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'Note Books 

The Self-Registering „ 




The new Patent Automatic Self-Registering 
Note Book or Diary ^vill meet a want often 
expressed by the literaiy and business man and 
others: "Can we get a Note Book 
where the page last written upon 
will be found without searching?'* 

By this invention the page last written upon, 
or any particular page in the book, can be at 
once found, and the pencil ready to hand. The 
pencil can also be placed so that any required 
page can be made secret, and it will also auto- 
matically open at any given page, thus combining 
RAPIDITY and SECURITY, esseiy^*^ 
qualifications that will commend its merits U 
literary, scientific, and business man; andl 
simplicity and utility of the invention will a3 
its appreciation and use by the general publici 
prove a boon to all sorts and conditions of i 

" Put this in your pocket— Oue of 

the most convenient things to carry 
I'i a note Ixiok or diarj% 'The Auto- 
matic Silf- Register iiig,' patented and 
manufactured by Messrs. T. J. Smith, 
Sou, and Dnwnes, is perhaiis the most 
convenient of any. The page last 
written, and tlie oue next wanted, 
are. by an ingenious coutri\'ance, 
easily found, and when found, 'Make 
a note on.' '— /'«(ti, March 25th, 1881. 

"DIARIES are like good resolu- 
tions, because tliey are not always 
kept. This wouUlu't lie so frequently 
the case if the Automatic Self-Regis- 
tering Diary of Messrs, T. J. Smith, 
Son, and Downes was used. Its pencil 
IS placed in at the page last written, 
and its presence should always keep 
tlie owner up to the mark. To the 
conscientious diary- writer it is 
etiually useful, by always showinjf 
him where he made his last entry."— 
Tfte Sketch, December :50th, 1894. 

"The most careless diarist— one n( 
that numerous cla^s which annually 
lesolves on Jan. 1 to keep a diary- 
could not resist the self-registering 
books which Me88rs.T. J.Smith, Son, 
and Downes publish. These pocket 
diaries and note books vary in style 
and sizes, hut not in excellence, for 
all are good. The pencil finds the 
place iu a moment by this jMitent 
arrangement."— TAc Jlhiftrntfd 
lomlon Xew$, Decenilier 'i9th, iKU. 


'Self Recisterinc 











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no. Wkst Nile SniKKT: JAMES REID. 114, Arovi.b Stbkrt (for Adrti. iu Scotland); 

DUBLIN :--C A R'=?oN BROTHERS. 7. GRArPON Strkkt (G Doors from Nassau Street); 

PAUljar—TiiB GALKiNANl LIHRAUY, 234, Run i>e KivoLi ; BRENTANO, 17. Avknub de l'Opera ; ' 

BUUSaELS:— HANQUET & VANDERSTEEN UiHADSHAw's Guide Ofkicb), 6, FAWuaK des PuaxKa, 


BOMP.— ALINARI & COOK. 90. Via del' Coiii?,. ; II. STAPELMOHR 24, Corratjuhk; 

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UNITED STATES :-CHARLBS 8CEIBNER * SONS, 748 Ain> 746. Bmadwat, Nbw T<»k; 

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Ik preparing the Haho-book to Bsittant everj endcaTOiir has been made « complete a^d '(arustworth^ Guide, and to bring the information 
t;dQW4. tQ .the.^prQ9ent date, but .Bhoald .any errors or omissions be discovered, 

the Editor will feel obliged bj notice of them being through 
..Messrs* W.< J. Adakb AKD.SoNs, 59, Fleet Street, London^ or Messrs. Hxnbt 

Blacslogr AND Cc, Albert .S(]ttt^^ Manchester, with a view to their recti- 
,-fication in future editions. '* • 

. The -present issue has been carefully revised and corrected, and 

* ■.■•. » • ♦ 

is.iconsiderahl; enlarged by the^ addition of t)en}<?iji useful information, derived 

from personal investigation in the conrse of frequent visits to Brittany, for 

which the ]^pi4etoni are indebted to- ft very obliging correspondent, who is well 

:i^cquainte.d.witk the country and its people. And with archsaolo^ioal matters 

, generally, and has had the goodness to place his notes at the Editor's disposal. 

These refer in particular to the practical remarks on Shooting and Fishing, to 

the accptu(i,t of the Gallo-Roman discoveries at Bossenno, and to .the descriptions 

of'Gamae and many other p«ints of antiquarian interest. A special Map of 

the Caraae district will be found between pages 112 and 118, and, on, page 132, 

a tabled the heights of the great menhirs. The List, at the end, of Conveyances 

.to every lm|)ortant point, will be found convenient for the guidance of Tourists. 

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Aberildttt - 78 

Aberrrmeh .^ m.. ....... 78 

Agon GoutalnvlUe G4 

Agrtcultura *...... 14 

A116) Gourerte 04, 76, 104 

Ancenls 98 

AAgers 9S 

Anne of Brittany 46 

"Annhinl goz** 67 

Antiquities 31 

Antiquarian Notes 86 

Arsanno 134 

Arthur, King »S5, 73, 181 

Arthur, Prince 89 

Audieme 14, 89 

Auray 12, 48, 107, 133 

Aralon 73 

Arranches m. 54 

Bain-Loh^ac ..100 

Barenton, Fountain of 181 

Battle of the Thirties 48, 180 

Baud 133 

Bayeux - 51 

Beauport Abbey 71 

B^eherel 66 

Beignon 181 

Belle Isle ..99, 109 

Belle-Isle-en-B€gard] 73, 84 

Betton « • 66 

Binic « 70 

Blaret River 134, 88 

Blois, Count of ^ 40, 108 

Bonnerille, GhAteau of 60 

Bossenno, Roman Villaatll6, 117 

Bot Go«t 133 

Bourbriac 68, 136 

Braspars 87 

BrihAt 71 

Brest 13, 79 

Breton Language 16 

Brignogan 78 

Broons 68, 66 

Bubry 129 

Butte de Br^tin 101 

Butte de C^sar HO 

Butte de Hellud Ill 

Butte de Tumlac 105 

Buttes de Brimbal 51 

Caen 12, 60 

CaUac 82, 71 

Gamaret 81,85, 86 

Oaneale 67 

Owentftn • - 58 


Oarhaiz .<..............« 38, 68 

Gariiac 107, 113 

GamoSt „ 136 

Gastanec 133 

Cattle 15 

Canines 66 

Celtic Remains 31 

GessonPoint 70 

Ghallonnes 93 

Champ des liartyrs...48, 108, 133 

Champtoc^ 93 

Champtoceau 98 

ChAteaubriant 100 

ChAteau Oontier 100 

ChAteauIln 69, 88, 86, 87 

GhAteauneuf-du-Faou 87 

OhAtelaudren 83 

Ghaussey Isles 64, 58 

Cherbourg 53 

Ghollet 92, 98 

Chronological Notes 36 

Church Architecture............ 37 

Clairmont 98 

Climate 14 

Cliason 97 

CUsson, Oliver de 43, 97 

Co^tatoux 119 

CoStfrec 73 

Combourg ; 69 

Commanna 84 

Concamean 127 

Conleau 104 

Conqnet, Le 81 

Corlay 69 

Comouaille ....m - 18 

Corseul 64 

Costumes 81 

cotes du Nord ^ 18 

Courcouno 118 

Ceutances 68 

Coa Castel 73 

Crach River 116 

Ci^ault 67 

Croesty 106 

Croisic 99 

Crozon 81, 86, 86 

Crubelz 130 

Dahouet 70 

Daoulas 86 

Deauville 60 

Des Princes 103 

Dlnan 11 ,63 

Dinant Castle 86 

Dbiard „.... M.-«iit«M ^ 

Dol 66 

Domfront 60 

Douaolt t 33 

Douamenex 87, 88 

Duguesclin 48, 61 

Dukes of Brittany 88 

Eoclesiastieal Remains 34 

Edict of Nantes 44 

Elven „.. 101 

Erdeven 86, 130 

Erquy 63, 70 

Ess^ 50 

Etang an Due 181 

Etel 121 

Evran ^ 64 

Faou, Le 88 

Faouet, Le 127 

Frfrel lot 

Feudal Remains 26 

Finisterre IS 

Pishing 88 

Folgogt 77 

Fosse, La 60 

Fougeray-Langon 101 

Foug^res 61 

Frtfhel Cape 60, 61 

Oaraye, La 64 

Qav'r Innis 1(H, 113 

Genets 54 

Geology 14 

Ghosts SO 

GiUes de Bretagne 60 

Gilles deRetz 44, 98 

Glomel 68 

Glossary « 18 

Goarec 34, 68 

Qoulven 78, 86 

Gourin 83, 88, 81 

Granville 64 

Groix 126 

Grotte aux F^es 67 

Qu^heimo isO 

Gutfmen€ ^124, 128 

Guerno 108 

Guerrande or Gu^rande ...... 99 

Gaildo. 60 

Guimiliau 74, 84 

Guingamp 11, 83, 68, 71, 83 

Guisseny 73 

HsDdlc 99 

HardouJna^e ««mmm« ^ 

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.. . FAOl. 

HarAcnr i^ •• M 

Havre « SO 

Henan .••••...•• 138 

Hcnnebont 128 

Hennebont, Siege of 41, ISi 

History of Brittany U 

Hoedic 123 

Honflenr 50 

Houat 133 

Hnelgogt 74, 87 

Hnnaadaye 65 

Hunting 33 

He aux Moinea 108 

He Br^hat 71 

He d'Ara 103 

He de Bats 76 

rie de Oroix..... 126 

He de Sein 90 

He Longiko 80, 104 

Ille-et-Vilaine 18 

Ingrande. 93 

Interments 36 

Is 88 

Janatf 50 

Jersey 68 

John, King of England 87 

Josselin 180 

Joyease Garde 85 

Jagon.„ 65 

K^iernn 81. 85, 86 

Keradel 91 

Kercado 118 

Kergadiou ^ 79 

Kergonan 104 

Kerhn^bras 89 

Kerhuon 81, 8) 

Keriaral 119 

K^rien 83, 84 

Kerisper 113 

Kerlescan 118 

Kerlevenan Chitean 106 

Kerloas 79, 84 

Kermadontf 138 

Kermario 1 ] 8 

KermorTan 81 

Kemascleden 1?8 

Keronet 137 

Kerpenhir 110 

Ker-Rohoa 88 

Kersanton Qoarries 86 

Kerteaven 90 

Kervlltr^ 93 

Kingf of Brittany 86 

La Brohinl^re 66, 100, 181 

LaFosM ...60 

La Oanterie 64 

La Oaraye 64 

La Qoneani^re-Caneale 57 

I^Latte ^ 61 

La Martyre 85 

Lambader 78, 84 


La MeiUeraye .•...-.•.•••— ••...100 

La Motte Btroons.* ^,.. 68 

Lampanl 79, 84 

Lancieux 60 

Landaoudee 85 

Landemeau 78, 84 

Landes of Lanraux 101 

Landerennec 81, 86 

Landirisian 76 

Lanleff 70 

Lanmenr 73, 78 

Lannilis 81 

Lannion 71,74 

Lan RiToartf 79 

Lantic 70 

Lanyalltf 63 

Largouet 101 

Larret 79 

La Roche Bernard 103 

La Roche Binet 103 

La Roche Derricn 71 

La Tonr d^Anvergnc 68 

Lata 115 

Laval 100 

Le Gonquet 79 

L*Etang au Due 181 

Le Paon»t 69,128 

Le Faou 87 

Le Fret 85, 86 

Le Gonlet 80 

Ltfgutf 70 

L^hon 64 

L^on Abbey and Castle 64 

LeSfans 93 

Le Pallet 97 

Lcsconll 91 

Lesneven 76, 77, 84 

Lczardrieux 71 

Li^ River 67 

Lisienx 50 

Lison £8 

Living 31 

Locmarch 86 

LocmarUker...38, 34, 86, 109, 110 

Locmind 103, 138 

Locperec ^ 110 

Locoal Mendon 130 

Locronan 88 

Logonna Qnimerch 87 

Lohtfae 100 

Lorient 12, 134 

Loudtfac 67 

Lonvigny 51 

Lower Loire « .....^ 18 

MaSl Pestivien 88 

Malansac 101 

Malestroit 181 

Mantf-Kerion (Keriaval) 119 

Manrf-Menr 131 

Mane'-er-Hrocc 110 

Mantf-Lnd Ill 

_ .... »AO» 

MaiLrion .7.rr....V.'*.... 181 

Megalitbic Remains SI 

Meilleraye,La 100 

Melrand — IM 

Men Brao-Sao «... US 

Men-dogan 137 

Men Drein 110 

Men-er-R^thual Ill 

Menec 118 

Menhirs at Garnac 38 

Messac , 101 

Minquibrs Rocks 58 

Moidrey 55 

Moncontonr and '* Pardon*' 66 

Montafilan 66 

Montanban 68,181 

Mont Dol 57 

Montfort, Earl of 40, 108 

Montfort, Countess of ...~- ... 41 

Montfort-sur-Meu 65, 181 

Montreuil-sur-llle ^. ... 65 

Mont S. Michel C4, 55 

Mont. S. Michel (Garnac) 113 

Morbihan 18 

Morbihan, Sea of 108 

Morgat, Caves of 81, 88 

Morlaix 11, 78, 84 

Mortagne 98 

Mortain 50 

Moustoir £0,119 

Moustoir, Le 68 

Mur 68 

MuziUac 108 

Nantes 13, 98, 100 

Napoleonville (Pontivy) 139 

N^ant 181 

Nignol 118 

NIzon 138 

NomenoS 87 

Nort 98 

Numerals 30 

Oudon 98 

Oaessant (Ushant) 79 

Palmboeuf , 99 

Paimpol 70, 71 

Paimpont Forest 139 

Pallet, Le 97 

Param^ 69 

Pardons 39 

Paris 13, 49 

Penfra 181 

Pen March 90 

Penthifevre, Fort 131 

Penzes 74 

P^ran Gamp 67 

Perros Guirec 73 

Petit Mont .....106 

Physical Features 13 

Pierre-li-Basslns 99 

Pl^rres BrOI€ps, C|»a|np dp ,,, Of 

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FUftM PUtei ^...IIJ^ 

PUgrimageB *..... ^ 2a 

Plprhic ....;. 101 

P16n^»>Jitgon 66 

Pl6n«uf ;:;;;...;;..;; ; 70 

Plestin ..i 78, 74 

Plencadeuc 101 

Pleudrani Forest of 67 

Pleyben..... 87 

Pleyber-Ghrist , 84 

Plogmenr-.v... 72, 91 

Plo«rmel ; 181 

Plouarzel 72, 79 

FIoitbalan«c. 90 

Ploudalm^ztfliu 78, 81 

PIondnoarTreaz 78 

Plonescat ...;; 76 

Plongaatel .81, 85 

Plongetiatt 67 

Ploogonrer 82 

Plongoumelen 108 

PloQharnrt 118, 121 

Floahin«e 120 

Ploomanach .m... 72 

PloTiTeneZ'Porzay 88 

Pluheriln 101 

PltunUian 122 

PointedesEspagnols 80 

Pont-aren ; .....127 

Pontchfttean. 108,110 

Pontgaud 67 

Pontiyy :..;.; 70, 129 

Pont r AbM 89, 92 

Pont TEyOqiie 50 

Pootmenon >.... 78 

Pontorson 55 

Pontrieux 70, 71 

Pont-Scorff. 18,124 

Pomic 99 

Port Brillet 49 

PortLamiay 81, 86 

Port Ltfgx€e 70 

Port Louis.: 125 

Port Navallo 106, 110 

Portrienx .... 70 

Poullaonvn 87 

Prtfyalaye 50 

Qadm^n^ven 88 

Questembert 101 

Qaiberon 48; 107, 121 

Quimper ;.:. 88 

Qaimperltf 126 

Quinlpily, Venus of ......122 

Quintin 69 

Ranee Rtrer. 59, 62 

Redon 12, 101 

B^srneTilie....... 54 

Ecligion..v.v;.;....'.v. ...'.., *. 27 

Bennes ^...11, 49, 65, 66, 181 

Bbuis Peninsula 105 

Bicb«rdCc9iir4«Uoi^ ,„ t 39 

Boche Bernard, La^wMM..««».10ft 

Rochef6rt-en-Teite 101 

Rocbe Jagu .; 71 

Bocbe Maurl«e ' : 84 

Rocbers do Ganeale ..m........ 67 

Bocbe^sur-Yonne 97 

Bohan • 129 

BoUo , 88 

Roman Occupation 36 

Boman Bemalni 24, 116 

Boscoff 76 

Bosporden 127 

Bostrenen ;; 68 

Boaen 50 

Routes to Brittany 10 

Bnmongol 87 

Bun^o 99 

Bnstephan 128 

Sabltf 92 

Sardine Fishery 125 

Sarzeau 105 

Savenay .....lOG 

Scaer 137 

S^grtf 100 

Sein, Isle of 90 

Seven Islands 72 

Shooting 82 

Social Customs 80 

Solesmes Abbey 92 

Sport 82 

St. Adrien 123 

8te. Anned'Auray ., 107 

Ste.AnneBoho 72 

St. Aubin du Cormier 52 

St. Barbe 119, 126 

St. Briac 60 

At. Brienc 1M2, 70 

St. Gado 120 

St. Caradec 68 

St. Cast 61 

St. Ghristophe 108 

St. Eloi 68 

St. En(^at 60 

St. Esprit 64 

St Fiacre 126 

St. Georges 92 

St. Germain 65 

atGildas 108 

St. Herbot 87 

St. Hemot 86 

St. Hilaire d'Harconet 51 

St. Jacut 60 

St. Jean du Doigt 78 

St. JeanTremoulin 91 

St. Jurat i 65 

St. Jnlien*de la COte 67 

St. L6 58 

St. Lunaire 60 

St. M&16 11, 58, 65 

St. Malo des Trois Fontaines 181 

St. Matthieli Abbey .........79, 81 

at.M€rldec » ;M..*tMt 71 


St. Michel^ or Michael ..«^«4t» 

St. Kazaire .' .'.....,^.08 

St. Nicholas du Pelem' ...V.'.... 6B 

St. Pair 54 

St. Pierre ; 121 

St. PoldeL^n 75 

St. Quai 70 

St Benan... ......V.V. 79 

St. Servan 59 

St. Thegonnec .'...».74, 84 

Stangala ;i...........l37 

Stival 12» 

Story-telling ..,.., ,^... 81 

Sucinio, Castle of 105 

Superstitions 80 

Table de Cdsar ^U 

Tiflauges 98 

Tinchebray :..,........... 50 

Tombeau de Gu^rec.« 87 

Tombelaine 56 

Tonquedec 1...... 79 

Torche, Rocher de la 90 

Torfou ^.... 98 

Touches Budes 67 

Toulinguet 65 

Tourlaviile 53 

Tours in Brittany 10 

Tradition S6 

Tr^cesson 131 

Tr^gastel 72 

Tr^gorrals 71 

Tr^gu^nec 92 

Trtfguier 70, 72 

Tr^gunc 127 

Tr^horenteuc ....131 

Tr^pass^s Bay 90 

Trleux River 71 

Trinity (La)-8ur-Mer...;..,„...112 

Trou Dord 130 

TrouviUe CO 

Tumiac 105 

Tymadeuc 129 

Ushant. or Onessant 79 

Uael 70 

Vannes 12, 102 

Varades 92 

Vend^an Wars 47, 92 

Veneti 86, 98 

Villedieu les Polios 53 

Villers-Bocage 51 

Vire 51 

Vitr^ 12, 49 

Vocabulary 21 

War of Succession ,„ 40 

War of Religion 46 

William the Conqueror...,,.... 38 
Writers on Brittany .........lO, 21 

TIQniac , , ..m...,,, 70 

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I.PtfiVortf. .................M~« M.....p«g« 9 

III. SouQM of inloiUBtion „ 10 

IT. Roates to Brittany «, 10 

V. Tours in Brittany, with the principal places 

and objects of interest page 11 

VI. Physleal f eatnrea of each dBpartment „ 18 

Vn. Agricnltiure m... „ 14 

VIII. The Breton Language ^ „ 16 

Glossary „ 18 

IX. JUtiqulties : 1, Celtic or Megallthlo remains; 
2, Soman remains; 8, Ecclesiastical re- 
mains; 4, Feudal remains .page SI 

Chronological and Antiquarian Notes „ 26 
Notes on Chuvch Arcbitectnre, dto..,. „ 27 
X. Beligion and Buperstitions: Paganism; 
Christianity; Ceremonies; Processions; 
Pardons; PUgrlknagas; Miracle Plays ; the 
Priesthood ^ 27 

Superstitions: Fairies; Ohosta ... „ SO 
ZI. Social customs: National Music and Songs; 
Marriage; Funeral Rites; Sale of Hair; 
Costumes; Story-telling; Chariatans; the 
Charivari page SO 

XII. Living ........ •.M.M..M •*»•—,»;„» I, SI 

HeighU of the great Menhirs .........................—. 

^11. Sport— HantiDg»Shootitog| Fishing ptge 82 
XIV. History of Brittany:^ 

1. General View— TradiUons.^....., „ 84,. 

2. Chronological Ajccount : — 

The Roman Period; the Breton Kings; the 
Dukes of Brittany; Connection with Eng- 
land; Richard Cosur de Lion; Prince 
Arthur; The War of the Succession— De 
Blois — De Moutfort; the Countess de 
Montfort; Intervention of England ; Battle 
of the Thirties; Bertrand DuguescUn; 
Oliver de Clisson.; Battle of Auray; Suc- 
cess of De Montfort; Treaty of Ouerrande; 
Brittany during the fifteenth century— 
the Penthibvres ; Marshal Oilles de Rets ; 
War of the League; Anne of Brittany; 
Brittany in the sixteenth century; Ces- 
sion of Brittany to France; The Wars of 
Religion; mnry IV.; Edict of Nantes; 
Brittany in the seventeenth century ; Re- 
Tocation of the Edict of Nantes i War with 
England; Brittany in the eighteenth cen- 
tury; Dissolution of the Breton Parlia- 
ment; Great Fire of Rennes; Battle of S. 
Cast; the Vendtfan War; the Battle of 
Quiberon; Brittany in the nineteenth cen- 
tury; the Petite Chouannerie; present 
political aspect ,. » 86 


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ROUTE I.— Into Brittany from Paris. Paris to 
Rcnnes by Versailles, Chartres, Le Mans, Vitrrf. 
K en nes described page 49 

ROUTE II.— Into Brittany from Hayre. Harre 
to Rcnnes by Ilonfleur, Lisieux, Caen, Villers, Vire, 
Mortain, and Foug^res page 50 

ROUTE III.— Into Brittany from Cherbourg. 
Cherbourg to S. Malo by S. L6, Coutances, Oran- 
villo, Avranchcs, Dol, Pontorson (Mont 8. Michel), 
Cancale (oyster fishery) to S. Malo page 58 

ROUTE IV.— Into Brittany from the Channel 
Islands. Channel Islands to S. Malo. Chausey 
Islands, S. Malo (history, antiquities, and descrip- 
tion), S. Scrvan, The Ranee, Combourg. Excursions 
along the coast : Dinard to Cape Fr^hel, S. Lunaire, 
8. IJriac, S. Jacut, Guildo (Gilles de Brctagne), 
8. Cast (battle), Cape Frflicl lighthouse. By rail 
/rum Dinard to Questembert, passing through 
Dinan, Cauloes, Montauban, and Ploermel page 68 

ROUTE v.— S. Malo to Rcnnes. 1. Through 
Dinan (a) by rail vid Dol; (b) by rail vid Dinard ; 
(c) up tlie Ranco. Description of Dinan : its his- 
tory and antiquities, Bertrand Duguesclin. Ex- 
cursions : CliAteaux of Lehon, Montafilan, Hunau- 
daye, Jugon (Lamballe), on by diligence. 2. By rail 
from Caulncs, or Montreuil, Evran, Il^de', to 
Bennos..... page 62 

ROUTE VI.- Rennes to S. Brieuc, by railway, 
liamballc (history and description). Excursion to 
Moncontour (description), Pardon of 8. Mathurin, 
" Ann hhii goz." Louddac, Mflr, Rostrenen, Car- 
haix (history and description), La Tour d'Auvergne. 
Yffinlac, 8. Brieuc, trade with Jersey page 66 

ROUTE VII.— S. Brieuc to Morlaix, by the 
coast ; Lanleff, Paimpol, The Tr^gorrais, Pontrieux, 
Lczardrieux, Trdguier, Roche Derrien, Lannlon, 
Tonquedec : coast road". Perros-Guirec, Lanmeur, 
8, J«an-du-doigt, Morlaix, 8. Thegonncc, Quimi- 

laux, Calvary pag« 70 

ROUTE VIII.— Morlaix to Brest by the sea coast. 

' 8. Pol-do-Leon, Krpi»ker,Roscoflr, Lesneven,Folgoet, 

and otbor chnrphps. Coast scenery : Ushant, Con- 

quct, 8. Repan, S. Matthew, Brest page 74 

BOUTE IX.— S. Britne to Brest by ralliray. 
Chatelaudren, Guingamp, Belle Isle, Morlaix, 
S. Thtfgonnec (Commanna), Laadlvisiaii, Lan- 
demean, Kerhnon, Brest ».... page 82 

ROUTE X.— Brest to Qnimper. Ktflemn and 
Chftteanlin. Le Faou. Excursions to Pleyben, 
HuelgoSt, Manage de la Vierge, 8. Herbot, Douar- 
nenez, Quimper, 8. Corentin, Audieme, Trdpassds, 
Wrecking, Penmarch page 85 

ROUTE XL— Into Brittany from Paris to Nantes i 
by Le Mans. Angers, description — Champtoe^, 
Varades, 8. Florent, TheVendeans, Ancenis Cham- 
toceaux. Nantes described— De Montfort, Anne 
of Brittany, Henry IV., Carrier, Duchess de Berri. 
Excursions— Co; into La Vendue. Clisson, The ^ 
Castle, Oliver de Clisson, Torfou, TUfanges, Mor- 
tagne, Chollet; C^J Down the Loire, Paimboenf, 
Pomic, 8. Nazaire, Guerrande, Crolslc, Belle Isle. 
8avenay; (e) Up the Erdre to Nort, La Meillerayo, 
&c. Also by rail on to Nantes, vid Laval, Sdgrd, 
Chftteau-Gonthier, and Ch&teaubriant page 93 

ROUTE XIL— Rennesto Vanncs, Rail. Fongcray, 
Rcdon, Rochefort, Elvcn, Largouet, Vannes, — 
Roche-Bernard, Suspension Bridge, Muziilac. Ex- 
cursions— fq) 8ea of Morbihan, Gav'r Innis; (b) 
Peninsula of Rhnys, 8ucinio, Sarzeau, 8. Gildas, 
Tnmiac; CO I^midical monuments page 100 " 

ROUTE XIII. -Vannes to Qnimper. 8. Anne 
d* Auray ; Miracle Church ; Anray ; the Chartreuse 
Champ des Martyrs ; Expiatory Chapel. Excur- 
sions — (a) to Locmariaker; (b) to Camac; stone 
avenues ; Bossenno ; Quiberon (the battle), slaugh- 
ter of prisoners; (c) to Baud, Quinipily, the 
^^ Venus," Looming, 8. Columban; Hennebont, 
Countess of Montfort ; Church ; Blavet Fishing. 
Pontscorff, Lorient (dockyard), SaBo d*Armes, 
Fort Louis; QnimporM, Pardon des Oiseanx, 
Rosporden, Concamean (8ardine Fishery) page lOt" 

ROUTE XIV.— Quimper to Rennes, by road 
through Pontivy (Napol^onvUle); 8caer, Le Faouet, 
Josselin Castle, Church, .Combat des Trente, 
Plo^rmel Church, Beignon, Rennes page 137 

%• Por Lift </ DUitf[nef$ anrf C9rre$p<mdaneei from |tpd to th« Rf*l'w»jr St^ttop, see |>Mge ^82, i^t end of ^oel^ 

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I fely to bo moksted ; 

seldom interfered 

agh abolished, fro- 

t gendarmerie near 

tcurred of English 

ving been detained, 

I entailing much in« 

1 Bually occurring to 

I ' . . ^ about near the sea 

' iref ore best to carry 

etcMng is, in some 

10 bare leisure, and 
ly, that they should 
ies at the end of the 
that with its assist- 
' Brittany in erery 

and may visit any 
. ng streams, as well 

j the country where 

I at a distance from 

pcned up in erery 

of the chief points 

j - .ch more accessible 

^se time is compara- 

1 the advent of the 

■llarities of costume, 

J as, and even occu- 

* , tresent so strongly 

• the districtX »»»» 
disappear, y#^ th« 
:o bless the march 

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ROUTE I.—Into 1- 
Rcniies by Vcrsailh 
Kcnnesdtscribed .... 

ROUTE II.— Into 
to Rcnnes by Honflei 
Mortaln, and Foag^i 

Cherbourg to S. Ma 
ville, Avranchos, Do 
C:\ncale (oyster fish* 

Islands. Channel ] 
Islands, S. Malo (Iilfl 
lion), S.Servan, The' 
along the coast: Din . 
S. Briac, 8. Jacut, 
8. Cast (battle), Cai 
from Dinard to Q - 
Dinan, CdulocB,Mo 

ROUTE v.— S. 1 
Dlnan (a) by rail vl 
(c) up the Ranee. \ 
tory and antlqnitio 
cursions: ChAtcaux 
daye, Jugon (Lamba 
from Caulucs, or 
Rennes..... « 

Laraballe (history a 
Moncontour (descri 
"Ann hini goz." 
haix (history and d€ 
Yffinlac, S. Brieuc, 

coast; Lanleff, Paine. 
Lczardrleux, Trdg- 
Tunquedec : coast i 
8. Jean-du-doigt, 1^. 

laux, Calvary 

* 8. Pol-do-Leon, Krc 
and other ch'* 
quet, 8. P 

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Ercry pcrioii should be providod with one ; and, 
further, if he strays about the country, he should 
carry it about his person. It is quite true that 
passports have been abolished in France, but all 
travellers, -vrhether French or foreigners, are 
required to he able at all times to prove their 
identity; if thoy cannot do so they are arrested 
and detained until they can be broug-ht before a 
magistrate, entailing (especially in small country 
places) much personal inconvenience; they will 
further be marched through the country, under an 
escort of *' gendarmes," to a town where they can be 
brought before the authorities, who will examine 
the case, and afterwards liberate them, expressing 
regret that they should have suffered incon- 
renience, but at the same lime reminding them 
that they owe it to themselves, as they ought to 
have been provided with proper papers of identity. 
Visiting cards, envelopes of letters, and similar 
documents, will not be accepted as proofs of 
identity by the police ; it is, therefore, obvious 
that every traveller should be provided with a 
passport, which will always be respected ; it is also 
of use to procure letters directed "poste restante ;*' 
and, further, there are many museums which, 
although closed to the public on certain days, are 
always courteously opened to the stranger on the 
production of a passport. The inconvenience of 
proving personal identity occurs generally in 
country districts at a distance from a town, and 
where the mayor of the " commune " is generally 
a small farmer, who gladly turns the matter over 
to the '* gendarmes," who detain the suspected 
person until they can bring him before the proper 
{^tlK>riM9s; if wjn bp «7t4ept X^M p^esfrljjns 

are those who are the most likely to bo molested : 
persons riding in vehicles are seldom interfered 

Of late passports have, though abolished, fre- 
quently been demanded by the gendarmerie near 
to fortresses. Cases have occurred of English 
travellers (especially artists) having been detained, 
until released by a magistrate, entailing much In* 
convenience, such detention usually occurring to 
those who have been strolling about near the sea 
or near fortifications. It is therefore best to carry 
a passport properly vise. Sketching is, in •ome 
districts, absolutely forbidden, 


Let us point out to those who have leisure, and 
who wish to travel economically, that they should 
consult the Table of Conveyances at the end of the 
book. It is now so complete that with its assist- 
ance any person can traverse Brittany in every 
direction at a small expense, and may visit any 
of the watering places or fishing streams, as well 
as those interesting parts of the country where 
monuments are found situated at a distance from 
the railways. 

Railways are now being opened up In every 
direction, so that of late most of the chief points 
of interest have become mnch more accessible 
than at present to those whose time is compara- 
tively limited. Though, with the advent of the 
iron horse, those marked peculiarities of costume, 
dialect, manners and customs, and even occu- 
pation (which up to the present so strongly 
characterise the people of the districtX must 
inevitably, sooner or later, disappear, f^% tl)Q 
traveller will have reason to bless the march 

Of m^iw\ wWcn «ftj^bi^8 \^\m \o y\»\x 014 

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Armorica with comfort and despatch, In a roomy 
well-cnshloned first-class carriage, instead of a 
frowzy, lumbering diligence, or a rickety c<u»e-o>u 
of a ehar-<t-bane. He may miss the music of 
"the bells, bells, bells," and the smacking of the 
whip, and the wild ''y-(»tp, y-oup'' of the diligence 
driver; but the snort of the engine will remind 
him that civilisation has at length, though with 
tardy steps, found her way into Brittany, and that 
dirt and discomfort will soon be things of the past. 
The country Hotels are rough, and scantily fur- 
nished; the traveller must bring his own soap. 
Without being so sanguine as to suppose that 
thiere will soon be seen in the Museum a specimen 
labelled "thelast Breton fiea,*' we may confidently 
assume that steam will do much towards the Her- 
culean task of cleansing the country, and that here 
and there an Hotel may be found, at any rate on 
the lines of rail, tolerably free from phlebotomising 
intruders on the traveller's rest. 


The present Handbook being intended for the 
use of passing travellers, does not profess to give 
more than a rapid glance at the various interesting 
topics connected with the country through which 
the tourist will pass. Volumes might be, and 
indeed have been, written both by French and 
Ifinglish authors, on the History, the Archaeology, 
the language and literature, the manners and 
customs, the manufactures, commerce, and agricul- 
ture, the costumes, and other peculiarities of the 
^''beau pays de Bretagne^" &nd its inhabitants; but 
if our Handbook is to answer to its title, and steer 
clearof the ponderosity of a Guide Book, ^^graoU 
sareina chartsB^'^ we must avoid the temptation to 
write an encyclopaedia in duodecimo, and leave our 
readers to revel in the stores of knowledge which 
other writers have provided. The principal English 
writers who have illustrated Brittany are Young, 
Costello, Hope, and Trollope, whose works should 
be read by every intending tourist; and much 
information may be gleaned from the more 
ephemeral writings of Louth, Weld, Jephson, Kemp, 
and others, who have written accounts of their 
little tours and vacation rambles in Brittany. But 
nearly all go over the same ground, and repeat the 
same stories, with slight variations. Those who 
wish to study the history of Brittany should read 
^p the able work of Gonnt P^nii ^n 3 to}s., the 0I4 


Chronicles of Froissart and Monstrelet, and the 
learned works of the Abb% Manet, Cambry, or 
MalteBmn. Archssologists should obtahi Cayot 
Delandre*s work on the Monuments of Morblhan, 
now rather antiquated. More modem works are 
those of Drs. Fouquet and Closmadeuc ; and of 
R^n^, and L. GaUes; Rosenzwsig; Goyot Jonard; 
also the BuUethi de la Sod^t^ Polymathlque; all 
of which may be procured of M. Galles, Rue de la 
Prefecture, Vannes. 

There is a complete and accurate accotmt of the 
curious pre-historic marks on the stones In the 
Morblhan in "Sculptures Lapldalres et Slgnes 
Graves des Dolmens dansle Morblhan " (published 
at Vannes), by Dr. Closmadeuc, late President of 
the Morblhan Polymathlc Society, and proprietor 
of the Island of Gav'r Innls. It Is now out of print. 

The tourist pur et simple should make him- 
self acquahited with Emile Souvestre's "Demiers- 
Bretons," and the graphic sketches of Isidore 
Mass^, Pltre Chevalier, Hlppoljrte Vloleau, and 
Alfred de Courcy. But they are rather romantic 
and sentimental. Those who are curious in 
folk-lore will read with Interest the following 
little works:— "Contes Populalres de la Haute 
Bretagne;'* "Lltt&'ature orale de la Haute 
Bietagne," by P. Sebillot; "Legendes Chr^tlennea 
de la Basse Bretagne,** by F. M. Luzel; forming 
a collection of highly characteristic stories, 
proverbs, and curious traditions, which the 
people are In the habit of repeating to while 
away the long evenings. 


In the old wars of which Brittany had the mis- 
fortune to be at once the battlefield and the bone of 
contention, victory generally inclined to the party 
which could first seize and hold fast the city of 
Rennes* and In deference to ancient custom wo 
should be giving a judicious move to our readers If 
we could place them per scUtum in that ancient 
to'ivn, which would at once introduce them into the 
heart of the country. But in order to " advance 
thus far into the bowels of the land," certain 
impediments must be first overpassed. 

Imprimis, there is the British Channel, a mere 
ditch to some tourists, but to others a strip, however 
narrow, of the inevitable ^^mal de me^^"* a pitrlp 
which goes on widening almost all the way from 
Poycf ^0 WeymouUl, wj^ich are iJrobabljr t)^e mgf| 

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•Mterly «»d,weBterljf,iM)rt»ftom3riiich our. readers 
-woald cace to start. Accordingly, th'ep^as a lopgex 
or as a shorter sea voyage may be thought agree- 
able, and dependent in some measure upon the 
longitude of the starting point in England, we 
should recommend the following routes :~ 


1. By one of the great continental linesto Calais 
or Boulogne, and Paris; thence by rail to Rennes, 
which reduces mal de mer to a minimum. 

2. By Southampton steamer to Havre and Hon- 
fleur; thence by rail to Lisieux,Mezidon, Le Mans, 
and so to Bennes. 

8. By steamer from Southampton to Cherbourg; 
from Cherbourg to Coutances, Dol, and Rennes by 
rail; a highly-hiteresUng route, and short sea pas- 
sage, but involving considerable delay. 

4. By steamer from Southampton to S. Malo 
direct, and by Southampton or Weymouth to Jer- 
sey and S. Malo; thence by rail to Rennes; pro- 
bably the cheapest route, and one which would 
include a visit to the Channel Islands if desirable, 
but at the same time invol vhig some 12 or 16 hours* 
sea passage, not always calm. Another route from 
Paris to Kantes will also be described. 


With tlie Fxincipal Places and Objects of 

[Fishing stations are marked (/.) ] 
With regard to the line of travel which the tourist 
had better pursue when fairly arrived in the 
country, we need scarcely say that the rail offers the 
best, and indeed the only available route for making 
the circuit of Brittany ; for, following almost co- 
incidently the old diligence track along the route 
Nationale^ It has fairly driven that ancient 
" leathern conveniency" off the road. But in order 
to see the country it will be necessary to make 
frequent halts and excursions, otherwise many of 
the most interesting monuments and most pictu- 
resque features of the scenery would remain 

5. Malo.— Fortifications. Hotel de Yille. Birth- 
place of Chftteaubriand— h|s grave. Church and 
statues. British Vice-Consulate. Bathing. Ex- 
cursions: 1, to Dol; cathedra], menhir. Thence to 
Pontorson ; visit Mont 3t. Michel. 2, to S. Servw j 

Sfsenal, Caatleet SolidQCrCancala-(it« oyster bed* 
and parks), 3, cross tO' Diaard by steamer.: old 
hospice at head of bay : walk along, coast to S. 
Lunaire, S. Brlac, 8. Jaeut. S. Cast; lighthousa 
onCapeFr^hel; Castle o| Guildo. 
. Sisan.— By steamer up the Ranee; alao vM 
Bhsard ; old gateways and f ortUifiatlon% Ohftteatt 
of Duchess Anne, GhoDefaw of Sl VM.P- and 8. 
Sauveur, Place and etataeof Dngnaaclio, nuaaiim, 
oldrfashioned houses. 

Excursions: Fontainedes Eaux,Taden, LaGaraye, 
L^hon Castle and Abbey, Basf oins lunatic asylum, 
ch&teau, Montafilsn, Hunaudaye, throos^ Corseul: 
cross of S. Esprit, menhir of S. Samson; fishing 
between Evran and S. Jouan de Tlsle; Jugon, 
lakes and old castle; Btfclierel, fine views; K4d€, 
old castle. 

Rennes.— By rail from Cherbourg, S. Malo, 
Paris, Ac: Cathedral, Palais de Justice, Hotel do 
Ville, Le Thabor, University, Museum, and Gallery 
of paintings; Public Gardens; Porte Mordeiaise, 
La Lice, old town. Excursions : Roche-aox-Ftfes to 
PloSrmel, by Moutfort-sur-Meu and Pl^au <HoteL 
dn Croissant), Ch&tcau of Tr^cesson, Montfort> 

St. Brieuc— By rail, through Montauban; 
Broons— birthplace of DuguescHn; Jugon— good 
fishing; Lamballe— church. Excursion to Coast ; 
Dahouet; Erquy; CapeFrtfhel; Montcontour-castle 
and church; Castle of Hardouinayo; Cliurches; 
TourdeCesson. Excursion: Binlc, L€gu^; Lanleff— 
old church ; Paimpol — abbey of Beaufort ; Lezar- 
drieux— suspension bridge ; Tr^guier— church and 
cloisters; Roche-derrlen— old castle; Lannion— 
rocking stone Coz Castel, near Trdgastel, Ploa< 
manach, fine churches; Guer — salmon rivers. 
Castles of CoStfrec and Tonquedec; np river to 
Belle-Isle-en-Terre (/.). Or along coast by Perros- 
Guirec, Lanmeur, 8. Jean-du-Doigt (5 miles), to 

Oningamp (/.)— Churches: Notre Dame, de 
Bon Secours, and de Grace; St. John; Fontaine 
de Plomb. River scenery; fishing; Belle-Isle en 
Terre (/.), Ponthou, to 

Morlaix.— Curious old houses, terraced gardens, 
churches, fountains, quays, tobacco manufactory. 
Excursion: Guimiliau — church and calvary, 
liail to S. Pol-de-L6on— fin© churches; BoscoITi 

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Lanbader; 8. ThegomiM— fine eharch; Landi- 
Tislau— church; La Roche Maurice— castle and 
church; Landemeau— Chftteau de la Joyense 
Garde. Excursion: to Lesneren Folgogt— fine 
church, coast scenery; Goulven, dolmen and church ; 
Brignogan, the menhir of Men Marz ; Aberrrach; 
lead mines of Poul-Ia-Ouen and HuelgoSt; Manage 
de la Vierge; Cascades of St. Herbot. 

]|fQ3^_Dockyards, foundries, arsenal,fortifica- 
tions, old castle, riews from the heights. Excur- 
sions : to S. Rdnan, menhirs of Plouarzel ; Camaret ; 
CJonquet— Abbey of St. Matthew; Landerennec; 
Ushant; Calvary at Plougastel to Daoulas, Le 
Faou, Braspars. Excursion by steamer roecasional) 
to Chfttoaulin, Crozon, and Caves of Morgat. To 
Chatcaulin (/.) and Qnimper (/.) by Rail. 

Caen to Bennes, through Vire. Picturesque 
countr)^ Castle. Tinchebrai; Mortain, Avranches; 
Mont S.Michel; Dol; Combourg; Rennes. Or by 
Domf rent (castle); Maycnne; Laval; rail to Rennes. 
Or by Mortain, St. Hilairo, Louvigntf, Fong^res (old 
border castle), St. Aubin du Cormier (old border 
castle); LifTr^, Rennes. 

Paris to Bonnes, by Yersaines. (Dhartres Ca- 
thedral; Le Mans Laval Vitrtf, in Brittany—old 
castle and fortifications. 

Rennes to Redon, by Bain. Fougeray— old 

yitr6 to Nantes, by La Gnerche: Ch&teau- 
briant— old fortifications; La Meilleraye- monas- 
tery; Nort; Nantes. 

Nantes.— Cathedral and other churches, old 
castle, house where the Duchess of Berri was con- 
cealed, museum, library, quays, sardine factory. 
Excursions: Clisson castle. La Garenne Tif- 
f auges, castle of Gilles de Retz ; up the Erdf e to 
Nort and La Meilleraye; up the Loire, by rail, 
visiting Ancenis, Champtoceaux, Varades, and 
S. Florent, Ingrande, Chalonnes, to Angers. To 
S. Nazaire (by rail, by Savenay), scene of defeat of 
Vend^ans; by river, past Indret, steam factory, 
Paimboeuf , small harbour. Port of Nantes : docks, 
great extent; Guerrande, old town, salt pans. Batz: 
curious costumes; old church. Croisic, watering 
place; wild fowl. Pomic, from Nantes, by road; 
watering place —gay in summer. Nantes to Pontivy 
(lately NapoMonville), by rail and road: Savenay, 
Pontch&teau, *'La Roche Bernard;" S. Gildas; 

of Beaumont; thence, by Toitur^ to Malestrolt, 
ruins, scene of treaty between England and 
France, 1348. PloKrmel: old church, statues, 
obelisk. Combat des Trente. Excursion : Mauron, 
lake (/.), Chftteau of Loyat. Excursion: Mlvoio 
La Gacilly, and Carentoir. Josselin : fine chftteau 
on River Oust, Church of N6tre Dame des 
Ronciers. Excursion : Locmind, Church of S. Col- 
omban, Guehenno, Calvary. Rohan, small new 
village. Pontivy or NapoMonville (old and new 
town) : chftteau, church, River Blavet (/.) Ex- 
cursion : Stival fountain, Cldguerec, Megalithlo 
remains, romantic valley, Stan-en-Ihuem. 

Pontivy to Auray, rail or road: picturesque 
country, forest of Camors. Baud(/.): neat church, 
Chftteau of Quinipily, statue. Excursion : Chapel 
of S.Adrien. Botooet: old statues. ByPluvigner, 
to Castenec; Church of S J^icodbme. 

Auray.— Fine situation, view from Bdvidere on 
castle walls; field of battle of Auray. Excursion: 
Chartreuse and expiatory chapel. Champ des 
Martyrs, Church of S. Anne,MogalitbicMonuments, 
Erdeven, S. Cado, and JjOcoal Mendon ; Etel ; 
Camac, dolmen at Locperec. Locmariaker, by 
boat, Gav*r Innis do., passing Plessis Kaer and 
Kerentrec ; (^uiberon, Rail: Fort Penthifevre, Men- 
hirs. Auray to V annes, by S. Anne, miracle church. 

Vannes.— Cathedral, Tour du Conndtable, walls 
and gates. Museum of Socidtd Poljonathique. 
Excursion: Isle of Conleau, bathing place, church 
of S. Avd, S. Guen, Hesqudno; Roman road to 
Meriadec; Pierre A bassins at CoStsal, dolmen of 
Er Roch. Peninsula of Rhuys : Sarzeau, Castle of 
Sucinio, St . Gildas, Butte de Tumiac, Ac. Islets of 
the Morbihan, He d*Arz, IIo-aux-Moines, Castle of 
Elven. Roche Binct to Nantes, by Muzillac: 
battlefield; Roche-Bernard suspension bridge; 

Pontivy to Brest, by road by Mtlr, vid Louddac; 
Gouarec— good fishing; Le Moustoir— church ; 
Rostrenen old church; Glomel(/.) ; Carhaix(/.)and 
Huelgogt(/); St. Herbot (/.); Sizun; Landemeau R. 

Pontivy to Quimper, by Gudmend— monument 
toBisson; Ploerdut; S. Tugdual; Plouray; Stud 
atLangonnet; Gourin(/.); Scaer— good fishing. 
Rosporden </.), rail to Quimper, or by Kemas- 
cleden— church ; Le Faouet— Chapels of 8. Fiacre ; 
S. Barbe— good fishing ; Quimperld— Church of 8. 
Crq«8 ; a. MlcUel j coi^n roi^d b^ Pont-ATOfi (/, ) \ 

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thtn)dacti6n.j ^aYsteiL 

railtoConcantean— MMinftiiahery, AqnarlumiAiid 
HMking Btone, Men DogAtit Qnlmper, capiUl of 
Flnist^re— cathedral. Ezennions: StAngala— 
fishing; Chftteanlin. RAll: salmon fishery; Douar- 
henez» Rail; Ploar^-thnrch; CoBt Bily-KjWlteau; 
Audieme— coast scenery; Bay; Point Penmarch ; 
Bay of TWpasstfs; PontVAbM, Rail; Pont Croix, 
and La Pointe da Raz. 

Tannesto Quimper, by rail byAnray: Henne* 
bont— old castle, gateway, bridge, and viadoct; 
Chapel of Notre Dame da Paradis; orer the 
Blaret (/.) 

Lorl61Lt.~Doeks and arsenal; Phare— Church 
of Kerentrec, salle d'armes, Law's house. Excnr- 
■ions: to Port Lonis, Ploemenr, He Oroix, and 
Belle Isle, menhirs and dolmen— reservoir ; Palais 
Nofltang— Roman remains ; IsleBelz. 

Pontsoorff (/.)— Calvary at Arsenno or Arsano; 
Bannalee, Qoimper, as abore. 


A straight line drawn from S. Halo through 
Rennes to Nantes will out oif the peninsula known 
as Brittany, an irregular parallelogram about 200 
miles in length by 100 in breadth. It includes, 
indeed, on the east, Fong^res, Vitrtf, Ch&teaubriant, 
and Ancenis, and reaches about 80 miles south of 
Nantes; but the line is drawn from the natural 
frontier. It is boxmded on the north by the English 
Channel, west by the Atlantic, and south by the 
Bay of Biscay. The rivers Ranee. Vilaine, and 
Loire form, with their rocky channels and sur- 
rounding forests, a natural barrier to the south 
and south-east, which accounts in no slight degree 
for the isolation and independence of Brittany. It 
has known many changes of limits and nomen- 
clature, as its history will show ; but old Armorica 
almost exactly corresponds with the fire provinces 
of Ille-et-Vilaine, Lower Loire, Cdtes du Nord, 
Morbihan, and Finist^re. A portion of the depart- 
ment of Finist^re formerly bore the name of 
Comouallle, or Cornu Gallic, as some think, 
before it was applied to our Cornwall. 

Jtle et Vilaine partakes of the character of Nor- 
mandy. It abounds in woodlands and meadows, 
undulating hills, and deep valleys; but has not the 
striking features of the western departments. The 
«l4«f towi^ 9X9 f^nnw apd 9. lialo. 



The Lo^ icire i» gfttttrally flat Imdfeitlle, and 
at the mouth of the Loire marshy and unhealthy ; 
but towards La Vendue it abounds in woods and 
vineyards, and in summer has a delicious tem- 
perature. The chief town is Nantes, which long 
disputedwithRennes the titleof Capital of Brittany. 
Chief rivers— Loire and Erdre. 

C6tes du N<trd is more diversified; towards tha 
sea it is cut up into valleys by numerous rivers and 
streams, and is very fertile; but towards the inte- 
rior the great chain of the Menes Arres* runs from 
east to west, surmounted by a flat Uble land of 
heather-clad toiulet, varied by extensive forests of 
underwood. The chief towns are 8. Brieue, Dinan, 
Louddae, Guingamp, and Lannion. Its chief rivers 
are the Ranee, Trieux, and Guer; but an immense 
number of small rivers flow down through every 
valley to the sea. The dialect spoken about 
Tr^guier is rather diflSerent from the purer 
Breton of Finist^re. 

Morbihan^ or the "little sea," so called from the 
estuary on which Vannes is situated, is still more 
thoroughly Breton. It is the country of deep wood«, 
craggy valleys, sparkling streams, and a constant 
succession of diversified landscapes. The character 
of Brittany is aptly summed up in the French word 
aeddent^ which describes this changing variety of 
hill and dale, rocky mountain, and fertile valley 
which ifl seen in Morbihan. Towards the south the 
coast is flat and sandy, with vast plains of heather 
and barren waste. The chief towns are Napol^n- 
ville, or Pontivy, Vannes, and Lorient. Principal 
rivers— Oust, Blavet, and Scorff. 

FiMi$tint or Finisterre, is the most western de- 
partment, and as might be expected in a country 
exposed to the full force of the Atlantic waves and 
storms, is generally barren and rocky. But it 
abounds also in deep gorges and fertile valleys, 
and the bays around the coast are deep and wonder- 
fully picturesque. The chain of hills runs right 
through to the west, and terminates in high clifiFs, 
which oppose their bold front to the thundering 
charge of the white-crested waves. The chief towns 
are Brest, situated on a noble haven ; Quimper and 
Qnimperl^, on the banks of fine rivers; Morlaiz, a 
rising port; Carhaixand Chftteanlin. 

•Menes UTei, aeoordiiiK to M. Xitnei, •ieoiflM:— 
*' Another hill I "— «a exelamatloa of an impatieut tmveUcr 
TlM etymology is i^aUf tU. 

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ItB tiyen are the Ell4^ Od«t, Elomi and 
Oh&teasiUn^ «Mi tlM tribntanr ■tr«ami, wliich f oU 
Into ih«iii,iriin throngli noat laveiy*acetier|r. 

The eUmate of -Bilttany, aa nili^ be expeatad 
from its weaterljr poaltlon and the proximity of the 
lea to most i>art8 of it, is temperate, but moist. It 
has little cold, but the sky is generally orer-cast, 
and the heat of summer and glare of the sun are 
tempered by fresh sea breezes and frequent rain. 
The highest iiille are not moretlian l,600feet above 
the sea level, and great storms are rare; but there 
Is rather more humidity than suits mort eonstl- 

It is, howerer, eminently salubrious, and the 
natires enjoy greater longeyity and are more 
healthy than the population of any otiier part of 

The interior of Brittany is much less known than 
the coast, on aocount of its rugged and mountainous 
character, and from the fact that the great towns 
are nearly all on the coast, and the greatroads run 
round thecountry without touching the sequestered 
Interior; it will be seen that the railway similarly 
follows the coast at a short distance from the sea, 
and with the exception of theline from St. Brieuo to 
Auray, through Pontiry, the outer oirole of the 
country is all that is to be obserred by the rail; 
and the tourist, if he wishes to see the interior, 
must, either on foot or by private eonreyance, make 
excursions frequent and far a-field beyond the line 
of rail. Vide Table of Conveyances, at the end. 
Several short connecting lines are, however, in 
course of construction. 

The population of Brittany may be put down at 
one million ; and this will not appear too low, when 
the wide uncultivated tracts and sparse habitations 
of the interior have been visited. 

The geology of Brittany is very uniform. The 
granite crops up in every direction, principally 
along the line of the ehain of hills, and the spurs 
which run off to the north and south ; and in some 
places the slate and schistose rocks cover a large 
area,with lead mines, not now worked, about Poula- 
houea and Huelgotft. The grauwacke, including 
the superior and inferior transition rocka, presents 
its rugged featuresin all its variety, from hornblende 
and micaceous slAte, to schistose and quartzose 
rock. The granite is largely flyM4iiltliqww4Cv 

mica, and felspar. Th^ersanton, a curious green 
Btonoi supposed to be of volcanic origin, occurs in 
the north-west of Brittany, and is largely used in 
the beautiful chilrohes of that part. 

The carboniferous system scarcely occurs, nor is 
there much limestono in the country, a desideratum 
greatly felt. There is a large area of alluvial and 
drift deposit, with calcareous fossils extending from 
Dinan southwards. The fossil beds of Tretnmel 
and Quiou are worth visiting. 

The Bay qf Awiieme.—The sea has greatly en- 
croached from the Point du Raz to Pen March: 
the remains of buildings can (in fine weather) be 
seen at low tide under the water about Audieme. 

The coast has undergone frequent elevations and 
depressions, particularly in the Bays of Gancale and 
Douamenez, giving rise to many legends. There 
are submarine forests in the Bay of S. Michel, and 
submerged trees are seen on many parts of the 
north coast. 


The wonderfully f ertUe soil of Brittany has long 
sufficed to produce not only sustenance for its people 
but an ample amount for export. To this must be 
in some measure referred the small progress which 
has hitherto been madein scientific agriculture. The 
Breton, too, was always averse to Investing capital, 
and if be put money into the ground it was not in 
the sense of an investment, but only to hide it from 
his seigneur or his enemies. In the unsettled state 
of Brittany, for many centuries, it was out of the 
question to expect that much labour or capital 
should be expended in producing stock or crops 
which were almost certain to be harried or lifted 
by the victor— Frenchman or Englishman— for the 
time being : so all the farmer did was to sow a little 
eom and be thankful if he oould reap it for hie own 

It was, however, in the chivalrous times con- 
sidered *''tnauvaite guerre'' to make war upon the 
peasantry who tilled the land. In the War of the 
Succession, Beaumanoir reproached Pembroke for 
breaking this custom, when he ohaUenged him to 
the fight of Thirties at Mlvole. 

"<AMMUen d'Aatletam rem ftdtM gxBiid p<eh4, 

D* iMTalllM tea vnmwMU 4«i iteMt to U4.*' 

But in after times little respect was paid to the 

property of the |H > s iiitit-«adtlwy -irwe-at length 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

{Jntroduetlon.] aobxcuaturb. 

flo impoTeridMd and Unified that they oeased to 
•ouItiTaAe tha laad, and tarrlMe f amina overtook the 

Thii oniettled state of things, described with 
great rigoor in the Breton ballad ** Ann Brminik,** 
(in ymemarqa^8BarzsBBreix)ha8leftit8 influence 
upon the present generation. Corn-ricks and hay- 
stacks are still rare, for who would hare left them 
in the olden times to the mercy of the invader? 
The hay is gathered into the attics of houses within 
the walled towns, and the com is cut away, the cars 
only, and carried and thrashed and disposed of at 

The Breton farmer dislikes innorations also. So 
long as he can do as his fathers have done, it is 
sufficient for him. Gire him his bl^ noir^ and his 
chopine of cider, his pipe and his chimney comer, 
and he is content. 

The snbdiTlsion of heritages has also a peml- 
eious Influence upon farming; all property Is 
'dirided into shares among the heirs, according to 
their consanguinity, and thus estates are divided 
and subdivided till they dwindle down to two or 
three acres. On this account the fields are often 
of most lilliputian dimensions— many, as 27ie Timet 
correspondent said in 1858, about the size of a 
yacht's mainsail ; and with such holdings we can- 
not be surprised that low farming prevails. A 
horse or a plough is shared between several far- 
mers ; a donkey or an ox is a rare possession, and 
the author has seen a man ploughing his field witli 
bis cow and his wife yoked together. Most of the 
fi«ld labour is performed by women— a masculine 
race, clad in epicene garments, like the Northum- 
brian bondagers; indeed, the male population of 
Brittany, what with the conscriptions and deso- 
lating wars, is decidedly In a minority. 

It Is a painful sight to see the poor women 
breaking up the ground with heavy hoes and mat* 
toeks; but they are a patient and hardworking 

Yet, in spite of these drawbacks, and the great 
predominance of barren wastes, bog, and moorlands, 
^ritlany produces ample supplies of grain, and 
ftfTords pasturage to great numbers of cattle and 
•heep. Wheat, oats, bailey, rye, millet, and maice, 
«re easily grown; end as aa aftercrop sarassin,^^ 
m^ir or buckwheat, Is sown and harvested in three 
veeks or a month. Flax Is tfso largely «Utivafted. 


and dressed, and home-ipun in every cottage. The 
Bteepingof it In the rivers is a sad drawback to the 
fishing. Clover, colaa, and sainfoin are also largely 
grown, and when in flower give the fields a rtrj 
gay appearance. The potato is more grown than 
formerly, but turnips and carrots do not thrive in 
many parts. Hemp is also extensively grown and 
fabricated. About Morlaix and S. Halo tobacco is 
grown in large quantities, under a government 
monopoly, and its manufacture gives employment 
to a large number of females. 

The labourers are but an indolent race, and 
though wages are low they are quite equal to the 
work done. So much time is lost in gossiping, 
smoking, expectorating, and the petite dume, to 
say nothing of the ffite days. Saints* days, i>ardon«, 
Ac., on which no work Is done at .all, that an Eng- 
lish labourer would do as much work in a week as 
the Breton gets through In a month. 

Many Englishmen have attempted to cultivate 
land in Brittany, and if English capital and perse- 
verence requires a field there is ample room on the 
kmdet of Brittany; but the struggle is too arduous. 
The nature of the soil may be intractable, but it is 
as nothing to the rude natures and obstinate oppo- 
sition of the people, their idleness, bigotry, and 
detexmined hostility to innovations. To these must 
be added the odium theotogiemn, which renders it 
impossible for a Protestant to feel at home among 

Much has been said In late years about the 
Breton eattle, but their value is only relative. It 
is trae that they are small, and pretty looking, and 
hardy, and require little food or care; but their 
yield is very small, and they do not improve by 
migration. The sheep, too, are miserable objects, 
generally picking a scanty livelihood by the road 
side, but themutton is delicious. Pigs are of the long- 
legged, arched-backed breed, very weak in the 
hocks, and generally allowed to wander about the 

The breed of horses is very valuable, and sfnee 
the establishment of the government haras at Dn 
Pin, Lamballe, and elsewhere, the breed is much 
Improved. Most of the Nonnan horses oome from 
Brittany, being bought as colts, and brought up In 
the richer pastures and under the milder skies of 
the Cotentln and Calvados. The hai^dlaesB and 
eaAiraneeeff the little Bretem-lioNMr tfuemil^ 

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BiUixfiHl^'s BHITTANt. 


6btlre, whleb Ar« as^ iti the pubUc roHiires is 
Ulcr«diblet but probably the raUway wUl ease 
their labours, and it is to be hoped mitigate their 
■mffertngs, for they hare a hard life of it. 

There is aU air of poetry and Arcadian simplicity 
about rustic life in Brittany which cannot fail to 
charm the visitor. The house is generally em- 
bosomed in trees, and is soUdly built, haring the 
aspect of a fortified place, with its narrow windows, 
crenellated walls, and deep moat. Song and dance 
begnUe the toil, and even the threshing is performed 
by men and women together, dancing flail in hand 
orer the floor, to the sound of a kiniou or bagpipe, 
•r an ancient Cremona. 

Inside the honse there is a mixture of prosperity 
and dirt which is somewhat pnzilhig. The cattle, 
pigs, and fowls, share the same roof as their 
niMters, and are scarcely restrained by a thin 
partition from sharing their meals; the pigs and 
dogs nuzzle unchecked among the pots and pans, 
lor the Breton pig, like his Irish relative, is a 
member of the family and helps to pay the " rint." 
The admission of the porcine element into the 
Breton household has given rise to many shrewd 
hiU from their French neighbours, and the word 
**eoehmC* is considered somewhat personal. Prov :— 
Klnety-nine pigs and one Breton make a hundred 
Bretons. ''Les Bat Bretons tt U* cocham eouehent 
mnemble;j4n»cro9aUpaiU* <ac*on«»<«afei"— "the 
Bas Bretons and the pigs sleep together; I would 
not have thought the pigs were so filthy ? " 

Dirt is very destructive of romance, KoAmpassant 
we may warn our readers that fleas abound in all 
parts of Lower Brittany, especially in farm-houses, 
and that on entering a house it is better to turn 
the socks over the ends of the trousers. 

The hU noir^ which is the staple food of the 
country people, is made Into gaieties or pancakes, 
which are eaten hot or cold, with butter. 

Great quantities of eggs and butter are exported 
from Brittany, to the great reproach of our own 
fanners and fanners' wives. We are paying France 
more than a million steriing a year for eggs alone. 

Much has been done of late years to raise 
the position of agriculture in Brittany. Agricul- 
tural societies hold their com<c« and give prizes, 
liachiuery is being gradually introduced, and 
betterreceiTCd *, although the stolid Bretons mangle 


themselves terribly, And put the machinery out of 
gear with their clumsiness; but a gradual improve- 
ment is taking place. 

Many of the nobility are turning their attention 
to fanning, and among the rest the late Princeat 
Bacciocchl estaMished a model farm of about 1,200 
acres, at Komer Ho8t (Village near the Wood), 
which bade fair to set a wide example of improve- 
ment; but it turned out a great failure, the soil 
being so bad as to be incapable of remunerative 
production, although a very large amount of 
capital was expended on it. When the Princess 
died, about 1872, it was left to the Prince Imperial, 
who sold it ; the offers were so low that it realised 
but an insignificant sum of money. 


The tourist who confines himself to the railway* 
route, or the great highways of Brittany, will have 
little need of Breton, and indeed few opportunities 
of hearing it spoken; but in the interior the old 
language still remains the chief, and in some 
villages of Flnisterre the only, means of com- 

It Is somewhat beside the nature of the present 
publication to go into a philological discussion 
upon the ancient tongue; but S few words upon its 
origin, and a glossary of some of the prefixes snd 
affixes which enter into the composition of fiatocs 
or places, as well as a few eolloquial phrases, will 
be both interesting atid useful to the reader. 

It Is a moot question whether the Breton lan- 
guage was aboriginal, or brought in by the insular 
Britons in eariy times; but the great similarity 
between Breton, Welsh, and Cornish, seems to 
prove that they were cognate languages, derived 
from one Celtic original. It was an oral rather than 
a written language, and Indeed the Druids, who 
kept all knowledge they possessed within a select 
circle, only gave oral Instruction. 

Breton antiquarians consider it to be the original 
tongue of the world before the dispersion of 
Babel. At any rate, they say It was spoken In 
Paradise, and that Adam derived his name from a 
morsel (a tarn) of the apple sticking In his throat, 
and Eve hers from the water (ev) which she brought 
him to wash it down, 

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•HA gUfttd^ Killl^tJXtfB. 


A mJMd!e4qr« t^^i the "Romani a« Bfnii'* 
edi(M \if BetOtnf of Jftomnoath, aocounts for tho 
pvaftf of iho BHtbli iBnguage by recording that 
Bnttii8*8 soiia, wiio Inraded Brittany, kiUed all the 
males, and failing to get other wives from Eng- 
land (the 71,000 Virgins sent over having perished 
in a storm), married liieir slaves, the Breton 
women, but cut out their tongues to prevent their 
children talking any bnt the Celtic language. 

Mr. E. Norris's work on the " Cornish Dramil," 
and that o^ Lhuyd dn the "Ancient British Lan- 
guage,** show thtfi the Cornish and Welsh af« 
almost identical with the Armorlcan; and 4ny 
diflerencet which exist In words admitof easy expla- 
nation by a liberaiappllcatlonof the primary rule In 
Celtic aymologies, that many of the iniUU iMttfrs 
are liable to variation. 

Alfred de Courcy goes ^o far as to say that there 
Are two fundamtotal rules lii etymology:—!. To 
take no account of the vowels. 2. To take less of 
the consonants. Bnt this is menm sal. All initial 
Consonants are interchangeable for their similar 
sounds. The B sound may be written as b, or 
m 0^ t. Thu8— Bara might be mara, or vara. 
G may be ch, g; oi* h. P may be b, f, or ph. D 
may be t or 2, or th, pronounced as t. F may be 
m or V, Ac. But labial letters are not changed to 
flenttkl, or dental to labial. Many of the vowels also 
are interchangeable, particularly a and e. Great 
differences also exist between the different dialects 
of Gdtea du Nord, Morbihan, and Finlsterre; this 
cannot be wondered at when we consider that 
Breton has never been a literary language, and 
that no standard exists by which the purity of the 
longue can be maintained. As might be expected, 
the divergence is greatest where the contact with 
strangers is greatest, the wilder west having best 
preserved the old form. Legonidec's work on the 
" Breton Language" maybe consulted with advan- 
tage; and Yillemarqutf*8 *^Bart<u Breiz,'* or old 
Breton ballads, will give a good Idea of the written 
langnage. Nothing bnt along residence among the 
natives will give any idea of the pronunciation, 
which is rapid, harsh, and guttural, in most of the 
male throats, but exceedingly soft and euphonious 
from the lips of the women. 

Ab^lard, who lived for some time as superior of 
the monastery of 8. Gildas, near Sarzean, described 

tiito Bttton lihtrtiiitl ii ii«)rt&ttf tyU fttttlrtilir 
l^rtnft. He eaHi it " Lin^i mllii Xni^i ^ i|U<Hi V* 
and to fttraiigers it appear! fllee tiie lfel«li{ ft Ml- 
lection of b^barou leiuidi tt kn hiAAtmn 


the Breton ian^Age hia, oi bonrsi, jgt^ktif Mi 
Its original pttrlt^fi-om an admixture ^tth ki^j^- 
ihaii French as Vrell as Latin. Many #ordA miiy 
ilM be traciid to ihe lihiifuafhtnca, whlcli Bret^ 
adteniurers jpittid v^ In thk Levant on thelt WAv 
totiieGruiaaiss. Oh the fi-ohtl^r alio, b«i#e4ii B. 
B^iio arid Kantes, it became io Frenchified ki ^ 
lo^e its identity; and the thie Breton iangtth|:« ia 
only spoken in the wfcitern |iortion ot th^ p^nihsuU. 

k. correspondent remarks— ''t^ #e Examine 
attentively the names of the various placet as 
we advance into Lower Brittany we find that 
the names of the towns, parlshei, tilla|ef, 
anci various places feudd^niy chtog^ And that 
they all commenbe with bharact^rlitlb hidh^ 
syllables; by which means we can easily trA&li at 
each stq> the plaota Where (as they are called) 
the insular Bretoni (Welsh) established thiA- 
selves when they emigrated in the fifth CMtftff . 
Some piuift of Ld^er BritUny were not pene- 
trated by the Kormans during their invasion in 
the ninth century, which accounts for theii- rt- 
talning their Iknguage to this day. Indeed, a 
traveller should ai^a^e be provided with a gidile 
to act as an interpreter, as in many pieces he Will 
visit French is not spoken. Since the Norman 1ft- 
vasion the names have in a measure changed, and 
in a very absurd way, by Joining on a French to a 
Breton word wHhout any regard to the significa- 
tion of the latter. This is principally to be found 
in the names of the old country houses, ehftteanxi 
and large farms. Thus in 'Vill^Hello,' 'Ville- 
Gourio,* Ac. It will be observed that the ftrst 
part of these names ' Ker* has been translated hito 
'Ville,' whilst the latter part remains In Brdton, 
probably from the fact of the Normans not know- 
ing its signification. Indeed by the names of ihe 
various places, and without the aid of a map. It is 
possible almost to mark out the frontiers of the 
places where the Welsh and Cornish people sefttt»d 
when they emigrated to this part of France." 

Very few of our countrymen have ever mastered 
the Breton language, although to a Welshman the 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




task would be easy ; but two missionaries of the 

Baptist Society, tlio Rev. J. Jcnlcins, at Morlalx, 

and the Rev. K. Roberts, at Quimpcr, have been 

engaged for many years in arduous efforts to 

proselytise the Bretons by spreading among them a 

knowledge of the scriptures«in their own language. 

A translation of the Bible into Breton was made 

by J.egonidec, and the New Testament was printed 

and circulated in that language by the British and 

Foreign Society, in 1827; but the Rev. Mr. Jenkins 

has published another version as being more 

intelligible to the people of the Tr^gorrais than 

Legonidec's translation. The first verse of the 

first chapter of 8- John runs thus in Breton:— 

"Br gommansament e oa ar Ger, hag ar Ger a oa gand 
1>ou«, hai; ar G«r a oa Duue." 

The Welsh is :— 
- " Yn y deshreoad yr oedd y Gair, a'r Ooir (Mdd gyd a Dnw, 
a Duw oedd y Gnir." 

It will be seen that with the exception of the in- 
troduction of the French word "gommansament" 
(commencement) the resemblance is remarkable. 

Of words used in composition — particularly in 
names of places. 

(W. Welsh. C. Cornish. G. Gaelic.) 

^Also W. and C. confia- 

< ence of a larger and 
( smaller river 

I def . the 

I indef. a or an 

J Uphill. W. and C. (als 
t orcllt) 

(A pit, gulf, abyss, or 
( precipice 

(Seashore; Kom-aut,yil- 
( lage on the sea shore 
(High, W.,C., and G., but 
\ ar-dhu black 
rUpon, on, bordering on 

< Ar-mor, a village near 
( the sea, W. 

A river 

(Small, little, W. Bychan, 

\ same as C. Vaughan 

(High, lofty, famous, W. 

•< and C, Bangor, the 

< eminent choir. 

(A coroniou covered with 

\ h\ uoui 

. Aber 



Ann(W annwni) 
Aot, Aut 
Ard or erd 


Aven; Avon 
Bach, Bihan 

Ban or van 


Bas or bax Low, downwards 

Batz A shoal or shallow 

Bedd A grave or sepulchre, W 

(Point of headland on the 
( sea shore 

(Month of a river, as Ben 
•< Odet, mouth of the river 
( Odet 

(A spit or spear ; a spit of 
1 land; also W. 

Running water 
A wolf 

An abode, dwelling, W. 
Same as Pont : a bridge 
A wood of oaks, village 
A wood of beech trees 
(Great, as Mor-bras^ the 
( great sea or ocean 
(A hill; Bran^ivv, the 
t hill of St. Dlvy . 
(A country; Bro~Warroek^ 
J the country of Warrook 
] or Gwcrock, Count of 
V Vannes, in the 6th cent. 

\ Breast or slope of a bill, W. 

(A stronghold, fortress, 
\ city; also W. and C. 
Chapel, W. 

JA heap of stones, as Car- 
( nac. 

j A rock; Carrd hir, a high 
( rock 

Fortre8s,Roman castellum 
(An enclosure: Cl4-guer^^ 
< the enclosure of St. 
( Gudr^e 
(A wood or forest; Ar- 
Cost or GolH (W. Coed) -{ goad, Ar-goSt, the inte- 
( rior of a woody county 
(Together, dwelling to- 
( gether 

A chief 

A harbour 

A choir 

Village near the wood 

Body or corpse, W. 

High land 

r A height or hillock; Oiic- 
I Ardon, the tumulus of 
\ Tnmine at Arzon ; Cm- 
I belt, the tumulus at 
I Btic 










Bras or braz 

Br^, Bren, Bron, 
Br<5-an, Bran 



CaerorCar; alsoKer 



Carrd (W. Carreg) 


CM, Clos 

Com or Chom (prep ) 



Cor (W. Gor) 


Corph or Gorph 

Corre (G. Coir) 

Cr^ach, Cracli, Crug 

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Croaa (W. Crogs) 


Din (W. din, tin 



Dour (C. dowr, 


Dulas or daoolat 
El (W. Hell) 

Foon, Fau, Fon 



Frot, Front 


Gamp or Oand 

Garth (W. LIuarth) 





Goet (or Coet) 

Gooz, Qner 

Goloed (W. GwUd) 


Gouem . 





Gain or Gnen 



Hod or Moel 

Ilucl(C. Wheal) 


Is or Ys 


Dingle, also W.' 
A cross 
Good, W. 

*"^} A fortified city 

(X dale or low lying valley, 
■J also lying along, as of 
( stones 
Water, Doa-8al|Salt water 



Black; W.andG. '' 
Inky black 
River, generally tidal. 
The definite article 
A long ridge, W. 

(Beach tree ; /Viou-^, 

( beech wood 

f Babbling, prattling, as 
< of water, or jackdaws, 

( W. 

Limit, end, W. and C. 
A torrent, running water 

Same as alt, high 

Field, W. 

A place of encampment 

Bank of river, W. 

Bine or green, W. 

Coal, W. 

A glen, W. 

A wood, W. 

A brook 

A country, district 
(Over, above; GoT'tcrein 
( Gourin 

'Alder-tree, also W.water- 
{ meadows 

A suburb 

(Poor; Goz-ker, a poor 
t village 

(A place planted with al- 
( der trees 

l White W. and C. 

(Old, ancient, also W.; 

j or Hen-er-pontf the old 
( bridge. 

Long, lofty 


A hole or mine 

(Small; Croasic, a small 

( cross 



Innis (W. Ynys) 

Kaer, Ker, Caer (see 
. Caer) 

Kil, or Quil 

Lan, Land (W. Lion) 




Island, insula, G. 

'A town, village, or large 
farm ; Ker-grUt^ the 
village of Christ ; Ker- 
en-toer, Carento or 
the country of the 
stater, &c. It often 
merely indicates a 

t given locality. 

(A cell or hermitage, 

s Qut'/y, Qva-neue, Ket- 

( nue^ the new hermitage 
A church, monastery, 
_ lace ; properly^ an en- 

(A place, also (of stones) 

1 c ^ ' • 

!A c 

curved or slanting 

Lenn Lin (W. Llyn' J ^ P*^"^'^ P*>o^ ?/'«-*«•- 
a T.^nll^ "i '•*»' *fa« parish near to 

( the pond 

JfThe edge; Lu-Cott, the 
( edge of the wood 
(The khig' s court or palace, 

(A gate ; C. Liazherd, a 

( promontory. 

Brittany, because, as 
Daru says, it was a 
^' terra letiea" to which 
captives were sent as 
colonists (?) 

A place or site, a hermit- 
age; Loc-Ouiner, the 
siteof St. Guiner;£oe. 
tnin^^ Loc-meneh. the 
place (or convent) of 
the monks; Loc-qtultat^ 
the place or site of St. 

A lake, pronounced lo 


Same as Les 

(A lordship; Mal-gvnat 
■J or Mal-guenec, the iord- 
( ship of the woods. 
(A stone; Ker-men. W. 
( andC. 
Meineg Stony 

Haes, Mes The fields ; Met-lan. W. 

Mana (W. and C, Ma-> . . .^ ^ ^ 

nach or Mynach) ; ^ °^°°^- (G^. monach»9 ) 

Mar, Meur, Mor QkY. (Great; Ploe-meur, the 
Mawr) \ great parish, G. 

(A stallion, thence great, 
March, or in composi- J as in Arabic, (compare 
tion, Merc j in English, horse-chest- 

( nut, horse-radish 

G. Linu) 
Les, Lis 
Les or Lys 
Lezar (W. Llldlard) 

Lezou (W. Llydaw) 


Loe or Log 
Lud (W. Llndw) 

Maen, Men 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


BBil^lC(A^*l MitmiltTi 

Men or Mmii (m klSSiHi A stona, W. mara 



pi«, f'icn m 

Plir^ 0. Plo*) 

riou or Flu 


foH 6t ^ortB 


A mouni 

(The sea: W., but also 
^ same as mawr great e/. 
i. moriran, morTan, Ac 
(A brook or rimlet; W. 
( ^ valley 


)3ea shore 

JSoundary, W. 

A valley, W. 

{A head or headland, ■iimi> 
mil; Pen-hoBt, the head 
of the wood; |*enj. 
• March, the head of the 
horse (or capeX W. 

A fortress 
( A>terrltory,colony,parishj 
J Ple-$eop, the bishop's 
"5 parish; Plu-miUt, tlife 
( parish of St. Melee 

A parish 

A bridge, W. 
JA door, gate, ferry, ford, 

( or haven, W. and C 

'k well or pool, lowland- 
pond, swamp; W., C , 
and G. ; Ooloed i er vro 
^ boulUni, the country is 
. region of ponds. 

Ctfn i^? "^ perW,JJulberon, Quini- 












(k w< 
I POi 
i an( 
I aft 
V I ai 

( pily, Guingamp, Ac. 


[A piece of land, ahabitc*- 


A strait 

jA hill, 

as Gou-rin, a 

\ steep hill 
A promontory 
fcataract, W. 
A moist plain 

f A declivitv or sKUpe ; Psk- 
< nr-roi, tne head of the 
( hill 
A causeway 

/^Pagans, i.e. Saracens; the 
1 name by which the 
A Danish or Norse inva* 
1 ders of Brit^i^y if^re 
\ knowii 

Sais or SadI 






Tr^, tr<Six, treek 

Tre or Tref 

Tref, Trev 

Traon, 'tton 

Uzel (W. Uohel) 
Vran (W. Bran 

fenglish (SaxoB) 


A brook or a river 


Spreading, open, W. 

(A hole; Toul-^t, tH9 
■I hole in the wood 6t 
i forest 
Sandy beach, C. tAB. W. 

A passage of the arm ^t 
a sea or river, a ford; 
Tr^-nehui, the neW pal- 
sage; Tr^lvd (tradi 
alveum) the passage of 
the ford of St. Alv^. 

(Village, home, or plac* 
\ of abode, W. and C. 
A section or dependencf 
of a parish; Tref -lean, 
the section of themonk^ 

Yale, valley, dale; Annr 
traon, t^e (ower part 
' the vallbf 

(A set 
J of 
S th« 
t or 

i of 

Three, #. Ahd 0. 

House or mansion, W.& C» 


5 A crow; Mor-vran, k bei 
\ crow 

T,particleusedin4bfii|K>^tionbeforesp, it, JIM;^ kif^ 

Ysptty Hospital, #. 

Ystrad 6eadow, W. 

Ystwith Winding, flexible 

1. Unan, C. and W. Un , 
Ir. Datt, C. De#t W. Batt 
S. Tri, C. Try, W. tri 
4. Peouar, C. Pedal-, W. Pedwar 
«. Pemp^ C. Pymp^ W. Pump 
«. iltmish, €. Whe, W. Chwdch 

7. Saith, C. Seyth, W. Saith 

8. Eith, C. Eath, W. Wyih 

9. Nau, C. and W. Naw 
10. Deg, C. Dek, W. Deg 

M. Unardeg, undek, C. £dnak, 'Yf.V^ ar dde^ 
13. Daudiek, W. Deuddei^ 
13. Tridek, Ac. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


tHtt fiSSffOir LANamatt-^AKTIQUtTIBB. 


Voealrol^iy of a ftw nsoftil Bretea Words 
and FluraMs. 

An amhtnt Money (W. Avlftti) 

An amana Butter (W. Henyn) 

Bara Bread (W. Bara) 

Breix Breton 

Brezounetq Breton language 

Butum macl Good tobaceo 

Oanlt (imp.) Sing (W. Canuwch) 

Compsii (do.) Speak 

Peutaman (do.) Gomehere(WJ>euwebyma) 

Dcjuno Breakfast 

t>ulzen A trout 

Piolchi Thank you (W. Diolchi) 

t>isderiot (Imp.) Explain 

An dour Water (W. Dwf r) 

Ouin Wine (W. Clwin) 

ru« Bed Wine 

^— ardaat Brandy 

Ur goulab A candle 

Eur gampr A cliamber 

tJr gu«f A bed (W. Gwely) 

Ur guelienen A fly 
Hastitafo ' Make haste 

Ur higuen A book 

tJrchi A dog (W. CI) 


Ye«, yei 


Ho, no 

lee* het mat 

Good health. 





Peguemeot ( W.Paf aint) How much ? 

tJr pesq (W.Pysgod^j A fish 

Pesquette To 0th 

Ur petrls of gln|ar A partridge 

Ur saumon A lalmon 

Quic Meat (W. Gig) 

Saoz, saesoa Englishman 

Tta Plre (W. Tftn) 

Doch tin Gire me light 

Prittta Light a ire 

A«troa Sir 

itroa Madam 

' Should any of oar readers be disposed to study 

Ike Bretoa faagaage, they should pfocan Legoni- 

|*flr« bMk, ■Iso VUI«Biaiqa^t ^ook ta Bt9tm 

BaUads, the '^Bartat SreU,'* And BmUe 6uu- 
vestre's H/>«r*t««i Breton*:' Th^t^t Vit?» a Breton 
Grammar and Dictionary, and a Vocabulary, lyhlch 
may be found in any of the large towns, will give 
them a great interest in the language and a facility 
in acquiring it. 



tany is pre-eminently thp country in which th^ 
remains of the past indicate a greatness which 
Its present condition would scarcely |u8tify. 
Whetherwelook upon tfiemonumentsof the ancient 
aborigines and their powerful priesthood, or upon 
the old feudal strongholds, or upon the relics of 
ecclesiastical architecture, we are struck with the 
evidence of former grandeur which ereryif her^ 
meets the Tiew. 

The bestexamplespf thePre-historlppfriod are to 
be found in the Morbihap, «.^, the tumuli an^ 
avenues of Gamac, the menl^irs or long stonef c^ 
Locmariaker, and numerous cronUechs and do}- 
inena; but similar monuments are scattered also 
oyer the \vholo of Brittai^y. The antiquity of 
these remains is too remote for us to be f bU to 
fissign more than a conjectural prigin fo t^^s^. 

They are found every where fropa Central Asia 
and India to the remotest West of Europe, includ- 
ing the Northern and Western Coasts of Africa, 
not to mention America, Polynesia, and Australia. 
Their numbers are greatest in the mo^e secluded 
districts and Islands (for instance, in the Orkoey 
Islands over S,000 tumuli are said to exist), but it 
must not be forgotten that in those parts wherb 
the higher ctTUlzatlons, oombiaed with denser 
populations, have existed the longest, and the 
power of ancient pagan traditions and superstitions 
has been most weakened, the greater portion of 
the smaller tumuli would be lerftUed to pisftt th^ 
requirements of extended cultivation, and mopt nf 
the Megalithic Monuments would be )>roken ap 
and used in the construction of norp «UboraLe 

SclentiAc ojhservers are inclined to ceasid«r the 
great majority of the Megalithic Monuments Cap0 
the tumuli by which they fr» Ir^qaently §ceom- 
pf nied, or vitb whicOi thty iv« WQUfpte^) §9 
sepulchral in thoir Of Igla. 2t^«lUf«1W^&lD|fe|( 

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BKADfiBAW'd filllTTAKr. 


single upright Btonei may have been objects of 
worship or ▼eneration (see Leviticus xxri., ▼. 1, 
marginal notes) and may be referred to a similar 
origin with the Lingam of India; indeed, the 
peasant women of Brittany still resort to the 
menhirSf especially that of Plonarzel and the 
Men-ar-Dragon of Ker-Rohou, in the hope that 
by contact therewith they may be cured of ster- 
ility. Even in the case of the upright stones, 
however, we have the pillar of Absalom, which he 
reared to keep his name in remembrance, probably 
intending to be buried beside it. Homer— Iliad, 
xxiii, 884— in speaking of the burial of Patroclus 
makes Nestor refer to two " smooth white stones" 
as placed either to mark a grave or to serve some 
special purpose, the origin of which, however, was 
even then lost in the mists of antiquity (Homer 
may be dated 600 b.c.) The pillar and ''heap of 
witness" of Oen. xxxi, 45-53, the twelve stones of 
Gilgal, and the commemorative mound of the 
famous Ten Thousand, are examples of mounds, 
Ac, erected for purposes other than sepulchral. 

The great circles are much' more likely to have 
been connected with worship and nsed as temples, 
though many of these have proved to be burial 
places, or to have formed the nucleus of interments 
in a similar way with Christian places of worship. 

The custom of erecting tumuli or barrows over 
the remains of distinguished men is of the greatest 
antiquity. It is referred to in Homer, Diodorus, 
Pausanias, Virgil, &c., and was not extinct in 
Denmark so late as 950 a.d. It if worthy of con- 
sideration whether the primary motive was to 
honour and preserve the memory of the illustrious 
dead, or to preserve the body from the jaws of 
wild beasts, whose stomachs not improbably 
formed the usual grave of the solitary, or poor 
and undistinguished individual in earlier times, 
at any rate in Europe, where we have no reason 
to assume the existence of some long extinct 
civilization. In Scotland, burials frequently took 
place on islands, to secure the corpse against 
wolves. Be this as It may, it is thought that the 
custom of Interment in tumuli may date as far 
back as 5,000 years ago. 

The various descriptions of Megalithic remains 
are known in the Breton language as tnenhin for 

I. Menhirs, ot upright pillars {men or man, 
stone; Mr long). Some of the largest of these 
have been overthrown, possibly by earthquakes, 
and broken in the fall. They are found either 
singly (which is the ease, as a rule, with the 
largest) or in long alignments, as at Gamac. 

II. Dolmens, or flat stones {dol, lying idongX 
set up on other upright stones, formerly sup- 
posed to be Draidical altars. Antiquaries, how- 
ever, seem to have decided that they were rather 
places of sepulture, as with a few exceptions they 
were all originally within galgals or barrows. "A 
complete burying place may be described as a 
dolmen, covered by a tumulus and surrounded by 
a circle of stones. Often we have only the 
tumulus, sometimes only the dolmen, and some- 
times again the stone circle only.** (SirJ.Lubbock*8 
"Pre-historic Times.") 

III. Logan stones, or pterres branlantes (Welsh, 
iiaen sigV), rocking stones, set up or naturally 
disposed on a point of rock, so as to move with a 
slight touch, if rightly applied. The superstitious 
peasantry still regard them as an ordeal. Hus- 
bands who are suspicious of {heir wives resort to 
them, and if their doubts are just, the great stone, 
which a child's finger might set rocking, will 
remain immovable to their strongest efforts. 

lY. Oalgals, according to the French acceptation 
of the word are "immense heaps of stones (In the 
rough) not mixed with earth or united together 
by cement, having a conical form, their height 
being equal to that of the highest barrows. The 
word galgal is singularly like Oilgal in the Bible, 
but can have no etymological connection with It. 

Y. Narrows (Breton, Mdne) are heaps of stones 
and earth frequently containing a Kist-vaen 
(stone-chest), the sarcophagus of some Celtic (?) 

VI. Pierres-Mfossins; large flat stones, found 
in many plaoea, and from the cavities or hollows 
(bassins) cut or worn in them, supposed at one 
time to be altars for human sacrifices; some 
regard the hollows as having been made by cutting 
out querns (stones for handmills) from the rock; 
others attribute them sioiply to the action of the 
air and rain. It is worthy of remark that at least 
in two cases these querns have been found in situ, 
partly cat ont (see under Onerrandt, Houte XL), 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

^ ^ O Q 


Digitized by LjOOQ iC 




and in another cas« the CoyeriHg stone of a dolmen 
has these hollows on the under surface. The 
peasants consider that sitting down in them is 
good for rheumatism. 

Vll. CroffHechs arc stone circular or oval en- 
closures supposed to have been connected with 
religious rites; ihey are usually found near a 
dolmen. These stones are arranged at regular 
distances, and their number seems to have had 
some significance. Twelve, nineteen, thirty, sixty, 
are numbers which repeatedly occur. In no in- 
stance has any stone which could be considered as 
a sacrificial altar been found within these en- 
closures ; those stones which have been supposed 
by some to have served this purpose, are found at 
a slight distance outside the circles. The follow- 
ing is the definition of the French antiquaries. (It 
may be observed that the moaning given to lech is 
open to doubt.) "On nomme Cromlech, en terme 
d'srch^ologie Celtique, une enceinte soit circulaire 
soit elliptique, formic par des Men-hirs ou Peul- 
vans plant^s, ou par des blocs de picrre plus ou 
moins voIuminenx,simplement pos^sknu sur lesol; 
ee mot vient de deux mots Celtiqnes, *Crom ou 
Groum* qui signifi^ eeurbure, et * L^h ou Idaeh,* 
pierre aaerde; litteralement il vent done dire, 
pitrres §acreei en eowbe^ en eercle. Nous devons 
faire remarquer ici, que dans le syst^me de ces 
grossiers monuments de la religion des Celtes, le 
Dolmen sur lequel on immolait les victimes est 
constamment plae^ en-d^bors de Tenceinte du 
sanctuaire comme si Ton eftt voulu tfviter qu'il fftt 
ensanglant^ par ces sacrifices barbares." 

*^AUees Oowfertet. Quelques antiquaires out con- 
fendu ces monuments avec les Dolmens de grande 
dimension. Le Dolmen est Tassemblage de 
pierres brutes, etpaeeet entre elles, grossi^.rement 
dispos^es sur deux lignes k pen pr^s paralleles, et 
rdcouvertes d'une ou deux pierres.** 

** L'all^e oouverte, qnoique formde de pierres 
^galunent brutes, annonce plus de soin dans sa 
construction. Les pierres vertieales qui en for- 
ment les parois $ont conHguu let unea aux autrttj 
elles ont one hauteur ^gale, et les tables qui les 
r^oouvrent rtfpotent en plein sur elles. Aiasi.le 
beau monument des Pierres Plates & Loc-Maria- 
quer, ett «!• •!!<• opuTert*; U grotte dt Gw'r^ 

Innii et eell6 d6 Plougoumelen Soht des allee» 
couvertes. Cos trois monuments sont r^unis sous la 
mdme application, quoique les deux dcrnicrs 
soient dant det Qalgals, et que le premier soit en 
plein air; parceque toutcs les alMes couvcrtcs 
ont 6i6 primitivement ensevelies sous des Tumulus 
ou des OalgalSf et nMtaicnt autre chose que des 

The above is a very correct definition; hence 
the "Allde Couverte" cannot be confounded with 
cither the Dolmen or the Grottcs aux F^es. The 
Alldes Couv6rtes are also called by some anti- 
quaries " Coffres de Pierres." 

The most remarkable examples of the diflcrent 
kinds are— of Menhirs those of Locmarlaker, 
Quiberon, Lanvau, Plouarzel, Kerpenliir, S. 
Samson, near Dinan, somewhat out of the per- 
pendicular from the attacks of treasure seekers. 
There are also two in Belle-Isle, called Jean and 
Jeanne de KerMdan. 

List of Menhirs at Carnac (according to the 

latest survey), including those fallen, broken, or 

built up in boundary walls. 

Menec ],169v 

Petit Menec 273 1 Tli««e extend in a direct line 

^ . ^„^ I from the cromlech of Menec 

KermariO 962 /for quite three kUom^tree.not 

LeM.nio i«or°']assiSSJss:~" 

Kerlescan S06J 

Kerserho(Erdeven)l,227-These latter are separate. 

Total 4,117 

Of Dolmens those of Er Boch, near Vanncs; 
the Table de Cdsar, or des Marchands, and les 
Pierres Plates, near Locxnariaker; the Roche 
Bigot and Roche Morvan, near Cadoudal; the 
dolmen of Kerfily, of Keniand and Penhap, 
on the Monk's Island, in the sea of Morbihan. 
The Logan Stones of Pontuig and HuelgoUt; 
the Roche-Binet, between Vannes and Tr^dion; 
Men-Dogan, near Ooncameau; and Coz Castel, 
near Trdgastel, still retain their rocking motion 
and their legendary powers. 

The Oalgal of Gav'r Innis will be described ad 
locuni. The mound is a galgal, as being composed 
ofs<onM;the Celtic monument which it contains 
is an '* AU^ Cifvwrtf.'' 

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Mtm^m oj ttt«»|l tWI ««i««iio thtMorbttii, 
WrtleuUilf At TumiM, ii«ir 8»rM»n; ttie Butttl 
l^adame, near Ploemeur; the Butte dee Tombe^ U 
TriJhorenteuc; theMan<Lud, or Mountain of Aabee, 
near Locmarlakcr, and many others which ha^e 
been found to contain ashes and sepulchral remalne. 

Pierra ^ b<u$int at Oo«tsal, where the peasants 
call upon S. Stephen to cure them of their lum- 

Oarnfiic and Its Ticinlty are the greatest field for 
antiquarian research, and Its avenues of many 
thousand upright stones wiU ever be a subject for 
Wonder and conjecture. A very Interesting book 
treating on the various sculptures and incisions 
which h^ve been found on the stones of the tumuU 
an^ bi^rrows, was published at Vannes, by Dr. G. 
de Clojjw^adeuc, President of the Soci^ttf Poiy- 
ml^thiqup dttMorbihan; it Is named "Sculptures 
Lapidaires ^t Jl^es graves de» Dolmens dans le 
Morbihan/* The plates are very good and the in- 
scriptions well delineated. It is, unfortunately, 

now out of print. 

9 »oMAHBBiCAnf8.--Althoughmany of the relies 
of thcpast areattrlbuted to theBomans,andJuUus 
of hl» process, yettherearefewmonuments of their 
occupation. Many localities correspond with their 
Roman jiwf-h •*<* ^ Erquy-formerly Bhjjglnea; 
Cor8eul,thechief townof theCurtosolltes; Vannes, 
thccbief cityof tiieVeneti; tndafewCastdlaalso, 
on elevated spots, stUl retain tiieir Roman appeUa- 
tlons; butDarlorigum,nowLocmarlaker,ha8qulte 
disappeared; and Blabla, now Port Louis, only 
exUts In the name of the river Blavet, Nantes 
■till recalls the name of the Nannetcs, and Rennes 
and Bhedon, of the Rhedones of Cssar. In many 
parts of Brittany remains of Roman roads, and the 
foundations of Roman vlUas are found. AtBour- 
gerii, near Vannes, have been found several pieces 
of tesselated pavement; at Nostang, the remains 
of a bath, and a Ronm> camp with Its praetorian 
•mluence. Near Locmariaker were also dis- 
covered, in 1853, the walls of a Roman house and 
the outer wall of a circus, built about 360 A.D., 
^th several coins of Magnentlus. NearOama«, 
•(the Bosstnno, In 1874-5, have been Uld open 
Mveral Gallo-Boman buildings of the second cen- 
tury, Including dwiUlng-honfte. *athf, • ♦•Bipl«i 


udahlaeknntth>fikq^ tlMiMuseuiiiiofDlii«m 
Bmnes. and V«mM !»▼• «»«• totWirtlag rrtlos 
of RmaMi occspattoii, toscrlbed stones, statnnry^ 
pottery, coins, Ac.; but perhaps th« most stognUr 
of the Roman relics Is the sUtue of tiie Venu. 
QuinlpUy, which stUl stands In the garden of the 
ch&teau of that name, near Baud, which wlU be 
noticed orf fcxjwn. ,^ , u 

The curious circular Chapel of LanleB ^ by 
some supposed to be a Roman temple. 

a. EocLBSiASTioAL RwfAXKS.— Th» ro»d-si4e 
crosses, which may still be seen at mostof thecrosa 
roads in Brittany, are also of great antiquity. 
Formerly, there was one at every cross-road, some 
of very simple form, four short limbs with a olrou- 
lar disc on which was carved a rude Image; some 
much higher, and of more elaborate sculpt^re, 
with figures of the Saviour, the Saint Esprit, the 
two Marys, as at Dlnan, 8. Cfiradec, and a thousand 
others, but these are more recent. The earliest 
date from the tentii century; but the Calvinlsts 
made sad work of them In the religious wars, and It 
was calculated that it would take more than a mU- 
lion sterling to restore the old crosses of Morbihan 
alone. The wooden erections of modem art are 
the most repulsive snd horrifying objecU It U po«- 
pible to conceive. They are generaUy ghastiy life- 
like represenUtlons of the Saviour on the eros^ 
with a large allowance of red paint, and an array 
of hammers, naUs, spears, tiie pincers, crown of 
thorns, lantiiom,*«.,ran«edasatrophyundemfatb. 
The Churches of Brittany are also of venerable 
antiquity and exceeding beauty. Those tiiat sur-. 
Tlved the Iconoclasm and furious bigotry of the 
Calvinlsts and BepubUcans attest the zeal and 
parexcaiemce. Most of the churches were built In 
the f ourteentii and fifteenth centuries, when Chris- 
tianity may be said to have at last routed Pagan- 
ism In BritUny. Tradition corroborates the pro- 
babttity that ebout thU period, when the Wars of 
the Suecession were ended, • kind of religions 
enthusiasm, fostered too by emissaries of the 
Pope, took possession of the people, and with a 
grand ImpnJse and effort they set to work to raise 
np worthy temples to the God U thfir fresh and 
ferventfaith. ▲ band of it-OM^flMfflMi or ^wtA^a 
avoUt^ti, irnmnA ^lUUnp uA 4iiiptM the 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 




food work; but e^wy ooUs devoted his fortune 
io this object, and everj^ peasant bocame an 
•relUtect and a mason, and each Tied with his 
neighbour in contributing his share of money or 
labour, his stone or cartage, his timber or land, to 
complete tlie work which was to immortalise his 
parish and himself ; tmd/ain^aHt was he who hnng 
back and had no part or lot in finding a fitting 
UtiftineiU for the Bon Dieu. And so the quarries 
gaped, and the woods fell, and saw and axe, and 
hammer and chisel, fashioned the primeval oaks, 
and the granite and kersanton, into these lasting 
monuments of piety and xeal. 

To speak of the majority of these beautiful 
churches as ruined and desecrated, the carved 
work broken down with axes and hammers, the 
sfdntf decapitated, the roofs fallen in, the pave- 
ment np-tom, and the lofty towers the abode of 
t)ie owl and bat, is only to rehearse the sad story 
oi the fanaticism which alike vented its fury on 
our English cathedrals and churches; but, as in 
our own country a better era has begun, the 
churches long silent, deserted, and damp-stained, 
fire being restored to their former splendour, and 
the Imperial hand which scattered its favours 
broadcast over France did not omit to make 
Brittany a partieipatop of its largesse. 

Many of the finest Churehes In Brittany ewe 
their origin to some miracle or vow. Such are the 
Churches of FolgolSt (or the fool of the wood), of 
Notre Dame de Bonder, at Josselin, of 8. Jean du 
Doigt, of 8. Anne of Auray, 8. Barbe near Faou6t, 
and 8. Mathurin of Moncontour, whose magnifi- 
cence arises from the miracles performed on their 
respective sites; while the fine Church of *^ Bonne 
NowteRe,*^ in Rennes, arose from a tow of the Barl 
of Montf ort to build a church when he heard the 
good news of the death of De Blois. 

The finest and most interesting churches of 
Brittany are in Ille-et-Vilalne— those of S. Male 
and Rennes Cathedral. 

In cotes du Nord—S.fianveur, Dinan ; Moncon- 
l9Ur; Tr<guier, with its beautiful cloisters; the 
circular church of Lanleff; tha upper church at 
l<annlon; several at Gulngamp, and many little 
l^aiitry churches, as Le Moustoir, 8. Briao, Ac. 

Flnisterre is very rich in churches. Besides the 
jPttiudaa el IMiVPer, sitb iU Jtas <latto Qdns, 

lately restored, and Quimperl^ with its eircular 
apse and crypt, it boasts of a host of churches In 
the north-west, superior to any in Brittany ;— S. 
Pol de L^on, with its lofty spire; Eolgogt, with its 
beautiful traceries; S. Jean du Doi^, S. Thcgop- 
nee, Lampaul, Guimiliau, La Martyre, and Lanba-' 
der; all miracles of ingenuity and labour, and tho 
more remarkable for the poverty and want of 
civilisation of the country in which they stand. . 

In Morbiban we find also many fine churchosi 
particularly the Cathedral of Vannes ; the miracle 
Church of 8. Anne, near Auray; the exquisite 
gem of Kemascleden ; the curiously ornamented 
Churches of 8. Barbe, 8, Fiacre, PloSnnel, and Car- 
nac, and the Church of Locmin^ dedicated to S. 
Colomban, patron of idiots. 

The Lower Loire has little in the way of ecclesi- 
astical architecture, with the exception of the 
Cathedral of Nantes. 

Calvaries are a peculiar feature of Breton 
churches. They are generally an erection of stone 
in the churchyard, consisting of a square gallery 
on arches over a deep pit, the sides adorned with 
sculptures, and in the centre a lofty stone crucifix.' 
The pit is intended to act as an ossuary or cfaamel 
pit, to receive the surplus relics of humanity cast 
up each year in digging graves In the crowded 
churchyards, previously, however, to their being 
stacked away in the bone-house. Many of these 
CalTaries are beautifully ornamented with life- 
size figrures in Kersanton granite, representing 
the Tarious scenes of our Lord's Passion. On the 
jour des morts in some parishes, in others during 
passion week, the Calvary is used as a pulpit, from 
which the priest harangues the people on righte- 
ousness, temperance, and the Judgment to come, 
illustrating his subject by pointing to the sculp- 
tured figures of the Passion, and of Hell opening 
wide its mouth. The most beautiful Calvaries are 
those of Guimiliau, of which an illustration is given, 
Plougastel, Pleyben, and Arzano, all in Finistbre, 
and OuAenno in Morbihan. 

There are also many old Abbeys worth visiting, 
particularly LAon, near Dinan ; Beauport, near 
Paimpol ; Landevennee, beyond Brest, Ac, Ac. 

4. Fkudal Behaiks.— The Feudal Castles of 
Brittany are not less numerous or interesting 
jfchan the churches. Tta tniNaBf tl^U WJ^fitu 

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B&ADdfiAW'g BfeltTANr. 

our epitome of its histoiy roYoalg wotild tiatarnlly 
lead us to expect thAt erery city should be forti- 
fled, and eyery man^s house his castle. And such 
Is the case: erery hill is or has been crowned 
with a fortification; erery chAtean and farm- 
house has stood a si^e, and everywhere shattered 
towers, and ruined donjons, and ivy-grown walls, 
tell of the turbulent past of Brittany. Some of 
the old towns retain considerable traces of the old 
fortifications, particularly Vitr^, S. Malo, Dinan, 
Pontivy, Moncontour, Vannes, and Hennebont, In 
which the old battlemented and machicolated* 
walls still remain, and are mostly used for prome- 
nades. Some old chftteaux are still used as resi- 
dences, such as Combourg, Tr^esson, Josselin, 
Pontivy, Ac, but the majority are grand, old. Ivy- 
grown ruins— crumbling walls standing on a bare 
rock, or above the green turf-grown moats, on 
which sheep graze and children play; such are 
Ltfhon, Hunaudaye, Hardouinaye, Montafiland, 
near Dinan ; such Is La Garaye, made famous by 
Mrs. Norton's pen. Such are Le Guildo, CoStfrec, 
Tonqnedec, and Suclnio, and a thousand more 
now silent and deserted, which once resounded 
with the shouts of revelry and the tramp and dash 
of steel-clad hosts. 


The various developments of civilisation which, 
Judging from the evidences of human industry 
which remain to us, have characterised the 
existence of man on the globe, have been classified 
by antiquaries under three heads, vis.: 
I. The Ag« of Stone; sub-divided into>- 
a. The Paleolithic Period. 
». The Neolithic Period. 

II. The Age of Bronxe; or, the Bronze Period. 

III. The Age of Iron ; or, the Iron Period 

The Chlpped-stone or PalsBolithic Period is long 
before the dawn of historical tradition. Its dura- 
tion is uncertain. The arts remained stationary 
during these remote times; flint instruments, 
found in large quantities in both the higher and 
lower levels of the Somme valley and other drift 
formations, are nearly the same shape, Ac., though 

• MaeMeataHoiu. from Fr. maeheoinau (origin unknown), 
an OMiiinffs In the wmU under the tattlraunt*, through 
vhiehtheb«d«CMl vmA to throw down mlMtUs or pour 
molten lead apon tkisir a«allaata. 


separated by a vast distance Of time. The peoplo 
were probably troglodytes, and to them belong 
the remains found in the bone caverns, and the 
rock sculpture; they appear to have domesticated 
the dog, but no other animal. 

The Polished-stone or Neolithic Period is also 
pr»*hi8torie. The nations who used these imple- 
ments seem to have entered Europe from Central 
Asia as far back as 1600 years before the com- 
mencement of the Bronze Period, <.e., between 8000 
and 4000 b.c. Some think this date too modem. 
They brought with them the cultivation of cereals, 
breeding of cattle, inhumation, and erection of 
dolmens, Ac. ; their tumuli contain polished stone 
implements and weapons, and rude pottery. 

The Bronze Period lasted in Europe from 
1900 B.C. until 200 a.d. Stonehenge, with its 
370 tumuli, belongs to this period. The absence of 
articles made of either copper or tin, uncombined, 
seems to indicate that the art of making bronze 
was introduced into, not invented in Europe. If 
it was not a new and distinct nation that used the 
bronze implements, there must have been artificers 
who traveHed from tribe to tribe exercising and 
transmitting their art, for there is great resem- 
blance and homogeneity of shape in these weapons 
and implements, which fact seems to point dis- 
tinctly to unity of origin. 

The Celtic nations came into Europe «id the 
Danube, Vistula, and Dnieper. They entered France 
vi& Marseilles and the Rhdne. They Interred in 
tumuli after incineration. 

The Druids went over into France from Eng- 
land; according to Julius G«sar, their neophytes 
went to England to be Initiated. Mach that has 
been written about them is unsupported by trust- 
worthy evidence. 

The Roman Period commenced in France 59 b.c., 
at which time money was first coined there. 
The French antiquaries think that money was 
coined in Gaul prior to the coming of the Romans. 

No Palttolithic tumuli or barrows have been 
found, but this system of burial prevailed in the 
North and West of Europe from the Neollthie 
Period until the advent of Christianity. I was 
finally abandoned in the 10th century. 

Many of the largeft tUBuli appcfr from their • 

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HELlolOH A»D fltPfifl6*rmbNS. 


contents to have been oottatf ucted by a people who 
possessed no metal, and most of these in Brittany, 
e.g., those at Mdnt St. Michel (Carnac) and M&n€- 
er-Hroec may be considered as belonging to the 
Stone Age. 

SecMdary Intermentt, which are met with in 
the tumuli, were forbidden in the reign of Charle- 
magne, and burning the dead was made a capital 
offence by the Capitulary of that Monarch, a.d. 

A very large number of dolmens, having an 
entrance through a hole in one of their supports, 
were examhied in India by Capt. Taylor. This 
peculiarity has been met with in similar monu- 
ments in Brittany, and occurs also in Syria. 



Primary: from the 6th to the 9ih century. 

Secondary: A'om the end of the 9th to the 11th 

Tertiary: 12th century. 

Until the 13th century the arches were semi- 
circular and the ornamentation taken from the 
Roman style. Great changes in the style of 
ornamentation took place in the 9th and 12th 


Primary: IStli century. 

Secondary: 14th century. 

TerUary: Iffth and 16th centuries. 

The Arches were ogival; the style became 
very elegant in the middle of the 18th century; 
was modified in the 14th century, and beeame 
debased in the 16th century. 


The second half of the 16th century. 

Modem : 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. 

The 16th century saw the return of semi-clrcular 
arches, but the architecture did not assume the 
classic forms until the middle of the 17th century. 

The Figure of ChzlBt was rarely exposed on 
the cross between the 6th and 10th centuries, and 
was rarely sculptured before the 18th century. 
During the 11th and 19th centuries the figure was 
engraved, but wearing a long vestment, and with 
the hair down to the shoulders, though sometimes 
wearing a sort of skull-cap, each of the feet being 
naUed iepant«ly. Before tiM Utb oentary tii« 

figure on theeross had A iort of Jacket with sleeves 
and trousers. In the 16th century the figure was 
sculptured naked, having a waist cloth and crown 
of thorns. 

Prior to the 9th century no OmamentS what- 
ever were placed on the alUrs, the Bible only 
being on them. Crosses were first placed there 
in the 10th century. 

During the 12th century a cross, one candle- 
stick, a chalice, and the Bible were the only things 
placed on the altar. No statuary or images of 
any description were placed there before the 18th 

Coloured Glass first introduced into churches 
during the latter half of the 12th century. 

PnlpltS first introduced into churches in the 
16th century; at first they were on the exterior 
as at Vitr^, GuSmo, and St. Ld. Before that time 
Arnbons were used for reading the Epistles and 
the Gospels, as also for preaching. 

Rood Screens and also the Honogram LH.8. 
were likewise introduced into churches in the 16th 

The Monogram was first used in the time of 
Constantlne. It was composed of the Greek 
letters Chi (X) and Rho (PX surrounded by a circle 
or nimbus, the shaft of the Rho being prolonged 
through the Chi. It was usually accompanied by 
A and A, Alpha and Omega, on each side of 

Without in any way detracting from the merits 
of the Breton character, we cannot omit a notice of 
the extreme superstition which characterises it. 
Probably the rugged character of the country, its 
sombre skies, and isolated position may have had 
much to do with this peculiarity, but there is no 
doubt that at aU times religious feeling has taken 
a very deep root in the Breton mind. 

Paoakisx.— The Megalithic remains attest what 
a hold the ancient religion had upon the people. 
The primeval forests have mostly disappeared; in- 
very few places can we say that the oaks— 

Bmrded with mow uid tn gMrmtnti gnan, Indistlnei Sa 
the twilight. 

Btaod lik« Drnida of old. . . . ."—LonaUlloto. 
but we can imagine the stone avenues of Carnac 
and Toulinguet thronged with worshippers, and 
white robed-prieits and gartanded Normas leading- 

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the long pf oMssion throug;li those maoy-colnmned 
aisles, and gathering the sacred misletoe with 
golden sickles, and perhaps drowning the cries of 
human victims with their loud-voiced death-chants 
in unison with the deep diapason of the neighbour- 
ing sea. 

ThQ Boman legions made havoc among the 
Bruidical temples and groves, but although Julius 
CsBsar and his lieutenants burnt the groves and 
threw down the altars, and even immolated the 
priests upon the ruins, they could not extirpate the 
old religion. It lingered on under persecution and 
opposition, and some Merlin or Taliesin ever and 
anon arose to fan the smouldering spark, and wake 
up the old Pa^an superstitions into being. 

Christianity.— Christianity entered these re- 
mote regions with tardy and faltering steps; it 
made head only so far as it jarred not with the old 
superstitions. The early missionaries made large 
concessions to the superstitions of the people— 
they baptise^ the menhirs and surmounted them 
with crosses ; many a heathen temple was trans- 
formed into a Christian church, and many a statue 
of somo mythological deity or hero of romance was 
cfinonispd as a Catholic saint, and received a hetero- 
geneous ijirorshlp compound from the legends of 
romance and Catholic traditions. Still, therefore, 
apgong the peasantry the old superstitions survive; 
the old rites are practised with a thin coating 
of Christianity over the religion of nature, and a 
vi^neration almost amounting to idolatry attaches 
to th9 pillar stones, the altars, fountains, apd 
Kjovep pf Paganism. 

Such, doubtless. Is the origin of the great gather- 
ings of the people to pardons and feasts, and the 
pilgrimages to sacred shrines undertaken by the 
whole population en nuuse^ only that Catholic 
miracles have been substituted for Druidical 
i^arvels, and the priests preside over processions 
and dances which had their origin in the Druidical 

The intensity and fervour of the Breton mind 
causes them to hold with tenacity whatever they 
receive. They take a long time to learn, but they 
ta]^ longfiX to forget. It may be said of them as of 
t|}fi Bourbons, "lon n'a rien ouUU, on n'a rien 

ftttABSHAW's BttlTTAt^t. 


oTfr Europe, Brittany held out against its innoY4" 
tions, and saw its churches wrecked, and it^ 
chAteaux demolished, rather than change its faith. 
Protestantism never took root in Brittany ; its 
tenets are widely different from the spirit of the 
people; but we may predict that when they do re- 
ceive it, they will embrace it and hold it fast, even 
though all the rest of France diould have lapsed 
into infidelity. 

Ckrxmoniks.— A glance at some of the most 
prominent ceremonies, and some of the popular 
superstitions and legends m^y not be uninteresting 
to our readers. 

PB0CB8SI0NS.— In most of the larg« towns proces- 
sions take place on the principal religious festivals, 
such as S. John's day, the File Dieu^ S. Anne's day 
(July 24th), and the festival of the Virgin (August 
15th), which was also the Emperor's fgte day. 
On these days all business is suspended— the shops 
arft closed— the walls of the streets and houses 
draped with white sheets and tablecloths^ with 
bouquets of flowers pinned on them ; and at the 
comers of the streets are erected retain or rest- 
ing places, shrines covered with gay calico, decked 
with lace and flowers, and ornamented with candle- 
sticks, plate, necklaces, and all the flnery that can 
be heaped upon them. The meaning of these ap- 
pears to be that the images which are then carried 
about from one church to another to pay visits of 
ceremony, may rest on their Journey; it is a 
custom plainly derived from the Roman leeHster- 
nivm. The streets are dean swept, the gutters 
strewed with flowers, and the procession, consisting 
of splendidly attired priests, acolytes, and religious 
orders advances slowly along the crowded streets. 
The host, in a gold box, is borne under a splendid 
catafalque adorned with plumes, and on S. John's 
day, a little boy, leading a lamb and attired in a 
sheepskin, represents the Baptist. At every halt 
a signal is given, and all the by-standers fall on 
their knees while the benediction is given; anpl if 
any visitor is present he will do well to remove his 
hat or he will have it knocked off his head by a 
gendarme's bayonet. 

£very tourist in Brittany should end^yo^r tp \^ 
present at one of these processions ; and also gt tbf 

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Ihd ihrineB df t6« patf&n lAihtl. Etbi^ church hAH 
Its patron saint, bnd ererjr saint his fdte day, oh 
Which the inhabitants of the parish assemble to do 
him honour, decking his or her statue with flowers 
and ribbons, reciting the appointed litanies, and we 
grieve to say getting canonically tipsy afterwards. 
But there are special gatherings from all parts of 
Brittany, at which from 50,000 to 100,000 persons 
have been known to be present at once. 

Pabdons.— The ''pardons'' are frequented for a 
religious purpose, confession l)eing made of trans- 
gressions of all kinds, and plenary absolution given : 
but it is equally true that the pious motive is soon 
lost sight of; the sense of relief from sin seems to 
encourage the pardoned to run up a fresh score at 
once, and drinking, and dancing, and fighting doSe 
the day which began with a religious service. 

t*iL(»BiMA<}B6.> Pilgrimages are made to various 
i^dnder-working shrines of saints, either to dis- 
chhrge vow^ and deposit ex voto offerings, or to 
obtain relief from burdens spiritual or physical. 
Rheumatism, ophthalmia, ear ache, and deformity 
come, expecting a cure, and obtain it, If we may 
Judge from the quantity of crutches, walking sticks, 
waxen eyes, ears, legs, feet, and hands, laid upon 
the altars in token of cure{ while many patron 
saints, such as S. Eloi and S. Mathurin, have a 
speciality for horses and cows, and cure more cattle 
diseases, and receive better fees than all the cow 
doctors in Brittany. S. Anne's, near Auray, is the 
most celebrated of these miracle working shrines, 
and such are its revenues that it is known as the 
milch cow of the Bishop of Yannes; it will be 
mentioned at length cUl locum. The other celebrated 
pardons and pilgrimages are those of Ndtre Dame 
de FolgoSt, Notre Dame, Rumengolf S. Jean du 
Doigt, near Morlaix; S. Mathurin, of Moncontour; 
Notre Dame, ftt Gningamp ; Notre Dame de la 
Palue : the Pardon des Oiseaux, at Quimperld; of 
S. Cornelie, at Camac ; which are equally interest- 
ing and illustrative of the religious customs of the 
country. The scene should, if possible, be witnessed 
by the tourist, as description would fail to convey 
its features. For days previously, gaily dressed 
peasants may be seen converging along the high 
roads to the place of assembly. The men with em- 
broidered jackets fn4 ^^stcoats, and chenille and 



gbld eord round tMir for6M htftil, AtiH the womeh 
with abundance of lace and embroidery, and iHaHd- 
Idfies on their dressei and ctips. How they manage 
to. lodge at night is a mystery, but every 
auberge is full, and bams and oUt-hbuses are 
brought into requisition. Processions from neigh- 
bouring parishes arrive with gay streamers, and 
rustling banners, on which are painted pictures of 
the Virgin and patron Saints; and a host of 
beggars and cripples in dog cartft and wooden 
frames, and gibbering idiots^ and the victims of 
ophthalmia, and horrible cutaneouH diseases, s warm 
to these gatherings, and noisily urge their claims, 
holding out the traditional scallop shell, with 
prayers, not unminglod with curses. Those who 
engage in the religious ceremonies carry long wax 
tapers, 8 or 10 feet high, and eagerly pay for the 
privilege of bearing a banner or a pole of the 
catafalque, or to share the burden of the statue, 
carried In procession; and all provide themselves 
with little leaden images of the patron saint, joined 
to a bunch of ribbon or artificial flowers, which 
they stick in their hats or pin to their kerchiefs. 

A very curious and convenient custom exists at 
some of these pardons; persons who have made a 
vow to perform the pilgrimage on their bare knees 
a certain numbet of times round some shrine 
sometimes employ beggars to do it for them for a 
certain sum of m<»iey; thus they consider that 
they have fulfilled their vow and that the Saint 
is perfectly satisfied. There are in fact many 
curious systemft by which the un8erupnloU& satisfy 
their consciences. Another plan- is that df pur- 
chasing hoUtm wax causes to burn before the 
altars; it bein^ a common thing in si hontfohold, 
on the occasion of sickness or of tfouhle, to vow 
wax candles to some Saint. If all goes Well they 
are placed and lighted before the image ; in the 
meantime the members of the family may bo 
frequently heard reminding each other in the 
following terms : — "Remember, now, that wo owe 
three (or any number of) candles to the Saint; ** 
it is in fact viewed in the light of a debt. 

The religions ceremony over, and the blessing 
given, all crowd to the dancing green and the re- 
freshment booths, where huge casks of eider and 
eruchoM -of eau de vie invigorate them for the 
dance, which continues till late at night a<id even 

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by moonlight; the "Ann hinl goz,** and the 
**Dtfrob^'* and other national dances are per- 
formed by a thousand couples at a time, to the 
music of the biniou or bagpipes, and the bom- 
barde or little drum, with an energy and perse- 
verance rrhlch must astonish the beholder. The 
extraordinary mixture of classes, and costumes, 
the bizarre character of these gatherings, the 
dances, and the music, make these scenes intensely 
interesting ; but the tourist is warned not to stay 
too late, for as M. da Buron says in his Bretagne 
Catholique : ** Tout ne $e paste aufisi eonvencMement 
que te voudrait une eirimonie dont le but est tout 
religieux ; il arrive mime souoent que le pieuxp^&i-. 
nage se termine par him orgie, mats il n'en prouvepas 
moins la foi tfive dont le Bos Breton est anim^.** 

MiBACLB PLATS.~The old miracle plays are still 
performed at the village feasts by travelling show- 
men, and a favourite exhibition is a collection of 
wooden figures of our Lord and his disciples, not 
omitting Judas Iscariot, who with Barabbas is 
soundly thrashed with a cudgel, and roundly abused 
to the delight of the rustics. The crucifixion is 
openly travestied by travelling mountebanks, on a 
cross set up and made to turn round. 

Thx P]tis8TH00D.«-The Breton priesthood are, 
as a body, hard working, though not highly edu- 
cated ; and if their eloquence is not polished, it Is of 
that vigorous and forcible character which obtains 
great sway over their parishioners. Like Chaucer's 
"Poor Parsone," they visit the sick, and carry the 
sacred elements to the dying, and '^wide" as may 
be " the parish, and houses far asunder," they omit 
none in their ministrations ; but they are staunch 
upholders of the old traditions ; and, sooth to say, 
great miracle mongers. With their sanction the 
whole catalogue of saints is held in high honour. 
S. Eloi is the patron of horses, and 8. Mathurln of 
cattle. S. Anne has a special regard for cripples. 
8. Colomban, for idiots. 8. Agnes is patroness of 
lambs. 8. Isidore is the ploughman's saint, and 8. 
Joseph the gardener's. S. Herbert assists the 
dairymaids to make butter, and 8. Yves helps the 
bread to rise; indeed, every profession and opera- 
tion of life has its patron saint, to enumerate whom 
wonid be an endless task. 

SuPEB8TinoN.--<a) Faibixs. — The belief in I 


fairies, though somewhat shaken by the march of 
intellect and the invasion of the rail, still lingers 
in Brittany. Emilo Souvestre and other illustrators 
of Breton life detail at great length the articles of 
this singular creed, in which all the Celtic nations 

Ponlpikans and Corrlgans are still supposed to 
haunt the rocks and fountains and Druidioal 

(6) Ghosts.— 8pectral washerwomen wash the 
grave clothes at night at the dou^s or village 
washing troughs; and funeral processions, with 
death candles, may be seen near the churchyards; 
the light foam of the waves conveys the souls of 
those who have died at sea or in a foreign and to 
their native shore, and their plaintive cries are 
heard amid the murmur of the waves. Every 
battlefield is, to the Breton imagination, peopled at 
night with warriors in battered armour; every 
ruined chAteau has its white lady flitting amid the 
ruins, or washing a blood-stained robe in the 
moat; and the Breton mind, thus balanced be- 
tween religion and superstition, has little taste for 
the stem realities of everyday life or modem pro- 


Hard and poverty-stricken as is the life of a 
Breton peasant, it is not devoid of poetry or undi- 
versifled with amusement. The cottages are 
wretched hovels, black and smoky, with earthen 
floors ; and their furniture of the scantiest, and 
the lit doe abominably dirty. Their food is gene- 
rally buckwheat pancake, with a little cider, and 
perhaps on high days butter or pig-cheese; their 
clothing in winter, sheep or goat skins; In summer, 
coarse canvas ; but, notwithstanding, they are full 
of merriment and song, and dances and gatherings 
break the monotony of their otherwise joyless lives. 

National Music and Sonos.— There is a 
great love of music among the Bretons, but it is 
not much cultivated. The instruments are of the 
rudest character, and the airs and songs almost 
barbarous. "Ann hini goz" is the favourite song, 
and may be called the national air. To its refrain 
is danced all over Brittany a savage kind of cor- 
robbery, which seems to give intense delight to the 
performers and spectators. 

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Mabbiaob.— Marriage has its peculiar cere- 
monies, and is generally brought about by a pro- 
fessional go-between. The marriageable lasses 
wear certain marks of their position and fortune ; 
so many rows of braid upon their aprons, so that 
their "figures" may be seen at a glance. The 
bridal party, after the ceremony, promenade the 
village with a fiddler at their head, and dancing is 
kept up till the small hours. 

FtTNEBAL Rites. — Funeral ceremonies are also 
very curious, particularly the exposure of the 
cofiln at the door of deceased's dwelling, and the 
custom of disinterring the skull after the lapse of 
some years and sticking it up on a kind of little 
dog-house in the church porch labelled with the 
name of the deceased, "c^/" of so-and-so in large 

Sale of Haie.— The females sell their hair to 
travelling merchants, and on fair days may be 
seen a group of girls undergoing the operation 
en plein air^ and parting with magnificent heads of 
hair, albeit very dirty, 

(" Their fell of hair did stir, as life were iu it:'^8hakj 
for a few francs, or a cotton dress, or a g&y/ovlard. 

The country fairs afford excellent opportunities 
for seeing the native Breton in his glory, and for 
studying the varieties of costume and varied traits 
of character. 

Costumes.— The costumes of the eastern part 
of Brittany are not very remarkable, the men 
generally wearing a short blue coat a broad- 
brimmed hat, and heavy sabots ; the women, serge 
dresses and lace caps of curious designs and alti- 
tude. Jt is in Morbihan and Finistfere that the 
costumes are most bizarre. There the men wear 
their hair long—hippodaseM, rather than kore- 
comOontes, as in the old days of GalUa Comata ; on 
the head is a wide-brimmed sombrero; the jackets 
and waistcoats are cut short and embroidered; 
huge breeches are confined at the waist by a 
leather belt ; embroidered gaiters with gay buttons 
set off the sinewy legs, and the short pipe and 
knobbed stick complete the costume. It is highly 
picturesque, and the light sinewy frames of the 
Kemevotes show to advantage In it. 

Stobt-telliwo — ^The Bretons are intensely fond 
of relating old stories and traditions, and seize 


every opportunity of thus entertaining themselves. 
Many of these stories have been collected (see the 
paragraph, "Sources of Information"). 

Chaelataks.— At the fairs may be seen the 
charlatan or travelling doctor, who pulls out teeth 
in public in a cart attired as a noble Roman, sells 
worm powders and love potions, and exhibits to 
the company a fine collection of entozoa in spirits. 

The Chabivabi.— Many Welsh customs obtain 
in Brittany, particularly that of the charivari, 
which consists in treating an obnoxious neighbour, 
or one who has scandalised the village, with rough 
music at night. But instead of the Welsh Ceffyl 
Pren, or horse's head, a wolf's skin is donned by the 
leader, and various disguises are adopted ; equally 
discordant noises are also produced from cows' 
horns and marrow bones and cleavers, and the same 
object is attained of thoroughly irriuting the party 
in whose honour the charivari is performed. A simi- 
lar custom obtains In Dorsetshire, under the namo 
of the "Skimmington," celebrated in Hudibras. 


The traveller in the interior of Brittany must 
make up his mind to rough it, and endure 
much in the way of dirt and bad living. Fleas 
abound in all the public-houses, and, indeed, 
in most private ones, and veai is the staple article 
of food, washed down by cider of the ''coupe gorge'* 
species; but prices are very moderate, and the 
people are generally civil and obliging. It is 
always better to sit down to the table d'hOte than 
to order dinner a la carte. 

Thevoitures or private carriages are of the most 
primitive description, and the drivers by no means 
trustworthy. It is necessary to make a bargain 
before commencing a journey, and, indeed, it is 
better to do so on entering an hotel. The time 
when hotel charges were only 5 francs a day has 
long since passed away; the prices of food and 
everything else have greatly increased. A corre- 
spondent writes:— '* With my knowledge of the 
country and of the people, I never escape under 
7 francs 60 cents per diem ; strangers rather more. 
This does not include wine. I am aware that at 
some few of the inferior hotels at the small tea- 

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sld« plftoes th« priMS are more modente, bat tbej 
ftte hoMM which the genenUity of English would 
not like to enter." 


Sport in Brittany, though not so good or so 
easily attainable as formerly, offers considerable 
attraction to an Englishman. The wolf and the 
boar are hunted by well-appointed packs of 
hounds. —See "Wolf Hunting in Brittany" 
(Chapman and Hall). There are plenty of 
partridges and hares, and woodcocks in the 
season, and the shooting licence, or " Permis de 
Chasse," is only 25 francs, andis easily obtained; It 
will be requisite to make an application in 
Writing, on papier timbr€ (stamped paper), to the 
mayor of the district, enclosing 26 francs; if 
It is approved by him it is forwarded to the 
prtffet, who Issues it If he sees no objection; It 
remains in force for one pear from the day on 
which it is dated; if lost, another must be pro- 
cured immediately; any "gendarme, garde de 
chasse (gamekeeper), garde champfitre," or, in fact, 
any authority, has the right to demand the pro- 
duction of this permission, without which the 
person will be arrested and his gun seized. 

The shooting season does not begin every year 
at the same date, but is regulated in eoKh depart- 
ment by the prdfet, who fixes the day according 
as the harvest is early or late, and he issues his 
notice on the representatien of the farmers gene- 
rally between the 15th and the 26th of September 
for the " chasse au vol," or shooting only. The 
" chasse it courre," or hunting, usually commences 
a month later; all shooting and hunting closes 
hhoyit the end of Jaattary, after which no one can 
rtioot even a sparrow without being subjected to a 
6ne ; and, farther, when snow is on the groond. 
all shooting is strictly prohibited. 

In the "Ofttes dtt Nord" and the "Ill6-et- 
VUlalne," the sfaootlog generally is preserred, 
and the law of trespass is asnally enforced by the 
"gendarmerie" (or mounted poliee), and the 
*' gardes de chasse '' (gamekeepAn) ; but in Lower 
Brittany this is nearly the exception, and good 
shooting may be obtained. The peasants as a class 
are civil and obliging, but ieW of thera in IfOirer . 
Brittany speak French. 

In the "Bote de la Boehei" near Ooingaiiip,- on 
the road to Bonrbriac, woodcock, harea, and 
rabbits are numerous ; near Gk>arin (Morbihan|« 
the spurs of the Black Mountains are well wooded, 
and there is good cock shooting in the winter. The 
country about Callac is hilly, well wooded, and 
has plenty of cover and an abundance of game. 
Leaving Celiac, in the district of the Moust^ros, 
there Is capital shooting, with plenty of wood- 
cocks, which also abound between that place 
and Guingamp. There is good snipe shooting at 
Rostrenen; there is also fair shooting In the 
neighbourhood of Quimperl^ and Auray; and oi 
Flougonver near Belle Isle en Terre, also st 
Douault between Callac and Carhalx; game in 
plentiful in both places during the winter. Tkk 
further the sportsman penetrates into Lowi^ 
Brittany the better the shooting becomes; in i^h 
Cdtes du Nord, and especially in the environi of 
Dinan, it is indifferent. 

Partridges, hares, quail, and snipe, are by nb 
means scarce ; woodcocks are also tolerably plen- 
tiful later in the season, especially in the region ot 
the Black Forest. 

There is also mach cover for birds ih North Brfi^ 
tany ; the small fields are encircled by thiek furze 
hedges; the wheat is cut at the middle of the 
stalk, and the stubble is not cleared off before the 
middle of October. Much furze, too, is grown tot 
feeding horses; there are also large plantations of 
it for making faggots for baking, Ibrming an Un- 
penetrable mass nearly 10 feet high; Mdedto 
which the patches of tall broom (genet), heathet, 
and many copses make good hiding places for the 
birds, from which it requires dogs to dislodge thenl. 

Sportsmen should be very careful not to cross a 
field where buckwheat is growing, or even whertt 
It hafi been out, until after it heu been carried ; th% 
farmers aremost jealous on this point, and nsiall^ 
have somb person on the look-oot; the law is also 
very severe on this head, so much so that the tre^ 
passer wUl probably find himself involved in a 
"proems verbal," which, with the fine, will perhaps 
amount to one hnndred francs. Buckwheat is 
rarely if ever removed off the ground before 

Although there are many lands which are not 
preserved, and over which Freaebmen shoot 

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without molestation, it will still be a difficult 
matter for a foreigner to shoot over them ; it will 
also require very great caution on hispart^ especially 
if he does not know the language well. As the 
farmers themselves generally shoot, they will 
oppose him; and, further, will put the law of tres- 
pass in force. In fact, strangers will do well to be 
accompanied by a French sportsman, by which 
means they will avoid many difficultiest besides 
getting some good shooting. 

For Fishing^ Guingamp may be called the 
angler's head-quarters. He should first fish in 
the river Trieux, which runs through the town. 
Good sport may be had at about 3 miles distance 
on the Pontrieux road, near the potteries, where 
trout, dace, and salmon are to be found. He may 
next proceed by rail to Belle-Isle-on-Teri'e, and 
have good fishing in the river Guier, where trout 
abound. After having fished these two streams, 
the angler will have two courses open for him to 
select from; the first will be to start from 
Guingamp by diligence to Bourbrlac, and from 
thence go on to the poor village of K^rien, whore 
the fishing is good in the head waters of the 
Blavct. A good basket of fish may be got here ; 
the country is very wild and rugged, and it will 
be advisable to be provided with a guide. He 
should next proceed by diligence to S. Nicholas 
du Pelem, where there is a fair hotel ; at about 
2 miles westward of that town he will arrive at 
the river Blavet, which is here crossed by two 
bridges. Between these two bridges there are 
always lots of good trout and dace, and the fish 
are large. There is good fishing along the Blavet 
from here down to Gouarec. The angler should 
now make Rustreuen his head-quarters, where 
there is a fair hotel; a diligence runs from 
S. Nicholas du Palem to that place. He will 
here meet the Brest Canal, in which there is good 
fishing; the lakes near Qlomel should also be 
fished. There is good wild fowl shooting. From 
Kostrencn a diligence runs to Carhaix, where there 
is capital fishing to the north of the town in the 
river Hierre ; also at Locrona, near Kersaoul. 
The sngler will have to decide either to return to 
Guingamp, stopphig on the way at Callac (fair 
hotel), where there is also good fishing in the 
liicrrc, at a1)out 5 miles south of the village, near 

a mill, close to an old chapel. His other course 
will be to proceed by diligence on to Gourin, 
where the fishing in the Isole^ and in the Laita 
is good ; he will next go on by diligence to Le 
Faouet (good country hotel), where there is good 
fishing in the valley below S. Barbe. The river 
here is about 40 yards broad, and the water is 
clear and rapid. At the Junction of the Elltfo 
with the Staer-Lalfr-Inam, near S. Fiacre, trout 
weighing occasionally 31b. arc taken ; the sport is 
capital ; there are also sahnon. The Isolde passes 
through ScaSr, another good fishing place. The 
angler may now if he pleases continue to fish the 
river down to Quimperl^, this river being cele- 
brated for the best flavoured salmon in France. 
There is good ealmon fishing in the river near 
Pontrieux, from which place large supplies of this 
fish are sent to Paris. There is a postal diligence 
daily from Le FaouSt to QuimperM. The land- 
lords of the Hotels at Gouares and Callac will 
accompany anglers to point out to them the beat 
spots in fishing. 

The second course for the angler is to leave 
Guingamp by diligence for Callac (already 
described), and to proceed afterwards to Carhaix 
(fair hotel), from which place he will pass through 
Landelau, where the fishing in the river Aulne is 
good; then on to Chftteannenf du Faou (good 
fishing in the Brest Canal); then through 
Pleyben to Ch&teaulin, which abounds in salmon, 
trout, pike, and perch. It is I'eiated that salmou 
were formerly so abundant at Ch&teaulla that ser- 
vants, when they were engaged, always etipulated 
that they were not to have salmon for dinner 
more than three times per week; g^od fishing 
may also be had in the river Odet, from Stangala 
down to Quimper. Trout abound at the former 
place. Good fishing in the Aulne, from HuelgoSt 
to Landelau; also in the stream below the " Cas- 
cade de St. Herbot.'* 

The only two remaining rivers worth the angler's 
notice, or generally accessible, are the Guer, be- 
tween Lannion and Belle-Isle-en-Terre, ana the 
two streams which unite near Morlaix. There are 
several small streams between Ch&teaulin and 
Lorlent, which have plenty of fisJi in them, but 
ihey are mostly difficult of access to strangers, 

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oxcopt Pont Ayen, where there is good flahiDg. 
It U naid that thiBre fs good pike fishing in the 
irtce heiiV Rospohleh. 

The French Ihwb relaUog to fishing are very 
8i»|de FirsUy.— All persons may fish with a rod 
^«« Hne In all rivers, streams, and canals which 
are under the care of the state. Secondly.— On 
IM-ivatJe property the permistion of the proprietor 
should first beobtaiaed? this law is, however, quite 
■ dead letter, for there are tracts where there is 
cimttal fithing which are seldom visited; Indeed 
in some districts it is quite possible to wallt for 
lAiles along the river banks without meeting an 
individual; of course it will be requisite to be vety 
chr^fHlnptto infm^ethe erop$. Thirdly.— No nets 
or engines of any description for the purpose of 
catching fish are tolerated, nor are any baits con- 
tMnii^ drugs to be used. Lastly.— The fishing 
season is closed from April 15th to June 16th each 
ykkt. The close seascm for siOmoa and trout is 
ftv^ Ht^th October to 21st February. 

There Is fair salmon fishing in several of the 
la^t^r rivers— the Guer, the Chftteaulin, and the 
Hcort; and ta for trout, every river and stream 
and irtvulet abounds with them, from its source in 
tfa« hills to its junction with the sea. 

The best flies are the palmers, red and black, 
blue wid dun; the alder, the frauds, the march- 
brown^ and coch^y-bon-dhu; for natural baits the 
yrpxm, oaddis, creeper, grasshopper, and mole- 
cri<^et; tod the minnow^ both natural and artl- 
ticialt iakte well in the evening. 

The best stations for fishing vi H b e mentioned In 
order ^ *hey occur. The following is a list of 
HAtels at the various fishing stations:— Jugon, De 
r^cu; Callac, De Bretagne; Carbaix, De la Tour 
d'Auvergne; Hudgoet, De Bretagne and Dc 
France; Oourin, Cheval Blanc; Faonet, Lion 
a* Or; Gouarcc, Lalevanne (poor); Rostrenen, de 
IH PoBle; Bt. Kteholas du Pelera, Voyageirs, 
good; K^rteh, an anherge; Bonrbriac, Le Bay. ' 

L^wftl GoiDB Books and trayeHlng Maps tt the 
country mAy be had at St. Malo, DlnAn, Renntes, 
Vaiinfes, or Kantes. 

BBADSHAw's BaiTTANT. t^utroductioa. 


1. General View.— How Tew people know any- 
thing about Brittany ! Often when talking about it 
the writer has been astonished to hear the question 
put—" Where is Brittany ? " And yet, what coun- 
try outside of our own kingdom has a higher claim 
upon our interests and sympathies. If Normandy 
has its claims because from Its shores sailed the 
motley crew who, under Duke William, made boot 
upon our Island home, and put the finishing stroke 
to the ravages of Roman, Dane, and Saxon, surely 
we might spare a little sympathy for the country 
which was the adopted home of the conquered race 
of aboriginal inhabitants— the country which had 
in remote ages supplied the earliest colonists of 
Britain, and gave tnem a hospitable shelter when 
flying before the victorious hordes of Saxon and 
Scandinavian invaders. 

Such was old Armorica^ the probable cradle of 
the ancient British races, the refuge of the valiant 
opposers of Roman and Saxon invasion, who pre- 
ferred exile to slavery, and bore their unconquered 
arms across the "water-walled bulwark of tho 
main to be secure from foreign purposes." 

It would be beyond the hitention of our little 
book to ^o back into the remote and almost pre- 
historic period of Breton tradition ; for there Is 
probably no other country whose history is so 
blended and obscured with myth and romance. It 
will be of more interest to our readers if we briefly 
recapitulate the events of Breton History, which 
have an intimate connection with our own country. 
Setting aside the traditions of the aboriginal 
inhabitants and the equally trustworthy annals of 
La Vie Sainte, we may remark that Armorica 
occupies a very prominent place in early history. 
There were many large and flourishing dtles when 
the Romans invaded the country, and the Veneti 
were no contemptible foemen of the Roman legions. 
From Vannes and Dariorlgum, now Locmariakeri 
they could send out a fleet of 220 vessels, manned 
by 30,000 sailors and men at arms; nor would the 
Roman arms have prevailed but for the superior 
tadics and skill in fighting of their disciplined 
legionaries.- CVwar de Bate Oattico, lib. ill., cap 
7-17. ^' 

The Romans did thdr best to efface all evidence 
of the pristine grandeur ot ojd Armoric»; nor 

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beyond a few castella, and roads, and baths, did 
they leave any lasting monuments of their occu- 
pation. Julias Cassar, however, left a ^reat name 
in the country, and his deeds are still a household 
word with the natives, who, with some sligiit 
anachronism, delight to group him with King 
Arthur, and Duguesclin, and the good Duchess 

Similarly, without any disrespect to his memory, 
we may dismiss with scant notice the voluminous 
disquisitions of antiquaries upon the probable con- 
nection of King Arthur with Brittany. That the 
emigrants from Wales and Cornwall should bring 
with them, along with the language and customs of 
their native country, a certain amount of history 
and a largre stock of legends and traditions, was 
only natural ; and it is equally intelligible that in 
process of time a certain confusion should arise 
about dates and localities, and that the incidents 
and heroes of the old country should be transferred 
to the history of the adopted land ; and so It came 
to pass that a general impression ))revailed that 
King Arthur lived and died in Bretagne— nay, that 
he still lies entranced in the island valley of Agalon, 
or Avalon, off the coast of Perros Guirec. That 

" When he fell, an Elfln queen, 
All in secret and unseen, 
O'er the fainting hero threw 
Her mantle of ambrosial bins, 
And bade her apiritt bear him tar 
Tn Merlin's agate axled ear. 
To her green isle's enamelled steep, 
Wr in tbe bosom of the deep."— Wharton, 

T hero weredoubtlessconsiderable relationsbetween 
Great Britain and Armorica from the earliest times, 
aiid although the numbers are somewhat "Ori- 
ental," there is probably some foundation for the 
assertion of the old Chronicles of Nennius— that 
Conan M^riadec, King of North Wales, and 
Diouotus, Duke of Cornwall, colonised Armorica— 
the latter sending oQ 11,000 noble virgins and 
60,000 of inferior rank to the new colony. 

Thofie who delight in these old Chronides and 
saint lore, inay revel in the page* of Waoe*s 
"Romans de Brut," and "La Vie Sainte de Bre- 
tugnc," and read how 8. Bfflam (8. Flam?) 
destroyed tJ»e dfftsona an4 chli»»ra» dijrti and how 

the wicked city of Y« wa« Bubmefgei Ilk* lh« 
"Plains of fertile Lyonneso," which may liive been 
near Penzance, or off the coast of Douarnenez. 

It would scarcely interest our readers to give a 
doubtful catalogue of the old Breton kings, or to 
enumerate a tithe of the saints in the calendar. 
There is plenty of veracious history to be imparted 
without saddling our memories with uncertain 
traditions, and we can well afford to skip a few 
centuries when we are about to enter the scones of 
the glorious chronicles of the middle ages. 

Brittany was nt one time, the battlo>fie1d of 
France: wo might call it the "ccck-pit of Europe," 
and a sad picture of battle-fields and bcleagnrcd 
cities, of wars and fighting, of trampled corn-fields 
and blazing homesteads, does the chronicle bring 
before our eyes. Scarce a field but hak been watered 
with the blood of cuntendlng armies. Scarce a hill 
top or shattered tower but has been held as a coign 
of vantage against a besieging host. 

We need not follow the ignitfatuus of legendary 
lore, and lose ourselves in the midst of the (inrk 
ages, among the romances of Arthur and Merlin, 
and Lancelot du Lac, when we are travelling over 
the scenes illustrious in history, the country of 
Francis II. and Duchess Anne.the feudal possessions 
of the De Rohans and Penthifevres; the selgneurles 
of the Beaumanolrp, the Raonts, the Tintcniacs, the 
Clissons, and Duchatels. Here were done the 
"deeds of derring do," in thelong struggle between 
the DeBlois and DeMontforts, a contest maintaino(i 
equally by their heroic countesses. Here, too, our 
countrymen, Pembroke and Manny, Lancaster and 
Knollys, and Ghandos, bore themselves right vali- 
antly. Here Richard the lion-hearted beat down 
the hosts of his rebellious vassals. Here the Black 
Prince bore his ostrich plumes alofti and our Henry 
of Richmond phied in long captivity at £l¥en. 
From Morlalx sailed away Mary Stuart, when she 
left la belle France ior her hapless home in the far 
north ; at Roscoff, on the same coast, landed Charles 
Edward, a houseless fugitive, the last of his race. 

This, too, was the arena of the wars of the League 
and of la Vendue; when every succiestive pha^e 6i 
religious thoughl; and every change of dynaliy 
claimed its hecatombs of victims ; here Cond^s iktld 
Guises, «ii»<$rr«« And republicans, i he hired soldier i of 

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Hodie and the Republic, the patriot bands of 
Cadoudal and Sombreuil, tlie collegians of Yannes 
and the rustic heroes of the Chouanneric fought and 
died and mingled with the dust. 

We would introduce a few of the connecting 
links between English and Breton history, re- 
serving for their appropriate localities some of the 
more striking incidents of the past. 

The history of Brittany is the history of a 
country resisting for eleven centuries the encroach- 
ments of its more powerful neighbours ; and it is 
not surprisingthat a contest maintained so longand 
so obstinately should have stamped upon the cha- 
racter of its people, the courage and endurance and 
tenacity of purpose for which they are remarkable. 

Traditions.— Brittanj-, like all the countries 
inhabited by the Celtic tribe?, has a pre-historic 
period which affords a wide scope for the fanciful 
inventions of the early romancists. In default of 
historical records, legendary lore has supplied the 
hiatus with material drawn freely from Heathen 
mythology, from Roman poets, and even from 
Holy Writ. By some writers Jupiter and Hercules, 
by others ^^r.eas and Brutus are accredited as the 
ancestors of the Breton kings, of whom Geoffrey of 
Monmouth supplies an unbroken genealogy from 
A.M. 2872, down to the fourth century, while the 
Scripture storiesof the overthrow of the cities of the 
plain, andthe expulsion of theCanaanites are boldly 
engrafted into the saint lore of Brittany ; and at a 
later period wo find that the history of King 
Arthur was bodily transferred, round table and all, 
to Its hospitable shores. 

2. Cliroxiologlcal Account. 

Thb Roman Period. —It Is probable that in the 
time of Julius Caesar, the country was well 
populated, and although the account of flourishing 
cities existing at that period is somewhat mythi- 
cal, there is no doubt that several powerful 
Armorican tribes entered the Gallic confederacy 
against him, and even when reduced to submission 
were far from being subdued. Although we can- 
not assert that Brittany was co-extensive with 
Armorica, there appears good reason for supposing 
that the tribes of Rhedones, Yeneti, Nannetes, 
Curiosolitcs, and Osismii dwelt within the con- 
fioes of Brittany, and may be fairly identified 


respectively with the five modem departments of 
lUo-et-Yilaine, Morbihan, Loire Infericnre, Cotes 
du Nord, and Finisterre with their respect ivee^f/* 
lieux, Rennes, Yannes, Nantes, Corsenl, and 
Quimper. At any rate French antiquarians 
choose to make it out in this manner, and the 
coincidences do no violence to history, and not 
much to philological probabilities. 

CflBsar <fe Jkllo Gallieo lib. iii. gives a detailed 
account of the conquest of this part of Gaul, from 
which it appears that the hihabitants of this part 
of Gaul submitted to him on the appearance of P. 
Crassuswithaslnglelegion, and gave hostages; but 
revolted a few years later, when the Roman com- 
missaries Silius and Yelarius went into Brittany to 
collect tribute and provisions. The Armoricans, 
particularly the Yeneti, seized the Roman commis- 
saries by way of reprisal for the detention of their 
hostages; and Caesar was obliged to enter on a 
campaign to reduce them to subjection. 

The Yeneti had a fleet of no less than 220 large 
ships of war in the Sea of Morbihan ; and Cassar 
had a fleet built in the dockyards of the Loire, to 
contend with them. The great sea fighf Which 
took place between Quiberon and Rhuys, at the 
entrance of the Morbihan, is described by Csesar 
lib. iii.; Strabo, lib. iv.; and Dion Cassius, lib! 
xxxix. The ships of the Yeneti were so large 
and powerful, that the Roman galleys could not 
master them, till they hit on the plan of attacking 
them singly with several of their ships. 

They cut down the yards of the barbarian ships 
with scythes fastened to their own antennx, and 
then grappled with them, and boarded them, and 
soon overcame them in a hand to hand fight. After 
this victory Ca)sar severely punished the Yeneti, 
razed Dariongum, now Locmariaker, to the 
ground; burnt the groves of the Druids, and 
roasted the priests on their own sacred fires, which 
they had prepared for their expected captives. 
Armorica was completely conquered and became a 
part of the province of Gaul, being enrolled as the 
Lugdvnensis tertia. 

The Breton Kings. 

Thd Armoricans frequently attempted to shake 
off tie Roman yoke, but were unable to do so as 
long as the empire remained intact. The Druidical 
religion still survived, though fiercely persecuted. 

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Brittany had hitherto been known by the name of 
Armorica, signifying the sea-girt country {ar bor- 
dering on, mor, the sea), from which latter came 
also the derivation of Morini, a people of Caesar's 
time, occupying the coast opposite Ktnt. It 
acquired the name of Brittany, Brctagno, or la 
petite Bretagnc, from the immigration of the in- 
sular Britons, though they were probably of the 
same original Celtic stock. Britain, or Prydain, is 
said to be derived from Breith, or Brith, signifying 
the same as Pict, a painted man. The word occurs 
in many of the Latin writers, but Martial probably 
alludes to the Bretons when he speaks of their 
bragoHs ftrtw, or knickerbockers. " Vetei'es braccx 
DrUonis pauperis.'' 

The first historical immigration of Insular 
Britons Into Armorica took place about a.d. 284, 
when large numbers fled under the pressure of 
hostile invaders, and found an asylum in Brittany ; 
the Romans assigning them lands to dwell in.* 


883. About a century later a large number of 
Britons followed the arms of Maximus, in 
hisexpedition against the Emperor Gratian, 
and passing over into Brittany, fraternised 
with the people of the country. These in- 
sular Britons were under the leadership of 
Conan, a prince of Alben, or North Wales, 
afterwards called Conan Meriadoc, or the 
Great King. Maximus and his allies de- 
feated Gratian in two great battles ; first at 
Aleth, now Quidallet, near S. Malo, and 
afterwards near Paris. Here the allies 
separated. Maximus went in pursuit of 
Gratian, whom he came up with at Lyons, 
and again defeated, and slew, but was him- 
self soon after conquered and slain by 
Theodosius. Conan returned to Brittany, 
and being made king by the people, threw 
off the Roman yoke, and maintained his 
position, notwithstanding the efforts of the 
Romans, under Exuperantlus and other 
leaders, to eject him. 

• TJw faet of the Emperor Constsntias Chloros Msigninir 
"^i^J*** '"Utitlve Britons, in the provinces of the Venetl 
andCariowUt«i. prove* that BritUuy was a Urra Ittica of 

ttisTonr of untTtAXV. 


418. He invited oYer mahy of his cOUhtrymen, and 
the Bretons received them with open arms 
as kinsmen, and Conan reigned over the 
country, with Nantes as his capital for forty 
years. He was succeeded on the throne by 
several of his descendants and kinsmen, 
viz., Salomon, Grallon, Audren (in whose 
reign another great immigration of Britons 
took place, a.d. 446), Erech, Eusebius (an 
usurper), and Budic. Budic's son, lloel, 
was a long time resident in England as the 
guest of King Arthur, his own country 
being overrun by barbarians. Francs and 
Frisians; but returning, he drove out the 
invaders and recovered his throne. HoSl's 
fame Is a favourite Breton theme, and it is 
In connexion with him that the history of 
King Arthur is engrafted on Breton annals. 
Hofel left five sons, and attempting to divide 
the kingdom equally among them, be- 
queathed an inheritance of petty jealousies 
which ended in murder and usurpation. 
560. Ultimately, Macliau, the survivor, came to 
the throne, and transmitted it to his de- 
scendants, Alain I., Waroch II., HoBl III., 
Salomon II., JudaSl (who quarrelled with 
Dagoberi, King of France), Grallon II., and 
811. others, down to the ninth century, when 
Brittany was subjugated by Charlemagne, 
who appointed governors over it. 
818. Morvan, one of the old stock, revolted against 
Louis le Dobonnaire, but was overpowered. 
824. Dynasty of Nomenoe. He was one of 
' the governors of Brittany appointed by 
Louis I., King of France, and though of 
humble origin, possessed great tact and 
judgment. He secretly encouraged the 
insurrections of the Bretons, and while 
France was distracted by the civil wars of 
Lothaire and Pepin, and the incursions of 
the Normans, who thrice penetrated to the 
gates of Paris, and were only bought off by 
increased bribes, he declared Brittany inde- 
pendent, and after defeating Charles le 
Chauve, took the title of king. 
861 He left his throne to Erispoe, his son, who 
was slain by his cousId, Salomon III. 

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6iiAt)gItAW*S BftltTANY. 


Soreral kings of the same dynasty stic- 
ceeded down to the comxneiicexnent of the 
tenth century, when the Normans, becoming 
more audacious, obtained from Charles the 
Simple the cession of Brittany as the price 
of their relinquishing the siege of Paris. 

91f. Rollo, their chief, was baptised, and married 
the danghttr of Chnrles. Brittany then 
hecantc the scene of a desperate contest 
with the Normans, whlcli lasted 800 years. 
The divisions of Nantc;*, Ilenncs, Vannes, 
and Cornonnille had each their own Count, 
and each assumed, at different periods, the 
title of Duke of Brittany, as he obtained 
pre-eminence, by successfully resisting the 
Tub Dl'kES op Brittant.— Assassination 
was rife among these counts and dukes; no 
less than nine reigning princes were mur- 
dered within two centuries. Geoffrey, the 
first duke, met his death in a singular 
manner : Returning from a pilgrimage to 
Rome, while passing through a village, a 
falcon, which he held on his wrist, as a 
badge of nobility, swooped at an old 
woman's hen by the road-side. The old 
woman, enraged, threw a stone at the 
dnkc'i head, which caused- his death. 

i040. Aobcrt Ic Dlable, Duke of Normandy, made 
Alain, the next Duke of Brittany, guar- 
dian of the realm, and of the young heir to 
It, William, afterwards the Conqueror, 
while he went to the Holy I-And. The 
Bretons and Normans were now on good 
terms. Alain acquitted himself faithfully 
of his trust, and on the death of Robert, 
abroad, took the young prince to Nor- 
mandy, and placed him on his father's 
throne by force of arms. 

1066. When William embarked from the coast of 
France, for the conquest of England, he 
took with him several Breton nobles, in 
particular the Count of Penthifevre, of the 
collateral branch of the reigning family, 
and rewarded him with rich possessions in 
th« conqnered country. Penthftrrct ob- 
Uln«d BkhmoBd, iq Yorkdiiref and 443 

manors. The Breton nobles were, however, 
soon ousted and sent back to their country, 
which refused homage to William. 

Lanfranc wrote to William on this occa- 
sion— "iatM Deo ! en regnum tvum purga- 
turn lie hacsputvitia firiUwmnr—DxTtv. 

William liad enough to do running back- 
wards and forwards to keep in order his 
own country of Normandy, his newly 
acquired possessions of England, and his 
recalcitrant Bretons. Alain Fergant, Duke 
of Brittany, inflicted a severe reverse upon 
the Conqueror of England, near Dol, cap- 
turing his baggage, worth 30,00) crowns. 
Out of respect for his bravery, William 
gave him his daughter, Constance, into the 
bargain. On the death of William the 
Conqueror, Robert, his eldest son, inherited 
Normandy, and laid claim to England, 
which had been willed by the Conqueror 
to William, his second son, but waived 
his claim on condition that he should 
be the next king if he survived Willikm 
Rufus and Henry. But when Rufus 
was shot in the New Forest, Henry was 
on tlie spot; and Robert, having sold his 
duchy to William Rufus, for 10i,006 crowns, 
had gone to the Crusades. Robert, on 
his return, asserted his right to the 
throne of England, which Henry had seized ; 
but accepted the terms of restoration to the 
Dukedom of Normandy and a pension. 
Subsequently, on a quarrel breaking out, 
Alain, Duke of Brittany, Joined Henry, 
King of England, and took part with him at 
the battle of Tinchebray, which terminated 
the civil war, by the defeat and capture of 
Robert, who was shut up in Cardiff. 

Connection with England. 

1106. The connection of English and Breton history 
from this period renders it necessary to de- 
vote some little space to the leading events. 
Conan, on his death-bed, declared his son 
Hoel, by Matilda, daughter of Henry I., to 
be illegitimate; but the populations ot 
Nantes and Quimperi nevertheless, acknow- 
ledged him as their Duke, while Rennes and 
other chief towns of Brittany declared fcnr 

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Endcs of Kttstace, his brother-in-law. In 
the disturbances which ensued Henry II. 
was appealed to by both factions ; and by 
cajollngr Oonan IV., whom the people of 
Nantes had set up in place of Hiiel, ho 
obtained such an influence over him that 
he persuaded him to betroth his daughter 
eonstanco to his son, Geoffrey of An jou ; 
and workhigr npon the anti-Celtic character 
of the people of Nantes, he erentnally ob- 
tained for hhn the Dukedom of Brittany. 
Constance was rightful heiress to the throne, 
as well as Countess of Richmond, and on 
the death of her husband Geofh-ey, who was 
killed in a tournament fat Paris, held the 
<ftaehy in her own right, and as guardian of 
ler posthumous son Arthur (1185). Philip, 
King of France; was anxious to assume the 
guaidlahshlp of Arthur, but Henry II. took 
him under hl« protection, with the greater 
show of right as his grandson, and because 
his mother shortly after married Raoul, 
Ranulpk, or Randolph, an English subject, 
who was created Earl of Chester, and who 
took the title of Duke of Brittany in right 
of his wife, the dnchess dowager. 

Richard CatvR db Lioh.— On the death of 
Henry II., Richard Coaur de Lion, on suc- 
ceeding to the throne of ^ngland^ assumed 
also the guardianship of Arthur, and nomi- 
nated him his heir In the event of his 
death. Thb took place on the occasion of 
his voyage to the Holy Land to jofai the 
Crusades, when passing through the King- 
dom of Sicily, and being desirous of obtain- 
ing a good round sum to pay his expenses, 
ho persuaded Tancred, King of Messina, to 
betroth his infant daughter to his little 
nephew Arthur, and to pay him down on 
the nail 20,600 ounces of gold in anticipation 
of the princess's dowry. Richard left 
Arthur under the care of the King of 
France while he was at the Crusades ; but 
during his absence his brother John not 
only usurped the throne of England, but 
Ip^rsnaded the kfaig of France to act trea- 
cherously towards Arthur and Ms mother 
6on stance* 

Rlchard*s return from the Hpl^ Eand was 
long deferred by his huprisoninent in Ger- 
many on his way home, an imprisonment 
prolonged by the combined machinations of 
John and Philip, to keep hltn in durance. 
On his return, however, he forgave his 
brother John, but detonnincJ to chastlito 
the King of Frouco, and q>9nt the rest 
of Ills life ill an unprofitable war with 
Philip Augustus, dying from the effects 
of a wound in the 42n4 j^^r of his 


1190. pRixcR AnxncR. — Rlchar^ before his 
death had been reconciled to Arthur, who 
was in his camp at the time, aiid as his 
heir, he ought to have succeeded to the 
thrones of England and Brittany. John 
however, seized the treasury of England, 
and Normandy declared for him. Constance 
having married for the third f Wi<i, Guy dc 
Thouars, regained the protection of Philip, 
and the assistance of {"ranee, Tonraine, and 
Anjou. Brittany also declared for Arthur, 
whose very niimc recalled the prophecies of 
Merlin, and seemed to be an eiirnest of 
glory and prosperity. Thereupon, John 
carried the war Into f'rancc to Enforce hli 
unrighteous claim to the InliMtance of 
Arthur. This period of the history is illus- 
trated by Shakespcnrff hi Khig' 'Jfohn, in 
which Arthur's right to tlw t^ ^f^ACI f(* 
distinctly stated:— 

** Yfl mtn ot Avgrn open Mid* youc fates, 
An<* 1«* y^^B AxtLui. Dttk« <4 IVfetiupit, in ; 
Arthnr of Brttin^ne, BnglM.d'B king &d youn. 

1202. Young Arthur, relying on the aMbi^nce of 
Philip, took the field againstt John, but was 
unfortunately taken prisoner wL^le attack- 
ing the Castle of Mlroboau, pear Poitiers 
and shut up by John in tho Ctjistlo of 
Falaise. John ftncMng XhAt, the young 
duke persisted in his claims, detormined to 
' prevent his reigning by the nftost In^^mana 
means; and proposed to, his vassals*, "wK 
Ham de Bray andl Hubert do Burgh, to put 
out hli eyes (ut oculis tti gShitftfibm prira- 
retur). When both these nobles rejected 
the inhttmAfi project, John had titn re- 


by Google 


uttiDsaAvVg mttrkntY. 

moTed to the Cnstlo of fiotien, aiuI confined 
in rt toWdr overlooking the river. From 
this tower John removed him at nlplit In a 
boat rowed ijy Peter de Maulac, his equeny, 
and, as Is generally believed, stabbed him 
with his own hand, and threw the body 
into the Seine. 

The Breton* appealed to the King of France 
to [Summon John before him to account for 
this murder, which he did; and on John 
refusing to appear, he was condemned 
by a court of his peers of the crime of 
felony and parricide, and adjudged to for- 
feit all his scigneurles and fiefs in France. 
Eleanor, Arthur's sister was still alive a 
recluse in the monastery of Bristol, under 
the surveillance of John. She was the 
•• Maid of Brittany," and the rightfUl heiress 
to the throne of England. The ducal crown 
however was seized by Guy de Thouars, 
the third husband of Arthur' s mother. But 
Philip declined to support his claim, and set 
tip Peter de Dreux, as duke, a cadet of the 
house of Capet, who married Alice, daughter 
of Guy de Thouars. Constance and Eleanor 
died in the Convent of Bristol without 
troubling the peace of Brittany, and the 
reigning family of France thus obtained a 
claim over the duchy, which they ceased 
not to prosecute till its complete annexation. 

' 1S15. Peter de Dreux^ sumamed Manclerc, by the 
clergy, with whom he quarrelled (It was 
bad policy in those days to quarrel with 
the clergy, as they wrote the history), re- 
nounced the priestly profession, and held 
the dukedom for forty years, and it was 
continued In his family to the fourteenth 
century, when the death of John III., son 
of Arthur II., without Issue, led to a dis- 
pute about the succession, known as the 
contests of the Dc Montforts and De 

1341. Thk War of thb Succkssiok.— This, the 
most brilliant period of Breton history, 
owes much of its interest to the lustre 
thrown over It by the chronicles of Frois- 
•art, who was the vatH oar of the de«d8 


of chivalry enacted in the Wars of the Sue* 
cession. But the period has intrinsic 
claims upon our attention, from the magni- 
tude of the issues at stake, and the forces 
engaged on either side; while, of the illus- 
trious names which stand out in these 
annals, those of our oonntrjrmen, Chandos, 
Pembroke, Manny, and Knollys, do not 
yield in glory to those of Beaumanoir, 
Cllsson, or Duguesclin. Our readers will 
pardon our entering at some length upon 
the history of the war, which is not only an 
important part of Breton annals, but one 
of the most Interesting and glorious episodes 
of the history of our own country, 
D» BL0i8.^The death of John III., which 
took place at Caen, April 80, 1341, left the 
succession doubtful, as he hod no issue, nor 
had his wife any expectation of a child at 
his death. Foreseeing the doubts which 
would arise, he endeavoured to settle ihem 
before his death, by bestowing his niece, 
daughter of Guy, Count of Penthlfevre, upon 
Charles de Blois, nephew of the King of 
France, with the intent that the King of 
France should assist him in maintaining 
his claim, should it be disputed. The other 
claimant was the Earl of Montfort, half- 
brother to the late Duke; his father, 
Arthur II., having married a second time, 
Tolande, daughter of Robert de Dreux. 
Db Montfort. -The Earl of Montfort, as 
soon as he heard of the death of the duke, 
hastened to Nantes and won over the prin- 
cipal men of the place by means of the late 
duke's treasury, which was handed over to 
him by the citizens of Limoges, who had 
it in keeping. Being well established at 
Nantes, he enlisted an army and proceeded 
to Brest, which he took after a vigorous 
resistance. He next took Rennes, the 
governor, Henry de Splnefort, having 
fallen into his hands; and, shortly after, 
Hennebont, the "best fortified castle and 
strongest town in all BritUny," fell into 
his hands through the influence of De 
Spinefort over his brother, who was 
the govei-nor. In a short tims ho poa* 

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ttlstouY Off filitttJLKY. 


scssed himself also of Anray and Carhaix, 
and all the other Btrong places of Brittany, 
and, gping over to England, enlisted the 
king, Edward III., on his side. Froissart 
sajs, that the king was induced to lend his 
aid to the Earl by the consideration " that 
his war against France would be strength- 
ened by this means, that he could not hare 
a better entry into that kingdom than 
through Brittany." Hereupon Charles dc 
Blois appealed to the King of France to 
maintain his right. King Philip, by the 
advice of his peers, summoned the Earl of 
Huntfort to Paris to answer for his con- 
duct, **who came willingly, and professed 
to submit himself to the king's commands 
and good pleasure." But after an audience 
at which the king commanded him not to 
leave Paris for fifteen days, " on his return 
to his lodgginge he entered into his cham- 
ber, and ther satte and ymagined many 
doutes" (Bemer's Froissart)^ the issue of 
which was that he mounted his horse and 
Bet out at once for Brittany, " or the king or 
any otlier wyst wher he was become." The 
king, when he found that De Montfort had 
foiled him in the "aW»<, evatit^ empit" style, 
adjudged the dukedom to Charles de Blois; 
who having obtained the alliance of the 
Dukes of Normandy, Burgundy, and Bour- 
bon, the Counts d'AIengon, and d'Eu, the 
'^ Lord Lewis of Spain," and others, assem- 
bled his army, and marched into Brittany 
to recover his dukedom. He had 5,000 men 
at arms and 3,000 Genoese mercenaries. 
They first took ChAteauceux, a strong castle 
on the borders of Brittany, and then pro- 
ceeded to lay siege to Nantes. After some 
days* skirmtshing the men of Nantes as 
usua determined to treat with the assail- 
ants, and let in a number of the enemy, who 
went straight up to the castle snd seized 
the Earl of Montfort, and carried him olf 
to the camp of De Blois. The Earl was 
conducted as a prisoner to Paris, where the 
King shut him up in the Tower of the 
Louvre, and kept him a close prisoner. 
Thr C0WKTKS8 D» MoNitOBT.— The war wai, 

however, far from fended tiy the capture of 
the Earl of Montfort, for his Countess 
Jeanne, who was at Rennos with her child 
John, "possessed the courage of a man and 
the heart of a lion." By her harangues and 
personal influence she encouraged her 
friends and soldiers to maintain her cause, 
visited the towns and fortresses, strength- 
ened them with men and provisions, and 
infused such spirit into her followers that 
De Blois was as far off as ever from obtain- 
ing the duchy. 

Tlie Countess of Montfort retired to Henne- 
bont, and De Blois wintered in Nantes ; but 
early in the spring of the next year he 
besieged Rennes, and took it, the people 
being unable to stand the rigours of 
a siege, and invested Henncbont, hoping to 
take the Countess and her son prisoners. 
She had applied to Edward for assistance, 
but the succours sent under the ccmmand 
of Sir Walter Manny were delayed by con- 
trary winds. 

The siege was prosecuted with vigour; the 
assailants "■ assaulting fiercely, and those of 
the town in earnest to make a handsome 

The Countess herself directed the defence, and 
ordered her ladies to cut short their kyrtels 
and carry stones to the ramparts. On one 
of the days of assault she ascended the 
ramparts, and perceiving that most of the 
enemy had left their tents and were en- 
gaged in the attack, she mounted her horse, 
collected 300 horsemen, and sallied out by 
a gate which was not attacked, galloped to 
the tents of her enemies, cut them down, 
and set them on fire without loss. As 
soon as the French saw their camp on fire 
they cried, "Treachery;" and, desisting 
from the assault, pursued the Countess and 
her party; buf, though closely pursued, 
she gained the Castle of Brest, and after 
assembling a well-armed and well-mounted 
company, appeared five days after before 
Hennebont at sunrise, and entered the 
town before the French could recover from 
their astonishment to intercept her. 

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llltADdHAW S BltlfTAllr. 

This exploit gMned fdf the countess the name 
of Jeanne la Flamme, of Jflnncdik Flam, as 
Viliomarqutf ha« ft In his collection of 
Breton Ballads, the " Barzas Brclz." 

The sleffc of Hennebont still continued, and 
tlirongh the assaults of the engines without, 
and the machinations of the Bishop of L^on 
within, the town had nearly disposed the gar- 
rison to surrender, when the Countess saw 
from the windows'of the castle the long ex- 
pected succours from England, a numerous 
fleet of great and small vessels, sailing up the 
Blavet towards Hennebont. The Countess 
immediately communicated the joyful news 
to tiio defenders, and welcomed Sir Walter 
Manny and his companions to the castle. 
After an entertainment. Sir Walter sallied 
out and destroyed the great engine, and 
■lew many of the assailants, and on re-enter- 
ing, the Countess joyfully kissed and em- 
braced them, as Froissart says, like a 
valiant dame :— * Qui a done rit la eomtesse 
doscendre du ChAtel h grand ch^re, et baiser 
Mossire Gautier de Manny ot les com- 
pognons les una apres les autres deux ou 
trois fois, bien put dire que c'dtolt une 
raillante dame." 

Sir Walter Manny did not remafai idle at Hen- 
nebont ; but liaring raised the siege, carried 
on a desultory warfare in different parts of 
Brittany, in wliich he gave Louis of Spain 
a severe beating at QuimperU, and per- 
formed many acts of valour; but De Blois 
still held Nantes and the seaports about it, 
Yannes, Rennes, Carhaiz, and Jugon ; and 
tlte Countess, finding her party on the wane, 
was advised to conclude a truce with De 
Bluis, and pass over to England. 

Iktkrvbmtion of Enoland.— While there 
she obtained fresh assistance from the King, 
and in the spring saUed for Brittany, with 
a fleet of forty-five vessels, commanded by 
Count Robert of Artois, and bearing a nu- 
inorous army, under the Earl of Salisbury, 
an ancestor of the Dukes of Manchester. 
^hey encountered the Genoese fleet, under 
Louis of Spain, off Guernsey, and a severe 
wrtd battle ensued, vUehwat oMyput a 


stop to by fi violent tempest. At this naval 
fight the Oor.iitcss of Montfort, who, Hs 
Froissart says* "W«n vdloiCunhomme^cav 
elleavait coeur delion^*" commanded in person, 
armed cap-a-pie and sword in hand. The 
fleets were separated, and Robert of Artois 
landed his troops near Vannes, to which they 
at once laid siege, and took it by escalade. 
It was, however, shortlj- after retaken by 
De Beaumanoir, Marshal of Brittany, for 
De Blois. The Count of Artois was so 
severely wounded that he was obliged to 
return to England, where he died ; and the 
King of England resolved to carry the war 
into Brittany in person. Many valiant 
deeds were performed before Vannes, and 
the war now assumed the character of a 
war between England and France. Large 
armies took the field on both sides near 
Nantes, but before anything decisive was 
done, a truce was concluded at Malestrolt, 
by the intervention of Pope Clement VI-, on 
the basis that neither the English nor the 
French king was to take any part in the 
contest. The king of France beheaded the 
Count de Clisson, and fourteen other Breton 
nobles, upon suspicion of treason ; but the 
Countess de Clisson amply avenged her 
husband's death by suddenly attacking 
several of the castles defended by the parti- 
sans of Do Blois, and slaying the garrisons. 

The king of England took occasion from the 
execution of the Breton knights to consider 
the truce broken, and in 1345 despatched a 
large army under the Earl of Derby, to 
make war upon Gaseony. From thence 
ihey advanced into Perigord and Gulcnne, 
and being reinforced by a still larger army 
from England which disembarked at la 
Hag^e, the combined forces overran all 
Normandy and Picardy,defeate<l the French 
with immense slaughter at Crecy and 
Poitiers, and took Calais. These events, 
however, belong rather to the history 
of England. 

The wars in Brittany still raged ; on the expi- 
ration of fh6 truce, Charles de Blois laid 
fl«9» to Roelie tlierrieR, wMeh had been 

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taken by the English ; but a lar^c force sent 
out from Hennebont, under Sir Thomas 
Dagrworth and other English chiefs, gave 
battle to Charles de Blois and took him 
prisoner. The Countess de Blols, however, 
like the Countess de Montfort, resplved to 
continue the war; but her husband shortly 
after obtained his liberty by paying a 
ransom of 100,000 crowns of gold. John 
de Montford, the son of Charles, attahied 
his majority in 1368, and laid siege to 
Auray, where he was Joined by Sir John 
Chandos, Sir Robert Knollys, and many 
other English knights, while De Blois was 
largely reinforced by the barons of France 
and Normandy. 

The castles of Brittany were held by the 
partizans of either side, and the country 
was overrun and devastated by their armed 

1S51. [About this time took place the Battle of the 
Thirties, at the Midway Oak, between Jos- 
selin and PloSrmel, the castles of which 
mrere held respectively by Beaumauoir f or 
De Blois, and Pembroke for Do Montfort. 
The circumstances of the fight will be 
narrated ad locum under JosseUn.] 

Oliver de Clisson and Sertrand Dnguesclin 
now made their appearance on the scene 
of warfare. Clisson was a partisan of the 
Montfort faction, while Duguesclin cham- 
pioned it for De Blois against the English. 
His biography will be related under Dinan. 
He defended Rennes vigorously, and was 
the life of the resistance offered for ten 
years to their efforts to establish Dc Mont- 
fort on the ducal throne. In 1868 the war 
was almost brought to a close by a treaty 
concluded on the Plain of Evron, just as the 
armies of De Blois and De Montfort were 
about to engage; by this treaty the Duchy 
was to be divided, Rennes going to De Blois 
and Montfort taking Nantes; but Jeanne 
Dc Blois refused to ratify it, as agreed on, 
with her sanction. 

il^TTLS 01 AuRAT.— & Micnsol'4 Day, 1864, 
l9,un4 Xh^ ftxftl w«4».» 4r«wn untn great 

force on the low ground before Auray. 
Duguesclin marshalled the troops of De 
Blois, and Sir John Chandos drew up the 
troops of De Montfort in array. De Beau- 
mauoir endeavoured, ineffectually, to bring 
about an agreement; but both sides had 
determined to bring the contest to an 
issue by force of arms, and a fierce battle 
took place which will be more particularly 
• described under Auray. 

Both the English and Bretons had agreed 
that no ransom should bo taken for 
De Blois or De Montfort ; and, accordingly 
Pe Montfort wisely dressed up one of his 
esquires in his surcoat, bearing the device 
of the ermines, to personate him. The 
esquire was killed ; but De Montfort and 
his men fought with such vigour, that vic- 
tory inclined to their side. Duguesclin was 
taken prisoner after performing prodigies 
of valour; andDe Blolswas also taken alive, 
but cut down by one of the English soldiers. 
De Clisson lost an eye; and many a gal- 
lant knight on either side bit the dust, par- 
ticularly among the barons of Brittany. 

The death of De Blois, and the total defeat of 
his army, ended the dispute as to the 

Some of the castles and fortified towns held 
out for Do Blois, but were soon reduced ; 
the sons of Dc Blois were prisoners In Eng- 
land. Terms wore arranged, with the ap- 
probation of the Kings of England and 
France, by which De Montfort was to take 
the Duchy, with reversion to the children 
of De Blois In case he had no heirs, and that 
he was to settle the estates of Penthl^vro 
upon the Countess for her life. 

Duguesclln's career was by no means finished, 
for shortly after being ransomed he took 
part in the war in Spain, and never ceased 
to harass the English till his death. By 
the treaty of Ouerrande, John de Montfort 
was recognised as Duke of BrHtany, and 
WAS allowed by the English to mount 
the throne on condition of affording them 
f fidUtie* (or atupking Fr«iie«. 

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The Pfench party softened their sense of 
defeat by obtaining from the Pope the 
canonisation of Charles de Blois, whose 
austerities, piety, and miracles, were au- 
thenticated by many witnesses. 

Jolm of Montfort rewarded Sir John Chandos 
with many rich possessions in Brittany, 
particularly Blain and the Tour de Con- 
ndtable, which so irritated De Ciisson, who 
expected to haTC them, that he joined his 
old foe, Dnguesclin, and the two entered 
Brittany at the head of an army. The 
Bretons joined them against the Bnglish, 
who were now thoroughly hated through- 
out Brittany, and de Montfort took refuge 
in England. Renewinghis alliance with the 
King of England, he and the English again 
orerran Brittany, but by the activity of Du- 
gnesclin and the barons, they were at last 
forced to quit all their possessions but Brest, 
which was not given up till 1394. The 
English attacked S. Malo in 1876, with 400 
cannons, but were beaten off. John was 
recalled by his subjects in 1880, and received 
with open arms at S. Malo. Duguesclin 
died in 1880, while besieging Chtteau Ban- 
don in Auvergne; his death secured the 
stability of de Montfort's throne C'ademptm 
Hector "\ but the English were driven out 
of Brittany, and never recovered their 
vast possessions. 

Duke John instituted the order of the Er- 
mines as a salve for all the losses and 
BufTerings of the Bretons; and though the 
latter part of his reign was sullied by the 
imputation of an attempt to assassinate 
Ciisson, whom he deprived of all his 
possessions, the remainder of his life was 
peaceable, and the War of the Succession 
was happily terminated. 

Brittany during the Fifteenth Century. 

Duke John of Montfort died in 1899, leaving 
an only son, 11 years of age; his widow 
married Henry IV. of England. De Ciisson 
still maintained his animosity to the English, 
and with a fleet of his own pillaged Guem- 
•ey and Jerny, and burnt th« arsenal 

of Plymobth, while Tanneguy Dudifttel, 
another Breton privateer, surprised and 
destroyed Dartmouth. John V. attained 
his majority at the age of 15, and Ciisson 
met with retributive injustice, being ac- 
cused of sorcery, and besieged in his Castle 
of Josselin ; he saved his life for the time 
by a present of 100,000 crowns to the young 
Duke, but c^ied shortly after. The Pen- 
thi^vre faction, as representing the De Blois, 
still hoped to come to the throne, and in- 
cited by Margaret de Ciisson, attd en- 
couraged by the Dauphin of France, seized 
the young Duke at a hunting party, got up 
for the purpose, and put him in prison. He 
was kept in durance for a long time, and 

' transferred from castle to castle, but the 
Breton nobles took up arms for him, and 
accomplished his deliverance. During 

* this period, most of the fine ch&teaux of 
Brittany suffered from sieges and assaults, 
and all the castles of the Pentlii^vres were 

Marshal Oillcs db Retz.— The extraordi- 
nary trial of the Marshal Gilles de Retz 
for sorcery and murder, which took place 
about this time (1440), gives an insight 
into the arbitrary and tyrannical conduct 
of the feudal lords. The circumstances 
will be found. under Tiffauges, Route XI. 

John v. was succeeded by Francis I., his son, 
whose reign is principally infamous from 
the tragical story of the murder of his 
brother Gilles.—Filife Guildo, Route lY. 

The death of Francis is attributed partly to 
dropsy, partly to supernatural agency ; but 
the story is one of the most famous of the 
Vie Sainte do Brctagne. His successor, 
Peter II., lived in the odour of sanctity and 
perpetual chastity, though married. He 
was induced by the priests to pay homage 
to France for his throne, an act fully 
ratified by his successor, Arthur II., who 
died in 1459. He was succeeded by his 
nephew, Francis II., who founded the Uni 
Tersity of Nantes, and didmnch toencouragc 
letters In Brittany. He became mixed up 

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with the League formed against Louis 
King of France by the Dukes of Berry, 
Burgundy, and Bourbon, and at the termi- 
nation of the quarrel found liimself' com- 
pelled to submit to humiliating terms, and 
Brittany became an '^arriire-fief' to 

The domination of his mistress, Madame de 
Villequer, niece of Agnes Sorel, and the 
intrigues of his farourites, Landois and 
ChauTin, against each other, disturbed his 
reign with complications and embroilmenta 
which were further aggrarated by the 
intrigue? connected with the disposal of the 
hand of his daughter, the Princess Anne. 

Axme of Brittany. 

The Duke would hare been glad to dispose 
of her to any of the competitors, to the 
Duke of Orleans, the Sieur d'AIbret, or 
to Maximilian, the King of the Romans, 
but the King of France wanted her for 
his son, anerwards Charles VIII. D'Albret 
was old, and ugly as a Polichinelle, while 
Maximilian was young and lusty, almost 
a giant in size and stature. Anne her- 
self was young and spirituelU^ and in- 
clined to the latter, so that when the 
Austrian ambassador came to ask her 
hand by proxy she gave a willing consent. 
Her father died of chagrin in 1488, being 
obliged to sign a humiliating treaty with 
the King of France, after the Battle of S. 
Aubin du Cormier, where the Marquis 
Trdmonille defeated the allied forces of the 
Bretons and the League, with a loss of 
6,000 men to the Bretons alone. The pos- 
session of Anne was equivalent to the 
possession of the throne of Brittany» which 
according to many precedents, had been 
transmitted by the female side. 

The process of espousal, as related by Dam, 
is a curious instance of marriage ceremonies 
at that period. *' On tnit la jeune marUe 
au lit, et rambauadeur Autriehien tenant it 
la main la proc%wati<m de ton nuritre intro- 
duint sa jambe nuejusque' av ffenou dans la 
eouche nuptiate." 


The King of France was highly ineansed at 
the espousal, and determined to prevent the 
consummation of the marriage, in which 
design he was favoured by the backward- 
ness of Maximilian. A French army again 
overran Brittany, and Anne, besieged in 
Rennes, found herself obliged to yield to 
the solicitations of the King of France, to 
whom she was married on December 6th, 
1491, at Languy, in Touraine, not without 
imputation of violence being used against 
her. The throne of Brittany was ceded to 
France by special contract. Anne was only 
15 at the time of her marriage, and had a 
son at 16, who lived only three yean. 
Charles VIII. died seven years after hii 
marriage, and Anne, now free, and Duchess 
of Brittany in her own right, bestowed her 
hand on the late king's brother, the Duke 
of Orleans, now Louis XII. He obtained a 
divorce from his first wife on the score of 
her deformity, by large bribes to the Pope 
Alexander VI., and his son, Caesar Borgia. 

Brittany in the Sixteenth Century. 

Anne, finding Louis likely to die, endea- 
voured to convey her property away from 
France to Brittany, but the Marshal 
D'Amboise stopped the barges, an act 
which the king on his recovery revised to 
sanction, and D'Amboise was disgraced 
and banished. 

Anne died in 15! 4, aged 37, and the king 
married a sister of Henry VIII. of England, 
but died shortly alter, and was succeeded 
by the Duke of AngoulSme, as Francis I. 
He married Claude, the daughter of Anne 
by the late king, and thus established the 
title of France to Brittany. 

Francis I. lost the Battle of Pavia, in 1534, 
and, being taken prisoner, Brittany had to 
pay part of his ransom. 

Ckssiom or Brittakt to Fsakce.— At a 
meeting of the states at Chflteaubriant, 
Brittany was formally ceded to the King of 
France. Its revenues were estimated at 
450,000 Hv. taurnoi*. 

Francis was succeeded, in 1547, by his second 
son, Henry II. In his person the eldest 

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nlid cadet brahehes of the rclgiiing house of 
Brittany were united. His son, Francis 
II., wttft a prince of feeble spirit, and his 
reign, as well aa tbft succeeding, were 
troubled with religions wan^ ^ which 
Brittany suffered great disasters. 

The Wars of Religion. 

Dandclot, brother of Coligny, first introduced 
Protestantism, or Calvinism as it was called, 
into Brittany, in 1558, and Condd at the head 
of the Protestant party formed a conspiracy 
agahist the King and the Guises, which was 
discovered, and Condi's death was only pre- 
vented by that of Francis II. There were 
many claimants at his death to the dukedom 
of Brittany, which now belonged to the 
king's eldest son, or heir. The complications 
which arose from these conflicting claims 
were aggravated by the antagonism of the 
competitors. The Duke de Mercosur, as hav- 
ing married Mary of Luxemburg, a descen- 
dant of the Blois and Penthl^vres, and him- 
self son of the Duke of Lorraine, by Claude, 
laid claim to it and headed the anti-Calvinist 
]inrty, and was joined by the Duke of 
Anjou and King of Navarre. The Massa- 
cre of 8. Bartholemew took place on 
August 95, 1572, and Brittany was not 
exempt from its barbarities. Mercosur 
hold Brittany against Henry III., the suc- 
cessor of Charles IX., and proclaimed the 
Cardinal Bourbon under the title of Charles 
X. He formed a league with Spain, which 
sent a great fleet to his aid. The Spaniards 
disembarked at Locp^ran, afterwards Port 
Louis, and a great battle took place be- 
tween the forces of the League and the 
army which Henry III. sent to subdue 
Brittany, near Guingamp, without result. 
During the war of religion Brittany was 
overrun and devastated by both parties. 
To this day the beautiful churches bear 
traces of the savage iconoclasm of the 
OalTinists, and Protestantism owes much 
Of the animosity with which It is still 
regarded to the brutal excesses of the 
Cnlvlnlst troops of Henry. Bands of 
brigands, too, overran the country, and the 

poor Bretons, unable to pow or reap, and 
robbed of their cattle and stores, were 

. forced to live on herbs and roots. 

The war was not ended by the death of 
Henry III., who was assassinated at St. 
Cloud by a Dominican monk ; but Henry 
IV., the first of the Bourbons, by tiie bril- 
liant victories of Arques and Ivry, and still 
more by eMudliatory measures towards the 
Catholics, restored peace to France. He 
professed to embrace Catholicism, and 
won over many of Mercosur's partisans. 
Mercosur obtained terms by gaining over 
Oabrielle d'Estrdes, the king's mistress, by 
promising to marry his daughter to her 
illegitimate son. Henry paid a visit to 
Brittany and conciliated the disaffected 
barons, and the religious partisans on both 
sides. It was at Nantes that he signed, in 
1598, the famous Edict which for a time 
secured to the Protestant! the free exer- 
cise of their religion. 

BrittanF in the Seyenteenth Century. 

Henry IV. was assasshiated in 1610, by Ra- 
vaillac, a fanatic priest, who was executed 
with terrible cruelty. Mary of Medicis, his 
widow, was made regent, but the ^ars of 
religion were revived, and the young prince 
Louis XIII. was persuaded to make war 
against his mother and her adviser Concini, 
who favoured the Protestants. Bichelieu 
succeeded Concini (who was murdered) as 
prime minister, but the Huguenots found 
themselves unprotected on Richelieu being 
made a cardinal, and ineffectually endea- 
voured to hold their ground at Rochelle. 
The famous sieges of this town and of 
Montauban, encouraged them to resist, 
but they were eventually defeated, the 
Huguenot army being cut off almost to a 
man, on the Isle of Rh^ at the mouth of 
the Loire, and Rochelle capitulated, after 
enduring fearful privations by famine. 

The reign of Louis XIV., which commenced 
in 1648, though glorious to France, had little 
influence on the affairs of Brittany, if we 
except his revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
The Huguenots, who had gradually been 

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deprired of their privilegea, and rab|«eted 
to p«K8eevtSoB8, were formally prohibited 
from the exercise of their religion, in 
October, 1685. Fl^chier was sent into Brit- 
tany to convert them with fire and sword, 
and the dragonnades terrified them into sub- 
mission or exile. Many thousands fled to 
England, and took with them their wealth 
and industry. 

Wab with Ekolamd.— The history of Brit- 
tany is now merged in that of France ; but 
we may remark that England was not 
without hopes of recovering her lost pos- 
sessions there. In 1693, the English endeav- 
oured to destroy S. Malo by a fire-ship; 
but it exploded on a rock, at the entrance 
of the channel, without doing much damage 
to the town. They also attempted to re- 
take Brest in the following year, but were 
prevented by a tempest. The privateers of 
Brest and S. Malo, under Duguay Trouin, 
Tuurville, and Duquesne, made reprisals, 
and inflicted great injuries on our com- 
merce on the coast of Africa or elsewhere. 

Brittany In the Eighteenth Century. 

Louis XIV. having dissolved the parlia- 
ment of Rennes, Brittany has thence- 
forward no political status apart from 
France; but many events which to<A place 
in that country deserve notice. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century 
disturbances took place in Brittany on the 
occasion of the introduction of the gabelle, or 
tax upon salt, and other heavy imports, 
but were speedily quelled. In 1720, a 
■disastrous fire took place at Rennes, which 
continued burning for eight days, and 
destroyed the old castle, the hall of as- 
sembly, many churches, and 850 houses. 
The present town is completely renovated. 

In 1768 took place the disastrous descent upon 
Ihe coasts of Brittany, which cost England 
thB loss of upwards of 1,000 of her picked 
troops. The detaUs of this disaster will 
\te f^rw under 6. Cast, fioute IV. 


17W. Brittany, as we have seen, had offered a 
staunch resistance for many centuries to 
her powerful aggressors, but had long lost 
her political status, and in 1774, she suffered 
geographical extinction, being divided into 
five departments, and her title as a pro- 
vince abolished. We have now to regard 
her as the champion of the throne nnd 
altar which the reet of France united lo 
The inhabitants of La Vendue, then called t he 
Bocage, or woodland, at the mouth of the 
Loire, had long dwelt on good terms with 
their landlords, and sympathised with them 
rather than with the bloodthirsty mob of 
Paris, who called them aristocrats, and 
hunted them to death. But the landlords 
were forced to fly; and the priests also, 
except a few who still continued their 
ministrations in secret ; and the poor Ven- 
deans had the measure of their disgust 
filled up when they were compelled to 
draw lots for service in the hated repub- 
lican army, who had murdered the king 
and overthrown the church. 

In the spring of 1793, a rishig took place at 
S. Florent, in which the peasants drove out 
the Bleus, who had come to enforce the 
conscription. The Marquis de Loscure, and 
the Marquis de la Rochejacquelin assembled 
a large force of peasants at the chftteau of 
Clisson, near Bressuire, and defeated the 
republicans in several pitched battles. 
They were soon joined by other forces 
under De Bonchamp and Cathelineau, a 
pedlar. Favoured by the intricate charac- 
ter of the country, which is composed of 
hollow lanes, small fields, and thick hedges, 
they long maintained a guerilla warfare 
against the republican troops. 

They took Saumur, and made Cathelineau the 
"Sahit of Anjou," their leader, and even 
Intended to march to Paris to fetch their 
young king, Louis XVU. But he died 
before their plans were mfttured. 

The government, however, sent a large force 
into La Vende'e, the army of Maine, under 

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ute I . 

Kleber, and other forces under Beysser and 
Westermann, for they saw that it was, as 
Napoleon called it — " une guerre de gea$tu:' 
The tide gradually turned against the Vcn- 
deans. They suffered a scTcre defeat at 
Cliollet; and D'ElMe, who had won the 
Tlctory at Chatillion, together with De Bon- 
champ and De Lescure, were mortally 
wounded. Cathelineau was killed in an 
attack on Nantes; and the whole Yen- 
dean army, with the wounded, and women 
and children, were forced to cross the Loire 
at S. Florent, to take refuge in Brittany. 
They liberated their prisoners, 6,000 in 
number, at the entreaties of De Bonchamp, 
who protested with his last breath against 
their slaughter. 

De Lescure expired after the terrible passage 
of the Loire, and La Rochejacquelin was 
chosen leader; but, although victorious at 
Laral, he was severely wounded, and his 
wretched train of peasants were terribly 
defeated at Le Mans ; and after vainly at* 
tempting to re-cross the Loire at Ancenis, 
was again defeated after a noble stand at 
Savcnay. Those who survived were made 
prisoners, and guillotined at Nantes and 
Angers. D*Elbdo was gnillotined ; and La 
Rochejacquelin, almost the only survivor of 
the Vendean army, after living in conceal- 
ment in the country, and rallying a few 
peasants round him, who still maintained 
the contest under the name of the Chouan- 
nerie,* was shot by a republican soldier, to 
whom he had granted quarter. The re- 
maining partisans of the royalists were 
either executed or exiled, and La Vendue 
was pacified. 

Th« Battl« of QniBEROw.— The next year, 
1795, witnessed the descent of the emigres 
upon Qniberon, on June 27th. They were 
sent over in fifteen vessels by the English 
government, to the number of 6,000, and 
were joined by the Chouan peasantry in 

• Bo cftlled from tbe Cbo-aa or little brown 
owl. evuimon in BiittMijr, iht cry of which the 
iuinrRMita imitated m a fignal to their f riciMb. 

great numbers. They took possession of 
Auray and Fort Penthi^vre, and for several 
days held their ground against the army of 
the republic, under Hoche. The Dleus, how- 
ever, gained the fort at night, and shut up 
the emigret on the peninsula. The English 
ships were prevented by boisterous weather 
from taking off the beleaguered masses, 
and, after a terrible slaughter, 4,000 were 
taken prisoners, and most of them shot in 
oold blood, on the Champ des Martyrs, near 
Auray. Further particulars of this dis- 
astrous affair will be given ad locum, 

Brittany In tbe Nineteenth Century. 

During the reign of Napoleon I., Brittany 
still retained its affection for the Bourbons, 
and when the Emperor abdicated, the old 
spirit of Royalism revived. The priests being 
almost exterminated, the colleges of Nantes 
and Vannes were ro-openod for candidates 
for the priesthood; but at the return of 
Napoleon, his brief reign of cent Jours was 
the signal for the scholars of Vannes and 
the Chouans breaking out into open insur- 
rection; they maintained a brave contest 
with the Imperialist armies, defeating 
them at Auray and MuzUlac, till the battle 
of Waterloo put an end to the struggle. 

Since 1815, Brittany has been content to 
follow in the wake of the changes of 
dynasty which have affected the rest of 
France. Staunch Legitimists at heart, and 
ardent supporters of the Catholic faith, 
they still retain their old predilections, and 
practise their ancient ceremonies. Their 
soldiers and sailors are still " corps (fe/er, 
caur d'aeier;'* and furnish a large pro- 
portion of the conscription to the army 
and navy of Franco. The old Breton nobles 
still exist in their old chAteaux, and lead a 
monotonous vie de eampagne, living on the 
memories of the past and hopes of the 
future. But when the Emperor and Em- 
press made a progress through Brittany in 
1858, they were grraciously and even enthn- 
siatically received. General Trochn, the 
defender of Paris, 1870-1, was a Breton. 

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1>ARIS TO &£NK£S. 

Route 1.] 




BT Railway "Cheuin dk per de l'Ouest," 
vsoM Mont Parnassi. 236 Miles. 

The " Corrogiwndances," or means of Inland 
communication, are in a few instances small postal 
carriages, which will not carry much luggage. 

Versailles — Palace and Park; Rambouillct — 
Castle; Maintenon— Cli&teau; Chartres— Cathe- 
dral ; Nogcnt-le-llotrou— Castle ; Le Mans — 
Cathedral; and Laval — Catliedral. 

Fort Brillet (Stat) ; here Brittany is entered. 

Yitr^ {Btait.) — Hotels : De S^vigue; des 
Voyagears (fair). A mediaeral looking town, with 
high walls and towers, surmounted by extinguisher 
roofs. It was an important stronghold during the 
wars of religion; and even in earlier times the 
Baron of Vitrd was one of the chief Seigneurs of 
Brittany, a.p. 1113. The church of Notre Dame 
(architectureof 16th century) hasan exterior pulpit ; 
in one of its chapels are 32 enamels on copper, 
representing scenes from the life of our Saviour. 
Excursion to the Chateau de la Tr^mouille. 

The next station of importance is 

Bennes (Stat.), chief town of the department 
of tlie Ille-ct-Yilaine, situated at the confluence 
of these rivers. Population, 69,232. Junction of 
railways from S. Malo, Brest, and Rddon. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel, first-class; de France, family 
hotel ; both in Rue de la Monnale. Buffet at the 

Oab Fares. — From 6 a.m. to midnight: the 
course, ]fr. 25c.; by time, first hour, Ifr. 75c.; 
each subsequent hour, Ifr. 50c. 

Post Office.— Place Du Commerce, on the south 
aide of the river. 

Rennes is said to have been the capital of the 
Rhedones, and to derive its name from them, or 
from the Celtic word Rhannu, division. In very 
early times it was the capital of Brittany, and 
long disputed the title with Nantes. Daru calls 
them the " Villes Afalheweuses," because they had 
to bear the brunt of every war and party quarrel, 
Rennes opened its gates to Maximus, a.d. 383. 
Waroch II. reigned here, a.d. b9i^ as king of all 


Brittany, as did also Geoffrey, the first duke, In 
A.D. 992. It was always more thoroughly Breton 
than Nantes, which fraternised with the Franks 
and Normans. Rennes was taken, 1180, by the 
Braban^ons, or free companies, andi though re- 
covered by Geoffrey, son of Henry II. of England, 
was burnt to the ground. 

It again became oneof the chief fortresses of 
Brittany, and the seat of government, alternately 
with Nantes. During the Wars of the Succession, 
Duguesclin defended it vigorously against the Eng- 
lish. Here took place, it is said, his duel with the 
Earl of Pembroke. On this account Dugnesclin's 
statue is set up in the Promenade du Thabor. " In 
1488 LaTr^mouille summoned it to surrender to the 
King of France after ills victory at S. Aubin du 
Cormier; but Rennes was then a city of 40,000 in- 
habitants, and gave the conqueror a sorry ainswor-^ 
FroUsart:' The states of Brittany held their pAt- 
liament here till its dissolution by Louis XIV. In 
1720 a great fire took place at Rennee, which 
burned eight days and destroyed 850 houses and 
almost all the relics of antiquity, the palaces, aud 
old historical chftteaux. There are still, however, 
many old houses in the narrow winding streets of 
the lower, or old town. 

The Palais de Justice, a very fine edifice, was 
built In 1620 as a House of Parliament for the 
States of Brittany; Its facade, which is 150 feet 
long, is of the Tuscan order of architecture, 
and very heavy. On the exterior of each side eff 
the entrance there are statues of the four cele- 
bratcd jurists of Rennes, namely, D^Argentert^, 
Toullier, La Chalotais, and Gerbier: the "Salle 
des pas perdus" on the first floor, is remarkable 
for its size. The sides of the entrance door are 
adorned with wood carvings, representing Power 
and Justice — over the door, Religion. The four 
Law Courts sre rich in painting, gilding, and 
stucco ornaments, especially the assise court; the 
ceilings were painted by the eminent artists (of 
the time of Henri Quatre), Jonvenet, Coyiiel, 
Erard, and Ferdinand. Permission to visit ii<jiy 
be obtained from the concierge, -who shows 
visitors round and expects a gratuity. ; 

The modern Cathedral of St. Peter, commenced 
in 1787, was not finished until 1844: the arch}, 
tecture is poor, and is quite concealed by build* 

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fittJLt>flttiW-d BftlTTlKt. 

ings; the tntdfiof is in tli« style of a Qrecian 
Temple; the principal aisle has a richly decorated 
raulted roof, supported by massive Corinthian 
columns ; frescoes by Le Henaff and Jobb6-Duval ; 
The oldest church In Rennes is S. Germain ; but 
parts of S. Molalne are as old as the 11th century. 
The old Porte de Hordelafse, the ceremonial en- 
trance into Rennes, still exists. Near the river, in 
n central position, is the Pafais Univertitaire, with 
an extensive museum and a larffe gallery of 
paintings. For admlislon apply to the concierge 
At the back of the building, in the "Rue 
TouUier;" the public are admitted on Tlmrs- 
days and Sundays from noon to 4 p.m. 

The Hotel de Yille (1734) is a handsome 
buildhig; opposite to it is the modem Theatre, 
with covered arcades around, lined wllh good shops; 
both are on the Place. There are numerous bar- 
racks in every direction, and a Champ de Mars; 
n largo garrison of artillery Is always stationed 
hero. About 2 miles from the town is the Polygon, 
where they are instructed and drilled. 

A very pretty walk along the river bank 
leads to the Ch&teau of La Pr^valaije (2 miles), in 
which is shown a room which was occupied by 
Henri Quatre when he came here to shoot and 
hunt in 1598; the avenue leading to the house 
lias some fine trees. Most ddieiom butter is made 
lierc, and goes by the name of *'beurre de la Pr€- 
valaye; " the greater part of it is sent off by rail 
every evening to Paris for the next morning's 
breakfast tabic; it is always sold in stone Jars, 
and only in small quantities. 

There is a fine library of 55,000 vols, and many old 
MSS. The modem part of Rennes is well-built, light 
and airy, with lofty houses, and regular streets and 
squares. It has extensive filatures, where flax Is 
spun and canvas made, large barracks, and there 
is a general air of activity and enterprise about the 
town, especially since the opening of the railways. 
There are fine public gardens with panoramic views 
of the country round. They have been enlarged 
&a J laid out with numerous pretty walks. 

Excureions may be made in all directions by rail. 
RennesisanAxcellentpotn^ (f«(f«par^ The following 
Correspondences leave Rennes daily : to Bdchercl 
at 4 p.m. Boug^res at 6 a.m ; St. Aubin du Cornier 
lit 4 p.m.; Chftteaubrlant and S^gr^ at 3 p.m. 

[ttotite $. 

On the line frdfai ftenhes to Chflteaubriant is 
Jani6 (Stat.)i 8 kllom. from which is the vl'lage 
of E88^, near which is an " all^e-couverte " of 
schist, 74 feet long it has id cap-stones, 42 
supports, and 2 chambefs. 



130 XILXS. 

The tourist will find this an agreeable route, 
aftbrding him the opportunity of seeing some pretty 
scenery andmanyNorman towns toolittle visited by 
Englishmen. Havre is too well known to require 
description. Its history as set forth in Bradshaw's 
Handbook to Normandy^ has, however, some claim 
upon our interest. A large colony of English will 
be found in Havre, especially about the heights 
of Ingouvllle and Ste. Adresse, and all English 
luxuries may be obtained here. Excursions may be 
madetoBoUdn, with its splendid Gothic churches; 
to Harfieur and MontevIIIiers, interestingfrom their 
historical souvenirs ; to Honfleur (across the mouth 
of the Seine), a picturesque old seaport ; thence 
by rail to Pont4'-Evfque^ at which a halt should be 
made to have a run by rail down to Troutrille and 
Deauville^ the two prettiest watering-places on the 
north coast of France. From Trouville, an hour's 
ride will bring the tourist to the Chateau de Bonne- 
ville, now a modernised residence, where William 
the Conqueror formed his project for invading 

Thence byrail through Pont-r£v6qae, to LUUux 
(Han^Btook to Normandy), famous for Its cotton and 
canvas factories, and past M^zidon Junction (from 
which the railway branches off to Le Mans), to 

Caen (Stat.)— ^oto/«: D'Angleterre and DTs- 
pagne, both good and in the Rue St. Jean; Hotel 
de la Place Royale, on the Place Royale, Is fre- 
quented by commercial travellers. At this ancient 
city the tourist should rest awhile, to visit the 
various objects of Interest: the old churches (some 
eighteen in number, but many desecrated); the 
church of S. Pierre; the abbayes, "^aux Ilommes,'' 
and ''aux Dames;'' the library, containing 90,000 
volumes; the Lycde (very uu|ikc an English 

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ttoute ^.] ttJiVRtt to 

college), Ac. There is an EhgrUshVice-Consulhorc, 
Ahd a Church of England Chaplato. Service is held 
on Sundays, morning and evening, at St. Michael's 
Church, Rue Richard Lenoir. 

Caen may be reached from H&vre by steamer 
dally, la about 3 hours | the houir of starting 
depends on the tide. It is, however, a boisterous 
passage with a northerly wind. 

From Caen the railway should be taken to Vire, 
through ViUers-Bocago, a village in a picturesque, 
undulating, well wooded country, famous for 
butter and eggs. Also by rail to BaFeuz, to see 
the famous Tapestry, 80 yards long, worked by 
Queen Matilda, consort of William the Conqueror. 
It represents the history of the Conquest of 
England, terminating with the Battle of llastlngs. 
His seal is also kept here. 

Vlre (fitB.t.)Sotels: Cheval Blanc; dc St. 
Pierre— a very pretty country town of 6,686 
inhabitants. From the hill above the town, 
crowned by the ruins of the old Castle of Mont- 
gomery, which figured In the Religious Wars, may 
be seen a beautiful panorama of the valleys watered 
by the Vire, which are called the Vaux de Vlre. 
This name, corrupted Into Vaudeville, Is dear to 
every Frenchman who loves wine and song for 
here lived Olivier Basselln, who wrote Ana- 
ereontie Chansons^ such as Joli Nez^ and others. 
In praise of the bottle, e.g.^ 



*' Le oliouetis qna J'aime mi oelul dea bonttrillet, 

(1 v»nt bien mitsux eacher ton nee da&s un grand verre, 

II Mt mleux aMUi4 qu'eu an casque de gu*rre." 

There are many objects of Interest In the neigh- 
bourhood, but we are not yet In Brittany. 

Boxnflront (Stat)— ffofo/: De la Posto. Rail 
from Caen, fi6 miles. A charming village with an 
old ruined tower, perched on a rocky height, and an 
eleventh century cathedral. The castle was often 
taken and retaken durhig the religious wars of the 
sixteenth century. From liere 15 miles by rail to 

Mortain (Stat.)— JSro/e/^.- De la Poste; Saint 
GulUaume. A village of 2,280 Inhabitants, 
picturesquely situated In a rocky valley through 
which two rivers fall from ledge to ledge hi spark- 
ling cascades. The church Is a very ancient con- 
struction, enriched with quaint sculptures and 
carvings of the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. 
TinchebraF is another romantic little town of 
lil9^orl«»l Ijnportance, aqd channlngly sit\^ated. 

It can be visited by rail either from Vire ot Mortain. 
The "ButlestiHmbal," a high mountain close at 
hand. Is the source of several rivers of Kormandy. 
The Battle bf ^Inchebray, fought here In 1106, put 
an end to the ciril war between the sons of William 
the Conqueroir. The victory of Henry over his 
brother Robert was mainly owing to the assistancO 
of Alain Fergant, Duke of Brittany. Robert, Duke 
of Normandy, was takfen prisoner, and kept in 
captivity during his life. 

From Mortain the line runs through S. Hilalre 
du Harcouet, a modem village, and Louvlgiirf, 
where we enter Brittany, and soon pass under 
the castled crags of the old frontier fortress of 

Foug^B (Stat.) — iSTote/; St. Jacques. A 
mediaeval town, full of traces of the turbulent 
thncs of chivalry. The Baron of Fougferes ranked 
with the Baron of Vitr€ among the Seigneurs of 
Brittany. It was destroyed by the Bretons on 
the expulsion of Eudes by the people of Nantes In 
1166. Raoul and the Baron of Fougferes, ''par la 
grace de Lieu;' successfully held it against the 
English. In 1488 it was seized by La Tr^moulUe 
for the King of France, and held In sequestration 
during the minority of Anne of Brittany. 

In the Vendean War the Royalists selred K 
during their march to Le Mans. Parts of the old 
castle still exist, particulariy a tower called the 
Tour de Melusine. It was erected by Hughes de 
Lusignan, and called after that falrj-, from whom 
the family claimed to be descended. The archi- 
tecture is of the 12th century ; that of the " Tour 
des Gobelhis" (named after another fairy), and 
which Is higher, Is of the 18th century. This huge 
castle Is well worth a visit ; it Is picturesque and 
c .rious. Permission is readily granted ; ring the 
bell at the right of entrance; the attendant will 
expect a gratuity. Alongside the Church of 
St. Leonard is the " Place des arbres," a pretty 
public promenade, from which splendid views of 
the valleys of the Nan9on and the Conesnon will 
be obtained, as also of the surrounding country, 
which is well wooded. A rail is open from lu-re 
to Pontoison thence coach, 6| miles, to Mont St. 
Michel. The rail may be taken to Rcnnes. Roil to 
AvrancVies. Also diligence at 6-16 a.m., 4 francs • 
also to Rennes at 2.0 p.m., 4 fr&ncf 60 cents couptf j 
3 franrs 50 cents int^rieur. 

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nnADSHAW*8 brittanV. 

[Route 3. 

S. AuWn-dU-Connier is a small village, half- 
way between Pougbre« and Rennes, which Is 
famous only as the scene of the great battle 
between the troops of the King of France (Charles 
VIII.), under La TrdmouUle and the forces of the 
tcague, under the Duke of Orleans. The French 
were completely victorious, and 6,000 Bretons 
were slain on the field. A few English took part 
in the battle, but the majority arrived too late. 
Many of the Bretons were dressed in English 
uniforms to strike terror into the enemy. The 
castle was built by Pierre de Dreux in 1226, as a 
frontier castle. 

From B. Anbin a somewhat uninteresting drive 
6f 20 miles through Llffr^ brings the tourist to 
Rennes (Route T.) A correspondancc daily to 


IxTO Bbittaky from Chkrboueg. Chbbboubq 

DOL (AND 8. Malo). 

Cherbourg (BtKt,)— hotels: Grand Hotel des 
Bains de Mer; dc r Aigle ; de TAmiraut^; de 
I'Univers. This town has little that is remark- 
able; the Hotel deVille is situated on the Place 
d'Armes: it contains a museum, library, and 
f» gallery of paintings, and is open daily to 
$trangers from noon to 4 p.nv In the centre of 
the Place there is an equestrian statue of 
Napoleon I., whose right hand points to the stupen- 
dous works which were undertaken by him in 
order to render Cliovbourg a strong naval arsenal ; 
on the pedestal is inscribed 

" J'avalt rtwlu de renonveler k Cherbotuv 
les luerveilles d'Egypte." 

The obelisk on the " Place d'Armes" was erected 
In 1821, in honour of the Due de Berry ; on another 
square there is 6 bronze bust of Briqueviile, one 
of the heroes of the first Empire. 

The Church of Notre Dame des Voeux was built 
by order of the Empress Mathilda, daughter of 
Henry I. of England, in fulfilment of a vow made 
by her In a storm, in which the vessel was nearly 
lost, when she landed at Cherbourg in the 
thirteenth century. She landed at a spot where 
the presMit dockyard stnuds, on which a ehapel 
was built. 

The mercantile port is a basin formed by the 
waters of the Divette, which are retained by 
caissons and lock gates; it is 1,265 feet long, by 
194 feet broad. 

To visit the Breahcater. -The hire of a boat to 
carry Jive persons is 10 f ranes, and 3 francs 
additional for each person above that number. 1% 
will be advisable to request the "maitre d'hotcK' 
to procure one, as he knows who are trustworthy 
boatmen; the price to be paid should be settled 
beforehand. Be sure not to accept a boat that has 
not two boatmen; this excursion will require 
about three hours at least. The French are fond. 
In summer, of breakfasting on the Breakwater, and 
carry with them a basket of cooked provisions 
provided for them at their hotel. There is a room 
reserved for this purpose at the canteen of the 
"fort central," but scarcely anything excepting 
wine or coffee can be procured there. A small 
harbour for boats Is under this fort ; it is here that 
passengers should land. The Breakwater forts 
mount 330 guns; its length is 4,111 yards; breadth 
at base, 130 yards; breadth at top, 11 yards; 
height above water, 80 feet. The Port formed by 
the Breakwater encloses about 3,000 acres, and 
the largest ships can ride there completely 

Visit to Fort Roule. — For pedestrians about an 
hour's walk — ascend by the zigzag at the foot of 
the rock; there Is also a carriage road ; the price 
of a vehicle is 6 francs. The view from the 
summit is really magnificent; immediately below 
Is the commercial basin, and, beyond, tlie 
Breakwater, with its forts and the ships of war at 
anchor under its shelter; on the left is the 
Dockyard, with its extensive basins, workshops, 
and building slips; on its extreme point is Fort 
Horamct, which defends the western outranco, 
to the right, on two islands, are the Forts Cha- 
vagnac and National; and on the land the* fort of 
Querqucville, which defend the Eastern entrance, 
and which render the port almost impregnable 
from the sea. 

Visit to the Dockyard— Application for per- 
mission to enter this naval arsennl must be made 
at the "Bureau de la Majority Generale;" but 
foreigners are not admitted unless tbey are pre- 

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Route 3.] 

sented by their Consul. There are here three 
basins which have been dug out of the solid rock, 
and whidi cover . an area of about 50 acres ; 
the "bassin Napoleon," to the left, is 1,302 feet 
long, by 620 feet broad, and there is never less 
than 30 feet of water in it. It contains the ships 
which are dismantled in reserve, and it lias docks 
and slips. The "fitting basm" is to the right; 
the storehouses are conveniently placed between 
these basins. The third basin, or " Avant Port," 
usually contains vessels that have been re-fitted; 
the one which carries the admiral's flag is a prison 
for the confinement of ofiicers under arrest or by 
sentence of court martiaL There are several 
building slips ; a steam factory, for the repair of 
engines and boilers; as also an armoury, con- 
taining not less than thirty thousand stand of 
arms, which are arranged with great taste. In 
one room they show tlie stone which covered 
Napoleon's grave at St. Helena. 

There is a Casino with a nice garden at Cher- 
bourg; the bathing is good, on a beach of fine white 
sand. Refreshments may be had here in the 

The chateau of Tourlaville, a pretty country 
house, not without a mournful legend attached to 
it, is well worth the 2 miles' walk which leads to it. 

Hail to Carentan (Stat.), an old-fashloned 
town, in a low situation, inhabited (3,483) chiefly 
by fislicmcn. Its principal lion is a fine Gothic 
clmrch, of the 15th century, with open-work towers 
and pinnacles. 

In joume\ ing from Cherbourg to S. L6, change 
trains at Lison (Stat.) 

St.L6(BtB.t.)'-lJoteIs: Cheval Blanc and Soleil 
Levant. Chief town of the department of Manche, 
with 11,445 inhabitants, a prettily situated town 
in an undulating coi iitry, famous forlts pasturage. 
The upper town is the older part, and dAtes to the 
time of Charlemagne. There is a haras here 
for breeding horses. The Prefecture, Tribunal 
de Justice, and the Hotel de Ville, which has been 
built with considerable taste, are on the Place. 
In the latter there is a square block of marble, 
called "Le marbre de Torigny;" it has inscrip- 
tions on three of its sides, which are said to bo 
of the third century. U is surmounted by a bi;s^ 



of L« Terrier. In the mnnlcipal library there U n 
large collection of charters anterior to the four7 
teentb century; they relate to Normandy and 
England, and many of them boar the teal of 
William the Conqueror. A few crumbling walj^ 
mark the enceinte of a strong castle. The ioweir 
town is of recent date. The church of Notre 
Dame is well placed for effect, and its elegant 
spires and rose windows show well upon the 
high ground on which the church stands. On 
the outside of the church is a stone pulpit for 
open-air preaching. 

Diligences run from this to Virc, through 
Torigny, formerly a royal demesne. Part of the 
old ch&teau still remains, and contains some fine 
Gobelins tapestry and historical pictures. 

On the direct road to Avranches lies Wledieu^ 
surnamed Les PoSles, or "pots and pans," from the 
manufactureof saucepans and other copper articles 
carried on here. Rail from 8t. LC to 

Coutances (St9X)—ffotel$: Grand Hotel de 
France; Hotel d'Anglcterre. One of the most 
ancient cities of Normandy, and tlie earliest cathe- 
dral establishment. The population is 8,145. 
The town stands high; and is visible for many miles. 
The Cathedral, with its three towers, is a magnifi- 
cent building, and may be distinctly seen from 
Jersey. It is doubtful whetlior the date usually 
assigned (1206) is not too early for the pointed style 
of architecture which prevails. The twin spires 
are very delicately carved, and the third, placed 
over an octagonal dome, is said to have called 
forth the remark from Vauban,— " Quel est le fou 
sublime que a lanc^ vers le del une voiito aussi 
bardie." There is a "considerable quantity of 
fifteenth century glass in the windows of the 
transepts and of the choir, principally diapered 
patterns, black on a gicy gn»unil: tlie apsidal and 
the nave chapels are remarkable, and are of great 
beauty." Notice the side porclies under the towers. 

In the public Gardens thtrc Is a granite 
obelisk to the memory of Quesnel-Morinifere, 
the donor of these gardens to the town; and on 
the "Place de la Sous-Prefecture" there is a 
bronze statue of Le Brnn, Due do Plaisnnco, 
minister of the first empire. There .ire two oilier 
churches besides the Cathedral. S. Pierre is 
b\illt in the st^le of the fifteenth and sixtoeiitli 

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centnries; the tower dates U80; the transept has 
a dome to which one can ascend by an elegant 
spiral staircase ; the stalls in the choir ai-e of the 
soYentoenth century; the pulpit belonged formerly 
to the Abbey of Luzerne. 8. Nicholas is of the 
fourteenth century; thecpire Is of the eighteenth; 
it is a heavy building and has lately been under 

Following the Rue des Pilliers, at a short dis- 
tance out of the town, will be found the ruins of 
the aqueduct of Coutnnces; it dates from the 
thirteenth century, and was built to replace the 
Roman one which was destroyed l»y the Normans. 
HxcwsiotiM.— To the oyster pares of Uegndville, 
where there are immense basins for the reproduc- 
tion of this bivalve. To the bench of Agon Cou- 
tafnvllle, 8 miles, where there is capital bathins. 
Omnibus, 75 cents. 

Granville (Stat.), a sonport and fishing to>%-n, 
containing 12,731 Inhabitants, the terminus uf a 
rail to Paris. 

Iloielt: Du Nord ; des Trois Couronnos ; Grand 
Volturea, 3 francs per hour. 
The aspect of the town is stony and arid from 
the absence of foliage; all the buildlngR, houses, 
quays, and fortifications, are of granite from the 
Chausey Isles. The clatter of the tabott on the 
granite stones will strike the stranger. 

There is a good pier and floating dock here; 
the principal trade is cod fishing with Newfound- 
land and Iceland, which emphiys about 400 vessels. 
The church In the upper town Is a heavy building, 
of the Flamboyant style of architecture; thcrs is 
a splendid view from the lighthouse, from which 
Jersey is visible. 

The Casino and "Salon des bains" here arc 
reached by a bridge, and a gap cat through 
the solid rock called "La tranchde aux Anglais." 
Instead of batMng machines, numbers of canvas- 
covered sedan chairs, called " cabanncs," are 
used; the sands are fine and smooth. 

A steamer leaves the "bassln it flot" every 
Sunday for Chausscy, and remains there about 
fire hours; return ticket, 3 francs. This Is a 
oapltal means of seeing tl^ese islands, which are 
mQ»t intcrp't'llg \o piose rf\\o collect zoophltcs 

[lioute 3. 

and algse. Lobsters are obiaiaod lier« in ipreai 

The women of Granville are reputed for their 
beauty; they have dark hjilr, dark eyes, and 
a complexion resembling the southern races; 
they wear a very becoming white cap, which 
greatly sets off their hair; they also wear a cloth 
hooded cloak, lined with white silk, which gives 
them a coquettish appearance. They are a 
masculine race, and act as porters to unload the 
ships and passenger vessels. 

ExcurtioM.— To St. />atr,a small watering place, 
with fine sands; It Is about an hour's walk, but 
there are omnibuses from Granville, fare, 75 cents. 
French visitors generally breakfast here and 
return to Granville for dinner. 

Mont St. Michel (see next page) may also be 
visited from here; and it cannot be too strongly 
urged on strangers who hire a carriage for that 
purpose, to make their driver take them through 
Avranches instead of hy Genets; the latter road is 
about 3 miles shorter, but it is dangerous, and acci- 
dents have frequently occurred. 

The history of Granville does not date further 
back than the fifteenth century. Like S. Malo It sent 
out privateers to enrich themselves on English 
commerce. It was attacked in 1793 by the Vendotin 
army, after their passage of the Loire, but resisted 
their assault. In 1808 it was bombarded by an 
English fleet. 

Steamer to Jersey leaves on Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday. Passage, three hours. 

AvranClies iSlAt.)- Hotel»: De Londres; 
d'Angleterre ; de Brctagne. A very beautifully 
situated but dull and old-fashioned town, containing 
7,785 Inhabitants. It was anciently an important 
bishopric, with a grand cathedral, but there remain 
of It but a few fragments and a flat stone, upon 
which, It is said, Henry II. received absolution, 
after disavowing the murder of Thomas k Becket. 
This stone is enclosed by posts and chains on 
the Place Huct, near the Sous Prefecture; it has 
an inscription. 

There are many English residents here, and 
an English Chaplain. The principal feature of 
Avranches is the Botanical Garden, from which 
may be enjoyed magnificent views, westward, of 
the ba^ qf g }^\Q^ph ^|t^ "^^e great v|8lou of \\\9 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

Route 3.] 

giiard«d Monni," rising from the waste of vateri, 
and the river serpentiningr through the meadows 
and woodlands, till it loses itself in the yellow 
sands. " On the terrace of the BoiUuilcal Gardens 
will be seen the porch of Mi ancient chapel, long 
since swallowed jip by the sands: a brass plate is 
fixed to it, relating the circumstance of its erection 
In that place." In the midst of the public garden 
there is a marble statue to General Vallmbert, a 
native of Avraiiches, who was killed at Austerlita. 

Diligences twice daily to VUledieu-les-Pofeles 
to meet trains. 

Mont 8. Michel may be visited from Avranches 
across the sands; the route is not quite free from 
danger -carriage, 15 francs. It Is better to pro- 
ceed by Pontorson— carriage, 12 francs. 

A return ticket may be taken at Avranches 
for the omnibus at Pontorson for the Mount, 
running in July, August, and September. . 

PontortOlKStat.), a small town with a tolerable 
Hotel de la Poste and posting house. Carriages for 
the Mount, 10 francs. There is a fine old granite 
church; and in former days Duguesclln had a 
castle here. The church was built by Robert, the 
father of William the Conqueror; the nave is 
Norman. In one of the aisles there are a number 
of sculptures and bas-reliefs of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, representing various scenes of 
the passion of our Saviour; unfortunately they are 
much mutilated. 

Near the Hotel de TOaest the road Is crossed 
by a bridge over the River Couesuon, which 
separates Normandy from Brittany. 

Constance, the mother of Prince Arthur, was 
taken prisoner at Pontorson by the emissaries of 
King Richard, at the instigation of her husband, 
the Earl of Chester, In 119C. 

Hoidrey is a small place about half the 
distance to the beach opposite to Mont S. Michel, 
and where (in the season) are to be found 
omnibuses which run to the Mount, but, as they 
are somewhat uncertain, it will be better to take 
the regular conveyance at Pontorson. 

There is a causeway across the sands to Mont 
S. Michel (length over a mile), which renders it 

Ka* 4ifl|cnu Of »|»pro<Ki) b^t in ^w Qf ft high 



spring tide, or a fog coming on, the transit is not 
without danger. Pedestrians who cross the $an<U 
should be accompanied by a guide, as they are 
conttAntly thifting^ and fogs are frequent. A guide 
may be obtained at the last house on the beach. 

The road from Pontorson, after passing Moidrey 
is now macadamised, and available at all statrs 
of the tide. The vehicles drive up to the foot of the 
Mount The road is excellent throughout, and 
omnibuses leave the Pontorson Station on the 
arrival of every train ; return fare, 2fr. 50c. 

Hotels (at the Mount): S. Michel and Lion d'Or, 
where a meal and a clean bed may be obtained. 

The appearance of the Mount is very striking, 
rising, as It docs, abruptly from the sands, anil 
shooting up Its granite peaks, crowned with lofty 
walls and high-peaked roofs. Round the base Is a 
circuit of old wallc, with towers at intervals, and 
it is entered only through a succession of wvW- 
guarded gates. The topmost tower of the church 
was formerly crowned by a telegraph. 

Mont S. Michel seems always to have been a 
sacred place. In early times it was called Mons 
Belenl, and had a college of Druldcsscs. The 
Romans called it Mons Jovis, and Christianity 
dedicated It to S. Michael, the conqueror of the 
dragon and, as in many other localities, the patron 
saint of high places. It was the seat of a colony 
of Cistercian monks, founded by S. Aubert, Bishop 
of Avranches, In 709; and, at the Conquest, It had 
the monastery of Mont S. Michel, hi Cornwall, 
annexed to It. It has been used at various times 
as a state prison, but for some time was let to the 
diocesan, who established on orphanage, work- 
shops for glass-painting, sculpture, &c. Of late, 
years it has been taken out of the hands of the 
clergy, and the '* Monuments,** us they are called,, 
are now the property of the State. They have 
been to some extent restored. 

The Mount was also a strong fortress, and stood 
many sieges, he difficulty of approach favouring 
Its natural strength. It repelled the attacks of the 
English, In 1424. Between the first and second 
gateways are two large iron cannon, of 19 and 15 
Inches calibre respectively. They are of Flemish 
manufacture, and were abandoned by the English 
forces ii^ HH under Henry V., when they iuelfet^ 

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tatltsr boAfaArded tlie Mount with iUmt shot. A 
itooA dMcriptlon of the Siege and the capture of 
tlieaegaas, together with plans ind drawings, will 
bttfoaud in Na 86, Archnologlcal Jounial, for 1865. 

The buildings of the Mount include an abbey 
or convent, consisting of a series of halls, partly 
cut in the rock, called the Montgommeries. 
The building consists of three storeys; on the 
first is the Crypto desGros Fillers, with the chapel 
of N. Oasnc sous Terrc, and the Sallos de Mont- 
gonimcric. Above them is the magnificent hall, or 
6.aUe dcs Chevaliers, of four vaulted aisles, sup- 
ported by three rows of granite pill .ra of great deli- 
cicy. In this hall, Louis XI., In 1495, founded the 
Order of the Kni^jhts of St. Micliael, and he twice 
lieM a chapter here when he icpalrcd to the place as 
ft pilgrim, ricrc also is the refectory for the monks, 
which has two large fire-places for cooking; 
it is divided into naves by six columns, the 
capitals of which are well carved. On the 
third storey of La Mervtille are the clolsterH, 
the most be.iutifnl part of the building, as 
dUit the most perfect piece of gothlc nrchltccture 
ill France, built by Uaoul do Villcdieu, the 
2Ist Abbot, In 1*227. The court Is quadraiTgular, 
and is surrounded by galleries, supported by 
two hundred and twenty small columns of great 
ifolieaoy and exquisite tracery, with capitals, 
carved in Caen stone. One hundred of these 
6oluniiis d(>coi*ate the IntC'-al walls, and one hun- 
(It'cd utitl twenty form a double colonnade of Gothic 
itrehcs round the court. It is scarcely possible to 
do justice to the purity of its design and to the 
delicate trncery of the foliage. The floor is 
covered With load, to catch the rain water, which 
iv eonductu<l into cisterns- beneath ihe church. 

Two dormitories for the knights and the 
laoiikft are entered from tlie cloisters. Th&Chnrch 
of the Archangel, which Is 366 feet above the level 
of the sea, is of different periods of architecture; 
the choir Is Flamijoyant, of the fiftcnth century; 
tlie navels Roman and of the twelfth century; 
la is shorter than originally built, one-third of It 
having liceii destroyed by lightning in 177G, at 
which pcrliKl the present Greek porch was substi- 
tuted Ii.r tlio aplendid one built by Robert de 
Thorigny. n uiie of the chapels are some bas- 
reliofi of tlio thirteenth century in alabaster, 

[Route 8. 

representing the Passion of our Lord. In the 
north transept Is the chapel of 8. Michel, which 
has an altar of silver; by the side of it it the 
image of tlic Saint (on a granite pillar), which it 
silver-plated; it is 6 feet high, A ve/y large 
number of banners brought by the pilgrims, asalsb 
of ex-YOtos, adorn this chapel. The south transept 
contains a chapel dedicated to " Notre Dame'des 
Anges;" on the wall to the right is a tablet, 
having on U the names of the 119 chevaliers who 
defen'dcd tiiis aanctuary in 1425 (against the 
Englisii ; the view from the top of .the church is 
very Hno. Other buildings are the Grand £xil, the 
former residence of the abbot, prisons, <fcc., the 
Petit Exil, 14th and 16th centuries, Ballliverie, the 
Tour des Corbinea, and the Perrine, 14th century. 
The buildings arc shown from 9 till 5; admission, 
1 fr:nic, which goes to the repair of the church. 

There are regularly appointed guides, very 
Intelligent and p.iinstaking, who will explain 
everything fully to visitors. 

Bold and striking as Mont S. Michel looks from 
Pontorson, it is of no groat height ; but from the 
summit may be seen a fine view of Avranchcs, 
of the Bay of Cancale, and even S. Malo. The rocky 
islet of Tombelalne ( ? Tumulus BeleniJ, closely 
adjoining Mont 8. Michel, is now deserted. It was 
formerly by turns a licrmitage and a fortress. The 
Mount Is sometimes said to have once been called 
Jfofif Tumba, but this appellation probably belongs 
to Tombelalne. Rail from Ponturson, 14 luilcs, to 

Dol (Bt&t.)- Buffet. UoUh: N-trcDame; de 
France. The coast about Dol has undergone 
many changes. Forests of oak, and hazel, and 
chestnut once waved over these shores, but are 
now buried "full fathom five;" for the sea 
re-asserted its claim, and rolled in forages against 
the cliffs of Avranchcs and the rampart rocks of 
Mount Dol. The shore is now low and marshy, 
and a high tide often overtops the dykes and lays 
the whole country under water. 

Dol was known in Roman time as '•'•campidolenteti^'"' 
but the name Is evlelently the Celtic word dol^ low- 
lying, a dale. It is now a dull, heavy looking place. 

The Cathedral, of thirteeuth century, dedicated 
to S. Samson, has finelycarvcdporphosuf granite ; 
is 810 feet long, and DO feet a9rQS)} \\\^ transcpU; ' 


by Google 

Route 3.] 

height of the Bftve under the vault, 65 feet. The 
northern tower is unfinished; the southern tower 
dates from the early part of the thlrteentli century, 
'fhe arches of the nave have deep mouldings, and 
fhey rest on circular piers; the choir is In the 
same style, but more ornamented. It is a very 
sombre building, and resembles the English Gothic 
of that period ; indeed, it is said to have been de- 
signed by an English architect. There is some 
good old stained glass in the east window. 

Dol was famous both in ecclesiastical and political 
history. It was in very early times an Episcopal 
See, and hero Convoion, Bishop of Redon, crowned 
Nomcnoe, kingof Brittany, a.d. 843. It also claimed 
to be an independent bishopric, a right which was 
opposed by Tours for several centuries; about 
A.D. 1200, the Pope decided in favour of Tours, and 
Dol was made a suffragan bishopric. Here, 
Alain IV., king of Brittany, landed after a long 
exile in England, surprised the Noniian usurpers, 
and recovered his kingdom, a.d. 938. At Dol, 
too, in 1084, Alain Fcrgant attacked William the 
Conqueror, who had come over to coerce his recal- 
citrant Breton subjects, and gave him a complete 
beating, stripping him of his baggage, valued at 
3;i,000 crowns. William was so impressed with 
his bravery from this feat, that he gave him his 
daughter in marriage (Daru). The Vcndcans held 
Dol against the Republicans, in 1793, after their 
repulse at Granville. It still possesses remains of 
its ancient fortifications. 

Xear Dol is a famous Menhii', about 30 feet high, 
and still standing upright; one of the few which 
exist in that position in Brittany. It is sur- 
mounted by a cross, and is situated In a field of 
the " Champ Dolent," distant one and a half mile 
from the town. A carriage to carry five persons 
may be hired to visit Mont Dol and the Champ 
Dolent, for 6 francs. Ifont Dolis a large granite 
rock, 200 feet high, rising out of the plain; it is 
believed to have been an island in the bay of Mont 
8. Michel. It has (i chapel, and a tower dedicated 
to the Virgin erected on it ; from the latter there 
Is a fine view. A foot-print is shown on the rock, 
•aid to have been made byS. Michael, who, accord- 
ing to the legend, made but one step from it to 
Mont S. Michel. Great quantities of bog oak 
j»re p»ct with at a small distance below the 


ground; when It Is first taken up it is soft, but 
it indurates when exposed to the atmosphere. 
In 1872 a very large number of teeth of elephants, 
and bones of the mammoth, the horse, the rhi- 
noceros, the bos primigenus, elk, stag, cave bear, 
cave lion, wolf, and dog, were found in an excava- 
tion made here. 

At Dol the railway may bo taken for Rennes or 
8. Malo ; but an interesting detour may be made 
en route to the latter place, by following the coast 
line round by Cancale, and then taking the rail. 
Return tickets, per omnibus from Pontorson to 
Mont St. Michel, may be taken at the railway 

Cancale, famous for its oysters, is a straggling 
fishing village along the shore of the bay. The 
lower part is called La Houle. Hotels: Du Centre, 
at La Houle; de T Europe. 

An omnibus runs twice daily from S. Malo, Place 
Chateaubriant; 1 franc; a private carriage costs 
1:2 francs. A '^billet de corrcspondance '* may 
be taken at the railway station, which includes 
the omnibus fare. By rail to La Gouesni^re- 
Cancale, 5f miles, thence by the station omnibus; 
the Malouin excursionists go there in the morning 
to breakfast on oysters, but they return to 8. 
Malo for dinner. 

The little battered fort, on the hill-side above the 
village, was knocked about the ears of the French 
gunners, on the 5th of June, 1758, when the British 
expedition, under the Duke of Marlborough and 
Earl Howe, mado the descent upon this coast, 
which terminated in the disastrous embarkation 
at S. Cast. 

The " Rochers de Cancale" and the "He des 
Rimains" arc bold rocky islands, lying a short dis- 
tance off the north headland of the bay. 

The oyster fishery gives employment to more 
than 300 boats, which go off daily during thcteasou 
to the banks, which lie near Jersey. On their 
return they discharge their freight, at high water 
into enclosures of wattles, with which the shore 
is marked out like a chess-board. These are 
called parks, and the oysters are allowed to be 
in them till required for use. There are also parks 
supplied with fresh water, into which the oysters 
which require to be fattene4 ftrp placpd for some 
weeks. The Cancale ojrstpys are spiall, and far from 


by Google 



[Boute 4. 

possessing the fatness or delicacy of our natires; 
but they are fine flavoured and relish well with a 
glass of chablis. About thirty millions are annu- 
ally sent to Paris, though the yield is decreasing of 
late years. 


Into Brittakt fkou thb Chankxl Islaitds, to 
8. Malo and Rxvmss. 
From Jersey, which Is amply described in Brad- 
tkaut't Handbook to Great Britain^ steamers run 
to S. Malo on Mondays, iredneBd«yv,tmd Fridays. 
The distance is about 35 miles, and is performed 
in little more than three hours. The course of the 
steamer lies near the Minquiers Roeka, an awfully 
rugged group of reefs; and the Chausey Islands 
may be seen to the eastward, looking like ruined 
castles on the sea. They are inhabited by a few 
fishermen and kolp-burners, and the granite is 
ex.tensively quarried for building purposes. The 
xuophytes of Chausey are. unrivalled for number 
and beauty, and have been worthily illustrated by 
MM. Audouinand Edwards, the French naturalists, 
who spent many moutlis upon the islands for tbiw^ 
purpose of scientific investigation. The climate is 
so damp that they could scarcely keep their 
instruments from rusting. Steamers also direct 
from Southampton. 

S. Halo (Stat.)— Population, 11,896. HoUh: 
Franklin, the best for English visitors, a good 
table— prices moderate; de I'Unlvers; de France 
(ChAteaubrlant), good table d'hdte. 

"It would be well that H thould be generally 
known that the examination at the custom-house 
has been here for some time past very rigorous; 
small parcels, rugs, and coats are opened, and 
occasionally the passengers* pockets are turned 
cut on their landing. No tobacco Is permitted to 
be landed without paying duty, not even a few 
cigars In a case.*' 

The appearance of S, Malo from the sea Is very 
singular, being shut in by ft tight belt of fortifi- 
cations, and everywhere surrounded by rugged, 
forbidding rocks, and solid walls bristling with 
cannon. Capacious docks of massive granite may 
be seen rising In every direction, but the pros- 
pcrltj' of S. Malo Is of ihe past, when its arpiod 

privateers sallied forth to prey upon the commerce 
of England in the western seas. The stresta 
are both dirty an unsavoury, owing to their 
narrowness and the great height of the houses. 
A broad walk extends completely round the ram- 
parts, and affords a breath of fresh air and an 
extensive prospect to the Malouins. At low water 
the whole coast Is studded with dangerous rocks, 
and at high water numerous islands rise above the 
waves, most of them crowned with foilifwtlnns. 
The largest lalaeds «f« rolled La Conchde and 
tiemanifre, "both strongly fortified by Vauban. 

The little Islet of Grand Bey is the resting 
place of Chateaubriand. It is easily accessible 
by the shore at low water. His monument is 
a plain slab, with a cross at the head, surrounded 
by an iron railing. At the Hotel de France, Chateau- 
briand was bom. "/ci naquit Chateaubriand" is 
written up outside, and prices rule somewhat 
higher on the strength of It. A statue to the poet 
was Inaugurated lu 1876, on the Witcc opposin-, 
new called Place Chateaubriand. At the Hotpl 
de Vlllc are relics of Cartier, the discoverer of 

There arc a British Vice- Consul and a British 
Chaplain here. Steamers leave for Jersey, Tucs^ 
day, Thursday, and Saturday ; and for Southamp- 
ton, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; also up 
the Ranee every day In summer. 

There Is an extensive casino and sea-bathli^g 
establishment at S. Malo, and a very curious 
spectacle do the bathers afford to the visitor fresh 
from England. Races are also held on the sands in 
the autumn. 

S. Malo is said to derive Its name from an old 
Breton Saint, Magloire, or Maclou; In earlicgr 
times It was called Alcth, and held high rank 
among the cities of Armorlca. Quldallet, probably 
S. Servan, was the scene of the great battle between 
Maximus and his British troops, and the troops of 
the Emperor Gratlan, In a.d. 383. 

The Malouins were always a very independent 
body of citizens, and relied upon the natural 
strength of their position to protect them from 
forclg^i invaders and domestic foes. The castla 
was always a very hard nut to crack. The Eng^ 
llsh made several unsuccessful attempts upon it. 
li) 1375 they att;ack?d it wit^i ^00 canpops, bu^ 

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Boute 4,3 8. MI.LO — S. fiBBVAN. 

wore befttea off ; and Clisson in liOO Mnt out from 
it large fleets of privateers to attack Jersey and 
Guernsey. In 1414 the present castle and fortifi- 
cations were commenced by John V., Duke of 
Brittany, in opposition to the Pope ; and Anne of 
Brittany, who completed them, laid a heavy tax 
upon the inhabitants to defray the charges. In 
answer to their remonstrances, she caused the 
inscription to bo placed upon one of the towers— 
"Qi*» qu'm ffrogne, ainsi iera, e'est monplaisiry 

The Malouins held a neutral position during the 
Wars of the League, and also during the Wars of 
Keligion, but gave in their adhesion to Henry IV. 
in 1594. 

In 1692 and the two followhig years, S. Malo was 
attacked by the English ticet, under Admiral 
Berkeley, and an immense fire ship, laden with 
explosives, was sent agahist the town ; but, falling 
on a rock about half a mile from shore, It exploded 
without doing serious Injury. The memory of 
this event is preserved by a picture in the Hotel 
de Vlllc. The statue of Duguay-Trouhi, in the 
Place, also commemorates the career of a famous 
Malouin privateersman, who, as they say, ''chasm 
le* Anglais sur toutes les mersr 

The expedition commanded by the Duke of Marl- 
borough, after landing at Cancale, disembarked 
again at S. Briac to attack S. Malo, but found It 
to be "above insult by sea or land."— (/^M»ie.) 
They contented themselves with burning a number 
of vessels and the storehouses at S. Servan. 

S. Malo is connected with the mainland by a 
causeway, called LeSlllon, which must be traversed 
when the tide (which here rises from 40 to 60 feet) 
is up ; at low water passengers can cross to S. 
Servan by the sands. There is now a sort of flying 
Bridge, worked by steam, which crosses over from 
8. Malo to S. Servan every ten minutes, irrespec- 
tive of the tide. An omnibus (iO cents) leases 
every hour from the gate leading out of Place 
Chateaubriant for Param^, a watering place 
much frequented in the bathing season; good 
sands and a casino. Hotels: Grand Hotel ; de la 
Plage, Chateaubriand. Diligence to Cancale. 

S. Servan (Hotels: De l' Union and Du Pelican), 
is an extensive suburb of 8. Malo, containing 
j^bPttt n.eOO IwliabltWiMi many of them English 


residents. It is an ugly, dull place, but the country 
round, especially up the Ranee, Is striking. There 
is an old-established English chapel here. 

A long range of government storehouses, 
which cover a large area, do not add to the 
beauty of 8. Servan. The Fort dela Clt^ is strong 
and weU armed. The curious tower of the Solidor, 
which commands the landing place in the harbour, 
is of ancient date. It owUists of three round 
towers, joined together, in trefoil «hape- "I* *■ 
said to have been built by Jobn of Montfort, Duke 
of Brittany, as a check to the Bishop of S. Male. 
The Bishop, however, had still a good move left ; 
for while the governor, one Soli, was taking a nap, 
he crossed over and took his castle, which has ever 
after retained the name of 'SoUdort,' or 'Soli 
caught napping.'"— (J. Hooker.) 

There arc many pretty country houses near 8. 
Servan,built by hermcrchantsandarmafewr«intho 
palmy days of privateering, when as Chateaubiinnd 
tells us, "they were so rich that they used to 
frlcasse their piastres and serve them out of the 
window, all hot, to the people." "La Haute 
Fleuric," "La Basse Fleurlc," "Le BrlllantalP," 
"La Vlcomt^," among many other charming 
residences, may be mentioned. 

Tobacco Is grown in large quantities In the 

The River Ranee expands at its mouth into a 
broad estuary, called the Bay of Dinard, much 
resorted to for sea bathing. At the head of the bay 
is an old farm-house-looking residence, formerly 
the Hospice de Brechet, founded by two young 
knights of the house of Montfort, who had been 
taken captive by the Turks, but were rescued by 
the brothers of the Order of S. Trinite'. Two much 
mutilated effigies in the rflined chapel of the priory 
or hospice are said to represent the founders. 

Steamer up the river in summer, from May to 

From S. Malo may be visited Cancale (Route III.) 
and the Chateau of Combowg (35 miles by rail), a 
very well preserved specimen of a feudal castle. 
Among other vicissitudes, it was taken by assault. 
In 1156, by Raoul, Count of Fougercs. It Is now 
famous as the residence of the Chateaubrlands, for 
over a century and a half, and the room is shown 
in whlclj the po^t composed itost of bl« works. 

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The ronnd towers and extinguisher roof afford a 
striking example of the style of feudal architecture. 
Corrcspondanco daily to Antrain and Bazouge la 

Steamers run constantly across the mouth of the 
Ranee to Dlnaxd (Stat). One from S. Malo starts 
at the half -hours; 10 minutes passage; fare, 25c. 
and 15c. Another from S. Scrvan starts at the 
hours, and from Dinard at the half hours; so that 
there is communication with Dinard every half- 
hour. Some persons prefer a sailing boat in fine 
weather; the price for which is 1 franc. There are 
also large sailing boats which convoy passengers 
at 2 sous per head, but tbey are hardly to be 
recommended, especially if the wind Is not fair. 

Trains for Dinan leave Dinard three times a day. 

Dinard was only a small village formerly, but it 
has been /completely transformed lately Into a 
reilly fashionable watering place. It is beautifully 
situated, and has some elegant and commodious 
modem houses; in fact, building is going on in 
all directions. Here are a capital Casino, splendid 
sands, and every convenience for bathing. The 
season commences on June 1st, and terminates 
September 30th, during which prices are high. 

UoMs: Des Bains; de Dinard; du Casino; do 
Trance. Price for board without wine during 
the season, 12 francs per diem; at other times 
it is 2 francs less. Carriages may be hired at 
the Cafd Boutin at the entrance of the village, 
going up the hill from the port, from which house 
the diligences start. There are diligences to 
Matignon, daily, 2 francs; to.Lamballe, daily, 
fifr. 50c. and 6 francs ; and to S. Briac at 10 a.m. 
and 5 p.m., 75c. 

A pleasant trip may be made to Mont S. Michel 
by rail to Pontorson (Route II I.) ; thence by carriage. 

A ver)- enjoyable excursion may be made along 
the coast, which isindented with numerous pictur- 
esque bays, each with a pretty village and some 
interesting associations. 

'8. Enogat {'QoX^\ do U Mer) is the first appro- 
priated to bathers; next jST. J^«nat're (Hotel de la 
Plage) -« fine sweep of sand, a mile in length. 
Kxquisito shells (principally used in making up 
shell figures and boxes) are found here. The 
Church of S. Luunire, or Lponorc, was founded by 

[Route 4. 

the family of Pontual, and contains many famlljf 
monuments. It was here that Bligh disembarked 
the English forces in 1758. 

The little village of La Fo»9e stands at the head 
of the bay of that name, and Is renowned for sand- 
eels. Next comes the Bay of La Chapelle, with 
its natural grottoes in the rocks and clear pools 
abounding in zoophytes. 

S. Briac is the little village half a mile inland, on 
the creek which runs up to Ploubalay. The 
Byzantine Tower is curious. There are a few 
lodging houses, and excellent sea bathing here. 
Hotels: Du Centre; des Panoramas. 

The view do\in the River Frdmur, seaward, la 
very lovely, embracing an endless succession of 
marine views, bold headlands, and sandy beaches, 
with Cape Frihel, crowned by its lighthouse, 
standing out boldly against the horizon in the 

The sands may be crossed at low water to S. 
Jacut^ past Laneieux, another fishing and sea- 
bathing village. There was a very ancient monas- 
tery at S. Jacnt, or S. Jacob, said to have been 
built by Grallon, King of Brittany, a.d. 440; 
he also built Landevennec, near Brest. No relic 
of the old abbey exists, except here and there a few 
choice sculptured stones, built into some old farm- 
house, and a few relics of carved oak in the 
cottages. S. J acut is entirely devoted to fishing. 
Hotel dcs Dunes. There is a correspondance to 

The estuary of the Arguenon may be crossed by 
a ferr^, or followed up past the Chdteau of Ouildo, 
a fine ruin, standing on the water side. It is a 
grand relic of the past, though the four circular 
towers at the angles are reft from battlement to 
foundation, and ivy and bramble clothe the crum- 
bling walls. 

Its former owner, Gilles de Bretagne, was 
arrested here by order of his brother, Francis I., 
Duke of Brittany, on suspicion of entertaining 
treasonable designs; and after being confined 
successively in the Castles of Rennos, Dinan, 
Moncontour, and Touffou, was at last trans- 
ferred to the Castle of Hardouinaye, where, 
after being nearly starved to death, and his life 
attempted by poison, he was smothered by two 
of the king" 8 8atcU|tw, variously napied Rqjjan, 

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iioute 4.] 

Ragrcart, or Roussel. His story forms the basis of 
many Breton ballads, setting forth the heroism of 
a young girl who brayfed th6 s^itihiels and tlie 
savage dogs which guarded the castle, to convey 
to Uihi a few crusts to keep him f tolu starving ; 
fthd of a I^ranciscan priest, who, under similar 
perils, administered to the prisoner the sacrameut 
through the grated bars of the dungeon. It is 
further related that the dying man summoned his 
brother by means of the Franciscan monk, who 
encountered him on the Grfeve of S. Michel, to 
appear at the judgment seat in forty days; and 
that the death of Francis actually took place within 
the period assigned, but not before he had founded 
the Abbey of Boquen, for the repose of the soul of 
the unhappy Gilles. To complete the story, "in 
the long winter nights, say the people of Guildo, 
when the pale moon is gleaming on the waters 
of the Arguenon, may be seen the figure of a 
noble lady clothed in white, gliding through the 
castle court, and moistening with her tears the 
crumblhig ruins. Sometimes she sits pensively at 
the foot of the tower which hangs over the dark 
water ; anon she descends slowly to the edge of the 
tide, and laves in the stream a blood-stained robe. 
It is the spirit of the young wife of Prince Grilles, 
the fair Frances de Dinan, who still hovers about 
the castle, and mourns the sad fate of her beloved 
lord"— (Ouide de Dinaii, par Bazouge.) 

The fortress of Guildo was demolished in 1626, by 
order of Louis XIII., during the wars of religion. 

At Matignon accommodation may be had at La 
T6tc Noire Hotel, and next day the pedestrian may 
visit S, Cast and Capo Fr^hel ; a carriage can be 
hired at the hotel for this excursion, 8 francs. 
Over this road on the 8th September, 1758, marched 
Bligh, with about 3,000 English soldiers, picked 
men. At Matignon he heard that a large body 
of French troops, under the Duke d'Aiguillon 
and General Villeaudrains, was approaching from 
Lamballe, and ordered an immediate embarka- 
tion. The beach of S. Cast was chosen for 
the operation, and the English fleet was at 
anchor in the ofiing to receive the troops. They 
left the camp at Sam., and though they had 
only 8 miles to traverse, it was 9 before the em- 
barkation commenced. Much time was lost in 
fcrupuloasly conveying the troops to their respec- 

g. MiAC— MatIgXoR. 


tlve transports, and before half of them were on 
boai*d, the enemy came down in force, and opened 
a tremendous fii"© of cannon and musketry on the 
tfoops on the shore. " About 1,500 men were left 
on the beach, and being attacked on all sides, and 
falling Into confusion, were nearly all butchered on 
the beach, or drowned in the yvoX^T.''— (Smollett.) 

From a windmill above the beach the Duke 
d'Aiguillon directed the attack— a situation which 
gave rise to a hon mot of Monsieur de Chalottals 
which nearly cost him his life. On the news of the 
action arriving at Court it was remarked that the 
Duke had covered himself with glory. " Couvei^t de 
gloiret " said Chalottals ; " Mais non: e'etait de la 
farine! " It is said that the wit was condemned 
to death, and had already ascended the scaffold on 
the Place S. Thomas, at S. Malo, when a pardon 
was brought to him by a courier of the Duke de 

The disaster of S. Cast was at the time, and 
indeed is still, a subject of exceeding jubilation 
with the French. On September 11th, 1858, on the 
centenary of the battle, a monument was erected 
on the scene of action to commemorate the some- 
what rare anniversary of a French victory over 
the English. It is a lofty pillar of granite, on the 
top of which is a symbolical group in metal— the 
greyhound of Brittany vanquishing the British 
leopard.— FiVf€ Auray. 

The round tower on the height further west, an 
the Isle des Ebihens, is a kind of Martello tower; 
and on the coast will be seen the massive fortress 
of La Latte. It was once the ch&teau of the Che- 
valier Goyon. In 1490 it successfully repelled an 
assault of the English, and during the cent jours 
it was held by some of the Bourbons. It is now 
heavily armed. 

Cape Frehel is the northern extremity of an 
elevated narrow neck of land, bordered on all sides 
by steep perpendicular cliffs about 180 feet hi^'li. 
On a level table-land are two lofty towers, 100 
feet apart, the most southerly of which Is the light- 
house, 72 feet high, about 600 yards from the cx^ 
tremity of the cape. The light is white, dioptrici 
of the first order, revolving everj' half minute: It 
is 260 feet above high water, and may be seen In 
clear weather 22 niUes. 

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fiftlbflHAtV's littlTtAKr. 

[Route 5. 

The large rock lying to the north-west of the 
Capo is called the Amas du Cap. The bold and 
lofty cape to the weat is Erqny, beyond which is 
the Bay of S. Bricnc. 

From Matignon the excursion may he continued 
to Lamballe, or the tourist may go by Plancioet to 
Dlnan. A diligence runs daily between Matignon 
and Dinah, leaving MatlgHon at 2-80 p.ra.; DlUan 
at 7-80 a.m., 2 fr. 60 cents; also one to Dinardt for 
8. Malo. 


8. HALO TO REKKE8 (coatiiined). 

Dinan (Stat.), one of the most interesting 
towns in BrltUny (population, 10,444), may be 
reached by several routes from S. Malo. 

(a) By railway vid Dol. 

(bj Via La Gonesnlfcre, Cancalo, and Minlac. 

(e) By railway v(d Dinard. 

<d) By steamer up the Ranee, from Ist May to 
loth September inclusive; a Very picturesque and 
pleasant trip, but dependent on the tide, let class, 
Si francs; return ticket, 4 francs; Snd class, 
a francs ; return ticket, 8 francs. 

Carriages wait at the quay for the steamer from 
S. Malo, and convey visitors ia the hotels for £0 

Travellers should be aware, when they arrive 
by the steamer, of the fact that among the car- 
riages waiting on the quay there are now usually 
tome which do not belong to the hotels, but to a 
set of unscrupulous fellows, who seise upon their 
luggage, get them into their carriages, and when 
they roach the town demand the most extortionate 
prices, even to 4 francs per head. Travellers will 
do well before entering a carriage to ask the price ; 
it should not exceed 50 cents, unless there is much 

//ote/«.* De TAngleterre; de Bretagne (good) ; de 
la Poste; du Commerce. The second offers the 
greatest amount of comfort for ladies. All the 
hotels have raised their prices during the season 
to 10 francs, without wine. 

Engliih Church and Resident SnfUth chaplain. 

The sail up the river Aahce Is very picturesque, 
and has been compared to the voyage up the Rhine, 
"with a difference." It much rosemblea the Dart 
u|) to Totnes. 

The situation of Dlnan is Very striking and beau- 
tiful. Perched on the summit of a stect) searpod 
rock over the Ranee, surrounded by old machico- 
latdd walls, and commanding a view over the 
prettiest scenery of Brittany, it Is ofie of the most 
attractive towns which the tourist will visit in his 

The Rah(!e floWs througfh deep gotges which it 
has burst throu^ the granite, here and there 
assisted by quarrying; and the surrounding heights 
are well wooded and crowned with old chftteaux. 
It derives its name evidently from the Celtic word 
din or dinas, a fortified town, and annum, a gulf or 
abyss ; albeit etjrmologists have traced it to Diana, 
or a mythical giant, Dianaf. 

The great feature of the town is the enceinte of 
fortifications and the massive gateways, which are 
in good preservation. 

The Viaduct which crosses the Ranee, and 
whioh connects Dinan with LanvalU, is a work of 
great beauty, being constructed entirely of cut 
granite; it dates from 1848, but was not finished 
till 18A2. Its dimensions are->length, 820 feet ; 
breadth, 16 feet; height above the river, 130 feet; 
there are ten arches, each having a span of 60 feet. 

The lofty tower at the entrance of the town is 
the ChAteau of the Duchess Anne, a beautiful relic 
of the feudal times. The Portes S. Louis and 8. 
Malo are also very good. Outside the walls is a 
fine promenade called the Foss^es, extending 
nearly round the town. 

The ChAteau was built about 1300, and was at one 
time the residence of Anne of Brittany, but has 
also been the prison of many illustrious persons. 
Latterly it has been used as a common gaol. In the 
interior is a curious chapel, and a fine view of the 
surrounding country may be obtained from the top. 

The Churches of S. Sauveur and S. Malo are 
worth a visit, particularly the former. It is a 
handsome building, in the Flamboyant style, with 
curiously carved capitals, a south aisle in the Roman 
style, and a modem spire. The west front is highly 
oniMnonted with sculptures. At the east end art 

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Route L] 

»T. Ukt6 ¥0 Rtl^itSd— btKAK. 


Ave projecting tiluip^lB, ih gfood preserration. The 
heartof Dttgaesclin,the Breton hero, who was in- 
timately connected with Dinan, is said to be en- 
closed in a cenotaph. The old Churchyard of S. 
Sauveur is converted into a Jardin AnglaU, and 
from the promenade on the ramparts there is a 
splendid panoramic view of the Ranee, winding 
down the valley towards 8. Malo. 

The Church of S. Malo is also a handsome edifice 
of more recent date. The flying buttresses at the 
cast end are particularly fine. It has never been 
finished, but of late years large sums have been 
expended in its repair and completion. 

A very steep and dirty street, called the Rue 
Jersual, leads up from the port into the heait of the 
town, and anyone accomplishing its slippery and 
odorous ascent will be rewarded by seeing a fine 
Gothic gateway half way up, and entering at once 
upon the quaint old houses with projecthig fronts, 
on timber pillars, in the centre of the town. 

The fine open space surrounded by lime trees Is 
the Place Duguesclin, and is said to have been the 
iJee, or tilting ground. In which tournaments were 
held. Here Duguesclin fought the famous duel with 
fiir Thomas Canterbury, and his statue still frowns 
defiance, at one end, in white plaster. The Sous 
Prefecture is situated in the Rue des Ecoliers, 
just inside the Port de 8. Malo. The Tribunal 
is on the east side of the square ; and at the south 
end is the market place, on which, upon market 
days, quaint gatherings of the peasantry may be 
seen ; here the charlatan plies his noisy quackery, 
and motley groups chaffer and hob-nob, and strike 
hands over their bargains. There is a good Muteum 
at the Hotel de Ville, eontaining many interesting 
relies of the past, collected by the late curator, M. 
Odorici, particularly the monumental ef/igiei of the 
Beaumanoirt and other Breton worthies, from the 
mined Abbey of Ltfhon, with some Roman coins 
and other remains from Corseul, besides geological 
specimens, Ac 

Dinan had its share in the battles and sieges of 
the olden times, and, like 8. Malo, was generally 
successful in repelling the attacks of the English. 
Bertrand Duguesciin defended it in 1889; his 
memory is highly revered by the Dinannals, and 
bis portrait is in their museum. 

A biography of this hero UAy Wdl dalm a little 
space. He was bom in the village of La MotU 
Broom (now a railway station, near Montauban), 
but there are no traces of his habitation there. In 
his early days ho was remarkable, not for his learn- 
ing (lire ne tcavait eserire ni eornpter), but for 
extreme ugliness, great strength, and a pugnacious 
disposition; all which qualities grew with his 
growth, Ac. 

In the Wars of the Succession he took an active 
part on the side of De Blois, and though made 
prisoner, as we have seen, at the Battle of Auray, 
he gave the English and the partisans of De Mont- 
fort continual trouble till his death. The chronicles 
of Froissart are full of episodes of his chivalrous 
life. He seems to have been gifted with immense 
strength as well as military science, and with a 
battleaxe or mace would dash into the m61€e, and 
hew down all opponents. He was made Constable 
of Brittany by the King of France, after being ran- 
somed from captivity, and when the War of the 
Succession was ended, by the treaty of Guerrande, 
he went into Spain, and engaged in active warfare 
till his death. His wife was the Lady Tiphalne, of 
Dinan, and the house where they lived is still 
shown. He was taken ill and died while besieging 
the Castle of Randon, noar Pay, in Anvargne, in 
1880, but not before he had contributed to expel the 
English from almost all their possessions in Brit- 
tany and France. His body was conveyed to the 
Church of S. Denis, near Paris, and his heart was 
deposited in the Church of S. Sauveur, at Dinan ; 
but it is more than questionable whether it is there 
still, in spite of the inscription to that effect. 

Dinan is one of the towns in which religious 
processions take place with great pomp and cere- 
mony, with the accessories of roposoirs, banners 
&c„ on the high festivals of the church. 

A great fair is held on the Place on the first 
Thursday after the first Sunday in Lent, with very 
bizarre accompaniments of shows and music. 

Bodies of conscripts for the French army often 
pass through the town, and sing their national 
songs, and sometimes dance their peculiar dances 
on the Place, as they bid farewell to their iol natal. 

In 1858 the Emperor and Empres8M)f the French 
passed through Dinan, and were well received. 

Dinan rejoices in a ^'Saiwn de$ eau^'' as a 

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[Route 5. 

Watering place, but the amusements, like the waters, 
are of rather a feeble character. It Is a very healthy 
locality, and has been for many years a favourite 
resort of English residents, who occupy villas in 
the environs. A very pretty Protestant Church, 
built in the Oothic style, outside the town, near the 
*' Petits Fosses," was opened in 1871. It will seat 
l£3 persona, and was built by subscriptions and 
donations from tho English residents and visitors. 
There are three services on Sundays; also services 
on Saints Days and Church Festivals. A Pro- 
testant burying ground in the cemetery contains 
many triste* Muvenirt. 

At the Library, kept by M. Bazonge, good travel- 
llng maps, and guide books and illustrations of 
Drittany, its costumes, Ac, may be obtahied. 
Binkeri: Bazin de Jessy, Rue de r Horologe, and 
Robert, <m the Petite Place. Medical Practitioner: 
Dr. Brabant, residing at L'Echaffe, outside. There 
is an English Cercle, or Club. Visitors can obtain 
permission to visit the Club as honorary members; 
introduction by a member, or the honorary secre- 
tary. The terms are 6 francs per week, 8 francs 
per fortnight, and 10 franca per month. 

There is also an English Book Club, Rue de St. 
Clair, in which will be found several hundred 
volumes of the newest and best literature, inclnd- 
hi? periodicals. 

The excursions round Dlnan are very numerous 
and enjoyable. In the immediate neighbourhood 
may be visited the Albey of Uhon, with its fine 
ruined castle on the river bank, and the old Castle 
of L^hon crowning the wooded height close by. 
This castle was taken by the English, under 
Ilonry II., in 1168. From this height a very 
ch:irmlng view of the Valley of the Ranee and of 
the Abbey of L^hon may be obtained. It has 
recently been quite spoiled by the erection in the 
middle of It of an ill-proportioned and ugly chapel, 
to build which some of the picturesque old towers 
were demolished for the sake of the building 
stone, a piece of Vandalism, which is explained 
by the fact that the site was left to the Church by 
an old lady, on the condition that a chapel should 
be built and masses said for the repose of her soul. 
In the little village of S. Esprit may be seen 
a curiously carved cross, representing the Son sup- 

ported in his crucifixion by the Father. The Holy 
Spirit was symbolised by a dove, which was placed 
above the crucifix, but it has fallen down and can 
no longer be perceived. Tho three persona of the 
Trinity were combined in this cross, the base of 
which is also triangular. Within a walk, to tho 
south of Dinan, stands the Cliateau of La Oaraye, 
a witness of tho virtues of its founders and tl\c 
senseless fury of the revolutionists. The poem of 
Mrs. Norton added new interest to the charms of 
the locality. Tad en, the menhir of S. Samson, 
Beaumanoir, Jkc, Jkc, should be also visited. The 
Fetes of Dioan take place in the first week of 
August; the valley of the Fontaine, and the 
approaches to it, are then prettily illuminated with 
Chinese lanterns; dancing also goes on In the ball 
room which Is built there. 

In 1888 and 1869, Monsieur Fornlcr, the Presi- 
dent of the Tribunal de Justice at Dinan, com'- 
menced a series of excavations at-Haut B^chcrcl, 
near Corseul (the ancient CuriosoKtes), and brought 
to light a larg^ 'Gallo-Roman Temple, con- 
sisting of an octagonal tower, and of several 
apartments which were connected together by 
halls and passages, the whole occupying a space 
of about 400 feet by 800. The same gentleman 
also discovered in a field of the Bois de la Roche, 
near the village of La Ganterie, on the road to Del 
(5 miles from Dinan), the quarries and the work- 
shops where the Celtic stone hatchets, knives, 
scrapers, and other Implements were made ; these 
werefoundin great quantities In various directions, 
and in different stages of manufacture, but none 
were finished or polished; some were broken, 
others had been thrown aside as defective. This 
manufactory appears to have extended over some 
acres; tho locality is thickly wooded; there is also 
an " All^e Couverte" here, which has never been 

The scenery of the Ranee is somewhat tame 
above Dlnan, as the river has been canalised, and 
the country opens out into the great alluvial plain 
of EvraXL. This plain and the rising ground about 
Trefumel and Quiou are rich in fossils. Bones 
of birds, sharks' tcctli, cockle shells, Ac, may be 
abundantly collected. Here the contending armies 
of Do Blols and Montfort were drawn out in 
battle array, iu 1363, but a treaty, brought about 

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ftdUte 5.] 

by the Bishops^ stnycd the ccxnbatants from en- 
gaging, although the treaty was set aside by 
Jcannb dc Blois. 

Beyond Evran tho cotintry again becomes trild 
and picturesque, and the river runs through rocky 
ravines from S. Jouan, by Plouagat, to S. Juvat^ 
in which portion good trout fishing may bo 

Many old chateaux lie within easy reach of 
Dinan, particularly Montafilan^ a picturesque ruin, 
with ivy-gprown towers, and smooth slopes of turf, 
formerly the residence of the Sieur de Dinan ; also, 
the Castle of La Htmaudape, in the forest of that 
name, half way between Dinan and Lamballe, on 
the Corseul Road. The forest was the haunt of 
outlaws in the middle ages, who, like Robin Hood 
in Sherwood, '*criod 'stand* to many a good man," 
even to bishops and pilgrims on their way to the 
shrine of FoIgoSt. The castle Is one of the finest 
ruins in Brittany. Its name, *^Hunaud'' or, 
** Hcklnad,'" "the illustrious,** shows the estimation 
in which it was held. 

The Sire de la Hunaudaye, Oliver do la Toume- 
mine, was honoured by a visit from the Duchess 
Anne, according to the chaplain, Oliver de la 
Roche. He gives an amusing acconnt of the pro- 
cession and the banquet: — "Za grande troupe et la 
Itoyne cheminant venerablement; la diieDame monUe 
sur une blanche haquenee etleedemoitelleteonnettable- 
tneni estoffeii^" &c., and of the example they 
made of a calf roasted M-hole. The Chateau of 
//onfoiiMiasftf, the scene of the murder of GHles de 
Bretagne, Is also within easy reach of Dinan. All 
these, and many more placcp, arc often resorted 
to for pic-nics bj' the English resident*. 

On the road to Lamballe (see page C6) is the vil- 
lage of Jvigon.— Hotel : De 1* Ecu— so called from 
the neck of land (Jugum)— between two fine lakes 
(which contain pike, carp, bream, lampreys, and 
eels). A strong castle stood on this ridge. It was 
a very strong place, so as to give rise to the 

"Qoi « Bre^agnA >at>B JtiffOn, 
A ahHw aaua oh»p«ron." 

(Whoever possesses Brittany without holding 
Jugon is like a man who has a cope without the 
hood). Jugon may now bo reached by the Paris- 
Brest lino station Plen<fc-Jugon. 


The castle bclongtfd to the l*«nlhii'vl-P!«, and 
When those proud nobles seized Juhn V. at a 
hunting party, by the InstigatiDU of Margaret dc 
Cllsson, the other Breton nobles attacked their 
castles, and among the rest, Jugon was razed to 
the ground. 

S. Halo to Rennes direct : -The direct route 

from S. Male to Rennes, by railway, Is 50 milo!-, 
occupying from S^ to 3 hours; but if n detour is 
made to Dinan, the tourist may prefer to hire a cnr- 
riage when there to visit Evran, on the road lo which 
will be seen the modernised chftteau of the Marquis 
de L* Angle de Beaumanoir, formerly the residence 
of the famous Breton leader in the fight of the 
Thirties, near Ploermel, in 1361. ^Vhcn overcome 
with thirst and fatigue during the combat, he cried 
out for drink, and one of his companions replied— 
"Beaumanoir hois ton sangJ" This reply has ever 
since been adopted as the family motto. The 
family of De Beaumanoir has long been extinct, 
and their ChAlean at Evran is now in llic posses- 
sion of the Marquis de L' Angle, who purchased it. 
He is no connection whatever of the Dc Beau- 
manoir fiimlly, but as be holds the property, he is 
styled '^Le Marquis de L'Angle de Dcaumanoir.** 

B^cherely a village, with an old castle on a fine 
eminence, can-led by assault In 136o, by De Blois ; 
and a little off the road, H($de, with its picturcs<iuc 
ruined castle, and Montmnran, interesting from its 
connection witli the life of Duguesclln. Corrcs- 
pondance dally to Rennes and Monfort-sur-Mov. 

Many would prefer the route by (.'aulnos*, .is 
there Is a regular corrcspondancc with the rail way. 

(Route VI.) Montreuil-SUr-IUe is C milcn 
from Ilc'dc, and Is situated on the river which 
gives its name to the Department. A .short Hdo 
by rail, past the stations of S. OonrtSin and 
Betton, I'i miles, Avill brin;r the tonri t to 
BeimeB, for description of which sec pa?c -IP. 

The country here is undulntin? and jirctty in 
summer, and the rail follows the course nf the 
great canal, which connects S. Male with Nantes. 

The popUars which line the canal banks, the sweet 
chestnuts and many other trees give a refreshing 
tone to the landscape, and the altcrnntc fields of 
yellow colxa, purple Siiinfoin. and blue fiax, are 
fnimcd by hedges of golden furr.e and brooaj. 


by Google 


fiirADflHAW*<^ BttfTTAirY^ 

[Houte 6. 



60 miles by Railway. 
The stations through iw4iioh the rail passes on 
leaving BexmdB offer nothing remarkable in the 
present day; although both Montfort-sur-Meu, and 
Montauban were once the scenes of hard fighting. 
n^nie- Jtlgon (Stat), cee page 66. 
La BroMnl^re (Btal), the junction for the 
line now open to Ploermcl, and the projected line 
to Dinan. 

Oanlnes (Btat.) has a certain notoriety as the 
birthplace of Matthew Ory, grand inquisitor of 
France, temp. Francis I., and BrOO&B (Stat.) •■ 
the birthplace of Dagucsclin. 

Laxniaalle (Stat,), population, 4,W6» is an in- 
teresting town In many respects. 

The Hotel de France (Converset) is a Comfortable 
and cheap inn ; much patronised by the gentle- 
men " sportman" of the Lamballe Hunt. 
ffotel du Commerce, at the Railway Station. 
Its Castle was one of the dependencies of the 
PenthlfevTcs, and was assaulted and destroyed 
under the same circumstances as Jugon (page 68); 
sciircel^ a vestige of It now remains. The Church 
is finely situated on an ambience; the pointed 
anihes, clustered pillars, and lancet windows, 
tp«ak of a choice era of architecture; but the 
modem restorations and the kaleidoscopic coloured 
glass inserted in the windows, are in wretched 


l«amballe Is a clean looking country town, a 
favourite residence of the old noblesse, ''lavieiUe 
rfcfte," of Brittany. The sad fate of the Princess 
de Lamballe who followed her mistress, Marie 
Antoinette, through the horrors of the Temple, and 
La Force, is still vividly remembered, and hopes, 
perhaps, survive here of a restoration of the legiti- 
mate reigning family to the throne. 

The French Government have at Lamballe a 
•*Haras" or breeding establishment of horses for 
mounting their cavalry. 

An excursion may be made from Lamballe to 
Moncontour, 8 miles, particularly at the time of 
the Pardon of 8. Mathurin. 

•KonCOntOUr (population, l,«Oe; Hotel: Du 
CcmmCTce) is most Tomantioally «Mu«ted on a 

rocky eminence surrounded by wooded ravines. It 
still retains its old walls and toiKert, once a strong 
eastle of the Rohan Penthlfevres, and the scene of 
many a tough contest; but now sadly dilapidated 
and desecrated with ftamlng hand-biUs of cheap 
tailoring and "Mort aux Rats." 

The church dedicated to 8. Barbe it a fine old 
building of irregular architecture, with elaborate>- 
ly carved cornices and capitals, and *' storied 
windows richly dlght," in which may be traced the 
true legend of the lif e^ miracles, and martyrdom of 
the Virgin martyr, 8. Barbe. The chief lion of 
Moncontour is the miracle-working statue of S. 
Mathurin, patron saint of horsesand cattle. A few 
years ago It was the custom to bring the cattle, 
consecrated to him, into church on his ffite day, 
and make them kiss his shrine. The animals thus 
set apart were redeemed for a large sum of money, 
and being taken back to their homes were supposed 
to convey good luck and immunity from diseases to 
the whole farm-yard. 

The "Pardon' is still held every year, on Whit 
Monday, with great pompt and eheuld if possible 
be visited. On the fete day, the streets of the 
town are lined with white sheets, covered over with 
thelittle "S. Mathurins" for eale,i.e. a little leaden 
image of the saint appended to a bnnch of artificial 
flowers, blest by the priest and endowed with 
miraculous powers, for the sum of one franc. The 
service in the church consists of lighting up an 
innumerable quantity of tall wax candles, and 
much braying of the ophideide, and marching 
round of the pilgrims. The greatattraction, how- 
ever, is the Breton Rpude, danced on the lawn in 
front of the manor house of the Grange, on the 
hill opposite the town. 

The musicians, with biniau and bombarde (the 
national music), are set on a platform, and well sup- 
plied with drink; and an immense circle is formed 
of all classes-— lords and ladies, lads and lasses, 
gendarmes and soldiers, dames and grUettes, who 
all join hands and revolve slowly with a measured 
step round the musicians. The derob^e is also 
danced ; but it is a more noisy and romping dance, 
whose main feature is that every lady has two 
cavaliers, one of whom is always on the watch to 
carry her off from the other if be lets go his hold. 
The popular Breton i\r of Ann kini got is that to 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Route 6.] 

REUSES TO S. BttlRUC— tOtib^AC. 


which the favourite measures arc danced. The 
words are as follow, to which a French translation 
Is subjoined :— 

"Ann hini goa t ts doutt 
Ann hini goz ^o sur. 

Aim hini iaouank 4 so koant* 
Ann hini go* i deoB »rohant, 
Ann hint goi 6 v» dons 
Ann hini ftoz to Bur. 

Ha gasooude pa 4 aonjan, 
Ann hiul iaouank i^ran 1 
Ann hiui gos i va doua, 
Ann hini goz to but. 

Me Di sail moK^ d&r marchad 
HAm M gant'hi gwere boutelllad 
Ann hiiii goz e va dotu, 
Aim hini got to bot. 

Ann hini gos i d«ua bem cd, 
Ann hini iaouank u4 deux ket 
Ann hini got i va dons, 
Ann hini got to Bur. 

French Trantlalinn. 

C'cst la Tieille qui eBt meB auioun, 
Oui, o'wt la Tieille aunrtoient. 

La Jenne est bien plus Jolle, 
Mail 1« viellle a de I'argent, 
C'est la vleille qui est mes amours, 
Oui, c'est la vleille aamiriment. 

Et eepcndont lorsqne J'y pense, 
C'est la Jcune qui fait battre mon eoour 
Bah ! c'est la Tieille qui est mes amours, 
Oui, e'oBt la vleille assortment. 

Je a* tbIs Jamais an mareh^, 

Q'oelle ne me donne de quoi boire boutcUle 

(Test la Tieille qdi est bies amours, 

Ooi. c'est la Tieille assariment. 

Sm Tieille a de gi»nda mnlons de hl^ 
La Jeune, helas : n'a rien 
Cest la Tieille qui est mes amours, 
Oui. c'est la Tieille aasurtment." 

These gatherings assume a very riotous charac- 
ter towards the evening, when the cider and eeku de 
vie begin to woi-k \ in fact, the religious character 
of the meeting is a thhi veil for an immense 
amount of merry-making and no little profligacy. 
The lasses go to them to pick up husbands; and 
those who have money wear rows of buttons or 
braid on their jackets for every hundred francs a 
year which they possess. 

Tlie seething, pushing crowds of the Pardon will 
be gladly exchauged for the open country; and 
the tourist, after a little refreshment at Vivier's 
Ifotel^ may return by another road, over a fine 
undulating country, to S. Brieuc ; or, if desirous 
of going tlirough the interior of the country, will 
follow the Route Rationale, past Fanton, an Eng- 

I lish farm, Pontgand, where the road crosses the 
River Li^, fnmous for trout, Plougenast, with a 
curious old church and chftteau, and so on to 

On the Ponf ivy line of railway, about two miles 
from the station of St. JuIiendclaC6te,isthevhri- 
ficd Camp o/Peran, occupying a plateau of high land 
between the Valleys of the Gouet and the Umc, 
which it commands. Its form is elliptic, about 
I '420 feet long by 840 broad, and It Is surmounted 
by a rampart of earth eight feet high, 40 feet 
' broad at the base, and ten feet broad at its sum- 
! mit. Olio half of this rampart is in good condition, 
but the remainder has been partly destroyed ; 
j there Is, however, no difficulty in tracing it. In 
this part of the country it is called *'Le Champ 
dea Pierres Briil^es." There H a Roman road on 
the north side of it; some antiquaries in 1866, 
discovered that this rampart enclosed two walls, 
each three feet thick, and having between them a 
space of five feet, which was filled up with scorin 
and vitrified matter; the result of a fire of great 
intensity. A liquid matter had run over the 
masonry and covered it with a hard vitrified 
glaze, which was generally found on the upper 
part of the parapet; in the lower parts where 
fusion had taken place, it had formed a species of 
pudding stone. All the stones about here bear the 
traces of fusion. Roman bricks and a coin of 
Gernmnicus were found on fht sur/a-x, which led 
them to form the opinion that this Camp existed 
prior to the Roman occupation. There are sereral 
megalithic remains in the neighbourhood. A 
**Qrotte auxF^os*' near the fountain of Candio; a 
cromlech at the farm of Touches Budes ; a great ■ 
tmndlus in the forest of Pieudran ; also the pretty 
Chftteau of Cr^fault, of the 16th century. 

.LOUd^ac (Stat.), a dull country town, of 5,918 
inhabitants, may be reached by rail, vid S. Brieuc 
(pag«5 70) and Pontivy. There is a tolerable /fotel 
here(De France); with the usual amount of officials, 
Ac, as It is a sous-pre'fecture. The church is a 
very heavy looking, tasteless building. A good road 
lends from Louddac, over a wild and picturesque 
country, across the landes of the Menez, towards 
CarhaLx. ^jnong the woods of beech and chest- 
nut will be seen the smoke from the fires of the 
charcoal burners, or sab9ti€r$^ "who mannfac^ — 


by Google 


iJliAl)SrtA>V*S Bftl14'Al^*ti 

[Route ti 

the wooden slices of the (JOlintry. They hire a 
plot of wood land, and cut down tKe trees; and 
oti the clearing, or under rude huts, may be seen 
men, women, and children, ragged and grimy, all 
busy as bees, some carrying wood, others boring 
the hollow part with augers, others trimming the 
sabots Into a captivating shape, or hardening them 
over the fumes of a green wood fire. There are 
atags, wolves, badgers, and foxes In the £*orest 
of Loud^ac. Correspondance from Loud^ac to 
Mur, Ooarec, and Rostrenen. 

8. Cacadec, a primitive village, on the banks 
of the Oust, has a remarkably pretty church, with 
■oulptured porch and grotesque carvings. The 
cross. In front of the church, is also a curious speci- 
men of Breton art. 

Mur Is a romantically situated village, quite on 
the wilds, but with no particular object of Interest. 
Next comes Ooarec^ a poverty stricken and dirty 
Tillage, on the River Salon, which here joins the 
Blavet ; very good fishing may be had here. BOB- 
trenen is a larger village, also within reach of 
good fishing. It has a tolerable Inn (for Brittany), 
De la Poste ; but In these parts the accom- 
modation Is very rude, and the houses far from clean . 
The Church of Rostrenen Is ugly, being of the 18th 
to the 16th century. Outside the town Is a curious 
Chapel (/), on the waU of which Is sculptured the 
Passion of Our Lord, In high relief. Diligences 
dally to Qulntln. Correspondance dally to Loud^ac, 
at a.m., 6 francs ; Gulngamp at 1 p.m., passing 
through S. Nicholas duPelem; Lanrlvaln where 
there Is a calvalre), and Bourbrlac, 5f . 60c.; Car- 
halx at 3-30 a.m., 2f. 60c.; to Qalntln, tid Corlay, 
at 1-33 a.m., 6f. 

At Glomel (gl6, coal) arc some fine lakes, con- 
taining pike. The great canal between Brest and 
Nantes runs alongside of the road, and In the hills 
are extensive reservoirs to keep up the supply of 


The Church of Lc Moustolr (r) Is a very pretty 
specimen of a Breton parish church. It will often 
Burprlse the tourist to see such elaborately orna- 
mented buUdlngs In the midst of such a scantily 
populated and uncivilised country. A little road- 
side chapel (0. dedicated to S. Elol, exhibits to 
the passer by some astonishingly barbarous Images 
0( 9(4&V9. S, £loi is the patroit Qf borsQfloib, and 

Is represented on a quadruttedal or rather trlpedal 
animal, by courtesy supposed to be a horse. Many 
of the other images are artistically "very pre- 

CarhaiX lies within the department of Finis- 
terre. ^ote?; DelaTourd'Auvergne. Its square 
church tower Is a i)rominent object for il long 
distance, but it has little to boast of architecturally. 
Its name Is supposed to be derived from ker^ the 
Breton for castle, and Ahes, the wicked daughter of 
King Grallon, whom the legend makes responsible 
for the submersion of the city of Ys, as a punish- 
ment for her Irregularities ; but It is equally likely 
that the name signifies "four roads," (c/. Carfax). 
It Is a very primitive and thoroughly Breton town 
—a collection of low, mean houses, grouped round 
a large, ugly church. Good trout fishing may be 
obtained In the neighbourhood. A little way out 
of the town there is a structure, said to be the 
remains of a Roman Aqueduct; great numbers of 
Roman buildings have been brought to light In 
this neighbourhood, and a Roman road Is easily 
traced In going towards Glldas. 

The principal object of Interest is the statue of 
La Tour eTAuvergne^ by Marochetti, in the market 
place. He was bom here In 1748, and died "aa 
cliamp tThonneur"' at the Battle of Neuburg, June 
27th, 1800. He was a brave and conscientious 
soldier, and from his steadily refusing promotion 
he was knowrt In Napoleon's time as "/« premier 
grenadier de la France.'' " To honour his memory," 
says Washington Irving, "his place was always 
retained In the regiment In which he preferred to 
remain to receiving promotion, and whenever the 
regiment was mustered the name of La Tour 
d'Auvergne was called out first, and the reply was, 
' Dead on the field of honour.' " On the base of 
the statue are sculptured representations of his 
exploits with this legend:— 

" Cflul qui meiort dana iui« iQita ncrtef 
Trouve pour le repoe une pAtrie, 
UAuie aur la terre ixxtaghre. ' 

Carhalxwas In the olden times "a good town 

with a strong castle." It was the scene of a battle 

between Richard Cceur de Lion and the seigneurs 

of Brittany, who had taken up arms to vindicate 

the rights of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, 

mother of Prince Arthur, whom Richard had im« 

prisoned, U97*. The castle was takes b^ lUv* l>« 

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Route 6.] 

Montfort party in 1841, but wrested from them by 
Duguesclin. Large cattle fairs are lield licre, and 
the dresses of the peasants on market days are a 
carions study. Tlie immense hats, tiglit canyas 
breeches, embroidered gaiters, broad leather belts, 
and long hair, make up a singular costume. The 
''pen-bos"* (or knobstick, literally head down) and 
short pipe are invariable accessories. 

In the church porch may be seen the curious 
little doghouses in which the pious Bretons exhibit 
the skulls of their parents and other relatives, 
labelled with their names. Correspondance daily 
to Quimperl^, passing through Gourin and Le 
FaouSt at 10 p.m., 7f. 20c.; Rostrenen at 5 a.m., 
3f. 60c; ChateauUn, passing through CliAteau- 
neaf du Faou and Pleyben at 8 a.m., 5f. 20c.; 
IlnelgoSt at 2-30 p.tD.; Ouingamp, passing through 
Callac, at 11-15 a.m., 5f. Rail to Morlaix (p. 78). 

Several other roads load to Carhaix, viz.: — 
(a) From S. Bricuc, a wild mountain road, through 
Quintin, with a fine ducal ch&teau; and Corlay. 

Qulntln (Stat.)-*-Population, 8,186; ffotefs: 
Grande Maison and Du Commcrce^is situated on 
the banks of the River GouSt, hi a speciea of amphi- 
theatre, being surrounded by hills, with a lake 
below it; the locality is most picturesque, and it is 
well wooded ; the streets are i»arrow, crooked, and 
ill paved. There are many curious houses here of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; one bears 
the date of 1564. Its chief industry is the manu- 
facture of sail cloth and coarse linen. 

Quintin is a station on the line from Pontivy to 
S. Brieuc. 

The Church of Notre Dame, founded in 1406, 
contains a life-size silver bust of St. Thurian, 
mitred, having some relics under a glass set in 
the breast; but the most precious relic in this 
Church is the sasfi of the Firgnw Mary^ said to have 
beai brought from Jerusalem in 1243. by Geotlroy 
the First, Count of Quintin. It is a piece of net 
work of white thread; and it was formerly the 
custom for the clergy to carry it with great 
ceremony to women about to be confined, and to 
pass it round their waist to obtain for them a 
happy deliverance. It is now kept in a golden 
rcliquairc, and is easily seen through the glass 
which encloses it. In 1600, the vestry of this 
churcU "^if s completely destroyed b^* a tire, which 



melted the church plate and tlie metal of th« 
building. It is gravely asserted here that, three 
days after the conflagration, the sash of the 
Virgta, which had been kept in the vestry, waa 
found amongst the ashes; it had been enclosed in 
three wrappers and placed in an iron bound box, 
which had been consumed, yet the relic was 
unhurt, one end of it being slightly singed. There 
is a curious ossuary, or reliquaire, in the church- 
yard, erected on the site of the old church; it is of 
the seventeenth century. 

The town of Quintin was formerly a fortified 
quadrilateral, having four gates; the remains of 
one of these (Porto Neuve) may be seen near the 
Church; the rest have disappeared. This place 
capitulated to a division of 1,500 Chouans from 
Quibcron, on the 17th July, 1793; they emerged 
from the forest of Lorges at daylight, and took 
the town by surprise, the republican garrison 
being only two companies of hifantry and a 
detachment of cavalry. 

Near the railway station are the remains (one 
wing) of the Chateau of Quintin, built in 1662 by 
the brother of Marshal Turenne ; its arcWtecture 
resembles that of the Palace of the Luxembourg ; 
the buildings on the north side of the court were 
constructed In 1775 by the Vlcomte de Choiseul. 
It contains some good Gobelins tapestry, having 
on it the arms of France and Navarre; the subjects 
represented are the carrying away of Proserpine, 
Phoebus guiding the chariot of the Sun, and 
Neptune rising from the sea. This Ch&teau also 
contains a gallery of paintings of the family of 
Lorges, amongst which is one of Louis de Durfort, 
or Dura?, Earl of Favershnm, captain of the Guards 
of James II. of England ; and another of Choiseul, 
the minister to Louis XV. There are also four 
allegorical paintings of Madame de Pompadour, 
whose favour this minister had succeeded in 
obtaining. Some of the paintings are of no great 
historical value. 

A diligence from here to Rostrenen daily, passing 
through Corlay; and another from Corlay to 
Goarec. Corlay (fJotel: Thierry) is an Aboriginal 
village, celebrated for its horse fair, and ospeoialiy 
for a breed of ponies which are much valued. 

(6) Froiq Guingamp, over a similarly l^illy road, 
through Ptf«7ac, a puur toT^n, but with a cqiufqitabje 


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inn (De Bretagne), good fishing handy, in the 
River Hierre. Kemains of what is called a Roman 
aquaduct between Callac and Garhaix. 

(e) From Horlaix. over a still wilder country ; 
also from Landivisiau, Ch&teanlin, Quimper, and 
Lorient, partly by rail. 

ROUTE Yl»— Continued. 

From LamballetoS. Brieuc by rail,pastTfll]llae, 
a straggling village, ftom which is obtained a fine 
view of the Bay of S. Brieuc, across an open 
country, to 

S. Brleue (Btat.)~^i^^ ffoteU: Croix 
Blanche (go6d);.de France (good); Croix Rouge. 
Chief town of the Cdtes-du-Nord Population, 
19^948 A large, well-built town, with many 
churches and a very large proportion of convents 
and religions houses. Change for Pontivy line and 
Auray. There is a very fine promenade and public 
garden, in the middle of which is the Palais de Jus- 
tice, a handsome granite building. The new church 
is a very chaste edifice ; there is a Baptist Mission. 
A few English are resident here. 

S. Brieuc is said to have been an English mis- 
sionary, who crossed over in the fifth century, 
and erected a hermitage for himself on the spot 
where the town now stands, and where he per- 
formed miracles. The Cathedral dates from the 
thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, and was re- 
stored in the eighteenth; it is an ugly edifice, 
and is surrounded by mean houses, which are 
built up against its walls; the interior has 
been whitewashed, and is badly kept. There 
are eight tombs in it, having recumbent figures, 
c'liefly of bishops. An omnibus for Binic, Pon- 
trieux, St Quai, and Paimpol leaves the Hotel 
de France daily at 7-30 a.m. (fare, 5 francs), and 
returns the same evening. A steamer sometimes 
leaves Jersey for St. Brieac on Mondays; returning 
to the Channel Islanda on Tuesdays, starting from 
Port Ldgr^e, 1| mile from S. Brieuc. 

PortrieUX it now much frequented in the 
bathing season. Hotels: Du Talus; De la Plage. 
Paimpol, Portrieux, and Blnic have each artificial 
harbours, t^nd a trtide with the Channel Islands, 

[Route 7. 

which they supply with cattle. A sailing cutter 
occasionaUy leaves Binic (Hotel de Bretagne) for 
Jersey in the afternoon ; 6 franca. The ships be- 
longing to St. Brieuc engaged in the cod fishing as- 
semble at Portrieux, and sail away together with 
great ceremonies and firing of cannon. Those en- 
gaged in the Iceland fisheries do the same from 
Paimpol. Three miles west of Blnic, at Lantlc, is 
the handsome Gothic Chapel of Notre Dame de 
la Cour, which has been compared to the Sainte 
Chapelle at Paris ; both were in fact built by the 
same architect, R^n^ de Montrieul. 

The valley of the River Gouet, over wbioh the 
railway passes by a handsome viatluct, is very 
picturesque. It opens out into the small port of 
L^gu^. Further to the north, on the summit of 
Oessan Point, are the ruins- of Cesson Tower, 
which Henry IV. attempted to blow up aft«r 
the Wars of the League. There are several small 
ports along the east side of the Bay of 8. Brieuc, 
viz.: Dahouet, Plenevf, and Erquys dllttcult of 
access by sea and land, but resorted to for sea 
bathing. The last is said to have been the 
Roman station of Rheginea. A large trade is car- 
ried on from S. Brieuc to Jersey in butter, eggs, &c. 

From S. Brieuc a rail to Pontivy, Loud^nc, 
and Auray (page 107) is now open, vid Quintin 
and Uzel. 



By the coast. 
(For the rail, see Route IX.) 
A carriage should be hired to Paimpol. Abont a 
mile off the road is the curious Temple or Church 
of Lanloir. It is a singular ruin, consisting of an 
inner circular building, with twelve arches, sur- 
rounded by an outer colonnade, also circular. The 
inner building is 36 feet in diameter; the outer 
49 feet. E ach circle is 3 feet thick, and the distance 
between them is 10 feet, making the total diameter 
68 feet. There was a fine yew tree in the centra 
some years ago, but It has been cut down. 

Some consider the church to be an ancient Roman 
temple, but the architecture is plainly of later date 
(prQbqblv ef the 10th or lltlj century), ap<) tUe 

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Anmber of ibearchoioorrMponding with the number 
of our Lord's Apostles, corroborAtes the view of Us 
being an early Christian church. It is most likely 
one of the Round Churches built by the Templars, 
who took for their model the Church of tlie Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem, of which severs! are i>tiil 
in France, and three in EngUnd. It stands in the 

Palnpol may be reached by the a road through 
Lanvolion, or by Plouha and F02ltrl6UX» a port 
8 miles from the sea^ side, and a picturesque village 
of 3.023 inhabitants, on the Trieux. A line was 
opened in 1894 from Guingamp (p. 83) to Faimpol. 

Paimpol (population, 3,313, among them a few 
English residents; the Hotel Oicquel is tolerably 
olean, and moderate in charges) is very prettily 
situated in a deep bay, between the high points 
of Flouz^e and La Trinitd. There is but little 
water in the port at neap tides, but a large number 
of coasting vessels trade with it from Jersey. A 
very pretty ruin near Paimpol, called Abbef 
Beauport^ stands on the sea shore, to the east. 
Its foundation is attributed to Alain d' Avaugour, 
about the year 1369, but its beautiful proportions 
and pointed style of architecture denote a some^ 
what later date. 

Off Paimpol lies He Brtfhat, a barren, rocky 
plaoe, statio matejida carinit, but rendered illU8> 
trious by the 8cientl6c researches of Monsieur 
Quatrefages, who resided on it for seferal months 
to study the molluscs, with which it abounds. 
Correspoudances from Paimpol, daily, to St. 
Brieuc, passing through Portrieux, Etables and 
Biuic, at U-30 a.m., 6f.; to Trdguier at U a.m., 
3f . 80 cents, and thonee on to Lannion. 

The TrigorraU^ or peninsula of Tr^guier, is the 
most fertile and beautiful part of Brittany. The 
language of the people is more alien to the Welsh 
than that of Finist^re. The country abounds 
with fertile valleys, watered by fine streams; 
the Leff, Trieux, Jaudy, Guindy, and Guer, all 
abounding in trout, and many producing salmon. 
It is a very undulating aceidente country, and is 
also full of objects of historical interest. 

At L^zardrieux {vide Vocabulary), the River 
Trieux is crossed by a fine suspension bridge of 
wire, 108 feet above low water mark. It is rather 
sfiisat}on<|l to cross it in a onrrlngs, ns it iways 


•bout with the wind^ and deflecta aUmiHf iy« aa 
the carriage passes over it. The view dovn the 
Trieux is very fine. A boat should be hired here 
to visit the ruined Castle of Roche Jaffu\ it is about 
3 miles up the Trieux, standing on a. wooded 
eminence, and beautifully ivy'grown.> Part of it is 
restored, and sometUnes inhabited by English 

Further on, another smaller auspensioa bridge 
leads into the old cathedral city of 

Tr^gnitr. —Population, 3,788. The Hotel de 
France, though not of inviting exterior, is olean 
and comfortable. Few towns in Brittany are so 
pleasantly situated as this. The views seaward and 
landward are very lovely, and the fine- old church 
with its ^^doeher aujour,'' or open-work spire, gives 
an ecclesiastical character to the plaoe. The south 
and west porches of the church are very fine, and 
inside are beautiful carvings. The cloisters are 
very beautiful, though in a sad state of dirt and 
decay. Trtfguier possesses a few English residents, 
who come here for the sporting. It has also a 
yacbt agent, who is ready to oblige English 
visitors. Oyster culture is most successfully 
carried on here. Twenty millions are exported 
annually, a large portion of them going to Belgium 
(it is »aid) to be there converted inloOftend 

An omnibus runs daily from Trtfguier to Lannioii, 
at 6 p.m., 3 francs 30 cents. 

From Trdguier should bo visited La Roche DerHen^ 
a small village of 1,868 inhabitants with a ruined 
castle famous in Breton annals. 

It was the scene of innumerable conflicts during 
the War of the Succession. Charles de Blois It^d 
siege to it, but before he could reduce It De Mont- 
fort's soldiers attacked him with a fresh English 
army, at early dawn, and routed him, Juno 18th, 
1847. De Blois was taken prisoner by Sir Thomas 
Dagworth. or Edgcworth, and Dnchfttol. lie 
was ransomed for 100,000 crowns In 1356. 

Laanlon (Stat.), change at Plouarct on the 
main line.— iTo/e/s: DeTEurope, fair and clean; 
de France. A pretty and clean town of 6,003 in- 
habitants, situated on the banks of the fine River 
Guer. It is accessible to vessels of light draught. 
Tbe old houses, with overhanging oRves, and 

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[Route 7 

timber built into the walls, arc very curious. The 
church is somewhat heavy, but the old church of 
Brel^venez, at the ton of the hill, is a fine piece of 
architecture, 12tl\ to ICth century, crypt, 11th 
century, and the view from the churchyard 
majjnificcnt. S. great Fair is held here annually 
on St. Michael's Day ('iSth September) and the 
two following days, when all the inhabitants of 
the surrounding: country attend, so that the town 
and the promenailc teem with them. All are 
well, and some are richly, dressed; they are a fine 
race, well-made, with dark hair and eyes; they 
d nice in the afternoon on the quays by the river- 
side, uhcre hundreds of couples may be seen 
dancing the lionde and the Derobte, the musicians 
being: pcrclicd on casks. It is an interesting 
sight ; they enjoy themselves thoroughly, and 
tlic greatest decorum is observed. At 5 p.m. the 
dancing ceases, and they all return to their liomes. 

Corrcspondanccs dally from Lannlon to Mor- 
laix, via Plcsiin and Lanmour, at 4 p.m., 
4 francs ; to Ferros Guircc at 3-30 a.m., 50 cents; 
returning next day at 8 a.m ; to Trdguier at 
4pm., except Sundays ; to Taimpol at 3-15 p.m., 
4 francs. 

If time will iiermit, the coast line should be 
followed from Trcguier round to Lannlon. The 
coast scenery about Perros Guirec is very fine. 
Tlie name Guirec U said to have been derived from 
an old Breton King, Guerec, or Erech, a.d. 404. 
There is a snug little port here, and good sea 
bathing. This i>art of the coast has many romantic 
legends attached to it. Breton traditions identify 
it with the place where King Arthur held his 
court, and many of the peasants still believe he 
YiQi entranced in the Island of Agalon, or Avalon, 
oir Perros. There Is a fair second-class Hotel (Dcs 
Bains), at Perros Guirec, 5 francs a day. The 
church is bu|lt of red pudding stone, a species of 
ijrani e, very Abundant. In the locality. The 
tourist should walk from there to Ploumanach, and 
on to S. Anne Uoho; near the chapel of the latter 
place is the rocking stone of Coz Castel It is 
very striking to sec the manner in which the huge 
blocks of granite l.ave been thrown and heaped up 
one on top of another all along the coast line, 
cf^nv of them weighing sev.rnl hundred tons; all 

are much weather worn. There arc several Cheese- 
wrings, about this district. Carriages may be hired 
for this excursion at Lannion for 16 francs. 

To the north of Lannion, on the road to Ploe- 
meiir, at a distance of nearly 4 miles, is the fine 
menhir of Plouarzef, 24 feet high and 10 feet 
broad at its base, computed to weigh 90 tons. 
It Is surmounted by a stone cross, and has sculp- 
tured on the upper part of one of Its sides the 
figure of a woman w^ith a cock above her head, and 
the sun and moon on either side of her; at her feet 
there is a figure of the miracle of S. Veronica, 
supported by the emblems of the Passion, below 
which is a crucifix, and at its foot a moon. 
It is difficult to imagine how, in the earliest times 
ill Brittany, monoliths of this size were quarried 
and transported. 

Seen from the heights above Tr^gastel, where 
many Druldlcal remains and rockhig-stones attCit 
the interest which once attached to the locality, 
the Seven Islands have a grand, mysterious, old- 
world look, but their climate scarcely tallies with 

" the Wa< d valley cf Avllli p, 
When lallB uoi hnll or r«iu, or auy Bn«» , 
Hox ever wind b uw* iOauli ."- Tennjfion. 

for it is one of the stormiest parts of the coast. A 

walk up the river from Lannion will bring the 

tourist to the old ruined Castle of Coef/rcc (Coet, 

wood ; /rec, roosting place for birds), whose lof.y 

towers, and curtain walls are fast crumbling to 

dust; and 4 miles further up to the noble pile of 

TOUQUedeC (Tonqe, the sound of iron struck; or 
dun, eddying pools, and guiddi brambles). This 
grand old ruin, styled the "Pierrefonds of 
Brittany," stands at the junction of two rivers, 
and must have been a very strong fortress in the 
old feudal times. The moats and gateways are in 
good preservation. The view from the walls is 
magnificent. Like the rest of the fortresses in 
this part it was dismantled by the King of Franco 
after the cession of Brittany. TonqU€dec was 
taken and razed to the ground in 1895, by Duke 
John IV; it was rebuilt after his death in 1899, 
during the reign of llcnry IV.; and was dismantled 
by Richelieu. 

The river may be followed up through a fine 
country io Belle-Isle-en-Tcrre, where there Is a good 
Inn (Hotel dc I'Oupst), ani| cxcpUcnl li^hin^. 

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Route 7.] 

The coast line from Lannion is somewhat dreary; 
but at S. Michel will be seen a fine sandy beach^ 
where, according to Breton sahit-lore, a horrible 
dragon, which ravaged the country, was slain, by 
the united eflfortsof King Arthur and his cousin, S. 
Efflam, who arrived here from Ireland at the nickof 
time. He tapped the fountain, which runs down 
Into the sea to quench Arthur's thirst, and dashing 
some of the holy water into the dragon's mouth sent 
hJm yelling and spitting fire into the depths of the 
sea. Here again the victory of the dragon conse- 
crates the locality to S. Michel. The overthrow of 
Pagflniiim l>y Christianity is probably at the bottom 
of all these legends. 

At Pontnienon, near PI ostein, the Doyron is 
passed, a little stream which separates COtes du 
Nordfrom Finistere. 

The rmall village of Lanmeur boasts of a church 
of great antiquity, with a sacred Fountain, held in 
high estimation. This fountain has a legend 
attached to it ; its spring is In the crypt, and it is 
believed that it will, on some Trinity Sunday, 
suddenly overflow and destroy the church; in 
consequence of which superstition, as also to pre- 
vent the Inhabitants from being drowned, high 
mass is tn trinity Sunday invariably celebrated 
In the Chapel of Kernitron. 

If the tourist is in this part near the festival of 
S. John, June 24th, he should visit the Church of S. 
Jeah'du-doigt, on tha coast to the north of Lan- 
meur. It isa very curiousandancient church,andthe 
scene of one of those curious gatherings called pil- 
grimages which we have described. (Introduction.) 
At this Pardon a very unusual effect is produced 
by a large bon6rc, crowned with flowers, which 
is lighted by a dragon, who desct nds from the 
top of the church tower and sets fire to it, and 
afterwards re-ascends. As soon as it has been 
ignited a general discharge of fire-arms takes 
place, the drums beat, incense is burned, the 
smoke of which mixes with that of the powder 
and of the bonfire, and it is believed ascends to 
heaven, the clergy at the same tme intoning the 
hymn "Du Saint Doigt." 

Accordhig to the legend attached to It, It owes 
its origin to the following miracle. — 
A young Brcjop, iiativc of ploiiga?5»iou, was 


fighting in the ranks of the French against the 
English, in the time of Joan of Arc, and desiring to 
visit his friends was offering his vows at the shrine 
of S. John, in Normandy, whore were the fingers 
of the Baptist brought by S. Thecla from Palestine. 
Suddenly he felt himself nolens volens on his way 
home, impelled by some mysterious agency. As he 
went on the trees bowed to him, the village bells 
rang out of their own accord, and all the people 
came out to look at him, taking him for a sorcerer. 
Still he went on till he arrived at the chapel of his 
parish, then dedicated to S. M^rladec, whither ho 
felt himself Impelled, and there kneeling before the 
altar, he saw fly out from hUcoat sleeve the pre- 
cious relic, the fingers of S. John, which he had 
unconsciously carried with him from Normandy. 

Such a story would sound rather "fishy" before a 
court If set up as a defence for petty larceny ; but 
in this case it held good as a miracle, and gave rlhO 
to the church and pilgrimage of "S. John's finger." 
The cemetery la entered by a Gothic archway. 
There is hero an elegant fountain of lead, where 
pilgrims may daily be seen at their devotions ; the 
figures are very good, the whole being surmounted 
by one of the Heavenly Father. It is in the 
Renaissance fctyle, and is said to have been a gift 
from the Duchess Anne. 

A rocky road conducts the tourist by a precipi- 
tous descent into 

MorlaiZ (Stat.) -Population, 16,300. JloteU: 
De Provence (best); de 1' Europe, good; des 
Voyageurs. An interesting town situated on the 
banks of the river of the same name, which is 
deep enough to admit large vessels up to the Quays, 
in the centre of the town. It is \ icturcsquely 
situated, the houses nestling under steep rocks with 
terraced gardens so close behind them that, as 
they say, the cabbages jump ^'dujardin aupot-au- 
feu." Most of the houses in the streets below, 
are very old and quaint like those of Dlnan, with 
overiianging storeys on wooden pillars, which are 
grotesquely carved with heads of saints or demons. 
Many of the larger houses are also richly orna- 
mented. The more modem part of the town con- 
sists of solid and handsome houses. 

There are several churches and convents here, 
and pleasant promenades laid out down the ba|)k 
of the river. The paving of ihc to'.vn generally i« 

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execrable. Ifotfiie the Chftteau de Taonam atid 
the splendid Viaduct over the river, on donble 
arches. Dimensions of the Viaduct: length, 920 
feet; hcisrht, 208 feet; there are fifteen apper and 
nine lower arches, of 50 feet and ii feet span 

Tlie mannfactnre of tobacco is largely carried 
on here; 1,600 women being employed In the 
Government factory. It has also a considerable 
export trade in cattle and batter. 

A motley population from the interior may be 
seen here on iiuirkct days, clad in the Breton 
costumes; the long hair of the men and the quaint 
laced caps of the women will be especially re- 

The Fontaine det AnglaU commemorates the spot 
where a large body of English were cut off and 
massacred, after having effected a successful 
descent upon the coast in 1522. There is a pleasant 
shady promenade, planted with trees, on the right 
bank; it is quite a mile long, and is called 
*'Cours de Beaumont.** 

Emlle Souvostrewasbom here, and pays many 
graceful tributes to his sol nakU. He relates that 
Mary Queen of Scots landed here to receive the 
titles of Queen and wife, and was met by the Duke 
de Rohan and many other Breton nobles. It Is re- 
corded that as the brilliant cortege swept over the 
bridge, it cracked under the weight of so much 
lieauty and bravery, and on the first panic the cry 
of *' treachery" arose; but De Rohan stilled the 
terror-stricken throng, by crying out in words 
which we may be sure are not forgotten in 
Brittany '^Jamais Breton ne fit trahUon.'* 

A Curreftpondance, daily, to Lamiion, via 
Lanmcnr and Plestin, at 10-30 p.m., 4 francs. A 
carrijtgo (1'J francs) will hove to be hired if 
it is wished to visit Guimiliau. Hail to Morlaix, In 
2 hours, Ha IluelgoUt. Boats can be hired to go 
to the Chateau dc Taurau ; it wiil be reached in 
three-quarters of nn hour if the wind is fair. 
A carriage, 5 francs ; distance, 5 kils. (3 miles). 
A carriage and pair of horses to visit both S. Pol 
and Roscoff, 20 francs. Excursions may be made 
to S. The'gonncc (Routs IX.), and to Guimiliau 
Calvary, on the road to Hwclgoc't. The Calvary 

is a bMiilifBUr aealphtfed piece of mMonry 
In the ehnrch-yord. The fignrM on It represent 
various scene* in the life of our Savionr and 
are almost of life sixe. The material is granite, 
and some idea may be formed from this work of 
art with what leal and patience the old Bretons 
laboured in the canse of the Church. The church 
is of the 16th century architecture j the south 
poreh of R^naiasance; the interior is remarkable 
for iu handsome wood earrings, the pulpit, organ 
loft, and especially its baptistry, 80 f»et high. 
The canopy over the font it supported by twisted 
columns, richly carved, representing vine leares 
and grapes; it bears the date 1685. The front of 
the organ loft is divided in three pannels, the 
centre representing King David, the others 8. 
Cecilia and a triumphal march. Tlicre is a trl* 
umphal arch in the cemetery, but Inferior to that 
of S. Thdgonnec; the r^liqualre is quite filled 
with the little dog kennels in which the Bretona 
del'ght to preserve the skulls of their ancestors. 

KOUTB vin, 


By the sea coast. 
(For the Rail see Route IX.) 

By a very steep ascent out of Morlaix, and along 
a very trying road, the tourist must go who 
wishes to visit the L^onnais, rich in ecclesiastical 
architecture. Eight kils. (5 miles) N. of Morlaix, 
on the road to S. Pol de L^ii, is situated the 
village of Femes, at which place two important 
fairs are held annually on the 20th of September; 
the first one is for hor»es, and is one of the best 
attended in Brittany; the second Is fur marriage- 
able girls. To reach this village it is necessary 
to cross a bridge, and on that day the 
"Pennerez,"' or marriageable girls who have a 
dowry, assemble hero, dreaded out in their best, 
scuting themselves on the parapets of the bridge. 

It is next to impossible, for the young men 
to reach the fair without crossing this bridge, 
and passing between the two rows of pretty, 
laughing girls; this they do with a certain 
gravity of demeanour. Occasionally one of them 
is seen to approach and offer his hand to one of the 
gjrls \o KQsUt her to get (lown fro^ her »ent ; it \t 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Route 8.] 

underitood by this act that hU heart has been 
touched and that he has selected her for his wife ; 
after a few moments' conversation between them 
they are joined by the parents; matters arc 
arranged, and the affair is clenched by the usual 
practice of striking the palms of the hands 
together. It is said that it has rarely happened 
tliat one of these engagements has been broken ; 
though it is right to add that in some cases the 
matter has been pre-arranged by the young 
couple, but that the bridge of "Penzds" is con- 
sidered by them as the proper place for ratifying 
their promises. 

The first town of any note is S. Pol de L^n 
(Stat), the Cathedral of which, dedicated to S. 
Paul, is one ot the finest in Brittany. HoMs : De 
France; du Cheval Blanc. The lofty spires of 
S. Pol are Tisible for many miles round by land 
or sea. The highest is the spire of Kreisker, a 
wonderfully slender shaft, literally a fliche, shot 
into the sky. The base seems very small, but the 
lancet windows and delicate tracery give it an 
air of great elegance. The Cathedral also has lofty 
spires of open work and lancet windows, and many 
Interesting studies for any one fond of church 
architecture. It dates from three periods: part of 
the north transept Is Roman ; the nave, side porch, 
and the spires are of the thirteenth and fourteentli 
centuries; the choir was reconstructed in 1431. 
The Norman ogival style pervades throughout the 
building; the stalls date from 1512. From bolilnd 
the high altar there rises a large wooden bishop's 
rochet, from which Is suspended a pyx contain- 
ing the sacrament wafers. There are several 
mutilated tombs having recumbent figures on 
them ; amongst the number that of the last Bishop 
of L^ou, who died, an ^mlgr^, In London, 1806, 
and whose remains were transferred to tbe Cathe- 
dral In 1866. The south transept has a ver>' fine 
rose window ; above this handsome rose window 
there Is on the outside a small door, or window, 
having a gallery before it Tihlch Is called "La 
FenStre de Texcommunicatlon, " owing to Its 
having been formerly used for that purpose. 

In a r^llquaire In this cathedral is nn old Bell, 
quadrangular in shape; it is »aidio have belonged 
to S. Pi^ul ; it is solemnly brought out on tl^o 


days of the grand processions, nn.l rung (by 
strlliing it with a hammer) over the pilgrims' 
licads, in the belief that it will preserve them 
from diseases of the head and ears. In one 
of tlie Chapels on the south side, a remarkable 
symbol of the Trinity Is painted on tbe ceiling; 
it is a figure composed of three headA joined, hav- 
ing only three eyes; but they are placed in such 
a manner, that whichever way it is looked at, it 
presents a complete face ; above it is a scroll hav- 
ing the Breton words 

"l/a-Z>o««" (My God) 
painted in Gothic characters; 

also another below it having the word 
"ilra6a<" (you must not.) 
The Bell is kept in this Chapel. Cluse to the steps 
of tlie altar there is a black slab, mutilated in the 
Revolution, indicating the spot where the Saint 
was buried, a.d. 694. 

The tomb of Conan M^riudec, the Welsh Prince, 
near It, was also removed; though a stone coflin, 
placed near the walls, Is pointed out as the 
tomb (the carvings un it are of the roughest des- 
cription). Tills seeniR, however, to be a disputed 
point, as a etone coffin Is shown in the church- 
yard of Noyal Pontlvy having a resting |>Iare 
for the head hollowed out in it, which is known 
in that district by the name of "Lo torabcau do 
8. Mdrla(|ee." Tljc rcppicd tomb of Mc'rladec 
has been converted into a bcniticr; it will 
appear a strange conversion, and probably some 
may be disposed to think that it is used for baptism 
by ipinjcrslon, b^t the explanation is a simple one. 

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[Route 8. 

The dead in the cemetery have each a slab of slate 
placed over their grayes, each of which has scooped 
out on it a large scollop shell to hold holy water, 
for the parpose of sprinkling the graves, as also to 
enable friends to cross themselves when they 
visit the graves to pray ; it will be obvious that, as 
these are in the open air, they will require to be 
frequently replenished, for which purpose the rela- 
tives talce away wine bottles full of holy water 
from the church ; hence the necessity of this extra 
supply, the usual bdnitiers being quite unequal to 
this requirement. 

Kreisker Church Is said to have been founded in 
tlie sixth century ; the greater part dates from the 
fourteenth century. The choir, the spire, and tlio 
nave are of that date, but tlie porches are of the 
most elegant peri ^d of the Flamboyant, the middle 
of the fi*"teenth century. Its " Clochcr k jour " is 
a m irvel; its licight, including the cross, is 270 feet. 

The church of S. Pierre, which is in the cemetery, 
is of the fifteenth century; in it will be scon the 
little miniature coffins, each containing the skull of 
the dead, the initials and date being painted on 
tliem ; thi>y are arranged principally on the capitals 
of the pillars which support the nave. There is a 
handsome Calvary of Kersanton stone in the ceme- 

The town of S. Pol dc Leon has a stony, deso- 
late appearance; its population consists largely 
of priests and members of religious orders. 
Formerly there were many cloarek*^ or poor 
scholars, here, who, like the clerks at Oxcnforde, 
and the Bazochien students of Paris, came here to 
study for orders; and under the pressure of 
poverty and humble origin, to pursue their 
studies for the goal of their ambition, to be priests 
'* passing rich on forty pounds a year." — (Vide 
Emile Souvestre's " Les Dettiier* Bretons:") 

Correspondance daily to Lesneven, passing 
through Plouescat at 3 p,m. 4fr.; to Landevisiau 
at 7-30 a.m. 8fr. 

The little tidal harbour and fishing town of BOB- 
COff (Stat.)- population, 4,600; Hotel: Des Baines 
de Mer— lies a few miles to the north. It has 
nothing remarkable except a wonderful Fig Treft in 
t he garden of the ancient Capuchin Convent, propped 
\iy 48 stone pillars; the diameter of the spread of 
tlie bronciics is abo^t 80 feet, fhe fertility of the 

land about RoscoiT is incredible, which is owing to 
its genial climate and theland being highly dressed ; 
the whole country is a garden producing hundreds 
of acres of asparagus, cauliflower8,globe artichokes, 
and onions, which are raised very much earlier 
than elsewhere, and sent oflfto the Paris markets ; 
great quantities of lobsters and cray fish are also 
exported from here. The Inhabitants carry on a con- 
siderable trade with the south of England, as also 
with Wales; the latter andtheRoscovitcs speak the 
same language. There is not a boy in the street 
that will not relate with pride that he has been to 
Wales, adding that the people there speak Breton. 
They are very industrious, and are both farmers 
and sailors, at one time tilling their lands, and 
afterwards embarking with the produce in their 
luggers for England. 

The church is of the fifteenth century-; it contains 
in its west end some curious alabaster relief « of the 
fourteenth century. There are two "ediculae" of 
the Renaissance period which are ossuaries. Mary 
Queen of Scots, to commemorate her landing here In 
1558, to marry the Dauphin, built a chapel dedi- 
cated to S. Ninian on the place where she landed ; 
a print of her foot was also cut into the rock; the 
chapel is now a mass of ruins, the western front 
has an ogival porch. 

In returning to S. Pol, stop at a fineCalvalre on the 
road. Straight across the fields to the right-hand, 
and facing the Calvaire at about 400 yards, will be 
found an all^ eouverte in a field, partly in ruins ; it 
is 45 feet long, and 4 feet high, and has five 
covering slabs. 

Opposite to Roscoff, distant 2^ miles, is the He 
de Batz; it has a lighthouse on it, and is cultivated 
entirely by women; the men being all fishermen 
arc rarely on the island. A legend exists that 
when St. Paul landed here the place was. ravaged 
by a dragon, which the Saint frightened away by 
placing his stole on its neck, ordering it at the same 
time to jump into the sea, which it did at '*Taoul 
ar Sarpant " (the serpent's hole); this stole is pre- 
served in the church. The tamarisk grows luxuri- 
antly on this island. The boatmen charge 35 cents 
per head for ferrying people across. 

From here Mary sailed away from France (to her, 
alwj^ys la Belle France). 1561 , toher hapless home in 
tl|c north, Tl^p fol|oT»ing lines arc cited as liaviny 


by Google 

ttoute 8.] 

MoRtAtjt fo Mfigf— Jl03dorf -Lt:sS*feVKS*. 

been written by Mary (though really composed 
after her time), oh tlie deck of the vessel while 
the coast of I^rance receded iu the distance t^ 

Adieu plAiMbat pij* de Fnaoe. 

O I ma jwtrie. 

LA pliu oh^rie, 
Qai s nonrri ma J<nin«i unfnnoe ! 
Adieu FiBuee. adieu mes beaux Joiiiw, Al. 

Here, tod^ Charles Edward landedt after losing 
all *^/or* IhotmeWy^ and barely escaping with his 
life from Scotland, after the Battle of GuUoden. 
Alfred de Courcy's " Esquiue* <fe« Mceurs Bretons" 
throws a halo of romance around the Koscovite 
smugglers and the wild fisiiermen of the He de 

LeBR&veniffoteU: De France; des trois Fillers), 
a primitive old town, supposed to be on the site 
of the Roman (keismor^ derives its name fromZ^, 
a court, and Even^ probably an old British king. 
Daru says that the court of Even was an order of 
chivalry, founded by the Breton nobles, the Vis- 
counts of L^on. Near Lesneven is the miracle 
Church of Folgoet^ another of those wonderful 
creations of medieval art, which owes its origin to 
a somewhat mythical legend. An idiot, or inno- 
cent, named Salaun, or Solomon, lived in a wood 
near here, and was called " FolgoSt," the fool of the 
wood. He was always repeating the words "Ave 
Maria ! " and nothing else. When he died, and was 
buried without an qffke, there sprung up from his 
grave, and indeed, out of his mouth, when it was 
traced to the root, a wonderful lily, on the leaves 
of whose flowers were inscribed the words " Ave 
Maria ! " (The miracle is somewhat akin to the 
classical story of the Martagon illy being marked 
with Ai, Ai, the Greek for Ajax. Vide Virg. 
Eclog. ill., lOG; and Ovid's Metam. x., 206, and 
xii., 398.) But old or new, the story was bruited 
about, and pilgrims flocked to see the grave of 
the "Folgogt." For six weeks it remained In 
flower before it began to fade; and then when 
they dug down to the root, it was found to be 
the testimony of the Holy Virgin to the piety of 
her servant. 

De Montfort was at this time fighting hard 
for the throne of Brittany, and, as a set off to the 
great sanctity of De Bloi.<*, when he heard of the 
miracle, vowed a vow, that if sucvc^sful, he 

Wdhld build a splendid church to the honotti' of 
" Notre Dame de Folgott:^ H6 laid the folindatiort 
of it after the Battlti of Auray, but It was 
finished by his son, John V., Duke of Brittany, 
the great beauty of FolgoBt Church consists in 
the elaborate oWiamentatioti, and the variety of 
patterns employed In it. Foliage of various kinds 
is reprbdueed With marvellous fidelity, and every- 
where is s6eh the ermine, the newly adopted 
device of Montfort, and his motto — "ifia/o mori 
quam fcedari" 

The Church of Folgoet, was commenced In 1863 
and consecrated in 1419. Its western facade has 
two towers; the north one has a spire, bnt the 
south one has never been finished ; a composite 
dome was built on it by Queen Anne in 1505 ; the 
effect is incongruous, and it is in the worst of taste. 
The elegant western porch has fallen, as also an 
exterior pulpit, the doorway to which through the 
wall is evident. The porch of the south transept 
is very beautiful ; it is lined by twelve figures of 
the apostles, in Kersanton stone. In the interior 
is the elegant rood-screen between the nave and 
the choir; it consists of three arches, surmounted 
by a canopy supported by panelled pillars, which 
support a gallery of rich open work pierced with 
quatrefoils, a perfect lacework of stone. The 
centre arch forms the entrance into the choir; the 
others have an exterior altar in each ; the whole 
of this exquisitely carved work is in Kersanton 
stone, which, from its age, has become quite the 
colour of bronze; indeed, the resemblance is 
perfect. There is a fine rose window in the east 
end, as also fine altars in Kersanton stone; the 
tracery of the cornice In this part is very delicate, 
consisting of leaves and thistles entwined; the end 
of one of the stalks shows drops of sap exuding 
from it. 

The roof is very inferior to the remainder of 
the interior, and does not harmonise with it. The 
Grothic college on the north side was rebuilt at the 
end of the seventeenth century ; it was originally 
founded by Anne of Brittany. Both she and Fran- 
cis I. lodged in it when they made a pilgrimage to 
the Folgoet; a part of it is now appropriated to the 
Mairie ; the remaining part has been converted 
imo a Yillage scUqoI. The Doyenntf, which on 


by Google 



its walls the Arms of BritUiiy, as also those of 
some of the ecclesiastical dignitaries who formerly 
resided there, is now attached to a farm-house. 

The sacred spring rises under the high altar, and 
trickles out through the wall into an external 
reservoir, which formerly had a stone canopy over 
it. This spring is held in great veneration by the 
pilgrims, who strip their persons and wash their 
bodies with the water, regardless of any persons 
that may be near them. The pulpit is modern, 
and has carved on its panels the legend of the 

It is said that, in the ornamentation of this 
and other churches, every parishioner, aa well as 
•very workman, designed and executed some bit 
of carving, and worked out on stone his favourite 
bit of scripture history, or Catholic tradition. 
Time would fail us to enter into a description 
of all the details of this wonderful piece of 

There are many other churches in this neigh- 
bourhood of great beauty, almost gems of 
architecture, which must have cost millions of 
francs, and employed thousands of hands in their 
erection. Such are 3. Jeau-du-doigt, S. Th^gon- 
iiec, Guimiliau, LaMartyre, S. Pol do L^on, Lan- 
bader, and l^ampaul, all wonderful for their 
elaborate decorations, and especially from the 
contrast they afford to the poverty and igno- 
rance, and dirt, around them. 

The Kersanton stone, of which they are mostly 
built, comes from quarries near Brest ; also from 
Quclern and Le Faou. It is soft when quarried, 
and easily sculptured, and is of a steel grey colour, 
but by exposure to the weather it becomes green, 
and eventually assumes the liarduess and the 
eolour of bronze. 

The Country north of Lesneven, about Goulveii, 
Ploundour-Trez, and Brignogan, was formerly 
coveredwith Celtic or Megallthicmonuments,which 
have nearly all disappeared; indeed, even within 
the last two years two rocking stones and a large 
dolmen have been blasted for building purposes. 
There yet remains a dolmen at Goulvcn, with a 
very fine Menhir, 34 feet high, at Brignogan ; it is 
named "Men-Marz" (the wonderful stone), and 
has a stone cross planted on its top, with another 
engrared at its base. The country about here is 

[ttoiite 8. 

wild, and so are its inhabitants, who were wiih 
difficulty converted to Christianity; the communes 
of Goulven, Kerlouan^ Guisseny, Ploun^our- 
Trez, Plouguemeati, alidt Land^da, lying on the 
coast, are even yet known as " firo-at-Bagancd,'* 
or the land pf the Pagans. This part was lilefally 
strewed with Megalithic stones, most of which 
were destroyed by the directions of the clergy, 
who found it next to impossible to induce the 
inhabitants to abandon their Pagan rites and 
ceremonies, which they continued to practise with 
such tenacity in connection with these monuments. 
The remaining stones were mostly baptised, or had 
a cross placed on them. 

Brignogan is frequented in the bathing season ; 
there are two auberges (Baigneurs and Grande 
Maison, 5 francs a day.) A diligence runs from 
Lesneven during the bathing season, on Sundays 
and Thursdays, at 9 a.m.. returning at 5 p.m. ; 
If. 50 cents. The church of Goulven is of the 16lh 
century, and is worth visiting; the spire is well 
proportioned. At the entrance porch will be seen 
a large chest, into which the charitable pour barley 
as alms for the poor of the parish. 

Correspondances daily, f^om Lesneven to Brest, 
at 6 a.m.. If. 50 cent, except Sundays and Mon- 
days to St. Pol de L^n, through Ploaescat, at 
2 p.m., 4f.; to Landernau, at 4 p.m.. If. 50 cents. A 
bone cavern was discovered in 1879, at Guisseny, 
50 feet long and 12 feet high. Its entrance faces 
the sea. Below a layer of ashes and a rough 
stone pavement human bones were found ; also a 
considerable quantity of bones of animals of ex- 
tinct species; fragments of Celtic pottery, a stone 
hammer, and a celt of polished porphyry. 

The character of the country to the west of 
Lesneven is generally bare and rocky. The eoast 
is cut up into numerous indentations, and bar 
harbours, at the mouths of small rivers, such as 
Goulven, Correjou, Abcrvrach, and Aberildut. 

The salt blasts of the ocean nip the vegetation, 
and bend down the scanty trees, which seem to 
cower from the biting west wind. 

At Ploudalmdxeau (Hdtel Lcguen), now accessible 
by rail from Brest, is a lofty spire; and from tlie 
hill, on which the village stands, will be seen 
the steep craggy sides of Ushant, with its con- 
spicuous Llght-honse, and the spire of Lampanl. 


by Google 


The inhabitants (2,490) of the Island of Ouenant 
(or Ushant) have a bad repatation with their com- 
patriots of the mainland. They say, that till very 
lately, they were Idolaters, as well as wreckers 
and smugglers. This " ultima Thule, haunted by 
ill angeis only," has but few visitors, from the 
dangerous passage of the " Four^" through which 
the Atlantic tides race madly, and chafe among 
the sunken rocks and dangerous reefs which stud 
their iron-bound coast. A steamer to Ushant twice 
per week, If the weather is fine. 

The naval Battle of Ushant was here fought 
between the French and English in 1776. 

The coast between Ploudalm^z^au and Lc Con- 
quct is very wild and barren ; but a sunset seen 
over the seething waves of the Atlantic, with 
Ushant and Beneguet in the distance, is some- 
thing to remember. In one of the fields, near the 
viliago of Larrct, there is a colossal menhir (80 ft.>, 
called Kcrgadiou. 

Before reaching S. Renan, the Plouarzel, called 
Uenhir Kerloaz^ one of the loftiest remaining up- 
right, should be visited ; but the tourist had better 
see it by daylight, as (independent of the use to 
which, according to the guide book, it is put by 
the peasant women) it is said to have a habit of 
walking about in the gloaming, and it is *' un- 
canny " to encounter it. 

At S. Benan (now a station on aline from Brest) 
refreshment may be obtained before visiting Le 
Conquet ou the coast. ffoteU: De Br^tagne; 
dn Finistfere. This is the most westerly point of 
France : formerly it was a strong fortress. FroU- 
sart tells how it was breached and stormed by 
Charles de Blois, but retaken the next day by 
Sir Walter Manny through the same breach. A 
steamer leaves for Ushant three times a week. 

A league north of S. Renan is the village of 
Lan-KiVOar^, the disused parish cemetery of 
which has a large space paved with stones of 
irregntar forms and edged with black; and tradi- 
tion says that under these stones 7,777 martyrs 
were buried. The explanation seems to be that a 
groat battle took place here in the 6th century', 
and the inhabitants being Christians, those who 
fell were buried here. The singular number above 
mentioned is of course much exaggerated. At the 
esst end of tbe cemetery is a pedestal snnnoniited 

by a cross; at the foot of which are seven 
large round pebbles. There Is a tradition that 
St. Herv^, having asked alms of the baker of this 
place, and being roughly repulsed, he turned his 
loaves into the stones here seen. Near tiie same 
pedesUl there Is a root of an old oak tree. 
The faWtful, on the days of " pardons," take small 
pieces of It away, which they preserve religiously, 
believing they will protect their houses from catch- 
ing fire. If this plan were effectual, the insurance 
companies would soon be ruined ; but probably 
there are many sceptics. 

A windy walk along the storm-beaten cliffs 
brings the tourist to the grandly placed ruins of 
the Abbeff of S. Matthew. This was the first and 
last object seen by the sailors entering or quitting 
the port of Brest; and the abbey throve well on 
the ex-w>tos of pious mariners. 

According to Catholic tradition, the abbey 
was founded a.d. 420, when S. Matthew's body- 
was brought from Egypt ; but, when off the 
point, it was found impossible to land it, tbe 
saint Intimating to the crew of the ship' that 
he declined to have his body deposited in a 
country where the custom prevaUed of selling 
into sUvery the children of those who could not 
pay their taxes. This practice was therefore 
abolished; the saint's body was landed, and a 
noble abbey built on tl»e spot, which was, how- 
ever, destroyed, probably by the English, in 1568. 
Visitors will do well before leaving Brest to provide 
themselves with a permit to visit the Abbey of 
St. Matthew and the Lighthouse, from the Bureau 
de la Miyorit^ Gdn^rale, Rue Fautras. 

From Le Conquet to Brest, by a barren and 
wind-swept route, but commanding magnificent 
views of the estuary and harbour. 

Brest (atat.)-PopulaUon, 76,854, exclusive of 
military. Heteli: Grand Hotel, on the Place Champ 
de Bataille; des Voyagcurs, Rue de Siaro, good 
and moderate, 8 francs per diem, wiue incJndetL 
There are several others-^u Gronde Monarque, 
Provence, de la Bourse, and des Ktrangers. 
Cab Fares: 

Cabs. Course. By hour. town' 

fr. c. fr. c. ff c* 

2 scats 1 26 l 75 j 5^ 

4 seats 

. 2 2^0 


.,,, X «0 


3 6J 

80 »ltAD8HiLtV'*S 

The Urgest though not the cliief town of Finls- 
t^rc, famous for its xnAgiiificent harbour, dockyards, 
and fortifications. It was in aneieht times a 
very small place, only a elt&teau fori. 

In the thirteenth century it was ceded by its baron 
to the Duke of Brittany, for a hundred lirreSt and 
a white hackney to bo supplied yearly. During 
the Wars of the Succession, it was often taken 
and retaken. It was one of the fortresses seized 
by De Montfort, when he claimed the dukedom ; 
and hither his countess repaired to collect 
forces after her successful sally from Hennebont. 
De Montfort made it a very strong castle, but, 
after the Battle of Auray, ceded it to the English. 
The barons attached such importance to the loss 
of it, that they said, *' ITett pas due de Bretagne^ 
qui n'est pas Sirede Brest'' — (Daru.) At the fusion 
of France and Brittany, in 1875, John de Montfort 
laid siege to Brest, to expel the English, who 
had been forced to resign all their other possessions 
In Brittany ; but they held out, and did not evacuate 
it for several years after, when it was given up 
for 20,000 pieces of gold. The old castle still exists, 
in a modernised state, and is heavily armed. 
The view from the summit is very fine. 

Many sea fights took place off Brest in the olden 
times. In 151'i, when the English endeavoured to 
recover their possessions, a battle took place, 
in which it is recorded that Primauguet, captain of 
the Cordeli^re, 100 guns, lashed his burning ship 
to an English one, and both blew up together. 

In 1591, the great Spanish fleet, which came to 
assist Mercosur, appeared off Brest, but after vainly 
endeavouring to land the troops, it was shattered on 
the rocks of Le Conquet. A few of the Spaniards 
who escaped to shore threw up some fortifications 
on the pomt now called after them— "Potnfecte* 
J?jpaj7»o2« ''— and held their position for some 
weeks, but their defences were carried, and they 
were put to the sword. 

In 1694, the English expedition, which ravaged 
Morlaix, under Admiral Berkeley, made an attack 
on Brest; but were roughly handled, and forced 
to retreat. 

The narrow entrance into Brest Harbour, called 
he Ooulet, is still further obstructed by rocks at 

flftWAi^ti [Route gi 

batteries are erected, ^iiich preclude the possi- 
bility of forcing an entrance. The immense extent 
of the fortifications may be judged from the fact 
that the harbour is 15 miles long, and its sides arCf 
in almost every part, armed with heavy canhoii, 
and every hill top around is croWned with forts^ 
which could shell the harbour and forts below if 
taken. Upwards of 600 pieces of cannon command 
the entrances of the harbout, ahd Brest itself isi 
similarly fortified. 

The Bagne for convicts formerly supplied the 
labour for these immense works, but of late years 
it is abolished. Upwards of 8,000 prisoners were 
kept here up to 1860, working in gangs, and it was 
no uncommon thing for some to escape. Woe 
betide the first traveller whom they met in a lonely 
place. His murder for the sake of changing clothes 
with the body was certain to be attempted. 

To obtain permission to visit tlic dockyard, 
application should be nnade between 11 and 
2 o'clock at the bureau de la Mt^orit^, Rue 
Foautras, near the barracks of the "Infantcrio 
de la Marine ;'" foreigners must be recommended 
by their csnsuls and furnished with a passport. 
Getverally permission is withheld. 

The principal objects of interest are the 
building docks, cut in the solid rock ; the steam 
foundry, naval and mechanical schools, the 
Salle d'armes, the hospital, and various 
stores; but, unless accompanied by a French 
ofllcer, the tourist is likely to sec only the 
outside of most of the buildings. The iron bridges 
which connect the various suburbs with eadi other 
are fine pieces of engineering. A very good view 
of the dockyard may be obtained from the Pent 
Toumant^ the bridge which crosses the creek 
at the bottom of the " Rue de Slam,'' and which 
connects it with the suburbs; this bridge is 380 
feet long and 66 feet above high water; it is 
in two pieces, each of which turns on a pivot 
by machinery; the inner ends have coimter- 
poise weights; the outer ends are secured to 
each other by bolts. It is easily opened to let 
ships of war pass out, and is really a very 
fine piece of engineering. The commercial port 
at Postrein is protected by a long breakwater. 
The Gours Dajot, a long promenade, planted with 

the entrance, and nj'oncvcrj' available point Strong trees, ovciloo^ \\je bay and the comn^cgiul 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Boute 8.] 

harbour; this promenade is shady and agreeable; 
it is enlirened by the mUitary bands; there is a 
very fine view from it. 

Excursions.— To Flougastel. By rail to Kerhuon 
' station ; then walk to the ferry (i hour); eross 
orer in the ferry boats (& cents); ascend the hlU 
opposite to the Boeher de PUmgattel; take the road 
to the right, it is about half an hour's walk from the 
■ TUlagtf^ In the oenMtery'Of which will bo found the 
celebrated Cahaire (Calvary), on which there is 
an assemblage of 300 figures cut in Kcrsanton stone. 
It is hold lugreatvemeration, and has been recently 
restored, but is by no meaii& a work of art. Some 
of the figures are well executed. 

The groups represent the life of our Saviour 
from lys birth to his resurrection ; those of the 
Circumcision, the Flight into Egypt, the Last 
Supper, the Washing of Feet, the Temptation, 
and Hell, are absurdly grotesque. The most 
remarkable group is that of our Saviour's tri- 
umphal entry into Jerusalem, where ho is pre- 
ceded by Bretons in their national costume of 
Bragous Bras, playing on the biniou and the 
t mbourine. This Caloaire was erected in 1602, 
to commemorate a plague which devastated that 
district in lo9S. A pardon is held here on the 
24th of June, on which day stcimboats constantly 
ply from Brest; the costumes displayed on this 
occasion are very interesting. It is also a '' Pardon 
des Olseaux." After the mass a large fair of 
birds is held ; they are brought here by the children 
in wicker baskets, made by themselves. 

To visit the Ruins of the Abbey of Landevennec. — 
By a steamer which leaves the mercantile port 
daily at 9 a.m. for Port Launay, from which it 
returns at 5-30 p.m. ; one and a half hour on the 
road. There is an hotel at Port Launay, where a 
decent breakfast can be procured; it is here that 
the ships of war which are dismantled are kept in 
reserve. The Abbey dates from the fifth century ; 
the choir is of the fifteenth. Here King Grallon 
was buried, and also S. QuenoM, the founder of the 
said abbey. 

To Visit the Caves of Morgat.—K steamer leaves 
the Commercial Port at 6-30 a.m. on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, for Le Fret, where 
a correspondence meets it, 1 franc; also on 



Sundays; it returns at 3 p.m., arriving at Brest at 
6 o'clock. Od arrival an omaibtts which U waiting 
will convey passengers to Cjumson (H<Mt De 
Morgat.) An hour's walk will bring them' fxota 
there to the Caves, to visit which a guide will 
be requisite, who may be obtained, together with 
boats^ by applying at the hotel. There are ibrea 
of these Caves ; two can be entered at lew wa^vr, 
but a boat will be necessary for the third; oue, 
named *4'Autel," from a rock ia its ca&tre. 
This grotto is truly beautiful, the rocks in the 
interior being tinted in variegated colours; the 
entrance is narrow and' low, but the vault im- 
mediately rises to the height oJt ae^rly 40 feet: 
the dimensions of tlii* cave are 160 feet long by 
50.bro«jd. Carriage from the hotel at Cro%wi to 
Douameuez, 15 to '^0 fr.; to Chateaulhi, 15 to 20fr. 

To Visit ConquH and the Abbep^if 3. MeHthifu. 
Cost of a private carriage, m ta 20 fraiifs. 
There is a diligence which loaves Brest at 7 am. 
and returns at 4 ixmw Hr- bOa.; two hours and a 
half on the road. Breakfast at the Hotel de 
Flnist^re at Kermorvaii. Mort h of Le Conquet there 
are a Cromlech of upright htunes, two dolmens, n|id 
two menhirs; tlie rt mains of the Abbey of S. 
Hatthieu and the lighthouse are distant aUout 
24 miles from the hotel, an easy walk. A corre- 
spondence from Le Cunquet to S. K^nan ajid Brest. 
A steamer to K^lcrn, touching at Camaret, leaves 
at 6-80 a.m. and roturnaat 4-0 p.m.; MondAye and 
Fridays during the winter months it returns an hour 

Visitors who wish to make an excunion about 
the harbour, or to visit the training ships, can 
hire small steamers at the mercantile port, Quai 
National, at the following rates : whilst steam ng, 
5 francs an hour ; whilst waiting, 2fr. 50c. per hour ; 
Sfr. 75q. additional has to be paid for lighting the 
fires and getting steam up. Sailing boats may be 
hured ai 10 francs per day, or 3 f rimc«.for the first 
hour, and 2 francs for each sucecediifg, houx, and 
to carry eight persons. 

Railway to Plabennoc and LftBflUtilt; t«i St. 
Renan and Ploudalm^ieait ({mge«-79t«a(fe7^ 

Diligence Office at the " Grand Turp,"Kl>. 1, Rue 
d'Alger. Diligences run to Ploagastel. fce Con- 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



quct, and T.esncvcii. Steamboat Office, Qaal du 
Port «lii Co«nmerco, Post Office, 5, Rue de rravcrae. 

Reading l?oom at Robertt' Library, Rue d' 

There arc excursions by steamboats every Sun- 
day, also 01! fgtc days and pardons (weather per- 
mitting); the bllU are published three days pre- 
viously; thf y usually leave at 9-0 a.m. and return 
at 3-0 p.m. Heturn tickets, Ifr. 50c. This is now 
the only means of seeing: the Chatcaulin river. 



By Rail, 90 miles. 

Shortly after leaving S.BrleuC, a grand viaduct, 

IDO feet high, 850 feet long, leads over the river 

Oonet, and thence the railway passes through a 

pretty country, with glimpses of the sea, to 

Ch(ltOlaTldreil(Stat.)-//o'<?Z: De France. A 
small village of 1,470 inhabitants, offering nothing 
J oiuarkable at present, but formerly the site of a 
very strong castle, built by Audren, son of Salomon, 
:: IJroton king, A.D. 446. Emile Souvestre has a very 
pathetic account in his " Derniert Bretons^"' of the 
destruction of Chatelaudren, by the bursting of a 
reservoir on the hills alwve the town. Since that 
event it has been as he described it, a ''ville mortem 
Thence by a very pretty undulating country, with 
line view of the Mencz Hills to the left, to 

Guingamp (Stat.) - From Guin, white ; camp^ 
field. Hotels: De France; de I'Duest. A very 
pretty town, situated on the river Trieux. 

Rail, opened In 1894, to Palmpol, page 79. 

It is not without a history, this old town of dark 
granite churches and houses, with its quadrangular 
Place, and pleasant rippling streams; and, more- 
over. It gives name to linen stuff that we call 

It has now a population of 9,196, but was often 
devastated and almost abandoned In the olden 
times. It was always a stronghold of the Pen- 
thibvres, and had to bear the brunt of their ene- 
mies. De Montfort's soldiers took It by asssault In 
1363, and put out the eyes of all their prisoners; 
but in the next year, when De F.lois was slain at 
Auray, the men of Guingamp hoiiourably received 
his body, and gave it iutciment. 

[Route 9. 

It was again taken, emporti de vice foree^^' by 
tlie French, during the troubles about the marriage 
of the Duchess Anne, in 1490. 

During the wars of the League a great battle 
took place here between the forces of Henry IV. 
and the combined force of the Loague(1590), without 
any definite result. . . 

There is a fountain on the Place, called the " Fon- 
taine de Plomb,'' of considerable ingenuity of design. 

The houses are very curious here, the dark 
stones and timber being set off with very white 
mortar. Several streams run through Guingamp, 
and It Is a good fishing station. 

The Church of Notre Dame de Bon Sdcours was 
rebuilt from the thirteenth to the sixteenth 
centuries; It has a great peculiarity, which Is, 
that the side aisles double on each side from the 
transepts, so that tlicre are in fact^ve aisles in the 
nave. The west front, which is highly sculptured 
and surmounted by two square towers, belongs to 
the sixteenth century ; the clock tower Is of the 
thirteenth century. On the north side of the 
church are two porches, one being of the 
thirteenth century, and containing the Image of 
Notre Dame, which Is the miracle working object 
of pilgrimage. There is a handsome Gothic altar 
of white marble in this chapel, and there are on 
caih side of it life-size figures of the Twelve 
Apostles, painted in chromatic colours. The 
windows of the church are filled with modem 
stained glass, given b}' resident families. 

The Pardon is one of the most frequented in 
Brittany, and brings together several thousands 
of visitors and pilgrims. About sunset on the 
Saturdaj' evening before the first Sunday of 
July, the pilgrims begin to arrive, dressed 
in evciy variety of costume, and the streets are 
thronged with them; they repair to the " Fontaine" 
on the Place, where they have water poured 
over their necks and up the sleeves of their 
dresses. The Madonna Is placed on a stage 
covered with ermhie, on the outside of the 
church porch ; she is dressed in a brilliant white 
silk gown, and has a gold crown on her head ; this 
last was fcnt to her from Rome in I'^S?, by tlie 
Pope, as being' tlve most popular, tlie most vcnc- 
niticd, and most miracle-working itnngc of the 


by Google 

Route 9.] 

Viigin. She is further surrounded by numerous 
figures of archangels. Here the pilgrims light their 
"cierges;" young girls cut off their baclc lialr and 
offer it to the Virgin ; other pilgrims make the 
round of the exterior of the church three times on 
their bare knees, chaplet in hand ; others devoutly 
kiss a copper-faced bust of Pius V. 

At dark, dancing to the music of the binion com- 
mences ; at nine the bells toll, the procession is 
formed and leaves the church; the streets are 
brilliantly illuminated; young girls dressed in 
white are in the front ; then follow the pilgrims, 
each carrying a lighted "clerge," and intoning a 
hymn in Latin; next come the gorgeous banners, the 
holy relics, andthe vem^ratcd image carried aloft on 
the shoulders of stout young men dressed in white 
surplices; after these follow the town authorities, 
the judges, the mayor, and the council, all in full 
costume or robes of state. The clergy in their 
splendid dresses, and the choristers in white, 
chanting, carry the Host under a baldequin of 
golden cloth; then follow nearly a thousand school 
children, dressed in white, each carrying a small 
flag, and decked with coloured ribbons ; the effect 
is theatrically beautiful. Military music forms a 
part of the procession, which, after having peram- 
bulated the town, halts on the Place, whore the 
clergy light their immense bonfires; ten thousand 
pilgrims are present with their lighted tapers, and 
all fervently repeat the "Ora pro nobis." The 
procession over, the mountebanks commence their 
saturnalia by way of varying the entertainment. 

As it is utterly impossible to accommodate the 
pilgrims in the town, tents are pitched in the 
neighbouring fields to shelter them, the haylofts 
and stables are full of them and many sleep about 
the doorsteps and in the open air. At midnight aH 
is hushed, there is a solemn mass; also another at 
daylight, at which the Holy Communion is admin- 
istered, after which the pilgrims disperse and 
return to their homes. It is next to impossible to 
describe the scenes and the contrasts which abound 
at this gathering ; more especially the collection 
of beggars,the hideous deformities of every species, 
and the mountebanks. 

A second festival is held annunlly nt tl is place, 
usually in August, called the ''Fete do St. Loup;** 
it is not a religious one, but merely a merry 



holiday, to which people come from all parts 
of the country. A meadow is prepared for the 
occasion, having a raised orchestra gaily decorated 
in its centre ; admission is obtained by ticket for 
a few sous, and dancing commences from 3 to 6 
p.m., after which all repair to the town to refresh 
themscl%*es and to rest. They i eassemble on the 
"Place" at 8 o'clock, where dancing is kept up 
until midnight, perfect decorum being observed. 
People of all classes mix indiscriminately in these 
dances; the most popular are the Ronde and the 
Dirobe€\ the latter causes much laughter and 
merriment. Several thousands of persons attend 
this merrymaking. 

The Miracle Church of Kotre Dame de Grftces, 
2 miles out of town, is worth a visit ; it has an 
eloigant spire. The details of the exterior sculpture 
are rich; the handsome porch is surmounted by 
the Arms of Brittany; the woodwork of the in- 
terior is carved, and represents hunting scenes, 
vfaies, dragons, a lion fighting a unicorn, tlie devil 
running away with a cartload of monks. The 
Vices arepourtrayed in the persons of idle, greedy, 
and avaricious monks. The windows are flam- 
boyant, and there are only two aisles; in a 
reliquairo on the south side of the altar is deposited 
what remains of the bones of Charles de Blois. 

Excursions may be made from Guingamp into 
the Tr^gorrais to the north, or into the wild moun- 
tain country to the south ; excellent fishing may 
be had in both directions. An excursion mav be 
made from here to Mael Pestivien which is not far 
from K^rien. The country about is strewed with 
enormous erratic blocks of granite ; iu a marsliy 
plain are the scattered remains of a doub'e 
Cromlech of great extent ; al)ove which there is a 
group of enormous stones whicli form an enclosure; 
the whole is surmounted by a colossal pile com- 
posed of three superimposed rocks; and there seems 
to be but little doubt that this is one of the ancient 
monuments of an extinct religion. 

At about one kilometre beyond, and near to tlie 
manor of Ker.Rohou, is a wooded hill which is 
crowned by large rounded blocks of granite, and 
a great pillar composed of two stones. There Is 
another block on the si'ie of which tiiere is a 
raised btUton^ whicli has been irorkcd on it by the 
hand of man, it rescuiblcs one on the Menhir known 
Digitized by V 



[Eoute 9. 

as Kerloaz (pag^ 79) ; the same saperstitions attach 
to it, and the same ceremonies are paid to it at night 
time; it is called "Men-ar-dragon" the dragon's 
stone, which in the Celtic mythology is believed to 
be the source of generation and of life. 

Diligences start daily from Guingarap for 
/iw»<y-omJ different places; for particulars consult 
the table of vohixslcs at the end of this work. 
Carriages for hire may be had at Mahfes, No. 18, 
Rue de St. Nicholas, or at PoulhouSts, Place de 

BeUd-lBle-en-B^gard (Stat.), or Belle-Isle- 
en-Terre, a small but picturesque Tillage, 1,929 
inhabitants, with a fair Inn (Hotel del'Ouest). Good 
fishing. Excursions to Tonquedec and Lannlon, 
north; Callac and Carhaix, south. 

Ftnist^re Department is entered before arriving 
at Ponthou, a small Tillage amid very mountainous 
scenery. The landet here stretch away for miles. 
Good shooting may be had here, but it is rather too 
near MorlaiX, for description of which see 
Route VII. 
The valley of the Morlalx river is crossed by a 
- handsome viaduct; indeed, the engineering of the 
line in this direction is very creditable. A more 
difficult country Is seldom traversed by the railway. 
PleylJer-Cairlat (Stat.>-There is a corrcspon- 
dance from here to HuelgoSt and on lo Carlialx ; 
It leaves at 10-80 p.m.; 4fr. 20c. ; 8J hours on the 
road; it is now the only public conveyance to get 
to HuelgoCt firom the north; a private carriage 
must be hired at Morlalx. 

After the station of Pleyber-Christ comes S. 
Th^goonec (Theogonia), Hotel du Commerce, at 
which a halt should be made to examine the fine 
church, which has been frequently rebuilt: the 
oldest part Is of theslxteenth century ; Itlsaremark- 
able church of the Renaissance architecture and 
' the deep cornices and entablatures, and the rich 
effect produced by buttresses and raised stones, 
will strike the visitor. Inside there are some 

• curlottssculptures In Kersanton stone. 8.Th4gonnee 

• isthe patronof cattle; a stonecarvlngofhlmlcadmg 
a cart drawn by an ox may be seen on one of the 

« l>orches. In the churchyard there is a triumphal 

arch ' of the Renaissance style, and a Calvary of 

- great merit, which was placed there in 1619. 

From here should be visited the remarkable 
Calvary of Cfuimiliau (described Route Vtl.) A 
fishing rod should be taken, as there is an excelleiit 
trout stream running up to Commanna, In the 
hills, where fair accommodation may be obtained. 
Commanna is as original a specimen of a Breton 
village as can be imaghied. Probably there was 
a religious community here (com^ gathering; 
maneuhy monk) in former days. 

LaxUHvlfliaa (Stat.)i population, 4,079 (,Hof€l: 
Du Commerce),, the next station, may bo wonh 
a halt, on account of its curious Church, with many 
statues, and to pay a visit to the country to the 
north, rich In architectural gems, particularly Lam- 
bader and Lampaul. GuimUiau may be visit ed from 
here ; It is a good walk. To Lavibader Is a five 
miles' walk. It haa a very beautiful rood-loft, and 
also a spiral staircase of the Flamboyant style, 
which were given to the church In 1481 by Marc 
de Trogrin, whose armorial bearings on a shield 
are supported between the hands of an ang^l, which 
forms part of the screen. 

Before Landomeau is reaohed the chftteau of 
Roche Maurice will be remarkeds sUnding on a 
castled crag above the river Elorn. It is called 
by Emile Souvestre the '* Breton Drachenfels," and 
has a legend to match its Rhenish rival. Its 
Calvaire is rather a remarkable monument, rich 
in architecture of the seventeenth century ; in ten 
of the panels is sculptured the Dance of Death, a 
Skeleton is pointing a dart at the assemblage and 
below it is incised *' Je vons tue tons." 
Correspondance to S. Pol de L^on daily, 2f r. 
Landanuau (Stat.)— Buffet, and a veiy toler- 
able Hotel (De rUQivers)^has &,497 inhabitants, 
and is prettily situated' on the river Elom. It 
is an old country town, havhig good houses and 
quaysalong the river'^ide, planted with trcies. The 
river Elom is here crossed by a bridge, having on 
it what is now very rare, namely, rows of houses 
on each side, as also a mill of the fifteenth century. 
A diligence leaves Landcmeau dally for Les- 
neven at 8-40 a.m. and retunis at 4 p.m. ; It is 
two hours on the road ; return ticket, 2 francs. 
This diligence leaves Lesncven at 8-40 a.m., and 
returns at 12-45 p.m. A decent breakfast can be- 
had at the Hotel de France Lcsnevcn; this is « 


by Google 

Houte 10.] 

capital way of seeing the "Folgogt" (see Route 
VIII.), which is situated at about a mile and a half 
from that town ; the road is good. A private car- 
r. age from Landerueau, 10 to 12 francs. 

iVb/e.— Passengers usually change trains at Lan- 
denieau, it being the junction of the Quest and 
Orleans lines, as also of the short line to Brest. 

LeaTlngLanderneau the vehicle passesachapel of 
thesixtcenthcentury^which is dedicated to S. Eloi, 
w)ior« there is a well-attended pardon annually. 
This saint is the patron of horses, which are all 
brought there on that day from the surrounding 
conntry ; the animals are walked round the chapel 
three times ; each time they pass before the image 
of the saint the horses are made to bend the knee 
by lifting up one of the fore legs, the bridle at the 
same time being tightly reined down, so as to 
bend the head downwards; this is considered as 
a respectful "obeisance" to the saint, after which 
formality a quantity of hair is plucked from the 
tail of each horse and is laid on the altar as an 
offering; the sale of this very peculiar offering 
produces a good round sum of money, which goes 
to the church. 

Below Landemsan the river expands into an 
estuary, and a steamer runs down to Brest. 
Several paper mills owned by Englishmen are 
erected on the rive». 

"Within easy reach are the ruins of the Chftteau 
de la Joyeuse Garde, the Fountain of Pleudivy, the 
Chapel of Beuzit, in which is a beautiful tomb of 
Oliver do la Pallue, and many other souvenirs of 
history and romance. 

Eight kilometres (5 miles) to the south-east of 
Umderneau on the Carhaix road is La ilartyre, 
where the most important horse fair in Brittany 
is lield annually on the second Monday of July and 
the two following days, to which more than five 
thousand horse-* arc usually brought. Races were 
formerly held here at the same time, but they have 
been supprcfscd. No better opportunity can be 
afforded to a visitor of seeing the various costumes, 
or studying the habits of the peasantry than at 
this fair, which is numerously attended both by 
Bretons and Normans, the latter being all horse 



The railway from Landerneau to Brest (Rri.;e 
Till.), 12 miles, passes by the Anse de KerbUOn . 
fwhich is the station for PIoug«8tel)» an inlet used 
for storing timber. TheTHopital River, which runs , 
in here, has a good reputation for salmon and . 
trout. — For the fishing about this part of Brittany, 
consult Mr. Kemp's book^published hj Longman*). 



(36 miles by rail.) 
Excursions should be made from Brest— 
1. Into the country about S. Renan^ already de- 
scribed (Route Vm.) 

By steamer (60c.) to the Peninsula of K^lern^ 
which may be said to be strewed with megalithic , 
remains in almost every direction, extending from 
Camaret to Crozofi, and on to Points de la Chevre ; 
they are inferior both in size and Importance to 
those of Erdeven and (7arn(7e, but are, nevertheless, 
very interesting, although they are rarely visited 
by tourists. The principal groups are those of 
Toulinguet near the Bay of Camaret, and those of 
Landaoudec near Le Fret, at which place the Brest 
steamers land their passengers. The ali(:uments . 
of Toulinguet run north and south, being fully 
600 yards long, and crossed at right angles by 
two parallel lines of stones; there is a ruined 
dolmen and a menhir near them. Near Camartt 
are also the two menhirs of Logoljar^ and between . 
the lines of Keleiii and the village of Rouanvel i 
there is anoilicr, each being about 12 feet high. 
Not far from the centre of the Jle Longtte, and . 
near the farm ot Leure, there are two allj^nments, , 
180 yards long, which arc crossed by shorter ones; 
and a Utile beyond the Bay of Le fret there is a 
dolmen an4 a menhir. The alignments of Landa- 
oudec will be found between the Manor of Leseoat. 
and Lanveoc, near the windmill from which they 
derive their name; they are situated on the Itf t- 
liand side, at a little distance from the road, and 
abouthalf-way to Crozon ; they are parallel, about 
850 yards long, and lead to two contiguous en- 
closures, one of which is square, the other being 
triangular. Several of these stones have been 
displaced or removed. There are also some 
menhirs near the windmill, under one of which a 
xjelt of dlorlte was dlscoyercd. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


IJRAbfiirAw's »»iT!fAxir. 

[Route 10, 

At Crozoii (ttoUl, Morgat, aee page 81) a 
vehicle can be hired. To the cast of Croxon, a 
little distance inland, and to the south of the 
ri%'er Laber, not far from the farm of Kerglentin^ 
there arc two alignments, the stones of one be'ng 
nprlght, but the others are prostrate, and almost 
concealed by the furze bushes. There is a Car- 
nclllou at the Manor of Trdheron, which is inland, 
as also a tumulus named '*Z« Tombeau cTArthus,'' 
To the north of the river there arc two dolmens 
and a short menhir ; on the Lande, near the Bay of 
Morgatte there are two mcnhfrs, 10 and 12 feet 
long respectively. Between the points of Morgatte 
»nd 8. Hernot, on a rising ground, there are the 
alignments of Kercollcoch, which terminate in a 
square enclosure, composed of a double line of 
stones, which is named ''La Maison du Curir 
Between 8. JTemot and the village of Rostudel 
there will be found a dolmen, having a capstone 
10 feet long standing on three supports. 
On the western side of the promontory, and 
near the little Bay of Locmarch, there arc 
parallel lines running north and south, a car- 
nelllou, and a menhir 12 feet high. To the 
north of Locmareh, a little way inland, and not 
far from a windmill, there are three menhirs, 
which are about 8 feet high, and a dolmen ; to the 
north-cast, and near the village of Goulven, in the 
Bay of Dinant, there is another menhir. The 
peculiarity of the alignments In this part of Brit- 
tany Is, that they are mostly crossed by others at 
right angles. 

Steamers leave Brest for Kdem and Camaret 
at 6-80 a.m. on Mondays and Fridays, leaving 
there on their return voyage at 4 p.m. Also for 
Le Fret on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and 
Sundays; returning at 3 p.m., and arriving at 
Brest about 6. Fare, SOc. To visit these Megallthic 
remains, an excurrion can easily be made from 
either of the above mentioned places, but the 
better plan will be to land at one and return 
to Brest fiom the other, which will obviate the 
fatigue and loss of time occasioned by returning 
over the same ground. 

Thecaves of Crozon (which have been described 
in Route VIII.) and the Kersantan quarries are an 
interesting study for the geologists. To the west 
ar« tbe ruiiis of the Castle of Dinant, a very strong 

place during the Wars of the Succession, and tlic 
scene of many encounters between the French and 
English as related in Froiuarfs Chronicles. It is 
often confounded with DInan, near S. Malo. 

The coast scenery is very bold and grand to the 

On a projecting cliff will be seen the remains of 
the old Abbey of Landevennee, or Lanveoc. It was 
founded, according to Breton tradition, by King 
Grallon, a.d. 44fi. The name Is probably the same 
as Landewednack, in Cornwall, where the last 
Cornish sermon was preached. 

The steamer to Port Launey and ChAteanlln no 
longer runs, but there are occasionally excnrsion 
steamers to ChAteanlin on Sundays, retnming to 
Brest In the evening. The river Antne is very 
sinuous, and the scenery Is varied and picturesque. 
Great numbers of salmon are captured here and 
at Le Faou, in traps and crulves. 

Daonlas (Stat.) The Abbey of Daoulas (or 
of the two murders) was founded In the sixth 
century, by the *' Seigneur du Faou," In expiation 
of the murder of two monks, who were killed at 
the altar by two of his adherents; whence the 
inhabitants of the locality still go by the 
"soubriquet** of doable murderers, an epithet 
liberally applied to them when they hava a dispute 
with their neighbours. The Abbey was rebuilt in 
1173, by Guyomarch, Count de Ldon; it was 
fuither restored in the 15th century. The style 
of architecture is Roman, but the monastic build- 
ings are not Interesting. The cloisters are not 
without merit, although in a dilapidated state; the 
capitals are well carved, and there is a fountain in 
^he centre, where the monks performed their 

Ch&teanllll (Stat.), population, 8,677. Jlolel: 
Grande Malson, tolerable. A pretty town, on tTio 
Aulne, and should be made a resting place for 
a day or two. The old Castle was one of tho 
dependencies of the Penthldvros, and, like the rest 
of their castles, was besieged by the Breton nobles 
and destroyed, when John Y. fell into the hands of 
Madame de Ciisson. 

Steamer to Brest occasionally, on ex^rsion 
trips. At Port Lanney, close to Ch&teaulin, a 
boat can be hired to Brest ; 31 miles, 4 hours. 

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Route lo.] 

feftEST to QttMPElt-~t»LEYBEN—- MUELGOfet. 

Corrcspondance to Cnrhalx, daily, at 8 a.m., 
pA'slMff throiigrh iMdybcn A\u\ Chftteaune«f-du- 
Faou, 5f. 20c.; a corrcspondance from Carhaix to 
Itttclgogi at 2-20 p.m., 2f. 75c. 

To the cast a pleasant excursion, combining fisli- 
Ing witli architectural study, may be made to 

Fleyben, a small town, with a very fine 
chnrdi, and one of the finest Calvaries in Finis- 
tbre. A second class /f«n (Voyageurs). 

At Logonna Quimetrh the small river Buls, 
which runs into the Aulnc, affords some fine trout 

A wild mountain rond leads up to Drastpars, from 
whence the tourist should strike off to HuelgoSt, 
where he will find very fair accommodation. 

HnelgO^t, a very charmingly situated village, 
on a fine lake, like Blenheim on a small scale. The 
population is 1,824. Hotels: Hotel do Bretagne Is 
tolerably comfortable; Hotel de France Is fair. 
The scenery is very pretty, and in the church are 
some curious carvings. Notice particularly the 

The approach to HuclgoSt is very picturesque; 
there are more than five thousand acres of woods 
and plantation*, which abound with deer, but the 
shooting is preserved. About a mile before reach- 
ing the town is the "Qonffre." The stre^im of 
water which runs through the rocks disappears 
here entirely. It runs underground and re-appears 
at about a mile lower down in the valley ; fishing 
is not permitted in the lake, but the river Aulne 
abounds with trout, and may be fished down to 

Huclgo^t, the wheal or mine in the wood, derives 
its name from extensive lead mines, which are 
worth a visit. The hydraulic pump for clearing 
the mine of water is considered a fine piece of 

The lead mines and smcUlug works of Poullaouen 
are also worth visiting. The mines hero and at 
Huelgogt have not been worked for some years. 

There are many curiosities about HuelgoSt. The 
" Menage de la Merge"' is an underground cavity, a 
short distance from the village, somewhat difiicult 
of access, but very curious. The rock is hollowed 
out into basins and cavities by the action of an 
underground stream, and Breton fancy has assimi- 
lated these cavities to a batterie de cuisine^ and 

appropriated them to the Virgin. Meuage Is 
probably a corruption of a Celtic >vr.rd weaning 
" stony," very similar in sound. It will be lound a 
cool retreat from the heat of the day and the 
ubiquitous fleas. There is a Rocking Stone near 
It, 25 feet long, 17 broad, and 14 thick; it Is 
computed to weigh about 0« tons, >it so well 
Is It poised that It Is easily made toosclllato. 

The cascades of S. IJerbot arc pretty waterfalls, 
la a romantic valley, "hut, like most %vatcr!alls,*avc 
not very important in summer. There i" gooti trout 
fishing in the stre^im below the "Cascade do 
S. Herbot." On the side of the hill beyond th6 
village, is a Dolmen of schist, nearly 40 feet long, 
and 6 feet broad: it is called "Lo Tombeau de 
Gu^orec. S. Hcrbot is one of the saints under 
whoso protection cattle are placed. The pardon la 
held In May, and lasts three days. The peasants 
assemble here from all parts of the adiacent 
country for this festival ; what ii most striking is 
the offering of (<lend) cows' tails, which arc liter- 
ally showered on the altar, besides Mhlch a hand- 
ful of hair from the tails of the animals present is 
offered to the saint ; it is estimated that the sale of 
these gifts to the church realizes about eighty 

The Church of S. Herlwt is very beautiful, espe- 
cially the rood loft, a decoration common in Breton 
churches. The renaissance and geometric carvings 
are wonderfully elaborate. 

Correspondances from Carhaix, dally, at 2-80 
p.m. ; to Carhaix at 2 a.m., dally, 2fr. 75c. ; to 
Pleyber Christ nt 6 p.m., 4fr. 20c. 

Commanna and Guimlliau (Route Vlf.) lie be- 
tween HuelgoSt and Morlaix. 

A detour may be made round by Sizun and Le. 
FaoUf near which latter place the river THopititl 
may be fished, but it Is a very barren and sparsely 
inhabited country. 

To the west of Chftteaulin should be visited the 
beautiful Bap of Douarnenez, said by cnthusiabtic 
Breton writers to be equal to tlic Bay of Naples. 
The Church of Rumengol (?from "Rcmed' ai.d 
"oil" signifying All Remedies) Is a famous pilgri- 
mage church. It is said there stood here in ancient 
times a Pagan altar, often red with human 
blood, but that on the trlunip!i t»f Christianity 
over paganism, on Its site ^vas erected a church 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 



to Ifotri Dame «k t»ut rtmide^ of •nofa |x>wer 

tliftt a |Hl«rIui«g<e to it «n Trinity Sunday^ i« eqiwl 

to A irttgrima^c to ifotne Dame de Loretie. The 

site of the city of Is, which is said to have been 

swallowed up (vide VillemnrqQe's Barzis Broiz, 

pa^ 8') is iMliered to be nenr to tlte Bay of Tr^- 

psss^, at the Tillage of ''Troguor," wiicre the 

reitialnsof manybnildingrsiind of awali, "Moguer- 

a-ls " (wall of the city of I*) will be found. 

TlMre esn lie but little doubt as a geohgicdl fact 

that tlra sea hns very moch encroached on (he land 

afbout here; indeed, at low water, the ruins of a 

number of eonstruotioBS may also be seen in the 

Bay of Andlerne; a cirenmstance which has given 

rise «a many romantic legends of cities beingjudi- 

elally swallowed nplike Sodom and Gomorrah; and 

like the fishermen of Lough Nci^h and Cardigan 

Day, the dwellers around Douamencz seem to 

*'<«• ibs vomid towen of other days 
In the warw benoath U em ibiiilDg." 

There is a very elegant charch also at Ploare, 

Whose spire may be seen far and wide. 

l>O1UnMB0B(8tatw).ffo<e/s: Du Commerce; De 
Itretagnetaud Des Voyageurs. The latter is mostly 
frequented by Parisians, which might nut prove 
•gfeeable to ladies. A thriving town of nine 
tiioas^d inhabitants, on a fine bay, having 
'•evcmii laege establishments for curing Sardines; 
twelve handred fishing boats and three hotels; 
iMdHAttch A«qnent«d daring the bathing season, 
as it Itas fine eands, and the scenery is really 
Very lovely. To the east of the town, distant 
about one kttemetre, is the rivulet of ^'Ru,"in 
which there are plenty of trout. Douameaez is a 
favourite mort of artists ; the scenery is veiy fine. 
Itailway to Pent Croix and Alldtenie (p. 89)l 
Hoats may be hired here to visit the oaves of 
■orgat, but owing to the uncertainty of the winds 
and the velocity of the tides, it is hardly recom- 
mendable to do so. The caves had better be visited 
from Brest, by the steamer to ^^Ijt Fret ''(seep. 81). 
Furmcrly 0onamenez was a little wild, wind- 
awept fishing village; and once it had a very evil 
reputation as the resort of a robber chief named 
Fontenelle, who took advantage of the disturbed 
state x>f the eountry during the religious wars to 
«oUeot around him a band of brigands, who 
committed terrible atrocities upon the peasants, \ 

[Route 10. 

and long defied jfisliee. He was at length captuif^d 
and broken upon the wheel. 

From ChAteaulin, Quimper may be reached in less 
than an hour by rail; about 2 hours by road, orer 
a very hilly country. 

Qate^n^veil (Btatb) A oorrespondancewalts 
here to convey passengers to LOGronaa (6} miles), . 
where there is a good charch of the IMh century; 
the pulpit, of the 17th century, is carved and 
represents the legend of S. Ronan, the costume of 
the figures is of the 14th centcry ; on the south 
side of the aisle is tlie Chapel of Ponit^ (1680), 
containing the massive mausoleum of S. Honan, 
supported by six angels; sick persons crawl under. 
It to be healed of their infirmities. About l\ mile 
to the north is the village of FloUVOieiPorBay, 
where, on the last Sunday in September, tlierc is 
held the most renowned Pardon in Lower Brittany ; 
it is known as *^ Le Grand Pardon de Notre Dame 
de la Paine;" the church is modem, but the 
venerated statue of the Virgin, which is of gran'tc, 
dates back to 1548. Plouvenez Porzay can also 
be conveniently visited from Donanieuez, from 
which it is distant about 5| miles. 

Quimper (Stat.) Population, 17,406. The 
chief to%vn of the department of Fiuistbre is a 
dean, well-built town, with well preserved walls 
and towers. It stands on the banks of the River 
Odet, which is navigable to the sea for small 
vessels up to 80O tons. 

The principal Hotel (De VEp^e) havipg come into 
new hands, is now a good and comfortable house. 
There is also the Hotel de France (good). When 
we speak of hotels in Brittany, the visitor is 
requested to divest himself of any preconceived 
idea of hotels derived from large towns at hocie 
or abroad. The style Is very rough and not par- 
ticularly ready; jugs and basins are scarce and 
of the smallest conceivable dimensions, and the 
traveller must provide his own soap. 

Qubnper had a very strong castle in former days. 
It was built by Peter Mauclerc, and often taken and 
retaken in the Civil Wars. It was held by DeMont- 
f ort during the War of the Succession, but taken In 
1844 by Charles De Blois, as his panegyrists say, 
miraculously- the sea refusing to flow in order to 
give the assailants time to escalade the YlAce of the 
Castle, which hangs C^ver th^ tidal river 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Rottte 10.] 

The principal lion of Quimper is the Cathedral 
dedicaled to 8. Corentin. It waa commenced in 
1239; the west front, with its liandsomely cut 
portal, and the towers, were built in 1424; the 
nave, transepts, and side aisles were built at 
the same period. Two spires, 250 feet high, by 
Mona. Bigot, were added iu 1858, the cost being 
defrayed from the proceeds of a hal -penny sub- 
scription throughout the diocese for 5 years, under 
the title of " Sou de S. Corentin; " the sum col- 
lected wa4 153,00 ) francs. The dimensions of this 
church are 322 feet long, 152 broad, and 65 high 
under, the vault of the nave. The west porch is 
ornamented, by a triple row of sculptured angels, 
above which are heraldic escutcheons of Duke 
John v., and of three of the ancient noble families ; 
between tlie spires, and on the angle of the gable, 
there is a modem equestrian statue of King 
Grallon. The interior has been well restored, but 
the cffeet has been unfortunately spoiled by the 
deviation of the chancel to the north. There is 
some old painted glass in the clerestory; the 
palpit, which is carved and gilt, la an exquisite 
tpecimen of the B^naiasance. 

S. Corentin waa a Breton saint, and slionld be the 
paitron of tnglera. " The Bon Dieu,'* aaya Albert 
Le Grand, *'«ent him « singular fiah into the foun- 
tain of his hermitage, which came every morning 
at hia eall to hav^ a ilioe oat off for the saint's 
breakfaat, uid ^en »w«m away as lively as ever.'' 

Tliere are g«ne«alLy a few Bnglish reaidents at 
Qttlmper-; there la als» a We^yan Mission. It 
haa «n 'aj(r«ieal>te pnbtte walk; the hill over the 
Chiimp de Mars, wMoh ta well wooded, has been 
out Into algsnga leading np to the top, from 
wbelioe fhere ia a goodsviewof the river. Good 
oMna (f aiSnee) la prodacjMi here. On the Flace ia 
ft Mliseiim,'and a atattM to Dr. Laennec. 

Private carrtayea may'^lM hired at. the coach 
office on the Place, near tlw Cathedral. Railway 
rtaoM from Donarnrenez to Pont Croix (Hotel: 
Sargeant) and Andieme (Hotel: Du Commerce). 
it ia an easy walk to Pont TAbb^ Station, Pen- 
March, and Kerity; a carriage, 7f . Hotel at Pont 
I'Abb^; da Hamel. The whole district is strewn 
with megalithic remains. 

In.Noyeu^ber, 1879, M. Da ChAt^lier opened 
a tomulaa at Kerhu^-Braa, 8 kilos, beyond Ploa- 



gaatel St. Germain, and 18 from Qutmper. There . 
are three tumuli here, the two smaller ones having 
been previously opened. The ttimulua, recently 
explored, has a diameter of 180 feet and is 20 foot 
high. It is composed entirely of earth. On 
digging down 15 feet, a carefully arranged aton ) . 
roof (to prevent infiltration) waa arrived at ; under 
it were two capstones, 6 feet 6 inches by 7 feet, and . 
9 fe t 6 inch<fs by 1 1 feet, and 1 foot i inches thick, 
roapectively ; the chamber below being 8 feet long, 
4 feet 6 inches broad, and 4 feet high. It was . 
nearly full of fine earth: there waa no allee, both 
enda being closed by stones laid acrosa and rest- 
ing againat the supports. After removing the 
earth from the interior a quantity of oak boards ^ 
waa found, together with a thick bod of oak leavcM, 
among which were some acorns and beech nuts, . 
in a good state of preaei-vation. Hero were also 
86 barbed flint arrow heads, and one of rock 
crystal, one of the former having still a part of its 
wooden shaft attached to it; two bronze axes, the 
largest one having a sheath to it of the s^mc 
metal; a bronze sword, which had been broken in 
two places at the time of interment; six bronze 
daggers, one having a hafting of wood in a fair 
state of preservation, another with its blade waved ' 
(like a Malay kria), and two being bent double; 
some com crushers, and some sherds of pottery. 
The floor of the western extremity was thickly 
covered with ashes and charcoal, amongst which 
were found the remains of incinerated human 
bones, alongside of which had been placed the 
broken aword and the largest axe. At a littlo 
distance from them lay a polished stone having 
flattened sides and concave ends; it waa 22 inches 
long, and is supposed to be a Commander's baton. 
The chamber had been dug down to the rock, and 
2 feet 6 inches below the level of the soil. This 
collection is now at M. Du Chfttclier's residence, 
Kemuz, at Pont I'Abbd. It is well worth the' 
attention of antiquaries. 

The wild country toward Andieme may bo 
visited from Quimper. About f of a mile f roni^ 
Audieme ia to be found a remarkable ancient 
monument, combining the worship of springa 
with that of atonoa, which were held in veneration 
by the Celts. This monament is a Dolmen over, 
one of these sacred springs; it consists of a hori- 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


BRAl5«tti.\v'8 flttlffAl^t. 

[Route 10. 

2ohtal slab, supported on t«ro upright stones, at a 
height of about d feet from the ground. tJnder 
this stone there is a square basin, formed of stone 
slabs, which receives tho water of this spring. 
The monument is unique, being the only one of the 
kind in Brittany. In favourable weather one may 
get across the bay to the Isle of Sein, an island 
said to be the same as that mentioned by Pomponius 
Mela, where dwelt the Druid priestesses. South- 
wards lies the Bay of Tr^pruse's, i.e. Deadmen's Bay, 
a desolate scene, where the sea is always edds'lng 
and chafing against the roc1c8,and not unfrequcntly 
" the surges sweep their burden" of corpses, tr^- 
passds, upon the steep rocks, and the hard sea sand. 
Several corpses from the wreck of the ill-fated 
London were cast ashore here in January, 1866. 

This part of the coast had always an evil reputa- 
tion for wrecks and wreckers. Indeed, the treat- 
ment of shipwrecked mariners by the Bretons was 
in former times most barbarous; but it must be 
remembered that almost every keel that floated 
to their shore bore enemies and invaders. Tho 
right of ^^floUam and jetsam'" of any particular 
part of the coast was a reg^ilar freehold, and, if 
in a favourable locality for wrecks, was worth a 
large sum. Free passes were granted to mariners 
to secure them from pillage and murder in case of 
shipwreck, a fate which they almost inevitably 
encountered, if they refused to purchase the im- 
munity at a heavy rate. 

Megalitliic relics strew these wild districts, 
and a grander sight cannot be seen than the 
great Atlantic waves dashing against the 
opposing breast of the "Rocher de la Torchc" 
of Pen-March, and the Reefs of Tal Yvern, 
on the western shore. Near Pen-March, in 
a field belonging to a farm called Kerscaven, 
are two large menhirs, 21 feet high. One of 
them is remarkable, it being larger at the top 
than at the base ; it has been well scored by the 
elements, and resembles a half-open fan. The 
plateau of Pen- March is covered with ruins, and 
buildings of the 15th and 16th centuries (some of 
the latter having been fortified), and extending 
over nearly 4 miles, the remains of the once 
opulent and flourishing port of Pen-March. Six 
of its ancient ehapels and churches still exist. On 
the south-eastern side Is the village of Kerity, 

which once fcrmedapart of the town; the light- 
house on the point is 130 feet above tlic level of 
the sea, and Its light is visible at a distance of il 
miles. To the north of Pen-March there are tWd 
truncated tumuli ; the highest has served as a 
battery; its height is 20 feet, its diameter at the 
base is 130 feet. When opened in 1861, It was 
found to be composed of earth and stones, among 
which wore found Roman iron arms, bronze coins, 
and charcoal. On digging down, an elliptical 
chamber, with a side one and an allee, were met 
with, the walls being of dry masonry ; a number 
of human bones were found, but they fell to 
pieces when exposed to tho atmosphere; there 
were also sherds of pottery, a small celt, chnrcoqj, 
and twenty bronze coins of Constantino Junior. 
In 1879 an allie couverte was found in the 
same tumulus, its entrance quite near the first 
one; it contained quantities of sherds of very 
coarse and badly fired pottery, flint chips, stone 
burnishers, two well polished pendants, a barbed 
flint arrow head, two flint scrapers, and three 
urns. It is remarkable that one place of sepulture 
has urns and coins of the Roman empire, whereas 
the second had only neolithic stone implements 
and pottery of the same period. About 200 yards 
from KenigoUf and near the village of Kervilor, 
in the commune of Tr^fiagat^ there are the remains 
of a dolmen, having two chambers 4 feet by 6 feet 
and 7 feet by 6 feet, and 4 feet high. On its 
paved floor, which was covered with rubbish, were 
found charcoal, potsherds, flint chips, and stone 
hammers; there were also chambers below the 
pavement, which contained four urns, a ham- 
mer of trap, some small earthen cups; and a celt of 
red fibrollte. About 800 yards from here, on an 
uncultivated plateau, there is a dolmen named 
Pen-ar-Menez, which was quite filled up wiih earth 
and stones; it had twoehambors in which were 
found charcoal, numerous potsherds, a pendant 
of red treraolite, as also a piece of schist hollowed 
out in the shape of a spoon. A third dolmen near 
here Is in ruins. 

The commune of Ploubalanec is literally covered 
with megalithlc remains ; they are to the south 
between the village and the sea ; the villages of 
QuSlarut Ifoustoir, Kervignm^ and Keradel have 
twenty Dolmens between them. The village of 

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Route 10.] 

finest to QutMi*Ett— QinirteR. 


LtKonil has a nccl^opolis covering more than 20 
acres, Ti-here there arc several dolmens and 
tumuli. In one of the fields of Keradel there was 
recently found buried a sculptured Menhir of 
granite, which weighs five tons ; it is now in the 
grounds of the chateau of iCetTtur. Its len<i:th is 

9 feet 6 inches, and its diameter at the base is 3 feet 
6 inches; it has four sculptured niches at its base, 
which contains figures carved in low relief; 
the first representing Mercury and a child, the 
second Hercules, the third Mars, and the fourth, 
which has been greatly damaged by the plough 
share, is supposed to be Apollo. Mons. Du Cfafttd- 
lier has at his chateau of Kernuty beyond Pont 
TAbbd, A most interesting collection of Celtic and 
Roman antiquities which have been found in the 
neighbourhood Three kilometres to the north- 
north-west of Ploemeur is situated the Chapel of 
Bcnzcc. Al^ut 400 yards south of it is the chamber 
of Kerougou; it has an all^ all the capstones of 
which have disappeared except one; it terminates 
in three sepulchral chambers communicating with 
each other, and containingquantitles of coarse pot- 
sherds; in tlie left chamber were three ornamented 
urns, a pendant of rock crystal, and a celt of 
diorite ; in the centre chamber were four 
urns and a celt of fibrolite which was perforated; 
in the right chamber there was much charcoal, 
stone hammers, sherds of pottery, and a great 
quantity of flint chips scattered about, four small 
urns, a small celt of fibrolite, and a stone muller 
for grinding grain ; no traces of bones were found, 
only charcoal and fine ashes. At about €00 yards 
from Pen-ar-MeneZy in the same commune, there 
are three menhirs lying north-west and south- 
east; two are about 13 feet high, and one is about 

10 feet. 

At the western extremity of the commune of 
8t, Jean Trimoulin will be found many megalitbic 
monuments, near which a Roman Camp was dis- 
covered iu 1876. Some of its walls and those 
of two of the houses were iutact ; much pottery, 
some of which was Samian, was found here, with 
several statuettes of Venus and Lucina; great 
quantities of flanged tiles (tegulae), bones, and 
shells; also a considerable number of bronze 
coins dating from the reigns of Augustus to Con- 
stantine, as also three of silver of Aitgustus and 

Valerius; a great quantity o( Iroh ftrms, including 
spears, daggers, swords, rilid sword scabbards; 
numerous bronze fibulae, pins and jewelry, as 
also bone tools. Stone implements were scarce; 
there %vas only one barbed flint arrow head, with 
broken celts of diorite, some burnishers and 
querns. To the south of the village of Kerviltre, 
and near to it, is a field named Pare-ar-Men- 
hir, where formerly stood five menhirs. A 
necropolis of the Gallo-Rcman period evidently 
existed here; several skeletons were found in 1874, 
and many urns containing calcined bones and 
ashes, also bronze implements, three gold brace- 
lets, and some thin plates of the same metal. In 
1875 a great number of urns filled with ashes and 
bones, and each covered with a flat stone disc, 
also several skeletons, were found, together 
with a gold torque, bronze bracelets, and much 
jewelry of the latter metal; cinerarj' urns and 
skeletons were found in every direction; the 
latter had bronze bracelets on the arm bones. The 
peculiarity of this necropolis is that both inhuma- 
tion and incineration were co-existent. Some time 
since a quantity of bracelets was found near this 
necropolis, with spear heads, flanged and winged 
celts, and some daggers, all of bronze, and strung 
together by a bronze wire. About 20O yards 
from this necropolis the land is covered with 
mounds of from 6 to 15 feet high, containing 
the remains of the circular habitations of the 
race who arc buried in it. There still remain 
more than one hundred of these mounds; some 
having been opened and found to contain 
wattled cloy walls, coarse pottery, bones, shells, 
sharpening stones, pieces of querns, and some 
fragments of bronze fibulas. At the village of 
TregueneCy not far from the Presbytere, and about 
400 yards north of it, there was found in 1877, in 
a field on rising ground, named Menez Rous, a 
circular construction resembling that at Nignol, 
near Camac ; it is built of dry masonry, and has 
a diameter of 20 feet ; within the circle there was 
found charcoal, flint chips, implements of mica, 
schist, flat spear heads, and one celt. Within the 
circle were found urns containing calcined bones 
and ashos, each urn being covered by a disc of 
schist, and contained in a stone chamber. In 1876, 
a tumulus was opened ftt the village of Crou' 

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[Uoute 11. 

90«, facing thg Bay of Audierne, in the commune 
of Plovan. It lias a diameter of 140 feet, and 
Is 14 feet high ; it contains a dolmen and 
an alUe, the length of which is 42 feet; the 
breadth of the chamber is 9 feet, that of the alUe 
is 5 feet; its entrance faces the sonth-east, and it 
consists of 21 supports and 6 capstones; charcoal 
was found everywhere in it, also two flint knives, 
a quantity of potsherds, some of which were 
ornamented, the greater part being in the Mee; 
several well-preserved urns and small celts were 
found in the chamber, the flooring of which had 
bceji made witli rolled pebbles from the sea shore. 
For rail to Yannes and Nantes, see Routes XIL 
and XIII. A carriage may be iiired at Pont TAbb^ 
to visit Kerity and Pen-March, distant 4 miles. 
Note. — Ladies will require one if they desire to see 
Fen-March, unless they can traverse 8 miles of 


iHi^ Bbittant, VI Railway. 

The dii^t route is by Orleans, Tours, and 
SauMur-to Aifgers^ but Le Bfims is worth » visit 
for those who- iMTe time to spare. 

Paris to Le Mans, 126 mil6s (Route I.) Le Mans 
toNaritcs, by Angers, 111 miles. 

From. Le Mans (Stat.) {Buffet. Hotels: Dauphin ; 
Boulc d'Or; dc France; Grand Hotel ; du Maine; 
and, near the Railway Station, H6tel de Paris) the 
railway follows the course of the little river Sarthe, 
through a picturesque and fertile country. The 
only remarkable town is Sable, near which is a 
Benedictine Monastery, called the Abbey des 
Solesmes, worth visithig; also the Chftteau Gon- 
ticr, about 10 miles west. Hotels at Sabld, Notre 
Dame and Du Commerce. Diligence to Solesmes. 

Angers (Stat.) Buffet. Population, 72,669. 
Hotels: D'Anjou; Grand Hotel; du Cheval Blanc; 
de I'Europe. Cafes: Grand; du Passage; du 
Thdatre; and de France. Cab fores: the course, 
75c.; per hour, Ifr. 60c A fine town, on the 
Maine, about 5 miles above its junction with the 
Loire. Thougli much modernised since the period 
v^hen it was a renowned fortress, it still retains 
much oT itfe former cbarifteter. - 

*'By hcftvcn I these scroJIeB of Antfett ftout you, KIdcb, 
And stand securel j on theli bAttlemenU." 

— Knro SoKiS, Act IT. 

It is no longer "Black Angers," being as bright 
a looking town as any in France. The old castle, 
cathedral, several churches, public gardens, and 
two museums, deserve a visit. St. Maurice's 
Cathedral contains a large and very beautifully 
sculptured modern pulpit, forming a religious 
allegory; also some remarkable old tapestry, the 
gift of King Rend (1480), and his bdnltler. 

A steamer leaves the Quai de Ligny daily at 
7 am. for Nantes; also one from Quai des Llscttes 
to Chateau Gonthier (6 hours) ; fare, »f . 50c. 

Soon after leaving Angers, the railway comes in 
sight of the River Loire, alongside which it runs to 

S. Georges is the station for ChdUonnes, on the 
other side of the Loire, reached by » suspension 
bridge. There Is a fine church at Savdnifercs, close * 
by. ChamptOC^ (Stat.), a small village, with a 
fine old castle in ruins, once the residence of Gillcs 
de Retz, whose crimes and punishment will be des- 
cribed under Tiffauges, another of his residences. 
Ingrandes (Stat. ) is on the boundary between the 
Loire Infdrieure, and Maineet Loire; consequently, 
we here enter the ancient department of Brittany. 
Varades (Stat.) HoUl: Des Voyageurs. The 
place where the Veudean army under D'Elbde Bon- 
champs and La Rochejacquelin, crossed the Loire, 
after their defeat at Chollet, by the republican 
forces under Westermann. The passage of the 
fugitives with their wounded and a panic-stricken 
multitude, 80,000 in all, was effected from the flat 
shore under the heights of S. Florent opposite, 
under circumstances of great distress and diffi>. 
culty. Its description by Madame de la Roche- 
iacquelin, is very graphic and pathetic. 

Bonchamps, the Yendcan leader had been mor- 
tally wounded at the Battle of Chollet, and, indeed, 
he expired shortly after passing the Loire; but his 
last moments were spent in encouraging the flying 
multitude, and obtaining boats for their passage; 
while his name will always be illustrious from 
his courageous exertions to save the lives of the 
prisoners, 5,000 in number, whom the Vendeans 
had determined to massacre before crossing the 

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Route 11.] 

The tomb of Bpnchamps, in S. Florent charch, is 
•urmonnted by a life-size flgnrc of the hero in 
white marble, as he might have appeared, when 
appealing from the pallet on which he lay dying, 
to the mercy of the other Vcndean leaders. The 
famous words, '■^grdce aux prisonnLvf!" are en- 
graved on the sarcophagus which contains his 

AnceniB (Stat), population, 5,141. Hotel: De 
France. From this station there is a road into 
La Vendue, across the Loire by a handsome sus- 
pension bridge. La Vend<J© may also be visited by 
rail from Augers. 

It was here that the shattered remains of the 
Vendean army, under La Rochejacquclin, which 
had crossed the Loire at S. Florent, a few weeks 
before, endeavoured to rccross it after their terrible 
defeat at Lc Mans, by the republican army under 
Marcean. Disappointed of this hope by the vigil- 
ance of the enemy, the Venddans were hurled back 
into Brittany, and after an ineffectual stand at 
Savcnay, were cut to pieces. 

On the further side of the Loire may be discerned 
the remains of the Castle of Champtoceau (perhaps 
Chantoiscaux), an old feudal strong-hold of the 
Penthievres. It was to this castle that Margaret 
of Clisson decoyed the young Duke of Brittanj-, 
John v., under pretence of a hunting party, in 1417, 
and seized him and kept him as a prisoner. He 
was separated from his companions by the appa- 
rently accidental breaking of a foot bridge, and 
immediately surrounded by the adherents of Mar- 
garet. He was transferred from castle to castle, 
but ultimately the Breton nobles took up arms for 
his deliverance. 

This warfare led to the entire overthrow of the 
Penthi^vre faction, and the destruction of their 
strongholds, particularly Lamballe, Jugon, Guin- 
gamp, La Roche Derrien, ChAteaulin, and Josselin. 
The raUway continues to follow the right bank of 
the Loire, which Is here studded with islands, past 
the stations of OudOZl and ClainilOnt, with Its 
lofty castle-crowned crags, and over a long alluvial 
plain for 20 miles, until the grand old towers and 
fortifications of Nantes appear in view. 

Nantes (Stat.)— flwif**'- HoteU; Dc France, 
Place Grnslln. good, and has baths; Dc Pari?, 


3, Rue BoUeau (a family hotel);. Do Bretsgnc, 
a new building In Rue de Strasbourg; comfort- 
able andmoderate; frequented by Breton noblesse; 
Du Commerce et dcs Colonlc»«, 12, Rue Santcull 
(commercial travellers). There arc several hotels, 
but the above are the rao^t rcconimendaMc. 

Cafes: De France and Grand Cafe' on the Place 

Its population Is 122,750. It lies 240 miles south- 
west of Paris. There are resident Eng'Uh and 
American C<m«tt/s,.but English residents are few. 

Post-Offico, Qual Brancas, not far fcom the 
Bourse. Telegraphs at the Post Office. 

Guide books, maps, ^.,'may be purchased at 
Libraire Yeloppd, comer of Rue Jean Jaques 
Rousseau and the Quai de la Fosse; or at Morels, 
30, Rue Crdblllon. Passengers for St. Nazaire, 
Le Croislc, Le Poaliguen, and Guerrande should 
book at the station, Quai de la Fosae. 

Cah /Virei.— Cabs (1 wheels, 2 horses) from G mldnlifht: course, Ifr. 60c.; by the hour, 
\fr. 76c. From mUliiight to 6 a.m.: coureo, 3/r. 2Stc.; 
by the hour, ^ft'. 25c. Second following hours 
before midnight, !/»•. 60ie. ; after midnight, ^r. 2*10. 

English Chnreh Service at noon on Sundays in the 
French Protestant Temple. Rue de Gigant. 

Nantes, the most considerable town,- and some- 
time the capital of Brittany, Is situated on the right 
bank of the Loire, along which Its noble qnays 
extend for nearly 2 miles. The Loire has forced for 
itself numerous channels through the flat plain, 
and Nantes is approached, from the south side by 
no less than seven bridges. 

The port has of late become very much silted 
up, and a oanal Is being constructed to admit 
yeaaels drawing 16 feet. 

The history of Nantes dates from a Tery early 
period. It was the capital of the Nanneies, a power- 
ful tribe, who revolted with the Veneti against 
the Roman dominion, and with them suffered exem- 
plary punishment at the hand of Julias Csraar. 

It is styled, with Rennes, a'^rt//cmaMe«reuM'* by 
Dara^ from Its having suffered Innumerable sieges 
and assaults. The early Breton kings held their 
court here: but in a.d. 490 it was sacked by the bar- 
barian Alani. and only recovered by Budic after a 
siege of 60 days. In 094 it was taken by Hoel III, 

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In tho beginning of the nintli centary Nomenoe set 
up his throne here; bat from the middle to tho close 
of tho century, it suffered repeated incursions from 
the Normans, who utterly wrecked and devastated 
the city. In 938, Alain IV., sumamed "Barbe 
forte," after a long exile in England, landed at Dol, 
and making his way as far as Nantes, drove out 
the barbarians. .Wo are told that when he desired 
to go to the cathedral to return thanks for his 
successful enterprise, so ruined was the city, that 
he was forced to cut away the brambles with his 
blood-stained sword in order to reach the entrance. 

The Dukes ofBrittany held their court sometimes 
at Nantes, sometimes at Rennes ; but it was re- 
marked in the twelfth century that the men of 
Nantes, chiefly from their commercial relations 
with foreigners, had become Anti-Breton in their 
principles, and refused to acknowledge the counts 
of Rennes, Yanncs, or OomoualUe as their sove- 

Nantes had its share in all the troubles of Brit- 
tany during the Wars of the Succession and the 
League. Anne of Brittany was bom here. When 
Henry IV. paid a visit to Brittany, after the dis- 
comfiture of the Duke de Mercosur and his partisans, 
he took up his quarters in the Castle of Nantes. He 
was astonished at tho grandeur of tho city, and 
exclaimed, '' Ventre-Saiat-OrU, les dues de Bretagne 
n'etaient pas de petits compagnons:' It was at 
Nantes that Henry IV. signed the famous JSdkt^ 
in 1598, which confirmed the rights of Protestants 
to exercise their religion, which Edict Louis XIV. 
revoked in 1685. 

The history of Nantes must ever be tarnished by 
the stain left upon it by the atrocities committed 
by Carrier and his associates during the Revolution. 
The "Noyades" and the "Mariages rdpubli- 
cains" during which 80,000 persons perished, 
can never be effaced from the page of history. 
At the Palais de Justice, Hue Lafayette, may 
be seen some characteristic minutes of the 
Revolutionary tribunal, including the names and 
professions of about 150 men sentenced to death 
daily, *'pour avoir port^ Ics armes centre la 
Patrie;" and also of 50 women "pour avoir 
suivi les brigands." The Vend^ans, too, sus- 
tained heavy losses in and about Nantes. 

In later times, in 1832, the Duchcsse do Bcrri, who 

[Route 11. 

had long sustained the hopes of the Bourbon fac- 
tion in Brittany, was taken prisoner at a house, 
8, Rue du Ch&teau. She and her companions 
were concealed in a small cavity at the back of a 
fire-place, but a party of soldiers, who were on the 
look out for them, lighted a fire on the hearth, 
and the heat and the smoke caused the fugitives 
to betray their whereabouts. 

The CathedfxU of S. Pierre is externally an un- 
sightly building, being unfinished. Works have 
been going on for years to carry out the original 
design, which has been completed, so far as the 
body of the church is concerned. It is said to be 
erected on the spot where S. Felix built a hermi- 
tage, or church, a.d. 570, which was replaced in the 
twelfth century by a Roman Basilica; the present 
building dates from 1484. The western facade, 
with Its throe lofty portals, Is remarkable for the 
numerous bas-reliefs and sculptures, representing 
the Last Judgment ; it was finished In 1491. The 
two towers are still unfinished, and. In fact, hardly 
rise above the roof. The nave is lofty and well 
proportioned; it has a height of 120 feet under 
the vault. At the rear of the present apse Is the 
new choir with side chapels ; It Is being built In 
harmony with the nave. The south transept 
contains the superb monument of Francis the 
Second, Duke of Brittany, and of Margaret de 
Folx, his second wife, a masterpiece of the 
Renaissance, sculptured In 1507 by Michael 
Colomb; its form is that of a large altar tomb, 
and it is constructed of coloured marbles. It is 
9 feet G inches long, by 4 feet 6 Inches broad, and 
of the same height ; and Is covered by a black 
marble slab, on which lie the recumbent figures 
of the Duke and Duchess, their heads being sup- 
ported by angels. At the angles are placed four 
white marble statues, of nearly life-size, repre- 
senting Justice with the sword and scales (which 
is said to be a likeness of the Duchess Anne) ; 
Power, strangling the dragon of heresy ; Wisdom, 
double faced, holding a mirror and a compass; 
Prudence, bearing a lantern and a horse's bit. At 
the sides are statuettes, in niches, of the 
Twelve Apostles ; at the head, those of S. Francis 
d'Assls and S. Margaret; at the foot those of 
Charlemagne and S. Louis. Below these there 
are sixteen mourninjr figures in dark marble, their 

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Route 11.] 

hoads, hands, and feci being of white marble. 
This tomb was first erected in the Carmelite 
chnrch, but was violated in 1793, and the pieces 
were scattered. It was restored and placed where 
it is now in 1815, and the remains of Arthur the 
third Duke (Richmont), Constable of France, who 
contributed greatly in driving the English out of 
Brittany, in the reign of Charles VII., were 
placed in it at that time. The four statues merit 
especial attention, particularly that of Wisdom ; 
they are designed in good taste, and the execution 
is exquisite, especially that of the draperies. 

In the north transept is a monumental tomb to 
General Lamorici^re, in the Italian Renaissance 
atyle, much resembling that of Henri II. at S. 
Denis. Black marble columns support the entabla- 
ture, beneath which lies the efflgy of the hero of 
Constantina and the soldier of the Pope in white 
marble. The sculpture is exquisite, especially 
that of the winding sheet. The face is uncovered, 
and he presses to his breast a crucifix; his motto, 
*'• Spet mea DeuSy'" is inscribed on the upper part, 
and is frequently repeated. At the angles are 
four allegorical figures in bronze— namely. Faith, 
Charity, Military Devotion, and History. At the 
foot is a medallion with the busts of the general's 

The bas-reliefs of the organ (fifteenth century) 
deserve attention. To the right and the left of the 
organ are four statues; one is a Duke of Brittany, 
the other three are bishops. Some of the sidechapels 
are also worthy of notice, especially the second in 
the left aisle, that of S. Donatien, the patron saint 
of Nantes ; also the third one on the same side, 
'*La chapelle du Saint Sacrement," which has some 
good painted glass ; the last one, in the right aisle, 
has some good wood carvings, and a painting of S. 
Clair healing the blind ; the painted glass window 
represents the same subject. S. Nicholas, Place 
Royal, was built in 1844 (style, thirteenth century) ; 
its spire is 276 feet high. The interior of this, as 
also of almost every one of the modem churches of 
Nantes, has been spoiled by the walls being ruled 
into squares. The other churches are S. Croix, 
behind the Place BoufFay ; S. Ciair; S. Jacques; 
8. Donatien ; Tlmmacul^e Conception. Nearly the 
whole of these have been recently restored, which 
gives them a chalky appearance. 



Nantes possessed the first College in France, 
founded by Francis II., Duke of Brittany, in 1468. 
It was endowed with 78 professorships. 

The old Castle stands not far from the railway 
station; it was founded in the 10th century, an 1 
was reconstructed in 1466, by Duke Francis II; it 
was finished by his daughter Anne of Brittany, 
who was born here in 1477. She was married in 
the Castle Chapel in 1498, to Louis XII, of France, 
which building was destroyed in the year 1800, by 
the explosion of the powder magazine. The Castle 
has lately been rebuilt, but it still retains many 
traces of its antiquity. It contains a good armoury, 
and from the top of its tower there is a splendid 
view of the Loire, and its numerous bridges, aa 
also of the town of Nantes, and of the surrounding 
country. The curtain wall is shewn from which 
Cardinal De Retz let himself down by a rope into 
a boat on the Loire, whilst his friends diverted tba 
attention of the guards, and so eflfected his escape 
from prison in 1684. Strangers are not fadmitted 
to view the Castle after 4 p.m. The quays are 
much spoilt as a promenade by the railway run- 
ning along them. There are large manufacturet 
in Nantes; sugar refining is carried on to a large 
extent, also the packing of preserved comostiblcH, 
particularly sardines from the coast of Brittany. 

At the back of the Cathedral is the Boulevard 
Louis Seize, which has on it a granite column 
(90 feet), surmountel by a statue of that king, 
by Molchnecht. The Cours de S. Pierre and S. 
Audrd Join this boulevard, at the extremity of 
which, facing the river, and on each side of the 
steps, are four mediocre statues of Anne of Brittany, 
Arthur III. (Richmont), Duguesclin, and Oliver 
de Clisson. On the right side of this promenade 
is the Rue Felix, In which is situated the ancient 
Church of the Oratoire, now converted into an 
Archreological Museum ; the collection (open Sun. 
and Thurs., 12 to 4) consists principally of some 
curious fragments of sculptured church archi- 
tecture, amongst which will be noticed a represen- 
tation of the Devil running off wi:h a soul, some 
Roman military landmarks, and about 400 coins 
and medals. The sword of Charrette, the Chouan 
leader, who was shot at Nantes in 1796, Is kept 
here, as also that ofQeneral Cambronne : the latter 
in a glass case. The Rue du liyce'c, which is close 

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to the mnienm, leads to the Public Garden, in 
which are probabl}'- some of the finest avenues of 
magnolias in Franco ; it has of late years been 
Tery tastefully laid out with pretty rookeries, 

-^ grottoes, cascades, and bridges; it well merits a 
visit. A band plays on Sundays and fSie days. 
In the centre of the town is the " Place Royale," 
where there is a handsome grauito Fountain, 
having on the basement four bronze nymphs, 
which symbolize the rivers "Sfevre, Erdre, 
Cher, and Loire." Above them is a series of 
bronze dolphins, and above all a statue in white 
marble of the City of Nantes. The ** Passage de 
la Pommaraye" is an arcade, which connects by 
iron staircases the streets ** de la Fosse and de 

' Cr^billon ;" it has three galleries, and is considered 

' one of the curiosities of the town. 

The Cours Cambronne is in the west end, and 
next to the Place Graslin; in the middle of the 
. former there is a bronze statue of General Cam- 
. bronne, erected in 1848; he is represented as hold- 
ing a tattered French flag against his heart, and 
defending it with a sword in his right hand ; on 
the pedestal there is a bronze plate, on which 
. appears, in raised letters, *' La garde meurt raais 
ne se rend pas " (a saying attributed to him, but it 
seems without authority) ; on the side of the granite 
pedestal is incised '' Waterloo, June 18th, 1815. " 
The Theatre is on the Place Graslin, but does not 
merit any especial notice. The west end of the 
town was commenced in 1784 by Monsieur Graslin, 
a ^'fermier g^n^ral;" the houses are built of free 
stone (similar to the Bath stone), which comes 
from Saumur, and are very handsome, but the 
effect is unfortunately quite lost, from the streets 
bving too narrow. 

The OalUrjf of Paimiings, Rue de Feltre, near the 
Place Royale, is in the upper part of the cloth 
hall; it is divided into five rooms, which are 
lighted from above. The further one contains 
the collection of the Due de Feltre and a statue of 
Cleopatra. This collection is much abo%'e the 
average, but the place is too small to contain 
it; many of the paintings arc copies; there are 
also »omc oriizinals by Pcrngino, Sebastlnno del 
Plonibo, Luiarl Carracci, and Salvator Rosa. This 
mnsoum is open every day from noon to 4 p.m. 
('tit.ilofrues may be hired from the concierge for 
^\ tcnis. 

[Route 11. 

The Mmium 9f Naiural BiMUtry^ Place de la 
Monoaie, oontatns a great number of IntaretHng 
objects; a complete coUeotionof the mteeralogy 
of the Loire Inf^rienre; a mummy, presented by 
the Egyptian traveller, Cailtand; and the sUn of a 
republican soldier, who was killed in 1798 by the 
Vend^ans, at the siege of Nantes, who, poor f ettow, 
wiRed his <mlf possession to his country to 00T«r a 
drum with. Strangers are admitted daily, from 
12 till 4, on producing their passports; k is elooed 
during tlie vacation, from Sept. Istto Oct. let. 

At the Mtuee Archeologique-, Cours S\ Pierre, is 
preserved, among other objeots, a rare curiosity ; 
it ia an enamelled; caslEet of massive gold with in- 
seriptiona, which f onnerly eontained the heart of 
Anne of Brittany. The inscriptions are : *' Cvcvr 
devertvsome dignemant Covronne." **0 cvevr 
caste et pvdiqve o jvste et B cvcvr— magnianime 
et franc de tovt vice vaiiiqvevr— cvevr digne en- 
tretovs de covronne celeste — or est ton cler esprit 
hors de paine et moleste.*' " En ce petit valsseav — 
de fin or pvr et mvnde — ^repose vn plvs grand 
cvevr— qve oncqve dame cvt av mvnde— Anne fvt 
le nom delle— en des Bretons — royale et s iweraiiie, 
— M. Ve. XIII. Ce cvcvr fvt si tres havlt— qvo do 
la tcrre avx cievlx—sa vertr liberalle— accroisaoit 
mievlx et miovlxr-Mais Diev en a repritia sa por- 
tion mcilievre-ctceste part terrestre-en grand 
dveil novs demevrc— IXe j anvier." Open on Sun- 
days and Thwadoys, 13 to 4 p.oh 

The PtMik Library ciaatt\n% 9Q,00OiHriiited volumes 
and 500 MSS. ; open daily (except on Mondays, all 
fMe days, and the first Tuesday of ev«ry month) ; 
it is dosed during the vacation, from September 
Idth to October l&th. 

Th§ PHfteture, in Placode la Pr^ecture, built in 
1768, contains a. great aombor of very curious 
manuscripts and documents relating to the history 
of BritUny; charters, and eelobraled trials, 
especially that of Marshal GUles de RetJk Tli«re 
is a very fine double ataircasa ia this building. 

Tht Boarse, on the quay, has but little arehi- 
teetaraily to attract notice-: on Uie east side 
are four statnea of Jean Bajrt, Duguay Trouin, 
Dnqmsne, and Cassard; the west front has ten 
statues, representing tiie Four Quartore of the 
Globe, the City of Nantes, the Loire, Abuudaace, 
Ac. The Chamber of Commerce and the Tribunal 
liold their sHtlngs in this building; 

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fioule 11 .J 

Carriages for hire at Mons. Grdgoirc aind, Rue 
les Chalotais. 

Pleasure boats and rowing boats for trips on the 
Erdre may be found at the end of the Chaussde dc 
Uarbin, and at reasonable prices. 

Steamboats to Angers, Ch&teau Gontler, and 
S6gr4 leave Qual Maillard every day, at 7 a.m.; 
Bordeaux, three times per week, 89, Rue de la 
Fosse ; UOrient, touching at S. Nazaire and Belle 
Isle, every other day, 66, Quai de la Fosse. 
Steamers daily at 7 a.m. for Basse Indrc, Indret, 
Cou^ron, Le Pclerin, Froissy, Paimboeuf, and St. 
Nazaire; returns at 5 and noon; from 
Paimboeuf to Nantes at 6 a.m. and 1 p.m. During 
the summer months there are additional steamers 
on Sundays to Le Pouligucn, Le Croisic, Pornic, 
and Noirmouticrs. 

The foundations of a vast Roman Hippodrome 
have been unearthed near Nantes. A Roman road 
and many fragments of villas with a theatre for 
4,U00 persons %vero found. 

Nantes should be the starting point for several 

Ezoursion A. 

Across the Loire, into La Vendue, the scene 
of the terrible civil war in 1792-3. The country 
south of Nantes is very rich and fertile, and the 
grape is cultivated everywhere. The villages are 
clean, and the Inhabitants a tidy well-to-do race. 
The usual excursion from Nantes is to Clisson, a 
small town about 20 miles from Nantes by rail 
tow^ards Roche-sur-Yonne Gate Napoleon- Vendue) 
and Rochefort. 

On the road, a short distancobeyondToumebrlde, 
is passed the little village of Le Pallet^ famous as 
the birthplace of Ab^lard, whose romantic history 
has been a stock-piece of sentimental writers. Ho 
was bom here at the beginning of the twelfth cen- 
tury, and was famous as a dialectician and man of 
letters. Although in orders he became attached to 
Hdloise, one of his pupils, and married her. Their 
marriage was for a long time kept secret, and even 
denied by H^oise after the birth of a son named 
Astrolabe. Ab^lard was cruelly maltreated by the 
friends of H^loise, and died in a monastery. There 
are a few remains of the Chfttcau of Abdlard, and 
portions of the private chapclof the family. In the 
Bareas Breiz Is a curious Breton poem on this 
subjcctf called ^^Loiza hag AbailarU.' 



Five miles further on is CliSSOn (Stat.)— 
Hotels: Del' Europe; delaPoste; dc France. An 
Italian looking town, with a few remains of the old 
feudal times. It stands very prettily on the banks 
of the Sfevre, and Is much resorted to by the people 
of Nantes. The houses have almost flat roofs, with 
heavy red tiles. 

The famous Castle of Clisson of the fifteenth 
century stands boldly on a rock over the 
river Moine. It was a grand place In the 
time of Oliver de Clisson, but the donjon keep 
was built at an earlier date. The Comte do 
Clisson was beheaded by Philip YI., ELlng of France; 
his son, Oliver de Clisson, fought on the side 
of the Dc Montforts and the English durlfig the 
Wars of the Succession, and performed prodigies of 
valour at the Battle of Auray, where he lost an eye 
from the stroke of a lance. In the partition of the 
spoil, however, Clisson was oflTcudcd because De 
Montfort, now John IV., gave Blaln and the Tour 
du Coun^tablc to Chandos, and shortly after he 
Joined Duguesclln, and the two entered Brittany 
with an army against John and his English allies. 

After the death of Duguesclln, Clisson was 
made Constable of B rittany . On the recall of John 
by his subjects, Clisson was received Into favour, 
but John becoming Jealous of him, treacherously 
seized him and stripped him of all his possessions 
as a ransom for his life. On recovering his liberty 
he went up to Paris to ask the assistance of the 
King, Charles IV., against John, and narrowly es- 
caped assassination at the hands of Pierre de 
Craon. Though unable to obtahi assistance from 
France hedcdared war against John, but was at last 
reconciled to him. After hisdcath Clisson continued 
to be the inveterate enemy of the English, and 
attacked them in all quarters by land and sea. 

Many English prisoners were Immured In the dun- 
geons of the Castle of Clisson, and i)erishcd miser- 
ably. ThcCIlssons amassed Immense wealth and 
power, and John V. was Induced to indict Clisson 
for sorcery. He saved his life by a timely present 
of 100,000 crowns to the young King, but the 
Ch&teaux of Clisson and Josselln were invested 
and pillaged. Clisson died shortly afterwards; nis 
widow, however {vide History of Brutnny, ln 
the Introduction) maintained his quarrel against 
the King, and seized hi* person. The castle re- 

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niained to th« fjuaiXf of the Bohang, but in a nog- 
lected state, till the time of the revolution, when it 
was used as a retreat by many of the royalist families 
of La Vendue, who, with their families and even 
their cattle, took refuge for some time in the castle 
vaults. On their retreat being discovered they 
were all put to death, many being hurled alive Into 
a deep well within the castle walls. 

The ChAteau of Clisson, which belonged to the 
Lescures (now to the La Rochejacquelins), and 
was the rendezvous of the Vend^ans, was situated 
near Bressuire, on edge of the Bocage. It was burnt 
down t»y the republican troops under Westermann. 

The prison ceUa and oubliette$ of the castle, with 
the hooks from which the victims were suspended, 
may still be seen. 

The Garennc, a tastefully lald-out park, on the 
banks of the Moine, embellished with statues, 
grottoes, ^., should be visited. 

From Clisson the road may be followed to Torfou, 
and thence excursions made to ChoUet, Mortagne, 
and ChfttUlon, all famous localities In the Vend^an 
wars. In former times this country was covered 
with wood and intersected with narrow lanes and 
hedges, behind which the peasant soldiers fought 
against the republican troops. The whole country 
was devastated in the war, the woods burnt, and the 
hedges thrown down. There is scarcely an old-look- 
ing house in La Vendue. 

TorfOU,a8mall village, famous for the sanguinary 
battle and victory gained by the Vend^ans over the 
forces of Kleber, the renowned army of the Maine. 

Near Torfou is the monument set up to mark the 
battlefield. It bears the names of the Vendtfan 
generals. A short distance from Torfou Is 

TifllB>ageB, a small vUlage on the brow of a hill 
over the river. There arc some remains of the old 
Castle of Tlffaugcs, the residence of the MartJchal 
Gilles de Rotz, the Bluebeard of France, a famous 
soli.ier, but still more famous criminal, of the 
fifteenth century. 

He bad immense possesHions, and kept up several 
castles with great state. Impoverished by his ex- 
cesses, he had recourse to the black art, and studied 
alchemy under Antolne de Palerme, Jean de la 
lUvi^rc, and Pr^ati; the latter persuaded him that 
the Incantationswere not completewithout the blood 
of young children. Accordingly tbo country round 

[RQHte U. 

his ch&teaux was ravaged, and whole famllief 
carried off and murdered by the emissaries of 
De Betz. At length be was brought to trial at 
Nantes, and condemned to be burnt to death. He 
was, however, in consideration of his rank, 
strangled, and his body passed through the flames. 
He had put to death many women, and more than 
100 children, with his own hands. 

Mortagne is another small village on the slope of 
a hill, famous also for its share in the heroic defence 
of the altar and the throne by the Yenddans. It 
was entirely destroyed, but has since been rebuilt. 

Chollei, once destroyed by the republicans, is 
a rising manufacturing town. The royalists were 
here fatally defeated by Kleber, although they 
had been victorious a few days before over the 
troops of Westermann, at Ch&tillon. The memoirs 
of Madame de la Rochejacquelin should be read 
in connection with the history of La Yendde. 

Correspondance to and from Mortagne. 

Bxcanlon B. 

Down the Loire by steamer to Paimbcduf and S. 
Nazaire; the latter of which may be reached by 
ran from Nantes. A trip down the river will give 
the voyi^:er a good idea of the magnitude of 
Nantes, the extent of its quays, and the enterprise 
of its inhabitants. The turbulent stream, swollen 
in the rainy months, brings with it vast alluvial 
deposits which have almost choked its bed. Conse- 
quently, but few vessels can come up to Nantes, 
though a canal has been specially constructed; 
the largest are obliged to stay at 

S. Nazaire (Stat) Buffet at station. Hotel: 
Des Messagcries. It is 40 miles below, where fine 
floating docks have been constructed. In exca- 
vating the docks, which have an area of 50 acres, 
there were discovered, at a depth of 12 feet, Roman 
remains, pottery, and a bronze coin of Tctricus (or 
Tiberius ?) ; 6 feet below these there was a stratum 
of gravel on which was lying a number of neo- 
lithic skulls and human bones, two bronze swords, 
a polished stone celt hafted In a stag's horn, dag- 
gers, and utensils, together with stone and bone 
implements, numerous stags antlers, and the bones 
of the Bos longifrons, aurochs, stags, and of the 
wild boar ; a quantity of coarse pottery, and some 
heavy perforated triangular stones for moeriog 
boats ; ftlBo the trunks o| lar^ trees, some of whicb 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


had been squared. Each guccessive stratum was 


composed of alluvial deposits from the rivers Brivet 
and Loire. There is still, in one of the small 
squares of S. Nazalre, a dolmen "in situ." The 
Norse invaders used to come up to Nantes in vessels 
which were little better than largo coracles. The 
voyage takes now about 4^ hours. On the lie Inck'et 
will be seen important foundry works belonging 
to the French Government. Here are built the 
marine and land steam engines, Ac The works are 
fitted with the most recent means and appliances. 
In places the Loire reminds one of the Thames, 
and the banks are similarly adorned with villas. 

FalmbOSUf (Stat.) is reached in three hours, 
and is an interesting old town, but is quite put in 
the shade by S. Nazaire, on the other side of the 
river. Diligence daily, in the summer season, to 
FoniiC (Hotel: De France), a somewhat fashion- 
able watering place, with a casino and other 
agremens. The coast, however, is low, and every- 
where abound the saltpans, which produce the 
staple commodity of the country. 

From Palmboeuf the steamer crosses to3. Nazaire. 

Ouerrande, or Ou^rande (Stat). Hotel .- du 

Commerce (fair). A little out-of-the-way town, 
but formerly a very important place, with a strong 
ca.stle, built by John V., Duke of Brittany. Here 
was signed the famous treaty which placed the 
Montf orts on the throne, and led to the expulsion 
of the English from Brittany. Part of the old 
castle stUl remains, andacuriousold church, having 
an exterior pulpit on the West front. This town 
is lighted with gas made from turf taken from 
Ihe bogs of the " Grande Brifere." 

On the roadside, half way beyond Querrande and 
^UUy there is a hill of granite named Cramaguen, 
niaving on Its rocks numerous hollow basins, with 
an opening on one side, similar to many others In 
Brittany, and which have been described as alUrs 
with basins to receive the blood of the victims, 
and having an opening to run It off; but the 
basins prove to be hollows left in the rocks by 
.quarrying querns or millstones. One of the querns, 
which bad been cut round ready to be raised, 
remains, it having been abandoned owing to the 
grain of the stone running cross; the opening at 
the side was evidently for the purpose of iutro- 
4acing wcdgQ9 Vplow t|ie qnern to rnise i^ up^. 

There are some rocks, between Ouerrande and 
8. Sebastian^ where similar basins are seen, 
and where also two querns had been cut round, 
ready for lifting, but had been left ; fortunately 
so, as they show how querns were manufactured. 

The country beyond Guerrando Is cut up by 
dykes and banks Into reservoirs, for the manu- 
facture of salt, by the evaporation of sea water. 
The saltmakers are a class apart, and are said to 
be descendants of the Norman or Saxon invaders. 

There is good shooting about the coast, and 
many persons resort to It from Nantes for sea 
bathing. The races, on the sands, are very 

Le OrOlBlC (Stat) Jlotds: GnlUor^ and 
d'Anjou. Pension Joanne, a boarding house, at 
moderate charges. Another curious old town, 
long fallen Into desuetude, but lately revived as a 
fashionable watering place, by the Nantcse, and 
embellished with a Casino, &c. The sardine fishery 
is carried on here to a large ojttent, but not so 
successfully as on the coast of Lower Brittany. 
The coast about Croisic is somewhat bold and 
rocky, but further west it is low and sandy. 

From Crolsic may be seen Isle Htedlc, and on 
the horizon, about 25 miles off, the barren crags 
of Belle ne, famous In English naval history 
and Dlbdln's songs. It was taken by Admiral 
Keppel, In 17C1, but it had previously been a bone 
of contention in the twelfth century, between 
the monks of Rddou and QuimperM, who camo 
to blows about it. There are a few small towns 
upon it, named Bangor, Locmaria, and Palais. 
{Hotel: De France.) A steamer touches at the lAtter 
port between Lorient and Nantes. On the south- 
western side of the island is a magnificent light- 
house. The citadel of Belle Isle Is now used as a 
reformatory. At 3 kll. to the S. of lo Palis, there 
is a fine reservoir. " Belle-fontalnc," said to have 
been constructed during the English occupation, 
for watering the ships of the blockading squadron. 
It Is now In a dilapidated condition. There were 
formerly numerous megallthlc monuments here, 
but they have all been broken up except two 
Menhirs, called Jean et Jeanne do KerMdan, one 
16 ft. long, still upright. There is also a fallen 
one, near the Moulin de Goncfa. A steamer for 
Auray (4(.) on Monday and Friday ; also steamer 
daily tp ({uiberon (1 hour), at 6 and 10 a.m. 


by Google 


fiRA.D8Hi.w'8 BBITTANT, 

[Route J 2. 

From S. Nazairo, the railway should be taken 
b/tck to Nantes ; the country is very pretty and 
open. There are several small stations, but the 
only place of any note is Savenay (Stat.) — 
Passengers to S. Nazaire usually change trains 
here. Buflet. It has a triste souvenir attached 
to it, as being the scene of the final defeat and total 
destruction of the Vend^an army, in 1793. After 
passing the Loire, as we have seen at S. Florent, 
the Royalists suffered tremendous defeats at Le 
Mans, and vainly endeavoured to embark at 
Granville, and then to recross the Loire at 
Ancenis. Foiled in both attempts — their 
numbers reduced f^om 80,000 to about 10,000, 
many of whom were women and children — they 
attempted to escape into Brittany, but were 
overtaken at Savenay by the Bleus and nearly 
all cut to pieces. La Rochejacquelin escaped 
with a few followers, and maintained a guerilla 
warfare; but the hopes of La Vendue perished 
at Savenay. 

Excursions up the Erdre, a very enjoyable trip. 
A steamer leaves Nantes for Nort daily in 
summer. The river presents the appearance of a 
lake for many miles up. Several ch&tcaux are 
seen on its banks, and the people of Nantes amuse 
themselves with boating. 

At Nort the river suddenly contracts, and the 
railway should be taken to La Mellleraye, 10 
miles, and to Gbftteaubriant, 20 miles; at the 
foi-mer place is a convent of Trappist monks, 
who keep up the rules of their order with great 
apparent strictness. Visitors are readily admitted 
and hospitably entertained. 

Nantes may bo reached by rail by passing 
through Laval, Segr^,and Ch&teaubrlant; but the 
distance is rather greater than through Le Mans. 

Laval (Stat.)— JTbtolx: De Paris; de France; 
de r Quest. This town, with a population of 
83,374, is bituated in a picturesque valley, on the 
Mayenne. The modern town is handsome, and has 
some well-built quays; in the older part, near the 
cathedral, the streets are narrow and confined. 

8egr6 iStaX,) -Hotels: Beaur^paire; Croix 
Verte. A pretty little tjwn of 3,661 inhabitants, 
situated on the river Verze'e, not far from where 
It joins the Oadon, whence it becomes navi- 
gable for boats. It is a place which gives one 

the idea of having seen better times; it has a 
nice shady walk. On the ruins of the Chapel of 
St. Sauveur (lllh century) an elegant chapel has 
been built, dedicated to St. Joseph. Very few 
vestiges remain of its ancient fortifications, which 
formerly surrounded the town. 

CMteau Qonthier (BtAt.) — Sotels : De 
rOuest; du Dauphin. Built on the Mayenne, 
which is here crossed by a modem stone bridge. 
It is situated in a pretty valley, and has an 
agreeable promenade named "Le bout dn monde.** 
The country is well wooded, and there are springs 
of mineral waters which are reputed as beings 
tonic, aperient, and diuretic. The church of St. 
Jean (Uth century) has a remarkable crypt. 
Population, 7,281. 

Chftteaulnrlant {Btat.)— Hotels: De la Poste: 
du Commerce. An interesting little town, with 
a population of 6,523. It was formerly a frontier 
town of Brittany ; the walls and part of the castle 

The Chdfeau is celebrated in history as the 
residence of the unfortunate Fran9oise de Foix 
(formerly mistress of Francis 1st) and her hus- 
band, the Count of Laval. It was here that a 
meeting of the States of Brittany took place in 
1632, when Brittany was ceded to France. Fran- 
cis, to repay the hospitality of the coantess, gave 
her the estates of Rhuys and Sucinio. There is 
now railway communication from here to Rennes, 
Vitr^, Angers, Nantes, and PloSrmel ; and on to 
La Brohini^re, whence a line will run to Dinan 
and Dinard. 



By railway, 78 miles. 

Rexmes (Stat.)— See Route I. 

There is little to remark in the scenery through 
which the railway passes. The country is fine, 
rich, undulating pasture land, and here and there 
are scattered villages, very prhnitivc, and very 

Bain-Lohdac (Stat.) Lohfae, which divides 
with Bmn the honour of being a station, had once 
a seignorial castle, and its lords ranked with the 
Beaumanoirs and GUssons. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Route 12.] fiENK^S to VAKl^fid— ftEDOK— MALAiiSAC— tLVEK. 


Measac (Stat.) There are two menhirs, lift, 
high, near the Chfttean cle Molli^rc. Eleven 
kilom. from Messac is the commune of Plpriac ; 
8 kilom. to the soath of this is the Lande of Cojou, 
where is a series of mezallths, viz., two align- 
ments, orientated east and west, in length about 
IGO yards, several tumuli and dolmens, a crom- 
lech, and also some stone enclosures. 

Fougeray-Langon (Stat.) Fougeray also was 
n place of note during the Wars of Succession, 
as the scene of one of Duguesclin's exploits. 
It is said that he went to the gate of the castle, 
a single round tower of which still stands, 
disguised as a woodman, and having obtained 
admission with his cart of wood overturned it 
in the castle gate so as to prevent its being closed. 
His companions, who were in ambush, rushed on 
the guard and overpowered them ; the castle was 
taken, and Pembroke, the English governor, slain. 
Diligence daily to Nort; omnibus to Foug-eray- 
Langon (Sta.) 

Bedon (A\aX,)~Hotdt: De Bretagne; Lion 
d'Or. A curious medieval-looking town of 6,929 
inhabitants, is situated at the junction of the 
canalized rivers, Oust and Vilaine. The name 
is evidently derived from the Rhcdoncs. As early 
as 814 there was a Bishop of Redon, Convoion, 
set up by Nomenoe, in opposition to the rest ot 
the clergy. Hero the Orleans and Ouest systems 
meet, and carriages are generally changed. A 
Buffet at the station. Correspondance daily to 
Ploermel at 9 a.m.. 4 francs 50 cents. 

The old abbey was a very rich and powerful 
foundation, as may be seen from the ecclesiasti- 
cal buildings which remain. The Chftteau de 
Beaumont is also worth a visit. After leaving 
Redon, the railway passes over the Vilaine by a fine 
bridge, and runs through an uninteresting country 
of landet and brushwood. There are several 
places of note on each side of the line, but none 
within sight. 

Malansac (Stat.)— ^o^e/.* De la Gare. A 
conveyance meets the train at this station, and 
runs to the curious old place of Roche/ort-en- 
Terre (Hotel de la Croix Verte), amidst rocky 
scenery, with many picturesque old houses of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; with a 
rained castle, an old church, and narrow, crooked, 

and precipitous streets, like the Jersnnl, at 
Dinan. It may be termed the threshold of the 
Immense Landes of Lanvaux, which are llternlly 
covered with megalithic and Roman remains. 
Among the former are Pierresh-bassin, tumuli, 
Grottes-aux-f^es (Fairy holes), and menhirs. 
No traveller should attempt to explore t» esc 
*' landes" without a guide; and he would do 
well also to provide himself with Doctor Fou- 
quet's book, which is mentioned under the head 
of "Vannes." Among the principal megallth'c 
remains worth visiting are the following:-- 
"Chapeau Rouge," a menhir near the Forest 
of Brambien. A Grotte-aux-f^cs, 42 feet long, 
at the village of Carbon. The Roche Bcgilc, 
a menhir, and a Pierre-U-bassln, on a mound called 
La Roche ha Ch iletins, near the village of Plu- 
herlin. An enormous Pierre-H-bassin, placed on 
the top of a mound which is surrounded by men- 
hirs; it is near Pleucadeuc, and is called the 
*• Butte de Br^in." The Roche M^ha is also 
worthy of a visit; a large proportion of these 
stones has been mutilated. 

Half a mile from Rochefort is the village of 
Pluherlin, where, in 1866, a Roman Temple of an 
octagonal form, was dug out, the only one of the 
kind ever brought to light In Brittany. 

QueBtembert (Stat)— //o^c/.- Lion d'Or. This 
town is situated on rising ground, 1^ mile from 
Station. Population, 4,102. There are several 
houses of the 16th century here, wiih curioui 
carvings; a chapel in the Cemetery is said t ) have 
been built by the English. Several stone crosses, 
in the neighbouring country, were erected a.d. 880, 
to commemorate a great victory gained by the 
Bretons over the Kormans, the former being com- 
manded by Alain le Grand. Correspondance lo 
Muzillac at 10 a.m., 1 franc 50 cents. To go on lo 
La Roche Bernard (10 kilometres) a carriage will 
have to be hired at Muzillac; there is a diligence, 
daily, at 1 p.m., from the former to the railway ax 
Pont Ch&teau. The rail from Questembert to 
PloSrmel and on to La Brohlnibre, on the main 
line, is now open. 

ELyen (Stat.)— ^o^e/.* Lion d'Or. A small 
town with an old church ; but remarkable for the 
grand tower of the Chdteau of Largouet^ near It. 
The ruins which lie around this donjon are more 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 



[Route 1^. 

ttttclent than the toWer Itself, which dates further 
back than the end of the fifteenth centnry. The 
old castle was destroyed by order of Anne of 
Brittany, to punish a rebellious Uaron of Male- 
Btroit or Rieux, who possessed it. It was the 
residence for many years of Henry of Richmond 
and the Earl of Pembroke, his uncle. They 
were thrown upon the coast of Brittany, in a 
storm, while flying from England, after the Battle 
,of Tewkesbury, and taken care of by Francis II., 
Duke of Brittany, a.d. 1475. Edward IV. of 
England entered into an agreement with the 
Duke that he should keep them at Elven, under 
compulsory hospitality, to prevent their being 
troublesome. Richmond stayed here till his success- 
ful descent upon England, in 1484. Elven is better 
visited from Vannes, as it lies wide of the rail. 

Near Elven is the village of St. Cfiristophe, 
where, in 1842, the remains of a Roman Villa 
were brought to light. Here were found a key, 
a hook for fastening a cloak, and a patera, all of 
bronze; also a medal of Claudian, and pieces of 
pottery and glass. Near this place was dug 
out a Roman military boundary stone; it is 6 feet 
long, and bears the following inscription : — 

III. P.P.P.A.D.M. 

It is now in the Museum at Vannes. There are 
numerous megalithic remains in this neighbour- 
hood; especially near the village Des Princes, 
where Is the rocking stone of La Roche Binet. 

Vannes (Stat.) Population, 19,280. Hotels: 
Dauphin; de Prance. This ancient and im- 
portant city played a prominent part in the 
history of Brittany. As the capital of the ancient 
and warlike tribe of the Veneti,* it was early dis- 
tingruished by its opposition to the Romans, 
who destroyed it to its ' foundation ; and it 
rose from its ruins only to be the incessant 
object of attack in every invasion and party 
quarrel. In the middle ages the Counts •f 
Vannes held equal rank with those of Nantes 
and Rennes, and many of them were Dukes of 
Brittany up to the eleventh century. During the 
latter part of the War of the Succession, Vannes 
was the scene of some hard fighting between the 
French and English, according to Froissart. The 

*Tli« Bretons deriye~ this name from Guenned, the 

force sent by Edward III. to the Montforts, 
under the Earl of Salisbury, took Vannes, but It 
was retaken by the French, under Dnguesclin, and 
Robert of Artois died of his wounds received here. 
Large aiiuies, under the English and French kings, 
took the field here; but a truce was brought about 
before they came to an engagement. It was at 
Vannes that John IV. treacherously seized Clisson, 
of whom he had become jealous, and stripped him 
of his possessions. The tower called the Tour du 
Gonn^table is erroneously said to have been the 
scene of this incident. He was imprisoned la the 
tower of the Ch&teau de I'Hermine. 

The Museum of the Soci^t^ Polymathique, which 
contains the various articles found in the tumuli 
and barrows of the Morbihan, is removed to 
No. 8, Place dcs Lices ; it is on the second storey, 
and a fee of 50 cents, is paid by each person for 
admission to this most Interesting collection. Here 
are the splendid necklace found in the Mont S. 
Michel at Carnac; also a collection of Gallo-Roman 
remains, consisting of arms, pottery, and coins. 

Vannes is a picturesque old city, with much 
of the old character of a fortified place. 
The walls are machicolated, and pleasant pro- 
menades run round them. The streets are narrow 
and ill-paved; the houses antiquated, and of a 
tumble-down appearance, with overhanging storeys 
and timber frames ; and the Cathedral towers over 
all with a " gloomy and grand " sort of oppressive- 
ness. The east end of the cathedral is circular, 
and there are very fine carvings both inside and 
out. The fiying buttresses have a very fine effect. 
In its restored west front, the carvings of the great 
doorway, pinnacles, Ac, in Kersanton stone, con- 
trast well with the granite. The F6te of St. Vin- 
cent Ferrer, the patron of this city, whose bones 
repose in the Lady Chapel of the Cathedral, Is 
celebrated with great pomp on the first Monday 
in September. At No. 19, Rue du Men^o, is the 
entrance to a convent church (closed after mid-day) 
with much carved work, all done by the nuns. 

Correspondance daily, to Locmind, at 10 a.m., 
2 franc» 50 cents. Carriages for excuraions may 
be hired opposite the Hotel du Commerce. To 
Elven, 8 francs; to Rhnis, 12 francs; to S. Anne 
d'^Anray, 13 francs; to Ansoa and Pen Meil for 


by Google 

Route 12.] 

lie aux Moines, 6 francs, including return journey, 
but a gratuity has to be paid to the driver. 

Ferry from Pen Meil to lie aux Moines. 

Good Maps and Guide Books to the Morbihan 
may be obtained at R. Galles, Rue de la Prefecture, 
wbich is the beat place to apply at by those who 
iaterest themselYte in the antiquities of the Mor- 

As regards provisions, the esEcnrsionlst will do 
well to carry them in the carriage, as, except In 
|»tftce« Where we have indicated the existence of 
lims^ thete is little chance of getting eatables fit 
for an English traretler. 

Two small stoameri leave Tannes daily for 
Tfttions excursions in the Sea of the Morbihan, 
returning thb same day; also to Locmariaker 
three times a week. Pares: To He aux Moines, 
1 franc; to Locmariaker, 2 francs. 

In the Bay of Rogu^das,* near Vannes; there Is 
6 vein of jade between the granite and the gneiss 
rocks which runs down into the sea; its colour is 
grey, with light green patches; Its hardness and 
tenacity arc such that it resists almost the best 
tempered steel implements. It was analysed by the 
Count de Jjimur, who pronounced it to be identical 
with that ftrom Kew Caledonia, it having precisely 
t6c same density. 

Vannesmay be reached also from Kautes (Route 
XI.); by railway from Savenay to Redon, by 
Pontchateau (StatJ; or by the old diligence road, 
through La RochO Bernard, and over its splendid 
Suspension Bridge across theVilaine. This bridge 
is said to resemble the Monai suspension bridge, 
and, indeed, somewhat exceeds it in length. and 
height above the water. 

Length of Roche-Bernard Bridge— 

From pier to pier.....^...^ 626 feet. 

Of Menai Bridge £50 „ 

Height of road-way above high-water— 

Roche-Bernard .....; 108 feet. 

Menai ; „ 100 „ 

The reformed religion was first introduced into 
La Roche-Bernard by Coligny, in 1661, who 
bronght with him a Calvinist chaplain. His 
Cbftteati become the rendezvous ot th^ reformftra; 



•BockofEdd*. (Druidon). 

and the first Protestant service was held flt the 
chape', of Notre Dame in 1661. From here it 
spread to Guerrande, Croisic, PloSrmel, Rennes, 
and Vitr^. The same year the Sleur de Hirel was 
publicly married in the Chnrch of La Roche 
Bernard; being the first Protestant marriage 
celebrated tn Brittany. In 1569 A Protestant 
Synod was held there, at which fourteen clergy- 
men were present. The Tnn is only opened occa- 
sionally. In 1689, James II. of England, wh«n on 
his way to Brest to join the fleet which Lasts XI V. 
had assembled there to assist him, virited La Roche 
Bernard, where he was entertained by tlMi Dm de 

Near La Roche-Bernard, the little village church 
of FSi'el has & magnificent painted glass window. 

At the little village of Guemo is a church 
having on its exterior front a stone pulpit ''k 
Did d'hirondelle," to which the preacher ascends 
from the interior by steps cut in the wall ; it is 
used for preaching during Lent and on hlgli 
festivals, the hearers standing in the churchyard. 
These pulpits are very rare; there are only two 
of the kind in Brittany. The architecture of this 
deplorable looking church, built 1670, is a singular 
mixture of Roman and Renaissance of which there 
is not another example of the same style in the 
department. Ita bell tower ia elliptical. 

The rood passea through MuMiUac, a small 
country village famous in Breton writing* for a 
pitched 1>attle fought Here between the aeholars of 
Vannes and the Imperialist troops during the 
tent jours, li is described with great animation by 
Pitre Chevallier. Very pretty views are obtained 
of the Sea of Morbihan to the south, and a fine 
wooded country to the north, before entering 
Vannes. Gorreepondanoes daily to Qtwsiembart, at 
1 p.m. ; 1 frane 60 cents. 

Several excursions should be tnade f torn Vannes, 
which is in the neighbourhood of a multitude of 
objects of historical and archteological Interest. 
The Musenm of Vannes contains many interesting 
relics of the Druidical and Roman occupation. 

Bzc'urslOXL A.- -Down the Sea of Morbihan t6 
visit the Islets of Conleau, lie aux Moines, Do 
d'ArZ: and Gav'r Innis. This is a most delightful 
sail. On Boued are a few megalithic rem&Ins. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


ttftADSHAW^ft BttlTTAKr. 

CotUeau ii dohiiccted With the mainland by a 
causeway, tvhioh is reached by an agreeable walk 
on the right bank of the river; distance, 4 kllom. 
The Vanncs steamers call here, and a diligence 
runs to it from opposite the Hotel da Commerce ; 
fare, 40c. 

There are several Dolmens on the lie aux Moines, 
namely: Roh-Vras^ Kenio, Penkap, Rah^Bihan, 
Nihol^ and two at Pen Nihol; only Penhap and 
those at Pen Nihol arc remarkable. The former 
hat incised on the left sapport of its entrance a 
sculpture resembling an ascia; the chamber of 
the latter has one side circtilar, and forms with 
Its all^e a ground plan resembling the capital 
letter P; the others are mostly in ruins except 
Nihol. Near Kergonan is the fiaest cromlech in 
the Morbihan ; it is semi-circular, and has within 
it a farm-house and other buildings; It is composed 
of thirty-six menhirs of from 6 to 10 feet in height, 
and from 8 to 6 broad, and its diameter is 320 feet. 
To get to the He aux Moines from Auray, pass 
through Bono and Baden on to Port Blanc, where 
a ferry boat conveys passengers to the island. 
The shortest route !• from Yannes, through 
Arradon, on to the point of Fen Meil, where there 
is also a ferry boat to the island. A boat can be 
taken at Yannes direct, and on to Locmarlaker, 
if the tide is favourable for the return voyage. 

He cTArz has nothing remarkable, except some 
rained dolmens, and two cromlechs at P^nereau 
and PenliouBse. 

On OaY*r Inula (Capri insula, or Goafs Island) 
is a cairn, or galgal, 170 feet long by 166 feet broad ; 
it was originally about 26 feet high, but, as the top 
part has been removed, it is now about 30 feet. It 
has also bovn hollowed out, somewhat resembling 
a volcanic crater. The entrance to the AllSe Cou- 
verte Is by the side, and partly below the level of 
the earth; it is secured by an iron door, which is 
kept locked ; application for permission to see it 
must be made at the farm-house; an attendant 
with lights will accompany. The charge is 60 cents 
. per head, but if only one person a franc. It was 
opened in 1832, but the record has been lost, and 
■ the objects which were found in it dispersed, with 
the exception of the fragments of four celts and 
some flint chips, which arc now in the museum at 

[fioute 12. 

Dimensions— Alldc, 40 feet long; 6 feet 6 
inches broad; 4 feet 6 inches high ; inner chamber, 
8 feet by 7 feet, and 6 feet high; total length, 
nearly 50 feet. Twcnt}--one of the side supporting 
stones are sculptured ; and one on the floor forms 
a step into the inner chamber, on the left 
hand side of wliich is the stone, having three holes 
which form two loops, and which have so greatly 
puzzled all the archnologists. None of the upright 
stones have been revoved, but at the upper part 
some loose stones and earth have been cleared 
away, and a little light has been admitted hetweea 
two stones; but it is perfectly insufficient, and 
therefore lights are absolutely necessary. When 
the visitor has seen the All^e he is expected to go 
to the farm-house, there to enter his name in the 
visitors' book; he will here be shown a sculptured 
bronze crucifix of the elevoith century, which 
was found amongst the rulos of a convent that 
formerly existed on the Island. 

From the summit of the tumulus the visitor 
will see, on looking to the south, a small Island 
Just below him; it is named £1 Lanic, or the lie 
du Tisserand. It should be visited to see a stone 
circle (cromlech), on which the sea is gradually 
encroaching. The cromlech is composed of sixty 
menhirs, the greater part of which have fallen; 
their medium height is about 8 feet, but one that 
had fallen and was broken in two pieces is 17 feet 
longandOfeet thick; the circumference of thisclrcle 
is 200 yards. When the tide is low another stone 
circle will be seen which touches the former one; 
together they form a figure of eight. Dr. Closma- 
deuc examined these circles and found numbers 
of flint instruments, broken celts, animals* bones, 
and a great quantity of sherds of Celtic pottery. 
It seems probable that £1 Lanic was at one time 
Joined to Gav'r Innis, as also that the latter was 
attached to the mainland. 

The proprietor of theisland of Gav'r Innis is Dr. 
Closmadeuc, president of the Antiquarian Society 
of the Morbihan ; he has a small summer residence 
here close to the farm-house, near the landing 
place, where he and his family usually spend the 
summer months. 

The He Longue (Innis-hir), which Is on the left 
before readiing Gav'r Innis, has on one of its points 
a galgal or calm of rough stones heaped up, but Its 

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ttottte IS.] 

chamber is quite blocked up. There is a sculpture 
on one of the left supports of its allde; it is a 
cartouche of a very peculiar description, and 
unlike any that has hitherto been found in the 
dolmens; it was discovered by Mr. Fergusson. 

The sea weeds about these little islands are very 
luxuriant, and zoophytes are abundantly found. 
There is also good fishing. 

EzcursiOlL R— On foot or by voiture, over 
a bad road, through the Peninsttla of Rhuis. 
By diligence to Sarzeau from Vannes, 16m.; 
If. 25c; 2|hrs. Leaves Vannes 4 p.m., re- 
turns next morning at 7. A carriage can be 
hired at Vannes for about 12 francs. On the 
road should be visited the Gh&teau of Kerlevenan; 
and at about 2 miles from it is the old Castle Of 
Sucinio, one of the finest ruins in Brittany. Its 
position facing the ocean is grand and imposing, 
but little calculated to keep out the enemy 
enuuiy cUra cura, or le souci, against which (as ita 
name imports, ^' Souci-n-y-est^'' or the "free from 
care") it was built. The gateway is adorned 
with an heraldic design, with two stags as sup- 
porters. There is a fine vaulted chamber, and a 
carved chimney in one of the apartments. The 
towers are of earlier date than the rest of the 
building; the embrasures for cannon being of 
course, modem additions. It was originally built 
A.D. 1250, by John I., Duke of Brittany, son of 
Peter Mauclerc, as a country residence. Pitre 
Chovallier adds, that he made it the " Trianon '* 
of that wild period. Francis I. gave it to Fran- 
foise de Foix, Madame de Chftteaubriand, as she 
was called. Bichmont (Duke Arthur III.), Con- 
stable of France, was bom here a.d. 1393 ; he and 
his father Duke John IV. started from here 
together for the Grasade of St. Louis. 

Sarxeau is a small village in no way remarkable 
but as possessing a quaint old church, in which 
is a Norman pillar, and as being the birth-place of 
AUain Ren^ Le Sage, the author of "GU Bias." 
Hdtel Th^baut ; conveyance 7f. There is also a 
correspoudance to Port Navalo, l^f. 

Near Sarzeau is the remarkable tumulus called 
the Butte de Tnxnlac. This was opened, in 1853, 
by Dr. Fouquet, by making a perpendicular 
cutting from the south towards the centre, and 
working in a northerly direction. When near 



the middle the workmen Came on a rough, dry, 
stone wall, from which they removed some of the 
stones, which revealed the existence of a chamber. 
When entered, the existence of two chambers was 
evident— an inner chamber composed of three 
upright slabs of granite, which formed the three 
sides ; it was roofed over by a flat slab of quartz ; 
the floor was paved with rough granite stones; the 
spaces between the upri>;ht slabs were filled in 
with dry, rough stones; the comers were held 
together by two cross stones, which formed a 

The outer chamber was constructed entirely 
of dry, rough stone walls at the sides, roofed over 
by three granite slabs; the walls narrowed to- 
wards the entrance of the inner chamber. The 
following are the dimensions: — Breadth of inner 
chamber, 7 feet; breadth of entrance, 4 feet 6 
Inches ; breadth of outer chamber, 6 feet. In each 
of the comers of the inner chamber was found a 
necklace of large beads, and one of small beads 
at the entrance ; in the outer chamber were two 
heaps of celts, one containing 15 large (2 broken) 
and the other 15 small oueii ; also a portion of a 
parietal bone, and numerous fragments of decom- 
posed wood reduced to a pulp. Large quantities 
of this matter was found in both chambers ; the 
celts and the beads were quite covered with it. 

The end supi)ort of the inner chamber and one of 
the side supports were found to have been sculp- 
tured; the end one had on it a double row of cir- 
cular figures, resembling two necklaces; below it 
an almost indescribable figure, which is a great 
puzzle to the antiquaries; the other stone 
had on it two parallel bars with a sort of hook at- 
tached to each end; the 16 large celts were of 
jadeite and chloromelanite,* mostly polished, with 
sharp cutting edges; unfortunately, several of 
them were found broken. Three of the highly 
polished one's had holes perforated through them 
at the pointed end. The smaller ones were all 
of tr^molite, the greater part of them intact. 
The 120 beads found at the entrance were 
small, round, with flat sides; they were of 
Jasper, and a few of agate ; those found at the 

• Chloromelanite, a dark green mlDeial resemblinc Jadeite 
in it« crystaline and fusible properties; at first sight It 
appears to be black, but if htld ap to a strong light it ia 
transparent and of a dark gre.'U colour.<-Z>a/nMr. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


bbadsbaVsi tmrfAftt, 

[ttonte 12. 

8otitli-we8tanglet^el*e lafge, drealaf, and nearly 
all of jasper, Calais, and a few agates; ono 
of them Tfas a rough crystal of quartz ; there 
were 40 of those. The necklace found in the 
N.W. angle consisted of 120 large beads; some 
trere quite an inch long, pear-shaped, as pen- 
dants ; the others were round, with flattened sides ; 
aeveral of those were pierced at the sides, and not 
In the centre. When strung together they formed 
a necklace sufficiently large to hang down to the 
middle of the chest. Many of these relics have 
been transferred to the museum of Vannes. The 
dimensions of this tnmnltis are— Circumference, 
800 feet; diameter, 270 feet; perpendicular height, 
62 feet. It is formed of three distinct strata— 
Firsts of a series of micaceous rough stones and 
H^anite, heaped- up without any order whatever; 
Second, mud and sand from the sea shore; Thirds 
Vegetable earth mixed up with granite stones. 

tTnfortunately, a land-slip 'has taken place in the 
cutting, and the entrance to the chamber is now 
blocked up, although a few of the rough stones of 
the wallsof the outer chamber are still perceptible. 
The view from the summit is very fine, extending 
over the Sea of Morbihan, the Bay of Quiberon, 
and the mouths of the Vilaine and Loire. 
The Isles of Houat, H»dlc, and Belle-Isle are 
plainly seen ; and, inland, no less than twenty- 
seven spires may be counted. 

Near Croesty there is a galgal (caini) named 
j^etit Mont, which was opened in 1865, by MM. 
Cnss^ and Gplles. It contains a dolmen, seven 
Of the stones of which have inscriptions on them. 
On one is also sculptured two human feet with 
toes, the only thing of the kind, that has ever 
been found in the megalithic monuments of 
the Morbihan. Only one axe of diorite,t with 
a cutting edge at one end, the haft hole being 
near the other end which was rounded, the frag- 
ments of five ornamented urns, and some sherds 
of pottery were found \n it. The chamber of 
this galgal is now almost choked up by rough 
stones which have been rolled down from above 
by the shepherds and children; the consequence 
is that only five of the sculptured stones are now 

f Diorite is compoted of amphltjole and t«ldspar, when 
l|a •ompotxcnt parte are aot TiciUe 14 is wUed apbanlte.^ 

visible; one is quite btoricd and another has been 
removed to the museum at Vannes. Several of 
the covering stones of the Allde have been taken 
away and used for building a neighbouring 
chapel. It is possible to arrive at this chamber 
by a low narrow passage to see the Interior. 

Near Pen Castel (where there is a ferry-boat to 
He aux Moines) there is a fallen menhir, ab<3ut 
20 feet long; arid not far from the village of 
Bernon (before reaching Arzon) there is a tumulus 
100 feet long, also a large dolmen, which still 
retains its capstone in place. Close to the village 
of Le Net, and beyond Tumiac, are a dolmen and 
two menhirs. 

The monastery of B. GUdas de RhulS lies a 
little further on, near the sea, about 20 mlTba 
from Vannes. Its remains are now a convent, 
where, during the bathing teason are received 
boarders of both sexes, at the rate of five 
francs a day. Wine, coffee, and chocolate 
are charged fot as extras. The charge for 
children and servants is three francs per head. It 
is principally remarkable as the abode of Ab^tafd^ 
who was -superior to the monastery, till obliged 
to fly in peril of his life. The Breton monks were 
coarse and dissolute, their language was barbarous, 
while Ab^lard 'seems to have been refined and 
haughty. The people regarded Ab^lard and H^loi^e 
as sorcerers, the common idea of superior know- 
ledge in those days. The monastery has almost 
disappeared, but there is a fine old Church, witti 
transepts and apsldal choir. The tombs of S. 
Gildas and other saints are at the east end ; in th'e 
choir there are five of Breton Princes of the 15th 
century ; and some remarkable capitals hollowed 
Into fonts or bAiifiers^ should be noticed. 8. Gildas 
was an English anchorite, who crossed over in the 
sixth century, and established himself on the Island 
of H6uat, which the Count de Guerrec induced him 
to leave, giving him an old castle, on the site of 
which he built the present monastery. 

It is possible to cross over the Sea of Morbihan, 
from Port Navalo (Hotel de la Marine), to Ix>c^- 
mariaker, and sleep at Camac; but the latter 
places are better visited from Auray. 

Bzcnnlon 0.— Archasologlcal. The local guldb 
books of Vannes will point out numerous ohjectn 
«f iaterest in the tie%fabou^ood, wltteh ttmy ht 

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eniLS Ouinipiij near Baud. Soutli east AEew of CalvarT" ^ Church 


I..5.Hv£lo : -ir.-\d.e danced at the Jbto of 
'"■ .-.r. -. ;-:jaronio-;.r on the Lavm 

le Jbto of TVvArrl^ 

of the Gran^B'S'tized by ^^JUU^IL 

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tLonie 13.3 VAimsa to QuiMPBJi^^d. akkb d'attr^y^auray. 


Tisitcd according to the timo and inclination of 
the tourist. The country all fotind is thickly 
strewn with megalithic moniunentg, among which 
the pierres h, bassinsof Guer, Gras-d'-Or, Hesqa^no, 
Rohalgo, CoStsal, La Roche-Binet, Roche-Morvan, 
and Er Roch, near Bcrnas, and Cadoudal, may 
be explored with interest. 



By railway, 75 miles. 

The first place is 8. Ajme (Stat.;, or S. Azme 
d'Auray, a small village, bat one of the most 
remarkable localities in Brittany, the church being 
a chief resort for pilgrims. 

HoMs: Lion d' Or; De France. 

Omnibus waits at the station to convey pas- 
sengers to the village, 60 cents. 

The railway station may be known from all 
others by its being surmounted by a figure of 
8. Anne. It is at about two miles from the Church. 

The principal f6tc days are Pentecost, the 
week following S. Anne's day (26th July), and 
the 15th of August. The Church was commenced 
ill 1866; it is a handsome edifice of the Renais- 
sance style, and has a very lofty spire; the 
western porch is much too small, which is a great 
defect; the painted glass is good, but it is 
modern; the whole of it has been given to the 
church by pious pilgrims and various noble 
families of Brittany; the history of the finding of 
the miraculous image is depicted on it. The 
image of S. Anne is in the chapel of the south 
transept, where there are always a number of 
pilgrims, each of which has lighted his "cicrgc" 
and offered it to (as she is styled here) "La Mbre 
de Dieu." The walls of this chapel are covered 
with ex-voto offerings. 

The Emperor of the French passed his ffite day 
here in 1858 to the great edification of the Bretons. 
The church has its origin in a miracle ; the statue 
of S. Anne, which had been buried for nine cen- 
turies, being pointed out by herself to a poor 
peasant in 1628. 

The entrance to the sacred precincts is by a 
curious gateway, over the arch of which is a group 

of tnarblo figures,, representing th« tpotheosis of 
S. Anne. On high days mass is celebrated on iRi 
elevated altar, approached by a Sancta Scala, in the 
presence of from 20,000 to 80,000 spectators. The 
pilgrims go up one staircase and down another 
for hours together. 

The Sancta Scala, in a separate oovered build- 
ing, is in imitation of that at Rome. Ther« are 
two flights of steps, with a platform between them, 
having an altar and an open balcony; the pilgrims 
ascend these steps (twenty-eight in number) o*» 
tf^r knees, repeating prayers on each ; when they 
reach the platform farther religious devotions are 
performed at the altar ; after which they descend 
by the opposite steps. A black marble pillar bears 
a small glass, under whieh are some small fragments 
of stone, said to be A-om the Pillar of the Flagella- 
tion, which the pilgrims kiss with great fervour 
and devotion. From the open platform between 
the staircases sermons are preached on great fes- 
tivals; the pilgrims stand in the yard below. 

The sacred spring is near the Sancta Seala, 
on the opposite side of the road; it is visited by 
the pilgrims, some of whom, after certain prayers, 
wash their faces with the water, believing that it 
will protect them from disease. 

The income derived from this church is so great 
that it is called '*■ the milch cow of the Bishop of 

Auray {StSit,)— Buffet. Change for Pontivy 
line and S. Brieue, Carnac, Plouhamel, and 
Quiberon. Hotels (at Auray): Pavilion d'enhant, 
comfortable and moderate; Lion d'Or. A very 
prettily situated town of 6,286 inhabitants. It 
rises up precipitously from the river, and was 
formerly a place of great strength. The b»)v^ 
dere, or observatory, from which our view of the 
country around was taken, stands on an elevat^ 
plateau, on which was once the Castle of Auray. 
It is almost 300 feet above tho river. To the 
right-hand the river runs away to the sea, through 
deeply wooded j^anks. Eastward, in front «>f 
the spectator, is the undulating and well wQc4ed 
country so often traversed by the chivalry of tho 
middle ages. To the left, 8 miles off, i? seen th« 
Church of S. Anne, and a little way up the river 
are the Chartreuse, the Champ des Martyrs, and 
the Expiatory Chapel. The level ground upon 


by Google 


BRi.l)fltfAW*g fiSlTTAKY. 

which the railway itandt) about half a mUe from 
th« town, was part of the plain on which the 
Battle of Anray took place. The remains of a 
Roman bridge are said to be visible a little below 
the town. The name of the town is said by Briziea 
to be in Breton, " Hall-Rd" or King's Palace. 

The Castle of Auray must have been a very 
■tron^ place. Froissart speaks of its vigorous 
resistance to Do Montfort's men, who were bcsieg' 
ing it when De Blois and Dnguosclin offered them 

The great fight which settled the succession to 
the Ducal throne took place on the 29th September, 
] 864. The exact spot must be sought where a 1 ittlc 
tidal ditch intersects the plain of Tre-Auray. 
Following the shady lane*by the rivulet of Brech, 
a granite memorial stone will be seen marking the 
supposed site of the battle. FroUtarCt description 
of the battle is admirable, but too well known to 
require transcription. On the side of De Blois 
were Duguesclin and most of the Breton nobles, 
while De Montfort was much assisted by the pre- 
aenoe of Sir John Ghandos, Sir John Knollys, Sir 
Hagh Galverley, and other renowned English war- 
riors. The serried ranks of both armies were so 
compact that, as he says, you could not throw an 
apple without its falling on a bassinet or lance. 
At length De Blois was taken prisoner, and by a 
secret understanding among the combatants of 
both sides, that no quarter should be given to the 
principal if taken, an English soldier drove his 
Bword into his mouth. His dying words, says 
Froistart^ were, ^Ha ! domine Deus ! '' and he died 
at once." 

It is said also that during the battle a famous 
greyhound belonging to De Blois deserted his mas- 
ter, and making straight (or De Montfort, placed 
his forepawson his shoulders and saluted him as his 
master. This incident gave rise to the adoption of 
the greyhound as the bearing of De Montfort. and 
subsequently of Brittany, in which character it 
appears in the allegorical group, set up at S. Cast 
in 18fi8, vanquishing and trampling on the British 

The victory of Auray and the death of De Blois 
determined the disputed succession to theDuciU 
throne ; but as we have shewn (In the historical 
summary in the introduction) De Montfort did not 

tftoate Id. 

enjoy it peaceably, ahd Dugtiesclin, when his ran- 
som of 100,000 iivres had been paid. Joined with 
Clisson, and expelled the English from Brittany. 

The Chart reu8eConvent,aplea8ant building, with 
shady walks, is now a deaf and dumb school. Close 
to It is the Expiatory Chapel erected by the Duke 
and Duchess of AngoulCme, and other Bourbons, 
in 18*23, to serve as a sepulchral monument of the 
unfortunate prisoners from the Battle of Quibdron, 
who were shot in cold blood on the " Champ de$ 
Martyrs" near the spot marked by another small 
Doric temple. Over the portal of the smaller 
chapel are the words " Hie eectderunt.'^ It contains 
many ex-voto offerings. Over the larger chapel 
attached to the Chartreuse may be read, in 
large gilt letters, "fltaWia mcerens postttt." 
In the interior is a large white marble monu- 
ment, with sculptures of the landing and Battle 
of Qnibdron, and busts of Sombreuil and other 
Chouan leaders. On the four sides are inscribed the 
names of 932 emigres; of whom 210 were shot at 
Auray, 811 at Vannes, 117 in the valley near 
S. Pierre at Qnlberon, and 4 In various places in 
the Morblhan; making a total of 642 shot. Tlic 
remaining 290 died from wounds or sickness, some 
ending their days In England or Jersey, whilst 
others were drowned at Quibdron. 

In a deep vault under the monument are the 
skulls and bones of the unfortunate victims of 
political warfare. A lighted taper let down by the 
g^ide reveals a ghastly heap of these relics of mor- 

After leaving the Chartreuse there will be seen, 
on the right hand side of the road to Brech, an 
overhanging cluster of rock ; on its crest Is a huge 
block of granite, which appears as if it was sliding 
down into the road. It has been in this position 
for several centuries, and Is a rocking stone which 
may easily be set in motion, so well is It balanced. 
It is not an artificial locklng-stone. 

A pleasant walk may be made from Anray to 
Plougoumelen^ distant 4 miles; passing over the arm 
of the sea at Bono, by a suspension bridge. A very 
curious double cross will be seen In the Cemetery ; 
and in the Choir of the Chapel of Notre Dame de 
Bdquerel there is a spring, celebrated for curing 
diseases of the mouth. Such springs are to bo 
found in most of the country churches, or hi the 


by Google 

Route 13.] 



churchyards, where the people wore baptised. 
The churches were almost invariably buUt over 
the springs which they had previously used or 
worshipped. There is not one of them but is 
reputed to have some miraculous or curative pro- 
perties. Several megallthic remains exist in this 
district, Includhig a menhir and several low 
tumuli ; one was opened by Mens. Le Bain (whose 
house, Le Rocher, is near it). Its dimensions 
arc:— height, 10 feet; circumference at the base, 
300 feet. The alMe, which Is curved, Is 60 feet 
long, 8 feet broad, and 5 feet high. Its further 
extremity formed the sepulchral chamber; the 
entrance is as usual to the south-east. There 
are 13 capstones, standing on stone supports, 
which have been placed so near to each other that 
t»<cy touch; the thirteenth support on the north 
i'ide has a cartonch sculptured on It, somewhat 
resembling those on the Plerres Platte*, at Loc- 
n arlaquer. Two beads of dark jade, and one of 
blue jasper, a flint knife, a celt of febroUte, and 
three of dlorlte, together with a flint arrow-head, 
and a quantity of sherds of pottery, were found 
here. The entrance to this Is dlfiicult, owing to 
the displacement of one of the supports. In 1866, 
Mr. W. Lukis opened a low tumulus here, 
which contained in its centre a bronze bowl 
of thlu metal, which was standing on reed 
matting; It was surrounded by Incmerated human 
bones. Two Iron rings, each of about an Inch In 
diameter, were In the bowl, which latter was filled 
with fine earth. In 1872, Mens. R. Galles, of the 
SocMtd Polymathlque, opened a tumulus at Ker 
Noz, Us height was only 3 feet, and It was sur- 
rounded by a stone circle; some of the stones were 
missing, but the circle was well defined. The 
cliamber was found to the north. Its floor was 

5 feet below the level of the soli ; the allde had 
some stones across it before reaching the chamber 
which contained two he.ips (12 Inches each) of 
armillae, a spiral circle or torque, and a finger 
ring, all of bronze. A second tumulus was opened 
by Mr. Galles, its diameter was 20 feet, the height 
4 feet; it had also a stone circle at its base; in Its 
centre there was a block of dry masonry, com- 
posed of rough stones; It was 9 feet long and 4 feet 

6 inches broad, and was continued down to 5 feet 
below the level of the soil. At its north-east end 

a small crypt was found, which contained an up- 
right copper urn, having handles to it, also a cop- 
per cover resembling an Inverted and deep circular 
dtsh (the plates and the handles were well rlvetted) ; 
It was standing nn a bed of charcoal, being also 
covered with a thick layer of the same. It was full 
of incinerated human bones. Mr. Oallos examined 
two other tamull not far from these, but It became 
evident that they had already been opened. There 
are, altogether, seven low tumnli here, situated 
not far from each other; It is probable that they 
belong to the late bronze or to the early iron 
period. Nothing else of Interest was found, but in 
digging In Mens. Le Bain's garden a quantity of 
bronze armillae was discovered, of precisely the 
same pattern as those found In the tumulus. 

^'Carriages for Gamac and Locmariaquer (or 
Locmariaker) can be obtained at the Pavilion d'en- 
haut for from 8 to 10 francs per diem. There is 
no public vehicle whatever from Auray to IjOC- 
marlaquer. A steamer starts from here for Belle 
He on Tuesday and Saturday. It leaves Belle He 
for Auray on Monday and Friday. Faro, 4 frs. 
This Is a pleasant excursion in summer. The 
days are sometimes changed.'' 

Excursions A.— From Auray to Locmarla- 
ker by boat down the Auray River. To visit 
Gav'r lunis boats can be hired at Locmariaker 
which will carry four persons conveniently, but 
as the tides are very rapid no boat should be 
accepted that has not tu>o boatmen. The 
"i/atre" of the place has fixed the fare at ten 
francs^ but should It be desired to go on to Port 
Navalo to visit Petit Mont, Tnmiac, and the other 
megallthic remains, the boatmen will expect a 
higher remuneration ; In fact it will be more pru- 
dent to come to an understanding with them before 
starting, so as to avoid contention or extortion. 

On the road from Auray to Locmariaker, and 
after having passed the village of Orach, there will 
be seen three dolmens to the left at Kergl^verit ; 
beyond these there are also three dolmens at Ker- 
han also to the left; and at the bifurcation of the road 
to La Trinity (which is opposite) there is one at 
Kerango. Continuing, a ruined dolmen will be seen 
to the right at Kcrcarodct, and another to the left, 
at CoSt-Courso, the latter more inland. Further 
on, nearly opposite to the Calvary of Kcrverez Is 

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th« largfe dolmen of Mfm Drein, which has faintly 
sculptured on one of its supports an ascia haring 
ft haft to it, which it is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish, as the stone is much weather worn. The 
under part of the capstone has worked on it a 
niml>er of small circular cavities or " cup-mark- 
ings." Between the village of Grach and the river 
there are foni* dolmens and several menliira, but 
aH upset or in ruins except the dolmen of 
jgihuerit, A little before entering the village 
of Locmariaker, on the right-hand side of the 
road, is the new Cemetery, which, strange to 
say, has been built within the Roman Amphi- 
theatre, the walls of which surround the ceme- 
tery ; they are between 2 and 3 feet high, are very 
perfect, and are composed of small cubic stones and 
bricks. On the south side of the cemetery, there 
xvere found in 1893, remains of a Roman Hippo- 
drome ; two urns, some broken pottery, and a coin 
were disinterred. The village of LocmaruUeer, or 
Locmariaquer^ is poor and dirty, and has. no hotel; 
but a decent meal and bed may be obtained at the 
Inn (Hotel Harchand) opposite the church porch. 
Inside the boundary wall of the latter are to be 
seen two tombstones of very ancient date, one 
having an inscription on it ; the other bears on it 
the cross of the Knights Templars. Tlie capitals 
of the pillars which support the choir of the 
church are of the twelfth century ; the granite is 
carved to represent flowers, heads of animsls, &c. ; 
some of the designs are curious. There is no trace 
of the city of Dariorigum, which once stood here; 
but the great Megalithie remains^ the menhirs and 
dolmens, will well repay a visit. 

The principal Menhir lies on the ground broken 
in four pieces, either by lightning or the 
cfTects of an earthquake. The fractures are 
singularly clean. When upright it must have 
measured 60 feet In height, and between 9 
and 10 feet in thickness. Its weight is estbnated 
at 250 tons. There are many other menhirs hi the 
neighbourhood at Kerpenhir and Locperec, but of 
inferior size. They are all overturned ; they have 
all fallen in the same direction, and all show clean 
fractures, like the one above mentioned. 

At the same time may be visited the 6no 
dolmen known as the Table de Cesar (or des 
Karchands)j Meu-er-Rdthaal, and Les Pierres 

[Route 13. 

Plates. Thefe are also many tumuli, particularly 
"Mfln^orMann^ Lud" (the Mount of Cinders), 
long supposed to be a pile of ashes, and Mftnd-er- 
H'rouich, or Mann^-er-Hroec, the Fairy's Mount. 

MAa^ - er - HroSc (Mount of the Fairy or 
witch), also called the '' Butte de G^sar," was opened 
In 1872, by the Socidt^ Polymathique. Its form 
is elliptical, and it has a diameter of 300 feet at 
its broadest part, and 80 feet at its narrowest ; its 
heigh is 30 feet. On nearing it, two broken men- 
hirs will be seen lying on the ground. This galgol 
(cairn) is composed entirely of rough stones heaped 
up, and coated over with clay on its upper part, 
above wliich is the vegetable earth of the thick- 
ness of about 18 inches, in which latter were found 
10 bronze coins of Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, 
Nero, Domitian, and Trajan; also a silver one of 
Domitian ; a bronae finger ring, having' a stone 
set in it, on which was engraved an X between 
parallel lines ; the fragments of a second bronse 
ring ; a broken fibula or agraffe of the same metaU 
quantities of Roman bricks, tiles, and pottery, and 
the fragment of a square white glass bottle. At a 
depth of 12 feet from the surface there were picked 
up among the stones two ribbed beads of baked 
clay ; at 20 feet a glass bead, striped blue and black 
inhorizontalwavedlines, and four clay beads; at 
24 feet three jasper beads; and at 30 feet, lying on 
the capstone of the dolmen, one of agate. The 
entrance to the chamber was protected by a 
wall of large stones, one of which had three cup- 
markings on it. There was also a horizontal piece 
of granite, 4 feet long and 18 inches wide, cracked 
in three piepes, having sculptured on it a series of 
characters which have hitherto baffled the erudition 
of the " Savants." It has now been placed inside 
the chamber; the latter is quadrangular, being 
12 feet long, 9 feet broad, and 4 feet high. It muck 
resembles that of Mont St. Michel, at Carnac, but 
is larger. At its entrance was found a Calais* 
pendant, of the size of a hen's egg; in the centre 
of the upper chamber lay a large Jadeite ring, on 
which rested the point of a very long jadeite celt; 
the surface ot the flooring was covered with a fine 
unctuous dust, in which were diaoQvered 101 celts, 

• CtSaAB, » gre«n turquoise, from th« C(VtlCMas, 

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Koot^ Id.} 



99. of wWqU were of tremolite,* and eleven larger 
ones of jadeite; the latter being all cracked. On 
lifting the pavement slabs there was found, amid 
a fine reddish earthy powder, five Calais pendants, 
4i beads of calals, qaartz,and agate; a prism of 
crystallised quartz; three flint knives, two small 
celts o'f tremolite, and the pieces of a third one, 
together with a quantity of charcoal and some 
pieces of pottery, all of which were lying on the 
granite rock. No traces of human bones were 
discovered, but on analysing the fine earthy 
powder it yielded a large proportion of phos- 
phate of lime. To enter this remarkable tomnlaa, 
permission must be obtained at the Mairie, which 
is granted for 60 cents, for each person; if only 
one peraon, one franc, which goes to the benefit of 
the poor cf the village; the door is always kept 
locked, and a light will be required. 

Mann^Lud (Mount of Cinders), usually 
called the " Butte deHellud," is evidently a large 
sepulchral ma98,wbich probably contained the re- 
mains of a great number of individuals. When 
opened in 1864, by Mons. Galles, it was found to 
be composed principally of mud from the sea shore, 
acting as a coating against rain ; it is 250 feet long 
by 150 broad, and has a mean height of 17 feet ; at 
the we8iern extremity is a very fine dolmen which 
was examined in 1848. The floor is composed of one 
enormous stone, across which is a raised sculpture 
resembling the handle of an axe. Seven of the 
stone supports of this dolmen and of the all^e 
leading to it have a variety of very remarkable 
characters incised on them ; the granite slab which 
forms the roof of the inner chamber is 29 feet 
long, 16 broad, and 2 thick; there are twelve 
upright supporting stones in the alMe. In it were 
fuund some human bones and charcoal, and it 
was supposed to have been opened at a prior 
period, but Qn lifting up the flooring slabs a cavity 
Wiis found, wliich contained a jaq)erbead, two 
flint knives, a whoil, some coarse pottery, and 
some charcoal; the dimensions of the upper 
chamber are 11 feet long, 9 feet broad, and 6 feet 
6 inches high ; the length of the all^e is 28 feet. 

• Tremolile. a aiUcate of nuufnesia and lime, with 
Tsrialde qouitifclM of the oxide of iron ; its eolotir is white 
greyisb, and light green ; it ia easily mistaken for febaroUte! 
and derives its name from ilje vaUev of Tr^moja, in 
0Tlti(rlas4,— Aa?7H*n 

At the east end of the taatilus wasitoBBd a 
transversal gallery of upright menhirs, on the to|^ 
of which had been placed several horses' skulls. In 
the centre part was found a very large "galgal" 
of heaped up stones covering a crypt containing 
a flint knife, a celt of tremolite, one whorl, sheids 
of pottery, and human bones; between the galgal 
and the gallery at the east end was a very large 
heap of charcoal ; and under some large flat stones 
were discovered large heaps of animal bones and a 
great number of vases. 

Table de C^sar.— This dolmen will be found 
near the great fallen menhir; it is also called 
Dol-ar-Marchadourien, "Table des Marchands," 
and lies north and south, which is very unusual. 
As a general rule the dolmens are aU placed 
east and west. Only one celt of dlorite, and some 
fragments of pottery were found in this dolmen 
when it was opened in 1811, showing that it had 
evidently been previously opened and examined. 
The stone support at the north end is covered with 
a series of raised and carved sculptured figures of 
a uniform pattern; there are fifty-six of theso 
altogether, besides a border. The shape of this 
stone is that of an ogive, or inverted escutcheon ; 
the slab which forms the roof has incised on its 
lower, or inner, side the outline of a large hatchet, 
somewhat similar to that at Kercado; the two 
granite slabs which cover this chamber are 21 feet 
long, 14 broad, and 2 J thick; the height of the 
chamber is 8 feet. 

Men-er-R^tbual, also called Bd-er-Gouh. 
This very large dolmen is situated quite near the 
village, between the Table de C^sar and the Chapel 
of 3. Michel; it was examined in 1860, by Messrs. 
Bonstetten and Galles, but had evidently been 
previously opened, as only one fiint airow head 
and the heads of two small statuettes in white 
terra-cotta of Venus and Lucina, a bronze coin of 
Constantine, with bricks and tiles all evidently 
Roman, were found in it; the all^e, or entrance, 
is 40 feet long. There are two chambers, an inner 
and an outer one, of which latter one of the 
supporting stones has figures incised on it, 
one somewhat resembling a largo hatchet or 
plough. The great granite slab which covers these 
chambers has the enormous length of 34 feet ; its 
breadth is 14 feet, and it is nearly 2 feet thick ; 

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fRoute 13. 

it is crack«i, and has scalpture on its lower 
surface. Not far from this dolmen, and lying 
alongside one of the houses on leaving the Tillage 
is a fallen menhir (broken in two) 22 feet long, 
called Mcn-brao-sao, the Stone of the Brave. 

Plerres Plates are immense flat stones close 
to the sea shore, to the westward of Kerpenhir; 
and are, in fact, a large all^e couverte, approached 
by a long gallery of vertical stones covered by 
fourteen horizontal slabs ; its whole length is 90 
feet. It is bent, having an elbow at an angle of 45 
degrees, and it has a side chamber. The extremity 
is covered by a considerable capstone; a stone 
partition forms an inner chamber, in which were 
found some human bones. There are 14 sculptured 
supports in this dolmen, three of which have cup 
markings. This tumulus was opened in 1813, and 
in the interior were found five stones, on which 
had been cut some peculiar ornaments, each con- 
tained within a species of oval framing; they are 
circular and semicircular, with a globule in the 
centre of each. One has sculptured on it in relief 
a large fern leaf, a plant to which the Druids 
attributed mysterious virtues. It has lately been 
restored, and is worth a visit. It is classified as 
an Allee couverte. 

There arc eleven other dolmens scattered about 
the commune of Locmariaker in various direc- 
tions, but they are mostly all in ruins and hardly 
worth visiting, except Locpdreh, which has cup- 
markings on it. Near the chapel of St. Michel are 
traces of the foundations of a square tower; also 
some Roman walls, known by the name of 
*' erhastel " (the castle), and believed to have be- 
longed to Boman baths. 

Gamac may be visited from Locmariaker. By 
crossing the ferry at La Trinitd-sur-Mer (Ker- 
isper), which conveys carriages and horses, the 
distance is about 7 miles, by a good road. — For 
Gav'r Innis, sec page 104. 

Oay^ Innls,— Before crossing over to this 
island it will first be necessary to ascertain the 
state of the tide which runs here at certain times 
with great velocity :it will be advisable to leave 
Locmariaker with the ebb rather before slack 
water ; for if a boat were to Rtart with a strong 
fiood she would probably miss the island altogether 
and be drifted up the Morbihan amongst the 

Bzcursion B.— Anray to Quiberon, including 

Camac— There are two hotels here: Hotel dca 
Voyageurs, and Hotel des Menhirs ; conveyance to 
the railway 60c. As it is next to impossible 
to visit the whole of the Megalithic and Roman 
remains hi the neighbourhood of Camac in one 
day, visitors will do well to put up here for a 
night ; they may be sure of clean beds. The quaint 
old Church has a porch surmounted with a curiously 
carved stone canopy, of sixty-four stones, cut out of 
a single dolmen ; there is also a fountain, dedicated to 
S. Cornelius, and adorned with a statue of that saint ; 
but the great attraction of the place is the grand 
MegalUkic Monwnent, which lies within a mile of the 
village. It consists of a vast number of upright 
Stones, varying from 10 to 15 feet in height, ranged 
in parallel lines (see page 28). These stones are 
said to have been 11,000 in number (of which 
3,890 only now remain), and the regularity of their 
position has doubtless suggested the popular legend, 
that they represent an army of pagans, who were 
pursuing S. Cornelius and his Christian converts, 
and were turned into stone by the prayers of the 
saint. Endless conjectures have been made as to the 
origin and purpose of this mysterious collection ; but 
the truth is forced upon us, as Lowth says, " that 
we have but a poor and limited glimmering of the 
religion and government of that hierarchy which 
ruled at some early period over the majority of 
the human race." Many of the stones have been 
used for building materials; but the fallen ones 
having been set up, the avenues are suflSciently 
distinct to mark out the plan of the whole, and the 
effect is not less imposing than that produced by a 
view of Stonehenge. These remains of antiquity 
are now placed under public protection as a national 

The whole country is commanded by a tumulus, 
called Mont S. Michel, on which is built a chapel 
dedicated to S. Michael, from which a mag- 
nificent view may be obtained, and especially 
of the megalithic remains, which extend across 
the country in parallel lines. The medium 
height of this tumulus is about 80 feet; its 
base is 850 feet long by 120 feet broad. It is of 
the kind called "galgal," and is composed of about 
100,000 cubic feet of rough stones, which have been 
piled up. It was opened at a great expense in 
1802, by tlic Soci€t€ Polymathique. A sepulchral 

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fioute 130 

chamber was f ouhd near the centre of the gAlgal 
(cairn) at a depth of 38 feet; it is 7 feet long, 6 feet 
broad, and 8 feet high; its cf4>atone^ which was 
found cracked, had seyen cup-markings on its 
tmer surface. Thii chamber has long since been 
filled np, but Its site is distinguishable by a circular 
hollow, which is exactly opposite to the western 
door of the chapel. The floor of the chamber was 
covered by a light earthy powder, and there were 
found in yarious parts of it eleren exquisite Jadeite 
. ceits, two of which were perforated and one was 
broken, one of chloremelanite, one of diorite, and 
twenty-six smaller ones of fibrolite,* nine pen- 
dants, and 101 beads of calais — which unique 
necklace, as also all of the celts, are now in the 
museum at Yannes— thirty-nine bone beads, and 
flint chips. In a smaller lateral chamber was 
a small cist, containing the remains of human 
incinerated and decomposed bones, as also some 
charcoal; there was further a crypt, or smaller 
chamber, below the principal chambers, also 
containing incinerated bones and ashes, all of 
which were lying on the granite rock. From the 
great leng^th of this cairn it is supposed to contain 
more than one sepulchral chamber. An attempt 
was made to pierce a horizontal gallery through it, 
Commencing ftt its western extremity, but after 
' ^reat labouf, and hsYing penetrated to about half 
the length of the cairn, It was abandoned, leaving 
t&e question of other interments undetermined. 
At the foot of the cairn, and on its south side, are 
the remains of a supposed monastery of the twelfth 
6entury, which were brought to light by the late 
Mr. James Miln. 

Visitors wishing to see the megallthic remains 
kHII do well to proceed to the village of Uenec 
(half a mile), which is built in the midst of the 
(ileven alignments of menhirs, their western ex- 
tremity being terminated by a cromlech ; the length 
of these alignments is 1,260 yards, and they con- 
sist of (the cromlech included) 1,169 menhirs; 
one of these is remarkable, for if a stone 
is thrown against it with force, it will give 
out a strong metallic sound ; the guides will point 
tt out. The visitor should continue the alignments 


Across the fieldt until he tftiYM «t ftiWteer gtbttp 
of large menhirs^ and one mined dolaieii, ct Sir- 
mario, which is near the ftttn of Kermanx. There 
are nine alignments eittendtn^ 1,S70 yardi and 
consisting of 983 menhirs. The walls of a Romati 
encampment were also fonnd here by Mr. Mtlft. 
After seeing these he should eomtinne the line 
of stones across the fields tmtU he arrives at the 
tumulus of KercadOt opened in 1868. The key 
may easily be obtained at the Ghftteau; the 
attendant will take lights, and escpeets a gratnlty. 
A gallery leads into the inner ofaftmberi whieh 
ia quadrangular, being nearly 8 feet sqnare 
and 8 feet high ; its all^e is 38 feet long and 9 feet 
broad. In it were found one celt of Jadeite, and 
one of diorite, seven Calais beadi, three pendants 
of schist, one ditto of agamolitef, one flint arrow 
bead, one flint knife, soma flint cUpSr* whorl of 
steatite, the fragments of 16 vAses and tims, soHe 
diarcoal, and sea sheUs. On the stdne whIeh forms 
the roof will be seen a large senlptured stone axe; 
one of the stones which support It an the left od 
entering the chamber, and another in the ** all^^ 
have inscriptions of an angular character on them. 
This tumulus Is near the terminus of the lines of 
stones above mentioned, Which extend over nearly 
three miles; immense numbers of them, however, 
have been broken up for building and other 
purposes— indeed, the chnreh at Gamac has 
been entirely built of these stones, but the 
French government has now put an effectoal stop to 
this practice, and persons detected destroying any 
of them are subjected to a heavy fine. 

The visitor should continue his walk towards the 
east, across the pine wood, on the other side of 
which he will see, on his right, the scattered viUage 
of Kerlescan. Across some fields on his ^ he 
will find thirteen lines of stoues similar to the 
avenues of Carnac, but running in t different 
direction. Their length is 836 yards; they con- 
sist of 836 menhirs, including some detached ones 
beyond. There is also a quadrilateral eaeiosure, 
130 yards long, and 95 yards broad. 

In the centre of a field on the north side of the 
alignments, and contiguous to them, there is a 

* Fiteiriitfl^ an aahydroai ■tlicate of aluiDiDiiun ; it is 
usnal^ of • milky whit* colour, and it is oooaaioiully 
ToiMdaratrMkedwithTKriotwIiiits. TheitareiomovViBB 
of it in BrittiMiv.~^Mi«r. 

t AgamoUts, ahydrovtdUcste ti tltoitoltatrti U teiOM- 
lucid and hM a very fine grain, it is eaallT out wi^ a iharp 
iBBtnunent ; It IM of tbe folloiriiif oofours— gTMo, gttft 
y«|l»w. ana whit« ;.U is wmAIj tavad a OMitt IMwii> 

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^^DdHA^B B^f^XifiPi 

dolmen Which .was opened in 1846; it had two 
chambeni commiinicating by an oval entrance, 
nearly three feet high by 18 inches broad, 
which had been cat throagb the two granite 
Blahs which formed the division between the two 
chambers. These have been removed, as also the 
greater part of the stone, which has been utilised 
for building. Each of these chambers was 80 feet 
long and 5 feet wide internally. The entrance to 
this dolmen was through an oval opening made 
between two of its supports on the south side, 
similar to the one which existed between the 
chambers. Should the visitor feel disposed to 
prolong his walk, he can return by striking 
off to ths right towards the windmills on the 
hill, and he will be rewarded by seeing three 
dolmens on different rising mounds; two of 
these have side, or inner, chambers; he can after- 
wards return to Camac by the salt pans, leaving 
the chftteau of the Baron de Wolbok on his right, 
and afterwards passing by the Bostamo, where the 
Gallo-Roman Villa was not long ago disinterred.—* 
See note, page 115. 

Before arriving at the Villa, he will see the 
village of Beaumer on his left, where, on the village 
green, he will find the capstone of a dolmen, 
having on its upper surface numerous cup mark- 

In the vicinity of La Trinity, but to the north of 
It, there are several dolmens which were examined 
by the Soci^te Polymathique, in 1 866. First, Mftn€- 
er-Roh, near La Vigie; it contained a flint knife, 
a brown urn, having flint chips In it, a quantity of 
aherds of pottery, and some vases. Second, one 
near Kerdual, now in ruins. Third, one near the 
Chateau du Latz, also in a ruinous state. Fourth, 
Er-Roh, to the west of Kermarquer ; it stands on 
rising ground, and has an allde and a side chamber. 
There were found, on its paved floor, a flint knife, 
an arrow head, a burnisher, and a portion of a 
wooden armlet; beneath the pavement was a 
quantity of water-rolled pebbles of white quartz, 
together with flint chips and sherds of pottery. 
Fifth, one near Kervillor, now in ruins; its 
capstone and the all^e having disappeared, but 
the chamber, which is square, remains. Sixth, 
two to the north of Kermarqner, among the 
furze bushes; the northern one hae a chamber 

tilonte Id. 

7 feet square, and An all^e 1^ feet long by 80 inches 
wide; the capstone has fiillen on its end into the 
chamber. The second one is smallei', its capstone 
also having fallen in. Only fragments of pottery 
were found in these dolmens. Seventh, the 
remains of a ruined dolmen at Pen-her. Eighth, 
two dolmens on a mound near the river Crach, 
and to the east of Kervillor, separated by only a 
few feet, which makes it probable that they wefe 
both originally enclosed in the same tumulus. 
The northern one has a chamber 8 feet long, an 
alltfe 12 feet long and 80 Inches wide; it has 18 
supports, but all its capstones are gone except one 
over the entrance to the chamber. The southern 
one has also lost all its capstones except one over 
its all^ which has also 18 supports; the latter Is 
14 feet long and 18 inches broad. These dolmens 
are peculiar, being similar in form to the one at 
Fen-Nihol, at the lie aux Moines. Two celts of 
dlorite, 8 flint knives, 8 calais pendants and one 
of schist, also a quantity of pottery were found 
here. Ninth, two dolmens to the West of Keris- 
per, now in ruins, and almost entirely concealed 
by a boundary wall. 

A visit should also be made to the CetMiery at 
Carnac. On entering the gate a very curious 
* bdnitier * will be seen ; it is made so as to contain 
the holy water without the rain being able to get 
in and mix with it ; there are four holes at the 
sides to introduce the hand. One of the peculiar 
customs of the Bretons will here be seen: after a 
body has been buried a certain number of years, 
the bones are taken up and placed in miniature 
coflSns, having painted on them the initials of the 
deceased, as also the date; many of these are 
placed in the ^'reliquaire/' but a large proportion 
is piled up upon the graves of their rela- 
tives who have subsequently been buried, the 
superstitious belief being that the spirits of the 
deceased are there present. To such an extent is 
this superstition carried that the inhabitants be- 
lieve that at the midnight hour the church is at 
times illumhiated, when thousands of skeletons 
kneeling in the churchyard reverently listen to 
Death, who, robed in decent priestly garments, 
preaches flrom the pulpit: many persons affirm 
that they have seen the "cierge's" pale light, an4 
Indistinctly heard the preacher's voi^. 

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VA1<1^B& to QtJtMfBB— CAkKAO* 

ttoute 13.] 

The culture of oysters Is carried on most 
8\icces8fTillynearCamac,iiithe river Crach, which 
is being laid in "bassins" and " pares" for them 
in every direction. The principal proprietors are 
the Baron de Wolbok and Mons. Ezanno. The 
Baron has at a great outlay enclosed a part of the 
river with extensive works, where this bi-valve 
ia bred by millions annually; it will well repay 
Tisiton to go to see them. 

Proceed fint to the ChAteatl de Latz (seventeeth 
century), now a farm, quite close to the works. On 
entering permission should be asked to visit them, 
which will be politely granted, and pains will be 
taken to explain the system, as also to show the 
"coUecteurs," which are formed by alternate rows 
of curved tiles and boards tied together on a central 
Btick by wires; on these the spat is deposited, and, 
as soon as the young oysters have grown to 
nearly the sice of a shilling (one year old), they 
are packed in boxes and sent to various suit- 
able places to be laid down in " pares,*' where 
they grow to the proper size, which requires two 
years more. It has been found that by trans- 
ferring the young oysters to other waters they 
grow much larger; the establishments in the 
river Crach may more properly be called breeding 
places, or nurseries for oysters. 

A gnat Pardon, or Pilgrimage, is held here 
annually, the Saturday and Sunday next before 
the 16th September, or the festival of S. Cornelie, 
who takes the farm cattle under his pro- 
tection. Pilgrims flock to it from all parts, 
and many bring with them a number of cattle. 
The religious services and the procession to 
the Fountain of S. Cornelie are imposing and 
"bizarre." The pilgrims wash their faces and 
hands in the water, and also drink some of it, in 
the belief that It will protect them from disease; 
and the offerings of money to the Saint are con- 
siderable. The **tronc," or money box, in the 
church is surmounted by a gilt bust of the Saint, 
having some relics under a glass set in his breast ; 
it is quite three feet in depth. The pilgrims 
devoutly kiss the bust of the saint on both cheeks, 
but, as this operation would spoil the gilding, 
the saint is on these occasions protected by a 
^lass Cftve; 89 the pilgrim9 kiss two pan^s 


of the glass instead, which possibly answers 
quite as well. At this festival cattle are offered 
as a present to the saint ; after high mass they 
are led in procession, headed by the banner of S. 
Cornelie, to the fair field, where they are sold by 
auction for the benefit of the church. They 
usually realise high prices, and the fortunate pur- 
chasers return with them joyfully to their homes, 
believing that whilst they are in their stables, no 
evU spirits can enter there, and that their cattle 
will be protected from contagious diseases. 

There is an ** annexe" close to the church, 
which has an image of the Saint over the door. 
Here, at the time of the festival, are sold ropo 
halters for the cattle, which have been bles&ed by 
the Saint, and sprinkled with holy water by the 
priests. They are eagerly bought up by the pil- 
grims, and as they have to be renewed every year^ 
it is easy to conceive what a great revenue the 
Church derives from this source. 

At other times, and usually about the hour of 
11 p.m., women may be seen in the north 
porch of the Church kneeling, and holding by n 
halter either a sick cow or a pig. They pray 
earnestly to the Saint to look down upon them and 
to spare their cattle; and, as may be supposed, 
some very absurd scenes occur on these occasions. 
Truly it would seem as if Paganism still existed 
in Brittany, with a thin film of Christianity over it. 
When the "foot and mouth " disease prevailed in 
Lower Brittany, in 1875, it was usual to see every 
evening in the autumn, between the hours of 8-30 
and 10 p.m., processions of cattle arrive at Carnao 
from some distance ; they were walked round the 
church and the sacred fountain three times ; some 
of the water from the spring was poured over 
them to heal them ; others came to implore the 
Saint that their cattle might be protected by him 
and so escape this disease ; even horses and pigs 
sometimes joined in these processions. 

Discovery of a Roman VUla at the Bossexmo* 
Camac. "In September, 1874 (a correspondent 
writes), I was at Camac with some friends, 
amongst whom was Mr. James HUn, ofMurie, a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries.* When 

• Author of *' ExeavRtums ftt Carnac : a S«eonl of Azchvo- 
logical Bcaearches in the Bowenno and the Mont St. kiehel." 
(uaar Carnae). published bv D. Dotifflas, Xdinbw^ ; alio of 
" PouilI«s ttiXtfi* 4 Oarnac '^ aa eUhon«v work iaTv^b, ' 


by Google 


BaADBHAW*S BmTik^t. 

exploring the surronndlng cottntry, we fonnd at 
'the ' Bofeno,* aboat a mile teom the village, ten 
mounds in the fields, whidi were composed prlnci- 
';pa11y of itone, and overjgrrowA with brambles. On 
•nqairy, we heard of a tradition that there 
formerly had existed a Roman town on that spot. 
It was, of course, very vague. It was further 
'stated that there was always a "revenant" about 
there; indeed, some people would not, on that 
^account, pass the spot at night time. A French 
'imtlquary and painter, who was there, also pointed 
out to us the remains of two small Roman roads (one 
tut through the rock), which converged on that 
]point ; after which, all trace pf them was lost. This 
teemed quite to confirm t he general tradition . There- 
tipon, Mr. Miln decided, upon obtaining the per- 
mission of the owners, to open one of these mounds, 
which was accordingly done. "Workmen were pro- 
'cpred, and Roman bricks were soon disinterred. 
" On the third day we came on the angle of a wall, 
and by following up the trace we laid open the 
complete foundations (in granite stone) of part ot 
a Homan VUla^ consisting of three rooms, the fire- 
place being separate, and at the back of the house. 
It was in a perfect state; the walls were 2 feet 
thick, and well built, the floors were covered with 
hydraulic concrete of lime and sea pebbles, and ap- 
peared to be in as good a state as when first made. 
In one of the rooms we found the marks of fire, 
a sort of hollow being made in the floor purposely 
for it, which was still black, and contained a piece 
of charcoal. The wall evidently extended further; 
of this we found traces, though It had been 
destroyed by the plough, as land round these 
mounds was under cultivation. In the Villa were 
found pieces of pottery, flints, flint instruments, 
glass, and animal bones; two iron nails, which 
were extracted out of the ttalls, one of which was 
well preserved; besides a bronze ring: but no 
coins or medals were found. Some of the bones, 
found in the rooms fell into dust shortly after 
exposure to the atmosphere. 

"A French savant and antiquary visited 
our work, and pronounced it as beyond a 
doubt that we had disinterred a Gallo-Roman 
Villa ot the iamnd century; he also classifled 
the pottay tmfier the f^iowlng heads: First, 
. ^M(U>y •! (ba Celftie pcrifd, or tfawe of the dol- i 


mens. It was coarse, and of a greyish blue colour ; 
the flints and knife were also of the same period, 
but the former were bkiek, and must have been 
brought from the North of France, as none of that 
kind is ever found in Brittany. Secondly, pottery 
of the Roman period. Thirdly, pottery and glass 
of the Gallo-Roman period. 

"About the fire-place, at the back of the house, 
were found some iron clinkers, which proved that 
some of that metal had been forged here. Ttie 
head of a small statue, In white terra-oottai was 
also discovered. A great quantity of Roman 
bricks and tiles were also found, some of them very 
perfect. The tiles were flat, with ridges at the 
sides, and doveUUed neatly into each other. A 
cnrioos fact was elucidated, vis., it was remarkied 
that two of the bricks and one of the tiles were 
marked with the impressions of several little dog's 
feet; bat in neither of them was the position of the 
feet placed alike. It is therefore evident that the 
dog had run over them whilst in a tqft state; and 
that they were afterwards baked, retaining the 
impressions of this little dog's perambulations; the 
foundations of the walls were about 3 feet deep in 
the earth. 

" Mr. Miln, who entirely undertook the manage- 
ment and expense of this affair, and to who?! the 
credit of the discovery is due, was giost patient 
and indefatigable in his investigations. We were 
assisted by some intelligent French gentlemen 
and antiquaries, who most disinterestedly roM>lved 
any doubts which might otherwise have existed. 
These excavations were carried on by Mr. Miln 
during the spring and summer of 1875, and re- 
sulted in bringing to light 0^A< complete buildings, 
as well as traces of the walls of a supposed town ; in 
faet, a street or square was laid open to view, 
having buildings on each side ot it. 

One was a very large house having nume- 
rous apartments, the interiors of some of which 
were richly ornamented with coloured designs on 
the plaster, as also with pretty sea-shells ; attached 
to it by a corridor was a very complete set of hatha, 
in good preservation, consisting of apodyterium, 
frigidarium, tepidarium, caldarium, sudatorium, 
prsefurniuro, and hypocaust. The last was in a 
perfectstateof preservation, theheated vapour being 
carried up to the sudatorium tnd tepidai^um by a 

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Route 13.] 

series of well arranged earthen tubes ; the discharge 
from the frigldarlum was of good lead piping, 
which was so firmly fixed in the indurated (red) 
cement that It could not be removed without de- 
stroying the place. The apodyterium, or dress- 
ing room, had its walls richly ornamented with 
coloured design on plaster. A second long passage 
from tills house conducted to another building, 
which was evidently a lararium for the family 
lares, in the centre of which was found a 
stone altar ; the principal deity was missing, 
but there were found here four complete 
statuettes of Venus, and the heads of f<yur 
other subordinate deities, in a good state of pre- 
servation; also two Latonas, each seated in an 
arm chair resembling wicker-work, and nursing 
children. These statuettes (believed to be votive 
offerings) \vere made of a species of white terra- 
cotta; a whistle was also found here made from 
the tusk of the boar, and several coins and medals. 
Another apartment had a complete system of 
heating by means of flues built under the floors. 
A blacksmith's shop was also brought to light; 
alongside of the fire-place there was found a bar of 
iinwrought iron; the vessel for tempering iron 
was in good preservation. The walls of the 
buildings generally were very neatly built with 
small cubes of granite, dressed and cut to the 
same size, and also courses of red tiles; the floors 
of the rooms were either of hydraulic concrete of 
lime, or a sort of tesselated pavement of small 
pieces of white quartz. The entry of the vestibule 
was usually of red tiles. The medals found, and 
the masonry, fix the date of these buildings from 
the second to the fourth century, but on digging 
below the floors of the apartments to a depth of 
from 4 to 6 feet, CTidenccs were found of former 
and older constructions, as also of pottery.'' 

The following is an outline of what was found 
at the Bossenno in the year 1875 :^ 

CWni.— Twenty five bronze coins and medals, 
the dates extending from the second to the fourth 
centuries, Including Antoninus, Mareas Aurelius 
GatUenus, Victorinns, Tertricus, Gonstantinus, 
Lucilla (coins of Laeilla have been found in Kent), 
Gordtanat, Constantihe, and ]tf aximian. 

In ^ronze,—A s^^uet^e of it bull, In a perfect 


state of preservation, aiicf well 'fQnnod ; seWft^ 
bronze rings, a dagger handle, and a finely per- 
forated piece of that metal. 

Jewellery.— A finger ring set with a blue stone,, 
having engraved on it a species of quatre-foi\ 
design. Amber beads, an amulet, several bucHles,, 
and a triangular agrafe, the latter decidedly weU' 
and neatly designed. 

In Iron.— A pair of compaspes, two. knives, » 
stoat hook, the bar of a window, a groat number o^ 
nails of various sizes and variety, also a quautiti' 
of molten iron, and some sword blades. 

In Ola88.—A considerable quantity }8i>m4of whlcK 
was delicately thin, and hsvhig figured psttemi 
on It; it was, unfortunately, all broked. 

In Stone.— Two polished Celtic htttchets, several 
chisels and other polished iirtplements, also a dozen 
rough ditto, a hammer, mill-stones, sharpening* 
stones, and a painter's patette. 

Pottery was found in very great quantities; 
Celtic, Gallo-Roman, as also a few good specimens 
of the red lustrous ware called Samian ; some of 
the red ware had the maker^s name Impressed on 
it still quite legible. The vases were mostly of 
exquisite designs and shapes. 

In Bone. — Large quantities of boiTcs of animals,' 
teeth of the wild boar; the jaw bones of the fox, 
with teeth complete ; several pairs of stags' antlersj 
some of which were large; also several bone tools, 
highly polished and in a good state of preservation. 

A French steamer of war brought a ship loail 
of the French Association for the Advancement of 
Science to inspect these discoveries and scientific 
researches. Subsequently, the members of the 
Socidt<J Polymathique of the Morbihan also paid 
the place a visit ; they so highly 8ppre<!lated the 
labours of Mr. Miln that they afterwards unani* 
mously conferred on him the honour of member^ 
ship, which was conveyed to him in a very 
complimentary letter. Further Roman remains 
were brought to light at Carnac during a heavy* 
gale in January, 1877 ; the violence of the waves 
washed away a portion of the cliff at Port-en-dro, 
exposing to view the basement of a house, having 
a bath attached to it; and a little beyond it a kiln 
for firing bricks and tiles. ' Several bronze KOifiao 
eolfls Yf^r^ found I^^q, 

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[Boute 13. 

Mr. Mlln mo«t poraeyeringly prosecuted his 
researches dnringr 1877 and 1878, and tncceeded In 
bringing to light i^First, near the Tillage of 
Nignol, under a low tnmalas 4 feet high and 60 
feet in diameter, two eoncentric rings, or stone 
cnclosaros, which had apparently been used as a 
place for cremation; he found on the exterior of 
the outer circle four urns, containing the remains 
of human incinerated bones and indurated ashes, 
also the fragments and the contents of sereral 
others; a flint knife, a stone mortar, and a muller 
for grinding grain. Between the circles there were 
seven urns, which also contained calcined bones, 
indurated ashes, and some small flint instruments. 
In a few cases there were some iron nails resting at 
the top of the bones and at the mouth of the urns, 
which latter had been covered over with slabs of 
slate; here were also found the fragments and 
contents of several urns, a flint knife, a portion of 
a bronze bracelet, and«iho pieces of a wooden 
armlet; also a mortar. The inner circle contained 
ashes and fine particles of charcoal ; but on digging 
down deeply pieces of a red patera and fragments 
of some black cinerary urns, together with half a 
mortar, were brought to light. Tbe diameter of 
the outer circle is 25 feet; it is composed of eight 
cottTses of dry masonry. The inner circle con- 
sists of rough granite blocks coarsely put together ; 
its diameter is 12 feet ; the thickness of the masonry 
is 30 inches. A similar structure was afterwards 
found at Coet-a-tonx, and with precisely the same 
results. Beyond Nignol, and on the same side of 
the road, on the heather, there are three circular 
places for sepulture and cremation, within con- 
sideral>1e stone enclosures; these structures are 
named M&ntf-ty-yeh, and Mftn^-Poohat-en-Uieu. 

Secondly.— A Roman oamp of considerable di- 
mensions in the direction of Kermario, having 
a great number of fire-places in good condition. 

A ifuuum has lately been built at Camac, which 
contains the collection of antiquities made by the 
late James Mlln, F.S. A.Scot., during his eight 
years' diggings at Camac and the neighbourhood; 
{I charge of 50 centimes is made. The remaining 
copies of Mr. Mihi*s works (see page 115) have 
1)0^ b^en sold out; it isprobi^ble they will never 
be reprinted, 

Flonlianiti(8tat.).*.-A correspondance meets 
the train and conveys passengers to Camac (see 
page 112 for hotels) for 50c. "At about 800 
yards beyond this village, and on the left-hand 
side on the road to Erdeven, will be found a group 
of three dolmens, named Rondossec, each ap- 
proached by a gallery; they were opened In 
1850. The centre one contained only some broken 
celtsB, and a perforated stone axe of chlorome- 
lanlte, having a cutting edge at each end, and 
the haft hole at the centre. On the second was 
found, in the centre of the chamber, an earthen 
vase, containing fragments of bones, cinders, and 
charcoal, and two gold collars. This dolmen had 
also an inner chamber, in which were found some 
bones and coarse pottery. The third chamber 
also contained some pieces of pottery, and a 
large spherical vase, which, on being removed, 
fell to pieces. The greater part of these were 
preserved at the Hotel du Commerce; on the 
closing of this they were sold and dispersed. 

"At about half-way between Plouhamel and 
Erdeven, at a little distance from the road, on the 
right-hand side. Is the village of Conrcouno. 
which has in the midst of it the most colossal 
Dolmen in the department. Including the gallery 
(which no longer exists) it was 45 feet long ; the 
chamber is 25 feet long by 15 broad, and 9 feet 
high in the interior; one of the covering flat 
stones is 27 by 16 feet, and 2 thick. So great Ls its 
size that it was used as a stable. At a short 
distance to the right and beyond the village, amid 
the heather, there is a quadrilateral cromlech of 
large stones in the form of a parallelogram, which is 
136 feet long by 96 feet broad. It is an exceptional 
one, the usual forms being either circular or oval. 
Beyond it, and to the left, on a rising ground, will 
be seen the dolmen of M&n^-Groh, which has 
four sepulchral chambers, and an alMe 22 feet 
long ; some of its capstones have fallen In, and 
others are missing; it is in rather a ruinous state. 
Beyond it will be perceived the eastern end of the 
alignments of Erdeven, the menhirs of which are 
larger than those at the western extremity. 
"In returning to Plouhamel across the country by 
the bye-roads, the dolmens of MAntf R^mor and Le 
Cozkcr will be found. The first is on a rising 
ground, jw4 vifi&j be ?eei| frQm eyery direction •, 

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Bonte Id.] VANHBs to qudipbb-^plouhabkbl. 

from Ita snmmlt there is a very extended view of 
the snrroundhig conntry ; the latter ig beyond the 
Chapel of St. Antolne, and is sitaated at the 
entrance of the Tillage. Continuing on the road to 
Vieax Moulin, where there are four congiderable 
menhira, two of which have fallen, and six other 
menhirs aligned, a path will be found which 
debouches on the m^in road not far from Ron- 
dosaec. On the opposite side of the road to Cour- 
conno, and towards the sea-side, is the village of 
8. Barbe, where there are three alignements of 
menhirs, similar to those of Erdeven.'* 

It was at thia spot that the whole of the neigh- 
bouring population assembled under the pro- 
tection of the Chonan Chief, Georges Cadoudal, 
after having been defeated by General Hochc, in 
order to effect a junction with the "€migr€s," who 
had disembarked at Quiberon ; a few days after 
General Hoche took possession of S. Barbe, and 
all these unhappy people were driven to seek 
shelter under the guns of Fort Penthifevre, which 
was then occupied by the troops of the expedition ; 
Hoche established his head-quarters here, and so 
completely blockaded Quiberon that Fort Pen- 
thi^vre capitulated to him. A small cottage at 
Lenneis was the one oceupled by tiiat general. 

Nearly opposite to the Hotel du Commerce at 
Plouhamel is a small cross road, in the right-hand 
wall of which is built, in a large hewn stone, one 
of the land marks of the Knights Templars. It 
has their crosses incised on its faces. It was sub- 
sequently surmounted by a stone cross, which is 
broken and has fallen. About 400 yards beyond 
Plouhamel, on the road to Camac, is the dolmen 
of Kergavat ; a part of its alMe has fallen into the 
road ; its capstone has some cup-markings on its 

Just before arriving at Plouhamel (from Carnac), 
on the right-hand side is a broad road leading 
to Auray, which, If followed for 2 kilometres, 
will lead to the hamlet of Runusto (on the left), 
where there is a dolmen which has tome cup- 
markings on it. Continuing on the road for 
another kilometre, will be found, on the same side, 
three dolmens, named MAntf Kerion, which were 
opened, In 1866, by Dr. Closmadeuo, who found in 
them one celt of tremollte, two flint knives, nume- 
rous ^int chips, eight whorls, two Oftlais bpads, the 


fragments of nineteen nms and raset, two hmnan 
bones, and a quantity of coarse pottery. Six of the 
stones of one of the dolmens have on them setdp- 
tnred figures of great variety and of many forms, 
which are curious. 

On the opposite side of the road, and quite 
near, will be seen, on the plain, the dolmen 
of Keriaval, which has three sepulchral 
Chambers; it was opened, in 1866, by Dr. Closma- 
deur, and contained two calals beads, a flint knife, 
several flint chips, two whorls, and the fragments 
of seven urns and vases, and other potter}'. 
Between Keriaval and the hamlet of Nauteriau, 
another dolmen was found to contain a flint 
knife, a sharpening stone, some flint chips, tho 
fragments of five urns, and some potsherds. 
Following the main road, beyond M&nd Kerion 
and on the same side, on slightly raised ground 
amid the heather, will be found the dolmen of, which has four sepulchral chambers 
to it, but all its capstones are missing. It was 
opened, in 1866, by the Soci^t^ Polymathique, 
when there were found only a flint knife, a 
whorl, several flint chips, and sherds of pottery. 

A very pleasant round may be taken with the 
aid of a guide, by continuing to the right across 
the heather, which will lead to various dolmens, 
one cromlech, and two barrows or tumuli, 
each being distinguished by a menhir standing 
on the top. One of these^ Mcustoir, was opened 
in 1864. It is very similar to Mont S. Michel, 
being a galgal (cairn) of stones heaped up; on the 
exterior and near the surface were found a large 
number of pieces of Roman bricks, from which 
it is supposed to have served as a point of 
observation to the Roman soldiers. At the further 
end a sepulchral chamber was discovered, 13 
feet long, by 6 feet broad, and 5 feet high, covered 
over by four flat slabs. There was found in tho 
chamber one celt of agamclite, one perforated 
Calais disk, five flint knives, several flint chips, four 
urns, some human bones, and the half of a glass 
ring striped with yellow, vertically; all are now 
in the museum at Vannes. There are also two 
small cists in this tumulus. The other is named 
Orueuni, and is opposite the Chapel of CoeUa-toux i 
it has never been properly opened, ahhough recent 
Attempts havp l^^efi ma4e, bf^t abandoned, 

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BftAtoSRAW'fl BRmANT. 

I taf nb iietd, imt s fair ooantry 
AnbM'fA, where a meal may be procqred. ''The 
pafalUliie monomeats in this ndghbonrfaood are 
niimerony. Before enuring the village there are 
the ten alignments of menhirs of Kerterho^ some- 
what sltniUr to th6se at Oarnac, but far more 
ppniidevaUn, extocding in the direetion of 
QeuFQOiuiOf and having a length of 3,282 yards; 
there now remain oaly 1,047 menhirs, of which* 
pjimbar H9 have fallen ; great numbers having 
b(e^a removed in cultivating the adjacent 
a^iHs; t^oH of the largest dimensions will be 
f9Qnd as niaal at the extremities of the lines. 
To the- north-east of these alignments, towards 
Ejrdpven, there is a detached spur of colossal men- 
hirs; osd of the fallen ones has on it three 
''^asslnsi" or cavities, from which primitive 
querns have been taken. At about half the length 
of tbo^a alignments will be seen a hillock 
named Mil*)^ Bras, on which there are four 
dolineni; fthe smaller one is in ruins, but the 
largest is « ell preserved, and bas two sepulchral 
charabprs. There are some erratic blocks of 
granite here, as also a small ktone circle. The 
higu read ^o Brdeven hiis been cat across the 
aligumputs, whic|i have a spur of immense blocks 
of granite, fun^iipg northwards to Erdeven, near 
to the f^Ad, On^ of tbem is a Pierre h bassins. 
There ape also two 0olmensnearthevilIage,and three 
alignments pf menhirs at the village of S. Barbe. 

FasfiQg thrQugb Srdeven we arrive at the vil- 
lage of 8t, 6adp, situated on the banks of the river 
Ktel ; it was connected with an island of the same 
nnme by a bridge, 800 feet Ion?, originally Roman. 
The patish Ohurch and a Calvary are on the island ; 
the former contains four very curious and primitive 
paintings which illustrate the life and death of 
St. Cado. There is a narrative attached to each 
in early French. The Saint is there stated to be 
son of the Prince of Glamorgan; he crossed over 
in the fifth century, and established himself on 
this island, where iie built a small chapel for 
himself, in which it is said he was murdered by 
pirates; his tomb is shewn in the little church. 
It is believed to possess miraculous qualities in 
curing deafness, the Saint having taken those 
afllicted with this malady under his protection. 
St. Cado is reputed to have, **a force des pri^res," 

[Eonte 19. 

banished all snakes and venomous reptiles from thl^ 
district. There are several megal ithic monument^ 
in the neighbourhood, but they are all in ruins. ¥ha ' 
principal one is a tumulus at CnibelXy which waf 
opened, In 1864, by Dr. Closmadeuc. This tnmulaa 
was 15 feet high ; its diameter at the base was 100 
feet; it was composed entirely of earth heaped up, 
and contained a stone chamber 10 feet long, 5 feet ' 
broad, and 10 feet high; it was without exception 
the hifffteit known sepulchral chamber in Brittany. 
A little below its surface in the vegetable earth 
there was found a quantity of Roman bricks and 
tiles, also fragments of pottery; and within the 
chamber, one celt of diorlte, one flint arrow head, 
some flint chips, and decayed wood. 

Passing over the suspension bridge of ppo( 
Loroy, and at about f<Jur miles beyond it, 
is the yillage of PloHhinec, where there are ciglit . 
alignments of stones, but on a much smaller 8cal# 
than those at Carnac, none being 6 feet high, and 
extending not quite 200 yards; they are to bQ 
found near the windmill pf Gueldro. There am 
also some at K^ri^sine^ besides several isolated 
menhirs in various directions, but many hava 
either fallen or are much out of the perpendicular. 
In March, 1884, four of the dplmens here were 
explored. That of Griguen contained a largQ 
cinerary urn, and a lai^ce-head of bronze; that of 
Kerouaren, an urn, a band of gold, and other 
ornaments; that of Beg-en-Havre consisted of 
two chambers—lhe first of which contained the 
remains of a skeleton, the skull of which had 
disappeared, and tho second three skulls -an4 
also furnished several objects of flint; that of 
Mftn^ Bras yielded flUit arrow-heads, an urn, and 
fragments of ornamented pottery. 

LOCOal Mandoa may be reached in a vehicle 
in about half-an-hour from St. Cado. There ar^ 
seven dolmens in ruins scattered about this neighr 
bourhood; also close to the shore (by the road 
side) is a very remarkable monument on which ia 
incised the cross of the Knights Templars, which is 
believed to have been one of their landmarks. 
There is a similarly marked stone on the opposite 
boundary of the Commune. They formerly ha4 .. 
a convent here of red monks (Mtfntfh Rhu). It i« 
also tk memorial of • baitU loiigbt in tbe ninth 

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Q<f»a^ U.1 



c^tvy b«twMa tt» Bretoai and the MomoM, 
tbA foim«r being commanded by a ilTonnait 
Prineees named ProsUon. On the tide of this 
stone are incised in ancient characters the words 
*Gmx Prostlon/ which, althoogh overgrrown with 
lichens, are stili i^ble; alongrside it is a cross 
which has been broken ; the two are within 10 
feet of each oth«r. 

In returning from this place it will be as well 
to take the road near Pont Loroy, a suspension 
bridge, on to Etel, where there is a large sardine 
fishery, and where the process of curing this fish 
in oil and packing it in tins may be seen. A fair 
Inn (Commerce), fif. a day. Gorrcspondance to 
Plouharmcl Station at 7 a.m.; If. 50 cents. 

The approach to Quib^ron is through the Yillage 
of Flouhamel, and along a narrow strip, or 
isthmus of sand, 5 miles long, and which 
generally is not more than 200 feet broad. Some 
few years since the Princess Bacchiochi had this 
isthmus pitmted with the ''Pinus Maritima '' at a 
very considerable expense, but unfortunately the 
plan did not succeed; a great part of the 
trees, which were planted by thousands, died ; the 
ridges which were formed to plant them in now 
only remaining. Fort Pcnthifevre, which defends 
the place, is built on a rock at the extremity of 
the peninsula; it has recently been re-armed, 
though as a military port it is but of little value. 

The peninsula of Quib^ron is exactly 10 miles 
long; its eastern side affords capital shelter for 
shipping during westerly gales, but its western 
Bide is rocky and very dangerous. Proceeding 
al'Ug the main road, visitors will arrive at the 
village of S. Pierre, which is frequented by the 
French for sea bathing in summer. Formerly, 
a great number of dolmens and megalithic 
monuments were strewed about Quib^ron, 'but 
they have all disappeared excepting one dolmen 
at Kcrinderyelen, two at Port Blanc, one at 
Becker Noz (all ruined), and a considerable one 
in the Tillage of Roc-en-And, near S. Pierre 
Station, some stone oista at Bec-er-Vil, and 
one cromlech, and four alignments of menhirs, 
near the windmill beyond the village of 
S. Pierre. These alignments rnn right down to 
the sm; tlie menhir fit the extremity n^3(t tt> the 

windmill has been named ** Le Motn« <|^! ^r^ehe,'* 
and when viewed from the proper position, it hal 
all the appearance of a robed figure with a hood 
on, and its right arm partly raised. The mtaied 
dolmen (Mdne-Meur) is about 800 yards beyond 
the alignments, about half- way between them and 
Quiberon, on the right-hand side of the road, and 
in the village. There is a very fine menhir to the 
south west. There were found near liere a serlea 
of stone cists of various sizes ; the dimensions are 
such that it is clear the bodies must have bete 
laid on their side, with their knees bent np to 
their head. They are visible in a gentleman's 

Quiberon Stat. (Quin-Beron, the projecting sptt 
of land) lies far out upon the sandy peninsula, wcl) 
known to our sailors as " Kibbcroou," in the 
last century. Inns: De France; Penthifevre; du 
Commerce. The village of Quiberon itself pre- 
sents nothing worthy of notice. It has a church 
and a calvary, and several Megalithic monuments. 
At the extreme point of B^conqucl there existed 
formerly a priory of Templars. There is a good 
menhir towards the Point. There is a harbour 
for fishing vessels at Port Hallingucn, from whlcli 
a small steamer sails daily at 8 a.m. and noon 
(one hour's passage) for Belle-Isle. The sardina 
fishery is carried* on here, and there are estabiisht 
ments for curing this fish, as also for preserTirig 
it in oil for exportation. 

The main interest of the place, however, is con- 
nected with the ill-fated expedition which set sail 
from England in 1795, for the purpose of landing 
the dmigr^s who had taken refuge in England, 
in order to reinstate them in their possessions in 
Brittany. They were sent over by the British 
Government in fifteen vessels, fully equipped and 
armed, and were commanded by D'Hervilly and 
Sombrcuil. They landed on the beach at Quiberon 
and the division under Pulssaye was disembarked 
at Garnac, on June 27th, and was joined by a 
large body of ChoiMnt^ or armed peasantry. High 
Mass was celebrated by the Bishop of Dol in the 
open air at Legen^se, near the beach; a table 
which was used for the purpose is now in one of 
the cottages of the village. They took Auray, 
and entrenched th^ms^lvM in Fort Ponthi^vre, 

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'Which stands on the narrow isthmus, and 
eonunands the peninsula of Quiberon. The ''Bleut,'' 
however, attacked them in force at Auray, and 
gradually drove them back upon the peninsula 
behind Fort Penthi^vre. The fort was taken by 
the " J5tet«" during a stormy night, and the Emi- 
gre and Chouans found themselves completely 
hemmed in. All who remained alive, were taken 
prisoners by General Humbert, on the under- 
standing that their lives should be spared ; but 
the other generals, Hoche and Tallian, would 
not ratify the capitulation till they knew the 
pleasure of the convention in Paris. The govern- 
ment sent down a commission to try the prisoners, 
and the consequence was, that numbers of 
them were shot, or otherwise executed, at Auray, 
Vannes, and Quiberon. The majority were led out 
to execution, as we have described (see page 108), 
in the " Champ des Martyn.'"' Great blame attached 
to the English government for the miscarriage of 
the expedition. The bishop and the clergy of 
the diocese of Dol were also executed at Vannes. 

Prom the Point of Bfe Conquel at Quiberon there 
extends a reef of rocks and islands, the principal 
of which, Houat and Hoedic, are inhabited by 
fishermen; at each there is a boat harbour and a 
small fort. There are four menhirs on Houat\ 
one is of quartz, and is named *'Men Guen'* or 
White Stone; it was to this island that General 
Puissaye and some of the Royalist troops escaped 
when the Republicans entered Quiberon in 1795, 
and from it they were rescued by the English 
squadron under Sir John Warren. Hoedic has a 
lighthouse, a telegraph station, and a tumulus at 
Beg Lagad, a menhir near the ruins of the old 
Lighthouse which is called "Le menhir de la 
Vierge" and four dolmens; numerous stone im- 
plements and coins of Vespasian and Ceesar have 
been found on these islands. 

Excursion by road or rail to Band. 1. By 
road through Pluvigner, and the forest of Camors; 
very pretty scenery. Baud is a small unpretend- 
ing village, with a nice chureh, and a tolerable 
/n»— Chapeau Rouge. About a mile to the west, 
following the River Evel, is a farm oocupying the 
place of the Ch&tcau of QuinipUy where stands 
the fftfflopB stfttpe of tl»e r<?f»«i* (ff <iMi9ipi^v 

[Bonte iS: 

(vide illustration), which has so much pnztled 
the antiquarians. It is at present placed on 
an elevated pediment on arches, in a very 
picturesque situation, in the grounds of the cha- 
teau. At the base is a large granite cistern cut 
out of a single block. The statue is that of a 
nearly nude female figure. The hands are eroned 
over the breast, and down the middle hangs a kind 
of stola, said to be carved by modem hands. A 
band or fillet passes across the forehead, and con> 
fines the hair. The expression is mild, and much 
resembling that of Egyptian figures. Some have 
maintained that the statue was an Egyptian Isis, 
set up by the Roman garrison at Oastantc; others 
consider it to be a Celtic deity. There is not much 
of the Venus about it Tradition says that it stood 
in the Roman guard-house, and was called 
Hroee*h-ar-Gouard, the Old Woman (or, Witch) 
of the Guard-house. 

This statue was originally placed on tho 
hill of Castanec, where there was a Roman 
post, the site of which is now occupied by a farm, 
bearing the name of Gouarde or "Quardc." It was 
regarded with superstitious veneration, and wor- 
shipped with indecent rites. This statue has been 
twice thrown into the Blavet ; first, about tho 
middle of the sixteenth century, at the instigation 
of the Bishop of Vannes, who induced the Count do 
Lannion to consent to it. This was followed by 
great floods, which inundated the land ; and the 
inhabitants, attributing the misfortune to the taeri- 
lege of the Count, fished up the statue from the river« 
replaced it on its former site, and re-commenced 
their idolatrous rites. The Bishop, with a view 
of putting an end to these scandalous practices, 
pressed the Count de Lannion to break the statue 
up in pieces, which he accordingly directed to be 
done ; but the workmen, fearing the opposition of 
the country people, contented themselves by 
kuockmg off one of the breasts and an arm, after 
which it was again tumbled into the river. 

Shortly after this the Count de Lannion fell from 
his horse, and was killed, which was looked upon 
as a judgment from heaven for his having con- 
sented to destroy the idol. In 169ft, his son, Pierre 
de Lannion, recovered the statue, had it repaired, 
remoyiDf fi^ia it aU tliat wm ■objoetlQua^Jf], |(q4 

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Boute IS.] 

set it itt its present place, to the great Joy of the 
peasantry. The Inscription on the pedestal calls it 
the ** Venus Armoricorum oraculum;'* and farther 
states that, after the subjugation of Ganl by the 
Eomans, it was dedicated to Venas Yictrix. There 
is nothing immodest in the statne as it stands at 
present, whatever may have been its original form. 
ThelettersI.I.T.,engravedonthefillet, which passes 
over the forehead of the fignrc, are as yet unex- 
plained. It is, however, not improbable that some 
young Roman officer amused himself by carving 
his initials on the forehead of the ^* Hroec'h-ar- 
Oouard." There are other cariosities in the neigh- 
bourhood of Baud^ and two menhirs, near Kemars. 

North of Baud, distant 7 miles, Is the village of 
P:umiiiau, wheio, in a pretty valley, is situated 
the Chapel of St. Nicodbmc, another name for S. 
Corn(51ie ; In fact, the two are identical. On the 
first Saturday of the month of August a pardon 
is held here. simiUr in every respect to that 
detailed under the head of Carnac. North-west of 
Baud, 8^ miles, is the Chapel of Saint Adiien^ built 
by the Knight Templars in the fifteenth century, 
in the choir of which is a coarse carving, in 
relief, of the Saviour and the Twelve Apostles, 
but dressed either as Templars, or as Knights of 
S. John, of Jerusalem; six having red cloaks 
and six having white ones. Each figure is about 
8 feet high, and has an aureole round the head, 
on which is cut out the name of the Apostle. 
There are two springs, or fountains, in this chapel ; 
one in the choir, the other in the south transept; 
there is a third one in the charchyard, having a 
Calvaire over It. The chapel has evidently been 
built over springs which were worshipped by the 
Druids. Staurotides, or ** Pierres de la Croix,** 
are found between Baud and Locmin^. 

Locminl, an hour's drive from Baud is a small 
and ill-paved town, but contains a fine church, 
dedicated to S. Colomban, whose relics are de- 
posited here. This is one of the miracle-working 
shrines, and the altars are covered with waxen 
cars, legs, and arms, and other ex-voio offerings. 
S. Colomban is, however, specially the patron of 
^^imb^UM.'' His Litany contains these words:— 
''Sftfnf Colotnfian^ in remyrfe *» inOeedps, priep 


pournoui; Quandnotusommetinteiuitctjhuttpriet 
pour nous I'* There are two vaults in this ohap«l 
where the idiots of different sexes were chained 
whilst undergoing a care; but, in consequence of 
indecent irregularities, it became requisite to 
abandon this system of caring idiocy. There 
is a church near Carnac, dedicated to the same 
S. Colomban, with a large stone slab, on which 
idiots are placed to be healed. Correspond anoe to 
Vannes twice daily, 50c Hotel du Cheval Blanc. 

The women's costume about Baud is very pretty 
and becoming. The cap has white lace lappets; 
and the body of the dress is cut square across the 
bosom, and laced like the Swiss bodice over a 
muslin kerchief. 

Three miles from Locmlnd, on the road to S. Jean 
de Brevclay, is situated the village of Bignian. 
About a mile bcfuro arriving at the latter, 
on the south side of the road, distant about 100 
yards, and on a hill named Lann-er-bon, there was 
opened In 184G the tamnlus of Kergonfals. Its 
form is spherical, its height 11 feet, and the 
diameter at the base 40 feet ; it was constructed 
on the side of the hill instead of following the 
usual system of being placed on the summit. 
Another peculiarity is that not only is its allde 
curved, but that instead of being Joined to the 
chamber at a right angle it Is joined at an angle of 
45 degrees, the entrance following the usual system 
of facing to the south east. This gal gal (cairn) is 
built up of rough stone, over which has been laid 
a coating of clajr nearly 2 feet in thickness, above 
which is the vegetable earth on which corn has 
been frequently grown. There had been built up 
two dry stone walls in the allde about 4 feet apart; 
between them was found a largo earthenware 
(hand made) bowl which had been placed to stand 
on its side ; there was also some charcoal. The 
chamber was closed by a large stone which had 
been placed across its enlrance ; the dimensions 
of the chamber are 8 feet long, 8 feet 6 inches 
broad, and 5 feet high. Its stone fl^or was covered 
by a fine unctuous dus% in which were lying three 
celts of quartzite coarsely fashioned, two flint 
knives, and a number of human bones, apparently 
those of a man of great stature. There were no 
f )8Q8 wttatever of ii)cineraf iop ; the chnmber hud 

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imAdi^AVi BftHf jLirr. 


been dngf down to the nek, and the alltfe had been 
sloped downwards to meet it; there were no traces of 
8cnlptare8,bnt there were found in the alMe several 
flat stones having deep oval cup-markings on them. 
At a short distance south of this tumulus there is 
an " all^e couverte " in ruins. 

Hezuifibont iBia,t.)—Sotel : De France. A 
very picturesque old town, on the Blavet, 
may be reached by road from Baud, or 
by rail from Auray. The River Blavet runs 
dose under the walls of the town, and is 
crossed by an arched bridge of granite, replacing 
a former suspension bridge ; there Is also a hand- 
some viaduct across the valley. 

It is one of the prettiest and most interesting 
towns in Bdttoiiy. The population is 6,972. Froit- 
sart calls it '' one of the best fortified castles and 
the strongest town in all Brittany," and we can 
readily imagine, trom the remains of the fortifica- 
tions, what it was in olden times. The river used 
to run round the town in deep moats ; and the 
town is built upon rocky terraces, which were 
scarped and walled up to a great height. There 
are few remains of the castle, with the exception 
of the grand old battered ivy-grown gateways, in 
one of the walls of which a cannon ball Is still 

Hennebont is chiefly interesting from the heroic 
defence made by the wife of De Montfort, when 
her husband was taken prisoner. We can fancy 
"the Clorinda of the middle ages" rallying her 
dispirited troops, and witii her maidens around 
her, mounting the ramparts, and sotting them an 
example of courage and energy ; or riding out of 
the gates under the old portcullis, and over the 
lowered drawbridge, helmet on head and sword in 
hand, and sitting her horse like a heroine (or 
rather like a hero); and later in the siege, when 
hope of succour was almost gone, she sits at one of 
the eastle windows, patiently watching, ever 
gazing out towards the sea; till Just as the time 
allowed for capitulation is expiring, the fleet of Sir 
Walter Manny is seen coming in full sail up the 
Blavet; and all thoughts of surrender are dis- 
missed, and the Countess salutes her deliverers, 
who immediately put lance in rest, and ride down 
Upon Ihe disappolQtedbMiegers. The extraordinary 

courage wliiefa i(hA dlsplajred, etMh to settlny fiH9 
to the enemy's camp, earned for bet the name of 
'* Jeanne la Flamme;'* her exploits are heroically 
described in Vtllemarquft Barzas Breiz, page 19<h 

Another English army landed near here, und^ 
Robert of Artois; but a few years after when 
Dnguesclin and Glisson united their forces, Heiw 
nebont was vigorously assaulted, and the brave 
English defenders slain, and the fortificationa 

The church, dedicated to Notre Dame d« Paradifi 
is very elegant, but appears to have fallen short o$ 
the original design; it has never been finished. 
Architecture of the sixteenth century; it has been 
recently restored. 

A diligence to Lorient every 3 hours, M ee&ts. 

There is good fishing at Hennebont, in the Blavet, 
for salmon, and in the neighbouring rivers for 
trout ; fair shooting may also be had. Pont-scorff, 
however, is a better station for sport. The Bcortt 
should be fished up to Arsanno (where there is a 
fine calvory), and indeed up to Ou4mene^ for trout. 
There are also some fine lakes near Pont-scoi'ff, 

Lorient (Stat.) may be reached by rail or 
omnibus. Hotels: Hotel de France is a largii 
pretentious place, but the military element prc« 
dominates, and the smart waitresses, with their 
gold laced bodices, have little sympathy for 
the wants of civilians. Du Gygne (good)} 
de Bretagne; do TEurope. Buffet at th^ 
station. It is one of the principal dockyards 
and arsenals of France, but inferior in extent to 
Brest, Cherbourg, or Toulon. It is a large place* 
with 42,116 Inhabitants, and quite a modem French 
town, though in Brittany. Though often written 
L'Oi'ient, the Bretons insist that its name is a oor* 
ruption of the Breton words Loe-Roch-yan^ pro- 
nounced lAHTO-ffan^ the estuary of the white rock. 
It Is not unlikely, however, that the name is a cor^ 
ruption of Aureliana, like Mangoer Lorian^ from 
Magno Aweliano. The ancient Roman city of 
Blabia is said to have been situated near the 
mouth of the Blavet. 

The town was founded 1666, in Louis XIV.'s 
reign, by the French East India Company, whieh, 
nnder the auspfcps of Law, had • Urge •st«IHl#t^<* 

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VAKKBS TO.QtnitPifilt— ttOBtSHf— ^OBt tOITtS. 

Jtoute 13.) 

Hieat faer^ tUl cUssoWed ib 1770« The Gompanj't 
faaildiog^ are sow converted into arsenals ahd 
ttore-houses, and gire employment to a tasi 
number of hands* Law*8 Hottse is lloW the Pre- 
fecture. The Dockyards are worth a visit, but 
permission is rarely granted, and only on the in- 
terrention ol the British yice-Consul. 

There is a granite colamn on the *' Place" sur- 
tnounted by a bronze statue of Bisson in the act 
of blowing up his brig when boarded by Greek 
jpirates in 1827. 

The visitor will flee an immense amount of French 
Afficial etiquette here. The military bands give a 
lively character to the place. The best feature ot 
the dockyard is the ''Salle cFArmea,'' a long room, 
Utted up as at Cherbourg, with some 100,000 stand 
Xfi arms, arranged in various designs, and military 
And naval trophies of French victories. Some of 
ihe victories placarded on the walls are perhaps 
«carcoly reconcilable with preconceived notions of 
iiistory; '' mais^ que voutez-^^ouaf* 

The Gothic Church of Ktfrantrech, outside the 
ramparts, Is very pretty. There is also a very high 
**phafe,'^ or look-out tower, about 200 feet, which 
'tourists f ond of "getting upstairs" should ascend, 
to enjoy the splendid panorama around. 

A steamboat leaves Lorient daily at 5-80 a.m. ; 
U returns from Groix the following morning at 
9 a.m. Fare, 2fr. ; 2| hours transit. 

Steamers run from Lorient to Nantes, touching 
«t Belle-Isle. 

Fort Louis (so named after Louis XIV.), at 
.the entrance of the harbour, is a strong fort, 
which was the prison of the late Emperor of 
. the French, after his unsuccessful coup at Stras- 
bourg. In 1858 he paid it a visit with the 
Empress. It was formerly called Loc-PSran. The 
Spanish fleet, which came to assist the Duke de 
Mercoeur, disembarked the forces here in IfiSO, 
after desperate fighting. 

To the South of Port Louis is the Isthmus of 
Gavre, where the French artillery carry out their 
•xperimentt against iron and steel plates; there 
.ate various batteries, and • rauge ^f more than 


A leeond class Inn (Grand Sotel), 8fr. a day. 

A sinall steamer to Lorient, 80 e. The mega« 
liihic alignements of Plouhinecoan beeonveniently 
visited from Port Louis. 

ne de Grolz (Enez-er-Hroec*h), or the Witches* 
Island, which name has led to the belief that it 
was formerly inhabited by a college of Druidesscs, 
similar to that on the island of Sein. This suppo- 
sition is strongly supported by the fact that the 
surface of the island was formerly almost covered 
with innumerable Megalithic monuments; and 
although a large number of these have been broken 
up and converted into building materials, stl the 
dolmens and menhirs which remain are numerous, 
though mostly in ruins. 

This island is separated from the main by a 
channel called *'Courreau de Groix," 9 miles 
broad, the great fishing ground for the sardine, 
where may be seen daily during the season several 
hundreds of boats thus occupied. Population, 
4,000, most of whom are fishermen. The island is 
schistose, and the cliffs are very abrupt and steep 
they are perfectly honeycombed by caves in every 
direction; most of them can only be entered at low 
water; the principal ones are **TroQ de TEnfer," 
the "Trou du Tonnerre," and the "Grotte aux 
Moutons." The "Trou de I'Enfer" is on the south 
side of the island; thediffsare here very steep 
and the descent is almost perilous; this cavern 
penetrates into the land 300 yards. The *^Trou 
du Tonnerre" is not less curious; when it blows 
hard the waves rush into it with great violenee, 
and produce a very loud rumbling noise like 
thunder, from which it takes its name. 

Inn : Hotel de la Marine. 

The village Church is dedicated to 8. Tudy, 
the tradition relative to which saint is curious; it 
is said that he came from England in the sixth 
century to escape from the persecution of the Picts 
and Scots, and that he established himself on thts 
island, the inhabitants of which he converted to 

The Sardine fishery commences here on the 24th 
of June, on the day previous to which a solemn 
religious ceremony takes place, namely, " The 
Blessing of the Fishery." Th« m«le population of 

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Hv^ktBUkir^u B&t!^Airi^. 

f ddate y» 

thoisUnd embark tn their btMiis, accompanied- by 
their clergy, with their proceaelonal crosses and 
banners; tliay proceed to the middle of the 
"Conrreaii,** iriien they are met by the boat* 
from the main land and belonging to the parishes 
of Ploemeur, Rialitec, Port Louis, and others, who 
are also accompanied by their cldrgy and in the 
same manner ; when they meet, all the clergy 
pass over into one boat, where an altar is pat up 
on the thwarts. The signal for the commence- 
ment of ^the service is given by crossing the 
processional crosses and banners, the rector of 
PloSmear standing up so as to bo seen by all 
assembled^ the fishermen commence by singing 
a hymn in unison, which ceases as soon as the 
rector holds up his right arm; prayers and in- 
tercessions are then made by the clergy, the 
deepest silence being observed. They next 
sprinkle the sea with holy water on the four 
cardinal points; whilst this is being done the 
fishermen pray devoutly to the Almighty to bless 
them with an abundant fishery, so that they may 
be enabled to support their families. As soon as 
the clergy have finished, the banners are recrossed 
as at the beginning of the service, to indicate the 
blessing with which the service concludes, aftet 
which the boats separate, the men singing hymns. 
Each returns to his own port to prepare the nets 
and boats for the fishery on the following day. 

At Pont-scorff the department of Flnist^re is 
entered. The country around is very pretty in 
summer, from the abundance of wood and water. 

Qaimperl^ (Stat.) lies 12 miles west from 
Lorient. Population, 8,049. ^o<ef<: DesYoyagcurs 
(comfortable); du Lion d'Or; de France et de 
TAngleterre. It Is a very pretty little town 
situated at the confluence of two bright 
looking rivers, the Elltfe and IsoM. From its posi- 
tion, and being so well wooded, it has been named 
^TArcadie de la Basse Bretagne." 

Part of the town lies high up, on a hill, round 
the Church and Convent of S. Michel. The nave and 
aisles of this church are of the fourteenth century; 
the choir is flamboyant, of the fifteenth century. 
It had a spire covered with lead, which was 
melted down into bullets daring the Rcrolutlpn. 

The south porch, notwithstanding the mutilations 
which it has undergone, is still worthy of admira- 
tion; the shaft between the two bays descends 
into tiie b6^tier, and is afterwards conthiued to 
the ground; nearly opposite this porch there is a 
curious old house of the fifteenth century. The 
Church of S. Cross, in the lower town, is a very 
curious old building, one of the oldest churches in 
Brittany. The east end is circular, and built round 
with side chapels. Under the choir and high altar is 
a fine crypt, or chapel of the patron Saint Gurloes. 
The visitor is shown some iron cramps upon one 
of the round pillars of the aisle, on which It was 
said that 8. GurloSs was suspended and martyred. 
Near the place of his martyrdom is his tomb, 
which it is believed has miraculous virtues ; it has 
a hole into which on certain fdte days, people 
thrust their arms, believing that they will thereby 
be cured fh>m disease. There are many fine 
carvings and frescoes in the church, and the 
cloisters are very old and curious. The basilica was 
rebuilt on the old lines in 1867, in conaequence of its 
central tower having fallen on the building and 
seriously damaged it, some parts of the old walls 
being Included in the new building. S. Gurlogs 
is said to have been a Welsh prince who crossed 
over in the sixth century, and erected a hermitage 
for himself on the spot where 8. Cross has been 
built. Quimperl^ is a very pretty town from the 
admixture of foliage and ecclesiastical buildings, 
but it is very primitive. 

The Pardon dee Oiseaux is held annually on 
Whit Monday, in the Forest of Camoit, in which is 
situated the Church of Loth^a (built by the Tem- 
plars), to which endless pilgrims flock on that 
day ; it is also called the '* Pardon de ToulfoSn/* 
The peculiar element of this gathering is, that 
great quantities of young birds are brought for 
sale in wicker cages, and eagerly bought by the 
young Bretons for their wives and sweethearts. 
Some of the rarer summer visitants— the oriole, 
hoopoe, woodpecker, &c., may be picked up here. 
The day concludes with a general dance to the 
music of the biniou and bombarde, and other native 
music. The costumes seen on these occasions are 
of the most bizarre description. The dancing is 
under strict surveillance, and its somewhat solemn 
character is said to show its Drnidical origin, . 

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fiottteU.J otriMFilslt !ro bbnites 

A tamoliu was opc&ed In 1848, in the northern 
part of the Forest of CamoSt, near the Tillagre of 
Loth^a; its heigrhtwas 16 feet, and its diameter 
at the base 66 feet. It contained a chamber 7 feet 
long and 3 feet «4l«Bhes broad, in which was found 
a goid chain, as also one of affvtr, flie hitter befaig* 
mach oxydised; three sword blades, a dagger and 
spear head, all of bronze; a stone hammer; a 
rectangular flat stone, having each of its angles 
pierced ; seTeral flint arrow heads, and a perforated 
amulet. This collection is now in the Mus^e do 
Clnny at Paris. 

QnimperW played its part in the great religious 
and political struggles of Brittany. Olirer Clisson 
look it by assault in 1878, and during the War of 
the League it was taken and pillaged by the troops 
of Henry IV. The Spanish Allies of De Blois were 
sererely beaten here by Sir Walter Manny. 

Diliirence from Quimperl^ to Pont Avon and 
Concameau at 1 p.m. Correspondance daily to Le 
Faou6t, Gonrin, and Carhaix at noon; 7fr. 20c. 
At Gourin it is met by another for Rostrenen. 
Tourists can therefore go on to Guingamp either 
through Gallac, or by way of Rostrenen, passing 
through S. Nicholas du Pelem and Bourbriac. 
Carriages for Le FaouSt, S. Fiacre, and S. Barbe 
may be hired at Quimperl^ for 10 francs. 

From QuimperM the railway runs to Qnimper 
(Stat.)— in Route X.— through the Tillages of 
Bannalec and Bosporden, where there is a largo 
lake and good fishing. Hotel at Rosporden, 
"Grande Maison.'* There is a short line Arom 
Rosporden to Concameau. 

If time will permit, the tourist should take the 
coast road from QuimperM to Quimper, through 

Concameau (Stat) iGro<e7«: Grand Hotel; des 
Voyageurs. Pop., 5,991. This was anciently a strong 
fortified town, and was one of the places taken and 
held by the French, as a material guarantee during 
the minority of Anne of Brittany. JohndeMontfort 
sailed from here for England in 1373. It is now a 
fortress of the third-class, built on an island con- 
nected with the main land by abridge, which also 
nnites it to the town and port. There is a good 
harbour here and shelter for vessels. It is the 
head-quarters of the 9ar<HneJI»hny^ and there are 



few more picturesque sights than the sardine 
fleet (about 400 altogether), sotting out every 
morning to the fishing grounds. When the 
shoal is discovered, nets are placed in long 
rows and squares, and the fish are gradually 
enticed into them, by dropping overboard, from a 
small boat, pellets of roe or stockfish. The curing 
of the sardines gives rather "an ancient and fish- 
like smell" to the place. The fishing begins in 
June and employs many thousand persons. 

There is an Aquarium here on the sea shore ; it 
has been almost literally hoUowed out of the rocks 
by blasting, and consists of eight basins, four 
for fish, and four for Crustacea ; which, as they are 
caught, are brought and deposited here. The 
basins commonicate with the sea, and the water 
is changed each tide by a simple arrangement. 
Large quantities of lobsters, fish, and oysters are 
daily sent by rail to the markets. There 
is also here a piscicultural establishment; the 
oyster "pares" are in the Bale de la Foret, to 
the eastward of the port of Concameau. 

Near the village of Kerouet, on a vast heath, will 
be found the rocking stone, called Menndogan, 
(des maris trompds); it is well balanced, and 
is easily set in motion by a woman (it is said) if 
she ht^ been true and faithful. 

In the environs of the village of Trgffune, near 
Concameau, are numerous blocks of granite dis- 
persed about, without any order, over a Cameillou 
or Celtic cemetery. Tr^gunc signifies "the valley 
of sighs or sorrows." 

Font Avon. A picturesque vilUge, situated 
on the banks of a river of the same name, which 
flows between two wooded hills. Large rounded 
boulders of granite are strewed about, many in 
the river, dividing it into several small streams; 
the inhabitants use these to turn their flour mills, 
which are so numerous that it is called "La ville 
des meuniers." The scenery is pretty ; fishing is 
good— trout and Salomon. Id the siinds of the 
Aven is found a bivalve of the mussel species, 
which often contains pearls, sometimes of the 
size of a pea. The Inn (Hotel des Voyageurs) 
is good and clean, and has many paintings, pre- 
sented by artists who frequent the district. 

The F6te of Pont Aven is held on the Monday 
and Tuesday after th« 8rd Sunday la September, 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 



when th«M are wreiOfng matcheft, facers, t. duck 
hvnt on the riYer, and daneing on the "Place" 
te the music of the binlon, all the people behig 
dressed in their national costnme. Font Aren Is 
a favourite resort of artists. 

Excursions to the chfttean of ffehan, distant 
4 kUom., its architecture is of the I5th century, 
in following fhe road to Concameau, a road will 
he found which branches off to the right to ytxonj 
where are some megaliths and ruined dolmens. 
Continuing on the western road there are two 
inenhirs arid the mined chAteau of Ruitephan 
(Iftth eenturyX and beyond this, by the road-side, 
near to Tr^fuaCf there ife a very fine rocklng-stone, 
to the south-eaM of wbi<di are some menhirs, also 
ft Rook Altar, 30 feet long, called in the loealiiy 

An-aoter,'* aiid a dolmen a.tKermad<m^. 

TVom Port Aven to Cll&tdaTllill and Brest, 
Ik!) in Route X. 

RO0Tfi XIV. 


The return journey from Quimper should be 
made by road, which will give the tourist an 
opportunity of Yisiting many interesting places 

If fishing is one of the objects of the t^ar, the 
Odet should bef oUowed up to the Hills of S. Barbe 
and 8. Dents, and the Yaliey of Stangala (Sian, 
Y Alley ; {pobi, reeds) ; tbenee to Sdaer^ also a good fish- 
ing locality, bnit yvrj poor accommodation, where 
** Staurotides, or Pierres de la Oroix " are found. 
*Ehenee to Le Faoudt, a very pretty rilUige, on a 
hAfh hi]],- is very picturesque and a good angling 
locality; situate between the Riyers Staer-LaSr- 
Inam to the west and the £ll^a to the east. There 
is a fair country hotel (Idon d*Or) on the Place. At 
father more than a milefrom the Tillage, situated on 
a steep hill 650 feet high, and which overlooks 
the ralley ef the Ell^e, is the q^pel of 
B. Barbe, built in 1489, on the edge of the 
rock, and perched in the most e3ttnu>i>dinary 
position imaginable; it is, In fact, built on 
a ledge of the hill side, where it Is most 
abrupt, and at a perpendicular height ol 409 feet 
abore the ralley of the Ell^c. 

To arrif e at this chapel, descend a handsome 

BBITTAKT. EBbtltd 14. 

built on a led|re to narrow that If «Mnild not be 
built east and west. The porch is on the sontU- 
west side; and Imitaediately faHng !i, on entering, 
is the altar ; the arehiteeture la of the fifteenth 
century, and similar to that of B', Fiacre. It was 
erected in consequence of a tow: the ^'Sieur de 
Tolbodou" was one day lihooting in the Yaliey of 
the Ell^e, when a most Yioledt thunderstorm 
broke oirer him, the thunderbolt falling en the 
rocks of the hill side near to him and splitting them 
to pieces. Suddenly he pereeiYed a large detached 
rock rolling down the hill, which wdatd ineYi- 
tably have killed him. He addressed a short 
prayer to B. Barbe to save him, promising also to 
build her a chapel ; it is said that the rock was 
immediately arrested, and that it remained 
immovable half-way down the bill rtde, where it 
is also said still to remain. 

The porch of this chapel is similar to ihat of 
8. Michael's ai Qnimperl*^; . the gtett&r part of 
the images were destroyed at the same time as 
those of S. Fiacre; some of the eld stained glass 
windows r«iiain; on one of them S. Ba#be is 
depicted hi the midst of the lightning, the rays ef 
which shoot out in every direction. Before 
arriving at the staircase which desceoAi to the 
chapel, and at the top of the hUI, there Is a setrt of 
open belfry, under which is suspended ahe)l,which 
each pilgrim has to ring on the day of the Pardon 
before he descends to the chapel. At the top of 
the staii'case there is another small chapel, which 
is dedicated to S. Michel. Like the other, it is 
perched over the steepest part of the ravine. It 
has iron rings fastened into the masonry around 
its walls; the devout pilgrims go roand this 
chapel by holding on to the rings, their feet 
resting on a narrow ledge of the rock; if they 
should become giddy, or accidentally lose their 
hold of the rings, they would fall itoto the val!ey 
below, and death would be the inevitable result. 
There are Correspondances, daily, to QaimperM, 
Qourin, Carhaix, and Pontivy : the last passing 
through Kemascleden and Ga^men^. 

S. Flacr&— At about 9 miles, on the Quim- 
perl€ road, before arriving at lie FaouSt, and at 
the confluenee of the £U^ with the 8taer-La6r- 

iramu uMiKtm vkich H»M tA ^eporvfri ^ia liAiBi(wh«rtilMr«iaftr8l-riiUfi*i»«>,lsfttiiated 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

MG^alitiii o OrobtO 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Route 14.] 



the chapel of S. Fiaert, an edifice of the 
fifteenth century. Flamboyant architecture of 
the best period. The south porch has elegant 
niches, which formerly contained images of the 
Twelve Apostles, but these and all others (ex- 
cepting one colossal one of S. Christophe) were 
destroyed, nnd the pieces scattered about. There 
are still eight windows remaining of old painted 
glass, but most of them are in a bad state of pre- 
servation. The exquisite rood screen, and the 
gallery above it, have recently been completely 
restored by artists from Paris ; but the freshly, 
coloured figures are in questionable taste. On 
one of the escutcheons of the rood screen is the 
following inscription :--"Lan mil IIIIcc IIIIxx 
(1440) fust faist cest oeuT e par Le Lougan 
ouvrler.'* 8. Fiacre was an Irish missionary, 
who crossed over in the sixth century. He is the 
patron saint of the French cabmen, and it is from 
an hotel, St. Fiacre, near which they were first 
stationed, that their vehicles are called "Fiacres." 

From Le FaouSt the road should be taken to 
Gu^men^ through KemaSOledOn (vide illustra- 
tionj— from Ker, viUage; Natele, inclosure; Den, 
deer; signifying the village of the deer inclosure- 
to see the beautiful Chw^in that secluded village. 
The elegance and rariety of ornamentation— the 
lacework borderings— the geometric windows, and 
lofty pierced spire, will excite admiration. It is 
generally attributed to English architects, but the 
founder was Alafai, of Porhogt, one of the Rohan 
f aitoily, in the fifteenth century. Its retired position 
saved it from the Calvinists, but it was un- 
fortunately damaged by lightning in 1876, which 
struck the bell tower, carrying It through thereof. 
It has been restored. Oudmen^ is a long straggling 
county town, where the Breton farmers and 
peasants will be seen, in full costume, on 
market days. The farm-houses on the roadside, in 
this part, should be looked into as quaint speci- 
mens of Breton country life. Gu<$men^ was the 
birthplace of Hippoljrte Bisson, a famous French 
naval hero, to whose honour there is a column. 
(See Lorient) Hotd: De la Croix Yerte. 

[An excursion may be made from here, about 
8 miles to the souJth-east, fbr the purpose of 
inspecting the following:- In the reliquaire of 
the churchyard of the Tillage of Btttey, which is 

at a short distance from the rail to Pontivy, there 
is a solid wall of human bones; 31 feet long, 
9 feet high, and over 4 feet thick. It is said to 
contain about six thousand skulls and other bones, 
laid in regular tiers. They have been there from 
time immemorial. It Is not known from whence 
they came, and they are never disturbed. The 
shape of the skulls shows them to be a different 
race of men fi-om the present. They are supposed 
to be relics of some great battle.] 

Three miles north of Bubry is the village of 
Melrand, where, at the confluence of the rivers 
Sarre and Blaret, there is a grotto in the solid 
rock of about 13 feet in depth; It Is said to have 
been the hermitage of S. Rlvalain, an early 
missionary, who arrived in Prance lu the sixth 
century. In times of drought the people repair to 
this grotto in pilgrimage, in the hopes of obtaining 
rain through the intercession of this saint. 

The road from Gu^mentf to Pontivy lies through 
an undulating well- wooded country. The entrance 
into it, through the village of SHval, is very pretty. 
The roadside chapel and fountain should be 

Pontivy (Stat.)— population, 9,175 ; 'Botel: 
Grosset (clean and comfortable) — ^formerly 
yapoU'onville, a curious mixture of the old 
and new styles. The old town lies up under 
the rocky elevation on which stood the old 
castle, which fell into ruins in the fourteenth 
century. There is a good specimen of a feudal 
castle, but of a later date (1485), on the site of 
it. It was an appanage of the Rohan s, and fell 
with their fortunes. The extinguisher roofs and 
crumbling curtain-walls, gay with flowers, are still 
I emarkable. It was, however, later deroted to the 
peaceful occupation of a nunnery. The new town, 
planned by Napoleon [., and occasionally called 
after his name, rejoices in the large open squares 
and lofty stone houses which distinguish modem 
French towns. Pontivy has a fine old church, of a 
somewhat mixed order of architecture. On the 
Place d*Armes Is a bronze statue of General 
Lournel, aide-de^samp to Napoleon III., who died 
from the effects of wounds received at Inkerman; 
there Is also a marble slab to indicate the house In 
which he was bom. A garrisdn here somewhi^t 

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'BmMD9iuM*B momxT. 


dOWcM the dall oU town. 
Ikwi PoniUy to I^ flMiiiEt, |M»fiv throngb 
Gw6mume and gawMftodaw, fi f hums ; idaoMietD 
S<rtMii,JoMdiii,nidPloeniiel. lUU to 8t. Brieue. 

The Blsret (here ettMliied) is a fine river, and 
fair tMAng may be obtatned fn the neighboariiood. 
A good road leadt past the now obocnre Tlllaee of 
JUhtm, near whieh le the Trappfat Monastery at 
Ttmadeoe, Br^han Lond^ae, to 

JOfMUn (Pop. 9,650. HUeU: Grande Maison; 
Cnrfz d*OrX another good apeebnanof an old fe«dal 
town and eattle. Few plaeee have nodeigone ao 
mmj changet and fieice aaaanlta as the CatUe ^ 
J^tseUn. Standing on an elevated roek above the 
Blver (hut, ito alttiatton ia admirably adapted for 
• atrooghold (vide iUusinatm), The first eastle 
waa bniU in the eleventh eenttiry by one of 
Oonao'a tons; but it waa taken and retaken in 
the quarrels which ensned upon the expolaion 
of Endes, and the intervention of Henry II. of 

It was a stronghold of the Bobans anrhig the 
Wars of the Soocessfon, and Oliver de Clisson held 
it when Constable, and strongly fortified it. The 
towers over the river are very ancient 
posing, as represented in our illustration ; but the 
inner court is al^o very handsome, and richly 
ornamented, though of later date. The chief tower 
was thrown down in 1629, by order of Louis XIII. 
During the ** cent Jours'' the royalists stripped off 
the lead from the roofs to cast bullets. The motto 
of the Bohans, "A plut,*' occurs on the escutcheons. 
Another of their mottoes was "Z)mc Je ne daigne, 
roije nepuU, Rohan Je auUy 

The Prince de L^hon at present resides at the 
chfiteau, which is rich in paintings; it has also a 
statue of Henri IV. when a boy, and two hand- 
some ancient chimney-pieces. 

The Clmrch of Josselin, called Notre Dame des 
Ronciers, from .an Image of the Virgin said to have 
been miraculously found in the ronces, or brambles, 
A.D. 808, is a curious old church with a pyramidal 
tower, and some fine painted glass. The sepul- 
chral chapel of the Clissons contained the tomb 
and marble efiigles of Oliver Clisson and his wife, 
Margaret de Rohan ; they were destroyed by the 
revolutionists in 17i)8, but were restored In 1868. 

[BoQte U. 

TbeetlwrCauqid eentainagrotesqnecarvings of the 
"■daoeeofdntli.** Ttaerearenumyoldhoniesand 
teltes of the pnt in JoaMUn, wlildi well deserve 
explorfBg. ThefetsaeonespondancetoPloermel. 

Exenrslotts should be made from Josselin to the 
" Trv DarV* and the ** Tnm aux FSfcs," for pretty 
scenery ; and to Gutkemno. to visit the finest Calvary 
In the Morbihan. 

Half-way <m the road to Plofinnel will be seen a 
grove of firs, among which is a monnuMnt set up 
by the Frcndi Government in 1819, tojcommemo- 
i^te thefamooa '* Battle of the Thirties,** whieh 
tookplacehereahonttheycariaso. Hnfihdiscsedlt 
haabeen thrown npon the troth of thisaomewliAt 
romantic affair, especially as the chroniclM of 
Froiuart were not supposed toallnde to It; but 
icooiding to Mr. Lowth, a copy of /VsifsartaBeently 
diseovered in the library of the Frinoe de Soobise, 
eontaina a chapter which telle the story almost in 
the same words as the AUu de ih nfftf , pobliahed 
by De Friminviile, and the baUad on which reliance 
was placed for the particulars of the fight. In Ville- 
marqu^s collection there is a ballad entitled 
the ""Stourtn an Tregont" (Baraas Breiz, p. 195), 
which corroborates the accounts of other writers. 

The plafai history of the affair aecBss to 
be thIa—Dnrtaig the War of the Sneeession, 
a personal quarrel arose between Bobert'de Beau- 
manoir, who was bidding JosaeUn for De Blois, 
and Riehard Bembuxgfa (most probably Pembroke), 
who held Pioermel for De Montfort. The origin 
of this qoariel is varionily stated to have been 
either an aocasation 0f "MOMwiss griMrre" made 
by Beannanoir against Bemlmrgh for oppieasion 
of the peasants who tilled the land, or a tour- 
ney ''(k roitfraiMS" between these rival leaders. 
Daru inclines to- the ehlvalrous idea, and saya the 
question to be decided was, ''qui pmtt ee wnter 
daveir la plus belie amU:' That tt was a daeiding: 
conflict between the two partiea, Biatoii and Eng- 
lish, to be fovght out by thirty chsmpiona on each 
side, cannot be admitted; e»ia all theacoottiitetlm 
leaders express a fear that the combat tsiltegial, 
and that they would incur the anger of their re- 
spective chiefii. At any rate the combat waa 
agreed upon, and the place of meeting jy^inted 
hfOf way between Josselin and Plo^nnal, Thm 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


Roate U.] 

tdrms of the combitt seem to hAre been that it 
should be fought on foot, and accordingly we find 
that each pacty dismounted, and a few of each side 
were left to guard the horses. 

The names of the whole of the combatants are 
given, from which it appears that there were, on 
the side of Beaumanoir, himself and nine other 
cheraliers and twenty-one squires ; and on the side 
of Bemburgfa, himself and six other cheraliers and 
twenty-four squires: of the English side, twenty 
only were English, four Braban9on8, and six Flem- 
ish. Some of the names giren are evidently Eng- 
lish, asKnollys, BiUyfort, Walton, Hugh Calverley, 
and Robin Adey; while others, as Plesanton, 
HutchetoA, Jannequin, Hereward, &c^ are tra- 
restiee of English namee. They were variously 
armed with battleaxea, maces, bills, Sk. 

The combat was at first much in favour of the 
English. At the first onset five Bretons f eU, and 
Yves Gharruel, their best fighter, was taken prisoner. 
After partaking of refreshments they again rushed 
on each other; but, while BeanmBBoir aiiABem- 
burgh were engaged hand to hand, two other Breton 
knights attacked Bemburgh; Kerenrals struck him 
in the face with his pike, and overthrew him, and 
Geoffrey du Bois qfiopped off bis head. The Eng- 
lish thus lost theirleader, but they still maintained 
the combat with advantage. Beaumanoir cried out 
for something to assuage his thirst, but Groquart 
exclaimed, '^Beaumanoir bois ten jon^,*' and Beau- 
manoir renewed the fight with savage enei^py. At 
this period of the combat the Bretons were getting 
the worst of it, when one of them, slipping ovt of 
the meUe^ ran. to where the horses were left, 
mounted one of them, and, returning, rode down 
upon the English knights, upsetting one after 
another, trampling them under his horse's feet, and 
spearing them with his lanoe. The English knights 
were discomfited by this attack and the Bretons 
gained the victory. Eight of the English were 
killed, and the remahider taken to the Castle of 
Josselin, and detained as prisoners till ransomed. 
There was, therefore, little credit attached to this 
victory Krf the Breton party, and still less reason 
why the-Frenoh should eet up a monument to com- 
memorate it hi 1819, bearing the inscription, *' Five 
U Roi long tempt^ let Bourbons tovjovnti *' 


There was, doubtless, much bad blood between 
the Bretons and English In those days, as* Shakes- 
pear expresses the prevailing sentiment of the 

" A sort of vagftlMnid rucali and maawaji, 
A Kuiu of BreUgiMB and baao lackey pwnanta ; 
• • • * whom our fathers 

Hare for their own land, beaten, bobbed, and thwovM.** 

PloSrmel (Stat.), or Plou Armel, the parish of 
S. Armel, the Breton St. George, is a town of 5,918 
inhabitants. Hotels: Lion d'Or; da Commerce; 
de France; none of which are first-rate; the 
"Messagerie** is alongside the Lion d*Or. It was 
in olden times a strongly fortified place, but it 
has now nothing remarkable except the church, 
in which are monuments of two of the Dukes 
of Brittany— John II. and III. Their figures 
lie upon the same mausoleum. These figures 
came from a Carmelite convent close by, which 
was burnt in the Wars of the League. There 
are also some fine figures hi Kersanton stone. 
The church dates from the twelfth century, but 
it was reconstructed in the sixteenth ; the archi- 
tecture is Elamboyantand Tudor. The sculptures 
of the north porch merit attention ; many of the 
subjects are from the New Testament, but there 
are also others which are very grotesque; such as 
a sow playing on the bagpipes, a cobbler sewhig 
up his wife's mouth, and a woman throwing her 
hat at her husband. The painted windows, which 
date from 1583 to 1609, have recently been repaired 
and well cleaned; they represent the history of 
S. Armel, an English missionary, who came to 
Brittany in the sixth century; the Tree of Jesse; 
the Passion of Our Saviour; the Death of the 
Virgin ; the Assumption ; and the Lord's Supper. 

To the north of PloSrmel is the lake called 
'* L'Etang au Due;" the river Dolft fiows through 
it; its waters are very clear, and there are jdenty 
of trout in it ; near the windmills is a waterfall 
about 24 feet high, and some prettysoMiery in the 
environs. This lake is preserved, but there iS' 
good trout fishing in the river. About three miles 
from Plo^rmel is the " Roche aux Ftfes," a dolmen, 
which merits a visit. At MdUstroU is a rutaed 
chapel with a beatrtirul painted window. 

There is a diligence daily to Joaselin at 2 p.m., 
60 cents; and one to Redon at ]0-80a.m., 4fr. AOc. 
The railway from here Joins the main line at La 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


TRoute 14. 

Brohini^renMrMontauban, from which, to reach 
Dinan, proceed on to Caulnes, where there is a 

About seyen miles north-west of PloSrmel is 
N^nty near Tr^horeutenc, on the edge of the 
ancient and enchanted forest of Broceliande, cele 
brated for the feats of King Arthur of the Round 
Table. Here also was the enchanted FowiUain of 
Barenton; what remains of this forest is now 
known by the name of For6t de Paimpont. It is 
3i miles from N^ant Station. At a short distance 
there are four tamull; one has a small menhir on 
it, and is called 'Ma Butte desTombes." A great 
number of megalithic stones are found lying about 
in this district, arranged in patches resembling 
large borders, for which reason the place is 
called ''Le jardin des Tombes.** 

The next station to N^ant is Mauron, a pretty 
Tillage with a church of the 18th century, which 
has a beautiful east window. 

Six miles to the north-east of PloSrmel is the 

village of St. Male dei TroU Fontaines, near which 
is the small and rery poor village of Pei^-a^ 
where King James II. took refuge in 1690. A small 
cottage is shown where this unfortunate monarch 
took shelter. 

On the road to Rennes, about 6 miles from 
PloSrmel, near Camp^neac, is a very fine specimen 
of feudal architecture, called the ChAteau of Trd- 
eesson. It stands surrounded by a broad sheet of 
water, and is in very fine preservation. 

In the C/ntreh of Bdgwm^ a few milca further, 
are some beautiful painted windows, on which are 
traced the history of S. Peter and the genealogy of 
the patriarchs. 

FoUowing the road through PMian and Montfort- 
snr-Meu {Hutelt Dn Gheval BlaneX the traveller 
will take the rail for Seimes (see Route L), 
having, we trust, performed an agreeable jour- 
ney through an inviting country, leaving no object 
of interest unvisited. 



Copied From Mb. 

, 20-40 . 


Plessidy, CAtes du Nord 11*12 

Kerloax, Plouar»el, Finistfere 10-05 

Largo«t, Cdtes du Nord 10-30 

K^rien, Cdtes du Nord 0«8 

Dol, He et Villaine 9*80 

Plouarzel, Flnistfere 8*77 

P^demee, COtes du Nord 8-50 

Trdgon, cotes du Nord 8-M 

8ca«r, Finistfere 8-88 

Pleucadeue, Morbihan 8-0 

Tr^gune, Finistfere 80 

B^gard, cotes du Nord 7*60 

Gambue, COtes du Nord 7-30 

Avril^ Vendue 70 

Fontains-sur-Mame 7*0 

KeriMi, cotes du Nord 7-0 

N.B.— This Ust la 


I 9-40 ^ 

60 I 

...... 310 j 

2-90 J 

Total 20-40 

Salmon's Works, 


1st piece 9*40 





Niaon, Finiat^re 7-0 

Pen-march, Finiat^re.... 7*0 

Ploueacat, Finist^re 7-0 

Monstoirac, Morbihan 6*60 

La Boulaie, Morbihan 6*55 

Cuguen, Finist^re 6*50 

St. Guyomard, Morbihan «.. 6*60 

Bourbriac, COtes du Nord 6*40 

Bazougferes, Mayenne 6*0 

Cargat, Lot 60 

Groix, Morbihan.... 6.0 

Meneac, Morbihan 6*0 

Peumarch, Finist^re 6*0 

Plaudren, Morbihan 6*0 

Treffiagat, Finiat^re 6*0 

not quite complete. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

ttSt Ot DItltlBMdtft. 



Which run from the Railway Stations in Brittany; with 


Th« letter (f.) atter a name «lgnlfi«« thtt ttore 1» fiMng in the nelghbonrhood. 


« A ^^^ 



fr, ct. 

fr. ct. 

fr. ct. 


2 00 

2 00 














1 50 





1 75 

1 75 


1 25 

1 25 







4 00 






5 00 

5 00 
























♦8 00 


2 50 



2 50 




2 50 





1 60 

1 50 


1 50 


2 60 











2 25 




Places to which 
GoiiTeyanoes run 
from the Railway, 



Arranches .... 


Band (/J 

Bazouges - la - 



Bonrbriac (f.) 




Carhalx (/) 


ChAteaa Gonthier 

ChAieanlin (f.) . 













Erquy , 








Henan Bihan .... 
Hennebont (f.) ., 


DedeGroix .... 





Railway Stations 

to which 
Conveyances mn 




Bain Loheac ... 


Combonrg.. .« 


3. Brieuc 



Broons - 



6 30 


Cancale ) 



Ch&teau Gonthier 

Cherbourg .. 
Combonrg .. 


Coutanoes .. 

8. Ld , 




St. Malo ..... 


Cherbourg . 

25 3. Brieuc, 

Pontivy ...., 

Guingamp......c .. 




Pont ChAteaa.. 


5 25 

9 49 

6 42 


7 25 


8 45 

7 10 

9 10 

6 80 

8 15 

10 5 

7 45 
6 43 



6 57 
5 80 

1 40 

t all 
4 50 
6 46 


frm Places 

to the 

4 80 
8 45 
5|5 20 

3 28 
1 87 

9 10 

5 65 

6 15 
5 80 II 8u 

6 58 




12 10 
3 15 

8 10 
7 80 






4 15 

11 50 



4 80 
7 45 

6 50 




4 30 



8 85 

6 25| 

4 80 

1 86 
3 28 

4 80 

3 50 


At night, 80c. 

1 10 

2 80 

1 15 

6 20 


2 50 

3 5 
1 80 


3 49 

12 151 

•< 40c. 
(At night, 70c. 

At night, 75c 

At night, 60c. 

At night, If. 25c. 

At night, 70c. 

* This incIttdweonrsyMUt to the nOI, and BtMuntr fare. / ^„ 

Digitized by vjOC_ 

A steamboat. 


BBADSHAw's BBivtAKT'^hmti ovr juinaBVOEB — Continued. 



fr. ct. 
8 25 
2 50 


1 50 

2 00 

a 25 

2 00 



1 60 

2 00 
2 00 
1 15 
1 75 
1 25 


1 50 

1 50 
8 50 



2 00 
2 00 

1 25 

2 00 
2 75 
1 00 

1 25 
4 00 
8 00 

2 75 
2 20 
1 25 
8 00 





fr. ct 



1 60 

1 50 

1 00 

1 00 


8 00 

Places to which 
Conveyances run ^ ^ 
from the Ballway. §m 


52 1 to which 


Kerf ant 

Kfirien(/.y ..... 


QLiaademeaa ., 
XandefTisiaa ... 


liannionO^J .., 



h& Roche Bernard 












Muzillac ...;....... 

nantes ; 

Paimpol ...^ 

t*aramd » 


F\€h4m .... 

t^lenenf «... 

PlesUn ,.... 


rlogzal r/v>".. 
londaniel .... 


PoBunerit JArdy. 

pont Oamp; 

Pontivy ...* 

Pontrieux (f.) 

PordW ; 

PoutorsoH ...»t... 
Portrlenx ; 

Quinttn ...;.... 





Kennes , 

Roche Derif en;... 




Conveyaflees run. 




Landemean .. 





Pont GMttean . 




S. Ld 



Foot ChAteau.. 







Gningamp ..... 

tt<m . ■ p;m' 
5 2 
8 201 








Landemean .. 







8) Brieno 










Malamae .....m. 



Crm Places 

to the 

5 2511 

Mw ts all 




9 80 


6 57 

7 56 

7 10 


8 80 

3 25 
8 V.Q 


6 20 


5 50 



8 16 
8 16 


8 16 




6 40 

11 IS 

8 20 
2 20 
6 16 

8 20 

8 15 
8 20 

2 20 

8 20 
2 16 

2 16 

Hefe ts ali 
8 2C 


7 10 
4 80 

6 25 

8 10 

7 15 

8 80 

6 40 
6 40 



2 45 


1 60 

4 5 

3 65 
6 10 


4 80 

2 40 
2 5 


6 55 


6 15 
6 85111 

a 55 


9 15 
8 25 

12 20 

7 85 

8 25 
8 80 
3 20 
8 41 

7 15 


2 80 




12 L™ 

4 S5K- At night, 76c. 
8 r 

8 i 

t 50 

8 50 
2 36 
1 65 



2 45 

2 85 


2 55 

At nigh^ 759. 

At night 800. 
At flight; aoo. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 








fr. ct. 
5 00 


1 25 


3 50 

1 00 



3 00 

8 50 

8 00 


1 25 

7 25 


1 50 




fr. ct. 

1 25 

8 00 

Places to which 
ConTeyances run 
from the Railway, 




S. Alban .. 

S. Anne d'Auray. 

S. Brieac. 


. 10 

S. Cast 

8. Olen 
8. LO 


8. Meen 

S. Melior 

(3. Nicholas da) 

\ Pelem f 

(8. Nicholas du[ 
( Pelem ) 

8. Pair 

8. Quay 

8. Servan 

8arzeau , 





Valognes ., 
Vannes ... 


Yvlas , 


Railway Stations 

to which 
Conveyances run 




8. Anne d'Auray 
8. Brieuc 


8. LO 

8. Malo 

8. Meen 

( Cancale ...) 



8. Brieuc 

8. Halo ... 


B4gr4 .. 

8. L6 






Guingamp ,„.. 



9 10 

7 45 


ts all 


6 57 


10 10 

6 45 

9 10 

6 15 
6 85 


6 55 

6 85 
6 42 
10 10 


10 37 



4 45 

4 7 
8 80 


frm Places 

to the 


10 86 
1 80 



5 5 

6 20 
11 15 


5 10 


4 40 


12 16 
4 40 
8 6f 


4 46 
12 20 

8 8 16 

4 31 7 40 
9 66 
2 16 8 
2 20 6 5 
6 16 6 20 
6 86 11 16 


6 40 


7 80 

2 32 9 6 



8 20 7 86 


4 80| 

5 86 

4 40 
8 66 

8 29 

7 45 


{From the 1st of 
of September. 

At night, 76c. 

I At night, 76c. 

(From 15th July 
( to 16th Sept. 

) At night, If. 
J- Without lug- 
) gage, 60c. 

luggage, 80c. 

. At night, 70c. 

At night, 76c. 
At night, 75c. 

JVbf0.— Baggage, if it exceeds OOlbs., is usually charged for. To convert kilom^tires into EnglUh 
leagues, divide by 6, which gives a good approximation; but, to be quite accurate, multiply the kilometres 
by 6, and divide the result by 8— the answer will be English mile$. In hiring carriaires, the u$ual fares 
are— "the course" (day of 8 hours), 10 fr.; the "demie course" (half a day of 4 huurs), 6 fr. In sum- 
mer, they will endeavour to get much higher prices. A "pour boire" of about If. is usual, provided that 
the driver be civil and diligent 

For the special benefit of Travellers, this list of **Correspondances," or means of inland commu- 
nication between place and place, has been revised and corrected with much trouble, and only after 
going over the whole ground. As a rule, certain interested parties endeavour to withhold this 
information as much as they can, in order to procure the letting of their own carriages and horses to tbe 
Travellw. He should remember that many of the '"Correspondances" are postal carriages, which are 
allowed to carry a few passengers. Sometimes, if he asks about a " Correspondance," he may be told 
there is none; and if he replies, *'How, then, are letters carried?" he is answered, "Yes; there 
is a postal carriage, if you call that a Correspondance; but we do not call it one.*' By referring to t^f 
list hers given, tbe TravfUer ma;r often a«ve himself frpm being misled pr defraud*^. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


by Google 










&> n ^ r- 





ft ;2ifi^p_Sg^ 



k—C&ntinental, 96. 




by Google 














CAMIi KOHHEK, PropHetor. 

THIS Urge and trell-known Establishment, close to the Karsaal, and opposite the principal Bath 
Houses, has an excellent reputation for its general comfort, cleanliness, superior accommoda- 
tion, and Tery moderate charges. The Proprietorlired several years in England. Table d*H6te at 
1 and 5 o'clock. Carriages at the Hotel. Arrangements in ttie Winter season from the Ist October. 




Admirably situated near the Baths, Public Garden, and Casino. 

ISO tto«ms and Private ApartmenU. Omvllmg at the Station. 

£. GVIBEST. Proprietor. 


Amstel Hotel 


Bvery Hodeni Comfort coiibindd 
with Moderate Prices. 


THIS magnificent newly built Hotel is the finest and largest in town, with a central situation 
between the Cathedral, Picture Gallery, and Boulevards. TWO HUNDRED ROOMS & SALOONS. 
Sittlnff^ IhBflagtng, and Billiard Booms. Fitted Dark Room for Amateur Fhotograpliers. 


Of the Hotel meetr- OTery Train and Boat. 

«!• EAVWBBrS* tlie tame Proprietor aa Hotel de l*Bnrope« 



First-class Hotel, patronised by English and American Visitors, 

B. PAMAGI, Proyrtetor. 


THe lanrwt and most speolaUy Creqiiented by families. Bplondid view of the Bay and 
grsat Moimtalns of Kaybie. Omnibuses at all Boats and Trains. 

E. DELRIEU, Proprietor. 





Now surrounded by 

its own 




Open all 
the year. 



Special arrangements for a prolonged stay. 
,^^^ PBifsioir. 



A. ROSSLER, Proprietor.- 

Branch Hotel: HOM EDEH, PALLAHZA (U60 lAGfllORE). 







First-class House. Beantifully situated, with Mineral Water 

Springs (Einzelbader). 


Omnibus meets principal Trains at the Mulheim Station. 



First-class Hotel, near the Railway Station, situated in 
the centre of a beautiful garden, commanding magnificent view. 

Both establishments have large Dining, Reading, & Billiard Rooms. 
Excellent Cooking. Fine "Wines. Moderate Prices. 

SOHMEB BBOTHEBS, Proprietors. 



RAMBLA. Formerly "Des Qnatre Nations.'' RAUBLA. 


The Hotel is the Sleeping Car Agency. 



Proprietor, 0. PLUCK. 
T ARQE8T Firat Class FamUy Hotel at Baile, in the finest situation on the Banks of the Rhine, 
^ between the Swiss and German Railway Stations. Cool hoase throughout the Sunmer, with 
cTery desirable comfort. Omnibuses at the Station. LIFT. 

Digitized by LjOO^iC 


ST. BEA.TENBEBG (Canton de Berne)> SUISSE . 


IS the Largest, Newest, only first class Hotel. Rebuilt in 1894 in stone, 
with every comfort and convenience. Latest Sanitary and Heatinf; Arrangements. Baths, 
Dunches, Shady terraces, Tennis, Pine- woods, Ac., in the best part of St. Beatenberg, 



Teiegraphie Address- Proprietor Of the Hotel Belmont, Montrenx. 





Lakes. The Proprietor spares no effort to give satisfaction to his visitors. It Is 
magnificently situated on the heights in the midst of extensive gardens overlooking the two 
Lakes. English Divine Service is held in a Chapel belonging to the Hotel Grande Bretagne. 

A. MEYER, Proprietor. 



IJnter den linden, 39, opposite tlie Royal Palaee. 

THIS old, reputed, first-class Hotel, has the best sitnation in the Town, close to all the principal 
sights and Royal Theatres. Lately re-furnished throughout. SpUndid Restaurant, looking out 
over the "^ Linden." "Cafe.*' Drawing Room for Ladies. Baths. Lift. Table d'Hote. Electric 
Light. Newspapers in all Langusges. Omnibus at Stations. Moderate Charges. 

Proprietor : ADOLPH MUHLINO, Puxreyor to the Imperial Court. 


QNLT five minutes* walk from the Station, quiet, and admirably situated between the New 
^^ Honse of Farilament and the splendid Kirchenfeld Bridge. Standing in its own 
beautiful garden with terrace: best view over the Alps and the river Aare. Old repttted 
flrst-raie House* combining every eomfdrt with moderate charges ; Pension for protracted 
stay all the year round. 




HOTEL D'AHCLETERRE, Mr. Campagne, Proprietor, 

THE BEST SITUATED, FACING THE SEA. 190 ROOUUL Large Conversation Saloon- 
Smoking Room. Billiard Room and Bath Rooms. Lift. Electric Light. Telephone. 
80 Sonny Apartments. lBwgi<«^ Hewntapen. Sherry and Port Wine Merchant 



¥«r7 ««nf«rla]ile TaUe A*Hote and #rtTate Dinners. 

APARTMENTS for Families. Close to the Castle of Blois. Comfortable 
C§xtU$fi<t9ryltAUng Ohanbord «nd the eoTirons. Omnlbiu at the Station . EnglJth spoken. 



(HOTEL de FRANCE et de NAJTTES, r^unis). 

Only First Cinss H«tel» not sontu, yatronlsed ftj M.B.M. Uie Prtaee of Walet. 


TELEPHONE, latest system, communicatiiitf with FABIS. 





Situated opposite the Grand Theatre, the Prefecture, the Exchange, the Bank of 
France, and the Port. Saloons and 90 Rooms from 3 francs upwards ; in Feniion 
£a 28. a week. 

Mr. PETER'S magnificent Celhm nnder the Hotel, containing 80,000 bottles, risited at any time in the day ; he is also Proprietor of the DoSUdAO clS 
ThBJdKf and Purveyor of Wine and- Liqueurs to H.M. the Queen of EAflBSid. 
He sells this, article, in small and large quantities^ in bottles or in wood, iu f^^^ 




Modem comfort and modcnte charges. Family teloons. Electric Light. Calorlfere, etc. 

BlfiuiUJ|Ds LIFT, fiik* dfBMjr. Braakfaat S tn.; SluMr S tn. 60. WlMifaulsM. 
WJkMXi T«MMM«tth Mb Mid other Towiu. Boons from S ta. 

wSSSuamt a to OtaU, Mid ftt flud prioa. 

v«veism imnmumtHt spoken. flVBrniB et ]»A«ie, i¥i >Kf i « w« 



FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, with every modern comfort, situated in the nudile 
of a large beautiful garden, on the Strada Bomana. Sheltered position. 
Magnificent view, Gimdacted Dy tbe Fropzietor, A. ANOST (9wl88).. 

Formerly «d« H. BORDIGIIKBA. 

BOTZEN (South Tyrol). 

Immediately Fadng the Railway Station (no onmibns needed). 
THIS exceUent Hotel, long and faTourably known to BngUah and ionmlcui ftaveUwu i« Bpedally 
^ rSjommended for {ts open and airy atuation. Splendid view of the. Dolomitea and feowngarten 
Most oonvenient point for breaking joumey between Germany and Italy* fiyery, UtestuBprovemsnt 
for ensuring the comfort of Visitors. «^,_ .r-. . .* w 
«»iM»j>H HoujMSs: Hotel Britannia, Yenlee ; Hofel des A1pe§, B^llnno CBolomltes). 
WALTHER & OESTEBLB, Proprietors. 



ADMIRABLY situated, close to the Casino and Sands. Large and small Apartments. Special 
terms for Families and Parties. Table d'HOte and Restaurant (open to non-residents). 
Excellent Cuisine. First Class Wines. Perfect Sanitation. Highly recommended. Cook*a coupons 
accepted. English spoken— On parle Fran^ais— Man spricht Deutsche W. PRPPERDINE, rTO. 



'I'^HIS unrivalled old Firsfc-class Establishment, the largest of Bruges, has 

X been recently considerably enlarged and embellished by the present Proprietor, 


Beantlfal Garden. Reading and Smoking Roonu. Gold and Warm Baths in the HoteL 

Mot to be confonndcd with Comte de Flandre, oppoaite the Station. 



Situated on the Brunig Pass, 3,400 feet above the Sea, close to the Briinig 
Railway Station, ea^Hy reached through Lucerne or InterlaJcen. 

nnHE HOTEL ia comfortable and well furnished, and contains on 3 floors about 70 Beds (or Visitors, 
-^ with Public Rooms to correspond. Charming position, open and quiet. Fine Views. Bracing Air. 
Exodlent Water. Good CooUni and Wines. Baths. Modinrn Sanitation. Large Shady Garden and 
Parley well supplied with seats. Beautiful Woods quite near. Many walks and excursions. Post and 
Telegraph Office at Station (3 min.) 

The Hotel is Open from Mav 15th to September 30th. 

Pension for May and June 6 and 7 francs, and firom July Ist to September 10th from 8 to 10 fnmcs 
(rednoed after September lOtli). Axrangementa for Families. BngUsh Serrice at M<^ringcnmia!f an 
^" — t by rAh OBBR. HAUBEN8AS & Co., Proprietors. 





rriHIS unriTalled Establishment, overlooking the Park, the Place Royale, and 

-L the Rae Royale, has been considerably enlarged and embelliehed by the present Proprietor, 
Hr^ E. DREMEL. Public Baloons, Reading, Smoking, and Bath Rooms. Spacioua Terrace Qarden 
orerloolclng the whole parlc. Electric Light in all the Rooms. Ticket and Booking Office for Lug- 
gage In the Hotel. Rooms from 4 frs. 60 c, including Electric Light. Hydraulic Lift (Hcurtebiso 
System) . 



LODGING, inclasive of attendance and electric liffht, from 4 frs. per daj. First 
Breakfast, 1 fr. 50 c; Luncheon, 4 frs. ; Table d'Hdte, 6 frs.; Pension: Bedroom, attendance, 
light, and three meals dally, from 18 frs. 60 c. per day. Public Saloons, Billiards, and Bath Room. 
Electric Light. Lift. Ticket and Booking Office for Luggage. 


BOULEVARD BOTANIQUE. Close to the Station for Germany, Holland, 
France, Spa, Ostend Antwerp, Ghent, and Bruges. The Waterloo Conch passes before the 
Hotel every morning. Charges moderate. BatllS in tike HoteL Telephone. 
l>ark Room for Photocrapha. 



THE finest and most fashionable First-class Hotel in town. A modem 
monumental building with all the latest ImproTements in perfection. Electric Light and i 

Telephone in each room. Lifts. Excellent Cuisine. Clarges Moderate. 

B. J;^l.ii€K, Hanaser. 


TERMINUS HOTEL (Gare Maritime) 

Fftdng TAnrtlng Bta«e, Oalala and Doyer Boats. Baths. Post and « 

TeTegTaph Offices. Electric Light 

CENTRAI. HOTEI. (Gare Vllle). 

Situated In the centre of the Town. Post and Telegraph Offices. Electric Light 



tioldener Bclilld and swel dentsche Monarchen. I 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL, finest position in Town. 900 Sooms and Saloons. Concert Garden. 
Large Promenade Garden. Splendid Dining Room with extensive glass Verandah. Caftf with 
!<ewspapers in every language. Weekly, two concerts by the Concert Orchestra. Baths. Electric 
Ughi. Lift. Telephone. Carriages. Omnibus. F. BOSCIiKJR« Pr^prtetor* 





/%t<D and well renowned Historical Hoiue, First-class. Situated on the Kdnigsplatz, close to Poet 
. ^^ Office, near the Theatre and the Picture Galleij. Recently enlarged. Modem comfort. Beautiful 
Garden. Electric light. Caloriferes in Winter. Ladies' Drawing-room, Reading-room. Omnibus at 
the Station. Fr. OPisL, Proprietor, Paryeyor to the Royal Court. 



THIRST-CLASS Family Hotel, splendid free situation, with a large Pnrk and Garden In full view 
-'- of Mont Blanc. Excellent Telescope for free use of visitors. Electxlc Light. BatllS. 

Rooms from 8 francs. Pension £roxn 9 ftancs. Special Arrangements. 

B, KXWICR. Proprietor and Manager. Mrg« BXWlCK la EnKllah. 


Messrs. EISENIIIAN!!, Proprietors. 

fpHIS well known and favoarite first-class hotel is deligbtlully situated opposite the castle of 
-^ Ehrenbreitsteln ; it is the nearest to tlie landing-place of the Steamers, and commands a most 
beautiful view of the Rhine and surrounding country. This high)y recommended establishment 
combines su|)erior accommodation with moderate prices. Cold and Warm Baths. Purveyor of 
Wine to His Majesty the Emperor of Germany. 



FIRST CLASS HOTEL, near the Cathedral, on the Rhine, 300 Rooms. Table 
d'hote at 1 and 6 o'clock. Telegtaph and Post Offices. Baiiwaj Ticket and 
Booking Office for Lnggage in the Hotel. English Church from June 15th, 1879. 


ES .A. XT - ID £2 - C? O IL. O C3- Z^ £3 

IS the No. 4, distilled strictly according to the original prescription of the inrentor, 
my ancestor, by the most ancient distiller 

JOHANN MARIA. FABINA, Jnlichs-Flatz, No. 4. 


mo) HOTEL D'lTALIE m>«^m. 

FBBT-CLAS8 HOTEL, best situated on the border of the Lake, opposite the Landing Place of 
Steamers, commanding a splendid view. Well recommended for Comfort and Moderate Charges. 
English, French, and German spoken. Omnibus at the Station. Only Hotel in Como in oorrespon- 
Ueace and authorised to accept Cook's Coupons. A* HARTIKEKU* Proprietor* 




PMUrtam at rerj m^deimte prleei* 

THIS FinUclass Hotel, situated on the best side of the Esplanade, fitted up 
after the Engliah style, well known and highly leoonunended for its comfort and good attend- 
ance, U nnder the personal Management of the sole Proprietor, Alexander 8. MaaniOliy. 



A FIRST-RATE HOTEL of old standing, superior aocommodation .for 
Gentlemen or Families. Two Coffee Rooms. Excellent Table d*HOte. Bnitea of. Apart- 
ments, with every comfort In the English style, at moderate charges. 

L. WIENER, Propr* 

N.B.— This Hotel was established more than half a century ago by the father of the present 
proprietor. A lengthened residence in England enables Mr. Wibnbb to give especial satisfaction 
to English travellers. 

Canton des Grisons.] DAVOZ FLATZ. [Switzerland 


FIRST-CLASS HOTEL ; on its own meadows near a fine wood, close to the 
English Church with South Aspect. Drainage on the best method. Extra Private Room8» 
and splendid suite of Public Rooms, with a library of English, French, and German Books. 




EDXOND COI8SET, Proprietor. 

THIS Magniecent Hotel, constructed with every modern improvement, in the best part of the 
town, and near to the Railway Station, offers to English Visitors, Families, and Tourists, 
every desirable comfort. Exquisite Table d'HOte. '* Restaurant.'* Smoking-room. Carriages. 
Foreign Papers, etc. Moderate charges. 

IirrsKpRXTBR. Bargimdy Wlite Exported. Intbbpretkr. 

DIITABD (near St. Malo). 


14 boan from KoBdon« via SoatbMnptOB. 

qiHE most fashionable Sea-bathing place in the West of France. English Charch, Club, Tennis, 
•*■ Golf. Every facility for education, etc., etc. For further partloulars, free, about Dfhard, 
*nAn, St Enogat, St. Briac, St. Lunaire, apply to 

JOBN LB OOOQ, Banker and Hdnse Agent, Dinard and BInan. 

SBeeeeeor at Dinard torMr. B« omontv. 


Hotel Bristol. 


Oppite tbe Central Railway Station, BISMARKPLATZ, 7. 

Situated in the English- American Sq.tiftre, the finest part of Dresden. 


G. WENTZEL, Proprietor. 




THIS WELL KNOWN FIRST-GLASS HOTEL Is in the best and most central position of Ems* 
opposite tlie Gnrsaal and Cnrgarden. Mineral Springs, Battis, and Inhalation Rooms in the 
Hotel. Excellent Cooking and Choice Wines. Arrangements on very reasonable terms at the early 
and late part of the Season. Omnibns at the Station. New Sanitary Arrangements. . 




>est situated in the Valley, in the mid 
[ning Room. Large Conversation Salo 
B. Music Saloon. Lift. Electric Li 
glish Chapel in the garden. Geod attend 

ED. CATTANI, Proprietor. 

l^IRST-CLASS HOTEL, best situated in the Valley, in the middle of an extensiye garden. 
^ 300 Beds. Lofty Dining Room. Large Conversation Saloon with Veranda. Reading, 
Billiard, and Smoking Rooms. Music Saloon. Lift. Electric Light in all the rooms. Warm 
and Cold Shower Baths. English Chapel in the garden. Geod attendance. Moderat« charges. 




BraBOb BitaWltfwifflit of tkelBemerlLOt, at Berne, of Grand Hotel do Nioe, at Nice, and 
tli« 6rand Hotel de Tarm, at Turin. 

G. KRAFT, Proprietor. 

12 APVEBTIggllEyTg. 


Opposite the Oentral Bailway Station. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL. ISO Apartments and Saloonii. Excellent Position. Splendid views 
of the ^'Tauhus/* All modern comfort. Lift, Caloriferes, Electric ijigiit. Moderate Cliarges. 
SeiTice, Light, and Heating included. Telephone 33M. GHABLB8 FRANK, Proprietor. 

Formorly for many jwn Proprietor of the fieetanrant PalmenganleiL 


Opposite the Central Bailway Station. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT and Central Steam Heating in every room. Beading 
and Smoking Rooms. Splendid position. Lift. Baths. Moderate changes; Service, Light, 
and Heating included. Telephone 1260. First-class favoarite House for English and American 
Families. The only Hotel with ground-floor Rooms and Apartments Pensio n du ring Winter 
from 7 Mark.s upward. New Proprietor: R. QERSTENBBAND. 


FREiri>EBrSTAl>T <S,<oe reel above Sea), 


RallwMF Une-Stnttsart, OlTenbnrir* Straabnnr. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, surrounded by a very beautiful Park. Comfortable 
Bedrooms and Saloonn. Water and Milk cuios. Pine-needle and Sole Baths. Sanitary 
arrangemenU perfect. Central Residence for BxcnrsionB. Carriages at the Hotel. Moderate 
charges. Pension. Electric Light. Lawu Tennis. E&MSST LU2, Junior, Proprietor. 



100 Well-ftimiBhed Bedrooms with Electric Ught Only Hotel in 

Gtoneya with Oentral Bteam-heating. 

lAtU Batli-rooBit. TABLB D'HOTE 3 frs. aad 8 firs. 80 c. CWlne Inclvded). 

CH. SAILER, Proprietor. 


PAMILY HOTEL sitoated fall South in the main street, close to the Art Galleries 
•■■ and Palaces, and to the Offices of Thos. Cook & Son, North German Lloyd, 
Hamburg-American, Peninsular and Oriental S.S. Companies. Modem comfort. 
Tariff in eirery Boom, Lilt. Calorifere. Bailway Office in the Hotel. 

MBLAVO BKM • Mw PM^rtelais. 


OEWOA Contlniied. 


DELIOHTFULLT situated Hotel, dose to the Railway Station and Port, newly refurnished and 
enlarged by about 70 Rooms. Has an excellent reputation for general comfort. Dining 
Room and Reading Room on the tlrst floor and Restaurant below, quite situatrd over the Garden. 
Very moderate charges. This Hotel being tho nearest (close by) the Landing Station, no Omaibua 
or Carriages are wauted. £nglii»h, French, Italian, and German spoken. 

GERARDMER (Vosges). France. 



The only one with a Large Park and a Splendid View on the Lake. 
Lift. Telephone. Baths at every Floor. Lawn Tennis. Interpreters. 

DUBAZZO, Manager. 



IjlIRST CLASS HOTEL, enlarged and entirelj renewed, with the best comfort. 
150 Booms. One of the finest situations in Switzerland. Moderate Charges. 

F. BIECHELMANN, Proprietor. 




GRANADA (Spain). 


SITUATED on the beautlf al Promenade of the " Carrera, Place del Campello, opposite the 
Liceo, Theatre, and Post and Telegraph Offices. Magnificent views on the Alhambra and the 
Sierra Kevada. French Cooking. Rwidlng Room. Foreign Newspapers. Bath Room. Sanitary 
Arrangements perfect. Interpreters und Omnitinn of the Hotel at the arrival of all trains. 

FAANCISCO ZUKITA, Proprtctor and Manaccr. 

OBASSE (Near Caniiea). 


UnrlTallMl for iti magnlfleent potition. 


F. SOST, Proprietor. LIFT. 


¥ye. J. P&mAT, Proprietresg. 

The largest and beit Flnt Glass Family HoteL Eleotrlo Light. Splendid Garden. 

TARIFF IN EACH BOOM. Baths on every noor. Latest Sanitary Arranffements. 
Carriages and Qnides for all Excursions. Special Servioe for the Grande Ohartreiise. 


HOTEL DES INDES, voobhout. se. 

fpHIS magnificent First Class Hotel is the largest In the city. Charinlngly situated near tfao 
■^ theatre, park, mnsenm, telegraph, and the most frequented promenades. It Is supplied with 
every modem accommodation and comfort. Table d^hote at six o'clock. Restaurant h la carte at 
any hoar. Bzcellent cuisine and choice wines. Smoldng-room, Reading--room, Bath, and Car ri age s . 
Rooms from Ir. 60 c. a day. Arrangements ma'le with families du ring the winter season. 
Electric Light. Intercommunal Telephone. P. WIRTZ, Proprietor. 





Best position near the -Korfaaus, the Springs, the Bathing Establishments, 
« — ._ « — ._ Perfect Sanitary Arrangemc — «-*— ^-^ ^-^ — -«-— 

with ooyered Verandahs. 

Lawn Tennis Oonrts. Perfect Sanitary Arrangements* Splendid Dining Boom 

large ISbady «arden« 4,500 aaaare yards* attached to the Hotel. 


In the eurly and late part of tiM Season (Kay, Jane, Beptsmber, and October) arraagements are 

made at Tery moderate prtees. 

F. A. EAY1»I«, Propviotor* 
Pweyor to E.B.H. the Oraad Duke of MeoUeibwf ItreUtx. 

Digitized by 



fUBQMLSfrAAZNB Ctonfeissed. 


Hm iMtB bmurarad Iff the atay of RU ll^Jwty tli« Slag of tli« Belgtaai uid H.b!h. th* Pri^e of W«le«. 

MOST elemted rituation. Tine Gftrdeo, facing South. Admirably snited for rlaitore suffering froth' 
Qout and Rheumatim. Moderate Obaiv^s. Best Stag and Roebuck Shooting as well as good Trout 
Fishing fm for Visitors of the Hotel. «IJ8TA¥E WEIOANII. ProprleCar, 

fuvefor to EJUS, tha PriBoo of WalM and H.B.H. tho Grand Diiko of KoeklMihvg ttnlilL 


HOTEL DIJ TIROL, formerly Hotel d^Atitrtche. First-class Establishment 
olooe to the Railway Station and the New Steam and Salt Swimming Baths Establishment, 
eommanda a beautiful view of the Valley of the Inn, and surrounding. mountains. It contains eiter 
100 elegantly furnished Bed Rooms and Sitting Rooms. Reading and Smoking Rooms. Baths. 
Ptne'garden. Special arrangements for a protracted stay. Innsbruck possesses an University, and 
offers great facilities for education in general. Winter Pension at extremely moderate tonus. 
Health resort in Winter for weak constitutions. OASL LAND8BS, Propiletor. 




FRST CLASS HOUSE of ancient reputation. Most central position on 
"Hoheweg," the principal promenade, with hest view of the Jnngfrau and 
Glaciers. Extensive Gardens and Play Grounds. Close to the Churches, Kursaal, 
and Post Office. 


Pension rates and Special arpangements made for pFolonged stay. ModcFate 

CliargeB in May, June, and September. 



FINEST SITUATION. Bath Room. Moderate Prices. Pension from 
6 francs upwards. Dark Boom for Amateur Photography. Fumiahed with all modem comfort. 
OmniboB. Best Sanitary Arrangements. Buffet at the Station. 



containi now ISO Bedrooms, 30 Sittlnf Boomt, a LadlM* Drawing Boom, and a Smoking Boom, all of them with au 
open Tiew in the gardens. The only Hotel with Mineml Baths in the Hoasa Pension in the early and later part of 
tfieSeason. OpM fMn l«th of ATBIL, tlU the lOth of OOTOBBR. ^^ 


The Beetaannt of the Bonl Knzaaal, In the Kwgarten, is under the same management, and oontains, beiidesa Uuge 
Dining Boom, vart Tvrxaces, Beading Rooms, Billiard Booms, Smoking Boom. etc. 

\6 APTKRTwmarrs. 

KHZBtTHEL (Tyrol), Anstria. 


'DOTH in old Castles situated 2,500 and 2,700 feet above the sea. Purest air. Endless Excursions. 
•^ Lnlce with boating, bathing, and fishing. Splendid mountain scenery. Magnificent winter 
climate, clear, dry, cold — brilliant sunshine — no wind. Highly recommended for throat, chest, . 
nervous, and thenmaticailmmts. Sleighing. Skating. Toboggannhig. Pine baths in the House. 
English Comforts. Moderate Terms. Hri. AL&BVt ProprielreM. 

KNOOKE-SUR-MER (Belginm). 


FIRST CLASS ESTABLISHMENT. Splendidly situated facing the Sea. 
Unsurpassed for elegance and comfort, combined with moderate charges. 200 splendid Bed- 
rooms with Saloons. Billiards. Reading Room. Terrace. Playgrounds. Omnibus at the Station. 
The latest English Sanitary Improvements. 


vpHIS First Class Hotel is situated on one of the most beautiful sites in Switzerland, and commands 
-*- admirable views of the splendid scenery arpund Lausanne. This well-known and extensively 
patronized Establishment has been recently newly furnished with all the elegance and regard for comfort 
to which English travellers are accustomed, and being conducted under the immediate superintendence 
of Mr. RiTTSR, will be found to afford vcy superior accommodation. Shaded Terr ice. Garden. Lift. 
Full Tiew of L<ike and Mountains. Mr. BITlEK, Proprietor* 


T Ar> A T) ICTA Terminus of the Gothard Railway, on LA KE M AGGIORE. Best 

JLlW W dCSLXVJil We stoppingplacoontheltilianLakes. OPEN THE WHOLE TEAR. 


The cdtoation imriyalled eithw for a Bnniiner or Winter Resort. 

PATRONISED by all the Boyal Families of Europe. Most luxurious and 
comfortable home with large Park and Gardens. Best situation in the mildest and most 
constant climate of Europe, without snow, wind, or fog, but with plenty of sunshine. Entirely 
adapted for winter residence. Chemin^es, oalorifdres, and stoves. BcAUtiful walks and Mountain 
excursions. English Church. Doctor. Society. Lift. Exquisite cuisine. Private steamer 
and carriages for visitors. Most moderate charges. 

Measrs. BALLI, Proprletora. 




This Hotel has a flrsi class English connection, returning year after year, and has not increased its 

rioes. Itaservedly known for its comfort and good dinners. Penrion f rem 8 franoa, f or a long stay. 





THE largest Hotel and Best Rest&arant ia the Tomi. In an exceptional situation, near the Park 
and finest Promenades. Replete with every modern comfort. Convergation, Playing, and 
Reading Rooms. EngUiria spoken. Douches and Baths. Electric Light. Omnibus and Carriages 





The most popular oad ftuMeaable. 



. By appointment to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh. 

REID'8 NEW HOTEL. -Situated on the ClifiB tothe. We9C of 
Funchal, on the New Road, overlooking the Sea, grand view of the Mountains, 
dea Bathing and Boating^ 

SANTA CLARA HOTEL. — "Admirably situated, overlooking 
Funchal, fine view of the Mountains and Sea. ' — Vide MendeW» Guide to Madeira. 
MILES'S ' C ARMO HOTEL.— Ii^ sheltered central position! 
HORTA8 HOTEL.-German spoken. 

These FIRST CLASS HOTELS afford everj comfort for families and travellers. 
Excellent Cuisine and Choice Wines. Tennis Courts, large Gard6ns, Baths, 
Reading, and Smoking Boo^Ifi, English and Germail Newspapers. Billiards. The 
SANITARY arrangementfiT have been c«rri£d oat by the Burner Sanitation Co., of 
London. All Steamers met. 

Telegramgy "Seid, Sttao&Al." FantfUet free of Sassmerc, 

18 ADTBrnmBMailTS. 





J. OAPDEVIELLE, Proprietor. 



Pwprletor, It. I|CHEM1R0-KBSCIIVAKDER, of the Savoy Hotel, Iiondon. 


MABTIGNT (Valais) Switzerland. 


FIRST-CLASS HOUSE. The finest and best Hotel in Martigny. Greatly 
improyed by the new Proprietor. Electric Light. Baths. Billiards. Large Gardens. 
Telephone. Carriages for Chamonix and Qd. St. Bernard. Omnibns at the Station. Open all the 
year round. Moderate Charges. HBN BI BOUILLBK, Proprietor.^ 



WELL-KNOWN FIRST-CLASS HOTEL. Thorongh comfort, excellent cooking, choice Wines 
at moderate charges. Since the removal of the railway, the finest and* best situated Hotel in 
the Town, affcrding on open riew of the River. FAVonrite and quiet stopping place for ezcursioDS 
in the neighbourhood. Special arrangements for winter abode. Opposite the Landing Place of the 

Steamers. Omnibus meets all trains at the Central Station. 

Proprietor : RIJ1MII.PH SBIBBI. <ror jrearg Hamifrer of this Hotel). 


COBSO YIOTOR EMMANUEL, 9, ll/f all •south, near to the Oathedral, 
the Scala Grand Theatre, Victor Emmanuel Passage, Post and Telegraph Office. ** Table 
d*HAte** and "Restaurant.** Reading Saloons, Smofitig Room, and , foreign Newspapers. 
Hydraulic Lift to every fioor. Central Steam-heating apparatus, and Electric Lighfin all the 
Booms. Omnibus at the Station. Moderate oharges. Penaion. Cook*s Oonpons accepted. 

B. MATCIOmil* Pr^vrleioro 

vnJM ContlBiMd. 


THE most comfortable Hotel, and the nearest to the Station. Kewlj 
restored (]894). Fall South with Garden, and facing the Pare. Central Steam-beating in 
every room. Perfect Sanitary arrangements. Bath Rooms. Moderate charges. Cook's Coupons 
accepted. Principiil languages spoken. 

. V. OOLLEONI, Proprietor. OH. GALLIA, Director. 


In the immediate vietnity or tlie Railway Station* 

MEW; expressly built for an Hotel with all modern improrements. Situated in the healthiest 
-^^ part of the Town. Pleasant Garden. Airy Apartments. Table d*Hote. Restaurant and 
Readintc Rooms. Baths. Heated throughout. Scrupulously clean. Careful attendance and Tory 
moderate cliai^es. Real English Hotel, near the Station. Porter meets all trains. Hotel Coupons 
accepted. No Exahikatiom or Luoqaob vob Visitoiis to this Hotbl. 

J. BBIiIilNIt Proprietor. 

- ■'■' -!-"-'--' I"' ■ I " ■ ■—— ^■^B^^B-! L 'mmm^^ 

MENAaaiO (Lake of Como) Italy. 


O. FERRARIO, Ppopnetor. 

First Class House. Beantifiil Garden on the Shore of the Lake. 

Spring Water. Own Landing Place before the Hotel. Arrangements. 


MENTONE (Alpes Maritimes). 


FIRST 0LAS3 HOTEL. Beautiful Healthy Situation. Full South. 
Lift. Electric Llfrht in all the Rooms. Ask for the Illustrated Prospectus and Tariff of the 
Hotel, ''Society of 1,000,000 (LimitedJ'' 
' C. OiaEB, Manager. MOHLEB. B08N0BLET ft Co. 



nmn c^JLffi^MmiPiiiiaiiMENT, becomiebmdabi.b ih eveby bespect. 


Table; d'hote, at .U.iUlfe> And 1 and 6 o'Olook. London TXBIB9. OHABaBS HODE&ATE, , 

. . ^. . ^ . _ OMKIB UB TO AND PBOM BVBBY TRAIN. . * 

TelemMe^ddnsft;**WfflBLllBTZ.Meti.» j. abmbkijStbb. Proprtetw. 


__ MONT-SOBE-LES-BAnrS (France). 



TbB best Bitnated, tbe most cofnfortable and fteaiiemtea of tbe Town. Sanitaiy 
anaagements perfect LLA. Lawn Tennis. Cottage, vmas. 

Apply to Mr. SAB(?nMMf-KAniAI<inr. 

■^■^— ' _ ^_ ■ ^ - . . ■ '- mini— —— i— ^» 

M01ITB3SUX (Clarens). 


A FINE FIRST CLASS FAMILY HQTEI4 with eT^zy xaoderu comfort, iatest lailitaiy 
and heating arrangements, in the healthiest, most qniet and charming part, btands 
well up firom the Lake, snrronnded by 8ha4y Terraces and Park. Splendid panoramic tiews ; easy 
access from town. Charming residence for change and rest all the year round. Splendid family 
Ap«rtattentt. Lift, Bath Rooms, Balconies, Tennis, Electric Light, Omnibns, Charges Moderate. 

' THS* 1Jir«KR BONABBSOir, Proprietor* 

Also of the Onnd Hotel Victoria, St Beatenbe^ 



No. 1» KoonliKBplatat MttnleU* oppofiftte tbe Clyptotliek* 

OPEN for show and safe daily in Summer from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., and in Winter from 9 a.m. to 
- 6p.m. One of the most Interesting places in town, well worth seeing. It contains the norelties 
of tbe several branches of Fine Art, and the admission of any work of art is sut^ect to the verdict 
of a jury composed of 21 of the best Munich Artists. Best opportunity for direct purchases. 


'.mm EXHIBITION of WORKS of ART of all MTIOM. 

Open firom June 1 until the end of October, 1896. 



SPLENDID First Class Family IlokL Slftitatftd iB the most fashionable Quarter, near all objects 
^ of b)t«resi. All modem comffxt» and impxovemcnti. Moderate oharges. v Batln. Electric 
• 1i:M throughout Hydraulic Lift. j^ 2>I8llBB» PrOPlftOlOr 




upon the most Impiroted prinetplM x>t hyipieae «ad eomfortf and according to t6e bMt medicftl 
advice, is now conducted in the Swiss style. 

It is surrounded by gardens, and situated on the highest and htalthiest part of Naples, 
commanding a great view oter the Gulf, Vesuvius, and Islands ; nearest to SaiiMariino andMiiMai&.> 

Grand and luxurious furnishing. Large Sitting and Drawing Boonw. Terraces. DistinguIsliM 
Cooking. Polite and ready attendance. 

The Proprietor and Manager, A. LANDRY, fsom the Hotel Uetlibbr^, near Zurich, late 
Proprietor of the Grand Hotel Pegli, and Hotel Sonnenberg, Engelberg. 


IN the healthiest and most central position. Near the Landing Pier. Splendid views of the Gulf 
and Vesuvius. Lift; Baths. Galorif^re. Newly furnished and arranged to afford residents 
evity eoovenleooe and comfort with moderate charges. Perfect Drainage. Bus meets every train. ' 





splendid 'news of the eeletoated 

Covering aa extent of over 100 miles. 



Healthful poBltioii, UraeiBg air, and most 
beautiful landscape. 



Bj means of Electricitj and Bengal Lights the Falls of the Rhine are brilliantly' 
iUuminated every night during the Summer Season. 
BHOLISH DIVINE SERVICE in the new Church, located in the 
Gponnds of the Schweizerhof.,.g.^.^^,,y Google 






MUKIilBERG (Nuremberg). 


piBST 0LAP8 FAMILT HOUSE. Newly ra-boilt. 200 BaOf. Moefe oeotral and bast 

■*• Hr^f I& It natavMilAMl hv ICnirMah m.nA AmArlnAna ArrancTAfnAntS UUmIO. BfttlUr l^lAflt* 

^ Hi^" is ly mtroBiiad by Engliih and Americana. AnaDgementa made. 

and central Heatlnf In Oomdort and eyery Soool Uft. Omnibvu meeta aU tralna. Under 

the peraonal management of the Proprietor ; WIIiliY ftCHIiBWM* 


A XiTfl'T'TX 

80, Soutli Booms, with Wooden Floors and Heated by Dutch-tile Stoves. 


English Church Serrice. Dr. BNDEBLIN, of Bath, of Weiiaenbarg, Switaerland. 

HAVSBK BKOTHBBS« Proprietors. 




faoinff the Sea and Baths* 

close to the New Knrsaal. 

and the Besidenoe of the 

Bo yal Fami ly. 


andmusic rooms. 





OSTBNO CoBtlBned. 




Close to the New Kursaal and the Residence of the Royal Family. 


LEON THOMA, Proprietor. 

SITUATED, Rne d'Oueet, close to the Kursaal and Bathing Place. First- 
clau Hotel, recommciidf d for U> comfort and moderate fixed pricei. Splendid lar^rc Dlninic 
Room. Breakfast Boom. Convermtion and Reading Saloons. Bngllsh, American. Germa n, and 
French NewspaiMrs, Omnibus and Hotel Porter meet tbe Train and Steamer. OPEN AUi THE 


'pHB most faBbionable Hotel and Restaurant in the place. Finest situation facing the Sea and the 
•*• Baths, and nest to the Palace of the Royal Family. " Elevator." All Modern Comfort. 
200 Beds and Saloons. Omnibus meets Steamers and Trains. 

AddroBS for Letters and Oablejrrains : "SPLENDID, OSTEND.'* 
„ ^ PHWrraETlVO. Mantoor. Mrinter Seaaom: Nice, Hotel de Fra 

Branch Honae during th*e Winter: THE SHIP HOTEL, oppotite the Landing Stage of the Royal Belgium Mail 

K. 8€HWrraETlVO. Mantoor. Mrinter Seaaom: Nice, Hotel de France. 

House during the Winter: TEE SHIP HOTEL, oppotite the Landing Stage of the Royal Belgi-.. 
Bteamera and clom to the Railway Station*. Newly furnished. Perfect Sanitary arraugementa. 




08Z|aa> coBftiMiM. 


TTIBST-CLASS BNOLISB FAHILT HOTEL AND PENSION. Green Square, cloee to the Sea. Kuzeaal. and Caaino. 
^ Open all the year. Full Board. 7*. or 8*. per day, aooordlng to the Boonu. Bpedal anangemente per Week 
or Month dozing tbe Wlpter and Summer Seaeon. 

SOOHS FRM «•• A DAY. A* DECEERCK, Proprletttr. 

N.B.— The Omiflbos of tbe Hotel oonveys Traveneia, ffee, to and from the TraUu and SteamerB. 
Branefa Houee during the Winter: THE SHIP HOTEK* oppoelte the T<andlng Stage of the Boyal Belfftaii 
Hall Steamers and oloee to the Ballway Stations. Newly foxniahed. Fecfect Sanitary arrangemente. 


pECOMMENDED Flrat-claaa English Family Hotel and Penrion. Splendid aitnation. Neareat to the Baths, 
-'•*' Kursaal. and Caaino ; doee to and with view of the Sea. Every modem comfort. Only Hotel lighted by 
■leotciottF in the town. Sitting and Smoking Bourns. Bngliah Sarranla. Oood Badniom, U|^ and ■ifmiiniMTfi 
tNm 8 frf. * tor. ndl PmuIoii, ttnraa naato ioAwlSi U|^t ud »tl«idaae« fk^ttTta. % dn^. V«9 

advantageous arrangements for Families and long stay. All enquiries receive prompt attention. TBus at TraloM 
and Steamers. Good Cnlatne and Cellar. Civility. Onv au. tbm txas. 

B. JiAJJD VANOUro^ PiDPZietor and Manages; rsaldediBaiiy 7Mni Ip England. 




8, RUE DE IiA PAIX, 8, 

(Place Yendome. Place de I'Opera.) 


HOTEI. de I.IUX et d'AI.BION, 

SSS. RUE ST» HONORE. near the Tulleries Gardens, Plaoe Venddme, and Opera. 
I^IBSr-OLASS HOTEL. Modeimte Tenns. Very ftdTaniageoiu anangemento for Families. No 
■^ extra charareB for Service and Light. Every home comfort. Large Kali. Beautiful Drawing 
Room. Table d'Hote with separate taUei. Vast Dining Boom riohly decorated. English Billiards. 

BaUi Booms. Jenning's Sanitary appliances. Electric Lij^t throughout. ..^ 

Ltn. !Meplione.. TtiN^aplilo Address : LILLALBIOir, PABIS. HfeURl iUIAIME. 

PARIS Continti^d 






"Service k la Caxte." Separate tables. Advantageous arrangements with fiBLmlliee 

for a long residence. 

B. MOMMEJA.PEREY, Fropriclor. 



Close to tbe TnilerieS Garden, Palais Royal, Lonvre, New Opera, Champs Elys^s, ftc. 

ROOMS, from Ittn* 50e. per day. Plain Breakfast. 

Visitors are quite free to take their meals where they like. Table d*hote, and Restaurant d la carte. 
Night Porter in atten danc e. Moderate Terms in winter. 

BERBTTA, Proprietor. 


FAMOUS First Class Hotel, opposite the Vienna, Dresden, Karlsbad, and 
Breslan Railway Station (no carriages wanted). Very clean and most comfortable apartments 
at Ifl. and .upwards. Conyersation and Reading Room. Beautiful Garden with Terrace. 
Luminous Fountain. Carriages. Baths. Telephone. V. BENE8, Proprietor. 

(Lake of Lucerne ) RIOI. (Lake of Lucenid). 

;!L^j;r. RIGI-KALTBADlt^^Si. 

OB the shore of the Eake des IV Caatons. 

IpOtST OUUIIB BOTEL AHD PBNBIOlf . Hovntala Air .Otuw. Hydrotlierapy. The most slieltered iltnatioa 
* with cnlendid Pauorama. Physioian. Orchestra. Bailway Station. Port and Telearraph. l«rge ABphalte Terrace 
and Verandahs, Romantic Pine Woods. Lawn Tennis. Spring Water. Arrangements for protracted stay, from 9frB. 
per day. In Jum and September i«4«eod Terms. 
Prospectns seat gratis hy the Manag€fr» J. WlfBTB. 



Blouse in the most elevated and salubrious i 
rrangements for protracted stay. 

iifaiiiiMMt_/C. BITZ, from the Savoy Hot^LondozL 
naaagersi-^^ PF7FFER, from the QrandHotel National, Lucerne. 

OST Distinguished House in the most elevated and salubrious part of Kome. 

Moderate Charges. Arrangements for protracted stay. 


BOMB Cl«mlaii«d* 



All Modem Comforts. Open all Tear Round. 
P. LI7GANI, Proprietor. 

KOME. HflTFI RFAII RITF family Homr ^ 

19, 7ZA AUBOEA^VAEIEB LUDOTIBX (th» highMft, bMMUMt, anA aunt aMd«n p«rt of ef4r>- 
PATENT LIFT. Baths. Caloriferes. Prirate Saloons. All rooms hare sonth aspect. 

^ Easy aeoeM to all parts of Rome by the new Electric Tramway. Pension 8 to 

12 frs. per day. Arrangeintnts for Parties. Every Modem comfort. 



1, WU£EHSPI.EIlf. 

-^ First-class Hotel, beautifally situated on, and with the most impo»ing view orer, the River 
Maas, in the neighbourhood of the Harwich and Weekly Steamers, the Post and Telegraph Office. 

J. B. de JOODB, New Proprietor. 



Very llmt-claBB and best ftitnated Hotel. 

■yiEW on the Seine, Bon Secours, Pont Comeille, and lie Lacroix. Near a Post and Teleeraph Office. 
^ the Theatre, and the principal Monuments. Large and small Apartments. Choice Ciusine. 
Renowned Wines. English spoken. Cook's Coupons accepted and abatement of 5 per cent for an eight 
days stay. Bicycles may be deposited. Electric Light. Telephone. Near the Exhibition (1896). 

Kspt by Mn. Yve. BATAIUARD. formerly proprietress of the Hotel de inBorope, at Kaoon. 



NATURAIi LIFT. FPqMIER, Proprietor. 

ST. MORITZ DORF (Bngadine), Switzerland. 

HOTEL BAYIER du BELVEDERE-st. moritz village. 

Cenneeted by Eleetrlc Tram with St. Moritx-Bad. 

THIS HOTEL, fitted with Fire-proof Staircases, English Sanitary Arrange- 
ments, Lift. Baths. Douche, heated by hot water pipes (not air or steam), has magnificent views 
and fine sunny ai^pect. The Table and the whole Service are First Class and Terms Moderate. 
lArge Terrace. LawA TeaiitB ConrtSt ete«_^QQQ{^ 



SAN BEBNA&INO (SwitzerlandX 



CHARMING Climatic Station. Ferruginous Mineral Water Springs recom- 
mended for the care of Annmia, NearMthenia, BachitUm, etc. Unequalled Centre of 
Promenades and Excnraions. Sea*on, 10tb Jane<-16tb September. 

ABTTOUrB mmtf PropHetor. 




HOTEL de i'EUROPE et do ia PAtX, 

A handsome Hotel, opposite the Railway Station, with a fine out-look. South aspects 

Arrangements made for a long stay. Deservedly recommended. 


LAUEBira BBBTOUNI, JPK., formerly cfChrand Hctd Royal, San Jtemot and Hotd de V Europe, MUam. 

SCHINZNACH (on-the-Aar) Switzerland. 






Season, May 10 until September 30. 


Bich SulphurouB Arated Mineral 
Springs, effloaoious for Chronic Skin 
DlMaaeB, Ckronic Catarrb, BhenmatiBm. 

Fine new Building for Special Treat* 
ment by Inhalations. Milk cure. 

Reduced prices until June 16. Fr<K 
spectus firee firom 

HANS AMSLER, Proprietor. 



THESE EXCELLENT HOTELS, whicb are situated in the best part of what is worthily named 
the *' Beauty Spot of Italy/* are the annual resort of the most distinguished English and American 
Families. The Principal Centre for Excursions. 

Itr. CI. TRAlIOKTAJro* Proprietor and Manacer* 


SPA— Oldest, flnest, and most efficacious Mineral ferruginous Waters— SPA 

HOTEL DE FLANDRE. SURY, senior, proprietor. 

The largest flrst-class Hotel in the central and most saluhrious part of the Town. 

Beautlftil Park with Villas and Cottages. CoTered Oymasium. 


^ SPA ContlBtted. 


HENRABB WaCMAMD, Proprtetoir* 

FIBST^OLASS HOTEL, greatlj improved and beaatifullj situated, in close 
proximity to all the principal BBtablishments. 140 Beds. '- Vast Saloons and Richly FnrnlaliAd 
Apartomnta. fieadiiig Splooo tnppUed with papers of all countries. Large Smoking Boom. 



Is situated in the finest part of the town^ in the beautiful Place Royal, 
adjoining the Bailway Station and the Post Office, near to the Theatre and the Boyal Gardens, 
o'l^lMMlle the Pftlsoe, and f aetnir the new Odeon. Tbia Hotel wUl beJevnd -most com tor taMe inmmry 
respect ; the apartments are elegantly famished and suitable for families or single gen.U®°^cn* Table 
d*Hdte at 1 and 5 o*clock. French and English Newspapers. H, and 0. Mabqvabdt, Proprietors. 

TAMABIS-ST7B-MER (Near Toulon) Var— France. 

NEW Winter Station on the Mediterranean, picturesque and well-wooded, 
facing tntranoe to Toulon roadstead. Open all the year round. Modem comfort and sani- 
Ution. Excellent Cuisine. Frequent communication with Toulon by Land and Sea in 20 minutes. 
Address : M. JUST, Proprietor, GRAND HOTEL. Tamarls-sur-Mer (Var). 




-DEST situation, near the Waterfalls ; for a long tinSe well known as "HOTEL I. 0GE8BN." Every 
-^ English comfort. Baths. Electric Light. Milk Cure. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages. 
Moderate chMges. Pension. The proprietor gives best information for Ezcurrions in the Black Forest. 
The Hotel Wsh&lb, not very laige but very comfortable, is highly recom mended \a German and 
Foreign Guide Books. P, YnSMR^LE, Proprietor. 


AVEBT comfortable First Class Family Hotel, close to the WaterflBllS and Forrest Very 
high and eharmlAg position, orerlookinig the Village and Valley. Large and Airy I Miitf ig 
Boom ; newly decorated Drawing Boom and Bestaorant Balconies all round the House. 

me (Oarden. Batbs. SleotrioLiglit. BngliBh Comfort Pension. Moderate Cliarges. 
^-nnitms meet all Trains. aiab&t botzinobb. Proprietor. 



Grand Hotel de I'Enrope 

THIS SPLENDID HOTEL', situated on the Piazza Castello, 
-*■ and five minutes' walk from the Station, Post, Telegraph, etc., 
is furnished to afford Residents every possible convenience and 

Lighted by Electricity. Heated by Hot-air Stoves. 


Single and Double Bedrooms, and splendid Snite of Apart- 
ments at moderate charges. 

A. BORGO, Proprietor, 



HOVNTAUr RAILWAY STATION* ^•9<f0 feet albove tbe level of the Sea. 

TJALF AN HOUR'S DELIGHTFUL TRIP BY RAIK or 1 Houn ideMant walk from Zkiricb. 
^■^ Beautifnl pl»oe of resort for Tourists, Excursionists, Inralids, persoos requiring rest and biacime 
up. and for families intending to stop at Zurich, and aToid tbe noise and heat of Uie town. PuSKst and 
most invigorating mountain air. UaffXllfloent Hotel. 160 RoomB newly fitted up, opening on 
baloonieQ and commanding a glorious view. Dairy ; plentiful supply of new milk and whey. Park of 
more than 100 acres. Lawn Tennis. English Ontirch Service. Post Office. Telegraph. TelejAone. 
VsEY Moi>S£ATK PRICKS en pouUm. A* IiANIMlIu Prollrietor* 

DCQTAIfDAMT I ITl^ l/'lll \A On the cre«t o« the hUl ,• for centurlei tlie mote 
nQO I AUnArN I U I VJ l\UL.IVI popular rewrt of parUes and excunianiaUliom 
^■^■^— ^»^— .— .— — ^^»i— ■'■^.^ 11 ■ nur and near. 

Qrand panoramic view equal to the BigL BzoellBut OulslBe; Ohoioe WSneg ; First-rate Attendance. 



rpHIS OLD ESTABLISHEP FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, situated on the best mwition of the Grand 
•'• Canal, has just been repaired andjpreatly improved. New rich Dining Room on the ground 
floor overlooking the Grand Canal. . HydnLUUo LUL 

liABSBIIXB BROTHBK^, Proprtetohv. 


▼XNICX Contlanod. 


NEAR St. Mark's Square, on the Grand Canal, facing the Ohuroh of St. 
MarlASalote. 200 Booms. 30 Saloons. Patronised by English and American Travellers. 

The Splendid Bestanrant "Omnwald" belonnto tlie same Proprietor. 


see Text, under -Venice,- Italy SeottoB. JUUUB GRUMWALD, Mew P»opp. 




LIFT. In the centre of all tlieSprlnfi and BatliHoiues. Open ail tlie srear round. UFT. 

Messrs. BOVBBAV A COLLET, Proprietors. 

TtnTtUeri are reeommmdwl not to psnnlt themielvw to be misled bjr Touten or to be put down at a wrong Hotel by 

OmniboB Condveton, etc. 



THIS First-class Hotel, containing 45 Saloons and 235 Bedrooms, with a 
separate Breakfast, Beading and Conrersation Booms, as well ai a Smoking Saloon, 
a very eztensiTe and elegant Dining Boom, and an Artificial Garden oTer the river, is beantiftillj' 
situated in connection with the Old and New Bath buildings and Conversation Honse, and in the 
immediate vicinity of the Promenade and Trinkhalle. It is celebrated for its elegant and comfort- 
able Apartments, good CuMm and Cellar, and deserves its wide-spread reputation as an excellent 
Hotel. Table d*Hdte. Breakfasts and Suppers & {a Carfe.', Exchange OfRco. Correspondent of 
the jfuriflctpar Miflciiig HiniiA>of Lo.ndt>n for the paymenFof Circular Notes and Letters of Credit 
Omnibuses of the Hotel to and from each Train. Fine Private Carriages. Warm and Cold 
Baths in the Hotel. Lift to every floor. Excellent^ccommodation . 

Reduced prices for Booms daring ttM months of Hay and September. 


THIS First-class Hotel is heautifuUy situated on a terrace facing the new 
Trinkhalle, at the entrance of the Promenade, and within five minutes* walk from the English 
Church. It is well known for its cleanliness, good attendance, and moderate charges. The 
Cuisine department and Wines will afford satisfaction to the most fastidious taste. A great part of 
the Hotel has been newly furnished, and the drainage entirely reconstructed. Excellent Sitting and 
BvdRooms/fumlshed with English comfort. Conversation, Beading, and Smoking Booms. Ladies* 
Music Boom. The Time* and other Papers Uken in. Warm and Cold Baths in a separate building. 
Thf Hotel 'OxnaHras meett every Train daring the season. Covered eommonicatiou between the 
*«Atel and new Batl^ House. T-fB.Mii- (^ r\f^n\o 

"^ - Digitized by V^OOQlC 




FIRST-GLASS ESTABLISHMENT, ^rith Baths supplied from the prin- 
cipal spring, the ** Koclibrnnnen/' Free and bracing air, best situation, with its own Garden 
g>posite the Promenade. Close to the Kursaal and Royal Theatre. Drawing, Reading, and Billiard 
ooms. Table d'Hote at 1 and 7 o'clock:. Reasonable charges. Lift. 

H* UAVVNKMf Proprietor. 




lloovtlftil fiarden. HydravUc UfH. 
Pfttroiiliiod b7 Bngllsli and American Families. Pension. 




New Proprie tor; AOHILLE MISLIN, of the Orand Hotel, Boyat. 



This Hotel inunediateljr flEuses the Sea and (flose to TAndlng Stage. 


Noted Cuisine and liiberal Table.' Terms moderate. Billiard Room. 
H. SHIKYBi.1, Proprietor: 




Terms Moderate. Established over 50 years. 

A First-dass Ooiintry Hotel, on the most bracing spot in the islands. 

THE largest and <}nly Hotel on the Island with a Sea View. Possesses 
excellent aleepinc aodommodation. Large Public Drawing, Ebuoking, and Dining Booms 
<sepa»t« toUea). cio«d Vla^ and Bathing. l^.H^Bflf, Propr£etor. _ 

\ ^ 





CHAMNBL ISLAHDB. -*"*''""^^ ^ 
Telegraphie Addrew; »*ORAJrP, J»KBE¥.** P. de EBIPI, Ifaaa— r. 


rPHIS delightful and cbarmlng First Clais Hotel la beantlfony sitaftted for Bxcnrtions by Sea 
-'- and Land. OlM part Of the Hotel overlooks the Sea. it U nnrlvalled for its ezqaisite 
French Cuisine in the whole of the Channel Islands. Special terms made IQr the Week. 




Lately conducted by Mmo. Del^pine. 
Terms from 6s. 6d. per day inclusive. 

'- , BOATS. 

matam Msgn aui ; 

jAl ' Proprietor, PIBRRB TBKMBl* 




C&ArmlBffly Bitnaied on Sea Shore* 

Becently enlarged. Tariff on application. The only Botel in Channel Islands 
aflbrding facilities for Sea Bathing. 

1^.1 A> B. HARPBN, Proprietor. 


STANDS directly on the edge, of the Cliffs^ and has a splendid view of the 
Islands and the Coast of France. Plemont is amongst the most pletnreiAite spenery ou 
tb« Iftland, and is noted for its cates, whteh' seen by all Victors. Yltltora aui find first 
claM a«coiiitaiodatioB at moderate chargei. Tazfff forwarded oti appliclation. 

^^'1 Proprietor, E. J. le B&ANCQ. 









PARIS 58, Rue de CHchy. 

') PARIS 4, Place du Theatre franjais (Palais Royal). 

, MARSEILLES 38, Rue de la R^publique. 

■ CANNES 6, Rue des Marchfe. 

. BRUSSELS 6, Rue de la P^pinifere. 

ANTWERP 44, Rue Dambrugge. 

BERLIN 33, Wilhelmsstrasse. 

COLOGNE 22, Komodienstrasse. 

BASLE 4, Stapfelberg. 

i^ BERNE 9, Naegeliegasse. 

VIENNA 6, Elisabeth Strasse. 

PESTH 4, Deakplatz. 

PRAGUE Franzen Quai, 6. 

" MADRID Leganitos, 4. 

SEVILLE 31, Plaza de la Constitucion. 

LISBON Janellas Verdes, 32. 

ROME 63, Via Due Macelli. 

FLORENCE 22, Via della Vigna Nuova. 

^ GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

^ NAPLES 101, Strada di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, RueTanger. 

ST. PETERSBURG ...4, New Isaac Street. 

ODESSA 68, Khersonskaya Street. - — 

t ALEXANDRIA Woivodich Buildings, Tewfik Pasha Street. 

y Further informfttion can be obtained at any of the above addreBBes, or at 

146, Queen Victoria Street, LONDON. 







Gookwork Statements Letter Headings. Bill Forms. 

Invoices: Memo Forms Note Headings Cheques. 







Medicines Of blessings relief 

to all who are out of health. 

Are you suffering 
fron* Indigestion, Want of Enersry. 
^ Disordered Stomach, Liver trouble, 
^or Lack of Tone P 

Try the Pills, 
and you will rejoice in 
restored health, strength, and appetite. 

Have you taken cold 

or have Chest troubles, RheumatiBtn^ 
Gout or Neuralgia? 

Use the Ointment. 
It acts like a charm. For Cuts, Wounds. 
Bruiaes, Sprains, and all muscular con- 
tractions, it has no equal. 

These Remedies are invaluable 

in all complaints incidental to Females. For 
children and the aged they are priceless. 


x\ St, (late 53 i, Oxford St), London, 

:ii(}n>-i throughout the WorlL 

Dctween the hours of 11 and 4, or bv letter