 
much surprised at the Conduct of the said M r . 
Evans and at the same time assured this Deponent 
that he was utterly unable to attend at West- 
minster and which this Deponent believes to be 
true and then said that if he was capable of so 
doing he would give a Thousand Guineas. 

R. W. 
Sworn &c 

Monday next after 3 Weeks of the Holy 
Trinity in the II th Year of King George the 

Duesbury & an 1 ' Burnsall Upon reading the last Rule and 
the Affidavit of Susannah Protin and another and 
upon hearing the Councel for both Parties It is 
ordered that the said Rule be discharged but 
without Costs Upon the Motion of M r . Dunning. 

By the Court. 

In the King's Bench 

William Duesbury and John Heath Plaintiffs 
Between and 

David Burnsall Defendant 

Richard Way Attorney for the Plaintiffs in this 
Cause maketh Oath and saith That he this 
Deponent entred this Cause or directed the same 


to be entred to be tried at the Sittings to be 
held at Westminster Hall after Hilary Term last 
but that he did not then proceed to try the same 
on account of the Indisposition of M r . Nicholas 
Sprimont who as this Deponent verily believes 
was and is a material Witness for the said Plain- 
tiffs And this Deponent saith that he hath been 
informed and believes such Information to be true 
that the said Nicholas Sprimont still continues 
very weak & unable to attend at the Tryal of 
the said Cause and without whose Testimony the 
said Plaintiffs cannot safely proceed -to the Tryal 
thereof And this Deponent saith that he hath 
since paid to the Defendants Attorney Costs for not 
proceeding to Tryal pursuant to the Notice given 
for that purpose And Lastly this Deponent saith 
that the said Plaintiffs are very desirous to try 
the said Cause and would have tried it as this 
Deponent verily believes but for the reasons aforesaid. 

R. W. 
Sworn &c 

Saturday next after the Octave of the Holy 

Trinity in the II th year of King George the 

Duesbury & an r . Burnsall Upon reading the Rule made in 
this Cause on Thursday next after the Octave of 
the Holy Trinity last past the Affidavit of George 
Hodgson Gent, and no Cause being shewn to the 
contrary It is Ordered that the like Judgement 
be entred for the Defendant as in Case of a 
Nonsuit pursuant to the late Act of Parliament 
Upon the Motion of M r . Baldwin. 

By the Court. 

Monday next after 15 days of the Holy- 
Trinity in the II th Year of King George the 


Duesbury & an 1 . Burnsall Upon reading the last Rule and 
the Affidavit of Richard Way Gentleman and 
upon hearing Counsel for both Parties It is 
Ordered that the said Rule be discharged Upon 
the Motion of M r . Dunning 

By the Court. 

In the King's Bench 

William Duesbury and John Heath Plaintiffs 
Between and 

David Burnsall Defendant 

Thomas Evans of the Parish of Kensington in 
the County of Middlesex Surgeon maketh Oath 
that he verily knows Nicholas Sprimont Esquire 
of Knightsbridge in the Parish aforesaid and that 
he this Deponent attended the said Nicholas 
Sprimont in his late Illness which he ceased to 
do about a fortnight ago on Account of his 
having recovered so as to have no more occasion 
for this Deponent's Assistance or Medicines And 
this Deponent verily believes that the said Nicholas 
Sprimont goes out every day in his Carriage And 
this Deponent further saith that the said Nicholas 
Sprimont told this Deponent he purposes to set 
out for Dorsetshire to his Country Seat for the 
Summer Season in a few days. 

T. E. 
Sworn &c 

Tuesday next after fifteen days of the Holy 
Trinity in the II th Year of King George the 

Duesbury & an r . Burnsall Upon reading the Rule made in 

this Cause on Monday next after fifteen days of 

the Holy Trinity last past and the Affidavit of 

Thomas Evans It is Ordered that the Plaintiffs 



upon Notice of this Rule to be given to their 
Attorney shall upon the Morrow shew Cause why 
the said Rule shall not be discharged Upon the 
Motion of M r . Baldwin. 

By the Court. 

In the King's Bench 

William Duesbury and John Heath Plaintiffs 
Between and 

David Burnsall Defendant 

Susannah Protin of Knightsbridge in the County 
of Middlesex Spinster and Margaret Taylor of the 
same place Spinster severally make Oath and say 
and first the said Susannah Protin for herself 
upon her Oath saith that she is Sister in Law to 
Nich s Sprimont of Knightsbridge aforesaid Esquire 
and lives and now resides with him and hath so 
done for several Years and also saith that the said 
Nicholas Sprimont hath for a long while past been 
in an ill state of Health and been attended by one 
M r . Thomas Evans as his Apothecary but who 
hath called himself in an Affidavit he hath made 
in this Cause Surgeon And this Deponent saith 
that the said Nicholas Sprimont hath not within 
this fortnight past been attended by the said M r . 
Evans because his Medicines did not agree with 
him and not because the said Nicholas Sprimont 
had no more occasion for Assistance or Medicines 
And this Deponent further saith that the said 
Nicholas Sprimont now doth and for some time 
past hath gone out in a Carriage for the benefit 
of the Air by the Advice of the said M r . Evans 
who informed the said Nicholas Sprimont that he 
must go into the Air let what would be the 
consequence even if he was carried to his Chariot 


by four Men and also advised him for the Change 
of it to go to his House in Dorsetshire or should 
that be too far then to go to Hampstead or 
Highgate or any place for change of the Air and 
which she verily believes he the said Nicholas 
Sprimont would have done if his Strength would 
have permitted him And this Deponent saith 
that the said Nich 5 . Sprimont is at this time so 
ill that he has every Night one or two persons 
to sit up in his Room to attend him And she 
believes that he is absolutely unable from his 
State of Body to attend at Westminster to give 
Evidence in the Tryal of this Cause And the 
said Margaret Taylor for herself upon her Oath 
saith that she attends the said Nicholas Sprimont 
and hath so done for some Months past and that 
she sits up every other Night with him That he 
is very infirm and weak and she verily believes 
that he is not able to attend to give Evidence in 
this Cause. 
Sworn &c 

1769 Aug 1 17 th . M r James Cox 

Bo 1 of Nicholas Sprimont 

All the Mills Kilns Bruisers Moddells in Wax- 
in Lead Presses Moulds All the manufactured & 
unmanufactured Porcelaine, Workshop, Buildings 
And all the materials & Utensils of what nature 
or kind soever And all the Chatties & Effects 
whatsoever of & belonging and now being in upon 
or about the Shops & Warehouses or in any wise 
belonging to his late manufactory in Lawrence 
Street at Chelsea for the sum of 600. 


Received 17* August 1769 of M r . James Cox 
the sum of 600 in full for all the Articles of the 
Manufactory abovementioned and all demands 

By Cash 300 

By his Note at 6 Mo s 300 


All the Fixtures now in the Hay loft formerly 
the large Warehouse and the Glass Cases in the 
Lower Warehouse at 12. 

Received at the same time the Sum of Twelve 
pounds in full for the above mentioned Articles. 

Nicholas Sprimont. 

" Soon after Mr. Cox had purchased the Trade 
of Mr. Sprimont he found it was a Manufactory 
that did not suit him he disposed of the same 
to Messrs. Dewsbury Si C. Proprietors of a 
Manufactory of the like nature at Derby who 
paid him the above 612 and also the further 
Sum of 189 io s for Clay & Tradesmens Bills for 
putting the Warehouse &c in repair wch Messrs 
Dewsbury & C p d . to Mr Cox on 9 th Feb 1770. 
In the intermediate time between August & Feb 
& perhaps previous thereto Mr Sprimonts Fore- 
man or Clk one Francis Thomas embezzled a great 
quantity of finished & unfinished Porcelain to the 
amount of sev 1 hundred pounds & it can be proved 


by the Persons who made the goods that those 
contained in the Inventory hereafter mentioned 
were Manufactured by & were the property of 
Mr. Sprimont & were most certainly part of the 
Goods meant to be sold by the above Inventory 
Messrs. Dewsberry & C being informed thof 
frequently applied to Mr Burnsall the Exor of 
Francis Thomas to have the Goods returned and 
the Books of Ace', delivered up but could not 
succeed thereupon they applied to Mr Sprimont 
who sent the following Letter to Mr Burnsall." 

Mr Burnsall Knightsbridge March 2 I st 1770. 
As I understand that there is a very large 
Quantity of my Porcelain both finished & unfinish't 
that are not yet delivered to Mr Dcwsbury this 
is to desire that you will deliver the whole to him 
immediately being his property & you will oblige 
Your most humble Servant 

N : Sprimont. 

23 rd May 1770. Mr. Burnsall not paying any Regard to this 
Letter Messrs Dewsbury & Company were advised 
to make a formal demand of the sev 1 Articles in the 
follg Inventory when Mr Burnsall declared that he 
had not seen nor interfered with any of the Testors 
Goods except receiving the sum of ,3,000 In Trust 
for Thomas's children. 

The Inventory here referred to furnishes interesting informa- 
tion as to the kind of goods made prior to 1769, so it is 
printed in extenso : 

" Unfinished Ware late the property of Mr Sprimont now of 
Mr William Dewsberry and Mr John Heath in the House of 
the late Mr Sprimont at Chelsea afterwards of Francis Thomas 
his Servant deceased in the possession of Mr. Burnsall as 
Executor of Mr. Thomas. 


20 Dozen fine Dishes & plates blue & White 

20 Dozen White Do. 

6 Bell shaped Cups & Saucers 

6 Single handed Cups D. 

2 Fine blue Bottles 12 Inches high 

12 Crimson Plates & dishes 

4 Large oval white Baskets 

6 Pair of double handed Cups & Saucers White 

50 Dozen of White knife handles 

400 Tooth Pick Cases. 

15 Toilette Boxes 

a White Chimney Piece 

4 White Jars on the Drawers 
6 Dresden Jars 

5 Sea Green Toilette Boxes 

I Set of Seasons on Pedestals 

i Double branch Candlestick 

6 Blue & white Caudle Cups Covers & Saucers 
4 Jars in Mazarine blue 


1 Satire Bottle blue & gold finish d as usual 

2 Royal Pattern perfume Vases crimson Si gold 

2 Beautiful Square perfume Jars pierced neck & cover 
in Flowers blue and Gold 

I Pheasant Jar blue & Gold in natural flowers 

I Perfume Pot on Pedestal decorated with Cupid & 
flowers with a crimson Ground enriched with bur- 
nished & Chased Gold. 

I Perfume Jar & Cover with Figure of Season sitting 
by painted with a Bird 

1 Double branch Candlestick of the Seasons 

2 Cups of Crimson Ground in figures & chased & bur- 

nished Gold 

3 Saucers to D. 

4 Blue & gold Cups painted & figures &c 
2 Saucers to D. 



Holding a Medallion of Geo. II. 

Subjects on base printed and coloured. 

No mark. 

H. 14^ in. 



r ^"3* &* \-', 


12 Double handed Caudle Cups & Saucers in blue & 

gold painted in figures. 
15 Fine Queen's plates in blue & gold & enamell d with 

flowers & birds 
12 Plates in blue & gold painted in birds 

3 Dozen of twelve scollopp d plates painted in flowers 
6 Dozen of plates in birds Green edges 

6 Dishes painted in fruit with Brown edges 
Plates D 

4 Doz : new pattern Compotiers in fruit flowers & birds 
2 Plates crimson & gold painted in birds flying 

1 Large Dish for Turenne royal pattern in birds & flowers 
4 Dozen plates in flowers birds &c different sorts 

6 Large Sallad Dishes painted in fruit 

2 Doz : Shell plates in flowers & finished with gold 

6 Dishes & plates very blue gold & flowers & enriched 

in burnished gold. 
4 Dozen Smelling Bottles 

3 Doz : Snuff Boxes 

I Dresden Tooth pick case small in flowers 

1 Group of Boys for the top of a Clock 

2 Figures on Horseback for Desert very good 
I Thermon Pedestal 

I Chimney piece in the parlour 

1 Jonquil Jar & Cover 

2 Doz : painted plates in birds with blue pannels 
2 Toilett Boxes in figures blue & gold &c 

6 Dresden Saucers 

4 Heart shap d Jars painted in birds & Jessamine 

flowers &c 

4 Crimson & gold Urns with mask heads 

I Compleat Tea Set Crimson & gold in flowers 

4 Blue & gold Caudle Cups & Saucers 

12 Branch Candle Sticks white & gold 

I China Snuff box mounted in gold with an Agate Lid 

200 Snuff Boxes unmounted 


200 Tooth pick Cases 

i Ledger Book bound in green 

7 Other Account Books 

i Box of Orange red 

6 Burnishers 

40 Vases and Urns 

40 Pair of figures of various sorts & sizes 

30 pair of Candlesticks various sorts & sizes 

7 Compleat Tea and Coffee sets 
20 Dozen plates 

IOO Compotiers of different sorts finished. 

" The said Francis Thomas had a Wife and four Children to 
maintain & had only .150 p Ann for about six Years only 
but it is now said he died worth .8000 and upwards & was not 
worth a Shilling when he went to live with Mr Sprimont. 

" Since the Application to Mr Burnsall as the Executor of 
Francis Thomas he has at a Sale which he lately made at 
his own Auction Room included part of the Articles in the 
Inventory abovementioned which have been sold to different 
persons and others bought in by himself at a very low rate 
in order as presumed to lessen the Value of them in Case 
Messrs Dewsberry & C. succeed in their Suit. 

" However Messrs Dewsberry & C have had the precaution 
to send their Workmen to the Sale in order to observe which 
and how many of the Articles in the foregoing Inventory 
ment d were offered to Sale & finding many were They have 
taken down the prices at wch they were respively sold tho' 
immensely under Value even at Prime Cost & as Mr. Burn- 
sall continues to refuse to deliver up the several Articles 
unsold or make satisfaction for the same And also refuses 
to deliver up the Books of Account in Order as is supposed 
to conceal the Articles taken from Mr Sprimont." 

This action was closed after two years' litigation Duesbury 
paying the costs. Mrs. Thomas's state of mind had become 
deranged, and she had been confined in a madhouse ; the 



attorney swearing there was nothing left to support the four 
children, the court ordered the case to be closed. 

Thomas was buried in Old Chelsea church-yard. The 
inscription on his tomb, kindly supplied to me by Mr. Randall 
Davies, reads as follows : 

" Here lies the body of Mr. Francis Thomas, Director of the 
China Porcelain Manufactory of Lawrence St., Chelsea, departed 
this life between the hours of ten and eleven o'clock Sunday 
night the 6th of January, 1770, in the 45th year of his age. 

" Surely the tenderest husband, the best of fathers, and the 
sincerest friend, whose death is greatly lamented by us and 
all his friends. 

" Oh ! but when the great God does call 
And summons us both great & small 
Therefore let us my friends prepare 
Like this the best of fathers here." 






THE last Derby Porcelain Sale Catalogue of goods sold 
by Mr. Christie mentioned in Mr. Nightingale's volume 
is dated May 23, 1785. The writer has an original 
letter, dated October 19, 1785, addressed to Mr. Duesbury 
jun., which throws some light upon the discontinuance of the 
periodical London auction sales of the products of the Derby 
and Chelsea factories, which reads as follows : 


The Gentlemen of the China Trade have directed 

me to inform You that your promising to discontinue your 
Spring Sales to the Nobility has met their approbation. They 
have desired your acceptance of the thanks of the Society 
for the same, and have unanimously agreed to assist the 
Derby Manufactory by forwarding the Sale of its Manufac- 
ture ; hoping at the same time Mr. Duesbery will never lose 
sight of the Interests of the Members of the China Society. 

I am, S r , your most obedient 

humble Servant, 

Aldgate, iqth Oct., 1785. 

The following catalogue or " list " is reprinted page for 
page from the original, and the remark made on the title 


page " That they have now opened a commodious Warehouse 
in Bedford Street, Covent Garden," suggests that it relates 
to the years 1774-5, as Duesbury leased the show room in 
'773- From the long and elaborate descriptions of many 
of the objects, they must have been amongst the finest 
examples produced at either Chelsea or Derby. This list 
of the " Chelsea Derby " period, supplementing the reprint 
catalogues issued by Mr. Nightingale in his " Contributions 
towards the History of Early English Porcelain " and Mr. 
R. W. Read's reprint of the 1756 Chelsea Catalogue, 
becomes of considerable interest to collectors. 




MefT. DUES BURY and Co 

Proprietors of the DERBY and CHELSEA 

Porcelane Manufacturies, 


To acquaint the NOBILITY, GENTRY, and the PUBLIC 
in general, that they have now opened a commodious 
Warehoufe in Bedford Street, Covent Garden, with large 
Affortments of the following Articles, fpecified in this 
Catalogue : 



Jars, Vafes, Urns, Tripods, Altars, &c. 

Designed in the antique and modern Taste, with great Choice of 
richest and most elegant Decorations of FIGURES, EM- 
BLEMS, and HISTORIES, taken from ancient History and 
Mythology, adapted for the Embellishment of Chimney- 
Pieces, Cabinets, Toilets, Consoles, &c. 



Furnishing an extensive Variety of rich and select TABLE and DESERT 
Patterns, in the most approved present Taste. 


Great Choice of Biscuit Groups and Figures in a grotesque Stile, 
from accurate Designs, elaborately finished even to the minutest 
Imitation of Lace. 

** In Order to make the natural Productions of the mineral Kingdom in the 
County of Derby, so deservedly admired Abroad, and unike in their Kind, go 
Hand in Hand with the Productions of Art and Industry, Mess. DUESBURY 
and Co. in hopes of still adding to the Satisfaction of the Public, are exhibit- 
ing, at the same Time, a Collection of the curious and universally admired 
DERBYSHIRE FLUORS, Alabasters, Marbles, and various Crystaliza- 
tions, peculiar to this Island, worked into Slabs, Obelisks, Pyramids, Co- 
lumns, Pillars, Cups, and Vases, of select Forms and of Colours bor- 
dering upon Amethysts, Sapphires, Topazes, Agates, Jaspers, Emeralds, &c. 


INDUCED by the Encouragement with 
which we have been favoured from the No- 
bility and Gentry, we have extended and im- 
proved our Manufactures of Derby and Chelfea 
Porcelain, ornamental and ufeful, in the antique 

Depending totally on the further Protection 
and Encouragement of a liberal Public, humbly 
flatter ourfelves with the kind Continuance of 
their generous Affiftance, by which alone we 
fhall be enabled to rear up and to fupport many 
ingenious Artifts and induftrious Labourers, and 
not only to fave their Country from fending large 
Remittances abroad for obtaining fuch attractive 
and ufeful Ornaments, but even to extend a con- 
fiderable Branch of Commerce to foreign Na- 
tions, which we have great Reafon to believe 
from our late Demands. 

L I 



Principal Additions made this Year 





O F 

Mr. D U E S B U R Y's 

Derby and Chelfea MANUFACTORY 

O F 



1 HpHEIR present majesties the king and queen, and 

* royal family, in 3 grouped pieces in biscuit the 
center piece represents the king in a Vandyke dress, on a 
blue and gold bassement, supported by four lions, leaning 
on an altar richly ornamented in blue and gold, with 
hanging trophies of the polite arts and sciences. The 
crown, rhunde, and scepter reposing on a cushion of crim- 
son, embroidered, fringed, and tasselled in gold 

2 A truncated vase in lapis lazuli blue veined with gold, with 

white and gold scollop'd and leaved pediment zone and top ; 
round the vase are four Cupids, two holding a festoon in 
gold, fixed to two gold faces of satyrs, and two riding on 
dolphins forming the anses. On the cover is a genius 
vanquished by Cupid. The body of the vase is supported 
by 2 naiades, or sea gods, and the pedestal answering the 
vase has four sphynxes for its supporters, the emblems of 




White Glazed state. 

" A truncated Vase, with scolloped and 
leaved pediment, zone, and top. Round 
the Vase are four Cupids, two holding a 
festoon fixed to faces of Satyrs, and two 
riding on dolphins forming the anses. 
On cover is a Genius vanquished by 
Cupid. The body of the Vase is sup- 
ported b"y two Naiads or Sea-gods." 

Most probably modelled by Rossi. 
Chelsea-Derby Period. 

This Vase is No. 2 in Old Catalogue, but 
without the Stand. See page 54. 

H. 13 in. 

[ 4 ] 

3 The same, in fawn or flesh colour, and less gilt forms, fi- 

gures, and dimensions the same i6 

4 A sky blue, two handle oblong vase, and pedestal with 

white and gold foliages, coloured landscapes, pierced neck 
and cover i6 

5 A set of three vases of a crimson ground, richly ornamented 

in white, blue, and gold ; the center vase is of a cup form, 
hung with an oak leaved gilt festoon, supported by two 
lions faces ; two white and gold dragons form its anses 
and support two festoons, twisting their tails round the 
under one, and holding up the upper one of white flowers 
with their snouts. The cover, with its turban shaped rim, 
is surmounted with an open winged white eagle, it stands 
on a rich pedestal with four angular couched white Griffins, 
gilt bills, claws, and festoon. Height of the center cup 
and pedestal together 1 6 

The two side vases scollop'd and double festoon'd in gold 
and white, with four white masks and candle socket tops, 
are surmounted by two corresponding golden sphynxes, 
standing on a matching pedestal, with four white foliated 
masks in the base corners 13 

6 The same vase and pedestal, sea green, as No. 2, &c. with 

coloured Cupids, dolphins, sea gods, and sphynxes 16 

7 A crimson coloured flask with gold flowers, two white and 

gold handles, and two round cartouches, one representing 
a coloured landscape, the other a sea god pursuing a 
Nymph, center piece 15 

8 A white four legged two handled vase, etched in gold and 

green, with two Turkish figures and birds coloured, an open 
worked neck and cover 14! 

9 A long necked sky-blue and gold vase, with two twisted 

gold and white handles, adorned with two heart shaped 
cartouches, representing a bouquet of coloured flowers and 
the fable of Glaucus 14 

10 A mazarine blue gold veined two handled rich vase, with 

twisted ribs, two gold masks with festoons, and a gold 
pine top 14 

1 1 A pair of white Chelsea jars, with four furrows, two foliage 

handles edged blue and gold, decorated with coloured 
birds 13 

12 A purple and gold ground flask, with a white and gold fo- 

liage twisted round it ; two round cartouches present a 
group of coloured flowers, and a Flemish entertainment 13^ 

13 A set of 3 crimson coloured crown topped urns, with white 

and gold buttoned squared anses, and circular cartouches, 
representing on the center urn Venus and Adonis, painted 
after a drawing of Boucher, and a bouquet ; the two side 

[ 5 ] 

urns of the same form, represent Dido receiving 
^Eneas, Vertumnus and Pomona, and two landscapes, 
white and gold festoons pass through the anses 1 3! and gf 

N. B. The two vases, No. 28, being added, form a set 
of five. 

14 A sea green white spotted ground flask vase, with white and 

gold foliage handles, and two round cartouches, with a co- 
loured bouquet, and a Savoyarde teaching her boy to play 
on the viol I3f 

15 The same vase with No. 10, but the mask of a long bearded 

river god, coloured 13^ 

1 6 A mazarine blue gold watered vase, with white and gold 

foliage and pierced tops, handles, and faces, adorned 
with cartouches in crimson, representing Jupiter and lo 145 

1 7 A pair of Crimson and gold four sided and four legged rich jars 

edged with a white and gold foliage, topped with a white 
and gold basket-work surmounted with a small coloured 
bunch of flowers ; the four sides representing alternately 
in colours, groups of flowers, birds, Silenus and Bacchus 13! 

1 8 The same vase with No. 10, in sky-blue and white edged 

with gold i4f 

19 A pair of urns similar to the side urns described in No. 13, 

adorned with medallions imitating cameos 9^ 

20 The same/ar as No. n, in sky-blue edged in white and 

gold with coloured cartouches of birds and flowers 13^ 

21 The same in white with green festoons and trophies tied 

in gold with gold and white foliage handles 13^ 

22 A Chelsea set of (3) beakers with 6 alternate longitudinal 

divisions, mazarine blue and gold and white with colour- 
ed birds ; the anses branched in white, edged with gold ; 
the middle beaker has a perforated cover 13 

23 A pair of white vases edged with gold, with perforated 

necks and covers, adorned with festoons of coloured flow- 
ers, the pediment sky-blue on a white and gold pedestal 10 

24 A crimson coloured vase adorned with embossed coloured 

flowers and foliages in white and gold, a white and gold 
basket cover topped with a bunch of flowers, two oval 
cartouches with coloured flowers and birds on one side 
and a woman drinking on the other 12 

25 The same in white edged with blue and gold, adorned 

with coloured birds i 2 

26 A pair of blue celeste vases hung round with festoons of 

embossed white flowers supported by three cariatides with 
open tops fixed on pedestals 10 

27 A pair of blue, celeste, gold-edged, onion-shaped vases 

with three gold rings and a pierced cover fixed on a tripod, 
with three goats heads and feet in white, flesh colour and 

[ 6 ] 

gold from the base of the tripod round a pine arises the 
Pythian snake 94 

28 A crimson coloured set of 3 pieces, an octagon vase in gold 

edged compartments, divided by white ribs ; the calix of 
the vase adorned with four white lions heads and gold 
rings in their mouths, the 2 side vases of inverted cups 
and anses, with their pedestals icf and 14 

29 Another set of the same form in sky-blue and gilt lions 

faces lo-J- 

30 A set of (3) sky-blue, two handled vases with white em- 
' bossed flowers, the side vases in the form of beakers have 

white half handles 1 1 and 7^ 

3 1 A set of (3) gold striped and white vases adorned with co- 

loured sprigs of flowers ; the center vase has a white fluted 
foot, scolloped bottom and edged with gold, two white 
goats heads serve for anses, the rim of the vase is a frize 
with a gold vine branch, the top terminates in a pine with 
hanging white leaves ; the two side vases have a perforated 
white and gold neck and streight anses 7^ and gj 

32 An octagon vase of the form of No. 28, in mazarine blue, 

white and gold with 2 side vases on pedestals loj 

33 A tripod, similar to No. 27, in crimson and gold 9^ 

34 A crimson coloured flat shaped rich pair of urn vases and 

pedestals, with a laurel wreath round and a white gold 
fringed drapery festoon, supported by two white masks ; 
to the gold rimmed neck are fixed two white rams heads 
as supporters to a golden festoon, the top, calix and foot 
are foliated in white and gold, heighth of the vase seven 
inches, breadth -]\ inches and with the pedestal 1 1 

35 A pair of crimson coloured elegant vases with white gold 

edged spiral anses, supporting a white embossed garland 
of flowers running through two gold rings, the neck 
white and gold leaved flowing with twisted stripes down 
to a gold triple reed bound in blue, the pediment an- 
swering the neck 9 

36 A pair of white urns adorned with green and gold top, 

rim, festoon and bottom leaves intermixed with purple ; 
the body of the urn is scattered with flowers 9 

37 A set of calices, of three pieces ; the center-piece, of a tri- 

lateral form, represents in its three compartments coloured 
sacred subjects on a white ground ; the corners and pedi- 
ments are sky blue edged in gold with golden festoons, 
&c. the top is adorned with three rams heads in gold, 3 
gold lions couched on the pedestal support the whole, 1 i 
inches, the two side pieces of a truncated conical form, 
adorned in the same manner as the centre piece, re- 
present three other sacred subjects 9! 

[ 7 ] 

38 The same set of chalices in crimson represent several groups 

of Bacchanals in chiaroscuro. Dimensions the same 

39 A set of (three) buff-coloured vases of the form described 

in No. 31, ornamented with antique chiaroscuro festoons, 
medallions fixed on pediment slabs of lapis lazuli veined 
with gold 10 and i\ 

40 a pair of mazarine blue vases, white and gold pierced neck, 

top, foot and pedestal, adorned with 2 rams heads and fes- 
toons in gold, measuring with the pedestal 10 

4 1 A pair of mazarine blue cup-formed urns, hung with a white 

drapery, their elongated white necks adorned with blue 
gold edg'd twisted furrows, the top rim with gold nobs, is 
supported by two lions heads, holding a laurel festoon in 
gold 1 9 

42 A large beaker, sky-blue ground, spotted in white ; two dol- 

phins, lion footed, standing on white goats' heads form 
the two anses, in crimson and white, edged in gold ; the 
mouth of -the beaker, and the top of the vase, are furrowed 
with twisted crenures in white and gold : the zone of the 
top is adorned with golden lions, turned towards white and 
gold masks ; the rim of the cup-part is a foliated and cre- 
nulated friese white and gold ; round the body of the vase 
are eight gold framed head in chiaroscuro, imitating an- 
tique cameos, suspended to a festoon in gold, with detached 
pateras ; the pediment striped in gold, in alternate trian- 
gles ; the foot covered with gilt leaves ; the pedestal, in 
white and gold, has four white sphynxes for angular 
supporters, over which runs a gold festoon, fixed to the 
surbase ; the whole, with the pedestals 20 

43 A triangular monumental Pyramid, the same Form as de- 

scribed No. 37, in sky-blue and gold, the compartments 
painted in bacchanalian figures 1 1 

44 A pair of Urns, of the same shape as No. 13 in fawn-colour, 

with fruit cartouches and pedestals corresponding 10 

45 A pair of essence-flasks for toilettes, of a spade form support- 

ed with rich pediments on four gold rams heads, and 
adorned with medallions, some representing cards, some 
cameos, &c, 7f 

46 A pair of crimson coloured candle vases, with white and 

gold edge masks and drapery festoons, tied with seagreen 
knots answering the base slabs, crowned with a gold edged 
pine button and corresponding nossels, and adorned with 
white rims, gold festooned edges and white and gold frieses 8 and 9 

47 A mazarine blue center vase, and white and gold pedestal, 

on a black marble slab, white and gold edged twisted pe- 
diment ; the body of the vase edged at top and bottom with 
golden reeds, and adorned with a rich garland of embossed 

[ 8 ] 

white and gold flowers running in festoons thro' two spiral 
white and gold anses, and thro' two golden rings. The 
neck of the vase, answering to the Pediment, is hung with 
gold edged foliages ; the same adorn also the cover with a 
gold button and gold lined edges. The vase 9 in. and 
with the stand 13 

48 A center vase, sky-blue, white and gold, with a correspond- 

ing pedestal. The body of the vase, compressed, is 
adorned with two gold bordered cartouches, one with a 
woman and child finely painted, and the other with a bou- 
quet. The anses formed by two white and gold foliages, 
the neck pierced and covered ioi 

49 A Mazarine deep blue urn vase, onion shaped, richly orna- 

mented with a white and gold foliated rim, hung with a 
gold festoon, connected with two goats heads, and forming 
two anses above them ; the white and gold pedestal cor- 
responding. See No. 34 10 

50 Another ditto, in pea green, differently ornamented, but 

without festoons, with white and gold foliage handles, 
top, pediment, frieses and pedestal 10 

5 1 A pair of skie blue octagon two branched candle-vases, on a 

white base, with 4 white gold tipped lion-claws, two gold 
Satyrs heads support the branches, and a white and gold 
festoon, the cover terminating in a gold flame 1 2 

52 A pair of small skie blue white and gold edged candle-vases, 

with white rams heads, placed on the friese, and support- 
ing a festoon of gold fixed on lapislazuli square slabs 8j to 65 

53 Another pair of ditto, same colour, somewhat smaller 6 to 8 

54 A pair of buff-coloured white and gold candle vases with 

white goats heads, rims, zones and bases, adorned with 
gold festoons and laurel-wreath edges, foliages, top-covers 
and nozels fixed on blue and gold slabs 8^ to 10 

55 A pair of buff-coloured vases edged and festooned in gold 

with white stags heads, rims, zones, tops and pediments 6J 

56 A pair of elegant vases in skie blue, the neck, rim and 

bottom in purple coloured, gold-edged and ornamented 
frieses ; two rings of the same serve for handles and receive 
a gold tissue festoon the foot fixed to a gilt slab n| 

57 A pair of globular skie blue, three claw-footed and goat 

headed tripods with white and gold borders, foliages and 
top buttons, the covers perforated, fixed to round gold 
edged pedestals 10 

58 A set of three white vases strewed with flowers, adorned 

with blue and gold festoons ; the centre vase with green 
reed handles fixed to the bottom part over a blue and 
crimson scollop'd calix, the festoon supported by two 
queens heads, the top in blue and crimson mosaic gold- 

[ 9 ] 

Inches high 

edged work, topped with a pine cone in gold ; the centre 
vase measures 13^ inches in heighth, 8 inches in breadth 
and with its griffin pedestal 1 7 inches ; the two side- 
vases measure 9 inches, and with their white and gold 
lion-clawed pedestals 

59 A set of five white urns and vases with crimson cameos, cu- 

pids, sky-blue and gold foliage handles, gold edged tops 
and bottoms with gilt, acorn, ball and buttons to the 
covers 6 8 9^ 

60 A set of (three) sky-blue white and gold octagon inverted 

vases and corresponding pedestals, as No. 28 14 and 10 

6 1 A pair of mazarine blue and gold fluted Corinthian pillar 

candlesticks 1 1 

62 A pair of white beakers, white and gold foliage handles, 

adorned with embossed and enamelled sprigs of flowers, 
two gold bordered cartouches one representing Bacchus 
the other Ariadne, matched with flower pieces 1 1 

63 A pair of crimson coloured flat flasks and covers, orna- 

mented with garlands in gold, two white and gold foliage 
handles, and two heart-shaped cartouches with a gentle- 
man playing on the flute and a lady playing on the lute, 
painted in colours and matched with landscapes 10 

64 A pair of sky-blue vases with rams heads in gold, on the 

horns of which hangs a white and gold festoon ; neck and 
top perforated, white and gold pediment and base 7 

65 A pair of white crown-topped urns studded in gold, of the 

form No. 13, two round gold framed escutcheons repre- 
sent the sacrifice of Iphigenia and the departure of yEneas, 
after Mr. Moreau's design, with two matching sea-pieces, 
pedestals white and gold i T and 1 3^ 

66 Another similar pair in sky-blue, white and gold, repre- 

senting Diana and Endymion, and Venus with Adonis, 
with opposite landscapes, painted in enamel in circular 
gold edged cartouches and pedestals corresponding 12 

67 A pair of sky blue two-handled vases, with golden lions 

heads supporting a gold striped and white festoon drapery ; 
a long neck with twisted white gold edged ribs, and a 
white and blue divided foot on a white gold edged slab lof 

68 A sea-green oblong pair of small vases studded in gold, 

white mask handles, white ribbed top and bottom, white 
necks with gold annular reeds, and gold edged foliages ; 
a golden festoon and pediment fixed on blue gold veined 
slabs 6J 

69 The same pair of vases in sky-blue with biscuit ornaments, 

and a few gold edges, on black and gold slabs 6 

70 A mazarine blue globular center vase ornamented in gold, 

with two white double branched handles tipped with gold, 

Inches high 

two round cartouches framed in a double gold ring, re- 
presenting Cupids playing with a Caduceus, and flowers 
painted in enamel I2 

71 A set of (three) white long jars with white blue and gold 

foliage handles and an open-worked white blue and gold 
bell-cover ; the sides, painted in enamel, represent beauti- 
fully coloured birds and flow'ring shrubs 13^ and 12^ 

72 A pair of covered beakers as described in No. 22 13 

73 A pair of sky-blue, ring-handled vases, shaped as No. 56, 

with white frieses IT f 

74 An egg-shaped green vase spotted in gold circled specks, 

with 6 perforated scollops in the body and cover, a crim- 
son segmented band with gold and white lines of beauty 
and festoons, topped with a white and gold renuncula, 
and other uncommon ornaments, on the pediment and co- 
ver 9 

75 A pair of crimson candle-vases with a white rimmed and 

white leaved bottom-nozels and gold acorn top, white rim- 
med and foliated neck, white goats head handles, white and 
gold friese, white festoons, white leaved pediments and 
white rimmed base on a gold slab 7 to 8J 

76 A pair of crimson coloured vases edged in gold, white rim, 

perforated neck, foliage handles tipped with gold, a gar- 
land of flowers in relievo hung in festoons round the vase, 
a scolloped, gold-tipped bottom, crimson foot with a 
white pediment on a square gilt slab, the cover perforated 
with crimson and gold edged twisted apertures and a gold 
pine top 1\ 

77 A pair of cup-formed, agate coloured vases with two gilt 

goats head handles, from the horns of which hangs a 
white and gold festoon ; the white gold edged neck and 
cover pierced with long apertures, topped with an agate 
button ; the bottom and pediment white and gold fixed to 
a square gilt slab 7 

78 A buck-coloured pair of vases with gold and white arti- 

choke tops, the neck with two gold foliated edges, the 
handles two gilt masks supporting a white drapery festoon 
with gold fringes and gilt pine cones pendant from the 
knots, a white frize with gold borders, white artichoke 
bottom tipped with gold and a gilt base fixed to a blue and 
gold square slab 

79 A pair of flesh-coloured vases, the shape an inverted trun- 

cated cone with a white and gold artichoke top, a white 
gold rimmed neck with diagonal gold edged apertures, 2 
black and white goats head anses hung with white shaded 
festoons and medallions, a white and gold foliated bottom, 
foot and pediment on a lapis lazuli slab 7i 

[ II ] 

Inches high 

80 Another pair of buff coloured cup vases with a gold acorn 

top and gold edged leaves, a white rim with small knobs, 
gold leaved neck and friese, two white goats headed handles 
and festoons, gold leaved bottom and foot with a white 
base and surbase fixed on a sea-green slab 

8 1 A pair of cup-formed vases with a gold ground, painted 

with roses, lilies, tulips, anemonies, and a variety of other 
flowers, the top a white and gold artichoke and leaves, 
the neck white with transverse longitudinal apertures trim- 
med in gold streight anses, white bottom with embossed 
leaves, white and gold foot answering the neck, and a fas- 
ciated pediment on a blue slab 

82 A pair of egg-bodied cup vases, with a gold artichoke top 

and leaves, a white neck with gold edged leaves and gol- 
den twisted lines, white and gold rims and spiral anses, 
through which and two gold rings runs a golden embossed 
garland of flowers in festoons, pediments answering the 
neck fixed on a square gold lined slab 9 

83 A pair of crimson coloured cup vases shaped like those of 

No. 29, with white goats heads and gilt festoons, upon a 
blue slab 7^ 

84 A pair of sea-green vases, with two white fawn's heads 

crowned with vines in gold, the white and gold festoons 
ornamented with pendant cameos, black and white em- 
bossed, the heads of M. Jun. Brutus and Antonius, the 
top, rim and foot white and gold and festooned neck in 
gold 8 

85 A pair of wide mouthed, two-handled, sea-green cup vases, 

the top, neck, anses, masks, friese and pediment in white 
foliages edged with gold ; under the friese runs a white 
line of arches pined in gold, over the calix of the vase is 
a white band with four gold circle slabs white and gold 8 

86 The same pair in crimson colour 

87 A pair of lapis lazuli blue and gold veined candle urns, top, 

gold artichoke, with a double leaved white bottom, nossel 
blue and gold, white rimm'd, and white leaved base tip'd 
with gold, border of the urn, white edg'd in gold, the 
body of the urn hung with festoons in gold, tied to a gold 
hoop, and to a pair of white gold edg'd short foliage han- 
dles, bottom of the vase, a white scollop tip'd with gold, 
the foot with six S's in gold, white pediment and slab 
lined in gold 7 and 8 

88 A pair of pear shap'd wide mouthed beakers (amphoras) 

white and crimson, edg'd with gold, the body adorned with 
gold framed antique heads, imitating white marble medal- 
lions, surrounded with laurel wreaths 6 

Inches high 

89 Another pair of the same, all white, except the pediment, 

in crimson, mouth, handles, and foot edg'd in gold, the 
body adorned with crimson pateras, hung with green fes- 
toons, intermix'd with full fac'd chiaroscuro female masks, 
veiled and joined by a drapery festoon 6 

90 A maroon or copper coloured rich urn vase, center piece, two 

sea green anses fixed on two lions heads, tipped in gold, 
terminating in masks of Cupids ; to the upper, gold and 
white leaved border; a neck with white deep crenures, 
twisted and edged with gold; the body enriched with 
flying moths and butterflies, and a sea green embossed 
festoon hung on two gold nob'd pateras ; the bottom, be- 
tween two circles of gold, of a white foliage edged in gold 
and sea green ; foot with a gold globular ring, and pedi- 
ment with white and gold hanging leaves 10 

91 A pair of cone shaped purple coloured vases, adorned with 

three white and gold frieses, white stags head handles, and 
festoons, gold edge artichoke tops and bottoms, a gold 
striated pediment, and white gold edged slab 6 

92 A pair of sea green urns, as described No. 13 and 65, re- 

presenting in their escutcheons ^neas relating his misfor- 
tunes to Dido, and Polyxena carried to interment by the 
Trojan ladies, both after Boucher, with corresponding 
landscapes ni 

93 A ditto, of the same colour, exhibiting playing groups of 

Cupids, and landscapes after the same 9^ 

94 A ditto, in white and gold, the cartouches representing the 

history of Mycile, and the consultation of the oracle of A- 
pollo at Delphos, after the drawing of Mr. Moreau 9} 

95 A pair of cup formed" crimson coloured urn vases, with 

white necks fluted in gold, with great elegance ; on the 
horns of two white rams-head anses, hangs a white festoon, 
tip'd with gold and tied in sea green knots ; the foot and 
pediment of white and gold foliages and rings ; slabs white 
edged in gold ; top an inverted white and gold tulip 8 

96 A pair of mazarine blue and gold Chelsea jars, with white 

and gold foliage anses and bottoms ; the two cartouches re- 
present a shepherd filling the lap of a sleeping shepherdess 
with flowers, and a nymph uncovered in her sleep by a cu- 
rious satyr ; both are matched with flower pieces on the 
opposite cartouches T , 

97 A pair of crimson coloured dice cup shaped, flower pots, with 

with moveable pierced flat covers, adorned with landscapes 

in a pair of cartouches bordered in gold 6 

98 A ditto, in sea green 6 

99 A pair of skie-blue onion shaped urn vases ; top, handles, 

[ 13 ] 

neck, friese, bottom, and pediment, in white and gold, as 
No. 49 7 

100 A ditto, same form, but another design, very rich ; the 
cover, the body, and the pediment in crimson, studded with 
a gold net-work ; the top, neck, and bottom white and 
gold, foliated, on a pea green ground ; the broad edge 
enriched with a gold zone ; the base and tablet gold and 
white 7 

10 1 A pair of crimson coloured cabinet cups and saucers, span- 
gled with gold ; the cups with two white gold tipped fo- 
liage handles ; cups and saucers embellished with white 
compartments to detach two antique heads framed in gold, 
and suspended on a green and red laurel festoon tied with 
blue knots Breadth 6^ 4 

102 A ditto, of a different form and design, without handles, 
studded with golden ringlets, adorned with alternate ca- 
meos and trophies of war in chiaroscuro, placed in a white 
ground, connected and incircled with the same laurel fes- 
toon ; the center of the saucer embellished with a rose in 
gold within a laurel wreath ring, in a white ground, 
edged with a cordon in gold Breadth of the cup 4^ in. 4 

Breadth of the saucer 6 in. i 

103 A pair of white urn vases, striated in gold, with two white 
goats head anses hung with sea green and white festoons, on 
the knots of which are suspended two white heads on a 
brown ground, bordered within a crimson wreath ; sprigs 
of flowers are scattered over the body of the vase ; the tops 
white and gold foliated, terminate in an artichoke point ; 
the necks perforated with oblong transverse apertures edg- 
ed in gold, the same as the pediment 8 

104 A pair ditto, of the same form in mazarine blue, same 
tops, anses, necks, and pediments on a gold wreath base 
and white gold edged slab ; the body of the vase with two 
white oval gold framed cartouches, exhibits two coloured 7 
bouquets of flowers 8 

605 A white gallon cask with gold edged hoops adorned with 
4 trophies of musick, emblems of love, in chiaroscuro sur- 
mounted with a young coloured Bacchus seated on the 
bung tasting a grape, of which he holds a basket full be- 
tween his legs and a cup in his left hand, the barrel is 
made to turn round on a pivot fixed in an or moulu pe- 
diment, a satyr's mask holds an or moulu cock in his 
mouth which opens and shuts by a spring 18 

1 06 Another ditto with coloured trophies 

107 A crimson coloured gold spangled pair of oval cup bowls 
with pierced covers in white and gold cross branches, the 
top edged with white and gold knobs, the body orna- 

[ 14 ] 

mented with medallions and trophies, suspended on a 
green and red laurel festoon running through a white 
gold edged ground standing on four erect white and gold 
scollops 7^ 

1 08 A pair of seagreen, white spotted, half convex, four leg- 
ged ice pails with a rich border, foliage handles and feet, 
concave pannels in white and gold, two oval gold framed 
painted cartouches of landscapes and groups of shepherds 
heighth 5 inches, length 8 

1 09 A pair of crimson coloured round ice pails, border and foot 
white, lined with green, white and gold foliage handles 
surrounded with golden garlands of flowers, four circular 
gold edged and flowered cartouches represent the four 
seasons, and coloured cupids, heighth 4^ inches, width 5 

no A pair of cups with the same gold ground and flowers, as 
No. 8 1, the inside strewed with golden sprigs 4 

1 1 1 A pair of gold striped cups with scattered flowers coloured 
Same dimension 

112 A mazarine blue ink stand, with white and gold edged 
flutings, the pen-place cover topped with a white 
lamb, and adorned with a garland of flowers round its 
, ' neck, the side of the penhold ornamented with a central 
ram's head and four festoons in white and gold, between 
the ink and sand boxes, and their elegant fluted covers, is 
a blue and gold leaved socket to hold a columnar fluted 
wax candlestick, the stand bottom is enriched with a 
white gold edged foliage border. Length 8 inches, 
heighth 6|, breadth 4^ 

1133 small set of octagon mazarine blue vases, the same as No. 
28, with their white and gold pedestals, and inverted side 
vases in miniature 7 & 6 

1 14 Another ditto in white and gold, same size, with fixed pe- 

1 1 5 A similar set in fawn colour 

1 1 6 Another ditto in sky-blue, the center vase of which, round, 
white, with sky-blue flutings, a large gold and white 
moulding, gold anses with white festoon'd drapery, and 
four white rams heads on the fixed pedestal, a white top 
with fruits, and twisted blue and gold drops "]\ 

1 1 7 a small pair of sea green wide mouthed open jars, white 
necks with gold rims, white cornice with emboss'd ox 
skulls, white satyr mask handles, supporting two white 
festoons, white leaved bottoms, white foot with eight gol- 
den twisted flutings, and a white leaved basis 4 

1 1 8 A pair of flesh or pink coloured pear shaped open mouthed 
jars, handles and aperture, white foliag'd tip'd with gold, 
to the anses and to two knots are suspended four festoons of 


[ '5 ] 

fruits, and two cameos with heads in shaded white, the 
base white and gold, on a blue and gold octagon tablet 

119 a pair of sea green rases similar to those, No. 79, except 
their purple coloured festoons without medallions 

1 20 A pair of sea green egg cup formed vases, top'd with a 
golden acorn on white gold edg'd hanging leaves, upon a 
sea green ground cover, a white and gold rim with white 
nobs, a white leaved gold tip'd neck, a gold and white 
freise, with two white goats heads anses, and two gold 
rings, suspending a gold leaved festoon, a white long leav'd 
gold edg'd bottom and foot, on a gold wreathed base and 
gold slab 

121 A pair of candlesticks sea green ground, on an octagon 
pediment, adorned with gold festoons ; the body consisting 
of a white Griffin supporting the nossel, elegantly finished 
in white and gold, height 

122 Another pair ditto, the pediment enrich'd with white and 
gold leafage, the body consisting of white dragon, support- 
ing the socket and superbly finished in gold height 

123 A very rich pair of beakers, or open-mouthed, egg-shaped 
large vases, of the size and form described under No. 42, 
in a gold veined mazarine blue, or lapis lazuli ground ; 
the anses all white, edged with gold ; the embossed goats 
heads, lions and mask entirely gold, as well as the fes- 
toons, and the bases of the pediments fixed on a square 
slab of corresponding lapis lazuli. The body of the vase 
too rich to receive any additional ornament from medal- 
lions, &c. no pedestals 



Russian Shepherd, with Guitar. 

Daughter singing, and a Young Man 
playing the Lute. 

No. 387. Incised Mark. 

Modelled by J. J. Spengler 
about 1 790. 




IN 1795. 

THE following list of models and moulds belonging to 
the estate of Mr. Duesbury in 1795 shows the results 
of years of labour by the staff of designers and 
modellers employed by the Bow, Chelsea, and Derby works ; 
for purposes of reference and identification it is invaluable 
to the ceramic student and collector. This list was made 
out, and a valuation put thereon in 1819, by four old 
workmen named Soar, Longdon, Farnsworth, and Harden- 
berg for the purposes of the chancery suit of " Duesbury v . 
Kean. :1 The original spelling has been retained, and the 
numbered objects have been placed in consecutive order. 
These numbers will be found to vary in some instances 
from the later list given by Haslem,* and consequently from 
the same numbers found upon figures produced at a later date, 
but they are still very valuable in identifying and naming 
the specimens made prior to 1795. The un-numbered but 
enumerated moulds and models form a key for unravelling 
some of the mysteries of the older English ceramic world. 
By this list we are enabled to fix the date of the modelling 
of many figures made at Bow, Chelsea, and Derby prior to 
1795. The dates of the make of figures made from these 
moulds extended over more than three-quarters of a century, 

* Haslem, p. 170. 


and must in each instance be approximately fixed by an 
examination of the mark, paste, colouring, gilding, and finish 
which the particular example exhibits. 

It will be noticed that in some cases the name of the 
artist is given, viz., "4 seasons, by Bacon"; No. 381 "Pr. 
figures by Spangler." Other interesting items are : " 50 
smelling bottle figures Chelsea" and "300 trinkets and seals." 
There must have been thousands of these made, yet how 
few remain to-day. The " Schreiber collection " at the South 
Kensington Museum, and the " Franks collection " in the 
British Museum, contain many interesting examples of these 
pretty miniature ceramic objects. Among eminent persons 
named in the list are King Charles, Falstaff, Duke of York, 
Lord Howe, John Wilkes, Pitt, Shakespeare, Milton, Garrick, 
Admiral Rodney, bust of Voltaire, and another. There were 
also a " figure of Christ," " Our Saviour on the cross," twenty 
models of smelling bottles, " nineteen middle-sized busts," two 
busts laughing and crying philosophers, etc. 

The total valuation of the moulds, models, etc., of the 
figures, vases, and trinkets was .2,181 33. od. 

The list of the useful moulds and models are not of 
sufficient interest to be printed in full. The following is a 
copy of the affidavit made as to their value : 

" The useful moulds and models mentioned in the list on 
the other side were examined by me the undersigned Thomas 
Heath on the I5th of April 1819, and valued at the sum 
of one hundred and thirty-seven pounds and ten shillings, 
which to the best of my judgment and opinion is a reason- 
able estimate of their value in the year 1795. 


"Derby, Apl. 15"', 1819." 



I A boy, 2 sizes. 

3 Elements, 3 sizes. 

3 Tryangular trypod. 

5 Set of Antique Seasons. 

7 Gardeners, 2 sizes. 

7 A vase, antique. 

8 Pair siting fruit and flower figures. 
8, 9 Pair Laying Goats. 

9 French horn and cymbal, 3 sizes, single figures. 

10 Ditto ditto 2 ditto. 

1 1 Pair of new lace figures Spangler. 

1 1 Cupid Candlesticks. 

12 Fountain group. 

13 Pair of boys, each on a goat. 

14 Two sacrafice figures, 3 sizes. 

15 Small dancing figures, group. 

16 Large old Jupiter and Juno. 

17 A group, two figures. 
17 A vase. 

19 Large fountain vase. 

20 Fruit and flower figures, 4 sizes. 

20 Vase octagon. 

21 David Garrick, Esqre., 2 sizes. 
23 Fragments of the Royal family. 
32 Fisherman and woman. 

35 Four Seesons. 

37 Large group, Jason and Midia. 

38 Pair, Prudence and discression. 

39 Two Figures. 

39 Group, Arts and Scyances. 

40 Ditto. 

41 Ditto. 


42 Group, Arts and Scyances. 

43 Ditto. 

44 Ditto. 

45 Ditto. 

46 Small group, 2 figs, dancing. 

47 Group, 4 Seasons. 

48 Four antique seasons, group. 

49 Pair grotesque cat and dog figures. 

50 Pair small figures, Sportsman and companion. 

5 1 Small cat and dog figures. 

54 New Justice. 

55 Dresden shepherd, 1st size, 2 figures, .3 sizes. 

56 Pair of Garland shepherds, 4 sizes. 

56 Eight small vases. 

57 French shepherds, 6 sizes. 

58 Two pair piping shepherd and companion. 

59 Five sences, small. 

60 Singers, 3 sizes. 

6 1 Pair Spring figures, 2 sizes. 

6 1 Group, Arts and Scyances. 

62 Welch taylors, 2 sizes. 

63 Turks, 3 sizes. 

64 Set of small seasons, 3 sizes. 

65 Dyanna, 2 sizes. 

66 Venus. 

66 A Trypod Vase. 

67 Small ewer. 

67 Small Term Vase.- 

68 Group of 4 musical figures. 

69 Grotesque seasons, small. 

71 Boy and girl sitting in chair. 

71 A vase. 

73 Small group, boy and girl. 

74 Dancing group. 

76 French flower pots, 2 sizes. 

76 Large Group. 

77 Stocking mender. 


78 Shoemaker. 

80 Large oval vases, 2 sizes. 

8 1 Shoeblack. 

82 Fury group, 2 figures. 

84 Hairdresser. 

85 Macaroni. 

86 Pair boy and girl siting on basket 
86 Four element groups, 2 figures- each. 
86 Large Term vase. 

90 Cook and companion. 

91 Macaroni. 

92 Fencer. 

92 Small ewer, 2 sizes. 

93 Children group. 

95 Sphinks and griffin candlesticks, 3 sizes. 

97 Vase, supported by 3 griffins. 

98 Hydra. 

98 Small ewer. 

99 Esculapius and companion. 
99 Small ewer. 

100 Large figure of Andromache weeping over the ashes 

of Hector, 2 sizes. 

101 Pair small figures. 
104 Six small vases. 
109 Dominican. 

ill A Father Confessor. 

1 14 Mars. 

114 Season vases. 

114 Group of 4 small musical figures. 

115 Venus. 

1 16 Apollo. 

117 Jupiter. 

1 1 8 Neptune. 

119 Juno. 

1 20 Dianna. 

121 Minerva. 

122 Time 


123 Four French Seasons, 4 sizes. 

123 Vase by Spangler. 

124 Vase by Spangler. 

125 Large Chelsea Seasons, 4 sizes. 

126 John Wilkes, Esqre. 
126 Vase by Spangler. 

128 Oval Vase. 

1 29 Vase. 

130 Vase by Spangler, 3 sizes. 

131 Ditto do. large. 

137 Pair figures, Madonna and prudent mother. 

138 Ditto ditto. 

139 Two groups, boy and girl, two in each. 
141 Pair small seasons, boy and girl. 

141 Fencing boy. 

142 Swan and dolphin, 4 sizes. 

143 Ditto ditto. 

161 Four figures, Wisdome, Justice, Peace, and Plenty. 

162 Wisdome and Justice, 2 sizes. 

176 Hydra. 

177 Ditto. 

178 Macaroni. 

179 Four small musical figures. 

182 Four boys riding on goat and panther. 

183 Boy and girl, Cupid and Discression. 

184 Small boy and girl. 

185 Swan and dolphin. 

192 Neptune. 

193 Baccus and Areadney, 2 sizes. 

194 Ditto large. 

!95 A group Virgins awaking Cupid. 

196 Two Virgins adorning Pan. 

198 Haymaker and companion. 

199 Harlequin and Colombine. 

200 Four quarters, 2 sizes. 

201 2 Pair small Cupids. 

202 Ditto. 


204 Pair small gardeners. 

205 Pair small Cupids. 

206 Pair small Cupids. 

2 1 1 Fame and Mercury standing on a globe. 

213 Pair of small figures, Dog and Falcon. 

214 Ditto ditto. 

215 Four small seasons. 

216 Music and Poetry. 

217 Music and Poetry, 3 sizes. 

219 Pair basket figures. 

220 Ditto. 
222 Hercules. 

227 Pair Grotesque punches. 

231 Figure of a nun, large. 

234 Group of 4 Cupids. 

235 Three virgins distressing Cupid, 3 sizes. 

240 Group, two figures. 

241 Large fountain group, 4 quarters, 3 sizes, 

244 Figure of Plenty. 

245 Ditto. 

246 Pair small figures. 

248 A group of antique seasons. 

250 Two small Elements. 

251 Group of 4 Cupids. 

252 Group of 3 Cupids. 

253 Pair small Cupids, dog and birdcage. 

254 Large group. 

255 Pastoral group. 

256 Ditto. 

257 Group of four boys. 
257 Group of 4 Cupids. 

259 A large Britannia, 2 sizes. 

259 Five Small elements. 

260 Crying boy and laughing girl, 2 sizes. 

261 Peace and Plenty, 2 sizes. 

261 Pair large Cupids, Dove and Key. 


280 Two chandileer figures. 

281 Two Spring candlesticks, boy and girl. 

283 Gardener candlesticks. 

284 Pair Bagpiper candlesticks. 

288 Pair Mars and Venus. 

289 Large old Dianna. 
291 FalstafT, 5 sizes. 

293 Tyth pig group. 

294 Two seasons group. 

295 Group, 4 quarters, large 

296 Pair of haymakers. 

297 Shakespeare and Milton. 

298 Large figure of Minerva. 

299 Small Neptune without rock. 
299 Large Neptunes, 2 sizes. 

301 Pair single Bagpipers, 3 sizes. 

302 Fame and Mercury, 2 sizes. 

303 Old pipe and tabor, 3 sizes. 

304 Pair pheasant figures. 

305 Milton. 

306 Large sitting Cupid. 

310 Old justices, 4 sizes. 

311 Pair pipe and triangle figures, 2 sizes. 
314 Two pair of Dresden figures. 

316 Saylor and lass. 

320 Four coronation figures. 

333 Group, 4 musical boys. 

334 Pastoral Group, 4 boys. 

335 Group, 4 boys. 

351 Four quarters of the day. 

352 Ditto. 

353 Ditto. 

354 Pair figures. 

358 Large Venus and Cupid. 

359 Gardener and companion. 

360 Shepherd and shepherdess. 

361 Pair figures Fruit and flowers. 


362 Boy and companion with birds' nest. 

363 Two pair female figures with dead bird (Spangler). 

364 Small group, two figures. 

365 Pair small figs. Symbals and pipe. 

366 Paliman and Lavinia. 

366 Large Venus and Cupid. 

367 Bugbear and companion. 

368 Pair Tryangle and tamborene figures. 

369 Pair Shepherd and shepherdess playing on fluit. 

370 2 figs. Group, blind beggar and daughter. 

371 Pair small figures, Spangler. 

372 Saylor and lass. 

373 Figure of Spangler. 

374 Large Britannia. 

375 Pompey's poems. 

375 Group 3 Virgins distressing Cupid. 

376 Large fountain group. 

381 Pair figures, Spangler. 

382 Pair of figures. 

383 Farming figures. 

384 Lord Howe. 

385 Farmer figure. 

387 Large group, 4 figures, Russian shepherd. 

389 Pair of figures. 

390 Pair of single figures. 

391 Duke of York, 

392 Pair of large figures. 

392 A figure. 

393 Russian shepherd and shepherdess. 

395 Shepherd and shepherdess. 

396 Ditto. 

397 Venus and boy, large. 
Five figures of Time. 
The Hunting group. 
Jason and Midia, 2 sizes. 
Group, boy and girl peep show. 
Ditto 4 figures, musical. 


Group, 4 quarters, with obalisk, 2 sizes. 
Two groups, 2 elements. 
Fluting shepherd with shepherdess. 
Large chandelier figures, etc. 

Ditto different figures. 

Group, Seasons, broken. 
Pair small figures (wax) damaged. 
Small Fame and Mercury, square plinth. 
Hydra group, obalisk. 
Ditto. ditto. 

Group, French horn and Cymbal. 
Small pastoral group, 3 sizes. 
Standing Chelsea seasons, 3 sizes 
French shepherdess, 6 sizes. 
Pair figures, Tragedy Comedy. 
Four grotesque seasons. 
Pair Spanish dancers. 
Do. cat and dog figures, siting. 
Do. fruit and flower figures, siting. 
Do. grotesque cat and dog. 
Do. Spanish dancers. 
Odments of Neptune figure. 
Cow cream ewer. 

Our Saviour on the cross, 4 sizes. 
Old pheasant and companion, 3 sizes. 
Two pair swan and dolphin figures. 
Crying boy and laughing girl, 2 sizes. 
Old sporting figures, 3 sizes. 
A Garrick, 2nd size. 
Pipe and tabor figures, 2 sizes. 
Cupids, with dove and key, 6 sizes. 
Pair dessert gardeners. 
Pair small sacrifice figures. 
Cook and companion. 
Pair old Chelsea basket figures, 2 sizes. 
Pair cat and dog figures. 
Spring candlesticks. 


Four siting boy seasons. 

Two boy candlesticks. 

Old singers, 4 sizes. 

Piping shepherd. 

Four siting boy seasons, as above. 

Bag Piper candlesticks. 

Four siting seasons. 

Dianna, 2 sizes. 

New ditto. 

Pair pheasant figure candlesticks. 

Dianna, largest size. 

Pair grotesque boy and girl. 

Four large siting french seasons. 

Four smaller french seasons (different). 

Spanish shepherds, 4 sizes (ist size 2 figures). 

Britania and Minerva, 3 sizes. 

Europa and Lydia, 4 sizes. 

One pair Cupids and Discression. 

Farmer and companion. 

Pair fox candlesticks. 

Pheasant ditto. 

Two shepherd chandeleirs. 

Pair Cupid candlesticks. 

Cock candlestick. 

Pair piping shepherd candlesticks. 

Pair dessert gardener ditto. 

A fox and hern ditto. 

Pair large pipe and tabor figures. 

Pair large sporting figures, with branch behind. 

Mars and Venus candlesticks, I pair. 

Pair large siting bagpipes, round pedestals. 

Pair dancing baboons. 

Pair small harlequin and colombine. 

Figure of Christ. 

Pair old shepherds. 

Pair old singer candlesticks. 

Set large seasons, old. 


Pair Spanish shepherd candlesticks. 

Pair Spanish shepherds, 4 sizes. 

Pair pipe and guitar, large. 

Pair piping shepherds and companion. 

Pair bagpipers and companion. 

Large haymaker and companion. 

Pair singer candlesticks. 

Pair siting figures, with basket. 

Oval inkstand, embossed roses. 

Two ditto, plain. 

Five heads Bacus, Satyr. 

Two foxes heads, 2 sizes. 

Three pillar candlesticks. 

One small trouts drinking cup. 

One large sized pidgeon. 

One small ditto. 

Duck boats, four pairs. 

Four quarters of the day. 

Piping shepherd and companion. 

Cupid and Venus, wants the plinth. 

Small gardener and companion. 

Saylor and lass, 2 sizes. 

Old justices, 4 sizes. 

Redstart candlesticks. 

Five sences. 

Old gardener candlestick. 

Six old Chelsea figures, not complete. 

Old Spanish dancers, large size. 

Pair Spanish figures. 

Birdcatcher boy and girl. 

Pair large pipe and guitar. 

Pair siting figure candlesticks, old 

Pair Spanish shepherds, small. 

Small boy and girl. 

Two old figures, with a shield. 

Pair old shepherd figures man without a head. 

Pair grotesque boy and girl (Chelsea). 


Pair Spanish candlesticks. 
Pair standing sheep, with sprigs. 
Pair laying sheep, with sprigs. 
Pair laying cats, 2 sizes. 
Pair large siting cats. 

Pair laying sheep, without sprigs, 2 sizes. 
Pair standing sheep and lambs, 2 sizes. 
Six small Cupids riding triumphant. 
Pair large pug dogs, 3 sizes. 
Pair lambs, with sprigs. 
Pair lambs, without sprigs. 
Pair standing cows, with calf. 
Pair canaries. 

Pair large tygers, 2 sizes. 
Pair bucks and does, 2 sizes. 
Pair greyhounds, with ground pedestal. 
Pair laying cows, small. 
Ditto larger. 

Pair large stags. 
Pair large tomtits. 
Pair smaller ditto. 
Pair redstarts. 

Redstart candlestick, small. 
Pair thrushes. 

Ditto smaller. 
Pair woodpeckers. 
Pair large woodpeckers. 
Rose soap boxes, 2 sizes. 
Squirrels, 3 sizes. 
Swans, 3 sizes. 

Seventeen loves, disguised (Chelsea). 
Fifty smelling bottle figures (Chelsea). 
Five small busts from Chelsea, 2 inches high. 
Boy, 3 sizes. 
Two pair basket boys. 
Eight thimbles. 
One hundred seal trinkets. 


Thirteen heads for noding figures. 

Two egg bell pulls. 

Four rouge pots. 

Six small-sized loves, disguised. 

Four tobacco stopers. 

Two pair small figures, 2 inches high. 

Ten partridges, for sauce boats. 

Cock grouse. 

Nineteen middle-sized busts. 

Two busts, laughing and crying philosopher. 

Two duck vases. 

Fourteen Chelsea wax casts. 

Admiral Rodney. 



A Turk and companion. 

Four seasons, large, by Bacon. 

Group, two figures, pastoral. 

A nun. 

Cupid and Flora. 

Four large quarters. 

Four less ditto. 

Ditto do. 

Ditto do. 

Ditto do. 

Ditto do. 

Ditto do. 

Ditto do. 

A girl crying over a dead bird. 
Pair small groups. 
Five smelling bottles. 
Figure of King Charles, and pedestal. 
Trypod vase, goat's legs. 
Five paper weights, sphinxs, etc. 
Nine small vases. 
A vase, small. 


The Margravin of Hcanspoch, vase, 4 sizes. 
Large term vase, in wood. 
Middle-size vase. 

Small save-shaped (Sevres-shaped) vase. 
Tall save (Sevres) vase. 
Fisherman, figure. 
Pair figures, with branch. 
Female figure, with casket. 
Three figures, various. 
Two small ditto. 
Nine figures, various. 
Pair figures, fiddlers. 
Figure, with a dish. 
Pair small figures. 
Tinker and companion. 
Small figure, in lead. 
Ditto in wax. 
Female figure, on earth pedestal. 
Two figures. 

Thirty-four figures, various. 
Two figures, terra-cotta, Inosence and Hebe. 
One pair cows and calves, standing. 
Bucks and does, 2 sizes. 
Large stags. 

Ditto laying cats, 2 sizes. 
Dancing french dogs. 
Laying cows. 
Small woodpeckers. 
Canary birds. 
Proud taylors. 
Small foxes. 
Large swans, 3 sizes. 
Standing sheep, with lambs. 
Lambs, with sprigs. 

Ditto, without sprigs. 



Laying sheep. 

A Minerva and Britannia. 

Six tobacco stopples. 

Innosence and Hebe, very large. 

Two Saters heads. 

Two Neptunes. 

Two foxes. 

Two trouts. 

Thirty different pedestals. 

Eighteen squirrels, 3 sizes. 

Some Catarine (made for a man named Catharine) 


Pair dancing figures. 
Pair Spanish dancers. 
Large figure of Time. 
Figure of Time, 2 sizes. 
Six small tritons. 
Cupid asleep. 
A Carmalite. 
Old basket boy. 
Pair boy candlesticks. 
Pair Cupid candlesticks. 
Cupid shuteing at a heart. 
Nine small muses and Apollo. 
Thirty confectioner Cupids. 
Small loves, disguised. 
Seventeen loves, disguised. 
Bybles and condr. 
Lot oddments. 
Four Chelsea boys. 
Thirteen small dessert figures. 
Spining-wheel figures. 
Complimenting figures. 
Fury figures. 

Magic lanthorn figures. 


French group. 

A group, two figures. 

Seven old religious figures. 

Two busts, Voltaire and another. 

Crying and laughing philosopher. 

Four season busts, large. 

Ditto smaller. 

Our Saviour on the cross, 3 sizes. 
Standing figure of our Saviour. 
Pair small harlequins and colombine. 
Europa and Lydia, large. 
Figure, Piolla. 
French seasons. 
Europa and Lydia. 
Four large siting seasons. 
Pair Dresden figures. 
Tragidy and Comedy. 
A boy coming down a tree to crown a figure with 

a garland, and small bust, with pedestal. 
Boy and girl. 
Pair fox candlesticks. 
Large chandilicr candlesticks, pair. 
Large Bagpiper ditto. 

Shepherd and shepherdess candlesticks, pair. 
New candlesticks, pair. 
Redstart ditto. 
New shepherd candlesticks, pair. 
Pair religious figures. 
Pair draggon candlesticks. 
Ten old ducks and swans for confectoners. 
Small dessert figures. 
Dessert gardeners figures. 
Three ditto smaller. 
Pair twilight candlesticks. 
Four seasons. 
Figure of Pitt. 


Venus and Adonis. 

Two river gods. 

Set old quarters, 2 sizes. 

Six small sheep. 

French siting seasons. 

Bacchus in a car. 

Fox and hearn candlesticks. 

Pair old singers. 

Pair Dresden cat and dog figures. 

Siting boy and cage, incomplete. 

Four shells. 

Baccus bung for punch barrel. 

Pair laying goats. 

Old term vase. 

Tryangular trypod. 

Six pillar candlesticks. 

A trypod. 

Lot smelling bottles (twenty). 

Large trout. 

Two oval Chelsea baskets. 

Eight small vases. 

Four sphinx paper weights. 

Dresden shepherds, pair. 

Redstart candlesticks. 

Four quarters. 

Pair Dresden shepherds. 

Set new standing french seasons. 

Spoartsmen, one pair. 

Four small gardeners. 

Cock candlestick. 

Pheasant figures. 

Spanish candlesticks. 

Spanish shepherds. 

Pipe and tabor. 

Large haymakers. 

Old lamb inkstand. 


Pair sporting candlesticks. 

Old beker. 

Thirty vases, different one with another. 

Three hundred trinkets and seals. 



Sold Mr. J. Williams. 

80 doz. small boys ... ... ... ... 36 o o 

less 30^0 

Sep. 7, 1791. 

50 doz. boys ... ... ... ... ... 22 10 o 

2 large figures leaning on the right hand 

bisct. 12 12 o 
2 do. do. on the left hand ... ... ...12 12 o 

i Angel 660 

4 Boys ... ... ... 2 2 o 

1791. Oct. 1 8. Sold Lord Courteney. 

A complete tea set (except the tea pot) handled 
cups enam d with a border of roses, fine 
yellow ground & gilt . . . 2 1 o o 

1791. Nov. 14. 

Sold Lady Buller. 

i Pair ewer shape Vauses enam d in compart- 
ments with figures flora and a muse, 
landscapes & richly finished with fine blue 
& gold 1 1 1 1 o 

1791. Nov. 19. Sold The Prince of Wales. 

i Pair Cabinet cups covers & stands enam d 
in compartments with landscapes coloured 
sprigs & gold stars & gold bands ... .8 8 O 


1791. Lord Vernon. 

Dinner & Dessert service enam d with coloured 

sprigs, a Barons coronet & letter V. total 97 3 6 

1792. Sold the Prince of Wales. 

24 Desert plates enam'd with different plants & 

gold border 
1 3 Comporteers 
i Pair cream bowls ... ... ... ....3110 o 

Sold Lord Courteney. 1791. May 4. 

1 P r Cabinet cups covers & stands enam'd in 

compartments on one side with figures in 
colours & on the other a fine group of 
colour'd flowers & a fine blue ground with 
pearls at top & bottom & gilt 880 

1791. June 7. Phillips & Finch. 

12 Handled cups & Saucers cnam d with select 

Views, fine blue ground & gold borders ...14. 3 6 
1791. Oct. 5. Mr. H. Ackers. 

A complete tea set handled enam d in compart- 
ments with landscapes in Gilpins stile, 

colour'd sprigs 1414 o 


Sold Lord Courteney. 

A Comp' set of tea china en d in compartments 
with select landscapes fine yellow ground & 
blue & gold borders same as no 69 ... 27 6 o 

Sold Mr. Egan. 

A Complete tea set handled cups enamld with 
coloured landscapes in compartments & 

S iLt - 21 o o 

1794- Mr. Vulliamy. 

2 Sets of 3 Vauses cnam d in compartments 

with figures & landscapes blue & gold 

borders, gold stripes 54160 


1794. Mr. Miller. 

24 Vase trinkets blue & gold i 14 o 

4 doz. & 6 3 16 6 

1794. Mr. Egan. 

i Pr candlesticks with square china bodies 

mounted with glass nosels & brasswork ... 6 16 6 

1 Pr cabinet cups covers & stds enam d in 

compartments with first and second lessons 
of Love, Landscapes, bloom ground & gold 
borders ... ... ... ... ... "J 7 o 

A complete tea set enam'd with landscapes fine 

yellow ground & gold borders ... ...21 o o 


A pair of Cabinet Cups & Stands enam d with 
the prudent & tender mothers colour'd 
sprigs, gold stars ... ... ... ... 3 1 6 o 

1794. Lord Winchelsea. 

8 Large Coffee cans & saucers with Views of 

Burley, gold frames ... ... ... ...2$ 4 o 

A Dejeune with the above landscapes and 
cyphers on the cream Ewer in gold & 
blue ground & gold stripes ... ...8$ 7 ioi 

1794. The Hon. W. Windham. 

Dinner service enam'd with roses & fawn colour 

gilt border 336 pieces .. ... 244 16 o 

1794. Sold at Mr. Christie's. 

2 Dancing groups & 4 muses bisc 1 . . ....260 

I Pair Chelsea chocolate cups & stands with 

landscape & blue & gold ... ... ... 215 o 

i ditto ditto ... ... .. 2180 

i P r Coffee cans & saucers en d with land-} 

scapes & roses 

1 P r music groups in bisct .. ... ... 300 

2 Less do & i past 1 ... ... ... ... 290 


i Group on pedestal 2 small French patt music,) 6 Q 

very faulty 

i Large group & 4 muses do 2130 

3 figures i 14 o 

i Cup & saucer sugar box i cream Ewer & 

teapot do 130 

26 2 o 


The Exhibits of Porcelain in the London Show Rooms in 
Bedford Street, caused beauty and fashion ( " the Quality and 
Gentry " ) to assemble there, and during the London Seasons 
it was customary for Lygo, Duesbury's representative, to 
forward to Derby lists of important visitors ; the following 
examples give a very good idea of the company who visited 
the rooms. 

Mch 30 1789 

Lord Maitland M r Dixon 

M f s Goddard M r Davinson 

Lady Ibbetson Lady Curzon 

Miss Boucheritt Genl & M rs Pitt 

Rev G H Drummond M rs Bastard 

Lady Penrhyn M rs Rolls 

The Hon M Leigh M rs Horsley 

Lady Percy Lady Middleton 

M"- Wynch Lady & Miss Cunliffe 

Mr Yorke Lord & Lady Melborn 



Part of a Dessert Service made for 
H.M. the Queen in 1841. 

The Service was the last order of im- 
portance executed at the old Derby China 

Flowers painted by Horatio Steel. 

Mark, in Puce : 
"T. Courtney, 34, Old Bond Street." 


Checkered Border 
Flowers by James Turner. 



Uold - 


Arms of Pollard in centre. 
Dark Blue and Gold Border. 


in Gold. 




Of the Mecklenburgh Service, made 

in 1760, by order of Queen Charlotte, 

for her brother, the Grand Duke of 

Mecklen burgh-Strelitz. 


in Gold. 


Service belonged to the Duke of York. 

Sold in his Sale in 1816. 

" In Dovedale, Derbyshire." 

Painted by Z. Boreman. 


in Blue. 



Ap 20 1789 May 4 1789 

Lord & Lady Altimont Lady Herbert 

M rs Wall Lady Tankervillc 

Lady Manners M rs Rolls 

Lady Stamford M rs Nepean 

Lady Kenyon Miss Pierce 

M rs Pitt M rs Viner 

M rs Spencer Stanhope Capt Spry 

M r Grote M r Cleveland 

M rs Clyve Miss Tapps 

M rs Lee Lady Shaw 

Lord Kinnaird 

Lady Cornwall 


1776 The Queen at Sundry times (Geo. III.) 
June 22 A Comp 1 set of Tea China new embos d 

blue & gold 49 pieces 7 7 o 

2 Sallet Bowls enam d with flowers blue 

& gold border ... ... ... 2 2 o 

2 Less do. do. i 16 o 

2 do. Japan patt ... i 16 o 

3 Small shell pickle stands enam d ... i u 6 
6 Ice cream cups enam d with a antique 

border & gilt i 10 o 

6 Egg cups w l & gold ... ... 15 o 

The above is what was bought by the Queen the first 

time she was at the warehouse and at that time 

was attended by the Dutchess of Ancaster which is 

now Dutchess Dow r and I believe it was from her 



Grace representing the warehouse to the Queen 

that occasioned the first visit. 
Nov 15 2 Sallet Bowls enam d with flowers & 

fine blue & gold border I 16 O 

N.B. These was ordered by the Queen at the warehouse. 


Dec 29 2 doz Soup plates enam d with Coloured 
flowers & plain gold edge N.B. I 
believe these was ordered by M r 


Sept 26 2 Mugs enam d with flowers & blue & 
gold border by ditto 


Aug 14 

The Queen gave 
to Lady Hertford 

8 o 

o 12 o 

1 Neptunes head 

2 Sallet dishes green & gold 
2 Beer Rummers do 

i 16 




i Inkstand with coloured flowers 

& gilt 2 2 o 

8 Spar nitting weights i o o 

1 Caudle cup and stand enam d 

with flowers Crimson border 

& gold edge ... ... o 12 o 

5 Doz. Table plates, blue Chan-i 
tilly patt 

2 Soup ditto ... ...}>25 o O 

2O Dishes in sizes 

2 Tureens & Covers ..) 

Aug 14 3 doz. dessert plates enam d with roses^ 

rich mosaic border ... 
1 8 Comportiers do 

4 Cream bowl stands & Spoons do 
4 Double Ice pails do 

4 Doz breakfast plates blue Chantilly 440 


4 Butter tubs and stands i 4 o 

4 doz breakfast plates wh* & gold ... 7 4 o 
4 Butter tubs and stands ... ... 2 o o 

3 packing cases ... ... ... o 10 o 

These goods the Queen bought when at the warehouse 
attended by the Princess Royal and Lady Hertford, 
which I believe is since dead. M r Compton came 
to inform us two days before that Her Majesty 
intended paying another visit to the warehouse 


Aug 15 6 Breakfasts plates wh 1 & gold 
i Butter tub and stand 

Ordered by M r Compton 

Oct 25 4 Oval dishes Blue Chantilly patt, 18" 
4 Less ditto 16" 

6 Less . . ditto 1 3 

6 Less ditto \\\ 

i Doz Soup plates 
4 Table 
4 Butter tubs and stands 




























May 19 I Half pint mug blue & gold border 

Per M r Compton 

July 7 i Doz dessert plates enam d with roses 
and rich mosiac border by M r 


Sep 8 Repairing a French Vase by order M r C 
Nov 17 4 doz dessert plates enam d with roses 

& fine blue & gold borders 
12 Comportiers do 

4 Cream bowl Comp ts do 
4 Double ice pails ... 






Nov 17 I doz la. size plates white & gold... 55 

3 less do 14 3 6 

4 Butter tubs covers & stand ... 2 12 o 
6 Ice cream cups blue & w l ... 12 o 

N.B. This order was gave by the gent" belonging to the 
Board of green cloth at St James by order of the 


Jan 10 8 egg cups blue ) 80 

. ,[M r Comptonsord r 

4 ditto white & gold ) 7 O 

1 Repairing a cover with silver cramps 2 O 
Dec 29 2 Muffin plates white and gold ... 2 2 o 

2 ditto do slighter ... I 14 o 
May I 2 Eye cups do ... ... 40 

Nov 5 I Cover made to fit a patt. cup & 

enam d to match 10 6 

i Saucer to match patt ... ... 5 o 

Riveting a saucer with silver ... I 6 

1782 The King bought 

Jan 30 2 Breakfast cups and saucers enam d 
with rose coloured landscapes & 
richly gilt .. ... ... ... 2 8 O 

2 Sugar boxes do. ... . i 16 o 

2 Cream Ewers do. la size ... i 10 o 

2 Tea pots modelled to patt ... 2 2 o 

6 Plates do. ...580 

Making springs to the covers of 

3 tea pots & 2 cream ewers 16 o 

Packing case 30 

N.B. The king gave the above order to M r Ohm that 
lived with M r Clay when he waited on His Majesty 
on M r Clay's business. 





Feby 14 6 Doz Table plates enam d with a rose\ 
in the center green border & gold 

edge ... ... 

1 8 Soup plates ... ... 

20 Dishes 

4 Sauce boats and stands ... 
2 Sallet dishes 
2 Tureens & Covers ... ... . . . / 

N.B. This order was gave by one of the Kings pages. 


Sep 22 i Doz dessert plates enam d with roses 

& rich mosaic border 
2 large square comforts 
2 Do heart shape 
2 Round 
2 Octagon 
Ordered by one of the Pages. 



... 2 18 


... 2 18 


















ACCORDING to the several histories of the town, the 
Duesbury Derby works have hitherto been understood 
to have been started in 1750. This is an error as 
regards Duesbury, for we learn from his work book, and from 
other documentary evidence, that Duesbury was then residing 
in London. But Duesbury's work book also establishes the 
fact that in 1751-3 figures were made in Derby, and were 
being enamelled by Duesbury in London, as per entries, viz. : 

I Darbeyshire Seson ... i/- 

1 Darby sitting season ... ... i/- 

3 Pairs Darbishire seasons ... ... 6/- 

2 dansing Darby figs ... ... 6/- 

i dansing Darby figars ... ... 3/- 

I large Darby figures ... ... 4/6 

7 small ditto 10/6 

I ditto 1/6 

I Darby figars large ... ... 8/- 

On comparing the prices charged by Duesbury for enamelling 
the Derby figures with his charges for Bow and Chelsea figures 
of equivalent importance, we notice that one pair of " Darby 
figars large " are marked 8s., while only 45. 6d. is asked for 
figures of Jupiter and Juno, probably of Chelsea manufacture ; 
the same price (45. 6d.) is also marked for a pair of Neptunes. 
As a matter of fact, we do not find a single pair of Chelsea 
figures for which the price charged is as high as that of the 
" Darby figars." Amongst the former, the figures of Mr. Wood- 
ward and Mrs. Clive commanded the highest price, and it was 


no more than 6s. From these well-known statuettes we may 
form an idea of the size of those made at Derby in 17 51 , 
mention of which appears on the same list. We may, therefore, 
come to the conclusion that such important works denote the 
existence of a factory of no mean pretensions, since specimens 
were produced there which, for size and quality, could vie 
with the best porcelain of Bow and Chelsea. 

The exact date when the Bow, Chelsea, and Derby factories 
were started is still uncertain ; one point, however, is now 
clearly established it is that in 1751 Duesbury was enamelling 
Bow, Chelsea, and Derby figures for the trade ; this is proved 
by his account book. Considering that that style of manu- 
facture was quite new to the country, one must assume that 
the three factories had already been in existence for several 
years before they were in the position to produce such remark- 
able ceramic objects as the figures to which we are referring. 

The late Mr. Nightingale,* whose contributions to Ceramic 
literature are most valuable and reliable, says on page Ixvii. 
of his " Contributions " : " The earliest notice I have found 
of this (Derby) Manufactory is contained in an advertisement 
of a sale by auction several times repeated, in the ' Public 
Advertiser' during the month of December, 1756. . . No 
mention is made in this advertisement of its being the first 
public sale by auction as in the case of the first Chelsea and 
Longton Hall sales." The advertisement runs thus : " To be 
sold by auction by Mr. Bellamy. By order of the Proprietors 
of the DERBY PORCELAIN Manufactory, at a commodious 
House in Princes St., Cavendish Square. This and three 
following days. A curious collection of fine figures, jars, Sauce- 
boats, Services for deserts, and a great Variety of other useful 
and ornamental Porcelain after the finest Dresden Models all 
exquisitely painted in Enamel, with flowers, insects, India 
plants, &c. . . This and the following days will be sold 
some of the finest of the Derby Porcelain and Foreign China." 

J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A. " Contributions towards the History of Early English 
Porcelain." Printed for private circulation, 1881. 


It will be best to complete Mr. Nightingale's evidence before 
we try to locate the site and to find the names of the pro- 
prietors of this " curious collection of fine figures," etc., offered 
for sale in 1756. " No further regular sales by public auction 
of the Derby products seem to have taken place at this period 
in London; but in the spring of 1757, at the time when the 
first Bow and Longton Hall sales were held, and when 
Sprimont's illness prevented his annual Chelsea sale, we 
hear a great deal of the Derby manufactory, whose speciality 
at that time was certainly figures. Williams, a large dealer 
in porcelain, and afterwards agent to the Derby manufactory, 
who had hitherto carried on his business in Mary-bone- 
street, Golden Square, removed his large stock to a com- 
modious house near the Admiralty in Whitehall for the 
purpose of a sale, which was conducted by Mr. Bellamy. The 
advertisement for this sale was continued for a month. The 
sale apparently contained a good deal of Derby, as the first 
item mentioned in the advertisement is " the largest Variety 
of the Derby or second Dresden." A prominent feature, too, 
seems to have been the Derby figures, as will be seen from 
the second of the two following paragraphs from the Public 
Advertiser, which relate to this sale. 

" At the large Auction Room facing Craigs Court near the Admiralty, Whitehall, 
there were Numliers of Quality & Gentry, who expressed great satisfaction at seeing 
the extensive Number of foreign, and the great Variety of the English China 
manufactories ; and admired at the great Perfection the Derby Figures in particular 
are arrived to, that many good Judges could not distinguish them from the real 
Dresden. This is the first day of the said sale. May 17 1757." 

" The first reliable notice of anything of importance pro- 
duced at Derby hitherto given, as far as I am aware, relates 
to a consignment of Derby products sent to London in 
1763, but it is clear that important works were carried on 
several years earlier. Derby figures, said to be nearly as 
good as Dresden, were sold in London in 1756. The 
paragraph praising these things may have been something 
of a puff, still they must have been sufficiently good to be 
so called at a time when Chelsea, Bow, and other figures 


were being made, whilst the Dresden examples of that 
period were amongst the finest ever produced. The con- 
noisseurs in London probably knew perfectly well what was 
good at that time." 

"The question now arises, what, and where, are these 
'second Dresden' Derby Figures of 1756 and 1757? They 
cannot all have disappeared. The only acknowledged Derby 
figures now met with, as far as I know, are of a much 
later date. The most probable suggestion that I can offer 
is that at least a portion of the early works now attributed 
to Bow may be really early Derby. It will be seen that 
in the Bow advertisement of this year figures are not 
mentioned at all, although some must have been included 
in the sale, as they are alluded to in a subsequent paragraph 
amongst other things. Again the memoranda of the Bow 
manager made at this particular time, and printed by Mr. 
Chaffers from Lady Charlotte Schreiber's manuscripts, show 
that the figures mentioned are few and not important. Nor 
do the marks of this period help much towards the 
identification of specimens ; with the exception of the Chelsea 
anchor, and the much later Derby symbol, there is no 
certainty as to what particular factories many of the known 
marks on figures are to be attributed." 

We have been unable to discover, up to the present time, 
any further facts that tend to throw light on this very 
interesting subject. As we have already observed, we possess 
documentary evidence that figures were made at Derby and sold 
in London in considerable quantities from 1751 to 1756, and 
of such quality as to be classed as " second Dresden." In 
1756 Duesbury was only making preparations to start his Derby 
works, by the aid of money lent by Messrs. Heath, the Bankers, 
part proprietors of the Derby (Cockpit Hill) Potworks. 

It will be noticed that the goods were sent up to Bellamy 
the auctioneer, "By order of the Proprietors of the Derby 
Porcelain Manufactory." No history of Derby mentions the 
existence of such a Firm, nor have we any records amongst 



Rich Blue and Gold Border, Jewelled, 
Landscape in Centre. 

Mark in Puce, and Artists' Nos. 2, 5, 
and 7. 

No. 2, Landscape by John Stables. 

No. 5, Gilding by John Yates. 

No. 7, Roses by Billingsley. 


Painted Birds. 




Raised Flowers on White Ground, and 
Five Bouquets of Flowers. 

Mark, an Anchor in Red. 


Six Raised Leaves, painted Green 
Bouquet of Flowers in centre. 


Painted Flowers by Win. Pegg (the 



the large collections of old documents of that period, in the 
possession of Sir H. H. Bemrose and of the writer, that throw 
any light upon the " Derby Porcelain Co." It may have been 
a title adopted, for the occasion of the sale, by Heath & Co. 
a joint concern, which may have included Duesbury & Planche. 

Another place from which these early Derby figures, called 
"second Dresden," may have proceeded, is Heath's (formerly 
Miers'), Cockpit Hill Potworks.* It is an ascertained fact 
that a slip ware tyg is in existence, on which is inscribed 
"John Meir made this cup 1708"; and although this factory 
was no doubt at work during the previous century, it is 
singular that little or no notice is taken by the historians 
of Derby of the Cockpit Hill Potworks although the under- 
taking was extensive, and employed a number of hands. We 
have to refer to " A Short Tour in the Midland Counties 
of England, performed in the Summer of 1772, etc.," for a 
reference to those works, viz : " Here is also a pottery, and 
I was showed an imitation of the Queen's ware, but it does 
not come up to the original, the produce of Staffordshire." 

We learn the class of goods which was made at the 
Cockpit Hill Potworks from the advertisements inserted in 
the papers of 1780, when Messrs. Heath & Co. became 
bankrupts, and the stock was advertised for sale. 

" To be sold without Reserve (and considerably under the 
usual wholesale prices) at the Derby Pot Manufactory, a 
large quantity of Earthenware, being the whole stock-in-trade 
of that great and extensive Factory, commonly known by 
the name of the Derby Pot Works, consisting of an assort- 
ment of Enamelled and Blue-and-white useful china, a large 
quantity of enamelled Cream-ware, and plain Cream Tea- 
table-ware ; a great quantity of White stone, & Brown ware." 
At a later period of the same year, another sale by auction 
is described as being "a large quantity of Earthen and China 

* For further information, see " Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire," 1870, by 
Messrs. Wallis and Bemrose. 


ware from the Pot Works on Cockpit Hill, in Derby, being 
the stock-in-trade of Messrs. John & Christopher Heath, of 
Derby, bankrupts." 

From these advertisements it is certain that "enamelled and 
blue-and-white useful china " were manufactured ; and although 
no mention is made of figures amongst the stock to be sold, 
one may surmise that such enterprising and moneyed men as 
the Heaths and their predecessors would have taken advantage 
of the rising demand of that day for " enamelled " figures. 
It is probable that figures were made at the Potworks at an 
early date, and that this branch of the business was transferred 
to the new Factory when Duesbury appeared upon the scene. 
The owner of the tyg above referred to informed us in 1875, 
"that a relative of hers had the tyg from her great grand- 
mother, who bought it at the Cockpit Hill Works." " She knew 
several members of the Meir family, and possessed some 
figures ; two of them, I remember, she told me represented 
Mr. Meir's two daughters ; those she gave away, I forget who 
to." We made recent and further enquiries from the brother of 
the lady (who died recently). He said : " I think they were 
white ware, not decorated, and I cannot remember whom they 
were given to forty years ago." So all trace of them is lost, 
otherwise they might possibly have led to further identification 
of the early figures now attributed to Bow or Chelsea. 

The Fine Art Exhibition held at Derby in 1870 contained 
a few authenticated examples of Cockpit Hill China. " No 
distinctive ' mark ' seems to have been used at this factory ; 
at least, we have not been able to trace anything of the 
kind on any specimen. A sucrier and cup, belonging to 
the writer, which have a very early Derby character, and 
resemble in many particulars an authenticated specimen of 
Cockpit Hill, bear the mark of the crossed swords, and the 
number 86 in puce ; this may have been the prototype of 
the crossed batons upon the later porcelain."* That sucrier 

* 11 

Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire," 1870. (Wallis and Bemrose.) 


and cup have landscapes painted in a yellow brown colour, 
and form part of the same tea set to which the cup in the 
Jermyn Street Museum, classed as Derby, belonged ; it bears, 
on a road side finger-post, introduced in the landscape, the 
words " to Derby." 

From a warrant issued in 1758 for the apprehension, 
detention, and correction of one John Lovegrove, we find 
the names of the partners in the Potworks (Cockpit Hill) at 
that period. 

"Whereas information and complaint hath been made before 
me Samuel Crompton, Esquire, Mayor, and one of His Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace for the s d Borough by W n > Butts of the 
s d Borough, gent, upon his oath that John Lovegrove was on 
the Thirteenth day of Jany last duly hired as a labourer and 
servant to the said W" 1 Butts, and to Thos Rivett Esquire, 
and John Heath Gent, for one year then next ensuing to 
work at their pottery in the s d Borough of Derby &c. &c." 

Thomas Rivett was Mayor of Derby in 1715 and 1761, 
and member for Derby 1747 to 1754 ; he died in 1763, and 
was buried in All Saints' Church, Derby ; we may gather 
from this that the partners in the Potworks were men of 
position and money residing in Derby. 

The only other source from which these early figures could 
proceed, according to our present knowledge, would be from 
Planche, whose unsigned agreement with Duesbury and 
Heath is mentioned by Jewitt ; but Professor Church points 
out that in 1745 Planch^ was only 17 years of age. Between 
1745 and 1756, the date of the Planchib agreement, considerable 
progress would have been made, and either Duesbury or Heath 
might have joined Planche during that time under the style 
and title of " The Derby Porcelain Manufactory." 

In the notes left by Saml. Keys we find: "China was first 
made in Derby, I believe, by a man in a very humble way 
(but his name I cannot recollect). He resided in Lodge Lane 
in some old premises up a yard by the (now Brown Bear) 
public-house. When he first began, he fired his articles in 


a small pipe kiln very near, till he had constructed a small 
kiln in a fireplace in the old premises he lived in. He 
had only small animals and birds, laying down lambs, &c. 
Mr. William Duesbury the first got his knowledge firstly from 
this man, and improved on it." We now know that this 
statement as to Duesbury's want of " knowledge " was incorrect, 
as he had been enamelling porcelain for some years in 

The late Miss Duesbury wrote, after reading Messrs. 
Wallis and Bemrose's " Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire " : 
" Messrs. Wallis and Bcmrose have done my grandfather 
justice while this fellow Jewitt tries to take the credit out 
of his hands and give it to the man Planche, ' Master 
Planchey,' as Betty Shipley called him." 

This remark of Miss Duesbury's corroborates the existence 
of Planche, but does not help much towards fixing the exact 
part Planche took in the establishment of the Derby Works, 
or tell us anything of his previous history. Professor Church 
and some others have doubted the existence of Planche for 
various reasons ; but from the facts recorded here, it can no 
longer be denied that he had a share in the undertaking. 

We quote as further corroboration of Planche's existence, both 
Locker and Keys, who made notes on the origin of China 
making in Derby ; they allude to the places where Planche 
lived, and where he fired his " birds cats dogs sheep &c " 
in a pipe kiln belonging to a man named Woodward. We 
have visited this old workshop in Lodge Lane, which was 
used as a pipe manufactory until November, 1896. The 
large chimney is in existence, and the remains of a kiln 
in the large square base of the chimney (of which we give a 
sketch) are still in situ. The buildings are much dilapidated, 
and the present owner informed us that the top floor had 
been bricked up for years, but requiring more space in his 
adjoining works he decided to break a doorway through 
from the adjoining room. A small hole was made, and, 
as the clock struck twelve, the men went to dinner ; but 


Died in 1876, aged 87. 
Painted by "Wright, of Derby." 



several girls, with the curiosity attributed to the fair sex, crept 
through the hole and stepped on to the floor, thickly covered 
with the accumulated dust of years, when they suddenly found 
the lower part of their bodies in the room below, whilst 
head and shoulders remained in the upper room. The floor 
was so rotten that it could not bear their weight, and had 
let them go through. 

The late Mr. J. Keys, a descendant of Saml. Keys, already 
referred to, informed us that he remembered seeing Planche's 
kiln, some years ago, in an outbuilding in Lodge Lane, and 
that the building was only demolished about 1890. 


Mr. Locker, who wrote an account of the Derby China 
Works, given by Mr. Chaffers, says: "About 1745 a man said 
to be a foreigner in very poor circumstances, living in Lodge 
Lane, made small articles in china, such as birds, cats, dogs, 
sheep and other small ornamental toys, which he fired at a 
kiln in the neighbourhood belonging to a pipe maker named 

It will be noticed that the date fixed by Locker, when the 

foreigner, most probably Planche, was making figures at Derby, 

is 1745 ; it is fair to presume that Planch^ had made some 

advance in the class of goods he turned out, so that, possibly, 



some of the smaller figures now attributed to Bow are, as 
suggested by Mr. Nightingale, Derby figures by Planche. 

There is still in existence a small biscuit figure, 2 inches 
high, of a gentleman wearing the long coat, with large flaps 
and pockets, the three-cornered hat and wig, of the middle of 
the last century, which has a distinct pedigree, as being one of 
the earliest figures ever made at Derby ; at the base is an 
incised fig. I. It formerly belonged to Miss Duesbury, grand- 
daughter to William Duesbury, the founder of the well-known 
Derby works, who gave it to a lady, by whom it was 
presented to the writer. 






















William Hutton, the historian of Derby, writing in 1791 
about the Derby China Works, says, " The spot upon which 
this elegant building stands, which is internally replete with 
taste and utility, was once the freehold of my family. It 
cost thirty-five pounds ; but the purchaser, my grandfather's 
brother, being unable to raise more than twenty-eight, 
mortgaged it for seven. Infirmity, age, and poverty obliged 
him to neglect the interest, when in 1743 it fell into the 
hands of my father, as heir-at-law, who, being neither able 
nor anxious to redeem it, conveyed away his right to the 
mortgagee for a guinea." 

The following is the Mortgage Deed referred to : 

NOVERINT universi per presentes me Johannem 
Hutton de Derby in Comitatu Derbie Clothworker 
teneri et firmiter obligari Abrahamo Crompton de 
Derby predicte generoso in decem et quatuor libris 
bone et legalis monete Magne Britannic solvendis 
eidem Abrahamo Crompton aut Suo certo Attornato 
Executoribus Administratoribus vel Assignatis suis 
Ad quam quidem Solucionem bene et fideliter faci- 
endam Oblige me heredes Executores et Admini- 
stratorcs meos firmiter per presentes sigillo meo 
sigillatas Datis decimo quinto die Maij Anno regni 
domini nostri Georgij Dei gracia Magne Britannic 
ffrancie et Hibernie Regis ffidei defensoris etc quarto 
Annoque Domini 1718 


The Condicon of this obligacon is such That if the above 
bound John Hutton his heires Executors or Adm' 1 or any 
of them doe well and truely pay or cause to be paid 
unto the above named Abraham Crompton his Executors 
Administrators or assignes the full sume of seven pounds 
of good and lawfull money of Great Britaine with lawfull 
interest for the same at and upon the sixteenth day of 
November next comeing after the date of the above 
written Obligacon without fraud or farther delay That 
then this p r sent Obligacon shall be void and of none 
effect or else shall be and remaine in full force and 

Sealed and delivered (being written 

on Paper trebly stampt sixpence) in John Hutton - -^ 

the prsence of his + mark MSEAL.J 

Hugh Bateman ^ / 

Joseph Alkin 

(Endorsement) John Huttons Bond for paym' 

of 7 & interest to Mr. 

Crompton the i6 th Nov 1718 

Dat 15 May 1718 

Hutton again alludes to this site in his MS. history of 
the Hutton Family. John Hutton " He was the man who 
purchased the house east of St. Marys Bridge, now the 
China Works for 35, but being master of only 28 mortgaged 
the premises to M r Crompton, a banker, for the other 
seven. He becoming old and poor, and inheriting the 
supineness of the Hutton family, suffered the trifling interest 
to remain unpaid, till the mortgagee seized the premises. 
The Freehold in 1743 fell into the hands of my father, as 
heir-at-law, who assigned over his interest to M r Crompton 
for a guinea." 



< a 


We find the following amongst the documents, " Extracts 
from M r Duesbury's Deeds," which throws some light upon 
the early works established by Duesbury : 

"i Aug 1780 Conveyance from Heath & his assignees to 
Duesbury of 

" A messuage in Derby near to a place called the Beach Croft, 
theretofore in the tenure of Tho : Baker but then of John 
Heath and W. Duesbury. 

" Also two other Messuages or Tenements in Derby afs d 
near unto the East of St Marys Bridge then or late in 
the possession of the s d W. Duesbury & Sam Smith. 

" And also five other Tenements near or adjoining to the said 
two last ment d messuages, which said 5 Tenements were formerly 
converted into and then continued to be Workshops used and 
employed by the s d W. Duesbury & Compy. as such in 
making of China All which s d premises were conveyed to 
s d Heath by an indenture dated 19 April 1756" &c. 

" And by same deed of assignment of all that Dwelling 
house standing and being upon part of a certain Orchard 
Garden or backside beyond St Mary's Bridge in Derby near 
to the common highway leading from the said Bridge to 
Chaddesden formerly used as two dwellings and in the 
occupations of Abraham Whitacre & Thos Borrows." 

" And also all that piece of ground then lately part of and 
fenced from the s d orchard garden or backside which adjoined 
to the s d messuage & then used and enjoyed therewith as a 

From these extracts the date of Duesbury's coming to 
Derby in 1756 is confirmed. They, also, supply the information 
that 2 tenements, 5 other tenements, and a dwelling house, were 
converted into workshops " for the making of china." The 
site is again designated as that at the " East of St Marys 
Bridge." In 1780, the time of Messrs. Heaths' bankruptcy, 
these properties were conveyed to Duesbury. 

The view of the old Duesbury Porcelain Works here 
given was drawn from memory by Moses Webster in 1870, 


and approved by several of the old china painters who 
recollected the old works. These works were abandoned and 
pulled down in the year 1845-6, and on the site was erected, 
at a cost of about 10,000, the Convent of St. Joseph, 
designed by Pugin, for the Sisters of Mercy from Kinsale ; but 
the situation was found to be so unhealthy that in the year 
1863 the Convent was pulled down and the materials sold; 
not one stone now remains to indicate that such a picturesque 
building ever occupied the site. 



The plan of Duesbury's Works is copied from the deed 
of lease to Bloor, dated November, 1815, at a rental 
of 1 10. Bloor had been carrying on the factory from 1811. 

Kean, Duesbury's partner, leased a piece of land for ninety- 
one years adjoining the Duesbury Works, and, in his own name, 
erected an earthenware manufactory in 1797. The venture did 
not succeed, and earthenware making ceased about December, 
1799- A passage is shown on the ground plan of Duesbury's 
works, connecting those works with the new building ; it 
was at that time covered over with wirework, and by the 


employes called the "bird cage walk." Haslem states that 
the older works were vacated on the failure of the earthenware 
venture, and the hands removed into the new works, but that 
in his time they were partially re-occupied. 

We have, in our collection, a large Worcester mug, on 
which is delicately painted the same view of the Convent of 
St. Joseph as is here depicted, and the mug was very likely 
painted by one of the old Derby hands, as a loving memento 
of the old site of the Derby Works. 




FROM the early Chelsea catalogues we learn nothing 
about the celebrated biscuit body, until, in Duesbury's 
catalogue of the Chelsea and Derby products of 1771 
the year after his purchase of the Chelsea works we 
find numbers of groups and figures in biscuit enumerated. 
The Chelsea-Derby vases, coloured and enriched with gold, 
occasionally show " biscuit ornaments " of a fine and close 
texture, velvety to the touch, and of a light ivory colour. 
It is, therefore, fair to presume that to Duesbury belongs 
the credit of inventing and introducing the biscuit body, 
which has never been equalled in all respects by any 
factory at home or abroad. 

Professor Church, in his " English Porcelain, South Ken- 
sington Museum," says : " The late Mr. Haslem was of 
opinion that the white biscuit porcelain figures, for which the 
Derby factory was famous, could not have been made before 
1800. He based that opinion upon the alleged first use at 
that time of bones in porcelain by Spode. This unfortunate 
error about the date of the introduction of bones, which we 
have controverted elsewhere, is further disproved by the 
occurrence of these very biscuit figures in the Derby 
catalogues of 1771 and 1773." A further proof is that the 
old Chelsea and Derby documents state that in " 1770 ten 
bags of boneash sent to Derby." 

The greatest possible care was exercised by the manufacturers 
to prevent any defective piece or " seconds " in biscuit leaving the 
factory. We have been told by some of the old hands 
that this was carried out at one time so rigidly, that 





O 1 


















defective pieces were taken to the heap and broken up. 
At this period the biscuit figures were charged a higher 
price than the coloured figures of the same model. This may 
appear strange, but if a biscuit and a coloured figure, made 
from the same mould, are closely examined and compared, the 
superiority of the modelling and " cutting-up " of the biscuit 
figure will be at once apparent. All this beauty and sharp- 
ness was sacrificed under the glaze, and colouring aided in 
covering over further blemishes. The biscuit state fitly 
represents the solid oak or mahogany furniture of the 
period, and the glazed and coloured state as fitly represents 
the veneered and sham furniture of a more recent time. 

The special mixture of materials for this body was un- 
doubtedly kept a secret, for we find that after Duesbury and 
Kean's time the biscuit body appears to be simply the 
ordinary porcelain body, left in the biscuit state, having a 
soft chalky white appearance, the material not lending itself 
to the crisp " cutting-up " obtained on the original body. In 
trying to recover the lost biscuit body, Mountford, of Derby, 
discovered the Parian body. 

Some of the " boys " alluded 
to in the following interesting 
correspondence of Mr. Vulliamy, 
the celebrated clock maker of the 
last century, are still in exis- 
tence, and are of the old biscuit 
body of 1771. The writer has in 
his collection one of these figures, 
which is generally admitted, by 
collectors, to be of the finest 
quality of biscuit ; it is of a grain 
and texture closely resembling 
marble. In the Landseer room at 
Chatsworth is to be seen a clock 
by Vulliamy, in which he has in- 

FIGURE MADE FOR A CLOCK. troduced one of the figures alluded 


to in his correspondence. The figures made for the clocks 
have holes in the soles of their feet, by means of which 
they could be attached to the clocks, and the right hand 
is also perforated for the fixing of a thermometer. 

This beautiful boy figure was probably modelled in 1789, by 
Rossi, who is named in the correspondence. The modelling of 
the figure throughout is of a high order, and the chubby, dimpled 
face, with its tender mouth, is beautifully rendered and childlike. 
In its union of truth and style it may be compared with the work 
of Delia Robbia. 

We give, hereafter, a selection from that correspondence : 

Lygo to Duesbury. 

"Nov 4 1788. 

" M r Vulliamys respects and will give M r Rossi a design 
for the male figure to match the female now modeling, 
which he says will be a figure of ^Esculapius and will do 
exceedingly well." 

Lygo to Duesbury. 

Lady Rumbold enquires for a person to go to India. 
Extract from letter : 

From Thos. Law to Lady R. 

" Lya 27'h Feby /88. 

" I now desire that you will send me out all prepared 
colours for glazing of china, as I expect a thousand pounds 
? year profit at least from this manufactory. I wish you 
could get me a honest sober man to receive a certain 
allowance of 100 Rupees per month (each rupee is worth 2/3) 
at farthest or to become a partner, in short pray send me 
all you can respecting glazing &c. To show you I can 
make china I send you an image." 

Lygo to Duesbury. 

"22 Oct 1788. 

" M Vulliamy says M' Rossi will do very well to model 
figures, and he would advise you to have another figure done 


to match the one he is now doing. M r Catherine wishes 
to have his first order from the 4 models, as he is now 
making a drawing for a piece of work for M r Gould where 
they are to be introduced." 

Lygo to Duesbury. 

"7th Nov 1788. 

" M r Flight the china manufacturer has took two houses 
in Coventry St and is laying them both into one for a 
retail warehouse and am informed the son has been over 
to France and bought a large quantity of French China." 

B. Vulliamy to Duesbury. 

" Sep 16 London 1788. 

" I have fixt the left arm upon a figure as exact as I 
can in the position that I require it to be in, but it is not 
joyned in the proper place as it broke off at the wrong 
part, it will equally serve to show how much forwarder 
the arm requires to be brought than it is in the other 
figures. The hand requires also to be exact at the same 
distance from the thigh because it holds a book which is 
of that height. It is I think a very desirable alteration 
to make in this figure to cut both the arms off close to 
the drapery and to hollow both the draperies so as to 
make cylindrical sockets, and then piece out the two arms 
so as to fitt those socketts, only the piece that is added 
to the arms must be taper which permits the arm to 
be moved about so as to find its proper situation, the 
figures would be fixed safer without the arms." 

"London June 23 1787. 

" M r V likewise desired I would remind you to pay very 
particular attention to the colour of the biscuit figures, same 
as he described to you when in Town, the colour he likes 
is that of the female figure which he has made into a clock 


with the hand pointing to the clock which I dare say you 
noticed very much, for I think it is the most beautiful 

figure I ever see. 

" LYGO." 

Vulliamy to Duesbury. 

"Feby 12 1787. 

" The bad success of the figures upon the models of 
which I had bestowed so much trouble, time and expense, 
I confess to you gives me very great vexation, the disap- 
pointment is such as will be of very great detriment to me 
in my new branch of business. In the first place I give 
up for this year the clocks that I intended sending to India. 
Secondly I disappoint in point of time those who had 
ordered such clocks of me as these figures were intended 
for and in the 3 rd place I had placed so much dependence 
upon those clocks that I had put off beginning to shew 
my clocks this winter because I expected to have some of 
those to have shewn at the same time. All this is now at 
an end ; all this only concerns myself, there is something 
else which concerns us both which I will relate to you. 
when I received the 3 first figures, I mounted one of them, 
and fixed the head arms &c and placed it to a wooden 
pedestal with one of the China Vase just to shew the 
attitude of the figure, this was seen by a few good judges, 
who were so much pleased with it, that I thought it would 
be for the advantage of your manufactory to shew one of 
the heads which was the nicest finished of the three to the 
Royal Family, as a piece of workmanship in Biscuit, which 
when we should have finished some figures would surpass 
y 6 French biscuit, and do honour to the English manufac- 
tory. I accordingly did shew it to the Queen and Princess, 
and the Prince of Wales in that light, they were pleased to 
express great satisfaction at seeing it and were glad to see 
the improvement we were making in this Country. I should 
have shewn it to the King, if his majesty had not happened 


to be riding out when I went. I even went so far as to 
tell them that I would in a little time challenge any 
person to bring me a French figure and the best figure 
should take both, it does not depend upon me to make 
good all these assertions I have to the utmost done my 
part towards it, it rests now with you to compleat the 

remainder &c. &c. 


"Aug 30 1789. 
D' Sir 

" I send you the boy that I have had altered on purpose 
to apply him to the barometer I spoke to you about. 
This boy is intended to hold a thermometer for which reason 
I wish to have a small hole made through in the palm 
of the left hand where I have a dot. I think the boy will 
be a very good subject for M r Rossi to try his abilities in 
moulding of it. 

" I have also sent you five of the best pieces of bronze 
ornaments that I have, which I really would not have sent 
but that I am convinced of the care that you will take of 
them, and also that you will not let them go out of your 
own hands, the leaves are the finest I ever saw, and if you 
chuse to take casts of any of them I only beg that they 
may not be picked with anything but a piece of Soft wood 
as I want to preserve the shaping quite perfect. I send 
them because I think they will be very usefull to you and 
give your men a good and a just idea of ornament, and I 
really am very glad of this opportunity of being usefull to 
you in return for the civilities you shewed me at Derby 



"Ap 4 1791. 
" D' Sir 

" I received this morning yours of the 2 ml instant by 
which I learn that you are firing two female figures leaning 
on the right hand. I also want some female figures leaning 


on the left hand to compleat some very particular orders, 
that I have had for a long time past and which cannot be 
done for want of those figures. I also want 3 or 4 boys 
of those that are altered, I believe you know which I mean, 
they have a little draper)' over one shoulder and hold one hand 
up and the other down.* I have already wrote for them, 
and hope they are among those that you are now firing. 
Pray do let me know when I may have the boys and 
when I may expect the two figs, upon the left hand. You 
cannot form an idea how much I am distresst for figures. 

Xov 19 1791. 

Order for figures for M r Vulliamy from Lygo (in biscuit). 
6 Flower Vases plain handles 
2 or 3 figs leang. on the left hand (large 6. 6. o ea) 

1 or 2 leang. on the right hand 

2 Angel figures without wings (chgd 6. 6. o ea) 
6 Boys from the new model (10/6 ea) 

i Boy from piping model 
i Esculapius without pedestal 
i Companion figure. 

1791 Sold M* Vulliamy 2 sets of 3 Vases enamel'd hi 
compartments with figures and landscapes blue and 
gold borders and gold stripes 

60 .18.0 
disct 6 . 2 . o 

54 '6 . o 


Portrait Medallions appear to have been seldom made at 
Derby, probably on account of the biscuit body not being 
suitable for that purpose. We have only been able to trace 
two medallions, viz, one of Mrs. Win. Duesbury, fc Miss 

See UhMntHB em nee 113. 


Edwards, of Derby, the wife of the second Wm. Duesbury, 
and who after his death married Michael Kean. Keys, in his 
account of the old Derby Works, says, William, shortly after his 
father's death, u married Miss Edwards (in 1787), an amiable 
and beautiful young lady." This medallion of Mrs. Dues- 
bury was obtained from one of the old china hands, who 
accounted for its possession from the fact that it was injured 


in the firing, by a "blob" of glaze having fallen upon it, from 
glazed articles placed in the same sagger, and in that condition 
it was not thought advisable to send it to the warehouse. 

The medallion* is oval, 6J inches in height, and made of 
the early and best quality of biscuit, about 1791. 

The other known Derby medallion is a portrait of the 
Duke of Portland, 5 inches, also obtained from one of the 
men who formerly worked at Duesbury 's factory. 

Itfc-ost ptotehle U* me^OKon was MoMled by Sprite,, *s I* ^ 

-" J. J. Spottier shun be at Kboty to make portraits MM! ^i r\" 
in his extra tinte * (p. iS). 



From the following correspondence it is certain that many 
china trinkets, such as seals, smelling bottles, tooth-pick 
cases, &c, were mounted in gold, &c, at Derby, by Mr. 
Severne and others, from the middle of last century until the 
early part of the present century. It may not be generally 
known that about the time the Derby china works came into 
note, the jewellery trade of Derby was a most important one. 
A jeweller named Simpson was one of the earliest manufac- 
turers ; he employed about thirty hands. Severne & Co. gave 
employment to eighty or ninety hands, besides outworkers. The 
town is still noted for the production of excellent paste jewellery. 

The principal branch of the trade, at that time, was the 
manufacture of paste jewellery, seals, rings, buckles for shoes 
and breeches, ear rings, brooches, &c. Much might be 
written on this interesting subject. We will merely recall 
the fact that the ancient town of Derby was the birth, or 
early starting place of the following manufactures : silk, 
hosiery, cotton, porcelain and jewellery. Some idea of the 
extent of the china trinket trade may be formed from the 
fact that there were at the Derby works (brought largely 
from Chelsea) in 1795, moulds and models for fifty smelling 
bottles, figures, &c., 300 trinkets, and 100 seal trinkets. 

We find particulars concerning that part of the trade in the 
Duesbury correspondence. 
"Dear Sir 

" If you can let me have a dozen of Trinket seals and 
keys for my friend M r Egan I shall be obliged to you if 
you will send me by the bearer an assortment to pick him 
a dozen and in consequence of what you said to M r E. 
respecting his having the trinkets of me, I shall be glad 
to know your terms for mounting them for me & I would 
take the whole on myself to M r E. 

" I am dear Sir, Yrs respectfully 
"Sat 26 Jan. 1793." << w . DUESBURY. 


Some Coloured and Gilt ; others in the 
While glazed stale. 




"Sir "Derby/ 1793. 

" I have enclosed 26 seals for your approbation. Keys 
we have not one finished here what we have are with 
M r Severne who is yet in London. Can make a few in 
course of next week if necessary. The lowest price we 
charge to our wholesale friends is 6 s each. I cannot 
immediately say the terms we can mount them for, but if 
you wish to pursue that plan no doubt the price may be 
adjusted to your satisfaction. The new patterns you have 
sent I fear will be thought too much of a similitude with 
those we have sold so many of something very smart but 
strikingly different will be found necessary. I expect M r 
S(everne) at home in the course of next week, when we will 
wait upon and consult y r opinion on the business. You'll 
please return the seals not approved sooner & better. 

" Interim I'm Mo respectfully y r very ob l Ser' 



We have a newspaper cutting of the following advertisement 
issued July 4th, 1798, in a London paper, given to me 
by Jno. Whittaker, an old Derby artist : 


At his Great Room, New Bond-Street, on WEDNESDAY 
next, at Twelve o'clock [July 4, 1798]. 

CHINA MANUFACTORY ; comprifing Tea and 
Coffee Services, many Hundred Cabinet Cups and Saucers, 
and ornamental Articles, the Property of the MANUFAC- 
TURERS. The above affords to the Gentry a favourable 
Opportunity of providing themfelves with white Porcelain, 
either for immediate Ufe, or to paint upon as Specimens of 
Ornament. May be viewed Tomorrow, when Catalogues 
may be had as a!x>ve ; of Mr. Varley, York Hotel, Bridge- 
Street, Black- Friars ; and of Mr. Phillips, at his Houfe, 
No. 22, Bury-Street, St. James's. 

Whittaker explains this sale of " White Derby China " in 
the following manner, having heard the story from workmen 
who lived at the time. 


"At the China Works on the Nottingham Road, there was 
a workman employed in the ornamental room named William 
Duesbury. He was a relative of the W m Duesbury a partner 
carrying on these works. When Coffee left the Derby China 
Wks this W m Duesbury, who was a potter, left also, and Coffee 
& Duesbury became partners and manufactured in a small 
way, their manufactory was somewhere in Friar Gate. Their 
partnership was of short duration, for Duesbury & Kean 
thinking these two men were likely to become their rivals in 
the China trade, induced their relative to return to their 
employment and cease to be a partner with Coffee, this broke 
up the China manufactory in Friar Gate, where I believe 
Coffee afterwards manufactured Terra cotta ornaments & 

" I have no doubt this is the white Derby. China named in 
the advertisement, the articles named are exactly what I should 
expect a small establishment to produce ; and I believe the 
date corresponds, as far as I can ascertain, to the time 
when Coffee ceased to be employed at the old Derby China 

This information was supplied by the writer to Mr. Chaffers, 
who used it in his " Marks and Monograms." 


In December, 1765, Duesbury leased a mill and stable 
in St. Michael's Lane, near to Lomb's silk mill (the first 
erected in England), for twelve years, at a rental of 6 6s., 
for the purpose of grinding and mixing the china clay. 

The lease reads : 

This Indenture made the Twenty third Day of October 
in the year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred 
and sixty five Between Thomas Bradley of Hall Fields 
in the Parish of Atlow in the County of Derby Gentleman 


and Jane his Wife of the one part and William Duesbury 
of Derby in the County of Derby China or Porcelain 
maker of the other part Witncsseth that for and in 
Consideration of the Rents Covenants and Agreements 
hereinafter reserved menconed and contained on the part 
and behalf of the said William Duesbury his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns to be paid kept done and 
performed They the said Thomas Bradley and Jane his 
Wife Have and each of them Hath demised leased set 
and to farm let unto the said William Duesbury his 
Executors Administrators and Assigns All that Mill in 
Derby aforesaid near to or adjoining the Water Engine 
at the bottom of S l . Michael's Lane there called or known 
by the Name of the Malt Mill with all and singular the 
Implements and Utensils to the same belonging together 
with a Stable thereto adjoining And all Wares Gates 
Ways Waters Watercourses Fleams and Streams to the 
same or any part thereof belonging or appertaining 
(Except and always reserved unto the said Thomas 
Bradley their Heirs and assigns the intire use of the said 
Waters and Streams when and as often as there shall be 
Scarcity of Water not sufficient to supply the Town of 
Derby as hath heretofore been accustomed) Which said 
Premises are now in the possession of the said Thomas 
Bradley and Jane his Wife To have and to hold the said 
Mill Stable and Premises beforementioned to be hereby 
demised with the appurtenances (except as before excepted) 
unto the said William Duesbury his Executors Adminis- 
trators and Assigns from the Twenty fifth Day of 
December next for the Term of Twelve years from thence 
next ensuing and fully to be compleat and ended Yielding 
and Paying therefore Yearly and every Year during this 
Demise unto the said Thomas Bradley or his Assigns 
(in case he shall so long live) the Yearly Rent of Six 
Pounds and Six Shillings of lawful British money by 
equal portions on the Twenty fourth day of June and 


the Twenty fifth day of December the first payment 
to be made on the Twenty fourth day of June next 

And shall not nor will at any time during 

this Demise make use of the Water for Working 
the said Mill whenever there shall be a Scarcity of Water 
for supplying the said Water Engine And also shall not 
and will not do or cause permit or suffer to be done 
any Acts or Things whatsoever whereby the said Thomas 
Bradley and Jane his Wife or their Heirs shall be any 
ways obstructed or annoyed in the free use and enjoy- 
ment of the said Water Engine at any time or times 
during the continuance of this Demise And the said 
Thomas Bradley doth hereby for himself and for the said 
Jane his Wife and either of them their and either of their 
Executors Admtors and Assigns Covenant promise grant 
and agree to and with the said William Duesbury his 
Executors Administrators and Assigns That they the 
said Thomas Bradley and Jane his Wife or one of 
them their or one of their Executors Administrators 
or Assigns shall and will from time to time and at all 
times during this Demise pay bear and discharge all 
manner of Taxes levys assessments Rent and all other 
Outgoings whatsoever which now is or are or at any time 
hereafter during the said Term shall be charged upon 
or issuing or going out of the said demised premises to 
the King Church Poor or otherwise And that it shall 
and may be lawful to and for the said William Duesbury 
his Executors Administrators and Assigns Peaceably to 
hold and enjoy the said Mill and Premises hereby demised 
(Except as before Excepted) Paying the Rent hereby 
reserved and performing the Covenants and Agreements 
herein contained) from time to time and at all times 
hereafter during the said Term without any hindrance or 
interruption of the said Thomas Bradley and Jane his Wife 
or either of them their or either of their Executors Ad- 
ministrators or Assigns or of any other Person or Persons 


claiming or to claim by from or under him her them or 
any of them In Witness whereof the said Parties have 
to these present Indentures interchangeably set their Hands 
and Seals the Day and Year first above written. 

Sealed and delivered ) 

in the presence of > 




I am enabled, by the courtesy of the owner, Mr. George 
Dean, to give a reduced view of the mill and stable, and 
the engine-house the tall building to the left from a water 
colour drawing by La Cave. 

Hutton says in his History of Derby: Page 11. "This 
river (the Derwent) supplies the water for culinary use, which 
is raised by an engine at the bottom of St. Michael's Lane, 
and conveyed through a pipe into the reservoir at the top 
of the church (St. Michael's), about the distance of one 


hundred yards, and the height of twelve. From thence, as 
from a grand artery, the stream is conveyed by tubes, under 
the pavement, into almost every street and court. Perhaps 
this is the most useful church in Derby, though preached 
in but once a month." 


Spengler was a Swiss; he came from Zurich, and joined the 
Derby Factory in 1790. The following agreement is not without 
interest ; it states that Spengler was to receive two guineas 
weekly, but this amount evidently did not meet his require- 
ments, for we find that, in the year 1792, Spengler gave a bill 
of sale on his household effects for a loan of ^30 from 

Spengler was by far the best and most graceful modeller 
the Derby works ever employed. His finest works are : the 
Russian Shepherd and companions, a group of 3 and 4 figures, 
No. 387, which is one of our illustrations ; Blind beggar and 
daughter, No. 370 ; the three groups after Angelica Kauffman, 
viz. : Three Virgins distressing Cupid, No. 235 ; Virgins 
adorning Pan, No. 196 ; and Virgins awaking Cupid, No. 195. 
A Shepherdess, a girl leaning on a gate feeding a lamb, is 
perhaps the most elegant of all his models, and is also 
illustrated. The following, Nos. 11, 371, 373, 381, and Vases, 
Nos. 123, 124, 126, 130, are also modelled by Spengler, as 
per list of models. 

Articles of Agreement made and concluded upon the thirteenth 
day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety Between William Duesbury of Derby in the 
County of Derby Manufacturer of Porcelain of the one part and 
John James Spengler late of Zurich in Switzerland but now of 
Derby aforesaid Modeller of the other part. 

First It is mutually and reciprocally agreed between the said William Duesbury 
and the said John James Spengler that the said John James Spengler shall 
according to the best of his skill and ability employ and apply himself from 
time to time from the day of the date of this Agreement for the term of three 
years now next following in and to the making all such Models that is to say 
Figures Vases Groups Ornaments and Vessels as shall from time in the judgment 


of the said John James Spengler and under the directions of the said William 
Duesbury be thought fit and necessary for the use of the Porcelain Manufactory 
of the said William Duesbury at Derby aforesaid or any other Manufactory 
which the said William Duesbury may think proper to establish during the 
said term And that the said John James Spengler shall himself make an 
original in Porcelain from each of his Models And it is also agreed that Ten 
hours in each of the Six working days in the week between the first day of 
March and the thirtieth day of September and eight. .hours in each of the six 
working days in the week between the first day of October and the last day of 
February shall be considered as one whole day And that the hours to be 
employed by the said John James Spengler in the business of the said William 
Duesbury shall be solely in the choice of and variable from time to time at the 
pleasure of the said John James Spengler And it is also agreed that the said 
John James Spengler shall be at liberty from time to time whenever he shall 
think proper during the term of this Agreement to employ and apply himself 
in and to the business aforesaid for any extra or greater number of hours than 
those before specified to constitute a day not exceeding four extra hours in each 
day between the first day of March and the thirtieth day of September and 
three extra hours in each day between the first day of October and the last 
day of February And it is agreed that the said John James Spengler shall from 
time to time during the continuance of this Agreement find and provide for 
himself a room for carrying on his business in such place as he shall think fit in 
Derby aforesaid except for the making such designs and models in which it 
may be necessary for the said John James Spengler to consult nature in which 
case the said William Duesbury agrees to provide for the said John James 
Spengler a fitting and convenient room in some part of his Manufactory and to 
provide all things necessary for the use of the said John James Spengler at the 
expense of him the said William Duesbury And the said William Duesbury 
in consideration of the Skill and abilities of the said John James Spengler to be 
faithfully employed to his use as aforesaid doth hereby agree to and with the 
said John James Spengler that he the said William Duesbury shall and will 
weekly and every week on the Saturday in each week during the continuance of 
the said term well and truly pay or cause to be paid to the said John James 
Spengler the sum of Two Guineas of lawful british money for each ordinary 
week's work and after the same rate and proportion for any extra time which in 
such week shall have been employed by the said John James Spengler to the 
use of the said William Duesbury as such extra time shall bear to the intire 
ordinary week's work at that season Provided nevertheless in case it shall 
happen that in any one week during the term of this Agreement the whole 
number of Hours employed by the said John James Spengler to the use of the 
said William Duesbury shall not amount to Sixty hours in the week between 
the first day of March and the thirtieth day of Septemljer or to Forty-eight 
hours between the first day of October and the last day of February then the 
said William Duesbury shall at the end of every such week be at liberty to 


deduct out of the said weekly sum of Two Guineas so much as the deficiency 
shall from time amount to in proportion to the whole number of Hours which 
are hereby agreed to constitute the week And the said William Duesbury 
agrees at all times during the said term to find and provide sufficient 
employment for the said John James Spengler in the business aforesaid 
as well during the ordinary as during the extra hours aforesaid and that no 
deduction shall be made by the said William Duesbury out of the said 
weekly sum of Two Guineas save only for such loss of time as shall happen 
through the default of the said John James Spengler And that the four 
great feast days that is to say Christmas day New year's day Easter day 
and Whitsun day shall not be deducted for out of the said weekly sum 
of Two Guineas though the same shall not be employed in the said 
business but shall lie paid for and considered as ordinary days of the season 
in which the same respectively fall And the said John James Spengler 
also agrees from time to time to keep a true and faithful account in writing 
of all time employed by him in the said business which account and also 
the room wherein the said John James Spengler shall conduct his said 
business shall at all seasonable hours in the day time be open to the 
inspection of the said William Duesbury And the said John James Spengler 
also agrees that he will not at any time during the continuance of this 
Agreement either directly or indirectly enter into the service of any other 
Manufacturer of Porcelain or Earthen Ware than the said William Duesbury 
nor make dispose of or part with any Models of his workmanship to be 
either directly or indirectly applied to the use of any other Manufacturer 
but shall and will in all things execute and perform this present Agreement 
according to the true intent and meaning thereof and with the greatest 
attention in his power to the interest of the said William Duesbury And 
it is also agreed that the said John James Spengler shall not at any time 
during this present Agreement absent himself from the said business for 
more than one week at any one time without the consent of the said William 
Duesbury And the said William Duesbury agrees to give to the said John 
James Spengler on New year's day in every year during the said term the 
sum of in consideration whereof the said John James 

Spengler agrees to deliver to the said William Duesbury a Model of his 
Workmanship made in his extra time And it is agreed that the said John 
James Spengler shall be at Liberty to make Portraits and other small 
works for his own use in his extra time so that the same be not sold or 
disposed of to any Manufacturer of Porcelain or Earthen Ware other than 
the said William Duesbury And the said John James Spengler expressly 
agrees that he will not desert or leave the said William Duesbury during 
the continuance of this Agreement but shall and will rarry the same in all 
respects into effect according to its real and true intent and meaning 
Provided always and if the father of the said John James Spengler shall 
die before the expiration of this Agreement the said William Duesbury agrees 


that the said John James Spengler shall be at liberty to go into Switzerland 
and there to continue as long as the situation of his affairs shall require 
and if his affairs should be so circumstanced as to require it then that he 
shall be at lil>erty to continue there without returning to perform this 
Agreement or being liable to any penalty for neglect thereof so that he 
do not under pretext of this power return into Great Britain during the 
saiil term to be employed in any other Manufactory or make any Models 
abroad for the use of any Manufactory in Great Britain And in case of 
the death of the said William Duesbury during the term of this Agreement 
it is agreed that the Executors or Administrators of the said William Duesbury 
shall provide a place for the said John James Spengler for the remaining 
part of the term of this Agreement on the same terms and conditions as 
are comprized in this Agreement and that till such place is in such manner 
provided they shall continue to pay the weekly wages expressed in this 
Agreement and they shall also pay the said John James Spengler all reasonable 
travelling Expenses to such place as before mentioned together with a 
recompence for any damages which may happen to his Goods Boxes and 
other Things in consequence of his removing thereto And the said John 
James Spengler agrees to work in London or any other part of this Kingdom 
during the term of this Agreement if the said William Duesbury shall think 
proper on condition that the said William Duesbury shall pay his travelling 
expenses and raise his wages according to the situation of the place he is 
to work at. 




The name appears in a MSS. affidavit : " Isaac Farnsworth, 
Ornamental China Repairer, saith he was brought up to the 
business of a repairer of ornamental china and china figures, 
and has continued in such business to the present time. That 
for nearly 40 years prior and down to the partnership of 
Duesbury and Kean in 1795, and afterwards up to the sale of 
the works to Bloor in 1811." From this we may conclude that 
Farnsworth was one of the hands employed by Duesbury when 
he started the works in 1756, working for the three Duesburys 
in succession. 



Some years ago William Hopkinson related the following to 
the writer: " Mr. W. E. Gladstone, afterwards prime minister, 
took great interest in a workmen's exhibition in London. 
He arrived in town the day after the Exhibition had closed. 
Mr. Gladstone expressed his great regret at this circumstance, 
and requested the committee to choose from among the ex- 
hibitors twenty working men, who were to come and dine 
with him at his residence, each being asked to bring some 
object which he had contributed to the late exhibition. 

" After the repast Mr. Gladstone took his visitors round 
his gallery of pictures, and showed them the various cabinets 
of china English and foreign for the ex-Chancellor of the 
Exchequer has a great love for old china. On coming to 
the splendid case of Dresden china, Mr. Gladstone remarked 
that he had been told that two vases, which he pointed out, 
ought properly to be placed in the next cabinet of Derby 
china. Hopkinson, who was a tall man, stood rather behind 
the rest and replied, ' Yes, sir, they are Darby.' Mr. Gladstone 
turned sharply round and said, ' Who said that ? Let him 
come here.' So Hopkinson stepped forward, when the fol- 
lowing conversation took place. Mr. Gladstone : ' How do 
you know they are Darby ? ' Hopkinson : ' Why, sir ! they 
were made in the same room where I worked as an apprentice 
at the Darby Works, and a man named Gadsby made them, 
and they were painted by Lucas.' Mr. Gladstone: 'Now, 
how old were you then?' Hopkinson: 'I was about 18 
years of age.' Mr. Gladstone : ' Very good ; ' and turning to 
Mrs. Gladstone, he said that " the two vases were to be 
removed into the Darby cabinet, as Darby should not be 
robbed of any of its well-earned honours." 


William Billingsley was not only known as one of the 
best flower painters on china, and one who had adopted a 
manner and style in advance of that then in vogue, but he 




was also the inventor of two of the most beautiful porcelain 
bodies extant, we mean the Pinxton* and Nantgarw. 

Billingsley's was a wandering, but interesting and inventive 
career. A man of superior talents, he appears to have lacked 
that stability of character and the possession of means neces- 
sary to ensure the success he deserved. 

The following chronology shows the movements of 
Billingsley from his birth, in 1758, to his death, in 1828 : 

1758 Billingsley born at Derby. 

1774 apprenticed to Duesbury, Sep. 26. 

1796 leaves the Derby Works and establishes the 

Pinxton Works along with Jno. Coke. 

1800 leaves Pinxton, and decorates porcelain 

at Mansfield. 

1804 leaves Mansfield. 

1805 decorates porcelain at Torksey, Lincolnshire. 
1808 at Worcester. 

1811 leaves Worcester and starts the Nantgarw 


1814 at the Cambrian Pottery, Swansea. 

1817 returns to Nantgarw. 

1819 sells his recipes and moulds to W. Young, 

and enters the employ of J. Rose, 
Coal port. 

1828 died. 

It is very probable that Billingsley painted more china 
during the twenty-two years he was at Derby than during 
the rest of his life, which, after leaving Derby, was almost 
exclusively occupied by starting and managing new works, 
and experimenting with new kilns and porcelain bodies. 

Billingsley having spent so much time at Derby, serving under 
two of the Duesburys, and during part of the Chelsea period, 
his work may bear, consequently, several kinds of marks. We 

* Marks were seldom used ; the following are known : ^) d~) 

and the word " Pinxlon 343." W *AA 


know that the mark changed from blue to puce, and latterly red ; 
most of his recognized work, however, bears the puce mark. 

In our days there is much of the flower painting attributed 
to Billingsley by collectors and dealers, and exhibited under his 
name in the museums, that is not worthy of his brush. His 
painting has a fatty soft glaze look when compared with that 
of his contemporaries ; his grouping is good, and he often 
threw out from his bouquets long delicately-painted sprays. 
He also painted his flowers in truer perspective by an effective 
treatment of shadows ; his colouring is more delicate than that 
of most other artists he was fond of yellow and puce, and 
often introduced white flowers. His leaves are generally dark 
and but slightly veined and outlined, and are painted with 
greater freedom and want of detail, when compared with his 
flowers. There are well-known and authentic examples in 
existence, which enable his individual style to be identified 
in Derby and neighbourhood, in private possession, and in the 
Art Gallery, where is to be found the largest and most 
instructive collection of " Old Derby " in the kingdom. 

In my work " Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire," * pub- 
lished in 1870, in collaboration with Mr. Alfred Wallis (the first 
work devoted to Derby ceramics), attention was called to the 
great abilities of William Billingsley, as an artist and a potter. 
We then wrote : " Billingsley introduced what is called the 
' wiping-out ' system ; that is, in painting a flower, it was coloured 
with one shade. The required lighter shades were then obtained 
by wiping-out with a colourless brush ; the effect thus became 
much more delicate and soft in appearance than could be 
obtained by the painting-up process. The difference in the 
two methods will be readily noticed on comparing an old 
flower-piece of Chelsea porcelain with one of Billingsley's 
painting." Of course, further effect was given to the work by 
delicate touches and details. 

* Mr. J. Haslem's " The Old Derby China Factory " was published in 1876. 
Mr. LI. Jewitt's " Ceramic Art of Great Britain " was published in 1878. 


In the compilation of this early work on Derby ceramics, 
much of the information was obtained about thirty-five years 
ago from the old employes, who were, then, aged men, and in 
some instances had known Billingsley, and were conversant 
with his methods and painting. 

The three collotype reproductions of Billingslcy's drawings on 
paper, in monochrome, are taken from our " Collection of Original 
Drawings by Derby China Painters." These drawings were seen 
and recognised by several of the old hands who formerly worked 
with Billingsley. The drawing on the right is the original sketch 
for a group of flowers on a comport, in the " Haslem Gift " in the 
Derby Museum, an undoubted specimen of the artist's painting. 

As Billingsley worked at Worcester from 1804 to 1811, there 
must be examples of his work extant bearing the Worcester 
mark of Flight, Barr & Barr ; he left that factory on the death 
of Mr. Barr. 


It has been said by some writers that Billingsley had but 
few artists working in collaboration with him in his Nantgarw 
factory. This statement is, to some extent, corroborated by 
the fact that a large quantity of porcelain, in the glazed white 
state, stamped with the impressed mark, was purchased by 
Mortlock, the china dealer, and decorated for him in London. 
This is the reason why there is, in our days, so much uncertainty 
in assigning Nantgarw painting to any particular artist, even in 
the case when the piece bears the impressed mark. It is not 
generally known that, besides Pardoe and others, William Pegg, 
a Derby painter and a friend of Billingsley (no relation to the 
Quaker artist of that name), decided to join Billingsley at 
Nantgarw. He and his wife often used to speak of the long 
and wearisome pedestrian journey they had had to make to 
reach such a distant and out-of-the-way place. 

This William Pegg was a capital flower painter, and he 
stayed with his friend Billingsley for several years. 

NOTE. Billingsley 's workroom numlrer was 7, and is sometimes found painted on 
the bottom of the plate or other object. 


On leaving Nantgarw, Pegg commenced to design for the 
Manchester calico printers. By steady perseverance he became 
a calico printer himself, and, having succeeded in business, 
he retired with a competency. We had the pleasure of his 
acquaintance, and possess a drawing of flowers by his own 
hand, which he kindly presented to our " Collection of Original 
Drawings by Derby China Painters," an inspection of which 
gave him great delight, and led to much information being 
communicated respecting the old painters. 


was one of the best Chelsea painters, and in August, 1783, he 
made an agreement to serve Duesbury for three years, at the 
wages of two guineas a week, " in the painting of china or porce- 
lain at the manufactory of the said William Duesbury at Derby." 
Boreman was a clever painter of landscapes and seascapes. 
In the former style he was in the habit of introducing minute, 
but well executed, figures ; his trees were carefully defined ; a 
pleasant grey tone pervades his painting, and he obtained his 
high lights by means of a light yellow green. We give 
two illustrations of his work, which will assist collectors 
to recognize his painting. His work is generally marked 
in blue or puce. 

We subjoin a transcript of the agreement : 

Articles of Agreement made concluded upon and entered rnto 
this twenty sixth day of August in the year of our Lord 
Christ one thousand seven hundred and eighty three Between 
William Duesbury of Derby in the County of Derby China 
or Porcelain Manufacturer of the one part and Zachariah 
Boreman of the Parish of Saint Luke Chelsea in the County 
of Middlesex China or Porcelain Painter of the other part. 

Whereas the said William Duesbury hath engaged the said Zachariah 
Boreman to serve him the said William Duesbury his Executors Adminis- 
trators or Assigns in the painting of China or Porcelain at the Manufactory 


Delicate Pink Ground. 

"View in Dovedale, Derbyshire," 
by Zachariah Boreman. 

Blue Mark. 


Blue Border, Six Panels with a Rose, 

and raised Grapes and Leaves 

in Gold. 

In Centre, Three Groups of Flowers. 

A Rose in Centre, painted by 


Puce Mark and Fig. 7, Billingsley's 
workroom number. 

Apple Green Ground. 

Border of Roses, with a Gold Band 
running through them. 

Roses in Centre. 

Painted by Billingsley. 

(Early Work.) 

Puce Mark. 

Gold Border on Blue Ground. 

In centre a 
Landscape and Cottage by Robertson. 

Red Mark. 




A Border of Roses on a Dark Ground, 
enclosing a Blue Ground with 
Gold Kings and Stars. 

The centre of plate a Wreath of Acorns 

and Oak Leaves on White Ground, 

enclosing the Barry Arms. 

Marked in Gold. 



of the said William Duesbury in Derby aforesaid for the Term of three 
years. It is therefore covenanted and agreed upon as follows 

First the said Zachariah Boreman for the considerations hereinafter mentioned 
Doth hereby for himself covenant promise and agree to and with the said 
William Duesbury his Executors Administrators and Assigns in manner 
following (that is to say) That he the said Zachariah Boreman shall and 
will for and during the Term of Three years to commence from and 
immediately after he the said Zachariah Boreman shall begin to work at 
the said Manufactory at Derby aforesaid and that within One month from 
the date hereof serve abide and continue with the said William Duesbury 
his Executors Administrators or Assigns as his or their Covenant Servant 
and duly diligently and faithfully according to the best and utmost of his 
skill and knowledge exercise and employ himself in the art of painting 
china or porcelain ware to and for the most profit and advantage of the 
said William Duesbury his Executors Administrators or Assigns And also 
shall and will keep the secrets of the said William Duesbury his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns in all matters and things and no ways wrong- 
fully detain imlrezzle or purloin any monies goods or wares belonging to 
the said William Duesbury his Executors Administrators or Assigns And 
further that he the said Zachariah Boreman shall and will find and provide 
for himself Meat Drink Washing Lodging and all other necessary's during 
the said Term In consideration of the premises and of the several matters 
and things by the said Zachariah Boreman to be done and performed he 
the said William Duesbury for himself his Executors and Administrators 
Doth hereby Covenant promise and agree to and with the said Zachariah 
Boreman that he the said William Duesbury his Executors Administrators or 
Assigns shall and will well and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the said 
Zachariah Boreman weekly and every week during the said Term of Three 
Years (commencing as aforesaid) for every whole week thereof which he 
the said Zachariah Boreman shall work according to the usual hours of 
painting at the said Manufactory the sum of Two pounds two shillings of 
good and lawfull money of Great Britain But if the said Zachariah 
Boreman shall at any time or times during the said Term wilfully neglect 
or by sickness or other inevitable accident be rendered unable to paint 
china or porcelain ware for the said William Duesbury his Executors 
Administrators or Assigns according to the true intent and meaning of this 
Agreement Then and in either of these cases the said William Duesbury 
his Executors Administrators or Assigns shall not be obliged to pay unto 
the said Zachariah Boreman more in proportion than after the rate aforesaid 
for such parts and so much of every week as he the said Zachariah 
Boreman shall actually paint for the said William Duesbury his Executors 
Administrators or Assigns as aforesaid And for the true performance of 
all and every the Articles Covenants and Agreements aforesaid each of the 
said party's by these presents bindeth himself unto the other in the penal 


sum of One hundred pounds In witness whereof the said party's have 
hereto interchangeably set their Hands and affixed their Seals the day and 
year first above written. 

Sealed and delivered by the said \ 
William Duesbury having been 

first duly stamped in the j- \y M DUESBURY. 
presence of FFRAN JESSOP 
Atty at Law Derby. 

Sealed and delivered by the said 

Zachariah Boreman having 

been first duly stamped in the 

presence of JOSEPH LYGO 


The following letter refers to the miniature painter : 
Lygo to Duesbury. 

"London Dec 15 1794. 

" I yesterday went to M r Cosway and informed him of the 
particulars of my business. He said the Prince would call 
of him sometime in the day, and wished me to call of him 
this morning again as he thought he would recommend some- 
thing to the Prince that would be more elegant and done 
with much less ease. When I called this morning the Prince 
had not been yesterday as expected therefore he appointed 
me to call again this evening What he proposes to offer for 
the Prince is 3 graces supporting his crest, it is a design that 
will be done much easier than the cupids and he says more 
elegant. I will write as soon as I get the Prince's answer. 


Extracts from documents : 

" 1790 & previous Casks of broken Indian china sent to 

1791. In London expenses appears the following entry 
" Sundry Xmas boxes. 

The Beadle i/- Dustman 6^ 
Watchman 2/- Waits 6 


Porters to the Wag n 2/6 Do Coach 6 d 

Turncock 6 d Lamplighter 6 d " 
" Lygo suggests M r Williams should take boxes ot figures 

to Holland to sell." 
"Lygo London, 1790 Mr Beard was here a few days since 

to purchase some egg cups, and he informed me the 

Duchess of Devonshire had bought some china in 

France to give you as patterns, but they have not 

yet arrived." 

In going over the large amount of agreements, letters, and 
other documents relating to the workpeople, we become aware 
that Duesbury experienced much trouble in the management of 
his undertaking. But a century and a half ago difficulties were 
limited to the occasional differences which arose between master 
and man, and not, as at the present time, from the collective 
exigencies of Trades Unions. The following dispute with 
E. Withers, in 1795, is an example of it, and it also shows the 
quaint way in which it was proposed to settle the dispute : 

A Dispute having arisen between Edward Withers 
& M r . W : Duesbury respecting the value of painting 
Roses with their buds & leaves, such as now executing 
by E. Withers upon M r . W. Duesbury's China & 
calld N. 269. It is concluded between the said 
parties that the value shall be settled and absolutely 
determined by the Time which similar roses, buds, 
& leaves, shall be found to take in executing on the 
back of this paper ; upon condition that such Roses 
& c . shall be executed as well as the Roses & c . on the 
porcelain executed by the said E. Withers & in the 
same style And in order that E. W. may be satisfied 
that they actually take the time which it shall be 
stated they do Mr E. W shall (when ever he shall 
be required to do it) note with his own hand on this 
paper the hour & minute when such design is 
intended to be began, & shall be informed in a clear 


& satisfactory manner of the time when the same 
is finishd & ready for his inspection, & the deter- 
mination of the business Agreed between the 
parties hereto this 28* day of April 1795 


The above was duly tenderd to E : Withers agreeable to 
his engagement, but rejected by E : W. who was deter- 
mind he said not to work the remainder of his Term 
out with M r Duesbury according to his Engagement 
unless M r . D would pay E. W such price as the said E. W 
thought proper to fix M r . D. also proposed that E. W 
should draw up an Engagement to the above effect with 
his own hands that he might be satisfied of the full 
import & meaning of it E: W. having express'd a fear 
of putting his hand to any paper drawn up by any other 
person. This also was rejected by E. W. E. W. has 
repeatedly consented to the above mode of determining 
the fair value of the Roses & c . 


The following curious letter, written by J. Banford in 
1795, informs Mr. Duesbury "that people are not Camelions, 
and that reward sweetens Labour." 

" Sir, 

" understanding you are going to London I take the 
liberty of requesting to know if 'tis your will I shall be 
paid for the 2 days & 3/4 ths time I work'd, if it is I shall 
be glad to finish the work in hand, you must know Sir 
people are not Camelions, and that reward sweetens Labour, 
and if I Ow'd you any Sum you could not Legally stop 
my wages without Consent on my part, I understand from 
M r Deakin that you are hurt at my speaking to you that 
Satturday. I beleive 'tis the first time I ever was accus'd 
of being sawcy, but according to the Old Adage ; tread on 


a Worm and he will turn, but however if I did Offend 
you am sorry for it 

" and remain with the greatest 
" respect 

" your humble S' 

"June 12 th 1795." 

" M r Dewesbery 


" I am requested to Inform you that one of our People 
M r George Lynn Painter which is engaged with M r Daniel 
Boden Proprietor of the China Manfy Jackfield near Brosley 
Shropshire has Absconded the said Manufactory & have 
Received Information of his being Imployed in your Service 
therefore must Request of you not to give the said George 
Lynn Any Imploy After this publick Notice as the said 
Proprietor is Determind to bring the said G Lynn Back 
& Should further Request of you to favor M r Daniel Boden 
with a Line respecting the same if he should be heard 
of were he may be gone to should esteem it a favor in 
Your Answer 

" Address a Line M r Daniel Boden Brosley 

" Shropshire 
"Y' s Hble Serv' For M r Daniel Boden 

" Jackfield 

"29 th March 
" 1796." 



The writer has in his collection a small half-pint beaker,* 
somewhat of a Worcester character, bell-shaped body, with 
fluted handle, printed in blue under glaze with Chinese figures, 
butterfly and landscape ; the mark here appended is placed 

beneath the handle. The anchor mark adopted at Worcester 
has been attributed to Richard Holdship. The following copy 
of an old document goes to prove that Holdship was at 
Derby in 1766, and had dealings with Duesbury. 

"Derby Aug 2O th 1766. 

" Whereas I have this day received of M r W m Duesbury & Co. 
forty pounds. I do hereby promise and agree to pay him, 
or order, weekly and every week two pounds two shillings till 
the said sum of forty pounds be discharged. 

"Witness, Jos. MAYER." 

This mug may have been a trial piece made by Holdship at 
Derby for Duesbury, hence the word Derby under the anchor. 
The Chinese figure carrying a sunshade and having a child by 
her side is very like a well-known engraved Worcester subject. 

* Was purchased at Heage, Derbyshire, by the late Mr. J. B. Robinson. 



The following amusing letter shows Chas. Sheen " thought 
verry od " that Duesbury should require " a careckter of 
soberiety " before engaging him to work at Derby : 

" Nov 3' h (1790) 

" M r Taylor I recivcd your letter that you sent to me 
you thought I was att Worcester but I received itt in 
Stafordshirc, and you mention of M r Dusbery wanting on 
that can throw and press which I Do Nothing Else I was 
fetched soon after you left Worcester and I can have plenty 
of places in Stafordshire. I should a wished for to worked 
for M r Dusbery but he Desired a careckter of soberiety 
which I thought verry od. Butt if he thinks proper for to 
give me the same wages I have where I am and over 
worke I will be consider of itt as my wife is with me and 
settled. Itt will be expencive moving and if he thinks 
proper to bear the expences and artictile with me for 3 or 
5 years I will agree with him my wages is one guinea 
per week. So no more from your well wishing friend 


" Please direct for me att the 
China Manufactory New Hall Staffordshire 

" Please to send by return of post as hiring time is att 

The following agreement will illustrate the method used 
a century ago in exciting the fears and working upon the 
religious feelings of those who were required to keep a 
trade secret : 

" I John Musgrove Labourer & Kiln man, of the Parish 
of St Alkmunds of Derby, now in the Service of Messrs 
Duesbury & Kean at the Porcelain Manufactory in Derby 
aforesaid do engage this 2 nd Day of January 1796 not to 
disclose, directly or indirectly at this or any other time 


whatever, whether in the service of the said Gent" my present 
employers or not the Secret communicated to me this day 
respecting the Tryals of the biscuit kiln (as described on the 
back of this obligation) or anything relating thereto and more 
especially I engage in like manner not to disclose that I have 
any way of getting out my tryals successfully besides extreme 
care & the personal assistance of either M r Duesbury or M r Kean 
under the penalty of one hundred pounds, & I do engage to 
execute a regular obligation conformable hereto so soon as the 
same can conveniently be prepared or I am required to do so 
on stamped paper according to Law. As witness my mark this 
said 2 nd day of January in the year 1796 

" Witness JOHN MUSGROVE." 

" I John Musgrove standing with one of my Masters 
(M r Duesbury) in the presence of Almighty God the Creator 
and Governor of the Universe, and all that therein is, & before 
whom the secrets of all hearts lay eternally open and exposed, 
do solemnly & seriously engage not to disclose anything relating 
to the above obligation, which in my conscience I believe to 
be wrong and contrary to the true intent & meaning of my 
present masters Messrs Duesbury and Kean as I shall answer 
at the dreadful day of Judgment. 

"Witness W. D." "J. M. 

On the back : 

" The secret alluded to on the back of this paper is The 
use of a pair of Spectacles (or other matter or thing) with 
smoaked (or otherwise prepared) glass to enable the person 
who draws the Tryals to distinguish them in the midst of the 
heat (be it ever so intense) & for the want of which before 
this thought occurred to M r Duesbury the kiln men were 
always obliged to let the air rush in & cool the tryals before 
they could draw them out to the very great danger of having 
the Tryals less burned than the ware in the kiln & by that 
means the ware be in danger of either being melted, or not 
fired enough." 

"J. M." 


Lygo to Duesbury. 

" Feb 12 1791. 

" I know Lord Rawdon very well, he has been a customer 
here, and he is an acquaintance of Capt. Manderputs, perhaps 
his Lordship would be your friend in geting the Duke of 
Clarence's warrant as being appointed manufacturer to His 
Highness. He is the only prince that pays the tradespeople." 

"London Feby 7th (about 1791). 
" Sir, 

" Accidents prevented before I left Donington my acknow- 
ledging your polite present, and I have since my arrival here 
further delayed writing until I should have fulfilled a purpose 
which incidentally suggested itself to me respecting the Vases. 
I could not have allowed myself to accept a present of that 
value but with the object of rendering those specimens service- 
able to your Manufactory. In pursuance of that wish I have 
begged the Duke of Clarence to accept them, hoping that the 
delicacy of the workmanship may attract to you His Royal 
Highness' protection. At the same time I remain as much 
obliged as had I retained the Vases for myself. 

" I am, Sir, 

"Your most obedient Servant, 
" Mr. Duesbury." " RAWDON. 

" My Lord, 

" The perusal of your letter of the 7th renders me incapable 
of expressing sufficiently my sense of the additional obligation 
your Lordship's unprecedented attention to the interests of 
my Manufactory has laid me under in the placing the little 
specimens in the hands of His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Clarence, which were merely intended as a small acknowledg- 
ment of my obligations to your Lordship. It is far the most 
liberal attention I ever experienced in the course of my life, 
and I shall ever remember it with the most respectful gratitude. 


I have been absent from Derby since Tuesday, or should have 
written by the returning post. 

" I remain your Lordship's most obliged 
Humble Servant, 


The letter acknowledging Lord Rawdon's of the 7th February 
was most probably substituted for the following letter, of which 
a rough draft exists. On the back is written, " I think this 
was never sent." It illustrates the business rivalry which then 
existed between the Worcester and Derby manufacturers to 
obtain the patronage ot Royalty. 

"Derby 24th Feby 1791. 
" To Lord Rawdon 

" My Lord 

" For your generous attention to my small present I cannot 
sufficiently express my gratitude and thanks the uncommon 
interest you pleased to take in the process of my manufactory 
induces me to take the liberty of troubling you with a few 
lines on the subject for I shall esteem myself particularly 
fortunate should it produce the good effect your Lordship has 
in view. I believe it may be about thirty years since my 
Father was appointed ' China Manufacturer to the King ' 
paying the customary fees, after his death I succeeded him, 
paying the fees again, and we have neither of us been sup- 
planted in his service (tho of late years very little encouraged) 
till the King's journey thro Worcester at which time his Majesty 
left liberal commissions which was no more than encouraging 
one Manufactory without doing it at the cxpence of another, 
but they also directed the Worcester Manufactory to use their 
Arms, and they call themselves ' Worcester China Manufacturer 
to the King.' Since that time we have not received the least 
mark of attention from their Majesties but on the contrary 
they have now making at Worcester as a present to the Duke 
of Clarence a very extensive service to the amt of between 
six and eight hundred pounds. This Commission has made 













Q : 





HOLD SHIP AT DERBY, 1766. 145 

a great noise in the country & we have heard of it from 
numbers of persons who have called to see the works at 
Derby from whom I have discovered the unmerited injury my 
manufactory must suffer several of these persons those who 
had not seen the Worcester China, and judged no doubt by 
the King's decided preference it was easy to discover were 
prejudiced with the idea that the Worcester Manufactory had 
of late surpass'd the Derby one gentleman in particular whom 
Mr. Stubbs attended lamented very much that the blue of 
the Derby China could not equal the Worcester and tho the 
reverse is exactly the fact, Mr. Stubbs could not induce him 
to believe it It is but justice to myself (at such a time as 
this) to remark that the Worcester Manufactory are behind 
us not only in some, but in every part as far as I have seen 
of their manufacture, as they are not at the expense to imploy 
the best artists, or choose to take the means of improving 
their own, as I have had recent proof, by a deal of pains 
having been taken to entice from me one of my workmen 
in a clandestine manner. Before I heard of this extensive 
service making at Worcester, I had encouraged the hope of 
getting appointed China Manufacturer to the Duke of Clarence, 
which would have given me an opportunity of doing myself 
justice with the publick, as the China of each would have 
been seen together. 

" I returned home only yesterday after an absence of a 
fortnight from the Manufactory & I take this the earliest oppor- 
tunity to assure your Lordship I remain with the greatest 

respect, yr obliged & humble servant 

"W. D." 


"Sir Seymour Haden informs us that he recollects that, on 

a certain day in the year, straw was spread upon the market 

place at Derby, and the China Works people used to lay out 

their goods for view and sale, and that it was customary on 



that day for the ladies' housekeepers who had special charge 
of the china closets to come into Derby Market to replenish 
their stock of china. This would be about 1823." 


" Another noteworthy example is the celebrated Rodney jug, 
which deserves particular mention because it is a dated specimen, 
and it illustrates a portion of the history of Derby. Our loyal 
town generally broke out into fits of intensely demonstrative 
enthusiasm about the victories achieved by the British land and 
sea forces during the French war at the close of the last century, 
and few occasions of any note passed without a celebration. 
The exploits of Admiral Rodney aroused this feeling to a high 
degree, and when he achieved his famous victory over the 
French fleet, under Count la Grasse, on the I2th April, 1782, 
great was the rejoicing. A club of loyal china-painters and 
other artists, which held its sitting at a now defunct public- 
house called the ' Admiral Rodney ' (it was situated upon 
premises now held by Messrs. Cox, Clarke & Co., wine 
merchants, the road to whose warehouse is still called the 
' Rodney Yard '), caused this jug to be made and dated in remem- 
brance of the victory a purpose which it serves admirably well 
in the year 1870, an interval of eighty -eight years. This 
historical piece of china has the spout characteristically and 
conveniently formed of the admiral's face, surmounted by a 
cocked hat. The floral decorations are palpably the work of 
Edward Withers. We shall see later how a similar compliment 
was paid to a noted general (Sir Hely Hutchinson) by attaching 
his name to the fictile gems of Derby."* 

We give a collotype plate of this interesting " Rodney " jug, 
which is ten inches high ; on both sides are a profusion of 

* " Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire." 


flowers, painted by E. Withers, the spout being formed by the 
admiral's head surmounted by a cocked hat. Two specimens 
of this jug are known, one being in the fine collection of 
ceramics of Mr. E. M. Kidd, of Nottingham, and the other in 
the writer's collection. 

Keys, in his account of the Derby Works, says : " Very soon 
after Mr. Duesbury's death (1786) flower-painting was at a very 
low ebb. Withers was then looked upon as the best flowcr- 


painter on china in England." To enable the ceramic student 
to recognise Withers' work, we produce a fac-simile of a drawing 
of a rose in our " Collection of Original Drawings by Derby 
China Painters." On the back of the drawing is written : 
"Painted by Edward Withers about eighty years since 1850. 
He was reckoned the best flower-painter in the trade about 



"In the year 1802, the brilliant career of Sir John Hely 
Hutchinson, who succeeded the lamented General Abercromby 
as commander-in-chief of the army in Egypt, was recognised at 
Derby by the presentation to him of the honorary freedom 
of the Borough. His autograph letter in reply to the notifi- 
cation of the town clerk lies before us. It is dated : 

' Knocklofty, August the 2 1st, 1802. 

' Your letter of the 3Oth July did not, by some accident, 
reach me till within these few days. I am extremely in- 
debted to the gentlemen of the Corporation for the high honour 
they have done me, and I accept with much gratitude the 
freedom of the Borough of Derby. I hope in the course of a 
few weeks to have the honour of waiting upon them in person, to 
return my best thanks for the obligation which they have had 
the kindness to confer upon me. 

' I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient humble servant, - 


" This letter is addressed to E. Ward, Esq., Town Clerk, Derby, 
and bears the postmark of Clonmel. In the latter end of the 
year Colonel Hutchinson paid his promised visit to the town, and 
was, of course, taken to the China Factory as the chief ' lion ' of 
the town." * 

As there are no official records that the Corporation 
presented this vase to Sir J. H. Hutchinson, we can only 
conclude that the public spirit of the proprietors of the 
factory impelled them to do so, to commemorate the visit 
of the General to the factory. This shape of vase was 
afterwards known as the "Hutchinson Vase." The height 
of the vase is twelve inches, and the form is of good design. 

* " Pottery and Porcelain of Derbyshire." 

HOLD SHIP AT DERBY, 1766. 149 

On one side are introduced in an oval, the arms of the Borough 
of Derby a buck in a park, very carefully painted ; on the 
reverse are the Hutchinson arms, richly emblazoned. The 
handles, very appropriately, are ranis' heads, bronzed (who has 
not heard of the " Derby Ram ? "). The body and base of the 
vase are decorated with Egyptian hieroglyphics, in gold, on a 
black ground. The mark is in red. 
######## **#* 

Our task is done. We have endeavoured by means of the 
old documents to throw additional light upon some obscure 
points in the history of Bow, Chelsea, and Derby porcelain, and 
give some information respecting those enterprising men who 
were the pioneers in the world of Ceramics during the eighteenth 
century. Amongst these men William Duesbury was pre- 
eminent, and he is well worthy of mention amongst " men who 
have risen." 















TO Mr. Nightingale belongs the credit of bringing to the 
notice of collectors the Longton Hall fabric, which 
was one of the early English Porcelains. Having 
alluded in the preceding pages to this factory, which appears 
to be so closely connected with Duesbury's career, we do not 
hesitate to transcribe what Mr. Nightingale has so ably written, 
especially as the " Contributions towards the History of Early 
English Porcelain " is so scarce a volume. 

" Some advertisements in the Newspapers of 1757 have 
given the clue to a manufactory of English Porcelain of some 
importance which lasted only a short time, and of which all 
traces seem to have been lost. Of the past existence of the 
manufactory, however, there can be no doubt at all, and of 
the present existence of several fine examples I think there 
can be very little." 

" Longton Hall is situated in the Staffordshire Pottery 
district, within the limits of the borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, 
and at no great distance from the Grand Trunk Canal. The 
place is thus described by the Rev. Stebbing Shaw in his 
County History of Staffordshire [1798, p. 222]. ' Longdon 
Hall formerly belonged to the Wcedons, a family now extinct. 
It was sold to John Floyer of Longdon, Esq r ., who left it to 
Mr. John Burnes Floyer, whose son is the present possessor, 
but the house is now reduced to a common farm-house.' " 

" The name of Longton Hall is connected with some of the 
first attempts at making porcelain by William Littler, at an 


early period of the introduction of the art into England. The 
accounts given by Simeon Shaw, as well as by Ward in his 
' History of Stoke-upon-Trent,' of this first essay, are a little 
confused, especially as to dates ; they evidently relate to an 
early effort at making porcelain by Littler, which failed ; but 
it is not these first experiments that I propose to deal with, 
although Littler's name appears throughout the Longton Hall 
venture, but with a later and fully-developed manufactory of 
English porcelain subsequently carried on there. I will, however, 
quote what has already been published relating to this early 
attempt of Littler's, first premising that he must have made 
some considerable progress in the art, as is evident from the 
following advertisement, which I find in Aris's Birmingham 
Gazette, on July 27, 1752, and often repeated. 

2Ti)i0 t'0 to acquaint UK ^Juliisr 

That there is now made by WILLIAM LITTLER and CO. 

at Longton-Hall near Newcastle, Staffordshire, 

A Large Quantity, and great Variety, of very good and fine orna- 
mental PORCELAIN or CHINA WARE, in the most fashionable and 
genteel Taste. Where all Persons may be fitted with the same at 
reasonable Rates, either Wholesale or Retale. 

" How long, or to what extent, this early manufactory of 
porcelain was carried on docs not appear. Littler's partner 
and relative was Aaron Wedgwood, a cousin of the afterwards 
celebrated Josiah Wedgwood. The latter began his career at 
Stoke, where he resided from 1751 to 1759, but we do not 
find, either at this time or subsequently, any allusion to 
Littler or his porcelain by Wedgwood. The primitive way 
in which these early manufactures were carried on can be 
understood when it is stated that their supplies of coal were 
brought from pits in the adjacent moorland, on the backs of 
horses belonging to small farmers, who carried on this laborious 
traffic when not otherwise employed in their ordinary avoca- 
tions. The neighbourhood of Longton, as late as the close 



Formed of over-lapping petals, with car- 
touches enamelled in white enamel on 
blue, alternating with painted flowers. 

Mark V/ Width, 8 in. 



On scroll base, painted in red, lilac, green, 
and yellow. 
H. 6 in. 



of the last century, consisted of but a few scattered tenements 
of a very humble description." 

" The next allusion to Longton Hall, a few years later, is 
of a much more definite character. In 1756 there was estab- 
lished there a manufactory of English Porcelain of considerable 
importance, the products of which were similar to the Chelsea 
of that period, and of sufficient importance to have a Sale by 
Auction in London in the following year. The first attempt 
of Littler, according to the authorities already cited, failed, 
and he had presumably come to the end of his resources. 
How far he was connected with the new venture it is not 
easy to say, but that he was at Longton Hall, and sold 
porcelain there very soon after that time, will afterwards be 

" It is not unlikely, however, that this new effort was made 
principally by others, probably with, and possibly without, the 
assistance of Littler. There are several reasons for supposing 
that William Duesbury began his active career at this time 
by establishing or renewing the Longton Hall works, in con- 
junction with others. In September, 1755, he was certainly 
living at Longton Hall; he had no connection with the Derby 
fabric till afterwards. In a letter written to the Derby Chronicle 
in 1865, Mr. Frank Jessopp, who, through his mother, was a 
great-grandson of Duesbury's, in speaking of the Derby manu- 
factory, says : ' Mr. William Duesbury, four generations ago, 
was the proprietor of China works at Chelsea, Bow, Longton, 
and Derby.' Mr. Jessopp died a few years after this. It is 
not known what authority he had for this statement ; it must, 
therefore, be taken for what it is worth." 

" In Mr. Jcwitt's account of the Derby porcelain manufactory, 
he quotes the draft of an Agreement dated January 1st, 1756, 
' between John Heath, of Derby, gentleman ; Andrew Planch6, 
of ye same place, china maker ; and William Duesbury, of 
Longton, in ye county of Stafford, enameller,' by which they 
became 'co-partners together as well in ye art of making 
English China as also in buying and selling, &c.' In this 


Agreement no place is mentioned where the manufactory was 
to be carried on. It has naturally been assumed that it 
applied to Derby, owing to the fact that both Heath and 
Duesbury were connected with the Derby porcelain works not 
long after ; but it is quite possible that it had reference to 
the new manufactory of porcelain at that time established at 
Longton Hall. Next to nothing is really known of the state 
of the Derby fabric down to this time. Mr. Jewitt states 
that Duesbury certainly had no connection with it previous 
to the date of the Agreement. That the Derby factory pro- 
duced in 1756 works of a much more advanced character than 
is generally supposed, I hope to shew subsequently, but by 
whom the manufactory had been previously carried on remains 
to be discovered." 

" Assuming that the Agreement was duly carried out, it is 
quite probable that the place of manufacture was at Longton 
Hall, where Duesbury resided. Coal and clay were more 
abundant in Staffordshire than at Derby. As the Agreement 
was dated January, 1756, the whole of that year would neces- 
sarily be taken up in establishing the fabric and producing 
their first works. In the spring of the following year they 
were prepared with their specimens of the new manufacture, 
and we find advertisements announcing the sale in the London 
Public Advertiser in the spring of 1757." 

" At the same time, it must be mentioned, William Littler 
was again connected with the manufacture of porcelain at 
Longton Hall. In addition to Littler's advertisement of 1752, 
I have discovered two others of his in a Birmingham news- 
paper of a later date, relating to the sale of porcelain at 
Longton Hall in 1757 and 1758. Whether the Longton Hall 
products sold in London in April, 1757, were made by 
Duesbury, Heath, and Planche, or whether they were the 
production of W. Littler alone, or both combined, it is at 
present impossible to say." 

" The following appears in the London Public Advertiser on 
April 4, 1757, and was continued in this form till April 10. 
























" ^1 








2 '" 
"s t- 


2 c 


s s 




















s .S 


To be Sold by Auction 

At his Great Room at the Upper End of St. James' Hay market, on 
Tuesday igth Instant, and the following Days. 

A Quantity of new and curious Porcelain or China, both useful 
and ornamental, of the LONGTON-HAI.L Manufactory, which has never 
been exposed to public View. As the Strength and Delicacy of the 
Composition, the Novelty of the Patterns, and the Beauty of the 
Execution have had the Approbation of the best Judges who have 
seen it, and the Proprietors having been at very great Pains and 
Expence in endeavouring after Perfection in this new Manufacture, 
they hope it will be thought worthy of Notice, and meet with the 
Encouragement of the Public, and they promise the Nobility, &c. 
who have desired to see it make its Appearance in this Manner, 
that the Whole shall be conducted with that Fairness and Honesty 
which they hope will merit their future Favours. 

The said Porcelain may be viewed on Saturday and Monday the 
1 6th and i8th till the Time of Sale, which will begin each Day exactly 
at Twelve o'Clock. Catalogues will be ready to deliver at Mr. ford's, 
on Friday the isth inst. at 6d. each ; the Money to be returned to 
those that are Purchasers. 

" From the I2th April to the conclusion of the Sale on April 
25th, the following was the advertisement : 

A New and curious Porcelain or China of the Longton-Hall Manu- 
factory, which has had the Approbation of the best Judges, and 
recommended by several of the Nobility to this public Method of 
Sale. Consisting of Tureens, Covers and Dishes, large Cups and 
Covers, Jars and Beakers, with beautiful Sprigs of Flowers, open- 
work'd Fruit Baskets and Plates, Variety of Services for Deserts, Tea 
and Coffee Equipages, Sauce Boats, leaf Basons and Plates, Melons, 
Colliflowers, elegant Epargnes, and other ornamental and useful 
Porcelain, both white and enamell'd. 

" Heath was a man of position in Derby ; according to the 
terms of the Agreement he found 1,000, for which he was 
to receive one-third of the profits, with power to appoint any 
other person to act for him." 

" It now remains to add what is known of Littlcr's con- 
nection with Longton Hall at this time. The following 
advertisement appears in Ariz's Birmingham Gazette on June 
20, 1757, and is two or three times repeated. 


Hall, near Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

There is now upon Sale all Sorts of CHINA, both useful and 
ornamental, as well plain blue and white Tea-China of all Sorts, 
Coffee-cans, Chocolate Cups and Saucers, Punch-Bowls and Mugs, 
as finely enamell'd and curiously modell'd Fruit-Dishes, Leaf-Plates, 
Sauce-Boats, and Variety of curious useful Ornaments for Deserts, with 
Figures and Flowers of all Sorts, made exactly to Nature, allow'd by 
the best Judges to be the finest in England, where all Gentlemen and 
Ladies who please to honour him with their Commands, may depend 
upon having the Favour greatly acknowledg'd and all Tradesmen who 
favour him with Orders, may depend upon having them faithfully 
executed by their most obedient humble Servant 


" This advertisement, it will be observed, was issued about 
two months after the Sale was held in London, and comes 
from William Littler alone. In the following year another, 
apparently the last, occurs, when he seems to have been in 
partnership with others. This announcement appears once in 
Art's 's Birmingham Gazette of June I2th, 1758. 

ari)i<j is to acquaint UK ^Jublir 

That there is now to be Sold by Wi I.LI AM LITTLER and Co., at Longton 
Hall, near Newcastle in Staffordshire 

Great Variety of all Sorts of Useful and Ornamental PORCELAIN 
or CHINA WARE both Blue and White, and also Enamelled in the 
best and most lively colours ; to wit, Services of Dishes and Plates, 
Tea and Coffee Equipages, and great Variety of Services for Deserts, 
Beautiful Essence Pots, Images, Flowers, Vases, &c. with fine Blue 
and White Ribb'd, Fluted, and Octagon Chocolate Cups and Saucers, 
Tea Sets, &c. 

N -B- The LONGTON Porcelain is vastly improved, and is now 
allow'd by all Judges, to be the best made in England ; the Prices are 
lowered, and are now very reasonable. 

'Several good specimens of what I believe to be the pro- 
ducts of the Longton Hall manufactory are in Mr. Franks' 
collection. As long ago as 1862 some of these were exhibited 
by Mr. Franks in the temporary museum formed at Worcester 
during the meeting of the Archaeological Institute there. The 
description given in the Catalogue at that time is as follows : 
'Three specimens of a rare English manufacture of por- 
celain, locality not ascertained ; the mark is formed, apparently, 


of two letters L, one inverted, the upstroke crossed, underneath 
are three dots in a vertical row. The prevalent color is a 
brilliant blue ; one of the examples exhibited was a leaf-shaped 
dish, in form similar to those frequently made at Chelsea ; 
also a large plate, and a bowl and cover formed of overlapping 
leaves, some of them of the peculiar brilliant blue already 
noticed decorated with white enamel ; the others white and 
painted with flowers enclosed within floral wreaths.' " 

" It will be noticed that the ' leaf-shaped dish', and ' bowl 
and cover formed of overlapping leaves', of the Catalogue of 
1862, correspond pretty exactly with the ' leaf Basons and 
Plates' of the London advertisements of 1757. The locality 
would suggest the letter L as the mark, and the Vincennes 
or Sevres form of it would be familiar at that time ; this was 
ingeniously varied by inverting one of the letters. The dots, 
too, are found in the Vincennes mark ; in the Longton Hall 
examples the three dots, if they mean anything and from 
their being placed vertically, probably do may indicate the 
three proprietors of the new venture. The two L's would, of 
course, be equally appropriate for Littler, of Longton. The 
mark, however, is not very distinct ; probably the finer speci- 
mens only were marked, the remainder have most likely been 
since classed as ' uncertain Chelsea.'* The annexed woodcuts 
represent the marks as found on some of Mr. Franks' pieces." 


" One peculiarity in Mr. Franks' specimens is that they are 
badly and clumsily potted, indeed just what one would expect 

* " Mr. Chaffers has engraved a mark amongst his Bow examples which probably 
belongs to Longton Hall. The upper part of the design above the three dots is not 
quite the same, but this is perhaps owing to the running of the colour after the glaze 
was put on, as is found on several other pieces of Longton Hall. The explanation 
given by Mr. Chaffers is : ' This mark in blue under the glaze is found underneath a 
white china teapot with dark blue border, in the Countess of Hopetoun's possession.' " 

NOTE. Sometimes only one of the above marks was used. 


from a new factory. With this exception, and a peculiar 
strcakiness in the blue colour, there is nothing tentative in 
these pieces no appearance of anything like a first attempt. 
The writer once had a piece of it in the form of a Beaker, 
similar in colour and decoration to Mr. Franks' examples ; it 
was ornamented with sprigs of well-painted flowers, as described 
in the Public Advertiser. The medallions were edged with a 
rococo pattern in white enamel, instead of gold ; the effect 
was novel and not bad, but somewhat cold. This piece had 
no mark, and was destroyed, with many other fine things, in 
the fire at the Alexandra Palace in 1873. Other examples 
of the Longton Hall fabric are in possession of the Duchess 
Dowager of Athole and Mr. Octavius Morgan." 

" The fine streaky blue which is characteristic of this porce- 
lain might have been due to Littler. Shaw says that Littler 
introduced great improvements into the glaze, also that ' Some 
excellent specimens [of pottery] are ornamented by enamelling 
and gilding ; and others, having had a little manganese applied, 
resemble the finest lapis-lazuli.' On the other hand, the presence 
of 'calcined bone earth,' the discovery of which Littler is credited 
with in Shaw's list of newly- introduced Staffordshire materials, 
is not found in the Longton Hall porcelain. Professor Church 
has been good enough to test a small portion. He says : 
' I obtained a negative result no bone earth from my testing 
of the powder from your specimen of Longton Hall porcelain. 
This involved further testings to see that a similarly small 
quantity of Bow or later Chelsea would give positive results 
which they did.'" 

" It appears that the paste of the Longton Hall porcelain 
has some affinity with the frit body of the early Worcester, 
as well as that of the Chelsea before about 1759, from which 
date, Professor Church remarks, ' all the Chelsea ware was 
phosphatic- that is, it contained much bone-ash in the body.' 
From its commencement, ' the characteristic ingredients of Bow 
porcelain were bone-ash or phosphate of lime, which subse- 
quently came into general use throughout the country.'" 


" There are certain vases of early English make, well known 
amongst collectors, having a similar rich blue ground, which 
have never been identified as to their parentage, and which 
might possibly prove to be Longton Hall. They are about 
eight and a half inches in height, nearly cylindrical in form, 
with a wide trumpet-shaped lip, heavy handles, and a generally 
high-shouldered appearance. When found in sets of three, the 
centre vase is taller and of more ordinary shape, the covers 
ornamented with bold leafage. The decoration invariably con- 
sists of either figure subjects or a landscape on one side, and 
a group of birds on the other ; they are never marked, and 
shew at the bottom three round spots, caused by the balls of 
clay on which they are fired. They are not recognised as 
Worcester ; the paste has been tested and found to contain 
no phosphate or bone, so that they are not likely to be Bow, 
and they certainly bear no resemblance to anything similar 
known to have been made at Chelsea." 

" The only other direct allusion by name to the Longton 
Hall porcelain I have been able to find is contained in an 
advertisement of May, 1757, in the Public Advertiser. At a 
sale announced by MR. BELLAMY of the property of Thomas 
Williams, who was a large dealer in china and other Oriental 
curiosities in ' Marybone ' Street, Golden Square, mention is 
made of ' upwards of a hundred thousand pieces of foreign 
China Ware, besides an Assortment of all the Porcelain Manu- 
factories in England, of any Account, the largest Variety of 
the Derby or Second Dresden, with Chelsea, Worcester, Bow, 
Langton Hall, Birmingham, &c. Removed for convenience of 
Sale to a large commodious House near the Admiralty, White- 
hall, formerly known by the name of Oliver Cromwell's Palace.' 
About the same time, Hughes, the dealer in Pall Mall, advertises 
' A great variety of Chelsea, Bow, Staffordshire, and Derbyshire 
Porcelain.' The Longton Hall fabric was, no doubt, included 
in the Staffordshire." 

" After this, nothing more is heard of the Longton Hall 
Porcelain Works beyond the single advertisement of Littler's, 


in June, 1758. They perhaps shared the fate of other early 
attempts, and were found not to pay. The rise and fall of the 
Longton Hall fabric, as far as we know, were included in little 
more than two years. Soon after it had probably been removed 
or merged into the Derby, at least certain passages in the 
Derby advertisements seem to warrant that conclusion." 

The existence of the Longton Hall factory was a short one, 
and the examples which have hitherto been recognised have a 
character of their own. We are enabled, through the courtesy 
of Mr. C. H. Read, to give an illustration of specimens from 
the " Franks Collection " in the British Museum, namely : a 
bowl and cover, and a statuette of " Sampson and the Lion." 
We also give reproductions of three figures from our own 

We have not yet met with a marked figure, but we are 
informed, on reliable authority, that some of them are in 
existence; and in the 1757 advertisement in Aris's Birmingham 
Gazette, amongst the enumerated articles, " images " are men- 
tioned. The colouring of these figures is uncommon besides 
the streaky brilliant blue peculiar to Longton Hall, pinky reds, 
unlike those seen on Bow or Chelsea, are often introduced ; 
gold is sparingly used and does not appear to have been fired. 
The figures generally stand upon scroll bases, and those we 
have examined bear evidence that they are the productions 
of a factory still on its experimental stage. Two figures in 
our collection have pieces of china clay roughly pressed in 
the inside to strengthen the scroll base where this had been 
run too thin when being cast. Flowers in relief, tipped with 
red, similar to early Chelsea, are sparingly applied as an 
additional means of decoration. 

" Professor Church says : ' Littler appears to have been 
engaged in the manufacture of porcelain at Longton Hall in 
1752, and, after some interruption, in 1756-1759. The marked 
specimens probably all belong to the second period of manu- 
facture.' " 




I am enabled, through the courtesy of Mr. T. Boynton, F.S.A., 
to give an illustration of a Longton Hall candlestick in his 
collection. It has a four-footed scroll base, in the rich Longton 
blue. On this is seated a female, with a large comb in her 
hair (in Chelsea style), with sprigs of flowers on the robe that 
rests on her left shoulder. Standing on her knees, and 
clasped by her arms, is a boy, who holds a cornucopia- 
shaped support, in which is fitted the nozzle. The cornucopia 
is painted blue, and the nozzle is white, decorated with blue 
and gold. The body is very opaque, and possesses the 


blue tinge peculiar to the Longton Hall fabric. This candle- 
stick, which is twelve inches high, is a really elegant object, 
and reflects great credit upon the Longton factory. This 
specimen is not marked, but has every characteristic of the 
marked specimens. 

Mr. Boynton also lends for illustration a dish, painted in 
" Longton blue," the design consisting of vine leaves, grapes, 
and insects, etc. The larger vine leaves are in low relief, the 
blue painted leaf extending to within about one-eighth of an 
inch of the raised edge, which is left white, with an outline of 
blue running round it. This example has four marks in blue, 
as under: 

Aui^^Cdy . 


Selected from the best Authorities. 

Inkstand, in possession of Mr. R. W. Binns. 





N.B. This mark is 
also painted in brown 
on a raised oval. 


This mark is 

painted and 



1770 to 1784. 

Common to Bow 
and Chelsea. 










I, 2, 3 Earliest Derby Marks, generally in blue (some examples are known where the 
Crown and D are used separately, probably an oversight by the workmen). 

4 Crossed swords, crown, and D, and 6 dots, carefully painted in blue, later in puce, 
used from about 1782. 

5, 6 Ditto, less carefully painted in red. 

7, 8, 9, 10 Later Duesbury Marks, generally in red. 

II Duesbury & Kean, seldom used, circa 1795 to 1809. 

12, 13, 14, 15 Bloor Marks, commence 1811 to 1849. 

16, 17, 18, 19 Quasi Oriental Marks used on several occasions in matching, and to 
use up seconds stock by Bloor. No. 1 7 is an imitation of the Sevres mark. 

20 Dresden Mark, often used on figures. 

21 Derby Mark, supposed to have been used by Holdship when at Derby, about 
1766. Rare. 

22 Stephenson & Hancock, King Street Factory, 1862, same mark used afterwards 
by Sampson Hancock, and now in use, 1897. 

23 Mark used by the Derby Crown Porcelain Co., Osmaston Road, from its estab- 
lishment in 1877 to Dec., 1889. 

24 This Mark adopted by the above Co. when Her Majesty granted the use of the 
prefix " Royal " on Jan. 3, 1890. 

N.B. Marks Nos. 5 and 6 were often scratched in the clay on Derby biscuit figures, in 
addition to a scratched number, by which the figure was known by the Trade 
and Factory. 

Chronology of the Chelsea t Bow t Derby 
Pot Works t and Duesbury's Derby 
Porcelain Works, etc. 




"New Canton 



i75 8 







Works supposed to have been estab- 
lished about this date. Carried on 
by Gouyn ; then by N. Sprimont. 

Earliest dated specimen known. 

Works partially or altogether closed 
until 1758. 

Sir E. Fawkener (Sprimont's partner) 

Sprimont leases Lawrence Street site, 
Chelsea, for fourteen years, but he 
had been making Porcelain there 

Sept. 29, Sprimont sells the lease and 
works to James Cox. 

Feb. 5, Cox sells the lease and works to 
William Duesbury and John Heath . 

Duesbury closes the works, and re- 
moves models, moulds, and some 
of the workmen to Derby. 

N. Sprimont dies. 

Works probably originated from Heylyn 
and Frye's patent, dated Dec. 6, for 
making porcelain. Frye was manager 
of the works until 1759. 

Frye's second patent. 

Date of Partnership between Crowther 

and Weatherby. (Earliest dated 

pieces bear this date.) 

Works bought by Duesbury ; moulds, 
etc., removed to Derby. 



" Cockpit Hill " 


Works supposed to have been estab- 
lished prior to this date. 


Works were being carried on by J. Mier. 
(Dated examples exist.) 


Works were being carried on by Messrs. 
Butts, Rivett, and John Heath ; 
afterwards by John and Christopher 



Works were closed. (Heath's bankruptcy.) 
N.B. Porcelain was made at an early date 
at these works. 

(at Derby) 


Planche was making figures at Derby 
about this date. 

i75 6 

" Second Dresden " Derby figures were 
being made in 1750 and prior to this 
date ; who by, not yet ascertained. 

WORKS - - - - 





William Duesbury born. 

(Do. an enameller in London, 
working for the Trade. 

Do. at Longton Hall. 


Do. starting the Derby works. 


Do. purchases the Chelsea works. 


Do. purchases the Bow works. 


Do. closes the Chelsea works. 


Do. dies (November), (succeeded 
by William Duesbury II.). 


William Duesbury the second, enters 
into partnership with Michael Kean. 


Do. dies (succeeded by William 
Duesbury III.). 


Partnership dissolved between Dues- 
bury and Kean. 


Robert Bloor purchases the Derby 
works (not 1815 as stated by Jewitt). 


Do. dies. 


Thomas Clarke carries on the works. 


Boyle buys moulds, models, etc. Derby 
factory closed. 


Abbot, J., 25. 
Abercromby, Gen., 148. 
Ackers, Mr. H., 86. 
Acton, 8. 

Alkin, Joseph, 108. 
Altimont, Lady, 89. 
,, Lord, 89. 
Anc.vster, Duchess of, 89. 
Antinous, Plate XIV. 
Athole, Duchess Dowager of, 160. 

Bacon, 68, 80. 

Baker, Thos., 109. 

Baldwin, Mr., 40, 42. 

Banford, J., 138, 139. 

Barr, Mr., 133. 

" Barry Barry," Plate XVII. 

Bastard, Mrs., 88. 

Bateman, Hugh, 108. 

Beard, Mr., 137. 

Bellamy, Mr., 98, 99, 161. 

Bemrose, Mr. W., Plate VIII., Plate X., 

Plate XIV., Plate XV., Plate 

XVII., Plate XVIII., Plate XX., 

IOI, IO2, 104, 132. 
,, Sir H. Howe, 37, 101. 
Berns, 8. 
Billingsley, Wm., Plate X., Plate XVI., 

Plate XVII., 130-133. 
Binns, Mr. R. W., 165. 
Bland, 8. 

Bloor, Plate XII., no, 129, 166, 168. 
Boden, Mr. Daniel, 139. 
Boreman, Xachariah, Plate IX., Plate 

XVII., 134-136. 
Borrows, Thos., 109. 
Boswell, 35. 
Boucher, 55, 63. 
Boucheritt, Miss, 88. 
Boyle, 1 68. 

Boynton, Mr. T., F.S.A., 163, 164. 
Bradley, Jane, 123-125. 
,, Katherine, 125. 
,, Thomas, 122-125. 

Buller, Lady, 85. 

Burnsall, David, 38-43, 45, 48. 

Butts, William, 103, 168. 

Catharine or Catherine, 82, 115. 
Chaffers, Mr., 100, 105, 122, 159. 
Charles, King, 68, 80. 
Charlotte, Queen, Plate IX., 89-92, 


Christie, Mr., 50, 87. 
Church, Professor A., 4, 18, 103, 104, 

112, 160, 162. 

Clarence, Duke of, 143-145. 
Clarke, Thomas, 168. 
Clay, Mr., 92. 
Cleveland, Mr., 89. 
Clive, Mrs. Kitty, Plate III., 8, 97. 
Clyve, Mrs., 89. 
Coffee, W., Plate XIV., 122. 
Coke, Jno., 131. 
Complon, Mr., 90-92. 
Cornwall, Lady, 89. 
Cosway, Mr., 136. 
Cotes, Merton Russell, Plate II. 
Courteney, Lord, 85, 86. 
Courtney, T., Plate IX. 
Cox, Clarke & Co., 146. 
James, 20, 22-24, 26-31. 33, 34. 

38, 43, 44, 167. 
John, 30. 
Cradock, 8. 
Craft, Thomas, 2. 
Crompton, Abraham, 107, 108. 

,, Samuel, 103. 
Crowther, John, 3, 167. 
Cunliffe, Lady, 88. 

,, Miss, 88. 
Curzon, Lady, 88. 

Davies, Mr. Randall, 49. 

Davinson, Mr., 88. 

Deakin, Mr., 138. 

Dean, Mr. George, Plate XL, 125. 

1 7 o 


Delia Robbia, 1 14. 

Derby Porcelain Co., 101. 

Derby Crown Porcelain Co., 166. 

Derby Royal Crown Porcelain Co., 166. 

Devonshire, Duchess of, 137. 

Dixon, Mr., 88. 

Dossie, Robert, 35-37. 

Drummond, Rev. G. H., 88. 

Duesbury & Co., 44, 45, 48, 52, 140. 

Miss Sarah, Plate XI., 17, 18, 
104, 106. 

Mrs. William, 118. 
Wm., Plate I., Plate XII., 
Plate XIII., 3-20, 26, 28-31, 
33, 34, 38-43, 45, 49-5', 54, 
67, 69, 88, 95, 97, 98, ico- 
104, 106, 109, no, 112-116, 

119, 120, 122-124, 120-129, 131, 

134-138, 140-145, '47, 149, 
153, '55, 156, 166-168. 
Dunning, Mr., 39, 41. 

East India Co., 36. 
Edwards, Miss, 119. 
Egan, Mr., 86, 87, 120. 
Evans, Thomas, 38-42. 

Falstaff, 68, 74. 
Farnsworth, 67, 69, 129. 
Fawkener, Sir E., 167. 
Flight, Mr., 115, 133. 
Flint, 8. 
Floyer, John, 153. 

,, John Burnes, 153. 
Ford, Mr., 157. 
Foy, 8. 
Franks, Sir A. W., Plate III., Plate 

VI., Plate XIX., 2, 18, 35, 158- 

Frye, Thomas, I, 4, 5, 167. 

Uailsby, 130. 

Garrick, David, Plate III., 68, 69. 

George II., Plate VI. 

III., 18, 89, 92, 93- 
Gilpm, 86. 
Girings, 8. 

Gladstone, Mr. W. E., 130 
Goddard, Mrs., 88. 
Goldsmiths' Company, 32. 
Goodwyn, Thos., 8. 
Gould, Mr., 115. 
Gouyn, Chas., 31, 32, 167. 
Gowan, Wm., 34. 
Grasse, Count la, 146. 
Griffin, Mr., xvi. 
Grote, Mr., 89. 

Haden, Sir Seymour, 145. 
Hancock, J., 121. 

,, Sampson, 166. 
Hardenberg, 67, 69. 
Haslem, Mr. J., 67, 112, 132. 
Hawkins, Mr. Jno., Plate VII., viii. 
Heath, Christopher, 6, 102, 167. 

,, John, 6, 18-20, 26, 28-31, 34, 
38, 39, 41-45, 102, 103, 109, 
iSS-'Sr. '67, 168. 

Thos., 68. 
Heath & Co., 101. 
Heaths, The, 6, 100. 
Herbert, Lady, 89. 
Hertford, Lady, 90, 91. 
Hewson, Wm., 50. 

Heylin or Heylyn, Edward, I, 4, 167. 
Hill, A., 36, 37. 
Hodgson, George, 40. 
Holdship, Richard, 140. 
Hopetoun, Countess of, 159. 
Hopkinson, William, 130. 
Horrocks, Mr., 18. 
Horsley, Mrs., 88. 
Howe, Lord, 68/75. 
Hutchinson, Sir Hely, Plate XVIII., 

146, 148. 
Hutton, John, 107, 108. 

William, 6, 107, 125. 

Ibbetson, Lady, 88. 

James, Sarah, 6. 

Jessop, Ffran., 136. 

Jessopp, Mr. F. J., 18, 155. 

Jewitt, Mr. LI., 3, 7, 19, 103, 104, 132, 

155, 156. 
Johnson, Dr., 35. 

Kean, Michael, 67, no, 113, 119, 122, 

129, 141, 142, 166, 168. 
Kenyon, Lady, 89. 
Keys, J., 105. 

,, Samuel, 103-105, 119, 147. 
Kidd, Mr. E. M., Plate X., 147, 149. 
King, Charles, 138. 
Kinman, William, 33, 34. 
Kinnaird, Lord, 89. 
Kauffman, Angelica, 96, 126, 150. 

La Cave, 125. 

Lagrave, Mr., 20, 26, 31-33. 

Landseer, 113. 

Law, Thos., 114. 

Lee, Mrs., 89. 

Leigh, Hon. Mrs., 88. 

Littler & Co., 8, 154, 158. 



Littler, William, 18, 153-161. 

Locker, Mr., 104, 105. 

Lomb, 122. 

Longdon, 67, 69. 

Lovegrove, John, 103. 

Lucas, 130, 149. 

Lygo, J., 88, 114-116, 118, 129, 136, 

Lynn, Mr. George, 139. 

Maitland, Lord, 88. 

Manderputs, Capt., 143. 

Mann, Sir Horace, 8. 

Manners, Lady, 89. 

Mayer, Jos., 140. 

Mecklenburgh-Stre!itz, Grand Duke of, 

Plate IX. 

Meir, John, 101, 102, 168. 
Melborn, Lady, 88. 
Lord, 88. 
Michill, 8. 

Mkldleton, Lady, 88. 
Miller, Mr., 87. 
Milles, 8. 

Milton, 68, 74, 80. 
Moreau, Mr., 60, 63. 
Morgan, 8. 

Morgan, Mr. Octavius, 160. 
Mortlock, 133. 
Mountford, 113. 
Musgrove, John, 141, 142. 

Nightingale, Mr., i, 2, 31, 50, 51, 98, 

99, 1 06, 153. 
Nepean, Mrs., 89. 

Ohm, Mr., 92. 

Pardoe, 133. 

Pegg, William, 133, 134. 

(the Quaker), Plate X. 

Penrhyn, Lady, 88. 
Percy, Lady, 88. 
Pierce, Miss, 89. 
Phillips, Mr. H., 121. 
Phillips & Finch, 86. 
Pitt, 68, 83. 

,, General, 88. 

Mrs., 88, 89. 
Planche, 18, 19, 101, 103-106, 155, 

156, 1 68. 
Pollard, Plate IX. 
Portland, Duke of, 119. 
Porter, Henry, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 33. 
Princess Royal, 91, 116. 
Proctor, 8. 

Protin, Susannah, 25, 38, 39, 42. 
Pugin, 1 10. 

Rafter, Miss, Plate III. 

Rawdon, Lord, 143, 144. 

Read, Mr. Chas. H., F.S.A., 34, 162. 

Mr. R. W., 51. 
Riot, Mrs., Plate III. 
Rivett, Thos., 103, 168. 
Roberts, G., 36. 
Robertson, Plate XVII. 
Robinson, Mr. J. B. , 140. 
Rodney, Admiral, Plate XVIIL, 68, 80, 


Rogars, 8. 
Rolls, Mrs., 88. 
Rose, J., 131. 

Rossi, Mr., Plate VII., 114, 117. 
Roubiliac, Plate V. 
Rumbold, Lady, 114. 

Sampson, Plate XIX. 

Schreiber, Lady Charlotte, Plate V., 4, 


Severne, Mr. (& Co.), 120, 121. 
Shakespeare, 68, 74, 80. 
Shall & Co., 8. 
Shaw, 8. 

Lady, 89. 

Rev. Stebbing, 153. 

Simeon, 154, 160. 
Shawbranks, 8. 
Sheen, Charles, 141. 
Shipley, Betty, 104. 
Simpson, 120. 
Smallwood, 8. 
Smith, Sam, 109. 
Soar, -67, 69. 
Solon, Mr., 36. 

Spengler (or Spangler), J. J., Plate 

VIII., Plate XIV., 68, 69, 

72, 75. 94, 96, 119, 126-128, 


Sprimont, Nicholas, 20-33, 3^-45, 48, 

99, 167. 

Spry, Captain, 89. 
Stables, G., 32. 

,, John, Plate X. 
Stamford, Lady, 89. 
Stanhope, Mrs. Spencer, 89. 
Steel, Horatio, Plat." IX. 
Stephenson & Hancock, 166. 
Stevens, George, 139. 
Stubbs, Mr., 145. 

Tankerville, Lady, 89. 

Tapps, Miss, 89. 

Taylor, Margaret, 38, 42, 43. 

,, Mr., 141. 
Tiffin, Mr., 7. 
Thomas, Francis, 44, 45, 48, 49. 

,, Mrs., 48. 



Turner & Co., 8. 

James, Plate IX. 
,, Thomas, 8. 

Varley, Mr., 121. 

Vere, Chale, 31. 

Vernon, Lord, 86. 

Viner, Mrs., 89. 

Voltaire, 68, 83. 

Vorgewits, Frederick, 8. 

Vulliamy, Mr., 85, 86, 113-118, 129. 

Wales, Prince of, 85, 86, 116. 

Wall, Mrs., 89. 

Wallis, Mr. A., 101, 102, 104, 132. 

Walpole, 8. 

Ward, 154. 

E., Esq., 148. 
Waring, 8. 

Wass, C. Wentworth, Plate IX. 
Way, Richard, 38-41. 
Weatherby, 167. 

Webster, Moses, 109. 
Wedgwood, Aaron, 154. 

Josiah, 6, 154. 

Weedons, The, 153. 
Whitacre, Abraham, 109. 
Whittaker, Jno., 121. 
Wilkes, John, 68, 72. 
Williams, Mr., 8, 85, 99, 137, 161. 
Winbolt, Robt., 31. 
Winchelsea, Lord, 87. 
Windham, Hon. W., 87. 
Withers, E., 137, 138, 146, 147. 
Woodward, Mr., Plate III., 8, 97, 104, 


" Wright, of Derby," Plate XI. 
Wynch, Mr., 88. 

Yates, Harry, 125. 

John, Plate X. 
York, Duke of, Hate IX., 
Yorke, Mr., 88. 
Young, W., 131. 



Alexandra Palace, 160. 
Allow. 122. 

Birmingham, 2, 154, 156, 161. 

Bow, Plate II., Plate III., 1-7, 17, 19, 
37. 67, 97-100, 102, 106, 149, 
155, 159-162, 165, 167, 168. 

British Museum, Plate III., Plate VI., 
Plate XIX., 2, 5, 36, 68, 162. 

Brosley, 139. 

Cambrian Pottery, Swansea, 131. 

Cannock, 17. 

Chaddesden, 109. 

Chantilly, 90, 91. 

Chatsworth, 113. 

Chelsea, Plate IV., Plate V., Plate VI., 
Plate IX., Plate X., Plate XV., 
I, 3 5-7. 17, 19. 20, 26, 31-38, 
45, 49-52, 54-56, 63, 67, 68, 72, 
76, 78-80, 82, 84, 97-100, 

102, 112, I2O, 131, 132, 134, 

149, 155, 159, 160-163, l6 5, If >7- 
Chelsea-Derby, Plate VII. 
Chelsea (Lawrence Street Works), 20- 

26, 31-34, 43, 49, 167. 
Clonmel, 148. 
Coal port, 131. 
Cockpit Hill Works, Derby, 19, loo- 

103, 1 68. 

Derby, Plate VIII., Plate IX., Plate X., 
Plate XII., Plate XIII., Plate 
XIV., Plate XVII., PlateXVIIL, 
i, 2, 4, 6, 7, 17-19, 28, 34, 35, 
37, 44, 50-52, 54, 67, 68, 88, 95, 
97-113, 118-123, 125-127, 130- 
136, 140, 141, 144-149, 155-157, 
162, 165-168. 

Derby Art Gallery, 132. 

Derby Museum, 133. 

Donington, 143. 

Dorsetshire, 38, 41, 43. 

Dovedale, Derbyshire, Pl.ite IX., Plate 

Dresden, 2, 74, 83, 84, 98, 99-101, 

130, 161, 166, 168. 

Egypt, 148. 

England, 19, 101, 122, 147, 154, I5S, 

Europe, 8, 35. 

France, 115, 137. 
(ireal Britain, 129, 135. 

Ilampstead, 43. 
Ileage, 140. 
Ilighgate, 43. 
Holland, 137. 

India, 114. 

Jackfield, 139. 

Jermyn Street Museum, 103. 

Kensington, 41. 

Knightsbridge, 20, 39, 41, 42, 45. 

Knocklofty, 148. 

Lincolnshire, 131. 

London, I, 2, 6, 7, 18, 22, 33, 35, 50, 
88, 97, 99, 100, 104, 115, 121, 

130, 133, 136, 138, 155, I5 6 > 
158, 159, 168. 

Longton Hall, Plate XIX., Plate XX., 
I, 6, 17-19, 98, 99, 151, 153- 
164, 1 68. 



Manchester, 134. 
Mansfield, 131. 
Mecklenburgh, Plate IX. 

Nantgarw, 131, 133, 134- 
New Canton, 4, 165. 
Newcastle, 154, 158. 
New Hall, 141. 
Nottingham, 147. 

Pinxton, 131. 

St. Joseph's Convent, Derby, no, ill. 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 20, 26. 
Sevres, 81, 159, 166. 
Shrewsbury, 6. 
Shropshire, iy). 

South Kensington Museum, Plate V., 
4, 68, 112. 

Staffordshire, 7, 17, 101, 141, 153, 156, 

160, 161. 
Stratford, 3. 

Stoke-upon-Trent, 153, 154. 
Swansea, 131. 
Switzerland, 126, 129. 

Torksey, 131. 

Vincennes, 159. 

Westminster, 40, 43. 
Worcester, I, 36, in, 131, 133, 140, 
141, 144, 145, 158, 160, 161. 

Zurich, 126. 










Not wanted in RB3C