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Full text of "The boy mechanic : book 2: 1000 things for boys to do"

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THE BOY MECHANIC 

BOOK 2 



Printea In u. s. A. 



The 

Boy Mechanic 



BOOK 2 



1000 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO 



HOW TO CONSTRUCT 

DEVICES FOR WINTER SPORTS, MOTION-PICTURE CAMERA. INDOOR 

GAMES, REED FURNITURE, ELECTRICAL NOVELTIES, 

BOATS, FISHING RODS, CAMPS AND CAMP 

APPLIANCES, KITES AND GLIDERS, 

PUSHMOBILES, ROLLER 

COASTER, FERRIS 

WHEEL 

AND 

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY 



WITH 995 IJLLUSTRATtONS 



COPYRIGHTED; 19ig,B>; 'H. M- '^IMDSOR 



11"^ » » Ti 



POPULAR MECHANICS PRESS 
CHICAGO 




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rihe Boy Surveyor 

Plane -Table 
Surve^ang 






& 



HAROLD G.McGEE 




[In the training of a boy for a trade or profession there is none so profitable for outdoor 
work as that of a surveyor. This article sets forth how to accomplish surveying and the 
making of simple maps with the use of commonplace tools that any boy can make. — Editor.] 



Surveying and map making have 
always been two of the most interest- 
ing things a civil engineer has had to 
do. And, like George Washington, 
many of the men we look up to today 
as successes in different lines worked 
as surveyors in their younger days. 
Surveying takes one out of doors, and 
is apt to lead him into the unknown 
and unexplored byways of the earth. 

Though modern surveyors often use 
precise and expensive instruments, 
creditable surveys can be made with 
simple and inexpensive apparatus. Of 
such apparatus, two of the simplest 
are the plane table and the camera. 
Since one must know the principles 
of plane-table surveying before he can 
do camera surveying, this paper will 
describe the plane table alone, leaving 
the camera for another chaptei'. : 

A plane table is simply a dravving 



board mounted on a tripod so that it 
can be set up and worked upon in the 
field. One kind of plane table, which 
is used in the army for reconnaissance, 
does not even have a tripod ; it is sim- 
ply strapped to the arm of the man 
who is using it. 

Plane-table maps vary greatly in 
scale and the area they represent. 
Landscape artists' plans may show 
only single city lots, while some topo- 
graphic maps cover hundreds of 
square miles on a single sheet. For 
maps of a small farm, a park, or a 
residence block in the city, a plane 
table is almost ideal, since plane-table 
maps are made with rather simple ap- 
paratus and do not require much 
actual measuring on the ground. 
Mo.?.t.cbitct!3 .are located without ever 
going ta tliem, or even sending a rod- 
iran to them. 



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Just a Few Weeks After George Washington's Sixteenth Birthday, in 1748, Lord Fairfax, Owner of a Large 
Estate in Virginia, Took Him into His Employ as a Surveyor 




2 



Besides the plane table itself and a and west. It is then clamped so that it 

sheet of paper, only a small carpenter's will not move while workingf on it. 
level, a tape to measure a few dis- To begin the map, a point on the 

tances with, and some spikes for table is chosen to represent the station 

markers, a hard lead pencil, a ruler, on the ground over which the tab'e is 

and a few needles are absolutely set. This point is marked by sticking 

necessary for this sort of a map. a fine needle into the paper, vertically. 

To start a plane-table map, a sta- A small triangle should be drawn 

tion must first be selected from which around the needle hole in the paper and 




TABLE AT STA,C 



as many as 
possible o f 
the objects 
to be located 
on the fin- 
i s h e d map 
can be seen. 
Ordinar i 1 y, 
the objects 
one would 
locate are corners of 
buildings, fence corners, 
intersections of roads, 
corners of lots, 
banks of streams, 
possibly trees, 
and section 
and quar- 
ter-section 



Three 

Stations 



labeled "Sta. A," so that it will 

not be lost in the maze of points 

which will soon cover the sheet. 

^|^,J{^'g'^,f,7 By sighting past "his needle to- 

piane Table ward some object which is 

in Succession , , ,, ^ ,.- ,, 

to Locate wanted on the map, like the cor- 
"'objects"^ ner of a house, its direction can 
be marked by setting another 
needle on the far side of the table, in 




line with the first and the given ob- 
ject. Then, if a ruler or straight- 
edge be placed against these two 
needles and a fine line drawn 
connecting them, this line 
will show the exact direc- 
tion of the object from 



cor n e r s in 

the country. A ^' 

railroad, a lake, a 

mountain, or / 

anything / which 

forms a no / tic e a b 1 e 

landmark in ^/ any particular locality, 
ought to be on 
the map. In 
mapping a ter- 
rrtgrj: _.wh>c,h- 




Table at sta.b 



Sta. A. All the 

other objects 

which are 

wanted on 

the finished 

map and can 

be seen from 

Sta. A are located by direction in the 
same way. 

The first points to have their direc- 
.tion thus marked ought to be the next 
has ■h'ey^'.bee'ii". ''st^tL'^ns to be occupied. If all the ob- 
surveye'd. "be,-, J.ect's'to be located can be seen from 
fore, 'tlje *V"^t.' lUlree stations, or even two of three 
suryeyo'f may'"" stations, three stations will be sufifi- 
namfe/flte/lni'ilsv'.'fient. The distance to one of them 
and 'sir earns-. '•-•from Sta. A should be carefully meas- 
After the first station has been se- ured and laid off to scale along its 
lected, it is marked by a pile of stones, direction line on the map. Its place 
a stake, or, if precise work is to be on the map should be marked exactly 
done, a tack in the top of a stake. The as the first station was, substituting 
table is then set up over this station B for A. It is wise, after every few 
point and leveled so that the surface sights at other objects, to take a sight 
of the paper will be truly horizontal, along the line AB to make sure that 
Generally, too, the board is "oriented," the board has not turned. A good map 
that is, placed so that two of its edges is impossible if the board twists, 
point north and south and two east To measure the distance between 




TABLE AT STA. A 



stations, a 50 or 100-ft. tape, or some 
accurate substitute, is necessary. An 
ordinary piece of iron telegraph wire, 
105 ft. long, is a good substitute. A 



■d 



No I 



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It y^ — - — 11! — 
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1-3"- 



No 2 




An Alidade, Consist- 
ing of Two Sights 
and a Straightedge, 
Takes the Place of 
the Two Needles 



No3 

point, about Si-o ft. from one end, is 
marked with a little lump of solder. 
A chisel dent in this solder will mark 
one end of the 100-ft. section. Then, 
with a borrowed tape or a good rule, 
measure oft and mark every 10 ft., just 
as the first point was marked, until the 
entire 100 ft. have been laid ofif. The 
last 10 ft. should be divided into feet. 
In all this measuring and marking, the 
wire must be stretched out taut and 
straight. The extra 21/2 ft. at each end 
are used for making handles. By esti- 
mating the tenths of a foot, measure- 
ments can be made with such a tape, 
or "chain," as an old-time surveyor 
might call it, just as accurately as they 
can be laid ofT on the map. 

Two men are required for measur- 
ing, or "chaining," a head and a rear 
chainman. The rear chainman holds 
the 100-ft. end of the tape on the sta- 
tion point, while the head chainman 
takes his end forward toward the sta- 
tion to which they are measuring. 
When he has gone nearly the length 
of the tape, the rear chainman calls 
"halt." The head chainman stops and 



draws the tape up tight, while the rear 
chainman holds his division end on the 
starting point. Then the head chain- 
man sticks a spike into the ground to 



Fine WIRE 



a. 




mark the place where his division end 
comes, calls out "stuck," and starts on 
toward the object point. 

Large spikes make good marking 
pins, especially if they have little red 
or white strips of cloth tied to them. 
Surveyors use 11 markers. One is 
stuck into the ground at the starting 
point and is carried forward by the 
rear chainman, who also picks up the 
markers at each 100-ft. point as soon 
as the head chainman calls "stuck." In 
this way, the number of markers which 
the rear chainman has in his hand is 
always the same as the number of 
hundreds of feet which the last set 
marker is from the starting point. 

In measuring between two points, 
care must be taken to draw the tape 
out taut and straight, its two ends 
must be level with each other, and it 
must be exactly in line with the two 
points between which the measurement 
is being made. In measuring down- 
hill, one end may have to be held up 
high, and the point on the ground 
where the end division would come, 
found by dropping a stone from the 
place where it is in the air and watch- 
ing for the spot where the rock strikes 
the ground. A surer way to do this is 
to hold a plumb-bob string on the last 
division and carefully let the bob down 
until it touches the ground. A rod 
with a red or white flag on it ought to 
be placed at or just beyond the point 
to which the measurement is to be 
made so that the rear chainman can 



easily line in the head chainman. The 
latter, before he places his marker, 
looks back to the rear chainman to be 
told whether or not he is "on line" 
with the object point. If he is not, and 
ought to go to the rear chainman's 
right to get "on," the latter holds out 
his right arm and the head chainman 
moves accordingly. When he reaches 
the right point, the rear chainman 
signals "all right" by holding out both 
of his arms and then dropping them to 
his side; the marker is stuck, and both 
move up a hundred feet and repeat the 
process. 

After all the points possible have 
been located from Sta. A, and the direc- 
tion lines labeled lightly in pencil so 
that they can be distinguished when 
the board has been removed from the 
station, the plane table is picked up 
and carried to Sta. B. Here it is again 
set up, leveled, and oriented by mak- 
ing the direction of the line AB on the 
paper exactly the same as that of the 
line from Sta. A to Sta. B on the 
ground. This is done by placing needles 
at points A and B on the table and then 
turning the board until the two needles 
and Sta. A are in line. Sights are 
taken on the same objects which were 
"shot" at Sta. A, and to objects which 
were not visible from Sta. A. The in- 
tersection of the lines of sight toward 
a given object from A and from B 
marks the location on the paper of 
that object. If the two ends of a 
straight fence have been located in this 
way, a straight line joining the points 
will show the location of the fence on 
the map. By exactly similar methods, 
every other object is located on the 
paper. 

In order to avoid errors, it is an ex- 
cellent scheme to locate three stations 
near the outside edges of the area to 
be mapped, and locate all objects pos- 
sible by sights from each of the three 
stations. If, instead of all three cross- 
ing each other at a point, the lines of 
sight from the three stations form a 
triangle, something is wrong. If the 
triangle is very small, it may be safe 
to use its center as the correct point; 
if not, the work must be repeated and 



checked. Locating even a few points 
by this method may prevent some bad 
blunders. The three stations ought to 
form as nearly as possible, an equilat- 




SPIKE 




A Rigid Tripod is Made 

of Strips for Legs, 

Which are Fastened 

to a Large Top 



eral triangle; and the distances be- 
tween all of them should be measured 
and laid out accurately on the plane 
table. 

There are two ways in which the 
map may be finished, inked, or traced. 
By drawing in the "culture," that is, 
the things built by man, like the 
houses, the fences, the roads, and the 
railroads, in black ink ; the topography, 
that is, the hills and valleys, in brown; 
the water, in blue, and then erasing 
all the construction lines, a very neat 
map can be made. Another way is to 
get some "onion-skin" paper, or some 
tracing cloth, tack it over the penciled 
map, and trace the lines right through, 
using black India ink. This tracing 
can be blueprinted, just as a photo- 
graphic film. A plain, neat title, de- 
scribing location of map ; who made it 
and when ; the scale used ; why ft was 
made, if it was made for a special pur- 



pose, and the direction of the north 
point, ought to be on every map. The 
topographic sheets pubHshed by the 
United States Geological Survey are 




.0^ 






From an Original Drawing of a Survey of Mount 

Vernon, Made by George Washington 

at the Age of 14 

good samples to follow. They have 
been published for a great many places 
all over the country, and single copies 
can be obtained by sending 10 cents to 
the Director, United States Geological 
Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Plane tables are almost as easily 
made as they are bought. If there is no 
old drawing board around the house, 
a new bread board from the ten-cent 
store will serve. For ordinary work, 
a table which is 15 or 20 in. square will 
do very well. The board must be 
mounted on a tripod so that it will be 
rigid while it is being worked upon 
and yet can be undamped and oriented. 
A brass plate, with a hole in it and a 
nut soldered over the hole, screwed 
to the bottom of the board will per- 
mit the board and tripod to be bolted 
together in good shape. Another 
method, which is not nearly as good, is 
to drill a hole clear through the board, 
countersink it on top for a bolt head, 
and bolt the board and tripod head 
directly together. With the brass plate 
and nut, the camera tripod can be 
pressed into service if a nut of the 
proper size has been used. The camera 
tripod is, however, apt to be wabbly 



with a drawing board on top ; a much 
more satisfactory tripod can be built 
as shown in the accompanying draw- 
ings. Each leg is made of two strips 
of wood, % by % in. and 3 ft. long. 
These strips are screwed together at 
their lower ends, gripping a spike be- 
tween them which will prevent the legs 
from slipping on the ground. The tops 
of the strips are spread apart and 
screwed to the opposite ends of an oak 
or maple cleat. This cleat is, in turn, 
screwed to the under side of the cir- 
cular tripod head. 

In place of the two needles and the 
ruler described for marking the line of 
sight, most plane-table men use an 
alidade, which is a combination of 
two sights and a straightedge. A very 
simple alidade may be made by mount- 
ing two needles on a ruler. The 
straight edge of the ruler is placed 
against the needle which marks the 
station at which the plane table is set 
up. Then, by swinging the ruler 
around this needle until its two sight- 
ing needles come in line with some 
object, the line of sight can be drawn 
directly on the paper along the edge 
of the ruler. A surveyor in India once 
made an alidade out of a piece of 
straightedge and two sights made of 
native coins hammered out by a native 
blacksmith. Two pieces of cigar box, 
one with a fine vertical saw slit in 
it, and the other with a vertical slot 
and a piece of fine wire or silk thread 
stretched down the center, glued to a 
well planed, straight, flat piece of 
wood, make a fine alidade. A careful 
worker may be able to put his sights 
on hinges so that they will fold down 
when not in use. 

More than anything else, map mak- 
ing rewards care and accuracy, and 
shows up slipshod workmanship. If 
the pencils are sharp, the lines fine, and 
if the work is checked often, beautiful 
maps can be made with very simple ap- 
paratus. 

CWhite marks on waxed surfaces may 
be removed by rubbing lightly with a 
soft rag moistened in alcohol, after 
which rub with raw linseed oil. 



Machine for Sketching Pictures 

An ordinary drawing board, with 
the attachments shown, provides an 
easy way to sketch pictures, even if 




This Machine Aids a Person in Drawing the True 
Outline of a Picture 

one is not proficient in this line of 
work. It is only necessary to look 
through the sight and move the pencil 
about so that the knot in the thread 
follows the outline of the landscape or 
object being drawn. 

The size of the machine depends on 
the one building it, but a fair-sized 
drawing board is sufficient for the be- 
ginner. A strip of wood is fastened 
to the board, near one edge, which has 
a metal piece on each end, fastened to 
the under side and bent up over the 
end to form an extension for the rod 
to support the moving parts. The 
strip of wood should be 54 i"- wide 
and 14 in. thick, and the sliding arm, 
holding the pencil, l/^ in. wide and Vi 
in. thick. A like strip, but much 
shorter than the one fastened to the 
board, is also fitted with metal pieces 
in an 'inverted position so the projec- 
tions will be downward. A rn-'m. rod 
is run through holes in the metal 
pieces of the strips at both ends, and 



soldered to those on the strip fastened 
to the board. This will make a 
hinged joint, as well as one that will 
allow the upper strip to slide hori- 
zontally. 

Centrally located on the upper 
strip are two more strips, fastened 
with screws at right angles to the 
former, with a space between them of 
I/O in. for the sliding center piece hold- 
ing the pencil. These pieces are fur- 
ther braced with a wire at the back, 
and crosspieces are screwed both on 
top and under side, to make a rigid 
guide for the sliding pencil holder. An 
upright is fastened to the side of one 
of these pieces over the center of the 
upper horizontal sliding piece for a 
screw eye to hold the thread. An- 
other screw eye is turned into the 
crosspiece just under the one on the 
support, so that the thread will run 
perpendicularly between them. Two 
more screw eyes are fastened, one into 
the upper surface of the rear cross- 
piece, and the other in the end of the 
pencil holder, near the pencil. By 
connecting these screw eyes, as shown, 
with a thread, having a rubber band 
fastened in the rear end and a knot 
tied in it near the screw eye in the 
upper end of the vertical stick, a means 
for following the outlines of the pic- 
ture is provided. 

A vertical stick is fastened to the 
front edge of the board by means of 
a notch and wedge. In the upper end 
of this stick a very small hole is bored 
for a sight, similar to a peep sight on 
a rifle. 

To use the machine, set the board 
on a table, or tripod, and level it up 
in front of the object to be drawn. 
Look through the sight at the front of 
the board and move the pencil about 
to keep the knot of the thread on the 
outlines of the picture to be drawn. — 
Contributed by \Ym. C. Coppess, 
Union City, Ind. 



CA walnut filler is made of 3 lb. burnt 
Turkey umber, 1 lb. of burnt Italian 
sienna', both ground in oil, then mixed 
to a paste with 1 qt. of turpentine and 
1 pt. of japan drier. 




THE BOY SURVEYOR 

Camera Purveying 

hu Harold G.McGee 



■.^s^ 



[This article exjilains the preparation of the camera 
for taking the pictures at each of the three stations, 
after which the plates are developed, printed and kept 
until a convenient time may be had for plotting the 
ground. The succeeding article will give in detail the 
making of the map from the photographs. — Editor.] 



CAMERA surveying is simply plane- 
table surveying in which the land- 
scape has been photographically picked 
up and carried indoors. It has the enor- 
mous advantage that one can ol)tain a 
record of the utmost fidelity in a small 
fraction of the time taken to do the 
field work of even a sketchy plane- 
table survey, and that plotting can be 
done in the comfort and with the con- 
veniences of a drafting room. When 
the hours one can work are short or the 
periods of clear, dry weather are few 
and far between, a camera is an ideal 
surveying instrument. It sees and re- 
cords with the click of the shutter. 

Surveying by camera was proposed 
early in the infant days of photogra- 
phy; but not until the eighties were 
photographic surveys commenced in 
earnest. With the extensive surveys 
of the Canadian Rockies by the Cana- 
dian government within the past 
decade and the topographic surveys of 
the Alps, the camera has very recently 
indeed achieved the dignity of being 
known as a "sure-enough" surveying 
instrument. Even today, few survey- 
ors have ever u^ed photography for 
making surveys, even though for 
mountain topography or any survey 
which includes a large number of dis- 
tinctive, inaccessible landmarks, the 
camera asks no odds of either the plane 
table or the stadia transit. 

A camera survey taken of the sum- 
mer cottage or the camping ground 
will be a source of great delight while 
it is being plotted up of winter even- 
ings. There is something weird in 
watching each tent and dock slip into 



its place with naught but a pair of di- 
viders and a few pictures to do the trick. 
And when the map is done, there are 
all the data to tell just where a ten- 
nis court can go or a walk ought to be 
built. 

In making surveys, a plate camera 
will do more accurate work than will 
a film camera ; and a fixed focus is a big 
help in plotting. In spite of the spe- 
cial and expensive instruments which 
have been designed solely for survey- 
ing work, a little ingenuity on the part 
of the owner of most any kind of a 
camera, be it big or little, film or plate, 
box or folding, will do wonders to- 
ward producing good results. 

To be used for surveying, a camera 



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A T-Shaped Level with Adjusting Nuts is Located on 
the Camera Box, or on the Bed of the Folding Camera 

must be fitted with a spirit level and 
some arrangement for cross hairs. A 
T-shaped level on the bed or the box, 
carefully adjusted, will show when the 



plate is vertical and when the perpen- 
dicular line from the center of the plate 
to the center of the lens is horizontal. 
Actual cross hairs in the camera are 
not as good as four tiny points of V's, 
one projecting from the middle of each 
side, top, and bottom of the camera box, 
just in front of the plate holder. How 
the level is to be adjusted so that a 
line between the upper and lower 
points will be truly vertical, and one 
through the die-side points truly hori- 
zontal and on a le^el with the center of 
the lens when the bubbles are in the 
center of the spirit level, will be de- 
scribed later. 

Camera Preparation 

To prepare a camera for Surveying, 
it is necessary to arrange that the axial 
center line through the lens to the plate 
shall be level, and that the location of 
the horizontal and vertical center lines 
shall be indicated on the plate. A spirit 
level is the best solution of the first 
problem, and indicated center points of 
the second. 

The spirit level preferably may be 
of the T-form, with two level tubes, 
or of the "universal" circular form, 
with which some hand cameras are 
equipped. However, ordinary hand- 
camera levels are generally too rough 
and difficult of adjustment to insure ac- 
curate work. On a view camera, the 
level may be conveniently located on 
the bed which carries the lens board. 
If it is screwed to the under side of the 
arms it will be convenient for use and 
out of the way. The bed is likewise a 
good location for the level on a folding 
hand camera, while the top of the box 
is about the only possible location with 
a box-type instrument. 

The cross hairs or center-line indi- 
cators should be placed on the back of 
the camera, just in front of the plate. 
If indicators are used, fine-thread cross 
hairs or pencil lines drawn on the 
ground glass must be used temporarily 
for making adjustments. Generally, 
the two cross hairs will divide the 
plate vertically and horizontally into 
four equal parts and the hairs or indi- 
cators will join the center point of the 



sides and top and bottom of the open- 
ing immediately in front of the plate. 
But it is essential that the cross hairs 
have their intersection in a line p«:r- 





5ECTI0N 



The Ordinary Round Level may b*? Used, but It Is 
Not so Good as the T-Level 

pendicular to the plate and passing 
through the center of the lens. Thus 
in a camera in which the lens is not 
placed in the center of the plate, or in 
which the rising and sliding front has 
placed the lens ofif center, either or 
both of the cross hairs may be off cen- 
ter with regard to the plate. 

After the cross-hair indicators and 
the level have been attached to the 
camera, adjustments are necessary. 
Surveyors distinguish between perma- 
nent and temporary adjustments, per- 
manent adjustments being those for 
which the instrument maker is respon- 
sible, and temporary adjustments be- 
ing those which can be and are made 
in the field. The principal permanent 
or maker's adjustments of the survey- 
ing camera are those which insure the 
center line through the lens, or axial 
center line, or line of collimation, being 
perpendicular to the plate, the inter- 
section of the cross hairs being on this 
line, and that the cross hairs them- 
selves are mutually perpendicular. 
Temporary or field adjustments must 
be so made that one tube of the spirit 



lO 



level shall be parallel with the axial cen- 
ter line through the lens and the other 
parallel with the horizontal cross hair. 
The first field adjustment is made in 
the following manner. The camera is 




LEN5 



I CB05S HAIRS MABKED 
r ON GROUND CLASS 



The Cross Hairs or Center-Line Indicators should be 
Placed on the Back of the Camera 

set up, complete with thread or pencil- 
line cross hairs and level, and focused 
on a stake whose top shall just come to 
the horizontal cross hair at the center 
of the plate, when the level tube paral- 
lel with the center line of the lens reads 
level. This stake may be driven to the 
required elevation or a rod may be held 
on it and the point where, in the image 
on the ground glass, it is intersected by 
the cross hair marked with pencil on 
the rod as it .is held vertically on the 
stake. The distance to this stake is 
measured from the camera and another 
similar stake set at the same eleva- 
tion by the same method, but in an op- 
posite direction and at the same dis- 
tance from the camera. The two 
stakes or the mark on the vertical rod 
which is held on these stakes in turn 
will be level with each other, though 
they may not be level with the cam- 
era. The camera is then moved to a 
point very much closer to one stake 
than to the other and again leveled. The 
vertical distance from one stake-top 
or mark on the rod is measured and the 
camera then focused on the second 
stake. If the level is actually in ad- 
justment, the distance from the second 
stake top or mark will be exactly the 
same as it was on the first. If not, the 



difference, or "error," is found between 
the two vertical distances from the 
cross hair to the two stake tops. Half 
this error is corrected by raising or 
lowering one end of the level tube by 
means of the threaded nuts which are 
placed on it for the purpose. The 
whole process is then repeated until 
the vertical distances from the horizon- 
tal cross hair at the center to the two 
level stakes, one close to and one dis- 
tant from the camera, are identical. 
The axial center line of the lens, or 
the line of collimation, is then in ad- 
justment with the level. All that re- 
mains is to make the horizontal cross 
hair parallel with the cross level. 

This is done by using one marked 
stake. The camera is leveled as far as 
the "fore-and-aft" level is concerned 
and the horizontal cross-hair point 
at the center marked on the stake. 
The camera is then swung round 
until the stake just shows on 
one edge of the ground glass, the fore- 
and-aft or longitudinal level being 
checked to make sure its bubble 
is still in the center. Then the 
bubble in the cross or transverse level 
tube is brought to the center by means 
of the threaded adjusting nuts, and 
the camera is thrown hard over so that 
the stake appears along the opposite 



GROUND 
GLASS^. 




LENS 



The Maker's Adjustments Should Insure the Line of 
Collimation being Perpendicular to the Plate 

edge of the plate. This time, the bub- 
ble of the longitudinal level being kept 
in the center, half the error introduced 
by turning from one edge to the other 



11 



is corrected. All of the adjustments 
are then rechecked, and if they are 
found correct the instrument is ready 
for use. If a circular level be used, the 
method of adjustment is exactly the 
same, the swing of the bubble along the 
axis of the camera and transverse to it 
being used to determine the longitudi- 
nal and transverse adjustments. Slips 
of paper may be used for lifting one 
side in place of the adjustment nuts of 
the T-level. 



A leveling head or ball-and-socket 
joint on the top of the tripod will be 
found of material aid in leveling the 
instrument. 

No great mechanical genius is neces- 
sary to prepare a camera for or to make 
a successful camera survey. But if a 
boy have not patience and an infinite 
desire for accuracy, camera surveying, 
or indeed any sort of surveying, will be 
a source of neither pleasure, satisfac- 
tion, nor profit. 



To Make Transparent Paper 

Transparent paper of parchmentlike 
appearance and strength, which can be 
dyed with almost all kinds of aniline 
dyes and assumes much more brilliant 
hues than ordinary colored glass, can 
be made in the following manner: Pro- 
cure a white paper, made of cotton or 
linen rags, and put it in soak in a sat- 
urated solution of camphor in alcohol. 
When dry, the paper so treated can be 
cut up into any forms suitable for 
parts of lamp shades, etc. 



Toasting Bread over an Open Fire 

Having experienced some difficulty 
in obtaining good toast over a gas or 
open fire I tried the following plan 
with good results : An old tin pan was 
placed over the flame and the ordinary 
wire bread toaster clasping the slice of 
bread was held about 1/2 in. from the 
pan. In a few minutes the toast was 
crisp and ready to serve. — Contributed 
by Katy Doherty, New York City. 



Adjustable Stilts 

The beginner with stilts always 
selects short sticks so that he will not 
be very far from the ground, but as he 
becomes more experienced, the longer 
the sticks the better. Then, too, the 
small boy and the large boy require 
dififerent lengths of sticks. The device 
shown makes a pair of sticks universal 
for use of beginners or a boy of any 
age or height. 



To make the stilts, procure two long 
hardwood sticks of even length, and 
smooth up the edges ; then begin at a 
point 1 ft. from one end and bore 13 




Stilts Having Stirrups That can be Set at Any 
Desired Height 

holes, % in. in diameter and 2 in. apart 
from center to center. If there is no 
diestock at hand, have a blacksmith, 
or mechanic, make a thread on both 
ends of a %-in. rod, 13 in. long. Bend 
the rod in the shape shown, so that 
the two threaded ends will be just 2 
in. apart from center to center. The 
thread on the straight horizontal end 
should be so long that a nut can be 
placed on both sides of the stick. A 
piece of a garden hose or small rubber 
hose, slipped on the rod, will keep the 
shoe sole from slipping. The steps 
can be set in any two adjacent holes 
to give the desired height. — Contrib- 
uted by Walter Veene, San Diego, Cal. 



12 



Grape Arbor Built of Poles 

In building outdoor structures, such 
as grape arbors, pergolas, or arches, it 
is not necessary to use sawed 
lumber, as they can be built 
as substantial, and fre- 
quently more artis- 
tic and cheap, 
o f poles. 




Arbor Made of Poles Which are Supported by One 
Row of Uprights 

These are easily obtained, especially in 
the country or in the smaller cities 
where there usually are many trees and 
gardens. 

The illustrated grape arbor consists 
of but one row of uprights. Across the 
top of each is placed a horizontal sup- 
port for the roof poles, as shown in 
Fig. 1, which is carried near its outer 
end by an inclined brace. The brace 
should be connected at each end with 
a toe joint, as shown in Fig. 2. The 
upper end of the upright is beveled off 
on both sides, to form a double-splayed 
joint with the crosspiece. In order to 
securely bind the roof of the arbor, 
the long poles, or roof beams, should 
be notched near each end to fit over the 
supports. Similar notches in the poles 
forming the side of the arbor are to fit 
the uprights, thereby binding them to- 
gether and preventing toppling over. 
Each set of long poles connecting two 



uprights should have the end notches 
the same distance apart, one pole being 
used as a gauge. All the joints and 
notches may be cut with a sharp 
hatchet. 

In setting the arbor, the uprights 
should first be assembled complete with 
braces and roof supports, and placed in 
the ground a distance apart corre- 
sponding to that of the notches on the 
long poles. The uprights being set, 
the long poles are placed and fastened 
with nails.- — Contributed by W. E. 
Crane, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Forcing Fruit Blossoms for 
Decorations 

Twigs trimmed from the fruit trees 
rather late in the season had quite 
large buds on them, and we experi- 
mented with them in this way: A large 
box was filled with wet sand, and the 
twigs were stuck in it and the box set 
in the warmest corner of the yard. 
The buds soon swelled and burst into 
bloom. We then arranged a smaller 
box of sand and put the blooming twigs 
into it, and took it into the house where 
they remained fresh for several days. — 
Contributed by A. Louise Culver, Oak- 
land, Cal. 



Corner Cleaner Attached to a 
Scrubbing Brush 

Dirt will accumulate and harden in 
the corners of a floor and the base- 
board just because the end of the 
scrubbing brush 
will not enter 
them. The water 
gets in with the 
dirt and leaves a 
hard crust. This 
may be easily 
cleaned out if a 
metal point is at- 
tached to the end 
of the brush handle, as shown in the 
illustration. It is used as a scraper to 
break up the crust and clean it out 
where the bristles will not enter. — Con- 
tributed by L. E. Turner, New York 
City. 





SURVEYOR 

Plotting a 
mera Survey 

Harold 0. McOee 



[The camera records pictures that can be taken in camp or on a vacation trip and kept until 
more leisure may be had in winter for plotting the ground.— Editor. ] 



A PREVIOUSLY measured base 
■^*- triangle with "stations" at each 
corner is necessary for making a cam- 
era survey, just as it is for the plane- 
table survey. It is preferable to have 
each of the three sides measured inde- 
pendently, though if one side has been 
accurately chained, the other two may 
be less satisfactorily determined by the 
use of the plane table. If the camera 
has a fixed focus, it is possible to make 
an entire survey from the two ends of 
a single base line ; but this method has 
no check and should be used only when 
and where the triangle method is im- 
possible. With an adjustable focus, it 
will rarely give good results. 

Once the triangle has been laid out, 
the fieldwork is very simple. The cam- 
era is set up at one station, carefully 



leveled, and then a series of pictures is 
taken, each single plate overlapping the 
last so as to form a panorama of the 
area to be mapped. The focus of the 
lens must not be changed during a 
series, and plotting is facilitated by 
keeping the focus constant during all 
the exposures which make up a survey. 
To secure good depth of focus, a small 
stop is generally used, since it is neces- 
sary to use a tripod to keep the camera 
level. If contours are to be drawn, the 
height of the lens above the ground at 
the station should be measured and 
recorded. After a series has been taken 
at each station, the fieldwork is com- 
plete. It is an excellent plan to keep a 
record of the plate numbers, and the 
order in which and the station from 
which the exposures were made, so 




Two Fine Hair Lines must be 
to Plot From, or to Make 



5TA.C 



Scratched on Each Plate Before It is Used 
Pictures from Which the Plotting is Done 



13 




14 



15 



that the 10 or 12 plates which a small 
survey will comprise may not get hope- 
lessly mixed up. If the camera is 
turned each time to the right, clock- 
wise, and the plates are numbered A-1, 
A-2, B-4:, etc., indicating by A-1, for 
example, the leftmost plate taken at 
Sta. A; by A-3, the plate just to the 
right of A-1, just as II is to the right 
of I on the clock dial, and by B-4, the 
fourth to the right taken at Sta. B, 
there ought to be no difficulty in 
identifying the plates after the 
exact details of the ground are 
forgotten. 

While the pictures are be- 
ing taken, "flags" of white 
wood or with white-cloth 
streamers tied to them 
must be stuck in the 
ground or held at the 
other stations in or- 
der that their exact 
location can be 
readily and cer- 
tainly found on 

In Plotting a 
Camera Survey the 
Base Triangle is 
First Carefully 
Laid Out on the 
Paper to Such 
a Scale That 
the Map will 
be of Desir* 
able Size 



make the prints from which the plot- 
ting is to be done. One of these lines 
should connect the points at the top 
and bottom of the plate, and the other, 
the points at the sides. The vertical 
line divides the objects which were on 
the right of the center of the camera 
from those that were on the left, and 
the horizontal line connecting the 
points on the sides separates the ob- 
jects that were above the camera 
from those that were below. 

If the survey has been made 
with a lens that does not cover 
the plate fully or that has con- 
siderable uncorrected aber- 
ration, causing distorted 
shapes near the 
■^^t** edges and corners 
of the picture, re- 
sults can be mate- 
rially improved by 
plotting from en- 
largements. In 
making the en- 
largements, 
the back of 
the camera 
should be 
removed 



STA. A 




— CORRECT MAPtiING CONSTANT 
INCORRECT MAPPING CONSTANT 



the plates. A few distinctive stakes, 
some with one and some with two or 
three strips of cloth tied to them, 
placed at important points on the 
ground will help immensely in the loca- 
tion of knolls and shore lines. 

In plotting a camera survey, either 
the original plates, the prints, or en- 
largements may be used. The plates 
are the most accurate if a corrected 
lens has been used ; and the enlarge- 
ments made back through the lens will 
be best if the images on the plates are 
distorted. In any case, two fine hair 
lines must be scratched on each plate 
before it is used to plot from, or to 



STA.C 



and the light should be allowed to pass 
through the plate and the lens in the 
reverse order and direction of that 
in which it passed when the negative 
was made. In this way, the errors 
which were made by the lens originally 
will be straightened out, and the re- 
sulting enlargements will be free from 
distortion. To make successful en- 
largements for surveying work, the 
easel on which the bromide paper is 
tacked must be square with the cam- 
era, and the paper itself should be flat 
and smooth. It is just as necessary to 
keep the easel at a constant distance 
from the camera during the enlarging 



16 



as it was to keep the same focus while 
the original negatives were being 
made. 

In plotting a camera survey the base 
triangle is first carefully laid out on the 
paper to such a scale that the map will 
be of a desirable size. With the apex 
of the triangle representing Sta. A, say, 
as a center, a circle is drawn with a 
radius as nearly equal as possible to 
the distance between the optical center 
of the lens and the plate when the pic- 
ture was taken. Ordinarily this will 
be the focal length of the lens ; but if 
the camera was not focused most 
sharply on an object a great distance 
off, the radius may be greater. This 
radius is called the "mapping con- 
stant." When an approximate distance 
for the mapping constant has been de- 
termined by measurements on the cam- 
era or by knowing the focal length of 
the lens, the circle, or rather the arc, 
FG between the two lines to stations 
B and C, is drawn. The plates taken 
at Sta. A, and ranged around this cir- 
cle on the outside and just touching it, 
will show the landscape exactly as 
seen from A. 

In the accompanying diagram show- 
ing the method of determining the 
mapping constant and of locating the 
traces of the plates, the letters F, G, 
H, J, P, R and S designate points re- 
ferring to the true mapping constant, 
and the construction necessary to lo- 
cate the traces of the plates. The 
primed letters F', F", G', G", etc., are 
used to show similar points where the 
trial mapping constant is either too 
long or too short. The following de- 
scription refers equally to the construc- 
tion necessary with true or trial-map- 
ping constants. 

Next, a line FH is drawn perpendic- 
ular to the line AB of the triangle at 
the point F where the arc intersects it. 
On this line is laid ofif, in the proper 
direction, a distance equal to the dis- 
tance on the plate or print from Sta. B 
to the center vertical line. From this 
point is drawn a light line, HJ, toward 
the center of the arc. Where this line 
crosses the arc, at J, a tangent, KJM. 
is drawn, which will show the location 



of the plate A-1 on the drawing. This 
line is called the trace of the plate. An 
object which appears both on plate A-1 
and A-2 is next picked out and its loca- 
tion on the trace of plate A-1 deter- 
mined by measuring the distance JN 
equal to the distance on the plate from 
the image of the object to the center 
vertical line. A light line, NO, joining 
this last-found point with Sta. A, is 
then drawn. Where this last line 
crosses the arc, at O, a tangent, OP, to 
the arc is drawn, and the trace of the 
plate A-2 is found with the aid of the 
point which appears on both plates just 
as plate A-1 was located from the pic- 
ture of Sta. B. The traces of plates 
A-3 and A-4 are found in exactly the 
same way as was that of A-2. If the 
radius of the arc has been estimated 
correctly, Sta. C will be found to be 
exactly on the point where the trace of 
the plate showing the station crosses 
the line AC on the paper. If it does 
not fall on the line AC, which is gen- 
erally the case, everything must be 
erased except the original triangle. 
First, however, a radial line S'G', or 
S"G", is drawn from the location of 
Sta. C on the trace of the plate A-2, 
3 or 4, as the case may be, to the arc, 
and the point of intersection of this 
line and the arc, G' or G", is preserved. 
If this point, G' or G", is outside the 
base triangle, the next trial arc should 
be drawn with a larger mapping con- 
stant as a radius, or vice versa. If the 
second mapping constant is off, find 
again the point of intersection of the 
radial line through the new location of 
Sta. C on the newly located trace of 
the last plate and the new arc. Join 
this point and the one found previ- 
ously, in the same manner, with a 
straight line, G'G". The point G 
where this last drawn line intersects 
the line AC of the base triangle, will 
be the point through which the arc, 
with the correct mapping constant as 
radius, ought to pass, provided the first 
two approximations were not too far in 
error. This third trial ought to make 
the location of the traces of the plates 
exactly correct. If. however, the focus 
of the camera was changed between ex- 



17 



posures at one station, the traces of the 
plates will not all be at an equal dis- 
tance from the station point, and their 
location will be an almost impossible 
task. The traces of the plates taken at 
stations B and C are found in exactly 
the same manner as were those for Sta. 
A. After the traces have all 
been located, it is a good plan 
to ink them in lightly and 
erase the pencil construction 
lines which would oth 
wise form an impenetr; 
ble maze. The traces 
cated, the difficult and 
tiresome part of the 
plotting is over ; the 
landscape, brought ^^ 
indoors photo- 
graphically, i s 

From Each Station A 

the Mapping Con- ^ /> 

slant is Laid Out by ^ ^ i^ 
the Focal Distance j? (9 O 
of the Camera or ^ , tO 
Distance of the (> .^ 
Plate from the .^ <?" ■^ 
Lens, and the '^ " 
Location of 
Traces of 
the Plates 
Determined 



sight to the object. The same object 
is located from another station in the 
same way ; as on the plane table, the 
intersection of the two lines to the 
same object marks the location of the 
point which represents the object 
on the map. 

Obtaining elevations for the 
^'^ drawing of contours is a slight- 
ly longer process. Contours 
k->,\ are lines joining points of 
equal elevation ; they 
represent successive 
shore lines, if 
\ >(jj the area 
Vj' mapped were 
^ h\ inundated and 
/VX h" \ the water 

V^^ , should 

\\\ 

\ W 




\ \ 


\ 








M' 


V 


\ 


M 








Vm' 


' \ 


Vl"^ 


\ 


\' 


s \r' 


\ 


\'^ 



STA. A 



located as with the plane table ; all that 
remains to be done is to take the sights 
and find the points on the paper which 
show where the objects were on the 
ground. 

This taking the sights is a simple 
matter. With a pair of dividers, the 
distance from a given object from the 
center line of the plate is measured. 
This distance is laid ol? on the proper 
side of the point marking the center 
line of the trace of the same plate ; a 
radial line is drawn through the trace 
at the given distance from the center- 
line point and the station at which the 
given plate is taken ; this is one line of 



rise slowly foot by foot. If the con- 
tours are close together, the ground 
represented has a steep slope, and vice 
versa. If, on a map, a number of points 
are of known elevation, it is simply a 
question of judgment and practice to 
tell where contour lines go. 

Before contours can be drawn the 
elevations of a considerable number of 
points must be known. If the eleva- 
tion of any one of them is known and 
the difference between that one and 
any other can be found, determining 
the elevation of the second point is 
simply a problem in addition or sub- 
traction. If it be desired to find, for 



18 



instance, the difference in elevation be- 
tween Sta. C and the corner of the 
fence, as shown in the sketch, two solu- 
tions are possible, as follows : 

First : Perpendicular to the line of 
sight from Sta. C to the fence corner, 
two lines are drawn, one at the inter- 
section of the trace of the plate by the 
line of sight, and one at the point on 
the paper which shows the location of 
the fence corner. On the first of these 
two lines is laid off the distance Y', 
equal to the distance of the ground at 
the fence post above or below the hori- 
zontal center line on the plate. Through 
this point, on the first perpendicular on 
the line of sight, is drawn a line 
through the Sta. C and extended to an 
intersection with the second drawn per- 
pendicular. The distance from the 
corner of the fence, on the paper, to 
this intersection is the distance Y, the 
difference in elevation from the center 
of the camera at Sta. C to the ground 
at the fence post. This solution is 
longer and less desirable than the 
second. 

Second : In place of perpendicular 
lines to the line of sight, the trace of 
the plate, and a line, through the point 
representing the oliject, parallel with 
the trace, may be used. 



A datum plane, or reference surface, 
from which all elevations are measured 
up to the ground surface must be as- 
sumed. The United States Geological 
Survey uses mean, or average, sea level 
for the datum in all its topographic 
sheets. Generally, unless there is a 
United States Geological Survey 
"bench mark," a monument of care- 
fully determined elevation referred to 
sea level, within the limits of the sur- 
vey, it is better to assume the elevation 
of some point, as Sta. C, at 100 ft., or 
greater if necessary to place the datum 
plane below the ground level at all 
points within the area to be mapped. 
Other elevations are figured from the 
assumed elevation of Sta. C. Allow- 
ance must be made for the height of the 
center of the camera above the ground 
at Sta. C in computing elevations 
above Sta. C. All elevations deter- 
mined for the purpose of drawing con- 
tours are ground elevations and not 
the elevation of the top of objects lo- 
cated on the map. The topographic 
sheets of the Geological Sur\ ey are 
good examples to follow, in drawing 
contours. For many purposes, con- 
tours are not essential, and the refine- 
ments necessary for their drawing may 
be omitted. 



How to Build a Skiff 



The following is a description of an 
easily constructed IS-ft. skiff, suitable 
for rowing and paddling. This is the 
type used by many duck hunters, as it 



may be easily pushed through marshes. 
It is constructed of %-in. dressed pine, 
or cypress. 

The sides consist of planks, 14 in. 




-34"— i 



Fic;.4 

The Skiff is Especially Constructed for Use in Sliallow Water and Marshes 

by Duclt Hunters, but with the Addition of a Keel It Makes 

a Good Craft for Almost Any Water as a Rowboat 



19 



wide, but 13-in. planks may be used, 
the length being 13 ft. 4 in. Two stem 
pieces are constructed as shown in Fig. 
1, and the plank ends are fastened to 
them with screws. Nail a crosspiece 
on the plank edges in the exact center, 
so as to space the planks 34 in. apart, 
as shown in Fig. 2 ; then turn it over 
and nail another crosspiece in the cen- 
ter of the planks for width, and make 
the spacing of the other edges 40 in. 
Plane the lower edges so that, in plac- 
ing a board across them, the surfaces 
will be level. The floor boards are 6 
in. wide and fastened on crosswise, be- 
ing careful to apply plenty of red lead 
between all joints and using galvan- 
ized nails, 2 in. long. 

A deck, 18 in. long, is fastened on 
each end, as shown in Fig. 3. It is 
made of strips fastened to a cross- 
piece. The seats, or thwarts, consist 
of 10-in. boards, and are placed on 
short strips fastened to the side planks 
about 5 in. from the bottom. The 
oarlocks are held in a wedge-shaped 
piece of wood, having a piece of gas 
pipe in them for a bushing, the whole 
being fastened at the upper edge of 
the side planks with screws, as shown 
in Fig. 4. The location of these must 
be determined by the builder. 

Some calking may be required be- 
tween the bottom, or floor, boards, if 
they are not nailed tightly against one 
another. The calking material may be 
loosely woven cotton cord, which is 
well forced into the seams. The first 
coat of paint should be of red lead 
mixed with raw linseed oil, and when 
dry any color may be applied for the 
second coat. 

While, for use in shallow water, 
these boats are not built with a keel, 
one can be attached to prevent the 
boat from "sliding off" in a side wind 
or when turning around. When one 
is attached, it should be % i"- thick, 
3 in. wide, and about 8 ft. long. — Con- 
tributed by B. Francis Dashiell, Bal- 
timore, Md. 



Double-Swing Gate with Common 
Hinge 

Ordinary hinges can be easily bent 
and so placed on posts that a gate can 
be swung in either direction. As 




The Post and Gate are Cut Away Back of the Hinge 
to Allow the Latter to Swing Back 

shown in the illustration, hinges can 
be made to fit either round or square 
posts. The gate half of the hinge is 
fastened in the usual way. The post 
half is bent and so placed that the 
hinge pin will approximately be on a 
line between the centers of the posts. 
The gate and post should be beveled 
off to permit a full-open gateway. — 
Contributed by R. R. Schmitz, Birm- 
ingham, Ala. 



CAn aniline color soluble in alcohol, 
by adding a little carbolic acid, will 
hold fast on celluloid. 



Testing Out Induction Coils 

While winding an induction coil, I 
found it necessary to test the sections 
for continuity. Having no galvanom- 
eter, I connected a battery and low- 
resistance telephone receiver in series 
with the section and battery. The bat- 
tery and telephone receiver may also 
be used for testing out the secondary 
of an induction coil, to determine if it 
is burnt out. — Contributed by John M. 
Wells, Moosomin, Can. 



30 



How to Make a 

By BENNETT 

A boy who likes to do the things 
that "grown ups" do can derive con- 
siderable pleasure from the making of 
a transit, which will enable him to 
start in surveying railroads, laying off 
town sites, and doing lots of kindred 
work. It is necessary to have a com- 
pass, and one, 1% in. in diameter, can 
be purchased at a reasonable price. A 
hole is bored with an expansive bit 



Surveyor's Transit 

BLACKLIDGE 

be attached to the screw with a dou- 
ble loop, as shown at D, so that the 
bob will hang centrally. Two stand- 
ards are made as shown at E, each 
about 5 in. high, and fastened to the 
ring B in the positions shown in the 
drawing of the complete instrument. 
An arc of a circle is marked on one of 
the standards, as shown, to designate 
angles, the markings being laid out 




Detail of Parts for the Construction of a Transit 
Which can be Used, with Fairly Accurate Results, 
in Doing Amateur Surveying for Railroad Work, 
Town Sites and the Laying Out of Maps 



into a board, % in- in thickness, just 
deep enough to admit the compass 
snugly, then a circle. A, 41/0 in. in 
diameter, is drawn, having the same 
center as the compass hole, and the 
disk is cut out with a compass or scroll 
saw. A ring, B, is cut in the same 
manner from the same material, its 
inside diameter being such that the 
ring just fits around the disk A, and 
the outside diameter, 6% in. Another 
block, 5I/2 in- in diameter, is glued to 
the bottom of the small disk A. This 
will appear as shown at C. A small 
hole is bored in the center of the bot- 
tom block on the under side to re- 
ceive the threaded end of the screw 
on a camera tripod. By careful ad- 
justment the threads in the wood will 
hold the transit firmly. A plumb bob 
must be attached exactly in the cen- 
ter of the tripod head. This can be 
easily done if the head is wood, but in 
case the top is of metal, the line can 



with a bevel protractor. The pointer is 
a hand from an old alarm clock. 

The telescope arrangement consists 
of a piece of pasteboard tubing, about 
114 in. in diameter, one end being cov- 
ered with a piece of black paper with 
a pinhole in the exact center, and the 
other equipped with "cross hairs." 
Four small notches are cut in the lat- 
ter end of the tube, exactly quartering 
it, and two silk threads as fine as can 
be obtained, are stretched across in 
these notches. The tube is fastened 
to a block of wood, 5 in. wide and 7 
in. long, with small tacks and two 
pieces of fine copper wire. This block 
is pinioned between the standards with 
two nails. The hand is secured to the 
nail in such a position that it will point 
straight down when the tube is level. 

The instrument is adjusted in the 
following manner: It is set up where 
a lone tree can be seen, about one mile 
distant, and the center of the cross 



21 



hairs is carefully set on the tree. Then 
a very fine wire is stretched across the 
compass, as shown at F, and while 
keeping it directly over the center of 
the compass it is also placed on a di- 
rect line pointing to the tree. Very 
small brass nails, driven in at G and 
H, serve to fasten it in the position 
thus found. When this adjustment 
has been made the telescope can be 
turned to sight any object, after first 
placing the instrument so that the 
needle points to the N on the dial, and 
a glance at the wire will show the exact 
direction in which the object is located. 

The instrument is then taken to a 
level stretch of road and set up, and a 
stick is placed on end and marked at 
the height of the telescope. The stick 
is taken along the road about 200 yd., 
the telescope sighted on it, and the 
hand set. This makes the instrument 
level enough for all practical purposes. 
The plumb bob is then dropped, a dis- 
tance of 20 ft. measured from it on the 
road, and a mark made. The tele- 
scope is sighted on this mark, and a 
mark is made on the standard at the 
point of the arc, to which the hand 
points. Another 20 ft. is measured, or 
40 ft. from the bob, and another mark 
made. The telescope is sighted on 
it, and the location of the hand again 
marked. This works well up to about 
300 ft., then the marks begin to come 
very close together. This method is 
used for laying out town sites. The 
instrument is set up directly over a 
stake from which to work, and the 
telescope is turned down until the 20- 
ft. mark is indicated, when the opera- 
tor looks through the telescope and 
tells his helper where to set the stake. 
Then another is driven at the next 
point, and so on, until the limit of the 
instrument is reached. 

When doing railroad surveying sev- 
eral start out together, one with an ax 
to cut away brush ; one to carry pegs ; 
two to measure, or chain, the distance 
between stakes, and one to do the 
sighting. In this manner a line can 
be run that comes very near being per- 
fectly straight for three miles. 

A concrete example of how the tran- 



sit was used to lay out a map of a 
ranch will now be given. The start 
was made on an east and west fence. 
The instrument was set 5 ft. from the 
fence at one point, and at the other 
end of the fence the stick was set at a 
point 5 ft. from the fence. When the 
stick was sighted, the wire cut the E 
and W on the compass, thus showing 
that the fence was set on a line, due 
east and west. The distance was 
measured from the fence to the house, 
which was Vi mile, and this was noted 
in a book. This operation was re- 
peated on the rear, and the distance 
found to be 780 ft. while the compass 
showed the direction to be 4 deg. 
west of south. The next line ran 427 
ft. and 1 deg. east of south. This 
was kept up all the way around. After 
these notes had been obtained, it was 
an easy matter to take a piece of plain 
paper and strike a line representing 
north and south and lay off the direc- 
tions. A bevel protractor was used to 
find the degrees. The transit was set 
on the posts of the corrals and this 
saved the measuring out from the in- 
closure. The creek was surveyed in 
the same manner. So many feet south- 
west, so many feet west, so many feet 
5 deg. south of west, and so on, until 
its length was run. 

The transit can also be used for find- 
ing distances without measuring. A 
line from A to B is sighted, and F 
represents a point 14 mile distant, the 
line from F to G being 100 ft. A line 
is now sighted from A, through G to C. 
A person standing at D is directed to 
move toward the point E and he is 
stopped as soon as sighted in the tele- 
scope. He then measures the distance 
from D to E. Suppose this distance is 
2.")0 ft. As each 100 ft. means lA mile, 
and the .50 ft., I/4 mile, the point E is IV4 
miles from the transit. This method 
can be used quite extensively and dis- 
tances obtained are fairly accurate. 



CA small whisk broom makes a handy 
cleaner to brush the caked grease and 
lint from pulleys and gear wheels 
where waste and rags are useless. 



To Enlarge or Reduce Plots 

Sometimes it is necessary to enlarge 
or reduce a plot to a different scale. 
This can be easily and quickly accom- 




Enlarging and Reducing Plots by Radial Lines from 
a Common Point Located Properly 

plished without resorting to the slow 
process of protracting the angles and 
scaling the individual lines. 

Take any point, P, and from it draw 
light pencil lines through each of the 
corners of the plot. On any one of 
these lines, as AP, lay off with dividers 
AC equal to CP. Place a triangle on 
the line AB and with a straightedge, 
or another triangle, laid on the line 
AP, slide the former to the point C, 
then draw line CD parallel with AB 
until it intersects the radial line PB. 
In the same manner draw line DE 
parallel with BF, and so on, all about 
the plot. A test of accuracy will be 
in striking the point C with the last 
line. If the original plot has a scale 
of 40 ft. to the inch the reduced plot 
would be 80 ft. to the inch. If it is 
required to enlarge the plot to 20 ft. 
to the inch, make AG equal to AP, and 
proceed as in the first case, using G 
as the starting point. 

The location of the point P is 



arbitrary and may be outside of the 
boundary of the plot or figure to be 
enlarged or reduced, but should be so 
located, if possible, that the radial line 
to any corner does not parallel either 
of the plot lines to that corner. If the 
point cannot be so located for all the 
lines, it may be necessary to scale the 
lines. A little practice in picking out 
the best location for the point will give 
gratifying results. — Contributed by 
Junius D. McCabe, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



A Lathe Bench 

While working at a bench, or foot- 
power lathe, it is quite convenient to 
have some sort of a seat to sit on while 
at work, or between operations. In 
making such a seat, I used a board, 27 
in. long and 13 in. wide, for the top, 
and two boards, 19 in. long and 12 in. 
wide, for the supports. These boards 
were '% in. thick. The supports were 
squared at the ends and securely fas- 
tened to the top with nails, their posi- 
tions being 3 in. in from the ends of 
the top board. These were well 
braced, as shown, and a cross board 



C; 



1 



iO 



TOP 




The Bench Provides a Seat (or the Worker in Doing 
Operations on a Small Foot Lathe 

was placed between them, near the 
lower ends. 

The projecting ends of the top were 
cut out, and a box, 5 in. deep, con- 
structed against the supports. A 



23 



covering was made to fit in each of the 
openings in the top board and hinged 
to the outer edge of the box. The 
boxes made a convenient place for the 
tools used in the turning work. — Con- 
tributed by Harold R. Harvey, Buhl, 
Idaho. 



means of molding strips. The sliding 
support for the cabinet consists of a 
2-in. square piece secured to the bot- 



Cleaning and Polishing Shoes 

In using the polishes now on the 
market for tan shoes, I found that the 
leather cracked in an unreasonably 
short time. The following was sug- 
gested and tried out with good results. 
Wash the shoes with castile soap and 
water by applying the mixture with a 
dauber. Work up a little lather and 
then rub dry with a cloth, without 
rinsing. The leather will be cleaned 
without becoming dark, and it will not 
crack. A higher polish may be ob- 
tained by using some paste polish in 
the usual manner. — Contributed by 
George Bliss, Washington, D. C. 



Shaving Cabinet Mounted on an 
Adjustable Pedestal 

The illustration represents a shaving 
cabinet mounted on an adjustable ped- 
estal, whose style and size are such 
that it may easily be moved about or 
set away without requiring much 
room. The material required for its 
construction is as follows : 

1 framed mirror, 8 by 10 in, 

1 square-head bolt and wing nut, ^2 by 4 in. 

2 cabinet sides, J^ by 7 by 15 in. 

2 partitions and shelf, J/S by 6 by 6 in. 
1 cabinet top, H by 7 by 10J<^ in. 

1 cabinet bottom, Yi by 6 by 10}4 in. 

2 cabinet backs and doors, ^ by 6^ by lOJ/j in. 
4 cabinet moldings, 1 by 4 by 4 in. 

1 cabinet support, 2 by 2 by 26 in. 
4 pedestal moldings, 1 by 1 by 6 in. 
4 pedestal frames, 1 by 3 by 36 in. 
1 base, 2 by 12 by 12 in. 
Screws, nails, and varnish. 

The sidepieces of the cabinet are ex- 
tended at one corner, thereby forming 
the supports for the mirror. The door 
fits in between the sides and may be 
attached either by hinges or two wood 
screws, one on each side, holes being 
bored in the sides forming a loose fit 
for the screw so they can freely turn 
with the door. The pedestal consists 
of a 4-in. square box resting on the 
base block, and secured in place by 




The Mirror and Cabinet are Mounted on a Pedestal 
That can be Moved as Desired 

tom of the cabinet by means of mold- 
ing, and provided with a slot so the 
support can freely slide over the clamp 
bolt, which fastens it in place by 
clamping it against the pedestal. If 
it is desired to conceal the head of the 
bolt, a recess should be made in the 
pedestal frame for it, as shown, so the 
support will freely slide over it. Be- 
fore assembling the pedestal it will be 
necessary to drill a hole in the front 
side in line with the recess of the back 
side, and insert the bolt. If this pre- 
caution is not taken, it will not be 
possible to insert the bolt, unless a 
hole be made for the head either 
through the back side or front side. — 
Contributed by D. Toppan, Water- 
vliet, N. Y. 



24 












Coasting Is One of 
the Best Sports a Boy 
Enjoys during Winter, and ^^ 

a Sled of Luxury Is Some- 
thing to Be Proud of among 
Others on a Hill or Toboggan Slide 



By R. H. ALLEN 

OASTER bobs usually have about the same form 

of construction, and only slight changes from the 

ordinary are made to satisfy the builder. The one shown has 

some distinctive features which make it a sled of luxury, and the 

builder will pride himself in the making. A list of the materials 

required is given on the opposite page. Any 

wood may be used for the sled, except for the 

runners, which should be made of ash. 

Shape the runners all alike by cutting one out 
and using it as a pattern to make the others. 
After cutting them to the proper shape, a 
groove is formed on the under edge to admit 
the curve of a %-in. round iron rod about 
\'\ in. deep. The iron rods are then 
shaped to fit over the runner in the 
groove and extend up the back part of 
the runner and over the top at the 
front end. The extensions should be 
flattened so that two holes can be 
drilled in them for two wood 
screws at each end. If the builder 
does not have the necessary 
equipment for flattening these 
ends, a local blacksmith can do 
it at a nominal price. After the 
irons are fitted, they are fas- 
tened in place. 

The top edges of the run- 
ners are notched for the 
rosspieces so that the top 
faces of these pieces 
11 come flush with 
the upper edges of the 
runners. The loca- 
tion of these 
pieces is not es- 
sential, but should 
be near the ends 
of the runners, 
and the notches of 
each pair of run- 
ners should coin- 



25 



cide. When the notches are cut, fit in 
the pieces snugly, and fasten them with 
long, sHm wood screws. Small metal 



The supporting crosspiece on the 
front sled is fastened on top of the 
runners, at a place where its center 




BRACE- 



Details Showing the 
Method of Rear- 
Sled Oscillation, 
the Bracing, and 

the Steering Wheel 



braces are then fastened to the runners 
and crosspiece on the inside, to stiiTen 
the joint. 

As the rear sled must oscillate some, 
means must be provided for this tilt- 
ing motion while at the same time pre- 
venting sidewise turning. The con- 
struction used for this purpose is a 
hinged joint. The heavy 2 by 5-in. 
crosspiece is cut sloping on the width 
so that it remains 2 in. thick at one 
edge and tapers down to a feather edge 
at the opposite side. This makes a 
wedge-shaped piece, to which surface 
the three large hinges are attached. 
The piece is then solidly fastened to 
the upper edges of the runners that 
are to be used for the rear sled, and so 
located that the center of the piece will 
be 8 in. from the front end of the 
runners. 



will be 11 in. from the front end of the 
runners. 

The top board is prepared by making 
both ends rounding and planing the 
surfaces smooth. On the under side, 
the two crosspieces are placed, which 
should have two Vo-in. holes bored 
through the width of each, near the 
ends, to receive the eyebolts. They are 
placed, one with its center 12 in. from 
the end to be used for the rear, and the 
other with its center 8 in. from the 
front end, and securely fastened with 
screws. The shore is placed in the 
center of the board, and wires are run 
over it connecting the eyebolts. The 
eyebolts are then drawn up tightly to 
make the wire taut over the shore. 
This will prevent the long board from 
sagging. 

On the upper side of the board and 



LIST OF MATERIALS 



1 top. 6V^ ft. Ions. 16 In. wide, and 1% in thick. 
4 runners. 22 in. loot:. 4 in. wide, and I in. thick. 
4 crosspieces. 16 in. lon^'. Sin. wide, and 1 in. thick. 
3 pieces. 16 in. long. 5 in. wide, and 2 in. thick. 
1 piece. 16 in. lont,'. .S in. wide, and 1 in, thick. 
1 shore, 16 in. lorn,'. 3 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. 



4 seat backs. 12 in. lontr. 16 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. 

1 dowel. 3 ft. loni,'. and 1 in. in diameter. 

4 rods, % in. in diameter, and 30 in, lone. 

4 eyebolts. ^ in, by 6 io, long, 

3 hinces, 5-in. strap, 

8 hintres, 3 in. strap. 



26 



beginning at the rear end, the backs 
are fastened at intervals of 18 in. They 
are first prepared by rounding the cor- 



keg hoop. A piece of wood is fas- 
tened across its diameter, and the hoop 
is covered with a piece of garden hose 




The Top Board is Well Braced on the Under Side and Fitted with Four Backs on Top to Make It a 
Luxurious Riding Sled, and the Runners are Provided with Metal Shoes for Speed 



ners on the ends used for the tops, and 
the opposite ends are cut sHghtly on 
an angle to give the back a slant. 
They are then fastened with the small 
hinges to the top board. On the edges 
of the top board, 1-in. holes are bored 
about 1 in. deep, and pins driven for 
foot rests. These are located 18 in. 
apart, beginning about 5 in. from the 
front end. The dowel is used for the 
pins, which are made 4 in. long. 

The steering device consists of a 
broom handle, cut to 18 in. in length, 
with one end fastened in a hole bored 
centrally in the 5-in. crosspiece of the 
front sled. A hole is bored in the top 
board through the center of the cross- 
piece fastened to the under side for 
the steering post. The broomstick is 
run through this hole after first plac- 
ing two metal washers on it. After 
running the stick through, a hardwood 
collar is fastened to it just above the 
top board, so that the top cannot be 
raised away from the sled. At the 
upper end of the broomstick a steering 
wheel is attached, made from a nail- 



and wrapped with twine. In the center 
of the crosspiece, a hole is bored to 
snugly fit on the broom handle, which 
is then fastened with screws. 

The rear sled is fastened to the top 
board with screws through the extend- 
ing wings of the hinges and into the 
crosspiece. Holes are bored in the 
front ends of all runners, and a chain 
or rope is attached in them, the loop 
end of the rear one being attached to 
the under side of the top board, and the 
one in the front used for drawing the 
sled. 



To Prevent Drill from Catching As It 
Passes through Metal 

The regular slope of a drill will 
cause the cutting edge to catch as it 
breaks through the metal on the op- 
posite side of the piece being drilled. 
Rut if a twist drill is ground more flat 
like a flat drill, it will not "grab" into 
the metal as it passes through. — Con- 
tributed by James H. Beebee, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 



An Ice Boat and Catamaran 



By ROBERT K. PATTERSON 



* I 'HIS combination is produced by 
-■■ using the regular type of ice boat 
and substituting boats for the runners, 
to make the catamaran. 

In constructing the ice boat, use two 
poles, or timbers, one 16 ft. and the 
other lOi/o ft. long, crossed at a point 
21/2 ft. from 
one end of the 
longer timber. 
The crossed 
pieces are 
firmly braced 
with wires, as 
shown. 

The mast, 
which should 
be about 12 ft. 
long, is set 
into a mortise 
cut in the long 
timber, 15 in. 
from the front 
end, and is 
further stabil- 
ized by wires, 
as shown. A 
jib boom, 
about 6 ft. 
long, as well 
as a main 
boom, which 
is 111/2 ft. 
long, are hung 
on the mast 
in the usual 
manner. 

The front 
runners c o n- 



18 in. long, 6 in. wide, and 2 



thick, 



allowing the ground edge to project 
about 1 inch. 

When the ice-boat frame is made of 
poles, the runners are attached to a 



piece of wood, 13 
shown and fastened 




The Ice Boat Provides an Ideal Outing in Winter Where There 
Is a Body of Water Large Enough for Sailing 



long, shaped as 
at right angles 
with bolts 
running 
through the 
shouldered 
part diagonal- 
ly. This makes 
a surface on 
which the 
pole end rests 
and where it 
is securely 
fastened with 
bolts. If 
squared t i m- 
bers are used, 
the runners 
can be f a s- 
tened directly 
to them. The 
rear, or guid- 
ing, runner is 
fastened b e- 
t w ee n two 
pieces of 
wood, so that 
i t s edge. pro- 
jects ; then it 
is clamped in 
a bicycle fork, 
which should 
be cut down 
so that about 



sist of band-iron strips, 18 in. long, 3 
in. wide, and Vt; in. thick, with one edge 
ground like the edge of a skate, and 
the ends rounding, which are fastened 
with bolts to the sides of wood pieces, 



3 in. of the forks remain. A hole is bored 
through the rear end of the long pole to 
receive the fork head, the upper end of 
which is supplied with a lever. The 
lever is attached to the fork head by 



27 



28 



=P5pT 



- 16- 


-1 


j kl H 


.?il_d.J>- 





V. V "l 




29 



boring a hole through the lever end at 
a slight angle to fit the head, allowing 
sufficient end to be slotted, whereupon 
a hole is bored through the width of the 
handle, and a bolt inserted, to act as a 
clamp. 

A board is fastened on two cross- 
jiieces mortised in the upper part of 
the pole, for a place to sit on when 
driving the boat. The sail can be con- 
structed of any good material to the 
dimensions given. 

To rig up the ice boat for use as a 
catamaran, place a pole across the 
stern, the length of the pole being 
equal to the one used on the front part 
of the ice boat. Two water-tight boats 
are constructed, l(i ft. long, 13 in. wide, 
and 10 in. deep at the center. To make 
these two boats procure six boards, 16 
ft. long, 10 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. 
Three boards are used to make each 
boat. Bend one board so that it will 
be in an arc of a circle, then nail on 
the two side boards, after which the 
edges of the sides are cut away to the 
shape of the bent board. The runners 
are removed from the ice boat, and the 
boats fastened to the pole ends. A 
rudder is attached in the place of the 
rear, or guiding, runner. The tops of 
the boats, or floats, can be covered and 
made water-tight. 



Mind-Reading Effect with Cards 

Five cards are shown, and some one 
person is asked to think of two cards 
in the lot, after which the performer 
places the cards behind his back and 
removes any two cards, then shows 
the remaining three and asks if the 
two cards in mind have been removed. 
The answer is always yes, as it cannot 
be otherwise. 

To prepare the cards, take any 10 
cards from the pack and paste the back 
of one card to another, making five 
double cards. Removing any two cards 
behind the performer's back reduces 
the number of cards to three, and when 
these are turned over they will not 
have the same faces so that the ones 
first seen cannot be shown the second 
time even though all five cards were 
turned over and shown. 



An Air Pencil to Make Embossed 
Letters 

The device illustrated is for making 
embossed letters on show cards, signs, 
post cards, etc. A small bulb, such as 




The Oilcan Spout Is the Reservoir to Hold the Paint, 
and the Bulb Produces the Air Pressure 

used on cameras, is procured, also the 
spout from a small oilcan. The bulb 
is fastened to the spout as shown. 

The material for use in the pencil is 
quick-drying mucilage thickened with 
flake white. If some special color is 
desired, tint the mixture with aniline. 
Fill the spout with the mixture and 
attach the bulb. Squeeze the bulb 
gently while forming the letters, then 
dust over with bronze, and allow 
to drv. 



An Endless Dish or Floor Mop 

A good way to use up cord that col- 
lects about the house, is to make an 
endless dish or floor mop of it. Pro- 
cure a thin board that will make a good 
length and wind the cord around it, 
then remove it from the board and tie 
the bunch together in the center. 



30 



Combination Tie Rack and Collar Holder 



An unusual though simple tie rack 
can be made by supporting the tie bar 
in the center. By this arrangement the 
ties can be placed on it from either end, 



thus avoiding the tedious threading 
througli, required on the ordinary rack 
sui)])orted at each end. Collars may be 
hung on a peg placed above the tie bar. 




with Open-End Hang- 
ers So That the Arti- 
cles can be Slipped On 
Easily without being 
Passed behind a Bar 
as Is Usually the Case 




The pieces can be glued together 
and a good finish given in the usual 
way. The rack can be hung up by 
two screw eyes. The material re- 
quired consists of four pieces, dimen- 
sioned % by 5 by 8 in., % by % by 
71A in., % by % by 3i/s in., and % by % 
)y 2 in. respectively. — Contributed by 
Arthur C. Vener, Dallas, Texas. 



Skates Made of Wood 

Skates that will take the place of 
the usual steel-runner kind and which 
will prevent spraining of the ankles, 
can be made of a few pieces of VL'-in. 
hardwood boards. 

Four runners are cut out, 2 in. wide 
at the back and 1% in. wide at the 
front, the length to be 2 in. longer 
than the shoe. The top edges of a 
pair of runners are then nailed to the 
under side of a board 4 in. wide, at its 
edges. 

A piece of board, or block, 2 in. wide 
is fastened between the runners at the 
rear, and one 1 in. wide, in front. Two 
bolts are run through holes bored in 
the runners, one just back of the front 
board, or block, and the other in front 
of the rear one. 

Four triangular pieces are fastened, 
one on each corner, so that the heel 
and toe of the shoe will fit between 
them, and, if desired, a crosspiece can 



be nailed in front of the heel. Straps 
are attached to the sides for attaching 




Skates Made of 

Wood to Take the 

Place of the Steel- Runner 

Kind and Prevent Sprained Ankles 

the .skate to the shoe. Both skates 
are luade alike. — Contributed by F. E. 
Kennar, Hennessey, Okla. 



CThe best paint for paper roofing is 
asphaltum varnish. 








An Ice Glider 

By MILDRED E. THOMAS 



THE enthusiastic pushmobilist need 
not put aside his hobby during the 
winter, as an amusement de- 
vice for use on ice, which will 
surpass the very best pushmo- 
bile, can be easily made as 
shown in the illustration. 

Similar to an ice yacht, only 
a great deal smaller, the ice 
glider will require three ordi- 
nary skates, two of which 
are fastened to the ends of 
the front crosspiece, so 
that their blades will 
stand at an angle of 
about 30 deg. with 
their edges outward. 
To get this angle 
tapering block 
are fastened 
to the cross- 
piece ends, 
as s h o w n. 
The skates 
are then fas- 
t e n e d to 
these blocks. 

The cross- 
piece is 30 in. long and about 8 in 
wide. In the cen- 
ter of this piece 
an ujjright is con- 
structed, 36 in. 
high. The edges 
of the front cross- 
piece are cut on a 
slant so that a 
piece nailed to its 
front and back 
edge will stand 
sloping toward 
the rear. A han- 
dle, 31 in. long, is 
fastened between 




Detail of the Parts 

for the Construction 

of the Ice Glider, 

or Pushmobile 



the two uprights at the upper end. 
The rear part is made of a board, 
8 in. wide and 40 in. long. The 
remaining skate is fastened in 
a perfectly straight position on 
the rear end. The skates may 
be attached with screws run 
through holes drilled in 
the top plates, or with 
straps. The front end 
of the rear board has 
a hole for a bolt to at- 
tach it to the center 
of the front cross- 
piece, so 
that the lat- 
ter will turn 
to guide the 
glider. 

A pusher 

i s prepared 

from a block 

of wood, into 

which nails 

are driven 

with their 

ends project- 

i n g on the 

The block is strapped to 

one shoe, a s 

shown. 

The glider is 
used in the same 
manner as a push- 
mobile. 

The pusher can 
be made in an- 
other way by us- 
ing sole leather 
instead of the 
block. Small slots 
are cut in the sides 
for the straps. 
Nails are driven 



The Glider is Pushed over the Ice 

Similarly to a Pushmobile, and the 

Speed That can be Attained 

is Much Greater 



under side. 




31 



32 



through the leather so that the points 
project. Either kind of pusher is 




1^^ 



The Block of Wood with Protecting Nails to Fasten 
on the Shoe That Does the Pushing 

especially adapted for the pushmobile 
to prevent wear on the shoe. 



Prony Brake for Testing Small Motors 

The ordinary prony brake is not, as 
a rule, sensitive enough to make an 
accurate test on small motors, such as 
those used in driving sewing machines, 
washing machines, vacuum cleaners, 
etc. The arrangement shown in the 
accompanying sketch has been used for 
this purpose with good results and 
was very accurate. The operation of 
the brake is exceedingly simple. 

A pulley without a crown face is at- 
tached to the shaft of the motor, which 




Prony Brake Used in Connection with a Small 
Balance to Find the Horsepower 

is fastened to the top of a table or 
bench, and a balance mounted directly 
over the pulley. The support for the 
balance should be a narrow strip, which 



in turn is supported on two upright 
pieces, as shown. A light rope is put 
under the pulley, and the ends are 
looped over the platforms of the bal- 
ance so that it does not interfere with 
the operation of the balance. The ends 
of the rope should be vertical and par- 
allel. The piece upon which the balance 
rests is raised by inserting wedges, 
thus increasing the tension in the rope. 
The resulting friction of the rope on 
the pulley increases the load. 

If the motor is running in the direc- 
tion indicated by the arrow on the pul- 
ley, the tension in the left-hand end 
of the rope will be greater than in the 
right-hand end and a weight must be 
placed on the right-hand platform of 
the balance. When the weight W is 
adjusted so that the two pointers on 
the platforms are exactly opposite each 
other, the value of the weight W, in 
pounds, will represent the difference in 
pull, in pounds, between A and B. If 
the value of the weight W is known 
and also the speed of the machine when 
the weight was determined, the horse- 
power output can be computed by 
means of the following equation : 

_ 6.2832XLXWXR.P.M . 
P'^ 33,000X12 

In this equation, L is the distance in 
inches from the center of the pulley to 
the center of the rope. Two ordinary 
spring balances may be substituted for 
the beam balance and the difference in 
their readings taken for the value W. 
For best results, the tension in the 
slack end of the rope should be as 
small as possible, and it may be neces- 
sary to wrap the rope one or more 
times completely around the pulley. 



A Mystic Fortune Teller 

Fortune telling by means of weights 
striking glasses or bottles is quite 
mysterious if controlled in a manner 
that cannot be seen by the audience. 
The performer can arrange two strikes 
for "no," and three for "yes" to an- 
swer questions. Any kind of bottles, 
glass, or cups may be used. In the 



33 



bottles the pendulum can be suspended 
from the cork, and in the glasses from 
small tripods set on the table. 

The secret of the trick is as follows : 
A rubber tube with a bulb attached to 



Holding Prints in a Liquid-Filled Tray 

After having considerable trouble in 
keeping my paper prints in the hypo 
fixing bath from curling, which would 




BULB 



The Rocking of the Table is Caused by the Pressure of Air in the Bulb under the Foot, 
the Movement Causing the Pendulum to Swing and Strike the Glass 



each end is placed under a rug, one 
bulb being located under one table leg 
and the other near the chair of the per- 
former set at some distance from the 
table where it can be pressed with the 
foot. Some one selects a pendulum ; 
the performer gazes intently at it, and 
presses the bulb under his foot lightly 
at first ; then, by watching the sway- 
ing of the pendulum selected, he will 
know when to give the second impulse, 
and continue until the weight strikes 
the glass. As the pendulums are of 
diiTerent lengths they must necessarily 
swing at different rates per second. 
The impulses must be given at the 
proper time or else the pendulum will 
be retarded instead of increased in 
amplitude. A table with four legs is 
best to use, and the leg diagonally op- 
posite that with the bulb beneath it 
must not touch the carpet or floor. 
This can be arranged by placing pieces 
of cardboard under the other two legs. 
— Contributed by James J. Mclntyre. 



force the edges out of the liquid, I 
found the plan here illustrated a suc- 
cess. I procured a piece of wood, the 
size of a postcard, and stuck four 
glass push pins into one surface, one 
at each corner, and fastened a handle 
to the center of the upper side. The 
papers are first placed in the bath, then 



HYPO TRAY 




PRINTS 

.PUSH PIN 

Push Pins on the Under Side of the Board Raise It 
and Provide a Space for the Prints in the Liquid 

the board is set over them with the 
pins down. This holds the prints 
under the liquid but does not press 
them tightly together. — Contributed 
by J. J. Kolar, May wood, 111. 

CA piece of an old gunny sack will 
polish brass work very nicely. 



34 



Cellar-Door Holder 

A cellar door that opened up against 
a wall required a catch of some kind to 
keep it open at times. As I did not 
want a catch to 



show on the 
wall, I devised a 
holder as shown. 
Three pieces of 
wood were 
nailed to the un- 
der side of the 
door in such po- 
sitions that they 
formed a recess 
in which a fourth 
piece, 2 in. wide 
and 1 in. thick, 
would slide end- 
ways. A knob 
was attached to 
the upper end of the slide, which 
served the double purpose of a handle 
and a stop for the slide. The manner 
of using the holder is clearly shown. — 
Contributed by H. T. Smith, Topeka, 
Kansas. 




An Emergency Pencil Compass 

The need of a compass when none 
was at hand caused me to quickly 
devise a substitute for the work. 
A piece of stiff wire, about the 
length of the pencil, was pro- 
cured, and several turns were 
made around the pencil, as 
shown. The lower straight 
end was filed to a point. 
The wire can be bent to 
obtain the radius dis- 
tance. — Contributed by 
Preston Ware, 
Rome, Ga. 




CA very effective 
dip for brass and 
copper articles, 
that will leave a 
clean and bright 
finish, is 2 qt. of aqua fortis, 1 gal. 
of sulphuric acid, 1 pt. of water and a 
pinch of salt. 



Renewing Carbon Paper 

When carbon paper has been used 
several times, the preparation becomes 
almost worn off on some parts, while 
other parts of the paper are as good as 
new. The process of renewing is very 
simple and it can be done by anyone 
without special apparatus. All that is 
necessary is to hold the paper in front 
of a fire or over a radiator a few sec- 
onds. The heat will cause the prepara- 
tion to dissolve and spread over the 
paper, so that when it is dry the paper 
will have a new coating. This can be 
repeated, and in some cases will double 
the life of the carbon paper. — Contrib- 
uted by Chester M. Kearney, Danville, 
Ouebec. 



How to Clinch a Finishing Nail 

A wire or finishing nail may be 
clinched as nicely as a wrought nail, 
if a nail punch 
or piece of iron 
is placed along 
the side of it, 
as shown at A, 
and the nail 
hammered into 
an arched form, 
as at B. The punch or rod is then 
withdrawn and the arch driven into 
the wood. — Contributed by James M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 




To Prevent Washbasin Bottom from 
Wearing Out 

The ears from some sirup buckets 
were removed and three of them sol- 
dered, at equal distances apart, on the 
bottom of the washbasin near the out- 
side edge of the lower part. These 
prevented the wear from coming on 
the bottom of the basin, and it lasted 
several times as long as ordinarily. — 
Contributed by A. A. Ashley, Blanket, 
Texas. 



CTo curl feathers, heat slightly before 
a fire, then stroke with something like 
the back of a case knife. 





HO 




How to Make ^ 
and Use Them -: 

By 3fillman Taylor 



', JC* 



To the inventive mind of the North 
American Indian we owe the 
snowshoe, and its conception was 
douljtless brought about through that 
prohfic source of invention — necessity. 
The first models were crude we!)-footed 
afi'airs, but improvements in model 
and manner of filling the frames were 
gradually added until the perfected 
and graceful shoe of the present was 
finally reached. The first snowshoes 
were made by the Indians, and the 
Indians of Maine and Canada continue 
to fashion the finest models today. 

The snowshoe is a necessity for the 
sportsman and trapper whose pleasure 
or business leads him out in the open 
during the winter season, when roads 
and trails are heavily blanketed by a 
deep fall of powdery snow. But the 
use of the web shoe is by no means 
confined to the dweller in the wilder- 
ness, since the charm of wintry wood 
and plain beckons many lovers of the 
outdoors to participate in this invigor- 
ating sport, and snowshoe tramps are 
fast growing in popularity in and 
about our cities and towns. 

All the modern snowshoes are con- 
structed upon practically the same 
general lines, although the types of 
frames dififer considerably in size as 



PART I — Shapes of Snowshoes 



well as in shape, and the filling of hide 
is often woven in many varied and in- 
tricate patterns. The frame or bow — 
usually made of ash in order to get 
strength with light weight — is bent in 
many shapes, but the one shown in the 
diagram is a typical general-purpose 
shoe, and may be called standard. The 
frame is held in shape by means of 
two wooden cross braces, neatly mor- 
tised into the frame. These braces 
are spaced some 15 or 16 in. apart, and 
so divide the shoe into three sections, 
known as the toe, center, and heel. 
The filling is woven into a lanyard, 
which is a light strip of hide firmly 
laced to the frame through a double 
row of holes drilled in the wood. The 
center filling is woven of heavy strands 
of rawhide, in a fairly coarse mesh, be- 
cause this part of the shoe must bear 
the weight of the body and the brunt 
of wear. The end fillers for toe and 
heel are wo\'en of lighter strands of 
hide, and the mesh is, of course, 
smaller. 

As may be noted by referring to the 
drawing, a center opening or "toe 
hole" is provided, and as the greater 
strain on the filling lies directly under 
the ball of the foot, the shoe is rein- 
forced at this point by the "toe cord" 
running across, and the "toe-cord 
stays," which are tied in on each side 
of the toe hole — one end being fastened 
to the toe cord and the other lashed 
over the wooden cross bar of the 
frame. These reinforcing cords are 
formed of several strands of hide, the 



35 



36 



Stays being again wound with finer 
strands. 

To prevent slipping and to secure a 
good foothold while walking, the man- 
ner of attaching the foot to the shoe is 
of importance, and this is done by 
making use of a toe strap, which will 
alldw the toe to push down through 
the toe opening as the heel of the foot 
is lifted in the act of walking. A sec- 
ond strap, or thong, leading from the 
top around the foot, above the curve of 
the heel, is needed to lend additional 
support in lifting the snowshoe, to ef- 
fect the easy shambling stride char- 
acteristic of the snowshoer. 

There are, of course, a great number 
of models or styles, some one style 
being popular in one locality, while an 
altogether different style is preferred 
in another part of the country. The 
most ^epresentati^•e types are well 
shown in the illustrations, and a brief 
description will point out their prac- 
tical advantages, because each model 
possesses certain merits — one model 
being designed for fast traveling in 
the open, another better adapted for 
brush travel, while others are more 
convenient for use in a hilly country 
where much climbing is done, and so 
on. 

Style A is regarded by snowshoe ex- 
perts as an extreme style, for it is long 
and narrow. It is designed for fast 
traveling over smooth and level coun- 
try, and over loose, powdery snow. 
This style is much used by the Cree 
Indians, and is usually made 13 in. 
wide by liO in. long, with a deeply up- 
curved toe. It is a good shoe for 
cross-country work, but is somewhat 
difficult to manage on broken trails, 
when the snow is packed, and also af- 
fords rather slippery footing when 
crossing ice. Owing to the stout con- 
struction of the frame and reinforce- 
ment needed to retain the high, curved 
toe, style A is more difficult to manage 
than the more conservative models, 
and its stiffness of frame makes it 
more fatiguing to wear, while its use 
is a decided handicap in mountainous 
districts, because a curved toe always 
makes hill climbing more difficult. 



Style B may be considered the or- 
dinary eastern model, and a common 
style best adapted for all-around use. 
It is a neat and gracefully designed 
frame, about 12 in. wide and 42 in. 
long, and is usually made with a 
slightly upcurving toe, about 2 in. turn 
at the toe being correct. When made 
l)y the Indians of Maine, this model is 
fashioned with a rather heavy heel, 
which is an advantage for fast walk- 
ing, while it increases the difficulty in 
quick turning. 

Style C is a favorite model among 
the hunters and woodsmen of New 
England. This is a splendid style for 
general purposes in this section of the 
country, since the full, round toe keeps 
the toe up near the surface, and lets 
the heel cut down more than the nar- 
row-toe models. Style C is an easy 
shoe to wear, and while not so fast as 
the long, narrow frame, its full shape 
is more convenient for use in the 
woods. It is usually made with about 
1 to IVi;-!"- turn at the toe. 

Style D is the familiar "bear's 
jiaw," a model originating with the 
northeastern trapper. This model is 
well adapted for short tramps in the 
brush, and having a flat toe, is likewise 
a good shoe for mountain climbing. 
For tramping about in thick brush, a 
short, full shoe enables one to take a 
shorter stride and turn more quickly, 
but it is a slow shoe for straight-ahead 
traveling. 

When purchasing a pair of snow- 
shoes, some few important considera- 
tions should be kept in mind, and the 
size and model will depend upon the 
man to some extent, since a large, 
heavy man will require a larger snow- 
shoe than would suffice for a person of 
lighter weight. Height also enters 
into the choice, and while a small per- 
son can travel faster and with less 
fatigue when equipped with a propor- 
tionately small shoe, a tall man will 
naturally pick out a larger-sized snow- 
shoe for his use. For a country where 
deep snows prevail, larger sizes are 
best, but in localities where the snow 
packs solidly and there is considerable 
ice, and in mountainous districts. 



37 



LANYARD 



or for rough-country traveling, the 
smaller sizes will give more satisfac- 
tion and prove more durable also. For 
a wet-snow locality, the center filling 
should be strung in rather coarse mesh, 
while for soft, powdery snow, a finer 
mesh will be the logical choice. 

There are snowshoes and snow- 
shoes, and while there are fine models 
regularly stocked by a few of the bet- 
ter sporting - goods 
firms, there is likewise 
a deal of poorly made 
snowshoes on the mar- 
ket. It is well to pay 
a fair price and se- 
cure a dependable 
handmade article, for 
the cheaper snowshoes 
— often filled with 
seine twine and t h e 
cheapest hide (com- 
monly known in the 
trade as "gut") — will 
warp and twist in the 
frame, and the shoddy 
filling will soon be- 
come loosened up and 
"bag" after a little use. 
The best snowshoes 
that the writer is ac- 
quainted with are made 
by the Indians, and 
the filling is ordinarily 
made of neat's hide; 
cowhide for the center 
filling, and calfskin for 
the toe and heel. A 
first-class pair of snow- 
shoes may be had for 
about $6 to $7.50, and 
when possible to do so, 
it is best to have them 
made to order. This 
plan is, of course, 
necessary in case one wishes to incor- 
porate any little wrinkles of his own 
into their making, or desires a flatter 
toe, lighter heel, or a dilTerent mesh 
from the usual stock models. 

Where but one pair of snowshoes is 
purchased, style B will probably prove 
the best selection, and should be or- 
dered with the flat toe. or a turn not 
greater than 1 in. The frame may be 



in either one or two pieces, depending 
upon the size of the shoe and the ideas 
of the Indian maker, but it is well to 
specify white ash for the frames in the 
order. No Indian maker would be 
guilty of using screws or other 
metal fastenings, but many of the 
cheap and poorly fashioned snowshoes 
are fastened at the heel with screws, 
thus making this a decidedly weak 



FRAME OR BOW 



CR055 BAR 



TOE 5TAY5 



CENTER 
FILLING 



HEEL 

FILLIN 



FRAME 




FILLING 



TOE HOLE 



TOE CORD 



R055 BAR 



NYARD 



The Frame of a Snowshoe in Its Usual Construction. Showing the 

Crosspieces with Their Laced Fillings of Hide and the 

Different Parts Named, for a Ready Reference 



point, since the wood is quite certain 
to split after a little rough service. 
In contrast to the poor workmanship 
of these low-priced snowshoes, the 
Indian-made article is fashioned from 
sound and properly seasoned wood ; 
the cross bars are snugly fitted by 
mortising to the frame ; the filling is 
tightly woven, and the heel is properly 
fastened by lacing with a rawhide 



38 



* r Sir r ■■ > -> 







it is a good idea to 
select a filling of good 
heavy weight and with 
a firmly woven and 
open mesh, say, about 
% in. The toe and 
heel sections will, of 
course, be of finer-cut 
hide and smaller mesh, 
and it is wise to avoid 
those shoes employing 
seine twine for the end 
filling. Some factory- 
made snowshoes are 
given a coat or two of 
\'arnis"h, but this, while 
serving to make them 
partly waterproof, 
makes them rather 
slippery when crossing 
logs and ice. Most 
woodsmen prefer to 
leave both frame and 
filling in their natural 
condition. 

The Indian-made 
snowshoe is always 




thong. However, In- 
dian makers are likely 
to make the toe small 
and leave the wood to 
form a rather heavy 
heel. Some few 
woodsmen and sports- 
men may prefer this 
model, but the major- 
ity favor a fuller toe 
and a lighter heel for 
general use, because 
the regulation Indian 
model, cutting down at 
toe and heel equally 
deep, increases the dif- 
ficulty of easy travel- 
ing over soft snow, al- 
though it is a good 
shoe when used over 
broken trails. 

When buying snow- 
shoes at the store, see 
that the frames are 
stoutly and well made, 
and for all-around use, 



This Snowshoe is Considered 

the Ordinary Eastern Model 

and One Best Adapted for 

AU-Around Use 



39 



provided with a gener- 
ously large toe hole, so 
that ample foot cover- 
ing may be used. This 
point is generally over- 
looked in the machine- 
made product, and the 
toe cords are also 
frequently roughly 
formed, thus chafing 
the feet and making 
them sore. These de- 
tails may or may not 
prove a handicap for 
short tramps near 
town, but for long 
trips through the 
woods, they are im- 
portant considerations. 
The Indian manner 
of tying the snowshoe 
to the foot by means of 
a single twisted and 
knotted thong is a 
good method of attach- 
ment, in that, if the 
thong is properly ad- 




justed to the requisite 
snugness in the first 
place, the shoes may 
be quickly removed by 
a simple twist of the 
ankle. A better fasten- 
ing is secured by using 
a fairly wide (% in.) 
toe strap and a long 
thong. The toe strap 
is placed over the toes, 
immediately over the 
ball of the foot, and se- 
cured against slipping 
by weaving the ends in 
and out between the 
meshes of the filling un- 
til it reaches the frame 
on either side. This 
grips the toe strap 
firmly and does away 
with the necessity of 
tying a knot. A nar- 
row thong, about 4 ft. 
long, is now doubled, 
the center placed just 



40 



above the heel of the foot, and the 
ends passed under the toe cord, just 
outside of the toe-cord stays on each 
side. The thong is then brought up 
and across the toes, one end passing 
over and the other under the toe 
strap. Each end of the thong is now 
looped around the crossed thong, on 
either side, and then carried back over 
the back of the heel and knotted with 
a common square or reef knot. Calf- 
skin makes a good flexible foot bind- 
ing, or a suitable strip of folded cloth 
or canvas may be used. 

The regulation snowshoe harness, 
consisting of a leather stirrup for the 
toe and an instep and heel strap, will 
be found more comfortable than the 
thong, and when once adjusted snugly 
to the foot, the shoes may be quickly 



taken ofT and put on again by pushing 
the heel strap down, when the foot may 
be slipped out of the toe stirrup. 

The use of heavy leather shoes is of 
course undesirable, and the only cor- 
rect footwear for snowshoeing is a pair 
of high-cut moccasins, cut roomy 
enough to allow one or more pairs of 
heavy woolen stockings to be worn. 
The heavy and long German socks, ex- 
tending halfway to the knee, drawn 
on over the trouser legs, are by far the 
most comfortable for cold-weather 
wear. The feet, thus shod, will not 
only be warm in the coldest weather, 
but the free use of the toes is not in- 
terfered with. Leather shoes are cold 
and stifif, and the heavy soles and 
heels, chafing against the snowshoes, 
will soon ruin the filling. 



Soldering and Riveting 

By JOHN D. ADAMS 



There are two simple processes that 
every experimenter should master: 
soldering and riveting. The large sold- 
ering copper will find only a very re- 



A Small Torch Made of a Penholder is Handy to 
Use in Soldering Electrical Apparatus 

stricted use with the amateur on ac- 
count not only of its clumsiness, but of 
the fact that it requires a fire, which 
is often impracticable to obtain. The 
experimenter should therefore con- 
struct a small alcohol lamp, which, 
after a little experience, will reveal the 
following advantages: It may be 
brought into instant use at any place ; 
it will make a more perfect connection ; 
with a small blowpipe places may be 
reached that are entirely inaccessible 
to the large iron ; several small pieces 
may be set in position and soldered 
without disturbing them, which is 
quite impossible with the large iron. 

To make such a lamp, procure a 
small wide-mouthed bottle so that very 
little alcohol will be necessary and the 
lamp may be tipped at any desired 
angle. A short piece of seamless brass 



tubing should be procured, or, prefer- 
ably, one of those capped brass cylin- 
ders for holding pencil leads, the but- 
ton of which should be sawn ofif and 
the cap used to keep the alcohol from 
evaporating. A good, sound cork is 
next in order, and in cutting the central 
hole, use the brass tube, which should 
be sharpened around the lower end. 
Proceed with a rotary motion, and a 
clean core will be removed. If an or- 
dinary lamp wick is not at hand, soft 
cotron string 

may be bundled 
up as a substi- 
tute. Such a 
lamp is safe, 
odorless and will 
not blacken the 
work in the least 
as in the case of 
kerosene or gas- 
oline. 

There are many good soldering 
fluxes on the market, but that obtained 
by dissolving as much scrap of zinc 
as possible in muriatic acid will solder 
practically everything that may be 
necessary, provided, of course, the sur- 
faces are filed or scraped bright. Wire 




41 



solder is usually the most convenient, 
as small pieces can be readily cut off 
and placed directly on the work where 
required. A small blowpipe is often 
a valuable adjunct, as it makes possi- 
ble a long, narrow flame that may be 
directed in almost any direction. 

Where numerous small connections 
are to be made, as is often the case with 
electrical apparatus, the small torch 
illustrated will be found very conven- 
ient. It is simply an old penholder 
with the wood portion shortened 

somewhat and 
iB the metal end 

filed off square 

and cleaned out. 

This is then 
filled with wicking, and it is only neces- 
sary to dip it in alcohol in order to 
soak up enough to solder an ordinary 
connection. 

The second simple process, of which 
many fail to appreciate the usefulness 
in experimental work, is that of rivet- 
ing — particularly when done on a small 
scale. Very often the material in hand 
is tempered steel and cannot, therefore, 
be soldered to advantage, or it may be 
a case where subsequent heating makes 
a heat-proof connection imperative. 
Then, again, the joint may require the 
combined strength of both solder and 
rivet. 

When properly set, the strength of 
the ordinary brass pin, when used as 
a rivet, is quite great. Should the 
work require a particular!)' soft rivet, 
it is only necessary to hold the pin for 
a moment in the flame of a match. A 
somewhat larger and stronger rivet 
may be made by softening and cutting 
to the required length the small flat- 
headed nails used in making cigar 
boxes. The ordinary shingle nail is 
also of a suitable shape after the burrs 
have been filed off under the head. 

In settinsj these small rivets, it is 
absolutely necessary that they closely 
fit the holes, as at A, otherwise the re- 
sult will be as indicated at B in the 
sketch. Be careful not to leave too 
great a length for rounding over on the 
metal. This extra length should ap- 
proximately equal the diameter of the 



rivet and must be filed flat on the top 
before riveting. In case of pins, it will 
be found easier to cut them off to the 




A Few Joints Where Rivets are Used to Hold the 
Parts Solidly Together 

proper length after they are inserted. 
Use the smallest hammer available, 
striking many light blows rather than 
a few heavy ones. 




A Whistle 

Cut a circular piece of tin any con- 
venient size, preferably 3 in. in diam- 
eter, and bend it across the diameter so 
that it will be 
in a narrow U- 
shape. Then drill 
or punch a hole 
through both 
parts as shown. 
Place it in the mouth with the open 
edges out, being sure to press the lips 
on the metal tightly on both upper and 
lower pieces outside of the holes and 
to rest the tongue against the edge 
of the tin, even with the holes, and 
blow. 

The result of the first attempt may 
not be a sound, but with a little prac- 
tice any familiar tune may be whistled. 
—Contributed by Chas. C. Bradley, W 
Toledo, O. 



Card-and-Coin Trick 

If a card is balanced on the finger and 
a coin placed on the card directly over 
the finger, one 
would not think 
that the card 
could be flipped 
out lea\'ing the 
coin on the finger 
end. This is eas- 
ily accomplished, 
if care is taken to snap the card sharply 
and squarely. — Contributed by R. 
Neland, Minneapolis, Minn. 




42 



How to Make a Costumer 

With but little skill, and such tools 
as are ordinarily found around a home, 
a plain ln:t serviceable costumer can be 
made, as shown 
in the sketch. 
The necessary 
materials for it 
are : One main 
post, 11/2 in. 
square and about 
61/2 ft. long; four 
legs, or foot 
brackets, % by 6 
by 9 in. ; four 
brass clothes 
hooks, and the 
necessary screws 
and varnish for 
assembling and 
finishing. 

The center 
post should be 
chamfered at the 
top to relieve the 
abruptness. The 
four legs should 
all be made alike 
and in some 
shape that allows 
them to be fas- 
tened to the post in a simple manner. 
In the sketch, the legs are fastened to 
the post by one visible screw at the top 
and one put in on an incline through 
the bottom edge of the leg. The clothes 
hooks are fastened to the post in pairs 
at different heights, thereby preventing 
the screws of adjacent hooks from run- 
ning into one another. The finish of 
the costumer should be such as to 
match the woodwork of its surround- 
ings. — Contributed by Harry A. Pack- 
ard, Norway, iNIaine. 




Window Catch Used for Locking an 
Extension Table 

To prevent the two ends of an exten- 
sion table from pulling apart when not 
desired, an ordinary window catch can 
be fastened and locked in place to the 
under side of the table top with one 
part on each end of the table. If but 



one catch is used and fastened in the 
center, it is best to mark it off first, and 
then pull the table ends apart to fasten 
the catch more easily. It may be de- 
sired to use two catches for a very 
heavy table, in which case it would be 
best to place one on either side of the 
center. — Contributed by F. M. Gris- 
wold. New York, N. Y. 



Relieving Pressure on Heated Canned 
Foods for Opening 

In opening a can of food that has 
been heated, the instant the cover is 
punctured the steam will force out a 
part of the contents, which is very an- 
noying. To avoid this, pour a little 
cold water on the cover and allow it 
to remain a few seconds, then turn it 
off and immediately puncture the 
cover. This will counteract the interior 
force, and the can may be opened with- 
out trouble. — Contributed by Joseph 
Kohlbecher, Jr., San Francisco, Cal. 



Clothespin Bag 

Clothespins are usually kept in a bag, 
and the one our home possessed had a 
draw string 
which would al- 
ways stick and 
hold the bag 
shut. The rem- 
edy for this, and 
a time saver also, 
was to remove 
the draw string 
and insert in- 
stead a piece of 
wire, which was 
afterward shaped 
to a circle with 
an eyelet at the 
joint. The bag 
can be hung on a 
nail and the 
mouth is always 
open to its fullest 
extent, yet lies 
flat against the 

wall. — Contributed by Jas. A. Hart, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 






HOW TO MAKE 
AND USE THEM 



By Still man Taylor 



PART II— Making the Shoe 

[In making the snowshoe it may be necessary to refer to the previous 
chapter to select the style, or to locate the name of the parts u^ed in the 
description. — Editor. ] 



[NOWSHOE mak- 
ing is an art, and 
while few, if any, 
white men can equal 
the Indian in weaving the intricate pat- 
terns which they prefer to employ for fill- 
ing the frames, it is not very difficult to 
fashion a good solid frame and then fill it 
by making use of a simple and open system 
of meshing. For the frames, white ash is 
much the best wood, but hickory and white 
birch are dependable substitutes, if the 
former cannot be obtained. Birch is per- 
haps the best wood to use when the sports- 
man wishes to cut and split up his own 
wood, but as suitable material for the 
frames may be readily purchased for a 
small sum, probably the majority of the 
readers will elect to buy the material. Any 
lumber dealer will be able to supply white 
ash, and it is a simple matter to saw out 
the frames from the board. The savved-out 
frame is inferior to the hand-split bow, but 
if good, selected material can be obtained, 
there will be little, if any, difference for 
ordinary use. 

When dry and well-seasoned lumber is 
used, the frame may be made to the 
proper dimensions, but when green 
wood is selected, the frame must be 
made somewhat heavier, to allow for 
the usual shrinkage in seasoning. For 
a stout snowshoe frame, the width 
should be about 1^^ in. ; thickness at 
toe, fjr in., and thickness at heel, /^ in. 
The frame should be cut 2 in. longer 




The Design of the Snowshoe is Traced on a Board, 

and Blocks are Used to Shape the 

Frame or Bow 



43 



44 




Locate the Cross Bars 

by Balancing the Frame, 

Then Fit the Ends in 

Shallow Mortises 



than the finished length desired, and 
in working the wood, remember that 
the toe of the finished frame will be the 
center of the 
stick; the heel, 
the end of the 
stick, and the 
center of the 
shoe will lie half- 
way between the 
heel and toe. 

After the 
frames have 
b e en finished, 
the dry wootl 
must be steamed 
before it can be safely bent to the re- 
quired shape, and before doing this, a 
wooden bending form must be made. 
An easy way to make this form is to 
first draw a pattern of the model on a 
sheet of paper, cut out the pencil mark, 
and, placing this pattern on a board, 
carefully trace the design on the 
wooden form. A number of cleats, or 
blocks, of wood will now be needed : 
the inside blocks being nailed in posi- 
tion, but the outside stay blocks being 
simply provided with nails in the holes, 
so they may be quickly fastened in 
position when the steamed frame is 
ready for the form. 

To make the frame soft for bending 
to shape, steaming must be resorted to, 
and perhaps the easiest way of doing 
this is to provide boiling water in a 




Begin Weaving the Toe Filling at the Corner of 

Cross Bar and Frame, Carrying It Around 

in a Triangle until Complete 

wash boiler, place the wood over the 
top, and soak well by mopping with 
the boiling water, shifting the stick 
about until the fibers have become soft 



and pliable.. After 10 or 1') minutes of 
the hot-walcr treatment, wrap the stick 
with cloth and bend it back and forth 
to render it more and more pliable, then 
use the hot-water treatment, and re- 
peat the process until the wood is suf- 
ficiently soft to bend easily without 
splintering. The toe being tlie greatest 
curve, must be well softened before 
putting on the form, otherwise the 
fibers are likely to splinter ofT at this 
point. When the frame is well soft- 
ened, place it on the bending form 
while hot. slowly bend it against the 
wooden inside blocks, and nail on the 
outside blocks to hold it to the proper 
curve. Begin with the toe, and after 
fastening the outside blocks to hold 
this end, finish one side, then bend the 
other half to shape. The bent frame 
should be allowed to dry on the form 
for at least a week ; if removed before 
the wood has become thoroughly dry 
and has taken a permanent set, the 
frame will not retain its shape. The 
same bending form may be used for 
both frames, but if one is in a hurry 
to finish the shoes, two forms should be 
made, and considerable pains must be 
taken to make them exactly alike in 
every way. 

When the frames are dry, secure the 
tail end of the frame by boring three 
holes about 4 in. from the end, and 
fasten with rawhide. The work of fit- 
ting the two cross bars may now be 
undertaken, and the balance of 'the 
snowshoe depends upon fitting these 
bars in their proper places. Before 
cutting the mortise, spring the two 
bars in the frame about 15 in. apart, and 
balance the shoe in the center by hold- 
ing it in the hands. When the frame 
exactly balances, move the bars suffi- 
ciently to make the heel about 3 oz. 
heavier than the toe, and mark the 
place where the mortises are to be cut. 
The cross bars and mortise must be a 
good tight fit, and a small, sharp chisel 
will enable the builder to make a neat 
job. It is not necessary to cut the 
mortise very deep ; 1,4 in- is ample to 
aiTord a firm and snug mortised joint. 
The lanyard to which the filling is 
woven is next put in, by boring pairs 



45 



of small holes in the toe and heel sec- 
tions, and lacing a narrow rawhide 
thong through the obliquely drilled 
holes. Three holes are then bored in 
the cross bar — one on each side about 
iy2 i'l- from the frame, and the third 
in the center of the bar ; the lanyard 
being carried through these holes in the 
cross bar. 

Begin the toe filling first, by making 
an eye in one end of the thong, put the 
end through the lanyard loop and then 
through the eye, thus making a slipknot. 
Start to weave at the corner where the 
bar and frame are mortised, carry the 
strand up and twist it around the lan- 
yards in the middle of the toe, then carry 
it down and make a like twist around 
the lanyard loop in the opposite corner. 
The thong is now looped around the 
next lanyard (No. 2 from the cross- 
bar lanyard) and fastened with the 
twisted loop knot illustrated. Continue 
the strand across the width of toe 
space and make a similar loop knot on 
No. 2 lanyard on the starting side, 
twist it around the strand first made 
and loop it under the next cross-bar 
lanyard loop, then carry it up and twist 
it around the lanyard loop in the toe 
of the frame, continuing in the same 
manner until the last lanyard of the toe 
is reached, when the space is finished 
by making the twisted loop knot until 
the space is entirely filled. It is a dif- 
ficult matter to describe by text, but 
the illustrations will point out the 
correct way, and show the manner of 
making an endless thong by eye-splic- 
ing, as well as illustrating the wooden 
bodkin or needle used in pulling the 
woven strands taut. This bodkin is 
easily made from a small piece of wood, 
about 1/4 in. thick, and aliout 2 in. long. 



strong, carry the strand across the 
frame five or six times, finishing with 
a half-hitch knot, as shown, then carry 




An Endless Thong is Made with Eyes Cut in the 

Ends of the Leather, and Each Part is Run 

through the Eye of the Other 

To simplify matters, the heel may be 
filled in the same manner as the toe. 

For the center, which must be woven 
strong and tight, a heavier strand of 
hide must be used. Begin with the 
toe cord first, and to make this amply 




The Heel Filling is Woven by Making the Connection 

with the Lanyard in the Same Manner as 

for the Toe Filling 

it up and twist it around the cross bar 
to form the first toe-cord stay. 

As may be noted, the center section 
is filled by looping back and twisting 
the strands as when filling the toe. 
However, the filling is looped around 
the frame instead of a lanyard, and a 
clove hitch is used. A toe hole, 4 in. 
wide, must be provided for, and when 
enough of the filling has been woven 
in to make this opening, the thong is 
no longer looped around the cross bar, 
but woven through the toe cord. As 
the filling ends in the toe cord, it should 
be wo\'en in and out at this point sev- 
eral times, finishing the toe hole by 
looping a strand around the cross bar 
at the side of the toe hole, then pass- 
ing it down the toe-cord stay by twist- 
ing around it ; then twisted around the 
toe cord along the filling to the other 
side of the toe hole, where it is twisted 
around the toe-cord stay on the oppo- 
site side, looped around the frame and 
ended in a clove hitch. 

At the first reading, it will doubtless 
appear difficult, but a careful examina- 
tion of the illustrations will soon show 
how the trick is done, and indeed it is 
really a very simple matter, being one 
of those things which are easier to do 
than it is to tell how to do them. The 
method of filling has been purposely 
made simple, but the majority of shoes 
are filled in practically the same man- 
ner, which answers quite as well as the 
more intricate Indian design. 



46 



The knack of using the snowshoe is 
quickly mastered, j)roviding the shoes 
are properly attached, to allow the toe 




The Center must be Woven Strong and Tight, 

and for This Reason a Heavier Strand of 

Hide must be Used 

ample freedom to work down through 
the toe hole as each foot is lifted. The 
shoe is, of course, not actually lifted in 
the air, but rather slid along the sur- 
face, half the width of one shoe cover- 
ing the other when it is lifted in the act 
of walking. At first the novice may be 
inclined to think snowshoes a bit cum- 
bersome and unwieldy, and doubt his 
ability to penetrate the brush. How- 
ever, as the snowshoer becomes accus- 
tomed to their use, he will experience 
little if any difficulty in traveling where 
he wills. When making a trail in a 
more or less open country, it is a good 
plan to blaze it thoroughly, thus en- 
abling one to return over the same 
trail, in case a fall of snow should occur 
in the meantime, or drifting snow fill 
up and obliterate the trail first made. 
When the trail is first broken by travel- 
ing over it once by snowshoe, the snow 
is packed well and forms a solid foun- 
dation, and even should a heavy fall 
of snow cover it, the blaze marks on 
tree and bush will point out the trail, 
which will afford faster and easier 
traveling than breaking a new trail 
each time one journeys in the same 
direction. 

A well-made pair of snowshoes will 
stand a couple of seasons' hard use, or 
last for a year or two longer for gen- 
eral wear. To keep them in good 
shape, they should be dried out after 
use, although it is never advisable to 



place them close to a hot fire, or the 
hide filling will be injured. Jumping 
puts severe strain on the frame of the 
shoe, and while damage may not occur 
when so used in deep, soft snow, it is 
well to avoid the possibility of break- 
age. Accidents will now and then 
happen, to be sure, and as a thong may 
snap at some unexpected moment, keep 
a strand or two of rawhide on hand, 
to meet this emergency. 

Combination Settee Rocker and Cradle 

By fastening a frame with hinges to 
the front of a settee rocker, a combina- 
tion piece of furniture can be made, 
which may be used either as a regular 
settee or as a cradle. For this purpose, 
a covered frame should be provided, 
being sufficiently long to extend across 
the front between the arm supports and 
having such a width that it will easily 
fit under the arms when hinged to the 
seat, as shown in the illustration. To 
keep the frame in position while serv- 
ing as a cradle front, or when turned 
down for regular use, screw hooks are 
placed at each end, so that, in the for- 
mer case, the frame, when swung up, 
can be secured in place by attaching 
the hooks to screw eyes fastened under 
the arm supports ; while, for regular 
use, the frame is secured in its swung- 




A Settee Rocker with a Front Attachment to Make 
It into a Cradle When Desired 

down position by fastening the hooks 
into screw eyes properly placed in the 
front legs. — Contributed by Maurice 
Baudier, New Orleans, La. 




A Snowball Thrower 



By ALBERT 

The snow fort with its infantry is 
not complete without the artillery. A 
set of mortars, or cannon, placed in the 
fort to hurl snowballs at the entrenched 
enemy makes the battle more real. A 
device to substitute the cannon or a 
mortar can be easily constructed by 
any boy, and a few of them set in a 
snow fort will add greatly to the 
interest of the conflict. 

The substitute, which is called a 
snowball thrower, consists of a base, 
A, with a standard, B, which stops the 
arm C, controlled by the bar D, when 
the trigger E is released. The tripping 
of the trigger is accomplished by the 
sloping end of D on the slanting end 
of the upright F. Sides, G, are fast- 
ened on tlie piece F, with their upper 
ends extending above the bar D, to 



BATES, Jr. 



V 



•lljl- i'ih 



H2h 



fj 



r 6 



o — ■ i-H 








1 • 


•1 


L \e.'- A 



^1 

I 
D 




The Dimensioned Parts and the Detail of the 
Completed Snowball Thrower 

prevent the latter from jumping out 
when it is released by the trigger. 

The trigger E is tripped with the 
handle H, connected to the piece J, on 



which all the working parts are 
mounted. The upper end of the arm 
C has a piece, K, to which is attached a 




Cannonading a Snow Fort with the Use of a 
Snowball Thrower 

tin can, L, for holding the snowball to 
be thrown. A set of door springs, M, 
furnishes the force to throw the snow- 
ball. 

All the parts are given dimensions, 
and if cut properly, they will fit to- 
gether to make the thrower as 
illustrated. 



Springs on the Chains of a Porch 
Swing 

Two coil springs of medium strength 
placed in the chains of a porch swing 
will make it ride easier and also take 
up any unpleasant jars and rattles 
occasioned when a person sits heavily 
in the. swing. If the swing is provided 
with a four-chain suspension, the 
springs should be used on the two rear 
chains to get the best results. — Con- 
tributed by E. K. Marshall, Oak Park, 
Illinois. 



48 



Homemade Water Meter 

Where it is necessary to measure 
water in large quantities the meter il- 
lustrated will serve the purpose as well 




Fic,3 



When a Bucket is Filled to the Proper Amount 
It is Turned Out by the Weight 

as an expensive one, and can be made 
cheaply. The vessel, or bucket, for 
measuring the water is made diamond- 
shaped, as shown in Fig. 1, with a 
partition in the center to make two 
pockets of a triangular shape, each 
holding 3 qt., or any amount of suffi- 
cient size to take care of the flow of 
water. 

The part forming the pockets is 
swung on an axis fastened to the lower 
part, which engages into bearings fas- 
tened to the sides of the casing, as 
shown in Fig. 2. Stops, A, are placed 
in the casing at the right places for 
each pocket to spill when exactly 3 qt. 
of water has run into it. It is obvious 
that when one pocket is filled, the 
weight will tip it over and bring the 
other one up under the flow of water; 

The registering device consists of 
one or more wheels worked with pawls 
and ratchets, the first wheel being 
turned a notch at a time by the pawl 
B, Fig. 3. If each pocket holds 2 qt., 
the wheel is marked as shown, as each 



pocket must discharge to cause the 
wheel to turn one notch. The second 
wheel is worked by the lever and pawl 
C, which is driven with a pin D located 
in the first wheel. Any number of 
wheels can be made to turn in a like 
manner. — Contributed by F. A. Porter, 
Oderville, Utah. 



A Snowball Maker 

Snowball making is slow when car- 
ried on by hand, and where a thrower 
is employed in a snow fort it becomes 
necessary to have a number of assist- 
ants in making the snowballs. The 
time of making these balls can be 
greatly reduced by the use of the snow- 
ball maker shown in the illustration. 

The base consists of a board. 24 in. 
long, 61/2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. A 
block of wood. A, is hollowed out in 
the center to make a depression in the 
shape of a hemisphere, 2i/^ in. in diame- 
ter and 11/4 in. deep. This block is 
nailed to the base about 1 in. from one 
end. To make the dimensions come 
out right, fasten a block, B, 6 in. high, 
made of one or more pieces, at the 
other end of the base with its back 
edge 141/^ in. from the center of th'fe 
hemispherical depression. On top of 
this block a lever, C, 30 in. long is 
hineed. Another block, D, is made 




A Device for Making Snowballs Quickly 
and Perfectly Spherical in Shape 

with a hemispherical depression like 
the block A, and fastened to the under 
side of the lever, so that the depres- 
sions in both blocks will coincide. The 
lever end is shaped into a handle. 



49 



Two uprights, E, are fastened to the 
back side of the block A as guides for 
the lever C. A piece is fastened across 
their tops, and a spring is attached be- 
tween it and the lever. A curtain-roll- 
er spring will be suitable. 

In making the balls a bunch of snow 
is thrown into the lower depression 
and the lever brought down with con- 
siderable force. — Contributed by Ab- 
bott W. France, Chester, Pa. 



An Inexpensive Bobsled 

Any boy who can drive a nail and 
bore a hole can have a bobsled on short 
notice. The materials necessary are 
four good, solid barrel staves ; four 
blocks of wood, 4 in. long, 4 in. wide, 
and 2 in. thick; two pieces. 12 in. long, 
4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick ; one piece, 
12 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1% in. 




A Bobsled of Simple Construction Using Ordinary 
Barrel Staves for the Runners 

thick; and a good board, 4 ft. long, 12 
in. wide, and 1 in. thick. 

The crosspieces and knees are made 
with the blocks and the 1-in. pieces, 
12 in. long, as shown ; to which the 
staves are nailed for runners. One 
of these pieces with the runners is fas- 
tened to one end of the board, the 
other is attached with a bolt in the 
center. The 1% by 2-in. piece, 12 in. 
long, is fastened across the top of the 
board at the front end. A rope fas- 
tened to the knees of the front runners 
provides a means of steering the sled. 

The sled can be quickly made, and it 
will serve the purpose well when an 
expensive one cannot be had. — Con- 
tributed by H. J. Blacklidge, San 
Rafael, Cal. 



Motor Made of Candles 

A tube of tin, or cardboard, having 
an inside diameter to receive a candle 
snugly, is hung on an axle in the center 



Tallow Dripping from the 
Ends Alternately 

Lessens the Weight of the 
Arms and Causes 
the Tube to Tip 




^:^ 



that turns in bearings made of wood. 
The construction of the bearings is sim- 
ple, and they can be made from three 
pieces of wood as shown. The tube 
should be well balanced. Pieces of can- 
dle are then inserted in the ends, also 
well balanced. If one is heavier than 
the other, light it and allow the tallow 
to run off until it rises; then light the 
other end. The alternate dripping from 
the candles will cause the tube to tip 
back and forth like a walking beam. 
It will keep going automatically until 
the candles are entirely consumed. — 
Contributed by Geo. Jaques, Chicago. 



Kettle-Handle Support 

The handle of a kettle lying on the 
kettle rim will become so hot that it 
cannot be held 
in the bare hand. 
To keep the 
handle fairly 
cool it must be 
supported in an 
upright position. 
To do this, form 
a piece of spring 
wire in the shape 

shown, and slip it over the kettle rim. 
The .shape of the extending end will 
hold the handle upright and away from 
the heat. 




50 



How to Make a Monorail Sled 

A monorail sled, having a simple 
tandem arrangement of the runners, is 
very easily constructed as follows : 
The runners are cut from 1-in. plank 




An Exhilarating Glide Accompanied by a Buoyant 

Sense of Freedom Only Obtained in 

the Monorail Type 

of the size and shape given in the 
sketch, and are shod with strap iron, 
1 in. wide and i/4 in. thick. Round iron 
or half-round iron should not be used, 
as these are liable to skid. The square, 
sharp edges of the strap iron prevent 
this and grip the surface just as a 
skate. 

The top is a board 6 ft. long and 1 
in. thick, securely fastened to the run- 
ners as follows: Blocks are nailed, or 
bolted, on either side of the upper edge 
of the rear runner and the top is 
fastened to them with screws. The 
runner is also braced with strap iron, 
as shown. The same method applies 
to tlie front runner, except that only 
one pair of blocks are used at the cen- 
ter and a thin piece of wood fastened 
to their tops to serve as the fifth wheel. 

The hole for the steering post should 




The Construction is Much More Simple Than 
Making a Double-Runner Bobsled 

be 6 in. from the front end and a little 
larger in diameter than the steering 
post. The latter should be rounded 
where it passes through the hole, but 
square on the upper end to receive the 



steering bar, which must be tightly 
fitted in place. 

In coasting, the rider lies full length 
on the board with his hands on "the 
steering bar. This makes the center 
of gravity so low that there is no neces- 
sity for lateral steadying runners, and 
aside from the exhilarating glide of 
the ordinary sled, the rider experiences 
a buoyant sense of freedom and a zest 
peculiar to the monorail type. Then, 
too, the steering is effected much more 
easily. Instead of dragging the feet, a 
slight turn of the front runner with a 
corresponding movement of the body 
is sufificient to change the direction or 
to restore the balance. This latter is, 
of course, maintained quite mechan- 
ically, as everyone who rides a bicycle 
well knows. — Contributed by Harry 
Hardy, Whitby, Ont. 



^Zi 



■Gi 




Binding Magazines 

To hind magazines for rough serv- 
ice, proceed as follows: Place the 
magazines carefully one on top of the 
other in order, 
and space the 
upper one, near 
the back edge, 
for two rivets, 
marking off 
three equal distances, or, perhaps, the 
center space longer than the other two. 
Make two holes through all the maga- 
zines on the marks with an awl, or 
drill, then drive nails of the right length 
through them. Use small washers on 
both ends of the nails under the head 
and at the point, which is cut off and 
riveted over. This makes a good, serv- 
iceable binding for rough use. — Con- 
tributed by Carl W. Lindgreen, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



A Shellac Cement 

As shellac is the basis of almost ail 
cements, a good cement can l)e made 
by thickening shellac varnish with dry 
white lead. The two may be worked 
together on a piece of glass with a 
putty knife. 



51 




A Blackboard for Children 

Take a wide window shade and at- 
tach it to a roller as if hanging it to 
a window. Cut it to about 3 ft. in 
length, hem the lower edge and insert 
in the slot in the usual manner. Pro- 
cure some black slate paint and cover 
the shade on one side, giving it two 
coats. Allow sufficient time for the 
first coat to dry before applying the 
second coat. 

A blackboard of this kind is strong, 
and if attached to the wall with the 
shade fixtures, it can be rolled out of 
the way when not in use. — Contrib- 
uted by Elizabeth Motz Rossoter, Col- 
orado Springs, Col. 



How to Make a Ski Staff 

A ski stafY will greatly assist prog- 
ress over level stretches and is an aid 
to the ski runner in preserving his 
balance. A homemade staff that is 
easy to construct is shown in Fig. 1. 
At the upper end is a narrow leather 
loop for the wrist ; at the extreme 
lower end a spike is placed for use on 
icy ground, and just above this spike 
is a disk, or stop, which, in deep snow, 
prevents the staff from sinking in too 
far and gives the necessary leverage 
for steering, propelling or righting 
oneself as needed. 

The staff is made of a piece of bam- 
boo pole, IVt or li/i> in. in diameter, 
and iy^ ft. long. The leather for the 
loop can be made from an old strap, 
shaved down thinner and cut to a 
width of about VL' in- The stop is a 
disk of wood, i,4 in. thick and 5 in. in 
diameter. This material should be 
well-seasoned white pine or spruce and 



coated with shellac. A hole is bored 
through the center of the disk to let 
it pass upward on the staff about G 
in. Here it is fastened with two 





FiG.l Fis.2 Fig. 3 

The Staff, being Made of a Bamboo Pole, 
is Strong as Well as Light 

pieces of heavy wire, A and B, Fig. 
2. In this diagram, C is the staff, and 
D, the stop or disk. The wire A passes 
through the staff below the wire B and 
at right angles to it, wherefore the 
wire B must be bent as shown. Both 
wires are fastened to the stop with 
staples. 

The lower end of the staff, as shown 
in Fig. o, is plugged with hard wood, 
which is bored part way through its 
center to admit a wire spike. Slight 
recesses are made in the sides of this 
hole to anchor the lead which is 
poured in around the spike. The point 
of the latter is sharpened and then the 
bamboo wound with waxed twine, or 
fine wire, to prevent its splitting. 



CFine emery cloth, glued to both sides 
of a piece of bristol board, makes a 
handy tool for cleaning the platinum 
points of a vibrator. 



52 



A Game Played on the Ice 

A novel and interesting winter game 
for young and old, described as a 
novelty by a Swedish paper, is played 
as follows : 

Two poles of convenient height are 
erected on the ice ; if skating on a 




A Player in Action Ready to Spear a Ring that 
Hangs on the Line between the Poles 

shallow pond they may be driven 
through the ice and into the ground, 
but if the water is deep, holes must be 
bored through the ice and the poles 
will soon freeze solidly in them. A 
rope is stretched between the poles at 
such a height as is suited to the size 
of the players, or as agreed on to make 
the game more or less difficult, and on 
this are strung a number of pieces of 
board, A, each having a ring of spring 
steel, B, attached to its lower end. The 
purpose of the game is to run at good 
speed between the poles and catch a 
ring on a spear, each player being en- 
titled to make a certain number of 
runs, and the winner being the one 
who can catch the most rings. 

The spears may be made of broom 
handles tapered toward one end, and 
with a shield made of tin and attached 
at a suitable distance from the thicker 
end (Pattern C). The line is fastened 
at the top of one pole and run through 
a pulley, D, at the top of the other, 
thence to a weight or line fastener. 
Each player should start from the same 
base line and pass between the poles at 
such a speed that he will glide at least 
100 ft. on the other side of the poles 
without pushing himself forward by 
the aid of the skates. Twenty runs are 
usually allowed each player, or 10 play- 



ers may divide into two parties, play- 
ing one against the other, etc. An um- 
pire will be needed to see that fair 
play is maintained and settle any dis- 
putes that may arise. 



An Electric Display for a Show 
Window 

A novel window display that is very 
attractive, yet simple in construction 
and operation, can be made in the fol- 
lowing manner: First, make a small 
watertight chamber. A, as long as the 
focal length of the lens to be used, and 
having a glass window, B, at one end, 
and a small round opening, C. at the 
other. In this opening is placed a cork 
through which a glass tube about 2 in. 
long is inserted. The tube makes a 
smooth passage for the stream of water 
flowing out of the box. Water from 
any source of supply enters the 
chamber through the tube D, which 
may be a pipe or hose, whichever is 
most convenient. The interior is 
painted a dull black. 

A convenient and compact light is 
placed at the window end of the box. 
A very good light can be made by plac- 
ing an electric light with a reflector in 
a closed box and fastening a biconvex 
lens, F, in the side facing the window 
of the water box. When the electric 
light and the water are turned on, the 
light is focused at the point where the 
water is issuing from the box, and fol- 
lows the course of the stream of water, 
illuminating it in a pleasing manner. 




The Arrangement of the Boxes Showing the Path 
of the Light Rays through the >A/ater 

A Still Ijetter effect can be obtained 
by passing colored plates between the 
lens F and the window B. A glass 
disk with sectors of different colors 
may be revolved by any source of 



53 



power, such as a small electric motor 
or even a waterwheel turned by the 
flowing water. 

Two or three streams of water flow- 
ing in different colors make a very- 
pretty display and may be produced 
by using two or more boxes made 
up in the same manner. The appa- 
ratus should be concealed and nothing 
but the box end or tube with the flow- 
ing water shown. — Contributed by 
Grant Linton, Whitby, Ont. 



Strainer for a Milk Pail 

Even though a milker may be care- 
ful, small particles of dirt, hairs, etc., 
will fall into the 
milk pail. It is 
true that the 
^ milk is strained 
afterward, but a 
large percentage 
of the dirt dis- 
solves and passes 
through the 
strainer along 
with the milk. 
The best plan to prevent this dirt from 
falling into the milk is to put a piece 
of cheesecloth over the pail opening, 
securing it there by slipping an open 
wire ring. A, over the rim. The milk 
will readily pass through the cloth 
without spattering. — Contributed by 
W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal. 




Baking Bread in Hot Sand 

A driving crew on the river wanted 
to move camp, but the cook objected 
as he had started to bake. One of the 
party suggested using a modified form 
of the method of baking in vogue more 
than a century ago, which was to place 
the dough in the hot earth where a 
fire had been burning. So, to help 
the cook out, a barrel was sawed in 
half and the bread, after being properly 
protected, was placed in each half bar- 
rel and covered with hot sand. Two of 
the men carried the half barrels on 
their backs. When the new camp was 
reached the bread was done. — Contrib- 
uted by F. B. Ripley, Eau Claire, Wis. 



How to Make Small Cams 

In making models of machinery or 
toy machines, cams are very often re- 
quired. A simple way of making these 





Channels of the Cams Formed with Strips of Brass 
Soldered to the Drum or Disk 

is to lay out the fam plate, or drum, 
and then bend pieces of brass to the 
correct shape and solder them in place, 
whereupon they may be smoothed up 
with a file or scraper. A cam of this 
sort on a drum is shown in the sketch 
at A, and on a faceplate, at B. The 
method is not quite as accurate as mill- 
ing, but answers the purpose in most 
cases. — Contributed by Chas. Hatten- 
berger, Buiifalo, N. Y. 



Display Holder for Coins 

If the luster of coins fresh from the 
mint is to be preserved, they must be 
immediately placed so as to be pro- 
tected against contact with the hands. 
A good holder that will display both 
sides of a coin can be made of two 
pieces of glass, BE, between which is 
placed a cardboard cut as shown at A. 
The cardboard should be about the 
same thickness as the coins. The 
glass may be framed by using strips 





Two Pieces of Glass Inclosing betw/een Them Coins 
of the Same Size and Thickness 

of wood rabbeted to receive the edges 
of both pieces ; or their edges may be 
bound with passe-partout tape. Even 
when a frame is used, it is best to bind 



54 



the edges as this will prevent tarnish 
from the air. Old negative glass is 
suitable for making the holder. — Con- 
tributed by R. B. Cole, New Haven, 
Conn. 



Holder for Skates while Sharpening 

The base of the holder is cut from 
a board and should be about 3 in. 
longer than the skate. Two clamps 




The Holder Provides a 'Way to Grind a Slight Curve 
in the Edge of a Skate Blade 

are cut as shown at A, from metal of 
sufficient thickness to hold the skate 
firmly, then bent to shape and attached 
to the baseboard with bolts having 
wing nuts, as shown at B and C. 

One edge of the board is provided 
with two pins, D and E, solidly fas- 
tened, which are of sufficient height 
to bring the center of the blade on a 
level with the grinder axle. An adjust- 
ing screw, F, is provided for the 
grinder base to adjust the skate blade 
accurately. The support G is for use 
on baseboards where skates with strap 
heels, H, are to be sharpened. The 
shape of the clamp for this support is 
shown at J. 

When the skate is securely clamped 
to the base the blade can be easily 
"hollow ground" or given a slight 
curve on the edge. — Contributed by C. 
G. Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



A Homemade Direct-View Finder 
for Cameras 

Every hand camera and most of the 
tripod cameras are equipped with find- 
ers of one type or another, and usually 
one in which the image of the field is 
reflected upward on a small ground 



glass — being, in fact, a miniature 
camera obscura. The later and gen- 
erally more approved style of finder 
has a small concave lens conveniently 
set on the outer edge of the camera. 
When this direct-vision type of finder 
is used, the camera is held so that the 
finder is at the height of the eye, 
a condition that is particularly de- 
sirable. When in a crowd, of course, 
the professional and many amateurs 
are familiar with the method of hold- 
ing the camera inverted over the head 
and looking up into the finder to deter- 
mine the range of the field. Even 
this method is inconvenient, often im- 
practical. 

The up-to-date newspaper photog- 
rapher insists on having his camera 
equipped with direct finders, as it 
saves him much trouble and many fail- 
ures. Anyone with a little ingenuity 
can change one of the old-type finders 
into a combination device, either di- 
rect or indirect. The sketches are self- 
explanatory, but it may be said that 
Fig. 1 represents a box camera with 
a regulation finder set in one corner of 
the box. To make it a direct finder, a 
small brass hinge is used. Cut ofif part 
of one wing, leaving a stub just long 





Two Types of Ordinary View Finders and Methods 
of Converting Them into Direct-View Finders 

enough to be attached to the front of 
the camera directly above the lens of 
the finder and so as not to interfere 
with it, and high enough to permit the 
other wing to be turned down on the 
ground glass, with space allowed for 
the thin glass mirror A, that is to be 
glued to the under side of the long 
wing. The joint of the hinge should 
work quite stiffly in order to keep it 
from jarring out of any position in 
which it may be set. 



55 



If the wing is turned upward at an 
angle of 45 deg., the finder can be used 
as a direct-vision instrument when held 
at the height of the eyes. The image 
reflected from the small mirror is in- 
verted, but this is no disadvantage to 
the photographer. The small pocket 
mirror given out for advertising pur- 
poses serves very well for making the 
reflecting mirror. 

The finder shown in Fig. 2 is another 
very common kind, and one that is 
readily converted into the direct type 
by inserting a close-fitting mirror, B, 
on the inside of the shield to be used 
as a reflector of the finder image. If 
the mirror is too thick, it may inter- 
fere with the closing of the shield, 
though in many cases this is not es- 
sential, but if it should be necessary 
to close down the shield in order to 
fold the camera, it can usually be read- 
iusted to accommodate the mirror. 



A Non-Rolling Spool 

Bend a piece of wire in the shape 
shown in the illustration and attach it 
to a spool of thread. The ends of the 
wire should 
clamp the spool 
slightly and the 
loop in the wire 
will keep it from 
rolling. Place 
the end of the thread through the loop 
in the wire and it will not become 
tangled. — Contributed by J. V. Loef- 
fler. Evansville, Ind. 




How to Make a Cartridge Belt 

Procure a leather belt, about 2% 
in. wide and long enough to reach 
about the waist, also a piece of leather, 
1 in. wide and twice as long as the 
belt. Attach a buckle to one end of 
the belt and rivet one end of the nar- 
row piece to the belt near the buckle. 
Cut two slits in the belt, a distance 
apart equal to the diameter of the car- 
tridge. Pass the narrow leather piece 
through one slit and back through the 
other, thus forming a loop on the belt 
to receive a cartridge. About 1^4 in. 



from the first loop form another by 
cutting two more slits and passing the 
leather through them as described, and 



Two Pieces of Leather of Different 'Widths Forming 
a Belt for Holding Cartridges 

so on, until the belt has loops along its 
whole length. 

The end of the narrow leather can 
be riveted to the belt or used in the 
buckle as desired, the latter way pro- 
viding an adjustment for cartridges of 
different sizes. — Contributed by Rob- 
ert Pound, Lavina, Mont. 



Removing Iodine Stains 

A good way to chemically remove 
iodine stains from the hands or linen is 
to wash the stains in a strong solution 
of hyposulphite of sodium, known as 
"hypo," which is procurable at any 
photographic-supply dealer's or drug 
store. 

There is no danger of using too 
strong a solution, but the best results 
are obtained with a mixture of 1 oz. 
of hypo to 2 oz. of water. 



Bed-Cover Fasteners 

The arrangement shown in the 
sketch is easily made and will keep the 
bed covers in place. The covers are 
provided with eyelets, either sewed, A, 
or brass eyelets, B, 6 or 8 in. apart 
along the edge. A wood strip, C, 3 
by li/o in., is cut as long as the width 
of the bed and fastened to the frame 
with wire, bolts, or wedges. Screw- 
hooks, about 114 in. long, are turned 
into the strip so that they will match 
with the eyelets placed in the covers. 
Thus the covers will be kept in place 




The Hooks Prevent the Covers from Slipping Off the 
Sleeper and Keep Them Straight on the Bed 

when the bed is occupied, and the bed 
is also easily made up. — Contributed 
by Warren E. Crane, Cleveland, O. 



56 



Collar Fasteners 

An excellent fastener to be used on 
soft collars can be assembled from 
an ordinary 
paper fastener 
and two shoe 
buttons of the 
desired color. 
This device 
keeps the soft 
collar in good 
shape at the 
front, and serves 
the purpose just 
as well as a more 
expensive collar 
fastener. The il- 
lustration shows 
how it is used. — 
Contributed by 
B. E. Ahlport, Oakland, Cal. 




Operating a Bathroom Light 
Automatically 

A device for automatically turning 
an electric light on and off when enter- 
ing and leaving the room is illustrated 
in the sketch. A pull-chain lamp 
socket is placed upon the wall or ceil- 
ing, and is connected to a screw hook 
in the door by a cord and several rub- 
ber bands, as shown. 

When the door is opened, the lamp is 
lit, and when leaving the room the 
opening of the door again turns it out. 
The hook should be placed quite close 
to the edge of the door, to reduce the 



,- — -1^^^ 


w 



Operating the Electric Lamp Switch or Key by the 
Opening of the Door 

length of the movement, and even then 
it is too much for the length of the pull 
required to operate the switch, hence 
the need of the rubber bands. 



The lamp chain pulls out just 1 in., 
and consequently the lamp is lit when 
the door is opened part way ; and 
swinging the door farther only stretch- 
es the rubber. This is an advantage, 
however, because the lamp is sure to 
light regardless of the swing of the 
door. If no rubber were used, the door 
would have to open just a certain dis- 
tance each time. 

If the cord is connected to the hook 
with a loop or a ring, it may be easily 
disconnected during the day when not 
needed. A light coil spring may be 
used in place of the rubbers. — Contrib- 
uted by C. M. Rogers, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 



A Finger-Ring Trick 

A coin soldered to some inexpensive 
ring, or a piece of brass cut from tub- 
ing, will make an interesting surprise 
coin for friends. 
The ring when 
placed on the 
middle finger 
with the coin in 
the palm makes 
the trick com- 
plete. Ask some one if he has ever 
seen such a coin, or say it is a very 
old one, as the date is almost worn 
away. He will try to pick it up, but 
will find it fast to the finger. — Con- 
tributed by Wm. Jenkins, New York 
City. 




Preventing Marks from Basting 
Threads on Wool 

In making up woolen garments it is 
necessary to press portions of them 
before removing the basting threads. 
Sometimes the marks of the basting 
threads show after the pressing. This 
can be avoided by using silk thread for 
basting instead of the usual cotton 
thread. The silk thread will not leave 
any marks. — Contributed by L. Alberta 
Norrell, Gainesville, Ga. 



C Cranberries will keep fresh for weeks 
if placed in water in a cool place. 



57 



Skating Merry-Go-Round 



By henry BURICH 



After once making and using the 
ice merry-go-round as illustrated, no 
pond will be complete unless it has one 
or more of these devices. 
To construct an amuse- 
ment de\'ice of this kind, 
select a good pole that will 
reach to the bottom of the 
pond. The measurement 
can be obtained by cutting 
a hole in the ice at the de- 
sired place and dropping 
in a line weighted on one 
end. A sufficient length of 
the pole should be driven 
into the bottom of the 
pond to make it solid and 
allow the upper end to pro- 
ject above the surface of 
the ice at least 4 feet. 

A turning crosspiece for 
the upper end of the pole 
is made as follows : First 
prepare the end of the pole by sawing 
it off level, then cutting off the bark 
and making it round for a metal ring 
which should be driven on tightly. A 
pin, about ")4 in- in diameter, is then 
driven into a hole bored in the end of 
the pole. The crosspiece is made of 2 by 



6-in. material, at least 18 ft. long. A 
hole is bored in the center to receive 
the pin in the pole end. 




Skaters Holding the Rope Ends are Drawn Around in a Circle 

Rapidly by the Revolving Crosspiece, Turned near the 

Center by Other Skaters 

The crosspiece is easily pushed 
around the pole and the faster it goes 
the closer to the center the pushers 
can travel. Ropes can be tied to the 
ends of the crosspiece for the skaters 
to hold on to as they are propelled 
around in a circle. 



Relieving Air Pressure When Closing 
Record Boxes 

The ordinary pasteboard boxes for 
holding phonograph records are very 
hard to close, due to the air pressure 
on the inside. I overcome this diffi- 
culty by making three small holes in 
the cover with a pin. — Contributed by 
Robert Bandul, New Orleans, La. 



A Steering Sled 

An ordinary hand sled can be easily 
converted into a sled that can be 
guided like a bobsled by the addition 
of one extra runner. To attach this 
runner, a piece of wood is fastened to 
the under side and in the center at the 



front end of the sled top. A runner 
with a crosspiece on top is pivoted to 
the extending wood piece, which 
should be of a length to make the po- 
sition comfortable when the coaster, 
sitting on the sled top, has his feet on 
the ends of the crosspiece. Careful 




The Extra Runner in Front is Pivoted, and When 
Turned, Guides the Sled 

measurements should be made to have 
the lower edge of the runner on a level 
with or a little lower than the sled run- 
ners. 



58 



To Hold a Straw Hat on the Head Drying Small Laundered Articles 



On windy days it is almost impos- 
sible to make a straw hat stay on the 
head. To avoid this trouble, place 




Rubber Bands are Linked Like a Lock Stitch 
and Fastened in the Band 

rubber bands through the sweatband. 
Before inserting, make them into loops, 
as shown, and draw enough to be com- 
fortable to the head. This device will 
save a good many steps when the wind 
blows. — Contributed by T. D. Hall, 
Fort Worth, Texas. 



Carrying Fishhooks in a Cane Pole 

The person using a cane pole for fish- 
ing can easily provide a place for the 
hooks and sinkers in the first large 
joint of the pole. Cut the cane ofif just 
above the first large joint, and it will 
leave a space, 4 or 5 in. long, which 
can be used for the hooks and sinkers. 
A cork is fitted in the end, to hold them 
in place. — Contributed by Victor E. 
Carpenter, South Bend, Ind. 



Where mechanical drying is not in 
use it takes consideraljle time to hang 
out a number of handkerchiefs, laces, 
collars, etc., and very often the wind 
will blow away many of them. The 
task of drying these articles is made 
light by using a bag of mosquito net- 
ting with the articles placed in it and 
hung on a line. The air can pass 
through the netting and when the 
articles are dry it does not take long 
to take them out. — Contributed by 
Edward P. Braun, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Decorative Wood Panels 

Procure an unplaned board that is 
deeply scored by the teeth of the saw 
and mark an outline of the desired fig- 
ure on its surface. Sandpaper the 
background lightly, cut in a moon and 
smooth down the tree trunks. The 
background can be smoothed with a 
sharp chisel, or large portions planed, 
but in all cases leave the foliage rough. 

Finish the surfaces with oils or 
stains, applying colors to suit the parts ; 
a piece of dried red cedar, oiled, will 
produce a warm red, and a green red 
cedar, oiled, becomes soft yellow, each 
producing a very pretty effect. These 
panels offer unlimited opportunity for 
originality in design and color finishing 
of different woods. — Contributed by 
Mrs. Wm. Donovan, Seattle, Wash. 




The Designs are Worked into the Unfinished Surface of Boards with Sandpaper, Sharp Chisels and a Plane, 
and Then Colored with Dyes to Produce the Desired Effect 



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling 



By STILLMAN TAYLOR 



PART I — A One-Piece Casting Rod 



' I ' HE pleasures of outdoor life are 
-■• most keenly enjoyed by those 
sportsmen who are familiar with all the 
little tricks — the "ins and outs" — of the 
open. It is the active participation in 
any chosen sport which makes the 
sport well worth while, for the enjoy- 
ment gleaned from little journeys to 
forest and stream largely rests with 
the outer's own knowledge of his sport. 
Not all of the fun of fishing lies in the 
catching of the fish, since the satisfac- 
tion which comes through handling a 
well-balanced rod and tackle must be 
reckoned the chief contributor to the 
outing. In other words, the pleasures 
of fishing do not depend so much upon 
the number of fish caught, as the man- 
ner in which the person fishes for them. 
The rod is naturally the first and im- 
portant consideration in the angler's 
kit, and it is the purpose of these ar- 
ticles to set forth, at first, a few hints 
which my own long experience leads 
me to think may be of some assistance 
to those anglers who enjoy making and 
repairing their own rods and tackle, 
to be followed, later, by some sugges- 
tions on the art of angling generally. 
The hints given are merely my own 
methods, and while they may not be 
the best way of accomplishing the de- 
sired end, a good fishing rod may be 
constructed. Like the majority of ama- 
teurs, I have achieved the desired re- 
sults with a few common tools, namely, 
a saw, plane, jackknife, file, and sand- 
paper. These simple tools are really 
all that is needed to turn out a sen-ice- 
able and well-finished rod of excellent 
action. 

Kind of Material 
The great elasticity and durability 
of the split-cane or split-bamboo rod 
cannot be easily disputed. The hand- 
made split bamboo is unquestionably 
the best rod for every kind of fishing, 
but it is also the most expensive and 
the most difficult material for the ama- 
teur to work. In making the first rod 
or two, the beginner will be better sat- 



isfied with the results in making a 
good solid-wood rod. Of course, 
glued-up split-bamboo butts, joints, 
and tip stock may be purchased, and 
if the angler is determined to have only 
bamboo, it is advisable to purchase 
these built-up sections rather than to 
risk certain failure by attempting to 
glue the cane. However, there are sev- 
eral good woods particularly well 
adapted for rod making, and while 
slightly inferior to the finest bamboo 
in elasticity and spring, the carefully 
made solid-wood rod is good enough 
for any angler and will probably suit 
the average fisherman as well as any 
rod that can be purchased. 

Bethabara, or washaba, a native 
wood of British Guinea, makes a fine 
rod, but it is a heavy wood, very hard, 
and for this reason is perhaps less de- 
sirable than all other woods. With the 
single exception of snakewood it is the 
heaviest wood for rod making and is 
only used for short bait-casting rods. 
Possessing considerable strength Beth- 
abara can be worked quite slender, and 
a 5-ft. casting tip can be safely made 
of 5 oz. weight. 

Greenheart, a South American wood, 
is popular alike with manufacturers 
and amateur rod makers, and 90 per 
cent of the better class of solid-wood 
rods are made of this material. It re- 
sembles Bethabara in color, but is 
lighter in weight, although it appar- 
ently possesses about the same 
strength and elasticity. In point of 
fact, there is little, if any, choice be- 
tween these woods, and providing 
sound and well-selected wood is used, 
the merits of a rod made of Bethabara 
or greenheart are more likely to be due 
to the careful workmanship of the 
maker than to the variety of the wood 
used. 

Dagame, or dagama, a native of the 
forests of Cuba, is in many respects the 
ideal material for rod making, as it 
has strength and elasticity. This 
wood is straight-grained and free from 



59 



60 



knots, which makes it easily worked ; 
it polishes well and is durable. While 
there is always more or less difficulty 
about procuring tirst-class Bethabara 




Two Tools for Gauging the Diameter of the Rods, 
and a Homemade Scraper 

and greenheart, dagame of good qual- 
ity is easily obtained. 

Lance wood is much used in turning 
out the cheaper grades of fishing rods, 
but it is somewhat soft and has a 
marked tendency to take set under the 
strain of fishing and warp out of shape. 
It is less expensive than the other 
woods, and while it has a straight and 
even grain, there are numerous small 
knots present which make this ma- 
terial less satisfactory to work than 
the other woods. For heavy sea rods, 
lancewood may serve the purpose fairly 
well, but for the smaller fishing tools 
this material is inferior to Bethabara, 
greenheart, and dagame. Other woods 
are often used, and while a good rod 
may be frequently made from almost 
any of them, the three mentioned are 
held in the highest esteem by the 
angling fraternity. For the first rod, 
the amateur will make no mistake in 
selecting dagame, whether the slender 
fly rod or the more easily constructed 
short bait-casting tool is to' be made. 

The Necessary Tools 

The construction of a thoroughly 
well-made and nicely balanced rod is 
more a matter of careful work than 
outfit, but a few suitable tools will 
greatly facilitate the labor. A good 
firm workbench, or table, 4 ft. or more 
in length, will be needed. A regulation 
bench vise will come in handy, but one 
of the small iron vises will do very 
well. A couple of iron planes, one of 
medium size for rough planing-up 
work, and a small 4-in. block plane for 
finishing, will be required. As the cut- 



ters of the planes must be kept as sharp 
as possible to do good work, a small 
oilstone — preferably one in a wood 
case with cover to keep out dust — will 
be needed ; a coarse single-cut mill file 
about 16 in. long; a few sheets of No. 
1 and No. sandpaper ; a sheet or two 
of fine emery cloth ; a small thin "back" 
or other saw, and a steel cabinet 
scraper. 

A caliper of some kind is a necessity, 
and while the best is a micrometer, 
Fig. 1, registering to a thousandth part 
of an inch, as well as indicating Sths, 
IGths, 32ds, and G4ths, this tool is some- 
what expensive, but a very good cali- 
per may be had in the sliding-arm type. 
Fig. 2, with the scale graduated to 64ths 
and taking work up to 2 in. in diameter. 
Cheaper measuring gauges are to be 
had in plenty, but as the brass and 
boxwood scales are provided only with 
coarse graduations, the better quality 
of mechanics' tools will give better sat- 
isfaction. 

The set of grooved planes used by 
the professional rod makers are rather 
expensive, although they are most con- 
venient for quickl}- rounding up the rod 
to the desired diameter. However, the 
beginner may dispense with the planes 
by making the tool illustrated in Fig. 
3. To make this handy little tool pur- 
chase a steel wood scraper, such as 
cabinetmakers use, and file a series of 
grooves along the edges with a round 
file. File at right angles to the steel, 
finishing up with a finer file to give a 
sharp cutting 
edge. The tool 
thus made is 
very handy for 
scraping the rod 
F,G.4 after it has been 

roughly rounded 
with the plane. Its use will be men- 
tioned later on in the description. 

Five-Foot Bait-Casting Rod 

The short one-piece bait-casting rod 
with but one ferrule is the easiest rod 
to make, and for this reason the be- 
ginner will do well to select this popu- 
lar type for the first attempt. As the 
total length of the rod is to measure 




61 

5 ft., exclusive of the agate tip, the grasp distance by running a knife mark 

wood should be 1 or 2 in. longer to around the rod 13 in. from the butt end. 

allow for cutting down to 60 inches. Lay out a diagram showing the full 

Having selected a good strip of length of the rod by placing a strip of 



60" 



BUTT 



il" 




Diagram or Layout for a One-Piece Bait-Casting Rod. Showing Calipered Dimensions for Each Six Inches 

of Length. A Paper Pattern of Any Rod may be Drawn Up, Providing the Amateur Rod Maker 

Has a Rod to Use for a Pattern, or Possesses the Exact Diameter of the Rod at 

Intervals of Six Inches along Its Length 



dagame, % in. square, run the plane 
along each side and from both ends. 
This will determine the direction in 
which the grain runs. Drill two holes 
at the end decided upon for the butt, 
spacing them about i/4 in. from the 
end, as shown in Fig, -i. Drive a stout 
brad in the corner of the bench top 
and hook the butt end over the nail. 
By rigging the stick up in this manner 
it will be securely held, and planing 
may be done with the grain with 
greater ease and accuracy than when 
the end of the stick is butted up against 
a cleat nailed to the bench top. 

The wood should be planed straight 
and true from end to end and calipered 
until it is ^o in. square. It may ap- 
pear crooked, but this need not trouble 
one at this stage of the work, since it 
may be made perfectly straight later 
on. Overlook any kinks, and do not 
attempt to straighten the stick by 
planing more from one side than the 
other. The chief thing to be done is 
to fashion a square stick, and when the 
caliper shows the approximate diame- 
ter, draw crosslines at the ends to find 
the center. 

The length of the hand grasp should 
be marked out. If a double grasp is 
wanted, allow 13 in. from the butt end. 
This will afford an 11-in. hand grasp 
after sawing off the end in which the 
holes were drilled. For a single hand 
grasp make an allowance of 11 in. 
However, the douljle grasp— ^with cork 
above and below the reel seat — is pre- 
ferred by most anglers because it af- 
fords a better grip for the hand when 
reeling in the line, Mark the hand- 



paper — the unprinted back of a strip 
of wall paper is just the thing — on the 
bench and drawing two lines from the 
diameter of the butt to that of the tip. 
While the caliber of casting rods dif- 
fers somewhat, the dimensions given 
will suit the average angler, and I 
would advise the beginner to make 
the rod to these measurements. For 
the butt, draw a line, exactly 1/2 in- 
long, across the paper and from the 
center of this line run a straight pencil 
mark at right angles to the tip end, or 
60 in, distant, at which point another 
crossline is drawn, exactly i/g in, long, 
to represent the diameter. Connect 
the ends of these two crosslines to 
make a long tapering form. Divide 
this pattern into eight equal parts, be- 
ginning at 13 in. from the butt end, 
marking a crossline at every 6 in. 
This layout is shown exaggerated in 
Fig. 5, If it is desired to copy a cer- 
tain rod, find the diameter at the sev- 
eral 6-in, stations with the caliper and 
write them down at the corresponding 
sections of the paper diagram. How- 
ever, if a splendid all-around casting 



JUITUTJUi^^J^ 



Fio.6 
Gauge Made of Sheet Brass Having Slots Corre- 
sponding in Length and Width with the 
Caliper-Layout Measurements 

rod is desired, it is .perfectly safe to 
follow the dimensions given in Fig. 5, 
which show the manner of dividing 
the paper pattern into the equal parts 
and the final diameter of the rod at 
each 6-in, station, or line. 



62 



Procure a small strip of thin brass, 
or zinc, and file nine slots on one edge 
to correspond in diameter with the 
width of the horizontal lines which in- 
dicate the diameter of the rod on the 
pattern. This piece is shown in Fig. 
6. By making use of the pattern and 
the brass gauge, the rod may be given 
the desired taper and the work will 
proceed more quickly than if the cali- 
per is alone relied upon to repeatedly 
check up the work. 

When a good layout of the work is 
thus made, the next step is to carefully 
plane the stick so that it will be evenly 
tapered in the square. Plane with the 
grain and from the butt toward the 
tip end, and make frequent tests with 
caliper and gauge, noting the diameter 
every 6 in. Mark all the thick spots 
with a pencil, and plane lightly to re- 
duce the wood to the proper diameter. 
Reduce the stick in this manner until 
all sides have an even taper from the 
butt to the tip. The stick should now 
be perfectly square with a nice, even 
taper. Test it by resting the tip end 
on the floor and bending it from the 
butt end. Note the arch it takes and 
see if it resumes its original shape 
when the pressure is released. If it 
does, the elasticity of the material is 
as it should be, but if it remains bent 
or takes "set," the wood is very likely 
to be imperfectly seasoned and the rod 
should be hung up in a warm closet, or 
near the kitchen stove, for a few weeks, 
to season. 

To facilitate the work of planing 
the stick to shape, a length of pine 
board with a groove in one edge will 
be found handy. A 5-ft. length of the 
ordinary tongue-and-groove board, 
about 1 in. thick, will be just the thing. 
As the tip of the rod is smaller than 
the butt, plane the groove in the board 
to make it gradually shallower to cor- 
respond to the taper of the rod. Nail 
this board, with the groove uppermost, 
to the edge of the workbench, and 
place the rod in the groove with one of 
the square corners up, which can be 
easily taken of¥ with the finely set 
plane. Plane off the other three cor- 
ners in a like manner, transforming 



the square stick into one of octagon 
form. This part of the work should 
be carefully done, and the stick fre- 
quently calipered at each 6-in. mark, 
to obtain the proper taper. It is im- 
portant to make each of the eight 
sides as nearly uniform as the caliper 
and eye can do it. Set the cutter of 
the small plane very fine, lay the strip 
in the groove and plane ofif the corner 
the full length of the stick, then turn 
another corner uppermost and plane 
it ofif, and so on, until the stick is al- 
most round and tapering gradually 
from the mark of the hand grasp to 
the tip. 

To make the rod perfectly round, 
use the steel scraper in which the 
grooves were filed and scrape the whole 
rod to remove any flat or uneven spots, 
and finish up by sandpapering it down 
smooth. 

The action of the rod difl:'ers with 
the material used, and in trying out 
the action, it is well to tie on the tip 
and guides and affix the reel by a string 
in order to try a few casts. If the 
action seems about right, give the rod 
a final smoothing down with No. 
sandpaper. 

For the hand grasp nothing is so 
good as solid cork, and while hand 
grasps may be purchased assembled, 
it is a simple matter to make them. In 
Fig. 7 are shown four kinds of han- 
dles, namely, a wood sleeve, or core, 
A, bored to fit the butt of the rod and 
shaped for winding the fishing cord ; 
a built-up cork grasp, B, made by ce- 
menting cork washers over a wood 
sleeve, or directly to the butt of the 
rod ; a cane-wound grip, C, mostly 
used for salt-water fishing, and the 
double-wound grip, D, made in one 
piece, then sawed apart in the center, 
the forward grip being glued in place 
after the reel seat is in position. 

To make a grip, select a number of 
cork washers, which may be obtained 
from dealers in the wholesale drug 
trade, or from any large fishing-tackle 
dealer. Make a tool for cutting a hole 
in their centers from a jnece of tubing, 
or an old ferrule of the required diame- 
ter, by filing one edge sharp, then cov- 



63 



ering the other end with several thick- 
nesses of cloth. Turn this tube around 
in the cork like a wad cutter. If the 
cutter is sharp, a nice clean cut will 
result, but the opposite will likely oc- 



and force the sleeve tightly in place. 
A day or two should be allowed for 
the glue to set and thoroughly dry, be- 
fore giving the hand grasp the final 
touches. 




MiMi!V,!iffl jiii''7iliilliT'''iiniif '^ 



WSSM 



F.G.7 

The Four Different Types of Hand Grasps Are a Wood Sleeve Bored to Fit the Butt of the Rod; 

the Built-Up Cork over a Wood Sleeve; a Cane-Wound Grasp, and the Double Cord- Wound 

Grasps with a Reel Seat between Them 



cur if an attempt is made to hammer 
the tube through the cork. 

Having cut the butt end of the rod 
off square, about 1 in. from the end, 
or enough to remove the holes, smear 
a little hot glue on the end, drop a 
cork washer over the tip of the rod and 
work it down to the butt. Cut another 
cork, give the first one a coat of glue, 
slip the former over the tip and press 
the two together, and so on, until about 
10 corks have been glued together in 
position. This will give a hand grasp 
a trifle over 5 in. long. 

A sleeve will be needed for the reel 
seat to slip over, and a soft-wood core 
of this sort can be purchased from any 
dealer in rod-making materials, or it 
can be made at home. For the material 
procure a piece of white pine, about 
% in. in diameter and 5 in. long. A 
section sawed from a discarded cur- 
tain roller will serve the purpose well. 
Bore a Jf-in. hole through the piece 
and plane down the outside until it 
slips inside the reel seat. It should be 
well made and a good fit, and one end 
tapered to fit the taper of the reel seat, 
while the opposite end should be about 
1/4 in. shorter than the reel seat. Slide 
this wood sleeve down the rod, as 
shown in Fig. 8, coat the rod and the 
upper part of the last cork with glue 



If a lathe is at hand, the hand grasp 
may be turned to any desired shape, 
but most anglers prefer a cylindrical- 
shaped grip, leaving the top cork un- 
trimmed to form a kind of shoulder 
when the metal reel seat is pressed into 
the cork. If corks of l^/i-in. diameter 
are purchased, but little trimming will 
be necessary to work the hand grasp 
down to l^V in. in diameter. This size 
seems to fit the average hand about 
right. The lower corks will need a 
little trimming to fit the taper of the 
butt cap so that it may fit snugly in 
place. Cement the butt cap in place 
by heating the cap moderately hot, 
then rub a little of the melted ferrule 
cement inside the cap, and force it over 
the cork butt. When the cement has 
hardened, drive a small brass pin or 




The Corks Glued in Place on the Butt and the Wood 

Sleeve, or Reel-Seat Core, Ready to Slide 

Down and Glue in Position 

brad through the cap, and file the ends 
off flush with the metal surface. All 
the guides, ferrules, and reel seat are 
shown in Fig. 9. 



64 



The regulation metal reel seat is 
about 41/1 in. long, and in fitting it to 
the old type of bait rod, the covered 
hood is affixed to the upper end of the 
reel seat. This arrangement is satisfac- 
tory enough for the !J-ft. bait rod, but it 
is rather awkward in fitting it to the 
short bait-casting rod, as with the hood 
at the upper end the reel is pushed so 
far forward that it leaves 1 in. or more 
of the reel seat exposed, and the hand 
must grip this smooth metal instead 
of the cork. To avoid this, it is best 
to cut the reel seat down to 3% in. 
and affix the reel seat to the rod with 
the hood at the lower end near the 
hand. For a single hand grasp, a ta- 
pered winding check will be needed to 
make a neat finish and this should be 
ordered of the correct diameter to fit 
the reel seat at the lower end and the 
diameter of the rod at the other. In 
the double hand grasp the winding 
check is used to finish ofi: the upper 
end of the cork, which is tapering to 
fit the rod at this point. 

In assembling the reel seat, push 
it with the hooded end well down and 
work it into the cork to make a tight 
waterproof joint. Push the reel seat 
up the rod, coat the sleeve with cement 
and push the reel seat home. Drive 
a small pin through the hooded end and 
reel seat to make the whole rigid. This 
pin should not be driven through the 
rod or it will weaken it at this point. 
Just let it enter the wood a short dis- 
tance to prevent the reel seat from 
turning. 

The upper or double grasp is fash- 
ioned after the reel seat is in position, 
and the corks are cemented on and 
pushed tightly together in the same 
manner as used in forming the lower 
grasp. The first cork should be pressed 
tightly against the upper end of the 
reel seat and turned about so that the 
metal may enter the cork and form a 
tight joint. As many corks as are re- 
quired to form a grip of proper length 
are in turn cemented to each other and 
the rod. After the glue has become 
dry, the cork may be worked down and 
tapered to make a smooth, swelled 
gxasp. The winding check is now ce- 



mented on, to make a neat finish be- 
tween the upper grip and the rod. 

Before affixing the guides, go over 
the rod with fine sandpaper, then wet 
the wood to raise the grain, and repeat 
this oi)eration, using old sandpaper. If 
an extra-fine polish is wanted, rub it 
down with powdered pvmiice and oil, 
or rottenstone and oil, and finish ofif 
with an oiled rag. 

To fit the agate tip, file down the end 
of the rod with a fine-cut file until it 
is a good fit in the metal tube. Melt 
a little of the ferrule cement and smear 
a little on the tip of the rod, then push 
the agate down in place. 

Spar varnish is often used to protect 
the rod, but extra-light coach varnish 
gives a better gloss, and it is as dura- 
ble and waterproof as any varnish. It 
is only necessary to purchase a quarter 
pint of the varnish, as a very small 
quantity is used. The final varnishing 
is, of course, done after the rod has 
been wound and the guides are perma- 
nently whipped in position. However, 
it is an excellent idea to fill the pores 
of the wood by rubbing it over with a 
cloth saturated in the varnish before 
the silk whippings are put on. Merely 
fill the cells of the wood and wipe off 
all surplus, leaving the rod clean and 
smooth. 

The guides may now be fastened in 
place, and for the 5-ft. rod, but two of 
them are necessa^3^ The first guide 
should be placed 19% in- from the 
metal taper which finishes ofif the up- 
per hand grasp, and the second guide 
spaced 151/' Jn. from the first. By spac- 
ing the guides in this manner, the line 
will run through them with the least 
possible friction. 

Winding, or Whipping, the Rod 

Before whipping on the guides, take 
a fine file and round off the sharp edges 
of the base to prevent the possibility 
of the silk being cut. Measure off the 
required distances at which the guides 
are to be affixed, and fasten them in 
position by winding with a few turns 
of common thread. Ordinary silk of 
No. A size may be used, but No. 00 is 
the best for small rods. Most angflers 



65 



agree that the size of the silk to use 
for the whippings should be in propor- 
tion to the size of the rod — heavy silk 



from the spool and tuck the end under 
the whipping by pulling on the ends 
of the waxed loop, as shown at G. 




The Mountings Used on a Bait-Casting Rod Consist of a Reel Seat, Butt Cap, Taper Sleeve, Narrow 
Agate Guide, Agate Offset Top, One Ring Guide, and a Welted, Shouldered Ferrule 



for the heavy rod, and fine silk for the 
small rod. Size A is the finest silk 
commonly stocked in the stores, but 
one or more spools of No. 00 and No. 
may be ordered from any large dealer 
in fishing tackle. As a rule, size 
gives a more workmanlike finish to the 
butt and joints of fly and bait rods, 
while No. 00 is about right to use for 
winding the tips. In fact, all rods 
weighing up to 6 oz. may be whipped 
with No. 00 size. 

In whipping the rod, the so-called 
invisible knot is used. Begin the whip- 
ping, as shown at E, Fig. 10, by tuck- 
ing the end under the first coil and 
holding it with the left thumb. The 
spool of silk is held in the right hand 
and the rod is turned to the left, suf- 
ficient tension being kept on the silk so 
that it can be evenly coiled with each 
strand tightly against the other. A 
loop of silk, some 4 in. long, is well 
waxed and placed so that its end will 
project a short distance beyond the last 
coil which finishes the whipping. This 
detail is shown at F. In whipping on 
guides, begin the whipping at the base 
and work over the pointed end of the 
flange, winding on sufficient silk to ex- 
tend about % in. beyond the pointed 
flange of the guide base. When the 
last coil is made, cut off the thread 



Cut off the ends neatly with a sharp 
knife. 

For colors, bright red and a medium 
shade of apple green are the best, 
since these colors keep their original 
tint after varnishing, and are less likely 
to fade than the more delicate shades. 
Red finished off with a narrow circle 
of green always looks well, and red 
with yellow is likewise a good combina- 
tion. Narrow windings look much bet- 
ter than wide whippings, and a dozen 
turns make about as wide a winding 
as the angler desires. For edgings, 
three or four turns of silk are about 



r 





G 

Tig. 10 

Both Ends of the Silk Thread are Placed under the 
Winding to Form an Invisible Knot 

right, and these should be put on after 
the wider windings have been whipped 
on and in the same manner, although it 
is best to tuck the ends of the edging 



66 



beneath the wider winding when pull- 
ing the end through to make the invisi- 
ble knot. 

Varnishing the Rod 

After winding the rod, see that all 
fuzzy ends are neatly clipped off, then 
go over the silk windings with a coat 
of shellac. The shellac can be made 
by dissolving a little white shellac in 
grain alcohol. Warm the shellac and 
apply it with a small camel's-hair 
brush, giving the silk only two light 
coats. Allow the rod to stand a couple 
of days for the shellac to become thor- 
oughly dry. 

A small camel's-hair brush will be 
required for the varnishing — one about 
% in. wide will do. If the varnishing 
is to be done out of doors, a clear and 
warm day should be selected, and the 
can of coach varnish should be placed 
in a pot of hot water for five minutes, 
so that the varnish will spread evenly. 



A temperature of about 75 deg. is best 
for this work, as the varnish will not 
spread if cold or in a cold place. The 
varnish should be evenly brushed on, 
and care taken that no spots are left 
untouched. Hang up by the tip to dry 
in a room free from dust. While the 
varnish will set in four or five hours, 
it is a good plan to allow three days 
for drying between coats. Two coats 
will suffice to protect the rod, but as 
coach varnish, properly applied, is 
rather thin in body, three coats will 
give complete protection to the wood. 
The materials required for this rod 
are, 1 dagame or greenheart stick, 5 ft. 
long and % in. square ; 1 reel seat with 
straight hood, % in. ; 1 butt cap, 1 in. ; 
1 taper, small end gf in. ; 1 offset, or 
angle, agate top, g\ in., and 2 narrow 
agate guides, 1/2 hi., all in German sil- 
ver; 8 doz. corks, II4 by IVs in., and 
two 50-yd. spools of silk, red and green, 
00 size. 



Automatic Watering System for 
Poultry Yards 

Where a large number of poultry is 
cared for, the annoyance and attention 
necessary to furnish a constant water 
supply can be overcome by using the 
system shown in the illustration. For 
this purpose a storage tank must be 
provided. This may be some old toilet 
flush tank, or any open reservoir that 
will hold sufficient water to keep all 
the drinking pans supplied. A float is 
provided and connected with a stop 



valve, so that when the float drops 
below a certain level, the valve will 
be turned open, and a fresh supply of 
water will enter the storage tank, 
thereby again raising the float and clos- 
ing the valve. 

Each drinking pan should be about 
10 in. in diameter by 4 in. deep, and 
is drilled for a y^-^n. hole to fit a i^-in. 
pipe. At the pan end, the pipe is 
threaded so that a lock nut and leather 
washer can be attached on each side 
of the pan bottom, to provide a water- 
tight joint; at the other end, the pipe 




Simple Arrangement of a Flush Tank in Connection with a System of Pipes to Supply One or More 

Pans of Water for the Poultry Yard 



67 



is screwed into a tee in tlie lo-in- main 
line which connects with the storage 
tank. 

In using the system, sufficient water 
is run into the tank to fill the pans 
about three-quarters full. The float 
may then be adjusted to a shut-off posi- 
tion for the inlet valve. All pans are 
automatically kept at one level, even 
though several may be used consider- 
ably more than others. When the 
general water level has dropped suffi- 
ciently, the float, dropping with it, will 
open the stop valve, and cause the 
water to enter the tank and pans until 
the original level is again restored. — 
Contributed by D. E. Hall, Hadlyme, 
Connecticut. 



paste, and the flap B is folded over 
them. The envelope is then ready for 
the inclosure. The flap C is pasted and 




SLIP CARD 
ONE HALF BLACK 



Changing Pip on a Card 

Cut out the center pip on the five- 
spot of spades with a sharp knife. Cut 
a slot centrally 
in another card, 
about Y^ in. wide 
and iVi in. long. 
Glue the surfaces 
of both cards to- 
gether near the 
edges to form a 
pocket for a 
slide, which is 
"cut from another 
card and has 
one-half of its 
surface colored 
black. A drop of sealing wax attached 
to the back of the sliding part, so that 
it projects through the slot, provides 
a means of moving the slide in the 
pocket. A lightning change can be 
made from a five-spot to a four-spot 
while swinging the card. 



To Make a Special Envelope 

Any size of envelope for mailing spe- 
cial papers or documents can be made 
as follows : All envelopes are of the 
same shape as shown in Fig. 1 ; the size 
for the papers to be inclosed is repre- 
sented by the dotted lines in Fig. 2. 
The projections A are coated with 



/ 


C 


\ 


\ 




^ 


A 




A 


X- 




X 




B 



Fio.l 




Fio.a Fig. 4 

Various Stages in the Forming of an Envelope to 
Make Any Size for Special Papers 

folded over as with an ordinary envel- 
ope. — Contributed by L. E. Turner, 
New York City. 



Automatically Extinguishing a Candle 

Candles can be easily fitted with 
attachments to extinguish the light at 
a set time. To determine the length 
of time, it is nec- 
essary to mark a 
candle of the 
size used and 
time how long a 
certain length of 
it will burn. 
Then it is suffi- 
cient to suspend 
a small metal 
dome, or cap, to 
which a string is 
attached, d i - 
rectly over the flame, and run the oppo- 
site end of the string over nails or 
through screw eyes, so that it can be 
tied around the candle such a distance 
from the flame end, that the part be- 
tween the flame and the string will be 
consumed in the time desired for the 
light to burn. When this point is 
reached, the string slips off the candle, 
and the cap drops on the flame. 




68 



Clothespin Newspaper Holder 

A simple newspaper holder can be 
made by cutting away a portion ot one 
side of an ordinary clothespin, drilling- 




Shaping a Clothespin Head and Fastening It to a Wall 
Provides a Holder for Newspapers 

a hole through the thick end for a 
screw or nail, and fastening it in place 
where desired. Another way is to split 
off one side of a clothespin and cut the 
bottom of the remaining part tapering 
as shown ; then drill a hole to avoid 
splitting the piece and fasten in a con- 
venient place. — Contributed by J. P. 
Rupp, Norwalk, O. 



Holder for a Dory Rudder 

The rudder of a sailing dory or row- 
boat often comes ofif in rough water, 




The Loop on the Iron Rod Holds the Pin of the 
Rudder in the Eye 

and in order to keep it in place and 
yet have it easily detachable at will, 



the following method is useful : Procure 
a 10-in. length of soft-iron rod and 
bend one end of it into a loop large 
enough to fit around the rudder pin 
after the latter is inserted in the eyelet. 
Insert screws at A, B and C, letting 
them project about I/2 in. from the 
surface. Bend the rod at D and A in 
the shape shown, and with a little ad- 
justment it will easily snap into posi- 
tion. It will prevent the rudder from 
riding up out of the eyelets, but can 
be detached instantly. The device 
should be applied to the upper pin so 
as to be within easy reach. — Con- 
trilnited 1)y B. A. Thresher, Lakeville, 
Connecticut. 



Trimming Photographs 

In trimming small photograph prints 
I experienced some difficulty in getting 
them square, and I did not care to in- 
vest in a trimming board. By follow- 
ing a line drawn around the print with 
a triangle, it was impossible to make 
a perfect rectangle. In the place of a 
trimming board I now use a piece of 
glass cut a little smaller than the de- 
sired print. The edges of the glass are 
smoothed by filing or grinding them. 
In making a glass, be sure to have the 
corners cut at perfect right angles and 
the edges ground straight. 

The glass is easily located over the 
print, and by holding the two tightly 
together the edges of the print can be 
trimmed with a pair of shears. — Con- 
tributed by E. Leslie McFarlane, 
Nashwaaksis, N. B. 



A Metal Polish 

A metal polish that is safe to use 
about the home is composed of 30 
parts alcohol, 3 parts ammonia water, 
45 parts water, 6I/2 parts carbon tet- 
rachloride, 8 parts kieselguhr, 4 parts 
white bole, and 8 parts of chalk. These 
substances can be purchased at a local 
drug store and should be mixed in the 
order named. Any grease on metal 
will be dissolved by this solution.^ — ■ 
Contributed by Loren Ward, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 



Fishing-Rod Making and Angling 

By STILLMAN TAYLOR 
PART II — Various Two and Three-Piece Rods 



WHILE the action of the one-piece 
rod is undeniably better than 
when the rod is made in two or three 
pieces, it is less compact to carry. To 
make a 5-ft. two-piece bait-casting rod, 
the same dimensions as given for the 
one-piece rod will make a very fine 
fishing tool. It is well to make two 
tips in view of a possible breakage. 
The rod may consist 
of two pieces of equal 
length, but a rod of 
better action is secured 
by making the butt 
section somewhat 
shorter with a relative- 
ly longer tip. By mak- 
ing the butt 
section about 
23 in. long, ex- 
clusive of fer- 
rule and butt 
cap, and 



are added. The material list is as fol- 
lows, the attachments being made of 
german silver : Dagame or greenheart 
butt, % in. by 3 ft. long; two tips % in. 
by 3 ft. long; one %-in. reel seat with 
straight hood ; one 1-in. butt cap ; one 
taper, i%o in. at the small end ; two 
%2-in. offset agate tops ; two i/^-in. nar- 
row agate guides; two No. 1 size one- 




tip section 321/0 in. 
long, a splendid lit- 
tle rod is obtained 
which will fit any 
of the regulation 
rod cases of 3o-in. 
length. To make 
a 61/2-oz. rod of 
this kind with a 
cork hand grasp, 
caliper it in the same manner as the 
one-piece rod, making the butt section 
321/^ in. long, tapering from i%2 i'l- 3-t 
the upper end of the hand grasp to i%4 
in. at the ferrule. The tip is made 33 in. 
long, tapering from i%4 in. to %4 in. 
By making the tip and butt to these 
lengths, both parts will be of equal 
length when the ferrules and the tops 



ring casting 
guides ; one i%4- 
in. welted and 
shouldered f e r - 
rule, with two 
closed-end c e n - 
ters, one for each 
tip ; two dozen 
cork washers, 11/4, 
in. in diameter, 
and two spools of 
winding silk. 

The three-piece 
rod should be 
made up to 6 ft. in 
length to secure 
the best action, 
but even if so 
made, the use of 
the extra ferrules makes the rod less 
resilient and elastic than the rod of 
one or two-piece construction. The 
best action is obtained only when the 
rod bends to a uniform curve, and since 
the ferrules cannot conform to this 
curve, or arc, the more joints incorpo- 
rated in a rod, the less satisfactory it 
will be from an angling standpoint. 



The Making of a Rod Not Only Affords Much 

Pleasure, but the Rod can be Constructed 

as Desired 



69 



70 



Convenience in packing and carrying 
are the sole merits which the many- 
jointed rod possesses. Complete speci- 
fications for making a three-piece bait- 
casting rod, together with a material 
list, is as follows: A rod, about oV-i ft. 
long with a single or double hand grasp 
made of cork, will weigh about 7 oz. 
Caliper the butt so that it will taper 
from i%2 in- to i^o ii. at the cap of the 
ferrule, making it 21i/^ in. long. The 
middle joint is tapered from ^Ym in. to 
^%4 in., and is 21% in. long. The tips 
are 21 in. long and are tapered from 
i%4 in. to %4 in. Dagame or green- 
heart is used for the butt, joint, and 
tips, and german silver for the fittings. 
All pieces are 2 ft. long, the butt is % 
in., the joint and tips, % in. One %-in. 
reel seat with straight hood ; one 1-in. 
butt cap ; one taper, small end i'/-s2 in. ; 
one 2%4-in. welted and shouldered fer- 
rule ; one ■^%4-in. welted and shoul- 
dered ferrule with two closed centers, 
one for each tip ; two %2-in- olifset 
agate tops ; two %-in. narrow agate 
guides ; two No. 1 size one-ring casting 
guides ; two dozen cork washers, and 
winding silk, size 00 or 0. 

Fly Rods for Trout and Bass 

Having made a good bait-casting 
rod, the amateur will find little trouble 
in making a rod with a number of 
joints, and no special instructions need 
be given, since the work of planing and 
smoothing up the wood, and finishing 
and mounting the rod, is the same as 
has been described in detail before. 
For fly fishing for trout, accuracy and 
delicacy are of more importance than 
length of cast, and the rod best suited 
to this phase of angling differs greatly 
from that used in bait casting. A stiff, 
heavy rod is entirely unsuited for fly 
casting, and while it is, of course, pos- 
sible to make a rod too willowy for the 
sport, the amateur, working by rule of 
thumb, is more likely to err on the 
other side and make the fly rods of too 
stout a caliber. The idea is simply to 
help the amateur over the hard part 
by giving a list of dimensions of a rep- 
resentative trout and a bass fly rod. 
To make a l)-ft. trout fly rod, with a 



cork grasp having a length of 9 in. 
above the reel seat, caliper the material 
as follows : The butt is tapered from 
YiQ in. to -%4 in. at 1 ft. from the butt 
end; 11/2 ft, "/32 in. ; 2 ft., si/g^ in.; 21/2 
ft., %6 in., and 3 ft., ^%4 in. The first 
6 in. of the middle joint is calipered to 
%2 in.; 1 ft., i'/ti4 in.; U/o ft., i%4 in.; 
2 ft, Ysa in.; 21/0 ft., 13/64 in., and 3 ft., 
%6 in. The first 6 in. of the tips are 
calipered to i%4 in.; 1 ft., %2 in.; 1% 
ft., i/s in. ; 2 ft., %4 in. ; 21/0 ft., %2 in., 
and 3 ft., %4 in. All joints are made 
36i/> in. long. The material used is 
dagame, or greenheart, the butt being 
% in. by 4 ft., the joint % in. by 4 ft., 
and the tips % in. by 4 ft. The attach- 
ments, of german silver, are : One %- 
in. reel seat, fly-rod type with butt cap ; 
one taper, 3%4 in. at the small end ; one 
%2-in. welted and shouldered ferrule ; 
one 1%4-in. welted and shouldered fer- 
rule with two closed-end centers, one 
for each tip ; two No. 4 snake guides for 
the butt joint ; three No. 3 snake guides 
for the middle joint, and six No. 2 
snake guides, three for each tip section ; 
two No. 7 agate angle fly tops, the kind 
to wind on ; one dozen cork washers, 
and two 10-yd. spools of winding silk, 
00 size. 

A bass fly rod 9i/4 ft. long, weighing 
7I/2 oz., with a cork grasp, 9I/2 in. above 
the reel seat, is calipered as follows : 
The butt is tapered from i%2 in. to 
2%4 in. 1 ft. from the end; fi/i ft. from 
butt, 2%, in. ; 2 ft., 11/30 in. ; 21/0 ft., 21/34 
in., and 3 ft., i%4 in. The first 6 in. of 
the middle joint is i%4 in. ; 1 ft., %o in. ; 
11/2 ft., I'/si in.; 2 ft., i%4 in.; 2i/o ft., 
%2 in., and 3 ft., i%4 in. The first 6 in. 
of the tips, i%4 in. ; 1 ft., %2 in. ; li/o ft., 
%4 in. ; 2 ft., i/s in. ; 21/0 ft., Vei in., and 
3 ft., %4 in. The joints are 36i/o in. 
long. The mountings are the same as 
for the trout fly rod. Dagame, or green- 
heart, wood is used, the butt being % 
in. by 4 ft., the joint % in. by 4 ft. and 
the tips % in. by 4 feet. 

The two-piece salt-water rod with 
an 18-in. double cork hand grasp, the 
whole being Ci/j ft. long, is made to 
weigh about 13 oz., with the following 
caliperings : A uniform taper of ^Yei 
in. to -%i in., from the cork grasp to 



71 



the ferrule, is given to the butt. The 
first 6 in. of the tips is i%o in. ; 1 ft., ^%4 
in.; 1% ft., 11/32 in.; 2 ft., ^Ye^ in.; 21/2 
ft., %2 in., and to tip, i%4 in. The 



eted in place, and a soft-pine sleeve 
is fitted over the wood core and the 
ferrule. The forward end of the sleeve 
is, of course, tapered to fit the taper 




The Mountings for a Fly Rod Consist of a Reel Seat with a Straight Hood, a Taper, Snake Guide, 

Agate Angle Top, and Serrated Ferrule. The Toothed Ends are Wound 

with Silk to Afford Additional Strength 



joints are made 36% in. long. Dagame, 
or greenheart, is used with german-sil- 
ver mountings. Both pieces of wood 
are 4 ft. long, the butt being of %-in. 
and the tip of i/li-in. material. One %- 
in. reel seat with straight hood, one 1- 
in. butt cap, one '^o-in. ferrule, one 
taper with small end ^%4 in, ; one i%o- 
in. stirrup-tube agate top ; two No. 3 
bell guides ; two dozen cork washers, 
and two spools, size A, winding silk. 

The Independent-Butt Rod 

The independent-butt rod, in which 
the hand grasp contains the ferrule and 
the tip is made in one piece, is a favor- 
ite type with many of the best fisher- 
men. This mode of construction may 
be used with all classes of rods, the 
light fly and bait-casting rods, and the 
heavier caliber rods used in salt-water 
angling. In rods of this type, it is only 
necessary to use the same size ferrule 
to make as many tips as desired to fit 
the one butt. Tips of several calibers 
and weights may thus be fashioned to 
fit the one butt, and if the single-piece 
tip is too long for some special use, one 
tip may be made a jointed one for ease 
in carrying. 

The independent butt, or hand grasp, 
is made by fitting the ferrule directly 
on a length of dagame, or greenheart, 
which has been rounded so that the 
seated ferrule will not touch the wood. 
The ferrule is then cemented and riv- 



of the reel seat, and when properly 
fitted, its lower end will project about 
14 in. beyond the pine sleeve. Glue 
the sleeve on this wood core, cement 
the reel seat to the sleeve, and rivet the 
reel seat in place. 

The cork washers are glued in posi- 
tion, working the first one into the 
metal edge of the reel seat, to make a 
nice, tight joint at this point. The 
other corks are then glued in place 
until the hand grasp is of the desired 
length. The projecting end of the 
wood core is then cut of? flush with 
the last cork, and the rod is mounted 
in the usual manner. 

In making a double hand grasp, the 
forward grasp may be fitted over the 
wood core in the fashion already de- 
scribed in making the hand grasp for 
the one-piece bait-casting rod, or the 
forward grasp may be fitted to the tip, 
just above the ferrule, as preferred. 
Both methods are commonly used, the 
only dift'erence being in the manner of 
finishing up the forward grasp. If the 
forward grip is affixed to the ferruled 
end of the tip, two tapered thimbles 
will be required to make a nice finish. 

The heavy-surf, or tarpon, rod is 
made up of an independent, detachable 
butt, 20 in. long, having a solid-cork or 
cord-wound hand grasp, and a one- 
piece tip, 51/2 ft. long, altogether weigh- 
ing 231/; oz. It is uniformly calipered 
to taper from ^%2 in. to %e in. One 



73 



piece of dagame, or greenheart, 1 in. 
by 61/2 ft., will be required. One 1-in. 
reel seat for detachable butt, including 
one %-in. male ferrule ; one IVs-in. butt 
cap; two No. 11 wide, raised agate 
guides ; two No. 1 trumpet guides ; one 
%-in. agate stirrup top ; two spools of 
winding silk, A-size, and two dozen 
cork washers, or sufficient iishline to 



cord the butt. The guides are whipped 
on double, the first set spaced 10 in. 
from the top, and the second, 26 in. 
from the reel. The core of the inde- 
pendent, or detachable, butt is con- 
structed of the same material as the 
rod, which makes the hand grasp some- 
what elastic and very much superior 
to a stiff and rigid butt. 



Homemade Ball Catch for Cabinet 
Doors 

To make a ball catch, procure a piece 
of brass, 1 in. Ions;-, 1/2 in. wide, and 
thick 



about Vio in. 





and an old gas 
burner having 
a diameter o f 
% in. As de- 
scribed by 
Work, London, 
the threaded 
part of the bur- 
ner is cut off, 
which forms a contracted end that will 
hold a steel ball Yiq in. in diameter and 
allow it to project Vs in- A hole is 
drilled in the center of the brass plate, 
and the barrel soldered in place. A 
piece of spiral spring is inserted be- 
hind the ball. The stiffness of the 
spring will depend on the use of the 
catch. The barrel is cut to length and 
plugged. Another plate of brass is 
fitted with screw holes and a hole in 
the center to receive the projecting ball 
part, for the strike. 

Combination Needle and Thread Tray 

When any attempt is made to keep 
sewing material, such as needles, 
spools, or buttons, separate, each of the 
articles is usu- 
ally kept in some 
special drawer, 
or by itself, and 
when necessary 
to use one, the 
others must be 
found, frequent- 
ly necessitating 
many extra steps or much lost time in 
hunting up the various articles. The 




illustrated combination tray avoids this 
difficulty. It consists of two round 
trays fastened together near one edge 
with a wood screw, which is loosely 
fitted in the lower tray but screwed 
into the upper to permit them being 
swung apart. Extra thickness and 
weight should be given the bottom 
piece so no tipping will result when the 
top is swung out to expose the buttons 
in the lower section. The thread spools 
are placed on pegs set in the upper 
tray, and the cushion in the center is 
provided for the pins and needles. — • 
Contributed by J. Harger, Honolulu, 
Hawaiian Islands. 



Repairing Worn Escapement Wheel of 
a Clock 

When the ordinary clock has served 
its usefulness and is apparently worn 
out, the jeweler's price to overhaul it 
frequently amounts to almost as much 
as the original purchase price. One 
weak place in the clock is the escape- 
ment wheel. The points soon wear 
down, thereby producing a greater es- 
capement and pendulum movement, 
resulting in an increased strain and 
wear of the clock. If the tips of the 
teeth on the wheel are bent up slightly 
with a pair of pliers, the swing of the 
pendulum will be reduced, thereby in- 
creasing the life of the clock. Many of 
the grandfather's clocks can be put in 
order in this manner so as to serve as a 
timepiece as well as a cherished orna- 
ment. — Contributed by C. F. Spaulding, 
Chicago, 111. 



CA piece of work should never be fin- 
gered while filing it in a lathe. 



Fishing-Rod MaMng and Angling 

By STILLMAN TAYLOR 
PART ni— Trout Fishing with Fly and Bait 









'■^■%j^ 





np HE art of an- 

■■■ gling is gen- 
erally viewed as 
one of the world's 
greatest r e c r e - 
ations, and while 
each and every 
phase of fishing 
may be said to 
possess certain 
charms of its own, 
fly fishing for 
trout is regarded 
by most well-informed sportsmen as 
the alpha and omega of the angler's art. 
This is so because the trout family are 
luicommonly wary and game fish, and 
the tackle used for their capture is of 
finer balance and less clumsy than any 
employed in angling for the coarser 
game fishes. If he would take full ad- 
A'antage of any sport and reap the 
greatest pleasure from a day spent in 
the open, it is really necessary for the 
sportsman to get together a good out- 
fit. It is not essential to have a very 
expensive one. but it should be good of 
its kind; well proportioned for the pur- 
pose for which it is to be used. The be- 
ginner, who buys without good knowl- 



If He would Take Full Ad- 
vantage of Any Sport and 
Reap the Greatest Pleasure 
from a Day Spent in the 
Open, the Sportsman should 
Get Together a Good Outfit 



edge of the arti- 
required, or fails to 
careful discrimination, 
is almost certain to accumu- 
ate a varied assortment of 
junk, attractive enough in ap- 
pearance, perhaps, but well- 
nigh useless when it is tested out on 
the stream. A good representative out- 
fit, then, is of the first importance ; it 
means making a good beginning by in- 
itiating the novice in the sport under 
the most favorable conditions. Let us 
then consider the selection of a good 
fishing kit, a well-balanced rod, the 
kind of a reel to use with it, the right 
sort of a line, flies, and the other few 
items found in the kit of the practical 
and experienced trout fisherman. 

Selecting a Good Fly Rod 

The ordinary fishing pole may be 
bought ofi'hand at almost any hard- 
ware store, but a well-balanced rod for 
fly fishing should be well tested out 
beforehand. The requirements call for 
a rod of comparatively light weight, 
a rod that is elastic and resilient, and 
yet strong enough to prove durable 
under the continued strain of much 



73 



74 



fishing. If the angler has made his 
own rod, as suggested in former chap- 
ters, he will have a good dependable 
fly rod, but the large majority of an- 
glers who are about to purchase their 
first fishing kit should carefully con- 
sider the selection of the rod. At the 
outset it must be understood that good 
tackle is simply a matter of price, the 
finest rods and reels are necessarily 
high in price, and the same thing may 
be said of lines and flies. Providing 
the angler has no objection to paying 
$15, or more, for a rod, the choice will 
naturally fall upon the handmade split 
bamboo. For this amount of money a 
fair quality fly rod may be purchased, 
the finer split bamboos costing any- 
where up to $50, but under $15 it is 
very doubtful whether the angler can 
procure a built-up rod that is in every 
way satisfactory. The question may 
arise. Is a split-bamboo rod necessary? 
The writer's own long experience says 
that it is not, and that a finely made 
solid-wood rod, of greenheart or da- 
game, is quite as satisfactory in the 
hands of the average angler as the 
most expensive split bamboo. A good 
rod of this sort may be had for $10, 
and with reasonable care ought to last 
a lifetime. 

The points to look for in a fly rod, 
whether the material is split bamboo 
or solid wood, is an even taper from the 
butt to the tip ; that is, the rod should 
register a uniform curve, or arc, the 
entire length. For general fly casting 
9 ft. is a handy length, and a rod of 
61/2 oz. weight will prove more durable 
than a lighter tool. A good elastic 
rod is wanted for fly casting, but a too 
willowy or whippy action had best be 
avoided. However, for small-brook 
fishing, where the overgrown banks 
prohibit long casts, a somewhat 
shorter and stifi^er rod will be more 
useful. For casting in large northern 
streams, where the current is swift 
and the trout run to a larger size, a 
9I/2 or 10-ft. rod of 8 oz. weight is often 
preferred. Of course, the veteran an- 
gler can safely use a much lighter rod 
than the beginner, and one occasion- 
ally meets a man on the stream that 



uses a 5-oz. rod for pretty heavy fish- 
ing. To be on the safe side, the novice 
will make no mistake in choosing a 
rod of fair length and conservative 
weight. 

When selecting a rod in the tacklfc 
shop, do not rest content with a mere 
examination of the appearance, but 
have the dealer affix a reel of the 
weight and size intended to be used 
with it. By reeling on a short length 
of line and reeving it through the 
guides and then fastening the end to a 
weight lying upon the floor, a very 
good idea of the rod's behavior may be 
gained, since by reeling in the line and 
putting tension on the rod its elasticity 
and curve may be seen and felt as well 
as in actual fishing. To give the ut- 
most satisfaction, the rod should fit its 
owner, and several rods should be 
tried until one is found that most fully 
meets the angler's idea of what a rod 
should be. If one happens to have a 
good fly reel, by all means take it 
along and attach it to the rod while 
making the tests. It is practically im- 
possible to gauge the balance of a rod 
without affixing the reel, and many a 
finely balanced tool will appear badly 
balanced until the proper-weight reel 
is affixed to it. 

The Proper Kind of Reel 

For fly fishing nothing is so good as 
the English style of click reel, which 
is made with a one-piece revolving 
side plate and with the handle affixed 
directly to it. Any kind of a balanced- 
handle reel is an out-and-out nuisance 
on the fly rod, because it has no advan- 
tage in quickly recovering the line, and 
the projecting handle is forever catch- 
ing the line while casting. In fly cast- 
ing, the length of cast is regulated by 
tlie amount of line taken from the reel 
before the cast is made, and it is while 
"pumping" this slack line through the 
guides, in making the actual cast, that 
the balanced or projecting handle is 
very apt to foul the line. A good reel 
that is smooth-running like a watch 
will cost about $10, but a very good 
one may be had for $5, and cheaper 
ones, while not so durable, may be 



75 




used with fair satisfaction. The heavier 
multiplying reels, so essential for bait 
casting from a free reel, are altogether 
unsuited for the fly rod, being too 
heavy when placed below the hand, 
which is the only proper position for 
the reel when fly casting. The single- 
action click reel, having a compara- 
tively large diameter, but being quite 
narrow between the plates, is the one 
to use, and hard rubber, or vulcanite, 
is a good material for the side plates, 
while the trimmings may be of ger- 
man silver or aluminum. The all- 
metal reel is of about equal merit, but 
whatever the material, the most use- 
ful size is one holding about 40 yd. of 
No. E size waterproof line. A reel of 
this capacity will measure about 3 in. 
in diameter and have a width of about 
■% in. between plates. A narrow- 
spooled reel of this type enables the 
fisherman to reel in the line plenty fast 
enough. Owing to the fact that the 
reel is placed below the grip on fly 



rods, a rather light-weight instrument 
is needed to balance the rod. Of the 
two extremes, it is better to err on the 
side of lightness, because a heavy reel 
makes a butt-heavy rod and, throwing 
extra weight on the wrist and arm, 
makes casting increasingly difficult 
after an hour's fishing. An old hand 
at the game will appreciate this point 
better than the novice. 

The Kind of Line to Use 

The fly-casting 1-ine used by a vet- 
eran is generally of silk, enameled and 
having a double taper ; that is, the line 
is thickest in the center and gradually 
tapers to a smaller diameter at each 
end. Single-tapered lines are likewise 
extensively used, and while they cost 
less, they are tapered at one end only 
and cannot be reversed to equalize the 
wear caused by casting. The level 
line, which has the same diameter 
throughout its entire length, is the 
line most generally used, but the cast 



76 



cannot be so delicately made with it. 
For the beginner, however, the level 
line in size No. E is a good choice. For 
small-brook fishing, No. F is plenty 
large enough. In choosing the size of 
line, there is a common-sense rule 
among fly casters to select a line pro- 
portioned to the weight of the rod. 
For a light rod a light line is the rule, 
and for the heavier rod a stouter line 
is the logical choice. If the rod is of a 
too stiff action, use a comparatively 
heavy line, and it will limber up con- 
siderably ; if the rod is extremely 
"whippy," use the lightest line that can 
be purchased, and used with safety. 

A Fine Leader Marks the Expert Caster 

The leader for trout is preferably of 
single gut, and as fine as the angler's 
skill will allow. The fly caster's rule 
is to use a leader whose breaking strain 
is less than the line, then, when the 
tackle parts, it is simply a question of 
putting on a new leader and the more 
expensive line is saved. Ready-made 
leaders may be purchased, or the an- 
gler can tie them up as desired. For 
length, a 3 or Si/^-ft. leader is about 
right for average fishing. Longer 
leaders are used, and while they some- 
times are of advantage, the 3-ft. length 
is more useful. A longer leader is awk- 
ward to handle because the loop is apt 
to catch in the top of the rod when 
reeling in tlie line to bring the fish close 
to the landing net. Leaders may be 
had with a loop at each end, or with 
loops tied in, for using a cast of two 
or three flies. For all average casting, 
the two-fly cast is the best, but the 
expert angler uses the single-P.y very 
often. For lake fishing, the single large 
fly is generally preferred. For using 
two flies, the leader is provided with 
three loops, one at the top, another at 
the bottom, and an extra loop tied in 
about 15 in. from the lower loop. In 
fly casting, the first, or upper, fly is 
known as the "dropper," and the lower 
one as the "tail" fly. For the single- 
fly cast but two loops are required. 

Gut used for leaders should be care- 
fully selected, and only those lengths 
which are of uniform diameter and 



well rounded chosen, the lengths which 
show flat and rough spots being dis- 
carded. Dry gut that is very brittle 
should be handled very little, and pre- 
\'ious to a day's fishing the leaders 
must be soaked in water over night to 
make them pliable, then coiled in be- 
tween felt pads of the leader box to 
keep them in fishing shape. After use, 
put the frayed leaders aside and dry 
them out between the flannel leaves of 
the fly book. 

Gut is the product of the silkworm, 
and the best quality is imported from 
Spain. It comes in bundles, or hanks, 
of 1,000 strands, 10 to 20 in. long and 
in diiterent thicknesses, or strengths. 
The heaviest are known as "Royal" 
and "Imperial," for salmon ; "Marana," 
for e.xtra-heavy bass; "Padron," for 
bass ; "Regular," for heavy trout ; 
"Fina," for light trout, and "Refina," 
for extra-light trout. The grades 
"Fina" and "Refina" are well suited 
for all average fly fishing, while the 
heavier sizes are useful for heavy large 
fishing. 

To make the leaders, soak the 
strands of gut in warm water over 
night until they are soft and pliable. 
Select the strands for each leader of 
the desired thickness and length so 
that the finished leader will have a 
slight taper to one end only. By using 
the "Fina" gut for the upper length 
and tying in two lengths of "Refina" 
gut, a nicely tapered leader of light 
weight is obtained. Begin the leader 
by uniting the strands together to 
make it the correct length, three 12-in. 
strands being about right for average 
casting. The "single water knot" is 
the strongest and neatest to use. 
Make it by taking the thick end of the 
strand and doubling it back enough 
to tie in a common knot just large 
enough for the line to pass through 
and drawing it up tightly. Tie a single 
loose knot in the other end of the 
strand, about % in. in diameter and 
close to the end ; take the next thick- 
est strand of gut, thread the thicker 
end through the loose knot and tie a 
second square knot around the strand, 
as shown at A. By pulling on the two 



77 



long ends the loops can be drawn up 

tightly, and the two knots will slide 

together and make a neat and very 

Repeat this operation 



strong knot. 



well-known "angler's knot" is mostly 
used. This knot is shown at C. The 
snelled fly is attached by passing the 
loop over the loop of the leader and 




The Single Water Knot Used in Tying Leaders: a Good Knot for Makingthe Loop at the End of the Leaders; 

an Angler's Knot Used for Attaching the Line to the Leader, and a Jam Knot for Attaching 

Eyed Flies, or Hooks, to the Leader or Snell 



until as many strands of gut are knot- 
ted together as required to make the 
leader of the desired length. For mak- 
ing the loop at the ends, a double- 
bighted knot, tied as shown at B, is 
used. If a dropper fly is desired, do 
not pull the water knot tightly, but 
first insert a short length of gut with a 
common knot at the end and a loop in 
the other, then draw the water knot 
up tightly, and a short snell will be 
made for attaching the fly as usually. 

Flies for Trout Fishing 

The Standard selection of artificial 
flies numbers about 60, but the aver- 
age fisherman will find about 24 se- 
lected patterns to answer every need. 
For making up the most "killing" flies 
for the trout season, the following can 
be recommended : Use red ibis, stone 
fly, cinnamon, red spinner, and parch- 
menee belle, for April ; turkey brown, 
yellow dun, iron blue, spinner, mont- 
real and red fox, for May ; spider, 
black gnat, silver doctor, gray drake, 
orange dun, and green drake, for June ; 
July dun, grizzly king, pale evening 
dun, red ant, and brown palmer, for 
July; Seth green, coachman, shad, 
governor, August dun, and royal 
coachman, for August, and black 
palmer, willow, whirling dun, queen of 
the water, and blue bottle, for Septem- 
ber. 

To attach a line to the leader the 



inserting the fly through the leader 
loop. When eyed flies are used they 
are often attached direct to the leader, 
or a looped snell may be used as in the 
ordinary American-tied fly. To attach 
the eyed fly direct to the leader, the 
common "jam knot," shown at D, is 
mostly used, and when the slipknot is 
drawn up tightly and the extra end cut 
ofl: it makes a small, neat knot, not 
apt to slip. 



Catch to Hold Two Joining Doors 
Open 

Where two open doors meet, a catch 
to keep them 
open can be 
made of a piece 
of wire, shaped 
as shown. The 
hooks at the 
ends of the wire 
are slipped over 
the shanks of 
the knobs. — 
Contributed by 
W. A. Saul, Lex- 
ington, Mass. 




CStrips cut from 

wood dishes used 

by grocers for 

butter, thoroughly 

water, will make excellent repair pieces 

for market baskets. 



soaked in warm 



78 



Bicycle Oil Lamp Changed to Electric 
Light 

The desire for an electric light for 
my bicycle caused me to change a fine 
oil lamp, too good to be thrown away, 






>-ri 



LJf 



A Push Button with Socket and Miniature Globe 
Used in an Oil Lamp for Electric Light 

so that an electric globe could be used 
in it. The oil cup of the lamp was re- 
moved, and a wood push button fas- 
tened in its place with three screws. 
Before fastening the push .button, a 
porcelain socket was attached to its 
bottom, and connections were made be- 




tween socket and push button, ends 
being left protruding for connection to 
the battery. A small flash-light bat- 
tery was fastened to the lamp bracket. 
A small rubber washer was placed be- 
tween the head of the push button on 
the switch and the cap, so that in 
screwing the cap up, a permanent con- 
nection was made. The lamp can be 
used as a lantern when removed from 
the bicycle. — Contributed by Lee 
Baker, Chicago. 



Lifter for Removing Eggs from Hot 
Water 

An impro\ement over the customary 
way of removing eggs from hot water 
with a tablespoon, is to use an old-fash- 
ioned cofifee strainer. This brings up 
the eggs without carrying hot water 
with them. — Contributed by L. E. 
Turner, New York, N. Y. 



CGenuine oxalic acid may be used for 
removing stains from all woods except 
mahogany. 



Double Top for a Table 

The need of two tables in a kitchen 
where there was space for only one. 



used, and an extra, plain top fitted to 

it and hinged to the wall. 

When it was desired to wash dishes 

on the zinc top, the table was pulled 

out without disturbing the articles on 
the hinged top. After drying the 
dishes, they are removed from the 
zinc top to the hinged part, and the 




An Extra Top Covers the Table When It is 
Placed against the Wall 

was the cause of devising the ar- 
rangement shown in the illustration. 
An ordinary kitchen table was mount- 
ed on trunk casters or domes so that 
it could be moved easily, whereupon a 
zinc top was put on it with raised 
edges. The table was then placed 
against the wall where it was to be 



The Table When Drawn Out Uncovers 
the Zinc Tray, Fastened on Top 



table is pushed back against the wall. 
— Contributed by Louis Drummond, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 







As a General Thing, the Veteran Fly Fisherman Prefers to Wade with the Current, and Fishes the Water 
in Front of Him by Making Diagonal Casts across the Stream 

Fishing -Rod Making and Angling 

By STILLMAN TAYLOR 
PA'RT IV — Trout Fishing with Fly and Bait 



How to Cast the Fly 
npO be able to cast the artificial fly 

•*■ a distance of 50 ft., or more, and 
let the feathered lure alight upon the 
desired bit of water as lightly as a fall- 
ing leaf is no small accomplishment, 
for fly casting is an art, and to become 
an expert, much practice is necessary. 
The personal assistance of a skillful 
caster is not often available, but if the 
angler will follow the suggestions out- 
lined, a beginner will soon grasp the 
knack of handling the fly rod, and the 
casting will steadily improve with 
practice. As the knack of handling a 
gun is best gained — not in the field, 
shooting live game, but through shoot- 
ing at targets — so may the art of fly 
casting be more quickly acquired by 
intelligent practice conducted away 
from the stream, in the back yard, or 
any other place roomy enough to swing 
the rod and a moderately long line. By 
practicing in this way, the angler's at- 
tention is focused upon the cast and is 
not partly occupied with the excite- 
ment of fishing. To make a good be- 
ginning, let the reel contain about 2.5 
yd. of common, braided, linen line (size 
E is about right) and instead of a fly, 
or hook, affix a small split shot to the 
end of the line. It is well to begin with 
a cheap rod and save a good outfit, 

and if the angler learns how to make 
a fairly long and accurate cast with a 
common rod, he may feel assured that 



he can even do better with a first-rate 
outfit. 

The first point to observe in making 
the cast is to grip the rod correctly, 
and this is done by grasping the rod 
at the right point where it balances 
best. By shifting the hand about, 
this point of balance is quickly 
found, for at no other point will 
the rod "hang" well in the hand. 
In casting, the reel is turned to 
the under side of the rod with 
the thumb extended along the 
top of the grip, as shown in 
Fig. 1. Taking up an easy 
casting position, with 
the left foot slightly 
advanced, pull 
from the reel 



^^itni[iii(ij 



Fig. 1- 
The Proper Way 
to Take Hold 
of the Handle 
with the Reel on 
the Under Side 



about 25 yd. of line and let this slack 
line fall in coils upon the ground in 
front ; bring the rod up slightly above 
the horizontal, as shown in Fig. 3, and 
with a quick snap of the wrist, avoid- 
ing shoulder or body movement, throw 
the tip upward, checking it sharply as 



79 



80 



soon as the tip is carried over the shoul- 
der about 25° beyond the vertical plane 
as in Fig. 3. This snappy upstroke of 
the rod makes the "back cast," by pro- 
jecting the line high in the air, and 
carries it well behind the angler. Be- 
fore the line has fully straightened out 
behind, and before it has an oppor- 
tunity to fall much below the caster's 
shoulders, the rod is snapped forward 
with a quick wrist-and-forearm move- 
ment, which throws the line forward in 
front of the fisherman and in the direc- 
tion he is facing, which finishes the 
cast with the rod 
in the po s i t i o n 
shown in Fig. 4. 

Long and accu- 
rate fly casting is 
much more a mat- 
ter of skill than 
muscle, and while 
some fly fishermen 
cast directly from 
the shoulder and 
upper arm, and 
thus use a consid- 
erable amount of 
muscular force in 
making the cast, 
this cannot be re- 
garded as the best 
method of casting. 
The great elastic- 
ity of the fly rod 
ought to be taken 
full advantage of 
by the caster, and 
if this is done, 
casting will be 
naturally accom- 
plished by the wrist and forearm. To 
make strenuous efforts to hurl the fly 
through the air, using an arm or body 
movement, is extremely tiring after an 
hour or so of fishing, while if the cast 
is made from the wrist, aided by the 
forearm, the snap of the rod may be 
depended upon to project the fly to 
greater length of line and allow it to 
fall close to the desired spot, lightly 
and without splashing. 

Timing the back cast is the most 
difficult detail of fly casting, because 
the line is behind the angler and the 




eye cannot aid the hand. The novice 
will soon acquire the knack of casting, 
however, if he will remember to keep 
the elbow close to the side, and to 
keep the line well up in the air when 
making the back cast, and to begin the 
forward movement before the line has 
fully straightened out behind him. 
After a little practice, the hand will 
feel the slight tension communicated 
to the rod as the line begins to 
straighten out, and this should be 
taken advantage of to correctly time 
the forward movement. Counting 
"one" for the up- 
stroke, "two and" 
for the interval re- 
quired for the line 
to straighten out 
in the rear, and 
"three" for the 
forward move- 
ment, is also a 
good way to time 
the cast. 

At the begin- 
ning the caster 
should make no 
attempt to secure 
distance. A c c u- 
racy and delicacy 
in placing the fly 
on the water is of 
much more im- 
portance than 
length of cast in 
trout fishing, and 
to attain this end, 
it is a good plan 
to place a news- 
paper about 23 ft. 
distant and try to drop the end of the 
line on this mark. When the caster 
can drop the line on the target lightly 
and with reasonable accuracy, he may 
feel justified in lengthening his cast. 
Other casts than the overhead cast just 
described are occasionally used, as the 
Spey, switch, wind, and flip casts, but 
the overhead cast is mostly used, al- 
though it is much more difficult to 
master. 

To make the Spey cast, the angler 
requires a rapid stream which will 
carry the line downstream until it is 



Fig. 2— Begin the Cast with the Rod in a Position 
Just above the Horizontal Plane 



81 



Straight and taut, the tip of the rod 
being held as long as possible to ac- 
complish this end. The rod is then 
raised high in the air with a quick 
wrist movement, which lifts the line 
from the water to the extreme end, 
then without pausing the rod is car- 
ried upstream with just sufficient force 
to let the fly fall just above the angler. 
The line is now on the reverse, or up- 
per, side of the fisherman, when with 
a sweep of the rod 
the line is pro- 
jected over the 
water's surface — 
not along the sur- 
face — in the man- 
ner used in mak- 
ing the overhead 
cast. 

The switch cast 
is sometimes use- 
ful when trees or 
rocks are immedi- 
ately back of the 
fisherman, thus 
preventing the 
line from extend- 
ing far enough 
backward to 
make the over- 
head cast. In mak- 
ing this cast the 
line is not lifted 
from the water, 
but merely to the 
surface by raising 
the tip of the rod. 
The line is 
dragged through 
the water by car- 
rying the tip in 
the direction one 
is standing until 

it is as far in the rear as the obstruc- 
tions will permit. By a quick down- 
ward sweep of the rod the line is pro- 
jected with sufficient force to roll it 
forward in a large coil or loop, much 
as a wheel rolls on a track. 

The wind cast is a modification of 
the switch cast, but easier to make. 
The caster brings his line almost to 
his feet, and with a quick downward 
motion of the rod the line is thrown 




Fig. 3— The Rod is Quickly Cliecked When It is 
Carried over the Shoulder About 25 Degrees 



in a long loop against the wind. The 
underhand and the flip casts are so 
simple that it seems almost unnec- 
essary to describe them. Both are 
short casts and are only used when the 
angler is fishing in an overgrown 
stream. The underhand cast is really 
a side cast, inasmuch as the short line 
is lifted from the water in a loop and 
propelled in the desired direction by a 
side sweep of the rod. The flip cast 
is made by hold- 
ing the fly be- 
tween the thumb 
and finger and 
with a few coils 
of line in the right 
hand. Bend the 
rod like a bow, re- 
lease the fly sud- 
denly, and the 
snap of the rod 
will project it in 
the desired direc- 
tion and allow it 
to drop lightly 
like a fly. 

Handling the Flies in 
the Water 

As a general 
thing the veteran 
fly fisherman pre- 
fers to wade with 
the current and 
fishes the water in 
front of him by 
making diagonal 
casts across the 
stream. A good 
fisherman will 
system atically 
cover every inch 
of good water and 
little will be left to chance. The novice 
is inclined to fish his flies in a con- 
trary manner, he casts more or less at 
random, and is as likely to splash the 
flies recklessly about in the most im- 
possible places as he is to drop them 
in a favorable rififfe or pool. To be able 
to pick out fishable water, the angler 
should know something about the 
habits of the trout, their characteristics 
at the several seasons of the fishing 



year, and their habits, which differ 
greatly in different streams. A fish- 
ing knowledge of the stream to be 
visited is of much value, but if the 
angler knows how to make a fair cast 
and possesses average skill in handling 
flies on water, there should be no ques- 
tion but that he will creel a fair num- 
ber of trout even though he casts in 
strange waters. 

To imitate the action of the natural 
insect is the most successful manner of 
fishing the flies, and as the natural fly 
will struggle more or less when borne 
down with the 
current, the fisher- 
man endeavors to 
duplicate this 
movement by 
making his arti- 
ficial fly wriggle 
about. This mo- 
tion must not be 
overdone, for if 
the flies are 
tw i t c h e d and 
skipped about, or 
pulled against the 
current, the wary 
trout will refuse to 
fall for any such 
obvious deceit. A 
gentle motion of 
the wrist will 
cause the fly to 
move somewhat 
as the natural in- 
sect will struggle. 

In making the 
cast do not cast 
directly down or 
upstream, but across the current at an 
angle. Let the flies fall upon the 
water as lightly as possible, so that the 
water will carry them downstream 
over the likely places where the trout 
are hiding. Keep the line as taut as 
possible by drawing the slack in with 
the left hand. The flies should not 
be allowed to soak in the water, 
neither should they be retrieved in 
haste. The experienced fly caster will 
invariably fish with a wet line, that is 
to say, with a slightly submerged fly, 
and will let the flies drag over as much 




Fig. 4 — The Cast is Finished by Throwing the Line 
Forward with a Quick Wrist-and-Forearm Movement 



water as possible before making a sec- 
ond cast. Owing to the fact that trout 
lie with their noses pointing upstream 
awaiting their food carried down by 
the current, the caster will naturally 
take pains to float his flies down- 
stream with the leader fairly taut. To 
neglect this detail and allow the leader 
to float in a wide loop near or before 
the flies is slovenly fishing, and few 
trout will strike a fly presented in this 
amateurish fashion. 

Early in the fishing season, and when 
the stream is flooded and discolored 
after a heavy rain, 
it is a good plan to 
fish the flies be- 
low the surface. 
Fishing in this 
manner makes it 
more difficult to 
tell when to strike 
a fish, and some 
little practice is 
needed to deter- 
mine the oppor- 
tune moment by 
feeling the slight 
tension on the 
line. Many fish 
will be pricked to 
be sure, but some 
trout will be 
creeled, and fish- 
ing with the sub- 
merged fly is 
sometimes the 
only way trout 
can be taken. 

On fair days 
and in smooth 
water, better luck may be expected 
when the fly is kept upon the surface, 
and this is easily managed by keep- 
ing the tip of the rod well in the air. 
often the fisherman can take advan- 
tage of a bit of floating foam, and if 
the fly is cast upon it and allowed to 
float with it downstream, the ruse will 
often prove effective. 

The trout is a hard striker and it is 
not unusual to have a trout rush ahead 
of the fly in his attempt to mouth it. 
In rapid water the savage rush of the 
fish is sufficient to hook it securely, 



S3 



but when casting in quiet pools, the 
hook is imbedded by a snap of the 
wrist. At what exact moment to 
strike, as well as the amount of force 
to use, depends upon circumstances. 
When fishing in small streams and 
brooks where the trout run small, 
much less force is necessary to hook 
the fish, but in quiet water and in 
larger streams where 2 or 3-lb. trout 
are not uncommon, the fish may be 
struck with a smart upward jerk of the 
forearm and wrist. So far as my ex- 
perience goes, the matter of striking 
is governed by the temperament as 
well as the judgment of the angler. 
The deliberate thinking man is likely 
to strike too late, while the nervous 
individual, striking too early, is apt to 
prick the trout and roll him over. 

The best time to fish for trout is 
when they are feeding on the surface ; 
and in the early days of spring, when 
there are few flies about, the warmer 
part of the day, say, from 10 in the 
morning to 5 in the afternoon, will 
prove to be the most successful time. 
Later on, when flies are numerous, 
good luck may be expected at an early 
hour in the morning, and in the hot 
summer months the cooler hours of 
the day may be chosen. Of course, 
there are many exceptions, since there 
are many cool days in summer, as well 
as exceptionally warm days in spring, 
and these changes of weather should 
be considered. However, extremes are 
not likely to make good fishing, and 
the trout will not rise as freely on cold, 
windy days, nor will they fight as 
gamely. On hot days, too, not so 
much luck can be expected during the 
hours of the greatest heat — 13 to 4 — 
but a good basket of trout may be 
creeled early in the morning or late 
in the afternoon of summer. A bright, 
clear day is usually the best for fly 
fishing, because the sun brings out 
more flies, but a warm rain, or even a 
fog, is also considered good fishing 
weather. 

Among the live baits available for 
trout fishing are the minnow, white 
grub, cricket, grasshopper, and other 
insects, and last, but by no means least. 



the common angle or earthworm. The 
minnow is beyond a doubt the most 
enticing morsel that can be offered to a 
hungry trout, and a minnow may be 
reckoned to secure a rise when other 
baits fail. The inconvenience of trans- 
porting this bait is a great drawback, 
and as minnows are delicate fish, a 
minnow bucket is necessary for their 
preservation. This means a lot of 
trouble, as the water must be fre- 
quently changed or aerated, and this 
labor, together with the difficulty of 
carrying a bulky pail through the 
brush, makes this desirable bait almost 
impossible for stream and brook fish- 
ing. The salt-water minnow, known 
as a "shiner" or "mummychug," is a 
topnotch trout bait, and being much 
tougher than the fresh-water minnow, 
makes a bait often used by anglers re- 
siding near the seacoast. 

The white grub, or larvae of the so- 
called May beetle, is a good bait avail- 
able for early-season fishing, and may 
be obtained in the early spring months 
by spading up grass land. The grub 
is about 1 in. long, and of a creamy 
yellow color with a darker head. It 
may be kept a month, or more, by put- 
ting it in a box with a number of 
pieces of fresh turf. 

Crickets, grasshoppers, and many 
other insects, make good baits, while 
the earthworm is a good all-around 
bait for trout. A supply dug some 
days before and kept by packing in 
fresh moss and slightly moistening 
with milk and water will prove more 
attractive in appearance and the worms 
will be tougher and cleaner to handle 
than when carried in earth. 

Other good baits include the fin of 
a trout, and if this is used in combi- 
nation with the eye of the same fish, 
it forms an attractive lure. In using 
this bait, do not puncture the eyeball, 
but hook through the thin flexible skin 
surrounding the eye. A fat piece of 
salt pork, cut into pieces 1 in. long 
and 1/4 in. wide, makes a fairly good 
bait. Spoons and other spinning baits 
are presumably attractive, but few 
sportsmen use them when angling for 
so fine a fish as trout. 




84 












B^^ ioi^>v A . P ( M C flOl^^^s^ 



[In this article descriptions are given of several shelters suitable for a resort, but the reader 
may select any one of them that answers his needs and build a camp house, or fit up a more 
substantial one to make living quarters for the whole year. — Editor.] 



"DEING forced to take the open-air 
-'-' treatment to regain health, a per- 
son adopted the plan of building a pole 
house in the woods, and the scheme was 
so successful that it was decided to 
make a resort grounds, to attract 
crowds during holidays, by which an 
income could be realized for living ex- 
penses. All the pavilions, stands, fur- 
niture, and amusement devices were 
constructed of straight poles cut from 
young growth of timber with the bark 
remaining on them. Outside of boards 
for flooring and roofing material, the 
entire construction of the buildings and 
fences consisted of poles. 

A level spot was selected and a house 



built having three rooms. The location 
was in a grove of young timbers, most 
of it being straight, and 13 trees were 
easily found that would make posts 13 
ft. long, required for the sides, and two 
poles IG ft. long, for the center of the 
ends, so that they would reach to the 
ridge. The plot was laid out rectangu- 
lar and marked for the poles, which 
were set in the ground for a depth of 4 
ft., at distances of 6 ft. apart. This 
made the house 8 ft. high at the eaves 
with a square pitch roof ; that is, the 
ridge was 3 ft. high in the center from 
the plate surfaces for this width of a 
house. The rule for finding this height 
is to take one-quarter of the width of 




The Frame Construction of the House Made Entirely of Rough Poles, the Verticals being Set in the 
Ground, Plumbed, and Sighted to Make a Perfect Rectangle of the Desired Proportions 



85 



86 



the house for the height in the center 
from the plate. 

The corner poles were carefull)- lo- 




The Steps are Supported on Pairs ot Verlital Poles 
Set in the Ground to Make Different Levels 

cated to make the size 12 by 24 ft., with 
a lean-to 8 by 12 ft., and then plumbed 
to get them straight vertically. The 
plates for the sides, consisting of five 
poles, were selected as straight as pos- 
sible and their ends and centers hewn 
down to about one-half their thickness, 
as shown at A and B, and nailed to the 
tops of the vertical poles, the connec- 
tion for center poles being as shown 
at C. 

The next step was to secure the ver- 
tical poles with crosspieces between 
them which were used later for support- 
ing the siding. These poles were cut 
about 6 ft. long, their ends being cut 
concave to fit the curve of the upright 
poles, as shown at D. These were 
spaced evenly, about 3 ft. apart from 
center to center, on the sides and ends, 
as shown in the sketch, and toenailed 
in place. The doors and window open- 
ings were cut in the horizontal poles 
wherever wanted, and casements set 
in and nailed. The first row of horizon- 
tal poles was placed close to the ground 



and used both as support for the lower 
ends of the siding and to nail the ends 
of the flooring boards to, which were 
fastened in the center to poles laid on 
stones, or, better still, placed on top of 
short blocks. 5 ft. long, set in the 
ground. These poles for the floor 
should be placed not over 2 ft. apart 
to make the flooring solid. 

A lean-to was built by setting three 
poles at a distance of 8 ft. from one 
side, beginning at the center and ex- 
tending to the end of the main building. 
These poles were about 6 ft. long above 
the ground. The rafter poles for this 
part were about Oy^ ft. long, notched 
at both ends for the plates, the ends of 
the house rafters being sawed off even 
with the outside of the plate along this 
edge. The rafter poles for the house 
were 10 in all, 8 ft. long, and were laid 
off and cut to fit a ridge made of a 
board. These poles were notched 
about 15 in. from their lower ends to 
fit over the rounding edge of the plate 
pole, and were then placed directly over 
each vertical wall pole. They were 
nailed both to the plate and to the 
ridge, also further strengthened by a 
brace made of a piece of board or a 

SS3 E 




Gate Openings were Made in the Fence Where 

Necessary, and Gates of Poles Hung 

in the Ordinary Manner 

small pole, placed under the Tidge and 
nailed to both rafters. On top of the 
rafters boards were placed horizontally, 
spaced about 1 ft. apart, but this is 



87 



optional with the builder, as other roof- railing. It is very easy to make orna- 
ing material can be used. In this mental parts, such as shown, on the 
instance metal roofing was used, and eave of the porch, by splitting sticks 






%r^' 



^^iiw' .I'll 




it only required fastening at intervals, 
and to prevent rusting out, it was well 
painted on the under side before laying 
it and coated on the outside when fas- 
tened in place. If a more substantial 
shelter is wanted, it is best to lay the 
roof solid with boards, then cover it 
with the regular prepared roofing 
material. 

Some large trees were selected and 
felled, then cut into 4-ft. lengths and 
the bark removed, or if desired, the 
bark removed in 4-ft. lengths, and 
nailed on the outside of the poles, 
beginning at the bottom in the same 
manner as laying shingles, to form the 
siding of the house. If a more substan- 
tial house is wanted, boards can be 
nailed on the poles, then the bark fast- 
ened to the boards; also, the interior 
can be finished in wall board. 

The same general construction is 
used for the porch, with horizontal 
poles latticed, as shown, to form the 



All Furniture, Together with the Large Lawn 
Swings, Took on the General Appearance of the 
Woodland, and As the Pieces were Made Up 
of the Same Material As the Houses, the 
Cost Was Only the Labor and a Few Nails 



and nailing them on closely together 
to make a frieze. Floors are laid on the 
porch and in the house, and doors hung 
and window sash fitted in the same 
manner as in an ordinary house. 

A band stand was constructed on 
sloping ground, and after setting the 
poles, the floor horizontals were placed 
about 2 ft. above the ground, on the 
upper side, and 4 ft. on the lower side. 
I'he poles used were about 18 ft. long. 
Instead of having the horizontals 3 ft. 
apart, the first was placed 1 ft. above 
the floor, the next at about one-half the 
distance from the lower one to the plate 
at the top, and the space between was 
ornamented with cross poles, as shown. 
iV balcony or bay was constructed at 
one end, and a fancy roof was made of 
poles whose ends rested on a curved 
pole attached to the vertical pieces. 
Steps were formed of several straight 
poles, hewn down on their ends to make 
a level place to rest on horizontal pieces 



88 



attached to stakes at the ends. A pair 
of stakes were used at each end of a 
step, and these were fastened to a slant- 
ing piece at the top, their lower ends 
being set into the ground. The manner 
of bracing and crossing with horizon- 
tals makes a rigid form of construction, 
and if choice poles are selected for the 
step pieces, they will be comparatively 
level and of sufficient strength to hold 
up all the load put on them. The roof 
of this building was made for a sun 



TOP OF POST 





■-|#,'K 




,^4^>^Wi 



The Entrance to the Grounds was Given an Inviting 
Appearance with Large Posts and Swinging Gates 

shade only and consisted of boards 
nailed closely together on the rafters. 

An ice-cream parlor was built on the 
same plan, but without any board floor ; 
the ground, being level, was used 
instead. There were five vertical poles 
used for each end with a space left 
between the two poles at the center, on 
both sides, for an entrance. This build- 
ing was covered with prepared roofing. 



so that the things kept for sale could 
be protected in case of a shower. 

A peanut stand was also built with- 
out a floor, and to make it with nine 
sides, nine poles were set in the ground 
to form a perfect nonagon and joined 
at their tops with latticed horizontals. 
Then a rafter was run from the top of 
each post to the center, and boards were 
fitted on each pair of rafters over the 
V-shaped openings. The boards were 
then covered with prepared roofing. 
A railing was formed of horizontals 
set in notches, cut in the posts, and then 
ornamented in the same manner as for 
the other buildings. 

Fences were constructed about the 
grounds, made of pole posts with hori- 
zontals on top, hewn down and fitted 
as the plates for the house ; and the 
lower pieces were set in the same as 
for making the house railing. Gates 
were made of two vertical pieces, the 
height of the posts, and two horizon- 
tals, then braced with a piece running 
from the lower corner at the hinge side 
to the upper opposite corner, the other 
cross brace being joined to the sides of 
the former, whereupon two short hori- 
zontals were fitted in the center. A 
blacksmith formed some hinges of rods 
and strap iron, as shown, and these 
were fastened in holes bored in the post 
and the gate vertical. A latch was made 
by boring a hole through the gate ver- 
tical and into the end of the short piece. 
Then a slot was cut in the side to re- 
ceive a pin inserted in a shaft made to 
fit the horizontal hole. A keeper was 
made in the post by boring a hole to 
receive the end of the latch. 

Large posts were constructed at the 
entrance to the grounds, and on these 
double swing gates, made up in the 
same manner as the small one, were 
attached. These large posts were built 
up of four slender poles and were con- 
siderably higher than the fence poles. 
The poles were set in a perfect square, 
having sides about 18 in. long, and a 
square top put on by mitering the cor- 
ners, whereupon four small rafters were 
fitted on top. The gates were swung 
on hinges made like those for the small 
gate. 



89 



Among the best and most enjoyed 
amusement devices on the grounds 
were the swings. Several of these were 
built, with and without tables. Four 
poles, about 20 ft. long, were set in the 
ground at an angle, and each pair of 
side poles was joined with two horizon- 
tals, about 13 ft. long, spreaders being 
fastened between the two horizontals 
to keep the tops of the poles evenly 
spaced. The distance apart of the poles 
will depend on the size of the swing 
and the number of persons to be seated. 
Each pair of side poles are further 
strengthened with crossed poles, as 
shown. If no table is to be used in 
the swing, the poles may be set closer 
together, so that the top horizontals 
will be about 8 ft. long. The platform 
for the swinging part consists of two 
poles, 12 ft. long, which are swung on 
six vertical poles, about 14 ft. long. 
These poles are attached to the top hor- 



izontals with long bolts, or rods, run- 
ning through both, the bottom being 
attached in the same manner. Poles 
are nailed across the platform horizon- 
tals at the bottom for a floor, and a 
table with seats at the ends is formed 
of poles. The construction is obvious. 

A short space between two trees can 
be made into a seat by fastening two 
horizontals, one on each tree, with the 
ends supported by braces. Poles are 
nailed on the upper surface for a seat. 

Other furniture for the house and 
grounds was made of poles in the man- 
ner illustrated. Tables were built for 
picnickers by setting four or six poles 
in the ground and making a top of poles 
or boards. Horizontals were placed 
across the legs with extending ends, on 
which seats were made for the tables. 
Chairs and settees were built in the 
same manner, poles being used for the 
entire construction. 



An Electric Water Heater 



Procure the barrel and cap from a 
hand bicycle pump and prepare them 
as follows : Make a tube of paper, about 
double the thickness of a postal card, 
to fit snugly in the pump barrel and oil 
it slightly before slipping it into place. 
Procure some resistance wire of the 
proper length and size to heat quickly. 
The wire can be tested out by coiling it 
on some nonconducting material, such 
as an earthen jug or glazed tile, and 
connecting one end to the current 
supply and running the other wire of 
the supply over the coil until it heats 
properly. Cut the resistance at this 
point and temporarily coil it to fit into 
the bottom of the pump barrel, allowing 
one end to extend up through the space 
in the center with sufficient length to 
make a connection to supply wires. 

Mix some dental plaster to the con- 
sistency of thick cream and, while keep- 
ing the wire in the center of the pump 
barrel, pour in the mixture until it is 
filled to within ly^ i"- of the top. Al- 
low the plaster to set for about a day, 
then remove it from the barrel and take 
off the paper roll. The coil of wire at 



the bottom is now straightened out and 
wound in a coil over the outside of the 
plaster core, allowing sufficient end for 
connecting to the supply wires. 

Cut two or three disks of mica to 
fit snugly in the bottom of the pump 
barrel, also cut a mica sheet to make a 
covering tube over the coil on the plas- 
ter core and insert the whole into the 
barrel. The two terminals are con- 
nected to the ends of a flexible cord 
wdiich has a plug attached to the oppo- 
site end. Be sure to insulate the ends 
of the wire where they connect to the 
flexible cord inside of the pump barrel 
under the cap. In winding the resist- 



An Electric Heating Coil Made 'of Resistance Wire 

Placed in a Bicycle-Pump Barrel 

for Boiling Water 

ance wire on the core, be sure that one 
turn does not touch the other. The 
heater when connected to a current 
supply and placed in 1 qt. of water will 
bring it to a boil quickly. — Contributed 
by A. H. Waychoff, Lyons, Colo. 



90 




A good site, pure water in 
dance, and a convenient fuel supply, 
are the features of a temporary camp 
that should be given first considera- 
tion when starting out to enjoy a va- 
cation in the woods. The site should 
be high and dry, level enough for the 
tent and camp hre, and with surround- 
ing ground sloping enough to insure 
proper drainage. A sufficient fuel 
supply is an important factor, and a 
spot should be chosen where great ef- 
fort is not required to collect it and 
get it into proper shape for the fire. 

When locating near streams of 
water be careful to select a spot above 



By F. S. CHARLES 
abun- If the camping party consists of more 



than two persons, each one should do 
the part allotted to him, and the work 
will be speedily accomplished. Re- 
member that discipline brings effi- 
ciency, and do not be slack about a 
camp just because it is pleasure. One 
of the party should attend to the camp 
fire and prepare the meals while an- 
other secures the fuel and water. The 
tent can be unpacked and the ground 
cleared by the other members of the 
party, and when ready, all should as- 
sist in raising the tent, especially if it 
is a large one. 

Tents 

An ordinary A or wedge tent is suf- 
ficient for one or two campers. Where 
you do not wish to locate permanently, 
this tent can be set up and taken down 
quickly. It should have a ring fas- 
tened to the cloth in each peak through 
which to pass a 
rope or line to 
take the place of 
a ridge pole. 
Such a tent can 
be pitched be- 




not be overflowed 
by a sudden rise 
of the stream. Do 
not select the site 
of an old camp, as 
are usually stripped 
the grounds are unclean. 

Division of Work 

Clear the selected spot and lay out 
the lines for the tent, camp fire, etc. 



Lean To of Boughs 

the surroundings 
of all fuel, and 



Log Cabin 



91 




Fire between Two Log: 



Fire Built against a Log 



tween two trees or saplings, and, after 
tying the rope to the trees, it can be 
tightened with a long forked stick, 
placed under one end of the rope. If 
two trees are not conveniently located, 
then two poles crossed and tied to- 
gether will make supports for one or 
both ends, the ridge line running over 
them and staked to the ground. 

On a chilly night, the A tent is quite 
advantageous. The stakes can be 
pulled on one side and the cloth 
doubled to make a lean-to, open on the 
side away from the wind. A fire can 
be built in front and the deflected heat 
on the sleeper will keep him comfort- 
able and warm. 

For larger parties, the wall tent with 
a fly is recommended. These tents can 
be purchased in various sizes. The fly 
is an e.xtra covering stretched over the 
top to make an open air space between 
the two roofs. It keeps the interior of 
the tent delightfully cool in hot sum- 
mer weather and provides a better pro- 
tection from rain. The fly can be made 
extra long, to extend over the end of 
the tent, making a shady retreat which 
can be used for lounging or a dining 
place. 

Protection from Insects 

Where mosquitoes and other insects 
are numerous, it is well to make a 
second tent of cheesecloth with bind- 
ing tape along the top to tie it to the 
ridge pole of the regular tent. The 
sides should be made somewhat longer 
than the regular tent so that there will 
be plenty of cloth to weight it down 



at the bottom. This second tent 
should be made without any opening 
whatever. The occupant must crawl 
under the edge to enter. The cheese- 
cloth tent is used inside of the ordi- 
nary tent, and when not in use it is 
pushed aside. 

Two camps are illustrated showing 
the construction of a lean-to for a tem- 
porary one-season camp, and a log 
cabin which makes a permanent place 
from year to year. (A more elaborate 
and more expensive camp was de- 
scribed in the May issue of this maga- 
zine.) The construction of these 
camps are very simple. The first is 
made of poles cut in the woods. A 
ridge pole is placed between two trees 
or held in place with poles of sufficient 




Forked Sticks Supporting Cooking Utensils 

length, set in the ground. Poles are 
placed on this at an angle of about 4-5 
deg., forming a lean-to that will be en- 



92 



tirely open in front when finished. The 
poles are covered, beginning- at the 
bottom, with pine boughs, laid in lay- 
ers so as to make a roof that will shed 
water. A large fire, built a short dis- 
tance from the open front will make a 
warm place to sleep, the heat being re- 
flected down the same as described for 
the A tent. 

A Permanent Camp 
A good permanent camp is a log 
cabin. This can be constructed of ma- 
terials found in the woods. Trees may 
be felled, cut to length, and notched to 
join the ends together at each corner 
so as to leave little or no space be- 
tween the logs. The roof is con- 
structed of long clapboards, split from 
blocks of wood. The builder can fin- 
ish such a camp as elaborately as he 
chooses, and for this reason the site 
should be selected with great care. 

Camp Fires 

There is no better way to make a 
camp fire than to have a large log or 
two against which to start a fire with 
small boughs. Larger sticks can be 
placed over the logs in such a way as 
to hold a pot of water or to set a fry- 
ing pan. Forked sticks can be laid on 
the log and weighted on the lower end 
with a stone, using the upper end to 
hang a cooking vessel over the flames. 
Two logs placed parallel, with space 
enough between for the smaller sticks, 
make one of the best camp cooking ar- 



rangements. Two forked sticks, one 
at each end of the logs, may be set 
in the ground and a pole placed in the 
forks lengthwise of the fire. This 
makes a convenient place for hanging 
the cooking utensils with bent wires. 

Food Supplies 

The conditions in various localities 
make a difference in the camper's ap- 
petite and in consequence no special 
list of food can be recommended, but 
the amount needed by the average 
person in a vacation camp for two 
weeks, is about as follows: 



Bacon 151b. 

Ham 5 ■ 

Flour 20 •■ 

Corn Meal 5 " 

Rice 5 •■ 



Baking Powder % lb. 

Sugar 5 " 

Beans 4 '* 

Salt 2 ■• 

Lard 3 " 



Coftee 31b. 

A number of small things must be 
added to this list, such as pepper, olive 
oil, sage, nutmeg and vinegar. If the 
weight is not to be considered, canned 
goods, preserves, jam and marmalade, 
also vegetables and dried fruits may 
be added. Do not forget soap and 
matches. 

Food can be kept cool in a box or 
a box-like arrangement made of 
straight sticks over which burlap is 
hung and kept wet. This is accom- 
plished by setting a pan on top of the 
box and fixing wicks of cloth over the 
edges. The wicks will siphon the 
water out evenly and keep the burlap 
wet. 



A Drinking Tube 

When on a walking tour through the 
woods or country, it might be well to 
provide a way to procure water for 
drinking purposes. Take with you 
several feet of small rubber tubing and 
a few inches of hollow cane of the size 
to fit the tube. 

In one end insert the cane for a 
mouthpiece, and allow the other end 
to reach into the water. Exhaust the 
air from the tube and the water will 
rush up to your lips. — ^Contributed by 
L. Alberta iSTorrell, Augusta, Ga. 



Washing Photographic Prints 

The usual way of washing photo- 
graphic prints is to place them in a 
shallow tray in which they will be- 
come stuck together in bunches, if 
they are not often separated. A 
French magazine suggests that a deep 
tank be used instead, and that each 
print be attached to a cork by means 
of a pin stuck through one corner, the 
cork thus becoming a float which keeps 
the print suspended vertically, and at 
the same time prevents contact with 
its nearest neighbor. 



93 



Camp Furnishings 

By CHELSEA CURTIS FRASER 



When on a camping trip nothing 
should be carried but the necessities, 
and the furnishings should be made up 
from materials found in the woods. A 
good spring bed can be made up in the 
following manner : Cut two stringers 
from small, straight trees, about 4 in. 
in diameter, and make them about 6 ft. 
long. All branches are trimmed off 
smooth and a trench is dug in the 
ground for each piece, the trenches 
being S4 in. apart. Small saplings, 
about 1 in. in diameter, and as straight 
as can be found, are cut and trimmed of 
all branches, and nailed across the 
stringers for the springs. Knots, bulges, 
etc., should be turned downward as far 
as possible. The ends of each piece 
are flattened as shown at A, Fig. 1, to 
give it a good seat on the stringers. 

A larger sapling is cut, flattened, and 
nailed at the head of the bed across the 
stringers, and to it a number of head- 
stay saplings, B, are nailed. These 
head-stay pieces are cut about 12 in. 
long, sharpened on one end and driven 
a little way into the ground, after which 
they are nailed to the head crosspiece. 

In the absence of an empty mattress 
tick and pillow cover which can be 
filled with straw, b(TUghs of fir may be 
used. These boughs should not be 
larger than a match and crooked stems 
should be turned down. Begin at the 
head of the bed and lay a row of boughs 




A Camp Bed Made of Saplings with Several Layers 
of Boughs for the Mattress 

with the stems pointing toward the 
foot. Over this row. and half-lapping 
it, place another row so that the tops of 



the boughs lie on the line C and their 
stems on the line D. This process is 
continued until the crosspiece springs 
are entirely covered, and then another 
layer is laid in the same manner on top 




Fig. 3 

A Table Made of Packing-Box Material and a 
Wash Basin Stand of Three Stakes 

of these, and so on, until a depth of 6 
or 8 in. is obtained. This will make a 
good substitute for a mattress. A pil- 
low can be made by filling a meal bag 
with boughs or leaves. 

A good and serviceable table can be 
constructed from a few fence boards, or 
boards taken from a packing box. The 
table and chairs are made in one piece, 
the construction being clearly shown in 
Fig. 2. The height of the ends should 
be about 29 in., and the seats about 17 
in. from the ground. The other dimen- 
sions will be governed by the material 
at hand and the number of campers. 

A wash-basin support can be made of 
three stakes, cut from saplings and 
driven in the ground, as shown in 
Fig. 3. The basin is hung by its rim 
between the ends of the stakes. 

Wherever a suitable tree is handy, a 
seat can be constructed as shown in 
Fig. 4. Bore two 1-in. holes, 8 in. 
apart, in the trunk, 1.5 in. above the 
ground, and drive two pins, about 13 
in. long, cut from a sapling into them. 
The extending ends are supported on 
legs of the same material. The seat is 
made of a slab with the rounding side 
down. 

A clothes hanger for the tent ridge 



94 



pole can be made as shown in Fig. 5. 
The hang-er consists of a piece, 7 in. 
long, cut from a 2-in. sapling, nails be- 







Fg4 """iS 

A Seat Against the Trunk of a Tree, and a Clothes 
Hanger for the Tent Ridge Pole 

ing driven into its sides for hooks. The 
upper end is fitted with a rope which is 
tied over the ridge pole of the tent. 



A Fruit Stemmer 

In the berry season the stemmer 
shown in the sketch is a very handy 
article for the 
kitchen. It is 
made of spring 
steel and tem- 
pered, the length 
^^. being about 2% 
in. The end 
used for removing the stem is ground 
from the outside edge after tempering. 
A ring large enough to admit the sec- 
ond finger is soldered at a convenient 
distance from the end on one leg. — 
Contributed by H. F. Reams, Nashville, 
Tennessee. 




a i^jj-iu- hole in the center of the wood 
plug and fit another plug into this hole 
with sufficient end projecting to be 
shaped for the length of the steel pen 
to be used. The shank of the pen and 
the plug must enter the hole together. 
One side of the projecting end of the 
plug should be shaped to fit the inside 
surface of the pen and then cut off at 
a point a little farther out than the eye 
in the pen. On the surface that is to 
lie against the pen a groove is cut in 
the plug extending from near the point 
to the back end where it is to enter 
the hole in the first plug. The under 
side of the plug is shaped about as 
shown. 

The other cartridge is cut off at such 
a point that it will fit on the tapering 
end of the first one, and is used for a 
cap. The cartridge being filled with 
ink and the plug inserted, the ink will 
flow down the small groove in the 
feeder plug and supply the pen with 
ink. Care'must be taken that the sur- 
face of the smaller plug fits the pen 
snugly and that the groove is not cut 
through to the point end. This will 
keep the ink from flooding, and only 
that which is used for writing will be 
able to get through or leak out. — Con- 
tributed by Edwin N. Harnish, Ceylon, 
Canada. 



A Homemade Fountain Pen 

A very serviceable fountain pen can 
be made from two 38-72 rifle cartridges 
and a steel pen. Clean out the cart- 
ridges, fit a hardwood plug tightly in 




One Cartridge Shell Makes the Fountain Part of the 
Pen, and the Other the Cap 

the end of one shell, and cut it off 
smooth with the end of the metal. Drill 



Destroying Caterpillars on 
Grapevines 

The grapes in my back yard were 
being destroyed by caterpillars which 
could be found under all the large 
leaves. The vine was almost dead when 
I began to cut off all the large leaves 
and "those eaten by the caterpillars, 
which allowed the sun's rays to reach 
the grapes. This destroyed all the 
caterpillars and the light and heat 
ripened the grapes. — Contributed by 
Wm. Singer, Rahway, N. J. 

CIt will require 1 gal. of ordinary 
mixed calcimine to cover 370 sq. ft. of 
plastered surface, 180 sq. ft. of brick- 
work and 225 sq. ft. of average wood- 
work. 



95 



A Camp Provision Box 



While on a camping and canoeing 
trip recently, I used a device which 
added a touch of completeness to our 
outfit and made camp life really enjoy- 
able. This useful device is none other 
than a provision or "grub" box. 

From experience campers know that 
the first important factor in having a 
successful trip is compactness of out- 
fit. When undertaking an outing of 
this kind it is most desirable to have 
as few bundles to 
carry as possible, 
especially if one is 
going to be on the 
move part of the 
time. This device 
eliminates an un- 
necessary amount 
of bundles, thus 
making the trip 
easier for the 
campers, and 
doubly so if they 
intend canoeing 
part of the time ; 
and, apart from its 
usefulness as a provision container, 
it affords a general repository for the 
small articles which mean so much to 
the camper's welfare. 

The box proper may be made of any 
convenient size, so long as it is not too 
cumbersome for two people to handle. 
The dimensions given are for a box I 




The Provision Box Ready for Use in Camp, 

the Cover Turned Back on the Brackets 

and the Legs Extended 



larger box is much to be preferred. A 
glance at the figures will show the 
general proportions of the box. It may 
be possible, in some cases, to secure a 
strong packing box near the required 
dimensions, thus doing away with the 
trouble of constructing it. The dis- 
tinguishing features of this box are the 
hinged cover, the folding legs, and the 
folding brackets. The brackets, upon 
which the top rests when open, fold in 
against the back 
of the box when 
not in use. The 
same may be said 
of the legs. They 
fold up alongside 
the box and are 
held there by 
spring-brass clips. 
On our trips we 
carry an alcohol 
stove on which we 
do all of our cook- 
ing. The inner 
side of the top is 
covered with a 
sheet of asbestos, this side being upper- 
most when the hinged top is opened 
and resting on the folding brackets. 
The stove rested on this asbestos, thus 
making everything safe. The cover is 
large enough to do all the cooking on, 
and the box is so high that the cooking 
can be attended to without stooping 














J^f^,^...n:, 




\ B a \ 


LEG AGAINST BOX END \ 


1 i 

A- - -A' 




^ 

f 


SIDE 






The Brackets for the Cover as "Well as Each of the Four Legs Fold Against the Sides of the Box in Such a Manner 
as to be Out of the Way, Making the Box Easy to Carry and Store Away in a Small Space 

used on a canoe trip of several hundred over, which is much more pleasant 
miles; and from experience I know it than squatting before a camp fire get- 
to be of a suitable size for canoeists, ting the eyes full of smoke. The legs 
If the camper is going to have a fixed are hinged to the box in such a man- 
camp and have his luggage hauled, a ner that all of the weight of the box 



96 



rests on the legs rather than on the 
hinges, and are kept from spreading 
apart by wire turnbuckles. These, be- 
ing just bolts and wire, may be tucked 
inside the box when on the move. The 




BUTTON TO 
HOLD BRACKCTS 



Detail of the Turnbuckle, Button to Hold the Brackets, 
and the Spring Clip for Holding the Legs on the 
Side of the Box 

top is fitted with unexposed hinges and 
with a lock to make it a safe place for 
storing valuables. 

In constructing the cover it is well 
to make it so that it covers the joints 
of the sides, thus making the box 
waterproof from the top, if rain should 
fall on it. A partition can be made in 
one end to hold odds and ends. A tray 
could be installed, like the tray in a 
trunk, to hold knives, forks, spoons, 
etc., while the perishable supplies are 
kept und'erneath the tray. Give the 
box two coats of lead paint, and shellac 
the inside. 

The wire braces for the legs are 
made as follows. Procure four ma- 
chine bolts, about 1/4 in. in diameter and 
2 in. long — any thread will do — with 
wing nuts and washers to fit. Saw or 
file off the heads and drill a small hole 
in one end of each bolt, large enough 
to receive a No. 16 galvanized iron 
wire. Two inches from the bottom of 
each leg drill a hole to take the bolt 
loosely. Determine the exact distance 
between the outside edges of the legs 
when the box is resting on them. Make 
the wire braces 1 in. longer than this 
distance so that the bolts will protrude 
through the holes in the legs and allow 
for putting on the nuts and washers. 
Screwing up on the nuts draws the 
wire taut, thus holding the legs firm. 

The size of the top determines the 
dimensions of the folding brackets 
which support it when open. These 
brackets may be solid blocks of wood, 
but a lighter and more serviceable 
bracket is constructed as follows. If 
the top is 20 in. wide and 30 in. long, 



make the brackets 10 by 13 in. Con- 
structing the brackets so that their 
combined length is 4 in. shorter than 
the total length of the box, facilitates 
their folding against the back of the box 
when not in use. This point is clearly 
shown in the drawing. Our brackets 
were made of V^-in. oak, li/> in. wide, 
and the joints halved together. They 
are hinged to the back of the bo.x as 
shown ; and when folded are held in 
place by a simple catch. The weight 
of the lid is sufficient to hold the brack- 
ets in place when open, but to make 
sure they will not creep when in use in- 
sert a i/4-iu. dowel in the end of each so 
that it protrudes ^4 in. Drill two holes 
in the top to the depth of ^4 in., so that 
when the top rests on the brackets, 
these holes engage with the dowels. 
In hinging the brackets to the back see 
that they are high enough to support 
the lid at right angles to the box. 

The box here shown is made of % 
in. white pine throughout. The legs 
are Yg by 2yo by 18 in. They are fast- 
ened to the box with ordinary strap 
hinges. When folded up against the 
box they do not come quite to the top 
so that the box should be at least 19 
in. high for 18-in. legs. About 2 in. 
from the bottom of the legs drive in a 
brad so it protrudes Vs in. as shown. 
This brad engages in a hole in the 
spring-brass clip when folded up as 
shown in the illustration. 

If in a fixed camp, it is a good idea 
to stand the legs in tomato cans partly 
full of water. This prevents ants from 
crawling up the legs into the box, but 
it necessitates placing the wire braces 
higher on the legs. 

Our box cost us nothing but the 
hardware, as we knocked some old 
packing boxes to pieces and planed up 
enough boards to make the sides. Of 
course, the builder need not adhere to 
these dimensions, for he can make the 
size to suit his requirements, while the 
finish is a matter of personal taste. 



CA blue writing ink is easily made of 
1 oz. Prussian blue, II/2 oz. oxalic acid 
and 1 pt. of soft water. Shake and 
allow it to stand until dissolved. 



97 



Wall Pockets in a Tent 

When camping I find a few wall 
pockets sewed to the tent walls at the 
back end provide a convenient means 
to hold the soap, mirror, razor and 
other small articles liable to be lost. 
The pockets can be made of the same 
material as the tent and sewed on as a 
patch pocket. — Contributed by A. M. 
Barnes, Atlanta, Ga. 



Camp Stoves 

The camp stoves illustrated are dif- 
ferent forms of the same idea. Both 
can be taken apart and laid flat for 
packing. Iron rods, i/o in. in diameter, 
are used for the legs. They are 
sharpened at the lower end so that 
they may be easily driven into the 
ground. The rods of the one shown 
in the first illustration are bent in 
the form of a hook at the upper end, 
and two pieces of light tire iron, with 
holes in either end, are hung on these 




i'VZ^ 



Camp-Stove Top, Either Solid or Pieced, Supported 
on Hods at the Corners 

hooks. Across these supports are 
laid other pieces of the tire iron. In 
the other stove, the rods have a large 
head and are slipped through holes in 
the four corners of the piece of heavy 
sheet iron used for the top. A cotter 
is slipped through a hole in each rod 
just jjelow the top, to hold the latter 
in place. — Contributed by Mrs. Lelia 
Munsell, Herington, Kansas. 



Attractor for Game Fish 

A piece of light wood, shaped as 
shown and with four small screweyes 
attached, makes a practical attractor 
for game fish, such as bass, etc., by its 
action when drawn through the water 



or carried by the flow of a stream 
Hooks are attached to three of the 
screweyes and the fourth one, on the 




A Device for Attracting Game Fish 
Which is Used in Place of Bait 



sloping surface, is used for the line. — 
Contributed by Arthur Vogel, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 



Simple Photographic-Print Washer 

The ordinary washbowl supplied 
with a faucet may be easily converted 
into a washing tray for photographic 
prints or film negatives. Procure a 
medicine dropper from a druggist, and 
attach it to the faucet end with a short 
piece of rubber tubing. Be sure to 
procure a dropper that has the point 
turned at right angles to the body. 

The Whirling Motion (-0 
U^Set Up by the Forced ^^ 
^ Stream at an Angle _ 

Thoroughly Washes j?^^^ 
^ Prints ^ 




When the water is turned on it is 
forced through the small opening in 
the dropper in such a manner that the 
water in the bowl is kept in a constant 
whirling motion. This will keep the 
prints on the move, which is necessary 
for a thorough washing. 



98 



How to Make an Electric Fishing 
Signal 

A unique electric fishing signal, 
which may be rigged up on a wharf 
or pier, and the electric circuit so ar- 




Construction of the Parts to Make the Contact Points 
and the Electric Connections 

ranged as to operate an electric bell 
or buzzer, located in the fisherman's 
cottage, or any other convenient place, 
may be constructed as follows: Ob- 
tain two pieces of iV-in. spring brass, 
one 6 in. long and % in. wide, and the 
other 7 in. long and i/o in. wide. Mount 
a 2-in. brass wood screw, A, in one 
end of the (l-in. piece as shown. 

Place over the end of the 6-in. piece 
a thin sheet of insulating fiber, B, al- 
lowing it to extend down on each side 
about 1 in. Then bend a piece of iV-in. 
brass, C, over the insulating fiber, al- 
lowing it to extend down on each side 
the same distance as the insulating 
fiber. Drill a small hole through the 
lower ends of the U-shaped piece of 
brass, C, the insulation, B, and the 
6-in. piece, while they are all in place. 
Remove the insulation and the U- 
shaped brass piece, and tap the holes 
in the brass for a machine screw, D. 
Enlarge the hole in the G-in piece, and 
provide an insulating bushing for it 
with an opening of the same diameter 
as the brass machine screw. Mount 
a small binding post, E, on one side of 
the U-shaped piece of brass, and the 
parts may then be put together and 



held in place by means of the brass 
screw. 

Drill two holes in the other end of 
the 6-in piece, also two holes in one 
end of the 7-in piece, and rivet them 
together with two small rivets. The 
7-in. piece should project beyond the 
end of the 6-in. piece. A piece of thin 
spring brass should be made into the 
form of a spiral, F, and fastened to 
the upper end of the 7-in. piece. Pro- 
vision should be made for attaching 
the fishline to the inside end of the 
brass spiral. A small binding post 
should be soldered to either the 6-in. 
or 7-in. piece, at the bottom. 

If the device is set up with the head 
of the brass adjusting screw in the top 
of the 6-in. piece, pointing in the di- 
rection the line to the fishing hook is 
to run, and if a fish pulls upon the 
line, the 7-in. piece is pulled over and 
touches the point of the adjusting 
screw. If a battery and bell, or l)uzzer, 
is connected as shown, the circuit will 
be completed when the 7-in. piece 
comes in contact with the adjusting 
screw, and the bell will rinaf. 



A Chair Swing 

A comfortable porch or lawn swing 
can be easily and quickly made with 
a chair as a seat, as follows. Procure 
some rope of sufficient strength to bear 




The Ropes are Tied to the Chair so That It will be 
Held in a Reclining Position 

the weight of the person, and fasten 
one end securely to one of the front 
legs of the chair and the other end to 
the same side of the back as shown 



99 



in the illustration, allowing enough 
slack to form a right angle. Another 
piece of rope, of the same length, is 
then attached to the other side of the 
chair. The supporting ropes are tied 
to these ropes and to the joist or hold- 
ing piece overhead. — Contributed by 
\Vm. A. Robinson, Waynesboro, Pa. 



Another Broom Holder 

Of the many homemade devices for 
holding a broom this is one of the 
simplest, and one that any 
handy boy can make. 

It consists of a string, 
about 1 ft. long, with a 
knot at one end and the 
other tied to a nail or 
staple driven into the wall. 
To hang up the broom 
simply turn the string 
around the handle as 
shown, and the broom will 
be held securely, because 
its weight will pull the 
string taut and the knot at the end 
will prevent the string from running 
off the handle. — Contributed by Jef 
De Vries, Antwerp, Belgium. 




Squaring Wood Stock 

The device shown in the sketch is 
a great help to the maker of mission 
furniture as a guide on short cuts. It 




The Saw Teeth Edge can be Run through Both 
Pieces, the Stock being in the Corner 

consists of two pieces of wood, A and 
B, preferably of oak, fastened together 
at right angles by two large flat-head 
screws. The pieces should be placed 
exactly at right angles. 

A cut is then made through both 
pieces. The cut on B should be ex- 
actly at right angles to the surface of 
piece A. This device can be either 
clamped on a board or merely held 
by hand, and will insure a true cut. — 
Contributed by F. W. Pumphrey, 
Owensboro, Ky. 



A Wind Vane 



A novelty in wind vanes is shown 
in the accompanying sketch. The 
vane can be made of sheet metal 
or carved from light wood. The ^"°" 
wings are so set on the body as to 
cause the dragon to rise when the 
wind strikes them. The dragon is 
pivoted on a shaft running through 
its center of gravity, so it will read- 
ily turn with the wind. The tail 
part may also be made to revolve 
as the propeller of an aeroplane. 

The length and size of the shaft 
will depend on the dimen- 
sions of the dragon, and 
similarly, the location of 
the weights on the chains 
will be determined by its size and 
weight. Upon these circumstances 
'and the varying velocities of the wind 
will depend how high the dragon 




will rise on its shaft, and the height 
reached by it will thus serve to in- 
(p ^ dicate — in a relative manner only 
' . — the velocity of the wind, but it 
is also possible to arrange the 
weights at such distances apart that 
C the dragon will rise to A in a SO-mile 
wind, to B in a 30-mile wind, to C 
in a 40-mile gale, and so on, with 
B as many weights as desired. This 
can be done with the aid of an 
anemometer, if one can be borrowed 
for some time, or the device may 
be taken to the 
nearest weather 
bureau to be 
set. — Contrib- 
uted by H. J. Ilolden, Ontario, Cal. 



CNever rock a file — push it straight on 
filing work. 



100 



How to Make a Flutter Ring 

The flutter ring is for inclosing in 
an envelope and to surprise the per- 
son opening it by the revolving of the 



(T 




The Shape of the Wire and Manner of Attaching the 
Rubber Bands to the Ring 

ring. The main part is made of a 
piece of wire, A, bent so that the 
depth will be about 2 in. and the 
length 4 in. Procure or make a ring, 
2 in. in diameter. The ring should 
be open like a key ring. Use two 
rubber bands, BB, in connecting the 
ring to the wire. 

To use it, turn the ring over re- 
peatedly, until the rubber bands are 
twisted tightly, then lay it flat in a 
paper folded like a letter. Hand it 
to someone in this shape or after first 
putting it into an envelope. When 
the paper is opened up, the ring will 
do the rest. — Contributed by D. 
Andrew McComb, Toledo, O. 



A Kitchen Utensil Hanger 

Every cook knows how trouble- 
some it is to have several things hang- 
ing on one nail. When one of the 
articles is wanted it is usually at the 
back, and the others must be removed 
to secure it. A revolving rack for 
hanging a can opener, egg beater and 
cooking spoons, etc., takes up less 



« I 



■I' 




The Hook Support Revolves so as to Make Each One 
Readily Accessible for Hanging Utensils 

space than several nails, and places 
every article within easy reach as well 
as providing individual hooks for all 
the pieces. 

The rack is easily made of a block 
of wood, 2V2 in. in diameter and 1 in. 



thick ; an arm, % in. wide, Yi in. thick 
and 6 in. long, and a metal bracket. 
The arm is fastened to the bracket 
and the bracket to the wall. A screw 
is turned through a loose-fitting hole 
bored in the end of the arm and into 
the disk. Screw hooks are placed 
around the edge of the dish as hang- 
ers. — Contributed by A. R. Moore, 
Toronto, Can. 



Homemade Hinges for Boxes 

A very simple form of hinge can be 
made as shown in the sketch. It is 
merely a matter of cutting out two 
pieces of flat steel, A, punching holes 
in them for screws or nails, and fas- 
tening them to the box corners, one 
on each side. When the box is open, 
the lid swings back clear and is out 





Hinge Parts Made of Sheet Metal and Their Use on 
a Box Cover 

of the way. A hinge of this kind is 
very strong. For a light box, the parts 
can be cut from tin. — Contributed by 
Chas. Homewood, Waterloo, Iowa. 



To Remove Odors from Ice Boxes 

An easy way to prevent odors in an 
ice box is to place a can of coke in 
the box. This will take up all gases 
and prevent milk from tasting of 
onions or vegetables which may be 
kept in the box. 

In factories where bad odors are apt 
to spoil the men's lunches put up in 
pails or baskets, a box can be con- 
structed to hold these receptacles and 
a large pail of coke placed in it. Any- 
thing placed in this box will remain 
free from odors, and fresh. — Contrib- 
uted by Loren Ward, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 



101 



Preventing Window Sash from 
Freezing to the Sill 

When it is cold enough to cause the 
window sash to freeze fast in the bath- 
room and bedrooms not having double 
sash, much discomfort will be expe- 
rienced and the health may even be 
menaced. I have discovered a simple 
method to overcome this difficulty. 
Lay on the outside sill, close up 
against the window frame, a thin, nar- 
row strip of wood, on which the 
window can rest when down. This 
gives a continual current of fresh air 
between the sashes at the center, but 
no unpleasant draft l^elow, and no 
amount of dripping and freezing will 
fasten the window sash upon it. — Con- 
tributed by Mary Murry, Amherst, 
Nova Scotia. 



A Hanger for the Camp 

A garment, or utensil, hanger can 
be easily made for the camp in the 
following manner : Procure a long 
strap, about li/l 
in. wide, and at- 
tacli hooks made 
of wire to it. 
Each hook 
should be about 4 in. 
long and of about No. 9 
gauge wire. Bend a 
ring on one end of the 
wire and stick the other 
end through a hole 
punched in the center of the belt. The 
ring will prevent the wire from passing 
through the leather, and it should be 
bent in such a manner that the hook 
end of the wire will hang downward 
when the width of the belt is vertical. 
These hooks are placed about 3 in. 
apart for the length of the belt, allow- 
ing sufficient ends for a buckle and 
holes. The strap can be buckled 
around a tree or tent pole. — Contrib- 
uted by W. C. Loy, Rochester, Ind. 




Locking Several Drawers with One 
Lock 

A lock for a number of drawers in a 
bench or cabinet 
may be applied 
with a strip of 
wood hinged to 
the cabinet edge 
so that it will 
overlap the 
drawer fronts, as 
shown. A hasp 
and staple com- 
plete the ar- 
rangement for 
use with a padlock. — Contributed by 
H. W. Hahn, Chicago. 




A Lightning-Calculation Trick 

By means of a simple arrangement of 
numbers, a calculation can be made 
which will easily puzzle any unsuspect- 
ing person. If the two numbers 41,096 
and 83 be written out in multiplication 
form, very few will endeavor to write 
down the answer directly without first 
going through the regular work. By 
placing the 3 in front of the 4 and the 
8 back of the 6, the answer is obtained 
at once, thus: 41,096X83=3,410,968. 
A larger number which can be treated 
in the same way is the following: 
4,109,589,041,096X83=341,095,890,410,- 
968. 



CNever stand in a direct line of a 
swiftly revolving object, such as an 
emery wheel. 



An Adjustable Nutcracker 

The advantage of the nutcracker 
shown in the illustration is that it can 
be adjusted to various-sized nuts. The 
handles are similar 
to those usually 
found on nutcrackers 
except that they are 
slotted at the crack- 
ing end to receive a 
special bar. This 
bar is 3 in. long, i/o 
in. wide, and % in. 
thick, with %-in. 
holes drilled in it at intervals to allow 
for adjustment. Cotters are used in 
the holes as pins. 




103 



Substitute for a Rubber Stamp 

A large number of coupons had to 
be marked, and having no suitable 
rubber stamp at hand, I selected a 






Initials Cut in a Cork Served the Purpose in the 
Absence of a Rubber Stamp 

cork with a smooth end and cut the 
initials in it. I found that it worked 
as well, not to say better, than a rubber 
stamp. An ordinary rubber-stamp pad 
was used for inking. Angular letters 
will cut better than curved ones, as 
the cork quickly dulls the edge of any 
cutting tool. — Contributed by James 
M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



A Furniture Polish 

A good pastelike furniture polish, 
which is very cheap and keeps indefi- 
nitely, can be made as follows: Mix 
3 oz. of white wax, 2 oz. of pearlash, 
commonly known as potassium car- 
bonate, and 6 oz. of water. Heat the 
mixture until it becomes dissolved, 
then add 4 oz. of boiled linseed oil and 
5 oz. of turpentine. Stir well and pour 
into cans to cool. Apply with a cloth 
and rub to a polish. The paste is non- 
poisonous. 



A Hanging Vase 

A very neat and attractive hanging 
corner vase can be made 
of a colored bottle. The 
bottom is broken out or 
cut ofi as desired and a 
wire hanger attached as 
shown. The opening in 
the neck of the bottle is 
well corked. Rectangu- 
lar shaped bottles fitted 
with hangers can be 
used on walls. — Contrib- 
uted by A. D. Tanaka, 
Jujiya, Kioto, Japan. 




Filing Soft Metals 

It is well known to mechanics that 
when lead, tin, soft solder or alum- 
inum are filed, the file is soon filled 
with the metal and it will not cut. It 
cannot be cleaned like the wood rasp 
by dipping it into hot water or pour- 
ing boiling water over it, but if the 
file and the work are kept wet Avith 
water, there will be no trouble what- 
ever. Both file and work must be kept 
thoroughly wet at all times. — Contrib- 
uted by J. H. Beebee, Rochester, N. Y. 



Locking Screws in Door Hinges 

When screws once work loose in 
hinges of doors they will never again 
hold firmly in the same hole. This 
trouble can be avoided if the screws 
are securely locked when they are first 
put on the door. The sketch shows a 



A 


J (D 

"1 ^ 



The Screw is Permanently Locked with a Small Nail 
Driven into the Slot Prepared for It 

very successful way to lock the screws. 
The hole in the hinge for the screw is 
filed to produce a notch, as shown at 
A, deep enough to receive a small wire 
nail or brad, which is driven through 
the slot in the screw head at one side, 
as shown at B. 



To Remove Grease from Clothing 

Equal parts of ether, ammonia and 
alcohol make a solution that will 
readily remove grease from clothing. 
The solution must be kept away from 
fire, and should be contained in corked 
bottles as it evaporates quickly, but 
can be used without danger. It re- 
moves grease spots from the finest 
fabrics and is harmless to the texture. 



CJeweler's rouge rubbed well into 
chamois skin is handy to polish gold 
and silver articles with. 



103 




Stove Made of an Old Oilcan with Extending Sides and Weighted with Sand 
for Use on a Fishing Boat Hold^ the Cooking Vessel Safely in a Sea 



A Canoe Stove 

By F. V. WILLIAMS 



Limited space and the rocking mo- 
tion of salmon-fishing boats in a heavy 
sea on the Pacific coast brought about 
the construction of the canoe stove 
shown in the illustration. It is made 
of a discarded kerosene can whose form 
is square. A draft hole is cut in one 
side of the can, 4 or 5 in. from the bot- 
tom, and a layer of sand placed 
on the bottom. Two holes are 
punched through opposite sides, par- 
allel with the draft hole and about 
3 in. from the top edge. Rods are 
run through these holes to provide a 
support for the cooking utensil. The 
smoke from the fire passes out at the 
corners around the vessel. 



The main reason 
for making the 
stove in this manner is to hold the 
cooking vessel within the sides extend- 
ing above the rods. No amount of 
rocking can cause the vessel to slide 
from the stove top, and as the stove is 
weighted with the sand, it cannot be 
easily moved from the place where it 
is set in the canoe. 

The use of such a stove in a canoe 
has the advantage that the stove can 
be cleaned quickly, as the ashes and 
fire can be dumped into the water and 
the stove used for a storage box. The 
whole thing may be tossed overboard 
and a new one made for another trip. 



To Prevent Washboard from Slipping 
in Tub 

The modern stationary washtubs 
are box-shaped, with one side set at 
an outward angle or slope. The wash- 
board, when used in these tubs, will 
slide up and down against the sloping 
part of the tub while the clothes are 
rubbed against them. This annoying 
trouble can be avoided by tacking, on 
the top edge of the board, strips of 
rubber cut from a discarded bicycle 
tire, placing the rubber side out. The 
friction of the rubber prevents any 
motion of the board. — Contributed by 
Jas. A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa. 



(ITo print on celluloid, use a good 
gloss ink and old rollers. 



Clips to Hold Magazine Pages 
Together 

When a magazine is placed in a 
bookcase the outer pages are liable to 
turn back if it is inserted with the 
back on the out- 
side. To over- 
come this diffi- 
culty I made 
clips for each 
magazine to hold 
the open pages 
together. Each 
clip was made 
of wire, about 8 
in. long, shaped 
as shown. The width of the clip is 
made equal to the thickness of the 
magazine and the extending ends are 




104 



slightly pressed together so that they 
will spring and grip the pages. — Con- 
tributed by W. A. Saul, E. Lexington, 
Massachusetts. 



Slide-Opening Cover for a Plate 
Holder 

The length of time required for the 
slide of a plate holder to be removed 




Fig. I 



Fig. 2 



The Two Positions Occupied by the Slide-Opening 
Cover as It is Used on a Camera 

on a reflecting camera spoiled many 
of my plates, because strong light 
would enter the unprotected slot when 
the camera was in certain positions. 
To protect this slot so that the slide 
could be left out indefinitely, I made 
a cover of a piece of sheet metal hav- 
ing three slots, to admit screws turned 
into the camera. A knob was attached 
at the center. The illustration shows 
the application of this cover. In Fig. 
1 the plate holder is shown slipped in 
with the cover back, and Fig. 2 shows 
the slide drawn and the cover over the 
slot opening. — Contributed by B. J. 
Weeber, New York City. 



Magnetic-Suspension Pendulum 

When a pendulum is not ])eriodically 
supplied with energy its amplitude 
grows smaller and finally the motion 
ceases, due to the resistance of the air 
and the friction at the point of suspen- 
sion. Usually the suspension is in the 
form of a knife edge bearing against 



plates of agate; sometimes the pendu- 
lum rod is simply attached to a very 
slender and flexible spring without any 
bearings. But the minimum of friction 
is obtained by means of magnetic sus- 
pension, as the following experiment 
will prove. 

If the rod of a pendulum about IS in. 
long, beating half seconds, is sharpened 
to a needle point and suspended from 
one of the poles of a magnet, it will be 
found that, if set into motion, it will 
continue to swing 15 times as long as 
the ordinary knife-edge suspended 
pendulum, and it will not stop until 
after about 16 hours, while one work- 
ing on agate plates will stop in from 
50 to 60 minutes. Similarly a top, pro- 
vided with a fine-pointed axis of iron, 
will spin much longer when suspended 
from a magnet. 

Magnetic suspension is used in preci- 
sion instruments ; for example, the 
minute mirrors which are used in cer- 
tain telegraph systems to register writ- 
ing photographically at the receiving 
end. 



Use for Pencil Stubs 

In mechanical drawings cast iron is 
indicated by a series of straight lines 
across the parts made of this material. 
These lines can 
be quickly 
made with the 
usually dis- 
carded pencil 
stubs, if these 
are saved and 
sharpened i n 
the following 
manner: The point is filed flat, as 
shown at A ; then a slot is filed in the 
center of the lead with a knife file, as 
shown at B, and the points sharpened 
as in C. In this way two lines are 
drawn at one stroke neatly and in half 
the time. — Contributed by J. Kolar, 
Maywood, 111. 




GTo sharpen a carving knife draw the 
edge through and against the open 
edge of a pair of shears. 



105 




How to Build a Paddle - Wheel Boat 

By P. A. BAUMEISTER 



THE paddle-wheel boat, illustrated 
herewith, was built in the spare 
time I had on rainy afternoons and 
Saturdays, and the enjoyment I de- 
rived from it at my summer camp more 
than repaid me for the time spent in 
the building. The materials used in 
its construction were : 

long. 10 in. wide and % in. 

long. 5 in. wide and Vi in. 

wide and 

wide and 

thick. 



2 side boards. 14 ft. 

thick. 
2 side boards, 14 ft. 

thick. 
1 outside keel board. 14 ft. long. 8 

Vi in. thick. 
1 inside keel board. 14 ft. long. 10 in. 

Yi in. thick 
120 sq. ft. of tongue-and-groove boards, % in. 

for bottom and wheel boxes. 

1 piece. 2 in. square and 18 in. long. 
4 washers. 

2 iron cranks. 
10 screweyes. 
30 ft. of rope. 

Nails. 

The dimensions given in the drawing 
will be found satisfactory, but these 
may be altered to suit the conditions. 
The first step will be to cut and make 
the sides. Nail 
the two pieces 
forming each side 
together and then 
cut the end boards 
and nail them to 
the sides. Lay 
this framework, 
bottom side up, 
on a level surface 
and proceed t o 
nail on the bot- 
tom boards across 
the sides. The 
ends of these 
boards are sawed 
off flush with the 
outside surface of 
the sides after they are nailed in place. 
The material list calls for tongue-and- 



groove boards for the bottom, but plain 
boards can be used, although it is then 
difficult to make the joint water-tight. 
When the tongue-and-groove boards 
are used a piece of string, well soaked 
in white lead or paint and placed in the 
groove of each board, will be sufficient 
to make a tight joint. 

Having finished the sides and bot- 
tom, the next step will be to fasten on 
the bottom keel. Adjust the board to 
its position and nail it in the center 
part where it lies flat on the bottom 
boards, then work toward the ends, 
gradually drawing it down over the 
turn and nailing it down. If the keel 
board cannot be bent easily, it is best 
to soak it in hot water where the bend 
takes place and the wood can then be 
nailed down without the fibers break- 
ing. The inside keel is put on in the 
same manner, but reversed. 




The next procedure is to make the 
paddle wheels. The hub for each 



106 



wheel is made of a 2-in. square piece 
of timber, 9 in. long. Trim off the 



wood, although it is preferable to use 
for this purpose two large iron wash- ■ 




Detail Drawing of the Boat and One of the Paddle Wheels. All the Material Required for the Construction 
is Such That can be Cut and Shaped with Ordinary Tools Found in the Home Workshop 



corners to make 8 sides to the piece, 
then bore a %-in. hole through its 
center. The 8 blades of each wheel, 
16 in all, are 17 in. long, 6 in. wide and 
% in. thick. One end of each blade is 
nailed to one side of the hub, then it 
is braced as shown to strengthen the 
wheel. 

The cranks are made of round iron, 
% in. in diameter, and they are keyed 
to the wheels with large nails in the 
manner shown. I had a blacksmith 




PADDLE. WHEEL KEY 



RUDDER CONTROL 
FASTENING 



Detail of Paddle -Wheel Fastening, the Springboard 

Construction and the Fastening for the 

Rudder Control 

shape the cranks for me, but if one 
has a forge, the work can be done at 
home without that expense. The bear- 
ings for the crankshafts consist of 



ers, having a hole slightly larger than 
the diameter of the shaft, and drill 
holes in their rims so that they can 
be screwed to the wheel-box upright 
as shown. The bearings thus made are 
lubricated with a little lard or grease. 

The paddle-wheel boxes are built 
over the wheels with the dimensions 
given in the drawing, to prevent the 
splashing of water on the occupants 
of the boat. 

The trimmings for the boat consist 
of three seats, a running board and a 
springboard. The drawings show the 
location of the seats. The springboard 
is built up of 4 boards, % in. thick, as 
shown, only nailing them together at 
the back end. This construction al- 
lows the boards to slide over each 
other when a person's weight is on 
the outer end. The action of the 
boards is the same as of a spring on 
a vehicle. 

It is necessary to have a good brace 
across the boat for the back end of 
the springboard to catch on — a 2 by 
4-in. timber being none too large. At 
the point where the springboard rests 
on the front seat there should be 
another good-sized crosspiece. The 



107 



board can be held in place by a cleat 
and a few short pieces of rope, the 
cleat being placed across the board 
back of the brace. A little diving plat- 
form is attached on the outer end of 
the springboard and a strip of old 
carpet or gunny sack placed on it to 
prevent slivers from running into the 
flesh. In making the spring and run- 
ning board, it is advisable to make 
them removable so that the boat can 
be used for other purposes. 

The boat is steered with a foot-oper- 
ated lever, the construction of which 
is clearly shown. For the tiller-rope 
guides, large screweyes are used and 
also for the rudder hinges, the pin of 
the hinge being a large nail. The hull 
can be further strengthened by putting 
a few angle-iron braces either on the 
in or outside. 

To make the boat water-tight will 
require calking by filling the cracks 
with twine and white lead or thick 
paint. The necessary tools are a broad, 
dull chisel and a mallet. A couple of 
coats of good paint, well brushed into 
the cracks, will help to make it water- 
tight as well as shipshape. The boat 
may leak a little when it is first put 
into the water, but after a few hours 
of soaking, the boards will swell and 
close the openings. 

This boat was used for carrying 
trunks, firewood, rocks, sand, and for 
fishing, and last, but not least, for 
swimming. The boat is capable of 
carrying a load of three-quarters of a 
ton. It draws very little water, there- 
by allowing its use in shallow water. 
It has the further advantage that the 
operator faces in the direction the boat 
is going, furnishing the power with his 
hands and steering with his feet. 



A Camp Loom 

The camper who desires to "rough 
it" as much as possible and to carry 
only the necessities will find it quite a 
comfort to construct the bedding from 
grass or moss by weaving it in the 
manner of making a rag carpet, using 
heavy twine or small rope as the warp. 
Two stakes are set the width of the 



bed or mattress to be made, and a cross 
stick is attached to their tops. Several 
stakes are set parallel with the cross 




Loom Constructed of Sticks for Weaving Grass 
or Moss into a Camp Mattress 

stick and at a distance to make the 
length of the mattress. The warp is 
tied between the tops of the stakes and 
the cross stick. An equal number of 
cords are then attached to the cross 
stick and to another loose cross stick 
which is used to move the cords up and 
down while the grass or moss is placed 
in for the woof. The ends of the warp 
are then tied to hold it together. When 
breaking up camp the cords can be re- 
moved and carried to the next camp. — 
Contributed by W. P. Shaw, Bloor 
West, Can. 



A Milk-Bottle Carrier 

Carrying a milk bottle by the rim is 
tiresome work for the fingers, so I con- 
structed a handle, as shown in the 
sketch, from a piece of wire. The car- 
rier can be easily placed in the pocket. 

The part fitting under the rim of 
the bottle neck is bent to form two 
semicircles, one hooking permanently 
at A, while the other is hooked at B 




A Carrier Made of Wire to Quickly Attach on a 
Milk -Bottle Neck 

after it is sprung around the neck of 
the bottle. — Contributed by Lawrence 
B. Robbins, Harwich, Mass. 



108 



How to Make a War Kite 



By park SNYDER 

The material required for the makins; 
of a war kite is three pine sticks, each 
60 in. long, one stick 54 in. long, one 
stick 18 in. long, all i/o in. square; 4 
yd. of cambric ; a box of tacks ; some 
linen thread, and 16 ft. of stout twine. 

Place two 6()-in. sticks parallel with 
each other and 18 in. apart, then lay 
the 54-in. piece across at right angles 
to them 18 in. from the upper ends, as 
shown in Fig. 1, and fasten the joints 
with brads. At a point 21 in. below 
this crosspiece, attach the 18-in. cross- 
piece. 

The extending ends of all the three 
long pieces are notched. Fig. 2, and the 
line is stretched taut around them, as 
shown by the dotted lines. 

If the cambric is not of sufficient size 
to cover the frame, two pieces must be 
sewed together, then a piece cut out to 
the shape of the string, allowing 1 in. to 
project all around for a lap. The cam- 
bric is sewn fast to the string with the 
linen thread. Fasten the cloth to the 
frame part with the tacks, spacing 
them 1 in. apart. The space in the 
center, between the sticks, is cut 
out. Make two pieces of the re- 




m a 1 n 1 n g " — ^ '-^V^ 
goods, one 36 in. by 18 
in., and the other 36 in. 
by 21 in. The remain 
stick is fastened to these 
cambric, as shown in 
the whole is fastened 
frame so as to make 
projection. The bri 



mg 60 -in. 

pieces of 

Fig. 3, and 

to the main 

a V - shaped 

die strings. 




for giving the proper / distribution of 
pull on the line to / the kite, are 
fastened, one to the / upper end of the 
long stick in the / V-shaped piece 
attached to the / kite, and the other 
to the lower /end, as shown in 
Fig. 4. The/ inclination can be 
varied to suit / the builder by chang- 
The Line should /^^g the point of at- 
be a Very Strong / tachment of the kite 

One, Then Ban- /i- . ., i_-,, t-- 

ners can be / lUlC to the bridle. Il it 

Flown on It / is desired to fly the kite 
directly overhead, attach 
the line above the regular 
point and for low flying make 
the connection below this point. 
The regular point is found by trial 
flights with the line fastened tem- 
porarily to the bridle, after which the 
fastening is made permanent. 



4t 



y 




V 


/ 


li 










/ 






V.S- 


-ilM— * 


-ij--, 


\ 


i|' 


1 


\ 




1 


\ 




I 


\ 




1 


\ 




1 


\ 




1 


\ 


i 


! 



The Sticks are Fastened 
Solidly with Brads, and 
the Cloth Sewed to the 
String around Their Ends 



FIG 2 



FIG 1 
3' 



FIG 3 




I 



FIG 4 



109 




Paper Glider That Loops the Loop 



By C. a. THOMPSON 

corners of the wings are bent up as in 
Fig. 2, and, further, the rear corner 
of the keel is bent at right angles. Fig. 
7, whereupon it is thrown in the ordi- 
nary manner. It then takes the course 
shown in Fig. 8. 



FiG.S 



rie.3 ~---.. 

The usual paper 
glider shaped a s 
shown in Fig. 1 can 
be made to loop the 
loop and make cork- 
screw flights if pre- 
pared according to 
sketches herewith. 
It should be care- 
fully made in the 
first place so that in 
its regular form it 
flies perfectly 
straight. 

To make the glider 
loop, the rear cor- 
ners of the wings 
should be turned up at right angles, as 
in Fig. 3, and the glider launched with 
a great deal of force with the nose 
pointed slightly upward. This will re- 
quire some practice, but one soon learns 
the trick. After looping once, as shown 
in Fig. 3, the glider descends in vol- 
plane. This form of glider will also 
right itself, if dropped from a height, 
nose downward, as shown in Fig-. 4. 

For a corkscrew flight the glider is 
prepared as in Fig. 5 ; one rear corner 
being bent up and the other down. In 
this form it flies horizontally, or down- 
ward, while rapidly rotating around its 
longitudinal axis, as shown in Fig. 6. 

To make a spiral descent, the rear 




A Water Filter 

A cheap and very effective water 
filter can be made of a flower pot by 
plugging the hole in 
the bottom with a 
piece of sponge and 
fitting it as follows : 
Place powdered 
charcoal on top of 
the sponge to a 
depth of 1 in., then 
1 in. of clean silver 
sand, and lastly 2 in. 
of small stones and 
gravel. It is hung 
with a bail at the 
top. 




Ordinary Paper Glider and the Manner 

of Throwing It to Make the 

Different Flights 



110 



A Combination Electrically Operated 
Door Lock 

The illustration shows a very useful 
application of an ordinary electric door 
lock in the construction of a combina- 




The Brass-Tack Heads Holding the Numerals in 
Place Constitute the Combination Points 

tion lock and alarm to be operated 
from the outside of the building^. 

The three numerals, 1, 2, and 4, or 
any other combination of numbers 
constituting the house number on a 
door, are made of some kind of insu- 
lating material and fastened in place 
on a base of insulating fiber, or wood, 
about 1/4 in. thick, by means of ordi- 
nary brass-headed tacks, as indicated 
by the black dots. The tacks will ex- 
tend through the base a short distance 
so the electrical connections may be 
made by soldering wires to them, as 
shown by the diagram, alternate tacks 
being connected together with the ex- 
ception of three ; for instance. A, B, 
and C. 

The terminals of the leads that are 
connected to alternate tacks are in turn 
connected to the terminals of a circuit 
composed of an ordinary vibrating 
bell, D, and battery, E. If any two 
adjacent tack heads be connected to- 
gether, except tacks A, B, and C, the 
bell circuit will be completed and the 
bell ring, which will serve as an indica- 
tion that some one is tampering with 
the circuit. The person knov^'ing the 
combination, connects the tack heads A 
and B, and at the same time connects 
the tack head C with F or G, or any 



other tack head that is connected to 
the plus side of the battery, whereby 
a circuit will be completed through the 
lock H and the door is opened. Any 
metallic substance, such as a knife, 
key, or finger ring, may be used in 
making the above indicated connec- 
tion, and there will be no need of car- 
rying a key for this particular door so 
long as the combination is known. 

The base upon which the numbers 
are mounted and through w^iich the 
points of the tacks protrude, should 
be mounted on a second base that has 
a recess cut in its surface to accom- 
modate the wires and points of the 
tacks. 

The combination may be made more 
or less complicated, as desired, by 
connecting the tacks in different ways, 
and b)' using a separate battery for 
the bell and lock. The circuit leading 
to the door lock, if there is one already 
installed, may be used and then no 
extra circtiit is needed. 

Such a device has been used on a 
private-desk drawer with entire satis- 
faction. The battery was placed in 
the back end of the drawer, and if it 
happened to fail, a new one could be 
connected to the points B and J so 
that the drawer could be opened and 
a new battery put in. 



Lock for a Fancy Hairpin 

To avoid losing a fancy hairpin, bend 
one leg of the pin as shown in the illus- 
tration. The hair 
causrht in the notch 




The Bend in the Pin will Hold in the Hair and 
Prevent the Loss of the Pin 

formed l)y the bend will prevent the 
pin from dropping out. — Contributed 
by W. C. Loy, Rochester, Ind. 



CA metal surface polished with oil 
will keep clean longer than when 
polished dry. 



An Aeroplane Kite 



By W. A. REICH 



After building- a number of kites 
from a recent description in Amateur 
Mechanics I branched out and con- 
structed the aeroplane kite shown in 
the illustration, which has excited con- 
siderable comment in the neighborhood 
on account of its appearance and be- 
havior in the air. 

The main frame consists of a center- 
stick, A, 31 in. long, and two cross- 
sticks, of which one, B, is 31 in. long 
and the other, C, ISi/o in. long. The 
location of the crosspieces on the 
centerpiece A is shown in the sketch, 
the front piece B being 1% in. from the 
end, and the rear piece C, Si/i in. from 
the other end. The ends of the sticks 
have small notches cut to receive a 
string, D, which is run around the out- 








The Kite Being Tailless RiHes the Air Weaves Like 
an Aeroplane in a Steady Breeze 

side to make the outline of the frame 
and to brace the parts. Two cross- 
strings are placed at E and F, 7 in. 
from either end of the centerpiece A, 
other brace strings being crossed, as 
shown at G, and then tied to the cross- 
string F on both sides, as at H. 

The long crosspiece B is curved up- 
ward to form a bow, the center of 
which should be 3i/4 in- above the 
string by which its ends are tied to- 
gether. The shorter crosspiece is bent 
and tied in the same manner to make 
the curve 2i4 in., and the centerpiece 
to curve 1% in., both upward. The 
front and rear parts, between the end 
and the cross-strings E and F, are 
covered with yellow tissue paper, 
which is pasted to the crosspieces and 
strings. The small wings L are purple 
tissue paper, 4 in. wide at M and taper- 
ing to a point at N. 

The bridle string is attached on the 
centerpiece A at the junction of the 
crosspieces B and C, and must be ad- 
justed for the size and weight of the 
kite. The kite is tailless and requires 
a steady breeze to make it float in the 
air currents like an aeroplane. 

The bridle string and the bending 
of the sticks must be adjusted until 
the desired results are obtained. The 



111 



113 



bridle string should be tied so that 
it will about center under the cross- 



the air currents properly. The center 
of gravity will not be the same in the 




General Plan and Outline 
of the Kite, ^Vhich may be 
Built in Any Size, If the 
Proportions are Kept, and 
Its Appearance in the 
Air on a Steady Breeze 




Stick B for the best results, but a construction of each kite and the string 
slight change from this location may can be located only by trial, after 
be necessary to make the kite ride which it is permanently fastened. 



Distilling Apparatus for Water 

Pure water, free from all foreign sub- 
Stances, is frequently wanted for mak- 
ing up photographic solutions and 

D 




Homemade Still for Removing the Impurities in Water 
That is Used in Mixing Chemicals 

many other purposes. An apparatus 
for distilling water can be very easily 
made from galvanized pipe fittings. 
The outer cooling jacket A is a piece 
of 1-in. pipe, 2 ft. long, threaded on 
both ends, and bored and tapped for 
%-!"■ pipe at B and C. A hole is bored 
and tapped for i/2-in. pipe in each of 
the two caps used on the ends of the 
pipe A, and a piece of i/o-in. pipe, D, 
2 ft. 8 in. long, is run through the holes 
as shown. The joints are soldered to 
make them water-tight. Two '^-in. 
nipples, 4 in. long, are screwed in at B 
and C. The retort, or boiler, E, in 
which the impure water is boiled may 
be made of any suitable vessel and 



heated with a Bunsen or gas burner. 
A beaker, or other vessel, F, is placed 
below the lower end of the small pipe. 
The cold water from the faucet, which 
flows into the outer jacket at C and 
out at B, condenses the steam in the 
small pipe D, turning it into water 
which falls into the beaker in large 
drops. The water is often distilled a 
second time to remove any impurities 
which it might still contain. — Contrib- 
uted by O. E. Tronnes, Evanston, 111. 



Telephone Stand for a Sloping Desk 

Having a sloping-top desk and being 
compelled to use the telephone quite 
frequently, I devised a support for the 
telephone so that it might stand level 
and not fall off. The sides of the stand 
were cut on the same slope as the 
desk top, and their under edges were 




Stand with a Level Surface for a Desk Telephone 
to be Used on a Sloping Desk Top 

provided with rubber strips to prevent 
slipping. — Contributed by J. M. Kane, 
Doylestown, Pa. 



113 




Tandem Monoplane Glider 

By GEORGE F. MACE 



The monoplane glider illustrated has 
better fore-and-aft stability than the 
biplane, is lighter in proportion to the 
supporting surface, simpler to build, 
and requires very little time to as- 
semble or take apart. The material list 
is as follows : 

FRAME 
4 pieces of bamboo. 14 ft. long, tapering from l'/4 to 

1 in. 
8 pieces of spruce, M in. tiiick. 1 in. wide, and 3 ft. loner. 
8 pieces of spruce. 'A in. tiiicli. 1 in. wide, and 2 ft. 
long. 

WINGS 
4 main-wine bars, spruce. % in. thick. IM in. wide. 

and' IS ft. long. 
8 wing crosspieces. spruce. % in. square, and 4 ft. long. 
33 wing ribs, poplar or spruce. ?4 in. thick. % in. 
wide, and 64 in. long. 

The first thing to do is to make the 
main frame which is composed of the 
four bamboo 
poles. The poles 
take the cor- 
ners of a 2-ft. 
square space and 
are supported 
with the pieces of 
spruce that are 2 
ft. and 3 ft. long, 



the two upper poles. All joints should 
be fastened with i\-in. stove bolts. 
The wire used to truss the glider is 
No. 16 gauge piano wire. The trussing 
is done in all directions, crossing the 
wires between the frame parts, except 
in the center or space between the four 
poles. 

The framework of the main wings is 
put together by bolting one of the 
crosspieces at each end of two wing 
bars, then another 4 ft. from each end, 
whereupon the wing bars are bolted 
to the main frame. The frame is then 
braced diagonally between these 
pieces. The ribs, spaced 1 ft. apart, 
are fastened to this frame with 1-in. 




The Start of the Glide should 
be Made from the Top of a Hill, 
Then a Little Run will Carry 
the Airman Several Hundred 
Feet through the Air 



the shorter lengths running horizon- 
tally and the longer upright, so that 
each upright piece extends 1 ft. above 



brads. The ribs are so bent that the 
highest part will be 5 or 6 in. above 
the horizontal. The bending must be 



114 



uniform and is done when fastening 
them in place. 

The material used to cover the wings 
and rudders is strong muslin. The 
cloth is first tacked to the front wing 



The two vertical rectangular spaces 
in the main frame, just under the rear 
wings, are covered with cloth to act as 
a rudder. The upper and lower brac- 
ing wires for the wings are attached 

18' 






^ 




ELEVATION 
MAIN FRAME 




Details of Tandem Monoplane Glider, Showing the 

Main Frame and Wing Construction, and the 

Manner of Placing the Crossed Bracing 

Wires Between the Parts and 

to the Wing Ends 

bar, then to the ribs, and sewed to a 
wire which is fastened between the 
ends of the ribs. Large brass-head 
tacks should be used through a strip 
of tape to fasten the cloth to the ribs. 
The rear wings are constructed in a 
similar manner. After the cloth is in 
place it is coated with starch or varnish. 




with snaps and rings so that the glider 
can be easily taken apart. 

It is best not to use the glider in a 
wind greater than 30 miles an hour. 
It is started from the top of a hill in 
the usual manner. Glides can be made 
running from GO to several hundred 
feet. 



Carrier for a Suitcase 

Where it is necessary to carry a well 
filled and heavy suitcase the light truck 
shown in the sketch will be a great as- 
sistance. The truck is constructed on 



v...X'-..?w 




The Small Truck will Greatly Assist the Carrying 
of a Heavily Loaded Suitcase 

the folding plan, similar to a go-cart, 
and can be carried on the side of the 
case. The wheels are those used on a 
go-cart, with rubber tires and about 6 
in. in diameter. These are fitted to 



standards carrying a hinged top piece, 
the upper ends of the standards being 
hinged in a like manner. The stand- 
ards should be cut to the proper length 
for the person carrying the suitcase. — 
Contributed by Mrs. Harriet M. S. Ker- 
baug:h, Allentown, Pa. 



Light in a Keyhole 

Remove the lock and cut the mortise 
deep enough to admit a 3-volt battery 
lamp with a suitable socket attached. 
The lamp is then connected to wires 
which are concealed and run to a bat- 
tery of three dry cells in the basement 
or other convenient place. A small 
push button is attached in the line and 
placed near the knob on the door. A 
small recess must be cut in the mortise 
so that the light from the lamp will 
shine directly on the inside of the plate 
over the keyhole. — Contributed by 
Armand F. Lamarre, St. Renii, Can. 



115 




How to Make a Monoplane Glider 



By WILLIAM GROTZINGER 



A simple glider of the monoplane 
type can be easily constructed in a 
small workshop ; the cost of materials is 
not great and the building does not re- 
quire skilled workmen. Select the ma- 
terial with care and see that the wood 
is straight-grained and free from knots. 
The following list of spruce pieces is 
required : 

4 main wint' spars, K hy V4 in. by 17 ft. 
2 rudder spars, % by 1 in, by 8 ft. 

5 wins crosspieces, % by ?4 m. by 4 ft. 

4 rudder crosspieces. H by h in. by 2 ft, 

1 piece for main-frame crosspieces, /^ by 1 in. by 12 ft. 

2 arm pieces. VA by 2 in, by 3M ft. 

The following list of poplar pieces is 
required in making the supports for 
the cloth covering on the wings and 
rudders. 

34 main-wing ribs. 5i by ^ by 64 in. 
8 rudder ribs. K by '4 by 36 in. 
5 rudder nbs, >i by % by 48 in. 



The following list of oak pieces is 
needed : 

1 piece. H by IH in. by 12 ft. 
1 piece, 5's by V/i in. by 6 ft, 

1 piece. % by ^ in. by 3'^ ft. 

2 pieces, H by 154 in. by 5 ft. 
4 pieces, ?i by 1 by 28 in. 

In addition to the lists given, four 
pieces of bamboo, 16 ft. long, tapering 
from 1 or ly^ in. at the large end to 
% in. at the small end, are used for the 
main frame. 

Construction 

The first part to make is the main 
frame A which is constructed of the 
four bamboo poles. They are made 
into a rectangular frame with cross- 
bars marked B cut to the right length 
from the 12-ft. piece of spruce, Y^ in. 
by 1 in. The bars C and D are of oak 




Monoplane Glider in Flight 




FRONT ELEVATION 



Details of Monoplane Glider 
11« 



117 



cut from the 6-ft. piece, % in. by l^i i"- 
All of these crossbars are fastened to- 
gether in rectangular form by means 
of stove bolts. The bamboo poles are 
then bolted to the inner corners of the 
frames with i6-in. bolts. Place the 
bolts through the bamboo close to a 
joint to prevent splitting. The frame is 
then rigidly trussed by diagonal wires 
marked E crossing all rectangles. The 
wire used for trussing all the parts 
throughout the glider is piano wire, 16 
gauge. The arm pieces are bolted to 
the sides of the rectangular frames be- 
neath the wings. 

The framework of the main wings or 
planes should be put together by bolt- 
ing the cross struts F at regular inter- 
vals on the under side of the main spars 
G. Brace the frame diagonally with 
the piano wire. The ribs are nailed to 
the main spars by using 1-in. brads. 
The ribs are spaced 1 ft. apart, and 
curved so that the highest part will be 
5 in. from the horizontal. Each rib ex- 
tends 15 in. back of the rear spar. The 
rudder is made in the same manner. 

The vertical rudder is made to fold. 
A small pocket arrangement H is made 
from which the rigs of the vertical 
rudder diverge. 

The covering of the wings and rud- 
ders should be a good quality of mus- 
lin or some light aeronautical goods. 
The cloth should be tacked to the front 
spar, to the ribs, and then sewn to a 
wire which connects the ends of the 
ribs. 

Construct the triangular arrangement 
marked J to which the wings are 
braced. The wing bar supports are 



shown in the illustration. The bot- 
tom wires are braced to the crossbar K 
shown in the front elevation. 

The bracing wires are all fastened to 
a snaphook which can be snapped into 
the rings at the places marked L. This 
method will allow one quickly to as- 
semble or take apart the plane and 
store it in a small place. The vertical 
rudder should be braced from each rib 
to the front spar of the horizontal rud- 
der and then braced by the wires M 
to hold the rudder from falling back. 
The rudder is then braced to the main 
frame and the main frame is braced by 
the wires N to the wings. This will 
hold the plane rigid. Use snaphooks 
and eyebolts wherever possible so that 
the plane can be quickly assembled. 
Assembling 

The triangular arrangement J is 
bolted to the wings and the top wires 
put in place. The wings are then put 
on the main frame and bolted to the 
bars marked C and D. after which the 
bottom wires are fixed in place. 

Gliding 

Take the glider to the top of a hill, 
step into the center of the main frame 
just a little back of the center of the 
wings. Put your arms around the arm 
pieces, face the wind and run a few 
steps. You will be lifted off the ground 
and carried down the slope. The bal- 
ancing is done by shifting the legs. 
The glides should be short at first, but 
by daily practice, and. as the operator 
gains skill, glides can be made up to a 
length of several hundred feet. Do not 
attempt to fly in a wind having a veloc- 
ity of more than 15 miles an hour. 



Exerciser for a Chained Dog 



The exerciser consists of a disk, 5 ft. 
in diameter, pivoted in the ground near 
the kennel. The disk revolves on a 
%-in. pin set in a post made of a 4 by 
4-in. piece of timber. The disk is made 
of common lumber fastened together 
with battens on the under side. Our 
dog seems to enjoy this kind of exer- 




Revolving Disk Exerciser 

cise. — Contributed by Hazel Duncan, 
Denver, Colo. 



118 



A Laboratory Gas Generator 

The sketch illustrates a gas genera- 
tor designed for laboratories where 
gases are needed in large quantities 




Gas Generator of Large Capacity That will Work 
Automatically as the Gas is Removed 

and frequently. The shelf holding the 
large imerted bottle is of thick wood, 
and to reinforce the whole apparatus, 
a 1-in. copper strip is placed around 
the bottle tightly and fastened with 
screws turned into the woodwork. 
The shelf above is attached last, and 
upon it rests the bottle of commercial 
acid required in the gas generation. 
The pump shown is for use in starting 
the siphon. 

The large bottle used as a generator 
may be either a 3 or 5-gal. size, and 
after it is placed in the position shown, 
a sufficient amount of the solid reagent 
needed in gas generating is placed in 
the mouth before the exit tube, leading 
away below, is fixed in position. If 
sulphureted hydrogen is required, fer- 
rous sulphide is used; if hydrogen is 
required, zinc is placed within ; and to 



make a carbon dioxide, marble, or its 
equivalent, is inserted. Whatever gas 
is required, a sufficient quantity of the 
solid material is put in to last for some 
time in order not to disturb the fas- 
tenings. 

^\'hen all is ready, the pump is used 
gently to start the acid over the siphon 
and into the generator from below. 
The gas generated by the action of the 
acid on the solid soon fills the bottle. 
The screw clamp on the exit tube is 
loosened and the gas passes into the 
bottle of water and charges it, in the 
case when sulphureted hydrogen is re- 
quired. In the other cases, when suffi- 
cient gas has been generated, the 
screw clamp is tightened, and the gas 
soon attains considerable pressure 
which forces the acid back out of the 
generator and into the acid bottle 
above. The whole apparatus now 
comes to an equilibrium, and the gas 
in the generator is ready for another 
use.— Contributed by W. M. Mills, 
Bakersfield, Cal. 



Holding Small Armatures for Winding 

I^rocure a strip of sheet metal, G in. 
long, 1 in. wide, or as wide as the arma- 
ture core is long, and /^ in. thick. Bend 
this into a U-shape, as shown, and file 
each end similar to the barb on a fish- 
hook. Drill two holes for a bolt to pass 
through the sheet-metal ends. Fasten 
a screw or bolt in the center of the 
bend, to be used for gripping in a chuck 




Armature Cores are Easily Revolved to Fill the Core 
Openings with Insulated Wire 

or polishing head. Core segments can 
be quickly wound with this device. — 
Contributed by Geo. B. Schulz, Austin, 
Illinois. 



Footstool for Cement Floors 

A clerk finding the cement floor of 
the office uncomfortaljly cold to the 
feet, devised a footstool in the follow- 
ing manner : A shallow box was pro- 
cured, and four small truck casters 
were fastened to the bottom. A piece 
of carpet was laid on the inside of the 
bottom and some old newspapers 
placed on top of it. When seated at 
the desk, he placed his feet inside the 
box on the papers. The casters ele- 
vated the box from the cement, just 
high enough to avoid dampness and 
cold, and permitted an easy change of 
position. — Contributed by L. Alberta 
Norrell, Gainesville, Ga. 



Homemade Telegraph Sounder 

The material required to construct a 
telegraph sounder, like the one shown 
in the sketch, consists of two binding 
posts, magnets, a piece of sheet metal, 
and a rubber band. These are arranged 
as shown, on a wood base or, better still, 
on a metal box. In using a metal-box 
base, be sure to insulate the connections 
at the magnet coils and binding posts. 

This instrument will be found by 




Laboratory Force Filter 

The sketch represents a force filter 
which is well adapted for use in small 
laboratories. The water is turned on 



An Inexpensive and Homemade Sounder for Use in 
Learning the Telegraph Codes 

those Studying the telegraph codes to 
give good results, equal to any of the 
expensive outfits sold for this purpose. 
— Contributed by Chas. J. La Prille, 
Flushing, N. Y. 




A Slight Vacuum is Formed by the Water Flowing 
through the Cork, Which Forces the Filter 

at the faucet and draws the air through 
the side tube by suction, which in turn 
draws the air in a steady stream 
through the Wolfif bottles. The tubes 
may be attached to a filter inserted in a 
filter bottle and filtering thus greatly 
facilitated. The connection to the fau- 
cet can be made, as shown in the de- 
tailed sketch, out of a long cork, by 
boring a hole large enough to fit the 
faucet through the cork and another 
slanting hole, joining the central hole, 
on the side for a pipe or tube. At the 
lower end of the cork a tube is also fit- 
ted, which may be drawn out to in- 
crease the suction. The inclined tube 
should be slightly bent at the lower 
end.— Contributed by W. M. Mills, 
Bakersfield, Cal. 



119 



120 



Beginner's Helper for Roller Skating 

One of the most amusing as well as 
useful devices for a beginner on roller 
skates is shown in the sketch. The 




Beginner Cannot Fall 

device is made of %-in. pipe and pipe 
tittings, with a strip of sheet metal 1 
in. wide fastened about half way down 
on the legs. On the bottom of each 
leg is fastened an ordinary furniture 
caster which allows the machine to 
roll easily on the floor. The rear is 
left open to allow the beginner to en- 
ter, then by grasping the top rail he is 
able to move about on the floor at 
ease, without fear of falling. — Contrib- 
uted by J. H. Harris, Berkeley, Cal. 



Each end of the vessel is provided with 
an opening, A, adapted to receive and 
hold in place plaster-of-paris cups, B. 
The part extending into the tank is pro- 
vided with a wick, C, which reaches to 
the bottom of the vessel. A glass tube, 
D, is provided with a bulb on each end 
and partly filled with alcohol, the re- 
maining space being exhausted of air. 
The glass tube is secured to a hanger 
which is pivoted to the bottom of the 
vessel. 

After a quantity of water has been 
poured into the vessel and the device 
allowed to stand undisturbed for a few 
minutes, the tube will begin to move 
with an oscillating motion. Some of 
the water in the vessel has been con- 
ducted by means of the wicks C to the 
bent plaster cups, from the surface of 
which it evaporates, thus absorbing la- 
tent heat and producing a lower tem- 
perature in the cups than that of the 
surrounding atmosphere. The bulb 
in contact with the cup thus acquires 
a lower temperature than the one at 
the end D, which will result in conden- 
sation of the alcohol vapor within the 
former. The pressure of the vapor in 
the lower bulb will then force the alco- 
hol up the inclined tube into the higher 
bulb, the evaporation in the lower 
bulb maintaining the pressure 'herein. 
When a sufficient quantity of alco- 



Atmospheric Thermo-Engine 

The device illustrated has for its ob- 
ject the production of power in small 
quantities with little attention and no 
expense. All that is needed to produce 
the power is common ordinary water, 
and the device will continue to operate 
until the amount of water placed in the 
receptacle has evaporated. 

The device consists of a rectangular 
vessel provided with legs and a cover. 




Details of the Engine 

hol has been forced into the upper 
bulb, it will descend, and thus elevate 
the other bulb into its cup. The phe- 
nomena just described will be repeated 
in this bulb and the oscillation f.will 



131 



continue until the water in the vessel 
has been absorbed and evaporated. — 
Contributed by E. W. Davis, Chicago. 



A Mirror an Aid in Rowing a Boat 

The young oarsman is apt to expe- 
rience difficulty in keeping a straight 
course until he has had some practice. 
Rowing a boat in a narrow channel 
calls for considerable skill to hold a 
course in mid-stieam. A variation of 
force in pulling the oars almost in- 
stantly results in the rowboat making 
a landfall on one or the other of the 
banks. 

The skilled oarsman does not need 
an appliance that the beginner might 
welcome. With the aid of a mirror 




The Mirror Attached to a Boat 

conveniently supported at a suitable 
angle and height before the oarsman's 
face, the water, the shores and ap- 
proaching boats may be seen with dis- 
tinctness. The mirror may be set di- 
rectly in front or a little distance to 
one side as shown in the sketch. — Con- 
tributed by Thaleon Blake, Sidney, O. 



Developing Tray Made of a Tin Can 

Obtain a tomato or other can, 5 or 6 
in. long and 4 in. in diameter, which 
should be secured before it has been 
opened, says Camera Craft. Cut both 
ends exactly half way around, keeping 
close to the edge, as shown in the first 
sketch, and slit it lengthwise to open 
the side. Trim off the end pieces to 
within 1 in. of the center and cut off 
the surplus tin of the sides of the can, 
leaving enough to bend over and form 



the ends of the tank as shown in the 
second sketch. 

The support, as shown in the last 
sketch, is made by screwing together 




For Developing Roll Films 

three pieces of wood, the base piece be- 
ing 61/2 in. square and thick enough to 
make the tank solid and heavy. Bend 
the sides of the can over the edges of 
the two uprights and tack them firmly 
to the sides, bending the tin so as to 
have a rounded surface that will not 
scratch the films. The ends of the can 
are bent over sharply to form the sides 
of the tank. Procure a round wood 
stick, the length of the tank, place in 
position, and fasten with a screw 
through the tin at both ends. Give the 
whole tank two coats of black as- 
phaltum varnish to protect it from the 
action of the developer. 




White Rubber on Croquet Arches 

A white cloth is usually tied to cro- 
quet arches when the game is played 
late in the 
evening. A 
much better 
plan is to 
slip a piece 
of white rub- 
ber tubing 
about 1 ft. 
long on the 
arch. This 
tubing can be 
purchased at 
a n y 1 o c a 1 
drug store. 

This makes the top part of the arch 
conspicuoas so that it may be plainly 
seen in the dark, and, when the tubing 
becomes soiled it can be cleaned off 
with a damp cloth. — Contributed by 
John Blake, Franklyn, Mass. 



White 
Rcibber 



Arch 



122 




^S^ 



Illuminating an Outside Thermometer 

During the season of furnace fires 
the thermometer outside the north 
window becomes of added interest and 
usefulness in helping one to judge the 
proper draft adjustments of the fur- 
nace for the 
night. A pocket 
electric flash- 
lamp is conven- 
ient for examin- 
ing the ther- 
mometer after 
dark, but it is not 
always at hand, 
matches are dan- 
gerous when 
lace curtains are 
at the window, 
and besides, the reflection from the 
glass of both matches and flashlamp 
on the inside makes it very difficult 
to read the thermometer. 

To avoid these difficulties I attached 
to my thermometer the device shown 
herewith, which consists of a miniature 
battery lamp placed at the back of the 
translucent-glass thermometer and ope- 
rated by a battery within the house, 
the light being turned on by an ordi- 
nary push button placed conveniently 
inside of the window. 

A strip of brass. A, % i"- wide by -jV 
in. thick, was riveted (soldering will 
do) to the lower support of the ther- 
mometer. The free end of this brass 
strip was bent around a disk of hard- 
wood, B, and fastened to it by three or 
four small screws in such a manner 
that the disk made a circular platform 
just behind the thermometer scale. 
This disk was slightly larger than the 
mouth of a small, thin tumbler. On 
the upper surface of this disk was fas- 
tened with shellac and small nails close 
to the periphery, a disk of cork, I/4 in. 
thick, this cork disk being a close fit 
for the mouth of the tumbler. A 
miniature porcelain electric-lamp 
socket was fastened with screws 
on the cork of the base. Wires 
were then run from the lamp 
socket through the cork and wood 
disks and the whole painted with 



melted paraffin to close all apertures 
and keep out moisture. Good rubber- 
covered electric-light wire will do 
nicely for the wiring outside the house, 
although, if it can be obtained, a piece 
of leacl-covered paired wire is prefer- 
able. These wires must be only long 
enough to reach inside the house, 
where they may be joined to the ordi- 
nary sort of wire used in electric-bell 
work for connecting with push button 
and battery. 

A 4-volt lamp of about 2 cp. will be 
sufficient to illuminate the thermometer 
and allow the scale and mercury col- 
umn to be distinctly seen. It may be 
found necessary to make some adjust- 
ment by bending the brass strip in 
order to bring the lamp centrally be- 
hind the scale and at the proper 
height to give the best lighting on the 
range of from 10 to 40 deg. Over the 
lamp is placed the tuml)ler for protec- 
tion from the weather, and, if desired, 
half of the tumbler may be painted as 
a reflector on the inside with white 
enamel paint, although, in practice, I 
have not found this necessary. 

Within the house the push button 
should be placed at the window where 
it can be most conveniently reached 
when viewing the thermometer, and 
connections may be made to the bat- 
tery regularly used for ringing the 
house bells, or to a separate battery of, 
say, 4 dry cells, placed in some loca- 
tion, as a closet, near the thermometer. 
—Contributed by C. F. A. Siedhof, 
Winchester, Mass. 



How to Make an Automobile Robe 

When driving an automobile in cold 
weather, it is impossible to have a 
robe come down over the feet without 
being in the way so that it is incon- 
venient in working the pedals. Pro- 
cure a common heavy robe and cut two 
holes in it about .5 in. from the bottom 
just large enough for the toe of the 
shoes to slip through and bind the 
edges with cloth or fur. The 5 in. of 
robe below the holes should come back 
under the feet so that no wind can en- 
ter. Make the holes far enough apart 



123 



SO that both outside pedals can be 
reached easily and 3011 will have no 
trouble with your feet. This robe, 
with the use of overshoes, will insure 
comfort in driving a car. — Contributed 
by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. 



Locating a Droplight in the Dark 

It is very hard to locate an electric- 
light globe in a dark room. Anyone 
trying to find one by striking the air 
in its vicinity with one hand, usually 
finds that the globe is not there, al- 
though the hand may have passed with- 
in Vo in. of the globe. 

The best way to locate a globe is to 
approach the proximity of the drop 
with thumbs touching and fingers ex- 
tended as shown in the sketch, in whicli 
manner the hands will cover a radius 
of about 14 in. and offer a better chance 
of locating the light quickly than if 




Covering a Wide Range 

one groped about with one hand ex- 
tended. — Contributed by Victor Laba- 
die, Dallas, Tex. 



Lighting a Room for Making 
Photographs 

\Mien it becomes too cold for the 
amateur photographer to take pictures 
outdoors, he generally lays aside his 
camera and thinks no more about it 
until the coming of another spring or 
summer. While some winter scenes 
would make up an interesting part of 
anyone's collection, it is not always 
pleasant to go out to take them. 

Some derive pleasure from making 
groups and portraits, but this is very 
difficult, if the room is not well 
lighted. Overhead light is the best 



for this work and few residences are 
constructed to furnish this kind of 
light. 

I find a very good way to get a light 




Light Reflected on Ceiling 

overhead is to take a large mirror — one 
from an ordinary dresser will do — and 
place it in the window in such a posi- 
tion that the reflection will strike the 
ceiling just above the subject. The re- 
sult will be a soft but very strong light, 
almost equal to a north skylight. 
Splendid portraits can be made in this 
way. — Contributed by Chas. Piper, 
Kokomo, Ind. 



Detachable Hinged Cover for Kettles 

A kettle cover equipped with the 
hinge shown in Fig. 1 will not fall off 
when in place, and can be raised or re- 
moved entirely when desired. 

One wing of an ordinary hinge is 
soldered or riveted to the cover and 
wire clasps soldered to the other wing. 




FiG.l F1G.2 

Wire Clasps on Hinge 

It is slipped on the kettle as shown 
in Fig. 2. The cover is interchange- 
able and can be placed on almost any 
kettle. 



124 



A Use for Discarded Wafer Razor 
Blades 

A paper trimmer and mat cutter can 
be made from a wafer razor Ijlade. As 
a paper trimmer, place the blade C over 

the part A 
of the razor, 
as shown, 
with only 
two of the 
holes engag- 
ing in one 
post and the 
center 
screw. Then 
place the 
part B i n 
position and 
clamp with the Irandle. This will allow 
about i/o in. of the blade to project at 
one end. If a part of the extending 
blade is cut or broken off, it will be 
more easily handled. The cutter is 
guided along the straightedge as shown 
in Fig. 1. 

If it is desired tp make a more per- 
manent form of instrument, or if no 
holder is at hand and only a castofT 
wafer blade, a handle, C, may be cut 
from a piece of wood and fitted with 




Fig. I 




^STRAIGHT ED6E 

Fio.2 

Blade Attached to Handle 



two or three binding-posts. A, taken 
from an old battery, to hold the blade 
B in place, as shown in Fig. 2. 



Armatures for Small Motors 

Without the proper tools and mate- 
rial, the amateur electrician will find 
it quite difificult to construct a small 
armature for a battery motor that will 
run true, without vibration and have 
a neat appearance. Ordinary cast-iron 



gears or pinions, as shown in Fig. 1, 
make excellent cores for armatures on 
small motors. A gear of any number 
of teeth can be used for an armature 
with a smaller numlier of coils by cut- 
ting out a certain number of teeth. 
For example, a gear with 12 teeth will 
take 12 coils, but if every other tooth 
is cvit out, it will take only 6 coils, etc. 
The teeth can be easily chipped out 
with a cold chisel. 

Larger armatures can be made from 
gears with spokes, the spokes being 
cut out, if a ring armature is desired. 
The gear, when wound, can be mounted 
on a hub made of empty thread spools. 
The spool can be turned at one end to 
insert it in the armature, and if too 
long, one end will serve for the core of 
the commutator, as shown in Fig. 2. 





FiG.I 



Gear Used as a Core 



This combination will make a neat, 
efficient little armature, which will run 
quite free from vibration. Only sim- 
ple tools, such as a hammer, cold 
chisel, file, jackknife and a vise, are 
required. — Contributed by R. J. Nault, 
Hartford, Conn. 



Ice Creeper for Shoe Heels 

Many persons, young and old, have 
falls every winter on the ice or snow 
which can be avoided if their shoes 
are fitted with ice creepers. A very 
efficient device of this kind, which any 
boy can make at home in a short time, 
is shown in the sketch. These ice 
creepers need not be removed from 
the shoes or boots until the winter is 
past, for they may be worn indoors 
without injuring the finest floor. 

The two plates A may be made 
from either iron or steel — preferably 
the latter. An all-steel scraper, or a 
piece of a saw blade, makes good 



135 



creepers. Draw the temper by heat- 
ing the steel to a cherry red and then 
letting it cool slowly. It may then 
be sawn with a hacksaw, cut with a 
cold chisel, or filed into plates of the 
proper shape, as shown. The teeth are 
filed to points. The two L-shaped 
slots are made by drilling i'u-in. holes 
through the plates, and then sawing, 
filing or chiseling out the metal be- 
tween the holes. The projections at 
the ends are then bent out at right 
angles with heavy pliers or the claws 
of a hammer, and finally the plates 
bent to fit the curve of the heel. 




Creeper Attached to Heel 

The creepers are attached by means 
of round-head wood screws turned 
into the leather. In this operation 
place the teeth of the plates just be- 
low the bottom of the heel and turn 
the screws into the ends of the upright 
slots until the heads just bind. The 
plate as set when indoors or else not 
needed is shown at B. To place the 
plate so it will grip the ice, slide it to 
the right, which will bring the screws 
into the horizontal slots, as shown 
at C. — Contributed by Chelsea C. 
Fraser, Saginaw, Mich. 



Opening Screw-Top Fruit Jars 

Screw-top fruit jars may be easily 
opened in the following manner: 
Secure a strap 
with a buckle 
and place it 
around the top as 
if it were to be 
buckled, but in- 
stead draw the 
loose end back 
and hold it with 
the thumb as 
shown. Turn 
cover and strap 
while held in this position and it will 
easily turn from the jar. — Contributed 
by Chas. A. Bickert, Clinton, Iowa. 




Lamp-Chimney Cleaner 

Lamp chimneys of various makes 
are very difficult to clean quickly and 
thoroughly. The simple device shown 




Rubber Ball on Stick 

in the sketch makes the cleaning pro- 
cess a simple matter. The cleaner is 
made of a round rubber ball with slits 
cut in it as shown and then fastened to 
the end of a stick. When a cloth is 
placed over the ball it presses evenly 
against the curved surfaces of the 
glass. There is no danger of breaking 
a chimney with this cleaner. 



A Pop-Corn Popper 

The accompanying sketch shows the 
construction of a pop-corn popper for 
thoroughly flavoring the corn with the 
hot butter or 
lard, and at the 
same time mix- 
ing it with 
the necessar}' 
amount of salt. 
Procure a metal 
bucket that just 
fits the bottom 
of the frying 
pan. The stir- 
ring device is 
made of heavy 
wire bent as shown and provided with 
an empty spool for a handle. A brace 
is made of tin bent in the shape shown 
and riveted to the bottom of the 
bucket. — Contributed by F. A. Wirth, 
Farwell, Texas. 




A Homemade Floor Polisher 

An efficient and cheap floor polisher 
may be readily constructed in the fol- 
lowing manner: Make a box about 4 
by 6 by 13 in., or the exact size may 
be determined by building it around 



126 



t le household flatirons as these are 
used to give weight and pressure. 
The handle, which is attached as 
shown, should be at least 2iA in. wide 




Flatirons in the Box 

at the hinged end and should be sand- 
papered where it is grasped by the 
hands. A half-strap hinge is prefer- 
able, with the strap part fastened to 
the handle. The bottom of the polisher 
is covered with a piece of Brussels 
carpet. 

In use, it is well to set the polisher 
on a soft piece of cotton or flannel 
cloth, which may be readily renewed 
when badly soiled. 

A more sightly polisher may be 
made by filling the box with pieces of 
old iron or lead, tightly packed with 
paper to prevent rattling, and attach- 
ing a cover over the top. The handle 
may be hinged directly to this cover 
by means of a full-strap hinge. — Con- 
tributed by B. O. Longyear, F"t. Col- 
lins, Colo. 

Simple Way to Mark Poison Bottles 

A way to prevent any possi1)Ie mis- 
take of taking bottles containing poi- 
sons is to mark 
them as shown 
in the sketch. 
This method 
provides a way 
■ to designate a 
■ i poison bottle in 

'..,__.,..-- ^_,-' the dark. 

The marker is 
made of a circle of heavy cardboard 
with a hole in the center so as to fit 
tightly over the neck of the bottle. 
No matter how dark it may be or 
how much of a hurry a person may 
be in, one cannot fail to note the char- 




acter of the contents of the bottle as 
soon as the hand touches the card- 
board marker. — Contributed by Kath- 
arine D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Removing Varnish 

A good and easy way to remove 
varnish from old furniture is to wash 
the surface thoroughly with 9.1-per- 
cent alcohol. This dissolves the var- 
nish and the wood can then be cleaned 
with a strong solution of soap, or weak 
lye. If lye is used, it should be washed 
off quickly and the wood dried with 
flannel cloth. When the wood is 
thoroughly dry it will take a fine finish. 
— Contributed by Loren Ward, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 



Curling-Iron Heater 

The curling-iron holder shown in the 
sketch can be made of metal tubing 



IIIIHI' '>>)1liU \ nil u .11111111111111: .illllill' 



v^Mi 



W 



la- 



Fi&.l 



Heater on Gas Jet 

having the size to fit both iron and gas 
jet. One-half of the tubing for a por- 
tion of its length is removed, as shown 
in Fig. 1. The remaining part is bent 
as in Fig. 2 and set on the burner of 
the gas jet. 

The tube prevents the curling iron 
from becoming black with soot. The 
position on the jet may be changed. 
The tube can be placed on the jet and 
removed with the curling iron. — Con- 
tributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Rich- 
mond, Cal. 



CA whisk broom is the best cleaner 
for a gas stove. It will clean dirt 
from nickel parts as well as from the 
burner, grates, ovens and sheet-metal 
bottoms. 



127 



Preserving Flowers in Color and Form 



One of the most distressing sides of 
botanical study is the short life of the 
colors in flowers. Those who have 
found the usual method of preserving 



a cloth in a thin layer. When thor- 
oughly dry, it should be placed in a 
heavy earthenware vessel and further 
dried in a hot oven. Allow it to re- 





placing the Flowers on the Steel Pins and Pouring the Dry Sand around Them 



plants by pressure between paper un- 
satisfactory will be interested to learn 
of a treatment whereby many kinds of 
flowers maj' be dried so that they retain 
a great deal of their natural form and 
color. 

The flowers should be gathered as 
soon as the blossoms have fully 
opened. It is important that they 
should be quite dry, and in order to 
free them of drops of rain or dew, they 
may be suspended with heads down- 
ward for a few hours in a warm place. 
It is well to begin with some simple 
form of flower. 

A large, strongly made wooden box 
— one of tin is better — will be neces- 
sary, together with a sufficient amount 
of sand to fill it. If possible, the sand 
should be of the kind known as "silver 
sand," which is very fine. The best 
that can be procured will be found far 
from clean, and it must, therefore, be 
thoroughly washed. The sand should 
be poured into a bowl of clean water. 
Much of the dirt will float on the sur- 
face. This is skimmed off and thrown 
away, and clean water added. The 
sand should be washed in this manner 
at least a dozen times, or until nothing 
remains but pure white grains of sand. 
The clean sand is spread out to dry on 



main in the oven for some time until 
it is completely warmed through so 
that one can scarcely hold the bare 
hands in it. 

Obtain a piece of heavy cardboard 
and cut it to fit easily in the bottom 
of the box. Through the bottom of 
the cardboard insert a number of steel 
pins, one for each of the flowers to be 
preserved. Take the dry blossoms and 
press the stalk of each on a steel pin 
so that it is held in an upright position. 
When the cardboard is thus filled, 
place it in the box. 

The warm sand is put in a bag or 
some other receptacle from which it 
can be easily poured. Pour the sand 
into the box gently, allowing it to 
trickle slowly in so that it spreads 




The Dried Flowers 



128 



evenly. Keep on pouring sand until 
the heads of the flowers are reached, 
taking care that all of them stand in a 
vertical position. The utmost care 
must be taken, when the heads are 
reached, to see that all the petals are in 
their right order. Remember that any 
crumpled flowers will be pressed into 
any position they may assume by the 
weight of the sand. When the box is 
filled it should be covered and set 
aside in a dry place. 

The box should be allowed to stand 
at least 48 hours. After the first day, 
if only a small amount of sand has 
been used, the material may have 
cooled of? to some extent, and the box 
must be set in a moderately heated 
oven for a short time, but no great 
amount of warmth is advisable. Af- 
ter 48 hours the box may be uncovered 
and the sand carefully poured off. As 
the flowers are now in a very brittle 
condition, any rough handling will 
cause serious damage. When all the 



sand has been emptied, the cardboard 
should be removed from the box and 
each blossom taken from its pin. In 
the case of succulent specimens, the 
stems v^'ill have shrunk considerably, 
but the thinner petals will be in an al- 
most natural condition. The colors 
will be bright and attractive. Some 
tints will have kept better than others, 
but most of the results will be surpris- 
ingly good. Whatever state the flow- 
ers are in when they are taken from 
the box, if the drying process has been 
thorough, they will keep almost indefi- 
nitely. 

Flowers preserved in this manner 
are admirable for the decoration of 
homes. If they are exposed to light, 
care should be taken to see that the di- 
rect sunshine does not strike them, as 
it will fade the colors. Sprigs with 
leaves attached may be dried in this 
way, but it has been found that much 
of the intensity of the green is lost in 
the process. 



Reading Pulse Beats with the Sun's 
Rays 

The pulse beats may be counted by 
this unusual method. On a clear day, 
when the sun is shining brightly. 
darken a room and select one window 




Sun's Rays Deflected to the Ceiling 

toward the sunlight, which should be 
prepared as follows : Draw the curtain 



part way down and cover the rest of 
the window with a heavy cardboard. 
Cut a small hole in the cardboard to 
admit a beam of light. Set a bowl of 
water on a table in the path of the 
beam so as to deflect it to the ceiling 
as shown by the dotted lines in the 
sketch. 

It is now a simple matter to show 
the pulse beats. Place the wrist 
against the edge of the bowl as shown, 
and the beam of light directed to the 
ceiling will record every beat of the 
pulse by short, abrupt movements. 



Artistic Wood Turning 

Some very odd and beautiful effects 
can be obtained in lathe work by mak- 
ing up the stock from several pieces of 
various kinds of wood glued together. 
The pieces can be arranged in many 
pleasing combinations, and if good 
joints are made and a good quality of 
glue used, the built-up stock is just as 
durable as a solid piece. 

Candlesticks turned from built-up 



139 



Stock are especially attractive, parts of 
the various light and dark woods ap- 
pearing here and there in all manner of 
odd shapes and proportions. If the 
stock is placed ofif center in the lathe, 
a still greater variety of effects will 
be produced. 

The application of a potassium-bi- 
chromate solution to the finished work 
turns each piece a different color. This 
solution can be made in any depth of 
color by varying the amounts of potas- 
sium salt and water. Alaple or birch 
treated with this solution are colored 
to a rich Osage orange which cannot 
be surpassed in beauty. Mahogany is 
turned a deep reddish brown, and wal- 
nut is darkened a great deal. The so- 
lution is applied as evenly as possible 
with a camel's-hair brush while the 
wood is turning in the lathe. The grain 
of the wood is somewhat roughened 



n MAPLE OR 

BIRCH 
H MAHOGANY 

^ WALNUT 



Vase Made of Different Woods 

by this process, but it can be dressed 
down again with very fine sandpaper. 
In polishing the work, only the best 
shellac should be used, and several 
thin coats applied rather than one or 
two heavy ones. Each coat, with the 
exception of the last, should be sand- 
papered slightly. Powdered pumice 
stone on a cloth held in the palm of 
the hand can be used to apply a beauti- 
ful luster. Some suggestions as to the 
manner of combining various woods, 
and a simple candlestick of mahogany 
and maple are shown in the sketch. — 
Contributed by Olaf Tronnes, Wil- 
mette. 111. 





A Variable Condenser 
A simple variable condenser for re- 
ceiving in wireless, which will give 
good results, was made by a corre- 
spondent of Modern Electrics as fol- 
lows: Each clip on the switch was 
made of ribbon brass or copper in the 



shape shown at A, the first one from 
the joint of the knife switch being 
the longest and each succeeding one 
shorter. The handle was taken from 
a single-pole switch. The case was 




CONDtNSER 

Lever and Clips 

made of oak and varnished and the 
condenser was made of tinfoil and thin 
sheets of mica, 2 by 3 in. in size. After 
placing the condenser in the case, hot 
paraffin was poured around it. 



Adjustable Baking-Pan Shoes 

At times bread, meat, or other food, 
placed in ordinary baking pans in the 
oven becomes burned on the bottom. 
If the detachable metal strips shown in 
the sketch are placed on the pan, this 
will not happen, as the pan does not 
come in direct contact with the oven 
floor. 

The attachment can be placed on 
agate ware or sheet-iron pans of any 
length. The shoes are made from light 




Shoe and How It is Attached to the Pan 

V-shaped metal strips and in two parts, 
as shown, with the edges of one part 
lapped over so that the other strip will 
slide in it. 



130 




Cars Lined Up Ready for the Start and the Course Patrolled by the Boy Scouts, All Traffic being Halted 
{or the Race and the Roadway Made Clear for the Entire Half Mile of Track 

A Pushmobile Race 



Pending the time set for a 500-mile 
international automobile race that was 
scheduled to take place several weeks 
later, a number of boys in the sixth and 
seventh grades of a public school were 
enthusiastic over the idea of building 




for themselves, in 
the school shops, 
pushmobiles and 
having a race 
meet similar to 
the large one ad- 
vertised. 

The pushmobiles were made and the 
race run as an opening feature of a 
field meet held in the city. The course 
was about a half mile long, and was 
chosen to give the contestants plenty 
of curves, a part of the run being over 
brick streets and the final quarter on 
the regular track where the field meet 
was held. 

Interest was added to the event by 
petitioning the mayor of the city for 
a permit to run the race, and the Boy 




Scouts patrolled the route, while the 
city policemen cleared the streets, and 
during the race all traffic was halted. 

Two of the requirements for enter- 
ing the race were that the car had to be 
made in the school shops and that it 
must have a certain kind of a wheel, 
which in this case was one condemned 
by a local factory, thus making the 
wheels and wheel base of all cars alike. 
Two boys to a car constituted a rac- 
ing team, and during the race they 
could exchange positions at their pleas- 
ure. The necessity of "nursing" their 
cars down the steep grades and around 
difficult corners developed into an im- 
portant factor. All cars were 
named and numbered. 

The car that finished first was 
disqualified for the 
reason that it took 
on a fresh pusher 
along the course. 




The Cars Winning the First. Second and Third Prizes 

Respectively, the "Hoosier" being Penalized 

10 Yards at the Starting Tape for Having 

Larger and Better-Grade Wheels 



131 



The cars were constructed under the 
supervision of the regular shop in- 
structor, and a drawing was furnished 
each boy making a car. The design of 
the hood and the arrangement of the 
seat and steering gear was left for each 
boy to settle as he desired. The matter 
of expense was watched closely by 
each one. Most of the hoods and 
seats were constructed of empty dry- 
goods boxes. 

With the aid of the sket 
can make a car as stron 
"Peugeot" that won th 
The side rails of the m 
frame were made of cy- 
press, 58 in. long 
and 2 
square. 

The Entire Chassis was 



Two pieces of ^/{j-in. soft-steel rod 
were used for the axles, a hole being 
drilled near each end for a cotter, to 
hold the wheels in place, and also holes 
through the diameter between the 
wheels, for iV^-in. screws to fasten the 
axles to the bolsters. 

The steering wheel is constructed of 
a broom handle with a small wheel 
fastened to its upper end, and the lower 
end supported by a crossbar, 
F. and the back end of the 
hootl. Before fastening 
the crossbar F 
in place, adjust 
the steering 




the Hoods 
and Seats 
Being the Only 
Parts Optional 
in Size and Shape 
for the Builder 

The location of the crossbars A and B 
is very important, as they give rigidity 
to the frame and reinforce the two 
bolsters C and D. The size of the 
hood and the location of the seat de- 
termine where they should be set into 
the rail, after which they are fastened 
with large wood screws. The three 
bolsters C, D, and E are cut from reg- 
ular 2 by 4-in. stock. Be careful to 
get a uniform distance between the 
rails when they are framed together. 
If desired, the dimensions can be in- 
creased, but do not reduce them, as 
this will narrow the tread too much. 
The bolt connecting the bolsters C and 
E is a common carriage bolt, 5 in. long 
and 1/2 in- in diameter. A washer is 
placed between the pieces C and E, to 
make the turning easy. 



to the 
eight for 
n it is 
fastened with nails dri\en 
through the sides of the hood. 
The construction of the steering 
device is very simple. The crossarm 
G is a piece of timber, 7 in. long, 2 in. 
wide and 1 in. thick, rounded on the 
ends and provided with a large screw 
eye near each end on the under side to 
which are fastened the ends of two 
small-linked chains. The chains are 
then crossed and fastened to the bot- 
tom bolster in front and as near the 
wheels as practical. The connection is 
made with a screw eye similar to the 
one used in the crossarm. Another 
type of steering device may be made 
by building on the rod a 5-in. drum 
which takes the place of the steering 
arm. It is a more positive appliance, 
but is somewhat harder to make and 
adjust. 

The making of the hood and the seat 
completes the car. Decide upon the 
shape and size of the hood, but, in any 
case and irrespective of the size, it will 
require a front and back end. These 
are made first and then secured at the 



iS'2 



proper distance apart with two side 
rails. These two ends are nailed on the 
ends of the connecting rails. It is then 
well to fasten the hood skeleton to the 
car frame and cover it after the steer- 
ing device is in place. 

The seat bottom is cut the shape 
desired, and fastened to the rear bolster 



and crosspiece, first placing a piece of 
the proper thickness under the front 
edge, to give it the desired slant back- 
ward. The back curved part can be 
formed of a piece of sheet metal and 
lined on the inside with wood pieces, 
or with cloth or leather, padded to re- 
semble the regular cushion. 



Pencil Rack 

The simple pencil rack shown in the 
sketch can be easily made from any 
suitable strip of metal, preferably 

I 1 



o ' 


1 

1 


i 


L . 


i o 


-==^ 


-^n) 


7 


^=^1 


'-==^ 




A Strip of Sheet Metal Cut and Clips Formed 
to Make a Pencil Rack 

brass of about No. 15 gauge. Mark off 
a number of rectangles corresponding 
to the number of pencil holders 
desired. With a sharp chisel, cut 
through the metal on three sides of 
each rectangle, leaving one of the 
short sides untouched. The loose laps 
can then be bent to a shape suited to 
hold a pencil. The rack can be 
fastened in place with nails or screws 
through holes pierced at each end. 
— Contributed by Mark Gluckman, 
Jersey City, N. J. 



CIndistinct but not entirely worn-off 
dates on coins may be read by heating 
slightly. 



Reducing Size of a Hat Sweatband 

Very often a hat has been worn for 
some time and it becomes too loose on 
the head, then paper is used in the 
sweatband to reduce the size. A bet- 
ter, easier, and neater method, as well 
as one that will be cooler for the head, 
is to insert a flat lamp wick inside of 
the sweatband. Wicks of all thick- 
nesses and widths are easily obtained. 
— Contributed by Maurice Bandier, 
New Orleans, La. 



A Catapult 

The catapult shown in the sketch 
is one I constructed some time ago and 
found to be amusing and very inex- 
pensive. The catapult consists of a 
small piece of dowel or pine, whittled 
into the shape of a handle, a screw- 
eye, an elastic band and an arrow. It 
is surprising how a well-balanced ar- 
row will fly into the sky until lost to 
sight when propelled through the eye 
of the screw with a medium-strong 
elastic. A number of forms of this 




The Eye of the Screw Serves as a Guide for 
the Arrow 

simple gun were made, but the one 
shown is the simplest and most ef- 
fective. — Contributed by C. A. Need- 
ham, New York, N. Y. 



133 



Growing Clean Strawberries 

A very good method of growing in- 
dividual strawberry plants that will 
produce large clean berries is to pro- 
vide a covering constructed from a 
board 10 in. square with a 3-in. hole 
bored in the center. This covering 
is placed over the plant, as shown in 
the sketch, to keep down weeds, retain 
moisture, and to make a base for the 
ripening berries. A shower cannot 
spatter dirt and sand on the growing 
fruit. The rays of the sun beating 
on the surface of the board will aid in 
the ripening. 

If a log can be obtained, the boards 
can be made better and more quickly. 
Disks about 1 in. thick are sawed from 
the log and holes in their centers either 
cut with a chisel or bored, as desired. 




Growing Strawberries on the Surface of a Board 
Where They will Ripen Fast and Keep Clean 

The grain of the wood will be vertical 
and no warping will take place — Con- 
tributed by Johnny Banholster, Gres- 
ham, Oregon 



A Magic Change Card 

Procure two cards, the "5" of dia- 
monds and the "5" of spades, for ex- 
ample. Bend each exactly in the cen- 
ter, with the face of the cards in, and 
then paste any card on the back, with 
its face against the two ends of the 
bent cards. The two opposite ends 
will then have their backs together, 
and these are also pasted. The illus- 
tration clearly shows this arrangement. 

To perform the trick pick up this 
card, which is placed in the pack be- 
forehand, and show to the audience 



both the front and back of the card, 
being sure to keep the center part flat 
against one end or the other, then 
pass the hand over the card, and in 



A Card Having 
Two Faces, Either 

of Which can be 

Shown to the 

Audience Instantly 




doing so catch the center part and 
turn it over. The card can be changed 
back again in the same manner. — Con- 
tributed by R. Bennett, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Cleaning Pearl Articles 

A good way to clean pearl articles or 
ornaments is to moisten them with 
alcohol and then dry in magnesia pow- 
der or French chalk. These last two 
articles may be purchased at any drug 
store and the process of cleaning is 
absolutely harmless. It also polishes 
the pearl and will not bleach delicate 
colors. 



Bed for a Camp 

A quickly made bed for a camp is 
shown in the illustration. The corner 
posts consist of four forked stakes 
driven in the earth so that the crotches 
are on a level and about 1 ft. from 




w 



Canvas Bed Made on Two Poles Laid in the 
Crotches of Forked Stakes 



the ground, 
crotches, len; 
canvas 



Poles are laid in the 
jthwise of the bed, and 
double-lapped over 



134 



them. If desired, the canvas can be 
stitched along the inside of the poles. 
— Contributed by Thomas Simpson, 
Pawtucket, R. I. 



Sail for a Boy's Wagon 

Every boy. who loves a boat and has 
only a wagon, can make a combination 
affair in which he can sail even though 




The Sail Wagon will Travel at a Good Speed 
in a Stiff Breeze 

there is no water for miles around. 
One boy accomplished this as shown 
in the illustration, and the only assist- 
ance he had was in making the sails. 

The box of the wagon is removed 
and the boat deck bolted in its place. 
The deck is 14 in. wide and 5 ft. long. 
The mast consists of an old rake han- 
dle, 6 ft. long ; the boom and gaff are 
broomsticks, and the tiller is connected 
with wire to the front axle, which gives 
perfect control of the steering. The 
sails are made of drilling. 

On a brick pavement the sail wagon 
can draw two other wagons with two 
boys in each, making in all five boys. 
Of course a good wind must be blow- 
ing. With two boys it has made a 
mile in five minutes on pavement. — 
Contributed by Arthur Carruthers, 
Oberlin, Ohio. 



Extracting a Broken Screw 

A screw will often break off in a 
piece of work in such a manner that it 
is quite impossible to remo\'e it by 
using a pair of pliers or a wrench. In 



this case the following method is very 
efficient and expedient. 

Drill a small hole in the screw as 
near the center as possible. Roughen 
the edges on the tang of a file with a 
cold chisel, and drive the tang into the 
hole with a mallet. The roughened 
edges of the tang exert enough friction 
on the metal to remove the screw by 
turning the file in the proper direction. 



Keeping Out Dampness 

A good way to keep a bed from be- 
coming damp, if left for any length of 
time, is to place a blanket on the top 
after it is made up. Take the blanket 
oflf before using and the bed covers will 
be quite dry, as the blanket absorbs 
the moisture. — Contributed by G. Nor- 
dvke. Lexington, Ore. 



A Double-Claw Hammer for Pulling 
Nails Straight 

A nail pulled with an ordinary claw 
hammer will be bent in the operation, 
and for this reason the double claw 
is used to draw the nail straight out 
of the wood. An ordinary claw ham- 
mer can be easily converted into a 
double-claw by filing out one of the 
claws as shown. The notch is filed 
only large enough to slip under the 
head of an average-size nail. After 
drawing the nail a short distance in the 





The Small Notch on the 
End of the Claw Mikes 
It Easy to Pull a Nail 
Straight 



usual manner the small notch is set 
under the head of the nail which is then 
pulled out straight. — Contributed by J. 
V. Loefifer, Evansville, Ind. 



13o 




A Cyclemobile 

By FRANK PFEFFERLE 



The cyclemobile is of the three- 
wheeled type and can be easily con- 
structed in the home workshop with 
ordinary tools. The main frame is 
built up of two sidepieces, AA, Fig. 
1, each 2 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 7 
ft. long, joined together at the front 
end with a crosspiece, B. of the same 
material. 17 in. long. The sides are 
placed slightly tapering so that the 
rear ends are 1] in. apart at the point 
where they are joined together with 
the blocks and rear-wheel attachments. 
A crosspiece, C, 13 in. long, is fastened 
in the center of the frame. 

The place for the seat is cut out of 
each sidepiece, as shown by the 
notches at D, which are 2 ft. from the 
rear ends. Two strips of wood, E, ^o 




in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 22 in. long, 
are fastened with nails to the rear ends 
of the sides, as shown. The rear wheel 




Detail of the Parts for Constructing an Automobile- 
Type Foot-Power Car 



Three-Wheeled Cyclemobile Propelled Like a Bicycle 
and Steered as an Automobile 

is a bicycle wheel, which can be taken 
from an old bicycle, or a wheel may 
be purchased cheaply at a bicycle store. 
It is held in place with two pieces of 
strap iron, F, shaped similar to the 
rear forks on a bicycle, and each piece 
is bolted to a block of wood 3 in. thick, 
4 in. wide, and 6 in. long, which is 
fastened to the sidepiece with the same 
bolts that hold the strap iron in ])lace. 
The blocks are located 20 in. from the 
rear ends of the sidepieces. 

The pedal arrangement. Fig. 3, con- 
sists of an ordinary bicycle hanger, 
with cranks and sprocket wheel set 
into the end of a piece of wood, 3 in. 
thick, 4 in. wide and 33 in. long, at 
a point 4 in. from one end. The pieces 
GG are nailed on across the frame at 
ihe front end of the car, to hold the 
hanger piece in the center between the 
sidepieces, as shown in Fig. 1. A 
small pulley, H, is made to run loosely 
on a shaft fastened between the side- 
pieces. This is used as an idler to keep 
the upper part of the chain below the 
seat. 



136 



The front axle is 30 in. long, pivoted 
as shown at J, Fig. 3, 6 in. from the 
front end of the main frame. Two 
small brass plates, KK, are fastened 
with screws on the under edge of each 
sidepiece, as shown, to provide a bear- 
ing for the axle. The front wheels are 
taken from a discarded baby carriage 
and are about 21 in. in diameter. 

A good imitation radiator can be 
made by cutting a board to the dimen- 
sions given in Fig. 4. A large-mesh 
screen is fastened to the rear side to 
imitate the water cells. 

The steering gear L, Fig. 5, is made 
of a broom handle, one end of which 
passes through the support M and fits 
into a hole bored into the lower part 
of the imitation radiator board. A 



steering wheel, N, is attached to the 
upper end of the broom handle. The 
center part of a rope, O, is given a 
few turns around the broom handle, 
and the ends are passed through the 
openings in screweyes, PP, turned in- 
to the inner surfaces of the sidepieces 
AA, and tied to the front axle. 

The seat is constructed of i/2-in. lum- 
ber and is built in the notches cut in 
the main frame shown at D, Fig. 1. 
The body frame is made of lath, or 
other thin strips of wood, that can be 
bent in the shape of the radiator and 
nailed to the sidepieces, as shown in 
Fig. G. These are braced at the top 
with a longitudinal strip. The frame 
is then covered with canvas and 
painted as desired. 



How to Make a Humidor 

The humidor is an ideal gift for any 
person who smokes. The wood for 
making one, as shown in the illustra- 




The Amount of Moisture within tlie Box i^ Shown 
on the Dial in tne Cover 

tion, may be of Spanish cedar, mahog- 
any, or quartered oak, as the builder 
desires. The box and cover are made 
and glued together in one piece, then 
the cover is sawed off to insure a per- 
fect fit. A strong corner connection is 
shown at A. A piece of a strawberry 
box or peach basket makes a good key 
to glue in the grooves. Care must be 
taken to run the grain with the width 
and not with the length of the strip. 

Finish the outside of the box with 
two coats of the desired stain, then 
cover with a coat of wax, shellac, or 
varnish. The inside should be finished 
with one coat of white lead and two or 



three coats of white enamel, to make 
the wood impervious to moisture. 

In the center of the cover top is set 
a piece of glass and to the under side 
of the latter a hygrometer is attached 
with a little glue. This instrument 
tells the relative humidity, or the 
amount of moisture, in the air within. 
The moisture may be regulated by add- 
ing a few drops of water, as needed, to 
a piece of ordinary blotting paper 
placed on the inside. — Contributed by 
James T. Gaffney, Chicago. 



Telephoto Attachment for a Hand 
Camera 

It is not necessary to purchase an 
expensive telephoto lens for a box or 
hand camera if the owner has a pair of 




A Field Glass Placed in Front of a Camera Lens 
will Increase the Diameter of the Photograph 

opera or field glasses. First focus the 
glasses on the distant object to be 



13'! 



photographed and then set the camera. 
One of the glasses is placed directly 
in line with and in front of the camera 
lens, as shown in the sketch. If the 
camera is of the focusing type, it is 
focused in the ordinary manner. Box 
and other cameras are set as usual. 

The glasses should be well supported 
in front of the camera lens, as any 
slight move will be quite perceptible 
on the ground glass. As the light rays 
are largely reduced in passing through 
the field glass and camera lens, it is 
necessary to give a much longer ex- 
posure. This can only be determined 
by trying it out, as lenses have ditTer- 
ent speeds. — Contributed by Charles 
Leonard, St. John, Can. 



and central roof of the structure. If 
wood is used for the rod, it should 
be about 1 in. in diameter and of hard 



A Turn Feeding Table for Birds 

Never in the past has the public at 
large taken so great an interest in pro- 
tecting and furthering the well-being 
of birds as at present. In addition to 
protective legislation, clubs every- 
where are organizing to promote bird 
life and many citizens, old and young, 
are making bird houses and feeding 
tables. 

One of the best forms of feeding 
tables which I have ever seen is shown 
in the sketch. It possesses a great 
advantage over the average table in 
being turned automatically, whirling 
about by the action of the winds and 
always keeping its open front on the 
lee or protected quarter. This is a 
good feature especially in the fall and 
winter, the very time when birds need 
and seek protection from storms and 
cold winds. 

To make such a feed table almost 
any kind of boards can be utilized. 
The shelter may be of any shape or 
size to suit the tastes of the maker, 
but one constructed to the dimensions 
given will be found to work well in 
most localities. Along the center of 
the roof is attached a wing, A, which 
is an active aid in causing the wind 
to keep the open front turned away. 
The shelter turns upon a wood or iron 
rod which passes from the end of a 
post up through the central bottom 




A Feeding Table for Birds That will Keep Its Open 
Side Protected from the Storms 

stock. An iron rod may be somewhat 
smaller. Keep the holes well greased. 
The house should be given a couple 
of coats of white, red, or green paint, 
and the post painted to correspond. 
Feed and water are placed in shallow 
dishes on the floor and they should be 
blocked to keep them from sliding out. 
— Contributed by C. C. Fraser, Sagi- 
naw, Mich. 



A Sack Holder 

An old granite kettle or tin pail with 
the bottom cut out and three 8-penny 
wire nails bent and fastened on with 
rivets, as shown at A, makes as good 
a sack holder as one could desire. A 




A Granite Kettle Forms a 

Holder That Makes It 

Easy to Fill the Sack 




chain attached to the handle makes it 
conveniently adjustable to the proper 



height for the sack. 



138 



Time Indicator for Medicine Bottles 

The time to give a patient the next 
dose of medicine can be set on the in- 
dicator, as shown in the sketch, and 
retained without 
fear of its being 
changed until 
the dose is again 
given. The in- 
dicator consists 
of a strip of 
paper which will 
reach around the 
bottle neck and 
is divided into 24 
equal parts rep- 
resenting hours 
and half hours. The paper is then 
pasted to the bottle neck. An ordi- 
nary pin is then pushed into the cork as 
shown. After a dose of medicine is 
given to the patient the cork is re- 
placed so that the head of the pin will 
indicate the time for the ne.xt dose. 
By this method, an accidental shifting 
of the indicator is almost impossible. 




A Washtub Stand 

Usually two old chairs or an old box 
makes the stand for the washtub, and 
these are not always the right height. 
A stand, like that shown in the illus- 
tration and having the proper height 
for the one who does the washing, can 
be easily made of 2 by 4-in. material 
and a few boards. As it is shown, the 



stand Provides a Place 
for the ■Washing Utensils 
and It is Always the 
Proper Height 




wringer is fastened on top of the back 
and may remain there all the time, it 
being out of the way, always in its 
proper place, and held very firmly. 
A light bracket, on which to set the 



clothes basket, can be made and 
fastened on the back of the stand, con- 
nected with two hinges and supported 
by a leg hinged to the bracket, the 
lower end of the leg resting on the 
floor back of the stand. 

A small drawer may also be pro- 
vided in the front, in which to put 
away the soap and brushes, and the 
wash boiler can be set underneath. 
When one is through washing, the 
bracket at the back is let down, the 
washstand set up against the wall out 
of the way, and everything is then in 
its place, ready for the next wash day. 
— Contributed by Chas. Homewood, 
Waterloo, la. 



Pipe Used as a Leather Punch 

The sketch shows how a very cheap 
and serviceable leather punch can be 
made of an old pipe nip- 
ple. Pieces of pipe of al- 
most any size can be 
found around a shop, 
and it is. therefore, usu- 
ally possible to quickly 
make a punch of the re- 
quired size. The cutter 
end can be ground very 
thin to prevent an over- 
cut, while a small slot 
cut a little above it will 
allow the removal of the 
leather slugs. For its 
purpose, this homemade tool is all that 
can be desired in cheapness and utility. 




To Prevent Oilcloth from Cracking 

A good method to prevent oilcloth 
from cracking, when it is used on shop 
tables or counters, is to first cut a pa- 
per cover for the table on which to 
place the oilcloth and prepare it as fol- 
lows: The paper should be well oiled 
with common machine oil and placed 
smoothly on the table to be covered. 
The oilcloth is then smoothed out on 
top of the paper and stretched tightly. 
The oiled paper tends to keep the un- 
der side of the cloth moist, which pre- 
vents cracking. The cloth wears much 
longer because the paper acts as a pad 



139 









How to Make a Flymobile 

By EDWARD SIEJA 



The boy owning a piishmobile, or 
even a power-driven auto car, is often 
very much disappointed because mo- 
tion soon stops when the power is not 
applied. The car illustrated is of a lit- 
tle different type, being equipped with 
a flywheel that will prt)pel the car and 
carry the rider a considerable distance 
after stopping the pedaling. The fly- 
wheel also aids the operator, as it will 
steady the motion and help him over a 
rough place or a bump in the road. 

The main frame of the flymobile is 
made up of a few pieces of 2 by 4-in. 
timbers. The pieces A are 6 ft. 4 in. 
long, and the end crosspieces B, 24 in. 
long. These are jointed, glued and 
screwed together, as shown in Fig. 1. 
The frame that supports the driving 
parts consists of a piece, C, 6 ft. 2 in. 
long, and a piece D, 2 ft. 11 in. long. 
These are fitted in the main frame and 
securely fastened to the end cross- 
pieces B. Two other crosspieces, E and 
F, are used to strengthen the driving- 
parts frame. 

The entire hanger G, with its bear- 
ings, cranks and pedals, can be pro- 
cured from a discarded bicycle and fas- 
tened to the piece C ; the barrel holding 
the bearings being snugly fitted into a 
hole bored in the piece with an expan- 
sive bit. The location will depend on 
the builder and should l)e marked as 
follows : Place the hanger on top of the 
piece C, then put a box or board on 
the frame where the seat is to be and 
set the hanger where it will be in a 
comfortable position for pedaling. 
Mark this location and bore the hole. 

The transmission H consists of a 



bicycle coaster-brake hub, shown in 
detail in Fig. 2. A split pulley, J, U in. 
in diameter, is bored out to fit over the 
center of the hub between the spoke 
flanges. The halves of the pulley are 
then clam|)ed on the hub with two 
bolts, run through the holes in opposite 
directions. Their heads and nuts are 
let into countersunk holes so that no 
part will extend above the surface of 




The Flymobile is a Miniature Automobile in 
Appearance and is Propelled by Foot Power 

the pulley. The supports for the hub 
axle consist of two pieces of bar iron, 
4 in. long, drilled to admit the axle 
ends, and screws for fastening them to 
the frame pieces C and D. This con- 
struction is clearly shown in Fig. 2. 

The arrangement of the coaster- 
brake hub produces the same efl^ect as 
a coaster brake on a bicycle. The one 
propelling the flymobile may stop the 
foot-power work without interfering 
with the travel of the machine, and, be- 
sides, a little back pressure on the ped- 
als will apply the brake in the same 
manner. 

The flywheel K should be about 18 
in. in diameter with a 2-in. rim, or face. 
Such a wheel can be purchased cheaply 
from any junk dealer. The flywheel is 
set on a shaft, turning between the 



140 



pieces C and D and back of the coast- 
er-brake wheel H. Two pulleys, L, 
about 3 in. in diameter, are fastened to 
turn with the flywheel on the shaft and 
are fitted with flanges to separate the 
belts. The ends of the shaft should 
run in good bearings, well oiled. 

Another pulley, M, 6 in. in diameter, 
is made of wood and fastened to the 
rear axle. An idler wheel, shown in 
Fig. 3, is constructed of a small pulley, 
or a large spool, attached to an L- 
shaped piece of metal, which in turn 
is fastened on the end of a shaft con- 
trolled by the lever N. The function 
of this idler is to tighten up the belt or 
release it, thus changing the speed in 
the same manner as on a motorcycle. 

The elevation of the flymobile is giv- 
en in Fig. 4, which shows the arrange- 
ment of the belting. The size of the 
pulleys on the flywheel shaft causes it 
to turn rapidly, and, for this reason, the 
weight of the wheel will rvni the car a 
considerable distance when the coaster 
hub is released. 

The rear axle revolves in bearings, 
half of which is recessed in the under 
edges of the pieces A while the other 
half is fastened to a block, screwed on 



fastening them to the pieces P and Q, 
as shown. These pieces are hinged 
with strap iron, R, at one end, the other 
end of the piece P being fastened to 
the crosspiece F, Fig. 1, of the main 
frame. The lower piece Q is worked 
by the lever S and side bars, T. A 
small spring, U, keeps the ends of the 
pieces apart and allows the free turn- 
ing of the axle until the brake lever is 
drawn. The lever S is connected by a 
long bar to the hand lever V. 

The steering apparatus W, Figs. 1 
and 4, is constructed of a piece of gas 
pipe, 3 ft. 4 in. long, with a wheel at 
one end and a cord, X, at the other. 
The center part of the cord is woimd 
several times around the pipe and the 
ends are passed through screweyes in 
the main frame pieces A and attached 
to the front axle, which is pivoted in 
the center under the block Y. The 
lower end of the pipe turns in a hole 
bored slanting in the block. A turn of 
the steering wheel causes one end of 
the cord to wind and the other to un- 
wind, which turns the axle on the cen- 
ter pivot. 

The wheels are bicycle wheels, and 
the ends of the front axle are turned to 

























f 


■ 


II V-& 1 


i 


p?= 








,x 1; N* tj 


L^ 


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Fjg.5 



Plan and Elevation of the Flymobile, Showing the Location of the Working Parts, to Which, 
a Few Changes, a Motorcycle Engine can be Attached to Make It a Cyclecar; Also 
Details of the Brakes, Belt Tightener and Coaster-Brake Hub 



'ith 



over the axle. A simple brake is made 
as shown in Fig. 5. Two metal pieces, 
O, preferably brass, are shaped to fit 
over the shaft with extending ends for 



receive the cones and nuts, instead of 
using the regular hub axles. The ends 
of the rear axle are turned to closely fit 
the hubs after the ball cups have been 



141 



removed. A large washer and nut 
clamp each wheel to the axle so that 
it will turn with it. 

The body can be made up as desired, 
from sheet metal, wood, or cloth 
stretched over ribs of wood, and 
painted in the manner of an automo- 
bile. A tank and tires can be placed on 
the back to add to the appearance. 
Fenders and a running board can be 
attached to the main frame. 

With the addition of some cross- 
pieces in the main frame at the front 
and a motorcycle engine fastened to 
them so that the driving sprocket will 
be in line with the sprocket on the 
coaster hub, the builder will have a real 
cyclecar. 



The Die-and-Box Trick 

The die-and-box trick, so often per- 
formed on the stage, is a very 
interesting and mystifying one. The 
apparatus, however, is simple, consist- 
ing of a box, die, a piece of tin in the 
form of three adjacent sides of the 
die, and a hat. The die and box are 
constructed entirely of wood, Ys in. 
thick, and the piece of tin can be cut 
from any large coffee can. The box 
is closed by four doors, as shown in 
Fig. 1, two of which are 234 in- 
square, and the others, 3Vs in. by SVi 
in. The first two are the front doors 
and are preferably hinged with cloth 
to the two uprights A and B. Small 
pieces of tin are fastened on the doors 
at C and D, to provide a means to 
open them. The other doors are 
placed on top and are hinged to the 
back, as shown. 

The die is 3 in. square on all sides, 
and is constructed of two pieces, 3 in. 
square ; two pieces, 3% in. by 3 in., 
and two pieces, 2% in. square. These 
are fastened together with y2-'m. 
brads. The tin, forming the false die, 
is cut out as shown in Fig. 3, and is 
then bent on the dotted lines and sol- 
dered together on the joint formed by 
the two edges E and F. All parts 
should be painted a dull black with 
white spots on the die and false die. 

The trick is performed as follows : 



Procure a hat from some one in the 
audience and place in it the die with 
the tin false die covering three sides 
of the block, at the same time telling 
the audience that the block will be 
caused to pass from the hat into the 




With the False Die in Place It Appears 
as If the Box Were Empty 

box, the latter being placed some dis- 
tance away. Inform the audience that 
it would be more difficult for the die 
to pass from the box into the hat. Re- 
move the tin piece from the hat and 
leave the die, holding the surfaces of 
the false die toward the audience. 
This will give the impression that the 
die has been removed. Set the hat on 
the table above the level of the eyes 
of the audience. With the back of the 
box toward the audience, open one 
top door and insert the tin piece in 
the right-hand compartment so that 
one side touches the back, another the 




The Box with 
Doors on One 
Side and the Top, and 
the False-Die Pattern 



side and the other the bottom of the 
box. Close the door and open the two 
doors of the opposite compartment 
which, when shown, will appear to be 
empty. Tilt the box to this side and 
open the doors of the side opposite to 



142 



the one just opened, which, of course, 
will be empty. This should be done 
several times until some one asks that 
all doors be opened at the same time. 
After a few more reversals and open- 
ings as given, open all doors and show 
it empty, then take the die from the 
hat. — Contributed by Harold L. Groes- 
beck, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



Homemade Pantograph 

The pantograph consists of four 
pieces of wood, the dimensions de- 
pending somewhat on the size of the 
work to be drawn. A convenient size 
for ordinary drawing and enlarging is 



1 X 

fit 




JT^ 



A Picture can be Enlarged or Reduced by Setting 
the Screweyes in the Holes Designated 

constructed of four pieces of hard- 
wood, preferably maple, i% in. thick 
and % in. wide, two of them 20%^ in. 
in length and the other two, 18-)4 in. 
long. These are planed and sand- 
papered and the ends cut round. 

All four pieces are laid flat on a level 
board or bench top with their edges to- 
gether so that the edges of the two 



longer pieces make right angles with 
a line drawn tangent to their ends. 
One end of one short piece is placed 
flush with the lower ends of the two 
long pieces, and one end of the other 
short piece flush with the upper ends, 
as shown. They should be clamped 
down solidly to keep them from mov- 
ing while laying off the divisions. 
Light lines are drawn across their 
faces as designated by the dimensions. 
On these lines and exactly in the 
center of the pieces make small marks 
with a pencil point. Through the 
pieces A and B holes are drilled to 
snugly receive the body of a small 
screweye. The other two pieces are 
drilled with a smaller drill so that the 
threads of the screweye will take hold 
in the wood. 

The end C of the piece A has a 
metal stand made of brass as shown at 
D. This is fastened to the end of the 
wood with a small bolt. The hole 
should be a snug fit over the body of 
the bolt. The lower ends of the brass 
are drilled to admit thumb tacks for 
holding it to the drawing board. 

The joint at E is made of a suitable 
binding post that can be procured at 
an electrical shop, the shank below 
the two joined pieces to be the same 
length as the height of the metal stand 
D. The end should be filed round and 
polished so that it will slip over the 
board or paper easily. 

The stylus or tracing point F is 
made of another binding post, in the 
same manner, but instead of a round- 
ing end a slightly blunt, pointed end 
is filed on it. The end of the piece G 
is strengthened by gluing a small block 
of the same material on both upper 
and under side. A hole is then made 
through them to receive a pencil 
rather tightly. 

The holes, as will be seen, are num- 
bered from 1 to 34. At the crossing 
of each pair, H and J, the screweyes 
must be set in the holes numbered 
alike on both pieces of each pair. This 
will insure the proper working of the 
parts. The other numbers designate 
how much the instrument will enlarge 
a picture or reduce it. On the pair 



143 



not numbered in the sketch the num- 
bers run in the opposite direction. 

The end C is fastened to the left 
side of the drawing board, the picture 
to be enlarged is placed under the 
stylus or tracer point, and the paper 
under the pencil point G. Move the 
tracing point over the general outline 
of the picture without making any line 
before starting, so as to make sure that 
the paper and picture are located right. 
It is then only necessary to take hold 
of the pencil and move it over the 
paper while watching the tracer point 
to keep it following the lines of the 
picture. To make a reduced picture, 
the original is placed under G, the 
tracer point changed to G and the 
pencil to F. 



Trapping Mosquitoes 

Klosquitoes that light on the ceiling 
may be easily destroyed with the in- 
strument shown in the sketch. It con- 
sists of a cover, 
such as used on 
jelly glasses, 
nailed to the 
end of an old 
broom handle 
A little kerosene 
oil is placed in 
the cover and 
the device is 
passed closely beneath the location of 
the mosquitoes. They will be over- 
come by the fumes and drop into the 
fluid as soon as it comes under them. 
— Contributed by J. J. Kolar, May- 
wood, 111. 




Pen Rack on an Ink Bottle 

A piece of wire, about 1 ft. long, is 
bent into the shape shown and slipped 
over the neck of the ink bottle. The 
ends forming the 
loop around the 
neck should fit 
tightly. The up- 
per part of the 
wire is shaped to 
hold the penholder. — Contributed by 
\V. A. Saul, E. Lexington, Mass. 




Substitute for a Broken Bench- 
Vise Nut 

It is frequently the case that the nut 
on a bench-vise screw breaks from be- 
ing subjected to a too violent strain. If 



© 




1 wo Pieces of Strap Iron Shaped to Fit the Square 
1 hread Make a uood Substitute Nut 

one is working in a place where a new 
nut cannot be obtained, the broken part 
may be replaced by the substitute 
shown in the sketch. Any piece of 
strap iron may be used, and with a 
round file and a drill the two pieces can 
soon be made and attached to the 
bench with screws or bolts. A slight 
twist of the shaped ends is necessary to 
make them fit the angle of the thread. 
— Contributed by Oscar M. W'addell, 
Lamedeer, ^lont. 



Scissors Sharpener 

Procure an ordinary wood clothespin 
and drill a %-iri. hole through its 
blades, then insert a piece of hardened 
i/8-in. drill rod, which should be a driv- 
ing fit. In using this de\ice, take the 
scissors and attempt to cut the steel 




In Attempting to Cut the Hardened Steel Pin 
the Edge is Drawn Sharp 

rod. Do this three or four times and a 
good cutting edge will be obtained. — 
Contributed by \\'m. J. Tolson, Lyons, 
Iowa. 



CAn imitation-gold color may be made 
with flake white, ground in varnish 
and tinted with a touch of vermilion. 
When striping or lettering is done 
with this, it will have the appearance 
of real gilding work. 



144 



Floor Push Button 

An ordinary electric push button 
can be used for a floor push button by 
placing it on a bracket or shelf at- 
tached to a joist, as shown, and using 
a nail for the extension push. A 
%-in. hole is bored through the floor, 
also through a small piece of wood 
fastened beneath the floor, at the right 
place to direct the nail so that it will 
strike directly upon the small black 
knob of the push button. The nail 




Push Button on Joist 



should be just long enough to rest 
lightly on the knob. — Contributed by 
Reginald R. Insole, Hamilton, Can. 



A Wrist Brace 

To strengthen a weak wrist, take a 
piece of leather, preferably white oak 
tanned. 2 in. wide and 14 in. long, and 
carefully shave it down with a sharp 
knife, until it is tV in. thick. Then 
cut it as shown in Fig. 1, the wide part 
or body being 7 in. long, and the nar- 
row part or neck, G in. long and 1 in. 
wide. Cut a semicircular hole, 1 in. 
from the extreme end of the body, V12 in. 
wide and l^/l in. long, to allow the neck 
to slip through, then punch three holes 
in each end and lace with rawhide or 
shoestring, or, better still, if you hap- 
pen to have a small buckle, sew it 
neatly to the body. It looks better 




Fig I 
Brace Made at Leather 



Fig. 2 



and saves time in adjusting. When 
complete and on the wrist, it will ap- 
pear as in Fig. 2.— Contributed by J. 
H. Harris, Berkeley, Cal. 




Protecting a Kettle Handle from Heat 

The wood handle of a kettle or cook- 
ing utensil when not in use usually 
comes in contact with the side of the 
vessel and it 
will absorb 
enough heat 
each time to 
finally char 
and crack 
the wood. 
The heat of the handle at times is so in- 
tense that it often results in a burned 
hand. The spiral metal handle pro- 
vides a way for cooling by exposing a 
considerable surface to the air, yet the 
metal retains the heat so that many 
times it is too hot to handle. If a wood 
handle is provided with a coil of wire 
as shown in the accompanying sketch, 
the wood cannot come in contact with 
the side of the heated vessel and the air 
encircling the wood prevents it from 
getting too hot to handle. The spiral 
can be attached to a metal handle with 
solder. 



Tin Can Used for Watering Chickens 

An ordinarv discarded tomato can 
makes a good watering vessel for 
young chick- 
ens. Care 
must be 
taken in 
opening the 
can to cut 
the tin so the 
cover will 
hinge. Cut 
the tin about 
li/o in. from 
the bottom 
so that it 
will form a 
U-s h a p e d 
piece as 
shown in the 

sketch' and push the hanging portion 
in the can. Fill the can up to the 
opening with water, close the cover 
and set it in the coop. — Contributed 
by L. Alberta Norrell, Augusta, Ga. 




145 





— -ig.-j^ 






How to Make a Hurdle 

The hurdle consists of two stand- 
ards, a reach, and a swing. The swing 
is first made in the shape of a rec- 
tangle of four pieces of wood, about 
% in. thick and IV2 in. wide, of which 
two are 36 in. and the others 18 in. 
long. These pieces are nailed together 
in the manner shown. 

Each standard is made of three pieces 
of wood, % in- thick, 3 in. wide, and 
18 in. long. Nail the pieces firmly to- 
gether, as shown, and connect their 
bases with another piece of the same 
material, 36 in. long. When this is 
finished, connect the swing to the 
standards with long nails, A, at the 
ends slightly off center. Before in- 
serting the nails, make the holes in 
each standard to receive them large 
enough to permit the nails to turn 
freely without allowing the heads to 




The Swing of the Hurdle will Turn When Slightly 
Touched and Right Itself Again 

pass through. Thus the frame will 
swing freely at the slightest touch of 
the jumper's foot, and right itself im- 
mediately. — Contributed by C. C. 
Fraser, Saginaw, Mich. 



Oil Burner for a Cook Stove 

The parts of the burner consist of 
ordinary gas pipe and fittings. The 
pipe in which the kerosene oil is con- 
verted into gas is Vo in. 
in diameter and is con- 
nected to a suppl}^ tank 
of oil with i/4-in- pipe. 





A Very Cheap Grade of Kerosene Oil can be Used 
in This Burner with Success 



The burner part is also constructed of 
i/4-in. pipe having three lo-in- holes 
drilled in each end for the gas to es- 
cape where it burns. These burners 
are located just beneath the large pipe 
so that the flames will heat it and con- 
vert the oil into gas. A needle valve, 
A, is used to control the flow of oil. 
The burner is placed in the fire box of 
the stove, and the pipes connected 
through a hole drilled in the stove door, 
at B. 

The tank may be rectangular or 
round and should be of sufficient 
strength to withstand 5 or 10 lb. of 
pressure. The top of the tank has a 
pet cock where a connecting hose from 
an air pump may be attached. The tank 
is filled about half full and just a little 
pressure of air is put on the oil. To 
start the burner, run a little oil in a pan 
or fire shovel and light it so that the 
flames will convert the oil into gas in 
the large pipe, then turn the valve A 
and regulate the flame. — Contributed 
by Robert Hays, Siloam Springs, .\rk. 



146 



A Fish Stringer 

The illustration shows a ver}- sim- 
ple and inexpensive device for the 
angler to string and carry fish. It is 




Inexpensive Stringer Made 
of a Pail Handle and 
Small Chain 

made of a pail handle throagh which 
is passed a piece of soft wire, having 
sufficient length for bends or loops at 
each end, and a piece of chain. A 
chain 18 in. long is sufficient. One end 
of the chain is fastened in the loop at 
one end of the handle, and the other 
has a piece of wire attached for push- 
ing through the gills of the fish. The 
other end of the wire through the 
handle is arranged in a hook to catch 
into the links of the chain. — Contrib- 
uted by G. O. Reed, Stratford, Canada. 

Substitutes for Drawing Instruments 

Three of the most used draftsman's 
instruments are the compass, ruler 
and square or triangle. When it is 
necessary to make a rough drawing 
and no instruments are at hand, com- 
mon and easily obtainable things can 
be used as substitutes. 

A sheet of heavy paper folded as 





A Compass. Ruler and Square Made of Ordinary 
Things at Hand 

shown at A will serve as a ruler, and 
the same sheet given another fold will 
make the square B. If given another 
fold diagonally, a 45-deg. triangle is 



formed. A substitute compass is 
readily made of a short pencil and a 
pocket knife, as shown at C. — Con- 
tributed by Jas. J. Joyce, Olongopo, 
Philippine Islands. 

How to Make an Aspirator 

A simple aspirator that may I)e used 
for a number of ditTerent purposes, 
such as accelerating the process of 
filtering, emptying water from' tubs, 
producing a partial vacuum in vessels 
in which coils are being boiled in paraf- 
fin, etc., may be constructed as fol- 
lows : C)btain two pieces of brass 
tubing of the following dimensions: 
one 7 in. long and % in. outside diam- 
eter, and the other, 3 in. long and Vi 
in. outside diameter. Drill a hole in 
one side of the large tube, about 3 in. 
from one end, of such a diameter that 




Detail of the Aspirator and Us Connections to a 
Faucet, for Increasing the Speed of Filtration 

the small brass tube will fit it very 
tightly. Take an ordinary hacksaw 
and cut a slot in the side of the large 
piece, as shown at A. This slot is 
sawed diagonally across the tube and 
extends from one side to the center. 
Obtain a piece of sheet brass that will 
fit into this slot tightly, and then 
solder it and the small tube into the 
large tube. The slot and hole for the 
small tube should be so located with 
respect to each other that the small 
tube will empty into the largej one 
directly against the piece of sheet 
brass soldered in the slot. 

The upper end of the large tube 
should be threaded inside to fit over 
the threads on the faucet, or an attach- 
ment soldered to it similar to those on 
the end of an ordinary garden hose. 
A rubber hose should be attached to 
the small tube and connected, as 



147 



shown, to a piece of glass tubing that 
is sealed in the cork in the top of the 
large bottle. The funnel holding the 
filter paper is also sealed into the cork. 
Melted paraffin may be used in sealing 
the glass tube, funnel and cork in 
place, the object being to make them 
airtight. The filter paper should be 
folded so that it sticks tightly against 
the sides of the funnel when the liquid 
is poured in, thus preventing any air 
from entering the bottle between the 
paper and the funnel. Turn on the 
faucet, and it will be found that the 
time required to filter any liquid will 
be greatly reduced. Be careful, how- 
ever, not to turn on too much water, 
as the suction may then be too strong 
and the filter paper become punctured. 

A Key-Holder Hook 

A good hook for hanging keys, 
toothbrushes and other small articles 
^ can be made 



C 



from ordinary 
wire staples, as 
s h o w n at A. 
One leg of the 
staple is cut away as shown at B 
and the other leg driven into the 
board as shown at C. These will an- 
swer the purpose as well as screw- 
hooks. — Contributed by W. C. Heidt, 
Chicago. 



A Hand Hoe 

A hand hoe, especially adapted for 
weeding or cultivating small truck, 
particularly onions, can be made of a 
piece of hard wood, Ys by 1% in. by 4 
ft. long, and a piece of old bucksaw 
blade. A blade, 18 in. long and 2 in. 




Bucksawr Blade Attached 
to a Hardwood Handle 



wide, bent into a loop is attached with 
bolts to the handle. — Contributed by 
Ceo. H. Miller, Iowa City, Iowa. 



Seed Receptacle for Bird-Cages 

A handy seed and water container 
for a bird-cage can be made of a com- 
mon spice tin. The receptacle can be 






i 


H4 








^ 


iiiii'inv- 




11 



Spice Tin Attached to the Wires of a Bird-Cage for 
a \Vater or Seed Receptacle 

filled without removal by simply tak- 
ing off the cover. Thus the seed will 
not be scattered. 

The tin is attached by cutting a hole 
in the back as shown, and bending 
the side edges to fit over the wires to 
hold it in place. The bottom strip is 
a support which rests on the floor of 
the cage and prevents the tin from 
slipping down on the wires. 



Kitchen-Utensil Scraper 

A flexible utensil scraper is one of 
the most useful articles I have in my 
kitchen. It covers such a large surface 




The Blade is Flexible so It can Readily Shape Itself 
to the Curves of a Kettle 

in scraping pans, kettles, etc., that this 
most disagreeable part of the kitchen 
work is quickly and easily accom- 
plished. 

The flexible blade is attached to the 
tin handles with small rivets. The 
blade should be thin and narrow 
enough to allow it to bend. When the 
handles are pressed together, the blade 
curves to the shape of the utensil's sur- 
face. — Contributed by Mrs. Delia 
Schempp, Brodhead, Wis. 



148 



Anchor Posts for a Lawn Swing 

A very substantial and convenient 
base for a lawn swing can be made by 
using four anchor posts of cement, as 




Fib. I 




MOULD 
BOX 



An Anchor Post of Cement and a Mold Box for Shaping 
Four Posts at a Time 

shown in Fig. 1. The posts are made 
with a recess, A, to receive the legs of 
the swing, and of any suitable size. 
They may be placed with the upper 
face on a level with the lawn, or higher 
if desired. 

A rough mold box, Fig. 2, lined with 
paper, will do for making the posts. 
The box does not require any top or 
bottom ; it is simply placed on a board 
and lifted away when the blocks are 
thoroughly dried. If the blocks are 
leveled when placed in the earth, the 
swing may be taken down and erected 
again without the usual leveling and 
bracing. — Contributed by James M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



Automatic Filter 

This funnel-tilling lil- 
ter automatically pre- 
vents the solution from 
running over if the fil- 
tering is slow or the fil- 
ter substance becomes 
clogged. The upper in- 
verted bottle holds the 
solution to be filtered, 
the cork being fitted 
with a glass tube as 
shown, and when in use 
the cork is forced into 
the neck of the bottle so 
that no air can enter be- 
tween it and the glass. 
The support for hold- 
ing the bottles has 
two brackets, one to fit the neck of 
the upper bottle and the other used 




as a shelf for the receiving bottle. 
In operation, the solution runs from 
the upper bottle into the funnel, hold- 
ing the filter paper, but it cannot fill 
the funnel completely, because the end 
of the glass tube is lower than the 
edge of the funnel, and as soon as the 
liquid in the funnel covers the end of 
the tube, all inflow of air into the 
upper bottle is stopped, and, thereby, 
further flow of the solution into the 
funnel prevented, until enough has fil- 
tered through to uncover the end of 
the tube and thus permit air to again 
enter the upper bottle. — Contributed 
by G. Simons, Chicago. 



Grinding Scissors 

Whether a pair of scissors be ground 
or filed, the marks or scratches left 
from the contact with the abrasive 
should all extend across the bevel in 




The Direction of the Grinding Tool should be Slightly 
Sloping Toward the Handles 

the direction of the line ED, Fig. 1, and 
never in the direction of the line GF. 
If the cutting edge be examined under 
a magnifying glass, the tool marks or 
scratches left by the sharpening proc- 
ess will be very plainly seen, and where 
these scratches intersect with the face 
HI, Fig. 3, of the blade, they will ap- 
pear as teeth along the cutting edge IK. 

As a pair of scissors close, the 
natural tendency is to thrust the ma- 
terial to be cut out of the angle ABC, 
Fig. 1, but if these small teeth formed 
on the cutting edge point in the direc- 
tion of the line ED, this slipping action 
is prevented or retarded because the 
fibrous material adheres to the fine 
teeth on the cutting edge of the blades. 

Wet paper, silks, mohair cloths, etc., 
can be sheared with perfect ease and 



149 



dispatch, when scissors are sharpened 
in this manner. The same principle 
holds good for metal snips. 

The angle HIJ, Fig. 3, varies accord- 
ing to the material to be cut, and the 
type of shear. A greater angle is re- 
quired on metal shears than on shears 
for domestic uses. — Contributed by A. 
Clifton, Chicago. 



To Repair a Leak in a Canoe 

After striking some rocks with our 
canoe, it sprung three very bad leaks. 
These were effectively patched with 
pieces of cheesecloth, well soaked in 
liquid shellac, which were pasted on 
the outside of the leak. After allow- 
ing this to set for a few hours, it will 
be almost impossible to remove the 
patch. This is an inexpensive and al- 
most invariably a sure remedy for 
leaks. When the cloth is dry, paint it 
over with the same color as the boat, 
and the repair can scarcely be seen. — 
Contributed by William B. Smith, 
New York City. 



Holder for Loose Window Glass 

When the putty becomes loose and 
the glazing points work out on win- 
dow glass, tem- 
porary repairs 
may be made by 
using a small 
piece of tin or 
sheet iron bent 
as shown in the 
sketch. The clip 
is inserted under the edge of the glass 
and hooked over the back of the sash 
parts. This will hold the glass firmly 
in place and also prevent rattling. 



rectangular piece of wood and is fas- 
tened with a tenon in a mortise cut in 
the vise jaw B. The clamping ar- 




The Vise Jaw as It is Attached to the Bench and 
the Substitute Screw Arrangement 

rangement consists of a strap, C, at- 
tached to the piece A, then run over a 
pulley, D, and fastened to a foot pedal, 
E. The foot pedal is fulcrumed on a 
crosspiece of the bench and has a 
ratchet so as to hold it when the vise 
is set. The lower end of the vise is 
fitted with the usual form of device for 
parallel adjustment. A coil spring is 
located in the center for use in quickly 
opening the vise when the foot pedal 
is released. — Contributed by A. C. 
Westby, Porter, Minn. 



A Cover Strainer 

Quite frequently the cook or house- 
wife wishes to pour the hot water or 
liquid from boiling vegetables or other 
foods without removing the solids 
from the kettle. This is easily accom- 
plished, if small holes are drilled in the 
cover as shown in the sketch. The 
saucepan or kettle can be tilted and 
the liquid drains through the holes. 
Further, the steam from cooking food 




A Homemade Bench Vise 

A form of a bench vise that can be 
easily made and attached to a work- 
bench is shown in the illustration. 
This vise requires no screw, and the can readily escape through the holes, 
parts can be made from scrap ma- thus preventing the cover from vi- 
terial. brating, or the liquids from boiling 

The substitute A for the screw is a over. 



A Sufficient Number of Holes are Drilled in the Edge 
of the Cover to Make a Strainer 



150 



Homemade Corn Sheller 

Where there is but a small quantity 
of corn to be shelled a sheller can be 
made of a few scraps of wood usually 



The Projecting 
Nail Heads in the 
Block and Lever, 
as They Pass. 
Shell the Corn 




found on a farm. A block of wood 
having a sloping notch cut from one 
end is mounted on three legs as shown. 
The notched part as well as the lever 
is thickly filled with spikes driven in so 
that their heads protrude about 1/2 '"■ 
The ear of corn is placed in the 
notched part and the lever pressed 
down. Two or three strokes of the 
lever will remove all the kernels from 
the cob. A box is provided and con- 
veniently located on one leg to catch 
the shelled corn. — Contributed by A. 
S. Thomas, Gordon, Ont. 



An Ornamental Metal Flatiron Holder 

This antique iron holder or stand 
can be easily constructed by the ama- 
teur bent-iron worker. A strip of iron 
is bent over at the ends to form the 
side legs, and the front leg is formed 
of another piece, welded in the center. 




Ornamental Stand Made of Either Strap Iron or Sheet 
Metal to Hold a Flatiron 

Openings for the crosspieces are 
then cut, the legs bent into a scroll 



shape, and the crosspieces inserted 
and fastened by spreading or upsetting 
the ends. 

Instead of using strap iron, the stand 
can be cut from good sheet metal. 
This would save the trouble of welding 
(111 the front leg. 



How to Make a Watch Demagnetizer 

A watch demagnetizer that will give 
excellent satisfaction may be made as 
follows: 

Procure a sheet of j\-'n\. brass, oVi 
in. by 7 in. Bend this piece of brass 
around a piece of hard wood having 
a rectangular cross section of 2iA in. 
by 1 in. The joint between the two 
ends should be made on one side, and 
the edges should lack about % in. of 
touching. Next obtain two pieces of 
%-in. brass, 3% in. by 3 in., and cut 
an opening in each of these, 2% in. 
by 1% in-, as shown in the sketch. 
Bend one edge of each of these pieces 
over at right angles to the main por- 
tion of the piece. Solder these two 
pieces on the ends of the rectangular 




Dimensioned Parts for the Construction of the Core 
over Which the Insulated Wire is Wound 

tube of brass and cut a slot in each of 
them to correspond to the one in the 
rectangular tube. Place the rectan- 
gular piece of wood back in the tube and 
you are ready for the winding. Use 
No. 18 gauge single cotton-covered 
copper wire and fill the winding space. 
Several layers of paper should be 
placed on the brass tube and between 
the layers of wire, to serve as an in- 
sulation. Holes may be drilled in the 
projecting portions on the ends and the 
coil can then be mounted on a wooden 
base. Mount two binding posts on 
this base and connect the terminals of 
the winding to them. 



151 



To use the demagnetizer, connect it 
to a 110-volt alternating-current circuit 
with a rheostat in circuit of such a 
form that the current will not exceed 
three amperes and that it may be re- 
duced to practically zero in value by 
increasing the resistance of the rheo- 
stat. The magnetic field inside the 
coil is rapidly changing in direction 



and will tend to destroy any perma- 
nent magnetism that may be possessed 
by an object placed inside of it. The 
full current of three amperes should be 
allowed to pass through the winding 
for a few minutes after the object to 
be demagnetized is inserted, and then 
gradually reduced, and the object re- 
moved. 



Remodeling a Talking Machine 

Having a talking machine of an old F. The talking machine is placed on 
model with a tapered horn I decided the auxiliary base as shown in Fig. 3. 
to change it into a more modern type, This construction produces a talking 





The Horn or Sounding Box is Constructed in the Au 
Tube to the Box Consists of Ordinary G. 

and this was accomplished as follows: 
An auxiliary base was constructed of 
i/^-in. wood on which to set the part 
which revolves the disks. The inside 
of this base is so constructed as to 
form a horn or sounding box. The two 
sides and sloping bottom of the horn- 
part are made of Vi-'m. wood. The 
form of this box is shown in Fig. 1. 
The dimensions should be determined 
according to the size of the talking 
machine. 

The connecting parts to the original 
horn were turned downward, as shown 
at A, Fig. 2, with the opening entering 
a piece of ordinary gas pipe of suffi- 
cient length to allow an elbow with a 
nipple to enter the auxiliary base. The 
pivot-holding device for connection 
A is shown at D. The parts are 
attached to the box with a clasp, E, 
and with three screws in the nipple 
C, the end view of which is shown at 



xiliary Base and the Part for Connecting the Sounding 
as Pipe Fastened with a Clip at the Back 

machine on the order of a cabinet 
machine without the tapering horn. — • 
Contributed by H. W. J. Lomglatz, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 



Needle for Sewing Burlap 

A needle for sewing burlap can be 
easily made of the ordinary opener 
that comes with sardine cans. All that 
is necessary to convert this tool into a 




The Can Opener is Provided with an 
Eye and to Make a Needle the End is 
Sliarpened 



needle is to grind the blunt end to a 
sharp point, as shown in the sketch. — 
Contributed by G. C. Beven, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. 



153 



A Mysterious Revolving Wheel 

The mystery of this wheel is that it 
seems to revolve automatically with- 
out any visible external power. It is 




The Wheel as It is Mounted on a Needle, and Lamp 
and Box Containing Magnet to Make It Turn 

at the same time an amusing trick and 
an instructive experiment. The appa- 
ratus required is very simple and can 
be made at home. 

A glass bottle is half filled with sand 
and water, so that it will stand se- 
curely, and a cork placed in the neck. 
Into this cork a needle should be in- 
serted so that it projects perpendic- 
ularly, which is most easily done by 
heating one end of the needle to a 
red heat and then pushing it into the 
cork as deeply as possible. Into a 
disk of cork of suital^le thickness and 
at four points on its side, at equal dis- 
tances apart, are inserted four pieces 
of copper wire of the same length, 
each bent at the outer end to form a 
hook — these copper wires thus forming 
the spokes of the wheel. The rim is 
made of a small iron wire bent in a 
circular shape and held in the hooks 
on the ends of the copper wires. The 
now completed wheel is balanced on 
the free point on the needle, so that it 
can turn easily. 

Place an alcohol lamp in such a posf- 
tion that when it is lighted the tip of 
the flame will just reach the rim of the 
wheel. (Any other flame that will not 
soot the rim may be used.) In the 
box A, placed with its bottom level 
with the wheel, put a horseshoe 
magnet so that the flame is opposite 
one of its poles. After the lamp has 
been lighted for a few seconds, the 
wheel will begin to revolve, seemingly 
without cause. Why does it do so? 



Because the magnet magnetizes or at- 
tracts the part of the ring nearest it 
while cold, but not when it is glow- 
ing. Instead, it will attract the cooler 
part of the ring nearest behind the 
flame and so on, the wheel thus spin- 
ning round, faster in the same propor- 
tion as the magnet is stronger and the 
iron rim smaller. 

If this experiment is shown before 
spectators as a trick, the performer 
may say to the audience that he alone 
can make the wheel spin around with- 
out touching it. Should some one ac- 
cept his challenge, he may, in a care- 
less way, move the box containing the 
magnet away or turn it around so that 
it will not influence the iron ring and 
then, of course, the wheel will remain 
immovable. 



How to Make a Rabbet Plane 

A rabbet plane is very little used by 
mechanics, but when it is wanted for 
a piece of work, it is wanted badly. 
While doing an unusual piece of work 
I needed a rabbet plane, and having 
none, I made a plane as shown in the 
sketch in less time than it would have 
taken to go out and borrow one. 

The body of the plane was made of 
a piece of 2 by 4-in. pine, 1 ft. long. 
A 1-in. chisel was used for the bit. A 
place was marked on one side of the 
wood to be cut out for the chisel, and 
a 1-in. hole bored through, the narrow 
way, so that one edge of the bit cut 
through the bottom, forming a slit for 




A Plane Made of a Piece of 2 by 4-In. Pine, a Chisel 
and a Large Wood Screw 

the edge of the chisel. After cut- 
ting a groove for the chisel blade and 
turning in a long wood screw as shown. 



153 



to hold the chisel in place, I had as 
good a rabbet plane as could be pur- 
chased. — Contributed by W. H. Young, 
Thompson, Ga. 



Eye Shield for a Microscope 

The difficulty and discomfort ama- 
teurs experience in learning to use a 
microscope with both eyes open, or in 
trying to keep one eye shut, can be 
easily overcome by attaching a piece 
of cardboard, similar in shape to the 
one shown in the sketch, to the barrel 
of the microscope. The hole A should 
be of sufficient diameter to allow the 
cardboard to slide freely up and down 
on the barrel to the proper adjustment. 
This simple arrangement will relieve a 
great deal of the eye strain and will 




Shield to Cover the Eye That is Not Used 'When 
Looking into a Microscope 



be of assistance to the most experi- 
enced users of microscopes. — Contrib- 
uted by G. B. Fenton, Charleston, W. 
Virginia. 



Transferring Magazine Pictures 

Select pictures from newly printed 
papers and magazines. Rub wax from 
a paraffin candle over a sheet of clean 
white paper, covering a space as large 
as the picture to be copied. Place 
the paper, waxed side down, on rhe 
picture and while holding it firmly 
with the fingers of one hand, rub the 
back thoroughly with some hard sub- 
stance until all parts of the picture 
have been gone over. Remove the 
paper and a perfect copy of the picture 
will he found upon the waxed side. — 
Contributed by Kenneth G. Merlin, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



A Homemade Egg Separator 

Secure some small wire and a very 
large can. Cut the wire into several 
pieces and bend them as shown at A, 




The Contents of the Egg is Placed on the \Vire3 
Which will Separate the Yolk from the White 

cut the can and bend the side down as 
shown and punch holes to recei\e the 
upper ends of the wires. Make the 
holes so that the wires will be about 
5/16 in. apart. 



A Glue-Spreader Holder 

The spreader that is supplied with 
bottles of liquid glue should not be 
placed on any surface, as it will soon 
stick to it. A 
holder that will 
keep the spread- 
er in a safe place 
can be made of a 
piece of wire 
which' is twisted 
about the neck 
of the bottle, as 
shown in the 
sketch, and the 
ends bent up to receive the spreader. 




V_ 



Stop on a Chair Rocker for a Baby 

For a baby, too small to rock with- 
out tipping the chair over, a small 
willow or other suitable rocking chair 




The Strip on the Rocker Prevents the Child Tipping 
the Chair Too Far Either 'Way 

may be made safe in the following 
manner: 

A strip, A, is fastened on the out- 



154 



side of the rocker with small screws so 
that it may be removed without in- 
juring the chair. A rubber-covered 
tack driven in on the under side at each 
end of the strip modifies the shock and 
the baby can rock to its heart's con- 
tent without danger of turning over. — 
Contributed by Mrs. G. W. Coplin, 
Bay City, Mich. 



Homemade Countersink for Wood 

A round or flat-head bolt can be 
made into a good rosebit or reamer for 
countersinking holes for screw heads. 





Round and Square Heads of Bolts Shaped and Notched 
to Make Countersinks 

In the illustration, Fig. 1 shows a 
reamer made of a round-head bolt, and 
Fig. 2, one made of a square-head bolt. 
The round-head makes the best reamer 
as more cutters can be tiled in the sur- 
face and less work is required to file 
it into shape. 



To Maintain a Constant Level of 

Liquids in Vessels 

It is frequently desirable in labora- 
tory experiments, and in practica-l work 
as well, to main- 



^- 



tam a constant 
level in a tank 
without allowing 
it to become 
full. In many 
cases an outlet 
pipe at a certain 
height in the 
side of the tank 



is not desirable, and in laboratory ex- 
periments with beakers or crocks is, of 
course, impossible. 

The diagram shows a simple but ef- 



fective constant-level device. The 
outer end of the inverted U-tube is 
curved upward so that it never empties. 
If desired, the upward curve may be 
omitted and the straight end immersed 
in a small vessel of water. All that 
is necessary now for the successful 
working of the device is that the inner 
or tank end. A, of the tube be lower 
than the outer end — in other words, be- 
low the level of the end B — and the in- 
ner end below the level of the fluid. 
Of course, the U-tube must be first 
filled with liquid and will then act as 
an intermittent, never-breaking siphon. 
Should the tank fill above the end B, 
the siphon drains the fluid down to 
that level and no lower, even if the in- 
ner leg of the tube reach the bottom. 
To maintain this level against loss by 
evaporation some slight inflow is nec- 
essary. 

It will be noted that if the inner 
end of the siphon were above the outer 
end, the siphon would break as soon 
as the liquid in the tank fell to the 
inner mouth. — Contributed by Harry 
N. Holmes, Richmond, Ind. 



Homemade Electric Bed Warmer 

The heat developed by a carbon-fil- 
ament lamp is sufficiently high to allow 
its use as a heating element of, for in- 
stance, a bed warmer. There are a 
number of other small heaters which 
can be easily made and for which 
lamps form very suitable heating ele- 
ments, but the bed warmer is probably 
the best example. All that is required 
is a tin covering which can be made of 
an old can about 3I/2 in. in diameter. 
The top is cut out and the edge filed 
smooth. The lamp-socket end of the 
flexible cord is inserted in the can and 
the shade holder gripped over the 
opening. A small lamp of about five 
candlepower will do the heating. 

A flannel bag, large enough to slip 
over the tin can and provided with a 
neck that can be drawn together by 
means of a cord, gives the heater a 
more finished appearance, as well as 
making it more pleasant to the touch. 



155 




A Flash-Light Telegraph on a Kite 
Line 

An ordinary pocket flash lamp is 
prepared in the following manner: A 
brass spring, as shown in the sketch, 
is bound tightly to the flash lamp with 
a cord, and two wires, one at each 
end, are twisted around the lamp's 
body, forming two loops at the top. 
The kite string is run through the 
loops and over the spring. The lamp 
is then placed near the kite. The or- 
dinary pull on the kite string does not 
close the spring, but a sharp jerk will 
pull the string in contact with the 
push button and its slight pressure 



into the hole to pass the handle 
through. The board may contain one 





The Flash of the Light 
on the String may be Read 
as Far as It can be Seen 



causes an instant flash of the light. 
By this method words may be spelled 
out in the telegraph code. — Contrilju- 
ted by Joe V. Romig, Allentown, Pa. 



Hangers for Barn Tools 

Means should be provided to have a 
place for all the tools used in and about 
a barn. The forks and shovels are 
usually stood up in a corner, but they 
can be more conveniently taken care 
of by making a hanger for them. The 
illustration shows how a hanger can 
be easily made and screwed to the 
wall of a barn. The hanger is cut from 
a piece of board and has a hole bored 
into it the size of the handle on the 
fork or shovel, then a notch is sawn 




A Notched 
Board Provides 
a AVay to 
Hang All the 
Tools Used 
about a Barn 




or as many notches as there are forks 
and shovels to be hung on it. The 
implements are hung with the fork or 
shovel end upward. — Contributed by 
R. Snyder, Glidden, la. 



Guide Ropes on a Bobsled 

The sketch shows the front end of 
a bobsled or double runner made of a 
plank bolted upon two sleds. The 
front sled is so pivoted on the bolt A 
that it may be turned to steer the bob, 
and to accomplish this result the 
steersman ordinarily sits with his feet 
braced against the projecting ends of 




The Most Efficient "Way of Attaching Ropes to 
the Guiding Runners of a Bobsled 

the crosspiece and passes the steering 
ropes outside of his feet, with the 
ropes crossed as shown. The crossing 



156 



of the ropes is supposed to add 
leverage, but that is quite wrong. 

The rope, running from B to C, has 
a lever arm from A to E. If the ropes 
were not crossed, the rope would lie 
along the dotted line BD, whose lever 
arm is the distance AF, which is al- 
ways greater than AE, therefore the 
uncrossed ropes have more leverage. 

Observe what takes place when the 
sled is steered to the left : The dis- 
tance AE decreases much more rap- 
idly than AF, and when the crossed 
ropes have lost all their power, the un- 
crossed ropes are still useful. Many a 
spill has been caused by turning the 
sled to a position from which the 
crossed ropes were unable to restore 
it to a central position, and most of 
such spills would have been avoided 
if the ropes had not been crossed. — 
Contributed by R. R. Raymond, 
Wilmington, Del. 



Brush Hanger for a Dark Room 

Necessity may be the mother of in- 
vention, but it is also the grandmother 
of application, and application is the 
practical side of invention. Both the 
amateur and the professional pho- 
tographer have been 
bothered by spotting 
and unequal develop- 
ment of negatives 
and prints in tray de- 
velopment, due to 
various causes, and 
sometimes by the 
presence of dirt par- 
ticles or the unequal 
or incomplete flow- 
ing of the developer 
over the surface of 
the sensitive emul- 
sion. 

Most professionals 
and many amateurs 
are familiar with the 
use of the camel's-hair brush to avoid 
failures of this character, and many of 
them use a brush for local development 
in certain cases where it is necessary 
or desirable. Usually the brush is kept 
in a small glass cup, somewhere close 




at hand, but it is often in the way when 
not wanted and misplaced when most 
needed. The brush can be kept within 
reach and handy for the operator by 
arranging a light counterweight and 
pulley with a string attached to the 
brush, so that, normally, the brush will 
hang from the ceiling directly over the 
developing tray and can be obtained 
for use when desired. 

The detail of this brush-string and 
counterweight combination was delib- 
erately appropriated from the old plan 
of suspending the piece of chalk over 
a billiard table, so that the players 
could easily reach it, when needed, 
while, when released, it would be 
pulled out of the way by the counter- 
weight. The developing brush thus 
suspended is always ready, never mis- 
placed, nor in the way for other opera- 
tions. This arrangement is particularly 
convenient where a bathroom is used 
as a dark room, and the shelf space is 
limited. 

This same manner of counterweight- 
ing chalk on the billiard table may be 
applied to a stove-lid lifter, to keep it 
within easy reach and always cool 
enough to handle. The simplest and 
most inexpensive way of making this 
apparatus is to cut of¥ a small piece of 
lead pipe for a counterweight, and, in 
the absence of a suitable pulley, use 
an ordinary screweye fastened in the 
ceiling. The latter is really better 
than a pulley because the string can- 
not run off the screweye. The arrange- 
ment is better understood by referring 
to the sketcli. 



Lighting a Basement Light 

There was no switch at the base- 
ment door and it was difficult to find 
the droplight in the dark. Instead of 
going to the expense of placing a 
switch, the contrivance illustrated and 
described was rigged up and proved 
equal to the requirements. 

A yg-'n. piece of wood was cut about 
G in. long by 2 in. wide and a recess 
made at one end for the socket, as 
shown. A Vs-in. hole was drilled in the 
center, about 2 in. from one end, and 



157 



another, large enough to receive the 
projection from a pull socket, about 2 
in. from the other end, or the end to 
be used as the bottom of the block. 
A clamp made of spring brass, as 
shown, was screwed securely to the 
board, to clamp the socket firmly. A 
wire was passed through the small 
hole and stretched across the room 
from the door at a height to bring the 
light about G ft. from the floor. Then 
the socket was clamped to the strip 
with the chain passed through the hole 
cut for it. The cord attached to the 
chain was run to the door casing, 
passed through a screweye and 
weighted with a nut or some light ob- 
ject, to keep it taut. To light the 
lamp or put it out only a pull on the 
string was necessary. 

The light can be slid along on the 
wire from one end of the room to the 



LiZi 



a_ 




Socket 
Attachment 

to Turn 

a Basement 

Light 

On or Off 

from a 
Distance 



o 



other, or can be detached from the 
strip when desired by unhooking the 
cord from the chain and taking the 
socket from the clamp. If more de- 
sirable, the block can be fastened 
permanently to some object instead of 
being on the wire. — Contributed by 
L. M. Eifel, Chicago. 



Projecting Protractor Readings 

A simple and efficient means of 
projecting protractor readings to a 
larger size is shown in Fig. 1. One 
point of the compass is placed at the 
center of the protractor and an elastic 
band is looped between the points. 
Then the points are spread to the ra- 



dius desired, and the protractor is read 
where the elastic band crosses its scale. 
A light band should be used, and 





The Extension Marks can 
be Easily Read on the 
Protractor under the 
Elastic Band 



looped as shown in Fig. 3. In this 
way a circle of any size may be quickly 
divided, if a pencil mark is made each 
time the band comes over the proper 
figure. — Contributed by Thos. L. Par- 
ker, Wibau.x. Mont. 



Removing Grease from Paint 

When removing grease from paint 
by using ordinary cleaners, the paint 
is liable to come off in the washing. 
A good and cheaply applied method is 
to rub the painted surface with a paste 
of ordinary whiting. This is allowed 
to dry and when it is rubbed off with 
a cloth the dirt and grease is taken 
away with it. The whiting is cheap 
and can be purchased at any drug 
store. 



A Door Stop 

A very good door stop can be easily 
made of a piece of metal as shown in 
the sketch. The 
metal is bent and 
fastened with 
screws to the 
wall against 
which the door 
swings. The ex- 
tending end fits 
under the door 
knob and pre- 
vents it from striking the wall. — Con- 
tributed by C. R. Poole, Los Angeles, 
California. 



.fft 



•0 



158 



Stretching a Curtain without a Frame 

A good way to avoid using the ordi- 
nary four-pole curtain stretcher is to 
make use of the following method. 




A Lace Curtain Hung Double on a Line with a 
Pole Inserted in the Fold 

Take the lace curtain and fold it once 
lengthwise ; then pin it up on a tightly 
stretched line with a large number of 
clothespins, and slip a clean pole be- 
tween the two sides to keep it taut. 
This method not only stretches the cur- 
tain satisfactorily, but saves consider- 
able time otherwise required in pin- 
ning the curtain to the four-sided 
frame. — Contributed by H. Wynning, 
Chicago, 111. 



Welding Small Resistance-Wire 
Connections 

In making connections, especially in 
electrical heating devices subject to 
high temperatures, it is out of the ques- 
tion to use solder, since the tempera- 
ture reached in the device would cause 




An Arc is Formed with a Piece of Carbon, to Weld 
the Twisted Ends of Wire Together 

the solder to melt and run out. A con- 
venient arrangement for welding the 
connections of flatirons, or any other 



fine wires, is shown in the illustration. 
The ends of the wires to be welded are 
twisted together, and the weld is com- 
pleted by forming an arc, one electrode 
of which is the twisted connection and 
the other a piece of carbon. The re- 
sistance of the heating unit in the iron 
is sufficient to limit the amount of the 
current flow so that a short circuit does 
not result. — Contributed by G. Irving 
Davis, Albany, N. Y. 

Bench with Folding Seats 

To pru\ide a bench with seats, or 
shelves, which cannot easily be taken 
away unless the table is brought along, 
hinged brackets are attached to sta- 
tionary crosspieces, which are fastened 




Bench, or Table, with a Seat on Each Side That 
can be Folded for Carrying Purposes 

on the extended end braces of the table. 
A\'hen in use, the brackets are turned 
down, thereby providing a rigid sup- 
port for anything that may be put on 
them. If it is desirable to have the 
brackets out of the way, as when carry- 
ing the bench, it is only necessary to 
fold them up. — Contributed by J- M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



Rim of Wire Wastebasket Wrapped 
with Felt 

In ofifices where wire wastebaskets 
are used, the finish of the desks is often 
marred by the top rim of the baskets 
rubbing against them. This can be 
overcome by wrapping strips of felt 
around the rim to form a buffer. — Con- 
tributed by Miss F. D. Schweiger, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 



A Homemade Roller Coaster 

By J H. SANFORD 



THE popular roller coaster that fur- 
nishes untold amusement for the 
multitudes that patronize amusement 
parks during the summer can be easily 
duplicated in a smaller way on a vacant 
lot or back yard for the children of 
the home ; or the boys of a neighbor- 
hood could contribute to a fund and 
construct quite an elaborate afi'air, on 
the same lines as described, for the 
combined use of the owners. The one 
described was built with a track, 90 ft. 
long, 5 ft. high at one end and 3 ft. at 
the other, the track between being 
placed on the ground. In coasting 
from the high end to the low one, the 
coaster will run up on the incline, then 
drift back to within 24 ft. of the start- 
ing end. The car was built to seat four 
children or two adults. The cost of 



all the materials for building this roller 
coaster did not exceed $10. 




Inexpensive Back-Yard Roller Coaster. Suitable for the Enjoyment 
of the Young as Well as the Older Persons 

159 



The track is of simple 
construction and re- 
quires but little de- 
scription. Itisnecessary 
to have it straight and 
nailed firmly to the 
crossties on the ground 
and to thetrestles where 
it is elevated. The ties 
and trestles are placed 
about 6 ft. apart. The 
two trestles for the 
starting platform 
should be set so that 
there is a slant to the 
track of about G in. for 
starting the car with- 



160 



out pushing it. The car can be carried 
back for starting by adults, but for 
children a small rope can be used over 
the platform to draw it back on the 



are properly adjusted, and securely 
fastened between washers with a nut 
on the end of the axle. Guide wheels, 
B, are placed on the sides in the man- 



^^ 



i|liii""||ii' "" 



I HjJ II I. 



„^||Mllillllllll|llll'>^ 



Tlgjn 




Detail of the Car, ^Vheels and the Trestle, Which is Attached to a Tie 

ner shown. These wheels are ordinary 



track, or a small windlass may be ar- 
ranged for the purpose. 

The main frame of the car is 3 ft. 
long and about 13 in. wide, firmly fas- 
tened at the corners. The axles for 
the wheels are machine steel, 19 in. 
long, turned up on the ends and 
threaded in the manner of a bicycle 
axle to fit parts of bicycle hubs, at- 
tached to the main frame as shown at 
A. The wheels are solid, 4 in. in diam- 
eter and 1 in. thick, and are set on the 
bicycle cone of the ball cup, after they 



truck casters, not the revolving kind, 
2 in. in diameter. 

About Vj-in. clearance should be 
provided l^etween the guide wheels B 
and the guard rail C, on the track. 
When the car is made in this manner 
it runs close to the track and there is 
no place where a child can get a foot 
or hand injured under or at the sides 
of the car. The one described has been 
used by all the children, large and 
small, for a year without accident. 



Door-Bell Alarm 

A simple door-bell alarm for inform- 
ing one when the door of a shop or 
dwelling is opened is shown in the 
accompanying sketch. It consists of a 



Pt 



in/ 



Wiring Diagram and Connections to an Electric Bell 
That Rings When a Door Knob is Turned 

piece of spring brass. A, bent into a 
circle in the center so that it may be 
clamped on the doorknob bar by means 
of a small bolt or screw. The two ends 
of this piece should be separated as 
shown and a second piece, B, mounted 



on the door so that its outwardly pro- 
jecting end is between the ends of the 
piece A. One terminal of an ordinary 
vibrating bell circuit is then connected 
under the head of the clamp screw, and 
the other terminal under one of the 
screws holding the piece B in place on 
the door. It is now obvious that the 
bell circuit will be completed and the 
alarm sounded when the knob is 
turned. Make sure that the piece A is 
bent so that the circuit is completed 
before the latch has moved a sufficient 
amount to allow the door to open. 

The circuit leading to and from the 
switch may be completed through the 
hinges of the door, but it would be 
better to use small coil springs as 
shown. There would then be no likeli- 
hood of the circuit being open at any 
time, which might occur if the hinges 
were used. 



CDiscolored coiifee and teapots may be 
restored to their original brightness by 
boiling them a few minutes in a solu- 
tion of borax water. 



161 




A Playground Ferris Wheel 



The whole wheel is carried on two 
uprights, each 3 by 4 in., by 10 ft. long. 
In the upper ends of these pieces, A, 
a half circle is cut out to receive the 
main shaft B. The end of the up- 
rights are sunk 3 ft. into the earth and 
about 4 ft. apart, then braced as shown. 
They are further braced by wires at- 
tached to rings which are secured with 
staples near the top. The bearings 
should each have a cap to keep the 



each pair of pieces is crossed they will 
fit together with the surfaces smooth, 
as shown at D. A square hole is cut 
through the pieces as shown to fit on 
the square part of the main axle. 
While it is not shown in the illustra- 
tion, it is best to strengthen this joint 
with another piece of wood, cut to fit 
on the a.xle and securely attached to 
the spokes. 

The cars or carriers are made of two 




Detail of the Uprights, Axle and Spokes, and the End and Side Elevatione of the Completed Wheel, 

Showing Braces and Cars Attached 



shaft in place. These can be made of 
.blocks of wood with a semicircle cut 
out, the blocks being nailed over the 
shaft, while it is in place, the nails 
entering the ends of the uprights. 

The main shaft C is made of a 2V2-in. 
square piece of good material, 4 ft. 
long. The ends are made round to 
serve as bearings, and the square part 
is fitted with the spokes or car car- 
riers. These consist of 4 pieces, each 
1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 13 ft. long. 
In the center of each piece cut a notch 
one-half the thickness so that when 



sugar barrels cut in half. The hoops 
are then securely nailed, both inside 
and outside; a block of wood, E, se- 
curely attached to the half barrel on 
the outside, and another block on the 
inside opposite the outside block. 
Holes are bored 2i^ ft. from the ends 
of the spokes and a bolt run through 
them and through the blocks on the 
edges of the half barrels. The extend- 
ing ends of the spokes are used to pro- 
pel the wheel. Four children can ride 
in the wheel at one time. — Contributed 
by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La. 



I<i2 



A Merry-Go-Round Pole 

An inexpensive merr3'-go-round can 
be made of a single pole set in the 
ground where there is sufficient vacant 




The Ropes being Tied to the Wheel Rim will Easily 
Turn around the Pole 

space for the turning of the ropes. The 
pole may be of gas pipe or wood, long- 
enough to extend about 12 ft. above 
the ground. An iron wheel is attached 
on the upper end so that it will revolve 
easily on an axle, which may be an iron 
pin driven into the post. A few iron 
washers placed on the pin under the 
wheel will reduce the friction. 

Ropes of varying lengths are tied to 
the rim of the wheel. The rider takes 
hold of a rope and runs around the 
pole to start the wheel in motion, then 
he swings clear of the ground. Stream- 
ers of different colors and flowers for 
special occasions may be attached to 
make a pretty display.— Contriliuted 
by J. Bert Mitchell, Wichita, Kans. 



A Theatrical Night Scene with the 
Appearance of Fireflies 

Use small shining Christmas-tree 
balls, about the size of a hickory nut, 
strung on strong black linen threads. 
The thread is put loosely over a hook 
at the back of the stage among the 
evergreens that are used for the back- 
ground. The ends of the threads are 
brought, like a pair of reins, to the 
front of the stage, diagonally, and there 
manipulated by some one in a wing 



near the front, standing high enough to 
prevent the threads from touching the 
heads of the actors. These bright little 
particles darting back and forth among 
the trees appear very lifelike, and with 
the addition of a crescent moon just 
peeping through the trees, the like- 
ness to a summer night is quite 
striking. 

The moon effect is made by using a 
piece of dark cardboard, about 2 ft. 
square, covered thickly with small 
green boughs, and by cutting a cres- 
cent-shaped opening in the center, cov- 
ering it with yellow tissue paper. This 
cardboard is placed well back in the 
trees and a lantern hung behind it. — 
Contributed by Miss S. E. Jocelyn, 
New Haven, Conn. 



Hulling Walnuts 

Procure a barrel that is water-tight 
and mount it on a shaft so that it runs 
between standards like a barrel churn. 
Fill the barrel about half full of wal- 
nuts, cover them with water and throw 
in a small quantity of gravel as grind- 
ing material. Close the opening tightly 
and turn the barrel for about 20 min- 
utes. The walnuts will come out clean 
and smooth as glass. — Contributed by 
Arthur Seufert, The Dalles, Oregon. 



Stick for Lowering Top Sash of a 
Window 

To make it easy to raise and lower 
the upper sash of a bathroom window 
which is behind the bathtub I devised 

























i ^ 


■u 



The Stick is Fastened to the Window Sash with Screw- 
eyes and is Always Ready for Use 

the following: Procuring two screw- 
eyes I opened one sufficiently to slip 
it into the other as shown at A. Then 



163 



one was screwed into the top rail of 
the sash and the other into the end of 
a light stick a little longer than the 
length of upper sash. 

The device is left on the window 
permanently and affords a ready means 
of handling the sash without stepping 
into the bathtub, which would other- 
wise be necessary. — Contributed by W. 
E. Morey, Chicago. 



on the choice of the maker, and if the 
bed is brass, the wood can be finished 



An Adjustable Hacksaw Frame 

The frame is constructed of cold- 
rolled steel, 14 i"- in diameter and 
1714 in. long, bent into the shape 
shown and then cut in two parts at A. 
Starting at a point about fg in. from 
the ends made by the cut, drill Vs-i"- 
holes, then space three other holes 1 
in. between centers and drill them 
% in. in diameter. 

A piece of steel tubing, i^ in. in in- 
side diameter and 6% in. long, is 
notched on the ends to receive the pins 
B and C. Slots are cut in the ends D 
and E. to admit the blade of a saw, 




The Frame is Shaped of Cold-Rolled Steel and Made 
Adjustable with a Piece of Steel Tubing 

and half-round notches filed on the 
outside surface for holding pins used 
in the hole of the saw blade. The spring 
of the steel will be sufficient to keep the 
saw blade in place. The Vs-in. holes 
in the frame will permit adjustment 
for difTerent lengths of blades. — Con- 
tributed by Clarence B. Hanson, Fitch- 
burg, Mass. 



A Bedroom Cabinet 

The cabinet shown in the illustration 
can be made an ornament with a little 
care in workmanship and a choice se- 
lection of materials. The cabinet may 
be either fastened to the head or foot 
of the bed, facing in either of two di- 
rections. 

The size of the cabinet will depend 




The Cabinet Makes a Handy Place to Keep Necessary 
Articles for a Sick Person 

natural and fitted with brass bands for 
l)rackets and holding clips. — Contrib- 
uted by W. E. Crane, Cleveland, O. 



A Dull Black for Cameras 

Such parts of a camera that are apt 
to reflect light must be covered with a 
dull black. A mixture for this purpose 
is made of lampblack, about a teaspoon- 
ful, and enough gold size to make a 
paste as thick as putty. Add about 
twice the volume of turpentine and ap- 
ply to the parts with a camel's-hair 
l)rush. 

As the turpentine fumes are detri- 
mental to the sensitive plate, the 
camera should lie left open until these 
fumes have entirely disappeared. 



A Door Fastener 

Sometimes it is necessary to fasten 
a door in a manner to prevent children 
from opening it, yet so that it is easily 

opened from 

either side. This f^i 
can be done by 
putting a screw 

or curtain hook on the inside of the 
door frame and using a piece of cord 
long enough to loop over both hooks. 
A person coming in or out can remove 
the loop from either side.— Contributed 
by John A. Cohalan, Philadelphia, Pa. 




CA floor wax can be made by melting 
1 lb. of yellow beeswax in 1/2 pt. of 
hot, raw linseed oil ; then adding 1 pt. 
of turpentine. 



164 



Umbrella Used as a Flower Trellis 

Procure a discarded umbrella and 
remove the cloth, leaving only the steel 
frame. Join the ends of the ribs by 




Frame Supporting a Vine 

running a fine wire through the tip of 
each rib and giving it one turn around 
to hold them at equal distances apart. 
The handle is then inserted in the 
ground and some climbing vine planted 
beneath it. The plant will climb all 
over the steel frame and make a very 
attractive lawn piece. — Contributed by 
John F. Campbell, X. Somerville, 
Massachusetts. 



Combined Shade and Awning 

An ordinary window shade makes a 
good awning as well as a shade, if it 
is attached to the outside of the win- 
dow with the device shown in the il- 
lustration. The shade and spring 
roller are put into a box for protection 
from the weather and the box is fast- 
ened in tlie window casing at the top. 





Shade Attachments 



A narrow slit on the under side of the 
box permits the shade to be drawn out. 
The stick at the end is removed and a 



U-shaped wire inserted in the hem in 
its stead. The wire is bent so the ends 
may be inserted in holes in the window 
casing. As the shade is drawn out, it 
is extended outward by the wire in the 
position of an awning. — Contributed 
by Arthur Kesl, Chicago, HI, 



Vaulting-Pole Attachments 

Some means must be provided on 
vaulting-pole standards to allow for 
the free release of the pole should the 
vaulter strike it in going over. One of 
the simplest of the many devices that 
can be used for this purpose is shown 
in Fig. 1. It is made of heavy wire, 
bent and slipped over the standard as 
shown in Fig. 2. The projection on 
the inside of the link is used similar to 
the tongue of a buckle in adjusting the 
height of the pole on the standards. 

Each standard has a series of holes 
on its front side. These holes may be 
numbered for convenience. The pole 




Fco 2 

Pole Adjuster on Standard 



in place is shown in Fig. .'^. — Contrib- 
uted by John Dunlap, Craghead. Toll- 
cross, England. 



Separating Drinking Glasses 

When two thin glasses are put one 
into the other they often become stuck 
and cannot be removed. To separate 
them with ease, set the lower glass in 
warm (not hot) water and pour cold 
water in the upper one. The expan- 
sion of the lower and the contraction 
of the upper will make release an easy 
matter. — Contributed by Maurice Bau- 
dier, New Orleans, La. 



CBronze striping, when thoroughly 
dry, should be covered with a thin 
coat of white shellac 'to keep it from 



tarnishing. 



165 



A Magic String 

Procure a few pieces of cotton string, 
each about li/<; ft. long, and fill them 
well with soap. Prepare a brine by dis- 
solving three tablespoonfuls of salt in 
a cup of water. Place the strings in 
the brine and allow them to soak for 
two hours, or longer. It is necessary 
that they be thoroughly saturated with 
the brine. 

When taken out of the brine and 
thoroughly dried, suspend one of them 
from a nail on a ledge, and hang a fin- 
ger ring on its lower end. Apply a 
lighted match to the string and allow 
it to burn. The ring will not fall, but 
will hang by the ash. — Contributed by 
C. Frank Carber, Dorchester, Mass. 



Edging Flower Beds 

To improve the appearance of a 
flower bed, it must be edged evenly 
and quite often. As this became a 
tiresome task, I constructed an edger, 
as shown in the sketch. It consists 
of a wheel on a 4-ft. length of material, 
2 by 4 in. in size, made tapering and 
having a cross handle, 18 in. long, at- 
tached to its end. The wheel is 8 in. 
in diameter, and the cutter is attached, 
as shown, across the center of the 
wheel axle, to make the edger turn 
easily on curves and corners. The cut- 
ter is 13 in. long and turned under II/2 
in. It is pushed along in the same 
manner as a garden cultivator. — Con- 
tributed by A. S. Thomas, Amhurst- 
burg. Can. 



An Electric Stirring Machine 

Desiring a stirring machine for mix- 
ing photographic chemicals, I set about 
to design the one shown in the illustra- 




A Self-Contained Electric Stirring Machine for Use 
in Mixing Photographic Chemicals 

tion. The base and upright are made 
of pine, 1 in. thick, the former 8 in. wide 
and 10 in. long, the latter 8 in. wide 
and 16 in. long. A %-in. slot, 12 in. 
long, is cut in the center of the upright, 
and two pieces of sheet metal or tin, 2 
in. wide and 12 in. long, bent at right 
angles along the center of their length, 
are placed at equal distances, on each 
side of the slot, and fastened with 
screws. The distance between these 
pieces depends on the motor used, as 
its base should fit snugly between 
them. 

A small battery motor is purchased, 




An Edger, Similar to a Garden Plow, for Quickly Trimming the Sod around a Flower Bed 



166 



and its shaft is removed and replaced 
with one measuring- 10 in. in length. To 
the end of the shaft is soldered a piece 
of wire, bent as shown in the sketch. 
A bolt is attached to the center of the 
motor base, so that its threaded end 
will pass through the slot in the up- 
right, where it is held with a wing 
nut. The battery cells may be placed 
on the back of the upright and a small 
switch mounted at the top and in front. 
— Contributed bv Rav F. Yates, Niag- 
ara Falls, N. Y.' 



A Clothes Rack 

The rack is constructed of hard wood 
throughout, and as each piece is made, 
it should be sandpapered and varnished 




fli Tie ^ _. 



ff 



1^ 



-1 r: 



f 



ttzll 






Any Number of Arms Up to Its Limit may be Used 
at a Time 

or otherwise hnished. The plan view 
is shown in P'ig. 1 ; the construction of 
an arm, in Fig. 3 ; and the pin, in 
Fig. 3. 

The base is % in- thick and of the 
dimensions shown in Fig 4. The pro- 
jection on each side, measuring GVo in. 
long and 1 in. wide, is made separately 
and glued to the main part after dress- 
ing and lieveling the edges. 

The shelf consists of material 2 in. 
thick and made in a semicircular form 
on a radius of S-^ in. On this arc, lay 
off chords, as shown in Fig. 1 ; the first 
ones on each side being one-half the 
length of the others. Carefully square 
up the edges for appearance. To lay 
oft' the post holes, scribe an arc of a 



circle on a l~s-in. radius. Start at the 
edge on this arc and lay ofif eight 
chords of equal lengths, and bore V^- 
in. holes on the marks. 

The posts are turned up, as shown 
by the detail, Fig. 3. This will require 
seven posts and two half posts. The 
half posts are secured to the base with 
small brads. The round part at the end 
is turned slightly tajiering, so as to 
make a tight fit in the hole of the shelf. 
After stringing the posts on a piece of 
brass wire, %; in. in diameter, and bend- 
ing it in the proper shape, the posts 
are glued in the holes. 

A T-shaped slot with a long top and 
a short leg is cut out with a scroll saw 
in one end of each arm. Make sure 
to have each slot exactly Yo in. from 
the upper side of each arm. All edges 
should be well rounded to prevent tear- 
ing of the clothes. 

Make a semicircular platform for 
the arms to bear upon when extended. 
This may be either half of a turned disk 
or built up in the three segments, each 
fastened with screws to the base. If 
the brass wire is exactly 1 in. from the 
shelf and the thickness of the wood be- 
tween the T-slot and the upper edge of 
the arm i/o in., the thickness of the 
platform should be slightly under Vo 
in. to make the arms rest horizontally 
when they are extended. 

The shelf is fastened to the base 
with three or four 2-in. screws, and the 
ends of the brass wire are run through 
holes in the base and clinched on the 
back side. The rack may be fastened 
in place on the kitchen wall with two 
large wood screws, or, if the wall is 
Itrick, with expansion bolts. The fas- 
tening in either case must be secure to 
hold the heavy weight of wet clothes. — 
Contributed by D. A. Price, Wilming- 
ton, Del. 



How to Make a Pair of Foot Boats 

On ponds or small lakes not deep 
enough for a boat one can use the foot 
boats, as illustrated, for walking on the 
water. The boats are made of white 
wood, known as basswood, as this 
wood is easily bent when steamed, and 



16: 



the curved part should be shaped 
neatly. 

Two sides are cut out, as shown, and 
the boards are nailed or, better still, 
screwed to them. Each straight part 
may consist of one piece, in which 
case there will be no joints to make 
waterproof, but if boards of sufficient 
size cannot be had, pieces can be used. 
In this instance the edges should be 
planed smooth, so that a good joint 
may be had, which can be made water- 
tight with white lead. 

It is best to make the bottom of one 
piece if possible, at least for the length 
of the curve. The wood is thoroughly 
steamed, then fastened in place on the 
curved part. 

A strap of suitable length is fastened 
on the top for the toe, so that the boats 
can be controlled with the feet. 

To propel the boats along easily, a 
web or wing should be attached to the 
under side, so that it will catch the 



ear of corn served. The square bolt 
end will hold the ear securelv while the 




Foot Boats for Walking on Shallow Water Where 
a Boat cannot be Used 

water on the back thrust while it will 
fold up when the boat is slid forward. — 
Contributed by Waldo Saul, Lexing- 
ton, Mass. 



A Green-Corn Holder 

Neat and attractive green-corn hold- 
ers for table use can be made of small- 
sized glass drawer knobs, having a bolt 
1 in. in length. The bolt head is cut 
off with a hacksaw, and its body is 
filed to make four sides running to a 
taper, leaving enough threads to secure 
it in the knob. The threads are smeared 
with white lead, then it is screwed into 
the knob and sufficient time allowed for 
the lead to set before using it. 

A pair of knobs are required for each 




The Glass Knobs Make a Clean 

and Sanitary Holder for 

the Ear of Corn 

kernels are eaten from the cob. — Con- 
tributed by Victor Labadie, Dallas, 
Texas. 



Inflating Toy Balloons 

The inflation of rubber Ijalloons may 
be accomplished with manufactured 
gas by using the simple pipe arrange- 
ment shown in the sketch. The con- 
nection A is for the gas hose, which is 
similar to those used for a table lamp. 
The gas bag B is a football or punch- 
ing bag connected to the pipe as 
shown. This receives the gas as it is 
let in by the valve A. The toy balloon 
C is connected to the pipe in the same 
manner and the valve D used to regu- 
late the flow of gas. The gas is easily 
])ressed out of the ball into the balloon. 




Pipe Arrangement, Punching Bag and Valves to 
Admit Gas to a Toy Rubber Balloon 

As hydrogen gas is much better than 
the manufactured gas, it is best to use 
and can be put in the balloon in the 
same manner. 



168 



Electric-Light Mystery 

A novel attraction for a window dis- 
play can be made of a piece of plate 
glass neatly mounted on a wood base, 




Electric Light Mounted on Top of a Plate Glass with 
Hidden Connections on the Glass Edge 

and an electric light which is placed 
on the top edge and may be lighted 
apparently without any wire connec- 
tions. 

The method of concealing the con- 
nections is to paint the edges of the 
glass green, then, before the paint is 
quite dry, lay on a thin strip of copper, 
making the connections at the base on 
both sides, and to the lamp in the 
same manner. Another coat of paint 
is applied to cover the strip. The 
color should be an imitation of the 
greenish tint of glass edges. Any de- 
sired lettering can be put on the glass. 
— Contributed by O. Simonson, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

An Oar Holder 

Persons rowing boats, particularly 
beginners, find that the oars will slip 
out of the oarlocks, turn or fall into 




The Screweye in Position on the Oar and over One 
Prong of the Oarlock 

the water. This may be avoided by 
turning a screweye of sufficient size to 
prevent binding on the lock into the 



oar and placing it over the lock as 
shown at A, so that the pull will be 
against the metal. The oars will never 
slip or jump out, will alwa3's be in the 
right position, and it is not necessary 
to pull them into the boat to prevent 
loss when not rowing. The locks will 
not wear the oars, as the pull is on the 
metal eye. Place the eye so it will 
have a horizontal position on the side 
of the oar when the blade is in its right 
position. 



Cooking Food in Paper 

A flat piece of paper is much more 
convenient to use than a paper sack 
in cooking, as it can be better fitted to 
the size of the article to be cooked. 
AVrap the article as a grocer wraps 
sugar, folding and refolding the two 
edges together until the package is of 
the proper size, then fasten with clips 
and proceed to close the ends in the 
same way. This avoids all pasted 
seams and makes the package airtight. 
— Contributed by J. J. A. Parker, 
Metamora, O. 



Washing Photograph Prints 

Photographic prints may be washed 
in a stationary washbowl with just as 
good results as if washed in a high- 




A Medicine Dropper on a Faucet Produces a ^Vhirl- 
ing Motion of the \Vater in the Bowl 

priced wash box, by cutting of¥ the 
upper end of the rubber nipple on a 
bent glass medicine dropper and plac- 
ing it on the faucet as shown in the 
illustration. This arrangement causes 
the water to whirl around in the bowl, 
which keeps the prints in constant 
motion, thus insuring a thorough 
washing. — Contributed by L. O. D. 
Sturgess, Arlington, Oregon. 



169 



Combination Lock for a Drawer 



The principal parts of the combina- 
tion lock are the five disks shown in 
Fig. 1. These are best made of sheet 
brass, about iV in. thick and fi/o in. in 
diameter. The pins for turning the 
disks are each made a driving fit for a 
hole drilled through the metal at a 
point ;^§ in. from the center. Notches 
are cut in the disks C, D and E, Fig. 1, 
to receive the latch end, and the disk 
B is made like a cam, its use being to 
raise the latch into its keeper when the 
handle is turned backward. The disk 
A is without a notch and has only a 
pin for turning the other disks. 

The disks are mounted on the inside 
of the drawer front in a U-shaped piece 
of metal, F, Fig. 2, which carries a V4- 
in. pin, G, as their bearing. The disks 
are placed on this pin with rubber 
washers, H, J, K, L and M, between 
them. These serve the purpose of pre- 
venting the disks from turning too 
freely. The disk A is fastened tightly 
to the end of the rod N, which is Vi in- 
in diameter. The outer end of this 
rod is fitted vvith a handle or turning 
head as desired. That shown at O is 
made of two pieces of wood screwed 
together, with a pointer, P, placed be- 
tween them. A washer, R, is placed 
between the drawer end and the handle 
to take up any looseness and to allow 
the free turning of the rod. 

A dial, S, is made of paper and the 
division marks and numbers placed 
upon it. The latch T is fitted in a U- 
shaped piece of metal, U, which is fas- 
tened to the inside of the drawer end 
where its heel will rest on the edges of 
the disks. When the right combination 
is made by turning the handle first one 
way and then the other, the latcli will 
drop into the notches of the disks as 
they will be all in one place. 

When the drawer is to be locked, 
turn the handle back from the last 
turn made for the combination and the 
latch will be driven upward into its 
keeper and the notches scattered so 
that the latch will not drop until the 
combination is again set. 

The numbers for the combination 



can be found after the disks are in 
place and by turning the handle until 
the notch comes up to the place for the 




The Parts as They are Attached to a Drawer Front 
to Make a Combination Lock 

heel of the latch. The number beneath 
the pointer is noted ; then the next 
turned up in a like manner, all being 
done while the drawer is open and the 
disks in plain sight. The combination 
can be changed only by changing the 
location of the pins in the disks. — Con- 
tributed by C. B. Hanson, Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. 



How to Start Small Machine Screws 

Small machine screws are sometimes 
very difficult to start, especially when 
used in parts of a 
machine that cannot 
be easily reached 
with the fingers. A 
good way to start 
them is by means of 
a piece of fine wire 
wound snugly 
around the screw un- 
der its head. They 
can be placed and started by means of 
the wire and when the first threads 
have caught the screw it can be held 
by the screwdriver while the wire is 
withdrawn. — Contributed by F. W. 
Bently, Huron, S. D. 




170 



An Umbrella Holder for Display 
Purposes 

A holder that is especially adapted 
for use in hanging umbrellas for dis- 
play in a store can be easilj' made of a 
piece of wire 
wound in a coil, 
as shown in the 
sketch, to fit 
over the end on 
the umbrella 
stick. The coil 
at one end of 
the spring is 
formed into a 
hook so that the 
umbrellas may 
be hung in screweyes or on a line, as 
the case may be. The end of the um- 
brella is stuck into the spring, as 
shown, which grips it tightly. — Con- 
tril)uted by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dart- 
mouth, Mass. 




Holder for a Milk Card 

It is the general practice of milkmen 
to furnish a monthly card on which 
the housewife marks the needs of the 
day and then hangs 
it outside of the 
door for the infor- 
mation of the driver. 
This card also serves 
as a record for check- 
ing the accounts of 
the milk delivered 
during the month, 
and therefore it is 
desirable to protect 
it from snow and 
sleet. 

In order to furnish 
this protection and 
at the same time 
make it unnecessary for any one to go 
outside of the door to hang up the 
card on stormy days, one of our read- 
ers has submitted the following plan 
which he has used for some time. 

On the outside of the kitchen door, 
where the milkman is to deliver his 
bottles, this man has fastened an 
ordinary picture frame with glass but 




no backing except the door. Through 
the door and just below the upper 
edge of the glass is cut a thin slot in- 
clining downward and outward so that 
the milk card can be easily pushed 
through the slot and thus be dis- 
played behind the glass in the frame. 
By this protection it is kept free from 
mud, snow and ice. It is not neces- 
sary to step outside to place the card 
in the frame. 



Frame for Printing Post Cards 
^rom Negatives 

As I desired to print only a portion 
of some of my 5 by 7-in. plates on 
post cards and the part wanted was 
near the edge of the plate, I cut out 
the printing frame, as shown at A in 
the sketch, to accommodate that part 




Slots Cut in the Frame to Receive the Post Cards 
without Bending Them 

of the card I reserved for a margin. 
This permitted the card to be placed in 
the frame without making a bend. 
— Contributed bv T. H. Maysilles, 
Rochelle. 111. 



Finger Protection on Laboratory 
Vessels 

A simple way of protecting the fin- 
gers against being burned by labora- 
tory vessels in which liquids are boil- 
ing or chemical reactions producing 
great heat are going on, is shown in 




The Ends of the Cord are Held Tightly and the 
Winding Protects the Hands 

the sketch. A rather thick cord or 
yarn is wrapped around the neck of 
the vessel in the manner shown, the 



171 



upper end being drawn through the 
loop at the top and cut off, and the 
lower end then pulled out and a knot 
tied in it close to the windings of the 
yarn. 



Inlaying Metals by Electroplating 

\'ery prettv and artistic effects of 
silver or nickel inlay on bronze, copper, 
etc., or copper on dark oxidized metals, 
may be obtained by means of etching 
and electroplating. 

The metal on which the inlay is to 
be used is first covered with a thin 
coating of wax and the design 
scratched through to the metal with a 
sharp, hard point of some kind. The 
design is then etched in slowly with 
well diluted nitric acid, allowing the 
etching to penetrate quite deeply. The 
metal is then taken out and after a 
thorough rinsing in water is hung in 
the plating bath. 

As the wax has been left on, the 
plating will fill the lines of the design 
only, and will not touch the covered 
surface. When the etched lines are 
filled, the object is taken out of the 
bath and the wax removed. — Contrib- 
uted by S. V. Cooke, Hamilton, Can. 



A Novel Show- Window Attraction 

This moving show-window attrac- 
tion can be simply and cheaply made. 
The things necessary are a small bat- 
tery motor, a large horseshoe magnet 
and a large polished steel ball, per- 
fectly true and round, such as used in 
bearings. The other materials usually 
can be found in any store. Procure 
some thick cardboard and cut two 
disks, 8 in. in diameter, and two disks, 
71/2 in- in diameter. Glue these to- 
gether to make the wheel A, the larger 
disks forming the flanges. Make a 
smaller wheel, B, the size of which will 
be governed by the speed of the motor 
used. The wheel A is mounted in a 
box to run with its surface close to the 
under side of the cover, which should 
be of a thin, stiff cardboard. The wheel 
B is mounted on an axle that runs in 
metal bearings. The magnet D is 



placed on the wheel A. The steel 
ball E is put on the thin cover of the 
box, and the magnet causes it to roll 
around as the wheel turns. The box 




The Steel Ball is Caused to Roll Around on the Cover 
by the Moving Magnet 

inclosing the mechanical parts should 
be placed out of sight when used in a 
window. — Contributed by Clarence 
Guse, Spokane, Wash. 



How to Make a Mop Wringer 

A mop wringer may be made and at- 
tached to an ordinary pail in the fol- 
lowing manner: Two pieces of metal. 
A, are attached securely at opposite 
sides of the edge of the pail, holes 
being drilled in their upper ends to 
serve as bearings for the roller B. The 
piece of metal C, which is duplicated 
at the opposite side of the pail, is 
pivoted on a bolt. These pieces also 
carry a roller, E, at their upper ends, 




The Parts 
may be 
Either At- 
tached to 
a Metal or 
Wood Pail 
with Bolts 
or Screws 




and have a crosspiece, F, at their lower 
ends. Discarded wringer rollers can 
be used for B and E. A coil spring is 
attached as shown, to keep the rollers 
separate and in a position to receive the 
mop. When the mop is placed be- 



172 



tween the rollers they are brought to- 
gether by a pressure of* the foot on the 
crosspiece F. — Contributed by J. Den- 
nis McKennon, New Britain, Conn. 



A Vise Used as a Caliper Gauge 

Not infrequently it is desired to 
know the distance from one side to 
another of some part that cannot be 




o 



The Jaws of a Vise, If They Are 

True. Will Make a Caliper Gauge 

Giving a Perfect Measurement 



directly measured with a rule, and 
when no calipers are at hand. But 
with a vise handy, the measurement 
can be made with ease and with suf- 
ficient accuracy for all practical pur- 
poses if the vise is not too worn. This 
trick is particularly adapted for cali- 
pering threaded parts, as threads can- 
not be measured readily with ordinary 
calipers. How this may be done is 
shown in the sketch, which illustrates 
the method as applied to a screw. The 
work is gripped between the jaws of 
the vise and the opening then meas- 
ured with a rule. — Contributed by 
Donald A. Hampson, Middletown, 
New York. 



Homemade Tack Puller 

A very handy tack puller can be 
made of a round-head bolt. On one 
side of the head file a V-shaped notch 
and screw a wood handle on the 



How to Make a Radium Photograph 

The radium rays, like the X-rays, af- 
fect the photographic plate, as is well 
known, but it would naturally be sup- 
posed that the enormous cost of radium 
would prevent the making of such a 
photograph by the amateur. 

It is a fact, however, that a radium 
photograph can be made at home at 
practically no cost at all, provided the 
amateur has patience enough to gather 
the necessary material, which is noth- 
ing else but broken incandescent gas 
mantles. These (especially Welsbach 
mantles) contain a salt of the rare 
metal thorium, which is slightly radio- 
active. The thing to do, then, is to 
collect a sufficient quantity of broken 
mantles to cover the bottom of a small 
cardboard box — a dryplate box, for in- 
stance — with a layer of powdered 
mantle substance. Upon this layer 
and pressed tightly against it is placed 
a piece of cardboard ; then some metal 
objects, a button, hairpin, a buckle, or 
the like, are laid on the cardboard and 
covered with a sensitized paper. This 
is again covered with a piece of card- 
board and the box filled with crumpled 
paper to the top. The cover is then 
put on, the box tied up with a piece of 
string and set in some place where it 
is sure to be left undisturbed. 

The radium rays from the powdered 
mantles readily penetrate the cardboard 
and paper, but not the metal articles. 
Being very weak, the rays must be 
given four weeks to accomplish their 
work. After that time, however, if the 
sensitive paper is taken out, pictures of 
the metal objects in white on a dark 
background will be found on it. These 
pictures will not be so sharp as ordi- 
nary photographs, because the rays are 
not focused, but they fairly represent 
the originals and the experiment is an 



The Shape of the Head Permits a Leverage Action 
That Lifts the Tack Easily 

threads. This makes a very powerful 
puller that will remove large tacks 
from hardwood easily. 



CA good imitation mahogany stain 
consists of 1 part Venetian red and 
2 parts yellow lead, mixed with thin 
glue size, and is laid on with a woolen 
cloth. 



173 



Fountain for an Ordinary Pen 

Fill the hollow end of an ordinary 
penholder with cotton — not too tightly 
— and one dip of the pen will hold 
enough ink to write a full page. The 
cotton should be changed each day. A 
small piece of sponge will answer the 
same purpose. It is necessary to dip 
the pen deeply into the ink. — Contrib- 
uted by J. E. Noble, London Junction, 
Ontario. 



Pulling Wire through Curved 
Electric Fixtures 

To facilitate the running of electric 
wires through curved fixtures, nick a 
heavy shot, A, and fasten it on a cord, 





A Shot That will Pass through the Fixture Arm will 
Carry a Cord for Pulling in the Wires 

B, in the same manner as a fishline is 
weighted. The shot will roll through 
the fi.xture tube, carrying the cord with 
it. A cord strong enough to pull the 
wires through can be easily drawn 
through the opening in this manner. 
The shot should, of course, not be so 
large that it can possibly bind in the 
tube. 



An Automatically Closing Drawer 

A very ingenious way to have a 
drawer close automatically is to at- 
tach a weight so that the rope or cord 
will pull on the rear end of the drawer. 
The sketch clearly shows the device 
which is an attachment similar to that 
used for closing gates. This can be 



h— 



The Rope and Weight Attached to the Back End of 
the Drawer Pulls It Closed 

applied to drawers that are frequently 
drawn out and in places where a per- 
son is liable to have the hands full. 



A Cork Puller 

The stopper of any ordinary bottle 
can be easily re- 
moved with a 
puller such as 
shown in the 
sketch. The 
puller is inserted 
between the 
stopper and the 
neck of the bot- 
tle until the hook 
end will pass under the 
bottom of the stopper, 
then given a quarter 
turn and pulled upward. 

The construction of 
the puller vents the cork 
as it enters and thus no 
vacuum is created. The 
cork is pulled more easi- 
ly than with an ordinary 
corkscrew, and there is no danger of 
tearing the cork to pieces. 








Uses for a Bamboo Pole 

Select a good bamboo pole, about 
18 ft. long, and cut it into three lengths 
as follows : A piece from the top, 3I/2 
ft. long ; the next length, 51/. ft. long, 
and the remaining end of the pole, 
about 10 ft. long. The Si/o-ft. length is 



A Bamboo Pole Cut in Three Pieces Makes a Window- 
Shade Stick, Duster Holder and Clothesline Pole 

equipped with a screw hook in the 
smaller end, as shown in Fig. 1. This 
stick is useful in lowering window 
shades that have a ring or screw eye 
attached to the lower part of the shade. 
When the stick is not in use, it is hung 
on the edge of the window casing. 

The SV^-ft. length makes the long 
handle for a duster. Procure an old- 
style lamp-chimney cleaner, wind a 
cord around the wires a few inches be- 
low the point where they begin to 



174 



spread to keep them from coming 
apart, then cut or file the wires off 2 
in. below the winding. This leaves a 
straight shank, over which a ferrule 
is slipped before it is inserted into the 
small end of the pole. Fill the remain- 
ing space in the pole end with plaster 
of Paris, and when it has set, slip the 
ferrule into place on the pole end. If 
a ferrule is not at hand, a tine wire can 
be wound around the end to prevent 
the pole from splitting. When using 
this pole to dust hardwood floors, tops 
of doors, window casings and picture 
frames, put a dusting cloth into the 
claws and slide the ring into place, as 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The longer and larger end of the 
pole is used as a clothesline pole. One 
end of this pole is fitted with a yoke 
made of No. 6 gauge galvanized wire, 
as shown in Fig. 3. The wire for the 
yoke is 10 in. long, and after bending 
it in shape, the two upper ends should 
be 2 in. wide at the top and 2 in. deep. 
Insert the straight end of the wire into 
the smaller end of the pole and set it 
in firmly with plaster of Paris. The 
end of the pole should be securely 
wound with wire to keep the bamboo 
from splitting. — C(intributed by Ger- 
trude M. Bender, Utica, N. Y. 



Making Common Lock Less Pickable 

The ordinary lock can be readily 
changed so that it will be quite im- 
possible to pick it with a common key. 




The Small End Cut from the Key is Fastened on the 
Pin of the Lock 

The way to do this is to cut ofif the 
small hollow portion of the key that 
fits over the pin. This part is placed 
on the pin of the lock and soldered, or 
fastened by any other means, so it can- 
not come out of the lock. This will 
prevent any ordinary key from enter- 
ing the keyhole. — Contributed by A. J. 
Hamilton, Benton, Ark. 



To Color Tan Leather Black 

An inexpensive and effective way to 
blacken tan leather is as follows: The 
leather is first rubbed with a 10-per- 
cent solution of tannic acid, which may 
be purchased at any drug store. This 
treatment should be applied and the 
leather well dried. It should be 
rubbed with a cloth hard enough to 
produce a polish, then apply a 10-per- 
cent solution of iron sulphate. A 
chemical reaction takes place as the 
last solution is rubbed into the leather, 
making it black. After this is dry, 
the leather can be polished in the 
usual way. 



To Prevent Corks Sticking in 
Bottle Necks 

Corks will always adhere to the 
necks of bottles containing glue or 
other sticky liquids, with the result 
that it becomes neces- 
sary to cut or dig the 
cork into small pieces in 
order to remove the con- 
tents from the bottle. 

A simple and effective 
way to prevent a cork 
from sticking is to place 
a small piece of waxed 
paper on the bottle opening so that 
when the cork is pressed in, the paper 
will be between the cork and glass, as 
shown. 




To Remove Rust Stains from Clothing 

Many times when working around 
machinery, the clothes will come in 
contact with iron and get rust stains. 
These may be removed by using a 
weak solution of oxalic acid which 
must be applied carefully as it is highly 
poisonous. Sometimes the stain can 
be removed by washing the spot in 
buttermilk, in which case rubbing is 
necessary. 



CSmall bits of onion placed in a room 
will absorb the disagreeable odors of 
paint and turpentine. 



175 



Eraser Holder 

Any small piece of steel with a point, 
similar to that shown in the sketch, 
will make a good eraser holder. The 
saving of erasers is nothing compared 
to the convenience of having a small 
eraser with a chisel edge or point 
when delicate erasing is required. It 
is not clumsy as the usual chunk of 
rubber with a blunt point, for the per- 
son erasing can see what he is doing. 
I use a leg of an old pair of dividers 
and cut my erasers in four parts in 
shapes similar to that shown in the 
sketch by the dotted lines, and can 
use them easily until they are about 



A Very Small Eraser can be Held on the Point and 
Used for Delicate Erasures 

the size of a pea. The friction between 
the rubber and steel, after the point 
has been inserted into the rubber, holds 
the two together nicely. — Contributed 
by James F. Burke, Lakewood, O. 



Bleaching Ivory 

A good method to bleach ivory orna- 
ments is to rub on a solution made of 
a small quantity of unslaked lime, 
bran and water. The mi.xture should 
be wiped off after the ivory has become 
sufficiently bleached, and the surface 
then rubbed with sawdust or magnesia, 
which gives it a brilliant polish. 



A Soap Shake 

To utilize scraps of soap, make a 
soap shake of a medium-size baking- 
powder can, as shown in the sketch. 
Punch holes in 
the can with an 
ice pick or some 
other sharp- 
pointed instru- 
ment, and attach 
a large wire to the center, twisting the 
ends to form a handle. — Contributed 
by Elizabeth P. Grant, Winchester, 
Virginia. 




Ear Repair on a Bucket 

A broken ear for a bail on a metal 
pail or bucket can be replaced with a 
window-shade fastener, such as shown 
at A in the sketch. 
The liase of the 
fastener is turned 
down flat and 
attached with 
screw bolts or 
rivets, as shown 

at B. — Contributed by Harold Robin- 
son, Sufifern, N. Y. 




Cleaning Dirt from Tufts in 
Upholstering 

A handy device for cleaning furni- 
ture upholstering and vehicle-seat tuft- 
ings may be easily 
made as follows : 
Take a n ordinary 
round paintbrush 
and cut the handle 
off, leaving it about 
lVi> in. long, then 
saw a V-shaped 
notch in it, as shown 
in Fig. 1. Attach 
the brush to the 
ratchet screwdriver. 
Fig. 3, by inserting 
the screwdriver 
blade in the notch 
of the brush handle, 
and secure it by 
wrapping a strong cord around the 
handle. Place the brush in the tuft 
and work the screwdriver handle, as in 
turning a screw. A few quick turns 
of the brush will throw out the dirt 
which is impossible to remove with a 
straight brush. 



FlG.l 



Fig 2 



Painting Lead Pipe 

The paint applied to lead pipes will 
chip and peel off, and to prevent this 
I first cover the lead surface with a 
thin coat of varnish, then apply the 
paint on the varnish. A lead pipe 
painted in this way will retain its coat- 
ing. — Contributed by F. Schumacher, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



176 



Attaching a Vise Jaw to a Bench 

Procure a toothed metal rail or 
rack, A, such as is used for small lad- 
der tracks, and mount it on the lower 




The Rack on the Lower Guide Rail Provides a Means 
to Keep the Vise Jaws Parallel 

edge of the guide rail for the lower 
end of the vise jaw. Provide a slot, 
B, in the leg of the bench, through 
which the rail can run with plenty 
of play room. A beveled plate, C, is 
attached to the face of the bench leg 
at the bottom of the slot, so that it 
will engage the teeth of the rack. 

In use, when opening the vise by 
means of the screw, the rack will drag 
along the plate, and stop and engage a 
notch when the opening operation 
ceases. When it is desired to reduce 
the opening, it is only necessary to lift 
the rail by means of the string D. A 
button is tied to the upper end of the 
string on top of the bench, to keep it 
handy for changing the jaw. — Contrib- 
uted by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, 
District of Columbia. 



Removing Vegetable Stains 

To remove stains of vegetables or 
fruits of any kind from cloth or wood, 
the following method is very good: 
The stained piece is first moistened 
with water and then placed in a jar or 
pail that can be covered. A lump of 
sulphur is ignited and dropped into 
the jar. Place the sulphur on a fire 
shovel when lighting it to avoid burns. 
The burning sulphur should be placed 
in the receptacle on the side where the 
stain will be exposed to the fumes. 



The sulphur burns slowly so that the 
articles will not be harmed. 

After the sulphur has burned away, 
the jar should be kept closed for a few 
minutes and when the articles are 
remo^'ed, the stains will be gone. This 
is harmless to try, and the cloth will 
not be injured if it is in a dry condi- 
tion. The articles should be washed 
and dried as soon as they are taken 
out of the jar. 



Picture-Frame Corner Joints 

Very often the amateur craftsman 
comes across a picture which he 
would like to have framed, but the 
difficulty and insecurity of the ordinary 
miter joint for the corners discourage 
him from trying to make the frame. A 
very easy way to construct a rigid 
frame is shown in the illustration. 
The size of the frame must be deter- 
mined by the picture to be framed. 
The width, A, of the pieces depends 
upon one's own taste. 

Four pieces, the desired length and 
width and i/o in. thick, should be 
dressed out of the material intended 
for the frame. Four other pieces, % 
in. thick and i/o in. narrower than the 
first four pieces, are next made ready 
and fastened with glue and flat-head 
screws to the back of the first pieces, 
as shown. This allows % in. for glass, 
picture and backing, and i/o in. to lap 
over the front of the picture on all 
edges. 

By arranging the pieces as shown in 
Fig. 1, a strong corner lap is secured. 

BACK j« 




Square and Mitered Lap Joints for Making Rigid 
Picture Frames in Natural or Stained Woods 

A miter lap joint which is not so strong 
is shown in Fig. 2. The latter gives a 
mitered-joint effect. This method does 
away with the use of the rabbeting 



177 



plane and miter box, both of which are 
difficult to use with accuracy. Two 
screws should be used in each joint to 
reinforce the glue.— Contributed by 
James Gafifney, Chicago, 111. 



Holding Wood in a Sawbuck 

Anyone who has used a sawbuck 
knows how inconvenient it is to have 
a stick roll or lift up as the saw blade 



Hunting-Knife Handles 

Very artistic handles for hunting 
knives and carving sets can be made 
by using disks of horn. Procure some 
cowhorns from a slaughter house and 
split them with a saw, using only the 
large portion of the horn. The split 
horn is then heated by dry heat— an 
oven is best — then pressed between 
two cold plates to a flat piece. If well 
heated, it is surprising how easily this 
can be done. The piece is then cut 
into squares of suitable size which are 
marked and perforated in the center, 
the hole being a trifle smaller than 
the tang of the'blade. The tang should 



The Finished Handle, If the Work is Well Done, is 
Easily Mistaken for Agate 

be flat and a little longer than the 
desired handle, with the end made 
round and threaded for a nut. 

A suitable washer is placed on the 
tang, which is then heated sufficiently 
to burn its way through the pieces of 
horn as they are put on the metal. 
"When a sufficient number of disks are 
on the tang a washer should be slipped 
on and followed by a round nut. Pres- 
sure is applied by turning the nut and 
repeated heatings of the disks will 
force them together to make perfect 
joints. Only" a moderate pressure 
should be applied at a time. 

The handle is now to be finished to 
the shape desired. If black and col- 
ored pieces of horn are interspersed, 
the finished handle will have the ap- 
pearance of agate. The blade and han- 
dle can be la'cquered and the ferrules 
nickelplated.— Contributed by James 
H. Beebee, Rochester, N. Y. 




The Holding Attachment Easily Adjusts Itself to the 
Stick of ^Vood Placed in the Crotch 

is pulled back fur the next cut. With 
the supplementary device, shown in 
the sketch, which can be easily at- 
tached to the sawbuck, these troubles 
will be eliminated. It consists of two 
crosspieces hinged to the back uprights 
of the sawbuck and a foot-pressure 
stirrup fastened to their front ends as 
shown. Spikes are driven through the 
crosspieces so that their protruding 
ends will gouge into the stick of wood 
being sawed. The stirrup is easily 
thrown back for laying a piece of wood 
in the crotch. 



A New Pail-Cover Handle 

The handle of the cover, instead of 
being attached to the center, is placed 
near the edge and bail of the pail. On 
the bail and just above the handle of 
the cover there is formed a loop large 
enough to accommodate the thumb. 




The Bail Loop and the Handle Make It Easy to 
Remove the Cover with One Hand 

With this arrangement, the cover may 
be removed with the use of but one 
hand. 



178 



Drip-Pan Alarm 

The trouble caused by overflowing 
of the drip pan for an ice box or re- 
frigerator can be overcome by attach- 



f D 






LAyt 



/^^^ife5 



■c 






The Float in the Pan, and Contacts for Closing the 
Circuit to Ring the Bell 

ing a device that will sound an alarm 
when the water reaches a level safely 
below the overflow point. A device 
of this kind may be attached to the 
back of the refrigerator as shown in 
the sketch. A float, A, is attached to 
the lower end of a rod, B, which slides 
through staples CC. At the upper end 
of the rod, a V-shaped copper sheet, 
D, is soldered. This makes the con- 
tact points in the electric wiring. The 
battery E can lie placed under or back 
of the refrigerator as desired. The 
method of wiring is clearly shown. 



A Live-Bait Pail 

Every fisherman knows that live 
bait will soon die if they do not receive 
sufficient air. I have succeeded in 
keeping bait 
alive and healthy 
by using a pail 
of my own con- 
struction, which 
is provided with 
a compressed-air 
space to force air 
to the surface of 
the water. The 
air space A takes 
up one-fifth of 
the interior at 
the bottom of the pail, and an ordi- 




nary hand bicycle pump is used to fill 
it through a bicycle-tire valve, B. The 
pipe C from the air space extends up 
along the side of the pail and the up- 
per end is bent so that it just touches 
the surface of the water. The pipe con- 
tains a valve to regulate the flow of 
air. 

After the pail has been standing for 
an hour or more, the bait will rise to 
the top. The valve is then opened for 
a few minutes, and the minnows will 
soon swim around in the water as 
when this was fresh. — Contributed by 
T. Whelan, Paterson, N. J. 



A Mouse Trap 

After using various means to catch 
the mice in my pantry, I finally de- 
cided I could not catch them in the 
ordinary manner. Knowing that mice 
are not afraid of dishes but will run 
all over them, while they will stay 
away from other 
things, I took a 
dinner plate, a 
bowl that held 
about 1 qt., a 
thimble, filled 
with toasted 

cheese, and arranged the articles as 
shown in the sketch, balancing the 
bowl on the thimble. When the 
mouse nibbled the cheese, the bowl 
came down on it, making it a prisoner. 
The whole was then dropped in a pail 
of water. Scald the dish and bowl be- 
fore using them again to remove all 
traces of the mouse. 




Quickly Made Rheostat 

A short time ago I found it neces- 
sary to melt some silver, and in set- 
ting up an arc light to obtain the heat 
I made a rheostat by winding wire 
around a large earthenware jar. As 
the jar is a non-conductor and would 
not burn, it served the purpose per- 
fectly. In winding the wire, be care- 
ful to keep the coils from touching 
each other. — Contrilnited by P. D. 
Merrill, Chicago, 111. 



179 




Sunlight Flasher 

By CLAUDE 

The following apparatus is likely to 
be novel, and certainly very striking 
when erected on country estates, par- 
ticularly on high lands, hillsides, and 
along the seashore, where the flashes 
may be seen for many miles out at sea. 

It is not unusual in country gardens 
to see a large hollow glass globe sil- 
vered on the inside, mounted on a ped- 
estal, brilliantly reflecting the sunlight. 
The apparatus described is an elabora- 
tion of the idea. The drawing shows 
in diagram the general construction, 
exact measurements not being given. 
However, a convenient height is 3V2 
to 4 ft., and the circular frame, carry- 
ing the mirrors, may be 10 to 14 in. 
in diameter. 

The supporting frame, of galvanized 
sheet iron or sheet copper, may be 
either circular or hexagonal in shape. 
Mounted upon a vertical shaft is a 
skeleton circular frame, carrying a 
double row of small mirrors, or ordi- 
nary flat mirror glass, mounted in 
grooves provided for them ; the upper 
row inclined slightly upward, and the 
lower row slightly downward. If a 
greater number of angles of reflection 
are desired, the mirrors may be smaller, 
and arranged in four circular rows in- 
stead of two, each row being inclined 
at a slightly different angle. 

The shaft is pointed at the lower end 
and rests in a bearing drilled with a 
V-shaped depression, the bearing being 
supported by soldering or riveting at 
each end to the inner sides of the pedes- 
tal shell. The upper portion of the 
shaft passes through a bearing which is 
also soldered or riveted at the ends, to 
the inner surfaces of the pedestal shell. 



for the Garden 

L. WOOLLEY 

The mirrors, mounted on the shaft, 
thus are free to revolve vertically with 
very little friction. Upon the lower 
end of the shaft is fastened a light gear 




The Flasher as It Appears on the Stand and the 
Details of Its Construction 



wheel of rather large diameter, and this 
in turn is geared to a smaller gear 
mounted on the end of the armature 
shaft of a small electric motor of the 
type that may be driven with a few dry 
cells ; the relation of the sizes of the 
gears being such as will cause the mir- 
rors to revolve slowly, when the motor 
is running at normal speed. 

Connected to the motor are two or 
more dry, or other suitable batteries, a 
small door being provided on the side 
of the lower part of the pedestal to 
enable the batteries to be replaced, or 
turned ofif, and to give access to the 
motor. A circular shield is erected 
over the mirror carrier, surmounted by 
an ornamental ball, to protect from the 
weather and to provide a more finished 
appearance. A waterproof canvas cover 
may be slipped over the whole in rainy 
weather. 



180 



As new mirror faces at varying 
angles are constantly being presented 
to the sun, vivid flashes are constantly 
occurring when viewed from almost 
any angle or position on the side where 
the sun is shining. The circular shield 
on top is supported in position by four 
metal strips secured by soldering to the 
shield and the supporting pedestal. 

Such a device may be constructed 
without much expense, producing a 
most brilliant effect over miles of ter- 
ritory. The small driving motor may 
be replaced with a suitable spring or 
weight-driven clockwork ; or four hol- 



low hemispherical metal cups may be 
mounted on arms, or placed at right 
angles, and the arms in turn mounted 
upon a vertical shaft and arranged 
above the mirror carrier and geared in 
such manner that the mirrors will 
revolve slowly, while the cups are re- 
volving with comparatively high speed 
by the force of the wind. 

The mounted revolving cups are sim- 
ilar in form to the apparatus used by 
the U. S. Weather Bureau for meas- 
uring the speed of the wind. They 
will respond to a good breeze from any 
point of the compass. 



An Automatic Blowpipe 

A fine-pointed flame can be used to 
advantage for certain work, and the 
alcohol flame and blowpipe have be- 




a 



come a necessity, 
but these may be 
improved upon 
so as to make 
the apparatus 
automatic in ac- 
tion and more 
efficient in its 
work. A bottle or receptacle. A, hav- 
ing a large bottom to provide a sufii- 
cient heating surface, is supplied with 
a cork and a tube, B, bent at right 
angles. The receptacle. A, is sup- 
ported on a stand so that it may be 
heated with a small lamp, C. The light 
D may be a candle, alcohol lamp, or 
any flame set at the right distance 
from the end of the tube B. 

The receptacle A is partly filled with 
alcohol, and the heating lamp lit. The 
heat will turn the alcohol into gas and 
cause a pressure, driving it through 
the tube B, so that it is ignited by the 
flame from D. The flame will have a 
fine point with sufficient heat to melt 
glass.— Contributed by W. R. Sears, 
St. Paul, Minn. 



Homemade Steam-Turbine Engine 

Select a tomato can, or any can in 
which vegetables or fruit is sold, and 
carefully unsolder the small cap on the 
end when removing the contents. 
When the can is empty, clean it well 
and solder the cap in place again. 
Procure a strip of brass, bend it as 
shown at A and solder it to the can top 
in the center. Cut a piece of about 
No. 14 gauge wire, the length equal to 
the opening between the uprights of 
the U-shaped piece of brass, with about 
1/2 in. added for a small pulley wheel. 
The uprights are punched or drilled at 
their upper ends to admit the wire 
which is then adjusted in place. 

Two strips of tin are cut to fit in Ije- 




The Boiler is Made of a Fruit or Vegetable Can 
and the Turbine of Thin Metal Strips 

tween the standards and are notched in 
the center, as shown at B, and slightly 
bent to fit over the wire shaft. These 
are soldered to the wire between the 



181 



uprights. A small hole is punched on 
one side in the top of the can so that it 
will center the paddle of the wheel. On 
the opposite side of the top another 
larger hole is punched and tightly fitted 
with a wood plug. This is the opening 
for filling the boiler with water. The 
can should be filled about two-thirds 
full and set on a stove. The steam, 
coming under pressure from the small 
hole, strikes the paddles of the wheel 
with considerable force and causes it 
to revolve rapidly. Be careful not to 
set the boiler on too hot a fire. 



Electric Switch for Exposing Photo- 
graphic Printing Papers 

The proper time to expose a printing 
paper under a negative should be de- 
termined and the negative marked for 
future printing. When this time has 
been found some means should be pro- 
vided for making the exposure exactly 
the same, then the prints will be perfect 
and of a good tone at all times. For this 
purpose the instrument shown in the 
illustration was designed and used with 
entire satisfaction. 

The device consists of an ordinary 
cheap watch, a standard, or support, for 
an adjusting screw, a small coil, a mov- 
able armature, a knife switch, and a 
trip arrangement. A neat box or case, 
about 5 in. square and 3 in. high, is first 
constructed. A round recess, % in. 
deep, is cut in the center of the top, to 
admit the watch. The standard A is 
made of brass, Vs i"- thick and i/o in. 
wide, bent as shown, and a i\-in. hole is 
drilled in the end of the long arm where 
it will exactly center over the pivot 
holding the watch hands. A iVin. rod, 
B, is closely fitted in the hole and sup- 
plied with a knurled wheel, C, on the 
upper end, and an L-shaped arm, D, 
is fastened to the lower end. The end 
of this arm should be filed to a point, 
or a very thin piece of brass soldered 
to it, so that the end will just touch the 
minute hand of the watch. The tip 
end of the point should be bent slightly 
from the perpendicular toward the di- 
rection in which the watch hands are 
moving, so that, when it is set, the 



moving hand will easily break the con- 
tact. 

The magnetic arrangement consists 
of a 3-ohm coil, E, mounted, as shown. 




Time Switch for Operating an Electric Light in 
Printing Photographic Developing Papers 

to one side of the case, where it oper- 
ates the trip levers. The armature parts 
consist of an L-shaped piece of brass, 
F, pivoted at G, to which a square piece 
of soft iron, H, is attached. Two small 
parts, K, are bent and attached as 
shown, to furnish a limit stop for the 
piece F and a support for a spiral spring 
which holds the armature H away from 
the coil. 

The knife switch L is fastened to the 
bottom of the case so that the handle 
will project through a slot in one side 
of the box. A trip piece, M, and a 
small eye for attaching a spiral spring, 
N, are soldered to the knife switch. 
These two attachments for the switch 
are insulated from the other parts. 

Two binding posts are mounted on 
top, one being connected to one ter- 
minal of the coil E and the other to the 
watch case. The other terminal of the 
coil is connected to the standard A. 
The two binding posts are connected 
in series with one or two dry cells, and 
the switch L is connected in series with 
the lamp used for printing. 

The operation is as follows : The arm 
D, being set for a certain time, the lever 
of the switch L is set and the light re- 
mains lit until the minute hand strikes 
the point on the arm D, when the bat- 
tery circuit is closed causing the coil 
to draw the armature H and allowing 
the spring N to open the switch L. 
The lamp is then extinguished. — Con- 
tributed by James P. Lewis, Golden, 
Colorado. 



182 



How to Make a Wing Nut 

Finding that I needed some wing 
nuts and not being able to purchase 
them in the size I wanted, I made them 
from the ordi- 
nary nuts. A 




hole was drilled 
through opposite 
corners of each 
nut and a staple made of wire riveted 
in tlie holes as shown in the sketch. 
The staple should be long enough to 
admit the end of the bolt. — Contributed 
by Clarence L. Orcutt, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Cork-Covered Clothes Peg 

When screws or nails are used to 

hang clothes or other articles on, run 

the nail or screw 









through a bot- 








tle cork as 








shown. The 


/"^W^ ^'"-^ 




cork will pre- 


(^*^ll, 




vent the nail or 
screw from tear- 








ing the article 








and also insure 




the cloth against 


rust marks. 


should 


the article 


be wet. 



Shaping an Old Broom 

A broom, having the straws bent and 
out of shape, yet not worn out, can be 
fixed up like new in the following man- 
ner: Slightly dampen the straw with 
water and wrap with heavy paper, then 
place a weight on it. After standing 
under pressure for several days the 
straw will be restored to the shape of 





Method of Straightening the Straws 

a new broom. Paint brushes can be 
treated in the same manner, but in that 
case linseed oil should be used instead 
of water. 




How to Make a Bolster 

The sketch shows a simple bed 
bolster which I have made and which 
can be constructed at very little cost. 
Three circular 
pieces of pop- 
lar or pine, 10^^ 
in. in diameter, 
are required. 
These may be 

made in one cut by nailing the pieces 
together. Then nail on ten % by 2-in. 
strips, 53 in. long, or as long as the 
width of the bed, leaving about i/^ in. 
space between the strips. These strips 
will thus go about two-thirds of the 
way around the circle, leaving room to 
insert the pillows when the bed is not 
in use. Cover the bolster with build- 
ing paper or any other suitable mate- 
rial, and it is ready for the pillow 
shams. — Contributed by C. Martin, Jr.. 
Chicago. 



A Fish-Scaling Knife 

A useful iish-scaliiig and skinning 
knife can l)e made of an old broken 
hacksaw blade. This must be at least 
(1 in. long and will make a knife with 



Scaling Knife 

a o-in. blade. Grind the blade to the 
shape shown and make a handle for it 
by using two strips of maple, 14 '"■ 
thick and 4 in. long. These are riveted 
together with 3 in. of the blade be- 
tween them. — Contributed by John f^. 
W'aite, Cambridge, Mass. 



To Prevent Moles from Damaging 
Growing Seeds 

The food most liked by the ground 
mole is the sprouts of peas and corn. 
A way to protect these growing 
seeds is to dip them in kerosene just 
before planting. The mole will not 
touch the oil-covered seed, and the 
seeds are not injured in the least. — 
Contributed by J. W. Bauholster, 
Gresham, O. 



183 




The heliograph which is used in the 
army provides a good method of send- 
ing messages by the reflection of the 
Sim's rays. In the mountains there 
are stations from which messages are 
sent by the heliograph for great dis- 
tances, and guides carry them for use 
in case of trouble or accident. The 
wireless telegraph delivers messages 
by electricity through the air, but the 
heliograph sends them by flashes of 
light. 

The main part of the instrument is 
the mirror, which should be about 4 
in. square, set in a wood frame and 
swun^ on trunnions made of two 



The Heliograph as It is Used by Neigh- 
boring Boys to Send Messages on a Clear 
Day by Flashing the Sun's Rays from One 
to the Other, Which can be Read as Far 
as the Eye can See the Light 



How to Make a 
Heliograph 

By R. B. HUEY 

firmly held to the frame with brass 
strips, i/> in. wide, and 3 in. long. The 
strips are drilled centrally to admit the 
bolts, and then drilled at each end for 
a screw to fasten them to the frame. 
This construction is clearly shown in 
Fig. 1. 

A hole is cut centrally through the 
backing of the frame and a small hole, 
not over % in. in diameter, is scratched 
through the silvering on the glass. If 
the trunnions are centered properly, 
the small hole should be exactly in line 
with them and in the center. 

A U-shaped support is made of 
wood strips, % in. thick and 1 in. wide, 




Fig. I 




Fig. 3 




Fig. 2 
Detail of the Parts for Making the Mirror and Sight Rod Which are Placed on a Base Set on a Tripod 
Top, the Whole being Adjusted to Reflect the Sun's Rays in Any Direction Desired 



square-head bolts, each i/4 in. in di- 
ameter, and 1 in. long, which are 



the length of the uprights being 3i o in. 
and the crosspiece connecting their 



184 



lower ends a trifle longer than the 
width of the frame. These are put to- 
gether, as shown in Fig. 2, with small 



upper unnailed ends are spread to slip 
over the blocks on the tripod top. 
These ends are bored to loosely fit over 





Fig. 9 




Fic.8 



The Parts in Detail for Making the Tripods and the Shutter for Flashing 

the Light, and Diagram Showing the Location of the Tripods 

to Direct the Light through the Shutter 



brackets at the comers. A slot, % in. 
deep and Vi i"- wide, is cut into the 
upper end of each upright to receive 
the trunnions on the mirror frame. 
Nuts are turned on the bolt ends 
tightly, to clamp the standard tops 
against the brass strips on the mirror 
frame. The cross strip at the bottom 
is clamped to the base by means of a 
bolt, li/o in. long. The hole for this 
bolt should be exactly below the peep- 
hole in the mirror and run through one 
end of the baseboard, which is % in. 
thick, 2 in. wide and 10 in. long. 

At the opposite end of the base, 
place a sighting rod, which is made as 
follows : The rod is I/2 in. in diameter 
and 8 in. long. The upper end is 
fitted with a piece of thick, white card- 
board, cut 1/4 in. in diameter and hav- 
ing a projecting shank 1 in. long, as 
shown in Fig. 3. The rod is placed in 
a Yo-in. hole bored in the end of the 
baseboard, as shown in Fig. 2. To keep 
the rod from slipping through the hole 
a setscrew is made of a small bolt with 
the nut set in the edge of the base- 
board, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The tripod head is formed of a wood 
disk, 5 in. in diameter, with a hole in 
the center, and three small blocks of 
wood, 1 in. square and 8 in. long, nailed 
to the under side, as shown in Fig. 5. 
The tripod legs are made of light 
strips of wood, % in. thick, 1 in. wide 
and .5 ft. long. Two of these strips, 
nailed securely together to within 20 
in, of the top, constitute one leg. The 



the headless nails driven part way into 
the block ends. One tripod leg is 
shown in Fig. G. 

The screen, or shutter, is mounted 
on a separate tripod and is shown in 
Fig. 7. Cut out two slats, % in. thick, 
21/3 in. wide and 6 in. long, from hard 
wood, and taper both edges of these 
slats down to j\ in. Small nails are 
driven into the ends of the slats and 
the heads are filed off so that the pro- 
jecting ends will form trunnions for 
the slats to turn on. Make a frame of 
wood pieces, % in. thick and 21/0 in. 
wide, the opening in the frame being 
(i in. square. Before nailing the frame 
together bore holes in the side uprights 
for the trunnions of the slats to turn 
in. These holes are 1% in. apart. The 
frame is then nailed together and also 
nailed to the tripod top. The shutter 
is operated with a key very similar to 
a telegraph key. The construction of 
this key is shown in Fig. 7. A part of 
a spool is fastened to a stick that is 
pivoted on the opposite side of the 
frame. The key is connected to the 
slats in the frame with a bar and rod, 
to which a coil spring is attached, as 
shown in Fig. 8. Figure 9 shows the 
positions of the tripods when the in- 
strument is set to flash the sunlight 
through the shutter. The regular tele- 
graph code is used in flashing the light. 
To set the instrument, first turn the 
cardboard disk down to uncover the 
point of the sight rod, then sight 
through the hole in the mirror and ad- 



185 



just the sight rod so that the tip end 
•comes squarely in line with the receiv- 
ing station. When the instrument is 
properly sighted, the shutter is set up 
directly in front of it and the card- 
board disk is turned up to cover the 
end of the sight rod. The mirror is 
then turned .so that it reflects a beam 
of light with a small shadow spot 
showing in the center made by the 
peephole in the mirror, which is di- 
rected to fall on the center of the card- 
board sighting disk. It will be quite 
easy to direct this shadow spot to the 
disk by holding a sheet of paper 6 or 8 
in. in front of the mirror and following 
the spot on the paper until it reaches 
the disk. The flashes are made by 
manipulating the key operating the 
shutter in the same manner as a tele- 
graph key. 



Twine Cutter for Use at a Wrapping 
Counter 

for use at the wrapping 
a drug or confectionery 
store may be easily 
made from a double- 
edged razor blade 
and a piece of thin 
board — a piece of 
cigar box will do. 
Cut the wood in the 
shape shown, with a 
protecting piece over 
the edge of the razor. 
Screws are turned through the holes in 
the blade and into a support on the 
paper holder or any other convenient 
place. — Contributed by T. F. Man- 



A cutter 
counter in 



i 



®^ 



'^.®, 



^4r 



(D 



TT 



:{l 



aghan, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Frosting Brass 

A very fine ornamental finish, re- 
sembling brushed work, may be applied 
to brass articles by boiling them in a 
caustic-potash solution, then rinsing 
in clear water, whereupon they are 
dipped into dilute nitric acid until the 
oxide is removed, then rinsed quickly 
and dried in sawdust. The surface 
should be lacquered while the metal 
is hot. 



A Cupboard-Door Spice-Box Shelf 

To keep the spice boxes in a handy 
place where they would be together 
and not behind larcrer articles on the 




The Shelf will Hold All the Spice Boxes and 
Keep Them Handy 

cupboard shelves, I made a special 
spice-box shelf, as shown, to hang on 
the inside of the cupboard door. The 
shelf swings out with the door as it 
opens, and is made of two bracket ends 
to which a bottom board and front 
crosspiece is nailed. The size of the 
shelf and its capacity are only limited 
l)y the space on the door. — Contrib- 
uted by Austin Miller, Santa Barbara, 
California. 



Starting a Siphon 

It is often necessary in a laboratory 
to siphon acids and poisonous liquids. 
If a pump is used there is always dan- 
ger of the liquid 
entering the 
jnimp and dam- 
aging it, and, be- 
sides, a pump is 
not handy for 
this purpose. To 
fill a siphon by 
suction from the 
mouth, great 
care must be 
taken t o keep 
from drawing the liquid into the mouth. 
One of the best ways to fill a siphon is 
to procure a large dropper and having 
pressed all the air out of the bulb in- 
sert the end in the siphon. Releasing 
the pressure on the bulb will cause it 
to draw the liquid into the siphon. — 
Contributed by Bedell M. Neubert, 
Newtown, Conn. 



r. — ^ 



186 



A Window-Seat Sewing Box 

The combined window seat and sew- 
ing box shown was made by using a 
shoe-packing box for the foundation. 




A Window-Scat "Workbox (or Sewing Materials, 
Made of an Ordinary Shoe-Packing Box 

This was covered with matting and 
the edges and corners finished with 
wood strips, I/2 in. thick and stained a 
dark red. Three trays were provided 
on the inside at the top part of the 
box, each of the two upper ones oc- 
cupying one-fourth of the box open- 
ing and sliding on a pair of guides 
fastened to the sides of the box, while 
the lower tray is one-half the length 
of the box and slides on guides placed 
far enough below the upper trays to 
allow it to pass beneath these. The 
three trays were used for keeping sew- 
ing materials, such as buttons, hooks 




Tlie Spindles for the Spools are Made of Cotters 
Fastened with Screws in the Shelves 

and eyes, etc. When the trays are all 
moved to one end it gives access to 
the lower part of the box where the 
work or mending is kept out of sight. 
The inside of the cover is VA in. 
deep and shelves are arranged for 



thread and silk spools on either side, 
the center space being used for the 
shears, thimbles and scissors. The lit- 
tle shelves are made of two pieces, 
each half as wide as the depth of the 
box cover. The first half of the shelf 
is fastened in place, then a row of 
cotters attached with wood screws, 
whereupon the other half of the shelf 
is put in j)l; ce. The edges of the cover 
are rounded on the outside to make an 
attractive seat. 

While no dimensions are necessarj', 
as the box can be of any size to suit 
the maker, it may be mentioned that 
the one shown is 28 in. long, 12 in. 
wide and K. in. deep. — Contributed by 
R. B. Thomas, Lowell, Mass. 




Cutting a Glass Bottle 

It is sometimes necessary to cut a 
heavy glass bottle or cylinder. Four 
methods are in use. A carborundum 
disk having a thin 
edge, if kept wet 
and rotated at a high 
speed, will cut heavy 
glass, but the cylin- 
der must b e fed 
against the wheel 
very gently. A bet- 
ter way is to make a 
hie mark — clean, 
but not very deep — around the cylin- 
der and heat it with a long slender 
flame while slowly rotating the cylin- 
der all the time. It is very important 
that the gas flame should not spread 
over the surface of the glass, for it is 
only the file mark that should be 
heated. A mere glancing touch is suf- 
ficient. Usually the glass will crack 
off in a very clean cut. 

Sometimes a fine platinum wire is 
wound around in the file mark and 
heated by an electric current. Less 
common is the trick of wrapping a 
strand of yarn soaked in turpentine 
around the mark and burning it. fhe 
principle is the same in each case. The 
unequal heating of the glass causes it 
to break. — Contributed by Harry H. 
Holmes, Richmond, Ind. 



187 



condensation coil of a still for the 



To Clean Painted or Frescoed Walls Cooling Tube for a Laboratory Still 

Use a paste made of vinegar and A simple and very effective device 

baking soda with a small amount of to replace the cumbersome cooling or 
salt added. The ingredients should be 
mixed in a large dish and applied to 
the wall with a cloth. The grease and 
fly specks as well as the carbon depos- 
its from kitchen smoke are quickly 
removed. The mixture is harmless. 
After the wall is thoroughly cleaned, 
it should be washed with warm water 
and soap, then dried with a cloth. 
The mixture works equally well on 
enameled baths and glass or white 
porcelain. 



Method of Indenting the 

\Valls of the Glass Tube 

and Its Application 

as a Still 



Securing Papers in a Mailing Tube 

The illustrations show two methods 
of securing papers or photographs in 
a mailing tube. In Fig. 1 the mailing 
tube A is shown in cross section and 
the manner of running the string 
through the pasteboard walls illus- 
trated. The ends of the string are 
drawn up and tied over or under the 
label. If the label is pasted over the 
string or string ends as they are tied, 
it makes a sealed package which is 
rated as first-class matter. 

The second way is to run the cords 
in a cross form through holes near 
the ends, as in Fig. 2, then tie the 
knots as at BB. In each instance. 




The String in Either Case Prevents the Papers from 
Slipping Out of the Mailing Tube 

even if the papers fit the tulje loosely, 
they will be held securely and can 
be easily extracted when the knots are 
untied. 





IG.2 



amateur's laboratory can be easily 
made as follows: 

Procure an ordinary straight glass 
tube of fairly large diameter and heat 
it in the flame of an alcohol lamp with 
the use of a blowpipe or in a Bunsen 
burner with a very reduced flame so 
that only a small spot of the tube is 
brought to a red heat at one time. 
Then, with a previously pointed and 
charred stick of wood — a penholder, 
for instance — produce a small recess 
in the wall by pushing the charred 
end gently into the glowing part of 
the tube. This procedure is repeated 
until the whole tube is thus provided 
with small recesses. The indentations 
should be made in spiral lines around 
the tube, thus increasing the surface 
that is in contact with the cooling 
water. The operation of making the 
recesses is shown in Fig. 1. The walls 
of the recesses should have a regular 
and uniform slant. 

The tube thus produced can either 
be used as a rectifier (Fig. 2) above a 
vessel, for fractional distillation, be- 
cause it will allow the most volatile 
parts to pass out first, or as a con- 
denser (Fig. 3), the arrangement of 
which needs no explanation. The 
amateur will find it much easier to 
make this tube than to coil a very long 
one. 



188 



A Comb Cleaner 

A good comb cleaner that does the 
work easily and quickly can be made 
from a worn-out varnish brush. The 
brush selected 



should not b e 
over 2 in. wide ; 
i t should b e 
thorou gh 1 y 
cleaned with 
benzine and the 
bristles cut to a 
bevel, as shown 
i n the sketch. 
In use, brush across the comb parallel 
with the teeth, and the dirt between 
them will be easily removed. — Con- 
tributed by John V. Loefifier, Evans- 
ville, Ind. 




Scraping Off Surplus Water on a 
Grindstone 

When using a grindstone, an ample 
flow of water is desirable in order to 
insure good cutting, and the objection- 
able spattering may be overcome by 
fastening a piece of leather to the 
grindstone frame so that its edge will 
bear lightly upon the stone just be- 
low the point where the work is held. 
This will scrape off all surplus water 
from the grinding surface and prevent 
spattering. — Contributed by Thos. L. 
Parker, Wibaux, Mont. 



A Paper Drinking Cup 

The cup is readily made of a piece 
of paper 8 in. square. Lay the paper 
on a fiat surface, turn the point A over 



2, making sure that the new edge DE 
is parallel with the lower edge and 
crease. Turn the corner C in the same 
manner, that is, fold it over to the 
point E and crease. Fold the two 
corners at B outward and down, and 
crease, and the cup is complete as 
shown in Fig. 3. — Contributed by W. 
Douglas Matthews, Chappaqua, New 
York. 

Homemade Brush for Cleaning Uphol- 
stered Furniture 

A durable brush for cleaning uphol- 
stered furniture can be made in the 
following manner : Procure a piece of 
haircloth, which is made of horsehair 
woof and linen warp. Strips of hair- 
cloth, cut lengthwise and 1% in. wide, 
are laid out smooth on a table and a 
strip of wrapping paper, i/o in. wide, 
is firmly glued to one edge. When 
this has dried, take out the warp that 
is not covered by the paper. Brush 
the fringe of horsehair until it is 
straight and even, and before com- 




Several Cups can be Nested Together and Carried in the 
Pocket or Hand Bag 

to meet the point B and crease on the 
dotted line CD, Fig. 1, then turn the 
corner D up to meet the line BC, Fig. 




Brush Made of Strip of Upholsterers* Haircloth \with 
the Warp Removed and Fastened to a Handle 

mencing to wind, measure G in. from 
one end and glue this portion to the 
side of a strip of soft wood, 6 in. long, 
% in. wide and tV in. thick. When 
dry, wind the glued length of hair- 
cloth and paper around the wood strip, 
applying glue to each separate turn 
of winding. The turns should be kept 
flush on the side that has been glued 
and the fringed part brushed and 
straight. 

The part to be glued to the handle 
must be perfectly even in its wind- 
ings and held firmly in place while the 
glue is hardening. The winding should 
lie continued until the brush is ly^ in. 
thick. 

The handle is made of a piece of 
wood, 14 in. long, 1% in. wide and V2 
in. thick. Wood that takes a cherry 
or mahogany stain is preferable. 
Shape it about as shown in the sketch 
and round off the edges. The part to 



189 



which the brush is to be attached must 
be given a light coat of glue. When 
that has dried, glue the back of the 
brush to it, and after the glue has hard- 
ened, glue a piece of gimp around the 
brush part, then drive upholsterers' 
tacks into the gimp and wood, % in. 
apart. Stain and varnish the handle. 
The back of the handle can be used 
as a beater, and the brush for remov- 
ing the dust. — Contributed by Ger- 
trude M. Bender, Utica, N. Y. 



Removing Calcium Deposits on Glass 

A good way to clean glass vessels 
in which hard water is boiled is to 
use the following mixture to remove 
not only the calcium deposits, but also 
rust or sulphur stains that may be 
present. The solution is a mixture of 
ammonia water and a few ounces of 
salt. This should be placed in the 
glass vessel and boiled until the 
deposits disappear. The ammonia 
water may be made of any strength by 
dilutinsr if necessary. 



A Cold-Chisel Guide 

When making long cuts with a cold 
chisel, it is almost impossible to guide 
the chisel edge along a line made with 
a scriber or pencil and have a straight 
cut. I find that it is much easier to 
use a guide, as shown in the sketch. 
The guide is made of a piece of wood, 
about 1 ft. long and fi/o in. wide. A 
slot is cut in the center, wide enough 
to receive the chisel edge snugly, and 
about 9 in. long. The guide is clamped 



The Guide Makes It Easy 
to Follow along a Straight 
Line When Cutting with 
a Cold Chisel 




to the work, and the cold chisel slipped 
along in the slot as it is successively 
hit with a hammer. — Contributed by 
G. H. Holter, Jasper, Minn. 



Care of Paintbrushes 

When laying aside paintbrushes, the 
usual custom is to 
place them in water 
and then forget all 
about them until 
needed again, with 
the result that the 
water usually is 
found more or less 
evaporated and the 
brushes hardened. If 
a quantity of oil, A, 
is poured on the 
water B, it will pre- 
vent this evapora- 
tion and keep 
shape. 




the brushes in good 



Filter in a Pump Spout 

The sketch shows how to place an 
ordinary sponge in a pump spout, to 
filter out sand and dirt particles that 
may come up with the water as it 
is pumped. A wire is fastened in 
the sponge so 
that it can be 
easily taken out 
for washing. 
When washing 
the sponge give 
the pump handle 
a few strokes so that the dirt collected 
in the spout will be washed out. Do 
not press the sponge too tightly into 
the spout, as this will stop the flow of 
water. — Contributed by Chas. Home- 
wood, Waterloo, Iowa. 




Brcwn Stain for Wood 

Bichromate of potassium gives a 
lustrous, rich, light to dark brown stain 
on woods. The crystals are first dis- 
solved into a saturated solution, which 
is then diluted with water. The stained 
surface needs no rubbing, as the stain 
leaves the wood perfectly clear for 
any desired finish. The satinlike ap- 
pearance of wood treated by this stain 
cannot be produced with any of the 
pigment stains. — Contributed by Au- 
gust Meyer. 



190 



An Egg Boiler 

In boiling eggs the usual method of 
dropping the eggs from a spoon into 
the boiling water often results in a 




The Eggs are Prevented from Becoming Cracked and 
All are Easily Handled in One Operation 

burn, as well as in cracking of the eggs 
by the fall. In removing the eggs 
from the hot water and taking one out 
at a time, no two will be cooked alike. 
To overcome these difficulties I con- 
structed an egg boiler as illustrated. 

A pan was procured — tin or alumi- 
num as desired — about 1 in. deep and 
51/0 in. in diameter, and holes were 
drflled in the bottom having dimen- 
sions as shown. A handle was at- 
tached to the center with washers and 
nuts. The small ends of the eggs are 
set in the 1%-in. holes and the whole 
pan set in a vessel of boiling water. 
When the boiling is completed, the 
entire lot of eggs are removed at the 
same time. As the device with its 
load of cooked eggs is quite pleasing 
in appearance, it may be set on a plate 
and the eggs served from it on the 
table. — Contributed by \V. E. Crane, 
Cleveland, O. 



Removing Black Deposit on Bathtubs 

A good way to remove the black 
deposit left on bathtubs by the water 
is to use a strong solution of sulphuric 
acid. The acid should be poured on 
the discolored enameled surface and 
washed around with a cloth. The acid 
should not touch the hands so it is best 
to use a stick to move the cloth. 
Neither should it be allowed to touch 
the metal parts, but if this happens, no 
harm will result if it is quickly rubbed 
off with a cloth and water then 
applied. 



In using this acid never pour water 
into the acid, but always pour the acid 
into the water. — Contributed by Loren 
Ward, Des Moines, Iowa. 



A Stocking-Stretcher Form 

A simple as well as inexpensive 
device for preventing the shrinking of 
stockings, more particularly those of 
children, after they have been washed, 
thus saving great wear and tear on the 
fabrics and increasing their length of 
life, is shown in the illustration. The 
stretcher can be made by anyone, a 
knowledge of woodcraft or art being 
unnecessary. If used, the device will 
prove to effect quite a saving in 
money, labor and worry in the course 
of a year. 

Place a new and unused stocking, 
that properly fits the foot, flat on a 
heavy piece of cardboard or a wood 
board, if desired, and mark an outline 
of the stocking on the board with a 
pencil. Cut out the design with a pen- 
knife or heavy pair of scissors and 
smooth the edges. A design having 



I^ 



The Spring of the Two Parts 
Tends to Hold the Yarn and 
Keep It from Shrinking 




the same shape and size as the stock- 
ing results. Duplicate boards can be 
easily made. Place a spool, such as 
used to hold the finest silk thread, near 
the upper end of the first form and on 
top of this place the second. Then 
drive a nail through the boards and 
spool and clinch it, or better still, use 



191 



a small bolt. When the stockings are 
washed and the dampness wrung out 
as well as possible, stretch them over 
the boards and hang them up to dry. 
They will retain their shape and are 
easily ironed. — Contributed by Wm. 
P. Kennedy, Washington, D. C. 

Stick Holder for a Chopping Block 

Having a lot of branch wood, from 
1/2 in. to 1 in. in diameter, to saw, and 
not wishing to bother with a sawbuck, 
I rigged up a chopping block, as shown 
in the sketch, by fastening a piece of 
board to one side of the block with 




The Notched Board Fastened to the Chopping Block 
Turns It into a Sawbuck 

small lag screws. The piece to be 
sawed was laid across the block in the 
notch. If the piece is held down on 
the block with one foot, the wood is 
very easily sawn. — Contributed by 
Wilfred B. Sylvester, Reading, Mass. 



Cleaning Gold and Platinum 

A good way to clean gold or plat- 
inum jewelry is to first brush with 
soapsuds, then dust magnesia powder 
over the article and allow it to dry. A 
few rubs with a cloth makes the 
article shine with great luster. As 
magnesia powder is highly inflam- 
mable, it must be kept away from fire. 

A Twine Spool 

The pieces of twine used in tying 
parcels delivered to a residence are 
either thrown away or tied together 
and wound into a ball for future use. 
The method I use for keeping the 
pieces of twine is to wind them over 
a discarded photographic-film spool. 
The spool was slipped on a finishing 
nail driven into the wall. The crank 
for turning the spool was made of a 



piece of wire, bent as shown and slipped 
into the slot end of the spool. One 
end of the first piece of string was tied 

P 

The Film Spool as It is Attached g: 

to a Wall, and the Crank ^ 

Ifor Turning It ^ 

I ,„ i 



=^ 



i 

to the core and then wound around it, 
the next piece tied to the first and 
wound up, and so on, as the strings 
were taken from the packages from 
time to time. When a string is needed 
for any purpose I always know where 
to find it, and it is easier to take it 
from the spool than from a ball. — Con- 
tributed by W. Resseguie, Susque- 
hanna, Pa. 



Reinforcing Chair Bottoms 

Embossed-leather-board chair bot- 
toms can be made as serviceable as 
leather in the following manner: Turn 
the chair upside down and fill the hol- 
low beneath the seat with excelsior, 
soft rags or fine shavings, then nail a 
14-in. wood bottom over the filling 
with brads. Make the wood bottom 
V2 or % in. larger than the opening. 
It will thus not be seen, and the seat 
will last as long as the chair. — Con- 
tributed by J. H. Sanford, Pasadena, 
California. 



A Novelty Chain 

An inexpensive chain for hanging 
painted glass panels, transparencies or 
photographs can be made by joining 
paper clips together to form the links. 
A box of 100 clips will make a chain 
about 10 ft. long. Such a chain can 
be made in a few minutes and a length 
of 10 ft. will hold about 4 lb. 



The Paper-Clip Links may be Joined to Make a Chain 
of Any Desired Length 

If the chain is to be used for hold- 
ing photographs, each inner loop end 
is bent out slightly. 



192 



Closet Holders for Linen 

A combination drawer and shelf for 
a linen closet is much better than a 
shelf or a drawer. It is constructed 
in the manner of a drawer with sides 




The Holder can be Pulled Out Like a Drawer and is 
as Accessible as a Shelf 

and a back, the front being open and 
the ends of the sides cut rounding. A 
clip is attached to the under side of 
the bottom, near the front edge, to 
provide a means for pulling out the 
holder. 

Sheets, towels, table cloths, nap- 
kins, etc., can be neatly piled on the 
holder and can be seen without dig- 
ging down to the bottom. It has the 
advantage over the shelf that it can 
be pulled out without anything fall- 
ing oS, and the linen on the back part 
can be easily reached as well as that 
in front. The closet may contain as 
many holders as is necessary and 
should be provided with a door for 
keeping out dust. — Contributed by H. 
A. Suflwold, St. Paul, Minn. 



Preserving Dry Batteries 

The life of dry batteries, which are 
to be used in wet or damp places* may 
be considerably lengthened by being 
treated in the following manner: 

The batteries are placed in glass jars 
a little wider and higher than them- 
selves. A layer of dry sawdust is 
placed in the bottom, for the battery 
to rest on, and the sides are packed 
with sawdust to within i/o in. of the 
top. Waterproof wires are connected 
to the binding posts and melted 
paraffin poured over the battery to the 
top of the jar. The carbon and zinc 
terminals should be marked to avoid 
trouble when connecting several cells 
together. Batteries treated in this 



manner are waterproof and can be 
submerged in water if necessary.— 
Contributed by Olaf Tronnes, Evans- 
ton, 111. 



A Cleaner for Brass 

In some recent laboratory experi- 
ments the following solution was found 
to cleanse brass very quickly without 
harm to the hands or the metal. An 
ounce of alum was put into a pint of 
boiling water and the solution rubbed 
on the brass with a cloth. Stains as 
well as tarnish were quickly removed. 
The solution is inexpensive and easilv 
prepared. — Contributed by Loren 
Ward, Des Moines, Iowa. 



Homemade Graduate 

If a certain quantity of liquid is to 
be frequently measured out, it is best 
to have a graduate 
marked for this amount 
without any other mark- 
ings upon it. To make 
a graduate for this pur- 
pose, procure a pickle 
or olive bottle of the 
type shown in the draw- 
ing and file a vertical 
line. A, on each side. 
These lines should be at 
least % in. wide. Place 
the bottle on a level sur- 
face and pour in the 
amount desired to be 
measured. Mark on each vertical line 
with a lead pencil and connect this 
mark or marks with lines, filed as 
shown at BB. — Contributed by James 
M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 




Mending a Break in Felt 

A good way to mend partially 
broken felt or a felt hat is to hold a 
lighted match under the break and 
smooth out the crevice with the 
hand. The shellac in the felt is melted 
by the heat and runs together, mend- 
ing the felt in such a way that the 
break is hardly noticeable. This 
method may also be used to mend felt 
articles in the laboratory. 



193 



Imitating Ebony on Oak 

The wood is immersed for 48 hours 
in a warm solution of alum and 
sprinkled several times with the fol- 
lowintj mixture : One part of losjwood 
of the best quality is boiled with 10 
parts of water, then it is filtered 
through linen and the liquid evapo- 
rated at a low temperature until its 
volume is reduced by one-half. To 
every quart of this bath are added 10 
to 15 drops of a saturate of soluble 
indigo entirely neutral in reaction. 

Smaller pieces may be steeped for a 
time in this solution, then the wood is 
rubbed with a saturated and filtered 
solution of verdigris in warm, concen- 
trated acetic acid, and this operation 
continued until a black color of the 
desired intensity is obtained. The oak 
wood dyed in this manner is very simi- 
lar to real ebony. 



Tongue Holder for a Boy's Wagon 

To prevent any mishap when coast- 
ing in a boy's play wagon fasten the 
tongue with a coil spring so that it 
will be kept in a vertical position. The 
tongue is always out of the way when 
it is not used for drawing the wagon. 
The spring is only strong enough to 
hold the tongue, so that when this is 
used for pulling there is little or no 
tendency of the spring to draw the 
tongue upward. The coil spring is 




Holder for the Wagon Tongue to Keep It in a 
Vertical Position When Not in Use 

fastened with one screweye in the 
tongue and one in the front axle. — Con- 
tributed by Wm. F. Benson, Brockton, 
Massachusetts. 



Gluing Small Mitered Frames 

The mechanic who attempts to fasten 
a mitered frame in the home work- 
shop usually comes to grief. This is 




(D "■>-. 



CLAMPING PIECE 



Clamp for Holding the Corner of a Frame While 
Gluing and Fastening the Mitered Joint 

due to lack of proper facilities for hold- 
ing the frame straight and out of wind, 
and for clamping or drawing the miter 
joint together after the glue has been 
applied. The little device shown in 
the sketch, if properly made and used, 
does away with the usual difficulties 
and annoyances. It consists of a tri- 
angular block of wood with raised 
strips on the two edges that make the 
riglit angle, and the clamping piece 
with the wood screw through the cen- 
ter on the long side. The raised strips 
are made somewhat thinner than the 
frame to be fastened, as the clamping 
piece should bear on the frame and not 
on the strips; the function of the strips 
being to hold the frame square. The 
triangular block should be large 
enough to take the corner of the frame 
and leave room enough for the wood 
screw that holds it in place on the 
block. Four of these blocks will be 
necessary and they should be used in 
conjunction with pinch dogs. These 
dogs come in dififerent sizes and may 
be purchased at supply stores or made 
as shown. The outside of the legs 
should be straight and parallel and the 
inside tapered so as to draw the joint 
together. 

When a joint is ready to be glued, a 
piece of paper is placed on the block 



194 



under the joint to keep it from stick- 
ing. Apply the glue and push the two 
sides into the corner formed by the 
raised strips, the dog is then driven in 
lightly and the clamping piece screwed 
down tightly, and if the miter has been 
properly cut, a nice close-jointed and 
square corner will be the result. — 
Contributed by J. Shelly, Brooklyn, 
New York. 



Handle Attachment for a Sickle 

For cutting around flower beds or 
bushes and in close places I find that 
an extension handle for a sickle is 





The Extension Handle 
Makes It Much Easier 
to Control the Sickle in 
Cutting around Obstacles 



quite an assistance. The auxiliary 
handle is bound to the sickle handle 
with wire at the ends and is further 
fastened with a screw in the center. 
The arrows show the directions in 
which the hands should be moved in 
working the sickle. — Contributed by 
A. S. Thomas, Gordon, Can. 



A Clothesline for Small Goods 

Handkerchiefs and small pieces 
included in the week's laundry are 
usually quite troublesome to hang 
with the larger pieces, and for this 





Line and Holders are Always Together 
and can be Washed as the Clothes 



reason I constructed a special line for 
the small goods. A line was cut to 
fit between two porch posts and a hook 
made of galvanized wire tied to each 



end, staples being driven into the posts 
to receive them. Three or four wire 
grips were formed and attached to the 
line. It was only necessary to draw 
the corner of a handkerchief into the 
grip as it was wrung out. placing sev- 
eral in each grip. The line with its 
load was then carried out and attached 
between the porch posts. This made 
it unnecessary to look through the 
clothes for the small articles. It also 
prevented chilling the fingers and no 
pins were needed. — Contributed by 
R. D. Livingston, Hopkinton, Iowa. 



Automatically Controlled Ice-Box 
Lights 

Often the ice bo.x is placed in a dark 
closet or some out-of-the-way place, 
and it is almost impossible to locate 
articles already in the box or put 
others away without considerable in- 
convenience on account of the lack of 
proper light. This difficulty can be 
easily overcome by mounting a small 
electric lamp in each of the difi^erent 
compartments of the box, which will 

st^; 



<at= 



tsqa 





L-(^<^<^ 



Fio I Fig 2 

The Lamps will be Automatically Lighted When 
the Door of the Ice Box is Opened 

be automatically lighted when the lid 
of the box is raised or the door opened. 
The circuit through the lamp is con- 
trolled by a special switch mounted in 
such a way that its contacts are open 
when the doors and lid of the bo.x are 
closed. A diagram of the circuit is 
given in Fig. 1, which shows three 
lamps, each controlled by a separate 
switch, connected in parallel to a bat- 
tery of several dry cells. The lamps 
should be of low voltage and need not 
be very high in candlepower. The 
number of cells needed in the battery 
will depend upon the voltage of the 



195 



lamps. The voltage of the battery and 
the rated voltage of the lamps should 
be approximately the same. 

A special switch that will serve the 
above purpose is shown in Fig. 2. It 
consists of two pieces of spring brass, 
A and B, about % in. wide, bent into 
the forms shown. These pieces are 
mounted in a recess cut in the jamb of 
the door or lid in such a way that the 
free end of the piece A is held away 
from the piece B when the door or lid 
is closed. When the lid of the box or 
the door is open the two springs come 
in contact and the lamp lights ; upon 
closing the lid or door the contact is 
broken and the lamp goes out. 

A good quality of rubber-insulated 
copper wire should be used in making 
the connections, and all parts should 
be as well protected from moisture 
and the possibilities of mechanical 
abuse as possible. It would be best to 
tape the lamps in the sockets with a 
piece of friction tape so as to prevent 
moisture getting into the socket and, 
perhaps, shortening the lamp. A short 
piece of brass tubing can be mounted 
around the lamp to protect it mechan- 
ically. Be sure to place the batteries 
where they will be kept dry. 



A Bottle-Cap Lifter 

To remove the crimped bottle cover 
so extensively used requires a special 
lifter, the cork- 
screw being of 
little use for this 
purpose. When 
a cap-cover re- 
mover is not at hand, pre- 
pare a pocketknife in the 
manner shown, and it 
makes an excellent sub- 
stitute. It only requires a small notch 
filed in the heel of the blade, which 
does not interfere with the ordinary 
use of the knife in the least. — Contrib- 
uted by John V. Loeffler, Evansville, 
Indiana. 




A Mechanical Bicycle Horn 

The body of the horn A is made of 
metal, about 3 in. in diameter, with a 
screw cover. The shaft B, to which is 




CAnts may be eflfectively aestroyed by 
placing a coop with a chicken in it over 
the hill. 



The Horn is Sounded 

by Making Connections with 

the Moving Surface of the Tire 

attached a driving pulley, C, and a 
ratchet wheel, D, is fitted in holes 
drilled through the diameter of the 
body. The diaphragm E is clamped, 
between the edge of the body and the 
cover, on a seat made of rubber rings, 
F, and carries a contact device, G, that 
is riveted to its center. The diaphragm 
should be set so that the contact wiU 
touch the ends of the ratchets. 

A metal cone is fastened in an open- 
ing cut in the center of the cover, over 
the diaphragm. The back of the body 
is fitted with a bracket for attaching 
it to the front fork on a bicycle. The 
lever H carries an idler pulley which 
is forced against the bicycle tire and 
the pulley C by means of a cord, J. 

Adjusting the diaphragm contact on 
the ratchet wheel will change the tone 
of the horn. — Contributed by P. Mertz, 
Jamaica, L. I. 

Retarder for Plaster of Paris 

When it is desired to lengthen the 
time of setting after preparing plaster 
of Paris, dissolve 1 oz. of citric acid 
in water used for mixing 100 lb. of 
plaster, and it will retard the setting 
for about three hours. 



196 



An Inkwell Stopper 

A good way to keep an inkwell of 
the type shown in 
the sketch clean is 
t o place a marble 
over the opening. 
The marble keeps 
out flies and dust, is 
easily rolled aside 
and is no obstacle to 
the pen entering the 
well. — Contributed 
by James M. Kane, 
Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 




A Grass Rake 

This adaptation of an ordinary iron 
rake for use on a lawn was the outcome 
of not having a lawn rake at hand. 
Two spools, each li/i> in. in diameter, 
were procured and one forced on each 
end tooth of the rake. The spools were 
forced on the teeth just far enough to 
allow the rake to slide on the ground 




The Spools Prevent the Teeth from Injuring the 
Grass Roots as the Rake Passes over the Ground 

and prevent the other teeth from dig- 
ging out the grass. The end of the 
spools may be rounded and smoothed 
so that they will slide easily on the 
ground. — Contributed by H. E. Gray, 
Montclair, N. J. 



A Staple Puller 

A very simple way to pull a staple 
is to use the 
claws of an ordi- 
nary carpenter's 
hammer and a 
nail, as shown in 
the sketch. The 
staple can be re- 
moved quickly 
without being 
bent, and no 

damage to the material into which it 

was driven will result. 




To Remove Acid Stains from Cloth 

Apply pearlash directly to the stain, 
allowing it to set a minute or two, 
then boil the article in soap water for 
several minutes. The method is harm- 
less and inexpensive, and can be used 
by anyone. 



Repairing Rocker on a Chair 

The tenons on the posts of a rocking 
chair being broken off so close to the 
rocker that it 
was impossible 
to make the 
ordinary repairs, 
four window- 
shade - roller 

brackets were 

used in the fol- 
lowing manner: The metal was 
straightened so that it would lie flat 
and two brackets were used on the end 
of each post. This made a neat and 
strong repair. — Contributed by Chas. 
Schmidt, Baltimore, Md. 




Electric-Lamp Reflector for a Target 

An ordinary 1-lb. cofl^ee can may be 
quickly fashioned into a most effective 
reflector for an electric bulb. The light 
is projected upon 
the target while 
the marksman's 
eyes are shielded. 
Of course, this 
device can be 
used for other 
purposes. 

The can is 
shaped into a re- 
flector b y cut- 
ting it open along one side with a pair 
of snips, then following the circum- 
ference of the bottom halfway around 
on each side. Bend the flaps outward 
as far as desired and cut a hole in the 
bottom just large enough to insert the 
bulb, as shown. — Contributed by Burke 
Jenkins, Port Washington, L. I. 




C Linoleum may be renewed by apply- 
ing floor wax in liquid form. 



197 



Making Small Taps 

The owner of a private workshop has 
need for taps and occasionally wishes 
to make them, not because they are 
cheaper, but for the sake of experience 
or to get some special thread. In cut- 
ting the flutes, whether it be by hand or 
in a shaper, it is a good plan to give the 
flutes an angle, that is, to cut them, not 
parallel with the axis of the tap, but at 
an angle of 5 to 15 deg. with the center 
line. This makes the tap cut easier, 
giving it a wedge action instead of just 
simply pushing the metal off. The 
same method applies to counterbores 
and countersinks, which, when so 
made, take less power to drive. 



Sink a Substitute for a Dishpan 

On special occasions when company 
is entertained or in large families, it is 



almost impossible 




to wash all the 
dishes in an or- 
dinary dishpan ; 
in fact, the large 
platters will not 
go in at all, so I 
devised the fol- 
lowing method 
as a substitute 
for a larger pan. 
A tin disk was 
cut from the top 
of a tomato can with a can opener so as 
to be as round as possible, then a piece 
of cheesecloth was folded into an even 
square, the disk placed in the center 
and all four corners of the cloth drawn 
over to the center of the disk. A nail 
was driven through the center of the 
disk, to make a hole, through which 
a string was drawn with the nail and 
tied to it to form a loop on the head. 
This is used to stop the sink drain. 

When this is put over the drain out- 
let the sink may be used as a dishpan. 
The same result could be obtained a 
little better with a piece of an old rub- 
ber boot or rubber coat, but usually 
this material is not at hand, and the 
cheesecloth will do almost as well. 
— Contributed by Hannah Jennings, 
Chicago. 



How to Make Small Coil Springs 

Procure a nut, having a small thread 
that will admit the size of the wire to 
be used in making the spring. Cut a 




The Threads in the Nut Will Guide as Well as 
Coil the Spring Evenly 

small notch to the depth of the thread 
where the thread starts, and procure a 
smooth rod that will pass snugly 
through the threads of the nut. Shape 
one end of the rod to fit a carpenter's 
brace, if there is no drill chuck at hand, 
and drill a hole in the other end to 
admit one end of the spring wire. 

Bend the wire at right angles and 
insert the end in the hole. Place the 
end of the rod in the nut, which should 
be gripped in a vise, and turn the rod, 
at the same time seeing that the wire 
is guided into the notch cut at the start 
of the thread. The wire will follow the 
thread of the nut and make a perfect 
spring of an even opening throughout 
its length. Closed or open coils can be 
made by using a nut having the proper 
number of threads. — Contributed by A. 
Spencer, Kinston, N. C. 



A Pruning-Saw Guard 

The double-edged pruning saw with 
coarse teeth on one side and fine on the 
other would be far more widely used, 
if it were not for the fact that the un- 
used edge so often injures the bark of 
the trunk when the saw is being used. 
A very satisfactory guard may be 
quickly made of a brass curtain rod 
by prying it apart slightly at the seam 
and cutting a suitable length to fit over 




The Teeth on the Unused Edge are Covered with a 
Piece of Brass Curtain Rod 

the edge, as shown in the sketch. This 
will cling to the saw blade by its own 
tension. — Contributed by James H. 
Brundage, Katonah, N. Y. 



108 




Home - Made Motion - Picture 
Camera and Projector 

IN THREE PARTS — PART I 

By CHARLES FRANK 




Motion pictures are made and repro- 
duced by means of a camera and pro- 
jector, each having a similar mechan- 
ism that would seem entirely too com- 
plicated for the 
average person 
to construct at 
home, yet a cor- 
respond- 
entof the 
N i c k e 1 o- 
deon has de- 
vised a simple 
rotary cylinder 
shutter that can 
be substituted 
for the compli- 
cated parts. 
While this sim- 
ple cylinder 
shutter is not 
claimed to be 
non - infringing 
on existing patents, yet, as it has no 
commercial value, there would be no 
objection on this score. The instru- 
ments described are nothing more than 
toys, and if the amateur photographer 
can secure a few dozen feet of ani- 
mated photographs about the home 
that are dear to his heart, and repro- 
duce them on a screen, it will have 
served its purpose. The camera and 
projector described uses standard film, 
1% in. wide, with perforations every 

tV in. 

The Camera 

The ordinary hand camera for mak- 
ing still pictures consists of a light- 




Fig. 1 



tight box with a lens at one end and a 
sensitized plate or film at the other. 
The motion-picture camera (Fig. 1) is 
nothing more than a hand camera with 
a mechanical device for stepping a long 
roll of film through a space in the focal 
plane of the lens at a speed of about 16 
pictures a second, and stopping the 
film long enough to make the requisite 
exposure on each division. The first 
thing to consider is the lens. A lens 
having ordinary speed for a hand cam- 
era, and one with about 3-in. focal 
length will give satisfactory results. 
If one does not care to purchase a lens, 
a small l^ij-in. or 2-in. reading glass can 
be used, if it is stopped down, or a lens 
may be taken from a hand camera. 
The width of the camera from front to 
back (W, Fig. 2) must be determined 
by the focal length of the lens. The 
dimensions given in the drawing are 
only approximate, and they can be 
changed if the camera is to be used in 
making an extra long film negative. 

The roll of unexposed film (A, Fig. 
2) is placed on a small shaft between 
U-shaped bearings, made of sheet metal 
and screwed to the top board of the 
camera. The lens B is set in the front 
board at a point 4 in. below the top. If 
a large roll of film is to be used, this 
distance must be greater to allow room 
for the film roll in the top of the cam- 
era. The cylinder C. which acts as a 
shutter and intermittent movement, re- 
volves directly behind and in the path 
of the light passing through the lens. 
Partitions, DD, are set in grooves cut 



199 



in the boards, forming the sides of the 
camera. These partitions are to keep 
the light, which may be diffused from 
the lens, from striking the film at either 
side of the shutter, and at the same 
time acting as guides for the film at the 
rear end of the camera. Their edges 
at the back are covered with black vel- 
vet. The back of the box is a hinged 
door, rabbeted on all edges, and open- 
ing at the side to allow the insertion 
and removal of the film, and also act- 
ing as a guide for the film when closed. 
A strip of black velvet, E, a little wider 
than the film, is pasted to the inside 
surface of the door, so that it bears 
lightly against the back edges of the 
partitions DD. The film passes be- 
tween the edges of the partitions and 
the velvet on the door with some fric- 
tion, which keeps it from moving ex- 
cept when pulled through with the 
roller shutter. A wire-staple guide, 
F, is fastened in the lower partition, 
through which the end of the film is 
passed before closing the door. The 
film as it is run through drops in folds 
in the bottom of the bo.x. 

The rotary cylinder shutter is the 
heart of the machine and should be 
made well and strictly according to the 
dimensions. The detail of this part is 
shown in Fig. 3. A rectangular open- 
ing is mortised through one of its 
diameters to admit light on the film 
when in certain positions. The cylin- 
der is of wood with a i/4-in. steel rod 
inserted in the center of each end for 
axles. A small grooved pulley (G, Fig. 
2), about 1 in. in diameter, is fastened 
to the outer end of one of these rods. 
The cylinder is revolved by a round 
belt from a drive wheel, H, 3 or 3i/L' in. 
in diameter and turned by the aid of a 
crankpin. Owing to the backward ro- 
tation of the cylinder, the belt must be 
crossed between the drive wheel H, 
and the pulley G. The projections or 
sprockets. Fig. 3, must be accurately 
set at a distance of % in. from the 90- 
deg. point, using the center of the mor- 
tised hole as a base. These projec- 
tions can be pins or small staples, but 
they must not be over tu in. in size. 
The base of the sprockets must fit the 



hole in the film snugly, but the points 
should be slightly rounding, so that 
they will easily enter the perforations. 
When the upper sprocket, which is ap- 
proaching the film, engages a perfora- 




Fig. 2 — Details of Camera 

tion, just below the upper partition, it 
will carry the film downward until the 
sprocket disengages from the perfora- 
tion at the lower partition. The dis- 
tance of travel must be exactly % in., 
as that is the height of each picture. 
The cylinder requires some adjustment 
to meet this condition ; therefore the 
axles are made to revolve in holes 
bored in two strips of wood, JJ, which 
can be moved forward or backward to 
obtain the proper distance from the film. 
To allow for this movement, the axles 
pass through slots cut in the sides of 
the camera box instead of round holes. 
The strips JJ are fastened temporarily 
and when the correct position for the 
cylinder is found, they are permanently 
fastened to the box. Grooves, K, are 
cut through the black velvet and into 
the back of the door to allow a space 
for the sprockets to pass through freely. 
The inside of the box should be painted 
a dead black, and black paper pasted 
on all corners and joints. Black velvet 



200 



is pasted in the rabbet of the door to 
insure a light-tight joint when the door 
is closed. The cylinder shutter is also 
painted a dead black inside and out. 
The cylinder in revolving exposes the 
-15"- 




i^s 



-21- 



Fig. 3 — Details of Shutter 

film immediately behind it through the 
mortised hole. The sprockets or cylin- 
der does not touch the film while the 
exposure is being made, but as the hole 
turns toward a perpendicular position, 
the sprockets catch the perforations of 
the film and it moves down % in. Just 
as soon as the sprockets disengage the 
film, the shutter exposes the next sec- 



tion of film, and so on as rapidly as 
the cylinder is turned, but the average 
should be about 16 pictures per second. 
A view finder must be supplied so 
the field covered by the lens can be de- 
termined. Such a finder is made of 
two pieces of metal, L and M, bent L- 
shaped and fastened to the top of the 
camera box. One of the pieces (L) 
has a rectangular opening 1 in. wide 
and % in. high, and the other (M) is 
drilled with a %-in. drill, the distance 
between the two pieces being the focal 
length of the lens. One eye applied 
to the %-in. hole in the piece JM will 
see through the rectangular hole in the 
piece L about the same field as covered 
by the lens. The pieces should be ac- 
curately placed and fastened on the 
box when the camera is set, so tliat the 
lens will throw the same portion of the 
picture on the space where the film 
passes as will be seen through the 
finder. 



( To be continued) 



A Swimming Raft 

Swimming is learned only by expe- 
rience and to get this experience one 
must not be afraid to trust himself in 
the water. This is sometimes accom- 
plished by the use of a swimming raft 
or water wings. As the water wings 
need to be inflated frequently, I made 
a swimming raft instead, in the fol- 




Plan of Raft 



lowing manner: Two logs, about 6 or 
7 ft. long and about 8 in. in diameter, 
were fastened together with large 
nails, as shown in the illustration, and 



a piece of burlap or other strong ma- 
terial was nailed across the center with 
slack enough for it to be partially sub- 
merged. 

The middle of the band, its depth, 
etc., can be adjusted to suit the user. 
Be sure to remove all the roughness of 
the logs and boards with a rasp and 
sandpaper. — Contributed by W. P. 
Johnston, Sumner, 111. 



Removing Finger Marks on Books 

Dampen a piece of wash leather and 
use it to rub pumice on the spot to be 
cleaned. Brush off the pumice and 
rub again with a piece of dry wash 
leather. 



Tightening a Tennis Net 

Anyone who has ever played tennis 
will readily see the advantage of the 
net-tightening device shown, in prefer- 
ence to the old method of pulling the 
net tight by hand. All that is neces- 
sary to make the device is 1 ft. of or- 



201 



dinary gas or water pipe, 8 or 10 in. of 
y2-in. iron bar, and two twenty-penny 
nails. The posts g-enerally used are 6 
by 6 in. About 4 in. from the top of 
the post bore a 1-in. hole, parallel with 
the direction the rope is to run. On 
the inside surface of the post bore four 
%-in. holes. 

Drill a V2-in. hole 1 in. from one end 
of the pipe, and a i/4-in. hole 1 in. from 
the other end. Put the iron bar in the 
y<y-vn. hole, tie the rope around the pipe 
and bar at A and wind. With the 
leverage of the iron bar one can readily 
pull the net to any desired tightness. 
After the net is drawn in position, put 
one of the nails through the Vi-in. hole 




Tightener on Post 



in the pipe and the other in one of the 
14-in. holes in the post. — ^Contributed 
by Wm. S. Looper, Gainesville, Ga. 



Holding Fishing-Rod Joints Together 

The addition of two or three screw- 
eyes properly placed in a jointed fish- 
ing rod of the ordinary type will prove 
decidedly worth while, as the joints will 
often pull out easily when they should 
not and stick tightly when they should 
pull apart. 

Assemble the rod and bore small 
holes through the brass sockets into the 
joints as shown in Fig. 1 and place 
some screweyes into the holes. Mark 
the joints so that the holes in the joints 
and holes in the brass sockets will al- 
ways be in the same position. 

The screweyes prevent the joints 
from pulling out when an effort is made 
to free the line from some object in 
which it has become entangled. They 



also act as guides for the line. Should 
the joints fit too tightly, scrape the 
ends until they slip easily into the sock- 




F1G.2 

Screweye in Joint 



ets, as the screweyes will 
properly, even if they fit a 
after the scraping. 



hold 
little 



them 
loose 



Roller Skate on a Bicycle Wheel 

When the front tire on a bicycle 
will not hold and needs to be taken to 
a repair 
shop, strap 
or tie a roller 
skate to the 
rim of the 
wheel, as 

shown, and (^o; \^ 

jio trouble 
will be experienced in wheeling or 
riding the bicycle to the shop. — Con- 
tributed by K. Chase Winslow, Eliza- 
beth, N. J. 




Rope Oarlocks 

Having considerable trouble because 
of breaking of oarlocks, I devised a suc- 
cessful way by which the difficulty was 




Piece of Rope in Place 

overcome. The device is extremely 
simple and is nothing more than a 
piece of rope fastened to the gunwale 
as shown in the sketch. — Contributed 
by Arthur L. Chetlain, Rogers Park, 
Illinois. 



202 



Home-Made Motion -Picture Camera and Projector 

IN THREE PARTS— PART II 



Developing 

After havin.tr exposed the film in the 
camera, the next steps are to develop 
and make a positive film from the nega- 
tive. The developing and exposing of 




Fig. 4 — Cross Arms with Pins 

the film for the positive are the same 
as in ordinary photography for making 
negatives and lantern slides, the only 
difference being in the apparatus for 
handling the long films. One of the 
simplest ways of developing a long 
film is to use a large tray in connection 
with a cross arm having upright pins 
around which the film is wrapped in 
a continuous spiral. A film 100 ft. long 
would require a tray 18 by 22 in., with 
pins set in the cross arm about % in. 
apart. This method of developing is 
shown in Fig. 4. 

A long film can be developed in a 
small tray by using two flanged wheels 
or spools mounted on a frame (Fig. 5) 
that holds them directly above the 
liquid in the tray. The spools have a 
wood core or center with metal sides of 
sufficient diameter to take in the length 
of film to be developed. One end of 
the undeveloped film is attached to one 
spool and then wound upon it, then the 
other end is passed through the guides, 
gelatine side down, and fastened to the 
other spool. The film is first run 
slowly through a water bath until it is 
thoroughly saturated, then it is passed 
through the developing solution again 
and again until the proper density is se- 
cured. The trays can be easily re- 
moved and others substituted for fixing", 
washing, hardening and soaking, the 
film being passed through each solution 
in the same manner. Before develop- 



ing either negative or positive film, 
small test strips should be run through 
the solution so that the proper timing 
and treating of the full-length strip will 
correspond to the test strip. 

A reel should be prepared for drying 
the film. This can be made of small 
slats placed around two disks to form 
a drum (Fig. (;) about iVi; ft. in diame- 
ter and gi/o ft. long. After the film has 
been passed through the various solu- 
tions and is ready for drying, it is 
wound spirally around on the slats with 
the gelatine side out, and the whole 
hung up to dry. 

Printing 

The printing to make the transpar- 
ency is accomplished by a very simple 
arrangement. The negative and posi- 
tive films must be drawn through a 
space admitting light while their gela- 
tine surfaces are in close contact. A 
box may be constructed in several 
ways, but the one shown in Fig. 7 il- 
lustrates the necessary parts and their 
relative positions. 

The sprocket A is placed directly 
back of the opening B v/hich may be 
regulated to admit the proper light. 
The sprocket can be purchased from a 




Developing Long Films 



moving-picture stock house cheaply, 
but if the builder so desires, one can be 
made from wood turned up about 1 in. 



203 



in diameter, or so that the circumfer- 
ence will receive sprockets at points t'V 
in. apart. The sprockets are made of 
metal pins driven into the wood. Two 
rows of them are placed around the 
wood cylinder about iVs in- apart. 

The cylinder is provided with a small 
metal shaft at each end which turns 
in round holes or bearings in the sides 
of the box. One of the shafts should 
project through the side of the box and 
have a grooved wheel, C, attached. 
The sprocket cylinder is driven by a 
smaller grooved wheel or pulley, D, to 
which a crank is attached for turning. 
The relative sizes of these wheels are 
determined by the speed of the expos- 
ure and the kind of light used. A 3-in. 
or 4-in. wheel on the cylinder sprocket 
shaft, driven by a pulley about 1 in. in 




Fig. 6— Drying Reel 

diameter, will be suitable under ordi- 
nary circumstances. The opening B 
may be adjusted by two metal slides 
which fit tightly in metal grooves fast- 
ened to the wood front. The metal 
grooves and slides can be made of tin 
and painted a dead black. The films 
after passing over the sprocket, fall 
into the bottom of the box, or, if very 
long films are to be made, the instru- 
ment can be used in the dark room and 
the light admitted only to the opening 
B, then the ends can be dropped into a 
basket or other receptacle at the bot- 
tom and the unprinted portions carried 
on reels above the box. 

The speed of the exposure and the 
width of the opening B can be deter- 
mined by making test strips. This can 
be done by setting the opening B to a 
certain width and turning the crank for 




Fig. 7 — Printing Machine 

10 or 15 seconds and counting the num- 
ber of revolutions. The proper expos- 
ure can be easily attained by this 
method. 

( To be continued) 



An Emergency Clamp 



an extra large guitar 



While makint 
I did not 
have clamps 
large enough 
to hold the 
top and bot- 
tom onto the 
sides while 
gluing, so I 
fastened 
three pieces 
of wood to- 
gether, each 
piece being 
about 1 by 3 
in., as shown 
in the sketch. 
Then I bored 
holes in 
both top and 
bottom 

pieces and inserted a piece of soft wire 
in the form of a loop, which, when 
twisted, drew the ends of the clamp 
together. — Contributed by Geo. E. 
Walsh, Buffalo, N. Y. 




CWhile camping, remember a hot 
stone wrapped up makes an excellent 
substitute for a hot-water basr. 



204 



Home-Made Motion-PicUire Camera and Projector 

IN THREE PARTS — PART III 



The Projector 

The film positives are projected on 
a screen with the same kind of a lan- 
tern as is used for lantern slides, with 
the addition of the device for stepping 
the film through, one picture at a time. 




Fig. 8 — Projector Complete 

and flashing light on each picture as 
it remains stationary for an instant. 
The projector (Fig. 8) is composed of 
a lamp house, a condensing lens to 
make the beam of light converge up- 
on the film for illuminating it evenly, 
a film-stepping device, and a project- 
ing lens for throwing the enlarged pic- 
ture of the illuminated film upon a 
screen. 



The lamp house is made of ordinary 
stovepipe metal and the dimensions 
given in the sketch are for a size suit- 
able to use an acetylene or gas burner. 
The metal is laid out as shown by the 
pattern (Fig. 9) and bent on the dot- 
ted lines to form the sides 
and ends of the house. 
The joint may be riv- 
eted, or, if taken to 
a tinshop, lock-seamed. 
The cover is cut out as 
shown, the sides and ends 
having bent holes which 
are covered on the inside 
with perforated sheet 
metal. A. In order to de- 
flect the light, a small an- 
gular strip, B, is riveted 
on so that its upper portion will cover 
the holes and allow a space for the heat 
to pass out. The cover may be hinged 
or set on like a cover on a can. The lamp 
house is attached to a sliding wood base 
for adjusting its position on the base- 
board. 

The condensing lenses are fixed into 
a metal barrel having a tapering end. 
This can be made of the same material 




Fig. 9 — Details of the Lamp House 



205 



as used in the lamp house. The parts 
can be rolled and a lock joint made at 
a local tinshop, or the pieces shaped 
over a wood form and riveted. Small 
L-shaped pieces are riveted to the in- 



of the required size, or a lens of 12-in. 
focus enlarEjinsj a 1-in. film to about 6 
ft. at a distance of 24 ft. A regular 
lens fitted in a metal tube can be pur- 
chased from a moving-picture stock 




Fig. 10 — Details of the Lamp, Stepping Device and Base 



ner surfaces to hold each lens in place. 
A rim is turned up on the back end of 
the metal tube for attaching the lens 
barrel to the lamp house. 

An ordinary mantle or acetylene 
burner is attached to a gas pipe that 
has for its base a drop elbow fastened 
to a sliding board similar to the slide of 
the lamp house on the baseboard. A 
good reflector should be attached to a 
standard just back of the burner. The 
standard is also fastened to the slid- 
ing board. The proper distance of the 
light from the condensing lens can be 
easily set by this adjusting device. 
This arrangement is shown in Fig. 10 
in the diagram entitled "lamp parts." 

The device for stepping the film is 
a duplicate of the one used in the cam- 
era as described in Part I, with the ex- 
ception of the lens. The lens should 
be about 2 in. in diameter with such 
a focal length that will give a picture 



house at a reasonable price. The box 
is made up similar to the camera box, 
but with a metal back instead of the 
wood. The intense heat from the light 
would quickly burn the wood and for 
this reason the light should be kept 
from the film while it is not in motion. 
The projecting lens barrel should be 
fitted snugly, yet loose enough for 
focusing. 

The baseboard is cut as shown and 
the film-stepping device is firmly at- 
tached to the small end. The sides ex- 
tend over the baseboard and are fas- 
tened with screws and braced with 
metal brackets. The slot in the small 
end of the baseboard is for the film to 
pass through. The film should have a 
tension the same as in the camera with 
velvet placed on the edges of the par- 
titions. It is well to have a guide be- 
low the roller shutter to keep the film 
from encircling the roller as it turns. 



206 



Homemade Graining Tools 

Desiring to do some fancy graining 
and having no tools at hand, I hastily 
made two of them from pieces of gar- 




Tools Cut from Pieces of Garden Hose for Making 
Grains of Wood in Painted Surfaces 

den hose, as shown in the sketch. Two 
pieces were cut from the hose, each 5 
in. long, and the first one made as fol- 
lows: A small hole, about V^ in. in 
diameter, was cut through the outside 
layer of rubber with a sharp knife at 
two points on opposite sides of the hose 
and exactly in the center for length. 
Around these holes rings of the rubber 
were cut out, or rather peeled off from 
the canvas part, the rings being {',- in. 
wide, and the grooves, or parts re- 
moved, also tV in. wide. The hose will 
then appear as shown in the upper 
left-hand corner of the sketch. 

To use this grainer, first paint the 
ground color, using a buff tint for imi- 
tation light oak, and allow it to dry, 
then put on a light coat of raw sienna, 
and while wet, take the prepared hose 
and draw it slowly over the length of 
wood, at the same time revolving the 
grainer slowly. 

The other piece of hose, at the other 
corner, is made to take the place of a 
steel graining comb. The rubber is cut 
away lengthwise, leaving four seg- 
ments, about 4 in. wide, on four sides 
of the hose. These segments are then 
notched out, like threads on a tap, each 
segment having a different number to 
the inch. These are used in the same 
manner as steel combs. — Contributed 
by A. H. Waychoff, Koenig, Colo. 



Needle for Repairing Screens 

In attaching patches to window or 
door screens, the work requires a con- 
tinual shifting from one side to the 
other, or two persons, one on each side, 
must be present to pass the threaded 
needle back and forth. The operation 
can be easily simplified by using a 
bent needle, which has been heated 
and suitably shaped. The point oi 
this needle can always be made to re- 
turn to the side from which it entered, 
thereby avoiding the need of an as- 
sistant or the tiresome shifting back 
and forth. — Contributed by G. Jaques, 
Chicago, 111. 



An Emergency Tourniquet 

A valuable addition to any shop medi- 
cine cabinet is the tourniquet. A device 
that will answer _ 

the purpose of 
the tourniquet 
can be made 
from an ordinary 
clothespin and a 
piece of binding 
tape, about % in. 
wide and 14 in. 
long. To stop 
the bleeding 
from a wound on 
a limb, pass the 
tape around the 
injured member 
between the wound and the blood sup- 
ply. Pass the tape through the slot 
in the pin, wind the ends around the pin 
two or three times to prevent slipping, 
then turn the pin to draw up the tape 
tightly until the flow of blood is 
stopped. 




Mechanical Aid to Singers 

Procure a large cigar box, of the 
square variety, and three ordinary 
drinking glasses with very thin walls 
and of different sizes, and place them 
in the box, as follows : Space them 
evenly, and drive three brads close to 
the circumference of each glass bottom, 



207 



SO that the glasses will have to be 
forced in between them. To prevent 
the glasses from touching the wood 
place a one-cent piece under each one. 

A fourth glass is used, but from this 
the bottom must be removed. This 
can be done by saturating a string, or 
piece of yarn, in kerosene oil, wrapping 
it once around tlie glass near the bot- 
tom, then lighting it and allowing the 
string to burn out. The glass is then 
quickly dropped into cold water, which 
will remove the bottom. 

A hole is cut in the cover of the box 
to receive the bottomless glass from 
the upper side, so that its lower edge 
will be flush with the under surface. 
Cut a slot, 3 in. long and i/& in. wide, 
in the cover near the back side. 

To use, close the cover and at a dis- 
tance of about Yz in. from the glass in 
the cover, or mouthpiece, sing into it. 
The glasses will impart to the voice a 
peculiar tone delightful to hear. — Con- 
tributed by J. B. Murphy, Plainfield, 
New Jersey. 



Model Boat with Aerial Propeller 

Procure or make a small model boat, 
12 or 18 in. long, and place in the hold 
one or two cells of dry battery. Make 
a small platform in the stern and 
mount on it a small battery motor with 
the shaft parallel with the length of 
the boat and in the center. Directly 
above and parallel with the motor 
shaft run a shaft — a hatpin will do — 
in bearings fastened to the deck. At- 
tach a drive pulley directly over the 
pulley on the motor and belt it up with 
a cord or rubber band. Purchase or 
make a propeller blade and attach it 




The Aerial Propeller is Driven by a Small Battery 
Motor Placed in the Boat 

to the rear end of the shaft. A switch 
can be located on the deck for con- 
trolling the motor. — Contributed by 
Geo. B. Riker^ Ft. Wayne, Ind. 



Lantern-Slide Binding Machine 

The machine shown in the illustra- 
tion is very simple to make and when 
complete is one of the greatest time 



CUIDfS 




A Machine That will Help to Bind Lantern 
Slides Quickly and Neatly 



savers that a photographer can pos- 
sess. The base is made of a piece of 
board, 9 in. long, 2 in. wide, and % in. 
thick. The uprights support a small 
bar upon which the roll of binding re- 
volves. An old ink bottle filled with 
water and with some cotton stuffed in 
the neck serves as a moistener for the 
binding. The use of this machine in- 
sures a neat job in a very short space 
of time. The slide is always in the 
center of the binding. The end of the 
slide should run a little over the end 
of the base so that the binding may be 
fixed to the edge with the fingers, using 
a downward motion. The slide is then 
turned over on the other edge with a 
rolling motion and the operation re- 
peated. — Contributed by Alvin G. 
Steier, Union Hill, N. Y. 



208 



Adjustable Film-Developing Machine 

The simple homemade developing 
machine, shown in the illustration, can 
be easily made with three film spools, 




Devclomn^ a Roll Film in a Tray with a Machine 

That Drives the Film around Rollers and through 

the Developing Liquid by Turning a Crank 

some strong wire, and odd pieces of 
wood. It consists of an open frame, 
having two side pieces provided with 
slots down the center, sufficiently wide 
to allow an ordinary wood screw, of 
suitable size, to slide up or down freely. 
The two end-connecting pieces act as 
supports for the developing tray and 
should be made of sufficient length so 
the tray can pass freely between the 
sliding upright frame, made to fit in 
between the side pieces of the base. 
This frame can be adjusted to suit the 
length of film and is clamped in place 
at the desired position by wood screws, 
fitting in the long notches and screwed 
into the uprights. The two bottom 
rollers consist of film spools which are 
fastened in place by being slipped over 
a suitable wire, bent so the spool can 
enter the developing tray and the wire 
pass over the sides. Another bend at 
the outer end provides for the adjust- 



ment of the spools and for securing the 
wire in place by staples. The top spool 
is secured to a wire fitted with a crank 
at the outer end, so that in turning the 
wire, the spool will also turn, thereby 
driving the film. When placing the 
film on the machine, the sensitive side 
should face outward so it will not rub 
against the spools. The ends of the 
film may be connected with pins or 
ordinary paper fasteners. — Contributed 
by H. R. F. Richardson, Ottawa, Ont. 



Preventing Loss of Fish from Covered 
Baskets 

In the cover of fish baskets an open- 
ing is frequently made permitting the 
fish to be put in without lifting the 
cover. In traveling over rough places, 
or when the basket is full, some of the 
fish are likely to be shaken out, or may 
wiggle out of the basket. To guard 
against this, a leather flap can be pro- 
vided covering the hole on the inside. 
At one end of the flap, four holes 
should be punched. It can then be 
placed in position and securely laced 
to the cover. The flap acts as a valve, 
allowing fish to be put into the basket, 
but preventing their escape. — Contri- 
buted by A. W. Cook, Kamela, Ore. 



Repair for a Broken Lock Keeper 

Having broken the recess half of a 
common cupboard lock, or latch, which 
was used to fasten a hinged storm 
window, I used 
a round - head 
wood screw as 
s h o w n . The 
screw was easily 
placed, and it 
serves the pur- 
pose as well as 
the regular 
keeper. — Contributed by R. F. Pohle, 
Lynn, Mass. 




CWhen using glue contained in screw- 
stoppered vessels it is advisable to 
smear a little vaseline on the thread 
to prevent the stopper from adhering 
to the container. 




Throwing a Spot Light with the Lantern on Individuals of a Home Play, Which can be Given Brilliant 
Effects by the Use of the Tinted Celluloid in the Openings of the Revolving Wheel 

Lantern for Spot and Colored Lights 



The school play in pantomime is not 
complete unless the different parts of 
the play are illuminated in different 
colors, especially if the performers are 
clad in glittering garments. A spot 
light is also a feature not to be forgot- 
ten in singling out the star player or 
the one singing a song. The cost of a 
light for this purpose is entirely out 



colored lights can be made at home, 
and the necessary parts will not cost 
much. 

The metal necessary can be the ordi- 
nary stovepipe material, but if it is 
desired to have a fine-appearing lan- 
tern, procure what is called Russian 
iron. This metal has a gloss, and if 
used, it should be gone over from time 




Pattern for Cutting the Metal to Form the Entire Lantern, or Lamp House, Also the Pattern for the Top 

and the Metal Bracket That Makes a Bearing for the Revolving Wheel, 

Having Openings Covered with Tinted Celluloid 



of the reach of the average schoolboy, 
but if he has any ingenuity and a lit- 
tle time, a lantern for throwing those 



to time with a rag soaked in oil, then 
wiped dry, to keep it from rusting. 
The pattern for the body of the lan- 



209 



210 



tern, or lamp house, is shown with di- 
mensions. 

If metal, long enough for the whole 
length, cannot be procured, then make it 
in two pieces, being sure to allow ^2-'"- 




Pattern for the Revolving Wheel in Which Six Holes 
are Cut and Covered with Tinted Celluloid 

end also on the second part, as shown 
on the first, for a riveted joint. The 
metal is bent on the dotted lines and 
cut out on the full ones. The distance 
between the lines A to be bent is equal 
to the radius B. The part A forms the 
sloping side of the top, and the 3-in. 
part at the top of the side extends ver- 
tically on the upper or vertical part, 
it being I/2 '"• narrower to provide an 
outlet for the heat. 

An opening is cut in the rear end. 




The Base of the Lantern is Provided with a Sliding 
Part Carrying the Light for Adjustment 

as shown, also a hole, 5 in. in diameter, 
in the front end. The size of the round 
hole is optional, as it should be cut 



to suit the condensing lens provided. 
If a lens 51/. in. in diameter is used, 
then a 5-in. hole should be cut. This 
is enough difference in size to hold 
the lens from dropping through, while 
clips ri\'eted on the inside of the lamp- 
house end will hold it in place. The 
lens is set in the hole with the curved 
side outward from the inside of the 
lamp house. 

The top, or covering, is cut out of the 
same material as used in making the 
lamp house, the length being 13 in., 
and the sides are cut to extend I/2 in. 
on each side of the ventilator. The 
edges, being turned down on the dotted 
lines, provide a covering to prevent any 
great amount of light from passing out 
through the l/2-in. ventilating opening 
mentioned in connection with the side 
construction of the lantern. The 1-in. 
parts of the cover ends are turned 
down and riveted to the ends of the 
lamp house. The little extensions on 
the ends provide a means of riveting 
the side, to make a solid joint. 

The arm C is made of a piece of 
Vs or VV-in. metal, shaped as shown, 
to fit on the corner of the lamp house, 
where it is riveted. This provides a 
support and a place for an axis for the 
large revolving wheel holding the col- 
ored-celluloid disks. 

The metal forming the lamp house is 
fastened on a baseboard, cut to snugly 
fit on the inside. The base has two 
cleats, nailed lengthwise to form a run- 
way, 4 in. wide, into which another 
board is fitted to carry the burner. 
While the illustration shows an acety- 
lene burner, any kind of light may be 
used so long as it is of a high candle- 
power. If manufactured gas is at hand, 
a gas burner with a mantle can be 
fitted, or a large tungsten electric light 
will give good results. 

The wheel, carrying the colored 
disks, is made of the same kind of 
metal as used for the lamp house. The 
edges should be trimmed smooth, or, 
lietter still, turned over and hammered 
down to prevent injury to the hands 
while turning it. A washer should be 
used between this wheel and the arm 
C on a bolt used for the shaft, to make 



ill 



the wheel turn freely. The colored 
disks of celluloid are fastened to the 
outside of the wheel over the openings. 
A yoke to support the lantern and 
provide a way for throwing the light 
in any direction, is made as shown. A 
line along which the lantern balances 
is determined by placing it on some- 
thing round, as a broom stick, and the 
upper ends of the yoke are fastened on 
this line with loosely fitted bolts for 
pivots. 

The lantern is set in front of the 
stage at the Ijack of the room and 
the light is directed on the players, the 
colors being 
changed by turn- 
ing the wheel. 
Sometimes good 
effects can be ob- 
tained by using 
the lantern in the 
wings, or for a 
fire dance, b y 
placing it under 
the stage, throw- 
ing the light up- 
ward through grating or a heavy plate 
glass. 




Homemade Palette Knife 

A corset steel makes a good substi- 
tute for a palette knife because of its 
flexibility. It gives better satisfaction 
if cut in the shape shown than if left 
straight. Should a handle be desired, 



c 



!::> 



A Palette Knife Made of a Corset Steel and a 
Wood Handle Attached 

one can be easily made by gluing two 
pieces of thin wood on the sides. — 
Contributed by James M. Kane, 
Doylestown, Pa. 



CTo remove a white mark on wood 
having a wax surface, rub it lightly 
with a rag moistened in alcohol ; then 
rub with a little raw linseed oil. 



Self-Closing Gate 

This gate is suspended from a hori- 
zontal bar by chains, and swings 
freely about a 1-in. gas pipe, placed 




The Gate will Swing in Either Direction and Come 
to a Rest Where It Closes the Opening 

vertically in the center of the gate. 
The chains are of the same length, 
being fastened equidistant from the 
pipe, the upper ends farther out than 
the lower. The distance depends on 
the weight of the gate and the desired 
force with which it should close. Any 
of the numerous styles of latches can 
be used, if desired. — Contributed by 
Kenneth Osborn, Loveland, Colo. 



A Poultry Shade 

If a poultry yard is in an open space 
where the sun's rays will strike it 
squarely, a shade can be put up as 
follows : A piece of old carpet, rug, or 
canvas, fastened to the wire mesh with 
clothespins, will produce a shade at 
any place desired. — Contributed by 
Walter L. Kaufmann, Santa Ana, Cal. 



31i 



Reflector for Viewing Scenery from a 
Car Window 

Construct a box of pasteboard or 
thin wood, about 9 in. long, 3 in. wide 
and 2 in. tiiick, and fasten two pieces 

The Reflecting Device 

as It is Used in a Car 

ndow for Viewing 

Scenery Ahead 

A B 




□ ' 



of mirror in the ends at an angle of 45 
deg., both sloping in the same direction 
with their reflecting surfaces toward 
each other. An opening as large as the 
mirror is cut, facing it, in the box at the 
end A, and a small hole bored through 
at the end B so that it will center the 
mirror. Both of these apertures are 
covered with plain pieces of glass. 

In use, the end A is placed outside of 
the car window and the user places an 
eye to the small hole B. It is impos- 
sible to be struck in the eye with a 
cinder or flying object. — Contributed 
by Mildred E. Thomas, Gordon, Can. 



A Muskrat Trap 

It is difficult to catch muskrats in an 
ordinary steel trap, as a broken bone 
allows them to sever the flesh and es- 




A Trap for Catching Muskrats Alive in One of Their 
Mounds Built of Moss and Sticks 

cape. During the summer these rats 
build a shelter for the winter con- 
structed of moss and sticks placed on 
the river or lake bed, the top extend- 



ing above the water level and the en- 
trance being through a hole in the 
bottom near one side, while the pas- 
sage itself is under water. It, therefore, 
only remains for the trapper to make 
one of these houses over into a huge 
wire trap so that the animal may be 
caught alive. 

The house A is prepared by remov- 
ing the top and building the trap from 
heavy mesh wire which can be easily 
shaped, the joints being held together 
by binding the edges with wire. The 
passage is then fitted with a double 
trapdoor, the first, B, provided with 
sharp points on the swinging end, 
while the other is a falling cover. 
These two doors are placed in an en- 
trance way, C, made of wire mesh and 
fastened over the passageway. 

The muskrat comes up through the 
passage, pushing a bunch of moss or 
sticks and does not notice passing the 
trapdoors. The upper door is to keep 
the animals caught from getting at the 
first door. — Contributed by Vance Gar- 
rison, Bemidji, Minn. 



A Casein Glue 

Casein glues are splendid in wood- 
working, making cardboard articles, 
and when the composition is varied 
somewhat, make excellent cements for 
china and metals. Casein is made from 
the curd of soured milk after removal 
of the fat, and is put on the market in 
the form of a dry powder. 

To make the glue, soak the casein 
powder two hours in an equal weight 
of hot water. To this gummy mass add 
about one-seventh the weight of the 
casein in borax which has been dis- 
solved in very little hot water. Stir 
until all is dissolved after mixing borax 
and casein. This can be thinned with 
water to suit and is a good glue, but 
it can be made more adhesive by the 
addition of a little sodium arsenate. 
Any alkali, such as soda or ammonia, 
could be substituted for the borax. 

To make a china cement, lime or 
water glass should be substituted for 
the borax. Addition of burnt magnesia 
increases the speed of hardening. 



213 










, i^,'*' ; i .^ 



...^W/sJs' 



- -..:,:^-^--- 



The Mile-O-View Camera 



By T. B. LAMBERT 




Many have tried, but heretofore no 
one has succeeded in taking panoramic 
views from the side of fast-moving 
trains or street cars. Motion pictures 
are easily obtained from the front or 
rear of moving trains, but none vi^ith 
the camera lens pointing at right an- 
gles, or nearly so, to the track. A com- 
plete apparatus for taking continuous 
and perfect panoramic pictures of any 
desired length as one travels through 
a country is too complicated to be de- 
scribed in detail within the limits of 
this article, but a simple arrangement, 
invented and constructed by the writer, 
will enable anyone to perform the ex- 
periment at practically no cost except 
for the film. 

Some form of a roll-film camera is 
essential, and simply as a working 
basis, it will be assumed an ordinary 
camera is used, post-card camera in 
size, for which the following things 
will be required : A piece of thin black 
card, or hard rubber; a small board, 
and a piece of wire to be used as a 
crank. 

Prepare the paper, or hard rubber, 
by cutting it to a size that will exactly 
cover the rear camera opening when 
the back of the camera is removed, 
"which, in the case of a post-card size. 



The Board Used Instead of a Tripod is Placed 
across the Backs of Two Car Seats 

is 6 in. long and 3% in. wide ; then 
cut a narrow slot, about ^\ in. wide 
crosswise through the center of the ma- 
terial. This slot should extend to 
within about 1/2 in. of each edge, and 
the edges must be perfectly smooth 
and straight. If paper is used, glue it 




These Two Articles Constitute the Only Parts 
Necessary to Change a Camera into a Mile-O-View 

to the opening in the camera. If hard 
rubber is used, it can be made up as 
shown and set in the camera opening. 



214 



This will bring the slot directly back 
of the lens center and at right angles 
to the direction in which the film moves 
when being rolled. 

A board is prepared, about 4 ft. long, 
10 in. wide and % in. thick. This is to 




The Two Parts as They are Applied to an Ordinary 
Roil-Film Camera 

take the place of a tripod, and it must 
have a small hole and suitable wing 
nut to attach the camera near the cen- 
ter. This length of board will reach 
from the back of one seat to another 
when it is placed to support the camera 
during the exposure. 

A wire, about Vg in. in diameter, is 
bent, as shown, with a short hook on 
one end, and the other turned up at 
right angles, to serve as a handle. This 
wire, when hooked into the wing nut, 
will enable one to wind up the film at 
a fairly uniform speed. This completes 
all the necessary apparatus. 

To take pictures with this panoramic 
outfit, load the camera in the usual 
way, but do not wind it up to exposure 
No. 1 ; stop at a point where the be- 
ginning of the film will be nearly op- 
posite the narrow slot in the black 
paper, or rubber. This would be to 
stop the turning at about the time the 
hand pointer appears in the small back 
window. Attach the camera firmly to 
the board and brace up the lens end 
so that it will not easily shake with 
the movement of the car. Place the 
board across the backs of two adjacent 
seats, so that the camera will point out 
of the window at exactly right angles 
to the car. 



When ready to expose, open the 
shutter wide, turn the crank that is 
hooked into the wing nut, and slowly 
wind up the film while the train is 
running. This will give a panoramic 
picture, continuous in character, and if 
the speed of turning is well judged, 
some very splendid views can be made. 

The speed of turning the crank will 
be governed by the focal length of the 
lens and the speed of the train. For 
an average lens, the crank should be 
given one turn per second when the 
car is traveling about 15 miles an hour, 
or the average speed of a street car. 
A train traveling 30 miles an hour will 
require two turns of the crank per 
second. A good method of trying this 
out is to use one film as a test and 
turn the crank a few times and note 
its speed by the second, then stop and 
begin again at another speed for a few 
turns and so on, until the entire film 
is exposed, always noting the turns 
and time for each change, also the 
speed of the train, ^^'hen the film is 
developed the one that shows best will 
give the proper number of turns per 
second. 

The following points must be consid- 
ered : The track should not be rough, 
and the camera must be perfectly 
steady and not twisted out of position 
by turning the crank, otherwise the 
resulting picture will be wavy. If the 
slot in the back board is not smooth 
and true, the picture will be streaked. 
Turning the film too fast will make the 
picture elongated, and too slowly, con- 
densed. Should the camera be pointed 
otherwise than at right angles the pic- 
ture will be distorted. This arrange- 
ment cannot be used to take moving 
objects except under special conditions. 
A picture of a passing train of cars can 
be made if the camera is stationary, 
but the wheels and drive rods will ap- 
pear twisted out of shape. It is best 
for the experimenter to confine himself 
to scenery at the beginning, avoiding 
architectural objects, because a varia- 
tion in speed of turning the crank to 
wind the film naturally distorts the ar- 
chitecture, which variation is not so 
noticeable in a scenic view. 



^^^^^F!!^ 


Hi 


HHP^I^^ff^H 




^^^Si 





A Photographic Worktable for Small Quarters 

By K. V. REED 



FLAT dwellers have no space at 
their disposal for a person to work 
at photography, and the bathroom 
must take the place of a dark room. 
As this was very inconvenient in my 
case, I constructed a table, that from 
all appearances was nothing more than 
a large-size kitchen worktable, and 
such a table can be used in case the 
builder does not care to construct it. 
The table is turned upside down and 
the top removed by taking out the 
screws. The top is made of several 
pieces glued together and will remain 



edge of the rails. If a very neat job is 
required, these boards should be set 
inside on strips nailed to the inside sur- 
faces of the rails, at the proper place 
to make the boards come flush with the 
under edges of the rails. 

At the back side and in the center of 
the new bottom, a hole is cut, 6 or 7 
in. square, and a box fastened beneath 
it, to form a bottom several inches 
below the main bottom. In this space 
bottles filled with solutions are kept. 
The main bottom should be painted 
with an acid-proof varnish. 




An Ordinary Kitchen Worktable Fitted Up as a Handy Workshop 
for the Amateur Photographer Who Has a Limited Space in a 
Flat, and Where a Table can be Used to Advantage in a Room 



in one piece. It is then hinged at one 
side to the top edge of the rail, so that 
it can be turned back like a trunk, or 
box, cover. 

Boards are then nailed to the under 



The space in the table is then 
divided, and partitions set up, which 
can be arranged to suit the builder. 

Another attachment, which comes in 
exceedingly handy, is the ruby light. 



215 



216 



This consists of a box, large enough 
to receive a printing frame at the bot- 
tom. Two holes are cut in the table 
top, at the right places to make a 
window for the light and a slit for the 
printing frame. When the table top 
is raised, the box with the light is fas- 
tened over the openings with hooks, 



the arrangement of which will depend 
on the size and shape of the box. In 
closing, the lamp box is removed, and 
pieces of board are set in the holes. 
This can be easily arranged, if the holes 
and blocks are cut on a slight slope, 
so that the latter when set in will not 
fall through the openings. 



Back Thrust Prevented on Skis 

To overcome the difficulty of skis 
slipping back when walking uphill 
either of the two devices shown is 




SBi=ag gg« »^ 



:\ 




~~~w^ 



Two Methods of Making an Attachment to Prevent 
the Backward Thrust of a Ski 

good, if the attachments are fastened 
to the rear end of the skis. 

The first represents a piece of horse- 
hide, about 4 in. square, tacked on the 
ski and with the hair slanting back- 
ward. This will not interfere with 
going forward, but will retard any 
movement backward. 



The other consists of a hinged por- 
tion that will enter the snow on a 
back thrust. As the ski end is thin, 
a block of wood must be attached to it 
on the upper side, and the projecting 
piece hinged to the block. The bevel 
at the end allows it to dig into the 
snow when the ski starts back. In go- 
ing forward, it will swing out of the 
way freely. 



Crystallization Shown on a Screen 

The formation of chemical crystals 
can be shown in an interesting manner 
as follows : Spread a saturated solu- 
tion of salt on a glass slide, or projec- 
tion-lantern glass, and allow it to evap- 
orate in the lantern's light or beneath 
a magnifying glass. The best sub- 
stances to use are solutions of alum or 
sodium, alum being preferable. Ordi- 
nary table salt gives brilliant crystals 
which reflect the light to a marked de- 
gree. For regular formation, where 
the shape of the crystal is being 
studied, use a solution of hyposulphite 
of soda. 

Many startling facts may be learned 
from the study of crystals in this man- 
ner, and watching them "grow" is 
great sport even to the chemist. — Con- 
tributed by L. T. Ward, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 



Furniture Polish for Fine Woods . 

Boiled olive oil, to which a few drops 
of vinegar has been added, makes an 
excellent furniture polish for very fine 
woods. It will be found to work nicely 
on highly polished surfaces, and also 
for automobile bodies. It is applied in 
moderate quantities, and rubbed to a 
luster with a flannel cloth. 



217 




Enlarj3^ng 

By A. E 

When the photoj^rapher wishes to 
make an enlarged 'print from a small 
negative, he arranges a suitable light 
and condensers back of the negative 
and by means of a lens projects the 
resultant image upon a sheet of sensi- 
tive paper. Owing to the comparative 
weakness of the light, however, it is 
necessary either to use bromide paper 
or some of the faster brands of de- 



Photographs 

. SWOYER 

sisting simply in the substitution of a 
better lens for the cheap plate glass 
with which such instruments are usu- 
ally fitted. 

A contact print, preferably on glossy 
paper, ferrotyped, is made from the 
original negative by contact in the 
usual way; this is then placed in the 
modified projector and the image 
thrown upon a sensitive plate of the 






FiG.l Fig. 2 FiG.3 

An Ordinary Post-Card Projector Used Back of a Camera to Illuminate a Photograph "Which is 
Enlarged on a Plate to Make a Negative Instead of a Print 



veloping-out paper. If a more artistic 
medium is desired, a glass positive 
must first be made and enlarged to 
produce a negative from which the 
final prints will be made by contact. 
This process is somewhat clumsy and 
expensive, for if any retouching or 
doctoring is to be done, it must be 
upon a glass surface, either that of the 
two negatives or of the intermediate 
positive. As all of this work is done 
by transmitted light, there is the loss 
of fine detail common to all enlarge- 
ments. 

The difficulties incident to this proc- 
ess may be done away with by the 
use of a modification of the popular 
post-card projector; the alteration con- 



desired size. After a brief exposure, 
development will show an enlarged 
negative having every quality of the 
original. 

The advantages of this process are 
obvious. In the first place, the com- 
parative cheapness of the apparatus is 
a factor; in the second, the intermedi- 
ate glass positive is eliminated, the 
print which is substituted for it pro- 
viding a much better medium for re- 
touching, faking or printing in. 
Transparent water colors in the less 
actinic shades may be used upon this 
print to control the final result, and if 
spoiled, it may be replaced at a negli- 
gible cost. 

At first glance, it would appear as if 



218 



this method were simply a form of 
photographic copying; it is, in fact, the 
reverse. For in copying any object 
with a camera, the sensitive medium is 
behind the lens and the object to be 
copied is in front, and the size of the 
copy is therefore limited both by that 
of the camera and by its bellows draw. 
In the reflection process, the object to 
be copied is back of the lens and the 
sensitive medium is in front ; as large a 
copy can be made with a small camera 
as with an eight by ten. It is really 
more convenient to work with a short- 
focus lens and a camera of limited bel- 



lows extension ; the nearer the lens is 
to the back of the camera the larger 
will be the projected image. 

The diagram (Fig. 1) shows that the 
size of the object to be enlarged does 
not depend upon the focal length of 
the lens used, as in ordinary enlarging, 
but simply upon the size of the open- 
ing in the front of the projector. The 
dotted lines are drawn from the edges 
of the card to be projected through the 
lens. Figure 3 is a sketch of a projec- 
tor with the lens tube removed, so that 
it may be used with a camera as shown 
in Fig. 3. 



Horricmade Screen-Door Spring 

A screen or storm-door spring can 
be easily made of spring-steel wire. 
The wire is bent 
to the shape 
shown in the 
sketch and two 
turns given to 
the coil as shown 
at A. The ends 
of the wire are 
fastened to the 
casing and door 
with staples. 
Two or three of 
these springs 
can be attached to one door where it 
is necessary to have more strength. — 
Contributed by Wm. Rosenberg, 
Watertown, Mass. 




A Surprise Water Bottle 

The performer produces a bottle 
and gives it with a glass to anyone in 
the audience, asking the person se- 
lected to take a drink of a very 
delicious concoction. When the per- 
son attempts to pour out the solution 
it is found to be frozen. 

To perform this trick, the fluid must 
be previously made with a saturated 
solution of sulphate of soda and hot 
water. Fill a clean white bottle with 
the solution, taking care to cork the 
bottle while the liquid is hot. The 
liquid remains in a fluid state as long 



as the bottle is corked. When the 
bottle is shown, it appears to contain 
a liquid, and in handing it to a person 
the performer must be careful to take 
out the cork in time to allow it to 
solidify. In order to gain the proper 
time, pretend to be looking for a glass, 
make some remark aliout a sudden 
chill or feel the hand holding the bottle 
and say it is very cold. In the mean- 
time, the air acting upon the solution 
has caused it to become fixed and im- 
movable, and when the person at- 
tempts to pour it out, he finds it is 
impossible. 



A Graduate Holder 

A simple and easily constructed 
graduate holder in the form of a 
bracket placed in the corner of a dark 
room is shown in the sketch. The 
bracket not only holds the graduates 
securely, but allows them to drain per- 
fectly and prevents dust settling on 




The Graduate Holder is Permanently Fastened in a 
Corner of the Dark Room 

the inside, as they are suspended by 
the base. Holes of different size are 
cut in the board to accommodate large, 
medium and small graduates. 



!19 



Homemade Enlarging Camera 



-c 



The ordinary hand camera of the fo- 
cusing type can be used to enlarge pic- 
tures from negatives of its own make. 
The requirement is a device to hold the 
negative rigid in a position in front of 
the camera lens, and at such a distance 
that the rays of light passing through 
the negative and lens will enter a box 
of sufficient size for the desired en- 
largement and focus plainly on a sheet 
of sensitive paper attached to the end 
of the box. 

The first thing to do 
is to find the distance 
that is required from 
the camera lens to the 
paper enlargement to 
make the proper size, 
and the distance from 
the lens to the negative. 
A correspondent o f 
Camera Craft gives the 
following rule for find- 
ing these dimensions: 
To find the distance be- 
tween the lens and pa- 
per enlargement, add 
1 to the number of 
times the picture is to 
be enlarged and multi- 
ply the result by the 
focus of the lens in 
inches. The example 
given is for a 6-in. focus 
lens. An example: A 
4 by 5-in. negative en- 
larged to 8 by 10 in. is 
a two-time enlargement 
(four times in area) ; 
2-fl=3, and 3X6=18, 
the distance in inches 
of the lens from the sensitive paper. 
To find the distance of the lens to the 
negative, divide the above result, 18 in., 
by the number of times desired to en- 
large, 18^2=9, the distance in inches 
from the lens to the negative. 

With these figures as a working 
basis, the box can be made in any size 
to use any focusing camera. The di- 
mensions given in the drawing are for 



a -1 by 5-in. camera having a G-in. focus 
lens, and to enlarge the pictures from 
a 4 by 5-in. negative to 8 by 10 in. In 
the first place make a box 81/^ in. wide. 



lOV, 



deep and 14 in. long, inside 



measurement, using %-in. material, as 
shown in the sectional drawing A. 
One end is left open and in the center 
of the other a hole is cut 5 in. square. 
The back end of the camera is placed 
over this hole as shown at B and %- 



' ^/;w//////////////;////;;;/7m 



-14- 



W///M^/MW//M///// //}^_^ 



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i 




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Details of Construction and Camera Complete 



in. strips nailed to the box end around 
the camera back to exclude all light. 
The camera must be centrally located. 
The next to be made is the end board 
or easel, consisting of two pieces of 
%-in. material, one 8V2 by lO^/o in., 
which should fit easily into the end of 
the box, and a larger one, 10 by 12 in., 
the outside dimensions of the box, 
as shown at C. Nail the smaller piece 



220 



to the center of the large one, crossing 
the grain of wood in so doing. The 
end board is the easel upon whicli the 
sensitive paper is fastened with push 
pins, and should be covered with a 
sheet of white paper, pasting it on the 
81/2 by 101/2-in. board with a thin coat 
of glue. The slide D is a piece of wood 
% in. thick, 31/2 in. wide and 26 in. 
long. This is fastened to the under 
side of the box with four screws, plac- 
ing it exactly in the center and parallel 
with the sides of the box. Be careful 
to have the slide parallel or the holder 
will not freely slide upon it. 

The negative holder E is made of 
a piece of %-in. board, 8 in. wide and 
10 in. long. A hole 51/2 by 71/2 in. is 
cut in its center, leaving a margin of 
1^/4 in. on all sides. This holder is 
set in a groove cut in a block of wood 
having a mortise cut % by S^/o in. to 
fit on the slide easily. A thumb screw 
is fitted in the center of the bottom of 
the block of wood. This is used for 
fastening the negative holder rigidly 
to the slide when the focus is secured. 
A 1-in. hole is bored in the upper 
corner of the box end, as shown, to 
serve as a peephole for seeing the 
image on the end board or easel. This 
is covered before putting the sensitive 
paper in the box. The end board is 
held in position with two flat brass 
hooks. The camera is held in place with 
two buttons placed on blocks of wood 
the height of the camera back, as shown 
at F. Two pieces of clear glass, 6 by 
8 in. in size, are held in place in the 
negative holder by means of buttons, 
the film negative being placed between 
them. All the joints in the box must 
be carefully puttied and the inside of 
the box blackened, which is done with 
a mixture of lampblack and alcohol, 
to which is added a small quantity of 
shellac to give it body. 

A darkroom is not essential, a bath- 
room with the window covered over 
with orange paper will do, or even a 
large room with the shades drawn and 
pinned close to the window casing. 
It is best to leave a space in one of 
the windows to be covered with orange 



paper, doing the developing about 10 
ft. from the source of light. 

To operate the camera plhce it on 
the enlarging box, hook the easel in 
place, put a negative in the holder with 
the film side toward the lens. Take the 
outfit to a shady place outdoors, point 
the holder end at an unobstructed por- 
tion of the sky and look through the 
peephole. Rack the lens in and out to 
focus the picture. The easel should 
have heavy black lines drawn upon it 
inclosing parallelograms from 5 by 7 
in. to 8 by 10 in., so that one can 
readily see the size of the enlargement 
to be made. When the focus is obtained 
take the outfit into the darkroom, re- 
move the easel and fasten the sensitive 
paper with push pins. Replace the 
easel and take the outfit outdoors again, 
point it toward the clear sky and make 
the exposure, which should be at least 
5 seconds with a 16 stop. It is best to 
make a trial exposure on a small strip 
of paper to find the proper time. Di- 
rections for the use of bromide papers 
will be found in each package. 



An Easy Way to Make a Shelf 
Procure an ordinary packing box 
and mark a line from corner to corner 
on both ends, as shown, from A to B 
in Fig. 1. Pull out all the nails from 
the corners that may cross the line. 
Nail the top to the box and saw it on 
the lines marked and two shelves will 





Fig I 

Two Shelves Made of One Box 



ria.2 



be formed which may be used as 
shown in Fig. 2. Boxes dovetailed at 
the corners will make excellent shelves 
and look neat if painted. 



221 




Multiplying Attachment for a Camera 

By J. C. MOORE 



The hand camera suitable for this 
work is the kind commonly known as 
the reversible back, which is a detach- 
able part that carries a ground glass 
for focusing and a place to insert the 
plate holders. When this part is 
removed, it will be seen that the back 
of the camera is mortised to prevent 
light from entering. Construct a 
frame to take the place of the back, 
but make it about % in. larger all 
around, and make one surface to fit the 
mortise of the camera box. 

A back is now made and attached to 
the frame, to carry the ground-glass 
reversible back, so that it can be 
shifted over the center of focus for 
each small portion of the plate on 
which the picture is to be made. 
Measure the outside of the plate holder 
and, doubling the dimensions both 
ways, lay out a diagram on a piece of 
paper. Lay the plate holder on the 
paper and move it to the extreme left, 
then to the right, to see if the center 
of the plate will coincide with the cen- 



increase the dimensions until this 
occurs. Mark, in the exact center, an 
opening the size of the plate and cut 



1 



n 



M 



/f-^-r-j 



Manner of Laying Out the Pattern for the Back and 
Locating the Exact Center 

out the wood. It is best to use a three- 
ply wood for making the back, but if 
this cannot be obtained, procure a dry 






The Attachment as It is Fitted to the Camera and the Reversible Back in the Frame 

ter of the back. In the same manner piece of wood and mortise and glue 



locate the center in a vertical position. 
If the center lines do not coincide, 



strips to the ends to keep the wood 
from warping. Glue the frame to this 



223 



back, over the opening, and make 
attachments to hold it to the camera 
in the same manner as the reversible 
back was attached. 

If pictures of two or three dififerent 
sizes are to be made, the openins; in 
the new back should be fitted with as 
many new pieces as there are sizes of 
pictures, each to have an opening of 
corresponding size. For a 5 by 7-in. 
plate, 1% by iVi-in. pictures is a good 
size, as there will be room for 34 
pictures on the plate with a small mar- 
gin left for notes. The piece to fill 
the opening should be made of the 
same material as the back so that a 
smooth joint will result. As a board 
cannot be made smooth enough for a 
perfectly light-tight joint, the surface 
on the new back, over which the rever- 
sible back travels, must be covered 
with cloth — a piece of black velvet is 
suitable — to exclude all light as the 
plate holder is shifted over the back. 

A frame is now made to carry the 
reversible back of the camera, the size 
of which will depend on the size of 
the other parts, as well as on the size 
of the camera to be used. This frame 



consists of two horizontal strips joined 
at the ends with grooved pieces, fitting 
the edge of the new back, so that it 
may be slid up and down in the 
grooves. The crosspieces are also rab- 
beted to receive the reversible back 
and allow it to be moved back and 
forth horizontally. The rabbet in the 
horizontal strips should not be so deep 
as to permit the extending edge to 
overlap the ground-glass frame, thus 
preventing it from moving back as the 
plate holder is inserted. 

If the frame on the back and the 
reversible back fit tightly, they will 
remain in any position, but if they are 
loosely fitted, it will be necessary to 
provide some means to hold them. 
Small springs with pins may be fitted 
to the vertically moving frame to hold 
it in the position for the horizontal 
rows of pictures. 

The ground glass should be marked 
for the size picture to be taken. The 
positions of the frame and plate car- 
rier should also be marked so that the 
plate holder need not be taken out to 
find the location and focus for the next 
picture. 



Connecting a Pipe to Sheet Metal 

In the absence of a waste nut, an 
iron pipe can be easily fastened to 
sheet-metal work as shown in the 




Vhe End of the Pipe as It is Prepared to be Riveted on 
the Sheet Metal 

sketch. The end of the pipe, Fig. 1. 
is slotted with a hacksaw to form four 
projections, which are turned outward 



and their ends rounded as shown in 
Fig. 2. The face of the projections 
are tinned and then riveted to the 
sheet-metal surface, as shown in Fig. 
3. After soldering the joint, it will 
be as good or better than if a waste 
nut had been used. — Contributed by 
Lorin A. Brown, Washington, D. C. 



An Acid Siphon 

When siphoning off acids or other 
disagreeable or poisonous liquids, it is 
very important that none of it touch 
the flesh or mouth. It is almost im- 
])ossible to do this when starting the 
cirdinary siphon. A siphon that does 
away with this inconvenience and dan- 
ger can be made as follows : 

Procure a good Bunsen burner and 
two pieces of V^^-m. glass tube, one 
2 ft. and the other 18 in. long. Heat 
the 2-ft. length at a point 8 in. from 
one end in the flame until it can be 



223 



bent as shown at A. The other piece 
should be plugged at one end and 
then slowly and evenly heated at a 
point 10 in. from one end. When the 
glass is soft, blow slowly and steadily 
into the open end, at the same time 
turning the tube around in the flame. 
This will form a bulb, B. The ends of 
the glass tube are heated and bent as 
shown, at C and D, and then fused 
onto the piece A, as shown at E. This 
can be accomplished by heating the 
piece A at a point -1 in. from the un- 
bent end. When the glass becomes 
soft, place one end of a short piece 
of tube in it and pull out into a thread. 
Break this off as close to the tube as 
possible, to make a hole in the tube. 
Heat the end of the tube D and also 
the glass around the hole, and when 
both become soft, they can be fused 
together. 




When Starting This Siphon It is Difficult for the Liquid 
to Touch the Mouth or Flesh 

In use, close the end not in the 
liquid and, placing the mouth at F, 
exhaust the tube, thus filling it with 
the liquid. \\'hen the closed end is 
opened, the siphon will flow. The 
liquid collects in the bulb, and if a 
little care is used, none of it can reach 
the mouth. — Contributed by O. F. 
Tronnes, Evanston, 111. 



Bottle-Opening Trick 

A local junk dealer, who was also 
known as the "strongest man in 
town," used to mystify the folks by 
opening a bottle, apparently with a 
stroke of his index finger. His audi- 
ence saw his index finger strike the 
stopper, but did not see the knuckle of 
his second finger strike the eccentric 
at the point A, as shown in the sketch, 
causing it to fly up while his index 
finger B assisted the stopper out of the 
bottle mouth. 

When trying the trick, it is best to 



select a bottle with a loose stopper, or 
else wear a glove, as the gentleman 
who demonstrated the trick had hands 





In Striking the Bottle Cork, the Knuckle of the Second 
Finger Loosens the "Wire Lock 

of the hard and horny type. — Con- 
tributed by James M. Kane, Doyles- 
town. Pa. 



Setting Colors in Fabrics 

The colors of fabrics or other 
materials of any kind may be set by 
boiling the articles in the following 
solution : To 1 gal. of soft water add 
1 oz. of ox gall. This solution should 
be boiling when the articles are 
dropped into it. A chemical reaction 
results and the colors are set or made 
nonfading. The process is harmless. 
Colors in wood may be treated in the 
same manner. 



Towel-Roller Brackets 

Very serviceable brackets for a towel 
roller can be made by using ordinary 
wire clothes hooks, as shown in the 
illustration. The roller is made of 
wood and two nails with their heads 
cut off, one in each end, form bear- 
ings to turn in the ends of the hooks. 
^Vhen it is desired to remove the 
roller, the hooks are sprung apart 




The Roller Brackets are Easily Adjusted in Any 
Location and Serve the Purpose Admirably 

enough to allow it to drop out. — Con- 
tributed by Hugh Carmichael, West 
Lome, Ont. 



324 



A Developing-Tray Rocker 

The tank method of photographic 
development is acknowledged as the 
best, yet there are many who, for vari- 



12'- 




Developing-Tray Rocker to Keep the Liquid in 
Motion over the Plate Automatically 

ous reasons, still use the old-style tray 
method. For those who use the tray, 
a splendid and simple method that 
combines the good qualities of both 
the tank and tray is the tray-rocking 
device shown in the illustration. 

The rocker consists of a wood box, 
13 in. long, 9 in. wide and iVo in. deep, 
made of %-in. material, together with 
a similar box 1% in- deep, that fits over 
the other as a light-proof coyer. Both 
are given a coat of black paint. 

At the center on the under side of the 
tray part, a right angle made of strap 
iron is fastened with screws. _ On the 
part projecting down, a hole is drilled 
to receive a sleeve made of a brass tube 
which is soldered in place. An or- 



dinary shelf bracket is procured, one 
end of which is filed and fitted with a 
strip of metal having both ends turned 
up slightly. Small-pointed pins are 
fastened in holes drilled near the 
turned-up part. The points of the pins 
serve as a knife-edge for the rocker. 
The extending end of the strap iron is 
fitted with a pendulum rod having a 
weight at the bottom. 

The rocker is attached to the wall in 
a convenient place in the dark room. 
The tray with the developer and plate 
is placed in the box, which is light- 
tight, and the pendulum is started 
swinging. — Contributed by T. B. Lam- 
bert, Chicago. 

An Adjustable Bookholder 

A very satisfactory adjustable 
holder for books or letters can be con- 
structed of ordinary materials. A 
board is used for the base, and two 
pieces, C. cut from the grooved edges of 
flooring boards, are fastened on top as 
shown. A permanent end. A, is fast- 
ened to one end of the base. A good- 
size holder is 19 in. long, 6 in. wide, 
made of material 34 in. thick. 

The movable slide B has two pieces 
attached to its under side, which are 
cut from the tongued edges of flooring 
boards. The piece D answers the 
double purpose of a handle and brace. 
A lock, E, is made of a bolt, having a 
long thread and a square head. A hole 
is bored from the under side through 
the brace, and a portion of the wood 
is cut out to admit the nut. A square 
place is cut out to admit the square 
bolt head in the bottom pieces. To 




The Holder may be Used for Books or Letters 
and Papers as a File 

lock the slide, simply screw the nut 
upward so that it will push the bolt 
head against the base. — Contributed 
by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



An Old-Oak Stain 

To make old oak of ash, elm, box 
alder, chestnut, maple, yew, and syca- 
more wood use a solution of copper 
acetate, or iron acetate. Either of these 
can be made by allowing a strong acid 
to come in contact with copper or 
iron. Acetic acid, or vinegar, will do 
for the acid. The chemical can be ob- 
tained from a local druggist if it is not 
desired to make the stain. By varying 
the strength of the solution, several 
shades may be obtained. A weak solu- 
tion of iron acetate gives various brown 
hues. As the strength of the salt in- 
creases by concentration, the shades of 
brown darken. 



well. Its edge should be notched so 
that it will easily enter the wood. The 
edges of its central slot should be 



Tablespoon End Used as Lemon 
Squeezer 

In an emergency, the ordinary table- 
spoon can be used as a lemon squeezer 
by turning the lemon around the end 




:-[The Shape of the Spoon Bowl Produces the Same 
Effect as the Lemon Squeezer 

of the spoon. This produces the same 
result as obtained with the regular 
squeezers, which act on the principle of 
extracting the juice by turning and 
crushing the lemon over a rough pro- 
jection which approximately matches 
the shape of a half lemon. — Contrib- 
uted by L. E. Turner, New York, N. Y. 



A Back Stop for a Workbench 

In planing small pieces on a bench, 
they usually have a tendency to tip up 
or slide around. This difficulty can be 
easily overcome by providing the bench 
with an extra back stop. For this pur- 
pose a discarded plane iron will do very 




A Plane Bit Fastened to the Top of a Bench to Hold 
Blocks While Planing Them 

beveled off, if an ordinary wood screw 
is used to fasten it to the bench. A 
series of holes, several inches apart 
and in line with the regular back stop, 
should be bored in the bench so the 
screw and iron can be readily changed, 
to fit varying lengths. — Contributed by 
C. S. Rice, VVashington, D. C. 



BRASS PINS 



Croquet Mallets Protected by Metal 
Rings 

Due to the severe service they are 
subjected to, croquet mallets very fre- 
quently split 
off at the 
ends, which 
spoils them 
for further 
use in accu- 
rate driving. 
To prevent 
this, metal 
bands may 
be placed 

around the ends of the mallets. Thin 
sheet iron, or tin, can be used for this 
purpose. One end is bent up at right 
angles, the opposite end is provided 
with a loop to fit over the upright por- 
tion of the first end, and then the loop 
is closed up and hammered down to 
draw the metal tightly around the mal- 
let. The ring is secured in place with 
several tacks, or short nails, driven 
through the seam. — Contributed by 
H. E. Stratmeyer, Rockville, Md. 




226 



Distance Marker for Printing 
Photographs 

A convenient homemade printing 
device, or distance marker, for printing 
photographs by artificial light consists 




floral designs is the best to use. Or- 
dinary molding made into a frame will 
do as well, or a pattern, whittled out 
of wood in oval shape, will produce 
good results. 

Make a flask out of any small box, 
and fill it with clay instead of molding 
sand. Make an impression of the frame 
in the clay, and the mold is ready for 
the plaster. 

Procure four 8-oz. bottles, fill them 
with water, and tint the water in three 
of them red, green, and blue, with dyes. 
When purchasing the plaster of paris — 
2 lb. will do — also get some brass fil- 
ings from a machine shop, and mix it 
with the plaster while in a dry state; 
then divide the lot into four parts of 
1/^ lb. each, or equal parts. 

Use the tinted water to mix the 
plaster and pour it into the mold. This 
will give the combinations red, green, 
blue, and white. 

Picture frames made in this manner 
will stand enough polishing to keep 
the brass filings on the surface bright 
and shining, which gives a pretty ef- 
fect.— Contributed bv I. B. Murphy, 
Plainfield, N. J. 



The Same Distance 
with the Same 
Exposure will Always 
Produce Uniform Prints 



of a smooth board on which twelve 
1-in. marks are drawn, as shown. A 
wall-base electric socket is attached on 
the first line and the others are num- 
bered up to 12. A trial test of a nega- 
tive marks the distance and time of 
exposure which should be recorded on 
the negative. Such a device makes 
uniform prints possible and provides a 
means of recording time on negative- 
storage envelopes. — Contributed by 
Harold Davis, Altoona, Pa. 



Mantel Picture Frames Made in 
Plaster 

Procure a small oval or rectangular 
frame of a suitable size and use it as 
a pattern in making a mold. If it is 
not necessary to select an expensive 
frame, one that is straight without any 



A Five-Pointed Star 

There are many ways of making a 
five-pointed star, but the one illus- 
trated is new and easy to apply. A 
long strip of paper, which should be 
transparent, is tied into a knot. When 
the ends A and B are drawn tightly, 
the paper strip takes the position 
shown in C. The end A is folded for- 





Holding the Knot to the Light a Star will be Seen, 
Shown by the Dotted Lines 

ward, or in front of the knot ; then the 
whole is turned over and it will take 



227 



the position shown in D. Hold the 
paper to a good light and a perfect five- 
pointed star will be seen. — Contributed 
by J. J. Kolar, Maywood, 111. 



and in most cases fail. It can be done, 
and the illustration shows how simply 



Fastening Portiere Pole in a Doorway 

A pole can be fastened between two 
supports, posts, or in a door casing 
neatly and without fixtures in the fol- 
lowing manner : The pole is cut % in. 
shorter than the space between the 
casings, and a fV-in. hole is drilled 
in each end, one to a depth of IV2 in. 
and the other % in. deep, a coil spring 
being placed in the deepest hole. 

Screws are turned into the center of 
the location for the pole in the door 
jambs, allowing one screw head to 
project Ys in., and the other at least 
1/4 inch. 

To place the pole in position, put 
the end with the spring in the hole on 
the screw head projecting 14 in. and 
push the pole against the jamb, allow- 
ing the other end to pass over the 




No Fixtures That will Show are Required with This 
Fastening of a PortiSre Pole 

Other projecting screw head until it 
slips into the hole by pressure from 
the spring. The spring will keep the 
pole in position. — Contributed by 
Ernest F. Dexter, Hartford, Conn. 



Trick with Knives and Glasses 

An interesting trick may be per- 
formed with three tumblers and three 
table knives. Place the tumblers in 
an equilateral triangle on a table so the 
knife ends, when the knives are laid 
between them, as shown in the plan 
sketch, are about 1 in. away from the 
tumblers. The trick is to arrange the 
knives so that they are supported by 
the tops of the three tumblers and 
nothing else. Most observers will say 
that it is impossible ; some will try it 




Knives Placed in Such a Manner as to be Supported 
by the Three Glasses 

it may be accomplished. — Contributed 
by R. Neland, Minneapolis, Minn. 



A Scraper Handle 

In using the ordinary steel-plate 
scraper, much inconvenience and 
cramping of the hands is experienced 
unless some suitable handle is attached. 
If a piece of scrap wood is taken and 
cut to a convenient shape, with a groove 
tightly fitting the scraper steel, greater 
pressure can be exerted and more ef- 
fective work produced, without cramp- 



PIECE OF SCRAP WOOD 
V& THICK 




An Ordinary Piece of Board Shaped for a Handle 
and Notched for the Scraper Blade 

ing the hands or tiring out the operator 
as readily. — Contributed by A. P. 
Nevin, Hancock, Mich. 



228 



Photographic Tray-Rocking Stand 

Films develop better if the tray hold- 
ing the solution is kept in motion or 




Tray Rocked Auto- 
matically by a 
\Veight 



rocked. This is inconven- 
ient and tiresome where a 
great many films are to be 
developed. The trouble 
may be overcome by the use 
of the rocking device shown 
in the sketch. It may be 
made of any light wood, the 
right size to suit the pho- 
tographer's needs. 

The tray holder A is pivoted on the 
uprights C with pins EE. The up- 
rights are fastened to a base, B. Two 
braces, D, one on each side of the up- 
right C, limits the tip of the tray 
holder A. The weight F works as a 
pendulum, which automatically rocks 
the tray when set in motion. — Con- 
tributed by Abner B. Shaw, No. Dart- 
mouth, Mass. 



Kite-Line Traveler 

The amusement of kite flying can 
be broadened by adding the kite-line 
traveler shown in the sketch. The 
frame of the traveler is made of poplar, 
spruce or soft pine, 1/4 in. square. The 
horizontal piece is 24 in. long and the 
piece to which the wings are fastened 
is 8 in. long. This piece is cut so it 
will have a slight slant. The brace is 
a mitered piece, 13 in. long. The frame 
is fastened together with small brads, 



giving it the appearance shown in 
Fig. 1. 

After the frame is finished, the 
traveler wheels are made and attached. 
They should be % in. thick, about li/4 
in. in diameter, and have a groove cut 
1% in. into their faces. The pattern for 
cutting the bearings is shown in Fig. 
4. These are bent at the places shown 
by the dotted lines and attached to the 
main frame stick as shown by BB in 
Fig. 3. The end view of the bearing 
is shown in Fig. 5. The metal is bent 
in as shown by AA, so that the wheel 
will rotate without much friction. 

In Fig. 6 is shown the method of at- 
taching the wings to the slanting frame 
part. The wings are made of light 
cardboard and each fastened with 
tacks to a wood arm, cut as shown. The 
large end of each arm is made to hinge 
in a piece of tin with brads AA. 

Fasten a string to the ends of the 
arm pieces, as shown in Fig. 1, and 
attach a wire loop to the middle of the 
string, as shown in Fig. 3. The wire 
shown at L in Fig. 3 is bent and at- 
tached to the main frame so it will 
slide easily. The trip for dropping the 




Fis.6 
Traveler Details 



wings, as shown in Fig. 2, is a small 
block of wood about 2 in. square and 
% in. thick with a i/^-in. hole in the 



229 



center. Slip the kite line through the 
hole before tying it to the kite. Place 
the trip about 100 ft. from the kite 
and wedge it to the string with a small 
piece of wood. The eyelets SS are nec- 
essary, as they make it impossible for 
the pulley to run off the string. 

The traveler is first put on the kite 
string with the end having the loop L 
(Fig. 3) up, then, after letting out 100 
ft. of string, the trip block is fastened 
in place and the kite tied to the end 
of the string. Hook the wire loop on 
the string attached to the ends of the 
wings in place in the wire catch of L, 
and it is ready for the flight. When 
the traveler reaches the trip, the loop 
L is pushed back, thus causing the end 
of the wire to slip out of wire loop and 
the wings to fall back as shown in Fig. 
2, when the traveler descends ready 
to be set for another flight. — Contrib- 
uted by Stanley C. Funk, Bellefontaine, 
Ohio. 



A Mouse Trap 

A simple mouse trap can be made of 
two lengths of steel wire. The spiral 

wire is iV in. 
in diameter and 
the center wire 
is of larger size 
The trap is set 
by pulling out 
the spring and catching the ends on 
the bends A and B. The bait is tied 
on at C. When the mouse puts his 
head through the coils and pulls the 
bait, the springs are released and his 
head is caught between the coils. 




How to Make a Small Electric Furnace 

The furnace consists of a large 
flower pot containing an ordinary clay 
crucible about (i in. in height, the space 
between the two being packed with 
fireclay. Two %-in. holes are bored 
through the sides of the crucible about 
half way between the top and the bot- 
tom. Holes corresp*Dnding to these 
holes are molded in the fireclay, which 
should extend several inches above the 



top of the flower pot. A smaller cru- 
cible is placed inside of the large one 
for use in melting such metals as cop- 
per, brass and aluminum. With metals 
that will melt at a low degree of heat, 




Electric Connections to Furnace 

such as tin, lead or zinc, the large 
crucible can be used alone. Each cru- 
cible should be provided with a cover 
to confine the heat and keep out the 
air. The electrodes are ordinary arc- 
light carbons. 

The furnace is run on an ordinary 
110-volt lighting circuit and it is neces- 
sary to have a rheostat connected in 
series with it. A water rheostat as 
shown in the sketch will serve to reg- 
ulate the current for this furnace. 
Small quantities of brass or aluminum 
can be melted in about 10 minutes in 
the furnace. — Contributed by Leonard 
Stebbins, Denver, Colo. 



Repairing a Broken Knife Handle 

A piece was broken from the pearl 
handle of my knife and I repaired it in 
the following manner: After cleaning 
both the edges of the pearl and the 
brass beneath, I run in enough solder 
to fill the place of the piece of pearl 
broken out. The solder was then filed, 
sandpapered and polished. The broken 




Fig. I Fig. 2 

Repairing with Solder 

part cannot be felt and it appears to be 
only an end decoration. — Contributed 
by W. A. Humphrey, Columbus, O. 



230 



Picture-Frame and Triangle Clamp 



A picture frame or triangle is quite 
difficult to hold together when fitting 
the corners. It is still more difficult 
to hold them together while the glue 
dries. The clamp illustrated will be 
found quite satisfactory in solving this 
problem, and at the same time is very 
simple to construct and easy to manip- 
ulate. The material list for making the 
clamps and corner blocks is as follows: 

Picture frame clamp; 

4 pieces. 1^ by m, by 15 in. 

2 pieces. 1^ by liii by 5 in. 
Triangle clamp; 

3 pieces. IH by IM by 10 in- 
I piece. IH by 134 by 4 in. 

Corner blocks; 

4 pieces. % by 3f'2 by 3H in. 
8 pieces. % by 1 by 2 in. 

The pieces mentioned are of oak, S-4-S. 

1 piece ?8"in. maple for dowels 
Hardware; 

10 bolts, H by 2 in. 
4 bolts. H by 3 in, 
2 bolts, ?A by 6 in. 

The picture-frame clamp consists of 
the four arms A, B, C and D, Fig. 1. 
A %-in. hole is bored in one end of 
each piece, I/2 in. from the end. A 
series of %-in. holes, 1 in. apart, are 
bored along the center in each piece. 
The two short pieces, E and F, have 
two %,-in. holes bored in their cen- 
ters, Yo in. from each end. These 
pieces are bolted to the four arms with 
i/i-in. bolts as shown in the sketch. A 
%-in. hole is bored in the middle of 



it with the end projecting l^/i in. on 
the under side and level with the sur- 
face on the upper side. Each of the 
corner blocks is fitted with two pieces 
like X, Fig. 2. Each of these pieces 
has one end round or a semicircle, and 
in its center a Y^-in. hole is bored. The 
other end has a %-in. hole bored % in. 
from the end. 

After making the small pieces, take 
the four corner blocks G, H, I and J 
and draw a line on the upper side in the 
center, with the grain of the wood, and 
mark the angles as follows, so that 
one-half the angle will be on each side 
of the centerline: On one end of the 
pieces G and H mark a 90-deg. angle, 
on the other end a 4.5-deg. angle, on 
the piece I mark a 90-deg. and 30-deg. 
angle and on J mark a 90-deg. and 60- 
deg. angle. Mark the number of de- 
grees of each between the sides of the 
angle. Place two of the pieces marked 
X, Fig. 2, on each of the corner blocks, 
one piece on each side between the 
dift'erent angle lines, so their round 
ends will be toward the center and 
toward each other with a space of % 
in. between them. Clamp the pieces to 
the corner blocks and bore the ^/^-in. 
holes through them to secure perfect 
alincment. Put the bolts in and turn 




The Corner Blocks on Both Picture Frame and Triangle Clamps are so Constructed That They Hold the 
Molding together "While Fitting ttie Corners and also Hold Them Securely While the Glue is Hardening 



each piece E and F for one of the 6-in. 
bolts K. 

The four corner blocks G, H, I and 
J, Fig. 1, have a %-in. hole bored in the 
center of each and a dowel glued into 



the pieces first to one angle and then 
the other, and while in the respective 
positions, bore the %-in. holes % in. 
deep in the corner blocks. Glue a 
dowel in each %-in. hole of the small 



331 



pieces, allowin,? it to project Vi in. 
on the under side so it will fit in the 
%-in. hole in the corner block. Be 
sure to countersink the holes for the 
heads of the bolts. All bolts should be 
fitted with wing nuts. All that is 
necessary to change from one angle to 
another is to loosen the nuts and swing 
the small pieces around so the dowel 
pins will drop into the other holes, 
then tighten the nuts. 

The triangle clamp is made in the 
same manner as the picture-frame 
clamp, except that the arms L and M, 
Figs. 3 and 3, are half-lapped into the 
crosspiece P. The bolt O is % in. 
and the head is cut off. Drill a %-in. 
hole in the bolt, 1/4 in- from the end, 
and bore a %-in. hole in the end of the 
arm N. Insert the headless bolt O 
in this hole and drive a nail through 
the side of the arm N, so it will pass 
through the hole drilled in the bolt. 
This keys the bolt in the end of the 
arm N. 

To clamp a picture frame, set the 
corner blocks G, H, I and J to the 90- 
deg. angles and adjust them on the 
arms A, B, C and D to accommodate 
the size frame to be made, as shown in 
Fig. 1. Tighten the thumbnut on the 
bolt K, and this will draw all four 
corners together with the same pres- 
sure. The corners can then be ex- 
amined to see if they fit properly. If 
they do not, saw in the joints with a 
hacksaw until they do fit. 

The triangles are clamped in the 
same way. The corner blocks are set 
to take the proper angles. The ends 
of the bolts should be slightly burred 
over so that the thumbnuts cannot be 
turned of?. — Contributed by Chas. A. 
Pettit, Baltimore, Md. 



Exterior Sliding Fly Screen 

The method shown for fitting fly 
screens on the outside of the.upper and 
lower sash permits the screen to be 
raised and held at different heights. 
Screweyes are turned into the outer 
strips, as shown in Fig. 1. The sides 
of the screen frame are grooved, Fig. 



2, to allow it to slide up and down on 
the screweyes. 

The screen can be raised and two of 
the screweyes turned from the normal 
vertical position, A, Fig. 3, to a hori- 



^#^°°" 




The Heads of the Screweyes in the ■Windo\v-Frame 
Stop Slide in a Groove Cut in the Screen Frame 

zontal position, B, to hold the frame at 
that point. By the use of a greater 
number of screweyes more places can 
be provided to support the screen 
at dififerent heights. — Contributed by 
James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 

Bushing a Stovepipe in a 
Chimney Hole 

When a stovepipe is too small for 
the hole in the chimney, a bushing 
can be made of the kind of metal to- 
bacco boxes that are curved to fit in 
a pocket. Remove the tops and bot- 
toms of the boxes and shove them in 
around the pipe. If such tobacco 
boxes are not at hand, tin cans of any 
kind can be used by melting ofif the 
tops and bottoms and bending the re- 
maining cylindrical shells into proper 
shape. — Contributed by Elmer Mc- 
Conaughy, Dayton, O. 



A Screweye Driver 
An ordinary wire nail, 3 in. long, 
bent as shown and with its head filed 
square, makes a good tool for turn- 
ing in screweyes. The 
square head is readily 
held in the chuck on 
most braces. The screw- 
eye can be turned in 
with greater speed than 
by the ordinary method. 
— Contributed by Robert 
T. Johnston, Buffalo, 



^^ 



York. 



232 



Copying Stand for Photographic 
Enlarging and Reducing 

A camera stand or table, which can 
be put to many uses, is easily made 
and, when made, will be of particular 
service, says Work, London, for en- 




F,o2 ''"''' 

Camera Stand for Use in Copying and Enlarging, 
as Well as for Making Lantern Slides 

larging, reducing, copying, and, with a 
slight modification, for making lantern 
slides by reduction. 

Copying with a camera on a tripod 
is always a more or less complicated 
job, because of the ease with which a 
picture, being focused, may be thrown 
out of focus, and even out of the field 
of view, the camera not being attached 
to the same support as the picture. 
With the stand shown in the illustra- 
tion, the picture is attached to the 
same support as the camera. This 
makes it possible to place the appa- 
ratus on a table, out in the open, or in 
any other suitable position, where the 
light may he best for the work. When 
used for enlarging with artificial ligli.t 
it will also he found convenient, as it 
may be placed in any position in a 
darkened room. 

The size of the stand will depend on 
the sizes of pictures to be made, but 
it is better to have it too large than 
too small, as a small camera can be 
used on a large stand while a small 
stand would be of only limited use. 
The general appearance of the stand is 



shown in Fig. 1. The material list is 
as follows : 

2 Sides, 'A in. by 9^ in. by 5 ft., S-2.S. 

4 Crosspieces, '/, in. by 3 in. by 1 ft. 7 in., 
S-2-S. 

4 Guides, H in. by l^i in. by 2 ft. 6 in.. S-2-S. 

2 Bottom Pieces, 1 in. by 9 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., 
S-2-S 
"l 'Easel, H in. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft., S-2-S. 

2 Cleats, 'A in. by V/i in. by 1 ft. 4 in., S-2-S. 

Straight-grained soft pine or poplar 
is the best material to use. The side 
pieces should be narrowed at one end 
or to a point about halfway of their 
length. The extent of this narrowing 
will depend somewhat on circum- 
stances. The guide pieces are then at- 
tached with screws, the two upper 
pieces so that they have their upper 
edges flush with the edges of the side 
boards. 

The bottom piece, on which the 
camera is to be set, is made of the two 
pieces, cut as shown in Fig. 2, and 
joined with cleats, as in Fig. 3. The 
space left after part of one side of each 
board has been cut away, should be 
sufficient to make a slot which, when 
the boards are joined together, will ad- 
mit the screw to hold the camera in 
place. A rod is run through holes 
bored in the sides, just below the two 
pairs of guides, and fitted with a wing 
nut for clamping the sliding bottom 
when a focus and the size of the pic- 
ture is found. 

In copying, the camera is attached 
to the bottom board and the picture is 
tacked to the easel. The camera is 
then focused roughly by means of the 
rack and pinion, the final, fine focusing 
being done by moving the sliding bot- 
tom board. For enlarging, the lantern 
is placed on the sliding bottom and the 
bromide paper tacked to the easel. 

For lantern-slide work, which is re- 
ducing, it is necessary to cut an aper- 
ture in the easel, after the manner 
shown in Fig. 4. The edges of the 
opening have a rabbet to receive first 
a ground glass and then the negative, 
both being held in place with turn but- 
tons. It is not necessary to have two 
easels, as this opening can be fitted 
with a piece to make a level surface 
when the apparatus is used for copy- 
ing or enlarging. 



233 



To Make Whitewash Stick to Surfaces 

Coated 

In using whitewash much difficulty- 
is experienced in making it sticl< to the 
substance covered. A good way to pre- 
vent the coating from cracking and 
peeling off is to add 2 oz. of pure 
sodium chloride to every 1 gal. of 
whitewash mixture. This is not ex- 
pensive, but should be secured at a 
drug store because some salts of 
sodium are not pure and will darken 
the whitewash. The sodium chloride 
should be added after the whitewash 
solution is made up. When this mix- 
ture is used in buildings it will destroy- 
all vermin which it touches. 



A Mechanical Camera 

The young person who likes to draw 
will find the device illustrated of great 
assistance for outlining a portrait or a 
bit of scenery which can be filled in to 
make the picture. The camera con- 
sists of a box without a cover, aliout 
13 in. long, 6 in. wide and 4 in. deep. 
An oblong hole is cut in one end, a 
small hole bored in the other, and a 
piece cut out of the lower edge so that 
one eye can be placed close to the 
hole. The oblong hole, shown by the 
dotted lines, is covered with a fine per- 
forated cardboard, the kind used for 
working in mottoes with yarn. Sup- 
ports are nailed in the corners of the 
box, their length being calculated to 
allow the oper- 
ator to sit or 
stand, as desired. 
The camera is 
used in the man- 
n e r illustrated. 
If a portrait is to 
be drawn, then 
the one sitting 
for it must be 
quiet until the 
outlines are 
completed. The 
operator, looking through the hole, 
traces the lines on the cardboard be- 
tween the perforations. When the out- 
lines are drawn in this manner, the 




cardboard is removed and placed on 
the paper or cardboard used for the 
picture. The outline is then trans- 
ferred by marking with a sharp-pointed 





Outlining a Portrait 
on the Perforated 
Paper Placed over 
the Oblong Hole 
in the Camera 



pencil through the perforations on the 
outlines as drawn. After separating 
the two pieces, the markings can be 
connected with a continuous line and 
an exact outline will be obtained which 
can be filled in as desired. The out- 
line picture is a sample of work done 
with the camera. — Contributed by- 
Florence Thomas, Gordon, Ont. 



Gauge Attachment for a Pocket Rule 

The base of the gauge A is cut from 
a block of hard 
wood, about 2i/^ 
in. long, 1 in. 
wide and % in. 
thick. A notch 
is cut in one 
side to admit the 
rule and the 
wedge B, which 
has a slot that slides on a pin in fhc 
base. A small metal clip keeps the 
wedge in place. The gauge can be 
readily set on the rule at any mark. 




Plate Hangers 

In hanging old china plates for deco- 
rative purposes use three large white 
dress hooks, placed at equal distances 
apart on the edge of the plate. The 
hanging wire or cord is run through 
them from the back side and drawn up 
tightly. These hooks are much better 
than the ordinary plate hanger, as they 
are small and will not show much on 
the plate. 



234 



An Electrically Operated Camera 
Shutter 

It is often quite desirable to operate 
the shutter of a camera from a distance, 
especially in photographing birds and 




The Electro- 
magnet Trips 
a Spring Plunger 
That Forces 
a Piston on the 
Camera Air Bulb 



animals. The device shown in the 
accompanying sketch serves the above 
purpose very nicely, and its construc- 
tion and operation are exceedingly 
simple. In brief, the operation is as 
follows : The switch A is mounted 
on the limb of a tree, in such a manner 
that it is not conspicuous, and con- 
nected in series with a magnet, B, and 
a battery by means of a piece of flexible 
conductor, such as lamp cord. The 
magnet B is energized when the switch 
is closed and attracts the iron armature 
C, which is mounted on an arm, pivoted 
at D. The lower end of this arm is 
in the form of a latch, which supports 
the rod E when it is raised to its upper 
position. The rod E when it is raised 
compresses the coiled spring F, which 
is held between the gauge G and the 
washer H mounted on the rod. A 
small coil spring holds the armature 
C away from the core of the magnet 
B. The lower end of the rod E is in the 
form of a piston operating in a wooden 
cylinder J. The rubber bulb at the 
end of the tube leading to the camera 
.shutter is located in the lower end of 
the cylinder J. When the rod E is 
released by the latch K, it moves down- 
ward in the cylinder J, due to the action 
of the spring F, and compresses the 
bulb L, causing the shutter of the 
camera to be operated. A small handle, 



M, may be mounted on the rod to 
be used in raising it to the upper 
position. The component parts of this 
device may be mounted on a small 
wooden base by means of brass straps, 
and the terminals of the electric cir- 
cuit connected to the binding posts N 
and O, as shown. The switch A may 
be dispensed with and a push button 
used in its place, as the operator may 
station himself several hundred feet 
away. It may be necessary to use a 
battery of more than one cell in such 
cases. 



Electroplating without a Tank 

Electroplating without a plating 
tank is made possible with the follow- 
ing easily homemade apparatus de- 
scribed in a German scientific maga- 
zine. It consists of a rubber ball, A, 
fitted at one end with a glass tube, 
B, which carries at the opposite end 
a small sponge. A rod, D, passes 
through the rubber ball, which is 
tightly corked at both ends, into the 
glass tube B and carries at that end 
the anode E. A small glass tube, F, 
also connects the rubber ball with the 
larger tube B. The connections from 
the battery to the cathode, G, the ob- 
ject to be plated, and to the projecting 
end of the anode-carrying rod, D, are 
made as shown. The rubber ball is 
filled with the electrolyte, and is 
squeezed so as to force the fluid 




A Hand Tool for Applying a Plate Electrically to 
the Surface of Metal 

through the small tube F, into the 
larger tube, B, filling it and soaking 
the sponge C. The current is then 
turned on, and by moving the wet 
sponge over the cathode G, the latter 
will be plated. Not only is this an 
interesting accessory for the amateur's 
laboratory, but it can be used in the 



235 



industry where only parts of some ob- 
ject are to be plated, and where it is 
desired to remedy bad spots without 
putting the articles back into the bath. 



A Milk-Bottle Tray 

Bottled milk is difficult to deliver 
without knocking the bottles together 
when carrying them or while in a 
wagon. There are several kinds of 
wire baskets for carrying the bottles, 
but they all have the disadvantage of 
allowing the bottles to strike one an- 
other. A carrier not having this fault 
can be made very cheaply as follows : 
Procure a board 1 in. thick, 8 in. wide 
and 2 ft. long, plane and make it 
smooth, and use ordinary tin fruit or 




Parts of Tin Cans Fastened to a Board for Holding 
Milk Bottles 

vegetable cans for the bottle holders. 
Cut each can off 21/^ in. from the bot- 
tom and smooth ofif the jagged edges 
with a file. Nail these in two rows on 
the board, starting 1 in. from each end. 
Attach a segment of a barrel hoop for a 
handle. The carrier can be painted as 
desired. — Contributed by G. H. Clem- 
mons, Storm Lake, Iowa. 



A Springboard 

Select? straight-grained hickory or 
ash for the springboards. These can 
be of any width to make up the board 
to 18 in. wide. The frame part may 
be of any material of the dimensions 
given in the sketch. The butt ends of 
the springboard should be well fastened 
to the crosspiece with screws, or, bet- 
ter still, small carriage bolts with the 
nuts on the under side. 

The crosspiece at the rear is cut 
on the angle of the springboard. The 



front crosspiece is mortised into the 
frame, and the one near the center 
is laid on top of the two side rails. 




A Springboard for Use in Connection with a 
Vaulting Pole or for Turning Acts 

The rear crosspiece is either fastened 
with large dowels or mortised into the 
sidepieces. This springboard will be 
of use in connection with a back-yard 
gymnasium for vaulting and doing 
turning acts. 



Planing Rough-Grain Boards 

The surface of a board having a 
grain that runs both ways is very hard 
to smooth with a plane. By sharpen- 
ing the plane iron to a keen edge, then 
placing it in the plane with the cap 
reversed and set about rh "t. from the 
cutting edge, I find that with a light 
cut the plane will smooth regardless 
of the direction of the grain. — Con- 
tributed by William Rollins, Wichita, 
Kansas. 



Braces for Aeroplane Frames 

In making model aeroplanes or glid- 
ers the brace shown will serve the pur- 
pose admirably. The size and strength 
of the metal used will depend on where 
it is to be used. The metal is bent 




The Braces are Cut 

from Stake Iron or 

Sheet Metal According to 

the Size Machine being Built 



into the shape shown with the use of 
a vise. The manner of attaching the 
braces is clearly shown. — Contributed 
by Francis Chetlain, Chicago. 



336 



A Puzzle Purse 

The puzzle purse is made of four 
pieces of chamois, two of the pieces 
being merely flaps, one on each side 
at the upper edge. One of the pieces 









i 1 

i i 




The Strips of Leather Sliding through the Stitches 
Make the Puzzle Part of the Purse 

forming one side of the purse ex- 
tends upward for about twice the 
height of the purse part. The part 
above the purse has a number of slits 
cut in it to make the width of each 
strip Yg in. These slits should be ac- 
curately cut in order that the purse 
may be opened easily. The other half 
is only the size of the purse proper. 
The upper edge of the latter piece and 
the flap on that side are stitched to- 
gether to the flap on the opposite side, 
the threads of the stitches running be- 
tween the strips of the long piece. 
These stitches are made on the line 
AB and around the edge. 

To open the purse, take hold of each 
side on the purse part and draw the 
pieces apart. In doing so, the strips 
are drawn through the stitches so that 
they may be separated and a coin 
taken from the purse. A pull on each 
end will close the purse. — Contributed 
by Chas. Motton, Toronto, Ont. 



An Emergency Sandpapering Machine 

While doing some work I had sev- 
eral small pieces to be finished with 
sandpaper. They were so small and of 
such a shape that it was impossible to 
do the work by hand. Not having a 
sanding machine, I used a disk talking 
machine for the purpose. I placed a 
sheet of sandpaper over the disk and 



fastened it to the felt at the corners 
with pins. The machine was then set 
going at its highest rate of speed, and 
the articles were smoothed by holding 
them on the disk. — Contributed by 
Fred S. Barnard, Los Angeles, Cal. 



A Developing Machine 

The base of the developing machine 
consists of a wood tray with sloping 
ends and high sides, which is placed at 
the center and provides bearings for 
the wheel axle. The dimensions given 
in the sketch are for making a machine 
to develop a film about 2'J in. long. 
The disk, or wheel, is cut from a board, 
Yg in. thick, and the attached cross- 
pieces are cut from V^-'m. dowels to 
make them 21/4 in. long. These are 
placed about 1 in. apart on the circum- 
ference of the disk. 

An axle, fastened solidly in the 
wheel and adjusted in the bearings, is 
kept from slipping sideways by bush- 
ings made of a spool. A crank is at- 
tached to one end of the axle. Hot 
paraffin is applied to the inside of the 
tank part, to make it liquid-tight. Two 
pins or hooks are attached to one of the 
crosspieces to catch into the film end. 
If the wheel is the correct size, the 
same pins can be used for fastening the 
other end of the film. 

The film is first attached to the 



i-gg^ 




The Entire Length of Film is Placed on the Wheel 
Where It is Run through the Developer 

wheel ; then, while turning slowly, the 
developer is poured into the tray. 
Keep on turning the wheel until full 
development is obtained, then pour out 
the liquid and turn in fresh, clear 



237 



water, and turn the wheel to wash out 
the developer. Remove the film and 
place it in the hypo bath. — Contrib- 
uted by Raymond M. Dealer, Balti- 
more, Md. 



A Stove-Wood Carrier 

A handy wood carrier, for bringing 
wood and kindling from the basement 
or yard to the wood box in the house, 
may be made from a grain sack, as 
shown in the sketch. Use a complete 
sack and make rope handles at each 
end. When used, place only sufficient 
wood or kindling in it to permit the 
handles to come together over the top 
of the load. This will make a com- 
fortable grip and it is no harder to 
carry than a medium-weight suitcase. 
When the wood is removed the carrier 
can be taken to the back yard and 





The Ropes at the Ends of the Sack Make a 
Handle to Carry It Like a Grip 

shaken out, thus doing away with the 
dirt that usually results from other 
methods of filling wood boxes. — Con- 
tributed by Walter Nelson Kidston, 
Seattle, Wash. 



A Pencil Sharpener 

A pencil sharpened with the device 
shown will have a better point and one 
that will not break easily while being 
sharpened. The lower arm A is made 
from a strip of sheet steel, jV in. thick. 
An extension, Vi in. wide, is cut and 
bent in a circle to form the lower finger 
hold. The upper arm B forms the cut- 
ter, which is made from a piece of hack- 
saw blade. The teeth are ground off 
and the temper is drawn from the ex- 
tension that forms the upper circle. A 
portion of the arm A is bent over, as 
shown at C, to form a support for the 
pencil point to rest upon. A hole, 
large enough for a pencil to turn in, is 
bored through a stick of hardwood, D, 
and tapered so that the center of the 



hole meets the inner edge of C. It 
is fastened to the lower arm with 
screws. A sharp cutting edge is ground 




A Pencil Sharpener 
That will Make 
a Point without Q 

Breaking the Lead 




on the blade which is then attached to 
the arm A with a rivet loosely enough 
to swing freely. — Contributed by J. V. 
Loeftler, Evansville, Ind. 



Cleaning an Oilstone 

Use kerosene oil and a sprinkling of 
emery flour and proceed to sharpen 
tools. It is not necessary to clean a 
stone thus treated before placing the 
tool on it, as the emery and kerosene 
will make a good surface on the stone 
as well as assisting in producing a 
sharp edge on the tool. — Contributed 
by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



Landing for Small Boats 

Not having a landing for my small 
boat, I made a series of sectional plat- 
forms, rising 2 ft. above the bottom, 
which served the purpose well and 
were inexpensive. Each section is 
about 15 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and 2 ft. 
high. The frame is made of material 
2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, and on top 
is a floor made of boards, while the 
bottom consists of 2 by 4-in. cross- 
pieces, nailed on 6 in. apart. Stones 
are laid on these crosspieces to moor 
it down in place. The whole landing 
is simple to make and it lasts a long 




The Series of Platforms Make a Good Small-Boat 
Landing on a Slanting Beach 

time, as the sections can be drawn out 
and stored during the winter. — Con- 
tributed by Henry Briggs, Lexington, 
Massachusetts. 



238 



Bearings for Model Work 

For experimental work I use hang- 
ers or bearings made of sheet brass or 
copper, bent at right angles for strength 





Sheet-Copper Support 
with a Base and a 
Shaft BearingSoldered 
to the Ends 



and capped with a box. The main part 
of the bearing A is shaped as shown, 
and the box B consists of a small piece 
cut from a brass rod and drilled for 
the size of the shaft. The box is 
soldered to the top end of A and the 
base C to the bottom end. When a 
large metal base is used for a certain 
model, the part A is attached directly 
to that base and the part C need not 
be used. 

The bearings can be made in differ- 
ent heights, each of which will de- 
mand a corresponding size and thick- 
ness of the parts. Sheet brass or cop- 
per, 3^2 in- thick, is about right for a 
bearing 3 in. high. — Contributed by 
W. E. Day, Pittsfield, Mass. 



Holding the Tongue of a Shoe in 
Place 

The tongue in a shoe will often slip 
down or over to one side or the other 
and expose the hose. To overcome 





The Hook on the Tongue of the Shoe and Manner of 
Lacing to Hold the Tongue 

this and have the tongue fit snugly in 
the right place, fasten a common lace 
clasp or hook near the top of the 



tongue, as shown in the illustration, 
so that in lacing the shoe the laces are 
passed under the hook to hold the 
tongue in place. 



A Photo Vignetter 

Procure a piece of heavy wire, one 
that is fairly stiff, says Camera Craft, 
and a pair of pliers and bend the wire 
with the pliers as shown in the illus- 
tration. After the loop is made to fit 
around the lens barrel the wire is bent 
at right angles at a point 6 in. below 
the circle. At a distance of 8 in. on 
the extending part of the wire it is 
bent as shown to form a clip for hold- 
ing a sheet of cardboard. 

The cardboard should be about 7 in. 
wide and of dark color, with one edge 
cut semicircular and notched. The 



■AaAA A/> /W^'*'^ 




.^••i 



The Arm for Holding 

the Vignette Cardboard is 

Made of a Heavy Piece of Wire 

size of the wire and the other measure- 
ments will depend upon the size and 
focal lengfh of the lens. If a heavy 
vignetting card is required, it may be 
necessary to make the portion that en- 
circles the lens double in length, bend- 
ing it back upon itself to secure a 
firmer hold. This is a cheap and effi- 
cient vignetter that anyone can make 
in a few moments of spare time. 



Pocket for the Inside of a Book Cover 

Students or anyone wishing to re- 
tain notes on a subject will find it quite 
handy to have a large envelope pasted 
in the back of each textbook. Instead 
of having notes all through the book, 
they can be arranged in order and 
slipped into the envelope. If the book 
is accidentally dropped, the notes will 
not be lost. — Contributed by Harold 
Mynning, Chicago, 111. 



239 



Cleaning Steel of Grease and Stains 

Grease and stains can be easily re- 
moved from steel with a mixture of un- 
slaked lime and chalk powder, by rub- 
bing it on the steel with a dry cloth. 
The best proportion for the mixture, 
which is easily prepared, is 1 part of 
lime to 1 part of chalk powder. The 
powder should be used dry. It is kept 
in cans for future use and can be used 
over and over aj;ain. — Contributed by 
Loren Ward, Des Moines, Iowa. 



An Electrically Ignited Flash Light 
for Making Photographs 

The results obtained in a great many 
cases in trying to take pictures by flash- 
light are exceedingly unsatisfactory, as 
the expression on the faces of the peo- 
ple in the picture usually is strained 
or uimatural, due to the suspense in 
waiting for the flash. The following 
simple device avoids this difficulty be- 
cause the flash is set off by means of 
electricity, so that the operator can 
control the flash from a distant point 
and thus be able to take the picture 
quite unawares to his subjects. 

The construction of the device is as 
follows : Obtain a piece of rather 
heavy sheet iron, about 6 in. wide and 
10 in. long. Bend this piece of iron 
into the forrti shown in the sketch, and 
fasten a wooden handle to it with a 
wood screw. Obtain a sheet of Vs-in. 
sheet asbestos, the same size as the 
piece of sheet iron, and glue it to 
the inside surface of the curved piece 
of iron. It is best to fasten the 
four corners down by means of some 
small rivets with rather large washers 
under the heads next to the asbestos. 

Now mount two pieces of sheet cop- 
per, Y2 in. wide and 6 in. long, parallel 
with each other on the surface of the 
asbestos and 114 in. apart, so that their 
ends are even with the end of the piece 
of asbestos. These pieces of copper 
should be insulated from the piece of 
sheet iron, and there should be a small 
screw in one end of each and a small 
binding post mounted on the other end. 

Procure a piece of lamp cord, 1.5 or 



20 ft. in length. Fasten an ordinary 
plug to one end of this cord and the 
other end to the two binding posts. 

The Asbestos-Lined 

Tray and the Wiring 

onnections for Attaching 

to the Electric-Light Wires 




Open one of the conductors in the cord 
at some point and introduce a single- 
pole switch, as shown in the sketch. 
Close the gap between the two pieces 
of copper by means of a piece of No. 
32 gauge copper wire. Place the flash- 
light powder in position, but do not 
cover up the wire or have it in actual 
contact with the powder, and close the 
circuit. The operator may include 
himself in the picture by having a suf- 
ficiently long piece of lamp cord and 
the switch properly arranged. 



A Simple Twine-Ball Holder 

In looking for a place to put a twine 
ball I happened to see a tin funnel 
and it gave me 
the idea which I 
put into practice. 
I punched three 
holes at equal 
distances apart 
in its upper edge 
and attached 
three strings 
which were run 
to an apex and 
tied to a screw- 
eye in the ceil- 
ing. The end 
of t h e twine 
from the center 
of the ball was 
run through the 
funnel stem and 
allowed to hang 
as in an ordi- 
nary ball holder. — Contributed by W. 
C. Loy, Rochester, Ind. 




CA filler for birch, red gum and beech 
can be made of 1 lb. of bleached shellac 
to each gallon of water. 



240 



A Toy Popgun 

A toy popgun can be easily made 
of two blocks of hard wood, I/2 in- 
thick; a joint of bamboo, about % 'i- 
in diameter and 6 in. long; a small 
hinge, a piece of spring steel, % '"■ 
wide and 1 in. long, and a piece of 
soft wood for the plunger. 

The plunger A is cut to fit snugly, 
yet so it will move easily in the piece 
of bamboo B. One of the blocks of 
hard wood, C, is bored to fit_ one end 
of the bamboo, the other block has 
a i/4-in. hole bored, to center the hole 
in the first block. The two blocks are 
hinged and the spring latch attached 
as shown in the sketch. The spring 
has a hole drilled so it can be fastened 
with a screw to the outer block, and 




Detail of Popgun, Showing the Parts Assembled and 
Position of the Paper 

a slot cut in the other end to slip 
over a staple driven into the block C. 
A piece of paper, D, is placed in 
between the blocks while the plunger 
A is out at the end of the bamboo. 
A quick pressure on the plunger A 
will cause the paper D to break out 
through the small opening with a 
loud pop. — Contributed by Paul H. 
Burkhart, Blue Island, III. 



A Non-Rolling Thread Spool 

A spool of thread may be kept from 
rolling by gluing squares of cardboard 
to the ends. The 
squares should 
be a little larger 
than the spool. 
This will save 
many a step and 
much bending 
over to pick up 
the spool. The 
spool, when it 
falls, will stop where it landed. — Con- 
tributed by Katharine D. Morse, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 




Shoe-Shining Stand 

To anyone who finds it tiresome to 
shine his shoes while putting the foot 
on the rim of a bathtub, on a cook- 




Dimensioned Parts and Completed Stand Which 
has a Box to Hold the Shining Outfit 

Stove or chair with a newspaper on it, 
the Stand here described will afford 
relief and at the same time he will 
always have the shining outfit ready 
for use. 

The whole is of pine, the foot rest 
being made of a piece 2 by 4 in. ; the 
legs, of 1 by 2 in., and the bottom of 
the box, of 1/2 by 4^4 in. All other 
dimensions are given in the sketch. 
After the legs are attached and the 
bottom of the box in place, the sides 
are fitted and fastened with nails. — 
Contributed by Samuel Hughs, Berke- 
ley, Cal. 



Cutter Made of a Wafer 
Razor Blade 

A useful instrument for seamstresses 
and makers of paper patterns and 
stencils can be made of a piece of steel 




The Wafer Blade Attached to the Handle, the Top 
Edge being Protected w/ith a Cork 

or iron and a wafer razor blade. The 
end of the metal is flattened and two 
holes drilled to match the holes of the 
razor blade. Small screw bolts are 
used to attach the blade to the handle. 
Place a cork on one edge as a protec- 
tion for the hand of the user. — Con- 
tributed by Maurice Baudier, New 
Orleans, La. 



241 




To Hold a Negative in a Printing 
Frame 

When printing postal cards and 
working fast, it always bothered me to 
hold the negative in the printing frame 
vi^hile removing the card. To over- 
come this trouble I decided to contrive 
some arrangement to hold the negative 
in the frame when the back was re- 
moved. The device I made consists 
of a thin, flat spring, about Vs in. wide 
and as long as the width of the frame 
opening. Two lugs are formed and 
soldered to the ends, as shown in Fig. 
1, for holding the plate, and a central 
lug is soldered on to provide a means 
of fastening the spring in position. A 
groove, about ■j',, in. deep, was cut in 
the opposite end of the frame to re- 
ceive one end of the negative. 

In use, slide the plate into the frame 
and into the lugs on the spring, and 
push the spring upward until the plate 
can be slipped into the slot at the 
opposite end of the frame. The pres- 
sure of the spring, as shown in Fig. 2, 
will hold the plate securely. The 



J^ 



m^- 



JlX 



iiiiill iimj 



The Spring with Its Clips and Manner of Holding a 
Negative in a Printing Frame 

frame can be handled quite roughly 
and as fast as desired without any 
danger of the plate falling out. — Con- 
tributed by Thos. L. Parker, Wibaux, 
Montana. 



CA number of bright tin disks tied to 
the limbs of a fruit tree will prove an 
efficient means of driving away infest- 
ing birds. 




How to Make an Electrolytic 
Interrupter 

Obtain a glass jar or wide-mouth 
bottle about one-quart size. An or- 
dinary round bottle will serve very 
nicely by having the top cut off, thus 
forming a glass 
jar. Make a top 
for the jar from 
a piece of %-in. 
pine similar to 
the one shown in 
the illustration. 
The lower por- 
tion extends 
down inside the 
jar and serves to 
hold the top in 
place. Cut a slot 
in this top, % in. 

wide and 2 in. 1^^^^=^-=^^^^^^^ 
long. This slot 
should be cut at right angles to a diam- 
eter of the top and extend 1 in. on 
either side of the diameter. It should 
be about I/2 in. from the center of the 
top. Directly opposite the center of 
the slot drill a %-in hole, I/2 hi. from 
the center of the top. Drill a Vi-in. 
hole in the center of the top to give 
ventilation to the jar. Boil the com- 
pleted top in paraffin for a few 
minutes. 

Obtain a piece of %-in. sheet lead, 2 
in. wide and about i/o in. longer than 
the depth of the jar. Mount a small 
binding post on one end of this piece 
of lead and then support it in the slot 
in the wooden top by means of two 
metal pins. The lower end of the 
piece of lead should be at least i/o in. 
from til* bottom of the jar. Next get 
a piece of %-in. glass tube and fuse a 
piece of platinum wire into one end. 



24£ 



Make sure the inside end of the plati- 
num wire is not covered with the glass, 
and that the outside end protrudes a 
short distance beyond the end of the 
glass tube. Now bend about % in. of 
the end of the glass tube which has 
the platinum in it over at right angles 
to the remainder of the tube. The tube 
should then be placed in the opening 
on the wooden top provided for it and 
a rubber band placed around it to pre- 
vent it dropping through the opening. 
The lower end of the tube should be a 
little higher than the lower end of the 
sheet of lead. A small quantity of 
mercury should be placed in the tube 
and a bare copper wire run down in- 
side. The mercury affords a connec- 
tion between the piece of platinum in 
the end of the tube and the copper 
wire. Connect the outside end of the 
copper wire under a binding post and 



A Homemade Hand Drill Press 

The little use I had for a drill press 
did not make it advisable to purchase 
one, so I constructed a device for drill- 
ing iron and brass which answered all 
purposes. A broken carpenter's brace 
furnished the chuck, which was fas- 
tened -to a i/o-in. shaft having a de- 
tachable crank. The shaft turns in a 



<=ct 





= =u. . 




f^ 1 


If 




s o e 

-^ . S 

a J. © 

«. © e 


^mir 


V 

] 






^ 1 



A Very Inexpensive Drill Press Frame Which Answers 
the Purpose Admirably 

brass tube which is fitted tightly in a 
hole bored in the upright. The slid- 
ing part or table is forced up against 
the drill with a V2-in- machine bolt. 



the interrupter is complete with the 
exception of the solution. 

The solution for the interrupter is 
dilute sulphuric acid made by mixing 
about four parts of water and one part 
of acid. In preparing this mixture, 
be sure to pour the acid into the water, 
not the water into the acid. The jar 
should be about two-thirds filled. At 
least 40 volts will be required for the 
satisfactory operation of the inter- 
rupter. The distance between the 
platinum point and the lead sheet may 
be adjusted by simply turning the glass 
tube. 

No condenser will be required in 
operating an inductor coil with an 
interrupter of this kind. The make- 
and-break interrupter, if there is one 
in circuit, should of course be made 
inoperative by screwing up the contact 
point against the spring. 



The bolt turns in a square nut fas- 
tened in the opposite post. The end 
of the screw bears on a plate fastened 
on the under side of the table to pre- 
vent wear. A crank could be attached 
to this bolt so that it may be turned 
more easily. 

The sliding or table part is made 
of a post similar to the end posts, but 
with guides attached so as to keep it 
in place. The holes for the chuck shaft 
and bolt should be bored on a line and 
exactly in the center of the posts. — 
Contributed by L. R. Kelley, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 



A Hose Nozzle 

The nozzle shown in the accompany- 
ing sketch was made from an empty 
tobacco can having an oval shape. I 
cut the can in two near the center and 
punched small holes in the bottom. 
I then cut a piece of V^-in. board to fit 
tightly in the end of the can and turned 
the edges of the tin down to hold it 
in place. A hole was bored in the cen- 
ter of the wood and a Yo-'m. hose coup- 
ling fitted in it. The water will swell 
the wood enough to make an abso- 
lutely watertight joint, but by using a 



243 



little care in fitting it, the joint will 
be watertight without the swelling. 

The holes being punched in straight 
lines, the nozzle throws a rectangular 
section of tine streams, which makes it 
possible to sprinkle close up to walks 
without wetting them. The friction 
is much less than in the ordinary hose 
nozzle, and consequently this nozzle 
delivers more water and also materially 



smooth edge of the iron band over the 
glass. It requires only a short time of 




The Oval Form of the Box Makes It Possible to 
Sprinkle Close Up to Walks 

reduces the strain on the hose. — Con- 
tributed by J. B. Downer, Seattle, 
Washington. 



An Electric Water Heater 

A simple electric water heater may 
be made as follows: Procure two 
sheets of copper, each 4 by 6 in., and 
place pieces of wood or other insulat- 
ing material at the corners to keep 
them about % in. apart. Bind them 
with cords, or, if the wood pieces are 
large enough, use screws so that there 
will be no contact between the plates. 
Attach wires to the plates with solder 
as shown, and make connections to a 
plug. Pour water in an earthenware 




An Inexpensive Electric Water Heater Made of Two 
Copper Plates 

jar, place the plates in it and turn the 
plug in a lamp socket. Do not use a 
metal vessel. — Contributed by G. 
Henry Jones, Sylacauga, Ala. 



Frosting Glass 

Procure a piece of flat iron similar to 
an iron hoop, bend it, as shown in the 
sketch, to make a piece 3 in. long and 
1^/4 in. wide and file one edge smooth. 
Sprinkle some fine lake sand over the 
glass, dampen the sand and rub the 




The Filed Edge on the Coiled Metal Retains the Sand 
Particles as It is Rubbed over the Glass Surface 

rubbing to produce a beautiful frosted 
surface on the glass. — Contributed by 
M. E. Duggan, Kenosha, Wis. 



Long Handle for a Dustpan 

The dustpan is a rather unhandy 
utensil to use, especially for stout per- 
sons. One porter overcame this diffi- 
culty by attaching a long 
handle to the pan as shown 
in the illustration. The han- 
dle was taken from a dis- 
carded broom and a 
yoke of heavy wire 
was attached to it, 
the ends being bent to 
enter holes punched in the upturned 
edge of the pan. A stout cord, fas- 
tened to the handle and tied into the 
ring of the dustpan handle, keeps the 
pan from turning backward, and it is 
thus possible to push it or carry it 
with the long handle. 




To Fasten Chair Legs 

Chair legs often become loose when 
chairs are handled roughly, so that 
the glue is broken up. A small de- 
vice made from a piece of pointed 
metal. A, which is securely fastened 
to the end of the chair leg by means 
of a screw, will hold the legs more 
firmly than wire or glue. \Mien the 



A 



/ 




f 

? 


\ 







The Metal on the End of the Leg Fastens It Solidly 
in Place 

leg is driven into the hole, the points 
are pushed into the wood B as the 
metal flattens. 



244 



Disk-Throwing Pistol 

A pistol for throwing small disks of 
paper or metal balls, can be easily 
made at almost no expense as shown 
in the sketch. Two pieces of board, 




Disks of Paper or Metal 
as V/ell as Shot may be 
Thrown with This Pistol 



one of which is shaped to the form of a 
pistol, are hinged together and a fairly 
strong spiral spring is fastened at the 
front end of the movable piece and the 
middle of the other. A slot is sawed 
in the movable piece to hold the disk, 
or a small round depression may be 
formed in it to receive a bean, pea, 
or shot. The movable arm is folded 
back and held in position by means of 
a stirrup of wire fastened on the other 
part. When the movable part is disen- 
gaged by pulling the stirrup away with 
the finger, the disk will be thrown with 
considerable force, depending on the 
strength of tlie spring. 



Displaying Dye Colors 

A certain druggist utilized old 
electric bulbs for displaying dye colors. 
Water was colored with a dye and the 
end of a bulb dipped into the liquid. 
Then the tip end was broken off, and 

Globes Filled with Colored 
^Vater, Representing the 
Different Colors of Dyes 
Carried in Stock 




A ring-shaped piece, 15 in. in diam- 
eter and 2V2 in. wide, was cut from 
a piece of board, and 1-in. holes bored. 
21/2 in. apart, in one-half of the ring. 
The globes holding the colored water 
were set in these holes and a light with 
a round shade placed in the center. 
It proved to be an attractive display 
and a good method of showing 
the colors. — Contributed by Maurice 
Baudier, New Orleans, La. 




the bulb being a vacuum, the colored 
water was drawn into it, and filled the 
globe. The point was then sealed with 
paraffin. 



A Homemade Bench Vise 

A serviceable and inexpensive bench 
vise can be made in the following man- 
ner: Procure a piece of hard wood, 1 
in. thick, and shape it into an eccentric 
with an extending handle, as shown at 
A. The jaws B are made of material 
2 in. thick, and the drawbar C is a 2 




A Vise That can be Quickly Constructed Where No 
Bench Vise is at Hand 

by 3-in. piece of hickory. The outer 
end of the bar is slotted to receive the 
eccentric handle, through which a bolt, 
D, passes to form a bearing. Holes are 
bored into the opposite end of the bar, 
2 in. apart, into which a peg is inserted 
to come against the back side of the 
rear jaw. This provides an adjustment 
for a range of various thicknesses of 
material. Another bar is located at 
the bottom of the jaws to provide a 
means of keeping the jaws parallel. 
This bar is made in a similar manner 
to the bar C. The rear jaw can be 
fastened to the side of a bench, post, 
or any support that may be handy. — 
Contributed by Wm. S. Thompson, 
Columbia, Tenn. 



245 




Timing Photo Printing 



Having hundreds of postals of a sin- 
gle subject to print, I made a perfect 
timing apparatus for exposing the 
prints from an old metronome and an 
old gong magnet. A disk, B, 20 in. in 
diameter, was made of heavy tin with 
two apertures, C C, each cut 7 in. in 
diameter, on a line with the center of 
the disk, and 2 in. from the edge. A 
large spool, F, was used to serve as a 
hub and also as a reel on which strong 
twine was wound, with a weight, E, at- 
tached to the free end. 

The disk was bolted to the partition 
P of the darkroom, the partition hav- 
ing a hole, G, to coincide with the holes 
in the disk as it revolved. Four catch 
pins were fastened on the rim of the 
disk to engage a catch pin on the ar- 
mature of the magnet. The gong and 
commutator were removed and the 
magnet placed in the position shown in 
the sketch. A strip of wood was fas- 
tened across the face of the metronome 
H, about 1 in. above the pendulum 
shaft or axle. On the inside of the 
center of the strip a small piece of 
wood was projected, with copper wire 
on one side only, to form a contact 
with a piece of flexible copper on the 
pendulum. Wiring was made as 
shown in the sketch and a switch used 
to stop the disk from revolving. 

An ordinary postal-card printing 
frame, D, with a hinged back was 
used and placed on the shelf A, as 
shown. A hinge was made from heavy 
elastic bands to allow for two dozen 
cards in the frame at one time. As 
each card was printed it was taken out 
and dropped into the developer. The 
reel and metronome should be wound 



up after printing two dozen cards. The 
stops can be varied for any length of 




Details of Timing Apparatus 

time by regulating the weight on the 
metronome. The disk and all wood- 
work must be painted a dull black. 
The circuit is completed on the return 
stroke of the pendulum, causing the 
magnet to attract the armature, which 
releases the catch, allowing a quarter 
turn of the disk. — Contributed by 
Frank W. Preston, Paterson, N. J. 



Pail Hook for a Pitcher Pump 

When pumping water from the 
ordinary pitcher pump, the bucket 
must either be 
held to the 
spout or placed 
on the ground. 
The accompany- 
ing sketch 
shows how I ar- 
ranged a hook, 
fastened over 
the collar of the pump, to take the bail 
of the bucket. The hook is made of 
i/4-in. round iron. — Contributed by 
Laurence B. Robbins, Harwich, Mass. 




246 



Shade Roller Attached to Upper 
Window Sash 

Free circulation of air cannot be ob- 
tained through a window when the 
shade is attached to the window cas- 




WOOD <fJ 
BLOCK-' 



When the Upper Sash is 
Lowered the Shade is Out 
of the Way of the Opening 



CURTAIN 



INNER SASM 



OUTEIR 
SASH 



ing, as it partly fills the opening caused 
by lowering the upper sash. If the 
shade roller is attached to the top of 
the upper sash, the shade can perform 
its function without obstructing the 
opening when the sash is lowered. It 
only requires a shorter roller and a 
narrower shade. The roller brackets 
are attached in the usual manner, but, 
in order to have the shade hang ver- 
tically, a block, as wide as the lower 
sash frame, must be fastened under 
each bracket. 

This arrangement also makes it 
much easier to put up a curtain, as the 
sash can be let down until the roller 
can be reached while standing on a 
chair.— Contributed by James M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



Flashing Hook 

Having occasion to do a large 
amount of counter-flashing in a new 
wall where the mortar was soft and the 
joint too large to 
use an ordinary 
nail or the regu- 
lar flashing hook. 
I made hooks 
from No. 24 
gauge galvanized 
iron, having 
hooks of extra 
size and 

strength, as shown in the sketch. The 
size of the hook is 1-54 by 3% in. On 




each side edge, IV^ in. from one end, I 
cut teeth, A A, and clipped the corners 
of the opposite end at an angle. The 
end at B was turned down at right 
angles and the points A A bent in the 
opposite direction. I placed the coun- 
ter-flashing in the usual manner, with 
the projection B hanging down and the 
pointed end of the hook in the joint, 
and drove or pushed it in tightly. The 
points A A will catch on the under side 
of the brick and hold solidly. — Contrib- 
uted by Ralph M. Chatham, Orleans, 
Indiana. 



A Homemade Dibble 

A dibble made of a round and sharp- 
pointed stick is the usual tool for mak- 
ing holes when setting tomato and 
other plants. I found by experience 
that a dibble made of a flat board 
would work much better and leave a 




A Dibble Used 
for Making 
Holes in the 
Soil to 
Transplant 
Tomato and 
Other Plants 



1 



V 

cleaner hole if worked into the earth 
with a horizontal swinging motion. 
The hole produced is just right for the 
plant. The illustration shows its 
construction. 



Liquid Court-Plaster 

A good liquid preparation for cuts 
and bruises that forms a covering like 
liquid court-plaster is made by mixing 
% oz. of flexible collodion with 1/4 oz. 
of ether. When this solution is ap- 
plied to cuts it will not wash off. As 
the ether evaporates, add more to keep 
the mixture liquid. 



247 



A Substitute for Candles 

One evening our electric light was 
cut off by a storm, and having no gas, 
candles, or oil lamps, a very good light 
was made in the following manner : 
A tablespoonful of lard was melted and 
poured in the top of a baking-powder 
can, and four strands of ordinary white 
wrapping twine were put into it, allow- 
ing one end to stand up for about % 
in. above the edge of the can. The 
end was lighted the same as a candle. 
— Contributed by B. E. Cole, Eureka, 
California. 



A Poultry Coop 

A barrel makes a good protection for 
a hen with a brood of chicks, if it is 
arranged as shown in the sketch. Pro- 
cure a good barrel 
with a bottom and 
cut off each alternate 
stave at both ends 
close up to the first 
hoop. The lower 
openings thus 
formed make en- 
trances for the 
chickens and the 
upper ones ad- 
mit air and light. 
— Con t r ibuted 
by W'm. R. Konnan, Neillsville, Wis. 




Preventing Mildew on Canvas 

To prevent mildew on canvas, soak 
it in bluestone water, or if the mildew 
is already present, coat the parts well 
with ordinary soap and rub on pow- 
dered chalk, or whiting. A solution of 
corrosive sublimate, well weakened 
with water, will also prevent mildew, 
but owing to its poisonous nature it is 
best to use the former method. — Con- 
tributed by A. Ashmund Kelly, Mal- 
vern, Pa. 



Holder for Books in a Case 

Very often it is found, after arrang- 
ing the books in a case, that the rows 
are not complete and the books at the 





The Shape of the Wire Makes It Easily Applicable to 
Any Open Bookshelf 

end are continually sliding down on the 
shelf. The sketch shows a very use- 
ful type of wire bracket to support the 
last book. 

A brass wire, 26 in. long and al^out 
Ys in. in diameter, is bent, with the 
use of a vise or pliers, to the shape and 
dimensions shown at A. When the 
wire is placed on the bookshelf, as 
shown at B, it prevents the end book 
from falling. Its location can be 
changed as books are added to the 
shelf. — Contributed by John Y. Dun- 
lop, Craighead, Scotland. 



CWhen the steel point of a compass 
is lost, a phonograph needle makes a 
good substitute. 



Laying Out a Dovetail Joint 

With dividers and compass lay off 
the width of the board into twice as 
many parts as the dovetails wanted. 
Draw a light 
line, AB, across 
the board as far 
from the end as 
half the thick- 
ness of the 
board. On this 
line step off the 
divisions with 
the dividers, be- 
ginning with a 
half space or 

division. With the bevel square, set 
to a bevel of 1 in. in 3, draw lines 
through the division dots. This 
method will save much time and give 
accurate results. — Contributed by 
Joseph F. Parks, Wichita, Kan. 




!M8 



Oiling Bright Parts of Machinery 

It is my duty to go over the bright 
parts on the machinery in my father's 
shop and give them a coat of oil late 
in the afternoon to prevent any rust 
accumulating over night. As the work 
took considerable time from my play- 
ing I thought of a plan that not only 
reduced the amount of work but ap- 
plied the grease much better than with 
a brush or rag. I procured a sprayer, 




A Sprayer Filled with Oil Makes a Good Device for 
Coating the Bright Parts of Machinery 

as shown in the sketch, and sprayed 
the oil on the bright parts. — Contrib- 
uted by Waller Kaufman, Santa Ana, 
California. 



Window Ventilator to Prevent Drafts 

The ventilator consists of a piece of 
wood, about 8 in. wide, 3 in. thick and 
as long as the window is wide. Holes, 
1% in. in diameter, are bored at regu- 
lar intervals into one edge and these 
are connected with openings from one 
side as shown. The piece is set under 
the lower sash with the long openings 



uc^v^v_>J^J 




DOOdOOOO 



The Ventilator Prevents the Air from Entering 
a Room in a Straight Line 

toward the outside. This will direct 
the incoming air currents upward into 
the room. 



A Chisel Rack 

Turn two large screweyes into the 
under side of a shelf, as far apart as is 
necessary, and slip a rod into the eyes. 
The rod may be kept from slipping out 



by threading each end and turning on 
a nut after it is in place. Hooks are 
made from heavy wire, in the shape of 




The Chisels are Kept Close at Hand and the Right 
Tool may be Quickly Found 

the letter "S," and placed on the rod. 
A screweye is turned into the end of 
each chisel handle and used for hang- 
ing the tool on an S-hook. As many 
hooks are provided as there are tools 
in use. This method of hanging tools 
is especially adapted for the wood 
turner. — Contributed by Wallace E. 
Fisher, New York, N. Y. 



Homemade Snap Hooks 

Having had occasion to use several 
snap hooks of various sizes and being 
unable to find anything suitable for my 
purpose on the 
market, I pro- 
cured several 
cotters of the 

desired sizes and by bending them 
over, as shown at A, and cutting them 
off, as at B, I had snap hooks which, 
besides answering my original purpose, 
have also found use as key rings and 
tool-chuck holders. — Contributed by 
Jos. J. Kolar, Maywood, 111. 



A Dropper and Cork for Medicine 
Bottles 

A convenient way to accurately drop 
medicine and liquids without any other 
appliance than 
the cork is the 
following: Sim- 
ply burn or 
puncture a 
smooth hole in 
the cork as 
shown. Pull the cork out slightly 
when the liquid is to be dropped, and 
when this is done, push the cork in 
and the bottle is sealed. 




249 



Repairing a Broken Oilstone 

A broken oilstone can be repaired 
and made as good as new in the follow- 
ing manner : Warm the pieces by heat- 
ing them on the top of a stove or gas 
heater, with a piece of heavy sheet 
metal placed on it so as to protect the 
stone from the direct heat of the flame. 
The heating should be done somewhat 
slowly or the stone will crack. 

When the stone is warm wipe off 
the oil which the heat has driven out 
and apply a couple of coats of shellac 
to the broken ends. When the shellac 
is thoroughly dry, warm the stone 
again to melt the shellac, and clamp 
the pieces together. After cooling, the 
pieces will be found firmly stuck to- 
gether. — Contributed by F. L. Sylves- 
ter, Reading, ]\Iass. 




Homemade Towel Roller 

The towel roller is made of a piece 
of broom handle, 16 in. long, squared 
on both ends and a nail driven in 
the center of 
each end. Pro- 
cure two small 
pieces of tin — 
disks about 1 
in. in diameter 
w i 1 1 d o — a n d 
drive a hole 
through the 
center of each 
with a wire nail. 
Cut from one edge of the disk down 
to the hole taking out a narrow V- 
shaped section. 

Fasten each disk to a block and 
nail these to any convenient wall at 
such a distance apart that the nail 
heads in the broomstick will slip down 
in the slots and rest in the holes in the 
centers of the disks, which form the 
bearings for the nail heads resting be- 
yond the tin and next to the block. 

With a little care the tin can be 
made to bulge outwardly in the center 
making room for the nail heads. — Con- 
tributed by L. Alberta Norrell, Au- 
gusta, Ga. 



Clothesline Reel 

The usual method of reeling up a 
clothesline and taking it in is quite a 
task and many times the lines are left 
out in the open 



from one wash 
day to another, 
due to neglect 
o r forgetful- 
ness. I made 
the arrange- 
m e n t shown 
in the sketch to 
take care of the 
line without 
any efifort to 
the user. 



Sash pulley 



CLOTHES LINE 




Reel in the Basement 

All that is necessary with this ar- 
rangement is to take the end of the line 
and run it over the hooks or sheaves 
on the posts and make it secure around 
an awning fastener. When loosed, the 
weight in the basement will wind up 
the line. 

A knot can be tied in the line near 
the reel to catch at a hole in the sill, 
which will prevent the strain on the 
reel. If the reel is made to wind up 
4 ft. of line to each revolution and the 
sash-cord shaft is % in. in diameter, 
about 100 ft. of line can be taken up 
in a basement 7 ft. high. — Contributed 
by A. E. Little, Akron, O. 



CBlack-heart malleable iron derives its 
name from the fact that in annealing 
only the outer layers of carbon are 
oxidized, the carbon of the interior be- 
ing simply changed to a black amor- 
phous state. 



250 



A Candle-Shade Holder 

A holder for either round or square 
shades can be easily constructed from 
a piece of heavy copper wire to fit on a 





Two Forms of Shade Holder 

Made of Copper Wire for 

a Candlestick 

candlestick. One end 
of the wire is looped 
around the upper end 
of the candlestick, then 
bent so that the main 
part will be vertical. 
The top end is shaped 
into a circle 2 in. in di- 
ameter or a square having sides 2 in. 
long, as desired. — Contributed by 
Harry Slosower, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Wire Mesh Used as a Shelf 

In covering a window back of my 
lathe with wire mesh as a protection I 
also made a shelf for the tools between 
the window sill and the lathe bed of 
the same material. The mesh used was 
Vt-in. The shelf is always clean, as the 
shavings and dirt fall through, and the 
tools may be readily picked up. — Con- 
tributed by J. H. Sanford, Pasadena, 
California. 



Heel Plates 

A good heel or toe plate can be made 
by driving ordinary thumb tacks into 
the leather of the shoe heel or sole. 
The shape can be varied by using tacks 




The Heads of the Tacks Form a ^Vearing Surface 
Equal to an Ordinary Heel Plate 

having different-sized heads. — Contrib- 
uted by James T. Gaffney, Chicago, 111. 



A Bright Dip for Metal 

Articles of brass, copper and bronze 
may be given a bright luster by dipping 
them into a solution composed of 50 oz. 
(_)f nitric acid, 25 oz. of sulphuric acid, 
liquid measure, and 1/2 oz. of soot and 
1/2 oz. of salt, by weight. After the ar- 
ticles are dipped into the solution they 
are removed and thoroughly washed, 
then dried in sawdust to prevent 
streaks. 




An Interesting Vacuum Experiment 

A very interesting experiment may 
be performed with two drinking 
glasses, a small candle end and a piece 
of blotting paper, 
says the Path- 
finder. The 
glasses must b e 
the same size 
and of the thin- 
glass kind. The 
candle end is 
lighted and set 
in one glass ; the 
l)lotting paper is 
well dampened 
and placed on 
top of the glass, 

and the other glass inverted and its 
rim placed exactly over the lower one 
and pressed down tightly. The candle 
will burn up all the oxygen in the glass 
and go out. 

The air in the glass being heated will . 
expand and some of it will be forced 
out from under the moist paper, and 
then, as the portion remaining cools, it 
will contract and draw the upper glass 
on the paper and make an air-tight 
joint. The upper glass can then be 
taken up and the lower one will cling 
to it. 



A Sliver Extractor 

If a clipper for the finger nails be- 
comes dull do not throw it away, but 
keep it in the tool box in a handy place. 
It is very useful for extracting slivers 
from the flesh. — Contributed by G. 
Wokenfuss, McCook, Neb. 



251 



Night Croquet Playing 

Croquet playing became so interest- 
ing to us that we could not find time 
to do all our playing during the day. 
So at night we attach a candle to each 
of the wickets and also use one at each 
corner of the grounds. These light 
the grounds so that the game can be 
played nicely. The candles may be at- 
tached by wiring them to the wickets 
or by using small pasteboard boxes, 
similar to a pill box of sufficient size, 
and running a wire through the center 
or down the sides, which is hooked 
over the top to hold them upright on 
top of the ground. The latter way is 
the better as the candles may be pulled 
up in the day time and taken out of 
the way. — Contributed by Geo. Good- 
brod, Union, Ore. 



A Nursing-Bottle Holder 

The ordinary nursing bottle with 
nipple necessitates holding the bottle 
in a certain position, and when the 
valve nipples are used, the bottle 
should be held far enough away to al- 
low this valve free action. To accom- 
plish this I constructed a very sim- 
ple wire holder for the bottle as shown 
in the illustration. Ordinary telephone 



wire will hold any bottle. The wire 
is bent to hook on the side of the crib, 




Nursing Bottle in Holder 



cradle or cab. — Contributed by W. A. 
Humphrey, Columbus, O. 



Milk-Ticket Holder 

An ordinary spring mousetrap makes 
a good bread or milk-ticket holder. 
The wood part of the trap can be 




Trap Used as Ticket Holder 

easily nailed or screwed to a door or 
window casing. The way the tickets 
are held is clearly shown in the sketch. 



Joint for Cabinet "Work 



In making a cabinet containing 56 
drawers of various sizes, I used the 
method shown in the sketch for making 
the frame. The horizontal strips A 
should be all fastened together when 
sawing the notches to fit over the up- 
rights. The uprights 
B should be sawn in 
the same manner. It 
is best to round the 
front of the rear- up- 
rights slightly and also 
any other places where 
the drawers might 
strike when pushing 
them into place. The 
length of the runners 



C should be V/2 in. less than the length 
of the drawer. — Contributed by J. H. 
Dickson, Polk, Pa. 



CDo not expect accurate work unless 
you have accurate tools. 




w^ 



1 d 



3 E 



~^ 



Details of Joint Construction 



353 



Starting a Saw Cut 

A fine piece of woodwork is often 
spoiled by tlie amateur craftsman 
when startina; a cut with a saw. As the 




Starting a Saw on a Knife Cut will Prevent 
Rougfiing or Splintering the Eage 

first stroke of the saw on the edge of 
the board is made, the teeth often 
break a splinter from the edge or the 
saw jumps to one side of the line, 
thereby making a rough and uneven 
cut. This can be avoided in a very 
simple way. 

After marking the line, take a sharp 
knife and make a cut across the edge, 
as shown, and draw the knife down 
well over the corners of the board for 
about Ys in. Place the saw on the cut 
and start it slowly. The saw blade will 
follow the cut of the knife l)lade. 



A Substitute Penholder 

One evening when my wife was 
using the only penholder in the house 
I desired to do some writing and being 
in a hurry, I hastily made a substitute 



The End of the Pencil as It is Prepared to Receive 
the Pen 

holder of a pencil. Two cuts were 
made in the butt end, as shown ; the 
pen was then slipped in, the outside 
wound with a rubber band, and my 
penholder was complete. — Contributed 
by H. A. Sullwold, St. Paul, Minn. 



Protecting Binding Posts on Wet 
Batteries from Corrosion 

AVhen recharging the cells of a wet 
battery it is best to procure the best 
grade of sal ammoniac, the kind that 
is put up in boxes having a sufficient 
amount for one cell. Then, before put- 
ting the solution mto the cell, melt 



some parafiin used for preserving pur- 
poses and dip the upper end of the car- 
bons, zinc, and the glass jar in it. This 
will apply a coat of insulating wax that 
will prevent any white' deposit from 
working up on the parts and corroding 
the binding posts, or terminals. 

The cells are then filled in the ordi- 
nary manner, after which the carbons 
and zincs are raised just far enough to 
admit a layer of common machine oil, 
about % in. thick. The oil not only 
prevents evaporation but aids greatly 
to keep the uncovered parts from cor- 
rosion. — Contributed by L. R. Kelley, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



A Cork Puller 

A very simple and easy way to re- 
move a stopper from a bottle, when 
a cork puller is not 
at hand, is to press 
two nails into the 
cork, as shown in the 
sketch, and, taking a 
firm hold on both 
nails, draw the cork 
out. Brads may he 
used on smaller corks. 
Large and tightly fit- 
ted corks may be 
drawn by gripping the nails with a 
pair of pliers. — Contributed by W. A. 
Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal. 




Holder for a Garden-Hose Nozzle 

When sprinkling a lawn with an au 
tomatic spraying de- 
vice on a hose noz- 
zle it is necessary to 
have some kind of 
an arrangement to 
tilt the end at the 
proper angle. I find 
that a holder made 
of a heavy piece of 
galvanized wire bent 
in the shape shown can be used 
to set the nozzle at any angle. 
The wire is easily pushed into the 
earth and does no harm to the 
lawn. — Contributed liy T. J. Ingram, 
Jr., I^ynchburg, \'a. 




253 



Alarm to Designate a Filled Storage 
Battery 

When a storage battery is recharged, 
the completion of the recharging is 
marked by the development of gas in 
the cell. This fact is the basis of a 
simple electrical device which will ring 
a bell when the battery is fully charged. 
A glass tube bent as shown and hav- 
ing a small bulb near its upper end is 
inserted in the top of the cell, a small 
quantity of mercury being first intro- 
duced in the bend below the bulb. 
Wires extend down the upper tubing 
to within a short distance of the mer- 
cury. These wires are connected with 
binding posts so mounted that they can 
rest on top of the tube, whereupon the 
bell circuit is completed as shown. 
Small quantities of gas may develop 




The Gas Generated by a Filled Storage Battery will 
Make Electric Connections and Sound an Alarm 

during the charging of the cell, but if 
a small hole is pierced in the tube be- 
tween the mercury and the cell, this 
gas will not exert pressure enough on 
the mercury to push it up and connect 
it with the wires, which will take place 
first when the development of gas be- 
comes very active at the coinpletion of 
the recharging. 



Stretching Poultry Fencing 

The woven-wire poultry fencing is 
an unusually difficult thing to handle 
and fasten on posts so that it will be 
taut and evenly stretched. The best 
method I have ever seen for drawing 
this fencing and holding it for nailing 



to a post is the use of the device shown 
in the sketch. It consists of a board, 
as long as the fencing is wide, with 



Board Fitted with 
Screw Hooks and a 
Pulling Device for 
Stretching Poultry 
Fencing on Posts 



screw hooks set far enough apart to 
catch into the meshes of the wire, and 
a crosspiece attached to the board by 
pieces of rope at the ends and provided 
with a pulling loop in the center. — 
Contributed by Joseph C. Laackman, 
Meadow Brook, Pa. 



A Centering Gauge 

The centering gauge consists of a 
piece of celluloid on which several 
circles are drawn having different 
diameters, but all drawn from the same 
center. A small hole is made at the 
center to admit the point of a center 
punch. Two sets of circles may be 
drawn on one piece as shown, but the 
lines should be spaced far enough 
apart to allow the metal to be clearly 
seen through the celluloid. The sheet 
is placed on the end of a shaft and 
adjusted so that a ring will match the 
circumference of the shaft, then the 
center punch is set in the center hole 




Circles Drawn on Celluloid to Adjust It 
on the End of a Shaft in Finding the Center 

and struck with a hammer. The center 
punch for marking is shown in the 
sketch. — Contributed by Harry Hoist, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



254 



Homemade Letters for Marking Bags 

An initial marker for bags can be 
made of a beet or potato. Cut ofif 
enough of the vege- 
table to provide a 
flat surface of suf- 
ficient size and then 
cut out the letter as 
shown in the sketch, 
and use shoe black- 
ing as ink. In cut- 
ting, remember that 
most of the letters 
must be made reversed in order to 
print right. For example, in making a 
B, draw it out on paper and cut it out, 
then lay the face of the pattern on the 
flat surface of the vegetable and cut 
around it. 




To Keep a Crease in a Soft Hat 

The crease in a soft hat can be kept 
in proper shape with the aid of a 
paper clip. The clip is slipped over 




Paper Clip on the Fold, Holding It in the Right Shape 
for the Outside Crease 

the fold inside of the hat which forms 
the bottom part of the crease. — Con- 
tributed by Jas. M. Kane, Doylestown, 
Pennsylvania. 



A Shoe Scraper 

A good boot and shoe scraper for 
a step can be made of a worn-out and 
discarded broom. 
Cut ofi the 
straws and 
strings as shown 
in the sketch, al- 
lowing one 
string to hold 
them together, 
and make the notch the width of the 




shoe. Tie the extending ends together, 
and mount the whole on a suitable 
block, or, if desired, a hole can be 
bored in the step to receive the handle, 
and the scraper thus securely attached. 
This makes an effective scraper for 
the liottom as well as the sides of shoes 
of almost any size. — Contributed by 
Jno. V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind. 



A Vegetable Slicer 

A tin bucket or can makes a good 
slicer for vegetables when no other 
slicer is at hand. A 
number of slots are cut 
across one side of the 
can, and the lower edge 
of each slot slightly 
turned out to form a 
cutting edge. The vege- 
table is placed against 
the top of the can and 
pushed down over the 
slots. Each slot will cut ofif a slice 
which falls inside of the can. 




Bench Stop for Planing Thin Boards 

A bench stop for planing thin boards 
with a hand plane may be made in 
the following manner: Procure a piece 
of strap iron 
a b o u t 14 in. ,a 

thick, 11/0 or 2 
in. wide, and 
about 6 in. long. 
File or grind 
one edge sharp 
on top and drill 







— ■ ~-~- — 7 




(."■■; 

: 


\ 




— 



a ^/4-in. hole 
through the 
center. Cut a 
slot in a board 
or in the work- 
bench large enough to receive the stop 
A flat. Place enough strips of rubber 
or fit two coil springs, B, to raise the 
sharp edge out of the slot. Insert a 
screw in the hole of the stop and ad- 
just it to the desired height by turn- 
ing the screw up or down. 



CIn a case of emergency, lemon juice 
may be used as soldering flux. 



255 



A Jardiniere Pedestal 

The pedestal may be made of any 
close-grained wood, such as basswood 
or maple, if the stain is to be walnut 
or mahogany, but it can also be con- 
structed of quarter-sawed oak and 
finished in a waxed mission or var- 
nished surface. The material required 
is as follows: 

1 top. 12 by 12 by V, in.. 5-2-S. 

2 caps. 6 by 6 by 7s in.. S 2-S. 

1 upright. 18 by 4 by 4 in.. S-4-S. 
1 base. 8 by 8 by % in.. S 2-S. 

The top is centered and a circle, 11% 
in. in diameter, is drawn upon it, and 
sawn out. The caps are also centered 
and circles drawn upon them, SV^ in. 
and 3% in. in diameter. Saw them out 
on the larger circles and center them 
in a wood lathe and turn out the wood 
in the smaller circles to a depth of % 
in. The upright is then centered in the 
lathe and turned to 3I/2 '"• in diameter 
for its full length. 

The base and foot pieces are cut out 
as shown, fitted together and fastened 
with screws from the under side. One 
of the caps is mounted in the center 
on the base and the other cap in the 
center on the under side of the top. 
The upright is then placed in the 
turned-out parts of the caps and either 
glued or fastened with screws. 

If light wood is used, the finish can 
be walnut or mahogany. A very 



w/M/////////////////////m 




-ij— i r-'- jyl" 




The Pedestal can be Made of a \Vood Suitable 
for Finishing to Match Other Furniture 

prett}' finish can be worked out in 
pyrography, if one is familiar with that 
work. — Contributed by Russell T. 
Westbrook, Dover, N. J. 



A Lawn-Tennis Marker 

The liquid receptacle is a metal bis- 
cuit box, about 9 in. square and 
mounted on a wheel with a handle, the 





A Marker That 
will Make a 
Clear, White 
Line on the 
Ground for a 
Tennis Court 



whole being similar to a wheelbarrow. 
The wheel is 7 in. in diameter and 21/4 
in. thick. The wheel and box are 
bolted between two pieces of strap iron 
in the manner shown, and the handle 
is attached back of the box. If the box 
is of very thin metal, boards should 
be placed within on the sides where it 
is fastened to the strap iron. A roller 
is pivoted in the box at the lower back 
corner and a canvas tape or band run 
over the roller and wheel in the man- 
ner of a belt. The tape should run 
through a slot cut in the front part of 
the box, about midway between the top 
and the l)ottom. The edges of the tin 
in the slot must be turned over and 
hammered down to make a smooth 
surface for the tape to run over. — 
Contributed by George N. Bertram, 
Toronto, Can. 



Removing Tannin Stains from Teacups 

A small portion of hyposulphite of 
soda mixed with vinegar will make a 
good cleaner for teacups having tannin 
stains. This process does not injure 
the finest china and is inexpensive. The 
same solution works quite well on 
clothes that are accidentally stained 
with tea. They should be washed out 
and dried quickly after its application 
in order to make this method most ef- 
fective. — Contributed by Loren Ward, 
Des Moines, Iowa. 



256 



Woven-Top Stool 

The material necessary for this stool 
is as follows: 

4 legs, 1% by 1% bv 10 in. 

4 bottom rails, % by 1 % by 16 in. 

4 top rails. % by 2 by IRiA in. 

4 diagonal braces, % by.l^ by 6 in. 




Weaving the Top of the Stool by Using 
a Wet Weaver of Reed 



SECTION A-B Hjjlh, 




"M 


mt^ m\\- 






1 


[ 


\H 


,;, 


5" 

1 





1 — r 

3'/4- 



Construction of the Frame and Manner of Laying 
the Weavers for the Top 



C- -r 







The legs are mortised so the top rails 
come level. The upper rails are 
tenoned on the sides only and beveled 
at the ends. For the bottom rails, the 
mortises are made one above the other, 
the rails being tenoned on all sides. 
The braces are cut at 45° on each end 
and glued into place. 

In weaving the top, proceed as fol- 
lows : Use a wet weaver and wrap one 
layer over the entire top, the strips 
being placed close together and tightly 
wound. Start the second layer at right 
angles to the first by going under one 
strip, then over three strips, under 
three, and so on, by threes, until that 
strip is finished. Start the second by 
going under two strips, then over 
three, under three, and so on, as before. 
The third strip should start by going 
under three, then over and under three, 
etc. Start the fourth by going over 
one, then under three, and over three, 
as in the preceding; the fifth, start 
over two, then under and over three, 
repeatedly. The sixth, and last of the 
series, begin over three and then con- 
tinue, by threes, as before. Having 
finished one series, the remainder of 
the top should be completed in similar 
order. Good white shellac makes the 
best finish for the seat ; the stool itself 
may be finished to suit. — Contributed 
by Russel Dodsworth, Erie, Pa. 



Preserving Shafting from Rust and 
Corrosion 

In a laboratory it was very difficult 
to keep the line shaft and countershafts 
bright and free from rust, owing to the 
fumes and gases issuing from the sev- 
eral fume closets within the same room. 
The following method was tried, and 
proved very satisfactory. The shafting 
was covered with two coats of flat white 
paint and allowed to dry, after whicli a 
coat of white enamel was applied, giv- 
ing it a clean, glossy, and sanitary ap- 
pearance. This eliminated all the trou- 
ble of cleaning it with emery cloth, and 
it also made it appear in harmony with 
the other furnishings of the laboratory. 
— Contributed by Geo. F. Stark, Nor- 
wich, N. Y. 




A Reed Basket 



TNASMUCH as there is a great de- 
■'• mand for reed furniture and since 
good weavers are comparatively few 
in number, it would be well to learn 
the process of reed weaving. The 
weaving operations can be 
learned much better through 
the construction of some 
small article, such as a basket 
or jardinere cover. The cen- 
ter is the most difficult part of 
the basket making, and it is 
best to begin with wood bot- 
toms, as the whole basket can 
be kept in a much better form 
due to the stiffness furnished 
by such a bottom. It is also 
an approach to the reed furni- 
ture which is woven on frame- 
work. The objectionable fea- 
ture of the wood bottoms is 
the unfinished appearance of 
the wood edge show- 
ing through, but this 
can be overcome by 
the use of the roll 
shown in the illus- 
tration. 

WHiile the wood 
bottoms have been 








used for this class of work for a num- 
ber of years, the roll is new and is 
very popular with those who have 
seen and used it. The roll can be placed 
in many ways on different-shaped bas- 
kets, and other reed pieces, 
so that it is best to master this 
piece of work thoroughly be- 
fore attempting the other, or 
larger, pieces that will be de- 
scribed later, in other articles. 
The description is for a bas- 
ket 5 in. in diameter and 3 in. 
high, as shown in the illustra- 
tion. A disk of wood, i/i in. 
thick and 5 in. in diameter, is 
required. Basswood makes 
the best bottom, but pine, or 
cedar, will do. Cut a board 
about 6 in. square, and draw 
diagonal lines on it intersect- 
ing at the center, then draw a 
circle, 5 in. in diameter, 
as shown in Fig. 1 ; 
also another circle, 
using the same center, 
4% in. in diameter. Set 
compass points about 
% in. apart, and step 
off spaces on the inner 




258 



circle to make 24 points. This will 
haxe to be tried out more than once, 
to get the spaces to come out evenly 
and just have the right number of 
points. Holes are bored with a ^-in. 
bit, just inside of the inner circle, back 
of the places marked by the compass 
points, as shown in Fig. 2. Cut the 
board on the outside circle with a 
coping, or turn, saw, to make the cir- 
cle, as in Fig. 3. Do not saw out the 
circle before boring the holes, as other- 
wise the disk might split out in places. 
The reeds placed vertically are called 
spokes, and the horizontal ones are 
the weavers. For the spokes, what is 
called a No. 4 reed is used. Do not wet 
the spokes before putting them through 
the wood. Allow the ends to project 
about 51/^ in. below the bottom, as 
shown in Fig. 4. Place the bottom, 
with the spokes, in water, and soak 
them thoroughly, especially the part 
below the bottom. About 15 minutes 
of soaking will be sufficient to make 



them pliable enough to bend over at 
right angles. It will not injure the 
wood bottom to soak it with the reeds. 
As shown at A, Figs. 4 and 5, each 
spoke below the wood bottom is bent 
down and back of the two nearest 
spokes, B and C, then out between the 
third and fourth spokes, C and D, and 
so on. The last two spokes, Y and Z, 
Fig. 6, are forced under the spokes A 
and B, respectively. In this illustra- 
tion the spoke Y is shown as it is being 
inserted under the spoke A. When 
this operation is completed, the bottom 
will have the appearance of a fireworks 
pinwheel. 

Continue the bending of the spokes., 
in the same direction, up and across 
the thickness of the wood in front of 
three other spokes and behind the 
fourth, as shown in Fig. 7. This would 
not cover the edge of the wood entirely, 
and, for this reason, other short spokes 
must be inserted in front of each of 
the first ones before it is brought up 




Fitt.5 



Fic.6 



The Bottom is Cut from a Piece of Wood to Give Strength and to Avoid the Most Difficult Part of the 
Weaving; the Reeds are Attached to the Bottom and Their Lower Ends Bent as Shown 



259 



across the edge of the wood. These a weaver is used up, press it back to 
supplementary spokes should be about the side a little, push in a new reed 
4 in. long. The manner of inserting about II/2 in., and continue the weav- 




Fie.i2 

^FiG.IO X "^ Fig. II A B C D E 

The Lower Ends of the Spokes are Turned to Cover the Edge of the Bottom. Then the Reeds 

are Woven into the Upright Spokes to the Right Height, Where They are 

Broken Down and Woven into a Top Border 



these spokes before making the bend is 
shown at G and T, Fig. 6. The double 
spokes must be pressed down flat, when 
brought up in place, without riding one 
on the other. If the ends are too long 
and interfere with the next pair, they 
can be cut ofif a little with a flat chisel, 
or knife, being careful not to make 
them too short, or the pieces will not 
stay in place. If there is still an open 
space, an extra, short spoke can be in- 
serted to crowd the pieces together and 
fill up the space. 

When the roll is completed, insert 
three weavers, of No. 3 reed that has 
been soaked about 15 minutes, placing 
them between the spokes A and B, B 
and C, and C and D, as shown in Fig. 

8. Pass weaver L in front of the 
spokes B and C, then back of D and 
out between D and E. Weaver M is 
passed in front of C and D, back of E 
and out in front of E and F. These 
operations are clearly shown in Fig. 

9. The weaver N is placed in front of 
D and E, back of F and then in front 
of G and H. At this point the weaver 
L is used again. The weaver farthest 
behind each time is brought in front 
of the two spokes nearest to it, then 
behind the third and out in front of the 
next two spokes. Do not try to use 
weavers longer than 8 ft., which is 
about half the length of a reed. When 



ing. This is clearly shown in Fig. 10. 
This weaving is known as the triple 
weave, which cinches down well and 
holds tightly. The first round should 
be carefully worked, so as to get the 
ends of the roll properly pressed down 
flat in place. Each throw of the weaver 
should be well pressed down. 

The break-down-tight border is used 
for the finish at the top. The first 
operation in making this border is 
shown in Fig. 11. The spoke A is bent 
over back of spoke B and out between 
spokes B and C. The spoke B is bent 
over back of the spoke C and out be- 
tween C and D, and so on, until the 
spoke E is turned down. Then take 
the end of the spoke A, Fig. 13, and 
lay it over B, C, D, and E, in front of 
F, back of G, and out between G and 
H. The end of spoke F is then brought 
down, also between G and H, but back 
of the end of A. The end of B takes 
a similar leap, passes behind H and 
out between H and J ; then G is brought 
down behind the end of B, in the same 
manner as F was brought down back 
of A. The last four or five spokes are 
the most difficult to handle, as they 
must be forced through the first ones 
to correspond with those already in 
place. It is best not to pull the ends 
of A, B, C, and D down too tightly at 
first, keeping in mind that the last ones 



260 



must be inserted under the first ones. 
The last standing spokes are repre- 
sented by the full and shaded lines. 

If the roll illustrated in Figs. 11 and 
12 is too difficult, a simple break-down 
can be used, such as shown in Fig. 13. 
To make this finish, spoke A is turned 
back of spoke B, in front of spoke C 
and back of spoke D, but not out again. 
Spoke B is bent back of C, in front of 
D, and back of E. The others are 
turned down the same way. The 
manner in which the two last spokes 
are turned down and inserted is shown, 
by the double dotted lines. 

The remainder of the illustrations 
show the method of forming a roll 
between the first and second spokes, 
where only three spokes are turned 
down before the throwing-across proc- 
ess begins. The first three spokes 
turned down are shown in Fig. 14, 
and the throwing over, in Fig. 15. 
The second beginning is shown in 
Fig. 16. The finishing of this top is 
shown in Figs. 17 and 18. The full, 
heavy lines represent the final inser- 
tions, and the reed must be in quite a 
sharp loop to make the end enter the 
right place. It is then drawn down 
and forced in front of the other reed 
that passes out between the same 
spokes. 

When the basket is dry, the long 
ends can be cut ofi^ close up with a 



other, flame that will not smut. If it 
requires bleaching, brush some chloride 
of lime, mixed in a little water, over 
the reeds and set in the sunlight for 
a short time. It is better to leave the 
finish a little dark rather than use 
too much bleaching, as the latter will 
give an objectionable whitish appear- 
ance that looks like a poor job of 
painting. 

In working the reeds, do not leave 
them in the water longer than neces- 
sary, as this will turn them dark. A 
bleached reed will stand the water 
much longer than in the natural state. 
Dampen the reed frequently while 
weaving it, as the weavers pack down 
much closer when wet. The dampgn- 
ing process is also required to remedy 
the drying out caused by whisking the 
reeds through the air in weaving ope- 
rations. A great variety of baskets 
can be made from this form, viz., low, 
tall, tapering vase forms, bowl shapes, 
etc., in plain or dark weaves. 



Wireless-Lighted Lamp Deception 

Window displays of puzzling nature 
usually draw crowds. A lighted globe 
lying on its side in full view, yet ap- 
parently not connected to any source of 
electricity, could easily be arranged as 
a window display, deceiving the closest 
observer. A mirror, or window glass, 




C D 



A Simple Break-Down Roll for the Top. Also a Method of Forming a Roll between the First and Second 
Spokes Where Only Three Spokes are Turned Down Before the Throwing-Across Process Begins 

knife, being careful not to cut a weaver, backed with some opaque material. 
If there are hairv fibers sticking out should be used for the foundation of 
they can be singed ofiE over a gas, or the device. For the display lamp, it is 



261 



best to use a 25 or 40-watt tungsten, as 
these will lie flatter on the glass than 
the larger sizes, and the deception will 
not be as easily discovered. The place 
where the brass cap of the lamp 
touches the glass should be marked 
and a small hole drilled through to the 
wire connecting the tungsten filament 
to the plug on the top of the lamp. At 
any suitable place, a hole should be 
drilled in the glass plate, no larger than 
is necessary, to permit two small cot- 
ton-covered magnet wires to pass 
through. One of the wires should be 
looped, passed through the hole in the 
cap and hooked onto the bare wire con- 
necting with the plug on top of lamp. 
The other wire should be fastened to 
the brass cap, near the drilled hole, 
after which the lamp may be placed in 
position and the two wires connected 
to a source of electricity. If proper 
care has been taken and no crosses oc- 



WINDOW GLASS> 



■i^ 



£^ 


-J^&y^ 


_^_-f|^ 


^ 




TpiP 












^^i= 


^ 











An Electric Globe Lighted on a Piece ot Glass 
Makes a Good Window Attraction 

cur, the lamp will light, and if the dis- 
play is placed in the proper surround- 
ings, it will prove very deceiving. To 
protect against a fuse blow-out from 
a short circuit, it is advisable to run 
another lamp in series with the display 
lamp, as shown. — Contributed by Clyde 
W. Epps, Mineola, Tex. 



Live Bait Used in Fishing 

With the simple device illustrated, 
no fisherman need worry over running 
short of bait or even regarding the 
usual repeated baiting of the hook. A 
small clear-glass bottle should be pro- 
ctired, and several hooks wired to it 
about the neck, or at each end, as de- 
sired or found best after several trials. 
After filling the bottle with water a 
live minnow is placed in it, and the bot- 
tle is sealed with a cork, which is 



notched around the edge to permit wa- 
ter to enter or leave the bottle without 
the bait. If live grasshoppers. 



losing 




The Bait is Kept Alive and Unharmed in a Bottle 
Surrounded with Hooks 

or similar bait, is desired the cork can 
be used unnotched to form a water- 
tight stopper. As illuminated bait for 
night fishing, several fireflies can be put 
in the bottle. — Contributed by L. Wah- 
rer, Tifiin, Ohio. 



Bookrack 

The material necessary for the illus- 
trated bookrack is as follows : 

2 end pieces, ^ by 5^ by 6 in. 
1 shelf, 5i by 5J4 by 13 in. 

The shelf is cut rectangular, 51/1 in. 
wide by 141/2 in. long. Its two ends 
should then be provided with tenons % 
in. thick by 4I/4 in. wide, and extending 
out i/i inch. 

The end pieces, after being cut to the 
given dimensions, are marked off and 
I" I 
11 




A Bookrack That can be Made in Any Wood 
to Match Other Furniture 

cut out for mortises to fit the shelf 
tenons. 

In assembling the parts, they are 



262 



glued in place, and clamped with hand 
screws until the glue has set. Any of 
the good mission stains, properly ap- 
plied, will give a finished appearance to 
the bookrack. 



A Paper Gas Pipe 

When one fits up an attic or a back 
room as a workshop, it is seldom that 
a gas connection is available on about 



Z) PAPER STRIP 



METHOD OF ROLLING 



^ 




CROSS SECTION OF JOINT 

The Tube is Run Out Horizontally from the Chan- 
deher to the Wall Where the Drop is Connected 

the same level as the workbench so 
that a Bunsen burner and soldering 
apparatus may be operated. To install 
the standard gas pipe, it would be 
necessary either to alter the chandelier 
connection or to tear up some of the 
plaster, the former plan resulting in 
a rather conspicuous display of pipe 
and the latter in considerable expense. 
The following method permits the roll- 
ing of a pipe, about the size of a lead 
pencil, from paper that becomes so stiff 
that it is almost impossible to crush 
it between the thumb and fingers. This 
small inconspicuous pipe may be run 
directly from the side of the valve on 
the chandelier to the wall, as shown 
in the sketch, thence down some corner 



formed by a door jamb or window 
frame, which protects it and renders it 
almost unnoticeable. 

A good grade of tough Manila paper 
should be procured and cut into strips, 
about 18 in. long and wide enough to 
build up a tube at least J^ in. in 
diameter. This will require from 4 to 
6 in., according to the thickness of the 
paper. A piece of i/4-in. round iron or 
hard wood, 20 in. long, is procured and 
carefully oiled or greased. Apply a 
coat of strong fish glue to one of these 
pieces of paper, omitting a strip along 
one edge, about 1 in. wide. Using the 
outspread fingers of each hand, begin 
with the unglued edge and roll the 
paper around the wood. As it is im- 
possible to get the paper uniformly 
tight with the fingers, select a smooth 
place on the table and then roll the 
newly formed tube forward by means 
of a piece of board, as shown in the 
illustration. On the return stroke lift 
the board. In this way it is possible 
to get a tight, smooth tube. Immedi- 
ately withdraw the core, twisting it 
slightly in a reverse direction if it 
tends to stick. Before using the core 
again, make sure it is free from glue 
and regrease it. When a sufficient 
number of tubes have been made and 
hardened, neatly trim the ends ofif 
squarely, and then form an equal num- 
ber of short tubes, about 2 in. long, by 
winding a strip of glued paper on a 
large wire nail until a diameter is 
reached that will fit snugly into the 
pipes already made. The joints may 
then be set up with strong glue and 
finally wrapped with two thicknesses 
of paper on the outside. The construc- 
tion of these joints is shown in the 
cross section. 

The connection with the chandelier 
can be made by means of a metal tube 
soldered in at a point where the regu- 
lar valve will cut ofif all connection 
with the paper piping when it is not 
in use. This metal tube should be 
coated with thick shellac, and the paper 
tube slipped over it for 1 in. or more, 
after which the joint should be given 
several additional coats on the outside. 
A small regulating gas cock can be 



263 



attached to the lower end of the piping, 
and if this is rigidly fastened to the 
wall, or casing, the connecting and 
disconnecting of the rubber tubing will 
not disturb the piping in any way. — 
Contributed by John D. Adams. 



Rubbing Slats for a Washing Board 

In an emergency, and to substitute 
something for a broken glass rubbing 
plate on an ordinary washing board, I 
fitted a series of %-in. dowels horizon- 
tally across the board, closely together. 
This proved to be better than glass or 
zinc, as fabrics adhered to the wood 
dowels and caused them to revolve, 
making a more desirable rubbing sur- 
face and accomplishing the work of 
loosening the dirt in the fabric with far 
less effort than that necessary on the 
metal or glass board. — Contributed by 
H. M. Spamer, Vineland, N. J. 



Catching Bugs Attracted by Light 

Bugs, moths, and insects attracted 
by lights on summer evenings can be 
caught by means of sticky fly paper, 
suspended as 
shades around 
the lamps. Cuts 
in the shade al- 
low the greater 
portion of the 
light to pass 
through and at- 
tract the bugs, 
which will sure- 
ly be caught as 
theytravel about 
the light onto 
It is advisable to 
at the same time 
from a double sheet of the sticky pa- 
per, pasted, as when bought, with the 
sticky faces together so that the shades 
may be cut and handled easier. — Con- 
tributed by John J. Kolar, Maywood, 
Illinois. 




the sticky paper, 
make two shades 



Needle Box for Talking Machines 

An empty cigarette box can be easily 
changed to a useful container for talk- 
ing-machine needles, as shown in the 




Three Compartments are Provided with Sloping 
Bottoms in a Neat Box for the Needles 

sketch. Take a fairly heavy card, trim 
it to the same length as the box, then 
bend and crease it, as shown at A, and 
glue the short, upright side to the in- 
side of the box. Cut another card to 
the shape B, so that the depth C equals 
the inside depth of the box, and the side 
D is as long as its width. The side E 
should equal the inclined length of the 
card A, and is glued upon it when B is 
in position. The three compartments 
may be suitably labeled as indicated. — 
Contributed by V. A. Rettich, New 
York, N. Y. 



COilcans should be marked to indicate 
the kind of oil in them. 



Trick of Taking Dollar Bill from Apple 

A rather pleasing, yet puzzling, de- 
ception is to pass a dollar bill into the 
interior of an examined lemon or apple. 
This can be accomplished in several 
ways, either mechanically or purely 
by sleight of hand. The mechanical 



264 



method, of course, is the easier and 
really just as effective. In performing, 
a plate with three apples is first ex- 




The Dollar Bill is Hidden in 
tie Knife Handle That Cuts the Apple 



hibited, and the audience is given choice 
of any one for use in the experiment. 
The selected one is tossed out for ex- 
amination and then returned to the per- 
former, who places it in full view of the 
spectators while he makes the dollar 
bill vanish. Taking the knife he cuts 
the apple into two pieces, requesting 
the audience to select one of them. 
Squeezing this piece he extracts the dol- 
lar bill therefrom. The entire secret is 
in the unsuspected article — the table 
knife. 

The knife is prepared by boring out 
the wooden handle to make it hollow. 
Enough space must be made to hold a 
dollar bill. The knife lies on the plate 
with the fruit, the open end facing the 
performer. After the bill has been 
made to vanish and the examined ap- 
ple returned to the entertainer, he takes 
it and cuts it in half. One of the halves 
is chosen, the performer impaling it on 
the end of the knife blade and holding 
it out to view. While still holding the 
knife he turns the blade downward and 



grasps the half apple and crushes it 
with a slight pass toward the knife- 
handle end where the bill is grasped 
along with the apple, which makes a 
perfect illusion of taking the bill out of 
the apple. 

As to the disappearance of the dollar 
bill, there are many ways in which this 
may be accomplished. Perhaps the 
method requiring the least practice is 
to place the bill in the trousers pocket, 
and then show the audience that the 
latter is empty. This can be done by 
rolling the bill to small compass, and 
pushing it into the extreme upper cor- 
ner of the pocket where it will remain 
undetected while the pocket is pulled 
out for inspection. Other combinations 
can be arranged with the use of the 
knife, which is simple to make and ver/ 
inexpensive. 



Guide for Making Buttonholes 

It is almost impossible to make a 
perfect buttonhole in the ordinary man- 
ner by hand without a guide. The 
illustration shows a very simple guide 
that can be easily made by anyone. 
Procure two pieces of tin, or sheet 
brass, cut them as shown, and drill 
holes in them large enough for a needle, 
so that it will be easy to fasten them 
to the cloth with basting thread. Cut 
the buttonhole slot, then punch a hole 
at the end with an ordinary belt punch. 
Such a punch can be purchased from 
a local hardware dealer in any size. In 
making the buttonhole stitch, keep the 





The Form of the Buttonhole is Cut in the Edges 
of the Two Pieces of Metal 

needle close against the metal edge of 
the guide, as shown. — Contributed by 
A. L. Kerbaugh, Allentown, Pa. 



CAn easy way to put varnish in the 
grooves of a tennis racket is to use a 
medicine dropper. 



A Child's Playhouse 



The child's playhouse is an expen- 
sive luxury, if it is purchased ready to 
set up, but by following the instruc- 
tions given herewith a large and in- 
expensive one may be con- 
structed. 

Procure about 100 ft. of 1% 
by li/i>-in. boards, and saw out 
pieces, as shown. With the 
use of iron brackets instead of 
nails, it will be found much 
easier to construct than if the 
corners are mortised and nailed 
or glued. The frame will also 
be much stronger. 

When the frame is com- 
pleted, burlap is tacked on to 
make the covering. The bur- 
lap can be purchased cheaply, 
and the best color to use is 
either green, red or brown. 
This material should be fast- 
ened on the different sections 
before they are hinged to- 
gether. To prevent the burlap 



from unraveling, turn the edges under 
before tacking them down. 





The Covered Framework can be 
Used In or Outdoors, as Desired, 
and When Set Up and the Wings 
Swung Back, It Presents the 
Appearance of a House 



V-HINGE HINGE-V 

Fig 2 



.OWNING 
FRAME 



WINDOW 
FRAME 



Fig 3 

The Entire Framework is Held Together with Brackets, and is Hinged at the Joints, so That It can be 

Folded Up and Put into a Small Space, the Sections being Covered with Colored Burlap to 

Make Them Appear Solid. On the Right is Shown the Awning-Frame Construction 

363 



266 



A piece of wire screen is used for the 
door. An old piece will do, if it is well 
coated with black or dark-green paint. 
It is then tacked on the inside of the 
door. Fasten the different parts to- 
gether with the hinges. The hinges 
are fastened on the inside of the side 
wings, and on the outside of the two 
front pieces. With the hinges placed 
in this manner, the house can be folded 
into a small space. 



For the one built by the writer, green 
burlap was used, and by trimming the 
door and window frames along the 
edges with white paint a very pretty 
effect was produced. 

A small awning was made over the 
window, which improved the appear- 
ance very much. Roller shades on the 
door and window and an electric door 
bell completed a very neat and practi- 
cal playhouse. 



Removing Basketball from Closed- 
Bottom Receptacle 

The closed-bottom basket used in the 
game of basketball is so high that it 
is difficult to remove the ball after a 




The Iron Rod in the Basket Throvvs the Ball Out 
When the Rope is Pulled 

goal is made. Generally a long stick 
is used for this purpose, but I desired 
to have a better way, and the device 
shown in the illustration was the out- 
come. A light iron rod was hinged 
to the edge of the basket and bent to 
its inner shape, the lower end resting 
at about the center of the basket. A 
rope was attached to the lower end 



and run up and over a sheave pulley 
attached to the basket support, then 
down so it could be easily grasped. 
When a goal is made, it is only neces- 
sary to give a pull on the rope for 
throwing the ball out of the ba.sket. — 
Contributed by Annie B. Currine, San 
Diego, Cal. 



Testing Dry Batteries 

For testing dry batteries or any low- 
voltage current, take an ordinary ther- 
mometer and wind around the mercury 
bulb enough wire to make about 10 
ohms resistance. This will make a 
good tester. A dry cell of about 2 volts 
attached to the ends of the wire should 
generate enough heat to expand the 
mercury about four degrees in one- 
half minute. 

This tester is not as fast as a volt- 
meter, nor has it as wide a range, but 
it is reasonably accurate, and by using 
a battery of known voltage, the wind- 
ing can be increased or diminished to 
allow the mercury to expand as many 
degrees as desired per volt. — Con- 
triluited by E. H. Kimbrough, Bart- 
lett, Kan. 



A Wall-Paper Cleaner 

To 1 qt. of flour add about 2 oz. of 
90-per-cent ammonia and enough luke- 
warm water to make a dough. Wipe 
the paper with this preparation while 
turning and kneading it as in making 
dough. This will take up the dirt and 
a clean side is always presented to the 
paper. — Contributed by F. C. Myer, 
Tacoma, Wash. 



A Trunk Mystery 



Doubtless every person has seen the 
trunk mystery, the effect of which is as 
follows: A trunk, mounted upon four 
legs, is brought out on the stage and 
proven to be empty by turning it all 
the way around to show that there is 
nothing on the back, whereupon pieces 
of plate glass are placed along the back, 
sides, and front, the trunk is closed and 



same size as the panel attached to its 
bottom, forming a right angle, the cor- 
ner of which is hinged to the bottom 
of the trunk. The back panel can be 
turned in until it rests on the bottom 
of the trunk and, when this is done, 
the shelf part rises and takes its place, 
making the back of the trunk appear 
solid. 




A Shelf and Panel Set at Right Angles to 
Form a Place at the Back for the Assistant 
to Conceal Herself, No Matter Which Way 
the Trunk is Turned to Face the Audience 

given a swift turn and then opened, 
when to the amazement of all, a lady 
steps out appearing to come from no- 
where. The secret of this trick is very 
simple, and the trunk can be made up 
very cheaply. 

In the back of the trunk there is a 
movable panel with a shelf exactly the 



When the trunk 
is brought out 
upon the stage, the as- 
sistant is crouching on 
the shelf. The trunk can 
then be shown empty. 
This is all very simple 
until the trunk is turned 
around when it takes 
skill not to give the trick 
away. As soon as the 
performer starts to turn the trunk 
around, the assistant shifts her weight 
on the panel, thus causing it to fall in- 
ward and bring the shelf up to make 
the back appear solid. The assistant is 
now in the trunk, and the back can be 
shown clear of any apparatus. When 
the trunk is turned to the front again, 



367 



268 



the lady repeats the previous opera- 
tion in the opposite direction, thus 
bringing her body to the back of the 
trunk again. 

To make the trick appear more diffi- 
cult, glass plates are made to insert in 
the ends, front and back of the trunk. 
In making the trunk, have the back the 
same size as the bottom. Fit the piece 
of glass for the back into a light frame, 
similar to a window frame. This frame 
is hinged to the bottom of the trunk 
and is i/o in. smaller all around than 
the back of the trunk, so that the two 
pieces of glass can be put in the ends 
and also allow the back frame and glass 



to fall flush in the bottom of the trunk. 
A few rubber bumpers are fastened in 
the bottom of the trunk to catch the 
glass without noise as it falls. The 
best way to work this is for the per- 
former to let the frame down with his 
right hand while he is closing up the 
front with his left. 

As soon as the trunk is closed, the 
assistant again shifts her weight to 
cause the panel to fall in and then the 
trunk can be turned to show the back, 
or whirled around and turned to the 
front again, then opened up, whereupon 
the assistant steps out, bows to the 
audience, and leaves the stage. 



How to Make a Candy-Floss Machine 

Every person is familiar with candy 
floss, made at stands on fair grounds, 
or carnivals, in an expensive whirling 




The Disk is Driven by a Small Battery Motor and 
Melted Sugar is Spun Out into Floss 

machine. It is not necessary to wait 
for a fair or a carnival to have a bunch 
of candy floss, as it can be made at 



home much quicker than making tafify 
candy. 

The device for making the candy 
floss consists of ordinary things that 
can be had in any home, and usually a 
boy has a battery motor of some kind 
that will furnish the power. 

Procure a tin pan, the shape of an 
ordinary dish pan and of medium size; 
cut a hole about one-half the diameter 
of the pan in the bottom and solder 
in a conical-shaped piece similar to a 
cake pan, allowing it to extend up in- 
side about half the height of the pan. 
Fasten supports to the pan so that a 
Bunsen burner can be set under it 
where the flame will pass through the 
conical center opening. 

Mount a small battery motor with 
its shaft vertical, pulley end up, and 
centering the conical hole, on a base, 
which supports the pan. Procure a can 
cover, similar to that used on cofTee 
cans, and fasten it with solder to the 
pulley on the motor shaft, being care- 
ful to locate it centrally so that it will 
run smoothly. 

Close to the bottom and in the rim 
of the can cover, make a number of 
small holes with a prickpunch, or other 
sharp-pointed tool. Wire the motor to 
the battery, and the candy-tloss ma- 
chine is ready for use. 

Light the burner, start the motor, 
and pour a little granulated sugar in 
the revolving can cover. As the sugar 
is melted, it will be spun out in floss 



269 



form through the small holes into the 
pan receiver. — Contributed by Herbert 
Hahn, Chicago, 111. 



Enlarging Pictures 

A very simple and sufficiently ac- 
curate way of enlarging pictures by 
means of a pencil holder and elastic is 
shown in the illustration. The picture 
to be enlarged is fastened to a table top 
or drawing board, and the paper on 
which it is to be drawn is placed di- 
rectly below it. A small brad or tack 
is driven into the board at A, the loca- 
tion depending on the desired size of 
the enlarged picture, and the elastic is 
attached to it. The pencil holder B is 
fastened to the other end of the elastic 
over the drawing paper. A pointer, or 
a knot, is placed in the elastic at C. 
The pencil holder consists of a stick of 
wood turned into a handle with a hole 
bored centrally for a pencil. 

In use, the pencil is moved over 




The Size of the Enlarged Picture Depends on the 

Length of the Elastic and the Spacing 

of Pencil and Pointer 

the drawing paper while the knot or 
pointer is watched, to keep it following 
the lines of the original drawing. The 
stretch of the elastic is sufficient to en- 
large the parts equally, as well verti- 
cally as horizontally. — Contributed by 
Wm. Weitzsacker, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Distance Chart for Wireless Stations 

The amateur wireless telegrapher 
may be troubled more or less regard- 
ing distances from other stations. The 
-difficulty can be overcome by follow- 
ing a plan similar to that of a parcel- 



post map. A map should be selected 
covering the desired territory. With 
the home station as center, circles 





';^. r f'-\ 






/ 




^A^)!?^ 




i \ \\i f^ 

1 \ \?X v^ 




\ 


wSs 


""-^ -r ^ 




ARK "^)^--w 



Circles on a Map the Same as for Parcel Post to 
Designate Wireless Distances 

should be drawn to diameters corre- 
sponding in length to the scale used on 
the map. By measuring the distance 
other stations may be from any of 
these circles, their cross-country dis- 
tance from the home station can be 
determined at a glance. — Contributed 
by E. L. Hartlett, Wausau, Wis. 



A Carrier for Fishhooks 

Hooks that are attached to gut or 
short strings are difficult to carry and 
to keep in good shape for use on a line. 
I made a carrier that overcame this 
trouble, from a block of wood. The 
block is 1/2 in- i" thickness with brads 
driven into one end, for engaging the 
loops on the gut or string, while the 
hook is caught on the opposite end, 
the block being just long enough for 




^ 



X 



3 



The String is Drawn Taut over the Block, and the 
Hooks are Caught in the Block End 

the short line. The hooks will be held 
securely, and the block can be carried 
in the pocket. — Contributed by Victor 
E. Carpenter, South Bend, Ind. 



270 



A Substitute for a Pen 

Recently I was hard pressed for a 
pen, and as none could be found and 
the hour was late it was necessary to 




A Notch Cut in the Tapered Part of a Wood Stick 
Forms a Substitute Pen 

find a substitute. I fashioned a pen 
from a piece of boxwood, and was 
agreeably surprised at the excellent 
results obtained with it. The wood 
was sharpened like a lead pencil at one 
end, and a groove was cut out of the 
tapered part to hold the ink. — Con- 
tributed by Richard F. Pohle, Lynn, 
Massachusetts. 

CA very convenient method of keeping 
shipping tags at hand is to slip them 
on a desk spindle. 



A Bucket-Ball Game 

This is a new indoor game which 
follows out in principle the regular 
baseball play. It is an exciting and 
interesting pastime, and while a cer- 
tain amount of skill is required to 
score runs, a person who cannot play 
the regular game can score as many 
runs, and as often, as the best players 
in the national leagues. 

Anyone that is just a little handy 
with tools can make the necessary parts 
for this game. The tools required are 
a hammer and a saw. and the materials 
consist of some finishing nails ; three 
strips of wood, 6 ft. long, 2 in. wide, 
and 1 in. thick ; two strips, 18 in. long, 
4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick ; four strips, 
24 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick; 
two strips, 18 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 
1 in. thick; two blocks, 4 in. square, 
and 1 in. thick, and four wood buckets. 





^^n\ ^fTK 



\^^ '%^ 



The Frame is Made Up without a Back, to Hold the Buckets at an Angle That Makes It Difficult 
to Toss the Ball So That It will Stay in Any One of Them 



271 




The Player must Throw the Ball So That It will Enter and Stay in One of the Buckets, 
Which Designates the Base Hits by the Number in Its Bottom 



A frame is built up as shown, 6 ft. 
long, 18 in. wide, and 2i in. high, with- 
out a back. One of the long pieces is 
fastened to the bottoms of the buckets 
as shown, spacing the latter equally 
on the length of the piece. This piece 
is then set in notches cut in the blocks 
of wood at an angle of 45°. These 
blocks are fastened to the upper cross- 
pieces at the ends of the frame. The 
upper part of the buckets rest on the 
upper front piece of the frame. 

The rules for playing the game are 
as follows : Three baseballs are used. 
The players stand about 10 ft. distant 
and in front of the buckets. Each 
player, or side, is only permitted to 
throw three balls an inning, irrespec- 
tive of the number of runs scored. 
Any kind of delivery is permitted, but 
an underhand throw will be found 
most successful. The buckets are 
numbered from 1 to 4, and represent, 
respectively, one, two, and three-base 
hits, and home runs. The one in which 
the ball stays designates the run. 

Plays are figured as in a regular 
ball game. For instance, if a ball 
should stay in bucket No. 2 and the 
next in bucket No. 3, the first man 
would be forced home, counting one 
run, and leaving one man on third base. 



If the next ball stays in bucket No. 
4, the man on third base is forced 
home, as well as the one who scored 
the home run, making three runs for 
that inning. The runs should be 
scored as made, to guard against con- 
fusion and argument. — Contributed by 
Walter Tallev, Pottsville, Pa. 



A Staple Puller 

With nothing 
but ordinary 
tools the remov- 
ing of staples is 
tedious and diffi- 
cult work. If a 
suitable -sized 
wire nail is bent 
like a fishhook 
and the hook 
part driven un- 
der the staple, 
the latter can 
be easily pulled 
out by grasping 
and pulling the 
nail with a ham- 
mer in the usual 
way. — Contributed by R. Neland, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 




272 



A Dissolving Coin Trick 

This is a very simple and, effective 
trick. The articles required to per- 
form *he trick are, a glass of water, 
a silver dollar, a handkerchief and a 
watch crystal, or round piece of glass, 
the size of a silver dollar. Conceal 
the crystal in the palm of the hand 
and show the audience the dollar. 
Hold the handkerchief in one hand and 
place the hand holding the silver dol- 
lar and crystal under it so that the 
crystal can he grasped by the hand 
holding the handkerchief. Remove the 
dollar by holding it in the palm of the 
hand and slip it, unobserved, into a 
pocket. 

Ask some one in the audience to hold 
the handkerchief with the inclosed 
crystal and ask him to let it drop into 
the glass of water as the handkerchief 
covers both. The falling glass can be 
heard, but upon removing the hand- 
kerchief nothing can be seen of the 
dollar or watch crystal. The circular 
glass disk cannot be seen in the water. 
— Contributed by Albert Biery, Spo- 
kane, Wash. 



A Fruit- Jar Opener 

The accompanying sketch shows a 
handy device for turning up and un- 
screwing the covers on glass fruit jars. 
The loop is slipped over the cover and 
the handle turned in the direction of 
the arrow. To unscrew the cover, the 
tool is turned over and the handle 
turned in the opposite direction. 

The loop should be just large 
enough to slip over the cover easily. 




The Loop in the Leather Grips the Cap Tightly ^Vhen 
the Handle is Turned as the Arrow Indicates 

It is made of leather and fastened to the 
wood handle with screws. — Contrib- 
uted by J. B. Downer, Seattle, Wash. 



Anti-Tangle Safety Pin 

A small disk of rubber or leather, 
placed on a safety pin as shown in Fig. 
1, will prevent the fabric which is fas- 



CS= 



The Small Disk on the Pin Prevents the Goods from 
Becoming Tangled in the Coil 

tened by the pin from becoming tangled 
in the spring loop. The manner of 
using the pin is shown in Fig. 2. 



How to Nickel or Silverplate Iron 
by Friction 

The following methods of plating 
iron with nickel and silver appeared 
in a recent issue of a German paper. 
In nickelplating iron, a thin coating of 
copper is first produced on it by rub- 
bing on a solution of 20 parts sulphate 
of copper, 5 parts sulphuric acid and 
100 parts of water. After the copper 
plate has been formed rul_> over it, with 
a rag, a solution of 3 parts tin, 6 parts 
nickel and 1 part iron in 100 parts of 
hydrochloric acid and 3 parts of sul- 
phuric acid. If finally the object is 
rubbed with a rag that has been dipped 
in finely pulverized zinc, a nickel de- 
posit will be formed on the copper. 
The thickness of the deposit of nickel 
can be increased by repeating the two 
last operations. 

According to a recent patent, a silver 
coating can be produced by dissolving 
freshly precipitated chloride of silver 
in a solution of hyposulphite of soda, 
1.1 parts to 10 parts of water, and add- 
ing to this solution 180 parts spirits 
of sal ammoniac and then stirring in 
800 parts of finely washed chalk. This 
mixture is applied and rubbed until it 
dries on the object being silvered, and 
tlie result is a brilliant deposit of pure 
silver. 



CA good filling for cracks in old furni- 
ture is made of shellac, either melted 
by heat or dissolved in alcohol to make 
a thick paste. 



373 



A Homemade Cradle 

The cradle shown in the sketch can 
be made quickly and easily at home 
and will be found far more serviceable 
than, and possessing several advan- 
tages over, the ones purchased. It is 
made of a clothes basket, an iron rod 
and two ordinary chairs. It can be 




A Clothes Basket Supported with a Rod between 
Two Chairs Malies a Good Cradle 

taken down and the parts used for other 
purposes. The upper portion of the 
rod prevents the chairs from slipping. 
A light cloth can be placed over the 
rod, in tent fashion, to keep flies out, 
while at the same time permitting air 
for ventilation. — Contributed by Bert 
Verne, San Diego, Cal. 



o 

--PIM 



A Removable Post 

It is often desirable to have foot- 
ball and baseball grounds in public 
parks roped in during the game, but 
after the game the 
ropes and stakes 
must be removed. 
To drive in iron 
stakes and then re- 
move them is hard 
work and requires 
considerable time. 
The sketch shows a 
much better way. A 
piece of 2-in. pipe, 
about 18 in. long, is sunk level with 
the ground in the right location for 
a post. The post is made of li/2-in- 
pipe of the length desired. This will 
just fit inside of the 2-in. pipe. A 
wood plug is fitted in the upper end 
of the pipe in the ground to keep out 
dirt when the post is removed. — Con- 
tributed by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dart- 
mouth, Mass. 



i 

J 





String-and-Ball Trick 

The stopping of a ball on a string at 
any desired point is understood by al- 
most every person, but to make one 
that can be worked 
only when the oper- 
ator so desires is a 
mysterious trick. 
Procure a wooden 
ball, about 2 in. in 
diameter, and cut it 
into two equal parts. 
Insert a small peg 
in the flat surface of 
one half, a little to 
one side of the cen- 
ter, as shown, and 
allow the end to 
project about j\ in. 
The flat surface of 
the other half is cut 
out concave, as 
shown, to make it 
% in. deep. The two halves are then 
glued together, and a hole is drilled 
centrally on the division line for a 
string to pass through. 

To do the trick, hold an end of the 
string in each hand tightly and draw 
it taut with the ball at the top, then 
slacken the string enough to allow the 
ball to slide down the string. To stop 
the ball at any point, pull the string 
taut. 

Before handing the ball and string 
out for inspection, push the string from 
each side of the ball and turn it slight- 
ly to throw it off the peg. This will 
allow the string to pass freely through 
the ball, and it cannot be stopped at 
will. To replace the string reverse the 
operation. — Contributed by Wm. O. 
Swett, Chicago. 




Wall-Paper Cleaner 

The following mixture I have used 
with the best results for years. Thor- 
oughly mix together 3 pt. of wheat 
flour and 1 pt. of powdered whiting, 
then add sufficient water to make a 
dough. To clean a dirty papered wall, 
take a piece of the dough that can be 
easily grasped in the hand, press it 



374 



against the surface and make a long 
stroke downward. During the process 
of cleaning, keep kneading the dirt into 
the dough. The preparation can be 
mixed in any amount desired by using 
the proportions named. — Contributed 
by C. W. Bause, Jr., E. Troy, Wis. 



Revolving Shaft without Power 

The device illustrated seems para- 
doxical for it apparently works with- 
out any power being applied to it, 
making from two to three revolutions 
per hour, which, though slow, is never- 
theless motion, requiring energy. 

The shaft A is supported on the 
edges, in the bearings B and C, of a 
tank, D. A disk, E, having a central 
hole larger in diameter than the shaft, 
is located at the middle of the latter. 
The disk is supported by 12 or more 
cotton ropes, F. The tank is filled 
to the level G with water. The lower 
ropes, being immersed in the water, 
shrink and lift the disk slightly above 
the center in the position of an eccen- 
tric, as shown by the dotted lines in 
the sketch. The center of gravity of 
the disk in this position, being higher 
and slightly to one side of the shaft, 
the disk has a tendency to turn around. 
The motion drives the next rope into 
the water where it becomes soaked 
and .shrinkage takes place again, lift- 
ing the disk to a higher position, while 
the rope coming out of the water dries 




The Expansion and Contraction of the Ropes Keep 
the Disk Up and to One Side of the Center 

out. The ropes emerging from the 
water but not yet thoroughly dry 
cause the upper part of the disk to be 
in an eccentric position laterally with 
reference to the center of the shaft, 
thus causing the center of gravity to 
be not only above but also slightly to 
one side. — Contributed by Charles 
Roberts, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



A Paper-Bag Holder 

A holder, to accommodate the dif- 
ferent-sized bags used in a 
store, can be easily made of 
a board, 6 in. wide and 30 in. 
long. One edge of the board 
is cut with notches similar to 
the teeth of a ripsaw and 
their back-sloping edges are 
drilled to admit a nail point. 
A sufficient quantity of bags 
is placed in a pile and a nail 
is driven through the edge 
near their upper ends, and 
the projecting point of the 
nail is stuck into one of the 
holes. Proceed in the same 
manner with bags of other 
sizes. To remove a bag, take hold of 
the lower end of the outermost one and 
tear it from the nail. Be sure to drive 
the nails through the bags close to the 
top. — Contributed by Abner B. Sh?w, 
N. Dartmouth, Mass. 




Covering for Chalk Trays 

The chalk trays fitted at the lower 
edge of blackboards soon collect con- 
siderable chalk dust and the chalk 
sticks dropped into it are, therefore, 
disagreeable to handle. A simple way 
of keeping the sticks clean is to cover 
the trays with wire mesh which is 
shaped like a tray but not so deep as 
the chalk tray. Thus the chalk dust 
will fall through this screen and be 
out of the way of the sticks. 



A Curtain Hanger 

A close-coiled spring, about 1/4 i'l- '" 
diameter, makes a much better hanger 
for a short curtain than a small rod. 
The spring should be about 1 in. 
shorter than the width of the window 
and fastened with screwhooks. The 
spring is preferable not only because 
it is less apt to tear the fabric, as it 
will give some if the curtain is pulled, 
but also for the reason that it is much 
easier to put it through the hem than 
the rod. — Contributed by Walter 
Ramm, New York City. 



275 




Joints for Model Aeroplane 

In constructing model or toy aero- 
planes the strips used are so slender 
that it is difficult to join them at the 
ends with brads without splitting them. 
If glue is used, there is danger of 
breaking two or more ribs, should it 
be necessary to remove a broken or de- 
fective rib. 

An empty 22-gauge long cartridge 
can be formed into an elbow that will 
connect the framework accurately, give 
more strength than glue or brads, and 
allow a broken section to be removed 
without spoiling the other part of the 
framework. File off the end A, Fig. 
1, so that the shell will form a straight 
tube, and file as shown in Fig. 2 with 
a three-cornered file. Then bend the 
two sections into the form shown in 
Fig. 3 and solder the adjacent edges. 
File ofif the rough spots and drill small 
holes, as shown, for the insertion of 



^^^ 





Fig. 4 
Cartridge Shells Used for Joints 

pins to hold the wood strips. Much 
time in the building of model aero- 
planes can be saved by keeping a sup- 
ply of these elbows on hand. 



CA deep rust on tools may be removed 
by soaking them in a strong, hot bath 
of potash and water for a half hour, 
then dipping them into a solution of 
1 part muriatic acid in 2 parts cold 
water. 



An Indoor Baseball Game 

An indoor game of baseball may be 
played on a board 5 ft. long and 3 ft. 
wide. A diamond is laid ofif at one 
end of the board and pins represent- 




Baseball Diamond on a Board 

ing the hits are attached to the board 
so they will project above the surface. 
The locations of the players are des- 
ignated by holes bored part way in 
the wood with an expansive bit. These 
holes should be large enough to re- 
ceive the rings easily. The rings may 
be gaskets or they may be made of 
rope, and should have an inside diam- 
eter of about 3 in. 

Only two persons can play at this 
game. The distance from the board 
to the thrower may be from 10 to 100 
ft., according to the size of the room. 
This distance should be marked and 
each thrower stand at the same place. 

If the ring is thrown over one of 
the "base-hit" or "two-bagger" pegs, 
it shows the number of bases secured. 
Throwing a ring over one of the "home- 
run" pegs means a score, of course. 
The "infield hit" secures a base. If 
the ring slips into a hole, that counts 
one out. A player must throw until 
he has three outs. The score is kept 



376 



for the runs made. — Contributed by 
Francis P. Hobart, Willoughby, O. 



A Lantern for the Camp 

A very desirable lantern for camp 
use is one that utilizes a candle instead 
of a lamp. Such a lantern can be 
made of an ordinary 
oil-lantern globe, a 
block of wood, some 
galvanized wire, a 
few nails, a metal 
collar, and a hood of 
zinc or tin. The 
block of wood is cut 
octagonally and the 
metal collar is fas- 
tened to it as shown. 
Four headless nails 
are driven into the 
center of the block, 
spaced so as to hold 
an ordinary candle 
securely. The wire 
is formed into a U-shape and the ends 
fastened into the block of wood out- 
side of the candle socket, and within 
the globe circle. A conical piece of tin 
or zinc is formed to fit over the top of 
the globe as shown. As the candle 
does not require much draft there is 
no opening provided. — Contributed by 
Addison W. Baird, M. D., New York 
City. 




Electric Lights Controlled from Two 
or More Switches 

Many times it is quite an advantage 
to have a lamp or grooip of lamps so 
connected that the current may be 
turned on or ofif by any one of a 



j& 



^h 



TO SOURCE or CNtRGY 



000000 



Fig. I 
Lamps Controlled from Two Switches 

number of different switches. For ex- 
ample, the lights in a long hall or 
passage-way can be lighted or extin- 



guished by operating a switch at 
either end of the hall ; the lights in the 
upper and lower halls of a residence, 
turned on or off by operating a switch 
upstairs or downstairs as the case 
might demand ; the lights in the 
garage, controlled by switches at both 
the inside and outside door, etc. 

The method of connecting a number 
of lamps to a circviit so that they can 
be controlled from either of two 
switches is shown in Fig. 1. The 
switches, as illustrated in this drawing, 
are in such a position that the lamps 
will burn. If either of the switches be 
thrown to its other position (there are 
two positions for each switch), the cir- 
cuit will be opened. The operation 
then of either switch will again close 
the circuit. 

The method of connecting a number 
of lamps to a circuit so that they can 
be controlled by any number of 
switches is shown in Fig. 2. The 
switches are all in such a position that 
the lamps will burn. If any one of the 
switches be turned to its second posi- 
tion (all the switches have two posi- 
tions), the circuit will be open. The 
dotted lines at switch C show the con- 





TO 50URCE OF ENERGY 



0" 



F(G.2 
Lamps Controlled by Any Number of Switches 

nections through switch C after it has 
been operated. Operating switch D 
then will again close the circuit, by 
using the dotted lines in switches C 
and D. The wiring for the control of 
lamps, as just indicated, must comply 
with the underwriters' requirements, 
and also city requirements, if the work 
be done in a place having city regula- 
tions for electric wiring. 



CWire netting may be cut by laying 
it on the side edge of a spade and strik- 
insr it with a hammer. 



277 




Electric Score Board for Indoor Games 



A very satisfactory electric score 
board, for use in scoring basketball 
and other games played indoors, is 
shown in the illustration. It is con- 
structed entirely of wood, but should 
be lined with asbestos board or sheath- 
ing. The dimensions are a matter of 
choice, but one 4 ft. long, 2 ft. wide 
and 18 in. deep is a good size. The 
back of the box is provided with two 
cleats, each S^/o ft. long, fastened at 
each end. This allows a projection of 
3 in. at the top and bottom, for fasten- 
ing the score board to the wall. The 
manner of construction is shown in 
Fig. 1, and a cross section of the box, 
in Fig. 2. 

The front of the box should be fas- 
tened with screws so as to make its 
removal easy in case of repairs. This 
part of the box carries the frame for 
inserting the numbers and the words 
"Home Team" and "Visitors," as 
shown in Fig. 3. As the words are a 
permanent fixture, the cards carrying 
them are fastened to the front. At the 
end of these words a frame is con- 
structed as shown in Fig. -1, in which 
the cards having the numbers are in- 
serted in slides. 

Numerals and letters can be cut out 
of heavy cardboard or tin. The de- 
sign of a letter having sharp angles 
and straight edges, as shown in Fig. 
5, is very easily cut out with a chisel. 
The method of cutting is shown in 
Fig. 6. 

As portions of the letters and num- 
erals, such as the center in an O, would 
fall out if cut entirely around, some 
way must be provided to hold the 
parts in place. The way to prepare 



stencils is to leave a portion uncut, 
which is known as a tie, and the letter 
will appear as shown in Fig. 7. 




Electric Indoor Score Board, Showing Its Construction 
and manner of Cutting Out the Letters and Numbers 

The best method for making these 
letters and figures is to cut out the 
letter entirely, then to paste thin paper 
over the back and replace the parts re- 
moved by the cutting in their original 
position. — Contributed by James M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



A Mission Frame for an Alarm Clock 

The old nickelplated alarm clock 
which usually adorns the kitchen man- 
tel is, to say the least, not ornamental, 
and I improved the appearance of mine 



278 



without lessening its usefulness by 
making a small case in mission style 
for it. 

The sketch shows a design which 
is neat and easily made. Accurate di- 





An Alarm Clock with a Wood Covering Ornamented 
and Finished in Mission Style 



mensions cannot be given as these will 
vary with the size of the clock. Quar- 
ter-sawed oak, 14 in. thick, is the best 
material to use. The front and back 
can be cut on a jigsaw, the opening 
for the clock face being cut slightly 
smaller than the metal of the clock so 
that only the face shows. An opening 
in the back piece should be cut a little 
smaller than the one in front, to pro- 
vide a free opening for winding the 
clock. Fasten the parts together with 
small round-head brass brads or 
screws and finish to match the furni- 
ture. A small desk clock can be made 
in a similar manner, using a cheap 
watch instead of the alarm clock. — 
Contributed by C. E. Hamann, Somer- 
ville, Mass. 



Mixing Sulphuric Acid 

One of the first lessons given a 
student in chemistry is how to mix 
sulphuric acid with water. This would 
naturally be supposed to be very easy, 
yet, if it is not done right, it will surely 
result in injury to the person doing 
the mixing. 

The specific gravity of sulphuric 
acid is 1.849 and, on account of its 



chemical attraction to water, great 
heat is set up or generated when the 
two are being mixed. If the acid is put 
into a jar and the water poured onto 
it, they will be temporarily separated, 
as the heavy acid will remain at the 
bottom, the chemical reaction taking 
place on the dividing line only. This 
soon generates heat which rapidly in- 
creases until steam is formed. Then 
the water boils over and finally be- 
comes a bubbling volcano which read- 
ily ejects the contents of the jar. As 
the mixture at this moment is very 
hot, bad burns will be the result, 
which are aggravated by the biting of 
the acid; and clothing or anything 
that it comes in contact with will be 
ruined or badly damaged. Always re- 
member this caution : add the acid to 
the water. 

The following is the proper way to 
proceed in mixing sulphuric acid as 
well as other acids of lighter weight. 
Place the water in a jar and pour the 
acid in, a little at a time, stirring the 
mixture with a wooden stick. The 
mixing process will always heat the 
solution, which in many instances, 
must be allowed to cool before using. 



A Chinese Pagoda 

Fold the end of a long and narrow 
strip of paper over several times as 
shown in Fig. 1 and roll the entire 
length over a stick, then remove the 
roll and crease, or make it fiat, as 



F1G.2 



Fig. 3 



Fig, I 




F1G.4 




F1G.5 



Stages in Making the Strip of Paper 
into the Finished Pagoda 

shown in Fig. 2. Make two cuts with 
a sharp knife centrally so that they 
reach to the several folds first made 



279 



on the inner end of the paper, then 
cut the fold in the paper between the 
cuts as shown in Fig. 3, and bend 
the ends over to form the shape 
in Fig. 4. Insert the knife blade 
under the first fold and draw it out 
until the paper takes the form in 
Fig. 5. 

These pagodas can be made large 
or small, as desired, and also varied 
in several ways. Large ones can be 
formed and used as small tree orna- 
ments. All that is necessary to make 
them high is to roll up one strip of 
paper on another in the rolling 
process. 

In rolling up several strips, one on 
top of the other successively, various 
colored papers may be used and the 
appearance is greatly enhanced. — Con- 
tributed by Chas. C. Bradley, W. 
Toledo, O. 



shown in the sketch. In this way the 
work can be done better and more 



A Cuspidor Carrier 

The task of handling cuspidors 'un- 
der all conditions is anything but pleas- 
ant, but the carrier 
shown in the sketch 
makes quite an im- 
provement over ordi- 
nary methods. The 
carrier consists of an 
iron rod, Y^ in. in di- 
ameter and 3 ft. long. 
One end is bent to 
fit around the neck 
of the cuspidor and 
the other is shaped into a handle. 




Guide for Grinding a Plane Iron 

When a plane iron has been sharp- 
ened a number of times, it often be- 
comes so out of square that the edge 
cannot be made parallel with the bot- 
tom of the plane block, even by using 
the lateral adjustment. A\'here this 
happens, the plane iron must be re- 
ground. If an emery wheel mounted 
in a polishing head or lathe is at hand, 
this can be easily accomplished. 
Loosen the plane-iron cap and screw 
it down at right angles to the plane 
iron, also reverse the tool rest as 




The Plane-Iron Cap 

Turned at Right 

Angles, Provides 

a Guide to Grind 

the Edge 

Straight 




quickly than by the usual method. — 
Contributed by L. S. UphoiT, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 



To Prevent Torch Lights from 
Smoking 

In the shop or factory oil torches 
are sometimes used and much trouble 
is experienced by the excessive smok- 
ing of the tlame. This occurs because 
too much carbon remains unburned, 
and can be remedied by first soaking 
the wick in a weak solution of acetic 
acid. A 5-per-cent solution can be 
purchased for a few cents at anv drug 
store and will soak a great number of 
wicks. The acid is not poisonous un- 
less taken internally. 



A Lard and Fruit Presser 

A very simple but handy device for 
pressing out lard, juices for jelly, or 
fruit for marmalade, is made from two 
boards, each 18 in. long, 3 in. wide and 
1/2 in. thick, formed into the shape of 
paddles and hinged together. The 
hinge is made by running a wire 
through holes bored in one end of the 
paddles and twisting the ends together 




Two Paddles Hinged Together with a Piece of Wire 
Make a Presser for Lard and Fruits 

as shown. This presser will save the 
hands from stains and other effects of 
ihe juices. — Contributed by Julia A. 
White, Glenburg, Pa. 



280 



An Electric-Light Bulb as Barometer 

To use a discarded electric bulb as 
a fairly reliable barometer the point is 
broken off with a pair of pliers while 
holding the bulb under water. As the 
bulb is a vacuum, it completely fills 
with water. If the bulb is now sus- 
pended from a wire or thread fastened 
at the socket end, the water will not 
run out of it in fair weather when the 
atmospheric pressure is normal or high, 
but if tlie pressure falls, as happens 
when bad weather is approaching, the 
water will begin to bulge out of the 
small opening and sometimes a small 
drop may even fall off. When, with re- 
turning fair weather, the atmospheric 
pressure increases, the water can no 
longer bulge or drop out of the bulb. 



in the same time. It is only necessary 
to move the table slightly and watch 
the pendulum picked out until it be- 



A Swinging-Pendulum Trick 

To swing a pendulum, picked out 
from a number of them at random, 
without touching it is a very puzzling 
trick. The articles necessary are a med- 
ium-sized table and a number of pen- 
dulums, some of which are suspended 
from a rod with their lower weighted 
ends inside of water and wine glasses 
placed on the table, and others at- 
tached to corks so that they will hang 
inside of bottles. 

The spectators gather around the 
table which can be in full light. The 
performer sits at one side of the table 
with his hands flat on the top. A per- 
son may pick out any pendulum and 
ask him to swing it, which he will pro- 
ceed to do without touching it, also 
making it strike the glass while it 
swings. Another pendulum may be 
pointed out and he will start that one 
apparently by looking at it, while the 
other one stops. 

This may seem to be impossible, yet 
it is very easy. It will be seen that 
no two pendulums have the same 
length. A pendulum makes a certain 
number of swings in a given time, de- 
pending on its length. A long pendu- 
lum requires more time to complete 
its swing and will, therefore, make a 
less number of swings than a short one 




Any One Pendulum can 
be Made to Swing at Will 
by Moving the Table Slightly 

gins to swing independently of the 
others, which soon happens. To make 
the longer pendulums swing, longer 
movements of the table top must be 
made. With a little practice anyone 
can become a skilled medium in pendu- 
lum swinging. — Contributed by James 
A. Hart, "Philadelphia, Pa. 



Applying a Strap Hinge 

An ordinary strap hinge can be ap- 
plied to a door or box cover in such a 
way that only one wing will show. 
Ordinarily the hinge opens as at A, 
and, on reversing it, the hinge will open 
to the limit as shown at B. If one wing 
is bent toward the other, as shown at 
C, the hinge may be applied as shown 




Reversing a Strap Hinge So That When It is Applied 
Only One Wing will Show 

at D. As this process reverses the 
hinge, the screw holes must be coun- 
tersunk on the opposite side. 



281 



Tricks Performed with Thumbs Tied Together 



To have one's thumbs securely tied 
together by any person in an audience 
and examined by the spectators, then 
have some one throw a hoop or bicycle 
rim on one of the performer's arms as 
if the thumbs were not tied, seems im- 
possible, yet this trick can be done, 
and its simplicity is its own protection, 
even though performed close to a com- 
mittee selected from the audience. A 
stick can be held perpendicularly by 
anyone with one hand at each end and 
the performer can thrust his arms at 
the stick which passes between them 
with the thumbs apparently tied 
tightly together. The same effect is 
produced on the arm of any person, 
while the hands are tightly clasped, 
and before and after each movement 
the tied thumbs are examined by the 
committee. 

The two cords used for the trick 
are made as follows: The first should 
be about 17 in. long, 14 in. in diameter 




Manner of Crossing the Thumbs to Receive the 
Double Tie of the Cord 



at its center and tapering to points at 
the ends. The other cord is about 13 
in. long, 1/8 in. in diameter in the center 



and also tapering at the ends. They 
are constructed of Chinese or Japanese 
paper, wl],ich is a soft, but very tough, 




The Cords as They are Placed around the Thumbs 
and Tied in a Double Knot 

fibrous texture. Cut the paper into 
strips, 1 in. wide, taking care that the 
grain, or rather the fiber, runs length- 
wise. Beginning at one end, twist the 
paper on itself at an angle as in rolling 
the old-fashioned paper lamp lighter. 
Each turn should lap over the former 
about half of its width. When within 
3 in. of the end of the first strip apply 
another by moistening the joining ends 
and continue the twisting. When the 
length given is reached, break ofif the 
strip and start back over the first in 
the opposite direction. Lay on enough 
layers to secure the diameter given. 
When finished, the cords should be 
strong enough to resist the pressure 
applied by the hands. 

With all fingers pressed together 
spread both thumbs away from the 
hands, as shown at A. Lay the right 
thumb across the left, as at B, the large 
knuckle bone of one lying directly over 
that of the other. The largest cord is 
laid over the crossing and both ends 
brought down, crossed under the 



282 



thumbs, then up again, and tied in two 
knots on top of the riglit thumb, as at 
C. The trick in the tying is at this 
point. Just as the tie is being made 
pull the left thumb until the smallest- 
diameter joints reach the cord and pull 
down with the left hand. Push the 
right thumb so that the fleshy part en- 
ters as far as possible into the cords. 
Insist on the tie being made tightly. 

The second and smaller cord is laid 
below the right thumb as shown at D, 
and on top of the left against the first 
cord, crossed, brought back and tied 
twice. When this is being done re- 
verse the pushing and pulling as de- 
scribed, pushing the left thumb and 
pulling out on the right. Secure all 
the slack on the left thumb, the right 
being pushed into the cords at its 
smallest diameter and the second cord 
being tied high up and as near the 
right thumb as possible, with knots 
tightly drawn. If this second knot is 
not tight it will give trouble in per- 
forming the trick. 

The release is made by bringing ♦he 
tips of the fingers together and plac- 
ing the thumbs into the palms. If the 
ties have been carefully made there will 
be no trouble to withdraw the left 
thumb as it is masked by the hands. 
The peculiar nature of the paper cord 
causes the loop from which the thumb 
was removed to remain open and rigid 
as a wire loop, and if the last tie was 
tightly drawn, the second cord will not 
slip down to close the loop. In ap- 
proaching the hoop, stick, or arm. 
touch the thing to be passed with the 
finger tips and withdraw them, sway- 
ing backward a few times and, in the 
last swing before making the pass, re- 
move the thumb from the loop. After 
passing, replace the thumb in the loop. 
In passing the object, open the finger 
tips, then close them and open the 
palms, and push the left thumb back 
into the loop, close the palms and ap- 
ply a strain on both thumbs, then show 
the tie. Be careful to press both 
thumbs closely into the palms in pass- 
ing so that they will not strike the 
object. 

Always exhibit the tie from the back 



of the hands with the palms spread out. 
If there is any difficulty in drawing 
out or replacing the thumb in the loop, 
it is because the ties have not been 
properly made or tied when the thumbs 
were in the right place. It requires 
some practice to do the trick quickly. — 
Fayette. 



A Way to Keep Home Accounts 

An easy way to keep track of all the 
home expenses is by the popular card 
system. The index cards can be had 
at any stationery-supply house. Place 
the cards in a box on end and have a 
good supply of blanks back of them 
ready for use. Under, or back of, each 
letter place as many blanks as is neces- 
sary, and almost instantly any item of 
expense in the home may be found, 
such as the cost of coal for the year, 
drugs, meat, the cost of clothing for 
a child, and the account of the head of 
the family. The boy's account might 
read as follows under the letter J : 

Johnnie 

Jan. S Shoes $3..50 

Jan. l."» Book 4.5 

Jan. 1^0 Hair cut 2~i 

Feb. 1 Stockings 75 

and so on through the year. The mother 
can see at a glance just when the last 
shoes were bought, and how much it 
cost for books and paper. 

Everything pertaining to the home 
keeping can be so recorded and each 
year compared. Once given a trial no 
other bookkeeping will be required in 
the home where time counts. Children 
can be taught to keep account of their 
expenses in this way, and thus thrift 
and good business methods are encour- 
aged. — Contributed by Harriette I. 
Lockwood, Philadelphia, Pa. 



How to Make a Blowgun 

Either a 12-in. length of a small cur- 
tain-rod tubing or a straight piece of 
small bamboo pole, cut ofif between the 
joints, can be used for the gun part 
of this simple device. If bamboo is 
used, see that it is cleaned out smoothly 
on the inside. 

The dart used in the gun is shown 



283 



at A in the illustration. It is made by 
threading the eye of a darning needle 
full of yarn, clipping all the strands 
off to a uniform length of about % in., 
and then picking out the fibers into 
a brushlike mass above the needle's 
eye. Another needle or pin can be 
used for fuzzing the threads. The 
point to observe is that the brush is of 
somewhat larger diameter than the 
bore of the gun, so that when the 
needle is pushed into the mouth end 
the brush will be compressed and make 
an air-tight plug. 

After thus inserting the dart, hold 
it as shown" and give a quick, sharp 
blast of the breath into the gun. The 
dart will travel with great speed and 
accuracy for 20 ft. or more, and stick 
wherever it strikes. The point being 





The Blowgun is Made of a Piece of Tubing, and the 
Dart of a Darning Needle 

so small, it can be used in the house 
for shooting at a paper target pinned 
to the wall without injury to the plas- 
ter or woodwork. — Contributed by C. 
C. Fraser, Saginaw, Mich. 



A Brush for Applying Soldering Acid 

A good brush for applying acid to 
articles for soldering can be made of 
a piece of small copper pipe for the 
handle, and fine copper wire for the 
brush. To make the brush part, take 
a piece of cardboard, about IVi in. 
wide, and wind several turns of No. 
28 gauge copper wire around it, then 
remove the coil, insert about Vi 'n. of 
it in the pipe, and flatten the latter to 
hold the wire. Clip the ends of the 
wire, and a brush will be had that or- 
dinary acids will not affect. If only 
a short piece of pipe is available, it can 
be used as a ferrule and a handle made 
of wire or wood. — Contributed bv A. 
R. Cunning. W. New Brighton, N. Y. 



Inkwell and Penholder 

An empty paste pot with a water 
well in the center makes an excellent 
inkwell and pen- 
holder. Fill the 
exterior well A 
with cement or 
plaster of paris. 
push the number 
of penholders to 
be held into the 
cement before it 
sets, moving 
them about occa- 
sionally to pre- 
vent the cement 
from sticking to 
them and to 
make the hole a 
little larger than 

the holder. The part B is for the ink. — 
Contributed by R. F. Pinkney, Lazar- 
eto del Mariel, Cuba. 




A Homemade Loose-Leaf Pocket 
Memorandum 

The little memorandum illustrated 
herewith is very handy to carry in 
the coat or vest pocket for taking 
notes, etc. Loose leaves may be sup- 
plied with very little trouble. It con- 
sists of a fold of paper, cut as shown 
and pasted at the ends. The pocket 
thus formed will easily hold 3 doz. 





The Holder is Made of Heavy Manila Paper and 
will Stand Considerable Wear 

sheets and the slits cut on the outside 
will admit 8 sheets. — Contributed by 
C. B. Hanson, Fitchburg, Mass. 



CAn ideal cleaner for kid gloves is 
carbon tetrachloride. 



284 



Rubber-Band-Change Trick 

The trick of changing a rubber band 
from the first and second fingers to tlie 
third and fourth, if done quickly, can 




Transferring Rubber Band from the First Two 
Fingers to the Last Pair, Like Magic 

be performed without detection by any 
one. The band on the first two fingers 
is shown to the spectator as in Fig. 1, 
with the back of the hand up. The 
hand is then turned over and the band 
drawn out quickly, as shown in Fig. 2, 
in a manner as to give the impression 
that the ])and is whole and on the two 
fingers. While doing this, quicklj^ fold 
all the fingers so that their ends enter 
the band, and turn the hand over and 
let go the band, then show the back 
with the fingers doubled up. In reality 
the fingers will be in the l^and, as in 
Fig. 3. and the back will still show the 
band on the first two fingers. Quickly 
straighten out all the fingers, and the 
band will snap over the last two fin- 
gers, as shown in Fig. 4. — Contributed 
by E. K. Marshall, Oak Park, 111. 



A Swinging Electric-Light Bracket 

The light bracket shown is both or- 
namental and useful and can be swung 
from one side of the room to the other 
in an instant, a feature that is of great 
value in a dimly lighted kitchen. It can 
be made of either brass or soft iron, 
but, for the sake of convenience, the 



description will be for one made of 
brass. 

Procure four pieces of brass, 1 in. 
wide, Vs in. thick and 7 in. long, and 
bend them to the shape shown at A. 
These are to form the ceiling bracket. 
A I'V-in. hole is drilled in the end of 
each piece to be against the ceiling. 
The other end is bent slightly concave 
and soldered to a brass collar. B, which 
is threaded on the inside. This collar 
must be of such a size that it will screw 
on the end of a brass pipe, C, 1 in. in 
outside diameter. The length of this 
pipe should l^e 18 or 20 inches. 

The base D of the bracket is made of 
a brass bar, Vs in. thick, i/o in. wide and 
45 in. long, a scroll being turned on 6 
in. of its length at the globe end, and 3 
in. of the other end turned up at right 
angles and soldered to a ring made of 
-j-Vin. brass that acts as a bearing 
around the pipe. 

The upper Ijrace E is made of iV-in- 
brass, the same width as the base piece 
and about 48 in. in length. Each end 
is turned into a scroll and then riveted 
or soldered to the base D and to the up- 
per brass ring. The space between the 
base D, the jirace E, and the pipe C is 
filled with any style of scroll or other 
brace that may suit the taste of the 




A Bracket Forming a Pendant and Swinging Arm to 
Change the Location oi the Electric Light 

maker, but the base D must be at right 
angles to the pipe C before the scroll is 
fastened in place. 

A cap, F, is screwed to the lower end 
of the pipe, to keep the bracket in 
place. Ordinary flexible light cord is 



285 



used to connect to the light which is 
swung to the scroll end of the base. — 
Contributed by F. L. Matter, Portland, 
Oregon. 



the metal on the inside, or the wire 
may be placed inside of the shell and 



Match Safe to Deliver One Match 
at a Time 

A match safe that will deliver only 
one match at a time is constructed 
of two parts, the box or holder and the 
base, with slider. The box is diamond- 
shaped and of the size shown by the 
dimensions. The base, with slider, 
consists of two pieces, the baseboard 
and a standard which runs through the 
box diagonally on the longest dimen- 
sion in a vertical position. A thumb- 
tack is inserted in the standard near 
the top to prevent the box from being 
lifted entirely from the base. 

The matches are tilled into the box 



e 




The Box Delivers Only One Match When It is 
Raised and Lowered on the Standard 

on both sides of the standard. When 
a match is wanted, lift the box up and 
let it down again, and one match will be 
caught in the notch and raised out of 
the box. To prevent the box from tip- 
ping sideways when it is raised up, 
small pieces can be glued to the box 
ends on the inside and on both sides 
of the standard. — Contributed by A. 
S. Barrows, New Britain, Conn. 



Cartridge Shells Used for Electrical 
Contacts 

In making small switchboards, rheo- 
stats, and other electrical devices, I 
found a good use for old center-fire 
cartridge shells as shown in the 
sketch. A hole a little smaller than 
the diameter of the shell is made in 
the board and the shell is forced in. 
The proper wires are then soldered to 





The Heads of the Cartridge Shells Make Good 
Contacts for a Switch Lever 

held in contact by driving a wood plug 
in as indicated. — Contributed by W. 
O. Nettleton, Washington, D. C. 



A Dowel-Turning Tool 

The owner of a wood or metal lathe 
can easily construct a tool that will 
turn dowels of any size quickly. This 
tool, as described by a correspondent 
of Work, London, consists of a block 
of wood, shaped as shown at A, and a 
plane bit, B, attached with a wood 
screw. The hole in the collet C must 
be of such size that it will admit the 
rough stock freely but also prevent it 
from wabbling as the stick turns. The 





The Tool is Very Similar to a Plane and is Usedl 
with a Lathe for Turning Dowels 

stock is chucked in the ordinary 
manner and the tool is run on the 
outer end. 



286 



To Tie a Hammock 

A method not generally known to 
quickly and securely hitch up a ham- 
mock between two trees, in camp or 
elsewhere, is shown in the 
sketch. Each end rope is 
given one or more turns 
around a tree trunk 
and then tucked un- 
der, as shown. The 
pull on the rope will draw 
it tightly against the rough 
bark on the tree. The 
harder the pull, the tighter 
the rope binds against the tree trunk. 
In this manner a hammock can be put 
up in a few moments and it is as read- 
ily taken down. — Contributed by 
Bert Morehouse, Des Moines, Iowa. 




An Inexpensive File 

Envelopes make a very inexpensive 
as well as a neat file for papers and 
letters if they are arranged and fas- 
tened together so that they can be kept 
in one packet. In making such a file 
procure as many envelopes as there 
will be headings in the file, also a num- 
ber of strips of gummed tape, about 
11/2 in. long. There must be twice as 
many of these strips as there are 
envelopes. 

Bind the backs of two envelopes, A 
and B, together leaving a space of Vs 
in. between the envelopes. Bind a 





The File is Built Up of Envelopes Joined Together with 
Small Strips of Tape 

third envelope, C, to B, and so on. 
The strips of tape from A to B and 
from B to C are on opposite sides of 
the envelope B. Continue binding un- 



til the required number of envelopes 
have been joined together. Assign a 
heading to each of the envelopes, and 
the file is ready for use. When com- 
pleted it should appear as shown in D. 
— Contributed by Alfred Rice, Syra- 
cuse. N. Y. 



Window-Shade Guides 

The annoyance of a shade that will 
not run true on the roller and flops in 
the wind coming through an open win- 
dow can be overcome by using guide 
wires as follows: 

The stick in the hem on the lower 
edge of the shade is supplied with a 
screweye, A, at each end. A wire is 
run through the screweye and fastened 
in a vertical position on the casing 




TV 



\ ii j iiiiiiii i i i ii i ii ii i "i ii KMMi iiiiii ii i ii i | i i ii i i iii iii i ii i i iiin; iiiiii/m;'»iwiifi/p//; 



Two Parallel Guide Wires Hold the Stick of the Shade 
in Us Proper Place 

with screweyes as shown by B, B. A 
second wire is similarly attached on 
the other side of the shade, taking care 
to have both wires parallel and true 
with the ends of the roller. — Contrib- 
uted by George Lue, San Francisco, 
California. 



Watering Plants at the Roots 

An effective way to water rose 
bushes, shrubs or plants is to place an 
old cowhorn in the earth so that the 
small end will be near the roots of the 
plant and the large end level with the 
surface of the ground, and fill the horn 
with water. The small end of the horn 
should be cut ofif at such a point that 
the hole will be about the size of a lead 
pencil. — Contributed by Chas. L. Rich- 
ards, Philadelphia, Pa. 



387 



How to Clean Jewelry 

To cleanse articles of silver, gold, 
bronze and brass use a saturated solu- 
tion of cyanide of potassium. To clean 
small articles, dip each one into the 
solution and rinse immediately in hot 
water; then dry and polish with a linen 
cloth. Larger articles are cleaned by 
rubbing the surface with a small tuft 
of cotton saturated in the solution. As 
cyanide of potassium is a deadly 
poison, care must be taken not to have 
it touch any sore spot on the flesh. — 
Contributed by G. A. Koerbis, U. S. S. 
"Vermont." 

Runner for a Go-Cart 

As the wheels of a go-cart do not 
push through the snow very easily and 
the cart, therefore, does not run in a 
straight direction, and as I did not care 
to purchase a sled, I instead fitted the 



tive, but low and high numbers dis- 
tributed with the object in view of 




The Runners are Easily Applied to the \Vheels of a 
Go-Cart and Hold Them Solidly 

go-cart wheels with runners as shown 
in the sketch. I purchased a piece of 
machine steel of a diameter to fit the 
grooves in the wheels after the rubber, 
tires were removed. This I cut and 
bent to the shape shown at A, making 
two runners, and applied one to each 
pair of wheels, front and rear, as shown 
at B. The runners kept the wheels im- 
movable and caused the cart to glide 
over the snow as a sleigh. This run- 
ner will not interfere with the folding 
of a collapsible cart. — Contributed by 
Roy B. Hanaford, Detroit, Mich. 



A Ring-Throwing Game 

The board for this game is made of 
a cover from an old candy or lard pail, 
washed and painted black. When the 
paint is dry, place 50 pegs on the sur- 
face as shown and number them with 
white paint or by fastening numbers 
cut from paper below them. The 
numbering of the pegs is not consecu- 




The Candy-Pail Cover with Pegs Numbered and a 
Set of Rings for Each Player 

making it difificult to secure a high 
score. 

Each player has a set of five rings, 
which are nothing else but rubber 
fruit-jar rings. These can be purchased 
at a grocery store. The board is hung 
on a wall or post, and the player stands 
about 5 or 6 ft. away and throws the 
rings, one at a time, trying to ring pegs 
having the highest numbers. The sum 
of the numbers corresponding to the 
pegs ringed counts toward the final 
score. Turns are taken by each player, 
and each time five rings are thrown. 
The score can be set at any amount, 
500 being about right. — Contributed by 
Francis P. Hobart, Willoughby, O. 



A Pen and Brush Holder 

A sheet of corrugated paper is a 
handy thing to have on the writing 
desk, for the purpose of placing wet 
pens or brushes in its grooves. The 
paper absorbs the liquid, and the cor- 
rugations hold the pens or brushes in 
handy positions. A sheet of this paper 




The Depressions in the Paper Hold the Pens or 
Brushes and Also Absorb the Excess Fluid 

is almost as useful a desk accessory as 
a blotter. — Contributed by James M. 
Kanfe, Doylestown, Pa. 



288 




Supporter for a Double Clothesline 

A double clothesline of any length 
should have a supporter in the center 
to keep the line from sagging when 
the clothes are 
hung on the lower 
one. The sup- 
porter shown in 
the sketch saves 
the wear from the 
strain on the lines. 
It also keeps the 
clothes in a higher 
current of air so 
that they dry 
quicker. 

The supporter is made of two nickel- 
plated rings measuring 2 in. in di- 
ameter. They are bound together as 
shown. The rings being nickelplated, 
the supporter will not rust the clothes. 
The clothes should be arranged on 
the lower line so that the supporter 
will rest in the center. — Contributed 
by Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, New 
York. 

Pincushion for the Arm 

Those tliat have trouble in keeping 
the pincushion within reach while sew- 
ing, can remedy the trouble by making 
one to fit the wrist or arm. An ordi- 
nary pincushion is attached to a piece 
of cardboard and an elastic sewed to 
the cardboard edges so that it will fit 
on the arm. The pincushion is not in 
the way and is readily worn so that the 
pins are easier to reach than if pinned 
to the dress. — Contributed by Frank 
Sterrett, Portland, O. 



Electric Test for Fixtures 

A very useful device for testing out 
fixtures before they are connected up 



zxcm 



One Line of the Two Connecting ^Vi^es is Broken and 
the Ends Used as Terminals on the Fixture 

can be easily made as follows: Two 
wires are run from a plug, A, one to 
a socket, B, and the other to terminate 



at C. The line from the other side of 
the socket B terminates at D. 

In testing a fixture, the plug A is 
turned into a socket of some source 
of current, and a lamp is turned into 
the socket B. The terminal C is held 
to the metal covering of the fi.xture, 
while the end D is held to one of the 
wires. If there is a leak of current, 
the lamp at B and those of the fi.xture 
will light up. — Contributed by Fred 
Schumacher, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Opening for Steam in a Utensil Cover 

When cooking certain foods the or- 
dinary cover on a vessel confines too 
much steam, while if no cover at all is 
used, too much will escape, hence a 
cover which is provided with a vent is 
very desirable. The cover attachment 
shown in the illustration is evidently 
well adapted for service on such oc- 
casions and can be easily made as 
follows : 




The Small Triangular Surface Provided with Holes for 
Releasing Surplus Steam is Covered with a Cap 

Lay out a small triangle on some 
level part of the cover and punch sev- 
eral holes inside of the lines. Cut a 
cap. A, from a piece of tin to cover the 
holes. A small projection on the edge 
of the cap serves to swing it one way 
or the other, as needed, and it is fas- 
tened loosely to the cover with a soft- 
copper rivet, so that it may be easily 
opened. 



Drying Seeds 

A good way to dry tomato, canta- 
loupe, and other seeds is to put them 
on blotters. They will quickly dry in 
this manner and will not become 
moldy, as the blotter soaks up the 
moisture. — Contributed by Theodore 
Becker, Kansas City, Mo. 



389 



Cleaning Clothes by Boiling Them 

When cleaning clothes by boiling 
them in a boiler over a fire, fit in a 
false bottom to keep the clothes from 
touching the bottom. The false bot- 
tom should be perforated with holes, 
%-in. in diameter and 1 in. apart, over 
the entire piece. Fasten four legs, each 
about 2 in. long, to the under side to 
make a space between the bottoms. In 
washing, all that is necessary is to 
place the clothes in the boiler and boil 
them. The dirt will come loose and 
settle through the holes and on the 
boiler bottom. 



An Emergency Tack Puller 

One day I had to pull some tacks 
but had no tack puller at hand. An 
idea came to me to use the kitchen 




The Point of a Spoon will Easily Pull a Tack 
from Soft Wood 



spoon, and I found that it worked 
even better than a regular tack puller. 
The ordinary kitchen spoon usually 
has an edge sharp enough to get under 
any tack. — Contributed by H. D. 
Harkins, St. Louis, Mo. 



A Puzzle with Figures 

This puzzle is to arrange all the 
figures or digits, from 1 to 9 inclu- 
sively, in two rows, each containing 
all the digits, so that the sum in addi- 
tion as well as the remainder in sub- 
traction will have nine figures, in 
whi^h all the digits are represented. 
There are several solutions to the puz- 
zle, and the following is one of them: 

371294568 

21G397845 
The sum of the foregoing numbers 
and the remainder, when the lower row 
is subtracted from the upper, will both 
have nine figures and include all the 
digits from 1 to 9. — Contributed by 
Walter Bennett, Detroit, Mich. 



To Fasten Loose Table Legs 

When legs of an ordinary table be; 
corne loose and unsteady they may be 
easily repaired as shown in the sketch. 




A Piece of Wire Bent around the Leg of a Table will 
Make It Rigid 

Nails do not hold well in such places 
and glue will not stand much washing. 
The method of making the repair is 
to drill i/s-in. holes through the rails 
on each side of the leg and insert pieces 
of galvanized wire of a size to fit the 
holes. After the wire is inserted, the 
ends are bent over. The illustration 
clearly shows the repair. — Contributed 
by Edwin C. Wright, Newport, Ky. 



Washbasin Holder 

A piece of wire formed into the 
shape shown in the sketch makes a 

handy hook to , ^ 

hold a washbasin y'' '^._ 

when it is not in / ,-----.. \ 
use. This keeps 
it out of the way 
and out of the 
dirty water which 
might be thrown 
into the kitchen 
sink. — Contribu- 
ted by F. C. Althen, Anamosa, Iowa. 




A Cleaner for Canvas Shoes 

One of the most economical cleansers 
for canvas shoes is oxide of zinc. Mix 
a small quantity of the powder with 
water, to the consistency of thin paste, 
and apply it to the canvas with an old 
toothbrush, rubbing it in thoroughly. 
Then set the shoes aside to dry be- 
fore wearing them. — Contributed by 
Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y. 



CA good substitute currycomb can be 
made of corncobs tied together tightly. 



390 



Ruling Blank Books 

A special ruling for a blank book 
can be drawn by using a thin piece of 
sheet metal or cardboard, cut as shown 



< 
< 




< 
< 





Fi&.l 



Fig. 2 



A Template Having Slots Cut for Drawing Special 
Vertical and Horizontal Lines on Pages 

in Fig. 1, for a template. The pencil 
is drawn along one edge of the cut- 
out so that it will make lines as shown 
in Fig. 2. 

If horizontal lines are required, cut 
notches on the edge for the location 
of each line as shown. When the ver- 
tical lines are drawn, these notches will 
mark the places for the horizontal 
lines. 



How to Demagnetize a Watch 

Quite often the attendants or a visi- 
tor to an electric-light plant discovers 
after a few days that his watch is los- 
ing a half hour or more a day by hav- 
ing become magnetized by the dyna- 
mos. In stations where the old types 
of machines are still in use there is a. 
great deal more danger from what is 
called "stray" magnetic fields than in 
those where modern machines are in- 
stalled. 

The jeweler demagnetizes a watch 
in the following way : He has a piece of 
soft iron with an opening cut in its 
center of such shape and size as to re- 
ceive the watch, and with a tine wire 
wound about it. After the watch has 
been placed in position, an alternating 
current, that is, one whose direction is 
changing at regular intervals, is sent 
through the winding, and thus a mag- 
netic field is produced that also 



changes in direction as the current re- 
verses. The current is gradually re- 
duced in value and the magnetism orig- 
inally possessed by the watch is re- 
moved. When an alternating current 
is not available, a direct current may 
be used, its direction being rapidly re- 
versed by what is known as a "polar- 
ity changer." 

Anyone can demagnetize his own 
watch, however, with very little 
trouble and no expense by a much sim- 
])ler method. Procure a piece of heavy 
linen thread about 3 ft. long, attach 
one end of it to the ring of the watch, 
hold the other end and turn the watch 
around until the thread is twisted at 
least one hundred times. Now allow 
the thread to unwind, and as the watch 
revolves, pass it back and forth near 
a powerful electromagnet. The field 
magnet of a good-sized generator or 
motor will answer. The machine 
should be in operation, or at least there 
should be a current in the windings 
about the fields, when you attempt to 
demagnetize the watch. \\'hile the 
thread is unwinding, and the watch 
moved in the magnetic field, gradually 
withdraw from the magnet so that 
when the watch ceases to revolve, it is 
just outside of the field. 

Always be sure to keep the watch 
revolving while it is in the magnetic 
field, otherwise the results will be very 
unsatisfactory, and more harm than 
good may result. 



A Pencil Holder 

Procure a piece of paper, 7 in. long 
and 4 iri. wide, and roll it one time 
around a lead pencil, then coat the 
remaining surface of the paper with 
glue. Roll this around the pencil and 
a tube is formed, which will hold a 




A Stub of a Pencil can be Easily Held in the 
Tube for Writing 

pencil or even pieces of pencil down 
to i/o in. in length. — Contributed by 
W. D. Brooks, Paterson, N. J. 



291 



A Poultry-Food Chopper 

The illustration shows a handy de- 
vice for cutting roots for food, and for 
chopping and mixing stale bread, po- 
tatoes, peelings, refuse fruit, etc., for 
poultry. Any blacksmith can make 
the chopper at little cost. For the 
cutting blades use two pieces of steel 
a little heavier than oil-barrel hoops, 
each iy2 in. wide and 8 in. long. Pro- 
cure a 1/2-10- iron rod, about 3 ft. long, 
bend one end in the shape of a spade 




The Chopper Consists of a Rod Handle to "Which 
Blades are Attached by Riveting or Welding 

handle and split the other end for a 
distance of about S^/^ in. 

Sharpen one edge of each blade and 
curve the metal slightly. Lay the two 
blades together with the convex sides 
touching in the center and insert them 
in the slit in the handle end. They are 
riveted or welded in place. Heat and 
bend the blades at right angles. 

Many of the materials mentioned 
for poultry foods may be chopped in 
an ordinary pail having a strong bot- 
tom, but it is best to make a box, 
about 1% ft. square and with a plank 
bottom, for use with the chopper. 



A Small Spring Hinge 

Box covers or small doors that are 
seldom used can be supplied with a 
small spring hinge as shown in the 
illustration. The hinge is made of a 
piece of spring wire which is formed 
similar to a staple with a coil or com- 
plete turn given to the wire in the 




The Shape of the Hinge, and the Manner of Attaching 
It to a Cover or Door 

center. It is attached l)y driving the 
points, one into the door and the other 
into the casing. 



Shoestring End 

When the tips slip from shoelaces, 
new ones may be readily made of fine 
wire. The wire is run through the end 
of the lace. Fig. 1, and the two ends 




F16.2 



The Wire Prevents the Lace from Raveling and 
Makes a Tip for Easily Entering the Eyelets 

are twisted tightly together as shown 
in Fig. 2. This covers the end of the 
lace and makes a tip that is easily 
passed through the eyelets. 



Threads on Wood Shafts 

In model making it is quite neces- 
sary at times to have threads on a 
wood shaft. These can be made quite 



The Wire Forms a Thread That in Many Instances 
is Quite Serviceable for Model Making 

satisfactorily by coiling a wire around 
the shaft where the threads are wanted, 
and driving the ends into the wood. 



A Glass Breaker 

After cutting glass, and especially 
where a small strip is to be removed, 
the part must be broken away in small 




The Nut is Set to the Thickness of the Glass 
and Used to Break Pieces Away 

pieces. The accompanying sketch 
shows a very useful tool for this pur- 
pose. The tool is made of a piece of 
metal having a bolt fastened to it at 
one end whose nut can be adjusted 
to the thickness of the glass. 



COld discarded blueprints can be made 
white and used for sketching by dip- 
ping them in a solution of soda and 
water, in the proportions of 4 oz. of 
soda to each gallon of water. 



393 



Wood Postal Cards 



The card consists of three pieces, 
or three-ply, veneer. The grain of the 
outside veneer runs leng-thwise, while 
that of the inside piece runs crosswise. 
This makes the card straight and keeps 
it from breaking. For the inner sec- 
tion, walnut, which may be had as thin 
as 1/G4 in., or any thin straight- 
grained veneer may be used. Two 
pieces of veneer, about 3% in. wide 
and 6 in. long; one piece, 6 in. wide 
and 3% in. long, — the length being 
with the grain of the wood — and two 
blocks of wood, known as cauls, of the 
same size or a little larger, and about 
■% in. thick, are required. 

The veneer is laid flat on a board 
and cut with a sharp knife or fine saw 
along the edge of a ruler. The three 
pieces are glued together in the follow- 
ing manner. Use ordinary hot glue, 
not too thin, but thin enough to run 
freely from the brush. The glue is ap- 
plied evenly on both sides of the inner 
piece only, and this is then stood on 
edge until the glue chills. Then the 
cauls are heated. This is best done on 
a stove, or on stove lids over a gas 
fire. While the blocks are being 
heated, put one veneer on either side 
of the middle piece, and a piece of thin 
paper on each side to keep the glue 
from the cauls. A hand screw or vise 
should be opened to almost the dis- 
tance required. One of the cauls is 
now laid flat, the veneers upon it and 
the other caul on top. This should be 
done quickly. Then clamp the whole 
firmly together. While the full pres- 
sure is only needed for about two 
hours, the pieces should be allowed to 
dry between the cauls for, say, a day 
or two, so that they will keep straight. 
The size of the finished card is 3% in. 
by 5I/2 i"- It is cut and planed to size 
while lying flat on a board, the plane 
being pushed along on its side on the 
bench top. To dress or clean, clamp 
one side to the bench. \\"hile a scraper 
blade may be used to advantage, it is 
not essential, as a block of wood and 
sandpaper will do. The thinner it is 
dressed the better. The sharp edges 



should be removed with sandpaper. 
The writing on a wood card is not 
done in the ordinary manner, as the 
ink would run. The surface must be 
prepared, which also gives a finish to 
the wood. Melt some wax or paraffin 
in a suitable vessel and cover the sur- 
face of the wood, using a brush or rag. 
The lines for the address on one side 
are then drawn, and the writing is 
done with a hard lead pencil. When 
through writing on one side, cover it 
with some strong aniline stain. 
(Aniline, dissolved in hot water, com- 
monly known as water stain and used 
especially to stain mahogany, is the 
right kind.) Do not remove the wax 
that was raised by the pencil point. 
Brush the stain over until the whole 
side is covered. When dry, repeat on 
the other side. In about an hour the 
wax may be scraped off with a dull 
scraper or some other dull instrument. 
After every particle of wax has been 
removed, the card is given a good rub- 
bing with a clean, soft rag. It is well 
to protect the hands as well as the 
table during the process. — Contributed 
by Chas. Schapmeier, Baltimore, Md. 



Fastening Screws in Tile and Brick 
Walls 

A simple way to fasten screws in 
tile or brick walls is to drill holes, not 
too large, for the screws, then tear up 
some paper, wet it and make a pulp. 
Pack this pulp tightly in the hole and 
turn in the screws. The screws will 
stand a great deal of strain. — Contrib- 
uted by John Thomas, Brantford, Ont. 



Shoe Pull Made of an Eyelet 

The pulling-on strap at the back of 
a shoe often comes loose, or pulls out, 
and even if it does not, the trousers 
will sometimes catch on it if the strap 
is not tucked inside of the shoe. A 
very simple way to overcome these 
troubles is to remove the straps and 
substitute eyelets. A buttonhook will 
then serve admirably in pulling the 
shoe onto the foot. 



393 



Holder for a Set of Sadirons 

A very attractive holder for a set of 
sadirons and their handle can be made 
as shown in the illustration, although 
the design may be changed if desired. 
The holder consists of a shield-shaped 
back, which is fastened to the wall in 
a convenient place and has a shelf with 
openings for the irons attached to it. 
The shelf is made in two pieces, the 
bottom part being covered with a 
heavy piece of tin while the upper is 
cut out to receive the irons. 

The irons are placed on the upper 
piece in such positions that they will 
be attractively displayed and evenly 
located, and then a lead-pencil mark is 
drawn around their base. Openings 
are cut in the wood on these marks 
and the board fastened on top of the 
tin-covered shelf. An ordinary brass 





An Ornamented Bracket Shelf for Holding a Complete 
Set of Sadirons and Their Handle 

bracket is used in the center beneath 
the shelf, to keep it from sagging. 

The shield is fastened to the wall 
with two screws, over which two 
brushed-brass, diamond-shaped pieces 
are fastened with large brass tacks, to 
cover the screw heads. The corners 
of the shield may be ornamented with 
brushed-brass designs, and the wood 
finished as desired. The irons can be 
set in the holder while hot without 
fear of burning any part, and they will 
present a very neat appearance. — Con- 
tributed by G. E. Martin, Hastings, 
Nebraska. 



A Garden Roller 

A garden roller for digging the earth 
and crushing clods is easily made of the 
following material: One round piece 
of wood, 10 in. in diameter and 18 in. 
long; two pieces of wood, each 5G in. 



long, 21/2 in. wide and li/4 i"- thick; 
one piece, 81 in. long, 2 in. wide and 
1 in. thick ; two i/^-in. lag screws, 6 





A Roller for Crushing Clods and Digging the Earth 
in Garden Making 

in. long, and a quantity of 8-penny 
nails. 

The short piece of wood is fitted be- 
tween the two long pieces with tenon- 
and-mortise joints to serve as a handle 
at one end and the roller is fastened be- 
tween the side pieces at the opposite 
end to revolve on the lag screws. The 
nails are driven into the roller so that 
they project about 1 in. 



A Substitute for Glaziers' Points 

Ordinary small staples make good 
substitutes for glaziers' tacks. The 
points of the staples should be drawn 
apart slightly, as shown at A, to give 
them a greater holding area and at the 
same time make them easier to drive. 
These points seem to hold the glass 
better than the regular glaziers' points. 





Double-Pointed Tacks, or Staples, with the Points 
Spread, Used as Substitutes for Glaziers' Points 

consequently the putty will not crack 
and loosen, and renewing is avoided. 
— Contributed by Edward Sieja, 
Chicago. 



394 




Water-Heating Coil in a Furnace Pipe 

The accompanying sketch shows a 
plan I adopted for conserving the 
waste heat from my furnace. I found 

that I was able 

to put a coil into 
the smoke pipe, 
which was about 
8 in. in diame- 
ter, and thus heat 
water for domes- 
tic purposes. It 
will be seen that 
the coil is spiral 
in shape rather 
than cylindrical, 
as the latter 
would leave a 
free passage up 
the center and therefore would not 
bring enough gases into contact with 
the coil. 

In addition to this coil I have a gas 
heater near the tank which is used 
only in case the demand for hot water 
exceeds the capacity of the coil, which 
is naturally not as efficient per unit of 
length as one directly within the fire- 
pot would be. It has the advantage 
of not absorbing heat which should 
go to make steam, 'but only that which 
would otherwise be wasted. The 
heating surface of the coil is much 
greater than would be possible within 
the firepot, which in a measure com- 
pensates for its lower efficiency. — Con- 
tributed by W. E. Morey, Chicago. 



A Homemade Marking Gauge 

A %-in. bushing is turned into the 
side outlet of a '^s-in. tee. The bushing 

then tapped 
receive a xiy- 
w i n g bolt, 
tight - fitting 
wood plug is 
driven into the 
throughway o f 
the tee and the 
ends ground off 
flush on the 
emery wheel. A 
slot, i^ff-in. square, is then cut through 




the wood plug just under the bushing. 
Two pieces of flat steel, each 1^4 in- 
wide by Vs 'II- thick and 1/8 ill- longer 
than the tee, are fitted in the slot cut in 
the plug as shown in the sketch. The 
outer end of each piece is bent at right 
angles and sharpened. After the points 
have been drawn out to the right dis- 
tance, the wing bolt is turned to hold 
them in that position. — Contributed by 
C. Molloy, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Protecting Brush Handles from Paint 

A very efficient method to prevent 
paint from running down on a paint- 
brush handle and on the hand is to cut 
a hollow rubber ball in half. Fig. 1, 
make a hole in the center to fit the 
brush handle and attach it as shown in 




The Shape of the Ball Forms a Cup to Catch the 
Paint from the Brush 

Fig. 2. One ball will fit up two 
brushes. The cup shape catches the 
paint and prevents it from getting on 
the handle. — Contributed by O. H. 
Meyer, Churdon, Iowa. 



A Tie-Pin Holder 

Having lost several tie pins by theft 
or by their falling out I made a little 
device to securely hold the pin in the 
tie. This device 

makes it almost 11 | „|.. \ 

impossible to 
pull the pin out 
and it cannot be 
lost accidentally. 
The device is 
made of a small 
safety pin, bent 

as shown, with one arm. A, longer than 
the other, B. The arm A is put on the 
pin first or upward, and attached as 
shown at C. When pulling on the tie 
pin the arms of the holder tend to 
draw together and clamp it on the pin. 
— Contributed by Robert C. Knox, 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 




295 



Hulling Walnuts 

When gathering my winter supply 
of walnuts, I found that they could not 
be hulled readily by hand. Not know- 
ing of any machine designed for the 
purpose, I tried running them through 
a corn sheller and found it to do the 
work nicely. The sheller not only 
hulled them, but separated the nuts 
from the hulls, the nuts being carried 
out through the cob opening and the 
hulls dropping through the grain 
spout. — Contributed by Irl R. Hicks, 
Hallsville, Mo. 



How to Make a Small Vise Screw 

Procure an ordinary lag screw, as 
shown in Fig. 1, cut off the pointed end 
and file the threads into the shape 




A Vise Screw Formed of an Ordinary Lag Screw, the 
Threads being Made Square and a Handle Attached 



shown in Fig. 2. A hole is drilled 
through the head and a handle put in, 
as shown in Fig. 3. This makes a good 
substitute screw when the original 
screw for a small vise is broken. — Con- 
tributed by James M. Kane, Doyles- 
town. Pa. 



A Medicine-Spoon Holder 

When a dropper is not at hand it is 
difficult to drop medicine in a spoon 
while holding it, and the shape of the 
spoon will not permit its being set 
down. A shoe horn used as shown in 




A Shoe Horn 
is the Right Shape 
to Hold the Spoon 
Right Side Up and Level 



the sketch will hold the spoon right 
side up and in a position to hold the 
liquid. — Contributed by Maurice Bau- 
dier. New Orleans, La. 



Knife Holder on a Frying Pan 

Instead of laying a knife on the 
stove or carrying it to a table or else- 
where while frying anything in a pan. 




The Shape of the Clip and Manner of Attaching It 
to a Frying Pan 

make a clip to fit the edge of the pan 
for holding the knife when it is not in 
use. The clip is easily made of brass 
wire and when attached to a frying 
pan it will save many steps. — Con- 
tributed by John C. Harlacker, Jr., 
Cumberland, B. C. 



A Broom for Sweeping Out Corners 
in Steps 

Sweeping the corners of steps is one 
of the greatest difficulties of the house- 
wife, or others who have 
a number of stairs to 
sweep. I have made 
this task easy in a very 
simple manner. I se- 
cured a used broom, the 
longer and newer the 
better, and cut the 
straws off diagonally 
across the sweeping 
edge. The pointed part 
will easily clean out the 
corners in steps or in a room. — Con- 
tributed by W. A. Stamaman, Berlin, 
Ontario. 




Removing a Cork from a Bottle 

A cork that has been pushed into a 
bottle accidentally or otherwise can 
be easily removed in the following 
manner: Tie several knots in one end 
of a string to form a large cluster and 
drop it into the bottle, holding on to 
the other end of the string. Turn the 
bottle over so that the cork will fall 
to the opening in the neck, then pull on 
the string. The cluster formed by the 
knots at the end of the string will 
easily draw out the cork. — Contributed 
by Frank Hart, Chicago, 111. 



296 



Filing Flat Surfaces 

Anyone who has used a file knows 
what skill is required to produce flat 
surfaces. A fixture which is nothing 




The File can be Seen in the Mirror and Its Direction 
Controlled for Filing Flat Surfaces 

more than a mirror properly placed 
enables the operator to sight along the 
file and see at all times just how the 
file is running. — Contributed by A. F. 
Stearns, Madison, Wis. 




Tacking a Screen on a Frame 

Screen wire is very difficult material 
to fasten on a frame so that it becomes 
taut. To make 
it taut and even 
drive the tacks 
as follows : First 
tack the screen 
on one side of the frame, taking 
care to leave no slack between the 
tacks, which should be about 1 ft. 
apart. Fasten the opposite side by 
stretching the screen with one hand 
^and with the other place the tack 
through the meshes and push the 
point as far as possible toward the 
outer edge of the screen frame as 
shown in the sketch. Drive the tack 
so that it will enter the wood straight, 
which will draw the screen taut. 
After having thus fastened the screen 
to two opposite sides of the frame 
with tacks 1 ft. apart, other tacks are 
driven in midway between the first 
ones, stretching the screen and driving 
the tacks as before described, until a 
sufficient number of tacks are driven 
into either side. Then both ends are at- 
tached in the same manner. — Contrib- 
uted by Bertram S. Barnes, Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 



Safety Tips on Chair Rockers 

Some rocking chairs are so con- 
structed that when the person occupy- 
ing it gives a hard tilt backward, the 
chair tips over or dangerously near it. 
A rubber-tipped screw turned into the 
under side of each rocker, near the 
rear end, will prevent the chair from 
tipping too far back. 



Portable and Folding Bookcase 
or Closet 

Two packing bo.xes hinged as shown 
and litted with casters make a very 
convenient portable closet. It can be 
folded flat against a wall or fitted into 
a corner. If furnished with shelves, 
it can be used as a bookcase or tool 
closet, and when fully opened, it 
makes a handy workbench. 

Two projecting strips are fitted on 
the inside of one box so as to fit tightly 
against the inner top and bottom sur- 
faces of the other box, to increase the 
rigidity of the box when closed. The 
addition of casters makes the opening, 




The Two Boxes are Joined on One Edge with Hinges 
and with a Hasp, if Desired, on the Other 

closing and pushing about very easy. 
An ornamental hasp or lock can be 
fitted if desired. 



A Curtain Stop 

A small screweye turned into the 
bottom part or wood strip inclosed in 
the lower end of the curtain will pre- 
vent this end from winding over the 
top roller when the curtain is quickly 
released and rolls to the top. — Contrib- 
uted by D. O. C. Kersten, Detroit, 
Michigan. 



397 



An Alarm for a Sleepwalker 

A little girl in our family would 
walk in her sleep and it caused us no 
little worry lest she might leave the 
house without our knowing it. I 
therefore rigged up an alarm device to 
ring a bell should she leave the room. 
The device consisted of a bell and 
battery in a circuit, and a switch 
which was attached to one door cas- 
ing. A string was stretched across 
the doorway and attached to the 
switch lever in such a manner as to 
pull it closed when the string was 
pushed through the doorway opening. 
— Contributed by J. Woodburn, To- 
ronto, Canada. 



desired. When grinding cabbage, cut 
the heads into quarters and remove 
the hearts. Press the cabbage on the 



A Kraut and Root Grinder 

The grinder is intended mainly for 
chopping cabbage when making sauer- 
kraut, but it is also of much service in 
grinding vegetables and roots to be 
cooked for poultry. 

The base A is made of a plank, at 
least 1 ft. wide and 4 ft. long, with a 
91/4 by dYo-'m. hole cut in the center. 
The grinding part, or cylinder, is 
made of wood, 3 in. in diameter and 9 
in. long, with 8-penny nails, spaced i\ 
in. apart, driven partly into it and then 
cut off so as to leave i/4 in. projecting. 
The cylinder is turned by means of a 
crank attached to the end of the shaft. 

A hopper, B, is constructed, 4 by 914 
in. inside measurement at the bottom, 
and as large as necessary at the top. 
A space is provided at the bottom as 
shown to receive the concave C, which 
consists of a 1-in. board, 3 to 4 in. wide 
and 9 in. long, with nails driven in and 
cut off as described for the cylinder. 

The hopper is securely fastened on 
top of the baseboard and over the 
cylinder. The concave is slipped into 
place and held with wedges or by driv- 
ing two nails in just far enough to 
fasten it temporarily. The concave 
can be adjusted for grinding the dif- 
ferent vegetable products, or replaced 
at any time with a new one. 

The ends of the base are supported 
on boxes, or legs may be provided if 




The Grinder will Easily Reduce Cabbage Heads 
to Bits Suitable for Sauerkraut 

cylinder and turn the crank. Fine bits 
of cabbage, suitable for sauerkraut, 
will be the result. — Contributed by J. 
G. Allshouse, Avonmore, Pa. 



Opening for Air at the Top of a Shade 

Procure an extra long shade and cut 
two openings in the end to be used at 
the top. The openings may be cut 
square or ornamental as desired, leav- 
ing a strip at each side and one in the 
center. These strips are reinforced by 
gluing- on some of the same material 
as the shade or pieces of tape. 

A shade made in this manner per- 




When the Shade is Pulled Down the Openings Coincide 
with the Opening over the Upper Sash 

mits the air to enter the room un- 
hindered when the top sash is lowered 
and at the same time obstructs the 
view of passers-by. — Contributed by 
Warren E. Crane, Cleveland, O. 



298 



Hose Attachment for Watering 
Window Plants 

The window garden of the house has 
its watering difficulties which one 
owner overcame in a neat and handy 




The Hose is Automatically Run on a Reel 
by a ^Veig^lt beneath the Floor 

manner. A hose on a weighted reel 
was attached to the joists in the base- 
ment under the floor near the window 
flower pots. The weight on the reel 
kept the hose wound on it and the noz- 
zle end which projects through the 
floor is large enough to hold it from 
passing through the hole bored for the 
hose. A long stem valve was provided 
with the wheel attached above the 
floor for turning the water on and ofif. 
When the plants need a shower all 
that is necessary is to draw the hose 
nozzle up and turn on the water. The 
hole for the hose and the valve wheel 
can be located close to the wall under 
the flower tray where they will scarcely 
be seen. 



Removing Paint from Glass 

Paint may l)e easily cleaned from 
glass by using a SO-per-cent solution 
of acetic acid. The acid should be 
heated and applied with a cloth. The 
hot acid will not hurt the hands or 
fabrics, nor the glass, but should be 
kept from children who might drink of 
it. The solution is made of commer- 
cial acetic acid and heated by adding 
hot water. The acid is inexpensive and 
can be purchased at any local drug 
store. 



To Prevent Baking Ovens from 
Scorching 

A good method to prevent baking 
ovens from scorching or burning 
pastry is to sprinkle a mixture of sand 
and salt on the bottom where the pans 
are placed. This affords a way of 
radiating the heat evenly. The mix- 
ture also absorbs fruit juices, which 
may be spilled in the course of cook- 
ing. The covering is easily changed, 
which keeps the oven clean. The best 
proportion is half salt and half sand. 



Horn Candle Sconce 

The person who cares for things un- 
usual will find the candle sconce made 
of a cowhorn a suitable fixture for the 
den. A well shaped and not too large 
cowhorn is selected, and prepared by 
first partly filling it with paper, packed 
in tightly, then filling it to the top with 
plaster of Paris, in which a candle 
socket is formed. 

The bracket is made of strips of 
metal, formed as shown and riveted to- 
gether where they touch each other, 
the back piece being fastened with 
screws to a wall board. The metal 
may be brass or copper and finished in 




PLASTOi (WRIS 




The Cowhorn >A'ith 
Bracket and Wall 
Board, Making an Unusual 
Candle Sconce for the Den 



nickel, antique, bronze, or given a 
brush finish. The wooden wall piece 
can be finished in any style desired. 



CWhite spots on furniture can be 
removed by rubbing the wood with 
ammonia. 



299 



How to Make a Copper Stencil 
for Marking Laundry 

A stencil suitable for marking laun- 
dry may be easily made as follows : 

First procure a small sheet of "sten- 
cil sheet copper," about 1 in. wide and 
4 in. long. Dip this sheet of copper 
in a vessel containing some melted 
beeswax, so that both sides will be 
evenly covered with a thin coat of the 
wax when it cools. The design — 
name, monogram or figure — that is 
wanted in the stencil should now 
be drawn upon a piece of thin white 
paper, the reverse side of the paper 
blackened with graphite, and then laid 
on the stencil plate with the design in 
the center of the plate, whereupon the 
design is lightly traced with a blunt 
point on the thin wax coating. After the 
paper is removed, trace the design on 
the wax surface with a pointed instru- 
ment, but not completely, the lines 
being broken at more or less regular 
intervals, to form "holders" so that, 
after etching, the design cannot fall 
out. 

Next lay the stencil in a small shal- 
low dish and pour a small quantity of 
fresh nitric acid over it. Keep the 
air bubbles removed from the surface 
by means of a piece of soft feather. 
The design will be eaten away in a 
very short time, where the wax has 
been removed, and this may be readily 
observed by holding the stencil plate 
up to the light. The acid should then 
be rinsed off with water, and the wax 
removed by heating and wiping it off 
with a cloth. The stencil may be 
given a final cleaning in a dish of ben- 
zine or gasoline, which will remove any 
remaining wax. 



A Brass Pin Tray 

A novelty pin tray can be easily 
made of a piece of No. 24 gauge sheet 
brass or copper, 5 in. in diameter. 
The metal is annealed and polished 
with fine emery cloth, which is given 
a circular motion to produce a frosted 
effect. The necessary tools are a 1-in. 
hardwood board with a 2V2-in. hole 



bored in it, and a round piece of hard 
wood, 1% or 2 in. in diameter, with 
the ends sawn off square. 

Place the sheet metal centrally over 




The Former and Method of Using It to Produce a 
Wrinkled Edge on the Tray 

the hole in the board and set one end 
of the round stick in the center of the 
metal. Drive the stick with a ham- 
mer until a recess about 1 in. deep is 
made in the center. The edge of the 
metal will wrinkle up as shown in the 
sketch. It is scarcely possible to 
make two trays alike, as the edge 
almost invariably will buckle in a dif- 
ferent manner. — Contributed by F. 
Van Eps, Plainfield, N. J. 



A Homemade Exerciser 

A weight machine for exercising 
the muscles of the arms is easily con- 
structed by using two screw hooks, 5 
in. long, and two small pulleys, 2V2 in. 
in diameter. An awning pulley can 
be used for this purpose. The hole 
at the top of the hanger will allow 
the pulley to freely turn at almost any 



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The Yoke of the Pulley is so Arranged as to Make It 
Move in All Positions on the Hook 

angle. A paving brick or a piece of 
metal can be used as a weight for each 
rope. — Contributed by Sterling R. 
Speirs, St. Louis, Mo. 



30O 



A Book Covering 

New books can be quickly and neatly 
covered to keep them clean by cut- 





Paper Covering Kept in 
Place with Corners 
Cut from Old Envelopes 
and Pasted on the Paper 

ting a paper 
large enough to 
cover the back 
and sides when 
the book is 

closed, allowing 1 in. extra at each end 
to be turned over the front and back 
edges, then pasting on corners cut 
from used envelopes. The paper jacket 
can be slipped on or off easily when the 
book is opened, and it will keep a new 
cover clean while the book is being 
handled. — Contributed by Dr. John A. 
Cohalan, Philadelphia. 



A Tilting Inkstand 

An ink-bottle stand, that can be 
tilted or adjusted so that the pen will 
always be filled with a sufficient quan- 
tit}' of ink even when little of it re- 
mains in the bottle, as shown in the 
sketch, can be easily made by the ama- 
teur. The base may consist of a 
square piece of sheet brass, which has 
soldered or riveted to its centef two 
pieces of spring brass, placed cross- 
wise and bent upward so as to form 





Tilting Stand for an Ordinary Ink Bottle to Give 
Access for a Small Supply of Ink 

clips to hold the bottle firmly. The 
legs are made of two lengths of wire, 
of sufficient stiffness, and are shaped 
to form holders for lead pencils and 
penholders. One pair of the legs may 



be soldered to the brass plate and the 
opposite side of the latter rolled over 
the other pair so as to allow them 
either to stand upright or be depressed 
in order to tilt the stand, when the ink 
supply in the bottle gets low. 



A Ring Trick 

The trick to be described is one of 
the simplest and at the same time one 
of the most effective, and but little 
"make-ready" is required to perform 
it. The magician, while sitting in a 
chair, allows his hands to be tied to- 
gether behind the back of the chair. A 
ring is placed between his lips which 
he claims to be able to slip on his 
finger without untying his hands. 
This, to the audience, seems practi- 
cally impossible, but it is easily ac- 
complished. 

A screen is placed in front of the 
performer before the trick is started, 
so that the audience will not see how 
it is done. As soon as he is hidden 
from view, he tilts his head forward 
and drops the ring in his lap. He then 
allows the ring to drop to the seat of 
the chair between his legs. The chair 
is tilted backward slightly, and he 
raises himself to allow the ring to slip 
to the back part of the chair seat, 
where he catches it in his hands and 
slips it on the finger. Any one finger 
may be mentioned, as he can slip the 
ring as readily on one as on another. 
Use a leather-bottom chair, if possible, 
as the least noise will then be made 
when the ring is dropped. — Contribu- 
ted by Abner B. Shaw, N. Dartmouth,. 
Massachusetts. 



Removing Old Putty 

A verj' effective way to remove old 
putty from window panes or other 
articles is to apply a red-hot iron, as 
follows: The iron should be made of 
a broken file or cold chisel and the 
point heated quite hot. This is run 
over the surface of the putty, which 
will crack and fall off. Be careful not 
to let the hot iron touch the glass, as 
the heat may cause the latter to break. 



301 



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How to Make a Water Wheel 



The materials used in the construc- 
tion of this water wheel are such as 
the average amateur mechanic may 
pick up or secure from a junk pile. The 
drawings in Fig. 1 clearly show the 
way the wheel is built. The nozzle, 
Fig. 2, is made of pipe and fittings and 
is adjustable to concentrate the stream 
so as to get the full efficiency of the 
weight and velocity of the water. The 
cap on the end of the nipple is drilled 
to receive the pin point filed on the 



thick sheet-metal disk of the diameter 
given in Fig. 1. This disk is fastened 
to a ^/4-in. shaft, 6 in. long, with two 
collars, one on each side of the disk, 
both being riveted to the disk and 
pinned to the shaft. The bearings AA 
are made of %-in. pipe, each 2i/4 in. 
long. Long threads are cut on these 
to turn through the two %-in. waste 
nuts BB, which provides a way to ad- 
just the buckets centrally with the 
stream of water, and to take up any 




h-H 



Fid. I 
Details of the 

end of the y^-irx. rod. The parts of this 
nozzle are a i/o-in. tee, connected to the 
source of water supply ; a plug, drilled 
to snugly fit the 14-in. rod, and fitted 
into one end of the straight part of the 
tee; and a i/2-in- nipple of sufficient 
length to make the dimension shown in 
the sketch. The nipple has a long 
thread to receive two \'-2-m. locknuts, 
which clamp the nozzle to the sheet- 
metal covering, as shown in Fig. 1. 

The buckets, Fig. 3, are formed of 
some easily melted, but not too soft 
metal alloy which can be cast in plas- 
ter molds. They are attached with riv- 
ets to the circumference of a tg-in. 



^^13 

Fig 3 
Water Wheel 

side motion. The pipe is babbitted 
and drilled for oil holes. The runner 
or wheel must be well balanced, as 
the speed will be from 2,000 to 2,500 
revolutions per minute with ordinary 
city pressure. In balancing the wheel, 
instead of adding an extra weight, a 
part of the disk is filed out on one edge. 
The inclosing sides are made of wood — 
cypress preferred — having the dimen- 
sions given, and two Yg by 11/2-'". 
pieces are attached to the bottom out- 
side surfaces for mounting the wheel. 
The curved part is covered with gal- 
vanized sheet metal. 

The drawing shows a wheel of 



303 



small diameter, but having consider- 
able power. Greater power may be 
obtained by increasing the size of the 
jet and the diameter of the wheel, but 
the use of too many buckets results 





O 

Isi) (si 

FiG.4 
Metal Casing Instead of "Wood 

in decrease of power. One bucket 
should be just entering the stream of 
water, when the working bucket is at 
a point at right angles to the stream. 
The water should divide equally ex- 



actly on the center of the bucket and 
get out of the way as soon ai possible. 
Any stagnant water in the case, or 
dead water in the bucket, is detri- 
mental to the power. A free exit for 
the water is made at the bottom of 
the case, as shown. 

The construction of the case may 
be varied and, instead of wood, metal 
sides and frame may be used. Where 
the builder cares to make a more sub- 
stantial wheel and has access to a 
foundry, the metal parts can be made 
as shown in Fig. 4. The parts are in 
this instance fastened together with 
machine screws. Patterns are made 
and taken to a foundry for the cast- 
ings, which are then machined to have 
close fitting joints. — Contributed by 
R. H. Franklin, Unnatosa, Wis. 



An Interesting Experiment 

Take an ordinary board, 2 or 3 ft. 
long, such as a bread board, and place 
it on the table so that about one-third 




striking the 
Board 



of its length will project over the edge. 
Unfold a newspaper and lay it on the 
table over the board as shown in the 
sketch. Anyone not familiar with the 
experiment would suppose the board 
could be knocked off by hitting it on 
the outer end. It would appear to be 
easy to do, but try it. Unless you are 
prepared to break the board you will 
probably not be able to knock the 
board off. 

The reason is that when the board is 
struck it forces the other end up and 
the newspaper along with it. This 
causes a momentary vacuum to be 
formed under the paper, and the pres- 
sure of the air above, which is about 
15 lb. to the square inch, prevents the 



board from coming up. This is an 
entertaining trick to play at an even- 
ing party, and also makes a simple and 
interesting school experiment. 



Ironing-Board Holder 

An ironing board that had been used 
on two chairs was cut off square on 
one end and a piece of heavy sheet 
metal cut and bent into the shape 
shown in Fig. 1. The square end of 
the board was fitted into the socket 
formed by the sheet metal. After at- 
taching the socket to the wall with 
screws the board was easily put in 




Socket and Manner of Holding Board 

place as shown in Fig. 2. The brace is 
hinged to the under side of the board. 
— Contributed by L. G. Swett, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 



303 



How to Make a "Water Motor 

By EDWARD SILJA 



After making several different styles 
of water motors I found the one illus- 
trated to be the most powerful as well 
as the simplest and most inexpensive 
to make. It can be constructed in the 
following manner: A disk, as shown 
in Fig. 1, cut from sheet iron or brass, 
^ in. thick and 9-'^4 in. in diameter, 
constitutes the main part of the wheel. 
The circumference is divided into 2i 
equal parts, and a depth line marked 
which is 81/i '"• in diameter. Notches 
are cut to the depth line, similar to the 
teeth of a rip saw, one edge being on a 
line with the center of the wheel and 
the other running from the top of one 
tooth to the base of the preceding 
tooth. 

A y^-in. hole is drilled in the center 
of the disk and the metal strengthened 
with a flange, placed on each side of 
the disk and fastened with screws or 
rivets. A %,-in. steel rod is used for the 
shaft. 

The cups, or buckets, are shaped in 
a die which can be cast or built up of 
two pieces, as desired. Both of these 
dies are shown in Fig. 2. The one at 
A is made of two pieces riveted to- 
gether. 

If a foundry is near, a pattern can be 
made for a casting, as shown at B. 




Metal Disk with a Saw-Tooth Circumference That 
Constitutes the Main Body of the Wheel 

The die is used in the manner shown 
in Fig. 3. A strip of galvanized metal 



is placed over the depressions in the 
die and a ball-peen hammer used to 






Two Ways of Making the Dies to Shape the Sheet- 
Metal Water Cups 

drive the metal into the die. Cups, or 
buckets, are thus formed which are sol- 
dered to the edge of the teeth on a 
line with the center of the disk, as 




The Sheet Metal is Placed on the Die and Then 
Hammered into Shape 

shown in Fig. 4. As there are 24 
notches in the disk, 2i cups will be 
necessary to fill them. 

The cups are made in pairs or in two 
sections, which is a better construction 
than the single cup. The water from 
the nozzle first strikes the center be- 
tween the cups, then divides and pro- 
duces a double force. 

When this part of the work is fin- 
ished it is well to balance the wheel, 
which can be done by filing off some 
of the metal on the heavy side or add- 
ing a little solder to the light side. 
This will be necessary to provide an 
easy-running wheel that will not cause 
any unnecessary wear on the bearings. 

The housing for the wheel consists 
of two wood pieces, about %-in. thick 
and cut to the shape shown in Fig. .5. 
Grooves are cut in one surface of each 
piece, to receive the edges of a strip 
of galvanized metal, as shown at A. 
The grooves are cut with a specially 



304 



constructed saw, shown in Fig. 6. It 
consists of a piece of wood, 6 in. long. 



V 



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^ 



The Water Cups are Fastened to the Teeth on the 
Metal Disk with Solder 

li/o in. wide and i/o in. thick, the end 
bemg cut on an arc of a circle whose 
diameter is 10 in. A piece of a broken 
hacksaw blade is fastened with screws 
to the curved end. A nail is used as a 
center pivot, forming a 5-in. anda 5%- 
in. radius to swing the saw on in cut- 




The Housing for the Wheel with a Connection to 
Attach the Motor on an Ordinary Faucet 

ting the groove. After inserting the 
strip of galvanized metal, A, Fig. 5, the 
sides are clamped together with bolts 

about 314 in- lo"g- 

A piece of pipe, B, Fig. 5, having an 
opening %-in. in diameter, is soldered 
onto the metal strip A. An ordinary 



A bearing, D, shaped as shown, is 
fastened to one of the wood sides with 
screws, the wheel shaft is run into it, 
and the parts assembled. A wheel, 
either grooved or flat, 2I/2 or 3 in. in di- 
ameter, is placed on the shaft. The 
hose coupling makes it easy to connect 
the motor directly to the water faucet. 



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An Application for Small Wounds 

Pure wintergreen oil makes a good 
local application for all small wounds, 
bites, scratches, abrasions, etc. There 
is no germ or microbe, animal or vege- 
table, dead or living, that can with- 
stand this oil, and at the same time it 
is not injurious to living tissues. A few 
drops gently rubbed in where there is 
apt to be any infection is sufficient. 

An infection always follows the 
wound of a bullet or the scratch of a 
brass pin, with irritation extending 
up the limb or part threatening tetanus 
or lockjaw. These symptoms are mani- 
fested by spasmodic pains which shoot 
upward, but are quickly subdued, if 
the oil is applied along the track of 
the pain or infection. This oil is 
equally efTective when locally applied 
to tendons or ligaments which have 
been unduly strained. 

An ounce of the pure oil does not 
cost much, and it should be kept in 
every shop and household. If 5 or 10 
per cent of olive oil is added to it, the 
oil will have more body and will last 
longer. — Contributed by Dr. E. R. 
Ellis, Detroit, Mich. 



Fig, 6 

Construction of the Saw for Making the Groove to 
Receive the Metal Strip in the Sides 

garden-hose coupling, C, is soldered to 
the end of the pipe. 



Cores for Use in Babbitt Metal 

It is often necessary in making things 
of babbitt metal to core out some of the 
parts. A very good core is made of 
common salt and glue. Mix just 
enough of the glue into the salt to 
makea stif? paste, which is then formed 
into the desired shape or molded in a 
core box and allowed to harden. This 
kind of a core can be removed from 
the casting by soaking it in warm 
water, which will dissolve the salt and 
leave the desired hole. — Contributed 
by H. F. Hopkins, N. Girard, Pa. 



305 



How to Build a "Wind Vane with an Electric Indicator 



Quite often it is practically impos- 
sible to ascertain the direction of the 
wind by observing an ordinary wind 
vane on account of the necessity of lo- 
cating the vane at such a height that 
it may give a true indication. By 
means of the device shown in Fig. 2, 
the position of the vane may be deter- 
mined without actually looking at the 
vane itself and the indicating device 
may be located almost anywhere and 
independently of the position of the 
wind vane. 

The principle upon which the device 
operates is that of the Wheatstone 
bridge. The position of the moving 
contact A, Fig. 1, is controlled by the 
wind vane. This contact is made to 
move over a specially constructed re- 
sistance R, Fig. 2. A second movable 
contact, B, is controlled by the observer 
and moves over a second resistance, 
identical with that over which the con- 
tact A moves. These two resistances 
are connected so as to form the two 
main branches of a Wheatstone bridge ; 
the points A and B are connected to the 
current-detecting device, which may 
be a galvanometer or telephone re- 
ceiver, and current is supplied by a 
number of dry cells. 

In order to obtain a balance — that 
is, no current through the receiver — the 
points A and B must occupy corre- 
sponding positions on their respective 
resistances. If the two resistances 
over which the points A and B move 
are mounted in the same position with 
respect to the cardinal points of the 
compass, then the points themselves 
will always be in the same position 
with respect to the cardinal points 
when a balance is obtained. The ar- 
row head on the wind vane and the 
point A are made to occupy corre- 
sponding positions, and hence the po- 
sition of the point B, when no current 
passes through the receiver, is an in- 
dication of the direction in which the 
wind vane is pointing. 

The principal parts in the construc- 
tion of the device are shown in the il- 



lustration, and the following descrip- 
tion of their construction may be of in- 
terest to those who contemplate build- 
ing the indicator. 



5T\AAAAyVY\^AAA/W^^j 



Fig. 1 — The Diagram of a Wheatstone Bridge ^Vhich 
Shows the Points of Contact So Placed That a 
Balance is Obtained 

Procure two pieces of t'ff-in. hard 
rubber, II/2 in. wide by 24 in. long. 
Clamp these, side by side, between two 
boards and smooth down their edges 
and ends, and then file small slots in 
the edges with the edge of a three- 
cornered file. These slots should all 
be equally spaced about g\ in. apart. 
Have the pieces clamped together 
while filing the slots and mark one 
edge top and one end right so that 
the pieces may be mounted alike. Now 
procure a small quantity of No. 20 
gauge bare manganin wire. Fasten 
one end of this wire to one end of 
the pieces of rubber by winding it in 
and out through three or four small 
holes and then wind it around the 
piece, placing the various turns in the 
small slots that were filed in the edges. 
After completing the winding, fasten 
the end just as the starting end was 
attached. Wind the second piece of 
rubber in a similar manner and make 
sure to have the length of the free ends 
in each case the same. Obtain a cylin- 
der of some kind, about 8 in. in diam- 
eter, warm the pieces of rubber by dip- 
ping them in hot water, bend them 
around the cylinder and allow them 
to cool. 

A containing case, similar to that 
shown in cross section in the upper 
portion of Fig. 2 should now be 
constructed from a good quality of 
tin or copper. The inside diameter of 



306 



this case should be about 1 in. more 
than the outside diameter of the re- 
sistance ring R, and it should be about 
3 in. deep. The top C may be made 




Fig. 2— The ■Weather Vane with Resistance Coil, and 
Diagram of Indicator Which is Identical with That 
of the Vane 

curved as shown in the illustration, 
and should be fastened to the case 
proper by a number of small machine 
screws. The base of this case may be 
made so that the whole device can be 
mounted on the top of a pole. 

Mount a piece of V^-'m. steel rod, 
about 1/2 in- long, with a conical hole 
in one end, in the center of the bottom 
of the case as shown by M. A number 
of supports, similar to the one shown, 
should be made from some V^-in. hard 
rubber and fastened to the sides of 
the case, to support the resistance ring. 
The dimensions of these supports 
should be such that the ends of the 
piece of rubber, forming the ring, are 
against each other when it is in place. 
The upper edge of the ring should be 



about 2 in. above the bottom of the 
case. 

Ne.xt, mount a piece of brass tube, 
D, in the exact center of the top and 
perpendicular to it. A washer, E, may 
also be soldered to the top so as to 
aid in holding the tube. Procure a 
piece of steel rod, F, that will fit in 
the tube D and turn freely. Sharpen 
one end of this rod and mount a brass 
wind vane on the other end. A small 
metal cup, G, may be soldered to a 
washer, H, and the whole mounted on 
the steel rod F in an inverted position 
as shown, which will prevent water 
from getting down inside the case 
along the rod. The cup G may be 
soldered directly to the rod. Make a 
small arm, J, of brass, and fasten a 
piece of light spring, K, to one side 
of it, near the outer end, then mount 
the arm on the steel rod so that it is 
parallel to the vane and its outer end 
points in the same direction as the ar- 
row on the vane. The free end of the 
light spring on the arm J should be 
broad enough to bridge the gap be- 
tween adjacent turns of wire on the 
resistance ring. Four bindings should 
then be mounted on the inside of the 
case and all insulated from it with the 
exception of number 1. Numbers 3 
and .3 are connected to the ends of the 
winding and number -i is connected to 
number 3. 

A second outfit should now be con- 
structed, identical with the one just 
described except that it should have 
a flat top with a circular scale mounted 
on it, and the arm L should be con- 
trolled by a small handle in the center 
of the scale. The position of the con- 
tact B may be indicated on the scale 
by a slender pointer, attached to the 
handle controlling the arm L. 

Four leads of equal resistance should 
be used in connecting the two devices 
and the connections made as shown. 
An ordinary buzzer placed in the bat- 
tery circuit will produce an interrupted 
current through the bridge circuit and 
a balance will be obtained by adjust- 
ing the contact point B until a min- 
imum hum is heard in the telephone 
receiver. 



307 





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Planting Seeds in Egg Shells 

AMien growing flower plants from 
seeds, start them in halves of shells 
from hard-boiled eggs. When the time 
comes to transplant them, they can be 
easily removed by allowing the dirt in 
the shell to become hard and then 
breaking off the shell, whereupon the 
plant is placed in the ground. 

A pasteboard box provided with 
holes large enough to support the egg 
shells can be used to hold them, un- 
less ^^^ crates are at hand. Two 
large seeds such as nasturtiums and 
sweet peas can be planted in one shell, 
and four seeds of the smaller varie- 
ties. — Contributed by Katharine D. 
Morse, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Locating Drip Pan under a 
Refrigerator 

In replacing the drip pan of an ice 
box or refrigerator it is often neces- 
sary to bend over in locating it under 
the drip pipe. This trouble may be 
done away with by fastening two 
strips of wood in a V-shape to the floor 
beneath the refrigerator. When the 
pan is shoved under, it will strike one 




Strips on Floor under Refrigerator 

strip and slide along until it strikes the 
other. Then the pan is sure to be un- 
der the drip pipe. — Contributed by 
Lloyd A. Phelan, Beachmont, Mass. 



Windmill for Light Power 

The windmill shown in the sketch 
is one that will always face the wind, 
and it never requires adjustment. It 




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D'i 













DIRECTION or 
WIND 




Frames Hinged to the Arms 

consists of a vertical shaft, A, provided 
with a number of arms, B, on which 
are hinged square sails, C. These sails 
are preferably made of wood frames 
covered with canvas. They are pro- 
vided with hinges, D, attached to the 
ends of the arms in such a way that 
they ofifer resistance to the wind on 
one side of the wheel, while they move 
edgewise against the wind on the other 
side, as shown. The shaft of the mill 
can either be run in bearings set on 
an upright post, the lower end of the 
shaft turning on a conical bearing, or 
collars may be used on the bearings to 



308 



keep it in position. The power can be 
transmitted with gears or by a flat belt 
over a pulley. 

A wheel of this kind is not adapted 
for high speed, but direct-connected to 
a pump or other slow-working machin- 
ery will prove very efficient. — Con- 
tributed by Edward Hanson, Kane, 
Pennsylvania. 



A Small Bunsen Burner 

An excellent bunsen burner for 
small work can be made as follows: 
Draw a glass tube to the shape shown, 
to produce a fine 
hollow point. 
Mark carefully 
with a file and 
break at A and 
then at B. Bore 
or burn a hole 
in a cork to fit 
the tube. Cut a 
V-shaped notch 
in the side of 
the cork extend- 
ing to the hole. 
Bend the lower 
tube at right 
angles and in- 
sert it in a wood 
block, previously slotted with a saw 
to make a snug fit. A little glue will 
hold the glass tubes, cork and base 
together. The air mixture can be ad- 
justed by sliding the upper tube be- 
fore the glue sets. 

The burner is especially adapted to 
continuous work, such as sealing 
packages, etc. The flame will not 
discolor the wax. — Contributed by E. 
P. Ferte, Spokane, Wash. 




The Hindoo Sand Trick 

This is one of the many tricks for 
which the Hindoos are famous, and 
was long kept a secret by them. It 
consists of placing ordinary sand in a 
basin full of water, stirring the water 
and taking out the sand in handfuls 
perfectly dry. It need scarcely be said 
that without previous preparation, it is 
impossible to do so. 



Take 2 lb. of fine silver sand, place it 
in a frying pan and heat well over a 
clear fire. When the sand is thor- 
oughly heated, place a small piece of 
grease or wax — the composition of a 
paraffin candle preferred — in the sand, 
stirring it well to get it thoroughly 
mixed, then allow the sand to cool. 
When this sand is placed in a basin of 
water, it will be apparently dry when 
taken out. It is very important that 
only a small portion of the adherent 
be used so that it cannot be detected 
when the sand is examined by the audi- 
ence. The explanation is that the 
grease or wax coating on each sand 
particle repels the water. — Contributed 
by Mighty Oaks, Oshkosh, Wis. 



A Kite-Line Cutaway for Toy 
Parachutes 

The cutaway is made of a small 
piece of board, a cigar-box lid, an old 
yardstick or a piece of lath, which 
should be about 6 in. long. Common 
carpet wire staples are used to hold 
it on the string. The under side has 
a wire bent into such a shape as to 
form a loop at the forward end over 
the kite string, then running back 
through the two staples at the one 
side and through two staples at the 
other side. 

The parachute should have a small 
wire ring fastened at the weight end 
so as to fasten in the carrier, and 




"Wires Attached 
to the Traveler 



should be put between the two staples 
that are closest together on the under 
side of the carrier. A small nail or 
button — anything larger than the loop 
in the wire — should be attached to the 
kite string a few feet from the kite. 
When the parachute is carried up the 
kite string, the knob on the string will 



309 



strike the loop of the wire on the car- 
rier, which releases the parachute and 
allows it to drop. The carrier will re- 
turn of its own weight to the lower 
end of the string. — Contributed by I. 
O. Lansing, Lincoln, Neb. 



A Cherry Fitter 

Procure an ordinary quill feather 
and cut the tip off to form a small hole. 
Do not remove so much of the end that 
the cherry stone can stick in it. The 
hole must be slightly smaller than the 
cherry stone. Push the quill through 
the center of the cherry and the stone 
will come out easily. — Contributed by 
Harold Wynning, Chicago, 111. 



To Hold a Fish while Removing the 
Scales 

Insert a screwdriver or ice pick in 
a fish as shown, and the scales can be 
removed much better and quicker than 
in any other way. The handle of the 




Holding Fish for Scaling 



screwdriver afifords an efficient grip 
so that the fish can be held firmly on 
the board and every scale can be re- 
moved. 



Carrying Stone Jars 

The handholds on stone jars are 
usually not large enough to carry the 
jars safely when they are full. If the 
handles of an old galvanized tub are 
riveted to a leather strap long enough 
to reach under the bottom and almost 
to the top on each side, the jar can be 
handled without danger of being 
dropped. The fingers are placed in 
the handles to carry the weight, while 
the thumbs are used to keep the jar 
from tipping. By placing a buckle 
near one end, the strap may be used 
for carrying a jar of any size. — Con- 
tributed by C. H. Floyd, Elwood, Ind. 



Vibrator for a Spark Coil 

If you do not have the time to make 
a vibrator or electrolytic interrupter for 
a spark coil, a common electric door- 




bell makes a good substitute. Connect 
one of the primary wires to the bind- 
ing-post of the bell that is not insulated 
from the frame, and the other primary 
wire to the adjusting screw on the 
make-and-break contact of the bell, as 
shown in the sketch. The connections 
are made from the batteries to the bell 
in the usual manner. — Contributed by 
Ralph Tarshis, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Head Rest for a Chair 

While seated in a chair a person 
very often desires to lay the head back 
in resting. A support for the head is 
lacking in the low-back rockers and 
ordinary chairs. A detachable, padded 
support can be easily made at home 
for placing on any low-back chair and 
used as a head rest. 

The support standards can be made 
of wood or metal as desired. If metal 




Rest on Chair Back 



is used, the rest will have some spring- 
iness, which combined with the pad 
will insure much greater comfort than 



310 



the hard rigid back. A cloth or paper 
is placed over the back of the chair 
to prevent marring of the varnish or 
wood. 



Lighting a Lawn Mower for Use at 
Night 

Those who desire to do so, or must, 
for lack of time during the day, may 
use their lawn 
mower at night 
and light the 
front of their 
machine with an 
ordinary bicycle 
lamp. The arm 
to hold the lamp 
can be attached 
with screws to 
the handle as 
shown in the 
sketch. It is 
easily made from 
a piece of hoop 
or bar iron. — 
Contributed by Samuel F. Reid, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 




Tying a Rosette in a Couch-Cover 
Corner 

In the accompanying illustration is 
shown a very simple method of tying 
a rosette in the corner of a couch 
cover. The use of the average couch 
cover as a throw-over leaves a large 
corner which drags upon the floor. To 
dispose of this extra length and at the 




Spread the couch cover on the couch 
so that the surplus is evenly divided 
between the sides and ends, and pass 
a pin through the cover to show each 
corner as in Fig. 1. Measure the dis- 
tance from each corner of the couch 
to the floor. Fig. 2, and measuring 
from the point of the corner, mark the 
same distance by the insertion of an- 
other pin, repeating in all four corners. 
The distance between the two pins at 
each corner now defines the amount of 
surplus that is to be taken up. Chalk 
a circle to include the portion between 
these two pins, as shown in Fig. 3, and 
with a circular needle and stout stitch- 
ing twine run a shirring thread around 
the circle, and when this is drawn 
tightly and tied, the surplus is formed 
into a rosette, while the corner may 
be draped into an artistic cascade, as 
shown in I<'ig. 4. 



W 



1 



Driving Screws 

A wood screw having the threads 
hammered flat on two sides can be 
easily driven in 
with the flat- 
tened sides par- 
allel to the grain 
of the wood. 
When the screw 
isturneda 
quarter turn the 

remaining threads cross the grain and 
hold as well as if they had been turned 
in all the way. This is an especial 
advantage where something is wanted 



II 







FI6.I 



Fio.2 



Fig. 4 



Fig 3 
Different Stages in Tying the Rosette 

same time make an artistic corner, the which is easily inserted and will hold 
Upholsterer suggests the following better than a nail. — Contributed by 
method: P. D. Merrill, Chicago. 



311 




A Power Windmill 



The windmill shown is somewhat 
different from the ordinary kind. It 
is not a toy, nor does it approach in 
size the ordinary farm windmill, l)ut 
is a compromise between the two, and 
in a good strong wind, will supply 
power enough to run a washing ma- 
chine, a small dynamo, an emery 
wheel, or any other device used in 
the home workshop. The wheel is 
about 5 ft. in diameter, with eight 
blades. The over-all length is about 
6 feet. 

The windmill is easily made and 
the cost is within the means of the 
average boy. There is not a part used 
in its construction that cannot be 
found about an ordinary manual-train- 
ing shop. The most difficult parts of 
the construction will be described in 




The Hub Consists of Two Parts. Each Having Four 
Arms for Holding the Blades 

detail. Symmetry and smoothness of 
design should be preserved and the 
parts made as light as possible con- 
sistent with strength and durability. 



The Wheel 

As shown in the drawings, the wheel 
has eight blades. Ordinarily the use 
of eight blades makes it difficult to 




The Supporting Standard 
Holds the Machine Head 
with the Wheel and the 
Vane on an Axis 



construct a hub of sufficient strength 
to carry them. Where so many blades 
radiate from a common center it is 
almost impossible to provide an 
anchorage for each blade. To provide 
a maximum of strength coupled with 
simplicity of design, the plan of using 
two hubs of four arms each was 
adopted in the construction of this 
mill. The ordinary hub of four arms 
is simple to make and quite strong. 
Four pieces of straight-grained oak, 
each 1(5 in. long and lyg in- square, are 
used in constructing the hubs. The 
manner of notching each pair of pieces 
together is shown in Fig. 1. The 
slope for the blades is made to run 
in opposite directions on the ends of 
each crosspiece. The slope is formed 



312 



by cutting out a triangular piece, as 
shown. 

The two hubs, thus formed, are 
mounted on the shaft, one behind the 
other, in such positions that the arms 
will be evenly divided for space in the 
wheel circle. These details are shown 
in Fig. 2. The blades. Fig. 3, are 
made of thin basswood or hard maple, 
and each is fastened in its place by 
means of two %-in. bolts, in addition 
to which a few brads are driven in to 
prevent the thin blades from warping. 

The Gears 

This windmill was designed to 
transmit power by means of shafts 
and gear wheels, rather than with 
cranks and reciprocating pump rods, 
such as are used on ordinary farm 
mills. To obtain this result, an old 
sewing machine head was used. Such 
a part can be obtained from a junk 
dealer or a sewing-machine agent. 
The head is stripped of its base plate 
with the shuttle gearing; likewise the 
needle rod, presser foot, etc., are taken 
from the front end of the head along 
with the faceplate. The horizontal 
shaft and gear wheel are taken out 
and the bearings reamed out for a 
i/2-in. shaft, which is substituted. The 
shaft should be 2 ft. in length, and 8 
or 10 in. of its outer end threaded for 
the clamping nuts which hold the two 
hubs in place, as shown at A and B, 
Fig. 2. The gear wheel is also bored 
out and remounted on the new shaft. 

The supporting standard is con- 
structed of oak, with mortise-and- 
tenon joints, as shown in Fig. 4. The 
width of the pieces will depend on 
the kind of sewing-machine head used. 
It may be necessary also to slightly 
change the dimensions. The machine 
head is fastened on the support with 
bolts. A sleeve and thrust spring are 
mounted on the shaft, as shown. The 
sleeve is made of brass tubing, of a 
size to fit snugly on the shaft. A 
cotter will keep it in place. The sleeve 
serves as a collar for the thrust spring, 
which is placed between the sleeve 
and the standard. This arrangement 
acts as a buffer to take up the end 
thrust on the shaft caused by the 



varying pressure of the wind on the 
wheel. 

The Vane 

To keep the wheel facing the wind 
at all times, a vane must be provided. 
It is made of basswood or hard maple, 
as shown in Fig. 5. It is not built up 
solid, air spaces being left between 
the slats to reduce the wind resistance. 
Unless built in this manner, the vane 
is liable to twist off in a gale. The 
horizontal slats are Vi in- thick, and 
the upright and cross braces % in. 
thick, while the long arm connecting 
the vane to the supporting standard is 
y2 in. thick. 

The supporting standard, carrying 
the wheel and the vane, must revolve 
about a vertical axis with the changes 
in the wind, and this vertical axis is 
supplied in the form of a piece of gas 
pipe which runs through the support- 
ing standard at the points marked C 
and D, Fig. 4. Ordinary pipe fittings, 
called flanges, are bolted to the frame 
at these points. The coupling in the 
gas pipe beneath the supporting stand- 
ard serves as a stationary collar to 
support the weight of the whole mill. 
The vane should be placed correctly 
to balance the weight of the wheel. 

The shaft passes through the frame- 
work of the mill on the inside of the 
pipe, as shown at E. A %-in. soft- 
steel or wrought-iron rod is satis- 
factory for the shaft, as no weight is 
supported by it and only a twisting 
force is transmitted. The use of a 
larger rod makes the mill cumbersome 
and unwieldy. The upper end of the 
shaft is fastened to the shaft that pro- 
jects from the under side of the ma- 
chine head by means of a sleeve made 
of a piece of %-in. pipe. Two cotters 
hold the shafts and sleeve together. 

At the lower end of the shaft, inside 
the workshop, the device shown in 
Fig. 6 is installed. The purpose of 
this appliance is to provide a horizon- 
tal shaft upon which pulleys or driv- 
ing gears may be mounted. The 
device is constructed of another sew- 
ing-machine head similar to the one 
already described. The head is cut in 
two and the separate parts mounted 



313 



on suitable supports. The gap be- 
tween the sawed portions permits a 
pulley to be fastened on the shaft to 
serve as the main drive. The wheel 
propelled by the treadle of the sewing 



sewing-machine belts will serve to 
transmit the power. 

The Tower 

The tower can be built up in any 
manner to suit the conditions. Ordi- 





Fic 6 



The Lower End of the Shaft has a Horizontal Shaft 

Geared to It for the Drive Pulleys. The Vane 

Construction and the Manner of Building the Tower 

on Which the Supporting Standard Revolves 




machine will make a good drive narily sticks, 2 in. square, are suitable, 

wheel. The small handwheel, originally These are well braced with wire and 

mounted on the machine-head shaft, fastened securely to the roof of the 

is left intact. This arrangement gives shop. The arrangement of the tower 

two sizes of drive wheels. Heavy with the mill is shown in Fig. 7. 



Telegraph Code on Typewriter Keys 

A very simple and practical method 
of transcribing wireless time and other 
messages on the typewriter without 
having such perfect knowledge of the 
Morse system as to be able to imme- 
diately translate it into the common 
alphabet is the following: The char- 
acters of the Morse system are in- 
scribed on small slips of paper — thus, 
three dots (...)> ^o^ the letter S ; two 



dashes (- -), for the letter M, etc. — 
and these slips are pasted on the cor- 
responding keys of the typewriter. 
The operator puts on his receiver, and 
the proper key is struck as he hears 
the corresponding Morse letter. As 
there are no capitals, spacing between 
words, or even punctuation, the ma- 
nipulation of the typewriter is much 
simplified, and it is easily learned to 
record the signals as fast as they are 
heard. 



314 



An Aid in Sketching Profiles 

The means usually employed by 
most beginners to obtain the correct 
outline of an object, such as tracing or 




The Fine Wire is Bent as Near as 
Possible to the Outline ol the Object 




a pantograph, make them dependent 
on mechanical help rather than train 
the eye to form and proportion a draw- 
ing correctly. The device shown not 
only greatly assists the beginner, but 
actually trains him toward a point 
where he can dispense with any such 
device and correctly sketch by free 
hand. It also has the effect of en- 
couraging the beginner, because his 
first efforts will not be complete fail- 
ures, as is usually the case. 

The device consists of a rather fine 
wire bent in the shape of a human 
profile and supported on a stand or 
base. The stand may be dispensed 
with, however, and the wire held in 
the hand. In use, it is placed near the 
model or person whose profile is to be 
drawn ; then, after closing one eye, it 
is set at a position where it will cor- 



head may recede from the wire at the 
top, or the nose may have a different 
slant or shape. 

The paper on which the drawing is 
to be made should have a faint out- 
line drawn by laying the wire upon it 
and marking around it with a soft pen- 
cil. Having noted the variations be- 
tween the wire and the features, 
proceed to draw the profile, observing 
the same variations, and when the 
sketch is completed, erase the faint 
outlines. Then compare the drawing 
with the model without using the 
wire, and make final corrections. The 
dotted line indicates the outline to be 
erased. 

The drawing may be made larger or 
smaller than the bent wire, but the 
outline on the paper must be kept in 
exactly the same proportion. It is not 
necessary that the wire be bent so that 
it represents perfect features. With 
the use of this device one forms a habit 
of comparing and proportioning, which 
applies to the correct sketching of all 
objects. — Contributed by Will L. Bur- 
ner, Columbus, Ohio. 



A Small Hydroelectric-Power Plant 

W^herever a water pressure of over 
30 lb. is available a small hydroelec- 
tric-power plant will produce sufficient 
electric current for any light work, 
such as charging storage batteries, 
operating sewing and washing ma- 




Section on A A 



11 Drive 



Layout for the Casing. Cover and Wheel {or the Construction of a Hydraulic Motor That wi 
a Small Dynamo, to Produce Current for Experimental Purposes, to Charge 
Storage Cells or to Run Electric Toys 

respond to the features of the model, chines, toys, etc. The design is for a 

This enables one to note the varia- G-in. hydraulic motor of the Pelton 

tions between the wire and the mod- type, which will operate well on al- 

el's features. For instance, the fore- most all city-water pressures, and at 



315 



80 lb. will drive a 100-watt generator 
to its full output. 

The castings may be procured from 
any foundry cheaply, so that these 
parts need not trouble the builder. 
The patterns can be constructed easily 
and are not so complicated that they 
will tear the molds when being re- 
moved. They are made from well sea- 
soned white pine, i/4 i"- thick. Fill in 
all sharp corners with small fillets. All 
the patterns should taper slightly from 
the parting line. 

The motor casing is shown in Fig. 
1. It is made with a wide flange so 
that the cover plate can be bolted to 
it. The lug A is to give additional 
strength and thickness to the side so 
that it may be drilled and tapped for 
the nozzle. The legs B and C are for 
bolting the case to a base or support. 
The outlet pipe is of lead, 1% in. out- 
side diameter, and the hole for it in the 
case can be either drilled or cored. 
Solder the pipe flush with the inside 
of the casing. Drill and tap the holes 
around the flange for 8, 32 bolts. The 
shaft hole must be drilled very care- 
fully. Drill i/4-in- holes in the feet. 
The oil holes are % in. in diameter. 
File the surface of the flange smooth 
and also the inside shoulder of the 
bearing lug. Drill and tap the nozzle 
hole for a %-in. pipe thread. 

The cover plate is shown in Fig. 2. 
This is bolted to the casing with 8, 32 
brass bolts, 1/2 in. long. The holes for 
them are drilled j^ in. in diameter. A 
shallow hole, for the end of the shaft 
to fit in, is drilled in the lug, as shown. 




The Best Shape of the Buckets to Take Up 
the Force of the Water 

It does not pass all the way through 
the plate. File the inside face of the 
lug smooth and also the edge of the 
plate where it joins the casing. 



The wheel, with brackets attached, 
is shown in Fig. 3. This style of wheel 
need not be followed out closely. 
Bore the hub centrally for a y^-ln. 




ANCHOR BOLT 



CONCRETE FOUNDATION 



The Motor as It is Coupled to Drive the Dynamo, 
and the Water Connections 

shaft and fit in two setscrews. Drill 
and tap the rim for the buckets with 
a i/4-in. standard tap. The buckets 
must be evenly spaced and bolted on 
to make the wheel balance. 

The buckets are shown in Fig. 4. 
They may be cast from iron or bab- 
bitt. The sharp ridge in the center 
provides for a deviation of the water 
jet as it flows on the bucket. The 
ridge divides the bucket into two 
equal lobes which turn each division 
of the jet through almost 180 deg., 
using all the kinetic energy in the jet. 
This is shown at D. The dividing 
ridge must lie in the plane of the rev- 
olution, so that each bucket will enter 
the center of the jet. The buckets 
being evenly spaced on the periphery 
of the wheel, only one at a time re- 
ceives the force of the jet, the one in 
front and the one behind clearing the 
jet. 

The nozzle is shown in Fig. 5. It 
can be made of iron or brass. The 
inside gradually tapers from % to y\ 
in. It has a -"^-in. pipe thread and is 
screwed into the hole in the case from 
the inside and is secured with a lock 
nut. Enough additional threaded por- 
tion is left protruding to allow the 
supply pipe to be connected. 

When assembling the motor, fasten 
the wheel to the shaft with the two 
setscrews, and place a metal washer, 
E, on each side of the wheel. Place 
the wheel in the casing and screw the 



316 



cover plate in place. A thin rubber 
gasket should be placed between the 
cover and the casing to provide a 
v/ater-tight joint. 

The general arrangement of the 
plant is shown in Fig. 6. The motor 
and dynamo are mounted on a heavy 
wood base, which in turn is firmly 
bolted to a concrete foundation. Level 



up the two machines by the use of thin 
washers on the bolts between the base 
and machine. A heavy sleeve and set- 
screws are used to connect the two 
shafts. The connection to the water 
supply is made with -^-in. pipe, with 
a globe valve in it to regulate the flow 
of water. Any dynamo of about 100- 
watt output can be used. 



Paper Shades for Electric-Light Globes 

The appearance of an electric-light 
globe can be very prettily improved by 
making a shade of crepe paper of any 





Two Pieces of Crepe Paper Stitched Together and 
Ruffled, to Make a Fancy Electric-Light Shade 

desired color for each one. Canary- 
colored crepe produces a soft, mellow 
effect. Pale blue, yellow, red and, in 
fact, all the colors can be used, making 
a very pleasing variety. 

The body of the shade is made of a 
piece of paper about 51/2 in- wide and 
3I/2 ft. long. The width will vary with 
the length of the globe to be covered, 
and it is best to have it full, as the edge 
can be trimmed even with the lower 
end of the globe afterward. Another 
piece of the same color is cut 3Vi; in. 
wide and of the same length. This 
piece makes the ruffle. 

The smaller piece is placed on the 
larger centrally, and both are stitched 
together with a running stitch, using a 
needle and cotton thread. A plain run- 
ning stitch is also made 1/4 in. from one 
edge of the larger strip. The material 
is gathered along both threads. This 
operation makes the material shrink in 
length. Wrap it around the globe, 
pulling the threads taut so that the 
ends of the paper will just meet. Tie 
the threads and clip off the extending 



ends. If the paper extends beyond the 
end of the globe, trim it off with 
the shears. Ruftfe the two edges of the 
narrow strip and the lower edge of the 
larger one. This operation is simply 
stretching the edge of the crepe to 
cause it to stand out. — Contributed by 
Jas. A. Hart, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Renewing the Markings on Graduates 

Graduates that have been in use a 
long time, especially for measuring 
alkalies, become unreadable. The grad- 
uations are easily restored in the fol- 
lowing manner : Moisten a small piece 
of absorbent cotton with a solution of 
white shellac, cut in alcohol. Rub this 
well into all the etched parts and allow 
to dry for about two minutes, then rub 
in a fine whiting or litharge with an 
old toothbrush. If red is desired, use 
rouge; if black is preferred, use lamp- 
black or powdered graphite. When 
dry, wipe off' the excess pigment with 
a cloth moistened in alcohol. — Con- 
tributed by A. C. Norris, Rockford, 111. 



Repairing a Broken Ball-Clasp Purse 

Having occasion to repair a purse of 
the ordinary ball-clasp kind where one 
of the stems was broken off and lost, 
I first had some 
trouble in find- 
ing a way to 
repair it. I 
started to take 
off the remain- 
ing stem in an 

attempt to replace the locking device 
with another kind, and in bending it 
down toward the opposite side, I hap- 




317 



pened to close the purse and found 
that it locked just as well as if there 
had been two balls on it. I have since 
repaired two other purses in the same 
manner and found that they worked 
well. 

The idea is to bend the remaining 
clasp over until it is low enough to 
come in contact with and to spring 
over the other side, thus giving the 
same snap and holding qualities as 
before. — Contributed by W. C. Loy, 
Rochester, Ind. 



Automatic Valve for a Funnel 

Where liquid is run through a fun- 
nel into an opaque bottle or earthen 
jug, the filling cannot be watched, and 
if not watched con- 
stantly, the vessel 
will overflow. This 
can be obviated by 
applying the auto- 
matic valve to the 
funnel stem, as 
shown. A washer 
support is soldered 
or otherwise f a s- 
tened in the upper 
end of the stem, or 
at the base of the 
sloping part, and a 
crossbar is fastened to its upper sur- 
face across the hole. The crossbar is 
centrally drilled to receive a small rod 
or wire, to which is attached a valve 
that will cover the hole in the washer. 
A cork is stuck on the lower end of 
the rod. The location of the cork on 
the rod should be at a point a little be- 
low the level to which the bottle or 
vessel is to be filled. — Contributed by 
H. W. Hilton, Hopington, B. C. 




Chisel Holder for Whetting 

To obtain the proper slope and ap- 
ply a fine cutting edge, the plane iron 
or chisel must be held at the proper 
slope while grinding, and especially 
so when whetting. The illustration 
shows a holder to keep the iron or 
chisel at the proper slope. It con 



sists of a block of wood with a sloping 
cut at the right angle to make two 
pieces. One of these pieces is perma- 
nently fastened to the strip at the back, 




The Tool Edge 

is Kept at the 

Proper Angle While 

It is Run over the Stone 

while the other is held with a bolt 
passing through a notch in the strip 
for adjusting or clamping. The rear 
end of the back piece is fitted with a 
large screw hook or L-hook to pro- 
vide a slide to keep the rear end of the 
holder at the right height. The iron 
or chisel is inserted between the slop- 
ing edges of the blocks and clamped 
in place, then the L-screw is adjusted 
for height to secure the proper angle 
on the stone. It is then only neces- 
sary to move the block and tool back 
and forth over the stone. 



A Large Hole in a Small Piece of 
Paper 

It would seem impossible to cut a 
hole in a piece of paper, 3 in. wide and 
3 in. long, large enough to allow a 
person's body to pass through it, but 
if carefully cut as shown by the lines 
in the sketch, one will find with sur- 
prise that the paper can be extended 
so that the feat is easily accomplished. 
Make the cuts about Yg in. apart and 



The Slits Cut in the Paper Allow It to Expand 
Several Times the Size of the Original 

these will allow the paper to expand 
several times its size. — Contributed by 
H. Martine Warner, E. Orange, N. J. 



318 



Homemade Bunsen Burner 

The amateur craftsman, at some 
time or other, needs a hot flame for cer- 
tain kinds of work, and a Bunsen or 




Bunsen-Burner Attachment for Use with Illuminating 
Gas Taken from the House Mains 

alcohol flame is brought into service. 
The gasoline and alcohol flames have 
their drawbacks, one of which is the 
starting of the burner and the waiting 
for the heat. They are also unhandy 
in directing the flame on parts of the 
work. As I desired a burner for quick 
work and one whose flame I could di- 
rect at any angle, for repousse and 
chasing on copper and silversmith's 
work, I made the one shown in the 
sketch to attach to a hose and con- 
nected it with the gas pipe of the il- 



luminating system in the house. It 
consists of a hose connection into 
which a piece of pipe, 5 in. long, is 
fitted. The hose connection is also 
fitted with a small nozzle. A, for the 
gas, and the pipe has an opening 
through it at the end of the nozzle. — • 
Contributed by John Koestner, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



Cane-Seat Cleaner 

A rapid and practical method of re- 
moving stains and discolorations from 
the cane seats of chairs, wickerwork, 
etc., is to use oxalic acid and powdered 
pumice. 

Dissolve oxalic-acid crystals in hot 
water and saturate a small stifif brush 
in it, then dip the brush in the pow- 
dered pumice and rub the discolored 
cane briskly with the brush. — Contrib- 
uted by W. F. Jaquythe, Richmond, 
California. 



Shade-Roller and Curtain-Pole 
Bracket 

The main advantage of this shade 
bracket is that a person can lower it 
for adjusting the shade or in changing 




curtains while standing on the floor, 
thus eliminating the use of a step lad- 
der and the danger possibly attending 
such use. 

The front elevation of a window 
with bracket attachment in position is 

shown in Fig. 1, and a cross section 

in Fig. 2. The position of the cur- 
tain pole when the brackets are low- 
ered is shown by the dotted lines. A 
detail sketch of the support end is 
given in Fig. 3 and one bracket is 
shown in Fig. 4. 

The curtain pole A is fastened to 

1 the brackets B with 

'. i/i-in. dowel pins, C. 





Fig. I Fid 2 

The Brackets as They are Attached to a Window 
Casing for Lowering the Curtain Pole 



Fis,3 pio.4 

The Attachments. Supports and Brackets for Holding 
both Curtain Pole and Shade Roller 



319 



These pins and the pole keep the brack- 
ets from spreading at the top, so that a 
shade roller, D, may have its attach- 
ments fastened to the inner sides of the 
brackets. A small pulley, E, is at- 
tached to the window casing above the 
right bracket and a double pulley is 
located above the left, cords being 
passed through them, down along the 
casing to a point within easy reach, 
and fastened in any manner desired. 

All that is necessary to change the 
curtains or fix a shade is to loosen the 
cord and allow the brackets to drop 
down until they may be easily reached. 
— Contributed by James F. Napier, 
Montreal, Can. 



Planing Arrow Sticks 

While making some bows one day 
I discovered I had no suitable dowel 
sticks for the arrows, so I started to 
make them out of Vi-'m. square stock. 
I found it rather difficult to plane these 
pieces until I hit upon the scheme 




Planing the Corners from Square Stock by Placing 
Them in the Groove of a Flooring Board 

shown in the sketch. I procured a 
piece of ordinary tongue-and-groove 
flooring and clamped it in the bench 
vise, then drove a nail in the groove to 
act as a stop, and in no time I had the 
sticks planed into arrows. — Contrib- 
uted by J. F. Culverwell, Washington, 
District of Columbia. 



To Clean Shellac from a Brush 

Put the brush in a strong, warm 
solution of borax and water, and then 
wash in clean, warm water. If the 
bristles have become hard, allow the 
brush to remain in the solution until 
soft, keeping the solution warm in the 
meantime ; then wash it out in warm 
water. — Contributed by N. J. Shat- 
tuck, Woburn, Mass. 



Lathe Dogs 

In the absence of a full equipment 
of lathe dogs the amateur can make 
them cheaply from pieces of iron pipe. 




^^ 



"^^ 



Two Forma of Lathe Dogs That are Quickly 
and Cheaply Constructed 

One of these is shown in the sketch. 
A section of pipe, 1^2 in. to 3 in. long, 
is partly cut away, as shown, leaving 
a projection of metal 1 in. wide. One 
or more setscrev^s are fitted in the 
round part, and the dog is complete. 
A dog, or driver, may also be made 
of two U-clamps and two bolts as 
shown. This is especially useful for 
large work, where the cost of a dog 
would be prohibitive. After these two 
clamps are bolted on the work to be 
turned a bolt is attached in the face- 
plate that bears against the clamp, thus 
turning the work. 



To Remove a Splinter from the Flesh 

Quite frequently small particles of 
steel, splinters, or thorns are run into 
the flesh and cannot be removed with 
the fingers. These can be readily re- 
moved in the following manner : Press 
the eye of an ordinary needle over the 
protruding end, then turn the needle 

'^^^ 

FLESH 




The Eye of a Needle Slipped over a Thorn 
for Removing It from the Flesh 

until the edges bind or clinch. While 
in this position, raise the needle and 
out comes the splinter. 



CA fine luster can be given to zinc by 
rubbing it with kerosene or a weak 
solution of sulphuric acid. 



320 



Holders for Displaying Magazines 

Papers and magazines often are 
sold in drug stores where tlie display 
space usually is 
1 i m i ted, espe- 
cially in the 
window. The 
method used by 
one druggist 
gave space for 
the magazines 
in the window 
without interfer- 
ing with the 
other goods. 
The back of the window was arranged 
with rows of hooks, three hooks for 
each magazine, two at the top edges 
and one in the center at the bottom. 
The magazine is easily slipped into 
these holders, and the whole presents 
a tidy appearance. The hooks are the 
ordinary screwhooks that can be ob- 
tained from a hardware or furniture 
store. — Contributed by T. F. Mona- 
ghan, Philadelphia, Pa. 





the sensitive paper before it is printed 
under the negative, being careful not 
to scratch the paper. After printing 
the paper to the proper shade the ton- 
ing and fixing baths will wash away 
the ink and leave the lettering in white. 
The lettering is easily accomplished 
and a post card can be sent with any 
message desired on any negative, the 
inscription being printed on the paper 
so that the negative is unharmed for 
other printing. — Contributed by Henry 
J. Marion, Pontiac, Mich. 



Waste-Paper Basket 

The covering of a broken demijohn 
was used in the manner shown as a 
waste - paper 
basket. The 
glass was broken 
out and the cov- 
ering soaked in 
water, after 
which the splints 
were turned 
down and tied 
with a cord. This I found to make a 
first-class waste-paper basket. — Con- 
tributed by A. S. Thomas, Gordon, 
Canada. 



Lettering Photographs 

Amateur photographers often write, 
or print, the names of the subjects on 
the mounts, or in the albums, with 
white ink or scratch it on the negative 
so that it will print in the picture. 

A very good method is to take ordi- 
nary black ink and do the lettering on 



A Stamp Moistener 

A handy stamp moistener and envel- 
ope sealer can be made by 
procuring a small medicine 
bottle or glass vial and in- 
serting a piece of felt or 
other wicking material in the 
place of the stopper, and fill- 
ing it with water. 

This moistener will be 
found handy for a small 
office where the mail is quite 
heavy, but not big enough to 
warrant the purchasing of a 
' i^l- 'ft ' sealing machine. This moist- 
ener is sanitary and replaces 

the wet sponge. — Contrilnited by Theo. 

J. Becker, Kansas City, Mo. 




A Window Lock 

A very neat window lock can be 
made of sheet steel, I'-j in. wide. One 
piece, shaped 
like a saw tooth, 
is fastened to the 
sash, and the 
other, which is 
bent to form a 
catch over the U^^^J^ 
tooth, projection {_ZZ-^ 
and ends in a 
curved top for a finger hold, is attached 
to the window casing. The illustra- 
tion clearly shows how the lock is at- 
tached. — Contributed by Lee B. Green, 
Cleveland, O. 




C Georgia pine should be filled with 
white shellac. 



331 



Varnished Candles Burn Longer 

The heated tallow or wax of a candle 
runs down the sides and this results 
in a considerable waste. This waste 
can be stopped by coating the new 
candles with white varnish and laying 
them aside for a few days to harden. 
The varnish will keep the melted tal- 
low or wax from running away and it 
is used in the wick. 



Guides for a Mill File 

Having a large number of wires to 
file true on the end I devised a way 
to do this with the use of some old 
worn-out and discarded files that had 
good cutting edges. A piece of sheet 
copper, about the same length as the 
files, was bent to fit over one edge and 
both sides of the file, allowing both 
edges to project about 14 '"• This 
made a guide that prevented the edge 
of the file from slipping off the end of 



bored in the end will answer the pur- 
pose. Be sure to have the diameter of 
the drum l-^j. inches. 






Guide for Using the Edge of Worn-Out Files 
on Small Round or Square Stock 

the wire. The guide was held in place 
on the file by cutting a slit in the pro- 
jecting edges, about 14 in. from the 
end, and turning these separated parts 
back on the file. 

If such a guide is fitted tightly on a 
file, the edges of worn-out files can be 
used for such work, and the file cannot 
slip oiT and mar the sides of the work. 
— Contributed by A. R. Drury, Hamp- 
ton, 111. 



A Simple Motion-Picture Machine 

The drum A is a piece of wood, 1% 
in. long and l^^ in. in diameter, sup- 
ported on the end of a round stick, B, 
which can be made in one piece with 
the drum, if a wood lathe is at hand, 
but a piece cut from a curtain pole 
and a lead pencil inserted in a hole 




The Parts tor Making the Revolving Drum 
lor Holding the Strip of Pictures 

Provide a base piece, C, Y^ in. thick 
and 2 in. square, and fasten a piece of 
cardboard having a slit E, as shown. 
The cardboard should be 2 in. wide 
and 21/2 in- high, the slit being cut % 
in. in width, 1/4 in. from the top and 
% in. from the bottom. A hole is 
bored in the center of the block to 
admit the standard B easily. 

The next step is to provide the pic- 
ture and attach it to the drum. A pic- 
ture of a boy pounding cobblestones is 
shown in the sketch, at F, which should 
be made on a strip of paper 4% in. 
long. This is gli;ed or attached with 
rubber bands to the drum. The draw- 
ing can be enlarged in pen and ink, or 
can be reproduced as it is, if a hand 
camera is at hand, and a print used on 
the drum. 




The Different Positions of the Picture will Appear 
in Action When Turning with the Drum 

It is only necessary to put the parts 
together, grasp the base in one hand 
and turn the support B with the other, 
when, looking through the slot E, the 
boy is seen pounding the stones. Va- 
rious pictures can be made and the 
strips changed. — Contributed by C. C. 
Fraser, Saginaw, Mich 



322 



Substitute for Cleats on Boards 

The necessity for using more than 
one cleat for fastening two boards to- 
gether may be done away with by 
using the device shown in the sketch. 
The center cleat prevents the boards 
from buckling while the sides are 
tightly held by these simple flat fasten- 
ers. The fasteners are made of tin cut 
as indicated, slipped between the edges 
of the boards and the parts bent over 
and tacked. Where the strain is not 




The Metal Clips Hold the Edges of the Boards 
Together Closely and Quite Rigidly 

too great the holders may be used 
without a cleat, making an effective 
flat fastening. — Contributed by W. O. 
Nettleton, Washington, D. C. 



Attaching Door Knobs to Locks 

WHien putting a lock on a door it is 
often difficult to press the two knobs 
together tightly enough to prevent 
them from rattling and still be alile 
to insert the screw into the shank. By 
using a piece of board, 1 in. thick, fi in. 
wide and 1 ft. or more in length, with 
a V-shaped piece cut out of one side. 




The Sloping Edges in the Notch Forces the 

Knobs Together and Holds Them While 

Inserting the Screws 

the knobs can be easily forced and held 
together while the screw is inserted. — • 
Contributed by H. Musgrave, Sidney, 
British Columbia. 



A Finger-Nail Buffer 

The flywheel on a sewing machine 
is usually turned with a semicircular 
face and this makes a good base on 
which to apply a piece of chamois skin 



for use in bufifing nails. A strip of the 
chamois is cut the length of the wheel's 
circumference and small holes pierced 





A Strip of Chamois Skin Attiched to the Flywheel 
of a Sewing Machine for a Buffer 

in its edges, through which strings are 
run to hold it to the rim of the wheel. 
The chamois can then be removed or 
left on the wheel as desired. Run the 
machine and hold the nail on the buffer. 
When there is a free wheel on the 
machine this makes an e.xcellent buf- 
fing device. 



Grinding Chisel Edges 

A cold chisel ground with a round- 
ing edge, as shown, will last twice as 
long and do bet- 
ter work than 
one that is 
ground straight, 
because it will 
not wedge, and 
the cutting edge, 
having a better 
support, will not 

chip oft'. — Contributed by F. G. Mar- 
bach, Cleveland, O. 




Reducing Amperage of a Fuse Wire 

It is sometimes necessary to use an 
electrical fuse of smaller amperage 
than those at hand, and for experi- 
mental work this is often the case. A 
smaller amperage may be readily made 
from a larger-size wire by making a 
nick in it with the cutting edge of 
pliers, or with a knife. The illustra- 
tion shows how to reduce the size of 



10 AMPERES 



5 AMPERES 



The Amperes of a Fuse Reduced by Makiag a 
Nick in the Lead Wire 

a 10-ampere fuse to make it five am- 
peres. — Contributed by Louis Litsky. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



323 



Dip-Plating Process 

The various ways of doing dip plat- 
ing are practically the same method, 
the coating fluid consisting of essen- 
tially the same materials. 

The tank or crucible, as it may be 
called, consists of a piece of 3-in. gas 
pipe, 9 in. long, threaded at both ends, 
one end being fitted with a screw cap 
and the other with a pipe flange. This 
part is shown in Fig. 1. A piece of 
sheet metal is cut in the shape shown 
in Fig. 2 and bent to form a cone, so 
that the smaller end will fit snugly 
around the pipe and the base be 9 in. 
in diameter. The joined edges are 
riveted together. The assembled parts 
will appear as shown in Fig. 3. 

The metal used for plating consists 
of bismuth, 4 oz. ; antimony, 4 oz., and 
pure block tin, 10 lb. Place the anti- 
mony in the crucible and melt it, then 
add the tin and bismuth. A flame from 
an ordinary gasoline burner will be 
sufficient to heat the crucible. 

Clean the article to be coated by 
rinsing it in strong caustic potash, 
which will remove all grime and 
grease, then dip it in. a strong solu- 
tion of sal ammoniac and water. Dry 
it and then dip it in the melted metal, 
allowing it to remain there about 1 
minute, then remove and plunge it in 
a bath made of 1 lb. of sal ammoniac 




Fia.J 



The Parts to Make the Crucible Consist of Pipe 
and Fittings and a Piece of Sheet Metal 

and 1 gal. of water. The article is then 
dried in sawdust. 

The cc)ating put on in this manner 
is a nice, shiny plate that will stand a 
lot of wear. No polishing or grinding 
is necessary. — Contributed by A. H. 
Waychofif, Lyons, Colo. 



A Model Steam-Turbine Boat 

A piece of thin board, or shingle, is 
cut to the shape of a boat and two 
standards are fastened to it. The stand- 
ards have notches cut in them to hold 




Model Turbine 
Boat Using a 
Baking- Powder 
Can for a Boiler 
with Candles as 
Fuel 



an ordinary baking-powder can which 
is used for the boiler. The lid of the 
can is soldered on, and a small hole 
punched in one side with an awl. Two 
candles are used to heat the water. 

The turbine is constructed on an 
axle made of a hatpin which runs 
through the top of the standards for 
bearings. The paddles are made of 
cardboard, or better still, pieces of thin 
sheet tin, cut and bent as shown at A, 
and three of these are attached to a 
three-cornered block of wood fastened 
to the shaft, as shown at B. The man- 
ner of attaching the shaft for the pro- 
peller is shown at C. The propeller con- 
sists of a piece of tin, slightly twisted 
and attached to the shaft with solder. 
The pulleys are located as shown and 
connected with a string band. The hole 
made in the can should be pointed to 
one side of the turbine shaft so that the 
escaping steam will strike one side of 
the paddles on the turbine. — Contrib- 
uted by McKinley Wood, Ava, N. Y. 



324 



Plant Shelf for a Window 

An ingenious and simple method of 
putting up window shelves for winter 
plants so that the window casing and 




^ 



^ 



The Shelf is Hung on Wires Attached to Screweyes 
Placed in the Facing Edge 

facing are not marred is shown in the 
sketch. The materials required are 
one shelf, about 8 in. wide, lU, yd. of 
picture wire, two screweyes, two fence 
staples, and two strips of wood, to raise 
the shelf slightly from the window sill. 
The board for the shelf is cut to fit the 
window frame and casing. The pic- 
ture wire, screweyes and staples are 
attached as shown. When cleaning the 
window the shelf can be drawn out of 
the way. — Contributed by H. C. Dixon, 
Johnstown, Pa. 



A Camera Support 

A device which, in many instances, 
will take the place of a tripod, can be 
made of a brass wood screw and can 
be carried in the pocket as easily as a 
pencil. The screw should be 3 or 4 in. 





Substitute for a Camera Tripod That can be Carried 
in the Pocket Like a Pencil 

long and 14 in. in diameter. Cut off 
the head and thread the end about 1/. 
in. to fit the socket in the camera. 



Drill a Vg-'n. hole through the metal 
just below the threaded part and insert 
a short piece of i/g-in. wire. Slip a 
washer over the end, down to the wire, 
and fasten it with solder. 

The device can be turned into a tree, 
post or a stick thrust into the ground," 
and the camera screwed onto it and ad- 
justed to any angle.— Contributed by 
O. D. Turner, Seattle, Wash. 



Combination Tool for Amateur 
Draftsmen 

A common 6-in. mill file can be con- 
verted into a very useful tool for an 
amateur draftsman. Grind the end of 
the file as shown in the sketch and use 
it for prying out thumbtacks that are 
driven in too 'tightly. Grind the base 
of the tang into a knife blade for sharp- 
ening pencils, shaving chalk, opening 
envelopes, etc. Shape, by careful 
grinding, the part A for cutting and 
trimming sheets. Grind one edge of 
the file round and polish it for smooth- 
ing and burnishing purposes. Grind 
a sharp point on the tang for per- 



A Tool Made of a File Combining Several Tools 
Which are Used by a Draftsman 

forating sheets. A piece of rubber 
stuck on the tang end answers the 
double purpose of a protector and 
eraser. The file part is used for 
finishing points on pencils. 



Varnishing Bases for Electric 
Apparatus 

It is quite difiicult to keep from mak- 
ing finger marks on freshly varnished 
boards used as bases on electric devices. 
It is easily avoided, however, by pro- 
curing a large spool and fastening it 
to the bottom of the base with a wood 
screw. The spool will serve as a handle 
while the varnish is applied, and also 
makes a stand for the board while the 
varnish dries. — Contributed by Jacob 
Laudan, Louisville, Ky. 



325 



Waterproof Shoe Dressing 

Melt some tallow and, while it is hot, 
put in some scraps of rubber from old 
rubber shoes or boots. Be careful to 
select rubber that is free from cloth. 
Put in as much of the rubber as the tal- 
low will absorb. Stir freely while it is 
melting, and keep it away from any 
flames. Allow it to cool and set away 
for future use. Take enough for imme- 
diate use and warm it sufficiently so 
that it may be applied with a brush. — 
Contributed by F. S. Cummings, De- 
troit, Mich. 



An Adjustable Bench Stop 

A simple adjustal)le bench stop for 
light work may be made from a piece 
of 1-in. broom handle and a piece of 
piano wire. Plane a flat surface on the 
broom stick and drill two iV-in. holes, 
about 14 in. deep, i/i hi. from each end. 
Bend the ends of the wire to enter the 
holes and have the wire of such length 
as to give it a slight curve between 




The Spring Wire will Hold the Stop at Any Desired 
Position for Height 

the ends when it is in place on the 
stick. 

Bore a 1-in. hole through the bench 
top where it is desired to use the stop 
and cut several grooves, as shown, in 
the walls of the hole with a compass 
saw. The spring wire will slide into a 
groove and hold the stick wherever it 
is set. The position of the face can be 
changed by inserting the stick so that 
the wire will enter the right groove. — 
Contributed by Alan H. Andrews, Fall 
River, Mass. 



A Crochet Hook 

In making some kinds of lace work 
diflferent-sized hooks must be used as 
the work proceeds. Considerable time 
will be lost in changing from one hook 
to another, if they are separate. The 



best way is to mount all the hooks 
necessary on one handle, as shown in 
the sketch. The handle part is made 
of a large wire or small rod, bent to the 

(T)) (H) 



D 



A Crochet-Hook Handle for Holding Several Hooks 
That are Required for Some Lace Work 

shape shown and w4th holes drilled 
through the ends for a small rivet. 
The ends of the hooks are drilled or 
bent to fit on the rivet. A small tin 
ferrule is made to slip over the handle 
and the hooks not in use. All hooks 
but the one in use are turned back into 
the handle and the ferrule slipped into 
place. — Contributed by Miss Nita S. 
Ingle, W. Toledo, O. 



Writing Board for Children 

A writing desk for a child can be 
easily made as shown in the sketch. 
The materials necessary are a board of 
suitable size, two screwhooks, four 
screweyes and a pair of rods for braces. 
The hooks are screwed into the back 
of a chair and the screweyes into the 
board, as shown. This desk is in- 
stantly attached or taken down when 
desired. If the chair is light and apt 




The Writing Board is Easily Attached to, or 
Detached from, an Ordinary Chair Back 

to tip over, make the rods long enough 
to reach to the floor. — Contributed by 
John V. Loeffler, Evansville, Ind. 



326 



Geometric Principle in Line Division 

When sketching a plan, if any one of 
the first few lines drawn is found to be 
the proper length, then this line can be 

A-r— ; . . ; . , . :^ ' ' .B 



A Scale can be 
Made for Use on Any 
Sized Sketch or Drawing 



• : : I ■ I 



made into a scale by the geometric rule 
for dividing a given line into equal 
parts. 

Suppose, for example, the line AB, 
which is to represent 12 ft., is found to 
be 1 ft. long. Draw a line, AC, at any 
angle from the point A and step off on 
it 12 equal parts, beginning at A. The 
last point, or the one at C, is connected 
to the end B, then eleven other lines 
are drawn parallel with CB. Thus 
AB will make a scale of 1 in. to each 
1 ft.— Contributed by James M. Kane, 
Doylestown, Pa. 



Repairing a Broken Whip 

Procure a piece of thin tin — the 
metal taken from a discarded fruit can 
will do — and cut it about 2i/o in. long 
and wide enough to encircle the break. 
Notch the ends like saw teeth and 
remove any sharp edges with a file. 
Place the tin on the break and tie 
temporarily. Wind the whole from 
end to end with a waxed linen thread, 
such as used by harness makers. The 
threads lying alternately on the whip 
and on metal at the notched ends elimi- 
nate any possibility of the parts work- 
ing loose. A break near the small and 
flexible end of a whip is repaired in 
the same manner, using a quill instead 




The Repair on a Whip Made with a Notched 
Ferrule and a Waxed Thread 

of the tin. In either case, do not let 
the edges of the splicing material meet, 
and it will clamp tightly on the whip. 
—Contributed by W. S. Kingsley, W. 
Gouldsboro, Me. 



Repairing a Worn Thimble 

Silver thimbles are easily worn 
through at the end, and they can be 
quickly repaired by soldering from the 
inside. A very neat repair can be made 
with an alcohol lamp and a blowpipe 
by using a little s-ilver solder. Borax or 
resin is used as a flux. 



A Small Torch 

A small torch, that will give a very 
fine and hot smokeless flame, can be 
made from a piece of glass tube, about 
4 in. long, and 4 ft. of rubber tubing. 
The sflass tube is heated in the center 



A Torch Made of Glass and Rubber Tubing, to be 
Used on an Ordinary Gas Jet 

until it is red, then the ends drawn 
apart so that the tube will have a small 
diameter. After the glass has cooled, 
make a small scratch with a file on the 
thin part and break it. One of the 
pointed ends is connected to a straight 
piece of glass tube with a short piece 
of the rubber tube, as shown in the 
sketch. A small hole is cut in the side 
of the piece of rubber to admit air to 
the gas. The torch is connected to an 
ordinary gas jet. — Contributed by E. 
K. Marshall, Oak Park, 111. 



Fountain Attachment for an Ordinary 

Pen 

A quite efficient fovmtain pen may be 
quickly made by bending an ordinary 



The Space between the Pens Forms the Fountain, 
Which is Sufficient for Considerable Wiiting 

pen, as shown at A, and inserting it in 
the holder opposite to the regular pen, 
as shown at B. For best results, the 
point of the auxiliary pen should just 
touch the regular pen. — Contributed by 
Thos. L. Parker, \\'ibaux, Mont. 



CA little water added to oil paint will 
make a flat or lusterless finish and will 
do no harm to the paint, as the water 
evaporates in time. 



327 




Homemade Cut Press 



The person who has a little ability 
in making wood cuts with a knife will 
find it very interesting to make the 
press shown in the sketch. A fair job 
of printing can be done with the press, 
using printer's ink spread on a piece 
of glass with a hand ink roller, such as 
can be purchased cheaply of any dealer 
in printing supplies. 

The press may have a base, A, of any 
size to suit, but one ly^ in. thick, 6 
in. wide, and 12 in. long will be found 
to serve best for most purposes. It 
must be smooth and level. Hard wood, 
such as maple, beech, or birch, is best 
for all parts. The post B is li/4 in. 
thick, 2 in. wide, and 5 in. long. Be- 
fore setting it, slot the upper end for 
the end of the lever. This is done by 
making a saw cut, 1% in. deep, % in. 
from either side and cutting out the 
core to make a slot % in. wide. A 
i/4-in. hole is then bored through the 
prongs to receive a stove bolt that 
connects them with the lever. The 
post is fastened with screws and glue 
in a notch cut in the center of the base 
end. 

The lever C is made of a piece of 
wood 1/4 in. square and 10 in. long. 
At the forward end the sides are pared 
away to form a tongue, or tenon, that 
will pass between the prongs of the 
upright, and a hole is bored through it 
to match those in the prongs. The en- 
tire upper surface of the lever is round- 
ed and the under surface is rounded, 
beginning 6 in. from the tenon end. 
Glue to the under side of the lever a 
block, D, at the end of the under, flat 
surface. The block should be about 
11/4 m. square by 1^; in. long. If the 



under side of the base is crowning, 
either level it with a plane or nail 
cleats across the ends for feet. A 
washer is used with the stove bolt in 
connecting the lever and post. 

The cuts are made of small blocks 




A Hand Press for Printing from Cuts Made of Wood, 
Using Ordinary Printer's Ink 

of wood, about % in. thick and of a 
size to take the characters desired. 
These blocks must be level and the 
printing side made smooth with very 
fine sandpaper, or a scraper, before the 
characters are laid out. Boxwood is 
best for cuts, but pearwood, ap- 
plewood, birch, or maple will do very 
well. Mark out the characters back- 
ward, using the pencil very lightly. 
Then, with the small blade of a knife, 
made as sharp as possible, cut around 
the outlines, holding the knife slant- 
ing, and remove the adjacent wood by 
cutting in at a reverse angle to meet 
the boundary cut. Gradually deepen 
the cuts around the characters until 
they stand in relief about Yg i"-. then 
score V-shaped grooves, checkerboard 
fashion, across the remaining high 
surface that is not a part of the de- 
sign, and chip out the resulting small 
blocks to bring the entire secondary 



328 



surface of the block to a uniform level 
with the portions adjoining the char- 
acters. 

A touch of glue to the back of the cut 
will set it securely enough to the bot- 
tom of the block D for printing, and 
allow its removal without injury when 
desired. To get a uniform impression 



in printing, place paper on the base, as 
at E, to the thickness required. For 
controlling the printing position on 
the stock paper, pins or tacks can be 
stuck into the base and each sheet to 
be printed laid against these guides. — 
Contributed by Chelsea Curtis Frazier, 
Saginaw, Mich. 



An Electrical Testing Instrument for 
Experimenters 

The amateur having an ordinary 
flash light can make an instrument that 
will serve for a variety of purposes. 
It is only necessary to solder a piece 




An Instrument Made of an Electrical Pocket Flash 
Light for Testing Circuits and Instruments 

of lamp cord to the spring of the bat- 
tery which comes in contact with the 
lamp, and pass the end through a hole 
drilled in the top of the case. The end 
can be fitted with a cord tip. 

To test batteries, take the flash 
light in the right hand and press the 
button, lighting the lamp, then place 
the bottom of the flash light on one 
binding post and the cord on the other. 
If the light burns brilliantly, the bat- 
tery is dead, but if it burns dimly or 
goes out the battery is good. 

It may happen that the experiment- 



er's telegraph line is out of order and 
the trouble cannot be found. The 
sounder may be tested out by discon- 
necting the wires from the instru- 
ment and placing the bottom of the 
flash light on one binding post and 
the cord on the other. If the light 
goes out, the trouble does not lie in the 
sounder, but in some other part of the 
line. The line may be tested in a 
similar manner if one end is short- 
circuited and the flash light connected 
to the other. 

A tester of this kind cannot be used 
on long lines, or on instruments of 
much resistance, as their resistance 
will overcome that of the light. Keep 
in mind the fact that the lamp will al- 
ways burn on an open circuit and go 
out on a closed circuit. 



Softening the Tone of a Talking 
Machine 

An effective mute, for use on any 
disk talking machine, can be made by 
clamping an ordinary wood clothespin 
on the head of 
the setscrew 
that holds the 
needle. Thus 
the tone will be 
softened a great 
deal more than 
by the use of a 
wood needle. 
The record of a stringed instrument, 
such as a violin, will be almost exactly 
reproduced. It will also eliminate 
almost all the scratching sound caused 
by a steel needle. — Contributed by C. 
M. Reeves, Los Angeles, Cal. 




CAn antenna should be made of wire 
larger than No. 14 gauge. 



7K 



^UIC 



UA[i:^T]m. 












s 




A Musical Doorbell 



By H. MARCELLE 



TN the construction of this doorbell 
-'■ it is best to purchase a small in- 
strument known as the "tubaphone." 
It consists of a rack with several pieces 
of brass tubing cut to different lengths 
to give the proper tones as they are 
struck. Such an instrument with eight 
tubes will play almost any tune, and 
can be purchased from 50 cents up, de- 
pending on the size. Brass tubes can 
be purchased, cut, and toned, but the 
time taken in doing this is worth more 
than the price of the instrument, and 
no changes are necessary in it to make 
the doorbell. 

Several strips of pine, 2 in. wide and 
% in. thick, are procured for the frame- 
work. The tubes are 
placed on a table top, 1 in. 
apart and with their lower 
ends on a line at right 
angles to their length. 



additional material to fasten on the 
ends of two uprights, which are cut 
long enough to admit the longest tube 
and allow sufficient room for a large 
roller and space at the top to swing the 
tubes. 

A base is cut from a board, % in. 
thick and of sufficient size to admit the 
roller and tube rack, together with a 
small battery motor. The tube rack 
is fastened to the back of this base by 
making a tenon on the lower end of 
each upright, and a mortise in the base- 
board to receive it. 

A roller is turned from a piece of soft 
pine, large enough to provide room on 
its surface for a number of horizontal 
lines equal to the 
number of notes in 
the composition to 
be played. These 
lines should not be 




Detail of the 

Parts for the 

Construction 

of a Music al 

Doorbell That 

will Play the 

on Brass Tubes 

ne Touch of a 

Push Button 



Allow a space of 1 in. outside the first 
and last tube, and cut a piece of the 
wood to this length, allowing sufficient 



too close together. Supposing the 
music it is desired to play has 1.5 notes 
in its composition, then 15 horizontal 



339 



330 



lines must be spaced evenly on the sur- 
face of the roller. The length of the 
roller should be a free-working fit be- 
tween the uprights. A i/4-in. steel rod 
is run through its center for a shaft, 




IIIIIII 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 



The Appearance of the Doorbell Is That of a 
Mission Clock on a Mantel 



allowing sufficient ends for the bear- 
ings, and, in addition, at one end suf- 
ficient length for a pulley. 

The motor is lined up on the base, so 
that its pulley wheel will run a belt on 
the large wheel of the roller. The cur- 
rent is turned on after making belt and 
wiring connections, a lead pencil is held 
directly centering the place where each 
tube hangs, and a line is drawn on the 
circumference of the roller. 

A i/s-i"- hole is drilled through each 
tube, near one end, and a piece of cat- 
gut string run into it to make a hanger. 
A piece of board, long enough to fit 
between the uprights when placed on 
the slope formed by the upper ends of 
the tubes after their lower ends are set 
straight on a line at right angles to 
their length, and wide enough to swing 
the tubes clear of the frame, is fas- 
tened in place, as shown. Small screw 
eyes are turned into the under side of 
this board, at even spacings of 1 in., 
and used to swing the tubes by the cat- 
gut strings. Another piece of board, 
the same width as the former, is placed, 
perfectly horizontal, between the up- 
rights a short distance above the lower 
ends of the hanging tubes. Evenly 
spaced holes are bored in this cross- 
piece to admit the ends of the tubes. 
The holes should be of such size that 
when they are lined with a piece of felt, 



the tubes will have a little play with- 
out touching the sides at any point. 

The hammers are each made of a 
strip of sheet brass, having a length 
that will extend from the base to a 
short distance above the lower ends of 
the tubes. A hole is drilled in each 
end of the strip, the lower one being 
of a size to fasten it to the base cross- 
piece with a round-head wood screw. 
The hole in the upper end is used to 
fasten a small block of wood with a 
screw, for the hammer head. A small 
strip of felt is glued to the striking side 
of the block. Another piece of brass, 
used for a trip, is fastened to the center 
part of each long piece with rivets, so 
that its upper end will be near the cen- 
ter of the roller for height, and strike 
the end of a small peg driven into the 
roller. The length of these pieces, in 
fact, of all pieces, will depend on the 
length of the tubes in the tubaphone 
and the size roller required for the 
music. 

The setting of the pegs in the roller 
requires some patience in order to get 
the tune correct, but one mistake will 
be of more value than an hour's de- 
scription. The pegs can be procured 
from a shoemaker. If the roller is of 
pine, they can be driven into the wood 
of the roller with a hammer. 

With ordinary connections to the 
push button and motor, the mechanism 
will only run while the push button is 
being pressed. A device that will 
cause the piece of music to be played 
through to the finish after the push but- 
ton is pushed for a short time, consists 
of a turned piece of wood fastened to 
the outside surface of the driving wheel 
on the roller. This piece of wood 
should be carefully set, so that its out- 
side surface will be true as it revolves. 
Three brushes, made of copper strips, 
are fastened to the base. The length 
of these brushes will depend on the 
size of the roller and height of the block 
of wood. They should be evenly 
spaced and fastened, so that they will 
be insulated from each other. One 
strip of brass, or copper, is fastened 
around the turned piece of wood. This 
strip must be as wide as two brushes, 



331 



except for a short distance to make a 
break in the electrical circuit. The 
notch in the strip, to make this break, 
should be on the outside edge where it 
will disconnect the center brush, and 
its location on the turned piece of wood 
should be on a line with the end and 
the beginning of the pegs for the music. 
Another short strip is fastened to the 
turned piece of wood, where it will 
make a contact with the first brush 
when the second or middle brush is in 
the notch, or disconnected, and is con- 
nected to the other notched strip with 
a piece of wire run beneath the wood. 

The wiring shown will make it pos- 
sible to start the motor with the push 
button which will turn the roll far 
enough to connect the center brush ; 
then the roller will turn until the music 
is played, at which point it will stop 
and remain in rest until the push but- 
ton again makes the contact. 

The entire mechanism can be made 
to set on the mantel or shelf, incased 
like a mission clock, and the wires run- 
ning to it may be concealed. 



CUT OFF HERE 



Replacing Buckle Tongues 

Having several buckles without 
tongues I tried to repair them with 
pieces of wire, but could not get them 
to bend short 
enough to fasten 
around the 
liuckle frame. 
Some cotters 
were at hand and 
seeing them 
gave me the idea 
of using one leg, 
with the eye 
part, as a tongue. 
By using the 
proper-sized cotter, a substantial and 
quickly made repair will be the result. 
— Contributed by Everett Hoar, Bow- 
manville, Ont. 




Drying Towels in Photographer's 
Dark Room 

In doing a large amount of photo- 
graphic work the towel becomes wet, 
and to dry the hands on it is impos- 




C Bread crumbs thoroughly rubbed 
over a pencil drawing will remove most 
of the dirt and without disturbing the 
pencil lines. 



An Electric Globe Makes Heat in the Spool for 
Drying a Portion of the Towel 

sible. To obviate this annoyance, I 
made a galvanized-iron pipe, about 2 
ft. long and 8 in. in diameter, with a 
disk, or circular piece, of metal about 
10 in. in diameter soldered on each end 
to form flanges One flange was fas- 
tened to the wall of the dark room in a 
convenient place to support the device. 
On the inside of the spool, or towel 
support, an ordinary incandescent 
electric globe was placed. The heat of 
the lamp would easily dry 13 in. of 
the towel, and when the dry p:irt was 
pulled down for use another wet por- 
tion was brought into position for 
drying. 

Those who have tried to handle gel- 
atin dry plates with moist hands will 
readily appreciate the value of this 
simple contrivance. The lamp in the 
spool is connected on the switch with 
the ruby light, so that it is not for- 
gotten, when leaving the room, to 
turn it out. — Contributed by T. B. 
Lambert, Chicago. 



332 



An Electric Chime Clock 



By JOHN E. MAHLMEISTER 



IN the construction of this clock one 
perfectly good and accurate alarm 
clock and the works of an old or dis- 
carded one are used. The clock for the 
accurate time is set into a frame, or 
casing, made of thin boards which have 
a circular opening cut in them to fit 




The Alarm Clock in Its Case and the Location 
of the Contact Pins and Contact Lever 

snugly on the outside casing of the 
clock. The back of the clock and cas- 
ing are shown in Fig. 1. A circular line 
is drawn on the casing, about 1 in. 
larger in diameter than the clock, and 
brass machine screws with two nuts 
clamping on the wood back, as shown 
at A, are set at intervals so as to be op- 
posite, or just back of. the hour marks 
2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11. and 12. A contact 
spring, B, is shaped as shown and sold- 
ered to the knurled knob on the back 



C E 

© ® lU VJ ^ I ^- 

BINDING^ Ql — CJJ- 
T ■ 



POSTS 




o'OiO' 

U V L w 



Location of the Clock Works, Magnets. Binding 
Posts, Gongs and Strikers on the Baseboard 

of the clock used for setting the hands 
in a position where it will travel or be 
parallel with the minute hand. The 
end of the contact spring should be 
shaped so that it will slide over the 
points of the screws easily, but in good 
contact. The ends of the screws should 



be filed to a slightly rounding point. 
The wiring diagram for this part of 
the apparatus is clearly shown, and the 
terminals are connected to binding 
posts C and D. The binding post E is 
connected to the metal part of the 
clock. 

The chime part is made entirely sep- 
arate and can be located at any rea- 
sonable distance from the clock. It is 
propelled by the works from an old 
clock, as shown at F, Fig. 2. The old 
clock is prepared for use by removing 
the hands, balance wheel and escape- 
ment so that the wheels will turn 
freely. To prevent the works from 
running too fast, a piece of sheet brass, 
G, is soldered to the shaft running at 
the highest speed. The brass should 
be as large as the space will admit. It 
forms a fan to catch the air and re- 
tard the speed, and also provides a 
means of stopping the works by the 
electric mechanism. 

The parts for the gongs and elec- 
trical apparatus are supported on a 
baseboard, % in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 
18 in. long. The automatic switch is 
located at one end of the base, and 
consists of two sets of magnets, H and 
J, with an armature, K, to which is 
attached a stifif contact wire, L. This 
wire is to make contact with the spring 
M when the armature is drawn by the 
magnets J, and with N when drawn by 
the magnets H. The springs M and N 
are made of thin sheet brass, bent as 
shown, and mounted on the base. 

A piece of wood, O, on which to 
mount the works of the old clock is 
mortised into the base. Another 
standard, P, of the same height as O, 
is also mortised into the base to pro- 
vide a bearing for the end of the shaft 
which carries the wood disk Q, the op- 
posite end of the shaft being connected 
by means of a ferrule and soldered to 
the end of the minute-hand shaft. The 
shaft should be well lined up, so that it 
will turn freely. The wood disk is ^4 
in. thick and about 6 in. in diameter. 



333 



Mark four circles on the face of the 
disk, near the outside edge and i/i in. 
apart. Step off the outside circle into 
150 parts and draw a radial line from 
each mark across the four circular lines 
with the straight edge on the center of 
the disk. An arc of the disk is shown 
in Fig. 3, where trip pins are driven in 
for making the electric contacts. This 
part of the arc shows the method of 
locating the pins for the hour from 3 
to 4 o'clock, with the intermediate pins 
for the quarter, half, and three-quarter- 
hour contacts. The intermediate pins 
are arranged in the same manner for all 
hours, but the hour pins, on the second 
circle, run from 1 pin to 12 pins con- 
secutively. Ordinary pins, with the 
heads cut off, are used and should be 
driven in accurately on the division 
lines to secure proper results. 

The arrangement of the springs is 
shown in Fig. 4. These springs, when 
pressed together, will close the circuit 
for ringing the gongs. They are made 
of thin sheet brass, bent as shown at R, 
and fastened to a piece, or block, of 
hard wood with screws, as shown at 

5. The springs numbered 3, 5, 7, and 
9 are the ones made as shown at R for 
sliding over the pins in the disk Q, and 
their ends should clear the face of the 
disk about % in. The springs 1, 2, 4, 

6, and 8 are about 1/2 in- shorter and 
have their ends bent up at right angles 
so that they will almost touch the long 
ones. The spring 1 should be a little 
shorter than 2. When fastening the 



3 00 PINS 
3 15 PIN 
3 OCLOCK 
PINS 




3 OCLOCK 
STOP PIN 



3A5 STOP PIN 
330 STOP PIN 
3 IS STOP PIN 



The Pins arc Accurately Set in Four Circular Lines 
and on Radial Lines 

springs to the block of wood, be sure 
that no two springs touch and that 
each one is separated from the other 
to form no contact until the pins in the 
wheel force them together. The block 
is then fastened to the base under and 



parallel with the shaft carrying the 
disk Q, as shown. 

The starting and stopping of the 
clockwork F is accomplished by means 
of a set of bell magnets, arranged, as 




The Parts Constructing the Chime are Placed 
in the Clock Frame below the Works 

shown at T, Fig. 2, with the wire at- 
tached to the armature bent to touch 
the brass wing of the fan G. The arma- 
ture must not vibrate, but stay against 
the magnet cores while the current 
is flowing through them, thus allow- 
ing the clock wheels to turn, and as 
soon as the current is cut off, the arma- 
ture will spring back and stop the 
wheels. 

Arrange four gongs, U, V, W, and 
X, as shown in Fig. 2, and also three 
bell magnets with clappers 1, 2 and 3. 
These gongs should be selected for 
tone as in a chime clock. The connec- 
tions to the bell magnets 1, 2, and 3 
should be direct to the binding posts 
so that the armature will not vibrate. 



334 



but give one stroke. For instance, bell 
magnet 1 should produce one stroke 
on the gong U when the current is on, 
and one stroke on the gong V when 




;-3 — R 



The Contact Springs are Operated by the Pins 
on the Disk Wheel 

the current breaks. The magnets 2 
should cause the clapper to strike once 
on the gong V when the current is 
on, and to make one stroke on the gong 
W when the current is broken. The 
magnets 3 produce only one stroke 
on the gong X at a time, which is used 
to sound the hours. 

The parts are connected up electric- 
ally as shown in Fig. 5. The lines be- 
tween the clock. Fig. 1, and the bell- 
ringing part. Fig. 2, are connected 
from C to C, D to D, and E, Fig. 1, to 
the zinc of a battery and from the car- 
bon to E, Fig. 3. Two dry cells will 
be sufficient for the current. 

The working of the mechanism is as 
follows : Suppose the time is 6 min- 
utes of 3 o'clock and the contact spring 
on the back is near the 11 pin. As 
soon as it touches the pin, the arma- 
ture K of the switch will be drawn 
in contact with the spring N, then 
when the contact spring touches the 
12 pin, the current will flow into the 




The Wiring Diagram for the Location of the Wires 
on the Under Side of the Base 

magnets T and release the wheels of 
the clockwork F, which turns the disk 
Q, and the three pins in the second row 
will pass over the spring 5 and press it 
in contact with the spring 4 three 
times, causing the gong X to toll out 



3 o'clock. As the contact spring B will 
be on the contact pin 13 for about 1 
minute, the wheels of the clockwork 
F would continue to turn and the bells 
ring, if it were not for the stop pin lo- 
cated on the outside, or first, circle of 
the disk Q, which pin is set in line with 
the last pin in the set of pins for the 
hour, or, in this instance, in line with 
the third pin. When the stop pin has 
passed the spring, the connection 
through the magnets T is broken and 
the clockwork F stops instantly. 
When the spring B strikes the 2 o'clock 
pin, or 10 minutes after 3 o'clock, the 
armature K is drawn over to N, and at 
the 3 pin, or 15 minutes after 3 o'clock, 
the bells U, V, and W will ring and 
then the stop pin will break the cur- 
rent, and so on, at every 15 minutes of 
the 13 hours. 



Hinges Used to Substitute Night Bolt 

One of the safest devices for bolting, 
or locking, a door against intruders is 
to use two sets of hinges. The extra 
set is fastened to the door and frame in 
the same way but directly opposite the 
regular hinges. It may be necessary to 
file the extra hinges and pins in order 
to separate and bring the parts together 
easily. The usual door lock need not 
be used with this arrangement, as the 
hinges are exposed only on the inside 
of the room and cannot be tampered 
with from without. 



Propellers for a Hand Sled 

Desiring to propel my hand sled 
with power transmitted by cranks and 
wheels, I set about to procure the nec- 
essary materials. Two medium-sized 
buggy wheels were found in the back 
yard of a blacksmith shop, which were 
procured for a nominal price. The 
fellies of these wheels were removed, 
the tenons cut from the spokes and 
nails substituted, which were driven 
in their ends so that about i/o in. of 
the body with the head projected. 
The heads were then removed and the 
nail ends sharpened. 

The hubs were plugged with pieces 



335 



of wood, whittled to tightly fit the 
holes. A hole was then bored exactly 
central through each plug for a Y^-in. 
rod. This size rod was procured and 
bent to form a crank, the bearing end 
being threaded for a distance equal to 
the length of the hub. 

Tvvo pieces or blocks of wood, 2 in. 
square and 4 in. long, were used as 
bearings. These were bored cen- 
trally through the long way, to receive 
the Vi-in. rod just loose enough to 
make a good bearing. These bearings 
were supported by a pair of braces 
made of strap iron, about i/^ in. thick 
and % in. wide. The length of the 
iron will depend on the size of the 
wheels and the height of the sled run- 
ner. The braces were shaped as 
shown. The center of the bearing hole 
must be as high from the surface of 
the ground as the distance the spoke 
ends are from the center of the hub 
hole. 

The crank is then run through the 
bearing hole and a nut run on the 
threads and a washer placed against 
the nut. The wheel is then slipped 
on the axle, and another washer and 
nut run on tightly. Both wheels, 
bearings, cranks, and brackets are 



BUCGV WHEEL- 



Sled Propelled 

by Revolving Wheels 

Turned by Cranks, 

the Pointed Nails 

Doing the Pushing 




made alike. The brackets are fas- 
tened with small bolts to the sled top. 
— Contributed by Justin Stewart, 
Wallingford, Conn. 



A Self-Feeding Match Box 

With the addition of the simple de- 
vice here illustrated, any match box 
can be converted into one of the self- 




The Attachment Consists of a Receptacle Fitting 
into the End of a Match Box 

feeding type. A piece of tin, or card- 
board, is cut, as shown at A, the exact 
size depending on the match box used. 
The piece cut out is folded on the 
dotted lines, the cover on the match 
box is removed, and the part B pushed 
into the end of the box beneath the 
matches. The part B is twice as long 
as the depth of the box, therefore it 
enters the box as far as the line C. The 
flaps D rest against the outside of the 
box, and are held in place by the box 
cover. The matches feed into the box 
formed of the tin or cardboard as fast 
as used, while the burnt ones can be 
placed in the upper part E. 



Corks-in-a-Box Trick 

Procure a pill box and a clean cork. 
Cut two disks from the cork to fit in 
the box, and fasten one of the pieces 
centrally to the inside bottom of the 
pill box with glue. 

To perform the trick, put the loose 
disk in with the one that is fast, and 
then open the box to show both corks. 
Close the box and in doing so turn it 
over, then open and only one cork will 
be seen. Be careful not to show the 
inside of the other part of the box with 
the cork that is fastened. — Contrijjuted 
by Fred B. Spoolstra, Yonkers, N. Y. 



336 



A Disk-Armature Motor 

One of the simplest motors to make 
is the disk motor, its construction re- 
quiring a wood base, a brass disk, a 3-in. 
horseshoe magnet, and some mercury. 



in diameter, and a needle, with the eye 
broken off and pointed, is used for the 
shaft. The needle shaft can be placed 
in position by springing the bearings 
apart at the top. 

When the current is applied, the disk 





Parts of the Disk Motor 

Shown in Detail, 
Also the Location of the 
Horseshoe Magnet on the 
Base, Ends of the Poles 
being Directly under the 
Center of the Shaft 




The base is made of hard wood, in the 
proportions shown in the sketch. The 
leading-in wires are connected to the 
binding posts A and B, and from these 
connections are made, on the bottom of 
the base, from A to the groove C cut in 
the upper surface of the base for the 
mercury, and from B to one screw, D, of 
one bearing. The end of the former 
wire must be clean and project into the 
end of the groove, where it will be sur- 
rounded with mercury. 

The bearings consist of thin sheet 
brass, cut to the dimensions shown, the 
bearing part being made with a well- 
pointed center punch, as at E. The 
disk wheel is made of sheet brass, 2 in. 



will revolve in a direction relative to 
the position of the poles on the magnet. 
The reverse can be made by turning 
tlie magnet over. — Contributed by 
Joseph H. Redshaw, Homestead, Pa. 

Repairing Marble 

With a little practice any mechanic 
can repair holes, cracks or chipped 
places on marble slabs, so that the 
patched place cannot be detected from 
the natural marble. Use the following 
mixture as a base for the filler: Water 
glass, 10 parts; calcined magnesite, 3 
parts, and powdered marble, 4 parts. 
These should be mixed thoroughly to a 
semifluid paste. Fill the crack or hole 
and smooth off level, then with a cam- 
el's-hair brush and colors, made of ani- 
line in alcohol, work out the veins, body 
colors, etc., as near to the natural 
marble as possible. It will depend on 
the application of the colors whether 
the repair can be seen or not. Artifi- 
cial-marble slabs can be formed from 
this mixture. — Contributed by A. E. 
Soderlund, New York City. 



337 



The Construction of a Simple Wireless Telephone Set 



By A. E. ANDREWS 



In Two Parts — Part I 



Amongf the various methods for the 
transmission of speech electrically, 
without wire, from one point to an- 
other, the so-called "inductivity" sys- 
tem, which utilizes the principles of 
electromagnetic induction, is perhaps 
the simplest, because it requires no spe- 
cial apparatus. Since this system is 
so simple in construction, and its opera- 
tion can be easily understood by one 
whose knowledge of electricity is lim- 
ited, a description will be given of how 
to construct and connect the necessary 
apparatus required at a station for both 
transmitting and receiving a message. 

Before taking up the actual construc- 
tion and proper connection of the vari- 
ous pieces of apparatus, it will be well 
to explain the electrical operation of the 
system. If a conductor be moved in 
a magnetic field in any direction other 
than parallel to the field, there will be 
an electrical pressure induced in the 
conductor, and this induced electrical 
pressure will produce a current in an 
electrical circuit of which the conductor 
is a part, provided the circuit be com- 
plete, or closed, just as the electrical 
pressure produced in the battery due 
to the chemical action in the battery 
will produce a current in a circuit con- 
nected to the terminals of the battery. 
A simple experiment to illustrate the 
fact that there is an induced electrical 
pressure set up in a conductor when 
it is moved in a magnetic field may be 
performed as follows : Take a wire, 
AB, as shown in Fig. 1, and connect its 
terminals to a galvanometer, G, as 
shown. If no galvanometer can be ob- 
tained, a simple one can be made by 
supporting a small compass needle in- 
side a coil composed of about 100 turns 
of small wire. The terminals of the 
winding on the coil of the galvanometer 
should be connected to the terminals 
of the conductor AB, as shown in Fig. 
1. If now the conductor AB be moved 
up and down past the end of the mag- 



net N, there will be an electrical pres- 
sure induced in the conductor, and this 
electrical pressure will produce a cur- 
rent in the winding of the galvanometer 




Fig. 1— Wire Connected to Galvanometer 

G, which will cause the magnetic needle 
suspended in the center of the coil to 
be acted upon by a magnetic force tend- 
ing to move it from its initial position, 
or position of rest. It will be found 
that this induced electrical pressure will 
exist only as long as the conductor AB 
is moving with respect to the magnetic 
field of the magnet N, as there will 
be no deflection of the galvanometer 
needle when the motion of the con- 
ductor ceases, indicating there is no 
current in the galvanometer winding, 
and hence no induced electrical pres- 
sure. It will also be found that the 
direction in which the magnetic needle 
of the galvanometer is deflected 
changes as the direction of motion of 
the conductor changes with respect to 
the magnet, indicating that there is a 
change in the direction of the cur- 
rent in the winding of the galva- 
nometer, and since the direction of this 
current is dependent upon the direction 
in which the induced electrical pres- 
sure acts, there must have been a 
change in the direction of this pressure 
due to a change in the direction of mo- 
tion of the conductor. The same re- 
sults can be obtained by moving the 
magnet, allowing the conductor AB to 
remain stationary, the only require- 
ment being a relative movement of the 



338 



conductor and the ma.a^netic field 
created by the magnet. 

It is not necessary that tlie ma,a;netic 
field be created by a permanent mas:^- 
net. It can be produced by a current 




\ 






v^^te 



vy 



Fig. 2 — Compass Needle Test 

in a conductor. The fact that there is 
a magnetic field surrounding a con- 
ductor in which there is a current can 
^ — -..^^ be shown by a sim- 



' s pie experiment, as 

>^^~~"^ \ illustrated in Fig. 

//^Z^v\ I -• If a '^'^■•re be 
placed above a 
compass needle 
and parallel to the 
direction of the 
compass needle and 
a current be sent 
through the wire in 
the direction indi- 
cated by the arrow 
I, there will be a 
force acting on the 
compass needle 
tending to turn the 
needle at right angles to the wire. The 
amount the needle is turned will de- 
pend upon the value of the current in 
the wire. There is a definite relation 
between the direction of the current in 
the wire and the direction of the mag- 
netic field surrounding the wire, be- 
cause a reversal of current in the con- 
ductor will result in a reversal in the 
direction in which the compass needle 
is deflected. Remembering that the 
direction of a magnetic field can be de- 
termined by placing a magnetic needle 
in the field and noting the direction in 
which the N-pole of the needle points, 
this being taken as the positive direc- 
tion, if one looks along a conductor in 
which there is a current and the cur- 
rent be from the observer, the direction 
of the magnetic field about the con- 






Fig. 4 — Reversed 
Lines of Force 



ductor will be clockwise. Imagine a 
conductor carrying a current and that 
you are looking at a cross-section of 
this conductor (see Fig. 3), and the di- 
rection of the current in the conductor 
is from you (this being indicated in 
the figure by the cross inside the cir- 
cle), then the lines of force of the mag- 
netic field will be concentric circles 
about the conductor, they being nearer 
together near the conductor, indicat- 
ing the strength of the field is great- 
est near the conductor. A compass 
needle placed above the conductor 
would place itself in such a position 
that the N-pole would point toward 
the right and the S-pole toward the left. 
If the needle be placed below the con- 
ductor, the N-pole would point to the 
left and the wS-pole to the right, indicat- 
ing that the direction of the magnetic 
field above the conductor is just the re- 
verse of what it is below the conductor. 
The strength of the magnetic field 
produced by a current in a conductor 
can be greatly increased by forming 
the conductor into a coil. Figure 4 
shows the cross-section of a coil com- 
posed of a single turn of wire. The 
current in the upper cross-section is 
just the reverse of what it is in the 
lower cross-section, as indicated by the 
cross and dash inside the two circles. 
As a result of the direction of current 



/ 

/ / 






\ \ V ^"- ^ / 



\ 



\ 



\ 



^ 



/ / 

y 



Fig. 3 — Lines of Force 

in the two cross-sections being differ- 
ent, the direction of the magnetic field 
about these two cross-sections will be 
different, one being clockwise, and the 



339 



other counter-clockwise. It will be ob- 
served, however, that all the lines of 
force pass throug'h the center of the 
coil in the same direction, or the mag- 
netic field inside the coil is due to the 
combined action of the various parts 
of the conductor formins^ the complete 
turn. This magnetic field can be in- 
creased in value, without increasing 
the current in the conductor, by adding 
more turns to the coil. 

A cross-section through a coil com- 
posed of eight turns placed side by 
side is shown in Fig. 5. The greater 
part of the magnetic lines created by 
each turn pass through the remaining 
turns as shown in the figure, instead 
of passing around the conductor in 
which the current exists that creates 
them. This results in the total num- 




Fig. 5 — Magnetic Lines Passing through Center 

her of lines passing through the coil 
per unit of cross-sectional area being 
greater than it was for a single turn, 
although the value of the current in 
the conductor has remained constant, 
the only change being an increase in 
the number of turns forming the coil. 

If a conductor be moved by the end 
of a coil similar to that shown in Fig. 
5, when there is a current in the wind- 
ing of the coil, there will be an elec- 
trical pressure induced in the con- 
ductor, just the same as though it were 
moved by the end of a permanent mag- 
net. The polarity of the coil is marked 
in Fig. 5. The magnetic lines pass 
from the S-pole to the N-pole through 
the coil and from the N-pole to the S- 
pole outside the coil, just as they do 
in a permanent magnet. 



How to Lock a Tenoned Joint 

A tenon placed in a blind mortise 
can be permanently fastened, when 
putting the joints together, by two 




"Wedges in Tenon 

wedges driven in the end grain of the 
wood. In some cases, where the wood 
to be used is very dry and brittle, it is 
advisable to dip the tenon in warm 
water before applying the glue. The 
glue must be applied immediately after 
the tenon is removed from the water, 
and then inserted in the mortise. The 
sketch shows the application of the 
wedges. The bottom of the mortise 
drives the wedges as the tenon is 
forced in place. 



Fitting a Large Cork in a Small 
Bottle 

When necessary, a large cork may 
be made to fit a small bottle, if treated 
as shown in the sketch. Two wedge- 
shaped sections are cut from the cork, 
at right angles to each other, as shown 
in Fig. 1. The points are then squeezed 
together (Fig. 2) and the end inserted 




Fig. 2 

Reducing Size of Cork 



in the bottle (Fig. 3). Wet the cork 
slightly and the operation will be 
easier. — Contributed by James M. 
Kane, Doylestown, Pa. 



340 



A Homemade W^et Battery 




Procure a large water bottle and 
have a glass cutter cut the top off so 
that the lower portion will form a jar 
about SVo in. 
high. Ne.xt ob- 
tain two pieces 
of carbon, about 
8 in. long, 4 in. 
wide and i/4 in. 
thick. Melt up 
some old scrap 
zinc and mold a 
piece having 
the same di- 
mensions as the 
pieces of car- 
bon. The mold 
for casting the 
zinc may be 
made by nail- 
ing some i/4-in. strips of wood on a 
piece of dry board, forming a shallow 
box, 4 in. wide and 8 in. long. Re- 
move all the impurities from the sur- 
face of the zinc when it is melted, 
with a metal spoon or piece of tin. 
Before filling the mold with the metal, 
place a piece of No. 14 gauge bare 
copper wire through a small hole in 
one of the end pieces forming the 
mold, and allow it to project several 
inches inside, and make sure the mold 
is perfectly level. The zinc will run 
around the end of the wire, which is to 
afford a means of connecting the zinc 
plate to one of the binding posts form- 
ing the terminals of the cell. 

Cut from some hard wood four 
pieces a little longer than the outside 
diameter of the glass jar, two of them 
V2 by % in-> and two, V2 by % in. Drill 
a %-in. hole in each end of all four 
pieces, the holes being perpendicular 
to the i/2-in. dimension in each case, 
and about % in. from the end. Boil 
all the pieces for several minutes in 
paraffin and stand them up on end 
to drain. Procure two %-in. brass 
bolts, 3V2 in. long, which are to be 
used in clamping the elements of the 
cell together. The two smaller pieces 
of wood should be placed on each side 
of one end of the zinc, then the carbon 



pieces and the larger pieces of wood 
outside the carbon pieces. The carbon 
plates should be connected together 
and then connected to a binding post 
which forms the positive terminal of 
the cell. If unable to obtain pieces of 
carbon of the required dimensions, a 
number of ordinary electric-light car- 
bons may be used. Get about ten 
y^-in. carbons, without the copper coat- 
ing, if possible ; if not, file all the cop- 
per off. Cut these carbons off, forming 
S-in. lengths. File the top ends of the 
carbons flat and so that they all be- 
come equal in thickness, and clamp 
them in place by means of the brass 
bolts. If rods are used, they should all 
be connected together by means of a 
piece of copper wire and then to a 
binding post. 

The plates may now be hung in the 
jar, the wooden pieces resting on the 
top of the jar and acting as a support. 
The solution for this cell is made by 
dissolving i/o lb. of potassium bichro- 
mate in 1/2 gal- of water, and then 
adding very slowly i/o lb. of strong 
sulphuric acid. More or less solution 
may be made by using the proper pro- 
portion of each ingredient. 

This cell will have a voltage of two 
volts, a rather low internal resistance, 
and will be capable of delivering a 
large current. If it should begin to 
show signs of exhaustion, a little more 
acid may be added. 

A chemical action goes on in this 
cell regardless of whether it supplies 
current to an external circuit or not, 
and for this reason the elements should 
be removed from the solution and 
hung directly over the jar when the 
cell is not in use. A simple device for 
this purpose may be constructed as 
shown. A cord may be passed through 
the opening in the crossbar at the top 
and its lower end attached to the ele- 
ments. When the elements are drawn 
out of the solution, the upper end of 
the cord may be fastened in some man- 
ner. This frame can, of course, be 
made longer, so it will accommodate 
a number of cells. 



341 



The Construction of a Simple Wireless Telephone Set 



By A. E. ANDREWS 
In Two Parts— Part II 



If two coils of wire be placed parallel 
to each other as shown in Fig. 6, and a 
current be passed through the winding 
of one of them, say A, a part of the 
magnetic lines of force created by this 
current will pass through the other coil 
B. These lines of magnetic force must 
cut across the turns of wire of the 
coil in which there is no current as the 
magnetic field is being created, and as 
a result there will be an electrical pres- 
sure produced in the winding of the 
coil carrying no current. When the cur- 
rent in coil A is discontinued, the mag- 
netic field created by this current is 
destroyed or it contracts to zero, and 
the magnetic lines again cut the vari- 
ous turns composing the winding of 
coil B. The direction in which the 
magnetic lines of force and the wind- 
ing of coil B move with respect to 
each other is just the reverse, when the 
current in the winding of coil A is in- 
creasing, to what it is when the cur- 
rent in the winding of the coil A is de- 
creasing. Any change in the value of 
the current in the winding of coil A 
will result in a change in the number 
of magnetic lines of force linked with 
the winding of the coil B, and as a re- 
sult of this change in the number of 
lines linked with the winding of coil 
B there will be an induced electrical 
pressure set up in coil B. The direction 
of this induced electrical pressure will 
depend upon whether the current in 
the winding of coil A is increasing or 
decreasing in value. When the current 
in the winding of coil A is increasing 
in value, the electrical pressure induced 
in the winding of coil B will be in such 
a direction that the current produced 
by this induced electrical pressure will 
pass around the winding of coil B in 
the opposite direction to that in which 
the current passes around the winding 
of coil A. Or the current produced by 
the induced electrical pressure tends to 
produce a magnetic field opposite in 



\ 









/ 






B 



yi 



A 






A 



^-" 






\ 



')^^\ 



Fig. 6 



direction to the one created by the cur- 
rent in the winding of coil A. When 
the current in the winding of A is de- 
creasing in value, the induced pressure 
in the winding of the coil B is just the 
reverse of what it was in the previous 
case and the current produced by this 
induced 
pressure 
passes 
around the 
winding o f 
the coil B in 
the same di- 
rection a s 
the current 
passes 
around the 
winding o f 
coil A. The 
current pro- 
duced by the 
induced electrical pressure aids the cur- 
rent in the winding of coil A in produc- 
ing a magnetic field. In general the 
current resulting from the induced 
pressure always passes around the cir- 
cuit in such a direction as to produce 
a magnetic effect which will oppose a 
change in the value of the magnetic 
field causing the induced electrical 
pressure. 

There will be an induced pressure 
in the winding of coil B, due to a 
change in the value of the current in 
the winding of coil A, as long as the 
coil B remains in the magnetic field of 
the coil A and its plane is not par- 
allel to magnetic lines ; or, in other 
words, coil B must always be in such 
a position that some of the magnetic 
lines created by the current in coil A 
will pass through the winding of coil 
B. 

If a telephone transmitter and a bat- 
tery be connected in series with the 
winding of coil A, a fluctuating or vary- 
ing current can be made to pass 
through the winding by causing the dia- 



342 



phragm of the transmitter to vibrate 
by speaking into the mouthpiece of the 
transmitter. This varying current will 
set up a varying magnetic field and 
there will be an induced electrical pres- 




Fig. 7 — Sending and Receiving Equipment 

sure set up in coil B, if it be properly 
placed with respect to coil A. A re- 
ceiver connected in series with the 
winding of coil B will be subjected to 
the action of a varying current due to 
the induced electrical pressure in the 
winding of coil B and as a result, the 
diaphragm of the receiver will vibrate 
in unison with that of the transmitter, 
and speech can thus be transmitted. 
The connection just described should 
be somewhat modified and a little more 
equipment used in order to give tlie 
best results. 

Figure 7 shows the complete send- 
ing and receiving equipment, a com- 
plete outfit of this kind being re- 
quired for each station. The trans- 
mitter T and the receiver R may be 
an ordinary local battery transmitter 
and receiver, although a high-resist- 
ance receiver will give better results. 
The induction coil with the windings, 
marked P and S, may be any commer- 
cial type of induction coil as used in a 
magneto telephone instrument, but a 
coil with a high-wound secondary will 
give better results. The push button 
K is to be used in closing the trans- 
mitter circuit when the set is being 
used for transmitting, the key being de- 
pressed, and for shorting out the high 
resistance secondary winding when the 
set is used in receiving, the key being 



in the normal position. Ten dry cells 
should be connected in series and used 
to supply current to the transmitter 
circuit, as shown by B in the figure. 
The receiver R, secondary winding of 
the induction coil S, and the winding 
of coil A used in transmitting and re- 
ceiving the magnetic effects, are all 
connected in series. The winding of 
the coil A consists of two parts, D and 
E, as shown in the figure, with two of 
their ends connected together by means 
of a condenser, C, having a capacity 
of about 2 micro-farads. Each of these 
parts should consist of about 200 turns 
of No. 23 gauge silk-covered copper 
wire, wound on an ordinary bicycle rim. 
The inside end of one winding should 
be connected to the outside of the other 
by means of the condenser, the two 
coils being wound in the same direc- 
tion. The condenser C can be pro- 
cured at a small cost from almost any 
telephone company. 

To talk, two of the instruments are 
placed 23 or 30 ft. apart, and they may 
be placed in difl^erent rooms as walls 
and other ordinary obstructions that 
do not interfere with the production of 
the magnetic field about the trans- 
mitting coil, have no effect upon the 
operation. Pressing the button K at 
the transmitting station, closes the 
transmitter circuit and removes the 
shunt from about the secondary wind- 
ing of the induction. Any vibration of 
the transmitter will cause a varying 
current to pass through the primary 
winding P, which in turn induces an 
electrical pressure in the secondary 
winding S, and this pressure causes a 
varying current to pass through the 
coil A. The varying current in the 
winding of the coil A produces a vary- 
ing magnetic field which acts upon the 
receiving coil, inducing an electrical 
pressure in it and producing a current 
through the receiver at the receiving 
station. 

A filing coherer, adapted to close a 
local relay circuit and ring an ordinary 
bell, may be used with the sets just de- 
scribed for signaling between stations. 



343 




An Electric Incubator 



Where electric current is available, 
it can be used to heat an incubator 
much better and cleanlier than the 
kerosene lamp. The materials are in- 
expensive and the cost should be no 
more than for the ordinary kind of 
heater. 

First of all the box part must be 
made of very dry wood, i/o in. thick. 
The material should be matched, as 
the cost of the operation depends up- 
on the construction of the box. The 
proper size for an 80-egg incubator is 
2 ft. square and 1 ft. high. If a larger 
one is desired, the dimensions may be 
varied to suit, but it is not necessary 
to make it any higher for a larger one. 
If it is desired to have a window in the 
door, care must be taken to make it a 
good fit. The top, as shown in the 
sketch, is made without hinges so that 
it can be readily set on and removed. 
This makes it handy in case of repair- 
ing the heater and cleaning the box. 
The inside of the box, with the excep- 
tion of the bottom, should be covered 
with asbestos paper. 




^:2ZZ3nzn2ZZ27Z2S27^ZZ:2nzSp22Z2Z72IIL 




^r2Z2Z2ZZZZZL 



■ ■■'^''ir,\'//::v > 



m 



Fie. 1— Box Details 

After the box is finished, fit it with 
a tray, II/2 ft- by 1 ft.^ IO34 in. A 
tray having these dimensions will slide 
easily in the box. This is an essential 
feature of the hatching. The frame of 



the tray D, Fig. 1, consists of wood, 
% by % in., with a bottom made of 
wire mesh. The mesh should be firmly 




Fig. 2 — Heater Details 

attached, so that it will not give away 
when full of eggs. Runners for the 
tray are placed 4I/2 in. from the bottom 
of the box. When the tray is put in 
place, it will not touch the back. This 
small space is left for the chicks to 
fall into the nursery below. About 
4 in. below the tray four holes are 
bored, A A, Vs in. in diameter, one on 
each side of the box. These holes ad- 
mit fresh air to the eggs. 

The electric heater is just large 
enough to allow a space about 1/2 in. 
on all edges. This makes it 23 in. 
square. A piece of Vt-i"- asbestos of 
the above size should be secured, on 
which to place the heating wire. The 
amount of wire depends on the size 
and kind. As it is not necessary to 
heat the wire very hot, iron or steel 
wire may be used. The length of wire 
may be determined by the following 
method : 

Wind the wire on a long stick, mak- 
ing sure that no one coil touches its 
neighbor. Connect one wire of the cur- 
rent supply at one end of the coil and 
run the other end of the current sup- 



344 



ply along the coils, starting at the ex- 
treme opposite end and drawing toward 
the center until the iron wire gets too 
hot to hold with the bare hand. This 
will be the right length of wire to use. 
The length being known, a number of 
tacks are placed in the asbestos board 
to hold the wire, as shown in Fig. 2. 
Cover the wire with a sheet of asbestos 
and attach binding-posts, E and F, at 
each end. 

The asbestos inclosing the heating 
wires is covered with a thin piece of 
sheet iron, which is made to fit tightly 
over the bottom and sides. This will 
spread the heat evenly. Be careful to 
have the binding-posts insulated from 
the sheet metal. In the cross section 
of the heater, Fig. 2, A represents the 
%-in. asbestos board ; B, the heater 
wire ; C, the asbestos paper, and D the 
sheet-metal covering. 

The most important part of the in- 
cubator is the thermostat which regu- 
lates the current to maintain a steady 
heat. It is not advisable to make this 



instrument, as a good one can be pur- 
chased for less than $1. Place the 
thermostat in the end of the box at 
B, Fig. 1. A small door, E, is made in 
the box for easy adjustment of the 
thumbscrews. 

Suspend the heater from the cover 
of the box with bolts 2% in. long, as 
shown in Fig. 1. A base receptacle, G, 
and a snap switch, H, are fastened on 
top of the cover and connected up to 
the thermostat B, the condenser C, the 
heater F, and lamp I, as shown. An- 
other snap switch, J, is used on the 
light only. The condenser C is to pre- 
vent sparking, thus saving the plati- 
num points on the screws. Do not use 
more than a 2-cp. lamp for lighting 
purposes, as a brighter light blinds the 
young chicks. 

The incubator should be run for a 
day or two so that the current may be 
well regulated before placing the eggs 
in the tray. The incubator is operated 
the same as with lamp heat. — Contrib- 
uted by M. Miller, Lansing, Mich. 



A Cover for Magazines 



As soon as Popular Mechanics, or 
any other magazine of similar size, ar- 
rives and before any member of the 
family looks through it, strip oiT the 
front cover and carefully remove the 
narrow strip on the back as shown in 
Fig. 1. Strengthen the back with a 



piece of bookbinding tissue. A, Fig. 2, 
and then paste a piece of heavy manila 
paper, B, over the covers and back. 
Over this paste a piece of dark blue 
cambric. Fig. 3, carefully turning the 
edges even with the book. The picture 
from the cover and the date added to 





Removing the Cover, and Binding with Heavy Paper 



Fig. 4 

riG.3 

Cloth Cover and Paper Cover Attached 



345 



the. left corner of the picture are neatly 
pasted on, Fig. 4, and the narrow strip 
is glued to the back. 

The book is put under a heavy 
weight for several hours. Thus a neat, 
strong cover, which looks well in a 
bookcase, is secured at very little ex- 
pense. The eager handling by every 
member of the family cannot soil or 
deface the cover. — Contributed by 
Katharine D. Morse, Syracuse, N. Y. 



An Optical Illusion 

A very deceiving illusion can be con- 
trived with a bit of wire, a rubber band 
and a toothpick. An ordinary straight 
hairpin will serve instead of the wire. 
The hairpin or wire is bent as shown in 
the illustration, and the rubber band 
then placed on the inverted U-shaped 
part. A toothpick is inserted through 





Toothpick in Rubber Band 

the rubber band and a few turns taken 
by slipping the toothpick back and 
forth so it will pass the wire. 

Hold the wire straight in front of the 
eyes, and, using the forefinger of the 
right hand, turn the end of the tooth- 
pick A, Fig. 1, down until it almost 
reaches the opposite point A, Fig. 2, 
and let the finger slip ofif. It will ap- 
pear as if the toothpick passed through 
the wire. — Contributed by H. H. Wind- 
sor, Jr. 



Temperature Alarm 

The falling temperature of a room 
during the night may result in a very 
bad cold for the occupant. This may 
be prevented by the use of an alarm 
to awaken the sleeper and warn him 
to close the window. An alarm can 
be made as follows: Take a glass 



tube about 4 in. long and V^ in. in di- 
ameter and close one end, used for the 
bottom, with sealing wax, in which 




The Alarm and 'Wiring Diagram 

the bare end of a No. 20 gauge magnet 
wire is inserted. The tube is almost 
filled with mercury. On the mercury 
a float of wax is placed in which 
a bare piece of the same magnet 
wire is inserted and bent as shown 
in the sketch. The tube of mercury is 
fastened to a base with two clips of 
metal. At the upper end of this base 
the adjustable lever A is attached. 
The electric connections are made as 
shown in the sketch. 

Should the temperature fall during 
the night, the mercury will contract, 
the float descend and the circuit close, 
so that the bell will ring. The adjust- 
able lever allows setting the alarm 
for various differences of temperature. 
— Contributed by Klyce Fuzzelle, 
Rogers, Ark. 



Paper Smoother and Penwiper 

A convenient paper smoother and 
penwiper can be easily made as fol- 
lows: Procure a common celluloid 
harness ring. A, about li/o in. in diam- 
eter and fasten a 
penwiper, B, to 
it. The wiper is 

made of arts- in ng^r^gj 
crafts leather, 
doubled and 
filled with pieces 
of chamois. They are held in place 




346 



with a ribbon or cord tied as shown. 
The roughened paper caused by eras- 
ing can be easily smoothed with the 
ring. — Contributed by G. H. Holter, 
Jasper, Minn. 



Stereoscopic Pictures with an 
Ordinary Camera 

Make a small table as wide as the 
camera is long and 3 in. longer than 
the camera is wide. Sink a screw nut 
in the center of the under side to en- 




Table on Tripod for Camera 

gage the regular tripod screw. Fas- 
ten a double or two-way spirit level 
on the front left-hand corner. Nail 
strips on both ends and on the rear 
side, to form a shallow box with three 
sides. The illustration shows the con- 
struction quite plainly. This device 
was used by a correspondent of Cam- 
era Craft as follows: The table was 
fastened to the tripod and carefully 
leveled. The camera is placed at one 
side, bringing the back snugly into the 
corner on that side. Make the expo- 
sure, change the film, slide the camera 
over to the other side and make an- 
other exposure. The table being 3 in. 
longer than the camera is wide, the lens 
will be moved exactly 3 in. when the 
camera is moved over to the other 
side. Three inches is the separation of 
the lenses in stereoscopic cameras and 
the negatives made as above will be 
the same. 

As the negatives must be sized, it 
is necessary to use films. A camera 
using films 3V2 by 31/^ in. will make 



negatives that can be trimmed 1/4 in. 
on each side to make prints 3 by 3l^ 
in. Each two negatives making a pair 
are fastened together, properly trans- 
posed, by folding a narrow strip of 
black paper like a long, V-shaped 
trough, pasting it, and putting one on 
the bottom of the two negatives, as 
they lie side by side, and one at the top, 
saddle fashion. This can be done still 
easier by using strips of passe-partout 
binding, or strips used for binding lan- 
tern slides. If so desired, the use of 
black paper can be carried farther by 
cutting the top strip of binding paper 
in such a way that it gives the round 
corners to the top of the prints. A 
narrow strip through the center and a 
binding of black paper along the two 
end edges make a mask unnecessary in 
printing. 



How to Make a Paper Drinking Cup 

Every person should understand the 
simple method of making a paper 
drinking cup. It may be necessary at 
times to make quick use of medicine 
and with no cup or spoon convenient, 

A __B -B 




F1S.3 



Folds in the Paper 



F10.5 



the pyramid-shaped cup shown in the 

sketch is a useful emergency utensil. 

The paper cup is made as follows: 

Cut the paper into a square and crease 



347 



it on the dotted lines, AG, F B, and 
C D E, as shown in Fig. 1. Fold the 
paper in half through the line C D E to 
form a rectangle, Fig. 2. Fold points 
C and E inward until they meet inside 
the triangle to form the shape shown in 
Fig. 3. This makes four distinct cor- 
ners, F, G, A and B. Fold the paper 
over on the dotted line and bring the 
points A and B together as in Fig. 4. 
The extreme edges meet in the central 
line indicated. Reverse the paper and 
fold the points G and F in like manner. 
Turn the points A B and F G inward 
and fold on the dotted line, and you 
will have a perfect pyramid-shaped cup 
as shown in Fig. 5. — Ctintributed by 
Miss Margaret S. Humphreville, Mt. 
Pleasant, O. 



A Hand Corn Sheller 

A very handy device for shelling 
corn, and especially popcorn, can be 
made of a 1-in. board on which is fas- 






Metal Lath on a Board 



tened a piece of metal lath. The edges 
of the metal lath are bound with a strip 
of wood nailed to the board. — Contrib- 
uted by Ulysses Flacy, Long Beach, 
California. 



A Shaft Coupling 

In connecting a small Vs-'ip- motor 
to a small air pump where both shafts 
were % in. in diameter, I quickly made 
a coupling that would save the wear on 
the machines, as follows. The coup- 
ling was made of a piece of %-in. 
brass rod with a %-in. hole drilled 
through its center. One end of the 
hole was enlarged to 7-16 in. for about 
% in. The end of the coupling having 
the small hole was slipped on the pump 
shaft and fastened with two setscrews. 
The other end was drilled to take a 
pin loosely, the pin fitting tightly in a 
hole drilled in the motor shaft. The 



pin was bent at one end so as to keep 
it from falling out and the other end 
fitted with two nuts. The motor shaft 



L.@. Q A 



kwwmwM? 



3 



Coupling on the Shafts 



being a little loose in the coupling, gave 
it a chance to work free without bind- 
ing. — Contributed by Leo J. Werner, 
New York City. 



Reading the Date of a Worn Coin 

The date and denomination of a coin 
worn smooth can be determined in the 
following manner: Take an ordinary 
coal shovel, or a piece of sheet metal, 
and place it in a hot fire. Allow it to 
become red hot, then remove, and place 
the coin on the hot surface of the 
metal. Any figures or letters can be 
readily seen when heated in this man- 
ner. This test seldom fails even when 
the inscriptions have been worn so 
smooth that they are invisible to the 
naked eye. 



Making a Knife an Easy Opener 

The large blade of my knife being so 
hard to open placed me in constant risk 
of breaking my thumbnail. To over- 
come this difficulty, I ground a notch 
in the handle as shown in the sketch. 
After smoothing it up with a round file 
and fine sandpaper, I had just as good 
a job as if the knife had been made 
that way, and it is very easy to open 
it, as it can be done with the thumb 
and forefinger. Anyone can improve 




Notch in the Handle 



his knife in this way, but be careful not 
to cut the notch back of the point of 
the small blade. — Contributed by C. 
M. Mahood, Warren, Pa. 



348 



Construction of a Small Bell-Ringing Transformer 

By A. E. ANDREWS 

Part I — Fundamental Principles 



The transformer in its simplest form 
consists of two separate and electrically 
independent coils of wire, usually 
wound upon an iron core. 




Fig. I — Two Coils on an Iron Ring 

Figure 1 shows two coils, P and S, 
placed upon an iron ring, R. One of 
these coils is connected to some source 
of energy, such as an alternating-cur- 
rent generator, or an alternating-cur- 
rent lighting circuit, receiving its 
energy therefrom. The other coil is 
connected to a load to which it delivers 
alternating current. The coil of the 
transformer that is connected to the 
source of energy is called the primary 
coil, and the one that is connected to 
the load, the secondary coil. 

The electrical pressure (voltage) at 
which current is supplied by the sec- 
ondary l)ears a definite relation to the 
electrical pressure at which current is 
supplied to the primary. This relation, 
as will be explained later, is practically 
the same as the relation between the 
number of turns in the secondary and 
primary coils. If there are a smaller 
number of turns in the secondary coil 
than there are in the primary, the sec- 
ondary voltage is less than the primary, 
and the transformer is called a step- 
down transformer. If, on the other 
hand, there are a larger number of sec- 
ondary turns than of primary, the sec- 
ondary voltage is greater than the 
primary voltage, and the transformer 
is called a step-up transformer. 

The transfer of electrical energy 
from the primary coil to the secondary 
coil of a transformer is based upon the 



fundamental principles of electro- 
magnetism and electromagnetic induc- 
tion, and it will be necessary to 
investigate these principles before we 
can understand the operation of the 
transformer. 

A magnet is a body, which, when 
freely suspended, assumes approxi- 
mately a north and south position. The 
end of the magnet that points north is 
called the north pole, while the end 
that points south is called the south 
pole. The region surrounding a mag- 
net is called a magnetic field. In this 
field the magnetism is supposed to flow 
along a large number of imaginary 
lines, called lines of force, and these 
lines are all supposed to emanate from 
the north pole of the magnet, pass 
through the medium surrounding the 
magnet and enter the south pole. The 
magnetic field surrounding a bar mag- 
net is shown in Fig. 2. The strength 
of any magnetic field depends upon 
the number of these lines of force per 
unit area (square centimeter), the area 
being taken perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of the lines. 

In 1813, Oersted discovered that a 
compass needle, which is nothing but 
a permanent magnet freely suspended 
or supported, when placed near a con- 
ductor in which there was a direct 



:'(^ 



--,:;x\v. 









;' ;' ( v^'»._' 



Fig. 2 — Magnetic Field 

current, was acted upon by a force that 
tended to bring the needle into a posi- 
tion at right angles to the conductor. 
This simple experiment proved to 



349 



Oersted that there was a magnetic field 
produced by the current in the conduc- 
tor. He also found that there was a 
definite relation between the direction 
of the current in the conductor, and 
the direction in which the north pole 
of the compass needle pointed. If the 
compass needle is allowed to come to 
rest in the earth's magnetic field, and 
a conductor is placed above it, the 
conductor being parallel to the needle, 
and a current then sent through the 
conductor, the needle will be deflected 
from its position of rest. Reversing 
the current in the conductor, reverses 
the direction in which the needle is 
deflected. If the needle be allowed to 
come to rest while there is a current 
in the conductor, and this current is 
then increased, it will be found that 
the deflection of the needle will be in- 
creased, but not in direct proportion to 
the increase in the current. Hence 
the strength of this magnetic field sur- 
rounding the conductor depends upon 
the value of the current in the conduc- 
tor, and the direction of the field de- 
pends upon the direction of the current. 
If a conductor be passed through a 
piece of cardboard, as shown in Fig. 
3, and a current sent through it in the 
direction indicated by the arrow A, a 
compass needle, moved about the con- 
ductor in the path indicated by the 
dotted line, will always assume such a 
position that the north pole points 
around the conductor in a clockwise 




along a conductor in the direction of 
the current, the magnetic field will 
consist of magnetic lines encircling the 
conductor. These lines will be con- 




Fig. 3 — Magnetic Field around Conductor 

centric circles, as a general rule, ex- 
cept when they are distorted by the 
presence of other magnets or magnetic 
materials, and their direction will be 
clockwise. 

The strength of the magnetic field 
at any point near this conductor will 
depend upon the value of the current 
in the conductor, and the distance the 
point is from the conductor. The 
magnetic field surrounding a conductor 
is shown in Fig. 4. The plus sign in- 
dicates that the direction of the cur- 
rent is from you. The strength of a 
magnetic field due to a current in a 
conductor can be greatly increased by 
forming a coil of the conductor. Each 
turn of the coil then produces a certain 
number of lines, and the greater part 
of these lines pass through the center 
of the coil, as shown in Fig. 5. The 
field strength inside such a coil is de- 
pendent upon the number of turns in 





Fig. 4 — Magnetic Field Surrounding 
a Conductor 



Fig. 5— Magnetic Field about a 
Coil 



Fig. 6 — A Coil about a Magnetic Circuit 
through Iron and Air 



direction as you look down on the card- 
board. If the current be reversed, the 
direction assumed by the compass 
needle will be reversed. Looking 



the coil, and the value of the current 
in these turns. Increasing the number 
of turns in the coil increases the num- 
ber of magnetic lines passing through 



350 



the center of the coil, as shown in Fig. 
6. If the current be decreased in value, 
the field strength is decreased, and if 
the current be reversed in direction, 
the magnetic field is reversed in direc- 




Fig. 7 — A Coil about a Magnetic Circuit througii Iron 

tion. The number of magnetic lines 
passing through the solenoid depends 
also upon the kind of material compos- 
ing the core of the solenoid, in addition 
to the number of turns and the value of 
the current in these turns. The num- 
ber of lines per unit area inside a sole- 
noid with an air core can be multiplied 
several times by introducing a soft-iron 
core. If this core be extended as 
shown in Fig. 7, the magnetic circuit 
(the path through which the magnetic 
lines pass) may be completed through 
it. The larger part of the total num- 
ber of lines will pass through the iron, 
as it is a much better conductor of 
magnetism than air. 

In 18.31, Michael Faraday discovered 
that there was an electrical pressure 
induced in an electrical conductor 
when it was moved in a magnetic field 
so that it cut some of the lines forming 
the field. If this conductor be made 
to form part of a closed electrical cir- 
cuit, there will be a current produced 
in the circuit as a result of the in- 
duced electrical pressure. The value of 
this induced electrical pressure depends 
upon the number of magnetic lines of 
force that the conductor cuts in one 
second. If 100,000,(100 lines are cut in 
one second, an electrical pressure of 
one volt is produced. The direction of 
the induced pressure depends upon the 
direction of the movement of the con- 
ductor and the direction of the lines 
of force in the magnetic field ; revers- 



ing either the direction of the magnetic 
field or the motion of the conductor, 
reverses the direction of the induced 
pressure. If both the direction of the 
magnetic field, and the direction of the 
motion of the conductor be reversed, 
there is no change in the direction of 
the induced pressure, for there is then 
no change in the relative directions of 
the two. The same results can be ob- 
tained by moving the magnetic field 
with respect to the conductor in such 
a way that the lines of force of the 
field cut the conductor. 

If a permanent magnet be thrust 
into a coil of wire, there will be an 
electrical pressure set up in the coil 
so long as the turns of wire forming 
the coil are cutting the lines of force 
that are produced by the magnet. 
When the magnet is withdrawn, the 
induced electrical pressure will be re- 
versed in direction, since the direc- 
tion of cutting is reversed. A mag- 
netic field may be produced through a 
coil of wire by winding it on the mag- 
netic circuit shown in Fig. 8. Now 
any change of current in the coil P will 
cause a change in the number of mag- 
netic lines passing through S and 
hence there will be an induced electri- 
cal pressure set up in S so long as the 
number of lines passing through it is 
changing. The pressure induced in 




Fig. 8— Two Coils about a Magnetic Circuit through Iron 

each of the turns comprising the coil 
S depends upon the change in the num- 
ber of magnetic lines through it. 

Let us now consider a condition of 
operation when there is no current in 



351 



the secondary coil and the primary coil 
is connected to some source of electri- 
cal energy. When this is the case the 
current in the primary coil is not de- 
termined by Ohm's law, which states 
that the current is equal to the elec- 
trical pressure divided by the resist- 
ance, but is considerably less in value, 
for the following reason. The mag- 
netic lines of force produced by the 
current in the primary induces an elec- 
trical pressure in the primary winding 
itself, the direction of which is always 
opposite to the impressed pressure, or 
the one producing the current. As a 
result of this induced pressure be- 
ing set up in the primary, the elTec- 
tive pressure acting in the circuit 
is decreased. At the same time there 
is an electrical pressure induced in the 
secondary winding in the same direc- 
tion as that induced in the primary. 

If the secondary circuit be connected 
to a load, there will be a current in the 
secondary winding, which will pass 
around the magnetic circuit in the op- 
posite direction to the primary current, 
and as a result will decrease the num- 
ber of lines passing through the pri- 
mary coil. This will in turn decrease 
the electrical pressure induced in the 
primary coil, and a larger current will 
exist in the primary winding than there 



was before any current was taken from 
the secondary coil. The decrease in 
induced pressure is small, but it is al- 
ways ample to allow the required in- 
crease in primary current. There is, 
at the same time, a small decrease in 
the secondary pressure. 

When the transformer is operating 
on no load, with no current in the sec- 
ondary coil, the induced pressure in the 
primary coil is practically equal to the 
impressed pressure and hence a very 
small current will be taken from the 
source of energy. It is apparent now 
that if the primary and secondary coils 
have the same number of turns, the in- 
duced electrical pressure in each of 
these coils will be the same, assuming, 
of course, that all the magnetic lines 
that pass through the primary also 
pass through the secondary coil, and 
vice versa, or the secondary pressure is 
practically the same as the pressure 
impressed on the primary. If the 
number of turns in the secondary coil 
is greater or less than the number of 
turns in the primary, the magnetic 
lines will be cut a greater or less num- 
ber of times by the secondary coil, and 
hence the induced pressure will be 
greater or less, depending upon the re- 
lation of the number of turns in the 
two coils. 



Spirit Photographs 



Print some photographs in the usual 
way on printing-out paper, then fix 
them in a solution of 1 oz. hyposul- 
phite of soda and 8 oz. of water, and 
wash them thoroughly. While the 
prints are still wet, immerse them in a 
saturated solution of bichloride of mer- 
cury. Be very careful to wash the 
hands and trays after using the mer- 
cury solution, as it is poisonous. When 
the print is placed in the mercury so- 
lution, the picture vanishes completely. 
Leave the prints in this bath just long 
enough for the image to disappear, 
and then wash and dry them thor- 
oughly. Soak some clean blotting 
paper in the hyposulphite-of-soda solu- 



tion and allow it to dry. You are now 
ready to perform the magic-photograph 
trick. 

To cause the spirit photograph to 
appear, cut a piece of blotting paper 
the same size as the prepared print and 
moisten it, then hold the apparently 
blank piece of paper in contact with it. 
The picture will come out clear and 
plain, and if thoroughly washed out 
it will remain permanently. 



CSaturate a small piece of cotton bat- 
ting in glue and wrap it around a nail, 
then place it in a hole previously made 
in a plaster wall. When the glue dries, 
the nail will remain permanently. 



352 

G)nstruction of a Small Bell-Ringing Transformer 

By A. E. ANDREWS 
PART II — Construction 



Transformers may be divided into 
tviro main groups, the classification be- 
ing made according to the relation 
between the magnetic circuit of the 
transformer and the primary and sec- 
ondary windings. When the two 
windings surround the magnetic cir- 
cuit of a transformer, as indicated in 
Fig. 9, the transformer is said to be of 

























; i 

■ r 




^ W(NDINGS 






■■- 












J 











Fig. 9 — Core-Type Transformer 




Fig. 10— Shell-Type Transformer 



core type. If the magnetic circuit 
surrounds the windings, as indicated 
in Fig. 10, the transformer is said to 
be of the shell type. The following in- 
structions are for a shell-type trans- 
former. 

Any mass of magnetic material, 
such as a piece of soft iron, when 
placed in a magnetic field that is pro- 
duced by an alternating current, will 
be rapidly magnetized and demag- 
netized, the rapidity of the change de- 
pending upon the frequency of the 
current producing the field. When a 
piece of iron is magnetized and de- 
magnetized, as just stated, there will 
be a certain amount of heat generated 
in it and this heat represents energy 
that must come from the electrical cir- 
cuit producing the magnetic field in 
which the iron is placed. 

The heat that is generated in the 
iron is due to two causes: First, the 
hysteresis loss which is due to a prop- 
erty of the iron that causes the mag- 
netism in the iron to lag behind the 
magnetizing influence, or the changes 
that are constantly taking place in the 
field strength due to the alternating 
current. This loss cannot be entirely 



eliminated, but it may be reduced to a 
very low value by using a soft grade of 
iron, or one having what is called a 
low hysteretic constant. Second, the 
eddy-current loss which is due to the 
circulation of currents through the 
mass of metal. These currents are 
due to unequal electromotive forces set 
up in the different parts of the piece 
of metal when there is 
a change in the 
strength of the field in 
which the metal is 
placed. This loss can- 
not be entirely elimi- 
nated, but it can be 
greatly reduced by 
breaking the mass of 
metal up into parts and insulating these 
parts from each other, which results 
in the paths in which the eddy currents 
originally circulated being destroyed to 
a certain extent. 

The breaking up of the metal is 
usually made in such a way that the 
joints between the various parts are 
parallel to the direction of the mag- 
netic field. When the joints are made 
in this way, they offer less opposition 
to the magnetizing force. This is one 
of the principal reasons why induction- 
coil cores are made up of a bundle of 
wires instead of a solid piece. These 
wires are annealed or softened to re- 
duce the hysteresis loss that would 
occur. The combined hysteresis and 
eddy-current losses, which are spoken 
of as the iron losses, will of course be 
very small in the transformer you are 
going to construct, but the above dis- 
cussion is given to show why the mag- 
netic circuits of transformers are built 
up from sheets of soft iron, called lam- 
inations. The core is said to be 
laminated. 

The dimensions of the complete mag- 
netic circuit, of the transformer you 
are going to construct, are given in 



353 



Fig. 11. The primary and secondary 
windings are both to be placed about 
the center portion C, and it is apparent 
that the winding of these coils would 
be very tedious if the wire had to be 
passed back and forth through the 
openings A and B. This procedure in 
winding can be prevented by first 
forming the part of the magnetic cir- 
cuit upon which the windings are 
placed ; then wind on the coils and, 
after they are completed, finish build- 
ing up the magnetic circuit with pieces 
cut to the proper size and shape. 

Procure a small quantity of soft, 
thin sheet iron and cut out a sufficient 
number of rectangular pieces, 3 in. by 
414 in., to make a pile % in. in height 
when firmly pressed together. Now 
cut a rectangular notch in each of these 
pieces, 2 in. wide and 3% in. long. The 
sides of this notch can be cut with a 
pair of tinner's shears, and the end 
can be cut with a sharp cold-chisel. 
Be careful not to bend either piece 
any more than you can help. The out- 
side piece, or the one in which the 
notch is cut, should have dimensions 
corresponding to those given in Fig. 
12. When all of these pieces have been 
cut, as indicated above, the rectangular 
pieces, 2 in. by 3% in., that were cut 
out to form the notch in the larger 
pieces, should have two of their corners 
cut away, so as to form pieces whose 
dimensions correspond to those given 
in Fig. 13. These last pieces are to 
form the core and part of the end of 
the transformer. Now make sure that 



Now cut from a piece of insulating 
fiber, that is about -^^ in. thick, two 
pieces whose dimensions correspond to 
those given in Fig. 14. When these 
pieces are completed, the core of the 
transformer can be assembled as fol- 
lows : Place the T-shaped pieces, whose 
dimensions correspond to those given 
in Fig. 13, through the openings in the 
pieces of insulation, alternate pieces 
being put through the openings from 
opposite sides. The distance from out- 
side to outside of the pieces of insula- 
tion should be exactly the same as the 
length of the vertical portion of the T- 
shaped pieces forming the core, or 3 in. 

Cut from some soft wood four pieces 
having cross sections whose dimen- 
sions correspond to those given in Fig. 
15, and of such a length that they will 
just slip down between the two pieces 
of insulation. These pieces should now 
be placed on the four sides of the iron 
core and covered with several layers of 
heavy insulating cloth. Each layer of 
the cloth should be shellacked as it is 
put on, which will increase the insula- 
tion and at the same time help in hold- 
ing the wooden pieces in place. You 
are now ready to start winding the 
transformer. 

The secondary, which is the low- 
voltage side in this case, as you are 
using the transformer to reduce or step 
down the voltage, will have the smaller 
number of turns, and larger wire 
should be used in winding it than in 
the primary, as it will carry a larger 
current. On account of the secondary 





















T 




•"a"* 



A 


— J'^ 




B 


-i'- 




-1- 


"Kj 








iS 




J 


■ •?."' 






'-i-t 




35" 


I 






. 






J 


n^ 


c 




_ 






. ( 




XMO 

1 






.J 

-.(Vl 

1 




U1.C0 

1 


Fis 


.11- 


Comp 
Cir 


lete^ 
:uit 


/lagn 


e 


tic 




Fig. 1 


2 — 


Outer Portion of the Mag 
netic Circuit 




F 


ig. 13 


— Inner Portion of the 
Magnetic Circuit 



all the edges of the pieces are perfectly 
smooth and that they are all of the 
same size ; then give each one a coat of 
very thin shellac. 



being of larger wire, it will be placed on 
the core first. For this winding you 
will need a small quantity of No. 26 B. 
& S. gau 



e, single cotton-covered wire. 



354 



Drill a small hole through one of the 
insulating washers, down close to the 
cloth covering the core, being careful 
at the same time to keep the hole as far 



/ " " 


"^ 




•a 








t—3" 




15 1 


4 




9" 




-o^ 


~I6 


, 




4 






Fig. 14 — Insulating 'Washer Fig. 15— Wood Filler 

from the metal part of the core as pos- 
sible. Pass the end of a short piece of 
No. 18 or 20 B. & S. gauge, double 
cotton-covered wire through this open- 
ing and solder it to the end of the No. 
26 wire. Insulate the joint with a piece 
of paraffin paper or cloth, and bind the 
piece of heavy wire to the core of the 
transformer with a piece of linen 
thread. 

Now wind the No. 26 wire on the 
core as evenly as possible, to within 
about 1/8 in. of the end of the spool. 
Place over the first layer two layers of 
paraffin paper and wind on a second 
layer of wire. Three layers should 
give you the required number of turns 
in the secondary winding and a resist- 
ance of approximately sy^ ohms. The 
end of the secondary winding should 
be terminated in the same way as the 
winding was started. Outside of the 
completed secondary winding place at 
least six layers of paraffin paper, or 
several layers of insulating cloth. The 
paraffin paper used should be approxi- 
mately five mills in thickness. You 
can make your own paraffin paper by 
taking a good quality of writing paper 
about two mills thick and dipping it 
into some hot paraffin, then hanging it 
up by one edge to drain. 

The primary winding is to be made 
from No. 34 B. & S. gauge, single silk- 
covered copper wire. The inside end 
of this winding should be started in 
the same way as the secondary, but at 
the end opposite to the one where the 
secondary terminated. Wind about 



240 turns on each layer and place one 
layer of paraffin paper between each 
layer of wire. The primary winding 
should have at least 13 layers, and the 
outside end should be terminated as 
the inside end. Outside of the com- 
pleted windings, place several layers of 
insulating cloth to serve as an insula- 
tion, and at the same time provide a 
mechanical protection for the windings. 

The outside part of the magnetic 
circuit can now be put in place. When 
the U-shaped pieces are all in place, 
the magnetic circuit will have the form 
and dimensions shown in Fig. 11. A 
clamp should now be made for each 
end of the transformer, to hold the 
pieces forming the magnetic circuit to- 
gether, and at the same time give an 
easy means of mounting the trans- 
former. Cut from a piece of sheet 
iron, about -j^iy in. in thickness, two 
pieces whose dimensions correspond to 
those given in Fig. 16, and two pieces 
whose dimensions correspond to those 
given in Fig. 17. Drill the holes in 
these pieces as indicated, and bend the 
larger ones into the form shown in Fig. 
18. These pieces can now be clamped 
across the ends of the transformer with 
small bolts, as shown in Fig. 19. 

A box should now be made from 
sheet iron to hold the transformer. 
The box should be of such dimensions 
that it will be at least % in. from the 
transformer at all points. This box 
should be provided with a cover that 
can be easily removed. 

Now mount the transformer in the 
box by means of small bolts, that pass 
through the holes in the supports and 
holes in the bottom of the box. Two 
binding-posts can now be mounted on 
one end of the box, and insulated from 
it, to serve as terminals for the sec- 
ondary winding. Two pieces of 
stranded No. 14 B. & S. gauge, rubber- 
covered copper wire should now be 
soldered to the terminals of the 
primary circuit and passed out through 
insulating bushings mounted in holes 
cut in the end of the box opposite to 
the one upon which the binding-posts 
were mounted. These heavy wires 
should be firmlv fastened to the iron 



355 



part of the transformer inside the box, 
so that any outside strain placed upon 
them will not, in time, break them loose 
from the smaller wires. Be sure to 



wiring for lights, and connected to the 
heavy wires, or primary circuit. The 
binding-posts, or secondary winding 
should be connected to the bell circuit 



-3i- 



SMALL BOLTS - 




Fig. 15 — Upper Clamping 
Pieces 



Fig. 17 — Lower Clamping Pieces Fig. 18 — Shape 
and Mounting Supports of Support 



Fig. 19 — Method of Clamping 
Transformer Together 



insulate all joints and wires well inside 
the box. 

A circuit can now be run from a 110- 
volt lighting or power circuit, observ- 
ing the same rules as though you were 



and the transformer is complete and 
ready to operate. You may have to 
change the adjustment of the bells, 
but after a little adjustment they will 
operate quite satisfactorily. 



^ 



Mirror Hinged to Window Casing 

A shaving mirror is usually placed 
on a window sash to avoid shadows as 
much as possible. This is very incon- 
venient and 
««MHi U many times the 
o mirror is broken 

by a fall. A 
good way to 
avoid shadows 
and have the 
mirror handy is 
to hinge it to 
the window cas- 
ing. This can be 
done with screw- 
eyes, A, and screwhooks, B. The 
screweyes are turned into the frame of 
the mirror and the screwhooks into the 
window casing. Two screwhooks can 
also be turned into the casing on the 
opposite side of the window, if desired, 
so that the mirror can be used on either 
side. — Contributed by James D. Mc- 
Kenna, New Britain, Conn. 





A Cleaning Bath for Silverware 

A good way to clean silverware of 
all coloring by eggs or other substances 
is to place the .«,ilver articles in a kettle 
of boiling water containing a few 
pieces of zinc, An electrolytic action 



is produced by the zinc, water and sil- 
ver which decomposes the sulphides 
on the silver and leaves it well cleaned. 
No silver is taken away by this method. 
— Contributed by Loren Ward, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 



To Prevent Poultry Water from 
Freezing 

The method shown in the sketch is 
used by me in cold weather to keep the 
drinking water for the poultry from 
freezing. The device consists of a part 
of a barrel inverted and set over the 
fountain, and a tubular lantern. A 
small opening is cut in one side of the 




Lantern and Fountain in Half Barrel 

barrel through which the fowl can 
reach the water. — Contributed by P. 
C. Fish, Kansas City, Mo. 



356 



How to Make a Letter Scale 

A reliable letter scale that can l)e eas- 
ily made is shown in the sketch. It 
consists of a wide-neck bottle filled 
with water into 
which the weighing 
device is inserted. 
This latter part is 
made of a light piece 
of wood weighted on 
the lower end, to 
keep it in a stable, 
upright position, and 
a piece of cardboard 
is tacked to the 
other. The wood is 
placed in the water, 
and known weights 
are used on the card- 
board while calibrating. 

The first line is marked at the water 
level when there is no weight on the 
cardboard, and then a known weight 
placed on the top and another mark 
made at the water level, and so on, un- 
til a sufficient number of %-oz. and 
ounce-divisions have been marked. 
The wood should be well coated with 
shellac varnish before it is placed in 
the water. — Contributed by Francis 
Chetlain, Chicago. 




Summer Dish Washing 

A labor-saving method in dish wash- 
ing for a summer day is as follows: 
Construct a substantial wood frame 
and cover it with galvanized wire 
mesh. Attach legs and put it in a con- 
venient place on the back porch. Wash 
the dishes on one end. and wipe the 
silverware dry. At the outer end 
spread a towel over the wire and place 
the dishes turned down upon it to dry, 
and cover them with another towel. — 
Contributed by L. Alberta Norrell, 
Tifton, Ga. 



Nozzle Angle for Lawn Sprinkling 

\\'here there is no prop or water 
sprinkler at hand for tilting the nozzle 
of a hose, start 
to tie a knot in 
the hose, as 
shown in the 
sketch, but do 
not draw it up 
tightly. The 
hose nozzle can 

be tilted to any angle in this manner. 
— Contributed by S. J. Eddy, Portland, 
Oregon. 




Simple Methods of Connecting Call Bells 



The following diagrams will indi- 
cate a few of the various methods that 
may be employed in connecting up 
electric bells for different purposes, A, 
B and C representing the push buttons; 
D, the bells ; E, the batteries, and G, 
the ground. The simplest possible 
connection is shown in Fig. 1, the bell 



in which the bell, battery, and push 
button are placed, so long as there is a 
complete circuit when the push but- 
ton is pressed. One of the wires in 
this circuit may be done away with by 
completing the circuit through the 
ground, as shown in Fig. 2. Connect- 
ing a bell as shown in this dia2:ram 



Hilh 




Fig. 2 _ 

■Wiring Diagrams for a Single Bell 




m 



j^ 



D, battery E, and push button A, are 
all connected in series. The operation 
of the bell is independent of the order 



often results in quite a saving of wire. 
The proper connections for operat- 
ing one bell from either of two push 



357 



buttons, A or B, is shown in Fig. 3. 
Two bells, D, operated from a single 
push button, C, are connected as shown 



In the circuits shown in Figs. 7 and 8, 
only one battery is needed. 

The connections of a two-wire me- 




B C0 



rjG.5 

Wiring Diagram for T%vo or More Bells 



in Fig. 4. The two bells, D, are shown 
connected in parallel, which requires 
more wire than if they were connected 
in series. If they be connected in ser- 
ies, one or the other should have its 
make-and-break contact closed. The 
bell whose circuit remains unchanged 
will intercept the current for the other 
bell in series with it. The operating 
of the bells is more satisfactory, how- 
ever, when they are in parallel, and 
each taking current from the battery 
independent of the other. 

The diagram, Fig. 5, shows the 
proper connections for operating two 
bells from two independent push but- 
tons, each push button operating a par- 
ticular bell. Any number of bells 
operated from any number of push 
buttons, all of the bells being rung 
from any one of the push buttons, are 
connected as shown in Fig. 6. Such 
a circuit can be used as a fire alarm or 
time call in a factory, the operation of 
the circuit being controlled from any 
one of a number of different points. 

The proper connections for what is 
called a return-call circuit is shown in 
Fig. 7. The circuit is so arranged that 
the bell at one end is controlled by 
the push button at the other end. Such 



tallic return-call circuit are shown in 
Fig. 9. A special push button must be 
used in this circuit, and in this case 
two batteries are used instead of one, 
as in Figs. 7 and 8. This circuit may 
be changed to a ground return-call 
circuit by using the earth as a con- 
ductor instead of either wire. There 
are, of course, numerous other meth- 
ods that may be used in connecting 
call bells, but the connections shown 
in the diagrams are perhaps the most 
common. 



Refrigerator for Dry and Warm 
Climates 

Set a bowl containing butter, cream 
or fruit in a saucer and cover the bowl 
with a moistened napkin, allowing the 
edges to hang in a larger saucer tilled 
with water, and place the whole in 
the air out of the sun's rays. The arti- 
cle to be kept cool may also be placed 
in a pan with an earthenware crock 
turned over it and covered with a 
small towel or cloth, the edges of 
which extend into another outer pan 
partly filled with water. 

The method can be applied on a 
larger scale by using a shallow gal- 





Fis 7 



Fis.8 ■ G F10.9 

Wiring Diagrams for Return-Call Bells 

a circuit can be used in transmitting vanized pan which will contain many 
signals in either direction. A ground articles and more water. This man- 
return-call circuit is shown in Fig. 8. ner of cooling is especially adapted to 



358 



camping parties and will prevent 
sloppy butter, sour milk and spoiling 
fruit. The articles are also kept free 
from ants and flies. — Contributed by 
C. B. Hosford, Swansea, Ariz. 



Pencil-Sharpening Guide 

The sketch shows how a guide for 
making a true point on a lead pencil 
may be made of a block of wood. The 
hole, which should be 
large enough to allow 
the pencil to be turned 
easily, is bored at the 
proper angle to form 
the desired point on 
the pencil. The long 
side of the block 
serves as a guide for 
the knife blade, while 
the projection at the 
bottom acts as a 
stop. The guide 
insures an even 
point and is eas- 
ily manipulated. It is held in the palm 
of the left hand and the pencil is turned 
with the thumb and forefinger, while 
the knife is held against the face of the 
block, cutting edge downward, and 
worked up and down with the right 
hand. 




Homemade Hinges 
When making a chicken house re- 



cently I had 
hinges. When 



forgotten to procure 
searching the "junk" 
box I found 
some little metal 
brackets such as 
used for holding 
spring roller 
shades. Attach- 
ing these as 
shown, I made 
a good substi- 
tute hinge. A 
pair of the 
brackets having 
no slots were 
selected. A 2^2" 
in. wire nail with a washer was placed 




in the hole and driven into the top of 
the door, 1 in. from its back edge. The 
other bracket was placed on the bot- 
tom of the door in a similar manner. 
The door was placed in an open posi- 
tion and the prongs of the brackets 
were nailed to the door post. The bot- 
tom bracket may also be nailed to the 
floor and the top one to the lintel. — 
Contributed by Robert Smith, E. 
Burnaby, B. C. 



Skimmer for Bottled Milk 

The cream that rises on the milk in 
an ordinary milk bottle cannot be re- 
moved easily. Where a small family 
desires to use the 
cream for coffee, the 
skimmer shown in 
the sketch is very 
handy. 

The cone is made 
of metal — tin, brass 
or copper — w h i c h 
can be nickelplated, 
the seam being 
soldered. The cone 
is 2 in. deep with a 
diameter at the top 
of 1% in. A handle 
can be made of a 
discarded sugar or teaspoon, which is 
soldered to the cone. Insert the cone 
in the bottle far enough for the cream 
to flow into it and then withdraw. 
Cream will gather about ,'i in. deep on 
rich milk. The milk can be used for 
cooking. A piece of wire can be used 
for a handle instead of the spoon. — 
Contributed by Victor Labadie, Dallas, 
Texas. 




How to Preserve Putty 

Having some putty left over after a 
job of glazing and wishing to keep it 
without its becoming dried up, I tried 
wrapping it in paraffin paper such as 
used to wrap butter. I found this 
method to be a decided success, the 
oil being prevented from drying out. 
— Contributed by Levi R. Markwood, 
Fairview, Pa. 



359 




How to Build a Simple Electric Motor 



By A. G. McCLURE 



An exceedingly simple and inexpen- 
sive motor that may be used in operat- 
ing small toys can be constructed as 
follows : First procure a good per- 
manent magnet, about 5 in. long and 
about 114' in. between the inside edges 
at the open end. This magnet should 
be at least % in. thick, and if it can- 
not be had in one piece, two or more 
may be placed side by side, like poles 
being placed together. The writer 
was unable to procure ready-made 
magnets, so one was formed and mag- 
netized. Obtain a piece of tungsten 
or some other good-grade steel, 14 in. 
by y^ in., and about 11 in. long. Bend 
this piece into the form of a U, with 
the inner edges 1% in. apart. Square 
off both ends and drill two small holes 
in the outside surface of each end, at 
AA, about % in. from the end. Tap 
these holes for small machine screws. 
Drill the hole B with a small drill, 
about jV i"-. in the center of the lower 
portion of the U and ream it out. The 
piece should now be clamped with a 
good pair of blacksmith's tongs, — a 
block of iron being placed between the 
ends to keep the pressure of the tongs 
from drawing them together — heated 
to a cherry red and then plunged into 
a bath of oil. It can then be mag- 
netized by placing it in contact with a 
permanent magnet. 

Next obtain a piece of %-in. brass, 
about y2 in. wide and 5I/2 in. long. 
Drill two holes in each end of the 
piece to match those drilled in the 
ends of the magnet, also one in the 
center, and tap it for a %-in. machine 
screw. Now bend this piece into the 



form shown. Provide a machine 
screw, S, for the hole C and drill a small 
tapered hole in the end of the screw. 

Obtain a small quantity of soft sheet 
iron and cut a sufficient number of 
pieces similar to that shown at D to 
make a pile V2 '". high. Cut two 




Detail of Armature Laminations, and Completed Parts 
Assembled, but without Armature Windings 

pieces of the same size from some 
thin sheet brass. Now place all of 
these pieces in a pile, the brass pieces 
being on the outside, and clamp them 
securely, then drill the two small holes, 
E and F. Place two small copper riv- 
ets in these holes and rivet the heads 
down before removing the clamp. 
Drill a Vs-in. hole, G, through this 
piece, the armature, for the shaft to 
pass through. Procure a piece of %- 
in. steel rod, about G in. long. Sharpen 
one end so that it will enter the hole 
B, then cut the other end off and 
sharpen it so that it will enter the 
opening made in the end of the screw S. 
The armature may now be soldered to 
this shaft, its left-hand surface being 
flush with the ends of the magnet. 

A small commutator, H, should now 
be made as follows: Obtain a piece of 
thin brass tubing about % in. in diam- 



360 



etcr. Turn down a piece of hard rub- 
ber so that the tube will fit tightly on 
it. Drill a hole in this piece of rub- 
ber of such a size that it will have to 
be forced on the steel shaft. Saw two 
longitudinal slots in the brass tube 
diametrically opposite each other and 
then bind these two pieces in place on 
the piece of rubber with some heavy 
linen thread wrapped around each end. 
The armature is now ready to wind. 
Get a small quantity of No. 23 gauge 
cotton-covered wire, solder one end to 
one of the segments of the commuta- 
tor, then wind one end of the armature 
full and cross over and wind the other 
end full, soldering the end of the wire 
to the second commutator segment. 
Make sure to wind both ends of the 
armature in the same direction so the 
current in both parts of the winding 
produces magnetizing effects in the 
same direction. Insulate the winding 
from the core and the different layers 
from each other with a good quality 
of thin writing paper. 

Two small brushes should now be 
made from some thin spring brass and 
mounted on the brass piece as shown. 
These brushes should be insulated 
from the piece of brass and two small 
binding posts should be provided for 
making connections to them. The po- 
sition of the commutator and brushes 
should be such that the brushes move 
from one segment to the other when 
the ends of the armature are directly 
in line with the ends of the permanent 
magnet. 

A small pulley should be mounted 
upon the shaft to be used in transmit- 
ting the power. The whole device 
may be mounted in a horizontal posi- 
tion on a wooden base as shown, and 
the motor is complete. 



How to Make a Humidity Indicator 

A simple weather indicator that 
may be used in determining the con- 
dition of the atmosphere may be made 
as follows : Dress a small figure, in 
the form of a doll, with a piece of 
cloth, previously dipped in the fol- 
lowing solution: Chloride of cobalt, 



30 parts by weight ; sodium chloride, 
15 parts; gum arable, TVo parts; cal- 
cium chloride, 4^2 parts, and water, 
400 parts. This cloth will change 
color as the amount of moisture in 
the atmosphere changes, the change 
being due to the cobalt salt, which, in 
dry air, is lavender blue. As the mois- 
ture in the atmosphere increases, the 
color changes first to bluish red, then 
light red and finally pink, according 
to the amount of moisture. With a 
decrease in moisture, the colors change 
in the reverse order to that given 
above, and the blue color returns when 
the air becomes dry. 



The "Q" Trick 

Lay out the form of the capital let- 
ter O with coins on a table and ask 
someone in the audience to select a 
number and then 
ask that person ^ ^ ^ 

to count up ^ 
from one until © 

the number is B@ 
reached, begin- ^^ 

ning at A and ® ^ 

stopping on the © @ 

circle, for in- ^ 

stance at B, then @ 

counting back 
again beginning *^' 

with one, but, a® 

instead of count- 
ing on the tail, pass it and go around 
the circle, say, to C. The performer 
gives these instructions to the person 
doing the counting. The one selecting 
the number must not tell the per- 
former what the number is, and the 
latter is to leave the room while the 
counting proceeds. The performer, 
before leaving the room, is to tell 
which coin will be the last one 
counted. 

Take, for example, the number 7. 
Counting from A to B there are just 
7 coins and counting back the last 
number or 7 will be at C. Try 9 for 
the number and the last one counted 
will also be C. The number of coins 
in the tail represents the number of 
coins in the circle from the intersec- 



361 



tion of the tail and circle to the last 
number counted. For instance, the 
sketch shows 4 coins in the tail, there- 
fore the last coin counted in the circle 
will be at C or the fourth coin from 
the intersection of the tail and circle. 
By slipping another coin in the tail 
the location of the last coin counted 
is changed, thereby eliminating any 
chance of exposing the trick by locat- 
ing the same coin in the circle every 
time. This can be done secretly with- 
out being noticed. 



To Keep Ants Away From Food 

Suspend a shelf, breadbox or rack 
with wire around which is tied a piece 
of cotton cloth, saturated with a min- 
eral oil. The ants will not cross the 
oil-soaked cloth. 

Some strong wire hooks attached to 
the rack or shelf answer well to hang 
small articles on, such as bacon, bags 
of sugar, syrup cans, etc. — Contributed 
by C. B. Hosford, Swansea, Ariz. 



Vaulting-Pole Holder 

An adjusting device for a vaulting 
pole that can be easily fixed at any 
point on a round pole by using a 
wedge and ring, is shown in the 
sketch. The wedge carries a pin on 
which to place the cross pole. The 




The Ring on the Upright, 
Held in Position by the 
^Vedge, Which in Turn 
Carries the Pole en the 
Pin 



manner of using this device as well as 
its construction is clearly indicated. 
— Contributed by Sterling R. Speirs, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



Flying Model Aeroplane for a Display 

A novelty for a window display is 
made of a model aeroplane flying by 
its own power. To control the direc- 
tion and make the model fly in a circle 





Detail of Parts Showing AVire Connections and Model 
in Flight around the Central Axis 

it is fastened to a long stick or beam 
which is pivoted in the center. The 
one shown was pivoted to a roller- 
skate wheel which in turn was fast- 
ened to a metal standard. The beam 
was attached to the skate wheel with 
two small bolts which were insulated 
and carried two brushes as com- 
mutator contacts. 

The commutator rings were made 
of heavy brass strips, fastened to a 
round piece of wood which was at- 
tached to the metal standard. The 
wires from the current supply were 
connected to the commutator rings. 
From the brushes connecting wires 
were carried along the beam to the 
aeroplane motor which was a small 
battery motor with propeller. 

The opposite end of the beam was 
weighted to balance it. The first 
sketch shows the parts and the man- 
ner of making the connections. The 
aeroplane is driven in a circular path 
by its own power in a realistic 
manner. 



862 



An Electric Time Light 




Althou.s^h the modern alarm clock is 
a wonderfully effective piece of mech- 
anism, it is, to say the least, very ab- 
rupt in its manner. It seldom con- 
fines its efforts to 
the chamber of 
its owner, but 
spreads its dis- 
turbance all over 
the building. It 
is very easy for a 
person to arise 
early in the sum- 
mer and no 
greater difficulty 
should be experi- 
enced in winter, if 
the bedroom is 
brightly lighted 
at the proper 
hour. To do this 
simply and automatically became the 
prol)lem. 

The first thought was to obtain one 
of those clock-actuated electric-light 
switches, such as the stores use, but 
this would not do, because it meant 
some unsightly wiring around the 
room. It was then remembered how, 
in the course of some experiments, an 
ordinary incandescent light was op- 
erated through a piece of No. 3G gauge 
wire without any sign of heating. If. 
then, a wire only 1/200 in. in diameter 
were of ample carrying capacity, surely 
a dollar watch would be sufficient to 
make the connection. Such being the 
case, the whole mechanism could 
readily be attached to the drop cord of 
a lamp directly above the socket, thus 
obviating any additional wiring. This 
all proved to be true, and the whole 
was made and attached in the course 
of a couple of hours. 

While one might feel enthusiastic 
about this small and easily contrived 
affair, it is scarcely to be presumed 
that it would operate so effectively on 
one who had spent the larger part of 
the night tripping the "light fantastic," 
or in undue conviviality. An ordinary 
IG-cp. globe has thus far operated per- 
fectly, and a 40-watt tungsten lamp 



would, if not too- far away, surely 
awaken the hardest sleeper of sober 
habits. 

The base of the mechanism is a small 
piece of %-in. hard wood, upon which 
is fastened a small brass bracket, A, 
bent so as to hold the watch from 
slipping down. A small clip, B, was 
then arranged so as to grip the neck 
of the watch after its lower edge had 
been placed against A, and a small 
brad at either side prevented lateral 
movement. In this way the watch was 
held firmly, yet in a manner that would 
permit its being taken out instantly 
when necessary. The glass and min- 
ute hand were removed. The brass 
bolt from an exhausted dry cell was 
placed at C, so as to clamp a small cop- 
per washer to which was soldered a 
narrow strip of copper, D, about y^ in. 
wide and cut from a leaf of an old 
dynamo brush. This strip is arranged 
so as to wipe the hour hand as it 
travels past, but being so thin, it has 
no appreciable effect on the time keep- 
ing. As illustrated, the device is set 
for six o'clock, but by loosening the 
nut C an hour's adjustment either way 
may be had. It is a very simple mat- 
ter, however, to arrange the device so it 
will operate at any hour. In connect- 
ing up, one end of the drop cord is 
removed from the socket and attached 
to A, which throws the current through 
the watch, thence along the hand and 
down D to C, from where it is car- 
ried by a short piece of wire to the 
socket again. As there are so many 
circuits through the watch, the small 
current required for one light does not 
affect it in any way. Thus far, no 
trouble has been experienced in mak- 
ing this delicate connection with 110 
volts, but if any should develop, the 
contacts may be tipped with the small 
pieces of platinum taken from a 
burned-out globe. 



CThe meat of a white English walnut 
may be easily removed by heating the 
nut in an oven or on top of a stove, 
then using a knife to pry the shell open. 



365 



possible to make it. The compartment 
must not be too wide, for the resulting 
small width of the" front part of the 
drawer might then arouse suspicion. 
On the lower side of the secret com- 
partment a strip of wood, A, should be 
attached with a screw, as shown in 
Fig. 1, allowing sufficient looseness so 
the strip may be turned end for end 
when necessary. With the strip set as 
shown, it will strike the front side B 
of the table when the drawer is pulled 
out, leaving the secret compartment 
still hidden. In order to expose this, it 
will be necessary to turn the strip, as 
shown in Fig. 2, when the drawer can 
be pulled out to its full length. 

It being necessary that the strip A be 
as long as the secret compartment is 
wide, to fully expose this, there may be 
cases where the drawer is not wide 
enough to allow the strip A to turn 
around. In that case the strip can be 
hinged to the back of the drawer as 
shown in Fig. 3. When it is hanging 
down, as shown by the dotted outline, 
the drawer may be pulled out to its full 
extent. When it is desired to lock the 
secret compartment, the hinged strip 
must be swung up in position, and fas- 
tened. An ordinary thumbscrew or eye 
can be used which, by a turn or two, 
will either release it or fasten it in 
place. — Contributed by Paul Durst, De- 
troit, Mich. 



Inflating Handballs 

When handballs become "dead," or 
no longer bounce freely, they may fre- 
quently be restored by inflating them 
with air. This can be done by means 
of a bulb attached to a hypodermic 
needle. The needle must be inserted 
through the soft plug which every in- 
flated ball has, and which can be dis- 
covered by pressure. After the ball is 
inflated and the needle extracted, the 
soft rubber closes around the fine hole, 
preventing the escape of the air. If a 
leak is found, which allows the air to 
escape too rapidly, a repair can be 
made with a single-tube tire outfit. — 
Contributed by A. B. Wegener, Cam- 
den, N. J. 



A Garden-Bed Scarecrow 

A very neat and successful scare- 
crow for garden beds can be made as 
follows : A number of corks are pro- 




The Fluttering Feathers Attached to the String with 
Corks Scare the Birds Away 

cured, and a feather is stuck in each 
end of them, as shown. These are tied 
to a string, spacing them from 1 to 3 
ft. apart, and the string is hung over 
the beds. The slightest breeze will 
keep them fluttering, and no bird will 
come to rest on the beds. — Contributed 
by M. T. Canary, Chicago. 



Measuring the Length of Wire Wound 
on a Spool 

When winding magnet spools on a 
lathe, the exact amount of wire used 
can be easily determined by means of 
the device shown in the illustration. 
The large reel from which the wire is 
obtained is conveniently placed on a 



366 



loose mandrel, or rod, near the lathe, 
and in line with the spool which is to be 
wound. A grooved idler wheel, the ex- 




LATHE BED 
Measuring the Length of Wire on a Spool with the 
Use of an Idler and Counter 

act diameter of which is known, is sup- 
ported between the spool and wire reel 
so it may freely revolve ; the number of 
its revolutions should be obtained, au- 
tomatically, by a revolution counter. 
When using the device, the wire from 
the reel is placed once around the idler 
to insure the necessary grip to prevent 
it from sliding; then it is led to the 
spool. The exact diameter of the idler 
being known and the number of revolu- 
tions indicated, the true length of the 
wire wound on the spools can be easily 
determined by the following formula: 
Length of wire on spool in feet equals 
circumference of idler in feet times 
number of revolutions of idler. — Con- 
tributed by C. Swayne, St. Louis, Mo. 



Homemade Lawn Sprinkler 

With a short length of old hose, a 
serviceable lawn sprinkler can be 
quickly and easily made. One end is 
provided with a regular coupling for 
connecting it to the line of good hose. 
The other end is turned up for several 
inches, and securely wired to the main 






part, thereby shutting ofT any flow 
through it. Several cuts are made into 
it, about halfway across and 6 in. apart. 
If the water is forced in, the only means 
of escape will be through the slots, 
which_ will produce fine sprays, giving 
as good service as a manufactured 
sprinkler. — Contributed by A. B. Shaw, 
N. Dartmouth, Mass. 



Homemade Toy Bank 

The little bank illustrated is not ex- 
actly burglar-proof, but once put to- 
gether it cannot be opened except by 
the destruction of one of the units of 
which it is composed. It requires but 
little skill to make, and would be a good 
problem for manual training, as it 
oft'ers an excellent opportunity for 
teaching certain rudiments of wood- 
working by the application method. 



BEVEL BETWEEN 
THESE POINTS 






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r- 


01 


= 


~ 


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- 


~ 



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■zi 



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The Slots Cut in the Hose will Produce a Very 
Fine Spray of Water 



Six Pieces of Wood as They are Put Together to 
Form a Toy Bank 

In its construction, six pieces of hard 
wood, of the dimensions shown in the 
sketch, are required. White wood will 
do if there is no hard wood at hand. 
The coin slot is l^ in. wide by II/4 in. 
long, and is cut in only one piece. 

No difficulty will be experienced in 
putting the first five pieces together, 
but the sixth, or top, piece, shown in 
the sketch, will not go in, because the 
bottom edge of the raised side will 
strike the inside of the piece to the 
right. By beveling this edge with a 
chisel from top to bottom between the 
dadoes, or grooves, it can be forced 
down quite a distance and sprung in 
place by placing a block of wood on 
the high side and striking it a sharp 
blow with a heavy hammer. — Con- 
tributed by J. A. Shelly, Brooklyn, 
New York. 



367 

An Electric Anemometer 

By Wm. H. DETTMAN 



The construction of this instrument 
is so simple that any amateur can 
make one, and if accurate caHbrations 
are desired, these can be marked by 
comparison with a standard anemom- 
eter, while both are placed in the 
wind. 

The Indicator 

The case of the indicator is built of 
thin wood — the material of an old 
cigar box will do — 9 in. long, 6 in. wide 
and IVi; in. deep. If cigar-box ma- 
terial is used, it must first be soaked 
in warm water to remove the paper. 
If a cover is to be used on the bo.x, a 
slot, on an arc of a circle, must be cut 
through it to show the scale beneath. 
The arc is determined by the length of 
the needle from a center over the axis 
on which the needle swings. When 
the box is completed, smooth up the 
outside surface with fine sandpaper 
and give it a coat of stain. 

The core of the magnet is made by 
winding several layers of bond paper 
around a pencil of sufficient size to 
make an inside diameter of slightly 
over 14 in-, and a tube 2 in. long. Iiach 
layer of the paper is glued to the pre- 
ceding layer. 

Two flanges or disks are attached to 
the tube to form a spool for the wire. 
The disks are cut from thin wood, I14 
in. square, and a hole bored through 
their centers so that each will fit on 
the tube tightly. One of them is glued 
to one end of the tube and the other 
fastened at a point % in. from the op- 
posite end. The space between the 
disks is filled with seven layers of No. 
28 gauge insulated magnet wire, allow- 
ing sufficient ends of the wire to pro- 
ject for connections. The finished coil 
is located in the box, as shown at A, 
Fig. 1. 

The core for the coil is cut from a 
piece of Vi-'m. iron rod