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r J o ^ 

®lje ^rabf0l:^ S^ntiquatrij* 



^rHbtorb Jntmnarg. 



Bradfora i>l$torlcdl and Jltitiquarlati 



Edited hy Charles A. Fedm-er, L.C.P. 

beadford : 
Pbinted fok the Sooibtt. 


^-Ba^ 2.^'] 

JUNIS 1922"^ 

^^/U^d^ .^PCCA-Cj(^ 








Thomas Thornton Empsall : In Memoriam (with Portrait). 

By W. Gudworth ... ... ... ... 1 

Ancient Monastic Properties in the Neighbourhood of Brad- 
ford. By T. T. Empsall ... ... ... ... 12 

West Riding Cartulary ... ... ...26, 255, 384, 541 

Shibden Dale, and Sir Thomas Browne's Religio Medici. By 

Bryan Dais ... ... ... ... ... 45 

The Paper Hall, Bradford. By H. E. Wroot ... ... 58 

The Burial Registers of the Bradford Parish Church. Tran- 

scribed by T, T. Empsall ... ... 67, 159, 313, 403, 515 

The Genesis of English Surnames. By Oh. A. Federer ... 81 
List of Vicars, Rectors, and Testamentary Burials in Brad- 
ford, from 1281 to 1667. By John Torre ... ... 99 

Excursion Notes : Bardsey and Collingham. By Gh. A. 

ifeoerer ..• ... ... ... ... iu«5 

Assessment for Raising a Cavalry Force in Ilorton in 1798 111 

The Seebohm Family. By Wm. Cudworth ... ... 113 

Land Assessment, Morley Division, in the year 1692-3 ... 122 

Prehistoric Craven. By Ernest E. Speight ... ... 134 

Ancient Eccleshill. By J. B or sf all Turner ... ... 137 

Notes on the Early History of the Leeds and Liverpool 

Canal. By H. F, Killick ... ... ... ... 169 

The Roman Road from Mancunium to Isurium. By J. N. 

lytCnOns ... ... ... ... ... ^o«f 

British Diplomacy during the Reign of Terror in France : 

William Wickham, of Cottingley. By Gh. A, Federer 272 
Baildon Moor and its Antiquities : Primitive Iron and Pottery 

Works. By Wm. Cudworth ... ... ... 306 

Bramhope Chapel. By Bryan Dale ... ... ... 325 

Roman Yorkshire. Hy J. N. Dickons ... ••• ... 335 

Almondbury. By Mrs. E. Armitage ... ... ... 396 

Cromwell in Yorkshire. By Bryan Dale ... ... 415 

Ministers of Parish Churches in the West Riding during the 

Puritan Revolution. By Bryan Dale ... ... 431 

Disappearance of Ancient Bradford Landmarks. By Gh, A, 

JP edcTuT ... ... ... ... ... ^^£ 

Non-Parochial Registers in Yorkshire. By Bryan Dale ... 447 

Bradford Parish Churchwardens' Accounts. By H, E, Wroot 470 
The Tempest Family at Bowling Hall. By Mrs. E, B. 

X. VTftVoOC .*• ..• •.• •*• ... *T«/X 

Boiling Hall. By Ch A. Fede/er ... ... .., 512 

Whitby in Morocco. By R. T. Gaskin... ... ... 527 

A Letter to the Rev. E. Baldwyn. By John Sturges ... 538 

Index Nominum. By Ch. A. Federer ... 




>/rortrait of the late Thoiua8 Thornton Enipsall 

vT^ie Paper Ilall, Bradford, in 1817 
vHigh Street, Bradford, in 1817 
vl^ortrait of Benjamin ISeebohni 
^Plan of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal ... 
v^klap of the Roman Road from Littleborough to 
^I'ortion of Roman Road over Blackstone Edge 
-^Norman Jug, found at Hope Hill, Baildon 
v^ramhope Hall 
•iOyneley Chapel, Bramhope 
y/ „ North-East Comer of Interior 

^ „ Interior, looking East ... 

n/ „ Interior, looking West 

«^1^ap of Roman Yorkshire 
N/Roman Milestone, found at Greta Bridge 
,/Roman Altar, found at Doncaster 
y^ „ found at York ... 

y „ found at Castleford 

^/^ Roman Road over Bramham Moor 
V Votive Tablet, found at Malton 
^ Roman Inscription, found at York 
y/^onument of Roman Standard-bearer, found at 
/Roman Memorial Tablet, found at York... 
^/^ Roman Sarcophagus, found at York 
*^ Inscription to Serapis, found at York 
»/^ithraic Tablet, found at York 
^Statue of Mars 
t/Bollinff Hall, South-East Front 
^ „ VV estern Tower ... 

Mantel in the Ghost Chamber 
North- West Front 
Ancient Doorknocker 
Sixteenth Century Panel Painting 

•Plan of the Mole at Tangier 





... Oo 





. • . 


Aldborough 239 









































. • • 


»f • 

















The Genesis of English Surnames 

C. A. Federeb, L.C.P. 81 

Zist of Vicars, Rectors and Testamentary BuriaU in Bradford 

/rom 128 Wo 1667 .. John Tohhe 99 

Excursion Notes : Bardsey and Collinykam C. A. Federeb, L.C.P. 103 

Assessment for raising a Force of Cavalry in Horlon, m 1798 . . m 

Thomas Thornton Empsall: In Mtmoriam frustrated J . ^^^^ 

William Cudwobth 1 

Ancient Mofiastic Properties in the neighbourhood of Bradford 

T. T. Empsall 12 

West Riding Cartulari, .. C A. Fkdereb. L.C.P. 26 

Shlbden DaU, and Sir Thomaa Browne'* " Religio Medici" 

Bbtaw Daw, M.A. 45 

ne Paper Hall, Bradford (two illmtratiom) Hekbkbt E. Wboot 58 

Burial Register of Bradford Pariih Church T. T. Empsall 67 J 







NEW SERIES, (Nos. 1 to 5), OF THE 

(Compiled bt the Editob.) 

Abbot, ChArles, 278. 

Aberdy, Christopher, 44. 

Adams, Sherland, 439. 

Adamson, John, 78. Thomas, 465. 

Adoock, John, 130. 

Addison, John, 145. 

Agricola, Julius, 338 to 340. 

Ainley, Robert, 486. 

Akam (Accnine, Akeham), Joshua, 523. 

WiUiam, 317, 410, 484, 485, 623. 
Aked, Hester, 519. Jeremy, 68, 160,318. 

John, 412, 413. Joseph, 79. Sarah, 413. 

8u8an,70. Tristram, 79, 519. William, 

70, 168. 
Ackroyd (Akeroyd, Aykroyd, &c.), 127, 496. 

Abraham, 124, 32.3, 486. Edmund, 405. 

Edward, 125, 314, 321. Hester, 407. 

John, 323 Michael, 68, 125, 522. 

Samuel, 407. Susanna, 405. 
Alablaster, Dr, 416. 
Alayne, William, 144. 
Alchmund, 401. 
Aldersley, John, 156. Jonathan, 523. 

William, 517. 
Alexander, abbot, 106. 
Alfred, king, 400. 
Allerton, Anne, 78. Elizabeth, 73, 165, 

404. Grace, 166. Hester, 516. Isabel, 

520. Margaret, 318. Nicholas, 8 18, 408. 

Richard, 69, 78, 159, 166, 324. Sarah, 

159. Susan, 69. Thomas, 71. William, 

78, 74, 165, 166, 324, 516. 526. 
Allington, lord, 583. 
Allison, Sarah. 319. 
Alverley, Henry, 819. William. 319. 
Ambler, Joshua, 125. Lawrence, 125. 
Amgil, Christopher, 439. 
Andrew, Hugh, 406, 486, 518. 
Anglesey, marquis, 443. 

Antoninus Pius, 336, 341, 363, 364. 
Appleyard, 249. Abraham, 76. Anne, 78. 

John, 166. Judith, 76. widow, 78. 
Archer, Margaret, 304. 
Ardsley, John, 168. Mary, 168. 
Arkwright, Richard, 65. 
Arlington, Christopher, 481. 
Armistead, Christopher, 127. Margaret, 71. 
Armitage, Ella, 396. George, 501. James, 

167. John, 125, 471, 480. Joseph, 126. 

129, 318. Robert, 438. Thomas, 157. 
William, 167. 

Arthington, Henry, 827, 331, 435. Mary, 

327, 331. Robert, 213. 
Arundale, Grace, 164. Stephen, 164. 
Arundel, baron, 305. 
Ashe, Abraham, 478, 479. 
Ashley, lord, 532. 
Ashton, Anne, 320. Ellen, 404. John, 

168, 322, 422. Jonas, 168, 822, 404. 405. 
Martha, 524. Mary, 404. Robert, 524. 
Samuel, 168, 319. Thomas, 320, 404. 
William, 324. 

Aske, Robert, 600. 

Askwith, John, 68, 814. Judith, 814. 
Matthew, 4 1 0, 6 1 7. Simon, 68. 

Asmaell, Michael. 317. 

Asman, Destin. W., 444, 446. 

Aspinall. 197. 

Atkinson, Caleb, 463. Francis, 4 10. George, 
646. Henry. 65, 68. 165. 167, 323, 411, 
517.521. Jane, 817. Japhet, 132. John, 

130, 162, 167, 411. 618. Johnson, 213. 
Mary. 621. Matthew, 63, 65. Richard, 
412.475. Sarah, 410. Thomas, 79, 168, 
468, 517. William. 28, 126, 129, 317. 

Augustina, Flavia. 375. 
Augustus, emperor, 363, 364. 


Bailey (Baly), Isabel 520. Jane. 410. 

Jennet, 76. John, 70, 74, 76, 77, 79, 1 50, 

166, 824, 406, 407, 410, 487, 516, 620. 

Joshua, 314. Mary, 77. Robert, 70. 

Samuel, 314, 404. Samuel Oldfiekl, 8. 

WiUiam, 68, 163. 
Haines, Alice, 78. Mary, 323. Peter 78. 

Sampson, 314, 323. William, 168. 
Bairstow (Bristow), Abraham, 163, 164. 

Alice, 404. Helen, 323. Jeremiah, 125. 

John, 156, 167, 163, 407, 411, 520, 523. 

Margaret, 152. Martha, 320, 407, 623. 

Mary, 31.3, 411. Michael, 516. Richard, 

162, 156. Robert, 517. Thomas, 153, 

166, 167. William, 156, 323, 404. 
Baker, 118. George, 160. 
Balderston, Richard, 502. 
Baldok, Reginald, 100. Robert^ 100. 
Baldwin, 209, 210. 
Baldwyn, Edward, 538 to 540. 
Ball (Bawle), Jeremy, 80. Margaret, 165. 

WiUiam, 80, 165. 
Balme (Bawme), 132. Abraham, 64, 168, 

186, 192, 193, 197, 215, 216, 220, 237, 406, 

489, 490, 516, 525, 544. Elizabeth. 322. 

Hannah, 319. Isaac, 317, 319 to 321 

324, 408, 519. James, 40. John, 525. 

Mary, 315. Michael, 166,322. Robert, 

77, 315, 519. Sarah, 516. Susan, 168. 

Thomas, 317, 320. widow, 78. 
Balmforth (Bamford), 72. Humphrey, 

821. James, 454. Jane. 321, 454. John, 

72, 163, 817, 406, 411. Joseph, 168 

Mary, 318. William, 319. 
Banister, Henry, 505. 
Bank, Oliver, 153. Thomas, 101, 102. 
Banks, 221. Anne, 166. Stephen, 67, 166. 

Thomas, 67, 183. 
Barber, Fairless, 356. John, 814, 483, 485. 

489, 490. Robert, 314. 
Bardolf, Hugh, 107. 
Bardsey, John. 108. 

Barker, Bridget, 618. Helen, 69. John, 

490. Thomas, 529. William, 319. 
Barlow, Aiitonina, 304. William, 304. 
Barnard, 138. 

Barnes, David, 437. 

Barnsley, James, 316, 324, 413, 481, 519. 

Jennet, 316. 
Baron, George, 138. 
Barraby, Adam, 161. 
Barraclough, 132. Abraham, 80, 122, 163. 

Agnes, 168. Charles, 166. Frances, 76. 

Grace, 77. Henry, 168. James. 27. 

Jane, 127. John, 70, 132. Jonas, 122. 

Mary, 127, 409. Thomas, 123. William, 

76, 127. widow, 76, 516. 
Barran (Berren), Benjamin, 488. Jane, 

319. Joseph, 319. Mary, 314. Phcebe, 

324. Robert, 68, 314, 824. 
Barrett, John, 165. 
Barth^emy, Fran9ois, 293, 295. 

Bartle, Abraham, 166. Dorothy, 79. 

Jeremiah, 486. Mary, 67. Michael, 77. 

WiUiam, 67, 166, 817. 
Barwick, 438. 
Batchelor, Isaac, 323. Isabel, 77. John, 

323. Martin, 77. 
Bateman, John, 125. Richard, 147. 
Bates (Baits), Abraham, 165. Joshua, 

132. Judith, 408. Richard, 236. 
Batty (Batte), Daniel, 27. John, 8, 33 to 

40, 67. Riclianl, 40. Robert, 37 to 40. 
Bayard, 293. 
Bayldon, WiUiam, 85. 
BeaconhiU, Gilbert, 101. 
Beaconshaw, Gilbert, 101. 
Bean, John, 316. Susan, 316. 
Beanland. Joseph, 82. 
Beard, 416. 
Beaumont (Beamond), 138. John, 166. 

Martha, 74. Richard, 648 to .550 Sarah, 

166. William, 74, 162, 389. 
Beecroft, George, 68. Mary, 68. 
Beetham, Maud, 464. 
Behrens, Jacob, 442, 444. 
Bell, Abraham. 126, 318, 404, 408, 412, 

518, 520. Adam, 125. Christopher, 

3 1 5, 408. George, 74. James, 8 1 8, 519. 

Jane, 518. John, 404. John Henry, 8. 

Margaret, 408. Roberta, 323. Simon, 

490. Susan, 315. Thomas, 74. WUliam, 

163, 318, 323. 
Bellas, Henry, 181. William, 132. 
Bellasis, lord, 429, 530, 533. Anne, 429. 

Mary, 429. 
Bend, Jeremiah, 409. 
Benn, Jeremy, 167. 
Benson, Elizabeth, 324. George, 166. 

Harriet, 109. Robert, 109. 
Bentley, Hester. 518. John, 83, 497. 618. 

WiUiam. 48. widow, 162. 
Bernini, 415. 
Berry (Byrrie), 127. Elkanah, 466. 

James, 128. John, 152. Mary, 518. 

Owen, 518 Sarah, 127. 
Bertraud, Eleanor M., 279, 805. Isabelle 

S., 305. Louis, 305. 
Biggs, 383. 

Bingley, lord, 109, 212 to 214. 
Binns, Ambrose, 166. Isabel, 524. John, 

27, 33. Luke, 524. Nathan, 406. 

Samuel, 316. WiUiam, 520. 
Birch (Burch), Christopher, 76. Martha, 

76. Richanl, 406, 407 
Birkbeck, 190. Edward, 435. Morris, 

222, 227. Thomas, 435, 438. 
Birkby (Birkebe), John, 75, 517. Joseph, 

122. Susan, 75. 
Birkenshaw, John, 157, 158. Richard, 157. 
Birkhead, Richard, 405. 
Birtwhistle, WiUiam, 78. 
Blackbrough, Joseph, 123. 
Blackburn (Blakeburne), Francis, 79, 80. 


James, 79. Janet, 414. Thomas, 412 
WiUiam, 79, 
Blackett, Walter Calverley, 63. 
Blagbume, Walter, 73. William, 315. 

Blake, Johu, 44. 

Blakey, John, 75. William, 205, 209, 210, 
215, 229. 

Blamires. 445. Daniel, 123. John, 69. 
Joseph, 112, 123. William, 123, 124. 
widow, 163. 

Blanch, Greorge, 72, SI 5. 

BlundeU, Henry, 215. Jonathan, 205, 
211, 220, 221, 225, 226, 229. 

Boadicea, queen, 374. 

Boardall, Abraham, 166, 322. Hannah, 
166, 322. Jonas, 80. Joshua, 486. 

Bolanus, Vettius, 241. 

Boleyn, Thomas, 493. 

Bolland, John, 502. Joshua, 62 

BoUingr, 512. Edward, 71, 101, 491, 492, 
497,502,506,516. Elyne, 492. Godfrey, 
503. Rainbrough, 492. Robert. 101, 
503. Rosamond, 491, 493, 506, 512. 
Susan. 71. Tristram, 101, 491, 492. 
William, 493. 

Bonas, Richard, 529. 

Bond, Jeremy, 313. Thomas, 127. William, 

Boningfield, William, 487. 

Boocock, Grace, 526. John, 315. William, 
68, 815, 523, 526. 

Booth, 476. Alice, 321. Anne, 408. 
Bridget, 165. Charles, 64, 286. Christo- 
pher, 78. C. S., 181. Elias, 522. 
Elizabeth, 411, 519. George, ISO, 475. 
Grace, 321. Hannah, 319. Helen, 413, 
517. Hester, 407. James, 40, 127 to 
130, 406, 517. Jeremiah, 408, 524. 
John, 71, 112, 128, 209, 816, 319 to 321, 
404, 405, 411, 515, 525. Jonas, 123. 
Joseph, 321,323, 395,407, 472, 475, 482. 
Joshua, 320, 414. Josias, 406, 526. 
Lawrence, 408. Margaret, 411. Martha, 
S20. Biary, 525. Richard, 167, 408, 523. 
Robert, 161, 320, 525. Thomas, 162, 
824, 1410. Tobias, 414. William, 69, 
125, 162, 165, 320, 406,41 1, 616, 518, 524. 
widow, 79, 162, 163. 

Boothman, Francis, 78. Jane, 165. 
WiUiam, 165, 319. 

Boscough, 21. 

Bosvile, Thomas, 439, 440. 

Boarmont, Louis A. V., 280. 

Bowde, Joseph, 438. 

Bowen, 246. 

Bower, 65, 66. Abraham, 64, 65. Anne, 
75, 515. Edward, 410. Elizabeth, 74, 
315. Ellen, 26, 409. Frederick Oriien, 
65. Grace, 315. Herbert Morris, 65. 
Hester, 820. Isabel, 73. Jeremiah, 128, 
313, 815, 322, 395, 471, 485, 486 John, 
64, 65, 112, 412. Jonas, 64, 65, 69, 75, 

133, 164, 314, 524. Jonathan, 69. 

Joseph, 314. Joshua, 323. Maria, 164. 

Martha, 71. Mary, 74, 315, 322, 524. 

Moses, 74. Nathaniel, 315, 482, 484, 

485, 490. NichoLis, 73, 74. Richaixl, 

413. Robert, 75. Roger, 71, 72. 

Samuel, 161, 315, 320,412,515,524,525. 

Sarah. 524. Simeon, 317, 320, 543. 

Thomas, 26, 73, 122, 167, 320, 387, 404. 

410,643. William, 160. widow, 79, 1 60. 
Bowes, 463. 
Bowet, Henry, 99. 
Bowker (Booker), Anne, 72. Elizabeth, 

321. Helen, 405. James, 74, 317, 319, 

321, 405, 515, 624. Jane, 78. Judith, 

317. Maria, 74. Sarah, 319. 
Bowles, Edward, 437. 

Bowling, Christopher, 506, Thomas, 506. 

Boyne, William, 472. 

Bradford, earl, 62. Beatrice. 504. John, 

504. Thomas, 545 WilUam, 450. 
Bradley, John, 162. Thomas, 435. 
Bradshaw, Christopher, 517. Henry, 160, 

Braffitt, Dorothy, 404. Margaret, 323. 
Braithwaite, Abraham, 69, 522, 523. 

Alice, 69. Edmond, 160. E. B., 103. 

J. B., 119. Margaret, 102. Richard, 

413. Susanna, 623. 
Brake, Matthew, 483. 
Bramley, Thomas, 418. 
Brandon, Charles, 493. 
Brash, William, 163. 
Brayshaw, 127. 
Brearcliffe, 52. 
Brewer, Anne, 318. Edward, 167, 206, 

318. Jane, 318 Mary, 322. Robert, 

322, 409. 
Bridges, John, 440. 
Bridgewater, duke, 172, 193. 

Brigg, Abraham, 518. Elizabeth, 164. 
Henry, 320. Hester, 518. John, 80, 
122, 163, 322, 409. Thomas, 76. William, 

Briggs, Grace, 167. Henry, 167. Jonas, 

72, 167, 3 1 3. Lucretia, 72. Mary, 318. 

Thomas, 127. 
Brighouse, Elizabeth, 73. Richard, 59, 73. 
Brindley, James, 169, 175, 185 to 188, 191 

to 199, 204 to 208, 219, 225, 230. 
Britten, Mary, 319. WiUiam, 319, 412. 
Broadbent, 124. 
Broadley, Abraham, 212, 213. Anne, 127, 

Isaac, 133, 323. John, 127. Joshua, 

315. Mary, 315, 323. Richard, 125. 
Broderick, 279. 
Brogden (Brockden), John, 124. Thomas, 

Brooke (Brook), 125, 188. James, 124. 

Judith, 410. Thomas, 71, 410. WiUiam, 

Brooksbank, 126, 525. Abraham, 48, 44, 


100, 472, 471 to 489. Agnes, 75, 410, 

Alice, 73. Bridget, 168. Edward, 162. 

163, IrtS, 410. Gilbert, 72, 75, 445. 

Jane, 79. John, 44. Mary, 68, 410. 

Mathias,79. Susanna, 72,413 Thomas, 

73. WiUiam, 68, 70, 79, 321, 407, 408, 

4 IS. widow, 163 
Broughton, Christopher, 516. Jcsper, 159. 

John, 74. Jonas, 159. Joseph, 79. 
Brown, 209. Cecily, 487. EUzabeth, 304. 

Henry, 3. James, 323. Jane, 323. 

John, 304. Michael, 487. widow, 127. 
Browne, Anne, 166. Charles, 166. Edward, 

435. Thomas, 45 to 57. 
Bnmall, Abraham, 321. 323. Hester, 321. 

Robert, 132. 
Bruce. 354. 

Brus, Adam, 106, 107. Peter, 106, 107. 
Buck, David, 128. John, 128, 181, 191. 

Lawrence, 128, 393. Thomas, 129. 
Buckden(Bucktin), Richanl, 133. Thomas, 

Bulmer, William, 496. 
Bunnie, Grace, 407. Thomas, 323. 
Bunyan, John, 116, 416. 
Buidett, 192, 195, 197, 198. 
Burdsall, Thomas, 534. 
Bum, Henry, 618. J. S., 447, 466, 457, 468. 
Burnell, Alice, 165. Christopher, 78, 166, 

321. Hest«r, 321. 
Burnemore, Henry, 407. 
Burnet, Abraham, 411. Christian, 412. 

Gilbert, 527, 528, 532, 584. John, 322, 

Burnley, John, 413. Mary, 525. Michael, 

525. Sarah, 407. William, 407, 518. 
Burton, Henry, 68, 855. 
Busfield. Anna, 63. Thomas, 212 to 214, 

250. William, 63. 
Butler, 132. John, 71, 122, 820. Mary, 

29. Robert, 29. Roger, 271. 
Butt^rfield, Christopher, 78. John, 75. 

Jonas, 161. Liawrence, 78. Richard, 125. 
Butterworth, Henry, 8, 9. 
Byles, WiUiam, 8, 116. 
Byngham, Robert, 100. 

Calamy, Edmund, 884, 487 to 439. 

Calcott, Scrope, 221. 

Calverley, 476. Anne, 805. Walter, 126, 

128, 158. William, 24, 305. 

Calvert, David, 128. Richard, 484. Samuel, 

129. Thomas, 487, 438. 

Camden, William, 251, 387, 846, 852 to 355, 

363, 864, 877, 398, 399. 
Campinall, John, 814. 
Campinett, James, 70. John, 70. 
Cappes, Samuel, 318. Richard, 86. WiUiam, 

81, 40. 
Carey, Henry, 109. John, 474. 
Carlisle, widow, 128. 
Carlyle, Thomas, 416. 

Carnot, Lazare N., 296. 

Cart, John, 440. 

Carter, John, 125. Judith, 409. Michael, 

320, 409. 
Casley, George, 622. 
Castlereagh, lonl, 301. 
Caumont, 399. 
Cawthra (Cautherey), Alice, 407. James, 

132. John, 74, 80, 407. Maria, 80. 

Martha, 74 Richard, 480, 481. Thomas, 

72. widow, 161. 
Censorina, Aurelia, 376. 
Cerialis, Petilius, 837, 888, 340. 
Chaloner, James, 326. 
Chamberlain, 210. 
Chambers, William, 490. 
Chapman, John, 131. Richard, 161. 

Thomas, 438. 
ChappeU, Richanl, 124. 
Charles I., 101, 327, 417, 421, 425, 429. 
Charles II., 62, 426, 427, 429, 461, 527, 584 

to 586. 
Charles V., 496. 

Charlton, Frances, 608. George, 486. 
ChauveUn, Frangois B., 278, 274. 
Cheke, Hatton, 46. 
CheUow, Alice, 147. Robert, 147. 
Chestertieki, loid, 277. 
Childs, WilUam, 131. 
Chippendale, Alice, 521. Jonas, 160, 8 IS. 

Thomas, 411, 526. WiUiam, 205, 209, 2 1 8. 
Cholmley, 424. AnnabeU, .H04. Henry, 

804. Hugh, 528 to 537. 
Christian, John, 479. 
Cicero, 536. 

Clapham, John A., 9, 10, 103. WiUiam, 620. 
Ciarldge, WiUiam, 8, 9, 538. 
Clark, Agnes, 167. Christopher, 80, 405. 
Daniel, 436. G. T., 371, 400. Helen, 

518. Robert, 414, 487, 526. Thomas. 

167, 439. 
Clarke, 103, 415. 

Clarkson, 454. Agues, 72. David, 435. 

George, 316. James, 69. John, 72, 824. 

Margaret, 69. Robert, 128. Sarah, 816. 

Susan, 821. Thomas, 321, 479. William, 

70, 48J. widow, 128. 
Clay, John WiUiam, 9. 
Clayton (Claiton), Grace, 74, 268, 404. 

Hester, 72, 817. James, 168, 522. 

Jeremy, 72, 74, 76, 80, 519, 523. John, 

70, 197, 205, 215, 263. 265, 317, 819, 387, 

404, 408, 547. Luke, 489. Mary, 76, 

168, 319. Richard, 213. Robert, 72, 
265,547. Susanna, 319. WiUiam, 27, 
255 to 266, 268, 547. 

Clegg, Grace, 74. Jeremy, 74, 76, 314, 
318. Mary, 818. Michael, 410. Nathan, 
159. Susan, 76. 

Clement, Patrick, 156. 

Clemetshaw, EUzabeth, 452. 

CUflE, John, 144. 


Clifford, 15. Frances, 609. 
Clifton, Francis, 608, 509. Gervaae, 509. 
Cloudsley, Austin, 70. Isabel, 70. Jona- 
than, 463. Martha, 463. 
dough, Ellen, 322. Frances, 323. James, 
408. Jeremy, 159, 319. John, 75. 
Margaret, 319. Martha, 409. Mary, 
71, 408. Matthew, 322 to 324, 409. 
Sarah, 75. Thomas, 159, 160, 406. 
WiUiam, 171. 
Coates (Cotes), 129, 210. William, 100. 
Cocker, Catherine, 69. Christopher, 69 
Cockroft, Gregory, 1 60. John, 43, 74, 27 1 . 

Richanl, 62, 477, 478. Sarah, 160. 
Cockshott, John, 213. 
Coke, Richard, 503. 
Colchester, lord, 278. 
Cole, Edwanl Maule, 349. 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 64. 
Collinson, Alice, 520. Isaac, 412. John, 

79,317,414. Mary, 412, 526. Richard, 

317, 525. Sarah, 165. Thomas, 166. 

WiUiam, 1 65, 520, 524. 
CoUyer (Collier), Faith, 167. Jeremy, 167, 

404. Robert, 365. Roger, 151. Samuel, 

521,524. Sarah, 404, 524. Susanna, 521. 
Colston (Cowlstone), Agnes, 320. Charles, 

79. Roger, 35. 
Combe, Matthew, 529. 
Comes, A., 210. 

Compton, Ann, 537. Mary, 531. 
Cond^ prince, 280, 290 to 292, 294, 296, 

Congreve, William, 103, 110. 
Constable, Marmaduke, 496. 
Constantine, emperor, 341. 
Conyers, Amos, 478. 
Cooke, Ezekiel, 58, 60. Gregory, 70, 316. 

Hester, 410. John, 471, 472, 486. 

WiUiam, 412. 
Cooper, Anthony, 462. 
Copley, James, 523. John, 516. Susannah, 

Copperthwaite, Jeremiah, 126. Robert, 127. 
Cordingley, Anne, 76. Benjamin p 112. 

Dorothy, 404. Elizabeth, 3 19. Jeremiah, 

133. John, 123. Nicholas. 77. Richard, 

69,319,821,404,619,520. Tempest, 75, 

123. 121. Thomas. 414. WiUiam, 70. 
Cordley, James, 69. Matthew^, 162. Thomas, 

160. WiUiam. 69. 
Corker. Francis, 474. 
Cotton. John, 461. Robert. 440. WiUiam, 

Cofdtas. Jane, 317. 

Conpland. Bathsheba, 463. James, 463. 
Cousin (Cozen), Anne, 76. Edwanl, 76, 

319. Helen. 76. James, 76. Susanna, 

Coward, Alice, 317. Gabriel, 317. Grace, 

Cowbnme, Francis, 316. 

CoweU, 424. 

Cowgill, James, 125. 

Cowi)er (Couper), Edmund, 411. Hugh, 

156. John. 480. Robert, 152, 153. 
Crabtree, Anne, 78. Edwanl, 77. 161, 168. 

Helen, 76, 323. Isabel, 522. Jennet, 

166. John, 67, 69, 74, 76, 77, 79, 160, 
271, 319, 323, 324, 517. 522. Joshua, 
79. Mary, 76, 4()9. Nicholas, 319. 
Samuel, 522. Susan, 168. WiUiam, 31, 

167, 409. widow, 159, 160. 
Cradock, Nathaniel, 440. 
Craistcr, 132. 
Cranbrook, lord, 190. 
Crauford, 291. 

Craven, Anne, 516. Elizabeth, 159. 

George, 76, 316. John, 77, 322, 412, 

414. Jonas, 164, 167. 316. Josias, 1.S0. 

Leah, 411. Margaret, 406. Mary, 164. 

Matthew, 516. Rebecca, 79. Richanl, 

520. Robert, 75, 130, 547, 550. Sybil, 

75, 1 67. Thomas, 154, 160, 1 62, 3 1 9, 406. 
Crawshaw. Jennet, 521. John. 320. 
Creed, 532. 
Creswicke, John, 80. 
Crewe, earl, 427. 
Croft, Alice, 526. Isabel, 76. Margaret, 72 

Richanl. 70, 76, 524. Thomas, 72, 79, 

161. 163. 
Croisdale, (Christopher, 8 1 6. Elizabeth, 3 1 6. 
Cromack, John, 183. 
Cromwell, Mary, 429. OUver, 415 to 430, 

449, 452, 457. Richard, 434, 437. 

Thomaa 448, 462, 497, 498, 500, 601. 
Crosby, Nicholas, 321. Richanl, 484. 

WiUiam, 821. 
Crosier. John, 497. 
Crosland, John, 123. 
Cross, loni, 215. 
Crossley, 163. George, 334. Thomas, 191. 

Zechariah, 329 to 331, 884. 
Croston, 488. 
Crowther, 20. John, 167, 322. Jonas, 

165. Jonathan, 133. Margaret, 317. 

Martha, 165. Mary, 167. Samuel, 474, 

476, 478 to 481, 484, 487, 490. 
Cudworth. WiUiam, 7 to 10, 59, 60. 66, 

118, 306. 308, 363, 470, 471. 
Cumberland, earl, 499, 600, 609. Henry, 

Cunliffe, widow, 404. 
Currer, Francis, 164, 317. Henry, 59. 

Hugh, 59, 60, 62, 519. Mary, 5 19. Sarah, 

164. WiUiam, 622. 
Cryer, 210. 

Dacre, lord, 496 to 497. George, 128. 
Dale. Bryan, 10. 45. 325, 415, 431, 447. 

James, 334. John, 116. 
Dalton. Richard. 145. 
Danby, lord, 637. 
Danham, James, 490. 




Dan toil, Georges J., 288. 

Darcy, lord, 499, 600. 

Darmau, Jane. 73. 

Darn brook, John, 70. 

Darn brough, Margaret. 413. William, 131. 

Darran (Daren), 122. Ambrose, 522. 

Jonas, 317. Mary, 317. Husanna, 517. 
Dartmouth, lonl, 537. 
Darwen, Grace, 73, 168. Joseph, 167. 

Michael, 168. Thoma.s, 77. 
Da vies, Edmmul, 44. 
Davison, Thomas, 132. 
Dawson, Effam, 70. Isaac, 72. James, 

324. John, 27, 126. Joseph, 70, 517. 

Martha, 413. Martin, 130, 167. Mary, 

128. Michael, 313. Robert, 317, 525. 
Sarah, 72, 167, 414. Thomas, 129, 414, 
524. Timothy, 487. William, 413. 

Day, John, 179, 182. 

Dean (Deyne), Anne, 625. Gilbert, 408 

Grace. 75 . I sabel, 616. Jeremiah, 4 78, 

479. John, 75, 625. Jonas, 75, 127, 166. 

Mary, 80, 164, 408. Nicholas, 71. 

Thomas, 132. 
Dehanc, 209, 210. 
Deighton, Jonas, 523. 
De La Pr>Tne, 377. 
Den by, Abraham, 161. Elizabeth, 168. 

Jane, 161. Joseph, 80. Joshua, 129. 

Robert, 168. Thomas, 151. William, 

129, 162. widow, 129. 
Denham, James, 123, 124. 

Denison, Abraham, 463. Robert, 407. 
Thomas, 463. Timothy, 441. 

Denton, Francis, 101. John, 436. 

Derby, lord, 216, 498, 600. 

Devonshire, duke, 136. 

Dickinson. Benjamin, 2 1 3. John, 3 1 9, 324, 
408. Richanl,503. Robert, 78. Thomas, 
452, 460. William. 646, 546. 

Dickons, J. Norton, 9, 239, 335. 

Dilworth, WiUiam, 464. 

Diogenes, Marcus V., 377. 

Dishforth, Abraham, 164. Matthew, 164, 

Dixon (Dickson), Anne, 316. Francis, 
478, 479. Gervase, 71, 167. 474, 479, 
481 to 484. Hester, 77. Jeremy, 160, 
167, 306, 324, 410. John, 164, 314. 
Martha, 324. Mary, 305, 3 1 4. Nathan, 
321. Robert, 486, 490. Stephen, 412, 

625. Susanna, 412. Thomas, 80. William, 
213, 216, 477, 641. 

Dobson, Elizabeth, 306. Grervase. 525. 
John, 76, 314. Judith, 167. Margaret, 

626. Martha,317. Michael, 163. Thomas, 
805. WiUiam, 314. 

Dodgson, George, 823, 409. Grace, 409. 

John, 131. 
Dodsworth, Roger, 493, 506, 607. 
Douglas (Dowglesse), Judith, 321. Robert, 

41 a Walker, 321. 

Dove, Elizabeth, 452 William, 452. 

Dowell, 489. 

Drake, 99. Alice, 519. Francis, 162, 167, 
335, 343, 348, 350, 356, 361, 362, 366, 367, 
405. Henry, 522 Jasper, 67,318. John, 
69, 71, 76, 159, 167, 256, 314, 474, 479. 
Joseph, 71, 75, 128. Joshua, 71. Marv, 
314, 318. Matthew, 322, 480, 483, 486 
to 490, 519, 524. Mercy, 318. Michael, 
80, 160, 328. Peter, 405. William, 

Driver, Hannah, 520. Mercy, 4 14. Michael. 
414, 520. Richanl, 414, 616. 

Duckett, Richanl. 153. 

Duckworth, John, 519, 620. 

Dumas, Mathieu, 288, 299. 

Duryth, Thomas, 100. 

Dutton, Thomas, 46. 

Duxbm-y, Ellen, 164. Robert, 164. 

Dvnelcv, Adam, 326. Dorcas, 332. John, 
'333. Margaret, 326. Clave, 326. Robert, 
325 t<i 333. William, 326, 327. 

Dyson, James, 159. 

Eagle, John, 3.% 190, 201,208, 208, 215, 237. 

Eak'hmund, 401. 

Earle, Samuel, 473. William, 220, 221, 

226, 229. 

Eamshaw, Elizal^th, 73. Grace, 813. 

James, 73. John, 813. 
Eastbume, Christopher, 318, 824. John, 

73. Joseph, 78. Martha, 524. William, 

Eastwood, Barbara, 410. Isabel, 74. John, 

74, 321, 410. Mary, 320. Richard, 320, 
479. Sarah, 519. William, 490. 

Eccleshill, Lawrence, 145, 148. Morice, 
144. 147. Stephen, 101, 148. WiUiam, 
147, 148. 

Echard, 429. 

Ecroyd, Benjamin, 119. Henry, 189, 190, 

227. Richard, 205, 211. 
Edmonds, J. H., 1 38. 
Edward I., 400. 
Edward II , 100, 326. 
Edward VI., 468. 
Edwards, John, 529. 
Egerton, Ralph, 494. 
Einshay, John, 166. 
Eliot, 277. 

Elizabeth, madame, 283. 

Elizabeth, queen, 14, 101, 832, 473. 

EUett, Thomafl, 183. 

EUis, 496. Anne, 164. Bernaid, 816, 525. 
Elizabeth, 452. EUenor, 423. Hannah, 
820. James, 72, 113. 165. Jasper, 168. 
Jeremy, 79, 166, 167, 516. John, 79, 
122, 151, 167, 164, 168, 816, 320, 824, 
452, 470, 471, 473, 478, 479, 484, 516. 
Margaret, 816 Mary, 1 67, 5 1 6. Matthew, 
72. Peter, 79. Richard, 409, 619, 520, 
625. Sarah, 816. Susan, 316. Thomas, 


161. WilliAm, 486, 617. ifddow, 162. 
Ellison, 68. Anne, 626. Hannah, 68 

Isaac, 317. Ralph, 454. Sarah, 317. 

Thomas, 228, 526. 
Elswick, Israel, 125. 
ElBworth, Abigail, 525. Catherine, 404. 

John, 163. Samuel, 68. 
Elton,, 339, 341. 
Emmott (Emate), Grace, 412. William, 

74, 76, 4 1 2. 
Empsall. Joshua, 2. J. K., 6. Thomas 

Thornton, I to 12, 59, 61, 67, 404, 491, 

Enghien, duke, 297. 
English, Ellen, 315. Martha, 315. Robert. 

315. Thomas, 323. 
Brringtoo, Jane, 468. 
Eshton, Jeremiah, 129. Jonas, 78. Mary, 

67. Richanl, 165. Samuel, 67, 316. 

Sarah, 316. 
Ethelfleda, queen, 400, 401. 
Eure, Richanl, 100. 
Erans, Timothy, 476. 
Evelyn, John, 536, 537. 
ETcranl, H., 434. Richanl, 484. 
^xley, Anne, 74. Martha, 323. W., 8. 
Exton, 119. 
Eynelv, Thomas, 529. 
Eyre, Vincent, 203. 

Facke, Elizabeth, 815. John, 815. 
Pairbank, John, 77. Mary, 816, 410. 

WiUiam, 316, 410,411. 
Fairfax, Charles, 327, 331, 420. Ferdinando, 

326. 327, 417, 418, 424, 435, 488. Mary, 

327. Thomas, 417, 418, 420, 424 to 
427, 437, 610. 

Farrah, 131. 

Farrer (Farrar), 453. Jonathan, 217. 

Mary, 323. Matthew, 828, 522. Richanl, 

ISO to 132. 406. Samuel, 128, 181 to 

133. Walter, 182. WiUiam, 404, 483. 
Fauconberg, 429. Mary, 429, 430. 
Fawcett (Faucit), Christopher, 322, 324. 

Jonathan, 123. Joshua, 474. Mary, 

819, 322. Stephen, 123. Thomas, 78, 

123, 319. 
Fawne, Luke, 431. 
Feamley, F., 181. Grace, 78, 321, 520. 

Jonas, 78, 80. Thomas, 821. widow, 

Feamside, John, 520. Joseph, 320. Judith, 

520. Susanna, 519. Timothy, 123. 

WiUiam, 160, 519. 
Feather, Samuel, 131. 
Federer, Charles A., 9, 10, 66, 81, 103, 256, 

272, 384, 442, 512, 541. Rboda £., 514. 
Fell, Solomon, 212 to 214. 
Fenton, Thomas, 183. WiUiam, 131 to 133. 
Fermor, George, 508. 
Ferrand (Farrand), Benjamin, 181, 184, 

212 to 214. Bridget, 76. Judith, 454. 

Nicholas, 168, 815. Thomas, 454. 

widow, 67. 
Ferret. Joseph, 435, 440. 
Field, Elizabeth, 314. George, 68, 73. 121, 

162; 315. Janet, 387. John, 81 to 33, 68, 

319, 387 to 389. 476. Joseph, 41.43,112, 

314,321,516,520. Joshua, 227. Mary, 

409, 516, 518, 520. Mercy. 73, 316. 

Osgood, 143. Richanl. 318 to 320, 518. 

524. Ruth. 315. Susanna, 321. WiUiam, 

62, 63, 318. 409, 480. 490, 516. 517. 

widow. 68. 
Fielden. Lawrence, 519. 521. 
Fielding, Martin. 266. 
Firth (Furth), Alice, 73. Ambrose. 323. 

Anne, 816. Edith. 78. Elizabeth, 316. 

Grace, 323. James. 125, 404. John, 

166. Joseph. 73, 404. 418, 517, 518. 

Margaret, 72. Robert, 70, 73. 156, 159. 

Samuel, 75. Thomas. 410. William. 

124. widow, 123. 124, 168. 
Fish. Mary, 29. 

Fisher. James, 438, 440. Mary, 434. 
Fishwick, 245. 246. Ellenor. 428. 
Fitzgarret, Catherine, 473. 
Fitzgerald. Warin, 107. 108. Robert, 280, 

Fitzroger. Robert, 107. 
Fitzwilliam, 500. 
Flather. WiUiam, 516. 
Fleming (Fleemin), Lawrence, 412. 474, 

475, 477. 479, 480, 481. Mary, 412. 

Thomas, 101. 
Fletcher, Alice, 71. Beatrice, 77. Chris- 
topher. 167, 158. David, 389. Edward, 

321, 324, 516. Galfrid. 157. George. 

69, 314. Isaac, 68, 72. James, 127. 217, 

315,318. Jane, 315. Janet, 314. John, 

68,79,518. Jonathan, 80. Lionel, 127, 

168, 521. Martha, 824. Mary, 77. 163. 

Richanl, 157. Robert, 71, 73. 77, 318. 

Samuel, 163, 319. Sarah, 72. Thomas, 

127, 162. 155, 156. Timothy, 321. 

William, 68, 80, 162, 410. 
Florentina SimpUcia, 376. 
Forbes, Henry, 3. 
Forster, Ralph, 144, 148. WiUiam, 115. 

WUliam Edward, 113, 115. 
Fortunata, Julia, 377. 
Foss, E , 62. 
Foster, Anne. 73. Barbara, 318. Brian, 

166. Christopher, 73, 318. Jane, 166. 

Ralph, 163. Richanl, 438. WiUiam, 129. 
Fox, George, 109. George Lane, 109. 

Harriet, 109. James, 64 Jonas, 123. 

Joseph, 27. Mary, 519. Robert, 445. 

Thomas, 619. William, 111. 
Foxcroft. Anthony, 50, 61. James, 51. 

Sarah, 51. Susanna. 51. 
Francis. Richard, 315. 
Frank, Anthony, 505. Jane, 406. Robert, 

406, 410. Rosamond, 505. 



Frankland, Phoebe, 73. John, 480. 

William, 163. 
Franklin, William, 100. 
Frechville, Elizabeth, 502. Peter, 502. 
Freckleton, Thomas, 3 1 4. widow, 32 1 . 
Freeman, Lawrence, 476 William, 406. 
FriswelL, J. Hain, 56. 
Fronto Cloclius, 364. Valerius, 353. 
Fuller. Hugh, 17. 
Furue.S8 (Fournis), Anne, 320. Jeremiah, 

523. John, 271. 523. Robert, 500. 

WiUiam, 320, 524. 

Gale, Thomas, 347, 348, 355, 356, 377. 

Galloway, John, 132. 

GaUus, C. Vibius, 353, 354, 360, 361. 

Gamel, 141. 

Gant, Anne, 320. Daniel, 131. Edith, 

76. Jeremiah, 132. John, 132, 320. 

Jonathan, 163 . Joseph, 1 3 1 , 1 32 Robert, 

76, 132. 
Gardiner, 415, 4.30 
Garforth (Garforrl), George, 200. John, 

157, 158. Peter, 205, 209 to 211, 215, 

Gargrave, 131. John, 320. Stephen, 517, 

Gamett, James, 65, 66. John, 128. Mary, 

411. Peter, 411. Robert, 161, 411. 

William, 65. 
Garnish, Christopher, 494. 
Garroway, Anne, 46. 
Garth, 128. David, 621. James, 30, 31, 

160,316,521,525. John, 158. Margaret, 

523. Thomas, 35. William, 35, 128. 
Gascoigne, Beatrice, 502. Christopher, 

323. Margaret, 502. Thomas, 278. 

WiUiam, 502, 5()3. 
Gaskin, Robert Tate, 627. 
Gawkrodger, Isabel, 41 to 43. John, 30, 

31. Joseph, 30, 41 to 43. Joshua. 30. 

Mary, 41 to 43. Sarah, 30. Timothy, 30. 
Gelder, Matthew, 412. 
GeUys, Dennis, 101. Henry. 101. William, 

George III., 173. 
Gibson, 133. Agnes, 163. Anne, 305. 

James, 168, 315. John, 147, 151, 152. 

Mary, 315. Thomas, 77. 
Gill, 210, 430. Edmund, 129. Henry, 

126. Mary, 404. Matthew, 487, 489. 

Robert, 404, 544. Thomas, 31 , 395, 544. 

William, 124. widow, 79. 
Gillot, John, 478. 

Gleadall, Susanna, 319. Thomas, 319. 
Gleadstone, Francis, 484, 487, 488. 
Gledhill, Abraham, 623. EUen, 322. 

James, 515, 519. John, 409. Jonas, 

167. Mary, 165, 411. Peter, 408. 

Thomas, 78, 167, 410. WiUiam, 313, 

411. widow, 321. 
Gloesop, WiUiam, 7 to 9. 

Glover, Peter, 128. Susanna, 324. 
Glyde, Jonathan, 3. Lavington, 3. 
Goldsbrough, Hester, 411. John, 622. 

Sarah, 414. Thomas, 256, 411, 414. 
Gomereall, Ellen, 68. John, 68, 162. 
Goodall, 131. James, 124. Joshua, 130. 

William, 486. widow, 128, 130. 
Goodricke, John, 423. 
Goodson, 443. 
Gostwyk, John, 501 
Gough, 335, 353, 369, 381. 
Graham, Richard, 419. 
Grainge, WiUiam, 253. 
Grainger, John, 410. Humphrey, 412. 

Thomas, 412 
Grandpr^, 296. 
Grant, Angus, 237. 
Graves, Henry, 454. 
Gray, 370. Leonard, 603. 
Grayby, John, 145, 146. 
Grayson, Alice, 145, 146, 150. 
Greathead, Lydia, 77. Samuel, 77. 
Greave (Grayf), John, 129, 160 to 152, 156, 

407. Jonas, 322, 520, 622. Joseph, 315i 

Mary, 407. Richard, 150 to 162. Robert, 

157. Thomas, 150, 152, 153, 156. 

WiUiam, 35, 145, 146, 149 to 153, 157. 
Green, Abraham, 476. Catherine, 524, 

EUzabeth, 517. Frances, 406. George, 

168. Helen, 317. John, 69, 412. Jonas, 

69. Joseph, 69, 163. Richard, 168, 

412, 475. 477, 479, 481, 483 to 490. 

Robert, 168, 316, 317, 414. Sarah, 73. 

Thomas, 408, 524. WiUiam, 73, 168, 317, 

40(5, 409, 487. 
Greengate, EflEam, 35 to 37. John, 480, 

483. Richard, 35 to 40. Rosamond, 623. 

Susan, 76. Thomas, 33 to 36, 76, 522, 

523, 526. 
GreenhaU, Edward, 157. widow, 68. 
Greenhod, William, 144. 
Greenhough, Dorothy, 72. Elizabeth, 525. 

Isabel, 71. John, 71, 616. Jonas, 76, 

160, 168, 524. Joseph, 72, 76, 76, 313, 

522. Sarah, 75. WiUiam, 525. 
Greenwell, 134, 
Greenwood, 496. Daniel, 31, 70, 488. Grace, 

626. Jeremiah, 526. Mary, 819. Michael, 

487. Thomas, 31. 
Gregory, 132. 
Gregson, John, 127, 130, 181, 265, 268 to 

271. 623. Prudence, 523. 
Grellett, Stephen, 115. 
GrenviUe, George, 272. WiUiam, 272 to 

292, 298 to 301. 
Gresham, Richard, 16. 
GreviUe, Charles, 301. 
Greystone, Anthony, 75. Janet, 76. 
Grime, Anne, 315. Henry, 316. 
Grosvenor, Thomas, 27. 
Gurney, 190. 
Guy, Grace, 71. Samuel, 71. 




Hadnan, emperor, S52, 358, 364, 369. 
Haggerstone, George, 466. 
Haigh (Hage), 364. AUce, 521. David, 
443. Henry, 490. 01iyer,521. BuBanna, 
Hailstone, Arthur, 169. Edward, 169, 170. 

Samnd, 169. 
Hainworth (Hainsworth), Abraham, 132, 
166. 407. John. 77, 165, 166, 414, 516. 
Jonathan, 77. Judith, 165. Martin, 
164. Mary, 164. Matthew, 80, 164. 
516. Phoebe, 407. Robert. 523. 
Haley, Elizabeth. 822. Jonas, 163, 528. 
Hall, Andrew, 75. Christopher 76. James, 
522. Jeremy, 159. Jonas, 126. Mary, 
75. William, 132. widow, 159, 162. 
Haktead, Henry, 79. John, 205, 211, 218, 

Halton, Richard, 100. 
Hamilton, duke, 421, 422. 
Hanmierton, James, 162. 
Hammond ([Halmond, Hawmond), David, 
315, 490. Grace, 268. Isaac, 166, 409, 
413. Isabel, 409. Jeremiah, 411. John, 
268, 517. Jonas, 315, 523. Mary, 318. 
Samnd, 517. Thomas, 318. William, 
159, 418, 517. widow, 78. 
Hancock, Rowland, 439. 
Hanmer, Samuel, 215. 
Hanson, 148. Isabel, 76. John, 68, 70, 76, 

122, 410, 414 Sarah, 70. 
Hardcastle, Thomas, 191, 205, 218, 220 to 

222, 227. 
Hardwicke, lord, 454. Simeon, 481. 
Hardy, Jesper, 405, 410. John, 190, 201, 
232, 518. Jonathan, 414. Mary, 70. 
Meicy, 518. William, 70. widow, 71. 
Hardyate, John, 74. 
Hare, Robert, 153, 155. Tristram, 133. 
Hargreave (Hargrave), George, 413. 
Isabel, 523. James, 522. Jonas, 129. 
Joseph, 80. Michael, 70, 77, 318. Robert, 
124. William, 318 widow, 161, 210 
Harker, Joseph, 468. 
Harper, Abraham,- 132. Martha, 394. 
Harris, Alfred, 178. Charles, 113, 116. 
Frederick William, 444. William Henry, 
444. William Masterman, 444. 
Harrison, Edward, 131, 132. Francis, 127. 
John, 125. Phoebe, 521. Plantagenet, 
496. Rob^519. Susanna, 519. Thomas, 
319. William, 206, 629. 
Hartley, Dorothy, 428. John, 271, 519, 

526. Joshua, 213. Thomas, 526. 
Hating, 478, 479. 
Haverfield, F., 336. 
Hawden, Timotiiy, 441. 
Hawk, James, 476. 
Hawkswell, John, 406. Sarah, 406. 
Hawksworth, Israel, 438. Thomas, 334, 

438. Walter, 327. 
Haxdl, John, 168. 

Healey, Thomas H., 10. 

Heath, Nicholas, 100. 

Hebden, Grace, 494. James, 218. Nicholas, 

Heelis, 209. 
Helling, Richard, 329. 
Hemingway, 28. Abraham, 76. Edward, 

125. Grace, 71. Henry, 29, 213, 646. 

Martin, 70, 71. Samuel, 44. Thomas»68. 
Hemmingworth, Michael, 405. 
Hemmworth, Robert^ 411. 
Hemsworth, Elizabeth, 73, 323. John, 70, 

411. William, 822, 516, 519. 
Henry I., 109. 
Henry II., 106, 107, 109. 
Henry IV., 100. 
Henry VI., 138,493. 
Henry VII., 493. 

Henry VIII., 19, 23, 448, 462, 472, 494, 496. 
Hepworth, George, 9, 10. John, 333. 
Hering, Dorcas, 434. Julines, 434. Theo- 
dore, 437, 438. 
Herries, Herbert Crompton, 305. Lenora 

Emma, 305. W. L , 305. 
Hesleden, John, 320. 
Hewer, 537. 
Hewitt, Edmund, 80. Susan, 166. Thomas, 

Hey (Hay), Agnes, 322. Elisabeth, 319. 

Frances, 69. John, 69, 132, 133, 168. 

Joshua, 68. Mary, 68. Richard, 77. 

Robert, 77. Susan, 167, 318. Thomas, 

165, 168. William, 36, 73, 77, 78, 166 to 

168, 318 to 822, 408. 
Heywood, Oliver, 48, 60, 328, 330 to 333, 

433, 439, 452, 453, 460, 474. 
Hieronymianus, Claudius, 378. 
Higden, 381. 
Higgins, Effam, 76. 

Higson, John, 405,4 1 2,41 3. Richard,74,l67. 
HiU, Anne, 316. Edward, 433. Hannah, 

404. James, 67, 73, 80, 313, 518. John. 

161. 163, 165, 320, 406, 410. Joshua, 410. 

Judith, 320. Margaret, 78, 406 Mary, 

68,161. Richard, 157. Robert, 68. 406. 

Susanna, 324. Thomas, 129,161. William, 

80, 1 60, 320, 324, 409. widow 1 59. 
HiUas, Robert, 132. 
Hillhouse, Adam, 167, 820. Daniel, 167. 

David, 80. Grace, 816. John, 315. 

411,624. Jonas. 320, 324. Judith, 320. 

Martha, 524. Mary, 824. Thomas, 79. 

widow, 80. 
Hillyard, Anne, 318. Helen, 321. James, 

167, 316, 318, 321, 411. John, 167. 

Obedience. 316. 
Himingham, Margaret, 164. 
Hinchcliffe, Joseph, 63. Samuel, 132. 
Hindle, Anne, 408. Mary,317, 322. Ronald, 

Hird, Christopher, 188. Jonathan, 128. 

Matthew, 405. Nathaniel, 138. Richard, 


305. Thomas, 127, 129. Sarah, 486. 

Sarah Elizabeth, 305. 
Hirst, Agnes, 521. Anne, 80. Anthony, 

166, 816. Arthur, 521. John, 125, 126, 

316. Sarah, 166. 
Hobson, Oeorge, 163. John, 389 to 398. 

James, 129. Moses, 889 to 893. 
Hoche, Lazare, 296. 298. 
Hodgson, 496. Abraham, 458. Agnes, 

406. Anne, 824. Edward, 516, 517, 
526. Elizabeth, 73, 525. Jeremiah, 

820. John, 44, 71, 78, 76, 123, 126, 322, 
328, 411, 421, 426, 470, 472, 474, 518, 
526. Jadith, 72. Martha, 516. Mary, 
71, 78, 405, 526. Priscilla, 75. Rachel, 

821. Richard, 71. 166. 168, 236, 324. 
Ruth, 71. Samuel, 163. Sarah, 166, 
168. Thomas, 63, 72, 73, 75, 112, 821, 
323, 405, 414, 487, 506, 518, 525. William, 
320, 821, 404. widow, 124, 130. 

Holbury, widow, 198. 

Holden (Holding, Howleden), Joshua, 820, 

408,411,413,519. Mary, 408. Mercy, 

Holdsworth ( Howldsworth ) , 498. 500. 

Anne, 819. Elizabeth, 824. George, 69, 

77, 819, 384 to 387. Grace, 77, 78, 168. 

Hannah, 318. Hugh, 411. Isaac, 75. 

John, 43, 77, 78, 168, 387.- Jonas, 408, 

489, 490. Jonathan, 818. Joseph, 133. 

Josiah, 316, 408, 461. Matthew, 319. 

Nathan, 519, 520. Nathaniel, 125. 

Robert, 125, 824. Sarah, 167, 519. 

Stephen, 163. Susanna, 410. Thomas, 

167,815,410,518. Walter, 319, 322. 
Holland, John, 2. 
Holliday, John, 485. Richard, 407, 408. 

Sarah, 407. Thomas, 408. 
HoUindrake (Hollingntke), Anne, 168. 

Isabel, 321. Mary, 73. Sarah, 77. 

Stephen, 78, 77, 313, 406. William, 168, 

Hollingshead, James, 191, 196, 198, 205, 

207.211. John, 189, 205. 
Hollingworth, Martha, 68. 79. William, 

Hollins (Hollings, Holyns), Anne, 313, 

404, 410. Efbin, 76. Elizabeth, 518. 

Grace, 524. Hannah. 321. Helen, 318, 

407. Isaac, 124, 181, 184, 191, 266 to 
268, 405. Jennet, 168. John, 76, 271, 
318, 318, 321, 323, 404, 405, 407, 524, 548. 
Joseph, 167, 168, 522, 524. Matthew, 
821,410,414,525. Nathan, 515. Robert, 
69. Sarah, 75, 318. Thomas, 72, 75, 
313, 821, 823. William, 315. widow, 

Holmes, Anne, 78, 75. Benjamin, 122. 
Isabel, 411. James, 122. Jeremiah, 
324, 528. John, 73, 526. Joseph, 78, 
129. Katherine, 166. Richard, 69, 408, 
618. Robert, 534, 585. Samuel, 31,411 

to 413, 526. Sarah, 78, 408. Thomas. 

166,318,625. William, 320. widow, 68. 
Holroyd (Howlderoyd), James, 167. Joseph, 

124. William, 123. 
Holt, Maria, 166. Robert, 166, 814. 
Hooke, 484, 486. 
Hoole, 830. 
Hope, John, 68. 
Hopkinson, Alice, 321. Anne, 4 1 3. James, 

70, 74, 412. John, 72, 315. Joseph, 413, 

517. Mabel, 70. Nathaniel, 67 Richard, 

521. Thomas, 67, 412, 526. Toby, 124. 

William, 315, 321, 484, 485, 489, 526. 
Hoppey, (Jeorge, 412. 
Hornby, Dorothy, 405. 
Horncastle, Henry, 437. 
Home, Hester, 71. Jonathan, 69. Richard, 

71, 164, 167. William, 10. 
Homer, Richard, 77. 
Horrocks, John, 271, 517. 
Horseknave, John, 147. 
Horsfield, John, 620. 
Horsley, Elizabeth, 413. Hester, 813. 

John, 246, 247, 251, 252, 335, 343, 344, 347 

to 349, 352, 355, 359, 361, 363, 368, 377, 

413. Samuel 313, 413. 
Horton, 14, 127. Abraham, 316. John, 

69, 405. Joshua, 77. Lawrence, 490. 

Michael, 315. Richard, 500. Thomas, 

126. Tristram, 313. William. 126, 164, 

319, 475 to 477. 
Horwith, William, 100. 
Hothersall, Charles, 545, 546. 
Houghton, lord, 427. 

Howard, f^atherine, 504. Thomas, 493, 494. 
Howgat€,128. Christopher, 3 1 4. Elizabeth, 

521. John, 520, 523. Joseph, 314. 
Hoyle, Anthony, 31. John, 269, 317, 323. 

Rebecca. 269. widow, 159. 
Hubner. baron, 364. 
Hudson, Anne, 405. Edward, 101. Jacob, 

68. John,131. Samuel, 405, 41 1,519, 521. 
Humbert. Jean Joseph, 301. 
Humblewick, 490. 
Hunsdon, loid, 109. 
Hunter, John, 387. Joseph. 328, 355, 439, 

Huntingdon, earl, 109. 
Hunton. Gabriel, 524. Lawrence, 321, 323. 

Tobias, 321. 
Hurst. Anthony, 69. William, 525. 
Hustler, John, 113, 114, 169, 175, 178, 181 

to 186, 188, 191 to 201, 205 to 210, 216 

to 228. Martha, 321. Nathan, 318. 

Sarah, 113, 115. Thomas, 163. William, 

Hutchinson, Abraham, 131, 133. John, 

131. Samuel, 463. Thomas, 131, 133, 

463. William, 149. 
Hutton, John, 320. Lawrence, 320. Mar- 
garet, 165. Richard. 131. Robert, 165. 

Samuel, 213. William, 324. 


I • 


Ibberson, James, 463. Samuel, 463. 

I bbotson, Joshua, 170. Maiy^SlS. Richard, 

152. Thomas, 152, 159, 168, 318. 
lUing worth, 496. Isabel, 413. James, 824. 

John, 101, 161, 893, 414. Mary, 317. 

Ricbaid, 30, 31 Robert, 263, 537. 
Inchiquin, lord, 534 to 536. 
Ingham, Benjamin, 467. Daniel, 74, 76. 

Elizabeth, 520. George, 317. Godfrey, 

70. Margaret, 74, 317. Mary, 71. Peter, 

70, 71. Richard, 68. 
Ingilby, John, 216. William, 420. 
Ingram, Thomas. 632. 
Ir%, Richard, 100. 
Iredale, John, 165. Jonas, 526. Susan, 

317. William, 413. 
Ues, John, 191, 192. 

Jackson, 209. Abraham, 162. Edward, 
76, 168, 485, 523. Elizabeth, 162. 
Grace, 626. Isaac, 314. John, 71, 152, 
162. 321, 406, 407, 412, 434. Jadith, 

406. Mary, 314, 321, 519. Peter, 463. 
Ricbaid, 69, 151, 318, 522. Robert, 
316, 519. Susanna, 318. Thomas, 463. 
William, 71, 162, 406. 

Jagger, James, 478, 479. John, 517. 

James, John, 137 to 140, 443, 482. 

James I., 20, 26, 326, 473, 508. 

James IL, 52. 

James V., 496 

Jenkinson, Nicholas, 131. Richard, 132. 

William, 131. 
Jennings, Hugh, 441. John, 620. 
Jepaon, Elizabeth, 75. Ellen, 324. John, 

76. Richard, 162, 324. William, 409. 
Jobson, Agnes, 317. Anne, 322, 526. 

Barbara, 408. Reuben, 165. Richard, 

407. Robert, 317, 516. Walter, 159, 
161, 822, 408, 518. 

John, abbot, 21. king, 106 to 108. 

Johnson, 132. Alan, 27. Emma, 145, 
146. James, 481. John, 145, 146, 314, 
441. Joseph, 404. Samuel, 46. Susanna, 
404. Thmaas, 132, 332, 334. William, 
147 814. 

Johnston, Thomas, 436. 

Jolly, Thomas, 461. Timothy, 463. 

Jones, Jane, 61. Thomas, 61, 62. 

Jowett, Abraham, 70, 80, 322, 407. Anne, 
69, 405, 408, 414. Dinah, 522. Daniel. 
490. Dorothy, 70, 167. Edward, 77, 
Grace, 74, 75, 314, 318, 322. Hester, 
322. James, 69, 164, 318, 525. Jeremy, 
80, 320, 408, 520. John, 31, 71 to 78, 
126, 162, 167, 271, 314, 406, 410, 411, 414, 
516, 520, 522, 524. Jonas, 525. Jona- 
than, 405. Joseph, 76. Judith, 77. 
Martha, 77, 80, 4()7. Mary, 73, 167, 
314, 323, 405, 408, 410, 414, 625. 
Matthew, 515. Nathan, 126, 205, 210, 
216, 222, 236, 237. Peter, 164, 405. 

Prudence, 1 68. Richard, 70, 157, 3 1 4, 41 4 . 

Samuel, 62, 128 to 130, 522. Sarah, 77, 

168. Susanna, 161, 406. 515, 521. 

Thomas, 69, 167, 321. Timothy, 406. 

William, 35, 74, 77, 128, 160 to 163, 168, 

321, 322, 406, 407, 410, 414, 517, 525, 526. 

widow, 68, 77, 319, 523. 
Jubb, Elizabeth, 516. Martha, 78. Robert, 

78, 516. 
Judson, John, 160, 524. Michael, 516. 

Samuel, 515. 

Kay, 437, 496 Edward, 166. Jonas, 73. 

Richard, 166. Sarah, 73. William, 414. 
Kellett, Abraham, 313. Anne, 409, 617. 

Christopher, 74. Humphrey, 164, 409, 

516. Jeremiah, 410. John, 313. Martha, 

73, 404. Mary, 72, 164. Richard, 67. 

Thomas, 72 to 74, 404. William, 79. 
Kempe, Galebrun, 101. John, 101. 
Kendall, Alice, 70. George, 70, 72, 313. 

Samuel, 439. William, 72, 516. 
Kent, Ellen, 164. George, 319. Joseph, 

132. Margaret, 414. Mary, 319. 

Richard, 164, 414, 479, 481, 517, 522, 

523. Robert, 478, 480, 486. William, 

157, 522, 523. 
Kerr, 537. 
Kershaw, Anne, 454. John, 482. Nicholas, 

Ketel, 398. 

Kidd, Anne, 316. Matthew, 316. 
Kighley, George, 75. Henry, 504. Isabel, 

504. James, 80. 
Killerby, Leonard, 323, 411. Robert, 323, 

620. Sarah, 323. 
Killick, H. F., 169. 
Kilner, Anne, 521. Richard, 518. Stephen, 

314. Susan, 314. 
Kirke, John, 67, 74, 414. Richard, 74. 

Sarah, 67. 
Kirkman, George, 515. Thomas, 146. 
Kitchin (Kitching), 150. Beatrix, 154. 

Charles 155. Dinah, 313. George, 155. 

Grace, 70. Helen. 408. Henry. 72, 

160. Isaac, 408. Jennet, 71. John, 

64, 70, 144, 145, 153 to 157, 318. 322, 324, 

408,488,520. Katherine. 4()7. Margaret, 

154. Maria, 72. Nicholas, 154, 322. 

Richard. 154. Robert, 154. 157, 158. 

Sarah, 405. Susanna, 318. Thomas, 153 

to 155, 157. 409. William, 147. 152 to 

Kitson, Edward, 27 to 30. James, 27 to 

29. Margaret, 27 to 30. Samuel, 129. 

Tristram, 389 to 398. William 28, 126, 

Klingiin, 299. 

Knight, Daniel, 323, 474, 479, 517, 523. 

John, 323. Judith, 523. 
Knowles, Alice, 72. Dorothy, 428. Grace. 

73. James, 73, 167, 317, 322. Martha, 


322. Martin, 428. Mercy, 317. Robert, 
77, 494. Roger, 72, 75. Susan, 167. 

Rnntton, Emmanuel, 439. 

KorsakoflE, 802. 

EutuBo£E, 443. 

Lacy, eariB, 99, 399, 402. 

Lacy, 496. Alicia, 100. Anne, 60 1. Henry. 

102, 398. Ilbert, 141. 142, 398, 408. 

John, 500 to 502. Roger, 107. William, 

Lagarde, 298. 
Laharpe, 297. 

Lamb, Christopher, 71. 405. Henry. 405. 
Lambert. John. 394, 395, 421, 422, 425. 

428. Joseph, 394, 395. Maria, 78. 

Mary, 394, 895. Thomas, 78, 163. 
Lamplough, Elizabeth, 276, 305. WiUiam, 

276. 278, 305. 
Lancaster, Henry, 69, 99, 102, 125. John, 

100. Thomas, 100. 
Lang, Anne, 74. Edward. 74, 316, 409. 

Elizabeth, 77. Grace, 318. 
Langster (Longcaster), Elizabeth, 319, 407. 

Henry, 413. James, 319. John, 407, 

412,414. Mary, 413. Thomas, 319, 412. 
Langton, Galfrid, 100. 
Lansdell, Francis, 483 to 485. 
Lardy, 277. 

Larkham, (George, 460. Patience, 460. 
Lasoelles, Hannah Frances, 305. L. S., 305. 
Latrington, Henry, 100. 
Laud, 417. 

Lauderdale, earl, 533, 534. 
Law, 114. Agnes. 314. Robert, 160. 

Samuel, 409. Tobias, 160,314. William, 

409, 621. 
Lawkland, Isabel, 77. Thomas, 77. 
Lawes, Robert, 148, 152. 
Xjawi%nc6 537 

Lawson, 146, 147, 148. 381, 882. Chris- 
topher, 162, 168. John, 528. Matilda, 

148, 151. Robert. 148, 162. William, 

148, 161. 
Lawton, 218, 838, 466. 
Layce, John, 102. 
Laycock, Christopher, 814. Elias, 131. 

John, 79, 168. Judith, 168. Thomas, 132. 
Leach, Thomas, 69, 206, 209, 210, 216, 218, 

227, 237. 
Leadbeater, Hugh, 153, 166. John, 152, 

163. William. 153. 
Leader, Robert, 368. 
Leadman, Alexander D. H., 9. 380, 381. 
Leadyard, Thomas, 60. 
Leake, Nicholas, 109. 
Leaver, Maigaret, 826. Robert, 326, 331. 
Lecky, 180. 
Lee, Abraham, 71, 76. Anne, 412. Cuth- 

bert, 131. Edward, 181. Isabel, 817. 

John, 131. Thomas, 181, 183, 188. 

William. 76, 486. 

Leedes, Edward, 181. 

Legard (Ledgerd), John, 161. Richard, 
158. Rob^ 153. Thomas, 393, 471, 
473, 475, 477, 487. widow, 128 

Mger, 296. 

Leigh, Alexander, 201, 208, 220, 221. 
Holt, 203, 215, 232. 

Lely, Peter, 422. 

Lenthall. Anne, 504. Thomas, 604. 

Lepton, John, 132, 133. 

Leusin, 398. 

Leven, earl, 418, 419. 

Lewis, Elizabeth, 109. John, 109, 110. 
Mary, 109. 

Leyland, F A., 247 to 249, 367. 

Ligulf, 106. 

Lilbum, 415. 

LiUie (Lylly). Elizabeth, 410. Henry, 
406. Isabel,67. Thomas, 157. William,406. 

Lincoln, earls of, 99. 

Lisle (de Insula), Thomas, 147. 

Lister, 21. Abraham, 27, 389. Edward, 
405. Elizabeth, 164. James, 31, 127, 
213. John, 8 to 10, 20 to 22, 51, 68, 72, 
120, 1 59, 1 60, 316, 323, 412, 619. Joseph, 
122, 329, 483, 510. Judith, 73. Mary, 
20, 78, 323. Oliver, 529. Richard, 18 
to 20, 101, 157, 168. Roger, 73. Ruth, 
405. Samuel, 20, 21, 181, 184. Sarah, 
414. Thomas, 19, 20, 51, 102, 422, 440. 
Timothy, 212, 213. WiUiam, 73, 153, 
166, 164, 267, 316, 418, 486, 489. 490, 
619, 625, 647. 

Littlewood, Daniel, 68. Samuel, 123. 

Lobley, 127. Michael, 132. 

Lodge, Edmund, 181. 

Lolly, Miles, 131. 

Lomax, James, 206. 

Longbottom, Isaac, 78. John, 175, 182, 
184 to 191, 196 to 199, 204, 206, 208, 21 1, 
216 to 221, 225. Lawrence, 73. WiUiam, 

Longley, Abraham, 126. (George, 133. 

Long8ta£E, John, 322. 

Lord, 496. WiUiam, 133. 

Louis XVIII., 296, 297. 

Lowcock, John, 69, 161. Judith, 161. 

Lowry, John, 160. 

Lucanus, CseciUus, 364, 866. 

Luddington, Rob^, 461. 

Lumb (Lume), John, 80, 406. Qrace, 71, 

Lumby, Isaac, 321. James, 526. John, 
132, 151. Joshua, 133, 321. Richard. 
112. Robert, 181. Samuel, 188. WiUiam, 
182, 138. 

Lund, 128, 487. 

Lunn, John, 169. 

Lupton, Ruth, 407. WUliam, 407. 

Lupus, Yirius, 352, 358, 868. 

Lutridge, Henry, 205, 211. 

Lyle, Lawrence, 147, 148. 

Lymbergh, Adam, 100. 



MacArthar, Elizabeth, 468. William, 468. 

ttacaulav, Thomas B., 61. 

Macclesfield, earls, 305. 

MachoD, Emma, 156. James, 156, 414. 

Mack, general, 297. 

Madaoghlan, 345, 347, 353. 

llaffey. John, 7, 8. 

Mainwaring, 416. 

Mallet, Du Pan, 282, 283, 286 to 290. 

Isabelle Sara. 305. Louis, 282. 
Mallinflon, John, 151. Judith, 815. Mary, 

75. Richard, 74. Sarah, 74. Thomas, 

67, 69, 75, 315, 526. 
Mann, Anne, 444. John. 442 to 444, 

Joseph, 444. Joshua, 448. Thomas, 

442 443. 
March, 242, 245, 246. 
Margaret, queen, 494. 
Margerison, 466. James, 122. John, 541 

to 544. John L., 444. Samuel, 8. 
Margetson, James, 323. 
Markham, Luej, 305. Richard, 181, 184, 

185. William, 305. 
Maraden, Gamaliel, 461, 519. John, 475 

to 477, 526. Martha, 406. Richaitl, 

123. Thomas, 406. 
Marshall, Christopher, 461. Edwanl, 477 

480. Elizabeth, 316. Ellen, 407. Hester, 

518. James, 128, 316 Jane, 70. William, 

516, 518. 
Martindale, Adam, 440. 
Marj, queen, 14, 100. 
Mason, Anthony, 518. Christopher, 529. 

Frances, 518. Joseph, 213. Peter, 31. 
Mass^na, Andr€, 302. 
Matthew, Frances, 832. Toby, 332, 434. 
Matthews, James, 616. John, 407, 410, 

515, 519. 
Maud (liawde), 49. Anne, 74. Grace, 

526. Isaac, 168. John, 72, 74, 161, 166. 

317, 409. Thomas, 480, 482, 483, 486. 
488. William, 114. 

Mauleverer, Dorcas, 332. 

Maymond (Mamon), Edmund, 164. 

Nicholas, 165. 
Maynard, John, 101. Mary, 101. 
Medley, 496. Grace, 74. John, 68, 74,319. 
Meek, William, 441. 
Melling, Richard, 191, 192. 
Mengaud, 298. 
Mercer, Edward, 138. 
Metcalfe, Aaron, 318. Abraham, 318. 

Alice, 406. David, 167. Grace, 316. 

318. Hannah. 410. Jane, 314, 412. 
John, 324. Joseph, 820, 824, 404, 413. 
Joshua. 160. Michael, 78, 160, 323, 406. 
Peter, 167, 410, 615. Rebecca, 404. 
Richard, 77. Susanna, 317. William, 

Methley, Alexander, 501. Alice, 501. 

Miall, Louis C, 312. 

Middleton, lord. 530, 531, 633, 534. 

Midgley, George, 256. Grace, 72, 80. 
Jacob, 35. James, 476. John, 80, 124, 
126, 130, 263, 265, 315, 324, 390. 391, 412, 

522, 548 to 560. Joseph, 324. Michael, 

523. Rebecca, 324. RichanI, 72. 
Samuel, 48, 49, 318, 409. Sarah, 318. 
Susanna, 324. Thomas, 68, 414. William, 
161, 821. 

Milner, 61, 131. Abigail, 70. Anne, 74, 
319. Daniel, 78. EUetu 164. Hugh, 

413. John, 22, 23, 74, 76, 77, 12.->, 133, 
164, 813. Joseph, 78, 316, 51.5, 522. 
Joshua. 522. Mary. 410. Mathias, 4 10, 
520, 521. Matthew. 406. Michael 70, 
319. Richard. 521, 524. Samuel, 68, 
317. Susanna. 522. Thomas, 147, 406. 
520. WiUiam, 170. 

Milnes, George, 164. Helen, 317. Richard, 
409, 523. 

Mirfield, Christopher, 501. Helen, 501. 
William, 100, 101, 148. 

MitchcU (Mycell), Anne, 414. Elizabeth, 
163, 320. James, 408. Jane, 409. John, 
73, 133, 1 47, 163, 165, 320, 409, 476 to 479, 
484 to 487, 516. 519. Jonas, 79. Jona- 
than, 414. Mary, 408. Nathaniel, 166. 
Peter, 154. Samuel, 50. Thomas, 78. 
widow, 79, 169, 324. 

Mitcheson, Thomas, 10. 246. 

Mitton, Grace, 69. John, 129, 167. 
Michael, 69. Richard, 166, 167. 
William, 158. 

Molesworth, 245. 

Mompesson, William. 483. 

Monk, George, 627. 

Monmouth, duke, 536. 

MontesBon, Jean Louis, 294. 

MontgaiUard, Jean (Gabriel, 290, 299. 

Moore, 487, 488. Abraham, 125, 165. 
Sarah, 165. 

Moorehouse, Henry, 437, 451. 

More, Abraham. 410, 412. John, 412. 
Mary, 410. Thomas, 120. William, 101. 

Moreau, Jean Victor, 296, 297. 

Morehouse, Abraham, 319. 

Morice, Fred, loi. 

Morley, John. 487. Joshua, 184. 

Morris, 424, 426. Edward. M7, Robert, 

Morrison, Walter, 136. 

Mortimer, Cecily, 166. Edward, 159. 
George, 322, 411. Grace, 620. Hester, 
520. Isaac, 623. James, 125. 126. 
John, 69, 72, 160, 166, 167, 322, 408, 414, 
519,520. Jonas, 165, 166. Mary, 322, 

414, 519. Richard, 68, 77, 78. 122, 125, 
620. Sarah, 72, 166, 409. Thomas, 126, 
126, 315, 322. widow, 126. 

Morton, John, 102. 

Morvil, Barnabas, 217. 

Mor3m, Robert, 100. 

Moss, Tristram, 129.1131, 133. William, 132. 


Moulson, Joseph, 806. 

Mounier, Jean Joseph, 282 to 284, 288, 289. 

Mount, 483. 

Mountain, William, 166. 

Mowbray, Roger, 106. 

Moxon, Helen, 408. 

Muff, John, 314. Miles, 516. Sarah, 516. 

Murgatroyd, Isaac, 405. Jennet, 407. 

John, 70, 71, 314. Richard, 271, 487. 

Samuel, 71. Sarah, 77. Thomas, 77, 

525. Tobias, 405. 
Murray, 366, 367. 
Musgrave, 129, 132. John, 624, 526. 

Mary, 394. 
Myers (Miers), Elizabeth, 517. John, 409, 

4 1 2. Joseph, 205. Ralph, 5 1 7. 

Naylor (Nailer), Abraham, 126. Alice, 
321, Anne, 626. Anthony, 454. Chris- 
topher, 390. Esther, To. Isabel, 72. 
James, 461, 480 to 485. Jane, 454. 
John, 123. Jonas, 316. Joshua, 414. 
Margaret, 76. Martha, 524. Matthew, 
72, 75. Richard, 74, 477, 483 to 489, 
524. R., 473, 474. Thomas, 76. Walter, 
76, 165. William, 414, 526. 

Neale, John Preston, 66 

Neile, Richard, 102, 416. 

Nerva, 873. 

Nesse, Christopher, 461, 463. Mehetabel, 

Ketherwood, Cornelius, 524. John, 156. 
Mary, 524. Samuel, 162. Sarah, 520. 
William, 156. 

Nettleship, 380. 

Nettleton, 429. Henry, 132. 

Neville (Nephill), 484. Henry, 107. Hugh, 
148. Margaret, 167. Richard, 167. 

Newby (Nubie), Grace, 314. Hester, 316, 
320. WiUiam, 314, 316, 320, 488. 

Newcastle, earl, 417, 509. 

Newcome, 437. 

Newell (Newall), Anne, 76. George, 68. 
Grace, 165. John, 68, 3 1 9, 476, 520, 52 1 . 
Joyce, 76. Michael, 520. Richard, 314. 
Thomas, 76. WiUiam, 819. 

Newport, Thomas, 62. viscount, 62. 

Newton, 339. 

Nichols (NichoUs), Abraham, 126. Edom, 
318. Elizabeth, 166, 407. Grace, 71, 
410,519. Isaac, 410. John, 71 to 73, 
78, 126, 127, 132, 161, 410,414. Joseph, 
407. Josias, 166, 474, 477, 484, 516. 
Mary, 410. Rebecca, 516. Sarah, 408. 
Thomas, 78. William, 74. widow, 162. 

Noake, William, 44. 

Noble, John, 440. 

Norfolk, duke, 500, 501. 

North, Roger, 61. 

Northrop (Northroppe), Grace, 268 to 271. 
Jeremy, 263, 265, 268 to 271, 410, 523. 
John, 68, 70, 75, 80, 255 to 275. Jonas, 

517. Margaret, 165, 411. Maria, 166. 
Michael, 411,516. Sarah, 71. WiUiian, 
160, 166, 255 to 263, 481. 

Norton, Margaret, 409. William, 70, 100, 

126, 129. 
Norwood, 531. 
Nostradamus, 532. 
Nowell, Alexander, 205. 
Nugent, lord, 455. 

Dates (Otes), 470, 472. Abraham, 70. 

Alice, 165. John, 74, 320. Jonas, 166. 

Mary, 167. Matthew, 73, 167, 820. 

Susan, 70, 75. Titus, 61. widow, 161. 
Oddy. Isabel, 405 Richard, 124, 405, 524. 

Samuel, 524. 
Ogden. Abraham, 75, 164. Alice, 164. 

Jane, 164. Thomas, 164, 317. 
Ogilby, 241. 

Oglethorpe, Elizabeth, 1 10 William, 110. 
Okden. Thomas, 101. 
Okell, John, 101. 

Oldfield, Edward, 607. widow, 477. 
Onswini, HI. 
Orange, prince, 827. 
Orbitalis, M. Nantonius, 869. 
Ord, 330. 

Orl^ns, duke, 286, 296. 
Orosius, 400. 

Osbaldiston, Frances, 509. John^ 509. 
Osric, king. 111. 
Overend, Christopher, 127. 
Owram, 148. 
Oxengate, John, 490. 
Oxon, David, 100. 

Padget, Thomas, 408. 

Paley, John, 510. 

Palmer, Charles, 304. 

Parish, William, 113 

Parker, 470, 471. Barbara, 804. Frances. 
832. Robert, 409 William, 804. 

Parkin, Abraham, 407, 522. 

Parkinson, Bartholomew, 68, 74, 164. 
Bernard, 320, 407. David, 324, 410, 
477, 485, 487, 490, 518, 544. John, 80, 

518. Mary, 517, 622. Richard. 464. 
Robert, 544. Susan, 74. 

Parsons, Edward, 104. 

Paslew (Pasley), Alexander, 25. Frances, 
625. Francis, 25. George, 25. Isabel, 
70. Stephen, 625. Thomas, 25. Walter, 
23 to 25. WiUiam, 318. 

Patrick, WiUiam, 824. 

Patterson, Joseph, 328. WiUiam, 323. 

Pattison, WiUiam, 522. 

Pawson, WiUiam, 1 27. 

Pearson (Pierson), 128. Alice, 823. Anne, 
164,521. Christopher, 405. EUzabeth, 
452. Grace, 405. James, 418. John, 
68, 76. 79, 181 to 133, 164, 323, 41 1. Mary, 
822, 521. Michael, 828. Richard, 160, 


405, 408. Robert, 69, 816, 828. Sarah, 
79. Tempest, 68. Thomas, 528. William, 
317,408, 617, 521. 
Peat, Bobert, 464. 
Pbckover, Edmund, 175, 178. 
Peel, Thomas. 521, 524. William, 444. 
PembertoD, Fi-aucis, 488 to 490. 
Pennington, Henry, 318. William, 318. 
Pepjs, Samuel, 532, 638, 636, 537. 
Percy, earla, 141. 
Perrot, Richard, 487. 
Peterborough, lord, 582. 
Peterson, E. P., 7, 8. 
Petet^ 450. 

Phenick, Bartholomew, 162 
Philippeauz, Pierre, 280. 
Phillip, James, 519, 522, 523. John, 75. 

Robert, 75, 163. widow, 162. 
PhiUips, 101,210,888. 
Pichegru, Charles, 281, 290, 294, 296, 297, 

299, 808. 
Pickaid, Agnes, 318. Christopher, 405. 
Jasper, 318, 520. Margaret, 405. Mary, 

407. Peter, 80, 407. Richard, 405. 
Bobert, 521. Timothy, 76. William, 

76, 79. widow, 161. 

Pickering, James, 161. John, 168, 461 
Robert, 33 1 . Timothy, 529. 

PickersgUl, Thomas, 480, 481. 

Pickup, John, 75. 

Pighills (Pighells), Abraham, 122. Eliza- 
beth, 80. Esther, 74. Grace, 162. 
John, 69, 74. Joseph, 126. Martha, 
404. Mary, 69, 405. Richard, 405. 
Robert, 80. Thomas, 266 to 268, 487. 

Pigott, Anne, 506, 507. Bartholomew, 506. 

Pilklngton, John, 492. Lionel, 170. Mar- 
garet, 492. 

Pinder, Elizabeth, 824. Jeremy. 168. 
Robert, 168. 

Piper, 444. 

Pitt-Rirers, 402, 403. 

Pitt, William, 272 to 274. 

Plot, 841. 

Pole, Arthur, 494. 

Pollard, Alice, 76. Christopher, 483, 
489. George, 72, 75, 168, 167. Grace, 

77. iHelen, 76. Henry, 70. James, 

408. John, 67, 124, 167, 813, 521, 526. 
Joseph, 123. Joshua, 167. Margaret, 

75. Maria, 79, 164. Martin, 70. Mary, 
161, 814, 324. Nicholas, 128. Richard, 
124,126. Robert, 164,411,418. Samuel, 

76, 164. Susan, 79. Timothy, 123. 
William, 64, 67, 79, 123. 124, 155, 162, 
167, 814, 406, 516, 521, 524. 

Poole, James, 181. John, 124. 
Popplewell, Martha, 522. 
Portland, duke, 281, 295, 801. 
Portsmouth, duchess, 585, 586. 
Povey, Thomas, 582. 
Powell, Francis Sharp, 445. 

Power, Henry, 49, 50. John, 49, 50. 

Poyntz, Francis, 494. 

Pratt, Alice, 628. Francis, 406, 517. 

Joseph, 406. 
Precy, count, 290. 
Preston, Anne, 315. Edward, 78, 316, 318. 

John, 486, 525. John Emmanuel, 306, 

308. WiUiam, 100. W. E., 306, 308. 
Pride, 425. 
Priestley, Grace, 79. John, 79. Jonas, 

160. Joseph, 208, 466. Joshua, 160. 
Priestman, 866. Edward, 1 1 6. Frederick, 

116. John, 118, 
Procter. Elizabeth, 404. Henry, 407. 

James, 454. John , 165. Matthew, 4 1 0. 

Rebecca, 74. Sarah, 410. WiUiam, 74, 

160. 165, 40*, 407. 
Prussia, prince Henry, 296. 
Ptolemy, Claudius, 336, 337, 846, 849. 
Pudsey, John, 147. Mai-garet. 147. 
Pullan, John, 518. Judith, 815. Martha, 

816. Mary, 405. Roger, 316, 405. 

Sarah. 165. Susanna, 409. Thomas, 

164. William, 164, 165,315. 406, 408, 409. 
Purdue, Thomas, 132. 

Radcliffe, John, 819. Roger, 319. 
Ragge, Agnes, 41 1 . Richard, 411,414. 
Rainsborough, 424. 

Ramsbottom. Francis, 128. Henry, 162. 
Ramsden (Rommysden), 129,496. John,424, 

445. Robert, 64. Thomas, 126. WiUiam, 

16 to 19, 123, 404. widow, 525. 
Randall, Benjamin, 129. Frank, 188. 
Raper, George, 133. 
Rastrick. 148. 
Ratcliffe, 483. 

Rathband, Nathaniel, 487. William, 437. 
Rawden, Barbara, 164. Elizabeth, 166. 

George, 381. William, 164, 166. 
Rawlinson, Richard, 79. 
Rawson, Anne, 405. Jeremiah, 138. Joseph, 

163. Lawrence, 315, 408. 409, 414. 

Robert, 69. Susan, 69. Thomas, 69, 

412. T. W., 138. William, 69, 102, 

161, 162. 815. 323, 390, 391, 894, 895, 405, 

412,516. widow. 161. 
Rawstorne, W. S., 188. 
Ray, 352. 
Rayner (Reyner), 466. Alice, 814. EUza- 

beth, 78. George, 69, 73. Grace, 517. 

John, 167, 168, 412. Lionel, 156, 167, 

814. Simeon, 8. Susan, 165. 409. 

Timothy. 168. William, 165. Zachary, 

126, 168. 
Redhead (Reddld), John, 365. 
Redman, 209, 210. 
Redrop, George, 324. Mary, 324. 
Reeves, Jonathan, 276. 
Rendall, William, 410. 526. 
Render, 62. 
ReveUi^re T. M., 298. 


Rhodes. (Roads, Roodes), 212 to 214, 338. 

Abraham, 32, 83, 516. Alice, 518. 
Anne, 406. David. 124, 413. Edmund, 

413. Elizabeth. 165. Ellen, 165. 

Francis, 322. Isaac, 487. James, 409. 

John, 165, 820, 406, 411. 515, 623. 

Joseph. 64. Matthew, 822,521. Richard, 

124. Sarah, 214. Thomas. 490. 620. 

William, 101, 166, 406, 490, 515. 
Richardson, 247. Christopher, 436. Dorcas, 

434,488. Edward, 434. Elizabeth, 522. 

Mary, 406. Richard, 12.% 130, 168, 181, 

184, 322, 323,406, 517, 519, 522. Sarah, 

822. Susanna, 316, 522. Thomas, 161, 

168. 322, 323. William, 79, 160, 163. 
Richmond, duke, 496. 
Riddiough (Ridihough). widow, 124. 
Riddlesden, Richard, 74, 406. Samuel, 74. 
Riding, James, 157. 
Rigby, Gilbert, 130. 
Rigg, Charles, 68. Elizabeth, 518. John, 

166, 618. Ruth, 166. 
Riley, Abraham, 523. 
Ripon, marquis, 530. 
Rish worth (Rishforth), 14. Isaac, 78. 

John. 126, 314. 315. Jonathan, 78. 

Mary. 406. Robert, 67. Thomas, 78, 

159, 516. widow, 79. 
Roade. Edward, 78. Nicholas, 78 Thomas, 

Robard, Cuthbert, 521. Elizabeth. 405. 

Richard, 74, 516, 522, 524. Tempest, 

76. William, 26, 76. 
Robbins, Alfred F.. 4. 
Roberts, 247, 488. Brian, 30, 31. William, 

Robertshaw (Robertshay). 496. Anne, 526. 

Bridget, 322. John, 165, 817. Jonas, 

520. Jonathan. 821. Joseph, 79, 316. 

Joshua, 166. Lawrence. 68. Michael, 

67. Susan, 74. William, 315, 817, 479. 
Robertson, Alexander, 436. 
Robespierre, 288. 

Robinson, Alice, 73. Edward, 414. Eliza- 
beth, 819. Grace. 318. Henry, 168. 

John, 125, 623. Judith, 126. Margaret, 

626. Martha, 411. Mary, 519. Peter, 

414. Phoebe, 68. Robert, 123, 411. 

William, 162, 209. widow, 68, 162. 
Robeon, 133. 
Rodes, Edward, 427. Elizabeth, 508. 

Francis. 608. 
Rodgers (Rogers), Cuthbert, 394. Joseph, 

Rodley, Jane, 72. Tempest, 72. William, 

Roe, Thomas, 480. 
Roger, John, 133. 
Roll, baron, 294. 
Rood, 481. 
Rookes, 66. Barbara, 626. Elizabeth, 

626. Jeremiah, 324. John, 122, 130. 

Nicholas, 157. Robert, 81 7, 525. William, 

21, 22,58, 101, 102,519. 
Root, Henry, 332, 461. Timothy, 332. 
Roper, Elizabeth, 322. John, 166. 
Ros, Robert, 107. 
Rose, 412. 

Ross, lord, 496. Percival, 9. 
Rossendale (Rosindale), Grace, 72. Simeon, 

Rosslyn, lord, 279. 
Roundell, 209. Daniel, 184, 188. 
Rowe, Elizabeth, 318. John, 318. Thomas, 

Rowland, Thomas, 490. 
Roy, 361, 366. 

Royds (Roides), Mary, 73. Matthew, 168. 
Rufinus, Lucius D., 374. 
Rufus, WilUam, 400. 
Rupert, prince, 419. 
Rush worth, John, 511. 
Russell, John, 456. 
Russhton, Geoffrey, 503. 
Ruston, Mary, 465. 

Sagar, Hannah, 406. Henry. 621. James, 
319, 898. 405, 412. John, 123, 271, 413, 
626. Martha, 319. Mary, 813. William, 
123. widow, 69. 

St. Charman, 437. 

St. Germans, lord, 277. 

St. John, Oliver, 428. 

Sale. James, 59, 161. 427. Mrs , 131,132.160. 

Sandall, Benjamin, 128. Joshua, 128. 

Sanderson, Francis, 414. Hugh, 324, 407, 

411. John, 411. Joseph, 324. Mary, 407. 
Sands, widow, 129. 

Sandys, 380. 

Santerre, Antoine J., 288. 
Sapinaud, 280. 

Sarginson, Richard, 128. Thomas, 129. 
Saunders, Thomas, 487. 
Saunderson, Nicholas, 463. 
Savile, Elizabeth, 389, 891, 392. George, 
59, 234, 889, 891, 392, 483, 507. Henry, 

412, 495 to 501, 510. John, 25, 605. 
Robert, 412. 

Sawley, Hugh, 489. 

Sawrey, Faith, 64. 

Sawsree, John, 162, 168. 

Saxton, Elizabeth, 824. 

Sayers, 246, 249. 

Scale, George, 409. 

Scarborough, Judith, 464. William, 490. 

Scarr, James, 324. Thomas, 824. 

Scarsdale, earl, 109. 

Scatcherd, Norrisson, 26. 

Schmid, 400. 

Schofield, John, 152. 

Scholefield, Richard, 414. 

Scholes, John, 157. 

Scholey, Robert, 480, 486. 

Schomberg, 627. 


Soott, Annabella, S05. James, 806. John, 
266, 411. 413, 619. Margaret, 411. 
Matthew, 162. Bichard, 323, 621. 
Sootua, ICarianiis, 400. 
Scipgga, 62. 

Sdope, Sleanor, 605. John, 606. 
Scniton, William, 7 to 10, 6«. 
Seeker, archbishop, 463 
Seebohm, Benjamin, 113 to 116, 119, 121. 
Esther, 116. Frederick, 113, 114, 116, 
]l9to 121. Henry, 113, 114, 116toll8. 
Hugh, 121. Maria, 118. 
Seed, Jane, 519. William, 161. 
SeedhiU, Roger, 71. 
Selhy, John, 76. Mary, 76. 
Ser^Tia, 367. 
Settle, Henry, 166. 
Sevems, emperor, 863. 
Sewell, A. B., 8. 
Shackleton, Elizabeth, 409. George, 409, 

412. Richard, 166. William, 409. 

Sharp (Sharpe), 20, 478, 479. Abraham, 

133, 161 . 409. C. S. B , 112. Edward, 

163, 515. Elizabeth, 407, 411, 621. 

Grace, 165. Isaac, 320, 407, 411, 412, 

521. James, 16 to 19, 80, 616, 621. 

Jane, 168. John, 76, 77, 99, 123, 126, 

167, 333, 406, 408, 488, 618. Joseph, 

80,316. Joyce, 618. Maria, 166. Mary, 

320, 406. Bichard, 161. Susanna, 412. 

Thomas, 80, 124, 166, 387, 436, 477, 

482 to 485, 616, 622. William, 80, 167, 

320, 521, 624. widow, 623. 

Shaw (Shawe), Barnard, 603 Benjamin, 

165. John. 427, 439. Joseph, 409, 623. 

Susanna, 622. Thomas, 477. 

Sbaw-LefeTre, George John, 9. H. F., 

305. Sophia Emma, 306. 
Sheafield, John, 168, 316. Mary, 316. 

Bichaid, 168. 
Sheardown, William, 369. 
Sbepfield, Thomas, 138. 
Shepley, Joshua, 413. Bobert, 162. 
Sherbimi,422. Alice, 492. Bichard, 492. 
Bhere, 637. 
Sherwen, 631. 
Shires, Andrew, 319. (George, 167, 820. 

Grace, 321. John, 819, 321, 412. 
Shore (Shooer), Anne, 72. Bobert, 72, 

411, 616. 
Shorte, James, 36, 161. widow, 163. 
Shnttleworth, Nicholas, 610. 
Siddall (Seedell), Joshua, 464. Boger, 

Sidley, Bobert, 481. 
Sidmouth, lord, 281. 
Sill, H., 360. 
Silson, William, 127. 
Sim, Bichard, 164, 166. Thomas, 166. 
Simms, 184. 
Simon, Margaret, 488. 
Simplex, Feliclus, 876. 

Simpson, Amy, 304. Henry, 322. John, 
27,28,129. Bichard, 129. Stephen, 304. 

Sizer (Seizer), Agnes, 616. Elizabeth, 626. 
Bichard, 133, 616. Thomas, 408. 

Skaife, 370, 378. 

Skelton, Thomas, 236. 

Skevington, T. W., 8, 

Skinn, Henry, 436. Margaret, 466. 

Skirrow. George, 130. widow, 180. 

Slater, Agnes, 316. Anthony, 129. John, 
180. Lawrence, 128. Mercy, 130. Bobert, 
406. Sarah, 71. Thomas, 71, 180, 816. 

Sleddall, Thomas, 124, 126. 

Smallpage, Anne, 160. DaTid,626. John, 
76, 169. Mary, 408. Samuel, 125, 814, 
319, 406, 410, 620, 622, 626. Thomas, 79. 

Smallwood, Thomas, 461. 

Smeaton, John, 176. 

Smiles, Samuel, 169. 

Smith (Smythe), Anne, 68, 410. Anthony, 
76, 78. Averah, 410, 616. Christopher, 
833,406,412. Daniel, 406. David, 126, 
Ecroyd, 380. Edmond, 77, 160. Eliza- 
beth, 76,411. Elkanah. 411. Ellen, 73. 
Francis, 169, 160,623. Grace, 69. Henry, 
77, 322, 384 to 387 Hester, 167. Hugh, 
78,314. H.B.,882. laac, 620. James, 
160, 320, 406. Jane, 72, 617, 620. 
Jeremiah, 406. John, 32, 122, 126, 131, 
133, 163, 166, 209, 213, 412, 486, 489, 498, 

617, 621, 624. Jonas, 78, 166, 406. 
Joseph, 217. Judith, 160. Margaret, 
74, 412. Maria, 166. Martha, 406. 
Mary, 161, 406, 624. Matthew, 74. 
Nathaniel, 620. Bichard, 168, 161, 164, 
814, 323, 411. Bobert, 69, 407, 626. 
Samuel, 70, 406. Sarah, 418. Susanna, 
624. Thomas, 71, 132, 413. William, 
25, 31, 68, 69, 144, 169, 167, 212 to 214, 
267, 408, 460, 498, 624, 626. widow. 126. 

Smithers, John, 824. 

Smithies, Anne, 317. John, 168, 316, 409, 

411. Martha, 411. Bobert, 79, 164. 

Sarah, 168. Thomas, 817. 
Snipe, Mary, 616. Sarah, 80. William, 

80, 616. 
Snowden, Anne, 78. James, 474, 476, 478 

to 483, 621. John, 78, 161, 490. Peter. 

78, 161, 162. Beuben, 164, 168. 
Sotheran, Grace, 626. 
Sotingsta^ Phosbe, 616. Samuel, 516. 
South, Elizabeth, 609. John, 509. 
Sowden, Elizabeth, 69. George, 87. 

Humphrey, 411. Jeremy, 126, 127,166. 

John, 9, 10, 166, 626. Joseph, 126. 

Margaret-, 414. Mary, 316. Matthew, 

76,412,621. Michael, 71, 619. Susan, 

314. Thomas, 314, 316. William, 76, 

127, 406, 414, 476. widow, 322. 
Sowerbutte, 68. 
Speight, E. E., 134. Harry, 254. Helen, 

618. James, 161. William, 618. 


Spencer (Spenser), Jeremy, 30, 31. John, 

122. Mary, 520. Robert. 520. Thomas, 

Spofford, John, 440. 
Spratt, Peter, 160. 
Squire, Elizabeth, 166. John, 412. Michael 

80. Thomas. 166, 412. 
Stables, 131, 132. Thomas, 128. WiUiam, 

StancUffe,John,71. Martha, 409. Richard, 

67, 74, 160, 409. Samuel, 70, 77, 316. 

Susan, 71, 74. William, 73. 
Stanfeld, James, 497. 
Stanhope. 129, 138, 139. 210,277,471.483. 

John, 27, 64, 126, 127, 181, 184, 326, 827, 

893, 471. Margaret, 826. Richard, 155. 

409, 411. Sarah, 409. Susan. 126. 

Walter, 184. 206. William, 181. 
Stansfield, Anna, 63. Joshua. 64. Robert. 

63, 64, 213. 
Stansford, Mary, 523. 
Stapleton, Olave, 826. Robert, 326. 
Starkie, Edmund, 212 to 214. Joseph, 

321, 322, 515. Joshua, 407. Mary, 321, 

Staveley, MUes, 212 to 214. 
St^ Alice, 76. Anne, 314. Bridget, 70. 

Ehzabeth. 322 to 324. Gilbert, 128 

Humphrey, 313. Isaac, 124. Jeremiah, 

476, 477. John, 71, 129, 321, 490. 

John James, 511, 514. Margaret, 313. 

Matthew, 70, 75, 476. Nicholas, 324, 

414, 523. Richard, 69, 70, 321, 524. 

Robert. 124. Thomas, 317,322. William, 

128, 128. 314. 
Stephen, king, 898, 402, 492. 
Stephenson, Elizabeth, 410. John, 319. 

William, 315, 410 
Stevens, John, 487. 
Stevenson, Grace, 74, 323. Jane, 71. 

John, 74, 828. Thomas, 520. William, 

Steward, Thomas, 416. 
Stockdale, Abraham, 166. Alice, 411. 

Mary, 413. Samuel, 166. 
Stocks, John, 815. Matthew, 72. Michael, 

51, 445. William, 316. 
Stones, Grace, 79. Richard, 79. 
Stott, 139. 
Stowe, John, 478. 
Strafford, Thomas, 502. William, 109, 

Strateburell, Richard, 101. 
Streng, William, 152. 
Stretton, 462. 

Stringer, John, 315. Ralph, 315, 321. 
Stubley, George, 154, 166. John, 157, 168. 

Thomas, 157. 
Stukeley, William, 836, 343, 346 to 848, 

350, 859, 860, 377, 881. 
Sturdy, widow, 123. 
Sturges, John, 588 to 540. 

Stutcville, William, 107. 

Sucksmith, John, 125. 

Sugden, Agnes, 159. Bridget, 322. Chris- 
topher, 79, 159, 518. Grace, 323. 
Humphrey, 412. Isabel, 5 18. Jeremiah, 
412. John, 70, 123, 159, 164, 217, 319, 
322, 406, 481 to 490, 502, 517. 520, 525. 
Jonas, 406. Margaret, 316, 519. Mary, 
169, 319, 323. Peter, 519. Richard, 
133, 316, 518, 521. Robert, 266, 407. 
Samuel 323, 413. Susannah, 3 18. Sybil, 
407. Thomas, 314, 323, 408, 413. 
William, 70. 138, 168, 318, 323. widow, 

SummergiU, William, 486. 

Summerscale, Robert. 518, 523. 

Sunderland, Grace, 73. Jane, 168. Mar- 
garet^ 405. Mary, 409. Michael, 168, 
405, 517, 519. Peter, 409, 482, 483. 
Richard, 14, 519. Samuel, 271. 

Superus, Aurelius, 376. 

Surrey, earl, 495 to 497. 

Sussex, lord, 500. 

Sutcliffe,496. Abraham, 409. Bridget, 412. 
Hester, 76. John, 318. Matthew, 412. 
Richard, 412 Robert, 76. 

Suwarow, general, 302. 

Swaine, Abraham, 162, 318. 407. Anne, 
409. Benjamin, 129, 130. Christopher, 
68, 79, 164, 406, 407. Edward, 180, 517. 
Elizabeth, 129, 130, 409. 516. Grace, 

71, 164. James, 71, 72, 160, 162, 476, 
477, 484, 526. John, 129, 130, 517 
Jonas, 405. Judith, 72. Martha, 320. 
Mary, 122. 407. 523. Robert, 79, 129, 
266 to 268, 412. Samuel, 79, 127, 129 
to 131, 268. Sarah, 407. Thomas. 314, 
320, 407, 409, 414. William, 79, 162, 
318, 516, 523. widow, 126. 

Swallow, Sarah, 162. William, 162. 

Sweyn, 398. 

Swift, Abraham, 80, 168, 313. Edward, 

72. Elizabeth. 168. Helen. 71. Isaac, 
486, 526. John, 80. 314, 407, 482, 486, 
49iJ. Mary, 313, 525. Susanna, 408. 
William, 70, 71, 408. widow, 518. 

Swire, 209, 210. Roger, 213. 
Swithenbank, 443. 
Sydney, Philip, 826. 

Sykes, Daniel, 409. Jonathan, 217. Moses, 

Tacitus, 337, 388. 

Talbot, Thomas, 498. 

Talleyrand, 278. 

Tangye, Richard, 426. 

Tanker, Anne, 521. William, 521. 

Tankersley, Alice, 319. 

Tarlton, J., 195. 

Tasker, Jonas, 490. 

Tatham, 118. 

Tattersall, Nicholas, 153. 


Taylor (Toiler), 440. Abraham, 621. 
Anne, 319. Barbara, 72. Chrigtopher, 
iOl. 102. Elisabeth, 162, 167, 413. 
Ezekiel, 72. George, 2, 3. Hester, 73. 
Isaac, .521. James, 132. John, 147, 
319,413. John Thomas, 387. Jonathan, 
129. Lawrence, 101. L7dia,319. Mary, 
159, 414. Nathaniel, 167, 410, 412. 
Richard, 73, 162, 407. Robert, 485,486, 
519. R.V., 108, 109. Samuel, 07, 72, 
319, 412, 476, 477. Simon, 167. Susan, 
167. Walter, 414, 522. William, 426. 
widow, 159, 160. 

Tempest, 148, 209, 491 to 611. Alice, 492, 
601, 505. Anne, 501, 504 to 507. 
Beatrice, 602, 504. Charles, 509. 
ChriKtopber,60l. Clifton, 509. Eleanor, 

505. EUzabeth, 502, 505, 506, 508, 509. 
B.Blanche, 491, 514. Frances, 508, 509. 
Frances Warde, 508. George, 501. 
Grace, 494. Helen, 501. Henry, 501, 
.502. Isabel, 504. James. 505. Jane, 
501, 50.5, 509. John, 492, 498, 501 to 

506. Lester, 508. Margaret, 492. 
Margery, 505. Nicholas, 492, 498, 499 to 
501, 504 to 506. Piers, 494. Richard, 
101, 168, 387, 413, 491 to 502, 605. 507 
to 513, 549, 5.50. Robert, 501, 506, 507. 
Rosamond, 491, 49.3, 501 to 503, 505, 
512. Stephen, 413. Thomas, 491 to 
493, 499, 501, 508, 508. Tristram, 501. 
Troath, 508. Walter, 102. 

Temiant, Anne, 407. Oswald, 407. 

Thackeray, Thomas, 133. 

Thanet, lord, 190, 209. 

Thomas, Abraham, 74. Dinah, 74. John, 
70. 72. Jonas, 122. Jonathan, 486. 
Richard, 68. Robert, 68. Sarah, 72. 
WiUiam, 80. 

Thompson, 132, 133. Alice, 145, 146. 
Christopher, 390. Edmond, 72. Isabella, 
145. James, 126. John, 128, 166. 
Jonathan, 489, 541 to 544. Joseph, 166. 
Lambert, 529. Margery, 145, 146 
Thomas, 482 William. 127, 390. 
Thoresby, Ralph, 326, 332, 833, 356, 433, 

Thomhill, John. 472. 
Thomour, Margaret, 138. Robert, 138. 

Thomas, 138. 
Thornton, 2. Abraham, 818. Alice, 817. 
Amos, 78. Anne, 318. Christopher, 75, 
79. David, 321. Hannah, 168. Isabel, 
128, 316. James, 73. 78, 123, 814, 318, 
413. John, 7, 8, 10, 128, 161, 515 to 
317, 410, 413 489, 520. Jonas, 71. 
Margaret, 410. Matthew. 322. Richard, 
37,168,313,410. Robert, 315. Samuel, 
123,124. Susanna, 73, 316,317. Thomas, 
162, 164, 318, 321, 487. WiUiam, 27, 71, 
161, 163, 181, 184, 314, 817, 318, 322. 
widow, 168. 

Thorpe, Alice, 72. Elizabeth, 1 10. Francis, 
109, 110. Jeremy, 72, 73, 162. John, 73. 

Threapland, 49. Edwanl, 478, 480, 482 
to 484. Gilbert, 73, 75. James, 122. 
Joseph, 473, 474, 476, 478. Sarah, 73. 
Susan, 75. 

Tichborne, A. J.. 305. Theresa Mary. 305. 

TidsweU. John, 411. 

Tillotson, archbishop, 435. 

Tindali, Thomas, 210. 

Tinkler, Thomas, 146. 

Tippoo Saib, 296. 

Tiviot, earl, 528, 630, 585. 

Todd, Cornelius, 334, 434. Robert, 327, 
328, 334, 427, 434. Thomas, 387 to 389. 

Tomkinson, William, 189. 

Tomlinson, Stephen, 517. 

Tommis, Abraham, 4 1 4, 526 James, 411, 
520. John, 413, 520. 

Tong, 148. David, 149. Elizabeth, 75. 
Esholf, 149. Hugh, 149. John, 144, 
145, 147, 149, 152, 153. Richard, 145, 
148, 149. Thomas, 147, 149. William, 
75, 144, 145, 147, 149, 151. 

Tonington, Robert, 100. 

Tonson, 110. 

Topcliffe, John, 461. 

Tortloff, Grace, 528. John, 123. 

Torrington, baron, 62. 

Trajan, emperor, 369, 373. 

Tranan, Mary, 478. 

Troughton, Cecily, 413. 

Trumbull, 537. 

Tuke, 118. 

Turner, Charles, 278. David, 412. Eliza- 
beth, 62, 321. George, 71, 412, 414. 
Grace, 414. John, 133, 151, 321, 407. 
John Horsfall, 7, 8, 10, 137, 252, 366, 
460. J. W. 8. Joseph, 316. Joshua, 
71. Mercy, 321. Tobias. 407. 

Turton, Thomas, 415. 

Tyas (Tias), Edward, 319. John, 406. 
Rose, 819. 

Tyersal, Thomas, 146. 

Tyler, Wat, 144. 

Ulcote, Philip, 108. 

Underwood, Richard, 145. 

Utley, Andrew, 72. Bryan, 72. Grace, 72. 

Uxbridge, lord, 443. 

Vane. Harry, 418. 

Varley, Bilsber, 76. 

Verdon, John, 497. 

Verity, Richard, 818. 

Vernon, William, 390. 

Verus, 364. 

Vescy, Eustace, 107. 

Vespasian, emperor, 341. 

Vickers (Viccars). Alice, 1 64. Anne, 626, 
Dorothy. 165. Edward. 164. James, 
73, 126. Jane, 525. John, 71, 75, 76, 


127, 129, 165. Joseph, 127, 129, 816. 

Margaret, 76. Martha, 78. Mary, 406. 

Mercy, 75. Robert, 165, 411, 517. Sarah, 

Virgo, Charles G., 7. 
Volusianus, C. V.. 353, 354, 360, 361. 

Waddington. 210, 331. Edward, 122. 
Joseph, 124. John. 485,490. William, 503. 

Wade, 129, 277. Abraham, 161, 162. 
Bridget, 161. 

Wadsworth, John, 404. Samuel, 160, 323. 

Wainman, 209. William, 181, 184, 198. 

Wainwright, John, 32. 

Wakefield, 190. 

Wales, Benjamin, 516. Elkanah, 59, 329, 
334, 427, 433. John, 433. 

Walkden, Catherine, 454. Peter, 454. 

Walker, 422, 437, 440, 496. Abraham, 409. 
Alice, 313, 319, 320. Anne, 166, 322, 
518. Barbara. 322. Edward, 74, 159, 
166. 167, 319, 411. Elizabeth, 74, 314. 
Godfrey, 411. Grace, 165, 166, 316, 411. 
Henry, 413. Hester, 159. Isabel, 320. 
James, 69. Jane, 522. Jeremiah, 524. 
John, 72, 75, 77, 129, 157, 158, 162, 164, 
166, 316, 408, 410, 519, 524. J. A., 105. 
J. K., 356. J. W., 399. Jonas, 74, 407, 
412. Jonathan, 70, 524. Joshua, 64. 
Margaret, 164. 166. Mary, 403, 520. 
Mercy, 526. Nicholas, 405, 410. Richard, 
153, 165 to 157, 314, 517, 518, 520, 524. 
Sarah, 72, 814, 316. Susanna, 410. 
Thomas, 167, 165. 166, 320, 322, 328, 
409, 490. WiUiam, 20, 72, 79, 158, 818, 
322, 408, 413. 624, 526. W. T., 358. 
widow, 123, 162. 

Wallis, Anne, 318. Miles, 818, 525. Philip, 

w'almsley, 473. Thomas, 71, 413. 

Walpole, Robert, 171. 

Walsh, John, 8«». Richard, 324, 

Walton, Francis, 522. 

Warburton, 240, 246, 249, 250, 254, 335, 
344, 347, 350, 355. James, 67, 69. 
Richard, 125. 

Ward, 350. Anne, 525. Anthony, 64, 69, 
77. Beatrice, 77. Deborah, 517. Frances, 
509. George, 316, 322, 517. Grace, 322. 
John, 5U9. Leonard, 436, 440. Mary, 
317. Richard, 62, 3 17, 412, 525. Samuel, 
69, 490 William, 126 

Wardle, 472. 

Waring, Richard, 127. 

Warren, earls 187, 188. John, 141, 142. 
WiUiam, 142. 

Warwick, William, 128. widow, 128. 

Waterhouse, Alice, 518. Anne, 165. Caleb, 
61. Gregory, 605. Isaac, 70, 619 James, 
73. Jeremiah, 524. John, 70, 78, 76, 165, 
8J4, 321, 408, 618. Jonas, 317, 406, 487. 
Joseph, 487, 518, 620. Judith, 407. 

Mirgery, 506. Nathaniel, 50, 51, 817. 

Robert, 159. Samuel, 321. Stephen, 

4 1 3, 526. Walter, 70, 814. widow. 6 1 6, 
Waters, R. E. C, 460, 452. 
Waterton. Jane, 50 1 . Thomas, 60 1 . 
Watkin, W. T., 240, 246. 336, 388, 846, 

860, 366. Thomas, 406. 
Watkinson, Henry, 67. John, 67. Joshua, 

409. Peter, 2 13. 
Watson, 49, 133. Abraham, 406. Alice, 

813. John, 247, 248, 335, 35.5, 356. 

Jonas, 71. Joshua, 169. Lewis, 71, 159, 

317. William, 77. 
Waugh, Henry, 213. 

Weatherhead, David, 166. Francis, 166. 
Webster, Catherine, 316. Isaac, 74. Isabel^ 

79. James, 78. John, 76, 79, 101, 814, 

324, 407, 517. Jonathan, 477. Mary. 

324, 407. Nathan, 517 Richard, 101, 

482, 483. Thomas, 146, 146. WiUiam, 

78, 161, 486, 490. 
WeddaU, Charles, 63. Edward, 63. John. 

59 to 64, 414, 623. 
Week. Thomas, 486. 
WeUbeloved, Charles, 835, 378, 379. 
Wentworth, Elizabeth, 505. George, 327. 

Margaret, 502. Thomas, 109, 502, 605. 

William, 602. 
Wertheimer, (Charles. 416. 
Wesley, John, 138, 276, 466, 467 
West, Jeremy, 160. John, 163. Martha, 

625. Mary^ 516. Miles, 73. Robert, 

160, 161, 167, 815, 616. Toby, 60, 315, 

481, 484, 490. 
Westerman, (Jeorge, 3 1 7^ 517. 
Weston, 218. WiUiam, 101. 
Westwood, Richard, 518. 
Whalley (Whaley), John, 165, 168, 404. 

Mary, 401. Matthew, 70. Thomas, 70. 
Wharledale, George, 263. 
Wharton, PhUip, 428. 
Whateley, Arthur, 166. 
Whearter, Henry, 168, 406. 
Wheeler, Esther, 116. Joshua, 116. 
Whitaker, GamaUel, 436. John, 240, 247, 

248. 251, 252, 335, 343, 365 to 857, 362, 

363, 422. Thomas, 463. Thomas Dun- 
ham. 326, 898, 399. 
White, 460 AUoe, 5 16, 62 1 . Grace, 4 1 2. 

Hester, 821 John, 321, 418. Jonathan, 

521. Joshua, 78 Mary, 413. Nathan, 

162 Nicholas, 621. Richard, 160, 516. 

Robert, 78. WUliam, 617. widow, 162. 
Whitefield, George, 466. 
Whitefoot. 47, 63, 66. 
Whitehead. Isabel, 71. John, 412. Robert, 

819. Samuel, 124. William, 412. 
Whiteley, Arthur, 68, 161. John, 68. 

Sarah, 70. widow, 68. 
Whiting, Robert, 157, 158. 
Whitley, 122, 133. Christopher, 188. John, 

20, 519. Mary, 20. 


WhitmoTe, Thomas, 474. 
Whittaker, Abraham. 77, 620. Anne, 321, 
518. James, 131, 183, 167, 321, 618, 
522. John, 167, 181. Nathaniel, 125. 
Whittell (Whytyall), Robert^ 19. 
Whittingham, Mary, 167 Robert, 167, 

321. Thomas, 524. 
Whitwham, Anne, 74. John, 74, 405. 

Jonas, 72, 406. Mary, 410. 
Whitworth, Robert, 187, 192, 197. 
Wickbam pedigree, 304. 305. Eleanore 
M., 279, 281, 295, 303. Henry, 112, 181, 
184, 1S8, 205, 276 to 278. WiUiam, 272 
to 305. 
Widdop, Samuel, 328. 
Wiggins, 1 17. 

Wigglesworth, I«abel, 72. William, 72. 
Wight, John, 314. Matthew, 314. 
WUby, John, 490. 
Wild, William, 217. 
Wilden, 131. Anne, 815. John, 518. 

Thurston, 315, 518. 
Wildman, 415. 

Wilkes, Abraham, 164, 316, 320, 414. 
Anne, 320. John, 816. Joshua, 413, 
519, 622. Mary, 519. Sarah, 164, 320, 
324, 407. Thomas, 820, 324, 407. 
William, 414. 
Wilkin, Simon, 60, 52. 
Wilkinson, 49. Abraham, 323, 824. Alice, 
76. Anne, 161, 164, 454. Beatrix, 405. 
Elias, 157. Elizabeth, 161, 521. Ellen, 
164. Francis, 126, 412, 620. George, 
162, 164, 166, 518. Hester, 165. Isaac, 
112. James, 322 Jeremiah, 524. John, 
79, 161, 162, 164, 165, 412, 413,464, 484, 
526. Joseph, 430. Joshua, 413. Leonard, 
647. Lydia,322. Martha, 621. Mary, 
412 Nicholas, 257, 406. Richard, 16, 
78, 162, 313, 412. Robert, 78, 126, 271, 
315,405. Sarah, 78, 406, 518. Thomas, 
161,319,405,412,516,521,524. WiUiam, 
163, 412, 413, 621. widow, 161. 
William I., 142. 
William III., 463. 
Williams, 467, 464. Duke, 529. Henry, 

281. Peter, 432. 
Williamson, Frances, 166. George, 166 
Isabel, 410. Mary, 621. Susanna, 621. 
Thomas, 68. 
Wiknan, Elizabeth, 67. George, 67. Helen, 

74. John, 74, 179, 815. 
WilBden, Abraham, 409. Grace, 409. 

Richaid, 100. 
Wilson, 209. 409. Abraham, 61, 409. 
Anthony, 165. Brian, 69. Edward, 816. 
Elizabeth, 69, 70, 8 17. GUe8.603. Grace, 
161, 410. James, 76. 127, 476, 490. 
Jeremiah, 131. John, 74, 79, 123, 131, 
183, 165, 168, 816, 817 to 319, 824, 406, 

410, 483, 485, 489, 490, 623, 626. Jonas, 
821. Joshua, 79, 460. Martin, 485. 
Mary, 71, 74, 168, 818 Matthew, 186, 
197. Priacilla, 411. Richard, 181, 184, 
197, 205, 817, 319, 626. Robert, 161, 167, 
316, 320, 321, 408. Sarah, 167. Susan, 
815. Thomas, 70, 71, 77, 183, 198. 
William, 113. 163, 323, 324. widow, 77. 

Winceby, William, 100, 101. 

Winder, Josias, 315. 

Windhill, Alexander, 146. John, 147. 
Richard, 147 Stephen, 146. 

Windsor, lord, 534, 586. 

Wise, 182. John, 162. Thomas. 110. 

Wiseman, cardinal, 457. 

Witton, Joshua, 326, 435, 481. widow, 125. 

Wobnch, Hatton, 181. Thomas, 181. 

Wolsey, 15, 25, 495, 498. 

Wombwell, George O., 429. Anne, 429. 

Wood, 470, 474, 478, 480, 483 to 486, 496. 
Alexander, 123. Butler, 9. Grace, 406. 
Henry, 524. Hester. 522. Isabel, 71. 
Jane, 516. Jeremiah, 409. John, 16.S, 
166. Jonas, 413, 516, 518, 622. Joseph, 
409, 622. Margaret, 168. Mary, 62, 
169, 166. Michael, 159. Robert, 164, 
314, 475, 622. Sarah. 413. Thomas, 
476. Timothy, 487. WiUiam, 406. 412, 
621. widow, 160. 

Woodhall, 149. Christiana, 145, 149. 
John, 144, 146, 147, 149, 162. 

Woodhead. James, 522. Jeremiah, 622. 
John, 67,317,414. Jonas, 123 William, 

Woolfit, 490. 

Wooller, Christopher, S 1 4, 624. James, 1 64, 
522. John, 619. Jonas, 314. Joseph, 

Worcester. Florence of, 400. 

Wormall,126. Isaac, 166,410,411. Mary, 
166,411. Michael, 406. 

Worsman, William. 617, 523. 

Wright, 346, 496. John, 67, 80, 123, 503, 
Maria, 166. Matthew, 161. Richard, 
145, 146, 167, 523. Robert, 163, 161. 
166 Sarah, 410. Susan, 72. Thomas, 
49, 51, 145, 146. WiUiam, 72, 405, 624. 
widow, 162. 

Wroot, Herbert E., 10, 68, 470. 

Wye, EUzabeth, 304. WiUiam, 804. 

Wyke, WiUiam, 152. 

WyUe, Thomas, 626, 526. 

Wyndham, WilUam, 272. 

Yarr, John, 69, 128, 164. 
Tates, John, 156. Jude, 7. 
Yeadon, Elizabeth, 71. Richard, 71, 74. 
Yewdall, Zachary, 128 to 130. 
Young. Arthur, 172. Edward, 866. Henry, 
605. WiUiam, 478, 479. 




(Compiled by the Editor.) 

Abbreviations : — B. =s Bradford ; £. «= East Riding ; L. =» Lancashire ; 
M. = Manuingham ; N. =s North Riding ; Y. s= York. 

Aballaba, 364. 

Abbey House, Whitby, 634. 

Aberfonl, 247, 343, 364, 356, 361. 

AbuB river, 337. 

Acker Close, Heaton, 32. 

Aekworth, 436. 

Ackworth Park, 444. 

Addingham. 247. 

Addingham Moor, 368. 

Adel, 247, 250, 323, 328, 367, 360, 362, 383, 

Adel Church, 100, 384, 363. 
Adel Museum, 863. 
Adwalton, 43, 44. 
Adwalton Moor, 417. 
Agbrig wapontakc, 606. 
Agelocum, 342, 368, 369. 
Aimanderly, 867. 
Aire river, 171. 174, 175, 183, 184, 206, 217, 

219, 224, 229, 238 to 235, 250, 366 to 860. 
Airedale, 23, 136, 139, 174, 179, 184, 216. 
Aldborough. 239. 240, 246, 247, 260 to 264, 

837, 343 to 348, 361, 357, 362, 866, 874, 

380 to 383, 451, 452, 606. 
Aldeburge Arms Inn, Aldborough, 382. 
Aldwark. Y., 870. 
Aldwark Ferry, 848. 
Alessandria, 278. 
AUenley, 480, 481. 
Allerton, B., 14, 16, 67 to 71. 78, 74, 76 to 

78, 80, 169, 160, 162, 163, 166 to 168, 266 

to 265, 268, 269, 814 to 322, 324, 404 to 

414^472, 474, 516 to 626, 647. 
All HaUows^ Church, Y., 437, 438. 
All Saints' Church, Pontefract, 485, 436. 
Almondbory, 856, 396 to 408, 486. 

Alnwick, 424. 
Altrincham, 240. 
Alverthorpe, 332, 856. 
Alverthorpe Hall, 488. 
Alwoodley, 505. 
Apley, Salop, 608. 
Apperley Bridge, 188, 165, 234. 
Apperley Close, Birstall, 44. 
Appleby, 496. 
Appleton-le-Street, 867. 
Appletreewick, 606. 
Ardsley, 142. 
Armley, 216. 
Arncliffe, Craven, 136 
Amoldsbiggin, Gisburn, 422. 
Arthington, 827, 381. 
Ashgrove, B , 20. 
Asselby, Howden, 440. 
Aston, Rowen, Oxon, 506. 
AttercUffe, 463. 
Aulnay, Normandy, 399. 
Austerfield, 450. 
Avignon, 283. 

Backside Close, Heaton, 32. 
Baildon, 22, 149, 161, 306 to 812, 488. 
Baildon HiU, 806, 810. 
Baildon Moor, 306 to 312. 
Bainbridge, 847, 888. 
Baitings, Ripponden, 241, 249. 
Balkram Edge, 249. 
Bank Bottom Farm, B., 445. 
Bank House, Pudsey, 384. 
Bank Top, B , 446. 
Banks Croft^ llkley, 261. 
Barbadoes, 304. 


Bardsey, 1 OS to 110. 

Baidsey Grange, 109, 110. 

Barkerend, B., 68. 69, 62, 72, 77, 116, 161, 

Barker LAthe, B., 60. 
Bamby Moor, 349, 350. 
Bamoldswick, 466, 503, 505. 
Bamsley, 440. 
Barrowford, 219. 
Barrowparr, 492. 
Barton, 173. 
Barton-le-Street, 367. 
Bimigh, 366, 383. 
Barwick, 485. 
Baahall, 493. 
Bath, 805. 
Batley, 14, 16. 
Bawtry, 869. 

Bealraper Hall, 492, 494, 501. 
Beaulien Abbey, 108. 
Becca Hall, 305. 
Beckgate, Eccleshill, 155. 
Bedford, 116. 
Bent Close, B., 59. 
Berlin, 281, 290. 
Berne, 282, 288, 293. 295 to 299. 
Berwick, 495 to 497. 
Besan^n, 294, 296. 
Beverley, 337, 465. 

Bierley (Birill, Birle), B., 68. 75, 78 to 80, 
102, 160 to 163, 165, 168, 316, 318, 319, 
322 to 324, 405, 406, 408, 412, 470, 516. 
518 to 620, 523 to 526. 

Bilton. 434. 

Binchester, 336. 345. 

Bingley, 14, 22, 24, 81, 63, 118, 140, 179, 
206, 210 to 219, 225 to 230, 235, 247, 269, 

Bingley Methodist Chapel, 214. 

Bingley School, 212 to 214. 

Binstead Wyck, 308. 

Birkbatts, Idle, 390, 391. 

Birkenhead, 174. 

Birkin, 437. 

Birks, B., 102, 384. 

Birks Lane, B., 249. 

Birmingham, 198, 231. 

Birstall, 83, 85, 37, 44, 78, 148, 161, 516. 

Bishop Auckland, 336. 

Biturix, 377. 

Black Bull Inn, Burnley, 194, 196, 204, 208. 

Blackburn, 181. 

Black Carr, B., 69. 

Black Castle Beck, 242. 

Black Hey, Calverley, 76. 

Black Horse Inn, Skipton, 204, 205. 

Black Lane, 254. 

Black Enowle, 246. 

Blackley Chapel, 437. 

Blackstone Edge, 1 74, 194. 239 to 248, 252, 
840, .342, 848, 357. 

Blatum Belgium, 851. 

Blubberhonse Moor, 252. 

Blubberhouses, 252, 253. 

Blue Ball Lanes, 249. 

Boar Lane, Leeds, 464. 

Boldshay Hall, B., 448. 

Bolham, 829. 

Bolland, 63, 494. 

Boiling Hall, B., 66, 77, 101, 491 to 614. 

Boiling lonlship, 102. Bolton. B., 70, 72, 
113, 144, 158, 161, 315, 816, 818 to 320, 
322 to 324, 406, 407, 41 1, 470. 

Bolton Abbey, 16. 

Bolton Hall, E , 349. 

Bolton House, B., 114. 

Bolton Manor, 434. 

Bolton Old Hall, B., 471. 

Bolton, N., 505. 

Bolton Percy, 304. 

Bootham Bar, Y., 848, 871, 872. 

Bootham School, Y., 116. 

Boothman Close, Birstall, 44. 

Bootle, 174. 

Bordeaux, 531. 

Borougbbridge, 9, 264, 348, 424. 

Borough Hill, Aldborough, 881. 

Boston, U.S.A., 461. 

Bounder Stones, 247. 

Bowes, 343, 844, 346, 351, 852, .358, 383. 

Bowl Alley Lane, Hull, 466. 

Bowling, B., 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 64, 67 to 70, 
72 to 80, 160 to 168, 180, 818 to 824, 394, 
404 to 414, 472, 474, 496, 508, 506, 509 
to511, 515to.526, 540. 

BowUng Beck, B., 64, 217. 

Bowling Green, B., 62, 180. 

Bowling Green, Bingley, 217. 

Rowling Green Inn, B., 180. 

Bowling Mill Pond, B.. 506. 

Bowling Park. B., 512. 

Bowood Lane, 249. 

BraccweU, 491, 492, 608, 505 to 510. 

Brackendale Beck, Thackley, B., 227. 

Bracken Ridge, 253. 

Bracken Well, 258. 

Bradbum, 531. 

Bradfield, 102. 

Bradford Beck, 179, 180. 

Bradford BuU Ring, 180. 

Bradford Canal, 178, 206. 228, 285 to 237. 

Bradford Church Literary Institute, 444. 

Bradford Cockpit, 180. 

Bradford Coffee Room, 588, 539. 

Bradford Exchange, 180. 

Bradford Grammar School, 444, 538. 

Bradford Inland Revenue Office, 444. 

Bradford Mills, 493. 

Bradford Moor, 189, 174. 

Bradford Old Bank, 178, 444, 445. 

Bradford Orphan Girls' Home, 446. 
Bradford Parish Church, 58, 99 to 102, 137, 

I 138, 154, 186, 470 to 490. 501, 506, 508. 


Bradford Piece Hall, 443. 

Bradford Rectory, 508. 

Bradford Savings Bank, 178. 

Bradford School of Industry, 446. 

Bradford Town Prison, 179. 

Bradley, 210. 

Braithwell, 440. 

Bramham, 364. 

Bramham Moor, 277, 361, 362. 

Bramham Park, 356. 

Bramhope, 250, 826 to 334, 8^2. 

Bramhope Chapel, 325 to 884. 

Bramhope Hall, 825, 327, 832, 333. 

Bramley, 68. 

Brearley, 148. 

Brecks, B., 62. 

Bremenium, 345. 

Brick Lane, B., 88. 

Bridgewater Canal, 186, 188, 222, 226, 240. 

Bridgewater Street, Manchester, 240. 

Bridlington. 349, 465. 

Bridlington Bay, 337, 367. 

Briggate, Leeds, 463. 

Brighonse, 2, 9, 22, 1 42, 357, 460. 

Brighton. 303. 

British Maseam, London, 494. 

Broadgate Hall, Oxford, 47. 

Broadroyd Close, B., 59. 

BrocavTim, 358. 

Brods worth, 441. 

BroomhilL Wibsey, 21. 

Brotherton. 437. 

Brough, Bainbridge, 347, 383. 

Brough Ferry, 349, 350, 383. 

Brough-on-Hnmber, 848, 350. 

Brough-on-Stainmoor, 861, 852, 358. 

Brougham, 358. 

Broughton, 250, 251, 349, 491, 492,603. 

Brovonacse, 351. 

Brownroyd, B., 74, 820. 

Bryanslack, Clayton, 548. 

Burgh, 37 1 . 

Uurgodunum, 362. 

Burnett Field, B., 16 to 20. 

Burnley, 181, 189, 192, 194, 196, 197, 204 

to 208. 222. 
BumsaU, 505. 
Bursoough, 224. 
Burslem, 199. 
Burton Fleming, 448. 
Butler House, B., 116, 
Byerdole, Eccleshill, 155. 
Byrom Hall, 424. 

Caesar's Camp, Folkestone, 402, 408. 

Caistor, 309. 

Calais, 495, 528. 

Calatum, 336, 337. 

Calcaria.i342, 347, 361, 354, 356. 

Calder river, 171, 182, 183, 207, 286, 249, 

856, 360. 
Calfroyd Close, Eccleshill, 154. 

Call Lane. Leeds, 468. 

CaUiard Quarry, 263. 

Calton Hall, 421, 428. 

Calverley, 68, 80, 188, 145, 147, 149, 155, 

158, 168, 814, 315, 319, 323, 387, 889, 413, 

471, 480, 516. 
Calverley parish, 76, 160 to 164, 166, 167, 

390, 404 to 406, 409, 411, 413, 517, 519, 

Cambodunum, 239, 247, 248, 337, 342, 361, 

354, 365, 856. 
Cambridge, 50, 857, 416, 417, 433 to 440, 

Camulodunum, 836, 837. 
Canterbury, 449, 463, 631. 
Carlisle, 245, 346, 861, 367, 358, 400, 424. 
Carlton, 363. 
Carr Close, Wibsey, 21. 
Carr HaU, Colne, 197, 205, 215. 
Carring, Wibsey, 21. 
Carrs, 249, 250. 
Cassel, 302. 
Castleford, 342, 343, 353, 856 to 857, 369 to 

361, 383, 437, 451 
Castlegate Church, Y., 100. 
Castle Hill, Almondbury, 396 to 408. 
Castle Hill, Ilkley, 250. 
Castle Hill, Scarborough, 419. 
Castley, 833. 
Catarractonium, 836, 337, 343, 346, 846, 

361, 358. 
Cattal, 348. 
Catterick, 262, 264, 337, 343, 346, 347, 348, 

361, 368, 367, 388. 
Catterick Bridge, 346. 
Chalkerton, 240. 
Chapel Court, B., 116. 
Chapel FUtts, Eccleshill, 137. 
Chapel Street, B., 116. 
Chapel Close, B., 123. 
Channel Islands, 296. 
Castleshaw, 366. 
Causeway Foot, 357. 
Cawood, 434, 
Cawthome, 366, 867, 383. 
CheUow, 22, 70, 71, 101, 102, 147, 824, 616. 
CheUow Height, 269. 
Chester, 240. 388, 361. 
Chesterfield, 368. 
Chichester, 304. 
Chipping, 464. 
Chorley, 206. 

Christ Church, Oxford, 278. 
Church Bank, B., 646. 
Church Street, Y., 870. 
City Boad, B., 88. 
Clapham, 118. 
Claremont, B., 20. 
Clay House, 366. 
CUyton, 67 to 80, 124 to 126, 159 to 168, 813 

to 824. 404, 406. 407 to 414, 472. 478, 616, 

616, 618 to 626, 648. 


Clayton Common, 648. 

Clayton Hall, 206. 

Clayton Pasture, 548. 

CleckbeatoD, 247. 356, 448. 466 

Cleveland^ 3. 

CHft Fold, 269. 

Cliffora Bog, 263. 

Clifton, Notts, 609. 

Clint, 254. 

Clitheroe, 181, 326, 494. 

Clock Honae, B., 205, 442. 

Clougb Head, 249. 

Coach and Horses Inn, Hull, 377. 

Coal Close, Heaton, 31. 

Cockan, B.. 71 to 73, 167. 

Cockeimoath, 460. 

Colcbester, 101. 

Cold Bdge, 249. 

Cold Spring House, 250. 

Coleboles, B., 62. 

Coley, 14, 15, 330, 460. 

Coley Hall, 421. 

CoUingham, 106 to 111. 

Colne, 141, 177, 181, 189, 192, 197, 206, 

Congavata, 864. 
Conisbroagh, 440. 
Coniston, Wharf edale, 136. 
Copenhagen, 280. 
Copgrave, 264. 

Copleyroyd, Birstall. 44. 

Copperthwaite, Eocleshill, 127. 

Copt Hewick Hall, 507. 

Corbridge, 346. 

CoTstopitom, 345. 

Cote Close, B., 59. 

Cote Hill, Blubberhonses, 253. 

Cottingham, Hull, 466. 

Cottingley, Bingley, U, 30, 206, 217, 272, 
276 to 278, 306. 

Cottingley Hall, 277. 278. 

Coortfield (hardens, London, 118. 

Coventry, 193. 

CoT7 Closes, Pudsey, 384. 

Cowelhouses, 24. 

Coxwold. 429. 

Crag Hall, 253. 

Craven, 184, 190, 209, 216, 464, 498. 

Crocketroyds, Idle, B., 390, 891. 

Croft, Heaton, B., 32. 

Crofton, 483, 606. 

Cromwellbottom, 602. 

Croaley Hall, B., 14, 387. 

Crossbills, 204. 210, 218. 

Crown Inn, Horton, B , 446. 

Crowther Street, B., 20. 

Cullingworth, 24, 247. 248. 

CaUingworth Gate, 260. 

Guxhaven, 802. 

Dalton, 146. 
Danby. 106, 107, 468. 

Banum, 343, 367, 868. 

Darfield, 334, 368. 434. 

Darley Street, B., 116. 

Darlington, 9. 

Dauros island, 474. 

Dealgrin Rosa, 366. 

Dean, 224, 227. 

Dean Lane, 249. 

Dee river, 836. 

Deepcarr, Wibsey, 21. 

Delf Close, Heaton, B.. 31. 

Delgovitia, 346, 348. 

Delves Beck, 263. 

Denby, 436. 

Denby Grange, 436. 

Denholme, 165, 867, 623. 

Denholme Edge, 247. 

Denholme G^te, 260. 

Denhohne Park. 248. 

Denton, 170,417,420,488. 

Derby, 368. 

Derventio, 345, 348 to 350, 371. 383. 

Derwent river, 345, 349. 

Devil's Causeway, 249. 

Dewsbury, 137, 142,276,306,366,436,480, 

481, 504, 605. 
Dibb Scar, Grassington. 136. 
Dog and Gun Inn, B., 446. 
Don river, 839, 359, 368. 
Doncaster, 190, 249, 343, 844, 357 to 359, 

383, 420, 424, 427, 439, 441. 504. 
Douglas river, 201 to 203, 206, 220 to 224, 

227, 229, 232, 233, 236. 
Dover, 631. 

Dowley Gap, Bingley, 217. 
Drewton, 349. 
Drighlington. 485. 
Dringhouses, 354. 
Drogheda, 202. 
Droitwich, 193. 
Dublin. 202. 
Dudley Hill, B. 139. 
Dule Gross Tumulus, 381. 
Dunbar, 426, 428. 
Dunham Dobbs, 368. 
Dunkirk, 527, 528. 
Dunnell Marsh, Bowling, B., 603. 
Dunsley Bay, 337, 342, 349, 366, 366. 
Dunum Sinus, 337, 366. 
Dyeroyd, B., 71 
Dyneley, 326. 

Bakring, 483. 

Easingwold, 480. 

East Bierley, 641. 

Eastbrook House, B., 113, 114, 116. 

Easton Neston, Northants, 508. 

Ebberstow, 349. 

Ebchester. 346. 

Eboracum, 389, 345, 356 to 367, 366, 369 

to 380. 
Ecdesfield, 369, 439. 


Eccleshill (Ecclesfield). 27. 48. 44. 08, 70. 
71, 73 to 75. 77 to 80, 126, 127, 137 to 
158, 163 to 166, 167, 168, 205, 314 to 
319, 322, 324, 407, 409 to 412, 414, 472, 
474, 515, 518 to 524, 526. 

EccleshiU HaU, 139. 

Eddisbury, 401. 

Edge End, Colne, 189, 205. 

Edinburgh, 437. 

Ediington, 100. 439. 

Ednam, 495. 

Eld wick, Bingley, 14. 

EUand, 17, 19, 60, 141,472. 

EUercarr, 247, 250. 

Elm Tree Inn, Bingley, 210 to 212, 214, 

Elmcroft^ Ripon, 65. 

Elmete, 339, 401. 

Ely, 416. 

Epiacum, 336. 

Epworth, 247, 485. 

Ermine Street, "289, 343, 347, 358, 359. 

Esholt, 231. 

Esholt Priory, 63. 

Eshton Beck, 229. 

Eshton Hall, 197. 

Etal, 503. 

Eton, 272. 

Exilles, 277. 

Exley (Ekysley), Keighley, 24. 

Eyam, 483. 

Fairweather Green, B., 75, 482. 

Faldering (Foderings) Close, B., 64. 

Fall Ing, Pudsey, 384» 386. 

Fall Neck, Pudsey, 384, 386. 

Farfield, 209. 

Farnhill, 209. 

Famley HaU, 420. 

Farnley Wood, 436. 

Faweather, Baildon, 22. 

Feliiscliffe, 253. 

Ferrybridge, 437, 441. 

Fidlers, Essex, 304. 

Field Lock. Esholt, 231. 

Filey, 349. 

Filey Hay, 337. 

Fimber, 349. 

Finkle Street, 249. 

Five Rise Locks, Bingley, 217. 

Fixby Hall, 472. 

Fixby Park, 356. 

Flamborough Head, 337. 

Flanshaw, 332. 

Flansile HaU, 332. 

Fleet Prison, London, 467. 

Flodden Field. 494. 

Flowergate, Whitby, 466. 

Folkestone, 402 

Foreside Bottom, 250 

Forster's Close, B., 66. 

Fobs river, 369. 

Fosson Lane, 249. 

Foulridge, 177, 184, 219, 237. 

Fountains Abbey, 16. 

Four Acre Close, B„ 69. 

Foxen Lane, 249. 

Franche Comt6, 292. 

Frankfurt, 301. 

Fridaythorp, 349. 

Friedenthai, 113. 

FrizinghaU, 31, 33, 37, 88, 72, 74 to 77, 159, 

164, 167, 314, 322, 324, 408, 409,411, 412 

414, 516. 517,547. 
FriEinghaU Steel, B.. 81. 
Fulneck, 467. 
FumessFeUs. 818. 

Gkibrantvicorum Sinus, 837, 849. 

GaUygap, 367. 

Gralthorpe, L, 510. 

Galtres Forest, 348. 

Gargrave, 184, 229, 230. 

Garrowby Street, 849. 

Gateskeugh Camp, 867. 

Gratherby Moor, 354. 

Gathurst Bridge, 232. 

Geneva, 278. 279, 282. 

George Inn, Greta Bridge, 868. 

Gibraltar, 305. 

Giggleswick, 100. 

Gillygate, Y., 370. 

Gilstead, Bingley, 22, 217, 806. 

Gisbume, 422. 

Gisbume Park, 422. 

Glaming island, 478. 

Glasgow, 65. 

Gledhow, 305. 

Globe Hotel. B., 7. 

Gloucester, 868. 

Godmanham, 849. 

Golden Dragon Inn, Dover, 681. 

Golden Fleece Inn, Keighley, 211. 

Golden Lion Inn, Liverpool, 188, 196. 

Goodmanend (Godmondend), B., 64, 115, 
394, 395, 478. 

Goole. 174. 

Gosberton. 601. 

Gowthorpe, 602. 

Grassington, 134 to 186. 

Grass Wood, Grassington, 184, 

Grattan Road, B., 88. 

Gravesend, 495. 

Great Horton, B., 67 to 80, 114, 169 to 163, 
167, 168, 313 to 316, 321, 322, 324, 404, 
406, 407, 409, 410, 413, 445, 472, 474. 

Great Horton Road, B., 20, 448. 

Great Houghton, 427, 508. 

Great Waltham, 434. " 

Great Whernsidc, 136. 

Greenhead, Huddersfield, 855. 

Greenslade, Clayton, 548. 

Greenwich, 494, 496. 


Greetiand, 355. 

Greta riTcr, 353. 

Greta Bridge, 344, 353, 354, 383. 

Greyhound Inn, B., 446. 

Greystones, 249. 

Grimsby, 174. 

GriaoncC 280. 

Guild Hall, T., 354, 371. 

Goiseley, 111, 140, 276, 305, 328, 545. 

Haddlesey, 224. 

Haighs, Birstall, 44. 

Hainworth, Keighley, 24, 247, 248. 

HainwoTth Shaw, 247, 250. 

Half Acre Close, Heaton, B., 31. 

Halifox, 14, 19, 46, 48 to 52, 59, 68, 142, 

148, 168, 175, 194, 215, 241, 247, 248, 

321, 335, 337, 357, 404, 421. 429, 433. 

445. 453, 460, 470. 473, 476, 480, 481, 

484, 488, 498 to 500, 525, 548. 
Halifax parish, 142, 248, 330. 412, 413, 518. 
Halifax and Bradford Roail, 548. 
Ballings, B., 180. 
Hallas Rough Park, 250. 
Hallfield Close, B., 544. 
Halliwell, Eccleshill, 154. 
Halsall, 208. 
Halton, Bingley, 23. 
Hamilton Hill, 249. 
Hampsthwaite, 253. 
Hanover, 302. 
Hansworth, 440. 
Harden, 22 to 25. 
Harden Grange, 22, 23. 
Harden Moor, 247, 248. 
Harewood, 108. 
Harris Street, B., 60. 
Harrow, 278. 
Hawcaster Big, 366. 
Hawksworth, 22, 327. 
Haworth, 470, 471, 473 to 476, 482, 488 
Haworth Boad, 250. 

Hazelwood, 354. 

Headley. Thornton, 16, 22, 390. 

Healaugh, 423. 

Heath, 277, 504. 

Heaton, B., 30 to 42, 67, 68, 70, 73, 74, 76 
to 80, 159 to 163, 165 to 168, 314 to 321, 
324, 404 to 414, 472, 478, 488, 516 to 518. 
520 to 526. 

Heaton Boyds, B.. 82, 85, 37, 314, 320. 

Hebble river, 182, 249. 

Hebden, 505. 

Height Hohne, Idle, B., 129. 

HeUgoland, 117. 

Hemsworth, 437. 

Herefordshire Beacon, 408. 

Hesketh, Bracewell, 506. 

Healington, 350. 

Heywwd Chapel, Northowram, 460. 

Hickleton, 434. 

High Catton Common, 349. 

High Close, Gnueington, 135. 

Highfield Close, M., 547. 

High Field, Idle, B., 128. 

Highgate Head, 249. 

High Plain. Baildon, 306, 311. 

High Rochester, 345, 355, 374. 

High Street, B., 58, 445. 

High Street, EnareBbrough, 423. 

Hillside House, B., 114, 119. 

Hipperholme, 144. 

Hirst Mill, Shipley, 217. 

Hitchin, 116, 119, 121. 

Hodder Bridge, 422. 

Holbeck, 68, 438, 481. 

Holdacre, Eccleshill, 127. 

Holesfield, Bingley, 217. 

Holestone Moor, 365 

Hollin Hall, 249. 

HoUy Bank Wood, 264. 

Hohne Bridge, Gargrave, 227, 229 to 231. 

Holme Top, B., 64, 75. 

Holmfirth, 142, 498. 

Honylands, 304. 

Hope Hill, Baildon, 806, 308 to 810. 

Hopton, 466. 

Horbury, 481 

Horsey Hall, Norfolk, 66. 

Horsforth, 64, 139, 827, 394. 

Horton, B., 16 to 20, 26, 64, 69 to 80, 164 

to 168, 266, 313 to 324, 384, 387 to 389, 

404 to 414, 503, 515 to 526. 
Horton Grange, B., 114, 116, 118, 119 
Horton in Craven, 454. 
Houghton, 334. 
Houghton Towers, 249. 
Hovingham, 867. 
Howden, 440. 
Howroyd, 14. 
Howtill Sweyre, 495. 
Huddersfield, 16, 145, 355, 396, 398, 433, 

Hull, 13, 174, 176, 183, 190, 377, 417, 418, 

427, 461, 465, 466, 507. 
Humber, 171, 285, 336, 337, 341, 343, 349, 

350, 358, 418. 
Hunslet, Leeds, 438, 463. 
Hunsworth, B., 312, 472. 
Hunter's Hill, 249. 
Huntingdon, 415, 416. 
Hurrakens, B., 60. 
Hutton-on-Derwent, 367. 

Idle, B., 128 to 180, 140, 154, 158, 236, 389 

to 393, 433 
Idle river, 339, 359. 
Idle Thorpe, B., 127, 129, 390. 
Ilkley, 223, 240, 246 to 254, 307, 308, 337, 

342, 348, 351, 353, 356, 357, 362 to 365, 

369, 383. 
Ilkley Museum, 363. 
lUingworth, 248. 
Ince Blundell, 215 


Ing Close, Birstall, 44. 

Ing under t'Housc, PuclBej, 884. 

Ingetlingum, 112. 

Inskip, L., 504. 

Intacks, Eocleshill, 127. 

Intacks, Wibeey, 21. 

Ipswich. 304. 

Isle of Man, 141,326,402. 

Isu Brigantom. 857, 3ti2, 380. 

Isarium, 239, 254, 386, 337, 343, 345, 347, 

348, 851, 370, 371, 380 to 382. 
Ivegate, B., 179, 180. 478. 

Jedburgh, 508. 
John Street, B., 446. 
Jouz, France, 294. 

Eeighley, 14, 24, 80, 140, 181, 190, 205. 

Keighley Road, Ilkley, 250. 
Kell Bote, 249. 
Eelstem, Lincoln, 509. 
Kendal, 251. 
Eettlesing Toll Bar, 253. 
Kettlewell, 184 to 136. 
Kexby, 343. 
Kexby Bridge, 350. 
Kildwick, 9, 59, 209, 318, 478. 
Eillala, 301. 
KiUinghall, 420. 
Kilnsey, Craven, 136. 
Eing*8 Arms Inn, B., 446. 
King's Conrt, Y., 437. 
King's Morton, 281. 
King's Square, Y., 378. 
Kipping, Thornton, B., 461. 
Kirby Thure, 861. 
Kirk Brigg, B., 543. 
Kirkburton, 436, 466. 
Kirkby Malham, 428. 
Kirkby Moor, 348. 
Kirkgate, B., 7, 59, 443, 470, 475. 
Kirkgate, Leeds, 462, 463. 
Kirkheaton, 436. 
Kirklee&356, 383, 471. 
Kirksmeaton, 440. 
KirkstaU (Christal). 15 to 19, 21, 23, 106 

to 109, 174, 356. 
KirkstaU Bridge, 198, 204, 356. 
Knaresborough, 258, 420, 422, 423, 437, 

482, 483. 
Knottingley, 71, 224, 425. 
Kylne, B., 21. 

Lagecium, 342, 861. 
Lamb Close, M., 257 to 264. 
Lambeth Palace, London, 4. 
Lancaster, 181, 183. 
Lane Head, 249. 
LasceUes Hall, 486. 
Laughten-en-le-Morthen, 439. 
LavatrsB, 843, 846, 361, 352, 858. 

Laycock, Keighley, 24. 

Lea Green, Grassington, 134, 135. 

Lease Riggs, 383. 

Lechford, Oxon. 504. 

Ledsham, 434. 

Ledstone, 109. 

Leeds, 13, 15. 69, 167, 171, 174. 175, 181 to 

237, 247, 327, 328, 838, 339. 366, 427, 

433, 434, 438. 441. 445, 470, 478, 480, 

485, 505. 
Leeds Bridge, 204, 284. 235. 
Leeds Grammar School, 438. 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 169 to 238. 
Leeds Lock, 234. 
Leeds Museum, 360. 
Leeds Parish Church, 463. 
Leeds Road, B., 116, 174. 
Leeming Lane, 843, 847. 
Lees. Keighley, 24. 
Legeolium, 342, 366, 361. 
Legrams, B., 114, 166. 
Leicester, 99 to 101. 
Leipzig, 277. 

Leventhorpe, B., 16, 22, 814. 
Lewes, 46. 
Ley bum, 10. 
Levden. 47, 48, 435. 
LightcUffe, 484. 
Lincoln. 101, 304, 337, 388. 843, 349, 350, 

357, 358. 
Lindley, 68. 
Lindley Moor, 857. 
Lindum, 837, 848, 867, 358. 
Linton in Craven, 247. 
Litherland. 228. 
Littlebeck Hall, Bingley, 306. 
Littleborough, L., 289 to 241, 246, 248. 
Littleborough-on-Trent, 342, 357 to 369. 
Little Bowling, B , 506. 
Little Croft. B., 64. 
Little Hall, Eccleshill, B., 127. 
Little Horton, B., 19, 68 to 70, 72, 76 to 

79, 169 to 168, 167, 814, 816, 407, 472, 

Liverpool, 172 to 287, 486 
Londesborough, 360, 367. 
Londesborough Park, 349, 360. 
Longbottom, 249. 
Long Close, M., 269. 
Long Lane. Nidderdale, 263. 
Longley, 16, 17. 
Lord Mayor's Walk, Y., 370. 
Louvre, Paris, 380. 
Low Croft, B., 64. 
Lower Field, M., 269. 
Lower Hall, Gisbume, 422. 
Lower Ings, 249. 
Lower Ogden Top, 250. 
Lowtown, Pudsey, 131. 
Luddenden, 248. 
Luguvallium, 361, 867, 358. 
Luton, 116. 



Latudse, 350. 

Lydgate, Eirkburton, 465. 
Lydgate, Littleborough, 241. 
Lyons, 283, 292. 

Mabgate, Leeds, 463. 

Magson House, 249. 

Maidenhead, 1 18. 

Main Riding House, Leeds, 468. 

Malham Moor, 136. 

Malpas, 369. 

Malton, 340, 342, 343, 866, 867. 374, 883, 

Malton Lodge, 867. 
Manchester, 172, 178, 176, 182, 188, 198, 

194, 289, 240, 246, 247, 250, 836, 842, 

351, 354, 365, 402, 423, 509. 
Manchester Road, 6., 21. 
Mancunium, 239, 240, 851, 354, 856. 
Mann Coxui, B., 448. 
Manningbam, 68 to 80, 159 to 166, 168, 

255 to 265, 268 to 271, 318, 816 to 324, 

394, 405 to 414, 472, 474, 476, 515 to 519, 

521 to 526, 547. 
Manningbam Lane, B., 68, 64, 442. 
Mannville, B., 448. 
Manor Row, B., 444. 
Manor Street, Manchester, 240. 
Manntiom, 351. 
Many Place, B., 101. 
Manywells Beck, 250. 
Market Street, B., 121. 
Market Street, Y.. 370. 
Market Wdgbton, 349, 350. 
Marley, Bingley, 25. 
Marley Wood, 260. 
Marlroyd, Pudsey, 182, 384. 
Marr Lands, Heaton, B., 81. 
Marston, 848. 

Marston Moor, 418 to 420, 480. 
Maxima Csesariensis, 841. 
Medlock river, 240. 
Melbourne Place, B., 20. 
Melford, 826. 

Memorial Hall, London, 460. 
Menston, 827, 881, 420. 
Mersey river, 192, 198, 216, 225, 826. 
Methley, 441, 605. 
Mexborough, 840. 
Micklegate, Y., 874, 878. 
Mickl^[ate Bar, Y , 354, 871. 
Micklethwaite, Bardsey, 106 to 109. 
Middlefield, Pudsey, 884. 
Middleton Moor, 252. 
Milan, 296. 

Mill Hill Chapel, Leeds, 462. 
Millington, 849, 850. 
Mirfield, 466. 
Mitton, 63. 
Moltby, 848. 
Monk Bar. Y., 870, 871. 
Montpellier, 47. 

Moor Closes, Horton, 887. 

Moorhouse Lairs, 258. 

Moorhouses, 248, 252. 

Moor8ide,B., 162,471. 

Moot Hall, Leeds, 234. 

Morbio, 344. 

Morley, 24, 25, 331, 441, 452, 460, 461. 

Morley Carr, B., 69. 

Morley wapentsike, 102, 141. 

Morton, Bingley, 24, 219, 248. 

Morton Highgate, 247. 

Morton Moor, 250. 

Moston, 240. 

Mount St. John, Thirsk, 18. 

Mulgrave Castle, Whitby, 366. 

Multanguler Tower, Y., 370 to 872. 

Myddleton Lodge, Ilkley, 364. 

Naseby, 419. 

Natell Croft, B , 60. 

Navell Croft, B., 64. 

Nether Ing, Pudsey, 884. 

Netherlands, Birstall, 44. 

Netherthome, Heaton, 89. 

Nether Whetley, M., 269. 

Neuch&tel, 277. 

Newark Castle, 424. 

Newbrough, 208, 208, 21 1, 219 to 225, 227, 

Ncwburgh Priory, 429, 480. 
Newcastle, 351, 473, 478, 482 to 489. 
Newhall, BowUng, B., 16, 22. 
New Hall, EUand, 50. 
New Inn, Leeds, 186. 
Newland Gate, 249. 
Newland Park, 13. 
New Moss Farm, 250. 
New Plymouth, 450. 
Newsholme Bridge, N , 866. 
Newstead, 501. 
Newton-in-Bowland, 464. 
Newton Kyme. 864, 438. 
Nidd river, 254, 848, 362. 
Norfolk Street Chapel, Sheffield, 468. 
Norham, 330. 
Norman Lane, B., 189. 
Normanton, 13, 441. 
NorthaUerton, 867, 378, 424. 
North Bierley, B., 72, 77, 120, 122 to 124. 
North Elmsall, 606. 
Northgate, B , 446. 
North Lady's Walk, Liverpool, 204, 226, 

Northowram, 48, 332, 460. 
North Sea, 528, 629. 
Norton Conyers, 419. 
Norton Lees, 304. 
Norwich, 63, 55, 56. 
NosteU, 15, 16. 
NoBterfield, 847. 
Nottingham, 117, 417. 
Nun Appleton, 170, 417. 

OakwelL 37. 

Oakworth, 24. 

Ocelum Promontorium, S37. 

Odsall (OrdsaU) Moor, B., 102. 

Ogden brook, 249. 

Ogden reservoir, 249, 250. 

Old Bailey, Loudon, 15. 

Old Hall, Stubham, 252. 

Oldham, 247. 

Old Malton, 367. 

Old Penrith, 361. 

Olicana, 307, 386, 337. 

Oliver's Mount, Scarborough, 419. 

Orgreave, 205. 

Ormskirk, 184,211,215. 

Osbaldiston, L., 609. 

Ossett, 466, 467, 604. 

Otley, 68, 190, 253, 326, 328, 333, 417, 422, 

Otley parish, 410, 414. 
Oulton, 217. 

Ouse river, 171, 224, 369, 370. 
Ouseburn, 348. 
Ovenden, 18, 20, 497. 
Overborough, 337, 362. 
Over Middlefield, Pudsey, 386. 
Owl Scholes, Pudsey, 384. 
Owl Scholes Lane, Pudsey, 384. 
Oxford, 47, 193, 272, 276, 278. 
Oxford Canal, 193. 
Oxford Castle, 408. 

Paddock, B., 64. 

Padua. 47. 

Painthorp, 332. 

Pampocalia, 366. 

Papcastle, 364. 

Paper Hall, B., 68 to 66. 

Paris, 273, 283, 284, 287, 290, 296 to 299, 

Parks Lane, Stubham, 253. 
Parliament Street, T., 370, 371. 
Patrington, 349. 
PauFs Cross, London, 416. 
Pavement, T., 437. 
Peacock House, E.. 349. 
Peckover Walk, B., 60. 
Peel Park, B., 114. 
Pembroke College, Oxford, 47. 
Penhill, Bierley, B., 126. 
Pennine Hills, 174, 840. 
Penny Oaks, B , 63. 
Petchora river, 1 1 7. 
Petuaria, 336, 337, 849. 
Pickering, 366. 
Picroft^ Heaton, B., 89. 
Pierce Bridge, 343 to 346. 
Pighil, Heaton, B., 31. 
Piper's Grave, B., 442, 444. 
Pocklington, 350. 
Pontarlier, 294. 
Pontefract, 25, 99, 141, 142, 171, 190, 381, 

356, 369, 861, 868, 898, 422, 424, 435, 487. 

440, 444, 500. 
Pontefract Castle, 424, 425. 
Pontefract Honour, 604. 
Pontefract Park, 359. 
PortuoBus Sinus, 367. 
Pretorium, 345, 348 to 350, 383. 
Prescott, 194, 222. 
Preston, 174, 176, 181, 188, 191, 202, 206, 

215, 421, 422. 
Prestwich, 437. 
Priestthorp, Bingley, 24. 
Pudsey, 14, 15,59, 72, 131 to 133, 146, 147, 

161, 162, 316, 320, 822, 829, 384 to 887. 

427, 433, 466, 486, 503, 518. 
Pynnont, 302. 

Quarry Hill, Leeds, 463. 
Queen*s Head Inn, Bingley, 214. 
Quemmore Forest, 494. 

Raistrick, 2, 9. 

Rawdon, 110,881. 

Rayne, Bamoldswick, 506. 

Raynton. 603. 

Read Hall, 206. 

Reading, 43. 

Record Office, London, 4, 6, 21. 

Revey, B., 21, 69, 71, 77. 

Rey Cross, 352, 383. 

Rhine river, 284, 288, 294. 

Ribble river, 174. 176, 184, 202, 216, 220, 

Ribblesdale, 184, 191. 
Ribchester, 249. 387, 346, 862. 
Ribstone Hall, 423. 
Ribstone Park, 428. 
Richborough, 240, 844, 861, 871. 
Ricroft, Bingley, 24. 
Riddlesden, 23, 24, 205. 
Rievaux Abbey, 22, 28. 
Rigodunmn, 836. 
Rigton, 106. 
Ripley, 216, 420, 487. 
Ripley Castle, 216, 420. 
Ripon, 65, 419, 421, 427, 484. 
Ripon Diocese, 466. 
Ripponden, 241. 
Rishton, 192. 
Rishworth, 68. 
Riveling, 369. 
Rivington Pike, 202. 
Road, Northumberland, 246. 
Robin Hood's Well, 369. 
Rochdale, 194, 239 to 242. 246, 404, 454. 
Rochdale Canal, 240. 
Roman Rig, 861, 362. 
Roman Wall, 841, 343 to 346. 
Rome, 143, 376. 

Rose and Crown Inn, Ilkley, 366. 
Rotherham, 205, 368, 427, 437, 439. 
i Rothwell, 8. 


Boughlee, L., 519. 

BoandMU Close, M., 257. 262. 

BoondhiUs, B., 64. 

Boyal Arcade, B., 442. 

Boyds, Birstall, 44. 

Bojds Hall, B., 16, 21, 58, 101, 102. 

Budgate, 348, 862. 

Budstone, 349. 

Bumbles Moor, 246, 248, 357. 

Bnnooni, 186, 189, 192, 193, 221, 222. 226 

BiishtoD, 408. 

Butapse, 851. 

Bye river, 366. 

Byknidd Street, 368. 

Bystone, 134 

Byton, 240. 

Saddleworth, 239. 

St. Albans, 425. 

St. Alkmund^s, Shrewsbury, 434. 

St. Botolph's. Pontefract, 425. 

St. Gallen. 291. 

St. GUes*. PoDtefract, 436. 

St. Helen's, Y., 370. 

St. Helen's Ford, 354, 362. 

St. Ives, Huntingdon, 416. 

St. John's, Leeds, 327, 427, 434. 

St. Martin's, Y., 378 

St. Mary's, Leicester, 99 to 101. 

St. Mary's, Y., 15 

St. Mary's Convent, Y., 380. 

St. Oswald's, Pontefract, 25. 

St. Paul's, Denholme Gate, 250. 

St. Petersburg, 281. 

St. Saviour's Gate, Y., 466. 

Salley Abbey, 500. 

Salutation Inn, 347. 

Sandal, 105, 141, 142, 356, 503, 504. 

Sandal Park, 488. 

Sandy, 488. 

Sankey river, 221. 

Savoy. 293. 

Bcammonden, 355. 

Scarborough, 245, 335, 419, 465. 

Schaffhausen, 302. 

Scheldt river, 289. 

Scholemoor, B., 387. 

Scholes, Bingley, 24. 

Schwytz, 302. 

Scone, 426. 

Scorsby, 350. 

Scotch Corner, 845, 854. 

Scout Hall. Halifax, 50. 

Scolcoates, 461. 

Seebohm's Buildings, B., 121. 

Segelocum, 342, 357, 358. 

Selby, 224, 228, 418, 424, 434. 

Sentry Edge, 249. 

Settle, 118, 190, 317,428. 

Settrington, 367. 

Seyen Arches, Bingley, 217, 229. 

Sevenlands, B., 60. 

Shambles, Y.,S71. 

Shearoyds, Pudsey, 131. 

Sheep Close, B.. 64. 

Sheephill, Clayton, 648. 

Sheffield, 1 18, 1 90, 368, 434, 435, 438 to 440, 

463, 465. 
Shelf, 478, 479. 
Sherburn, 436, 441. 
Shibden, 45 to 57, 433. 
Shibtien Hall, 433. 
Shipley, 68, 70.73 to 76, 78 to 80. 102, 151 , 

161 to 163, 166,206,217,219,229,230,315, 

318, 321 to 323, 390, 405 to 414, 472. 

474, 488, 490, 516, 517, 519 to 522, 524 

to 526. 
Shipley Hall, 181. 
Shrewsbury, 434. 
Siddall, 505. 
Silkstone, 440. 
Silsbridge, B., 26. 
Silsbridge Lane, B , 88, 443. 
Silsden, 209. 
Sion Chapel, B., 60. 
Skafe Croft, Ilkley, 251. 
Skip Bridge, Niddeniale, 348. 
Skipton, 118, 134, 181, 190, 197, 204 to 

206, 209, 211, 219, 226 to 230, 235, 250, 

253 422. 
Skipton CasUe, 190, 205. 
Skirden bn)ok, 249. 
Skirethoms, Craven. 136. 
Slack, 2.S9, 247, 337, 342, .S51, 355 to 857, 

360. 376, 383. 
Slaithwaite Hill, 356. 
Slead House, Brighouse, 2. 
Slead Syke, Brighouse, 2. 
Sledmere, 349, 367. 
Snydall, 99. 
Sodor bishopric, 102. 
Soke Mills, B., 180. 
Solway Frith, 336, 338. 
Somerset House, London, 429, 447, 458, 

460, 466, 467. 
SoothiU, 390. 
Southampton, 305. 
South Cave. 849, 350, 434. 
Southfield, Horton, 3«7. 
Southowram. 141. 
South Shields, 246. 

Sowerby, 239, 249,332,435,437.461,466,488. 
Sowerby Bridge, 176, 182, 488. 
Spen Hall, 443, 444. 
Spring Bank, Hull, 465. 
Springfield House, B , 442 to 444. 
Spurn Point, 337. 

Stamford Bridge, 343, 349, 350, 367, 383. 
Stanedge. 340. 
Stank, 348. 

Stannington, 369, 465. 
Star and Garter Inn, Kirkstall, 198, 204. 
Staveley, Derbyshire, 435, 502. 
Staveley, Yorkshire, 254. 


Stella, Durham. 508. 

Stirling, 427. 

Stitchell, 495. 

Stonegate, Y., 871. 

Stoney Lane, Eccleshill, B., 139. 

Stonyhurst, 422, 492. 

Stranforth, Idle, 128. 

Strathearn, 866. 

Street Bridge, Chalkerton, 240. 

Street Close, Fleaton, 81. 

Street Fold, Mo8t<)ii, 240. 

Streetgap, B , 69. 

Streetgate, Ryton, 240. 

Streethouses, 854. 

Strythorne Acre, M., 257. 

Stiibbings, Idle, 128. 

Stubham, 252. 

Stubham Wood, 252, 258. 

Studforth HiU, Aldborough, 881. 

Sug Marsh, 253. 

Sunbridge, B., 179. 

Sun Inn, B., Ill, 112, 179 to 182, 184, 185. 

Sutton-under-Whitestonecliff, 464. 
Swacliffe, 266, 304. 
Swanland, 466. 
Sydenham, 869. 
Symondole, B . 641 to 548. 

Tadcaster, 247, 250, 254. 342, 348, 851, 854, 
356. 357, 361, 362, 371, 383, 423, 438. 

Tangier, 527 to 537. 

Tanshelf, 361, 436, 440. 

Tarleton, 202, 224. 

Tarleton Lock, 202. 

Tees river, 343, 346, 417. 

Templeborough, 344, 368, 383. 

Templehirst, 13, 171. 

Temple Newsam, 13. 

Thackley, B., 227 to 229, 231. 

Theevesfoore, B., 269. 

Thirsk, 13, 118,367,464. 

Thoniborough, 337, 346, 347, 383. 

Thorner, 356. 

Thomhill, 59, 326,389, 435, 451, 483. 

ThomhiU Green, 510. 

Thornton, B., 30, 67 to 69, 71 to 80, 159 
to 166, 168, 313 to 315, 317 to 323, 405, 
407, 410 to 412, 414, 461, 472, 474, 503, 
516, 516, 518 to 623, 526, 526. 

Thornton, N., 304. 

Thorp Chapel, Y., 100. 

Thorp-in-Street, 349. 

Thorpe, Bumsall, 505. 

Three Bluebells Inn, B., 445. 

Three Rise Locks, Bingley, 217. 

Threshfield, 136. 

Thwaites, Bingley, 14. 

Tickhill Castle, 420, 603. 

Till Bridge Lane, 358. 

Tine, Northumberland, 246. 

Tiugley, 141, 452, 461. 

Toad Lane, B., 443. 

Toby Lane, B., 114. 

Tockwith, 848. 

Todmorden, 1 42. 

Toller Lane, B., 31. 

Tong, 70. 146, 148, 149, 821, 828, 387, 501, 

Tong Hall, 66, 145, 148, 506. 
Tong lordship, 75, 161, 404, 406, 408 to 

410, 522, 524,526. 
Tong Street, 139. 
Toulon, 286. 
Toulston, 438. 
Toumay, 494. 

Tower Hill, Halifax parish, 249. 
Treeton, 439. 
Trent Bridge, 368. 
Trent river, 176, 183, 198, 339, 368. 
Trinity Ganlens, Y., 374 
Trunla Ha, Grassington, 1 36. 
Turin, 290, 293. 
Turlea, B., 88. 180. 
Tutta Beck, 353. 
Tweed river, 34 1 . 
Tyburn, 429. 

Tyersal, B., 16, 22, 74, 161, 406. 
Tyll river, 496. 
Tyne river, 417. 

Tynwald Mount, Isle of Man, 141. 
Tyrrel Street. B., 88. 
Tyrrelfl, B., 180. 

Udine, 800. 

Uhn, 802. 

Undercliffe ( Hunderscliffe ), B., 69, 60, 

113, 115. 
Undercliffe House, B., 113. 
Upper Field, M., 269. 
Upper Hall, Gisburne, 422. 
Upper Ings, 249. 
Upperlands, Birstall, 44. 
Upper Whetley, M., 269. 
Upton, Cheshire, 46. 
Upwood, Bingley, 250. 
Ure river, 254, 347, 348. 

Val Dor^ 496. 
Vedra river, 387. 
Vendde, 280. 
Verbeia river, 363. 
Verterae, 851, 358. 
Vienna, 281, 290,874. 
Vindomora, 345. 
Vinnovium, 336, 346. 
Voreda, 851. 

Waddington Hall, 492, 493. 505, 608. 
Waddow Hall, Mitton, 68. 
Wade's Causeway, 342, 366. 
Wadlands, 603, 604. 606, 507. 
Wainwright's Farm, Heaton, B., 82, 83. 


Wakefield, 4, 43, 138, 141, 142, 149. 161, 
1 70, 1 7 1 . 1 8 1 , 1 90, 832, 356, 890, 483, 438, 
440, 441, 472, 475, 478 to 486, 492, 494, 
495, 499. 500, 508 to 506. 

Wakefield Manor, 188, 140, 142, 143, 145, 
147, 148, 506, 507. 

Waldeck, 113. 

Wales. 120, 121. 

Walling Wells, 440. 

Walmgate Bar, Y., 849, 371. 

Walton, L., 205, 

Walton, Wakefield, 501. 

Wark, 496. 503. 

Warrington, 194. 

Wartre, 849 

Washburn river. 253 

Water Fiyston, 441. • 

Wath 347. 

Watli'ng Street, 239. 240, 243, 245, 247, 248, 
351, 354, 357, 381. 

Wear Stones, 247. 

Weary HiU, Ilkley, 260. 

Weaver river, 176. 

Weeland, 171, 224. 

Well Close, Heaton, B , 31. 

Wells House. Ilkley, 250. 

Wentworth Woodhouse, 109. 

West Ardsley, 461. 

Westfield, Heaton, B., 39. 

Westfield, M., 264. 

Westgate, Y., 364. 

West Marton, 428. 

Westminster, 426, 493. 

Westminster Abbey, 429. 

Westminster Hall, 415, 480. 

West Morton, 250. 

West Biddlesden, 250. 

Weston Church, 867. 

Wetherby, 422. 

Wharfe river. 1JM, 246, 251, 252, 854, 863. 

Wharfedale, 134, 248. 

Wharram, 100, 367. 

Wharrell Gap, B., 76. 

Wheat Pighill, Pudsey, 384. 

Wheat Sheaf Inn, Ormskirk, 211, 215. 

Whetley, B , 64. 

Whetley Green. M., 269. 

Whinberry HiU Farm, 349. 

Whitby, 337, 849, 366, 466, 527 to 529. 

Whitby in Africa, 527 to 537. 

White Bear Inn, Crossbills, 204, 210, 211, 

White Birch, 205. 

White Cloth Hall, Leeds, 234. 

WhitehaU, London, 415. 417, 429, 430. 

Whitehall Nook, 253. 

White House, Littleborough, 24 1 . 

White House, Sherbuni, 441. 

White Windows, Denholme. 260. 

Whitgift, 440 

Whixley, 348, 862. 

Wibsey, 15, 21, 22, 70, 76 to 80, 101, 102, 
160 to 167, 314, 316, 320 to 323. 408, 410, 
41 1, 418, 414, 470, 471, 474, 503. 519, 621, 
524, 525. 

Wibsey Slack, 21. 

Wigan, 181, 202, 203, 220 to 224, 228, 280, 
232. 236, 286, 422. 

WighiU, 326. 

Wilberfoss, 849. 

Wilberfoss Nunnery, 860. 

Wildbore Hall, Pontefract, 426. 

Wilsden, 67, 68, 72, 74, 80, 160 to 164, 166, 
168, 315, 316, 818, 820 to 824, 406, 409, 
410. 412, 418, 472, 474, 515, 617 to 519, 
521, 528 to 526. 

Winchester, 46, 47, 276, 804, 416. 

Wincobank, 340. 

Windhill, Shipley, 217. 286. 390. 

Windsor, 804, 584 

Windsover, 252. 

Windy Bank, Littleborough, 241. 

Winstanley, 221. 

Wintringham, 343, 349, 368. 

Wolds 349. 

Woodhall, Calverley, 145, 149, 160. 

Woodhouse, 502. 

Woodkirk (Woodchurch). 77, 452, 461. 

Woodland, Calverley, 188. 

Woodlands, B., 75. 

Woodlesford, 217, 247, 866. 

Wood Nook, Castleford, 360. 

WooUey, 327. # 

Worcester. 281, 426 to 428, 588. 

Worsborough, 484. 

Worsley, 173, 188, 193, 222. 

Wiagby, 437. 

Wrose, B., 189, 162, 390. 

Wyke, 410. 

Yarmouth, 301, 302, 371. 

Yam bury, Gras8ingtx)n, 186. 

Yeadon, 545. 

Yenisei river, 117. 

Yew Tree, B., 643, 544. 

York, 4, 15, 116, 118, 154, 190, 239, 240, 
251, 254, 276, 308 to 805, 830, 335, 837, 
839, 341, 343 to 351, 354, 357, 358, 863, 
367, 369 to 380, 386, 402, 416 to 419, 
422, 426, 427, 434 to 488, 452, 466, 486, 
496, 500, 604. 

York Castle, 376, 439, 441, 491. 

York Castle, Africa. 580. 

York Diocese, 464, 466. 

York Gaol, 475, 477. 

York Minster, 327, 371. 487. 

York Museum, 359, 370, 372 to 380. 

York Railway Station. 375, 876, 878, 

Zion Chapel, BridUngton, 466. 
Zurich, 301, 808. 



XTboinas XCbotnton iBmpsall 

^n /ISemoiiam. 



Late Eiiitorial Secretary* 

'^T^IIE death of our late President, Mr. Thomas 
^^ Thornton Empsall, in March, 18Q6, was an 
event in the history of the Bradford Historical 
and Antiquarian Society which every person connected 
with it deplored. Being, as he was, not only the 
practical founder of the Society and its President from 
the commencement, but also its most constant and 
indefatigable worker, the position he held was of 
unique importance. In recognition of services so 
ungrudgingly rendered by its President, it was fully 
intended that some record should be made in the 
Society's journal during his life time, and the present 
writer willingly undertook to be the compiler. But 
while " man proposes, God disposes," and Mr. Empsall 
passed away before such well-deserved recognition 
could be formulated in print. The existence and well- 
being of the Society were so intimately associated with 
the later portion of Mr. Empsall's own career, that it 
has been thought desirable to combine with a sketch 
of his life a brief resume of the Society's operations 
from its commencement. 

• TImm nuainoiial notice has been prepared by express desire of tho Council 
of tho IJnidford Historical and Antiquarian Society. — W.C, 



Mr. Empsall was born at Slead Syke, near Brig- 
house, in August, 1824, and at the time of his decease 
was therefore in the seventy-second year of his age. 
Although residing for over half a century away from 
his native place, he ever retained a loving regard for it, 
and paid frequent visits to the scene of his boyish days. 
The family to which he belonged were among the 
well-to-do portion of the community for fully three 
centuries. His mother was one of the Thorntons of 
Baistrick, hence the significance of the second name 
he bore, and which is still borne by one of his sons. 
His grandfather was Joshua Empsall, and his father 
was named Joseph. Near to the place of his birth a 
somewhat noted pioneer of the worsted industry, named 
John Holland, erected Slead Syke Mill, himself 
residing at Slead House.* 

As a youth Mr. Empsall passed through several 
branches of the worsted trade as carried on by Mr. 
Holland, but before reaching manhood removed to 
Bradford. Here he continued for some years still 
working at the same trade, but drifted from it as 
other opportunities oflFered. 

Mr. Empsairs inclinations had always tended in 
the direction of a scholastic career, and with this view 
he entered Borough Road Training College, London. 
After going through the usual probation he returned 
to Bradford, and became associated with the late Mr. 
George Taylor, at one period a member of the firm of 
Milligan, Forbes & Co., one of the largest stufi^ mer- 
ch anting firms of Bradford. Mr. Taylor was the chief 
supporter of, and an energetic worker in connection with, 
the school established at Little Horton by the members 
of Horton Lane Congregational Chapel, and found a 
useful co-adjutor in Mr. Empsall. For many years 
this school-room was the only building available for 
either religious or secular instruction at Little Horton, 
and both were given through Mr. Taylor's good offices. 
Many of the young people around were woefully 

 An interesting paper by Air. Empsall on Slead Hall, where his employer 
formerly resided, will bo found in the second volume of the "Bradford Antiquary." 



jLeficient in the rudiments of education, and evening 
classes for secular education were formed by Mr. 
Taylor, and were conducted for some years in the old 
school. Of these classes Mr. Taylor had the general 
supervision, but Mr. Empsall had the especial charge, 
and through the instruction there received many 
young men of Little Horton were enabled to take up 
responsible positions in Bradford. The late President, 
however, did not continue to follow a scholastic career, 
as in the course of subsequent events he married, and 
a favourable opportunity occurred for tlie commence- 
ment of a business in Manchester Road, which was 
successfully carried on for about thirty years, and from 
which he derived a comfortable competence. 

During the earlier portion of the above-named 
period the decline of the handcombing industry in 
Bradford afforded an opportunity for usefulness which 
Mr. Empsall embraced. Acting along with a com- 
mittee of Bradford gentlemen, which included Mr. 
llenry Brown, Mr. Henry Forbes, and Mr. William 
Byles, a movement was inaugurated for, if possible, 
providing employment in spade husbandry and in 
other ways for the large number of able-bodied men 
who were deprived of a living by reason of the intro- 
duction of the woolcombing machine. A number of 
these men were set to work in excavating the lower 
artificial lake in Peel Park ; others were drafted to 
the Cleveland district which was then being largely 
developed by iron-mining; while other batches were 
provided with free passages to South Australia, where 
they were taken in hand by Mr. Lavington Glyde 
(brother of the llev. Jonathan Glyde, minister of 
Id or ton Lane Chapel), and assisted to up-country work 
in the colony. Chiefly through the physical incapacity 
of many of those to whom a helping hand was held 
out, this otherwise philanthropic movement was not 
as successful as its promoters desired, although it did 
something to alleviate the distress at the time. On 
the establishment of a Bradford branch of the Mutual 
Provident Insurance Society in 1854, Mr. Empsall 

A 2 


became the local agent, and held that position for 
some years. 

From early youth the late President possessed a 
strong taste for historical and antiquarian pursuits, and 
from time to time forwarded contributions on these sub- 
jects to the local journals. He also became an assiduous 
collector ot topographical and historical works and 
manuscripts, and acquired one of the finest topo- 
graphical libraries in the county. In later years lie 
also devoted much time and money to searching out, 
translating, and transcribing ancient manuscripts, 
especially those relating to Bradford and neighbour- 
hood, and to his unwearied and devoted labours local 
historians and antiquaries are indebted more than to 
those of anyone else in Bradford for historic lore 
which had been buried for centuries. In testimony of 
the ardour and devotion with which he pursued these 
researches at the Record OflBce, at Somerset House, and 
other depositories in London, an extract may be given 
from a communication addressed by Mr. Alf. P. Bobbins 
to the Editor of the "Bradford Observer" shortly after 
Mr. Empsall's decease. Mr. Bobbins wrote : — 

** Others can testify to what was done by Mr. Empsall in regard to 
analysing and calendaring the registers of Bradford Parish Church, and 
the wills affecting your immediate locality preserved in the repositories 
at York and Wakefield. But I have had special means of observing 
what was his work whenever he visited London. The Public Record 
Office was to him a second home, to be sought with eagerness at the 
earliest available hour in the morning, and to be left with reluctance at 
closing time in the afternoon, that reluctance being only slightly lessened 
by the reflection that a full three hours yet remained for entrance to the 
British Museum, whither, even at the end of a day which would have 
outwearied most professional searchers of the public records, he would 
often betake himself, so as not to lose an available moment that could be 
given to his favourite pursuit. Nor did the Record Office and the 
British Museum exhaust for him the antiquarian attractions of London. 
In return for his having initiated myself, as a fellow-student of local 
history, into the always alluring mysteries of the Record Office, I had 
the satisfaction of being able to tell him of manuscript treasures, still 
unexplored, which repose among the archives of the House of I^rds 
and in the Archbishop of Canterbury's library at Lambeth Palace. To 
know that these existed, and to endeavour to extract from them what- 
ever concerned the town and manor of Bradford, formed virtually a 
simultaneous operation with Mr. Empsall ; and when at nightfall be 
would return to his London home, fatigued with the physical exertion. 


but glowing with delight at the discoveries the day had disclosed, those 
who had themselves felt the keen joy of successful historical research 
would best enter into the delight, and understand how the weariness 
was forgotten. Mr. EmpsalFs researches into those portions of the 
archives of the Duchy of Lancaster which specially affect the manor of 
Bradford, and into that splendid collection of manuscripts at the Record 
Office, which tell the local story of the Civil War as it related to your 
immediate district, entitle him, indeed, to an honoured memory among 

Mr. Empsall was practically the founder of the 
Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society, and the 
writer well rememhers the conversation which led 
to its formation. This incident, however, will have 
a more fitting place when subsequently treating 
of the Society's operations. From the date of its for- 
mation in May, 1878, until his decease, he was its 
President with the exception of one year. Through- 
out that long period he was most assiduous in pro- 
moting its interests, and the Society was the object of 
his solicitude even on his deathbed. Mr. Empsall 
never published in book form the result of his re- 
searches, but he frequently read papers to the members 
of the Society, and these were in due course published 
in the Society's Journal, the Bradford Antiquary, 
Among the papers so published were those entitled 
" Bradford During the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Six- 
teenth Centuries," " Local Royalist Compounders," 
" The Boiling Family," "Joseph Lister, the llistorian,'' 
"Bibliography of Bradford," "Bradford Parish Church 
B;egi8ters," and "Notes on Old Local Families," &c. 

Mr. Empsall had also for some years searched for 
documents relating to the Charities of Bradford and 
the immediate neighbourhood, and had been successful 
in collecting much information on the subject. In this 
research he had made numerous extracts Avhich have 
not yet been made public, but which doubtless will be 
found in the manuscripts now in the possession of his 

Mr.' Empsall also held office as one of the Bradford 
borough auditors for a considerable period, and took 
an active part in the reorganisation of the affairs of the 
East Morlev and Bradford Savings Bank some years 


ago. Soon after the re-division of the wards of the 
borough in 1882, Mr. Empsall was elected a repre- 
sentative for the Listerhills Ward on the Bradford 
Town Council, and was thrice re-elected, retiring from 
the Council at the election in 1892. In that capacity 
he took an especial interest in the Free Library, and 
rendered good service on several occasions in obtaining 
contributions for the library. He was also a member 
of the Bradford School Board from 1879 to 1882. Hq 
had been twice married, and has left a widow, four 
sons, and two daughters. 

In conclusion, it may be added that the valuable 
topographical library collected by the late President 
during many years, as well as his manuscripts, the 
result of much painstaking research, remain in the 
possession of his eldest son, Mr. J. K. Empsall. The 
valuable transcripts made by him from the Bradford 
Parish Church Registers have been bequeathed to the 
Bradford Pree Library. 

In accordance with the wish of the Council, that a 
sketch of the past history of the Society should 
accompany the obituary notice of its President, the 
following brief resume has been compiled by his 
biographer. Only the merest outline, however, can be 
given in the space allotted, but additional information 
from the same pen will be found on p. 165 Vol. I. of 
the Society's Journal, and also p. 92 Vol. II. 

The origin of the Society is clearly traceable to a 
conversation which took place between the present 
writer and Mr. Empsall in the early part of the year 
1878. In the course of a mutual "confab" on matters 
local and antiquarian, but chiefly the latter, our late 
President remarked — between the leisurely puffs of a 
respectable " churchwarden '' — " Ay, I do wish we could 
get up a good Antiquarian Society in Bradford. There 
is so much to be got together in relation to the town 
that such a Society could take in hand." The practical 
outcome of that remark was a circular which the 


present writer undertook to get into circulation, con- 
vening a meeting of persons interested in antiquarian 
pursuits, to which the signatures of Thos. T. Empsall, 
Jude Yates, Wm. Glossop, and Wm. Cud worth were 
appended. Mr. Yates, although an ardent antiquarian, 
found himself unable from the circumstances of his 
official position, to do more than give the sanction of 
his name to the formation of an institution which had 
his heartiest sympathy. 

The meeting convened as above was held in the 
offices of Messrs. Glossop & Gray, Kirkgate, on May 
9th, 1878, Mr. Empsall presiding, when, on the motion 
of Mr. E. P. Peterson, seconded by Mr. J. Horsfall 
Turner, that '* an association to be called the Bradford 
Historical and Antiquarian Society be formed," there 
was a unanimous response by those present. The 
first meeting of the Society was held on May 30th, 
1878, at the Globe Hotel, Piccadilly, when a code of 
rules was adopted, and the following list of officers 
agreed to, viz.: — President, Mr. T. T. Empsall; Vice- 
President, Mr. E. P. Peterson, F.S.A. ; Treasurer, 
Mr. Wm. Glossop ; Secretary, Mr. Wm. Cudworth ; 
Librarian, Mr. Wm. Scruton ; Members of Council, 
Messrs. J. Maffey, M.D., J. Horsfall Turner, John 
Thornton, Chas. Geo. Virgo. 

Among the objects which appeared to come within 
the scope of the Society, and calling for attention on 
the part of its members, the following were agreed 
upon, viz. : — 

^' (a) The examination and reproduction of documents and records 
bearing on the past and present history of the locality. 

(b) The searching and transcription of ecclesiastical or public records, 
registers, &c. 

(c) The preparation of plans and views of places or buildings of 
interest or antiquity, or other objects that it may be considered desirable 
to preserve. 

(d) The collecting of antiquities, books, coins, &c., especially those 
associated with Bradford or its neighbourhood. 

(0) The preparation of papers on ancient or modem local institutions. 

(/) The study of architecture so far as it may lie within the scope of 
the Society's operations. 

(y) The preparation of biographical and genealogical notices of local 
worthies and the preservation of portraits. 


(A) The collecting of materials relating to the traditions, manners or 
customs of the town and neighbourhood, and generally the furthering of 
the collection and preservation of whatever may be considered of his- 
torical or antiquarian interest illustrative of the history' and topography 
of the area covered by the Society. 

The inaugural address of the President was given on 
July 12th, 1878, the subject being — " The aim and scope 
of an Historical and Antiquarian Society." During the 
remainder of the year 1878 four other papers were 
read by Messrs. J. H. Turner, John Thornton, Simeon 
Rayner, and W. Scruton. The papers read in 1879 
were by Messrs. A. B. Sewell, T. T. Empsall, W. 
Cudworth, W. Scruton, Dr. Maffey, J. H. Turner, 
W. Glossop, and Samuel Margerison. In 1880, the 
papers were contributed by Mr. Empsall, and Messrs. 
Rayner, Peterson, Skevington, Cudworth, Maffey, 
Turner, Scruton, and Margerison ; and in 1881 by 
Messrs. Empsall, Rayner, J. W. Turner, Dr. Bell, 
J. H. Turner, Margerison, and Scruton. In 1882 
papers were contributed by Dr. Maffey, Messrs. 
Empsall, Thornton, Jno. Batty (of Rothwell, who 
read two papers), and W. Exley ; and in 1883 by Mr. 
Empsall, Messrs. J. W. Turner (two papers), Glossop, 
S. O. Bailey, Rayner, and Thornton. During the 
month of January, 1881, the first number of the 
Society's Journal, The Bradford Aniiquanj, was published, 
and the second part in September, 1882. IJp to the 
year 1883 the Society's meetings had been held in the 
Bradford Grammar School, but in the early portion of 
1884, by the generosity of the Free Library Committee 
of the Corporation, a room was set apart for its use in 
the Library premises, which is still so occupied. 
During the last named year only three papers were 
given, namely, by Messrs. W. Claridge, M.A., W. Scruton, 
and John Lister, M.A. ; but in 1885 five papers were 
contributed, namely, by Mr. Empsall (two papers), and 
Messrs. AV. Glossop, H. Butterworth, and W. Cudworth. 

The Society's Excursions had now become extremely 
popular, attracting from about 70 to 130 members 
according to locality and other circumstances, and 
additional interest was imparted to them by their being 


accompanied by Mr. Geo. Hepworth, a member of the 
Society and an expert photographer. Through Mr. 
H(5pworth's good offices, views were secured of many 
of the places visited, which were reproduced in the 
form of lantern entertainments with descriptive 
lectures. Greater pains were also taken by the 
Council in arranging the excursions to secure the 
services of cicerones possessing knowledge of the 
scenes visited, and by these means, and the admirable 
arrangements made in respect to them by the then 
honorary secretary, Mr. J. A. Clapham, the excursions 
of the Bradford Antiquarian Society have achieved a 
marked success, and during the summer months have 
become quite an institution in the social life of Brad- 
ford and the immediate neighbourhood. 

In consequence of a movement initiated by the 
Bradford Philosophical Society, this Society became 
affiliated, towards the close of 1885, with the above- 
named organisation, an arrangement which still exists. 
Papers were read before the Society during the session 
of 1886 by Mr. Empsall, and Messrs. W. Claridge, 
John Lister, J. 11. Pritchett (of Darlington), and W. 
Cudworth. In 1887 the contributors were Messrs. 
Scruton, Lister, Glossop, C. A. Pederer, Empsall (two 
papers), and G. Hepworth (of Bri^house) ; and in 1888 
by Messrs. Cudworth, W. A. Brigg (Kildwick Hall), 
Federer, Pritctiett, Hepworth, and J. W. Clay (llais- 
trick). The pajjers for 1889 were by Mr. Empsall 
(two papers), and Messrs. Lister, Butterworth, Cud- 
worth, and Hepworth. An extra paper was given 
during the session of 1890 by the Bight Hon. G. J. 
Shaw-Lefevre, M.P., on "The Preservation of Common 
Rights," and Mr. John Lister contributed papers on 
the " Pilgrimage of Grace," with especial reference to 
its local adherents. The other papers given during 
the session 1891-2 were by Mr. Scruton, Mr. J. N. 
Dickons, Mr. Percival Boss, Mr. Hoffman Wood, Mr. 
Empsall, Mr. Cudworth (two papers). Dr. Leadman 
(Boroughbridge), Mr. Scruton, Mr. Pederer, Mr. John 
Sowden, Mr. Butler Wood, and Mr. Claridge. During 


the session of 1893 the papers were contributed by Mr. 
Pedercr, Mr. Empsall, Mr. John Sowden, Mr. J. A. 
Clapham, Mr. Wm. Home, F.G.S. (Leyburn), and Mr, 
Win. Scruton, during 1894 by Mr. John Thornton, Mr. 
T. T. Empsall, Mr. George Hepworth, Mr. John Lister, 
Mr. J. Ilorsfall Turner, and Mr. Herbert F. Wroot. 
In 1895-6 the papers given were by Mr. T. T. Empsall, 
Mr. J. A. Clapham, Mr. Thos. Mitehison, the Rev. 
Bryan Dale, M.A., Mr. Wm. Cudworth, Mr. C. A. 
Federer, Mr. W. Claridge, M.A., Mr. T. H. Healey, 
and Mr. Wm. Scruton. 

No apology will be needed for giving prominence to 
the contributors of papers during the eighteen winter 
sessions through which the Society has passed. It will 
be obvious to all thinking minds that this feature of its 
operations is of supreme importance, as upon it depends 
the existence of the Societv as . an archaeological 
organisation. The Summer Excursions, whilst afford- 
ing the occasion of pleasant country rambles, are not 
without their educational uses, and by all means should 
be continued and encouraged, but the real essence of 
archaeological research will ever be found in the con- 
crete form presented at the Society's monthly meetings. 
How far the materials indicated in the outlined scope 
of operations given in an earlier portion of this sketch, 
have been worked, might with advantage form the 
subject of inquiry at some future meeting of the 

A most important feature yet remains for mention, 
namely, the Society's Journal, The Bradford Antiquary. 
First issued in January, 1881, two volumes have now 
been published, with every promise of a continuance 
of the Journal. Originally intended to be the re- 
pository of material of permanent interest contained 
in the papers read at the Society's monthly meeting, 
the Journal has fully justiiBed its existence to the 
present time, as a glance at its contents testifies, but it 
goes without the saying, that its future largely dqpends 
on the material provided in papers read before Ihe 
Society. Another source of '' copy " for the Editor 


exists in descriptive accounts of the various excursions 
to places of archaeological interest got up by the 
Society, but even these accounts involve a considerable 
amount of preparation on the part of those willing to 
undertake them. With the appearance of the third 
volume of the Antiquary, of which the present number 
is the first instalment, the old form and arrangement 
will have passed away, and an improved style take 
their place. Superior facilities for illustrating the 
Journal will also be taken advantage of in future issues. 

The burden of this sketch is obviously a call to 
activity and work on the part of all who desire 
the future welfare of the iiradford Historical and 
Antiquarian Society. The field is large, but the 
labourers are few, and alas ! they are a diminishing 
number. May the example so nobly set by our 
deceased President be an inspiration to others still 
remaining, many of whom are doubtless sincerely 
desirous of the welfare and future prosperity of the 
Society of which he was for so long a period the 
devoted President! 

The portrait accompanying this sketch is from a 
photograph taken by Messrs. Appleton & Co. of Brad- 
ford, and reproduced and printed by the Meisenbach 
Company, liondon. 






Prefatory Note. — This paper, read before the Society on the 16th 
February, 1894, represents the last literary labour of our late lamented 
President to which he was able to give the requisite revision for 
publication. His intention had been to join to it his second and con- 
cluding paper on the same subject, read before the Society on the llth 
January, 1895, and as long as hopes of ultimate restoration to health 
buoyed him up, he cherished the anticipation of laying his researches on 
local monastic properties before our readers in a more complete form. 
But when he became conscious that his course was run and that the tide 
of life was ebbing fast, with loving regret yet perfect resignation he 
handed the manuscript to the editor, fully aware that he himself should 
never behold it in printed form. To the historian and anti({Uarian, this 
posthumous paper of Mr. EmpsalUs will commend itself as perhaps the 
hiost important of his contributions to local history, elucidating as it 
does some hitherto obscure points and conclusively disproving some 
assumptions made on insufficient data which had led previous historians 
astray. — ( Editor. J 

'^^HE subject of this paper is of mucli Avider scope 
^^ than is implied by the term " Monastic and 
Kindred Institution^," the title by which it is 
set out in our programme. 

In ancient times, prior to the foundation in 
this country of monasteries, there existed sundry 
other national organizations of a semi-religious cba- 
racter tliat in course of time became largely endowed 
with properties of various kinds by their patrons, 
a large portion of which was situate in York- 


sMre and became ultimately intermixed with the 
belongings of the monasteries. I refer in particular 
to the Knights Templars, a daring and arrogant 
military organization, which at length coming under 
the ban of the Pope as a luxurious, effete and im- 
moral brotherhood, their original virtues having been 
stifled by wealth and indulgence, were suppressed in 
1312 — and to the Knights of Malta or the order of St. 
John of Jerusalem, which succeeded to much of the 
property of the former. Both had their origin before 
the conquest, and most of their endowments date from 
the Norman or pre-Tudor period. The latter body, 
it should be observed, bore at first the name of 
" Hospitallers," its original mission being quasi- 
medical, to which was subsequently attached a military 
element; when, it is alleged, they became largely 
recruited by the admission of people of the highest 
rank and influence, and adroitly preserving a passable 
semblance of religion in their organization were 
perm.itted to survive to a later period than the 

Early in the fourteenth century the order was in 
possession of a large number of the fairest manors in 
the kingdom, and these, together with detached por- 
tions of land, quit rents, &c., rendered it extremely 
wealthy and independent. Its chief establishments 
were called Grandpriories and Commanderies, of which 
in Yorkshire were Mount St. John, near Thirsk, 
Temple Hirst, near Hull, Temple Newsham, near Leeds, 
and Newland Park, in tlie parish of Normanton, all 
possessions of the most desirable kind in the country. In 
addition, there were numerous subordinate local agencies, 
whose duties were to look after the properties in their 
several districts, to register the wills of the tenantry, to 
gather the rents accruing from the properties, and to 
remit the same to their appropriate centres. How they 
were spent there, i]lo one yet has attempted to explain. 
The order was declared illegal shortly after the dissolu- 
tion of monasteries, and its properties were confiscated ; 
b?jit so dilatory was the operation, that sufficient was left 


to encourage Queen Mary to attempt its resuscitation, but 
her premature death put an end to the scheme. Her 
sister Elizabeth made short work of the remains, 
selling ojff the best portions as soon as practicable. 
For years afterwards, however, there remained a large 
number of smaller interests in the shape of small 
portions of land and quit rents varying from Id. to 10s. 
and upwards each. The bulk of these rents were of 
the smaller class, and consequently at the close of the 
sixteenth century, OAving to the fall in the value of 
money, appeared insignificant by comparison with their 
original value four or five centuries previously. 

These were the last to be disposed of. They were 
arranged in batches as much in accordance with the old 
order of things as was found convenient. Thus, 
to Crossley Hall were attached about 200 items 
extending from Bat ley westward to Pudsey, Allerton, 
Cottingley, Thwaites, Eldwick, Bingley, and even 
Keighley. This lot drifted into the hands of 
Richard Sunderland, of Coley, towards the close of 
Elizabeth's reign. Why he made the investment is 
diflBcult to understand considering the trouble and 
cost involved in such small interests. However, 
the family stuck to the evidently profitless and trouble- 
some properties for well nigh a century. I have seen 
a survey of " the Manor of Crossley Hall taken at the 
court there," dated 1670, by order of either Peter or 
Samuel Sunderland, which shews that nearlv all the 
smaller rents were from ten to twenty years in arrear. 
Possibly the scintillation of dignity accruing from the 
possession of the title, together with the rights of 
"probate'* and "heriof would be what they chiefly 
coveted. Similarly the Manor of Coley, which estate 
belonged to the same order for centuries, together 
with all its other interests in the parish of Halifax was 
secured by the Ryshworths who were long the repre- 
sentatives of the " Knights *' there. By marriage the 
same drifted into the hands of the Sunderlands and 
ultimately to the Hortons, of Howroyd, who yet hold 
a large accumulation of documents relating to the 


ttansactions of the Manor of Cole v. With rearard to 
the larger and more valuable interest of the Knights 
of St. John, including the Manor of Batley, they 
were quickly appropriated by wide-awake pai ties, but 
being mostly outside what may be called the neigh- 
bourhood of Bradford they scarcely come within the 
area proposed for consideration. 

Coming now to the monastic orders — abbeys, priories, 
nunneries, &c. — there were probably a dozen of them 
which held between them at least two-thirds of the pro- 
perty on the south, east, and west side of Bradford to a 
considerable distance. The town itself was singularly 
free from their incumbrance, nothing as yet being 
known of any such possessions. There were a few 
Bradfordians in early times who bestowed small gifts 
on St. Mary's Abbey, York, and a few other similar 
establishments. It may be that some of the properties 
named in a very singular survey of Bradford by an 
inquisition taken at the Old Bailey in 1614, might 
consist of items of this nature. No indication of 
this, however, occurs in the document itself, and 
it is certainly wide of the mark to <5all it by the title 
named, for from the absence of details it is difficult to 
ascertain where several of the properties are situate ; 
a large majority of them, accompanied by slight 
descriptions, are clearly within the parish, while a few 
are much farther away. My impression is that the 
" survey " was designed as an inventory of such lands, 
buildings and chief rents, yet unsold, as had formerly 
belonged to the monasteries — the drift or remainder of 
the spoil of the previous gigantic plunder. Some of the 
properties are situate at Allerton, Wibsey, Pudsey, and 
an important parcel is actually within the town of 
Leeds. Altogether the document is very remarkable, 
and would be appreciated if it could be reproduced 
here. Hardly were the greater monasteries suppressed 
ere their establishments together with the homesteads, 
so called, were appropriated by parties near the 
throne — Bolton for instance by Lord CliflFord, Kirkstall 
and Nostell by Cardinal Wolsey, Fountains by Sir 


Richard Gresham — while less immediate and scarcely 
less valuable estates became the possession of such as 
had easy access to them. A vast number of smaller 
and still more distant properties were secured by less 
important personages, and not a few fell to the share of 
a class of speculative gentry who throve mightily by 
the game. 

Notably among the latter tribe were many York- 
shiremen, some indeed neighbours, as William Rams- 
den, of Longley, the ancestor of the great Hudderslield 
family of that name, Richard Wilkinson, of Royds 
Hall, both of whom bought parcels or grouped 
lots, sometimes on their own account, but often in 
association with other persons living in the vicinity. 

Taking first the monastic possessions in the imme- 
diate neigbourhood of Bradford, I find they were more 
numerous than has been hitherto supposed. Among 
these there may be named, in passing, Tyersall, an ap- 
panage of Nostell, Newhall, Boiling, which, with a fair 
estate attached, belonged to Kirkstall, Leaventhorpe and 
Headley belonging to Nostell, and the nearest and best 
known of all, namely Burnett Pield, and the famous spur 
tenure, Horton. Several of the above properties at the 
dissolution were concealed, that is, not returned in 
the list of properties of the establishments to which 
they had belonged. That this could have happened 
with regard to the latter properties is remarkable, 
and possibly they might have been lost sight of alto- 
gether, had not the action of speculators brought it 
within the cognizance of the Augmentation Court. 
Much excitement and much correspondence and 
enquiries ensued, the result of which was the appoint- 
ment by the court of an official who reported, in 1543, 
as follows: — 


" This property, called Burnett Field and Horton Closes " (says a 
detached paper in the bundle), " is found to have been let in 1535, by the 
Abbot of Christall to one James Sharpe, of Horton, near Bradforde, on 
lease for thirty years at a rent of 44s. annually and the payment of a 
certain sura of money to the said Abbot, and had in hand by him at the 
time of the sealing of the said lease." 


*^ That the said property consists of one mess^ thare with all lands, 
meadows, wood and other appurtenances, and is situate in the Lordship 
of Boiling and is called Burnett Fielde and is now in the tenure of the 
sayde James Sharpe. There is also a close of land with its appurtenances 
in Horton." 

The latter, and equally valuable portion of these 
properties, is dismissed in a very summary way, 
which shows that at this stage there could not have 
been much consideration given to it. Nearly one third 
of Sharpens lease had elapsed when this took place, so 
that there is just room for suspicion that up to then it 
was not known exactly whether Sharpe was lessee still 
or the absolute owner. There is no offer to purchase 
accompanying the above statement, but another state- 
ment follows signed by Hugh Fuller, the Clerk of the 
Court of Augmentation, which is accompanied with 
analogous descriptions of the other properties proposed 
to be purchased combined in the same proposal. It is 
headed : — 

" Application for a grant of Abbey Lands to William Romesdene, and 
Robert Whytj-all, of Elland, of parcells of lond late belonginge to ye 
Monasterey of Chrystiall." 

*'*' Ye application is for londs and ten^ in Hortone and Bollinge, near 
Bradford, of ye annual valor of 448. by ye year." 

Ye particular is: — A mess® in Horton and all ye londs to ye same 
belonginge and apperteyninge, and also a close within ye villate of 
Bollinge called Burnett Fielde, all which is let and is in the tenure of 
James Sharpe by indenture under the seal of tbe late Monasterey of 
Christian, but not hitherto shewn to the auditor, and for which it 
appeareth the said James Sharpe pays annually as above, at St. Michael 
and Pentecost. . 

Memorandum. The said premises is no parcell of any Manor, ffarme. 
Grange, or other Hereditaments exceeding the clere yearly valor of 
ffortee poundes. 

That the premises is distant from any of ye Kinges houses which bene 
kepte and reserved for his Hyghnes acces and repaire (use) or anie of 
,his graces iforests, chaces, or parkes, of, I am infourmed 9 or 10 myle. 

That as concernyng patronages, advowsones, churchyes, or other 
promocyones thereunto apperteyninge, I know of none. 

Item. What ifyne or ffynes hath bene payde for ye premyses, I am 
not informed. 

Item. I have mayde no partyculars as yett of these premyses to anie 
persone or persones, nor I knowe none that is desirous to purchase the 
same but these bringers. Hugonis fhiller. 

Memorandum as above : — There be growinge about ye scytuacon of ye 
Hcyd mess** and ye hedgys inclosing ye lands perteyninge to ye same and 


other landes aforeseyde, 60 ashes and elmes of 60 and 80 yeares growthe, 
usually croppd and shredd. Whereof 60 are reserved to the ffermor 
there for housebote and hedgebote, which he hath been accustomed to 
have there, and 10 resydue valued at 4d. the tree, which in the whole 
amount to 3/4. 

What had heen paid to the Ahhot of Kirkstall by 
James Sharpe does not appear, nor does what Ramsden 
and Whittle had to give, and it is now scarcely possible 
to ascertain the respective amounts because of the 
mergence of this in the other properties, a lump sum 
only being named for the whole ; but some idea on the 
point may possibly be derived from what follows. 

What was the intended arrangement with Sharpe 
there is nothing to show, but as upwards of twenty 
years of his lease were yet unexpired, he would have to 
be reckoned with by somebody, and it seems clear 
enough on the face of the records that the officials in 
their sales did not exercise sufficient caution to prevent 
injustice to interested persons such as Sharpe. llams- 
den himself who was generally the administrative 
party, whoever might be his associates, was not at all 
scrupulous, and being moreover a smartish man of 
business, and of considerable influence also at head 
quarters, generally contrived, before making pur- 
chases, to secure customers for them. In the present 
case, an understanding, in fact a legal agreement, with 
Richard Lister, of Ovenden, was executed, setting forth 
that both these properties of Horton and Burnett Field 
should be transferred to him at a price named, imme- 
diately after coming into llamsden's hands. But not- 
withstanding the covenant named, performance was 
resisted by Ramsden subsequently, either in con- 
sequence of finding the properties more valuable than 
the parties were aware of, or because they had cost 
more than had been anticipated. However Lister, 
who was not a man to be trifled with, on realizing the 
situation waxed becomingly indignant, and straightway 
appealed to the great fountain of justice, as then was, 
in the following lugubrious but withal animated 
strain : — 


37th Henky VIII. 

To ye King our Soverayn lorde and his honorable counsayll established 
in ye North e Partyes. 

In mooste humblye man>^ complaynge unto your heighnes and your 
seyd counsayll youre dayle oratore, Richard Lyster of Halyfax in youre 
Countye of York, Mercer. That whereas one William Rommysden of 
Longley in your saide Countye gentylman dyd covenaunte and graunte 
to and with your sayde subject that he the seyd William affore ye Fest 
of lilaHter in the 35th yeare of yoare mooste nowble reigne, should pur- 
chase and bye of youre Heignhes oon Mess® or Tenemente with its 
appurtenance in Lytyell Hortone in Bradforthe dayle. Also one 
Mess® with a appurtenances in Boiling called Burnett Field, both in your 
sayde Countye of York, w^hich laite was appurteynynge and belongyng 
to the seyde layte dessolved Monesterye of Cry stall, to youre sayde 
orator and to hys heyres for ever. And also afore the seyd Fest of Ester 
shoulde deliver or cause to be delyvered unto youre sayd orator one 
good sure sufficient and lawful estate of Fee Symple sealled with youre 
Gracious Seall of your Gracious Courte of th' Augmentation of all and 
singular the premyssez with th' appurtenances to have to your sayd 
orator and to hys heyres for ever. And for the assuraunce thereoff to be 
done as aforeseyde, the seyd William Rommesden and one Robert 
Whyttell of Eland in your seyd Countye, Yeman, dyd bynd theyr selves 
by there dede obligatorye in the some of an Hundryth Poundys Sterlying 
to do and perfourme the premyssez in fourme aforesayde, as by the same 
obligacion more at large yt dothe appeare. By reyson whereof your 
seyd orator dy(J sell fyve Merlyngs (?) landys of his inheritance and payd 
the sayd William to have the premyssez as ys afforeseyd, the some of 
Thre 8kore Poundys Sterling, and nowe so yt ys, good and gracious 
lorde, that as yet the sayd assuraunce of the premysses ys undelevered 
unto your sayd oratour, and also the sayd hundreth poundes as yett is 
unpayd unto your sayd orator, albeit he hath divers tymys demaunded 
the sayd assuraunce of the sayd William or payment of the said 
hundrethe poundes, which to do he hath at all tonnes delayed and 
yet doythe, which ys to th' utter undoying of your sayd oratour. 

Wherfor in consedoracion of the premisses your oratour in the way 
of Pitye and Charytie prays youre Heighnesse to graunte youre graciouse 
lettres missive be sent unto the seyd William Rommysden and Roberte 
Whyttall commaundynge them t' appeare before your Heighness and 
your sayd counsaill at a day and place limytted by youre Heighness, 
there to haunser unto the premysses. And youre sayd oratour shall 
daylye praie to God for the good preservacon of youre moste Roiall 
estate, longe honor and fylicete tUndure. 

Richard Lyster. 

This had the desired effect, an order being at once 
issued for the transference of botli properties to Lister, 
to be held, it is expressly stated, as Military Tenures. 
How Sharpe was dealt with I have no information, but 
we And Richard Lister afterwards settled at Horton, 
where he died in 1570, while his son Thomas occupied 



Burnett Eield. The latter subsequently succeeded his 
father Richard at Horton, his son John having charge 
of the other property, and a few years afterwards letters 
patent were granted by Queen Elizabeth authorizing 
the alienation by Thomas to his son John of : — 

" All the enclosure of land, meadow, wood and pastures formerly- 
called Burnett Field which is held of us in capite, as is sat'd.^* 

The closing words are singular, as seeming to imply 
that at head quarter there was no record that this, 
like all the rest of the property in Boiling, had been 
continuously held w^hile in monastic hands by that 
specific service. In 1606 Thomas Lister becoming 
aged, John his son leaves Burnett Field to take up his 
abode with him, and John Whitley, of Ovenden, who 
married his daughter Mary, succeeds to Burnett Field. 
The elder Lister did not long survive the arrangement, 
and at his death Burnett Field was sold to William 
Walker, of Boiling, and letters patent were obtained from 
King James for its alienation. As has been stated, the 
Listers, upon their acquisition of these properties, 
determined to settle on the Horton section which con- 
tinued their seat for more than 200 years. It need 
hardly be repeated that this property was the ancient 
"Spur Tenure" created by John of Gaunt. What 
was the quantity of land it originally contained has 
never been properly ascertained, but it is pretty 
certain that it must have been considerably increased 
by subsequent purchases, else the traditional couple 
of oxgangs must have been a misnomer. 

At the time when the last of the Listers married Dr. 
Crowther, the estate extended from the line afterward 
called Crowther Street across to Great Horton Road, and 
embraced both Ashgrove and Claremont, Melbourne 
Place, &c., to a junction with the Sharpe estate west- 
ward. On the advent of the Listers here there must 
already have been standing a dwelling-house on the 
spot, of a substantial character, with deep mullioned 
windows, or the family erected one soon after, for a 
large part of the substantial building erected by Samuel 


Lister in the last century, nnd which is now (1895) in 
process of demolition, clearly shows that it was huilt 
largely on the basement of an older edifice. 


Continuing the main subject, I find that higher up 
Manchester Road, outside the Boro' boundary, the 
whole of Wibsey and Revey belonged at one time to 
the Monastery of Kirkstall, but the district being, as I 
suspect, much less profitable than many of the other 
distant possessions the institution was burdened with, 
the Kookes* appropriated it all without any sort of 
acknowledgment. There is, I grant, not the slightest 
reference to Wibsey in the monastic inventory alluded 
to above, nor have I found it mentioned in any other 
documents at the Record Office in this connexion, but 
I think there can be little room for doubt of its being 
recognized as a portion of the abbey lands at an early 
date. It is clear, however, that if any of the older 
inhabitants were cognizant that these lands were de jure 
monastic property, no attempt was made to bring the 
fact to the knowledge of the authorities. 

A significant fact to be noted here, is that as early as 
1548 the Rookes' are found selling detached portions 
of land on the outskirts of the Slack, on reserved 
considerations. The following is an abstract from a 
Deed of Peoff^ment given by William Rookes to 
another of the Lister family, called John of 0*Kylne 
(where that place may have been I do not know) 
in Bradfordale, of : — 

A Mess^ and all my lands and tenements, &c., called Bromehill. 

Also a Bovate of Arable land in Wibsey. 

Also a close called Can, and a meadow called Carynge, and another 
called Bromehill Close in Wibsey. 

Also 2 closes in Wibsey called the Intacks, and 1 rood of land im- 
proved from the common Moor of Wibsey abutting on Deep Carr. 

Also 7 roods lately improved from the Waste of Wibsey abutting on 
Bromehill, at the yearly rent of 1 2d. and 2d. per year. 

Also reserving to myself and my heirs the ser\'ice of a Plough Boone 
or 6d. yearly, and Sciclc Boone or 2d. yearly, and another service called 
the Stubble Boone or 2d. yearly, at my Court at Royds Hall. 

And I the said William Rookes will warrant the said John leister and his 
heirs, against John, ablK)t of Crystal, against all prosecutions and rcj)nsalv 


This, it will be noted, was eight years after the dis- 
solution, a circumstance that appears to shew that 
Kookes even then was not quite certain that the 
ecclesiastical change was absolutely irrevocable. 

I have seen several other deeds of or about the same 
date conveying lands in the same neighbourhood on 
similar conditions. 

This is the second Lister which settled in this 
neighbourhood about the same time. In the deed he 
is described as of O'Kylne, wherever that was in Brad- 
forddale. His descendants survived at the same place 
till the commencement of last centurv, the last male 
dying then in the possession of considerable property, 
the bulk of which went to a person of the same name 
living at Brighouse. 

There were many other valuable properties near 
Bradford that I had not the least suspicion were or had 
been in any way connected with Monastic Establish- 
ments, as for instance Tiersall, Chellow, Leaventhorpe, 
Headley, Newhall, Bowling, Faweather in Baildon 
Moor, including Harden Grange (then occupied by one 
John Mylner who ran one of the mills, for which 
altogether he paid the rent of 32s. lOd.), Hawksworth, 
and Gilstead. Besides this, above Wibsey, to the west 
and north of Bradford, there was a wide circular belt of 
territory, terminating at Bingley, which contributed 
largely in the shape of rent to the resources of the 
Monasteries, as tenants in chief, for many centuries. 


The Manor of Harden was one of the richest 
possessions of B/ievaulx, and I feel inclined to deal with it 
at this point before proceeding with some of the nearer 
items. The Monastery was absolute owner of this 
property, subject of course to the payment of the 
crown's claims, but the rents though small were what 
are called raik rents, and although I shall put before 
you a list of tenants, there are a few considerations 
connected with it that must occupy some attention. 

The records relating to this set forth that — 


Walter Paslew, Esq., of Est Riddlesden, one of his Gracious 
Majesties lege subjects, humbly solicits his Grace to purchase the 
Manor, Messuages, Grange, Woods, Underwoods, Mills, &c., in Ayredale 
and Harden, late belonging to the now dissolved Monasterie of Rievaulx, 
and now to the King's moost Gracious Majestie, the same to be held in 
capite by the 20th part of one whole Knight's Fee, which said appli- 
cation by the said Walter Paslew is dated ye 1 8th February, Slst year of 
ye reigne of his Grace Henry ye 8th (1540-1). 

The general suppression of the larger monasteries, of 
which Kirkstall was one, commenced in the spring of 
1540 and continued for several months or till the 
Novemher following ; hence we learn from the ahove 
date that Walter Paslew was among the first crowd of 
the smaller gentry who sought to enrich themselves out 
of the spoil of the ancient church. 

In the inventory of particulars ahout twenty tenants 
are named, the properties they held comprising thirteen 
farms, three walke mills (grain), the Grange, &c., which 
exclusive of the woods (the trees in which they 
could not or had not time perhaps to count, although 
named specially), yielded altogether the magnificent 
sum of £20 by the year, and beneath this is the sale 
price which was fixed by tlie court presumably, namely, 
£274 13s. 4d., or less than fourteen years' purchase on 
the rent named. From the documents it appears that 
Harden was originally called Halton, but the name 
was changed probably to avoid confusion with several 
other places in the West Riding bearing the same 
name. The three Walk Mills unitedly paid £2 16s. 2d., 
the occupier of one of them being John Milner, as 
above stated, who lived at Harden Grange, and paid for 
mill and dwelling-house together the rent of 32s. lOd. 
The other rents too, judging by the quantity of land 
attached to them, must have been extremely low even 
for that day. The price given for the estate would 
certainly yield a good return and be a very profitable 
investment, taking into account the cultivable land 
alone, and much more so when the woods which were 
thrown in are coupled with the bargain. 

But profitable as this purchase was, it scarcely 
equalled numerous other purchases out of the huge 

2i THE BllAt)FOkD AMlQUAkV. 

wreckage, and it certainly would be as much if not 
more needful to Paslew's large family than to the 
many other beneficiaries who obtained a larger share. 

He was moreover very well aware of his advantages, 
and appreciated them. He did not, however, survive 
long afterwards — only four years — dying prematurely 
at the very time when he was called upon to be in 
harness in defence of his sovereign Scotland way. 
This unfortunate circumstance he refers to in his will — 

" I, Walter Paslew, of Riddlesden, entending by the Grace of God, 
according to ye Kinge's commaundement by his letters to mee directed, 
shortlie to tak my Journey towards ye Scotts for ye defence of ye 
Heaume of Englonde." 

And further on he remarks : — 

''And whereas I am seased of londes and tenements in Harden, 
Col}'ngworth, Ricrofte, and Cowelhouses latelie purchased of ye Kinge's 
Majestic, and holde ye same of my soveraigne lorde the Kinge in Capite." 

The above is nearly all the property mentioned in 
the will, but it was not all he obtained by the " Dis- 
solution," setting aside what he might acquire other 
ways. This is obvious enough if we compare the ^ost 
mortem inquisition of his father about Iwenty years 
previously, and the like inquiry instituted at his own 
decease. There were two institutions in early times 
having charge of this class of business, one which 
made inquiries into the realty of persons deceased, the 
other recording the estates of wards and successions, 
and to these the family historian is greatly indebted 
for valuable material in the prosecution of his task. 
In the document named, relating to the younger Paslew, 
we find that he died seized of the Manors of Riddlesden, 
Harden, Morley, Morton, Est Morton, West Morton, 
Kyghley, Scoles, Presthorp, Okeworth, Ekysley, Lacock, 
Byngley, Hainworth, and Lees. But the jurors also say 
that the greater part of these were, by deed dated shortly 
before his decease, distributed among his four sons and a 
daughter who was married, I believe, to Wm. Calverley. 
This was a very sensible precaution, as by it was saved 
a heap of money which would have otherwise gone 
into the coffers of the state. 


I have hinted above that some properties other than 
Harden were obtained in the same way. The Manor of 
Morley, together with much other property situate there 
appears among these acquisitions. That Manor was a 
portion of the belongings of the Priory of St. Oswald, near 
Pontefract. The Priory itself and its appurtenances were 
given to Cardinal Wolsey, but its scattered possessions 
fell into the hands of other parties, and in the accounts 
of sales by the Augmentation OflBce this particular manor 
occurs as being sold to Walter I'aslew for £125. What 
became of this Manor till its acquisition by Sir John 
Saville later on, has up to his time been an inscrutable 
mystery to the Morley historians. That distinguished 
antiquary, Norrison Scatcherd, in his valuable history 
of Morley, confessed himself unable to trace the 
successive ownership ; he, however, suspected that the 
manor must have passed through lay-hands, while Mr. 
William Smith, in a later work on the same subject, 
passes over the question in silence. You are therefore 
the first to learn the secret, but it is not at all unlikely, 
now that the facts are ascertained, that some other 
writer will ere long be found appropriating it without 
acknowledgment as the result of his own research. 

Paslew had five sons, Francis, Richard, Alexander, 
Walter, and Thomas, and I think as many daughters. 
The Manor of Harden, and the semi-Manor of Marley 
which formerly belonged to the Knights of St. John, he 
placed in trust for the benefit of his wife and 
daughters till £40 each should be raised for the daughters 
as their fortune. The fate of these manors for 
more than 150 years afterwards is somewhat devious. 
The Manor of Morley he gave just before his death 
to his third son Alexander, while several isolated 
properties there were given to other sons. Up to 
Walter's decease his cousin George lived at Morley and 
managed the property for him, but afterward when 
Alexander came into possession, it was arranged that 
Francis and he " should fynde said George, honestlie, 
meete, drinke and clothe yerlie duringe hys lyfe or els to 
gyfe hymefFower markes yerlie towardes hys Ifyndynge." 






Silsbridge, Horton. (2 March 1608-9.) 

i^NDENTURE made the second day of March in 
'^ the sixth year of the reign of James, &c., 
^^ between Thomas Bower of Calverley, clothier, 
on the one part, and William Robarte of Bradford, 
cardmaker, of the other part, witnesseth that the said 
Thomas Bower, for and in consideration of the sum of 
twenty pounds of good and lawful English money to him 
by the said William Robarte well and truly paid, 
&c., doth absolutely grant, &c., to the said William 
Robarte, &c., all that close of land, meadow, and 
pasture, commonly called Syllbrigge Close, with the 
appurtenances, situate in Horton in Bradford Dale, 
now in the tenure or occupation of the said William 
Robarte or his assigns, together with all and 
singular ways, waters, watercourses, commons, com- 
modities, mines, quarries, woods, underwoods, ease- 
ments, &c. And also that the said close, &c., be kept 
harmless of and from all former and other bargains, 
sales, gifts, grants, leases, mortgages, feoflPments, 
jointures, dowers (and especially of the jointure and 
dower of Ellen, now wife of the said Thomas Bower), 
&c. And moreover that the said Thomas Bower and 
his heirs and the said Ellen his wife shall at all times 
during the space of seven years next ensuing, at the 
reasonable request of the said Willi A.M Robarte, 
execute any further conveyance, &c., so always that 
the said Thomas Bower, Ellen his wife, or his heirs, 


be not enforced to travel forth of the county of York, 
except it be to the city of York, for the making of the 
said assurance, &c. 

Sealed and delivered the day and year within written, 
in the presence of us : — 

John Dawson. Abbaham Listbe. 

William X Claiton. 

his mark. 


Lands at Eccleshill. (16 October 1751.) 

Is Chancery. — Depositions of witnesses taken at 
the bouse of Joseph Fox, innholder in Bradford, in the 
County of York, the fifteenth day of October in the 
year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred Fifty 
and One by virtue of a Commission issued out of his 
Majesties High Court of Chancery directed to John 
Stanhope, Esq., Thomas Grosvenor, Alan Johnson, 
and William Thornton, Gentlemen for examination of 
witnesses in a Cause depending in the said Court wherein 
John Simpson and others are Plaintiffs and James Kitson 
is Defendant, which said John Stanhope and William 
Thornton took and administred to each other the 
Commissioners' Oath annexed to the said Commissions, 
and administred the Clerk's Oath thereto also annexed 
to John Binns and Daniel Bawy the ingrcssing clerks 
before they entered upon the execution of the said 

On the part of the Complainants — 

James Barraclough, of Eccleshill, in the County of 
York, aged seventy-five years and upwards, being sworn 
and examined, 

Ist. To the first Interrogatory this deponent saith 
that he knows all the complainants and the defendant 
James Kitson, and has known them for several years, 
That he knew Edward Kitson, Margaret Kitson, and 
James Ktison, father of the defendant James Kitson, 
all now deceased, and knew them several years before 


their respective deaths ; that it is about Twenty Years 
since the said Edward Kitson dyed, that the said 
Margaret Kitson dyed about six or seven years ago, 
and the said James father of the defendant James 
dyed about eleven or twelve Years ago as this 
deponent believes. 

2nd. To the second Interrogatory this deponent 
saith that the said Edward Kitson was in his life time 
and at the time of his death seized or in possession 
of two messuages and several lands and tenements 
thereunto belonging, lying, and being in Eccleshill, in 
the County of York, in the whole of the yearly value of 
thirty-five pounds or thereabouts as this deponent 

6th. To the sixth Interrogatory this deponent saith, 
that havingheardofasuitcommencedby William Kitson, 
nephew and heir-at-law to the said Edward Kitson, 
against Margaret Kitson for the recovery of the real 
estate of the said Edward Kitson or some part thereof, 
and this deponent accidentally meeting the now 
defendant James Kitson, this defendant said to him : 
You two (meaning the said William Kitson and the 
said defendant James) are going to sue for the estate 
and very likeiy a third person will run away with it, 
for Mrs. Hemingway showed me another will of old 
Edwards but would not let me read it, to which the 
said defendant answered : The estate is all left to me 
by that will except a few closes, or to that purpose or 

AViLLiAM Atkinson, of Bradford, in the County of 
York, woolstapler, aged thirty-two years, being sworn 
and examined deposeth as followeth — 

1st. To the first Interrogatory he saith he knows all 
the complainants and the defendant James Kitson, 
that he hath known the complainant John Simpson 
about a year and a half, and hath known alJ the other 
parties for several years, that this deponent did also 
know Edward Kitson and Margaret Kitson, both 
named in this Interrogatory, and knew them for 
several years before their deaths. 


8tli. To the eighth Interrogatory this deponent saith 
he hatli not, and to the best of his knowledge, remem- 
brance and belief he never had in his hands, power or 
custody, neither did this deponent ever see, read, or hear 
read the last will of the said Edward Kitson, bearing 
date on or about the ninth day of October, One 
Thousand Seven Hundred Twenty and Nine, but that 
this deponent once had in his custody a paper writing 
purporting to be a last will of the said Edward 
Kitson, bearing date the twenty-second day of October, 
in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred 
and Thirteen, which appeared to be cancelled l)efore 
this deponent ever saw the same, but when or by whom 
or upon what occasion the same was so cancelled this 
deponent knows not, that the same paper appears to 
be attested by Mary Fish, Mary Butler, and Robert 
Butler, and is at this time as this Deponent believes in 
the possession or power of the defendant James Krisox, 
and this deponent further saith that he doth not know 
or believe that he ever had in his hands power or 
custody, and that he never did see, read, or hear read, 
any other last will of the said Edward Kitson, or any 
other paper or writing under the hand and seal of 
the said Edward Kitson purporting to be his last 
will and testament. 

Henry Hemingway, of Bradford, in the County of 
York, Gent., aged forty-five years, sworn and examined 
deposeth as followeth — 

1st. To the first Interrogatory this deponent says, 
he knows the parties, complainants, and defendants in 
this cause, and hath known them several years, and also 
knew Edward Kitson, Margaret Kitson, his sister, and 
James Kitson, all in this Interrogatory named, several 
years before their respective deaths, but cannot set 
forth the particular days or times when they or any of 
them dyed except as to the said Edward Kitson who 
dyed as this deponent has been informed and believes 
in the month of December, One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Thirty. 


4tli. To the fourth Interrogatory this deponent 
saith that on the death of the said Edward Kitson, the 
said Margaret Kitson, his sister, entered to all his real 
estate, and that in Easter Term, One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Thirty. 


Lands at Heaion. (7 April 1692.) 

Indenture made the seventh day of April in the 
fourth year of the reign of our sovereign lord and lady 
William and Mary, &c., heing a Bond of Indemnity 
given by John Gawkrooer, of Keighley parish, to his 
brothers Timothy Gawkroger, of Thornton, and 
Joseph Gawkroger, of Heaton in Bradford Dale. 
The deed recites, that Timothy Gawkroger and Joseph 
Gawkroger having at the request of John Gawkroger 
become his sureties and become bound jointly and 
severally with him to Elizabeth Pighels of Goitingley, 
in the parish of Bingley, their sister-in-law, widow and 
executrix of the will of Robert Pighels, her late 
huglj^nd deceased, in the sum of £300, that John 
Gawkroger and Sarah, his wife, and Joshua, his son, 
will pay all such legacies, &c., as the said Robert 
Pighels in his will dated 2 September 1691, did 
charge them to pay out of a certain farm devised to 
them — that John indemnifies his brothers by demising 
to them conditionally for a nominal sum of five 
shillings the following property in Heaton, viz. : — 
a messuage now tenanted by Brian Roberts, part of 
which was lately occupied by Richard Illingworth ; 
one cottage occupied by Jeremy Spencer ; one garden 
adjoining and belonging to the same messuage; one 
garth or garden-stead on the south side of the way or 
street adjoining the lands of James Garth on the east, 
south, and west ; two lathes or barns belonging to the 
same messuage, with the clings or outshuts, and one 
outhouse or swinecote adjoining the said barns, the 
whole lying in the upper end of Heaton in the parish 
of Bradford, and near adjoining to a messuage, the 


inheritance of Samuel Holmes the younger, late in the 
tenure of William Cappes, but now in the tenure of 
the said Brian Roberts, Richard Illing worth, Jeremy 
Spencer, and Thomas Greenwood; also two seats in the 
Parish Church of Bradford, to the same messuage 
belonging; also four several closes of land, meadow, 
and pasture, containing by estimation about eight days' 
work and called by the names of The Half Acre, Marr 
Lands, Frizinghall Steel, and the Pighil, lying in 
Heaton aforesaid, and late in the tenure of William 
Smith, but now in the occupation of Thomas Greenwood; 
the Half Acre abuts and adjoins upon the lands of 
James Garth, Samuel Holmes the elder, and James 
Lister, on the south part, and upon the lands of John 
JowEiT and William Crabtree on the north part; 
Marr Lands, Frizinghall Steel, and Pighil all lie to- 
gether and abut upon the lands of James Lister, the 
younger, upon the east part, upon the lands of James 
Lister, the elder, upon the north part, and upon the 
lands of Mr. Peter Mason upon the south part ; also 
four closes of land, meadow, and pasture, lying to- 
gether and containing by estimation about ten days' work, 
known by the names of The Delf Close, The C!oal Close, 
The Street Close, and the Well Close, all lying in 
Heaton aforesaid, late in the tenure of William 
Cappes and Daniel Greenwood, but now in the tenure 
of Thomas Greenwood, abutting upon the lands of 
John Field on the west part, upon other lands of 
William Cappes, belonging to the Free Schools of 
Bingley, on the east part, upon the highway called 
Toller Lane on the south-west part, and upon the 
Commons of Heaton on the north part, &c. 

Yielding and paying therefore yearly to John 
Gawkroger the yearly rent of one red rose in the 
time of roses, and no more rent, &c. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of us : 

Tho. Gill. Antho. Hoyle. 



Coal Pits at Heatov. (16 May 1771.) 

Articles of Agreement between John Field, Esq., 
lord of the manor of Heaton, in the parish of Brad- 
ford, and Abraham IIhodes, of Heaton Royds, 
yeoman, &c. 

In part consideration for certain farm premises at 
Heaton IIoyds lately purchased by John Field of 
Abraham IIhodes, the indentures of lease and release 
bearing date 13th and 14th May, 1771, and in con- 
sideration of an acknowledgment of five shillings paid 
to John Field, the latter grants that it shall be law- 
ful for the said Abraham Rhodes, his agents^ servants, 
workmen, and all others authorized by him, at and from 
" one Pitt now open in a certain close of ground 
" called the Acker, parcel of a farm called Wain- 
" WRIGHT Farm, situate at Heaton Royds, tbe inheri- 
" tance of the said Abraham Rhodes, and formerly in 
'" the occupation of John Wainwright, &c., to dig for, 
" get, lead, draw, take, and carry away, sell, convert, 
'* and dispose of, &c., all. and every or any of the Coals, 
" Mines, Veins, Seams, and Quarries of Coal, found, 
" &c., under the soil, &c., and in the bowels, &c., 
" of a certain close of ground called the Croft or 
" BACKSiDii: Close " now belonging to John Field, 
formerly in the possession of John Smith, but now in 
the occupation of Joseph Beanlands, being a parcel of 
the estate purchased by John Field of Abraham 
Rhodes, for so long only as Abraham Rhodes shall 
continue owner of Wainwright's Farm but no longer. 
Abraham Rhodes, his workmen, &c., shall also have 
full liberty to go down into a certain pit now open in 
a certain other close of ground called the Croft lying 
on the north side of and belonging to a messuage at 
Heaton Royds where Abraham Rhodes now dwells, 
being also parcel of the lands purchased by John Field 
of Abraham Rhodes, "to cleanse, open, secure, and 
" keep open, a certain sough or drain there, heretofore 
*' driven, sunk, and made, and now open for the 


'* draining the coals/' and for that purpose to take out 
of this last mentioned pit, earth, dirt, stone, coal, &c., 
but only for Abraham Rhodes' own use, but not to sell 
or dispose of, also to drain the same by any other way 
except sinking of pits or breaking the soil. John 
PiELD disclaims all and every Lord's Rent on Wain- 
wright's Farm as long as it remains in the possession 
of Abraham Rhodes, but whenever he shall sell or 
convey the same, it shall be subject to a Rent of five 
shillings and one penny per annum to the lord of the 
manor for ever. Also that Abraham Rhodes and his 
tenants, occupiers of Wainwright Farm, "shall have 
for the same period of time the sole use and free 
liberty of sitting in and enjoying all and every or any 
seat and seats, pew and pews, situate in the Parish 
Church of Bradford," &c., allotted to any part of the 
lands purchased by John Field of Abraham Rhodes. 

Jno- Field. Abraham Rhodes. 

Witnesses : John Eagle. 

John Bentley, Jan. 

Jno. BlNXS. 


Messuage at Heaton, Heatun Woods and Frizinghall Milldam. 

(31 July 1575.) 

Indenture of lease made the last day of July in the 
ITth year of the reign of our sovereign lady Elizabeth, 
Queen, &c., between John Batte (Batty), of Birstall, 
in the County of York, gentleman, of the one part, 
and Thomas Grenegate (Greengate), of Heaton, 
husbandman, of the other part. John Baity, in con- 
sideration of a certain sum of money paid to him by 
Thomas Greengate, "demiseth, graunteth, and to 
ferme dothe lette" unto the said Thomas Greengate 
one messuage with the appurtenances in Heaton now 


in the occupation of the said Thomas, together with 
" all landes, tenements, cloises, meadows, woodes, 
commons, and pastures to the said messuage belonging" 
and now in the proper occupation of the said Thomas 
Greengate, " to have and to hold, &c., to the said 
Thomas Greengate and his assignes from the twentieth 
day of March which shall be in the year of our Lord 
God a thousand five hundreth foure score and one 
(20 March 1581-2) unto the full end and terme of four- 
teen years from thence next following," &c., yielding 
and paying therefore yearly during the said term to 
the said John Batty, &c., the yearly rent and ferme of 
eight shillings " in the feaste of Pentioost and Seynt 
Martyn in wynter by even porcions and one henne* 
yearlie at the feaste of Seynt Thomas th' Appostill" 
during the said term of fourteen years. Thomas Green- 
gate binds himself and his assigns that they will at their 
proper cost and charges from time to time repair, 
maintain, &c., the said messuage, &c., ''and that the 
said Thomas Grenegate and his assigns shall from tyme 
to tyme affirme, maintayne, and apholdc suche part of 
the Milne Damme called Ffrisynghall Milne Damme 
accordinge as the said Thomas and other tenantes of 
the said premises have been accustomed to do and 
upholde," &c., and shall lead "tymbre nedefull for the 
said reparacions, suche as he the said John Baity shall 
have growinge within the lordshippe of Ueaton onlic 
excepted, whiche tymbre (except latte and horde) the 
said John Batty covenanteth and graunteth to assigne 
and appoynt within the lordship of Heaton afForsaid by 
hymselff or his deputies " upon reasonable request. 
Thomas Greengate covenants that he shall well and 
sufficiently save and keep the great wood and other 
woods now growing and that shall hereafter grow upon 
the said land from waste and destruction, and that it 
shall be lawful for John Batty to fell and carry away 
all or any of the said wood at pleasure at any time. 
John Batty covenants " that it shall be lefuU to the 
said Thomas Grenegate and his assignes to intake, 

*The ''ben" boon is a certain indication of ancient feudal or mona&tic tenure. — {Ed ) 


plowe and sowe any pte of the common or moore of 
Ueaton afforsaid for thre croppes together or more if 
the tenantes and other the inhabitantes of the said 
towneshippe can and will agree to the same." Re- 
serving re-entry in case of non-payment of rent 
within twenty days of the stipulated times, and with 
proviso that Thomas Greengate " shall not lett, sell, 
graunte awaye, nor assigne the said pmisses nor any 
pccU tliereof to any person or persons but onlie to his 
wife during her widowhode or any one of his children 
without the speciall licence of John Batty, &c. 

(Signed) per me, JoH"^ Batte. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of James Shorte, 
William Bayldon, IIoger Colston, Thomas Garthe, 
William Garthe, Richard Cappes, William Joweti\ 
William Grayve, and others, 

per me, Jacobum Mydgley. 


Hcafoii. {April 1590.) 

To all men to whom this present writing shall come, 
Efpam Greengate, late wife of Thomas Greengate, 
late of U EATON lloiDES, in the County of York, deceased, 
sendeth greeting in our lord God everlasting : Whereas 
John Batty, of Birstall, in the CJounty of York, gent., 
by his indenture of lease sealed with his scale, bearing 
date the last of July in the 17th year of the reign of 
our sovereign lady the Queen's Majesty that now is, 
hath demised, granted, and to farme letten to the said 
Thomas Greengate now deceased one messuage or 
tenement with th' appurtenances in Heaton aforesaid 
tben in the occupation of the said Thomas and now in 
the joint or several tenure or occupations of me the 
said Effam and Bichard Greengate or the one of us 
as our assignee or assigns, together with all lands, 
tenements, meadows, closes, woods, commons, and 

c 2 


pastures, to the same messuage or tenements in any 
wise appertaining or belonging in Heaton aforesaid. 
To have and to hold to the said Thomas Greengate 
and his assigns from the twentieth day of March in the 
year of our lord God one thousand five hundred four 
score and one unto the full end and term of fourteen 
years from thence next following, &c., yielding and 
paying therefore yearly during the said term to the 
said John Batty, &c., the yearly rent of eight shillings 
of lawful English money in the feast of Pentecost and 
St. Martin-in-Winter by even portions and one hen 
yearly at the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle during 
the said term of fourteen years, as by the said indenture 
amongst diverse other covenants and agreements 
therein contained more at large it doth and may appear. 
All which rights, title, interest, and demands of the 
said Thomas Greengate, deceased, of and in the full 
half, part, or moiety of all the said premises I the said 
Effam now have to me and my assigns for and during 
all the said term of fourteen years if I the said Effam 
do so lonof live, by good and lawful conveyance in the 
law by and from the said Thomas Greengate, my late 
husband, deceased. Whereupon now know ye that I 
the said Effam Greengate for and in consideration of 
a certain competent sum of money, &c., to me paid by 
the said Richard Greengate before the ensealing and 
delivery of these presente, I have given, granted, 
bargained, sold, &c., to the said Richard Greengate 
and his assigns, as well the said moiety of the said 
messuage or tenement and of all other the premises 
demised by the said indenture of lease, as also all the 
right, title, interest, &c., whatsoever, of me the said 
Effam in the said premises, &c. To have and to hold 
the said moiety or half part of the said messuage, &c , 
to the said Richard Greengate, &c., immediately from 
the day of the date hereof for and during all the said 
term of fourteen years granted in and by the said 
indenture of lease before recited, if I the said Effam 
so long do live, in as ample manner and form as I have 
or ought to have and enjoy by virtue of any conveyance 


heretofore to me made or otherwise, yielding, &c,, 
therefore all the rents, duties and charges as I stand 
charged with, &c. And I truly, the said Effam 
Greengate, &c., grant to Richard Grbengate, &c., by 
these presents that he the said Richard Greengate, 
&c., shall peaceably have and hold, &c., the said moiety, 
&c., for and during the said term, &c., without any 
lawful lett, trouble or encumbrance of me the said 
Effam or of any other person or persons claiming by, 
from, or under the right, title or estate of me tlie said 
Effam, &c. In witness whereof, &c., I the said Effam 
Greengate have set my seal the third day of April in 
the five and twentieth year of the reign of the said 
sovereign lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queen 
of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, &c. 

(Signed) Effam Grenegate. 

Sealed and delivered the day and year within 
mentioned in the presence of William Hey, Richard 
Thornton, George Sowdex and others. 


Messuage at Heaton, Heaton Woodsj Frizinglmll Milldam. 
(12 May 1698). Renewal of the preceding lease. 

This indenture made the twelfth day of May in the 
4fOth year of the reign of our sovereign lady Elizabeth, 
&c., between John Batty, of Oakwell (Birstall) in the 
county of York, gentleman, and Robert Batty, son and 
heir apparent of the said John Batty, of the one part, 
and Richard Greengate, of Heaton Roides, in the 
said county, husbandman, of the other part, witnesseth 
that the said John Batty and Robert Batty for and in 
consideration of a certain sum of money to them by 
the said Richard Greengate in hand paid at and before 

39 TttEJ BllADFOllt) ANTlQUAllV. 

the ensealing hereof have demised, &c., to the said 
Richard Greengate one messuao^e or tenement with 
th' appurtenances situate in Ileaton aforesaid together 
with all and singular houses, edifices, buildings, 
orchards, gardens, tofts, crofts, lands, tenements, 
meadows, feedings, pastures, closes, woods, ways, water- 
courses, commons, and turbaries, to the said messuage 
belonging, &c., now in the tenure or occupation of the 
said Richard Greengate or his assigne, to have and to 
hold, &c., from the feast of the Annunciation of the 
Virgin Mary last past before the day of the date hereof, 
for and during the full end term of twenty years from 
thence next following, &c., yielding and paying there- . 
fore yearly during tlie said term to the said John 
Batty (if he so long do live) and after his decease to the 
said Robert Batty, his heirs and assigns, the sum of 
eight shillings of lawful English money at the feasts 
of Pentecost and St. Martin in winter by even portions, 
and also one hen yearly at the feast of St. Thomas the 
Apostle during all the said term of twenty years. And 
the said Richard Greengate, &c., doth covenant, &c., 
with the said John Batty and Robert Baity that he 
shall at his proper cost and charge well and sufficiently 
repair, maintain and uphold the said messuage and 
other the demised premises, and also so much or such 
part of the milne damme called Ffrysinghall Mylne 
Damme in Heaton aforesaid as hath been accustomed to 
be made and upholden for the tenement aforesaid, 
and also yield, bear, and do such other duties, suites 
and service to the said mylne in grinding of their corne 
or otherwise as the said Richard Greengate or any 
other tenant or farmer of the premises for the said 
messuage, &c., ought of right or have been accustomed 
to yield, bear or do (great timber only excepted), which 
said great timber requisite and needful for the same, 
such as they the said John Baity and Robert Baity or 
the heirs of the said Robert shall have growing 
within the lordship of Heaton aforesaid (except lath 
and board), the said John Baity and Robert Batit, &c., 
covenant to appoint or assign by themselves or their 

West kiIjikg caktUlary. 39 

deputies to the said Richard Greengate, &c., when 
and as often as need shall require, &c. And also that 
the said Eichard Greengate, &c,. at all and any time 
during the said term when and as often as the 
said John Batty or Robert Batty shall for the 
service of the Queen's Majesty in her wars be charged 
or assessed to find or provide one light horse or more, 
shall content and pay to the said John Batty or Robert 
Batty the sum of three shillings and fourpence of 
lawful English money for and towards the finding of 
the same ; and if the said John Batty and Robert 
Batty shall be charged or assessed to find the moiety 
or one half of one light horse, then and so often the 
said Richard Greengate, &c., shall content and pay 
the sum of twenty pence of right lawful English money, 
and so rateably after three and fourpence a light horse 
as the said John Batty and Robert BArrY shall be 
charged or assessed more or less. And moreover that 
he the said Richard Greengate, &c., yearly at his cost 
and charge during the said term for the better enclosing 
and fencing of the fence of the demised premises, 
make and raise or cause to be made and raised in the 
said fence of the premises a stone wall in length 
one rood and a half, and in height a yard and 
a quarter or else in lieu thereof so much with quickset 
in such places where it will grow and so continue the 
same until the said fence be so made or set. And the 
said Richard Greengate covenants that he shall not 
at any time during the said term dig, get, or grave any 
turves in or upon the waste or common of Ueaton on 
the East side of the Nether Thorne in Picropte or 
upon the East side of the higher corner of the West 
Field, nor burn any of their fallow grounds nor any 
turves upon the same. And also that the said Richard 
Greengate, &c., shall well and sufficiently save and 
keep the great wood and timber trees, &c., upon the 
demised premises from waste and destruction. And 
that it shall be lawful for John Batty and Robert 
Batty, &c., to fell, cut down, and carry away all 
or any of the said wood at their pleasure, &c., 

40 THE B!lAi>PORto A>tTIQUAIlV. 

leaving only sufficient (hedge boote and garsell), for 
the necessary hedging and fencing of the premises. 
And moreover it shall be lawful for the said John 
Batty and Robert Batty, &c., if they and o'.her free- 
holders of the said lordship of Heaton can so agree, to 
take in and enclose any parte or parcel of the waste 
common of Heaton at any time without any lawful, 
let, trouble, or interruption of the said Richard 
Greengate, &c. And the said John Batty and Robert 
Batty grant to the said Richard Greengate, &c., that 
it shall be lawful for him to have, fell, and take 
sufficient and competent hedge boote growing upon 
the premises for the necessary fencing of the same 
when and as often as need shall require. And also 
to enclose, plough, and sow any part of the common or 
moor of Heaton for three crops together or more if 
the tenants and other the inhabitants of the said town- 
ship will permit and agree unto the same, for and 
during such time only as the said John Batty and 
Robert Batty and the ancient freeholders aforesaid 
shall not agree for the perpetual enclosing and taking 
in of the same. It is also provided that the said 
Richard Greengate, &c., shall not during the said 
term demise, let, or assign the said messuage or any 
part thereof to.any person or persons other than to his 
wife or some one of his children without the licence of 
the said John Batty and Robert Batty, and that such 
wife or child shall not after the said assignment so to 
them to be made, let or assign the said premises to any 
person without the special licence of the said John 
Batty and Robert Batty. In witness hereof, &c. 

(Signed) per me Joh®^ Baite ct per mc Rob'""" Baite. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of us : 

Richard Baite, James Boothe, James Bawme, 
William Cappes, and others. 

WESI* riding CARTlfLARV. 4il 


Fine on Messuage at Heaton. (1 November 1720.) 

This Indenture made the ffirst day of November in 
the yeare of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred 
and Twenty and in tlie Seventh yeare of the roigne of 
our Sovereigne Lord George now King of Great 
Britain Betweene Joseph Gawkroger, of Heaton, 
within the Parish of Bradford and County of York, 
Yeoman, and Issabell his now wife of the flSrst part, 
Mary Gawkroger, daughter of the said Joseph 
and Issabell Gawkroger of the second part, and 
Joseph Pfield, of Heaton aforesaid, Gent., of the third 
part, Witnesseth that for the better securing, settling 
and conveying of the messuage, lands and heredita- 
ments, hereinafter mentioned to the severall uses and 
estates as are hereinafter likewise mentioned, and for 
diverse other good causes and valuable considerations 
him the said Joseph Gawkroger and Issabell his wife 
thereunto moveing, It is covenanted, contained and 
agreed upon by, betweene, and amongst all the said 
partyes to these presents and their heirs, And the said 
Joseph Gawkroger for himself and Issabell his said 
wife and for their respective heirs and for every of them 
doth covenant and agree to and with the said Joseph 
Ffield his heirs, executors and administrators, and to 
and with every of them l)y these presents, That he 
the said Joseph Gawkroger and Issabell his said wife 
shall and will at their own proper costes and 
charges in the law on this side and before the 
end of Hillary Terme now next ensueing, acknow- 
ledge and levy in due fforme of Law and according to 
the Laws and Statutes of England one ffine sur conusans 
de droit come ceo, dc. : to be ingrossed recorded and 
sued forth with proclamations according to the Statutes 
in that case made and provided and the usuall course 
of fines with proclamations in such cases used and 
accustomed unto the said Joseph Efield and his heirs. 
Of and upon all that messuage and tenements and all 
the cottages, barns, buildings, and other edifices what- 

45J 1*UE BltADi^Olil) ANTIqUAKY. 

soever to the same belonging, situate, standing and 
being in IIeaton aforesaid and now in the possession of 
the said Joseph Gawkroger or his assignes and also of 
and upon all the lands, closes, grounds, and heredita- 
ments whatsoever to the same belonging and therewith 
now or at any time heretofore used, occapyed or 
enjoyed, or reputed, taken or knowne to be part, parcell 
or member thereof situate, lyeing and being in Heaton 
aforesaid now also in the occupation of the said Joseph 
Gawkroger his assignes or undertenants By the 
name or names of one messuage, one cottage, one barne, 
eight acres of land, ffour acres of meadow and eight 
acres of pasture, common of pasture for all manner of 
cattle and common of turbary or by such other appro- 
priate and convenient name or names, quantityes and 
qualityes or numbers and certaintyes of acres of land 
as shall be thought ffitt and requisite, which said ffine 
so to be acknowledged and levyed as aforesaid and all 
and everv other ffine and ffines in what manner and 
fforme soever after the date of these presents shall be 
to the use and behoofe of the said Joseph Gaw^k- 
ROGER and IssABELL his said wife and their assignes 
for and during the terme of their two naturall 
lives and of the life of the longer liver of them 
and from and immediately after ' their respective 
deceases and of the decease of the longer liver of them, 
Then to the use and behoofe of the said Mary Gawk- 
roger partye to these presents and of the heirs of her 
body lawfully issueing, and for default of such issue to 
the use and behoofe of the right heirs of the said 
Joseph Gawkroger for ever, subject never thlesse to the 
provisoe or power of revocation hereafter mentioned 
and expressed, that is to say provided always that it 
shall and may be lawfuU to and for the said Joseph 
Gawkroger at any time hereafter during his naturall 
life by any deed or deeds, writing or writings under 
his hand and scale laAvfully executed and testifyed by 
two or more sufficient witnesses, to revoake, alter and 
make void all or any of the use or uses, estate and 
estates herein and hereby limitted and created of the 

West mdiJ^g cartiJlaIiy. 4^ 

sard premises as aforesaid or of any part thereof and in 
and by the same deed or deeds, writing or w ritings by 
him so made, executed and testifyed as aforesaid to 
create and raise any new use or uses, estate or estates 
of all or any part of the premises herein above 
mentioned and limitted as aforesaid so as such new use 
and uses, estate and estates, hereafter to be raised, 
created and limitted of the said premises or of any 
part thereof by the said Joseph Gawkroger be by him 
limitted and declared to be to the use of some or one 
of the son or sons, daughter or daughters of the said 
IssABEi/L now wife of the said Joseph Gawkroger and 
to the heirs of the body of such son or sons, daughter 
or daughters issueing, and for want of such issue then 
to the use of the right heirs of the said Joseph Gawk- 
roger for ever and to and for no other use or uses 
intent or purpose whatsoever. In Witnesse whereof the 
party es above named to these premises have inter- 
changeably sett their hands and scales the day and 
yeare ffirst above written. 

Joseph Gawkroger, Issabell Gawkroger, 

the mark of Mary Gawkroger, Joseph Ffield. 

Sealled and delivered in the presence of us: John 



Adicalton and Ecclcshill Lands. (4 August 1710.) 

A Memorial of a will to be registered in the Register 
Office at Wakefield, in the West Riding of the County 
of York, pursuant to the acts of parliament in that 
behalf made and pvided. A Will bearing date the 
Pourth day of August in the year of our Lord One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Ten, made by Abraham 
Brooksbank, late of Reading, in the County of Berks, 


clerk, deceased, amongst other things of or concerning 
all that his messuage or tenement and barn, together 
with all his lands and cottao^es Ivins: and being: in 
Adwalton, in the parish of Birstall, in the C!ounty of 
York, and also of or concerning all that his house, 
messuage, or tenement and barn, together Avith the 
lands thereinafter pticularly mentioned, that is to 
say, the grounds called the Upperlands and Netherlands, 
and the close called the Common, and the close called 
Boothman close, and the close called Apperley, the 
grounds called the Roydes, two closes called the Haighs, 
and the close called Copleyroyd and Inge, all which 
said last mentioned house, messuage, or tenement and 
barn, lands and pmisses are situate, lying, and being in 
Eccleshill, in the said County of York, together also 
with a certain rent charge of six shillings and eight- 
pence per annum issucing and payable out of the lands 
of one John Hodgson in Eccleshill aforesaid. Which 
said will is witnessed by William Noake, Junr., of 
Heading aforesaid, Gent., and Edmund Davies and 
Christopher Aberdy of the same. Yeomen. 

Signed and Sealed by Abraham Brooksbank and 
John Brooksbank, two of the sons of the said 
Abraham Brooksbank, deceased, and devisees in the 
said will, in the psence of 

Jn° Blake. 

Sam Hemingway. 

Abraham Brooksbank (Seal). 
John Brooksbank (Seal). 



Sir Thomas Browne's "Religio Medici." 



'^^HE name of Sir Thomas Browne occupies a 
^^ distinguished place among the writers of the 
seventeenth century. His eminent position is 
due, not so much to any particular faculty in which lie 
surpassed others, as to a peculiar combination of many 
excellencies, and a certain striking originality of 
thought and expression. He was well-versed in the 
recondite learning of former ages. He was an acute 
observer of the phenomena of human life, and he 
devoted himself with great zeal to the pursuit of 
natural science. But, above all, he delighted in intense 
self-reflection and mystic speculation ; and he was by 
nature a poet. He could not help contemplating all 
things in their ideal relations, or seeing in himself an 
epitome or picture of the universe ; and sometimes he 
seemed to lose sight of the actual world altogether in 
the glow of his own brilliant fancy. 

No estimate of his writings can, I think, be 
correct, which does not take into account first and 
foremost this characteristic of his genius. It also 
sejrves to explain in some measure the secluded and 
undisturbed course of life he pursued amidst the fierce 
religious and political conflict of his time. Modern 
science assures us that hurricanes revolve around a 
centre of perfect calm. Outside the charmed circle the 
tempest may rage furiously, within it all is peace ; and 
such was the little world in which he dwelt, looking 


out upon the bitter strife, but taking no part therein ; 
and at length at the age of four score years save three, 
he "took farewell of the elements" and lav down to 
"sleep till the resurrection/' 

Before considering the evidence of Dr. (afterwards 
Sir) Thomas Browne's residing in Shibden-dale,* in the 
parish of Halifax when he wrote his Eeligio Medici, we 
must briefly notice the circumstances of his earlier life. 
He was born in London, October 19th, 1605. His 
father was a mercer, of an ancient family of Upton, 
in Cheshire ; his mother was Ann Garroway, of Lewes, 
in Sussex. When he was a child his father died ; and 
the great loss which he thereby sustained may be 
inferred from a little incident which has been left on 
record. The good man " used to open his breast when 
he was asleep and kiss it in prayers over him (as it is 
said of Origen's father) that the Holy Ghost would take 
possession there." Is it any wonder that he should 
have something of the mystic in his constitution, or 
that he should afterwards write, in his manner, of the 
Divine Spirit ; '* This is that gentle heat that brooded 
on the waters and in six days hatched the world .... 
Whosoever feels not the warm gale and gentle ven- 
tilation of this Spirit, (though I feel his pulse) I dare 
not say he lives ; for truly without this, to me, there is 
no heat under the tropick, nor any light, though I 
dwelt in the body of the siin " ? {Beligio Medici.) 

The mercer's widow and her four children were left 
with a fortune of nine thousand pounds ; and young 
Browne was sent to be educated at Winchester Gram- 
mar School. Meanwhile, his mother was married, 
"probably" (says Dr. Johnson) "through the induce- 
ment of her fortune" to Sir Thomas Dutton, "the 
same, who killed Sir Hatton Cheke in a duel." He 
was a Captain in the army, and was, according to all 
accounts, a man of violent temper. Between him and 
the retiring, meditative youth, there could be little in 
common. It would also appear that the latter enjoyed 
small advantage of his share in the fortune left by his 

^Shibden or Shipden (sheep valley). 


father. At eighteen he removed from Winchester to 
Oxford, where he entered as a fellow commoner of 
Broadgate Hall, afterwards Pemhroke College, and was 
admitted successively to the degree of Bachelor and 
Master of Arts. In 1629 he left the University, and 
hegan practising medicine somewhere in Oxfordshire. 
But here he continued only a short time ; and then 
accompanied his father-in-law into Ireland, where the 
Captain had some official employment in the visitation 
of forts and castles. Prom Ireland '* he passed into 
Prance and Italy ; made some stay at Montpellier and 
Padua, which were then the cclehrated schools of 
physick, and returning home through Holland, pro- 
cured himself to he created Doctor of Physick at 
Leyden" (1633). He had a natural love of travel; 
and he cultivated such an acquaintance with the travels 
of others that (as Whitefoot says) *' of the earth he 
had such a minute and exact geographical knowledge, 
as if he had heen hy Divine Providence ordained 
surveyor general of the whole terrestrial orh, and its 
products, minerals, plants and animals,'' To his 
mingling with men of different countries, customs, 
languages and religions must also he attributed in some 
measure the gentle and tolerant spirit which breathes 
through his writings. " I feel not in myself" he says 
"those common antipathies, that I can discover in 
others ; those national repugnances do not touch me, 
nor do I behold with prejudice the Prench, Italian, 
Spaniard, or Dutch ; but w here I find their actions in 
balance with my countrymen's I honour, love and 
embrace them in the same degree." " Now for my 
life — it is a miracle of thirty years (1605-1635), which 
to relate were not a history, but a piece of poetry, and 
would sound to common years like a fable. Por the 
world, I count it not an inn, but an hospital, and a 
place not to live, but to die in. The world that I 
regard is myself; it is the microcosm of my own frame 
that I cast mine eye upon : for the other I use it but 
like my globe and turn it round sometimes for my 
recreation." [Heligio Medici.) 

4S THE bhadpokd antiquary. 

After taking his degree at Leyden Dr. Browne 
returned to England, and about the same time occurred 
the death of his father-in-law. This event may 
possibly have put an abrupt termination to his travels, 
in which he had spent whatever substance he possessed, 
and henceforth he seems to have been entirely 
dependent on his profession. All the older accounts of 
his life assume that he continued for the next three or 
four years in his native city of London, and there 
wrote his Beligio Medici. But there is sufficient evidence 
to show that this is a mistake ; and that the honour of 
being his residence, during its composition, belongs to 
Shibden-dale, a quiet and beautiful valley lying 
between Bradford and Halifax. The precise occasion 
of his taking up his abode there has not been discovered. 
It may have been due to some old school or college 
acquaintance, and finding the place adapted to his 
taste, and not unsuited to his professional duties, he 
determined to continue at least for a while. 

The first mention of the fact is made by William 
Bentley in "Halifax and its Gibbet Law." Bentley 
was clerk of the Parish Church, and published that 
book in 1708 ; but the book was written by Samuel 
Midgley in Halifax gaol, where he was imprisoned for 
debt, and died in 1695, without having the means of 
printing it in his own name. Oliver Heywood, of 
Northowram, near Shibden-dale, notes in his Register: 
" Samuel Midgley, that was prisoner in York Castle, 
1685, waited on us, hath been prisoner three times in 
Halifax jail for debt, dyed there, buried July 18th, 
1695, aged 66.'* Midgley practised medicine, and 
would therefore be naturally interested in the history 
of his predecessors in the healing art. He was born 
four or five years before Dr. Browne came to reside in 
Shibden-dale, and may have himself seen the Doctor or 
have heard of his residence from some one who was 
acquainted with him. Oliver Heywood did not come 
into the neighbourhood till some years later (1650), 
which, together with the little sympathy felt by such 
an ardent puritan with the sentiments of the Beligio 


Medici, serves to account for there being no allusion to 
Dr. Browne in his Diaries. 

In "Halifax and its Gibbet Law" it is said: ''The 
physicians and professors in that science were Dr. 
Power, Dr. Wilkinson, Dr. Maud, and of late Dr. 
Threapland .... and unto whom I cannot forbear 
adding the learned Dr. Brown (who for his worth and 
fame was thought worthy of knighthood by his Prince), 
because in his juvcnal years he fixed himself in this 
populous and rich trading place, wherein to shew his 
skill and to gain respect in the world, and that during 
his residence amongst us in his vacant hours he writ 
his admired piece called by him Religio Medici y 

In 1738 Thomas Wright, curate of the Parish Church, 
published his " Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax,*' 
in which he says : " Neither must I omit in this place 
Sir Thomas Browne, Doctor of Physick, who, though 
born in London, October 19th, 1C05, yet practised here 
as a Pliysician in his younger years. About the year 
1630 he lived at Shipden Hall, near Halifax, at which 
time he wrote that excellent piece, entitled Eeligio 
Mi did, before he was thirty vears of age ; for he says 
himself in that book, p. 113, edit. Lend., 1736 [1643]. He 
had not seen one revolution of Saturn, neither had his 
pulse beat thirty years.*' Wright's statement, in 
which he was followed by Watson, was no doubt 
founded upon that of Midgley, but he slightly ante- 
dates Dr. Browne's residence and gives no authority for 
his assertion of its having been at Shibden Hall. 

So far at least the evidence is by no means satis- 
factory. But in the Sloane MSS. in the British 
Museum a correspondence has been preserved, throwing 
new light on the subject. This correspondence took 
place between Dr. Browne (who was now practising as 
a physician at Norwich) and Dr. Henry Power, of 
Halifax, who attained some eminence in his profession. 
Henry Power was the son of John Power, and was a 
lad of about twelve years of age when Browne resided 
in Halifax parish (1634). At that time Henry Power's 
father was living, and on friendly terms with Browne. 



His mother was soon afterwards left a widow, and 
married Anthony Foxcroft (1639). In a letter written 
by him to Dr. Browne from Halifax, June 13th, 
1616, and giving some account of his studies at 
Cambridge, there is a postscript to this effect: 
"Our towne can furnish you with very small news, 
only the death of some of your acquaintance, viz., 
Mr. Waterhouse and Mr. Sam. Mitchell." Nathaniel 
Waterhouse was the well known benefactor of the 
town, and at the time of Browne's residence in Halifax 
he obtained a Charter of a Poor Law Incorporation, 
in whicli the names of Samuel Mitchell (of Scout Hall, 
in Shibden-dale), and John Power, gentleman, occur 
among the twelve governors. Henry Power goes on to 
say : "the enclosed is from my father-in-law (Foxcroft) 
to yourselfe; if your oci^asions will permitt the returne 
of a few lines to either of us by this bearer, wee shall 
be very glad to accept them.'' 

In another letter, two years subsequently, he says : 
" Sir, my father Poxcroft and mother, in their last 
visit to Cambridge, forgott not to tender their best 
respects to you, which I have requited in the like 
returne of yours to them (according to your request) 
this last journey." There are other letters of great 
interest, and in one of them occurs a statement which 
I do not think has been hitherto noticed in connection 
with this subject. Henry Power had now obtained his 
medical degree, appears to have married Poxcroft's 
daughter by a previous marriage, and was settled at 
New Hall, near Elland. "Dear Sir" says Browne to 
him (June 8, 1659): "I wish my time would permitt my 
communication with you in any proportion to my 
desires, wherein I should never bee wearie, whereby I 
might continue the delight I have formerly had by many 
serious discourses with my old friend, your good fatJier (John 
Power), whose memorie is still fresh with mee, and becomes 
more delightful by this great enjoyment I have from 
his true and worthy sonne."* This correspondence 
makes it certain that Dr. Browne was well acquainted 

• The works of Sir Thomas Browne, ed. by Simon Wilkin, vol. II , p. 621. 


with several of the most respectable families of Halifax 
and enjoyed the friendship of some of its most worthy 

As to the exact place of his residence in Halifax 
parish, it has been usually thought that it was (as stated 
by Wright) Shibden Hall; now in the possession of 
Mr. John Lister. But this could hardly have been the 
case, inasmuch as Shibden Hall had been purchased 
by the Listers, from Caleb Waterhouse (brother of 
Nathaniel before mentioned), more than twenty years 
previously, and was then in the occupation of Thomas 
Lister. It was, moreover, described in a document of 
about the same date as Lower Shibden Hall, as dis- 
tinguished from an Upper or Over Shibden Hall, which 
was much higher up the valley ; and to the latter place 
the statement of Wright must be referred. 

Some years ago, in company with my friend Mr. 
Lister, I went to sec if I could find any indications of 
Dr. Browne's residence there. It happened to be 
shortly after a heavy fall of snow, and it was with 
great diflBculty that we made our way through the snow 
drifts and reached the spot. The old Hall was then a 
farm house ; and it has, I believe, been since taken 
down and replaced by two cottages. It stood high 
up on the hill side, overlooking the valley. Always 
secluded and still, it seemed at that time as if buried 
amidst arctic solitudes. The only person we met was 
a man called Abraham Wilson, who was a tenant of the 
farm under Mr. Michael Stocks. Abraham, it appeared, 
had given notice to quit, and he asked us if we had 
come to take the farm off his hands. Entering the 
house through a double porch of hewn stone we were 
at once attacked by an ugly cur evidently unaccustomed 
to strangers. But Abraham's wife received us in a very 
civil manner ; and having told us some of her troubles, 
lighted a candle (for it was a very dark afternoon) to 
show us the carved oak ceilinsf of the kitchen, 
which had been completely lime-washed. She pointed 
out in one corner of it the form of a bird, which 
she called the *'Shebden HuUet"; and over the 



fire-place an inscription cut in stone containing 
the letters J.S.F. and the date 1626. 

This date, it will be observed, is seven or eight years 
previous to that of Dr. Browne's residence, and doubt- 
less indicated the time when the house was built or re- 
constructed. The letters were the initals of the names 
of James Foxcroft and his wife (Sarah or Susannah) ; 
and James Foxcroft was in all probability a brother or 
near relative of Anthony Foxcroft, the step-father 
of Henry Power, Dr. Browne's friend. In a list of the 
successive constables of Halifax (preserved in Brear- 
cliffe's Manuscripts) there is an entry that " James 
Foxcroft of the Cross, formerly of (Upper) Shipden 
Hall," was constable in 1638-9 ; the same James 
Foxcroft, butcher of the Swan, we further learn, was 
"constable in army time, 1643," and was "an oyl 
drawer." He seems to have built the house, let it to 
Dr. Browne in 1634, gone to live at the Cross, and 
finally settled in Halifax. 

The association of Dr. Browne with the Foxcroft 
family, in addition to other reasons before given, 
renders it all but certain that he resided at Upper 
Shibden Hall ; and thus it may be considered that the 
wooded glades of Shibden-dale ministered by their 
quiet beauty to the compilation of his greatest and 
most eloquent work. " In such a spot and especially 
at the commencement of his professional career, he 
must have had considerable leisure ; which it is very 
natural to suppose he would endeavour to improve, by 
reviewing and preparing some memento of the events 
of his past life." (Simon Wilkin, " Supplementary 
Memoir.") It is pleasant to think of its author, sitting 
in tlie old stone porch and dreaming over the miracle 
and mystery of his life ; or riding along rough and 
miry roads in attendance upon his patients, sometimes 
alighting to pick up a rare plant that attracted his 
notice ; or, if at night, pondering on 

" Stars silent above, 
Graves silent beneath." 

and meditating " the world to me is but a dream or 

SfllBDEK DALE. 63 

mock-sliow, and we all therein but pantaloons and 
anticks, to my severer contemplations." He has been 
described as a "sad and solitary man." But such 
language ill expresses his real character. '* For my 
conversation" (he wrote), *' it is like the sun's, with all 
men, and with a friendly aspect to good and bad." 
•*He was excellent company " says White foot "when 
he was at leisure, and expressed more light than heat 
in the temper of his brain ; he was never seen to be 
transported with mirth, or dejected with sadness ; 
always cheerful, but rarely merry, at any sensible rate ; 
seldom heard to break a jest, and if he did, he would 
be apt to blush at the levity of it." He says of him- 
self " I am naturally bashful ; nor hath conversation, 
age or travel been able to effront or harden me." His 
portrait expresses something of his gentle, benevolent 
and mystical spirit; for, as he wrote, "In our faces 
there are certain characters which carry in them the 
motto of our souls; wherein he that cannot read A. B.C. 
may read our natures." " His complexion and hair " 
says Whitefoot " were answerable to his name, his 
stature was moderate ; and habit of body neither fat 
nor lean but eva-dpKo^ (full-fleshed). In his habit of 
clothing, he had an aversion to all finery both in 
fashion and ornaments. He ever wore a cloke and 
boots when few others did." This description sets the 
man before us as he appeared 260 years ago. 

The Religio Medici was written about the year 1635. 
" This I confess, about seven years past, with some 
others of affinity thereto, for my private exercise and 
satisfaction, I had at leisurable hours composed" 
(Preface to the first authorised edition, published in 
1643). " It was penned" the author says, " in such a 
place and with such disadvantage that (I protest) from 
the first setting of pen unto paper, I had not the 
assistance of any good book, whereby to promote my 
invention or relieve my memory." In 1637 he left 
Shibden-dale and went to reside at Norwich, where a 
larger and more attractive sphere for his professional 
duties presented itself. The book \vas not at first sent 


to the press by himself. In his leisure he made several 
copies of the original manuscript, and circulated them 
among bis friends. One of these found its way to the 
printer in 1642, " without his assent or privacy;" but 
as it contained several things he did not wish to see 
published, and was otherwise imperfect, he felt com- 
pelled, in self-defence, to repudiate it, and sent forth 
an authorised edition, being "A true and full copy of 
that which was imperfectly and surreptitiously printed 
before " (1643). It obtained considerable celebrity, 
and ran through several editions in the course of a few 
years, provoking on all hands severe criticism. By 
Protestants it was condemned for its Catholicism ; by 
Catliolics for its Protestantism ; by both for its scep- 
ticism. Yet it was translated into several languages ; 
was annotated by numerous commentators ; and 
became the model according to which a host of similar 
productions were formed. 

The book is not exactly the author's creed, nor his 
confessions, nor his soliloquies, nor his speculations ; 
but a combination of all these. So far as it is a mirror 
of himself, it is himself reflected in the ideal light in 
which he was accustomed to regard every other object. 
" It must be read " says Coleridge, " in a dramatic and 
not in a metaphysical view; as a sweet exhibition of 
character and passion, and not as an expression or 
investigation of positive truth." Whilst protesting his 
orthodoxy, he declares that he has entertained heresies 
" old and obsolete, such as could never have been 
revived but by such extravagant and irregular heads " 
as his. Whilst he loves to " lose himself m a mystery ; 
to pursue his reason to an altitude I " he refers to 
" sturdy doubts and boisterous objections, which," he 
says, " I conquered not in a martial posture, but on 
my knees." The treatise was "an attempt to combine 
daring sceptism with implicit faith in revelation."* 
It taught a doctrine of toleration which went far be- 
yond the spirit of the age. "I could never divide 
myself" he says *' from any man upon the difference 

• Dictionary of National Biography. 


of an opinion, or be angry with his judgment for not 
agreeing with me, in that from which, perhaps, within 
a few days I should dissent myself .... Persecution 
is a bad and indirect way to plant religion. It hath 
been the unhappy method of angry devotions, not only 
to confirm honest religion, but wicked heresies and 
extravagant opinions.*' That which gives the book its 
chief value is the numerous eloquent passages, auto- 
biographical, speculative, apologetic, poetical, often 
deeply devout, w^hich are scattered through its pages, 
and impart to it an ever fresh and undying interest. 

Of the remainder of the life of Dr. Browne little 
can here be said. He married in 1641, and had a 
numerous family. In 1646 he published his " Enquiries 
into Vulgar and Common Errors," and in sending out 
a fourth edition of this work in 1658, he added two 
essays on *' Urn Burial '* and " The Garden of Cyrus." 
The former of these essays *'stands alone for phantastic 
solemnity in English prose." lie gained an eminent 
position among the citizens of Norwich; on the 
occasion of a royal visit to the city he received the 
honour of knighthood (1671) ; he also carried on a 
considerable correspondence with some of the most 
noted men of his time ; he occupied himself in making 
extensive collections of " medals, books, plants and 
natural things;" and at length, on his birth-day, 
October 19th, 1682, he illustrated in his own decease 
the " remarkable coincidence " of which he had 
previously written: "Nothing is more common with 
infants than to die on the day of their nativity .... 
But, in persons who out-live many years, that the first 
day should make the last, that the tail of the snake 
should return into its mouth precisely at that time, and 
that they should wind up on the day of their nativity, 
is, indeed, a remarable coincidence, which, though, 
astrology hath taken witty pains to salve, yet hath it 
been very wary in making predictions of it." (Letter 
to a Friend.) 

" At my death," he wrote, " I mean to take a total 
adieu of the world, not caring for a monument, history 

66 IIIE BfeAt^O&D ANllQUAllY. 

or epitaph, not so much as the bare memory of my 

name to be found anywhere but in the universal 


register of God." But what he did not care for has 
taken place ; for a mural monument to him was set up 
in the Church of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, where 
it remains to this day, and where also his coffin plate 
with an inscription, and his portrait may be seen. 
What, however, he regarded with abhorrence has 
strangely occurred. In his " Urn Burial '' he had 
written: "Who knows the fate of his bones; or how 
often he is to be buried ? who hath the oracle of his 
own ashes, or whither they are to be scattered ? . . . . 
To be knaved out of our graves, to have our skulls 
made drinking bowls, and our bones turned into pipes, 
to delight and sport our enemies, are tragical abomina- 
tions escaped in burning burials." Alas! for the 
irreverence of curiosity and modern science. His skull 
has been somehow '* knaved out of its resting place, 
and deposited in the Museum of the Norwich Hospital, 
for the inspection of every sight-seer; and the des- 
cription of it as "unusually long, the back part 
exhibiting an uncommon appearance of depth and 
capaciousness," seems to confirm literally w^hat he had 
figuratively declared of his own " extravagant and 
irregular head."* 

It cannot be doubted that he was (as it has been 
expressed) " a good man, of gentle soul, and true, 
serious and pious life among his fellows." The 
anticipation of some one, at the publication of his 
Religio Medici^ on account of its supposed scepticism, 
that " he was yet alive and might become worse," was 
not realised ; on the contrary he was deemed specially 
devout considering his profession; w^hich was then 
considered, as it has often been since, somehow 
unfavourable to faith. The old saying is Ubi ires Medici 
duo Athei (where there are three physicians two are 
atheists). To him, however (as Whitefoot says), the 
old saying ought to be applied, " Honour a physician 
with the honour due to him." 

• Varia. By J. Hain FriswcU (18G6). 


I venture to conclude with a version o£ the Evening 
Hymn, which he was accustomed to repeat at the close 
of every day, and which, he says, was the only 
laudanum he needed to make him sleep soundly; 
making only the verhal alterations required hy the 
exigencies of grammar and metre — 

The Night is come, like to the day 
Depart not Thou, great God, away. 
Let not my sins, black as the Night, 
Eclipse the lustre of Thy light. 
Keep still in view, for Day to me 
Is made not by the Sun but Thee. 

Thou, whose nature cannot sleep, 
Still on my temples sentry keep ; 
Guard me against those watchful foes. 
Whose eyes are open while mine close ; 
And let no dreams my head infest. 
But such as Jacob's temples blest. 

^\1iile I do rest, my soul advance. 
And make my sleep a holy trance ; 
That so I may, my rest being ^vrought, 
Awake into some holy thought. 
And with as active vigour run 
My course as doth the nimble Sun. 

Sleep is a death ; O make me try 
By sleeping what it is to -die ! 
And then as gently lay my head 
Upon my grave, as now my bed ; 
Howe'er I rest, great God, let me 
Awake again at last with Thee. 

And thus assured, behold, I lie 

Securely, or to wake or die. 

These are my drowsy days ; in vain 

1 do now wake to sleep again ; 

O come that hour, wherein I may 
Not sleep again, but wake for aye.* 

* come that hour, wheu I shtill never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever ! 





^^^HE ancient mansion whicli stands about a hundred 
^^ yards from the Bradford Parish Church in that 
part of Barkerend B/oad, known until com- 
paratively recently as High Street, is not able to boast 
a history of striking interest. It still presents, how- 
ever, despite the base uses to which it has now descended, 
and the ugly obstructions which prevent a fair view of 
the building being obtained, so imposing an appearance 
that it is somewhat surprising that local antiquaries 
have not before been stimulated to an enquiry into the 
vicissitudes of its past existence. 

The Hall was built, as an inscribed date over the main 
doorway shows, in the year 1648,* but my efforts have 
unfortunately been unsuccessful hitherto in ascertaining 
by whom it was erected. It has been indeed ascribed 
to William Bookes but of this I have found absolutely no 
evidence, and the suggestion is improbable, for through- 
out the decade in which it was erected William Bookes's 
resources were sufficiently taxed by the building of 
Boyds Hall, and by the political troubles in which he 
became involved. During a portion at least of the 
momentous times of the Commonwealth the house 
belonged to one Ezekiel Cooke, of whom nothing 
further is known to me, but soon after the Bestoration 

* A tradition exists in the neighbourhood of the Hall that the last figure of this 
date was tampered with some years ago, in consequtince of a wager ; and cuiiously, 
the artist who in the early part of this century made the sketches reproduced here- 
with, transcribed the date as ** 1643.'' But the most careful examination of the 
stone with a magnifying glass, lends no support to the allegation that the last figure 
has been altered. 




it passed into the hands of a worthy, whose name is 

more familiar — Hugh Currer, afterwards of Elildwiek. 

During the life-time of his father Henry Currer, who 

held the estates and manor of Kildwick until 1653, 

Hugh Currer seems to have been resident in Bradford, 

and in 1650 he was living in Kirkgate. This is shewn 

by an incidental reference to him in the will of Richard 

Brighouse, of Halifax, one of the Compounding 

Royalists, dealt with in a paper on the subject 

(Bradford Antiquary vol. I., p. 175) by the late 

president of the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian 

Society (Mr. T. T. Empsall). At some time Hugh 

Currer acquired a considerable amount of property on 

the east side of Bradford, including the Hall at 

Barkerend where he took up his residence. After his 

accession to the Kildwick estates he occupied himself 

during several years with the rebuilding of a largo 

portion of Kildwick Hall, and the great costs which 

those works must have entailed no doubt accounts for 

the fact that soon after the Restoration wo find him 

effecting sales of some of his Bradford properties and 

raising money by mortgages on others. Mr. William 

Cudworth possesses the original deed by which Currer, 

in February, 1661, sold to Elkanah Wales, clerk, of 

Pudsey — ^who, in the following year, was numbered 

among the nearly 2,000 nainisters ejected from the 

Church of England under the Act of Uniformity — and 

to James Sale, clerk, also of Pudsey-r-subsequently 

ejected from St. John's Church, Leeds — several closes 

of land in Bradford. These included a close called 

Broadroyd, on the east side of the footpath leading 

from Bradford to Bolton, closes called the "Cote Close,*' 

the "Four Acres" and the "Bente," all being in 

Barkerend, and also " one water course springing in a 

certain close on the North Hundercliffe." About the 

same time Currer raised money by mortgage on other 

Barkerend property, among the mortgagees being Sir 

George Savile, of Thorn hi 11, and subsequently John 

Weddell, the younger, of Lincoln's Inn, London, and 

of Bradford. The Hall in Barkerend and some closes 


of land were mortgaged to Weddell in May, 1662, for 
£1800, and on the 15th March, 1663, a deed was signed 
by which Hugh Currer sold to John Weddell ** all that 
messuage or tenement wherein the said Hugh Currer 
now dwelleth." With the Hall were sold several closes 
of land among them being "The Ffalderinge" (con- 
taining eight days' work). A field of this name was 
situate at the junction of Peckover Walk with Harris 
Street, and is now partly occupied by Sion Chapel ; it 
is mentioned in the award of the Commission on the 
Glebe Lands of Bradford, printed in Mr. Cudworth's 
paper on the subject in the Bradford Antiquary^ vol. II., 
p. 186. Other closes included in the sale were " one 
croft now divided into two, below the great barne *' 
(containing four days* work) and crofts called the 
" Seaven-landes," the "Natell Croft" (containing six 
days' work), a "close called the North HunderscliflFe 
now divided into two" (containing twelve days' 
work), the " South HunderscliflFe " (seven days' 
work), the " Side HunderscliflFe " (three days' work), a 
close called *' Barker Lathe " (four days' work), " all 
which messuage and lands," the deed goes on to say, 
"the said Hugh Currer late bought and purchased of 
one Ezekiell Cooke or his assigns " ; also one other 
close " called HundercliflFe ab Hurrakens, late the land 
of Toby West," and another close called "Barker 
Lathe," late the land of Thomas Leadyard, " together 
with all those scales and stalls situate and being in the 
Parish Church of Bradford." 

The Weddells, into whose possession the Hall had 
now come, were a family of London lawyers of some 
distinction, and as they seemed to have had in their 
hands pretty nearly the whole of the business of a 
money-lending character in Bradford toward the end of 
the seventeenth century, they gradually acquired a con- 
siderable amount of property in the locality. Oliver 
Hey wood, in his event book under date 1672, tells 
an interesting anecdote of one of the Weddells, who 
was probably the father of John Weddell, "the 
younger." He saj-^s: "Mr. Weddcl, of Bradford, who 


hath been as great an atturney as any in the country 
and was raised to a great estate of ]ate, had built a 
sumptuous new house near the church, had many mens 
businesses upon his hands, we were at dinner lateley at 
Mr. Milners funeral, speaking of death, he said com- 
plimentally it will surely come &c. I advised him not 
to goe into his new house too soon, he ans. no not 
till towards Micaelmas, he had been exceedingly intent 
upon it, it must forward, was almost finished, he 
went up to the town, came into London on munday, 
June 17 or thuesday, but he died on thursday, June 
20 72, some say he was seized upon by a palsy, others 
that he had been at a tavern and got some hurt with 
drinking, l)ut he is gone, and his wife takes on very 
heavily, they are left in a labyrinth of trouble not 
knowing how things stand, he purposed that should be 
the last time of his going to London — so it proved, 
circumst. sad." {Hei/wood's Diaries^ vol. III., p. 191.) 
The late Mr. Empsall although he had spent a con- 
siderable time in the search for information with 
regard to this family was unable to guess what house 
Heywood refers to. 

John Weddell was one of the original trustees of the 
Sunderland lectureship in 1671, but comparatively 
little is known with respect to the family. In 1680 
John Weddell married Jane the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Jones, one of the Justices of His Majesty's Court of 
King's Bench, and a man whom readers of Lord 
Macaulay's "History of England" will not have for- 
gotten. Roger North described Sir Thomas as " a very 
reverend and learned j udge, a gentleman and impartial," 
but Macaulay wrote of him as a man who never but 
on one occasion " shrunk from any drudgery, however 
cruel or servile." For us it will be a sufficient 
indication of his character to recall the fact that he 
credited and acted upon the infamous testimonies of 
Titus Oates and his associates, notwithstanding their 
obvious contradictions, and that in this very year 1680 
in which he married his daughter to John Weddell, the 
names of Justice Jones and the notorious Chief Justice 


Scroggs were coupled together in an order by tbe 
House of Commons for their impeachment. From 
this difficulty the judges were only extricated by the 
prorogation of Parliament. Still, Sir Thomas Jones was 
in one matter too honest and plain spoken for King 
James II. On being preissed by ilis Majesty to 
declare himself in favour of the royal dispensing 
power, he said he could not do it ; and on the King's 
answering that " he would have twelve judges of his 
opinion," he replied that possibly His Majesty might 
find twelve judges of his opinion, but scarcely twelve 
lawyers. He was accordingly dismissed in 1686 with 
three other judges. He was impeached for another 
offence and imprisoned on the Great Revolution, and 
died in 1692. (See life in the Biographia Juridica^ by 
E* Foss, F.S.A., p. 378.) 

On his marriage John Weddell settled on his wife 
tbe house and lands bought from Currer which 
were then in the occupation of William Field, together 
with some other messuages in Bradford, " now or late 
in the several tenures or possession of ... . Render, 
Elizabeth Turner, Joshua Holland and Samuel Jo wett,'* 
and also a close called the " Bowling Green in Bradford, 
*'nowor late in the possession of Richard Cockroft,'* tbree 
closes called "the Breckes,'' " now or late in the tenure of 
Mary Wood," a close called " the Coleholes," ** now or 
late in the tenure of Richard Ward," and all his 
other Barkerend property of every description. Either 
by the death of his wife or in some other way, the 
property very soon afterwards reverted to the control 
of John Weddell, and in 1692 and again in 1697, he 
raised mortgages upon it, among the mortgagees being 
the Honourable Thomas Newport, the second son of 
Viscount Newport, of Bradford, who was treasurer of 
the household to Charles II., and had recently been 
created Earl of Bradford. Thomas was himself sub- 
sequently (in 1716) elevated to the peerage under the 
title of Baron Torrington. 

For more than forty years the property remained in 
the hands of the Weddells and descended from John 


Weddell to his son Edward and thence to Edward's 
hrother Charles Weddell, of Waddow Hall, in the 
parish of Mitton, in Bolland, Yorkshire. Eor twenty- 
years of that time it seems to have been encumbered 
with heavy mortgages, and on July 23rd, 1717, Charles 
Weddell sold the Hall and land to Thomas Hodgson. 
The Weddells, however, though they had ceased to 
reside here seem to have kept up some connection Avith 
the town for members of the family were pupils at 
the school of Joseph Hinchcliffe, in Bradford. ( Bradford 
Antiquary, vol. II., p. 183.) 

There were so many branches of the Hodgson family 
in Bradford, that it seems hopeless to attempt to identify 
the particular Thomas Hodgson who had now become 
the owner of the Hall at Barkerend, and the attempt 
would be of little interest for Hodgson retained the 
property but a short time, and though William Eeild or 
Field, the former tenant, seems to have left the Hall in 
or before 1717, Hodgson did not go to live there, 
though he farmed some of the landtB. Having in the 
course of three years cleared off the mortgages 
Hodgson sold the house and lands in 1720 (December 
22nd) to Robert Stansfield, of Bradford. The new 
owner is so well known a figure in the public life of the 
Bradford of his time, that little need be said of him 
here. Three years later than this purchase he married 
Anna, eldest daughter of William Busfeild, of Rish- 
worth Hall, near Bingley, who survived him. After 
Robert's death, the property continued — I presume by 
settlement or by will — in the possession of the widow 
till in 1755 her eldest son Robert, who was then of the 
age of 28 years, purchased the Esholt Priory estate 
from Sir Walter Calverley Blackett. Presumably, to 
enable him to make this purchase, his mother handed 
over to Robert Stansfield a very considerable amount 
of property in the county. Among the Bradford 
properties were "the house wherein Ann Stansfield 
dwelt," and lands called the " Penny Oaks," a close in 
Manningham Lane containing four days' work, Ihen in 
the occupation of Matthew Atkinson, one other close 


called the Butts, then in the occupation of Joshua 
Stansfield, also all that capital, messuage and tene- 
ment and all buildings, closes of land now in the 
occupation of William Pollard, formerly the estate and 
inheritance of John Weddell, Esquire, deceased. And 
also all that close of land to the said last mentioned 
messuage belonging called Ffoldrings, now divided 
into two" together with other lands. Within a month, 
namely, on January 2nd, 175G, llobert Stansfleld sold 
to Abraham Bower, wool stapler, Jonas Bower, wool 
stapler, and John Bower, wool comber, ''that messuage, 
dwelling-house or tenement called Paper Hall, wherein 
William Pollard doth now inhabit and dwell," and also 
the " Low Croft," the *' Little Croft," and the "Navel 
Croft." This is the earliest instance I have found 
of the application to the building of the name 
" Paper Hall," and of its origin I am ignorant. 
To Charles Bootb, the younger, of Bradford, Robert 
Stansfield disposed of the two closes of land in the 
neighbourhood of the Paper Hall, called " the Poderings 
or the Foderlings." These are the properties in which 
alone we are here interested, but it may be useful to 
mention that among the Bradford properties sold by 
Stansfield at the same time were — to John Kitching, of 
Whetleys, yeoman, a close of meadow called the 
"Sheep Close" (one acre) in the occupation of James 
Fox ; to Abraham Balme, of Bradford, a considerable 
quantity of land in Bowling; to Faith Sawrey, of 
Horton, widow, the dwelling-house called Holme Top, 
"wherein Jacob Hudson doth now inherit," with 
cottages, &c., adjoining, and lands adjoining Bowling 
Beck; to Robert llamsden, of Bradford, merchant, 
various shops ; to Joseph Bhodes, of Bradford, weaver, 
the pastures in Bradford called "Roundhills" and 
" Paddock " — John Stanhope, of Horsforth, who seems 
to have been a mortgagee, being joined as a party in 
this sale; — to Joshua Walker, the younger, of Bradford, 
apothecary, the land called the "Butts" (three acres 
twenty-five perches) situate in " Godmondend ' ' ; and then 
in the possession of Joshua Stansfield; to Anthony Ward, 





of Bradford, glazier, a meadow called "Forster's Close" 
near Manningham Lane (containing four days work), 
then in the possession of Matthew Atkinson, and also the 
** Henry Atkinson Close" near Manningham Lane. 

Since 1756 the Hall has passed Avith or without the 
adjoining land, hy survivorship, by will, by intestacy, 
and by purchase, from one to another of the Bowers. 
At present it is jointly owned, together with the yard 
and the adjoining small shops by Herbert Morris Bower, 
Esquire,ofElmcrofts,Ripon,andFrederickOrpen Bower, 
D.Sc, F.B.S., Professor of Botany at Glasgow University. 
The Bower familv is one of the oldest of existins: 
Bradford families, and the names of its members con- 
tinually appear in local records from mediaeval times 
down to the present century. The three purchasers of 
the Paper Hall, Abraham Bower (died 1786), John Bower 
(died 1791) and Jonas Bower (died 1798) were partners 
in the business of wool-staplers, and owned together 
large property in the town and neighbourhood of 
Bradford, of which much was eventually distributed 
by a deed of partition (1792) between the heirs-at-law 
of Abraham and of John, the surviving brother Jonas, 
and other parties. 

I have from time to time mentioned in the course of 
this paper the names of various tenants of the Hall. At 
the end of the last century and the beginning of the 
present century, the Hall was the residence of the 
Garnett family. James Garnett, the father of the late 
Mr. William Garnett, was residing there in 1792 or 
1793, and was engaged in spinning with hand-mules. 
This is probably the earliest date at which Arkwright's 
ingenious invention, made public in 1780, was in use in 
Bradford. James Garnett died at the Paper Hall, in 1829, 
and members of the family continued to reside there until 
1839. A few years later the house was cut up into a 
number of small tenements, and in 1 847 the small shops 
now standing Avere erected on the site of the garden in 
front of the buildings. A letter, written many years 
ago in a local newspaper, signed " Vetus,'' which seems 
to be the source of the erroneous statement in Mr. W, 



Scruton's " Old Bradford,'' that the Hall was acquired by 
the Bowers from the Rookes, is no doubt more reliable 
when it recalls the pride Avhich old Mr. James Grarnett 
took in his residence, and the care with which its 
handsome old oak wainscotting was kept constantly 
polished with bees-wax and oil. Some of the wainscot 
and of the fine oak mantel pieces were removed from 
the Hall a few years ago, but there are a few orna- 
mental features still visible internally. 

The views of the Hall which are here reproduced are 
from pencil drawings, in the writer's possession, made 
by John Preston Neale, an artist of no little ability and 
reputation in the second quarter of the present century. 
One of the drawings bears at the foot the words and 
date '' The Paper HalL Bradford, 1817." In that year 
Neale was occupied in a tour of the country for a series 
of " Views of Seats of the Nobility and Gentry of the 
United Kingdom," which ultimately extended to eleven 
volumes, and included no less than 737 engraved plates. 
In that work he gave an engraving of Tong HalJ, and 
a drawing by him of Boiling llall, which was not 
engraved, is also in the writer's possession. As these 
views are probably the only genuine records — not 
conjectural restorations — of the original appearance of 
the Paper Hall in its palmy days, it may be well to 
state that they formed part of the large collection of 
Neale's work preserved until a few years ago at Horsey 
Hall, Norfolk, where, prior to his death in 1847, Neale 
lived for many years, the owner of the Hall being a 
great friend and patron of his. 

In conclusion I wish to express my thanks to the 
present owners of the Hall for permission to see the 
original deeds of the property, and to Mr. C. A. Pederer 
and Mr. W. Cudworth, for assistance in illustrating the 
history of the building. 





T. T. EM PS ALL, Esq 

Continued fkom Vol. H... Part X., Page 276. 

/explanation of contraction in the second column: w. wife • 

s. Sonne; iL daughter; ch, chitde. 

1648, March. 

5 William s 

6 Elizn1)etli d 



9 John 
12 John 

iS ^farie d 

19 w 

21 John s 

24 Nathnniell s 



Thomas s 
30 w 


3 Marie d 


6 w 

7 ch 

lo Sarah d 

12 w 

13 William s 

John Woo<1head, Hd. 

WMddow Farraiid, 13d., pauper 

George Wilman, Wilsden 

James Warburlon, Allerton, unbapt. 

John Woo<lhead, l>d. 

I leiiry Walkinson, Thornton 

Isabel! I.illie, Thornton, paup. 

Sanniell Eshlon, Bd. 

Richard Stancliffe, Gt. H. 

John Crabtree, Bd. 

Thomas Hopkinson, Thornton 

James Hill, Heaton, unbapt. 

John Wright, Bd. 
Stephen Banks, Bd. 
Michaell Rol)crtshay, Thornton 
John Bailie, Bd. 

William Bartles, IW. 
Robert Rishworth, Claiton 
Thomas Mallinson, Ikl, 
Jesper Dmke, Thornton, unbapt. 
Samuel Taylor, lid. 
John Kirke, Bowiinge 
Richard Kellett, Bowiinge 
John Pollaixl, Bowiinge 








20 John 



26 Samuell 


1 Marie 

2 Martha 




13 Marie 


16 Marie 



22 John 




26 John 







2 Phcabee 


4 llanna 

d Josuah Hey, late of IM. 
w John Pearson, Thornton 

Daniell Liltlewood, a SouUlier 

John Pearson, Thornton 
s Richard Thomas, Allerton 
ch John Medley 
s George ffeiM, Shipley 

Thomas Hemingway, Lt. H. 

Richard Mortimer, Claiton 
s Samuell Milner, Claiton 

Widdow Greenehall, Ecclesfeild 

d Rolert Hill, Bd. 

d 'rhom«as Mid^lay and Martha Hollingworth, Dast. 

Widdow Jowett, Howling 
ch Jeremy Aked, Bd., unbapt. 
s Symon Askwilh, Bramlay 

Lawrence Kobertshay, Claiton 

Mr. Sowerbutte, 13owling in eccl. 

Widdow fTeild, Shipley in eccl. 
d George Beecroft, Howlbeck 
ch Michaell Akeroyd, Thornton, unbapt. 

John Hanson, of Linlay, Souldier 
d William Brooksbank, Ecclesfeild in eccl. 
d William Smith, Calverley 

William Baly, Bd. 

Thomas Willmson, Bd. in eccl. 

Henry Burton, a Souldier 

Samuell Elsworth, Calverley 
w Charles Rigge, Ecclesfeild 
s Isaack Fletcher, Ecclesfield 
s John Fletcher, Junr., Thornton 
w Bailholomew Parkinson, Bd. 

Richard Ingham, Bd. 
w William Bookcocke, Thornton 
s Arthur Whitelay, Healon 
w Tem|)est Pearson, Mann, 
d John Gumersall. Byerley 

Widdow Holmes, Heat on 
s Mr. Hoi)e, B:I. in eccl. 

John Lister, Halifax, Souldier 
8 John Newell, Gt. H. 

Christopher Swaine, Lt, H. 
s Widdow Whitelay, Bd. 

Widdow Jowett, Thornton 

d Widdow Robinson, Wllsden 
w John Northroppe, Mann. 

Henry Atkinson, Bd., Smith 
d Mr. Ellison, Minister, Ollay 
d Robert Barran, Ikl. 



II Grace 


15 Jonas 
18 Marie 

22 James 








14 Katharine 











d Robert Smith, Allerlon 

s James Warburlon, Allerton 
w Samuell Ward, Lt. H. 

Elizabeth Sowden, Thornton 

w John Mortimer, Gt. II. in eccl. 

s Joseph Green, Thornton 

d Jolin Pighells, Clailon 
ch John Lowcocke, B<1., unlmpt. 

s William Cordlay, IJowIinge 
ch Richard Holmes, Bd., unbapt. 
John Horton, Bd. 

James Walker, Bd. 

Rol)ert Hollyns, Clayton 
d Richard Jackson, Mann. 

Jonathan Bower, B<1. 
ch John Crabtree, Mann, 
ch Jonas Bower, Bd. 

James Jowett, Bollyng 
d John Hey, Bollyng 

Mr. William Sagar, Bd. 

William Booth, Horton 

Ilellen Barker 
w Brian Wilson 

George Fletcher, Bd, 

Richard Stead, Mann. 

John Green, Frizinghall 
w Christopher Coocker, Bd. 

Anthony Warde, Horton 
s Thomas Mallison, B<1. 
w Richard Allerton, Bd. 
ch John Drake, Streelgap 

Roliert Pearson, Bd. 
w Thomas Jowett, Bd. 
w James Clarkson, Bd. 

William Smyth, Bd. 
w Robert Rawson, Bd. 

Henry Lancaster, Bd. 

Marie Mortimer, Gt. H. 

George Reyner, Bd. 
ch Anthony Hurste, Mann, 
ch Richard Cordingley, Blackcarre 
s William Rawson, Bowling 

w Abraham Braithwait, Clayton 
George Holdsworth, Revey 
John Blamires, Revey 
cli Thomas Leaches, Morleycarre 
Jonathan Home, Bd. 

d Michael Mitton, Bolton 

d John Yarrs, Bd. 



Mnrlin IIeininj;\vay, Ilorton |>aTva 


Roberl Itaily, Ikl. 

il Abraham Ju welt, Ilorlon 


William Chrksoi., Ikl. 

w Samuel SunclilTe, Claylon 


(1 John Tlioiiia.s Bolion 

Jonathan Walker. Mann. 

9 Eliultell 

w Thom« Wilson, B.I. 

William Cor.lingley, Bultyng 

Samuel Smylli, Ihl. 

il Ricliord Crofl, Mann. 

It Susan 

a Abraham Oales. Clayton 


Isn1>eII Paslewc, Wiiluw, Shipley 

John Itaily, It.1. 


lane Marshall. Wj.low, Ik). 

Child ^lill l>orn a( Wniinni, ICccleahill 

IS Eflaii. 

w Josevb Dawson, Itolling 

ch Wahei Walerhouse, Itil. 


John Itarmclortgh, Chcllawc 

ch Danyell (Ircnewootl, Ilorlon 

cb Michncll Ilaicraves, Ikl. 

t7 Annie 

w William Kyley, B,l. 


s John Campinall. Allerion 


William Sngilen, Ikl. 

19 IsaWll 

w Ansline ClouiUley, Ihl. 


s Thomas Whalley. Ihl. 


a William I]ar.lie, IW. 


John Suplcn, lid. 

John Kitcliiu, Bil. 


s John Watcrhouse, Ikl. 


s I'eler Ingham, Ikl. 

zi .Susan 

w V.-illiam Akc<l, Ikl. 

WJllinnt IlrookslMink, Etxiebhill 


William Urook, Eccleslilll 

William Swifie, Gt. II. 


w John llmison, WiUey 


w John Ilemswoilh, Ikl. 


w Kichord Jowell, lid. 

Roberl Firlh, Ilealoii 


Maltbew SleatI, Ikl. 

John Claylon. Ct. H. 


w James Ilopkinson, Ikl. 


GreEoiie Cooke, lloriun 


w Michaell Milner, Claylon 


Sara Whiteley, «d. 


John Damebrook, IW. 

John Murgalroy<l, Ikl. 


<l Richai-d Stead, Mann. 


w George Kendall, Boiling 

38 Grace 

w John Kilchin, Ikl. 

JO Marline 

s llenty PolLitd, Tonge 



d Marline Hemingway, Horton 


s William Jnckson, 13cl. 

31 Hesler 

w Richard IlornCi Bd. 


s William Thornton, Horton 


I Martha 

w Roger Bower, IkK 


d Samuel Guye, Bd. 


d Thomas Wilson, Bd. 


d Peter Ingham, 13d. 


Thomas Smyth, Bd. 


w W^illiam Swifle, Horton 

Isabell Woo<l, Mann. 

3 Joseph 

s Joshua Drake, Thornton 

John Drake, Dyeroid 

Nicholas Deane, Bd. 


s Gervase Dixon, Bd. 


Thomas Walmsley, Hd. 


w Robeit Fletcher, Eccleshill 


d John NichoUs, Thornton 


r s Christopher Lambe, Bd. 


William Clough, Bd. 

6 Jane 

w William Steevenson, Mann. 


Roger Secdhill, B<l. 


John Booth, Gt. II. 


John Jowett, Bd. 

Samuel 1 

s John Murgatroyd, Bd. 

Jennett Kilching, Bd. 

John Butler, Revey 

Widowe Hardie, Mann. 

11 Grace 

w James Swainc, Bd. 

Thomas Allerton, Allerlon 


Thomas Brooke, Eccleshill 


s John StancklifTe, Clayton 


s George Turner, Bd. 


s Lewes W^atson, Bd. 


Abraham Lee, Bd. 


d Richard Hodgson, Bd. 

Jonas Watson, Bd. 


Grace Lume, Bd. 


Michael I Sowden, Cockan 


Marie Clough, Bd., vid. 

Sara Northrope, Widow, Bd. 

Susan StancklifTe, Clayton 


d John Hotlgson, Clayton 


IsalKill Whitehead, Eccleshill 


d John Vickars, Bd. 

Margarett Armislead, Bd. 


d Thomas Slater, Bd. 


John Stead, Bd. 

19 Elizabeth 

w Richard Yeadon, Bd. 


w Edward Boiling, Chellow 


w John Greenhough, Horton 









H easier 




























1 )orolhy 




James and 












w Ezekiel Tayler, \k\. 

(ieorge Pollard, North liierley 
w John Clarkson, Bd. 
s Malthew Clay Ion, liorton 
w Mallhew Clayton, Ilorton 
d Isacke Dawson, \k\, 
s Samuell Tayler, Hd. 
d Symeon Kosindale, Bd. 

Rc^er Bower, Bd. 

Margarelt Firth, Frizinghall 
d Bryan Utley, Bd. 
d Gill)ert Brookshank, Ilorton 
w Thomas Hodgson, ]{olling 
w Thomas Croft, liarkerend 
w John Walker, Bd. 
d William Walker, Pudsey 

Edward Swific, Bd. 
w John Thomas, Bolton 
s George Blanch, Bd. 
s George Kendall, Boiling 

John Lister, Bd. 
d Isack Fletcher, I A. II. 
w Koberi Shore, Bd. 
s John Jowett, Bd. 
s Robert Clayton, Boiling 
d William Wright, Morton 
w Richard Midgley, Ilorton 
w Tempest Rodley, Bd. 
d William Wigglesworlh, Bd. 
d Joseph Grcenhough, Bd. 

d Jeremy Thorpe, Bd. 
Matthew sons of James Ellis, Bd. 
d Thomas Kellett, Mann, 
d Henry Kilchin, Wilsden 
w Jonas Briggs, Lt. II. 
d Roger Knowles, Bd. 

Thomas Caiithrey, Bd. 

Anne Bowker, Bd. 
s John Maude, Bd. 
w Malhew Nayler, Cockhan 
w John Mortimer, Horton 

Jane Smyth, Bd. 
s Rol}ert Hopkinson, Bd. 

Andrew Utley, Bd. 

John Bamforth and Wife, Mann. 

Jonas WMiitwham, Clayton 

John Nicholls, Thornton 

Malhew Stocks, Clayton 

Thomas Hollyns, Clayton 
d James Swayne, B<.l. 

^dmond Thompson, Bd. 



Mathew Oats, Clayton 


s Lawrence Longbothome, Clayton 


w Joseph Firth, Boiling 

8 Anne 

w William Allerton, Allerton 

Marie • 

d William Lister, Bd. 


Walter Blagbume, Boiling 

Jane Darman, Bd. 


d Christopher ffoster, Bd. 


w John Hodgson, Clayton 

II Hester 

d Richard Taylcr, Horlon 


Elizal)eth Allerton, Allerton 


d James Thorn eton, Horton Magna 

Rol)ert Fletcher, Eccleshill 

Sarah Holmes, Bd. 


s John Waterhouse, Bd. 


d Steven Hollingrake, Mann. 


d Jonas Kay, Bd. 


William Hey, Shopkeeper, B<1. - 


w Thomas Brooksbank, ISolling 


d James Vickars, Bd. 


s John Eastburne, Mann. 


w James Eameshaw, Bd. 

IS Sara 

d William Greene, Bd. 


d Jonas Smythe, Bd. 

1 6 Lawrence 

s Christopher Butter field, Bd. 

Phoebe Franckland, Cockan 


w James Knowles, Bd. 


w George Field, Shipley 


d Gilbert Threapland, Shipley 

17 Margarett 

d James Hill, Butcher, Bd. 

Grace Darwin, Bd. 


d Thomas Kellelt, Boiling 


d John Jo wet t, Clayton 

Grjice Sunderland, Clayton 

iS Elizabeth 

w Thomas Hodgson, Bd. 


w Thomas Bower, Bd. 


d Roger Lister, IW. 


John Mitchell, Thornelon 


Thomas Bower, Bd. 


s John Holmes, Bd. 

Alice Robinson, Bd. 

Marie Roides, Clayton 


s Jeremy Tliorpe, Bd. 

21 Edith 

d Robert Firth, Heaton 


w John Holmes, Bd. 


William Stancliffe, Clayton 

23 Elizal>eth 

w Mr. Richard Brighouse, Bd. 

Nicholas Bower, Bd. 


w George Rayner, Bd. 


Miles West, Bd. 


s Jonas Smyth, Bd. 


d Roger Lister, Bd. 





27 Susan 

28 Mai-garett 

29 Anne 


31 Hellen 
























16 Sara 

17 Anne 

Richard Roberle, lleaton 
John NichoIIs, Tyersall 

d William Jowelt, lleaton 

w John Medley, Clayton 

d Bartholomew Parkinson, Bd. 

w Danyell Ingham, Bd. 

w Jeremy Clegg, Ilorton 

w John Maude, Bd. 

\v Jonas Walker, Horlon 
Margarett Smyth, Heaton 
Susan Roberlshay, Clayton 
John Cockroft, Allerton 

d [ohn Wilson, Bd. 
Isacke Webster, Boiling 

w John Wilman, Wilsden 

d Jeremy Clayton, ilorton 
John Oats, Clayton 

w William Prockler, Bd. 

James Ilopkinson, Thornton 
d John Cawtherey, Boiling 

John Crabtree, Mann, 
w William lieamont, Bd. 
s George Bell, B<1. 
d Moses Bawer, Wilsden 

Matthew Smyth, Eccleshill 
w John Whitwam, Allerton 
w Nicholas Bower, Bd. 

William Allerton, Allerton 
s Richard Iligson, (jt. H. 
w Abraham Thomas, Mann. 

Edward Walker, Horton 
w Richard Stand ilTe, Clayton 

Richard Yeadon, Bd. 
s John Kirke, Boiling 

William NichoUs, Eccleshill 

John Ilardyate, Boiling 
s Richard Riddlesden, Bd. 

John Broughton, Bd. 
i\ John Stevenson, Boiling 

Christopher Kellett, Browneroid 
d James liowker, Bd. 
w William Emmotl, Bd. 
d John Pighills, Horlon Magna 
\v John Eastwood, Shipley 

Thomas Kellett, Morton Magna 

John Baily, Allerton 

Anne Exley, Frizinghall 
w Richard Mallinson, Bd. 

Richard Nayler, Ud. 
w Edward Lang, Bd. 
w John Milner, Clayton 


1 8 Anne 





21 Susan 



24 Elizaljelh 



29 Sibill 

30 Agnes 

d Jeremy Clegg, Horton 

Gilbert Threapland, Shipley 
w Jonas Uower, Bd. 

John Butterfield, llorton 

Mrs. £lizal>elh Jo^ison, Bd. 

Susan Oats, Clayton 
s John Walker, Butcher, Bd. 

John Deane, Thornton 
w Jonas Deane, Thornton 

John Webster, B<1, 

Anne Holmes, llorton 
w John Bitkebe, Bd. 

John Pickupp, Bd. 
w Gilbert Thrcapland, Shipley. 

Isacke Ilouldswurth, Bierley 

John North ropp, Mann, 
w William Tong, Mann, 
d Matthew N.iylor, Thornton 

Gilbert Brooksbank, llorton Magna 

Eiizal)eth Smyth, 13d. 

Joseph Greenhough, llorton 

w Robert Craven, Frizinghall 

w Thomas Mallinson. Bd. 

d Temi)est Cordingley, Holme, 

Infra dorain. de Tong 

w Gill)ert Brooksbank, llorton 

s Abraham Ogden, Eccleshill 

d Matthew Stead, Bd, 

Christopher Thoniton, Bd. 

Effam lliggin, Bd. 

George Kighlcy, Ecckilshill 



Anthony Smyth, Calverly par. 


Samuel Firth, lid. 

John Blakey, Fairweathergreen 


Roger Knowles, Bd. 

Anthony Grestone, Bil. 

5 Grace 

w John Jowelt, B<1. 

William Sowden, Thornton 

6 Priscilla 

w Thomas Hcxlgson, Boiling 


w George Pollard, Wooillands 

7 Mercie 

\v John Vicars, Ikl. 


w Thomas Ilollins, Clayton 


Thomas Hodgson, Boiling 


w Anthony Grestoue, Bd. 


w John Clough, Horton 

9 Marie 

d John Selbie, Eccleshill 


w Joseph Greenhough, Horton 

10 Joseph 

s John Drake, Thornton 


s Robert Phillip, Clayton 


Robert Bower, Boiling 


d Andrew Hall, Horton 



12 Tempeste 

s William Roberte, Rl. 


Christopher Hall, Clayton 

Widow Barraclough, Horton 


d John Vickars, Btl. 

15 Jonas 

s Joseph Greenough, Horton 


JJiidgett Farrand, Rd. 

17 Anne 

d Thomas Newall, ]kl. 


John I)ol)son, Thornton 


w John Crabtree, Mann. 


d Rol>ert SutclifTei Horton 

John Sharpe, Bd. 


w Edward Coiisine, Mann. 


s Jonas Brigg, Lt. H. 


Danyell Ingham, Bd. 

John Waterhouse, Bd. 

23 Jennet 

w John Baily, Allerton 


w Robert Cant, WMiarrell Gapp 


William Lee, Black Hey, Calverly 


Joseph Jowett, Thoniton 


John Milner, Clayton 

27 Susan 

w Thomas Greenyate, Heaton 


George Craven, Frizinghall 

Edward Jackson, Clayton 


Alice Wilkinson, Boiling 

30 Hellen 

w Roger Pollaixl, Boiling 


John Small page, Clayton 


s Abraham Lee, Bd. 


w James Cousin, Mann. 


5 Isal)eII 

w John Hanson, Wibsey 


s Frances Barraclough, Wibsey 


w Samuell Pollard, Heaton 

7 John 

s John Pearson, Bd. 


w Richard Croft, Mann. 


William Emmolt, Bd. 


John Jepson, Bd. 

• James Wilson, Boiling 


w Thomas Newall, lid. 

II Richard 

s John Hodgson, Horton 


Matthew Sowden, Clayton 

16 Margnrett 

w Walter Nayler, Mann 


Bilsljer Varley, Bd. 

19 Thomas 

s Walter Nayler, Mann. 

21 Judith 

w Abraham Appleyeard, Mann. 


 Abraham Hemmingway, Clayton 

26 William 

s William Emmott, Bd. 

27 Timothie 

s William Pickard, Shipley 

28 Effam 

w John Hollins, Mann. 



w John Crabtree, Mann. 

2 Marie 

w Jeremy Clayton, Horton 

3 Martha 

d Christopher Burch. Hentun 



4 Marie 

w Richard Mortimer, Clayton 


\v Anthony Warde, Horton 

5 Sara 

d Kdward Jowett, Ilorton 


Richard Metcalf, Clayton 


Beatrice Fletcher, Gt. H. 

IS Isaliell 

w Thomas Lawkeland, Boiling Hall 


John Walker, Bailiff, Bd. 


Joshuah Horton, Souldier, slaine in 

Barkerend, Bd. 

i8 Judith and ^falt1la daughters of John Jowett, Clayton 

19 John 

s Edward Cmblree, Heaton 

20 Marie 

d Roljert Fletcher, Fckleshill 


s William Watson, Clayton 

23 Jonathan 

s John Hainesworth, Clayton 


s Mr. Ro1>ert Hey, of London 


John Jowett, B<1. 


Grace Pollard, Lt. H. 

28 Isabell 

w Martin Batchler, Wibsey 



Michael Hargraves, Mann. 

Thomas Gibson, North Bierley 

5 Sara 

d Stephen Hollingrake, Mann. 


Nicholas Cordingley, Boiling 

7 Henry 

s Edmond Smyth, Bd. 

12 Richard 

s William Hey, Bd. 


s Robert Kuowles, Bd. 

14 John 

s John Crabtree, Mann. 

16 Sara 

s Thomas Murgatroyd, Bd. 

1644, Xarch. 


w Thomas Darwin, Bd. 

John Milner, Bd. 

Thomas Wilson, Bd. 

Michael Bartles, Bd. 

26 William 

s William Jowett, Bowlinge 


Abraham Whittiker, Clayton, pauper 

28 Walter 

s John Craven, Frizinghall 



w Robert Balme, Bd. 


EIizal>eth Lange, Bd., pauper 






24 Lid i ah 

John Sharp, a Souldier 
d George Holdsworth, late of Revay 

Widdow Wilson, Bd., pauper 

Samuell Stanckliffe, Claiton 
d John Baly, Allerton 
w Richard Horner, Claiton 

Grace Barrowclough, Gt. H. 

Widdow Jowett, Thornton, pauper 
w [ohn Holdsworth, Claiton 

Hester Dixon, Bd. 
w John Fairbank, Bd. 
d Samuel Greathead, of Woo<lkire 






4 Grace 

10 Grace 





18 Amos 



25 Sara 

27 Maria 

31 Daiiial 


3 Anihony 

II Joshua 





10 William 



22 Anne 


27 Martha 

28 John 



5 William 


11 Marie 

23 Thomas 



John Jowelt, Shipley 
Thomas Mitchell, Thornton 

John Adamson, Ileaton 
c1 John HoKIsworth, late of Bierley in eccl. 
s Jonathan Kish worth, Claiton 
w Edward Preston, Thornton 
d Jonas Fearnley, late of Bd. 
w Thomas Fawcett, Bd. 

John Jowett, the elder, Bowling 
d Peter Haines, Bowling 
ch Thomas Kishworth, Thornton, unbapt. 

Anne Crabtree, Claiton 
s James Thornton, Bowling 

Widdow Ilawmond, Lt. If. 
w William Hay, Junr., Bd. 
d Robert Wilkinson, Mann, 
d Thomas Lambert, Burstall par. 
s Joseph M liner, Claiton 

w Michael Metcalfe, Bd. 
w Thomas Gledhill, Gt. H. 
w Richard Mortimer, Claiton 
s Hu{;h Smith, Ileaton 
w Jonas Fshton, Gt. I J. 
s Kol)ert WHiite, Bd. 
Widdow Balme, Wibsay in eccl. 
ch Joseph Milner, Claiton, unb<npt. 
Richard Allerton, Alleiton 

w Mr. fohn Nicholle, Gt. II. 
w Richard Wilkinson, Mann, 
s William I ley, Ecclesfield 

Edward Roade, Bowling 

Francis Boothman, a Stianger, died at Bd. 
w Hugh Smyth, Ileaton 
d Peter Snowden, Shipley 

Rol)ert Dickinson, Claiton 
d Widdow Appleyard, Bd. 
d Robert Jubb, Claiton 
s William Snowden, Bd. 

Jane Booker, Gt. 11. 
s William Birtwhistle, Allerton 

Christopher Burnell, Bd. 

Christopher Booth, Thornton 
d John Rotcliffe, Bd. 
s Mr. Nicholls, Gt. If. 

Nicholas Roade, Allerton 
w John Fletcher, Thornton 
s William Webster, Bd. 




23 William 




30 William 


I Susan 





15 Grace 




22 Joshua 


2 Maria 

13 Samuel 



31 Joshua 



5 Jeremy 





20 Jonas 




I Issaliell 

Martha llollingworth, lUI. 
s James lilacklnirn, EccIcsfeiUI 

Charles Cowlston, U<l. in eccl. 

Widdow Bower, Gt. II. in eccl. 
ch John lialy, Bd., unlKipt. 
\v Malliias Brooksbank, Ecclesfcild 
s Robert Swaine, Gt. II. 

Peter Ellis, B<1., paii|^r 

d William Pollard, Ileaton 

Rel)ecca Craven, Bd. 
d Richard Stones, Claiton 
ch Henry Halstead, Ileaton, unbapt. 

Widdow Rishworth, Claiton, pauper 

Dora thy Bartles, Bd. 
w Roliert Smylhies, Bd. 

Thomas Croft, Bd. in eccl. 

Widdow Gill, Thornton 
d John Preisiley, Gt. II. 

Christopher Swaine, Lt. H. 

Widdow Booth, Bd. 
s Tristram Aked, Gt. II* 
ch John I.aycocke, Mann., unliapt. 
s John Crablrce, Mann, in eccl. 
d John Pearson, Thornton 

d William Pollard, Ileaton 

William Kcllelt, Bowling, pauj^r 
Christopher Sugden, Gt. II., pauper 

s William Swaine, of Bd., smith 
John Wilkinson, Mann. 
Christopher Thornton, Bowling 

s John Wilson, Bd. 

w Joseph Robertshay, Claiton 
w Thomas Atkinson, Lt. II. 
s John Ellis, Bd. 

WMIliam Walker, B<1. 

Thomas Ilillhouse, Bd. 
w Francis Blackburn, Bd. 

William Pickard, Shipley 

Richard Rowlingson, Wibsey 

Thomas Small page, Gt. H. 
s Widdow Mitchell, Mann, 
d Mathias Brooksbank, EcclesBeld 

William Brooksbank, Shipley 
ch William Richardson, Bierley 
ch John Collinson, Gt. H. 

Joseph Broughlon, Bowling in eccl. 

d John Webster, B«l, 





9 Maria 


29 Sara 




8 Sara 





II Martha 
13 William 


18 Da via 


25 Grace 





Peter Pickanl, Shipley 
d William Rol>eits, Bd. 
w Ednuind Ilewetr, Claiton 
d John Cawtheray, Bowling 

William Thomas, liierley 

Jonas Boardall, Wibsey 
s John Crcswicke, Bowling 
d William Snipe, Gt. H. 

Thomas Dixon, Bd. 

ch Joseph Denbie, Wilstlen 
John Wright, Mann. 
James Sharp, senr., Ilorton 
d Abraham Jowcll, Gt. H. 
d Thomas Sharp and Anne Hirst, Bast. 
James Hill, Heaton 
William Hill, Heaton 
2 ch Jeremy Claiton 

d Jeremy Jowett, Bowling 

s William Ball, Bierley 
ch William Sharp, Bowling 

s William Sharp, Bowling 
ch John Brigg, Claiton 
w James Kighley, Calverley 

s Widdow Hillhouse, Bd. 
ch Mathew Hainworth, Claiton 

d John Miilgley, Wilsden 
ch Alraham Barraclough, Ecclesfield 

w Christopher Clark, Bil. 
Jonas Feamley, B<1. 
John Parkinson, Bd. in eccl. 

\Interments in 1644 — /^p.] 

1645, April. 



4 William 

14 John 



Francis Blackburn, Bd. 
w Michael Squire, Ecclesfeild 
s Jonathan Fletcher, Claiton 
s Abraham Swift, Claiton 

John Walsh, Mann. 
w John Lumb, Mann, 
ch Michael 1 Drake, Thornton 

Joseph Hargrave, Claiton 

Marie Deyne, Allerton in eccl. 
ch Joseph Sharpe, Bowling 
John Northropp, Mann. 




Ahbret'iafions : A.S, Anglo-Saxon ; X, Xorse, i.e., Danish 

or Norwegian, 

^Tl URN AMES are the mark of an advancing state 
J^ of civilisation and the outcome of the gradual 
agglomeration of large numbers of people in 
communities. As long as a country is sparsely in- 
habited, and as long as a population is estimated at so 
many square miles per inhabitant instead of at so many 
inhabitants per square mile, so long will the inter- 
course of an individual with his fellow men be 
necessarily restricted within very narrow bounds and 
the circle of his acquaintances be exceedingly limited. 
The dozen or score people with whom he comes into 
occasional contact require no distinctive appellation to 
ensure recognition, and as we even now find hunlers, 
miners, and settlers in a newly occupied country 
dropping their inherited family names and confining 
themselves to the simpler appellatives Jack, Bob, Bill, 
&c., so a very short vocabulary of names was found 
su^cient by our early forefathers to designate every 
individual of their acquaintance. 

It is probable that in the first century of our era, at 
the period of the landing of the Romans at our shores, 
the approximately 60,000 square miles of England and 
Wales were inhabited by a population of not more 
than 500,000 people, say eight persons per square mile, 
scattered over the then habitable part of the country, 


i,e,, the ridges, loAver hills, and table-lands, not subject 
to the periodical inundations which rendered all the 
lowlands little better than swamps. Towns in the 
modern sense of the word were absolutely non-existent, 
the common inhabited centres of the community being 
more in the nature of kraals, such as are found at the 
present day among the native tribes of South Africa, 
readily, abandoned and easily rebuilt at some different 
spot as the exigencies of primitive life rendered 
desirable. For the scanty and not very easily dis- 
tinguishable traces of these earliest agglomerations of 
dwellings, it would be perfectly useless to search our 
cultivated plains or accessible seashores : as before 
mentioned, the habitable portion of the land was 
restricted to the hills and table-lands — the more 
inaccessible to wayfarers and intruders the better — and 
to this circumstance alone can we attribute the pre- 
servation of even such scanty remains as we find on 
Grassington Moor, llombald's Moor, InglebcTOUgh, &c., 
which must have utterly disappeared had they lain in 
the way of modern agriculture or industry. 

The advent of the civilised Roman made no alteration 
in the distribution and relative density of the population 
of Britain : the same considerations of defence and 
support which had led the Britons to select " high 
places '' for their habitations, induced the Romans to 
place their stations and camps in commanding 
situations — in nearly every instance merely turning 
a British town into a Roman castrum or city — and to 
carry their roads over and along the ridges of dividing 
hills, so as to command the lowland on both sides. It 
was only at a much later period, when by the silently 
working forces of nature, occasionally aided by the rude 
labour of man, the stagnant waters of the dales and 
pastures skirting the hilly ranges gradually found out- 
lets, that the expanding population followed the 
increasing means of subsistence and descended to the 
plains beneath. 

Erom the foregoing description of the state of our 
country at that early period, which is not conjectural 


but strictly historical, it must naturally follow that 
neighbours were few and far between, and were 
identified, not by names indicating descent, but by some 
expression designating the personal appearance of the 
man and the locality whence he came. The language 
of the whole country at that time being the various 
dialects of Keltic (kymrian, gaelic, &c.), the names 
given would in all cases be what in later times came to 
be called Welsh, and do not come within the scope of 
our subject, for there is scarcely any Keltic element 
left, either in the race or the language of later 
Great Britain outside Wales and Cornwall. The reason 
is not far to seek : the Saxon invaders had no thought 
of subduing and ruling the Kelts ; they simply drove 
them out, root and branch, into the mountain fastnesses 
of the west. Such Welsh people and Welsh names as 
are now found amongst us are of comparatively 
modern importation, and the only traces which the 
early Keltic inhabitants of England have left of their 
existence are their rude implements, their burial 
places, and the names of striking geographical features, 
such as rivers and mountains. 

I shall not dwell upon the all too short period during 
which Roman power and civilisation wrought a striking 
and apparently fundamental change in the state and 
character of Britain. The change was more apparent 
than real. Eoman life in this countrv Avas from fitst 
to last mere garrison life, and the civilisation of com- 
munities was confined to the military stations whence 
Radiated that wonderful system of Roman roads which 
the lapse of seventeen hundred years has not been able 
to obliterate. Splendid cities arose, it is true ; but 
Eboracum and IJriconium, the capitals of the north 
and of the west of Britain, magnificent as they were, 
were not the homes of Britons but solely the abodes of 
a foreign conqueror's court and the centres of an 
extensive system of military administration. Thus, at 
the withdrawal of the Roman garrisons, the whole 
state organisation collapsed at once ; the country 
reverted to its Keltic chaos ; the flourishing cities of 

I' 2 . 


the west were abandoned and left to decay till their 
very memory became obliterated, whilst those of the 
east, like York and Colchester, only escaped a similar 
fate through the early advent of the Saxons who stood 
considerably higher in the scale of civilisation than the 
British savages. It need hardly be said that the 
E/oman occupation has left as little trace in our family 
names as in our race. 

I pass on to the later period, when the successive 
invasions and immigrations of Germanic tribes (Saxons, 
Angles, Goths,* &c.) gradually pushing inland from 
the east and south coasts, had assumed such large pro- 
portio^ia as to definitely change the Keltic character of 
Britain into the Teutonic character of Angleland or 
England. In connection with this matter, let us 
dismiss from our minds the idea of a sudden irruption 
of a large body of people or of an army, like that of 
the Normans in the eleventh century ; it was no such 
thing. Modern critical research, initiated by such men 
as Gordon, Latham, and Angus, has decisively disproved 
the venerable tradition of the advent of Hengist and 
Horsa, whose heroic deeds used to throw a halo of 
romance over our early history and have often been 
artistically delineated by the inspired schoolboy during 
a tedious history lesson. On the other hand it has con- 
clusively shown that the invasion of the Angles was a 
very gradual one, resembling in almost every particular 
that of the Whites in North America, who gradually 
displaced the native Indian inhabitants, just as the 
Angles or Saxons gradually displaced the Kelts in 
Britain. A momentous fact which cannot be explained 
away, is that more than a hundred years before the 
traditional calling in of the Saxons to help the defence- 
less Britons against the Picts and Scots, we have the 
testimony of the Roman historian Tacitus that the 
whole of the eastern coast of England, from the Wash 
to the mouth of the Thames was already called the 
Saxon shore {littis saxonicum). 

* Miscalled Juies by our early monastic historians. 


Though the Saxons were not wandering hunters like 
the Kelts whose skells or scholes differed hut little from 
the wigwams of the North American Indians, hut were 
tillers of the soil, yet their communities were small, 
and English society was represented for centuries by 
village life rather than townlife, so that the need for 
family surnames had not yet arisen. The ever con- 
tinuing struggle between the Teuton farmer and the 
prowling Kelt prevented a material increase in the 
population, and it is doubtful whether even at the 
beginning of the fourth century of our era it amounted 
to as many as a million inhabitants. Nor must we 
forget another factor : the fervour of early Christianity 
had also a tendency to again efface such class and family 
distinctions as had commenced to spring up in settled 
communities, and the brave Siegurt or Aelfrid who 
upon his conversion to the Christian faith received in 
baptism the name of Johannes or Jacobus, thereby 
renounced his share in the patrimony of valour or 
pre-eminence left to him by his forefathers. 

The latter part of the tenth century is generally 
assumed to be the period when family surnames came 
iwto -common use. Local circun^tances, however, must 
have determined their much earlier introduction in 
particular places. Let us now glance at the mode in 
which this must have happened, and transport our- 
selves in imagination into the midst of a colony of 
Saxons who have formed a settlement on the low 
ridges between the rivers Aire and Calder. Around 
them there is a wilderness of moor, forest and fen, in 
which the new comers have had as many difficulties 
to contend with as the backwoodsmen in the wilds 
of North America. As the community grows, the 
cultivated area becomes insufficient, and at length one 
of the fair haired colonists shoulders his axe and 
penetrates into the oak forest, once perhaps the scene 
of mysterious Pruidic rites. Anon he discovers a 
sheltered spot, whose south aspect promises a fertile 
soil, and he sets about hewing down the secular oaks 
(A.S. ac), burning out the stumps, removing the 

8^ TttB BRAt)FORl> At^TiQltAllY. 

undergrowth, collecting the stones, and in short forming 
what is now called a clearing hut was then named a 
riding, ridding, rodding, or royd (N. rode=to root out). 
Our Saxon friend, who together with a multitude of 
others similarly circumstanced hecomes known by the 
surname of Rhyder, Ryder, Eider, Riding, Rudd, 
Rhodes, Rhoyds, &c., at last sees his efforts crowned 
with success, and a harvest of yellow corn waves over 
the spot where for ages nothing but the oak-corn or 
J^corn (A.S. ac-corn) had thriven; thus the oakroyd has 
become the happy home of a succession of stout 
yeomen whose name Ackroyd, Aykroyd, Akeroyd, 
EcROYD, &c., perpetuates the memory of their earliest 

This process of royding and naming the ground is 
bv no means obsolete in our own time and neighbour- 
hood. We need but follow the guidance of various 
sign-posts or boards at Ilkley which direct us to -*Thc 
Ridings," i,e,, to the clearings or intakes on the moor, 
made within the memory of living man ; or pay a visit 
to famous Ben Rhydding (originally Bean Ridding), 
where instead of a solitarv rovdins: on the bleak moor, 
where early in the present century a poor cotter 
succeeded in raising a scanty crop of beans, a stately 
edifice now rises, devoted to the art of *' ridding '' the 
body of all its ailments by the curative properties of 
water,* One family Avould perhaps " royd " a piece 
of land where a tribe of the dispossessed Kelts had had 
their skolls or Scholes (A.S. skyl=shell), primitive 
dwellings consisting of a circular excavation in the 
ground, the earth being banked up round the edges to 
prevent water running in, and a tapering tent of sticks 
and reeds covered with skins at the top. Such a place, 
and subsequently its occupant, would naturally be 
called Scholes, Scholefield, Schofield, Scholemoor, 
and if a house (N. cote) was erected upon it, it would be 
a ScHOLECOTE or ScuiiCOTES. If the skolls are situated in 

• A Scottish writer, describing the neighbourhood of Dewsbury, remarks with 
charming vdivetc that the names of HoUinroyd, Boothroyd, Hrookroyd, &c , go to 
prove that in former tiiijes ** there were certain roads existing " there ! — E, Sttiart^ 
The Bronte Country ^ p. 18. 


a field (ley), the owner would receive the name Scholey 
or SKBLiiT, and if a Saxon or Norse hamlet takes their 
place it would be called Skelton. 

As royds multiplied, however, the appellative Royder 
or Rhodes, was no longer sufficiently distinctive, and it 
became necessary to use more determinate names. We 
shall best understand this process if we follow some 
imitator of our original royder, who finds it convenient 
to erect some sort of building or booth (N. bod=shanty) 
on his clearing, and thenceforth becomes known as 
John the Boothroyd, or another who casts his lot in a 
low and flat district from which he gains the surname 
of IIoLROYD (hoi = low, as in Holland, Holbeck), or a 
third who brings the round summit of a hill under 
cultivation (howe=knoll or hill) and is thence called 
HowBOYD, or a fourth who makes his ridding in a 
retired corner of a valley (A.S. halke= corner) and 
receives the surname of IIidehalgh or Kiddiough 
(both alike pronounced llidioff in the West Hiding of 
Yorkshire). Another settler clears a piece of ground 
adjoining a path or track (N. gate)* over the moors 
(moor-gate) and is now remembered as George of the 
Mra^fiATROYD. If the path leads to pasture land it is a 
Leggott, Lidget, or Lidgate (ley =pasture) ; if it leads 
to the village it is the Tungate ; it may be so marshy as 
to gain the name of Froggat, and if exposed to the wild 
mountain blasts, a Winyate, faithfully transmitting its 
name to the dweller in the vicinity. The hillside (A.S. 
bcrh) affords occasional expanses of dry pasture land, 
and their relative situations impart to their owner or 
occupant the cognomen of Howber, IIolber, and 
HoLBREY (low mountainside), IIeber (high mountain- 
side), NoRBER (north), Sulber (south), Blubber-houses 
(blae her = bleak mountainside). Many, nay most, of 
these forms inft^rhave in the mincing modern pronun- 
ciation of local names been hacked and trimmed into 
bergs and burys and boroughs ; Ilorber has become 

* 3Iany amntour etymologists confound the northern (Danish) word ^a/<r = street, 
with the southern (Saxon) word ^a/^^ barrier or door, the northern eqiiivtilent for 
which 18 bar. Even such a careful writer as W. Scruton has fallen into tliis 
mistake. -;0/</ litatf/ord, p. 8 ) 

88 llltl fiKADlf^ORD AWTlQlfARV. 

HoRBURY, Kosber (ros=well) has become Roseberry 
Topping, Castleber is now Castleberg, Stanber is now 
Stanbury, &c. The A.S. word keld=spring, has given 
rise to numerous derivatives in the surnames Kell, 
Gaskell (gars = grass), Salkeld, Threlkeld, and 
Thurkill (turl=hole),* Kelburn, Kellbrook, whilst 
it must not be forgotten, however, that the etymon 
kil in Scotland and Ireland means church. A fellow 
colonist, the happy owner of a flock of kine, clears 
the forest to make them a pasture (A.S. ley=pasture), 
which procures him the surname of Lea, Lee, Leah, 
Leeman, or more specifically Learoyd, Rodley, 
Ridley, Kinley (kine-ley), Colley, Cowley, Oxley, 
Marley, Foley (mare-ley, foal-ley), or if he clears a 
piece of moorland for pasturing sheep, he is called 
MoRLEY or Shipley, or it may be Broadley or Brad- 
ley, LoNGLEY or Langley, Farley, Burnley (burn = 
brook), Fernley, Fearnley or Farnley, Newlay, 
Priestley, &c. One farmer would perhaps break up 
his ley or pasture, in order to cultivate oats, rye, or 
wheat upon it ; forthwith he would be called Riley or 
Ryley, Otley, Wheatley or Whetley. Some again 
of the various royds we have mentioned would be in 
situations where they were subject to the incursions of 
wild beasts or prowling strangers ; to ensure compara- 
tive safety to the fruits of his toil, the settler would in 
such Cases find it needful to surround his rhode with 
palisading or hedges, and the ground thus enclosed 
would be called a frith (fridan=to protect), the owner 
and his descendants rejoicing in the surname of Frith 
or Firth. f 

*ThG root iurl, which we find in the English word nostril (nose-turl) is a 
common local name ; various localities possess turles or natural waterholes whence 
water for domestic purposes is fetched and where gossiping servants love to meet. 
Such was the place in Hradford whore Whitfield first preached and where the com- 
mon people met for questionahle amusements, a place whose name has been changed 
to Tyrrel Street by the same lofty intelligences which altered Silebridge Lane to 
Gratton Road and Breck Lane to City Road. 

f The tendency of modem Rnglish has been to transpose the consonant r 
preceding a vowel, brid has become bird, brun - bum, f reward - forward ; the York- 
shire dialect makes gert out of great, and the Bridlington of the week-end visitor is 
becoming the Burlington of the day-tripper. 


Leaving for a while the hill districts, we will pay a 
visit to the longer settled dwellers in the neighbourhood 
of the seashore, where we shall find the Downes, the 
CoNYERS, CoNYBEARES (rabbit-warrons). Warrens, Fal- 
SHAWS (cliff wood), and Palsgraves (cliff ditch) . These 
two latter names require a few words to themselves. 
The etymon falaa (meaning bare rock, cliif ) is one of 
the oldest, if not the oldest, existing geographical word 
(apart from the syllable ar, signifying water, which is 
found in varying forms in every language and country). 
At the very origin of the city of Rome, its inhabitants 
came into conflict with the neighbouring Falisci or 
cliff dwellers along the seashore. We next trace the 
word in the place names and rock names Flaesch, 
Vals, Falaesche, &c., in the Austrian and Swiss Alps ; 
again it appears in Falaise, the historic Norman sea- 
port, and in numerous places along the Mediterranean 
and Atlantic seaboard, to be met with again at our doors 
in the Hard Flasks, Sulber Flasks, High Flasks, &c., 
familiar to those who have explored Malham Moor. 
The word Grave, Greave, Greaves (ditch), requires no 
explanation for a Yorkshireman who uses the words 
graving and digging indifferently. 

Let us next visit the Clipfes, with their relations 
the Sutclipfes (south-cliff) and Ratclifpes (red-cliffe), 
not forgetting the Hinchcliffes and Hinchliffs (inch = 
small islet off the coast) and their neighbours called 
Inch, Ince, Innes, and Hinch. Further inland have 
spread the numerous families of Hill, Mountain, 
Knowles (knolls). Rivers, Brook, Brookes, Burns, 
(brun= brook) with the affiliated Blackburne, Winter- 
burn, Hepburn (hep = fruit of the wild rose), Gisburn 
(geese brook), and all over tlie country are found the 
surnames Lake, Stone, Moore, Meade, Field, Waters, 
Sands, Cave, Holt (meaning forest). Grove, Shaw 
(small wood) or Shay, with their relations Birkenshaw 
(birch wood), Oakenshaw, Renshaw (wren wood), 
Henshaw, Buttershaw (N. but = stubby ),Bobertshaw, 
Bradshaw (broad), Brayshaw (brae = meadow), Craw- 
SHAW (crow), Earnshaw (earn = heron), Boldshay 


(bold = building) where a house has been built in the 
woods, Gbimshaw (grini=dark), Ellgrshaw and 
Ollkrbnshaw (alder). 

It may appear strange that I omit the sur- 
name Wood from the foregoing list of geographical 
names; the fact, however, remains that this surname, 
in its modern form, represents the A.S. form w6d= 
raging, mad, which already in Chaucer assumes its 
modern spelling : the A.S. wald and weald, meaning 
forest, comes down to us in the surnames Walden. 
Waldrkn, Wildman, Wilman, Blackwood, and Green- 
wood, in which latter two names the change from 
wolde and wodde is comparatively recent. irurst= 
thicket, gives us the surnames IIirst, IIurst, Hazle- 
hurst; wad=ford, gives us Waddington (ford, meadow, 
village), Wadham, Wadhus, which has become Wood- 
house, and we find the same bus (house) in Bacchus 
(bakehouse or parish oven), Loptus (house with a loft), 
Porteus (gateliouse), Haggas (haghouse), i.^., house and 
ground surrounded by a hedge=hag or hay). This same 
hay or hag we find in Heywood, the N. equivalent for 
which is Lund (enclosed wood). The Saxon word mir= 
boundary, gives us Mirfield, Miryshay (boundary 
wood), Skelmerdale (the boundary land or dale on 
which there were some skoUs). I may be permitted 
here to insert the remark, that anciently the word dale 
did not carry the meaning of valley as it does now, but 
wherever Danish influence prevailed it meant an estate 
or portion of freehold land ; nothing is more common 
in ancient documents referring to lands in Craven than 
the expression "also, one dale or portion of land, 
situated, &c.*' 

Some settler, however, less fortunate than others, 
found his lot cast in a district which had no natural 
outlet for its waters, where they " carred'* or stagnated, 
and where nothing but withs and moss and perhaps a 
little line or flax would grow. The name of Carr 
(swamp), Masker (moss carr), Whiitaker (with carr), 
LiNNECAR (line earr) Avould then distinguish him. He 
might succeed in royding a small piece of ground om 


the hillside, away from his other land, and the name of 
such a separate piece (A.S. pykl) would serve to bestow 
upon him the appellation of Pickles or Pighills, so 
common in the neighbourhood of Bradford. 

These have all been examples of how in a primitive 
state of society and in a thinly populated country, 
namea of natural features have become surnames, in 
the first place of single individuals, and subsequently 
of his family and descendants. Here let me repair an 
important omission. I ought to have stated before, 
that at this early period the female members of a 
family had no distinctive names until marriage, and 
were by the other members simply addressed as 
daughter or sister, by outsiders as Johndaughter, &c. 
Such forms as Bess o' Jack's (Elizabeth, daughter of 
the John whom everybody knows), &c., which are still 
current in remote corners of Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
will illustrate my meaning; the forms Stephendaughter^ 
Johndaughter, &c., occur over and over again in the 
Subsidy Rolls published in the Journal of the Yorkshire 
Archceological Society, A similar custom prevailed even 
5imong the Romans where the woman remained name- 
less (I speak of course of prename, not tribal or family 
name) until at the marriage ceremony she assumed the 
femmine foim of her husband's prename by repeating 
the usual formula *' tibi Caius, ibi Caia,'' which may be 
familiarly translated " Where you're Jack, I'm Jill." 

The quiet development of Saxon families and 
communities, shadowed forth in the preceding part of 
this paper, experienced, however, a serious check and 
for a time seemed in danger of being altogether and 
finally arrested. The common talk at every fireside 
along the Frisian coast and the banks of the lower Elbe 
would naturally bo, how the Angles and Saxons had 
gone to possess the good land of Britain and liad seized 
upon the rich inheritance left by the llomans. Exag- 
gerated accounts of the wealth they had found there, 
would, of course, go forth among their neighbours on 
the other side of the Elbe and the Danes of both sides 
of the Kattegat (Norway). Some Goths had accompanied 


tlie Angles in their earliest expeditions to Britain, and 
larger bodies of them set out, some from Spain, some 
from Gaul, to share in the scramble for Albion. They, 
however, found all the eastern coast of this island so 
fully occupied by the Angles, tliat they were forced to 
go further afield and to try their fortunes beyond the 
li'orelands. They found a resting place in the Isle ot 
Wight which they settled, but have left us no account 
of how they arranged with the original inhabitants of 
that fair island. The Danes or Norsemen (for we must 
not iorget that the Norwegians were and are Danes), 
whose cupidity was aroused by the glowing reports of 
their southern neighbours, next sallied forth. Being 
strong and warlike, and finding that all the accessible 
coasts of Britain were already apportioned among the 
first comers, they felt no scruples in thrusting them- 
selves in where they were told there was no more room. 
At first, single Danish ships, then two or three together, 
would hover off the eastern coast ; their crews would 
land at favourable spots, harry, plunder, burn and slay 
in true pirate fashion, and carry their booty on board their 
ships to at once transport it to their northern homes. 
By and bye they would find it more convenient to 
spend the best part of the year in lengthened predatory 
incursions, staying many months in one district and 
only returning to Denmark for the winter months. A 
further step in advance was taken by permanently 
occupying and strongly fortifying the promontory of 
Flamborough, which placed the Yorkshire coast as far 
inland as the Wolds completely at their mercy. Then 
Saxon Streonshalgh — the safest and most commodious 
haven on the whole coast at a time when the east cliff 
on which the Abbey stands must have reached as far as 
the present bell-buoy — had to make way for Danish 
Whitby ; and at last there was a desperate struggle for 
the mastery over the whole kingdom, for the various 
phases of which I must refer you to any good History 
of England. Suffice it to say, that after the overthrow 
of the Danish army under Guthrun at the battle of 
Ethandune by King Alfred, A.D. b78, a treaty was con- 


eluded between the two nations, in virtue of which all 
Wessex, i.e.^ all the southern coast from Somerset to 
Kent, was evacuated by the Danes, who on the other 
hand Avere confirmed in the possession of the greater 
part of the east coast, including Lincolnshire and all 
the counties north of the Humber. This district was 
then called the Danelagh (Dane law), the inhabitants 
of it being subject, not to English, but to Danish law, 
and th6 name was retained until the Norman conquest. 
Now let us examine what influence these events 
exerted upon the vocabulary of common and proper 
names in the districts which were the scene of them. 
The Danish ^nd Anglo-Saxon languages, though closely 
allied, presented essential differences, both in pro- 
nunciation and in word structure. Anglo-Saxon had 
already then the softer, not to say lazy, enunciation of 
the four semi-vowels, 1, m, n, r, which characterises 
modern English in the south, with the tendency of 
inserting vowels between two successive consonants 
(brun, brid=burun, birid=burn, bird), and adding one 
of the semi-vowels to a word terminating in a full 
vowel (fro=from, Yorkshire frae and thro'), of which 
many of our Wessex friends have even now a very good 
"idear." The Danes on the other hand rolled a full r and 
pronounced their words sharply and clearly ; no 
slurring of words by drawling enunciation ; no disin- 
clination to close a word with a sharp snap. Without 
going into any extraneous details on this head, I should 
just like to say, on closing this portion of my subject, 
that the inhabitants of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire 
must be regarded, broadly speaking, neither as Britons, 
nor Saxons, nor Normans, they are purely and simply 
Danes, the conquerors and masters, both physical 
and intellectual, of the northern half of this kingdom. 
So pray let us not aflfect to shed the sympathetic tear 
of pity over the poor downtrodden Britons, a set of 
unmitigated savages ; nor grow enthusiastic over the 
records of the brave doings of King Alfred, or Harold 
Godwinson, but rather let us remember that Yorkshire- 
men are the descendants of the men of Tostig and of 


Harold Harfagr, and that it is Danisli blood, Danish 
courage, Danish energy, which have made .the north of 
Enarland the true hub of the universe. 

It is certain that a great number of Saxons remained 
in the districts permanently handed over to the Danes, 
and became gradually amalgamated with the latter; 
and it is equally certain that the names of natural 
features bestowed by tlie Saxons remained practically 
unclianged. New clearings and settlements, of course, 
received Norse names, so that we now find all over 
this country Danisli village names in the midst of Saxon 
field names and Keltic mountain and river names. Let 
us at once say that all place names ending in by are 
purely Danish (N. by=village) ; thonco the family 
names Denby and Dandy (Danish village), and a host 
of other by's. Dean simply means Dane. A word very 
like it in sound, den or dene (N. taen= dense woody 
tecess) forms the compound Sowden (wild sow's 
hollow), Ogden (oak hollow), Youdan (yew hollow), 
Hesleden (hazel hollow), Buckden or Buckton,* 
WoLFENDEN (shc-wolf's hollow), Barden (bcar's), 
Brogden (badger's), Bamsden, &c. The Norse word 
thwaite (N. thvet=clearing) exactly corresponds to the 
Baxon royd ; thence the families Tuwaite, Ow^thwaite 
(clearing on the howe or hill), Copperthwaite (cow- 
ber-thwaite, ber=hillside), and, with the gradual 
softening and dropping of the initial by the process 
already alluded to. White, Waite, and Wade* We 
have next Throp and Throup (hamlet), softened to 
Thorpe, with its congeners Northrop (north hamlet), 
one of our oldest Bradford surnames, Westrop, Knos- 
TROP (Knut's or Canute's hamlet), &c. To the older 
inhabitants of Bradford the designations Manningham 
" liberty *' and Manningham " thorpe " will still be 
familiar enough, the former to designate the township, 
the latter the cluster of dwelling-houses. 

Garth (field surrounded with a belt of trees ; croft ; 
orchard) is now softened into yard, but still remains 
in its old force in Applegarth, Gaskarth (garse=grass), 

'  Ifc is necesstiry to distinguinh between the A S. diln — hW]^ !md /i?/j = village. 


Ays-garth (aes=asli), Hogarth (how = hill) Lingard 
(liii=flax). Haggard (hag=hedge). Gill* (glea 
traversed by a brook, whence our word gully) is found 
in numerous compositions, as Cowgill and C!oghill, 
Caygill (kyer= cattle), GiLBYand Gilbey (glen hamlet), 
GiLLY (gill-ley = glen field) ; in Gillroyd we have one 
of the not uncommon combination of Norse and Saxon 
words. Worth, a stretch of ground between the 
windings of a river, is nearly akin to the Saxon Ing, 
moist pasture, and both give rise to a numl)er 
of combinations, as Butterworth (buttercup field), 
Worthington,Hollingworth (hoi = low), Illingworth 
(ael=old), AsHWORTH, Acworth (akc=oak), Birch- 
worth, llusHWORTH, Cudworth, the worth on which a 
cote or house is built. The word cote is again found 
in a number of compounds, as Coates, Cuits, Coutts, 
Alcott or Olcot (old house), and a most singular 
combination exists in a mansion near Hull named 
Sculcoates House, where the British word skolly the 
Norse word cote^ and the Saxon Avord house all meaning 
absolutely the same thing, are collocated. Wath is the 
Norse equivalent for the Saxon Eord, and is generally 
softened into with in compound forms such as Askwith 
and AsQFrrH (ashford) ; of the Saxon form there are 
plentiful examples : Bradford is the broad ford where 
many can pass abreast ; Longford on the contrary 
is where the river is wide and the passage narrow. 

May I here advance my own theory on the subject 
of the syllables sett and cett which have been given up 
as hopeless by etymologists. Tliat we have to resort to 
the Norse language for an explanation of their meaning 
is clear ; for the localities whose names contain one of 
these syllables are all situated in the Danish part of 
England, Settrjngton at the foot of the Yorkshire 
Wolds, Appersett, Wintersett, and Burtersett in 
Upper Wensleydale, Fawcett in Westmorland and 
Cumberland, Consett in Durham. All these places 
have, besides, the peculiarity in common, that they are 

* Distinguish between Gill, with soft g, meaning Giles, and Gill with hai-d g^ 
meaning glen. 


situated on sheltered and sunny hillsides, affording rich 
pasture to cattle. Will it be considered as very far 
fetched if I make the suggestion that we have here to 
do with the common Norse word 8aeU\ meaning 
mountain pasture, which will be familiar to all those 
who have travelled in Norway, and that the surnames 
FoRSEiT, Fawceit, and Fawsitt contain the two roots 
fora (N. waterfall) and saetr, and that both in Burter- 
SETT and Appersett we have besides the etymon ber 
(mountainside) treated of before ? 

Most of the Norse surnames are derived from 
original Norse prenamcs; thus Gamble from Gamel; 
Ketilewell (Ketil = Christopher) ; Gates from Uti; 
OsBORN (Uti's bairn or child) ; Seward, Barnes, &c. 
A few remarks on Yewdall (Norse odal or ndal) : the 
udaller was the absolute freeholder and possessor of 
the ground on which he dwelt, who owed no feudal 
service but was a free and independent commoner. 
Under the Norman kings everything was done to 
extirpate this class of freeman whose position was 
really superior to that of the proud lordlings who 
owed feudal service to their master, whilst the udaller 
owned no master but the commonalty. Udall right 
and tenure si ill survive in some parts of the Orkneys 
and Shetlands ; but we Bradfordians may be proud of 
having some of the direct descendants of these ancient 
freemen in our midst and neighbourhood. 

Coming in the next place to surnames derived from 
occupations, we need touch only upon such as are not 
quite self-explanatory. This class of names presup- 
pose a comparatively settled state of society and refer 
in great part to social life in larger communities. 
They date from a much later date than geographical 
surnames, and it is only after the conquest, about the 
end of the eleventh century, that these as well as all 
other surnames became permanent and received a legal 
status. For this reason, too, they are all of Saxon 
or Norman-French origin. The subsidy roll of 
Richard II., containing a list of all the settled 
inhabitants of our county, not being notorious 


mendicants, gives us a valuable insight into the 
applications of professional surnames. We there 
Tueet with Pleshewkr (flesh-hewer) or Fletcher 
(butcher) ; tlie same word in the south of England, 
where Norman influences prevailed, would mean 
arrowmaker, wliich in the north was expressed by 
Aerowsmith; then M'e have Thecker (thatcher), now 
spelt Th ACKER, Thackeray, Thackwray,&c.; SouTERand 
BirrER (cobbler) ; Webster (weaver); Walker (fuller); 
LxTSTER and Lister (clothier); Bakester, now Bagster 
and Baxter, which must be translated Baker, 
not bagman as is usually done. Next we have 
Wainwright (wain=cart) ; a Sagar or Sagger 
(sawyer, from sag = to saw) ; a Gelder or Geld art 
(to geld = to castrate) ; a Soriven or Scrivener 
(notary) ; a Coke, CJocks, Cox (=Cook), Laycock (lay- 
cook at a monastery) ; Luccock (luvecock=loaf cook), 
HiscocK or Hitchcock ( hirse= millet, porridge) ; a 
Farrar or Parrer (farrier). The various herdsmen 
bear the names of Calvert (calf-herd), Coward (cow- 
herd), GoDDARD (goat-herd), NurrER (neat-herd), 
Weatherhead (wcther-herd), or simply Shepherd and 
HiRD. The original meaning of Smith, i.e. .maker 
(faber) we find in Shoesmith, Shukesmith, Sucksmith, 
all meaning shoemaker, and in Arrowsmith. Tasker 
is the pouch maker, Porster the forester, Crowther 
the fiddler (British crwd= fiddle). Waller and Palmer 
the pilgrim. Of national appellatives, besides the 
name ]DEAN=Dane, already alluded to, I need only 
mention PRANCis=Prenchman, Fleming, Gall (gael= 
Keltic highlander). Comber (cymr= Welshman), and 
the various forms Walsh, Wallace, Wallis, Wales, 
Wells, the adjective wallish= foreign being applied by 
the Saxons to everything and everybody not of the 
Teutonic or Scandinavian race. 

Christian prenames have been the prolific source of 
derivative surnames; thus Peter has become Peterson, 
Pierson, Pearson, Parsons. Pierce, Pearse, Perkin, 
Parkin, Parkinson, Pete, Peet, Peate, &c. ("kin" 
having to be considered rather as a diminutive 



termination than as '* akin/* Perkin=little Peter). 
Similarly with Robertson, Robson, Robinson, and an 
infinite number more. 

Some surnames, given to foundlings, were and are 
still taken from accidental circumstances connected 
with the finding of these poor outcasts of humanity, 
such as BiDLAKE (found by the lake), Bidway (by the 
way), Bywater (by the water), Nash (atten-ash), Nokes 
and NoAKES (atten-oak), Ati'ack (at the oak), Bygate, 
Bagot, and Baghot (gate=way), Newcome and New- 
comb. The parish registers of Askrigg, in Wensleydale, 
contain the following entry : — Bapt. Dec. 3, 1780, Luke 
SroNES, a foundling left at Askrigg upon the hard 
stones, by a woman unknown, on S. Luke's Day. 

Nicknames, arising from some peculiarity of character 
or appearance, are very numerously represented among 
surnames. Wood has already been alluded to ; Cole- 
fax (cole=sly) may mean either sly fox or sly face; 
most of such names, however, are modern English. 

I will conclude by mentioning some of the very few 
Keltic etymons which are represented among English 
surnames. The root maen (=stone) is found in Mann, 
Cadman, Penman (pen=summit), Stoneman, where 
two equivalents are collocated ; in Cunlifpe we have 
the root cwn=dog; gwin=man, is seen in Unwin 
(white man), Winn, Gwynne, and Wynne ; gallack= 
left, has given rise to our many Gallowcloses= fields 
with a projecting or outlying portion, but altogether 
disconnected from the "gallows " which local topogra- 
phers have sought to place there. 

Norman-French surnames, which were not formed or 
bestowed in England, but were imported into this 
country at the period of the Conquest, do not fall 
within the scope of my paper. 




(1281 to 1667.) 
From thk Torre Manuscript. 

The Torke Maxtscripts, containing historical memoranda on all 
the parochial churches and chapels within the present dioceses of York, 
Ripon, and Wakefield, are the result of the life-long labours of that 
indefatigable antiquary, Mr. John Torre, who died at Snydall, near 
Normanton, 31st July, 1699. After his decease, his widow offered this 
invaluable treasure of ecclesiastical lore as a gift to Archbishop John 
Sharp (bom at Bradford, 16th February, 1644), who, however, refused 
to acccept it gratis and insisted upon her accepting a substantial 
equivalent for the same (twenty- five guineas). Archbishop Sharp left 
these manuscripts by will to the Dean and Chapter's Library, York, 
where they still remain. Although never published in extenso, yet 
extracts from them have from time to time appeared in the periodical 
press, notably the Leeds Weekly Post. The foregoing observations, 
regarding Archbishop Sharp's ownership of these MSS., for which 
documentary evidence is given in his Life, vol. I. pp. 137-8, and vol. 11. 
pp. 109-10, are rendered necessary by some adverse remarks made by Mr. 
Drake in the preface to his History and Antiquities of York. — f Editor.) 



'^^HE Church of S. Peter, of Bradford, was an 
^^ ancient rectory belonging to the patronage of 
the Lascys, Earls of Lincoln, who presented the 
rector, and he a long time presented a vicar to the 
church by consent of the patron, till temp. Edward III., 
that the church was given to the new founded College 
of St. Mary, of Leicester, by Henry, Duke of Lancaster; 
and on the 17th November, 1416, it was, by Henry, 
Archbp. of York, appropriated to the Dean and Canons 
of the same, who in recompense of the damage which 
the Cathedral Church sustained thereby, reserved to 
him and his successors an annual pension of 20s., and 
to his Dean and Chapter tJs. 8d., payable at Pentecost 



and Martinmas by the said Dean and Canons, who like- 
wise were to distribute 20s. amongst the poor of the 
parish yearly. Also, he thereby reserved out of the 
fruits of the church a competent portion for his per- 
petual vicar who then was and for his successors, 
serving therein, who shall be henceforth presentable by 
the said Dean and Canons of Leicester, and have for 
his maintenance the same allowance which the present 
vicar and his successors used to receive. On 3 Oct., 
5th and 6th Philip and Mary, Queen Mary granted to 
Nicholas, Archbp. of York, and his successors the 
advowson of this vicarage of Bradford. 

List of the Rectors. 

7 Aug., 1281. Robt. de Tonington. Lady Alicia de Lascy, 
11 Feb., 1316. Dav. de Oxon. Thomas^ Earl of Lancaster, 

20 Apl., 1323. Robt. de Baldok, jun. Edw. //. Rex (died). 
27 Jan., 1352. Will, de Horewith. «/bA., Duke of Lancaster. 

Will, de Mirfield (died). 

8 Aug., 1375. Will, de Winceby. John^ Duke of Lancaster, 

31 July, 1408. Tho. Durytb. Henry IV, Rex as Duke of Lancaster 

(resigned 2 Jan., 1416). 

List of the Vicars. 

22 Jan., 1293. Ric. de Halton. Robert, Rector of the Church, icith 

the consent of Alicia de Lascy, 

• •*■.. 
Ric. de Irby. Idem (resigned). 

24 Mar, 1309. Ric. de Eure. Idem. 

• «.... 

13 Dec, 1327, Robt. Moryn. Robt,, son of Reginald de Baldok, 

Rector of the Church (resigned for tbe Vicarage 
of Wharroin). 
24 Apl., 1328. Robt. de Byngbam. Idem (resigned for tbe Cbapel 

of Tborp, York). 
1 7 Sept. , 1331. Will, de Preston (resigned for the Church of Gygleswik) . 
1 Dec, 1335. Hen. de Latryngton. Idem Robt, Baldock (resigned). 
15 Feb., 1337. Galfr. de Langeton. Idem Robert (resigned for the 

Church of Adell). 
22 Nov., 1348. Adam de Lymbergh. Idem Robert, 


Ric de Wilsden (resigned for the Church of Castle 
Gate, York). 
10 May, 1364. Will. Frankelayn. Will, de Mirfeld, Rector (died). 
8 Aug., 1369. Will, de Norton. Idem Will, (resigned for the 

Church of Edlington). 

21 Aug., 1370. Will, del Cotes. Idem Will. 


24 Dec, 1374. Steph. de Eccleshill. Idem Will. 

• • • • • • 

Will. . . . (resigned). 
4 June, 1401. Will. Rodes. Will, de Wyncehy, Rector (died 1435). 

• ••••• 

Tho. Banke. Dean and Chapter of the College of 
Leicester (died). 
17 Jan., 1432. Dyonis Gellys. Idem (resigned). 

11 Aug., 1464. Hen. Gellys. Idem (died). 

24 July, 1476. Joh. Webbester. Idem (died 1488). 


Ric. Strateburell. Idem (died). 

12 July, 1503. GilbertBeaconshaweiWBeaconhilUDec.B. /rfem(died). 

21 Sept. 1537. Will. More, Bishop of Colchester. John^ Bishop of 

31 Mar., 1541. Will. Weston, S.T.P. Assignees of Dean and Chapter 

of Leicester (resigned). 
19 June, 1556. Thos. Okden Other assignees (died). 
1563. Laur. Taylor (died). 

1 July, 1568. Xtpher Tayler. Elizth. Reg. (died). 

30 Sept., 1595. Calebrun Kempe, S.T.B. Eadem (died). 
10 Dec, 1614. Ric. Lyster, M.A. Archhp, of York (resigned). 
1 i Mar., 1615. Joh. Okell, M.A., Fred. Morice arm. and Fr. Phillips 


22 July, 1639. Joh. Kempe, Assignees of Joh. Maynard Mil. (died). 
17 Sept., 1640. Edw. Hudson. Car. I. Rex (died). 

19 ApL, 1667. Abr. Brokesbank, M.A. Maria Magnard, widow. 

Testamentart Burials. 

27 Jan., T435. Will. Rodes, vicar, to be buried in the church. 

2 ApL, 1476. Henry Gelles, M.A., vicar, to be buried in the chancel. 

20 Oct., 1 487. (date of will made at Boiling Hall). Robt. Boiling, Esq., 

to buried before the altar. 
20 Dec, 1488. John Webster, vicar, dying intestate, administration 

was committed to Ric. Webster. 

3 June, 1502. Trystrayme Boiling of Chellow to be buried in the 

High Quere. 
29 Jan., 1537. Ric Tempest, of Boiling, Knt., to be buried in our 

Lady's Quere. 

19 Mar., 1543. Edw. Boiling, of Chellowe, gent., to be buried in the 

High Quere. 
8 Dec, 1548. John lUingworth, of Many Place, to be buried in the 


25 ApL, 1551. Will Roks, of Rods Hall, to be buried in the church. 

1561. Tristram Boiling, of Bradford, to be buried in the 
3 Mar., 1563. Robt. BoUynge, of Wybsey, to be buried in the church. 

20 May, 1564. Tho. 0*Keden, vicar, to be buried in the High Quere 

or Chancel. 
16 Sept., 1583. Ric. Tempest, of Boiling Hall, Esq., to be buried in 

the church near to the place where his ancestors lye. 


10 July, 1600. William Rawson, of Shipley, gent. 

19 Sept., 1603. John Tiayce, of Wood Kirke, gent, to be buried in 

this church. 

4 Dec, 1607. Walter Tempest, of Birkes, in Bradford, gent, to be 

buried in the church near his son. 
3 Oct., 1611. Tho. Flemynge, of Chellowe, gentn., to be buried in the 

churchyard near his father. 

5 Sept., 1612. Tho. Lister, of Manningham, gent., to be buried in 

the churchyard near his father. 
30 Mar., 1596. CHiristr. Tayler, vicar, to be buried in the churchyard. 
17 Aug., 1675. (date of will) Margaret Brathwayte, widow, to be buried 

in the church. 

11 July, 1433. Tho. del Banke, vicar, had his will proved. 

3 Nov., 1446. Joh. Walker, of Birill, to be buried in the church. 

6 July, 1504. Joh. Morton, of Bradfield, to be buried in the Church 

of St. Nicholas, of Bradfield. 


21 Oct., 1636. Whereas there are 2 villages, viz., Wibscy and Byerley, 

within the parish of Bradford, the houses of whose 
inhabitants are far remote from their parish church, 
some of them 2 miles and some more ; by reason 
also of want of room in the parish church for the 
multitude of people thither repairing, which occa- 
sioned William Hooks, of Rodshall, jun., gentn., with 
the rest of the inhabitants of the villages aforesaid, 
for the more easy enjoying the service of Almighty 
God at their own proper costs and charges, to build a 
chapel at Wibsey upon a parcel of ground called 
Ordsall Moore for the said inhabitants to resort unto, 
which they humbly desire may be dedicated and 
consecrated for the use of the said inhabitants of the 
2 villages Wibsey and Byerly, who are contented 
likewise at their own proper charges to find and 
provide a curate or preacher to be elected and 
nominated to the Archbp. by the Vicar of Bradford 
to serve the said inhabitants in the same chapel, 
which said curate shall have settled on him £20 10s. 
per annum for his salary. Whereupon Richard 
Neyle, Archbp. of York, commissioned Richard, 
Bishop of Sodor, to consecrate the said chapel, and 
also the chapel yard thereof, for a burying place 
and for the service of the inhabitants, w'hich on 
the 21 October, 1636, was done accordingly, and 
the chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity. 


was one of those 25 towns which Henry Lascy, Earl 
of Lancaster, had in the wapentak of Morlay, held 
of the King in capite. 




/^%N the 5th of September, 1891, the members of 
\^ the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society 
journeyed to Bardsey, by way of Leeds. Leaving 
Bardsey station under the guidance of Mr. J. A. Clapham, 
the party proceeded first to Bardsey Grange, an unpre- 
tentious building, but rendered memorable by the 
circumstAuce that its walls sheltered in succession two 
men of great note in their respective spheres in the 
political and literary .world. The next place visited 
was the Mound or Castlehill, a remarkable earthwork 
of early Uritish origin, where the Bev. E. B. Braith- 
waite, B.A., incumbent of Bardsey, welcomed the party 
and conducted them to the Parish Church which is an 
excellent specimen of Norman architecture, combining 
some portions of an earlier Saxon church. The Parish 
Registers, of w^hicli a most beautifully executed tran- 
script has been made by Mr. Clark, the schoolmaster, 
were next inspected, special attention being directed 
to the entry which records the baptism of William 
Congreve, the dramatist. This entry proves undeniably 
that the date 1672 inscribed on Congreve's monument 
in Westminster Abbey as the year of his birth, is 
erroneous and should be 1670. 

Tea was served at the Bingley Arms, and at its con- 
clusion Mr. Charles A. Pederer read the following 
paper on the places visited in the course of the after- 
noon : — 

Bardsey- wrm-CoLLiNGHAM. 

Although Bardsey is at the present day an 
inconsiderable village, the embodiment of rural 

lOi TME lillADFOHl) AKTiQtiARV. 

seclusion, which but for its splendid church would 
scarcely merit the name of hamlet, it is undoubtedly 
a . place of the most remote antiquity. Enthu- 
siastic etymologists have petted the tradition that 
it Avas the central meeting place of the bards and 
druids of the northern parts of this island, and one 
historian " indulges the belief that wliere this peaceful 
village now stands in solitary pleasantness, the voice 
of measured declamation, and the wild shouts of 
enthusiastic fury were heard, and druids performed 
their horrible rites, while British warriors prepared 
for expeditions of plunder, or the sanguinary contests 
of civil wars." (Parsons' Ilistory of Leeds and sur- 
rounding District.) But we may at once dismiss such 
notions as entirely baseless, and look for the origin of 
this place-name in the name of the first settler or 
possessor, Berd, whose eie (Anglo-Saxon hay) or 
inclosure was naturally called Berdeseie, in which 
form we find it in the most ancient charters. We have 
instances of similar formations of place names in 
Kilnsey, JVibsey, Paclsey, S/'c, 

However, Bardsey must have been a place of con- 
siderable importance in Saxon times, and this Saxon 
chieftain or eorl Berd was unquestionably a man of 
mark and exceptional high rank in the country; for 
though no historical documents now extant make 
mention of him, any more than of any other of the 
great Saxon families Avhich formed the native aristocracy 
of these northern parts previous to the advent of the 
Normans — yet we have something better than the bare 
signature to some monkish charter to indicate his 
powerful influence : we have the well preserved 
foundations of the enormous earthworks and bulwarks 
which formed his burgh — call it castle or palace, which- 
ever you like, for in those times both terms meant 
pretty much the same thing. These remarkable 
remains, dating from a period when the nation con- 
sisted but of lords, clerics, and serfs— subsequent to 
the tribal organisation and tenure of the land in com- 
monalty which the Saxon invaders found in Britain, 


and antecedent to the rise of the franklin class— are an 
indubitable proof that the superstructure was the abode 
of a powerful chieftain. It is now a universally 
accepted fact that until the end of the twelfth century 
the whole of the population of this country, except 
such individuals as were housed within the Avails 
of a castle or monastery, dwelt in flimsy structures 
(skolls) made of beaten clay, mud, wattling, branches, 
light timber, &c., to which the terms hovel or shanty 
would alone be applicable now. This accounts for 
the circumstance that in the whole length and 
breadth of this country not a trace is now to be 
found of any uncastellated dwelling of tlie Saxon 
period. Where any kind of remains dating from that 
period are found at all, they are ipso facto the remains 
of castellated or monastic buildings. And this castle 
at Bardsey appears to have been of very unusual extent 
and strength. The form of it, too, is rather peculiar : 
the north-east side of the outer bulwark is as nearly as 
possible rectilinear, whilst the remainder of the interior 
is enclosed by an irregular semi-circle. An extensive 
inner work, corresponding in outline with the outer 
bulwarks, has a remarkable indentation on each of its 
longitudinal sides, the object of which remains a matter 
of conjecture. I am inclined to think that they were 
re-entering porches or recesses, perhaps in connection 
with portcullises, for there is every probability that a 
wet or dry moat surrounded the burgh. A most striking 
similarity is observable, both in outline and in extent, 
between this earthwork and the ber or burgh of 
Sandal Castle, which remains in almost its primitive 
state, whilst the Norman superstructure of masonry has 
almost disappeared. (See the descriptive article on 
Sandal Castle, bv Dr. J. A. Walker, in the Journals of 
the Yorkshire Archaeological Society). Ilowevcr strongly 
fortified, yet the castle was not strong enough to offer 
a long resistance to the terrible onset of the Normans 
when they ravaged the north of England with fire and 
with sword. The house and its tenants alike were 
swept away by the resistless torrent, and the ownerless 


lands of Bardsey became a portion of the Conqueror's 
wide domains. The return in Domesday Book states 
" In Berdeseie, Ligulf had two carucates to be taxed. 
Land to one plough. Twenty shillings." 

Not long after the conquest, Bardsey with CoUingham 
and Micklethwaite was bestowed by the Conqueror 
upon the Mowbray family, who in their turn bestowed 
it upon the newly founded abbey of Kirkstall, in the 
time of Alexander, its first abbot. King Henry II, 
however, quarrelling with Roger de Mowbray, coolly 
revoked the grant made by his predecessor, arbitrarily 
seized upon these townships, entirely ignoring their 
transfer to Kirkstall, and bestowed them upon Adam de 
Brus in exchange for Danby. The monks who had in 
the meantime founded an establishment at Bardsey and 
brought the lands into that profitable state of cultivation 
which distins^uished all the estates which were blessed 
by monastic administration, naturally enough made a 
great outcry, but to little purpose, for the Norman kings 
let might be right where their own revenues were 
concerned, and Henry II in particular was no friend of 
monks and religious establishments. The monks of 
Kirkstall and Bardsey, submitting ostensibly to superior 
force, bided their time: and meanwhile managed to 
make things so very uncomfortable for their " masters,'' 
Adam de Brus and after him bis son Peter de Brus, that 
scarcely was the breath out of Henry II.'s body when 
Peter petitioned his successor, the feebler John, to 
revoke the exchange made in his father's time, to let 
him have Danby back again, and to relieve him of 
Bardsey with its fly in the pot of ointment, the Kirk- 
stall monks. Not only so, but Peter was content even 
to forfeit to the king the then enormous sum of one 
thousand pounds sterling in order to secure the retro- 
cession. The following deed in reference to it contains 
several very suggestive expressions ; — 

" 1200. Ebor. Eoresta. — Peter de Brus has restored 
and quitclaimed to our lord the king and to his heirs 
for ever, the towns of Berdeseia and of CoUingham 
^nd of lligton, with all their appurtenances as well in 


advowsons of churches as in domaiu5», fees, homages, 
services, reliefs, and all other things belonging to the 
aforesaid towns, without retaining anything — for the 
town of Daneby with all its appurtenances and the 
forest of Daneby which our lord the king has restored 
to Peter and his heirs, holding of him and his heirs by 
the service of one knight's fee for the aforesaid towns 
Avhich King Henry, father of our lord the king had 
before given in exchange to Adam de Brus, father of 
Peter, for the said town and forest of Daneby. And he, 
Peter, shall advise our lord the king as to the said 
towns, touching all these who have been enfeoffed in them 
by Peter or by his father since he had those towns. 
And for the great desire which Feter had for making 
this exchange and at his great uislance, we have led the 
king to take of him one thousand pounds sterling. 
Term, at the instant Easter 250 marks, and so from 
exchequer to exchequer 250 marks until the whole 
shall be paid. Pledges: AVilliam de Stuteville 100 
marks; Henry de Neville 60 marks; Hugh Pardolf 40 
marks ; Robert de llos 200 marks ; Eustace de Vesci 
200 marks; Robert Fitz Roger 10 J marks.'' Hot. de 
Oblatis, 110. 

It WHS only five years later, however (1205), that 
the intercession of their powerful patron, Roger de Lacy, 
procured for the community at Kirkstall at least a con- 
ditional restoration to themselves of Bardsoy and CoUing- 
ham, to be held as a fee- farm from the king, subject to 
an annual rental of £90. Whether caused by natural 
reluctance to pay this unjust rental, or whether the 
finances of Kirkstall were really in an embarrassed 
state, the fact remains that the rent was paid irregularly 
and under pressure. The following extracts from the 
Westminster Rolls tell their own tale, and throw a 
curious sidelight on the manner in which royalty in 
those days contrived to discharge its financial liabilities : 

" In 1207, War in Fitz Gerald gives the King (John) a 
ruby of the price of 20 marks, or 20 marks in money, 
as the king may choose, that a right perambulation be 
made by twelve knights between the wood of the 


monks of Kirkstall in Berdesei, and the wood of the 
said Warin in Harewood. 

" At Westminster, 1221, the King (John) writes to 
the abhat of Kirkstall that of the rent still owing 
for Colingeham and Berdeseie since Michaelmas last 
past, he is to pay to the abhat of Bello Loco (Beaulieu) 
17^ marks which remain unpaid toward the works of 
his church of Bello Loco as the king s gift. 

" On the 14th November, 1222, the king orders the 
barons of the exchequer to credit the abbat of Kirkstall 
with £270, being this rent paid for the three years 
1219-20-21, for the same manors {i.e. £90 per annum) 
" which the abbat paid by our order to Philip de XJlcote, 
that he may sustain himself in our service during our 
pleasure." (Rot. Lit. Claus. I, 115, 457). All the rent 
(£90) for 1222 was paid by the king's orders to the 
abbat of Beaulieu for his new church. 

" In 1224 the rent was again ordered to be paid to the 
abbat of Beaulieu.'' 

Yet in spite of all these drawbacks, Bardsey proved 
a most valuable possession to Kirkstall, constituting the 
principal source of its revenues, and it is even probable 
that a minor religious establishment was located here, 
subordinate to the abbev, for we find in 1396 a John de 
Bardsey as abbot of Kirkstall. 

But nothing after all can better show the importance 
which tbe monks attached to Bardsey, and w^hich 
impelled them during two reigns to persevere in 
clamorous importunity for its restoration to them, 
than the erection of the splendid church, in the words 
of an eminent ecclesiastical historian (Eev. 11. Y. Taylor) 
" one of the very best specimens of Norman archi- 
tecture at present remaining in the north of England. 
Both tower and nave are imposing in appearance and 
admirable in masonry ; and though its columns and 
arches have a heavy appearance in the interior, and 
though some slight symtoms of decay are visible about 
the beautiful entrance, it appears to be just as qualified 
to resist the action of time and of the elements as when 
it came fresh from the hands of its builders. It is 


complete in all its parts, consists of nave, side aisles, 
porch, tower, and choir, and was most probably erected 
in the reign of the first Henry," for Domesday Book 
is silent about it, whilst in the reign of Henry H the 
advowson which was then in the patronage of the Arch- 
bishop of York, was granted by Archbishop Roger to 
his newly endowed chapel of the Holy Sepulchre at 

I also extract from the Rev. R. V. Taylor's work on 
the Churches of Leeds the following particulars of the 
later history of Bardsey : — " Prom the dissolution of 
" Kirkstall Abbey until the first year of Elizabeth, the 
** barony, manor, or lordship of Bardsey and Colling- 
" ham Avith Micklethwaite remained in the crown, but 
" on the 20th of March of that year they were granted 
" to Sir Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon, whose grandson, 
" Henry, Lord Hunsdon, by indenture dated 14th July. 
" 1620, conveyed them to Sir Thomas Wentwortb, of 
'* Wentworth Woodhouse, in whose family the estates 
" remained until 1654, when they were conveyed by 
'" William, Earl of Strafford, to John Lewis, merchant, 
" of London, afterwards Sir John Lewis, of Ledstone, 
" who left two daughters and co-heiresses, Elizabeth, 
" married to the Earl of Huntingdon, and Mary to the 
'* Earl of Scarsdale. The Bardsey estates were the 
" portion of the latter, and in 1720, Nicholas Leake, 
'* Earl of Scarsdale, conveyed them to Robert Benson, 
" first Lord Bingley, who left an only daughter, 
" Harriet, married to George Fox, Esq., created in 1762 
" Lord Bingley, and he dying without issue in 1773, 
" the barony of Bardsey with its appendages, is vested 
" in George Lane Fox, Esq., of Bramham Park, heir to 
" the estates but not to the title of the Bingleys.'' 

Bardsey Grange. 

At Bardsey Grange, during the Commonwealth, 
occasionally resided Francis Thorpe, baron of the 
Exchequer, of evil notoriety. To this place he with- 
drew when divested of power, and here he died and 
was buried, without leaving any other record of his life 


than a reputation of evilmindedness and overbearing 
tyranny. Although certainly interred within the 
church, there exists no memorial of Baron Thorpe in 
the edifice, but his interment is recorded in the Parish 
Eegisters as having taken place on the 7th June, 1665. 
There is, however, a memorial of his widow in the 
form of a monumental tablet near the entrance of the 
choir, the inscription on which is "Elizabeth, widow 
and relict of Francis Thorpe, Thomas Wise, Francis 
Denton, Esquires, and dausfhter of William Oglethorpe, 
of Kawden, Esq., departed this life 1 August, 1666, 
aged 78, and lies interred near this pillar." 

Soon after Thorpe's decease, and in the same house 
where he died, was born a man of altogether a different 
character, William Congrevc. His father was a colonel 
in the army and a member of an old Staffordshire 
family of so great antiquity that it claims a place 
among the few that trace their line beyond the Norman 
Conquest. Congreve's mother was a niece of Sir John 
Lewis who had purchased the manor of Bardsey from 
the Earl of Strafford, and appears to have been on a 
visit to her uncle at the Grange when her confinement 
took place. The entrv iu the Parish Registers referring 
to this event is "1669/70, February 10, William, 
son of William Congreve, of Bardsey Grange, 

This is neither the time nor the place to pass judg- 
ment upon the merits of Congreve as a dramatist and 
poet. As the author of epigrammatic and witty 
sayings which are still in everybody's mouth, he stands 
second only to Shakespeare: witness the worldknown 
lines " Music has charms to soothe a savage breast, to 
soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak, &c." (The Motirning 
Bride), and scores of others. One severe critic sums 
Congreve up as the wittiest and least amusing of 
writers. At any rate he is certainly the only British 
dramatist at whose funeral in Westminster Abbey 
(January, 1729) all the pall-bearers were peers of the 
realm. The best edition of his collected works is that 
jjublished by Tonson in 1752 (3 vols. 12mo ). 



A cross very similar to the one at Guiseley (for which 
see Hatton's Churches page 32, engraving facing page 
48) was discovered in 1841 at Collingham, when the 
church was repaired. It was near to the foundation, 
about two feet under the ground. It is even a finer 
specimen of the Celtic cross than the one at Guiseley. 
The Collingham church, like the one at Guiseley, is 
dedicated to St. Oswald. The probable date of these 
crosses is the seventh century, and there is reason to 
believe that the (collingham cross was erected to thd 
memory of Onswini, son of King Osric, who was 
murdered at Ingetlingum (Collingham) on the 20tli 
August, 651. The cross which was formerly kept in 
the vicarage garden, is now placed within the precincts 
of the church and properly cared for. 



Division of Morley in the W.R. of Yorks. 

To the Collectors of the Ti^tcnship of Horton — 

HT a meeting of the Commissioners for the Land 
Tax for the said division, held at the house of 
Mr. William Fox, Innkeeper (Sun), Bradford, 
on Friday, 12th day of January, 1798, for the purpose 
of causing to be inserted in the assessments all fines 
imposed upon any person in pursuance of an Act 
entitled : " An Act for enabling His Majesty to raise a 
Provisional Force of Cavalry to be embodied in case of 
necessity for the defence of these Kingdoms ; " and the 
persons so fined to be respectively charged therewith. 



and also to assess all persons within the said division in 
proportion to the number of horses, mares or geldings, 
by them respectively kept for the purposes of riding or 
drawing burdens, towards payment of the allowances 
made to the several persons who have provided men 
and horses for such service. 

Ordered — That an assessment of one pound one 
shilling and twopence for each horse be assessed and 
levied upon the owners of such horses comprised in 
this assessment. That the collectors appointed by this 
assessment do within fourteen days from the date 
hereof collect the same, and also the fines herein in- 
serted, and also shall and do within seven days there- 
after pay the same into the hands of the Receiver 
General of the Land Tax or his deputy at the Sun Inn, 
Bradford, on the fifth day of February, 1798. 

Ordered — That the collectors of the above taxes 
from April, 1796, to April, 1797, do carry their res- 
pective assessments made in April or May, 1796, to 
Mr. Wilkinson, the Surveyor, and that the surcharges 
made before April, 1797, be by him inserted in such 
assessments, and also the fines returned by the account 
transmitted by the Clerk of the General Meetings of 
Lieutenancy, and that the assessments when so amended 
and the form of the order before mentioned be signed 
by two Commissioners of the Taxes. 

Given under our hands this 12th day of January, 1793. 

Henry Wickham. Jos. Field. 

HoRTON Cavalry List. 


Isaac Wilkinson - 1 John Booth collecting the 

Thos. Hodgson - - 1 money concerning the 

Rich. Lumby - - 1 Cavalry, 2nd February, 

Benj. Cordingley - 1 1798, ten horses in the 

C. S. B. Sharp, Esq. 4 class, at £1 Is. 2d. each 

John Bower- - - 1 horse - £10 lis. 8d. 

Joseph Blamires - 1 Bich. Lumby, Keceiver. 


3Brat>forl) t)i0torical anb antiquarian Sociiet^» 


SESSIOJV 1895-6. 


President : 
Mil. T. T. EMPSALL. 

r '^Ice-Pres id en fs : 
Mu. J. LISTER, M.A. Mii. J. A. CLA1>HAM. 



Hon. Treasurer: 

Beckett's Bank Chambers. 

Hon. Secretaries : 



8, Halliield Road. 16, Piccadilly 

Hon. Librarian : 

21, Horton Lane. 
Members of Council : 





Audito7's : 

The Session commences on the 1st of October in every year^ 
Durinj^ the winter months, a series of lectures on antiquarian and 
historical subjects are delivered in the Society's Rooms, Free Library, 
Bradford, the lecture night being the second Tuesday in every month ; 
whilst during the summer months, excursions are organised to places i 
interest under the guidance of competent ciceroni. 

The annual subscription for membership is 7s., and includes a frr 
copy of the " Bradford Antiquarj' " which is published annually in Jul 
Back volumes and parts of the " Bradford Antiquary- " may be obtaineil 
from the Hon. Librarian or from the printer, at the rate of is. 6d. f 
each part. Intending members are requested to communicate with tl 
Hon. Corresponding Secretary who will supply every information. 



The Seebohm Faniily (with portmitj William Cudwoeth 113 

Assessment on Land in the year 1692-3 Ch. A. Fedebeb 122 

Prehistoric Craven .. .. .. E. E. Speight 134 

Ancient Eccleshill . . . . J. Horsfall Tubnbr 137 

Burial. Register of Bradford Parish Church T. T. Ehpsall 159 

Notes on the Early History of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal 

ftcith a plan),. .. .. H. F. Killick 169 


^^.t.^^^e^^'O-t rU .'*-'-^ 




( With a Portrait J 

^^^HE "people called Quakers" have long existed 
^^ in Bradford, and have left indications of their 
usefulness in various ways — philanthropic, 
educational, religious, political, and commercial. 
Among other families or members of families of this 
society may be named the Hustlers, of Bolton and 
Undercliffe ; Charles Harris, of Eastbrook House ; the 
late Kight Hon. W. E. Forster, M.R; William Wilson, 
James Ellis, and John Priestman ; and three members 
of the Seebohm family. Of this family Benjamin 
Seebohm was a prominent minister in the Society of 
Friends. Of his two sons, Henry and Frederick 
Seebohm, the first-named was a famous ornithologist, 
while his brother Frederick is considered to be not 
only one of the best bankers in England, but he has 
acquired a considerable reputation in the literary 

Benjamin Seebohm, father of the two members of 
the family referred to, was born in 1798 at Friedenthal, 
in the German principality of Waldeck. In the year 1814 
he was invited to settle in England by John Hustler, of 
Undercliffe House, and his sister, Sarah Hustler, the 
former of whom undertook to teach him the wool 
business, and afterwards took him into partnership. 
The first years of Benjamin Seebohm's Bradford life 



were spent at Hillside House, previously occupied by 
Sarah Hustler, and situate immediately below Under- 
cliffe House. Bolton House, the residence of Mrs. Law, 
was at the time occupied by John Hustler, Jun. The 
grounds adjoining now constitute Peel Park. 

During the year 1835 Benjamin Seebohm purchased 
a farm of about eighteen acres at Legrams. The 
house upon it had originally been a farmstead, but the 
former owner, William Maud (of Maud & Wilson, 
druggists, Bradford), had added a library and dining- 
room, and henceforth the residence became known as 
Horton Grange. The narrow road, called Toby Lane, 
ran down the back of the Grange, and died off into an 
old bridle track at the bottom leading to Great Horton. 
The beck at the bottom of the farm was the chief 
delight of Henry and Frederick Seebohm, who spent 
many happy days in damming up the beck course, in 
order to float their tiny ship the Friedenthal, named 
after their father's birthplace. 

The plantations in the grounds, full of birds' nests, 
were robbed of an egg during each morning in the 
nesting season as a nucleus of a " collection " destined 
to become afterwards one of the most famous in 
England, and, encouraged by their father, the two lads 
were always on the look out for objects of interest in 
natural history. To the ground work thus acquired 
was attributable in great measure Henry Seebohm's 
subsequent repute in the scientific world. 

Benjamin Seebohm's mind, however, did not lend 
itself to the routine of a business life, especially such 
an one as that of a woolstapler in the early years of the 
century. The details of the wool business of that 
period were strangely different to those now prevailing, 
involving many and long journeys on horseback to 
distant counties in search of the raw material. Those 
were also the days of the hand-loom and the " pot o* 
four," in daily use by the men folk, while the elder 
women assisted to eke out a none too luxurious existence 
with their spinning wheels. Whilst, however, fully 
discharging the duties falling to his share in business. 


Benjamin Seebohm inclined rather to the work of a 
preacher of the gospel amongst the Quaker community. 
When a very young man, he accompanied Stephen 
Grellet, the Quaker Evangelist, and Sarah Hustler, 
of Undercliffe, on a tour of pastoral visitation 
through Germany, acting as their interpreter. Through 
Mr. Grellet s influence he became a sincere Christian, 
and soon after coming to Bradford, Benjamin See- 
bohm appeared as a preacher in the Friends' 
Meeting House in Goodmansend. In this capacity 
his reputation spread rapidly amongst the Society of 
Friends generally. He was admitted to the rank of a 
recorded minister, and travelled as a missionary over 
the United Kingdom, the United States of America, 
and many parts of Germany. Benjamin Seebohm was a 
well educated man ; knew Latin and Hebrew, and was a 
perfect master of German, French and English. 

As a preacher he was fervent and eloquent, using 
the English language with a power seldom attained 
by foreigners. In The Frieml for November, 1896, 
appropriate reference is made to this phase of his 
character, from which the following extract is taken : — 

His manner of delivery was peculiar to himself. He had an 
excellent voice, and self-possessed and dignified manner, which 
commanded attention. Rising with a few words, spoken very 
deliberately, in a low tone, his voice rose gradually till he had been 
about half an hour on his feet, A\hen the words came with such volume 
and impetuosity that they filled the lai'gest meeting-house, and found an 
entrance into cars habitually dull of hearing. Then, suddenly, when 
the whirlwind was at the height, he would drop down to a whisper which 
could scarcely be heard, probably finding in such contrast a relief to him- 
self and others. His solicitude on behalf of young ministers was very 
marked, and he was very careful not to block their way, often waiting 
for them to '* roll away the stone from the welFs mouth,'* after which 
he would follow with the message entrusted to him. 

Benjamin Seebohm s literary efforts were numerous. 
Among other works he edited the life of William 
Forster, father of the late Right Hon. W. E. Forster, 
M.P., member for Bradford, and author of the 
Elementary Education Act of 1870. He also edited 
the ''Life of Stephen Grellet," printed in 1860 by 
John Dale & Co., Bradford ; also the Friends' "Annual 



Monitor." He was one of the founders of the Friends' 
Provident Institution, whose chief centre and offices 
are in Darley Street, Bradford — an institution ranking 
high among similar organisations in England or else- 
where. Along with the late Charles Harris, of East- 
brook House, Benjamin Seebohm was mainly instru- 
mental in establishing the Quakers' School in Chapel 
Street, Leeds Road, the first institution of its kind in 
Bradford, and to which the present writer with many 
others owe almost all the elementary education they 
received in early youth. 

Benjamin Seebohm occupied Horton Grange from 
the year 183G to 1864. In 1831 he married Esther 
Wheeler, of Hitchin, Herts. The Wheeler family had 
been Quakers for fully 250 years. Joshua Wheeler 
was incarcerated in Bedford Gaol with John Bunyan, 
and another member of the family was one of the 2,000 
ejected ministers of 1662. Esther Wheeler herself 
was a respected minister of the gospel for many years, 
and succeeded ministers in the society for five 
generations. She published a treatise " On the 
Sufferings of Christ for our Sake," printed by Wm. 
Byles, then of Chapel Court, Bradford ; also in 1854 
'' Youthful Pilgrims of the Society of Friends." She 
died in the year 1864. Benjamin Seebohm, having 
survived his wife by about seven years, died at Luton, 
Bedfordshire, in 1871. 

Henry Seebohm. 

The issue of Benjamin and Esther Seebohm were 
three sons and a daughter, but the present narrative only 
treats of the late Henry Seebohm, and Frederick, his 
brother, who survives him. Henry and Frederick 
Seebohm were both natives of Bradford, having been 
born at Butler House, Barkerend. Henry, the eldest 
son, in 1832, and Frederick in 1833. Henry was 
educated at Bootham School, York, along with Aldn. 
Frederick Priestman and Edward Priestman, of Brad- 
ford. He was fond of natural history from his youth, 


and for twenty-five years travelled widely in order to 
study birds, especially during their breeding season. 
Greece, Asia Minor and Norway were successively 
visited by him, and in 1875 he joined Mr. Harvie-Brown 
in a highly successful trip to the lower valley of the 
Petchora, in North Eastern Russia. In 1877 Mr. 
Seebohm pushed further east and accompanied the 
well-known Captain Wiggins to the Yenesei. These 
adventurous journeys are vividly described in ** Siberia 
in Europe " and " Siberia in Asia " (Murray). A feature 
of the first of these works was an '* aside " in the shape 
of a crisp account of a visit to Heligoland as bearing 
upon the migration of birds. The scientific results of 
both journeys appeared in the Ihis, and a paper on the 
second was read before the Royal Geographical Society, 
while an important contribution to ornithology will 
be found in his great w^ork, '* Birds of Siberia." 
Henceforward Mr. Seebohm devoted his attention 
specially — though not exclusively — to Northern Asia 
and Japan ; he employed collectors, purchased collec- 
tions, . and from time to time made munificent 
donations to the Natural History Section of the British 
Museum, besides writing as an acknowledged expert. 
Among his most important works may be mentioned 
"British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of their 
Eggs," "The Geographical Distribution of Plovers, 
Sandpipers, and Snipes," and "The Birds of the 
Japanese Empire." He also published several schemes 
of classification and many other papers on ornithology. 
For some years and up to the time of his death, he 
had been one of the honorary secretaries of the Royal 
Geographical Society ; he was also a fellow of the 
Linnean and Zoological Societies, and member of the 
British Ornithological Union. As a geographer and a 
naturalist he had few equals in England. Of the 
sectional addresses delivered before the British 
Association at its meeting at Nottingham in 1893, 
Mr. Seebohm's paper on Arctic Geography ranked as 
the most interesting and perhaps the most important. 
Among other features brought out, was the vivid 


picture drawn of the breaking up of the gigantic ice- 
floes — ^an experience of glacial action of exceeding 
value to students of the ice period in Britain and 

Henry Seebohm was president of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union in 1893, and at the annual meeting 
held at Skipton in November of that year, he con- 
tributed a valuable paper on the distribution of 
British birds. In introducing the subject, Mr. See- 
bohm said that as a native of Bradford all his early 
associations were connected with the districts round 
Bingley, Skipton, Settle, and Clapham, and other parts 
of Craven, and when he mentioned that his father's 
friends had included the Bakers, of Thirsk, the 
Tathams, of Settle, the Tukes, of York, and others, 
it would be seen that if he had not become " smittled " 
with the love of natural history, it would not have been 
because he was not placed in suitable circumstances 
for receiving that very contagious disease. 

In business Mr. Seebohm was connected with the 
firm of Seebohm & Dieckstahl, Steel Manufacturers, 
Sheffield. He was also chairman of Joseph Rodgers 
and Sons, Limited ; deputy - chairman of Ruston, 
Proctor & Co., Limited ; a director of the Angier 
Steam Shipping Company, of the Phonopore Company, 
and of the Phosphor-Bronze Company. Some years 
ago he contributed a paper at the meeting of the Iron 
and Steel Institute. He resided at Horton Grange, 
Maidenhead, and Courtfield Gardens, London; and 
died on November 26th, 1895, in the 67th year of his 
age. His will bore date February, 1893, personalty 
being sworn at £101,000. In it he bequeathed his 
collection of birds, eggs and skins to the trustees for 
the time being of the British Museum, to be kept and 
preserved by them, and not for the purposes of sale. 
All the residue of his property is left to his widow, 
Maria Seebohm. The deceased gentleman had for 
some years previous to his death ceased his connection 
with the Society of Friends. 


Frederick Seebohm. 

Distinguished as were the two members of the 
Seebohm family already referred to, we have yet to 
notice the work done by Frederick Seebohm, the 
second son of the patriarch Benjamin, who, in some 
respects, is the most distinguished member of the 
family. As previously stated, he was born in 1833 at 
Hillside, Bradford, and when about three years of age 
was removed to Horton Grange. For some time he 
was engaged in the office of Benjamin Ecroyd, a 
Quaker Conveyancer, of Bradford. He afterwards 
studied law with J. B. Braithwaite, of London, and 
was subsequently called to the Bar. The law, how- 
ever, was not destined to furnish Frederick Seebohm 
with a sphere in life ; if it had, it may safely be 
averred that he would now be occupying a dis- 
tinguished legal position. It so happened that in 1857 
he married Miss Exton, a banker's daughter at Hitchin, 
and he left the law to become a banker. He is now at 
the head of the banking concern at Hitchin, and is 
held in high estimation in commercial circles generally. 
He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, also of the Royal 
Geographical Society, and is a F.L.8. 

Frederick Seebohm, besides acquiring much dis- 
tinction as a financier, has become even more famous 
in economic literature. His grasp of mind on many 
subjects of public interest may be judged by his 
voluminous writings, a list of which is appended to 
this slight sketch of his career. On the subject of 
land tenure Mr. Seebohm is an acknowledged 
authority, the result of his many years diligent research 
into customs prevailing in Great Britain and other 
parts of the globe. His work, entitled " The English 
Village Community " — an essay on economic history — 
contains a mine of information on land tenure in 
general, and is recognised as a standard work on the 
primitive open-field system of land culture. The work 
in question was published in 1882, and reached a third 
edition in 1884. Its object, as set forth in the 
preface, was " To set English economic history upon 


right lines, by trying to solve the question whether it 
began with the freedom or with the serfdom of the 
masses of the people ; and further, what were their 
relations to the tribal communities of the western and 
less easily conquered portions of the island." The 
conclusion aimed at by the author, as the result of an 
exhaustive inquiry into the subject, was "That 
throughout the whole period, from the pre-Roman to 
modern times, there existed in Britain two parallel 
systems of rural economy side by side, but maintaining 
their isolation in spite of Roman and Norman invasion, 
namely, that of the village community in the eastern, 
and that of the tribal community in the western 
districts of the island ; further, that each had its own 
system of open-field husbandry, which are still distinct 
in modern remains." It will be remembered that one 
of our vice-presidents, Mr. John Lister, M.A., followed 
up the subject in a valuable paper bearing on its local 
aspect, as exhibited in the township of North Bierley, 
which will be found in Vol. I. of the Society's journal, 
p. 254. Mr. Seebohm subsequently j)ublished a paper 
on " The Tribal System in Wales," which throws much 
light on the inner organisation of a tribal people. It 
will therefore be no surprise to our readers that in 
March, 1893, Mr. Seebohm was appointed a member of 
the Royal Commission deputed by Parliament to 
inquire into the working of the land laws in Wales. 

Frederick Seebohm's literary efforts were by no 
means confined to the subject of land tenure, as the 
following list of his writings and publications abun- 
dantly testifies, viz. : — " Emancipation of Slavery in 
America," 1855 ; State Paper Articles, published in 
North British, in 1858 ; " Sir Thomas More and the 
Reformation," 1859 ; " Essays on the Four Gospels," 
1861 ; " Emancipation in America " (published by the 
Committee of the Society of Friends in 1865) ; " The 
Black Death and its place in English History," 1865 ; 
" The Population of England before the Black Death ;" 
" The Oxford Reformers," 1867 (second edition, 1869) ; 
'' Compulsory Education in England," 1870 ; " Inter- 

The seebohm ]^amily. 


national Reform," 1871 ; " The Era of Protestant 
Reform," 1877; "The Hypothesis of the Christian 
Religion " (for private circulation) ; " The Tribal 
System in Wales," 1895. 

About the year 1870 Mr. Seebohm acted as 
honorary secretary of the Freedman's Aid Society of 
Great Britain. In 1895 Mr. Hugh Seebohm, a son of 
Frederick Seebohm, published an essay on "The 
Structure of Glreek Tribal Society," which enters into 
a careful examination of the structure of early Greek 
society, and traces from historical data the gradual 
building up of communities. 

Benjamin, the younger son of Benjamin Seebohm, 
Sen., succeeded to the Bradford estate left by his 
father. Some of the property is situate in Market 
Street, opposite Messrs. Brown, Muff & Co. 's drapery 
establishment, which for a long period was known as 
" Seebohm's Buildings," He resides at Hitchin, and is 
connected with the banking business at that place. 

In conclusion, the writer gratefully acknowledges his 
indebtedness to a Bradford friend, Mr. George Field, 
for much information embodied in the above paper. 
Mr. Field's knowledge of the Seebohm family was 
acquired . during a personal acquaintance with them 
Tvhile resident in the locality, and is therefore reliable. 




Transcbibed fbom the oeioinal betubns by the Editob. 
(Sbb '* Bradford Antiquary/* Vol. I., paob 235.) 


Mabch ye 2nd, 169f . An Assesst. made by us whose 
names are heare subscribed, for an aide to theire Majesties 
of four shillings in ye pound for one yeare for ye carringe on 
a vigorus warr against france. 

li. s. d. 

2 — 4—0 
1 — 0—0 
0—1 1—6 
— 4—6 
— 8—0 
— 6—0 

— 6—0 
— 6-0 

1 — 0-0 

— 6-0 
— 6—0 
— 8-0 

1 — 4—0 


John Rookes, Esq., for his lands and woodes 

John Hanson  

John Margerison 

John Ellis 

John Butler 

Wm. Longbottom 

Mary Swayne 

John Spencer 

Edward Waddington 

Jonas Barracklough 

Jos. Birkby 

James Threapland 

Abra. Barraclough 

James Holmes 

Abra. Pigheles 

Whitley farme 

Darron ffarme 

Tho. Bower 

Rich. Mortimer 

Benjamin Holmes 

Joseph Lister 

John Smith 

John Brigg 

Jonas Thomas 



li. s. d. 

John Sager . . « • . 

. — 8-0 

John Crosland 

— 8-0 

Joseph Blamires 

, — 6—0 

Widd. Sager and Tho. Blaymires. • 

— 6—0 

Tho. Barraclough 

. 0-2 

Daniell Blaymires 


John Hodgheon for MiU . . 


John Robinson 

— 8—0 

John Sharpe for Intrest 

1 — 4—0 

Tempest Cordingley . . 


James Denham 

2 — 0—0 

John Cordingley 

1 — 0—0 

Ffran. Ramsbottom ... 

. 2—14—0 

John Crosland . . 

. 0^. 4-0 

Tho. Ffawcett . . . . 

. 0—12—0 

Jonathan Ffawcett • . 

; 0—14—0 

AUex. Wood ... ... 

, 0-10-0 

Jonas Ffox 

. — 4-0 

Stephen Ffawcett .. - .. 

. — 14-0 

John Yarr 

0- - 6—0 

William Pollard .. •. 

1--2— 8 

Tim. Ffearneside . . . . 

— 5—4 

George Daker . . 

. — 2—0 

Sam Littlewood 

1 — 2 

Joseph Blackbrough ^ • 

- 8-0 

Sam. Thornton 

— 2—0 

John Wright 

1 -4 

Rich. Mar^dpn .,....',- 

, . . . 8-0 

Will. Howldroyde , . 


James Thomtdn ' ; . ' 


Widd. Walker ..... 


Jonas Woodhead 

. — 8-0 

John Tordofe 

. - 1—3 

Widd. Ffeamley 

. 0—16—0 

Will. Stead 

— 6—0 

Milles Smith 

. 0—16—0 

Robert Robinson 

. — 6—1 

Widd. Sturdy 

. 0—18-0 

John Naylor . . 

. -3—4 

Joseph Pollard 

. 0-16-0 

Will. Blaymires 

— 2-0 

Widd. Firth and William Ramsden 


Jonas Booth 

. 0—10—8 

John Naylor and John Wilson 

— 6—0 

Mr. Lund for Chappell Close 

. — 5—0 

John Sugden 

— 3-0 

Jonas Woodhead for Coalemine . . 


Richard Richardson, Esq. 

8-7 3 

Will. Pollard 

3- - 4—0 

Will. Pollard for Tim farme 

. 1 — 4—0 



li. B. d. 

Thomas Sharpe 


Will. Gill 

. . 

^ 0-18—0 

Abra. Akroyde 

. 0-18—0 

John Pollard 

. 1 — 2—0 

Sam Thornton 


Robert Stead 

. 0— ^—0 

Will. Blaymires 

1 — e— 

James Brooke 

. • . .   • 

1-..6— 4) 

James Qoodall, Jame Brook, Robert ) 

, 1^-6—0 

Hargreaves, Will. 

Firth, Widd. Firth j " 

David Roades 

• • • • • 

. 0— 11— 

Widd. Hodgheon 

• • . . • 

0— lO—O 

James Cordingley 

• • . • • 

1 9—0 

Rich. Roades 

. • • . • 


John Brogden 

• • a « • 


Rich. Chappell 

• • • . ' ' • 

0— 4—0 

Toby Hobkinson 

* • • • * 


James Denham for G. farm 

f» 18—0 

Toby Hobkinson for Broadbent . . 

. 0-17— <» 

Isaac Stead 

• • • • • 

. 0—. 4—9 

Sam Whithead for Tempest 

. I0--0 

Rich. Oddey 

• • • • • 

. — 6—0 

Tempest Cordingley 

• • • • • 


. — 8—0 

. 94-^1—0 

Assessrs. W114.. Pollabd and Rich. Pollard. 
CoUectrs. Jo. Poole and Jos. Waddinotok. 
Sub-Collector. Joseph Holeboyde. 


An Assessment assessed by us whose names are heore 
under subscribed of four shillings in the pound for one 
yeare for the earring on a vigorous war against france as 
foUoweth March Ist, 169}. 

John Midgley 

it. Jo. Midgley for stock 

Tho. Sleddell 

Isaac Hollings 

John Midgley 

Widd. Ridihough 

li. 8. 

1 — 8 

1 — 8 

2 — 8 
1 — 4 



11. 8. 

John Milner . . 

• • • 

.. 1 — 4 

Rich. Butterfield 

• • • 

.. 0-12 

Widd. Witton 

• • 

.. — 4 

Nath. Holdsworth and Jo. Smith 

.. 2-.0 

Israel EUwick 


1 — 1 

William Booth 

• • • 

0—1 1 

Widd. Mortimer 

.. 1—16 

John Sharp or occu. 

1 — 15 

Rich. Broadley 

. . 0—16 

Ffrancies Wilkinson 

. . 0—12 

John Hirst . . 

1 7 

Rich. Warburton 


John Armjtage 

. . 0—16 

James Cougell 

.. — 8 

Rich. Mortimer 

— 8 

James Mortimer 

— 4 

Hen. Longcaster 


Abr. Nayler . . 

1 — 

Joseph Armjtage 

. . 0—19 

Jos. Sucksmith and Jo. Smith 


Joseph Armjtage 


John Baytman 

— 8 

Abraham Moore 


Lawrance Ambler 


Edward Ackroyd 

.. 0—16 

Edward Hemingway 

1 — 

James Ffirth . . 


Mr. Abra. Longley 


Micheael Ackroyd 

— 4 

Nath. Whitaker 


Robert Wilkinson 

— 4 

Jere. Barstow 

— 8 

Tho. Mortimer 


David Smith . . 

.. — 8 

Ed. Ackroyd for Brook farme 

— 8 

« « 

« « 


« « 


« « 

John Smith oth' edge 

•  • 

.. 0-18 

Ffra. Wilkinson, jn. or 

Jo. Carter 

— 8 

Josh. Ambler 

0— 10 

Adam Bell 

— 4 

Robert Holdsworth 


Widd. Smith.. 


John Harrison 

— 8 

Sam Smalpadge 

— 4 

Jere. Barstow 

— 4 

David Smith for Thorp 


— 4 

Judeth Robinson 

• • • 

— 4 

• Return routilttted. - 




li. s. 

Hich. PoUord , . ... . • 


Jonas Hall . . ... 

— 8 

Abra. Bell . , . . . . . . 


John Dawson ... . . ^ . 

— 8 

Jonas Hall and Will. Ward 


Joseph Sowdinge _ . . . . 

Joseph Pigbels or occ. or owner . . 

John. Midgley for his tent out oth' Pennehill , , 

John Rish worth for his rent out of Ja. Mortimer Land 

— 8 
— 4 

Mr. Will. Horton for his free Rents • • 


In ye whole • . 6I/1 

L— 16«. 

Assessed by us, 

Tho. Sleddall. 
John Hirste. 

Quarterly paymt. is 15/t. — 14«. 
Colector, Thomas Mortimer. 

Confirmed by us, 

O Walter Calverley. 
O Tho. Horton. 
O Tho. Ramsden. 


An Assessment for ye Township of 
shillings in ye pound granted to their 
psent year 169}. 

Imprimis. John Stanhope, Esq 

Mrs. Susan Stanhope 

Jeremiah Copperthwaite 

Henry Gill 

Zach. Reyner 

Occrs. of Brookesbank Lands . 

John Nichols 

Nathan Jowett 

William Kitson, senr., for Wormal Lands 

Occrs. of James Thompson Lands 

John Hodgson or occrs. of Garth Lands 

William Norton 

James Vickars 

Widdow Swaine 

Abraham Nichols . . 

William Atkinson 

John Jowett 

Jeremy Sowden . . - 

Ecclesell of four 
Maj^es- for this 

li. s. d, 

, 03—16—06 
02— Ou— 00 
01 — 15—06 



Occrs. of Robt. Coppertbwaite lEarme 
William Sowden . . 
Occrs. of Akeroyd Lands 
Jane Baraclough . . 
Samuel Swaine 
James WiUson 

James Fletcher for his old fParme 
and for Mr. Stanhope Lands 
Jonas Deane or occrs. 
Xopher Armstead . . 

 • Berrje 

* * for his Land and housing 
Thomas Fletcher . . 
Anne Broadley 
John Broadley 

Occrs. of James Lister Housing 
Richard Wareing . . 
Thomas Briggs 
Thomas Bond 

Occrs. of Xopher Overend Lands 
Thomas Hird 
ffrancis Harrison 
Lyonell Fletcher . . 
Widdow Brown 
Williajn Sylson 
Occrs. of Brashawe Lands 
Occrs. of Lobley Housing and Wood • • 

Occrs. of Lobley Holdacres and Normancloase 
James Booth of Idle Thorpe 
John Vickars of Idle Thorpe 
William Barraclough 
William Thompson 
Joseph Vickars 
Mary Barraclough widow 
Occrs. of Oregson Housing 
Occrs. of Horton Lands 
Occrs. of Mr. Stanhope Little Hall 

Occrs. of Sarah Berrye House and Croft , . 
Occrs. of Swaine Haighes 
Jer. Sowden and William Pawson for Intackes 
David Hodgson for his stocke in trade 

Tot. is 

4th pt. is 
Assessd by us, William Sowden, 

li. s. d« 

00 - 05—06 
00 — 06 — 04 


10 — 7—11 

Samuell Sweine. 

Collectors, Jno. Nichols 
James Wilson* 



1692, March Ist. An Assessment made and assessed 
upon * *  the Towne of Idle in the West Rydinge of 
the County of Yorke for the yearly profitts of trade, and all 
lands, tenements, hereditaments, &c. within the saide 
Towneshippe by James Booth and Lawrence Bucke, being 
assessors duly appoynted in that beh. accordinge to an Act 
of Parlament intituled An Act for a Grant to their Maiestyes 
of foure shilinges in the pound for one yeare for caryinge on 
a vigorous warre against fPrance. 

li. s. d. 


Imp. Waltr. Calverley Esq., or occupiers 
of High Holme, Stranforth, & Stubinges 
John Bucke and David Bucke . . 
Thomas Stables 

Oce. of William Stables Land . . 
Mr. Robert Clarkson and for free rents 
Widdow Ledgerd . . . . , 

Lawrence Bucke . . 
Peter Glover 
Mary Dawson 
John Garnet 
John Booth 
Occ: of high feild 
Widdow Goodall . . 
Gillbert Stead 
Jeremiah Bower ... 
Beniamin Sandall 
Joshua Sandall 
Lawrence Slater ... 
James Berry 
Zachary Yewdall . . 
Joseph Drake for Sandall Lands 
Joseph Drake for Garth Lands . 
Widdow Warweeke Lands 
William -War weeke Lands 
William Garth 
Nickholas Pollard . , 
Richard Sarginson Lands . . . . 
Jonathan Hird 
John Thompson 

Widdow Clarkson and Samuel Farrar 
Isabell Thornton ... 
William Steade 
Widdow Cailile 
David Calvert 
Occ. of Pearson Lands 
William Jowett Lands 
Samuell Jowett for Howgate Lands 
'Lawrence Bucke . . 












00—1 3—04 

00— 10— C 8 

01 — 01—04 ' 

02 — IC— 00 
00—09 —04 
00 — 08—00 
00—13 — 04 
00— 04 — 00 
00— OH— 00 
00 — 06 — 08 



Thomas Bucke 

James Booth 

John Thornton 

William Norton Lands 

James Marshall 

Richard & John Simpson 

Occ. of Thomas Hird Lands . . 

Occ. Tristram Moss Lands, Samll. Swaine 

Thomas Hird 

William Atkinson 

John Steade 

Occ. of Mr. Waide Land 

James Hobson 

Occ. of Thigthe holme 

Samuell Jewet for Clarkson Lds. 

Samuell Jewet Land at Thorpe 

Jeremiah Eshton . 

John Walker 

Edmund Gill (Samll. Marshall) 

Joseph Armitage . . 

Joseph Vickers, senior 

John Vickers 

Samuell Kitson and Ben. Rangdall 

John Mitton Lands 

Elizabeth Swaine Lands 

Robert Swaine 

Joseph Vickers junior 

Joseph Vickers for Stanhope Ld. 

'J'homas Dawson . . 

Samuell Calvert . . 

Beniamin & John Swaine 

&c for Musgrave farme 

John Greave 

Mr. Stanhope for Yewdall Ld. 

William Ffoster . . 

Jonas Hargraves . . 

Jonathan Tayler . . 

Occ. of Mr. Ramsden Lands . . 

Thomas Sarginson 

Anthony Slater . . 

Thomas Hill for part of Slater Ld. 

Occ. of Hill house 

William Denby senior 

William Denby junior 

Occ. of Joshua Denby Land . 

Occ. of Mr. Coates Lands 

Occ. of William Denby Lands 

Widdow Denby Lands 

Widdow Sands 

Joseph Holmes , . 

• • 

li. s. d. 

00 — 16—00 
01_-04— 00 
00- 1 1— 00 
00 — 10—08 
00 — 12—00 
00—05 - 04 
00—08- 00 
CO-18— 08 



li. 8. d. 

Josias Craven . . . . • 


Martin Dawson 

01 10 08 

and for PuUan Land 


Jonathan Prat k for Pullan I^ands 


John Midgley 

01 01 04 

John Slater 

00 1 7—04 

Mercy Slater 

00— 04- CO 

Thomas Slater senior 


Thomas Slater junior 

02 13 04 

Robert Craven 


Georg Skirrow 


John Adcocke 


Widdow Skirrow . . 


Georg Booth 

00—01- 04 

Richd. Farrar 

« « « 

John Gregson 

00 01 04 

Elizabeth Swaine house 


Joshua Goodhall house 


James Booth for Hobson house 


Widdow Hodgson house 


Samuell Swaine house 


Samuell Jowett house 


Edward Swaine house 


Pebsoxal Estates. 

John and Beniamin Swaine . . 


Mr. Joshua Goodall & widdow Goodall , 


John Midgley senior & junior . . 


John Attkinson 


Total comes to 


The sume of each quarterly paymei 

It 21—08—09 


John Adkinsok, 

Zachaby Yewdall. 

Confirmed by us, 



John Rookes, 







Pudsey, Westrid. com. Ebor. March 8th, 1692. 

An Assessmt. made by ub whose names are hereunto 
subscribed of foure shillinfi^s ye pound rent in and through- 
out ye said top. according to an act of parliamt. and a 
warrt. to us directed. 

Mr. Richard Hutton . . 

Tho. Hutchinson for his own Ld. 

and for Nich. Jinkinson land • 

Jo. Hutchinson for his lands 

Abr. Hutchinson for his land 

Mich. Ryley for Qoodall land 

Jo. Pearson for Ferrah lands 

Jo. Wilson for his lands 

Jer. Wilson for his lands • » 

Ro. Lumby for Mosse land - 

& for his own land 

Tho. Lee for his land 

Mr. Jo. Gregson for ye Shearoyds 

& ye lowtown 
Jo. Dodgson for his land 
Sam. ffarrer for his lands 
& for Mrs. Sale lands 
Tristr. Mosse for his land 
Mrs. Sale for her land 
Mr. ifarrer for his lands 
& for Mr. Milner land 
James Poole & Wm. Childs for Hutton land 
Wm. ifenton for Wilden land 
Wm. ffenton for Swain land 
Ja. Poole & Wm. C.'hilds for Wilden lands 
Sam. ffarrer & Pet. Ryley for Dan. Gant lands 
Jo. Chapman for his &rme 
Jo. Lee & Elias Laycocke for Cuth. Lee lands 
Ja. Whitaker for Mr. Whitaker lands 
Wm. Dambrough for his lands 
Jos. Gant for Mr. Milner lands 
Tho. Lee for Mr. Milner lands 
Wm. Jenkinson for Swain lands 
Miles Lolly for his lands 
Jo. Pearson & uxor Stables | 

for Jenkinson lands • • ) 
Hen. Bellas for Gargrave land 
& for Jenkinson lands 
Jo. Hudson for his farme 
Jo. Smith for his lands 
Edw. Lee 
Edw. Harrison . 

lb. s. d. 

2 — 8-0 

— 3—4 
0-_3— 4 

— 5—0 
— 3—4 
— 6—8 
— 3—4 
— 5—0 
— 6—8 

— 3—4 

1 -13—4 










« « 

- 3—4 




— 3—4 

— 3—4 

— 3—4 

— 3—4 

— 5-0 




• • 

• • 

• • 

Uxor Johnson for Mr. Smith lands 

Tho. Dean for Wm. Lumby land 

Jos. Gant for Swaine lands 

Tho. Bucktin for Barraclough lands 

Jo. Kent for his own lands 

& for Goodall lands 

Japhett Atkinson for Baraclough land 

Jo. Pearson for Jenkinson 2 low railes 

Jer. Gant for Farrer lands 

Wm. Fenton for Swain land 

Jo. Kud for Mr. Milner lands 

& for fFarrer lands . . 

Mr. ffarrer for his lands 

& for Mrs. Sale lands 

Mr. ffarrer for Saml. fFarrer lands 

Jo. Lepton for ffarrer lands 

Mich. Lobley for his lands 

& for Goodall lands 

k for Sam ffarrer lands 

Jo. Rudd for Mr. Gregory tenemt. 

& for Mr. Milner lands 

Walter ffarrer for Mr. Butler tenemt. 

Tho. Laycock for Mr. Milner lands 

Jo. Gant for Mr. Milner land 

Jo. Galloway for his land 

Sam. Hinchcliffe for Musgrave lands 

& for Gant close 

Peter Ryley for Mr. Pardue lands 

Ro. Gant for Wise land . , 

k for Mr. Grego. lands 

James Cawtheray & Joshuah Bates 

Ja. Tayler for Musgrave land 

Jo. Lumby for his lands 

Wm. Hall for Rich. Jenkinson lands 

Mr. Craister for his lands 

Ro. Hillas for Thompson lands . . 

Ab. Hainworth for NicoUs lands 

Hen. Nettleton senr. , . 

Hen. Nettleton junr. 

Jo. Barraclough for Stables lands 

Wm. Mosse for his lands 

Jo. Hey for money . . 

Jo. Pearson for Thomas croft 8c Marleroyd 

Tho. Purdue for his land . , 

Tho. Davison for Nicols land 

Wm. Bellas for Wm. Mosse lands 

Uxor Balme for Tho. Smith land 

Ab. Harper for Musgrave land . . 

Ro. Burnell for his lands 

Tho. Johnson for Mrs. Sale land . . 

• • 

. • 


• • 

li. s. d. 

l_6— 8 
— 8—4 
— 3—4 
— 6—8 
— 8—4 
— 3—4 
— 3-4 
— 8—4 
0—1 5—0 
— 6—8 

— 1—8 

1 —0—0 
— 3—4 
— 2—6 
— 4—2 
— 3—4 
— 3—4 
— 3—4 
0— 10— 

— 6—8 
0- 16—8 

1 — 1—0 
— 8—4 
— 6-10 
— 3—4 

— 1—8 

1 — 0—0 
* * 
* * 



Chr. Whitley for Beamond lands 

Wm. Lumby for his lands 

£c for Mr. Beamond lands 

Sam. Lumby for his lands 

Edw. Harrison for Lepton land 

Jo. Lepton for his lands 

Jo. Crumack for Lepton lands 

Geo. Langley for Mr. Jo. Milner land 

Wm. Hollingworth for Mr. Milner lands 

Jo. Hey for Mr. Milner land 

Mr. MUner for his lands 

Tho. Fenton, Jo. Roger, Kich. Buctin, & 

Wm. Rudd, for Mr. Whitaker lands 
Jos. Holdsworth for his lands, and for Abr. 

Hutchinson, Tho. Hutchinson, and Tho. 

Bankes, & uxor Robson, & Wm. fEenton, 

Tho. Wilson and Tho. Wilson 
Jo. Mitchell lands, Sam. ffarrer, & for 

Mich. Ryley farme, & Geo. Raper 

farme, & Tristr. Hare farme, Jona. 

Crowther farme .• 
Jo. Pearson for Holdesworth land 
Wm. Lumby for his land 
James Whitaker for Jo. Smith land 
Josh. Lumby for his land 
Jo. Turner for Thomson land 
Uxor Whitley for her land 
Jo. Wilson for Tristram Mosse land 
Sam. Lumby for Quarries 
Jo. Crumack for Gibson lands . . 

Mr. Thornton tenants. 
Ric. Sugden 

* Holdsworth 

* * Wm. Lord, uxor Bolton , . 
Wm. Sugden 

Tho. EUett 

Jonas Bower 

Wm. Lee 

Ab. Sharpe . . • • 

Jonas Bower 

Rich. Sizer • . 

Jer. Cordingley 

Ri. Sugden k Tho. Ellett for 

Tristr. Hare farme 
Ab. Sharpe 
Ri. Sizer 
Tho. Thackeray 

Tho. Lee & rest of ye occupiers of Tyth 
Isaac Broadley or occupiers of Watson land 















s. d. 












— 6—8 

3 — 6—8 

1— 15_0 















0—1 7—6 




— 4-0 

— 1-11 





^^KE nearest point to Upper Wharfedale reached 
^^ by Canon Greenwell in his work among the 
barrows of this country was Rylstone, midway 
between Skipton and Grassington. Had he penetrated 
into the valley he would have had greater success than 
at the village of the White Doe, though probably his 
satisfaction would have been incomplete. It is a very 
annoying accompaniment of barrow digging in the 
Craven district that so many of the human remains are 
in a dilapidated condition; this is more or less the 
inevitable outcome of interment in such a substance 
as mountain limestone. The total number of barrows 
examined since the opening of the first one near 
Grassington in 1892 is only five, leaving several more 
to be worked. In each of these the skeletons were in 
a much worse state of preservatioii than usual, say in a 
Wiltshire tumulus, and in each case there was little of 
value or interest found along with the bodies. A full 
description of the working of these barrows, as well as 
an account of the excavation of other British remains will 
be found in Vol. XII., part V., of the proceedings of 
the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, 
under whose auspices most of the work took place. 

In this brief note I wish to draw the attention of the 
members of the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian 
Society to the nature and amount of work still to be 
done. My work during the summers of 1893 and 1894 
consisted of the examination of several barrows and of 
the interesting British remains in Lea Green and in 
Grass Woods. That is to say, a partial examination ; 
for this north bank of the Wharfe from Grassington 
to Kettlewell abounds in such remains, and we had 


the opportunity of touching upon this district only. 
The nature of the land and the peculiar geological 
formations render the work of surveying and discovery 
very uncertain. So many natural hillocks resemble 
tumuli, and so many remains of ancient handiwork 
have become assimilated through weather and time into 
resemblance to the ridges and walls which are merely 
freaks of formation, that our only guide is the pick-axe, 
and these real objects of research are generally 
discovered casually ; a new point of view sufficing to 
bring out in a moment what has been concealed for 
centuries. Only the other day I found myself on the 
surface of a tumulus in a region which I had traversed 
frequently before without a suspicion of its treasure, 
and this is especially the case with these dale uplands. 
They are so full of enclosures and walls that one never 
seems to arrive at a general idea of the whole. A walk 
along the central flats between the river and the moors 
from above Grassington to the north of Kettlewell, 
eight miles in a straight line, will reveal an enormous 
number of British remains to the careful seeker. But 
this is more than one day's work, for many of these 
clugters of enclosures and rows of huts are only visible 
as such from one quarter, until an exact estimate of 
their extent and form has been made out. 

It seems to me that an admirable and useful scheme 
of work could be made out by the Bradford Antiquarian 
Society, if they would undertake the complete examina- 
tion of all the settlements in these northern dales. 
This would entail years of work with spade, pencil and 
camera alike ; but it would be a pleasurable variant on 
barrow opening and would supply much valuable 
information. I can suggest a few localities where 
work might be profitably commenced, when once the 
required permission had been obtained. 

First of all there is the puzzling collection of ridges 
and rectangular enclosures in the pasture known as 
High Close, half a mile north of Grassington. Just 
beneath this is another large pasture. Lea Green, which 
I have partially excavated with results already made 


known to members of the Society. Then again there is 
a long reach of highland stretching from above the • 
village of Coniston to the flank of Great Whernside, 
and which is the site of many clearly defined ancient 
dwellings. One especially perfect and symmetrical 
specimen is situated immediately above Kettlewell, 
looking east from the village. On the opposite side of 
the valley we have Threshfleld and Malham Moors, and 
here, too, vestiges of early stone work are common. 
A fine set of very primitive looking dwellings will be 
found at the summit of a knoll above Skirethorns, close 
to the mountain track crossing there into Upper 
Airedale. On the moors behind Kilnsey and Arnciiffe 
much work might also be done, the only obstacle being 
the remoteness of the locality. 

Three barrows at any rate should be opened. These 
are the large ring barrow near Yarnbury, one mile out 
of Grassington on the moor road : one at the north end 
of Skirethorns Wood, and a smaller one on the west 
slope of Trunla Ha, a curious hill of stone overlooking 
Dib Scar, less than two miles north of Grassington. 
Those at Yarnbury and Skirethorns have been purposely 
left until every preparation bad been made for minute 
examination. There would be little diflSculty in 
obtaining permission, as the leave so cordially granted to 
me by the Duke of Devonshire, Sir Mathew Wilson, 
Mr. Walter Morrison, and many of the local farmers, is 
now the prerogative of the Yorkshire Geological and 
and Polytechnic Society, who would, I am sure, be glad 
to have the assistance of the Bradford Society in a work 
which they find diflScult of continuation. The value of 
such work is surely evident to those interested in 
historical and antiquarian research. I hope that the 
Bradford Society may find it possible to undertake a 
complete investigation of the early remains in these 
northern dales, and that their work may result in the 
publication in time of a worthy record of their labours. 
Bradford should someday possess a unique collection 
of local antiquities ; for Grassington has already given 
us hints of what jnay be expected. 




^^IIE only attempt that has been made to compile 
^^ the ancient history of Eccleshill appears in 
James' History of Bradford^ where three pages 
contain all he has to report, and as much of this is 
conjecture, it will be advisable to print his account in 
full for reference : — 

" There is a tradition of old date, that on the separation of Bradford 
Parish from that of Dewsbury, Eccleshill was left out of the former, 
because the inhabitants had killed a monk, and thereby excluded them- 
selves from the pale of the Ohurch. How lonj^ Eccleshill has, by 
common repute^ belonged to the Bradford Parish I am unable to state, 
but so early as 1680 it paid a proportion of the lay, or rate, to Bradford 
Church. Eccleshill, however, long after the separation of Bradford 
Parish, continued part of that of Dewsbury, and at least some portion of 
the above tradition is correct, for in the endowment of Dewsbury 
Vicarage in 1349, mention is made of the DecimtB et portionum garharum 
de Eccleshill^ as belonging to that vicarage." 

*' I have not seen it mentioned in Doomsday Record. I am unable to 
conjecture with probability the meaning of the name, unless it comes 
from Eglyws (Church), that is. Church-hill. Some measures have been 
taken to accomplish the building of a Church at Eccleshill, but hitherto 
they have been unsuccessful, though one is much wanted." 

Twenty-five years later he adds in the Continuation: — 

** Some arrangement took place whereby Eccleshill, whilst still attached 
to the fee of Earls Warren, formed part of the Parish of Bradford, but a 
sum was paid to Dewsbury Church as a compensation, or modus, for the 
tithes of the township. It does not appear that in ancient times any 
Ecclesiastical structure stood here, but there is a place called * Chapel 
Flatts,' where human bones have been found. The tithe of Eccleshill 
to Dewsbury in 1348 was of the yearly value of 29s. S^d., probably as 
the gift of Earl Warren, but sometime between 1349 and 1530 the 
amount drops, and Bradford Parish paid 8s. annually to Dewsbury, 
evidently representing some commutation. A handsome Church, in the 


early English style, and dedicated to St. Tiuke, was built by subscription 
in the years 1846-7. The site and surrounding ground were given by 
George Baron, Esq., and the cost of the edifice, erected from designs of 
Mr. W. S. Rawstome, amounted to £2,600. The parsonage, built on 
land presented by Mr. Baron, cost £1,000. The incumbents have been 
the Rev. Frank Randall, Rev. J. H. Edmonds, and Rev. Edward Mercer, 
who succeeded to the living in 1855." 

"The Wesleyans have a Chapel here, built before 1788, as in Wesley's 
Journal of that year he writes : — * I have spent some hours with the 
Trustees of Eccleshill House, but I might as well have talked to posts.' 
It seems the Eccleshill clothiers were very intractable, and would keep 
the management of the Chapel they had raised in their own hands. The 
Trustees of the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel here caused Wesley much 
annoyance. He wished it to be like other Chapels, under the power of 
Conference. On one occasion he saw Thomas Lee, one of the Trustees, 
and said, * Tommy, we must have this Chapel,' to which Tommy 
briefly replied, * Never, while I live.' The Independents built a Chapel 
here in 1823." 

This is all Mr. James has to say regarding the 
ecclesiastical history of Eccleshill. His account of the 
manorial history is shorter still : — 

'* Eccleshill, in Barnard's Survey, is not mentioned to be in the Leet of 
Bradford, but that of Wakefield ; and it is in fact within the manor of 
Wakefield (though so far divided from it) at this day. It formerly was, 
as a parcel of that manor, the possession of Earl Warren, and that might 
account for it not being included in the Lacy Parish of Bradford." 

** The manor was, at the time of Domesday Survey, under tikp name of 
Eglechil, included in the Soke of Wakefield, and contained three 
carucates of land to be taxed. To the Manor of Wakefield it still 
belongs. Soon after the Conquest, Wakefield, >vith all its large 
dependencies, became, by a grant from the Crown, the possession of the 
powerful family of the Warrens. By subinfeudation it became a mesne 
manor, within the liberty of Wakefield, and in the year 1316 Thomas de 
Shepfield is returned as the Lord. It afterwards came to the Thornours, 
and in a post-mortem Inquisition, taken in the ninth year of Henry VI., 
on the death of Robert Thornour, the jurors say that he died possessed 
of the Manor of Eccleshill, and of a messuage called Woodlands, and 
50 acres of land in Calverley. The Thornours probably resided at 
Woodland, for in the year 1620 there remained in the south quire of 
Calverley Church a stone with the inscription : ^ Pray for the soul of 
Thomas de Thornour and Margaret his wife.' I am not able to state 
how the manor came from the Thornours to the Hirds, but Brook, in his 
MSS., states that Mrs. Hird, of Apperley, was Lady of the Manor in 
1780. She was succeeded by her son Nathaniel, who died unmarried, 
and her two daughters. These ladies, as devisees under the will of their 
father, Christopher Hird, Esq., sold the manor in 1825 to Jeremiah 
Rawson, Esq. T. W. Rawson, Esq., is the present Lord. An Act has 
been obtained this year (1841) for enclosing the Wastes of Eccleshill. 
Here were sometimes seated a younger branch of the Stanhopes, of 

Ancient eocleshill. 139 

HoTsforth, who, in 1713, built Eccleshill Hall, and obtaining a con- 
cession of 25 acres of land from the freeholders, formed it into a park. 
From the Stanhopes the hall and estate came by devise to the Stotts, 
who are now the owners." 

'^ The inhabitants are principally engaged in the woollen manufacture. 
Eccleshill township lies on the western slope of Lower Airedale. Of 
late years Eccleshill township has become a favourite residence of 
Bradford tradesmen. Since the enclosure of the Common, villas, and 
other neat houses, have sprung up." 

The foregoing is the complete account that Mr. James 
gives for Eccleshill, and we will now proceed to amend 
this account, and add further notices. 

The Bomans had two vicinal ways crossing Eccleshill 
township, one passing by the ridge of the hill from 
Tong Street, Dudley Hill, Bradford Moor, to Norman 
Lane and Wrose, the latter a British name. The other 
road passed from Bradford to Apperley. The old names 
"street" and " Stoney Lane," as applied to ancient 
country roads are general indications of Boman for- 
mation. I am not aware that any find of Bomau 
relics in the township has been recorded, but the town- 
ships around have such reports to make. The history 
of the township begins with the firist Anglian settler, 
whose name is incorporated in the word JSccles-hill. 
I know that I shall trench on favourite speculations in 
this opening attack on the etymology of the name, but 
truth is what all should strive after. Few studies are 
more delusive than the origin of place-names, a study 
in its infancy so far. A hamlet may be and is a 
"little-ham," or homestead — settlement, but is in 
nowise related to bacon, any more than 'Northumberland 
is the land of thumbs. Your School Board seal plays 
on the thought of Eagles-hill by displaying an eagle, 
but there is no more truth in this etymology than in 
any one of the hundreds of similar canting coats- of- 
arms, and the heralds who started this fancy never 
meant the ideas to be taken seriously. Neither is Mr. 
James* suggestion any nearer the mark in tracing the 
word from Eglyws (a church), even if the stoning of 
the priest in Stoney Lane was a veritable fact. Certain 
laws hold good in tracing the origin of place-names, 


and it will be found that all our townships, and most 
of our old hamlets bear the names given to them by 
the Anglo-Saxon settlers of 500 to 700, and are des- 
criptive of the situation, and sometimes are prefixed 
by the Anglian lord or family headman who settled 
there. Space forbids a discussion of this, and I can 
only now refer to the usage and literature of the 
Icelandic, Danish, and Germanic tribes, and it will be 
found that such men as Eckil or Aikil, Ide, Guy, Binga, 
Kihel, Fek, were settled in these parts, and gave names 
respectively to Eccles-hilL Ide-hill, Guy's-ley, Bing-ley, 
Keigh-ley, Feks-by, &c. These names of leading 
Angles may be found in Domesday Book, and other 
ancient records. Mr. James found out before his 
Continuation was printed that Eccleshill is mentioned 
in the Domesday Survey, but he makes a mistake in 
putting it Egle<?hil. An exact photographic copy of 
this word and the names of the rest of the places in 
Wakefield Manor will be found in my History of 
JSipperholme^ Brighouse and Rastrick. It reads : In 
Egle«hil, iii. c' That means that Wakefield Manor, of 
which the King held the lordship himself, comprised 
also Eccleshill, with three carucates of land to be taxed. 
What this meiins will more fully appear afterwards. 
This is the oldest spelling, 1083, I have yet seen of 
Eccleshill, and might at first sight lead one to favour 
the etymology "Eagles'" hill, but an acquaintance 
with hundreds of ancient parchments confirms me in 
the oft-repeated assertion that Domesday was written 
by Norman scribes and the orthography in it is less 
reliable than the bulk of similar records. This is well- 
known, and I need not dilate upon it. It is worthy of 
note that the possessive sign, apostrophe «, is retained. 
It will be seen as we proceed with this history that the 
evolution of Aikirs-hill is true to etymological laws, 
and not mere guess work. 

A tything generally became a township. The word 
means the " Ten-Court," for ten free families were 
bound together for mutual protection, and if any mis- 
demeanour occurred the tything was held responsible. 


These things, or courts, were generally held out of 
doors, on some conspicuous mound, or near some 
notable tree or bridge. Ten tythings made the 
hundred, which bears the name wapontake in Yorkshire, 
because the inhabitants had to "touch weapons '* when 
the shire-reeve, or sheriff, made his annual round, in 
token of subjection to the king. The chief man in the 
township was called the " constable," or king's stability, 
and a high constable was annually elected for each 
hundred. This locality was, as it is still, in Morley 
Wapontake, and the Wapontake Court was probably 
held in earliest times at Tingley, or, as it was 
formerly properly spelt, Thing-lawe (Court-hill). The 
name still remains in use in the Isle of Man, where 
the Tynwald, or Parliament, annually meets on Tynwald 
Mount, and the Norwegian Parliament is known by a 
similar word. All these townships were distinctly 
allotted a thousand years ago, and scarcely an alteration 
in boundary or management has taken place since. 
The Domesday Survey of 1083 finds all our local town- 
ships named, with one or two exceptions. This para- 
graph treats of the national management of local affairs^ 
but another system had been developing during later 
Anglo-Saxon times, viz., the Manorial. At the Conquest 
the descendants of Aikil and Ide had either sold their 
territorial rights to other Anglians or Danes, more 
wealthy than themselves, or thoy had been compelled, 
like those more powerful kinsmen, to forfeit their 
possessions to the Norman monarch and his barons, 
whilst in many cases they were glad to become sub- 
tenants, instead of over-lords. Gamel, and other 
wealthy Yorkshireman, sank into insignificance when 
the Norman king shared the old townships amongst his 
retainers. The three most powerful houses in these 
parts were the Percies, the Lacies, and the Warrens. 
Ilbert de Lacy thus became the owner of most of the 
land around Bradford, Pontefract, Colne, &c., with 
isolated townships such as Elland, Southowram, &c., 
whilst shortly after Domesday Survey, John, Earl of 
Warren, became the Lord of Wakefield, Sandal, most of 


Halifax parish, and this isolated township of Eccles- 
hill. Thus Lacy held land in the middle of Warren's 
estates, and Warren had property in Lacy's chief 
district. Tlie only explanation for this cross arrange- 
ment seems to be that sales or marriages had united 
distant townships under one owner in Anglian times, 
and the gifte to the Normans depended not on con- 
tiguity altogether, but upon whose property was con- 
fiscated, whether compact or dismembered. 

Under Anglian ownership, as well as Norman 
possession, Eccleshill was united to Wakefield 
Manor. Dalton, near Huddersfield, is a parallel 
case, being in Wakefield Manor, but also encom- 
passed by the Lacy Honour of Pontefract. We 
have thus a national or wapentake system which is 
clearly defined and compact, a manorial system 
foisted upon the former which is promiscuous and dis- 
jointed, and to add to the anomaly, a third system, the 
ecclesiastical, which, though fairly compact, has many 
exceptions, as at Haworth, which is quite isolated from 
the rest of Bradford Parish, and Eccleshill, which was 
completely cut off from its former parent — Dewsbury. 

Eccleshill, then, forms a parcel, or part of Wakefield 
Manor. The vast Manor of Wakefield, reaching from 
Sandal, Ardsley, Wakefield, to Halifax, and bordering 
upon Todmorden, with off-townships like Eccleshill, 
passed from the Conqueror's son to William and John, 
Earls of Warren, whose chief Yorkshire home was at 
Sandal Castle. The Earl's Steward held a great Court 
at Wakefield every three weeks, and twice yearly he 

Serambulated his extensive domains to hold special 
ourts at Brighouse, Halifax, Holmfirth, &c. The 
greatest men of the county have held the oflBlce of 
Steward for Wakefield Manor, which became Royal 
property on the fall of the Warrens; and the gatherings 
at the Manorial Courts comprised all the civil and 
ecclesiastical dignitaries, their substitutes, and all the 
yeomen, freeholders, and copyholders, far and near, 
upon whom the Court Baron and Court Leet could 
demand an attendance, or impose a fine. These Courts 


were great events, for when the Court Baron concluded 
the husiness of transfer, or heirships to property, or 
enclosure of waste lands, the Court Leet immediately 
followed, when the chief landed proprietors of the 
district sat as a jury, and tried all cases, brawls, selling 
ale, illicit games, and such matters as now come before 
Justices of the Peace. 

From about 1300 the records of these great meetings 
have been preserved, and it is from these invaluable 
and almost unexplored documents that the following 
notes have been compiled. The Wakefield Eolls con- 
sist of rolls or volumes of skins, thirty or forty feet 
long in the first instance, stitched together, and written 
down one side and continued mostly down the other in 
the opposite way. Afterwards, instead of one con- 
tinuous roll, there would be a dozen long skins stitched 
in book form at one end, and then rolled. For each 
year there is a roll, with few losses, and as they are 
written in abbreviated Latin, in the ancient court hand, 
with letters formed quite differently from our current 
hand, it will be seen that it takes an expert, to master 
the contents of one year, several hours' labour, and 
several days to make a full copy. Indeed, only two or 
three persons besides myself have had the courage to 
attack them, and no one has yet printed anything to 
any great extent from them, except the notes given in 
the "History of Brighouse." Mr. Osgood Field, of 
Borne, has just issued a history of the Field family, 
one half of which I supplied him from these rolls, but 
he has omitted to state how he got his information. 

The irelation of Eccleshill to Wakefield Manor is the 
more remarkable from the strange fact that no cases 
occur in the rolls, as in other manorial townships, of 
encroachments on the wastes, or paying fines for heriots, 
or successions. Evidently the township was, in very 
early times, handed over to a sub-lord, who held a 
manor within the great manor. We find, however, 
that, like other townships, the " qtiatuor homines 
praipositij^* or four chief men of the town were 
regularly required to attend Wakefield Leet or Tourn. 


In the Roll endorsed 1272, which I discovered to be 
a mistake for 1307, Radulphus (Ralph) the fforestar of 
Eckleshill, was fined 2d. for not attending the Tourn — 
^^non ven. tumio mia. ijd.^' In 1298 a Morice de 
Eckeleshill was on a jury at Wakefield. In 1309 
William Alayn de Eckeleshill was called upon to 
respond to charges made by William Grenehod. In 
1310 the Villata (village) of EckleleshuU was fined 4d. 
because its four representatives did not appear at the 
Court. At the Tourn, or Court Leet, the prepositi, or 
greaves, were elected from the chief tenants in 
succession. The greave, known in Saxon times as 
gerefa, was the lord's representative or reeve, and as 
such, a man of consequence in manorial matters, as the 
constable was in civil and criminal ones. The Court 
Leet, or People's Censure Court, in whose manor soever 
kept, is accounted the King's Court, because the 
authority thereof is originally belonging to the Crown, 
and thence devised to inferior persons, and is a Court 
of Record. All offences under High Treason were 
enquired into, though it could not punish many, but 
had to certify them to the Justices of Assize. In 1349 
William le Smith de Eckleshill had a dispute in court 
with John del' Cliff de Hyprom. I do not know the 
cause nor the result, for the fearful Black Death stops 
the record, and temporarily suspended the courts. Its 
ravages will never be fully known, but they were 
most dreadful. Thirty years later, when the Poll Tax, 
which roused the ire of Wat the Tiler, was levied in 
this district it was found that no families had remained 
in the neighbouring township of Bolton since the 
ravages of the pest. Twenty-three groats, a total of 
7s. 8d., was paid under this 1380 Poll Tax, in Eccleshill, 
which will give less than 20 houses for the township, 
probably only 16, or a population of about 70 souls. 
The census gives : — 

Johannes de Thong' & ux. (wife) iiijd. 
Willelmus de Thong' & ux. iiijd. 
Thomas deU Kichyn & ux. iiijd. 
Johannes de Thong' junior, & ux. iiijd. 
Johannes de Woodhall' k ux. iiijd. 


Lauiencius de Eccleshiir k ux. iiijd. 

Ricardus de Dalton' & ux. iiijd. 

Thomas le Webster & ux. iiijd. 

Ricardus Vndirwode & ux. iiijd. 

Johannes Grayby & ux. iiijd. 

Ricardus Wright* & ux. iiijd. 

Thomas serviens (servant of) Johannis, iiijd. 

Alicia relicta (widow of) Thome, iiijd. 

Margeria filia (daughter of) Thome, iiijd. 

Alicia filia Thome, iiijd. 

Johannes filius (son of) Johannis, iiijd. 

Bmma filia (daughter of) Johannis, iiijd. 

Johannes filius Ade, iiijd. 

Willelmus Grayf/ iiijd. 

Alicia Grayfdoghter, iiijd.. 

Thomas Wright,* iiijd. 

Christiana de Wodhall', iiijd. 

Isabella filia Thome, iiijd. 

It will be noticed that surnames and sirenames were 
not fully settled before 1400. John Tong, William 
Tong, and John Tong, junior, had undoubtedly sprung 
from Tong, near Pudsey. I have seen and photo- 
graphed an old deed at Tong Hall reciting that Richard 
de Tang, about 1270, held lands there. Thomas of the 
Kichyn had probably been, or his father before him, 
master of the kitclien in some great houseliold near. 
John Woodhall had sprung from the hamlet Woodhall, 
near Calverley, and Christiana is almost certain to 
have been his daughter. No payment could be claimed 
as Poll Tax for children under fifteen. 

Laurence Eccleshill was a yeoman of repute, but 
it will be found that his descendants abandoned the 
descriptive place-name Eccleshill, and became known 
as Laurence-son, Law-son, Law-daughter, Law-wife, 
till the name Lawson included both male and female, 
sons, daughters, and wives, as we foolishly write the 
name now for both sexes. Richard Dalton was an 
immigrant from Dalton, near Huddersfield, which 
pla€e was in Wakefield Manor, or we should scarcely 
expect to find him migrating so far. Richard-under- 
the-Wood resided near the wood. So far the surnames 
are derived from places, for I think Grayby is a mis- 
reading for Grayf. 



The second great class of surnames comes from 
trades, and it will be remembered that until quite 
recent times trades were strictly hereditary, or by 
apprenticeship. Thomas the Webster was the town's 
weaver ; Richard Wright was the town's wright, and 
may have carried with it the smith's trade. Thomas 
Wright would be his up-grown son. John Gray by, I 
take to be John the greave, and William as the Grayf s 
son, and Alice as the Grayf s daughter. Thomas was 
simply known as the servant of one of the wealthier 

The third division of family names is derived from 
the sires, and these were the last to become fixed. 
Alice was widow of a Tiiomas, and Margery, Alice, and 
Isabella were his daughters, though the last being 
written separately possibly was daughter of another 
Thomas. In course of time the naturally written 
Alice Thomas-widow, Margery Thom-daughter became 
absurdly written Alice Thom-son, Margery Thomson. 
John John-son, and Emma John daughter would 
appear in after times both as John-sons. John 
Adamson is the last on the list, but it does not 
follow that any of these names were rigidly adopted 
by their descendants, or that one man may not 
appear in two or three different names in his lifetime. 
We shall find several new names as we proceed. Thus 
in 1362 Thomas de (of) Tyrsall de Ekk^^^hill was con- 
stable of Ekk<?Z«hill. In 1365, Stephen filius (son) 
Alexander de Wyndhill, was fined vjd. (6d.) for 
drawing blood from Thomas Kirkman. The kirk-man 
may have been the tithe collector, but it is highly 
improbable that the story of the stoning of a priest can 
have any reference to Stephen's rash act, for affrays 
were more common then than now. In 1370, John de 
Wodhall, or as the natives would always say, John o' 
Wodhall, was the town's constable, and had a grave 
case to report, for Thomas the Tyncler was fined ijd. 
(2d.) for harbouring beggars against the regulations, 
and the said Thomas is a common nuisance in the 
neighbourhood to the disquietude of the people, there- 


fore his body is to be attached, that is, imprisoned, such 
is the irieaning of the Latin entry. In 1372, John of 
Tong was constable. Margaret, daughter of John of 
Pudsey, had a dispute at the Wakefield Court about 
some cattle, and had to pay 2d., probably equal to 40d. 
of our money. John Gibson (son of Gilbert, that is), of 
Eccleshill, was her opponent. There is also a long 
trial betwen Thomas, Vicar of the Church of Calverley 
(this would be Thomas de Insula, otherwise Thomas 
L'isle) and Alice, the widow and executor of the will of 
Robert of Shellawe (Chellow Dean) about viijs. pr. j. 
bove vendit dco Robt, aptid Pudsay ; Ss. for an ox sold 
to said Robert at Pudsey. 

1373, Laurence, son of William [of Eccleshill may be added], 

1374, William of Tong, constable, also in 1376 and 1378. 

In 1380 Thomas and William of Tong both appeared at court. 

In 1381 Laurence Lyle (little Laurence) was elected constable. 

1382-3, William of Tong, constable. 

1383-4, William of Eccleshill, constable. 

1386, John Michell, constable. 

1386-7, Richard of Wyndhill, constable of Eckeleshill. 

In 1393 Richard Batman (man or servant to Bate), 
was fined xijd. for drawing blood from John the Horse- 
knave ; Jolm Gybson was fined 6d. for obstructing the 
road which leads across the camp de Eckeleshill 
(Eccleshill Fields), This is interesting as shewing that 
Eccleshill, like all townships, had its common-field, 
which the inhabitants shared by annual arrangement. 

1396, Thomas the Milner was constable, and presented 
that William of Tong, John the Taillur, John of Wj^nd- 
hill, and William Jonson ought to have attended the 
court, and being absent were fined a groat each. It is 
probable that the 4d., or 6s. 8d. value in our day, would 
awaken them to their public duties next time. 

William of Tong succeeded as constable in 1397, and 
William of Kytchen in 139S, and John Wodhalle in 
April, 1398, and WilUam of Tong in October, 1399. 

We will now summarize the Eccleshill or Lawson 
family. Six hundred years ago, Morice de Eckeles- 
hill appears at the great Court at Wakefield as a 

K 2 


juror, where Radolphus le fporestar de Eckleshill in 
1272 was fined ijd., yes, two pence, for not going so far 
to attend the Tourn (non ven tiirn.J William de 
BccLESHiLL had a son Laurence, who was the leading 
man of the Township, and appears at Wakefield in 
1373, as Laurence fil Will, and in 1380, 1384, 1404, as 
Laurence de Eccleshill. The priest Stephen de 
Eccleshill Vicar of Bradford, 1374, was probably of the 
same family. His patron, William de Mirfield, was a 
large landowner in the neighbourhood of Bradford and 

Lawson. Laurence of Eccleshill, was father of 
William Laweson, who is mentioned in 1412, Robert 
Laweson, or Lawes, 1413, 1420, and Matilda Lawe- 
dowter, also mentioned in 1412. I have noticed other 
instances of the transition of surnames, as the Hansons 
from the de RastrickSy Simmes or Simsons from Simon 
de Ourum, &c. 

1373, Laurence fil Will , constable of Eckelshill. 

1382, Laurence Lyle, constable of Eccleshill, I take to be the same 

1383-4, William de Eccleshill, constable. 
1384, Laurence de Eccleshill, constable. 
1404, Laurence de Eckeleshill, constable. 

1412, Matilda Lawedoghter, William Laweson, and others, fined 
xijd. each for brewing an helpale and selling against the statute. 

1413, Robert Laweson de Eccleshill had under his charge two stray 
oxen : ^ij ones sunt ibm de strayure et in custod, de Roht.J 

1420, Robert Laweson, constable [the Constable, or Cuning Staple 
of the Saxons, was the King s Stay or Hold, and therefore a 
very appropriate name for the office. Others prefer the 
derivation from Comes Stabul^ and trace the office to the time 
of the Romans. High and petty constables were ordained 18 
Edw., I. There duties have varied at various times, and 
frequently, as will be seen, have been anything but agreeable.] 

1434, Robert Laweson was elected constable, and his name appears 
during his office, 1435, as Robert Lawes. 

ToNG. This family undouhtedly took its name from 
the township of Tong, near Birstall. An ancient deed 
at Tong Hall, which the late Col. Tempest allowed me 
to copy in photography, records: — ^^ Seiant p*sente8 Sf 
fiiluri qd ego Hugo de Nevelly d^tis de hrerelay^ dedi 
concessi ^ hae p'senti carta mea confirmam Ricardo db 


Tang, nian'tn de Tang,'' 8fc. Harl. MSS., No. 797, 
mentions Ricliard, son of Eskolf de Tange, and Hugh, 
son of David de Tange. From deeds, sans date, John, 
son of John de Tonge, held half a Knight's f(»e in Tong, 
4 Hen. IV. The first I have met with at Eccleshill is 
William de Tong, probably a descendant of the said 
Hichard. We have also to record Thomas, John, John 
the younger, and William the younger. 

1872, William de Tong, constable of Eccleshill. Also in 1373-6-8. 
1380, Thomas dePTong, and William delTong attended the Wake- 

iSeld Court. 
1382-3, William de Tong; constable. 

1396, William de Tong was presented for not attending the turn at 
Wakefield and fined iiijd. This was 1 suppose a heavy fine, 
and would teach Master William that fourteen miles journey 
was preferable to the fine. The Toum was the Sheriffs ( 'ourt, 
kept twice a year, viz: within a month after Easter, and 
Michaelmas, and so called because he takes the places in his 
circuit by turn, 

1397, William de Tong, constable. Also in 1399, 1400-1, 1407. 
1412, William de Tong, senior, was fined iiijd. for diverting from its 

right course the water of the town-well, and another iiijd. for 
not attending the turn. Was William afraid of going ? He 
had better have gone and cried " peccavi ! " 

1401, William de Tong, junior, seems to have exceeded his father, 
or namesake, in daring. This year he was fined xijd. for 
making a rescue from the constable in contempt of his Lord 
the King. In 1410, he was presented by the constable for 
drawing blood (trxt, sang J from Will. Huchonson de Baildon, 
and mulcted in xld. 

1422, John Tong was elected constable. 

1431, John Tonge was fined iiijd. non. ven turn, 

1436, John Tonge, constable. The wife of John Tongg, in 1436-7, 
was twice fined for brewing. 

1437, John Tonge fined iiijd. for not attending the turn, and again 
in 1439. The wife of John Tong was fined iijd. for brewing 
and selling, in 1439 fhrac, servis et vend), and again in 1440. 

De Woodhall. Johannes de Wodhall & ux paid 
the usual iiijd. in 1380, under the Poll Tax, and 
Christiana de Wodhall likewise paid iiijd. They 
undoubtedly took their name from Woodhall, on the 
borders of Calverlev. John was constable of Eckleshill 
in 1370, 1399, and'l420-l, and was fined iiijd. in 1416 
for not attending the tourn fnon. ven. tumj. 

Gkayf. Willelmus Grayf, in 1380, paid the Poll 


Tax, iiijd., and Alicia Grayfdoghter also paid iiijd. 
William Grayf, in 1412, was fined xijd. for brewing a 
helpale, and selling, and again in 1 415 and 1421, fbrac. 
lez. helphalea 8f vend.) In 1416 he was constable of 
EccleshiJl. In 1413, he was fined iiijd. for making 
a new alehouse (fee mi NewalehouseJ . 

Richard Orayf (Greyf,Graif, as it is variously written), 
was fined iiijd. for not attending the turn in 1401, and 
again in 1416. Richard Gryve was constable in 1421-2, 
and fined for brewing helpales in 1421, 1423, and 1426. 
Members of this family, who probably derived the 
name from an ancestor who served the office of greave, 
occur repeatedly. 

1413, John Grayf, fined iiijd. ffec un Newalehouse contra, stat.Jy 
and again in 1414. 

1414, Thomas Graif was elected constable; in 1416 fined iiijd. for 
not attending the Toum ; in 1423 attached for " hrac lez heU 
palest Thomas Grayf e was appointed constable again in 1425, 
and next year fined for brewing, and in 1427 for absenting the 
election of greave fnon ven, turnj^ iiijd. 

1427, William Grayf e appears as constable. 

1429, Thomas Grayfe, junior, non ven, turn, iiijd., and again in 
1431, in which year he was attached for brewing a helpale. 

1433, Thomas Grve, iunr., non ven. turn., iiijd., ditto in 1435, 1436, 
and 1437. Thomas Gryue was constable in the latter year. 

1438-9, William Gryue was constable, and Thomas G^yue, Smith, 
was fined iiijd., 7ion ven, turn,; and in 1440 he was twice 
amerced in iiijd., in 1442, 1443, and 1447, he had again to pay 
the fine. 

1446, William G'yue was constable, and Thomas G'yue was drawn 
to account for brewing a helpale the pre'^'ious year. 

1452-3-4, Thomas G'yue, non ven. turn,, iiijd. each year. 

1456, John Gryue, non ven, turn,, iiijd. 

1458, Thomas Grave, constable. 

1460, John Grayve was elected constable, but does not seem to have 
served the office. In 1462, John Gryue was elected constable 
and we find him serving the office in 1463-4 under the name 
John Bailee. I have no doubt they are one and the same 
person. In 1470-1, John Grave was constable for the township, 
and again in 1475 and 1483. 

1493, R — Grayve was constable of Eccleshill. 

1507, Willm. Grayfe de Bolton broke the pinfold of Eccleshill, and 
was amerced in iijs. iiijd. 

We have followed the Poll Tax families, Tong, Eccles- 
hill or Lawson, Woodhall, and Greave. The Kitchen 
family long continued here as the following notes will 


shew. Johnson possibly became Jackson; Thomson, 
Adamson, Dalton, Webster, Underwood, and Wright, 
if they remained in the township, became known by 
other surnames. One of the oldest names of Shipley 
district was Denby, Denbigh in more modern spelling 

1400, Thomas de Denneby was constable of KccleshilL 

1401, William of Tong, constable. 

1401-2, Thomas of Denby, constable, presented that William of 
Tong, junior, made a rescue from the constable of Eccleshill, 
in contempt of the lord the King, and for this obstruction of 
rules of justices, " inde alloc est " xijd. Richard Gryue 
(Greave) and John Mallynson were each fined 4d. (iiijd.) for 
not attending the turn at Wakefield. 

1404, Laurence of Eckeleshill, constable thereof. 

1406, John Brown, constable. 

1407, William del' (of the) Tong, constable. 

1409, Thomas Denby, constable; also in 1410, when he presented 
that William Tong, junior, drew blood from William Huchon- 
son, of Baildon, and was fined xld. This heavy fine, 4''d., 
denotes a serious case. 

In 1411, Thomas Denby was constable again, when 
John Gibson was fined 4d. for not attending tlie court 
at the election for the greaveship, and Richard Jacson 
was fined 6d. for brewing. Brewing and selling ales, 
and brewing helpales fbrae. helpalesj were very com- 
mon offences. The helpales were times when a person 
brewed for the neighbours for some help received at 
harvest, weddings, and other times. 

In 1412, Denby was again constable and presented 
that Matilda Lawedoghter (daughter of Laurence of 
Eccleshill), William Grayf, John Elys, William Lawe- 
son, and* Roger Colyer, each brewed a helpale and sold 
contrary to assize, each had xijd. to pay. William 
Tong, senior, was fined iiijd. for diverting the water of 
the town well from its right course. John Lumby was 
elected constable, but John Jakson's name appears as 
such at the next half-yearly court, when he presented 
that William Tong, senior, Robert Rycroft, and John 
Turner had not appeared at the turn as in duty bound, 
so were fined 4d. each. 

1413, John Lumby, as constable, presented that Robert Ricroft, 
John Grayf, William Graj-f, and John Lygerd, had made a 


Newe-ale-hous against the statute laws, and were each fined 4d. 
John Gybson was elected constable, October, 1413, and at the 
March 1414 court reported that William of Ricroft had made 
a helpale, fined 2d.; and two oxen were in the custody of 
Robert Lawe-son, of Eccleshill, which were strays, owners 

1414, Thomas Graif, constable, John Bery and John Graif made a 
Newalehous and sold ale. 

1415, William Ricroft, John , William Graif, and a fourth 

person were fined xijd. each for brewing *' helpales " and 
selling. William Grayf was elected constable. 

1416, Grayf, the constable, presented that John Bery brewed " lez, 
helphalesy Thomas Ibbotson was elected constable, and at 
the October meeting presented that Richard Grayf, Thomas 
Grayf, John Wodhall, John Jacson, and John Bery had not 
attended the turn. A fine of 4d. each was laid. 

1417, William de Ketchyn was constable. 

1418, Richard Bristowe, constable. 

1420, Robert Laweson, constable, presented that Margaret Bristowe 
this year, at Eccleshill, brewed *'le helphales," therefore is 
attached ; required to appear at the turn. 

1421, John Wodhall, constable. William Graj'f, Richard Grajrf, 
Johna Schofeld and John Berry brewed helpales, therefore each 
was attached. 

1422, Richard Grayf, constable. Thomas ffletcher, and John de 
Bere, were fined 4d. each for not attending the turn. 

1423, John Tong, constable. Thomas Grayf, Richard Grayf, 
William Streng, and John Bery ** hrac. lez helpales^ to attach^^ 

1425, John Jacson, constable. John Bery and Robert Coup'r fined 
4d. each for not attending the turn. 

1426, Thomas Grayf, constable. Richard Ibbotson, Thomas and 
Richard Grayfe, John Wyse, John Bery, and Thomas Ricroft, 
brewed helpales and sold to the detriment of the excise, there- 
fore attached. 

1427, William Grayf, constable. Robert Scheplay brewed. John 
ledebeter, Thomas Grayfe, and John Jacson were fined 4d, each 
for not attending the turn. 

1428, Robert Couper, constable. 

1429, Thomas ffletcher, constable. Thomas Grayf, junr., non, ven, 
turn, iiijd. (not attending the tourn). 

1430, John de Sawsere, constable. 

1431, John Tonge and Thomas Graive, iunior, fined 4d. each for 
not attending the Court. Thomas, also, and Robert Legard, 
had brewed helpales, so were attached, and Robert was elected 
constable for 1431-2. 

1433, John ledbeter, constable. Thomas Grve, iunior, William 
Wyke, and Thomas ffletcher fined 4d. each for absenting from 
the turn, and Wm. Wyke wa? attached as a common nocturnal 
nuisance. What the special complaint was, I do not know, but 
it could scarcely be " Paays, all hot ! " He was fined 4d. next 
year for not attending the turn. Robert Laweson, called at 

ANCIEKT EdCLfiSltlLL. l83 

the next court Kobert Lawes, succeeded ledbeter as constable 
in 1434, when Thomas Gryve (greave), iunr., was mulcted 
in 4d. for not attending the turn. 

1435, John Tongge, constable. John ledebeter, wryght, and John 
ledebeter, webstre, Robert Couper, and Thomas Gryue, iunr., 
non. ven, ad turn,^ iiijd. each. The wife of John Tongg was 
reported for brewing. 

1436, Thomas Bristowe, or Birstowe, was constable when John 
Tong's wife was fined 2d. for brewing, and Nicholas Tatursall 
4d. for not coming to turn. 

1437, Thomas Gryue, constable. Thomas G., junr., and John Tong, 
were fined 4d. as usual for absence. 

1438, William Gryue, constable. John Tong, Robert Wryght, and 
Thomas Gryue, smyth, 4d. each for absence. The wife of 
John Tong for brewing *' servis," some kind of beer, fined 3d, 

I take Robert the couper and Robert the wright to 
be the same person, and it is interesting to find that the 
two Leadbe^ters were not following their ancestor's 
trade as leadbeaters, but were wright and weaver 

1439, William Lister was constable. The name Lister means dyer. 

1440, Robert wryght, constable. Thomas Gryue at each half-yearly 
turn this year was fined 4d., and at one turn the wife of John 
Tong, " bras, servis if vend,** ijd. She evidently kept an 

1441, John Sawsree, constable. A priest of this peculiar surname 
was about the first of the Refolination martyrs. 

1442-3, William ledebeter served as' constable, and Thomas Gryue 
paid his usual fine. 

1443, Richard Walker, constable. Oliver Banke paid 4d. along 
with the old delinquent Greave. 

1444, William ledebeter and Oliver Banke brewed helpales. 

1445, William Lister, constable. Robert Wryght brewed. 

1446, William Gryue or Greave was constable. William Lister and 
Richard Walker for not coming to tourn, fined 4d. each. 
Thomas Gryue, Richard Doket, and William Wilson brewed 
helpales last year. 

1447, Hugh ledebeter, constable. John Smyth and Thomas Gryue, 
non ven. turn, iiijd. Arabic figures were very seldom used 
before 1500. 

1448, Robert Hare, constable. 

KiCHYN. Thomas del Kichyn and his wife paid the 
iiijd. due under the Poll Tax Act, 1380. William de 
Kytchen was constable of Eccleshill in 1398, and again 
in 1418, when the name is spelt Ketchyn. John 
Kychyn paid iiijd. in l-Jb^O, for not attending the Tourn. 
He was constable in 1454-5, 1465-6, constable elect in 


1477, but does not seem to have served ; constable, 
1486-7 ; constable elect, 14S8. His name appears 
Kechyn and Kichyn. In 1502, John Kechyn was 
chosen constable, and served the office also in 1514 
This John Ketchyn of Ekkylshyll was the only person 
in the township who was taxed 15th Henry VIII., 
when for his 40 shillings worth of " guds " he had to 
pay xijd. In 1529, Robert Kytchen was the constable. 
As he most probably inherited the *' 40s. guds," minus 
(of course) the xijd. gone to the King, he had where- 
with to make a will. I find amongst the wills at York 
that Robert Kitchyng of Ecclesell, parish of Bradforde, 
on the 3rd of June, 153 A (1537), ordered that his 
body be buried " within my parish churche yearde of 
Bradforde. To rny son Robert K., iiijli. To my 
brodre Richard, the close called Calfarode, iiij years. 
The rest to my wife and son Nicholas. Petre Mycell, 
my fader-in-lawe, and my broder Thomas K.,to be super- 
visors." Robert Kechyn in 1524, was fined vjs. viijd. 
for allowing illicit games at his house. Thomas 
Kitchyn was constable in 1535, and Richard in 1541. 
In 1562-3, Nicholas K. was constable, and in 1582. 
He made his will January 9th, 1594, wherein he 
mentions the third part of his estate called the " deades" 
part. His children Thomas, John, and Margaret, were 
to be under the guardianship of his wife. A Nicholas 
Kitchen of Idel, made his will in the March following 
but does not refer to the Eccleshill familv. In 1595, 
William Kitchyn, and Beatrix his mother, for not 
placing a wooden stele facalam silvestrumj in Hallywell, 
iijs. iiijd. It seems Eccleshill has had its holy well. 
Ip 1597, William Kitchyn was elected constable. He 
was fined ixd. in 1603 for not placing a gate at George 
Stubley's house end. Thos. Craven and he had a 
dispute, 1606. In 1606, he was fined xijd. for not 
yoking (?) his pigs, and ijs. for not sufficiently main- 
taining le Beckyate, and iijs. iiijd. for rescuing cattle 
from the fold. 

The following brief notes may add interest to Kitchen 
entries in Bradford Church llegister : — 


1607, William Kitchyn, constable of ficcleshill, and fined iiijd. for 
not ringing his pigs. 

1608, He was fined xd. fur having an affray with John Yates, and 
yjd. for not making a sufficient gate at the '* Stubley House- 
end," which was increased to xijd. in 1609, ^^ non fee. janua 
Stubley house end.** Also 2s. for not maintaining the Beck- 
yate. In 1610 Lyonell Rayner and he were fined 6d. each for 
not repairing the gate at the end of the house of George 
Stubley. Increased to 12d. each in 1611. 

1615. William Pollard de Tong fined xs. for drawing blood ftrax, 
sang.) from William Kitchyn. 

1616, Wm. Kitchyn, constable. He was fined 4d. for not ringing 
his pigs. 

1618, Wm. Kitchyn for not maintaining a gate, 2s., increased to 

6s. 8d. in 1618-19. 
1 622, Thomas Kitchyn elected constable. 
1626-7, William Kitchyn, constable. 
1638, William Kitchyn, for not sufficiently repairing a gate in 

Byerdole fence. 
1638, George Kitchen, 4d., and others, non annulaver nee suhingo 

posuer porcos stws (ringing pigs). 

1638, George K., 4d., John K., 4d., &c , for not ringing pigs, and 
Mr. George was delinquent again in 1641. 

1639, Charles Kitchen for not repairing the fences. 

1640, Uichard Stanhope and Thomas Kitchyn, for not making a 
gate between Apperley bridge and Calverley, xijd., to keep 
cattle from wandering from one common to the other. 

1641, John K., for not repairing a gate, 12d. 

1650, William Kit son was constable, probably meant for Kitchen. 

Those interested in witchcraft will find in Whitaker's 
"History of Leeds'* a long account of the trial of 
Hares, of Calverley, but fortunately the wicked 
practice of putting supposed witches to death was 
passing away in England, though the monstrous belief 
in witches has not yet died out even in our own day 
and locality. Whether Robert Hare was an immediate 
ancestor of the unfortunate Calverley people I have no 
means of stating, but he does not appear at Eccleshill 
again. He was succeeded by Thomas filetcher as con- 
stable of Eccleshill in 1449. I spell the name with ff, 
though it was merely a form of making a capital P at 
that time. 

Pletcher presented that Richard Walker, John 
Smyth and John Kychyn had not come to the turn, so 
they were fined 4d. each ; and he reported the wife of 


William Netherwood for brewing. Walker's ancestor 
liad obtained bis name from his calling of a walker or 
fuller at some fulling mill. 

1450, Thomas Bristowe was constable. 

1452, John Netherwood was constable. Emma Machon brewed. 
The Machons or Machin were a very old Bradford family and 
the name survives here still. 

1453, Apiil, William Lister, constable. Jacobus or James Machon, 
Patric Clement, Thomas Gryve and John Netherwood non veti 
turn, iiijd. each. 

1454, Thomas Bristowe, constable. 

1455, John Kechyn, constable. John and Thomas Gryve, Jacobus 
Machon and John Bristowe, non ven.y 4d. each. 

1456, Richard Walker, constable. John Qreave and Machon again 
fined 4d. each for absenting from the tourn. 

1457, Thomas ffletcher, constable. 

1458, Thomas Grave, constable. 

1459, Hugh ledebeter, called at the next tourn Hugh Cowper, 

1460, John Grayve, constable. Richard Walker brewed a helpale. 

1461, Richard Bestowe, constable. Evidently he was of the same 
family hitherto written Brestowe. 

1462, John Bestowe, spelt Birstowe at the next turn, was constable. 

1463, John Gryve was constable, and at the next turn he appears as 
John Baillee, which implied the same as Greave. 

1464, William Lister, constable. 

1465, John Kechyn, constable. 

1466, Richard Walker, constable. 

1467, Robert ffletcher, constable. 

1468, Robert Moresse, constable. 

1469, Thomas Bristowe, or Birkestowe, constable. 

1470, John Gryve, constable. 

1471, John Appulyerd, constable. 

1472, Richard Birkestowe or Hirstoghe, constable. 

1473-4, John Birstoghe, constable, /?«. qd, omnia bene^ presents that 
all his well. So much for the credit of Eccleshill f 

1474-5, John Grave, constable. 

1475-6, Robert Mores, Moresse, constable. Thomas Calverley, 
non ven, turn,, iiijd. 

1476-7, John Aldirles, constable. 

1477-8, John Kichyn, constable. 

1478, Richard Walker, constable. 

1479, Robert ffletcher, constable. 

1480, Robert Moress, constable. 

1482, John Grave, constable. 

1483, John Aldirsley, constable. 

1484, Richard Birstowe, constable. 
1485-6, William Birstowe, constable. 
1486-7, John Kechyn, constable. 
1487-8, Richard Mitton, constable. 


1488-9, John Kechyn, constable. 

1489, Ellas Wilkynson, constable. 

1490, John Walker, constable. 

1491, Thomas Walker, constable. 

1492, Thomas Bristoghe,' constable. 

1493, Robert Grave, constable. 

1494, Galfri filetcher, constable. 

1495, John Bristogh. constable. 

1496, John Scoles, constable. 
1498, Thomas Stubley, constable. 

1501, William Kent, constable. 

1502, John Kechyn, constable. 

1503, John Walker, constable. 

1504, Thomas Walker, constable. 
1504-5, Galfii filetcher, constable. 
1A05, John Walker, constable. 

1506, Richard Mitton, constable. 

1507, John P311es, constable. 

1508, Nicholas Rookes, constable. 

1510, John Walker, constable. 

1511, Nicholas Rookes, constable. 

1512, John Garford, constable. 

1513, Thomas Lylly, constable. 

1514, John Kechyn, constable. 

1515, John Walker, constable. 

1516, Christopher ffletcher, constable. 

1518, Robert Whiteynge, constable. 

1519, John Mitton, constable. 

1520, John [Richard?] Birkynshagh. 

1521, Jacubus or James Rideynge, constable. 

1522, the same. 

1523, John Stubley, constable. 

1524, Richard Lyster, constable. 

1525, Richard Jowett, constable. 

1526, John Stubley, constable. 

1527, Richard Hill, constable. 

1528, Edward Grenehall, constable. 

1529, Robert Kytchen, constable. 

1530, Richard Walker, constable. 

1531, Richard ffletcher, constable. 

1532, Christopher ffletcher, constable. 

1533, Thomas Armytage, constable. 

1534, Robert Whittynge, constable. 

1535, Thomas Kitchyn, constable. 

In 1507 Richard Wright and his wife were fined 28. 
for allowing cardes and other unlawful games in their 
house, and for receiving players into their house. 
John Walker at the same time was fined 5s. for making 
an affray on Richard Mitton ; whilst William Grayfe 


of Bolton had to pay iijs. iiijd. (Ss. 4d.) for breaking 
into the common pinfold jit Eccleshill. William 
Walker and John Walker, junior, were fined 2s. for 
making a rescue (either obstructing the constable or 
the pinder). Richard Smyth of Idill and Richard 
Leger of Idill were each fined xijd. for an affray, by 
force of arms, vi et armis, at Eccleshill. 

In 1516, William Mitton was fined 3s. 4d. for making 
a rescue from John Stubley and John Garthe at the 
common pinfold. John Garthe, I take to be John 
Gardford the constable of 1512-3. 

At this time Walter Calverley, Esq., of Calverley, 
like all other great tenants in the Manor, had to pay 
annually xijd. as soccage to the Lordship of Wake- 
field. In 1533 Walter Calverley, knight, still paid, as 
by obligation, as free tenant the yearly sum of 12d. 
John Walker in 1521 was fined Is. for breaking the 
common *'plebicit.'* Robert Kechyn had 6s. 8d. to pay 
in 1524 for allowing unlawful games at his house; 
" hospit. Ins. hid. ad lud. illicit.'' At the same time 
Robert Whiteynge and John Walker had lOd. each to 
pay for an aff^ray. They often fined both parties at that 
time for quarrels ; wisely, we presume. In 1527, 
William Gelles was fined vs. for making an aff^ray on 
Christopher filetcher ; and two years later a like sum 
was laid on Richard Lyster for an aflPray on John 
Byrky nshaghe, and Lyster had 1 2d. to pay also for not 
scouring or cleansing his drains in " le comon loyne," 

(^To he confiffued.J 





T. T. EM PS ALL, Esq. 

Continued from Pagk 8o. 

Kxplanation of contraction in the second column : w, n^t/c ; 

s, Sonne; d, daughter; ch. chitde. 


May ? Marie 







7 Hester 









19 Eliz. 




26 Jonas 

June 4 



7 Josuah 


12 Robert 




21 Marie 



July 2 

6 Jeremy 




18 Sara 


23 Christopher s 




30 Marie 

John Sugden, Little llorlon 

John Siig<len, Lt. II. 

William Ilawmond, Maningham 

John Smalpage, Claiton 

Widdow Hall, Thornton in Eccl, 

Etlward Walker, Gt. H. 

Thomas Ibbottson, Bd. 

Waller Jobson, Bd. 

Nathan Clegg, Lt. H. 

Thomas Kish worth, Thornton, unbapt. 

George Craven, Frizinghall in Heaton 

John Clarkson, Bd., unbapt. 

Jesper Broughton, Bd. 

Edward Mortimer, Gt. II. 

Widdow Crabtree, Heaton 

Lewis W^alson, Bd. 

Rol>ert Watlerhowse, Thornton 

Widdow Hill, Heaton, paup. 

Francis Smith, Bd. 

Widdow Tailer, Bd. 

John Lun, Bd. 

Widdow Hoyle, Bd. 

Thomas Clough, Lt. H. 

Robert Firth, Bd. 

Widdow Mitchell, Thornton 

Richard Allerton, Mann. 

Widdow Sugden, Gt. II., paup. 

John Drake, the elder, Thornton 

John Lister, Lt. H. in Eccl. 

James Dison died at Allerton 

Michaell Wood, Little H or I on 



Aug, 2 ch 


Oct. 27 Josiiah 

Nov. 20 

]>ec. 3 


18 Jeremy 

24 w 

Jan. 14 Sarah d 

25 Josuah 

Feb. 2 w 

9 Two Children 

II James s 

16 Kol>ert Law s 

17 ch 

28 w 

March. 2 


5 ch 

6 Henrie s 


21 ch 

22 Samuell s 


William Wood, Bd., unbapt. 
Anne Smalpnge, Claiton 
l*homas Craven, the elder, Bd. 
Michaell Metcalfe, Bd. 
John Lister, Lt. H. in Eccl. 
Widdow Bower, Ileaton 
William Pr.xter, Bd. 
Ilenrie Bradshay, ^Mann. in Eccl. 
Robert West, Bd. 
Thomas Clouj^h, Lt. H. 
John Crabtree* Bd. 

Gregorie Cockroft, in Eccl. 

Widdow Sale, Wooddall, Calverley Parish 

Jonas Preistlay, Gt. H. 

Edmond Smith, Bd., paup. 

John Crabtree, Mann, in Eccl. 

of James Smith, Bowlinge, unbapt. 

James Smith, Bowlinge 

Richard StanclifTe, Claiton 

Tobias Lawe, Gent., Thornton 

Richard White, Lt. H., unbapt. 

William Northropp, Mann., Smith. 

Michaell Drake, Thornton * 

William Hill, Gt. H., Collier. 

Peter Spratt, Hull, a Souldier. 

Richard StanclifTe, Allerton, unbapt. 

Henrie Kitchinge, Wilsden 

John Mortimer, the elder, Claiton in Eccl. 

William Jowett, Bd. 

John Hoyle, Bd., unbapt. 

James Garth, Heaton 

'I'homas Cordlay, Junr., Bowling 














10 John 

William Bower, Bd. 
ch Samuell Wadsworth, Thornton, unbapt. 

George Baker, Bowling 
w William Fearnside, Gt. IL 
d Widdow Tailer, Bd. 
ch Jeremy Dixon, Heaton, unbapt. 
w Jeremy Aked, Bd. in Eccl. 

Richard Pearson, Wibsay in Eccl. 
ch Jonas Chippingdaile, Bd., unbapt. 
ch Jonas Greenhough, Bd., unbapt. 
ch William Richardson, Byerley, unbapt. 

James Swaine, Bd. 

Thomas Roade, Bowling 

Widdow Crabtree, Bd. 
d Frances Smith, Bd. 
s John Lowrie, Claiton 

Edmond Braythwaite, Thornton in Feci. 

[ohn Judson, Bd., a Souldier 




ch Peter Snowden, Shipley, unlmpt. 

19 Judith 

d John Lowcocke, Bd. 



Robert Wright. Lt. H. 



Widdow Cawlheray, Bd., paup. 


w James Speight, Wibsay 


Two Chilihen of Marie Hill, Mann. 


Thomas Flill, Wilsden 
Rol)ert Ganiett, Gt. H, 


ch Robert West, Bd., unbapt. 


James Sale, Pudsey in Calverley Parish 



William WeliSter, Bd. 


John Illingworth, Mann. 

16 Susnn 

d William Jowett, Thornton 


ch Walter Jobjon, Bd. 


w. Walter Jobson, Bd. 



ch John Maivd, Bd. 


James Pickerin, Claiton, paup. 
ch Jonas Butterfeild 


w Abm. Waid, Wilsden 


d Abm. Waid, Wilsden 



w John Wilkinson, Mann. 



w Arthur Whiteley, Heaton 


Widdow Wilkinson, Wilsden 



d Richard Smith, Claiton 


ch William Rawson, Shipley, unbapt. 



Mr. John NichoUs, Gt. II. in Eccl. 


Thomas Crofi, Barkerend, Bd. 


s William Thornton, Lt. H. 


Adam Rtrrabie, Wilsden 


Widdow Oats, Claiton 
ch Rol)ert B(X)th, Bowling 


Thomas Richardson, Byerley in Eccl. 


James Short, ye elder, Thornton 


Widilow Pickard, Shipley 



Widdow Richard Sharpe, Tonge Lrdppe 

13 < 


d Robert Wilson, Heaton 



Edward Crabtree, Heaton 


s William Snowden, Bd. 



w Abm. Sharpe, Burstall 


Richard Chapman, B<1. 


Widdow Hargraves, Claiton 


d Abm. Denbie, Wilsden 



Richard Smith, Bowling 


Widdow Rawson, Shipley 


Thomas Ellis, Bd. 
John Hill, Wilsden 
Samuell Bower, Heaton 

23 ^ 


d Thomas Wilkinson, Mann. 


William Midgley, Bowlton 


Marie Pollard, Tyersall 



w William Seed, Bowlton 



Widdow Walker, Lt. IT. 



w Matthew Scott, Bd. 


Bartholomew Phenicke, Bd. 


George Wilkinson, Wilsden 


Edward Brooksbank, Wilsden in Eccl. 


w Peter Snowden, Bd. 




John Walker, Lt. H. 


Widdow Hall, Claiton 



William Beamond, Bd. 


d Richard Tailer, Bd. 




d John Jackson, Bd. 



d William Robinson, Thornton 

18 William 

James Swaine, late of Bd. 


Widdow Ellis. Bd, 


Widdow Phillippe, Bd. 



w John Jowett, Mann. 


John Gomersall, Byerley 
w Frances Drake, Bowling 



William Booth, Shipley 


William Rawson, Bowling in Eccl. 



Richard Jepson, Bd. 


William Denbie, Wrose in Gilverley Parish 



William Swallow, Gt. If. 


6 Abm. 

s William Jackson, Gt. H. 


Thomas Craven, Lt. H. 


w Henry Ramsboltome, Thornton 


Widdow Bentlay, Gt. H., paup. 



John Bradlay, Mann., paup. 


Richard Wilkinson, Mann. 


Widdow Robinson, Thornton 



Widdow Wright, Bd. 



s Widdow White, Lt. H. 


Matthew Cord ley, Wibsey 



William Jowett, Heaton 


George Ffields, Shipley in Eccl. 


Jeremye Thorpe, BiJ. in E<5cl. 



w James Hammerton, Pudsey 
Abm. Wade, Wilsden 


w William Jowett, Mooreside 



w William Jackson, paup. 
Samuel 1 Netherwood, Bd. 


w William Fletcher, Thornton 



Widdow Nicholls, Gt. H. 


Abm. Swaine, Lt H. 


w Tliomas Thornton, Gt. H. 


John Atkinson, Bd. 


William Pollard, Bowling 

March i6 

Widdow Booth, Gt. H. in Ecc 


Grace Pighells, Allerton 


w Christopher Lawson 




March 30 

Roger Pollard, Bowling 


Witldow Short e, Thornton 



Thomas Croft, Shoomaker, Bd 
ch Mr. Crossley, Bd., unbapt. 
John West, lid. 


George Hobson, Bd. 


w William Sugtlen, Lt. II. 



Christopher Lawson, Allerton 



William Jowett, Bd. 



Agnes Gibson, Bd. 


d John Mitchell, Shipley 



John Brigge, Thornton 

6 Marie 

d Samuell Fletcher, Thornton 


Widdow Brooksbank, Shipley 



w William Thornton, Lt. H. 
Jonas Ilalay, Thornton 


w lleniy Whearter, Ecclesfeild 


Michaell Dobson, Thornton 


Thomas Laml^rt, Calverley Parish 


Widdow Booth, Shipley 



Stephen Holdsworth, Claiton 
txhvard Jackson, Bd. 


w John Hill, Bowling 


w Joseph Rawson, Heaton 


EdwarJ Brooksbank, Shipley 


w William Ualy, Bowling 


w Abm. Barraclough, Ecclesfield 


w Sanniell Hodgson, Bowling 



Widdow Firth, Manningham, paup. 



William Wilkinson, Bd. 


w John Els worth, Bd. 


Thomas Ibbottson, Bd. 
George Pollard, Ecclesfeild 


ch Ralph Foster, Thornton 

Widdow Thornton, Mann., paup. 



w Joseph Greene, Thornton 



Widdow Blaymires, Wilisey ' 


w John Bdlmforth, Mann. 


w Abm. Barstow, Thornton 


Wm. Richardson, Byerley 


Thomas i lustier, Bd. 



w Rol>ert Phillippe, Claiton 


Jonathan Gaunt, Calverley Parish 


William Frankland, Gt. H. 


John Barstow, Thornton 


Widdowe Shortte, Thornton 




w John Wood, Gt. H. 
William Brash, Bd. 
w William Bell, Bd. 



May 6 Abm. s 

Jane d 


Grace d 



Jane 12 Grace 

17 Ellen 
July 2 Sara 

3 Marie 



16 Abm. 
20 Marie 

Aug. 3 Marie 


9 Ellen 


Sap. 2 Alice 

8 Ellen 


10 Ellen 


18 Barbary 


Oct. 8 
Nov. 4 

7 Marie 

Elizabeth d 


Dec. I Thomas 


4 Margrett 





8 Edmond 

13 Susan 

Matthew Dishforth, Bd. 

Thomas Ogden, Ecclesfeild 

John Sugden, Horton 
d Christopher Swaine, Bowling 

Stephen Arrandell, Claiton 

Peter Jowett, Thornton 
ch John Yarr, B<1., unbapt. 
w Stephen Arrandell, Claiton 
d Kichard Kent, Bd. 
w Frances Currer, Howling 
w Robert Pollard, Bowling 

James Jowett, Wilsden 
d George Wilkinson, Claiton 
d Jonas Booth, Claiton 
ch John Milnes, Ecclesfield 
w Abm. Ogden, Ecclesfield 
s Thomas Ogden, Eccleshili 
w Iloniphrey Kellett, liowling 

Thomas Thornton, Horton 
d Samuel 1 Deane, Mann, 
ch Robert Woods, Bowling, unbapt. 
w John Milner, Bd. 
ch John Dixon, Bd , unbapt. 

William Horton, IM. 
w Edward Vicars, late of Bd. 
w Rol)ert Duxbire, Calverley Paiish 
ch Richard Smith, Bd., unlmpt. 
w John Wilkinson, Mann. 

Abm. Barstow, Thornton 
d William Rawden, Mann, 
d Abm. Wilks, Mann. 

Margarett Himingham, Horton 

Susan Roads, Bd. 

Martin Ilaineworth, Claiton 

Ruben Snowden, Bd. 
d Jonas Craven, Fri2inghall 

Richard Home, Parish Clerk of Bradford 

William Lister, Bd. 

Mawde Beethom, Bast. 

Richard Sim, Bd. 

RoI>ert Smithies, Bd. 
s William Pullen, Bd. 

Samuell Pollard, Frizinghall, drowneil 
d John Walker, Horton 
d John Pearson, Bd. 
d Mathew Haineworth. Claiton 

Bartholomew Parkinson, Bd., slaine 
s Edmond Mammon, Claiton 

Elizabeth Brig^c, Wibsay, paup. 
d John Ellis, Bd. 
w James Wooller, Horton 





26 Anthony 

7 liestor 


II Josuah 



17 Sara 


25 Ellen 

29 Dorathie 

4 Susan 

6 Alice 

7 Elizabeth 

8 Margaret 


16 Judeth 

17 John 
20 Maria 
24 Rol>ert 

Karch i Grace 


II Sara 

14 Bridgett 



18 John 


Karch 25 

30 Anne 

April 7 Jeremy 


10 Martha 





Walter Nailer, Bd. 

Nicholas Maymond, Bowling 
s John Wilson, Bd. 

Thomas Hey, Master of Arts, Bd. 
d John Wilkinson, Claiton 

John Barrett, Bd. 
s Jonas Robertshay, Chiton 

John Roper, Claiton 
d Thomas Sharpe, Bowling 
w William Pullen, Bd. 

John Hill, B<1. 
w William Roads, Wibsey 
w John Vicars, Ecclesfeild 
s Abm. Rylay, Heaton 

Robert Hutton, Bierlay 
d William Rayner, Bd. 
w Cristopher Burnett, Bd. 
d William Allerton, AUerton 
w Robert Hutton, Bierley 

Jonas Deane, Denham 
w John Iredaile, Mann. 

Henry Atkinson, Bd. 

James Ellis, Bd. 
d John Hainworth, of Claiton 

John Whalley, Bd. 
s John Einshay, Bd. 
d Thomas Sharpe, Bowling 
s John Vicars, Ecclesfeild 
d William Collinson, Horton 
d Thomas Walker, Bd. 

Ru1>en Jobson, Bd. 

Marie Gleadhill, Horton 
d Abm. Moore, Claiton 
w William Booth, Bd. 
w William Bawie, Bierley 

Benjaman Shawe, Claiton 
s William Proctor, Bd. 

Abm. Baits, B<1. 
d John Roads, Bd. 
w William Boothman, Ecclesfeild 
w Jonas Oates, Claiton 
w John Watterhowse, Claiton 

Widdow Margret Northroppe, Mann, 
s John Sowden, Thornton 

Jonas Mortimar, Horton 
d Jonas Crowther, Bowling 

Grace Newall, Horton 

Jeremy Ellis, Bd. 
s Richard Eshton, Bowling 

John Mitchell, Bowling 








17 Maria 

18 John 
18 Jane 


4 Grace 

6 Sara 
10 Anne 


18 Maria 

23 Maria 



4 Margret 

7 Maria 


19 Sara 

9 Marie 

25 Sarah 


5 Ruth 
9 Marie 

13 Sisella 


23 Abm. 

28 Anne 
30 Elizabeth 


6 Anne 

13 Hannah 

20 Frances 

26 Thomas 
28 Edward 

I Elizabeth 


16 David 

24 Grace 
^8 William 

d Robert Holt, Bd. 
s John Mawde, Bd. 
w Bryan Foster, Mann. 

Arthur Whaleloy, Heat on 
s Richard Sim, Bd. 

George Benson, Horton 
w William Allerton, Allerton 
d Richard Hoodgson, Bowling 
d Charles Browne, Shipley 

Richard Shackleton, Claiton 
d Robert Wright, Horton 
d William Northroppe, Bil. 

John Mortimor, Laggrames 

Thomas Collinson, Bowling 

Charles Barraclough, Bd. 
s John Thompson, Bowling 
d John Walker, Horton 
d [onas Smith, Bd. 

Jennelt Crabtree, Bd. 

Isaack Hawmond, Mann, 
s Abm. Haineworth, Thornton 
d John Beamond 

William Mountaine, Bd. 
d John Wood, Bd. 
s Henrie Settle, Calverley Parish 
d Anthony Hirst, Allerton 

John Firth and John his Son, Bowling 
s William Bariles, Bd. 
d John Rigge, Bd. 

d Isaake Wormwall, Calverley Parish 
w John Mortimor, Clayton 

Bryan Foster, Mann. 

Samuell Stockdaile, Claiton 
d Stephen Banks, Bd. 
w William Rawden, Mann. 

Michaell Balme, Allerton 
d Thomas Walker, Bd. 

Nathaniell Mitchell, Thornton 
d Thomas Holmes, Bd. 
d Abm. Bordall, Bowling 
w Thomas Hewitt, Wibsay 

Ambrose Bins, Wilsden 
d George Williamson, Bd. 
s Thomas Walker, Bd. 
s Richard Kay, Bd. 
d Thomas Squire, Bd. 

Richard Allerton, Mann. 

George Wilkinson, Bd. 

Francis Weatherhead 
d Jonas Mortimer, Horton 
d Edward Walker, Horton 
s William Hey, Junr., Bd. 









30 Elizabeth 

1 Jeremy 


10 Jonas 



5 Daniell 


15 Marie 
22 Sarah 
29 Dorathie 



8 Marie 


9 Margrett 

29 Hester 

30 Jeremy 

14 Susan 

6 David 

12 Sarah 

13 James 
22 Si1)ell 
24 Sarah 
26 Susan 


5 Mary 


6 Lineld 

7 John 

8 Susan 


11 Agnes 

16 John 

24 Mary 

29 Mary 

31 George 

2 William 

3 Grace 
8 Grace 


Edward Hrewer, Bd. 
d Jostas Nicholls, Bd. 
d Jeremy Collier, late Minister at Bd. 

Edward Walker, Horton 
s Jarvas Dixon, Bd. 

Richard Home, B<1. 
s Thonias Gleadliill, Cockan 

Thomas Bower, Bd., ffair Beard 

William Pollard, Heaton 

Adam Hillhouse, Horton 

George Pollard, EcclesBeld 

William Rilay, Bil. Dicr 
w John Crowther, Wibsay 
d Rol)ert Wilson, Bd. 
w Thomas Jowett, late of Horton 
s Richard Higson, Bd. 

Richard Booth, Claiton 

Robert West, Bd. 
d Robert Whittingham, B<1. 
s Henrie Atkinson, Bd. 
w Richard Nephill, Bd. 

Judith Dobson, Bd. 
d William Smith, Bd. 
s Jeremy Ben, Bowling 

Joseph Dcrwen, Bd. 
d William Hay, Bailiff of Bradford 
s Peter Medcalf, Bd. 
d Thomas Houldsworth, Bowling 
s William Armitage, Ecclesell 
d Jonas Craven, Frizinghall 
w Martin Dawson, parish of Calverley 

James Knolls, Bd. 

William Crabtree, Heaton 
d John Mortimer, Gt. H. 
s Francis Drake, Bowling 
s John Raner, Eccleshill 
s James Whitteker, Claton 

Late wife of Simond Tailer, Bd. 

Joseph Hollings, Allerton 

Nathaniel Tayller 
w Thomas Clarke, parish of Leeds 
s James Hillyard, Bd. 
w John Jowett, Bd. 
d Matthew Oytes, Horton 

Late wife of Jeremy Ellis, Bd. 
s George Shires, Bd. 

John Sharpe, Gt. H. 
w Jonas Briggs, Lt. H. 
w Henry Briggs, Gt. H. 

James Holdroid, Bd. 



19 Zacharias 

s John Rayner, Ecclesell 


II John 

s John Whaley, Bd. 


Richard Tempest, Gt. H. 

18 Susan 

d Abm. Bawme, Allerton 

27 Nfary 

d John Wilson, Bd., Sadler 


Lyonell Fletcher, Eccleshill 
Mathew Royds, of Maningham 

31 Richard 

s John Sheafeild, Bowling 


5 Timothy 

s John Rayner 


s Thomas Hey, Eccleshell 

6 Jane 

w Bid ward Sharpe, Bowling 

6 Mary 

d John Ardisley, Bd. 

12 Hannah 

d Richard Thornton, Gt. H. 

14 s and d Henry Robinson, unbapt. 

25 Sara 

w John Smithyes, Gt. H. 


d James Clayton, Bowling 


20 George 

s William Greene, of Bd., buryed at London 

3 Grace 

d John Holdsworth, Claiton 

4 Elizabeth 

w Abm. Swifte, Clayton 


Prudence Jowett, Bd. 

15 Agnes 

w Henry Barraclough, Clayton 

18 John 

s Samuel Ashton, Bd. 

21 John 

s John Pickeringe, Halifax 

24 Ann 

d William Hollingrake, Horton 


9 Sara 

w Richard Hodgson, Bowling 

21 Jasper 

s John Ellis, Bd. 

30 Jane 

w Michael Sunderland, Bd. 


7 Elizabeth 

d Robert Denby, Calverley 



Isaack Maude, Horton 

15 Susan 

d Edward Crabtree, Claiton 


Margrett Wood, Bowling 

22 James 

s James Gibson, Bd. 


William Aked, Bd. 

28 Tliomas 

s Richard Richardson, Bierley 

29 John 

s William Hey, Bd., Bailiflfe 



Joseph Bawmeforth, Thornton 


s William Banes, Bd. 

10 Telnet 

w Joseph Hollings, Allerton 


John Hezell, Bowling 

24 William 

s Ruben Siiowden, Bd. 

27 Richard 

s Robert Green, Bd. Taylor 

29 Bridget 

w Edward Brookesbank, Wilsden 



Jonas Ashton, Horton 

7 Michael 

s Thos. Atkinson and Grace Darwin, Bast. 
Nicholas Farrand, Bd. 

14 Jeremy 

s Rol)ert Pinder, Bd. 

16 Judith 

w John Laycock, Mann. 

18 Sara 

d William Jowelt, Heaton 

24 Jonsis 

s Jonas Greenhough, Bd. 







Being some account of the origin and construction of that 

undertaking in the early years of the reign of 

George the Third. 



Law Clerk to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company. 

(With a Plan.) 

Pkefatoby Note. — Mr. Samuel Hailstone and his son, the late 
Mr. Edward Hailstone, F.S.A., filled in succession the office of Law 
Clerk to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company for nearly, if not for 
quite, a century. The latter for many years had no other professional 
occupation. He had from long personal association a strong interest in 
\ i and attachment to the Company and their Canal, and in the later years 


of his life, assisted hy his nephew, Mr. Arthur Hailstone, he collected a 
considerable mass of material with a view to the preparation of an 
historical account of the undertaking. 

These documents included many original memoranda and papers in 
the handwriting of Mr. John Hustler, and many other papers bearing 
on the subject. 

They came into my possession on my appointment as Mr. Hailstone's 
successor in 1888, and I have supplemented them by further notes and 
investigations of my own. 

I have also obtained some of the particulars as to Brindley and as to 
some other general matters bearing on the early history of English 
Canals from Mr. Smiles's graphic and admirable account of Brindley 
and his work in the *' Lives of the Engineers.'' 

From these data I have been enabled to prepare the sketch which is 
embodied in the following pages. It has amused and occupied many 
hours of enforced confinement at home, and though I am conscious that 


the story is defective and fragmentary in many respects and cannot be 
supposed to possess any general interest, I liope that it may be con- 
sidered not unworthy of attention. I regret that Mr. Hailstone — ^whose 
long personal knowledge of and intimate connexion with the Canal, and 
whose great love for antiquarian researches would have qualified him 
so well for the task — should not have been spared to carry out his 
intentions, and I gladly acknowledge my obligations to him, not 
desiring that my own labors should justify the criticism — " Hos ego 
versiculosjeci, tuUt alter honor es,^^ 

^IVf^ HEN the primeval savage found that it was 
^^X^ easier to float a log across a pool or down a 

stream than to carry it upon his shoulder 
or drag it through the forest glade, he discovered the 
principle of inland navigation. 

He found, though he could not explain it scientifically, 
that the resistance to traction caused by the displace- 
ment of water was much less than that of friction and 
gravitation. Many ages afterwards the simple arrange- 
ment of the lock, a water-tight space or chamber 
inclosed by gates in which the water could be raised to 
the level of a higher pool and depressed to that of a 
pool below, got rid of the diflficulties occasioned by falls 
and rapids, and when an artificial channel was carried 
round them in which the lock was placed, the elements 
of canal navigation were complete and have practically 
remained unchanged. 

For centuries past many English rivers and streams 
have been straightened, dredged and utilised as water- 

In the important industrial district of which Leeds 
is the centre, the necessity for such facilities was long 
ago apparent. 

In 1698 the mayor and several aldermen of Leeds, 
amongst them Joshua Ibbetson and William Milner, 
ancestors of the Ibbetsons of Denton and the Milners 
of Nun Appleton, and Sir Lionell Pilkington and 
other Wakefield gentlemen obtained an Act of Parlia- 


ment by which they were coDstituted Undertakers of 
the Navigation of the Rivers Aire and Calder. They 
had power to straighten, improve, scour, and cleanse 
the channels of those rivers between the bridges at 
liceds and Wakefield, and Weeland, a village on the 
Aire, a short distance above the point where it joins the 
Ouse. They were entitled to charge tonnage on every 
ton of cloth and other goods conveyed up and down the 
streams, and thus was provided a waterway, tortuous 
and shallow no doubt, but vastly cheaper than land 
carriage between the Clothing Districts of Yorkshire 
and the ports on the Humber, a waterway destined in 
the future under able management and by a long 
series of bold and judicious improvements and by the 
creation of the port of Goole to develop into that 
great navigation which is now one of the most useful 
and successful and not the least remunerative among 
the waterways of England. 

The Act specially preserves to the Corporation of 
Pontefract an ancient toll of *' 4d. for every vessell with 
a cock-boat and 2d. for every vessell without a cock- 
boat passing between Templehirst and Knottingley 
Mills," thus indicating clearly that the River Aire had 
been used for the purposes of navigation long before. 

During the long and peaceful administration of Sir 
Robert Walpole the country had been rapidly growing 
in prosperity and wealth, and nowhere had the progress 
been greater or more general than in the manufacturing 
and coal producing districts ot Yorkshire and Lanca- 
shire, and consequently at the accession of George the 
Third to the throne in 1760, the merchants and manu- 
facturers of the West Riding were extending the 
production and distribution of their goods and were 
anxious to discover new markets for them both at home 
and abroad. Now to further this object, an advantage 
at that tim^ by no means easy to secure had become 
an imperative necessity, namely, cheap transit for raw 
material and manufactured goods. 

In view of the natural advantages possessed by 
England for the construction of canals, it is remark- 


able that we should have been the last nation in 
Europe to adopt this means of conveyance, yet it was 
so ; for in 1760 the canal was as entirely unknown in 
England as the railway, and no facilities existed for 
what we are accustomed in our day to regard as a 
matter of course, cheap, safe and easy means of transit 
for passengers and goods. The disgraceful condition of 
the roads in general rendered land carriage not only 
tedious and costly but even dangerous, and many places 
were practically inaccessible in winter for wheeled 

Arthur Young, who in 1770 travelled through the 
country between Liverpool and Manchester, gives a 
lively description of the state of the roads as he found 
them in that district, " I know not," he writes, " in the 
whole range of language words sufficiently expressive to 
describe the infernal road. Let me most seriously 
caution all travellers who may accidentally propose to 
travel this terrible country to avoid it as they would 
the devil, for a thousand to one they break their necks 
or their limbs by overthrows or breakings down. They 
will here meet with ruts, which I actually measured, 
four feet deep and floating with mud only with a wet 
summer: what therefore must it be after a winter? 
The only mending it receives is tumbling in some loose 
stones which serve no other purpose than jolting a 
carriage in the most intolerable manner. These are 
not merely opinions but facts, for I actually past 
three carts broken down in these eighteen miles of 
execrable memory." Under such conditions pack- 
horses were still very generally used for the carriage of 
goods. A few turnpike roads had been constructed and 
others were projected, but the system was highly 
unpopular and had caused furious rioting in the 
neighbourhood of Bradford as well as in other parts of 

Navigations and canalised streams no doubt existed 
where they were available, and the Duke of Bridge- 
water had already in 1769 obtained the first of the Acts 
of Parliament under which his well known canals 


were constructed; but until the I7th of July, 1761, 
when the first boat load of coal crossed the famous 
aqueduct at Barton on its way from Worsley to Man- 
chester, no canal in the sense of an artificial water- 
way for barges regulated as to level by locks existed 
for commercial purposes in this country. 

Thus as we have seen, the commencement of our 
present system of inland navigation coincided with 
the date of the accession of George the Third, a system 
which was during his long reign to be developed, per- 
fected and extended throughout the whole country, and 
it is not without interest to remark that in this year of 
grace 1897, when we congratulate our most Gracious 
Sovereign and ourselves her loyal subjects on the still 
longer continuance of her eventful and glorious reign, 
we may remember that as the waterway was the chief 
creation of engineering skill in the days of her grand- 
father so the sixty years of her own reign have wit- 
nessed a far greater triumph in the railway, the most 
perfect means of transport which human ingenuity has 
yet devised. The full development of the railway 
system, its swift growth and its marvellous expansion 
over the whole area of Great Britain may well count 
as the crowning achievement of the Victorian Era. 

The first of the Bridgewater Canals when opened 
proved at once a great commercial and financial success. 
One horse could draw from forty to fifty tons weight. 
The price of coal in Manchester fell 50 per cent, and 
canal navigation was at once recognised as marking a 
distinct and most important advance in carrying 
facilities. The Duke at once proceeded to extend his 
canal to Runcorn and thus supply those more adequate 
means of communication which were so greatly needed 
between Liverpool and Manchester. Numerous other 
canals were projected and the most brilliant antici- 
pations were formed as to the success which was 
likely to attend them. Amongst other Yorkshire towns 
Bradford and her inhabitants shared in the general 
excitement. The town at that time cannot have con- 
tained more than 5,000 inhabitants, but then as now. 


though on a smaller scale, it was the centre of a busy 
trading community. Bradford was isolated and for 
facilities of transit to or from coast or country it was 
badly situated. To the east the road to Leeds climbed 
the steep slope to Bradford Moor and kept high up on 
the hill side until it descended at Kirkstall into the 
Valley of the Aire. At Leeds the navigation of the 
Aire was available to Hull or Grimsby, Goole as yet 
existed not. 

To the west Liverpool was then rapidly rising into 
the first rank as a sea-port. It was of course a very 
different place as compared with the great and opulent 
city which now with its satellites of Bootle and Birken- 
head fringes the Mersey with miles of the finest dock 
accommodation in the world, sends forth its ships to 
traverse every sea and welcomes in its capacious haven 
the mariners of all nations. The population is not 
now much below three-fourths of a million, in 1769 
it was 34,000. The Slave trade was then in full vigour 
and Liverpool was the commercial and financial centre 
of the traffic. The capacity of a vessel for the carriage 
of slaves was not infrequently advertised, and instead 
of the floating palaces which now arrive and depart 
almost daily with unfailing regularity, the average 
tonnage of the larger vessels did not exceed 400 tons. 
I need hardly add that steam-boats were unknown. 

Liverpool was not more than seventy or eighty 
miles distant from Bradford, but it lay on the other side 
of the great range of hills known as the Pennine Chain 
which divide Yorkshire from Lancashire, and weeks 
were consumed in the tedious and costly transit of 
goods across Blackstone Edge. 

Water communication from east to west the trading 
community of the West Riding were now determined 
to have, and many minds were doubtless busied with the 
problem as to how it should best be effected. The idea 
of uniting the headwaters of the Aire and the Ribble 
and by rendering them navigable creating a waterway 
from Leeds on the east to Preston on the west seems to 
have occurred to more than one person. 


In the York Courant of 7th August, 1764, a para- 
graph appeared which after some general remarks on 
the advantages of cheap carriage continued as follows: — 

"As the Rivers Aire and llibble may be so easily 
joined at different places and rendered navigable 
between Leeds and Preston at an expense which the 
gentlemen who have estates on their banks may 
readily supply, it is thought proper to mention it to 
the public at this juncture. No season can be so 
proper for effecting works of this nature as times of 
peace when men and money can be no otherwise so 
well employed." 

At this time Mr. John Hustler, of Bradford, was 
largely engaged in business there as a woolstapler and 
dealer in wool, and was either then or shortly after- 
wards in partnership with Mr. Edmund Peckover 
under the firm of llustler & Peckover. Mr. Hustler 
was about 60 years of age, a member of the Society of 
Friends, intimately connected with the principal mem- 
bers of that body throughout England, and a man of 
great foresight, tact, energy, and determination. John 
Longbottom had been a pupil or assistant to Smeaton 
the Engineer, and also I believe to Brindley the well- 
known Engineer who had risen to the first rank in his 
profession by the construction of the Bridgewater 
Canals, and was at this time recognised as the greatest 
authority on the subject. Longbottom, like most other 
engineers, seems to have been casting about to promote 
schemes for the making of canals, and was probably 
the authority for the paragraph in the York Courant 
to which I have referred. He was a native of Halifax, 
and it seems likely that he first brought the idea of a 
canal from Leeds to Liverpool before Mr. Hustler. 

Amongst some of that gentleman's papers which are 
in my possession I find a notice apparently written for 
insertion in a newspaper, though I have not found any 
paper in which it appears. 

It is endorsed "Address to the public " in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Hustler, and begins by stating that 
Oreat Britain being nearly 800 miles from north to 


south and the navigation round the extreme points 
tedious, dangerous and expensive, a navigable cut 
from east to west not much above 100 miles is a very- 
interesting and important object, and the late improve- 
ments made in canal navigation by a noble lord has 
demonstrated it to be practicable. It should com- 
municate, says the writer, at each end with a capital 
and safe port. 

The produce of Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, 
Poland, Germany, Holland, Flanders, as well as the 
Eastern Coast of Britain wanted upon the Western, and 
those of the West Indies, North America, Ireland, and 
of the Western Coast wanted upon the Eastern, will not 
be subject to the danger, damage and great expense and 
delay attending the passage North and South, which 
are great even in times of peace, but in war are incon- 

Two schemes are stated to be in agitation. A canal 
between the Trent and the Weaver, and one from 
Manchester to Sowerby Bridge, each proposing to unite 
the ports of Liverpool and Hull. Both these being 
river navigations would be subject to the dangers and 
delays caused by storms and floods, and the proposed 
canals were on too narrow a plan "evidently rendering 
them incompetent to this grand national object." 

Having thus disposed of the competitive schemes, the 
writer proceeds as follows : — 

" It must be acceptable to the public to be informed 
that a person with great industry and application has 
discovered an opening betwixt the mountains of 
Yorkshire and Lancashire which is the most eligible 
if not the only one nature has formed for this im- 
portant work, and that a plan and estimate is in con- 
siderable forwardness and will soon be laid before it 
of an entire navigable canal from Liverpool to Hull, 
proposed to be thirty foot wide and six foot deep, to be 
navigable with boats of sixty tons burden, to perform 
the passage regularly and constantly from each of the 
said ports to the other in three days, and which it 
will be demonstrated may aiford to carry goods 


through at six shillings a ton, and through all the 
intermediate space in proportion." 

Purther advantages are pointed out, and the writer 
adds, " We have seen greater sums than this will cost 
laid out in a hridge, an hospital, and other public works, 
hut not one or all of them together ever promised 
a fiftieth part of the national improvement and 
advantage ! " 

It is amusing to note that the word fiftieth was 
originally written fifth and was afterwards altered in 
the manuscript, and we cannot but smile also at the 
astonishing discovery of a north-west passage through 
the wilds and between the mountains of Foulridge and 
Colne, now traversed by a railway in which no tunnel 
has been found necessary, the highest point being about 
450 feet above the sea. 

In these days when millions of capital are readily 
available and vast works of constructive engineering 
are undertaken by a single contractor and carried out 
by an army of skilled workmen assisted in every 
operation by steam power and mechanical contrivances 
as elaborate as they are ingenious, we are apt to forget 
how diflferent were the conditions under which the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal was promoted, designed, 
and to a considerable extent constructed in the first 
twenty years of the reign of George the Third. 
Accumulated fortunes available for new and speculative 
investments were by no means common, steam engines, 
except for pumping, were unknown. Great contractors 
were not in existence. Hallways, donkey engines, 
steam diggers, were all unavailable, and canals them- 
selves a novelty in which many details were to be 
learned from experience ; moreover the army of 
nomadic giants who now cluster round every great 
work of construction, had to be created, trained and 
disciplined for intelligent and organised labour in the 
construction of canal navigation, from which they were 
to derive their present ordinary appellation of navvies 
or navigators. 

The great project thus suggested, to whomsoever 



we must ascribe the credit of the original idea, was 
at once taken up by Mr. Hustler above all others 
with the utmost energy and enthusiasm, and from this 
time to his death in 1790 he spared neither time, 
money nor trouble in promoting the scheme, in 
obtaining the necessary powers from Parliament, in 
superintending the finances of the concern as treasurer 
and its construction and management as a most active 
member of the Committee. 

He persuaded or induced many of the wealthy and 
prudent members of the Society of Friends to con- 
tribute largely to the capital, and though he was ably 
assisted by many other gentlemen, including several of 
the leading inhabitants of Bradford, it is not too much 
to say that he was throughout the leading spirit of 
the undertaking. 

Nothing illustrates this fact more forcibly than the 
intimate connection which existed from the first, always 
continued to exist, and exists to-day between the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal Company and Bradford, a town 
which curiously enough is not on the line of the Canal 
and which is only connected with it by a separate and 
independent undertaking, the Bradford Canal. 

The original meetings for promoting the Company 
were held at Bradford, where also the meetings of the 
committee of management and the general assemblies 
of the shareholders were regularly and frequently for 
many years in the past and are still occasionally held, 
and in this town the head office of the Company was 
located for three-quarters of a century, until about 
1860 when it was removed to Liverpool, and the hand- 
some and substantial offices were sold to the Bradford 
Savings Bank which still own and occupy them. The 
bankers and the legal advisers of the Company have 
always been located in Bradford. The former, now the 
Bradford Old Bank, owe their foundation as bankers 
under the firm of " Peckover, Harris & Co." in 1805, 
to Mr. Peckover, already referred to as at one time a 
partner with Mr. Hustler; and the present chairman of 
the Bank, Alfred Harris, Esq., has for many years pre- 


sided as Chairman with conspicuous ability over the 
Canal Company. 

I am, however, anticipating the course of events and 
must recur to the year 1766. 

In the Leeds Intelligencer of the 24th of June in 
that year there appeared a notice, headed " Navigation 
between the East and West Seas," stating that 
" whereas such a navigation would be of great utility 
to trade, especially in time of war, and more particularly 
to the Counties of York and Lancaster, a meeting 
would be held at the house of Mr. John Day, known by 
the Sign of the Sun in Bradford aforesaid, on Wednesdav, 
the 2nd day of July, 1766, at 10 of the clock in the 
forenoon, to consider of the proper ways and means to 
effect such navigation, at which meeting the nobility, 
gentry, and clergy of the said several counties, and all 
others who think it their duty to interest themselves in 
a matter of so great importance are requested to attend." 

One need not be very old to remember the house of 
Mr. John Day known by the Sign of the Sun, which 
was in our own time under a well known landlord, 
Mr. John Wilman, a comfortable, respectable and well 
frequented hostlery, now, alas, improved off the face of 
the earth, much of the site thrown out to widen the 
public highway, the rest occupied by the imposing 
offices of the Prudential Assurance Company and 
surrounded by the handsome streets and palatial 
buildings of modern Bradford. 

Let us imagine and try to restore for a moment the 
scene which presented itself to the eye on that July 
morning in 1766. 

The Inn itself probably existed as we knew it, a three 
storied stone building of plain and substantial appear- 
ance at the foot of tlie steep hill of Ivegate, one of the 
three or four main streets of the town and the main 
road to Bingley, the Aire Valley, and the North. The 
Inn looked to the South upon the bridge already and 
still known as Sun Bridge by which the road was 
carried across the Bradford Beck. On the other side 
stood the Town Prison, and away on the right the 



Bowling Green Inn and the vacant area in front, beyond 
which the road passed into the Hall Ings or Meadows, 
and between fields dotted with farm houses and cottages 
which then divided Bradford from the neiorhbourins: 
hamlet of Bowling. Oq the right of the Inn a lane 
led by the side of the Beck to the ancient Soke Mills, 
and on the South side of the Beck were the Tyrrels or 
Turles, open fields in which the Cockpit and the Bowling 
Green supplied the inhabitants with recreation and 
excitement. The Ducking Stool, the Bull Ring, and 
the Pillory still existed, and men and women were 
still flogged at the Cart's Tail. The Sun Inn must 
often have profited from the concourse and excitement 
caused by the spectacles thus afforded. On the left of 
the Inn and on the other side of Ivegate were a few 
shops and dwellings divided from the Beck by a narrow 
lane. No factory chimney as yet belched forth its 
filthy volume of dense and sooty smoke to obscure the 
sunny sky, and the bubbling of the stream, still pure 
and unpolluted, mingled pleasantly with the cawing of 
the rooks in the great rookery which then occupied the 
site of the present Bradford Exchange. 

The meeting was summoned, as we have seen, for the 
early hour of ten a.m., and the roads being bad and 
wheeled vehicles scarce, the nobility, gentry, and clergy 
who attended, would doubtless arrive, when they came 
from any distance, on horseback. Mr. Lecky has told 
us that the space of two long lives is sufl5.cient to bridge 
the chasm that separates us from a society that would 
appear as strange to our eyes as the figures of a fancy 
ball, and like these unfamiliar forms would seem 
to us now the picturesque cavalcade which came that 
morning galloping over the Sun Bridge or riding 
slowly and cautiously down the steep rugged street of 
Ivegate, those old Yorkshire and Lancashire merchants, 
gentlemen, and yeomen, in their wigs, their quaint hats 
(much more sightly and comfortable, by the way, than 
the modern chimney pot), their heavy riding boots, and 
with their many coloured costumes shewing under their 
riding cloaks. We may imagine the stir and com- 


motion aroused in Bradford that day by the arrival of 
80 many important strangers at " the Sign of the Sun," 
where Mr. Hustler, clad in sober drab contrasting with 
the gay attire of the other gentlemen, doubtless 
awaited them. 

The minutes of the meeting are preserved. They 
state that the object was to consider the proper means 
and ways to effect a navigation that will connect the 
East and West Seas, and communicate with the great 
ports and trading towns of Hull, Leeds, Wakefield, 
Bradford, Keighley, Skipton, Colne, Burnley, Clithero, 
Jilackburn, Wigan, Liverpool, Preston and Lancaster. 

The minute further states that after consideration of 
several plans " It is the opinion of this meeting that 
such a navigation is practicable, and will be of great 
utility to the trade of the kingdom in general, and 
particularly of the Counties of York and Lancaster. It 
is therefore resolved that a subscription be set on foot 
for raising money for defraying the expenses of making 
and comipleting the proper plans for effecting the said 
navigation and forming estimates of the expense 
attending the execution of such plans." 

Mr. Richard Markham, merchant, Leeds, was to 
receive subscriptions, and those in Bradford were to be 
paid to Mr. William Thornton, who was a retired 
solicitor, then residing at Shipley Hall, and was, I 
believe, if not the founder of, at all events a predecessor 
in, the practice afterwards carried on by my own firm. 

The meeting was adjourned to the 2nd August, and 
£129 was subscribed towards expenses ; and the 
following is a list of the subscribers : — 







Jo. Buck and Son 

• • 



Henry Wickham, Junr. 10 


C. S. Booth 

• « 



Edward Leedes 

.. b 


Wm. Stanhope.. 




Saml. Lister . . 

. . 6 


Thos. & Hatton Wolrich 



R. Markham . . 



Wm. Wainman 



John Whitaker 

.. 6 


Edmund Lodge 



Isaac HoUings . . 

.. 6 


F. Fearnley 



Richd. Richardson 

.. 10 


Jno. Stanhope . 



Wm. Stanhope 

.. 5 


Ric. Wilson 



Will. Thornton 

.. 5 


Benjn. Ferrand 



182 • TrtE BUADFOtlD AlfTIQUARt. 

It is curious to note that the minute does not mention 
either Mr. Hustler or Mr. Longhottom as being present, 
though the latter was undoubtedly the author of one 
of the plans considered by the meeting, and I have a 
note by Mr. Hustler as to the list of subscriptions 
which shews that he was already an active promoter of 
the scheme. 

Of the adjourned meeting on the 2nd August, 1766, 1 
have no record, but a list of further subscriptions by 100 
persons is added to the previous minute as subscribed 
on that day, Mr. Hustler subscribed £5 Ss. Od., and 
amongst the subscribers are many names of ancestors 
of present holders of stock in the Company, and many 
gentlemen afterwards prominently identified with it. 
The list clearly indicates the increasing interest which 
the proposals were exciting. Mr. John Day, mine host 
of the Sun, subscribed a guinea, which doubtless repre- 
sented but a small discount oflF the numerous bowls 
of punch, tankards of ale, bottles of port, and other 
liquids, over which the merits and fortunes of the 
undertaking had been discussed under his roof, to say 
nothing of other sources of profit which the meetings 
had brought him. 

On the 5th of August, 1766, three days after the 
meeting, Mr. Hustler addressed to the Leeds Intelli- 
gencer a long letter signed with his initials, stating the 
pleasure with which he contemplated the scheme, and 
describing the benefits which would ensue under seven 

There was, as before stated, a rival scheme for a 
canal from Sowerby Bridge to Manchester, in con- 
junction with the Calder and Hebble Navigations then 
recently authorised by Parliament and constructed, 
and accordingly in the same newspaper in September, 
1766, there appeared a letter signed •* J. T." criticising 
with great hostility Mr. Hustler's views. 

The writer first expresses his approval of the rival 
scheme, and proceeds as follows : — 

" But I can't help observing with concern, in several 
of your papers, advertisements proposing a junction of 


the said two seas by making the River Aire navigable 
as far above Leeds as practicable, and carrying it on by 
canal to Preston, Lancaster, &c., at an expense so 
exorbitant that it will not be possible for all the freight 
that can ever accrue from such navigation to pay an 
adequate interest for, nor will the reader at all wonder 
at this assertion when he is told that on a moderate 
computation it is rated at £150,000. 

" Supposing it practicable, indeed, to raise this 
enormous sum, which I don't admit, and that there was 
a probability of making even a tenth part of the 
interest wliich the original proprietors of the Aire 
Navigation make at present, I will allow it might be 
some inducement to attempt such a work, but as 
probability in both respects seems greatly against it, and 
the above much more practicable scheme (which I hear 
is determined to be put into execution) being once 
eflfected, it will certainly render the proposed Airy one 
absolutely unnecessary if not entirely useless, for 
whatever goods or merchandise it may be neadful to 
send from the East to the West Sea (and vice versa) ^ 
may with equal propriety, more ease, and it's presumed 
less expense, be conveyed by one or other of the 
intended navigations of Trent or Calder than by the 
proposed one to Lancaster, and that those two 
navigations when finished will be abundantly sufficient 
to convey all the goods that can possibly be wanted to 
and from the port of Hull to the West Sea, will scarce 
be controverted. 

" How far then it may be consistent with prudence, 
even supposing it practicable, to attempt a third 
junction of the two seas from one and the same port is 
a point that ought to be very maturely weighed by 
every intended subscriber, as it requires no very 
extraordinary degree of sagacity to demonstrate that 
they cannot all succeed. 

" Many other arguments might be urged to shew the 
inutility of such a scheme, supposing it practicable, and 
the absurdity of it considered in its present light, was 
not what is already offered abundantly sufficient to 

184 *Hfi fiRA^D^OllD AlfTtQX/ARV. 

convince all noblemen, gentlemen, merchants, &c., 
that this proposed navigation of near 150 miles in 
length, to be executed at the expense of £150,000 or 
£200,000, is in every sense of the word a most 
extravagant project/' 

This gentleman's notion of the extravagance of an 
expenditure of £150,000 to £200,000 upon 160 miles of 
canal, sounds strange in an age when a confiding public 
provide millions to carry on the manufacture of India 
rubber wheel tires, or the production and sale of the 
article now advertised as Bovril. 

After the holding of the Bradford meetings, Mr. 
Longbottom appears to have proceeded with his survey 
and estimate, though the minutes do not disclose any 
instructions to him to do so. 

On Tuesday, 29th December, 1767, an advertisement 
appeared in the Leeds Intelligencer and other papers, 
stating that some further progress had been made in 
surveying the Rivers Aire and Ribble and the grounds 
adjoining thereto, with a view to a plan and estimate of 
the proposed navigation, and a meeting is then called 
of all the gentlemen who have already encouraged or 
are desirous to encourage this public-spirited under- 
taking, to be h€^ld at " The Sun " on 7th January, 1768. 

At that meeting Mr. Longbottom attended, his plan 
and estimates were considered, and the scheme was 
approved, lie proposed a line of canal which followed 
closely the line of the Aire to Gargrave, then diverged 
across the Aire Valley to the west, crossed the hills into 
Lancashire at Foulridge and proceeded by the Ribble 
Valley to Ormskirk and Liverpool. A Committee con- 
sisting of ihe following Yorkshire gentlemen was 
appointed : — 

Kichd. Wainman, Esq. Benjamin Ferrand, Esq. 

Henry Wickham, Esq. Saml. Lister, Esq. 

Jno. Stanhope, Esq. Mr. Richard Markham. 

Richard Wilson, Esq. Willm. Thornton, Esq. 

Mr. John Hustler. Walter Stanhope, Esq. 

Dan. Roundell, Esq. Richd. Richardson, Esq. 

Josh. Morlcy, Esq. Mr. Isc. Hollings. 


They were to meet with a like Committee to be 
appointed in Lancashire, and the joint committees were 
to pay Mr. Longbottom for his survey and estimate, and 
to call on Mr. Smeaton or Mr. Brindley to report upon 
it as soon as possible with a view to an application to 
Parliament. Mr. Markham and Mr. Hustler were 
appointed treasurers, but the former was soon removed, 
and Mr. Hustler became the sole treasurer in Yorkshire, 
and subsequently the general treasurer of the under- 

The Yorkshire Committee again met at "The Sun" 
on the 25th February, 1768, and resolved that no more 
subscriptions should be collected until the Lancashire 
gentlemen had paid as much as had been subscribed in 
Yorkshire. This was the first indication of several 
subsequent diflFerences between the Yorkshire and 
Xancashire promoters. 

Of the formation and earlier proceedings of the 
Xiverpool Committee I have no minutes, but either on 
their suggestion or that of the Yorkshire gentlemen, the 
Xiverpool Corporation had been applied to for 
assistance, and on the 4th November, 1767, that Cor- 
poration had agreed to subscribe £200 towards Parlia- 
mentary expenses, and the order states that a copy was 
to be given to Mr. Longbottom the surveyor. On the 
6th July, 1768, the Corporation further agreed to con- 
tribute £60 towards a re-survev, and recommended the 
employment of Mr. Brindley. 

On the 14th July, 1768, the Yorkshire Committee 
resolved to request Mr. Brindley to make a survey and 
estimate, to consider the survey already made, and to 
report, and Mr. Hustler was instructed to apply to 
Mr. Brindley with all convenient speed. I have Mr. 
Hustler's note of the information and instructions 
which he proposed to give to Brindley, and which were 
shortly that he must examine and report on Long- 
bottom's scheme, and Mr. Hustler also makes a 
memorandum that he must sound Brindley about the 
size of the canal. 

That extraordinary man who was now fully recog- 


nised as the greatest authority on all matters connected 
with canals, was busily engaged at this time in the 
construction of the Bridgewater Canal to Runcorn, and 
in surveying for and advising upon numerous other 
schemes. He appears to have taken up the matter and 
to have lost no time. 

By an advertisement in the Leeds Intelligencer on 
the 4th October, 1768, it was stated that Mr. Brindley 
had viewed the difl5.cult parts and examined Mr. Long- 
bottom's plans, and had given an opinion that it was 
a very practicable scheme, and a meeting was there- 
fore called at the " New Inn " in Leeds, of those 
desirous of promoting it, which was duly held and at 
which a number of gentlemen were added to the 

Mr. Abraham Balme and Mr. Hustler were appointed 
to attend Brindley, and also to arrange with the 
Lancashire Committee for payment of their share of 
expenses, and to arrange also for a joint meeting of 
both committees. 

Mr. Balme had only subscribed the modest sum of 
lOs. 6d. towards the survey, but from this time he was 
a most active and energetic promoter of the scheme 
and member of the company, and I need not remind 
my Bradford readers that he was a prominent 
inhabitant of Bradford who is commemorated to us to- 
day by Flaxman's fine monument in the Parish Church. 

On November 15th, 1768, the following paragraph 
appeared in the York Courant. 

"Since our last were imported at Liverpool from 
Ireland: 491 firkins and 88 casks of butter, 6 tierces 
and 21 barrels of beef, 20 barrels of pork, 64 hogsheads 
of tallow, and 1539 cow hides. 

" It must give pleasure to every public spirited gentle- 
man and all lovers of their country, that we are 
authorised to inform that Mr. Brindley has undertaken 
the re-survey of the canal proposed to be made betwixt 
Leeds and Liverpool, and is now actually at work upon 
it, and having examined the most difficult parts of it is 
of opinion that it is very practicable, and proposes to 


finish the survey and make report to a general meeting 
of the gentlemen of the Counties of York and 
Laneaster towards the end of this month, and that 
there is no douht of application heing made to Parlia- 
ment the ensuing session for leave and power to carry 
it into execution." 

The connection hetween the firkins of hutter, harrels 
of heef, and cow hides, and Mr. Brindley's survey is 
not perhaps apparent at first sight, hut it is prohably 
intended by the writer to suggest the facilities which 
the proposed canal would afford for distributing the 
imports of Liverpool amongst the growing populations 
of Lancashire and the West Eiding. 

Brindley's report was ready by the end of the month, 
and we can imagine the practical nature of his criticisms 
and the homely language and doubtful orthography in 
which they would be embodied. His numerous 
engagements made it difficult or impossible for him to 
give personal attention to the examination of Long- 
bottom's survey, and the work was left very much in 
the hands of an assistant, Mr. Robert Whitworth. 
This gentleman, like Longbottom, had taken up with 
zeal the new gospel of inland navigation. He had 
published a book to advocate its advantages in 1 766, in 
which he had proposed that '* no main trunk of a canal 
should be carried nearer thau within four miles of any 
great manufacturing and trading town, which distance 
from the canal would be sufficient to maintain the same 
number of carriers and to employ almost the same 
number of horses as before ! ! " 

Years afterwards Mr. Whitworth became the 
Engineer of the Leeds and Liverpool Company, 
and it was from his designs and under his 
supervision that the central portion of their canal 
was ultimately constructed. 

On the 6th December, 1768, a general meeting was 
held at the Sun Inn, Bradford, to receive and consider 
Mr. Brindley's report and estimate. He reported 
favourably of Longbottom's plans, and estimated that 
for the distance between Leeds and Liverpool, 108| 

1S8 tME BttAbrORl) ANTtQUARt. 

miles in length, a canal 42 feet wide at the top and 
6 feet deep could be completed for £259,777, and 
would require 10 acres of land per mile. Of these 
figures one-fourth of the whole expense was required for 
lockage. Taking the interest on capital at 6 %, and 
estimating repairs and expenses at £4,000 a year, aa 
income of £17,000 was required, and Brindley 
estimated that the tonnage would produce £20,000 
a year gross, thus shewing a handsome return to the 
investing public. 

Of the accuracy of the forecast thus put forward I 
will at present say nothing. The data upon which it 
was possible to found an opinion were scanty and im- 
perfect, and many of the calculations must have beea 
purely speculative. The only canal which was at this 
time really open for its, entire length was the Bridg- 
water Canal, from Worsley to Manchester, 10 miles iu 
length, and principally used by the noble owner him- 
self for conveying coals from his own collieries to 

The meeting resolved that the canal would be of 
great public utility, and that it would be proper to 
apply to Parliament for power to complete the same, 
and a deputation consisting of Colonel Wickham, Mr. 
Roundell, Mr. Hustler and others, were appointed to 
attend a general meeting at Liverpool on the following 
Friday, and arrangements were also to be made for a 
general meeting of the gentlemen of both counties. 

The frugal treasurer notes in the accounts the 
expenditure of 8/8 upon James Brindley's expenses at " 
Bradford, and of a further sum of 8/- as expended 
upon the same occasion upon Longbottom and Brindley. 
These figures indicate some mild amount of joviality, 
seeing that Brindley's ordinary scale of expenses was 
based upon the magnificent allowance of 2/6 to 3/6 
per day, which he received from the Duke of Bridg- 
water whilst engaged in designing and constructing 
the Bridgwater Canals. 

A meeting was held at the "Golden Lion'' in Liver- 
pool on the 9tli of December, and attended by the 


Bradford deputation, when similar resolutions were 
passed, and a committee appointed to meet the York- 
shire gentlemen on the 19th December at Burnley. 
The resolutions were signed by a number of Liverpool 
gentlemen, including the mayor, and were confirmed 
at a public meeting called by him and held at the 
Liverpool Exchange. In this delightful state of 
unanimity the two Committees met at Burnley on the 
19th December, 1768, and decided that the matter was 
ripe for an immediate application to Parliament for 
similar powers to those granted by the recent Canal 
Acts. The capital was to be £260,000 in £100 shares, 
interest on capital was to be paid during the con- 
struction of the canal at the rate of 5 % per annum, 
Mr. William Tomkinson was appointed solicitor for 
obtaining the act; and Mr. John Hollingshead, of 
Liverpool, and Mr. Henry Ecroyd, of Edge End, Colne, 
were to attend upon the various landowners and 
endeavour to obtain their support. 

Mr. Tomkinson had acted as solicitor for the Duke of 
Bridgwater on the application to Parliament for the 
Bridgwater Canal Acts. He had been successful in 
carrying the bill for the extension to Runcorn and 
Liverpool in the face of a very vigorous opposition 
during which he had himself been in the witness box 
for 4»i hours, an achievement which probably led the 
promoters of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to desire 
to retain his services. The treasurer's accounts do not 
shew any payment to him, nor does his name after- 
wards appear ; I do not think it likely therefore that he 
accepted the position which he was desired to under- 

An advertisement was immediately issued calling 
general public meetings at Bradford and Liverpool, 
both on the 9th of January, 1769, stating the proposed 
arrangements for the formation of the Company, and 
that subscription lists would be opened at the meetings. 
These meetings were duly held and appear to have 
been numerously attended. The resolutions again set 


out the general details of the scheme, an influential 
committee was appointed, and they were signed by 
numerous subscribers. Lord Thanet, a great Craven 
landowner and the owner of Skipton Castle, headed the 
list for ten shares, and the names of the principal 
landowners, the merchants of Liverpool, Leeds and 
Bradford, and many leading members of the Society of 
Friends, Birkbecks, Ecroyds, Gurneys, Wakefields, and 
many others, appear in the list. 

A Bill was prepared and duly lodged in Parliament, 
and the Corporation of Liverpool petitioned the House 
in favour of it. The promoters, however, soon dis- 
covered that they could not hope to get the Bill 
through in the Session of 1769 for lack of time to com- 
plete their arrangements. The Bill was therefore 
withdrawn, with the intention of re-introducing it in 
the Session of 1770, and it was decided to make use of 
the time for a further survey of the route by Long- 
bottom and Brindley. In the meantime, subscriptions 
were invited and agents appointed to receive them 
in York, Leeds, Hull, Bradford, Otley, Wakefield, 
Keighley, Skipton, Settle, Doncaster, Sheffield, and 
Pontefract. Similar arrangements were no doubt 
made in Liverpool, but I have not found any minute 
of them, and by February, 1769, £160,000 had been 

At a meeting of the committee held at the "Sun 
Inn" on the 8th of May, 1769, Mr. John Eagle, of 
Bradford, solicitor, was appointed Clerk to the Com- 
pany. Mr. Eagle was, I believe, a gentleman in good 
practice as a solicitor at Bradford. He seems to have 
conducted the legal business of the Company with 
great ability and energy for some years, but in April, 
1782, he found it necessary to resign, and was succeeded 
by Mr. John Hardy, afterwards one of the founders of 
the Low Moor Company, and the grandfather of the 
present Earl of Cranbrook. 

The earliest minute I have of the proceedings of the 
Liverpool subscribers is dated 24th July, 1769, when 
they appointed a committee to meet weekly at the 


house of Mr. James HoUinshead who was appointed 
chairman. Down to this point there seems to have 
heen perfect harmony between the gentlemen of York 
and Xiancaster ; but now a notable contest, a bloodless 
War of the ^ses, was to arise. This was a serious 
difference between the tAvo committees which threatened 
to be fatal to the scheme and which required all the 
energy and tact of Mr. Hustler and his committee to 
deal with. 

The Yorkshire people regarded the undertaking as 
connecting the two Seas, and especially as affording 
access from Yorkshire to Liverpool. They considered 
that it was better for the Lancashire towns to be con- 
nected with the main line by branches, and for a long 
distance in Lancashire the canal was to follow the 
Valley of the Ribble and to approach within a short 
distance of Preston. The Lancashire gentlemen on the 
other hand desired a much more southerly course, 
which, though longer and more costly, would take the 
canal through or close to many large Lancashire towns. 

A tierce controversy arose at once on the subject; the 
first indication of the storm appears at a meeting of the 
Yorkshire committee on the 14th June, 1769, when 
Mr. Ijongbottom was ordered to take the following 
letter to Mr. Brindlev: — 

" Sir, 

Some of the Lancashire Gentlemen bein^ very warm for 
almost an entire alteration of the Line of the proposed Canal through 
that County (the circumstances of which the Bearer, Mr. John Long- 
bottom, will explain), we earnestly desire you will as expeditously as 
possible settle with him the proper means of satisfying them how far it 
is eligible by a view of it or otherwise as you shall see necessary. 

John Hustles, Thomas Habdcabtlk, 
John Buck, Isaac Hollinos, 

Thomas Ckosley." 

It appears that at this time the Liverpool committee 
had employed Mr. John Ives and Mr. Richard Melling 
to survey the country, and they had recommended a con- 
siderable alteration of Mr. Longbottom's route in Lanca- 


shire. The Yorkshire suhscribers employed Mr. Whit- 
worth to report upon the Liverpool scheme, and he 
reported on 13th July, 1769, that Messrs. Ives & Melling 
were near 49 feet wrong in their levels between Burnley 
and E/ishton. " It is worth considering," wrote Mr. 
Hustler upon this, "the impropriety of employing 
people so incapable of the undertaking, or placing the 
least dependance upon their reports." 

On the 24th July, 1769, the Liverpool committee 
ordered Mr. Burdett, a local surveyor or engineer, to 
survey the country between Colne and Liverpool, 
apparently with reference to the proposed deviation, 
but at a meeting of the Yorkshire committee held at 
Bradford on the same day, it was resolved that the 
proposals of the Liverpool committee could not be 
admitted, on the grounds that the line they proposed 
was longer and more costly, and that the subscriptions 
had been obtained for the original line, and accordingly 
Mr. Balme and Mr. Hustler were directed to go to 
Liverpool and endeavour to persuade the committee 
there to abandon their desire for a deviation. The 
Liverpool Committee, however, do not appear to have 
been at all disposed so to do, and they made further 
suggestions for a branch to Runcorn and a bridge over 
the Mersey as part of their scheme. 

Mr. Hustler was perturbed by the unlocked for split 
in the camp, and the references to it in his notes are 
numerous. A meeting of the Liverpool subscribers was 
called to meet Mr. Hustler and Mr. Balme on the 6th 
of September, 1769, and I find a note from Mr. Balme 
to Mr. Hustler, which appears to me to refer to their 
journey on this occasion, and which is as follows : — 

" Tuesday night 9 o'clock. 
Dear Sir, 

As the night is so bad I cannot think it prudent to go into 
Lancashire so early as v/e proposed, and as there is no absolute necessity 
will it not be better to putt our journey off untill Friday, perhaps the 
weather may be more favourable. 

I will endeavour to see you to-morrow ; I hope your family 
are all well, and am your obliged, &c. 

Abm. Balme." 


Oa the back of this note is the following memo- 
randum in Mr. Hustler's handwriting : — 

" Note. — If the present projected canals are carried 
into execution, a gentleman may travell 1600 miles in 
his pleasure boat with his family and visit ten capital 
cities and thirty-five principal towns of England nearly 
as cheap as he can live at home." 

lie appends the names of the cities and towns which 
may thus be visited, and this list is not without interest. 
It fixes the date of the letter as 1769, for the Oxford 
Canal was not autlioiised until that year, and Oxford 
is included in the list. It shews also that Mr. Hustler 
was familiar with what had up to that time been done 
by Parliament and the public in regard to canal 
schemes, and it reminds as how soon these advantages 
>vere appreciated and how rapidly their construction 
was then going forward. 

The Duke of Bridgwater's first canal, from Worsley 
to Manchester, was opened in 1761, the extension to 
Runcorn had been constructed and opened for traffic to 
that place in 1767, but the lockage into the Mersey 
was not completed and opened until tlie last day of 1772. 
The total lengtli of tlic Duke's canals was only about 
34 miles, and yet by 1769 canals representing a total 
lengtli of 280 miles, all laid out and engineered by 
Brindley, had been authorised by Parliament and were 
in j)rocess of construction. They were as follows: — 
In 1766 the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal 
and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal ; in 
1768 the Coventry, Birmingham and Droitwich Canals; 
and in 1769 the Oxford Canal. The longest of these, 
the Trent and Mersey, was 88 miles in length, the 
Oxford b2, the others much shorter. The Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal was therefore, if not the most 
important or costly, at all events the longest canal 
which had yet been brought before the public. 

I must now return to Mr. Hustler and Mr. Balme 
and their journey into Lancashire to endeavour to cool 
tlie warmth of the Lancashire gentlemen for the 
diversion of Longbottom's proposed line of canal. 


That they would succeed iu making the journey from 
Bradford to Liverpool in a day is hardly likely, for a 
stage coach hetween Liverpool and Manchester was not 
started until 1767, ran only three times a week, 
required six and sometimes eight horses, and the 
passengers breakfasted at Prescott, dined at Warrington, 
and arrived in Manchester in time for supper. 

The two gentlemen would no doubt make their 
journey on horse-back or by post-chaise, by Halifax 
and llochdale, and they probably crossed the lofty ridge 
of Blackstone Edge, and spent the night in Manchester 
or Eochdale. They, however, appear to have per- 
formed the journey in safety, and they attended the 
meeting at Liverpool on the 6th of September, when 
it was unanimously resolved that the following 
proposals should be made to the Yorkshire Committee: — 

" 1st. That the Lancashire subscribers should 
appoint a committee to manage the canal in Lancashire, 
and the Yorkshire Committee should do the same in 
Yorkshire; 2nd. That all expenses should be paid out 
of the subscriptions ; *' and the proposals closed with 
a somewhat peremptory statement that a direct answer 
was required from the Yorkshire Committee to these 

Mr. Hustler appears to have remained several days 
in Liverpool, and to have made alternative proposals : 
" Ttat the surveyors employed by the Lancashire 
subscribers should complete their survey and plan. 
That Mr. Brindley should afterwards re-survey both 
lines, and a general meeting should then determine 
which line was most eligible.'' 

The Liverpool Committee on the 11th September, 
1769, appear to have accepted these suggestions and to 
have withdrawn their own proposals. 

Mr. Hustler's action was endorsed by the Yorkshire 
Committee, and a general meeting was called to he 
held in November at the "Black Bull" in Burnley 
to settle the matter. The meeting was afterwards 
postponed to 11th December, as Mr. Brindley was 


unable to be ready with his report by the earlier date, 
and in the meantime Mr. Hustler addressed a letter to 
the Liverpool papers on the subject. The draft of this 
letter he sent with Quaker shrewdness to his respected 
friend I. Tarlton, one of the Liverpool Committee, and 
an Alderman of Liverpool, and he wrote to him as 
follows : — 

" I have sent thee on the other half-sheet some 
queries which, after thou hast corrected and adopted to 
lliy own better judgment, I could wish thou would 
employ some trusty friend to get published in one of 
your papers that is most circulated. I tliink something 
of this kind may rouse some of your gentlemen out of 
their dream of their own great consequence, &c., after it 
has passed under my friend I. Tarlton's improvement, 
as I am persuaded no other person knows the people so 
well nor is so capable if he will set about it of turning 
the tables upon them." 

Whether the queries on the other half-sheet ever 
appeared in the papers I do not know. Mr. Hustler 
put the position in a series of paragraphs. He urged 
the great benefit of the undertaking, the folly and 
injury to Liverpool of the dissolution of the association 
who had agreed to find £260,000, the increased expense 
of the alternative scheme, and proceeded: — 

•* Is there not reason to suspect that some artful con- 
cealed enemies to this canal are underhand playing 
with the weakness of a few busy persons and furnishing 
tliem with specious pretences of having the public 
interest in view in their promoting and pursuing a 
glaring self-interest, and that intoxicated with the 
glittering but fallacious prospect they are made the 
weak tools of a deep laid scheme to break the 
association and destroy this noble and beneficial under- 


All Mr. Hustler's powers of persuasion, however, 
seem to have been unavailing, for on the 4th December, 
1769, a meeting of the Liverpool subscribers was held 
at tlie Golden Lion to receive and consider Mr. 
Burdett's report and to pass resolutions thereon 

y 2 


previous to the Burnley Meeting. The meeting seems 
to have ignored or disregarded the arrangement that 
the Burnley meeting was to decide the matter after hear- 
ing Mr. Brindley's report upon hoth the rival schemes. 
They resolved that " it be signified to the gentlemen 
subscribers and members ot the committee in York- 
shire at the Burnley meeting that the Liverpool sub- 
scribers could not approve of Mr. Longbottom*s line of 
canal, having considered the impossibility that a 
committee of gentlemen in Yorkshire, be they ever so 
attentive, should be able to carry into execution a line of 
canal of such an extent, and likewise being appre- 
hensive that two committees might be impeded by 
diflFerence of opinion." 

They further resolved to propose what had prac- 
tically been already proposed and afterwards with- 
drawn, namely, that the Liverpool subscribers should 
complete and manage the canal on the Lancashire side, 
and they concluded their resolutions by stating that 
" in that case, as from a separation of property the con- 
ducting of all matters relating to the different canals 
will not admit of the least occasion of controversy, so 
they counted themselves extremely happy in an 
expedient which had such an apparent tendency to 
cultivate and preserve that sociable intercourse and 
friendship which they desired might subsist between 
them and the Yorkshire gentlemen." These smooth 
and civil phrases were, however, somewhat marred 
by the final paragraph which stated "and this is 
to be understood as a total dissolution of all con- 
nections and a withdrawing of our subscriptions." 
Then follow no less than eighty-two signatures, 
which must, I think, have represented a considerable 
proportion of the subscribers in Lancashire, and which 
included Mr. Hollingshead, their chairman and 

These resolutions did not indicate much likelihood of 
unanimity at the Burnley meeting, and the Black Bull, 
no doubt, presented a scene of unusual animation on 
that winter morning, 11th December, 1769, when a 


general assembly of all the subscribers in both counties 
met to receive Mr. Brindley's report and decide the 
momentous question. Mr. Brindley attended the 
meeting and produced his report and estimate. 
In his opinion Mr. Longbottom's line, 66j miles 
in length, would cost £174,324, and Mr. Burdett's 
line, 83 miles in length, according to Whit worth's 
figures would cost £240,881. Upon this, no doubt, 
a warm discussion followed, but a majority of 
the meeting ultimately adopted Mr. Longbottom's line 
as cheaper and shorter. It was further resolved to 
apply forthwith to Parliament, and the care and 
conduct of the bill was left to a committee of thirty- 
four gentlemen appointed by the meeting. The Liver- 
pool subscribers at once banded in a copy of their 
resolutions withdrawing their subscriptions, the effect 
of which has already been stated. 

The only entry in the treasurer's account on the 
date of this meeting is as follows : — " Brindley 's dianer 
at Burnley, postages, &c., 7/4.*' At the rate of postage 
then charged, I fear that the cost of the dinner must 
have been very small. 

The committee appointed at Burnley had no time to 
lose, and they seem to have wasted none, for they met 
only five days afterwards, namely, on 16th December, 
1769, at Skipton, when the petition for the bill was 
read and agreed to, a deputation was appointed to 
ascertain the sentiments of the Corporation of 
Liverpool and to negotiate with the Lancashire 
subscribers, and numerous arrangements were made 
to facilitate the application to Parliament. It was 
also resolved to advertise the resolutions of the 
Burnley meeting and to ask for further subscriptions, 
llichard Wilson, Esq., then Uecorder of Leeds ; 
Mr. Sergeant Aspinall; Matthew Wilson, Esq., of 
Eshton Hall ; John Clayton, Esq., of Carr Hall, 
Colne ; Mr. Hustler and Mr. Balme were requested to 
attend in London and promote the bill. 

A further committee meeting was held at Leeds, 
10th January, 1770, when some of the Liverpool sub- 

19§ TllE BllAt)rOllt) ANTtQUAUt. 

scribers, including Mr Hollingshead, ofiFered to with- 
draw their objections if the Company undertook to 
construct the Liverpool end of the canal with the same 
expedition as the Yorkshire end, and this undertakingf 
was at once given. William Wainman and Thomas 
Wilson, Esqrs., were added to the Parliamentary Com- 
mittee of the Company, and the meeting adjourned " to 
the house of Widow Ilolbury, the Sign of the Star and 
Garter, at Kirkstall Bridge." 

Thus the controversy appeared to be ended, and 
power to construct the canal as laid out by Long- 
bottom and sanctioned by Brindley, wa? inserted in the 
bill and granted by the act, but, alas for the vanity of 
human wishes and the fallibility of human foresight, 
the northern line was never constructed, and in 1790 
and 1794 Acts were obtained to abandon it and to sub- 
stitute Burdett's line in which the canal as it exists 
to-day was ultimately constructed. 

Mr. Hustler prepared and published " a summary 
view of the proposed canal from Leeds to Liverpool, 
and of its importance to the public," with a view of 
exciting the public interest in the scheme and of 
obtaining further subseriptions. The original draft 
is in my possession and seems to have been pre- 
pared in 1769, shortly after the meetings at Bradford 
and Liverpool in December, 1768, and from a post- 
script I gather that the publication was postponed 
owing to the withdrawal of the bill in 1769. 
The pamphlet seems to have been issued during the 
heat of the controversy, as the postscript sets forth very 
strongly Mr. Hustler's reasons for promoting the 
more northerly route. 

In the light of a century's experience it is interesting 
to read the arguments by which the great undertaking 
was justified and to note the brilliant anticipations 
entertained by Mr. Hustler for the future. He begins 
by stating that a navigation between the east and west 
seas by the llivers Aire and Ribble has for many years 
been practicable and desirable, but that public 
attention has been ineffectually called to it until about 


three years before when the success of the Bridgwater 
Canals cncourasjed Longbottom to survey the country. 
He then briefly states the development of the project 
and that Brindley estimated the expense of a canal 
from Leeds to Liverpool, 108| miles in length, 42 feet 
wide at the top, 27 feet at the bottom, and 6 feet deep, 
at £259,777, the interest at 6 % being £13,0 )0, the 
estimated expenses of management, repairs, &c., £4,000, 
together £17,000, and the tonnage as follows : — 

£ s. d. 
Limestone and stone at ^d. per ton 

per mile ... ... ... ... 85^0 

Coals at Id 3500 

Lead, iron, deals, timbers, hemp, 
flax, hambro, yarn, wool, woollens, 
linen, and cutlery goods of all 
kinds, groceries, dye wares, 
mahogany, salt, Burslem ware, 
wine, spirits, corn, butter, cheese, 
Irish yarn, alum, &c., at l^d. .. 8000 

m^t^^^^^a^m^mm ^^t^^^^^^^f^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^m 

Together £20000 

He further states that as compared with land carriage 
the toAnage would only amount on merchandise 
to Ve"** coals Vs**"* limestone Vi2*^' ^^ estimated saving 
after payment of freight of £210,000 a year. He 
points out the advantages of the canal in regard to 
the inexhaustible supplies of lime-stone and stone on 
the east and coal on the west, and works out figures 
shewing that the quantities likely to be carried fully 
justify Brindley's estimate. He then expatiates with 
some eloquence on the general aspects of the scheme, 
and his views are sufficiently interesting to be worth 

" We come now to consider it," says he, *'in a still more 
interesting view, viz., the great encouragement it will 
give to trades, population and improvement. In 
which view it will always have been a desirable thing, 
but in this age, when the neighbouring counties are 


pushing these most heneficial works into execution, it 
is become indispensably necessary in our own defence. 
All experience teaches that nothing contributes more 
to the encouragement of trade and manufactures than 
the ease of conducting it, and the facility of conveying 
the manufactures to market together, with an uniform 
plenty of subsistence, all of which the canal will most 
certainly produce in the country within its influence. 
Six covered or decked boats might be built like the 
Duke of Bridgwater's, divided into three or four con- 
venient rooms for passengers and merchandise, one of 
which might set out from Leeds and Liverpool every 
day at a stated hour, and making a short stay at proper 
places on its way to take in and discharge passengers 
and gopds at fixed times also, would furnish the whole 
country with a cheap, safe, and expeditious conveyance 
of passengers and merchandise from one place to 
another, and would be an inconceivable ease and 
saving to the country as well as support of the canal ; 
and merchandise from Leeds to Liverpool for ex- 
portation, which is often three weeks or more in con- 
veying by land at the expense of £4 10s. a ton, and 
subject to damage, would be carried by these boats in 
the utmost safety in three days at the expense of 16/- 
a ton, by which many disagreeable disappointments 
would be prevented, and liquers and perishable goods 
of all kinds conveyed back to Leeds and all the 
intermediate country in one bottom, which would 
effectually prevent pilfering and any other loss or 
damage which could not well happen under these 
circumstances, which clearly shews the advantage a 
canal, being subject to no fluctuation from floods or 
droughts, has over the river navigations which are 
mostly slow and always uncertain. And nothing con- 
tributes," he continues, "so much to population as 
plenty of work and plenty of wholesome meat, which 
will evidently be the consequence of the facility with 
which trade and manufactures will be conducted, and 
corn and provisions of all kinds introduced by the 
canal ; and if it is true, as is often asserted, that one 


waggon horse destroys the produce of as much land as 
nnder proper cultivation would subsist ten people, what 
room and encouragement must it be to population when 
this country is delivered from an enormous load of 
these devouring animals, and oxen for the plough 
introduced in their stead producing beef for our sup- 
port, and leather, horn and hoofs for our manufactures." 

Mr. Hustler then points out that owing to cheap 
conveyance no article for consumption or use would be 
a drug in one part and scarce and dear in another, as is 
now, he asserts, often the case in corn, potatoes, apples, 
hay, straw, and other bulky and heavy articles, together 
with other arguments which I will not repeat. 

He adds as a postscript that about £200,000 had 
been subscribed, that a bill had been deposited which it 
Imd been found necessary to withdraw for want of time, 
and which would be reintroduced in the ensuing session. 
Mr. Hustler then alludes to the deviation suggested 
by the Liverpool subscribers, and states at great length 
the reasons for adhering to Longbottom*s line of canal. 

Of the progress of the bill in Parliament I have not 
much information beyond what is aflForded by the 
accounts kept by the treasurer. A plan of the proposed 
works and book of reference was lodged, but the plan 
was on a very minute scale and the track of the canal 
was indicated only by a black line. The book of 
reference contained the names of the landowners and 
the area required from each. I have the draft of the 
petition for the bill which is interesting as being in the 
handwriting of Mr. John Hardy, who was probably a 
clerk with Mr. Eagle whom he afterwards succeeded. 
The Act as passed contains numerous clauses for the 
protection of different persons and firms, and there 
were probably therefore some opponents in Parliament, 
but the opposition was not, I think, serious. 

I have a copy of one petition against the bill by the 
Proprietors of the Douglas Navigation, Mr. Alexander 
Leigh and others. This undertaking had so great an 
influence upon the fortunes of the Leeds and Liver- 
pool Canal, with which it is now united, that some 


explauation in regard to it is necessary. The small 
River Douglas rises among the range of hills to the 
north of Wigan, the principal of which is known 
as Rivington Pike. It flows southward to Wigan 
Avliere it turns to the north-west and enters the 
estuarv of the Ribble a short distance below Preston. 
In the sixtli year of the reign of George I (1720), an 
Act had been obtained for making this stream 
navigable from Wigan to the Ribble as an outlet for 
the Wigan coal to Preston and the sea, a toll being 
authorised of 2/6 a ton. That this Act was not obtained 
without some opposition I have discovered from a short 
printed statement of certain reasons against it which 
seems to have been distributed amongst members of the 
House of Commons to induce them to oppose the bill. 

The reasons alleged against the Bill are curious and 
interesting. It is stated that making the river 
navigable will infallibly destroy several thousand acres 
of rich meadow land worth from 50/- to £5 an acre, 
which if the bill be passed will not be worth 15/- or 
20/- per acre, the acre referred to being no doubt a 
Cheshire or customary acre of 10,240 yards. That 
consequently it will lessen if not entirely put an end 
to the breeding of those great numbers of large cattle 
which those parts were remarkable for, and from which 
the southern markets were plentifully supplied, because 
if those meadows were ruined there would be very 
little hay in that part of the country for winter fodder. 
These direful consequences as the result of rendering a 
small stream straighter, deeper, and navigable for small 
craft appear somewhat imaginary. The House of 
Commons seems to have thought so, for the Bill was 

The channel was narrow, shallow and circuitous, but 
the undertaking had a certain amount of success. The 
river carried barges of about twenty tons burden fiom 
Wigan to Tarlton and the Ribble, and moreover larger 
vessels could at high tide get up to Tarlton Lock, Avhere 
they could be loaded with coals for ports on the west 
coast, and for Dublin, Drogheda, and other Irish ports. 


The line of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal crossed 
the Douglas at Newbrough. The undertakers of the 
Douglas were few in number, holding thirty-six shares 
all told, and thev do not seem to have reorarded the 
proposed canal with any hostility, inasmuch as Mr. 
Holt Leigh, of Wigan, a solicitor there, who was closely 
connected with them, and a son of Mr. Alexander Leigh, 
received subscriptions in Wigan towards the new under- 
taking. They, however, presented a petition against 
the Bill, alleging that the aqueduct carrying the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal across the Douglas would prevent 
the use of masts and cause other inconveniences. 
Their opposition was, however, arranged, and the 
Act provided for their protection that a communication 
might be made between the navigation and the canal, 
for the use of which the undertakers might charge 
tolls, and it also prohibited the Canal Company from 
taking the waters of the Douglas for the supply of the 

By the month of May, 1770, the Bill had passed both 
Houses, and the side lights thrown upon the pro- 
ceedings by the treasurer's account are not without 
interest and amusement. The party peem to have 
been occupied in London, no doubt, with occasional 
journeys to the north from the middle of February to 
the beginning of May, and I find during this period 
about a dozen payments to a Mr. Vincent Eyre for 
house-keeping for agents, amounting to £75 9s. 3d. 
Who this gentleman was I am unable to discover, but 
the agents were probably residing in apartments 
belonging to him. During the same period the land- 
lady for money laid down, &c., received £36 17s. 6d.; 
but the maid for her attendance and money laid down 
by her received only £1 15s. Od., so that the maid 
seems to have been rather shabbily treated. 

The agents would, I presume, be Mr. Eagle, the 
clerk, and his staff, and the surveyors and their 
assistants. They do not seem to have dined in their 
apartments, for there are thirteen payments between 
23rd February and 4th May amounting to £25 2s. 7d., 


^ ■' ■"- "-^^ '  .11--. ^^m^^^ I I — ^^^^— ^ - I    —--- —  

for agents' dinners, the total payments under these heads 
being £139 48. 4d. 

By the middle of May the Act had been obtained 
(10 Geo. III. c. 114). It authorised the making of a 
canal from or near to Leeds Bridge to a certain place 
called The North Lady's Walk in Liverpool. The 
capital authorised was £260,000, in £100 shares, and 
£60,000 additional if required, and interest at 5 % per 
annum was to be paid on the capital called up until 
the works were completed. 

Any of the subscribers named in the Act might with- 
draw at the first meeting, and the works were not to 
commence until £200,000 had been raised. The first 
meeting was to be held at the Black Horse Inn in 
Skipton, on 20th June, 1770, and the next at the 
Black Bull Inn in Burnley in the following August. 
A committee of management, twenty-three in number, 
was to be annually appointed, and there were of course 
numerous other provisions to which I need not 
specially refer. The total amount expended in surveys 
and preliminary expenses was £2,510 15s. 4d., the 
total costs of obtaining the Act were £2,2 L7, and 
Brindley's charges, or at all events the total sum paid 
him, amounted to £445 6s. 3d. 

The company obtained or assumed a coat of arms 
which quartered the Fleece of Leeds with the Liver of 
Liverpool, and which is technically described as follows: 
" Quarterly first and fourth azure, a fleece or, second 
and third azure, a liver sable, beaked and legged, gules : 
in the beak a bunch of seaweed vert, crest and anchor 
argent, sun-flowers or leaves and stalks vert, wreath of 
sun-flower foliage endorsing the arms vert." A scroll 
within the wreath bore the motto *^Ab ortu ad occammj* 

The provisional committee met at the "Star and 
Garter" at Kirkstall on 23rd May, 1770, and finding 
that £200,000 had not been raised, issued advertisements 
for further subscriptions; Mr. Longbottom was ordered 
to report what parts of the canal should be first 
executed, and the committee adjourned to the " White 
Bear '' at Crossbills. 


The first meeting, or general assembly as it is 
quaintly styled in the Act, was held at the Black 
Horse Inn, Skipton, on the 20th June, 1770, as provided 
by the Act, and as the attendance was numerous 
the meeting immediately adjourned to Skipton Castle, 
where the names of the subscribers were read, and 
those who chose to withdraw gave notice to that eifcct. 
The amount subscribed after deducting the with- 
drawals was found to be £172,400. The following 
gentlemen were elected as the first committee of 
management : — 

1. Jonathan Blundell, Liverpool, Esq. 

2. Richard Wilson, Leeds, Esq. 

3. Mr. Abraham Balme, Bradford, Gentleman. 

4. Mr. John Hustler, Bradford, Merchant. 

5. Henry Lutridge, Walton, near Preston, Esq. 

6. Thomas Leach, Riddlesden, Esq. 

7. Alexander Nowell, Read Hall, Esq. 

8. Mr. Richard Ecroyd, Edge End, near Colne. 

9. Mr. Peter Garforth, Skipton, Gentleman. 

10. Walter Stanhope, Eccleshill, Esq. 

11. Mr. Thomas Hardcastle, Bradford, Merchant. 

12. Joseph Myers, Preston, Esq. 

13. James Lomax, Clayton Hall, Esq. 

14. Mr. Edward Brewer, Wliite Birch. 

15. Mr. John HoUingshead, Chorley, Gentleman. 

16. Mr. Nathan Jowett, Clock House, Gentleman. 

17. James HoUingshead, Liverpool, Esq. 

18. Mr. John Halstead, Burnley, Merchant. 

19. William Harrison, Orgreave, near Rotherham. 

20. Col. Henry Wickham, Cottingley. 

21. Mr. William Blakey, Keighley, Merchant. 

22. Mr. William Chippendale, Skipton, Mercer. 

23. John Clayton, Carr Hall, Esq. 

The York Courant which seems to have taken great 
interest in the undertaking reported the meeting as 
follows, in its issue of 26th June, 1770: — 

" We hear from Skipton that on the 20th instant the 
first meeting of the Proprietors of the Canal Navigation 
from Leeds to Liverpool was held at the Black Horse 
there, pursuant to the late Act of Parliament, but on 
account of the great number .of proprietors attending, 
the Meeting was immediately adjourned to the castle 
for the dispatch of business, where it was conducted 


with great harmony. After deducting all the with- 
drawings from the subscriptions to this important 
undertaking — which by the Act the proprietors were 
allowed to make at the said meeting — ^the amount of 
the sum subscribed is £185,000. A committee of 
twenty-three gentlemen proprietors — whose influence, 
understanding, integrity, and zeal for the undertaking 
are well known — was chosen to put the Act in 
execution, in confidence of an immediate increase of the 
subscription to £200,000, the sum required by the Act. 
Though inland navigations have in general been deemed 
precarious undertakings, it is very remarkable that 
this canal meets with the universal approbation of per- 
sons of all denominations resident on its borders, and 
Avho best know the populous trading country through 
which it is to pass, insomuch that as we are credibly 
informed the admission to become a proprietor is now 
solicited as a favour." 

Thus it appears that no difficulty occurred in raising 
the capital, and when the committee met at Burnley on 
the 19th July, 1770, they found that the £200,000 
required before the work could begin had been sub- 
scribed, and they at once proceeded with all speed 
to make the necessary arrangements. Brindley was 
appointed Chief Engineer at a salary of £400, and 
Longbottom, Clerk of Works, at the very modest salary 
of £160, which was to include travelling expenses. 

It was determined, doubtless upon his recom- 
mendation, to begin three sections of the canal, 
namely: — Prom the Douglas to Liverpool, from Skipton 
to Bingley, and from Shipley to Leeds. The reasons 
which led to this determination were obvious. The 
two first sections were on the level without lockage. 
They were both long pools, twenty-eight and eighteen 
miles in length respectively. The last was more 
difficult and involved a descent from Shipley of 166 
feet to the level of the river at Leeds, but when com- 
pleted and in conjunction with the intended Bradford 
Canal it would afford a direct water-way between Leeds 
and Bradford, and connect Bradford with the Aire and 


Calder Navigation. Mr. Hollingshead vas appointed 
Treasurer in Lahcasliire and Mr. llustler in Yorkshire, 
and a call of £5 a share was made. 

We have now seen this great and beneficial under- 
taking, as it was fondly called by the promoters, 
initiated, promoted and authorised by Parliament. 
The modest capital of £260,000, about £2,600 a mile, 
was of course based upon Brindley's estimate of 
£259,777, and the Act contained no borrowing powers 
or power to raise further capital except an additional 
£60,000, but the lamb-like confidence of the promoters 
of the company in Brindley's figures was destined to be 
rudely shaken by the logic of events. 

There is, however, a healthy honesty, a sincerity of 
conviction, and a public spirit mingled with private 
enterprise apparent throughout the proceedings which 
contrasts favorably with the arrangements under which 
joint stock enterprises are suggested, created and 
launched upon the public in the present day. No 
greedy promoter, no specious and misleading advertise- 
ments, no impecunious peers, baronets, and esquires 
hover round the earlier stages of the company's 
existence to attract for a bubble scheme the small 
resources of the too confiding investor, to dangle before 
him the prospect of impossible gains, and to land him 
finally in loss or ruin. 

A considerable controversy had taken place prior to 
tliis time, into which I need not enter, as to the 
dimensions of the canal, a point of no small importance, 
and this question was finally settled by the committee 
at Burnley on 3uth August, 1770. They resolved that 
it should be 27 feet wide and 4f feet deep. 

The purchase of the land and the execution of the 
works now engaged the constant and arduous attention 
of the committee. The arrangements for the settle- 
ment between the landowners and the company of the 
price to be paid and compensation given were old 
fashioned and peculiar. Every gentleman in Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire who was fortunate enough to 
possess £100 a year from land, was appointed and 


might qualify and act as a commissioner, and the 
body thus appointed were to appoint a clerk and 
hold meetings at which they might exercise various 
powers in regard to the underteking, and for the 
settlement of landowners' claims they were to act 
ns a board of conciliation, fixing the price to be paid, 
with an appeal, if either party desired it, to a jury. 

The second general assembly provided for by the 
Act was held at the Black Bull, at Burnley, on 31st 
August, 1770, and at that meeting Mr. Brindley 
intimated that his numerous other engagements pre- 
vented him from accepting the office of chief engineer. 
There can be no doubt that the labours which he had 
already undertaken, in regard to canal construction, 
were quite enough to engage all his energies, and in 
fact to overtax his powers. He died in 1772 at the age 
of 66 years. Mr. Longbottom was at once appointed 
in his place, and he agreed to accept the of&ce, in 
addition to that of clerk of the works, leaving his salary 
to be fixed by the general assembly in September, 1771. 
He seems to have devoted himself more particularly 
to the Lancashire end of the canal, and on Wednesday, 
7th November, 1770, as the York Courant " had the 
pleasure to acquaint the public," the Grand Canal from 
Leeds to Liverpool was begun near Halsall in Lan- 
cashire, and was intended to be carried on from New- 
borough to Liverpool with all expedition. 

On November 16th, clerks were appointed at Liver- 
pool and Leeds, each salary being fixed at £60, to 
include riding charges and rent. Mr. Joseph Priestley 
was appointed Accountant and Clerk of Works at a 
salary of £100, and the salary of Mr. Eagle, the Law 
Clerk, was fixed at £80, in addition to which he doubt- 
less received legal charges for work done. An 
historical journal was ordered to be kept of the progress 
of the works. 

The land required seems to have been purchased in 
Yorkshire without much difficulty and at reasonable 
rates. Many of the owners were proprietors of shares, 
and looked favorably upon the undertaking, and the 


largest of them, Lord Thanet, and the families of 
Tempest, Houndell, Wilson, and Wainman, were active 
promoters of the scheme. Perhaps the best way of 
conveying an idea as to the course pursued in regard to 
the purchase of land and the settlement of com- 
pensation to landowners, is to refer to tlie report made 
by Mr. Peter Garforth, of Skipton, to a meeting of the 
committee held at Bradford, 24th January, 1771. Mr. 
Garforth and one or two other members of the com- 
mittee had been appointed to negotiate with the Craven 
land owners, and he states very clearly what had been 
done since the last meeting of the committee. 

The report is as follows : — 

" Saturday, 5th January, 1771, Mr. George Garforth, 
pursuant to Mr. Hustler's order, waited on Mr. Jackson, 
of Farfield, relating to the cutting thro* his land. Mr. 
Jackson gave, for answer that he durst refer the price 
of it to Mr. Recorder, Mr. Hustler, or any other honest 
man, and wished the proprietors good luck. 

" Monday, 7th January, agreeable to the order of last 
iTieeting, Mr. Garforth met Messrs. Leach & Blakey at 
Silsden, and have taken a house of John Smith, six 
months for 45/-, for the accommodating the diggers, 
and through the mediation of Mr. Heelis prevailed 
upon John Booth to let a bridge be thrown ever the 
river for the same purpose the house was took. And 
William Robinson, the owner of the ground on the 
opposite side of the river, has consented that such 
bridge shall be fixed and the damage referred to 
Mr. Leach. 

" Tuesday 8th, Mr. Chippindale and Mr. Garforth met 
Messrs. Leach and Blakey at Kildwick, and desired 
Mr. Dehane to accept of 45/- per acre for the land 
near the church, and 20/- per acre for that at Farn 
Hill, and thirty-three years' purchase, which Mr. 
Dehane refused ; and also offered Mr. Redman 23/- per 
acre and thirty-five years' purchase which he refused. 
Also waited on Messrs. Swire and Baldwin who said 
they would refer to commissioners. And then waited 
on Mr. Brown but only saw his wife, who told them 



tliat her husband would not differ with the company 
about it. Mrs. Hargrcaves referred her claim to Mr. 
Swire and he to A. Conies. They then proceeded to 
Bradlev and waited on the freeholders there, who 
concluded to consider the business till Thursday 
that the committee met at the White Bear. Mr. 
Waddington and Mr. Chamberlain met to value the 
Duke's land, but the snow falling prevented it. 

" Wednesday Uth and Thursday 10th January, Messrs. 
Stanhope, Garforth, Hustler, Leach, Blakey, and 
Jowett met at the White B^ar to consider of such 
things as should be thought necessary for the com- 
missioners viewing the lands. The Bradley land 
owners refused to agree for their lands but leave it to 
the commissioners. 

" Friday, 11th January. The committee met at the 
White Bear to attend the commissioners. The weather 
was very unfavourable, so that the commissioners could 
not judge of the value of the lands; but in the evening 
of that day Mr. Swire on behalf of Miss Coates and 
Messrs. Baldwin, Phillips, Gill, Redman, Dehane, and 
Cryer entered into an agreement to refer the value of 
their land to Messrs. Chamberlain and Waddinsrton. 

" Saturday 12th. According to the adjournment of 
the commissioners, the committee met at Keighley, and 
the commissioners adjourned from thence to Bingley, 
where the landowners teas desirous of giving the com- 
pany all the trouble they could. The snow still 
continuing on the ground, the commissioners adjourned 
to the Hebn Tree in Bingley on the 13th February next. 

"Friday, 11th January, Mr. Swire offered the com- 
mittee that he will take down the barn and accept of 
£45 and 6d. per yard for so much thereof and the 
garden belonging to Widow Hargreaves as should be 
wanted for the making of the said canal, which was 
verbally agreed." 

It will be observed from the above report that the 
commissioners appointed by the Act were holding 
meetings for the purpose of exercising their functions. 
They had appointed Mr. Thomas Tindal their clerk, 


and had advertised that they would meet at the White 
Bear, Cross Hills, on 11th January, 1771, and the 
Golden Fleece, Keighley, on the 12th, to fix a price on 
all such lands hetween Skipton and Bingley as were 
wanted for the canal and not already agreed for. 
In Lancashire similar negotiations were proceeding, 
mainly through the agency of Mr. Longbottom, and it 
appears by the minutes that at a meeting of the 
Lancashire Committee held at the Wheat Sheaf in 
Ormskirk, Ist February, 1771, present, Henry Lut- 
widge, Esq., Jonathan Blundell, Esq., James Hollings- 
liead, Esq., Mr. John Halstead, and Mr. Richard 
Ecroyd, Mr. John Longbottom acquainted the com- 
mittee that he had already contracted with several 
landowners at the rate of thirty years' purchase for their 
lands, which appears to have been the usual price given 
for lands in the neighbourhood. The committee resolved 
" that this committee approves of what Mr. Longbottom 
has done in purchasing as above and now orders him 
to proceed in purchasing other lands for the use of the 
said navigation betwixt Liverpool and Newbrough, but 
not to give any person more than thirty years' purchase 
without authority from another committee for so doing, 
and in case any person demand more, that he give 
information thereof to the said committee." At 
the same meetinor it was further ordered "that 
Mr. Longbottom do build or contract for the building 
of six l)oats of such construction and dimensions as 
appear best adapted for carrying on the works upon 
the said navigation." 

We will now return to Yorkshire and pursue the 
history of the dealings between the company and the 
hard-hearted landowners of Bingley who "was" desirous, 
as Mr. Garforth plaintively reports, of giving all the 
trouble they could. The commissioners, after several 
adjournments, met at the Elm Tree Inn, Bingley, on 
20tli March, 1771, and the committee of the company 
attended the meeting. The minutes of the committee 
tell the story very simply and graphically. The 
obstructive landowners seem to have been Edmund 




Starkie, Esq., Mr. Abraham Broadloy, Mr. Timothy 
Lister, Thomas Busfield, Esq., Solomon Fell, Esq., 
Mrs. Rhodes, Mr. S^aveley, Lord Bingley, Benjamin 
Ferrand, Esq.. The Rev. Mr. Smith, and the Trustees 
of Bins;lev School. The minutes state that "the 
commissioners for valuing the ground for the canal in 
the Parish of Bingley being met at the place above- 
mentioned, and no agreement being likely to be come 
to with the landowners, and the majority of the com- 
missioners present being chiefly landowners on the line 
of the canal, and it being given out that an extrava- 
gant price, would be fixed on such ground, it is ordered 
by this committee that notices be prepared in readiness 
in case such an extravagant price should be fixed by 
the commissioners, requiring a jury to inquire and 
assess the lands to be cut through. And in the evening 
of the same day the commissioners made a report of the 
value of such lands as they had gone through, and 
which appeared, and truly was a most extravagant 
price. And the said committee then ordered the notices 
to be delivered, and demanded a jury, which was 
accordingly done, but the commissioners not giving 
orders for such warrant, the committee then ordered 
a warrant to be prepared and offered to the com- 
missioners, which Benjamin Eerrand, Esq., one of the 
commissioners then present, put in his pocket pre- 
tending it was not a proper one." The conduct of Mr. 
Per rand on this occasion was certainly open to hostile 
criticism. He had qualified as a commissioner by 
taking the necessary oath at the Elm Tree Inn, Bingley, 
on 13th February, 1771, when the commissioners had 
adjourned to March 20th, and thus thought it proper 
to do so when the value of his own lands was one of 
the questions which the commissioners met to decide. 
He had previously been favorable to the scheme, had 
subscribed £10 10s. Od. to the expense of the survey, 
and was a member of the committee appointed at 
Bradford in January, 1769. I do not find, however, 
that he subscribed for any shares, and he is certainly 
not named as a shareholder in the act. Be that as it 



may, he thought it right as a commissioner to sit in 
judgment upon the assessment of compensation to 
himself and his neighbours, and that although the Act 
(s. 76) provided that no person should act as a com- 
missioner where he was concerned in the matter in 
question. The minutes of the commissioners them- 
selves shew that the commissioners present were Robert 
Arthington, Benjamin Dickinson, Joshua Hartley, 
Henry Waugh, Samuel Hutton, Johnson Atkinson, 
William Dixon, Roger Swire, Robert Stansfield, and 
Benjamin Ferrand, who had already qualified, and 
James lister, John Smyth, Richard Clayton, Henry 
Hemingway, and John Cockshott, who qualified at the 
meeting. Mr. Peter Watkinson and Mr. Joseph Mason 
had previously qualified and had been objected to as 
interested, but the objection was now over-ruled and 
they were allowed to act in the matter in question. 
They viewed the lands and assessed the compensation 
as follows : — 

Mr. Starkie from £76 to £86 per acre ; Mr. Broadley 
£80 per acre ; Mr. Timothy Lister £80 per acre ; Mr. 
Busfield from £78 to £1C0 per acre; Mr. Fell from 
£25 to £80 per acre ; Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Staveley 
from £80 to £90 per acre ; Lord Bingley from £70 to 
£80 per acre ; Mr. Perrand from £90 to £160 per acre ; 
Mr. Smith £140 per acre; Bingley School Trustees 
£140 per acre. These figures, as the minutes of the 
canal committee shew, excited their indignation and 
led them to demand a jury. The valuation was signed 
by Mr. Ferrand, Mr. Swire, Mr. Watkinson, Mr. Johnson 
Atkinson, Mr. Stansfield, Mr. Cockshott, Mr. Lister, 
Mr. Mason, and Mr. Dixon. In the cases of Mr. 
Broadley and Mr. Timothy Lister, the canal committee 
seem to have decided to accept the commissioner's 
valuation of £80 an acre, and then so far as they 
were concerned the matter ended. Mr. Ferrand was 
naturally well satisfied with his own valuation of his 
own compensation, and according to the minutes of the 
committee which I have already quoted, he treated the 
demand of a jury with scorn, put it in his pocket 'ind 

^14 'MjeI SRADI'ORD ANTlQtfAinf. 

pretended that it was not proper. The commissioners 
adjourned and decided to take the opinion of counsel 
on the subject, and as counsel advised that the company 
were acting legally they very reluctantly issued a 
warrant to the Sheriff to summon a jury for the 22nd 
April, 1771, at the Queen's Head, Bingley. 

By this time, no doubt, public interest had been excited 
in the conflict between the company and the land- 
owners, and the attendance was so large that the 
accommodation afforded by tlie Queen's Head proved 
inadequate, and the commissioners for greater con- 
venience adjourned to the Methodist Chapel. The 
landowners raised technical objections which were 
over-ruled, and the jury were sworn and the proceedings 
were adjourned again to the Queen's Head, when a 
shewer was appointed, after which the lands were 
viewed by the jury. The proceedings seem to have lasted 
two days, and to have been partly conducted at the Inn 
and partly at the chapel. The jury awarded as follows: — 
Mr. Starkie from £75 to £85 per acre; Mr. Thomas 
Busfield £50 to £90 per acre ; Mr. Fell from £30 to 
£75 per acre ; Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Staveley £75 per 
acre ; Lord Bingley £75 per acre ; Mr. Ferrand £75 to 
£80 per acre ; Mr. Smith £80 per acre. Bingley School 
Trustees a rent charge of £4 per acre. There was 
thus a substantial reduction by the jury of the com- 
missioners' figures and the appeal of the canal 
company was successful. The minute of the canal 
committee recording their meeting at the Elm Tree, at 
Bingley, on this April 22nd, 1771, is as follows : — 

" The commissioners met this day and impannelled a 
jury for settling the value of the ground to be cut 
through for the use of the canal, belonging to Edmund 
Starkie, Esq., Thomas Busfield, Esq., Solomon Fell, Esq., 
Mrs. Sarah Rhodes, and Miles Staveley, Lord Bingley, 
Benjamin Ferrand, Esq., the Rev. W. Smith, and the 
Trustees of Bingley School, and the jury going to 
view the lands, and it being apprehended they could 
not finish such view before to-morrow night, the 
commissioners adjourned until Wednesday morning. 


Ordered that Mr. Leach, Mr. Blakey, Mr. Balme, and 
Mr. Garforth be requested to attend during the jury's 
taking their view, so that the landowners or any other 
persons do not interfere with them, and the bailiffs 
take care to execute the charge given them." 

Only one other jury seems to have been summoned 
in Yorkshire, and in other cases the price was either 
fixed by agreement or by the award of the com- 
missioners or of arbitrators. Similar proceedings seem 
to have taken place in Lancashire where, however, the 
landowners generally were less friendly. I find only 
one record of the summoning of a jury, at the Wheat 
Sheaf in Ormskirk, 20th and 21st April, 1772. The 
claimanl was Henry Blundell, Esq., of Ince Blundell. 
He refused to submit the matter to the commissioners, 
or even, to ^Uow them to enter on liis land, and required 
a jury. The jury gave him tliirty-six years' purchase 
upon the rentals which varied from £3 3s. Od. to 
£1 10s. Od. per acre for the Cheshire or customary 
acre of eight yards to the perch, or 10,240 square yards. 
Mr. Blundell's objection to refer to the commissioners 
may have arisen from the fact that the company had 
profited by their experience at Bingley, and had before 
the meeting of the commissioners ordered their clerk to 
write to John Clayton, Esq., of Carr Hall, in Lanca- 
shire, a member of the committee, to request his 
attendance, and to Mr. Cross, Mr. Eagle's agent in 
Preston, and Mr. Holt Leigh, to request their attendance 
and to urge them to get post chaises and engage as 
many of their acquaintance to attend the commissioners 
as they could procure. These instructions seem to have 
been carried out, for there was a very numerous 
attendance at the meeting of commissioners at the 
house of Mr. Samuel Hanmer, the Wheatsheaf, in 
Ormskirk, on that 20th April, 1772, and commissioners 
were present even from the neighbourhood of Bradford 
and Halifax. Mr. Holt Leigh himself attended, was 
appointed chairman, and signed the judgment in 
accordance with the verdict of the jury. I ought to 
have added that the jury gave in addition to the thirty-six 

216 THE BRADFO:aD anhquary. 

years' purchase, which represented the value of the 
land, one years' purchase for damages caused by 
severance, &c. It is curious also to note that after 
shewers had been appointed and the jury had gone to 
view the lands, the commissioners adjourned until the 
following morning at the early hour of seven o'clock 
to receive the verdict. 

Lord Derby appears to have demanded forty-five 
years' purchase for his land, and as the company 
objected and failed to agree with him the matter was 
finally referred to arbitrators. This land was, however, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Liverpool, and was 
doubtless rising in value. On the subject of the pur- 
chase of land it must be borne in mind that the sections 
of the canal first constructed ran in Yorkshire through 
the rich pastures of Airedale and Craven, and in 
Lancashire through the fertile plain which lies between 
the Mersey and the Ribble. One of the landowners in 
the township of Armley was Sir John Ingleby, of 
Bipley Castle, and from him in March, 1771, the com- 
pany bought £5,000 worth of timber, part at Ripley, 
but some apparently at Armley, from which it would 
appear that the slope of the hill there, round which the 
canal now wends, was then clothed with timber of sub- 
stantial size and value. 

As the land was acquired the works were pushed 
on as rapidly as possible under the active super- 
vision of the committee, especially, as regards York- 
shire, of Mr. Ilustler, Mr. Balme, and Mr. Nathan 
Jowett, all three influential Bradford men. Local 
workpeople were employed and small sections 
of the works were let to them by tender. Twelve 
contracts made by Longbottom for stone getting, brick 
making, land purchases, and works were confirmed by 
the committee on 16th November, 1770, and on the 
complaint that the workpeople laid the earth in an 
irregular manner, an overseer of diggers was appointed 
in January, 1771, at the modest wage of 10/6 per week. 

The committee seem to have decided as early as 
1770 to proceed with the section of the canal between 


Binpfley and Shipley, in addition to the three portions 
originally decided upon. This section included some 
lieayy works, the five-rise and three-rise locks at 
ffingley, which seem to he referred to in the 112 
minutes as the locks at Holesfield and Bowling Green, 
Bingley, the locks at Dowley Gap, the aqueduct of 
seven arches at the same place over the River Aire, 
the locks at Hirst Mill, and the aqueduct over the 
Bradford Beck. The plans for the mason work of these 
works were exhibited and explained to intending con- 
tractors by Longbottom at a committee meeting at 
Bradford, 20th Pebruary, 1771, and the works were let 
on the following day. The minute is as follows : — 

" Memorandum that the mason's work belonging to 
the locks intended to be made at Holes Field and the 
Bowling Green in Bingley, was let to John Sugden, 
Wilsden, mason, Barnabas Morvil, Jonathan Farrar, 
and William Wild, of Bingley, masons; and the 
masonry belonging to the lock intended to be made at 
Dowley Gap, near Gilstead, and of the aqueduct bridge 
over the Bivcr Aire, near Cottingley New Mill, was let 
to Jonathan Sykes, of Oulton, and Joseph Smith, of 
Woodlesford, masons ; and the masonry work at the 
aqueduct bridge intended to be made over the rivulet 
called the Bradford Beck, at Windhill, was let to 
James Fletcher, of Bradford aforesaid, mason and con- 
tractor ; and contracts were then drawn and entered 
into by the several persons aforesaid, and Mr. John 
Longbottom, the engineer, for performance of said 
work accordingly, namely : — The mason work of 
Holes Field and the Bowling Green Locks to be done 
before the 1st January, 1772; the masonry work 
of Dowley Gap Lock and the aqueduct bridge at 
Cottingley New Mill before the 1st April, 1772, and 
the masonry work at the aqueduct bridge at Windhill 
before the 1st May, 1772." 

Mr. Longbottom appears to have had an anxious 
time. He was constantly travelling between Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire bargaining for land with owners, 
friendly and hostile, making contracts for works and 

2l8 THE fiHADFOkl) ANTlQUARlf. 

material, and having occasional diflBculties with his 
numerous contractors. On the 20th March, 1771, at a 
committee meeting at the Elm Tree Inn, Bingley, the 
minutes state that Messrs. Law ton and Weston, con- 
tractors, employed hy Mr. Longbottom in Lancashire, 
liaving failed to give security for the performance of 
tlieir contract, the committee ordered the following 
letter to be sent to Mr. Longbottom who had reported 
the matter to the committee : — 

" Sir, 

Yours of the 17lh inst. to Mr. Hustler was jesterday pro- 
duced to the committee at the " White Bear," and on considering the 
neglect of Messrs. Lawton and Weston in not procuring good security 
for the carrying on of the works as they proposed, it is the opinion of 
such committee that the proposals of Messrs. Lawton and Weston is 
become void, not only for that reason but for their neglecting the 
management of the work. I am ordered to acquaint you that they 
approve of the steps you have taken and that you are desired to pursue 
such method for the benefit of the said work as you think most 


Yours trulv, 

James Hebdex, 

BiNGLEV, 20th March, 1771. 

P.S. — Mr. Hustler has just received yours of the 18th, and in con- 
firmation that the Committee approve the steps you have 
taken they have signed their names hereto and desire you will 
exert yourself in the best manner you are able, and keep up 
your spirits, and you will be supported in every proper 
measure, and that no sinister, envious, or ihiatural insinuations 
will be listened to. 

Thomas Leach, John Husileb, John Halstead, 
Thomas Habdcastle, William Chippendale." 

During this busy time there were not wanting 
critics who decried the undertaking, alleged that 
the dimensions of the canal wt^re unnecessarily 
large, the capital insufficient, and predicted that the 
central portion would never be executed. In tlie 
Leeds Intelligencer of 26th March, 1771, there 
appeared a long letter vigorously defending the com- 
pany and pointing out that the dimensions finally 


agreed on were less than those calculated for by Brind- 
ley, and that their reduction would be an act of folly 
and would not save more than £14,000. "A most 
extraordinary inducement this (says the writer), to 
spoil the noblest canal in Europe, and such as would 
give just grounds to all posterity to stigmatise the 
present proprietors with being truly ' penny wise and 
pound foolish.' " 

By the 25th July, 1771, the Lancashire work had so 
far proceeded that boats were first launched on the 
canal between Newbrough and Liverpool. These were, 
no doubt, the boats which Longbottom was directed to 
order on February 7th for the use of the contractors, and 
the event appears to have been celebrated with some 
rejoicing, for the committee authorised an expenditure 
among the workmen of £4 4s. Od., and the careful 
treasurer actually disbursed £6 15s. 6d. The launching 
of the boats reminds us that we have not yet alluded to 
one very important factor in the great undertaking, 
without which capital, engineers, land, and works must 
all have been useless, I mean water supply. We are 
apt to assume that that to which we are accustomed 
exists as if we see it by the order of providence, and 
quite independently of the efforts and energies of man. 
Thus, we see daily the sluggish waters of the canal, 
and it does not perhaps strike us at first that the 
passage of every boat through a lock requires and 
causes the descent of many thousand gallons of water 
from a higher to a lower level and the consequent 
necessity of replacing this water either from natural or 
artificial sources of supply. Longbottom had proposed 
to supply the canal partly from intercepted streams, 
and to supplement them by a reservoir placed on the 
summit level of the canal on the marshy plateau 
between Foulricige and Barrowford or Colne. The 
sections of the canal between Skipton and Binglcy and 
between Shipley and Leeds first constructed in York- 
shire, might doubtless expect a sufficient supply from 
the becks or streams which descend into the lliver Aire 
from the tributary valleys of Morton and Bradford. 


From Newbrough to Liverpool there was most probably 
no available source of supply unless water was diverted 
from the River Douglas, which would otherwise have 
found its way into the Ribble. This, however, was 
forbidden by a Section of the Act, and the pro- 
hibition might have proved a very serious difficulty. 
Fortunately, the undertakers of the Douglas Navi- 
gation were not disposed to be unreasonable, and after 
some negociations, in November, 1771, Mr. Leigh 
offered twenty-nine out of the thirty-six shares in the 
navigation to the company for a price which they 
decided to give, and a sum was paid on account in 
December, the shares transferred to the company and 
the balance paid shortly afterwards. The committee 
seem to have been very much pleased with this pur- 
chase, which undoubtedly relieved the company from 
considerable difficulty, tliey even entertained the idea 
of utilizing the water supply thus acquired, not merely 
for the purposes of the canal but for the more ambitious 
if somewhat inconsistant scheme of supplying Liver- 
pool with water, as appears from the minutes of the 
21st December, 1771, whicli are as follows : — 

"Ordered that Mr. Hustler be desired to write to 
Mr. Jonathan Blundell, of Liverpool, and to return 
him and Mr. Earle the thanks of the company for 
the extraordinary trouble they have had about pur- 
chasing the Douglas Navigation, and that Mr. Hustler 
desire them to send him an account of their extra- 
ordinary charges on this occasion, which will be allowed 
by the company. Ordered that Mr. Balme and Mr. 
Hardcastle be desired to go to Wigan on or before the 
12th day of January next, to meet Mr. Longbottom 
there and view the collieries in that neighbourhood, 
and to make the first payment to Mr. Alexander Leigh 
of the money contracted to be paid for the navigation 
of the lliver Douglas, which is to be made on that day. 
Also to proceed from thence to Liverpool and to con- 
sult with proper persons there about supplying the 
town of Liverpool with water from the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, and also about taking such steps as 


shall appear most advisable for opposing and rendering 
ineffectual the scheme now in agitation for applying 
to Parliament for an Act for making a navigable cut 
or canal from Wigan to Liverpool." 

At a committee meeting at Bingley, 15th January, 
1772, the minutes further record as follows : — 

"In pursuance of an order of the last committee 
Mr. Hardcastle reported that he went to Wigan and 
met Mr. Longbottom there, and paid to Mr. Alexander 
Leigh the sum of £3,625, being the payment directed 
to be paid to him in full for one fourth part of the 
purchase money of his interest in the Douglas Navi- 
gation, and produced Mr. Leigh's receipt for the same. 

" The valleys being flooded, Mr. llardcastle could not 
view the ground where the coal mines are supposed to 
be, but proceeded to Mr. Banks, of Winstanley, who 
informed the said Mr. Hardcastle that in all the 
ground between Wigan and Newbrough on both sides 
of the Douglas Navigation are plenty of good coal, 
chiefly beds from four to six feet thick. And the said 
Mr. Hardcastle in a meeting of the corporation and 
inhabitants of Wigan, upon condition of their en- 
couraging the navigation of the River Douglas, and in 
order to have their interest against the intended 
application to Parliament for a new canal from Wigan 
to Liverpool, proposed that the company would engage 
to take no more than one shilling per ton for the 
navigating of merchandise from Wigan to the junction 
of the present intended canal from Leeds to Liverpool. 
The said Mr. Hardcastle further reported that in a 
meeting with Scrope Calcott, Esquire, and Doctor 
Boscough, of Liverpool, agents for the proprietors of 
the Sankey Navigation, he. Messieurs Blundell and 
Earle signed an agreement with the proprietors of the 
Sankey Navigation, that the proprietors of the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal should join them and bear one- 
third of the expenses attending the opposition to the 
Liverpool scheme of a canal from Liverpool, near 
Runcorn, to Wigan, the landowners bearing one other 
third, and the proprietors of the Sankey Navigation the 
remaining third part. 


" E/esolved by tliis coramittee that the above proposal 
mnde by Mr. Ilardcastle to the Wigan gentlemen be 
complied with and tliat the agreement with Scrope 
Calcott, Esqaire, and Doctor Boscough be confirmed. 

"llesolved that Mr. Hustler, with Mr. Morris Birkbeck, 
Mr. Thomas Hardcastle, and Mr Nathan Jowett, be 
requested to draw up a statement of the case respecting 
our complaints against the Liverpool scheme of a canal 
from thence, near Runcorn, to Wigan, to be printed for 
the information of the members of the House of Com- 
mons, and to be sent to the principal proprietors of tliis 
navigation witli letters requesting them to use their 
interest with any meml)ers of their acquaintance." 

We may observe from this minute that the troubles 
and responsibilities of the committee were not confined 
to the purchase of land and the construction of the 
canal. The projected canal from Liverpool to Wigan 
above referred to, was promoted by those dissentient 
shareholders who had withdrawn their subscriptions to 
the Leeds and Liverpool Company at the Burnley 
meeting. They proposed to connect Liverpool and 
Wigan l)y an independent canal running near Prescott 
and lluncorn and curving round within a short distance 
of Worsley, no doubt with the object of an ultimate 
junction Avith the Bridgwater Canal. The com- 
munication between Liverpool and Wigan by the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal to Nowbrough, and thence by the 
Douglas Navigation to Wigan, was undoubtedly open to 
many objections. It was circuitous, being thirty-eight 
miles in length, against an actual distance from point 
to point of about twenty miles, and the Douglas Navi- 
gation was narrow, shallow, and not in good condition. 
Mr. Hustler, however, was as zealous and determined 
as before in defending the position of the company, 
and reasons against the proposed canal were prepared 
by him and the other gentlemen who were associated 
witli him, and were printed and circulated. They 
began by stating the general benefits which would 
arise by the existence of a navigation extending from 
the east to the west sea. 


" This striking object (say they) having about seven 
years ago engaged the attention of some gentlemen of 
liberal disposition, the whole face of the country was 
critically examined to find a practicable passage 
amongst the mountains which intersect this part of the 
island, the most promising pitched upon, and a careful 
and deliberate five years' survey was made ; the exact 
levels taken from Leeds to Liverpool, an extent of 
108f miles, and the expenses of all the various works 
necessary to effect this great undertaking carefully 
estimated. These amounting to the prodigious sum of 
£260,000 would have staggered the resolution of the 
most sanguine, if the circumstances (which are stated at 
some length) did not afford encouragement to hope for 
a reasonable interest, and reflecting on the satisfaction 
that would arise from rendering a most important 
service to their country, they were induced to proceed, 
and by a junction with the Douglas Navigation pro- 
posed effecting the conveyance of coals from Wigan to 
Liverpool, and had in view the supplying the town and 
port with freshwater." 

They then state that nearly thirty miles of the canal 
had been finished within about twelve months, and 
allude to the fact that the rival scheme was promoted 
by those shareholders in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal 
Company who had withdrawn their subscriptions, and 
proceeded to urge many other reasons wliy the proposed 
canal was unnecessary and undesirable. The project 
was brought before Parliament in the session of 1772, 
and was supported by the Corporation of Liverpool. 
It was, however, vigorously opposed and the bill was 
thrown out. The controversy made it clear to the 
company that it was desirable, and in fact necessary, to 
substitute an artificial waterway from Newbrough to 
Wigan for the existing navigation, and a branch canal 
was therefore shortlv afterwards cut between these 
points by the Canal Company and the undertakers of 
the Douglas Navigation, which, together with the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal, afforded as it now affords a con- 
tinuous artificial waterway between Liverpool and 


Wigan. The portion of the existing canal between 
Newbrough and Wigan is thus in law part of the 
undertaking of the Douglas Navigation, and is now 
known as the Upper Douglas Navigation. 

This extension was made in two sections, the first a 
short canal from Newbrough to Dean where a junction 
on the level could be effected with the River Douglas, 
and the second, authorised by the general assembly, 
27th i\pril, 1776, from Dean to Wigan, and carried out 
shortly afterwards. The Douglas Navigation was 
further improved by a canal from Burscough on the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal to Tarleton, on the River 
Douglas, which was substituted for the river navigation 
to that point. The contracts for this canal were let in 
June, 1777, and it was opened in October, 1781, and is 
known as the Lower Douglas Navigation. 

I am, however, anticipating the course of my 
narrative and must return to the year 1772. In that 
year the air was full of canal schemes, wise and 
unwise, practical and chimerical. The management 
of the Aire and Calder Navigation appears to have 
given great dissatisfaction, and a project was started 
to continue the Leeds and Liverpool Canal from 
Leeds to Selby, where it might terminate by a 
junction with the Ouse Navigation, the pro- 
moters, according to their advertisement, " being 
strongly stimulated by their feelings in the notorious 
abuses which had long been practised on the lliver 
Aire.'' The project was most vigorously opposed by 
the Aire and Calder Navigation, and after a fierce 
parliamentary contest the bill was thrown out, and a 
scheme promoted by the Navigation for a canal from 
Haddlesey on the Aire, a short distance below 
Knotfcingley, joining the Ouse at Selby, was authorised 
by Parliament and afterwards constructed, thus getting 
rid of the winding channel of the Aire to Weeland, and 
greatly improving the navigation. 

Mr. Ilustler appears to have supplied the news- 
papers periodically with an account of the progress of 
the works on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. His first 


communication was in October, 1771, wlien he was 
able to report that 21J miles were finished at an 
expense of £32,886. He pointed out that this work 
was at the most level part of the line, that the re- 
maining part would be more costly, but that there was no 
ground to fear that the estimate would be exceeded. 
In April, 1772, he made a more elaborate report, and 
was able to state that 20 miles of the canal were then 
cut in Lancashire and 14 miles in Yorkshire, making 
together 34 miles. The outlay at this date was 
£48,888, and he estimated that the 34 miles would be 
completed for £19,326 more, making a total outlay per 
mile of £2,004 16s. 6d. He estimated the larger 
expense occasioned by extra lockage upon the rest of 
the undertaking at £207 6s. 6d. per mile, which would 
make the average per mile for the whole length 
£2,212 3s. Od., and this, Mr. Hustler triumphantly 
considered to exhibit a probable saving from Brindley's 
original estimate of £20,000. 

Mr. Hustler also considered it likely that this great 
and promising undertaking would be completed in loss 
than six years, and that an extensive business would 
commence between Skipton and Bingley, and New- 
brough and Liverpool before the next winter. In 
October, 1772, Mr. Longbottom was reappointed 
engineer at a salary of £ '00, which was to include his 
personal expenses, but he was to have a further 
allowance, not exceeding £50, for sums expended in 
treating landowners and contractors. 

At this date some further difficulties appear to have 
arisen in regard to the completion of the Liverpool end of 
the canal. The Act provided that the canal should be 
made to the North Lady's Walk in Liverpool, and from 
thence to the Mersey. The Corporation of Liverpool 
made various requirements and raised some difficulties 
in resrard to the communication with the river and 
docks. The minutes of the committee of 6th January, 
1773, seem to refer to this question. They are as 
follows : — 

" A letter from Mr. Blundcll to Mr. Hustler, date4 


6th December last, with copy of letters from said Mr. 
Blundell and Mr. Earle, dated 2nd December, to the 
Mayor and Common Council of Liverpool, with the 
answer of the said Council to Messrs. Blundell and 
Earle's letter being read, acquainting the said Cor- 
poration that the proprietors do intend very soon to 
bring the canal to the North Lady's Walk at the north 
end of the town, and from thence to communicate with 
the Kiyer Mersey, agreeable to Act of Parliament, and 
as they should wish to be on good terms with the 
gentlemen ot the corporation, desiring if there is any- 
tiiing disagreeable to communicate the same to them. 
To which the Corporation gave for answer, that if the 
company have anything to propose to the Council they 
will be ready to receive and give them an answer 
thereto, and call a council for such purpose. Ordered 
that the canal be proceeded with into or near the North 
Lady's Walk in Liverpool, as expeditiously as possible, 
and that any proposals to the Council of Liverpool be 
postponed till the canal be completed to or near the 
Lady's Walk." 

There does not appear to have been any subsequent 
agreement on this subject. The canal terminated at 
the North Lady's Walk, and no communication with 
the docks was constructed until 1846. At last on the 
8th April, 1773, three months after the opening of the 
Bridgwater Canal into the Mersey at Runcorn, the first 
completed section of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal 
was opened to the public between Bingley and Skipton, 
and the Leeds Intelligencer of 13th April, 1773, records 
the event as follows : — 

"On Thursday last, that part of the Grand Canal 
from Bingley to Skipton was opened, and two boats 
laden with coals arrived at the last mentioned place, 
which were sold at half the price they have hitherto 
given for that most necessary convenience of life, 
which is a recent instance, among others, of the great 
use of canals in general. On which occasion the bells 
were set a ringing at Skipton; there were also bon- 
fires, illuminations, and other demonstrations of joy." 


Neither the minutes of the company nor the accounts 
of the treasurer refer to this joyful occasion, but on the 
15th of April, 1773, a toll gatherer was appointed at 
Skipton at a weekly salary of 18/-. 

The Leeds Infelliyeiwer of 27th April, 1773, con- 
tained a further report of the progress of the works, 
signed by Joshua Field, Thomas Ilardcastle, John 
Hustler, and Morris Birkbeck. They reported that on 
the Lancashire side about 27 miles were cut and 16 
navigable, and that the extension of the canal to unite 
the Great Canal with the Douglas Navigation was more 
than half cut. This, of course, refers to the canal from 
Newbrough to Dean above-mentioned. On the York- 
shire side the cutting was nearly completed from near 
Holme Bridge, four miles west of Skipton, to Bracken- 
dale Brook at Thackley, making 22 miles, of which 13 
were navigable and open for use. They anticipated 
that the above lengths would be completely navigable 
in six months, and that the 53 miles would be com- 
pleted for £120,220, a saving from the original estimate 
of about £7,000. They further state that in order 
that this great undertaking might speedily answer the 
expectation of the public and the proprietors, it was 
resolved that all the spare hands should be employed 
in extending the works to Leeds as soon as possible, 
and that the interior parts be suspended until that be 

In October, 1773, the Leeds Litelligencer of the 26th 
of that month published a further report signed by Mr. 
Leech, Mr. Hustler, Mr. Peter Garforth, and Mr. 
Henry Ecroyd. They reported that near 31^ miles 
were finished, navigable from Liverpool to the Douglas, 
that 23 miles in Yorkshire would soon be completely 
finished, and that the 54 miles would be completed at 
a total charge of £138,512. This total sum, of course, 
amounted to something under £2,600 a mile, a sum 
greatly in excess of Mr. Hustler's previous estimates, 
and this the report proceeds to explain. 

" It may be remembered (they say) that at the time 
of publishing the former accounts of the works, the 



various progress they were then in, rendered the 
calculations of the expense uncertain, and that, from a 
variety of accidents which could not then he foreseen, 
the circumstances of finishing proved more expensive 
^an was imagined." 

As the variation between estimates and results is not 
unusual, even at the present day, we need not blame 
Mr. Hustler for his too sanguine expectations. The 
formal opening of the Liverpool end of the canal to 
the public appears to have taken place in February, 
1774, and is described in the Leeds Intelligencer of the 
twenty-second of that month as follows : — 

" A correspondent from Liverpool informs us that 
the new canal from that town to Leeds is now open for 
many miles, and in the course of a few weeks will be 
navigable as far as Wigan. Last week a fine new boat 
was launched, in the presence of a great number of 
persons, whose acclamations, attended with the firing 
of guns, shewed their joyfulness on the happy occasion. 
Several gentlemen sailed up the river to the estate of 
Mr. Thomas Ellison, in Litherland, where they were 
elegantly entertained with a cold collation and plenty 
of good British beer. Amongst the many toasts, the 
following were given, viz. : — Success to the Canal ; the 
Proprietors of the Navigation, and that it might answer 
their most sanguine expectations ; the Trade of the 
Nation; the Selby Canal, &c., &c. Each toast was 
accompanied with the firing of 21 guns, which were 
planted on the occasion, and the day concluded with the 
utmost joy and festivity." 

Immediately afterwards similar demonstrations com- 
memorated the opening of the canal from Skipton to 
Thackley, and the proceedings are thus described on 
the 22nd of March, 1774, in the same newspaper : — 

" We hear from Bingley that 20 miles of the Grand 
Canal between Liverpool and Leeds was opened yester- 
day for business, from Skipton to below the junction 
with the Bradford Canal, in the presence of several 
thousand spectators. From Bingley to about three 
miles downwards, the noblest works of the kind that 


perhaps are to be found in the same extent in the 
universe are exhibited, viz.: — A fivefold, a threefold, a 
twofold, and a single lock, making together a fall of 
120 feet; a large aqueduct bridge of seven arches 
over the River Aire, and an aqueduct and a large 
banking over the Shipley Valley. Pive boats of burden 
passed the grand lock, the first of which descended 
through a fall of sixty feet in less than twenty-nine 
minutes, to the amazement and delight of the spec^ 
tators. These works (in the opinion of the best judges) 
are executed in a masterly manner, and the locks and 
their machinery excellent. This joyful and much 
wished for event was welcomed wilh ringing of Bingley 
bells, a band of music, the firing of guns by the neigh- 
bouring Militia, the shouts of the spectators, and all 
the . marks of satisfaction that so important an 
acquisition merits. And as this is deemed, in various 
respects, the most diflB.cult part of the work, it gives a 
pleasing prospect, not only of the practicability, but 
the certainty of the whole of this grand and most 
useful undertaking being completed in a few years." 

The next report of the committee on the progress of 
the works appeared in the Leeds Intelligencer on the 
28th June, 1774, and was signed by two Lancashire and 
two Yorkshire proprietors, Mr. Jonathan Blundell, 
Mr. William Earle, Mr. William Blakey, and Mr. 
Hustler. They reported further satisfactory progress 
in Lancashire. In Yorkshire the canal was now 
navigable beyond Skipton to Holme Bridge, near Gar- 
grave, where the waters of the Eshton Beck were 
taken into the canal in addition to the previous sources 
of supply, and an ample supply was thus secured. 
Good progress was also reported beyond Thackley 
towards Leeds. They concluded by stating as follows: — 

" In the course of our journey we made particular 
enquiry about the business likely to come upon the 
canal, and had the pleasure to find that there would be 
a great demand for the Douglas coals at Liverpool and 
upon the line : that very large stocks of that article 
are now ready upon the banks of the navigation and at 


the collieries, and that the business in this part is likely 
to set very extensively. On the Yorkshire side we 
found eighteen boats of burthen already built, a num- 
ber of which have been for some time fully employed 
between Skipton and Bingley in the lime and coal 
trade, &c. There are forty lime kilns now erected and 
preparing between Skipton and Bradford, and the 
demand for lime is so great that the business on the 
line in this article and in coals must be soon very 

But alas for the finances! the outlay had greatly 
exceeded Mr. Hustler's sanguine estimates, and it was 
now only too clear that Mr. Brindley's figures of 
£2,600 a mile, were altogether erroneous and insuffi- 
cient. They were obliged to state that £183,436 9s. 2id. 
had been already expended, and only £23,354 6s. 2d. 
of the subscribed capital remained available. 

In the York Chronicle of the 1st of July, 1774, the 
following paragraph appeared :— 

" Yesterday night a boat laden with coals went so 
high on the canal making betwixt Leeds and Liver- 
pool as Holme Bridge above Skipton, on which account 
the bells of Gargrave were set a ringing, with other 
demonstrations of joy." 

The same journal of the 8th of October, 1774, con- 
tained tlie following lively account of the opening of 
the canal for the whole distance between Liverpool and 
Wigan : — 

*' On Wednesday last that part of the Leeds Canal 
betAveen Liverpool and Wigan was opened with great 
festivity and rejoicings. The water had been let into 
the basin the evening before. At nine the proprietors 
sailed up the canal in their barge preceded by another, 
filled with music, with colours flying, &c., and returned 
about one. They were saluted with two royal salutes 
of twenty-one guns each, besides the swivels on board 
the boats, and welcomed with the repeated shouts of the 
numerous crowd assembled on the banks who made a 
most cheerful and agreeable sight. The gentlemen 
then adjourned to a tent on the quay where a cold 


. collation was set out. for themselves and their friends. 
From thence they wient in procession to George's 
Coffee House where an elegant dinner was provided. 
The workmen, 215 in numher, walked first with their 
tools on their shoulders and cockades in their hats, and 
were afterwards plentifully regaled at a jjinner pro- 
vided for them. The bells rung all day and the 
greatest joy and order prevailed on the occasion." 

We have no details of these festivities in the records 
of the company, and we will hope that the highly res- 
pectable members of the Society of Eriends who, with 
Mr. Hustler, doubtless attended upon the occasion, 
were able to do justice to the elegant dinner following 
immediately according to the report upon the cold 
collation. We will also hope that no catastrophe occured 
to the band of music, such as is recorded in the York 
Chronicle of the 12th May, 1796, when at King's Morton 
Fair, two boats filled with a party of ladies and gentlemen 
of Birmingham, accompanied by a band of music, took 
their departure for that place along the Worcester 
Canal, " and safely and happily had they sailed (says 
the account) almost to the very place of their des- 
tination, when the gushing of the water of one of the 
stop gates unfortunately overset the boat in which was 
the band, and the sons of Apollo in the height of their 
merriment and in their very best cloathes were 
suddenly shifted from their moving orchestra into the 
cool but sandy current. Wigs, hats, and musical 
instruments were floating on the surface of the water, 
whilst their owners were wading to the bank. These, 
however, being collected, the musicians marched 
dripping wet into the fair and soon resumed their 
merriment, and (in the words of the CJu^anicle) got 
their outsides well dried and their insides well wet." 

The completion of the canal between Thackley and 
Leeds was not accomplished for some time afterwards. 
At the general assembly held at Liverpool, 21st October, 
1774, it was reported that in Yorkshire the canal was 
finished from Holme Bridge to Field Lock at Esholt, 
twenty-three miles, and that a good deal of work re- 



mained to be done towards Leeds. Twenty-nine boats 
were already fully employed and others were building. 
In Lancashire, the Douglas nav%ation was under repair 
from Wigan to Grathurst Bridge, and thence to Lirer- 
pool,. thirty-two miles, the canal was completed. 

There is a very clear account of the financial position 
of the company, dated 22nd April, 1776, in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Hardy. It is as follows : — 

General State 22nd April, 1776. 


£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Expended in Surveys 

Cut; miles yards 
Works— Yorkshire 30 220 

Lancashire 28 
Law and Office Clerks' Salaries, &tc. 
Committees, Commissioners & Juries 

Leeds and Liverpool Canal 
Interest allowed at Call . . 
Purchase of Douglas 
Expenses in Improvements, deducting 
H. Leigh's payments 

Rent of Leaseholds 

Total expended 
Materials in hand 

2510 15 4 
2217 7 6 

107096 16 lOi 

83610 6 3} 

2486 0^ 

1939 10 8^ 

4728 2 10 

195132 13 11 
22372 17 7 J 

1 10H6 5 

10724 7 8 










Capital Stock, 2059 shares at 100 . . 

Douglas Calls £ 1 4 per share 

Withdrawers . . 

Tonnage—Yorkshire, 13th Oct., 1773 
Lancashire, 18th July, 1774 
Douglas, 10th Jan., 1772 





















£242901 10 7 


Total Payments 
„ Receipts 

Yorkshire, 1 3th October up to end of year 
. 1st January, 1876 to 18th March 

• • 

• • 

Lancashire, 18th July to end of year 
1st January, 1776 to 4th March 

• • 

Whole Douglas 1772.. 
1st January, 1775 to 7th March, 1776 

Of which was received our part. , 




























£3167 4 


435 8 

1776 I 

261 19 




£2473 9 

924 13 
514 6 
533 17 
743 1 



£2715 18 

£1889 18 8 

. The expenditure had thus exhausted all the suh- 
scrihed capital, all the special contributions towards 
the purchase of the Douglas, and several years' income. 
The actual construction of thirty miles of canal in 
Yorkshire had cost rather more than £3500 per mile, 
and the actual construction of twenty-eight miles in 
Lancashire on the level had cost just under £3000 per 
mile, without reckoning in either case any general 
capital outlay. 

At length by June, 1777, the Yorkshire end was so 
far completed that the canal was opened to the junction 
at Leeds with the River Aire ; and the York Courant 
described the event on the 10th June, 1777, as 
follows : — 


** The same day the Grand Canal from Leeds to 
Liverpbol^was opened into the River' Aire at the former 
place amidst such a concourse of people as were never 
seen in that town before, some computed them at 
20^000 and others at 30,000. At eight in the morning 
the Bradford vessels moved from Apperley Bridge and 
arrived at Leeds Lock, at half after twelve, where a 
booth was erected ajid the company regaled with a 
cold collation, coffee, .tea, &c. On the vessels passing 
the locks, guns were fired from the ramparts. The 
undertakers of the rivers appeared in a vessel highly 
decorated to receive the proprietors of the canal into 
the river on their coming through the lock. They 
proceeded with a band of music playing " God save the 
King " ,. through Leeds Bridge where the procession 
was saluted with twenty-one pieces of cannon placed 
on the ..Wharf below the warehouses belonging the 
navigation, which was returned by the cannon from 
the ^ rampart. After which the gentlemen of both 
navigations landed and walked in procession with the 
music playing before them to the New White Cloth 
Hall where an elegant entertainment was provided on 
the occasion, and the following toasts were drunk:— 
* The. King,' accompanied with twenty-one pieces of 
cannon; \T\\e two Navigations' with nineteen ; * The 
Woollen Manufacture ' with nineteen. Sir George 
Savile's Regiment of Militia fired three fine volleys at 
noon, and the evening concluded with a ball. Although 
the vessels and pleasure boats on the river and canal 
were very numerous, no accident has come to our 
knowledge, but the whole was conducted with great 
regularity, and the day was spent with harmony, 
festivitv and decorum." 

The only reference to this event in the minutes is an 
order of the general assembly held at the Moot Hall in 
Leeds, 5th Juno, 1777, that " the several men who had 
put themselves under stoppages for cloathing them- 
selves on the opening the canal be re-imbursed those 
expenses." I assume that this refers to advances made 
for the purpose indicated by the company to workmen 


which under ordinary circumstances would have been 
stopped out of future wages. With the rejoicings and 
festivities of that memorable day my story must draTir 
to a close. 

Fifty-eight miles of the canal authorised by Parlia- 
ment in 1770 had been constructed, covering rather 
more than half the entire distance from Leeds to Liver- 
pool, and the company were practically owners of the 
Douglas Navigation ; but alas ! more than the whole 
subscribed capital of the company had been expended 
as well as a considerable sum out of income, and their 
further financial resources were obviously inadequate 
to complete the canal. The prosperity of the couritry 
bad been checked by the revolt of the North American 
Colonies and by the war of Independence which was 
now raging. 

Under these conditions the company suspended any 
further extension of the canal and confined themselves 
for some years to the final completion and improvement 
of those portions which had been opened for public use 
and also of the Douglas Navigation. Many years were 
to elapse before the proud motto of the company " Ab 
ortu ad occasum " was to be j ustified. Fortunately each 
of the completed portions constituted a useful and 
remunerative undertaking. In Yorkshire owing to the 
completion of the Bradford Canal a waterway was 
afforded between Skipton, Bradford and Leeds, and 
direct access obtained by water to the Aire and Calder 
Navigation and the Humber, and coal, stone, limestone, 
and general merchandise provided an increasing traflBc. 
The level of the waterway at Skipton was 267^ feet 
above the Aire at Leeds Bridge, which heiglit was 
obtained by 29 locks, eight of which were at Bingley 
representing a rise of 90 feet. In Lancashire, water 
communication was established between Liverpool, 
Wigan, and Preston, and a great traffic immediately 
arose in the carriage of coal from the Wigan Coal 
Field, which has continued to the present day. The fall 
from Wigan to the basin at Liveri)ool was only 30 feet, 
and from Newbrough to Liverpool the canal was level. 


The net income for 1778 was £4,561, or rather less 
than two per cent, upon the capital expended. In 1785 
it had risen to £8,831, or between three and four per 
cent. The revenue of the company wa^ mainly derived 
from tonnage paid to them by bye-traders. There was 
also some amount of passenger traffic, for in 1785 the 
profits from the packets or passenger boats were 
£164 13s. Id., and at the general assembly held 21st 
October, 1774, the following bye-law was made on the 
subject of passenger traffic : — 

"That every person passing in any boat between 
Wigan and Liverpool, or any other part of the line, 
shall pay for every two miles or under, one half-penny; 
each passenger to be allowed fourteen pounds weight of 
luggage ; and in case any boatman shall neglect to give 
a just account of the number of passengers he shall at 
any time carry on his boat, with the distance each 
passenger shall have passed, he shall forfeit the sum of 
ten shillings." 

The company also seem to have been to some extent 
carriers on their own account to Leeds, very shortly 
after the opening of the canal to that place, but in this 
respect their operations were probably in the nature of 
an experiment and do not seem to have been conducted 
with much energy or to have been attended with much 
success, for at the general assembly on the 18th April, 
1778, the minutes contain the following order : — 

" It being moved whether the carrying of goods 
from Leeds to Bradford should be continued or not. 

Ordered that the same be continued until the next 
general assembly, and that Mr. Jowett, Mr. llichard 
Hodgson, Mr. Thomas Skelton, and Mr. Charles Booth, 
or any two of them, be requested to meet the proprietors 
of the Bradford Canal and settle and consider the best 
mode of carrying on this business and give the 
necessary directions accordingly.'* And on the 31st 
July in the same year the following very modest 
arrangements \^ere sanctioned by the committee, 

'' llichard Bates, of Windhill, in the township of 
Idle, having proposed to furnish the company and the 


propTietors of the Bradford Canal with two boats and 
to keep the same in repair for the annual sum of £45, 
for the conveying of merchandise and other goods 
between Leeds and Bradford, Ordered that this pro- 
posal be accepted, and Messrs. Leach and Balme, two 
of the proprietors of the Bradford Canal being present, 
consented thereto, and further ordered that Mr. Eagle 
prepare an article for the above purpose, consulting 
Mr. Jowctt and Mr. Leach thereon; Ordered that 
Mr. Leach do purchase a galloway not exceeding in 
price the sum of five guineas for drawing the boats 
under the care of Angus Grant and that he be allowed 
a reasonable recompense for supporting the same.'' 

Mr. Hustler remained until his deatli, in 1790, a most 
active member of the committee of management, and 
never ceased to urge upon the public the wisdom and 
desirability of completing the canal, and in 1788 he 
issued a pamphlet on the subject, in which, amongst 
other suggestions, he proposed that the money required 
might be borrowed at a low rate of interest in 

Of the future history of the Canal, the gradual ex^ 
tension of the Yorkshire end, the fierce parliamentary 
contests with the Lancaster Canal Company over the 
proposal to divert the line and to adopt that which Mr. 
Hustler had in 1769 so energetically and successfully 
opposed, of the completion and opening of the great 
tunnel at Foulridge, and of the construction of the 
great reservoirs there, of the final and ultimate com- 
pletion and opening of the waterway from Leeds to 
Liverpool in 1816, I do not now propose to say 

I believe that one venerable lady is still living, the 
sole survivor of the first party that on that day, more 
than eighty years ago, arrived at Liverpool amidst great 
demonstrations of public rejoicing, after traversing the 
entire length of the canal from Leeds. With her 
exception all those who were connected with the story 
which I have ventured to recall have long since passed 


The great undertaking which in the last century fired 
our forefathers with an enthusiasm we can hardly 
appreciate, still remains with us, though its sphere of 
usefulness as well as its earning power, have been 
greatly narrowed and crippled, not only by railway 
competition but by the kind efforts of Parliament and 
the Board of Trade in 1893, to oncourage tlie ancient 
waterways of the country by reducing their charges. 

It has been difficult to avoid much uninteresting 
detail and not easy to confine the story withia 
reasonable limits, but such as it is I commend it to 
your indulgence as illustrating for us the energy and 
public spirit which was to be found in Bradford in the 
early years of the reign of George III., and the methods 
by which in the infancy of our manufacturing and 
industrial development, a great joint stock enterprise 
was initiated and promoted and an important and per- 
manent work of public utility designed and constructed. 

Sra^for^ 1>i0todca[ an^ Hntfquadan Society?. 


SESSIOJ\r 1896-7. 


President : 

Vice-Presidents : 



Hon. Treasurer : 


Beckett's Bank Chambers. 

Hon. Secretaries : 



8, Hallfield Road. 16, Piccadilly. 

Hon. Librarian : 

31, Horton Lane. 

Members of Council : 





Auditors : 

The Session commences on the 1st of October in ever}- year 
During the winter months, a series of lectures on antiquarian and 
historical subjects are delivered in the Society's Rooms, Free Librarj-, 
Bradford, the lecture night being the second Tuesday in every month ; 
whilst during the summer months, excursions are organised to places of 
interest imder the guidance of competent ciceroni. 

The annual subscription for membership is 7s., and includes a free 
copy of the " Bradford Antiquary" which is published annually in July. 
Back volumes and parts of the " Bradford Antiquary " may be obtained 
from the Hon. Librarian or from the printer, at the rate of 2s. 6d. for 
each part. Intending members are requested to communicate with the 
Hon. Corresponding Secretary who will supply every information. 


BraUford l)i$toilcal $f }lntiquariaii 



Editorial Secreliuy : — 
pjraPEssoK Fkdekbk, L.C.F., S, Hallfield Road, Bradford. 

eo-tei^ at Stattoaers' Hall. 

Price 2/6 net- 





The Roman Road from Manchester {Mancunium) to 
Aldhorough {Isurmm) (with map and illustration) 

J. NoETON Dickons 289 

West Riding Cartulary . . . . Ch. A Fedeber 255 

British Diplomacy during the Reign of Terror in Frances- 
William Wickham of CoUingley Ch. A. Fedekeb 272 

Baildon Moor and its Antiquities. Primitive Iron and 

Pottery Works [with illustration) W. Cudwokth 306 

Burial Register of Bradford Parish Church T. T. Empsall 313 

Bramhope Chapel {with three illustrations) 

Rev. Bbyan Dale, M.A. 825 




'ANCHESTER (Mancunium) to ALDBOROUGH (Isurium), 



With Folding Map and Illustration. 

{Read be/ore the Society^ \Zth November, 1896.) 

'HE only Roman road which can be said to have 

approached the parish of Bradford is the road 

from Manchester (Mancunium) to Aldborough 

surium) which branched off from the so called 

"atling Street at Manchester. 

There were two Roman roads running from Man- 
chester into Yorkshire: one, Watling Street, the second 
f^r of the Itinerary of Antoninus, which ran from 
Manchester by way of Saddleworth to Slack, the site 
>f Cambodunum, and thence to York; the other, the 
nibject of the present paper, which ran from Man- 
[chester through the parish of Rochdale, crossing 
Blackstone Edge from Littleborough to Sowerby, and 
thence to Ilkley, and falling into the Ermine Way at 
Aldborough. Though the general direction of the 
road may be more or less determined, the road itself 
cannot now be traced with any degree of certainty 
except at two or three points where it is still to be seen 
above ground. 

In the first instance we will endeavour to trace the 
line of road. We are so accustomed to consider Man- 
chester as a modern city that we fail to call to mind 
that Manchester owes its foundation to the Romans. 
When the Romans established themselves in the 


Brigantine territory, somewhere about the year 120, 
and constructed or enlarged the great military road 
called Watling Street (which some writers think was 
originally a British road), running from Richborough 
in Kent across England to Chester and thence to the 
Koman wall via York and Aldborough, they con- 
structed one of their principal camps at Mancunium, 
around which no doubt a small town would in time 
arise. The site of the Soman town has been deter- 
mined by Mr. Watkin in his " Roman Lancashire " as 
lying between Bridgewater Street and Manor Street in 
Manchester, and bounded by the lliver Medlock on the 
south and east and a branch of the Bridgewater Canal 
on the western side. The site is now intersected by 
the Rochdale Canal, opened in 1840, and by the Man- 
chester South Junction and Altrincham Railway, 
opened in 1848. No part of the Roman Mancunium 
now remains above ground, but in 1795 the walls of 
the station were still visible and are shewn on Green's 
Map of Manchester, and the last remains of the walls 
were not removed until 1850. The site of the walls is 
shewn on the map of Roman Manchester constructed 
by Mr. Watkin for his Roman Lancashire. 

The road from the Roman station to the eastern 
slope of Blackstone Edge has so completely disappeared 
as to have led the learned author of Roman Lanca- 
shire to doubt whether it could be connected with the 
remains of the undoubted Roman road over the Edge. 
But the fact that no trace of it can now be traced is 
hardly a sufficient reason to doubt the earlier reference to 
its existence by Warburton, who marks on his map of 
Yorkshire, date about 1734, the road as running from 
Manchester to Rochdale, Littleborough and Blackstone 
Edge. In this he is confirmed by the Rev. John 
Whitaker, who in his " History of Manchester," pub- 
lished in 1771, page 138, says : " The road must have 
passed by Street Fold in Moston, Street Bridge in 
Chalkerton, and Street Gate in Ryton, pointing evidently 
for Littleborough, Blackstone Edge and Ilkley." 
" These three appellations of afreet very clearly 


ascertain the general direction of its course, and 
sufficiently supply the absolute want of any actual 
remains or even of any traditional notices concerning 
it." lie further notes that the road had then lately 
been dug up near Rochdale. 

But, whatever direction the road took to Little- 
borough, it is now plainly visible near the eleventh 
milestone on the road from Halifax to Bochdale, and 
about a mile and a half on the easterly side of Little- 

There are three roads leading over the Edge from 
Littleborough. There is the modern road made in 
1734, which ascends the Edge by fairly easy gradients ; 
then there is the old road leading by Windy Bank and 
Lydgate to the White House, stated in the Act of 1734 
to have become in " many parts impassable for wagons, 
carts and other wheeled carriages, and very dangerous 
for travellers," and which was the road Defoe 
travelled along on horseback in 1724; and 
there is the Koman road which leaves the old road 
about Lydgate and ascends the Edge in a direct line 
and crosses the summit of the Edge at a point about 
200 feet higher than the other two roads and meets the 
present turnpike road on the eastern or Yorkshire 
side of the Edge near the ninth milestone on the Roch- 
dale and Halifax Road. 

The Roman road over the Edge is undoubtedly the 
finest specimen of a Roman road now existing in 
England, for some 1600 yards or more retaining its 
original pavement, and deserves to be included in the 
list of historic monuments which ought to be preserved 
by the nation. 

Although the most perfect portion of the road is on 
the western or Lancashire side of the Edge, a better and 
more general impression of the road is gained by- 
walking over the whole length beginning at the eastern 
or Yorkshire end. 

Take the train to Ripponden station, and follow the 
present road to a farm house near '*The Baitings,'* 
formerly an inn, and so marked on Ogilby's road book 



(1698 edition). About three quarters of a mile from 
the 8th milestone, the present highway is carried on a 
somewhat high embankment over a small stream, and 
looking over the fence wall on the left, a green cart 
track will be noticed in the hollow below, which in a 
few yards crosses the Black Castle stream. Leave the 
cart track, where it crosses another stream coming 
down from the moor, and, keeping this latter stream 
on your left, you soon come upon the site of the Koman 
road, which, for some distance, skirted the edge of the 
stream, and was protected from it by a retaining wall. 
The pavement of the road has been removed, but the 
line of the road is easily ascertained by the lighter 
colour of the herbage growing upon it. The first 
distinct evidence of the road is found about a quarter of 
a mile from the turnpike road, in a row of six or seven 
paving stones, and remains of the original paving 
become more evident as you follow the road in a 
pretty straight line up the eastern side of the Edge. 
Going up the Edge, the road is for the most part hid by 
the ling and grass grown over it, but the direction can 
always be traced by two parallel lines of heather or 
bilberry mounds, about six inches above the ground, 
and which cover the curb or edge stones of the road. 
The pavement of the road is more or less visible to the 
summit of the Edge, and by pulling up the heather and 
grass it can be easily found. Upon the summit of 
the Edge the pavement ceases, and the road appears to 
have been cut through the rock and the pavement laid 
upon it. Upon reaching the western or Lancashire 
side of the edge, the Roman paving recommences and 
continues for three-quarters of a mile, until near the 
bottom of the hill, where it is either lost in the 
enclosures or has been used to build the stone fences of 
the fields. The gradient of the road on the eastern side 
of the edge is about one in seventeen, but on the 
western side it averages one in five and two-thirds. 

With regard to the present appearance of the road, 
I cannot do better than transcribe Dr. March's remarks 
in a lecture delivered before the Rochdale Literary and 
Philosophical Society, November 7th, 1879. 

*HE feOMAlJ ftOAD. 243 

*' This portion (i.e. the western) of the road is exactly 16 feet in width. 
In some places there are distinct indications of a deep trench on each side 
dug into the earth, for the purpose of drainage. The roadway is trans- 
versely arched, so that the water would run from and not toward the 
centre. The road is paved with square hlocks. These are laid with 
great care, and are held by strong curbs which stand up fome two inches 
above the level of the causeway. Exactly in the middle of the road is a 
line of massive stones, fitted together with great precision ; wbile the 
smaller stones of which the general pavement consists are of ordinary 
sandstones, these special ones are always of the very hardest and densest 
grit. Along these stones has been cut by the msisons art a deep and wide 
trough. The bottom of the trough is slightly but invariably convex (see 
illustration, taken at a spot about half way up the western slope), the 
iividth of the trough at its upper and wider part is one foot five inches, its true 
width across the bottom is one foot one and a half inches Its depth at the 
centre varies from three and a half inches to five and a half inches. To re- 
turn to the road in general, as before said, its total width outside all is six- 
teen feet. But the curbstones being above its level cannot be counted in. 
These vary in width from five and a quarter to six and three-quarters 
mches. We may safely consider then that the practicable width of the 
road inside the curbstone is fifteen feet. This causeway of fifteen feet is 
divided by the central trough into two roads of equal width, the measure- 
ment from the inside of the curbstone to the outside of the trough stone 
is six feet. Each of these two roads is grooved by longitudinal furrows, 
and no one entertains the least doubt that these furrows are wheel tracks, 
but they have certain characters. In each road they are three in number, 
and their positions is quite definite. The furrow nearest the trough is 
very deep and is four inches wide, that nearest the curbstone is also four 
inches wide, but is very shallow, while the middle one is not quite so 
shallow, and is generally broader or about seven inches wide. Thus at 
last w^e have the problem fully stated. What is its solution ? What 
explanations have hitherto been advanced ? Of course the kernel of the 
riddle, the crux of the difficulty, is the troaghstone, and three theories 
have been de\ised to account for it. First it has been suggested that 
the central trough was an aqueduct for the purpose of carrying water 
from the top of the hill where it is not plentiful, to the bottom where it 
is found in the greatest abundance. Second it is said the trough was 
made for drainage, but the foundation of the road was drained by the 
side trenches, and its face is arched so as to carry rain away from 
instead of towards the centre, while the gradient is so considerable that 
special surface drainage could not have been required. Further, though 
we have everj^where evidence that the Komans paid great attention to 
drainage, we find it always done in quite a different way from this. 
Moreover the cost and trouble expended on the structure in question are 
out of all propoition to the end suggested, and lastly, no aqueduct could 
get worn by water in such wise as to present a uniformly convex bottom. 
The third theory is that the trough was worn by the feet of Roman 
horses. The principal answer to this is that, though the trough certainly 
shews signs of wear, yet it was undoubtedly in the first instance cut out 
by the chisel." 




Dr. March advanced a fourth theory, that the central 
groove or trough had been made for the purpose of 
skidding the wheels of waggons wlien going down the 
steep portions of the road, in which theory he is sup- 
ported by Mr. Watkin who in his Soman Lancashire 
says : — 

^*In May, 1881, I had the pleasure (in company with Canon Moles- 
worth and Lieutenant Colonel Fishwick) of making a thorough 
inspection of the road. In the main we found the account of Dr. March 
correct, but noticed one curious fact, that for a long distance one side of 
the groove seemed much worn as if by wheels rubbing again^^t it, whilst 
the other was almost as fresh as when made. In another portion the 
same thing would occur with the side previously found much w^om now 
quite fresh, and the side previously little worn now much so. The con- 
clusion to my mind was that the gTt)ove was made for the purpose of 
receiving and steadying the central wheel of a three wheeled vehicle. 
I am, however, bound to say that the same effect would be produced by 
a skidded wheel of two wheeled vehicles, the skid or brake being some- 
times applied to the right wheel and at others to the left. Possibly both 
causes contributed to produce the effects. A vehicle ascending need 
not be skidded, it is therefore to the down tratfic that the abrasions are 
due, more especially as there appears to be no trace of skidding in the 
side roads. The di'^tance between the ruts have been closely investigated 
by Dr. March, and prove that the waggons using the road had wheels 
four and a half feet distant from each other. At the top of the hill the 
road widens out, as if to afford a resting place, and the trough 

To this theory of Mr. Watkin's I wish to add an 
observation of my own. While recently staying in the 
neighbourhood of some old quarries, near Scarbro', 
where the hills are numerous and the gradients as 
stiflf in some places as the road over Blackstone, I saw 
several stone carts fitted with a tough beam of wood 
fixed to the axle tree at one end, and trailing on the 
ground behind, and I was told that the body of the cart 
was so adjusted that on going down hill the driver 
could tilt it backward so as to throw the weight upon 
the wood beam behind, at once taking the strain from 
the horse and forming a very simple and effective drag 
by pressing upon the beam behind, and as there are 
near the Roman road ancient quarries of stone still 
worked, it is possible the Roman carts were skidded in 
a similar manner, the end of the pole running in the 


stone trough. The view of the road taken from 
a photograph lent me by Mr. Thomas Mitcheson gives a 
better notion of the road than any verbal description. 
When did the road over Blackstone Edge cease to be 
used as a road ? Upon the one inch ordnance map it is 
marked as a Roman road, and on the six inch map as a 
"Pack Horse Road." It is probable that the steep 
gradient would render the road difficult for wheel 
traffic, and so it would gradually cease to be used for 
carts, but it was used as a Pack Horse Road until a 
late period. It is shewn in Sayers' edition of Bowen's 
map in 1728 * with the following note : " This Roman 
way extends from Manchester in Lancashire to Aid- 
borough near Burrowbrig, is all paved with stone and 
near eight yards wide." But in Horsley's time (1732) 
portions of the road were then missing. In speaking 
(Brit. Roman page 291) of the Roman roads in Britain 
he says : — 

" I confess it is sometimes very difficult to discover or trace out a 
military way, which is frequently sunk several feet below the surface, 
either in mossy grounds or where the fields have lonf^ been in tillage. 
When I passed Blackstone Edge in Yorkshire I could not but be 
surprised to see how much the causeway there was below the sui-face, 
and I am well informed of a causeway in the country between Tine and 
Koad in Northumberland sunk some feet below the surface ; and though 
the military way which leads to South Shields, is a yard or two above 
the ground for two or three miles, yet for as much more it is almost 
below it, but even where it is so far beneath the surface, it is very 
capable of being followed when the ground is soft." 

The next writer in point of time who notices the 
road is John Warhurton, Somerset Herald, and him- 
self a Lancashire man, whose notes and papers used 
for the preparation of his map of Yorkshire are 
deposited in the Bodleyan Lihrary, Oxford. Re says 
in tracing the road from Ilkley to Littlehorough : — 

*' Having crossed the River Wharfe (the road) ascended to and 
crosses Kumbolds Moor near to the Black Knowle and then crossing the 

• Colonel Fisbwick in his *' History of Rochdale'* (1889) page 6; and Dr. March 
in his ** Notes on the Koman rond," both give 1728 as the date ot l^ayer8^ map. I 
have not been able to verify their reference, the earliest maps of Sayere I have 
seen not being dated. I am inclined to think Sayers' map is copied from 
AVarburton's map where the note quoted as from Sayers* is to be found. War- 
burton's map is not dated but us it is rrferred to in ** Drake's Eboracum," 
1736, it must have been published some time earlier. 


AddiDgham road appears again near to Morton Highgate, from which 
place it disappears until it comes to Hainsworth Shaw upon Harding 
Moor, where it crosses the way that leads from Bingley to Epworth 
taking its course on the inside of the Bounder Stones, and so by 
Ellercar and crossing the wall appears again in the field of Thomas 
Horsfield, near to the Wear Stones, little west of the high road to 
Halifax, and from thence crosses Denholme Edge, where it was met in 
digging the foundations of a bam." * 

To the same effect is Dr. Kichardson's testimony in 
his note communicated to "Leyland's Illustrations," 
volume 1, page 143. f He says he was informed by 
Hev. Mr. Roberts, rector of Linton-in-Craven, that : — 

" He had observed a paved way of an unusual breadth betwixt 
Hainswoilh and Cullingworth, in the parish of Bingley, which doubt* 
less must have been a Roman way. It appears there bare, being about 
twelve feet broad and neatly set of such stones as the place afforded. 
Its stateliness shows its original, and you may trace it where the ground 
is pretty hard, a ridge appearing higher than the surface of the earth in 
some places being only covered with grass, though I have been informed 
that it is often met with at several feet deep upon the moors in digging 
for piets " — Le. peats. 

Horsley writing in 1732, says : — 

"There is a military way from Aldborough to llkley, and another from 
llkley going southwards, which passes on the west of Halifax, and joins 
the Roman road from Tad caster to Manchester. This latter way is 
paved, but I think not much raised, and there are some tumuli near it." 

Horsley is not here quite accurate, as I do not find 
any trace of the llkley road falling into the Tadcaster 
and Manchester road, unless he means the road from 
llkley to Aberford via Adel. The road from Tadcaster 
to Manchester ran in some direction now impossible to 
ascertain (probably by Woodlesford) to Slack, the 
ancient Cambodunum, and then by Oldham to Man- 
chester. I cannot find any satisfacitory authority for 
the statement that the last named road ran through 
Leeds and Cleckheaton to Slack. WhitakerJ who derived 
his information about the road between Halifax and 
llkley from llcv. John Watson, the Halifax historian, 
says :~ 

* Quoted by Ley land in Journal British Archaaolog^ical Association for 1864. 
t QuottJd by Loyland in his additions to Watson's Halifax. 
* History of Manchester. Volume 1, pajye 138. 


** The road having crossed Hlackstone Edge, ranges nearly from North 
to South, being discovered in this direction along the eastern side, leaving 
Halifax considerably on the right, and Illingworth only a little on the 
left, f and passes through Den ham Park, running a good way to the 
west of Bradford, and a little to the west of CuUingworth. Betwixt 
Hainworth and CuUingworth, the road is visible as a paved way more than 
twelve feet broad and neatly set with the stones of the country. It 
appears in several places upon Harding or Harden Moor, crossing the 
height of the moor, and pointing upon the Moor House above Morton, 
and is again visible upon Rumbles Moor. Upon the broad extent of this 
waste wilderness it appears, as I am informed, a raised paved road over- 
grown with turf, keeping upon the shelve of the hills, to avoid the cliffs 
on one side and the morasses on the other, and pointing directly upon 
the high steep rocky mound of the moor, to the gay valley of the wherf, 
and the little town of Ilkley within it.*' 

The late Mr. F. A. Leyland paid great attention to 
the BiOman roads of the district, and published an article 
in 1864, in the Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association upon tlie Roman roads intersecting the 
parish of Halifax, which he afterwards revised and 
greatly extended in his uncompleted edition of 
" Wat^son's Halifax.*' Leyland in his article and 
additions embodies much information concerning the 
road, collected from old inhabitants and surveyors of 
highways and others, and from his own researches, he 
having himself talked with old men who in their youth 
had travelled the whole distance from Luddenden to 
Ilkley by the Roman road. The result of his investi- 
gation may be shortly stated as follows : — The road up 
to the middle of the last century was fairly passable 
for foot passengers, along its whole length from Little- 
borough to Ilkley, but was in many places in a ruinous 
shaken up condition, and in some places enclosed. In 
some places it was incorporated with the highway, and 
in others, from time to lime, portions of the road had 
been taken up and used for buildings, so that in 1864, 
the road within the parish of Halifax had ceased to exist 
as a roadway, and could only be traced with difficulty. 
But he traced the whole road and fixed it upon an 
ordnance map, and determined its course as follows : — 

+ Whitaker is here in error, the road leaves Illingworth on the right. BIr. Ley- 
land thinks an iter .«lruck off from near Illingworth to CHmbodunum, and may be 
the road mentioned by Uorsley. 


The road after crossing the edge, where it is known as 
** The Devil's or Daubs Causeway," forms the present 
modern highway to the Bailing's Gate, where Warbur- 
ton and Sayers mark a camp. It there left the turn- 
pike and skirted the hill side by High Gate Head, Blue 
I Ball Lanes, and Lane Head, ascended Fosson or Foxen 
Lane, where the pavement for a short distance was 
some time since still remaining, continued along Birks 
Lane, Bowood and Dean Lanes to Sowerby, passing west 
of the church and east of the town. It then descended 
the hill by a road, formerly called Finkle or Fincle 
Street, where in Leyland's time the old pavement 
remained, and crossed the Calder at Longbottom by a 
ford, paved with large blocks of stone to the width of 
some twenty feet.* Thence through the fields the road 
ascended by HoUin Hall, where some part of the 
ancient causeway was lately visible, and by Greystones 
Wood behind Magson House to Greystones, where it 
could be distinguished in the fields by a line of lighter 
green than the surrounding vegetation. The road then 
ascended to Newland gate, where it crossed an ancient 
road which Ley land thinks ran from Doncaster to 
Ribchester, and thence by Clough Head, Tower Hill, 
Sentry Edge, Houghton Towers, Balkram Edge, 
Hamilton Hill (crossing the highway near Kell Bote), 
to Cold Edge, where it was distinctly seen as a slight 
ridge, and its pavement felt in some places by probing 
the ground with a sharp pointed instrument. 

The road then crossed Hunter's Hill, upon the sum- 
mit of which there was a camp near "The Carrs," but 
whether Roman or British cannot now be detcrmined.f 
I'rom Hunter's Hill the road descended to " The 
Carrs," passed through the Lower and Upper Ings, 
crossed the " Hebble " Brook to the spot where the 
waters of Ogden and Skirdon Brooks united before the 
construction of Ogden Reservoir. Here the pavement 

* I have been informed by Dr. Appleyard, whose family own Magson house, 
*hat the ford wa8 destroyed when the bed of the river was altered some years ago. 

t&Ir. Leyland thinks this was a camp where the soldiers rested after 
leaving Dkley, the next stage being Littleborough. 


was entire about fifty years ago, when it was removed 
to make fences, and more of the road was destroyed 
when the Ogden Reservoir was made. On the six inch 
ordnance map the site of the Roman road is shewn 
crossing the Carrs and is next marked on the north 
side of Ogden Reservoir. From Lower Ogden Top the 
road ran past New Moss Farm and pointed to Fore- 
side Bottom. At Denholme Gate a small patch of road is 
marked on the ordnance map near White Windows, and 
a further bit in the enclosures behind St. Paul's Church 
Schools at Denholme Gate. The road then passed over 
Hallas Rough Park and by Cold Spring House where 
it is marked on the ordnance map as crossing Many- 
wells Beck and the Haworth Road near Culling worth 
Gate. Beyond Haworth Road no trace of the road 
between there and Ilklcy can be now detected, though 
I think the present road from EUercar to Hanisworth 
Shaw is the line of the Roman road. The road must 
have crossed the River Aire by a ford or wooden 
bridge, but it is now impossible to say where; it probably 
descended into the Aire Valley through Marley Wood 
and ascended the hill opposite, between West Riddlesden 
and West Morton, behind Upwood, nor is there any 
trace of the road to be found on Morton Moor. The 
road at Upwood Avas destroyed by the late Mr. Busfield 
about fifty years ago. The route described as 
above is clearly the one taken by Warburton when he 
explored the road for the purposes of his memoir and 

The Roman road to likley descended (as I have been 
informed) the slope of Weary Hill on the lines of the 
modern road from Keighley behind the Wells House 
at Ilkley, but in a more direct line. The Roman 
remains at Ilkley are still conspicuous enough to 
attract attention. The township of Ilkley was inter- 
sected by two Roman roads, the one leading from 
Manchester to Aldborough and the other from 
Broughton near Skipton to Adel and Tadcaster, con- 
siderable traces of which are still to be found near 
Bramhope, and were visited by the Council last year. 


Whitaker, writing in 1771, after remarking that the 
town of Ilkley is almost barred up by trackless wastes 
and impracticable roads upon every quarter other than 
the great post road from Kendal to York, describes the 
town as lying " snug in the hollow of a valley, mean, 
dirty and insignificant, known only to the antiquarian 
for some curious inscriptions that have been discovered 
at it, and to the invalid for a fine spring of mineral 
water that had been found about a mile from it.'* 
Hethen proceeds to describe the Roman station as it 
appeared in his time, and as his description is the 
earliest notice of the camp at Ilkley, I make no 
scruple about transcribing it." 

^ The stationary area is pointed out by the appellation of 

Castle Hill, by the nature of the site, and by the remains of the Roman 
vallum. The site is admirably defended by the wherf in front, and by 
two brooks at the sides The wherf glides along the northern front of 
il. A very narrow level of boggy ground ranges between the river and 
that, and the area looks down upon both from a steep brow of 25 or 80 
yards in height The western brook has had half its waters diverted 
into another channel, and must before have flowed a very lively current, 
and gave additional strength to a brow naturally steep and rising about 
12 or id yards above it The eastern brook is remarkably brisk an J 
runs about 20 yards below the crest of the br )w, and bjth of them dis- 
charge their water.** into the wherf, a few yards below the station. The 
whole area was about 100 yards by 160, the northern barrier ranging, 
1 suppose, along the line of the present lane, and ])arallel with and about 
20 yards to the north of the Roman road from Broughlon to Aldborough . 
The whole extent of the area contained about four acres of ground, 
incompassing a building called the castle, and including the church and 
its area. And the vallum of the Htation presents itself to the eye at the 
north western angle, and is easily discovered under the turf along the 
whole c.:mpass of the brows, being the rough sable flag stones of the 

country cemented together with indissoluble mortar The 

town was constructed very near to the station and along the course of 
the road from Broughton in Banks Croft, Scafe Croft, and some adjoin- 
ing closes. There fragments of bricks remarkably red have been 
frequently dug up, and there the foundations of houses remain very 
visible at present (1771). No new inscriptions have been lately 
discovered. But many old inscriptions have in all probability 
been buried within the walls of the present church. A stone appears 
actually built up in the ^'outh Eastern corner of the building, and 
exhibits an inscription, once copied by Camden and by Horsley, but now 
(1771) absolutely illegible upon the outer plane of it. And on the 
northern side of the belfry within is a couple of stones, one of which was 
certainly a Roman altar, a patera appearing embossed upon the edge of 


the stone, and the other is char^^cd with a woman wearing a large peaked 
bonnet on her head and grasping a snake in either hand, which lise over 
each shoulder and Hit their heads considerably about it." 

I have not been able to get a plan of the camp. The 
site is much encumbered with buildings, and the marshy 
ground between tlie foot of the camp and the river is 
being filled up with the town's refuse and tipping. If 
the area could be trenched, under the supervision of 
an expert, no doubt many remains would be discovered. 

The road froin the camp crossed the Wharf near the 
camp some short distance below the present bridge. 
Mr. Horsfall Turner says : — " The Koman road leading 
from the ford towards Stubham was laid bare durinsr 
certain operations at the brickworks near the Old Hal], 

The direction the road took after crossing the river 
cannot now be ascertained. A little portion crops up 
in Stubham Wood. Formerly the road was more in 
evidence than at present, AVhitaker's " History of 
Manchester '' page 140, says : — 

^'Thie road to Aldborough is (1771) found again on Middleton and 
Hlueburgh House Moors beyond the town paved like that (i e., the road 
over Blackstone Edge) with stones uncommonly large, and edged, like 
that with still larger and points I suppose to Catterick." 

The pavement mentioned by Whitaker as being 
visible in his day has long since disappeared. It may, 
as surmised by llorsley, have sunk where it traversed 
the wild moorland region to the north of Ilkley into, 
and is now deep below, the surface of the peat and bog; 
or the pavement may have shared the fate of having 
been broken up for fences or to mend the roads. Mr. 
Horsfall Turner in the '' History of Ilkley, 1885," page 
275, referring to the old mile post on the old road to 
Moorhouses, says : — 

"A paved roadway passes directly under the greensward toivards 
Windsoever and is probably the old Roman road." 

Nothing of the road is now visible above ground 
between Ilkley and Blubberhoust^, though its course 
may be detected in some places l)y the lighter tinge of 


the vegetation or by a faint outline of the road, but 

any one relying upon finding the road in situ will be 

The road after leaving Stubham Wood appears 

to have continued along or parallel to Parks Lane, 
and in one of the enclosures near the old mile- 
stone at the top of Parks Lane the site of the road may 
be detected by the raised greensward, but when the 
road leaves the enclosed land and crosses Delves Beck 
it is lost. Its general direction is marked on the six 
inch ordnance map as crossing Bracken Ridge and 
Clifford Bog a little to the east of Bracken Well where 
it takes a sharp bend to the right, continuing across 
Sag Marsh in a straight line somewhat raised above 
the Moor to Cote llill, Blubberhouses. It is shewn on 
the six inch map as passing behind an old gravel 
quarry marked Calliard quarry, entering some enclosed 
land near some old buildings called Moorhouse Lairs, 
and crossing the road from Otley to Blubberhouses, 
descending the field, crossing the lliver Washburne, 
and ascending the opposite hill to Crag Hall, where it 
joins and forms part of the present highway from 
Skipton to Knaresborough as far as Kettlesing Toll- 
bar. From thence to Whitehall Nook, the line of road 
is perpetuated by a footpath only, generally dis- 
tinguished by a slight ridge in the field across which it 
passes. The stratum of the road itself was taken up 
at Whitehall Nook about the year 1848, and was found 
to be composed of native boulders forming a kind of 
coarse pavement. * From Whitehall Nook the road 
traversed the township of Felliscliffe from west to 
east, but with trifling exceptions along none of the 
present carriage road, passing through the fields to the 
south of the present line of road, keeping along 
high ground, and in some places called Long 
Lane used as a bridle road so late as 1871. The 
road then passed through the village of Hamps- 
thwaite, not far from the track of the present road, ford- 

• Grainge's ** History of Harrogate and Forest of Knaresborough, 1871,** ptig© 
82, to which I am indebted for a description of this part of the road. 


ing the river Nidd near the church and ascending Back 
Lane through Holly Bank Wood, where " remains of 
this old thoroughfare are still in evidence in the shape 
of large pave stones, some of which are as much as five 
or six feet long, and a foot and upwards in width. 
Many of them have been taken up for walling, but 
many remain yet in situ along the line of Roman 
march."* The road then passed through a corner of 
the township of Clint and part of Ripley. I have not 
been able to trace the road further, but according to 
Warburton's map, the road ran by way of Staveley and 
Copgrave to Aldborough, where the road crossed the 
river Eure upon a wood bridge, the piles of which were 
visible as late as last century, and then on to Catterick. 

Aldborough, the ancient Isurium, and the Roman 
capital of the north before the rise of York, was one of 
the most important Roman stations in Britain. It was 
not only a walled town, bat in size and wealth rivalled 
York. In plan it was an oblong parallelogram, about 
one and a half mile in circuit, intersected by the 
road from Tadcaster to York and by the road from 
Ilkley. As the Society has visited Aldborough, it is 
not needful to describe it, and there are enough remains 
of Roman buildings at Aldborough to aflFord matter 
for a separate paper. 

N.B. The map accompanying this paper is traced 
from Warburton*s map. 

• Speight's Nidderdale, 1894, page 380. 








Manningham. 27 July^ 1603. 

V/illiam Northrop* 
yeoman, of Mannin^- 
nam. John North- 
rop, his son and heir, 


William Clayton of 
AUerton in Bradford- 

^f^O ALL XTIAN PEOPLE to whom this psent 
C.1^ wrytinge shall come, Willm. Northroppe of 
^"^ Manninghamme in the county of Yorke, yeom., 
and John ISorthroppe sonne and heire apparant of the 
said 'Willm , sende greetinge in our Lorde ever- 
lastinge. Knowe you us the said Willm. North- 
roppe and John Northroppe for and in consideration 
of a certeyne some of money to us in hande payd 
by Willm. Clayton of Allerton in Bradford Dale in 
the said county yeom , whereof and wherew'** we 
acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfyed and payd, and thereof and 
of everie pte and pcell thereof doe clearly acquitte and discharge the 
said Willm. Clayton his execute adm^ and assignes and everie of them 
for ever by these psents. To have demised re- 
leased and quite claymed And by these psents for 
and from us our heirs and assignes and to demise, 
release and quite clayme unto the said Willm. Clay- 
ton, his execute admg. and a^signes and everie of 
them for ever by these psents. All and all manner of rentes amount- 
inge in the whole to fifteene shillinges yearly yssuinge out of certeyne 
landes and groundes with th' apptnces in Maninghamme aforesaid nowe 
in the tenure or occupacon of the said Willm. Clayton or his assigns. And 

Demise 15 Shillings 
per annum out of 
lands in Manningham 



Fonnerlv demised by 
John Northrop, de- 
ceased, father of the 
above William. 

Date of leases : 
25 August, 1596. 
23 November, 1597. 

27 May, 1598. 
9 August, 1600. 

heretofore demised to the said Willm. Clayton by the said Willm. 

North roppe and John his sonne and by John North- 
roppe Deceased late father of the said Willin or some 
of them In and by foure Beverall indentures of lease 
^vhereof one of them beareth date the fyve and 
twentieth day of Aug:ust in the nine and thirtieth 
yeare of the late Queene of famous memory Elizabeth, 
another of them beareth Date the three and twentieth 
day of November in the fourtieth yeare of the raigne 
of our said late Queene, another of them beareth 
date the seaven and twentieth day of May in the one 
and fourtieth yeare of the raigne o^ our said late 
Dread Sovereigne, and the fourth and last beareth 
date the ninth day of August in the three and 
fourtieth yeare of the raigne of our said late Queene Elizabeth. 80 
Vekely that neither we the said Willm. Northroppe nor John North- 
roppe his sonne nor eyther of us our heirs assignes nor any of us nor 
the heirs or assigns of eyther of us nor any other psons or pson for us or 
any of us or in the name or names of us or any of us any manner of rente 
or rentes reserved in and by the said foure severall indentures of lease or 
any of them can at any tyme or tymes heieafter clayme challenge f>r 
demande nor ought in tyme to so come. But of and from all and 
everie action or actions distresse or distresses and other remedy and 
remedies to be had and taken of and for the said rentes or any of them 
we are utterly excluded and debarred for ever by those pre>ent8. In 
Witness E whereof we the said Willm. Northroppe and John North- 
roppe his Sonne have set our handes and sealles the seaven and twentieth 
day of July in the first yeare of the raigne of our sovereigne lorde James 
by the grace of God kinge of Englande. fraunce and Ireland, defender 
of the faith, etc., and of Scoilande the six and thirtieth. 

Witnesses : 

G. Midgley. 
Thomas Golds- 

John Drake. 

(Sealed) Will"«- Northkopp (Sealed) 


Sealed and delivered in the presence of us : 


Thomas GouLDSBaouGiiE. John Drake. 

his mark. 1603 



Manningham, 9 September^ 1616. 

This Ixdentxtbe made the ninth day of September in the 
thirteenth year of the raigne of our sovereign lorde James by the grace 
of God king of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, 




William Norihr^pand 
his son John Northrop 
of Manning ham, 

Lease to William 
Clayton of Allerton. 

etc., and of Scotland, the nine and fortieth Between William North- 
throppe of Manninghara in the county of York, yeoman, and John 
Xorthroppe of the same, son and heir apparent of the 
said Will™! of th' one ptie, and William Clayton of 
Allerton in Bradforddale in the said county of tn' 
other ptie, Witxesseth that the said William North- 
roppe and John North roppe for and in consideration of a 
certain sum of lawful English money to them in hand 
at or before th* ensealing and deliverie of these psents 
by the said Will™- Clayton well and truely contended 
and paid for, and in the name of a fine or gressome, 
whereof and wherewith they the said W™- Northroppe 
and John Northroppe do hereby acknowledge them- 
selves and either of them to be fully satisfied and paid, 
and thereof and of eveiy pte and pcell thereof do clearly acquit t 
and discharge the said \V^- Clayton his executors, adm and assigns 
and every of them for ever by these psents, and for 

divers other good causes and considerations them the The following lands: 
said Wna- Northroppe and John Northroppe thereto 
movinge Hate demised, granted, leased, and to farm 
letten, and by this indenture for and from them, their heirs and 
assigns and every of them do demise, grant, lease, and to farm lett 
unto the said W™- Clayton his execs adms assigns. All that 
close of land and pasture commonly called the Round- 
hill close with th' app**^. lying and being in Manning- 
ham aforesaid in the said county of York now in the 
tenure or occupation of the said W"*- Clayton or his 
assigns, as the same close does contain by estimation 
three acres and doth adjoyn to the land of one 
Nicholas Wilkinson on the east pte, and to the land of 
the said W"*- Clayton on the we>t pte. And also all 
that close of aiable land and meadow commonly 
called Strythorneacre with th' appces lying and being 
in Manningham afores^. in the said cy. of York, 
now or late in the tenure or occupation of one W"*- 
Smith or his assigns And also one half acre of land by cstimatiim with 
th' appurten"*- lying and being enclosed in the east side or pte of one 
close of land in Manningham aforcs^- commonly called the Lambclose 
now in the tenure or occui)"- of the said W*"* Clayton or his assigns. 
And also all those three roods of land by estimacion with the appc«s. 
being now also enclosed in the west syde or pte of the said close called 
the Lambclose, as the said half acre and three roods of land by estimacion 
do lye on both sydes of one pcell of copyhold land being th' inheritance 
of the said W"*- Clayton and lying in or about the middest or middle pte 
of the said close called the Lambe close And also all those two acres 
and a half of land by estimacion with their app"*- lying and being in 
the Westfield in Manningham afores''- in the said county of York, and 
now in the tenure or occupation of one William Lister or his assigns 
And also all and singular, wayes, passage, waters, water-courses, 
liberticH, and pfittes, coniodilies, easements, and app<^«*- whatsoever to 
the said several closes, pcells of land, and premises hereby demised or to 


Roundhill Close, ad- 
joining tlhe property 
of Nicholas Wilkin- 

Siryihome Acre, ten- 
anted by William 

Piece:; of Land near 
Lamb Close, and 
Lamb Close itself, 

Two and a half acres 
in Westfield tenanted 
by William Lister. 


any of them in anywise belonging or apptayning, or to or with the same 
or any of them now or comonly demised, used, enjoyed, or occupied as 
pte, pcell, member, or belonging of or to the same or any of them or any 

pte or pcell thereof To Have and To 

the said two closes called by the several names 

of the Roundhillclose and Strythorneacre, the said 

wen y-ooe years jj^j^^^ tenem^*» and pcells of land, and all and 

singular other the pmisses before by these psents 
mentioned to be demised and granted and every 
pte and pcell thereof with all and singular their appurt<^' (except the 
said two acres and a half of land by estimacion in the said Westfield 
unto the said Wn* Clayton hisex^ adm^- and assigns to his and their own 
uses from and immediately after the thirtieth day of August last past 
before the date hereof, for, during, and until the full end and term of 
Twenty-one years from thence next following, and fully to be complete 
and ended clearly and absolutely without any manner or condition 
of mortgage And to have and to hold the said two acres and a half 
of land by estimation with th' appurten^* lying in the Westfield afore- 
said unto the said W^- Clayton his ex»- adm^. and assigns from and 
immediately after the said thirtieth day of August last past before the 
date hereof for, during, and until the full end and term of Twenty-one 
years from thence next following, and fully to be complete and ended 
under the proviso or condition hereafter in these presents expressed : 
Yeildinge and paying for the pmisses hereby demised yearly dui-ing 
eight years first of the said term of Twenty-one years unto the said 
W"»- Northroppe and John Northroppe, their heirs or assigns, the yearly 
rent of one penny of lawful English money at the feast of St. Martin the 

bishop in winter, only, for all other rent service or 

demand whatsoever (if the same be lawfully demanded) 

Rent: Onepennypcr ^ND ALSO yeilding and paying therefore yearly during 

annum for eight years thirteen years, being last and residue of the said term 

fo^rVeLr/s yeare™ ^^ Twenty-one years unto the said W™- Northroppe 

and John Northroppe their heir or assigns the yearly 
rent of Seven Shillings and Sevenpence of lawful 
money of England at the feast of St. Martin the bishop in winter and 
Pentecost by even portions And if it shall fortune the said several 
yearly rente of One penny, and Seven shillings and Seven pence, or 
either of them, or any pte or pcell thereof to be arreared and unpayed 
by the space of Twenty days next after any of the said feasts are above, 
in, and by these psents severally and respectively limited and appointed 
payable (the same being lawfully demanded) that then and as often as it 
shall so happen, it shall and may be well, lawful, to and for the said 
\yin. Northroppe and John Northroppe, their heirs and assigns and 
every of them into the said closes, lands, ten^> and pmisses hereby 
demised with th* appt«» and into every or any pte thereof to enter and 
distrayn, and the distress and distresses then and there found lawfully 
to take, lead, drive, carry, and convey away, and the same to imparke, 
impound or otherwise detayn and keep until such time as the said two 
severall yearly rents of one penny, and seven shillings and seven pence 
with th' arrearage of the same or either of them (if any such be) shalbe 
fully satisfied, contented and paid And the said William Northroppe 

West iiiDilTG CAiiTutARY. 269 

] ^^^^ Northroppe for themselvei and either of them, and for their 

ana either of their heirs, exec»-» adm*-' and for every of them do 

covena.i\i^ promise and grant to and with the said W™- Clayton, liis ex*-. 

a ?^ ^^d ass*" and to and with every of them hy the psents in manner 

f ^'*ni following (that is to say) that he the s^ William Clayton, his 

^^rns. and assigns and every of them to his and their own uses shall 

^ rp^^'y lawfully peaceably and quietly at all times from and after the 

J . ^^*"t.ieth day of August last past before the date hereof for and 

. *^^ uU the said term of 21 years have, hold, occupy, possess, and 

J ^ ^ll and every the s*^ closes, lands, ten**, and pcells of land, and all 

J • ^*i>gular other the pmisses hereinbefore mentioned to be hereby 

finir ^^'^ *"^ granted and every pte and pcell thereof withall and 

juj^^^^^l" their appur^^. for and under the yearly rent aforesaid and in 

jQ^ *^^^ and forme aforesaid, and according to the tenour and purpose 

law# \^^6 intent and meaning of tliese psents, without any manner of 

encii ^®'» ^^^^^ trouble, eviction, disturbance, recovery, interruption, or 

Qj ^^Ijrance of or by the haid W™- Northroppe and John Northroppe, 

\,y ^^Ixer of them, or either of their heirs or assigns or any of them, or 

diacil *^^ other person or persons whatsoever. And frke and clearly 

{[j^ ^^x-ged or otherwise well and sufficiently from time to time and at all 

g^^Q^ liereafter upon reasonable request to be made for the same by the 

It^^^W'ni- Clayton, his exs. adm^- or assigns, or any of them, saved or 

J^^ harmless and indemnified by the s<*- W"»- Northroppe and John 

^^ ^^^-J^voppe, or th' one of them or by their or the one of their heirs, 

-jj^ ^tlm«- and ass*-* or some or one of them of and from all and all 

\ *^^er of bargains, sales, gifts, grants, estates, uses, wills, intayles, 

^^^» and leases, mortgages, jointures, dowers, and titles of dower, 

^^Htutes, marchants, and of the staple, bonds, recognisances, annuities, 

^^nts, average of rent, extent, judgments, executions, intrusions, issues, 

'ynes, amerciaments, condemns and of and from all other acts, charges, 

titles, troubles, and encumbrances whatsoever heretorefore had, made, 

committed, done, knowledged, suffered, or executed, or hereafter to be 

had, made, committed, done, knowledged, suffered, or executed by the 

said W"- Northroppe and John Northroppe or either of them or by 

their or by either of their heirs, or assigns, or any of them, or by any 

other person or persons whatsoever, and especially of and from all lays, 

taxes, gualds, assessm'^. and impositions whatsoever wherewith the s^- 

predemised pmisses or any pte or pcell thereof or is or shall be chnrged 

or chargeable either to the church or to the said sovraign lord the king's 

majesty, his heirs or successors during the said term (the said several 

yearly rents of one penny, and seven shillings and seven pence above 

hereby severally reserved as aforesaid only accepted) And moreover 

that they the b^- W^ Northroppe and John Northroppe and their heirs 

and every of them shall and will from time to time and at all times 

during the space of ten }ears next ensuing the date hereof at the 

reasonable request and at the proper cost and charge in the law of the 

sd. W"»- Clayton his excrs. adm» or assigns, do, make, suffer, knowledge, 

and executed, and cause and suffer to be done, made, knowledged, and 

executed all and every such further lawful and reasonable act and acts, 

thing and things devises and assurances in the law whatsoever for the 

better and more pfect demising, granting, and assuring of the said 


several closes, lands, tenem^^ and pcells of land, and all and singular 
other the pmis^es hereinbefore mentioned to be hereby demised and 
granted and every ))te thereof with all their appurten'- unto the said 
Wm. Clayton, his ex«. adm*- and assigns, to his and their own uses for 
and during all the said term of 21 years under the yearly rents afore- 
said, and in manner and forme aforesaid, and according to the tenor and 
true intent and meaning of these psents be it by fine or fines with pro- 
clamations, confirmations, or otherwise howsoever, be it by matter of 
record or matter in fact, with warrants against all men, and by all and 
every or any of these ways and means or otherwise, and so often, as by 
the s^' William Clayton his ex*- adm*- or assigns, or any of them or his 
or their counsel learned in the laws of this realm shalbe reasonably 
revised or advised and required with warrant as aforesaid or without 
warranty so always as the s^- W™- Northroppe and John Northroppe 
or their heirs or any of them be not compelled to travel forth of the 
county of York (oxcept it be the city of York) for making doing 
knowledging or executing of any of the said assurances, And the said 
"Wm. Clayton for him, his ex*- ad*- and ass't doth covenant and grant 
to and with the said William Northroppe and John Northroppe their 
heirs and assigns by these psents that he the same William Clayton and 
his assi}{ns shall and will well and sufiiciently repair maintain and 
uphold the p demised closes and grounds with hedges walls ditches or 
other defences tenantable from time to time when and so often as need 
shall require during the said term, and at th' end thereof so sufficiently 
repaired and maintained tenantable shall leave and yield up the same ; 
PitoviDEP always and it is nevertheless covenanted granted and fully 
agreed by and between the said pties to these psents, and the said 
William Northroppe and John Northroppe for them and either of them, 
and for their and either of their heirs, ex*- adms- and ass*- and for every 
of them do covenant, pmise, agree, and grant to and with the said 
W"*- Clayton his ex*- adms**- and assigns, and to and with eveiy of 
them by these psents that if any suit or suits, action or actions 
in law shall happen to be commenced, had, or taken by any pson 
or psons against the said W'"- Clayton, his ex*- adm. or assigns, 
or any of them, of, for, or concerning the possession or occupaciou 
of the pmises hereby demised or of any pte or pcell thereof 
at any time or times during the said term, that then they the said W"»- 
Northroppe and John Northroppe, their heirs, ex*. adm*« or ass*, or some 
of them (upon reasonable request to them or any of them to be made 
for the same) shall and will not only pay, bear, and discharge all the 
cost, charge, and expense in law which the same W™- Clayton, his 
ex* adm*- or assigns, shall sustain or be put for or by reason of the said 
suit and actions or any of them, but also if that the p demised premises or 
any part thereof shall by any such action or suit be lawfully evicted from 
the said William Clayton, his ex*- adm*- and assigns, that then they the 
said Wn». Northroppe and John Northroppe, their heirs or assigns, shall 
and will yeaily from and after such lawful eviction to be had for and 
during all the residue of the said term which shall be then to come and 
expire in the pmisses by force of these presents deduct and allow unto 
the said W'"- Clayton, his exec*- and assigns such rateable and 
pportionable pte of the said yearly rent of seven shillings and seven 



pence hereby reserved as the quantity of ground so to be evicted shall 
extend and amount unto, in respect of the residue of the premif^es, and 
that the same shalbe apportioned and diminished accordingly \vithout 
denial or contradiction^ any thing above said to the contrary thereof in 
any wise notwithstanding ; And fitrther it is covenanted granted, con- 
cluded, and fully ap^reed by and between the said parties, and the said W™- 
Northroppe and John Northroppe, for them their heirs, ex^ adm^- and 
ass* » and for every of them, do covenant, promise, and grant to and with 
the said W"*- Clayton, his ex*- adm*- and assigns, and to and with every 
of them by these psents, that he the said W"*- Clayton, his ex^- adm*- 
and assigns and every of them, to his and their own uses shall or may 
lawfully, peacefully and quietly at all times from henceforth for and 
during; the full end and term of Fourteen years from thence next 
foUowin^ and fully to be complete, have hold, procure, take and enjoy 
all and singular the tithes of corn and grain which shall yearly duiing 
the same term of 14 years shall come grow renew and increase within 
and upon the said several closes lands tenem^^ and pmisses hereby 
demised and eveiy or any pte thereof except the saidlands in the 
Westfield aforesaid without any manner of lawful let, suit, trouble, 
eviction, disturbance, recovery, or encumbrance of or by the said William, 
Northroppe and John Northroppe or cither of them or of their several 
heirs or assigns or any of them or of or by any other pson or psons 
whatsoever, he the said W™- Clayton and his assigns yielding and 
paying therefore yearly during the said term of fourteen years unto the 
said John Northroppe or his a^^signs after the rate of three shillings an 
acre for every acre of the pmisses (except before excepted) which shall 
be sown with corn or grain at the feast of St. Martyn the Bishop in 
winter only for all the year (if the same be lawfully demanded) 
Provided also and it is nevertheless the true intent and meaning of 
these psents and of the pties to the same and it is accordingly covenanted, 
granted, concluded, and fully agreed by and between the said pties to 
these psents, that if the said William Clayton, his exeC-i adm*-» and 
assigns and every of them to his and their own uses shall or may law- 
fully, peaceably, and quietly at all times from and immediately after the 
Thirtieth day of August last past before the date hereof for and during 
all the said term of twenty-one years absolutely wiihout any manner of 
condition or mortgage, have, hold, occupy, possess, and enjoy all and 
singular the said several closes, lands, tenem^Sf hereditaments, and 
pmisses hereinbefore mentioned to be hereby demised and granted and 
every pte thereof with all and singular their appurtenc**- (except the 
said two acres and a half of land by estimation lying in the Westfield 
aforesaid) for and under the said several yearly rents above hereby 
reserved as aforesaid, without any manner of lawful let, suit, trouble, 
eviction, disturbance, recovery or encumbrance of or by the said 
William Northroppe and John Northroppe or either of them or their or 
either of their heirs or assigns or any of them or of or by any other 
pson or psons whatsoever, that tlien this psent indenturn, demise, and 
lease, and every grant, clause, word, sentence, and covenant, herein 
contained, shall as to the said two acres and a half of land by estimation 
lying in the said Westfield with th' appurtenan"*-. shall cease, deter- 
mine, and be utterly void, frustrate, and of none effect in the law to all 


intents, constructions, and purposes whatsoever, and that at all times 
from thenceforth in the mean season (to witte) until disturbance shall 
be made to the said William Clayton, his exec«-» adm»- or assigns, or 
any of them in his or their, or any of their quiet possession and 
occupation of the said closes, lands, tenem^ and pmisses hereby 
demised with th' apptenc«»- or of any pte or pcell thereof (except the 
said land in the said Westfield) by any pson or psons whaUio- 
ever, it shall and may be well lawful to and for the said William 
Northroppe and John Northroppe, their heirs and assigns and 
every of them to their own uses peaceably and quietly to have, hold, 
occupy and enjoy the said two acres and a half of land by estimation 
with th' apptenc«s lying in the said Westfield, and without any manner 
of let, suit, trouble, eviction, or encumbrance of or by the said William 
Clayton, his ex*- adm^- or assigns or any of them, any joint demise made 
of all the said pmisses as aforesaid or any coven^ herein contained or 
other matter or thing whatsoever to the contrary thereof in any wise 
notwithstanding : And Finally it is covenanted, granted, concluded, 
condescended, and fully agreed by and between the said pties, and the 
said Will™- Northroppe and John Northroppe for themselves and either 
of them and for their and either of their heirs, exec** and adm** and for 
every of them do covenant, promise, agree and grant to and with the 
said William Clayton, his excC- adm^ and assigns, and to and with 
every of them by these psents, that if they the said William Northroppe 
and John Northroppe or their heirs or any of them shall at any time here- 
after procure any grant or lease to be made to them or either of them or 
their or either of their heirs or to any other pson or psons for or to the use 
of them or eirher of them or their or either of their heirs by or from the 
king's majesty, his heirs or successors or by or from any other pson or 

psons which do or shall claim by, from, or under him or 
moor inManSngham them or any of them, of and upon two acres of moor- 
lcLJ^is*to bJ n^d^" ground by estimation with their appten«»- in Manning- 
ham aforesaid, adjoinging to the south-end of the 
aforesaid close called the Houndhill close and late in the tenure or 
occupation of the said William Clayton or his assigns, that then they 
the said William Northroppe and John Northroppe or their heirs shall 
and will within the space of two months next after such grant or lea<(e 
to be procured and made as aforesaid, at the reasonable request and at 
the proper cost and charge in the law of the said William Clayton or his 
assigns, lawfully and sufficiently demise, grant, lease, and to farme, let 
the said two acres of moor ground by estimation with ih' appten*** to 
the said William Clayton and his assigns To Ha.Y£ and to hold the same 
unto the said William Clayton and his assigns from the making of the 
said new lease for, during, and until the full end and term of twenty- 
one years from thence next following, and fully to be complete and 
ended, for one red rose at the time of roses to be thereby reserved to the 
said Lessees, their heirs or assigns during the eight years, first of the 
same terme of Twenty-one years for all other rents, services, and 
demands, and for and under the yearly rent of Five shillings of lawful 
English money to be hereby resen-ed unto the said lessees their heirs 
and assigns during thirteen years being last and residue of the said term 
of Twenty-one years, payable yearly at the feast of Pentecost and SU 



Martin the bishop in winter, or St. Martin and Pentecost as the same 
shall happen to come and fall next after the making of such new lease to 
the said William Clayton as aforesaid by even pcious and with such like 
covenant on the pte and behalf of the William Northroppe and John 
Northroppe, their heirs, ex^- and adm*- to be coixtained in the said new 
lease, as are and be above in these psents mentioned and expressed, and 
on their part and behalf to be performed and kept In Witness 
whereof the pties above-named to the pte of these indentures inter- 
changeably have set their hands and seals the day and year first above 

William Northrop. 


John Nobthrof. 

Bealled, Signed, and Delivered the day of the date 
hereof in the presence of us : 

Jo. MiDOLEY. Robert Illingwobth. 


Jo. CLATTo^. 

Geobge Whabledale. 

(Other Endorsements) 

Ancient Writings for Lands purchased of Jeremy 
Northropp. William Clayton lease. 

Witnesses : 
John Mid^ley 
Kobert lUingwonh 
John Clayton 
Otorgc Wharlcdale 

John Northrop 

Manningham, 6 February 1622-3. 

The Condition of this obligation is such, that whereas the within 
boimd John Northroppe by his deed poll under his hand and sealle with 
livery and seizure thereupon executed bearing date with the obligation 
within written, hathe (for the considerations therein 
expressed) gyven graunted barganed sould, enfeoffed 
and confirmed unto the within named William Clayton 
his heires and assignes for ever ; One half acre of 
land by estimation now lyinge inclosed in the east side 
or pte of one close of land with th* appurtenances in 
Manningham within said, commonly called the Lamb 
close now in the tenure or occupation of the said 
William Clayton or his assignes, and also all those 
three roods of land by estimation with th' appurten- 
ances beinge now also enclosed in the west side or pte of the said close 
called the Lambe close, as the said half acre and three roods of land by 

Reversion of one 
close and three roo s 
of land in Lamb 
Close, ManninxhHin, 
from John Northrop 
and ni.s wife Mary 
Northrop of Man- 
ningham to William 
Cbyton, of Allerton. 


estimation doe lye on both sides of one pcell of copyhoulde land beinge 
th* inheritance of the said William ( layton lyinge in or about the 
middest or middle pte of the said close called the Lambe close, and also 
all other the lands, grounds, and pcells df land whatsoever of the said 
John Northroppe beinge houlden by deed, with their appuitenances 
lyinge and beinge within the said close called the Lambe close in 
Manningham aforesaid in whose tenures or occupations soever the same 
now are or be, and the reversion and reversions of the pmisses graunted 
by the said deed with th' appurtenances and of everie pte and pcell 
thereof, and all rents and yearly pfitts whatsoever reserved upon any 
demyse or demyscs leases or graunts heretofore made of the same pmisses 
or of any pte or pcell thereof ; to have and to hould the same unto 
the said William Clayton and to his heires and assignes to his and theyr 
owne uses for ever. As by the same deed poll (to which reference be 
had) more playnly may appeare ; If therefore the said William Clayton 
his heires and assignes and everie of them to his and theyr owne uses 
shall or may lawfully peaceably and quietly at all tymes from henceforth 
for ever have hould occupy possess and enjoy the said half acre and three 
roods of land by estimation lyinge in the said close called the Lambe 
close as aforesaid and all other the pmisses above mentioned to be 
graunted barganed or sould in and by the said deed poll in pte aboA*e 
recyted and everie pte and pcell thereof with all their appurtenances 
according to the tenor purpouse and true intent and meaninge of the same 
deed poll, without any manner of lett suite trouble eviction disturbance 
recovery or encumbrance of or by the said John Northroppe his heires or 
assignes or any of them, and without any manner of lawfull lett suite 
trouble eviction disturbance recovery or encombrance of or by any other 
pson or psons whatsoever ; Had free and clearly discharged or other- 
wyse well and sufficiently from tyme to t}'mc and at all tymes hereafter 
(upon reasonable request to be made f'>r the same by the said William 
Clayton his heires or assignes or any of them saved or kept harmless and 
indemnified by the said John Northroppe his heires executors adm or 
assignes or by some or one of them, of and from all and all manner of 
fomer and other bargancs sales gifts graunts estates uses willes intayles 
lease and leases mortgages joyntures dowers and titles of dower statutes 
marchant and of the staple bonds recognisances annuyties rents averages 
of rents extents judgements executions intrusions, seizures, issues, f}Ties, 
amercem^s condemnations and of and from all other acts charges titles 
troubles and encombrances whatsoever heretofore had made committed 
knowledged suffered executed or done or hereafter to be had made 
committed knowledged suffered executed or done by the said John 
Northroppe his heires or assignes or by Mary now his wyfe or her 
assignes or any of them or by any other pson or psons whatsoever ; such 
interest and tearme of years as the said William Clayton or his assignes 
have or hath in the pmisses and the rents and service to be from 
henceforth due and payable for the pmisses to the chiefe lord or lords 
of the Fee or Fees thereof onely excepted and surprysed. And moreover 
if the 6 aid John Northroppe and his heires and the said Mary his wife 
and everie of them shall and will from tyme to tyme and at all tymes 
duringe the space of seaven \ ears next ensuinge the date of the obligation 
within written, at the reasonable request and at the pper coste and charge 



in the lawe of the said William Clayton his heires or assignes or any of 
them make doe suffer knowledge and execute or cause and suffer to be 
made done knowledged executed all and every such further lawful and 
reasonable acte and actes, thinge and things devises coveyances and 
assurances the lawe whatsoever for the better and more pfect assuringe 
surety sure making and coveying of the said half acre and three roods of 
land by estimation and all other the pmisses above mentioned to be 
graunted barganed or sould by the said deed poll as aforesaid will all 
theyr appurtenances unto the said William Clayton his heires and 
assignes to his and theyr owne uses for ever ; Hee it by fyne or fynes 
with pclamations or by any other matt of record or matter in fact with 
warranty against all men and but all and everie or any of those wayes 
and meanes or otherwise and so often as by the said W'"- Clayton his 
heires or assignes or any of them or his or theyr or any of theyr counsell 
learned in the lawes of this realme shalbe reasonably devised or a tvised 
and required, so alwaies as the said John Northroppe rr his heires or 
the said Mary his wife or any of them be not compelled to travel forth 
of the county of Yorke (except it be to the city of Yorke) for making 
doeinge knowledging or executinge of the said assurances any of them ; 
that then this psent obligation to be voyd and of none effect or else to 
stand be or remayne in full power strength and vertue : 


Noverint universi per pracsentes me Johannem North 'oppe, junior™ de 

Manningham in comit. Ebor, yeom., teneri et firmiter obligari Will"*. 

Clayton de Allerton in Bradforddale in d'^com.. yeom., in quadraginta 

libris bonae et legalis monetae Angliae solvendis eidem 

W"o Clayton aut suo attornato, hered'*' exec*» et adm''- 

8uis, ad quam quidem solutionem bene et fideliter 

faciendum obligo me, her«s-» et adm««- meos firmiter per 

psentes sigillo meo sigillalas. Datum sexto die mensis 

Februarii et anno regni domini Jacobi Dei gratia 

Angliae, Franciae, et Hiberniae regis, fidei defend- et^- 

decimo nono, et Scotiae quadragesimo quinto, annoque 

Domini 1622. Sigillatur et DeliV- in psentia n''""^ = 

Consideration ;^4o. 

Witnesses : 
Tohn Midgley, 
Robert Clayton, 
John Clayton, 
Juhn Scott. 

J. MiDOLEY, Robert Clayton, John Clayton, 
John Scott. 

(Second Endorsement.) 

Ancient Writings belonging the land purchased by 
Mr. Gregson of Jeremy Northrop and his wife. 

Reference to Mr. 
Grcijson and Jeremy 




Horion. 14 May 1697. 

This Indenture made the foureteenth daye of May in the nynth 
yeare of the reigne of king William the third Anno Dom 1697. 
Bet WEEN E Isaace Hollinges of Horton within the pish of Bradford, 

and county of Yorke, yeom, and Thomas Pighelle of 

the same, yeom, of the one pty, and Robert Swayne, 

Isaac Hoiiings of ^^ Horton aforesaid, yeom, of the other pty, whereas 

Horton, and i^omaa Robert Sugden formerly of Horton aforesaid, deceased, 

PighiU. of Horton. ^-^j y^^ ^^^ j^jg ^j^ ^^^ testament bearing date the 

eight and twentyth day of Jeneuary in the second 
^f.."?^5®r* ^^^^^ yeare of the reigne of (he late kinge James the second 

will of Robert Siig- "^ j • au t t J xu j • 

den, of Horton, who cuid m the yeare or our Lorde one thousand six 
left wife and children hundred eighty and six amongest other gifts and 

twill oaicQ 2q January ',• j*i* iji* a a\ '^t 

i686.) devises did give and devise unto the said Isaace 

Hollinges and Thomas Pighelle their heirs and 
Sell to Robert Swaine assignes for cver all that cottage or dwellinge house 
a cottage and oppurts. and all easm^s- to the same belonginge scituate in 
prevk»S"occupter°of Horton aforesaid formerly in the occupation of one 
the P'«in>s«* *>«»"« Edward Smithes of intent the said Isaace Hollinges 
ing. ^^^ Thomes Pighelle or theirc heires heirof shall sell 

the said cottage or dwellinge house for and towardes 
the paym of the debte and the mantayneinge and 
bringinge upp of the then wife and children of the said Robert Sugden 
as by the said will unto which reservance beinge had more playnly and 
att large itt may appeare now this indenture wittnesseth that the said 
Isaace Hollinges and Thomas Pighelle in discharge of theire trust and 
in pformance of the said will for and in consideration of the some of 
nyne pounds and tenn shillings of lawfuU money of England to them in 
hand paid by the said Robert Swayne before the sealling and delivery of 
these psents whereof and wherewith they the said Isaace Hollinges and 
Thomas Pighelle doth here by acknowledge full paym and sattisfaction, 
and thereof and of every pte thereof doth clearly acquitt and discharge 
the said Robert Swa}nie his heirs exec adm and assignes and every of 
them for ever by these psentes hathe graunted, barganed and sould 
alyened, enfeoffed, released and confirmed, and by this Indenture for and 
from them theire heires and assignes doth fully and absolutely grant 
Dargane, sell, alyane and release enfeoffe and confirme unto the said 
Robert Swayne now in his actuall possession by virtue of one Indenture 
of bargaine and sale to him allready made from the said Isaace Hollinges 
and Thomas Pighells for one whole yeare from the daye before the date 
of these psents and by vcitue of the statuatc for transferinge of use 
into possession and to his heirs and assignes forever all the above said 
cottage or dwelling-house mentioned in the said will and one little pcell 
of hind to the same belonging with all and singular their appurtenances 
scituate lyinge and beinge in Horton aforesaid late in the tenure or 
occupation of Martin Fieldinge or his assigns and all buildings to the 
same belonginge or builded, and the reversion and reversions of the 
said granted pmises and alsoe all the estate, right, title, claim and 


demande whatsoever of them the said Isaace Hollinges and Thomas 

Pighelles of and to the same, and all the deeds and evedences touching 

or conseming the f^aid granted pmisses now in the possession of the said 

Isaace Hollinges and Thomas Pighelle or either of them or under theire 

pcure"**- TO HAVE and to hould the said cottag? or dwelling-house with 

all bttildinges there builded the said pcell of land to the same belonging 

and all other the pmisses herein before mentioned or intended to bee 

granted with all theire appurtenances unto the said Robert Swayne his 

beires and assignes to the onely use and behoofe of the said Robert 

Swayne his heires and assignes for ever to bee houlden of the cheefe 

lord or lordes of the fee or fees by services therefore due and of right 

accustomed akd the said Isaace Hollinges and Thomas Pighells and 

theire heires the said cottage or dwellinghousc, buildings, pcell of land 

and all other the pmisses before mentioned or intended to be sould with 

th' appurtenances unto the said Robert Swayne his heires and assignes 

to his and theire owne uses in manner and forme aforesaid as them the 

said Isaace Hollings and Thomas Pit^hells theire heires and assignes 

shall and will warrant and defend for ever by these psents and alsoe the 

said Isaace Hollinges and Thomas Pighells doth for themselves their 

heires, exec, and adm., covenant, pmise, and grant to and with the said 

Robert Swayne his heires and assignes by these psentes in manner and 

forme afEollowinge to witt, that they the said Isaace Hollinges and 

Thomas Pighells by vertue of the said will now is the day of the date 

hereof notwithstanding any acte or thinp:e done by them or either of them 

to the contrary the very true and undoubted owner of the said cottage or 

dwelling-house and other the granted pmises and thereof is seased of an 

indefcazable estate of inheritance in fee simple and hath good right and 

lawfull athoryty to sell and convey the same in manner and forme afore- 

said AND further that the said Robert Swayne his heires and assignes 

and every of them to his and theire owne uses shall or may lawfully 

peaceably and quietly at all tymes from henceforth have hold possess 

and enjoy the said cottage or dwelling house and all other the pmisses 

before mentioned or intended to bee graunted with their appurtenances 

according to true intent of these psent without any lett suite trouble 

eviction or encomberance whatsoever of or by the said Isaac Hollings 

and Thomas Pighells or either of them theire severall heires or assignes 

or of or by any other pson or psons whatsoever lawfully claiminge from 

or under them or any of them or by or through theire or any of theire 

means or pcurem'*AND free and clearly discharged or otherwise well and 

sufficiently at all tymes hereafter upon reasonable request to be made for 

the same saved and kept harmless and indemnified by the said Isaac 

Hollinges and Thomas lighells their heires or asMgnes or by some of 

them of and from all and all manner of former and other barganes sailes 

giftes grants mortgages titles troubles and encombrances whatsoever 

heretofore had made .suffered executed or done or hereafter to be had 

made suffered executed or done afor by the said Isaac Hollinges and 

lliomas Pighells or either of them theire severall heires or assignes or 

any of them or for by any pson cr psons whatsoever by or through theire 

or any of theire meanes consents or pcurem<^> the rents and services to be 

hereafter due and payable for the said pmisi^es to the cheefe lorde or 

lordes of the fee or fees only excepted and moreover that they the said 


Isaac HoUinges and Thomas PiglielU and their heires and all and every 
other pson or psons lawfully clayming any right in the abovesaid pmises 
from or under them or any of them shall and will at all tymes hereafter 
upon reasonable request and all the costes and charges of him the said 
Robert Swayne his heires or assignes make and execute or cause and 
suffer to bee made and executed suche further and assurances and 
conveyances in tlie law for the belter and mre grantinge of the above 
said ])mi$es bee the to bee done by fyne or any other assurance with 
warranty es above said as by the said Robert Swayne his heires or 
assignes or counsell shall be reasonably advised and required, and 
lastly it is covenanted and agreed betwixt the said ptyies and itt is herein 
mentioned and declared that all fynes and assurances here before made 
or hereafter to bee made touchinge or conseminge the above granted 
pmises onely or of them withother or only joyntly shall for the con- 
sideration above said bee adjudged and taken to be and shall bee to the 
onely use and bee feofe of the said Robert Swayne his heires and 
assignes forever and to no other use or uses, In witness whereof the said 
Isaac HoUinges and Thomas Pighells have hereunto sett their handes 
and scales the day and yeare first above written. 

This is a true copy examined by us : 


Samuel Swain*!. SaMUEL SwAINE. 


Manningham. 27 June 167-4. 

This Indentuhe made the seven and twentieth day of June, in the 
six and twentieth yeaie of the reigne of our sovereigne Lord Charles 
the Second by the grace of God of England, Scotland, ffrance, and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the fPaith, Anno Domini: 1674: Jeremie 
Northropp of Maningham in the Countie of Yorke, yeom., and Grace 
now his wife, late wife of John Hammond late of the same, yeom., 
deceased, and sole daughter and heire of William Clayton late of 
Allerton, within the pish of Bradford, in the said Countie, yeom., 
deceased, of th' one ptie : And John Greggson of Maningham afore- 
said, gentl., of the other ptie ; Witnesseth that the said Jeremie 
Northropp and Grace his wife, ffor and in consideration of the sum of 
one hundred and ffiftiene pounds of lawfuU money of England to them 
or th' one of them in hand all well and trulie paid by the said John 
Greggson att or befor the tyme of then sealling and deliverie of these 
psents, whereof they the said Jeremy Northropp and Grace his wife do 
hereby acknowledge the Receipt and themselves to bee fuUie satisfied 
and thereof and of everie pte and pcell of the same do cleai'ly acquitt, 
exonerate, and discharge the said John Greggson his heirs, executors, 
adm. and assignes, and everie of them for ever by these psenta. And 
for divers other good causes and considerations them the said Jeremy 
Northroppe and Grace his wife thereunto moveing: Have given 
graunted, barganed, sold, alyened, enffeoffed and conHrmed, and by this 


indenture for and from them their severall heirs and assignes do fullie 
freelie and absolutelie give, graunt, bargane, sell, alyene, enifeoff, 
release and confirme unto the said John Greggson his heirs and assignes 
for ever : All that messuage or tenement with th' appurt'^nances 
situate and being in Maningham aforesaid near a place called Chellow 
Height now in the tenure or occupation of one John Hoile his assignee 
or assignes together with one barne thereto adjoining, one garden, one 
croft or backside on the north side of the said messuage and barne and 
ffower Closes of land thereto belonging and lyeing alltogcther on the 
southside thereof and late occupied in three Closes or ptes and comonlie 
called or knowne by the severall names of the Long Close (now 
occupied in two ptes), the Upper field, and the Lower field or by 
what otber name or names soever the sume Closes of land or any of tlicm 
are or bee called or knowne, with their appurtenances in Maniiigiiam 
aforesaid, now in the tenure or occupation of the said John Greggson, 
his assignee or assignes, and abutting or adjoining upon the highway 
leading from Theevesfoore to Binj^ley upon the west pte, upon the highway 
leading from Allerton to Maningham on the souih pte, u[)on the lands 
of John Fournes on the east pte, and upon the said Messuage or barne 
on the north pte. And also all that one other Close of land or pasture, 
comonlie called the Lamb Close, or by what other name soever tlie same 
be called, with th'appurtenances in Maningham aforesaid, and now also in 
the tenure or occupation of the said John Greggson, his assignee or 
assignes, and abutting upon the said highway or lane leading from 
Theevesfoore to Bingley on the west pte, upon the said other lane lead- 
ing from Allerton to Maningham on the north pte, upon the lands of the 
heirs of John Horrocks on the south and east ])teH. And also all that 
one other Close of land comonlie called the Cliff Fold, or by what other 
name soever the same bee called, with th' appurtenances in Maningham 
aforesaid, now also in the tenure or occupation of the «*aid John 
Greggson, his assignee or assignes, and adjoining upon the lands of 
Samuell Sunderland, Esq., on the west pte, upon the lane leading from 
Allerton to Maningham on the south pte, upon the lands belonging to 
the poore of the pish of Bradford on the east pte, and upon the land^ of 
Kebecca Hoile on the north pte ; And also all those two other Closes of 
land or pasture comonlie called Upper Wheltley and Nether Whettlcy, 
or by what other name or names soever the ^ame or either of them bee 
called or knowne, with their appurtenances in Maningham aforesaid, now 
also in the tenure or occupation of the said John Greggson, his assignee or 
assignes, and abutting upon the lands of John tfowett on the east pte, 
upon the lands of John Hartley oil the south pte, upon the lands of John 
Crabtree on the west pte, and upon Whettley Green on the north pte ; 
and also all and further ways, passages, waters, watercourses, hedges, 
fences, comons, libtyes, easmts and hereditmts whatsoever to the said 
messuage, barne, garden, severall closes of land or any of them in any 
wise belonging or appteyning : And the reversion and reversions, re- 
mainder and remainders, of all and singler the above graunted pmisses 
with their appurtancs : And also all the estate, right, title, interest, in- 
heritance, condition, clayme and demand whatsoever of the said Jeremy 
Northropp and Grace his wife, and of either of them, of, in and to the 
said messuage, buildings, lands and pmisses: And all the deedes. 


evidences and writings whatsoever touching or concerning the same or 
any pte thereof with th'appurtances : To hate and to hold the said 
messuage or tent, buildings, closes, lands, libtyes and all other the above 
graunted psmisses with all their appurtances unto the said John Qregg- 
son, his heirs and assignes ; To the onelie and pper use and behoofe o£ 
the said John Gregson, and of hU heires and assignes for ever : To bee 
holden of the chieff Lord or Lords of the fee or fees thereof by services 
therefour due and of ri^ht accustomed : And the said Jeremy North- 
ropp and Grace his wife and their heirs, the said messuage, buildings, 
closes, lands, and pmisses above graunted with their appurtancs unto the 
said John Greggson, his heirs and assignes to his and their owners and 
for ever in manner and forme aforesaid against them the said Jeremy 
Northropp and Grace his wife, their several! assignes and against 
all and everie other pson and psons whatsoever shall and will wanfant 
and defend tor ever by the aforesaid psnts : And also the said Jeremy 
Northropp doth for himselfe and the said Grace his wife, their several! 
heirH, executors and adm., covenant, pmise, and graunt to and with the 
said John Greggson, his heirs and assignes, by these psents in manner 
and forme following, viz. : That they the said Jeremy Northropp and 
Grace his wife now are, or th' one of them \b, the day of the date hereof 
and att the verie tyme of the sealing and deliverie of the aforesaide 
psnts, the verie, true, lawfull and undoubted owners or owner, inheritor 
or inheritors of the said messuage, lands, tents, and graunted pmisses 
with their appurtances And thereof now are and stand, or th' one of 
them now is and standeth rightfullie and lawfully seised of a pfect 
absolute and indefeasabla estate of inheritence in fee simple by meare 
right without any manner of condition, redemption or mortgage And 
further that the said John Greggson, his heirs and assignes and everie 
of them, to his, and their owne uses shall or may peaceablie and quietlie 
att all tymes hereafter have, hold, occupy, possesse and enjoy 
the said messuage or tekit, buildings, closes, lands, tmts, here- 
ditaments and pmises above graunted with their appurtances 
according to the tenor and true, intent of the said psents. 
DiscHAUOED cleare and free or otherwise well and sufficiently att all 
tyme and hereafter upon reasonable request to bee made for the same 
saved or kept harmless and indemnified by the said Jeremy Northropp, 
his heirs, executors, adm. or some of them, of and from all former 
and other barganes, sales, gifts, graunt^*, estates, uses, wills, intayles, 
lease and leases, mortgages, jointures, dowers and titles of dower, 
statutes-merchant, and of the staple bonds, recognisances, issues, fjnes, 
amerciaments, annuyties, rents, averrages of rents, extents, judgments, 
ousterlemaines forfeitures Ajid of and from all other acts, charges, 
titles, troubles, incumbrances whatsoever heretofore had made and 
comitted, suffered, executed, or done or hereafter to bee had made and 
comitted, suffered, executed, or dune by the said Jeremy Northropp and 
Grace his wife, their lawful heirs or assigns or any of them, or by any 
other pson or psons whatsoever, the rents and services to be hereafter 
due and payable for the pmissses to the chieff Lord or Lords of the fee 
or fees thereof onelie excepted : And moreover that the said Jeremy 
Northropp and Grace his wife, their several! heirs and assignes, shall 



]ertmy North rop, of 
Manningham, and his 
wife Grace, tale the 
wife of lonn Ham- 
mond, of Manning- 
ham, decensed, and 
sole daughter and 
heiress of Wiliiam 
Clayton, of Allerlon, 

Demise to John Greg- 
son, of Manningham, 

A messuajge at Chel- 
low Heights with 
garden anH croft, 
tenanted by John 
Hoyle, and various 
closes of land named 
Long Close, Upper 
Field, Lower Field, 
I^mb Close, CIifT 
Kold, Upper Whetley 
Nether Whetley, ten- 
anted bv John Greg- 
son, and btiunded by 
the lands of John 
Furness, John Hor- 
rocks, Samuel Sun- 
derland , Reljecca 
Hoyle, John Jowett, 
John Hartley, and 
John Crabtrec, 

Con.sideration paid ; 

aiid will during the space of sea van years next ensue- 
ing* th* date hereof, att the reasonable request and att 
the pper costs and charges of the said John Gregg- 
sou, hia heirs or assignes, make, do, knowledge and 
execute or cause and suffer to he made, done, 
knowledged and executed all and everie such further 
lawfull and reasonable acte and thing, devise, con- 
veyance, and assurance in the Law whatsoever for the 
l)etter, further and more pfect graunting, conveying 
and assuring of the said messuage, buildings, closes, 
lands, ten^^- and pmisses above graunted with theiV 
appurtances according to tiie tenor and true intent of 
these psents : Bee the same to bee done by JTyne or 
ffynes ivith pclamations, recoverie, or recoveries, deed 
or deeds indented or enrolled or not enrolled, enroll- 
ment of these psents, release and confirmation with 
warrantee according to the tenor of these psents 
or by any other lawful ways or meanes whatsoever 
and so often as by the said John Greggson his heirs 
or aasig^es or his or their councell learned in the 
lawes of this realme shalbee reasonablie devised and 
required: And lastlie it is covennted, graunted, con- 
cluded, and agreed by and between the said pties to 
these psents, and itt is hei-eby limytted, expressed, 
and declared that all and everie ffyne and ffynes, fee 
or fees, recoveries, estates, and assurances whatsoever heretofore had, 
made, knowledged, or executed, or hereafter to be had, made, 
knowledged, suffered or executed of the said messuage, lands, 
tents, and pmisses, or any pte thereof either ouely or amongst 
any other lands or tents jointly, shall (for the considerations afore- 
said) att all times hereafter be and enure and shalbee construed, 
adjudged, expounded, and taken to bee and shalbee (as touching 
the pmisses hereby graunted to tiie ouely and pper use and behoofe 
of the said John Greggson, his heirs and assigns for ever : In witnesse 
thereof the pties above named to the ptes of these indentures have 
interchangably sett their hands and sealls the day and yeare above said. 

Jer. Northropp. Grace x Northropp, 

her mark. 

Sealled and Delivered, and also that peaceable possession and seizin 
of and in the within sayd messuage or teu<- (in the name of all other 
the within graunted lands and ten^^-) was given and delivered the day 
and yeare within written by the wUhin named Jeremy Northropp and. 
Grace his wife, with their owne handes unto the within named John 
Greggson, to hold to him, his heirs and assignes, according to the 
tenour and effect of this deed indented in the sight and presence of us : 

Jno. Sagar. John x IIollings, 

his mark. 

Robert Wilkinson. Roger Butler. 

John Cockropt. Ricip. Murgatrotd. 




William Wtckham of Coitingley. 



'^T^HE fragment of 18th century history with which 
^^ I propose to deal in this paper, is practically 
comprised within the period of seven years, 
commencing in January, 1793, and terminating with 
the close of the century ; it is coincident therefore 
with the Reio^n of Terror in France and falls entirelv 
within Lord Grenville's tenure of the Foreign Office in 
Pitt's administration. 

A few short remarks must suffice to outline the 
remarkahle career of Lord Grenville, that typical 
statesman-diplomatist of the old school who thought 
it the most natural thing in the world to combine the 
strictest personal integrity with extremely lax notions 
as to the honesty required in diplomatic intercourse 
and in dealing with public bodies such as the Houses of 

William Wyndham, Lord Grenville, was the youngest 
of the three sons of George Grenville who was Prime 
Minister from 1761 to 1765, and on whose character 
and times the well known '* Grenville Papers" shed a 
striking light. Born in 1759, and educated at Eton 
and Oxford, he entered Parliament in 1782, and soon 
gained a remarkable ascendency in that assembly, due 


on the one hand to his undeniable talents and force of 
character, on the other to the powerful influence of his 
cousin, William Pitt. The first office he held was that 
of Paymaster General of the Porces, and in 1789, at 
the age of barely 30 years, he was elected speaker of 
the House of Commons. lie only held this honour- 
able position, however, for a few months, and aban- 
doned it to take charge of the Home Office, and the 
following yeiir, 1790, was raised to the peerage. 

William Pitt who was then at the head of the 
administration, clearly foresaw the overmastering im- 
portance which foreign atfairs must necessarily assume 
at a time when nearly all the existing state-systems 
of the continent of Europe were seen tottering to a 
fall. He as clearly perceived the necessity at that 
juncture of perfect unity of aim and purpose in the 
men at the helm of affairs, and by entrusting (in 1791) 
the Foreign Office to Lord Grenville he felt the cer- 
titude of having secured the faithful co-operation of a 
powerful and skilful and, what was still more impor- 
tant, a safe man. 

Pitt and Grenville had in common an intense hatred of 
France; the former hated it instinctivelv as the heredi- 
tary enemy of this country, the antipathy of the latter 
was not so much against France as a country as against 
the revolution and the political system which wa^ the 
outcome of it. Grenville's attitude towards the French 
officials with whom his position brought him into con- 
tact, was from first to last one of uncompromising 
hostility. When Tallevrand who was at the head of 
the ministry of Foreisjn Affairs in Paris, instructed 
Chauvelin, who at that time was French Ambassador in 
London, to make friendly overtures to the Court of 
St James in order to secure England's neutrality in 
the impending continental struggle, Grenville haughtily 
rejected the overtures made to him, and little time 
elapsed before he recalled the British ambassador from 
Paris, and curtly informed Chauvelin that he could 
only be permitted to remain in London as a private 
individual. Even this qualified permission was with- 

s 2 


drawn when public opinion in this country was pro- 
foundly stirred by the news of the trial and execution 
of the French king in January 1793, and a peremptory 
order was sent to Chauvelin to quit England within a 
a week. 

As this particular juncture is the starting point of 
the series of transactions detailed in this paper, I will 
only add prospectively that the Pitt and Grenville 
ministry came to grief in February 1801 over the 
Catholic Emancipation Question which it was sought 
somewhat prematurely to graft upon the Act of Union 
between Great Britain and Ireland. 

The recall of the British ambassador from France 
was a momentous step. Whilst on the one hand it 
gave forcible expression to the abhorrence felt on this 
side of the Channel against the excesses of the French 
revolutionists, it had on the other hand the serious 
effect of still further isolating this country, which from 
its insular position was alreadv precluded from any 
close and intimate connection with continental politics. 
British armies had, it is true, been seen at various 
tim^ on continental battlefields ; but they had always 
fought under British commanders and under direct 
orders from the British government, and in the 
furtherance of purely British interests. The English 
were out^siders who had apparently unlimited resources 
at command and whose energy and power were fully 
acknowledged, but still thev were onlv outsiders whose 
interests and influence in any part of the continent 
were purely military or commercial, not social. 

Another circumstance must have added not a little 
to the weighty responsibility resting upon the shoulders 
of the men at the head of affairs in this country. 
Former wars had been waged between government and 
government, with comparatively small injury to the 
private citizen : they were prize fights in which the 
farmer's grass might be trampled down and his hedge- 
stakes pulled up, but at all events the farmer himself 
escaped without personal injury : but now everything 
pointed to the probability that the coming struggle was 

William WIckuaM. 2?6 

to be between people and people, between race and 
race, in Avhieh private and public interests were 
inseparably bound up together. 

Now after the recall of the ambassador and his 
personnel^ how was British influence to be exerted? 
how were dangerous measures to be counteracted? 
how w ere the multitudinous commercial interests which 
this nation more than any other possessed in every 
part of Europe to be safeguarded ? In our own time 
the friendly offices of some neutral great power would 
in such a case be invoked ; but at the period of which 
we speak, thefe were but two powerful states in Europe 
in a position to do more than only just protect them- 
selvcH, viz : Austria and llussia, and to name them is to 
say how futile it would have been to intrust British 
interests to either of them. 

The only course seemingly ojjen to the British 
government was to make its influence felt on the con- 
tinent by independent and unofficial action, which 
action would probably be all the more efficacious for not 
being trammeled by court-officialism abroad and ham- 
pered by parliamentary inquisitiveness at home. Lord 
Grenville decided upon this course and set himself the 
task of planning under English guidance a combination 
of all the various elements of disaffection scattered in 
France and Central Europe into one vast and powerful 
organisation which, by simultaneous risings in the 
West, Centre, and South of France, seconded hy a well 
equipped Gerntan invasion from the North and East, 
Avas to overturn the revolutionary government of 
France and restore the monarchy. 

An enterprise of such vast proportions and such 
momentous import, whose stage and actors might 
almost instantaneously change as events altered the 
aspect of affairs, could naturally not be worked from 
London, and it would become necessary to employ a 
trusty and intelligent agent, resident upon the spot, 
familiar with persons, places, and circumstances, and 
capable of acting promptly as well as cautiously, if 
need be on his own responsibility, without com- 
promising the government at home. 


No foreigner could, of course, be employed on such 
a mission; for, honourable and trustworthy as he might 
be, the unconscious bent of his mind must of necessity 
lead him to appreciate and interpret facts and eventis 
in their bearing upon his own country rather than 
upon the interests of another. 

Not many Englishmen were to be found either, who 
were fully conversant with continental matters, 
familiar with continentol ways and thoughts, and at 
the same time of such social standing and personal 
character and intelligence as to be entrusted with such 
a responsible as well as difficult mission. It was Lord 
Grenville's good fortune to put his hand upon the 
right man in the person of a former fellow student at 
Oxford, William Wickham, a native of the immediate 
neighbourhood of Bradford. 

I proceed to state a few details respecting the 
ancestry of this Yorkshire fi:entleman. Descended 
from the ancient family of Wickham, of Swacliffe, 
county Oxford, and counting among his direct ancestors 
a bishop of Winchester and three successive genera- 
tions of Archdeacons and Deans of York, his grand- 
father was Ilenry Wickham, D.D.,* rector of Guiseley 
and chaplain to the Princess of Wales, whose son 
Henry, after a most adventurous though strictly 
honourable career in Germany, French Switzerland, 
Savoy, and Piedmont, entered the First llegiment 
of Foot, of which he became Lieutenant-Colonel. 
Having married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Lamplough, of Cottingley, vicar of Dewsbury, he 

*A curious sidelight is thrown upon the magisterial activity of this 
dignitary by the following extract from the Journal of the Rev. 
John Wesley : — 

"Just now, on the 4th of this instant December, 1745, the Rev. 
" Mr. Henry Wickham, one of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace for 
** the West Riding of Yorkshire, writes an order to the Constable of 
** Keighley, commanding him to convey the body of Jonathan Reeves 
" (whose real crime is the calling sinners to repentance) to His Majesty's 

gaol and castle of York ; suspected (says the precept) of being a spy 

among us, and a dangerous man to the person and government of His 

Majesty, King George." 


received the Cottinsrlev estate as his wife's marriasre 
portion, retired from the army, and settled dou n at 
Cottingley Hall. 

It may not he uninteresting to peruse the l)rief 
account of the adventurous life of Colonel llenrv 
Wickham written hy his son William, the suhject of 
our paper (see Confidential Letters hy the Hon. 
William Wickham, Esq.). 

** My father," he writes, " was tall and well made, a 
very manly heauty, though fair. He looked so like a 
youth of full growth even at the early age of fifteen, 
that having escaped from school at Heath in the year 
1745, when General Wade's army was encamj)ed on 
Bramham Moor, he was enlisted as a young man of 
eighteen, in one of the infantry regiments. His dis- 
charge was easily procured, but not until he had 
marched sometime with the corps. His passion for a 
military life and his aversion to Greek and Latin being 
alike unsurmountable, his father, the rector of Guiseley, 
in the hope of weaning him from the former, and sub- 
stituting German and French for the latter, sent him 
in good company to Leipzig where he remained a year, 
during which time he acquired a thorough practical 
knowledge of German. Whilst at Leipzig he lived 
very much with Mr. Stanhope, son of Lord Chester- 
field, and Mr. Eliot, father to Lord St. Germans. He 
removed from thence to Neuchatel where he was 
placed with a clergyman of the name of Lardy, for the 
sake of learning Erench. Hut his passion for the army 
increasing with his father's aversion to it, at last in utter 
despair of obtaining his object by fair means, he left 
Neuchatel in company with two Bernese officers in the 
service of Piedmont and entered as a volunteer in the 
regiment to which they belonged, Avhere he remained 
nearly two years performing all the duties of a com- 
mon soldier but messing with the officers. He was 
engaged in the bloody battle of Exilles. if he could 
have obtained a commission in that regiment he would 
never have quitted it ; but it was a Swiss regiment in 
which, by treaty with the King of Sardinia, none but 


Bernese officers could hold commlssioiis. In the hope 
of eventually overcoming the difficulty, he concealed 
his position from his father and would probably have 
continued in it some time longer, had he not been dis- 
covered standing sentinel at the gates of Alessandria by 
Sir Charles Turner and Sir Thomas Gascoign, then 
young men of about his own age. Whilst their pass- 
ports were being examined at the gate, Henry Wick- 
ham who had been at school with Sir Charles Turner, 
and of course knew him perfectly well, could not 
resist the temptation of saluting him by way of a joke. 
This unmilitary proceeding arrested attention, and Sir 
Charles immediately recognised him, and remained 
some time longer in Alessandria for the sole purpose 
of inducing Ilenry to communicate with hid father. 
In tliis object he succeeded, though not without 
difficulty. Henry's father, finding all further resis- 
tance vain, purchased a commission in the first 
regiment of Foot Guards for him, and he remained ia 
that corps — in which he accjuired the rank of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel — till the death of his father when he 
sold out, and his fathrr-in-law, the llev. William 
Lamplugh, giving up Cottingley to him, he became au 
active Justice of the Peace and a resident country- 

At Cottingley Hall was born to him, in October, 
1761, as the eldest of seven children, William, the 
chief agent in the transactions with which we arc 
dealing. After studying at Harrow and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he formed life-long friendships 
with Charles Abbot, afterwards Lord Colchester, and 
William Wyndliam Grenville, afterwards Lord Gren- 
ville, he proceeded to the continent in order to study 
civil law at the University of Geneva, in which town 
he became acquainted with a number of eminent 
Frenchmen, Swiss, and Germans. 

Some of his father's roving spirit had descended to 
him, and his travels and sojourns in various part« of 
the continent familiarised him to a remarkable degree 
with the home life and political aspirations of Central 


In 1788 be married, at Geneva, Mademoiselle 
Bertrand, daughter of one of the Professors at the 
University of that towD, with whom he spent a happy 
married life of forty-eight years, finding in her a 
tender and thoughtful helpmeet who shared all his 
travels, dangers, and difficulties. 

It will perhaps be best at this point to give a short 
resume of that diplomatic career of Mr. Wickham, 
and the work is done ready to hand by Mr. Wickham 
himself, in a letter written from Switzerland and dated 
27tli March, 1831, on the subject of a return required 
by Government of all the circumstances connected with 
pensions granted for diplomatic services : — 

'* The last return of pensions called for, with the 
dates of services, set me down as having served ten 
years. This would be saying too little if applied to 
the whole of my public services, too much if confined 
to diplomatic services only, publicly acknowledged as 
such. I was secretly employed by Lord Grenville, 
then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in a 
foreign correspondence as early as August, 1793. 
This correspondence continued till I was appointed 
Superintendent of Aliens, in the summer of 1794, and 
I have reason to know that there is no trace of that 
correspondence in the office, nor was it known, though 
of considerable importance, to any one but the late 
Lord llosslyn, then Lord Chancellor, through whose 
hands it passed to avoid observation by any of the 
messengers, &c., of the Foreign Office. This corre- 
spondence continued during the short time that I 
acted as Superintendent of Aliens to which place I was 
appointed (inte?* alia) with the express view of enabling 
me to extend and enlarge my foreign communications 
and correspondence for which that office furnished 
singular facilities and advantages that could have been 
obtained in no other way. I was promised the Under- 
Secretary ship of State at that time, with the Alien 
Department under my direction, in case Mr. Broderick, 
then Under-Secretary and very ill, should not survive. 
In the month of October, however, of that same year 


circumstances occurred that made it desirable or rather 
necessary that some person of confidence should be 
sent over on a special mission to Switzerland where 
Lord Robert Fitzgerald was at that time Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The nature and object of this 
mission was considered so secret and confidential that 
I never appeared at the Foreign Office at all, and my 
instructions were drawn up in Lord Grenville's own 
handwriting, were copied by me at my own house and, 
I think, never signed. A dispatch sent home by me by 
a servant of Lord Fitzgerald's, whom I had borrowed 
for that occasion, gave the first intimation at the 
Foreign Office (about Christmas, 1794) that I had been 
employed on a diplomatic mission. I need not say that 
this circumstance was the cause of much jealousy, the 
effects of which I could not but occasionally feel. 
Lord Fitzgerald's servant brought back a leave of 
absence to the minister with direction to leave me 
Charge d' Affaires during such absence. This is pro- 
bably the first trace that will be found of my having 
been employed on diplomatic service though I had 
been so employed secretly for more than a year and a 
half. In July, 1795, when Lord Fitzgerald was 
appointed to the Court of Copenhagen, I was myself 
appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss 
Cantons and the Grisons, having in the meantime had 
a separate mission to the armies and the conduct of a 
secret correspondence of which I doubt whether there 
is any trace in the Foreign Office; it related to the 
lloyalists in the West, to which country I sent off, 
so that they all arrived safe, Bourmont, Sapinaud, 
Philippeau, and seven or eight more, who all became 
more or less distinguished commanders in the Vendee ; 
they were all selected by me from the chevaliers 
nobles after the strictest enquiry into their respective 
characters and conduct, and several weeks' residence at 
the headquarters of the army of Conde. 

The unbounded confidence reposed in me by Lord 
Grenville on this as well as every other occasion 
enabled me to perform much essential service of this 


kind without the fear of committing any one, as it was 
never expected from me that any names should he 
mentioned. It is, indeed, owing to this confidence that 
the secret respecting the persons of importance who 
had committed themselves to support General Pichegru 
is at this moment, I helieve, locked up in my own 

'* In January, 1798, I returned home and was soon 
after appointed Under-Secretary of State, which place 
had been kept open for me from the time that I was 
fi.rst appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss 
Cantons, the Duke of Portland having appointed liis 
son-in-law as locum tenens during my absence. In 
June, 1799, I was again sent out as Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Switzerland, keeping my office of Under- 
Secretary, with a mission also of great importance 
to the armies, and subsequently with powers and 
instructions to make subsidiary treaties and to concert 

measures against the common enemv under one of the 

^ • • • •* . 

largest commissions ever given. I continued to act 
under this commission until March, 1802, when I was 
appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, which office I resigned in February, 1804<. In 
the meantime I had been noniinated successively to the 
missions of Berlin and Vienna, both which courts in 
succession objected to me, as being personally obnoxious 
to the French Government with which they were both 
desirous of keeping on good terms if possible. How- 
ever, I desired to retire from the public service as a 
Foreign Minister out of employment on whatever 
pension Government might think right to give me, 
including Mrs. Wickham's. This was fixed by Lord 
Liverpool and Lord Sidmouth at £1,800 a year, but as 
the portion assigned to Mrs. Wickham was paid from 
the Civil List, a fractional sum was added to cover the 
land tax which Foreign Ministers' pensions do not pay. 
When Lord Grenville went out of office in the spring 
of 1801, it was his intention to have sent me Am- 
bassador to St. Petersburgh, in which case his nephew 
Henry Williams would have gone with mc.'' 


From this iuteredting document it is easy to gather 
the motives which guided Lord Grenville in his action. 
The Swiss Cantons, wedged in between the coRtending 
nations, and in uninterrupted social, commerciaL and 
political intercourse w^ith each one of them, were an 
admirable basis for a secret agent who was to hold in 
his hand all the threads of the royalist conspiracy and 
be eyes and ears to the British Government. Strong 
and self-confident enough at that period to beard any 
foreign power, the aristocratic republic of Berne was 
yet sufficiently conscious of its relative unimportance 
to be flattered by the attentions of a power like Great 
Britain. The rei}resentative of England, avowed and 
unavowed, would be perfectly safe from French un- 
scrupulousness, and withal possessed of a status which 
would give him a powerful influence not only over the 
disseminated royalist partisans, but also in the armies 
which were incircling France and at the courts which 
dreaded the French propaganda. From such an active 
centre, too, the lavish subsidies which England was 
prepared to pay in the furtherance of her political 
aims, could be distributed intelligently and to the best 

The private and unsigned instructions given to Mr. 
Wickham by Lord Grenville read as follows : — 

Lord Grenville's Instructions to Mr. Wickham. 

•* Mr. Wickham will endeavour to learn from Messrs. 
Mounier* and Mallet Du Panf the names of the per- 
sons from whom the overtures now made have pro- 
ceeded, and also the origin of the proposal, whether it 
came first from Paris to these gentlemen, or whether 
it originated with them. This point being ascertained, 

*Jean Joseph Mounier, born 1758, one of the most distinguished 
members of the States General, Prefet and Councillor of State under 
Napoleon, died 1806, author of several works. 

f Mallet Du Pan, a native of Geneva, bom 1749, greatly distinguished 
Hs an able political writer, died in England, 1800, where his family 
ttetlled. The late Right Hon. Sir Louis Mallet, C.B., was his grandson. 

WILLIAM wickram:. 283 

if it should appear that the overture merits attention 
and really proceeds from persons of weight at Paris, 
he may enter with Mr. Mounier and Mr. Mallet Du 
Pan into the discussion of the different points of Mr. 
Mounier's m^nwire^ requiring of them the strictest 
secrecy. Mr. Wickham is acquainted with the reasons 
which seem to make such an injunction particularly 
necessary. He will take as the ground of his discussion 
the paper called " Notes sur le memoire remis a Lord 
Robert Fitz-Gerald/' which Mr. Wickham may deliver 
to Messrs. Mounier and Mallet Du Pan in order to he 
shown to the persons treated with, supposing the 
business should appear to rest on such grounds as make 
it fit to be proceeded in. With respect to the amnisty, 
the word '* Assassin" is understood to include the 
authors and principal actors of the massacres at Paris, 
Lyons, Avignon, and other places— and the words 
which extend the exception to the case of those who 
have in any marked or ostensible manner, besides that 
of voting in the convention, taken part in tlie 
murders of the King or Queen or Madame Elizabeth, 
are meant to apply to such cases as those of Santerre, 
who commanded the Guards at the King's execution, of 
the then executive council who gave the orders for the 
execution, and of their secretary who read the sentence 
to the King, and generally to such persons respectively 
in power at the time as were the real promoters of that 
and the two other murders. But even with respect to 
all these, the general words at the end of the paragraph 
are meant to nold out pardon even for these offences to 
any man without exception who may now render dis- 
tinguished service. On the second part it is necessary 
to observe that the words in the memoire are so general 
as to make such an agreement as is there proposed in- 
admissible without further explanation. The engage- 
ment there stated is indefinite as to time, and does not 
specify in what situation the armies of the convention 
are to be placed during the period of this suspense. In 
the case of places besieged the allies could not suspend 
the measures for their relief in the uncertain hope of a 


revolution at Paris. If, while the party with whom we 
treat, are taking their measures at Paris, the armies on 
the frontiers are not favourahly disposed to them, it 
eannot be expeeted that we should engage for any sus- 
pension of arms on one side wliich would not be 
observed on the other. But if that party has influence 
enough either through the channels of the generals of 
their armies or by means of orders to be given by the 
committees of government at Paris, to withdraw the 
troops into Avinter quarters within their own country, 
or even within the Austrian Netherlands, holding only 
such towns as they may actually have reduced on the 
Dutch frontier, in that case an understanding might 
with more facilitv be established wliich should lead 
either to a virtual or to an avowed suspension of arms 
in that quarter, and Mr. Wickham may express his 
knowledge of the disposition of this government to 
consent to any such arrangement supposing the 
concurrence of Austria can be obtained as seems most 

" Mr. Wickham will be very careful to confine his 
discussions on this point to the armies in Flanders, 
Holland, and on the Rhine, and to say nothing that 
may apply to any Royalists acting in concert or in 
conjunction with us in the interior of Prance. With 
respect to such a suspension on the side of Spain, it is 
evident that this cannot be engaged for by this country 
which has no troops there, and the same observation 
applies to the King of Sardinia. If therefore such a 
suspension in those quarters is judged necessary for the 
success of the plan, application must be made to those 
powers. But in case of any understanding with this 
country relative to such a suspension it must be 
stipulated that the same. should be offered to Spain and 
Sardinia, supposing those powers willing to accede to 
it. With respect to the third point, Mr. Wickham 
knows that M. Mounier, the principal agent in this 
business, is still strongly tinctured with all the prejudices 
of that party with whom he acted in the commence- 
ment of the- Revolution. It may therefore be justly 


suspected that even without designing it, he may give 
to any negotiation passing through his hands a turn 
favourable to those principles, and Mr. Wickham is 
therefore to observe a particular degree of caution 
upon all points connected with this subject. 

" In the discussions on this third head the leading 
ideas which Mr. Wickham is to keep in view are : 

" 1st. That the King has never desired to interfere for 
the purpose of giving to France any particular form of 
government further than became necessary for his own 
security and that of the rest of Europe, but having 
been attacked by the convention and seeing in the 
principles which all the Republican parties in France 
have uniformly professed, certain ruin of all civil 
society in Europe if these principles should be suffered 
ultimately to establish themselves in so powerful a 
country as France, he is naturally led to seek as the 
means of peace some legitimate principle, of govern- 
ment in that country, which can, as it appears, only be 
looked to from the restoration of a monarchy in the 
person of the undoubted heir of that throne. 

'• The constitution of 1789-90 has always been con- 
sidered as vicious and destructive, containing in itself 
the seeds of its own ruin, and having led by a natural 
progression to all that has since happened. No appro- 
bation can therefore ever be expressed from hence of 
any government founded on that basis. But if on that 
ground, or on any other, a just security can be held out 
to foreign nations against the attempts to destroy their 
governments, they could have no reason to desire the 
overthrow of that of France, though such as they 
might think ill calculated to promote the happiness of 
that country. These principles led to the acceptance 
of the surrender of Toulon on the terms then held out, 
and they are stated in more detail in the King's 
declaration of October last. 

" 2nd. It should, however, be observed that even to 
hold out such security as is above-mentioned there 
must be a prospect of permanence in the form of the 
government to be established. If by the restoration of 


Royalty nothing more is meant than the proclaiming 
the young King, keeping him still in a virtual prison 
and putting the exercise of his authority into the hands 
of the convention or its committees, such a svstem 
would differ from the present in name only, and all 
the causes which produce tlie present instability of 
power in that country would continue to operate with 
the same force. The restoration of monarchv, if reallv 
intended, must necessarily imply the recall of the 
Princes, and the vesting the powers meant to be left to 
the King in the hands of some person intended to 
maintain and support them. No personal objection 
can justly be made to Monsieur and any other plan is 
full of insurmountable difficulties. What is so much 
dwelt on in the paper of Mallet du Pan as to the dis- 
position of the Princes towards systems of revenge and 
proscription does not appear to rest on any proof. 
They have evidently an interest directly contrary to 
such a line of conduct, and they could not be blind to 
it, but have in fact uniformly given to this government 
the most express assurances of their entertaining views 
of conciliation and moderation conformable to the 
representations which have been made from hence. 
Sufficient securities might, however, easily be provided 
against the exercise of any such disposition if it could 
be supposed to exist. But no permanent tranquillity 
for France can be procured by a system which should 
exclude the Royal Family of that country from their 
just share in the exercise of the Royal authority during 
the minority of the King. In one of the papers which 
Mr. Wickham has seen, an idea is held out as by way 
of menace of calling to the throne the son of the late 
Duke of Orleans. If this is anything more than an 
idle menace, it seems to require no other comment than 
that such a measure could only lead to perpetuate in 
France the horrors of civil war. But it is difficult to 
believe that this idea can have been seriously enter- 
tained, or that any number of people could be found 
to act in support of it. On the subject of religion and 
public worship it is conceived that whatever party 


really wishes to reslore public peace in France must 
see that the bulk of the people there can never be 
brought back to the habits of industry and subor- 
dination but by the aid of religion, and that therefore 
is an indispensable part of any plan for the re-establish- 
ment of a quiet and well ordered government there. 
The words used in this respect in the " Notes sur le 
Memoire " do not decide the question as to the mode 
of supporting the ecclesiastical establishment, or th^ 
amount of the expense to be allotted for that purpose. 
But every reasoning man must see the necessity both of 
the established religion, and also of giving to that pro- 
fession such encouragement by the prospect of more 
considerable rewards, as may induce men of rank and 
liberal education to engage in it. 

*' The repeal of all laws of banishment, proscription, 
and confiscation is too obviously necessary to require 
any argument, and seems to be taken for granted in 
all that is thrown out on the subject. The future 
arrangement with respect to assignats, and to that part 
of the property of the crown, the church, and the 
emigrants, which has been sold, is a point too difficult 
to make it possible that the British Government should 
hope now to propose any satisfactory expedient with 
respect to it, and the most advantageous measure that 
could be adopted on that subject by any party wishing 
the re-establishment of order, would be to reserve the 
details of that point for future decision under more 
favourable circumstances, settling only such general 
outlines as may be necessary in order to remove the 
alarm which the idea of a counter revolution might 
give in France for the safety of all property of what- 
ever kind now possessed there, and this government 
would readily make itself the channel of conveyance 
of any propositions or plans on that subject to which 
the consent of the Princes and the great body of 
emigrants might be necessary. The present object is 
first to ascertain the existence of such a disposition as 
is represented to exist among leading persons of Paris 
for producing a restoration of monarchy by the means 


of the interior parties in France, and with no other stipu- 
lation on the part of foreign nations than that of a sus- 
pension of arms and a readiness to recommend systems 
of moderation and prudence, abstaining themselves from 
taking any direct part in the details consequent upon 
such an event. If such a disposition should be found 
to exist, the next main point is to endeavour to direct 
it to such mode of accomplishing that object as may be 
most likely to ensure its permanence, giving for that 
purpose the necessary assurances of a disposition on 
the part of the British Grovernment to facilitate its 
attainment by such means as are pointed at in the 
paper transmitted to us, and particularly undertaking 
for the King's consent and influence to promise a sus- 
pension of arms on the part of the allies in the Low 
Countries and on the Rhine during the attempt, if such 
a suspension can be made reciprocal." 

Mr. Wickham accordingly proceeded to Berne where 
he had several interviews with Mounier, Mallet Du 
Pan, and Dumas. Their plans, which at first seemed 
plausible, when thoroughly inquired into and sifted by 
Mr. Wickham, proved to rest on so slight a basis, that 
he not only refused to make any pecuniary advances to 
them, but informed them that the whole had taken a 
turn so very different from what he had expected, 
that they must excuse him if he proceeded no further 
in the business. This momentarily put an end to the 
sanguine hopes Avhich misleading reports had induced 
Lord Grenville to entertain and which led him to send 
out Mr. Wickham, as we gather from the memorandum 
of instructions. Lord Grenville Avisely determined, 
however, not to recall Mr. Wickham but to avail 
himself of all the advantages which the latter's unique 
position was certain to yield to the British Govern- 
ment, especially as there were undeniable signs of a 
reaction of public feeling in France after the dis- 
appearance of Danton and Robespierre from the scene 
(April and July, 1794). 

The active correspondence which ensued between 
Lord Grenville and Mr. Wickham consisted of a 


certain number of official letters, but of a far greater 
number of private communications, sometimes enclosed 
in the official one as ia the case of the letter I am 
about to read, more often sent privately. On the 9th 
December, 1794, Lord Grenville writes : — 

" Dear Sir, 

I cannot let this messenger go without adding to 
my public despatch a few words to express to you how 
(completely all the King's Servants have been satisfied 
with the manner in which you have executed the very 
delicate transaction with which you were intrusted. I 
hope it will be no inconvenience to you to remain a 
few months where you are, as your presence may on 
various occasions be of the greatest use. We receive 
little intelligence from France on which much reliance 
can be placed, respecting the general disposition of the 
countrv or tlie events in the inland and southern 
provinces except what comes through Switzerland. 
It would therefore be extremely material that you 
should exert yourself to the utmost to procure constant 
and detailed information from thence ; and it will 
generally be as early as any other that we should 
receive (at least of a nature to be depended on) 
respecting the general situation of the country. It is 
hardly necessary to add that expence for that purpose 
will be considered as very well employed. 

It will be necessary now to be more than ever upon 
your guard respecting Mounier and Mallet Du Pan, 
and yet with attention a communication with them 
may be rendered useful, and I know I can trust to 
your making it so without incurring the danger of 
suffering them to make use of that intercourse for their 
purposes, &c." 

The conquest of Holland by the French in the 
winter of 1794, which closed the Scheldt as a highway 
between Germany and Great Britain, rendered the 
presence of Mr. Wickham in the centre of Europe more 
than ever necessary. In June, 1794, he was appointed 



Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss Cantons ; but as 
has been already stated, the conduct of the ordinary 
diplomatic relations with the Cantons was the least of 
his duties. It was necessary for carrying into effect 
the instructions from time to time received from Lord 
Grenville, that Mr. Wickham should maintain a very- 
extensive correspondence, not only with the English 
ambassadors and ministers on the continent, and with 
the ministers of other courts accredited to Switzerland, 
but also with the Prince de Conde, the royal family of 
Prance, the Comte de Precy, Mallet du Pan, and many 
others, especially with a very large number of agents 
in every part of Prance, for the purpose of obtaining 
information respecting the state of parties, the dis- 
positions of their leaders, and the prospects of a 
reaction or counter-revolution in that country. Many 
of the memoirs and publications relating to that period 
testify to the remarkable skill with which this corres- 
pondence was organised and to the accuracy of the 
information obtained by Mr. Wickham. One of his 
bitter enemies, Montgaillard, states in his " Memoires 
concernant la Trahison de Pichegru, Paris, An XII," 
that it is difficult to form an idea of the order and 
regularity with which the correspondence with the 
interior of Prance was carried on, and other writers 
bear the highest testimony to the ability of Mr. 
Wickham, the importance of his mission, and the very 
great services he rendered his country by counteracting 
the hostile schemes of the Prench Convention and 
Directory, against which he was enabled to warn the 
government at home by means of the timely and 
accurate information received from his agents. 

The position of Mr. Wickham was certainly unique. 
Placed apart from, and practically above, the Ministers 
'• Plenipotentiary *' of Great Britain accredited to the 
Courts of Vienna, Berlin, Turin, the Southern States 
of Germany, and the Swiss Cantons, the influence 
wielded by him was enormous. No restriction whatever 
was put upon him in the disposal at his discretion of 
the enormous sums remitted by the home government 


for the purpose of subsidising the open enemies of 
Prance and fostering conspiracy and rebellion among 
the subjects of that country. On the 22nd of May, 
1795, Lord Grenvillc writes to him : — 

*'Mo8t Secret." 

"In consequence of your reports respecting the 
situation of tbe Prince de Conde, immediate measures 
were taken for advancing to His Serene Highness ten 
thousand pounds in addition to the sum which had been 
furnished to him by yourself. His Majesty has since 
been pleased to direct that Colonel Crauford should 
proceed to His Serene Higlmess' Headquarters, with 
power to advance money to him to the extent of 
£140,000, in proportion as that sum or any part of 
it can be usefully employed in the great objects of 
completing or augmenting the Prince's army.*' The 
same letter informs Mr. Wickham that £30,000 will 
be paid to him by Colonel Crauford as " Secret Service 
Money." Is it to be wondered at that Mr. Wickham*s 
vast correspondence (which the writer of this article 
has had the privilege of perusing) contains a dispro- 
portionate number of "begging letters" addressed to 
him by Serene Highnesses, Princes, Dukes, Generals, 
Ecclesiastical Dignitaries, &c., from the Pield Marsha] 
commanding the armies of His Majesty the Emperor 
of Austria, down to the Sovereign Prince- Abbot of 
St. Gallon ? 

Nor, whilst lavishness characterized the dealings of 
Great Britain with her continental helpers, avowed and 
unavowed, was any parsimony shown in the treatment 
of the agent who was entrusted with the distribution 
of her bounty. The ox that trod out the corn was not 
by any means muzzled. On the 22nd Pebruary, 1795, 
Lord Grenville writes:— "I hope that what respects 
your allowances is settled to your satisfaction. It would 
have been the height of absurdity to employ you on 
such a mission as that in which you are engaged, if I 
had not confidence enough in you to beg, as 1 now do, 
that if you find the allowance insufl&cient to enable 


you to do justice to the objects of your mission, you 
will tell me so without reserve. We have not sent you 
there to ruin you, nor to starve the service by an ill- 
judged parsimony." 

That Mr. Wickham on his part amply fulfilled every 
expectation that had been formed of him, is shown by 
expressions of commendation constantly recurring in 
the dispatches from Lord Grenville to Mr. Wickham, 
and which are of a kind not usual in state papers : — 
" Nothing can be more interesting than the information 
you have transmitted in your different dispatches." 
"His Majesty's Ministers felt no hesitation in continuing 
to you that confidence which your conduct has so well 
deserved.*' " I have the greatest pleasure in being 
able to inform you of the entire satisfaction which His 
Majesty has been graciously pleased to express in the 
continued proofs which your dispatches have afforded 
of your diligence and zeal in His Majesty's service, and 
of the ability with which you discharge the important 
commission which you have undertaken." 

The difficulties, indeed, which Mr. Wickham en- 
countered in the pursuance of his mission were of no 
common order. On the one hand French revolutionary 
emissaries and sympathizers, who swarmed over the 
whole continent of Jiurope and most of all in the Swiss 
Cantons which were the headquarters of Mr. Wick- 
ham's activity, carried on an unintermittent espionnage 
about his every movement, and every effort was put 
forth on the part of the French Government agents to 
render his position untenable. On the other hand the 
exiled Princes of the Royal Family of France, who 
were so lavishly aided by the British Government 
through the medium of Mr. Wickham, having learnt 
nothing and forgotten nothing, constantly thwarted 
the intelligent steps taken by him for the furtherance 
of their interests, and the failure of the counter- 
revolution in Franche Comte, and the dreadful blood- 
shed consequent upon the miscarried insurrection at 
Lyons, must be almost entirely attributed to the super- 
cilious disregard by the Prince de Conde of the counsels 


and measures of Mr. Wickham. Besides all this, the 
not unnatural jealously of the officials of the Foreign 
Office in London, and of the British embassies abroad, 
against a government agent entirely independent of 
them, threw serious hindrances in the way of a 
harmonious co-operation of the different British envoys 

The nature of Mr. Wickham's correspondence, which 
was invariably laid before the Kinjj, may be judged 
from a few extracts. 

"January, 1795. 

I have certain intelligence that the Sardinian 
Minister at Berne, sent a memoire to Mr. Barthelemy* 
on the subject of the restitution of Savoy. He received 
no answer. I entreat that you will never appear to 
have known this, as the source by which I obtain my 

information would certainly be discovered It 

appears to me that with the best intentions to continue 
the alliance {i.e., with Great Britain), the Court of 
Turin wish to keep the door open for a rec(mciliation 
(with France). Many things lead me to suspect that 
the Austrians are more occupied by the affairs of 
Germany than by those of Prance.'' 

'' 12th May, 1795. 

Mr. Bayard left Lyons the day after the massacre^ 
and brings me a very full and curious account of every- 
thing that he observed during his stay. I kept him 
concealed in my house till he was recovered from his 
fatigue, and till I had obtained every possible infor- 
mation from him and given him all the nec(»ssary 
instructions for his future conduct. I have sent him 
off again to Lyons this afternoon .... My own idea is 
to make Lyons the great point to which all otliers 
should be considered as secondary.'' 

At this time French Minister in Switzerland. 


"16th June, 1795. 

The priests are to the last degree imprudent. 
Even the elder ones and tliose upon whom I thought I 
had good reason to rely are almost as had as the rest. 
There was a plan formed for securing the Chateau de 
Joux (near Pontarlier), which the Grand Vicaire of 
Besan9on— a cautious and prudent person in general — 
had certainly not discouraged, to say no more. I sent 
off an express immediately to stop the project, and 
fortunately it arrived in time. This attempt will 
prohably do a great deal of mischief, as it may cause 
the garrison to be changed or augmented ; and one of 
the present officers had actually engaged to deliver the 
fort to a representative of the Prince de Conde when- 
ever the proper moment should be arrived." 

" I sent a very confidential peasant of the country to 
Besan^on, to procure for the Prince de Conde an exact 
statement of the number of the Swiss established there. 
He was stopped on the frontiers by the Comte de 
Montesson, a gentleman stationed there by the Prince 
himself, who put the man into a post chaise and drove 

off with him to the Prince The Prince, I am 

sorry to say, had not the courage to scold the gentle- 
man as he deserved." 

" The tone and manner of the Prince's army is very 
different from what it ought to be at this moment. It 
must be entirely changed before they enter into Prance, 
or it will produce the most serious mischief. The 
Prince is well aware of this, but has not the courage to 
attempt to check it." 

During the year 1795, Mr. Wickham was also 
engaged in raising a body of Swiss troops in British 
pay for service with the armies which were to invade 
Prance. He entered into negociations with the Baron 
de Roll, a Swiss officer in the Dutch service, who 
succeeded in raising a regiment of 1,200 men which 
went to join the army of the Prince de Conde on the 
Lower Rhine. This year too saw the commencement 
of the negociations with General Pichegru, which for 


a time looked very promising, but ultimately ended in 
disaster to himself and to his friends. The close of the 
year showed the power of France more firmly estab- 
lished than ever, peace having been signed with Spain 
and Prussia, and a general amnisty proclaimed. 

On the 9th February, 1796, Lord Grenville instructs 
Mr. Wickham to sound the French Government res- 
pecting negociations for peace, but no acceptable basis 
for treating was found. As the year wore on, Mr. Bar- 
thelemy, French Minister at Berne, feeling his strength, 
becanae more exacting and aggressive ; he insisted on 
the expulsion of the French emigrants, and the Bernese 
Government, in spite of the efforts of Mr. Wickham, 
consented to take that step, which for a time rendered 
Mr. Wickham's position very critical. However, the 
military successes of the Austrians in September and 
October of this year once more foiled French ascend- 
ancy at Berne and inspired the royalist party with 
renewed confidence. 

In the spring of 1795, Mrs. Wickham joined her hus- 
band in Switzerland, and thenceforth remained with him 
to share his dangers and aid him in his difficulties until 
his return to England. In the midst of his engrossing 
state affairs, he yet found opportunities for rendering 
kindly services altogether outside his official duties. 
On the 17th January, 1796, the Duke of Portland 
acknowledges *' your letter and a large box of plants 
for which I am obliged to you, as I am also for several 
sorts of Alpine seeds which were transmitted to me a 
few days before ; both, as proofs of your remembrance 
of me, I very truly value and hold in esteem." How- 
ever, political and military events of the utmost im- 
portance now crowded upon each other in such rapid 
succession that it would be impossible to give a record 
of Mr. Wickham's activity without writing a detailed 
history of the Wars of the French Revolution. I 
must content myself with giving a rough list of the 
contents of the more important dispatches transmitted 
by him to Lord Grenville. 

296 TliE BRAbFOiil) aMtIquarY. 


2 1 July. Alliance of the Directory with Prussia and Spain. General 

Iloche. Deplorable State of Holland. Designs of 
the Directoiie on the Duchy of Milan. Pichegni's 
message to Louis XVIII. 

23 „ Pichegru's behaviour. ' Faction of the Duke of Orleans, 

Carnot his partisan. Prince Henry of Prussia. 
Pichegru*s wishes and opinions respecting Louis 
XVIII. and his restoration. 

30 „ The Directory meditate a descent on the Channel Islands 

and Ireland. 

3 August. Belief in the French Army that the English had betrayed 


6 ,, Pichegru forming a large party at Besan9on. 

20 „ Plan for a French descent on England. 

2 Sept. Agreement with the Count de Grandpr^, commander of the 

French East-India Fleet, by whicii the Count promises 
(conditionally) to deliver up to the English the naval 
forces under his command, consisting of two 74 gun 
ships and four 40 gun frigates, at a suitable moment. 

7 „ Treaty between France and Spain. Connection of the 

Royalists with the Jacobins. 

1 Oct. Demand for French troops to pass over Swiss territory. 

Interview with the Avoyer of Berne. 

Meditated descent of Hoche upon Ireland Plans of the 
Director V. 


5 „ Projects of Prussia to obtain Swiss regiments. 

22 „ Interview between Pichegru and Moreau. 

21 Nov. Disposition of the Court of Vienna towards the Prince de 

Cond<5. Bad effects of the Disputes between the 
Austrian generals. 

27 „ Projects of the Fiench in the East. Finances of the 


11 Dec. Account of the different political Clubs in Paris. 

14 „ Notes from Pichegru ; his popularity ; desertion in the 

French armies. 

18 ,, Dissatisfaction of the Directory with the Court of Berlin. 

Correspondence between Prussia and Russia. 

22 „ Mission of M. Leger to Tippoo Saib. 

28 ., Naval projects of the Directory. Affairs in Portugal. 

William WickhaM. ^97 


9 Jan. Supply of Funds to Pichegru. Disgust at the distiust of 

England shown by the French Royalists. 

14 „ Intrigues of La Ilarpe. 

17 „ Indiscretion of the French princes. Public feeling in 


8 March. Illusions of the Court of France ; method of dealing with it. 

8 „ Mischiefs produced by the Ro^^alist Plot. Jealousy 

between the King of France and the Prince de Condd. 

22 „ Not advisable to advance money to Moreau. 

1 April. Interviews with General Mack, the Austrian general. 

13 „ Indiscretions of the King of France and his agents. 

If Mr. Wickham's restless and productive activity 
was fully appreciated by the British Government at 
home, it of necessity troubled the reigning powers in 
France to a corresponding degree. Whatever transpired 
in Committees of the Directory in Paris, in French 
Military Councils, in Political Clubs, whatever secret 
instructions were given to French envoys, generals, 
admirals, all was certain to reach the ears of the 
ubiquitous British agent in Switzerland and was 
promptly transmitted by him to London. Official and 
personal pressure was brought to bear upon the Govern- 
ment of Berne, to cause this thorn in the side of a 
"powerful and friendly" nation to be removed; but 
all diplomatic steps had hitherto proved unavailing. 
Mr. Wickham was a skilful antagonist and was better 
versed in diplomatic mining and counter-mining than 
even the agents of the French Directory, lie was 
fully alive, also, to the by no means imaginary risk of 
being kidnapped by French emissaries, and took good 
care not to be found in too great proximity to the 
frontier of France. The kidnapping of the Duke d' 
Enghien Avhich took plsLcc a short time afterwards upon 
German territory, was an object lesson which shoAved 
unmistakeably to what lengths French unscrupulous- 
ness was prepared to go. Things came to a crisis, how- 
ever, when Mr. Wickham was able to send to Lord 


Grenville, in a " most secret and confidental " despatch, 
dated 7th July, 1797, all the details of an expedition 
planned for the invasion of Ireland under the com- 
mand of General Hoche. The fate of that expedition 
is a matter of history ; but to Mr. Wickham must be 
attributed a great share of the merit of having ensured 
its ultimate ftiilure. The rage of the French Directory 
knew no bounds ; discarding all diplomatic usage, it 
fulminated the following mandate to a friendly and 
independent people : — 


" Paris, 29th Fructidor, 5th year of the French 

Republic, one and indivisible. 

The Executive Directory, convinced that the 
mission of ''Wickam'' to the Helvetic Cantons has no 
reference whatever to the respective interests of 
England and Switzerland ; and that his sole object is 
to excite and encourage plots against the internal and 
external security of the French Eepublic, charge the 
citizen Mengaud to invite and require the government 
of the Canton of Berne, and also the other Helvetic 
Cantons if necessary, to give directions for Wickam's 
immediate departure from the territories of Switzerland. 

T. M. Revelliere-Lepeaux. 
La Garde, Secretaire Greneral." 

Mr. Mengaud, commissary of the French Directory, 
arrived at Berne on the 7th October, and immediately, 
M^ithout either credentials or introduction, presented 
the above communication to the Avoyer or President 
of the Republic of Berne. The Avoyer feebly hinted 
that the Directory seemed to have considered itself as 
^vriting to a French municipality rather than to a free 
aiid independent state, but promised that the com- 
^^unicatjon should be laid before the competent 
authorities. This was done at a specially summoned 
meeting of the Sovereign Council (consisting of 200 


members), which after a long debate resolved to send 
two deputies to Paris, with instructions to state that 
neither the Canton of Berne nor the Helvetic body at 
largo could accede to the demand of the Directory, 
unless some of the charges should be made out and 
some specific proof produced tending directly to 
criminate the British Minister. 

In a despatch dated 13th October, Mr. Wickham 
informs Lord Grenville that "whilst the French armies 
occupy their present positions, the Governments of the 
Cantons must necessarily yield to anytliing that the 
Prench Republic may require provided the Directory 
furnishes them wherewithal to save appearances.'' A 
cypher despatch annexed to the same letter reads as 
follows : — 

'* As to the proofs that the Directory can produce, I 
am afraid, and I feel it my duty to say at once, that 
they are of a nature to give me very serious uneasiness. 
I have frequently mentioned to your Lordship my 
apprehension, not only of the indiscretion, but of the 
perfidy of the persons with whom I have had unavoid- 
able communication. The declaration of Mr. Dumas is 
in no respect so fatal as in what regards tliis country 
(Berne) where he resided for some time, protected at 
my request by some of the first families of the state 
and receiving pecuniary supplies for General Charette 
through the hand of bankers, who will inevitably come 
forward as the only means of saving themselves and 
their correspondents at Paris from proscription. The 
papers of General Klinglin are also singularly impor- 
tant, and though the Directory has not yet discovered 
the key of the cypher, which I had the precaution to 
change on Mr. Montgaillard's return from Italy, yet I 
fear that it must at last fall into their hands, and in 
that case I should be to the last degree apprehensive, 
lest it should lead to a suspicion of the person through 
whom my most confidential correspondence with 
General Pichegru was carried on and who is now 
actually in Paris on a mission from this state. Under 
these circumstances your Lordship will not be sur- 


prised to hear that I have already heen strongly pressed 
by the best friends of the British Government to with- 
draw from hence, as the only means of saving them 
and their country." 

The political outlook in Central Europe was certainly 
very gloomy. The defeat of the Austrian armies in 
Italy and the subsequent peace concluded at Udine set 
at liberty a formidable French army, flushed with 
victory, which was ready to throw itself upon distracted 
Switzerland if a plausible pretext for attack were given. 
Tiie situation was clearly apprehended in London, and 
on the 3rd November instructions were sent to Mr. 
Wickham to withdraw from Swiss territory. The two 
letters written on that occasion by Lord Grenville, the 
one official, the other private, show such a true appre- 
ciation of Mr. Wickham's work, that I need not 
apologize for making the following extracts from them. 

" The first duty wliicli I feel it incumbent on me to 
discharge on this occasion, is that of expressing to you 
the full approbation with which His Majesty has been 
pleased to honour the judicious, temperate, and dignified 
conduct which you have held in this, as in every other 
instance of difficulty with which you have had to 
contend in the very arduous and critical post which 
you have filled so much to His Majesty's satisfaction 
and to tlie advantage of your country. It is, I am 
persuaded, unnecessary for me to assure you of the 
gratification which I derive from having to convey to 
you these expressions of His Majesty's approbation. 
I can say with the most perfect truth, that there is but 
one opinion among those who are acquanted with the 
details of your conduct, which has fully justified all 
the expectations with which I was induced to submit 
your name to His Majesty for so critical and important 
a situation." 

" Although I have absolutely nothing to add to my 
despatch, I write these few lines of private letter, 
merely to repeat to you in another form the sense 
which I entertain of your conduct, and the satisfaction 
with which I recommended you to His Majesty to fill 


one of the most important situations that could be 
assigned to any public man/' 

The departure of Mr. Wickham from Switzerland 
was not by any means Imrried. November and 
December were taken up in making arrangements to 
keep open the channels of intercourse with Switzerland 
and France, liis headquarters being temporarily 
transferred to Frankfort. Only on the 25th December, 
1797, did he again set foot in England, sending his last 
despatch to Lord Grenville from Yarmouth. 

On his return he entered at once upon the duties of 
Under Secretary of State for the Home Department, 
an oflBce which the Duke of Portland had kept open for 
him two years and a half, by putting in Mr. Charles 
Greville, his son-in-law, as looum tenens. The troubles 
in Ireland during 179S, intensified by the landing of 
General Ilumbert at Killala, in August of that year, 
rendered his office anything but a sinecure, and his 
correspondence with the Chief Secretary for Ireland, 
which fills nearly the whole of the first two volumes 
of the '* Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount 
Castlereagh," testify to his unceasing and intelligent 
activity at that period. At the same time his close 
connection and correspondence with the royalists in 
France and their sympathizers in the other continental 
states was never intermitted, so that when the rupture 
between Austria and France took place in May, 1799, 
he was prepared at once to resume his activity in 
Central Europe. 

Instructions, signed by the King and dated 6th June, 
1799, commanded Mr. Wickham to proceed to the head- 
quarters of the allied Russian and Austrian armies 
which were then on the point of entering Switzerland. 
In case he should find that country still occupied by 
the French, he should collect all the information he 
could, relating to Switzerland and France ; but if that 
country, or a material part of it, were clear of French 
troops, he should proceed to Zurich and there present 
his credentials to the federal authorities. As for his 
mode of action and full powers, he was to consider the 


instructions given to him during his former mission as 
being revived to their full extent. 

Mr. Wickham, accompanied by Mrs. Wickham, em- 
barked at Yarmouth on board H.M.S. Kite, one of the 
best sailing vessels of the navy, on the 7th June, and 
landed at Cuxhaven on the 13th. He travelled as 
expeditiously as circumstances permitted, by Hanover, 
Cassel, and TJlm, not without difficulty. The wild 
moors in the north of Hanover were then roadless, the 
track being marked only by deep ruts ; at some places 
it was difficult to procure horses, and after leaving the 
town of Hanover the postilions lost Iheir road and 
went out of the way to Pyrmont. Mr. Wickham 
reached Schaffhausen on the 27th, thus taking three 
weeks for a journey which can now be performed in 
less than twenty-four hours. Regarded from a distance, 
the prospects of an overthrow of French power had 
never before looked so promising: the French armies 
were driven out of Germany and out of Italy ; and 
Suwarow from the south, and Korsakoff and the Arch- 
duke Charles from the north and east, were rapidly 
advancing to crush the small French army under 
Masscna which still held the centre of Switzerland. 
Mr. Wickham's penetration, however, quickly dis- 
covered the fatal inherent weakness of this mighty 
host. The Russian General, Korsakoff, an utterly in- 
capable man, was animated by most unreasoning and 
unreasonable jealousy of the Austrian Archduke 
Charles, and anything like harmonious co-operation 
between the two generals was out of the question. 
Mr. Wickham used every effort to remedy this state 
of things, but was quite unable to overcome the stupid 
arrogance of KorsakoflF. He was more successful in 
rousing the anti-French spirit of the older Cantons in 
Switzerland, so much so that he soon came to be re- 
garded as the bete noire of the French party : the 
Austrian General followed him to Schwyz and besought 
him to leave that town, the probability being that " his 
presence there would induce the French to make an 
attack in the course of the night." On the 14th August 


took place the first battle of Zurich, which demon- 
strated the real weakness of the Austrian army and 
during which Mrs. Wickhnm and General Pichegru 
who was riding in her carriage narrowly escaped 
capture by the Prench. At the second battle of 
Zurich, fought six weeks after, the llussians were 
utterly defeated, Mr. Wickh^^m's carriage was taken 
by the French, though he succeeded in saving his 
baggage, and the allied armies Avere ouce more driven 
out of Switzerland. 

The events which transpired during the French 
Consulate and Avhich culminated in the establishment 
of French ascendancy over the whole of Europe, 
necessarily put a termination to Mr. Wickham's 
mission on the Continent. He was recalled in 1801, 
and soon after his return was sworn in as Chief 
Secretary of State for Ireland. This responsible 
post he held until 1804s and in 1806 was made a Lore? 
of the Treasury ; after which he gradually retired from 
public affairs, in order to spend the evening of his 
eventful life at his seat at Uinstead-Wvck, near 
Southampton, in tlie pi^aceful pursuits of a country 
gentleman. He died at Brighton in 1840, and a 
monument to his memory was erected in York Minster. 

In concluding this brief account of the eventful 
career of an eminent Yorksliireman, the writer can- 
not but cono^ratulate his readers that tlie centurv 
elapsed since the events detailed in the foregoing 
paper, amongst other tokens of substantial progress 
in humanitarian principles, has brought the European 
nations to entertain sounder views as to their relative 
duties to each other, and that methods of action such 
as were then regarded as unexceptionable and neces- 
sary would now meet with universal reprobation. 

























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Primitive Iron and Pottery Works. 



fmih IllMtration,) 

^2^URING the year 1891 a large quantity of broken 
yt^/ pottery and iron scoriae was turned up on 
ground which was being excavated on Hope 
Hill, Baildon, by the Yorkshire Gannister Company, 
who were in search of calliard or gannister stone for 
the purposes of their business as fire-brick makers at 
Baildon Green Works. The fact was very early taken 
advantage of by Mr. John Emanuel Preston, artist and 
antiquary, of Littlebeck Hall, Gilatead, his son, Mr. 
W. E. Preston, and the writer of this paper, who 
received much courtesy and assistance from Mr. Jos. 
Moulson, the managing director of the company, in 
following up the research. Hope Hill, it may be 
added, is some 900 feet above sea level, and is within 
a score feet of the summit of Baildon Hill, or as 
locally named, the High Plain of Baildon Moor. The 
whole of the surrounding district is full of interest to 
the archaeologist, and abounds in tumuli and cup 
and ring marked stones, but for the present these 
features, interesting though they be, must pass with- 
out further comment, the chief object of this paper 
being a description of the nature of the " finds " 
already alluded to. In passing, however, the reader 

baiLdon moor. 307 


will pleovse note the high altitude at which the " finds 
were discovered, this being a somewhat important 
feature for consideration. 

Primitive Baildon Pottery. 

The field in question yielded a large quantity of 
fragments of well baked pottery, some of which 
had evidently been formed on the wheel, from 
clay w^hich had acquired in baking colours vary- 
ing from brick red to dark grey and cream colour. 
The appearance of the pottery differs from that 
generally found in British boerrows and tumuli, 
along with flint and stone implements, and other 
indications of the Early Britons. It bears evident 
signs of hard baking, which was not the case with the 
earlier pottery. It differs too in some of it having 
been turned upon the wheel, while the earlier style of 
pottery was always modelled by the hand. The 
paste is coarse in texture, the /day having evidently 
undergone little if any tempering, and it was probably 
that found upon the spot. There is an entire absence 
of ornamentation of any kind on the fragments. 
Many of the latter appear to be portions of vessels 
modelled after the pattern of the globular-shaped 
cinerary urn of Roman type, but they are evidently 
not vessels of that character. 

The pottery in question is not Roman, although it 
may be that a few moulded ruins among the fragments 
are not unlike those turned out by Roman potters. 
They, however, lack the finish and smoothness which 
usually attaches to Roman pottery. It might, how- 
ever, be expected, from the near proximity of Roman 
soldiery, if not of Roman potters at Ilkley (the 
Olicana of the Roman period) that lessons in tlie 
fictile art would be learned by the rude people of the 
locality, hitherto untutored in such subjects. Neither 
is the Baildon pottery Saxon. The absence of orna- 
mentation upon every single specimen found almost 


settles that point. The high altitude of Hope Hill affords 
another, indication. The Saxons generally chose the 
valleys for their settlements, preferring the good and 
sheltered lands, while the ancient Britons chose 
the higher grounds for security. 

In any attempt to determine the date of origin 
of the Baildon pottery something must be left for 
conjecture. No doubt Hope Hill was occupied as 
a British settlement from very early times. It 
possesses all the advantages of the situation usually , 
chosen for such positions. It would also in all pro- 
bability continue to be so occupied even after the 
Roman occupation of Ilkley, and not improbably after 
the invasions of the Saxons. The pottery, however, is 
not Saxon, and the portions of Norman ware found in 
the same field only tend to show that the Hope Hill 
pottery, by whatever other name it might be known, 
had its origin in very early times, and continued to 
turn out its wares until a period now deemed com- 
paratively recent. The fractures upon many of the 
specimens appear to be old, as if broken by the first 
users and then thrown away. This is no uncommon 
feature. The immediate locality of all primitive 
potteries nearly always present the same appearance. 

The next and most interesting inquiry which 
occurred to the trio of investigators, Messrs. Preston 
and Cudworth, was as to where the kiln was situate, 
through whicli had passed the vast number of frag- 
ments and the perfect vessels which at some period 
must have existed. The pottery field had been 
trenched for a distance of fifty or sixty yards and 
about an equal breadth, without the least trace of any- 
thing approaching the appearance of a kiln or furnace 
being in evidence. Meanwhile debris were found to 
a depth of eight or ten feet, containing fragments of 
pottery of the type described, along with a consider- 
able quantity of iron slag or scoriae, to be afterwards 
referred to. By continued excavation of the field, 
however, following the calliard stone, the search was 
in some measure rewarded. At a somewhat higher 

BAlLBON Moor. 309 

elevation than the ordinary level of the field, the 
excavators came upon a quantity of calcined earthy 
material and slabs of stone which were burnt through- 
out, insomuch that they might have been crumbled 
to dust between the fingers. The exigencies of the 
situation did not permit of the actual kiln (assuming 
that the site of it had been reached) being thoroughly 
explored, but sufficient was apparent to satisfy the 
inquirers that the search had not been in vain. 

Assuming the fragments of the earliest pottery 
eihumed to have been Romano-British, that is to say, 
the work of Baildon people living during and after the 
Roman occupation of Britain, the kiln would in all 
probability take the shape of Romano-British kilns 
unearthed in various parts of England. This des- 
cription of kiln diflTered only to a small extent from 
the pottery kiln of the Romans, of which almost per- 
fect examples have been found at Caistor, North- 
amptonshire, and in other places. As a rule, a circular 
hole was dug out of the ground from three to four 
feet deep and about four feet in diameter, which was 
walled round to the height of two feet. A furnace, 
one third of the diameter of the kiln in length, com- 
municated with the side. In the centre of the circle 
so formed was an oval pedestal, the height of the sides, 
with the end pointing towards the furnace mouth. 
Upon this pedestal and side wall the kiln rested. It 
was formed of perforated bricks, meeting at one point 
in the centre. The furnace was arched with bricks 
moulded for the purpose, and the side of the kiln w^as 
constructed with curved bricks, set edgeways to the 
height of about tw^o feet. 

Whether or not the above is an approximate des- 
cription of the kiln which in the early centuries of the 
Christian era supplied crockery ware for Baildon and 
district is, of course, matter for conjecture. Suffice it 
to say that the Hope Hill Pottery w^as no transient 
workshop, but survived to Norman times. Evidence 
of this is manifest in a large number of pieces of 
pottery corresponding to the latter period having been 


unearthed, the most notable example being the almost 
perfect vessel now in the possession of the 
writer, and of which a draw^ing is given. This vessel 
stands nearly 12 inches in height, the paste being similar 
to that of numerous fragments which have been found 
upon the same ground. It is the best specimen of 
late Norman pottery known to the writer as having 
been made in the immediate neighbourhood of Bradford. 

Primitive Ironworks at Baildon. 

In accounting for the presence of iron slag or scoria 
upon Hope Hill, as well as at other places in the 
locality, we have no difficulty in assuming the presence 
of the raw material, or of the fuel needful for smelting 
it. Ironstone crops, out at the face of Hope Hill and 
there are two seams of coal — the Halifax hard and 
soft beds — in the Hill. The better-bed coal is seated 
upon a peculiarly hard siliceous sandstone named 
calliard (or gannister), which is similar to the Crow 
Stone of the Craven limestone, and contains abundance 
of Sfigman'a — an extinct genus df plant w^ell known 
to geologists. Plenty of small coal is found on the 
gannister, sufficiently hot for smelting purposes. If 
the fuel employed was charcoal, there would in early 
times be abundance of timber on and in the vicinity 
of Baildon Hill. In primitive times iron ore and 
coal were generally extracted by means of shallow pits, 
although the Romans sank shafts and drove adits 
from them in following the ore. The presence of these 
pits about Baildon as else w^h ere has created some 
misapprehension, inasmuch as they have often been 
confounded with the sites of British pit dwellings. 
A knowledge of the strata, or better still, excavation 
of any supposed pit dwelling, would dispel many 
erroneous ideas on the subject. 

With regard to the probability of a primitive air 
bloomery for smelting iron on Baildon Hill, the 
position itself is all in favour of such an assumption. 

llAILDOX MOOit. 311 

The High Plain is at an elevation sufficient to com- 
mand the western breezes in an uninterrupted degree; 
indeed no better position could be found anywhere. 
Granting this, we have the raw material, fuel, and 
facilities for smelting, sufficiently present to account 

it Hap« Hill, Balldon. 

for the large quantity of iron slag which abounds in 
the locality. The assumption of an air bloomery is 
also confirmed by the exi(<tenee of similar appliances 
in places like lionico, in Mashonalaud, and other 
remote partw of the earth. This i)rimitive structure 


was always pl^ed upon high ground, the opening 
being generally towards the west or south-west, in 
order to catch the breezes which came from that 
quarter. When those winds blew, a feeble sort of blast 
was obtained, and the ore was sufficiently reduced to 
be capable of manipulation between heavy stones. 
The next improvement seems to have been in the 
employment of bellows for creating an artificial blast, 
which was a great step in advance. This was a very 
simple contrivance, consisting of a couple of skins 
sewed together, and pressed under the arm. It need 
scarcely be added, that at these primitive stages of 
iron-making, the iron produced was malleable or 
wrought iron, mixed with cinder, dirt, and unreduced 
oxide, and was not what is known as " cast" iron. 

Any one who takes in hand a piece of slag or ancient 
cinder will be convinced at once by its weight how im- 
perfect must have been the process of smelting in 
prinaitive times. Much metal remains in the scoriae, 
varying a few degrees per cent, but the amount of 
iron ore left behind is in all cases consider».ble. Mr. 
Louis C. Miall, who has reported on the slag heap at 
Hunsworth (said to be Roman refuse), says that it 
J>A*^i*u ^^ 22 per cent, of iron (taking an average Trom 
T lU^^ weight); and adds that a fair sample of 
i^ow Moor ironstone contains about 30 per cent, 
ot ora Thus in the case of the Hunsworth slag 
only about eight per cent, of the ore was extracted by 
SLIiS'^^^^^^i^^^ existing. From numerous blocks of 
tS w. ^^^ ^^^^'^ ^^^^^ specimens of ancient slag in 
a veX t^"* 8 possession, it is quite evident that bnly 
exS^T ^Pr^P'"'"*^''^ ^^ "^^^1 c<>^W have been 
from ^^^^^ *^'^ r^'^^^k also refers to the refuse 

whKe ^^^^ smeltmgs in any part of Yorkshire with 

^ tne writer is acquainted 





T. T. EMPSALL, Esq. 

Continued from Page i68. 

Explanation of contraction in the second column : w. wife ; 

s. Sonne; d. daughter; ch. chtlde. 



7 Margt. 

w and child of Humphrey Stead, Horlon 

13 Grace 

w John Earnshaw, Bd. 


Richard Thornton, Gt. H. 

21 Hester 

d Samuel Horsley 


Alice Walker, Thornton 


Malhew Scott, Bd. 


s Abraham Kellelt, Hortgn 


3 William 

s Jeremy Bond, Bowling 


Joseph Greenhough, Bd. 


Jeremy Bower, Bd., Mercer 


Jonas Chippendale, Bd. 


w William Kitchen, Bd. 
William Gledhill, Gt. H. 

13 Mary 

w Jonas Briggs, Gt. H. 


Tristram Horton, Bd. 


George Kendall, Bowling 


James Hill, Bd., Butcher 


d Thomas Hollins, Clayton 


w Richard Wilkinson, Horton 

24 Mary 

d Michael Hairstow, Clayton 


Michael Dawson, Clayton 


Mary Sagar, Clayton 
Clayton, B.l. 

24 a child of Alice Walson, Bd. 



John Milnes, Bd. 

7 Mary 

d Abraham Swift, Clayton 


John Pollard, Bowling 


Stephen Hollingrake, Mann. 



Catherine Webstet. Bd. 


3 John 

t Abni. Wilkes. B.1. 


w Wm. ManDingham 


James Garlh, Ileaton 


Jonas Naylor, Bowlii^ 
Francis Cowbun.e. Allertoo 
Ann Hill, Mann. 


d William Sewbj, Wibsey 


Samuel Suncliffe, Clayton 


w Christopher Cruis-laile, BJ. 

30 Sara 

w George][S->ii, B<l. 

31 Eliial.«h 

•i Jame* Marshall, W.I. 


1 ObeiltcDce 

w Jauirs Hilyard, B.I. 

8 Je...«l 

w James Rinieslev. Muin. 

9 San 

w Samuel Eshlon, IW. 
Sarah Walker, BoUon 
Samucll BjTins, Wilulen 
Greg'iry Couke, Ilurlon 


7 H«rr 

14 Manha 

d R-^t Pullan. Rl. 

a clijit 

1 ol Roliert Jacksjns. B.1. 


3 George 

s Jonas Craven, Heaton 

Edwai.! Lange, IM. 

S Susan 

w lohn Iteaiie. Hd. 

6 Ann 

w William Dixon, Bowling 


Susaj Richat-ls.)!.. 1,1. IT. 


Grace Walker. Wilaer 


I a chil. 

1 of Jolin Uoothes, Wil»len 

3 John 

s Anihonv Hirst, Allerton 
Abm. Ilonon, lt<l. 


rolin Walker, Gt. H. 

1] Saia 

d BoruarU Ellis, B.ivrliiij 


Hol«tl Greene, B.I.. Tayler 

1^ WillUni 

s John Lister. Mann. 
Joseph Vicars, Ciaylon 


w John Ellis, B.1. 


S Susaima 

w Ricliar.1 SiiifJen. Bowline 
w John TlioriUon. B.1, 

li " cliilJ of Rulwrl Pearson, lU. 

Grace, Eccleshill 

w Matthew Kiil.i, ltd. 


d John Sheaffield. Bowling 
Josias lloldsworlh. Bi«ley 

d John Ellis, Bd. 
Ann Firth. Bd. 
Joseph Milner. Ilorton 

' child of RoUrt Wilson, II«ion 

Joseph Shaci«, Bowline 

Joseph -rumer, Mann. 

Grace Mclcalf, Heaton 

Eliialwth Pith. Bd. 

John Smiibies, Ilorton 



a chilli of John Balmfurths, Bd. 

17 Richard 

s John CoUinson, IJowling 

18 a child of Rol)ert Kookes, Ud. 

19 NYilliani 

s Robert Greene, Bd. 

23 Hellen 

w Robert Greene, Bowling 


William Barlles, Bd. 

26 Ar.n 

w William Pearson, Bd. 

Mary Illingworth, Thornton 


d John Thornton, B«l. 

28 Mary 

d Ronald Ilindle, Bd. 


Isal^U Lee, Bd. 



Rob<:rt Dawson, ilorton 

7 Jane 

w William Atkinson, Bd. 


Thomas Balme, Bowling 

12 Alice 

w William Thornton, Bd. 

16 Judith 

w James Bowker, Bil. 


Francis Currer, Riwling 

22 Mai^rit 

w George Ingham, Rl. 

26 Sarah 

d Isaac Ellison, Mann. 

28 2 children 

of Isaac Balme, Horion 

30 Nathaniell 

s Jonas Waterhouse, Bfd. 
s John Hoile, Bd. 



Jonas Daren, Ilorton 

6 Alice 

w Gabriell Cowand, Eccleshill 


Thomas Ogden, Bowling 


Michael 1 Asmaell, a stranger from Lanca- 


Susan Iredaile, Mann. 


d John Wilson, Bd. 


Martha Dobson, Bd., died at Heaton 


Samuell Milner, Ciaton 

20 John 

s John VVooilhead, Bil. 


2 ElizaliCth 

d Richard Wilson, of Settk, a stranger 


s William Robertshay, Bd. 

a child of George Westerman, Ilorton 


d James Knowles, Bd. 


Jane Coultas, Bd. 


Thomas Stead, Bd. 
Hellin Milnes, Eccleshill 

10 Agnes 

w Robert Jobson, Bowling 

II Susana 

w William Metcalfe, Ilorton 


Margrit Crowlher, Ilorton 

20 William 

s William Akeham, Bd. 


d John Ciaton, Allerton 

22 Simeon 

s Simeon Bower, Bd. 

Total BuriaU duringr 1658—98. 



L 29 Mary 

d Jonas Daren, Horton 


I Mary 

d Richard Warde, Bd. 


Lewis Watson, Bd. 

12 Ann 

w Thomas Smithes, Horton 

25 a child of John Maud, Ilorton 


a child of Richard Verilee, Kyeiley 


s Michaell Ilaigraves, llorton 


(1 EdwiRl Brewer, B.I. 


John Sulcliffe, llorton 


w Nicholas Allerton. Allerlon 


leremiah Aked, B.1. 

30 Hellln 

d Thomas Holmes, Bd. 


Eilivard Preston. Thornton 

Maty Bamr.)rlli, ThiMTitoi. 

13 Grace 

A James Jowell, Thomion 

14 BarlKtia 

d Chiistoi.her Foster, B.l. 


Abm. Thornlon, Iloilon 

21 a cliilit of Joseph Armytage, Clnton 

achilJof SamiiellMUleley. 11.1. 

36 S»iah 

w John Hollings, Mann. 


Edoni Nich.)U, Horton 

Chrislt. Easlbutiie, Mann. 


William Bell, Bowling 


d Miles Wallis. Horton 

7 William 

s Richard Fcild, Bd, 

13 Mar, 

d l-homas Ibaleson, late of BJ. 

15 Mary 

d William Drake. Thornlon 

14 A bill. 

s James Itdl, Hotlon 

Grace RoMnson, U,(. 

i6 Sara 

w Samu,:lt Midt;ley, lid. 


William Walker. Ud. 


d Richard Jackson. Mann. 

1 Mary 

d Joho Wilson, Kildweeke 

S William 

S Ahm. Siv.-ilne, Morion 

6 Mary 

w Thom.-is Hamand. lale of llowlii-g 

8 Susana 

w John Kilchio, Wilsden 

9 (Jracc 

d Arim MelCilfe, CJaiton 

II liana 

d Jon.-ilh.-inlIold«ro,t!,, Il„llon 


d James llillyjrd, Bd. 

19 Eiiialxili 

w John Roue, l!oii-ling 

a I Roliett 

s James Fielclier, ICccleshlll 

»2 Hellin 

d John Hollings. M.inn 


William Pasley. Slil|iley 


Ahm. Metcilf, Morion 

31 William 

s James Thornlon. Horlini 

n chilli of Nathao Ilusllcr, Ilortmi 

4 Susana 

w William Sugdeii, Horton 

7 Susana 

«■ William Hey, Bd. 

21 Aenes 

w Jas|ier I'ickard, Shi]>ley 

34 Ann 

w Thomas Thornton, lirailford 


John Wilson. Ud. 

28 Mary 

w Jeremiah Clege, Horton 

1 William 


Saiiiucll Cajis, Heaton 

Ann liruer, lid. 


d Jasper Drake, Bowling 


Grace Laiiu, Bd. 









7 Mnrgret 

8 Elizabeth 

22 Mary 

23 Mary 
28 William 

3 Ann 

9 John 

14 James 

24 William 


6 John 

7 Susana 
12 George 

19 Andrew 
24 Elizal)eth 
26 Nicholas 


8 Jane 

9 Elizahelh 

1 1 a child 

15 a child 

19 a child 

20 Mary 

21 Martha 

24 Mary 



10 Susaua 

12 Richard 

16 Sarah 


22 Susana 


25 Ilanah 

26 Mary 



10 Alice 

w Jeremiah Clough, Horton 
\v Richard Cordingley^ Bd. 
d Matthew Claton, Horton 
d John Sug<len, Horton 
s Henry Alverley, Bd. 

Mary Greenwood, Calverley 
d Samuell Tayler, Bd. 
s Richard Fcild, Bd. 
s Thomas I>angstcr, Bierley 
d John Tayler, Horton 
s John Newell, Bd. 

Elizabeth Robinson, Hcaton 
s John Stephenson, Eccleshill 
d Edward Cozen, AUerlon 
s Matthew lloldsworth 

Thomas Harrison, Bd. 
s John Shiers, Bd. 
w Thomas Langsler, Bierley 
s John Crabtree, Fiizinghall 

William Barker, Bd. 
d Michaell Miliier, Claton 
w Joseph Barren, lale dec, Bd. 
w William Hey, Eccleshill 
of William Hey, Bd. 
of Samuell Small page, Allcrton 
s Rodger RadclifTe, Bd. 
of John Dickinson, Bd. 
w William Britton, Bd. 
d James Sager, AUerton 

Sarah Alleson, Bolton 
w George Kent, Bd. 

William Horton, Bd. 

Samuell Ashton, Bd. 
w Walter Holdswoith, Horton 
w Edward Tias, Bowling 

John Medley, Claton 

Samuel Fletcher, Thornton 
w Thomas Gleadall, Claton 
s Thomns Wilkinson, Mann, 
d James Bowker, B<1. 

Abm. Morehouse, Mann, 
d John Booth, Claton 

William Boothman, Eccleshill 
d John Claton, Allcrton 

Thomas Craven, Bd. 
d Isaac Balnie, Horton 
d Thomas F'aucit, Bowling 

Robert Whitehead, Eccleshill 

Alice Tankers ley, Claton 

John Wilson, Bd. 
w Edward Walker, Byerley 

Widdow Jowet, Bowling 



17 Joiiatlian 
21 Ann 









s Joseph Metcalf. IW. 
d Thomas Ashlon, Horton 
Isabell Walker, Bd. 
7 John s Lawrence HuUon, 13<1. 

9 Alice w Thomas Walker, Rl. 

II Michaell s Michaell Carter, Clalon 

s John IJoolh, Ilorion 
116 burials for the year. 

16 Rohcrt 

9 Maitlia 

12 Mary 

13 Manila 






I lannah 

(1 Isaac Biilme, Horton 

Jiidilh Hill, Healon Royds 
d Michael Bairslow, 'rhornlon 
w William Sharp, Bowling 
d William liooth, Clayton 
s William Ilo<lgson, Bowling 
s Matthew Gates, Brownroytl 

George Shiers, B*l. 
d Thomas Wilkes, Mann. 
William Holms, Clalon 
d Joshua Hoklin, Wihsey 

John Crowshey, Wilstlen 
d John Ellis, B<1. 
Thomas B.ilme, Bd. 
John Roodes, Bd. 
James Smilli, Bolton 
John Butler, Bd. 
Simeon Bower, Bd. 
w John Mitchell, Bd. 
w John Gaunt, Pudsey 
w Thomas Swainc, Horton 
s Bernard Parkinson, IJd. 
3 children of Jonas Hillhouse, Btl. 
I Joseph Fearnside, Bd. 

John Gargrave, Pudsey 
a child cf Isaac Sharpe, Horton 
8 Ann w William Fournis, Healon 

10 Robert Wilson, Bd. 

12 a child of Jeremy Jowet, Bowling 




23 Elizabeth 

26 Ann 

6 Martha 
II Bernard 

13 Ann 


20 William 
30 William 

6 John 

7 John 



17 Judith 

18 Hester 

19 Mary 

s Richard Feild, Bd. 
d Abm. Wilkes, Mann. 

Agnes Cowlestone, Bd. 
s Joshua Booth 
s Thomas Bower 
s William Sharpe 
s William Hey, Bd. 
s William Hill, Clalon 
s John Hezleden, Allcrton 

Henry Brigg, Horton 
w Samuell Bower, Bowling 
w Adam Hillhouse, Horton 
w Wm. Nubie, Wibsey 

Ricd. Eastwood, Bd. 









a child 

22 Ann 

23 a child 


a child 

6 Hannnh 

7 Win. 
15 Mary 

19 Tobias 
22 Alice 

29 ilellin 

8 Jonas 


12 Timothy 

15 John 

20 a child 
22 Samuel 

25 Eliza1>eth 

29 Isa1x:ll 



2 Martha 

5 Alice 


22 Racliael 

29 Elizth. 

30 Joshua 
I Hester 


6 Susanna 


7 Hester 
10 Mary 
12 Mercie 
1% Jane 

23 Susan 
28 Hester 
30 Rd. 


20 Wm. 


of Edward Akeroyd, Horton 
w James Whiticar, Claton 
of Isaac Balme, Horton 

Grace Booth, Bd. 
of Thomas Jowet, Clayton 

William MIdgley, Bd. 

Ralph Stringer, Bd. 
d Thomas HoUins, lid. 
s Nicholas Crosbie, a stranger 
d John Jackson, Bd. 
s Lawrence Hunton, Bd. 
w John Booth, Bd. 

Joseph Booth, Gt. H. 
w James Hilyard, Bd. 
s Roljert Wilson, late of Bd. 

Nathan Dickson, Shipley 
d Walker Dowglesse, Claton 
s Thomas Thornton, Thornton 
s Edward Fletcher, Thornton 
w Thomas Fearnley, Bd. 
s }ohn Eastwood, Shipley 
of Robert Whitingham, Bd. 
s John Waterhouse, Bd. 
d John Turner, Bd. 
w Wm. Hollingdrake, Horton 

Alice N.iyler, Clayton 

Susana Hage, Bd. 
d William Hustler, Wibsey 
w Wm. Hopkinson, Bd. 

Widdow Freckleton, IM. 

Jonathan Robeitshey, Bowling 

Wm. Hey, Bd., Bayliff 
d Wm. Hodgson 
d James Bowker, Bd. 
s Isaac Lumbee, Bil. 
w Abm. Brunall, Mann. 

Richard Cordingley, Bowling 
d Joseph Field, Halyfax 
w John Shires, Bd. 
d Christopher Burnett, B<1. 
w Joseph Starkey, B<1. 
w John Turner, Bd. 
w Humphrey Baumforth, Bd. 
w Thomas Clarkson, Bd. 
w John White, Thornton 
s John Stead, Bd. 
s William Jowett, Heaton 

Thos. Hoilgson, 6<i. 

Wm. Kitchin, Wilsden 

Widdow Gleadhill, Tong 
s Wm. Brooksbank, Allerton 
s Muthew Hoilings, Bd. 
















3 Agnes 

IS John 










a child 






a child 




a child 

a child 










a child 







29 J nines 






a child 




Mat hew 


a child 







16 Barbara 



Eliza1>eth Haley^ Ilorton 
d Ronald Hindle, Bd. 
w Christr. Fawcit, Hd. 
w Michael Balme, Wilisey 
w Wm. Hey, Bd. 
s Jonas Ashton, late of Ilorton 

Ellen Gleadhill, Allerton 
s John Kitchin, Eccleshill 
w Malhew Roodes, Clayton 
w Wm. Ilemsworlh, Bd. 
105 buriala for the year. 

John Hodgson, Allerton 

Joseph StarkiC: Bd. 
w Robert Brewer, Horton 
of Henry Simpson, Bd. 
d Thomas Stead, late of n<l. 
d Thomas Richardson, Bierley, died at 

of John Craven, Frizinghall 
w Malhew Clougb, Ilorton 

John Crowthcr, Ilorlon 
of John Burnilt, Bfd. 
of Jonas G reave, Bd. 

John LfOngstaff, Allerton 

Richard Richardson, Bierley, Gent, 
w Jeremiah Bower, late of Hd. 

Henry Smith, Horton 

Michael Pearson, Thornton 

w Robertshay, Clayton 

d Abm. Boardall, Bd. 

Walter Holdsworlh, Gt. H. 
of Mathew Drake, Bd. 
\v William Jowett, Clayton 
w John Sugden, Horton 
w George Warde, Horion 
s Jnmes Knowls, Bd. 

Elizabeth Roper, Shipley 
d Michael Pearson, Thornton 
d James Knowles, Bd. 
of John Brigg, Horton 
d George Mortimer 
s Mathew Thornton, Bowling 
of Abm. Jowett, Bolton 
d Walter Jobson, Btl. 
w James Wilkinson, Wilsden 
s Thomas Mortimer, late of Horton 
d Thomas Walker, junr., Bd. 
w Wm. Walker, late of Bd. 

Wm. Thornton, Horton 

Hester Jowett, Clayton 

W^idow Sowden, Mann. 

bbadpord burial register. 

a child of Win. Raws->n. Sl.iplev 
Margtill iii-affill, Tung 

13 n cliild 

of William Siigden, Horloii 

i6 Hellio 

d William nairetow. Wil,sey 

18 Thomas 

s Thomas Hodgson, liowlinc; 

2 Joh., 

5 Thomas Hollins, Cl.iyloii 

8 Maiy 

d Mauhew Farrer. I(d. 

10 a child 

of Al>m. Krunall, Maim. 


d Ambrose Firlh, Wiiaey 

aa John 

s Al)m. Akcroyd, WAmy 

Thomas BunnJe, Bierley 

34 Joseph 

s Joseiih Boolh. lale of [lotion 

i9 ■« child of Richn..l ScolL, llil. 

7 iL child 

of Thomas English, 1J<1. 


Mary Jowell, Hd. 


Richard Smilh, I!d. 

a chiM 

of Roliett KilicrlKC, Bd. 

1 1 a child of James litowii, Ii.1. 

1 child 

of llentyAlkiiisoii, Bd. 

a I 

d Uonard Killeil>ce, B.1. 

33 Grace 

w Samuel Siigden, Ilorton 


<1 Thomas .Sugiirn, Hoilon 

27 Mary 

w John Lisler, Bolton 

30 John 

s IX-iuicl Kiiighl, Bd. 

Ahm. Wilkinson, Wilsilen 

a child of 

c Michael Drake, Thornton 


Chrrislr. Gaseoyne, !(,!. 

3 Thomas 

s John Uotleson, Bolton 

7 Alice 

d John Pearson, Bd. 


James Mareclson. B.1. 

Wm. s Robeil Bell. Bd. 

It Joseph s Wm. Patierum, Addle 

Samuel Wid<lho[ii>, WilBey 
Not. 3 Frances w Mallhew Clough, Horton 
4 a child of William Wilkinson, Mann. 

6 George Doilgson, Bd, 

8 Hellin w John Crabtree. Mann. 

9 a child of Thomas Walker, B<1. 
10 John s John lloyle, Botlon 
It Mary d Isaac Broadley, BJ. 

15 Mary w Sampson B.iynes, Calvcrley 

16 Grace w John Stevenson, Bowling 

17 Richard s Thomas Richardson, ble of Bierlcy 
23 John S John Stevenson. Bowling 

34 Jane «' James Brown, B.1. 

a; n child of Joslma Booth, Bradford 

38 Marlha Exiey, Bradford 

29 Michael Mclcilfe, Bd. 

Dm. 6 IS.-UIC s John B,iichl,'r, Mami, 

a child of Ri.lieit IVvir-.m, liil. 

7 a child yf Samuel WaiUwouh, Thorolou 

&2i TME fiRADt'O&l) AkTIQUARlf. 

8 Richard 

s Richard Walsh, late of Mann. 


Elizalieth lien son, Gt. II. 


James Rarnsley, Mann. 

* 14 David 

s David Parkinson, lid. 

26 Joseph 

s Hugh Sawnderson, Bowling. 


Widdow Mitchell, Biwling 

31 Martha 

w Jeremiah Dixon, Ileaton 

a child of John Dickinson, Ikl. 

Jan* 2 a child of Isaac Bahiie, Ilorton 


John Crabtree, Mann. 


John Kitchert, Wilsden 

a child 

of Christopher Fawcitt, Ikl. 


James Dawson, Bd. 

18 Mary 

\v Jonas Hiilhouse, Bil. 

19 Mary 

w George Kedropp, Bd. 


d Edward Fletcher, Ilorton 


s Joseph Metcalfe, Bd. 

20 Mary 

d John Webster, Bd. 

Eliza1)eth Saxton, Chella 
a child of Jeremiah Rooks, Horton 

21 William s Christopher East burn, Mann. 

22 Pabee w Rolx^rt Barren, Bd. 
Ellen d Kichard Jepson, Bd. 

26 William s William Pattricke, Ilorton 
Feb. I a child of Jeremiah Holms!:, Heaton 

2 Susanna d William Hill, Heaton 

5 Sara d Thomas Wilks, Heaton 

6 Richa'd s William Allerton, Alluvion 
16 Elizabeth Pinder, Eccleshill 

William s Abraham Wilkinson, Bd. 

19 a child of John Ellis. Bd. 

20 Susnna w Isaac Glover, Bd. 

25 I<el)ecca w John Midgley, Clayton 
March, i Robert Holdsworth, Ilorton 

£l'zal>eth w Nicholas Stead, ikl. 

5 Thomas s James Skarr, Bd. 

6 William Ashton, Horton 
Susanna d Joseph Midgley, Bolton 

Elizabeth Holdsworth, Horton 

7 June d John Bayly, Bd. 

16 James Illingworth, Frizinghall 

18 Thomas Booth, Wilsden 

a child of John Smithers, Horton 

20 Richard Ho<lgson, Ikl. 

21 Mary Pollard, Bierley 

22 John Wilkinson, Bd. 

23 John Clarkson, Bd. 

Maihew Clough, Horton 

24 Ann w Martin Hodgson, late of Horton 

140 burials for the year. 





With three lllustralions. 

^^Y^HE old chapel, which standi near Bramhope Hall, 
^^ three miles from Otley, was built about 250 years 
ago. It is notew^orthy, not for its antiquity or 
beauty, but on account of its being one of the few 
religious edifices erected in England during the 
Puritan Revolution of the middle of the seventeenth 
century. There was at that time no lack of religious 
edifices ; but there was a serious difference among 
Englishmen concerning their proper use, and still 
more concerning the proper limits of Royal and 
Episcopal authority, which plunged the nation into a 
disastrous civil war. From the calling of the Long 
Parliament in 1640 to the Restoration in 1660, men 
had other matters to think about more important than 
even the building of churches. 

The year 1649, when the chapel was founded, was a 
notable one. The Parliamentary army had triumphed; 
on the 30th of January in that year the King was 
executed ; and on the 19th of May England was 
proclaimed a Commonwealth. Already Episcopacy 
had been abolished, the Book of Common Prayer 
removed from the parish churches, and service con- 
ducted therein according to the Presbyterian manner. 
But the government of the National Church remained 
in an unsettled condition. It w^as at such a time that 
Robert Dyneley, Esquire, lord of the manor of 


Bramhope, being a zealous Puritan, and dewirous of 
promoting the spiritual welfare of his neighbours, 
erected this chapel on his own ground, and with the 
co-operation of others endowed it with lands for the 
maintenance of its minister. 

He was "a branch of a considerable and worthy 
family," whose pedigree is given by Thoresby, and at 
greater length by Whitaker. The first of the name 
was Adam de Dyneley, of Clitheroe, living in the time 
of Edward II., and holding lands in Dyneley, Lan- 
cashire. After several generations William Dyneley, 
of Bramhope, purchased the manor from Henry, Earl 
of Cumberland, 38 Henry VIII. His grandson, Robert, 
was knighted by James I. on his coming from Scotland 
in 1603; and he married Olave, daughter of Sir Robert 
Stapleton, of Wighill, who was said to be in Queen 
Elizabeth's days " the finest gentleman in England 
next to Sir Philip Sydney." Three or four years after he 
received the honour of knighthood, his son, Robert 
Dyneley, with whom we are here more especially 
concerned, was born at Bramhope ; and soon after 
attaining his majority he married Margaret, the eldest 
daughter of Sir John Stanhope, of Melford, Kent. 
Thoresby says : " She was one of the twenty- two 
children Sir John and his lady had before either of 
them was forty years of age." She was herself the 
mother of three sons and eight daughters, and " lived 
about sixty years in the happy state of matrimony." 
Her husband seems to have been a man who loved 
peace and quietness, and took no active part in the 
civil strife of the time. He lived on good terms with 
his neighbours, and was well esteemed for his piety 
and sound judgment in practical matters. When 
Parliament granted Lord Fairfax the seigniory of the 
Isle of Man in 1651 he appointed Robert Dyneley as a 
commissioner, along with James Chaloner, M.P., and 
Joshua Witton, M.A. (the learned Puritan Rector of 
Thornhill) to settle the aflPairs of the island. His 
eldest daughter, Margaret, was married to Robert 
Leaver, of Bolham, in Northumberland, a minister of 


great sincerity and ability, and like Witton, a Non- 
conformist. One of Mr. Dyneley's sons died in infancy 
(1642). Another, William, died of consumption at 
Bramhope, in 1666. He himself attained a good old 
age ; saw four generations of the neighbouring gentry ; 
outlived the Stuart dynasty ; and died the year in 
which William of Orange was proclaimed. 

Bramhope Hall occupies an elevated position, 
commanding extensive prospects of the surrounding 
country, and affording on a clear day a distant view of 
York Minster. But only the western portion of the 
old Hall in which Robert Dyneley resided now remains. 
Having made up his mind to build a chapel near the 
Hall he was desirous of providing an endowment for it 
by enclosing a part of the common or waste land of 
the manor, and sought the assistance of the freeholders 
for this purpose. Some of these were at first much 
opposed to the project, but ** with pains and patience 
all consented at last." In this endeavour he was 
zealously supported by Robert Todd, M.A., an eminent 
puritan minister and the first incumbent of St. John's 
Church, Leeds ; of whom the story is told, that being 
silenced by the Act of Uniformity and asked, in his 
last sickness, for permission to send for a physician, he 
replied : " No, there is but one in England who can do 
me good, and that is King Charles, by giving me liberty 
to preach." In 1649 the lord and the freeholders 
surrendered 130 acres of the waste grounds of the 
Manor (valued at a yearly rent of 6s. 8d. per acre) to 
the following gentlemen : Sir George Wentworth, of 
Woolley, Knight; Charles Fairfax, of Menston, Esquire 
(Colonel in the Parliamentary Army, and uncle of " the 
great Lord Fairfax"), Henry Arthington, of Arthington, 
Esquire (whose wife was Mary, sister of Lord Fairfax), 
Walter Hawks worth, of Hawks worth. Esquire, and 
John Stanhope, of Horsforth, Esquire. The terms of 
the trust were declared to be : for the use of a chapel 
to be erected, and the maintenance of an able and 
godly minister ; 10 acres to be appropriated for a 
messuage for the minister s residence, and £40 a year 

&28 TttE BfeADPOllD AKTlQVARt. 

to be raised from the rest for his stipend ; full power 
being given to Mr. Dyneley, together with the trustees, 
and with the assent of Mr. Todd and four of the most 
honest, godly and conscientious inhabitants of the 
chapelry of their nomination, to appoint a godly, dis- 
creet and fit person to be preacher or minister ; if they 
should neglect to do so within three months, to the 
ministers of Leeds, Addle (Adel), Guiseley, and Otley, 
with the assistance of any three or four of the said 
feoftees, and of four of the honest and godly inhabi- 
tants to make the appointment ; and to Mr. Dyneley 
and the feoffees with the approbation of the four 
ministers mentioned, to suspend and deprive the 

Referring to these terms Hunter remarks : " This 
shows what appeared to a body of Puritans of those 
times the most judicious means of settling that very 
difficult point in ecclesiastics, the mode of appointing 
to a cure."* At a later period the power of appointing 
a minister among Noncomformists was sometimes 
vested entirely in the trustees, but more commonly it 
rested with the church or the congregation. Nothing 
whatever is said in the trust of this chapel concerning 
** the doctrine and discipline " to be maintained 
therein. There was no Episco})al Church at the time ; 
and of the views and intentions of the founder there 
can hardly be any doubt. 

In appearance the chapel is probably at the present 
time not very different from what it was when first 
erected. It is a plain, oblong building of stone, rough- 
cast and whitewashed, with a belfry and one bell. Its 
interior contains nothing suggestive of the ceremonial 
worship to which the Puritans had so strong an aversion. 
In addition to several square pews and a number of 
benches, the most conspicuous object is a high and 
roomy pulpit, with desk below and sounding board 
above, close to the ceiling, *^ looking not unlike a huge 
extinguisher made ready to droj) upon the head of any 

• Life of Oliver lJ«*ywood, p. 1G4. 


-t/*,j«AH* Cs. LIJ. FremaPlaloKOmhJ.J.S. 



preacher who should be unfaithful to his trust." In 
this building the Squire of Bramhope and his house- 
hold, and numerous sturdy yeoman and farm servants, 
with their wives and children, assembled every sabbath 
morning and afternoon, the men taking their seats on 
one side and the women on the other. Having entered 
the pulpit the minister (usually arrayed in black gown 
and bands, and w^earing a skull-cap) offered extempore 
prayer, and proceeded to read one or more portions of 
scripture, expounding or "giving the sense" of the 
same at the close ; he then announced line by line a 
metrical psalm, which the congregation sang, without 
instrumental music or quoir ; and again he prayed at 
somewhat greater length than at first. Then came the 
sermon, measured by the hour-glass, standing by the 
preacher's side ; followed by a prayer of thanksgiving ; 
the singing of another psalm ; and a solemn dismissal 
of the people with the Benediction. Sometimes a part 
of the service was occupied with the public catechising 
of the young people in the Shorter Catechism of the 
Westminster Assembly. On fast-days or days of 
special solemnity the service lasted several hours. 
"On a public fast-day" (says Joseph Lister, in his 
" Autobiography ") I have known that holy Mr. Wales 
[Elkanah Wales, minister of Pudsey] spend six or 
seven hours in praying and preaching, and rarely go 
out of the pulpit ; but sometimes he would intermit 
for one quarter of an hour, while a few verses of a 
psalm were sung, and then pray and preach again." 

The first minister of the chapel of whom there is 
any mention was Zechariah Crossley. But little is 
known concerning him. He was probably ordained to 
the ministry after the Presbyterian manner; was doubt- 
less appointed according to the terms of the trust " as 
a godly, discreet and fit person to be j)reacher or 
minister " ; and received the stipend provided so long 
as he continued in his oflfiice. 

After the Restoration the chapel and its endowment 
were claimed by the ecclesiastical authorities for the 
Church of England. This claim involved the intro- 


duction of the revised Prayer Book, and the episcopal 
ordination of the minister. But it was repudiated by 
Mr. Dyneley on the ground of the nature of the 
foundation, and more especially because the land on 
which the chapel stood was his private property. Nor 
does he appear ever to have admitted the claim ; 
although at his death, and probably for some years 
previously (during which very severe laws for the 
suppression of nonconformity were in operation) the 
chapel was appropriated to a use not contemplated in 
the original trust. Zechariah Crossley did not comply 
with the requirements of the Act of Uniformity (1662); 
but, under the protection of Mr. Dyneley, he continued 
to minister therein, and was often visited by Oliver 
Hey wood, who had been ejected by that Act from the 
chapelry of Coley in the parish of Halifax. Heywood's 
first visit was paid in 1664, when the Conventicle Act 
came into force and he was under sentence of excom- 
munication, being forbidden to attend church, and at 
the same time fined for his absence. As this visit 
introduced him to Mr. Dyneley, his account of it may 
be quoted in full. 

(1664, Nov. '».) Because I could not peaceably go to my own chapel 
to hear him (Mr. Hoole, " a very late conformist ") I went to hear Mr. 
Crossley at Bramhope, who by the good providence of God yet holds up 
the work of public preaching without conforming. I did hear him in 
the morning ; but at noon, after dinner, Mr. Dyneley, the gentleman of 
the place, moved me to preach in the afternoon. 1 told him I was 
willing, if Mr. Crosslpy was content, and if it might not prejudice them. 
They all unanimously desired it, and referred the consequence thereof 
to God's providence. That I took as a call from God, and adventured 
to preach ; and the Lord was graciously seen in giving me unwonted 
liberty of speech and spirit, both in prayer and preaching, and affected 
the hearts of his people. Blessed be God. Such a season is worth a 
prison. (Diar. I. 192.) 

The account of his next visit is as follows : — 

(1664-5, Jan. 30.) I went on Saturday last to spend a Sabbath at 
Bramhope with Mr. Crossley, and heard one Mr. Ord, a north country 
minister [ejected from Norham, Northumberland], that was lately in 
prison at York, for preaching in a public church in the city, but was 
released at three weeks' end, upon a flaw in the significavit ; and it was 
a precious Sabbath to me. The dciy after being the 30th of January, we 




took the advantage of a public fast ; a great congregation came from all 
parts ; the Lord helped me to carry on the work of the day (after Mr. 
Crossley had made an expository beginning) with abundance of enlarge- 
ment, from 1 1 o'clock till half-an-hour past 3. Blessed, Blessed be our 
gracious God for that precious and unexpected opportunity (I. 194). 

Mr. Crossley died in 1665, and from that time 
forward Heywood's visits to Bramhope became fre- 
quent. About the same time Mr. Dyneley's son-in-law, 
Robert Leaver, often preached here ; and a little later, 
Robert Pickering (another nonconformist, and subse- 
quently minister at Morley) acted as chaplain. But 
tne part which Mr. Dyneley took in holding these 
meetings caused him no little trouble. Although he 
was not, like many others, fined and imprisoned, yet he 
was informed against and indicted for a "conventicle" 
at Pontefract sessions (1666). His accuser was a 
Mr. Waddington ; whose man said "his master sent 
him to watch, and there came five or six persons out 
of Mr. Dyneley's house ; but he knew not what they 
did there." The Bench dismissed the case ; but 
" Wadington grumbled much and cried : ' Alas ! poor 
King, that his friends are no more regarded,' and said 
if that took not effect he would serve the King no 
more " (Diar. iii. 96). 

The meetings continued. On one occasion Heywood 
" rode to Bramhope, spent the Lord's day following, 
and had a large assembly in Mr. Dineley's Hall " 
(Diar. i. 244). On another he " preached publicly in 
the chapel on the Lord's day, being Dec. 8 (1667), and 
had a large auditory and a good opportunity of doing 
good." During these journeys he sometimes spent^the 
night with Col. Charles Fairfax, at Menston, where he 
was " kindly entertained " ; visited " an afflicted 
gentlewoman at Arthington, who is my lord Fairfax's 
sister " (the widow of Henry Arthington, one of the 
trustees of the chapel) ; and " had a large auditory at 
old Mr. Rawden's, of Rawden" (who died April 28, 1668, 
and was the father of Sir George Rawden, Bart.). 
Heywood's diaries, it may be remarked, not only bear 
witness to his own devout zeal and untiring energy, 


but also afford a graphic picture of the troublous 
times in which he lived and laboured. 

Robert Dyneley, junior (1632-1700), was residing at 
Flansile Hall, Flanshaw, near Wakefield in 1667.* 
He was of the same sentiments as his father; frequently 
entertained Heywood when visiting the neighbour- 
hood ; and w^as associated w^th the Presbyterians at 
Alverthorpe. In 1674 (Nov. 13) he was summoned to 
a session of the Justices at Wakefield, with " about 
forty of Alverthorp meeting," with a view to their 
conviction for holding a conventicle ; but " the court 
broke up before the accused came there," and they 
w^ere not further molested. 

The references to Bramhope contained in Heywood's 
Diaries in succeeding years are numerous. He " kept 
a solemn fast " there and " continued above an hour 
together in prayer; administered the Lord's Supper"; 
and was assisted by Mr. Root (Timothy Root, son of 
Henry Root, the old Independent minister of Sowerby), 
Thomas Johnson (another ejected minister, of 
Painthorp, near Wakefield) and others. It is not 
stated whether these services were held in the chapel 
or the Hall. One entry of a somewhat diflTerent 
character is worth quoting : 

Dec. 14, 167:^, Mr. Dyneley sent me some 30 young trees from Bram- 
hope to set up — many sycamore trees, elms, ashes, apple-trees, black- 
cherry trees, &c. They were set in my lower croft (Northowram), on 
Monday, Dec. 16. Though I may not live so long, yet future generations 
may see them flourish (Diar. III. 213). 

Heyw7)od's visits were gre<atly interrupted after 1683, 
when more severe measures than at any previous period 
were taken against nonconformists, and he was con- 
fined'in York Castle for nearly a w^hole year (1685) ; but 
they took place occasionally up almost to the decease 
of the old lord of the manor ; and then he wrote the 

* lie niarri(»(l Dorcas Maulevercr, a descendant of the celebrated Toby Matthew, 
Archbishop of York, and his m other- in -la\v appears to have resided near him. 
Among the curiosities in Thoresby's Museum was •• A thin slice of the Sea 
Unicorn 8 Jforu^ white and solid ; tFic present of Mrs. Dorcas Dyuoley, to whose 
f^reut-^rand-mother Frances, then daughter-in-law to Archbishop Parker, and after 
the wife of Archbishop Matthews, Queen Elizabeth gave this very piece.** 


following entry in his Register : " Robert Dineley of 
Bramhope Hall in Otley parish, buried Nov. 14, 1689, 
aged 83 ; kept up meetings in his hall." 

The chapel had now evidently come into the pos- 
session of the Established Church, though it does not 
appear to have been *' consecrated." In a letter to 
Thoresby, dated Bramhope, April 27, 1691, John Hep- 
worth, the curate, wrote : — 

I preached the funeral sermon of the old Esquire. What I said of 
him was only this : Having done with my text probably it may be 
expected that I should say something concerning the party deceased. 
You all know his extracti(m, that he was a branch of a considerable 
and worthy family ; you all know what he hath done as to the setting up 
of the worship of God amongst us. He loveth our nation and hath 
built us a synagogue^ was the fair commendation which the Jews gave of 
a certain Centurion, Luke vii. 5. By the care and diligence of this 
worthy person we have a chapel erected and endowed with a competent 
maintenance for a preachmg minister. I wish that tlie gentry and ihose 
that have good estates would follow the e.xample, and give something to 
pious uses ; that they would augment ministers' maintenance when it is 
poor and inconsiderable (Cor, I. 109). 

The following statement also is made concerning 
the endowment in the MS. of Archbishop Sharp 
(quoted by Lawton) : 

This land is settle I by dead for the use of the chapel. By this 
settlement Mr. Dyneley is to pay a curate (minister) who is nominated 
by the Trustees, £J7 and a noble per annum, or lo let him have the 
land. It is said that he did pay this sum for several years to Mr. 
Hepworth ; but after he went off he paid to Mr. Biggs, the next curate, 
but £40 per annum. 

In 1699 William Wilson was admitted curate upon the nomination of 
Sir Walter Hawksworth, (>yril Arthington, Thomas Fairfax, and 
Robert Dyneley, Esquires, trustees. 

Robert Dyneley, the son of the founder, died at 
Leeds in 1700, leaving two sons, viz : John of Bramhope 
and Robert of Castley; and the son of the former, 
Robert Dyneley, M.A., was curate from 1728 to 1740. 
The Hall was sold in 1792 to Christopher Smith, a 
merchant of Leeds, and now belongs to the family of 
Rhodes. Since the erection of a new church the 
old chapel has not been used. 


Since writing the preceding pages I have met with a 
copy of the certificate of a Presbyterian ordination, 
which was signed, among others, by George Crosley. 
This was probably the name of the first minister at 
Bramhope, and not Zecharidh Crosley, as stated by 
Calamy. The certificate is of some interest and worth 
preservation. It runs as follows : 

Forasmuch as Thomas Johnson, Bacheh^r of Arts, hath addressed 
himself to the Classical Presbytery at Adle in the County of York, 
desiring to be ordained, for that he is called to the work of the ministry 
within the parish of Darfield, to the Chappel at Houghton in the County 
of York, and hath exhibited to the Presbytery sufficient testimonial of 
his competent age, unblameable life and conversation, diligence and pro- 
ficiency in his studys, and of his fair and direct calling unto the afore- 
mentioned congregation of Houghton We the Presbytery, having first 
examined him and finding that he is duly qualified and gifted for that 
holy office and employment (no just exception being made against his 
ordination) have approved him ; and in the church of Adle aforesaid 
upon the day and year hereafter expressed we have proceeded solemnly 
to set him apart to the office of preaching Presbyter and work of the 
ministry, with fasting, prayer, and imposition of hands ; and in witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names this 3ist of October 
in the year of the Lord Qod 1655. 

Thomas Hawkesworth, Moderator. 

Elk. Wales, Rob. Todd, Gko. Crosley, 
Ja. Dale, Scribe. 

N.B. Mr. Cornelius Todd, son of Robert Todd, was ordained at Adle 
the same day. 

The date of this certificate, it will be observed, is the 
year after the appointment of Commissioners or Tryers 
under the Protectorate " for the approbation of Public 
Preachers." Although the Presbyterian discipline was 
not generally set up in Yorkshire, as in London and 
Lancashire, yet here and there neighbouring Presby- 
terian ministers associated themselves in a " Classical 
Presbytery " for the ordination of candidates for the 
ministry and other purposes ; and the Commissioners 
had respect to their testimonv to the character and 
efficiency of such candidates (as well as to the rights 
of patrons and the choice of congregations) in 
admitting them as public preachers or teachers in 
parochial churches and chapels. 


»rabforb Ibietorical an^ Hntiquatlan Society?. 


SESSION 1897-98. 


President : 
The Rev. BRYAN DALE, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents : 


Treasurer : 

Beckett's Bank Chambers. 

EDITORIAL : Hon, Secretaries : corresponding : 


8, Halliield Road. 16, Piccadilb' 

Librarian : 

31, Horton Lane. 

Members of Council: 
G. B. COLE. 

Auditors : 

„ S. E. WILSON. 
„ H; E. WROOT. 

The Session commences on the 1st of October in every year. 
During the winter months, a series of lectures on antiquarian and 
historical subjects are delivered in the Society's Rooms, Free Library, 
Bradford, the lecture night being th« second Tuesday in every month ; 
whilst during the summer months, excursions afe organised to places of 
interest under the. guidance of competent ciceroni. 

The annual subscription for membership is 7s., and includes a free 
copy of the " Bradford Antiquary " which is published annually in July. 
Back volumes and parts of the '* Bradford Antiquary " may be obtained 
from the Hon. Librarian or from the printer, at the rate of 28. 6d. for 
each part. Intending members are requested to communicate with the 
Hon. Corresponding Secretary who will supply every information. 

)ll» 13 1922 


Bradford l)i$torical $ Hntiquariaii 


£dilffrial Stcrtlary: — 

Pkofkssor Fei)ettER, UC.P., 8, Hallpirud Road, Bradford. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall. Price 2/6 net. 




Homan Yorkshire {with illustrations) J. Norton Dickons 335 

IVest Riding Cartulary . . . . Ch. A. Fedeeeb 384 

Almondburt/ . . . . Mas. E. Armitagk 896 

£urial Register of Bradford Parish Church T. T. Empsall 403 

Cromwell in Yorkshire .. .. Bryan Dale, M.A. 415 

Ministers of Parish Churches in the West Riding 

during the Puritan Revolution Bryan Dale. M.A. 431 

Disappearance of Ancient Bradford Landmarks 

Ch. a. Federer 442 

. I 





Society, 1891. 





( The substance of a Paper read before the Bradford Historical 
and Antiquarian Society on I5th Aprils 1898.) 

^^ T is a pity that no one has done for Roman York- 
^▼^ shire what Mr. W. T. Watkin has done for 
^^ Roman Lancashire and Cheshire. Mr. Newton 
read a Memoir on " Roman Yorkshire " at the Meeting 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute at York in 1846 ; 
and Mr. F. Haverfield read another at tlie Scarborough 
Meeting of the Institute in 1895 ; but neither paper 
has been printed, though the Institute published the 
map which was prepared by Mr. Newton to illustrate 
his paper, and which is still the best and most reliable 
map of Roman Yorkshire. 

I have endeavoured to gather together in this paper 
some notices of Roman remains still existing in York- 
shire, and as from the nature of the case nothing new 
can be said on the subject, I have not scrupled to use 
the language of any writer who throws any light on the 
subject matter, and in the foot note I mention some of 
the authorities upon whose statements this paper is 

Gough*s ''Camden's Britannia/' VoL 3, 1789. 

Warbarton*8 Map of Yorkshire, 1720. 

Horsley's "Britannia Romana/' 1732. 

Drake's •' History of York," 1736. 

Stukeley's " Itinerarium Curiosum/' 1776. 

Stukeley*B " Life & Correspundence " (Surtees Society Vols. 73, 76 & 80.) 

Whitaker's " History of Manchester," 1771. 

Watson's " History of Halifax," 1775. 

Newton's ** Map of Roman and British Yorkshire." 

Wellbeloved's " Eboracum," 1842. 

" Lapidarium Septentrionale," 1875. 

Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, 1891. 


I do not intend to speak to you upon the History of 
the Roman occupation, but it is perhaps necessary 
to refer briefly to the pre-Eoman inhabitants of 

At the time of the Roman Invasion of Britain, 
Yorkshire formed part of the territory occupied by the 
Brigantes, or ratiier by the confederation of tribes 
known by that name, including the Parisoi who 
were located in Holderness-shire. 

Oar knowledge of the geography of the Brigantian 
territory is derived in the main from the geography of 
Claudius Ptolemy, written some time in the reign of 
Antoninus Pius, which began in A.D. 138. Ptolemy 
has left us an account of the position of the Brigantes 
and the names of their chief towns. His words are : 

" And south from the Elgovee* and the Otadeni, and reaching 
from sea to sea, are the Brigantes whose towns are : 
























Ebnracum (Legio 

Sexta Victrix) 






Beside these about the well havened bay are the Parisoi and the 
City Petuaria." 

We ascertain from other parts of Ptolemy that the 
Selgovae inhabited the north bank of Solway Pirth, 
and that the Otadeni were settled in Northumberland. 
The southern boundary of the Brigantes apparently 
stretched across England from the Dee to the Humber 
and possibly included some part of Derbyshire. Of 
the towns named, Epiacum has not been identified, 
Vinnovium has been identified with Binchester near 
Bishop Auckland in Durham ; all the other towns are 
in Yorkshire, with the exception of Rigodunum which 

 " Selij^ov® *' in earlier part of Ptolemy. 


is commonly assigned to Ribchester. Catarractonium, 
Isurium, Olicana, Eboracum, and Cambodunum (spelt 
Camuulodunum by Ptolemy in error) are represented by 
the Roman Stations at Thornborough near Catterick, 
Aldborough, Ilkley, York, and Slack near Halifax. 
Calatum may be Overborougb in North Lancashire. 
Petuaria is undetermined but has been assigned to 
Beverley. Ptolemy, however, does not give us anything 
approaching a complete number of towns, but pro- 
bably only those whicli were British sites prior to the 
coming of the Romans and afterwards adopted by the 

In describing the east coast of England, within the 
same limits of latitude and longitude, Ptolemy gives 
the following points : 



Vedrae fluv. ostia 



Dunum Sinus 



Gabrantvicorum Sinus 


Oceli Promontorium 



Abi fluv. ostia 



It is agreed that the Humber Estuary is meant by 
Alms. Nortli of this is a projecting part of land called 
*'Ocelum Promontorium," which may be the Spurn or 
Elamborough Head, most probably the latter. Still 
further north was Gabrantvicorum Sinus, the bay of 
the Gabrantvici (also "the well havened bay '* ), which 
Camden placed at Bridlington, others at Filey Bay. 
Still further north is Dunum Sinus, which is agreed 
to be Dunsley Bay near Whitby. 

The period when the Romans first appeared in York- 
shire cannot be accurately determined. The better 
opinion seems to be that the first and real conqueror of 
the Brigantes was Petilius Cerialis who was Imperial 
Legate from A.D. 71 to 76, and who was with the 
second Legion at Lincoln (Lindum). 

Tacitus speaks of Cerialis and his work in Britain : — 

*' At length, when Vespasian received the possession of Britain, 
together >vith the rest uf the world, the great commanders and 
well appointed armies which were sent ever, abated the confidence 


of the enemy, and Petilius Cerialis struck terror by an attack 
upon the Brigantes, who are reputed to compose the most 
populous state in the whole province. Many battles were fought, 
some of them attended by much bloodshed, and the greater part 
of the Brigantes were either brought into subjection or involved 
in the ravages of war." {^Agricola ch, 17.) 

The eastern portion of Yorkshire was first attacked 
by Cerialis advancing from Lincoln northwards into 
Yorkshire, avoiding by a western detour the Humber 
and the marshes of South-East Yorkshire. 

" As the account of Tacitus speaks of many battles being 
fought, Cerialis was probably occupied during the whole (or 
nearly so) of his tenure of office in subduing the Brigantes, and 
we have no record of his attacking any other British tribe. The 
general opinion seems to be that he entirely subdued the 
Brigantes, adding their territory to the empire. Certain it is 
that, when a few years later Agricola marched from North Wales 
to the Sol way, we hear of no opposition from this tribe." 
( Watkin*8 " Roman Lancashire " js?. 18.) 

Julius Agricola succeeded to the office of legate in 
A.D. 78, and his work in Yorkshire was that of con- 
solidating the Roman power. The head quarters of 
Agricola appear to have been at Chester from which 
station he advanced north-wards through Lancashire 
into Scotland. Tacitus says : 

" On the approach of summer (A.D. 79) he re-assembled his 
army, and in advancing failed not to excite a proper spirit of 
emulation among the troops, praising those who had best observed 
their several duties and checking such as were remiss. He him- 
self chose the ground for encamping, the estuaries and woods he 
always examined first, and allowing the enemy no respite, he 
continually harassed them with sudden incursions and ravages. 
Having alarmed and terrified them sufiiciently, he next tried the 
effects of good usage and the allurements of peace. By this 
wise and prudent conduct, several communities, which till then 
had maintained their independence, submitted to the Romans, 
gave hostages, and suffered garrisons and fortresses to be placed 
among them. Those strongholds he established with such 
judgment, as effectually secured all those parts of Britain which 
had then been visited by the Romans." {Agricola c, 20). 

Tacitus further informs us that Agricola instructed 


the conquered tribes in the art of building houses, 
temples, and places of public resort. The sons of their 
chiefs were taught the liberal sciences and learnt the 
Koman language, and by degrees the customs, manners, 
and dress of their conquerors became familiar to them. 

We cannot speak with certainty as to what strongholds 
Agricola erected in Yorkshire, but we may reasonably 
infer that Eboracum was one of them. After the 
conquest of Yorkshire we hear little further of the 
Brigantes who gradually became incorporated with the 
rest of Britons under the r7ile of the llomans. 

Can we picture to ourselves the physical appearance 
of Brigantian Yorkshire? There is little trustworthy 
account of the ancient condition of the inland districte 
of Britain. 

'* It is certain that the island when it fell under the Roman 
power, was little better in most parts than a cold and watery 
desert. According to all the accounts of the early travellers the 
sky was stormy and obscured by continual rain, the air chilly 
even in summer, and the sun during the finest weather had little 
power to disperse the steaming mists. The trees gathered and 
condensed the rain ; the crops grew rankly, but ripened slowly, 
for the ground and the atmosphere were alike overloaded with 
moisture. The fallen timber obstructed the streams, the rivers 
were squandered in the reedy morasses, and only the downs and 
hill tops rose above the pei-petual tracts of weed." (Elton*s 
Origins^ Second Edition, p. 218.) 

Yorkshire formed no exception to this picture. The 
great central plain of York lying between the eastern 
wolds and the hills and dales of the western and north- 
eastern moors and extending to the borders of Derby- 
shire, was covered with a dense forest which even in 
modern times under the name of the Forest of Galtres 
extended to the walls of York. The district around 
Leeds, afterwards known as the kingdom of Elmete, 
wasa vast forest stretching to the head waters of the rivers 
on the west and filling all the valley bottoms with a dense 
scrub. The south eastern portion of the county, into 
which the Don, Idle and Trent poured their unregulated 
waters, was almost an impassable morass, along the 


western side of which ran a line of British entrench- 
ments from Wincohank to Mexbro. The western 
moors and dales on the slopes of the Pennine Chain of 
hills which under the names of Blackstone Edge and 
Stanedge form the boundary of Yorkshire and Lanca- 
shire, were so bleak and desolate that they were in after 
ages known as " Desert." Here and there on the banks 
of the rivers were clearings where the settlements of 
the inhabitants were placed, communicating with each 
other by narrow and devious tracks. The bulk of the 
population was not as in modern times gathered in 
the West Riding, but was mainly settled around Malton 
at the foot of the Eastern Wolds where the streams 
break out and run into the vales below. 

The work of conquest was done by Cerialis but the 
work of reclaiming the wilderness and opening up the 
country began under Agricola. The Romans felled the 
forests, laid out roads, embanked rivers, and con- 
structed causeways across the morasses, using for that 
purpose the ill clad and half starved ' Britons who 
groaned under the burden of felling trees, opening 
quarries and carrying stones, and complained that 
their lives were worn out in the service of their 
rigorous task masters. 

^* The soldiers were pioneers and colonists. A Roman camp 
was " a city in arms " and most of the British towns grew out of 
the stationary quarters of the soldiery. The ramparts and path- 
ways developed into walls and streets, tlie square of the tribunal 
into the market place, and every gateway was the beginning of a 
suburb, where straggling rows of shops, temples, rose gardens, 
and cemeteries, were sheltered from all danger by the presence of 
a permanent garrison. In course of time the important positions 
were surrounded with lofty walls, protected by turrets set apart 
at the distance of a bow shot, and built of such solid strength as 
to resist the shock of a battering ram. In the centre of the town 
stood a group of public buildings, containing the court house, 
baths, and barracks, and it seems likely that every important 
place had a theatre or a circus for races and shows. The humble 
beginnings of our cities are seen in the ancient sketch of a visit 
to Central Britain, in which a poet (Statius) pictured the arrival 


of the son of a former governor (Vettius Bolanus),* and imagined 
a white haired old man pointing out the changes of the province. 
' Here your father,' he says, * sat in judgment and on that bank he 
stood and addressed his troops. Those watch towers and distant 
forts are his, and these walls were built and entrenched by him* 
This trophy of arms he offered to the gods of war, with the 
inscription that you may see; that cuirass he donned at the call to 
arms, this corselet he took from the body of a British king." 
{Elton's OriginSyp, 310.) 

Under Constantine Britain was governed by the Gallic 
Prefect, through a " Vicar " or deputy at York, and was 
divided into five provinces to each of which a governor 
was assigned. One of these districts. Maxima 
Csesariensis, included the district between the Humber 
and the Tweed. The army was under the orders of the 
*' Count of Britain *' assisted by two subordinate 
officers, the " Duke of Britain " and the " Count of the 
Saxon Shore." To facilitate the movements of the troops 
from the coast to " the Wall,'* the Romans constructed 
three several lines of roads, corresponding to some 
extent to the East and West Coast and Midland lines 
of our modern railroad system. Our chief authorities 
for these military routes are " The Itinerary of 
Antoninus '' for the early period of the Roman con- 
quest, and "the Notitia*' for the period shortly before 
the final departure of the Romans. 

The "Itinerary" (compiled about A.D. 210) contains 
an account of the several stations situate on the several 
Roman military ways and the several itinera seem to 
be so many marching routes for the soldiers. The 
routes are far from being direct, for they sometimes 
fetch a very wide compass, as appears from the second 
iter which crosses Britain three times. Dr. Plot says : 
" The stations seem to have been the extent of the 
daily marches of the soldiers, the length whereof, as 
they were seldom under ten miles, they as rarely 
exceeded thirty Roman miles." Roughly speaking 
thirteen Roman miles are equal to fourteen computed 
English miles. 

* Buluuufl governed iiiitiiin diiriug the Civil Wars which piecudcd tho reign 
of VcspaRinn. 


Neither the numbers of miles nor the names of the 
various stations are altogether correct, A station is 
sometimes passed over in one iter and mentioned in 
another, e.g.^ Calcaria (Tadcaster) is. mentioned in the 
second iter but omitted in the fifth and eighth, though 
they must have passed through Tadcaster. Some 
places are called by different names in different itinera 
e.g., in the eighth iter " Lagecium " is substituted for 
" Legeolium " (Castleford) .and " Agelocum " for 
"Segelocum*' (Littlebro'). Sometimes the sum total 
of miles set before the iter disagrees with the amount 
of the particulars in the iter, e.g., the total length of 
the second iter is stated at the head of the iter to be 
4S1 miles, but the distances from station to station sum 
up to 504 miles. Sometimes the distance between 
station and station differs from the real distance; a 
well known difficulty occurring in the second iter in the 
distance betweon Calcaria (Tadcaster) and Cambodunum 
(Slack). Where the direction of the iter and the 
identification of the stations are pretty sure, but can- 
not be reconciled to the distances, we may safely pre- 
sume an error in transmission. If we can adopt the 
suggestion that " M.P." signifies " milia plus minus" 
(miles more or less) we should be able to explain 
several discrepancies.* 

It is most likely that the Romans erected stations 
and constructed their roads as they carried on their 
conquests and probably they followed in many instances 
the lines of the ancient British pathways. 

Several degrees or kinds of roads appear to have 
been made. There were first the great military 
thoroughfares mentioned in the Itinerary. Then there 
were subsidiary military ways on which an iter pro- 
ceeded and which are not always mentioned in the 
Itinerary, e.g., the road over Blackstone Edge, between 
Manchester and Ilkley, and Wade's Causeway between 
Malton and Dunsley ; also cross or vicinal ways 
between various stations. The cross ways were lines of 
communications between the grand ways and generally 

• ** Hoyal Archjuolog^cnl Journal," vol. 37, p 31 G. 


the shortest line that can be drawn. It has been sug- 
gested that some of these cross ways and vicinal 
branches were not intended for military but for com- 
mercial purposes, inasmuch as they were not con- 
structed in so durable a manner as the principal ways 
and for that reason have been more generally ruined 
and lost. 

The movements of troops to and from "the wall" 
through Yorkshire followed one of three lines. 
The western line was the famous road known as 
Watling Street and hereafter described under 
the head of the second iter. The eastern line was 
the western branch of the road commonly called 
the Ermine Street, from Lindum (Lincoln) to York by 
way of Danum (Doncastcr). A third military route 
proceeded from Lincoln to near Wintringham and 
crossing the Humber to Brough, proceeded by an ancient 
British way to Malton and the Tees and thence to the 
wall, throwing off a branch to York by Kexby or Stam- 
ford Bridge. But all the military forces for the north 
passed along the road from Isurium (Aldbro') to 
Catarractonium. llere the road forked, one branch 
proceeding by Lavatrae (Bowes) to the western, and 
the other by Pierce Bridge to the eastern part of the 

The Roman Eoads have in some cases been continued 
as public roads or incorporated into modern turnpikes. 
The road from Castleford to Aberford is an example of 
the former, and the road from Aldboro' to Oatterick, 
called Leeming Lane, of the other. 150 years ago the 
roads were much better preserved than now, as appears 
from the accounts of Horsley, Drake, Stukeley, and 
Whitaker. Many of the roads mentioned by them 
have ceased to exist and with the exception of the 
road over Blackstone Edge it may be safely asserted 
that little of the Roman Roads not incorporated in 
public roads now remains. It is a mistake to suppose 
that the roads " shewn '* on modern maps can be traced. 
If you carefully examine the six-inch ordnance map 
it is surprising how little of the roads still exist, and a 


great number of roads boldly marked on Saver's and 
other maps are only Indicated on the six-inch map as 
" supposed site of Roman Eoad." Even Warburton 
who tramped over a considerable part of Yorkshire 
lays down lines of road which in fact are conjectural only. 

A few words as to the "Notitia." It is a sort of 
military return of the troops stationed in Britain 
shortly before the departure of the Eomans. The 
second legion was then concentrated at Richborough 
prior to embarkation, and the only legion left 
in Northern Britain was the sixtli, with its head- 
quarters at York. According to Horsley there re- 
mained at York itself only the prefect of the sixth 
legion. The prefect of Crispian horse was at 
Doncaster, the prefect of a body of Cuirassiers at 
Templeborough (assuming Templeborough to be 
" Morbio "), the prefect of a detachment of scouts at 
Bowes, the prefect of a detachment of " Solenses '* at 
Greta Bridge, and the prefect of a detachment of 
" Pacenses " at Pierce Bridge. 

In. noticing what remains exist of the Boman 
occupation of Yorkshire it will be best to follow the 
route of the itinera Nos. 1, 2, 6, and 8, and note what 
can be ascertained of the stations in each iter, and 
then give some short notice of some other roads not 
mentioned in the Itinerary and of what remains are 
to be found at York and Aldbro.' There are many 
other points connected with the Roman occupation 
which cannot be dealt with in the present paper, such 
as tesselated pavements, Bomaii British coins, pottery, 
interments, and domestic remains. The selection of 
inscriptions includes only those which are best known 
and most instructive. 


Taking the itinera as they appear in the Itinerary, 
so far as they relate to Yorkshire, the first iter is 
entitled " from the limit (i.^., the Roman wall) to the 
Prsetorium 156 miles." 



From Bremenium 

High Rochester. 

To Corstopitum 

M.p. 2U 


„ Vindomora 

., 9 


„ Vinnovium 

., 19 

Bin Chester. 

(The route here enters Yorkshire.) 

To Catarractoniura 

M.P. 22 


„ Isurium 

„ 24 


„ Eburacum 

., 14 


„ Den^entio 

„ 7 

On Derwent River. 

„ Delgovitia 

„ 13 

( The exact place of 

„ Prsetorium 

,. 22 

I these stations is 

or 25 

I not settled. 

The sum of the distances usually given is 150 M.P., 
but it will be noticed it does not agree with the total of 
miles at the head of the iter. The iter forms the 
eastern branch of Watling Street from near the 
east end of " the wall '' to York. It enters 
Yorkshire at Pierce Bridge on the Tees where 
on the Dutham side of the river Mr. Maclaughlan 
located a camp. The road does not appear to 
have passed through the camp, but to have continued 
along a hollow way straight down to the river 
which it crossed bv a ford. No station at Pierce 
Bridge is named in the Itinerary, but from the 
"Notitia" we find that a detachment of "Pacenses" 
was stationed at Pierce Bridge. Various antiquities 
have been found on the site, and in particular a Koman 
Bronze figured in W^righVs Celt, Roman, and Saxmi^ 
(p. 256), representing a plough of primitive con- 
struction, drawn by oxen ; the figure of the plough- 
man probably gives a correct picture of the costume of 
a Eomano-British peasant. The Roman Road after 
crossing the river continued in a straight line to a 
place now called Scotch Corner, where the western 
branch of Watling Street from Carlisle, forming the 
second iter, fell into the road, and the joint itinera pro- 
ceeded to Catterick. For the greater portion of the 
distance the Roman and modern road coincide, though 


the stones hare been nearly all taken to mend the 
modern road.* Stukeley who personally travelled over 
the road in 1722, says: 

** From Pierce Bridge we entered immediately upon the 
Roman Road which comes to the rirer a little lower down than 
the present bridge ; it is a broad, rery straight, and hard road at 
this day, the great ridge of stone originally laid being not worn 
through so many ages, though it is broken in many places and in 
great need of repairs. Several mile stones by the way. Upon a 
moor we saw a branch run from it north-west which goes to Bowes 
(I^vatrsB) and other stations towards Carlisle." 

(^Itinerarium Curiosum^ vol, 2, p. 72.) 

The next station on the iter was Catarractonium 
mentioned by Ptolemy as one of the towns of the 
Brigantes. The name occurs in the 1st, 2nd, and 5th 
iter. The site of the station has been ascertained to be 
Thornborough, about half a mile west of Catterick Bridge. 
All that now remains of the station above ground is a 
portion of a wall about ninety yards long and five feet 
high, but recent excavations have showi> that the 
station was a walled camp like that at York, about 240 
by 175 yards, and including a site of about nine acres. 
Within or near this enclosure various sculptured stones 
and a remarkable bronze vessel containing a large 
quantity of Boman coins have been found. The vessel 
was at one time fixed in a brewing furnace and was 
capable of containing about twenty-four gallons of 
water. A statera or steelyard was also found a few 
years ago.f Numerous coins have been found at 
Thornborough, but there does not seeni to be any 
foundation for the statement attributed to Bede that 
the Komans had a mint at Catarractonium, indeed it is 
very doubtful if any Roman mint existed in Britain, 
though moulds for forging coins have been found. 

Camden^s Contimiator states that in 1620 an in- 
scription was found here narrating the restoration of 
an altar to the tutelary deity of roads and paths, A.D. 191. 

"•Royal Archoeological Institute,'* vol. 6, p. 217. 
t A figure of one found at Ribchester is figured in WatkbC% Roman Lancashire, p, 156. 





DAS. SC. F.V.L.L.M. 







Stukeley says : 

" Thomborough, the old city, stands a little above the bridge 
and road ; it is a farm house only, on a high ground and on the 
edge of the river being steep Foundations of the old walls left 
and much antiqxiity dug up. The Hermine Street {i.e, Watling 
Street) continues southward by the British name of Leeming 
Street, all composed of stone and paved with large coggles which 
the neighbouring inhabitants take away to build "withall and 
f. pave their yards ..." {I tin. Cur.^ vol. 2, p, 72. 

The Bom an Road from Catterick does not coincide 
altogether with the modern road, as will appear from 
an inspection of Warburton's Map and Mr. Maclaugh- 
lan's survey. It follows in the main the line of 
Leeming Lane. Horsley who was a north country- 
man and travelled over the road in 1732 savs : 

*' After lea^dng Thornborough and getting out of the enclosures 
it (the road) presents a grand and distinct appearance for several 
miles together. The sight of it has often been an entertainment 
to me as I travelled that road. Not far from Wath it receives 
another military way coming from Brugh near Bainbridge vi& 
Nosterfield. Before we come to the Salutation, the Roman way 
and the present high road part, the Roman Road or ''High Street" 
lying weiit of the common road leaves the highway and keeping 
I on the east enters some enclosures pointing direct to Aldborough 

\ and is visible afterwards as it crosses a lane." 


Where the Roman Road crossed the Ure to Ald- 
borough is not certain. 

In 1692, the lie v. Ed. Morris, Vicar of Aldbrough, 
writing to Dr. Gale, says : 

348 THE bradfoud aniiquary. 

"Your Roman way from York to this place (Aldbrough) 
admits of conjectures only ; I will trouble you with three . . by 
Calcaria to Isurium, if this seems too wide a reach, let me (second) 
conjecture that the way lay through Marston up to Tockwith and 
so near Catall where there seems yet a great way (though not 
much used) to Statick on the great Watling Street and this way we 
now use when the waters are impassable over Nidd at Skip Bridge, 
and this way may suit with Antonine's sixteen miles distant, if 
that be his computation, and not improbably with my last 
supposal which perhaps might be out of Boutham Barr and so 
through the forest of Galtree to the passage of Ure at Aldwark 
(which is your last guess) from thence leads a cast up way and 
strikes upon the great road near Ouseburn and there doubtless 
the Romans had some little station, as grounds about the banks 
on each side testifie (though there be now no other memorials of 
them there) ; from Ouseburn the way is visible within a little 
mile of this place. The passage over the river I conjecture 
might be about 100 yards above the present passage at Borrow- 
bridge, and so the w^ay on this side leads over the present three^ 
the late /our, but anciently Jive monuments or arrows (as now 
called), and fully to the way that leads north on the other side (as 
is presently visible at Kirkby Moor) towards Cataract." 

*' Horsley could not find the road, but Drake says Horsley did 
not look in the right place for it and thinks it went from Aldbro' 
to York over Aldwark Ferry and that some vestiges of it may be 
observed in the villages leading to this place, particularly a great 
quantity of the pebble in the buildings which formed in all 
probability the strata of the road, but from the Ferry to York the 
agger was quite sunk and not the least footsteps remaining. 
Warburton in his map marks two roads one leadmg over Ald- 
wark Ferry to York and the other through Whixley and Cattal, 
and wliich probably fell into the road from Ilkley to Tadcaster 
and so on to York. The latter road still exists and is known as 
the Rud or Road Gate. Stukeley travelled this road and says : 
* We went upon a Roman way till we came to the River Nidd 
half way to York where moor begins.* " 

•' From Isurium the road proceeded to the north over the river 
at Moltby a short distance below the present stone bridge at 
Boroughbridge, and where in Gale's time some piles of wood and 
other remains of a bridge were to be seen. f Stukeley* s 
Correspondence, vol. 3, p. 253. J 

From York the first iter is said to have proceeded 
Derventiofie Delgovitia et Prcetorio, The sites of 
these places are lost. The military way must have 


gone out of York towards the east or south-east, but 
whether by way of Monk Bar or Walmgate Bar can- 
not be ascertained, no traces of it are now to be found 
and all we can say is with Horsley that "the first 
station Derventio must have been somewhere on the 
Derwent." Prsetorium has been placed at Whitby, Dun- 
sley, Bridlington, Patrington, and Brough Perry on the 
Humber, and by Horsley at Ebberstow in Lincolnshire. 
A road has been traced to Stamford Bridge, climbing 
the Wold at Garrowby Street, from whence it has been 
traced through Fimber and Sledmere in the direction 
of Piley, and another road in the direction of Brid- 
lington (a candidate for the '^Gabrantvicorum Sinus,'' 
the " well havened bay " of Ptolemy), leaving the 
former road near Pridaythorp and pointing to Rudstone 
where a Roman pavement has been found. If the 
latter route is the first iter, then Stamford Bridge is 
Derventio and Bridlington or Piley Pra^torium. Piley 
may as well be the terminus of the iter as Bridlington, 
and there are traditions of a Roman harbour at Piley. 
But the weight of authority is in favour of Brough on 
Humber being Prsetorium, and some authorities have 
also placed the Petuaria of Ptolemy there. Roman 
remains have been found at Brough opposite to 
Wintringham where tlie great Roman Road from 
Lincoln via Broughton (Ebberstow) descended to cross 
the Humber on its way to York. There are traces of 
two routes from Brough to York, one via South Cave 
and DrcAvton (where the road has been dug up), God- 
manham, Londesbro Park, VVartre, Millington, to 
Garrowby Road and thence via Stamford Bridge to 
York, and the other running from the first near 
Market Weighton, by Thorp in Street, Barnby Moor,* 

* Since writing the above the Rev. E. Maude Cole, in a paper ** On Roman Roads 
in the Kast Riding," read before the East Riding Antiquarian Society, says that in 
1892 he explored this road and took a section of it on barnby Moor Common ** and 
at a foot below the surface a layer of mortar was met with fifteen feet wide, nearly 
a foot thik and raised in the centre. The tniil was followed to a little west of 
I'eacock House, about half way between Bolton Hall and Wilberfoss, thence after 
passing to the west of Whinberry Hill Farm it crossed High Catton Common, 
marked all the way by boulders strewed in a straight line on the fields, which showed 
that the old road had been paved above the cement.*' Mr. Cole is of opinion that 
the Roman Road to York crossed the Derwent at Stamford Bridge and not at Kexby. 


Kexby Bridge, Scoresby, and Heslington to York. 
B/oman remains have been found at each of the places 

Drake thinks Londsbro near Market Weighton to be 
Derventio, and in a letter (no date) to Stukeley 
(Correspondence^ vol. 3, p. 359) he says : 

''Being at Londsborough last week I prevailed with Lord 
Burlington to dig for the Roman causeway in his Paik mentioned 
page 32 of my York. At about nineteen inches deep through a 
very fine soil, by the side of tne canal, the workmen came to the 
stratum and bared the whole breadth of it which measures twenty- 
four feet. This is the broadest Roman Road I ever mett with, 
and on it is plainly to be seen the impressions of wheel carriages. 
Most certainly this was the great military way mentioned in the 
first iter, from York to Prsetorium, one way, and crosse the 
Humber to Lincoln the other." 

Recent excavations at Londesbro described by 
n. Sill in the Ge?itfis. Mag. 1853, p. 269, have con- 
firmed Drake's information. Gough, vol. 3, p, 313, says : 

•' The Roman road from York to Weighton lies across the 
Derwent over Kexby Bridge, leaving to the left Wilburfoss 
Nunnery, thence t(» Barnby Moor, near an inn, on which the 
Roman Road a2)pears very plain, and may be traced most part 
of the way on the present road. This leads through Stamford 
Bridge to the north east of Barnby Moor and Pocklington, 
through Millington, through Londesbro Park, Weighton to 
Brough ; I saw it on the left between York and Bainby Moor, 
and travelled on it on this side the inn ; at the latter place 
particularly visible at a mile from the inn by the side of inclosures 
having moorish ground on the left and raised considerably as you 
go on, sometimes serving as the present road, and sometimes left 
on one side of it." 

At Brough a lead plate seven inches by three and a 
half was found with the word brexarum cast on it 
from a mould and given by Warburton to Professor 
Ward who read it *' Bretonum Exarchus.*' 

In 1890 a pig of lead weighing 135 pounds, 22 inches 
long, 42 wide, 5^ deep, was found at South Cave near 
Brough inscribed : '* G(aii) ivl proti brit (annicum 
LUT (udense) ex arg (en to)." 

Lutudse was somewhere in South Derbyshire. 
{British Archoeological Journal, vol. 47, p. 257.) 




The second iter in the Itinerary is entitled " From 
(beyond) the wall to Rutupse (Richborough in Kent) 

481 miles.' 

From Blatum Belgium to Castra 

F'xploratorum M.P. 


To Jjuguvallium „ 

12 CarHsle 

„ Voreda „ 

14 Old Penrith 

„ Brovonacse „ 

13 KirbyThure 

.. Verterae 

. « 1 Brough in 
) Westmorland 

99 ▼ %#* V^A %Mw mm 

(The road enters Yorkshire,) 

„ Lara tree „ 

14 Bowes 

„ Catarractonium ,, 

13 Catterick 

„ Isurium „ 

24 Aldborough 

„ Calcaria „ 

9 Tadcaster 

„ Cambodunum „ 

20 Slack 

„ Manutium or Mancunium „ 

18 Manchester 

(And on to Chester and London.) 

The sum of the particulars exceeds the sum total 
at the head of the route by twenty-three or twenty- 
four miles. 

This iter both begins and ends with a boundary, and 
is best known by its mediaeval name of Watling 
Street, one of the four royal highways called in the 
Norman Laws '* Quatuor Chimini" and placed under the 
special protection or guardianship of the Eling's Peace. 
Whether Watling Street in its origin is a British 
or Roman Road is not easy to determine and 
the better opinion seems to be that it is a con- 
tinuation of the old Roman Road which the Anglo- 
Saxons adopted and kept in repair. Watling Street 
crosses and recrosses the kingdom and represents the old 
zig zag route from Kent to Chester, Manchester, York, 
and Newcastle with a branch from Catterick to Carlisle. 
The term " Watling Street " is misapplied to other 
roads than the above, e.g., to the Eoman Road from 
Ilkley to York. 


The second iter entered Yorkshire at Rey Cross 
where there is a large camp, prohahly British in its 
origin and adopted by the Romans. General Ray 
thinks it was at one time occupied by the sixth legion. 
Fart of the rampart has subsided into the peat, the 
other part has been injured by excavations, but it 
still remains in size the third largest Roman camp in 
the Yorkshire district. The first station in Yorkshire 
was LavatrsB (Bowes). Horsley says of the road 
between Brough on Stainmoor and Bowes : " The 
course of the road is absolutely certain, so grand and 
so rarely interrupted that there is no difficulty " (in 
finding it). The "Notitia** states that at Bowes the 
prefect of the " Scouts " with his detachment was 

The present castle and church of Bowes stand on the 
north part of the Roman camp near its western 
boundary. The ditches of the camp may be traced to 
the north and west and partly on the east, and its area 
is about 130 by 140 yards. The Roman occupation 
is testified by the remains of a bath at the south-east 
angle and by numerous inscriptions and altars found 
here. Camden records one to the honour of the 
emperor Hadrian, 



COS I . . . P.P. COH nil. F . . 

10. SEV . . . 

and another by the propraetor or governor of Britain, 
Virius Lupus, commemorating the repair of a bath for 
the first Thracian Cohort in the time of the emperor 

DEAE FORTYNAE To the goddess Forlune 

VIRIV8 LVPV8 Virius Lupus 

LEG Avo PBPR Legate of Augustus, propraetor, 

BALINETM VI The bath, by force 

lONis EX VST of fire burnt, 

VM COH I THR of the first cohort of the 





Thracians, restored 

under the care 

of Valerius Fronto 


of the wing of horse of Vettones 

Camden has preserved another inscription at Ilkley 
relating to this same Virius Lupus. 

The next camp on the road is at Greta Bridge. Greta 
is not mentioned in the Itinerary, from which cir- 
cumstance it is inferred it is of late Roman origin. 
From the Notitia it appears that a detachment of 
"Solenses** was stationed here, where on a tongue of 
land between the Greta and Tutta Beck is a small 
square camp triple trenched, enclosing about five acres 
and surveyed by Maclaughlan.* The George Inn at Greta 

Bridge stands on one side of 

it. Numerous inscriptions 

have been found in the 

vicinity of Greta ; one altar 

found on the banks of the 

^^a^f^n^ river in 1702 appears to 

lUt^^^^ have been a votive oflFering 

^a#«t«^ i of two females dedicated to 

f>vxcicit^ ^ a nymph " Elaune/' and a 

milestone was found by the 
side of the E;oman Road 
inscribed : 


( To the Emperors y our Lords ^ 
Oalltis and Volu8iantts.)f 
The date of the altar is 
probably about A.D. 253, and should be com- 
pared with the milestone dug up at Castleford. Four 
other inscriptions belonging to the Emperors Gallus 

* Royal ArchsBological Institute, vol. 6, p. 217. 
t Gough's Camden, vol. 2, p. 339. 

y 2 






and Volusianus have been found in England, two of 
them in Yorkshire, Dr. Bruce thinks that Watling 
Street was probably provided with milestones through- 
out its course. From Greta Bridge the road went 
over Gatherby Moor and fell into the first iter at Scotch 
Corner. It coincides, with a few slight deviations, 
with the modern road. 

From Scotch Corner to York the route of the first 
and second itinera is the same. From York the second 
iter passed out of the Westgate and crossing the river 
near the present Guild Hall proceeded by way of 
Micklegate Bar to Tadcaster. The road for some dis- 
tance passed through the suburbs of York, and forms 
the present highway from Dringhouses to Streethouses. 
Numerous sepulchral remains have been found by the 
sides of the road, and in particular a tomb under one of 
the houses in the mount still contains the remains 
of its original occupant. The line of road can be dis- 
tinctly traced to Tadcaster, which is no doubt the 
ancient ''Calcaria," though some authorities persist in 
placing it at St. Helen's Ford near Newton Kyme. At 
Tadcaster the road crossed the Wharfe, and ran 
in the direction of Hazzlewood, where near Bram- 
ham it is to be found in evidence and marked on 
the last six-inch ordnance map as " Roman Ridge." 
The road probably continued to Aberford, but from 
there to the next station on the iter, " Cambodunum," 
nothing determinate can be said. No portion of the 
iter has given rise to more discussion than the position 
of Cambodunum. The difficulties are two-fold : 
first, where was Cambodunum? second, which way 
did the iter take between Calcaria and Cambodunum ? 
"With regard to the first difficulty, the shortest distance 
between Tadcaster and Manchester (assuming as I do 
that these places represent Calcaria and Mancunium) 
is fifty-eight computed English miles, whereas the 
numbers given in the Itinerary are only thirty-eight 
Roman miles. The most reasonable conclusion is that 
some intermediate station has been omitted by the 
transcriber from the Itinerary. The late Mr. Haigh 

HOMaN tORiCSHIRfi. 366 

in a learned paper in the Yorkshire A. and T. Society^ 
vol. 4y p. 57. argues strongly in favour of Legeolium 
(Castleford) being the omitted station. 

Oambodunum has been fixed at a variety of places ; 
Camden, Burton, Gale, and Warburton fixed it at 
Almondbury, Horsley near Greetland, Whitaker and 
Watson at Slack, Hunter at Clav House. The result of 
the various excavations made from time to time fixes 
the station at Slack. The position of Slack is high 
and bleak but sheltered to some extent by a high ridge 
north and south. A sloping piece of ground of about 
twelve acres is divided into inclosures formerly called 
the "eald" or "old fields,*' and here Whitaker, writing 
in 1771, says a Roman hypocaust and altar were found 
which he figures,* and he read the inscription on the 
altar : " Caius Antonius Modestus, Centurion of the 
Sixth victorious, pious, and faithful legion, consecrated 
this altar to Fortune, and with pleasure discharged 
the vow which he owed." In 1824 another hypocaust 
or as the writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for that 
years styles it " a Roman brick and tile kiln," was 
unearthed and carted away to Greenhead, Hudders- 
field, where it was re-erected. In 1840 Mr. J. K. 
Walker discovered another hypocaust and gave an 
account of it in the Gentleman s Magazine for 1840, 
pages 621-3, and in 1866 the site was again explored 
by the Yorkshire A. and T. Society^ who published an 
account of their examinations in the first volume of 
their journal. On the strength of certain inscriptions 
on tiles found here, *'coh. iiii. bre," it has been 
assumed that a cohort of the Breuci was stationed at 
Slack.f Mr. Fairless Barber and others think that 
the name of an adjoining township, " Scammonden,'* 
spelt in the old court rolls of the manor of Wakefield 
as " Scamoden," is an echo of the Roman " Cam- 

Another scarcely less vexed question is : what was 
the direction of the second iter from Calcaria to Cam- 

• ** History of Manchester," vol. 1, p. 8. 
t 'rhe Breuci are also mentioned upon an inscription found at High Rochester. 


bodunum ? In the present state of our knowledge it is 
impossible to say. Three conjectural routes at least 
have been advocated. One through Leeds and Cleck- 
heaton, but although this is the most direct route 
I think there is not sufficient evidence to support that 
view. Indeed Dr. Gale in a letter to R. Thoresby, 
date 28th March, 1696, when the roads were far more 
distinct than now, says Leeds never was a Bioman 
Station, and suggests that the road, if it crossed the Aire 
any where, crossed at Kirkstall Bridge. There are 
indications (but very slight) of a "street" in the 
neighbourhood of Hawcaster Rig, and it is just possible 
the iter may have gone along the Roman Road from 
Tadcaster to Ilkey, leaving it near Thorner and striking 
across the country via Kirkstall and Cleckheaton. 
But Watson,* writing in 1775, says that though 
he searched for traces of the road he could find none 
between Kirklees and Leeds. Another route would be 
vid "Pampocalia" outside Bramham Park to a point 
near Woodlesford, where both Newton and Horsley 
mark a Roman Road called "The Street," crossing the 
Aire and pointing in the direction of Alverthorpe, near 
which it fell into another vicinal way coming from 
Pontefract and still known as "High Street" which 
crossed the Calder between Sandal and Wakefield and 
ran in the direction of Dewsbury, then pointing to 
Fixby Park, from whence a road to Slack has 
been traced, and on the whole this is the more pro- 
bable course. The third route suggested is from 
Tadcaster to Castleford, joining the " street " from 
Pontefract. Against these routes must be set the 
plain statement of Drake {JSboractwi p. 19) who argued 
that the road from Cambodunum left the 5th and 8th 
itinera near- A her ford, and adds "this way may yet be 
traced but is not very visible,*' 

Prom Slack to Mancunium the direction of the road 
was traced in Whitaker's time over Holestone Moor 
and Slaithwaite Hill to Oastleshaw where there are the 
remains of a camp, and on to Manchester, but the 

* History of Halifax, p. 


traces now are few and indistinct. Whitaker speaks of 
" the Roman Koad from York coursing fourteen yards 
over Lindley Moor," but this wide visible road has 
become on the six-inch ordnance map " line of sup- 
posed Boman Road." 

We must not forget that for some distance parallel 
to "Watling Street on the west and crossing the bleak 
ridge of Blackstone Edge on its way to Ilkley, are the 
remains of the finest existing Roman Road in situ in 
England and which has been described at some length 
in a former paper. Leyland says this latter road was 
connected with the second iter by a branch road 
striking out from Causeway Eoot, between Halifax 
and Denholme, and crossing the Aire somewhere near 
Brighouse and so on to Slack, and that he had talked 
with the persons who had removed the stone pavement 
for some distance from Causeway Foot. It is just pos- 
sible that the second iter may have gone by Tadcaster 
to Ilkley, thence over Rumbalds Moor to Causeway 
Eoot and so on by Slack. This suggested route is still 
called "Watling Street" where it crosses from Ilkley 
to Aldborough. May Adel or Ilkley be the missing 
station supposed to have dropped out of the iter ? But 
the distances cannot be reconciled. 


The third and fourth itinera do not touch Tork- 
shire, but the fifth iter traversed the county from south 
to north. It is entitled " from Londinium (London) to 
Luguvallium (Carlisle)." The route runs through 
Cambridge to Lincoln. From Lincoln to Carlisle the 
stations were as follows : 

From Lindum to Segelocum m.p. 14 \ Littleborough 

° (on Irent. 

To Danum „ 21 Doncaster. 

„ Legeolium „ 16 Castleford. 

„ Eburacum „ 21 York. 

„ Isu Brigantum „ 17 Aldborough. 


To Catarractonium m.p. 24 Catterick. 

„ Lavatrse „ IB Bowes. 

(The iter now leaves Yorkshire.) 

VertersB „ 14 Brough. 

Brocavum „ 20 Brougham. 

„ Luguvallium „ 22 Carlisle. 

The total length from London to Carlisle is 443 
Roman miles, and the particulars of distances agree 
with the total. This iter is the medieval "Ermine 
Street" which ran from London to Lincoln. From 
Lincoln two routes ran to York, one the military 
road to Wintringham, which after crossing the 
Humber went to York, and from thence forms part of 
the first iter. The other route left the military road to 
Wintringham at a place about five miles from Lincoln, 
and crossed the Trent at Littleborough. From Little- 
borough to Doncaster the road seems to havebeen a raised 
causeway of gravel. Littleborough occurs in this under 
the name of Segelocum between Lindum (Lincoln) and 
Danum (Doncaster) at fourteen miles from the former 
and twenty-one from the latter. It also occurs in the 
eighth iter under the name of Agelocum. The Roman 
Road from Lincoln to Littleborough is still on the 
Lincolnshire side of the road very perfect, being known 
as ''Till Bridge Lane.'' It was carried across the 
Trent by a ford and its descent to the river was very 
entire on each side in the last century. The bank was 
purposely cut away and sloped, and a causeway eighteen 
feet wide held up by strong piles and paved with rough 
square stones was raised in the bed of the river. It 
probably dated from the time of Hadrian and remained 
entire until 1820 when it was destroyed under the 
pretence that when the river was low it impeded the 
navigation. The greater part of the paving stones 
were used to fill up a hole in the river at '* Dunham 
Dobbs.''* Some traces of the wall and fosse sur- 
rounding the station still remain, and the camp has 
been very prolific of coins. In 1772 a Roman oculist's 

 ** Roman Nottinghamshire " by W. T. Walker '* Royal ArchaBological 

Society," vol. 43, p, 3. 

a 5 



stamp was dug up. Some fourteen or fifteen of these 
stamps have been found in Britain. 

The line of way from Littleborough to Doncaster is 
lost Horsley could not trace anything certain; but 
Stukeley says : 

" Coming out of the town, {i.e., Doncaster to the south) is 
another cross upon the road where they fahle a Roman Emperor 
was buried. The Roman Road a little further is very apparent, 
going over a fine heath, so to Bawtry upon the River Idle . . . 
Probably here was a camp formerly . . . Hither comes the 
Hermen Street, which I call the new branch from Agelocum." 

Doncaster was a station and in late Boman times 
head quarters of the prefect of the Crispian Horse. 
All traces of the camp have disappeared, but the lines 
of it were ascertained by Sheardown and laid down on 
a plan shewn in his Roman Doncaster. Few remains 
have been found at Doncaster. • In 1781 there was 
found six feet underground an altar two feet six inches 
in height, inscribed to the Deae Matres by M. Nan- 
tonius Orbitalis, which is now in the York Museum, 
No. 14 (see plate opposite). 

The iter crossed the Don at Doncaster, and the Aire 
at Castleford sixteen Eoman miles from Doncaster. 
Horsley says : 

" From Doncaster half-a-mile, road soon becomes very grand 
and conspicuous, but seems mostly to consist of earth and gravel 
without much stone or any certain appearance of a regular pave- 
ment. At three miles from Doncaster it falls in with the post road 
and maintains its exalted ridge for a long way together with little 
or no interruption. Three furlongs from Robin Hood's Well, or 
about four miles from Doncaster, at the top of a hill it makes a 
considerable turn and leaves the post road again, passing through 
some thickets on the west side. It points thence to Pontefract 
and near this town it has a grand and most elevated ridge, indeed, 
but it is sunk and lost when it comes near Pontefract. It is 
visible in Pontefract Park but scarce anywhere else near to 

Since Horsley's time much of the road has dis- 
appeared, the road in Pontefract Park was dug up by 
the farmers who complained that it broke their plough 


The iter crossed the Aire at Castleford where there 
-was a castrum. Tlie station was where the church now 
stands and the paved road (visible in Stukeley's time) 
to the ford went down the bank by the east side of 
the church. No trace of the Roman camp is now 
visible, but coins and other antiquities have been 
dug up from time to time. 

In 1890 an altar of gritty sandstone (now in the 
Leeds Museum), fifteen inches liigb by eighteen inches 
broad, was dug up in the Kiver Calder near Wood 
Nook, Castleford, inscribed : 






The altar may possibly 
date as early as 205. For 
similar inscriptions ^'Dece 
VictoritE Brigant," com- 
pare the Roman altars 
found at Slack and Adel 
{Royal Arch<Bological 
Jbmmal, vol. 49, p. 193). 
In 1880, close by the 
Roman road, at a depth of 
three feet, a Roman mile- 
tone four and a half feet 
high and one foot in di- 
ameter was found, now 
deposited in the Leeds Museum. Mr. W. T. Watkins 
{Boyal ArchiBological Journal, vol. 43, p. 154) says : 

" It was first erected in the reign of the Emperor Decius, 
A.D. 249 — 25 1 , and after his dealh appears to have been inverted, 
and an inscription to his successors, the joint Emperors Oalhis and 
Volusianus cut on the other end. This last inscription is much 
more perfect than the other, and what I hare so far made out 
of it U: 



. . . C . . . VTBIO 
No ... P ... P 
• •....• 


'*I should expand this (supplying doubtful portions^ as 
Imp feratoriJnu CtesarihusJ C\ Vibio Gallo et C. V. Vohisiano 
P{iis) I\eltcibui) Aiig{u9tt8) JEb{uraco) {mxUia passuum) XXL 

** In the fifth iter Castleford is Legeolitim and in the eighth 
Lagecium^ in each being named as twenty-one Roman miles from 
York, the distance thus agreeing with the numerals upon the 
stone. The inscription on the other end of the stone is more 
worn and obscure. All that I can make out is : 

IMP. . . C., Imp (eratort) C{aio) M{e9iid) 

C.M.Q. Q{uinto) DecioJ' 


The military way is lost near Castleford, but it 
becomes large and conspicious in some parts between 
Castleford and Tadcaster. Horsley says : 

" It is called the Roman Ridge and near Aberford it is very 
grand and the ridge very high. From Aberford to Tadcaster the 
road is very conspicuous being in some parts six, eight or even 
nine feet high, but seems to consist mostly of earth with little or 
no regular pavement appearing." 

Boy in Military Antiquities, p. 110, says : 

'* There was on the edge of the road north from Aberford a 
military pedestal with part of the pillar still remaining on it.'' 

Drake, who argued that Legeolium was at Fontefract 
or Tanshelf, adds (p. 19) : 

'* On Bramham Moor the road is in many places exceedingly 
perfect. Leland writes that in all his travels he never saw so 
noble and perfect a Roman Road as this which shows — ^adds he— 
that there went more than ordinary care and labour to the making 
of it. The stratum is still so firm and good, that, in travelling 
over it, we may say with the poet, in a description of another 
such road in the West of England : 


' X«« a'tr traa Btaaa waj 00 knaH Mad, 
GnniBi voold kaecl aad ka tke ti*! grevad.' 

That the reailer mij hare as idea of what appeanutce these 
Teoenble reouiiu of Roman An and indiuttj make at this day 
(1736), I haTe bestowed a diaaicht of tt. From Bnmham Moor 
lhi« grand road poiott directly for Tadcnster, which it enters on 
the site of the castle. Bnt the fbtd otkt which the North Road 
went was at St. Helen's Ford, frmn which it begins again, and 
tboD);^ on this side of the river the coontry  marshy and deep, 
•o that there appears but faint traces of it, yet the coarse of the 
road U called Kodt^te, qaasi Ro«dgate, by the coontry people at 
this day. We follow it oTcr the River Xid to Whixley, where it 
is xery apparent. From Whiiley the road is easily tnced to 

SrmmK Riad mtr Bramlutm Mpar iM rub ifnm DrmJtt't Eirraeam). 

From Aldborough the fifth iter is the same as the 
second iter. In this iter Aldborough is called "Ibu 

In connection with the fifth iter another Roman Boad 
leads from Tadcaster to Ilkley and thence to Eibchester, 
and according to Rev. John Whitaker to Overbury. 
It can be still traced in places between Bramhope and 
Adel (the supposed Burgodunum) where there are 


remains of a camp and where many Boman remains 
have been found, some of which can be seen in the 
little Museum near to Adel Church. Prom Adel the road 
ran direct to Ilkley and can still be seen in various 
places between Adel and Carlton. At Ilkley there is a 
camp which it is proposed to excavate if 8uflB.cient 
funds can be raised. Beyond Ilkley the road cannot 
be traced, though in Whitaker's time traces of it were 
to be seen on Addingham Moor. 

At Ilkley as at York the Boman town seems to have 
extended beyond the walls of the camp, and numerous 
remains have been discovered, some of which are to 
be seen in the Museum at Ilkley and have been des- 
cribed by Mr. Cudworth. 

Some inscriptions formerly found at Ilkley have 
entirely disappeared. Camden visited Ilkley in 1582 
and described several which are now lost. Horsley 
also gives an account of some sculptures as he saw them. 
The first inscription which, Camden states, had tlien 
lately been dug up, was as follows : 







" The Emperors Severus^ Augustus^ and Antoninus, 
" CcBsar elect, restored imder the care of Viritis JOupus, 
" their Legate and Pro-Prcetor .^^ 

From this inscription we may conjecture that Virius 
Lupus repaired or fortified the camp at Ilkley between 
198 — 210 A.D. The stone cannot now be traced. 

Camden proceeds : 

''The following altar which I saw there under the steps 
of an house shews that the second cohort of the ' Lingones * 
was stationed here, hy its inscription made hy their prefect 
in honour of Verbeia, probably the nymph or goddess of 
the River Wharf, which runs by and which I suspect, from the 
close resemblance of names they called Verbeia. 



To Verbeia, Sacred^ Clodius Fronto^ Prefect of the 
Cohort^ Second Lingoties,* 

'*It was almost entirely effaced. However, what remains is 
sufficient to shew that the copy upon a stone al Ilkley has 
imitated the original as to the shape and size both of the stone 
and letters with sufficient exactness, only the last line must 
certainly have been a little mistaken and is most probably as 
others have read it, cohortie secundce Lingonum, 

This altar is preserved at Myddleton Lodge, but the 
inscription is now illegible. 

Camden says further: ''In the church wall is also 
this broken inscription : 


" Emperors Cceaar^ Auffusttia^ Antoninus and VeruSy 
of Jupiter beloved. Cacilius^ Prefect of the Cohort 4'' 
Horsley, p. 311, says : 

^* Camden's copy varied from the original ; his copy of this 
inscription inserts * LVC AN . 8 ' between the two last lines. 
He adds * The compliment paid to Verus is remarkable and 
curious. It may seem a little strange that this compliment 
should be paid only to Verus, and not to both the Emperors, but 

• According to the " Notitia *' the second cohort of Lingones had its head-quarters 
at Congarata, the station [on the wall] which follows next in order to AhaUaba, 
which as we hare hinted, may possibly be Papcastle. The second cohort of 
Lingones is mentioned in the Riveling Diploma, A.D. 124, and perhaps also in the 
Sydenham A.D. 106 ; possiblv, as Professor HUbner conjectures, the cohort 
may have come from Yorkshire to Cumberland at the time the emperor 
Hadrian carried on his eztensiTe building operations in the North of England. — 
" Lapidarinm Septentrionale," p. 458. 


the TI in the belly of the C is certain and will admit of no other 
reading. What Cohort CsBcilins Lucanus commanded, the 
inscription does not inforn^ us. It might be the Cohors Secunda 
Lingonum mentioned in the (preceding) inscription. This stone 
is now lost.' " 

In the north wall of the church tower, but now con- 
cealed by the raised wooden floor, is a sculptured stone 
commonly called " Hercules and the Serpents," which 
has often been figured in various publications. 

In 1867 a tablet five feet eight inches long three 
feet four inches wide was unearthed. It is figured in 
Turner and Collier's Ilkley^ p. 28, where it is said to 
represent a family group, father, mother and child, but 
the space for the names is left blank. 

In 1884, in making some grounds at the rear of the 
Bose and Crown Inn, the workmen found a tablet six 
feet long two feet six inches wide. The upper portion 
of the slab bore the representation of a female sitting 
in a chair within a recess. The figure was three feet 
in height and underneath it an inscription which Mr. 
Watkin* reads : 

( To the divine shades of . . daughter o/ . , . thirty years 
of age, a Comovian citizen. Here she is laid )" 

This, says Mr. Watkin, is the first allusion to a Cor- 
novian citizen which has occurred in a Britanno-Boman 

A Boman Boad also connected Ilkley with Aid- 
borough and Manchester. 

Besides the main roads mentioned in the Itinerary, 
Boman Yorkshire was intersected in all directions by 
branch or vicinal roads, some of considerable impor- 
tance. These are most numerous in the eastern part 
of Yorkshire. Some may be of British origin, but the 
road across the moors to Dunsley is certainly Boman 

* '* Royi4 ArchsBological Journal," vol 42, p 153. 


and one of the most clearly defined in the whole 
county. It points to Dunsley Bay near Whitby (the 
Dunus Sinus of Ptolemy). Some years ago the road 
could be seen in the woods near Mulgrave Castle and it 
can still be traced under the name of Wade's CSause- 
way, with more or less distinctness, to Newsholme 
Bridge, where it crossed the Bye. Though mostly 
buried in the ling it can be traced in riding oyer 
the moors by the horses' hoofs striking upon it, as 
mentioned by Drake, page 31, who says he found " the 
road to be twelve feet wide paved with a flint pebble, 
some of them very large, and in many places as firm as 
it was the first day. In some places the agger is three 
fe^t above the surface." Since Drake's time a good 
deal of the road has been broken up to repair roads 
and building and it is by no means so easy to trace. 
At Cawthorne about four miles from Pickering at the 
very edge of the moors, are four camps placed close 
together.* The camps are in reality double camps, 
the two most westerly being united together, and 
the two eastern also side by side. The three 
westerly camps have only a single agger, but the most 
easterly camp is square with a double ditch and 
vallum. The Boman Boad runs through it east and 
west and then turning north descends the hill through 
Mr. Priestman's property where a portion of the paving 
remains. From certain peculiarities in the entrances 
to the camp, also noticed by Boy at the Boman camp at 
Dealgrin Boss, Strathern, occupied by the ninth legion, 
it has been conjectured that the Cawthorne Camps are 
the work of that legion. The same peculiarity existed 
in the defences to tlie Boman Camp at Malton.f 
The Cawthorne Camps are now overgrown with 
heath and furze. 

Prom Cawthorne the road disappears, but Drake 
traced it to Barugh(camp)andNew8holme Bridge (where 
he found a milestone of grit standing) and ou to 

* For a plan 866 *' Roy's Military Antiquities " ; " Drake's Eboracum," p. 36 ; 

and " Young's Whitby," vol. 2, p. 694. 

t «' Murray's Yorkshire/' p. 176, Ed, 1874. 


Aimanderly. All trace of the road beyond Aimanderly 
is lost but the general direction of it is to Hutton on 
Derwent (Gateskeugh Camp), Weston Church, Gally- 
gap, Stamford Bridge, and thence to York. 

Several roads appear to have radiated from Malton. 
Drake traced one from Bridlington Bay, the " Sinus 
Portuosus" of Ptolemy, to Settrington, by way of Sled- 
mere and Wharram-en-le-Street. Another road is laid 
down in Newton's map of Boman Yorkshire, by 
Appleton-le-Street, Barton-le-Street, and Hovingham, in 
the direction of Thirsk, and Northallerton to Catterick. 

Altliough Malton is not mentioned in any of the 
B;oman documents, it was the site of a considerable 
camp probably occupied by the ninth legion. " It (the 
camp) extended south of Malton Lodge, which is built 
on its vallum, towards the river, and formed a large 
quadrangle, with a smaller enclosure at the south-east 
angle outside the Praetorian Gate. The double vallum 
on the east side was formerly very distinct, as were the 
defences south of the Praetorian Camp resembling 
those at Cawthorne. A road leaving the camp by the 
Praetorian Gate crossed the river at a ford, by the island, 
to a small square camp constructed for the defence of 
the ford, but this camp has been built over and is no 
longer traceable. The road passed southward towards 
Londesborough where it fell into another Boman Boad." 
{Murray's Yorhs. p. 175). In 1861 and 1862 the road to 
the ford was cut tli rough and exposed in several places 
in making drains. At Old Malton a monument of 
somewhat remarkable character was found, probably 
the sign of a Boman Goldsmith named Servulus. 
(No. 6 York Museum Catalogtie.) 

The inscription is within a tablet or label, roughly 
cut, and reads as follows : — 



We gather from it that it is a votive inscription to 
the genius loci, and was prohably affixed to the gold- 
smith's house to which it alludes. 

There is another line of road which quitted 
the fifth and eighth itinera near Fontefract and 
proceeded by Darfleld and Templehorough to Chester- 
field and Derby, and by the long Causeway through 
Sheffield and the north part of Derbyshire. The 
only existing remains of this road in Yorkshire 
is the camp at Templeborough about a mile from 
Hotherham. " Before the Don reaches E-otherham 
" it passes by Templeborougli a fair Roman camp, 
" the north-east worn away by the river, the area, about 
" 200 paces by 120, the ditch 37 paces deep from the 
" middle of the vallum to the bottom. The outer bank 
" is covered by large trees and on the side of the road 
" was a barkless chesnut tree scarce fathomable by three 
" men." Tlie trees have long since vanished and the 
site laid down to grass until recently rediscovered and 
unearthed. A full description of the camp has been 
publishea by Mr. Leader. The Notitia places the pre- 
fect of a body of " cuirassiers " (so Horsley S. R. 
p. 419, reads the word) at Templeborough. The road 
above mentioned is sometimes called B«yknild Street, 
but according to Newton's Map, this last road left the 
fifth iter near Trent Bridge and on to Chesterfield and 
thence to Gloucester, but it is very difficult to trace 
either of them now. 


Near this road at a place called Riveling near 
Stanaington, in the parish of Ecclesfield, was found in 
1761 a bronze tablet, one of the military diplomas of 
the Emperor Hadrian : 

" These inscriptions which are sometimes called * rescripts * 
are copies of decrees, promulgated in Rome, conferring upon the 
soldiery, as a reward for distinguished services, the privilege of 
Roman citi'^ienship and the right of marriage. They seem to 
have been usually inscribed on two sheets of metal which being 
united by thongs folded together like a book ; on the back of these 
plates there was a copy of a whole or part of the inscription 
running lengthwise. From these tablets we learn the names of 
many of the alee and auxiliary cohorts which were serving in 
Britain at the time of their issue." {Lapidarium Septentrionalep. 3) 

Three of these military diplomas have been found in 
Britain, one at Malpas in Cheshire, one at Sydenham, 
and the above mentioned one at Riveling. All these 
aie now in the British Museum. 

The Riveling diploma is about a foot square. 
It bears date A.D. 124, in the reign of the 
Emperor Hadrian. The plates when discovered were 
a good deal corroded; one is figured in Gough'a 
Camdeii, 1806, vol. 5, p. 263, and more accurately 
in the Lapidai^imi Septentrionale. In this Riveling 
diploma twenty-seven bodies of troops (six alae and 
twenty-one cohorts) arc mentioned, among them being 
the second cohort of Lingones who have left a record 
of their presence at Ilkley. 


Eboracum was one of the chief towns of the 
Brigantes, and its situation at the junction of the Ouse, 
and Foss marked it out as a suitable place for the 
establisliment of the capital of Roman Britain. 

York was a "colonia" and a " municipium," but 
when it was founded is uncertain. It is evident from 
an inscription of the time of the Emperor Trajan, 



circa A.T). 108, that it was then a walled town, and the 
probability is that Roman York owes its foundation to 
Agricola some thirty years earlier. York appears to 
have grown up around a military camp and to have 
soon superseded Isurium as the chief seat of the 
Romans in Britain. 

Until recently it was assumed that the Roman 
station of York was of a rectangular form of about 
536 yards by about 470, " having four principal gates 
or entrances, four principal angle towers, and a series 
of minor towers or turrets," but recent excavations 
have thrown doubts upon the correctness of this 
assumption, and the learned curator of the York 
Museum thinks it more probable that the camp was 
five-sided and had a larger area. 

Little of the wall is to be found above ground, but 
from discoveries made during the progress of exca- 
vations for sewers and other purposes, the general 
direction of the walls may be ascertained on three 
sides with tolerable accuracy. The south eastern side 
ran almost parallel with and about 100 yards distant from 
theOuse, from Market Street to the Multangular tower 
in the grounds of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society ; 
the north western side ran along the line of the present 
city wall to the corner of Gillygate and Lord Mayor's 
Walk, and is buried under the present earthworks upon 
which the city wall rests ; the north eastern wall runs 
under the city wall through Mr. Gray's garden (where 
it was unearthed in 1861) and past Monk Bar (where a 
considerable portion of it may be seen in the inner 
rampart) to a point near the site of the old church of 
St. Helen-on-the- Walls. The direction of the south 
eastern wall cannot be satisfactorily ascertained. If a 
straight line be drawn parallel to the north western 
wall from the site of St. Helen's Church to the sup- 
posed terminus of the south western wall in Market 
Street, the wall would pass through Church Street and 
Parliament Street as shown on Skaife's plan, but in 
excavating in Aldwark the portion of the wall then dis- 
covered crossed the street at so sharp an angle that, if 


prolonged, the greater part of the Shambles and 
Parliament Street would be included in the camp. 
E/oman York only occupied a small part of the site of 
modern York, as appears by the plan, but in process of 
time when Britain became settled the Romans crossed 
the river and built extensively on the road leading 
from Eboracum to Tadcaster. Remains of baths, 
temples and villas were found on constructing the old 
railway station wdthin the walls of mediaeval York on 
the south side of the river, and the site of the new 
station and hotel which partly stand upon a Roman 
cemetery has yielded many inscriptions and other 
mementos of burial. Of the Bars, Bootham Bar 
stands on the site of a gate of the Roman city, and 
Monk Bar near the supposed site of another. York 
was intersected by Roman roads, the road to Isurium 
passed through Bootham Bar, and a road from the 
direction of Tadcaster has been traced from Mickle- 
gate Bar, crossing the river about the present Guild- 
hall and passing along the course of Stonegate and 
under the site of the choir of the minster. The 
direction of the road to Derventio cannot be ascertained 
but it must have passed out at either Monk Bar or 
Walmgate Bar, probably the latter. 

York cannot boast of such extensive masses of 
Roman work as are found at Richborough and at 
Burgh near Yarmouth. The principal fragment of 
masonry above ground is the Multangular Tower 
and a small portion of the wall adjoining the tower on 
the easterly side situate in the grounds of the York- 
shire Philosophical Society. Mr. G. T. Clark* says : 

"The tower is a shell of masonry, presenting nine faces, 
forty-five feet in exterior diameter, and twenty-four feet wide at 
the gorge, which is open. It is not placed, as in mediaeval works, 
so as merely to cap the junction of two walls which would have 
met at a right angle, but the whole angle is superseded, as in 
Roman camps, by a curve of about fifty feet radius, and the 
tower stands in the centre of this curve, three quarters of it* 
presenting its nine faces, being disengaged The tower and its 

• On the Defences of York. (Journal of Yorks. A. and T. Society, vol. 4, p. 7.) 


contiguous wall are five feet tliick. The Roman part of the wall 
18 about fifteen feet high. It is of rubble, faced on either front 
with ashlar, the blocks being from four to five inches cube. 
There is one band of five courses of bricks, each brick seventeen 
inches by eleven inches by two and a half inches, that may be 
traced along both tower and wall, although the surface of both 
has been much patched and injured. Upon the Roman work has 
been placed an ashlar upper stury, composed of larger stones, and 
about three feet thick and twelve feet high, pierced by nine 
cruciform loops, one in each face, and each set in a pointed 
recess. This addition is of early English or early Decorated 
date. The wall extending south-east from the tower for fifty- 
three yards is of the same date, material, and workmanship. 
Both having escaped destruction in the post-Roman peiiod, were 
incorporated into the defences of the later city The wall on the 
other side of the tower, running eastwards, has been partially 
destroyed, and is now only four feet high, and at a short distance 
becomes buried in the later bank. This part of the wall was 
evidently destroyed before the earthwork was thrown up, for not 
only is it buried within the bank, but the wall of the mediaeval 
city is here founded four feet in front of it, and in other places 
many feet above it." 

The Roman walls have been found in many places 
between the Multangular Tower and Bootham Bar, and 
a considerable portion of it was removed to make the 
present entrance near Bootham Bar. It was then seen 
that the wall stood upon piles of oak two feet six inches 
in length, and on the^e was raised a mass of concrete two 
feet three inches in depth, then an ashlar wall of stone 
with courses of brick near its centre. The wall was about 
four feet ten inches thick, diminishing gradually to 
four feet at the height of sixteen feet. It was 
furnished internally with guard rooms and turrets and 
strengthened by angle towers. 

Although little of lloman masonry remains above 
ground, no site in Britain has been more prolific in 
evidences of lloman civilisation. Numerous inscriptions 
have l)een unearthed. It is impossible to do more than 
refer to some of the more important, preserved in the 
Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 


The earliest in point of date, circa A.D, 108-109, 
is the one numbered 32 in the Museum Catalogue 
(eighth edition), of which I give an engraving. 

It was discovered in 1854i in King's Square, the site 
of the old Curia llegis, twenty-eight feet below the 
ground, and when perfect the inscription probably ran 
as follows : 

PER. I.EO. Tim. 1 

which may be thus rendered : 

" The Emperor Ctcsar Nerva Trajan, son of the deified Nerva, 
Augustus, Germanicas, DacicuH, chief Pontiff, invested the twelfth 
time with the Tiibunitian Powers, consul the fifth time, father of 
his country, caused this (o be peiiormed hy the ninth legion, the 

Another stone (No. 36 in Catalogue), also prescrvod 
in tlie Museum, is a monumental stone six feet tMy 


two inches high by two feet two inches wide, on which 
is the figure of a standard bearer in an arched recess. 
In his right band lie holds the 
standard or signum of his cohort, 
in his left an object about which 
there has been some doubt.* 
This stone was found about 1686 
in Trinity Gardens, Micklegate, 
and the following is the in- 
scription : 

which may be read: 

" Lucius Dneciua Kufinus, son of 
Lucius, of tlie Voltinian tribe of Vienna, 
standard bearer of ihe ninlh legion, aged 
28, is buried here. 

The ninth legion, the Spanish, 
to which the above memorials re- 
late, came into Britain about A.D, 
43, and was almost entirely des- 
troyed by Queen Boadicea. in con- 
flict with the Iceni, and afterwards suffered severely 
in the campaign against the Caledonians. It was subs- 
equently stationed at York and probably at Aldbro and 
Malton, and by some writers it is thought to have been 
incorporated with the sixth legion, but the inscriptions 

it High Kothtsster ja fignred in 
" Lapidarium Sepl«ntrionn1o." p, 291, and the learned nlitorg add thu followin); 
note :— " Although dostituto of an inscription il seoma to poaseas poculiar interest, 
aa Riving a hey to the meaning of the amall reotungiiUr hag whifli is bo often met 
witn in Knmnn fmieral alaba. Tbo Ggure on this stone ^rohahly represents tha 
deceased with staff in hand aa aottinn out upon his lN9t long jonmey. Slay we uot 
■uppOM that the sniall basket in his left hand contiiitia the viafietim or provision for 
the way P [Horsley No. VIII. Yorkahiro) represents a soldier having a »tn.nd«rd in 
his rijtht hand, a basket like the one liere flgiirod in his left : in No. XI. Scotland, 
a ahield ia shown in the right hand, and the basket in the left. In both of theM 
oaan the bodies are covered with a simple garment and not the dress of war." 

ROMAN yoRKsaiiE. 876 

seem to n^atire that supposition. The sixth legion 
arrived in England about A.D, 117. and remained at 
York until the Koman legions were finally withdrawn 
from Britain about 417. Inscriptions of the sixth 
legion have been found on the line of the Boman wall 
and at Slack. Numerous inscriptions belong to this 
legion, of which the following are the most Interesting : 
No. 39 in the Museum Catalogue, a large tablet five 
feet eight inches high and three feet broad, found in 
use as a cover to the sarcophagus of JElia, Severa.* 
(See plate opposite). The upper part of the slab shows 
the figures of a father and mother and two children. 
The inscription so far as it can be read is as follows : 

Va. AVH9TINTB. TIXIT. AN. I. !> Ill 

TIXIT. AN. I. M. Vim. D. V. C. MRKB1Y6 

Prom which it appears that C. jEresius . . . , a 
soldier of the sixth legion victorious, raised this 
memorial to his wife, Flavia Augustina, who lived 
thirty-nine years, seven months, and eleven days; . . , 
to his son Augustinus, who lived one year and three 
days; and to a daughter, who lived one year nine 
months and five days, providing at the same time a 
memorial for himself. 

No, 40, a finely wrought cofBn, 4 feet by 2 feet, found 
in the excavation for the North Eastern Railway Station. 


LEO. VI. V. 

To the Goch^ the Manes. To Simplieia Florefitifia^ a 
most innocent being ^ who lived ten months ^ Felimus 
Simplex^ her father^ of the »ixth legion victorious, 
dedicated this. 

Tlie words ** anime innocentissime " are also found on 
the Christian tombs in the Catacombs of Rome. 

No. 41, a large coffin of coarse grit, seven and a half 
feet long by two feet eleven inches, found in the Castle 
Yard in 1835, and inscribed on a panel : 

D. M. 


To the Gods, the Mantes. To Aurelinf Superus, a 
centurio7i of the sixth legion, who lived thiAy-eight years 
four montlis and thirteen days, Aurelia Censoi*ina, his 
wife, set up this memo7Hal. 

In the Museum is a part of a monument, No. 46, 
three feet high by two feet three inches wide, in com- 
memoration of a child. The father and mother are 
represented sitting in an alcove. A young girl stands 
at one end of the couch, and a tripod table, with a 
cake or loaf of bread upon it, is in front, she holds a 
wine cup in her hand, and a small hooped wine cask 
lies on the floor ; the husband holds in his hand some- 
thing like a roll. Below is this inscription : 


The rest of the inscription is destroyed. This stone 
also was found on the site of the New Railwav Station 
at York in 1872. 


Of these monumental stones two are of more than 
ordinary interest. In 1679-80 a stone colffin was found 
not far to the west of the city walls, where Camden 
saw it. In the following century it was carried to Hull 
and used as a horse trough at an Inn called the " Coach 
and Horses," where it was seen by De La Pryme in 
1699, who wrote an account of it to Dr. Gale {Stukeley^s 
Correspcmdence, vol. 3, p. 300) . Stukeley had a drawing 
of this stone and read the inscription. " Marcus 
Verecundus Diogenes, sevir of the colonia of Eburacum, 
and who died there, a citizen of Biturix Cubus, caused 
these to be made for him during his lifetime." This 
was the first inscription from which it became known 
that York was a "colonia." The Seviri formed a legal 
corporation whose duties are imperfectly known, 
Horsley made a special journey to Hull about 3732 to 
see this stone and found it removed to " Mr. Bailiff's 
house," and broken into several pieces. The stone has 
since been lost. It will be noticed that the inscription 
points to more than one coffin having been made by 
Diogenes. In 1877, the other coffin, that of his 
wife, Julia Fortunata, was found in the course of 
excavation for the new station at York, in an excellent 
state of preservation. (York Museum, No. 44). 

The inscription is as follows : 


" Julia Fortunata was, it appears, a native of Sardinia, and it is 
extremely probable from the inscription itself, that this memorial 
was prepared for her by her husband during her life The tomb 
contained the perfect skeleton of a somewhat tall person. This 
is the finest and in some respects the most interesting sepulchral 
memorial that the museum possesses." {Afttseum Catalogueyp. 56.) 

We cannot pass over two other tahlets as they 
illustrate the religious worship of the Romans. 

In 1770 a dedicatory tablet, three feet one inch wide 
by two feet one inch high, was found in a cellar on the 
south side of the river, with the following inscription : 



On each side of the inscription are two caducei, a moon 
shaped shield, and a star.* 

The temple of Serapis is supposed to have stood 
near the old North Eastern Eailway Hotel (see Skaife's 
map) and a portion of a pavement from that site is in 
the Museum. From this inscription it appears that 
the temple was erected from its foundation by Claudius 
Hieronymianus, legate of the sixth legion victorious. 
The name Hieronymianus also occurs upon an inscrip- 
tion found at Northallerton. 

Perhaps the most interesting sculpture yet discovered 
in York is the one numbered 19 in the Catalogue, a 
tablet two feet three inches high by twenty-two inches 
wide, representing the sacrifice and mysteries of 
Mithras, found in 1747 in Micklegate, opposite to St. 
Martin's Church. Mithras was the Persian God of 
created light and of all earthly wisdom. In the course 
of time he became identified with the Sun God, who 


conquers all demons of darkness . In the first half of 
the first century, B.C., Iiis worship is said to have been 
introduced into the Homan provinces of the west, 
and by the begiQaing of the second century, A.C., 
it had become common throughout the Roman Empire. 
Mithras traa a special favourite of the Koman soldiers. 
Being born from tlie rocks, be was worshipped in 
natural or artiftcial caves. lie is represented as a 
young man in oriental dress and as an invincible hero, 
stahbiDg a bull with his dagger, or standing on a bull 
he has thrown down. In the York tablet, above the 
principal figure, are three busts, one on the left wearing 
a radiated crown, two on the right much mutilated. 
On each side of the principal group is an attendant 
bearing a torch, one inverted, with the flame down- 
wards, the torch of the other (not seen in the York 
tablet in consequence of its mutilated condition, but 
shewn on the other tablet in the illustration) with the 
flame upwards: the former denoting the descent of the 
souls of men from the lunar region to the earth, tho 
other their ascent, when regenerated and purified, to 
their celestial and eternal home. 

For a full description of Mithraic Worship and of 
this tablet see Wellbeloved's "Eboracum," p. 76. The 


stone of the York tablet being much decayed, the fore- 
going illustration is given of a perfect slab copied from 
a very fine tablet, "'The Sacrifice of Mithras,'* in the 
Louvre, Paris, which is figured in Nettleship & Sandys' 
'* Classical Antiquities, p. 96." 

Another interesting statue in the York Museum, 
is No. 12 (see the plate opposite). It is carved 
on light coloured grit, probably by a local artist. The 
figure is five feet ten inches high, but unfortunately 
defective in the feet and right arm, and is supposed to 
represent Ares or Mars. This statue with three others, 
Nos. 11, 15 and 2i in the Museum Catalogue, Avcre 
found buried, probably for concealment when their 
owner left Eboracum, in the garden of St. Mary's 


Aldborough on the TJre is no doubt the ancient 
Isurium. Isurium is mentioned by Ptolemy as one of 
tlie towns of the Brigantes, and by other writers as 
their capital and the seat of Queen Cartismandua. It 
is twice mentioned in the Itinerary, where in one place 
it is called " Isu Brigantium.'* There seem to be 
indications that Isurium was originally a more im- 
portant place than York, and that the second and fiftli 
itinera originally ran direct to Aldborough, leaving York 
to the right, and that it was only when York became 
the head-quarters of the Romans that the routes of the 
troops to the North were directed to pass through 

But be that as it may, Isurium was at all events 
the second place of importance in Yorkshire under the 
Romans, and in no other place except York have so 
many extensive remains of Roman civilisation been 
found as at Isurium. After the Romans withdrew 

• Smithes **Reliqui89l8urianaB," and '* A Survey of Isurium" by Dr. Alex. I). 
H. lieadmiui (1893), in the Journal of the Yorkshire Archseological Hociety, vol. 12, 
p 413. 


from Britain, Isurium continued to flourish until about 
766, when Higden (Poly chronica) asserts that Isurium 
was burnt by the Danes, and it is said that traces of 
fire are visible upon parts of the walls. 

The Roman camp was walled like that at York but 
without angle towers. It formed an oblong parallelo- 
gram, irregular in shape on the north, the lenglli being 
about 1,940 feet, and the breadth about 1,320, and 
enclosing an area of about 60 acr(»s. The best plan of 
the camp is that in the Yorkshire Archceological 
Society^ 8 Journal, which was prepared by the Ordnance 
Surveyors with Dr. Leadmen's assistance, and it will 
be noted that it differs on the north from Mr. Smith's 
plan in excluding certain fields known as " under the 
walls,'* from the area of the camp. 

The walls can still be traced and vary from eleven to 
sixteen feet in thickness. They are built of red sand- 
stone, mixed with magnesian limestone. Some of the 
bared portions in Mr. Lawson's grounds are in perfect 
preservation. Gough describes the walls as "four yards 
thick, founded on large pebbles laid on a bed of blue 
clay, and most visible on the side next Studforth Hill. 
To the foundations on this clay is in many places four 
or five yards deep. Almost in the centre is a hill 
called Borough Hill, which seems to have been a sort of 
citadel where mosaic pavements have been found, and 
foundations of a large building with bases." This 
seems to be the great building in the street before the 
church yard described by Stukeley.* 

Outside the walls near the south-east angle is an 
artificial hill called '* Studforth," which by some is 
thought to be Roman, Isurium was intersected by two 
Boman Roads, Watling Street and Ermine Street, and 
appears to have had no gate to the north. A mile 
from the east gate is a piece of Roman road about 500 
yards in length, which Dr. Leadman says is " the sole 
remaining bit in the district," and about two miles 
further on this road stood the " Duel or Devil's Cross 

* The mound was removed many yean ago. 


Tumulus," near which in 1766* was found a cylindrical 
military stone ahout seven feet high. 

The church at Aldboro stands in the very centre of 
the camp and is partly built with Roman material, and 
has built into the walls a figure of Mercury. 

Numerous tesselated pavements (in all about 25) 
have been discovered at Aldborough, but only seven now 
remain in situ; five are preserved, but not in situ, three 
others have been sold to museums. In the garden of 
the " Aldeburge Arms " are two very fine ones pro- 
tected by buildings, one of these, found in 1848 by Mr. 
II. E. Smith, is <me of the most beautiful and probably 
the most perfect in Yorkshire. The Eoman Basilica 
was discovered in 1846 ; it is a building fifty- two feet 
in length and twelve feet in width, and has had an 
apsidal end. Formerly it was twenty-four feet, but only 
half the building remains. 

In Mr. Lawson's grounds is a museum where Uoman 
remains discovered at Aldborough are preserved. 
Among them is a tile marked " leg ix hisp " from 
which it has been conjectured that Isurium was at 
one time garrisoned by the Ninth Legion. 


Some notice should be taken of the Uoman Camps. 
The Roman soldiers on march never spent a single 
night outside a camp fortified with a rampart and ditch. 
It was marked out on a place selected by the general 
or by officers detached for that purpose, generally on 
the spur of a hill. The same plan was always observed 
and the divisions indicated by coloured flags and lances, 
so that the divisions of the army as they came in, could 
find their places at once. The construction of the 
fortifications always began before the general's tent 
was pitched. The legionaries constructed the rampart 
and ditch in front and rear, while the allies did the 
same on either side. The stakes required for the for- 
mation of an abatis on the outer side of the rampart 

* See ** Uentleman's Magazine,'* 1767, p. 610, and aUo 1811, part 2, p. 312. 


were carried by the soldiers themselves on the march, 
and the whole work was carried on under arms. When 
the camp was to break up three signals were given : 
at the first, the tents were taken down and packed up, 
at the second, they were put upon beasts of burden and 
in wagons, and at the third, the army began to march. 
Some of these temporary camps became permanent 
when the county became conquered. The form of the 
camps was originally rectangular, but later in the 
Koman occupation they were made square, round, or 
triangular to suit the nature of the ground, the most 
approved form being the oblong, with the length one 
third greater than the breadth. 

The temporary entrenchments thrown up at the end 
of a day's march (castra mansiones) had one ditch and 
one bank, but permanent military stations (castra 
stativa) sometimes more, e.g.^ the permanent camp at 
Cawthorne has two ditches and two banks. Several 
permanent stations in Yorkshire are now represented 
by towns where neither banks nor ditches, nor the 
word "castra" indicate a guarded camp. Such is the 
case at Castleford, Stamford Bridge, and Brough Ferry. 
They have been destroyed by time and change, as the 
old fortifications of Doncaster and Tadcaster have been, 
unless they were never fortified, but merely villages 
where small bodies of soldiers on a march might encamp. 
Professor Phillips gives the following list of Boman 
camps, stations, and towns in Yorkshire : 

(a) Temporary Camps : Bey Cross (just outside the 
border), Kirkless, three of the Cawthorne Camps, 
Barugh, Lease Bigs, 

(6) Purely Military Stations, or permanent camps, 
distinct from towns and large villages: one of the 
Cawthorne Camps, Templeborough, Greta Bridge. 

{c) Stations which became or were placed close 
to old towns and villages: York, Doncaster, Aldborough, 
Bowes, Thornborough (Catterick), Malton, Tadcaster, 
Castleford, Ilkley, Slack, Adel, Prsetorium (place 
uncertain), Derventio (somewhere on the Derwent), 
Brough below Bainbridge. 







Pudsey, 8 June 1592. 

^yf^HIS INDENTURE MADE the eighth day of June in the four and 
^^ thirtieth year of the raigne of our sovreigne ladye Elizabetli by 
the grace of God Queene of England, Fraunce and Irclande, 
defender of the faith, etc. Betwene Henry Smithe 
* Henry Smith of Pud- ^^ Pudsay in the county of York, yeoman, on (h*one 
sey ptie, and George Haldsworthe of the Byrks within 

demises to the townshippe of HortOD in Bradforddale in the 

G H idsw rth ®*^^ couuty, clothier, on th'other ptie, Witnessithe 
of the Birks, in the that the saide Henry Smithe for and in consideration 
township of Horton, Qf ^^^g ^^^^ ^f ^ hundreth and nynetie pounds of law- 
full English money to him well and truelie contented and 
paide by the said George Haldsworthe at and before the sealing and 
delivering hereof, whereof and wherewith the said Henry acknowledgeth 
himself to be satisfied and paide, and thereof and of every pte thereof 
acquitteth and dischargeth the saide George Haldsworthe, his heires, 
axecutors and administrators and every of them by these psents Hathe 

given, graunted, bargained, and solde, and by these 

psents dothe securely and absolutely give, graunte, 

the estate of Bank bargaine, and sell to the saide George Haldsworthe 

House at Pudsey, his heirs and assigns all that messuage or tenementc 

S'HenrVsSif!''"" with th'appertenances comonly called and known by 

the name of Bankehouse, situate, lying, and being in 

Pudsay aforesaid in the saide county of York, now in 

, , the tenure or occupation of the said Henry Smithe, 

also vanous closes , . . * i n ,i i i-t% 

called: whentPighiii, his assignes Or assign, and all the houses, edifices, 

Royd^ Nether* Yng* bamcs, buildings, folds, orchards, backsides, and 

Cow Closes, Middle gardens thereunto belonging or to or with the same 

Schoies ^Lwie), f7\\ ^®®^ ®^ occupied, and also one close of meadow there 

ing, Fall Neck, ing called the Ynjjc under the House, one other close there 

under th- house. ^^y^^^ ^j^^ Wheate Pighell, foure other closes there 

lying together called Howie Scoles, two other closes 
2xsK). ^^ *°" ^^ * there called Marled Roide, one other close of medowe 

there called Nether Ynge ; two other closes of lande 

and pasture there called Co we closes, one other close 

there called Middle Feilde joyning of Howie Scoles loyne on the west 

side ; one other close of medowe there called the Falle Ynge, and one 

other close there called the Falle Necke ; and also all other the lande, 

West riding cartulary. 385 

tenem'-> closes, medowes, fedinge, pastures, woddes, under woddes, waies, 
waters, water-courses, waste, commons of pasture, and turbarie, rents, ren- 
dition and service, comodities, proffettes, easements, and hereditaments what- 
soever, to the said Messuage, or tenement in any wise belonginge or apptein- 
inge, or to or with the same commonlye demised, used, or occupied, or 
reputed, accepted, taken, or knowne as the pte,pcell, or member of the same 
or any pte therof in Pudsay aforesaide in the saide countie of Yorke And 
the saide Henry Smithe for the consideration aforesaide hathe also 
bargained and solde and by these psente dothe bargane and sell to the 
saide George Haldsworth and his heires, all and all maner of dedes, 
evidences, charters, boundaries, muniments, escripts and writings 
whatsoever concern inge the barganed premisses or any pte therof, 
all the which or so many therof as concerne only the saide messuage 
or ten™^ and burganed premisses or only any pte therof, which he the 
saide Henry Smithe hathe in his custodie or possession, or any other by 
his deliviie or to his use, which he may lawfully come by without sute 
in the lawe, together with true copies of all suche dedes, evidences and 
writings as concerne the saide premisses or any pte therof and any other 
lande jointly, the saide Henry Smithe for him and his heires dothe 
covenant and pmise to and with the saide George Haldsworthe, to 
deliver or cause to be delivered to the saide George his heires or 
assignes requiring the name, at all time and times during the space of 
one whole yeare nowe nexte ensuinge, he the saide George Haldsworthe 
his heires or assignes bearing the charge of tlie writinge out of the saide 
copies To HAVE and to holde the saide messuage or tenemente, bowses, 
barnes, buildings, closes, lands, ten"*^^ and hereditaments, and all other 
tlie premisses before by these psents mentioned to be barganed and 
solde with all and singuler theire apptennce to the saide George 
Haldsworthe his heires and assignes to th' only and proper use and 
behoofe of the paide George Haldsworthe his heires and assignes for 
ever and the saide Henry Smithe for him his heires executors 
administrators and assignes and every of them dothe covenant agree and 
graunt to and with the saide George Haldsworthe his heires executors 
administrators and assignes and to and with every of them by these 
presents that he the saide Henry Smithe, at the time of the sealinge and 
delime herof is the true and lawfull owner of the saide messuage or 
tenement, bowses, buildings, land^, tenements, and hereditaments and of 
all other the biirganed premisses with th* apprtennce and is and standeth 
sole seazed therof of a good pfecte and absolute estate of inheritance in 
the lawe in fee simple, and hathe full power and good and la^vfuU 
authoritie in his owne righte to give graunte bargan and sell the saide 
barganed premisses and every pte therof to the saide George Haldsworthe 
bis heires and assignes to his and their only uses for ever according to 
the tenor and true meanninge herof and that as well the saide 
George Haldsworthe his heires and assignes and any of them as the 
saide messuage or tcn°^<:"'* houses, buildings, lands, ten^- and heredita- 
ments, and all other the barganed pmisses with th' appertennces and 
every pte therof, nowe are and so shall or may be and continue at all 
times hereafter for ever free and clearly acquited and discharged or 
otherwise sufficiently from time to time and at all times saved and kept 

AA 2 


harmeless and indemnified by the saide Henry Smithe his hcires or 
assignes of and frome all other barganes, sceyles, gifts, graunts, jrinters, 

dowers, feoffments, intayles, wills, leases, statutes 
Reserving a lease of marchante and of the staple, recognizances, bondes, 
Over *^^***NiidSeficir rentes, annuities, average of rentes, fines, issues, 
'iiie Fall, Kail Necic) forfeitures, extents, judgements, executions and of 
to Peter Gii»oo. ^^^ fromc all Other acts, charges, troubles, and 

encombraunces whatsoever, had, made, knowledged, 

comitted and done, or to be dcme by the saide Henry 

Smithe his heires or assign es or any of them or of anj 

and a rent of 8/- to Other person or persons whatsoever, the rente and 

Thomas Smith. service frome henceforthe to be therfore due to the 

chefe lorde or lordes of the fee or fees therof, and one 
lease heretofore made of the said two closes called Over Middlefeld and 
the Falle and Fallneck to Peter Gibson for the terme of 21 yeares 
wheareupon is preserved the yearlye rente of VIIIs. during and for the 
saide tearme of years to be paid to Thomas Smith or his executors 
or assignes. And the saide Henry Smith for him, his heires, 
executors, administrators and assignes and every of them dothe coven'nt 
agpree and graunte to and w^- the saide George Haldsworthe his heires, 
executors, administrators and assignes and to and w^^i- every of them 

by these psente. That he the saide Henry Smithe 
Tane Smith, wife of and Jane, nowe his wife, and the heires of the saide 
Henry Smith. Henry, and every of them, shall and will at all and 

every time and times hereafter during the space of 

seaven yeares nowe nexte cominge at the reasonable request coste 

and charge in the lawe of the saide George Haldsworthe his heires 

or assignes make, do, suffer, knowledge, execute, and cause to be 

made, done, knowledged and executed all and every suche further 

acte and actes, thing and things, devises, assurance and conveyance 

in the lawe whatsoever for the further better and more pfecte 

assuringe and conveying of the said messuage or tenement bowses, 

barnes, buildings, lands, tents, and hereditaments and all other the 

barganed premisses w^- th' appertenances and every pte thereof lo 

the saide George Haldsworthe his heirs and assignes to hfs and their 

only uses for ever, be it by fine, feoffemente, recouverie or recouveries 

with single or double vowcher or vowchers, release and confirmation with 

warranto against all men, dede or dedes indented and inrolled, inroUe- 

mente of these psente or by any other waies or meanes whatsoever or by 

any or so many of them and in suche maner and forme as shall be 

reasonable devised or advised by the said George Haldsworthe his heires 

or assignes or any of them or by his or theire counsell learned in the 

lawe ; so all waies that the saide Henry Smith and Jane nowe his wife 

and the heires of the saide Henry or any of them be not compelled to 

travell for the makinge, doinge, knowledginge and executinge of the 

saide conveyance and assurance or any of them forthe of the saide 

countie of Yorke excepte it be to the citie of Yorke : And icobeoveb 

that he the saide George Haldsworthe his heires and assignes and every 

of them shall or may and any time and times hereafter peaceably and 

quietly have, holde, occupie, and enjoye the saide messuage or tenemente 

bowses barnes buildings land tenements and hereditaments and all other 


the premisses before by these psente mentioned to be barganed and solde 
with all and singler theire appertennances and every pte thereof in 
maner and forme aforsaide according to the tenour and true meanning of 
these psente without any lawful! lett sute trouble eviction interuption or 
encombraunce of the saide Henry Smithe his heires or assignes or anje 
of them or of anye other psone or psones whatsoever And furth£R- 
MORE the saide Henry Smithe bathe also barganed and solde and by 
these psentes dothe clearlye and absolutely bargane and sell to the saide 
George Haldsworthe all the come and grayne now psently growinge and 
beinge on or upon the Faide barganed pmisses with th' appertenances 
or in or upon anye pte or pcell therof To have and to holde the saide 
corne and grayne with th' appertenences to the saide George Halds- 
worthe his executors, administrators and assignes to his and theire owne 
pper uses for ever. In Witness whereof the pties above-named to 
these indentures interchangeably have sett theire scales the dale and 
yeare first above written. 

Henrt Smith. 


Sealed, subscribed, and delivered in the presence of Richard Tempest, 
of Tonge, esquire, John Clayton, of Crosley Halle, John Hunter, of 
Pudsey, John Hunter, of Calverley, Thomas Bower, John Holdsworth, 
Thomas Shai-pe of Scholemoor, and of me 

John Thos. Tayler. 


Horton, 10 February 1599. 

This Indenture made the tenth day of Februarie in the 
fortieth yeare of the raigne of our sovrigne Ladye Elizabeth by 
the grace of god of Englande, Fraunce ani Irelande, Queue, 
defender of the Faith, etc. Betwene John Feilde of Horton in Brad- 
ford dale in the countye of Yorke, yeom. of th'one 
ptye, and Thomas Todd of Horton aforesaid in the John Fidd, yeoman 
said countye, clothier of th'other i)tye Witnessethe of Horton, 
that the said John Feilde for diverse good causes leases to 

and considerations him thereunto moveinge Hath ,^ 
graunted demised and to farme letten, and by those ier, of Horton) 
present e doth graunte demise and to farme lett unto 
the said Thomas Todd and his assigns all those seaven 
closes of land, meadows, and pasture with th'apptennce, ,^^^0 j.|^„„ ^y^^ 
scituate, lyinge, and beinge in Horton aforesaid 'i*hc Moor Closes, at 
comonlye called More Closes, as the same doe lye and Un7s**of"Stopher 
abutt theare upon rne feilde called South Feilde on ^^^'u"* ^J*'^ '*"* 
the north pte, and upon the landes of one Xofer lannetF^ida^ndnow 
Thornton of the south-east pte, which weare late in by Thomas Todd, 
the tenure or occupation of one Jennet Feilde late of 


Uorton aforesaid, decea^ied, or of lier assiign, and now in the tenure or 
occupation of the said Thomas Todd or his aFsignes, together with all 
and singular wayes, waters, water-courses, profitte, comodities and ease- 
ments whatsoever, to the said closes of land, meadows, and pasture and 
to everye or an\ e of them in any wise bclongeinge or appteyninge, or to 
or with them, or anye of them commonlye demised, used or occupied, 
or reputed, taken, or knowne as pte, pcell, or member of the same, or 
anye pte thereof To hate and to hovlde the said seaven closes of 
land, meadows, and pasture, and all other the demised pmisses, with all 

and singular th'apptennces unto the said Thomas Todd 
For twenty-on« years and his assignes imediatlye from the daye of the date 

thereof, for and dureinge the full ende and tearrae of 
twentye and one yeares from thence next followinge fullye to be com- 
plete, finished and ended tieldinge and payeinge thearefore yearelje 

and every yeare dureinge the said tearme unto 
the annual rent being the said John Feilde his heire or assignes the 
£3 6s. 8d., Annuall or yeare lye rente of three poundes, sixe 

shillinge and eighte ])ence of ' lawfull Engelishe 

money at the Feaste of Penteco.»»t and Saint Siartyn 

payable at Whitsun- the Bishoppe in winter by even portions. And allsD 

tide and Martinmas, yeildiugc and payeinge yearelye during the said 

Tearme all the out rente which shalbe due and 
payable out of the said pmisses to the Cheife lord 
of the Fee theareof. And all so all layes impositions 
a house to be built ^^^ assessments whearewiih the said pmisses shalbe 
upon this ground, at and Stand chargcd to paye to the Churche and our 
Thomis"' T^"'tnd Soviiguc Lad) c the Queue her heire or Successor 
John Field, to be yearelye dureinge the said tearms And allso it is 
Thomas T^d at the coventcd, coucludcd, condcsccnded and agreed by and 
termination of the bctwixt the Said ptycs to thcsc pseutc And either of 

them for themselves their heire executor adm. and 
Assignes and everye of them, doth covenant and pmise 
to and with the other by those psente That he the said Thomas Todd his 
executor his adm. or assign shall and will within the space of one 
whoole yeare next ensueinge the date heareof erecte and builde or 
cause to be erected and build ed one house of in and upon the said 
pmisses by these psente demised in such mann. and forme as is pre- 
mised and appointed att the equall coste and charge of both the said 
ptyes. And allso that he the said John Fielde his heire or assign 
shall and will at the reasonable request of the said Thomas Todd or his 
assign beare and paye, or cause to be borne and paid the one moytie or 
halfe pte of the coste and charge of erecteing and buildinge of the said 
house. An:: the said Thomas Todd for him his executor adm and 
assign and every of them doth covenante pmise agree and graunte to 
and with the said John Fielde his heire executor adm. and assign and 
to and with eache of them by these psente That he the said Thomas 
Todd his executor adm. and assign shall and will within the said tearme 
sett or cause to be sett all the fense belongeinge to the said demised 
pmisse suffycientlye with quick wood, or make or cause to be made the 
same with sufficient walls att his and their proper coste and charge. And 


also that he the said Thomas Todd his executor adm. and assign shall 
and will at all tyme and tymes after the said house shall be erected and 
buildcd att his and their pper coste and charge, mayntain and uphoulde 
the same with thatch mosse and mortar and the said fense after then 
shallbe sett with quickwood or made with walls well and suffycientlye 
for and dureinge all the said tearme, And in th' ende theareof so 
suffycientlye repayred and mainteyned shall leave and yielde upp the 
same provided all wayes and upon Condition that if the said Thomas 
Todd his executor, adm. or assign shall and doe not eate spende bestowe 
and imploye of in and upon the said pmisses by those psente demised all 
the haye, strawe, fodder, compost, dunge, and ashes which shall come 
growe renewe and be bredd of in and upon the same pmisses att all 
tyme and tymes dureinge the said Tearme ; Or shall and doe burne or 
waste with bumeinge the said demised pmisses or anye pte theareof or 
anye fayle of in and upon the same pmisses or of anye pte thearof at any 
tyme or tymes dureinge the said tearme, That then this psente Indenture 
and every clause article sentence and agrem^ thearin conteyned shall 
cease, and be utterlye voide, frustrated and of none effecte in the lawe 
to all intente and purposes whatsoever Anye thinge to the contrar}'e 
heareof in anyewise notwithstandinge In Witness whereof the said 
ptyes abovesaid to those Indentures intcrchangeablye have sett to their 
hande and scale the daye and yeare first above written. John Feilde. 


Sealed and Delivered the day and year within written in the presence 
of us: 

Abraham Lister. 
David Fletcher, 

his X mark. William Beamont, 

his X mark. 


Idle. 1 November 1644. 

This Indenture made the first day of November, in the twentieth 
year of tlie reign of our sovereign lord Charles by the grace of Qod, 
now kinge of England &c Betwene Tristram Kitson of Calverly in the 
county of Yorke, yeoman, of th' one party, and Mosen 
Hobson of Idle in the said county, clothier, and John 
Hobson of the same, brother of the said Moses of commutation of mh« 
tlr other party ; whereas George Savile of Thorn- in idle, 
hill, in the said county, knight and baronet, and Dame 
Elizabeth, then his wife, by their indenture of bargain The deed recite* 
and sale, or deeds indented, bearing date the third day ' '' 
of February in the fifteenth yeare of the reign of the o- p ^ i 

late king James over England etc, did in considera- kni. andT^bart.^' of 



Thornhtll, and Dame 
Elizabeth, hi* wife, 
by deed dated 3rd 
February, i6i7/8,sold 
to William Rawson, 
of Shipley, John 
Midgley, the elder, 
of Headley, ana 
Tristram Kitson, of 
Calverlev, the tithes 
in Idle, Idle Thorpe, 
Wrose^ and WindhiU, 
belonjpng to the rec- 

tton of the sum uf eight hundred and fifty pounds of 
lawful money of England, grant, bargain, sell, alLene 
and confirm unto William Rawson of Shipley* and 
John Midgley elder of Headley in the said county, 
gent, now deceased, and the said Tristram Kitson, 
their heirs and assignes for ever, all and singular 
the tithes of sheaves, corn, grain, hay, grass, and 
woods, yearly coming, growing, renewing, and in- 
creasing and which att all times hereafter shall yearly 
come, grow, happen, renew and increase of, within, 
and upon, all and singular the lands, tenements, 
closes, fields, meadows, pastures, in tacks, improve- 
ments, inclosures, commons, moorb, wastes, waste- 
grounds, woods, and hereditaments whatsoever with 
their appurtenances, lying and being in Idle aforesaid, 
and in Thorpe, Wrose, and Windell, alias Windhill, 
within the parish of Calverly aforesaid in the said 
county of Yorke or elsewhere within the lordship 
town, townfields, pcincts, township and hamlet of Idle, 
Thofpe, Wrose, Windell alias Windhill, aforesaid, and 
in every or any of them in the said county of Yorke 
being parte, parcel, or member of the rectory of 
Calverly aforesaid, or so knowne, accepted, or reputed 
or to the same rectory in any wise belonging, apper- 
taining, incident, happening or appendant, or to or 
with the same rectory or any part or parcel thereof 
heretofore used, occuppied, or enjoyed as pte, pcell, 
or member thereof in whose tenure or occupations 
soever the same or any of them then were ; (except 
the tithes of the lands and grounds within Idle afore- 
said of Xofer Thompson, esq., or William Thomp<ton 
his father) to have hold, pceive, take, and enjoy, 
all and singular the said tithes of sheaves, come, 
grain, hay, grass, and woods, and other the pmisses 
except before excepted, unto the said William Rawson, 
John Midgley, and Tristram Kitson, their heires and 
assigns to their owne uses for ever, yielding paying and discharging 
heretofore yearly from thenceforth unto our said sovereign lord, the 
king's majesty, his heirs and successors for ever the yearly rent or sum 
of three pounds, six shilUings, eight pence of lawful money of England 
parcel of the yearly rent or ifeelfarme of Ixxvi £ — xvi s. — ^vi d., reserved 
in and by certain letters patent made and granted of the said tithes 
(amongst other thingH) by the king's most excellent majesty, unto 
William Vernon of Soothill, and Xofer Naylor of Wakefield gent, 
and their heirs bearing test at Westm'** the fourth day of August in 
the fourth yeare of his said late majesty's reign at the times therein 
mentioned as in and by the said Indenture of bargain and sale, or deeds 
indented and fine thereof levied by and between the said parties to 
which reference be had may moie plainly appear ; and whereas the said 
William Kawson, and John Midgley are both of them sithence deceased 
and their estate in the pmisses is come and accrued to the said Tristraia 

tory of Calverlev, for 
;C85o; excepted are 
sucn tithes in Idle as 
belong to Christopher 
ThompaoD^^Esq., or 
Willian Thompson, 
his father. 

Tristram Kitson, be- 
inff by surviyance the 
sole owner of these 
tithes, grants unto 
Moses Hobson, clo- 
thier, of Idle, and 
his brother John 
Hobson, a commuta- 
tion of the tithes on 
their lands in Idle 
called Birkbatts and 
Crocketroyds, for the 
sum of £3 106., and 
an annual charge of 
3%d. to the Crown. 

Subject to a charge of 
£2 6s. 8d. per annum 
Datable to the crown, 
being part of the 
;C76 1 6s. 6d. per an 
num, reserved to the 
crown in the first 
grant of tithes made, 
4th August, 1606, by 
the crown to William 
Vernon, of Soothill, 
and Christopher Nay- 
lor of Wakefield. 

West HtDlKa CA&TTlXARTf. 391 

KiUon by way of survivo. This Indenture now therefore witneeseth 
that the said Tristram Kitson for and in consideration of the sum of 
three pounds and ten shillinj^s of lawful English money to him in hand 
paid before the ensealling hereof by the said Moses Hobson, and John 
Hobson ; and for divers other good causes and considerations him there- 
unto moving hath betaken granted aliened sold and confirmed and by 
this indenture for and from him his heirs and assigns and each of them 
doth fully, clearly and absolutely betake, grant, alien, sell, and confirm 
unto the said Moses Hobson and John Hobson their heirs and assigns 
for ever all and singular the tithes of sheaves, come, grain, hay, grass, 
and woods, yearly coming, growing, renewing, and increasing, and which 
at all and every time and times hereafter shall yearly come, grow, 
happen, renew, and increase, of, within, and upon all those several 
closes of land, meadow, and pasture commonly called or knowne by the 
several names of Birkebattes, and Crockettroides, with their appur- 
tenances, lying and being within the lordship or township of Idle 
aforesaid in the said county of York containing by estimation seven 
acres be the same more or less now in the tenure or occupation of the 
said Moses Hobson and John Hobson or the one of them or their 
assigns (which said tithes above hereby granted with the appurtenances 
are pte and pcell of the aforesaid tithes above mentioned to be bargained 
and sold by the said Sir George Savile, and dame Elizabeth his wife, 
unto the said William Rawson, John Midgley, and Tristram Kitson as 
aforesaid, to have, hold, pceive, take and enjoy, all and singular the 
said tithes of sheaves, corne, grain, hay, grass, and woods herein before 
mentioned to be hereby granted, with the appurtenances unto the said 
Moses Hobson and John Hobson their heirs and assigns for ever. To 
the only and pper use and behoof of the said Moses Hobson and John 
Hobson and of their heirs and assigns for ever, they, the said Moses 
Hobson and John Hobson their heirs or assigns, yielding, paying, and 
discharging therefore yearly from henceforth, unto our said sovereign 
lord, the king's majesty his heirs and successors for ever the yearly 
rent of threepence halfpenny of lawful money of England, being pcell 
of the foresaid yearly rent or sum of iii £ — vi s. — viiid. above mentioned 
to be referred or agreed to be paid and discharged to his majesty his 
heirs and successors for the above granted tithes and the tithes of other 
lands and tenements mentioned in and by the said Indenture of bargain 
and sale in pte above recited and at such feasts and times, and in such 
manner and form as the same ought in and by the true intent and 
meaning of the said Indenture of bargain and sale and letters patente 
to be yearly paid and discharged and the said Moses Hobson and 
John Hobson do for them, their heirs, executors, and adm and eyery of 
them covenant pmise and graunt to and with the said Tristram Kitson 
his heirH and assigns by these psents, that they the said Moses Hobson 
and John Hobson their heirs or assigns or seme of them shall and will 
yearly and every year from henceforth for and in respect of the tithes 
above hereby granted, well and truly yield, pay, and discharge unto 
our said sovereign lord the king's majesty his heirs and successors for 
ever, the said yearly rent or sum of iii d. ii f . pcell of the foresaid 
yearly rent or sum of iii £ — vi s. — viii d. att such feasts and times in 
such manner and form as the same ought in and by the true intent 


and meaning of the said Indenture of bargain and sale, and letters 
patente to be yearly paid and discharged, and of the same yearly rent or 
sum of iii £ odd, and of every pte thereof and of and from all distresses, 
losses, damage, surrenders, issues, seizure, amerciaments, impositions, 
and impeachments whatsoever to be had, taken, levied, sustained, born, 
or suffered, for or by reason of the nonpayment of the said yearly 
rent or sum of iii £ odd. or of any pte thereof at such times as the 
same ought to have been paid, shall and will acquit and discharge or 
otherwise well and sufficiently, upon reasonable request mude safe or 
kept harmless and indemnified, the said Tiistram Kitson. his heirs, 
exec^- adm. and assignes, and every of them at all times from henceforth 
for ever ; against our said suverign lord, the king's majesty, his heirs 
and successors, and against the said Sir George Savile and Dame 
Elizabeth, his wife, their heirs and assignes and every of them, and the 
SAID Tristram Kitson, doth for him his heirs, exec*^* adm., and every 
of them, covenant, pmise, and grant to and with the said Moses Hobson 
and John Hobson, their heirs, and assigns, and to and with every of 
tliem by these p«ents, that they the said Moses Hobson and John 
Hobson their heirs and assignes and every of them to their own uses, 
shall or may lawfully, peaceably, and quietly at all times from hence- 
forth for ever have, hold, pceive, take and enjoy all and singular the 
said tithes of sheaves, corn, grain, hay, grass, and woods, above hereby 
granted with the appurtenances for and under the said yearly rent of 
iii£ odd above herein mentioned, and covenanted and agreed to be paid 
and discharged for the same as aforesaid ; according to the tenour and 
true intent and meaning of these psent without the lawfull lett, suite, 
trouble, eviction, disturbance, recovery, or encumbrance, whatsoever, of 
or by the said Tristram Kitson his heirs or assigns, or any of them, or 
of or by any other pson orpsons whatsoever, lawfully claiming or that 
shall lawfully claim, by, from, or under him or them or any of them, or 
by or through, his or their means, consents, privities, or pcurement, and 
FBEE and clearly discharged or otherwise well and sufficiently from time 
to time and all times hereafter upon reasonable request to be therefore 
made, saved, or kept harmless and indemnified by the said Tristram 
Kitson, his heirs, exec<^> adm., or assignes or some of them, of and 
from all form and other bargains, sales, gifts, grants, estates, uses, wills, 
intayles, leases, mortgages, jointures, dowers, and titles of duwer, 
statutes marchant and of the staple, bonds, recognizances, annuities, 
rents, fPeeffanne, and arrearages of rents, and ffceffurmes, extents, judg- 
ments, executions, intrusions, Kcizures, issues, fines, amerciaments, con- 
demnations, acts, charges, titles, troubles and encumbrances whatsoever, 
hcretofoie had, made, committed, suffered, or done, or hereafter to be had, 
made, committed, suffered, or done by the said Tristram Kitson 
his heirs, exec**-» or adm. or any of them, or by any other pson 
or psons whatsoever by or thi*ough his, or their, or any of their 
means, con«»ent, privity or pcurement (the said yearly rent or sum of 
£3 vis. viiid. above herein mentioned only excepted) provided always 
and upon condition, and it is the true intent and meaning of the psents, 
and of the pties to the same and it is accordingly covenanted, granted, 
concluded, and fully agreed by and between the said pties for them their 
several heirs and as«»igns by these psent?, that if it shall fortune the said 


yearly rent or 8UTn of iii£ odd, or any pte thereof to be in arrear and 
unpaid by the space of twenty days next after any feast or time in Avhich 
the same ought to have been paid, that then and so often as it shall so 
happen, it shall and may be well lawful, to and for the said Tristram 
Kitson his heires and assignes for every such default to enter, to have 
again, and enjoy, all and singular the said tithes of sheaves, corn, grain, 
hay, gitiss and woods above hereby granted, and the same tithes, and 
every of them and every pte thereof to have, pceive. gather and take, to 
his and their owne uses from henceforth for and during the term of ten 
years next following after every such default noie pcence, in liea and 
satisfaction, of and for ever}*^ such rent orsumofiiiH odd so behind 
and unriaid This psent Indenture or any grant, clause, word, sentence, 
or covenant hereinbefore mentioned or contained, or any other matter or 
thing whatsoever to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding 
AND MOREOTEK the said Tristram Kitson and his heirs the said tithes of 
sheaves, corn, grain, hay. grass and woods, above in and by these psents 
mentioned to be granted with the appurtenances unto the said Moses 
Hobson and John Hobson their heirs and assigns to their owne uses for 
ever for and under the said yearly rent or sum of iii£ odd, and 
under the pviso or cond tion aforesaid and in manner and forme 
aforesaid, against him the said Tristram Kitson his heirs and 
assignes shall and will warrant and defend for ever by these psents, 
PROVIDED ALSO and it is nevertheless the true intent and meaning of 
these psents and of the ptie« to the same, and it is accordingly covenanted 
granted, concluded, and fully agreed, by and between the said pties for 
them their several heirs and assignes by these psents, that this psent 
Indenture or any grant, clause, word, sentence or covenant cherein 
contained or any clause, sentence, matter, or thing to be contained in any 
other assurance or assurances, to be hereafter made of the above granted 
tithes or of any part thereof to the sai 1 Moses Hobson and John Hobson 
their heirs or assignes shall not in any wise extend nor be construed, 
adjudged or expounded, to tie, bind, vouch, or charge the said Tristram 
Kitson, his heirs or assigns, or any of them, or their, or any of their lands 
or tenements, or any pte thereof to or with any further or other warranty 
or warranties of the said tithes or any pte thereof, but only against him 
the said Tristram Kitson, his heirs and assigns severally and respectively 
for his and their o^vne several and respective acts, only, and no further 
nor otherwise, this psent Indenture or any grant, clause, word, sentence, 
or covenant therein contained or anv other assurance or assurances 


whatsoever, to be thereupon hereafter had, made, executed or any other 
matter or thing ivhatsoever to the contrary thereof in any wise notwith- 
standing. In witness whereof the pties above-named have to these 
Indentures interchangeably set their hands and seals the day and year 
first above expressed. 

(Signed : Tristram Kitson.) 

Sealed and Delivered in the presence of us : 

John Stanhope. James Saoar. 

Thomas Ledorrd. John Illingworth. 

Lawrence Buck. 



{ohn Ijimbert, of 
fanningham, y«o* 
man. and Mary 
Ucmbert, his wife, 

demise to Joseph 
Lambert, of Hors- 
forih, and William 
Rawiton, of BoHing, 
the following pro- 


Bradford. 4 December 1686. 

This Indenture made the fourth day of December in the second 
yeare of the raigne of our soveraige lord James (he second by the grace 
of God of England Scotland France and Ireland king, defender of the 

faith, etc. Annoque domini 1686, Betweene John 
Lambert of Manningham in the parish of Bradford 
in the county of Yorke yeoman and Mary his wife 
of th* one parte ; and Joseph Lambert of Horsforth 
in the said county yeoman and William Rawson of 
Boiling in the sayd county yeoman of th' other parte 
WITNESSETH that the said John Lambert and Mary 
his wife as well to the intent and purpose to settle 
establish convey and assure the sevrall messuages 
houses buildings crofts or parcells of land tenants and 
and other the hereditam^' hereafter in and by these 
psents mentioned and expressed to such use or uses as are hereafter in 
and by these psents mentioned expressed or declared as for divers other 
good causes and considerations them the said John Lambert and Mary 
his wife thereunto especially moveing hee the sayd John Lambert doth 
for himself and his heires covenant pmise and graunte, and the said 
Mary his wife doth agree to and with the said Joseph Lambert and 
William Rawson theire heires and assignes by these psents that they 
the sayd John Lambert and Mary his wife shall and will before the end 
of Easter Term next after the date hereof in due form of lawe and at 
the costs and charges of him the sayd John Lambert acknowledge and 
levye unto them ihe said Joseph Lambert and William Rawson and the 
heires of the sayd Joseph one fine sur cognizance de droit tour come too 
with pclamations thereupon to bee had and made according to the forme 
of the statute in that case provided (xvith and among other messuages 
lands tenan**- and hereditam**- in the same fine to be mentioned for and in 

respect of other psons to be joyned and named therein) 
Of and upon all that messuage or tenem*- with 
th'appurtenences scituate standing and being in 
Godmannend in Bradford in the sayd county of 
Yorke wherein one Mary Musgrave did formerly 
dwell, and now in the tenure or occupation of 
the said John Lambert or his assignes and one 
laithe or barne and two crofts or closes of land, 
meadow and pasture to the same messuage belong- 
ing, containing by estimation foure days worke, bee 
the same more or less, and now in the tenure or 
occupation of the sayd John Lambert or his assignes 
And also of and upon all those two other dwelling- 
houses cottHges or tents with theire appurtenences 
situate and being in Godmannend in Bradford afore- 
sayd in the said county now in the severall tenures or 
occupations of Cuthbert Rogers and Martha Harper or 
one of them, theire heires or one of theire assignee or 

One messuage in 
Goodmanend, Brad- 
ford, formerly occu- 
pied by Mary Miis- 
Krave, and now by 
Jobn Lambert, lo- 
gether with one lathe 
and two crofts of 
meadow belonging 
thereto ; 

also two dwellings 
in Goodmanend, ten- 
anted by Cuthbert 
Rogers and Martha 



assignee and also of and upon one other messuage Also a cottage, lathe 
cottage or dwelling-house, one laith or barne, and one S'a1.eS~*J;nant?rby 
croft or pcell of land containing two dayes worke or Joseph Booth. 
thereabouts to the same belonging, with th'appurtences 
in Godmannend in Bradford aforesayd now in the tenure or occupation 
of Joseph Booth his assignee or assignes and of and upon all the c ut- 
houses, edifices, buildings, gardens, commons, liberties, wayes, profitts, 
comodities, easem^ hereditam^ and appurtenences whatsoever to the 
sayd messuages, cottages, houses, crofts, closes, and pcells of land or 
any of them belonging or in any wise appertaining and the revercion and 
revercions remainder and remainders of the pmisses and of every parte 
thereof, and all rents and yearly profitts whatsoever reserved, upon 
any demise or demises of the same or any parte thereof the 
same fine to be acknowledged and levyed by such name or names 
quantities qualities contents and numbers of acres and in such 
manner and forme as shall bee sufficient and pper for the settling passing 
and conveying the said pmisses to the use or uses hereafter mentioned 
and declared this Indenture now further witnesseth that to the intent 
the uses of the sayd fine may not hereafter bee left to aver°><* and bare 
proof without any expresse declaration thereof in writeinge and for the 
clearing and avoydeing all such questions and doubts which in future 
time might arise and grow about the same, Itt is covenanted, graunted, 
concluded and agreed by and betwene the sayd parties to these psents 
and it is hereby permitted, expressed and declared and the sayd John 
Lambert and Mary his wife doe by these psents express, declare and 
agree that the sayd fine soe to bee acknowledged and levyed as afore- 
said or in any other manner (as to, for, touching and concerning, the 
pmisses herein before mentioned) shall be and enure and shall be 
construed adjudged expounded and taken to bee and enure, and the 
sayd Joseph Lambert and William Kawson and theire heires or the 
heires of one of them shall by virtue thereof stand and be seized of and 
in all and singular the said pmisses with theire and every of theire 
appurtenances to the use or uses hereafter mentioned and declared (I'hat 
is to say) To the onely use and beboofe of (he said John Lambert and of 
his heires and assignes for ever and to none other use or uses. In 
WITNESS whereof the parties above named to the parties of these 
Indentures have interchangeably sett theire handes and scales the day 
and yeare first above expressed. 

John Lambert. Lambert. 

fEndorsemert i) , 

Sealed and Delivered in the presence of 

Jere. Bower, 

Will. Rawson, Junr., 

Thomas Gill. 



Mb8. e. armitage. 

/^%N the top of a hill immediately to the south of 
^^ Iluddersfield stands the ancient stronghold 
known as the Castle Hill of Almondbury, one 
of the finest earthworks in Yorkshire. The situation 
which it occupies is eminently defensible by nature, 
three sides of the hill on which it stands being 
exceedingly steep, while the east side, where the slope 
offers a more practicable approach, is exceedingly 
narrow. It commands a magnificent view of the 
surrounding country, and its ramparts and ditches are 
on the whole in very good preservation. The area 
>vhich it covers is rather more than eleven acres in 
extent, and in shape an elongated oval ; it is divided 
across the centre by a cross ditch and banks, while the 
western end, which was originally the highest part of 
the hill, has also been cut off by a ditch of its own, 
and by the addition of about eight feet of artificial 
soil has been formed into one of those mottes or 
artificial hillocks which are so familiar as part of the 
ground plan of most Norman castles. 

This motte was selected by the townspeople of 
Huddersfield as a suitable site for a tower to com- 
memorate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee. In digging 
the foundations for this tower, the workmen, as soon 
as they had reached the rock, came upon the shaft of a 
well, about five feet three inches square, cut through 
the sandstone. It was excavated to the depth of thirty- 
three feet, and a quantity of bones were found, which 
have been pronounced to be those of domestic animals. 



A number of dressed stones, some of which appeared 
to belong to a doorway and window, and one which 
looked like part of an arch, were found. The 
diagonal tooling of these stones showed that they did 
not belong to modern times. It was also found that 
the ground around the well had been covered with a 
sort of platform of loose undressed stone, probably the 
stone which had been quarried from the well. Over 
one portion there were ttiree cour&es of this stone, and 
two over the whole area, arranged in a sort of rude 
herringbone pattern, but separated by a lew inches 
of soil. Above this platform had been placed the 
artificial soil which forms the motte, and which pro- 
bably was taken from the ditch which separates it from 
the middle ward. 

As only ordinary navvies were employed on the 
work, it was not surprising to hear that nothing what- 
ever had been found in the excavations except the 
bones and stones above mentioned. Hut a large sec- 
tion of the artificial part of the motte, as well as of 
the natural soil below it, had been exposed; and 
seemed to call for a little amateur investigation. This 
was applied, ana after some labour a few shards of 
coarse pottery, evidently wheel -made, were found 
embedded in the clay, mixed with rubble, of which 
the moite is composed, and an iron nail, about two 
inches long, with a flat head, was found lying on the 
original surface of the ground, which was very clearly 
marked in the section of the motte. Another piece of 
pottery, with the glaze which marks the mediaeval 
period, was found amongst the outlying rubbish, but 
there was no means of proving whether it had come 
from the filling of the well or from the substance of 
the motte. A great number of iron nails were found 
as well, but as these were near the surface, they may 
have belonged to the framework of a beacon which is 
known to have been erected here about a hundred 
years ago, when a French invasion was expected. It 
is unfortunate that the well was not excavated to the 
bottom, as this would probably have supplied some 

389 TBE 

more direct eridence concemiiig the first ooeapants 
of this citadel. But as this woold probably hare 
necessitated di??in^ c!own to a rerj considerable 
depth, it did not lie within the prorince of the 
builders of the tower. 

Before considering the eridence supplied by the 
relics abore described as to the age of the "camp" 
at Almondbury, it may be convenient to see what we 
can learn alK)ut it from other sources. The manor 
of Almaneberie (such is its name in Domesday) was 
held before the Norman Conquest by two persons 
bearing the Fcry Scandinayian names of Ketel and 
Sweyn. At the Conquest, it passed into the hands 
of Ilbert de Lacy, the great Norman Lord of Ponte- 
fract. At the time of the Survey it was held under 
Ilbert by one Leusin, and it was waste, that is, uncul- 
tivated. Nothing is said in Domesday Book about any 
castle there. The only historical notice bearing on 
the origin of the castle is a statement of Camden that 
a castle arose here after the Norman Conquest, and 
was "confirmed by King Stephen to Henry Lacy."* 
Though the first castle was probably of wood, it seenis 
certain that a stone castle was subsequently erected, since 
the remains of stone walls are mentioned both by Camden 
and Whitaker as being visible at their respective 
epochs. Whitaker states that in digging for the 
foundations of a house within the precinct of the 
castle, a winding subterraneous staircase was dis- 
covered, " but not pursued as it ought to have been/'* 
A lluddersfleld writer, in the year 1848, states that 
sixty years previously part of the old wall of the castle 
was still standing.f It is evident that this castle was 
ruined at an early period, for an inquest was held in 
the reign of Edward II. on the body of a murdered 
man which had been thrown into the dtmgeon of 

• Cftindon appoars to refer to some charter which he has seen ; hia words are 
**a cAstls aroso here afterwards (i.^., after Saxon timev) which 1 find confirmed 
by King Htuphon to Ilenry tjaoy.*' Britannia III., 6. But, as usual, he gives 
no rofurt)iu*o. 

• Whitaker I^idis in Elinote, 328. 
t Walks round Iluddetsfleld, p. 27. 


the former cdstle oj Almondhury^ where it had been 
attacked by dogs and birds ; % the castle must, there- 
fore, have been a deserted ruin at that time. Dr. 
Walker, in his paper on Almondbury,§ quotes an 
inquisition of the reign of Edward III., which men- 
tions the hill "where the castle formerly stood" ; and 
the subsequent returns from the manor of Almondbury 
use the same language. 

This early desertion of the castle of Almondbury 
probably explains the entire disappearance of any 
remains of stone masonry, except what has been 
found in the well ; for the wall on top of the earth- 
work, the foundations of which are to be seen on the 
south side of the middle ward, is probably modern. 
The first agent in the destruction of the caatle was 
evidently fire; Camden noticed "the adust and brown 
colour of the stones" in his day, and some of the 
stones found in the well bore marks of fire. And it 
is not only on the motte that the signs of fire are to 
be traced ; along the north embankment of the first 
or outer ward lumps of burnt soil may be easily dug 
up by the trowel, and suggest that a palisade or hedge 
on top of the rampart was destroyed by fire. 

It will be seen that all the historical notices which 
we have point to a Norman origin for the castle of 
Almondbury. The existing remains bespeak the same 
conclusion; the motte with its accompanying bailey- 
court or courts was the usual type of the Norman 
castle of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, whether 
the defences which crowned the earthworks were of 
wood or of stone. It is worthy of notice that the 
ground plan of Almondbury resembles almost exactly 
that of Aulnay in Normandy, as given by Caumont in 
his Abicidaire d'ArchSologie. Now the Lacy family, 
the original possessors of Almondbury castle, came 
from the immediate neighbourhood Aulnay.* 

X Whitakor, ib. This passage has been strangeljr misread, being quoted as an 
instance of feudal barbarity, whereas it is really an instance of mediesval jadidal 

{ Yorkshire Arduool. Jonm., Vol. II. 

* Yorks. Archieological Journal, part 63, page 16. 



It is of course well known that the late Mr. 
G. T. Clark, the' author of Mediceval and Military 
Architecture^ maintained that castles of the motte-and- 
bailey type were a peculiarly English invention, and 
even went so far as to assert that the word burh was the 
English name for this particular kind of fortification. 
There is not the slightest evidence for this theory, 
which is sufficiently refuted by the history of the 
word. A burh^ from the root hergan^ to shelter, 
originally meant an embankment or wall.* It might 
be round a private house, and doubtless this was its 
original sense ; but as the most recent authority states, 
'* unequivocal instances of its use in this sense are 
rare.^j From the time of Alfred we find it more fre- 
quently used in the sense of a town-wall or bulwark. 
There can be little doubt that the hurhs built by 
Edward the Elder and Ethelfleda were town-walls, 
whether of earth, wood or stone. J In course of time, 
by a very common transition, the name of the 
enclosure was transferred to the thing enclosed, and 
the hurh became the borough. In this sense we find it 
used as early as Alfred's translation of Orosius. The 
burh-gemot or towns-meeting, and the burh-waru or 
towns-men, are fully developed long before the Nor- 
man conquest. And the difference between a burh and 
a castle could not be better marked than it is in the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1092), when we are told of the 
city of Carlisle that William Rufus " repaired the burh 
(which of course had Roman walls), and built the 

Nevertheless, we readily admit that there Are three 
features at Almondbury which suggest an older origin 
for the camp than the Norman time. First, the name 
Almondbury, which is certainly older than Domesday 

*Tho datiye form byrigii^ the origin of place- names ending in buty. See New 
English Dictionary. 

f New EngliBh Dictionary, Borough. Bee also Schmid's Oesetze der Angel- 
sachsen, art. Barh in glossary. 

X Florence of Worcester, or more strictly speaking Marianus Scotus, the 
translator of the Saxon Chronicle, translates burh by urbs. 


Survey, as it is found in that document, seems to 
suggest the burh or fortress of someone with the 
unmistakahly Saxon name of Ealchmund.* Secondly, 
the area of the camp, which, as already stated, covera 
ahout eleven acres, is very much larger than that usually 
occupied by Norman castles which seldom exceed 
three and a half acres in extent. The Normans were 
few iu number, and the fortifications which they built 
were calculated for defence by a small body of men. 
Even so great a lord as Ilbert de Lacy could scarcely 
have (spared from his personal followers a sufficient 
force of trusty men to defend a circuit so large as that 
of Almondbury. Thirdly, the situation of Almond- 
bury, on the top of a high isolated hill, difficult of 
access, is not that usually chosen for Norman castles, 
which except in special circumstances were always 
built in the immediate neighbourhood of towns or 
villages, often on quite low ground. 

All these difficulties may be met by the hypothesis 
that what the Normans did at Almondbury was tq 
transform a pre-historic or Saxon *' camp " into a 
Norman castle. Saxon and prehistoric forts resemble 
one another in the large extent of their area, because 
they were intended not as the personal defences of f| 
a single chieftain, but as places of refuge for the 
whole country side. Thus the biirh which Ethelfleda 
built at Eddisbury in Cheshire, and which she doubts 
less intended to be the enclosure of a small tow&s 
covers more than eleven acres. Ealchmund may have 
originally built the burh we are discussing for ^ plac§ 
of refuge for the " Elmetsetas " during the incursion^ 
of the Danes. The Norman lord of El mete found i^ 
fortress made to his hand, which only needed cuttiqg 
in half to make into a defensible castle, with the 
addition of a motte, properly defended by its own 
ditch, as a site for the invariable Norman Donjon or 

* There seems to be a further trace of this Ealchmund in the ancient name of 
the adjoining portion of Lancashire, Agmundemess, which is called Almundemeas 
in an earlv <£arter, Dugdale VI. p. 997. There was a Northumbrian saint named 



Keep, which in the first instance would prohahly he 
of wood, as a stone keep could not he huilt on freshly 
heaped soil. It may be conjectured, then, that the 
traverse which separates the middle ward from the 
outer one was the work of the Norman Lacies ;  and 
some support to this conjecture is furnished by the 
fact that the banks surrounding the middle ward are 
much higher and stronger than those of the first or 
eastern ward. The hypothesis might easily be tested 
by a little excavation, as if the traverse was con- 
structed at a subsequent date to the outer rampart, the 
originally grassy surface of that rampart would be 
found underneath the point of junction. 

As for the third objection, the character of the site, 
it does not present any serious difficulty, because at 
Almondbury we have exactly the special circumstances 
which caused the Normans to deviate from their usual 
rule, and to build castles in loftv situations. Almond- 
bury lies in a district which at the time of the con- 
quest was peculiarly wild and turbulent. North 
Lancashire was an almost uninhabited waste, but the 
defiles which led into it may at any time have been 
over-run by hordes of Scots, especially in the reign of 
Stephen, when Cumberland and Westmoreland were 
held by the king of Scots. The road from Manchester 
to York lay through the valley below Almondbury, 
and doubtless needed watching, for it was the route by • 
which Scandinavian pirates from the Isle of Man and 
elsewhere could find their way into the plains of 
Yorkshire. In places where special danger threatened 
we find the Normans placing their castles in lofty 
situations. Thus the so-called Csesar's Camp near 
Folkestone, shewn by General Pitt-Rivers' excavations 
to be a Norman castle,f was placed on the ridge of the 
chalk hills to watch over that portion of the coast ; and \ 

there is strong reason for supposing that the forti- 

* Or possibly of King Stephen, as the fjacies lost their lands under Henry I., 
because they sided with Duke Robert, but received them back from Stephen. 

t Excavations at Ga»8ar*s Camp, Folkestone, Archseologia, VoL XLVIL 


fication on the summit of the Herefordshire Beacon is 
also a Norman castle. De Lacy may well have thought 
that the top of a commanding hill was the safest place 
for his castle in so wild a region as the Yorkshire 
and Lancashire border. 

Leaving this hypothesis until it can be tested by 
further research, we now return to the excavations at 
Almondbury, to inquire what the net result of them 
may be said to be. The discovery of the well in the 
motte is by no means exceptional. General Pitt Rivers 
found a similar well shaft in the mound of Caesar's 
Camp, above mentioned. There is one in the mound 
of Oxford castle, with a remarkable well-chamber of 
Norman character. The iron nail found on the 
original surface is sufficient to prove that the motte 
does not belong to the stone or bronze ages — if any one 
were inclined to urge such an hypothesis. The pieces 
of pottery found in the soil of the motte have been 
submitted to General Pitt-Rivers, and are pronounced 
by him to be certainly Norman. Of course, objects 
found embedded in the soil of an embankment do not 
furnish a date for the work, as they may have been 
lying in the soil before the earthwork was thrown up. 
They only furnish a terminus a quo for the date of the 
bank. A Roman coin found in the centre of an 
embankment does not prove that it is Roman ; it only 
proves that it was built at some period after the 
Romans came to Britain. The scraps of pottery found 
at Almondbury only prove that the m^tte was thrown 
up after the Normans came to England. But this is 
sufficient to form an important contribution to the 
question as to the origin of these curious mattes, which 
stud England from end to end. So little interest is 
taken by the general public in English archaeology, 
that probably few people are aware that there is any 
question here to decide. It is to be hoped that further 
excavations will be undertaken in a site so promising 
as Almondbury, for any light thrown on one ancient 
earthwork sheds a measure of light on others. 






Continued from Page 324. 

Explanation of contraction in the second column : w. wfe ; 

s, Sonne; cL daughter; ch, childe. 

March 25 




2 Alice 

4 Mary 


14 Thomas 


16 Ellin 


17 William 

18 Mary 


20 Grace 


27 Elizabeth 

1 Sarah 

2 Martha 

5 Ann 

6 Rebecka 
II James 

15 Mary 
i6 John 


John Wads worth, H or Ion 
Widdow Cunliffe, Bradford 
Samuel! Bayly, AUerton 
w William Uairstow. Claton 
w John Whaley, late of Bd. 

Dorothy Braffit, Horton 
s Thomas Booth, Halyfax 

Katherine Elsworth, Calverley pish, 
w Jonas Ashton late of Horton 
w Joseph Jonson, Horton 
s William Ramsdin, Heaton 
w Thomas Ashton, Bd. 

Hannah Hill, Ratchdayle 
ch William Farrer, Bd. 
w John Oaton, Allerton 

Elizabeth Allerton, Bowling 
w William Procter, Bowling 
w Jeremiah Collyer, late Minister at Bd, 
w Thomas Kellet, Horton 
d John Hollings, late of Bd. 
d Richard Cordingley, Tong lordshipp 
w Joseph Metcalfe, Bd. 
s Joseph Furlh, Horton 
d Robert Gill, Tong lordshipp 
s Abraham Bell, Heaton 
ch William Hodgson, Bd. 
Martha Pighles, Gt. H. 
Tohn Booth, Gt. H. 

















15 Henry 





w and 







25 Mary 






8 Susana 




18 Grace 













18 Isabell 





















w John Horton, Horton 

William Wright, Claton 
w Michaell Sunderland, Ikl. 
d Edward Lister, late of Bd. 

Elizal>eth Roberd, Bd. 
ch John Booth 
s Jon<is Whitwham, Claton 
d Christopher Smith, Bd. 
s Christopher Lambe, Bd. 
s Margritt Pickard, Bd. 
ch Mr. Jonas Waterhouse, Minister at Bd. 
ch Richard Pearson, Bd. 
d Nicholas Walker, Bd. 
ch Richard Rawden, Bowling 
d James Sagar, Allerton 

Christopher Clarke, Bd. 
w Rodger Pullan, Bd. 

Michaell Hemin worth, Claton 
s Richard Birkhead, Bd. 
ch Rol)ert Wilkinson, Bd. 
s Jonas Ashton, late of Horton 
w Edmond Akeroyde, Bowling 
s Christopher Swaine, Bowling 
ch James Smith, Horton 
ch Christopher Smith, Horton 
w Christopher Pearson, CaWerley pish, 
s Isaac Hollings, Claton 
Chiistopher Pickard, Horton 
w Samuel Hudson, Bd. 
Peeler Drake, Bowling 
Dorothy Hornebee, Calverley pish. 
Richard Pi^hles, Bd. 
w Jas. Bowker, Bd. 
w Thos. Wilkinson, late of Bd. 

Henry Whearter, Bd. 
ch John Bayly, Bd. 
ch Francis Drake, Bowling 
d Richard Oddie, Heaton 
w Peeter Jowet, late of Thornton 
w William Kitchen, Bd. 
d Thomas Hodgson, Horton 
s Jonas Smith, Bd. 
d Robert Frankc, Bd. Gent, 
ch Hugh Andrew, Bd. 
s Isaac Murgitroyde, Tireshall 
Matthew Hurst, Byerlcy 

John Lumbe, Maningham 
Mary Pighles, Man. 

ch Jesper Hardy, Man. 

ch John Iligson, Horton 

w Jonathan Jowet, Man. 

d WilUnni Rawson, Shipley, Gent. 



Michaell Wormall, Heaton 

20 Mai^rilt 

John Hill, late of Ikl. 


w Michaell Metcalfe, late of Bd. 

21 Thomas 

s Mathew Milner, Horton 

22 Mary 

d John Sharpe, Gt. H. 

28 Timothy 

s William Jowet, Man. 


William Sowden, lid. 


d William Roodes, late of Bd. 

Nov. 2 William 

s Henry Lilly, Bd. 

5 Sarah 

w John Hawkswell, Tong lordshipi^e 


Richard Farrer, Bowteton in Calverley pish. 


John Balme forth, Mann. 

13 James 

s Josias Booth, Heaton 


Agnes flodgson, Bd. 

18 John 

s John Wilson, late of Bd. 


ch Samuell Smalepsige, AUerton 


William Pullan, Bd. 


w John Rhodes, Horton 

26 The 

w of Robert Slator and two children 


William Rodley, Bd. 

Dec. 3 Martha 

w Thomas Marsden, Man. 

4 Grace 

w William Wood, Bd. 

William Booth, Shipley 


Robert Hill, Bd. 

Abraham Balme, Bowling 

Sleephen HoUindrake, Man. 


Thomas Watkin, Master of the Free 

[School, Bd. 


Mnry Rishforlh, Allcrton 


d Jeremiah Smith, Horton 


William Jackson, Horton 

12 Frances 

d William Greene, late of Bd. 

13 Mary 

d Jeremiah Smith, Horton 

21 Joseph 

s Francis Pratt, Bd. 


William Freeman, Bd. 

Mary Vickars, Bd. 

27 Susana 

d John Jowet, Man. 

Jan. 6 Margrit 

w TIios. Craven, Man. 


Abraham Watson, Bd. Saxton 


ch Thomas Clough. Horton 


James Booth, Bd. 


w Richard Richardson, Bowling, Gent. 

John Tyas, Bowling 

21 Judeth 

d John Jackson, Bd. 

ch Richard Birch, Bowling 


Richard Riddlesden, Bd. 


ch William Pollard, Bd. 


Daniell Smith, Bierley 


Nathan Binns, Wilsden 


ch John Roodes, Bd. 

Feb. I Jonas 

s John Sugden, Horton 


d Nicholas Wilkinson, Man. 



2 Hellin 

d John Ilollings, late of Bd. 

3 Elizabeth 

d Isaac Sharpe, Lt. H. 


w John Cawthera, Bowling 


ch John Longcaster, Bd. 

13 Hesler 

d Samuell Akeroyde, Thornton 

15 Sarah 

w Thomas Wilkes, Heaton 


ch Abraham Parkin, Ilorton 


John Jackson, Bd. 

18 Elizabeth 

w John Longcaster, Bd. 

ch Richard Birch, Horton 


d Abraham Ilaiiiworth, Thornton 


Judeth Waterhouse, Bil. 

ch Abraham Jo wet, Claton 


Richard Jobson, Bowling 


Syl)cll Sugden, Bowling 


Martha Bairstow, Bowling 

27 Martha 

d William Jowet, Man. 

Bernard Parkinson, Bd. 

March 5 Ruth 

w William Lupton, Bowleton 


s John Mathews, Eccleshell 


Ellin Marshall, llealon 


ch John Bayly, Bd. 


John Bairstow, Claiton 

15 Hester 

d Joseph Booth, Bd. 


ch Robert Smith, Btl. 

20 Sarah 

w Thomas Swaine, Horton 

1668. 25 

ch Joshua Starkee, late of Bd. 


Matthew Dishforth, B<1. 

27 Tobias 

s John Turner, Bd. 

April 3 

ch William Brooksbanke, Shipley 

5 Henry 

s William Prockter, Bd. 

Jennit Mui*gilroyd, Bd. 


ch John Swift, Bd. 

ch Henry Bumemore, Thornton 

II Mary 

w Abraham Swaine, late of Horton 


ch Robert Dinison, Bowling 


ch Christopher Swaine, Bowling 

14 Mary 

w John Greave, late of Allerton 


d Joseph Nichols, Horton 


ch Robert Sugden, Horton 


Katherine Kitchin, Bd. 


w John Wel)ster, late of Ikl. 

23 Ann 

w Osweihl Tennant, Thornton 

ch Jonas Walker, Bd. 

27 Mary 

w Peeter P'ickard, late of Shipley 


Robert Sugden, Gt. H. 


w William Burnley, Horton 

May 2 

Grace Bunie, Bowling 

3 Mary 

d Hugh Sawnderson, Bowling 

5 Sarah 

d Richard Ilolyday, Bil. 

6 bastard child of Richard Tayler, Bd. 


ch John Turner, Bd. 






II A'ri>T^ 

12 M JTT 


s. a 

17 A:^ 


iS T-ccus 





26 HelLii 














4 John 


II Mary 








23 Isaac 


24 Sarah 


28 Mary 








20 Susanah 





27 Margrit 



29 Barbera 






6 Ann 





A r;ia."n Be.-:. Hezr^o 

; -hii H ;:_-^. w 

7^^=-i~ fc-xch, Man. 
I-xwr-t>:« Rj^w5c«i, Sh^^lcj 
Ja=*« Wlitinr. Claroa 

J^-^niih J Twct, Bowling 
R:i-arf H IHay. Bd. 

c Boi^.h, Bd. 
T :• z K !ch =. B.L 
%^ : : - - w Hcl'-r-gs, CUuoa 
T-hn Shjj^^e, llorton, 
^Vl !-a~i Pe=x5.»n, Man. 
\V:::-ai Her. Scnf., Bd. 
Gil-ttt Dcar.c, Allerton 
John Moftrascr, Horton 
Jchn Wirerhousc, Man. 
I^aac Bdimc, Hortoo 
\V:i:iam Brooksbank, Shipley 
Ji-!;n Walker, Horton 
Waiinrr Walker, Bd. 
James Clou^h, Bd. 
Thomas Sugden, Hortoo 
Judelh Baits, Bd. 
J ocas Holdsirorth, Horton 
Josias Holdsworth, Bd. 
Ko!>ert Wilson, late of Bd. 
Isaac Kitchin, B<l. 
Richard Holmes, Bd. 
Snrah Xichols, Bowling 
James Mitchill, Bd. 
William Smith, Bd. 
Gill>ert Deine, Allerton 
Mary Smalepage, Claton 
Thomas Greene, Wibsey 
William Swift, Bierley 
Teremiah Jowet, Bowling 
Peeler Gleadhill, Claton 
Christopher Bell, Horton 
Nicholas Allerton, Allerton 
Walther Jobson, Bd. 
James Pollard, Frizinghall 
Hellin Moxon, Bel. 

John Claton, Crosley Hall, dyed at Bd. 
William Pullan, late of Bd. 
Richard Booth, late of Claton 
Ann Iliiidle, Rushton in Langkinshire 
Thomas Padgett, Cayton, a Lankinshire man 
Thomas Seizer, Tong lordshippe 
Richard Pearson, Allerton 



Robert Parker, Heat on 

Oct. I Mary 

w William Crabtree, Heaton 


John Gleadhill, Horton 


John Maud, Bd. 


Margritl Norton, Bd. 

9 Susana 

d William Pullan, late of Bd. 

ch John Smithees, Bowling 

15 William 

s M. Hill, late of Wilsden 

i6 Elizabeth 

d George Shackleton 


Jane Mitchell, Allerton 


William Shackleton, Allerton 


William Jepson, Bd. 


ch Joseph Shaw, Bd., unbaptised 

Noy. 9 

ch Jeremiah Bend, Bowling 

II Isabell 

w Isaac Halmond, late of Man. 


ch Richard Ellis, Bd. 

23 Joseph 

s Jeremiah Wood, Bd. 


s Moses Sykes, Bd. 


Mary Barraclough, Bd. 


Hellin Booth, Wilsden 

Dec. I 

ch John Brigg, Man. 

6 Richard 

s Richard Milnes, Eocleshill 


d Abraham Wilsden, Claton 

8 Judith 

w Michael 1 Carter, Claton 

29 Mary 

w Peeter Sunderland, Allerton, Gent. 


ch John Miers, Horton 

Jan. 2 

Samuell Midgley, a stranger 


ch Abraham Wilson, Claton 


Robert Brewer, Horton 


Edward Lang, Claton 


George Skale, Shipley 


Susanna Rayner, Bd. 


Thomas Kitchin, Bd. 

ch James Roodes, Bd. 


ch Thomas Walker, Bd., unbaptised 

26 Grace 

w George Dogson, Bd. 


ch Abraham Sutcliflfe, Horton 

Peb. 5 

Joshua Watkinson, Bd. 


Abraham Sharj^, Calverley pish. 

John Mitchill, Man. 

10 Samuel! 

s William Law, Tong lordshippe 


ch Lawrence Rawson, Shipley 

18 Ann 

w Humphrey Kellit, Eccleshill 

23 Sarah 

d Mr. Richard Stanhop, Eccleshill 

Karch 8 

Abraham W.ilkcr, Bd. 

9 Mary 

d William Feild, Bd. 


w Thomas Swaine, Hoiton 

Sarah Mortimer, Claton 

II Martha 

d Mathew Clough, Horton 

16 Martha 

w Richard Slankecliffe, Claton 


Eliza l^th Swaine, Gt. H. 


William Green, Frizingall 





25 Susana 





23 Margrett 

24 Barbera 


30 Mary 


I Ann 



22 £lizal)eth 



30 Grace 




4 Susana 


7 Mary 



20 Sarah 




I Ann 

2 Jane 

4 Mary 

15 Mary 


26 Judclh 







22 Joshua 


27 Maiy 




I Hannah 

2 Mary 

7 Edwar.l 

d John Walker. l>d. 

William Flelcher, Eccleshill 

Hester Cooke, Horton 
ch Michael Bairstow, Wike 

Elizabeth Lillee, Thornton 
ch Jeremiah Morthropp, Man. 
ch William Kendall, Man. 
w Richard 'lliornton, Tong lordsliippe 

John Eastwood, Shipley 

Rol)Crt Franke, Bd., Gent, 
d John Jowet, Heaton 
d Averah Smith, \M. 

Nathaniell Tayler, Ikl. 

John Hanson, Wibsey 

Thomas Booth, Wilsden 
d William Steephenson, Bd. 

Teremiah Dickson, Heaton 

John Eastwood, Shipley 

John Granger, lk>wling 

Thomas Furtli, Gt. H. 
w John Wilson, late of Bd. 
ch Mathew Askwilh, Bd. 

Thomas Gleadhill, Claton 
ch David Parkinson, Bd. 
d 'Ilios. Holdsworth, Bowling 
w Edward Brookesbanke, Shipley 
d William Fnirebancke, Shipley 
ch Michael I Clegg, Bd. 

Isa1>ell Williamson, Bd. 

w Mathew Procter, Howling 

w Francis Atkinson, Ikl. 

ch Nicholas Walker, B.i. 

w Mathew Ilollings, Bd. 

w John Bayly, Bd. 

d Abraham More, Claton 

d Edward BrookesUnk, Shipley 

w Isaac Nichols, Bowling 

ch Jasper Hardie, Man. 

w Thomas Brooke, Claton 

ch William Akeham, Bd. 

Isaac Wormall, Eccleshill 
w John Mathewes, of Eccleshill 

ch William Jowett, Heaton 

Mary Whitwham, Heaton 

ch Samuel Smalepage, Allerton 

s John Hill, Claton 

ch Jeremiah Kellit, Horton 

d Mathias Milner, Bd. 

Sara Wright, Man. 

John Thornton, Bd. 

d Peeter Metcalfe, Bd. 

d John Nichols, OtIeypLsh. 

s Thomas Hower, late ol Ikl. 





w Isaac Sharpe, lliornton 

8 Abraham 

s John Burnit, Bd. 


cli Edmond Coiiper, Allerton 


ch William Fairbancke 

25 John 

s Henry Atkinson, Bd. 

Prisilla Wilson, Man. 

26 Martha 

w John Smithees, Bowling 

ch John Hodgson, Bowleton 

30 Marjrrit 

w Michael Northrop 

Oct. 9 

w James Tomis, Horton 

13 Mary 

w John Bairslow, Heaton 


Robert Hemmworlh, Bd. 


ch Rol)ert Pollard, Bowling 

ch John Tidswell, Calverley pish. 

Nov. 8 Hester 

w Thos. Goldsbrough, Man. 

17 Mary 

w Isaac Wormall, Eccleshill 

Hugh Holdsworth, Claton 


Peter Garnit, Frizingall 

Dec. 2 

ch Joshua Howleden, Wibsey 

7 Margrit 

d John Booth, Bd. 


ch Samuel Hudson, Bd. 

14 £lizal)eth 

w Richard Smith, B<1. 


w Samuel Holmes, Heaton 


Leah Craven, Frizingall 


ch George Mortimer, Mann. 

Jan. 2 Mary 

w Robert Garnit, Horton 


Samuel Holmes, Heaton 

Alice Stockdayle, Horton 


John Pearson, Thornton 

10 Ajj^nes 

w Richard Ragge, Bd. 

14 KIi74il)eth 

w William Booth, Shipley 


w Robert Vickars, B<1. 


ch John Roodes, Horton 

Jeremiah Hamond, Horton 


James Hillyard, Bd. 


John Hillhouse, Bowling 

23 Roose 

d John Hemsworth, Bd. 


ch John Hodgson, ]kl. 

ch Robert Shore, Bd. 

Edward Walker, Bd. 

ch Leonard Killarbee, Bd. 

Feb. 4 John 

s Hugh Saunderson, Bowling 


Johnjowet, Heaton 

13 Mary 

w William Gleadhill, Horton 


w Elkanah Smith, Bd. 

17 Martha 

d Robert Robinson, Horton 


ch John Balmeforth, Man. 

23 Margrit 

w John Skott, Horton 


Richard Stanhope, Eccleshill, Gent. 

Thomas Chippendayle, Heaton 

26 Grace 

w Godphra Walker, Bd. 


Humphrey Sowden, Thornton 



29 John 

s John Jackson, Bd. 
Grace White, Bd. 
ch John Miers, Horton 


I 3 Mary 

d William Wilkinson, Man. 

7 Bridgit 

w Richard Sutcliffe, Man. 

8 John 

8 Samuel Bower, Bowling 


John Craven, Friaingall 


John Rayner, EccleshiU 


d Isaac Sharpe 

18 Thomas 

8 James Hopkinson, Thornton 

19 John 

s William Whitehead, Horton 

22 Mary 

d Lawrence Fleemin, Bd. 



ch Richard Warde, Ikl. 

28 John 

8 Thos. Squier, Bd. 


6 Mary 

w Isaac CoUingson, Bowling 


William Woodd, Bd. 
Jane Metcalfe, lleaton 

II John 

s Richard Greene, Bd. 


s William Rawson, Shipley 


Mathew Sowden, Horton 


cli Thos. Blakebume, Bd. 

19 Susana 

w Steephen Dickson, of Bd. 

20 Margaret 

w Christopher Smith, HeatQp 


Robert Swaine, Bd. 


ch Mathew Gelder, Bd. 


s George Turner, Bd. 
ch Samuel Holmes, Heaton 


ch George Shakleton, Bd. 



Mathew Sutcliffe, Claton 
ch John Shiers, Bd. 

7 Grace 

w William Emate, Claton 
ch William Cooke, Bd. 


ch John Higson, Horton 

13 George 

s George Hoppey, Horton 


ch Abraham ikll, Heaton 


ch Jonas Walker, B<l. 

28 James 

s James Sager, Allerton 

29 John 

s Thomas Langster, Bierley 

30 Samuel 

s Nathaniel Tayler, Bd. 


William Brittane, Bd. 


5 Richard 

8 Thomas Wilkinson, Man. 

18 Jerimial) 

s Humphrey Sugdep, Thornlpn 


John Smith, Bd. 


8 Henry Saville, Bowling, Efiqifir 


ch John Lister, Bowling 

26 Thomas 

s Humphrey Grainger, Bd. 


4 Christian 

d John Burnit, Bd. 


ch John Midgley, Wilsden 


John Aked, Haiyfax pish. 

20 Johp 

8 Abraham More, Claton 


Ann Lee, Bd. 

26 John 

s Francis Wilkinson, Claton 



ch Richard Atkinson, Bd. 



14 James 

8 John Thornton, late of Bd. 


John Wilkinson, Man. 


ch James Pearson, Horton 


ch William Lister, Junr., Bd. 


ch Joseph Metcalfe, Bd. 


ch John Tomis, Horton 

Richard Brathwet, Calverley pish. 


ch Samuel Holmes, Heaton 


George Hargreaves, Shipley 

Sep. 2 Joshua 

s Joshua Wilks, Bd. 


s James Bamsley, Bd. 


John Higson, Gt. Horton 


s Edmund Roodes, Wibsey 

ch James Pearson, Horton 

8 Susanna 

w William Brookesbancke, Shipley 

24 Sarah 

d Jonas Wood, Bd. 

ch Robert Pollard, Bowling 

Oct. I Isaac 

s William Hamond, Horton 


ch William Wilkinson, Man. 

ch John Skott, Horton 


Elizal)eth Horsley, Bd. 


ch Joshua Holdin, Wibsey 

18 Steephen 

s Richard Tempest, Shipley 


d John Akcd, Halyfax pish. 

23 Two child 

ren John Tayler, Horton 


Isabell Tllingworth, Man. 


ch Joseph Furth, Horton 

Two children John Tayler, Horton 

ch Richard Bower, Calverley 

28 Samuel 

s John Horsley, Man. 

31 Martha 

d William Dawson, Bd. 


s John Wilkinson, Man. 

Kov. I 

Sisilah Troughton, Bd. 

ch John Sagar, Bd. 


Hellin Booth, Bd. 


ch Joshua Shepley, B<1. 


d Thomas Smith, Bd. 


Samuel Horsley, Man. 


ch Wm. Parish, Bd. 


Hugh Milner, Claton 

Mary Stockdayle, Horton 

16 Samuel 

s Thos. Sugden, Horton 


ch John Burnley, Man. 

ch Steephen Waterhouse, Bd. 

19 Mary 

d Henry Langcaster, Horton 


Margrit Darnbrough, Bd. 

ch Thomas Walmsley, Bd. 

28 Ann 

w Joseph Hopkinson, Wilsden 

Bee. 3 Mary 

w John While, Allerton 

ch Thomas Bramley, Man. 


\Villiam Iredayle, Man. 


s William Walker, Bd. 


Elizalxjlh Tayler, Btl. 






U Tliouias Goldshroogh, Man. 



w William Sowdcn, Errlcshill 


James Macham, Bd. 
Francis Saunderson, Frizingall 
w Richard Jowett, Bowling 



w Jonathan Mitchell, Shipley 

23 Mary 

w John Jowett, Heaton 


ch John Kirke, Bowling 
Abraham Tomis, Man. 


John Hanson, Horton 


Thomas Swain, Junr., Hortuii 

Mary, late 

t w Walther Tayler. Thornton 
ch Peter Robinson, Man. 
ch John Collingson, Bowling 


ch John Weddall, Bd., Gent. 

Jan. 2 

ch Joshua Nayler, Bowling 


Thomas Midgley, Heaton 


Edwaid Robinson, Bowling 


w Tliomas Dawson, Wiliscy 


ch J(»hn Craven, Frizingall 


ch William Nayler, Bd. 


Jonathan Hardic, Bd. 

Feb. 6 


w John Jowett, Ilorton 

8 Tobias 

s Joshua Booth, Bd. 



s Richard Driver, Heaton 
ch Nicholas Stead, Bd. 


Richard Ragg, Bd. 

Karoh 5 

John Illingworth, Allerton 



w George Turner, Bd. 


Lawrence Rawson, Shipley 
ch William Kay, Bd. 


John Jowett, Claton 



w John Mortimer, Claton. 

1661 25 

ch Mathew Ilollings, Bd. 


Richard Schoolefdid, Btl. 


w Richard Kent, Bd. 



d Richard Driver, Heaton 


John Nichols, Norcroft, Otley parish 


s Hodgson, late of AUerton 
ch John Woodhead, Bd. 


Thomas Cordingley, Bowling 


Jenit Blakebum, Bd. 
Reonald Hindle, Bd. 


John Longcaster, Bd. 

6 Ann 

w William Jowitt, Man. 


ch Roljcrt Clark, Bd. 


Joshua Craven, Heaton 
Robert Green, Horton 


Sara Lister, Bd. 


ch John Hainworth, Claton 



s Abraham Wilks, Man. 




(Read before the Society y 9th December , I898.y 

/f^LIVER CROMWELL was born at Huntingdon 
^^ on the 25th of April, 1599, and died at White- 
hall on the 3rd of September, 1658, in the 
sixtieth year of his age. Notwithstanding the length 
of time that has elapsed since he ruled the destinies of 
England, all men are not even yet agreed in their 
estimate of his character, and cannot heartily join in 
commemorating his nativity. The proposal made a 
little while ago for Parliament to set up his statue in 
Westminster Hall met with so much opposition that it 
had to be abandoned ; but an admirable bust of him by 
Bernini has been since placed there by the generosity 
of Mr, Charles Wertheimer. A considerable change 
in the views largely entertained in former days con- 
cerning him has, doubtless, been brought about by the 
publication of his " Letters and Speeches," by Thomas 
Carlyle; and the fresh investigations of Professor 
Gardiner have resulted in what will probably be the 
final verdict of history. In the introduction to the 
third volume of his " History of the Great Civil 
War," he says : "Thus tested, the Cromwell of Lilburn 
and Wildman shows himself the same man as the 
Cromwell of the Letters and the Clarke Papers; no 
divinely inspired hero, indeed, or faultless monster, 
but a brave, honourable man, striving according to his 
lights to lead his countrymen into the paths of peace 
and godliness." In his little book on " Cromwell's 
Place in History," Professor Gardiner also describes 
with historical insight and candour the significance of 
his aims and his permanent influence upon the nation. 



It is not the purpose of this paper to attempt a critical 
estimate of his character, or to reriew the erents of his 
extraordinary career. Mt task is the much humbler 
one of giTing some account of the various visits which 
he paid to Yorkshire in the course of his public aclirity, 
adding a few notes that may render this account con- 
nected and intelligible. 

Oliver was educated at the Grammar School of 
Huntingdon, of which Dr. Beard, a Puritan, was 
master : admitted Fellow Commoner to Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge, April 23rd, 1616, he returned to 
attend the funeral of his father in the following year, 
and soon afterwards spent some time in London acquir- 
ing a smattering of law for practical purposes. He 
married in 1620 ; and two or three years subsequently 
passed through a peculiar religious experience, of 
which some conception may be formed from the 
description given by John Bunyan of his own menial 
and spiritual struggles at a later date. Thenceforth 
he became a zealous Puritan, and took an active part 
in opposition to what he deemed unscriptural doctrines 
and practices by means of which the work of the 
B/eformation was in imminent danger of being undone, 
and England restored to the bosom of the Roman 
Catholic Church. Three years afterwards he went to 
reside at St. Ives ; and in 1636 he came into the 
possession of the estate of his uncle. Sir Thomas 
Steward, at Ely. In the Parliament of 1628, he was 
returned member for his native town. The only speech 
which he is reported to have made in that Parliament 
struck the keynote of the controversy that ultimately 
issued in civil war. He said : " He had heard by 
relation from one Dr. Beard, that Dr. Alablaster had 
preached flat popery at Paul's Cross, and the Bishop of 
Winchester (Dr. Neile, afterwards Archbishop of York) 
had commanded him, as his Diocesan, he should preach 
nothing to the contrary. Main waring, so justly 
censured in this House for his sermons, was by the 
same Bishop's means preferred to a rich living. If 
these are the steps to Church preferment, what are we 


to expect?" The Parliament was dismissed, and not 
called again for eleven years. Meanwhile, Laud and