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Fbw parts of the Continent are so worthy of a visit as Spain. In the beantj and 
variety of its scenery, it falls little short of Tyrol and Styria ; it contains some of 
the finest buildings, and has given birth to some of the greatest artists in Europe ; 
while it is at the same time especially interesting for its historical associations. 
Spain, however, has been much neglected by travellers. The alleged reasons are— 
the fear of brigands; the fact of the language being so little studied; and the 
difficulty of travelling and obtaining accommodation. The answer to these objec- 
tions is — that brigands in Spain are almost entirely unknown; that although no 
language can be properly acquired without a residence in the country where it is 
spoken, those who can master French or Italian, or who are tolerably acquainted 
with Latin, will find little difficulty in making themselves understood in Spanish. 
Moreover, in the principal hotels and several places of public resort the French 
language is spoken. And, finally, every year sees a marked improvement in the hotel 
accommodation all over Spain. 

The most agreeable way of seeing Spain was formerly to travel by diligence or by 
mule. There is scarcely any part of the country that has not been for a long while 
traversed by diligences, which are perhaps better conducted there than in any other 
part of the Continent, whilst mules may be had in all the mountainous parts. Rail- 
ways, however, are now open throughout the most frequented parts, and branch 
lines are multiplying by degrees. The hotel accommodation is, as a rule, rather 
below that of France, Belgium, Germany, or Switzerland, but may compare advan- 
tageously with some parts of Europe, where provision is only made for the 
commercial traveUer. The only real difficulty for the .tourist is the absence of a con- 
venient guide book. There are hosts of works on Spain, but till lately there was no 
good practical hand-book, which in a small form gives the traveller all he requires to 
know upon the route. In the following pages the author has endeavoured to 
accomplish this object. Among other useful information, the work contains the best 
routes ; notices of the principal towns and places, and the different objects of interest j 
full details on the coinage ; a glossary ; and a vocabulary in English and Spanish. 
The publishers have still further increased the value of the work by adding plans of 
the chief towns, and illustrations of the most interesting places. 

It was not until the Spanish portion of the work was in the press th&t ^}&ft. ^sn^s^^^sst. 
conceived the idea of extending the work to PoxV;\]l\j?\. ^'^ ^^rosNJt'*^'^'^'^^'^^;^ 
be has, In a small space, given such inioTmsiAAOTi %» xaa.'^ ^TkS^^'Civ^^^'"'*^^^^ 
eoupJe of summer yacatiozis in that mteTestVa^ c^oxoiXir} • 



Abrantes, 38, 175, 189 
Adra, 113 
Adradas, 110 
Aignilar, 60 
Agoilas, 75 
Alagon, 99 
Alartf, 136 
Albacete, 84 
Albatera, 115 
Albergarla, 181 
Albof era, Lake of, 100 
Albuf eira, 187 
Alboixech, 98, 118 
Alcal< de Guadaira, 69 
Alcali de Hefiares, 81 
AlcaU la Real, 58 
Alcantara, 85 

Ayiintamlento, 86 

Bridge, 86 

Castle, 86 

Chnrch of El Mayor, 

Convent S. Benito, 86 

Cuartel deVeteranos, 

Exports, 86 

Prodacts, 86 
Alcantarilla, 76 
Alcaudete, 61, 69 
Alcazar, 88 
Alcira, 117 
Alooba^ 176 

Monastery, 176 

Moorish Castle, 17 i Nazareth, 176 
Alcoy, 100, 116 
Alendia, 136, 137 
Akuneza, 110 
Algeeiras, 51, 53 
Alf«ini8i, 117 
Aumna (CalatayndX 80 
^^h^tii^ de Mnrcia, 75, 76 

Alhandra, 175 
Alhondigullla, 61 
Alioahtb, 84, 115 

Castello de Fernando, 

Ch. of a Nicolas, 116 
Paintings and Medals, 

Conyeyances, 116 

Paseos, 116 

Steamers, 116 

Trade, 116 
Aljubarrota, 177 
Almaden, 88 
Almadenc^jos, 88 
Almagro, 88 
Almansa, 117 
Almaraz, 36 
Almazifo, 110 
Almendral^o, 37 
Almendricos, 75 
Almeria, 113 
Almddovar, 61 
Almorchon, 61 
Almofiecar, 111 
Alora, 58, 6 J 
Alsasua, 16, 38 
Alzola, 16 
Amleira, 178 
Amposta, 119 
Andalnsia, 49 
Andorra, 105, 133 
Andnjar, 60 
Anteqnera, 64 
Aramayona, 17 
Aran, 181 
Aranjuez, 81 
Arapiles, 78 
Arbo, 100 
Archena, 114 
Archidona, 58 
Arcos, 58, 66 
Arentim, 190 
Arenys del Mar, 136 
Azganda, 35 
ArgmUmti Baths, IM 


Amedillo, 108 

Arroyo (de MalpartldaX 

Arroyo del Paerco, 87 
Ascorea, 188 
Asmenal, 77 
Astorga, 4:^ 
Ayeiro, 181,185 
Avila, 19, 76 
AvUes, 48 
Ax, 133 
Azuqaeca, 31 

Badajoz, 33, 37, 87, 189 
Baena, 58, 61 
Baeza, 59 
Bagn^resdeLnchon, 130 
Bailen, 59, 61 
Balagner, 40, 130 
Balearic Isles, 133 

Etymology of Name, 

History, 183 

Population, 133 

Works on, 143 
Bafios, 84 
Barbantes, 100 
Barbastro, 40 
Barca d'Alva, 80, 184 
Barceloita, 88, 104, 134 

Academias de Buenas 
Letras, 38 

Adoana, 89 

Aljama, 39 

Aixhiyo de Aragon, 39 

Baths, 37 

Biblioteca Naclonal,38 

Boat Hire, 89 

Bocario, 88 

Casa de Caridad, 88 
„ Consistorial, 88 
„ Lon|a^89 


Barcelona— Continued. 

Church of S.Augustin . 
„ S. Ana, 38 
„ S. Belem, 38 
„ S. Cucufat, 38 
„ S. Jaime, 38 
„ S. Jnst, 38 
„ S. Maria del Mar, 

„ S. MariadelPi,88 
„ 8. Miguel, 38 
„ S. Pablo, 88 
„ S. Pere, 38 

Colegiata S. Ana, 38 

Diligences, 38 

El General (Hospital), 

Franciscan Convent, 

Harbour, 37 

Hotels, 37 

Liceo, 39 

Montjuich, 39 

Munula del Mar, 38 

Maseo Salvador, 88 

Omnibuses, 39 

Paseo Nnevo, 38 

Pescaderia, 39 

Plateria, 89 

Presidio, 88 

Railway Stations, 39 

Rambla, 39 

Real Palaoio, 38 

Roman Remains, 88 

Santa Cruz (HospiUl), 

San Carlos (fortX 88 

Steamers, 89 
Barceloneta, 88 
Barreiro, 188 
Batalha, 177 




Beja, 188 
Belem, 167, 186 
Bellegarde, 49 
Bellpaig, 39 
Belmez, 61 
Bemfica, 170 
Bemposta, 175 
Benacazon, 69 
Benalbufar, 138 
Benasque, 131 
Benavente, 104 
Benedeta Pass, 1 30 
Benifavo, 117 
Berlengas Islands, 175, 

Benicarlo, 118 
Besain, 16 
Betanzos, 43 
Binefar, 40 
Binisalem, 136 
Bobadilla, 52, 54, 58, 60 
Bocairente, 117 
Books — 

On Spain, 9 

On Portugal, 160 
Boijas, 123 
Botany — 

Spahi, 5 

Portugal, 154 
Boulou (El), 49 
Bourg Madame, 138 
Braga, 190 
Bragan^a, 191 
Br^che de Roland, 130 
Bucharo, 130 
Bunola, 138 
Burgasot, 100 
Burgo (El), 46 
Burgos, 17 
Burriano. 118 
Busaco, 175, 180 
Busdongo, 47 

Cabanas, 82 
Cabra, 61 
Cabrera (Isle), 141 
Cacem, 178 
Caceres, 37, 84, 87 
Cadiz, 69, 70 

Aduana, 72 

Alameda, 72 

Artillery Barracks, 72 

Baths, 70 

Battle of Traf algar,73 

Calle Ancha, 72 

Capuchins, 72 

Casa de Espositos, 72 

Casa de Misericordia, 

Casino, 70 

OAIcJana, 72 
Cons a J, 72 


Cadiz — Continued. 

Escuela de Comercio, 

Excursions, 72 

Exports, 71 

Guadalquivir, 70 

Hospital de Mujeres,71 

Hotels, 72 

Imports, 71 

Lunatic Asylum, 72 

Matagorda (fort), 71 

Medical School, 72 

Museo, 72 

Plazas, 71 

Plaza de Toros, 72 

Port 8. Mary's, 72 

Ramparts, 72 

S. Bartolomeo, 72 

Sieges, 71 

Steamers, 73 

Theatres, 72 

Trafalgar, 72 

Wines, 71 

Works on, 72 
Cahide 184 
Calahokba, 107 

Antiquities, 108 

Bathsof Arnedillo,108 


Cathedral, 108 

Etymology of name, 

Hermitage, 108 

History, 108 

Siege, 108 
Calamonte, 37 
Calatayud, 30, 87 
Culdasda Rainha, 176,178 
Caldas de Gerez, 191 
Caldas del Rey, 42 
Caldas de Montbuy, 48 
Caldelas, 100 
Caldetas, 124 
Calella, 125 
Calzada, 77 
Camas, 69 
Cambrils, 120 
Caminha (fort), 185, 190 
Campillo, 80 
Campos, 188 
Canaveral, 84 
Candieras, 176 
Canfranc, 131 
Cangas de Tineo, 43 
Canigou, 49, 138 
Cantalapiedra, 80 
Cape Carviero. 186 
Cape da Roca, 186 

Cape Espichel, 186 

Cape Finisterre, 42 

Cape Mondego, 186 

Cape St. Vincent, 187 
Cupe Sinesj 186 
Carcajeate, 84, 100, 117 

Cardefia, 18 
Cardona, 105 
Cardonet Valley, 105 
Carmona, 61, 69 
Carpio, 80 
Carratraca, 53 
Carregado, 175, 176 
Carril, 42 
Cartagena, 75, 112 
Cartama, 53, 61 
Casarabonela, 54 
Casa Branca, 188 
Casariche, 60 
Cascaes, 186 
Cascante, 110 
Caseval, 188 
Castejon, 28, 111 
Castejon (Lerida), 40 
Castello Branco, 190 
Castellon -de - la-Plana, 

Castel Rodrigo, 190 
Castiileja de la Cuesta, 

Castillejo, 31 
Castro Marim, 187 
Catarroja, 117 
Caudete, 88 
Cauterets, 130 
Caxarias, 179 
Cerbere, 49 
Cerdagne, 138 
Cervantes, 81 
Cervera, 89 
Cestuna, 16 
Ceuta, 51 
Cezimbra, 186 
Chanca, 175 
Chaves, 191 
Chiclana, 72 
ChUches, 118 
Chinchilla, 84, 75 
Chinchon, 81 
Chirivel, 74 
Chronology — 

Spain, 5 

Portugal, 158 
Cid (The) 17 

CiNTRA, 171 

Colares, 171 
Convention. 172 
Cork Convent, 173 
MontesLunse, 171 
Moorish Bath, 173 
Palace, 172 
Penha Convent, 172 
Penha Verde, 173 
Sitiaes, 178 

Circular Notes, 11 

Ciudad Real, 88 


Alameda, 81 

Bridge, %1 

CapUla deCeTT&Wra, 

Ciudad Rodrigo— (7on. 

Casade Beneticiencia, 

Castle, 81 

Cathedral, 81 

Convent of S. Clara, 81 

Excursions, 81 

Sieges, 81 
Ciudedela, 141 
Cleopatra's Needle. 43 
Climate — 

Spain, 2, 4 

Portugal, 155 
Coast Tour — 

Spain, 13,111 

Portugal, 155 


Aqueduct, 180 

Bridge, 179 

Busaco, Battle of, 180 

Cathedral, 180 

Churches, 180 

Fountains, 180 

History, 179 

Monasteries, 180 

Mondego River, 180 

Quinta das Lagrimas, 

University, 180 

Works on, 181 
Col de Balagaer, 120 
Col de MarcadaoQ, 130 
Col de Somport, 131 
Collbato, 104 
Concepcion de Alma- 

radiel, 83 
Columbus, 62, 82, 111 
Condeixa a Nova, and 

Velha, 179 
Conveyances — 

Spain, 13 
Portugal, 161 
Corcubion, 42 

Cordova, 60 

Alcazar, 60 

Ancient City, 60 

Archbishop's Palace, 60 

Cathedral, 60 

Colegio, 60 

Conveyances, 60 

Corredera, 60 

Excursions, 60 

Works on, 60 
Corunua (Corufia), 42 
Couriers, 8 
Covadonga, 47 


Cueva del Judio, 36 
Cuevas de Vera, 112 
Cullar de Baza, 74 
Cullera, 118 

\ C>u«.lo\&ATflLrlff.BiiMlAli. 



Dallas, 112 
Daboca, 87 
Denia, 100, 117 
Despefia-perros, 56 
Deva, 41 
Dlezma, 7S 
Distances — • 

Spain, 10 

Portugal, 160 
Dos Hermanas, 69 
Douro, 1 

Dragonera (Isle), 139 
Durango, 41 

Eaux. Chaudes, ISO 
Ebro (river), Etymology 

of name, 119 
Ecija, 61, 69 
El Bonlon, 49 
El Bnrgo, 46 
Elche, 115 
Elvas, 88, 188, 189 
Empalme, 48, 125, 186 
Ensabaya, 188 
Entroncamento, 179 
Ermezinde, 190 
Erastes, 82 
Escacena, 69 
Escaldas, 138 
Escalona, 90 
EscurialorEscorial, 19 
Esparraguera, 104 
Espeluy, 69, 61 
Espichel Cape, 171 
Espiel, 61 
Espinho, 181 
Esposende, 185 
Estella, 17 
Estepona, 54 
Estrella, Serra dc, 162 
Evora, 188 
Extremoz, 188 

Famalifao, 41, 184, 190 
Faro, 187, 188 
Fayon, 128 
Felaniche, 188 
Ferrol, 48 

Fervencas Fountain, 181 
Figueira da Foz, 81, 186 
Figueras, 49 
Filguelra, 100 
Fitero, 28 
Flassa. 49 
Fontalnhas, 184 
Formentera (Isle), 141 
Formoselha, 179 
Fort Caminha, 185 
Frejenal, 87 
Frieira, 100 
Faencebadon Pass, 48 
Fnenterrabla, 15 
Faente de Piedra, 60 
FneotM de OBoro, 82 

Gabas, 180 
Oallechs, 48 
Oandia, 100, 117 
Garriga Baths, 104 
Gauein, 52 
Geography — 

Spain, 1 

Portugal, 162 
Geology — 

Spain, 5 

Portugal, 154 
Gerona, 48, 125 
Getaf e, 81 
Gibraltar, 49 

Algeciras, 51 

Almoraina, 52 

Cartela, 52 

Conveyances, 51 

Cork wood, 52 

Drives, 51 

Europa Point, 52 

Excursions, 52 

Fortifications, 50 

Foreig^ners, 51 

Garrison Library, 51 

Governor's Parade, 51 

Hotels, 50 

Lazaretto, 50 

Money, 51 

Monkeys, 50 

Neutral g^und, 50 

Pci-mits, 51 

Post-Office, 51 

Promenade. 50 

Public worship, 51 

San Roque, 52 

Sieges, 50 

Spanish Lines, 50 

St. Michael's Cave, 50 

Steamers, 51 

Sugar Loaf Hill, 50 

Tunnel, 52 

Works on, 51 
Gijon, 47 
Glossary — 

Spain, xiii 

Portugal, 152 
Gobantes, 61 
Grado. 48 
Gr^al, 46 

Gran Mina Tunnel, 88 
Granada, 55 

Alcahiceria, 56 

Alhambra, 56 

Bivarambla, 56 

Cartiya (Convent), 56 

Cathedral, 55 

Cerro del Sol, 58 

Churches, 55 

Conveyances, 58 

Hotels, 55 

Jeneralife, 58 

Prado, 56 

8. G6rtfiiimo,56 

Granada — Continued. 

S. Juan de Dios (Hos- 
pital), 56 

Soto de Roma, 56 

University, 55 
Gran j a (La), 88 
Granja, 181 
Granollers, 48 
Grao, 100 
Grao, El, 100 
Grijota, 46 
Guadajoz, 61 
Guadalajara. 30, 35 
Gnadalviar, 1 
Guadiana, 1 
Guadix, 78 
Guardia (La), 185 
Gaillarey, 100 
Guimaraes, 191 

Haro, 105 
Henarejos, 100 
Hiendelaencina, 30 
History — 

Spain, 8 

Portugal, 156 
Hospitalet, 120, 138 
Hostalrich, 48 
Hotels — 

Spain, 12 

Portugal, 162 
Huelva, 87, 69, 111 
Huercal, 75 
Huesca, 181 
Huetor, 78 

nhavo, 186 
Ulan Cebolla, 82 
Inca, 186 
Inns - 

Spain, 1 

Portugal, 162 
Irun, 15 
Iviza, 141 

Jaca, 181 

Jadraque, 80 

Jaen, 59, 61 

Jaraicejo, 87 

Jativa, 117 

Jerez, or Jerez de la 

Frontera, 69, 70 
Jijona, 116 
Jucar, 2 
Junquera, (La) 49 


La Encina, 34, 100, 117 
La Granja (Segovia), 34 
La Guardia, 185 
La Hedionda, 54 
La Mancha, 33 
Lamego, 190 
Language — 

Spanish, 8 

Portuguese, 162 
Lanhellas, 190 
Lanjaron, 111 
La Palma, 69 
LaPuebla, 136 
La Roda, 34, 60, 69 
Las Alcantarillas, 69 
Las Arenas, 41 
Las Batuecas, 82 
Las Casetas, 29 
Las Nieves, 100 
Las Tablas, 70 
La Teste, 16 
La Zaida, 80 
Laundos, 184 
Liebrija, 69 
Lebrilla, 74 
Ledesma, 77 
Leiria, 178 
Lkon, 48, 44 

Ayuntamiento, 45 

Casa Capitular, 45 

Casa de Los (Sondes, 

Casa Consistorial, 45 

Casa de Guzmanes, 45 

Cathedral, 44 

Climate, 44 

Convents, 44 

Conveyances, 46 

Espolon, 45 

Espositos, 45 

Horse Fair, 44 

Mercado, 45 

Museo, 45 

Palacio Episcopal, 45 

Plazas, 44 

Promenades, 45 

Public Library, 45 

Real Casa, 45 

S.Isidoro (Convent),45 

S. Marcos (Convent), 

Theatre, 45 
Lerida, 89, 40 
LibriUa, 75, 76 
Linares, 58, 59, 61 
Lisbon, 163 

Academia das Bellas 
Artes, 168 

Academia Real, 169 

Ajuda Palace.^ \fi& 



Asyio de Mendicade, 

Belem, 168 
Bibliotheca da Acade- 

mia, 169 
Bibliotheca da Ajnda, 

Bibliotheca da Mar- 

inha, 169 
Black Horse Square, 

Boats, 163 
Cabs, 168 
Carmo, 167 
Casa de Moeda, 1G9 
Casa Pia, 169 
Gastello du S. Jorge, 

Cathedral, 166 
Cemeteries, 170 
Churches, 167 
Climate, 166 
Concei9ao Velha, 167 
Convent of Belem, 167 
Cordoaria, 170 
Cones, 168 
Daupia Gallery, 168 
Death of Prince John, 

&c., 165 
Earthquakes, 164 
English and Scotch 

Churches, 168 
English and Irish Col- 
leges, 168 
Estrella, 167 
Excursions, 170 
Forts, 168 
Fundipfto, 169 
History, 164 
Libraries, 169 
Manufactures, 165 
Marine Hospital, 169 
Markets, 170 
Memoria (S. Jos^),167 
Money, 163 
Museu Real, 168 
Natives, 166 
N. S. da Gra9a, 168 
N. S. de Loretto, 167 
N. S. dasMerces, 167 
N. S. das Martyrs, 166 
N. S. do Monte, 167 
N. S. de Penha, 167 
Pafo daBemposta, 168 
Pafo dasNecessidades, 

Palaces, 168 
Paseios, 170 
Passports, 163 
J'oJj^lec/jnic Museum, 



Lisbon— ConM.'MUd. 

Population^, 168, 165 

Post Office, 163 

Public Edifices, 169 

Public Gardens, 170 

Public Promenades, 
• Public Squares, 166 

Quintas, 166 

Railway Terminus, 163 

S. Antonio da Sd, 167 

S. Casa de Misericor- 
dia, 169 

S. Domingos, 167 

S. Engra9oa, 167 

S. Juliho, 167 

S. Maria Magdelena, 

S. Roque, 167 

8. Vicente de Fora, 

Steamers, 163 

Tagus, 166 

Theatres, 170 

Torre de Belom, 170 
Llerena, 37 
Llobregat, 2 
Lluchmayor, 138 
Lluvi, 136 
Loarre, 181 
Logrofio, 105 
Loja, 54 
Lorca, 74 
Los Santos, 37 
Lourinhaa (Lourinham), 

Luchon, 130 
Lugo, 43, 104 

MADRID) 22 to 28 
Alameda (La), 26 
Armeria (La), 26 
Atocha Convent, 26 
Ayuntamiento, 26 
Baths, 22 
Biblioteca Nacional, 26 
Bolsa de Comercio,26 
Buen Retiro, 26 
Bull Fights, 27 
Caf^s, 22 

Casa. de Moneda, 26 
Casa del Saladero, 26 
Casas de Hu^spedes, 

Churches, 25 
Clubs, 22 
Congreso, 26 
Convents, 26 
Delicias, 26 
Deposito Hidrografico, 

Descalzas i2eales, 26 
Diligences^ 27 

Madrid — Continued. 

Drinks, 22 

El General (Hospital), 

English Church Ser- 
vice, 27 

Environs, 27 

Excursions, 27 

Galeria Reservada, 24 

Hospitals, 26 

Hotels, 22 

Imprenta Real, 25 

Inclusa (La) 26 

Jardin Botanico, 26 

MurUlo, 24 

Musco (El), 23 

Museo National, 26 

National Bank, 26 

Palace, 23 

Plateria, 26 

Plaza de Toros, 26 

Post Office, 26 

Prado, 26 

Promenades, 26 

Public Buildings, 26 

Puerta del Sol, 22 

Railways, 27 

Recogidas (Las), 26 

Ribera, 24 

Restaurants, 22 

Salesas (Las), 26 

San Fernando, 26 

S. Antonio, 26 

S. Domingo, 26 

S. Francisco, 26 

S. Geronimo, 26 

S. Ildefonso, 26 

S. Isidro, 26 

S. Marcos, 26 

S. Maria, 26 

Sculpture Gallery, 24 

Steamers, 27 

Theatres, 26 

Through Routes to, 

To Lisbon, 86, 82 

Velasquez, 28 

Works on, 27 

Yepes, 27 
Mafra, 173, 178 
Mahon, 140 
Mairena, 61, 69 
Majobca, 1 34 

Climate, 134 

Distance, 134 

Exports, 136 

Fauna, 136 

Geology, 136 

History, 136 

Imports, 136 

Inhabitants, 186 

Language, 136 

Majolica Ware, 136 


M&iorcA— Continued. 

Population, 134 

Productions, 1 35 

Rivers, 134 

Springs, 134 
Mala, 124 
Maludetta, 125, 131 

Malaga, 63, 61 

Alameda, 64 

Cathedral, 64 

Cemetery, 54 

Churches, 54 

Cigar Factory, 54 

Convents, 64 

Conveyances, 54 

Old Malaga, 54 

Railway, 64 

Routes, 54 

Siege, 63 

Steamers, 54 
Malpartida, 3f., 84 
Malpartida de Plascnci 

Mana9or, 136, 138 
Manhuca, 190 
Manresa, 39, 104, 132 
Mansilla, 46 
Manufactures, 3 
Manzanares, 33 
Maps — 

Spain, 8 

Portugal, 161 
Maqueda, 90 
Marchena, 69 
Marinha-grande, 178 
Marrataxi, 136 
Martinho, 186 
Martorell, 104, 123 
Martos, 61 
Marvao, 175 
Mataro, 124 
Mazuecos, 46 
Mealhada, 181, 190 
Measures — 

Spanish, 12 
Medina del Campo, 1£ 

36, 76, 80 
Medina Sidonia, 72 
Medinaceli, 30 
Mequinenza, 40 
Merens, 132 
Merida, 33, 37, 61 
Mindello, 184 
Minho, 1 

Minorca, 139 
Climate, 140 
Distance, 139 
Exports, 140 
History, 140 
Imports, 140 
Language, 140 
I Monte Toro, 139 



Mi nowt^CcrUiiwed. 
Population, 140 
Products, 140 

Mira, 186 

Miranda, 17, 40, 106 

MirandeUa, 184 

Mojente, 117 


Molina de Rey, 104, 1?3 

Mollet, 48 

Moncayo, 30 

Mondego River, 180 

Mondragon, 16 

Spanish, 10 
Portuguese, 161 

Monforte, 43, 48 

Monistrol, 89, 104 

Monsecb^ 40 

Monserrate, 171 

Montbuy, 48 

Montilla. 60 

Mont Louis, 138 

Mont Perdu, 180 

Montserrat, 104 

Monzon, 40 

Mora, 128 

Morisco, 80 

Moron, 69 

Motril, 111 

Mountain Routes, 180 

Mualhacen, 1 

Muchamiel, 116 

Mujacar, 112 

Murcia, 75, 76, 113 

Muro, 186 


Castle, 92 

Church of S. Maria, 92 
Circus, 92 
Convents, 92 
History, 91 
Hospital, 92 
Roman Theatre, 93 

Navalcamero, 86 
Navalcenrada, 34 
Navalmoral, 86, 83 
Niebla, 69, 111 
Nine, 190 
Novelda, 84 
Noyes, 90 
Nnles, 118 

Obejo, 61 

Ocofta, 86,^2 

Olhos de Pedro, 178 


Oliveira d'Azameis,181 

Olireira de Barros. 181 

Oloron, 181 
Onteniente, 117 
Opokto, 181 to 184 
Alto Douro, 183 
Bankers, 181 
Bar of the Douro, 

Barracks, 184 
Bourse, 184 
Carmo, 188 
Casa da Camara, 184 
Casa de Roda, 188 
Cathedral, 188 
Ch. of Cedofeita, 183 
Ch. of Ildefonsa, 188 
Ch. of N. S. da Lapa, 

Ch. of S. Pedro, 188 
Climate, 183 
Colegio da Ora9a, 183 
Convent of Cruzios, 

Convent of Sao Bento, 

Convent of SaoLazaro, 

Cordoaria, 184 
Com Market, 184 
Crystal Palace, 184 
Douro River, 181, 182 
Earthquake, 166 
English Chapel, 188 
English Factory, 181, 

Episcopal Palace, 184 
Excursions, 184 
Exports, 182 
Franciscan Convent, 

Freixo, 184 
Gardens, 184 
History, 183 
Hospitals, 188 
Hotels, 181 
Italian Opera, 184 
Imports, 183 
Largo da Torre da 

Marca, 184 
Market Place, 184 
Manufactures, 183 
Mosteiro da Serra, 188 
N. S. de Matozinhos, 

Port Wine, 183 
Public Library, 184 
Quinta do Meio, 184 
Railways, 184 
Rock of S. Cosme, 184 
8. Oens, 184 
S. Joao da Foz. 184 
, Serra Convent, 1^4 
I Situation, 181 

Oporto— Continued. 

Suspension Bridge,182 

Theatre, 184 

Torre dos Clerigos, 183 

Tramway, 181 

Villa Nova, 183 
Oran, 61 
Ordufia, 40 
Obxnss, 101 

Baths, 1G8 

Bridge, 103 

Burgas (Las), 108 

Cathedral, 101 

Cemeteries, 103 

Ch. ofS. £ufemia,102 

Ch. of S. Maria, 102 

Convent of S. Do- 
mingo, 102 

Convent of 8. Fran- 
cisco. 102 

Conveyances, 104 

History, 101 

Manufactures, 101 

Public Walks, 104 
Orgafilt, 106 
Orihuela, 114 
Oropesa. 86, 83, 118 
Osuna, 69 
Ovar, 181,186 
Oviedo, 47 

Paillette, 181 
Painters, Spanish, 9 
Palanquinos, 46 
Palencia, 48, 46 
Palma, 186 
Palmella, 188 
Palos, 111 
Palumbaria, 188 
Pamplona, or Pampe- 

luna, 28, 40, 111 
Panticosa, 180 
Parameras, 19 
Pardo, 27 

Paredes-de-Nava, 46 
Passports — 

Spain, 8 

Portugal, 168 
Pau, 181 
Payalvo 179 
Pedestrians, 8, 130 
Pedras Rubras, 184 
Pedroso, 61, 80 
Pena Convent, 172 
Pefia Colorada, 181 
Pefia de Gorbea, 16 
Pefiafiel, 184 
Peflaflor, 61 
Pefia Labra, 48 

¥«'Bi&»(^«^ VIA 


Perello, 130 

Perpignan, 49, 104 

Peso, 176 

Petra, 136 

Pias, 188 

Pic de Nethou, &c., 12ii 

Pic de Rious, 180 
Piedra, 30 
Pina, 80 

Pinhal Novo, 188 
Pinhao, 184 
Pizarra, 63, 61 
Pla, 106 

Plana-Picameixons, 123 
Plaskncia, 86,82 
Aqueduct, 88 
Cathedral, 88 
Columbus, 83 
Distance, 88 
Excursions, 84 
Fortress, 88 
Fountains, 83 
Geology, Ac, 88 
History, 82 
Hospitals, 88 
Nunneries, 88 
Palaces, 88 
Paseos, 88 
Pocinho, 184 
Pola de Lena, 47 
Pollenza, 188 
Pombal, 174, 179 
Ponf errada, 48 
Pont dlnca, 186 
Ponte R^^engo, 176 
Pontevedra, 41 
Portalegre, 88, 176, 189 
Portbon, 49 
Port de Venasque, 180 
Port Mahon, 140 
Port St. Mary's, 70 


Authors, 161 
Chronology, 168 
Climate, 166 
Coast tour of, 186 
Coinage, 161 
Diligences, 161 
Distances, 162 
Divisions and Popu- 
lation, 166 
Flora, 164 
Geography, 162 
Geology, 164 
Glossary, 162 
History, 166 
Inns, 162 
Language, 163 
M«j^% «AO^S?v 


Portugal — Continued. 

Passports, 163 

Political Divisions, 166 

Portugnese Sove 
reigns, 160 

Postal information, 

Productions, 154 

Railways, 161 

Rivers, 152 

Skeleton Tours, 162 

Statistics, 156 

Steamers, 161 

Sulphurous Springs. 
Book on, 153 
Works on, 130 
Portugalete, 41 
Port Vendres, 49 
Posadas, 12 
Postal mformation — 

Spain, 12 

Portugal, 162 
Potes, 41 
Pousa, 100 

Povoa doVarzim, 184,185 
Prades, 133 
Products — 

Spain, 3 

Portugal, 154 
Puda, La, 104 
Puebla. La, 136 
Puebla de Hijar, 30 
Puente Genii, 68, 60, 61 
Puente los Pierros, 47 
Puerto deNavalcerrada, 

Puerto de Pa j ares, 48 
PuertoUano, 38 
Puerto Real, 69, 70 
Puerto Sta. Maria, 67, 70 
Puig, 93, 118 
Punhete, 189 
Puycerda, 132, 133 
Puzol, 93, 118 

Pyrenees, 125 to 130 

Amphitheatres, 126 

BrKhe de Roland, 130 

Cirques, 126 

Climate, 126 

Col.dePertus, 129 

Cols, 126 

Elevation of Moun- 
tains, 12 ) 

Elevation of Towns, 

Et3rmology of Name, 

Fauna, 128 

Flora, 12^ 

Geology, 127 

Glaciers, 126 
Jaislortca J Events, 129 
Z,sJtea, Ijfff 


Maladetta, 126, 130 
Metals, 128 
Mineral Springs, 128 
Mont Perdu, 180 
Passes, 129 
Pass of Bidassoa, 129 
Peace of, 129 
Population, 128 
Port de Vena8que,130 
Ports, 126 
Products, 128 
Rivers, 127 
St. Jean Pied de Port, 

Valleys, 126 
Works on, 129 

Queluz, 171 
Quintos, 188 

Rabida (La), 111 
Railways — 

Spain, 3 

Portugal, 160 
Railway Trains — 

Spain, 18 
Ra MalhSo, 171 
Redinha, 179 
Redondela, 41, 100 
Regoa, 184 
Reinosa, 47 
Renteria, 16 
Reus, 198 
Ribadavia, 101 
Rielves, 82 
Rio Tinto, 111, 190 
Ripoll, 48 
Rivers — 

Spain, 1 

Portugal, 158 
Rolifa, 176 

RONDA, 52 

Roiicesvalles, 129 

Roquetas, 112 

Rosas, 49 

Rota, 70 

Routes to Madrid, 1 ( 

Sabadell, 89 
Sacedon, 36 
Sagres, 187 
Sagunto, 93, 118 
Saguntum, 92 
Sahagun, 46 
St. Beat, 132 
Salamanca, 78, 184 

Augustinas Recoletus, 

Antiquities, 80 
Arapiles, 78 

Salamanca— CoM/inued. 

Ayuntamiento, 80 

Bridge, 80 

Bull Fights, 79 

Cathedral, 79 

Ch. of S. Marcos, 79 
„ S. Maria, 79 
„ S. Nicolas, 79 

Clericia (La), 79 

Coliseo, 80 

Columbus, 78 

Conveyances, 80 

History, 78 

Hospital de la Trmi- 
(lad, 80 

Hermitage of La Cruz, 

Manufactures, 78 

Palaces, 80 

Plaza Mayor, 79 

Plaza de la Verdura, 

S. Espiritu (Convent), 

S. Esteban ((Ik)nvent), 

Seminario Conciliar, 79 

Seminario de Carbajal, 

Torre de Clavel, 80 

University, 79 

Works on, 80 
Salinas de Medina-Cell, 

Salobrina, 111 
Salvatierra, 100 
Sama, 48 

Sanabria Lake, 44 
San Andres, 124 
San Bento, 190 
San Carlos de la Rapitft, 

San Esteban, 80 
San Felipe de Xativa, 117 
San Fernando, 69, 70 
San Juan (Majorca), 13G 
San Juan (Abadesas), 48 
San Juan del Puerto, 69. 

SanLucar, 69,70 
San Lucar la Mayor, 69 
San Marcial, 77, 138 
San Martin, 48 
San Martino, 186 
San Pedro da Torre, 190 
San Quirico, 48 
San Roqne, 62 
San Sebastian, 16, 41 
Santa Agueda, 16 
Santa Eulalia, 176,189 
Santa F^ 66 
Santaifii, 188 
Santa Maria, 186 
Santandei, 41 


Santarem, 88.176,176,179, 

Santiago de Compostela, 

42, 104 
Santillana, 41, 47 
San Vicente, 124 
Sasagossa, 29, 40, 87 
Sarrion, 90 
Season for travelling, 9 

Seoobbk, 90 

Carthusian Convent, 91 

Cathedral, 91 

Convent of S. Martin, 

Glorieta, 91 

History, 91 

Monasteries, 91 
Segovia, 34 

Alcazar, 34 

Sights, 84 
Seixal, 176, 188 
Selgua, 40 

Seo d'Urgel, 105, 182 
Serpa, 188 
Setuba1,186, 188 

Seville, 61 
Aduana (La), 67 
Alameda, 62 
Alcazar, 66 
Albondiga, 68 
Angel de Guarde, 63 
Archiepiscopal Palace, 

Atarazanas, 68 
Audiencia, 68 
Barbacana, 68 
Biblioteca Colombina, 

Books on, 69 
Botanical Gardens, 68 
Bull Fights, 62 
Caridad (La), 65 
Cartcja (La), 65 
Casa de Moneda, 68 
Casa de Pilatos, 65 
Casas Consistoriales, 

Cathedral, 62 
Cemetery, 68 
College of S. Telmo, 65 
Colombina, 67 
Consulado, 66 
Cuna (La), 65 
Dehesa (The), 69 
Delicias (La), 68 
Dueflas (Las), 64 
Excursions, 69 
Fabrica de Tabacos, 67 
Fairs, 68 
Feria (La), 68 
Gates, 68 
Qlralda CLaV 62 



Seyille— Continued. 

Houses, 68 

J^Iica, 69 

Lonja, 66 

Mac arena, 69 

Madre de Dios, 64 

Magdalena (La), 62 

Market Place, 68 

Matadero, 68 

Morillo, 24, 65, 66 

Museo, 66 

Omnium Sanctorum,64 

Painters, 66 

Pasion (La), 64 

Plaza de Toros, 67 

Private Galleries, 67 

Puertas, 68 

Quemadero, 67 

Roman Aqueduct, 63 

Routes, 65 

S. Alberto, 64 

S. Ana, 63 

8. Andres, 63 

S. Bernardo, 63 

S. Catalina, 63 

8. Clemente (Con- 
vent), 64 

8. Cruz, 63 

S . Estevan, 63 
. 8. Geronimo (Con- 
vent), 65 

8. In^z, 64 

8. Isidore (Monastery), 

8. Isidoro, 63 

8. Juan, 63 

8. Julian, 63 

8. Lucia, 63 

8. Lorenzo, 63 

8. Marcos, 63 

8. Maria, 63 

8. Marina. 69 

8. Martin, 63 

8. Miguel, 63 

8. Paula, 64 

8. Pedro, 64 

8. Sebastian (Ceme- 
ery), 68 

Santiago, 64 

8. Vicente, 64 

Sangre (La), 65 

Santa Semana, b2 

Squares, 57 

Suburbs, 68 

Torre del Oro, 68 

Trade, 62 

Triana, 68 

University, 68 

Venerables (Los), 64 

Works on, 68 
Sierra Cuenca, 35 
Sierra de Guadalupe, 32 
Sierra Morena, 60 
Slern Nevada^ Sd j 

Sierra Sagra, 58 
Siete Picos, 34 
Siguenza, 30 
Silla, 117 
Simancas, 19 
Soller, 138 
Solsona. 105 
Somport, 131 
Soria, 30, 109 
Soure, 179 
Spanisti Authors, 9 

Language, 8 

Painters, 9 

Vocabulary, 142 
Statistics — 

Spain, 2 

Portugal, 156 
Sta. Maria, 136 
Steamers — 

To Spain, 18 

To Portugal, 161 

Tadim, 190 
Tagus, 1, 166, 186 
Talavera, orTalaverade 

la Reyna, 36, 86 
Talavera la Real, 36 
Talavera la Vieja, 36 
Tamel, 190 
Tangier, 51 
Tarancon, 35 
Tarazona, 110 
Tardienta, 40 
Tarifa, 51 

Tarbaoona,40, 120(des.) 

Antiquities, 123 

Capture, 121 

Cathedral, 122 

Conveyances, 128 

Excursions, 123 

History, 120 

Manufactures, 121 

Promenade, 121 

Rambla, 121 

Torredelos Escipiones, 

Works on, 123 
Tarrasa, 39 
Taveiro, 179 
ravira. 187 
Telegraphs, 12 
Tembleque, 33 
Ter, 2 
Terras Novas, 189 

Teruel, 36,88 (des.) 
Aqueduct, 90 
Baths, 90 
Cathedral, 88 
Church of S. Pedro, 

Church of Santiago, 

Teruel — Continued, 

Ex-Convent of la 
Trinidad, 90 

History, 89 

Lombadera, 90 

Lovers of, 89 

Nunnery, 90 

Seminario Conciliar, 

Theatre, 90 
Tctuan, 47 
Thomar, 189 
Tibi Gorge, 116 
Tineo, 43 

Titus, Baths of, 123 
Toboso, 33 
Tocina, 37, 61 

Toledo, 31, 90 

Af urea, 32 

Alameda, 33 

Alcazar, 32 

Archbishop's Palace, 

Ayuntamiento, 38 

Azotea, 33 

Carmen (El), 33 

Cathedral, 32 

Conveyances, 33 

Covachuelas, 33 

Fabrica de Armas, 3;> 

Hospitals, 33 

Manufactures, 32 

Mirador, 33 

Nuncio (El), 33 

Puerta del Sol, 33 

Roman Circus, 33 

S. Clemente, 33 

S. Eugenio, 82 

S. Ildefonso, 82 

S. Juan de la Pene- 
tencia, 82 

S. Juan de los Reyes, 

S. Maria de la Blanca, 

S. Pedro Martir, 32 

S. Roman, 33 

S. Tom^, 32 

Santa Lucia, 32 

Santiago, 33 

Silos, 33 

Transit© (El), 32 

Works on, 33 

Zocodover, 32 
Tolosa, 16, 40 
Tordera, 126 
Torello, 48 
Tormes Baths, 78 
Tomeros, 46 
Torre da% "^ «x^«ft&^W^ 
T ott ft\o^otv«»^ ^ 

Torres Vedras, 174, 178 

Torre vieja, 116 

Torrijos, 82 

lortosa, 118, 119 

Totana, 74 

Spain, 14 
Portugal, 162 

Trafalgar, 72 

Trajacete, 36 

Trigueros, 111 

Trocadero, 70 

Trofa, 190 

Trujillo, 37 

Truxillanos, 37 

Tua 184 

Tudela, 2ft(des.),110, HI 

Tuy, 101, 190 

Uldecona, 118 
Ultimo Sospiro, 65 
Urdos, 131 
Urgel, 89, 105, 132 
Dtiel, 100 
Utrera, 69 

Vacia Madrid, 35 
Vadollano, 59 
Val d' Andorra, 105, 132 
Val d'Apse, 131 
Valdelamnsa, 37, 111 
Val d'Ossau, 131 
Val de Pellas, 83 
Valen^a do Minho. 101, 
184, 190 

Valencia, 34, 93, 118 
Aduana, 98 
Audlencia, 98 
Ayuntamiento, 97 
Baths, 93 
Capilla de los Desam- 

parados, 95 
Casa de Beneficencia, 

Casa de la Ciudad, 98 
Casa Consistorial, 98 
Casa de la Misericor- 

dia, 97 
Casa del Vestuario 98 
Casino, 98 
Cathedral, 94 
Cementerio, 99 
Church of S.Andres, 95 
„ S. Bartolom^, 

„ S. Catalina, 96 

'ft,. ^x*»sv ^ 



yalenciA— Continued. \ 
Church of S. Martin, 95 
„ S. Migael, 96 
., S. NicoWs, 95 
., S. Salvador, 

„ SantosJnanes, 

„ S. Tomas, 95 
Citadel, 99 

Colegio Andresiano, 97 
Colegrio de C. Christi, 
„ Imperial, 97 
„ de la Presenta- 

cidti, 97 
„ Real, 97 
Conservatorio, 98 
Convent of S. Do- 
mingo, 96 
Conveyances, 100 
Escuela Normal, 97 
Escnela Pia, 97 
Excursions, 100 
Gardens, 99 
Hippodrome, 99 
History, 98 
Hospital En-Boo, 97 
Hospital En-Conill, 97 
Hospital de Pobres, 

Estudiantes, 97 
Hospital de Pobres, 97 
Jardin Botanico, 98 

ValenclA— Ci>n<mtM(l. 
Liceo Valenciano, 98 
Library of Salva, 98 
Lonja del Aceite, 98 
Lonja de la Seda, 98 
Manuf actures, 94 
Mercador, 99 
Monasteries, 96 
Museo, 98 

Palacio Arzobispal, 98 
Paseos, 99 
Plaza de Toros, 99 
Presidio (El), 97 
Private Collections, 99 
Royal Garden, 99 
S. Migael delos Reyes 

Tapia, 99 
Temple (El), 97 
Theatre, 99 
Universidad, 98 
Works on, 100 

Valencia de Alcantara, 
86, 87, 175 

Valladolid, 18 

Valldemosa, 188 

Valverde, 111 

Vasco da Gama, 186 

Yaseqaillo, 61 

Velasquez, 28 

Velez Malaga, 55 

Velez Rubio, 74 

Venasque, 131 

Vendrell, 133 

Venta de Bafios, 18 

Venta de Gor, 74 


Ventas, 12 

Vianna, 185, 190 


Vidago, 191 

VieUa, 181 

Vigo, 41, 100 

VUafranca, 198 


VUIafranca, 88, 175 

Villalba, 84 

Villana de la Minas, 61 

Villa Nova deGaya, 181, 

Villa Nova de M. Pontes, 

Villa Nova dePortimao, 

VUla Real, 118, 187 
Villarejo, 85 
Villar Formosa, 82, 186 
Villarobleda, 84 
Villaseca, 120 
ViUatoya, 84 
Villaverde, 36 
VUlaviciosa, 48 
VUlena, 116 
Vimbodi, 40 
Vimieiro, 175 
Vinardz, 118 

Vincent (StA Cape, Ifl 
Viseu, 189 
Viso, 61, 69 
Vitoria, 16, 40 
Vizella, 191 
Vocabulary — 
Spanish, 140 

Wazan, 51 

Spanish, 13 

On Spain, 8 
On Portugal, 160 

Xativa, 117 
Xerez, 69 
Ximena, 52 

Yepes, 27, 90 

Yuste (Monastery), 84 

Zafra, 87, 69, 111 
Zalamea, 69, 111 
Zamora, 76 

Zaragoza, 29 ' 

Zujar, 61 
Zumarraga and Bath 

Zurgena, 75 







Berlina (in Spain) 




Camino de hierro 

Casa de huespedes ) 
Casa de pupilos ( 


Couptf (in Spain) 





Gaaptfcho (Andalniia) 


Gtonero Platereioo 





Mansana (SerWe) 


Cnstmn-house. | 

A pnblic promenade. 

Palace or castle. 





Chapel, chapel in a church. 


A railway. 


Choir of a church. 

Imperial (in France) 


Dies, God. 


A musqueteer, a foot 
soldier with a rifle. 

Railway station. 

Hotel, inn. 

(Dish made of bread, oil, 
< vin^ar, onions, salt, 
( red pepper, and water. 


(Fancifully ornamented 
( architecture. 

(Public Garden (lit. a 
( bower). 

[A large fertile plain, 
land which can be irri- 
gated; /tf^ a garden. 

Iglesia, i.e., church. 



Painting on linen 




Morning; to-morrow. 

f A large block of buUd- 
s ing§ iturroandlng a 
i court. 


Mesa redonda 


OUa (or OUa podrida) 

Oule (or Cirque) 




Port (Pyrenees) 



RI. Rs. 







Tren,j»/. trenes 





Table d*h8te. 


Nuestro Sdior, Our Lord. 

SA stew of manydifferent 
sorts of meat and vege- 

A local word, meamng 
''pot" (Latin, oUa), a 
large circle or semi- 
circle, walled round 
by precipices. 

(Inn of the Diligence, a 
•< house of entertain- 
( ment for travellers. 

Post data, postscript. 

A plain. 

A natural door or way, 
cut in the crest of the 

An inn, a tavern. 

Small gate of a town. 


Puerto, <.«., port. 

(Meat stewed in an 
( earthen pot. 

(Picture or painting 
< drawn on a board; 
( altar-piece. 

(Real, pi. reales, a piece 
( of money so called. 




A ridge of mountains or 
craggy rocks; Htm'- 
allp, a saw. 

(Stalls about the choir of 
( a church. 

Afternoon (p.m.). 

Railway train. 

An extensive pUis^. 




PLANS:- P^<»«- 

Baboblona 38 

Cadiz 70 

Madrid • 22 

Valencia 93 


Alcazar at Sbgoyia 82 

Church op St. Francisco, Oporto 181 

Gate op Fongarral, Madrid 24 

LuQUB 82 

Oporto 181 

Plaobnoia 82 

RoTAL Palace, Madrid 24 

St. Vblha Cathedral, Coimbra 181 

Segovia 82 

Street OF Alcala, Madrid 24 

Street op San Bernardo, Madrid 24 

Villa Nola 181 

*^,* See Bbadshaw'b Coktikbktal Guiob, issued Monthly, 
for the latest particulars respecting Passports, Hotels, Chaplains, 
Medical Men, Bankers, Population, Railways, Steamers, and other 
matters which are liable to change. 




pain (Spanish, Espn&a), called by the ancients 
tpania and Iberia, colloquially termed the 
aninsula," is bounded north by the Bay of 
cay and the Pyrenees, which separate it from 
nee, south by the Mediterranean and the 
nits of Gibraltar, east by the Mediterranean, 
. west by Portugal and the Atlantic. Its in- 
or surface forms a vast elevated table-land, 
ch in the plateau of Castile, has a mean 
ation of 2,300 feet. The plateau in question 
ipies one-half of the superficies, and is nearly 
rounded by mountains. The peninsula is 
rersed by five principal chains of MOTULtaillS, 
ed Sierrca. 1. The Pyrenees, extending from 
•e Crenx on the east, to the Bay of Biscay on 
west, and their westerly continuation, the 
arian and Cantabrian Mountains. 2. The chain 
eh separates the basins of the Douro and Tagus, 
Sierras Guadarrama, Gredos, and Gata. 8. The 
in tain 8 of Toledo, Sierra Mames, and Sierra 
idalupe, between the Tagus and the Guadiana. 
lie Sierra Morena, which separate the basins of 
Guadalquivir and Guadiana, and which are 
neeted to the west with the Sierra Monchique 
ortugal . 5. The Sierra Nevada, extending west- 
d to Cadiz, and eastward to Carthagena, below 
cb are the Alpujarras, near Almeria. 

he culminating point of the Pyrenees is the 
lest peak of the Maladetta, known as Pic Ndthou, 
ro feet above the level of the sea. Some of the 
irian and Cantabrian Mountains rise to the 
hi of 10,000 feet; the highest of the Sierra 
los is 10,500 feet; the mostelevatod point of the 
ra Nevada and of the whole Peninsula is 
itacen, 11,664 feet; the Picacho di Veleta n«ar 
11,887 feet. \ 

The principal Rivers of Spain are the Tagus, 
the Douro, the Ebro, the Minho, the Guadiana, the 
Guadalquivir, the Guadalaviar, the Ter, the Llo- 
bregat, and the Jucar. The Tagtu (Spanish, Tajo; 
Portuguese, Tejo) rises in the Sierra Albarracin, 
on the borders of Aragon and New Castile, flows 
west-south-west in Spain, through New Castile 
and Estremadura, and in Portugal between the 
provinces of Beira and Alemtejo, and through 
Estremadura, and enters the Atlantic near Lisbon ; 
total course, about 540 miles. The Douro (Spanish, 
Duero) rises in the province of Soria, flows generally 
west, through Leon to Miranda, then turns south- 
south-west, forming the boundary between Spain 
and Portugal, and flowing west through the letter 
kingdom, falls into the Atlantic near Oporto; total 
course, about 400 miles. The Ebro (Latin, Iberus) 
rises in the province of Santander, near Reynosa, 
flows generally south-east, past Frias, Miranda^de- 
Ebro, Logrofio, Calahorra, Tndela, Saragosta. 
Mequinenza, and Tortosa, and enters the Mediter- 
ranean; total length, 340 miles. The ifinAo (Latin, 
Minius) rises in Galicia, 30 miles north-east of 
Santiago, flows east, south, and west, latterly 
bounding Portugal on the north, and enters the 
Atlantic near Caminha, 52 miles north of the mouth 
of the Douro ; total course, 180 miles. The Ouadiana 
(Latin, Anas) rises in La Mancha, near Villaber- 
mosa, flows at first west, and for some distance 
under ground through New Castile and Estrema- 
dura, thence south through the Portuguese province 
Alemtejo, and between Aigarve and Andalusia, 
and enters the Mediterranean 13 milea oast 
of Tavira, west of Huelva; total course, 880 
miles. The Ouadalquivir (Latin, BaBtis) rises 
in the Sierra Cazorla^ 15 CQks3L«^ ^»afiv.-vsQ&i^- 

pa%t Xiidu\w, ^T^'swv ^'^^'^ ^bA. seov^-*. "^^ 



Mediterranean, 18 miles north of Cadiz; total 
length, 280 miles. The Ouadaiariar (or Turia) rises 
in the Sierra Albarracin, and after a south-east 
course of 100 miles, enters the Mediterranean 3 
miles east of Valencia. 

The Ter risei in the Pjrrenees, flows south and 
east, passes Gerona, and enters the Mediterranean 
by several mouths south of the Gulf of Rosas, after 
a course of 90 miles. The Llobregat (Latin, Rubri- 
catus) enters the Mediterranean 8 miles south of 
Barcelona, after a southern course of 80 miles. The 
/tiodr, or Xnear, rises in ths Sierra Albarracin, flows 
successiToly west, sontli, and east, and enters ths 
Mediterranean at Coliera, 28 miles south of Val- 
encia, after a course of about 900 miles. Few of 
these are navigable, and those only for small boats 
near their mouths. 

Spain has many good HaveiUI. The chief 
are Bilbao, Ferrol, Corunna, Cadiz, Cartagena, 
Malaga, Valencia, Barcelona, San Sebastian, Fuent- 
errabia, Paaajes, Santander, Gijon, Vigo, San 
Lucar, Algeciras, Tarragona, Mataro, and Rosas. 
The chief Cap0| are those of Finisterre on the 
north-west, and Trafalgar on the south-west, in 
the Atlantic; Gibraltar, Gata, Palos, andCreux,in 
the ]ftediterranean ; Pelias and Ortega], in the Bay 
of Biscay. 

The climate of Spain varies with elevation and 
position; it is warm on the coast; the table-lands 
are exposed to great heat in summer, and extreme 
oold in winter. The limit of the snow line in the 
Pyrenees, and Also. in. the Sierra Nevada, is about 
•,000 feet. Winter is the rainy season. The 
most noxious winds Are the Solano (the Sirocco of 
Italy), a hot .wipd from the south, and the Gallego, 
a oold ytiAd from the Mountains otGalicia. Frost 
is often jierere during the night in the winter. 
(See C7lmai«, page 4.) 

St3ltlAtlCt.7-Madoz, Diet. Oeog., estimates the 
population in"l84« at 15,489,168. In 1887 it 
amounted in round numbers to 17| millions, besides 
9| millions in the Colonies. The Universities, 
formerly twenty-four in nnmbei*; are now reduced 
to ten, with 655 professors and 16,870 students. 
Army, about 198,500 men. Nary, 198 steamers, 
4 being ironclads, with 600 guns. The Revenue 
Jj» 3691 was estimated at £89,292,095, the 
M^^peadUan at £Sf,46e,5»0. The public Debt 

amounted (1887) to £251,220,532. Two-thirds ( 
the Commerce is with France and Englan« 
About 5,600 miles of Railways and 10,y60 < 
Telegraphs are open. The religion is Roma 
Catholic, but other creeds are tolerated. Tl 
number of archbishoprics is. nine; of bishopric 
fifty-one; the Archbishop of Toledo being tt 
primate. The Legislature consists of a Corte 
composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputie 



% 3 


New Provinces. 1887. 

f Madrid 689,044 

Toledo 359,669 

Guadalajara 201,518 

VCnenca 249,469 

LaMancba. CiadadR^al 292,291 

Borgof 338,561 

Lofirroflo 181,466 

Santander 244,274 

Soria 151,6|0. 

Segovia 154^443 

-^^^ 193.093 

Palencia ^ 188,845 

Valladolid , 267148 

B jl^n 886,6tr 

JKZamora a7o,«W 

(Salamanca 314,471 

Asturias. Oviedo 696,430 

OS rCorufla «1S,881 

Ij^'^o 482,166 

5 ^'^•® 406,197 

VPontevedra 448,886 

I g (Badajoz 481,806 

•S-o (Caceres .'. 389,793 




Huelva , 

Cordova , 

Jaen , 

Granada.. ^...n 4M,ilt 

Almeria Mj^|§f 

»« ^Ajm 



. 4M.WI} 

, tn,tn 




ra (VHorla) »,nt 

Balearic Iil«iili(H«dto.)"- 91t,M> 
Cinuiei (Atlantic) »!,«» 


ap |()iiip*«« 

* ^Alan (VHorla)... 

golii and Ulrar mlnu of tlw Ilsn ol Um Boiuu> 

t Spain 1. riob In 

merEnty. M^pei, lim, and Iwd 


anlliooiir, and cobalt an cam 

m. Goad Inn ore 

1) round at Bilbao, lUr.hella, and Id Iha Balearic 

)f lado, Santandar, 

and Valencia. Book-a.1l 

nndance liom the 

mlnoi of AlmadcD, In tha SI 

rra Morena. The 

ohlef oropi we wheat, nulie. 

Itarley, rice, bemp. 

and flax. The prlnslpal wlnai 

ue tboae or Jerei 

TBila. and Valderetai. The 

olivH, ehennati, oianEca, hi 

tj. wa. and rilk. 

Uu lait, shieflr near Valencia. 


•ad citron groir In great abnndanca. The beat 

bnlldliiR timber frowi on the n 

ithcoatt; the cork 

me, the kanana oak, and 

.ha nunach, ylxld 

TklBtbIa pndncta. The boraea of 
MltbnMi Ike mdu and aaaea a 
■,lar hmty lad lit*. Cault an o 
JJit netot ihttp ailed the Merino 

Kamtfactgreg.— The minnfactn 
ol Spahi has greall; declined ; Ibega 
rtlll mannraclnres of laltpclrc, gonpo' 
fire-amn, tobacco, porcelain, and gl 

g«da are made cli 

In Spain,! 


Ihe capital, am amongst UiB woral In Europe; 
ffbeel cuiiaga are tittle nted. and moch or Iha 
IraMportlieflHtedbymeanaofmnlea. There are 
ssreral Oftnala, many on a yery magnificent ical*, 
linCmoitlynnflnlihedaiidoofitfornaTlgallan. Tho 


Ml g the right ba 

copper, mercDry, and lalt, with a amall amaunl ol 
silk and mannfactdred good!. ImpoiU: colonial 
goodi, dried fiih, and aalted proiialcoui bnusr, 
checn, riee, cMlon, and woollen goodti cntltry, 
glasH, and building Umber. 

BUTOSr, fte. 
"OiB pentninla now forming Ihe klDcdaual«ivit» 
nnd Fortngal waa fa«.ViJM>A.>t^i>»'g w i i^M^" 

ttvB ■aoiftBM, ".l*-« *■■ 


they divided it into three great proTinccs, viz.: 
TaraamensU in the east, north, and centre ; Bxtiea 
in the south ; and Lusitania in the west. About 
A.D. 414 the'Visigroths absorbed the Suevi and 
Vandals and ruled until conquered by the Arabs in 
711. The kingdom of Portugal was founded in 1096. 
During eight centuries the Christian princes were 
engaged in continual warfare with the Moham- 
medans. From this state the country was delivered 
under Ferdinand and Isabella, by the conquest of 
Oranada, in 1492. This was followed by the pillage 
and expulsion of the Jews, who had possessed 
themselves of most of the commercial riches of the 
country. In the same year Columbus discovered 
the new world, and Spain became mistress of the 
greater part of America as then known. Of these 
vast colonial possessions, Spain has now only the 
Islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and some nnaller 
islands in America; the Philippine and Marianne 
Islands, in the Pacific; the Canary Islands, in the 
Atlantic ; Fernando Po, and the Island of Annabon, 
in the Gulf of Guinea; and Ceuta, Gomera, and 
part of Melilla, places used for the transportation of 
convicts, in Barbary. From the sixteenth century, 
Spain was divided into large provinces, having 
mostly the title of kingdom, but by a royal decree 
of April, 1833, it was partitioned into forty-eight 
smaller provinces, each bearing the name of its 
capital, except Navarre and the three Basque pro- 
vinces, which remain unchanged, and possess pecu- 
liar privileges. In 1808, Napoleon I. attempted to 
place his brother on the throne, but, in 1813, the 
French were driven out of the peninsula mainly by 
the British under Wellington. Since then there 
have been repeated civil wars, and a republic. The 
government is now a constitutional representative 
monarchy; thereligion exclusively Roman Catholic. 
Education is very little diffused, the lower orders 
are nearly destitute of any means of instruction, 
except in the principal cities, where infant schools 
have been recently established. Before the sup- 
pression of the monastic orders, education was 
entirely in the hands of the Jesuits and other 
clergy. The children of the upper classes are 
chiefly educated In France, and other countries. 
For a considerable portion of the above succinct 
aceonnt of Spain we are indebted (with the author's 
/f^rmiMaSon) to the article on Spain contained in 
JCe/eit JToAaaton '$ (?a0^iefif\ 


The climate of Spain varies exceedingly In con- 
sequence of the great differences of olovation and 
diversity of position. The central table-land it 
exceedingly hot in summer, and cold in winter. 
The coasts of the Mediterranean arc yery hot in 
summer, and the atmosphere is very mild In winter. 
The winter is the season for rain. On the northen 
and western coasts the annual fall of rain is fh» 
25 to 86 inches, while on the central table-land it it 
only 10 inches. 

According to Laborde, the climat» of New 
Castile is more mild than that of the Old ; In the 
former, the winters are temperate, and the sum- 
mers very hot ; in the latter the plains are yery 
temperate, and the mountains, as well as the 
parts bordering on them, very cold; {here are 
even some parts of the low country where the 
cold is severely folt in winter. The skies of both 
.irc very fine, almost always clear, serene, and of 
a beautiful blue, hut those of New Castile are the 
most constantly so; in some parts of the old it it 
often cloudy. The climate of Valencia is very tempe- 
r.ate in winter, hot in summer, but refreshed by 
breezes f^om the sea ; dry in the interior, somewhat 
moist in the plain of Valencia, generally inconstant, 
and subject to winds. Catalonia is the mosttempe- 
rateprovinccof Spain; the winters, with someexcep- 
tlons, arc mild, and the heat of summer is not often 
extremely violent ; but the hills and valleys bor- 
dering upon the Pyrenees are very hot In sunmer, 
and cold in winter, at which time the summits are 
covered >vith ice and snow. Aragon is much drter 
th.nn Catalonia; its temperature it even rather 
cold than hot, yet its plains and valleys are some- 
times scorching, and a keen cold is felt upon its 
mountains. Navarre is a cold tract; its wintert 
are usually very severe. 

Biscay, comprehending the three districts of 
Vizsaya, Guipuzcoa,andAlava, is cold; the winters 
arc sharp, and the summers temperate; it is dry in 
the interior, and moist on the coasts, where the 
cold is less felt. The Asturias are mild near the 
sea, but cold further up the country, and npon the 
mountains; there are frequent and violent winds; 
the nir is moist, and it rains frequently. Hm 
climate of Galicia is very similar in all reipeets, 
and more rain falls here than in any other part. 
EstremaduTa Va a -vwy \mA m\^ ^tj ctorasXTf^^ 


tb6 heatft of lammer are veiy riolent, and the 
winters extremely mild. Its air is usually yery 
dry, and its skies are, perhaps, the finest and 
brii^htest in Spain. 

Loon raries in different tracts. The eastern 
part is similar to that of Old Castile, in the north 
and west it resembles that of Galicia, and in the 
south it is similar to that of Estremadnra. Anda- 
lusia is very hot on the coast, temperate in the 
interior, Tery cool at the foot of the mountains, 
and cold on their summits. It is a dry country, 
though watered by several rivers, and is exposed 
to several winds, especially near the sea. The east 
is the most prevalent near the Mediterranean ; and 
a wind sometimes blows there from the south- 
south-east, called the Solano^ which has a dangerous 
effect upon the human frame, and occasionally 
produces a state very similar to frenzy. The 
climate of Murcia is cool upon the mountains, 
temperate towards the sea, and at the foot of the 
mountains in the south, but very hot in the valley, 
which is watered by the Segura, and in which the 
city of Murcia stands, as well as in the Campo de 


Tlie geologist will do well to explore the Sierra 
Nevada, the Sierra Morcna, the Sierra de Guadnr- 
rama, and the Sierra de Almagrera, the highest 
ridge of the mountains between Daroca and Sara- 
gossa ; the mountains north of Madrid and north 
of Leon, and those surrounding Toledo, the vicinity 
of Yich in Catalonia, the Cape deGata in Granada, 
the Asturias, the mines of Cardona, Linares, Santa 
Cruz de Mudela and Almaden, both in La Mancha, 
and those in the neighbourhood of Carthagcna. 
The botanist will find mony rare and valuable 
plants, especially at Guadalupe, in Estrcmadura ; 
Moncayo, in Aragon; Pineda, Guadarrama, and 
Cuen9a, in New Castile; Carascoy, in Murcia; 
Pena-Coloso, Mongi, Aytona, and Mariola, in 
Valencia, and in the Pyrenees. 



936. Madrid said to have been built. 

289. Carthagcna built by Asdrubal, the Cartha- 
ginian General. 

216. TheSaguntines invite the Roman s to their aid. 
Near Lerida, Scipio defeated the Carthagl- 
alMtt Hanno. 


208. Carthagcna taken by Scipio. 

206. Spain conquered by the Romans. (Some say 

35 B.C.) 
200. Barcelona founded by the Carthaginians; 

supposed to have derived its name from 

Hamilcar Barcino. 

409. Roman power overturned by the Visigoths, 

Alani, Vandals, Sucvi. 
420. Theodoric I., a Gothic King, killed in battle 

against Attila. 
427. Genseric, the Vandal, passes over to Africa. 
467. Toledo taken by the Goths. 

711. Roderic, the las||pf the Gothic Kings, killed 

in battle, near Medina Sidonia. Seville 
taken by the Moors. 

712. The greatest part of Spain overrun by the 

714. Toledo taken by the Moors. 
714-55. Mohammedan Emirs reign at Cordova; 
succeeded by kings, down to 1238. 

718. Pelayo, Christian King of Asturias and 

Leon, drives back the Moors. 
739. Alphonso the Cathullc, King of Asturias and 

778. Pamplona taken from the Arabs by Charle- 
860. Made capital of Navarre. 
885, Garcia I., King of Navarre. 
970. Garcia II., King of Navarre and Castile. 
1027. Vermundo (Bermuda) III., last King of 

Asturias and Leon, killed. 
1035. Ramiro L, first King of Aragon. 
1033. Ferdinand the Great, first King of Leon and 

1070-90. The Cid fights against the Moors. 

1085. Toledo taken from the Moors and perma- 
nently annexed to the crown of Castile. 

1212. Total defeat of the last of the dynasty of 
the Almahides. 

1217, Ferdinand III., King of Leon and Castile. 

1238. Mohammedan Kingdom established in Gra- 
nada; lasting till 1492. 

1246. Jaen taken by Ferdinand IT., King of Castile. 

1247. Seville taken by Frederick!^. 


1252. Alfonso X., King of Leon and Castile, com- 
piles the Alphonsine Tables (astronomi- 

1276. Peter III., King of Aragon, conquers Sicily. 

1300. Bilbao founded. 

1850. Pedro the Cruel deposed, and reinstated by 
his relation, Edward the Black Prince. 

1462. Gibraltar ceded to Spain by the Moors. 

1479. Ferdinand II., of Aragon, and his wife 
Isabella, of Castile, unite the kingdoms 
into one. 

1491. Canary Islands conquered by the Spaniards. 

1492. Moors finally expelled from Spain by Ferdi- 

nand and Isabella. Expulsion of the Jews. 

Columbus sails from Palos, and discovers 

the New World. 
1504. The kingdom founded by union of the two 

crowns of Castile and Aragon. 
1509. Jamaica settled by the Spaniards. 
1512. Ferdinand V., King of Spain. 
1516. Charles I., King of Spain, becomes 

Charles Y., Emperor of Germany, 1519; 

rebigns 1556, and dies, 1558. 
1519. Magalhaens embarked at San Lucar on the 

first circumnavigation of the world, 

August 10th. 

1521. Mexico first conquered by Spain. 

1522. The Victory, the only ship surviving from 

Magalhaens' expedition, returned Septem- 
ber 8th. 

1536. Society of Jesuits established by Ignatius 

1656. Philip II., King of Spain, married Queen 
Mary of England. 

1580. Portugal taken by the Spaniards. 

1581. Philip II. landed a force in Ireland to assist 

the Catholics, which was driven o£f. 
1586. Vigo attacked by Drake. 

1588. Spanish Armada set sail from Corunna, May 

29th. The Spanish fleet sail up the English 
Channel, July 20th, and anchor near Calais, 
July 27th. Part of the Armada taken or 
destroyed, July 28th and 29th. Remains 
of the Armada return to Spain, September. 

1589. Vigo attacked by Drake. 

1591. Gipsies banished from Spain and other parts 

of Europe. 
UPS. jpjt/jip III., king. 
J<f^/. J'Jijj/piv., king. 

1640. Portugal revolted from Spain, and tli« Dnk« 
of Braganza sat on the throno, under 
Philip IV. of Spain and III. of Portugal. 

1665. Charles II. King. Jamaica taken from the 
Spaniards by Admiral Penn, May 7th. 

1700. Philip v., Duke of An jou, king. 

1702-13. War of Succession. 

1704. Gibraltar taken by Sir George Rooke, July 
20th, and made a free port. 

1706. Ciudad Bodrigo taken by the Portuguese. 

1707. Lerida stormed by the French during tha 

war of Succession. 

1708. Minorca taken by the English. 
1714. Barcelona taken by the French. 
1719. San Sebastian taken by the French. 

Vigo attacked by Lord Cobham. 
1727. Gibraltar besieged by the Spaiiiards, Fab*. 

ruary 27th. 
1789. Portobello, in South America, taken from the. 

Spaniards by Admiral Vernon, NoTember 

1746. Ferdinand VI., king. 
1756. Minorca taken by the French. 
1759. Charles III., king. 
1763. Minorca restored to Great Britain. 

1766. Gibraltar nearly destroyed by a storin, Feb- 

ruary 3rd. 

1767. Jesuits expelled from Spain. 

1779. Gibraltar besieged by the Spaniwrds to 

February, 1783. 
1782. Minorca surrendered to Spain, February 5th. 
1788. Charles IV., king; abdicated, 1808. 
1794. San Sebastian taken by the French. 
1802. Minorca annexed to Spain at Treaty of 


1805. Battle of Trafalgar, under Lord Nelson, 

October 2l8t. 

1806. Buenos Ayres taken from the Spaniards by 

Sir Home Popham, June 21st. Re-takoi 
after an attack of three days, August 12th. 

1807. British repulsed off Buenos Ayres uudcr 

Whitlock, July 6th. 

1808. Ferdinand VII., king, forced by Napoleon to 

resign to Joseph Bonaparte, who after* 
wards abdicates. Santander, Pamplona, 
San Sebastian, and Barcelona taken by the 
French. Ciudad Rodrigo taken by the 
French. Insurrection at Madrid, May 3a4. 
CapV\.u\aX\oTv ol 'B^XVcw., ^\ak» 'iWflDu '^^fc 


French gained a complete riotory oyer 
the Spaniards at Tudela, November 28rd. 
The French lintered Madrid, December Ist. 

1809. Gerona blockaded by the French, under 

Angereau, who loit 15,000 men there in 
7 months. French defeated near Coninna, 
by Sir John Moore, January 16th. 

1810. Defeat of the French under Mass^na, at 

Bnsaco, by the English rnider Wellington. 
Seville and Lerida taken by the French. 

1812. Cindad Rodrigo taken by the Duke of Wel- 
lington. Badajoz taken by storm. Wel- 
lington defeats the French tinder Marmont 
and Clusel, July 22nd. 

1818. The French surrender Pamplona to the Duke 

of Wellington. The French driven out of 
Spain by Wellington. Inquisition abol- 
ished in Spain. San Sebastian stormed 
and taken by the British, August 81st. 

1814. Ferdinand Yll. restored. Inquisition re- 
established in Spain. 

1816. Declaration of Independence of Buenos 
Ayres, July 19th. 

1819. Plot for restoring the Constitution discovered. 

1820. Revolution in Spain by Quiroga and Ri^o, 

January 1st. Inquisition suppressed in 

1821. Barcelona desolated by the yellow fever. 

1822. Massacre at Madrid, July 2nd. 

1828. French army of observation assembled on 

frontiers, and, after many pretmces, entered 
the country, April 7th. They reached 
Madrid, and Due d'Angoulime appointed a 
council of regfflicy, &c. The French took 
Seville. Mina, the Spanish guerilla chief, 
arrived at Plymouth to seek a refuge in 
England, November aoth. 
182t. Conspiracy against the Governor of Mexico 
discovered, January Ist. 

1829. Expulsion of the Spaniards from Mexico, 

March 8th. 

Earthquake in the province of Muroia, when 
four towns and several villages were en- 
tirely destroyed, and about 6,000 inhabit- 
ants, March 24th. 

J^jMBish expedition against Mexico sailed 
from the Savannah, July 6th. 
J#9A tlsUUL»wMboUMhHi, 

1883. Ferdinand died {• sueeeeded by his daughter, 
Isabella II. ■■ 

1885. Zm^a^aoarrefEui killed at Bilbao,. June 10th. 

1848. Barcelona bombarded by Espartero. 

1845. Zurbano, the Christino general, shot at Lo- 
grofio, January 20th. 

1848. First railway in Spain (from Barcelona to 
Mataro) opened. 

1859-60. War with Morocco. 

1868. Isabella driven from the throne. 

1870. Accession of K. Amadeo, after an interreg- 
num of two years. Assassination of Prim. 

1878. Abdication of King Amadeo, 12th February, 
and a Republic proclaimed. First sitting 
of the new Federal Cortes, 1st June. 
Don Carlos entered Spain, 15th July. 

1878-4. The Intransigentes riseagainst the govern- 
ment, and get possession of Cartagena; 
re-taken January, 1874, when Contrwas 
and other rebel leaders escape to Oran. 
Marshal Serrano is proclaimed Chief of the 
Executive power, in March. The Carlists 
hold their ground in the Basque Provineei. 

1874. Alfonso XII., son of Isabella, bom 28th Nov., 
1857, is proclaimed king, 81st Dec. 

1876. Don Carlos leaves Spain for England, 2Tth 

February; termination of the civil war. 
Meeting of the Cortes and Constitution of 
30th June proclaimed. 

1877. The Basque provinces are placed on tho 

same footing as the rest of the kingdom. 

1878 Marriage of King Alfonso to his Cousin 
Mercedes, daughter of the Duke of Mont- 
pensier, 23rd January; bom 1860. 

1885 Death of Alfonao, Nov. 25fh. Alfonso XIIL, 
his posthumous child, bom May 17th, 1888, 
is now king, Queen Maria Christina acting 
as Regent until 1909. 



*Carpet bag or small valise, with handle at the 
back; *three or four straps for cloaks, books, Ac, 
umbrella, silk or alpaca; ^powerful double opwa- 
glass ; *light leather ponch to sling over shouldw, 
for hand-book, money, Ac, Ac ; ^parchment labels ; 
lucifers in tin box, or, if a smoker^ bQi;.m\&!b. ss««» 
compartmenlv^'^*^ ^'^'* "V^^^Aw ty ^SXNKt. \m^ 


OonilBrt.— On enfft 

i •polyglot wflshiiip book 1 
^le-9Dlcd ihoM; ^IppCTB^lr 


S JorkCl, wtlh SI 

■ooki^Blxollan; three lUk pocket ligndksrchl 
*]LBht wntcrprEiof knfipimck; a utrong, ^ood ai 
nmbri:llii, wilh Iron iplkci iKli-biick fivii-i 
apjniili knife 1 flaak irilh drinking cap; g 

hi Spain, In nnterlng Portugal bj the prjnclpn 
porta, B pAuport Ik required, bat not for [be In 

bolter to get a vlufiom the SpAnlBb : 


Hapi and CbartB ot Spain.— Spain and For- 

tn^l, by J. ArroHBiDlth (tlie London Atlu), lg», 
~ 1^ Eapoeiic cl Portneal. with notlca pur U 
irtf.ln the AtlAi UnlvcTEcl, par A, H. Dutonr, 
. IS, O^graphle Hodemf, pi. 1 C, ISSft, fol.; a nc* 
illtarymapof Spain And Portugal, CDmplled by 
Arrair«allh,twlvo>hects, London, I S4!i ( 
d Foitognl, rcdoecd From tlic large map In 
eeti,inib!l>hfdbyJ.Wyld,London.lSMi Chart 
the Coasts of Sinin and Portugal, from Ciipa 
fiai. to lb« Straits of Glbra!Ur,pab]lshedbf J. 
ItaTay,Laiidon.iaS4; Chart of Hie Coait of Spain, 
Capo de OaU 10 Cape St. Antonio, with the 
f Ivlio, by D, V. Tofldo [Admiralty Ch«rtl 
in,18lSi aChartof the ConMirf^Porlpgal, 

Mogadoro [Admiralty Chart], 181?. Purduue 
also Nncvo y Magnfllto Mapa dc 
- . (Railway Map) de E.pall. 
Madrid, at the office of the Oncets 
deHlerro; or at tho llbrarlei. 

TorlU on Bpaln.- The best general hlstoria 
of Spain are— "La Cronlea General de Bspafla," 
Kaino™, IMl, to!.! "La CronicB do EnpaBa," hj 
Plorian At Ooanipo! Akniil, 15IS. foU with tho 
continnatlon of Amhroslo Morales {Lb, MJ4)j 
Mariana, "HistoriaOoneralde BspiBa.-' traniUtod 
iSpanVAi; 1,\i>s\n«,<AlUanvataUBbedBt TaleB- 

)B Camlnoi 


[iatorUll" "SynopslB Ulitoclu Chmnoloelca de tile), VrlBrl 

L»p.llfcll»drid,177S-81,llToliiiii»,«o; Or 

■ni, "CnnpaiiiUoCroiiologicii," Ac-,Hidrid,1791i, diet Fe^oo, Anthonr 

I, "Uiiloil* CHtIca de 
Eipalu 7 da Is CBlinri Eipiflsla, Miubid, 1T8S- 
ISOtMOnilnmei. Ito! AKsrsoti, "Compendlo d« 
■■ HbtorU dE EipiBi" (P«rl', MO). Hud Ihe con- 
tiuutlon of tfirluiA, bjr Sabaa (Uodrid, lSlT-11) 

174S, S 

Dopplng, P 

la 4tO! 

a. Tlcknoi 


;o., London. 184*; ' 

1821; Lwliharl'l " 

IngslnSpatn;" C. K 
Sierra McT.da;- Ai 
in Spain;" H.J. Ron 
Black CooiHry," 2 

gputlah Author*. —Tlie rHnclp 
aolhors arc CnWiron, Ccrmntcj, Lop 
Qoerodo, Mendoia, Matao Alcmiiii, Boi 
tin, Feman Perez de Otlio. Fray Lu 
Joan da Hana, Ghrlstorat de Cagtltlejc 
Marmlt^ Mtriiuit. Jatn Manuel (Principe de C««- 


li" and Chrigtopher AcoHa. Among ni 
irritara, poeti. dramatlati, and aatlrlHtB are Caldd- 
ron, UarUnei de la Rosa. Piinclpc, Ou11«t», 
Helendei Valdei, Breton de In Herrrroa, Zorrllla, 
Larrn, Eapronceda. Hcaonero, Oarda. i^nlroffa, 

' Hiitorla de Espalla." 
TDlnmet. In 4 to. 1:00, 
d'Herm\lly, Par. 


Dr. Lirdner'i "Cabinet Cyclopiidia." Other a 

TDiirthrDugliSpnln."lSM; AntUlon, "Elem 
de la amgrtOA de EipalU y Ponngal :" 
"DeKtlptlTC Ttayeli In Spain;- Qnln, "Vii 
S|>nln."lS3S-93; HlBano, "DleelonarioGeograftco 
Eiladlillca de EtpaBa j ForlnEal;" Laborde, 

(Mnriay, London); Halte Bnin, "Pr«cl> <te la 
aifeflrraphle Unlrenella; Foreign (Jonrterly Ra- 
Tlcw, Not. Ix and i>. See alio " Swlnbnmc-i 
Tra>el« In Spain," London, i"». 'to: "Tovm>- 
eiid'iJonmoythroughSpaln,"S«olaiBTO, London 

ilcro, P. Athanaalo, H. Glntane, J. Jnanei, 
Kbicon, Dial de Frado, F.Oallegoa, Pedro 
na, Gaipar Becerra, Lulg de Carbajat, Palilo 
et, Ulgnel Bnrrosa, Barlolonid Oonuici, 

HA ( S W S ngU X 

London, IMS, in which wUibofoiindacatalognODl 
work! executed by and ascribed id Veiaiqnei and 
Ilurillo, and vheictbey are to lie found. See alu 
"Handbook of Painting. (Vom the German of 
Kiigler," t roll. Bto.; ~Tbe French and Bpaiiisb 
Scliooii," by Sir Edmnnd Head; and Hlii K. 
Thompion'i "ITandbeok to the Plcturo anilerlei 
of Europe." 


In Uarcbthc cold nnd foiri and irlntry dayidlg- 

\ and Btrpt™**T » 


muDsnAw's bpaik akd Portugal. 

IraTelllng in Spain, on account of the scorchinur 
heat, son-glare, and inflbcating dust. The innuner 
heats subside in October ; and Norember is also a 
pleasant month. 8eo article, *' Climate." 

DlstanoeB.— Madrid is al)0tit 680 mUes sonth- 
sonth-west of Paris, and S65 north-east of Lisbon. 
The distance from Madrid to Alicante is 283 miles; 
Bordeaux to Paris, S68 miles ; Bordeaux to London, 
by Folkestone, 644 miles ; Bordeaux to Bayonne, 
123 miles; Bayonne to Inin, 22 miles, to San 
Sebastian, 84 miles; IruntoSan Sebastian, 12 wiles; 
Seville is 212 miles south-south-west of Madrid, 
and 60 miles f^om Cadiz. 

Money. — since 1870, the monetary system is as 
follows: — 100 centimes =1 peseta =1 franc nearly. 

Gold Coins.— 100, 60, 26, 20, 10, and 5 pesetas. 

SiLTsm Coins.— 1, 2, 5 pesetas, and 20 and U 

Bronzb Coins.— 1, 2, 5, 10 centimos. 100 pesetas 
= £4 Os. lOd.; 10 pesetas = 7s. lid.; and the other 
coins in proportion. A 26 peseta gold piece is 
nearly equal to a sovereign. 

In Gibraltar the peseta is current at an official 
sterling rate, which is revised quarterly. See p. 61 . 

Money was formerly reckoned in rea1s= 2|d., and 
dollars or duros = 20 reals. A peseta = 4 reals; 
escndo = 10 reals; 20 reals = 60d. at the current 
exchange ; sometimes id. to id. higher. 6 dollars = 
£1 Os. lOd. = 100 reals. A gold onza (ounce) = 16 
dollars = 820 reals. Besides bronze centimos of a 
peseta, there are 2i and 6 cent, pieces of an escudo = 
i and I real respectively. In Catalonia (Barce- 
lona, Ac.) these hundredths of a peseta arc not 
recognised; but the bronze coins are called 
cuartos ; and 8} cuartos = 1 real, or 34 cuartos = 
1 peseta. Much bad money is (Current, especially 
gold. Silver coins with holes in them should not 
be taken. Railway buffets pass off a good deal. 
When receiving change at diligence offices, rail- 
ways, hotels, or from boatmen, examine your coin. 
Provide yourself with small change before starting 
on a journey. As the greatest abuses prevail in 
resi)ect of money, the traveller will do well on 
leaving his country to provide himself with gold 
coins, sovereigns and 20 franc pieces. Paper money 
/r not enaJJjr changed. 

Circular Notes form a safe and eonveiilMit kto4 
of 1 ettors of credit. The arraagenienta for easldiff 
them in the various oonntriea thrangh whlck tki 
traveller may have to pasa are very tliBpla aad 
efficient, almost precluding the poaslbillty of fiui 
As a letter of indication is given with tham, towMi 
would do well to keep the one in their pook«t-book| 
and the other in their baggage. Theoo letters an 
issued by most of the London banks. The ClieqM 
Bank will be found convenient for the pforposi. 
They may be had also of Mesnrs. Gates and flss, 
84, King William Street, E.G. 

Perhaps the simplest plan after all Is to pay 
your money into Coutts*, who have agents in all 
the principal towns of Europe. No oharge ismadt 
except for postage. 

Weights and Measnres.— The standard ol 
length was formerly the foot, which was divided 
Into 12 pulgadas (inches), and each of these taite 
12 lincas (lines). The fie real, however. Is vsry 
little used, many provinces having their owe 
peculiar foot. ' The foot of Catalonia measures 11 
inches and fths of a lino of the royal foot; that of 
Valencia 11 inches and 2^ lines; that of Castile II 
inches and 4 lines. 

12 pulgadas = 1 pie ss foot. 

1| pic = 1 codo =s enblt. 

2 codos or 3 pies.. = 1 vara s= yard. 

N.B.— The metro (metro) for measure, and tbs 
gramme (gramo) for weight, are now the 
officially recognised standards. 

The English foot is = 18 Spanish inches. The 
new Spanish legua is = about 8f Eng'Iish mllci. 
All distances are officially reckoned, in kilometros. 

Hotels.— There are three sorts of accommoda- 
tion for travellers ; 1, the Fonda and Parador; Si 
the Posada; 3, the Yenta. The two former are 
hotels where both board and lodging may be had. 
The Parador is properly the hotel of the Diligence 
(Parador do Ins Diligencias). The Posada If 
strictly a house where only lodging is to be bad, 
but it is very frequently merely another name for 
Fonda. The Venta is a country inn where only 
lodging is provided, but where cookinsr materiali 
are provided at a small charge to traTellan 
bringing their own provisions. The expense ol 
board and lodging at the hotels averages from fit. 
to 10». per day; 80 reals per day is a Tsry 
1 mou charge. T\xfe^tVftR\v«^''^^^^A^».' 



•ither Italian or French waiters, and tlie landlords 
are frequently French. Of late years there has 
been a great improvement in every respect in the 
Spanish hotels. Cleanliness and comfort hare 
increased to a remarkable degree; the cookery is 
now qnite up to date, and the ordinary wines served 
at dinner good. Travellers will do well in Spain not 
to order separate dinners or lunches, but partake of 
Che usual public meals; the first from 10 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and dinner at half-past six, or there- 
abouts. Prices vary according to floor, and if you 
have a private sitting-room, for 158. a head per 
day yon can live well. Do not be impatient with 
servants^ Spaniards take things easy. Be very 
civil, and you will be repaid by being well served. 
Servants are not usually charged In the bill, and 
they expect something. Spain is theland of " tips,'* 
and you will, perforce, have to submit to small ex- 
tortions of this kind. The amount given in cafds, 
beerhouses (ccrvccerias), at the barbers, or to 
cabmen (per course), is 10 centimos; in a res- 
taurant, or when a cab is taken by the hour, 30 
centimes; and to guardians of public buildings, 
porters, A;c., 60 centimos. Few hotels send omni- 
buses to the station. Two good dishes of Spain 
are gallo con arros (fowl and rice), and puchero, a 
stew. Spaniards are fond of chocolate and sweet- 

Postal Information.— ToEngland, vM France, 
if prepaid (otherwise double) the postage is about 
2 1 d . under i ounce. For registered letters, 4d. extra. 
From any part of Spain, to any other part, 10c. per 
I ounoe (15 gramos). From one part to another of 
the same town, 5c. A single letter is called una 
carta sendUa. A post card (lOc.) is called tatyeta 
postal. Newspapers under 4 ounces are charged 
10c. Time of transit between London and Madrid 
about two days. Mail made up in London morning 
and evening, Sundays excepted. Mail due In 
London dally. The charge for pamphlets and 
papers, open at the end, is 5c. for 60gr. in Spain ; 
to other countries, 10c. The postman is called 
4i eariero ; postage stamps are called sellot. To 
post your letters at the oflSce of the hotel fs the 
safest plan. The parcel post is now in operation 
Wtweoi Spain and England. 

Electric Telegraph. — The charge for te«\ 
words in Spaitif including addresses, is 4 reals; 

for twenty words to France, 16 reals ; twenty 
words to London, 84 reals. Every wofd is charged 
for. Special stamps for telegrams are sold at the 
post-offices, tobacconists, &c. 

Steamtrs between London and Spanlili 

Ports.— London to Cadlx, Gibraltar, and Malaga, 
by Hall's Line, weekly; London to San Sebastian, 
Bilbao, Santander, Ac., about every three weeks; 
Marseilles to Barcelona, thriee weekly; Peninsular 
and Oriental Company's Steamers from Tjondon 
(Tilbury) to Qlbraltar, weekly, time occupied, 
about five days. London to Cartagena, Alicante, 
Valencia, and Barcelona, once in three weeks. 
Also Pacific Steam Navigation Oo.'s Steamers 
from Liverpool to Cornnna, Vigo, and Lisbon. 
(See Bradshatff'i Ckmiintntai Ouide.) 

Spanish Steamers are uncertain. A line of these 
(Clyde-buUt) runs from Liverpool ; Agents, Bahr, 
Behrend, and Co. Do not depend on Information 
offered by servants of the hotel, commissioners, • 
and such like. The best plan will be this, either 
go straight to the Company's office, or go to your 
Consul, who will give you the most reliable In- 
formation. Spanish steamers are often far from 
comfortable or clean, but are Improving. French, 
English, and Italian boats are very good, and to 
be relied upon, and the captains are civil and 
obliging as a rule. 

Railway Trains.— See Bradshaw'i OonHnmtal 
Railwtif CMde for the month, and the local 
Guide. Buy your ticket at the station, • or 
your courier will get them a few hours before. 
Should you want a Conptf, engage it and pay the 
full fare, if travelling without a eomrier, otherwise, 
leave It all in his hands. Bemember Spaniards 
smoke, and are very independent in their ways. 
Give up your seat with good hxunonr if a Spanish 
lady asks yon^ Rtfreehments are to b« had, but 
they are dear and indiffBrent. 

The Peninsula is now fairly well supplied with 
railway aoeommodation. The trains are not so 
fast as In most other countries, and a great deal of 
travelling is done by night, which seems to suit 
the people, who, especially the third dass passen- 
gers, chatter incessantly, and usually indulge in 
tobacco and frequent t^lTwfiBSBsascft^ X«^ '''**^ 
\ exceed \ii<ik\»\Bi^^Vv3a<«Sc^» '^'^r^S^l!!!^^^ 
\ y^vf \% taSV«Q. CawsMM>«* U^^t^i 



the railway station, Etiaeion; the train, 7Vm, 
plural, Trene». The shareholders of many oi the 
Spanish railways are for the greater part French- 

Direct Serrloe from Paris to Madrid.— 

A daily express leares Paris (Orleans) for Madrid 
about 10 30 p.m. Total distance, about 880 miles; 
the total time about 32^ hours. Express leaves 
Madrid at 8 p.m. Sud-Etcpreu^ (Nord), Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Saturdays, leares at 6 44 p.m., 
38 hours to Madrid, 45 hours to Lisbon. The 
days of return trains from Lisbon and Madrid are 
liable to change. For Times and Fares, see 
Bradihaur* Continentat Guide. 

Buffets on the road at Irun, Miranda de Ebro, 
Burgos, Valladolid, Arila, and Medina del Campo. 
In France, at Bordeaux, Ac. 

Circular tickets can be obtained for routes from 
Paris to Bordeaux and through Spain, returning, 
if desired, by Lyons, or vice versa. The route 
must bo strictly adhered to. The trains leare by 
the station at Quai d'Austerlitz, half an hour*s 
ride from your hotel. Luggage can bo registered 
to Madrid. On arriving at the frontier "Irun,'* 
have your luggage examined at the Customs; 
should you fail, it will be detained. Spanish 
custom-houTC officers are very officious and par- 
ticular. If you have a courier he will save you 
the t rouble. Leaving Madrid for Paris luggage is 
examined at Hcndaye by the French Customs. 

ConTOSrancOS. — ^Diligences run through most 
of the frequented routes; they are conducted much 
in the same way as those in France. Avoid the 
*'Rotonda," the company is mixed. The SiUas 
Gorreos only take two or three passengers, and 
travel at the rate of about 6 miles an hour. Very 
little luggage should be taken in travelling in 
Spain, as excess fares are very high, and luggage 
is not always weighed fairly. A cheaper sort of 
conveyance, called coehe* de eoHercu^ are to be had. 
llicre are also others still cheaper, called gctferas^ 
ealeuUy and iartancu. The fares by Diligence and 
Correo are rather high. Tlie conductor is called 
EI Mayoral. It is usual to give him a fee propor- 
tioned to the length of the journey. 

The best way of seeing the mountainous districts 

^3e/ SjKtin is on horseback. Pedestrian excursions 

Mfv semrce/jr kaawn, mnd are only to he under- 

taken in the Pyrenees and their vicinity. iVtf 
Spaniard waits. There is a current saying that 
one actually attempted such an excursion, and, 
having met with a fall, exclaimed ** Estoescaminar 
per la tierrat '' (This comes of travelling on the 

Bxpenaee and General Information.— The 

traveller in Spain will find on the whole every- 
thing tolerably dear; railroad fares, diligences 
and boats, cabs, carriages, Ac. Parties visiting 
Spain unless accompanied by an experienced 
courier, will find things trying to the temper; and 
nothing but good humour and politeness will avail. 
Always bargain in the shops, but do it with 
civility. At all the museums, churches, or public 
buildings, the servants always expect a fee, and 
will feel offended if copper is handed; from 50c 
to I peseta is the proper thing. 


Everything is admitted duty free exc^t — «. d. 

Cigars, per lb 8 f 

Eau do Cologne in bottles (per gallon) 17 8 

Liqueurs* (per gallon) 14 8 

Perfumery in which there is spirits* (per 

gallon) 17 S 

Spirits,* (per proof gallon) 10 10 

Tobacco (per lb.) 4 8 

Wine, in bottle (per gallon) Is. to 9 8 

Bpanisli Customs Dutiei. 

Fire-arms, horses, carriages, shoes (not .used), 
waterproof and other cloaks, ladies* dresses, 
lace, Ac, are subject to duty. Tobacco and gun- 
powder prohibited. A few cigars allowed. For 
sporting guns, a permit should be obtained frcwi 
the Spanish consul before starting. 

French Castoms Duties. 

The following Spanish articles introduced into 
France pay duty:— Horses, fire and other arms, 
lace, shawls, silk-stuffs, jewellery. Saddles and 
carriages are prohibited. For a travelling car- 
riage, a '* declaration'' is required. Gloves, 3 doa. 
^llowed free. Tobacco, only 1 doz. cigars allowed 

* TJnAw YkaU-«r\&ti\ vSCLof^raA. tot v^^vvXa <Qa«. 




VenUi da Btinos.., 





1. By Paris, Bordeaux, Bayonne, Irun, San 
Sebastian, Tolosa, Beasain, Vitoria, Miranda, 
Burgos, Valladolid, Avila, Escorial (Escurial). 
See Route 1, page 15. 

2. By Paris, Bordeaux, Bayonne, Pamplona 
(PampelnnaX Tudela, Alagon,8aragoB8a,CaIatayud, 
Alhama, Guadalajara, and Alcaic. See Route 2, 
page 28. 

8. By Paris, Perpignan, Gerona, Barcelona, and 

4. By Paris, Marseilles, and Barcelona; or Mar- 
seilles and Valencia ; or Marseilles and AUctnte. 

•. By Cadis (Stefuaaer from London or liTdrpool), 
Serille, Cordova, Espelny and Alcasar. This is 
probably on the whole the cheapeat. 

6. By Santander (Steamer from London), 
Reiuoea, Pal^ieia, and Valladolid. 

7. By Corunna (Steamer from LiverpoolX Lugo, 
Leon, and Valladolid. 

8. By Vigo, (Steamer from Liverpool), Orente, 
Leon, and Valladolid. 

9. By Lisbon (Steamer from Southampton), 
Valencia de AlclCatara, and Talavera de la Ralna. 


Route A. 

Route B. 

BT BUB008. 



London to Alsasoa, 


as in Route A 











Venta de Ballos 





•Valladolid may also be reached direct from 
London as follows: — Steam from London to San- 
tander, and thence by rail, in about 8 hours, 
vid Reinosa, Alar del Rey, Palencia, and Venta 
de Ballos. The cost of Route A is about the 
same as Route 0. 

Route C— London to Paris, Lyons, and Marseil- 
les; thence by steamer to Barcelona; thence to 
Saragossa and Madrid, by rail. Approximate 
fares :— First class, about £10 ; second class, 
about £7. Approximate time, about 4 days. 

Instead of stopping at Barcelona, the trardler 
can continue by steamer to Valencia or to Ali- 
cante, and reach Madrid by rail, vid Almansa. 

Route D.— London to Bordeaux, Toulouse, Nar- 
bonne, and Perpignan ; thence by rail to Gherona 
and Barcelona. 


Marseilles (or Paris and Toulouse) to BafceloMi 
Lerida, Saragossa, Pamplona, Vitoria, BUbag^ 
Santander, San Sebastian, Irun, and Bayonne. 


London to Vigo, Ponteredra, Santiago, Comima, 
Lugo, Ovledo, Gijon, SanUnder, Reiaesa, Palenela, 
Burgos, Vitoria, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Pamplona, 
Saragossa, Lerida, Barcelona, Gerona, and FujAg- 


Bayonne to Irun, Saragossa, Lerida, Barcelona, 
Tarragona, Valencia, Cuenca (or Almansa), Alba- 
oete), Aranjues, Madrid, Escurial (Escorial), 
Madrid, Toledo, Cindad Real, Granada, Malaga, 
Gibraltar, Ronda, Ecija, Cordova, Seville, Jeres, 
Cadiz, London. 


Paris to Bayonne, Irun, San Sebastian, Bilbao, 
Santander, Gijon, Corunna, Vigo, Cadis, Gibraltar, 
Malaga, Almeria, Cartagena, Alicante, Valencia, 
Barcelona, and Marseilles. For details see the 
body of the work, in which this route is varied 
and extended. 


London to Gibraltar by steamer, Ronda, Malaga, 
Granada, Jaen, Bailen, Andnjar, Cordova, Seville 
(or Cordova, Ecija, Carmona, Seville), Jerez, and 



London to Madrid, by Paris, Bayonne, 
Inm, Vltoria, Burgos, ValladoUd, Avlla, 

BATONins (Stat.) 

Population, 26,S61. 

Hotels.— Hotel Commerce; St. Etiemie; des 
Bains; da Midi; dn Grand d'Espagne; de 

Conveyancos.— OmnibuBes from the railway 
station to the town, 36c.; each package, 26c. Rail 
to Biazritz (about 6 miles); rail to Pau, by Dax; 
to Hendaye and Irun for Madrid. The distances 
to Madrid are as follow:— 

ROUTE 1 MUes. 

Bayonne to Inm 23 

Iran to Alsasna CS 

Alsasua to Burgos...., 108 

Burgos to Madrid 229^ 


ROUTS 2. Miles. 

Bayonne to Iran m....^.. 28 

Irun to Alsasua , •« 6S 

Alsasua to Saragossa, via Pam-> ^^j, 
plona and Tudela f "* 

Saragossa to Madrid 21} 

lioggagre should be registered through from 
Bayonne to Madrid, if the travello: is going on 
^viekly. If not, it should be plomb^ at Irun to 
fl»Te further annoyance. 

IBUN Stat.) 
Population, 7,040. 
" BOt^.— Fonda del Norte ; de Arupe. 
A town in the province of Guipuscoa, on the left 
bank of the Bidassoa, and near the French frontier. 
It is rendered celebrated from the victories gained 

by the English under the Duke of Wellington,^ 
and by the Spaniards, over the French. The town 
has manufactories of ironware and leather. The 
name of the place has been derived from the 
Basque Irona^ which is said to signify **the 
town.'* The Biscay, or Basque, language ia so 
difficult that the Andalnsians say, **They write 
Solomon and sound it Nebuchadnesjtar." It Is 
believed to belong to the Tartar group. A transla- 
tion of St. Luke's Oospel was made by Qeorge 

SIglltS.— Hill of San Marcial (fine panorama), 
celebrated for the repulse of the French by an 
inferior force of Spanish troops, 1818; Casa de 
Ayuntamiento (town hall), church, and hospital. 
Many Roman remains in the environs. 

OOStom House.— Luggage from France ex- 

Oonyeyaaoos.— Rail to Bayonne, San Sebas- 
tiaOfTolosa, Alsasua, Pamplona, Vitoria, Burgop, Ae. 

Fbok Ibuh *o Santakdbr by rail, or by rail 
and diligence.— It may be reached by rail via 
Vitoria, Miranda, and Venta de Ba&os. Or more 
directly by rail to Vitoria and Bilbao; tiience by 
diligence to Santander. 

The distance to Pontarabia (Sp.Fvmtet'raHa)^ at 
the mouth of the Bidassoa, in the Bay of Biseay, 
is 8 miles. 

Between Irun and San Sebastian the small town 
of Renterla is passed, where formerly a good 
deal of shipbuilding was carried on, and then the 
magnificent Puwto de Pasajes, which can shriter 
an enormous number of vessels. 

Population, 21,866. 

Hotels.— Be Londres; Oentineiital; Berdeja 
Basilic; du Commerce. 
Omnibus^H t^^Vv^M^^^we^^QsA^t ^«^ix.>V«^^ 



[Section I. 

A city and seaport, capital of the prorince of 
Goipazcoa, on a peninsula in the Bay of Biscay, 
insulated at high water by the Urnmea, here 
crossed by a long wooden bridge. Good bathing, 
and a fine sandy beach. 

Its harbour is defended by a system of batteries. 
This place has a large import trade in English 
and French goods, Ac, and an export trade in 
com, Ac, It was taken in 1719, 1794, and 1808, by 
the French, who held it till 31st August, 1813, 
when it was stormed and taken by the British, 
after considerable loss. 

With their usual disregard of historical truth, 
French writers, even of repute, do not lose the 
opportunity to blacken the English and the glory 
of their arms. Thus, Germand de Lavigne, in 
Joanne's "Itinerary to Spain," quoting Quatref ages, 
does not scruple to devote long columns to an over- 
coloured account of the sack of San Sebastian 
when taken by the British withthe utmost gallantry, 
which he does not notice. Nor docs he appear to 
remember while making so much of these disorders, 
and severely blaming the English generals f orthcm, 
that French soldiers had converted many thriving 
ports and cities of Spain into a howling wildemeae, 
perpetrating horrors that still make their name 
detested in the Peninsula. We have only to allude 
tothestorming of Saragossa, of Tarragona.of Mnra, 
and many other scenes of horror, to show the want 
of consistency and truth in these French critics. 

The pages of Thiers are sufficient evidence of 
the unprovoked oppression and ruin infiicted on 
many parts of Spain by the French. 

SlgbtS.— Castle of De la Mota, on HonteOrgullo, 
(00 feet above the town; beautiful view from the 
rocks; many graves of British officers; several 
churches and convents; civil and military hospitals. 

The bay, called La Concha, is only safe for small 
vessels. During the bathing season, an animated 
spectacle is presented by the encampment of tents, 
Ac, on the beach. Military band on the Alameda. 
The females are noted for beauty. 

ConTeyanceS.— RailtoBarccna, Palencia, Val- 
ladolid, and Madrid. Rail to Bayonne. Rail to 
Tolosa and Pamplona; steamers to Bajronne, Ac; 
and to La Teste in France, communicating by rail 
with Bordeaux. 

Distance to Bayonne, 84 miles; Iran, II; Fuen- 
tcrrabin (Fontnrabia), 10. 

Rail from San Sebastian to Tolosa takes about 
1 hour. 

TOLOSA (Stat) 

Population, 7,488. 

HoteL— Parador. Some inns in the town hare 
tables d*hdtc. 

A town in the province of Guipuzcoa, on the 
Oria and Arages, deep in a narrow defile of the 
Basque hills. 

BlglltS.— Church of Santa Maria— note the 
portico and rctablo ; Casa dc Ay untamiento (Town 
Hall); two plazas, one used for a bull-ring; hoqrftal; 
prison; several fountains; two bridges, and aone 
ancient gates. One house belonged to I><nneB|]oii 
Gonzales, who was knighted, 1471, by our 
Edward IV. 

From Tolosa to Beasain, the train continually 
crosses the Oria and passes 4 tunnels. After Bea- 
sain the gn^'Adients are very steep, and the pace is 
frequently only about 20 miles an hour; the train 
takes about 3| hours. Between Zoxnazraga and 
Alff^^ff^ft there is a series of tunnels through the 
mountains. From Zumarraga several BatJu are 
accessible, as those of AlzolOy near Loyola^s Her- 
mitage, Arechavaleta, Cestona (Inn)^ Elorrio, 
Mondragon, 8ta. Agueda (sulphur), S. Juan de 
Azcoitia, and Urberraaga. The Junction for 
Pamplona (Route 2) is passed at AlfrtJfUfti 37 miles 
further on we reach 


Population, 22,089. 

Hotels.— Fonda de Quintanillas; Fonda Euro- 
pea; Fonda Pall ares. Caf^ del Teatro. 

Buffet. Omnibus to town, 2 reals. A trunk, 
under 40 kQos. (90 lbs.), 8 reals. 

Capital of the province of Alava, on the high road 
from Bayonne to Madrid. It is celebrated for the 
signal victory gained here by the English over the 
French, on the 21st June, 1818. The Pefia de 
Gorbea, to the north, is 6,000 feet above the sea. 

Slghta— Church of San Vicente, once a fortress ; 
note the retablos. Church of San Miguel ; note 
the statue of the Conception. Church of Santa 
Maria, 1160; note the gothic arches of the nave, 
also the pictures by Ribalta. Casa Consistorial ; note 
especially the staircase. Hospital, with a beautiful 
fa^de by Jordanes; Plcusa Nueva; Liceo; CSrculo; 
theatre; Casa deAyuntamiento (town hall); spacious 

Boute 1.] 



market place ; castom hoase ; pablic library, and 
maseumof antiquities; beautiful promenades called 
El Prado and La Florida. 

Distance : 29 miles south of Bilbao. The sulphur 
Baths of Aramayona and Escoriaxa may be 
reached from here. At Estella, a few miles south 
of this, Marshal Concha was killed, 27th June, 1874, 
in an unsuccessful attack on the Carlist lines. 

The line now trarerses a fine plain, crossing the 
Zadorra at Manxanos, to 

Miranda de Ebro (Stat). Buffet. Here 

the Ebro is crossed by a bridge. Population, 7,456. 
This is the Junction for the Bilbao and Saragossa 
lines, and is the first town in Old Castile. Most 
of the 56 miles between here and Burgos is 
mountainous and very picturesque. 

BURGOS (Stat) 

Population (1887), 31,301. 

Buffet charge, 12 reals ; dinner, 14 reals. Omni- 
bus to the town, 2 reals each; luggage up to 801bs., 
3 reals. 

Hotels.— Paris ; Fonda del Norte; Parador 
do las Diligencias Generates; Parador dc las 
Peninsulares ; Casa de Postas. 

Casas de Pupilos are furnished lodgings, which 
are numerous. 
Post Office.— 58, Calle del Espoldn. 

Telegrapb Office.— lO, Plasa de la Libortad. 

Winter lasts nearly eight months; snow has been 
even known to fall at the St. Juan (Juno 21). Yet 
the climate is healthy; preralent winds N.N.W. 
and N.E. The Cerro de S. Lorenzo, to the east, is 
7,555 feet abore sea level. 

A large and interesting city, capital of theprovince 
of the same name, and formerly capital of Old 
Castile. It is situated on the left bank of the 
Arlanzon ; here crossed by three fine bridges. It 
is built in the form of an irregrular semicircle, por- 
tions of its old walls remaining on the side of the 
river. It has some few manufactures, but these 
are steadily declining. Here the famous Cid^ 
Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, was bom about 1040. It 
was taken by the French in 1808-9 ; and besieged by 
the English after the battle of Salamanca (22nd 
July, 1812), but the siege was abandoned in October. 

SIlFlltS.— Celebrated OatlMdral, considered by 

some one of the finest Gothic structures in 

Sptin. It was built by King St. Ferdinand, in the 

thirteenth century, and contains some very fine 
sculpture. The interior is profusely decorated 
with pictures, statues, bas-reliefs, Ac. Note also 
the fine stained glass windows. Some of the large 
chapels in the aisles contain some beautiful sculp- 
ture, paintings, and monuments; one is particu- 
larly deserving of attention, the Capilla del Con- 
destable, containing some fine sculpture, by Jean 
de Bourgogne, representing the Crucifixion, the 
Resurrection, and the Ascension. The Capilla de 
Santiago contains the fine sepulchres of Juan 
Cabeza, and his brother, Don Pedro. The Capilla 
de San Enrique contains a bronze figure of its 
founder. One Capilla has a Crucifixion by Cerezo, 
and another the miraculous and striking image of 
El Cristo do Burgos. In the cloisters are some fine 
sepulchres ; and the door, staircases, and windows 
are worthy of notice. The spires, with delicate 
open work, are nearly 800 feet high. 

Church of San Esteban, with an elegant fafadc, 
and some fine bas-reliefs. Church of San Gil, con- 
taining many Gothic Sepulchres. Church of San 
Lesmes, some fine sculpture. Church of Santa 
Agueda, or Gadea; the font, the statues of the 
Virgin and St. Peter, and the Sepulchre of Delga- 
dillo. Church of San Pablo; fine cloister and 
tombs. Church of San Nicolas; superb rotable, and 
the tombs of the Palancos. Church of Santa Ana; 
some fine tombs. Church of Santa Maria la Real 
(Las Huelgas), a Cistercian convent, not far from 
the Isla. It contains some tombs worthy of note, 
and possesses some peculiar privileges. Hospital, in 
the Calle de San Juan ; fine facade. Archiepiscopal 
Palace, near the Cathedral,. A bronze statue of 
Charles III., in the Plaza Mayor, a square sur- 
rounded by arcades. Arcos of Santa Maria and 
of Ferdinand Gonzales. A Castle, formerly very 
strong, but now in ruins. Casa de Ayuntamiento, 
a modern building. The Promenades, called 
Espolon, Cubos, and Isla ; the two latter on the 
banks of the river. 

Oonyeyances, ftC.— Rail to Vitorla, Bilbao, 
Valladolid, Avila, and Madrid. Rail to LogrSno, 
by Miranda de Ebro Haro, Briones, and Cenicero. 

The coach road to Santanderruns by Huermrces, 
Llanillo, and Reinosa (Stat.). 

Burgos is situated 180 miles north of Madrid, 
229| miles by rail. It is distant tc<^\s\.N^kiiSA.^<i$>&ss.> 
by rail, T6 ini\««\ ltQai^\\«t«^'\^'osS«»> 



fSection 1. 

BzeunionB to the CartiOa (*!»« CarthuBlan 
convent) dc Miraflores, abont 2 miles out of the 
town, containing a magnificent tomb, erected by 
Isabella, to her parents, Junn II. and Isabella of 
Portugal. Note also, among other things, the fine 
rctablo and the sillcria, with some good carving. 

Convent of San Pedro de Cardclla, not far from 
the Cartnja, and containing the tomb of the Cid ; 
who died about 1099. It is, however, doubtful 
whether he was burled here. The convent once 
formed part of the estate of the Cid ; for an account 
of whom, consult the works of Von Huber, MUUer, 
and Lockhart. 

From Burgos the line runs along a well populated 
country, rather flat, 52 miles to Venta de BanOB 
(8tat.)f the junction for Palcncia, Santander, 
Leon, Ac; whence it traverses the fertile valley 
of the Pisuerga to 


Population (1887), 62,012. 

Hotels.— Fonda de Franco; Cucva; del Siglo 

de Oro, 

BuflTct. Omnibus to hotels, 50 cents, for each 
person and trunk, 25 cents, for a hand-bag or 
small package. There Is a fixed tariflf for cabs. 
From twilight to midnight, and again after mid- 
night, the charges are raised. 

Post Office.— Plftzocla de los Arces. 

Telegrapll Office.— At the Qobicmo Civil. 

It is thought to be the ancient Pincia^ and is the 
capital of the Province, and of Old Castile, in a 
hollow of the Pisuerga, at the Influx of the Esgucva. 
The firit mention of the name occurs in 1072. The 
modem name is derived from Moorish Belad 
Walld. It WAS formerly the capital of Spain; and 
the residence of the Court prior to its removal to 
Madrid, at the close of the sixteenth century. It 
is enclosed by old walls, and decayed dwellings. 
Columbus died uere on the 20th May, 1506, in a 
street named after him. The town is prosperous 
and steadily improving. The Castile Canal comes 
in here. 

Bights. — The University (chiefly celebrated for 

jurisprudence) had, in 1841, 1,300 students. At 

present there are about 800. In the Colegio de 

St a. Cruz is the Library and the rich Museo Pro- 

/^A^c^a/, iAe Picture OaUeiy, of which la next in 

value after Madrid and Seville. Among its Attno- 
tlons are: Grand Salon, contahilng in particular 
the Rubens pictures from the Fuensaldafta con* 
vent, and bronze statues by Pompeiol^eoni. 

St. Peter, by Ribera. Several copies of Rubeni. 

A St. Joaquin, thought to be Murillo'a. A 
St. Bruno by Zurbaran. 

Among the sculptures. — A St.Thercsa, a master- 
piece of Hcniandcz; a St. Francis, by the same; 
also, a Christ bearing his Cross, and a Virgin, all 
by Hernandez. 

The Death of Christ, a fine conception. A fine 
Picta, by Hernandez. The Good and tlie Wicked 
Thief, by Leoni; and St. Simon receiving the 
Scapulary from the Virgin, by Hernandez. N.B.— 
The pictures, &c., have been completely re- 
arranged. The Library contains 14,000 volumes, 
200 MSS., and 600 medals. 

At 7, Callc Colon, Columbus died; Cervantes 
lived at 14, Calle del Kastro; Caldcron at 22, Calle 
de Teresa Gil. 

A granitc-bullt Cathedral, in the classic style, 
unfinished and half-ruined : note the superb Cns- 
todia; a picture of the Crucifixion (artiat un- 
known); a Transfiguration, by L.Giordano; the 
Sepulchre of Conde P. Anzurez; and the un- 
finished cloister. 

Among the ChUTChes and Convents, Ac, ars 
San Lorenzo, with some paintings by Hernandez. 
La Antigua, a Gothic church of the eleventh ccn- 
turj". note the tower. San Miguel: note the 
statue of St. Michael, by P. Leonl; the retablu, 
with its carvings; the ivory crucifix, by Midiad 
Angclo. San Salvador: note the sculpture and 
the sepulchres. San aiartin, with its Roman- 
esque tower. Las Huelgas: note the retablo, by 
Hernandez. Santiago, Adoration of the Magi, by 
Junl. Descalzas Reales: note the paintings by 
Carducho and Blasco. Las Colaterales, with 
paintings by Mascagni. La Magdalena: note the 
retablo, by Jordan, «&c. Portacell, fine retablo, 
altar, paintings by Stanzioni. La Cruz, contain- 
ing some fine works of Hernandez. El P^ieten- 
cial : note the fine Corinthian facade, with the fine 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, the Maipdaled, 
&c, nosplUl dQ IsL BAsuxteccion. The 'SLoyal 

Route 1.] 



Palace, with a fine court and two galleries, and 
bustfl of the Roman Emperors, Ac. The Qovemor's 
residence (formerly El Colegio de San Gregorio, 
founded in 1488). San Pablo (formerly a Domi- 
nican Convent), containing a grand church : note 
the fine fa9ade; the picture of St. Paul struck 
blind, by Cardenas ; the beautiful portals and the 
roof. Some ancient mansions, worthy of inspec- 
tion, especially those in the Plazuela Vicjn, the 
Calle de la Ccniza, and the Calle del llosario. 
Campo Grande, surrounded with palaces and con- 
vents. Plaza de Toros ; Casa de Espositos ; Public 
Library; some fine Promenades, among others. 
La Magdalena, Las Mororas, the Campo Grande, 
and El Espolon Nuevo. 

Valladolidhas two Theatres— the Grand Theatre, 
with room for 2,400, and Lope Theatre— the latter 
the best. The Corridas de Toros, or Bull Fights, 
are held in September, and there is room for 
6,050 persons. 

Conyeyances.— Rail to Avila, Madrid, Pa- 
lencia, Leon, Medina de Rio-Scco, Santandcr, 
Burgos, and Vitoria. 

Diligence to Pcfiafiel in 5 hours, to Aranda de 
Ducro in 11 hours, and to Tordesillas in 3 hours. 

Excursions are made to the to^-n and castle 
of Blmancas (the ancient Septimancce)^ 8 miles 
south-west of Yalladolid, here crossed by a bridge 
over the Pisuerga, with a Castle, in which are kept 
the famous Archive* of Cagtile and Leon; some 
curious wills, inventories of Isabella's jewels, Ac; 
documents relating to the Invincible Armada; the 
original deed of capitulation at the taking of Gra- 
nada; the title deeds of the Duke of Wellington's 
estate, called El Soto de Roma; Isabella's last 
will ; also that of Charles V. Note also the old 
chapel, with its roof, and a salon richly decorated 
by Berruguete. The Archives are open from 9 to 3. 

Diligence, or carriage, from Yalladolid. 

The Inns at Simancas are bad. 

From Yalladolid to Avila, 794 miles, through a 
poor, plain country, past Medina del CampO 
(Stat.), the Junction for Zamora and Salamanca 
(Route 18), and for Segovia, the last 15 miles 
being more billy, to 

AVILA (Stat.) 
PopiiJ«tioDr 9,186, 


Hotels.— Fonda del Ingles ; Fonda Yictoria. 
BufiFet. Omnibus to the train. 

The ancient AbtUa, a city of Old Castile, capital of 
the province, on the right bank of the Adaja, 8,484 
feet above the sea. It had formerly a flourishing 
University. The manufactures are of cotton and 
woollen fabrics. There is some shooting to be 
had in the environs. 

Sights.— Gothic Cathedral: note the choir- 
stalls, the retablo, the relievos, fine painted glass, 
pictures by Berruguete, Borgolla, Ac. Note also 
the chapels of San Scgundo, San Antolln, the 
Capllla del Cardcnal, and the Capilla Mayor con- 
taining the tomb of Tostado, Bishop of Avila, a 
celebrated scholar. Church of San Vicente, built 
in the beginning of the fourteenth century: this 
and the other churches are only interesting to 
students of ecclesiastical architecture. The 
Markets (mcrcados) ; some fine ancient Mansions. 
Cross the bridge at the lower end of the town, 
to the opposite hill, for a good point of view of 
the city walls and spires; visit the convents 
outside — as San Tomas, a Dominican convent, 
founded in the fifteenth century; note the coro, 
the sepulchre of Prince Juan, the monument to 
Juan Davila (or d' Avila), and Yelasquez, the 
paintings of Gallegos, and the cloisters. Convento 
de las Madrcs; note the superb tombs and some 
paintings. Sta. Teresa was bom here. In this 
neighbourhood, Henry lY. of Castile was 
solemnly deposed by the nobles, 1465. 

ConYesranoeS.— Rail to Madrid and Yalladolid 
Montemayor Baths are accessible from hero 
Diligence to Salamanca. A rail is being made. 

The line between Avila and Escorial Is cut at 
great expense through the rocky granite range of 
Guadarrama, there being no less than 17 tunnels. 
The country is wild and picturesque. One neigh- 
bouring peak, that of Parameras, is 4,460 feet 
above the sea. 

ESCURIAL (Stat.), Spanish El Bsoorial. 

Population (of the two), 1,5M. 

IxmB.— Fonda de la Ylzcalna; Fonda de la 



[Section 1. 

should be made from Madrid, S3 miles by rail. 
Omnibns from the station to the village. Ooide 
not necessary. 

Tbe Esonrlal, or ExcriaU more properly 
San LoreuBO el Real, is sitnated about half' 
a league from the village; it was erected by 
Philip II., to commemorate the victory of 
St. Qucntin, gained by the Spanish over the 
French on the lOth August, 1557, the anniversary 
of St. Lawrence. The story that Philip, amid 
the roar of battle, offered a vow to the saint to 
build this edifice, and hence it was called San 
Lorenzo el Bcal, is totally incorrect, as ho was not 
present. (See Cabrera's "Vida de Filipe II.") 
The term Escorial is considered by some to be 
of Arabic origin, and to signify a place full of 
rocks. Others derive the word, with more proba- 
bility, from scoria (iron dross), from the great iron- 
works formerly in the vicinity. Its situation is 
rocky and barren, devoid of all natural vegetation, 
and appears to have been chosen for the advantage 
of procuring stone. It was erected on the site of 
a miserable convent, the chapel of which had once 
been a bed-chamber, and could boast no better 
altar-piece than a crucifix sketched in charcoal on 
the wall.* By a fantastical conception, in accord- 
ance with the ideas of the time, the ground plan 
was laid out in the form of a gridiron, because, 
according to the legend, that instrument had 
eerved at the martyrdom of the saint, a part 
(which forms the royal residence) advancing to 
form the handle, attached to a long rectangle, 
forming several courts and quadrangles.! It is 
well named by Th^ophile Gantier "lugnbre 
fantaisie da triste fils de Charles Quint.*' 
This part of the building is 640 by 580 feet, and 
the average height to the roof, 60 feet. 

At each angle is a square tower, 200 feet high. 
The plan is divided so as to form a convent with 
cloisters, two colleges, three chapter-houses, three 
libraries, which arc rich in Arabic, Hel)rew, and 
Greek manuscripts, and adorned with frescoes by 
Cardncho ; five great halls, six dormitories, three 
halls in the hospital, with twenty-seven other 
halls for various purposes, nine refectories, and 

• Porreno, p. 64. 
/7a# Interior i* divided into a great number of sqxiare 
«'art» irJumerefralMrUnm aUJ to mind the in een-als between 
^ e*i» arm gridlnmrMiiUfc. d^ffmudu MonOm), 

five infirmaries, with apartments for aitisang aal 
mechanics. There are no less than elglity ■tair' 
cases. The gardens, which are extensive, and tiw 
parks formed by art, are decorated with fouiiUiH. 
The Monks of the Order of St. Jerome, for wImb 
the monaster}' was erected, were 200 in niimber* 
and formerly had a revenue of £13,000 per ■tmiw. 
The stone of which the building is constructed it 
white, with dark grey spots. 

It was accidentally set on fire by lightnii^ 
20th October, 1872, and burnt to the extent of 
£80,000; but fortunately no pictures, booka, or 
MSS. were damaged. The cost of restoring it wu 
to have been defrayed by the ex-Ring Ainadeer 
This is the eighth fire which has threatened the 
pile since its foundation. 

There are 1,110 windows on the outside, aaA 
1,518 within. Of the former, 200 are in the west 
front, and 366 in the east. Including the est- 
offices, there are not less than 4,000 windows.' 
There are fourteen entrances or gateways aod 
eighty-six fountains. 

The Palace contains vast galleries, omanmited 
with tapestry, and contains some pictures. Our 
Saloon, called the "SaladelasBatallaa,'' is painted 
in fresco. The paintings, executed by Graadla 
and Fabricis, represent different battles in wUdi 
the Spaniards have been successful. Withont, at 
within, the proportions of the royal residenee eoa' 
trast strangely with the magnificent monasteiy^ 
In the middle of the immense square of the Esoorlal 
rises the superb Ghordl, surmounted by a done 
and two towers. It is approached from the skte «f 
the interior court by a staircase and a portks^ 
above which are placed six colossal statnea. The 
church is 874 feet long anfl 230 broad, and is diri- 
ded into seven aisles. The cupola rises to a height 
of 330 feet, and the interior is paved wMi 
black marble. In the church are forty fSbxp^ 
with their altars. The interior of the elrareh is 
ornamented with marbles and paintings in fnsooes. 
The altar is placed upon a raised stage. Fjraaa tke 
magnificent staircase, designed by Bergamaaeo tks 
elder, yon enter the chamber or tribune of PMlip 
II., where the king died whilst they weie spyiag 
masses for him at the altar. The cloisters hsM a 
double row of porticoes in granite one upon Htm 
other. InthQ palace aivdVa the church is a pie- 
fusion oi gWAfeA \)toux«i-wc^t\L 

maibles. Philip lY. added a beantifol KaiUO- 
leuzn, 86 feet in diameter, and incrusted with 
marble. The design of the mansolenm is in imita- 
tion of the Pantheon at Rome. It contains the 
remains of the sovereigns of Spain from Charles V. 
It was formerly rieh in paintings, in rases of gold 
and silrer, and other precious objects, placed in the 
principal sacristy. The monastery formerly con- 
tained the two ehefd^ceum-es of Raphael, " La Vlerge 
aupoisson," and "La Vierge Jilaperle," and also 
some of the finest pictures in the world. The three 
principal artists employed in the decorations of the 
Escorial were Italians, viz., Pompeyo Leonl, 
Giacomo Trezzo, and Benvenuto Cellini. The 
Spanish artists employed were Josef Frecha and 
Bautista Monegro. The high altar and the Royal 
monuments were executed by Leonl. Trezzo, from 
designs of Herrera, executed the superb Custodia 
(for which Arias Montanus wrote the Latin inscrip- 
tion), a domed temple, 16 feet high, of gilt bronze 
and agate, a work which cost him sev^ years' 
labour, and which was demolished in 1808, by the 
French troopers under Houssaye, its metals being 
mistaken for gold. The matchless marble crucifix 
behind the Prior's seat, in the choir, was sculptured 
at Florence, by Benvenuto Cellini, who presented 
it to the Qrand Duke Conno I. The chaste wood- 
work of the choir and library was carved by Frecha. 
The indifferent colossal statues of Saint Lawrence 
(over the great portal), and the Hebrew Kings and 
Evangelists (in various external parts of the build- 
ing) were hewn each from a single block of ^anite, 
by Bautista and Mon^ro, both of them Spaniards 
and sculptors of repute. The total cost was 6,000,000 
piastres. Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell says, "the 
Escorial is probably the greatest architectural 
luidertaking ever conceived and executed by one 
man. No Egyptian or Roman builder is recorded 
to have completed a pile, of which the doors, like 
those of the Escorial, if we may credit Fray 
Francesco de los Santos, required l,260ibs. weight 
oi iron to make their keys. Minutely to describe 
the Escorial in its palmy days, would be to 
review the el^ant arts and manufactures of the 
age of Philip II., and to enumerate half the pro- 
ducts of his monarchy — ^the first that could vaunt 
that the sun never set on its shores. Italy was 
ra ns a cke d for pictures and statues, models and 



for jaspers and agate; and every Sierra of Spain 
furnished its contribution of marble. Madrid, 
Florence, and Milan supplied the sculptures of the 
altars; Guadalajara and Cuenca, gratings and 
balconies; Zaragoza, the gates of brass; Toledo 
and the Low Countries, lamps, candelabra, and 
bells; the New World, the finer woods; and the 
Indies, both East and West, the gold and gems of 
the Custodia and the five hundred reliquaries. The 
tapestries were wrought in Flemish looms; and for 
the sacerdotal vestments, there was scarce a nun- 
nery in the Entire, frcmi the rich and noble orders 
of Brabant and Lombardy to the poor sisterhoods 
of the Apulian highlands, but sent an offering of 
needlework to the honoured fathers of the Escorial.*' 
In spite of its colossal proportions, the building 
offers an aspect by no meaag imposing. M. de 
Custines, in his "L'Espagne sous Ferdinand VII.,' 
says of it "lo dedans est forteresse et palais, le 
dehors tient Y hospital et de la caserne.** The iirin • 
dows have been considered too small, and the pro- 
jections deficient in boldness, and it wants more 
relief and variety in thelong gray facades. ** I9iere 
is," says Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell, "a monotonous 
sternness in the fronts of the Escorial. The grand 
front facing the mountain is somewhat varied by 
the imposing height of its central position, and by 
the state entrance; that whU^ looks over the plain 
to Madrid is the most faulty iA them, by being 
broken, yet not relieved by the palace, a mere 
excrescence inferior to the rest of the pile in 
elevation." According to some, this colossal edifice 
was commenced in the same year as the before- 
mentioned battle itself, and was finished in the 
succeeding ten years. According to others, how- 
ever, Bautista de Toledo laid the first stone on the 
2nd of April, 1563, more than five years after the 
battle, and superintended the works till his death 
in 1567 ; and the building was carried on, and the 
masonry finished, by his pupil, Juan de Herrera, 
In 1584. 

TheprincipalworksontheEscurial are "Descrip- 
cion del Monasterio y Palacio de San Lorenzo, Ac.,' ' 
8vo, March, 1848; "Catalogue des manuscrits 
Grecs de la Bibliothfeque de rEscurial," par E. 
Miller, 4to, Par. 1848; Pons, Viage x..^Vs«^V«^ na-n 
♦*Descripcion A.tV.\AV(»w^^ '^w -v^^sbSssso. ^vxox^^ 


ran s acxea lor pictures ana statues, moaeis and \ i'?aio, MLakaTVa, Vcfia\ ^%s3«L«t'a^^ ^j»a«^— 
designs; the mountaioB of Sicily and Sardinia \ piomena^^ VtixoW^ >^'^ \^Q!\^^5^% V5-«»««* 

BULDSnjlw's iPAlK « 

mhi lecture ond mug 

Clubt, tto. — Ciilno. CaUs SBTUla; AIhhi 
Vsloi (.purllnir), airmiBcri iutmUoeod by mw 

Tnun Can (El Tr»n»m) ran BTsrrwben. 
j DrtnlM.— One of lbs bett wine. K that uUM 
VBlrlcpfOsi: Asr>.,AeuiiJeCflb»ijB,indCm™ 

J.CipdflTtelle. HoMldeLifnJrai. HoW 
litcIi.M.neirPoarUflo1Hol. Hole). ( 
OriBnH; Uoi«r»: CmIid Nnelmies: 

iiicludoi i iiiealt per d.y, «-bethar Eiki 
Ouaa da HniaiMaai, a name glTei 

:eudii>e: 10 

KHlngt) will do wall tc 

le l»ge 1 

con IlmoD, 


mmer drlnki. 


— TreichoTD 

.; cold wind. «a,^ 

and eienln 

nrliig day. Oood vrapi 

(10,1100 ft.) 


forlnTolldi. EmlkiBI 

drinking » 

let. Best t 
ber and No 

mei Marcb latb to J«« 
eml>et. Curnl™! Un 

Madrid 1 

•It anted In t 



pHal of the 

kingdom, ■• decl««l bj 


rom being th 

■nppoted centre o(S|ali 


en held)- Il«eDpi..ib> 



ullt on Kme auidjr UIK 



more are t 

ur brldeei. 

[Tie country nuTOMdlai 


mom a dete 

city. The 

Lnl aboDtth 

in..nd tbeoblefaiu* 

re OnlleiT and the Sort! 

Paluf, but 

more IbM ■] 

thegniit life and son- 

ment In <h 

e wide .treel^ Ibe mulrlltfo* beli« 


open air. Thecltj- 1. InereMini, tH 

water lupply, formerly 

very defialent, 1. Km 

The mode™ 

pari of the city U flnt 



flint Slid 11 


neM .(rest. In Spate, »1 


ho only very 

fino street in Madrid. It 

nnder a uniqae trioai- 

Correcerla InglMu (good Engilib beer o 

sold, ind iwlmuinsi fiaDoi do Felipe Nerl, 
J'tVt Oace.—auie Ctrretet; iotteri to London 

ic light 1. 
lie Montoi 

I. The Calle de 1 

■liaolltia i\iVIM. 

KOUtC 1.] MADRID. 23 

^onstto, '.three by pArmcglAnlno, five by Guido, 
tweuty-seyen by Bassano, twenty-four by Paul 
Vcrones?, nnd fifty-fiTC by L. Giordano. TU<4 

* ~rench sciiool8 in- 
•uvermanR, slxty- 
iioMon>, twenty- 
rcughelp, twenty- 
Teniers, ten by 

ez are- A sculp- 
lo; St. Anthony 
t Ilennit; Dulla 
en of Philip IV., 
BtnfTin his hand, 
c Cornair, in red 
tlic Drunlcnrds); 
ndscnpc, prurden, 
-den, portico, and 
ttt Rome; Land- 
l a river; Don 
'. of Olivarca, on 
ins; Landscape, 
onntains of the 
., in niatnre age ; 
inta Dolla Mar- 
r of Philip IV., 
I, standing; An 
p III. in armour; 
n of Philip III., 
clla of Bourbon 
. at prayers, life 
cloak, standing ; 
a ragged dress, 
with a beard, in 
■ce-huntcrof the 
ess; The Infant 
ng-dress, witli a 
mmcd witli red 
a green dress; 
rmour; Kl Bobo 
Isabel of Bour- 
i white palfrey; 
'clasqucz (bust), 
azar, Prince of 
ibel of Bourbon, 
• tapestry manu- 
>dor), of Breda; 
I, with chestnut 
hair plaited (bust), life size; Girl, apparently sister 
of the above (bust^^ IU«. va.v> W^«sc<^'fe ^«&.>»."'^'^5!*- 
0.1 Kt«i.w\W5.'i.\ T>^"^^QX^xs»^^ss«-^"^^^^^''^^^*"^^ 


Spain, xxvi.). C 
by Sir W. Stir 
S Tols.; to whio 
Information. - 
£scarial,8ee '"^ 
world for archil 
tare, Ac," traJ 
of tho Earl oM 
embassy thitb 
collection of vf 
irawn and eug 
were pablishec 
Madrid. See < 
rial/' oblong 4t 

The distance 
made in 1| hov 
junction of tb< 

Population C 

Hotels.— n 

The best Fren< 
in the finest p 
1st class, near 
Oriente; Unl^ 
Oro; daMadrl 
jadores. Prioi 
includes 2 mef 


and other pa 
Trareilers int€ 
in the capital 
Malaga) will 
houses. Exci 
board and ser^ 
per day. Asa 
taken or not. 

Restaurai , 

Cajr6s.— Th 

Cerveceria In] 
Levante. 6, P 
Dos Cisncs, 

Batb&— B 
cold, and bw 
MlJeres, 4. 



Keri, I contains the finest private houses. The Pi 
I Oriente and the Plaza Mayor, also the old M 

ruFrUderSol.Na. e. 

fUgbta.— Tha Bo^ai Palace, ■ nugiitaQci 

bullilliig of white itore, mniiilcriM] to bo <hid of tl 
(lne« roysl roidenooi )n Enrope. Ench front 

Kyle of oiMlj n 



havfl H pei-mito, Appl7 to llie offlco of the 
Iiilendents. Th« royal Simhlei men to be >ecn. but 
only [n the sbHiice of tbe Royel Family; npply 


S KnMo, ■ mspilHcn 

llery of J, 

libera, ^ghl bf Csno. loi 
Ihe rtn dlniihulcd I 
;— AIon» MlgnU de : 

Collanlo.. Fr 

ncinco de Bibnlt^ Jn.n Por^., 

Antonio Palon 

mo, BoBenlo Caxit, AIohki Sanehu 


aiitoja de la Cnn, Bla> del Tardo, 

Jielnto ae™ 

Imo. FranclKO Faeheco. Antonio 

Perod^ Join 

lool coDlaiiii, among othert. ten by 

EaphBl. forty 

tliree liy Tllian, thirty-three by Tin- 

a VetaMtam ar 

the Abhol, and St. Panl, the first Henniti DoBa 
Mariana oT Auitrl^ lecond queen of Philip IV^ 
■tnndlne': Han standing with a ilnffin lila hand. 
Ac. (unfinlihod): Barbarotia. the Conalr.ln rwl 
Tarkiih robo; 1a> llorriclias. {the Dmnkardi); 
Philip IV. In adranced age; I^ndicDpe. enrden, 
and architecture; LandKape>gardeh, pottleo, and 
Bgurci ; View of the Arch of TIlua at Bomai Land- 

le Ouimaii, 

rf OliTal 

or theHaldi of HonoDr ; Philip IV.. In malar* ace i 
rhe Forge of Vnlcan; Tlie InfanU UoDa liar- 
fii-lta Maria of Autrla. danghter ot Philip IV., 
standing; Philip IV.In hia yonlh. alandlng; An 
Old Iddy In a Flemlih dreai ; Philip III, In armoar! 
Dona Margarita of Austria, Qaean ot Philip III., 

(biul) ; Qaeoi Mariana of Autrla at prayer^ life 
siie; MonippD), an Old Uanliia cloak, gtandlng; 
a Male Dwarf; Eaop, a Han In a ragged dren, 
left hand in boHffi; Uale Dwarf, with ■ beard. In 
a red dreu \ Un Pretendlente, ■ place-liiuiler of the 
Court of PhUlp ir.,lna black dreai; The Infant 
Don Balthaiar Oarloi, In a ihootlng-drtei. with a 

.f VdHqnei (buat). 

factory; Lula da Gongora; Olrl, ^ 
-e by QDldo, hair ^ted(hn>t|aU»'.uv(v.«,iA 

.„-,.j _.,iu L., u«rfno, tweoty-foar by Paul ottti«riKnftl,'o'aiK4,\'i.''»*'^*'> ^""'" — " ^ 

VfroBot, and mr-Sn by L. Qlordimo. Tta \ tX AjMiiu«\ TW*l«">e»'*'»''*'^*"^*^*' 


Lord ontheCrou; Mart, a naked figure, leated The paintinga by Aiaii Juimu ar»— VlaH of 

with a helmet on his head ; Adoration of the Magi. SanU If abcl (EUzabeth) to the Virgin ; Death of 

Among the paintings of MnrlllO, are-IIoly Santa Ines; «i Ecee Homo; Chriat be»rl^^ 

Family, del Pagarito; Our Ix>rd In hi. Childhood, Cr<«; Portrait of Castolvl; Life and Milityrt« 

as the Good Shepherd; St. John the Baptist as a V'.^'t''^' T^"" ^ l"^' Je«u co tht 

.,, , ,4V 1 u *L ^ t # L* T> 1 Mount; Descent from the Croas. 

child, with a Iamb; the Conversion of St. Paul; «, \^ ^ ^ .. . 

, « . 1 .,w_. X .V >.'. , ,u* i>_ I Of other mastens note the followiiif :— 

La Porcluncula— Christ, the Virgin and St Francis; „^ „ , . ^ a* » * -kt i HT u_ 

A f X, * /^ T 1 /^ T J t*i T St- Peter appearmg lo St. Peter NoUmo, by 

Annunciation of Our Lady; Our Lady of the Im- „ ^ /„.'*, j o _i v « , 

, * r, .. a* M ^r 1 I . i» . Zurbaran; tho Virgin and Sarionr, by Ifonlai; 

m«uUtcCon«pir,n;8tMaryM.ffd«lcne,ln. 3 ;, chrirt, by Crdueel, St. J<4. .t 

c.Ten.; Our Lord orowned with thon.. (. head); ^ ^^ g,^^ th. Bock, br 

Our Lady of Sorrow.; 8t. Ferdinand, «rm.«l and ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ g,^^ Vlrto. ot 

robed, at prayer; St. Francisco do Paula In his _ . , , , ^ „ ^ „. „ , v.. »^i ■_ 

It 1 1 . ... X i» 04 i^ . J Eiekiel, by Collantcs; St. Bernard, by Palomtao; 

linen robeMeaning on his staff; St. Pranclscode ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ .^^^ ^3^^^. 

Paula, leaning on a stone, as if in contemplation ; ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j j ^ ^^^ ^^^^ . ^^^ ^ ^j,^ 

Our Lord as a Child, asleep on a Cross; the i,y Morales; Virgin and Saints, by BUw del Pm*>; 

Martyrdom of St. Andrew the Apostle, at Patras; ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ Pwtoja; Birth of ov 

St. Jerome, in purple drapery, reading a book in g^^^ur, by ditto; Margaret, wife of Philip UL, 

the desert ; St. James tho Apostle; Adoration of ^^ pantoja; a St. Jerome, by Cano; Philip U, in 

the Shepherds; Our Lord and St. John the Bap- advanced age, by Pantoja; BanU GuUde, by 

tlst-tho first giving the second water out of a zurbaran; Virgin and Christ, by Gaao; Beptln 

shell, and therefore known as "Los Nifios de la ^, ^hrUt, by Navarrete; a Sleeping Chriit ; Poi^ 

Concha," the children of the shell; Rebecca and ^^j^, ^^ charlcs II., by Carreflo; a DeiUl Chilat, 

the Maidens meeting Eliexer; Four sketches of ^y Thootocupuli. Last, not least, Raphael*! Aae 

tho Prodigal Son ; tho Head of St. Paul ; the Head u Christ bearing the Cross." 
of St. John the Baptist, on a Charger ; the Concep- rpjjg museum of Pictures is open to the pQhlle OB 

tion ; St. Augustine; Our Lady of the Immaculate Sundays, and to foreigners every day In the 

Conception; Our Lady with the Infant Saviour in iq iq 3, •fhe Sculpture* can be seen im. Monday. 

her lap; Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception; j^ Gdlexla Sesezvadai containing three 

Rocky Banks of a River, and Figures; Land- Titians, a Tintoretto, and some cc^iea from Cor- 

scape — a lake amongst rugged hills, with somo reggio; and some jowoUod plate, cups, Ac, of tha 

balldlngs on its banks; Santa Ana teaching the cinque-cento period, by Cellini and other*. Tlia 

Virgin to read ; San Bernardo fed with the milk sculpture gallery la below. The best works an 

from tho bosom of Our Lady, who appears to him those of Sala and Alvarez. There are aleo aone 

with tho Infant Saviour; Father Cabanlllas, a fine bronzes. 

barefooted friar ; St. Francisco de Paulo, with his Books :— Catalago de los cuadros del B. Muaao di 

hands clasped ; Old Woman Spinning with a Dls- plntura y escnltura de S. M. redoctado por D. Pedro 

taff; San Ddefonso, Archbishop of Toledo, irivested Madrazo, Madrid, 1848, 8vo. Colecclon LUograllea 

with tho holy chasuble by Our Lady, In tho Cathe- de cuadros del Key do Espa&a el Seftor Don Fif* 

dral; Our Lady of the Uosary, with the Infant nando IV., quo se conscrvan en bum realei 

Saviour on her kneos ; St. Jerome in the DoHcrt. palaclos, Acadcmla de San Fernando, eon la- 

Among the works of Blbera arc— Martyrdom elusion de los del real monasterio del Baouftal, 

ol S. Bartholomew; a Virgin; the Martyrdom of Madrid, 18*iA. El Real Musoo de Don 

St. Stephen; the Hermit St. Paul ; Jacob's Ladder; Lopez Aguado, Madrid, 1804. A chapter bj U* 

Prometheus Vlnctns; the Martyrdom of St. Sebas- Vlardot on tho Museum of Madrid. J^tndiee eu 

tian; tho Trinity; a Magdalen; St. Jerome; El Thlstolre des institutions de la litt€ratnre, da 

Ciego de Oambazo, a blind sculptor; St. Jerome; th^Atro et des beaux-arts en Espagne, Par. IIM. 

^/. t/ogeph juid the Infant Saviour; Ixion on the Catalogode los cuadros que existen ccdoeadoe ea 

frzeg// M OoadChri»tf TwoFems^Q Giadlators, El Uea\ Muftwj eie v'^Vaxw ^«\ ^«3e^xs lUdrid, 

Route 1.] ^;:.* madbid, 

1824. Notizia da loi cnadros qae se hallan coloca- 
dos en U galeria del Maseo del Rey, lito en el Pardo 
de esU corte, Madrid, 1828. 

Museo Nacional (in the Galle de Atoeha), a 
new moaeum opened by Espartero, on the anni- 
versary of the 2nd May, 1843, and named from 
the suppressed ccmyent in which it has been 
formed. It contains a large number of pictores, 
some of which are worthy of inspection. Note 
a Crucifixion, by El Greco ; the Miracle of 
Manna, by Horrera the Elder; a portrait of 
Melendez, by himself; several pictures repre- 
senting the life of St. Bruno, by Garducho; 
Charles II., by Carre&o ; a Concepcion, by Spag- 
noletto; a portrait by Rubens; the Abbot Socinas, 
by Camillo ; several pictures representing the life 
of the Saviour, by D. Correa. Note also a fine 
statue of San Bruno, by Pereyra; and the carvings 
by Rafael de Leon. 


The best collections of paintings and drawings 
are those of the Infante Don Sebastian, Calle de 
Alcala, containing about 600 works, Titian's 
Woman taken in Adultery, Murillo's Poreiuneula^ 
a picture of St. Francis d'Assisi, well known for 
its eventful history, formerly in the Museo 
Nacional, others by Qreco, Salvator Rosa, Cor- 
reggio, Ac.; gallery of the Duke de Medina Cell; 
of the Duke de Sessa, with fine Snyders and heads 
by Rubens ; and that of Don Vicente Carderara, 
Puerta de las Cortes (drawings). 

San Fernando (the Royal Academy), in the 
Calle de Alcaltf, contains a collection of natural 
history, and about 800 paintings, a few of which are 
good ones. Among these are a Christ before 
Pilate, and a Piettf, by Morales; a Christ in 
Purple, and a Christ Crucified, by Cano; Figures 
of Monks, by Zurbaran. By Murillo, a Resur- 
rection of our Lord; Elizabeth of Hungary, 
Duchess of Thuringia, tending the sick in her hos- 
pital (it is called El Tindso, or the Scabby); the 
Dream of the Roman Senator and his Wife, which 
produced the CJhurch of Santa Maria Maggiore, at 
Rome; and the Roman Senator and his Wife 
telling their Dreams to Pope Liberius; two fine 
pictures. St. Jerome, and St. John Baptist*! Head, 
by Ribera ; and some by Moya. The museum con- 
tains bronzes by Leon Leoniand Pedro Tacca; and 


Mengs. The Cabinet of Natural Sciences (Oabi- 
nete de Ciencias Naturales), which occupies eight 
rooms of the museum, contains a fine collection of 
Spanish marbles and minerals. Note especially a 
nugget of silver, weighing 2fi0 pounds ; and Aie of 
copper of 200 pounds; also a loadstone (picdra 
iman) supporting 60 pounds. 

The animal department contains the interesting 
skeleton of the Megatherium, found near Buenos 
Ayres, and described by Cuvier; and another fossil 
monster, discovered in the vicinity of Madrid, 
20 feet below the surface. There are also some 
Chinese, Indian, Moorish, and South American 

The Palacio de Xifre, on the Prado, opposite 
the Museo, in the Oriental style, full of bright 
colour, should be specially noted. 

IClUeO Ar<|aeolOgiOOy Calle Embajadores, is 
worth a visit. 

Publio BolldlngB.— Congreso de los Dipatados 
on the Plaza de las Cortes, scarcely worthy of a 

San Fernando (the National Bank), Calle de la 
Montera. The notes of this bank do not circulate 
outside Madrid. 

La Casa de Moneda, or Mint, in the Pateo de 
Reooletos. This avenue contains several other 
handsome buildings, residences of the nobility. 

Deposito Hidrografico, founded by Charles III. 
Library, with a collection of nautical instruments. 
Biblioteca Nacional, on the Plaza del Oriente, 
containing 2S0,000 volumes. The works on topo- 
gnq)hy and theology are important. There are 
also some valuable MSS.; some antiquities; a rare 
collection of coins and medals, and specimens of 
Gothic, Moorish, and native Mints (open from 
10 till 3). La ImprenU Nacional, in the Calle del 
Cid. Ministerio de Hacienda (Agriculture), and 
Museo de Historia Natural, both in Calle de 
AlcaU. Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), built 
in the sixteenth century. La Casa del Saladero 
(the city prison), near the gate of Santa Barbara. 
Las Recogidas, the house of correction for women, 
in the Calle de Hortalize; it is also called Santa 
Maria Magdalena. The Government Tobaeeo Fac- 
tory^ employing about 1,800 hands. 

Cliureliea. — tvv» ^\Vi ^««&s&s^ ^ic■^:^-*? 


ontbe ground /la?ri*«w7iectiano/plwt©r-cwtt by \ tkiwe ^«J^ %V3|lV|-%V». wskw**^ ^*'^*''^ 



[Section 1. 

men and thirty-two for women. Some of these 
liAvo since been pulled down, either to widen the 
streets or to form squares ; others have been con- 
verted into barracks, hospitals, magazines, and 
government offices. Among those most wortliy of 
a visit arc Santo Domingo el Real, fonnded in 
1217; note the portal and choir, the work of 
Iferrera, also the effigy of Don Pedro; San Marcos, 
in the Callo dc San Leonardo; San Ildefonso, 
built on the site of the church destroyed by the 
French; Santa Maria dc la Almudena, once a 
Moorish Mosque; it contains a San Isidro, by 
Cano, and the chapel of thcliozmedianos is worthy 
of inspection; San Gincs,intho Calle del Arenal, 
built about 1358, contains a Christ stripped, by 
Cano, and the Paso de Santo Cristo, by Vergas. 
In the Bovcda or crypt the devout arc wont to whip 
themsolvos in Lent. San Isidro, formerly belonging 
to the Jesuits, has Mengs' large painting of the 
Trinity. Descalzas Reales (convent of), in the 
Plaza of the sa'kne name ; note the Retablo of the 
high altar, by Becerra, and the effigy of the founder, 
Juana, daughter of Charles IE., by P. Tx^onl. Las 
SalesasVieJas,a very considerable nunnery,founded 
by Ferdinand VI., and his wife Barbara. It is a fine 
building, and the interior of the church is orna- 
mented with the richest marbles. The high altar 
is very grand ; note also the tombs of the King 
and Queen, by Gutierrez ; also the facade of the 
Palacio. Convent o/Atoeha, near the Pucrta de 
Atocha, founded in 1528. In the chapel is a very 
ancient image of the Virgin. Tombs of Palafox, 
Narvaez, Prim, Ac. Convent of San Gcronimo, 
near the Peiota Gate, half a rain, but worthy of 
a visit. San Francisco el Grande, the finest in 
Madrid; restored at a cost of £300,000; magni- 
ficent paintings ; old carving. 

Hospitals. — La Inclusa (the foundling hospi- 
tal), in the Callo do los Embajadorcs. Hospital 
de San Fernando^ In the Calle de Fuencarral, founded 
in 1688, for poor persons of both sexes ; a great 
building, with an ornamental front by P. Ribera, 
8t>led "Churrigueresque" for its extravagance. 
Hospital de San Antonio, Corredera dc San Pablo, 
fonnded in 1606. The chapel has some good 
frescoes, by Rizzi and others. It contains a Santa 
£ngr#cia and a Santa Isabel, painted by Caxes, 
Mn/a stmtae of Ha Mint, hj Pereyra. El Oenerat^ 
* reiyroonaldwAble hoapital at the corner of the 

Calle de Atocha, founded by PhOlp II., tn IMS. 
El Colegio de San Carlos^ founded by Charles III., 
in 1783, adjoining the last. It contains an ana- 
tomical museum, and many wax preparations. 

La Armeria, in front of the south side of the 
Palace. This gallery was built by Gaspar de la 
Vega, and is 227 feet long by 86 wide. It contalat 
some of the most beautiful specimens of armour 
(especially of the cinque-cento period) in Enn^ 
There arc several complete suits of armour which 
formerly belonged to Ferdinand V., Charles V^ 
Juan de Austria, Garcia do Parodos, and other 
illustrious Spaniards. The most intcrosttnip of all, 
perhaps, is a coat of mail with the name and amu 
of Isabella upon it, which she is said to hare worn 
in the campaigns against the Moors. It contains 
the best arsenal in Spain, and is said to poasoss the 
finest collection of historical swords in the worid, 
among which are those of St. Ferdinand, the oon* 
queror of Seville, Ac., Pliilip II., and Charles ¥., 
Garcia de Parcdes (double-handed), and of Gonsalo 
de Cdrdova. The finest armour is of Qermaa 
and Italian origrin. Note Ihat of Philip of Burgundy, 
and of Philip II.; also those supposed to haire beea 
worn by the Cid. The gallery is open daily between 
ten and three free to foreigners with passports. 

Bagliflll Church Serylce, at the Embassy, 
Calle Leganitos. Chaplain— Rev. R. H. Wlierent, 
M.A. There are now several Chapels for Spanish 
Protestant Services, attended by 4,000 persons, 
represented by a Synod at Madrid. Protestantism 
is protected by the State. A Bishop-Elect is 
nominated by the Spanish Protestant Aid Society. 

Theatres. — The Opera (T. Real); Teatro 
Espallol, for Spanish drama, Calle del Principe; 
Teatro de la Zarzuela, for comedies, farces, and 
dancing; La Comedia, Callo del Principe; Teatro 
y Circo del Principe, Paseo de Recoletos; Ap<do, 
in Calle do Alcali; Las Variodades, in the Calle 
deMagdalena; Princesa; Lara; English Circus. 

Jardln BotanlCO, near the Musco. It was 
founded by Chsrles III , in 1781. 

Among the Public Promenades are, the Prado, 
with its continuation, the Castellana,2^ miles long, 
on the east side, with several fountains. Adjoining 
the Prado is the Buen Retiro^ a beautiful gardiB, 
with theatre, Ac. Another favourite promenade ii 
a vast plantation outside the Pnerta de Afonlii 
\ called IimD^UqVm, 

Route 1.1 



Bull Fights arc usually held every Monday 
during the summer in the Plaza de Toros, and 
are frequented by most classes of the population, 
chiefly by young men, and are doubtless unfavour- 
able in their influence on Spanish society. They 
last from Easter Day to the end of October. 
The oflice for tickets is in the Cnllo de AlcaU. An 
early application is necessary to ensure good seats. 
These bull fights, though inferior to those of Seville, 
are at times very full of excitement and danger. 
The ring, unlike that of Seville, has no screens for 
the men to run behind, and escape from the charges 
of the bulls ; consequently the former leap the bar- 
riers, and at times arc followed by the bulls. The 
death of Peplto, the veteran matador, is still fresh 
in the public recollection. 

Post Office.— When a letter directed "Poste 
Kestantc, Madrid," is applied for, the traveller 
should first examine the daily list of letters, 
which is posted in a prominent place in the post 
oflice. Letters not properly addressed are placarded 
on a list; and those not sufficiently prepaid are 
returned to the country they came from. Letters 
to iPrance or England are received up to 6 p.m. at 
the post office, and up to 7 with a nllo de cUcance. 
Postage stamps (sellos) can be purchased at all 
tobacco shops, as in Paris. 

Dillgenoes.—The principal diligence offices are 
to be found in Calle de Alcald, Calle del Gorreo, 
Calle de la Victoria and Calle del Fuentes. 

Ballwa78.-Station for the Northern Rail, Paseo 
de San Vicente; that for Saragossa, Aranjuez, 
and Alicante, east, south, and west of Spain, out- 
tide the Puerta de Atocha. For departures, &c., see 
Bradthaw't Continental Ouide. Tickets can bo taken 
and luggage registered at Railway Offices in the 
centre of Madrid. For Northern Line, Puerta 
del Sol; Southern Lines and Barcelona, Calle 
Alcala 2; Portugal and Toledo, Calle Victoria 2. 
Sleeping-car office under Hotel de Paris. All close 
to Puerta del Sol. Through tickets are issued at the 
Madrilena office, at Madrid, to Cadiz and the in- 
termediate places; also for Granada ; but travellori 
complain that having taken first-class tickets at 

been compelled to pay the difference before they 
were allowed to enter the train. 

There is now direct railway communication with 
Giliraltax by way of Alcazar, Cordova, Boba- 
dlUa, Ronda, and Algeclras. 

Steanidrs. — Vapores-Correos of the Ibarra 
Compafila leave Alicante for Barcelona and Mar- 
seilles ; and for Malaga, Valencia, Ac. See Steamer 
List, Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

DiBtances.— Madrid is about 680 miles south - 
south-west of Paris, and 265 miles east-north-east 
of Lisbon. By road Ihe journey to Lisbon, via 
Talavera de la Reyna, Almaraz, Trnjillo,Merlda, 
and Badajoz, Is about 103 leagues (411 miles by 
rail); to Badajoz, 69 ditto (315 by rail); to Granada, 
by Aranjuez, Tembleque, Valdepeflas, Baylen, An- 
dujar, and Jaen,71i ditto; to Malaga, byAndnjar, 
Lucena, and Antequera, 78| ditto (294 miles by rail); 
to Cordova, by Andujar, Aldea del Rio, Carplo, and 
Cortijo, 64t ditto.. To Bayonne, via the old dili- 
gence road, by Guadalajara, Almazan, Pamplona, 
and Roneosvallea, ls82f ditto (415 mllea by rail). 

For Works on Madrid, consult Laborde's 
"View of Spain," vol. 111.; "Vlaje ArtlsUco de 
Espafia," vol. III.; "Grandeza de Madrid," by 
Qulntona; and especially ''Manual de Madrid," by 
Mesonero. Purchase also "El Indlcador de lot 
Camlnos de Hlerro," Madrid; Cervantes, 16, 
Principal, or at the Despacho de los f erro-carriles, 
Calle de Alcalti, SO; also at the Despacho de los 
fcrro-carriles del Norte, Puerta del Sol. 

EzCUrsiiNlB.— In the environs of Madrid are 
the royal residences of La Casa del Campo, 
Moncloa, and Zarzuda. La Alameda Is a charm- 
ing villa, on the road to Guadalajara, with grrounds 
well laid out. A visit should also bemade by coach 
to El PardO, a shooting box on the Manzanares, 
among gardens and forests, about 7| miles from 
Madrid, built by Charles V. The Royal apart- 
ments are fine; ceilings in fresco by Ribera 
andGalvoz; fine tapestry and glass chandeliers; 
In the retablo of the oratory Is a copy of Christ 
bearing the Cross, by Francisco de Ribalta. 

Madrid, on arriving at the railway station these Tepes may be visited from Vlllaseq5LlUA».«.'«^3a&2vvs' 
ticketshavebeenrepudiatedbytherallwayofficlals, ! on the Hue Itooi t^«Kvo«t» N.^'^^^s^^- ^^'^^^S** 
who allied that the Madrilena company had oti\y \ \Yi^ xavccf Vs'wnA ^"^ %^"«!c». ^^^'^SST^ ^-'^"^ 
paid them for second class tickets, and they lia^^\ tf\i%«\%di wrt\*.igw^ tCofort'^ ^Co» ^'** 



[Section 1. 

eart; it ii pleaMuitlj altiMtod on the UUe-land 
between Oc&fia and Toledo, amidst corn-fields and 
olives, and vineyards, of which the white wine is 
famous among the harsh vintages of Castile. It is 
a picturesque old town, with towered gates and a 
quaint market place, and houses resting on wooden 
arcades. The Posada del Sol, at the comer of the 
Plasa, is neat and clean. 

Slgllts.— "A Greco-Roman church still standing 
entire, with heavy towers, and rich internal 
decorations. Rctablo of high altar, an elegant 
structure of the four orders, richly gilt, and adorned 
with wooden statues. In each of its three storeys 
are placed two largre compositions of Tristan, 
illustrating passages in the life of the Saviour. 
Of these, the lower pair, are the * Adoration of 
the Shepherd,* * Adoration of the Kings; * the 2nd, 
Christ at the Column,' 'Christ bearing His Cross;* 
the 8rd, * The Resurrection,* and * Ascension.* The 
altar also contains eight half-length pictures by the 
same artist, of various saints, of which San 
Sebastian is perhaps the best; and on the pillars 
of the aisle, nearest to the high altar, hang two 
mitred saints, which are probably the work of the 
same pencil. These paintings are fine numuments 
of the genius of Tristan.**— /Wr W. Stirling. 

Excursions may also be made to the Escurial, 
Aranjuez, and Toledo. Each of the two first will 
occupy a day, and will be found under other routes. 
They may all be reached by rail. 

Trains to the Escurial In 1^ hour to 2| hours; 
to Aranjuez (30| miles) in about 2 hours. 


Bajronne to Madrid, by Pamplona and 

Ballways.— Coming from Bayonne, the line to 
Pamplona turns off at Alsasua (Route 1) The 
ordinary trains from Alsasua to Saragossa take 
10 hours, and from Saragossa to Madrid about 15 
hours. The express from Saragossa takes 10 hours. 
The train from Alsasua to Saragossa starts about 

PAMPLONA (Stat) or Pampelnna. 

Population (1887), 25,630. 
Hotels. — Fonda de Europa ; El Parador General 
delasDiligencias; La Perla. 
TJie aid jPiempeiii^lit, a fortified town, capital of 
/*^ J^ivriaee Qf J^^rum, on the ArgA, It wa» 

taken from the Moors by Charlemacne in 788, tad 
made capital of Navarre in 860. It was taken by 
the French in 1808, who surrendered Ittotha IHiks 
of Wellington on the 28th July, 1818. It bas a 
celebrated annual fair in June; a brisk trade wttk 
France in silk and wool; and manofactnret of 
leather, woollens, and paper. 

SiirlltS.— Gothic Cathedral, built in tbe fovf 
teenth century, by Charles the Noble. Notlee fk» 
tombs of Carlos el Noble and his Queen JjKmot, 
and of the Count of Gajes ; also the chisel <^ Ig^^ 
tins Loyola, and the refectory and kitcban qf 
the Canons. The ohoir-atalls are finely carred. 
The portal (1783) is good, but does not hamwlis 
with the rest. The Citadel, commanding a fine 
view of the Pyrenees. Plaaa del Castillo, a nJaadM 
square. Bull-fights, July and August. Caaa de la 
Diputacion contains a few pictnrea. Splendid 
Aqueduct. Fine Theatre. The Maricet Plaes. 
Several public Fountains. Amongst other flas 
promenades, that called La Taconera. Trlnqnete 
(tennis court). Tennis, cMed juego dhpeMa^ Is a 
favourite diversion of the Navarrose. 

Pamplona has always been noted for its Oarltit 
proclivities, and Estrella, a former resldenee of 
Don Carlos, is not many miles distant, on the road 
to LogroDo. The city is styled " muy noble y may 

Oonyeyanees.— Rail to Tadela, Alagoii, Bara- 

gossa, Lerida, and Barcdona ; to Alagon, Jndmqae, 
Guadalajara, and Madrid; to Logrofio and Miranda. 

The highroad from Pamplona to Saragoaaa passsi 
through Tafalla, Valtierra, and Tudeia; neai|7 
following the rail. That to LogrolU), thxmigh 
Puentede la Reina, Estella, Los Arcos, and Yiana; 
that to Tolosa, through Lecumberri and Aribes ; 
that to Irun, by Ostiz, Latasa, San Estidban, and 
Vera ; that to Bayonne, by Ostiz, Lanz, Elisondo, 
Maya, and Urdase. France may be also reacbad, 
via road, by Zubiri, Roncesvalles, Valoarloai aqd 
St. Jean Pied du Port (14f leagues), in tba ] 

The line from Pamplona to Tudda 

Caotejon (Stat.), the junction with the line for 

Miranda; whence diligences run to the Batba of 

FUero (in a deep glen) and Ordbalot, Oaat^oitlQ 

Tudeia, 11 miles. 

TUDELA (Stat.) 

SScd NiTHnber, ie08. tbe Fnncti gslncd 
complet* Tlctorr oTcr the Sp^nlarda. Tbera bio 
minDfsctorlu o[ coarn wihIImis, balr flblicli 

BlSllt«.~A Sne eittudnl; noM Ibe lomb of 
Blancbe of Cutlle, Qoem of PcUr Ibe Cinel j ^» 

hmpltKla, LMln loiI Diedlcal gcbooU Ac. i Tuuiog 


OouTeyanceH.— Rtii to PunpionB, Smi 

and Hulrld. BaU to Taraioni jind dUige 

THeblghioadto aaneoiu{lDUi>wlnt the nil], 
rnnsbr Caites, Pedrola, CabiDat, and Alagon; 
Ibat to Aranda, bj Taraigni, Agreda, Sorla. Onaa, 
and Padecondet; ihat lo LogroBo (roltowlne tbe 
rail), l>T Alf aro, Calaborra, and Vtatt de Tamarlcei. 


I of am 

AlAOON (Stat.) 

PopnlatioD, about a,iKM, 

Ii lUuated near tbe conflDBnce d{ the Ebro and 
ifaE Jiitoii.lnthsiirDTlnce, Boilieiiilleinortb-weit 
of tbecltyolSangoeaa- Itbaaalargeannualfalr 
In September. 

~ le (akBD op be(w«M] Aligon and Sara- 

it U ho 



' of aboDt 3i 

sAK&aossA mux.), tt 

Popnlalion (1B«7), M,40?. 
HoMU.-Hotel de lai Cnatn 

UnJTerH: Fonda deEuopa. 

(Mil.-9alio, Coflitanela. 

The ancient OoiinEa Aufuila, a tutJ Utcleot 
town, ™ iBaEbm, br irBlcb It Ii dtrtded Into Uro 

■lege of Bight D 


heroic of modern limM. 

BlKht&— The aUMATii (called the Sea, tj^ the 
See or Cathedral Church), iD the Qolhic rtyle; 
note the great Moorlib portali. the Moiale mrli bf 
Donalelo; the teUblo of the high altar, tbe Oothio 

Iti black and white pUlara, the earring In the 
chapel of Saint Bernard, the Rdnrrectlon In Ala- 
baiter, by Becerra, (he SacrlMla and Cnitodla; the 
pidnreaof JnanOalTan, in the Gipllla del Naei- 
mlailo,alKi the retablo; the palnllofa bjr Blbera 
and Znrbaran, In the Sala Capllnlir; note al» 
the fine mnrblei. The Cathedral Chnrcb of Seflora 
which altracHmanjrpllgrlnn; Bote the con. and 

h ume goodmedalllana! ni 

■0 (or Bt James) 



nillc. Chnreh 

of Ban P 


of -tbe 


high altar. 

of niego de H 




■eely worthy ol 
n. La Caaa de 

fine roof, and the gallery. The Aragon Canal. 
nectlng Baragoeia with Tadeta^ ^v^v**'*^ '^'^ 
I. Pl»ia it-totna. -Ws^siaSBBrs. *«««"«;2^ 



[Section I, 

the Puerta del Sol. The gates, called La Ceneja 
and Toledo. Many pictureaqne houses, well worthy 
the Attention of the architect, especially those in 
the Calle de San Pedro, the Calle*de Santa Maria 
Mayor, and the Calle del Coso. The best public 
Promenade is the Pasco do Santa Engracia. 
Visit Torero, whence there is a good prospect, and 
Casa Blanca. 

To the west of it is MonoayO, the Roman Mom 
Caivtu, 9,600 feet above sea; near the source of 
the Donro, with a view of the Pyrenees, 110 miles 
distant. It is reached vid Tudela and Tarazona; 
from which it is 5 hours to the top. 

Oonyeyances.— Rail to Pamplona (111 miles), 
in 6| hours. To Lerida and Barcelona (226 miles), 
in lOf hours to 11| hours. To Terud, by Daroca, 
Torremocha, and Villarquemado ; thence to Va- 
lencia, through Puebla de Valverde, Sarrion, AWen- 
tosa, Barracas, Scgorbe, and Murvicdro. A rail- 
way is in progress in this direction, and is open as 
far ai CariAena, 28} miles. A line is open down 
the Ebro, past El Burgo do Ebro, to Plnat La 

Zaida, and Puebla de Hljar, 44 miles. A 

railway open past Huesca to Jaca is in course of 
construction to Canfranc, and will communicate 
by a tunnel through the Pyrenees, 2| miles long, 
at Somport, with the South of France (Midi) line 
at Oloron, and thus shorten the route from Paris 
to Madrid. 

In about 2} (express) to 4| hours (ordinary) 
from Saragossa the train roaches Calatayud, 
passing Las Casetas (page 29) and Ricla. 


Population, 11,512. 

Hotel. — Parador de las Diligoncias. Buffet. 

The ancient BUhilis^ and a Moorish town, on 
the left bank of the Jalon. It is dilapidated and 
dull, but the Yicinity is fertile. It has a celebrated 
annual fair, on the 8th September, and in the 
neighbourhood are some mineral springs (Para- 
cuellos) and stalactitlc caverns. It is the birth- 
place of Martial. The present name is derived 
from KdUU-Ayvb^ the ** Castle of Ay ub," i.e. of Job, 
nephew of Musa. 

Bights.— Church of Santo Scpulcro, which 
originally belonged to the Templars. Church of 
Santa Maria, anciently a mosque; note the beau- 
tiful portal and the octangular belfry. Domhiican 
fitvtrent. £pjgwptU palace, Sereral hospitals. 

Barracks for 4,000 men. Plaia d^ Toixm. Theatre. 
Castillo del Relojor, of the clock. Cavea, once in- 
habited by the Moors. 8<nno charming pnbUe 

A railway, 180 miles long, is projected to Valla* 
dolid, down the Douro. 

The rail follows the river Jalon, and (after 
Medina Cell) passing a tunnel of 1,000 yards enten 
the valley of the Henares; fine scenery. 

Alham a (Stat.), a name signifying a bath, 
common to several places in Spain, is situated on 
the Jalon, under a fine rock, with some excellent 
sulphur Baths in the vicinity. 

From here a visit may be paid to Pladn, 
11 miles (coach 2 hours) fh)m Alhama ; a romantic 
spot in a gorge of the mountains, with an old 
Castle And Convent (founded 119&-1318),8anonnded 
by picturesque waterfalls and stalactite Otms. 
There are remains of sculpture, frescoes, Ac, at 
the Castle. Hotels open May to October, in view 
of the Falls; some of which are 90 to 170 foethigb, 
under the names of Cola de Caballo (Horae-tailX 
Frcsnos, Reqnijadas, Caprichosa, Vado, Ac. (See 
L. Jorner s " Monasterio de Piedra.") ftaiHn an ^ 
Medlnaceli (Stat.) gives the title to a wen- 
known and ancient ducal family. Omnibus to 
Soria, (page 109). 


A decayed city, on the Ilenarcs. 

Population, 4,567. HoteL— Fonda de Ventura. 

Sights.— Grand cathedral; note the marbles 
in the trascoro; the rose window; the retablo(rf 
the high altar; the statues and fine sepulchres* 
the sacristy; the Gothic cloisters. El Colegio; 
note the cloister and the tomb of the Bishop de 
Risova. The Alcazar, or Episcopal palace, on a 
height. A magnificent aqueduct. Remains of 
ancient walls and gates. The Alamedns, or public 
walks on the banks of the river. 

There arc some exceedingly old houses of the 
Byzantine and Gothic styles, the latter near the 

Jadraque (Stat) Population, about 1,500. A 
small town, in a well-cultivated plain. Near here 
are the celebrated galena mines of Ilicndc la 
Encina, which are argentiferous. 

Population, 8,503. 


Ii Utiuted on the Urcbuik of Iha Rctiin>i,liD» 

tnre^ t.^illnB of tha lUe of Mary MagJ-lene, 

tm.rf bj n bridge partly o( Romin archlloclor.. 

Thar "ere painted by Cano. Two of themexccl all 

the rcit, and are painted In Cano'i be.t Mjle. On* 

Sjiln de LlnBBTi or Buloon o[ Ihe GenoologlMof lilt 

repnacnt. Wary walking Oor Lord's Peetat the 

fnmllT; andthi! BnDt:1iLoin<iy-iilc«9. BonUlgucl. 

Uannuetof th. Ph«i«gi the other. Maiy kii«l- 

> Chnrtb (tomerl, i Mowiuf), In the Pl.ti de 

Insbe/Mtllfm In the Garden. Two of the ilde 

S until Marin. Ban Bttebiin.scDriouichilrrb. Snii 

altars contain plcmrciby the umc artlit, princi- 

FrancUco, a Fran<^lwan Churdi, roander) in IJOOi 

pally ilnglefigureiof nlnlii and an Eccc Ilomo, 

note the Capllla de Im Saralois with a bDautiTDl 

painltd on a Hnall Ubomacic, and moch Injured. 

alator, BndllicFanleon.wlieiahinnKriyrcitcdlhe 

There li now a Mritl ;(ae from MadrU to 

Toledo (Ml mile.), thenee throogb Clndad Renl 

tomb of one at the tTcndoHi. lAi Cusai Coniii- 

(page SB) to Badnjoi. It doci not pan througb 



llenani, which rwii betwcgn lilgh banki (o 

Topnl alien, 8.1 «4. 

AinqoMa. whrnFO 11 1> T lylleB to 

ALCALA (Stat.) 

The ancient Ara Jorfa, a town and royal reii- 

HOteL— Pnrndor dc Ini Dlllgencbu. 

The ancient C-iH»i>lu'iim.conimanl vcalledAlcaWdD 

dcnce on the Icll hank of the Tagni, near the 
Jarama, In a beanlUul and lertUe hollow, 1,«1« 

Madrid It has greatly declined, but latterly Id 
popnlation haelnereued. Hero Cardinal Ximenci 
founded (he printing OBlahllslimeuli which pro- 
duced his Compluleiulan Polyglot Blhlc; and 


built by Cardin. 

sgio do S. Ildelonio, or Uiilvcrslly, 

Cardinal Clinerot, with Xhuenen' 
Lialnilmle, Iha o^lamcnl^ the grand 
:bleplKopal Palace; note the equate 

El MagMml. a Qolhlc Clinrch: note 

The high road passe. Pncnlc dc VWeroi. 

H&driil to OetaJt, AjiuJom, Toledo, Clndad 

Bsal, Albacate, AlmMma, and Valsncla. 

At Outale (Stiit.1, popiiUtlun, 3,iGa, nt » miles 
touth-eitt of Madrld.on Iho road to Toledo, la a' 
fine brick Chnrcb, conUInins- lU large pU- 

8UlitB.—Tlie Palace, the retreat of the Conrl, 

•omc pictures {one room full of Quixote palnllngi) 
by Titian In the chapel. The gardens an<l walks 

elm trees hronRht Irom Ennland, and La Casa 

but Ihe landlord of the Emhajadorrs Hotel ean get 
them. Feet to porters of both Palnce and Casa. 
To the north-east la OhlnOhOn (pop., 4,;t1}, 


n. 16W-40. who 

ought th 

It over to Ed rope. 
E^I daComllsBie (Conntsss's Powder) and Cinchona. 
ConTeyMiCas.— Rail to Madrid (SI miles In 1) 
Jor)i to OMUllelO (Stat.) In ) hour; Ihenee 
/ a branch line, ensAlgodor (page M), to Toledo 
(1« milag) In 1 hour. 

TOLEDO (Stat.) 
Population (I887J.19.9*I' 
H0teU.-Fondadc la Imperial; Fonda d* Lino 
t Inferior). 

OnroVlitti Iwitt Wit W*."i.V«i, w 



[SMtion 1. 

The ancient 7bMiim,a celebrated city, capital of 
the prorince of the same name, and under the 
Ootha and Moors capital of the wb(^e kingdom. 
It stands on a rocky height, on the Taga^ here 
crossed by two splendid bridges. One of these, ! 
St. Martinis, on the west si<ie, has a carious 
tradition attached to it, riz., that it was set on 
fire by the architect's wife when half finished, 
bccanse improperly built, thus saving his honour. 
It is surrounded by a Moorish wall, flanked by 
numerous towers, and has many steeples ; is well 
supplied with water; and is still celebrated for Its 
sword blades, though not more than scrcnty hands 
are now employed. It was taken by the Goths in 
4OT, and by the Moors in 714, who retained it up 
to the year 108.^, when it was annexed to the 
Spanish crown. Its population formerly exceeded 
300,000. The climate is very cold in winter and 
hot in summer. Near it is the mountain range of 
Sierra de Guadalupe, 5,115 feet almve sea. 

SilrbtS.— Magnificent Gothic OathedraL It 
was designed by P. Diaz, 1227, and was completed in 
1403, and plundered successiyely in 1521 and 1808. 
It is 404 feet in length, and 204 in width. The 
only tower which is finished is 825 feet high. Of 
the exterior, note La Pucrta de los Leones, at the 
end of the south, and La Puerta del Reloj, at that 
of the north transept; also the rich great west Door^ 
called La Puerta del Perdon. The interior is 
very fine, especially the painted windows. Note 
the fine sculpture in the core (choir). In the 
CapUla Mayor note the Gothic retablo, ascended 
by jasper steps, containing carvings of the Saviour 
and Virgin, by Borgofio, Rincon, and Fclipi ; also 
the tombs of Alonso VII., the infant Don Pedro. 
Sancho el Bravo, Sancho el Dcseado, and Canlinul 
Mendoza. In the Capilla de Santiago, note the 
tombs of Juan do Zereguela, and of the Conde do 

After visiting the Capilla de los Reyes Nucvos, 
and that of San Eugenic, containing some relics of 
the ancient mosque, and some Cufic inscriptions; 
obperve the Capilla de Santa Lucia, with some 
ancient monuments, and a painting of the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Peter. The Capilla de San Ildef onso 
contains the fine tombsof Cardinal Albunioz, Alonso 
doArila, Carrillo de Mendoza, Juan de Contreras, 
and of Cardinal Borja. Note aiso the Gothic 

Chapel. The walls of the Capilla M«s«n1»e, or 
Maiarabie Chapel, were painted in fr«aeo by 
BorgoDa, and are intended to repreaent the eaa- 
palgn of Oran. In the Bala Capitular de Ixrvieno^ 
note the portal; also the Puerta, by GhitleR«a,aBd 
the ceiling by Francisco Lara. It contalna watm 
very fine paintings, by Borgofia, eosne of the best 
of which are a Holy Family and a Natirity of the 
Virgin. In the Sacristia are pictures by Vandyek, 
RuTh'Us, Greco, Orente, Bassano, and Gnerdns. 
It contains a fine carved imagre of San Fraaelseo. 
by Cano. The Ochavo, or Octag^on, the dome of 
which is painted in fresco, contains some flue 
marl)leM, and many relics; note an image of tlis 
Virgin in black wood, on a silver throne, her erown 
being studded with jewels. In the Vestaario^ 
among other paintings, are a sketch of St. George 
and the Holy Family, by Rubens; and a Cirenin- 
cision and Nativity, by Bassano. The great bell 
weighs over 17| tons. 

Note also the Gothic cloisters; the anperb gate, 
called Pucrta del Nlflo Perdido (of the lost child); 
a fine pictiire of Velasquez, in the chapel of Saa 
Bias; the fine gates, called Puerta de Catalins, 
Puerta Nueva, Puerta de los Canonlgoa. In the 
library of the chapter are some fine pictures, a 
large number of prhited books, and a eolleetien ff 
Latin, Greek, and Arabic MSS. Many of tht 
former paintings of the Cathedral haTO beea 
transferred to the National Gallery at liadrid. 

Aloazar, the former residence both of Moorish 
and Castiliun monarchs, was an extensive pile of 
throe storeys, surrounded by a balustrade; afttt 
being restored nt an outlay of about £300,000, it 
was altaost destroyed by fire on the 0th Jaauaryi 

El Transito, formerly a Jewish Synagogue, 
and now roslorcd to wliat is believed to be its 
original state; it is not so ancient as the 
other Fjniagoguc, ])ut much finer. Church of San 
Tome, near El Transito, with a wide tower in 
the Moorish style; It contains the matter-pke* 
of Thcotocopuli or Domenico (sumamed £1 GreooX 
representing the Burial of Gonzalo Ruiz, CoBBt 
of Orgaz, a descendant of the celebrated Eateban 
Juan. Zocodover, or square market, naar the 

Route 3.] 



San Juan de los Reyes, the remains of a Fran- 
ciscan convent; note the portal by Coyarmbias, 
and the fine cloisters and Qothic arches in the 
chapel. El Carmen, a conrent near the Hospital 
de la Banta Ctnz ; note the fine tombs of Lopez de 
Ayala, and of Don Pedro, both by Bermg^ete. 
Santiago, or Santa Ftf, a nunnery, containing some 
fine pictures; note the Dead Christ, by Cano, in the 
Sala Capitular. Beautiful views from La Azotea 
(platform) and EI Mirador (balcony or gallery). 
San Juan de la Peniteneiat near San Gines, and 
founded b^ Cardinal Ximenez, in 1511 ; note the 
fine tomb of Francisco Ruiz, also the paintings in 
the retablo. Santa Maria la Blanca, near the con- 
vent of San Juan de los Reyes; it was built in the 
ninth century for a Jewish synagogue, and was 
converted into a church in 1405; the architecture 
is peculiar. Los Silos, a Bernardino convent; note 
the Ionic chapel, and the Assumption of the Virgin, 
by El Oreco. Visit San Roman, San Clemente, 
and San Pedro Martir^ the latter containing some 
fine statues. 

Hospital de la Santa Cruz, overlooking the Tagus, 
founded by Pedro Mendoza, and one of the finest 
buildings in Spain ; note the fine chasing of the 
portal, the two superb halls, the ceilings, staircase, 
Ac. It is now used as a foundling hospital. Hos- 
pital de San Juan el Bautista, commonly called de 
Afucra (near Las Covachuelas), built by Busta- 
mante in 1542. Fiae hall, Doric chapel, portal by 
Bcrruguete; retablo painted by El Greco. Gasa del 
Nuncio, a hospital for lunatics, near the Puerta 
Lodada. Moorish Mosque, in the Calle de Cristo 
dela Luz. Casadel Ayuntomiento (Town Hall), 
built by Domenico Greco; handsome staircase. 
Las Covachuelas (the small caves or grots), some 
Roman remains in the suburb near the Alameda. 
La Fabrica de Armas, about one mile from the city, 
still noted for its manufactory of noords. Puerta 
de Visagras, 9th centurj'. Puerta del Sol, a fine 
Moorish gate of granite arches, near the church of 
Santiago. Roman Circus, remains of, near the 
hospital called El Nuncio. Archbishop's Palace, 
in the west plaza of the cathedral. A public walk, 
called Alameda, adorned with statues, outside the 
Puerta de Visagro, called also Puerta Lodada. 
Artists will find endless occupation in the environs. 

CkmV0ya&ce8.>-Ran to Madrid, Aranjaez, and 



For works on Toledo, consult Historia de Toledo, 
by Pedro de Rojas, folio, 2 volumes, Mad. 1654-63. 
La Primacia de Toledo, by Diego de Castejon y 
Fonseca, folio, 2 volumes, Mad. 1645 ; and Toledo 
Pintorcsca, by Joa4 Amador de los Rios, Mad. 1845. 

Ret urn to Castille jo. Castillejo to Tembleque in 
li hour. 


A poor, tumble-down town in the province of 
Toledo. Near it, at La Conoepcion de Almaradiel, 
the first of the few villages of the Sierra Morena, 
commences the plain of La Mancha. 

Alcazar (Stat.), an old town of 8,728 inhabit- 
ants, 20 miles north of which is EI TobOBO, a 
poor village. 

Alcazar is the junction for Cordova and Seville 
9id Manzanares, Ac, From Manzanares a line 
runi 41 miles to Ciudad Real. 

dUDAD REAL (Stat.) 
Population (1885), 13,589. 
Hotels. — Posada de las Moreras; 
Miracielo. Buffet. 


Capital of thcprovinceof the same namc,formerly 
capital of La Mancha, situated between the Gua- 
dianaand the Jabalon. The town, built by A.Ifon8o 
el Sabio, at first called Villareal, became the 
head- quarters of the celebrated Santa Hermandad 
(holy brotherhood), founded in 1249, for the 
suppression of highway robbery. The ruins of 
the original walls still remain. 

In the neighbourhood of this town the French 
completely routed the Spanish, on the 27th March, 
1809. Commerce in wine, fruits, oil, and mules; 
and it has a large annual fair in August. 

Sights.— Fine large hospital, now barracks for 
6,000 men. Church, with some fine carvings, by 
Merlo, Puerta de Toledo, with Arabic inscriptions. 

Conyesrances.— The direct line from Madrid 
to Merlda and BadaJOS (Route 6) now runs 
through Toledo and Ciudad Real, and thence past 
PaertOllano (Stat.)* noted for its coal and 
its iron springs. Diligences to ValdepefiaS 
(Stat.), through Almagro and Mowl> ^sA. ^» 


i^^vW vx* i«i«.^«^ ^.^e«.vv^^ ^>a«*>v. ^ 



[Section 1. 

its fine jaspers and bronze capitals. Note especially 
the Capilla de los Apostolos, and that of San Martin, 
with its carvings and sepulchres; also the cloisters, 
the Sala Capitular, with fine facade, and beautifully 
carved walnut doors. The other chapels worthy of 
note are those of Santa Elena, the Asuncion, La 
Onda, San Juan, and Santiago ; also the Capilla de 
los Caballcros y Albomoccs, which contains some 
very superb sepulchres, and some good pictures. 
Archicpiscopal palace, a handsome buildhig, con- 
taining a splendid saloon, called '* Salon dc San 
Julian.*^ Among the parish Churches is Juan 
Bautista, containing the tombs of the Montcmayors. 
San Pablo, a convent, beautifully situated on a 
precipice ; note the rctablo of the church. Several 
other convents, the best of which is Las Pctras, 
with good fresco paintings. The Church of Sta. 
Maria de Gracia was once a synagogue. San 
Cristobal and El Socorro, two heights. Viaduct, 
850 feet long, and 150 high; some curious old 
houses built on the heights. &c. Bridges of San 
Anton and Las Escalas, which cross the Jucar; 
also that of San Pablo, whence there are fine views. 
Promenades in the vichilty, with fine views. 

OonyeyaxiCdfl. — To Valencia, passes Fuentes, 
Cardeflete, Utiel, Slcte Aguas, and Chiva. There 
is also a route to Valencia by Alarcon, Mhiglanllla, 
and Requena. The road to Teruel (page 88) runs 
by Trajacete, Frlas, and Albarracin. Trajacete 
lies at the base of an eminence, in a valley sur- 
rounded by hills, and watered by the Jucar. Here 
are found rock cryst.ils. 

BxCUrsiOXLB.— In the neighbourhood of Cucnca 
the botanist, the geologist, the antiquary, and the 
sportsman will be repaid. Some trout may be had 
at Ufta, about 5 leagues from Cuonca. The geolo- 
gist should visit La Cueva del Judlo; Buenache, 
about 2 leagues off; and La Cueva de Pedro CotlUas, 
a stalactltic cavern, up the Huorcar valley. 

ROXJ7?33 e. 

Madrid to Talayera, Tmjlllo, Merida, and 

Badajoz, by road. 

The road to Badajoz passes Navalcamero, 

Maqncda, Talavera de la Reyna, Navalmoral, 

Alm&raz, Tnijlllo, and Merida, The country is 

poorly cultivated, except In the vicinity of towns 

jia^ rJJJng^os. Many of these being near the line 

«/■ ra//, will be found either here or in Route 13. 

Railway.— The shortest and best route to 
Lisbon (411 miles), by the Del Tajo line, passes 
through Villaverde, Cabafias, Torr^os, Talsrera 
(86 miles), Navalmoral, Plasencla, Arroyo (branch 
to Caceres), Herranela, Valencia de Alcantara 
(252 miles); hence to Oporto (488 mllesX or to 
Lisbon, via Marvao (near Portalegre), Torrede 
Vargcnsa, Santarem, Ac. A detailed deacription 
of this route will be found at page 82. Only those 
desirous of seeing the country, and having plenty 
of time, would take the carriage road. 

TALAVERA (Stat.), or TaUtvera de 

Population, 10,029. 

HoteL— Posada de las t*ostas. 

The ancient Talabriga, beautifully situated on 
the right bank of the Tagns, hero crossed by a 
bridge of thirty-five arches. Here, on the 27th 
and 2Sth July, 1809, was fought ihoBattfe in which 
the English and Spanish troops, under the Duke of 
Wellington, totally defeated the French under 
Joseph Bonaparte and Marshals Jourdain and 
Victor. It Is called Talavera de la Reyna, having 
been the dowry of DoRa Maria, and to distinguish 
It from Talaverala Real, In the provinceof Badajoz, 
and Talavera la Vleja, in that of Toledo, It has 
manufactures of earthenware, leather, soap, and 
silk, and two large annual fairs. 

Sights.— La Colcglata (Sta. Maria la Mayor), of 
the Gothic order; also several other churches. A 
fine Convent, now turned into a manufactory; also, 
other convents. Several Hospitals and schools <rf 
Latin and Philosophy. Bridge over the Tagus, 
built In the fifteenth century. Public Promenade, 
called La Alameda. Some Roman remains, and 
many Moorish Towers. 

Distance : 37 miles west-north-west of Toledo. 

The Talavera line was extended westerly in 
1877-8 to Oropesa, an old town which has a Castle 
of the Duke do Frias; and NavcUmoraJ^ or JfavtU- 
moral de la Mata (pop. 3,471) ; from whence it mni 
to Malpartida (pop. 4,ooox Plasenda (page 82), 

Arroyo (branch to Caceres, page 84), and 
Valencia de Alcantara, near Aicantan 

(page 85) ; and thence into Portugal. 
The distance from Talavera to Kavolmoral and 

Route 6.] 



Shortly before arriving at Almnraz, the Tngns is 
crossed by a bridge, 580 feet long, and 184 feet in 
height; it was built in 1552. Almaraz to 
Jaraicejo is 6 leagues. This place contains con- 
siderable vestiges of Moorish architecture. From 
Jaraicejo to Trujillo is 4 leagues. 


Population, 9,428. 

HotoL — Posada de los Caballeros. 

The ancient Turris Juiia^ province of Caceres. 
It stands on the declivity of a granite hill, 
crowned by an ancient castle, and has an imposing 
appearance. It has earthenware factories, and is 
the birth-place of Pizarro^ the conqueror of Peru. 

Bights.— La Villa, the ancient part of the town, 
with some Roman and Moorish remains. Church 
of Santa Maria Mayor ; note the windows and the 
tomb of Diego de Paredes. The base of this church 
is the Roman tower from which the town is named. 
Santa Maria de la Concepcion, where Pizarro lies 
buried. San Martin, well worthy of a visit; 
curious tombs and fine rose window. Church of 
Santiago; very ancient, fine retablo. Palace of 
San Carlos, with a fine court. La Alberca, said to 
liave been a Roman reservoir. Casa do Ayunta- 
mieuto (Town Hall), containing some paintings. 
La Plaza. Moorish Tower, near the Arch of 

Distance: 23 miles cast of OacerOB (Stat.), 
page 84. 

From Trujillo to Merida by road is 13 leagues. 

HEBIDA (Stat) 

Population, 7,390. 

Hotels. — De las Animas; del Leon. Buffet. 

A city on the right bank of the Gnadiana. It is 
the Emerita Augusta of the Romans, and was 
founded in the year 25 B.C., by Augustus, for 
the settlement of his veteran troops (emeriti). It 
afterwards became the capital of Lusitania. It 
fell into the hands of the Moors a.d. 718, and was 
attached to the kingdom of Castile in 1228. 

Sights.— Santa Eulalia, a huge convent. Church 
of Santa Eulalia, near the convent. Castle, partly 
Roman and partly Moorish ; well worthy of a visit. 

Alcazar, partly Roman and partly Moorish. 
Arch of Santiago, built by Trajan. Palacio, a 
prison of the Count de la Roca; partly Roman 
and partly Moorish. 


A fine Roman Aqueduct of one hundred and 
forty arches. El Tajamar (cutwater), a Roman 
dyke, to prevent inundations. Roman Bridge, 
of four arches, crossing the Albarregas, of peculiar 
interest to the antiquarian, the historian, and 
the architect. Roman aqueduct, called Los 
Milagros. Remains of a Roman circus. Roman 
Amphitheatre outside the town. 

Merida was the largest city of the Roman 
Hispania; it had 84 gates, and a garrison of 
90,000 soldiers. A Moorish historian declared that 
no man could tell the wonders of Mtfrida. 

Ckmyesranoes.— Rail to Badajoz and Ciudad 
Real. Diligence to Madrid, through Trujillo 
and Almaraz, to Talavera de la Reyna; thence by 
rail. Branch rail from Merida to Tocina (on the 
line between Seville and Madrid) vfa CalamOXLtO, 
Almendralejo. a pleasant spot In Estremadura, 
Lob Santos, under Sierra di 8. Cristobal, ZaCra, 
with a Moorish Castle and the Palace of its 
Dukes, and Lloroiia, an ancient town near the 
Sierra Morena. From Zafira a line of 111 miles 
runs to Huelya (page 111), the principal stations 

being Fregenal and Valdelamusa. 

Excursions to the Roman water reservoirs, 
one about 1 league from the city, the other about 2 
leagues, near TrujiUanos. 

BADAJOZ (Stat.), pron. Badahoth. 

Population (1887), 27,279. 

Hotel.— Gran Hotel Central. Buffet. 

The ancient Pax-Augtuta^ a strongly fortified 
frontier city, at the confluence of the Rivillas with 
the Quadiana. It is strengthened by outworks, 
and by the fortified height called San Cristobal. 
The river is crossed by a superb granite bridge 
of twenty-eight arches. It was taken by the 
French under Soult, on the 10th March, 1811, and 
by the English, imder Wellington, on the 6th April, 
1812. It is the birth-place of the celebrated 
Spanish painter, Luis Morales. 

Sights.— Cathedral (begun in 1248), containing 
a Conception, and other pictures by Luis Morales ; 
also a Magdalen, by Cereso ; note also the cloisters, 
Church of the Conception, contalvAsci,«!assss>sfe,'!8^«»««. 



[Section 1. 

Citadel, with lofty tower, with the remains of a 
mosque. Arsenal. Several Iiospitals. 

ConyeiranoeB.— RaU to Lisbon (I74 miles), 
through El vaa, Portalegre, Abrantes, Torres Novas, 
Santarem, Yillafranca, and Olivaes; two trains 
daily; 12 to 16 hours. Rail to Mcrida, and thence 
to Madrid, by Giudad Real; two trains a day. 
Time, 20 to 25 hours. 

Distance: 5 miles from the Portuguese frontier, 
and 314 miles from Madrid. 

A Tour In the North of Spain, Barcelona 
to Lerlda, Saragoasa, Pamplona. Vitoria, 
Miranda, Bilbao, and Santander. 

Ordinary trains from Paris to Marseilles in 
about 23 hours; express train in about 16 hours. 

Steamer or rail from Marseilles. The usual 
route is from Paris vtd Tonlons«, Narbonne and 
Port Bon, as in Route 9, in reverse order. Time 
to Barcelona, about 26 hours. 

BARCELONA (fitat.) 

Population (1887X 264,400. 

Hotels. — Las CnatroNaciones; Fonda Falcon; 
Grand Continental; Universo; Del Oriente; De 
lasCuatro Partes del Mundo; Fonda Peninsular ; 
Fonda deEspalia; Fonda Catalana; del Comercio. 

Several Posadas, or second-class hotels. Lodgings 
only second-rate. First-class Caf^s. 

Post OfflCC—Plaza de Gatalotta. 

Telegraph Offloe.— Plaza de Palacio. 

The ancient JSorirf no, a strongly fortified city and 
sea-port on the Mediterranean, formerly capital of 
Catalonia, surrounded by a charming and highly- 
cultivated country, under a fine healthy climate, 
and commanded by a citadel on the north-east, and 
the fortress of Montjuich on the south-west. It 
is divided in half by a fine broad promenade called 
the Rambla, which name is retained throughout 
with various suffixes. New suburbs have grown 
up, as, for instance, at Gracia, which is connected 
with the old town by a fine street, Paseo de Gracia. 
Population of town and suburbs, over 400,000. 

Its Harbour is deep enough for largo ships to 

anchor inside the port. Its ancient name is due 

to its Carthaginian founder, Hamiloar Barkino, 

»boat 200 jreara B.C. It w&s tak&n. by the French 

to r^'^ — - -fierward8inl808; desolated by the 

yellow fever in 1821, and bombardod by Espartero 
in 1843. It is a place of gn^eat trade, and has much 
increased of late years, in spite of revolutions 
and the Carlists. It has manufactures of cotton 
goods, silks, Ac employing 100,000 handa. The 
suburb of Barceioneta (population, 6,000), across 
the harlwor, is now an integral portion of the 
town. A bank was founded here in 1401, perhaps 
the first on record. Here Columbus, returning 
from his discovery of America (1498), was received 
in triumph by Ferdinand and Isabella. 

Sights.— Gothic Cathedral, La Seo, containing 
many beautiful tombs, and some grand stained 
glass; the choir and 'Sillcria are deserving of 
especial attention for their fine carving^; the view 
from the tower is very fine; note also the cloister, 
with its frescoes. 

The old Cathedral Church of Santa Maria del Mai^ 
of the fourteenth century, ccmtaining ■ome magni- 
ficent stained glass; note also the high altar, and 
the pictures by Villadomat. Saa Miguel, very 
ancient, with a Roman inscription. San Jnstoy 
San Pastor, of the fourteenth century. Santa 
Marta del Pino, with a fine nave and toiwer. Saa 
Augustin, modem. San Pedro, of the tenth century. 
San Pablo, Byzantine, built in the tenth century. 
San Cucuf at, of the tenth century. Santa Ana, d 
the twelfth century. San Jaime, of the fourteenth 
century, with a fine nave. 

Franciscan Convent, with some curious tombs. 
La Colegiata Sta. Ana; note tha aepulohie of 
Boera. San Belem ; some fine marbles, pictures 
by Villadomat, and sword of Loyola. El General, 
a hospital. Santa Cruz, a hospital. Casa de 
Caridad,- for poor men, women, and children. 

Real Palacio, originally built in the thirteenth 
century, but since modernised. The old chapel of 
S. Agueda, which was part of it, now Sta. Clan 
Convent, has a Museum of Architecture aad 
Antiquitlei. Museo Salvador, containing 
curious MSS., coins, a collection of marbles, 
Spanish swords, a museum of natural history, and 
a splendid herbal. Library of San Juan (Biblioteea 
Nacional), containing 40,000 volumos, and o 
interesting collection of MSS. 

There are also three other publie Uhrariti^ 
one of 'Which i% called the Episcopal. 

Route 7.] BARCELONA. 39 

icls, sailing to 
braltar, Cette, 
America. — Sec 

ompanics ran 

105) may be 

ice via Suria, 

itntion, firs. 

is; omnibunes 
veral stations 
the enTironfl, 
edfor. Street 
fares, during 
als; at night, 
le first hoar; to xnid- 

rklng, 2 reals 

uiro, Gcrona, 

irs and Vich, 

•.res, Tarrasa 

They are 21 

. lona. 

hout 18,600— 
italouia. It 
I, employing 
nafacture of 

1,199—18 tho 
B8 of kerspy- 
"rom MonlB- 
irrasa, a dill- 


ragb Nortl^ 

i (above), 14 
kra, 77 mllp^ 
i by Philip V„ 

BeUpulg, to 

^ : At Bellpiiig, 

Klesolft flunily, 
B«roy^ Baicaa^ 


pal ^>«sE^s<^»^ 



[Section 1. 

L^RIDA (Stat.) 

Population, 17,672. 

Buffet at station. 

HoteL— Fonda San Luis. 

The ancient Ilerda^ a bustling town, capital of 
the province, pleasantly situated on the Segre, 
here crossed by a noble bridge. It stands on a 
hill slope, commanded by a lofty citadel. It was 
stormed by the French during the War of Succes- 
sion in 1707, and was again taken by them under 
Snchet in 1810. Here Cssar defeated two of 
Pompey's generals; and in the adjoining plain 
Scipio defeated the Carthaginian Hanno, 216 B.C. 

{UghtB.— The old Cathedral (originally a 
mosque), built in the thirteenth century. It is 
now a ruin, but still presents some rare studies of 
the Byzantine-Gothic style. The cloisters are 
especially worthy of attention. From the tower 
is a most charming and extensive view. The new 
Cathedral, in the lower part of the town, is a fine 
Corinthian building, containing some good carving 
and sculpture. The churches of San Lorenzo and 
San Juan, anciently mosques. The latter is 
especially worthy of notice as offering samples of 
18th century art. 

ConyeyanceB.— Rail to Saragossa and Pam- 
plona; to Madrid; to Barcelona. Diligences to 
Fraga and Balogucr. Rail throughout to Tarra- 
gona by Reus, Villaseca, &c. (See Tarragona, 
Route 18). A lino from Lerida to Moruech is pro- 
jected to join the French Southern (Du Midi), via 
La Conca de Tremp and Las Caldas de Bohi, in 
connection with a tunnel through the Pyrenees. 

BalagUer (population, 4,742), is a fortified town 
on the Segre, 16 miles north-east of Lerida. 
Distance: 82 miles west of Barcelona. 

Pass Binefar and Monzon to Belgaa(Stat), 

where a branch goes off via Castejon, to 

Barbastro (Stat.)-population, about 8,200— 
50 miles north-oast of Saragossa, It is an ancient 
walled city on the Cinca, and contains a cathedral, 
with some paintings of the sixteenth century, and 
three convents. The road from Lerida to Meqill- 
nenza (population, 2,677), 60 miles south south- 
•ast of Uuesca, runs part Torre and Aytona. It 
is the ancient OetoflWMa, situated at the confluence 
o/^ the c/aca with t/fe Ebro, and is defended by a 
^orfrvss, yi'jjich was takeu by the French in 1811. 

From lmKU to Tardiaiita and Bazmgona, 

by ordinary trains, in 6| hours. Thence to Vitoria 

and Bilbao. 

For Saragoasa, Pamplona, Toloaa, and 

Vitoria, see Routes 1 and 2. Train from VltOlla 
to Miranda (ditto) in 1| hour. Ordinary trains 

from Miranda to Ordona and Bilbao, in 

a^ hours, quick trains, 8} houra. 

BILBAO (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 60,772. 

Hotels.— De Inglaterra; las Nayarras; Tde- 
grafo. English Reading Room, with papers, Ac. 

It is the chief port of the North of Spain, ci4>ital 
of the Province Yizcaya (Biscay), and la situated 
on the River Nervion. It is surrounded by lofty 
mountains. The town is well built, but damp and 
unhealthy. The river was once crossed by an old 
stone bridge, replaced by a new Iron anspeniian 
bridge. The name signifies **fine bay.** The 
place originated in the year 1800. l^ywardi 
the close of the fifteenth century the celebrated 
Consulado, which, as a commercial tribunal, hoMi 
the highest rank in the kingdom, was remored 
here from Burgos, where it was at first established. 
At the epoch of the earliest wars it was the scene 
of frequent contests and was twicetbesleged. It 
was here the celebrated Carlist chief, ZmnalA- 
carregui, received his death wound on the 10th 
June, 1835. In 1874, it was besieged three months 
by the Carlists, including a bombardment of 10 
days; until relieved by Marshals Serrano and 
Concha, in May. The chief exports are of wool, 
fish, iron, and fruits, and iron ore, of which large 
quantities are shipped to South Wales. Much 
also goes to foundries in the northern provinces 
There are mines of copper and iron, and smelting 
works in the neighbourhood. Large ship-building 
yard on the river Nervion. 

Sights.— Cathedral and several churches; 
Casa de Ayuntamicnto (Town Hall); arsenal; 
Camiccria, or public slaughter-house; superior 
schools, supported by the tribunal of commerce; 
Campo Santo, a large public cemetery; Cass 
Torre; Punta de Banderas, with its gardens; 
Puente de San Anton, of the tw^th century; new 
suspension bridge; large rope-walks; dock, for 
building merchant vessels. The greatest attnw 
tiou ate tYie ^u>cA\<^ ^eXV-v \Xvc^ ^qmm^ fteqjoioM 

Route 8.] 




at Portagalete. English Physician. 
English and American Consuls. 

Conyesrances.— Rail to Ordufia, Miranda, Haro, 
Castejon, and Logrofio. To Miranda Junction on 
the main line (Paris to Madrid), 4 hours. 
Steamers to Bayonne, San Sebastian, and Santan- 

der. Tram to Las Arenas and Portngalete 

(7 miles), situated at the embouchure of the 
Nervion into the sea. JSTote/.— Fonda de Portn- 
galete. Rail to Dnrango and Zomairaga 
(page 16), on the line from Madrid to Irun. 

The road to Santander is by Somorrostro, Islares, 
SantoHa, and Langre; that to San Sebastian 
through Guernica, Ondarrea, Motrico, DelMl, or 
Deva, a bathing place, and Orio. 

Take steamer or coach to Santander. 

Population (1887), 42,125. 

HoteiB. — Europa; Urana; Comercio. 

The P&rtus BlendUum of the ancients ; capital of 
the province of the same name, and a seaport of the 
first class. It is beautifully situated on a head- 
land stretching into the Bay of Biscay. Its harbour 
is large and well sheltered, and is accessible at all 
times to the largest vessels. Since 1890, consider- 
able improvements have been carried out, and a 
large dry dock, the only one on the Spanish and 
Portuguese coast all the way to Cadiz, has been 
constructed. Length of the bay, i\ miles; average 
width, 2i. It is a flourishing commercial town, 
and has a large trade with Oreat Britain, France, 
Holland and Italy. 

The vicinity abounds in com, fruit, and cattle; 
and in the neighbouring mountains are iron and 
coal mines. The chief articles of export are wheat 
and flour, ores, and wine. It was sacked by the 
French, under Soult, in 1808. 

Sights.— Spacious harbour and fine quays. 
Cathedral; note the cloister, the relics, and the 
Arabian font. Plaza de Toros, accommodating 
8,000 spectators. Oood theatre and baths. Tobacco 
manufactory (formerly the convent of Santa Cruz), 
where cigars and tobacco are manufactured to a 
large extent, giving employment to upwards of 
1,000 people. The fine promenades, called Alameda 
Primera, and Alameda Secunda, and at £1 Sardin- 
ero Bathing Establishment, to whieh there is a 

Iteildeat BmOlAli VXo»-Ckm8iU. 

bao, Bayonne, Corunna, Cadiz, Bordeaux, London, 
Liverpool, Brazil, West Indies, Ac. Rail to Madrid, 
vid Palencia (Route 1.) Time 18i hours. Buflfet 
at Ba&os. Diligences to Castrourdiales, Laredo, 
Los Bafios de Ontaneda (20 miles), and Viesgo.- 
About 40 miles south-west is Potes, a fine spot 
among the Asturian mountains, in the Liebana 
Valley. On the road to Gijon is Santillana 
(15 miles), in the country of "Gil Bias." 

Good fishing (trout, salmon, bream, &c.) here 
and all the way to Gijon, see Route 8. 

A Tour in the north-west, lyy Vigo, Ponte- 
yedra, Composteila, Corunna, Ferrol, 
Lugo, Astorga, Leon, Oyiedo, Oijon, 
Santander, to Palencia. 


Population, about 13,416. 

Hotels.— Continental ; Europa; Cuatro Naci- 

The ancient VigoSpacarumy a seaport town, in pro- 
vince of Pontevedra; beautifully situated. It is 
enclosed by walls, and has a good harbour. The 
roadstead beyond Vigo is about 20 miles long. 
Narrowing at the points of Bestia and Randa, it 
forms, afterwards, a vast land-locked bay, having 
on its shores the little town of Redondela. It was 
much injured by the attacks of the English under 
Drake in 1585 and in 1580, under the Duke of 
Ormond in 1702, and in 1719 under Lord Cobham. 
Treasure from the Spanish galleons, sunk in 1702, 
was recovered in 1888 by .an American company. 

Sights. — ^Modern church, with fine columns; 
castles of Del Castro and San Sebastian, with fine 
views; Lazaretto; Alameda. 

British Vioe-Consul. 
Oonyeyancea— steamers 

Gibraltar, and Malaga, and 
Oporto in from 8 to 9 hours. 
Corunna in the northerly direction (see Route 15), 
and to Leon and Palencia in the southerly direc- 
tion. Those who do not care to visit Santiago 
may avail themselves of this route to Lugo 
Orense and Monforte on the line to Lugo and 
and Corunna. Rail vid Redondela (Junction) to 


Population^ 2j(^«\^ . 

to Lisbon, Cadiz, 

to St. Nazaire; to 

Rail from Vigo to 

iJiwr(?,FaiWftR-^tc«inew to San 8eba8ttan,BV\- \ ^Vivt\AXKhy^'^'^^^ 




built and has a oommodloae port for mnall crktt. 
It has a frood coastinfif trade and an cxtcnnivc 
pilchard fishery. The manufactarea comprise wool- 
lun cloth, maKlInii, leather, and hata. The name is 
derlveil from Pons Vrtux, or "olil briiljrp." 

Brltlsli Vloe-CM>ii8iiL 

Sights. — Flnza del Teacro. Santa Clara 
(Gothic). Convent of AuRmstincs (in ruins). 
Francincan convent In the Plaza do la Herrerla. 
Polaoc of the Chumichaos (in rains). Loiitr 
bridge. Agreeable promenade, with Homo pretty 
viows. The vicinity of Pontevetlra Is one of the 
most Iicautiful and fertile parts in Spain. 

Diligence to Padron by Caldas del Roy, tvlth 
warm mineral Batlis, thence 14 miles rail tu 

St. James of Campus Stella, 

The terminus of a line (called ComiMStolano de 
Santiago) of 26 miles, from CaXTll, on the coast. 

Population, 34,200. 

Hotels.— Fonda San Miguel: do la Vlzcala; de 
las Animas; Vizcaina. 

Formerly capital of Gallcia, on the Sar, In 
a moor tract. The town is built around its 
cathedral, and has numerous arcades and foun- 
tains. It is an archbishop's see, and the metropolis 
of the Knights of St. James of Compostelu. Its 
principal resources are derived from l>oing the 
resort of numerous devotees. Fiesta of Santiago, 
patron saint of Spain, July 25th. 

Sights.— A celebrated Cathedral ; pnrt of the 
building Is of the ninth century; the front is 
modem; each of its sides faces a public square. 
It stands on the Pico Sacro, and is dedicated to 
St. James the Elder. Though built of granite, it 
is full of good carved work. Note the Norman 
round arch; the gothio cloister, and tall bell 
tower; and especially the triple Oloria portal of 
the 18th century, by Mateo, of which titer c is a copy 
at South Kensington. Note the bronzes of Celma, 
the alto-relievos, the pictures by Banzas, the jaspers 
and marblcfl, Ac, in the Capilla de la Virfron del 
Pilar; also the Capilla del Reyde Francia; the 
sepulchral statues, and the tombs; with the relics, 
among which are a thorn of thp crown, somo milk 
of the Virgin, a tooth of St. Cristobal, a portion of 
^/re cross, in a baantifnl cmcifix, which bears date 
^^ saa some remBint of the ll^OOO Virgim. 

Among the churches and oonrents areSaa FelLs, 
a church of the fourteenth ccntaiy. La Cortoaela, 
near the cathedral; note the clolatert. Ban Fran- 
cisco, a fine pariah church, ftemerly a oonvcDt 
San Martin, a Benedictine oonTent, founded in the 
tenth century; note the sacristy and pulp&ta, the 
fountain, and the garden. San Domingo^ a con- 
vent ; note the belfry. Ban Auguttin, a convent; 
note the cl^ters. Hospido de loa Royca, faein; 
the cathe<iral ; a large boapital, founded by Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella in 1C04, lor the use of the 
pilgrims; note the portal, the fountain, and the 

Vnirtrsitfi founded in the rixteonth centnry It 
has about 800 student^ and in it hare been inco^ 
porntod all the colleges of the city, more especially 
thcllbrnry. ElScminaHo(in front of the cathedral), 
built for the education of priests, but now tiaed for 
the Town Hall. Quintana de loa Mneitos, foimeriy 
a cemetery of the Canons. La Plateiiai at the 
south entrance of the cathedral. £1 Menado, the 
market (» the Plata del Par; note the costiuuM sa 
Sundays. Casos Consistorialea. Plasa Mafor, 
where the buU-A^ts take plaee. Plasa de )» 
Plateros, with its beautiful fountain. The pubUe 
walk, called El Gran Campo de Santa Soaaaa. 
The l)est streets are the Itua Nuera, and Rna M 

Roads.— The road to Cape FllliBteaEVe pasNi 
Puento Maceira, Buen Jesus, and CotcnbloB; that 
to Lugo, through San Miguel and Sobrado{ that 
to Corunna, through Sigoueiro, Leyra, and Caml; 
that to Pontevedra, through El Padrvm and Galds* 
dd Key ; that to Orense, through Siatrama, Caatie- 
vito, Fojo, and Pi&or. 

Diligence to Ck>mnna; the distance ia 8S milH; 
6 to 7 hours. 

CORUNNA (Stat.) ; Spanish La Oonutt; 
French La Corogne; the att>yae of mx 


Population (1887), 84,098. 

Hotels.— Fonda del Copit^o^ in t|ie CaBs 
Real; Fonda Universal; Fonda ?'toiTo-oaiTlIa|w: 
Iberia. Caftf Suizo. 

Tlie ancient Ardcbicum Corw d mi i ^ the ofilef ssi* 

port of Gallcia. It is situated In the bays of 

BetanzoB and El Ferrol, on the east aide of a tf-B 

peninsula. The town^ which is forUAed, la dMM 

\ \nto two '^axta^ \Yv« '^W^% ^ <Mi >n«*i^ Wrik^ 

Route 8.] 



lower, or new town, called Pescaderia. The latter 
is well built, bnt the streets are narrow. It was 
from Coninna that the Spanish Armada set sail in 
1588, and on the heights of EUvlna the French were 
defeated by Sir J. Moore on the 16th January, 1809. 
The population are employed to a great extent in 
the herring and pilchard fishery. The climate is 
delightful, and favourable to longevity. Capital 
fishing. The Bay of Ferrol is directly opposite 

Sights.— Church of Santiagp* of the eleventh 
century. Church of La Santa Maria, with a Norman 
porch. The Pharos, or lighthouse, called Torre dc 
Hercules, on a Roman foundation. It is situated 
about one mile north-west of the town, is 363 feet 
above the level of the sea, and can be seen at itO 
miles distance. Darsena, or dockyard. The slips for 
shipbuilding. Hospital. Presidio, or convict prison. 
The tobacco manufactory (called La Pulloza), which 
employs upwards of 2,000 hands, principally women, 
and turns out 400 tons of cigars annually. Several 
good promenades; Calle Real; Calle Espoz y 
Mina ; that called La Marina is much frequented 
on summer evenings. The garden of San Carlos 
(Jardin de San Carlos), containing a monument to 
the memory of Sir John Moore, erected by the 
French to the '* Leader of the British Army," who 
was buried here. General Graham (Lord Lyne- 
doch), who was with Moore when he fell, was 
confirmed in his rank at Moore's dying request. 

Resident EngUsh and American Consnls. 

ConTeyanoes.— Steamers to all the northern 
ports, and also to Vigo, Cadiz, Ac. ; also twice a 
day to Ferrol. To Liverpool, Pacific Steam Navi- 
j^ation Co. Regular conununication with South- 
ampton. Diligences for Vigo every evening. 

Railway.— To Lugo (see below), 72 miles ; wHh 
eeveral bridges and seven tunnels; thence to 

Monfbrte, Ponforrada, Astorga, Leon, and 

Palenda, in conjunction with the line for 

Bxonnlon to FerrOL— steamers once a day 
from Oorufia to Ferrol and back. Time of trip 
1^ hour. By land, 88 miles, a delightftil ride. Ball 
to Betansos, 9 miles, thence by diligence. 

FERROL, or m FerroL 

(Posada da San Felipe), with 28,811 inhabitants, 

has tha first and si^est naral port in Spidn. 

being only accessible by a narrow passage of 4 
miles, bristling with batteries. Old town of Fer- 
rol irregularly built. Admission to arsenals, Ac, 
readily granted. Parish Church of San Julian is 
well built. Walks near the town, especially the 
Alameda, are pretty. Ckopatrci's Needle, which 
left Alexandria in tow for London, having been 
cast off in a storm in the Bay of Biscay, was 
picked up and brought in here, in October, 1877. 
It was safely towed to London in January, 1878. 

Coach carrying the mails leaves every forenodn 
for BetansEos, on the line to Lugo, Leon, Palencia, 
Valladolid, and Madrid. 

LUGO (Stat.) 

Population, 19,760. 

Hotel— Posada, in the Barrio de San Boque. 

A city, capital of the province of the same 
name, on a height over the MUiho. It is enclosed 
by high walls, and has a large plaza surrounded 
by arcades. In the time of the Bomans it was the 
capital of this part of Spain. 

Bights.— Gothic Cathedral of the twelfth een- 
tury; notice the north portal. Some oarioUe 
walls of immense thickness, defended by buttress- 
towers, and a very old fortress with quaint chim- 
ney. Ancient warm mineral Baths and a spring 
on the left bank of the Minho, about a quarter of 
an hour's walk from the Puerta de Santiago. 
Roman remains. See the Plaza Mayor, where 
will be found many carious types o/ the provincial 

Conveyances.— Railway to Monf orte(8tatJ; 

thence to Orense and Vigo; and from Monforte to 
Astorga and Leon. Rail to Comfia as above. 

Roads to OviedO. — Under the Asturias 
mountains, one by Gonda, Fontanegra, Acevo, 
Borducedo, Cangas de Tineo (population, 
1,200X Tlneo (a fine spot up the Nacera, popn* 
lation 1,800X Salsas, and OradO (population, 
2,000). Those who prefer the rail may travel 
vi& Monforte, Ponferrada, Astorga, and Lecm, 
108 miles. 


Population, 4,488. 

Inn.— Fonda del Norte* 

Rail to Pfll«G«9L«^%\vKrat%. 



nas UM nrsi ana siuesi navai port in ispain. 'i 'ma AMmnxn, A!«a^Mw» >*w 'w^^ ^•Coj^^*s**** 
Its po8iti<m !>•# Iwn rendered almost impregnabla, \ Xo^im«a^fibftT^w«^'<H''^^^^'^^'^^ 

44 8BAI>IBi.w's SFAIM AHP 

or Mwrlili Ootbi, iiht the TallmD hlllL In tb* i inhabit 
lime of Pliny it wB>c«pit«totthe-li/iir«,iodw»> two ga 
UfiedUrbimiMtnfflHi. II hni »n old ciitle mfl lome ^irtnolpi 


. itKte of iteny. There mrt leTenty- 

dered his eMf d 

Lfti ani, that of Ihc Cundo do Luna, -whence Ike 
no of hlB pdlacio. San Iildoro^ Sun Ujircelo. iBd 
1aC«lodnit. ThBollyconlnini alMuomo nip«li 

LSOK (SUt.) 
Population. 11,340. 
H»ttaB.-Pa"ilot del Norte; 

t, irithnnt wood! or "ats 

anolBDt Ugf" Btptima, and li 

1 7th lecfon in 

)t the ktatta of Chriillan 
form o( ajiMtagon, lur- 
I, In ■ KmHWbat dllapl- 

worOj' ot BoUne li the Puerts del Cu 
~s ambalei or Mabuibt,^ 
Aaaten many of wbUb, howover, an 

Ir.WUi ' 

>r tiwbeatq>i 

ilthoogh imaller than man;, 
tor elegance, do! Icncy, llghtnoai ot nraetnie, ami 
fine proportion cMialdered to be onrtvaUsd In Spal^ 
it la conitructEd of hcwii ilone ot a beaallf nleoloni; 
thematonryla aupcrlj. the walli arn KUfeetHKk 
It was partly rostoieil by Uandrago In the eari; 
half of this century- The principal facade, thlr- 
Icanlh ccnlnry, comprises Hye rlihly acolptared 
pointed arches, omnmentMi wltb forty atatiH, 
and jnrmounted by two very elegant and l(<ly 
towers. The plen of the lioflding ia that ot la 
irregular figure, composed of others of a legnlar 
shape, which Include the church, the aacrlsty.ani 
oratorj', theeliapelaot Santiago and Santa Tercat 
andthedoiater and iti depHidaiclM. Tbo nam 
transept, and presbytery (onn a perfect Latlnero", 
decoralod wllh light pillars anKaloliig the hlfb and 
beautiful fumted arches. Over tho Cmcero aol 
eaitem part ot the building are lecen C»iapd>t t> 

and to the north the entrance to the CapUla f 
Santlagoaud the passage to that of Santa Teitw 
and the eloisler. The riccoratieo of than chapdi, 
thdrarche>,Ae,iBUkcthataf the naToa; and they 

good retsbioa. The Caidllg de SantlacD ti 
Dl thBagui6olatwA™'Sa\KV«*i*a«»aa-, Bh 
'nn- lKB«»T>4ta BwA ^a«w, ■"■"«- s"™WV «i^»»»~*. 

Route 8.] LEOK. 

beantlfully painted windows, representing saints, 
apostles, virgins, &c^ by Flemish artists; the 
principal retablo In the niche of the presbytery is 
dedicated to the Assumption of Our Lady. The 
basement is composed of dark marbles, well polished, 
and brought from the quarries of the country. 

Above is the first tier of the Corinthian order, and 
above it another tier or attic of the same order with 
columns. In the centre is the statue of the Assump- 
tion, of good execution and of regular dimensions, 
and at the sides figures of the apostles scattered 
over the field of the retablo. In the centre of the 
basement is the custodla, beautifully executed in 
silver, adorned with statuettes of apostles and 
patron saints of the city and the cathedral. In the 
middle Is a small temple of the same material, with 
highly finished columns. The back of the choir is 
carved in white alabaster and gold, the subjects 
being the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Adoration, 
and the Offering of the Three Kings. The cathedral 
is being thoroughly renovated and almost rebuilt 
in some parts, the internal arrangements being 
changed ; the retablo and choir being taken away 
and the choir rearranged, and the altar placed 
under a baldacchino. The cloisters have also 
been modernised. The cathedral was completed 
about 1512. The interior is mainly fourteenth 

San Isidoro, or Real Casa, a massive structure; 
Romano-Byzantine of the eleventh century. In the 
chapel of Santa Catallna is the Panteon, which in 
early times was the royal mausoleum; note the 
roof, the arches, and the curious paintings inside 
the vaults. 

San Marcos, outside the walls, Plateresque of 
sixteenth century; note the fine fa9ade of the 
convent and the medallions. This church and 
monastery will well repay a visit. The church 
has been carefully repaired, but the interior of the 
monastery is not worth seeing. Few of the other 
churches or convents are of any interest ; that of 
Snn Domingo, near the Puerta San Domingo, was 
half destroyed by the French; it contains seme 
ancient tombs of the Guzman family. San Marcelo, 
rebuilt about 1100, has a good portal of the 
twelfth century, with sculpture representing the 
Virgin surrounded by angels. Church of Sta. 
Maria del Mercado arch«8 of the nayes and their 
capitals ar« noteworthy. 


Hospital de San Antonio Abad, situated in the 
western part of the city, between the church of 
San Marcelo and the Casa Municipal. There aro 
also several other hospitals. 

Casa de Espositos, or foundling hospital, a large 
building outside the town, opposite San Clodio. 

£1 Palacio Episcopal to the east of the city, its 
principal facade fronting the Santa Iglesia; one 
part of the building is occupied in winter, the other 
in summer; there is a fine garden attached to it. 

Casa de Aj'untamlento (Town Hall). Casa 
Consistorial, a vast edifice situated on one of the 
sides of the Plaza Mayor, and used for great muni- 
cipal ceremonies ; it is flanked with two towers, 
surmounted by pointed cupolas. Casa Capitular, 
appropriated to the secretariat and the archives of 
the municipality. 

Museo In the Santa Catallna, an ancient nunnery, 
which also contains the Public Library of 9,000 

A Diocesan Seminary. A Gymnasium, or insti- 
tute lately established to afford a superior general 

A Theatre in the Plaza de San Marcello, near 
Casa de Ayuntamiento. It is capacious and well 
decorated, but the exterior is unimportant, and is, 
moreover, confounded with contiguous building^. 

Casa de los Guzmancs, on the Plaza de San 
Marcelo, formerly a magnificent palace. It was 
founded about the year 1580, by Don Juan de 
Guzman who died at Calahorra; note especially 
the windows and the balconies. Contiguous to this 
house, and separated only by the Calle de Reco- 
letas, is that of the Marqueses de Yillasinta, 
Count of Sevilla la Nueva. It Is spacious, 
solidly built of hewn stone, with balconies, but 
not so fine as those of the Casa de los Guzmanes. 
Opposite is the Casa de los Condes, an unfinished 
palace of the Luna family; note especially the 
tower and curious window. 

£1 Mercado (the market); Plaza Mayor, sur- 
rounded by fine buildings, and much frequented 
by the ^ite. 

Espolon de la Puerta del Castillo, a finely planted 
space, affording a beautiful and much frequented 
promenade. Several promcnad««»^-<Q!o^^'fc."<5o». ^''^^'^ 
the printV^«\\>v\Tv^\:a&^«.v» ^^'^^^^^^^^ 


large wVjol».t^^\«»N»^ '?iVOcw\.x«»c«^^ 
one aUe wi«. «.>>TiVVi\Si\& cfax\«. ^=«^^- 


ConTSTancea.— Lriwn to OviaJo (aoc iwiow) iiy 

rill, flfll uillm, put lluiilonitu snil I'ulu da Lsn* 
iLrgugL tho Agluilan Uuimtuliii. 

From Ltoa Ipj illreci nil to I'llenola (p»|ta «), 
through MwiiLllu, Ssbaiun, Ginjsl. Vlllvta. 

■inlty i 


Ilia SponUnli. It l> colled Uuitllla da In 
Mulas. to dlbtliigulili It from htciuI olhu tcwr 

The line puueg uronl ititioiKi. muoDg whic 

nrc Tomaros, Falonqnlno*, uiiii siBnifa 

HoteL-A posndn. 

and Unw 

'ooUenH, linens 
Bight*.— Ci^lcliratrd Bcnediuline Abboy, near 
Cnrrlon, on tbe maigln ol tlie Ccn, reliulit In 
003. It van bore thnt Bt. Facundiu nillercd mar- 
tyrdom. Ileio niso San Dc 

rofiigo wlien jierMcntcil by Ills b 

S Alon 

lio tlniQ or tbe Moon, and the pdacs at tk* 
l^DiiCaot tbe place, inagoodMylD otarchltectan. 
Vlllkda cBtat.) Ilea In a lavel Uut cm the 
>aDktaf tbo a«(iiiUlo. andliof modamerlglii. It 
laB aome vrcll-bullt hoUMi, three plaiaa for iti 
nnrbcts, a larga old bridge, two parlili ofanrdiBt 
umcd tianta Uarla do la Bra and Ban Fmctnoio, 

(BtAtJ It on a decllTit; nw ' 
iMcgluete. It bai a Town HiU 
1. both in the Btuna baUdinf; 

xcallent watoi. 


(Popnlallun, *,KSi 11a> It mlloa north-wert ol 
Palcni^In, In a peatliuillal marsta. nsar ths 
Canal do Campoa. It )■ of ancient origin. 
Ucilitci a Tovn Hall, icbooli, end other public 
edifice!, there aro fonr pnrinh cbnrchea, tIi- 
Santa EdI alia, Son Jnan, Son Uartia, and Banta 
Maria. ThD high altar of Banta SnlslU wu 

of nunn of the order of Santa Brlglda, hMidM 
three hermitages, called Cristo do la Caaa de la 

Sellora d?l Gannen CorcEO, at about j toapia 
noHbofthe hllla which defend tho place. It li 
the birth-place of Fedro fuid Alonso Borroffnete, 
and of the cclcbraled commentator andpollttal 
wrilor, Baltaur Collaioi. Thcro Is soma woot- 
splnnlng for tho mannfactnro of lergea at Palenela. 

QRIJOTA (Stat.) 
(, 1,MW Ilea 4 mllea nonh-weit of 
Fulcncla, In a lioantilnl and won-woodccl dialrlcl. 

nt origia: 

Bj-or. Four liennilagos, a nuniicrji and two 

town hall, with prlnon allachod, a paHih ohorch, 

apprcased convents. Romaina of a Komau cnatic 

a primary school, numerous flonr mUia, <uid s 

trade in flour and game. 


Orajal (Stat) is altnalcd on a gentle emin- 

Bce at the angle of the road from tho Aslurlas to 

HOtri.-Fon.h. Vlicainu, 

sloncia, and Is of ancient foundation. It haa 

'^'Vic/ffmiinielii, and many good bodegua or 

RWef Cmrton. U W a \.\*»>v'» va, tai kH 

eatutar. Among olber tOlScet, la a cMtlt nt 

Route 8.] 



Sights.— A small elegant Qothic Cathedral, 
partly of the fourteenth and partly of the sixteenth 
century; note the coro, the custodia, the fine 
sculpture, and some paintings by MuriUo, Ac. 
Several convents. Hospiclo de San Lazaro, 
once the palace of the Gid. Roman sepulchral 
stone near the Puerta del Mercado. Old town 
walls and public walks. 

Conveyances. — Rail to Venta de Bafios 
(page 18), Valladolid, and Madrid; to Leon, 
Astorga, and Branuclas; thonce for Corunna and 

From Palenciabyrailto Reinosa and Santander 
(page 41), 125f miles, through the Gantabrian 
or Asturian range, 'with many tunnels and curves. 

REINOSA (Stat.) 

Population, 2,780. Bu£fet. 

The chief place of the district extending from 
the Gantabrian mountains to near Burgos, and 
called Las Monta&as de Burgos. It is situated on 
the Ebro, which is here crossed by a fine bridge. 
It is a place of some trade, and good fishing is to 
ho had in the vicinity. To the west is Pe&a 
Labra, 6,670 feet above sea. 

Large coalfields in the vicinity. The railway 
between Barcena and Reinosa presented con- 
siderable engineering difficulties, which were 
eventually successfully overcome. 

OVIEDO (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 42,716. 

Hotels.— Luisa ; La Gatalana; La Tillana; 
La Vizcaina. Gaf^ Suizo. 

A city, capital of the province, between two 
mountains, near the confluence of the Ovia with 
the Nora. It was the chief place of refuge for 
the Ghristian clergy during the early dominion 
of the Moors. In its vicinity are hot mineral 
springs and baths, and beds of coal extending over 
240 square miles. It has manufactures of arms, 
hata, and leather. 

Sights.— The Oatbedral (called La Santa), one 
of the finest Gothic buildings in Spain; note the 
facade, the painted glass, the cloisters, the shrine 
of Santa Eulalia, the Gifmara Santa (holy cham- 
ber), with its relics, comprising the bones of 
the Saints Pantaloon, Cucufftto, and nine ottier 
Oothio kln^; auuuM from the desert, owr 
Sariour'a shroud, some of the Virgin's milk, the 

sandal of St. Peter, a wine vessel used at the 
marriage of Gana, and the Gross of Pelayus, 
which fell from Heaven, another Cross, date 846, 
Library and curious M9S. 

Church of San M^el ; note the windows and 
pillars in the transept (very ancient). Church of 
Santa Maria (very ancirait), worthy of a visit by 
theantiquarian. SantuUano (a mile from the town), 
of the Byzantine order. San Pelayo (Pelayus). 
San Tirso, in ruins. San Juan. San Vicente, a 
large Benedictine convent, now used for govern- 
ment offices. Doiia Bolesquida, a pilgrim hospital 
San D<»ningo, a hospital. San Francisco, a hos- 
pital, formerly a large convent, in the vicinity of 
the town; note the cloister and chapel. Las 
Gasa Gonsistorial. La Gorte, a priscm, formerly 
a fortress. University, large building of the 17tll 
century, containing a library of 12,000 volumes, 
and a cabinet of natural history, mineralogy, &c. 
Las Galdas, the warm BathSy beautifully situated 
at a short distance from the town. A fortress of 
the tenth century. Monument of black marble to 
Jovellanos, outside the Puerto de Nocera. Eleven 
public Fountains, supplied with water by two 
Aqueducts; one called Pilares, which brings 
water from Gitorio, was built in 1599. Interest- 
ing streets and promenades are those named 
Chambel, Bomb^, and La Tenderina. 

Gonyesrances*— Diligences to Sautauder, from 
Gijon^ Lastres, Golombres, San Vicente, or by 
another road by Infiesto, Govadonga, aftd San 

Vicente to Santlllana (page 41). Covadonga 

is the historical capital of the first Asturian 
kings, Pelayo, dx., whose remains lie in Sta. 
Maria, in Cueva Grotto. Diligence to Norena for 
Railway.— To Gijon, Sama,and Laviama; and 

through Pola de Lena, Fuente los Flerros, 

and BusdongO to Leon, 86| mllcs, a rough and 
picturesque country ; the rail traverses the Astu- 
rian mountains. 

The road to Leon passes Mleres, La Muela, 
Pajares, and Garbajal, crossing the Puerto de 
Pajares, a mountain gap, 4,470 feet above sea. 

GUON (Stat.) 



[Section I. 

town, remarkably clean, is well sapplled with pro- 
Tisiuns, and is much frequented for sea-bathing. 
It has a large trade. It exports a great deal of 
coal, nuts and other fruits, through its harbour, 
which is a good one. The largest street is called 
La Ck>rrida, and runs the entire extent of the 
town. The town was sacked by the French under 

BlglitB.— A fine arched gateway called del In- 
fante, built by Charles III. Tlie palaces of the 
Marquis de San Estcban, Vald^s, and UeTillajigedo. 
The college founded in 1797. The church of San 
Pedro, with some statues by Antonio Borja. A 
high school, school of navigation, Ac, in the In- 
stituto Asturiano, with a valuable museum. The 
tobacco manufactory, employing upwards of 1,670 

English Vice-Consul. 

EzcnnionB are made to the Cistercian Con- 
vent of Santa Maria, and also to Dcva; neither of 
which is far oft. 

ConyeyanceB.— Railway to Ovledo, and to 
Sama and Laviana. Rail to AYlles, viA Vllla- 
bona, Steamers (in fine weather) to Hantander 
and Corunna. Diligences to Santnnder at 8 a.m. 
and 2 p.m.; fare, 20 reals. For the most part 
the road follows the coast through VlllaTlciOSa 
(population, 1,400), Lastres, Ribadesello, Llanos, 
San Vicente, and Santillana. (Sec page 41.) 

Barcelona, to OeronaT Flguerae, Rosas, 
and Perpignan, on tHe French border. 

Barcelona (Stat.) See Route 7. To Gcrona, 
by rail, inal»out4hour8. ToGranollcrs(18mIles) 
in U hour ; past MOllet or S. Vincento de Mollet, 
where a short branch turns off vui GallechS, to 
the hot springs of Oaldas de Montbuy, very 
plentiful and efficacious. 

QranoUers (Stat)— a small town,with exten- 
sive manufactures of sandals. [A branch rail 
towards the Pyrenees passes San lllartin to 
Vldl or VlQUe, the ancient Vicu$y an old Cata- 
lonian town (population 12,478), with a Cathedral, 
good Rambla, and thriving manufactures; thence 
to San Qnlrico, ToreUo, and Ripoll, 24 miles, 
00 lAe Tor and Frazert with uina of a fine Bene- 

dictine Convent; on to Bail Jttaa (de las 
AbadcMs), 54 milot. The volcanie peaks ef OfoC 
are to the east.] 

HostalrlOfa (Stat.)— An important fortress, 
taken by the French in 1694 and 1809. Windows, 
constmcted in the old walls, give lig^t to dwellings 
behind, an arrangement which is probably nniqne. 

Empalme (Stat.) 

OEBOKA (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 16,016. 

Hot^ — Fonda Italiana. 

The ancient Oerunda^ capital of the province of 
the same name. It is situated at tbo c<Mifluence 
of the rivers Ter and O&a, and commanded by a 
fortified height called Mon^Juich. It is partially 
enclosed by walls and is well built. It was taken 
in 785 by (.-harlemagne, who made it into a 
bishopric. It was blockaded by Philip V. In the 
war of succession, and in 1809 by the Frendi 
under Augereau, who, in seven months, lost 
upwanls of 16,000 men. The sioge of Gcrona in 
1808 is as memorable as that of Saragossa. 
The name of its heroic veteran, Don Mariano 
Alvarez de Castro, deserves to live in history 
by the side of those of Lconidas, Zrini, 
Sobicski, and other strenuous defenders of 
their country and of the faith. The town of 
Gcrona was exposed to three sieges (1806-9). 
It stands on both banks of the OUa, united 
by a fine stone bridge. The defences consisted 
chiefly of an old wall with turrets, to wMch 
seven bulwarks or bastions were added at the 
time of the siege. 

The population of Gerona amounted in 1808 to i 
14.000, and its garrison at the bcginningr of the 
third siege was 6,700 men. Its trade is small ; bit 
it has manufactures of cottons and wocdleas 
hosiery, paper, and soap. 

SlffbtS.— The Cathedral, a fine edifice of the 
fourteenth century; it is approachod by a magni- 
ficent flight of eighty-six steps; note the facade, 
the Puerta de los Apostolcs, the Billeria, the altar 
with splendid rctablo, by Benes, the sepolctmsof 
Borenguer, Anglesola, and Bernardo de Pavo, the 
Sala Capitular, the cloisters, the Cemeterio, and 
the Oalilea, with their inscriptions, and the ar* 
chives. From the belfry a fine view is to be had. 

Houte 10.] 



note the relics, amon^ which are the body of Ban | 
Narciso and the head of San Felice. Capuchin 
convent, with an Arab bath. Diocesan school, 
large library, several hospitals, and nine convents. 

Convesrances.— Rail opened 1878, to Port 
Vendres (Stat.), for Pcrpignan ; following the 
coast, across the French border. The stations arc 
Bordils. Flassa, S. Miguel, Figueras, PortbOU, 
Cerbfere, &c. 

The high road to Perpignan passes Bascara, 
Figueras, La Junquera, and £1 Boulou. 

nOUERAS (Btat) 

Population, 11,789. 

Hotels. — Fonda del Comerclo; Dessays. 

The ancient FicaiHs, a frontier town of Hpain, 
one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, and 
situated on a fertile plain, 21 miles north-north- 
east of Gcrona. It was taken by the French in 
1&08, 1811 (twice by surprise), and 1828. It has 
trado with France, and its manufactures comprise 
paper and leather. 

BlglltS. — ^The large Citadel, called San Fernando, 
from having been built by Ferdinand VI., with 
large arsenals and magazines, and quarters for 
16,000 men, is the only object of Interest. 

[To the right of Figueras. at the distance of a 
few miles, Is 


Population, 3,219. 
.. The ancient Rhoda^ a seaport on the north shore 
of the gulf of the same name. It Is situated at an 
angle between Perpignan and Gcrona, and con- 
sists of one large street along the shore, and several 
others which traverse it. A torrent divides the 
town Into two parts. It has a trade In timber, 
machinery, iron, steel, oil, wine, brandy, and hemp. 
There are also some flour mills. 

SlslltB. — Fortress, in a ruinous state, in which 
it has remained ever since it was besieged by the 
French, in 1808, and most gallantly defended by 
British blue jackets; another Gaatle, for the de- 
fence of the bay, on a peak south-east of the town, 
and a battery with five guns at its foot. A parish 
church and elementary school]. 

The route to Port Vendros (Stat.), the old 
Partus Veneris^ which is situated 17 miles soutK- 
eaat of PeipignuOi on the French side, runs by 

Caho de Creus and Cervera, or Oorb^ro (Stat.), 
as above. 

Between La Junquera and El Boulou the road 
has a fine view of the Pyrenees. The fortress of 
Belkgarde^ situated on an eminence, was built by 
Louis XIV. to protect the entrance into France. 
It Is 17 miles south of Perpignan and from It a 
fine view of the Canigou may be had. The Oaili* 
gOU is situated 94 miles south-west of Perpignan, 
and Is one of the culminating points of the 
Pyrenees. It is 9,1 80 feet in elevation. 

PERPIGKAK (Stat), in France. 

Population, 34,168. 

Hotels.— Grand Hotel de Perpignan; del*Eiirop«; 
du Nord. 

Omnibus to railway, stopping at all the hotels, 
in about 15 minutes. 

Conyeyances.— To Pradcs, 25| miles. To 
Narbonne, 40 miles. 




Gibraltar to Kalaga, Granada, Cordors, 

Seville, Xeres, and Cadiz. 

London to Gibraltar, by steamer, direct, about 
5| days; P. A O. Co., Orient Co.; Livgrpool to 
Gibraltar, Cunard and Moss" Lines. 


Population (1891), 25,775, Inclusive of the 
garrison (nearly 6,0U0). 

Hotels.— Royal; Europa. The Club House was 
some time the residence of tlie Duke of Connaught. 
Accommodation for strangers limited. Lodgings 
scarce, and rather dear. 

• The promontory, fortress, town, and bay of 
Gibraltar, situated on the Spanish side of the 
Strait, belong to Britain. The promontory Is a 
vast Rock, jutting into the Mediterranean, eonsist- 
Ing principally of grey compact limestone, about 
1,400 feet above the sea; is about 2^ miles in lenfftb, 
and from half to three-quarters of a mile In width, 
and is joined to the mainland by a low, sandy 
isthmus, about 1^ mile in length. On the ilu«a.V 
side, fronting the latVwswLV^sJwfe x<sK3i.N». •«ia»s«s».'»a«t- 



[Section 1. 

this slope, facing AlgecirAs, llos the town, andabovo 
rise the principal ramparts of the rocky fortress, 
which is generally garrisoned by upwards of 5,000 

It was taken by Tarik, the Moor, in 711, who 
erected a castle on the shoulder of the rock called 
Gibel Tarik (the mountain of Tarik) ; whence its 
present name is derived. Traces of this castle may 
still be seen. From here he marched to Medina 
Sidonia, and defeated Boderic, the last of the 
Goths. The Moors continued in possession of 
Gibraltar till the beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury, when it was recovered from them by Ferdinand 
IV., King of Castile and Leon. It subsequently 
fell into the hands of the Moorish King of 
Granada, from whom it was taken in 1462 by the 
Christians, under Henry IV., Khig of Castile, who 
gave it the arms it still bears, namely, a castle 
with a key hanging to the gate, alluding to Its 
being the key of the Mediterranean. From this 
time to the end of the seventeenth century Gibraltar 
remained in the liands of the Spaniards, by whom 
the fortifications were so far increased and modern- 
ised that the place was looked upon as impregnable; 
until taken by an English and Dutch fleet, under 
Sir George Rookc and the Prince of Hcsse-Darm- 
stiidt, on the 24th July, 1704. During the nine 
following years several unsuccessful attempts 
were made to recover the fortress by force or 
stratagem, in which the loss of the assailants was 
very great. In 1718 the possession of the place 
was confirmed to the English by the peace of 
Utrecht. In 1727 It was again attacked by the 
Spaniards, -with an army of 23,000 men. The 
siege continued for several months, and was termin- 
ated by the general peace on the 12th May. The 
last and most memorable of all the sieges of 
Gibraltar was commenced by the French and 
Spaniards, in 1779, and did not terminate till the 
•Jnd Februaiy, 1788, when it was announced that 
the prelimiraries of a general peace had been 
bigfned. On this occasion it was attacked with 
great deterciination by land and sea, the enemy 
hoing provided with all the appliances of destruc- 
tion that could be devised in that day ; but the 
British general, Governor Elliot (Lord Heathfield), 
and bis garrison utterly foiled all their attempts. 

which is St. Micliaers, on the louth-weit side. 
The entrance, 1,000 feet above sea, leads to a 
spacious hall, ^parently supported by nuusire 
stalactites. Beneath is a succession of descending 
caves, very picturesque, but of difficult access. 
Not far from these are some other Caves, dis- 
covered by the late Captain Brome, 1868. In the 
perpendicular fissures of the rock, bones of varioos 
animals, mostly African (as described by Professor 
Busk), including human bones, and other relics, 
have been discovered. 

The Spanish Lines, which extend across the 
isthmus, are defended by two forts, the principal 
of which is called St. Philip. The space between 
these lines and the foot of the rook is called the 
Neutral Ground, and it is here that the Lasantto 
is situated. 

Bights.— Fortifications: magnificent view from 
the signal tower and batteries; harbour; marfa^ 
with great variety of fish ; extensive promenade; 
military prison and convict establishment. Ctood 
English and Foreign Library, called the ganisoa 
library, in Governor's Parade. It ccmtains upwards 
of 45,000 volumes. English newspapers and 
periodicals are also taken in. The building com- 
prises two suites of handsome rooms, to which 
strangers are admitted by a subscriber, towards 
whom the greatest liberality is always shown. The 
lions of the place are the monkeys, whi<^ are hdd 
in great respect. They are of a dark fawn-colour, 
and without tails. They are few In number, and 
not always seen by casual visitors. The highest 
points are the Signal Tower (El Hacho, i,e, the 
bale-fire) and O'Hara's Tower. Under this, on 
the east side of the rock, is a remarkable sloiring 
bank of sand, 600 feet above sea at its upper edge, 
blown up by the wind. From the north end fli 
the Alameda an aerial cable-rail nma to the 
Signal Station, obviating the necessity of earti 
conveying stores by a steep and circaitous hlfl 

The Alameda is one of the principal attractlcni 
of the place, as it is here that all the varions types 
of nationality, in which the Rockabonnds, maybe 
seen in picturesque variety. It is a large pnblie 
promenade laid out with gardens, the geranluBi I 
which grow luxuriantly being especially renuok- I 

TAo nock, which ia hard grey Jurassic lime- 1 able; thcpa\m%Uo mv^ «\3axKy^^)a «x^'alio Bit I 
ouo, abounds with Caves, the most remarkable of \ with. T\\eT<^«VTa^^tv\.a^\iMv^%^^«.•5 «X^Qt!A«ita«Bim \ 

D puwle ^nand, lUmogt erery arenlnr. 
rleiri at the bay and opposltB cout. 

Koney.— 100 cenUaM = 1 ] 
iterllng (or Spanlih illnr ud i 
Bpinlili ud Biitlab. Th< 
»M lot Spanieh aula, snd 1> nylxd 
In Not,, ISM, it nu sbost SOpeHtu (ui 


vninhlp it Cbe CalhedtBl on Bondayi, 
il Ibe Kind's Chspel. Uir« tiouii i wid i 
.h,twli», TburearailioiRoininCiithollc 

diftrgM for T-iiiiiiiB j and Bnb&rkliig 

FaSSanceri, fej.— The pabllthed tariff Hubs 

CadlE and at. Lucu, ti 
rl(8; dnt cUi^ 3 doll 
™ttoMol*g8; flnlc 

It AlgecLru uDd 
:k, dolly. To 


wllh L 


Post OBCS.— A mail 

Uttla dimculty Is 

Iw errantry, ig ths .acred city q( th« Qnnd 
Slwrlir. Td Osata and Tatnan, carrying the 
(tetonilne aama day), about twice a week 
(dsya uncenahi). Tbeie two placet arc Spinlsh 
iBl(in.,an tha Alrlcan naalnlsnd. To Orui 

Jverpool Bteamari about every ten daji, to Genoa, 
tc. Sec Steamer LLat, Bradi/iau't Coniiaenlal 

esponiible [or Ihem. but 
led. The msgiatretei, 
of from 10 to VO days. 

Ferry to jUsedias 
line lo Jlmen 
Bobadllla. St 

iv ccnilnued lo Ronda and 

noe: Qibraltar li €0 milee looth-eait at 
and l,S4{lnillea from SoDIliampton, The 
Cadli llsi over tl 

Several Conioli reilde her*] alio an Ai:ent 
Lloyd'ii. and Agenta lo the Penlniolar and Orie 
lal Steam HaviEatlon Company. There are 
rei-ldent Senior Officer of the Boyal Navy, and 

and and I 
U, under a hill, on the Spi 
TUIA, a Moorish place, i 


e Book: Drlnkwater'a "Siege of 
the Mediterranean," by Adndral \ ' 
(.- and KoJiarf -i" Flora Calpenala." \ 

from Glbnilar lo Ontu nnd Taticlcr. 1ml Ihm 
be 8 Kilo. Iiinc. irtth i dHllnii of 1 in lac to the 
Eittm>(«l cixt. fonr mllllinii. T]i< high monnUlB 

Hurvnlei (Mom Abyis), i> ddliHl Jihel Man. Il 
ml]' bg viiiMd from Ccnla or Tsneier. 

Wilka utd Szenmanm.— Tiis mika ui<] 

ri by vtj of Edcponi uiil Harbcila. 

milnded Ihal (Olbrnl 

.it aro InipflBBible. 

■IM 10 Boni 

ISectloD I. 

There sre Iwn dtcert FiMdu. A llH fnai 

AlgMlnj !■ now open u luu Im Boqna (H 

JllIlMIft, lUd MBIlMIld to RMidB (b«low>, tut 
BobAdUlA (ptfft M> rannlnr ■ (hioBBb eoBiiee- 
tlon. by Cordon ud Ifadrld. Mmm Qlbrallu 

•Dd F.nflind. 


Hotall.~PoMda dal I^Jo and Psuds d< thenewlowD. PMndaOeBuC 
ind Fouila it in AbIbiu, In the old Mwb. 

cKy of Honda, wbicb li In the prorinceof 

[W, 1. charmingly litnued o»or tb. goM. o( 

Dudalro. It li baltt on preclplton* iMlirtI' 

om. NcT*la, betw»n KM «id SM KM atwt 

d : ono peak, Iho Sierra Plnm, n im tut 

.. a .InglB arch of 110 foel, when the 

li ISO feet down, ncur ■ watartall, fnnB 

a wide .tfe..t I«adi to the Alwned. ud 

dral. It eon-lffl, of an old and „». ettf. 

the iaitot, wl.lcli !• anckroled by tUIt 

It wllhin > narrow eompaa,, «,d 1, w^ 

nt, A fair on tba aoih May. li will 

.eain«. The plaice 1. isekonod vnj 

y,l. oolobratedfor the longerttyof lOla- 

ot Xcri'z. tic. Indeed low tratelleri In 

u=i. >vou1d omit to Yiall Ihla d^lghWnl ^ 

aid to oetapy Iho tilt »f tho ancient AnHfi 

some plate at Ronda la Vleja, .b«lt J 

The road otot 

Ban Roqne. Gancln, Aleatocln. 

route la grand. pictnresqtiD, 

and not withoot danger, 1 

Ioagne^ which may be riddm 

but the beat plan will be io mike lwo daya of it, . 

ItoppinK the Urn ntglit at OoB-rv which Is charm- 

Jniflr flMated on a ndge. A alibrt cnt by tbe . 
AngiMtart de Carta laves 2 kngaa. Tho die- \ 
tai-B froa aih " <Janc/n /g aboutBleiW'ies. I 

Bridget ow the Tajo, or eMI [ 

abi. A eelebratodbreed- 
I .lalr-oaie of MO itcpi, 
jr. cut In tho rook. lb" 

I a m<tnm«DtfiwiA iiBw . 


Route 10.] 



by Olvera, Zaframagon, and Moroiif and thence 
by rail, via Utrera. Cordova is now (1892) acces- 
sible by direct rail to BolMldiUa (pages 54 and 
58), passing through Teba and CampUlos. 

Granada may be reached on horseback in three 
days, by way of Caevas del Beccrro, CampiUos, 
Bobadilla, Antequera, Aixhidona, and Loja. Konda 
to CampiUos, 9 hours; CampiUos to Loja, 12 hours; 
Loja to Granada, 9 hours; total, 30 hours. But 
the shortest way is by rail vid Bobadilla. 

The road to Jerez passes Grazalema, Puebla, 
El Bosque, and Arcos. It may be ridden in about 
16 or 17 hours, but the traveUer would do well to 
rest at Arcos, where there is a tolerable Posada. 
Arcos is situated on a rocky eminence near the 
right bank of the Gua^dalete. 

Rail from Ronda to Malaga via Bobadilla, but 
the journey may be made on horseback, in about 
14 hours, by way of Al Borgo, Casabonela, and 
Cartama. It is a rough mountain ride, but the 
scenery is magnificent. At Oaxtama (Stat.) tbe 
rail may be taken to Malaga. There is, and rather 
nearer, another route by Alora (Stat.), popula- 
tion, 10,014, with ruins of an ancient castle, 20 
miles north-west of Malaga; whence train to 
Malaga. Flzarra (Stat.), between Alora and 
Cartama, is the starting place for the Sulphur 
Baths of Carratraoa, 2 hours distant, in a 
picturesque valley, 1,600 feet above sea. Two 
Hotels (Principe, &c.), and Bath-house. The 
waters are good for skin and rheumatic disease, 
and bronchial complaints. 

MALAGA (Stat) 

Population (1887), 134,016. 

Hotels.— Roma; Alameda; Nuevo; Victoria; 

Casas de Pupilos (boarding houses). — 
tolerably good. Rate of living, from six to eight 
pesetas per day. 

Several bath establishments, 8 clubs, and reading 

Engluh and American Consuls. 

Post Q^.— GaUe de Casapalma. 

Telegraph OJtce.-^At the Aduana. 

Church of England Service. 

Spanish Protestant Service. 

Malaga, the ancient Malaca, Is a seaport city .on 
the Mediterraaeao, and is reckoned as the fourth 
Important city in Spain. It Btandt at the head of 

a bay, near the foot of a mountainous range, and 
is situated in the midst of a delightful country, 
producing wines and fruits in abundance. It is 
buUt in the form of an amphitheatre. The streets 
in the old town are narrow and dirty; those in the 
new town are clean. The houses are low and 
painted or whitewashed with green balconies, 
verandahs, and alcoves, often furnished with 
flowers and shrubs. Malaga is much frequented by 
British invalids during winter for its fine climate, 
snow and ice being things almost unknown. Dr. 
Edwin Lee says of it: "Malaga has a south- 
eastern aspect. The houses on the sunny side of 
the Alameda look directly south. The mountains 
by which the small plain is enclosed, rise to the 
height of 3,000 feet, at a distance of 4 to 5 miles. 
On the lower acclivities the vine is cultivated. On 
the eastern side the town is protected by the Castle 
HiU, whence a range of hUls extends along the 
shore. It is comparatively open to the west. At 
one part of the mountain-chain to the north-west 
there is a considerable break or depression, admit- 
ting cold winds which occasionally blow with 
force, and, like the mistral of Provence, oblige 
invalids to remain within doors.'* In fact, Malaga, 
having a fine sheltered climate, open to the south, 
is pronounced by Dr. GranviUe to be better than 
Nice for consumptive persons. 

It was taken by Ferdinand on the 18th August, 
1487, after a terrific siege; and by the French 
under Sebastiani, on the 5th February, 1810, and 
again in 1823. It has several times suffered very 
severely from plague, which on one occasion swept 
off 20,000 of the inhabitants in forty days; and 
again, in the years 1833-34 the population was 
nearly decimated by the yellow fever. It has a 
large export trade in wines, the best of which 
are those called "Mountain" and "Lagrimas." 
Other exports comprise grapes, raisins, figs, 
oranges, almonds, lemons, olive oil, esparto grass, 
lead, and iron. About 1^ million boxes of muscatel 
raisins are sent to England yearly, and nearly as 
much to the United States. Tha imports are sUk, 
wooUen, and cotton fabrics, colonial produce, salt 
fish, bar iron, iron hoops^ and. \va5iSA.. v.x^aa.'asssssa.- 
fact\uc<i% oi^QoW^w^c^VWEi^ %sv^>Nm«!^Vs«^'«'^^ 
\eathw, Tov^ ^^\VO.^V\v, *^*'^> ^^-?\^^^-..>«> 


Sights. —The Cathedral, one of the largest in 
Spain, a splendid edifice on the site of a mosque 
commenced by Philip II.. at the time of his mai- 
riagc with Mary of England. It contains a beau- 
tiful choir, some good paintings, remarkable altar- 
piece, one of fine marble in the chapel of La 
Encamacion, being particularly deserving atten- 
tion. Note the fine picture of the Virgin of the 
Rosary, by Alonso Cano. The Virgin is seated on 
a throne of clouds, and is adored by a group of 
saints (men and women) in various religious 
habits; note especially one of the child's feet, 
gracefully placed on the left hand of the mother. 
The picture is fast decaying. The spire of the 
cathedral is over 300 feet high. From the summit 
a fine view may be had of the town, harbour, and 
the environs. Church of Los Santos Martircs, with 
interior richly decorated, and some good sculpture. 
Puerta del Sagrario, near the Cathedral. Of the 
other churches the only one of interest is EI 
Cristo de la Victoria; tombs of the Buenaristas, 
and near the altar Ferdinand's royal standard. 

Plaza de Toros, or bull-ring, capable of accom- 
modating 12,000 persons. Casa de Ayuntamicnto 
(Town HallX with a beautiful fafade. Large iron 
foundries. The Harbour, formed by a mole 700 
feet in length (on which is a lighthouse), which 
may be entered during any wind, and capable of 
holding 450 merchant ships. The Atarazanas, or 
doclcyard, used as a store-house. The fine old 
Moorish castle perched on a pointed roclc called 
Gibralfaro. It was built six centuries ago, but 
the alcazaba, or lower part, is perfectly Phoenician. 

Protestant Cemetery, formed by the late British 
consul, Mr. Mark. It is situated on an eminence 
about half a mile along the road to Vclez Malaga. 
It is laid out with considerable taste, and contains 
some fine monuments, the most conspicuous among 
which is that erected to the memory of the founder. 
Some antiquities. The promenades called Ala- 
meda and Calle Hermoso, the former extending 
from the Atarazanas to the port; the latter com- 
manding a fine view of the bay. English Church 
Service held in the Consulate house. A special 
account of Malaga will be found in Dr. Lee's 
*^3pa}n and its cWmato,'''' London, W. J. Adams, 
JSffo. The Empress Eugenie was horn at Granada, \ for tVve viYvoVe \o\«tvvs UoTal&jAA;^ to Onumdit 
-/««^. Resident Engliah Consul and Vlcc-Consul. \ Rouda, a\\eLaVoT«LUa.T. 

English Church Service At the Consulato, Peligro, 
No, 7. 

Oonvei^aiices. — steamers three or four times 
a week on uncertain days, to Gibraltar, In 8 hours; 
to Cadiz, San Lugar, and Seville, stopping from IS 
to 24 hours at each intermediate port ; once a week 
to Cadiz direct in 18 hours; to Cartagena in about 
24 hours; by Ibarra A Co.'s and other steamers to 
Almeria, Alicante, Valencia, Barcelona, and Mar- 
seilles; to Lisbon, Vigo, and St. Nazairo; to Mar- 
Hoillos direct; to London, John Hali A Co.*aline, 
weekly; and to Genoa and Leghorn direct. 

Railway.— To Madrid open throughout, vid Goiv 
dova. The new branch (1894) from Pnente Genii 
(page 60) to Linares (page 69) opens up a nearer 
route leaving Cordova to the west. The branch to 
Granada, vid Anteqnera (population, 9&,449) and 
Loja, turns off at Bohadllla (where the brucb 
to Las Salinas comes inX by many taiuMli snd 
bridges through the striking defile of Siena de 
Antrquera. A direct line to Granada Is projected. 
At Bobadilla is also the junction for the line to 
Gibraltar vid Ronda and Algeciras. Pisarni(p. 53) 
is the station for Carratraca Baths. 

The numerous stalactite caverns in the neigh- 
bourhood are well worthy the attention of the 

Routes.— Tlic road to Gibraltar passes Mtr- 
bella and Estepona ; at the latter place Is a mfaie 
of magnetic iron ore. Near here are the valnabls 
sulphurous baths of La HddlOllda, a place of 
considerable resort. The road to Ronda paste* 
through Cartama, or Pizarra (page 58), Casara- 
bonela, and Al Borgo (2 days). There ore two 
routes to Granada, the one by Colmenar and Lojt; 
the other by Vclez Malaga and A11i«ltw|b, > or the 
whole distance may be done by rail as aboTC. 
There are two conveyances daily to Granada, by 
w^ay of Colmonar and Ix>ja. The road as far as 
Loja is very bad, and the best and most interest- 
ing route is by way of Velez Malaga and Alhama, 
which may be ridden in 2 days, resting the first 
night at Alhama ; or Granada may be reached in 
1 day by taking diligence or carriage to Velei 
Malaga (4 or 5 hours), and making the rest of the 
jouniey by mules previously sent on, by a sigsag 
road over the Sierra. Mules may eren b« engaged 

Boute 10.] 



The distance from Malaga to Velez Malaga, or 
Old Malaga, is 5 leagues ; to Alhama, 6 more ; and 
to Granada, a further journey of 7 leagues. 

Velez Blala^ lies 14 miles east-north-east of 
Malaga, near the Mediterranean. Population, 
24,332. It is situated in a tropical valley of the 
raisin country, and has a Moorish castle. 
Alhama (inn : Casa de los Caballeros), 24 miles 
south-west of Granada has a population of 7,760. 
It is picturesquely situated under Sierra Tejeda, 
a peak of the Sierra Nevada 7,670 feet high; has 
Moorish walls in ruins; and in the vicinity are the 
celebrated warm BathSy from which it derives its 
Arabic name. A spot where Boabdil took his last 
look at Granada, is called Bl Ultimo Sospiro. 
The whole district, with Antequera, suffered in 
the earthquakes of 1884-5; 1,600 houses were 
ruined, nearly 400 persons and 10,000 head of 
cattle killed. 


Population (1887), 71,870. 

Hotels.— Fonda Victoria; Washington Irving 
Hotel; de los Sicte Suelos; del Comercio; de 

There are many Boarding Houses, both clean 
and reasonable. 

The city of Granada is the capital of a province, 
and was formerly that of a kingdom, and the 
ancient metropolis of the Moors in Spain. It is 
situated at the confluence of the Darro with the 
Genii, and is 2,246 feet higher than Malaga. It 
stands partly on the slopes of, and partly in the 
valleys of the A Ipujarra Hills, overlooking the V^a 
de Granada, a fertile plain 70 miles in length by 20 
in width. Its terraced gardens, crenelated walls, 
minarets, old mosques, flat-roofed houses, and foun- 
tainsattest its Mahomedan origin. Its environs are 
beautiful, with the snowy peaks of Sierra Nevada 
about 20 miles off (11,000 feet). It was built in the 
tenth century by the Saracens, out of the ruins 
of the ancient lUiberis^ and appertained to the 
Kingdom of Cordova. After the overthrow of the 
Moors, it became, in 1288, the capital of the new 
kingdom, and the last bulwark of the Moslems in 
the Peninsula. It increased to the extent of 3 
leagues in circumference, and in 1311 had a popu- 
lation of 280,000, which, at a later date, some have 
carried as high as 400,000; and finally, in 1491, 

under Ferdinand and Isabella, who reduced it on 
the 2nd of January, 1492. Santa F6 (Holy Faith), 
20 miles down the Genii, was founded by them to 
commemorate this triumph. 

Granada, like Malaga, Seville, and Cadiz, is 
remarkable for the beauty of its women. It is the 
birth-place of many illustrious men ; among others, 
of Alonso Cano, called, on account of his talent for 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, the Michael 
Angelo of Spain ; the historian, Luis del Marmol; 
Rueda, the Spanish Thespis, who flourished before 
Lope de Vega; Luis de Granada, the greatest 
of Spanish orators; the Jesuit Suarez, who gave 
name to the Suaristas ; Hurtado de Mendoza, the 
Spanish Sail ust, and the historical painter, Pedro 
Athanasio. The University has 1,200 students. 

In the Sierra de Nevada there is plenty of occupa- 
tion for the botanist and geologist. Mula Hacen 
(11,664), or Picacho de la Veleta (11,887 feet), may 
be ascended without fatigue. 

Sights.— The Cathedral, a fine structure, 
though irregular, profusely ornamented with 
exquisite jasper and marble works, from the 
quarries of the neighbourhood; the fine dome rests 
on twelve arches, supported by as many pilasters, 
beneath which stands the high altar; the silleria 
is half Gothic, half modern ; the two organs, which 
occupy each an inter-colunmiation, are full and 
well adjusted to the harmony of the voices; the 
cathedral contains some superb pictures by Cano, 
relating to the Virgin, viz., the Annunciation, 
Cohception, Nativity, Presentation, Visitation, 
Purification, and Ascension, and somegood pictures 
by his pupil, Pedro de Mena ; in the Altdr of Jesus 
Nazareno is an exquisitely carved Virgin and 
Child; in the Capilla de la Trinidad are three 
paintings by Rlbera, viz., St. Anthony, St. Jerome 
and St. Lawrence, also the following pictures by 
Alonzo Cano, viz., a Saviour bearing his Cross, St. 
Augustine, a Virgin, and a Father bearing the 
Dead Son ; in the Capilla do la Santa Cruz are 
heads of John the Baptist and of St. Paul, natura 
size ; the Capilla de San Miguel contains a Virgin, 
by Cano, and in the opposite chapel are some 
curious pillars, brought from Loja by Archbishop 
Galvan ; in the tratvwK^\. ^t^j^n.-^^x^i^ 's^s^^QX'».>s^ 

and %aTi "Bcttv^t^o, «cv^ ^»» 

100,000 men, under King Boabdil, defended Ita \ SastatVo coTvt«.Va% «• ^^^ "S^^c^bsJCcsc^^ ""*^ 
fraJJs and fortreasea itgainst all Christian Spain, \ dtta«i\i*A.^wix\«»».^^**^'*^'^ 



[Section 1. 

Cano. The finest thing in the cathedral, or rather 
annexed to it, is the Gapllla delOSBeyei (of the 
kings of Spain); it is placed between the Sagrario 
and the Sacristia ; note the rich Gothic portal, and 
the magnificent tosabM of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
and of Joana and Philip; casts of these fine 
monnments have been taken, at an enormous 
expense, for the gallery of the Louvre. Below the 
chapel arc the plain coffins, which may be seen at 
the close of the service; the Oratorio contains a 
Virgin, in blue drapery, by Cano, and a Crucifix 
by Becerra; above the door of the Sala Capitular 
is a Charity, in marble, by Torrigiano. A library 
of 'J0,000 volumes was bequeathed by Ferdinand 
Columbus (son of the great navigator), who Is 
buried here. The facade was much injured by an 
earthquake, December 25th 1884, at the same 
time one of the towers of the Alhambra sufTcrcd 

The parish CllurclLeS were once twenty-three 
in numl)cr, most of which have been suppressed. 
Few are of interest. San Angustias; note the 
splendid high altar; the Twelve Apostles carved 
by Comejo, and a miraculous image of its patron. 

San Juan do los Keyes, formerly a mosque 
named El Teybir. San Cristobal, in the Albaycin 
quarter. Fine view from the belfry. 

La Cartu]a,a Carthusian convent ; note the doors 
of the ehapel, the cabinets and marbles, the paint- 
ings in the passages ; the doors of the choir, and the 
presses and woodwork of the sacristy, w^cre carved 
by Fray Josef Manuel Vasqnez; the vault was 
painted in fresco by Antonio Palomino; note also 
the sacristy, the cloisters, and the gardens. 

San Gcrdnlmo, once a magnificent convent. The 
chapel formerly contained the remains and the 
sword of Gonsalvo de Cordova. The interior and 
retablo should by all means be seen. 

San Juan de Dios, an extensive general hospital 
or infirmary for all complaints, even lunacy, the 
finest of the kind in Spain; and containing at 
the entrance an inscription recording that its 
founder, Don Jos^ Robles, " hizo tambien lospobres"' 
(made also the poor), an expression which has 
become proverbial in Spain. Another large hos- 
pital, in the Calle de San Lazaro; Hospital de los 
Locos (Lunatic Asylum), founded by Ferdinand 
Mnd laMbella. It Is sitnated at the comer of the 
-nsMs del Ttiunfo. 
^e bnJl'O^ht mrena, In the Pl&za del Triunfo; 

the archiepiscopal palace; the Alcaioeria, or 
Moorish bazaar, near El Zacatin, the principal 
Moorish street ; the University, founded in 1536; 
also six colleges, academies of mathematics and 
design; and a picture gallery at 8. Domingo 

The gipsy colony in the Mcmte Socro is interest- 

Fine Prado, with noble old trees, Ac^ several 
fine squares, the throe principal being El Campo, 
La Plaza Mayor, Bivarambla, in which last is a 
handsome fountain of jasper. The city is also 
adorned with numerous other fountains. Many 
fine public walks and objects of interest, the 
principal of which is the Soto de Roma, or wood 
of pomegranates, which surrounds the city. 

The AUuunbra is the lion of Granada. This 
ancient palace of the Moorish kings stands on a 
lofty cmincncp between the rivers Darro and Jenil. 
It was commenced by Ibn-el-Ahmar, about the 
your 1248 and continued by his son, Mohammed 
II. According to some writers, it reortved its 
appellation from the royal tribe of the Alhamare; 
but others, with .more reason, assert that its 
founder gave it the name of Medinat Alhamra, or 
the Red City, on account of the red coloar of the 
materials of which it was built, vis., a kind of red 
clay, or rather a cement of rod clay, and large 
pebbles. It is surrounded by a strong wall flanked 
by square towers, and inclosing an area of 3,500 
feet in length and 650 breadth. The walls of the 
palace follow all the windings of the mountain. 
The River Darro flows at the base on the east, 
north, and west. 

The easiest ascent is by the street of the 
Gomcles, so called from a distinguished Moorish 
family of that name. Li coming out of the 
Pucrta do las Granadas the road is divided 
into three— the middle one for carriages, and the 
other two, which are very steep, for foot travellers. 
The middle road ascends between the hills of the 
Alhambra and the Torres Bermejas, through a 
very thick wood of lofty elms, the branches ol 
which are so interleaved that the rays of the sua 
never penetrate their thick foliage. Innumerable 
clear rivulets glide through the forest, irrigating 
the ground, which is covered with Terdure, or 
fall ftom. rock to rock^ forming a number of 
beautUul ca»ctide&. '^«ax>2bfcWKi&as&i(.^iQu4^iU.u 
the lountalnol C\iw\*%'Sr ~»wv«k^ 

Route 10.] 



race, from which there is a bird*s-eyc riew of ail the 
asccDt, which amply repays for the fatigae. 
After passing this fountain, the traveller comes in 
sight of the Alhambra gate, calied Jodiciaria, or 
Torre de Judicia, because justice was administered 
there, after the custom oi the East. It is a square 
tower, the horse-shoe arch of which rises to half 
the height of the tower, and is a perfect model of 
this kind of arch, so characteristic of Arabian 

Upon a stone in this tower is an inscription 
in Arabic, which is thus rendered by James 
Murphy : " This gate, named Babu MhtritU— 
may God prosper through it the law of Islam, 
even as he has established it a monument of glory — 
was built at the command of our lord the com- 
mander of the Muslims, the Just Sultan Abu-I- 
Hajja], son of our lord, the warlike, sanctified 
(deceased) Sultan Abu-1 Walid ibn-Nasr, whose 
pious deeds for religion may the Almighty recom- 
pense, and whose valorous performance in the cause 
of the faith may He g^^clously accept. And it was 
completed in the month of the glorious birth of 
Mohammed, in the year 748 (1348). May Heaven 
constitute It a protecting bulwark, and reckon it 
among the lasting actions of the righteous.'' 

Over the first arch is a sculptured hand, over 
the second a key, respecting which there is a 
curious tradition. 

We next enter a passage, which winds along the 
barbican, and leads to the Plaata de los Algibes, or 
square of the cisterns. These are two in number, 
the largest of which is 102 feet long by 66 wide. 
It is arched over, and enclosed by a wall 6 feet 
thick. On the east side of this Plaza is the Palace 
of Charles V. (begun by that monarch but never 
finished), a beautiful specimen of the cinque- 
cento style, by the famous architect, Alonso 

On the north is the entrance to the Mesuar, 
or common bathing court, an oblong court 
150 feet in length and 75 in width. It is 
paved with white marble, and the walls are 
covered with arabesques of admirable workman- 
ship. The inscription, ** Waia ghalib Wallah,'"' 
that is, "There is no conqueror but Gk>d," whidi is 
often repeated throughout the building, is read on 
the peristyles at each end of the court. In the mldat \ 
of this oomrt iM M btuiB solBcleotly larpreto iwim ^ 
/n, bordered with ptwterrea of flowerii iMdi of 

roses, and rows oi orange trees. This oonrt was 
designed as a common bath for servants and other 
dependants of the palace, and supplied with water 
the fountains of the other apartments. At the 
lower end of the Mesuar is an archway leading to 
the Patio do lOB h&onM, or Lions' Ck>art, which 
may be considered as the t3rpe of Arabian archi- 
tecture. It is 100 feet by 60, and is paved with 
white marble. In the centre is a lai^ basin of 
alabaster, supported by twelve lions. Over this 
basin rises a smaller one, from which a large body 
of water spouts into the air, and, falling from one 
basin into the other, is sent forth through the 
mouths of the lions. This court is surrounded by 
a gallery supported by a great number of slender 
and elegant columns, 9 feet high and 8| inches in 
diameter. The walls, up to the height of 15 feet 
from the ground, are covered with blue and yellow 
mosaic tilings. The peristyles and ceiling are 
beautifully ornamented with arabesques and fret- 
work in the most exquisite taste. Around the 
upper face of the fountain of the lions are some 
Arabic verses, which describe, in a style of Ori- 
ental hyperbole, the wonders and beauty of the 
fountain. At each end of the court projects a 
sort of portico, or gallery, on light marble columns. 
On the left side of the court of lions is the Sala 
de los Abencerrages, opposite which is the Sala de 
las dos Hermanes, or the Hall of the Two Sisters, 
so called from two large flags of white marble, 
without a flaw or stain, which are in the pavement. 
On the upper end of the Mesuar arises the magni- 
ficent tower of Ck>mares, so called from delicate 
work named Oomaragia. This massive tower rises 
above the rest of the building, and overhangs a 
deep ravine, which descends almost perpendicu- 
larly to the Darro. The prospect from this tower 
is truly magnificent. The delightful valley through 
which the Darro flows, part of the city of Granada 
and of its beautiful plain, present an enchanting 
natural panorama. The Sala de Comares was 
undoubtedly the richest in the Alhambra, and still 
preserves traces of its past splendour. The walls 
are richly stuccoed, and ornamented with ara- 
besques of such exquisite workmanship, that thA 
most skilful artists wouI^l V» ^ki«b«c^ *'°^'*"'**'^^ 
toim\t«X%Vt. Tn^c^^VftstNA^'s^^^*^"";^^'^^^ 

\ *Vd«A ol \.\v«tYw%3L\ W^^^"" '^^'^^ -tft»NsS^^^*»* 

BKADsnjiw s aPAnt avd poktuou.. 

tlghi, which pnidao 

lighted iiHl nnllla 
d« OuMrc* itibal 

of thfi mttlf |icrf UE 

H hunwl hfitoilh. C'loH br 
< piRlen nf Mndajuii, Kllh ui 
U<i tunnlnln. ind i^ioTCg ol riMoi, myrtlei, 
rtmct l[T«. Tbe parti of llH Imlldlnp nuMI 

baitluDcd walli iind inbai. 

Towimcnd glvci Ihi fotloRlng nicrlnci accoun 
of tho A1huibrii:-''Ths aKint to llil* Ddinc 
(aniqno in In Myle ot »rrbltettori>) l> Ihrowth i 
■hsdy nnd well-wntertd groie of clnn, nboondlni 
wUh nl^tlninilo". Too *nMr lir.t Inio in oUoni 
conn of l«0 fMI )>!' M tctl. with b buin of watt 
It, of 1«« Ittt in hinttth, uicumpaiwil Ir 

r bonlfr. 

It lnt< 

Ing arn IwD hot hatha. Tbc; 

with > colonnado 

he room; adjoln- 
Ik clirhl wlndowa 
of HfeethyK. 

i;f|ir>u tmn, itputcdto hi 

do 1' Eapagne, ml. 1IL; Jaiii« Kutph^'g Anblu 
Antlqnlllai dF Bjuln: and Waatalnglan Irrliifi 
Talci of Iha Alhambra. 

OonT»y»iiow,— 01bralt« mar be nuhtd bj 
rail (MBobadlDa and Bonda. The ra&d to >lanl> 
paaaei the BIcm Sacra. 

ihrangh Jaen (page W), tbenM train 
But the irbolc Jmirnay may be made by BlUmr. 
M a branch line now open, eonnectlns OtaDvli 
nllb Loja, Anttqutra. and Dobadllla, on tba 
Ua1a«a and Cordova line. Thence to Cordon, 
Da«a. and Madrid. A bnffat at BotaOllla. 
From AreUdona (Btet), is mllaa tram Aati- 
lacra, the Alhama Batha (p. N) are aeeaaalble. 
Distance: Granada to Cordora direot it >1| 

»ed thiol 

D Lope, Alcal 

. night at 
a. Tbel 

I, Alcandi 

ilently taken from gg^^^ ThoreisworkforlheeeologlaluidbManlit 
"■null thB™lMM AlealiUItMLl U plttureiqBBly rttoated, and 
Bcqord nith tbc | llaHoorlah caglla la vortby of attention, 
here aulled to tht BMUl [|>opiilallon,IS.IS6)l>theiinelent CbOn 

Intended for the wlniei 

01 bonri from C 


a. 11 hat 



h f WenalT 

e aalt mine* 

Tlcliilly. Tlie 

lent Hmnan 

la atlll viilblo. 

a aepulchre 

dlKTOxercd, said 



at. The 

chnieh ot 

Maria baa aomo 


ntcrlptlona. BauiaK 

om PneBte OraU (puo M 

thiont^i J»™ ai-a'a**™ '.'>"■ 



Honte 10.] 

The road to Jaen is picturesque, and passes 
Mituganda, Segri, and Campillo de Arenas. The 
distance is 16 leagues, and may be done by dili- 

JAEN (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 22,854. 

Hotel8.~Parador de las Diligencias; Fonda 
Enropa; El Caf6 Nuevo. 

It is situated about 2,500 feet above the level of 
the sea, and is enclosed by walls and commanded 
by a fortress. At the time of the Romans it was 
an important city, AuringI, and under the Moors 
was capital of the kingdom of the same name. It 
was taken by Ferdinand II., in 1246. It has ex- 
tensive lead mines, and produces olives, inferior 
wine, and fine fruit. In the time of the Moors it 
had manufactures of silk. 

Sights.— Oroco-Roman Cathedral, on the site 
of a mosque ; note the custodia, the sacristia, the 
statues, and relics, one of which is the Santo Rostro 
(Sacred Countenance). This is said to be a hand- 
kerchief with which the sweat was wiped from 
the Saviour's face. S. Miguel and 8. Juan are 
worth a visit Handsome Alameda. 

Rail, 20| miles, to Bspeltiy, on the line between 
Cordova and Madrid. From Espeluy to VadoUanO 
(through Baeza) 21| mi'es. From Vadollano, a 
short branch of 5| miles to 

(Population, 86,627), a fine town, situated in a 
fertile plain, under the Sierra Morena. It has 
several convents, and in the vicinity arc some 
antiquities, including a Roman aqueduct and a 
palace, both in ruins, and a fountain. Some 
ancient mines of copper and lead are still worked. 
It was here that Mr. A. Hamilton, while looking 
after the mines, was captured by brigands, 8rd July, 
1874, and ransomed for £6,000. Here Scipio put to 
flight Asdrubal. Some good shooting and fishing 
are to be had. A line is projected to Jaen, 
Cabra, Lucena, and Puente-Genil. 

On the diligence road from Linares to Andujar 
(see next page) is 

Population, 10,041. 
HoteL— Parador de las DlUgeneias. 
It baa « Tuia^d Ctutie, The capitolation of 
Ballea, the ooauaeBemauBt of the FrcoDch dUaiterB 


in the Peninsula, was signed 28rd July, 1808, at An- 
dujar, after the Battle of Bailen, one of the most 
remarkable in the wars of the great Napoleon, 
because it was the first great reverse that befel his 
army. After the entrance of Joseph Bonaparte, the 
intrusive king, into Madrid, General Dupont de 
I'Etany, one of Napoleon's most distinguished 
ofiiccrs, was sent at the end of May into Andalusia, 
with a corps of 8,000 men, to secure the possession 
of Cadiz. Dupont passed the Sierra Morena, beat 
(June 7th) the Spanish patriots at Arcolea, then fell 
back on Andujar to await reinforcements, which 
was led up by Generals Vedcl and Gobert. Mean- 
while the Spanish army led by Castaflos came up 
by forced marches, and after several sharp actions, 
threw itself between Dupont and Vedel, making 
the former believe that it was his intention to 
march on Andi]Oar. Dupont having detected the 
real aim of Castaflos, inarched during the night 
of July 18th on Bailen, when he encountered the 
Spanish divisions of Reding and Coupigny, whom 
he attacked vigorously several times in the morn- 
ing of the 19th. But he was soon after attacked 
in flank and rear through the masterly manoeuvre 
of the Spanish leader; and thus hemmed in, 
ignorant of the fate of Vedel, and with troops 
harassed by the great heat (for they had not the 
endurance of Havelock's British force under the 
fire of an Indian sun), Dupont proposed a truce, 
which was granted by the Spaniards. 

Meanwhile Vedel who had marched oflf north- 
wards returned on his steps and attacked the 
Spaniards. But Dupont ordered him to cease, 
including him in the capitulation which he made 
of all the French forces under his command. By 
this capitulation Dupont's force was declared pri- 
soners of war, and Vedel's was to be transported 
by sea to France. But on the march they were 
nearly torn in pieces by the Infuriated population, 
whom they had robbed and maltreated In every 
manner. Indeed the Spanish authorities over- 
ruled the capitulation, crowded the prisoners on 
the galleys at Cadiz, and left many to perish of 
want, conduct which could not be excused, but 
which was natural after what the French had 
inflicted on them. Dupont, who wm. «. Vis^Sc^ 
honourabU m«sv mw^«.«.^\\«*.^'^^>^^^^ 


AKDV3AS. tnat.), n 

1ta-B»lefJuii. l>UI|«iic* I 

ID GjxoAtJqaWlT, vltt 

[SbcUod 1. 

Id ronndUhs. 

lo byBernigii<ttD,liithBCipUla S.Nleo- 

rijInUl bf the Koon on tht oM 
10 789. HoUlhscDiirt of oruge 
n, irllb lt» eolmani o< iwrplvrr. 

iiumoroai ilalu ud onr 80 

In Ihe nrlgbbunrl 

. The town 1> 

K mite 9 north-nun b 
OOUTayance.—RnlHu Madrid nod loCoriloviL 
OOKOOVA <8tet.) ; « CWdsto, In Spsnieh. 
Popnlttlion {1S81), 48,BM. 
HlrtaJ«.-Fonda Sulia, nith a .nccnraal 

Manyri luSered. Tbo ArehleiilKiqiiJ Palate, 
built In the ^bucntli coitnry, in a bad Mat* «< 
repair, near the Aleuar. Unaeo, with awu 
Inferior plctaree. La Gorredem, formerif vti 
for hnll-flgbla. Hoxpltal da Ban SelwUai; 
•ome old baUii ; octagcw tower, naat La Panta 
de Plaaencia, called La Uala Hoerle; msk 
corloui Uoorlab honaea. The old Bonaii aad 
MoorUb Bridge fljutealo the City Ainu, Byai- 
gogne (about t-o. ISM) diacgnnd u IML The 
•rbole may lis leea In a day and a ball. For 

lujwrlor to tbc hotel lisclf; OiteniD. 

doM. by P, D. de Klvaa, 410. 1884; the/adteiir 

Tbis larg* decayed city Mande In a churning 

ofL.M,Rauilrexiandtbo JfanMlJttjd. I5«*w. 

altuatlunontho bankg of Ihe GuadalquKir, d,140 

It vu lamouB for iti palnled leather, called Oua- 

feel above eea. Under tba Moon (who held It 

TiG-liaei it 1> uld lo have eitondod S leni^aei 

London ConlTrelneri' Company traded. 

or chapelJ, 4,300 minareti or towerB. 800 pobllc 

Hallway.— Slallon near the city, to the north, 
and on Ibe old high road to SevlU^ by tbe right 

bathe, 18 rabnrhe, aOAHS shopt, »3,Oro dwell Ing- 
honeet, and se,wa palacoi. It wai founded by 

Marc ellua, and Haslhafint Roman colony eiUh- 

B^l to Serllle, Jere., and Cadia (lT4i mllea). In 

abont 10 hoars. Rail Ihroogh to Madrid, ITl houi. 

lo tbelwoBenocai! the post Lncan ; the Arabian 

the Spanish painter, PaUodeCespedea; IheSpiuiiih 

Rail lo Malaga, Id iIi hoore (Bnflet BobadUla, 

Chancer, Juan do Mnna; and Ooiinlvce Fer- 

Ihe junction for Qranada.) It paum TOTTM 

nandet. Another native la Uarlue Novatui, or 

Junlui Oal;w,theproconenlmentlonedlnthoActe 

(population, 18,SO0), X a fine point of 

view on a table-land ),100 feet abore aea, the 

intlqoltlet. To the north of it, in the Sierra 

birth-place of Gonaalvo da ConloTii, Ihe Oral 

Morena. i. the gorge of IMfpeSft-'perToa, 3,«»0 

Captain, anceilorof the Dnkes of Medina CeMj 

*• JBorgaej, omstBd orlglntllj by the Bomu 

loted fur wine; thence to Ignllar (popnlatim, 
11, M9), Pusnte Oenll, near tba QauU, OUft' 
rlClM, lA Koda, (Khete Che branA Iraa Vuwt 
cornea \n, page G^l, T'OKfiib &» VtliKkud In 
n^oeiil a»tVii8,Kft»(BB»,V»»WM^«^'*fc"^«« 

Route 10.] 



of Antequera, on the Gaadalborce (branch to 
Qranada), and Qobautes; by several tunnels, 
throngrh Sierra Morena^ to AlOTE, near the Sierra 
del Hacho, Pissam (for the road to the Baths of 
Gtfrratraea, pageSd), Oartama (population, 4^906X 
to Halaga (P&sro 59). in 1894, a line was opened 
from Puente Ctonil, (abore) through Cabra, 

Baena (page fiS), Martos, Jaen (page £9X 

£speluy (page 59), and Bailen (page 59 to 
Unaras (page 59), For Badajoz and Lisbon, 
a train starts daily from Cordova, past ObejO, 

AlbondignlUa, Espiel, Belmez, Penarroira, 
VaBeqnillo, and Znjar, to Alxnorclion, on the 

Madrid- Badajoz lino; saving a wide detour, by 
way of Manzanares and Ciudad Real. 

Excursions may be made to the Hermitages on 
the Sierra Morena, which date f rcnn remote anti- 
quity. Also to ruins of a Convent of Hieronymite 
monks, embowered in orange-groves, oaks, and 
luxuriant trees of all kinds, many of them of 
groat interest. 

Resident English Vice-Consul. 

OonYeTanoea.— From Cordova to Granada by 
way of Santa Cruclta, Castro del Rio, Baena, 
Alcallt la Real, Puerto Lope, and Pinos Puente. 
The railway route is by Bobadilla, 154 miles. 

Railway from Cordova to Seville passes through 

Almoddvar, Pniaflor, Garmona, and Todna. 

Distance about 80 miles; time from 3 to 4| hours. 
The route follows the Guadalquivir, but has little 
interest. At Tocina, a branch goes oSvia VUlana 
de la Mlnas to Pedroso and its largo iron 
works, and thence to MOTlda (page 37). 

Distance by the road from Cordova to Seville, by 
Ecija and Carmona, 25 leagues. 

Instead of proceeding direct to Seville by rail, 
the tourist can take the railway to Ecija and 
Carmona; or proceed to Ouadajoz (Stat), as 
below, for Carmona. 

The distance from Cordova to Ecija is 10 leagues; 
through Valchiilon and La Carlota. 

BCUA (Stat), 
On a branch from Marchena, on the Utrera and 
La Roda line (page 69). 
Population, 24,955. 

Hotela— Poaada d« la Posta; Parador de la 

The U>wn of Eaija is pJeaaontiy aituated on th© 

J^ bank of tbe GimU, and Is wtU huUt. Tlrah«at 

is 00 excessive that the place is called ike ''frying- 
pan of Andalusia" (SartenUla de AndaluciaJ. It 
has manufactures of linens, coarse woollen cloths, 
and leather. It is the anci^it AjtHgit^ which denotes 
its Greek origin. In the time of the Romans it 
rivalled Seville and Cordova. The vicinity is rich 
in oil and com. 

Slghta.— The Church of Santa Maria; Church of 
Santa Barbara; San Domingo, a convent; San • 
Francisco, a convent; note the cloisters. Pine 
Plaza de Toros, on the site of a Roman amphi- 
theatre; bridge over the Genii; Plaza Mayor, with 
its fountain and arcades, a great evening resort of 
the natives ; several finely painted and decorated 
houses; Moorish gates. Several hospitals. A fine 
public promenade. 


Diligence to Oaimona, 9 leagues. 

Population, 17,426. 

HoteL— Parador de las DIHgcncias. 

This city is the Moorish Karmunah, and is 
picturesqely situated on a hill, and enclosed by 
Moorish walls. It has manufactures of woollen, 
hemp, leather, glue, soap, Ac. Its annual fair, on 
the 25th April, is celebrated, and should be visited 
by artists. Numerous oil mills In the neigh- 

Sights.— Ruined Castle, or Alcazar; Church 
of San Pedro, with a remarkable tower ; University, 
partly of Moorish architecture; fine Moorish gate- 
way; Puerta de Cordoba; Alameda, or public 
promenade, with its fountain. 

ConveyanoeB.— Rail to Seville in about 2 hours, 

27 miles, via Aloaudete, Viso, Malrena, <fec. ; to 

Cordova in about 3^ hours, via Gliadajoz (Junc- 
tion), on the Guadalquivir, near Todna, 

SEVILLE (Stat), or SevUla in Spanish. 
Population 163,000. 

Hotels.— De Madrid; de Paris; Fonda de 
Europa; English and American Pension; Calle 
Fernandez Espino. 

There are good CasiiKts, Casas de Pupilos, or 
Casas de Huespedes, 25 to 80 reals per day. Post 
and Telegraph Office^ G«Ua^V^^>ws^ Wq^rsc&ss.. 

SerUlt, th* MClent BitpatU, >tsiid> on tbB )t 
biuk o[ Iha OnarJulqaEnir (MSsIfi) In Andnluti 
(ml was the cspttBl of Spain during ■ jiut a[ tl 
Oothlcdynatty. Thcclljlinmrly circular, «ndt] 
circuit 1> from S lo S Enjll^ mllM; It baa a di 
pun air. Itli lurrounded by old Walli. partly i 

iralki. It hasflfteimgHtn anil eight luburbg. I 

n Orieiil 

city cortuins 
Diique, Ban i 

■CO, Del Triunro 
are handHme- 
l> crojted by an Iron bridge, and on 

the principal EiilTcpGt uf the South 

In (he export of oranges. The traffic o 
Is imall. In Iho ililh century the Goth 
Ihali capital [rem Toledo to Seville. It 
liy the Hoon In Til, and by Freder 

may menllon Valasquei, Murtllo, and Carbajal. 

The Holy TB«k— Santa Semana-preseiits Se- 

commenrBs about the middle of April. On 
Thunday and Friday the rellgioBi procenlons 

and Bis events In the Ille and death of 
our Saviour an, represented. The Virgin Is 
gorgconaly decoraled In varioDi coitnmes. Satur- 
day Is a quiet day; Sunday, bnll-flghtln(t ; Mon- I 

A/r Mnd alio a ball-Bght, which tera)lnate» the I 

'nu'i **'''" beforvhand to ttcan apart- 1 

n B iistf , j^ donbie dortng 1 

Iho Holy Week. TlokeU inDat ba proonred 
early, a< they an all bought op in fortlei 
and flltie^ to be reUUed al norbitant priest. 

night before tlu. flght, on tho plain outelde the 
town, or Ke lliem drtvm In at S ajn. on the day of 
the flghl. The geologlil should Inspect the coil 
mines at VlUonucva del Hlo, !0 mlloe from 3«vlllt. 
ngktaL-The nobleCathednl, of the f onrtHntk 
and flfleenlh centuries, li «4 feet In length by no 
idth, partly In tba Roman and partly In the 


■f Colnmbus {or Colon) were Snl dapoilled, under 

Murlllo, Alonao Can* 
las, VaWea. Zurbaran, El Griego, Uoralei, 
ro Fetnandea, Tobar, Lula dc Vargas, Pedro 

Darttnei, anil a Bne carving by J.M. Montanei. 

I of the pictures by RocUs Isthatof Santiago 
he battle of Clavlgo. on his while war-hotM, 
big ioitn the Saracans. Tho Unrilloe an 
ost Invisible from the want of light. Unrilio'i 
rdlaa Angel li placed over the altar of lU 

II diapel. The angel, In a rich yellow robe 
purple mantle, points with bis right band to 
ren, and with the other leads a Inelf ehDd, 

■'>>EBt,F<irthshlrc. Note a] h, by 
'erilluand. Ills SI. Antovy s} P 
plistery, s grsnd pLclurt, hud a 
lis In 1874. The prindpul figure 

tha left of the toot 
traei, where It can oi 

SDiill dark chapel to 
filhflconct of orange 
in by the light of the 

IcTllIe: note the h^h 

Chnrch of Ban Andres, who 
Gotho-Byiantlne ilyle. It coi 
attrlboledtoMontanei, a woe 

lerlt. «. 

pie, Alon: 

Valiit. a contemporary of MiuUId. 
Chnrch of Sjui Beniatdo, wKh tbi 
coDMrnoUid with great repilaiity > 

Chnrch of Saota Cm: 

aIdb a CoDCfptluU' 
latlngalBhed dlaf^l- 

eaqne ityle, el altg 

r«m, and adorned with 
Church of Ban Lord 
uf the eaint. and In II 

Chnrch of Bonta Lncla; note ibe high alur, 
containing a picture by RoeUa. repreienling the 
martyrdora of the aalnt) also a Matna ol the 
Ooncepcloo, and an efflgy of Santa Lucia. The 
lower, which ieriea tor a belfry. It of Uoorlih 

Church of Ut Ua^dalena. of Ihe tenth century, 

Church of San Uarctti; note Itibeantlfnl western 
fafade, which ha< aerTod oe a model for tereral 
churcbei; Ihe rctablo of Ihe Altar da Anlmii con- 
tain! a palnling by D.Martlnei: Ihe tower, riling 
10 Oae left of Ihecharcta, In Imitation of the Gltaldn, 
1> a flne monoment of Arabian archlteclnre. 

Cbnich of Sanu Haila U Blaoca, which, before 

painting], (till rttalna a Last Sd| 
^agradaCaaa; note Che celebrated 

Chnrch ol 

er; the reublo i 

majesty ; and in the same cha)>< 
de Maj^ so well known lor 
with a Latin epitaph of the 


sf 9sn Mlgnd, of tha Gothic 
tha reign o( Don Pedro el 
res are merely India^i 

Chnrch of Bon Joan da la Palma, Sore 

It ^ontalnasMwJnepfcfHres. 
(7AEICA efSta Jalltaf aeU Utt r«t*Uo ot Its 

learned antlqnuy, Kodrico Cuo. 
apUlai ii a. tmji** ■* mA.-mA 



[Seetlon 1. 

Church (tt Omnium SHnoturum, whofie towerit 
pertain tu tho Hararcnic i>erioil; It poRiteuMS but 
few workH of merit; note, however, the aix 
pAintinffH t>y FnmciHou VnreU. 

Church of Sun I*c<lro; note the irreftt retahlo, of 
two RtyloA uf urrhitcotnrc ; tho aix relievos referring^ 
to the life of tlic KJiint, whoRe fine utatuc in in the 
centre. In the chapel of San Pedro Ad Vinculo, 
note a fine painting by Roelaa, reprexenting the 
Anfrel f rceinjr the Apontlea from prison. In different 
parts of the precinct are other pictures and tablas 
worthy of attention. 

Church of Santiago; note the retaldo of the great 
chapel, containing a fine painting of the celebrated 
Roman artint, Mateo Peres Alesio, representing the 
patron saint in the memorable battle of Clavljo. 
Near the altar ma|r be seen the flag-stone which 
covers the remains of the excellent poet and learned 
historian, Oonxalo Argnte do Molina. 

Church of San Vicente, probably the most 
ancient (in portions) in Seville. According to some 
authors, it served as cathedral in the time of the 
Goths. In the chapel entitled Los Remedies is a 
platoresquo rotable containing several fine pictures. 
In the Capilla del Santisimo is a painting alluding 
to the sacrament; and, among other well-executed 
pictures, a superb Ecce Homo of Morales. 

Among the other churches are San Alberto, 
which contains some works well worthy of 
mention. In one of the rctaMos is the ma^Tiiflcent 
picture of Alonso Cano, representing La Calle de 
la Armagura— "the Via Dolorosa" — a work of 
perfect composition and wonderful colouring; 
note also the beautiful statue of Santa Ann, the 
work of the same author. The retablo has some 
tablHs figuring the four Evangelists, the Coronation 
of the Virgin, and a priest saying mass, the work 
of Francisco Pacheco. On the side of the epistola 
is a beautiful picture; besides two statues by 
Cano, representing Santa Teresa and San Alberto. 
Below the choir, note a Sun Miguel, the sublime 
creation of Pacheco. 

Convent of San Clcmentc, for Its historic remem- 
brances, one of the most ancient and noteworthy in 
Seville. The great retablo of the church belongs to 
the gonero platcresco. In the presbytery are some 
paintings with passages of the life of the saint. 
in^ eptatolH contains a retablo with eight pictures 
i»yI'ncbeco, repreaentlnff the apostles and evango- 
J/sfs. r„ the principal niche ia a marvellous statue 

of San Juan Bautista In the desert, the work of 
Oaspar Nuflex r>clga<lo. In the groat capilla Ilethe 
remains of DoAa Maria of Portugal, wife of Don 
Alonso XI., and hts two brothers, who dle<l at a very 
early age. The eholr contains the tombs of the 
Infantas DoHa Beatrix, daughter of Enrique II.; 
1H>na T^ioonor and Dofla Bercnguela. Church of tht 
Conception, near San Juan de la Palma. In one of 
the chapels is a fine statue by Canoi, representing 
the Virgin and the infant Jesus. 

Church of Las Duellas; note the great retaUoof 
the Corinthian order; the laterals, consecrated to 
San Juan Bautista and the Evangelito, coutsin 
some goo<l statues and relievos. 

Church of Santa In^s, of the Gh>t1iic order, bnt 
completely disfigure^l. Tlio great retablo oontaios 
Uie statue of tho saint; and In the two other eol- 
laterals are that of Santa Clara, and a Conceptkn 
by Montaliez. This church contains the embalmed 
TK)dy of Dolla Maria Coronel, wile of Don J nan dels 
Ccrda, which is annually shown to the public on 
tho 2nd of Dcccml)er, the anniversary of the death 
of this martyr. 

Church of the Nuns of Madre de Dios. It con- 
tains some fine sculpture ; and in the great chapel 
are some statues of merit, and some good bas- 
reliefs. Among these are a beautifully executed 
San Gcronhno, and an admirably concetved Cens 
(supper). All these works are by Hemandex. In 
the same retablo arc two good statues of Montafies, 
called Bautizo and Evangelista. The altars nesr 
the door contain also many fine sculptures. 

Church of tho Passion; note the pictures, the 
tablas, and a t)eautiful high relief in the centre of 
the great retablo. 

Church of Santa Paula; note the Gothic portal, 
only equalled by that of tho cathedral ; note also 
the two fine rctablos by Cano, and, in tho retablo 
of Our Lady of tho Rosary, six fine pictures by 
Francisco dc Cabriun. Tho altar and the statnei 
arc the work of the celebrated sculptor and arcU- 
tcct, Caspar de Rilias. The church contains also the 
remains of its founders, the Countable of Portugslt 
Don Juan, and Dofia Isabel Enriquez, descended 
from the kings of Ciurtilc, and the Marquis of Mon- 

CYvuTcYv ot WvQ \\o?.\\Vb\ ^<fe Vm Venerables. It 
wan buV\t ou \Y\c^ v>\\.« ol 'C\ ^«mX VSiu^ ^cra^te 
DoHa 1a\"v\Tt^ a totV ol wWwom <A v\a 

Itoutfe lOj 



century, for the exliibition of the draknatic works of 
Juan de Cueva, Juan de Mallara, and other Spanish 
authors of that epoch, so renowned for their contri- 
butions to the national literature. The church 
formerly contained some fine paintings by Murillo 
and others; note on the high altar a painting by 
Valdez, representing San Fernando ; and the fresco 
on the ceiling by the same artist. 

£a Cartuja^ an ex-monastery, occupying a very 
picturesque and charming situation on the wcsteni 
bank of the Guadalquivir, and to the north of the 
Arrabal de Triana. It is now a pottery, carried on 
by the Marquis de Pickman, an Englishman. The 
chapel, however, has been preserved. 

San Isidore de Campo, another ex-monastcry, in 
the same state as when it was inhabited by its 
monks. It is picturesquely situated on a hill, sur- 
rounded by olive gnroves, to the east of the ruins of 

Ck)uv«it of San Gcrdnimo de Buena Vista, 
situated a quarter of a league north of the city, on 
the eastern bank of the river. Its architecture is 
of the Renidssance. The building is grand and 
severe. The principal court and the superb gallery 
which surrounds it are of two styles of architecture, 
the Doric and Ionic. The principal staircase is 
remarkable for its solidity, its construction, and its 
costliness. The building received the appellation 
of Buena Vista from the beautiful views from its 
towers and windows. 

Santas Justina and Rufina, a Capuchin convent 
near the Puerta de Cordova. 

Hospital de la Caridad, situated in El Postigo del 
Carbon y del Aceite, an alms-house, fouuded in 
1678, and rebuilt by the Caballero Mallara, for the 
relief of the poor. In the two courts are spacious 
galleries, with many marble columns, and two 
groups of figures in marble, of Charity and Faith. 
The church has some fine Paintings by Murillo, 
Pedro Roldan, and Vald^s Leal. Among the 
Murillos, are a San Juan, an Infant Saviour, 
Moses striking the Rock (La Sed), the Loaves and 
Fishes (Pan y Peees), and a San Juan de Dios ; and 
an Exaltacion de la Cruz, by Vald^sLeal. The 
high altar contains a Descent from the Cross, carved 
and painted by Roldan, considered by some to be 
bis chef-d'oeuvre. 

Hospital de la Sangre (built in 154«), an immenae 
tnUding, with a bMnM/U /a^de, and having 


accommodation fol' 306 patients; note the portal, 
the fine chapel with medallions by Machuca, and 
some pictures by Zurbaran. 

La Cuna, or the cradle, a foundling hospital in the 
Calle of the same name. The city contains also a 
great many other richly endowed hospitals. 

College of San Telmo an immense building near 
the promenade called Las Dclicias. It was founded 
by the son of Columbus, for a nautical college, and 
built in 1G82. 

Alcazar (Al-Kasr), a Royal Palace. It is the 
ancient palace of the Sultan Abderrahman, and 
though modernised and spoilt by the Christian 
kings, it still preserves much of its original beauty. 
In its present state, it is a compound of Gothic and 
Arabian architecture. Note the superb court, the 
Moorish doors andceilings,tlie Patio de las Mufiecas 
or of the Puppets, theCuarto del Principe; Isabella's 
chapel ; the rooms fronting the garden, and tlie gar- 
dens themselves, which are very beautiful. TheHalL 
of Ambassadors is as fine as that of the Alhambra, 
of which it seems to be an imitation. The pavement 
is of marble, the ceiling is painted in blue and gold, 
and the panelling of the wainscots is formed of 
painted tiles. It also contains the Royal apartments ; 
and its *^ Court of Lions " is considered by some to 
be the finest piece of Arabian architecture in Spain, 
In one of the rooms on the ground-floor are several 
statues, inscriptions, and other remains of antiquity, 
which have been found on the site of the ancient 
Italica. On the f afade which looks to the north 
in the great garden is the Puerta, called El Labcr- 
into, so named from the great difficulty of exit, 
occasioned by the combination of the streets. In 
the interior of this garden, and behind the laby- 
rinth, has been built a rustic house, which is called 
La Gruta (the grotto). There are several other 
reserved gardens, to which the public are not 
admitted. Pedro the Cruel bestowed great pains 
on the renovation and embellishment of the Alcazar. 
Many of its marble columns were brought from 
Valencia, and much of the delicate stucco embroi- 
dery was the work of the Moors of Granada. Apply 
to the Teniente de Alcaide (resident) for a permit 
or fee the sentry. 

La Cata de PUatot^ a magnificent PaUA.<^tA ssga. 
ancient dukQ% ol iA^Ti\*. Vr. ^Swi^«^v"'^^»»5^'*^^«^'^'*- 



the interior i« fine, eipeciiOly the staircase. The 
celUngof theHall, called CoDtadiLriaAlta,i8painted 
in distemper by the celebrated Francisco Pacheco, 
and is one of his best works. The lower 'rooms of 
the palace are adorned in the Arabesque stylo, the 
walls covered with glazed tiles, and beautiful 
designs; the doors contain inscriptions worked in 
the wood, like those in the Alcazar. Hence you 
pass into a gallery of arches and columns, which 
serves as the entrance to a beautiful garden, sur- 
rounded with myrtles and orange-trees. In the 
other two galleries which correspond to the garden, 
arc a Venus with a dolphin, many relics of fine 
statues, various pedestals and stones with inscrip- 
tions of much merit; the walls of the capilla are 
of exquisite workmanship. Proprietor, the Duke 
de Medina Cell, descended from the dukes of 

Consulado, or Casa Lonja de Mcrcadores (Ex- 
change), a very fine building of the Tuscan order, 
situated to the south of the cathedral, and having 
the Alcazar to the cast; it was designed by the 
celebrated Herrera, and built by his distinguished 
pupil Juan de Mingares, at the expense of the mer- 
chants of the city; it was commenced in 1585, in the 
reign of Philip U, but not finished till the year 1698 . 
Its plan is entirely square, having four equal facades 
Of 200 feet in length, in the style of architecture 
called Greco-Romano; it has three storeys; the 
height to the breastwork or parapet is only 73 feet; 
the exterior has 119 windows and doors, inclosed by 
a balustrade; it has two puertas or doors, one on the 
northern, the other on the western fa9ade; the mag- 
nificent court, which is 72 feet square, and 58 in 
height, is surrounded with grand and spacious 
galleries. The columns, above which are the arches 
of the first storey, are of the Doric order, and those 
of the second, of the Ionic. In the first storey are 
rarious saloons and departments used by the tribu- 
nal of the Consulado. The principal staircase which 
leftdsto the second storey is broad and spacious, with 
three landing places, and is rich in the variety of 
marbles of which it is constructed; the second storey 
contains three magnificoit saloons, of the length 
of the three fa9ades which correspond to it, and in 
these are . preserved, in magnificent mahogany 
shelves, all the Documents relating to the discovery 
MOif etmquest of tie Americas, by Columbus and 
CHarte^ sad alao fiomo of the papers pf thfi ATChires 

[Section 1. 

of Simaacas, relating to the T«ry nnincroiu f vbjeets 
of thoee aviferou tpflaaM. TlOp colL^etka 1# 
called ArtMf09 4e Jn4ifU. AdnlistoB itm. 
Another superb staircase conducts to the ptet- 
f onus, which are spacious and magnificent; and 
from which may be had charming views of the 
cathedral, the alcazar, and the vast plains of the 
Vega de Triana. 

El Miueo, in the ex-convento de la Merced, 
which was founded by Ferdinand, in 1249, and 
which is remarkable for its size and architecture. 
The Museo is of modem foundation, dating only 
from 1888, and was destined as a receptacle for all 
the pictures and books collected in the convents of 
the capital and other towns in the province, with 
the view to the formation of a principal library 
and gallery of paintings; it contains five saloons; 
the first occupies the ancient church (consisting 
only of a nave), the plan of which represents the 
figure of a Latin cross; the second was destined for 
the magnificent Sllleria de Santa Maria de las 
Cnovas; the third and fourth contain, like the 
rest, a considerable number of paintings, by 
several authors; the fifth saloon contains the 
superb paintings of Murillo, which were fwmeriy 
in the Convent of (Capuchins. In the upper gal- 
lery of the northern court are a great number of 
Paintings, but of inferior merit to those in the 
saloons. With the exception, however, of the can- 
vases of Murillo all are disposed without order; 
the Escuela Sevillana includes the following dis- 
tinguished masters, viz., Murillo, Zurbaran, 
Roelas, Vald^s Leal, Herrera, Cespedes, Cano, 
Castillo, Varela Perez, Gutierrez, Meneses, Tovar, 
El Mulato, and others. Considering the number 
of works by KnrUIO. especially those which 
he painted for the many cmivents of this eity, this 
museo possesses very few. 

Thirteen are to be found in the saloon which 
bears his name : they are San Leandro, San Buena- 
ventura, both of natural size; KacMnlepto (the 
nativity); San Felix de Cantalldo; San T^Qiit 
de Villanueva, givhig alms to the poor; Santa 
Justa y Santa Bufina, sustaining the tower of the 
church; Vision deSan Antonio; a Concepcion; a 
Concepcion of somewhat less size^ Anfn^i^ j|n>|op 
de Nuestra Sefiora; St. Frandf emhn ^in y 4^ 
Savio\\x ctuqV&«^ ciua ^i the initft jfi/^bnm 

Hoiite lo.] 



in the Miiseo; St. John the Baptist (natural 
size) in the Desert; Virgin, surrounded by 
angels, weeping over the dead Christ, a striking 
picture, full of feeling and expression; San Jos^, 
with the Infant Jesus held up over his right 
shoulder (natural size). Such are the principal 
obras maestras (chef d'oeuvres) contained in the 
saloon which bears the name of Murillo. It contains, 
however, four more of his canvases, of less size, 
although not inferior in merit and value, repre- 
senting San Feliz, San Antonio, La Yirgen de 
Belen, and the one called La SertUleta, because 
painted on a dinner napkin, magnificent creations 
of the celebrated pupil of Velasquez. The salob 
of the church contains also some of Mnrillo's 
works, the most notable of which are a Concepcion, 
and two pictures of San Augustin; the works of 
Zurbaran (a pupil of Roelas) comprise his Apoteo- 
sis de Santo Tomtfs de Aquino, considered his 
master-piece; alsoLa Coronacion deSan Jos^; an 
Eterno Padre, Dos Frailes (natural size), two 
Christs, a Nuestra Se&ora de las Cuevas, a San 
Hugo, a San Bruno in conference with Pope Urban, 
a Refectory of Dominicans, an Archbishop invested 
in pontificals, a Cardinal, and a Supreme Roman 

The most notable production of Roelas is the 
Martiro de San Andres. The Museo contains 
other paintings attributed to Roelas, among 
which are a Concepcion, but the authenticity 
has been doubted. The works of Vald^s are a 
Calvario (natural size), a Via Dolorosa, an Ascen- 
cion, a Concepcion, a San Ckrdnimo, a Cinco 
Santos, viz., San Antonio, Santa Catalina, San 
Andres, San Anton, and San Sebastian; a Dos 
Frailes, and a Bautismo de San Gerdnimo. The 
works of Francisco de Herrera the elder, comprise 
an Apoteosis de San Hermenegildo (his principal 
work), a colossal picture, and an Apoteosis de 
San Basilic. Those of Pablo de Cespedes, a Last 
Supper, and a Salvador. The works of Juan de 
Castillo comprise an Annunciacion, a Nacimiento, 
an Adoracion de los Reyes,a Visitacion, and above 
all, a Coronaeion de Kuestra Seftora. Alonso 
Cano and Juan de Farela (a disciple of Roelas) 
have each only one work : the former, an Animas 
(little noteworthy), the Utter a Batala de Clavijo. 
The MiLMO coptaina alio a St. Peter by FranoUoo 
PachMo. Aaoog ptiirt«» ot second raak ilguttt 

the two brothers, Palanco and Bemab^ de Ayala 
to whom is attributed an Apoftolado. The 
Museo also contains ^me paintings by Andres, 
Perez, Jtian, Simon Gutierrez, Tovar, Francisco 
Meneses, and other painters who lived about the 
epoch of the decadence of the Seville School; 
there are also two pictures of the Artista Impro- 
visado by Sebastian Gomez (better known as 
Mulato de Murillo); they arc called La Vision 
de Santo Domingo, and £1 San Jose del Mulato. 
In the Museo are also some works of the Italian 
School, by Francisco Frutet. They comprise a 
Calvario, a Via Dolorosa, a Descendimiento, a 
Virgen de Belen and a San Bernardo; there is 
likewise a marvellous picture of the Flemish 
School, representing El Juicio Fintfl, by Martin 
de Vos. 

Seville has also many private Qallerles of Pic- 
tures, some of which are very fine ; among these 
are the Galeria del Sellor D. Anicete Bravo (con- 
sidered by some the finest) ; Galeria de los Here- 
dores del Seiior D. Manuel Lopez Cepero ; Galeria 
del Selior D. Pedro Garcia; Galeria del Sefior D. 
Jos€ Saenz. All these galleries are of the 
Spanish school. There arc also private collections 
of foreign art. In purchasing, great caution is 
required, as swindlers abound. 

Biblloteca Colombina.— A most interesting 
collection of books and MSS., chiefly formed by 
the son of Christopher Columbus, about 30,000 
vols. This library is but liitle known, and is 
certainly worthy the investigation of scholars. 
Admission free. Closed on holidays. 

Public Buildings.— Fabrica de Tabacos (to- 
bacco manufactory), an immense building, cover- 
ing a quadrangle of 612 feet by 524, and enclosing 
twenty-eight courts ; it was erected In 1757, at a 
cost of £370,000, and sometimes employs 6,000 
hands, principally females. 

A Roman Aqueduct of 400 arches, which still 
conveys water to the city from Alcalit. 

La Aduana, or custom-house, built in 1792, with 
both fa9ades of the Composite order ; it is near 
the Postigo de Carbon. 

Plaza de Toros, a bull-ring, capable of holding 
14,000 spectators ; it is situated neax t.Vsft. Kx^eosiic 



Bl{ADSHAW*S 8t*AIir AltD POUtXiCxt. 

[Sectioii i. 

Between the yeal's 1481 and 1808, besides those 
burned in effigy and imprisoned, nearly 35,000 
persons are recorded to have been burnt alive by 
order of this infamous tribunal. 

Casas Consistoriales y Gapitularias, on the 
Plaza Mayor ; note especially the staircase and the 
carved doors. 
La Barbacana, the Barbican. 
Univcrsidad, coutaiuicg nine colleges, founded 
in the sixteenth century. Its church contains 
paintings by Roelas, Alonso Cano, Pacheco, and 
Zurbaran. The Roelas include, among others, a 
Holy Family adored by St. Ig^iatius Martyr and 
St. Ignatius Loyola ; a Nativity, and an Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. There are also a St. John 
the Baptist, and a St. John the Evangelist, by 
Cano, and an Annunciacion by Pacheco; note 
also the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul by 
Montafies. The Library, 60,000 vols., and valuable 
M8S., with a good catalogue. 

Atarazanas de Azogues, or warehouse, in which 
arc stored the produce of the government quick- 
lilver mines at Almaden. 

Casa de Moneda, or old mint, now transferred to 

Torre del Oro, or Golden Tower, on the bank 
of the Guadalquivir, is not, as has generally 
been stated^ octagonal, but consists rather of 
twelve sides. It has three storeys; the third 
storey served in ancient times as a faro, over which 
floated the Spanish banner on the anniversaries of 
a signal victory or solemn festivity. The stair- 
case which leads to the three first floors is broad 
and commodious, and has arches. There was 
anciently a communication between this tower 
and the Alcazar. In 1827 it was proposed to re- 
open it, but it was never carried out. There are 
many conjectures concerning the name, some con- 
sidering it to be of Roman construction, while 
others state it to be of the date of Don Pedro, and 
to have been the place in which the treasures of 
the crown were kept. According to others it was 
the depository of the chests of gold and silver 
brought from America. This is certain, that it 
anciently had its especial alcaid, and that it per- 
tained to the Alcazar. It shines like gold in the 


3faeadero, or Shambles, a fine building, paved 
fr/ZJi Jar^e 4-Iffecirn9 Sags. 

Alhohdiga, or public <3ra^ary, a costly edifice, 
of Moorish origin, with a large court on the right' 
side of which are ranges of piazzas. 

The Audiencia, or High Court of Seville. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace, commenced in 16G4, 
whose fa9ade forms an angle nearly opposite the 
Giralda. Many of the paintings and sculptures 
which it contained were carried off by Soult, who 
resided in it during the French occupation. 

Cemetery of San Sebastian, which attracts a 
great many visitors between the last night of 
October and the 2nd of November, All Souls' Day. 

Botanical Gardens, near Las Delicias. 

La Feria, where there is a fair every Thursday, 
which is well worthy of a visit; it is situated near 
the Alameda de Hercules. A great Feria is held 
beyond the railway station about the middle of 
April, and visited by thousands from all parts. 

Seville had fifteen Pnertas or Gates, the names of 
which are as follow: — Puerta Real, Puerta dc San 
Juan,PuertadelaBarqneta, Puerta delaMacarena, 
Puerta de Cordoba, Puerta del Sol, Puerta del 
Osario, Puerta dc Carmona, Puerta de la Came, 
Puerta Nueva dc San Fernando, Puerta de Jerez, 
Postigo del Carbon, Postigo del Acelte, Puerta del 
Arcnal, and Puerta do Triana. Some of these arc 
Moorish, and date from the time of the Arab occu- 
pation, but most have been so much modernised 
that their character is quite altered. 

Among the Houses most worthy of notice are 
those in the Galle de los Abades, the Calle de los 
Duefias, the Calle Botica del Agua, the Calle de la 
Inquisicion Yieja, and La Juderia. S>an Telmo^ the 
seat of the Duke of Montpcnsier, has a good front, 
and fine pictures. 

El Paseo, a charming promenade and ride along 
the bank of the river, \\ mile long, terminating in 
the delightful garden of LcuDeliciat; the Alameda, 
a promenade near the Plaza del Duque; note tlie 
Roman pillars, statues of Hercules, Caesar, &c., and 
the Calle del Duque. 

The Triana suburb, beyond the river, is the 
gipsy quarter. Here was formerly the House of 
the Inquisition. In the vichiity is a Moorish dam, 
to prevent inundations. It is supposed to derive 
its name either from three antique arches which its 
gate once had, or from the Emperor Trajan. The 
houses are periiaps some of the most picturesque 
in SpAln. Amon^ the olive groves to the west of 

Boute 10-3 SKVILLB, LI 

It, la CuUlteja de 1* Cnesta, when (So. u at { 

If the < 

I Hadrli 


fair> ue held both it lUlici uid Tijiu 
CeclIU Dohl do Fuber. the untboiBS, 


Bnglt-h. Vlilt (ho OUv 

For Books on 3cYmc, comnlt Glurlos do Sorill. 
(IS49). C. Santlgomi. oiLltor, CbL(o de La SicriiM, 
No. 81; Sovlllfl and lt> Vlclnltjr, 6y F. H. Buodlsli, 
LoDdon, 1840, Mtaro; and Darlil'i Qutdc, Berille, 

to Jeroz and Cudli in about 1( Hours. Tlie iUt[on 

of £4 milft 19 opoa 10 At<»14-de-aiiAdaiTa 
(Stat), whore tho Hevllle broad Is mado, 
H&lTMW, VlBO (Btat ), or Vljo del Aoor, AlCAQ- 
daW, and Cumona (peie ei). The rail to 

EiulTK, sa miles, piEiei bf San Lncar U 
Kafor, or oe Bairameda (po(iu]ition.iz,7(«), 

In a rich fruit cauDtry, cajlod by tha Ara 
Afjar^, or Oardcn of Hercvlos, fTimiW. Bm 

8au Joan del Piurto (hrai 

gelll),Httllla (a decayed old 
tpwn), to BllOlTa(pBBC 111). 

Routes.— There are two roadj lo Badajo] 
,me through Oulllejis. I 

tf Alsi 

ita Marta, and Albuera: the othei 
Castillo, Rio Tinlo a™ 
ftfra (Stat.) (pee* K), S 

Utrera <8tat.), where Kro tr 

Uarclieiui (populaUon. 1 3,76S) is on a h 
ihe Quadalqulvlr (branoli to Bclja, P' 
OBUna (popolalioii.l!.211), which bclonj 
of thegr«^at Spanlehduhedome, la thoRom 

piet Dm Heimaaas, Utrsra (above). I 
Alcantarlllas. Lebrlja, Jeiei {hrnneh lo & 
Lncar), Pa«rto Bto. Uaila, Pnerto Real, B 
Fernando, le CadU. 

LEBRIJA (Stat.1 

8lBlltB.-The paroohial C 

aitu hy Alonio Cano! note J 
a crociRi by Monlalleii. It 
OixMt, tt Bic 
Cut\<s.-«\tt> •• 

Route 10.] CADIZ. 

.- »»• - - 





from America ; 
j'ewoods, sugar, 
1 Cuba, Puerto 
rom Mexico and 

licgcd. It was 

again attacked 

was blockaded 

h galleons, and 

Jrlish expedition 

, but failed. In 

when the place 

under the Due 

free port in 1829, 

» enjoy in 1832. 

nish colonies its 

Here the first 


•ce, a judicature, 

teresting to the 
fhtful residence 
)f English com- 
e Peninsula. 

called La Vicja 
the new). The 
used merely as a 

a much larger 
h u nave 279 feet 
aioiintcd by two 
still incomplete, 
lurches, besides 
That called Los 
upprossed. The 
y ^lurillo, viz.: 
St work, finished 

San Francisco. 

and some paint- 

h is a refuge for 
. note especially 
?lo, dc San Scr- 

f j«i», SwedlBh, Md NorweglMn vessels. The chVel \ 'womcxv, lot tv\\ ^Vw*^^'«^^ 



[Section 1., 

JSRE2 (Stat), or JEREZ DB LA 

PopalaUon (1887), 64,538. 

Hotels.— Basch's Private Hotel; De Jerez. 
From Jerez we get the name for "Sherry," its 
staple produce. 

Jerez is situated near the right bank of the 
Onadalete. The old part of the town has narrow 
ftnd crooked 8treet^ but the more modem part is 
well built. It is supposed to stand on the site of 
th« ancient Asti Regia, near which spot Roderic, 
last monarch of the Visigoths, lost the battle that 
put a period to their dominion in Spain. Its manu- 
factures comprise woollen cloths and leather, and it 
has numerous WillO Stores or bodegas. It exports 
from 5,500,000 to 7,000,000 gallons of sherry wine 
about one half being exported to England. Some 
is 150 years old. The best is dear, very little drunk 
in Spain, and is almost looked upon as a liqueur. 
The best wines are those called Moscadel, Pedro 
Jimenez, and Paxaretc. Jerez is denominated 
Jerez de la Frontera, in contradistinction to Jerez 
de los Caballeros, in Estremadura. There are 
several conjectures as to the meaning of the name 
Jerez. It was called by the Moors, Sherith Fiiittin. 
It is most probably derived from Cieris, the abbre- 
viation by the Moors of Asidona Cassaris. Some 
■hooting is to be had in the neighbourhood. 

Sights. — Moorish Alcazar, near the Alameda or 
public walk. La Colegriata. The churches of San 
Miguel, Santiago, and San Dionisio, a fine sample 
of Moorish-Gothic. La Cartuja, a Carthusian 
monastery, situated about 2 miles from the town. 
The chief bodegas, or wine stores, arc those of 
Domecq, Gordon, Ysasi, Kemates, Garvey, Gon- 
snlcz, Cosens, Mackenzie, &c. 

Conyeyances. — Rail to Cadiz in about li 
hour; to Seville in 2^ hours and 8i hours. To 
San Lucar (Stat.) Vy branch line (vid Las 
Tablas),. 1 hour; a port in the mouth of the 
Guadalquivir, on the Bay of Cadiz, once noted for 
adventurers of the Picaresque, or roguish class, as 
described in Mendoza's ''Lazarillo de Tormes." 
Coaches to Areas^ a picturesque town on the 

€?aadaJeie (X.^^ the rJrer of Lethe or DMtth^. with 

' J^^fe cAurcA. Steamers to Pf 

Puerto de Sta. Maria (Stat.) or Fort St. 

Manr's, formerly a Greek and Moorish port, at 
the mouth of the Guadalcte (a suspension bridge), 
on the opposite side of the Bay from Cadiz, 7 miles ■ 
from Cadiz by sea, but 21 by land, round to the Isth- .^ 
mus of Leon. Population, 22,122. It lias numerous 
bodegas or wine stores, and a noted breed of balls 
for fighting, /nn.— Vista Alegra. At Rota, the 
Tent wine for sacramental use is grown. 

Puerto Real (Stat), the ancient Portiu Oadi- 
tonus, where a branch goes off to nrocadffiro, on a 
point facing Cadiz, which the French occupied 
1823, now the site of the Spanish Transatlantic 
Co.*s docka. 

San Fernando (Stat), near the Naval yard, 
San Carlos Hospital, and Carracas Dockyard and 
Arsenal. Population, 26,886. 

CADIZ (Stat) 

. Population (1887), 62,531. 

Hotels.— Hotel de Paris; de America; de Cadiz; 
Fonda de las Cuatro Naciones. Very many Casas 
de Pupilos (Boarding Houses). Casino. 

Baths in the Plaza de Mlna, near the Correos 
(Post Office); sea-bathing establishments on the 
Alameda and the Muelle. 

SllOINk— The best shops for fans, mantillas, 
gloves (for which Cadiz is celebrated), perfumery, 
and confectionery, are in the Calie Ancha, which 
leads from the Plaza San Antonio to the theatre. 

Casino.— On the Plaza San Antonio, where 
strangers are introduced without difficulty. Uere 
the principal Spanish, French, and English jounials 
are taken in. 

Large hackney carriages, by the hour, 20 reals; 
smaller, 15 reals. Second hour, 15 reals and 10 reals. 

Fare of boats to steamers, 4 reals each person. 

Head Post Oflice : Calle Enrique. Tclci'raph, at 
the Custom House. 

Cadiz, the Phoanlcian Gaddir, Gades of the 
ancients, stands at the extremity of a peninsula 
of the Isle of Leon, the small isthmus of which 
forms an Immense Bay; being elevated, and built of 
white stone, it has a beautiful appearance from the 
soa. The entranee tk commanded by three Forts, 
caned Santa Catalina, St. Sebastian, and Matagorda. 
On ^ otlier AdM \\ \a vwcr^i^asv^^V} «i»v^ '^vo&u> 

Route 10.] CADIZ. 




from America : 
yewoods. *n!?ar, 
1 C\i},a. Puerto 
rom Mexico and 

•icjrc'l. It wat 
arain attacked 

■ was blockaded 
h ;r.V;lcor.^ and 
Jli«h expedition 
-, bat failed. In 

^hfn the place 
oi.cltr the Due 
free port in 1829, 
> c:;ioy in 1832. 
JiJ'h colonies its 
Her*' the first 
ret. a judicature, 

terestirg to the 
Jhiful residence 
>f rr»'I:5.h C',aa- 
e I' 

c.r.:..-d La Vieja 
the now;. The 
U«'d iiK-r'-iy asa 

■ a much lar;rer 
li .»:iiv..-27& feet 
Di'-:i;.:< ■! • y two 

»ti;l :;;f ..i.;;i!f-:c. 
ii:r !.'■«. ? r«":dc» 
Th it rj;\(:f\ Los 
uppr''««c'i. The 
y Muri'.lo. TJz.: 
»t vk-..-k. f.j.iihcd 


ai.'i s' ret y.iitt- 

■l» 5* a rf^fr.?e for 
; 11 -'.c e'vtcia'.ly 
iio. lie San Scr- 

t)an. fin-^dUh, and y**rwtgUfk reif^lf. The chit! \ 'womw*-^"* *^^ ^^^ 





Population (18i 

From Jerez we i 
staple produce. 

Jerez is situate 
Guadalcte. The o 
and crooked street; 
wellbuUt. It is si 
the ancient Asti R* 
last monarch of th 
put a period to theii 
f actnres comprise vT' 
has numerous WiQO 
from 5,500,000 to 7,C 
about one half being 
is 150 years old. The 
in Spain, and is aim- 
The best wines are 1 
Jimenez, and Paxar 
Jerez de la Frontera, 
de los Gaballcros, in 
several conjectures as 
Jerez. It was called b; 
It is most probably der 
viation by the Moors 
shooting is to be had in 

Sights. — Moorish Ah 
public walk. LaColcgi 
Miguel, Suntiap^o, and Si 
of Moorish-Gothic. Ln 
monastery, situated abo 
The chief bodc}ja8, or "V 
Domecq, Gordon, Ysasi, 
saicz, Coseus, Mackenzie, 

Conveyances. — Roil 

hour; to Seville in *2i h« 

San Lucar (Stat) Vy 

Tablas), l hour; a port 
Guadalquivir, on the Bay < 
adventurers of the Pic 

de^crihed in Mendo, 
i7oacJi0s to ^reos^ 
^aatfa/cte (i.e^ tbf 
^ne church. 

Pnerto de Sta. Moi 


. ., « .vaW^wiftAVs «» 

1 predpltoni bucb. On tt 

:d by fi' 

SsnU CruE, Rourlo, Son Antanlo, uid San 
LoKMO, luit It oonstrucled Trilh mneh nJpiUilt)-. 
Tlu boasei ire aolLdty ballt of tntitoot, ud 
■re generilLy of ihne, ud lomctEmei Fanr, 
itonyi. Tbey Inn dat rooli, hundiome fronti, 

milit wlnlry days snd moderal* evenings Imprint- 

The Plaiai are called Plein ds la Cro!; Plaia 

del Hospitel MtUtar, or de Sin FemnRdo; FLaia 






■iita o( a porllro, 


ow of Ionic 

colmnm a. high 

a the 


..bleb f» 

by a lower, in th 



The Bn» iHord 

good and 

t li dlTlded 

jt. Th 


dnrlDg tbe 


d>i tbe 

nner la pro- 





cceuEble to 

MiMi tMMla, to tbe Hewfonndlund flihei?, und 
A tk* XtV« ftita, and the BraxUt, ud ■ «ri> 
w ihlpped on board Ifnit- 
i. uif KorwflfUin niKli, Th* e>i\il 

rge quantities ol coali from England. 
Csdli hni been (requently besieged. It wai 
ken In USE by Lord Euei, and asain attacked 
ribe English In 18i8; In ItSB It vaa blockade4 
? Blake, who caplnred two rich icnlleona, and 
ipk eight olhera. Another Englleh eipedlllon 

ded by the t 
le, Cadliwaj 
ge which it CI 

BlghtB.-Two Cat) 

delightful reaidenc* 

rs by MurlllD, tI 

ProTlnclal Library, lS,IX>a vols., frei 
MnitaTT Ho(tlt*L.H« -^^k -tw7£ 

^fjCK^ ^V^^^^ ~ 




[Section 1. 

mandad de Caridadf in the church of the Military 
Hospital, a society established for rendering 
religions offices, Ac, to culprits, and conducting 
them to the place of burial. 

JSl Uu$eo^ containing some pictures by Znrbaran, 
Tobar, and L. Giordano. 

Medical school, and several superior schools, all 
In connection with the Seville University. 

Several private collections of pictures, shells, 
botanical specimens, and arms. 

Casa de Espositos, founded in 1621, in the Calle 
de Cuna. Aduana, an immense building. Govern- 
ment cigar factory. 

Two Thcatre^ in one of which. El Principal, 
operas are performed during the winter. 

Artillery barracks; Anenalai S.Femando; naval 
college; new prison; school of commerce (Escucla 
de Commercio), Plaza de Toros; Torre de la Vigia, 
or of the look-out, worth ascending. San Sebastian, 
a fort and light-house, 172 feet in height. 

La Calle Ancha, a very handsome street. Puerta 
del Mar, containing the fish markets, where every 
variety of fish may be seen. 

Charming Alameda, a public promenade, with 
fountains and trees. Ramparts surrounding the 
city for four milcii, affording agreeable promenades, 
commanding fine views of the bay and countr>'' 
beyond, and much frequented. Las Delicias, a 
winter resort, and La Muralla del Mar, a summer 

Railway station, outside the town. 

Resident English Consul ; English Church Ser- 
vice at the Consulate. 

For works on Cadiz, consult Manuel de la Pro- 
vincia, by Igartuburu, Cadiz, 4to, 1847 ; and Cadiz 
Phenicia, Mondejar, 8 volumes Madrid 180l>, Svo. 

OonyeyailCdS.— Rail to Jerez, Seville, and 

Steamers.— To Iluelva, Seville, Gibraltar, 
Malaga, Alicante, Barcelona, and Marseilles ; also 
to Lisbon, Vigo, and St. Mazaire. The average 
passage from Cadiz to London, stoppages included, 
is about seven days. The voyage from Cadiz to 
Lisbon takes between 80 and 85 hours. 

Passengers arriving at Cadiz, disembark in the 

Ar^ sjid boata convey them to the shore; four 

TR«/5r oMfrA porsppf ofid thr^e reals ettcb package. 

All baggage is examined at the Custom-House on 
entering Cadiz. 

A steamer ascends the Guadalquivir every 
second morning, and reaches Seville in about 7 or 8 
hours. The site of TarshUh, Tharsis, or Tartessvt^ 
is placed somewhere near the mouth of this river 
(anct. Bcetis); from which the Phoenicians ox- 
ported the mineral produce of the south of Spain. 

Excursions.— The land route to Gibraltar is by 
Chiclana, Venta de Vejer, Venta de Ojen, and Los 
Barrios; or by Chiclana, Venta de Vejer, Tarifa, 
and Algreciras. Excursions are made to Ronda; 
also to Chiclana and its sulphur springs (12 miles 
south-east of Cadiz, population 11,627), where the 
inhabitantsof Cadiz have numerous country houses. 
In the vicinity of Chiclana is an ancient Moorish 
Castle. At the old Arab town of Medina Sidonia 
Roderick the Goth was defeated by Tarik, a.d. 711. 
Rail or steamer to Puerto de Sta. Maria (19 m.); 
rail to San Fernando (good observatory); steamer 
to Huelva, a pleasant trip. 

About 80 miles south-east of Cadiz is Cape 
TraiUgSr, a low headland terminating in two 
points. Ofif this Cape, on the 21st October, 1805, 
was fought the memorable battle in which the 
English, under Lord Nelson, gained a complete 
victory over the combined fleets of France and 
Spain, and in which Nelson was killed. The name 
is sounded Trafalgar' by Spanish sailors, whom 
Byron followed in his *' Childe Harold." Taraf-al- 
Ohar means Cape of the cave. 

Positive intelligence having been received in 
London that the French and Spanish squadrons 
were equipping themselves for another excursion. 
Nelson, on the 15th September, 1805, left England 
for the last time, animated with the most dc- 
termhied resolution, and carrying his flag on board 
the Victory, of 100 guns. Apprehending that the 
enemy might be deterred from putting their design 
into execution, if the amount of force under his 
command became known to them. Nelson stationed 
the main body of his fleet behind Cape St. Mary, 
and only posted a smaller detachment in sight of 
Cadiz. Several manoeuvres were subsequently 
practised to deceive the enemy, and on the 19tli 
October they sailed from Cadiz, to every appear- 
ance confident that only an inferior force was 
opposed to their passage. On Monday, the 21st, the 
two f^eeU cwDftft U\ «l«ht %X • dis^ii^e of nhoyit sf^ 

Route 11.] 

leagues from Cape Trafalgar. The British had 
twenty-seven, the French eightc^ the Spaniards 
fifteen ships. 

To sare the delay of forming a regular line, 
Nelson ordered his fleet to bear up in two columns, 
of which he led the weather side in person, and 
appointed Collingwood, in the Royal Sovereign, to 
head the lee. The combined armament drew 
themselves closely up into the figure of a crescent, 
and awaited the attack with steady composure. 
The action became general at twelve o'clock, when 
almost every ship throughout the lines was en- 
gaged muzzle to muzzle. The enemy displayed 
great vigour, and the conflict raged for some time 
with severity; but the fury of the assault was 
irresistible. By three o'clock they began to strike 
their colours, and the order of their array was com- 
pletely broken. The result was, one ship of sixty- 
four guns, and nineteen sail were left in our posses- 
sion, amongst which were three first-rate shipf, with 
their three flag officers on board. The fate of 
Kelson remains to be recorded. About the middle 
of the battle the Victory fell aboard the Redoubt- 
able, and a great struggle took place. The 
superiority of the British ship was, however, 
evident; the crew of her adversary were swept 
away from their decks; and she was at the last 
extremity of resistance, when a musket ball from 
the mizen top struck Nelson in the left shoulder; he 
fell on the instant, and was quickly removed to the 
cockpit. When the surgeon approached, he com- 
plained of acute pain in the back, and frequently 
declared that the bone was shot through. His 
extremities soon became cold ; he lost all sense of 
bodily motion, and confessed that death was fast 
approaching. In the course of an hour his pulse 
grew indistinct, and his forehead became cold. To 
the last moment his faculties were undepressed, 
and the energy of his mind remained conspicuous. 
To every cheer given by his crew he listened with 
lively interest, and earnestly enquired after the 
state of the battle, and the number of captures. 
When told that only twelve ships could be counted 
with their colours down, he expressed surprise, 
and affirmed that, by his own calculation, at least 
twenty ought to be seized, a conjecture which was 
ultimately realised. Far from cxprosaing any 
concern at his fall, ho declared the day to be the 
happiesf of 1^)8 »/ft 9li4 re/<4^ fiTWtly v)^«u \ 



assured that his anticipations of a decisive victory 
were fulfilled. As his excitement subsided, he 
said he could have wished to have survived a 
little longer, and seen the fleet safe ; but as that 
was impossible, he gave God thanks that he had 
outlived the victory, and done his duty to his 
country. He lingered on for about two hours, and 
expired without a struggle at five o'clock. 

ROOTB 11- 

Granada to Murda, through Biezma, 
Gaadlx, Baza, Oullar, Velez Bublo, Lorca, 
and LehxiUa. 

The road to Guadlx passes Huetor, Molinillo, 
and Diezma. 

The distance from Granada to Guadlx is about- 
34 miles; and may be ridden in from 14 to 15 hour^. 
The road is mountainous, and a great part of it is 
very picturesque. The ride to HUdtor takes 
about two hours. It lies seven miles east-north- 
east of Granada, has a decent posada, a church, a 
Casa de Ayuntamiento (town hall), a prison, several 
flour and oil mills, and a population of 813. 

The road, after passing through magnificent 
defiles, descends to Molinillo and Diezma, which is 
about 16 miles from Huetor. 

From Diezma to Guadix is about 12 miles. 


Population, 11,787. 

HOtOlS. — Fonda del Sol ; besides several posadas. 

Guadix, which is the ancient Acci^ is situated on 
the slope of the Sierra Nevada, on the left bank of 
the river of the same name, signifying ^* river of 
life," from the Arabic tPcuH-ai-aysh. The place is 
of ancient origin, having been founded, according 
to some authors, by the Phoenicians. It was the 
principal seat of Bastitania. The Romans, who 
re-peopled it, conceded to it the privileges of a 
colony, and it was rebuilt by the Moors. It is 
surrounded by ancient walls and mulberry planta- 
tions. The houses are badly built, and the streets 
narrow and ill paved. The Plaza de la Const 1- 
tucion is a rectangular parallelogram, 120 yards 
long by 60 broad. It is of the Corinthian order, 
and is supported by arches, under which is a paseo, 
or public walk. 

The manufactures CAWBL\ft\»fc\»RsoD.V2»^ ^^*jftk».>'wa^.- 



[Section 1. 

weekly markets, and a well attended fair, which 
lasts eight weeks. There is interest for the 
geologist in the environs. The mineral baths 
of Graena are about 3 miles distant. 

SightB.— Cathedral: partly Doric, partly Corin- 
thian; note the choir and the pulpit. It was 
begun in 1710, and finished in 1796, at an expense 
of ' 10,500,(K)0 reals. It occupies the site of a 
considerable mosque. There are four parish 
chnrebea, one with three naves, a fine portal, and 
a tower. There are likewise two nunneries, viz. : 
Santa Clara and La Concepcion ; four suppressed 
monasteries, one of the order of Santo Domingo, 
another of that of San Augustin, and the two 
remaining ones of the order of San Francisco. 

The other objects worthy of note are a Moorish 
castle called La Alcazaba, finely situated on a 
height, but nearly In ruins. It was repaired 
during the War of Independence, and is now the 
public cemetery. A good Casa Consistorial, where 
the Aynntamiento holds its sessions; an indifferent 
prison situated, as well astheCasade Aynntamiento, 
in the Plaza de la Constitucion; a hospital, occupy- 
ing the buildings of the Jesuit college; an Eccle- 
siastical seminary for latin grammar, philosophy 
and theology; aSociedadEcondmlca; four primary 
schools; a hospicio established by Carlos IV. in 
1803; an episcopal palace; and seven public foun- 
tains, having their sources at a short distance from 
the town. 

From Guadix thera is a road to Almeria, 54 
miles, through Ocafia. 

The road from Guadix to Murcla runs pastVenta 
de Gor, Venta de Baul, Baza, CuUar, Chirivel, 
Velez Rubio, Lorca, Totana, and Lobrilla. The 
distance is about 37 leagues. A diligence runs 
from Lorca to Murcia. 

The road to Baza is somewhat hilly, and of a 
wild character. 


(Population, 12,992) is situated in a plain at the foot 

of the Sierra of the same name, near the rivulet 

Guadalqultcfn. It derived its ancient name, Basti, 

from a part of the Sierra In which the Guadalquivir 

has its source. It streets are crooked and narrow. 

y/'^jarana/jtc^arescompriaeltoea fabrics,hats,earth- 

Mn-mrei snd gyrpsma. It bM M itliliaai f^T In 

'f^/'tember, mud it -" ^ f^r tta fd Witt^B, and 

for its beautiful women. In the environs, mules, 
sheep, and cattle are reared. 

It is renowned in early Spanish history, more 
especially in the history of Granada. It was taken 
by the Spaniards from the Moors in 1489, after a 
siege of nearly seven months; and here on the 3rd 
November, 1810, the Spaniards, under Blake and 
Freire, were defeated by the French, under Sebas- 
tian i. In the first attack of the Spaniards the 
French were routed, and abandoning their positions, 
fell back upon Baza. Their cavalry however made 
a dexterous movement, in order to surrouiul the 
Spaniards who were advancing; upon this, Freire 
made a retrograde movement,whereupon the French 
made an impetuous charge with a thousand horse- 
men and routed the third Spanish division com- 
manded by Sanz, who lost two standards and five 
pieces of artillery. The division commanded by 
Elio was alone able to protect the retiring Span iards. 

Sights.— The town has three Plazas, a Collegiate 
and two other churches, Casa de Ayuntaraicnto 
(Town Hall), a college, four schools, hospital, civil 
and ecclesiastical prisons, several public fountains, 
and some fine gardens and paseos or promenades. 

The distance from Baza to Cullar is a1}out 14 
miles. The road is in a bad state ; several water- 
courses have to be forded. 


(Population, 7,417) is situated in a plain near the 
summit of the Sierra of the same name, which 
separates the waters of the Guadalquivir and the 
Segura. Theplaceis of Moorish origin. It contains 
600 houses, besides many caves in which the inhabi- 
tants dwell. It has Its Plaza or square, and, in the 
centre of the town, a torreon or round tower, 
anciently a fortress; a parish church called Nuestra 
Seflora de la Annunclacion; four hermitages In 
the town dedicated to San Agustin, San Josd, 
San Antonio, and Angel de la Guarda, and five in 
the aldeas or hamlet, named Vertlentcs, Barrio- 
Nuevo, El Margcn, Martian, and Poso-Igleslas; a 
Casa Consistorial, a prison, a cemetery, and three 
fountahis. It has a large manufactory of saltpetre. 
The vicinity produces grain, fruits, and vegetables; 
and an aimnal e&ttile fair ii held here in the month 
of Angtftt. from b^re the country is extremely 




The distance from Cullar to Chirlyel is 14 miles, 
and lOJ miles more by a rocky road to 

Velez BublO (Posada del Rosario), situated at 
the foot of a gentle eminence in a pleasant valley. 
It has four Squares, called Plass a dcIosConstitucion, 
Plaza de Fatiu, Plaza del Gapitan Martin Garcia, 
and Plaza de la Ximcnez. There are some 
handsome houses, a well-built prison, a Casa Con- 
sistorial, an ancient Convent of Franciscan monks, 
and another which now serves as the grange to the 
palace of the Marques of Yillafranca, a fine hos- 
pital, and a philological college, established in 1888 
(having four professorships), and incorporated in 
the University of Granada. 

The Church of Nuestra Sefiora de Encamacion, 
built in 1753, upon the ruins of an ancient temple, 
which dated from the conquest of the Moors, in 
1488, and destroyed on the 4th March, 1761, by a 
terrific earthquake. It is a substantial edifice of 
brick and stone; the exterior is elegant, the 
portal is wholly of hewn stone, very lofty, con- 
posed of several columns, statues, and cornices, 
crowned by a gilt cross, supported by two figures 
of angels, with a medallion of demi-relief of some 
merit, in which is represented the mystery of 
the Annunciation ; and underneath the puerta are 
the arms of the House of Velez. Two elevated 
towers form the comers, which terminate with 
beautiful capitals, surrounded with broad cor- 
ridors, whence there is a good view of the town 
and the puerta. Near the walls are three hand- 
some fountains. 

The road from Velez Bubio to Lorca passes 
the defile of Lumbreras. Distance: about 28 


LORCA (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 52,935. 

Inn.— Fonda de San Vicente. 

Lorca the ancient Elicroca, is situated in an 
uneven tract, on the banks of the Sangonera. It 
is said to have been founded by the Phocian 
Greeks; to have been subsequently ruled over and 
enlarged by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and 
Komans, and in the time of the Goths was the 
episcopal see. It Is irregularly built and dullf 
but the streets are clean, and there are some good 
houses, and an old plaza. Its manufactures com- 
prise Unco cloths, thread, and saltpetre; andithfts 
a large anniial fait, h^gbuUng &n tl|e 8(1)| «nd t6t< 
miattpiag on tlfe Sird SepUmlMf, 

Slgbtfll.— A Collegiate church, partly Gothic, 
partly Composite, containing .some relics; the 
Gothic church of Santa Maria ; the modem Church 
of Santiago ; and the Churches of San Mateo, Saii 
Cristobal, San Pedro, San Juan, and San Clemente. 
Two nunneries. Las Mercedes, and Santa Ana y 
Magdalena. Episcopal Palace. A college. Two 
hospitals. Casa Consistorial. An old castle, once 
considered the key of Murcia. Some Roman anti- 
quities, including a pillar with an inscription. 
Four public fountains; and some pleasant Alame- 
das or public walks. 

Conveyances. — Lorca is connected with 
Murda (page 118) by a line running through 

Totana (below), Alhama de Murcia (next 

page), and Librllla to AlQ^tarilla, where it 
joins the main line from Madrid vid Chincllllla 

(for Alicante), and Mnrcia to Cartagena, &c., 

(Route 13). 

From Lorca a line runs through AlmendriCOS 
to Aguilas, a small port, of about 9,000 people, 
on the Mediterranean. 

From Almendricos junction another line passing 
through Huercal nms to ZuTgena a town of 

13,000 inhabitants on the Almanzor. 

These lines will probably be continued to 
Almcria. Their immediate development is owing 
to the opening up of the mines in the district. 

Distance: Lorca lies 29 miles west-south-west 
of Murcia. 

The distance from Lorca to Totana is 14 miles. 
The route is dull and uninteresting. 

TOTANA (Stat) 
(Population, 9,648) lies 10 miles north-east of 
Lorca ; and 27 miles south-west of Murcia, on the 
brow of the Sierras which surround that of 
Espafia, and is of ancient foundation. It is divided 
by a rambla or sandy space, running from east to 
west, the southern part being called Barrio de 
Scvilla, the northern. Barrio do Triana. The place 
has been reduced to its present size by wars and 
epidemic diseases. It consists of ill-built and 
Irregular houses, and dirty and Ill-paved streets. 
Tlie Plaza de la Constitucion contains somo good 
The parish Churchy viWs&l Sa '*&.^^'*Si.>^'<i^^ 


*C^^ ^ 



[Section 1. 

called do la Concepcion was anciently the parish 
church; that of San Baenaventura belonged to 
the community of bare-footed Franciscans. There 
are also the Churches of San Jos^ and San Roque. 
The Casa Consistorial is of solid construction. 
There arc several schools, and a cemetery. In the 
Barrio is a pretty fountain of jasper, with eighteen 
satyrs. In the Trlana is another fountain. There 
are eight potteries, which produce a great deal of 
fine earthenware; and some looms for linens, and a 
stnlf made of wool and silk called tocas. About 
6 miles further on is Alhaxoa de Murcia 
(Scat.), see preceding page. Population: 5,000, 
with mineral springs, efficacious in rheumatism, 
and known to the Romans. 

The distance to Lebrllla (Stat.) by road is 
fi miles, and 14 miles further to Mnr(^a (Stat.); 
for which see Coast Tour, Route 18. 

I^OTJTE 113- 

Madrid to Avlla and Medina del Campo 
for Zamora, Salamanca, Cludad Bod- 
rigo, Coimbra, and Oporto. 

Madrid to Avila and Medina del Campo (see 
Route 1, reversing the order). 

At Medina del Campo (page 35) a line 56 
miles long runs oft to Zamora, a place of con- 
siderable interest, from which the tourist can 
reach the baths of Ledesma (see page 77), which 
can also be visited from Salamanca. 

ZAMORA (Stat.) 
Population (1887), 14,137. 

Hotels. — Posada de la Morera, on the Plaza del 
Carbon. Two or three other decent Inns; one on the 
Plaza Santa Lucia. 

A good buffet. 

Omnibus from the station to the centre of the 
town, not quite a mile distant. 

It is situated for the most part under a gentle 

eminence, near the margin of the Duero, over 

which it has a fine bridge. It is nearly surrounded 

by a wall of hewn ston?, and of irregular figure, 

//v/a the many angles and comers which it 

yivja^. TJjc wall is not tlfick, but paffs Qf it 

yj? rpyy aftcJeiif. 

Beside eighty-five streets, a plaza, and thirty 
plazuelas, there are five arrabales or suburbs, 
named San Lazaro. Espiritu Santo, Olivares, 
Cabaflales, and San Frontis. The principal street 
in the city is that of Santa Clara; the next in 
importance are those called San Torcuato. 
Costanilla, and Balborraz. This very old city was 
from early times an object of contention, as its 
position and importance made it the key of an 
extensive district, the old kingdom of Leon. It is 
the ancient Oeellodurum, and is said to have been 
founded by Jews, b.c. 690. It subsequently came 
under the dominion of the Moors, but was recovered 
from them by Alonso, the Catholic, in 748. Nearly 
destroyed and abandoned, it was re-peopled in 994 
by Alonso III. of Leon, when it was known by the 
name of Sentica. It was retaken and destroyed by 
Al Mansur in the tenth century, and was rebuilt 
by Ferdinand I., who, in 1065, gave it to his 
daughter Urraca. Those who are curious respect- 
ing the history of the city in the time of Don Snncho 
should read the well-known Romancero del Cid. 

It has manufactures of blankets, serges, hats, 
tanned leather, liqueurs, dyes, and gunpowder, 
and there is some commerce. 

Its great fair is Important both for its dti- 
ration and its articles of traffic. It is called 
Botigero, because, according to tradition, it com- 
menced by selling botijos^ or earthen jars or 
CMhat-ros of the country. With regard to the 
name, Lamartinifere says it was anciently called 
Sentica, which the Moors, on becoming masters, 
changed to Zamora, or Medinato Zamorati, "the 
town of turquoises," because most of the neighbour- 
ing rocks have mines which produce turquoises. 
Ford says " it is said to be derived from the Moorish 
Samurdh, a city of turquoises, which It does not 
signify, and of which it possesses none." 

That the name is of Moorish origin seems 
probable, inasmuch as there is or was a very 
ancient place In Barbary of the same name. 
Zumar In Arabic signifies crowds of people, troops, 
families; but the name of the place in modem 
Arabic is written SemSrafi, and may be derived 
from Madinat-cHrSamiirat, "the town of thorny 

Blgbta.— Byzantine Cathedral, 11th Century; 

Route 12.] 

2AM0feA, LEi^ftsifA. 


4 4 

superb rose windows; the high altar, with its marble 
pillars; the i3ne retablo ; the choir, surrounded by 
a wainscot of walnut, representing above each 
stall the patriarchs, the apostles, and the evange- 
lists, with sacred inscriptions; note also, in one of 
the chapels a St. Paul, and a mummy in a perfect 
state of preservation, which was found in the con- 
vent of Morerucia, and is supposed to be the body 
of the unknown founder of the convent. Observe 
also the tombs of Bishops Bernard and Perez, 
and of Alvaro Romero, and the modern cloisters. 

Among the twenty-ihreo parochial Churches, 
that called De la Magdalena is well worthy of a 
visit. It is partly Moorish, partly Gothic, and is 
said to be of the twelfth century. It formerly be- 
longed to the Templars; note especially the fine 
portal ; the rose window ; the altar mayor, and the 
ancient tombs. The oldest church is S. Pedro y 
S. Ildcfenso. 

A Hospital for men, in the centre of the city, one 
of its best edifices ; it was founded on 10th February, 
1629, and is capable of accommodating 300 poor 
people; there is also one for women nearly as 
capacious, but not so fine a building as the other. 

Palace of Dofla Urraca (near the Puerta de la 
Fcria), where Bellido Dolfos took refuge after he 
had accomplished the assassination of Sancho II. 

Prison, a solid modem building both commodi- 
ous and capacious, but possessing no architectural 

Casa de Hacienda, or of the Exchequer, a capaci- 
ous building, in the most central part of the city, 
in a small square, by some called Plazuela de la 
Ycrba, a name which has its anecdote. 

Seminario Conciliar, formerly a convent of the 
"Company of Jesus," a fine building; all its 
facades are of hewn stone, and itcommands beauti- 
ful views to the south-east. 

Episcopal palace, ten nunneries, barracks, a 
public granary, Casa del Cid, near the episcopal 
palace, and the Puerta del Obispo. Castle, or 
rather citadel of the third class, in the extreme 
south-west of the city. It is garrisoned by a com- 
pany of artillery. The powder magazine is in the 
most elevated pari of the principal tower ; the en- 
trance to the foriresa ia facilitated by a raised 
bridge, and it has a i^Uand a semicircular moat, 
on the formor of "wkMh 3,000 fool soldiers can be 


A good Town tlall, ahd A ^wder mig&itlne 
outside the city. 

In the neighbourhood some geological ahd 
botanical excursiotis fai.iy be made. 

Promenades: San Martin de Affiba flhd Sflti 
Martin de Abaioi 

ConVey&nces.—Madrid is reached by rail, via 
Medina, Avila, and Escorial. Rail to Medina dul 
Campo. Time S hours. 

A line is projected from Zamora to Astorg-u 

Diligences to AlcaAices (near the Portugese 
frontier), Bermillo de Siiyago, La Bdveda de Turo, 
and Rionegro del Puente (on the road to Orcnse). 

The road from Zamora to Lcdesma passes San 
Marcial, Pefia Osenda, Asmenal, and Calzada 
Six hours of mountain travelling. 

LEDESMA (the ancient Bletiua). 

Population, 3,070. 

HoteL— A Posada. 

A walled town, picturesque'y situated upon a 
rock on the left bank of the river Tonnes, which is 
here crossed by a fine old bridge on Roman founda- 
tion. It was taken from the Arabs by Alunso 
the Catholic, third king of the Asturias, and suc- 
cessor of Don Favila, in the year 739. The present 
town was founded in 1196 by King Ferdinand, of 
Leon, who gave it its present name. It has seven 
gates, the principal of which are San Pedro and de 

It has a Plaza and eight Plazuelas; that 
of the fortress is one of the most frequented 
and most picturesque of the town, being situated 
in the centre of an alameda or public walk. The 
houses of the interior of the town are of two storeys. 
There are six small suburbs. The climate is very 

Sights.— A Hospital with fine fa9ade and win' 
dows. It has capacious saloons and a large granary 
with three great naves. It was destroyed in the 
time of the French, and has been since rebuilt. 

Church of Santa Maria in the centre of the town. 
The roof of the capilla mayor is of groat artistic 
merit, and is of the figure of a shell. The tower is 
raised over an arch, which serves as a passage or 
entrance to the Plaza connected with the houses. 
Church of SauU l£\«Ra.^NsiS5ofe 'wsJssvi.^'*.. ^tsssbrsc^i^ 

n»Siia \.N«o^x\twsiw\\*T«vVX»sB«^N^^^^ 




[Section 1. 

Bridge of five Arches over the Tormes; the middle 
arch it very fine, it is 180 feet in length, 8 In breadth, 
and 2fi yards in height; several fountains; some 
antiquities outside the Pnerta de los Toros; curious 
old walls. 

Sulphur Baths, much frequented, about 2 leagues 
from the town, on the Tormes; season from the 
beginning of June to the end of September. These 
baths were well known to and much used by the 
Moors, who built part of the present erection.] 

Rail from Medina del Campo to Salamanca, 

47| miles (see page 80). 

SALAM4NCA (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 22,199. 

Hotels.— Fonda del Comercio; Fonda Burgalesa. 
Several good Casas de Pupiios, and private lodging- 

The city, the capital of a province in Leon, is 
situated on three rocky heights in the middle of a 
kind of horse-shoe, on the right bank of the river 
Tormes, which is here crossed by a fine Bridge 
(on the foundation of a Roman one) of twenty-seven 
arches. There are three other bridges, that of < 
Maria Salud being the best. In the Sierra de 
Oredos, a wild region said to be haunted by 
monsters, the cabra montes or ibex is still hunted. 

It is built in the form of an amphitheatre, the 
river washing part of its walls. A great part of 
the city within the walls is in a ruinous state. The 
houses are mostly old-fashioned but commodious. 
Some of the palaces and private residences are 
distinguished for their size, solidity, and elegance. 
It was celebrated in the time of Carthage, and was 
taken by Hannibal b.c. 222. Its ancient name was 
Elmantica, which some derive from Elman, god of 
war among the Iberians. In latter times the name 
was changed to ^Sa/aman^iea, probably formed from 
Sal-Elmantica. Under the Romans it was a muni- 
eipium, and was the 9th military station between 
Saragossa and Merida on the road called Via Lata, 
a part of which exists to the present day in a good 
state of preservation ; and here have been discovered 
from time to time bits of Roman mosaic and also 
pieces of moresque work. It was ravaged 4)y the 
Moors, but re-conquered in 1095. 
7j7 the War of Independence it was attacked 
^ ^e rreach, and on the 22nd of Jnne, 1812, it 
'^^^ sui AaaouTMbi^ nApitjgiation, MfUr a biockade 

or Siege of 11 days. Finally on the 22nd of July. 
1818, was fought the famous Battle between the 
French, under Marmont and CIuscl, and the Eng- 
lish and Portuguese, under Wellington, when the 
latter obtained a complete victory. The battle was 
fought on the heights of Araplles, about 4 miles 
south-east of the city. 

Several councils have been held here, in one of 
which the suppression of the Templars was dis- 
cussed. Here also Alonso el Casto convoked a 
Cortes, as also did Juan II. in 1430. It is the birth- 
place of the lyric poet, Luis de Leon, who is buried 
in the Agostinos Calzados; and Quintana and 
Melendez were among the recent members of the 
university. From its venerable appearance it was 
anciently called by the Spaniards Little Rome 
(Roma la Chica). 

The manufactures comprise leather, woollen 
cloths, excellent blankets, hats, shoes, coarse earth- 
enware, glue, and starch. It has also a trade in 
dressed leather, barley, wheat, and vetches, and 
there are several flour mills. The climate is cold. 

UniverBity.— The University (the Oxford of 
Spain) is one of the most ancient, and was at one 
time one of the most celebrated in Europe. It was 
founded about the close of the 12th century, by 
Alfonso IX., of Leon, and was afterwards, in 1239, 
extended by Alfonso X., sumamed "El Sabio" 
(the learned), so celebrated for the progress which 
astronomy made under his auspices, and who 
incorporated with it the University of Palencia. 
It soon rose into importance, and its professors 
became eminent in Etirope by their acquaintance 
with the Arabian writers on medicine and philoso- 
phy, and through them with the writings of the 
Greeks. In the fourteenth century it was resorted 
to from all parts of Europe, the students numbering 
as many as 14,000. In the sixteenth century its 
fame began to decline, and in 1846 it was only 
attended by some 400 students. The number on t he 
occasion of the last census was only 370. The Uni- 
versity consists of two edifices, called greater and 
lesser schools, begun in 1415, and finished in 1438, 
down to which time the schools were kept in the 
old cathedral cloisters. The University Library 
contains 60,000 voliunes. Its fa9ade is a superb 
specimen of architecture. Tba cloisters are fine, 
having gxacet\)LV axOi<6» vn^ €b.\)«t«.VA inouldings. 

SalWDum ronaerlr coaUlDMl tit*nty-OD* col- 
lifU! >t pmoit th*n ramitn onlr fcFU majo]: 
(cdle^H, ctiiM El Coleglo Tl«]o (Sui BwtoloirfX 
Cdsgio d«l Key {King'i Colltge), Crf«glo M 


xoblspo, DT ColegiD Mayor de £ 
inded in ie» by Alonio dc Pmwt 
Toledo; ths three great archtte 

ng ilmoltuieoasly AQplofed Id 

Id pKMrraUon i not* «p«lally tl 
gallery or Anted pllli 

Coleglo del 
I. archblsliDp 


beaullfnl chapel 
by Michael Angela and BermcoMti II ilu eon- 
talni eome loleraUe palallngii Ub boUdlog li 
now Decupled partly by Irlih ftudwila and partly ■■ 
a military taoapital. El Co1i«ki del Ray (Klne:'i 
College) irai commenced In IMi ; iti quadran^rle 
la Dorics it baa been partially rcetored from the 
ntlnona atata Id which It wai left by the Pnucb, 
> iDfBDtry barraeki. 




nSK OfttlMdnU, bcgDD by Jnan Oil da 

fi«i,lii]010,but not finlahedtUinil: It li 
It In leDgth and 181 feet In width, the height 
nave ii 181 feet; It !■ anugniacent bnlld- 
■ style putly Gothic and partly ItalUn ; 

uk eat-ilDgi and marble 
!T the principal gate, and 

theentrancs of the BaTlonr Into Jemulem orer 
UIDIber gate. Tha cathadnl contain! lome g:Dod 
pLctntci, by Blai de NaTarrete, enmamed El Hndo 
(the dOBib). Gupat Baeam, and Jnao da jDanea; 
note the cnpdk (oInlMilo), tha OaplUa d* Ban 
AatODlo, coatafailng plotniM, by ZuTbaran and 
thaCapllladelFnildMt*,wk!i «om< pitntliigi by 

The old Calhadral, en 
Byiantlne ilyle, and 

lombh tbs Uooiiih ci^ll 

1 one of the Caplllii la 
according to the Mnaar- 
lis fine library and aKeail 

old Calhednl, but irlth v 


of San S 


1, beyond 1 

bi walla, uid 



The™ are a 



cr parHh 

which h 

anyarFhlloctnral beauty 

San E 

eteban. a 



beaullfnl wcriiiy.tbedoiq 

by PJm 




, H 

re, in 1184 


ilntlngi by Klbera, L 
Santo Eiplrllu, a coi 

Bermllafte of La Ctdi, wllbln the rlty. I 
nmpo da San Francltco. near the Plaia di 
oral, are 10010 tolerable acnlpturei. 
Colos'la de log Irlandeteior Ciia deloi Jeai 

nill In Ihe beglnnlDg of (he aerenteenth cent 
oI« Ite (uparb chapel, Scmlnatlo de Cut 
innded by Antonio da Vargai. for the lug 
and adncatlon of a certain Dumboi of chili 



[Section 1. 

8. bomtngo Convent is of different styles, the 
Gothic church bein^ richly ornamented, with a 
fine poHaU 

La Trinidad, a hospital, supposed to have been 
founded at tho time of the Catholic kings (Reyes 
Catdlicos); its ward of San Bernardo contains 
twenty-two beds for males suffering from diseases 
curable by medicine; the ward San Vicemte 
has twenty beds for surgical cases. There is also 
a medical ward for women, called de la Pasion, 
and another for surgical cases called San Juan de 
Sahagun. In the Ilospicio are supported, for a 
period of five years, a number of children, from the 
age of sixteen months up to seven years, besides, 
annually, many children during the period of lac- 
tation. Las Recogidas, a hospital founded in 1455 
by Alonso de Solis and his wife. Nifios Espdsitos, 
a foundling hospital. 

In the cloister of the Convent of S. Estcban is 
the Mu$eo Provincial^ with nearly 800 pictures and 
tome sculptures. 

£1 Coliseo (belonging to tho civil hospital), a 
beautiful building, having two balconies with 
parapets of gilt iron, capable of containing 1,500 
persons, and commanding a fine view. 

Casa de Ayuntamieuto (Town Hall), on the 
Plaza Mayor. 

Torre de Clavcl ; antiquated architecture ; curi- 
ous turrets. 

The splendid bridge over theTormes, on twenty- 
seven archa<(, rests on Roman foundations. It 
is 500 paces in length, 12 in breadth ; the date of 
its construction is unknown ; according to some it 
was built by Trajan, while others assert that it 
was rebuilt by Trajan, and afterwards by Adrian. 
The style is the same as that of the aqueduct of 
Segovia, and the bridges of Miranda, Alcantara, 
and others of the Roman epoch. 

Palaces of the Marques of Valdecarzana, and the 
Counts of Garcigrande, Espinosas, Monterey, and 
Maldonados; also a Moorish house in the Plaza 
Santa Tomd ; and that of the Marques of Almarza 
in the Plaza dc San Boal, where the Duke of Wel- 
lington lodged when at Salamanca. 

I*aerta de Sad Pablo, with many statues of 
Ka/n/^ ^c. rjaza de la VBrdura, or vegetable 

turesque). Casa del Sal; note the fa9ade, tho 
pillars, the windows, and the gallery supported 
by grotesque figures. Plaza Mayor, a magnificent 
square, perhaps the largest in Spain. It is sur- 
rounded by a striking colonnade of eighty-eight 
arches, under which are shops, the post-ofllce, and 
the Casa de Ayuntamieuto. In this Plaza tho 
bull-fights take place, when the balconies are 
usually filled with from 16,000 to 20,000 spectators. 
Several Fountains, none of which are remarkable 
for their beauty, and all badly supplied with 

Books. — ForworksonSalamanca, consult "Com- 
pendio Historico," by B. Dorada, Salam., 1776, 
4to ; and '' Resefia Historia,'' by Davila, Salam., 
1819, 8vo. 

Conveyances.— By rail, to Valladolld, Avila, 
Madrid, Ac, via the branch of 48 miles to Medina 
del Campo. It passes up the Tonnes some dis- 
tance, and then strikes through the hills, passing 

the following stations: — Morlsco; Pedreso; 
Cantalapiedra (population, i,800) ; Carpio, a 

small village, with a Moorish tower, an old castle 

and church; CampUlo ; and Medina del Campo. 

Diligence to the Sulphur Baths of Ledesma, 
see page 77. 

Rail to Ciudad Rodrigo, 56} miles. The Hnc from 
Salamanca to VUlar Formosa was opened 'n 18S5, 
and joins those to Figneira da Fwz and to Oporto. 
The latter line runs off at Ban Bsteban and runs 
through Lumbrales to Barca d'Alva (page 184). 

The high road from Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo 
passes through Tejares, Calzadilla, Calzuda, Alde- 
huela de la Boveda, Boadilla, San Esteban, Martin 
del Rio, and Puebla de Seltes, and is for the mast 
part monotonous and bad. The railway line 
follows the same route. 

Population, 6,856. HoteL— Fonda de la Colada. 
A fortified frontier city, in a level tract, near the 
right bank of the Agrueda, here crossed by a bridge 
of seven arches. 

There is a well attended market every Tuesday. 
The principal articles for sale are fruits of every 
sort, and olives. There are two fairs; one in the 
second week of Lent, and the other OQ the Tuesday 
after tbe X«cenAoii. 

and An^fftabrJgf 
II., of LeoD, bat 
wai M-peopled In 
Ginn. tirm wtaoi 
■IgntfyiBg Hoilerli 

!t> Town. 

■ leCMn B.0.0, ons on «■ 
ulnmn. twiog the idlllali of Iti lut toondar. 
vna iBkfiD by tbfi Portn^eH, in ITOfl, bat ruorer 

M>rqiiu de B«r- 

Tha mint luraonbla Slecs ')>■* '^ niit*ln 
wng that frora tha Ifith April, IfllO, to tba 10 
Joly of the uma ^ear, s^lqA tha Fifmah and 
Maueni. Ner. and Jaoot. whou suited anol 
nombered ilfiOt. The beslaeaa. under t' 
Ifallant HemiHtl, performad prodlglea of Tihra 

oannona, which llteralljr riddled 
and opened a breach of iixty feet, 

the Korernor with hli whole itair »pl- 
From the 9th to the 34th September, 

If forty- 

goTFrnar of Iha plus. Finally. Ibe plaoe wtu 
beileged by Wellington, who took It by aaunH on 
IheSthJannarT.ian.lneleTendayi. TbaEnglUi 
, excesaea, and would bare 

Wellington a grandee of Spain ol 

with lb 

Je of Dnq 

nl, began In It M. indenlnrged 
In US»; U ii In the (aim of a eroii, and haa three 
naTei; the baHi of the eight principal plllan are 
Doric, and tbe eapltuli Corinlhlan; It bai two 
grand window!, one above tbe colUtcrol doora. the 
other above tbe portico of the principal door. Note 
especlallT the pnerta, Kith lt> alto-rellBvoi, the 
Golhid Billerla. the retab]o.and the tower, which 1« 
fall of fnctniH made by the French cannon In leiO. 
CaleglaU, or CiplUa da Gcrrolbo, founded by 
Cardinal FnqdiM P*A«co In ItSS, fonaarly a 
yery Dae baUdiac- 

)f Santa Clara, in tho mhn: 
.Trinidad; Santo Cruz, and I 

ind well fortified, and 
Tbe warn >anvnndlng 

e princ 

t Tariont epochal they are 

In the Hiathem face i< uld lo he of tbe time of tlW 

Three PaerlBs, or gatea, vli. Pnerta de Sta- 

ilago. Poerta de la Colada, and Fncrta del Conde. 

A magnificent bridge, onlelde the Poeria de la 

The forti. called El Fncrte de Wellington and 
ei Foerte de Craufard, In tbe eabiirb. 

A faeantifal Feantaln (near Ibe Alameda), inp- 
plled by a Ronum Aqaedoct, at aome dlttaica oA 

military c: 


^ the Dake of Welllngtoo'i aclions. To tbt 
wnlh-eail of it ii ia Fma dc fraaita, 4,080 feet 
abore ica. There la a grand pilgrimage hltber 

Clad ad Rodrlgo. 
Fnsntei ds (raoro (Etat.), so msei from 



[Section I, 

Those who are not desirous of visiting Portugal 
can strike across country to Plasencia (s.e next 
Boute), 26 leagues, a rough road, wild, and very 
interesting, with horse and guide. On the way is 
the district of Las Batuecas (bed at the Conrent), 
the inhabitants as wild as the strange country they 
inhabit. From Plasencia to Navalmoral on th€ 
Madrid line. 

Madrid to Tftlavera, Arroyo de Malpar- 
tida (for Caceres), and Valencia de 
Alcantara: direct railway route to 

At present there is only one through train per 
day, leaving Madrid about 6 p.m., by the station 
near the Paseosde Atocha and de las Deliclas. 
The 8ud Expressy thrice a week, to Lisbon in 
16f hours. Consult BracUhaw's Continental Guide. 

For the first 50 miles no station of any special 
interest is passed. Cabanas (35^ miles) being the 
only place of any note, most of the distance being 
through the plain lying between the Sierra de 
Gredos and the Sierra de Toledo, the middle of 
which is occupied by the Tagus. 

Blelves (49| miles), a village of 800 inhabit- 
ants, in the midat of well cnl.ivated lands. 

TonlJOB (53f miles), a place of over 2,000 
inhabitants; formerly a walled town, in a very 
damp and unwholesome district, subject to fevers. 
The only bui'ding of importance is an old palace 
of thi Counts of Altamira. 

ErUBtes (65 miles) ; Illan-Cebolla (69^ miles); 
the small t wn of Cebolla, about | mile from the 
Tag^us, possesses only the palace of the dukes of 
Frias and their country residence on a hill outside 
the town. 

Talavera (84) miles); stay of 20 minutes. (See 
page 36 for description of this town.) Buffet. 

Oropesa (106i miles); a small town (popu- 
lation, 2,240) ; on a hill covered with dwarf oaks 
and olives, with a ruinous palace and castle of 
the dukes of Frias. Between 

La Calzada (iio mUes), and Navalmoral 

(1254 miles), the province of Estremadura is 
entered, and the country becomes pastoral, and 
enltivated spots only rarely appear. 
J^MTsImoraJ (populpAiozij S,471) is A good-looking 
frji of no ImportMnce, 

Malpartlda de Plasencia (i53f miles); 

8,000 inhabitants, with a church of 16th century, 
having some statues and sculpture by Caatafio. 


Population, 7,9 >0. 

HoteL—Posada de las trcs Puertas. 

The ancient Deobriga PUuentia, province of 
Caceres, picturesquely situated on the right bank 
of the river Jerte, which is here crossed by three 
bridges. It lies in a dale, surrounded by hUls and 
sierras, and a well-cultivated and charming 
country. It is enclosed by a strong wall of aUmt 
and mortar, constructed in 1197, by Alonso VIII., 
of Castile ; is pierced with six gates, and flanked by 
68 strong towers, regularly placed. Its streets are 
straight, and generally well paved. Its foundation 
is of the time of the Romans, who gave it its first 
name. It was taken in 1180, by Alonso VIII. of 
Leon, and III. of Castile, and, being in a ruined 
state, was re-founded by him in order to serve as a 
bulwark against the Moors. It was the head of 
the dukedom ruled over by Don Alvaro de Zuniga. 
In 1488, the Catholic kings incorporated it with 
their crown, giving in recompense, Bejar, with the 
same dignity which It held. It was at one time a 
pi ICO of g^eat importance; but has never recovered 
the sack by Soult, in 1809, occasioned by Cuesta's 
neglect to secure the passes of Bafios and Peralcs, 
in spite of Wellington's oft-repeated solicitations. 

The family of Christopher Columbus, who 
dwelt at Plasencia, had already numbered several 
distinguished sailors. The part which it took in 
the political tumults of which the city was the 
victim, compelled the family to quit Spain, and to 
emigrate to Genoa, whence returned the illustrious 
navigator, to bestow upon his country his grand 
ideas. The Spanish name of Columbus was Chris- 
toval Coldn. 

The city is surrounded with ancient walls, and 
has six Puertas or gates. The Puerta de Trujillo 
is to the south ; those of Coria and Berrozana to 
the west; that of San Anton to the north; and 
those of del Sol and de Talavera to the east. The 
Postigo de Santa Maria to the south-east^ and that 
of Salvador to the north-east, are In a good state of 
preservation. Many of the houses are well built, 
and have two and three storeys. Water is brought 
from the Sierras de Tome by an Aqueduct, carried 
in auuo \Aacea o\«t Sktchea of great elevation. 

-. f 

6 plctnresqne, Mpecinllj- ii 

beantiful Scr™ de Smla itartara, wilh ll9 rtnc 

flue tomb of Cristoval de Villalba. 

plnntalioDi of otjTe trees. Tines, <irchard% end 

Socnil IlannltagM. 

ncrlcs, oil uid ima mUlu, aosp wort", iind a factory 
lor spinning Hit» Marl., or DoHa Eaerncia dc Monnr. In 
IheCalledeTnijlllo, a h».p1(.] built by Sellor I^«, 

SlgUtl-A Oollilc CaOedra; cmnmeiicred In the 

ItrtKHth century. DiKl icstoreJ byAlonio VIII. It 

containing two hundred persons. 

cipal door li dollMlely icnlptund with fcurts. 

Hospital de ta Merced. rt.Jjo de lai Ll.gas. 11 

has a very lew Inmaiei, being only nsed fur the 

md ill'ido the piinclpil nare from the two smaUor 

IMenI onei. are ot culoiul >lie. and ot a cIk 

Hospital de la Crui. now In a mined Hale. 

tgnn; the piTementli or Ihc flnost iqoirc tile. 

fonnln;eiarl circle.; (hocholrhmi a magiiiflccut 

fommr Cellese of Jesuits). It Is a vaat edifice, i-lib 

tponproleSloTyardshigh: thcsUlotla tj carved 

a ipaclon. poert.. a magi.lHoent stone stalreaw, ■ 

will, all wrti of aninuil5, spd many Ingenloui 

laandry, fountain, cistern, ftc., Ac. 

ileTlcu, and is also remirkaLlo tor the delicate 

A Hosplul In the environ, for ,h. ehelter of 


historic deeds ottheBlhle; lhehi„-hn1torconlaiDi 

»ms Bno pictona by Franci«o Blcl. Ii. the 

collwerol naTC to the right, at the ei.tronce of 

tomb of tbe blebep of the chnrcli. Don Pedro Ponc^ 
dc Leon, frith a marble Btalne lar^r than life In t 
knedlni! poUllon. The Cathedral also cenKilni 

organ, and a beanllful clock. Thonlniows an 

the " Anales do Plisencia," (he architect was Joan 
de Alba, who executed the Capilta Mayor aboQI 
14N, in llie time of Bishop Gnlierrex do Toledo and 

AlDnsodeCovarrubias. The reja of the Coro w>i 

Bodrlgo Aleman. 
of Bishop Caibajal k 

haie been caned In 1S!0 by 
Is; notcamsgnl^centnatae 



public fountains, and Ihor 
:or the angler. 

the fonnder, Frauelaco de Aliuaraa. on a scpolchre 
I Bmn VicBBie, 4 Omnlnlcan eonvant, with a pretty \ WliXKKe; ^\mbiA«. \1» Ml-KHw* ""t**^:;^^ 



[Section 1. 

The distance to Cabezuelaf 6 leagaes; to El 
Paerto, 8 leagrues. 

The road to Salamanca passes Aldea Nueva, 
Bonos (noted for its bathsX Bejar, Fuente Roble, 
and Monte Rubio ; that to Ciudad Rodrigo, through 
Ahadia, Lagnnilla, Batuecas, Alberca, Mallo, 
and Tenebron. 

Excursions may be made to El Paerto, and 
the convent of Batuecas, see page 82. 

Eight leagues from Plasencia, in the territory 
■of Vera, and not far from Magdalena, is the 

monastery of San Geronlmo de Tuste. it is 

•celebrated as having been the final retreat of 
■Charles V. after his abdication of the crown in 
favour of his son, Philip II. Charles died in the 
•convent on the 21 st September, 1558. This Convent 
is well worth visiting, apart from its historical 
■associations, and there is abundance of game, 
such as wild boars, eabrcu montescu (a kind of 
'Chamois), deer, and wolves. There is also g^od 
-fishing to be had in the neighbourhood. Enquiry 
should be made at the inn at Plasencia before 
making arrangements. Horse-road only. The 
French soldiery under Soult considerably injured 
the convent, and the rough peasantry still further 
despoiled it, but there has been some talk of its 
being restored under a new proprietor. Notice 
Charles V.'s walnut-tree (el Nogel Grande) and 
his bedroom. The silleria of the chapel was the 
work of Mateo Aleman. 

Csuiayeral (178 miles); population 1,824, in a 
rocky and uncultivated district; shortly afrer 
passing this place the Tagus is crossed, and the 
next station of interest is 

HoteL— A posada. Buffet. Junction for Ctfcerea. 
The distance to CfCceres is 10^ miles, one station 
only, Las Minas, intervenes. 

CAGERES (Stat.) 
Population (1886), 14,204. 
Hotels. — Posada Nueva ; Posada de los CabaJ*. 

It is the ancient Ccutra Cauaris, and is th9>eap/tal 

of the province of the same name, for^4^ o|- the 

7jor^A part of EstremudxtTtL. It is s^ij^ted south 

of the Tssraa, upon a Hdg6 ot bUJiii^ foaping from 

'^^ to yrest. The eUmmti h ^^pii, fogS i^^a 

snow being scarcely known. The town dates from 
two epochs. The first and most ancient part is en- 
closed by a strong wall, which crowns the 
summit of a lofty eminence, and is dominated by 
many high towers, which call to mind its ancient 
strength. It had formerly five Puertas or doors, 
now represented by the arches called do la Estrella. 
de Santa Ana, del Christo, and del Socorro, which 
remain in a perfect state, and the Puerta de M^rida 
which has disappeared. The wall and Its towers 
are in some parts incorporated with subsequent 
additions, which have extended it beyond its 
original length, and which form the modem part 
of the town. The Arco de la Estrella, which, by a 
broad and commodious flight of steps, leads to the 
interior of the ancient town, is built of the finest 
granite, and is in the form of a shell. Above is a 
small temple, with an image of Nuestra Sellora de 
la Estrella, of Salamanca stone, and well worked. 
It was constructed in 1726, at the expense of the 
Marques de la Enjarada, under the direction of 
Manuel Churriguera. The other arches are not 
remarkable ; but under each is the statue of the 
saint to which it owes its name. It has a plaza, 
seven plazuelas, and 115 streets; the latter are 
narrow, irregular, unpaved, and for the most part In 
steps. The plaza, situated outside and at the foot 
of the primitive precincts, is the largest of the kind 
in Estremadura. It is an oblong square- 300 yards 
in length by 60 in breadth. In the centre is a 
handsome paseo or promenade. The plazuelas 
front the church and other buildings, and &n 
spacious. The most beautiful of all is that of San 
Juan, commonly called La Corredera. 

Its manufactures comprise cloth, linen, baize» 
leather, hats, ropes, earthenware, wine, oil, and 
soap. There are also some flonr and fulling mills, 
dye works, and a considerable trade in cattle, 
pigs, bacon, merino wool, manufactured goods, 
&Q. 1'he annual cattle fair is in April. 

StgbtS. — Santa Maria, the principal chtirch, a 
Grothic edifice with three naves, re-constructed in 
155ft. m grand retablo, carved by Guillen, repre- 
sents, in a series of tableaux, the principal passages 
in the life, of- the Saviour. It is ornamented with 
statues of the Apostles, the Evangelists, uid the 
doctOTA ot thA c^\sxch. Note also some of the fine 


fioute Is.] 



Church of San Mateo, situated ia the highest 
part of the town, near the Casa de las Veletas. It 
is a capacious Qothic edifice, wholly of hewn 
stone, and haying only a single nave, and was 
anciently a mosque. Note especially the superb 
arch which sustains the coro, the fine tower, the 
cluqiel of Diego de Obando Citceres, at the side of 
the epistola; and in that of the Marqueses de 
Valdefuentes, a very fine alabaster sepulchre, well 
finished, with the arms of the defunct. 

Church of Santiago Apostol, outside the wall to 
the north-east of the town. In this sumptuous 
edifice was preserved the Catholic worship during 
the dominion of the Moors, and in it was founded 
the first convent of the order and knighthood of 
Santiago in 1171 . It has been re-built and enlarged . 

San Juan Bautista, a small church, situated to 
the south-west of the town. It is of the Gothic 
order, and wholly of stone. It contains some 
sepulchres, and a good chapel of the Espaderos ; 
and the family of the Saavedras has a small one in 
the presbytery at the side of the Evangelic, with a 
strong and well-finished fence of iron. 

Santo Domingo, a monastery founded in 1624, 
at the instigation of Dofia Catalina de Saavedra. 
Its church, although having only one nave, is very 
capacious, and its transept and chapels are fine. 
The modern building is used for the hospital, but 
its church is still preserved for religious purposes. 

The other monastery, called San Francisco, is 
situated in the environs of the town. 

Five nunneries, now united under those named 
Santa Clara and .San Pedro. Santa Clara was 
founded in 1598; La Concepcion in 1616. Casa 
Enfermeria, containing the Santuario de San 
Anton io de Padua, with a fine and well-proportioned 

College of the Company of Jesus, in the ancient 
town, situated under a great hill which looks to 
the east. It is a large, solid, and beautiful build- 
ing, with two towers, and its principal fafade is 
approached by a fine flight of steps. It contains a 
fine and capacious church. The whole building is 
now occupied by the instituteof second instruction. 
A seminario, founded in 1608; nomud and local 
schools; an epUcopal paUce; an andieacla; a 

Casa de las Veletas, part ot the ancient Alcazar 
of the kings or Moorish governors of the place. 

Casa de los Golfines, with a curious facade, 
presenting a very ancient mosaic. 

Casa del Duquc de Abrantes (Santa Cruz). 
Tlie mansion of the Conde de la Torre, the portico 
of which possesses an ancient statue of Diana in 
alabaster, an excellent work. The mansion of the 
Carbajales, occupied by the provincial deputation 
and the civil governor. Th e palace of the G odoy s ; 
also several other houses, in which are found 
stones, inscriptions, coats of arms, successive 
souvenirs of the Romans, Goths, and Moors, and 
of the ricos hombres or grandees of the middle 
ages. Plaza de Toros, to the north-east of the 
town, a modem construction, built of granite, and 
of great solidity. It is considered to be the largest 
and one of the most complete of its kind in Spain. 

By rail 44f miles to Merida and Badajoz. (See 
page 37). From Ciiceres 6 hours on horseback to 

ALCANTARA, not far from Valencia de Alda- 
tara (Stat.) 

Population, 3,257. 

HoteL— Posada Nueva, near the bridge. One 
or two Casas de Huespedes. 

The ancient Norba Caesarea^ a walled town, 
province of Caceres, about six miles from the 
Portuguese frontier. It is built on the summit of 
a rocky height on the left bank of the river Tagus, 
over which is a magnificent bridge of the time of 
the Romans. It is surrounded by old walls, 
mounted with cannon. It has two Plazas or 
squares, and several Plazuelas or little squares, 
and five Puertas or gates. The streets are for the 
most part steep and narrow. 

The Plaza de Toros, or la Corredera, is a perfect 
oblong square of 40 yards in length and 20 in 
breadth; the other Plaza, which is the principal 
one, contains the Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town 
Hall). The most noteworthy of the Plazuelas is 
that of Santa Ana, the highest part of the town. 

Alcantara, founded by the Romans, was taken 
from the Moors in 1214 by Alonso VIII. of Castile, 
and given to the Knights of Calatrava, to whom 
were afterwards united the military Qtd.<». ^ 
monks or fniohAt oj AXtopftJUwoK \«N»>!^sA.VNS»^^>!i^ 


Lapls8e,ln 1809, occnpied the town for one night, to Toledo to direct various works there. It is 

which WAS employed in the commission of the built wholly of granite. The church, which is 

most wanton barbarities. Since the last war with composed of three nares, has an elevation of 101 

Portugal its industry has greatly decreased ; the 'ect, 60 feet in length, and 96 feet in breadth. It 

exports comprise barley and wheat to Ceclavin contains five pictures by Luis Morales, viz.: — a St. 

and Zara, wool and rye to Portugal, and oil to John, a St. Michael, a Pentecost, an Apostle, and 

the interior of the country; the imports consist a Transflgniration ; they are all in an injured state, 

of linen, wearing apparel, and colonial produce. In the lateral chapel is his retablo of stone, of very 

The environs are fertile, producing wine, oil, wax, good workmanship; in that to the right is a niche 

honey, grain, fruit, and vegetables ; and a large containing a sepulchral urn, with an inscription, 

number of cattle, including horses, mules, sheep. Near this chapel is another spacious one, called 

pigs, and goats, are reared. The climate is exceed- Pledrabuena; in the frieze is read "Petrus de 

ingly hut. Ibarra facie, a.d. 1550;" in the centre is a marble 

BigHtS.-A magnificent 5ridi/c over the Tagus, sepulchre, with a figure in high relief, of Don 

from which the city derives its name (Arab, al Francisco Bravo, military knight of Pledrabuena; 

edntarah, "the bridge)." It was originally built "*® sepulchre is adorned with medallions, repre- 

for the Emperor Trajan, A.D. 105. It is 670 feet in »*"*^"» ^^^"* Augustin, Saint Jerome, and the 

length and 210 in height. It was partially destroyed Evangelists. The corridors of the convent con- 

by the Portuguese In 1807, and was also partly «*** ^^ ''^^ '^^* ""^ "^»^* ^^^'^"^^^ *^"**^*- ^*^«^« 

blownupby Colonel Mayneonthe 10th June,1809, t^««^h«« " * &*»«'y «f «^ffi<^*«»t solidity, not- 

but repaired in 1812 bv Colonel Sturgeon. It was ^^hstanding its many architectural defects; at 

burned by the national troops in 1836, and is now "'^ ^**'*^' "" *^^ ^*" *^^^"' ^^''"'^^ ^"*» **»« 

In . ^,i^^A .4.^^ Ai. 'i. 1. I LI royal arms; one is named after Ctfrlos V., but 

In a ruined state. At its entrance is a chapel ' . , , . i **» 

<i<^<ii^a4^».i»^rr .1 'i.uiu su I t t j.t thc rcasou is uot kuowu. In the pavement of the 

dedicated to Trajan, with the following inscription, , , ^ ^. , , , , .^ . , 

«,K- I. i, I At- * .A tix . /^ . cloisters are the sepulchral stones of the brethren 

which contains the name of its architect, Caius . i. , . ^ * ^. ^ , .,. 

Julius Lac •- * knights of the order. In the second angle to 

the right is a chapel containing two sepulchres, in 

" Pontem perpetui muuarom in uMmlii mundi. one Of which is interred Don Suero Martinez, the 

Fecit diviiuk nobilis arte Lacer." -_. _ , x * xu ^ . .». 

first grand master of the convent; in the same 

Church of El Mayor, also called Our Lady of chapel is a marble statue representing Eve, and on 

Almocobar (in Arabic, "high place"), a Gothic another pedestal was one of Adam, which was 

edifice of the thirteenth century, of hewn stone, destroyed during the French invasion; they are 

well worked. It consists of a nave of 108 feet said to be the work of Albert DUrer. The rest of 

long, 64 broad, and 87 in height to the roof; the the convent has nothing worthy of note. The 

tower, which is to the west of the building, is a church was finished in the year 1576, and the 

square of 16 feet, and 30 in height, and contains whole building in the time of Philip II. It is at 

the clock. The interior of the building is not present in a ruinous state ; the church is in better 

remarkable, and the ornaments are poor. The preservation. San Pedro de Alcrfntara, a convent 

silleria is however of walnut-tree, and of good of clericos menores, situated to the east of the 

workmanship. Church of San Pedro de Alcdntara, town, near the ruins of the castle; its date is 

to the west of the city, near the wall. It is the doubtful, although it must have been after the 

most ancient of the two, but possesses nothing jeath of its saint, on 18th October, 1562. The 

remarkable. church, as well as the whole convent, is in a state 

San Benito, a superb convent of the military of rtiin, and offers nothing remarkable. Sancti 

order of Benedictine monks, called Knights of Spirltus, a nunnery, built in 1562; its nuns were 

AIc{(ntara, situated to the north-east of the town, ladies of title, who were subordinate to the prior 

Jlf rras commenced In the sixteenth century by of the order; its walls alone remain. Convent de 

l^JkA^ *^^ ^^"'^"^^ ^*^ OstboliCf hut was never los EemcdVoa, Atuated to the east of the town, 

^ ^^^ architect, fferrera, harlng been ordered scarcely -worlYiT ol uoXVt^. 

Koute 14*] 



Cuartcl de Veteranos, a convent: it was a 
donation of the ancient house of the Carbajales; 
it still preserves its beautiful fa9ade, which is 30 
feet in height, and 60 in length, of hewn stone, 
with four columns of granite, each of a solid piece, 
8 feet high. 

A Castle, to the east of the town, having a sub- 
terranean communication with the river, whence 
a plentiful supply of water can be obtained. 

The houses of the Conde de Canilleros, the 
Vizconde do la Torre, and the Marques de Torre 

The road to BadaJOZ (Btat), on the railway 
between BadaJoz and Lisbon, passes Arroyo del 
Puerco, Aliseda, Albuquerque, and Campo Mayor. 

Miedes,andRetascon. ThedistanccfrotnCalatayud 
to Daroca is 8 leagues. A line towards Teruel 
is projected. 

Near Daroca is the brackish lake called L* 
Gallocanta, the waters of which overflowed part 
of the town in 1864. (See below.) 


Population, 2,500. 

HoteL— A good posada. 

A town of Aragon (province of Saragossa), pic- 
turesquely situated in a deep valley surrounded by 
hills, on the right bank of the river Jiloca. It ia 
encircled by an old wall flanked with towers. The 
houses are generally of two storeys, irregularly 

The road to Caceres (Btat.) nins by Villar de ^^n^. and many of them are in a ruhious condition. 

Key, Brozas, Navas del Madrolio, and Arroyo del 
Puerco; the distance is 85 miles. 


A desolate town of Estremadura (province of 
Caceres), on the high road from Alctotara to 

Sights.— Oothic church, containing sixteen of 
the grandest works of Luis Morales ; the finest are 
a Christ and Joseph of Arimathea, St. John, Christ 
bound, Christ at the column, and the Descent from 
the Cross ; the others are the Annunciation, the 
Nativity, the Circumcision, the Adoration of the 
Kings, the Saviour with the Reed, the Burial, 
Christ in Limbo, the Ascension, St. Jerome and 
the Pentecost. A sulphur spring is near it.] 

Resuming the direct route to Lisbon, the only 
remaining station of any interest after Arroyo, 
frequently styled Arroyo de Malpartida, is 

Valencia de Alctotara (35ii miles), the last 

Spanish station. For remainder of the line to 
Lisbon, see page 175. Notice the change of time; 
Lisbon time, which Is later than Madrid time, 
being kept on the Portuguese portion of the route. 

SaragOBsa to Daroca, Temel, Begorbe, 
Mnrviedro, and Valencia. 

For SaragOBia, see Route 2. 

The road from Sangossa to Daroca runs through 

It has some spacious and well-paved streets. The 
principal one, called La Calle Mayor, crosses the 
whole of the town. 

It has three Plazas; that called La Colegial, 
which is the largest, forms a perfect square, in 
which are situated the earcel or prison, and the CasA 
de Ayuntamiento. The Plazas of San Pedro and 
Santiago are both in the Calle Mayor. 

According to some, the name of the place ia 
derived from that of a Roman family. Mr. Ford 
seems to think it may have been at one timethe 
ihuar or residence of the tribe of Auca. The name 
may be etymologically connected with that of the 
river, which may have been anciently called Wady- 
al-Auca or Oca; and Dar-Oca may have simply 
denoted a "residence near the Oca or Auca." The 
environs are fertile, and the inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in agriculture. 

Sights.— La Colegiata, a fine Gtothic church, on 
the site of a mosque, remains of which are incor- 
porated in the new edifice. It was built in 1479 by 
Juan II. of Aragon, and renovated by Juan Marron 
in 1587. It has three handsome naves; thereof is 
supported by elegant columns; the egg-shaped 
cupola is peculiar; the choir, which is situated 
behind the tabernacle, is capacious, and under its 
boarded floor is a trough-like concavity, to increase 
the power of the music ; and below the high altar 
is a well of fresh water of great depth. In one of 

Santa Maria, VUlademalfLongares, Cariflena, and I the Doric cha\>e\*^«AwwtA.^\s:B.%V'aX^^ 
Magnar. It maybereMhod by taking the RaUw&y \ MiAiluwio,M^^«t<D^=W«^'^^^^'*^^ 
to CaJji»»jTi4 «Mfpivca«Uflg thence by Belmont«,\ 4eT)««<>w^^^WDXft>Kfl&*K^'^* ^^^ 



[Section 1. 

a relicario of gold, the gift of Femaudo the Catholic, 
at whose expense the chapel was also bnilt. There 
is a legepd attached to the sacred wafers preserved 
in this reliquary, which is much venerated by the 
faithful. They arc exhibited on Corpus Christ!. 
Note, in this chapel, the retablo, with its black 
marble columns, and an Ascension of the Virgin, 
by Franco: note also the fine portal of the church, 
and the tower. 

Church of Santiago, in the Calle Mayor. The 
modern facade, which is unfinished, is supported 
by elegant granite columns, and the ornaments are 
in good taste. It contains the picture of the Battle 
of Clavigo, by Piano, a native of the place. There 
arc also five other churches. 

ConventB.— The convent of San Francisco was 
founded by Don Jaime el Conquistador, in 1237; 
that called de Capuchinos, on the 11th April, 1647 ; 
the Trinitarios Calzados (dedicated to San Marcos), 
was founded by Juan de Marta, in 1364, and is now 
used as a civil and military hospital. The Mercen- 
arios, which was founded in 1881, has been used as 
a military quarter, and is now an alhondiga, or 
granary. The convent of the Dominicos was 
founded by St. Sisanion; and the city on the 20th 
September, lfi22; and El Colegio dela Escuela Pia 
was established by the city for public instruction 
ia 1781. It was abandoned at the time of one of 
the late wars, from being near the fortifications 
and military posts; but secular instruction has 
b^n again resumed; it is a fine building. 

Ancient Moorish Wall, partly of stone and partly 
of brick, and fourteen towers, crowned with solid* 
turrets. The wall runs along the tops of the 
mountains, is 7,890 feet in length, and encloses a 
Citadel, with a lofty tower upon a rocky eminence. 

La Gran Mina, a Tunildl, made to prevent the 
fearful inundations to which the place is exposed, 
from the high land between the east and north of 
the town. It lies between the city and the neigh- 
bouring hills, and empties itself into the valley 
below. It is 2,340 feet long, 24 wide, and 
aboat 80 in height. This construction, which Is 
considered to be without its rival in Spain, was 
commenced on the 20th September, 1555, and was 
£nJsAed on the 7th February, 1560, although ad- 
i^//<«7# frere mAde np to 1662. It ia the work of 

Pierre Bedel, the celebrated French architect and 

The Cemetery (El Cementerio), about f league 
from the city, in a healthy situation. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall). 

Large Prison (carcel), a fine edifice, built of 
stone, with a spacious portico. 

Three fountains of the Plazas of San Pedro, San 
Domingo, and Santo Mercado. In the environs is 
a fountain with twenty bronze tubes. Its front 
is of stone, with bas-reliefs, an elegant cornice, 
and in the centre the arms of the city. It 
also bears signs of having been formerly adorned 
with obelisks and statues. In the Paseo de la 
Buelta is a fountain of delicious water, called 
Fuente del Mambru; it was called by the Moors 
the round fountain. It has a good front of stone, 
and the water gushes forth from the mouth and 
hands of a curious figure. Around is a spacious 
Plaza, with seats. 

Distance: Daroca is situated 56 miles south- 
west of Saragossa. 

The places between Daroca and Teruel are 
Vaguena, Calamocha, Camin Real, Monrcal, Villa- 
franca, Torremocha, Vlllarquemada, and Caudete. 

The distance from Daroca to Caudete is 49| miles. 


(Population, 5,489) lies 50 miles east-south-east of 
Albacete. It is situated on the slope of a hill, in a 
beautiful and well cultivated plain. It was formerly 
fortified ; it hat some well built houses, a miserable 
hospital, and a tolerable church, and there are some 
Roman remains. In the charming environs is a, 
country house of the Bishops of Orihuela. There 
are remarkably large bone deposits in the 
vicinity, which are supposed to be indicative of 
some great battle having been fought here in re- 
mote times. A road branches off here to Albarracin, 
Frias,^ and Trajacete, for Cuenca. 

The distance from Caudete to Teruel is about 7 
miles. TERUEL. 

Population (1887), 9,359. 

Hotels.— Fonda and Caf^, in the Calle de los 
Ricos Hombres. , 

It is the capital of the province, and is beautifully 
situated upon a hill, at the foot of which flows the 
QoadalaTlar. It stands 8,015 feet above the level 

of tlk« MA. *I9 ^% «M^ ^ ^^^ V% l^tak!iiViAWSu,«4MA 

[Mt abova Ihi Hi; imitboC 
■ portlOD of it! ancient wall 

I taken by the Roman^ irho nbuilt k, itnd 
! other appellalloni, oamed It TlntanlB. II 

vhom It wa< taken hj Alonsa el Cuto, ol 
in. It> InhabllanlB rendered aaelBtance Ic 
k called «1 Conqulttador, when the latter wit 
reia. In gieat vanC ot prorlilona. The towi 

InthodloAiagra. On 
I, ho disguises hlmult, 

priH elothi. tanned ttathar, pottery, dyei, and fn 

BlBhU.~Cathedn[, bnllt In 1H17, by Qngorl 
XIII^ at tka Inttlgatloo of Felipe II. ; note th 
CipUli de la Eplfanla, wUb Iti eolsmni; U 
Cipllli de l« RejFu. with Iti retiblo. njHoantlDE , 
the Adontlun ot the KlnEi; Blaqseit'i plelDT* of 
the 11,0011 Vlre^i, Imperlcct: ibo, the Core ud 

iDtliio. aild to hare been ■ndvitl)' 

iltbit I die! 'cried Dlega,ind heaving a •tgb, 
lead. Tiibelhicliae>toirirdihim.indci1lsant 
Dlndeadr Aiagri waket op. Isabel teljrn» 

conple. nrnck with erief and tear, 
9 middle of the nigfat and nolaeletil)- 
le body ol Ulego, unseen by anybody. 

Chuich of Baittliia, wKh a Sm luac*, mU*A ^^ 
Ctltto de lot tat Hinai. 

Church of nan Pedro; Mte the ilne lelable by 
OolL beildoi other palstlaf*. In > oIgIm at tb 
alolMer an prt-mt (to iMNnu at th* mU- 

the body of Diego <borae npon a litter 

I 1.111.1 mi ^'■'^'^.•^^^S^«™^«»-^ 
1 T\W e«M»» «*.i« a*. ■** ^" 


ta miri; ah* iniireri Dol. Thry rilis tier 
I, ud iwo^Ih that the hmi died, aiclnilDg Inhec ' 
ni tho body of Dlcgo. AiigTU utIth lii hute. 
) commandliie his griei ujiUliit the cAme of 
a danb]B catafttrophfl. It it then propoKd to t»- 

le on the rpot. Ths Iwdlti st Diego UbtcUIi 

iihe chapel; ihey now oceopya nid 

foUowIng; ]• > tnuudaUon: ■Here-u 
the bodjio— or Ihe ulcbriled loren c 
on Jnan Diego Uartlnei de HarcUli- 
L Tubcl de Segnra— who died la 1317- 
placedheralnlTOS.-" Thi 

J poRTfOAL. [Seetlon I. 

aire, fronting the ptlnclpil fatado of San- 
ibaden, a lover; and Ban UaRln, a Moailik 

The carriage road from CaliUyud, St Uaguei, 
to Teniel 1h a part of the old Soman road from 
BUhUli lo Tarragona. 

BoOdl.— The road lo Cnerca pauea VenlB da 
Falonlro. Alhatracln, Frlaa, Trajaeele, and Bnca- 

racln. Orihnela, Alcarochu, and FradUlo. T^ 

of U. Qon 

Lavigue. cullllcd lllneralre ds I'Eipagnei Par. 
IBSt, For tho BpanliL accoont, aaa Loi Anuintei 
da Teruel, b;' Pcrei de Monlalban. 
Nnnnoiy, founded by Uucen Leonor, In 1M7, 

from Teniel to Segorbe paaiei PaebU 
le. SuTion, Darracae. Virel, and Jeflca 
Thli le tbe old diligence road between 
Saragoeaa and TalenclD. Tb* dlRance la 4S1 mliga. 
f 1> nig^nl, and In aome parti gane la 

lo Vldfll. 

if La Trinidad, to the 

DiUlar.tba ei-coUege 

Surlon (popnlatloD, !,»T0) 
on the right bank ol tbe Martin, and bi 
fountain. JerlOft (pop. tl.000), a walle 
a caiUa. I) iltoatod on the Palanda, n 
eroiaed by ■ bridge. It le mppoaed 
hare been aeltled !>]- the BefcrewB. In lib 

have been named by (hem 
from Aacalon; NoTei from No'e; Maqneda Iron 
Uegiddot JepeaoT Yapee IromJoppI! and Toledo 
from tbe Hebrew toletloth. ilgnlfying "genejUo- 
glei." There la Utile foundation for tbeae fanclea. 

Felipe de CaHro. The Interior of tbe bsUdlng Ii I 
Ereitly delerloralod, and li now aud aia barrack. 
TVh AatpOMla, t gimnMr^, Ue Iifaliop'i pilac* | 

la litnUed on the ilopci of ■ hill on the right bi 
of theFalancla,aiid liaarroimdedbygardena, ^ 
ttreeta of the old town aia ciookad, aomewhat n 
row aBaii»iista«.^niti«'«'*>*«*'»«»^*'sWJ 

The lown hi 

ingtorhenpt'^rlnii otihcpliieF; IIidi 
:erti city >K itrBlghUr. brand, and clcai 
Ten p]Hi!DK> r«p«:llTOly npmed de Ic 

Sopena, de Pelluffa,Bnd de 1(H NarBi 
called del Meicado nii» In > right line 

's inddBl 

(omided hy (he CelllllC^f«n^ wl 
It wat embellhhcd by the ItoD 

a pyramid, with font j<l>. The olhcr pitto, 
called Bopelia, ibonndi In lulUge; and both of 
tnem coDuauid flna vlcwi. 

Fifteen pnWlcFonnUini^ one o[ which FuenlcdB 
la Esperania, 1b sllualed near the Gorunomlts 

ngQ, lonndid In 1 

, Thepiinslpaliuhjecl !• 
IclnTcsaf Snn Agnilln,; sni 

f Irregular Hgnre. There are fi 

other good pletorei by Esptnou, Rlbglta, Mc 
The great piclnn of the iltar, TepreKntlnK thi 
Detcent into LlBbo, li onuldand to b« OUR s 
■RibalWi bill workM. 







If orriadro was wretttd (rom the Moon iii 1289 
by Jamet tbe Conqnaror. During the Wars of 
Succession, although surrounded by enemies, it re- 
mained firm and faithful to Philip V. It was taken 
by the French, under Suchet, on the 25tb October, 
1811. It was called by the Romans and the 
Goths Murvetruniy and by the Moors Murbiter. 
The name is of Roman origin, and is derived from 
its old walls (muri veteres). 

Saguntum, according to some hiutorians, owed 
Its origin to Tubal, the very first of blacksmiths; 
according to Strabo it was founded by the Greeks 
of Zacynthus or Zakynthos (Zante), 1384 B.C., at 
which time it was a seaport ; and hence its name. 
Since then the land has gn'eatly gained upon the 
aea, which is now 8 miles off. It was attacked and 
destroyed by Hannibal, 219 B.C., after an arduous 
Siege of eight months (when its defenders had 
Both tag but turnips to feed onX which led to the 
•eeond Punic war. It was rebuilt by the Romans 
And became a municiplum. Of its former grandeur 
few traces now remain, it having been used as a 
quarry by the Goths, Moors, and Spaniards. 

SU^tS.— Church of Santa Maria, in the centre 
of the town. It is a solid Corinthian edifice; the 
roof, walls, and towers are of a darkish marble ; it 
it has spacious doors looking to the north, west, 
and south; the centre nave, which is somewhat 
higher than the two lateral ones^ has six chapels; 
the high altar which is of considerable size. Is gilt 
and very beautiful; in it are sixteen small columns 
and 800 demi-reliefs, representing various religious 
mysteries. It has an altar wholly of black marble. 
The silleria del coro is of walnut-tree. There are 
two sacristias, a handsome pulpit, and a fine organ. 
Above the arch of the principal door of the church 
is inscribed in aflat stone the year of its foundation. 
Between the door facing the north and the angle 
of the wall to the right is another stone, with a 
dadieation to its curate, Don Raimondo Ferrer, and 
in the wall of the landing of the staircase are some 
sepulchral inscriptions. The church was com- 
menced in 1884 and was finished in seven and a 
half years. Its architect was Francisco Estruch 
of Valencia. 

Convent de Franeiscos, in the centre of the town, 

founded in 1800, in which are established the Sala 

de ▲ynntamiento, the Audiencia, and the Court of 

JiutJc9f here alto are the priwa$ and one of the 

[Section 1. 

schools, the residence of the Aleaid, and a quart* 
for the troops. The church is used as a pabUc 
chapel ; and the adjoining puerta as a public paaci 
or walk. 

Convent de Trinitarios, near the last named, ni 
founded in 1266. According to some it occupies tki 
site of an ancient temple of Diana, out of who* 
ruins it is said to have been built. 

Convent of Santa Ana, at the extremity of the 
suburb of the same name. It was founded in 15«; 
at the present time there arc only a few nniu: 
there are also seven Hermitages. 

Hospital; several schools; Aduana or cnstoa 
house; and a small theatre. 

El Castillo, extensive ruins on a mountaiiv 
commanding the city. It was built in the time of 
the Saguntines, but there are traces of the Moon, 
and of still later times, particularly of the War d 
Independence. It has five principal plazas, eacfc 
independent of the others by means of the wall 
which separates them; and there are some Moorish 
cisterns. The whole is in a ruinous state. 

Roman Theatre, at the foot of the castle, in 
the slope above the town, and commanding delight* 
ful views. It is of the Tuscan order, and is built 
principally of small blue stones, so perfectly united 
that they have the appearance of entire blocks. 
There are thirty-three rows of steps, and the 
remains of all the ancient distributions of the classi- 
cal theatres may be here seen, as the $ceniwM the 
proscenium, the choir, and the orchestra. Hie 
three first rows were for the senators; the next 
seven for the oldest knights. The seven foUowing 
were for the junior knights, and beyond these were 
seats for the people (called twnma cavea); and 
above the upper portico four rows for the wtunen. 
who were not permitted by the Greeks to occupy 
any other place. The upper portico, which has 
disappeared, had six doors at the side of the gren- 
deria, and the some number at the side of the 
top. The people and the women, as well as the 
senators and knights, entered the theatre by separ- 
ate doors and staircases; vestiges still remain of 
the doors by which the senators and knights 

This theatre was capable of accommodating 1,3M 
persons. Some attribute its fouadation to thf.. 


ntth ^ ^*iw>>« h» , i, -, nt Pnt«n in tftVan I nnr Hnv ^Xhcye arc also several good Casas do 

t/e's: The best are 

i dc Zaragoza, del 


lota, Xo. 6. 

vU Calle d<r la 

'hey are open from 
; at other times it 

ty founded in 1846), 
ibinete delectnra), 
and cards. Public 
periods. It is open 
and strangers aro 
a resident member- 
iriff. From 7 to. 
more, and after 12. 

*.ia Edetanorum, and 

It is situated on the 

es from its mouth 

miles from its port 

plain, and the city 

of the fourteenth 

lircumfercnce, and 

esc the largest and 

rta de Serranos on 

IJuarte on the west, 

Br is especially fine. 

It has a Moorish 

ovr, and many of the 

'er is crossed by five 

' n amc§ of the Plazas 

^laza de la Consti' 

*cion, Plaza de la 

^ngo, Plaza de San 

''alo de la Gloricta, 

laza de Vlllarrasa. 

4 liorcnzo. Plaza de 

s Plaza de Pollicero. 

izadeSan Gil, Plaza 

n Sorcll, Plaza de 

\ Plaza del Teatro, 

San Vicente. Tho 

Enropa; nMU unenie; ruuu« >..«„ - ^^'^^*^\'^ ^^ 

VnJrerso. Rm^ And Mgings At ho*d^ W T«i\* \ \«o*, i^^l.^^^^*?^^^ ^.i^^.^.'SNs.^^n*. 



[Sec lion 1. 

The height of the principal buildings is as follows : 
The ve'.cta or weather-cock of Mignelete is 217 Cas- 
tlllnn feet (each=10J inches); Santa Catalina, 117 : 
San Lorenzo,157 ; SanNicolas,153; San £stoban,151; 
San Martin, 150; San Bartolom^, 150; La Escucla 
Pia. 147 ; Santa Tomis or la Congregacion, 138 ; 
Santa Cruz and los Santos Jnaues, 137; LaVirgcn 
de los Desamparados, 118 ; the towers of the Temple. 
112; the height of the head of the statue of 
Carlos III. in the Aduana Vieja is 148 feet; the 
cross of the principal facade of the Cathedral, 116; 
the tower of the Colegio del Patriarca, 110; that 
of Santa Domingo, 108; that of the Casa do la 
Ciudad, 88; and that of San Miguel, 73. These 
heights are probably only approximatiyely correct. 
Its principal manufactures are silks, linen, woollen 
fabrics, gauzes, camlets, and other woven fabrics, 
leather, paper, glass, hats, artificial flowers, and 
tiles for flooring. It employs about 3,500 women 
and 50 men in the tobacco trade, and manufactures 
about 8,000 lbs. of cigars and 50,000 lbs. of tobacco 
monthly. Its harbour has been greatly Improved, 
and its trade is prosperous and increasing. The 
climate, though hot, is salubrious, and the city 
is resorted to by invalids. 

Valencia was taken and fortified by Scipio, 
destroyed by Pompey, and rebuilt by Caesar. It 
was wrested from the Romans by the Goths, taken 
in 1094 by the famous Cld Ruy Diaz de Vivar and 
bore, during four years, the name of Valencia of the 
Cid. It was altogether 230 years under the dominion 
of the Moors, from whom it was finally captured in 
1238 by Don Jaime. It was enlarged and embel- 
lished by Pedro IV. of Arragon. It was taken in 
1812 by the French under Suchet, who held it till 
June, 1813. The word manzana^ so frequently used 
at Valencia, signifies an assemblage of houses 
bounded on every side by a street. 

Bights.— A Cathedral, called El Seo, "The See," 
said to have been built on the site of a temple to 
Diana. It was begun in 1262, and extended in 
1482; the original architecture was Gothic, but it 
has since been much altered and mixed up with 
Grecian styles. Its octangular Gothic tower, called 
El Miguelete (in Valencia, Micalet), is 162 feet high, 
and commands magnificent views of the huerta, or 
surrounding plain. It has three principal doors, 
tAe most notable, called del Idigneletc, from being 
•/ tJie aide of the tower, fronU the CaJle de 

Zaragoza ; it is small, consists of a single round 
arch, and is closed with a verge of iron ; the faqade 
is narrow, of a convex figure, and of three storeys; 
in the first are three Corinthian columns at each 
side of the door, between them two niches, with 
statues of San Pedro Pascual and Santo Tomas de 
Villanueva; and above the arch of the entrance is 
a basso- relief, representing Mary, with glory of 
angels and other decorations; the second storey 
has four columns of the same order; in the inter- 
columniation of the centre is a window, and in 
the laterals the statues of San Vicente Ferrer, San 
Luis Bertran, San Lorenzo, and San Vicente Mar- 
tyr ; in the centre of the third storey is an Assump- 
tion in demi-relief , and two medallions at the sides, 
terminated with a cross above a globe of gilt 

The other doors are called do los Apostolcs and 
del Palau. The first, which faces the Plaza de la 
Constitucion, is of the ogival style, with statues at 
its sides; and in the arch of the entrance is a 
Virgin surrounded with seraphim playing different 
musical instruments, of but small merit. The 
other door, which fronts the Archiepiscopal place, 
is a round arch ; in the cornice are fourteen heads, 
seven male and seven female. Provincial histo- 
rians are of opinion that these heads were placed 
here in memory of the first warriors and their 
wives, who helped to re-people the town after it 
had been conquered by the Christians. The cathe- 
dral consists of three naves, sustained by twenty- 
five arches, resting upon forty-two squared pillars 
with Corinthian capitals; the frieze of the pillars 
and of all the walls of the building is of coloured 
jaspers; the walls, pilasters, and arches of scagliola; 
and the capitals and mouldings of the arches are 
gilt ; the Capilla mayor, which is ornamented with 
precious marbles and jaspers, has two lateral doors, 
and a window above adorned with Salomonic 
columns and bas-reliefs of marble, representing 
histories of the tutelar saints; the ancient altar 
was all of silver, but having been burnt in 1498, 
was replaced by the present one, which is closed 
with two grand doors, in each of which are six 
superb pictures, representing subjects in the life of 
the Saviour and the Virgin Mary; they have been 
attributed to Pablo Areggio and Francisco Neapoli, 
and are of the year 1505. The silleria is carved in 
walnut; the Trascoro is of alabaster. The relics 
include a \ooiki ot ^•xiCtVi^A\k«\>\Y\ftcu9U8«d at 

Boutc 14] 



the last Suppor, the arm of St. Luke, and the span 
and bridle of James the Conqueror. 

Note the fine painted windows,the alta mayor, the 
three sacristias, the Silleria del Coro, the Sala 
Capitular with a crucifix by Cano, the chapels of 
San Vicente, San Miguel, iSan Pedro, San Lnis, San 
Sebastian, Ac, Ac, containing paintings by Juanes, 
Kibalta, Orrente, Jean Belino, Erpinosa, Palomino, 
and Sassoferrato ; frescoes by Vergara, Bayen, and 
Goya; the tombs of the archbishop Ayala, and 
Diego do Covarmbias and his wife. The paintings 
by Ribalta include a Christ bearing his cross, 
a Christ mocked by Pilate, and an Ecce Homo. 
Those by Juanes, a Saviour with a lamb, a Christ 
with the wafer and chalice; a Holy Family, a 
Virgin, a Baptism of the Saviour, a Santa 
Tomi(s do Villanueva, and a Conversion of 
St. Paul. There is a Virgin by Sassaferrato, an 
Abraham and Isaac by Espinosa, and a Jesus 
delivering the keys to St. Peter by Palomino. 
** Vidal executed for the cathedral a picture of Our 
Lady of Concord; and Ignacio Vergara, the group 
of angels adoring the name of the Virgin in the 
principal front." 

Capella de Nuestra SeAora de los Desamparados, 
or of the unprotected, adjoining the cathedral. It 
was rebuilt in 1667, and has since been modernised 
and spoilt. It is not very capacious, but deserves 
attention for its elliptic figure, its cupola, some 
frescoes by Palomino, and its camarin of marbles 
and jaspers, under which is kept the sagrada 
imagen, or original sacred image, which is worship- 
ped as the protecting patron both of the city and 
of the province. 

ClmrcheB.— Church of San Martin, Calle de 
San Vicente (Manzana 6) ; note the bronze eques- 
trian statue over the portal ; a Dead Christ over 
the chief altar,* and a Crucifixion over the retablo; 
a San Pedro and San Pablo, of the Espinosa school, 
and some frescoes by Camaron. Josd Veijara 
executed the medallion of St. Anthony the Abbot, 
over the doors, and the facade and bas-relief were 
executed under the direction of the same artist. 

Church of Santos Juanes, Plaza del Meroado 
(Manzana S91). The old buUding was of the 
year 1M6. The modem one was finished in 
1C09. It WM painted in ireieo by Antonio 
Palomino, In 1707. Tbe pulpit is very elegant. 
The marblea ' wen : executed in Genoa, by 

Ponzanelli. The stuccoes, the statues of the Sons 
of Jacob, and other decorations of raised work, 
and the sculpture in the pillars of the chapels, are 
by artists from Lucca. In this church lies the 
celebrated painter Ribera. 

Church of San Juan del Hospital, Calle del 
Trinquete de Caballeros (Manzana 95). It con- 
tains a great picture of the battle of Lepanto, by 
Jostf Garcia, a San Joaquin, a Santa Ana and la 
Virgen, by Ribalta, and some paintings of the 
school of Joanes. In one of the chapels are pre- 
served the remains of Const antia August a , Empress 
of Constantinople, which were presented by her 
step-son, the Emperor Theodorus Lascaris, who 
found an asylum at the court of James I. of Spain. 

Church of San NicoMs, in the Plaza of the same 
name (Manzana 378). It was formerly a mosque. 
Note the numerous paintings by Juanes, and the 
arches and walls of the chapels painted in fresco 
by Vldal, a pupil of Palomino. The celebrated 
picture by Juanes, known as La Puritima 
Concepeion, and considered to be his finest work, 
was much torn and defaced by the explosion of an 
anarchist bomb, which destroyed the altar of the 
Virgin, March, 1892. 

Church of San Esteban, in the Calle of the same 
name (Manzana 119). It was anciently a mosque, 
as may be seen by its chief altar and baptismal 

Church of San Salvador, in Calle de Trlnltarios 
(Manzana 144), containing three fine paintings by 
Conchcllo, and a miraculous image. 

Church of San Lorenzo, in the Calle of the same 
name (Manzana 158). 

Church of San Andrds, in the Plaza of the same 
name (Manzana 53). The principal entrance is 
fine, the sculpture is of the Renaissance. It con- 
tains paintings by Ribalta, Vergara, Orrente, and 
Camaron, some of the most renowned of the Valen- 
cian school. 

Church of San Bartolomd, in the Plaza of the 
same name, and Calle de la Concordia (Manzana 
37.1); note the retablo by Juanes, the ancient 
sculpture and pictures. The altar of San Sepulcro 
is said to date from the time of Constantino the 

Church of Santo Tomis or de la. C««oispw^^«s«w^ 
In the ^\e.*K «A\a. Oswk«^sb»*^ss^ V5K«»a»»*.>5«. 

I arlglul bnUdlns tt donbtfnl i 
■Dbseqnently pulled down. In 
larled tb« cdebnied iwlnter 

aUllns y do la Vlrgcn iln U P.i (Mum™. MS, 
0. I). It Kit Knclimlly k mDiqne, «nd !• one of 
le mait ek^nt chsrchei In this city. Jaen Col- 

3aDtn Mprta Uagrdalena. 

Tha OoiiT«nt of Bt. Dumlngo i> >itnat«] in 
the PliEneli at Ilm urns uune (Haniuii, 10»). At 
thD eitremlly of its chorcb sie Iwa chapelt of ex- 
fnordinary magnllDde, named I.a Vlrgen del 
Roeario, mi San Vicaila Ferrer. The IMtercom- 
mnnlcAlei with a third, called de loa Reyet. The 
charcb contains two ereat plctnrei] by Joed Ver^itriit 

narbKwaBeieenledIn ae(U)a,u(aeoBt(lB>«tatDei 
i^ tHm1tiidrlgirieUtiaiott,Oont Maria I^nHa, 
«»' Oa^M MepoU de Maniom^ wUnw o( Dm 


nando de Angon, Dnki 
cncU. Thii tnmptDou BepiJf 
a balttfltiade of marble, of whli 
lalni. At the back put nf tb 
■aerlBtJa. ud abore the an^ 

rw hold! I 

, Thot 

formerly Tery elegant, was deitTDyed by the Frendi, 
and only a portion at II now remalna. Ons of the 
dispell ii of the Corinthian order, adorned vHh 
tiolvnni and pliastert of marble, and itatnea. Tha 

eRitr« are two excellent plctarot of coloual dlmen- 
ilonK, painted lnlflfl4and Ififift by the TalencUn 
artiet^ Vicente flalTador. In this convent note 
eiparially the ilatnei and the clolatera. Cinoa 
Oaliado, In the Plaia del CiUmen or del Huieo 
(Haniana, 181)! the church I> haDdaome and 
■pmaloaa. "HiB (afade hai iplc 
eolomna, (nd li adorned with rtalo 

Lining ti 

kingdom. Sau HUniel de iM Beyea, a >dp- 

Tledro. It 1) an 1 
fa«ada ol the chi 

storeys, and la J 


on. ThaBntlai* 

the Worle order 

hiTlng An columns, with statuM 

of Santa Paula and San Geion 

mo; theeecondttrf 

the lonie order 


eolumna with two 

wlndowB. whlc 

glTO light to 

he choir, and In the 

centn. a atUne 

of BanHlgnd 

the third jg of tte 

onic eolDn>n^ esd 

sUtoesot the Holy King.; .11 

c sides of the fatada 

the bull ding 1. of ■ 


hlt«!tnre.wl.h plain pilMter.«d 

othera of the C 

impoaite order 

above which Is the 

cupola, edBal 

n rtis lo that 


forty-eight Val 

aidun palms in 

Iful jasper, «! 

iradeof tbepnablterioateot 

the «une matoUL 




Al tlwMt Ude tfthtohiunh i»% 

Route 14.] 



magnificent cloister, 160 feet long, with nine arches 
in each lienzo, like to that of the Apostles in the 
Escorial, after whose model it was constructed; and 
near the entrance is the principal staircase, of a 
marvellous size, with a double flight, with stairs of 
a single block of stone. " C. Zariilena painted some 
large pictures for the convent in a style of colouring 
1 1 kc that of the Venetian masters. Most of its numer- 
ous pictures have been transferred to the Museo, 
and its magnificent library to the Universidad." 
This superb convent is now abandoned, and in a 
state of ruin, being only inhabited by some poor 

£1 TexnplO, in the Plaza of the same name 
(Manzana 117). It formed part of the ancient 
l»alace of the Moorish kings. Having been ceded 
to Ihe Knights Templars, the latter erected a small 
church and some dwellings. The order having 
been suppressed in 1312, the building was given, 
in 1317, to the order of Montesa. In 1748, the castle 
of the order, near Jatlva, having been destroyed 
by the earthquakes which the country suffered, 
gavcriso to the construction of this superb con- 
vent, which was begun in 1761, according to the 
]>lans of the architect, Miguel Fernandez, at the 
expense of Don Carlos III. Note the portico, the 
elegant and richly decorated chapel, the circular 
altar, with jaspers, «kc., with the image of the 
Virgin, the presbytery, Ac. 

Hospital de Pobres Estudiantes (of poor stu- 
dents), in the Calle of the same name (Manzana 57, 
Kos. 2 and 12), established in 1540. 

Hospital de En-Bou, Calle de Ruzafa (Manzana 
19, Nos. 15 and 34.) It was founded in 1399 by 
Don Pedro Bou, and is appropriated to poor fisher- 

Hospital de En-Conlll, in the Calle de Camicers 
(Manzana 236, Nos. 5 and 19), founded on the 28th 
August, 1897. 

Hospital d« Pobres (of the poor), in the Calle del 
Trinquete de Caballeros (Manzana 100, Nos. 16 
and 18). 

Casa de la Misericordia, or poor-house, in the 
Calle of the same name (Manzana 294). It was 
founded in 1670, and is a fine building. It main- 
tains from 700 to 750 poor people, who are employed 
in industrial works. 

Casa de Beneficencia, in the FlazA de la Coiona 

Ciianzsna 203); etUbliBhed ia 1826. 

El Prcsido, or Penitentiary, in San Agustiu, in 
which about 1,500 prisoners can be confined. 

El Colegio de Corpus Christi, or del Patriarca, 
founded in 1586 by Juan de Ribera, patriarch of 
Antioch, and Archbishop of Valencia; note the 
noble Corinthian Chapel; the celebrated crucifix; 
many fine paintings by Ribalta, also some by 
Juanes, Morales, and F. Zuccaro; the altar mayor, 
with its green marbles and jaspers; the cupola; 
the sacrista ; the relics ; and the cloisters. " Bar- 
tolomd Matarana, who flourished at Valencia early 
in the seventeenth century, is known only by his 
frescoes in the Chapel of Corpus Christi. Those 
on the dome are figures of Jewish prophets, and 
passages from the story of the stiff-necked people; 
others on the walls, and in some of the side 
chapels, represent various sacred histories, with the 
achievements of the blessed St. Vincent Martyr 
and St. Vincent Ferrer." " Juan Zarillena painted 
for the college a picture of Christ at the column as 
early as 1587, and a portrait of the founder in 
1612." The pictures of Ribalta comprise a Ccna 
(a Last Supper), San Vicente de Ferrer visited by 
the Saviour, a Holy family, a Beata, and a Christ 
in the Garden of Olives. There is a Christ bearing 
the Cross, by Morales. The pictures by Juanes 
comprise a Supper, an Ascension, and a Birth of 
St. John. The visitor should go on a Friday 
morning, when the miserere is represented. 

Colegio And resiano, in the P!f -a de la Escuela 
Pia (Manzana 234, Nos. 1 and 6;. i ^'egio Real de 
San Pablo, in the Plaza de San Pab«u (Manzana 
292, No. 60). Colegio de la Presentaclon de Nues« 
tra Sefiora, in the Plaza de las Barcas (Manzana 
44, Nos. 12 and 13); note the fine picture by Rib- 
alta. Colegio Imperial de San Vicente Ferrer, in 
the Plazuela do los Nifios de San Vicente (Man- 
zana 49). . Seminario Conclliar, in the Plaza del 
Conde del Real (Manzana 144, Nos. 1 and 3), 
Escuela Pia, in the Plaza of the same name 
(Manzana 234), a seminary built in 1738, by Arch- 
bishop Mayoral. The form is that of a great 
rotunda, with a cupola and louvre in the centre; 
the altars are in good taste, with marbles, green 
jaspers, and paintings by Vergara, Planes, and 
Camaron ; in the centre of the ch»s«\\. v^ \sJ««x^ 
the c»\ebtaV^«i ^. ^titfi> v> -^^scc H»sw^ ^«*^ ^ 

PaYAo 0<La.\iia\\«^ «iSft.,'S.Q. «^ • 




[Section 1. 

PabllO BolldlngB.- La UnWersidad, in the 
Calle de la Nare (Mansana M), a fine largre build- 
ing, with a reddish fa^de; the patios and halls 
Jjiare been renorated. The university has facul- 
ties of jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy. 
It has also good collections of natural philo8(q[»hy, 
chemistry, and natural history, and a splendid 
library of 40,000 Tolumes, which is open to the 
public, and which comprise some rare bibles and 
MSS.; botanical garden outside the town; a beautiful 
theatre ; a capacious chapel, dedicated to Kuestra 
Beliora de la Sapiencia. It is supported principally 
by the fees payable on matriculations and degrees, 
the goTcmment making up the annual deficit. 
In 18il the unirersity had 1,600 students and 
70 professors. At present there are over S,000 

Library of Don Vicente Solva, containing some 
curious native works. 

Palacio Arzobispal (archiepiscopal palace), in the 
Plaza del Arzobispo, near the cathedral ; it formerly 
possessed a fine library, but many of the books 
were destroyed during the French occupation. 
Palacio de la Audiencia, Calle de Caballeros 
(Manzana 134, Nos. 1 and 4). 

Casa de la Ciudad, in the Calle de Caballeros 
(Hanzana 130, Nos. 1 and 8), commenced in 1842. 
and finished in 1876. The grand salon was con- 
structed in 1428, but having been burnt, another 
was built in the following year. It has a profusion 
of fanciful figures and rich decorations. The 
capilla was constructed in 1454, and the magnificent 
ceiling of the salon which serves as an antechamber, 
in 1512; in the lower storeys were the prisons, 
until they were burnt in 1505. In this building 
are preserved the sword of King James the 
Conqueror, the keys of the city, which were 
delivered up by the Moors to the king, the tmcient 
banner of Valencia, and the Moorish standard, 
which was also given up. In this casa, also the 
Aynntamiento has all its offices, and holds its 

Casa Consistorial, a noble Ionic pile, where the 

Audiencia or supreme court of justice holds its 

sittings. Note the room called El Salon de Cortes, 

with frescoca by ZariHena; the carved gallery; the 

j>anelled ceiling, and the relics. 

Cons&rvatorio deArtea, Id thePJaza de la Aduana 

OfMJuuis SS, No. 1), founded in 1898. 

Casa del Vestuario, in the Plaza de la Constltu- 
cion. Here the Ayuntamiento formerly met mi 
days of ceremony for the purpose of proceeding in 
a body to the cathedral. The building is now 
occupied by the Juge de Paix. The architecturo 
is good; the roof of the principal salon was painted 
by Vicente Lopez. 

Liceo Valenciauo, established for the encourage- 
ment of the sciences, arts, and letters. 

Lonja de la Seda (the Silk Exchange), in the 
Plasuela del Mercado (Manzana 826, Nos. 1 and 67). 
It in a beautiful Gothic edifice of the year 1489. 
Note especially the staircase, the fine hall, and the 
Gothic windows. It is occupied by the Chamber 
of Commerce. It is the most interesting building 
in Valencia. 

Lonia del Aceile (Oil Exchange), in the Calle d« 
Loi^a (Manzana 824, No. 8). 

La Aduana^ or Custom House, situated in the 
Plaza of the same name, at one extremity of the 
city, near the Puerta del Mar. It is a fine laife 
modem edifice, with its facade facing the Pasco de 
la Glorleta. It was begun in 1758, and finished in 
1760, under the superintendence of the architect, 
Chilavert. Its form is that of a rectangular parsl- 
Idogram. Its greater side, which is thefr(Mit,is 
228 feet long; its lesser side 218 feet; and its totel 
height, 78| feet. It has a fine staircase, with a 
double landing-place. The building it now coi- 
verted into a cigar manufactory. 

El MU860: After the suppression of the monss- 
teries, the pictures which they contained wen 
removed to the convent Del Carmen, where a 
provisional museum has been formed. It contaixu 
upwards of 600 pictures, all of the Valencian school. 
In fact it is only here and in the private collectioBS 
of the city that the works of this school of paint- 
ing can be properly studied. The principal masten 
are Ribalta, Joanes (or Juanes), Espinosa, On«nte, 
C. Zariftena, £1 Bosco P. Barras, Salvador, Gomes, 
Juan Conchiles, and Gaspar de la Huerta. Few of 
them possess much merit. The best are to be seen 
in a reserved salon, the Salon de Juntas. Th«f 
comprise an Ecce Homo, and two of the Saviour, 
by Juanes. The Crowning with Thorns, a Supper 
(Cena), St. Vincente Ferrer, San Francisco, St. Peter 
and St. Paul; the Four Doctors; the Evangelists; 
and the Coronation of the Virgin, by Kibalta. Tke 
yVrt^\ a^Jo\ai% e^Macdalea; and tlii«« jm«D 

Route 14.] 



tableaux, representing San Francisco, a Bishop, 
and San Cristopher, by Cristobal Zarifiena. A 
Cardinal, by Espinosa; and a San Josd, by £1 
Bosco. The following painters are also repre- 
sented in this collection:— J. de Vei^ara, A. de 
Villanueva, Ribera, March, Gamaron, Vicente 
Lopez, and Goya. The pictures will probably be 
re-arranged shortly. Open from 10 till 3. 

The Academia de las Bellas Artes, founded 
about 1765, is in the sam eouilding. No charge is 
made to the students. 

The city also contains many private Collections, 
with paintings by Ribalta, Morales, Juancs, A. 
Cano, F. Herrera el Yiejo, Camaron, Goya, 
Espinosa, Ac. All of these may be seen on 
application, and as they contain some fine speci- 
mens, should not bo overlooked by the student of 
art and the amateur. There are some good 
pictures at the Presidio. 

Citadel constructed during the reign of Charles Y. 

Two Theatres, of which El Teatro Principal is 
the best, the other being mainly for comedies. 

Hippodrome, or race-course. 

Plaza de Toros, or bull-ring, one of the finest in 
Spain. The Yalencians are enthnlastically fond 
of bull-fights. 

£1 Mercador, or market, in the centre of the city, 
and well supplied. 

Tapia, or mud walls, built in 1856 ; fine houses in 
theCalle de Caballeros and the Plaza deVillaraza, 
Ac; the eight Puertasor gates, two of which are 
used as prisons. 

Ccmenterio general, about half a league from the 
city, near the Tell MilL 

Botanical Gardens, without the walls, in the Calle 
de Cuarte, near the Pnerta of the same name. The 
grounds are divided into eighteen rectangular 
squares, separated by walks six feet in width. The 
garden contains some rare collections, and fine 
green-houses with plants from all countries. Ad- 
mission can be obtained any day by an order from 
the director. 

The Royal Qtxdea (Jardin de la reina) is situated 
in front of the Inridge and gate called Del Real. It 
has fine alleys <A orange trees, producing beantifnl 
fruits. It Is open every Thursday npoii predlwtixn 
pf an order from the clirep^r. 

The Garden of Yicente Boca, which is within 
the walls, contains a great variety of flowers and 
shrubs, and is laid out with good taste. It is open 
to the public. 

The other Gardens are — Jardin de la Soledad,or 
Casino do Cabrerizo, situated near to, and to the 
east of the former; Jardin del Se&or Condo do 
Parsent ; Jardin del Sefior Baron de Santa Bar> 
bara ; Jiirdin de Don Juan Bautista Berenguer, in 
the Calle de Alboraya; Jardin de Don Rafael 
Gonzalez Yalls; and Jardin de Capuchinos, at the 
end of the Calle de Alboraya. 

Paseos.— La Glorieta, between the Aduana,the 
Capitania General, <kc. It is of an irregular figure; 
its greatest length, which is the part between the 
door leading to the Plaza de Santo Domingo, and 
that leading to the Plaza de la Aduana is 600 feet; 
its greatest breadth, which is near the Salon of the 
paseo, is 480 feet; the other walks are narrower, 
and all are lined with myrtle and cypress, with 
flowers in pots placed on stands ; in the centre are 
beds containing a great variety of shrubs, and 
between the trees are orange and other fruit trees, 
and ash trees affording both shade and fragrance; 
here also are four marble statues, representing the 
seasons, and some artificial rocks, together with 
pines, cedars,, pastachios, rosemaries, Ac, which 
contrast well with the rest of the garden. There 
are seats, and at night it is lighted with gas. 

The other paseo, called La Alameda, which 
extends to the north-east of the city, in front 
of the gardens Del Real and De Cabrerizo, 
between the bridges of the Real and Del Mar, is 
2,178 feet in length ; in the centre is the paseo for 
carriages; that to the left is for foot passengers, 
and is composed of two walks, one of which is 
ornamented with beds of flowers, orange trees, rose> 
bushes, A;c4 in the different spaces are stone seats, 
and in one of these spaces is a fountain of marble 
and jasper, with a female figure representing Abun- 
dance, and at her feet a dog as faithful guardian, 
which sustains the arms of the city; in the last 
square is a beautiful aviary, containing a great 
variety of birds; to the right of the paseo for 
carriagee it a long row of trees; there is also a 
passage for carts Mid horses of lHitd«s\\ vs^^-^^s!**' 
the chwoftA <A Vtt* tv^«^*«^''>^>^'**:^^ 

(irhlchlidLsiaiitBbonl i 

Bmldeat Brltltli OonsuL 
Sncilili FbyBlcians. 

la hisuria nalural, gtograpliia. agrUallnra. poWo 
cion tfraloi id rtino ifa Valatcla: Dlaso, Analt 
de Valtnciai E«coliinti, Historia dc Valuuia; Solor 
,ino,SufoW<i * Valeria, V.1, l«BS; Boi.i, Ifii 
(orJa de Yatencia, S Tolomc Ito. IMS; Jfonw 
para Poi-iu»i'«,porJ,0,VRl. 1841; oniiLubntd*- 


■I Pstrtmonlo, VKlcnc 

[Section 1. 

, Tlio BhoottDg, Ac^ <1 


10 AlCOT (paf 8 11«) Ihrongh U 

DEHU (BMt.) 
Ion, 8,fi!8) li Ihe ancient WaBf: 

ough auidl& 10 DBDll (I 

ISMS (PUB* ») " "P°^»" 
,u1d ehan«n the dlataoc 
miles, und pmlhe Htni 

TbB Uka or AlbiifeT& U 

Ms !>)■ diligence. Here are the old Mooi 
SpanUrdi tilo>, by Vilenclniis siches. where gi 


BalvaUerra, Las Nievei, Axbo, Poom, 
FHelra. FUBUelra (I'pi-er and Lower;, Sllw 
d&Tia (on the Avin, In a mountain gorge). BU- 
baatai (uo mo llnmantillo), lo Oreine. Vlfli 

HoQte 15.] 



TUY (Stat) 
The ancient Tud€ ad Fines, is a walled frontier 
town of Spain, on the Mlnho. opposite the Portu- 
guese town of Valenca de Mlnho (Stat.), to 
which the railway to Oportois continued, see page 
193. The country is very fertile, and the valleys 
are charming, but marshy. The manufactures 
comprise table linens, hats, leather, and liqueurs. 
There Is plenty of good sport for the angler. The 
wines arc good. 

Sights.— Cathedral ; note the sillcria and clois- 
ters; the tomb of San Telmo, the patron saint. 
The Alcazar; and the college of San Fernando, 
containing a mnsenm, with pictures and books. 
The old episcopal palace and the church and con- 
vent of San Domingo. 

(Population, 4,247) is situated on the banks of the 
Aria, whence Its name. The wines made are 
very celebrated. The Cnnvento do I^os Dominicos 
with an elegant ogival church, and the ancient 
palace of the Counts of Ribadavia. 
0REN8E (Stat.) 

Population (1885), 13,290. 

Hotels. — Two or three posadas. 

It is charmingly situated above the left bank of 
the river Minho, over which there is a bridge. Its 
streets are narrow but clean, and its Placa Mayor 
is ver>' regular. It is of ancient origin, and was 
formerly much larger. The city is said to have 
been founded by the Greek Amphilocus, in the 
year 1179 B.C., from whom it derived its ancient 
name, AmphUoeopolU. Subsequently, the Romans, 
on account of the springs of hot water here, called 
it Aqute Calida, Ciliorum^ and Urientes, of which 
its present appellation is a corruption. 

Its industry consists of linen fabrics, leather, &c. 
It has also manufactures of chocolate, and a trade 
in hams, which are both in high repute through- 
out Spain. It has a monthly fair. The town pre- 
serves some Roman inscriptions. The arms of the 
city are a bridge over the Minho, a castle and a 
lion, with a naked sword and a royal crown. 

In the invasion of the Moors in 713 it was almost 
levelled to the gpronnd, and it remained a heap of 
ruins till 832, when it was rebuilt by Alonso el 
Casto. From Orense, Sonlt invaded Portugal with 
26,000 men and 78 cannon, and thither ho retreated 

llngton, his army reduced to 19,500 stragglers, and 
almost naked. The neighbourhood abounds in 
wine, but the process of manufacture Is very 
primitive, and there is scarcely a bodega or cellar 
in which to store it. One of the best wines is that 
culled Tostado. There Is sport for the angler in the 
neighbourhood. The surrounding valley is very 
charming, with its variegated trees, thick vine 
districts, fields, and rivulets. In the distance are 
seen the maisons de campagne of the Marquises of 
Villaverde, Bdveda, and others, besides several 
small villages and places, amongst which are 
Lofta, Oira, Cudelro, Viso, Valenzana. and Sejalbo. 

Sights.- -Gothic Oi/Aeefra/, dedicated to St. Mar- 
tin, situated nearly in the centre of the town. In 
consequence of the injuries that it has sustained, 
and the renovations that have taken place at differ- 
ent epochs, its facades are of irregular form. Its 
dimensions are as follow: — breadth between the 
doors of the Crucero, 147 feet; length from the 
principal door, called Del Paraiso, to the Altar 
Mayor, 249 feet; and from the latter, or from the 
Trascoro of San Martin, to the wall of the Capilla 
du la Concepcion, 33 feet; height from the pave- 
ment to the cupola, 98 feet ; and to the boveda of 
the great nave in the middle, 63 feet; breadth of 
the great nave outside the columns, 26 feet; length 
of the porch or corridor of the principal portal, 96 
feet; brexidth of the same, 1\ feet. In the facade is 
a tower of not much merit. In the middle of the 
church, as in the other cathedrals of Spain, is the 
choir, with a large railing of iron, and within, the 
silleria of walnut, of good workmanship, decorated 
with the effigies of saints, and containing seventy 
handsome seats. Under the coro arc two organs, 
and a balustrade for the musicians. At the side of 
the Epistola is an altar, with a silver coffin enclos- 
ing the bo<ly of Santa Eufemia, and in that of the 
Evangello is another coffin, with the bodies of San 
Facundo and San Primitive; near this is the 
magnificent sepulchral monument of Quevedo and 
Quintana. It was sculptured at Rome by the 
Spanish artist, Antonio Solk, at the expense of 
Manuel Fernandez Verela, about the year 1840. 

The Capilla Mayor del Cristo, of which the Conde 
de Taboada is patron, contains the beautiful ImajCiKiL 
de Cristo. whlck V* vQ^Nvs^^ -^^c^vt'aS.'ftA.. x\.-«i*»> 

two or three months attcTf hotly pnrsned by Wcl- \ Y^xvl "tt.«LTVTio>'«VQ ^ois^rs^^^^^ 




[Section 1. 

to 1S48, and who8« sepulchre may be seen in the 
Grncero, in front of the altar mayor. The cabinet, 
in which the Snntisimo Cristo is placed, is in an 
elevated position, and is surrounded by retablos, 
representing the Passion; and near the collateral 
altar of the camarin is a balcony, and a place for 
the musicians, with a good organ. There are also 
nineteen other capiilas, containing effigies of great 
merit; note especially the Capilla de Nuestra 
Befiora de las Augustias. At the altar of the 
Crucero is celebrated the mass of the Alba. The 
Cimborio of the Crucero is a well finished work. 

The origin of the Episcopal See and the date of 
the foundation of the cathedral are doubtful. The 
original cathedral is said to have been built as early 
M 550; the present altar mayor, dedicated to San 
Martin, was consecrated in 1194. The modem 
cathedral was erected by Bishop Alonso, in 1220; 
note especially the shrine of Santa Eufemia, the 
tomb of Quintana, the relics, and the cloisters. 

Church of Santa Maria la Mayor. The principal 
fa^de, which is on the Plaza Mayor, is elegant: it 
has two storeys, with Corinthian columns, and in 
the upper part two symmetrical towers. The interior 
is simple, with a good cupola and five regular 
altars. In the chapter is celebrated the festival of 
the Cuarenta Horas, and here is preserved tiie effigy 
with which the Passion is represented every Friday, 
which is worth attending. The gallery of the 
church communicates with the door of the contigu- 
ous episcopal palace. 

Church of Santa Eufemia del Centro, occupying 
the church of the ex-convent of the Jesuits, which 
is still in an unfinished state; its fafade is good; it 
Is of two storeys, the first of the Doric, the second 
of the Corinthian order; the interior of the building 
is adorned with columns. 

Church of Santa Eufemia del Norte, a parochial 
church, in the church of the suppressed convent 
of San Domingo. It has six altars and an organ. 

Chnrch of the Santisima Trinidad; note the 
Capilla Mayor and the cupola. 

Convent of San Fr.xncisco, situated to the east of 

the city. It has two square cloisters, in one of 

which is a well of excellent water. Its church is 

capacious, and contains an organ and a good 

Imagreotthe Concepclonf which is open to public 

church, belonging to the brothers of the order d 
Tercera. The rest of the building serres as a 
qu.irtcr for troops ; it has accommodation for two 

Convent of San Domingo, small and haring onlj 
a single square cloister; it was formerly occupied 
by the provincial deputation, and was afterwards 
used for the offices of the political government, but 
yielding to demands made in 1847, the groremment 
conceded the building to the province, with the 
exception of the portion required for the dwelllog 
of the curate of Santa Eufemia. 

Cemeteries — One in the hospital, and tiro 
others, named La Santisima Trinidad and Santa 
Maria la ^ladrc. The latter is small and badly 
situated. There is also another near the conveotof 
San Francisco, in the high part of tlie city; it is 
capacious, and in a good situation. 

Orphan asylum, Casa de Beneficiencia, Hospital, 
House of Industry, El Seminario Conciliar de San 
Fernando, and College for girls ; Casa de Ayunta- 
miento (Town Hall) in the principal square, which 
is surrounded by well-paved colonnades ; a pretty 
theatre, a prison, and an abattoir. 

Four Fountains in the centre of the town, called 
Del Key, La Nueva, De Cos Cueros and De San 
Cosme. All but La Nueva are badly supplied with 

The Bridge.— According to a popular son;, 
there are three things to be seen in no part oi 
Spain except Orense, viz.. The Holy Christ, or 
Imagen de Cristo (as above). The Bridge, and Ls 
Burga — 

" Tres corns hay en Oreiu« 
Qae no las hay en EspaSa, 
El Santo Crirto, la Pncnte, 
Y la Burga hirvieodo el agoa." 

The fine Bridge (Puentc) over the Milio is abovt 
500 paces to the north of the town, at the entrance 
of the route to Santiago. It is really two bridges. 
The first, which crosses the river at right angles, 
is 1,319 feet in length, and 18 in breadth ; it con- 
sists of seven arches ; the middle arch, which is 
the largest and most elegant, is 156 feet from pilUir 
to pillar, and 185 high from the bed of the river to 
the keystone, and one of the other arches is 90 feet 
in diameter. The second bridge is united to the 

reneration hy order. At the Bide is aoother small \ formet %l t\v% *V«l* tv%x\. \\w% «\V!, wa ««r««k \a 

■ome hlflvrlAni, th« 

it yrka npftLnd Li 

■ bermlEBga ol Nn« 
li* LoBi filll In. 

uwgn d« Arriba. Bnrga de Abiio. bdII anrttdcnt. 
tic word burga is i proTlnclal tenn tot m bot 
irJng flf mineral intcn. and !■ lery ponlbl; 

r ipringi Ln other EnropHD lonpiee. The 
ilourcit tbe water !• perfectly tnnipirert, and 
ki m edoDT vhen Iniulated In a glut; the 
'mpcratan It ISO dftgrAU of Fafarenbelt- Experi- 

d with 

oe T^eUblee linun* when ballEd 
the Snitlden) l> nadonbtedl; owtng 
a of Ih* euboiMt* of «odi. Tblt 

«■■. I OS 

water, whh^ U aeaoootad u nliabU Iti than- 
jieotlc appiLoailone. I> alKimaehln OM [nrcookiDr 
Tegetebles end dLeiolrlDjr eoAp. Tbe onfoimded 

are frerioen ted Inm Jane to September foibatUnr- 

U. A. Germond de Larigne laya of th* BlrfU i 

"TneButgaiBTelhiCB la onmbei, SO rarde di»- 
tanUromoneiaolhtr. The Borgad'Airlba (upper) 
and that o( Abajo (the lower), each (nmlA JTl 

by pipes into h bsiln of 100 iqnaro metres. The 


ure 1> ISO to 

water Is 

l«r(ect]y elea 

. differs T 

ry little In laata 

od has no adonr, 

though Father Feljoo 

' Teatro Crltlco 


i; that It th 



. AnUrslxh 


onire <il lodlu 

10 1,800 

arts of wate 




Hd pirUy 

t crbonlc odd, 

■ome eilenl bjr their Mmpoiltlon, haTB b*«n, 
up to now, bot little used thsraponllcallT. 
but tbsy sern, like those at Dax, In France, 
(or sll domaitlc pnrposes, snob ai oookinK food, 
balbi, and vaihing clothaa. Tbe lar^ batia baa 
been Iransfonoed Into a public waih-place^ In 

plucking, potatoes beforB peeling, tripe to bleach 
II, and II Is not artonliblng that tha deeompoaltlon 
at animal matteri ahonU produce In thli latter 
the inlphuioua odonr noticed by Father Feljoo. 
Mr.RnMo bopH that, follDWiDg the euunpte of 
foreign thenaal nftabUshmtnti, he will be able M 
make use In certain affecthini of the gai which li 
produced by tha Surtldero spring." 

thetiMl BaOu, iltnated in t* 

Oblip*. wlilcli li uJrl lo bt otBcacioua In temi 

ConTeyftuCSB. — Carmoi (or BrnBiKUi, for 
Bmliago, PoiHevadra, Tuy, Vlpj, Ribidnvis. 
Trtbci, and Darco. Tbero are DlltEenc*! lo 
Santlaeoand Lugo. 

Ball to MonfortB on the line [ron Palcncit 
(Madrid) to Con 

ASD POfilCOil.- 

[Section I. 

hcpro-pect: horwormnl 

, Tillliguldr. larcalit 

nd.:e<!p there: lOreal. 

ard Day— Early ion. 

l.e view allhE Monk.- Da 

t tl.e Virgin, Joan Garel 

Honlatrol (Stat.X P< 

Ths mad I 
Fajo, Caslti 
Monlorte, ai 
Taboada, 1 

11 IfiOgnen) pauei Pill 
It by Beadago, Chantar 

to s. To MartoreU 

Posada delaC 

rui,) Oa 



mpposed to bare been bul 

by Hannlba 

bat on. 

arch Is oF Moorlih conitrao 


Garrlga Bat: 

s may be 

tMch«i Iron here. A 

ew miles (nrt 

on, g,SM), ai 

Uohrcgat. In tho vich 


nilplinr bath! callal La 

Pida; whie 


reached by diligence from 

Olesa, on (ho 

Is Collbato ( 

s above). 

whence the ascent bogl 

■ 10 MoatBerrat, ■ 

solitary mass of needle- 

shaped Kranl 

4,050 f«l above the sea 

at the nermilofe {wilh 

animmenK prospect), and 

split down the 


a ravine, nearly 3.000 teM 

d»p, o>er*h 

eh hanj. 

the old tfmaiKry. fonnded 



e Chapel. 




to.. areicattered about. 

There 19 oecup 

ation f,-r 

BftTMlOHA to HontieTTat, BUnraBa, Car- 
dona, and Urgel. 

The Uontsarrai trip i« one by IMelf, and may be 
done by Tarr^ona rail to Mnllns de Rcy (10 miles) 


For Uontserral consult Oaia rt- Wouiht 




Popnlallon, l6.Mi. 
H0t«l.— Posada del Sol 

Boute 17*] 



It lies 40 miles by railway from Barcelona. It 
is a busy place, and its inhabitants are engaged in 
the manufacture of cotton and silk fabrics, broad 
cloths, itc. Steam Tram to Salient, Puigreig, and 
Olvan, 29 miles. Coaches to Berga. 

SisrbtS* — The Sen (Seo, cathedral church) is a 
magnificent church, built of hewn stone; note the 
belfry tower, the high altar, with its chapel of 
jasper, the painted glass, and the tombs. 

La Cucva de San Ignacio (Loyola), with a con- 
vent, of the year 1660; note the marbles, the altar 
of the saint, and his crucifix. Here Ignatius 
Loyola wrote his book. 

Threading the valley of the Cardoncr, the tra- 
reller reaches Suria, situated on a hill above the 
river, at a short distance from which is Cardona. 


Population, 4,360. 

Hotels. — Posada de Suiza ; del Orientc. 

A fortified town, in the province of Barcelona. 
It is a straggling place, is interspersed with cypress 
gardens, and has some imposing edifices and de- 
fensive works. The town has manufactures of 
silks and cutlery. 

Sights.— The celebrated Salt Mine, situated to 
the south-west of the town. The mountain is 500 
feet in eIevation,.and affords an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of rock salt„in absolute purity. The salt is so 
hard that it has to be blasted with gunpowder, 
and from it are turned vases, crucifixes, and other 
articles. The mountain is homogeneous and the 
only one of the kind known in Europe. To visit 
the mine a permit is necessary, but is easily pro- 
cured from the Inlendentc (Steward) of the Duke 
of Medina-Celi. For a good description of the 
mine of Cardona, see Diet. (TJIist. Nat. de Bomare, 
torn, xiii., pp. 167, 169. 4d. ed. 

The Citadel, or Castillo, with its chapel. 

San Vicente, a Gothic church note the altar 
miyor and the carvings. 

In the neighbourhood of Cardona the sportsman 
and the artist will be repaid. 

Diligence to Puycerda. 

At a few miles from Cardona, and situated in a 
hilly country. Is 

(Population, 2,600), the ancient Celsa, 65 miles 
north-east of Lerida. It has an ancient castlef 

situated on an eminence above the town, and an 
Episcopal palace, built in 1779. The manufactures 
are principally of iron wares. 

A few n iles further on is OllaXia, on the Segro, 
whose valley is ascended to Orgail^ Pla, and 

Organd is about half way between Oliana and 
Urgel, called Seo d'Urgel (the see or bishopric of 
Urgel), 70 miles north-east of Lerida (see p. 132). 
This strongly fortified mountain post was taken 
from the Carlists 1875. 

From Urgel the Val d'Alldorra (page 132), 
under the Pyrenees, may be visited, by way of 
Santa Julia. The best plan is to take a guide and 
mule. It is a rough day's journey to Santa Julia. 

The traveller can reach Perpignan from Urgcl 
in two days ; the first day on horseback to Puy- 
cerda and Bourg Madame; the second day by 
diligence by way of Mont Lonls and Prades. 



Railway.— From Miranda to Logrofio, by Haro, 
Briones, Cenizero, and Fuen-Mayor, in 2 to 2f 

For Miranda de Ebro (Stat.), on the Northern 
line from Ilcndaye (Bordeaux) to Madrid, 
see Route 1 . 

HARO (Stat.) 

(Population, 6,447) Is charmingly situated In a 
fertile plain at the foot of the mountains of ToIoHo, 
which form, to the north, the passage of the Ebro, 
named las Conchas, and at a little distance from 
the confluence of the Tiron, coming from the east. 
Its territory is rich; the vine is cultivated. It 
has manufactures of leather, hats, brandy, and 
liqueurs, and a highly esteemed claret wine is 
made here. There are copper mines in the vici- 
nity. Haro was the chief place of a county which 
gave title to an illustrious family, one of whom 
was first minister of Philip IV., and who treated 
with Mazarin concerning the peace of the Pyre- 
nees. It lies 21 miles north-west of Logroflo. 



[Section 1. 

Hot6l0.~-Posada de las Diligencias; Fonda del 
Carmen. There are also several good caf€s. 

Logrronols the capital of the province of the same 
name. It lies in a charming plain on the right bank 
of the Ehro, which is here crossed by a handsome 
stone bridge, and is surrounded with a beautifnl 
and fertile vega, a wooded country, huertas and 
vineyards. It is a walled town, and is over-looked 
by the remains of an old castle. It is well built ; 
the streets are cheerful, and some of them spacious, 
and kept clean by the waters of the brook 
Iregua. From the varied construction of the 
edifices, it is evident that the city has been 
built at different epochs; the part called Rua 
Vieja, nearest to the river, is the most ancient; 
the most modem part is the Calle Mayor, and 
that of Villanueva: still more recent are los 
Portales and el Mercado, which are the finest parts 
of the city, and in which are some well-frequented 
caf^s. There are five Plazas, called de la Redonda, 
del Seminario del Coso, de San Bias, and de San 
Bartolomtf. The first is distinguished by its 
magnificent edifices, which have beoi erected of 
late years, and are in the style and taste of the 
houses at Madrid. The other Plazas are small, 
and the three last named are of an irregular figure. 
The Plaza del Coso is only used for bull>fights; 
in San Bias is held the market for vegetables and 
provisions ; San Bartolom^ is not made use of for 
any special purpose. 

Logroflo has manufactures of linen, woollen, and 
hempen fabrics, leather, soap, candles, hats, cards, 
brandy, wine, oil, and vinegar; and there are some 
tanneries and distilleries. It has a considerable 
traffic, and its vicinity Is fertile in com and fruit. 
The place is considered of importance as a military 
post. It is of ancient origin, in the territory of the 
Vasconcs ; and was a very important city in the 
time of the Romans. 

It was afterwards under the dominion of the 
Moors, from whom it was taken by Sancho Alvarez, 
King of Navarre, a.d. 906. It was then retaken, but 
was finally recovered by Alonsoel Sabio, in 1160, and 
in 1280 w^as rebuilt, and surrounded with walls, by 
Don Sancho VIII., of Navarre. It was twice taken 
by the French, viz., in 1808, and in 1823; and here, 
on the 20th January, 184d, was shot the Christino 
GeaeraJf Zarbano. Its arms are « bridge with three 
forrers, and a aeur-de-Iis (or), taMiiad (azTil) in ^ 

the border, which arms were given to it in 159S, bf 
Carlos V. and his mother, Dofia Juana, in honour 
of the citizens who repulsed the French under 
Andr^ de Foix. Here, in 1875, Espartero, th« 
in his 88rd year, was visited by the new ktag, 
Alfonso XII. He died 1879. He was bom the son 
of a wheelwright, and might perhaps have be«i 
King of Spain. 

Sights.— La Colegial de la Redonda. In the 
principal facade, which is of good proportion, are 
two towers in the Churrigueresqne style. Tlic 
facade is more modem than the nave; the choir 
contains some good carving. 

Church of Santa Maria del Palacio, with a py- 
ramidal tower, 200 feet in height, rising from the 
centre, thought to be very ancient; the originti 
church is said to have been built by order of 
Constantino. Within the last two or three 
centuries, three stones have been discovered in 
the most ancient part of the building, with an 
inscription partly in the monastic, and partly in 
the Gothic or Mozarabic character, which are thw 
rendered, Aqui yace el BachWer; and other characters 
on the stones are said to prove that the church is 
of the year 510 after Christ. This magnificent 
edifice is a portion of the palace which the Kings 
of Castile formerly inhabited; and in its cloisters 
the monks of Santo Sepulcro once resided. 

Church of Santiago, built of stone, and having 
only one nave; it is 120 paces in length, by 60 in 
breadth. In this building was founded the order 
of the Knights of Santiago. 

Church San Bartolom^ (suj^pressed) ; it is well 
built, wholly of well-finished stone; it is nine 
centuries old, and in a good state of preservation. 
The portal is in the Oothic«Byzantine style. 

Convent of nuns of San Augnstin^ Convent of 
Carmelitas Descalzas; Convent de Religiosasde 
la Madre de Dios. 

Oratorio, at the end of the Calle Vicja, dating 
from the seventeenth century. 

La Casa Hospital, properly a Refugio, in front of 
the Calle de Villanueva. Here mendicants are 
provided with light, fire, and chamber for a single 
night. It now lacks funds. The date of its founda- 
tion is unknown, but thereisevidoiceof its having 
belonged to the hospitallers of Juan de Dios. 
Hospital cVv\\, ca\\%A di^ \s. "l&VtKtSKot^Vi^ « de 

Route 17.] 



Roqae Amadoz, very ancient. Casa de Kifios 
Espdsitos (foundling hospital), a solid edifice, bat 
unfinished : it serves at present as a quarter for 
the troops. 

Jesuits' college; seminario conciliar; several 
schools; literary and scientific association; 80- 
ciedad Economica ; a Liceo ; a theatre, constructed 
in the time of Felipe V.; and a prison. Casa de 
Ayuntamiento, a large and well-built edifice; the 
interior, however, is badly distributed. 

Cemetery, constructed at the expense and 
under the direction of the presbyter Cayetano 
Sierra, a native of the place. Fine bridge over 
the Ebro, built in the twelfth century, by Juan 
Ortega, a Dominican Friar. It is 716 feet in length, 
and has twelve arches, with immense buttresses 
and three fortified towers in ruins. 

Paseo de Siete, a beautiful promenade, within 
the walls. There is also another paseo, called 
Espolon, outside the La Puerta del Clbrmen. It 
was formerly a most charming promenade, but is 
now greatly deteriorated by the wall. Fountain 
in the Plaza Mayor ; there is also another outside 
San Augustin ; and two others called de Santiago 
and de Terrazas. 

Conveyances.— Rail to Miranda, for Vitoria 
andlrun, &c.; to Miranda for Bilbao; to Castejon 
and Pamplona ; and to Tudela and Saragassa. 

Distance: LogroHo lies 37 miles by rail from 
Miranda, and is 60 miles east of Burgos, and 153 
miles north-east of Madrid (823 miles by rail). 

[Here the road to Soria may be taken through 
Nalla, Torrecilla, Yillanueva, Lambreras, and 
Garay, 45 miles by diligence ; see after Alfaro.] 


Population, 8,134. 

Hotels. — Posada Juliana; Posada Espinosa. 

It is in Old Castile, in the province of Logrofio, 
and is not far from the borders of Navarre. It is 
picturesquely situated on a slight eminence on the 
left bank of the Cidacos, two miles from its con- 
fluence with the Ebro. It has several plazas. The 
houses in general are without much taste. There 
are, however, some spacious and solid edifices; 
among others, the Town Hall, the Palacio Epis- 
copal, and the S«ninarlo Conciliar. 

are weaving, oil-pressing, and agriculture. It has 
an annual fair in August, and is the seat of a 
bishop. The vicinity of the town yields a con- 
siderable quantity of fine wool. It was in ancient 
times a place of considerable distinction, and ves- 
tiges of its grandeur are still visible. At the 
present day it is a dull and decayed town. It is 
famous for the siege which it sustained from 
Cneius Pompey, B.C. 72, by whom it was taken. 
It was re-taken by Sertorius after a loss of 3,000 
men ; and a few years afterwards was taken and 
burnt by Afranius, after an obstinate resistance 
and the most dreadful sufferings from famine. 
During this siege the famine was so terrible that 
the besieged preferred to eat their women and 
their sons sooner than surrender, and this famine 
has become proverbial in history, under the name 
of "fames calagurritana," or ^^hambre calagurri- 
tanaJ" The defenders, indeed, obeyed to the letter 
the ancient statute law of the country referred to 
in the Partidas of Alfonso el Sabio — 

"£ aun hi ha otra razon por que el padre podrie 
esto fazer; ca segund el fuero leal de Espatia, 
seyendo el padre cercado en algun Castillo que 
touiesse de Seflor, si fuesse tan cuytado de fambre 
que non ouiesse al que comer, puede comer al fijo 
sin mala estran^a, ante que diesse el Castillo sin 
mandadode su Sefior (Las Siete Partidas, tit. xvii., 
ley viii.); i.e., that a father besieged in his lord's 
castle, and pressed by hunger, may eat his own son 
without incurring any reproach, sooner than sur- 
render without his lord's mandate." Again Cala- 
horra was taken by Garcia VI. in 1045. 

Ptolemy (L. 2, c. 6) calls this place, by mistake, 
Calagorina; Pliny (L. 3, c. 3) names the inhabi- 
tants of Caliguris, Cktlaguritani, and also Fibula- 
retue*, probably from the manufacture o/Jibuloe, or 
buckles. The Spanish historians, however, give 
two places named Calagurris; one called Cala- 
gurris Fibularia, and the other Calagurris Nasica 
which latter, without doubt, refers to Callurgis 
in Old Castile. Morales, indeed, mentions an 
inscription here, " Mun. Calaguris, Julia Nasica." 
In its shield are two naked arms fighting with 
swords, from which sparks fly, and its creel ^%. 
a woman, "wltlk. k v««t^ Va. "Cafe -ev^fioiOs^^sv^ «»a»^ "^ 

There is a beautiful brid^re of ten arches over \ nakftaL«xmVtl\^cl^o^.\x«^^^^'<^^^^ 
the rjrer. The chief ooeupMiioBB of its inhabitants \ Cw\.\».g^n«av siN.'&OTawsi;^ ^\&!2si. 




[Section 1. 

be the reverse of tlic truth. It is the hirth place of 
the (rr.imiuiiriaii and rhetorician Quintiliun, and 
of Prudcntius and Pedro Garcia Cnrrero, physician 
to Felipe III.; and here, in 13G6, Enrique II. ^ras 
pruclaimcd Icing. 

M. Dc Lavi^nie says of it- "Calahorra was taken 
and demolished, its inhabitants massacred, and, 
later on, Caesar rebuilt and colonised it. The rule 
of the Goths was not productive of any event, and 
in the 10th century it belonged to the Arabs. Don 
Garcia, of Navarre, drove Ihem out In 1045; and 
10 years later (as is related by some histwrians), 
Don Ramiro tie Aragon, and Don Fernando I^ of 
Castile, having disputed its possession, entrusted 
their cause to two champions, Martin Gomez fur 
Aragon, and the Cid for Castile; the latter was 
victorious, and killed his adversary. In 1366, Don 
Enrique de Trastaonarre entered Calahorra at the 
head of numerous bands, who, carried away by 
the eloquence of their celebrated captain, Bertrand 
Dugueselin, displayed banners with the words 
Castile! Castile for King Don Enrique!' and 
proclaimed the brother of Don Pedro the Cruel in 
in the midst of the festival. The historic souvenirs 
of Calahorra stop here. Clausel passed through 
In 1813, on his way from Logrollo to Tudela; 
Zumalacarrcgui attempted to surprise it in 1834; 
General Cordoba stayed there in 1836, after his 
refusal at Madrid to take the oath to the Constitu- 
tion of 1812." 

The name Calagurris has been derived from the 
Arabic kalat-harrat, signifying " a castle in a stony 
place." It is evident that this etymology cannot 
te accepted, as it was already called CalagurrUin 
Roman times, but the Arabic probably represents 
Phoenician words of a similar sound and meaning. 
The word kalat, a castle or fort (especially on the 
top of a mountain), occurs in many local names in 
Spain. There is Calahorra in Granada ; Calatayud, 
in the province of Saragossa; Calatrava, in the pro- 
vince of CiudadReal; Calacite, in the province of 
Teniel; and Calatanazor, in the province of Sorla. 
It is not confined to Spain; there are Calata Bellota, 
Calata Fimi, Calata Girone or Caltagirone, Calata 
Sclbetta, and Calatavetturo, in Sicily. 

Sights.- Cathedral situated on the bank of the 

Cidncos. It is partly ancient and partly modem, 

if at Is scarcely worthy of note. It has a Gothic 

door of the date of the first construction of the 
building; the altar mayor is of the 16th century. 
Of the same date are two doors (one of which looks 
to the south), which were, however, renovated Ib 

Three Churches and several chapels. 

Convent of Carmelite nuns ; Franciscan convent, 
situated in the centre of the town. It is capacious, 
and serves for a prison, school, &c. 

CapiUa or Hermitage called San Emeterio 7 
Celedonlo, commonly La Casa Santa, from having 
served as a prison for these martyrs. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall) ; Palacio 
Episcopal ; Seminario Conclliar, now used as a 
foundling hospital ; and four schools. 

Remains of its ancient walls and towers, and of 
a Roman Circus and Aqueduct. 

Distance: Calahorra lies 81 miles east-sonthcsit 
of Logroflo, and 76 miles north-west of Saragossa, 
on the rail between these two places. 

The celebrated warm Baths of Amediilo are 
situated about 4 leagues from the town, and are 
much frequented from the beginning of Jane to 
nearly the end of September. 

M. Germond De Lavigne says of them: — "These 
baths are situated about 22 kil. (14 miles) to the 
south, following the course of the Cidacos. Arne- 
dilio, a small town of 1,203 inhabitants, lies In s 
valley formed by two spurs of the Sierra de 
Cameros. The bathing establishment is situated 
about 660 yards from the town on the other side 
of the Cidacos, at the foot of the rocky mountain 
named the Enclneta, which appears to be an 
extinct volcano. The principal spring is on the 
west side, and throws up about 9 gallons per 
minnte; temperature 125' Fahr. It contains:— 
sulphate of lime, 0-572; sulphate of soda, 0*027; 
chlorure of sodium, 5'4-ll ; chlornrc of magnesium, 
0*642; carbonate of lime, 0*376; protoxide of iron, 
0*054, to 1,000 grs. water, with a large quantity of 
carbonic acid. There are vapour baths, and 3S or 
40 chambers, properly furnished, a large salon, 
and sleeping rooms for the military and the poor. 
Pension, including service and bathing towels, 
1st cl., 26 rs. per day; 2nd cl., 18 rs. A separate 
charge is made for douche and vapour baths. Near 
at hand are good houses, where the pension is from 
20 to 14 TS. pw dav . "V «\v\t\ft% Uwta. C«l«.\votnu 

£7 mHea Boulh-catt o( Logrt^D^ 


(Population, 11.667) i> the cipltnl o[ Ilia provln, 

Uiigro, neat the ralni dI the ancient Numanll 

njlli round Cowers, now In a itUnpldkUid state. : 
tlio ncii^lHnirhoad on fertile plalna ana paxnri 
I(l>a9iunice«»'Plazu; (lint called do Te,.tln< 



1011 Joan I.. 

lien by Ney li 

81g!ltB.-LaColcslala(deiiLeated to San Pedro), 
iaeco. It i> a lolia eUlHce of tha Dnrlc order, in 

t of which hat not 



[SeotUm 1. 

Church of Santo Tomtf, united to the former 
Dominican convent. 

Church of Sta. Maria del Esplno, with three 
nares ; a solid edifice, and of good construction^ but 
much injured (especially the exterior), from having 
served as a fortification during the civil war. 

Church of 8au Juan, with a single nave, of 8(did 
and good construction, and having four capillas. 

Church of San NicoUs, an ancient building of 
solid construction, of the Oothic order, but scarcely 
worthy of attention. 

Ck>Iiyeilt8. — At the suppression of religious 
communities, there were five convents of monks. 
That of De Franciscanos is said to have been 
founded by a disciple of San Francisco. This 
convent has suffered from two fires, the first in 1618, 
and the last in the War of Independence. It is 
now used as a hospital. 

Convent dc Dominicos (one of the parochials), 
dedicated to Santo Tom^. Convent del C&rmen, 
in which is the school for children. Convent 
de la Merced, whose church is closed. Convent of 
San Agustin, which is now in a bad state of 
repair, especially the church, of which little more 
than the f afade remains. There arc three convents 
of nuns ; the CarmcUtas, Claras, and Concepcion- 
istas. The first, which was founded by Santa 
Teresa, is now occupied by a few nuns. Santa Clara 
was fortified in the last civil war, and at presoit 
serves as quarters for the garrison, the eight nuns 
which occupied It having removed to the Concep- 
cionistas. The large old palace of the Counts 
of Gk>mara is occupied by the municipal govern- 
ment ; the principal entrance is of some merit. 

Hermitage of San Saturio, a celebrated sanc- 
tuary, dedicated to the tutelar saint of the locality. 
It is at a short distance from the town, and occupies 
a very picturesque situation upon the flanks of 
the Sierra de Pefialva. After following the pro- 
menade along the right bank of the Duero, you 
come to a wall, 600 paces in length which leads 
to a door at the foot of an enormous rock. Here 
commences a subterraneous gallery, at the extre- 
mity of which is a sort of staircase, which having 
ascended, you reach the church, built over an 
enormous mass of rocks. The riew from the 
aanctuaxy is rery grtnd tnd extended. 


The Alcazar or f ortresa, sitnAted to the east d 
the town, but now in ruins. 

A fine bridge over the Duero. Sereral Fountaiai 

Paseos.— The Paseo del Espolon, situated to tki 
west of the town, with a wooden railing, and a 
spacious garden in the centre, surrounded witt 
trees. To the right is another paseo of modcn 
formation; it is protected frcnn the winds by a wiO. 
beginning at the house of the Marques de li 
Viluelia, in front of the palace of the same nam. 
which wall is ooonected with that of the conTot 
de Concepcionistas. Another paseo is called 
Dehesa. The paseo named Camino de Madrid 
well wooded on both sides, and extends in a line for 
half a league, as far as a fountain called de la Tejst 
There is also the paseo del Miron, which overlap 
the city to the north; it forms two branches, oM 
of which leads to the Yenta de Valcorbn, and thi 
other to the celebrated hermitag>e of San Sataria 
The place called San Polo, with its many groups of 
trees and gardens, forms a very charming paseo vA 
place of rest. 

Oonvesranoes.— Diligences to Medina C^ 
through Almazan. Kail to Aleimesa, on tki 
line from Madrid to Saragossa, 65 miles, passing 

through Aliry*^"" and Adradas. 

The road to Todela (Stat.) passes Fuento 
Sauco, Aldea del Pozo, Agreda, Tarazona, and 
Cascante. From Tarazona there is a short rail to 
Tudela, through Cascante (see next page.) 


(Population, 3,195) is at the foot of the Moncayo, in 
the province of, and 28 miles north-east of S<»is. 
It is divided by the Qneiles, which is crossed by a 
magnificent stone bridge of one arch. Note the 
fine view up the river, the Episcopal Palace, the 
Town Hall, and the Cathedral with its superb altar 
and cloisters. There are also some fine famiW 
mansions. It was the Roman Orackurts. 

TARAZONA (Turiaso) Statton. 
(Population, 8,370) is in the piovincc of Saragossa, 
and 52 miles west-north-west of that city. It is <n 
the Queiles, wliich is here crossed by two bildfet; 
note the Cathedral with its cloisters, the Cms do 

Hoate 18.] 



Ayuntamiento vrlth its fine facade, the Episcopal 
Palace, and the Moorish Alcazar. This is the best' 
point for Moncayo Convent (5 hours distant), -and 
its fine view, (See Saragossa.) 

The road to Tudela passes Casoante (Ccucan- 
turn), population, 3,945, wliich lies 53 miles south 
of Pamplona, on the Queilcs. Note the church 
with its fine retablo and sagrario; also an old 
church containing an image called La Virgen del 
Romero; also the mineral spring named La Faente 

Three miles beyond Alfaro is Oastajon (see 
page 26), the junction for the line to Pamplona 
(Route 2). 

[For Tudela (Stat.), s«e Route 2. From Tudela 
it is 47^ miles to Saragossa.] 

A COAST TOUK.— Bayoxme to Vigo, 
Huelva, Cadis, Ualaga, Almeria. Cartagena, 
Marda, Alicante, Castellon, Tarragonat ftc. 

This route is only advisable for those who can 
bear sea voyage and put up with accommodation 
inferior to that of our first-class steamers. To 
such it is very enjoyable. 

Rail from Bayonne to Bilbao, where steamer 
can be taken for Santander, Gijon, Gomnna, Vigo 
(see former Routes) . Steamer past the Portuguese 
Coast to 

HUELVA (Stat) 
Population (1885), 18,517. 

Hotels. — Columbus; Cnatras Naciones; Villa. 

It is at or near the ancient OnobOj or TarshUh. 
It stands on an inlet of the Atlantic, at the junc- 
tion of the Rio Tinto and Odiel rivers, and Is a 
great shipping port for the pyrites and copper 
which come down fi'om the rich Jiittes, which 
employ a large population. These mines are 
principally located at Rio TintO, Tliarsls, and 
Brltanne, to which there are narrow-guage lines. 
The piers, one of which is 900 yards long, afford a 
busy spectacle. Much wine is now exported. 

The Plaza de la Constituciou is of modem con- 

SlSlltS.— Church of San Pedro, very ancient, 
formerly a mosque, mod preaerving some remains 
of its primitive architecture, particularly the 
minaret. Remains of « Soman Aqnednct. 

Church of the Concepcion, situated in the bas- 

' ville. It is in the Roman style, and dates from the 

sixteenth century. In an artistic point of view it 

is more remarkable than San Pedro, and has some 

paintings and sculptures worthy of attention. 

Palacio del Duque, the ancient habitation of the 
Marques of Yillafranca, but now devoted to the 
public service. 
Resident Briish Consul. 

Conveyances. — There are plenty of boats to 
Cadiz and the different ports of Portugal. The 
distance from Huelva to Ayamonte and San Lucar 
de Quadiana is 37 miles. A steamer runs every 
10 days from Cadiz to Huelva and these places. 

Rail to Seville (page 69), past NieUa, to 
San Juan del Puerto, where a branch turns 
off, vid Trigueros, Valverde and its copper 
mines, to Zalamea la Real, on the Rio Tinto. 
Rail from Huelva to Valdelamusa and ZafiCU. 

An excursion by water may be made to La 
BaMda, to visit the Franciscan Convent, where 
Columbus went, in 1484, to obtain the protection 
of Isabella, through her confessor. Fray J. P. de 
Marchena, the prior. He embarked from FalOS, 
near Moguer, hereabouts, for America ; and landed 
there 1493, after his first memorable voyage. 

Steamer from Huelva to Cadiz, Gibraltar, 

Malaga (see Route 10). 

The road from Malaga^to Motril passes Velez 
Malaga, Torroz, to Almunecar (the ancient Sex I), 
with a ruined castle, and seaport on the Mediter- 
ranean. Almufiecarlles 33 miles south of Granada. 

The road from Almufiecar to Motril continues 
along the sea coast, past Salobrina, wliich is 
near the mouth of the Motril and 34 miles south- 
south-east of Granada. It has a Moorish castle 
built on a rock, but In ruins. A little further on Is 


(Population, 16,665), 35 miles south-south-east of 
Granada and close to the Mediterranean. The 
climate of this valley is delightful, and pleasanter 
and more healthy than any other on the Spanish 
part of the Mediterranean. The sugar cane Is 
cultivated In this neighbourhood. 

The road from Motril to Granada mnsthrou^ 
the Sierra Nevada, by Velez de Venandalla (n^ax. 



ttftADBHAlr'g S^AIN AKD PO^TUOlt. 

ideetion 1. 

College! of Sen ^ai^elo md San Isidore, form- i 

bf one range of bnildlng, near the Episcopal | 

palace. j 

Hospital of Satt Joan, with spaclons apartments , 
for the sickf and a magnificent staircase. Hospital , 
for convalescents, in coiyiection with the preceding ; ; 
a foundling hospital and a honse of refuge. 

Casa de Aynntamiento (Town Hall); Adnana 
or custom house, and the Almudi or granary. A 
prison containing some Moorish remains. 

The Alcazar, a large Episcopal Palace in the 
I'laza, one of the finest edifices of its class in Spain. 
It was built in 1752. 

A private gallery of pictures belonging to Selior 
Estor, which deserves the attention of artists ; La 
Platerla, where the curious jewellery, worn by the 
peasants, is sold; La Traperia, or street inhabited 
by woollen drapers. 

A good Botanical Garden ; Plaza de Toros ; and 
the alamedas or public walks called La Glorieta, 
El Cdrmen, and El Arenal. 

ConVdyaxiceS'— By rail to Madrid, via Ar- 
chena, Cieza, Chinchilla, Albaccte, and Alcazar; 
to Cartagena, via Orihaela; to Alicante, via 
Orihueta. To Granada, by road, via Lebrilla, 
Totana, Lorca, Lumbrcras, Velez Rubio, Chirivel. 
CuIIar de Baza, Baza,Gaadix, Pnrullena, Diezma, 
Molinillo, and Huetor, 46 leagues (Route 11). 

Rail to Alicante, 46 miles, through Orlhuela, 
Albatera-Catral, and Elche. 

Archona, about 17 miles from Murcia, on the 
line to Madrid vid chinchilla, is a bathing-place, 
much visited in the season. 


(Population, 20,920), a city In the province of Ali- 
cante on the Segura, which divides the town. It j 
stands at the foot of a ridge of rocks, in a tract of 
country, termed from its fertility, "Tlie Garden of 
Spain." It Is a straggling town, and lias an Oriental 
appearance. It has mmufactures of linens and 
hats, some taimeries, and com and oil mills. It is 
the Orcelis of the Gotlif. 

I>n Edwin Lce,speakingof Orihaela and the route 

toMfire/a, »a y 8— " Thu country around Orihnela Is 

^mpantireJy fertile, beitifi^ watered by the Segura. 

^^^^^"f formerly A placeof con^\dert^Ae Import- 

--^^ sua mtUI c0„tnlnlngovcr2O,(m InhAbitantfS Is 

situate at the base of a rocky hill, crowned by an 
extensive castle. It possesses a cathedral, an<l 
three or four lai^ churches, which, however, con- 
tain nothing remarkable. The aspect of the town 
and its inhabitants is still very Oriental, which li 
lost on quitting the province of Valentia and enter- 
ing that of Murcia, a few miles further on. The 
low, stone, Arab-looking dwellings give place t« 
thatched cottages with mud walls; fertility suc- 
ceeds to drought ; the oleander, the prickly pear, 
and other edible productions abound, and the popu' 
lation presents less appearance of poverty. The 
road to the city, traversing an extensive plain, is, 
however, but indiCTerent; the only object par- 
ticularly calculated to attract attention being the 
Monte Agrudo, a peaked isolated hill, with a castle 
on its summit, to the right.'* 

Sighta.— Gothic Cathedral, built upon the mini 
of an ancient mosque; enlarged, and of courA 
spoilt, in 1829. It is small, and the exterior it 
scarcely worthy of notice. The interior has some 
merit, and is divided into twelve chapels. The 
Coro is surrounded with a Silleria in mahogany 
with subjects from the Old Testament, in scul pt ure ; 
note especially the Sacristia. Three other churchci 
and several con vents, whose long facades and railec 
windows give the streets a sombre appearance. 

Colegio de los Predlcadorcs, with windows ol 
the fifteenth century. 

San Domingo, a museum, with some indiffcrcnl 

Colegio de San Miguel. 

Episcopal Palace of the year 1733. 

Two hospitals, foundling asylum, alhondiga oi 

public granary, and cavalry barracks. 

Monte del Castillo, several fountains, but badly 
supplied with water. Several charming alamedai 
or public Promenades, surrounding the town. The 
best is that called Del Chorro, situated to the south 
of the town upon the bank of a canal, bordered 
with willows, poplars, and other trees. On the 
opposite side of the canal are some splendid 
gardens with orange trees. 

Hottte 16.] 

JLLBJLTtttA, BtdHft, ILlCltftft. 


The road to Alicante passes Albatera and Elche, 
and runs chiefly through uninhabited plains. The 
distance from Orihnela to Elche is 6 leagues. 

CPopulation, 2,000), situated near the Scgura. 
Branch from Albatcra-Catral to Torrevidja. 

The route from Albatera to Elche traverses a 
rich country, which has quite an Oriental appear- 
: ance, and about Elche the palms rise up on all 
- sides and group themselves in the most picturesque 
y manner, enveloping the town to such an extent 
• that the houses are scarcely discernible. 

ELCHE (Stat.) 

Population, 19,636. 

HoteL — A good posada. 

Elche, the ancient Illice^ is situated in the pro- 
vince of Alicante, on an eminence above the 
torrent bed of the Viualopo, over which is a 
magnificent bridge. The place has quite an 
Oriental appearance, the houses being built In the 
Moorish style, and being surrounded on all sides 
by extensive plantations of date palms. 

It was anciently fortified, but at the present 
day, there are but few vestiges of the walls which 
surrounded it. It is the birth-place of Don Jorge 
Junn, the fellow-traveller of Ulloa iu South 
America. Its principal article of export are dates, 
which are shipped from Alicante as '*Barbary 
dates." The female palms en bon rapport produce 
annually from four to eight arrobas of dates. 
Annual value of the crop about £11,000. The 
fruit ripens in the month of November. There 
is a large trade in palm leaves for Palm Sunday. 
^ Sights.— Church of Santa Marfa ancient and 
worthy of a visit; note the portico, the tabernacle 
of precious marbles, a fine retablo, in the centre of 
M Ulch is a statue of the Assumption of the Virgin, 
covered with rich garments, and much venerated 
hereabouts. Ascend the tower, fiom which may 
he had a magnificent view over the town, the 
gardens, the palm plantations, and the rich plain. 
The festival of the Virgin takes place on the 15th 
of August. 

Casa Capitular, on the PlazaMayor. 

La Calandura, a prison of very ancient construc- 
tion, having a tower containing a clock with the 
figures of a man and child, which strike the hours 
and the qaarter^. 

Many Roman inscriptions. 

Dr. Edwin Lee says of Elche — "The aspect df 
the town itself, with its low flat-roofed houses anfl 
narrow streets, is eminently Oriental. The popu- 
lation amounts to 18,000, and has a decidedly Arab 
cast of features and complexion. The men wcat 
throughout the year drawers made wide and open 
at the knee, leaving the legs bare, and sandals; 
their upper clothing consisting of a shirt, bound 
round the waist with a sash, and a vest, over 
which is occasionally worn a manta or blanket. 
The costume of the females presents no striking 
peculiarity. From the appearance of the various 
picturesque groups in the fruit-market, the travel- 
ler might well fancy himself in an eastern town. 
The church of Santa'Marfa was the mosque during 
the occupation of the Moors. Its interior is 
striking, and contrasts pleasingly with the excess 
of carving and stucco-work by which so many of 
the Spanish churches are overlaid. The view from 
the bridge crossing the ravine would offer a fine 
subject for the painter, the houses and palms being 
thickly clustered on either side," 

For an account of Elche, consult Illice, by 
Mayans y Siscar, 4to., Valencia, 1771. 

Distance : Elche is situated 13 miles south-west 
of Alicante, and is about 7 leagues from the sea. 

Roads.— The road toXativa, or Jativa (Stat.), 
runs past Monforte, Elda, Villena, Fuente de la 
Iliguera, and Mojcnte ; but the best way is to take 
the rail at Villena (sec page 116). The road from 
Elche to Albaccte runs through Yecla, Venta 
Nueva, Monte Alegre, Venta de la Higuera, Pretola, 
and Pozo de la Peila ; but this also may be done 
by rail from Novelda to Villena, <kc. 

On quitting Elche the route traverses great 
plains without any verdure, after which it ap- 
proaches the sea, which it coasts as far as Alicante. 
On approaching the latter the road is enlivened 
with trees, and some estates are seen to the right, 
and to the left is the railway station for Madrid, 
situated upon a little eminence. 

At the terminus of the rail from Madrid. 

Population (1887), 85,479. 

Hotels,- Fond«. d'fc 'aaa.'^'Ck., ^tKv^ ^^'^^^sC!^ ^'^ 
ZaT&60xa\ \.a\>\^ ^Ttv^iV^^. ^wA^ ^'"^^^ «vs^ ^'^'*»' 



[Section 1. 

Alicante is a seaport and fortified city, and 
capital of the province of the same name. It is 
aituated on a bay of the Mediterranean. The 
lower town is clean and well built. It has a good 
casino, with French papers. Apply to the Consul 
to get admission. There is a brisk trade in wine, 
almonds, raisins, and matting, and it is the port of 
Madrid, with which it is in direct communication 
by railway. Its foreign trade is rather on the 
decline. There are some fine markets. In landing 
by boat at this, or at any other Spanish port, 
it will be advisable first to ascertain the proper 
tari£f. At present it is 2 reals for each passenger, 
and 2 for each box or package; but ten times 
this amount is sometimes demanded. A small fee 
(say 10 rs.) will avoid custom house examination. 

Sights. — Church of San Nicolds de Bari, com- 
menced in 1616, and remarkable for the richness of 
its decorations. Church of Santa Marfa. Convent 
of Santa Faz, with the much venerated relic of the 
Santo Sudario. There is another at Rome, and a 
third at Jaen. 

El Museo. Old Castle, on a rock, which was 
held by the English during the Peninsular war. 
It was attacked by the insurgents, 1878. 

Marquis de Algorfa's collection of medals and 
paintings, in the Calle Mayor; it contains in all 
about 1,000 pictures, among which are some by 
Murillo, Velasquez, and Albert Diirer. Apply for 
permission, and state what time you will wish to 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), with a fine 


Castillo de Fernando, out of repair; a college; 
a fine theatre. The Mole, with a fixed light 95 feet 
high, and seen at a distance of 15 miles. Some of 
the houses, especially those in the Calle de Altamira, 
are worthy of note. 

FaSBOS.— The promenade within the city called 
Paseo, or Alameda de la Reina, forms a sort of ter- 
raced Boulevard, and is planted with trees, and 
surrounded with a balustrade of iron, and seats of 
stone; a street below skirts one of its sides. There 
sre b\&o other promenades outside the town, called 
A.lsmeda deSan Francisco^ and de Capuchinos, both 
of which are planted with treea. 

rar otAerBun^ean atMtea. 

and Conauls 

ConyeyaiieeB.'-Rail to Murcia, in Si hours. 
Rail to Almansa, Albacete, and Madrid, in 
15 to 16 hours. Steamers to Valencia (in about 
12 hours), Barcelona, Cette, and Marseilles; also to 
Cartagena, Almeria, Malaga, Algeciras, and Liver- 
pool, touching at Cadiz, Vigo, Carril, Comnna, and 
Santander. Lopez steamers (Vapores Correos) in 
connection with railways from Madrid and Paris. 
Alicante for Malaga and Cadiz, weekly; and for 
Barcelona and Marseilles, weekly. The French 
Company, ^'Service International entre la France et 
r Espagne," have offices at Madrid and Marseilles. 
The steamers of this company leave Marseilles and 
Alicante three times a week. The voyage from 
Alicante to Marseilles takes 40 hours; from 
Madrid to Paris, 72 hours. 

Travellers leaving Madrid, vid Alicante or Bar- 
celona, for Marseilles, or vice versa, would do well 
to book through, by doing which they will, by 
one payment, clear railway charges, omnibus fares, 
and boat hire to and from the steamer. The com- 
missionnaires, faquines, Ac, are found at various 
appointed stations in Alicante. They are distin- 
guished by a brass badge on the arm. The authorised 
charge for loading or unloading baggage at the 
railway station is 2 reals; for conveying baggage 
from the railway station to the hotels, 5 reals. 


(Population, 3,654) is a town on the road to S. 
Felipe (page 117), in the province of, and 7 miles 
north-east of, Alicante. The wine in its vicinity 
is of superior quality. To the north of it are 
Jljona (Xixonia), noted for its tnrrones, a sort 
of marchpane, and AlCOy (population, 82,497.) 
where coarse woollens, paper, &c., are made. Rail 
from Alcoy to Denla (page 100.) The gorge of 
TIU is to the west, under Sierra de Mariola. 
Take rail from Alicante to Villena. The distance 
is 36| miles inland, the time occupied about two 

VILLENiL (Stat.) 

(Population, 11,424) is a town in the provinee of 

Alicante. It is situated in a fertile plain^ near 

the foot of Mount San Cristoval. It has an exteo- 

ftWe modcrci VQ^\^x\^^ «ca^ VVax^ la a ^reat fair is 

the au\Ximsi> \«aX\xw% «^ ^«0l. W. \.% ^^<^ %iM\«i». 

Route 18.] 


On the 11th of April, 1818, Suchet advAnced to i 
Villena, and captured the Spanish garrison, which 
l.ef ended the castle. He then fell upon the adrance 
>f the allied army, under Col. Adam, which, after a 
S-allant contest with a much superior force, fell back 
a,pon Castella, where the main body was posted. 
Dii the 13th, Suchet made a general attack upon 
lie allied army, which was drawn up in a long line, 
>ccupylng a range of hills and other strong ground, 
.protected by batteries. Although the attack was 
vigorous, it was repulsed with equal spirit, and the 
EMicmy was foiled at every point, and lost 3,000 in 
fccillcd and wounded. The loss on the part of the 
Exll ies in killed and wounded amounted to about 600. 
Suchet, after the action, retreated to Villena, which, 
hio-wever, he hastily quitted at midnight, to fall 
further back. He must still, however, have main- 
tnined a superiority of strength, since he was able, 
soon after, to detach a strong division against the 
Spanish general, Yillacampa, who had gained some 

Slgllts. — Castle, now in ruins, on Mont San 
Cristobal (Cerro San Cristobal); town hall; palace; 
hospital ; and barracks. 

Conyeyances. — Rail to Almansa, Alcazar, and 
Madrid, and to Alicante. Rail to Bocairente 

in about IJ hour. 

Distance: It lies 37 miles north-west of Alicante. 

Rail from Villena to Almansa, by La Encina, 
in about If hour. 

ALMANSA (Stat), 
On the Madrid line, near which, at T^T^nn^n fl^ the 
routes to Alicante and Valencia part off. 
Population, 7,960. 

HoteL— Parador de las Diligenclas. Buffet. 

It is situated in the province of Albacete, and is 
a well built town. It has a linen manufacture, and 
an annual fair of fifteen days. In the neighbour- 
hood is a monument on the spot where Philip V.'s 
army, under the Duke de Berwick, gained a vic- 
tory over the Archduke Charles, on the 26th of 
April, 1707. The town has a fine reservoir of water, 
called Fontano de Albufera. 

Conveyanoas.— RaU to Albacete and Madrid; 
to Alicante; to Jativa, Valencia, and Castellon. 


We now foUow the coast rail to Moje&te or 

Mogente (population, 4,171X near the Canoles ; and 
Jativa (San Felipe) towards Valencia. 

SAN FELIPE DE JATIVA (Stat.), or JaUva. 

Population, 14,534. 

Hotel.— Parador de las Diligencias. 

A pretty place, the ancient Soetabis, situated near 
the confluence of the Albayda and the Guadamar, 
in the province of Valencia. The modem town wat 
founded by Philip V., who conferred on it his name. 
It has manufactures of woollens and linens. It was 
stormed by the French in the War of Succession ; 
and here was bom the celebrated painter Ribera^ 
sometimes styled Lo Spagnoletto. 

Sights.— Colegiata (dedicated to San Feliu), 
built in the beginning of the fifteenth century ; 
note the superb dome. 

£1 Monte Santo, a coavent with a Moorisli cistern 
near it. 

San Feliu, a hermitage. 

Palacio de Moncada, in the Calle de Moncada. 

A very large Castle, with a fine view extending 
over Valencia, the lake of Albufera, and Murviedro. 

El Campo Santo. Monte Calvario, with a fine 
view. Two Aqueducts. El Ovalo, with a fountain, 
Plaza de Toros. Roman ruins, and magnificent 
remains of Moorish architecture. Alameda, with 
its palm trees. 

About 12 miles south-west of Jativa, on the Cla- 
riano, is Ontenlente (pop., 11,727), with a college 
and hospital, and manufactures of woollens. 

Rail to Alcira in about an hour, passing Carca- 
gente, where there is a branch rail of 41| miles to 

Oandia and Denla (see page 100). 

ALCIRA (Stat.) 

Population, 16,146. 

Hotel.— Fonda Nueva. 

The ancient Soetabieula, a walled town in tb» 
province of Valencia, on an island in the Xucar. 
It has two fine bridges, and in the vicinity is a 
remarkable stalactitic cavern. Its inhabitants are 
chiefly engaged in agriculture. It is called the 
garden of the Kingdom of Valencia. 

Distance : It lies 25 miles south-west of Val«&ft&».. 

Rail to Val«n.e.\aK i^wJt >Coj^ \^fi«'<e«Ni^Naiae«s»»' 



Onlltra, a fortified port at the moclh of the 
JooAr, among fruit gardens. 

VALENCIA (Stat)- See Route 14. 

From Valencia, by rail, to Sagunto, past the 
following stations : Albulxecll, Pulg, and Pasol. 
In about an hour. For SaguntO and Morviodro 
stations on the Valencia and Tarragona! railway, 
see Route 14. 

Rail from Sagunto to Castcllon, past the follow- 
ing stations, Chiiclies, NuleB, Burrlana, 
Villareal* in about li hour. 

Population (1887), 23,204. Duffet. 

Hotels.— Parador del Leon; Fonda del Fcrro 

The ancient Castalia, a flourishing town, capital 
of the province of the same name, on the high road 
to Barcelona. It Is situated In a fine plain (whence 
Its distinguishing adjunct). Is enclosed by walls, 
and Is well built. It has brandy distilleries, and 
an active commerce. 

Sights — Several churches ; one of which, called 
the Parroquia, contains good paintings by Rlbalta, 
Carlo Maratta, Zurbarau (?), Ac. 

Torre de las Campanas, a remarkable tower, 260 
feet high. 

Aqueduct from the Mijares river, 5 miles south 
of the town, by which the surrounding country is 
well watered. 
Conyesrances.- -Rail to Valencia (43 miles) 
There is no direct road hence to Terucl. If 
desirous of proceeding thence, the traveller would 
do well to make for Murviedro, and take the high 
road through Segorbe (see p. 90). 

The road to Pelilscola passes Oropesa, Torre 
Blanca, and Alcala. 

Distance : Castellon Is 4 miles from the Mediter- 
ranean, 40 north-north-east of Valencia, and 5 
north-north-east of Villa Real, a town enclosed by 
ruined walls. 

Excursions are made to Pella Golosa, Las Santas, 
La Cueva Santa, and the Bernardino convent of 
BonefasiC. ^ 

EallWay.— To Tarragona, past the stations of 

Uldecona, Ventallas, Tort08a,and Amposta. 

The road from Castellon to Tortosa runs near 
l^0f0/f cosst,pa8t Oropesa, Torre Blanc^i (Stat,), 


Alcalrf (Stat.), Santa Magdalena, Benicarlo (8ti 
Vinardz, and Amposta. 

0R0PB8A (Stat) 
(Population, 800) lies IS miles north-east of 
te ion, on the Mediterranean. It is situated upa 
hill, m the vicinity of the cape to which it gl. 
name. In the Moorish occupation it was an i 
portant point. In 1811, at the time of the War 
Independence, the French besieged the Cast 
which commands the route to Catalonia It w 
defended by 250 men, and armed with four canaoi 
It was taken by Suchet on the 11th October, 181 
Near the town are the remains of a Roman arrh. 
There is another place of this name (see p. K) 


(Population, 2,842), which is to the ri-ht of the Hi 
between Santa Magdalena and Benicarlo U 
fortified town. It is perched upon a rock risH 
2i0 feet above the Mediterranean, and is connect, 
with the mainland by only a narrow slip of la 
often covered with water, whence its name, siaiifj 
Ing a peninsula. 

(Population, 7,922) is a seaport, 42 miles north-«« 
of Castellon. It is ill built, and mean ; hasaraine 
castle, a fishing port, and a trade in full-bodi« 
wines, which are exported chiefly to Bordeaux, ff 
mixing with French wines. The place was take 
by Cabrera In 1833. 

(Population, 9,528) is 46 miles north-east of Castd 
Ion, near the mouth of the Ebro, and close to tb' 
Mediterranean . It Is an ancient place, and is parti] 
enclosed by ruined walls. It is ill-built, but ha* 
fine parish church, a hospital, and a ship-buUdiil 
yard. It has a coasting trade, and its inhabiunt 
are principally engaged in fishing and agricultun 
The Due de Vendome died here of apoplexy in ITti 
and his remains were removed to the Escorial b; 
Philip V. 

The distance from Vlnardz to San Carlos del 
R^pita is 11 miles. On leaving Vinardz the litti 
river Scrvol is forded, and a few miles further a 
is seen a square tower which shows the boundar 
between the ancient kingdom of Valencia and th 
province of Catalonia. The boundary which ran 

3oute 18.J 



rossed by a fine bridge of one arch, bailt in the I 
Ime of Charles IV. 
You now enter Catalonia, the route running along 

he sea coast. San Carlos de la Rdpita is a 

mall town of about 1,00) inhabitants, with houses 
f regular construction, but very low, forming a 
trcet of great width. The canalisation of the Ebro 
nd the port of los Alfaqubs (t.e. of the sand-banks 
rhich form its mouth), at the tnd of which San 
:;arlos is built, would gire a great importance to 
he town. San Carlos is in communication with 
he Kbro by a canal recently rendered navigable, 
nd which strikes off in a right line towards the 
ivcr, which it joins at 5 miles to the north, 
ear Amposta. By means of this canal the navi- 
-ation avoids the mouths of the Ebro, which are 
bstructed with sand-banks, and impracticable. 

The distance from San Carlos to Amposta is 5 

AMPOSTA (Stat.) 

Population, 1,800) is a town in the province of 
Tarragona, on the right bank of the Ebro, and is 47 
ulles from Tarragona, in a south-south-westerly 
lirection. It is at prcsentan unimportant place, but 
8 likely to rise in importance by the canalisation 
>f the River Ebro. This river rises a few miles 
o the west of Key Rosa, flows generally south-east, 
-ynst Frias, Miranda-de-Ebro, LogroRo, Calahorra, 
Tudcla, Saragossa, Mequinaza, Tortosa, and Am- 
posta, and enters the Mediterranean in lat. 40** 42', 
long. 0° 50^ E., after a course of 310 miles. It is 
navigable from Tudela ; but its navigation is very 
difficult, on account of its great rapidity, and the 
rocks in its bed. It is the Iberus or Hihertu of the 
ancients, and is said to have given its name to the 
district Iberia. Spanish wiseacres connect the 
name with Eber, the nephew of Shem, which is not 
80 bad considering that Eber's son was Peleg, a 
name which may be traced to the same root as the 
Greek pe/oi^o*, the sea. Bochart derives the name 
from the Phoenician t*6ra, a boundary, it having 
formed a Iwundary between the Iberians and Celts, 
and the Carthaginians and Romans. Others, again, 
trace the name to the Basq, ibai-ero^ a foamy river ; 
or urberoy a warm river. The name is really 
connected with the original root from which came 
thcGreok udoVy water, which took in Celtic the form 
ui ur^ eur, ewf, nn4 9fterwar48 by c|)apgeo{ ft Into 

V takes the form of ever or •Mt* , and by change of « 
into 6, finally becomes Eber or Iber. Compare 
Evreux, in Normandy, situated on the Eure (now 
the Iton), anciently called CI vitas Eburoyicomni, 
Ebroicorum, and Ebroicoa ; the river £ vre, depart- 
ment Cher; Yverdun, in Switzerland, anciently 
Ebrodanum, on the lake of Neufchatel; York, 
anciently Eboracum, on the Eure ; and the river 
Bure in Norfolk. There are, Indeed, perhapt 
a hundred European rivers whose names may be 
traced to the same Celtic root. 

The distance from Amposta to Ferello is 13 

M. Dc Lavlgne thus describes the route between 
Amposta and Pcrello:— "This river (the Ebro) is 
passed by a ferry-boat, not always without diffi- 
culty, and traversing a wide uncultlrated pla|^, 
often stony, the sea is gradually approached. 
Ascents and descents follow one another, and a 
high eminence Is ascended, at the bottom of which, 
In a hollow surrounded by a double range of 
mountains, lies Perello." 

To the left of Amposta, about a league off, lies 
TORTOSA (Stat.) 

Population, 24,057. It Is the ancient Dertosa, 
and Is a town In the province of Tarragona. 
It Is situated on a hill slope on the left bank 
of the Ebro, which Is here crossed by a bridge 
of boats. It Is fortified on all sides ; some portion 
of its walls are very ancient, and It Is entered by 
seven gates. It was wrested from the Moors by 
Louls-le-D^bonnalre In 811, but was soon after re- 
covered by them. Eugenius III. proclaimed a 
crusade against it, and took it in 1148. The Moor«, 
in 1149, made a desperate effort to regain possession 
of It, but were defeated. It was taken by the 
French under the Duke of Orleans, on the 15tli 
July, 1703, and surrendered to Suchet on the 2nd 
November, 1811 ; and here, in 1836, Nogueras put 
to death the mother of Cabrera. It has an im- 
portant trade through Its two ports, E;1 F^jigar and 
Los Alfaquis, at the mouth of the Ebro, as well as 
directly— the river being navigable by vessels of 
100 tons— in the wheat of Aragon; timber from the 
Pyrenees, Aragon, and G&t«l<v\Vv\ ^«\sa>. v»i<ss 



[Seetion 1. 

and an acUr* Mi«y, Mpociaily of stnrgcout and 
lampreys. Near the town are qnarriea of jasper. 
The railway connects it one way with Tarragona 
and Barcelona, and the other way with Castellon, 
in continuation of the line to Valencia. 

BiglltB.— Larifc Gothic cathedral, -with Ionic 
f A^ade, occupying the site of a mosque ; note the 
carvings, by Cristobal, the bas-reliefs an<l ancient 
pulpits; the jaspers in the veja del cora; the 
marbles; the relics; and the tombs in the Capilla 
do Santa Candia. Church of San Juan, contain- 
ing, among other objects worthy of notice, a fine 
sepulchre of Bautista Vcschi; numerous other 
churches and chapels, three nunneries, and six 
conrcnts, now converted to secular purposes; El 
Colegio, a handsome college, founded in 1362; 
no4e the cloisters and medallions; theological 
sehool ; a school for the higher branches of educa- 
tion, besides numerous primary schools, and a 
Liceo. La Barbacana, near the Pnerta del Temple; 
a castle in ruins; Episcopal palace; Casa de Ayun- 
tamiento (Town hall); Palace of the Vail Cabra 
family; Hospital for the sick; also a foundling 
hospital; Alhondiga or public granary; Aduana 
or custom-house; Plaza de Toros; shambles, 
baths, and barracks. 

Conveyances.— By road, to Tarragona, 
brough Al Pcrello, Ilospitalet, Cambrils, and 
Reus; by railway direct, past AmposU, Ampolla, 
Atmella, Hospitalet, Cambrils, and Salon. 

Distances : Tortosa lies 53 miles south-west of 
Tarragona, and 32 miles from the mouth of the 
Ebro. Rail projected to 8. Carlos de Rnpita 
(page 119). 

The road from Tortosa to Tarragona passes 
through Pcrello, Ac, as al)ovc. After leaving 
PerellO (Population, 4,1»0). you traverse a charm- 
ing valley, well cultivated, and covered with 
trcen; after which the winding road penetrates 
the mountain. " Nothing is seen all around," says 
M. de Laborde, "but abysses, which the eye 
measures with trembling; anon we are, as it were, 
buried at the bottom of narrow and profound 
^or^es, fvhcre only ffUmpaca of the sky, the rocks, 
^//</ sJ^raha are obtataed. Tim V«nta del Plate is 
^ oaJjrJtouBo At th9 baginulng oi tblf monvtaln 
»oan After wbieb Another iii^h moantain U 

seen, which must alio be crossed. Tha steafmass 
of the road has been modified by making uaaf 
detours ; parapets and stone walls afford secorltf 
against accidents. This pass is named the Col dt 
Balaguer." This pass was formerly a notorioas 
haunt for robbers. From the Col the road descends, 
and after threading a ravine, arrives at Hovpi- 
talet (Statb), originating In a sort of hostelry, 
not far from the sea coast. This is an old 
Gothic-like building flanked with towers, and 
was founded by a prince of the house ofAragon, 
as a refuge for travellers passing over the moun- 
tain. The country is now lined with vines, olives, 
almond trees, caruhs, and mulberry trees. The 
wines made hereabouts possess a rich colour, and 
are In good esteem. After traversing another 
ravine, Cambrils is reached. The distance from 
Hoiq)ltalct is about 7 miles. 


(Population, 2,480) lies 8 miles south-west of 
Tarragona, at the entrance of the celebrated 
Campo de Tarragona, which abounds in beauty 
and fertility. Tlie steeple of the church isasquorc 
tower pierced with loop-holes. The inhabitants 
are principally vine-dressers and sailors. Cambrils 
was taken by Philip V., In 1711. Shortly nftcr 
leaving Cambrils the small port of Salou is seen to 
the right, upon a headland jutting out into the 

Tlie distance from Combrils to Villascca (a 
station on the line to Lcrida) Is 5 nillos. The 
view over the Campo de Tarragona is here very 
grand, with its vines, gardens, and fruit trees. 

Distance by rail from Villaseca to Tarragona is 
5 miles. The high road is disagreeable, being 
flooded In the rainy season, and In the dry season 
the wheel ruts being hidden by the dust. Tlie 
river Francoli is crossed by a bridge of six arches, 
after which the road ascends a rocky eminence, 
at the summit of whlcli the town is entered by 
the modem gate of San Carlos. 

Population (1887), 28,016. 
Hotels.— Kondade Paris; Kuropa. 
TaTragonV V.V^<i wvt\wv\.TaTvaito A-^ i»»*a<^vott city, 
and V» ca^UeX <it lYi* v^wVas.^ <iV \\.% xw*.\5^^. Vv.\» 

Houte 18.] 



dialled it Tftrchon, which Boch&rt interprets m 
XBieaning '* Citadel/* It is situated on a lofty 
x-ock of limestone, nearly 800 feet high, at the 
Baouth of the Francoli, in the Mediterranean. 
It occupies only a small portion of its ancient 
site. The hill upon which it is situated slopes 
down to the east to the borders of the river 
francoli, which waters the beautiful Campo 
de Tarragona. It is entered by six gates, three 
of which are of very ancient origin. The town 
is divided into the high and low town, which 
nre completely separated by a lino of ancient walls. 
^ great number of the houses in the upper town 
are constructed out of the debris of Boman tem- 
|)lc8 and palaces ; the lower town is the modem 
city, in which arc the port, the rising cstablish- 
luehts of commerce and industry, and a great many 
elegant houses, with facades painted in fresco. 

The streets of the old town are irregular, narrow, 
and badly paved ; the quarter in which the Callo 
Mayor is situated is a little animated. The only 
remarkable artery is the Rambla^ which is about 
625 yards in length, and 20 in breadth, and tra- 
verses the town from the north-east to the south- 
east, from the Pucrta de San Francisco, to the 
Puerta de Santa Clara. It foi*ms in the centre a 
sort of elevated terrace, provided with seats, on 
both sides of which runs the public way. In the 
high part of the Rambla are many wooden houses, 
built upon the part of the rampart recently des- 
troyed. The Plaza de la Constitucion has been 
opened upon the site of the ancient Roman circus. 
A tine promenade, planted with acacias, elms, and 
plantains encircles the ramparts ; from the upper 
part of this promenade may be had a fine view 
over the city ; but that from the rampart of Oliva 
is still grander. The town is defended by two 
castles. Its manufactures consist of coarse cloth 
and hats, barrels, spirits, and soap ; and it has a 
considerable export trade in Barcelona nuts, al- 
monds, wine, brandy, and cork though its harbour 
is only accessible to small coasting vessels. Tar- 
raco is considered to have been an important place 
in the time of the Romans. It was occupied by the 
Scipios, and was afterwards taken by the Goths, 
who made it their capital. It was subsequently 
destroyed by the Moors, and remained uninhabited 
for several ceoturiet. It was capturwl by Peter- 
borough in the Wtr of dnccession. 


Towards the end of April, 1811, Sachet inarched 
upon Tarragona, and on the 4th May the invest- 
ment was completed to the sea. Its defence be- 
came more obstinate as the attack advanced, for, 
being open by sea, it was able to receive succours 
by means of the English fleet on the coast. On the 
16th June, the capture of an outwork gave access 
to the interior of the lower town. On the 21st a 
furious assault was made, and, after much blood- 
shed on both sides, the lower town and its depen- 
dencies were put into the power of the French. 
Although scarcely any hopes now remained for an 
effectual resistance, the garrison still held out, and 
determined to await a final assault. This was 
given on the afternoon of the 28th, when a practic- 
able breach being made, the assailants rushed in 
and almost immediately carried the town. 

Suchet, in his former despatch, had expressed his 
apprehension of being obliged '' to set a terrible 
example, and intimidate for ever Catalonia and 
Spain, by the destruction of a whole city," He too 
well verified his menace ; he thus relates the catas- 
trophe. " The fury of the soldiers was increased 
by the resistance of the garrison, who every moment 
expected its deliverance, and thought to secure suc- 
cess by a general sortie. The fifth assault, still 
more vigorous than the preceding, made yesterday 
in broad day, on the fortification, has occasioned a 
horrible massacre, but with little loss on our side. 
The terrible example which I foresaw, with regret, 
in my last report to your highness has taken 
place, and will for a long time be recollected in 
Spain ; 4,000 men have been killed in the city; from 
10,000 to 12,000 more endeavoured to make their 
escape over the walls into the country ; 1,000 have 
been sabred or drowned ; nearly 10,000, of whom 
600 arc officers, have been made prisoners, and 
arc setting off for France; nearly 1,000 wounded 
are in the hospitals of the city, where their 
lives were respected in the midst of the carnage. 
Three field-marshals and the governor are among 
the prisoners; many others among the slain." 
Further particulars of this day of horror are given 
in II letter from Capt. Codrington, of H.M.S.. Blake, 
to Sir C. Cotton. He describes the panic that 
prevailed on the entrance of the French. ** Those 
already without the wa^*^ ^\S:^"^^Ss. ^5«v^ ««&««=*- 



[Section 1. 

each party thus equally endangering their lires 
more than they would have done by a firm resist- 
ance to the enemy. A large mass of people, some 
with muskets, and some without, then pressed for- 
ward along the road, suffering themselves to be 
fired upon by about twenty French, who continued 
running beside them at only a few yards distance. 

At length they were stopped entirely by a volley 
of fire, by one small party of the enemy, who had 
entrenched themselves at a turn of the road, sup- 
ported by a second a little higher up, who opened a 
masked battery of a few field pieces. A horrid 
butchery then ensued; and shortly after, the 
remainder of these poor wretches, amounting to 
alwve 3,000, tamely submitted to be led away 
prisoners, by less than as many hundred French. 
Tbc launches and gun-boats went from the ships 
the instant the enemy were observed to be collect- 
ing in their trenches; and yet, so rapid was their 
success, that the whole was over before we could 
, open our fire with effect. All the l)oats of the 
squadron and transports were sent to assist those 
who were swimming or concealed under the rocks; 
and notwithstanding a heavy fire of musketry and 
field-pieces, which was warmly and successfully 
returned by the launches and gun-boats, from 500 
to 600 were thus brought off to the shipping, many 
of them badly wounded." 

Captain Codrington further mentions, that the 
governor, Gonzales, with a handful of men, defended 
himself to the last, and was bayoneted to death in 
the square, near his house ; that man, woman, and 
child, were put to the sword upon the first entrance 
of the French, and afterwards all those found in 
uniform, or with arms In their houses; and that 
the, females underwent the most brutal violation. 
A thousand men were left to destroy the works, 
and the whole city was set on fire. Thus Tarragona 

8rd of June, Murray completed the inrestment of 
the place, but on the 11th, when about to storm the 
place, upon some rumour of the approach of Sachet, 
countermanded his orders, and had the artillery 
and stores drawn to the beach for embarkation ; 
instead, however, of conveying the guns on board, 
he spiked them, and made a precipitate retreat 
with his men to the ships. At the termination of 
the war he was tried in England by a court-martial, 
and being convicted on one charge, was severely 
reprimanded. Suchet, however, in the August 
following blew up the fortification^ and evacuated 
the place, in order to proceed to the relief of Soult. 
Tarragona is a good place for invalids, and has 
a thriving trade in red wine with England. The 
wine coopers made a cask for King Amadeo at his 
visit, 1871. 

Sights.— Cathedral, early Gothic, of the 11th- 
12th centuries, the Interior of which Is very richly 
adorned; note the Gothic facade, the baptis- 
mal font; the windows in the transept; the 
ancient tombs; the Sillcria del Coro, carved by 
Gomez; the Capilla del Sacramento: the Capilla 
del Corpus Christi; the paintings, sculptures, and 
bronzes; the Flemish tapestry, and the fine cloister. 
There are Roman and Moorish remahis in the 
chapter-house and cloister. 

San Pablo, a very ancient church, Norman 

Santa Tecla, a church of the twelfth century. 

Archiepiscopal Palace, quite modem, and occupy- 
ing the sight of the ancient capltol. 

Cuartel del I^triarca, or quarter of the Patriarch. 

Hospitals, seminary, academies of design and 
naval architecture, and a theatre. 

Many remains of its walls. Between the Puerta 
del Rosario and the Puerta del Socorro especially, 
may be seen the most remarkable part of these 
fell, leaving to the French army a triumph that ' constructions, formetl of enormous layers of rocks, 
perhaps more than compensated all their failures j The superstructure is thought to be Roman, the 

in other quarters. It put the whole coast of Cata- 
lonia in their possession, and enabled them to carry 
on their designs against the provinces to the south- 
wartl without apprehension of any considerable 
force remaining behind to check their movements. 

basement C/eltic or Curtliaginlan. A Roman 
aqueduct, 876 feet in length, and some vestiges of 
a circus and an amphitheatre. The ramparts. For 
works on Tarragona, see Tarragona Monumental^ 
by Arbcnara: Orand^zas de Tarragona^ or Lu§i 
Pom de Ycari Urida. 1572-73; Diccionario Oeogra- 

77/e c/tatJcl was affaln bofile^icd in 181S, by Sir John 
^/z//7wr;tf//</^r//r«or</cr5o/<hoDakeof Wellington, ' fico de Barcelona; DVc. Qco<J.^ &c., ipav D. Pa$eual 
n-hc» it WM» dcfendc<l by Bcrtollctti with on\y Modoi, U tol».,\to.,MadTU', »w\i\. Sft\v\\vt>j * tn^rx^ 
^'^^^^n,JiS'^JnsfJi,0OOcm>ctiyo troops. Ou the v *ular War.Ch,^^, 

Eoute 18.] 



OonyesraneeS.— Rail to Saragossa, via Reus, 
Bfontblanch, Borjas, and Lerlda. To Barcelona; 
a^nd also to Tortosa, Castellon, and Valencia. 

Distance : 63 miles west-south-west of Barcelona. 
In 1878, the train to Barcelona was robbed by 

Excursions are made to the Roman Aqacduct, 
t-hrea miles on tlie road to Lerida, the Torre de los 
Escipione!', Kens, Pablct, and Vails. 

The Torre de los EscipioneS is a Roman 

sepulchre, situated at about a league from Tarra- 

g^ona, on the sea coast. The tourist should not fail 

to visit it. A conveyance may be obtained 

at the hotel, the time required will be about 

1^ hour. M. de Lavigne says, "Tradition asserts 

vrithout much foundation, that this monument 

encloses the remains of the Scipios. It is 

square, of two storeys resting on a base constructed 

of large roughly dressed stones, without any 

ornament, and 26 feet high. On the side towards 

the sea are two figures, in an attitude of grief; 

between them there was formerly a marble slab, 

which is said to have been taken away by 

Cardinal Cisneros. Two Cartouches above the 

st'itues bore an inscription, now defaced, the sense 

of which can no longer be deciphered. From the 

position which this tower occupies, the view is 

magnificent, at foot winds the road, half-way 

down the strand; and below, beyond a bend 

formed by the coast, the town of Tarragona, f of 

an hour distant, stands out boldly on a hill.'* 

Kail to Lerida (sec route 7) 64 miles, passing 
through Villaseca, Reus, Plaiia-Ficamoizons 
(rail to BarcelonaX Boijas, Ac. 
REUS (Stat.) 
Population (1887), 27,596. 
Hotels. — Several good ones ; also some caf^s. 
It consists of an old and a new town. The more 
ancient one was founded in the twelfth century ; 
the modem town, which is well built, sprung up 
about the end of the last century, in consequence 
of the settlement here of some English merchants. 
The place is connoted by a canal with its port 
Salon, which is distant 5 miles. Reus is a busy 
place, and has manufactures of silk, cotton, linen 
fabrics, twist, leather, glass, soap, spirits, Ac. It 
has a weekly market, held on Monday. The place 
surrendered to the French in 1808. Marshal Prim, 
who was a3Mas3fnate4 1870, wm Count of Keus. 

SlglltS —Numerous churches and hospitals, bar- 
racks, and a theatre. San Pedro, an elevation, 
commanding a fine view. The market (mercado) ; 
the boulevard called Arrabal, formerly a suburb. 

Railway. — To Barcelona, by way of Roda, 

VendreU, VUlafranca, Martorell, &c. 

This line was continued in 1891 from Reus to 
Mora and FayOD, in the direction of the tine 
running south-east from Saragossa to Puebla de 
Hijar (page 30.) 

The road to Barcelona runs through Vendrell, 
Arbas. and Villafranca. The distance is about 14 
leagues. Some picturesque scenery is to be met 
with, especially in the vicinity of Villafranca, and 
there are also some Roman remains, the Portal de 
Barra, a well built arch, which formerly bore an 
inscription stating to whom it was dedicitcd, 
Lucius Licin'.us F. Sergius Sura. 


(Population, 5,291), the ancient Pa^/uriana, is a 
town in the province, and 17 miles north-east of 
Tarragona, near the Mediterranean, on which it has 
,a small fort. There is a fine view from the belfry 
of the parish church. The distance from Vendrell 
to Villafranca is 3 leagues. 

VILLAFRANCA (Stat.), or VUlafiranca dels 


Population, 6,981. 
HoteL— Parador Nuevo. 

It is situated in the province and 27 miles north- 
east of Tarragona. It is enclosed by walls, and 
has some very old palaces of the royal family of 
Aragon, &c. The nciglibourhood is very fertile. 
The place is said to have been the earliest settle- 
ment of the Carthaginians In this part of Spain. 
It has a fine parish church, with a lofty belfry, 
crowned by a bronze angel; and a charming 

The distance from Villafranca to Barcelona Is 
33 miles. 

After leaving Villafranca, the road ascends to 
Coll de Ordal (whence Barcelona is visible), where 
the splendid bridge of Llandoner is carried «Av\«a. 
a ravluc. riscw*.^ 





PopuUtion, 4,881. PoMda. 

Martorell is situated on the Llobregat, orer 
which there is a bridge, said to have been built by 
Hannibal, tlie centre arch of which is 183 feet 
wide, and of Moo^i^ll orisg^in. It is called by the 
people "the Devil's bridge.'' There is also a tri- 
umphal arch of Roman construction. 

Kolins del Bey (Stat.), situated on the Llob- 
rcgat (Itubricatus), and surrounded by hills covered 
with vines. It was H.ickcd by the French in 1808. 

The rail from Molins del Key to Barcelona (10 
miles) takes about half-an-hour. 

BARCELONA (See Route 7). 

Hence by rail to Gerona, by way of Matard, 
Arenys, &c. 

From Barcelona to Matard, a distance of 18f 
miles, the rail takes aliont an hour. 

MATARO (Stat.) 

Population, 17,405. 

Hotel.— Posada dc lus Diligcncias; also some 
other good pusadas. 

Matard, the JUuro of the ancients, is a seaport 
town in tlie province of Barcelona. It is situated 
at the extremity of a small fertile plain, and con- 
sists of an old and a new town. The ancient town, 
built upon an eminence, still preserves its precinct, 
its gates, and its narrow streets, common to old 
southern towns. The new town slopes down to the 
sea: its streets are large and btraight, its houses 
elegant, and mostly decorated with frescoes. 
The Plnza de la Constitucion is a large square of 
regular construction. It is a thriving town, and 
has manufactures of leather, velvets, cotton, silks, 
and ribbons, and there are docks in which ship- 
building is actively carried on. It was sacked by 
the French in 1 808. 

SiglltB.— A fine parochial church, with some 
fine pictures of the Passion by Villdomat, and 
some good wood carving. 

San Miguel, an ancient church. 

Casa de Ayuntamicnto (Town Hall); a college; 
a good hospital; a school of navigation; hermitage 
of S. Mateu; a Moorish tower, called Barriach. 
There is also a beautiful modem theatre; a fine 
railway station; and several beautiful fountains. 
CloareyMaM8,-^Th6 nil to Barcelona was the 
first m4d0 ift Spnin, w4 W4a opened ^9th Octobw, 

1848. The coach road to Bwroelima nuu byBUft- 
lona, following the nil; that to Gerona nuu bf 
S. Pol, Tordera, and Granota, also following tki 

Distance: 17^ miles north-east of Barcelona. 

At a short distance from the town are the Batitf 
of Argentona, the waters of which are carboB- 
ated, and efficacious in nervous complaints. 

From Matard to Arenys de Mar the train takes 
about 20 minutes. The line first passes the 
f aul)ourg of Habana, then traverses a bridge onr 
the dried- np torrent of San Simon; then tbe 
town of 

ICala, an annex of MaUro, is^passed, after whiek 
you sight the ruins of the ancient Castle of Kofn 
Arfau, of which only a tower remains. The Um 
then crosses a stone bridge over the little rirer 
Llevaneras, which gives name to two Tillages, 

San Vicente and San Andres de JAen- 

neras, situated at a short distance to the west. 
Previous to arriving at Caldctas, upon the heigliti 
wliich border the sea-shore, are sereral dumt* 
ing country-houses, in the centre of which rises 
an old tower, the last vestige of the ancieat 
Castle of Kocaberti, celebrated in the Chronidei 
of Catalonia. Most of the dwellings hereabouts 
were formerly on the sea-shore, and their 
inhabitants have been frequently, down to tin 
beginning of the present century even, -victims to 
those acts of piracy which were of such commos 
occurrence on the tracts bordering the Mediterra- 
nean. The houses were pillaged and burnt, and 
the inhabitants sent into slavery to Alters or ts 
Tunis. In later times the houses have been rebuilt 
for greater security, at a distance from the shore. 
You next arrive at Caldotas (Statw) or Caldasfc 
Estrachs, a small place of 700 inhabitants, standiaf 
in a very picturesque position upon the hills, and 
divided into two parts, called Caldctas de Mar and 
Caldetas de Arriba. It is renowned for its thermal 
waters, which have similar properties to those of 

After leaving Caldetas, to the left, upon an 
isolated height, in a wild country, is seen a fins 
crenelated tower, preceded by some fortificatioBi, 
and called Torre de lo* Encantadoe (the tower of tht 
haunted). The line then crosses the littje rirer of 
Caldetas at its mouth. Between C«l<|«tac nd 

Route 19.] 



in length, pierced through the rock. To the left is 
seen a fine white building, surrounded with trees; 
it is called the Anerys Baths, or Baths of Titus, 
which are resorted to for rheumatism and skin 
diseases. The rail runs in zig-zag along the sea- 
shore, in the midst of fishermen's dwellings, until 
it arrives at 

ARENTS DE MAR (Btat.) Pron, Ar^ns. 

Population, 4,800. 

A seaport town on the Mediterranean, in Cata- 
lonia, in the province and 25 miles north-east of 
Barcelona. It is picturesquely situated at the foot 
of hills covered with plantations and gardens. It 
has some important ship-building yards, and a 
naval school (maintained by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Barcelona), which has borne, since the 
time of Charles III., the title of Royal Nautical 
School. It has some manufactures of cotton, silk, 
lace, and hosiery. The chief exports are wine, 
timber, and charcoal. See the Baths of Argen- 
tona, Ac, above. 

. The high road to Gerona passes Calella, Tordera, 
and Mallorquinas not far from the rail. 

Calella (Stat.) lies 80 miles north-east of 
Barcelona, and Tordera is 10 miles north-east of 
Calella. At Tordera (Stat.) there is a good 
posada on the Plaza. Hence the line is continued 
to Empalme (i-e., a junction) and 

Qerona (Route 9), from which the rail is now 
open to Perpignan. 



The Pyrenees are a lofty mountain chain forming 
the boundary between France and Spain, and 
stretching across the whole of the isthmus which 
connects the Spanish peninsula with the rest of the 
European continent, abutting with one extremity 
on the Mediterranean, and with the other on the 
Atlantic. Its length, from Cape Crcux, north of 
the Gulf of Rosas, to the Point of Figiuer, near 
Fuentarrabia, is nearly 270 miles; and its greatest 
breadth, which is near the centre, 90 miles. 
Athough the chain thus defined terminates at two 
opposite seas, it cannot be said to be isolated, since 
to the west it is obviously continued across the 
north of Spain by the Cantabrlan Mountains. 
The direction of ih$ chain is eost-sonth-eatt to 

west-north-west. It does not, however, li« in the 
same straight line, but rather consists of two lines, 
which form parallel ridges about 23 miles distant 
from each other, except near the centre, where 
they become united by means of a remarkable 
rectangular elbow, in which some of the loftiest 
summits arc found. Both on the north and south 
sides, numerous branches are thrown off, generally 
at right angles to the principal axis, and subside 
rapidly as they recede from it, forming various 
transverse, but very few longitudinal valleys. 
The chain rises both from the east and west 
towards the centre; and, in accordance with a 
general rule which holds in regard to the European 
chains which lie in the direction of the equator, 
the descent on the south side is much more abrupt 
than on the west. Owing to this the south has 
much fewer lakes than the north slope, but far 
surpasses it in the boldness and grandeur of its 

The loftiest summit of the chain is near its centre. 
Its culminating point, Maladetta, situated there, 
has the height of 11,170 feet, and a great number 
of peaks in the same locality exceed 8,500 feet. 
To the east of the centre, the chain lowers so 
rapidly that its average height becomes little more 
than 2,000 feet. To the west the height diminishes 
much more gradually, and many peaks have 
heights varying from 6,000 to 7,000 feet, and even 
8,000 feet. 

The following are the elevations of the 
principal Mountains :— La Maladetta, or Pic de 
N^hou or N^ou, 11,170; Pic Posets, 11,046; Mont 
Perdu, 10,195; Pic de Vignemale, 10,820; Pic de 
Cascade, 10,746; Montcalm, 10,663; Pic des Estats, 
10,611; Carbioules, 10,545; Troumouse, 10,496; Pic 
deSoube, 10,276; Pic de N^ouville, 10,145; Pic de 
Serre, 9,646; Pic du Midi de Bigorre, 9,644; Pic 
Pedrons,9,.511; and LeCanigou, 9,141. In the higher 
Pyrenees glaciers are of frequent occurrence. Ava- 
lanches also occur, as in the Alps. The Qlaclers 
of the Pyrenees are found on the slopes of the loftier 
mountains, not occupying deep gorges or valleys, 
as in the Alps; neither are they, as in the latter 
mountains, contiguous, but separated frequently 
by considerable intervals. They are frequently 
traversed by deep fractures oi <:.\\»«s&sw. ^^^Mi^tssc^^cc*^ 

found. 0Ti\^\T1 WX^^WN.q\ >iBfe\Sift-NSS&N*iJajCci'»5c«'e« 



ftRlbfiMiTV'd stilil A.vb PbtLftoJiti 

fSection 1. 

th« most part oti the northern mountains. The 
principal are those of Maladctta, Carbioules, Mont 
Pcfdu, Brfeche de Roland, Vignemale, and N^ott- 
ville, which take their names from the peaks or 
depressions adjacent. 

All the great Valleys of the Pyrenees are 
transverse. The head of the valley is usually at 
a "col" or a "port," and the valley extends 20, 30, 
or even 40 miles towards th« north or south, 
bounded by the lateral branches of the mountains. 
The largest valleys, as that of the Garonne, and 
the valley of Lavedan, which is watered by the 
Gave de Pau, are near the centre of the great range. 
There are some valleys which have their direction 
parallel to the principal range, and though not 
equal in extent to the transverse valleys, are nearly 
20 miles in length. Sometimes the mouth or opening 
of the valley into the plain is open or broad;. in 
other cases the valleys have narrow entrances. 

Many valleys of the Pyrenees, instead of a rapid 
and narrow defile, or of a series of little basins of 
greater or less extent, rising by degrees to the 
height of the chain, present at their origin a single 
basin, surrounded on three sides by lofty walls of 
rock, and open on the fourth side, whence extends 
a continuation of the valley. The wall of rock 
enclosing these basins is often of a surprising height. 
The top is commonly formed by a steep shelvhig, 
whence rises another tier of walls, which attain 
the crest of the mountain. This regrular arrange- 
ment of tire steep rocks gives the basin the 
appearance of an amphitheatre or cirque by which 
name they are generally called. 

These Ampbitheatres constitute the grandest 
and most distinctive feature of the Pyrenees. The 
inhabitants of the mountains call them oule or 
houle, which, in their patoif, signifies pot or bowl, 
and is derived from the Latin ofla. The celebrated 
"oule de Gayamic," at the origin of the valley of 
Barfeges,istheraost beautiful of these amphitheatres. 
It is not the largest of the cirques of the Pyreness, 
but It is the one of which the walls are the loftiest 
and most perfect. The cirque of Troumouse, at 
the head of the valley of Hdaz, is larger 
than the oule of Gavamie, but not so deep. 
Aaot/ier cfr^ua nt the commencement of the 
a/Uj- of EstauM, Is gmaJJer and more broken. 

-/5» fAe 

AtU °^^^'' -'""* ^^ ^*® valleys, where these 
'"^^'Tffaorefjvquent ami more perreei in their 

form, they often contain lakes. These lakes are 
numerous on the French or northern side of the 
tnountains; on the Spanish or southern side they 
afe seldom seen. Some of the n are in very elevated 
sites. Malte-Brun enumerates eight which are at 
an elevation of above 2,000 metres (=6,557 English 
feet;. When at such elevation as to be surrounded 
with glaciers, they are commonly frozen. The lake 
at the "port" of Oo (elevation 8,800 feet) is covered 
with ice all the year round; the lake of Mont 
Perdu (8,393 feet), and the lakes of Estoon and 
Soubiran, in the valley of Canterets, are covered 
with ice until the end of August. The most elevated 
lake given by Malte-Brun, is that of the Pic dn 
Midi (S,81d feet). 

The basins described, seldom, if ever, exceed 8 
miles in length by 3 or 4 in breadth. They are 
always at the point of junction of several valleys 
or gorges, and their extent bears a proportion to 
the number of valleys or gorges which open into 
them. They are found also in the elbows formed 
by the alteration in the direction of a valley. Their 
soil is alluvial, and often marshy, or composed of 
peat. The manner in which the streams that water 
them break away through deep and narrow gorgres 
is a proof that they have been anciently the beds 
of lakes, the water of which has been drained off 
by bursting through the rocky barrier by which 
they were surrounded. The line of perpetual con- 
gelation in the Pyrenees appears not to have been 
ascertained. Ramond fixed it at from 1,350 to 1,400 
toises (8,600 to 9,000 Englisli feet), but op some 
mountains, as on the Pic du Midi of Bigorre, which 
exceeds this limit (9,544 feel), the snow melts in 
August. Malte-Brun gives the line of perpetual 
congelation at 2,826 metres (=9,266 feet) on the 
northern slopes, and 2,684 mbtres (=8,308 fcot) on 
the southern. 

Like the Alps, the Pyrenees present a surprising 
variety of climates and productions, and the same 
rapid transitions from sterility toluxuriant vegeta- 
tion : from the barren rock, to the verdant slope 
or smiling valley. It is warmer at the extremities, 
because of the inferior height of the mountains 
and the proximity of the sea; this is especially the 
case at the eastern extremity, where the olive grows 
luxUTlaivWy. 1\v«k -wVaXw^ «ct^ ^5w«^^w^\ Vcv. \J\-ft 

two, lU t\V<i XVV^t N«2^'B1V ^"Wi ^\Vav5N.\5i V^. \ftSS 

Koutfe 10.] 



irigorous. The pine ahd the fir, the box, rhododen- 
clron, the alpine rose, and a variety of other trees 
and shrabs grow on the sides. The summers are 
"Very warm, and vegetation in all the valleys is 
"Very luxuriant. Thunder storms are very ifrequeht^ 
and are accompanied by rain, which cools the air 

Numerous Rivers rise on both sides of the 
I>yrcnees. Those on the southern side, except a 
few near the eastern extremity, flow into the Ebro. 
The Arga, which passes Pampeluna; the Iratie, 
-the Esca, and several others fall into the Aragon, 
-w^hich flows into the Ebro between Calahorra and 
Tudela. The Gallego, after receiving numerous 
mountain streams, joins the Ebro below Saragossa. 
The Cinca and the Segre, which unite and flow 
into the Ebro near Mequinenza, receive all the 
drainage of the southern slope from the neighbour- 
fiood of the Bareges to that of Mont Louis; several 
of the tributaries of these rivers, as the Ara, the 
Ssscra, the Noguera, the Ribagorsama, and the 
>^ogucra Paillcressa, are considerable streams. 
The Cardonner, the Fluvia, the Ter, and some 
others near the eastern extremity, flow immediately 
into the Mediterranean. The waters of the northern 
slope, near the western extremity, chiefly flow into 
the Adour. The Bidassoa,Jndeed, flows directly 
into the Bay of Biscay, but it is an inconsiderable 
stream, and would be of no importance but from 
the accidental circumstance of its forming the 
boundary between France and Spain. The Adour 
rises in the valley of Campan above Bagn^res de 
fiigorre, and all the streams to the westward, as. 
far as the Nive and the Hourcpeleco, which rises 
In the neighbourhood of St. Jcan-Picd-de-Port, 
fnll into it. 

Eastward, from the source of the Adour, to the 
source of the Arribge, in the valley of Carrol, near 
the town of Ax, the waters all fall into the Garonne. 
The latter river rises at the head of the valley of 
Aran, at the point where the tvec portions of the 
principal range of mountains approach each other. 
Mont Maladetta orMaudit is situated on the south 
side of this valley. The Spanish river Nogniera 
Pailleressa rises very near the source of the 
Oaronno, and flows in the opposite direction. The 
itroams eastward of tho Arri^ge fall into the Aude, 
^bicb waters Qarenfagnej excppt tbe 7w|i, tbo T^t, 

and the Oly, which fall immediately into the 

All the principal geological RockS are to be 
found in the Pyrenees; btlt they occur in very 
unequal quantities. The extent of primlt ite inattcr 
is remarkably small, but peculiar In its arrange- 
ment ^ its composition is extremely simple; the 
principal formations are granite, micaceous schist, 
and primitive limestone. Transition rocks form 
the great bulk of these mountains. They arc prin- 
cipally divided into argillaceous schist, schistous 
grauwacke, common grauwacke, and limestone. 
The secondary mattcf- abounds less on the north 
versant than the transition; whereas, the contrary 
obtains on the southern face, being composed f 
three formations in particular; these are red sand- 
stone, alpine limestone, and Jura limestone, besides 
the secondary traps. These various kinds of 
mineral rocks are not arranged in isolated mas8c.«<, 
but form zones or bands running in the main 
direction of the chain, so as to be parallel; the 
granitic matter forms but a single band, and 
resembles a suite of hills or protuberances, 
touching each other at their bases, and frequently 
connected by rocks of a more recent formation, 
which have filled up the gorges or intervals between 
them; these protuberances follow nearly the same 
line of direction. Though this granitie chain ex- 
tends nearly the whole length of the Pyrenees, it 
only occasionallycoincides with the crest or central 

In the eastern half of these mountains, it is 
invariably found at some distance to the north of 
the chain. In the valley of the Garonne, where 
the central chains enter to the south, the 
granitic chain makes a considerable bend ; 
the two chains hence occasionally mingle. Tlie 
granite band along the western half of the 
Pyrenees is by no means so uniform in its direction 
as that on the eastern. Its protuberances may be 
traced sometimes to the north, and sometimes to 
the south of a line parallel to the central chain. 
The line that comes as near as possible to the 
direction which they follow is the granitic axis of 
Ramond. This axis has determined the direction 
and disposition of the ditt<yc<so^l<ciTvswii^^s!KvV<i«sx5s^ 
out X\i<i ^>v«>\«i ^"ttaJwv. "S.'w'^ ^*=^^ '^'^ Tgev^si^c^; 




and itt coBtiniitty is frequently iDternipted. Its : metala, as well at cobalt ahd sine, are Ukewi 
thickness is small when compared with the breadth I found; and the mining butfness is likdy te I 
of the grranite. The transition rocks arc of an | mnch more prodnctive when better understood; ; 
extrauniinary bulk; one lies to the north, and the present, the machinery and mode of working x 

other to the south of the granitic cluiin, and both 
are in a perfect and almost uninterrupted state. 
The one to the south constitutes the crest of the 
principal chain. The different kinds of rucks 
forming the transition matter are disposed in 
bands. The direction of all these bandii, whether 
primitive or secondary, is governed by the direction 
of the granitic chain, not by that of the principal 
range. In accordance with the hypothesis that 
the granitic chain also influences the inclination 
of the strata, it is foand that the inclination of the 
strata follows that of the declivity which supports 
them, at least in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the granite. As the rocks depart from the parent 
band, its influence in this respect manifestly 

A phenomenon, which has likewise excited much 
conjecture, is the great inclination of the strata 
and beds of the rocks of the Pyrenees. In most 
cases it exceeds 45 degrees, and nothing is more 
common than to find it above 60 or 80 degrees. 
This, of course, indicates that the strata have been 
upheaved after their formation. Another distin- 
guishing peculiarity is, that strata of the Pyrenees, 
far from presenting plane regular surfaces, su£fer 
the most extraordinary inflections, both in the line 
of their direction and in their inclination. A sec- 
tion will show that they sometimes make angles in 
different directions, sometimes zigzags, and some- 
times the bed twists itself into a spiral form. 

ProdUCttona.— The Flora of the Pyrenees com- 
prises the rhododendron, the alpine rose, and a large 
variety of plants, common to high elevations; the 
principal forest trees are the box, fir, pine, and in 
lower situations, the deciduous oak. The Fauna 
comprises the izzard, a variety of the chamois of 
smaller size, and possessing rather less strength 
and agility than the chamois of the Alps. The bear 
and the wolf are also fonnd ; but the former is not 
so ferocious as that of Switzeiiand. There is also 
a variety of birds, many of which are migratory. 
Of Metallic productions, iron has been found chiefly 
towards each end of the Pyrenees, while lead and 
capper prgdominMie in th9 centre. The precious \ 

extremely backward. The rural economy of tl 
Pyrenees is very similar to that of Switzerland. 

The manners of the People are marked by ik 
hospitality and primitive simplicity, which in i 
ages have been the dist incti v^ feat ures of sequestoi 
societies. The shepherds have often winter haUb 
tions in the lower valleys, and a summer residoi 
in the higher. There, as in the lower country,! 
this warm latitude, the productiveness of the v 
depends on irrigation; and much ingenuity it di 
played in conducting the water of the sprinsil! 
petty channels, from one patch of land to anatka 
But the cattle are inferior to those of the Aip 
cheese and butter are scanty, and the incomeof tt 
shepherds is derived from the sale of yonng criA 
of little value. Timber fit for ship building grW 
in great quantities on the ascent of these mountaii 
Pitch and tar are also abundant ; but the giti 
diflSculty is in conveying them to the sea-side. 

There are numerous Mineral SpiillgB M 
cold and thermal, in the neighbourhood of tb 
Pyrenees ; several of those on the French side u 
of considerable repute. Those of Bagn^res i 
Bigorre; Bagn^res de Luchon ; Bareges; StSn 
veur, in the valley of Lavcdan; Cauterets; Etf 
Bonnes, in the valley of Ossau ; Eaux Chaodi 
in an adjacent valley; Ax, in the valley d tb 
Arifege; Aleth, in that of the Aude, are mie 
frequented by visitors. 

The Pyrenees on the French side are divided!^ 
Pyr^n^es-Basscs, or Lower Pyrenees, of which tt 
capital is Pan; Pyr^n^es-Hautes, or Uppa 
Pyrenees, of which the capital is Tarbes; li 
Pyr^n^es Orientales, or Eastern Pyrenees, of whk 
the capital is Perpignan. The elevation of 8(»m< 
the towns and villages in the Pyrenees is as fdiofwi 
— Bagn^res de Bigorre, 1,820 feet ; Bareges, 4,9tt 
Luz, 2,400; Gavamie, 4,855; Tarbes, 990; Venaaqi 
8,829 ; Hospital of Yenasque, 5,542 ; Bagnbrei ( 
Luchon, 2,018; Cauterets, 3,250; MontLoaifl,i,lU 
St. Beat, 1,748; Tarascon, 1,501; Foix, 1,216; Biel 
(Aragon), 8,255; Baths of St. SauTeur. 2;MI 
P\en«&UA»,V^l \ ^.Qi\x(mvV^%% ^<««^tai«C F 

l,Ains<m},tfiU- SunJlUii (Augon), l,eia; HoapUil 
of Boacbuo Uu-seon), 4,GM; Vlells {OtilonU), 
S^i Idurde, l.SSe. 

Thfl Pfnoflag an connected vlth many Emport- 
untBlatarloalBTesta. Hunibil ctoned Ihem 
on hia waj to Itnlj- at the beginning of the tecond 

Ttclorlnnianaioverlhcso niauntiin% laA nildtd 
Bjaln to th« empire of theFranlu. Edward the 
Black Princa led hi) army over one of Ihs wcslero 
paawa, when fighting In defence of Peter Ibe Crnel 
Agkliut Henry of Ttattjunarc; and II 

the KCDS of HTBial obsllnnte itnigglei 
id English at 

lit PTBBM&BI. 

Hpeclally) vec 
of thlB peace, Lo 

lift In 

In qua. Is umaeqiieace 


ar. thai 

which «h 

tween Frai 

I XIV. : 

who. In IBta. nmoimcet 
tight of inbetltance to the Spani>h throne. 

The Pyienew were known lo the Qieeki w 
Ihe name of parlni. Tliey are culled In Li 
Pfrmai itmUi; In Spanish Piiiatoi: In Fre 
Pyrantel; In Oamiaii Pffi-maert. Somedarire 

of the wo; 

he Cel ti c. inAsmuch 

!lopiri((oJfttropii(iWno,aitida, "Pyrenees." by the 
a. C. Kenouard : Eaci/c. Load^ The Pi^ulat 
Oticlopadia! McCullQcKi Oatraplilcai Dktimory; 
■le't Imperiat GatrUeer. 2 vole; Foreiffn Qitar- 
llrls BecUv. Artlclo 6; Charpentler, £aai mr la 
OmtlUuti™ OftpjnMuKjM (*ei Pyr^ia; Arbantni, 
Tableau iaPrrin^i FiviuaUa, Par. ISa8.lTDlI. 
Dietionfiaife Giographique Vniverstt, Par, 

d De 

November, l«i9. After the paaca of Weslpt 
1 Wa, Ihe war between France and Spain, which had 
began In lS3fi, atlU contlnned. Fnnce formed an 
■lllanee with England in IWT, after Cromwell had 
{l«fiS) declared war againitBpaln, and taken seierAl 
Mnmg places in tba Spaniab HttherUnds. Spain 

HToltad In ISIO, Catalonli wu in rebeUIon, and 
Andalnsln disposed to Innrrectlon ; and In Italy, 
Savoy had lelied Spanish Lombardy. Philip III., 
Kln( of Spain, consented therefots to that peaco 
which confiimed the uceudincy of Lonii XIV. 
Spain ceded to France, KoasiUlon. with the lorlress 
of Pen>l9i^ui,CoiLdane,aadapaTtof thaCerdagne, 
■o that tlie Pyn&eee have since formed the bound- 
ary of the two kingdoms i and in the Netherlands, 
Artola, aadput of Flandert. Hainanlt, and Lniem- 
bart, .wUbtll* loitlBed towns of Arrai, Hesdln, ; 
Cr«T«iliiM,.Lapdi<cy, QoMnoy, ThionTilla, UonC- ' 
■edy, lluMghsnr.jeUUtivn41|a, Ac Th» Prince 
mt-CMi^^tai-Si^ Oakmtl I^miliia, 8»Tor, »nd 
r_. „i.i.. __. .. — ,„^ (the two first 

ilww de M.Sa. 
uedaiu taPgri- 
r( drp. mfiacBUi, 

: Ifallt-Bnm! Balbl: Umado; . 

linn ttiroo.tVi1j(»«M!«aaa». ""^ 



[Section 1. 

and enters Spain by way ot Gerona. The most 
important of those that cSn only be passe<l on 
horseback or on foot are Brkche de Roland, near 
Mont Perdu (10,995f t.), and the^Port deVenasque. 
The former defile lies about 11 miles south of Luz, 
and forms a difficult passage, from 200 to 800 feet in 
width, In a rocky wall from 800 to 600 feet high, 
surrounded by rocks, at an elevation of 9,500 feet 
above the level of the sea. The latter, which is 
entered by way of Luchon, exhibits the finest 
Tiew of the Maladetta^ the highest peak of which, 
called Pic Nethou, is 11,170 feet above the level of 
the sea. Among the other Passes are those be- 
tween Eaux Chaudes or Cauterets and the baths 
of Panticosa ; from Pau to Campfranc, by Oloron 
and the Val d' Aspe; from Oavamie to Busaruelo, 
or Bucharo Hospice (4,695 ft.), and Fanio ; from the 
Val d' Aran ; and from Ax to the Val d' Andorra. 


Inns.— Grand Hotel d'Angletcrrc ; de France; 
Continental dcs Bains; de Palx; de Paris; des 
Ambassadeurs. See Bradshaw's Hand'Book to 

Cauterets, 3,250 feet. 

Cauterets to Pont d'Espagne, in 2 hours; thence 
to Panticosa by the Col do Marcadaou, in about 
9 hours. From Pont d'Espagne the road runs 
along the Gave de Marcadaou, leaving the lake of 
Ceratella on the left. The road Is rough, and for 
some part of the descent to Panticosa there Is no 
well defined track. Panticosa, 7,500 feet above 
sea, has an Inn and an Establishment dcs Bains, 
with sulphur and saline springs. 

From Panticosa to the Cauterets Baths is 

reckoned as follows:— 


Hard climbing 2 

Over swampy ground to foot of Col 1 

Ascent to frontier 1 1 

De cent o » French side | 

Do. to foot of Col 1 

Do. to Pont d'Espagne 1 

Do. to Cauterets 1| 

Hours 8| 


—Hotel Dcaudot; Hotel de Fr.inco. There 

are also several other hotels and many lodging' 
houses. See Bradskaw's Hand-Bock to Frcatce, 

The route to Panticosa Is neither deep nor diffi- 
cult, and may be made on foot or horseback. It 
takes about 12 hours without reckoning stoppages. 
A guide costs 5 francs ; each horse, 5 francs. It 
will be as well to start at 5 a.m. The high road 
ceases at Gabas, about 2 hours from Eaux Chaudei. 
From Gabas a mule-path ascends to the Plateau of 
Bloux Artiques (about 2 hours), whence there is t 
superb view of the Pic du Midi d'Ossau. From Gabas 
to the Casa de Brousette, which is the boundary 
between France and Spain, takes about 2 hours. 
There is a hospice, but the traveller had better 
provide himself beforehand. From the Casa ow 
the Port d'An^on to Salient In Spain, takes abont 
3 hours. The distance hence to the Baths of Pan- 
ticosa, is about 5 hours. The path ascends through 
the gorge of El Escular. The baths are situated 
in a valley (partly occupied by a lake) 8,300 feet 
above the level of the sea, and encircled by moun- 
tains. The inn has a good cuisine, and there is a 
table d'hdte. 

From the village of Panticosa, Gavamie, Brota 
or Torla may be reached by the Pass of BcnedeUu 
It will take a good day, and a guide is desirable. 
From Panticosa there is a regular diligence ser- 
vice to Jaca, whence rail to Huesca (next pnge) 
and Saragossa. 

LITCHON, in France, to VENASQUE, in Spain - 

Bagntos de Luchon; accessible l)y rail froB 
Bordeaux to Montr^jeau. 

Hotel8.~Grande Hotel Bonne Mai son; De 
Richelieu; du Pare; Sacaron; de France; 
d'Angleterre; de la Postc; de Paris; Princes; 
Canton. Good lodgings are also to be had. 
In the height of the season 2 to 5 franca are 
paid for a small room and closet. Luclv* 
has a Post-office, Telegraph, Casino, Bath^ Af. 
Guides (only a few are reliable). Populat ion, Z^9Xi. 
See Bnxdshaw's Hand-Book to Fi-anee. 

It will be advisable to take a guide and horse. 

The ascent to the Hospice de Bagn^res, wliirh li 

the last dwelling in France, takes abont ]| honr. 

T\\e Howp^*^ ftJlat<i%\yoX v*^"^ wy^wsssskssAftlVsMx. Tb« 
ascent \.o lVvft'?Cft\.^ft'^«a3MWCQA^^\\s5tw\%'\?N> 

■ tno rtlloeei. nrdoa ([mpulslioii. 
Lie earrings roBd. The dliUnce to 

ctbigh; ■ 

la Bioi» 

ft.SlV f e< 


__ .. Oanfrino tmd Jaca, bj 

and the Val d'lape,— Csntral FyreneeB. Cmini 



Hot«l«.— Onnd Hotel Qiislon ; d< 
fita S^Joot; BpUndiii del'BnnipF; ili 
: Ji Bwade; du CooiniercB. Gqml Loili 

of Spain. Ii< (ho pro.Liice of 

«,1U frel high, A Tuniiol 
through (he PyTenoM, rtfl Col dO BompDrt, ll 

[>l>iuiDtlfiill7>ituatedonlh«i-l|!hl br 

urtwod li Ihs bUDtUul V 

Jaca (StaC), popnlatlon, ilM, El iKnBted in 
" \ Ihe prOTlnco of, and M milei norlh-north-wert 
^ I oJ, Hnesca. It 1> entloitd hy watli, >nd hai ■ 
^ Wrong cUadol, a calhedral Pl the eaity part of tta« 

icoont of Pan, tee A-odiAau'j 
and Dr. La'aSDMn/Fnua. 
.ofraoo la BlwnC ;0 English 


iiion. capLlnlated to 
. to rcllere 11 having 
Ihs peak of PbB« 

, Ayerbe, L« Pena, 



A Tcry ancient city of Aragon, of which it was the 
e.irly capital. It lies on the right bank of the 
Isenla, in a fertile plain, more than 6 leaguM in 
extent, called the Haya de Huesca. The most 
ancient i>art of the town occuplc« the summit of a 
hill, and was formerly surrounded by ninety-nine 
towers, of which only two remain. Tlie streets, 
especially those in the centre of the town, are nar- 
row and windinjr, but are all paved and well kept. 
The principal one called El Coso is the most cheer- 
ful. Here are the shops, Ac, and the rendezvous 
X)t the inhabitants. The place has some tanneries, 
linen manufactures, and a large annual fair. It is 
the Roman Osca and HeoKo, which was destroyed 
by the Moors, but recovered by the Christians in 
1 096, after a siege of two years. 

Sights.— A line Gothic Cathedral of the four- 
teenth century, with numerous statues, and mag- 
nificent rctablos of alabaster and black marble. 
Note the elegant silleria, which dates from the 
reign of Philip II; the carvings and medallions; 
the pictures by Martines; the archives; and a 
belfry tower, whence a fine view may be had. 

San Juan, a curious old church; also another 
church, named San Pedro. Here are the celebrated 
relics of the martyred SS. Justo and Pastor. 
Ancient palace of the kings of Aragon, memorable 
for the massacre of the Bell. 

Las Casas Consistoriales, near the cathedral. 
University, founded in 1954. Note the portal, 
the hall, and the library. 

Colegio de San Vicente, founded by Charles V., 
an elegant building; also the Colegio de Santiago. 

Santa Cruz, a seminary of the 16th century. 

Plaza de Toros; a foundling hospital; two 
monasteries in the vicinity, the one called Ermita 
de San Miguel , the other El Monasterio Real. The 
former contains some ancient tombs, and some 
paintings of the Byzantine school. 

Convdyances. — By rail to Saragossa, trta 
Tardienta. The road passes Almud^bar, Zuera, 
and Villanu^va. 

Distance: Huesca lies 46 miles (by rail) north- 
0Mst Of SMrueotM, Mnd tbont M miles touth-^ut 



Rail from Paris to BorOeftux, ^j^mtooie, 
Tarascon, and Ax. 

A light rail (ferrovia eeondmieaj from Bi 
via Manresa (page 104), is in progress in 
direction, and has already reached OlYBB, 
miles, whence there Is diligence to Bergs. 
principal stations arc Salient and Pnlgrelg. Tb 
line will probably ultimately be carried to Ui|i! 
but there is little likelihood of its being extesti 
to Andorra. On the other hand It may be tit^ 
advisable to extend it along the more level giMri 
to Puyccrda (Spanish— Paigcerda), on the fros* 
while the French line from Perpfgnan, whidfei 
already reached Prades, might be prolonged* 

Population, 1,609. 

Hotels.— Sicre (the best). It has thermal Wk 
and springs ; good dejeuner h la fonrchette, ol 
table d'hdte; charges moderate. Here hons 
mules, and guides can be procured. Hotel floyw 
d'Espagne. Several boardings hoases, and an* 
caf^s. See Bradshaw's JTand-Book to FYanee. 

Ax is charmingly situated at the foot oftk 
mountains at the junction of three valleys, ynUxd 
by three torrents, which unite near the towiiti 
form the Arifege. It is much freqnented fcr » 
hot sulphur springs, of which there are about IMty- 
The temperature varies from lis* to 168* Fihr. 

According to some writers, any one boimAft( 
Andorra should provide himself with goodletttf 
of recommendation, otherwise he- will htn t* 
sleep in the open air, and perhaps die of starvstka 
But a tour can be made through Val de Andaii 
without letters of recommendation and wifhsri 
enduring very great hardships. The joonMr* 
rather rough and dangerous along the nanf» 
passes; the best places to sleep at are at Hospltdit 
and Santa Julia, but food and wine may ^ 
had at other places en route. In tonrs like tblk 
your plan is to charter a horse and guide; y«r 
sruide will not go without either his rest or kii 
dinner. At the capital, Andorre la TIeBi 
(Andorra la Vieja), there are Hotels and a Citf 
d^l YtVLt^ <K se&t of govemmtot. Tbs Btfli 

Etonte 20.1 



f Urgel (in Spdn), and extends over 6 parishes, 
^t Etcaldat are other hot springs. The inhabitants 
peak a m^ange of the Catalan dialect of Spanish 
nd French. 

Ax to Merens (5| miles); to Hospitalet (5| miles), 
alk or ride. The carriage road runs a little past 
Kerens. Hospitalet to Salden, Canillo, Encamp, 
scaldas, Andorre la Vieille, Santa Julia, and 
rg-el, in 2 days (horse or mule) Make Perpignan 
y Puigcerda, Bourg Madame, Mont Lonis, and 
rades. Horse to Puigcerda, 1 day; diligence to 
erpignan, 1 day. Sleep at Bourg Madame (France) 
ithcr than Paigcerdi (Spain). The ascent of the 
anigOU (9,14l feet) may be made from Prades 
Itat.), population, 3,866, which lies at its north 
ase. The summit of the mountain may be reached 
I about 8 hours' walk. There is a good inn at 
radcs, which lies 24 miles west-south-west by rail 
rem Perpignan, on the River Tet. From Urgel to 
'rades the route runs to a great extent through a 
lain called the Cerdagne, which is upwards of 
4) miles in length, and in some parts 4 or 5 miles 
n breadth. It is divided into the Spanish and the 
Trench Cerdagne. In the former the chief town is 
?uigcerd^ ; in the latter, Mont Louis. 


These Isles, which are situated in the Mediter- 
anean, between lat. 38* 4(/ and 40* 5' N., comprise 
ifajorca, Minorca, Iviza, Formentera ("Isle of 
Jorn"), Cabrera ("Isle of Goats"), and Conejera 
"Isle of Rabbits"), and some small isles of little 
nportance. There is a service of steamboats 
etween Barcelona and the Balearcs. The isles 
jrm a Spanish military arrondissement, under 
he denomination of a captaincy-general, a civil 
rovince of the third class, an Audiencia, a naval 
rrondlssement, and three dioceses, with seats at 
lajorca, Minorca, and Iviza. The united popula- 
lon of the Archipelago amounted, in 1887, to 
12,593. The soil is fertile, and the climate is both 
smperate and healthy. The total imports and 
►tal exports exceed half a million each way. 
It is thought probable that at the time when 
sain and Africa were united, the Balearic Isles 
•rmed part of the Spanish Peninsula, and that they 
■e a prdtoD£psti<m of the momUdn chain which 

traverses the s^rovinee of Atleaata, atid Q9ids at the 
Mongd and Cape San Martin. Moreover the 
nature of the soil and the productions are the same 
as those of the neighbouring provinces of the 
Peninsula. According to Strabo, these isles were 
colonised by Bhodians. They afterwards fell into 
the power of the Carthaginians, as did the whole 
littoral of Spain, and later, they were conquered by 
the Romans, but the Carthaginians seem to have 
subsequently regained their liberty. In B.C. 122, 
they were subdued by Metellus, the Roman Consul, 
who treated the inhabitants with such cruelty that 
out of 30,000, scarcely 1,000 were left alive. In 
the Isle of Minorca, Magon is said to have founded 
Portus Magonis, now Mahon. Motellus founded 
Balearica, in the Isle of Majorca, Palma, and 
Pollenza, and peopled them with 3,000 Romans 
from Spain. After having been successively occu- 
pied by the Vandals, the Greeks, and the Arabs, 
the Balcares were conquered (1229-35) by James 
of Aragon, styled the Conqueror ; who, giving them 
to his second son, they foimcd an independent 
kingdom down to the middle of the fourteenth 
century, when Don Pedro IV. of Aragon re-united 
them to his crown. Since then they have formed 
a part of the kingdom of Spain. 

The Greeks called Majorca, Minorca, and Cabrera, 
Oymnesioi^ because their inhabitants went naked 
to combat ; and Iviza, Formentera, and Conejera, 
Pitytues, on account of the pine forests with which 
they are covered. The term Baleares was anciently 
applied only to Majorca and Minorca. The most 
western, being the greatest, was named Balearis 
Major; the other and the most eastern, for the same 
reason, was called Balearis Minor; whence Minorca. 
Bochart and others consider the name to be of 
native origin, and they derive it from the Phoeni- 
cians, baal, lord, also skilful, and zaraJi, to throw, 
ix., skilful in the art of throwing. According to 
others, they were colonised by Balea, one of the 
companions of Hercules. The most commonly 
accepted derivation of the name is from the Greek 
batto, to throw, because the inhabitants were gpoo^' 
slingers. DIodorus says that no helmet, cuirass, or' 
buckler eould resist their blow ; and FI<vto& ^t&ssts.- 
tlons the ^eaX %\3\\^A\:sv<^'8jfe\^«w^'a:^^»^'<^'«^*=^^ 




[Section If 

IBLB OF MAJORCA, or Mallorca. 

Tlie largest of the Balearic islands, is situated be- 
tween Iviza, on ttie west, and Minorca, on tlie east. 
It is 185 miles from Barcelona; 163 from Tunis; 
and 370 from Toulon, and liaa a population (1887) 
of 230,000. It is nearly 60 miles long from east to 
west, and in some parts 45 broad from north to 
south ; its circuit is 143 miles. The general surface 
of the country is hilly. On the north-west side a 
mountain range crosses the island, the highest 
summit of which, called Puig Mayor de Torello, is 
about 5,000 feet above the sea. Another range of 
lofty hills nins parallel to this through the heart of 
the island, and high grounds in many parts border 
on the coast. The eastern and southern districts are 
the most level in character. Near Campos on the 
south, and near Alcudia on the north of the island, 
are marxhy tracts wjiich generate malaria to a 
▼cry i>eniicious extent. The general aspect of the 
country is extremely beautiful and picturesque. 
The roads in the interior arc very rugged and 
stonpr, and are traversed only by mules, which 
form the ordinary mode of conveyance, and by 
carts of clumsy and primitive construction similar 
to those of Spain. 

The climate is delightful; the air is clear and 
temperate ; and by its situation the heat of summer 
is so qualified by the breezes, and the winds of the 
mountains, that it is by far the most pleasant of all 
the islands in the Mediterranean. The winters are 
mild, though occasionally stormy. The soil is 
excellent; its extreme fertility is mentioned by 
Strabo. Firs, holm-oaks, and wild olives adorn 
the slopes, and often cover the summits of the 
higher mountains; lavender, rosemary, thyme, 
marjoram, saffron, and roses perfume the air ; and 
the valleys and level tracts produce great quantities 
of corn, of as good a quality as any in Europe. 
Ilcd wine of good quality, olive oil, and salt; and 
nearly all the fruits of the south, viz., the fig, olive, 
almond, orange, melon, citron, and lemon are in 
great abundance. The date palm and the plaln- 
/^a/u attain their full size, though seldom yielding 
/ruU. The other products are hops, vegetables, 

orchards of orange and lemon trees nnd hemmed 
in by mountains luxuriantly clothc<l with wood. 
The island is poorly watered, for though there are 
said to be no less than 210 streams, only two deserve 
the name of rivers. The larger of these is the 
Riera, which falls into the sea beneath the 
ramparts of Palma, the capital. It is almost dry in 
summer, but in the rainy season it is very full and 
impetuous, and on several occasions in past ages 
has carried away a great part of the city, and 
drowned many thousands of the inhabitants. One 
writer, speaking of the soil, &c., says, " a chain of 
mountains which extended from north-north-east 
to south-west, divides it into two very different 
climates. The southern part, protected l>y the 
mountains against the terrible winds of the north, 
is mild and temperate. During the winter, the 
thermometer seldom decends below 45 degrees 
Fahrenheit; and during summer the fresh breczesof 
the sea temper the ardors of the sun. The north- 
em part, on the contrary, is moist and cold, and at 
times furious huiTicancs overturn the crops and 
tear up the trees. The most common maladies are 
catarrhs, consumption, and intermittent fevers. 
The nature of the soil is so difTerent that within a 
very short distance you might fancy yourself in a 
totally different country. From the mountains, 
you suddenly find yourself on the plain; hero the 
country is parched up, presently it is watered hy 
numerous streams, whilst arid and peaked rocki 
arc succeeded by fertile hills." 

George Sand says of it,— "Majorca is one of tlw 
finest countries in the world for painters, and oii« 
of the most overlooked. Everything there ii 
picturesque, from the cabin of the peasant, wh« 
preserves, in the smallest thing he constructs, tbi 
traditions of the Arab style, to the child clothed la 
rags. The character of the landscape, richer than 
that ot the greater part of Africa, has quite ai 
much breadth, quietness, and simplicity. It Is » 
green Helvetia under a Calabrlau sky, with the 
solemnity and silence of the East. In Switzerland, 
I he ubiquitous torrent and the constantly shlfttoj 
cloud give to the scenery a mobility of colour, and, 
so to say, a continuity of movement which the art 

Aonojr, hemp, wooJ, and a little silk. The Talley \ o! pa\T\lVi\s\%Tvo\.«\^ft.>}*«aRR,^^*^^l In producing. 
^ost famed for beauty and fertility is that of SoUer, \ Salute *B«im% Vo m^Oi. \.\x^ w\.\%N.. \^^*5if«^^ 
forJ2 mues in clrcum/erence, abounding lu\ scem»Xoei.v^eV>^V^A^^=«^^'^'^^^^*^'^^^^'^^^^^^ 


tSLfi Ot MAJOftCA. 


itely and strange forms, bat docs not 
le irregalar Inxuriance under which the 
f the Swiss landscape too often disappear, 
ours of the rocky summits stand out 
the background of a brilliant sky; the 
bends freely over the precipice, without 
ious breeze disarranging the majesty of 
ty fringe, and everything; down to the 
stunted cactus by the wayside, seems 
th a sort of vanity to please the eye of 

>logy of Majorca is but imperfectly known, 
and porphyry are found, the fbrmer at 
but the generality of the rocks are of 
f or tertiary formation. There Is slate; 
ble of various colours, with abundance 
tone, freestone, and chalk. Copper at 
and iron at Valdemosa. Seams of coal 
n discovered, but have not been worked, 
found in the bay of Alcudia. Salt is 
by the evaporation of sea-water in the 
nds al>out Campos; and in the same dis- 
warm sulphureous spring, celebrated for 
:y in removing cutaneous complaints. 

he exception of a few foxes and hawks, 
d is free from beasts and birds of prey; 
e are but few venomous reptiles. It pro- 
eep, goats, and homed cattle; pigs are 
s; poultry and game are abundant. Deer, 
and wild fowl are in such abundance that 
ie suffice for the subsistence of the inhabi- 
n 1860, the productions of the island were 
t 53,000,000 reals, or about £560,000. The 
tures comprise linen, cloth, silk, stuflTs, and 
goods, as tapestry, blankets, sashes, and 
tuflf. Of the leaves of the palm are made 
»nd baskets. The exports are oils, vegc- 
resh and dried fruits, wines, brandy, cheese, 
>llen goods. Most of these are taken by 
but some by Sardinia, Malta, England, 
!, France, and even America. The imports, 
in value bear a small proportion to the 
, are com, salted provisions, sugar, coffee, 
obacco, rice, cutler}', and other mannfac- 
Mds and articles of clothing. 

•ugh uncommonly fertile, agriculture is 
ickward; and from the bad state of tUe 

roads in the Intcriorof the isle, the Mi^orcans only 
reap a small revenue from their productions; thus 
for example, 1,000 oranges, which in the centre of 
the isle may be bought for 5 or 6 francs, cost 10 or 
12 francs upon the coast, the only means of trans- 
port being by mules— a state of things which the 
new railway has already to some extent altered. 

In character, the Majorcans resemble the Cata- 
lans, but are less industrious and enterprising. 
They are robust and active, and much attached to 
their countr>', loyal to the government, and make 
excellent soldiers and sailors; bigoted in religion; 
boastful, though mild and amiable in disposition ; 
hospitable to strangers, and prepossessing in their 
manners. The women are elegant, and fond of 
dress and ornament. The Castilian is only spoken 
at Majorca in official circles; in private life, the 
rich as well as the poor speak Majorcan, a dialect 
of Catalonian, mixed with Castilian and Arabic 
words. The words puig (hill), raxa, are pronounced 
respectively, pooitch, rasha. The ware called 
Mcijolica^ Maiolica, or Maiorica, was so named 
from Majorca or Mallorca, where it was first made. 
The name is properly applicable to the earth from 
which it was manufactured. The term was also 
applied to a kind of ware which was anciently 
made at Faenza, in the Italian Romag^ia. 

The original colonists of Mallorca were Phceni- 
cians. The island fell, with Spain, successively into 
the hands of the Carthaginians and Romans. It 
was seized by the Vandals a.d.426, and conquered 
by the Moors in 798, during whose dominion it was 
in its most flourishing state. The Moors being 
very industrious, and also populous, surrounded the 
whole coast with fortifications; cultivated every 
spot that was not either rock or sand and had no 
less than fifteen great towns. After being several 
times taken by the Christians, and retaken by the 
Mohammedans, the island was finally wrested from 
the latter in 1229, by Jaime of Aragon, who estab- 
lished in it a new kingdom, feudatory to that of 
Aragon ; this was upset in 1841, since which it has 
been subject to Spain, and has entirely lost its im- 
portance. The island possesses several good har- 
bours. The population, though much. dftwtft»Mu^ 
since theUm<& q\ \.\v^'«LwstvN* '^'"5B5w «»wfiAaB«<s5^* 
i Tbft OTA'S <i\W«fc w^'S ^XDJJ. wA KNk^S^*'^ 



[Section 1. 

PALBCA (Stat.), 

Population (1887), 69,586. 

HotdliS.— I^onda de las Tres Palmas; Fonda di 

British Vice-Consul. 

The capital, which In the time of Strabo was one 
of the principal towns, lies on the south-cast of the 
island, picturesquely situated on a slope in the 
bight of a deep bay, 10 or 12 miles wide, and formed 
by the capes Blanco and Gala Figucra. A Rail- 
way from Palma is open to Manacor, vid Font d' 

Inca (a torrent), Marratazi, Sta. Mariai 
Oonsell (branch to Alaro), Binlsalem, Inca, 

Empalme, te.., Junction (for La Puebla), San 

Juan, Fetra, to Manacor. The branch runs 

vid LlUVi, Muro, to La Fuebla, for Alcudia. 
It is nearly level, and was made by an English 
firm. The trade is increasing. Cheap good wine 
of a clear sherry colour is grown. 

The streets are In some parts narrow and mean, 
in others, wide and regular; the houses arc large 
and without external ornaments, mostly in the 
Moorish style of architecture, and many are 
built of marble. Palma has now, comparatively, 
but little commerce. Its port is small, and will 
only admit vessels of little draught. Both within 
and without the city are to be scon numerous 
evidences of the superior size, population, and 
commercial Importance of past ages. 

The Oathedral is a largo Gothic edifice of great 
simplicity and beauty. It was built in the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, by James of Aragon, the 
Conqueror (who is interred within Its walls), and 
was finished In 1601. Its form is that of an 
Oblong, extonding from cast to west, In whicli is 
the principal facade; width, with chapels, 190ft.; 
length, 147ft ; height, 150ft.; the spire is of such re- 
markable delicacy and airiness that It has received 
the appellation of Torre del Angel, "Angel's Tower." 
The interior of the cathedral is divided into three 
naves, the ogival arches of which are supported by 
t^'o rows of seven columns, extremely light. With- 
out being a chef d'oenvre, as the Majorcans assert, 
the edifice is worthy the attention of the traveller. 
Among )ts numerous beauties are the Capllla Real, 
dest/nedfor the sepulchre of the kings of Majorcft. 
27/e tomb of Jaime 11, in a simple sarcoiAagrus of 
^Uck marble, with a crcmtt, « nceptre, and a ffword 

In grilt and bronze. Upon a tmnc Aed pyramid err 
the fdlowing insbrlptloitS: 

Aqni reposft el dadayeir 

Del serenisimo D. Jaime de Aragon 

II. Key do M^illorca, 

Que mcrece la mas pla y laudable' moEabrM. 

Enlos anales: 

Fallecid en 2^ de mayo, 1311. 

Este monumento 

Lo mandd crigir a sus cspensas 

El religioso animo del Key N. S. Carlo* III. 

(Que Dios Onarde) 

Para que tuviesen digno desposito 

Las Reales cenizas quo ea €i descansan. 
Ano 1779. 

In the lateral nave, to the left of the entrance, li 
the Capilla containing the flne mausoleam erected 
by the Cortes of 1811, to the memory of the Marquis 
de la Romano, chief of the partisans In the War of 
Independence. In the centre is the Coro; the 
exterior sculptures ate in stone, and the 110 of 
which it is composed are remarkable for the finish 
and the varieity of their ornaments. The baptistery 
is wholly of marble and gilt stucco ; and upon the 
keys of the vault are the blazons of the great families 
of Majorca. The large windows are magnificent, 
and like the cathedrid of Barcelona, the vnnlt of 
the organ is surmounted by the head of a Moor, 
with a turban, and a beard, painted partly white 
and partly red. 

There are six parochial Churches^ some of which 
are not wanting in merit. Of the twenty-four 
convents which were in existence in 1885, 
nineteen have been suppressed; the remaining 
five are occupied by nuns. In the convent of St. 
Dominic, between the cathedral and the Plaza, 
called Corts, the Inquisition was established. It is 
now little more than a heap of ruins — columnt, 
cornices, mosaics, (fee, are piled up pell-m<dl, and 
some 1 ight arches alone remain . Judging from the 
beauty of the debris, which covers the ground, this 
edifice must have anciently been very fine. In ran- 
sacking the archives of this convent, M. Tasta 
made a cui'ions discovery. Among the illustrioas 
personages inten'od in its church, he found the 
name ol Bonaparte. U&vlng discovered the tMnb 
of thft lamWv^ •■"'tv^ cotK^«wi>Csvfc «.TCfiA-i\«^\MM?cbSGk 
With otYvwi Va axjWaiwAXt ^qk^ssbkolKvV^ «tf«^ 

Route 20.] 



at the conclusion thatthen<imeof Bonaparte is of 
Proven9al or LanguedOQ c^ljgfii. "En 1411 Hugo 
I^onapdrt, liatif de Mallorca, pa^a dans' I'Tle dite de 
Corse en quality de regent on gouverneur pour le 
rol Martin d' Aragon ; et c'est d lui qu'on fcrait 
remonter I'origin des Bonaparte; ainsi Bonapart 
est le nom Roman, Bonaparte ritalien ancien, ct 
Buonaparte I'ltalien modeme. On salt qui les mem- 
bres de la famillo de Napol^n signaient indiffdr- 
emment Bonaparte, Buonaparte.'^ (See note of M. 
Tastu. and Cn Hiver h Majorque by Or, Sand). 

The Palace of the Captain-General is in a very 
picturesque situation, but is distributed without 
order or taste. The same remark may be made of 
the Episcopal Palace, which is badly situated. The 
royal palace is a very ancient edifice. 

La Iionja (the exchange) is one of the finest monu- 
ments of the Gothic style in Spain. It was com- 
menced in 142C,and finished in 1448. Its form is 
oblong; the ornaments of the interior are simple 
and in excellent taste. The interior of the building 
is not loss remarkable ; it is composed of a fine 
large hall, supported and divided into naves, by 
six light fluted columns. The building is now only 
used for public f^tes and bal masqu(5s. Casas Con- 
sistoriales (Town Hall) dating from the sixteenth 
century. Its fa9ade is not remarkable in an archi- 
tectural point of view, but the penthouse which 
•urrounds it is worthy of attention. G. Sand says 
of this building: "It has this peculiarity, that it 
is upheld by compartments with roses richly 
sculptured in wood, alternating with long carya- 
tides crouching under th6 penthouse, which they 
seem to uphold with suffering, for most of them 
have their faces hidden in their hands.." The 
inferior contains a gallery of portraits of celebrated 
men, natives of Majorca, and a great tableau 
rtfpfeeenting the mart3nrdom of Saint Sebastian, 
by Van Dyck. 

The Hospital General, which was founded in 1456, 
by Alfonso V., is partly used as a lunatic asylum ; 
there are also several other hospitals. The Casa 
de la Mtsericordia is a fine establishment of modern 
construction. There are eighteen chambers for 
women, and five for men. The poor of both sexes 
of the town tfnd tfaeenrfroA« are admitted by a cer- 
tmcMte^grnttd by the onr4 of the parish, and the 
C0/Md<fr, or emtor of the qnarter. The Inmates 

are allowed to remain any length of time, and are 
occupied in sj^lnnlng and weavhig. In the Cata de 
Espositos, orphans are taken care of up to the age 
of six years. If at the expiration of that period 
they are not reclaimed, they are transferred to the 
Casa de la Misericordia, whence they are not dis- 
charged until they have learned a trade. Ferdi- 
nand V. founded a University here in 1483. Private 
picture-gallery of the Conde de Montenegro; apply 
to his steward. 

Excursions: To Raxa, the country mansion of 
this nobleman, where there is a fine collection of 
antique sculpture. To Bollver Castle, two miles 
from Palma, now a state prison. 

There are diligences to most of the towns, &c., 
named underneath. 


(Population, l,OO0)near Puebla(Stat.) on thecoast 
on a neck of land between the bays of Alcudia and 
PoUenza, about two miles from the sea. It stands on 
a rising ground, and is fortified with ancient walls 
of great height. It was for a long time rich and 
flourishing, and disputed with Palma the title of 
capita] of the isle, but for more than a century 
past its commerce and its population have steadily 
dimmished. This depopulation is attributed to its 
vicinity to unhealthy marshes, and to the want of 
good air. An English Company have, however, 
partly drained the marshes, and built the branch 
railway from Sou Bordils to La Puebla. The only 
church worthy of notice is that of San Jaime. The 
origin of the place is doubtful. According to some 
it was founded by the Romans ; while others assert 
that it only dates, at least as a town of importance, 
from the time of the conquest of the isle by the 
Aragonese in the thii-teenth century. The foimer 
opinion is not justified by any monument that has 
yet been discovered. Accessible by rail from 
Palma to La Puebla. 


(Population, 8,000) lies near the north-east part of 
the island, on a range of hills which extend east to 
Cape Pera, 8 miles from Manacor (Stat.X 
whose point is defended by et ii'a.^^Jkjfc,- "Vs. v^sk. 
maTvufacXAXT^^ qI ^^qm:^^ Wwecv.^ ^<^^B^sL> ^'s-- ^'^^^^ 



[Section 1. 

From ArtA a vKit «houl(l be made to the Cyclo- 
l^eiiiconstructiouisandthej^rottoof LftCiievade hi 
Eriuita. The former are situated in tlie middle of 
nil ancient forest of oalcs, and resemlUc the 
iioraghes in the i!*le of Sardinia. The Gueva de la 
Krmita lies about 5 miles off, at the foot of a hill 
))lantcd with pines. Quidc necessary. 

(Population, 14,929) is situated in a fertile plain 30 
miles east of Palma. It is a bishop's see, and has 
a convent. Some of its houses are large and fine, 
and some very ancient. Here, and in its environs, 
the Majorcan nobility pass the summer. 


the PoUentia of Strabo, lies on the north side of the 
iKland, 28 miles north-east of Palma, and about 2 
miles west of the bay of the same name, and in 
1877 had a population of 8,547. The bay, which is 
secure, and capable of holding large vessels, is 
formed by two narrow peninsulas, the points of 
which are called Capes Formentar and Del Pinar. 
Pollenza has a fine church, dedicated to Nuestra 
Sefiora de los Angeles; a Jesuit college; and 
active manufactures of fine black woollen cloth. 
It was once a Roman colony and for a long time 
afterwards appertained to the Knights of Malta. 


(Population 11,018) lies 27 miles east-south-cast of 
Palma, and has a convent, a hospital, and manu- 
factures of linens and woollen. In the neighbour- 
hood of this town is the chapel of San Salvador, 
which is held in great veneration in the country, 
In the vast plain to the left are many small 
places, among which are Porreras, Montnyri, 
Pctra, <kc. 


(Population, 4,600) lies on the north-west coast, 
and is 21 miles north of Palma. It has a port 
on the Mediterranean, and considerable exports of 
oranges and wine; indeed nearly all the oranges 
exported from the island are from this port. This 
is the most beautiful part of the island. Puig 
Mayor may be ascended easily from here. Guide 

(Popul ation, 8,981 ) 1 ies 21 miles south-east of Palma. 
I/i Jta environs are some salt pits, capable of pro- 
^uc/ng' a s-ood revenue, and a hot mineral spring. 


(Population, 8,000) lies to the south-east, and ; 
miles from Campos It is well built, and tb« 
neighbourhood is fertile in wheat and baricy. Th* 
place has been frequently rava^^ed by the Algorin 


has a population of 5,000. 


(Population, 5,000) is built upon the plateau of i 
fountain, and the side which fronts the sea 1 
planted with beautiful vines. 


(Poimlatlon, 6,829) is a small port on the soat 
coast, and lies 8 miles south-south-west of Palma. 


(Population 8,558) is situated 17 miles east-south 
cast of Palma. It lies in the middle of a vas 
plain, where James III. was defeated and los 
his crown. The town Is well built, and has mann 
factures of woollens and linens. Not far from i 
is the pool called Del Prat, formed by the water 
from the neighbouring heights. There are like 
wise 32 smaller towns, besides uumerons villages. 


lies at the bottom of a rich valley, and is protectet 
by the mountains to the north-west. It is knowi 
In the isle by the sanctuary of Notre Dame d» 
Lluch, and to the foreigner by the wines of Malvol 
sla and Montana, which are produced on the neigh 
bourlng declivities. 


Is built upon an eminence which overlooks the port 
From the summit of the escarped mountains is seei 
the magnificent plain of Seller, planted wit) 
oranges and citrons, watered by several stream* 
and surrounded with hills covered with olives aw 
carob trees. 

is a little port to the north-west of Pollenza. 


(Population, 2,600) was founded by Jaime th 

(Population 1,200) is a small town. It is the nativ 
place of Santa Catalina Tomasa, and above it it a 
Mic\eii\. Oaxt\v\x%\a.\x ^Qio^cni^ l<>>itided 1S99!, an 

Koutc 20.] 

enlarged in the 18th century, which is well worthy 
of a risit. George Sand lived here some time. It 
Is about 10 miles from Palma. 

M. Germond de la Lavigne says of it:— "On 
entering the hilly district you ascend a road which 
was probably made by the Carthusians, very 
narrow, and horridly steep, and more dangerous 
than all the rest of the way. To reach the Convent 
it is necessary to get out of the vehicle, for no 
car can pass up the paved road which leads 
thither, which, however, delights the eye by its 
bold lines, its windings amongst beautiful trees, 
and the charming scenes which are disclosed at 
every stop, increasing in beauty as you ascend." 
George Sand says:— ''I have never seen anything 
so smiling, and at the same time so mournful, as 
these perspectives, where the evergreen oak, the 
earob, the pine, the olive, the poplar, and the 
cypress, blend their various shades in deep hollows, 
veritable abysses of verdure, where the torrent 
pursues its headlong course under thickets of 
sumptuous richness and inimitable grace." 

The Yalldeoiosa chain of hills rises from one 
plateau to another, until you reach a sort of funnel 
surrounded by high mountains, and closed 
towards the north by the slope of another plateau, 
at the foot of which lies the monastery, which 
was deserted by the monks in 1835. The building, 
with its great square tower, and its old barbican, 
which still retains some battlements, resembles, 
from a distance, a fortress rather than a convent, 
It is composed of three ediSces, built at ditiercnt 
periods, which do not show any remarkable beauty 
of external architecture. In strolling through 
them one can form an idea of the desire for com- 
fortable living, and even of luxury, which had 
glided imperceptibly into Carthusian life. Whilst 
the cells constructed in the 15th century are small 
and gloomy, those built in the 18th are well 
lighted, and consist of three tolerably large apart- 
ments, an oratory, a sleeping-room, and a work- 
shop. The former look on a common enclosure, 
which was used as a cemetery ; tho latter on a 
prirate parterre, planted with oranges, citrons, 
and pomegranates, and abundantly supplied with 
water. Each recluse had, independently of the 
oratory, his chapel, whither he retired to pray 


tasteless gilding and coarse paintings, but em- 
bellished with handsome enamelled designs in 
china, and a marble fountain. They had to be 
washed out every day. The church of the com- 
munity is of the composite order, and so gay, if 
one may be allowed the expression, that wc are 
astonished to find it in a convent, the rules of 
which were so severe. Its form is that of a Latin 
cross. Four pilasters divide the part comprised^ 
between the transept and the facade, and on the 
border which runs round their capitals are en- 
graved the escutcheons of the benefactors of the 
convent. Above the entablature rises a species 
of attic, on whi. h the vaulted roof seems to rest, 
constructed of brick, by the advice of Jovcllanos, 
and ornamented with fine fresco-paintings. Its 
single nave is paved with marble and with 
pretty china tiles, skilfully painted and arranged 
so as to form various designs. Finally we will 
notice the Pretinterio, the front of the altar, a 
reading desk and prior's stall of a peculiar shape, 
three fine pieces of wood carving, and, in tiie 
sacristry, a Gothic chair, which if tradition may 
be credited, belonged to King Don Martin. 

At half-a-mile to the west of -Majorca is the Isle 
of Dragonora, which is wild and thinly peopled. 

ISLE OF MIHOBCA (Spanish Menorca) 

Is situated 24 miles east-north-east of Majorca, 
about 125 miles south-east of the coast of Cata- 
lonia, 162 miles east by south from the mouth of 
the Ebro, the nearest part of Valencia, and about 
190 miles north from the territory of Algiers in 
Africa. The isle is of an irregular form, being 33 
miles in length, and 13 in the broadest part. It is 
the second in size and the most eastern of the 
Balearic isles. The soil is poor and sandy. Monto . 
Toro, the only eminence deserving the name of a 
mountain, is in the centre of the isle. It is in the 
form of a cone, with a flat summit, which is 
occupied by an Augustine convent, to which pil- 
grimages are often made by the natives with bare 
feet. The mountain is 4,793 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

Mount Sta. Agucda, the eminence next in import- 
ance, is supposed to have been a military post iu 
the time of the Romans. Tracea o<. "ULssesvV.'&v 

alone. These chapeli were waited, covered with \ mVueiaV ^toOcqlrXVwx* <A >ifta\^'fe ,>x'iNSa»ss^s«j>t^ 



[Section 1. 

atooe, marble of various colours, potter*s clay, and 
S^ypsam used for cement. There are likewise some 
unproductive lead mines, and iron ore is found In 
small quantities. It is rich In cattle, goats, sheep, 
and pigs; and also in game, as patridgcs, quails, 
and rabbits; woodcocks, snipes, and teal are 
plentiful in winter. The coast abounds with fish, 
especially anchovies, oysters, and lobsters. The 
isle swarms with lizards, and there are a few 
venomous reptiles, but no beasts of prey. 

The natives arc engaged in agriculture, fishing, 
and commerce. The imports comprise wheat, oiJ, 
tobacco, colonial produce, woven fabrics, and other 
manufactured goods. Tlie chief exports are flax, 
hemp, capers, saffron, cheese, wax, wool, honey, 
lead, iron, copper, and fine marble. From the 
comparatively level character of the island, the 
air is more humid and the summer heat more 
oppressive than at Majorca ; the spring is mild and 
temperate, and the winter is often cold, although 
snow and ice are rare. In character and manners 
the Minorcans resemble the Majorcans, and the 
same dress and language are common to both 
islands. The population of the whole island is 
about 86,000. The most important of the neigh- 
bouring isles are Colon to the east, and Ayre to 
the south. 

Minorca was successively possessed by the 
Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, and 
Arabs. On the conquest of Majorca in 1229, by 
Don Jaime of Aragon, the island, which was still 
held by the Moors, became tributary to that prince. 
In 1287 it was conquered by Alfonso, his grandson, 
who banished or enslaved the Moorish inhabitants. 
In the reign of Charles Y. it was seized, but soon 
evacuated by Barbarossa. It remained subject to 
the crown of Spain till 1708, when the Earl of Stan- 
hope, with 3,000 British troops, attacked Mahon, 
and by shooting into the town arrows to which 
were attached papers threatening the garrison with 
labour in the mines unless they immediately sur- 
rendered, he induced them to capitulate. The con- 
quest of the island followed that of Its capital, and 
was confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht. The 
English retained possession of Minorca till 1756, 
when Mahon was attacked by the French under 
Marshal dc Richelieu ; and Admiral Byng, having 
failed in reUevlng it, the island fell Into the hands 
o/F^MBce. The Admiral was tried hy court-m artlal 

and shot to save the credit of the IQnlstry, and 
''pour encourager les autres,** as Yoltaire said. At 
the peace of 1763 it was restored to the English, 
from whom it was wrested by the Spaniards in 
1782; it was retaken In 1798, and finally ceded to 
Spain at the peace of Amiens in 1803. 

The island is divided Into four districts, named 
Ciudadela, Mahon, Alhayor, and the united distriett 
of Ferarias and Mercadal. The principal towni 
are Port Mahon and Ciudadela. 


Population, 16,842. 

Hotels.— Fonda de la Mariana ; dc la EstreUa. 

British Vice-Consul. 

It is picturesquely situated at the bottom of t 
deep and narrow bay, on rocks greatly elevated 
above the sea, and in many places undermined by 
the waves. It communicates with the capital by a 
carriage road. It was formerly surrounded with 
walls, the only relic of which is a gateway of 
Arabian architecture. The streets are steep, nar- 
town hall, Church (with an organ given by the 
English), hospital, barracks, and other public 
buildings are scarcely worthy of notice; the 
private houses are neat and clean, and built with 
taste, but often without regard to comfort; for 
many of them being on the English model, they are 
ill adapted to the sultry climate. Some of their roofs 
are tiled, and some flat-terraced in the Oriental style. 
A cisit should be made to tfle Talayots, megalidile 

The Spaniards have a saying — "Las Pnertos dd 
Medlterraneo son Junio, Julio, Agosto, y Puerto 
Mahon," i.e., the ports of the Mediterranean are 
June, July, August, and Port Mahon— -the port, 
ranking as one of the best in the Mediterranean, 
and according to some, Indeed, as one of the finest la 
the world, being capable of sheltering a large fleet 
of line-of-battle ships. In the harbour are four 
rocky islets; on one stands a hospital, on anotbff 
a quarantine establishment, on a third a lazaretto, 
and on a fourth an arsenal, with naval storehouses, 
all erected by the English. At a short distance 
from Port Mahon stood Fort St. Philip, celebrated 
in the military annals of the last century, and above 
a league in circumference. It is now a hwp of 
mVuH, Yvav\t\g >>^t\ \Ao"?m 'vx^M^^cv^^^waVudibi 


lo pnvent Iti bttng Died by the EnglMi, h 
i«y iboDtd agalii tnke Iha lalnnd. 


They ipuk ■ dUlrci 

f IdEKlei- Clndadflaliilliiiniiclciitciii^tiilDflh 

>1<. Tbe >trMl> ire narrox', crooked, and tmdly i """ 

coDBtmctloD is unknown; but from an Inacrlptlon j ^^T. 
Above the Hontbeni portal, there ta no douTit thai It I . ^ 
e^,<ed in im. There are two parish chn«h«, | f™" J" 

-Lluio de Villa. 9wili Eulalta. Solanzst, 
lily, uid Do SoUnai. The caplIaT, iTlga 
atlon, T.a93),i»bulit on a penlnsnlson the 

^ It eiigulM: 
I likened to the hi 

lake. AlhayoT, Mercadol.n 
dlilrlct CBfiltiili at Minorca 

■appoMd to be or Phcenlcim oii^ ; inmll st 
of bronie, otna, ilmp^ Tasei, *c., chlel 


the ancient MbuMit^ liee due enath of Fornuntera. 
from whkh It it dlTlded by a chuinel thnevUu 
wide. Itl>Uiidau«th-watofl[ilor«,laaU> 
•ontta-weit poWJi M nllai out by OMtfl Ht the 


(PupulBtluii, SOe) it tltnated e miles nntta of 
1 viza. Ill length from weit to east ie ISullegj Iti 

PilHiaa. The hoDiei ire scattered In the coantrT 
Slid npon the eoan. Tfali lile U inppoHd to b* 

only anloalt which are found in Iti woods and 

birdnknnwn by the name of flamantH. Iti Inhabit- 
ants are chiefly engaged in agrtcultare. Its ataui 

wheal, which, eonslderiog its liie, it produces. 

liei 8 milei touUi of Uajorca. IthasafoitHd 
1 email harbov^ oaA ^a ^j*&- >s^ *^^» l«w*^*\ 

•Oa w 



[Section L 

in 1808, thai the Spaniards landed more than 5,000 
French prisoners. For an account of their snffer- 
in^ consult Artntures <f vn Marin de la geurde^ par 
3f . II. Dncos. 

For the Balearic I4es consult Strabo, 107; 
Casanbon ; Mariana, HUtoria GentreU de Etpama ; 
Itineraire Deteriptif de rEtpoQne; Dameto and 
Mert, Ifistorf of the BaJearic Kingdom ; Armstrong, 
History of the Island of Minotra : Laborde, Itiner- 
aire Descriptif de T Espagne ; St. Saarear, Tramls 
through the Balearieand Pithpusian Islands; ICinallo, 
IHecionario Geografieo de Espana; Dodd's llUte 
WeeJbs in Minorca. 


Of a Country- 

Farm hoas« 






Place (small) 




River, Stream 

„ bank of a 

,, (Count rj") 
„ shore of the 


Birco de trasp<$rte 


Lago, Lagt[na 




Llano, Vega 







Camino estrecho 



., blind 
., in a garden 

„ Protestant 

Of a City, Town, or Village. 

Calle sin salfda 
Callc de iKrboles 
Jj6nj^ B<$lsa 




I Hospital 

[ Hotel 

n roadside 


„ country 

„ lodging 

„ mad 


M narrow^ 



„ water 

„ wind 



Post office 



„ baker's 

n cloth 

„ cook's 


Square, little 


„ cross 

„ entrance of a 

„ main or leading 

„ public 





Town (small) 

Town Hall 




Floor, ground 
Front, Facade 
\ BtaUcaaft 





F<Snda, PosiCiU 


Caaa de campo 

Casa de posi£da 

Casa dc locos 

CaUtf ja, CaUeju^a 

; between > ^.„ .. 

ihi > C***«i*» 



Molibo de tf gua 

Moliho de vi^nto 

Casa de Mou^da 






Tidnda de pafios 





Crflle traviesa 

Boca de ciClle 

Cinie mayor 

Cflle pablica 






Casa de Ayuntamie'nto 


Of a House or BnOdlng. 

Alcdba, CujCrto de domir 




Cutfrto liiCjo 









Bating and Drinking. 








„ brown 

„ honsehold 

„ new 

„ white 

„ new 
Cod flsh 
Cod fish (salt) 

„ wild 

„ boiled 

„ fried 

„ hard 

„ new 


Pan bdzo 

Pa'n cas(^ro or btf zo 
Pan fresco 
Vi,\\ bliinco 

Qu^so fresco 

Hu^vo cozfdo 
Huevo estrellado 
Hu^vo duro 
Hu^vo fresco 














„ boiled 

„ cocldo 

„ broiled 

„ carbomCda 

„ fried or roasted 

M asi(da 







„ leg of 

Pldma de camtfro 




Tortilla de hn^ros 
















Pudrco, Tocino fresco 




























Ptfvo, Piiva 







„ cold 

Agua frfa 

„ fresh 

Agua dulcc 

„ warm 

Agua caliente 



„ C\v\Tt\. 

N Vcvfc ^vct^VJi 

„ \W\\\. 





i--i«i. Cailta 










Shoes . 
Shoes CUS^^^ 












Caia, Cailt» 




















^ft^stro de coc 




'' ,rooU«n 





justice of the rei*- 





pastry cook 






Coachman Keiu«» — 

Cobbler ^meence)^*y^'f^ 

ConductorCofadlllg«>^ ^^Vn^ro 

Cook Cocln6^» 

female Modfrta 

D^^ssmaker xbanlqti^'^ 

A uinxoa 









\ TScgocKnte 


Port^ro, Cargad<« 
















Uno, una 















Di6z y s^is 

'Di6z y 8i«?te 

DI^z y dcho 

Di^z y nu^ve 









Ci^nto, Clen 












Nono, Noveno 




Days Of tbe Week. 

. LUnes 

ly Hl^rcole9 



















The Months. 

























Other Useful Words. 




Biirro, Borrfco, Asno 





„ cold 

BfCIio f rio 

„ hot 



Las BarbKi 


CiCma, L^cho 



Boar (wild) 









Botflla, Frrfsco 

Boy, Lad 











Cepillo, Bnfza 





> GaT\d\« 

\ C«ITV«% 


teea Soche i HoTM 

Vino i» niii^rir 


iCat^Uo da anirt < 
fsb^o (I* nunUr < 



Tint* iDcuiutda 





Uipa, chilli t«ffnuw 






¥™idm Din*™ 

■ L*u 

















Ox, Bidlock 




„ >hMtor 




j^e StAOHpi 























• Carn^ro 






■ war 

Narfo gu^a 




NaWo merctfnte 




Kavfo de almac^n 




Navfo de transpdrte 






Costdso, Oaro 

































Mdximo, Grandlslmo 







Mdsa reddnda 





























Light (not dark) 


Totflla, Pkfio de manos 

Light (not heavy) 































VMfm AAiecttYM. 






Optimo, Badalmo 




you have ? 


(Donde, En donde, Por 
I donde, Adonde 

f En todas partes, Por todas 
7 partes 

Que, El cual, La cnal, Los 
cuales, Lascuales, Cual 

Cual qui^re usted ? 

(Por donde, Por que ca- 
\ mfno? 

Vender al rdmo 
• n your|^ Ponyase usted en la razon 

I to En respecto d En cuanto a 

y Por raz<5n 

t tlilnsr Cosa de eutidiid 

g No hay tal cosa, No es asf 

:h a rush No vale cosa 

isc of A costa do 

•ds, at all). ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

in so much Mc cuesta tanto 

•ent Cue'nttt corrie'ntc 

^ P ^"v. A bucna cucnta, d cuenta 

A csa cudnta 
' A raz<5n de 

A oricnte 
Dos d dos 

ck A las ocho 

c truth A decirverdrfd 

The nearest way 

me (to a 


J 49 

El camfno mas dcrcche 

Come near 





To rise early 

Early in the spring 




Neither one nor 

Never (negation) 

„ (time) 
Well enough 

Well, well ! 

Well and good 

or mas oorto 

/• Ac^rcate 





(MadrugiCr, Levantarse 
( tcmpri(no 

1A1 prhicipio de la prima- 
li. v^ra 




the > Ni uno nl otro, Ni cl uno 
) ni el otro 



A meniido 

Ahf, AUd 


Bastante bien 

(Bien, bicn; 
( quicra 

Como usted 

rub, that) ,, , ^ x 

.„ ' Y tiso es el cuento 

En hori£ bnena, Bien estd 

I As! como, Tambien como, 
Tanto como, Lo mismo 

I do not understand you No le enticndo 

As well as 




Muy bien 

Quiere usted ? 
jather ? Quo tiemix) hace ? 
hfr? Ilacebol tidmpo? 

tier ? Hace mal tic'mpo ? 

Se dice 
step, or gait A buen paso 
, instantly Al paso 
ance A pocos pasos 

A pie 

fCerca de, Inmcdiato d, 
'I Junto d, Proximo d 

jand FCerca de cinco mil ; or, 
1 unos cinco mil 

Fariente corcaAp 

I am hungry 

I am thirsty 

I am quite sleepy 

What do you say? 

It is late 

Do me the favour 

Whence do you come ? 

As you like it 

A laughing-stock 

A thing worth seeing 

A hard task or thing 

It is very haid 

It does not matter, it is 
a trifle 

So much tho worse 

So much the better 

So much mote 

Tengo hambre 
Tcngo s^d 

Estoy muy dormido 
Que dice usted ? 
Es tarde 
Hagame el favor 
De donde viene usted ? 
Como usted gusto 
Cosa de risa, Cosa ridfcala 
Cosa de ver 
Fu^rte cosa 
Es f u^rto cosa 

> No es cosa 

Tanto peor 
Tanto mejor 
















Llegar, Venfr 












Ir, andtfr 



Knock (at a door) ToclCr 
Make Hac^r 

Mount Subfr 

Open Abrfr 

Pay Pagir 

Place Pon^r 

Read Le^r 

Run Corr^r 

Say Decfr 

See Vtfr 

Sell Vender 

Shut Cerrir 

Sleep Dormfr 

Smoke (tobacco) Fumilr 
Speak HabUr 

Sup Ccntfr 

Take Tomar 

W/t»h Lardr 

frrlt0 Eteribir 






Esp^so, Denso 







Common Verbs. 

Infinitive. Participle. 













Ido, andfCdo 


Conoc^r, Sab^r Conocfdo, Sabfdo 
Cen^do / 

Some Useftal Pbrasei. 

Give me Done usted 

Give me something to eat Demo nsted de comi 

Give me a pen and ink Dcme una pliima y i 

Give me a candle 

As you please 

Take care 

You are right 

Bring me, lot me hare 


Have you ? 

Too much 



Deme unn r^a 

Como le gustar€ 

Tenga nsted caidj{d< 

Tiene V. razdn 



Ha nsted ? 





The day before yesterday Anteayer 

I speak a little Hablo un poco 

At break of day Al amanec^r 

At sun-set Al poner del sol 

How do you do ? Como estiC usted ? 

Do you Speak English? Habla usted Ingles? 

Do you speak Spanish ? Habla usted Espafiol 

At night-fall 
From top to bottom 
It is more than a year 
It is worth nothing 
What a pity ! 
On horseback 
I am groing to Madrid 
Tell me 

Al anochec^r 
Arrf ba dicho 
De arriba abtf jo 
Hace mas de un afio 
No vale nada 
Que liCstima I 
A caballo 
Voy & Madrid 
Digame usted 

What do you think of it ? Que Ic parece i. usted 

Saddle my horse Ensilla mi caballo 

How many leagues is) Quantas leguas hay i 
it from here to ? | aqul iC ? 

Is the road good ? Hay buen camino ? 

Yes, No Si, No 

Where is the best inn? Addnde esttf la m^or 

En resumidas cn^ntai 
Estemos fC cuentas 
Yo lo pongro en usted 
En la clud&d 
En el campo 
En casa 


In short 

Let us attend to this 

I leave it to you 

In town 

In the country 

At home 

When (of time) 

8\vce then, since when -{^ p!?® enttfneet, D« 




Erery where 

(Donde, En donde, For 
( donde, Adonde 

jEn todas partes, For todas 
( partes 

(Que, El cnal, La cnal, Los 
( cuale8,Lascaale8, Gual 

Which will you hare ? Cual qui^re ustcd ? 

rwrt t u • iPor donde, For que ca- 

Wliichway? j ^fn^y ^ 

To reteil whie Vender al riCmo 

^dcmSmd*** ^ y®"*"]- Fonyase usted en la razon 

With regard to En retpecto i En cnanto d 

Consequently For razdn 

An important thing Cosa de eutidiid 

Very, most Muy 

No such thing No hay tal cosa, No es &s( 

Quickly Pronto 

It is not worth a rush No vale cosa 

At the expense of A costa do 

At all hazards, at all) ^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ 
erents > 

It stands ma in so much Mc cucsta tnnto 

Now Ahdra 

Account current Cudnta corrientc 

On account, to part pay-) ^ y^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ 
mcnt ) 

At that rate A csa cuduta 

At the rate pf A razdn de 

III the cast A oricnte 

Two by two Dos i( dos 

At eight o'clock A las ocho 

To tell you the truth A declr verdrfd 

There is the rub, that) ^-.v «- «i ^»^..*/v 
is the difficulty ; ^«® ^« «* «^^"^^ 

Very well Muy bien 

Will you? Quiero ustcd ? 

How Is the weather ? Que tiempo hacc ? 

Is It flne weather ? Ilace bol tidmpo ? 

Is it bad weather? Hacc mal tiempo? 

They say Se dice 

At a good rate, step, or gait A buen paso 

Witliout delay, instantly Al paso 

At a short distance A pocos pasos 

On foot A pie 

1^ fCcrca de, Inmcdiato rf, 

^^^^ I Junto d. Proximo i 

fCerca de cinco mil ; or^ 
1 unos cinco mil 

Parleni^ corcallp 

The nearest way 


El camfno mas dcrcche 
or mas oorto 

Come near me (to a ) A-x--ftte 
child) ; Acercate 





(Madrugir, Levantarse 
( tcmpnino 

(Al principio de la prlma- 
"([ vdra 




Neither one nor the > Ni uno ni otro, Ni el nno 
other ) ni el otro 


To rise early 

Early hi the spring 




Never (negation) 

„ (time) 
Well enough 

Well, well ! 

Well and good 



A mcnddo 

Ahf, Allii 


Bastante bien 

(Bien, bien; Como usted 
( quicra 

As well as 


^csr Bve tbouMnd 
A near reUtUm 

En hori£ buena, Bien esti( 

Asi como, Tambien como, 
Tanto como, Lo mismo 

I do not understand you No le enticndo 

I am hungry Tengo hambre 

I am thirsty Tengo sdd 

I am quite sleepy Estoy muy dormido 

What do you say ? Que dice usted ? 

It is late Es tarde 

Do me the favour Hagamc el favor 

Whence do you come ? De donde vlene uisted ? 

As you like it Como usted gusto 

A laughing-stock Cosa de rlsa, Cosa ridfcnla 

A thing worth seeing Cosa de ver 

A hard task or thing Fudrte cosa 

It is very hai d Es fudrte cosa 

It does m,t matter, it is^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

So much the worse TMvtA-'^vst 

So mucYv W\^ \icX\.« 'X. w\\» \aR\«t. 

So mucYv mot«i 'Yvcv\.Q^*a> 

So mucWXe^s '^'^^^'''^'^^^^vx^n.vo: 

BsADiax^'s iFkn aub FOKnrOAt. 

th.oth.r;) q,| 

{ mlUDMtdqnemi 

Poco mil^a 
Es Impost ble 

Gently.' Bftlv! .top! 
b7Mt.lo una little 




Depoco tlempoac^ 

a D^o> iiibinai llmptoi 

How did lh« happen I 


WhMhavsweto pnj 




To apeak out. to .peak 

Hablar en reminca 

II doe) not matter 

E. tard. 


(Ha meneale, u«eJ f 
\ algo? 

Ojicn the window 


W« want nothing 

Kada not hace falU 

KIght and day. aliray 

Nocbe f dla 

Let til walk out 


Last night 

To what pnipOM? 

In the Eneli.h fublon 

A la Inglea. 


.YWen. jqn. tamoicon 


A la bora 

■ Slblenmencnanle 


En el dla tf. hoy 




Corriinte, T» le >4 
For >iipD«ilo 





-&««»* «tex 

IHiitalaTlaU; Hutuu 

JSeKnratpoite, Sin iak 

For lo qna ha olda Mi 


/Tan bien, or lu MB 

1 onantolmr 
Doi rece* tan gnuda 
Ite) Al alsno d«I CaUh 
r Blanoo 
Toma nneatrD* cabaDa 
Abro nited la pnttt* 
Clemta TenUiu 
la pnMt 

Estoy m 





Bntfnas noches 
Perdone asted 

^ " |Apoco 

ittle (indicating » 
[fflcultyorimpos-v Qne poco 
ty of anything) ) 

lingly, nndesign-) 

, without inten- > Sin querer 

or design I . 

does that mean ? Que qiiiere decir eso ? 
is all this ? Que qoiere ser esto ? 

more does . h.e) 

I? What more is VQtie mas qnf ere? , 
ssary? ) 

tly, emnpletely A fondo 
eanapafterdin-j. pormir la siesta 

l?Ic to another'8J.B^ber<lasaluddealguno 

face iPrente i frente 

it, in a right line A frente 

f, oy« the way {"^^ lAT**-*"""** 
i breeze Viento fresco 

money, ca8hpald| D^ero fresco 

ny honour A f6 mia, or por mi ti 

the stream Agrna abajo 

it the stream Agua arriba 

.easure is some-) La medida es algo 
t short ) deficiente 

;eUent beginning Bello principio 

Of one's own accord 
Abundantly, copiously 
In truth, in good earnest 
Still more and more 
Although, even 
Besides this 
Perhaps, if 

At latest 

To be out of humour 

To be merry, to be in\^ 
good humour ) 

To knock or fap kt the) 
door ) 

Much less 

A little more or less 

Neither more nor less,) 
Just equal | 

A burnt child dreads) 
the fire j" 

A man of his word 

The cheapest goods are) 
dearest > 

As you will it, let it be so 

The sun sets 

At the fall of night 

The sun rises 

The sun scorches 

With the utmost speed 

Without rhyinc or reason 

Without more ado,) 
heedlessly ) 

De su bella gracia 

A chorros 


De mas d mas 

Mas que 

A mas de esto 

Mas sf 

A mastardar 

No estarpai a fiesta 

Estar de fiesta 

Llamar tf la pu^rta 
Mucho mtfnos 
Poco mas 6 m^nos 

Ni mas, ni m^nos 

El gato escaldado iikk 
<gua f rlo huye 

Hombre de sn palabra 

Lo barato es caro 

Gomo usted quisiere 

£1 sol se pone 

Al sol pu^sto 

El sol sale 

El sol pica or abrasa 

A mas correr 

Sin mas nci ni mas alU 

Sin mas ni mas 




AlffCiidega The custom house 

Arda Sand, a sandbank 

Arrlflro,A«cm^l,Almo-) ^^j,j^^ 























A water-mill 

(A ward, a district, a |K>r- 
( tion of a city 

A ferry-boat 

A ford, a shallow place 

A wharf, quay 

(A bank of stones in the 
( riyer,literaI]yaflintstone 

A railway, a road 

A fountain, conduit 

A district 

The post office 

Junction on rail 

An inn 

A rofld or street 
At Lisbon, the militar}* 
arsenal; literally, afoun- 
dry or casting-house 

A large place or square 

A shop 

(A tank, a dam to keep 
\ rivers from overflowing 

Court, palace 


(A stoppage or impediment 
\ in the river. 

f A large place or square, a 
( piazza 

' A country house, a farm ; 
so called because the 
farmer paid to the land- 
lord thoflfth part of its 

A street 


A tiro-horse cab so called 
A croaa street 
A jvad-side inn 


Portugal is themost westerly kingdom of Europe. 
It forms part of the Spanish Peninsula, and is not 
divided from Spain by any well defined natnriil 
boundaries. The greatest length from north to 
south is about 350 miles. The average width from 
east to west is about 100 miles. The area is t,SOi 
square miles. The principal Mountains of the 
primary chains of the different provinces are as 
follow : — 

In Traz os Montos, the highest summit of the 
Serra de Montezinho, to the north of Bragan^*, 
7,870 feet ; In Minho, Murro de Bnrrageiro, in the 
Gerez range, 4,800 feet; in Beira, the Sorra da 
Estrella, overlooking the Zezere, Is 7,525 feet; 
in Estromadura, the loftiest summits of the 
Serra do liOusaa or do Coentral, 3,800 feet; 
in Alemtejo, the Serra de Ossa, 2,080 feet; in 
Algarre, I^a Fuya, the loftiest peak of the Sorra 
do Monchique, 8,830 feet. N.B.— The anthorlties 
vary exceedingly as to these heights, which mnst 
be considered as only approximate. 

The length of the eoast line is about 500 miles. 
Traz OS Montes is the only province which is not 
washed by the ocean. On the north, the coast If 
at first low, but it soon swells up and becomes 
steep and craggy. In Beira it again sinks, and is 
sandy and marshy; whilst in Estremadura it varies, 
being sometimes low and unsafe for navigation, 
sometimes elevated, especially in the vicinity of 
promontories, many of which rise to a considerable 
height, particularly those of Rocca (2,000 feet high), 
and Esplchel (660 feet high). Below the latter the 
coast is high but It Is considerably depressed In 
Alemtejo; and the sea being shallow, and thickly 
bestrewed with shoals, becomes very dangerous. 
belns at f^T«t Uieh and precipitous, then, sinking 

ft*na baTvka ot V*\«^% ^^ %».M><it^^QV ^\kV\\V^ixww^^ 




low poiut called Cabo Santa Maria. Besides these 
sandy islets on the southf no others arc found along 
the coasts of PortugaI,exceptthe Borlengas, a small 
group to the east of Penich in Estremadara. 

The TagUB, called by the Portuguese Tejo, and 
by the Spaniards Tajo, rises in the Sierra de 
Albarracin, flows through New Castile and Spanish 
Estremadura, and having divided Portuguese Estre- 
madura into two unequal parts, disembogues in the 
Atlantic. Its great width near the mouth, which 
resembles an immense lake, forms at Lisbon one 
of the finest and safest ports in the world. Its 
waters annually overflow and fertilise the extensive 
plains in the environs of Santarem and Villa 
Franca, and form lower down many marshes, 
called lizirias, which yield a considerable rcTvenue, 
and whose superficial area occupies 70 square miles. 
It is navigable for flat-bottomed boats as far as 
Abrantes; and in winter as far as its confluence 
with the BodaO. Both the rapidity of its current, 
and the rocks which block up its channel, render 
it unfit for navigation further. The influence 
of the sprhig tides is felt as fur as Omnias, a little 
below Santarem. It was formerly celebrated for 
the gnrains of gold mingled with its sands. Its 
principal tributaries are, on the north, the Elga, 
the Pousel, and the rapid Zezere; on the south, the 
Sever, the Sorraga (in some maps wrongly called 
Zatas), and the Camba. None of these arc navig- 

The other navigable rivers are the Douro, the 
Mlnho, the Guadiana, and the Saado, but these, 
.withtheexception of the latter, come more properly 
under Spain. The Saado or Sadad (in some maps 
termed Galdad) rises in Alemtejo, on the declivity 
of the Serra de Monchique, and flows in a north- 
^rest course towards Estremadura. Here it becomes 
narigable from Porto de Key, after which it forms 
a bay to the south of Setubal, by which it enters 
the ocean. The Mondego, the largest stream that 
rifles in Portugal, has its source in the Estrella, 
• not far from Guarda, crosses Beira and the vast 
plains of Coimbra, and finally forms the port of 
Figueira, near Buarcos. This river is navigable 
for 60 miles, exc^t in summer, when it admits 
▼csmIs no farther, than Coimbra. Its sands 
/DGcaMonally yield grains of gold. Its chief 
^t>u(«rie«.iirp ^9 P/i<9f on the right, «p4 th^ Ceira 

on iJie left. The Cavado rises in the Serra de 
Gerez, in Traz os Montes, traverses the province 
of Minho, and enters the sea near Esposenda. It 
is only navigable for seven miles. The Ave springs 
out of the Serra de Cabreira, and disembogues 
near Villa do Conde. The Vouga rises in the 
mountains of Beira, runs through this province, 
and having joined the Rio d'Ovar, and formed a 
small lake, empties itself into the sea below Aveiro, 
of which place it forms the port. The Odcmira 
rises in the Serra de Monchique, and at its mouth 
forms the port of Villa Nova de Milfontes. It is 
navigable for 12 miles up to Odemira. The 
PortimaO has its source in the same Serra, and forms 
at its mouth the port of Villa Nova de PortimaO. 
This river, which is the principal stream in 
Algarve, is navigable as far as Silves. The 
Quarteira descends -from the Serra de CaUleirad, 
and forms at its mouth the small port of Quarteira. 

Although all these rivers have channelled beds 
of no mean depth for themselves, they are yet very 
low in summer, and many of the smaller are 
completely dried up. On the other hand, when 
swollen by the winter rains, they inundate the 
neighbouring country, much to its advantage, on 
account of the rich deposits which they in general 
leave. These rivers might be rendered much more 
available for commerce, if the rocks and sandbanks 
which block up the entrances of the ports formed 
by their several embouchures, and which obstruct 
their channels, were broken up and removed. A 
partial plan of this kind has been attended with 
complete success in the Upper Douro, and towards 
the termination of the rivers Vouga and Mondego. 

There are no lakes in the lower lands of Portugal, 
but there are a few small mountain lakes. There 
are salt marshes in the vicinity of Setubal, and 
also near Aveiro. 

Compared with itsextent, Portugal aboundsmore 
than any country in Europe with Mineral waters, 
particularly warm springs, which, according to 
VasconccUos, amount to 200; but which are little 
known out of the kingdom. In a work published 
at Coimbra, in 1810, by a learned physician, named 
Francisco Tavares,they are classified as follows: — 
Simple warm springs>dif[%x«v>\.Vtwm.^*s8sssasstt.^'«^'«^ 



of carbonic acid gas and tnlphnretted hydrogon, 
coutaln portion* of loda and of magnesia, with, 
occasionally, a trace of alum, and frequently iron 
though in a very small quantity; there are both 
hot and cold saline mineral waters, the bases of 
which are clay, magnesia, and Ihne ; some have an 
alkaline base, as the carbonate, muriate, and sul- 
phate of soda ; many contain carbonic acid gas, and 
a few even hold metallic particles in solution. Sul- 
phurous springs, both hepatic and hepatised. 
Chalybeates, in which the iron is generally accom- 
panied by the calcareous earths, selenlte,the muri- 
ate of magnesia, and soda. 

[Section 3. 


The highest mountains are composed of granite. 
This primitive stone is found In many parts of the 
kingdom; the entire province of Minho, and the 
northern part of that of Traz os Montes, are formed 
of it. The Serra d'Estrella is entirely a granitic 
formation, which reappears afterwards near 
Cintra. To the south of the Tagus the granitic 
mountains pass through Portalcgra and Elvas, as 
far asBeJa; and the loftiest summit in this district, 
that of Foya, is of the same formation. There are 
few other primitive mountains in Portugal ; where 
the granite blends with schist it is In layers, 
and it is connected with the latter by a strati- 
flcation which resembles micaceous schist. The 
calcareous structure Is changed in Traz os Montes 
into a true micaceous schist; and it is only in this 
province that mountains of the latter, in a pure 
state, are seen. An enormous mass of schistose 
rock covers a large proportion of the country. 
Although of a different colour, it yet forms part of 
the primitive mountains, and contains micaceous 
schist. It lies over the granite. The frontier 
mountainsof Algarve, all those of moderate height 
in Alemtejo, those of Beira In the environs of 
Castello-Branco, and the chain which accompanies 
the course of the Douro, are formed of it. The 
primitive calcareous rocks form a continuation of 
the mountains between Lisbon and Coimbra, as 
t/io Bern de LoatdB, Porto de Mor, and Monte- 
^unto, irith the Bern de Amblde, and the chain 

times covered with sandstone; and at Cape Esplchd 
with traces of mineral coal. 


The great difTerenee of level In the surfaee of the 
country, which subjects it to so great a variety of 
climate, renders the vegetable productions of a 
varied description. On theloftlest summits forests 
of birch are met with on the sites covered with soil, 
and the cornel on the rocks. Among the plants in 
the northern districts some rare vegetables of tlie 
Spanish Flora are found, which, accustomed to great 
alternations of heat and cold grow here only. 
Few Alpine plants occur; since those belonging 
to the inferior regions of the Alps can alone 
resist* the summer heat on these monntains. 
Descending the mountains into the north, foresti 
of oak may be seen, in which the trees, so thick 
as to overshadow the roads, are, however, so 
far from each other as to form an agreeable pro- 
menade. The valleys of the provinco of Minhe 
are covered with almost continuous forests of oak. 
To these succeeds a country with forests of chest. 
nut trees, true Portuguese forests, whose brandiei 
interlace each other and mingle their foliage. They 
form the ornament of the back of the 8err» de 
MaraO, of the Serra d'Estrella, towards Pnndao, of 
the Serra de Portalegre, and that of Monchlqnet 
the chestnut does not grow in the warmer plains. 

Orchards arc met with at the foot of the larger 
mountain chain; and lower down the eoik tree, the 
kermes, and the flr, with lower yet, the lemon and 
the orange tree. The latter comes ta per f eetlw 
in warm and sheltered places only; It, howevii; 
grows equally in the deepest valleya, and ta tks 
region of the chestnut tree, wh«% It forma, togethv 
with the orchards and chestnut foresti, tlie dtf- 
cious groves of Monchique and Cintra. The ollfi 
grows still more widely, and is found near thi I 
birch trees of Qerez, and side by side wHh Iks I 
orange near Lisbon. Finally in the lowest aai I 
warmest regions, the aloe of Amerlea Is smd ti I 
flourish, and the date tree screens the harrast If I 
its shade. I 

\ TVii ^txvts of the Flora of the iontli of ftiM I 
\ «.n& «^l&Tv «x4 Ttf^i \««feA VBi^^nA.^«^i3L TiMl j( I • 
\t \ thf --^ ^ "**"•*- -•*-'-' ^ ^" '-• 

lk-\ ol 

Thit ro«k it *«m%- \ ol Vh«» ^\t\\Vw^ IP^ V^ '*'* ^«^>^ ^%iWA 


Africa. A flora pwnlltr to 

Kngl.nd.romet»l>h, «th 

Slillxn-iiuM Europta, 

□ «■ and «.ndy «.»*■ 

of Alemtijo, ind tha coatU 


d" Jl"^ iTe oUmlir^overthcleL 

whole health)-, except a few ipols 

bllU prumt la ibBnilinca 

the varluni sillqDi. 

Tipi^ and near Setnbal. Theham 

ti The odoriferoB. 

pluti, u tba Tuletlei o[ Ihyme, Iho nmbellUeri, 
and iplnDU pluti coTBr tbe highest cIcTitloni of 

th* yoone horba uid (oLlage begin 1 
■elves; Ibe orange and other fruit tn 
thalr bloiHme ; and Oclobar, Ihe lec 

tlu ichUtu raniiBtlDnj In 

•Hn tba poppT, lu the oolde 

■rbulai cnwn Iha baclu o 

tha hllli. upHli)])- 

■nd laiti III) February. l)e«inber 

tba rnnltlB, with iba tliiiu, 
■nd tba TUiDoi ipeclo of 

bn»m. Tho /■«!«■ of 
ol Portnsal; and the 

violent whlrlirindi. During this mb 
aowlng of the ti«r. almott i-nl. a » 

llnf ; and military operntioDa arc 

n<aL<KllanKa). Link 

chcckert a. by the drought of lomroe 

Tbe cold, bowcTcr, ig eeldom eiec 
rarclT fraeica durlnE nlcht. At Lie 

a Fronilnl, ought to be divided as lol- 

The soil of PortnBil Is nalnrally rich, md the 

during the tonrau 

occupies October a 

tha mort alovBuly mnnner, and there are few paii- 

■ble roadj. Wheal, barley, oat!, Bai, and hemp 

bnt much more bun 

■T« cciltivatad in the elevated dlslrlcls, rice Id the 

Oporlo is Kct an 

iMpottant braoeh of IndnJtry, and the produce of 

the Tlnayardi. watered by the npper Donro, (oral 

vcrj' warm. The 

part of the Maple oiport. The olive alt Is o( 

pro>tolty to these 

luferlor qnaUty. Mulee anil msei ate the chief 

never tnfteri the e 

beuti of burden ; oien ira nied for draught In 

Colmbra, Penaflel. 

tha provlncea Cattle and iheep are reared In 

During th. wime 

Ihan tba spring o 

quality. Goat, and pigi are numerous, and lleh 

■boDDd In the rivers and on the Hi.Btl. Iron, 

and April. FrJini 

mMble, and lalt ate the chief mineral prodncU, 

rollowi the course 

the Algarvlans 

MPacWlj ta. ft* 

kt Uiboift. MoUta^ at PSrtatagrt Uid f andaft, 

niC; klftHn^U 

I less healthy. Thaiol 
andolher places along 
i of Algarvc from Its 

r, December, January, 

b«ttba-«rfmAvitnamir,/amn«r7uidtiW«t« ^ s«iinM\?Mv«M^- ' 




howerer, this phenomenon is almost unknown. A 
great quantity falls yearly In the mountains; 
nevertheless, with the exception of the loftiest 
peaks. It lies only a month in the prorluces south of 
the Douro. In the two tracts into which the cold 
region Is divided it often freezes, and snow falls in 
abundance; yet the rivers and brooks are seldom 

The Rcrenue of Portugal for 1893 was nearly 
£!>,0(iO,0.)0. The National debt amounted (1891) to 
£ 137,224,000. Tlic Army numbers about 40,000 men, 
in time of peace, and 12<i,000 when on a war footing, 
exclusive of troops in the colonial possessions. 
The Navy consists of 89 steamers (1 ironclad), 
nmny of which are In bad condition, manned 
by about 3,400 sailors. Tlie Population of Portugal 
ill lasi was about 4,703,178, besides 8,330,000 in 
the colunics. 


Provinces. Population, 1881. 

Minho 1,014,768 

Traz-os- Monies ^ 396.676 

IJcirA AlUi. 

Bcira Itaixa 

Estrcmadura 946,472 

Alcmtcjo 367,169 

Algarve ~ 204,037 

•I l,3n,482 

Total 4,306.554 

Exclusive of the population of the Azores and 
Madeira; which would make the total 401,024 
more. Alcnatejo includes Portalegre, Evora, and 
llcja. Algarve includes Faro. Bcira includes 
Viseu, Castcllo Branco, and Coimbra. Minho 
includes Oporto and Braga. Traz os Montes in- 
cludes Bragan^a and Villa. Estrcmadura includes 
Lisbon, Santarem, and Leiria. 


Portugal, which forms the greater part of the 
ancient Lusitaitia, was successively conquered by 
the Romans in the 2nd century B.C. : by the Visi- 
goths a.d. 5dS; by the Arabs in 714; and after- 
wards by the Christians of Spain. In 1189, 
AfTonso Ueuriqnez, son of Henry of Burgundy, 
having gained a rlctory over the Moors at Oo- 
reqa«, vrma procltimtA the first King of Portugal. 

la isi9 99e 4«// 0/ the po|iiii«ti9ii of Vott Itiag^om 

died of the plagne. Tho dynasty of Bi 
governed the eountry till 1880, at abou 
period the country rose to the highest 
political and commercial splendour. Th 
guese discoyered the greater part of the ' 
south coasts of Africa, and the maritime 
India, and founded numerous colonies ; 1 
took possession of Brazil, which they 
till 1826, when it finally separated itself. 

On the invasion of the French in 1807, 1 
family went to Brazil. On the 10th Mai 
Jo&o VI. died, having first named the 
Isabella regent, who governed the klngdc 
name of Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, 
of Portugal. On the 23rd April, Doi 
granted a constitution, establishing two d 
and in other respects resembling the 
charter. On the 2nd May, however, he a 
the Portuguese throne in favour of his d 
Dofia Maria da Gloria (he remaining kin 
her minority), on condition of her marr^ 
uncle, Dom Miguel. But a party, secretly 1 
by Spain, aimed at the overthrow of the • 
tion, and proclaimed Dom Miguel King o 
gal. The Marquis of Chaves and the Mi 
Abrantes appeared at the head of the in: 
and Spain, which alone had not acknowle 
new order of thing^s, assembled an armj 
Portuguese frontiers. Thereupon Portt 
pealed to England, and 15,000 troops wer 
at Lisbon. Thus assisted, the iusurrect 
completely put down ; Spain was forced 
and the Cortes, which had been conv 
October, 1826, closed its session in March, 

In July, Dom Pedro named his brothei 
lieutenant and regent of the kingdmn, wit 
rights established by the charter. The 
accordingly left Vi«ma, and arrived at I 
February, 1828, at which time the Corte 
session, and on the 36th he took the oath to 
the charter, in the presence of the two ct 
But the absolutists, to whom the regent's dii 
was well known, already began to speak o 
his right to the throne, and to hail him as 
king, and the populace were permitted tc 
their cry of 'Long live the absolute King;' 
'*Down with the Constitution."' It was no 
Vk\ne«i^ha\ IXsi^ HX^^ ^3D«vqW ^xwi^ 



Vleosa, near the Spanish frontiei>, where he could be 
mpported by the troops of the Marquis of Chaves, 
and be proclaimed absolute King ; but this project 
wmm frnstrated by the British minister, who counter- 
acted the order for the departure of the British 
troopSf and preymted the payment of the loan made 
to the prince under the guarantee of the British 
OoTemment. The Cortes, being opposed to the 
dmalgns of Miguel, was dissolved on the 14th March, 
and on the 3rd May he issued a decree in his own 
name, convoking the ancient Cortes of Lamego, 
which had not met since 1697. The military in 
general was not favourable to the projects of the 
prince, and on the 18th May the garrison of Oporto 
proclaimed Dom Pedro and the charter. Other 
garrisons Joined them, and the constitutional army, 
•,000 strong, advanced towards Lisbon, but after 
smtaining a severe defeat, towards the end of June, 
the troops either forced their way to the Spanish 
frontiers or embarked for England. Thus termin- 
ated the first efforts of the constitutionalists, and 
irith the extinction of that party the influence of 
England with the Portuguese government ceased. 

Dom Miguel now turned his attention to the 
consolidation of his power ; severity and cruelty 
■were his expedients; the prisons were crowded 
with the suspected, ^and foreign countries were 
filled with fugitives. Many noblemen who were 
known to be attached to the cause of the young 
qneen made their escape, and some of them came 
to England, where they were supported by money 
from Brazil. In June, Dom Miguel called together 
the Cortes, was declared sovereign of Portugal and 
the Algrarves, chiefly on the grounds that Dom Pedro 
had forfeited all right to the crown, as well as to 
the appointment of a successor, by becoming a 
Brazilian citizen and not residing in Portugal. On 
the 4th July, 1828, Dom Miguel confirmed the 
fudgement of the Cortes, and assumed the royal 
title. He immediately established a special com- 
mission to punish all who had taken a part in the 
Oporto insurrection. Portugal now became the 
prey of political and religious bigots. In March, 
1880, the regency appointed by Dom Pedro was 
Installed in Terceira. The other islands were 
afterwards reduced by the forces of the regency; 
and, upon tbt rttorn of Dom Pedro to Europe, 
H wM w«Q knvwn mt b^ wa« iqAKlnQp pro- 

parations for displacing Dom Miguel from his 
usurped seat. Meanwhile, insurrections repeatedly 
broke out at home, but were suppressed by tlio 
vigour of the government, and the want of concert 
in the insurgents. In 1830 it was estimated that 
the number of prisoners confined for political causes 
was above 40,000, and that the number of persons 
concealed in different parts of the country was 
about 5,000. 

In consequence of some acts of violence, and a 
refusal of redress on the part of the government, 
a British fleet was sent to the Tagus, on the 4th 
May, 1831, but on its appearance the required con- 
cessions were made. In July, Dom Miguel was 
obliged to suffer a second humiliation of this 
nature; a French fleet having forced the passage of 
the Tagus, and taken possession of the Portuguese 
fleet, in consequence of the demands of the French 
government for satisfaction for injuries to French 
subjects, committed by the Portuguese authorities, 
not having been complied with. In August an 
insurrection of the troops broke out against Miguel. 
On the 24th February, 1832, the naval forces of 
Dom Pedro arrived off the island of Terceira, of 
which island they took possession in the name of 
Dofia Maria, as lawful queen of Portugal. In June, 
1882, an expedition, 10,000 strong, sailed from St. 
Michael's, in the Azores, and on 10th July landed 
at Oporto, which was taken without opposition. 
The Miguel ito forces laid siege to Oporto, but were 
defeated in several engagements by the troops of 
Dom Pedro, who were chiefly Englishmen. 

After a siege of several months, an expedition 
fitted out by means of a loan raised in England, and 
Dom Pedro, encouraged by the recent victory won 
by Admiral Napier over the naval forces of Miguel, 
sailed with part of his forces for Lisbon, of which 
he took possesion with comparatively little trouble. ' 
He then established a permanent government, and 
shortly after sent to England for the young queen, 
who was received by the Portuguese nation with • 
every demonstration of joy. In the meantime the 
army of Dom Pedro prosecuted its successful strug- 
gle. On the 26th May, 1884, after the surrender of 
Santarem and otherplaces, Dom Miguel wasobliged 
to capitulate and sign the conveatlow <A '^>i<s^<«.. 



[Section 8. 

yoang queen was firmly leatod on the throne of 
Portnipal^her father being Begent. 

One of the first nets of hit administration was 
the sappression of the monastic establishments; 
and another was the partial abolition of paper 
money, and the foundation of a metallic currency. 
On the l^th Aui^ust Dom Pedro was confirmed in 
the regency by the Corte% but In the following 
month the declining state of bis health having 
induced him to resign his office, the Cortes declared 
the young queen of age. She then assumed the 
full exercise of royal authority. Dom Pedro died 
on the 22nd September, 1884. In Januar>% 1836, 
Dofta Maria married Duke Augustus of Leuchten- 
berg, who died in the following March, and in 
April, 18»6, she married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha. Dofia Maria died on the 15th 
November, 1853, and was succeeded by her eldest 
son, Dom Pedro V., who being then only in his 
16th year, his father became Regent. In 1858 Dom 
Pedro married the Princess of Sigmaringen, who 
died soon after. Dom Pedro V. died at Lisbon, of 
typhus fever, on the 12th November, 1861, at the 
age of 24 years, and was succeeded by his brother, 
Dom Luis, who was a student of English, and the 
author of a Portuguese version of "Hamlet.** 
Dom Luis died 19th Oct., 1889, and was succeeded 
by his son Dom Carlos I., the present sovereign. 

During the reign of Pedro V., considerable 
progress was made in remedying the evils 
which the War of Succession had entailed on 
Portugal, and in reforming the commercial, 
civil, and penal codes of his kingdom. The 
press was made free, and successive ministers 
governed the country by parliamentary majorities, 
and, alike in the affair of the "Charles et Georges," 
as on the occasion of the epidemic of 1857, Pedro V. 
showed both manly courage and warm hearted 
sympathy, which made him exceedingly popular. 



2nd century. Lusitania conquered by the Romans. 

A. D. 

585. Conquered by the Visigoths. 
714. Roderic, last of the Gothic kings, vanquished 
by the Moors. 
JiW. Sbocka ofeartbquAke At Lisbon. 
-ffifi^, Aabn§a^bornatGttimanm»(othenwj\Wf), 

1117. Shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1135. Aifonio o<mf«n Imhoiu- of kni^^tliood npoi 

1128. His motherdispntes the sovereignty witkUa. 
1139. He is proclaimed Ist King of Portugal. 
1141. In conjunction with French fleet foiled in a 

attempt to regain Lisbon from the Moon 
1146. Shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 
1172. Affonso, with sanction of Pope Alexander, 

crowned King of Portugal. 
1185. Dies in December. 

1185. Sancho I., sumamed the Populator, succeeds 
Affonso I. 

1188. Silves, metropolis of Algarve, taken from tin 


1189. Sancho assumes title of King of Algarveii 

well as Portugal. 
1191. The Moors invade Portugal, take TonM 

Novas, lay si^c to Santarem,bntaree<Hi* 

pellcd to abandon it on account of tbe 

plague breaking out in their army. 
1211. Sancho dies In March. 

Affbuso II., sumamed the Fat, son of Sanclio 

I., ascends the throne. 
1223. Affonso II. dies. 
1223. Sancho II., sumamed the Chaplain, or Sancbo 

with the Hood, ascends the throne. 
1248. Ho dies after his deposition. 
1248. Affonso III., sumamed the Bolognese, wIm 

assumed title of regent on his brother'i 

deposition, proclaimed King. 
1249 He reconquers the kingdom of Algarre. 
1251. Algarve retaken by Affonso the Wia«i ^ 

1279. Affonso lU. dies at Lisbon. 
1298. Denis, his son, sumamed Ilusbaadnuuii 

1885. Affonso IV^ sumamed the Brave, ion o( 

Denis, ascends the throne. 
1848. Half the population of POrtn^l die of « 

1356. Severe shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1357. Affonso IV. dies at Lisbon. 
1857. Peter I. ascends the throne. 
1867. He dies. 

1867. Ferdinand succeeds his father Peter. 
\ 1»». I>\«* eX\A%Vm. 



3. John I. of "Happy Mtmory," natural ton of 
Pedro, inece^a him. 

t. Plea at Litixm. 

1 Edward, tnmamed theEk>qaent, snceeeds. 

S. Plasrue breaks ont at Liibon. 

S. Edward diei at Thomar of th^ plague. 

S. AfFonso v., sumamed the African, succeeds 
his father Edward. 

). He renounces in favor of his son, and dies at 

). John II. ascends the thr<me. During his 
reign he received Columbus after his first 
voyage to America. 

I. John XL dies at Alvor. 

k Emanuel, or Manoel, lumamed the Fortu- 
nate, succeeds. 

7. Yasco de Gama sails to India by the Cape. 

1. Emanuel makes an unsuccessful attempt to 
aid the Venetians against the Turks. 

t. Certain persons assembled in Church of St. 
Dominic having fancied that a crucifix in 
one of the chapels emitted a supernatural 
light, and a new convert from Judaism 
having affirmed that it was produced by 
the reflection of the sun*s rays through an 
opposite window, he is forthwith dragged 
ont of the chapel and burnt, and 
a^OOOother converts barbarously murdered, 
«th April. 

U Emanuel makes a successful descent on the 
coast of Africa. 

.. He dies at Lisbon. Camoena bom about 

.. JoJkn IIL, sumamed the Compassionate, 
^BGond ton of Eaunuel, succeeds him. 

.. Shocks of earthquake at Lisbon at intervals 
for three days. 

u John Ul. persecutes the Jews. 

. Dies at Lisbon of apoplexy. 

. Sebastian, sumamed th^ Regretted, succeeds 
hit grandfather, John III. 

h In an espeditioa agahitt the Moors his army 
ia utterly routed at Alcazarquivir, in 
Africa, and himself dain. 
Henry, tumamed the Chaste, eighth son of 
Eaunuel, eneoeeda. 

I. 8lMakio< earthquake at Lisbon, when three 
ivuvihnnRi down. 

IMO. Henry dies ; and Philip II. of Spi^n, lumamed 
the Prudent, establishes hie elaim to the 
throne of Portugal. 

1698. He dies, and is buried in th^ Escnrial. 
1688. Philip III., sumamed the Pious, crowned. 

Does not visit his kingdom till 
1619. when he enters Lisbon with grand pomp. 
1621. He dies and is buried at the Escnrial. 
1621. Philip IV., sumamed the Great, succeeds. 
1640.8rd December. — Revolution in Portugal, which 

ended in the downfall of the Spanish power, 

and proclamation of the Duke of Braganza, 

or Braganza, as king. 

1640. 15th December.— John IV^ surnamed the 

Restorer, crowned Idng. 

1641. Slst August.— Nearly fifty persons executed 

for a conspiracy against the government. 

1666. John IV. dies at Lisbon. 

1666. Affonso VI., sumamed the Victorious, suc- 

1668. His mother acts as regent till he assumes, 
the reins of govemment. 

1674. Abdicates in favour of his brother Peter. 

1688. Dies of apoplexy at Cintra. 

1688. Peter II., sumamed the Pacific, crowned with 
great pomp. 

1699. Violent shocks of earthquake at Lisbon. 
1706. Peter II. dies. 

1706. John V. succeeds. 

1722. Violent shocks of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1750. John V. dies. 

1760. Slight shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1760. Joseph succeeds. 

1766. 1st November .—(7rea< Earthquake at lUbon, 

when 30,000 persons perished. 
1777. Joseph dies. 

1777. Succeeded by Maria, who becomes deranged. 
1792. John, Prince Regent; afterwards John VL 

1807. On invasion of the Frcoich, the royal family 

depart for Brazil. 

1808. Dom Pedro, eldest son of John VI., taken 

with the rest of the royal family to 

1817. He marries Leopoldine, Archduchess of 

1826. Portuguese retain posseasiAu. «1 %t»di^ ^CiSiw 
l«27. Thiou^ol 'e«t\.Tj*il^MswvA^M^«*«^'*2^^ 

bSADsHAw's Bt>Ati4 X 

[Beetlon i-. 

Fotllgal. UbrlquatutrdeAnlUtmai- 

I. (bora 183S) locceula t 
hof Dam VEBdltl- 


v°" " 

IjJ' jll^g 

Philip I. (n. 
Philip II. (Ill 

Hooai or Buax. 



PMsr V. (Doi 


1851 19S9 

iTrlU AluUd 

Hvora. isea, 1 Tul., (o. Jfaw» *> PoMiisBi JxiM 

■ Jfodama, by JoaO BioleMs de Cmilro, L!ib.,Htt 
t vols. OirFfonario Oioiriiflco <b Rome do /» rW(il 

■ ttut Diimiti)HTi>r Pimle PtreUnilii da auHira,Hi 
b JiiMlro, £i»«niA'(. 1850. 3to1i.. 8ra. SfseiflHrit 
DeV'^itA^A'-'''"'^ ''* Btpoaia t Parlugat, por L 

Hinuio. Hid, l»M to 1»». tl Toll., 4to. SUM 
, Variat Anliffuidada de i^f ii^af. LlHbon. llUs 
JHfrfDiur-fo OtogrqJIa Abreviado, por Jwfi 

Tto, 183S.1TOI £iuf(afi<iM5t(MA«<t/MllViad 
S. G. Klngilon, Lonely ISU, t nil 

g dl 1S4I, pels 

I Bertnnd, INS. U 
,d Denli, Sto. FiriB< 
lnI>ldot,lS4G. ArM' 
\ Hto., Lond.1 IBB. 
IB tn John. ISn tm 
itoli; ditiD, 1 TO)!., Sn: 

nclpA Llchnowskj. Bi 

C«rldJi L {reigning kiug) 18jB- 

Vorkl on Portnssl.— £u>[ StaiUHgui lur i 
Rol/auna di Portugal a a Algara, 3 vole., 8 vu., Pa 
18J3. n moat Tjluiblfl work to Imlh Boogriiphcr nil 
hlatarlaii. RaaidU Anliqailala Lmilaiilie, 13id< 
IflOB. I^ltan.ff(ileryo/aoPijr*«»i««JliKoiwrj 
and ConguaU. t Tola., 4to., pmr- 1733. Llpk iiii 
Marpb^. n^rc/x iJi J^lugal. Vgrlot, UiiiiAti da 

HenieCB<ilmij»iralia.lSti. OaeripfatTIf^ 
{fTditnt da NMlluima Cidadi dt Utboa. it, rdi 


Vaaomcdloi, 8to., 
aocl^t^IMrlqDe. fr 

pnLllcftUon d< U 

ai.<a, tllialraiiai (lUuitratim PortufmiK), tn. 
(Sulra Piniurara, aunumoria dueHplfgada iiil» 
de antra, OiUara tl Sou arrtdartt, Bro, U«h* 
LBW. CorUthiiViuviil.t^CalaatdeBiBBnn''' 

M» l^r^vfa^ Acpir M. F«d. Donli. Pir. 1836; 

SaUnltat iMilmia. MiUrita, crUia, a crimalogica, 

*. DHwo B«h«.l[Kliado, Li 




Poruvak d.H. A.Bilbl,P. 

. 18aa,»T0U!C0O- 

rorffi)IV«rtiii.i%rl.V.I, 1816. Gui**«l»ta». 

by J. A. Db Hwedo. 

e pnbllsheil bytbe 


and Bonncu' map 

of Alnnt^o ud Aigium. 

auny catebnted bistorUoi i u 


Buna, DlBfO do Conto, flrni 

>td> d« Btllo, En- 

ilqu* Flom, la CUds, fir 

ndio, L«m». >nd 



Decimo do.... 

00 (mllrel 


...0 8 11 

N.B.— The mrtreign, and hall ditto, ate luirast 
In PortniPil for 4} and H milreli, 

BtMmen.— LondDa to Oporla veekly, from 
London Docks, Sontbunpllan to Lisbon (Sj dayi), 
Ijy Jlajal i 

iii£S. FiDoi 

Fwnln,CaiIueiii, and Jacinto Co rdeln. In 
It can bo«M of Lull do Camoena. Diego Den 
Bub(ia*,Ba«Uai, Antonio da Lima lianoiF 
Ifanad ViU eSoua, Zavlcr da Meceiea (Cc 
KrioayraX Aleiandro Antonio da Lima, Mai 
Coita (afiraiiilaD), Qarcao, Joaqnlm Jo>^ di 
*B4, Antonio Lnli da Aiuedo, Hisntd da 
Qswralro, Leonol da Coata. Faoilno Cabral d 
«aacaUof,Do[laCaiaTlnad«5otua,Saa deUI 
Antonio Farrarn (tha Portngaeac 
ila Andrade Camloha, Jeronymo ( 
Cabado da Vaaconnllos, Barnard! 
lovao FalcaS. Amonc tha more modeni are Fran- | . 
daso Dlaa Gomea. FraoelKO Cardau, Alvarai da 
Xobr^a, ZaTlar da Uato), Valladacu, and KlEolao 
nilanUno. TIh rnvit ctielffaiad of all tba FoRn- I 
fosae poatB li Cbnaaai, irltoaapoamf'ilj Lttfiadas; 

U. Mlgnf 1 

■ Bonipa. TbaraanthTaaEagllili venlona. Tbai | 
o(F<Bali)iwa(LiHUL,l«M, lol,); that by William i 
Jnlltu HhUaCOno, 17I«, «la.) : and ttiat of Tbomu 
. IbonllaMMiaaaiii An.). PUli>W]>liy It IltUr 
,:indiId,wdtt*ca*afaw(«>ddlotionai1«>. Ooa ^ 
. ..ri tba IM* Jr JtM a' 7(9n; In r TOl Hn Sto . 

id theoceto Madrid. 

DUlCHM*! run from it 
IVuaa. Tha^wniiKi qV UK 



fSection $. 

1X1X18.— Hotel accommodation throughout Portu- 
gal is generally of the worst. There are, however, 
good inns at Lisbon, Oporto, and some of the 
other large towns. The charge for 1)oard and 
lodging averages from 5s. to 8s. per day. At some 
of the hotels lodging can be had without board. 
The common name for an inn is Jilstalttgem. The 

AI Justrel, Castro Verde, Almodovar, CorteFigneira, 
and Loultf. Lisbon to Badajoz, by Portalegn and 
Elvas. Lisbon to Evora and Extremoz. Opotte 
to Braga, by Ponte de Leca do Hallo, Carrieai 
Villa Nora, Santiago da Cms, and TeboM. 
Oporto to Coimbra, by Aveiro. Oporto to Sala- 
manca, by Barca d'Alva. Oporto to Vianna, by 

country inn«, which are principally resorted to by by Casaldc Pedro, S. Pedro de Rates, and Barcellcs. 

muleteers, are called Venda?. and are no better, 
and often worse, than the Ventas of Spain. 

Distances. — [The distance by leagues generally 
refers to the coach road ; tliat by miles to the geo- 
graphical situation]. Lisbon to Bodnjoz, 33 leagues; 
to Oporto, by Leiria and Coimbra, 63 leagues; to 
Lagos, 110 miles; to Faro, by Castro- Verde, 41 
leagues; to Evora, 86 miles; to I^iria, 76 miles ; to 
Ton-es Vedras, by Penlche, 1 1 leagues; to Santarcm, 
60 miles; to Setubal, by Almadu, 6| leagues; 
to Bragan^a, by Sant^ircm, Almeida and Castcl 
Uodrigo, 81} leagues; to Pontalegrc, 29^ 
leagues; to Coimbra, 110 miles; to Belem, 2 miles ; 
to Madeira, IGO leagues; Oporto to Braga, 8 
leagues; to Valcifia, by Barcellos, 17 leagues; to 
the Mouth of the Douro, 2 miles. Braganza to 
Braga, by Chaves, 31 leagues; to Chaves, 44 miles ; 
to Miranda, 26 mile". Faro to Castro-Marin, by 
Tavira, bi leagues; to La^s, lOJ leagues. Coim- 
bra to Figueira, 24 miles. Santarem to Torres 
Kovas, 16 miles. Leiria to Bataiha, 7 miles. Pon- 
talegrc to Evora, 49 miles. 

Postal InfOrmatlOXL— Letters between Eng- 
land and Portugal, not exceeding ^ oz., about 2^d.: 
and so on for every additional i oz. llegistered 
newspapers. Id. for 4 oz. Mail made up in London, 
via France and Spain, daily, Sunday excepted ; 
and due dally. The Electric Telegraph extends 
over 4,n00 miles (1889) following the railway 
Hjics and taking in Cintra. 

Skeleton Tours.— Lisbon to Oporto, by Alco- 
ba9a, Batalho, l^tlria, PombnKnnd Coimbra. LlsUui 
to Cintra and back. Lisbun to Mufru, Torres 
Vedras, and Penichc. Lisbon to Oporto, by 
Coimbra, &c. Lisbon to Oporto by sea. Lisbon to 
Coimbra, by sea. LIsbtm to Setuluil. Lisbon 
fo DntsTfitizn, by fiantnrcm, Abran*2% Vendas 
A^'^r///r CnHtnlUt Branco, A]mii\A», Pinhel, Castcl 

Oporto to Vigo by sea. Oporto to Lam^^, Visen. 
and Cea, in the EstreUa mountains. Braga ta 
Guimaraes, Amarante, and Lam^;o. Braga to 
Arcos, Mon^ao, and Mdga^. Braga to ValenQa. 
or to Tuy in Spain, by Barcellos, and Ponte de \Aaik, 
Bragaufato Braga, by Vinhaes, Monforte, Chares, 
and Ruiva($s. Faro to Lagos, by Albnfeira and 
Villanova dePortimaO. Faro to Castro Marini, by 

N.B.— The places most worthy of a visit are 
Abrantes, Alcoba^a, Barcellos, Bataiha, Belem, 
Braga, Cintra, Coimbra, Elvas, Evora, Guimaraes, 
Le^a do Balio, Lisbon, Mafra, Oporto, San Pedro 
de Rates, Santarem, Thomar, and Visen. 

Those in quest of BlOlUltaln SceneXT ahoold 
visit the Serra de Estrella, in the province of Beira, 
the gorge of the Douro, near Vilvestre, that of the 
Sever between Portugal and Spain; the Mara6 
mountain, and the Serra de Soi\|o. Some of the 
llnest scenery of Portugal is to be met with on the 
banks of the numerous rivers and streams. Among 
the most beautiful are the Zesere, the Qaina, and 
the Sever. Among others are the Tamego, Teja, 
Dao, Paiva, Zatas or Soraya, Alva, Dave^ Veresa, 
Liz, Tua, Tuela, Niza, Naba6, Le^a, and Cavado. 

Language.— The Portuguese language, like the 
Spanish, is derived from the Latin. It containi^ 
however, many Greek and Arabic word% and sobm 
few from the Celtic and Gothic As the royal lint 
of Portugal was of French origin. It contains, aa out 
might suppose, many French terms. The pronnn- 
elation is not easy for a foreigner, more particnlariy 
the nasal sounds, in which it abounda. TIm 
gutturals, so common in the Spanish, do not exist, 
and many consonants have .been omitted, so that It 
is softer than the Spanish, although not so liar> 
monious. One of the greatest dlincnltlea la 
acquiring a colloquial knowledge of Fortugncae, 
\ \» X\\% \aT\«Vv ot ^VsXocX^'wVkVch hear little 

foJri^r, Torre do Moncorvo, and Oiitelro. Llnbou \ \j\m\ce Vo uxcVv ^\\vw. 1>\<i -vvtSttSCMn^ ^M^Mev ^y 
'■"' />/- ,Vo//rt. Pnlhotii, Qufnta c.'e R«dri>f<N ^ actM.TA\T\is \o Oa<N ti«\«\\\vw^A\nRA «A >iM6 ^^»*B»ak^^ 


Boate 21.] 

C«ttilian, or Andalusian Spanish. The letters 
are pronounced more like the French than is the 
case in Spanish. Ch answers to Spanish 11, pr to 
Spanish pi, x to Spanish J, nh to Spanish 11, but the 
pronunciation is different, except in the latter 
case. French is understood at the large hotels, 
bnt in the interior of the country nothing but 
Portuguese, not even Spanish, is of much use. 

ROXJTE 521- 

LISBON (Portuguese. Lisboa; French, Lls- 


Population (1878), 248,010, including Belcm and 

HotelB.— Hotel Durand, kept by Englishwomen ; 
Hotel Central, Caes do Sodrc?, close to the river 
and steamer landing; Hotel de Braganzn, Rua 
dd Ferrejial, at the highest part of the city; Uni- 
rersal; Hotel dc Paris, Uua Almada— French 

Cafis and Rertanrants.— several in the 

principal streets; EstrcUa, Rua do Ouro; Ldja da 
Kere, Largo deCamocns; Tavares, RuaS. Roque. 

CnubS. — ^Therc are several, to which a stranger 
with friends in Lisbon can easily be introduced. 

TramWI^. — Cars every few minutes through 
the principal streets to Belem, &c. OmnibUBes 
alio run from Pelourinho Square. 

Oallfll, — Drive or course from point to point, 
within the walls, from 400 to 500 rels. By the 
hour, 600 reis. 

Voney, ftC.~20 reis (the plural of real) = Id. ; 
100i?is = 5id.; Milreis, or 1,000 rci8 = 4s. 5id. 
A Sovereign = 4^ milreis ; An Oitava = 58* grains 
Troy; Arroba = 32Jlb8. avoirdupois; Quintal, 
4 arrobas. 

Post Ofllce.— At the Administra^aO Geral. 
Letters to England posted up to 6 p.m. 

flQlagraplL— In Pra^a de Commercio. 

Ballway Tennilllll for Oporto (N. E. rail), 
near Black Horse Square (Prmea do Commercio). 
That for the S. E. rail is at Barrciro, across the 


Boats to Steamers in the river, about 500 rois 
a head. A bargahi should be made. 

8teaOiein."To Almada, a good point of view 
aenas the Tagus; to Belem, Cacilbas, Rarreiro, 
ftl^^i^ Ac— See Bradihatt's Continental Guide. 


COiurcli of England and Scotch Cbnrcb 

Services. — See Bradshau>"s Continental Guide. 

Houses are let by the half-year, from Ist 
January to 1st July. 

British Consul, ftC— See Bradthaw's Con" 
tinental Guide, 

Bankers.— Branch of London and Brazilian 
Bank; Banco Lusitano; and Branch of Union 
Bank of Oporto. 

Passports still required for the seaports, but 
not afterwards for the interior. On arrival by 
sea, the passport is given up at the Custom- 
llouse, and must be applied for again at the Civil 
Governor's Office. No one can leave Lisbon with- 
out a passport. It can be obtained of Messrs. 
Adams & Sons, 69, Fleet Street. 

Lisbon is the capital of the kingdom, and of the 
province of Estremadura. It is beautifully situated 
on the northern or right bank of the Tagus, about 
12 miles above the bar or entrance of the river into 
the Atlantic. The city is in the form of an amphi- 
theatre from the bank of the river, being built on a 
succession of hills, the highest of which is that of 
Buenos Ayres or Estrella to the west, and the 
Castle-hill to the east. The broad Tagus gives 
Lisbon one of the finest and safest harbours in the 
world, and, according to some, capable of containing 
all the fleets of Europe. Indeed, the largest men-of- 
war are able to anchor close to the city. The 
entrance of the river is defended by Fort SaO 
Juliad (fort S. Julian), near the north sand, and by 
Fort Bugio on a low point of rock, near the south 
sand; higher up it is protected by the Torre do 
Belem(Towerof Bethlehem ),bniltunderthe reign of 
Emanuel the Great, and by several batteries on both 
banks. To the north the city is protected by hills, 
which, rising in successive ranges and somewhat 
abruptly, near Torres Vedras, extend in a line from 
the sea-coast to Alhandra, on the Tagus. On these 
ridges were constructed the intrsnchments and 
fortified positions called the Lines of Torres Vedras. 
The town occupies three leagues in length 
by more than one in breadth. It has superb 
and commodious quays. The streets of the 
oldest part of the city are steep, irregular, 
tortuous, and ill-paved. The modervL '^vevsss^ «^ 
the cUv,vf\\\0\\xwx«^\!w,^vV^V«N.^^^^;^ 



Tine, and well laid out. It hai two flno Plazas, 
adoniod with beautiful buildings, which include 
the Excluingc, the CuRtom-Houso, the India- 
HouHe, the Public Library, and some of the houses 
-of the ministcm. The city is divided Into six 
hairroH or (iistrictx, viz.: Alfama, Bairro-Alto, 
Bolem, Mourelra, Kocio, and Santa Catherina. 
Many of the squares and streets are planted with 
olive, palm, orange, and accada trees. It is 
lighted with gas, clean, and well drained. The 
pis lights are numbered— for public convenience 
at night— so that a stranger has only to notice the 
number of the lamp in order to know whereabouts 
he is in the city. 

LiHbon is one of the most ancient cities uf Europe. 
It was successively under the dominion of the 
Pnoonicians, the Carthaginians, and the Romans. 
At the time of the Roman dominion it was called 
Ollsippo ur Olyssippo, a fact attested by ancient 
inscriptions. Ptolemy mentions it under the name 
Olios Ippon. It was theonly municipium of Roman 
citizens in the province, and was named by Julius 
Cnsar, Felicitas Julia (I'lin. 4, 22). After the deca- 
dence of the Itoman empire it was in the posticssion 
of the Sucvi, Alauni, and Visigoths, and formed part 
v( the empire of the latter until its destruction 
under Roderic, in 718, from which time, until tlie 
year 109!), it was under the dominion of the 
Moors, from whom it was retalten by I)u:n AfTonso, 
or Affonso VI. of I.ieon. It was shortly after- 
' wards reconquered by the Moors, who retained 
possession for upwards of thirty-six years. 

In 1147 or 1148, Affonso Hcnrlquez, 1st king of 
Portugal, with the assistance of some crusaders, 
fook it from the Moors. In the reign of Dom Joa6 it 
was made the capital of the kingdom. In 1498, 
Columbus reached the Tagus, on his return f^om | 
his first voyage, whence the news of his great 
discovery spread over Europe. The day after 
the battle of Alcantara, in which the Portuguese 
were defeated by the Duke of Alba, the conqueror 
entered Lisbon, and severely punislied the friends j 
of thi* Duke of Braganza, but on the Ist I>ecenilK*r, ; 
/^■/ff, the /'ortu/fueMC proelalmed the Duke of Bra- I 
^a/i^M, in Lisbon, King of Portugal, and the lallw \ 
'sumedthenameof Jom6 IV. Lisbon had be«i\ ^ 
'>ct0d /„toM biMbopiic In the fl/th century, and 

[Section fl. 

when it was taken from the Moon by Don AffoniD 
the bishopric was re-established by Topm Eugeniu 
III. In 1340 it was erected into an archbisboprlc, 
and in 1706 Pope Clement XI. conaecnted a chapel, 
in the king's palace, as a patriarchal chnreh, aal 
granted it a chapter. The Archbiahop la ftyM 

From the earliest times Lisbon has been anbjeet 
to earthquakes. There were shocks in 1009, 1117, 
1140, and 1856. In the last year they wars men 
severe. In 1C39 the shocks lasted for three dayi. 
In 1679 several streets were thrown down, and is 
1C99 and 1722 there were some violent horisootal 
shocks. The great Eartbaoake of Lisbon took 
place on the 1st NovcmlHsr, 17A5, but Its effects were 
f el t at an i ramense distance from the city. Prevloai 
to it the following peculiarities of the weather wen 
remarked. In 1 7C0, Lislmn experienced a slight bnt 
sensililo tremour of the earth, luid similar rery 
slight tromours were frequently perceived in the 
course of the four following years, which prored se 
very dry that several springs and fountains, nsnally 
abundant, failed entirely. The wind mostly Idev 
from the north, or the north-east. The next year 
(170fi) was very wot and rainy ; the summer was 
unuKually cool, and during the forty days which 
imme<liately preceded the earthquake the weather 
was clear, but not remarkably so. On the day pre- 
ceding that of the earthquake, a remarkabls 
ghKiminess prevailed in the atmosphere, and tht 
sun was obscured. On the fatal day, KoTemb« 
1st, a thick fog arose early in the morning, but thli 
was soon dissipated by the heat of the son. Tbsn 
was no wind, nor the least agitation of the sea ; tki 
weather was remarkably warm. In the midst ef 
this universal stillness, at 9 86 a.m., a sabterraMii 
rumbling noise was heard, and soon after a tremaa- 
dous earthquake shook the whole city, throwfng 
several of its buildings to the ground. The sbocki 
were at first short and quick, bnt they soon diangcd 
into a difforent kind oi vibration, which toaaed the 
houses from side to side with such Tlolenee as te 
(icstroy the greatest part of the city, killing at the 
same time, a great number of Its Inhabitants. The 
entire work of destruction lasted abimt six 

wo* In boiH mt iboat i mile f ntm Ilia city, hurd •ppieelatcd by Ihem la ■ 
« BolM, ulf thUr boau wan miuUDg mj 
Ikonsh they irMa In deep water, did at t be n: 
Iter aaw the houKi fall on both ildei dI th 
Hie T«aiet9 were driven ftnm Iheir moarli 

L> repeatedlj a 

Tlalttitly U 
■trjfce, or actnally- iCrlkfnfr the gronnf 
placeg the bed of the rlrec roic aboT 
It li nnarkabla that a new qnay, wll 
peiwni npoo It, Bunk to an nntalliDnig 

>t the deai 


The people of Llibon 

family dear to Ihctn by 
they enjoyed under it. 
(0 the conclDilon thai 

oxhamationef thebodyof 
upon the druggists' shop^ 

calthy and genial ; It 

FrtBM John, en th 

Wnd December ol Ih 

e tame 

yaw, gave ri» to 


ehBTacter. and to the m.plclon that, dm 

Bconlon to ihe prevlnw of Alemlajo, troa 


thay bad only jDit 

er had 


amn truth theywerea 


byravanpaeoiur < 

llie marthy grxiund 

tkay had Tinted 

alter the anliunnal 

The royal bmlly 

of Portugal >eeid> 1 

Und BDlted In 

ti aftactloni, and I 

He ipectacle. of eon 

BO fntnently found 

In Ihehlrtoryrftba 


releia. Under the 

OOTeninient of the 




nmmer.Il't In winter, KII*. aeraninnu. 

puJatlon of Lltbon la <nry mixed, con-, 
people from every prorlnce ol Perlugal, 
rt hither In qneat of employment; of a 
iber of coloured men from the Colonlaa^ - 
merona Oallegoa, or portera and vatar- 
rom Oallcla, and olhcr forelgnera. 

Portugal it baa grei 
•lat principally of 
principal iuporta i 

and Boap, all of bad quality; 
JewellBta aietAia^ MW>ai«&,>s«i- 

tUDiii. In 14R'. HI uil on hli cdebnted To^iig* 
Dand Alrtca. br wi; of IheCspeof Good Hope. 

ncky and lukeil -, tbs •oU «■>- 
nrtd htm and tben wKh 11m*- 
alt on wbtdi Uibnn li tnOi 
orth-werU toAordi the nuika- 

HDCdl LlllM 

3Bxa> low higher 
> and Tllliigu, t> 

rnnlte parti; corered wll 

cd. and U Ik on the oppnil 
thai the dcllehlfnl qglnl 

he wealthy InhnbiUnti. 
ih-place nf ai. Antony 

perfectly npc 111 May. and conllnoeslill Ac 
OranB*" lor eiportatloo are gulhered In Febt 
botoro they are ripe. The Brcatet part o 

Fnbllc BflnaxM. - 

: rtoii 

^ by high waiii. «iin 

yB bDiiio is attached to Ihem, In which Iht 
Ula •pax'l part ol IbtlT mmmm. Tothawen 

heleht. It wa> executed in 17TS, after 
itgn at Hachadn de Caatro. Hare an 
ehang<>, tlw CuMom lloiiH or AiTand^a, 
era! Goretninent OlScca, and an Anh (< 
I norlh aide) icveiiiy feci high. From tli 

J, via.: the Rna do Onro (gold atract), Rl 
Fraia (silver street), aiid ihe Ena Aorut^ 
Tho Rocto, or Pra^a de Dom Ftdro. t> • 
oblong square; In It Is the The«tn> da Ddu 
Marhi (Theatro Naclonal}. One Sqnnre lidcdi- 
cateit 10 Camoena, and contiUns bis atatne (1MI> 
The olher public sqnaret an the Lugo de 
PaloDiliilio. where the new Towb Hall atand^ 

Soitre orTrntados RDmiilares.on thebanluo<lba 
, I Tagm; the Largo do Carmo. neat Ihe Hiifloi Ibt 
I Largo do Balo; the Laiyt de S. Fanlo; and ttt 

intry It not n wall enttlTUed ; ', meaivM. 

Konte 1^1.] 



twdfth centary' It was much Injured by the 
Mithqnake of 1M4, but wai restored by Affonso 
IV^ whose mausoleum it contains. The chapel of 
Sao Vicente contains the relics of the saint, and 
in A chapel of the cloisters is a miraculous image, 
called Sc&or Jesos da Boa Senten^a de Si. 
The cathedral is called the S^ or Basilica de Santa 
Maria Nossa Senhora dos Martyrcs. It was 
erected upon the site where Affonso defeated the 
Moors, and is the most ancient church in Lisbon. 
The present building is of modem origin, and con- 
tains but few remains of that destroyed in 1755. 

CbXLTtheS'^ffossa Senhora de Penha da Franca, 
on the summit of a hill, is held In great veneration 
by bailors, and has its history. S. Domingos^ near 
the Ruffo, containing tfie tomb of the writer, Fr. 
Lois dc Granada. AOmo Scnhnra do ifonte, situ- 
ated on an eminence. It was much injured by the 
great earthquake, and contains the chair of S. Gens, 
the first bishop of the city. I/ossa Senhora de 
Lorttto^ the most fashionable church. S. JnHao, 
built on the site of a very ancient church. It 
was much injured by the great earthquake, and 
was entirely destroyed by fire in 1816, but has 
ttncc been rebuilt. 

San Roque, to the west of the Ro^fo. The 
exterior is plain, but one of its chapels, dedi- 
cated to Sad Joad Bautista (St. John the Bap- 
tist), is very splendid. Note also the fine marbles, 
the mosaics, the columns of lapis-Iazuli. The 
mosaics, which were executed at Rome, represent 
the Annunciation, after Guido Rcnl; the Pei.te- 
eost, after Raphael; and the Baptism of the 
Saviour, after Michael Angelo. The pavement is 
also a fine mosaic. In the centre is a terrestrial 
globe. To obtain admission, application must be 
made to the Sacristan. 

*'The pilasters (says Mrs. Starke)" •' are formed 
of porphyry, verde antique, lapis-lazuli, and 
other precious marbles. The doors arc bronze, 
beautifully worked and gilt; the candelabra and 
the lamps are of solid silver ; and the altar is com- 
posed of lapis-lazuli, amethysts, and gold, and 
ornamented with a scriptural group in alto-relievo, 
which is one entire block of silver." "When Junot 

France, but, owiag to the suddenness and rapidity 
of his retreat, this valuable plunder was left behind. 
The chapel of S. Roque is reported to have cost the 
Portuguese nation a million of crusades (crusados) ; 
a crusado being 2 s. 2d. According to others, the 
small shrine alone cost 11,000,000 crusados. 

St. Engracia, a large church, near S. Vicente. 
It was commenced in 1682, and is still in an 
imfinished state. S. Antonio da S^ near the Cathe« 
dral. The architecture Is both severe and gracef uL 
Santa Maria Magdalena^ in the Pra^a of the samo 

Memoria (San Jos^), at Belem, founded by Dom 
Josd, on the 3rd September, 1760, to commemorate 
an unsuccessful attempt upon his life while passing 
the spot, on the night of the 8rd September, 17fi8. 
In order to punish the perpetrators of this plot, 
which was without doubt contrived by Pombal, 
several of the nobility, among whom were the 
Duke de Aveiro and the Marquis and Marchioness 
de Tavora were put to death on the 18th Januar>*, 
1769, and their dead bodies, after being consumed 
by fire, were thrown into the Tagus. 

yossa Senhora das Mercys, formerly the convent 
of Jesus, and containing some good paintings, 
especially the finest picture of Gran Vasco. 

Carmo, founded in 1389 by Don Nuno Alvares. 
It was much injured by the great earthquake, and 
is still in ruins, but is well worthy of a visit. 

Sa^l Vicente de Fora, founded by Affonso Hen- 
riqucz, but pulled down by Philip II., of Spain, in 
1582. It contains the remains of the rulers of the 
house of Braganf a, from Dom Jofto IV., and tho 
grave of the Duke of Saldanha (1876). Note the 
roof of black and white marble, and the high altar 
by Machado. It is considered the finest church in 
Lisbon, and was much injured by the great eartli* 
quake. The Naval Hospital is near it. 

Conceiqad Velha, in the Rua do Ribeiro Velho. 
It was formerly a Jewish synagogue, and suffered 
severely from the great earthquake, and the fire 
which afterwards took place, and still more so from 
modem improvements. Note the <!A?wSaije^>cto.siQjfe 

do RestVWo. 

comtaandedat Lisbon, this alto-relievo^ together 

w/tb most of tlte cfiarcb-plate in the city, yfM\ EstrcUa, fixv\%Yv«iei\tvVl^^. - ^^^ 

TMcketl ap, for the purpose of being conveyed to \ «ca\e otat.Y^tex^^^tkX^^^s^* «o.^N*^^ 



[Section 2: 

•Bperb Gharchet In Lisbon. Note the •tatuM of '■ 

the salnti. and In the Interior the colotirod marble*. 

and the monument to the founder. Dolla Maila I. j 

This church ia sometimes called Basilica do ! rich library of books and M88. 

called after the Xeceasidadea Choreh, which eoii< 
taiiif statues of 8. Cario Borromeo, 8. Peter and 
S. Paul, &c. Here are many objects of art, and A 

It is the Tojil 

Gora9a6 dc Jcm«. and is in the English quarter. 

yona Senhora da Gra^a. & church and convent, 
on an eminence overlooking: the river. It was 
nearly destroyed by the great earthquake. It con- 
tains the tomb of the renowned Albuqueniue. , ^^^ ^^^, ^^^^ ^^^^^ jj^^ j^ 
Xolc also the painting, in the choir, and the two p^j^^j^^^ (^p^„ g^^^^,. i to 4). a 

residence. The gardens are well laid out, and 
contain some fountains and aviaries, and there is 
a fine view of the Tagua. 

Palaeio da Ajuda (at the top of a hill, above tM 
bairro or suburb of Belem), bnilt by I>om JooA TL 

It contains some 
library, coUec- 

sacred images. ; ^j^^, ^^ ^j„^ ^^ ^^ ^„ observatory. 

Palaces.— Tlie Palace of Belem WAS bought Pofo da Bemposta^ a palace near the Can^M 

1726. by Juhn V.. of Count de Aveiras, and here | Santa Anns, to the north of the city; buHt by 

J. by Juhn V.. of Count de Aveiras, and here . Santa Anns, to t 
Prince of Wales lodged 187C. It takes lume . £)ona Catherine of 


Portugal, widow of our CharlM 
It is a wliitewaslied building, faced with stow. 

handsome, though small. Its fore^^round is a 

from tlic great Hieronymito Church of Jklem (or j 

Ileililelieju. lialf a mile west), founded by Dom • 

Manuel, untler whom Vasco da Gama discovered ! pretty garden, which, unfortunately, is separated 

or re-discovered the way to the Indies. The I from the river by a public road- Here Dom Josi 

original building suffered from fire in 1661, and j died on the 16th 3Iarch, 1826. The building is now 

from the great earthquake of 1755. It forms a 
carious assemblage of incoherent styles, the Gothic 
contending with the Renaissance and Moorish. 
Tiie lateral portal possesses beauties of the highest 
order. The Church has three naves, with sculp- 
tured pillars. Among the statues is that of the 
Infante Dom Henrique, tlie navigator, who greatly 
promoted maritime discovery. Here arc also the 
tombs of Dom Manuel and his queen Maria, and of 
Dom John III. and Queen Catherina. Catherine 
of Braganza, wife of our Charles II., lies behind 
the grand altar, in a coffin like a huge trunk, with 
a convex lid. Here the bones of Vasco da Gama 
.and Cainocns were deposited on l(Hh June, 1880, the 
tercentenary of Camoens'death. Notice the Casa 
Pia, with a fine restored porch and window (p. 169). 
There are some noble cloisters. 180 feet square. 
Since 1831 It has been used as an orphan asylum, 
and a riding school. M. Henriade Pene (Esquisses 
Portugaises) says of it:— "Lcs ddUils en sontplns 
beaux que reiiscmble, auquel manqucnt I'nnit^ct la 
)>cns(5e. Chaciuc pierre est une merveillc adorable 
de gr&cc. dc fini et dc d<SIicate8SC,rehau8sdc encore 
par les tons dor^set harmonieux que lo temps, dans 
ces climats b^nis, ajoute k ce qu'il touche." 

/Wacii? dM yecestidadeg^ situated above the Pra^n 
de Alcantara^ waa the palace of King Luls*s 

"siher, the titular King Ferdinand; and Is so \ winter. 

used as a Military School. Other Royal Palacd 
are at Queluz and Caxias, outside the city. 

Among private Palaces the most noteworthy ait 
those of the Dukes, of Lafoena and Palmdla; of 
the Marquises of Nlza, Castellomelhor, Borba, sb4 
Pombal ; of the Count of San-Laurenfo Farrobo, 
of the Count of Ponte, and of the Marquis <rf Olhsi^ 

Cortes^ or LegitJatire Chambers^ consisting of tlw 
Houses of Peers and Deputies,, meet in the old Cos- 
vent of S. Bento or Benedict. Here arc the puUJe 
Archives, among which are on old Hydrogrraphieil 
Atlas (1571), and a Hieronymite Bible (1495-7)l 

Museum, 9Ki.—Miaeo Real^ in the suppresMd 
Convent of the Jesuits, or Polytechnic School. It 
contains a collection of natural hl8tory,niineraIs,Ac.i 
Chinese and Indian ornaments, Ac, weapons, can* 
Ings. &c., from Africa and Asia, some indiftecnt 
pictures, a meteorological observatory, and a 
llbrar}'. It Is open to the public on Thursdayi. 
Viscount Daupia's Picture Gallery is near Neetr 
sldades Palace. 

Academia das Bellas Artes, or National GisUerj. 
in the suppressed Convent of San Franciseo. Tta 
collection of about 870 works is neither impotsi^ 
nor large. The best pictures are by Gran TaseOb 
the Coelhos, and Sequeira. The academy is opea 
irom i^« ^o \\iT«ft Vdl «uBBMr^ aad nine to two li 



(Jtojral Acftdemy of 
ideiMato), foinil«d in ITtt, by the Dulnof Ltfoena, 
Bd rabteqacntly extanded by goTernment aid. It 
k At the Jesus Ckmrent. 

CoUegio dot Ingtetitihos (fingUsh Collie), fonnded 
\1688, for the edacation of English Roman Catho- 
les for the priesthood. It has a fine riew from 
lie Qbserratory* 

There is an JrUh Roman Ccttholie College in the 
knniniean Conrent, for the instruction of priests. 

Xiilmzl68.— Lisbon possesses a great many 
fbraries. One formed of books from the libraries 
i the suppressed convents is styled the Bibliotheca 
*ubiiea (Public Library), situated in the convent 
»f San Francisco, near the Picture Gallery (as above) 
iaid eontains S00,000 vols., and fi,000 MSS., among 
trliieh are the $00 Cistercian MSS. It possesses 
iM lafge Bible which belonged to the kings of 
/ftstOe. The public are admitted daily (except 
landays), between nine and three. The Bibliotheca 
^aAeademSa (Academy of Sciences) is situated in the 
tUA de Arco. It possesses about 90,000 vols., and 
lere la a good catalogue. It is open to the public 
I M<mday8, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from nine 
three, and on Wednesdays and Fridays. 

rhe Bibliotheca da Ajuda, at the Palace, containing 

oodcoUection of books; the B^liothecadaMarinha 

I the Archive do Torre do Tombo, in the Calfada 

Bstrella, which is said to possess some valuable 

iments. It is necessary to obtain a special 

lit to Inspect these. There are also several 

ite collections, containing some rare works. 

ng others are that of the Marquis de Penalva 

to vols.); that ctf Baron Sombral (from 

t to 18,000 vols.); and that of the Count de 

res. The collection of Dom F. de Mello, 

ning 15,000 volt., has been purchased by the 

iment, and added to the Bibliotheca Publiea. 

rltablO InititutlOllA.— la Ca$a Pia, in 

em (invent, for orphans. It takes care of 

000 children, of both sexes, and includes an 

for deaf and dumb, and for the blind. It 

yest and most important charitable insti- 

i the khigdom. The Sala dos Beys con- 

l length portraits of all the Idngs of 

; they ore poorly ezecnted bat are 

4md thenton tntentting. Note alio 

! the fine marble ttaireaa*. Santa C<tta cb Miseri- 
i^ordia, adjoining S. Roqne, founded by Dotti- 
Manuel, for orphans and foundlings. It receives 
about 2,000 children. Hospital da Estraiinlta, A 
military hospital, near the Passeio de Estrella; 
Hospital de Belentj another military hoepital for 
ocular diseases. Hospital de RUhafblles (lunatic 
asylum), near the Campo de Santa Anna. The 
number of inmates is about 400. It was ori- 
ginally a convent, and subsequently a military 
college. Marine Hospital^ capable of accommo- 
dating 400 patients. The marble statue at the 
entrance, is that of Dom JoaQ VI.. during whose 
regency it was established. Prior to 1747 it apper- 
tained to the Jesuits. 

Hospital de S. Lazaro^ for cutaneous diseases. 

Asylo de Mendieade^ in the suppressed Convent 
of S. Antonio, for agfcd persons having no means 
of subsistence. 

PtlbllC EdlfleeS.— CVua de Moeda (Mint), on 
the banks of the Tagus, near the Largo de S. 
Paulo. Parliament Houses near here. 

Fundifaif^ or Arsenal do Exercito (Military 
Arsenal), situated on the banks of the Tagus. It 
is divided into two parts, the FundifaO de Cimk, 
containing the cannon foundry, and the Fundi^ad 
de Baixo. The latter has a fine facade, with 
Corinthian columns, and the painted ceilhigs are 
very fine. It contains, amongst other objects 
worthy of note, an armoury of ancient weapons 
and eng^es of war. The lion of this place is the 
great cannon, 20 feet long, taken by Da Cunha, at 
the siege of Diu, in India, 1589. Strangers are 
readily admitted on application to the officer on 

Arsenal da Marinha (Naval ArsenalX also situ- 
ated on the banks of the river, near Pelourlnha 
Square. It contains the naval magazines and the 
Marine Schools, with a Museum (open 1 to 3); and 
a good Sulphur Spring. The large room called 
the Sala do Risco is 350 feet long by 45 broad. 

Catfello de 8. Jorge (castle of St. George), situated 
on one of the loftiest heights, at a good point of 
view. It Is tnrronnded with walls,- and andintlf 
had seventy-seven towers and seventy^alx gates; 
Its walla endesA ^aAS\«t% Iw w3^«6isi:v^'«2ai*»^ 

I B. JoTge. 

Icinic da Beirut, plcumiqiiilj 

*t(i> «^RTuijjL.t.. QSectira i. 

The ClRO d« Tviirs), irtitra the boU-Bitali uii 

Varrn it Ciui 
h* flue vkw. 

nariietory for ubici. cordtgo, 
*e, on Ihe bonki ol Ihe Tijoi. 

PrUOM.— Limoelro, roimorl)- 1 jml"". "«"■ ">• 
c.ilIiiHlriil ; and tbe Aljubi, [ar fcinilo. 
Aqnwliiot, it" .l^Diu Mom.— Alitaaniib not to 


[t It unullj opm In nmunv^ 
Tbc BnlL-Hiihti In Portaeil ■[• not ai tha lii|t 
lulc of ihoia In fipaln, nor 10 Uoodjr. 

PnUlo OsTdani, PumIm, or PaDlls Pn^ 
iMilBdM.-VanWiii Jstaniiv, near tba Ptlnclodi 
Alndo. open on Sondfij'fl- JardOn Botamire, uai 
Ihe Hoipltil of BM J-^. open duUf- Both Ibea 
k-anleni will rtpBT 1 ililt from tboH IntensM. 

IM coDpand ollh mnny nthrrn In lenvth, ine 

Eacoli Foiytechnlca: Arenlda da LOtrdaA. ■ 

■quedurt Duy Ix: liiiiked upon mmeol tlia Kreiteal 
the wnti'i livm UdU^ l« nitlei illnliint. and rcnlo 


U»p ravine. Mr. Hullicwi Ibnii OcKriben II: 

OemetariM.-The rmam. on tbe ilte ot tte 
Campo de Najsa Senhira dn> Pnuarea, eontalaki 

"The roar] to C3«i™ rurrlcrt me near In Ihe jrroat 

Cemlterlo Alio, tbe AJada; and Iha O. Cn«- 
la on Hie bill ol IIh, Kvtrella. Tba lat la tit 

Maya, In 17M, irhtcb >lrcti:1iof ocron a wide and 
ileop valley, by a riiiij,-cur llilrlr-fivenrcbes, Tho 
centra 0110 of t]iu.u U ulil to lie tbe hlxheM arcb 
In iha world, and ibc view from thoBninnd, looking 
upw.rdu at It, h b>']-ond meainre icranJ and Im- 

?<r0'M Boiial ground, and contn'na nonUMUi 

to Fielding, tba novellit, who died bcra. nA U 
The En.llili chaplain, Ilie Rav. 0. Pope. 

p^ing. The arclicd man acnxi tbe valley near 

HarkBts near the HocJo and tha Caaa da Boln, 

Lisbon It nlmit i.MO letl long. 840 feet bl|[h, and 

Tor Te~eIlllJle^ flih, £c. 

110 feet wide; and l> of aucU loliaity tbal only a 

Catrlago may bo bired of Iha CompaaM 

■tone III Ihe prinelpil nrcb na> dlrq.liwl at the 

Eirthrinnkc, Tldt taM work, wbllo It ramaluB a 

monntnent of tbe Inilurt ry ot the FurtDguiue, nould 

of Oporto; IW 8.H.W. of Coimbra; 174 flf. * 

al-o are lappoaed to have been, Ignorant of the 

DfAbrantat. ffoilniy to Madrid, vid TaleDeU * 

flr^l priiiclplu of hydraollo. which bavo cvcry- 

Alcantara, im Room g». To Oporto, ((d PanW 

TbaatTM, bc—ntam dt Sao Carln (Italian 
Opera) open three daya a week duHog tbe winter 

T-AwlmdsflMB Vor.n//..1ntbeEocfo. Itwai 
bnllt on tba tite of the ancient Palace ot lb< 
Ibquliltlon, after the detlgDi of Lodl. an Italian 

, /(/aivMi>i>n<S'uDdajii,Taesday«,and 

and Coimbra, Kt Ronte. M and id. 

HO U 'Til SI — ContimuL 
I llBbon to antea. 

The loarlit wonid aa Utile think of leavlal 
Llibon witboni a vMt la Cintra. a* of going ti 
I London wllLont toebig 'Weilnilntler Abtay and 

rearrlage. AtaUwif 

Tha road li pnttT, 

and null nonh-wett. tbtsngh Betaaea. Qnaliu. nd 
S.Pedts. The Aqueduct above 

' wai opened In 19g7, whit 

Houte 2 J.] 



in the midst of orange trees, orchards, Ac. In the 
▼iciuity is the once famous Dominican convent, 
now converted into a manufactory. The church 
is still standing", and contains some monuments 
worthy of inspection, and the image of S. Mario, 
brought by the Portuguese squadron from Tunis. 
The palace at Queluz was founded by Dom 
Podro III. In one of the rooms is the bed in 
which Dom Pedro IV. died. This room is called 
Don Quixote, from a series of painted panels, 
representing adventures of the knight. In the 
Oratory is an agate column, brought from Ucrcu- 
Umeum. The gardens are all very charming. 

I^TF^fll^ftO, at the entrance to Cintrn, was 
occupied 1787, by Beckford (the author of Vathek), 
for a few months. In 1794, he bought Monlr 
Mnat6, a mile or two west, which Mr. Do Yismes, 
an English merchant, had built some years 
previously. This fell into ruin (see Byron's 
CkUde Harold), and has been rebuilt by its present 
owner. Mr. Cook, of St. Paul's Churchyard, who 
has the Portuguese title of Viscount. It is 
A rlclily furnished marble pile, in the style of 
the Alhambra, surrounded by gardens of rare trees 
and shrubs, and may be seen by ticket obtained at 
Lisbon, Mr. Payant, Rna da Magdalena. 

The only station between Lisbon and Cintra is 
Cacem, where the line to Figueira da Foz turns off. 


Population, 4,810. 

Hotels. — Lawrence's; Nuncs. There are a 
great many lodging houses in the town. 

Cintra is situated in the province of Estrema- 
dnra, in the comarca or district of Alemquer. It 
stands near the mouth of the Tagus, on the slope 
of the Serra de Cintra, which is the western 
extremity of the great central chain that crosses 
the peninsula from the Ebro to the Atlantic, 
and of which the Serra d'Estrella and the Monte 
Junto in Portugal form part. Cintra and its 
neighbourhood are celebrated for their mild 
dtmatc. It is the summer residence of the wealthy 
inhabitants of Lisbon, and especially of the 
fbr^gn merchants, and persons of rank under 
gover nm ent. The months of August and Sep- 
tember, when everything is parched round Lisbon, 
are passed here on moimtains which afford plenty 
of water, rwdnre, and shade. In the midst of 

Bummer the nights are cool, and the houses, which 
are dispersed among rocks, gardens, and wood, 
present an agreeable retirement. The mountains 
of Cintra, called by the ancients, Montes Lunas, lie 
north-east and south-east, and terminate in the 
Cabo de Rocca. They consist of granite, com- 
po>ed of clear white quartz, a somewhat reddish 
felspar, and black mica, against which leans a 
white or foUaceous limestone, or a proper stink- 
stone. The south side, towards Lisbon, is arid, 
naked, parched up, consisting of bare, heaped-up 
rocks, and affords a wild, desert, dreary prosptct. 
But on the north side, looking down the slope 
or "Serra do Cintra," everything seems to be 
changed. The whole declivity, to a certain height. 
Is covered with country houses and charming 
quinta.s, forming a shady wood of the finest trees, 
such as oaks of various kinds, pines, lemons, figs, 
and other fruit trees. Streams Issue everj'where 
from the rocks, and form cool, mossy spots. It 
produces a well-known pleasant wine like Bur- 
gundy. Pure white marble is quarried hero. 

On one of the high points, floating, as It were, 
In the air. Is seen a monastery, and on another the 
ruins of a Moorish castle. Where the quintas 
cease begins a thick but low coppice of strawberry 
tree, mock privet, buck-thorn, and gale or sweet 
willow, with other trees indigenous to the Island 
of Madeira. A fine prospect of the well-cultivated 
valley of Colares, of the great monastery of Maf ra, 
and of the sea, completes the beauties of the scene. 
Southcy calls this '* the most blessed spot in the 
habitable world." 

To the west of Cintra is the market town of 
Colares, and on the mountain, towards the west, 
is a small Capuchin monastery, built between the 
rocks, and called the Cork monastery. Towards 
Cabo de Rocca the mountains become lower and 
lower, terminating In a flat, desert, naked, lonely 
ridge, which forms the cape. The height towards 
the sea is from 50 to 80 feet, being broken straight 
off, and consisting of granite. Near the extreniity 
is a lighthouse, not far from a small chapel. On the 
naked plain the storms rage with great violence, 
the sea bursts with vehemence against the rocksi.. 
and is very deep lu l\v%Vt -sV^wAN.-^ . ""s-coa^XveoR.yk. 
are seeiv Wv^ mo\wi\,«Vcv* q.\ -^L^St*- wNft. «^vs*s«^ >^ 



to the northward is another chain of mountain*, 
parallel to those of Cintra. with which It unites; 
hl^h and detached mountainii, the Labe9a de Mon- 
tachique'nnd othcm. Fn>in the sea those moun- 
tains appear like a lofty amphitheatre. This chain 
consists of thick and folincoous limestone. On the 
part which runs towardii the sea is the castle of 
Mafra, built by Joad V., with its munastcrj-. 

Byron (ChUde Harold) says of Cintra: — 

" Poor, paltry ilares ! ret born midst iiohlest weuM— 
Why Nature, wast* thy wunders nu such uieu f 
Lo ! Cintra'a glonoua B-len iutervenn 
In variolated maze of mount aud fileu. 
Ah, me ! what hand c%u ttencll guide, or pea 
To follow half on whivh the eye dilates, 
'rhrouirh views mure dazz'.iug unU> mortal ken, 
Than iline« '▼hereof such thiiigs the bird relates. 
Who to the awe-struck world unlocked Elysium's gates. 

The horrid crags, by toppling convent crown'd, 
The curk trees boar tliat clotlie the shaggy st«ep. 
The mountain moss Ity scorvhiug skies embruwu'd, 
The sunken gleo, whiwe » unless shrul-s must weep, 
The tenner azure of the unmlfled deep. 
The orange i ints that gild the greenest bough. 
The torrents that from d iff to valley leap, 
The vine on high, the wi'iow branch below, 
M ix'd in one mighty scene, with varied beauty glow. 

Then slowly climb the many-win'ling way, 
And frequent turn to linger as you go. 
From loftier rocks new loveliness survey, 
Aud rest yet at ' Our L«dy's house ' of Woe ; 
Where frugal monks their little relics show. 
And sundry legends to the stranger tell : 
Here impious men have punish'd bneo, and lo 
Deep in yun c iv« Honorius long did ftwell, 
In hope to merit heaven by matdug earth a hell. 

And here ai.d there, as up the crsgs you spring, 
Mark, many mde-carved croes-s near the iiath : 
Yet deem not these devotion's offering — 
These are momoriuls frail of murderous wrath : 
For whereso'er the shrieking victim hath 
Poured forth his blood beneath ihe assassin's knife, 
Some hand erects a cti-ss of mouldering lath. 
And grove and glen with thouaands such are rife 
Throughout tbis purple land, where law secures not life. 

On sloping mounds, or in the vale beneath. 

Are domes where whilome kings did make repair, 

- But now the wild flowers round them only breathe ; 
Yet luiu'd splendour still is liugering there. 

Aud yonder towei s the prince's palace fair : 
There thou, too, Vathek ! England's wealthiest son. 
Once form'd thy paradise, as not aware 
When WAUt'>n wealth her mightiest deeds hath done, 
aCeek Peace, voluptuous lures was ever wont to ditm. 

. nere didst thou dwell, here schemes of pleasure plan. 
Beneath yon mountain's ever beauteous brow : 

- But now, as if a thing unblest by man. 
Thy fairy dwelling is as lone as thou ! " 

And in a note he says:— "The village of Cintra, 
about 15 miles from the capital, is, perhaps, in every 
respect, the most delightful in Europe. It contains 
beauties of every description, natural and artificial ; 
palaces and gardens rising in the midst of rocks, 
cataract^ and precipices; convents on stupendous 
heifbt»{ a dlttsnt view of the sea and the Tagus." 

[Section 2. 

I The Convention which Sir Hugh Dalrymple 
I signed with Marshal Jnnot, 1808, and which wit 
80 notoriously favourable to the French, is usually 
called the Convention of Cintra, and was said to 
have been signed here, at the seat of Harqnis 
Marialva; but this Is a mistake, as it was really 
signed at Lisbon. 

The King's Palace was formerly the residence of 
several Portuguese monarchs. It was destroyed 
by the earthquake of 1755, but rebuilt in the sane 
style by King Jos^, and is a mixture of Mooriiii 
aud Christian architecture. Several of the halls sR 
adorned with historical paintings. The Sals dss 
Pegas, or Magpies' Saloon, is painted all over with 
magpies, each holding a white rose and the motto 
" Por bem" (for good) in his beak. The white row 
is explained to be an emblem of innocence; and 
the motto is an allusion to the answer given br 

; King John I. to his wife (Philippa of England) 
when she caught him kissing a maid of honour. 
The Sola dos Ccrvos was built by Dom Manocl, and 
is so called from the painted arms of seventy-four 
nobles, coming out of stags* heads. The visitor 
will be shown the room where Dom SebastiSo held 
his last audience before sailing on his melanchoH- 
expeditlon, 1578 ; also the chamber where Dob 
Affonso VI. was confined for eight years, and 
where he died of apoplexy in 1683. There tre 
some fine gardens, ornamented with numennii 
fountains. Permission to view the palace may be 
obtained from the superintendent, who Is called 

Not far from the Palace, on the summit of i 
granitic mountain, ascended by donkeys, then 
existed the Penha Convettt, founded 1571. After 
the suppression of convents. King Ferdinand, 
the reigning king's father, built on Its site a Gothic 
Ch&teau, in the style of Stolzenfels upon the 
Rhine. It is well worthy of a visit. The clever 
and chapel still exist. In the Chapel, note the 
retablo of Jasper, inlaid with alabaster, the sculp- 
tures from the New Testament, and the columni 
of black Jasper. The View, from the summit has 
been considered one of the finest in the woild, 
embracing the lines of Torres Vedras, the 
mouth of the Tagus, the Serra Baragneda, the 
monastery of Mafra, and the Atlantic. Below the 

\ casWe axe csx^«ci« vtv^i ^vni^ka c;«!^ ta the rocL 

Bonte 2'^.] 



Nossa 8enhora de Penha has be«n reudered *' Oar 
Lady of Pimishnient," bat, as Byron afterwards 
admits, the name means "Oar Lady of the Rock; " 
the mistake having arisen from confounding the 
Iwo wordsP4na, ''pnnishment,'* and Penha, "rock," 
written by Spaniards, Pefta. 

One of the sights of Cintra is the Cork Convent, 
foanded by Dom Joa5 de Castro. It is a small 
IBonastery of Capachins, situated on the mountain 
towards the west, below the convent of Nossa 
Se&ora da Penha. It is excavated in the rock, and 
recelTed its name from the cells being cased with 
eork. The elevation and vicinity of the sea cause 
ag^neat accnmulatlonof clouds and moisture, which 
render it expedient to have a coating of cork upon 
iha walls. Here the hermit, St. Honorius, dug his 
den, orer which is his ^taph : 

" Hie Honoriiu vitam flnirit 
Bt idco cum Deo in coelis xeTivit" 
From the hUls the sea adds to the beauty of the 
view. Near the Penha convent is a Moorish castle 
apon the sommit of a hill overlooking Cintra. Note 
the Moorish Bath ; and the remains of a mosque 
about half way up the mountain. 

The Putha Verde was formerly the residence of 
the celebrated Dom Joa6 de Castro, who died in 
IMS. Note the If onte das Alviyaras, the chapel 
bmllt b/ Dom Joad, after his return from India, 
and containing a Sanscrit inscription. Tlie grounds 
are well laid out. SUiaes, a quiuta belonging 
.to the Harquis of Loul^. 

Bbort excursions may be made on donkeys 
to the VaruaLake (or Tanque), and the chestnut 
gitnre of Mata. Your boy will take charge of three 
donkeys for 5 hours for 6 vintems, equal to about 
f|d. Eoglifth. 

For a fuller account of Cintra, consult the Litbon 

LUbon to mafra, Torres Vedras, 
and Peniche. 

. . The line to .Flffaoira da Foz (page 186) now 
affordaaceeis to Haf ra<25 miles) and Torres Yedrast 
.tlumigfa Caoem, 44 miles in all. 

The distance from Lisbon to Maira is about 30 
■diet bjr road, la a north-wester)/ d^re^ Uon, and 
-•^jBllea Berth ai OiaUa, 

MAFRA (Stat) 

Population, 8,281. 

IXUL— Hotel Manoel. 

Mafra is a town in the province of ^strcmadura. 
It is built in the form of an ampliitheatre, from 
the foot to the summit of a hill, upon the plateaa 
of which is a vast edifice, combining a Palace, a 
Church, and a Conyent. ^This magnificent build- 
ing was erected by Dom Joad V., in consequence 
of a TOW made in a dangerous fit of illness, to 
found a convent for the use of the poorest priory in 
the kingdom, which was found to be that of Mafra. 
The building, which is built of white marble^ 
was designed to exceed even the Escurial. In the 
centre is the Churoh, with the Palace on one side, 
and the Ck>nvent on the other. It was commenced 
in 1717, and finished in 1742, from the desig^is of a 
German (?) architect, named Ludovici. The whole 
building forms a parallelogram, of which the 
longest sides arc 770 feet. It is said to contain 
870 rooms, and 5,200 doors and windows. There 
are also two towers, 850 feet high, and nine courts. 

The Palace is four storeys in height. Of the 
size of this edifice an idea may be formed from the 
quantity of metal used in every tower for bells, 
bars, <fec., amounting to 14,500 arrobas (each arroba 
being 32ibs.) for each tower. It possesses one of 
the finest Libraries in Portugal; it is 300 feet 
long; the pavement is of red and white marble, 
and it contains upwards of 80,000 volumes. A 
jrall 15 miles in circumference surrounds the royel 
hunting grounds belonging to the palace. The 
convent was formerly inhabited by 800 Francis- 
can monks, and some of the royal family generally 
occupied the palace. Part is used as a Hilitarj 

Beckford, the author of Vatfiek, says of the 
Church, " never did I behold an assemblage of such 
beautiful marble as gleamed above, below, apd 
around us. The collateral chapels, which are six 
in number, are each enriched with finely finished 
bas-reliefs, and stately portals of black and yellow 
marble, richly veined, and so highly polished as to 
reflect objects like a mirror. The pavement, the 
Taulted ceiling, the dome, and even the topmost 
lantern, is focrusted with thA &as&i^<w»fi^ <K&s^<^aaaL- 



enrich every part of the edifice. I never saw 
Corintliian capitals better modelled, or executed 
with more precision and slmrpness, than those of 
the columns which support the nave. Having 
satisfied our curiosity by examining the Ornaments 
of the altar, we passed through a long covered 
gallery to the sacristy, a magnificent vaulted hail, 
panelled with some beautiful varieties of alabaster 
and porphyry, and carpeted, as well as a chapel 
adjoining it, in a style of the utmost magnificence. 
We traversed several more halls and chapels, 
adorned with equal splendour, till we wcrefatigued 
and bewildered, like knights errant in the mazes 
of an enchanted palace.'* 

The route from Mafra to Torres Vedras runs 
through Onadil and Azueira. A rail was opened 
in 1887 to Torres Vedras, Caidas da Rainha, Leiria, 
and Figueira da Foz, see page 178. 

(Population, 4,926) lies to the north-north-west 
of Lisbon, on the Zizandre, in front of the first of 
the ridges which were fortified by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to resist the French army under Massena. 
This famous series of redoubts, entrenchments, 
and other defences were called the Lines Of 

Torres Vedras. 

The lines of Torres Vedras, says Napier in his 
Peninsular War: "consisted of three distinct ranges 
of defence. The 1st, extendhig from Alhandra on 
the Tagus, to the mouth of the Zizandre, on the sea 
coast, was, following the inflections of the hilt, 
29 miles long. The 2nd, traced at a distance, 
varying from 6 to 10 miles in rear of the 1st, 
stretched from Quintolla on the Tagus to the mouth 
x>f the S. Lorenza, being 24 miles in length. The 
3rd, intended to cover a forced embarkation, ex- 
tended from Passo d'Arcos on the Tag^s to the 
tower of Junquera on the coast. Here an out- 
ward line, constructed on an opening of 8,000 
yards, enclosed an entrenched camp, the latter 
being designed to cover an embarkation with 
fewer troops, if such an operation should l>e 
delayed by bad weather. This second camp en- 
closed Fort St. Julian, whose ramparts and deep 
ditches deBed an escalade, and were armed to 
Enable a rear-gnttrd to resist any force. From 

[Section t». 

line was 24 miles, from the first line it was tm 
marches, but the principal routes led througb 
LislMn, where means to retard the en^ny were 
prepared. Of these stupoidoas lines, the second, 
whether for strength or importance, was the priiH 
cipal, the others were appendages; the third a 
more place of refuge. The first line was originaUj 
designed as an advanced work to stem the primary 
violence of the enemy, and enable the army to take 
up its ground on the soc<md line without hurry or 
pressure; but while Mxissena remained inactive M 
the frontier, it acquired strength, which was no* 
so much augmented by the rain, that Welllnstsl 
resolved to abide the attack there permanently. 

It offered five distinct positions ; first from Al- 
handra to the head of the valley of Calandiix, 
second from the head of the Vale of Calandrix ts 
the P^ do Monte, third, the Monte Ag^rafa, fonrth, 
from the valley of Zibreira to Torres Vedras, fifth, 
from the heights of Torres Vedras to the month of 
the Zizandre. The second and most formidsbh 
line offered three positions; first from the moilk 
of the St. Louren^a to Mafra; second, the Taptli 
or royal park of Mafra; third, from the Tapidi 
to the pass of Bnccllas. The third line was fna 
Bucellas to the low ground about the Tagus. Fin 
roads practicable for guns pierced the first line •( 
defence; two at Torres Vedras, two at Sotral,oM 
at Alhandra; but as two of these united again tt 
the Cabe^a there were only four points of passifi 
through the second line ; that is to say, at M«fw , 
Monte Chique, Bucellai', and Quintolla, in the IH 
ground. Hence the aim and scope of all tki 
works were to have those roads, and strengtbci 
the favourable fighting positions between tk» 
without impeding the movements of the arBTi 
the loss of the first line fherefore, would nst 
have been injurious, save in reputation, becasM 
the retreat was secure upon the second sad 
stronger line: moreover the guns of the fink 
line were all of inferior calibre, mounted « 
common trustic carriages, immovable, and aide* 
to the enemy. The allies* movements were qnlM 
unfettered by the works, but those of the ttwA 
army wore impeded and cramped by the Miwli 
Junta, which, rising opposite to the centre of ^ 
dT&t Uwe^ tMut out a spur called the Stem de Bai*- 

«««ww(7 n jvitr-ffuaru tP fvoi9i uny lurce. rr^iiu \ utsv> ivno^ w»\v uv.«. « spur caiieo me oienra o 

f*»^o- d'Arcat to thf neartat part of the second \ «ruedA \iv % i&a»xVxi\( ^Vxftf&Vksm. \jw««KAa %hA 

Koute 23.] 



Vedras moatitaln, and only separated from it by 
the pass of Rufia, which was commanded by heavy 
redoubts. Massena was therefore to dispose his 
anny on one or the other side of the B^ragueda, 
irtiicb eotdd not be easily passed; n6r coald a 
morement over it be hidd«n from the allito on the 
Monte Agra^a, who from thonce could pour down 
fiimiiltaneonsly on the head and tail of the passing 
eolomns with the utmost rapidity, because conve- 
nient routes had been prepared, and telegraphs 
astaUished for the transmission of orders. These 
ceiobrated lines were great in conception and 
execution, more in keeping with ancient than 
modem military labours; and it is cl^rthat the 
defence was not dependent, as some French writers 
suppose, upon the first line. 

In the neighbourhood of these works are Roli^Oy 

Vimieiro^ and Bmaco (1810X t^^^ scenes of battles 

with the French under Massena, who Wds finally 

obliged to retire into Spain. One of the duke's 

titles was Marquis of Torres Vedras. 

From Torres Vedras a road runs through Lour- 
loba to Feniche. The railway to Leiria (page 178) 
and Figneira da Foz, passes through Caldas da 
Baiuha (page 176). 

LOUBINHA (Lourlnham, or Lourinam) 

Is a town of 4,262 inhabitants. It is charmingly 
sftoated, and the country houses and the beautiful 
eiiTlrons render it an agreeable place of sojourn. 

(Population, 2,969) is a fortified town in the pro> 
▼luce of Estremadura, and is one of the strongest in 
the kingdom. It lies 13 miles west of Obidos, on 
the Atlantic, and the south side of the peninsula of 
die same name. The latter is a league and a half 
In circumference, and united to the mainland by 
a long narrow isthmus. The strength of Peniche 
eonsists principally in its isolated position in the 
middle of rocks, which render the approaches ex- 
ceedingly difficult. Besides a fortress of the first 
elaas, it has a good fort and a phare or lighthouse 
■^Km Cape Carvoeiro. In 1539, the English, under 
X^ke, who were sent to Portugal to aid the 
pretender, Don Antonio, against Philip II., took 
po aacss ion of Peniche, and penetrated as far as 
Zdrt>oii. In ancient times certain Lnsitanians, 
^fatrona of not falling under the Roman yoke, took 
in the peninsula of Peniche, which then 
an i»M but Cmnar, niter xanny offortft. 

discovered their place of retreat in the rocks, which 
they had considered inaccessible, and they ware 
forced to yield. Opposite the town, 10 miles nortli> 
west of Peniche, is a group of small, rocky, and 
very dangerous islands, called the Berlengas. 
These islands, called the Ourlings by sailors, are 
sighted on the voyage from England to the 
Mediterranean. The small island of Berlenga is 
defended by a fortress. Peniche has a small but 
good harbour, and an active fishery. In the 
church of Misericordia, note the 65 oil paintings, 
representing scenes from the New Testament. 

LiBbon to Santarem, for Madrid, yl& tho 
direct line throui^ Talavera. 

Railway.— From Lisbon the principal sta- 
tions are Albandra, ViUafranca (buffet), 
Carregado (2i miles), Fonte Reguengo, San- 
tarem (47 miles), Torres Novas, Entronca- 

mentO (the junction for the Oporto line), 

Abrantes, Bemposta, to Torre das Vargens 

(108 miles) ; where the direct line parts off to 

Feso, Blarvao, and over the frontier to Valencia 

de Alcantara, <fec., for Madrid (page 36). 
From Torre das Vargens the Badajoz line proceeds 

to Gbanca, Fortalegre, Sta. Eulalla, Elvas. 

and thence to BadaJOZ, across the frontier 
(page 37). See page 189. A steamer runs to 
Seixal and back. 

Alhandra (Stat.) lies on the right bank of the 
river, 18 miles north-east of Lisbon, and has a 
population of about 2,300. It has a safe fort, a 
fishery, and an extensive manufacture of tiles 
and bricks. It is the birth-place of Alfonso de 
Albuquerque, the renowned viceroy of India, and 
the point on the Tagus where the lines of Torres 
Vedras terminated. 

VUlaftanca (Stat.) lies on the left bank of 
the Tagns, 20 miles north-east of Lisbon, has a 
population of 4,204, and is the residtnco of 
a military governor. It is well built, has a port, 
and an active genet al trade. It has manufactures 
of linen, cottons, and leather ; there ore num.Q.^^''&a' 
saltworks on the h«avVv\ q1 >CaA'^»5K^^'«>^^«^'^'*''**' 
I are reateA Yvwe. \\.\* ^^\<^ ^^ \wv»^\^^«^ V^^^ 
' by llttsWiCh vsU\«^\Xi WWi,NsvX>c.* ^^^^^ '^'^ *" 



^ffia^ «f GUdas im BatBte f 

Mrvr M. AUUm 4B the liat £nm Lisboa to 
dft Fo«. ie« f^r* 174- 

Bvad t4 Aleoteea, f«r wUeh plaec 



lydM Ainet Has M 
Bttia^ (KMie 7% sad to 

(Mosto a 


BjToad toJUcoteQft. 
da J 

madcrer the 5 


TapalMXif JO, 9.414. 

HOUL— Da FdlcU; BvffeC 

It if M. Tirtr port and tovB. in tlM |»imiuc< of 
Eitremadan. capital of Comarca, and lies SO mfles 
nortlhiioTth-eart of lifbon. The lirer eeaaes to be 
naii^Me about two or three leagues higher than 
Santarem. It ftasds on an eminence to the north - 
of the Tafut, and is dirided Into the tliree districts 
or l>airro«; that called Mararilla, at the sumnit, 
the Rlbera. on the eastern slope, and the Alf ange, 
near the rlrer. It has an active trade with Lisbon, | 
and the environs are Terj fertile and prodaetiTe. ; 
It it the SeakMt or PrM$kUum JuUmm of the ; 
Romans. The present name, Santarem, is derived \ 
irt/m SanU Irene, a virgin and martyr. It still I 
prcAerres s^Doe cmrioss vestiges of the Moorish 
«rchlteetiire of the middle ag^s, and its origin 
dates from the time of the Romans, under whose 
mle it was renowned for its beauty and iu 
opulence. Santarem was talicn from the Moors in 
1093, by AflSonso VI., of Castile, but was soon 
afterwards retaken. It was finally recovered by 
Affonso Henriquez on the 11th of March, 1147, and 
was the last stronghold of the Miguelites in 1833. 

. SlfbtS.— Church of 8a6 Joa6 do Alporad, now 
used as a theatre. 

Church of Santa Maria de Marvilla, of the thir- 
t%mtk century. 

San Francis, a coarentual church of the same 
dMU, Nate ths erueiHx at the principal intraaee. 

Cbarvib oftbt J^tnltt, coataining.ioi&e noMdci 

Tlia pUees | 


FapalatioB, abont UM. ' 

Wotol near the chnich. 

Tbe town of Aleobaca is situated in the pn thejunfctkn of the Ales 
Baca, wfaense its name. It lies about 90 
aontlHvrest of Leiria. It is justly renowned : 
Cistercian WflnillCITt which is said to I 
largest in the world, and is situated in the i 
of the town. It owes its origin to Aflbnac 
riqnez, wlio founded it in remembrance < 
taking of Santarem. as appears by an inser 
engraved in the Salle des Bais. The p 
building was commenced in 114d, and finis! 
1222. It is one of the most note-worthy bui 
in the kingdom, and is remarkable for iti 
plicity. The total length of the Church is 36 
and its height is probably 70 feet. N<^ 
dally the west door of scTcn orders of architi 
the pier arches cMF the nave, the circular apt 
its nine windows, the tombs of Affonso I 
Aflbnso in. and their wiTea, but espe^iallj 
of Dom Pedro and Ifiex de Castro. 

The Monastery was nearly destroyed by : 
the French under Massena, yrevious to his r 
but has since been rebuilt. It is said to hav 
originally 620 feet in width by 7^ in depth, 
have contained five cloisters. The kitchen n 
feet in length, and the refectory 92 feet by 6( 
the library contained 25,000 volumes and MC 
which, since the suppression of convents, hav 
rofuoved to the l^ational ItUusiy at Usbcff 

Mou^a^^ has b«ea restored to « oousi^ 
ex\Mi\ wXS^f^ VDi&jjciXYakK^ 

Route 24.] 



The facade, says M. Llchnowsky, although very 
ancient, resembles that of a building of the last 
century; in the centre rises the great pignon of the 
churdi, flanked by two towers, and surmounted 
by « statue of the Virgin ; to the right and left 
extend two gnreat portions of the edifice, each 
haTinsT eighteen windows. The church is entered 
by a flight of steps leading to a terrace. The 
interior is remarkable for the beauty and simplicity 
(rf its Gothic style, and its admirable proportions. 
The rose window, with colours variegated like a 
kaleidoscope, rounds off above the porch. The five 
altars of gilt wood are in very bad taste; the high 
altar adorned with figures in wood, which can 
scarcely be called statues, and six grand Ionian 
columns, are the only ornaments. Behind the 
^eat altar is a semi-circular alley, in which open 
•eren dark chapels, with altars richly gilt. In one 
of these chapels is interred the brother of the 
founder, the first' abb^ of the convent.*' In the 
royal chapel are two sumptuous marble tombs, of 
IBez de Castro, of tragic memory; and the proud 
BMMarch Dom Pedro, sumamcd the Lover of J usttce. 

The remains of the Moorish Castle are also 
worthy of a visit. Not far from Alcobnpa is the 
FUffrimage church of Nossa Scnhora dc Nazareth, 
wbi^ is worthy of a visit. 

Learing Alcoba9a, the Alcoa is traversed and at 
ft distance of 2 leagues Aljubarrota is reached. 

AlJlllMLXrota is a place of but little importance. 
It is built at the entrance of a long and beautiful 
Talley, where Joad I. gained a victory over the 
King: of Castile on the loth August. 1385, in memory 
id which ho caused to bo built the magnificent 
eonvent of Batalha. 


A goo<l inn near the Church. 

The Convent standing in a pine forest is one of 
the "liost splendid buildings of the Gothic style 
In the peninsula. The decorations are partly 
mystical and tiieroglyphical, and have not yet been 
die4»hered. The most difficult of them are on the 
iwmaolcnm of the founder, John I., who erected 
the church after defeating John of Castile, at 
Aljubarrota, 1885. Foreign monarclis have also 
duricbed - and adorned this convent. It was 
formerly tlte toyai burial plAoe.t but the sepulchre. 

of the family of Bragaiua is now at Beleui. 
This chef cToeuvre is said to have been designed 
by a British artist, Stephen Stephenson, owing to the 
fact of the wife of the founder, John I., being 
an Englishwoman, the amiable and exemplary 
Philippa, daughter, of John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancaster. Another story is that a Portuguese, 
Alfonso Dominjuez, and an Irishman, whose name 
is variously miscalled by chroniclers, were the 
architects. York Cathedral is said to present 
many remarkable points of resemblance. The 
extent of the building, from the western entrance 
to the eastern extremity 18 416 feet; from north to 
south, including the monastery, 541 feet. The 
principal Entrance is rivalled by few other Gothic 
frontispieces in Europe. The portal, which is 28 
feet wide by 57 high, is embellished with upwards 
of 100 figures in alto-relievo, representing Moses 
and the prophets, saints, *c. 

Each figure is on an ornamental pedestal, beneath 
a canopy of admirable workmanship, and separated 
by mouldings tcrmuiating in pointed arches. 
Below the vertex of the inferior arch is the figure 
of the Saviour seated on a throne, with one hand 
on a globe and the other extended, dictating to the 
four evangelists, by effigies of whom he is encircled. 
The summit of the building is surrounded by a 
railing about 100 feet from the pavement. There 
Is a noble chapter-house with vast cloisters. 

The church is a cross, 260 feet long, 110 feet 
wide, and 104 feet high; with a transept 110 fefct 
long. The front of it, at each side of the high 
altar, is subdivided into four cliai)els. One is dedi- 
cated to Saint Barl)ara. and contains a low 
sepulchre of a cardinal, supposed to be of royal 
descent. The second, dedicated to Our Lady of 
the Rosary, contains the monument of Queen 
Isabel, wife of Affonso V. In the third, dedicated 
to Our Lady of Mercy, are the remains of John IF. 
The fourth was appointed for the remains of the 
Grand Master of the Order of Christ, Don Lopes 
Denis de Sousa, whose valour and great services 
as his namesake, and doubtless relative, the chroni- 
cler adds, with natural laudable partiality, well 
merited the posthumous honours. In the centre 
of the great chapel, below tfcie \\.V\sc<. Wt. ^^Kjccc*. 
Edward ^ot lixsitccVtV tcw^ \vV^ nn\V'«;> ^.\.w»!cv«t. ^ 


t)H\l»<flAw'f* !5fAW AMI* PoRTUliAt.. 


[(section 2. 

ifw nilU'H (UiUiit. i'uliiilira %>ns taken from tbe 
Moors, In 872, who, however, re-conquered It In 

It wM in 1064 re-taken from the latter by Don 
Fcmando the Great, with the aid of the Cid. Coim- 
brn has fijaircd very conspicuously in the military 
annah of Portuffnl, and ha« l)€cn the scene of 
M>mc nevc-rc conflicts. It was in the vicinity 
of Coimbra that the battle of BusaCO was won 
Ity the Euffllsh and Portuguese, 1808. 

The Mondetjo^ the b»r{;rest river that rises in 
Purtu^iil, has its sourcn in tlic Estrella, 14 miles 
south-west of Guarda, flows west-south-west and 
enters the Atlantic at Cape Mondogo, close to 
Flguclra, after a course of 180 miles. It is justly 
eelcbratod for the verdure of its banks, and the 
gentk-ncss of its current is praised by Camoons; 
but in the winter it is lia])le to Inundations, which 
frequently occasion considerable damage. 

Si Vdha (the Old Cathedral), situated at the 
summit of one of the streets. It is supposed to bo 
of the date of Alfonso Ilenriquez and has been 
mo<lemisod, and of course spoiled. Note the tri- 
forlum of the nave ; the windows of the cle restory : 
the Koniancsquc windows and door; the fine retablo 
of the altar mayor; among other tombs, that of 
D. Slsnando. The interior of the building is very 
curious, it being lined from floor to roof with 
Dutch tiles presenting a variety of subjects, painted 
in blue and purple. 

The Jesuit Church is the present Cathedral, and 
is devoid of interest. 

Cliurch of S. Joad tie Almedina, founded by Don 
Fernando after his victory over the Moors, 
and Honianesquc in style. Church of St. Salrndor, 
near the top of the hill. It is said to have 
been built in 1169, and is in the llomanesquu 
style. Note the small chapel of Nossa Senhora do 
Salvador, and the inscription over the west door 
and that outside the chancel, marking the buria.- 
place of Bermudo Bermudez in 11S6. 

Santa Cruz, a large convent in the lower part of 
the city, founded in 11 81 ; the church rebuilt in 1515. 
Note the tombs of AfTouso Henriquez and Sancho 
I.; the coro-alto, the claustro da manga (the 
cloisters), the chapter-house, the chapel with the 
tomb of 8t. Theotonio; the sanctnario, containing 
M^reMt many reltc^ Mmong which are the sknlU 

of the five Pranciscani who were martyred Ui 

Santa Clara, the old monastery, near tht 
river; fonnded in 1386, and re-fonnded 1K9. 
The ruins of the chnrch are atUl in existence, bat 
the rest of the building has been almost buried is 
the sands by the inundations of the river- At this 
convent Don Pedro corresponded with I&ez hj 
moans of a pipe which conveyed water frcmi tbe 
Fonte dos Amores and here also lAez was disinterred, 
after her death, to undergo the ceremony of corona- 

Santa Clara (the new monastery) on the snmBit 
of a hill to the south of the ilrer. The uid oonnst 
was removed here in 1649, in consequence of tbi 
devastations made by the Mondego. In the churdu 
note the silver shrine of Santa Isabella, daughter 
of Pedro III. (of Aragon), the work of Biihof 
Aflbnso de Castello Branco. ConTont of San Fm- 
I Cisco containing some curiosities, both architectnnl 
and claustral. 

University, alargGbutplainbnilding,oonilrtiBf 
of eighteen colleges, now attended by I,lWstiide8ti 
with a library of 60,000 volnmes, an extcniin 
museum, and an observatory. The Llsbm sehooli 
were transferred to Coimbra in 1808. The pmcnt 
buildings occupy the summit of the hUl, and sn 
of modem origin, principally dating from the tioi 
of Ponibal. Fine collection of natural histoiy. 

Fine Bridge over tlio Mond^po, the first built If 
Affonso Gnriques (or Henriquez). It is supposed to 
be the third that has l>een erected, and that then 
are two others under it, which have been snccei* 
sively buried in the accumulating sands; eni 
now, in the winter, the water occasionally orer 
flows the bridge. Bhys speaks of it as being p•^ 
ticularly grand. He says, " it was built by Affonw 
Enriqucs in 1132, and rebuilt by his son Sancho in 
1210. It consists of twenty-nine arches, over 
which is raised another row, by means of which 
the people cross the river under cover," which 
would seem (says Harrison) to bear out the thcor}' 
of the three bridges, and shows that Rhys saw tvo 
of them. 

Aqueduct, fronting the Botanical Garden, boUt 
by Dom ft«*)A%\.VjBuo In 1568, and having twent}'-w>* 
1 arcYiQ*. 

i. • 


ioute 26.] 

Quinta dcu Laffrimat, or Villa of Tears (on the 
irther side of the river), the scene of the death of 
Icz de Castro. The story forms the subject of a 
LOst beautiful episode in the Lusiad. 

Books.— For the history, &c., of Colmbra, con- 
ilt Historia Breve de Coimbra, by B. dc Botelho, 
rSS; Antiquidades de Colmbra, byA. C. Gasco: 
Imanach del' University dc Colmbre; andMonthly 
Magazine, 1841-42. 

Rliys mentions a curious Fountain near Colmbra, 
» the north-west, called Ferven^as; -which, 
though it is no more than one foot in depth, it 
wallows up everything that is thrown into it, as 
'ees, animals, «tc." 



Colmbra to Oporto. 

There are two routes t«) Oporto; the one by 

all, past Mealhada, OUvelra de Barros, 
▼eiro, Ovar (page 185), Esplnho, Oranja, 

> Villa Nova de Gaya ; the other by road 
'rough SardaS and Oliveira d'Azameis. Distance 
y the former, from Coimbra, 74 miles. By the 
ttter,17f leagues; past Meal hada, 3i; Aguada, 3; 
ardflo, 1 ; Albergaria Nova, 2^ ; Oliveira d'Aza- 
'Cis, Ijf; Corvo, 4 J; Oporto, If. 
Avelro. — Population, 7,SGl. The Roman 
^oerium, on a lagoon of the same name, is at the 
outh of the Vouga. See p. 185. 
Ovar. -Population, 10,<47; three miles from the 
*i, a busy export town, unwholesome. See p. 185. 
This route is both grand and picturesque, some- 
"laes passing through immense ravines ; at other 
*Ja€8 watered by limpid streams, or in view of 
'•'itant mountains. Some of the land is well culti- 
ited and abounds with vines, oranges, olives, and 
?s ; but some of it is much neglected. Most of 
'e villages are either situated in the midst of 
'ai-ming valleys, or on the declivities of hills, 
'Vered with luxuriant vegetation. Good accom- 
odation can be had at Sar^fao and Albergaria. 
lie former is a town of 2,400 inhabitants, and 
"Oduces the wine called Balrrada or Figueira. 
lie neighbouring country presents a variety of 
U and dale, is well watered, and abounds la 
'dian com. 

OUvelra d'AzamelB 

'opulation, 2,000) is a strong position, and was 
e head-quarters of Don Miguel In 183?, at the 
•gep/ Oporto, 

OPORTO (Portuguese, PortO) (Stat). 

The railway from Lisbon, which at first ended 
at Villa Novade (Jaya (or Gaia), opposite the town, 
is now brought up to Campanha terminus, by a 
viaduct over the river, opened November, 1877, 
by the king, 890 yards long and 67 high. It 
connects with the lines to Braga, Vianna, and 
Valen9a, for Vigo, and to Barca d'Alva, for Sala- 
manca, Medina del Campo, Avila, and Madrid. 

Population (1878). 105,839. 

Hotels.— Grand Hotel do Paris; Grand Hotel 
do Porto. 

Trainway«.--Through the city to Foz, Ac. 

Bankers.— Van Zellcr and Co.; Mercantile 
Bank of Oporto. 

Club-house, at the English Factorj-, to which 
strangers are introduced by a rasmbcr. 

Resident British ConsuL 

Oporto (so called from Porto, the Port, or 
Harbour), the second city of Portugal, the first 
in commercial importance, is situated 206 mllci 
by rail north-east of Lisbon, on a steep declivity, 
on the north or right bank of the Douro, and 
is about a league and a half from the sea, at 8. 
Joa6 da Foz, near the Fort and Lighthouse. The 
city proper was formerly partly surrounded by an 
old wall, 6 or 6 feet thick, flanked at Intervals by 
strong towers. The appearance on a first approach 
is pleasing, the buildings rising one above the 
other. There are fine public squares or campos, 
and open spaces. In which are some of the prin- 
cipal buildings. The houses are of Irregular con- 
struction, mostly in steep, narrow streets, but the 
city nevertheless contains several broad, straight 
streets, with many new and han.lsome houses, 
with gardens attached, filled with vines and orange 
trees. The best streets are Rua das Flores and 
Rua Nova dos Ingleses. Specially noteworthy 
are the gilded and gaily painted balconies of the 
houses, nr.ost numerous in Rua das Hortas. Of 
the squares, Campo dos Marti res and Prapa de 
Sai Lazaro are the best worth notice; also the 
new market-place, La Cordoaria. The town has 
magnificent quays, is well lighted with gaa, and Is 
clean ; certainly much cleaner than moat of tha 
towns of Portugal. 

• at ^ewT^lTV>, >»^\ \V%* «^ ^^^-^ "^^^ xj»A!«^^«^ 



[Section 2. 

Palae« within (ha eity. It has a cathedral, 90 
churches, 14 liospitala or charitable asylums, 
bosidas 17 monasteries, now anppressed. The 
steep declivity of the hill on which the town is 
built makes it a very laborious task to ride on 
hnrschack or in carriages, although this incon- 
▼enience has been somewhat icmcdied by recent 
improvements. On the cast side of the town, 
bouses are built ajiraiast so steep a part of the 
declivity over the stream, that they can only be 
approached by steps cut out of the rock. A Bar 
in the river keeps ships out two or three miles ; 
only small craft can coma to the town; and thence 
the Douro is navigable 100 miles above the city. 
The navigation of the upper part of the river is 
difficult and often dangerous, but the dexterity of 
the navigators of the flat-bottomed craft in which 
the wine is convoyed is wonderful. 

The city has manufactures of cotton goods, wool- 
len, linen, shawls, leather, soap, and earthenware, 
iron foundries, and ship-building yards, and many 
silk factories in and around the city; with the ex- 
ception of melons, which arc fine and cheap, and the 
small black grapes,the fruitsof Portugalareinferior 
in flavour to those of England. Bread is of good 
quality and reasonable in price; mutton is small 
and inferior, and the beef is tolerable; that of Oporto 
frequently as good as the beef of England. The 
production of Port Wine is diminishing, though the 
export is increasing; in 1892 over 50,000 pipes 
were sent to Great Britain, and a considerable 
quantity to Brazil and the United States. There 
are upwards of twenty Elnglish mercantile firms 
estal>lished here, who have largo warehouses or 
Lodge* along the Gaya bank of the river, and by 
whom much of the foreign trade is conducted. 
The wine is mostly supplied from the Alto Douro, 
about GO miles up the river, in a space extending 
24 miles by 12 miles on both sides of it. The 
yearly production is about 70,000 pipes. The 
other exports comprise fruits, corn, oils, gold 
filagree, salt, leather, cork, sumach, and bullion. 
The imports are of hemp, flax, woollen fabrics, 
metal, codfish, bricks, wood, drugs, coals, &c. 
. The climate of Oporto is damp and foggy in win- 
tcr, in ronseguence of its mountainous sitoatien ; { A Sasp^nsion 3rid«« (opsned Iftth Oetobtr, 1810 
bift MJtktingK owing to tH» «boT« cireomstanc^, \ wAii«cU Ovotto with the subarbs of TOla VtV* 

seldom freexes. In sninmer the heat Is exeesdTe, 
especially In the narrow ralley formed by the hills 
on the southern declivity on which Oporto is situ- 
ated. Most of the plants of the Cape of Good Hope 
grow in the open air, as well as gooseberries, cur- 
rants, and other fruits of the colder countries ftf 
Europe. The soil, though well coltiyated, is not 
fertile, and few of the productions which are sbbv- 
ally exported by the Douro, are grown within any 
short distance of the town. 

Oporto was a city of great importance nndertke 
Moors, but was destroyed by Almansa in 810. It 
was occasionally the residence of the ancient kiofs 
of Portugal, until Alfonso I., assisted by a fleet of 
English crusaders under the ecnnmand of William 
Longsword, wrested Lisbon from the hands of the 
Almoravides in October, 1147. During the middk 
ages, Oporto was famous for the strength of Itf 
fortifications. To the westward along the decUTity 
of the bill, a place called Cti/0 or CaUo, mentlonedbr 
old writers, is said to have stood. Oporto beii| 
afterwards built, and, in consequence of the greater 
depth of the river, being found more c<mvcniflot 
for ships, the former was abandoned by its inhabit- 
ants, who migrated to the latter: hence OPorUvt 
Portus dale, i.e., the harbour of Cale ; whence Far- 
tucal, and finally Portugal were derived. Aecori- 
ing to others, from the time of its dlsponoa 
in 820, it remained deserted till 899, when it wtf 
ref onnded by Gascons and French, and from the lit- 
ter received the name of Portu* Oallorvm^ or. Fort 
of the Gauls or French. 

In 1807 the Portuguese threw off the Freedi 
yoke. The place was sacked by the French, 1S99< 
It became afterwards, in 1S31-33, the ic«e 
of a fierce contest for the throne of Portugal, li^ 
tween Dom Pedro, the ex-emperor of Brazil, aa^ 
his brother Dom Miguel, who had usurped tke 
crown from his niece Dofia Maria. During tki 
siege, which lasted upwards of a year, the town 
was partly destroyed by the artillery of the 
assailants, and several wealthy mercantile honMt 
were entirely ruined by tlie complete stoppagfl of 

Soute ;i6.] 



FreTioiiflly, tbere wta a bridge of boats. All 
commnnlftitioa acroM wm. however, suspended 
darinff a few weeks in the spring, wliea the river 
WW so muck swollen by the heavy rains and the 
melting of the snow on the mountains, that the 
water often rose to the height of 20 feet, as in 
1830, when it did incalculable damage to the 
•Uppiog in the river. 

On a rocky eminence to the west of the Villa 
Nova, comm andin g a view of the whole of Oporto, 
is the celebrated convent and garden called 
MOftOirO da Serra (called also convent of the 
Crozios), which once belonged to the religious order 
of Angnstines. Through the ravages of civil war 
■othing now remains of this once beautiful build- 
ing bul a shapeless ruin surrounded by rude 
palisades. It was here, during the Peninsular war, 
1809, that the British crossed the Douro under a 
tremendous fire from the batteries, erected by the 
French on the north side. It was from this 
eonvent also that in 1882, Dom Pedro, aided by the 
British, repulsed the royalist troops commanded 
by I>om Miguel. 

Churclies and Public Bulldloigs. 

Ciitliedral, finely situated on the summit of a 
|V«eipitous hill, not far from the Largo de Sta 
Clara. The original edifice was built by Count 
Hanriqne. It was rebuilt by Ilcnry of Besanfon, 
flret Count of Portugal, aj>. 1105. Note the early 
Gothic cloisters containing the tomb of Pedro 
DftraO, who died in 1291. A fine west-end and 
handsome rose window. 

St. Martin's Church of Cedof cito, near the Rua 
da Cedofeita. It is probably of the twelfth 
Mntnry; and claims to have been first founded 
by King Theodomlr, a.d. !>fi9. Note the small 
Jlopianesque doors. Part of the building has 
btea modernised, and of course spoilt. 

Church of N. S. da Lapa, near the barracks, 
oeeiqyi^ a fine position, being approadied by a 
long fligtii of steps, and is a handsome building of 
tha Corinthian order. In a sarcophagus of stone 
Is praaanred the head of Dom Pedro, who figured 
In tho elTil wars of Portugal. 

Church of San Pedro, on tbm site of the first 
Nooao Senhor de Matozinbos, ontaide the city 
iJ^LefM. It contafttM the mo»t noted of all 

the miraculous images in the kingdom, and attracts 
many thousand pilgrims annually. 

Carmo, in the Prafa do Carmo. It is the most 
frequented church in the city. 

Church of Sa6 Ildefonso, in the Largo of the 
same name, near tho Rua de SaO Antonio. It is a 
superb modern buiiding. 

Torre dos Clerigos, or Tower of the Clergy, near 
the Pra^a da Cordoaria. It is one of the mott 
striking objects in the city. The steeple is 210 feat 
high, and contains a lamp which is lit up every 
night to Santa Barbara, the patroness of the 
church, to protect it from lightning, with which it 
was once struck. It was built in 1779, at tha 
expense of the clergy ; whence its name. Mount 
to the top for a fine view. 

English Chapel and cemetery, near the Bua da 

Convent of SaO Bcnto das Freiras, near the Cal- 
9ada dos Clcrigos. 

Convent of Sa6 Laxaro, forming one of the side • 
of the Prafa dc SaO Lazaro, now used as an estab- 
lishment for young ladies who have been left 

Franciscan Convent, at the end of the Rua 
Nova, built by charitable contributions for mendi- 
cant friars. This convent, as well as the street in 
which it stands, suffered greatly during the late 
troubles. The street has been since to some 
extent restored. The church attached to this con- 
vent contains a dwarfish figure of Saint Francia, 
which is greatly honoured by the fair sex. There 
are also two nunneries of the Franciscan order, 
dedicated to Santa Clara, a Dominican Convent 
in Oporto, and a nunnery of the same order at the 
Villa Nova. 

Hospital Real, in tho Pra9a da Cordoaria. It was 
commenced in 1769, and, although still unfinished, 
is nevertheless a magnificent building. It is ex- 
cellently managed, and is deserving of the liighast 

Hospital de Santa Clara, an almshouse for aged 
women in the Cordoaria. 

Casa de Roda (Foundling Hospital), in tho 
Pra^ da Cordoaria. It reeeivea yaariy upwards 
of 2,000 infants. 



[Section 2. 

Eplscoiml Ptilacc, to the south-west of the cathe- 
dral, situated upon a precipitous rock, and com- 
manding a splendid view. It has a good library, 
and the staircase is considered the most elegant in 
the kingdom. The edifice was greatly injured by 
the siogc of 1832. 

EnglUdl Factory, near the Episcopal Palace. 
It was erected about 1790, and is one of the hand- 
somest buildings in the city. It is a sort of Club- 
house, designed to bring merchants and foreigners 
together, and contains a fine library, reading- 
room, refreshment room, and a spacious ball-room. 
Strangers arc, without diOicuIty, introduced 
through a member. 

Tlic Town Hall ; Academy of Fine Arts, and other 
institutions; with a Crystal Palace, in wlsich 
meetings and concerts are held. 

Italian Opera, a large building of about the year 
17S0. It is by no means remarkable for elegance. 

Theatre, in the highest part of the town. It was 
built by Mazzollcschi, an Italian architect, and is 
greatly admired. 

The Bourse, lately built, one of the most perfect 
buildings in the city. 

Public Library and Museum, occupying the 
former Capuchin Convent. The library, founded 
by Dom Pedro, occupies a handsome room, and 
contains about 70,000 volumes. 

In the museum is a gallery of mediocre paint- 
ings, collected by Mr. John Allen; with a very 
good cabinet of natural history. 

Hospital for British and other seamen. 

Market-place, called Cordoaria, near the Torre 
dos Clerigos, well supplied with meat, fish, poultry, 
fruit, and vegetables. The best time for a visit is 
Saturday morning. 

Corn-market, in the Pra^a do Carmo. 

Barracks (Quartel de Sa6 Ovidio), in the Campo 
dii Ke<^enera9ad, capable of holding 3,000 soldiers. 

Casa da Camara, in the Pra^a de Dom Pedro. 

Largo da Torre da Marca, beyond tbo barriers, 
on the summit of the cllfb that overhang the river. 
The view from this table-land embraces the river 
as far as Foz, the Villa Nova, and ths Scrra 

Sn6 Gens, an eminence to the north-west, com' 
manding a beautiful view. 

Gardens of Count de Rezcndc, open to the public 
every Sunday ; very fine. 

The capacious harbour of Leixocs, destined to 
form the future port for the external trade of 
Oporto and the surrounding country, was officiollj 
declared open by the king in 1891. 

EzcnrslOIlB may be made to the rock of 8t 
Cosme, the village of Val Longo, and the mines (tf 
antimony, in the midst of charming scenery; also 
to the £Htre Quinteu, four beautiful quintal, 
which command a fine view. In one of these 
Charles Albert of Sardinia died, and in that called 
do Mcio is the celebrated Magnolia Grandiflon, 
whose trunk is 12 feet in circumference. Another 
excursion may be made to S. Joao da Foz^ where 
capital bathing may be had, and where there are t 
great many charming houses, assembly TootoM, 
club house, &c. (Steamers to La Cantareira). The 
Freixo is an ancient mansion of a very remarkable 
style of architecture, on the right bank of the 
Douro, two miles from Oporto. The great attnw- 
tion of the place is the splendid view it commands. 
In the distance are the Serra Convent and iti 
aqueduct, on one side of the river, and the Sesniii- 
ary on the other. Villa de Feira has an ancient 
but ruinous castle; it was the Roman Locobri;a« 
about 15 miles from Oporto. 

Railways.— To Lisbon (210 miles). To Brafa, 
and round by the coast to yalen9a do Mlnho (see 

Route 31). To Penafiel, CaUde, Regoa, Fls- 
hao, Tua (branch to Mizandella), Podslio, 

and Barca d'Alva, on the Spanish frontier (IN 
miles), whence the rail is conthiued to SalamailOl 
(see page 80). Along the coast to Pedrafl St* 

bras, Mindello, Villa do Conde, Povoa do 
Varzim (page 185), Laundos, FontainliaB, «»> 

Famali^ao, joining the line to V«len9a do Minh<k 
described in Route 8^, 

Boato 27.] 






This information is given especially for the use of Yachting parties. 


There ore coasting steamers "which ply regularly 
along the coast between the above stations, and, 
Although they do not touch at every small port, 
there are ample opportunities for the tourist visit- 
ing any place of material interest during his 

The steamer approaches near enough (weather 
permitting) for the passengers to enjoy the beauti- 
ful seaboard, and delight in the extensive and ever 
changing panorama before them. On leaving Vigo 
the steamer is steered for Cape SlUeiro, after 
rounding which the small town of Bayonna is 
passed, and La Guaxdia is made; this small town 
It situated at the western extremity of the moun- 
tains of Testeyro, at the junction of the river Minho 
trlth the Atlantic. From hence, crossing the mouth 
of the fh>ntier river, at which point the aspect is 
Tuy grand — the mountains in the background, the 
fine clear river flowing into the sea, with its banks 
adorned with profusion and variety of rich vegeta- 
tion — we pass the little fortified town on the left 
bank of the river, Fort Caxnlnlia (Stat), page 
190. Continuing our course south, we occasionally 
steam through a fleet of Ashing boats, in pursuit 
of sardines, &c., and are often accompanied 
b]r dolphins. Now and then the sea is covered 
with great numbers of little Portuguese "men-of- 
war**— a sort of jelly fish, having a sail above and 
feelers below. 

We now find ourselves abreast of the pretty 
town and harbour of Vlanna (Stat, pop. 9,249, 
page 190), situate on the right bonk of the Lima, 
and near its junction with the sea. The surrounding 
country is charming, and is of itself a perfect 
jptrture. The towa \b tmal] and rreW built. th« 

harbour admits of small craft up to 200 tons, and 
is fortified ; but, as is the case with all the i>orts 
on the western coast of Portugal, its ports are 
seriously interrupted by the accumulation of sand, 
forming decided bars to the entrances of tl.e 
harbours. The trade of the place is its fishery. 
From hence coasting, we make Esposendc, at the 
embouchure of the Cavado, in a beautiful and 
I>icturesqne situation. Proceeding we pass in 
succession the fishing places of Povoa dO VarziXIl 
(Stat, on the new line from Opor'o, Route 2fi, 
pop. 11,004), Villa do Condimutozinhos, San Joad 
da Foz, and, gradually approaching the magnifi- 
cent river Douro, we arrive at OportO (see 
Route 26, page 181.) 

The brief stay of the steamer admits only of a 
cursory view of the city, yet the tourist is amply 
recompensed by the pleasing duty imposed upon 
him of contemplating the grandeur and beauty of 
the shores of the noble river, and the enchanthig 
coast in its vicinity, at the embouchure of the 
Douro with the ocean. Proceeding coastwise to- 
wards the south, we make Qyar (Stat, population 
10,447), after about 20 miles steaming. This is an 
important town, in the province of Beira, and is 
situated on Ihe Ovar, at the bottom or northern end 
of the immense lake, or lagoon, which is about 30 
miles from north to south, and which runs parallel 
with the Atlantic. It is a commercial port, and 
its mariners are renowned for their courage and 
nautical skill. The fisheries hero give full em- 
ployment to the population. 

Proceeding about 30 miles to the southward wu 
come tc the south end of this lagoon or lake, on 
which is situated the town of Aveiro (populaiioicu 
7,a6lV AV«*A.Tv\. sJawjX T*^ \sx^«h. ^t^N. ^^ ^:.K^5ssSwv*.. 


chirbouritheentnuiH i Erluyraud CidlkrM, n«*r la wUch ia the JiH- 

t thgcaHBUnt ihlfiliic lias oMhtUugatiirltlitliaocun. CspednBga 

ailcentb uid ilitecnlh | ind Cucui ■» rooniied, uid the ■lumFr enttn 

U Hnd to H* Ml fliblBf I Itu Dauth af lh> rtrtr. HottalBe un )» mon 

nucceulnlly the Bulisry mehintlBj Ihui the pinoniu which presenli 

idJund. Dnfonnnuelr I ilHlf loTliwoneiilerinf IhenlftMyand bemtlTiJ 

■Place the •hi(tlD([ wd I TttpiK. Bunnfnj up the river, wepmi on Ibi 

ind ruined their trade, right, the enille or Almida. and on the lell llie 

1 ildt of Llibvn liu u 

.Uhe junction 



Iiltantiorc ocrupled In callectln^ lait 
• Dffmlt ore eiportei annaiillr. Th( 

... „ 'e and Alemlijo, tlili h 

FlBUelr* d& decUledli- the hot plan, when il i> anUahH. Oi 
the rifht hank leartng IhB Taipifc on In loft ■hom, we jiau I^ 
" ' ' '"' village of Trafaiia. and onr eoorM ii dIncW 
in._ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Sspichel, the ancient Barttrii» 
romOBlorium ot Ihe&omani, In a ifaort Elaetti 
Euner il abreut ot CMlmlirB(rapnl*llDD, MU), 
uaport of Ulitrcmadura^ the autEqne fort b/rt 

Oporto and Coimbm I! 
From Flgnelta. a llni 
VUlar FarmDM 

he junction 

open, 168 niHoto Procaedlne on our coone we paie th* Milat 
il!h border, which 1 ,ij,^o, „( flantiago and Uelldea, and doitili 
Xlnacd to Cludad Bodrlso "nd Silamanca, | (j^p^ gjj,^ (populalloii of tholown. »,IJ4): tb« 

'""" "•"" T-bon, tjd Irflrla. I inhabllantureeniJrelyoccnpled In fiahlnt.fthU 

■he coast contlnnei | jhe good and convenient i 

a pti< 

ar Penlche, w 

■ We principal eupport of the marlnt population of Fa^ 
9 Bonle I lugal, Thli town Is celebrated ai heing the bhth- 
jrl (liitanee oat at tea lithe HnallcraeEy place of the lUnitrloni naTigator, rvn * 
^eBeri«1J1I>J■laad^theno■ldaIlge^onl ' Otma, who died at Cochin thne mmOit afW 
>e FoitagntieeMa. btATi| tffctev^ VbmoT •>( India. Aawepnoal 

w we /»(• '- Hifon the rUUgei ol \ ftia coixt «MM>* <!™ami\ -aaiwi* w. wmu. «t 

now an ibmut s( tht Tooutla town of VUla , 
Itimi da KUU FontM (populsUan, t.H«). ■ ' 
muitlina town of the prorlncv ot Alentejo^ Lt 

(Imri iglUUd on tbL> cout. u we b 


lia Ope St, Yinca,!, Ite »uth-w«M 

rly point ot 

Alturve, Ibe .nd«it Av™»to-,,m, «, 

lUJilKb loUd ligbthouM. 

OUW Bt VtaMBt ha, ,«,., th 

ce terrible 

m.™i «llom.tIonglMw.Ml.; ths 

fBl lu 1893. 

when Connt Tourrillo. it the head o 

a fleet of 

71 TWHla. (lined a .Iclory oyer the coit 

blned fleeH 

of EnBlund and Hollend. In ITW. 

Unilral Sir 

John Jems gnhied & lignal yictory ot 


»rd»; whenNeljoii, then Commodore, 

oot the San 

jDHf and olbcr .hips, hy boatdlni, and 

he Admiral 


Kaplei defealed ind took Doo Mlgue 

-B flccl. and 

TrucrealeiCountSl.Vhicent, After 



where Prince Utoty. Iho navlgaU 

r, founded 

a School of Navisntlon, from which tr 

were .upplicd f or t he Porlugneec toy 

ages of dli- 

rxStO, TATUtA. 187 

ifendedonthetea-bOBrd. Thewnntryaboimdilii 
alt > and grain, and the lea vrodaces abundance 
laluable flsh forcurlns. FroceedlnG S.E. alonE 
le coast, we come to Faro (popnlatlon, t.mi. 
hlch Is sitnatcd abreast of the Islandi of Santa 

lorage. The h4r- 
a large military 

Ijulldlflc, The bay Is reeorted to l>y marlneis in 
itormy weather bj a place of retnge. The com- 

dlmonda. lle^ and cured tlsh of different klndi. 
From Faro, proceeding coailwlse g.E„ wo come 
loTavirKpi^uUtlon, ll.easXiilualeilattbeem- 
metly the Portogncie galleys used to take refuge 
here when they were defeated by the African 

tTDMCtion. too 


e betw 


rtugal and the 






iieliani Iroded 

here with their galley 

716; a 


flehlng on the c 




men. Itglye,n 

rsl PortDEuc!. 


a«f. Buiiail 

en^iili na-Cm 


Proceeding al 
higher chain of 

2 m 

da fine 


out. halng Ihe 

•Hotly IB Tlew, wo 






iineyenr , ,„,iq[,p|jo,i „, 

lowiMln'ortBEal' Ahotit 14 mileifuither along iht 
MNUt bringi ns ta AltniMn (jiapntallan, !.«»), 
IWTlnff » <w* »«rtmir, de«p vam-, and wll 

riratiar towns are prlneliirilT « 


UHmh to Bumro, Betntwl, Evor*, 84)^ | n 
QnlutOB, and Oueral— Ferto do Bsuu, 

Tlioiicc bj- itcomer ocroil the Tijol to 

Burelio (BUt) iii>a t» SelxaL At PinluLl 

MOTO (Stat.), B miliH, n brsnch loni. ofT 10 
PjUnwllA (Btat), wJilch glcai a dukedom to 

8STVBAL (Stat.) or ST. USES 

re many hicivglyphics. There are 

h'tam Boja, the line li continued to Caserel, 
0»rV»tK 'Umifeint, and FarO, 11; a,\\n (bs 
piVf iS7)! tnd a bruBcb IXna niiia to Qulstoe, 
'Brju, tadntia 128 allf), 

Jnllui Cmar erected It into a muniolpiillly, calW 
Ebora. It n-ai taken hj- the Moors tn rii, tnd 
retaken br the ChriiUane In I1«T. TtieSpaidvdi 
«:cupled II lor loine lime In U63 ; It wu nlik» 
9y Marshal Schomherg. The aqueduct. Dun 

There arc four parish churches, and a fine M 

icmple dcdiutol 

lata, potteries, and tanneries. 
It waa >t"rmed by the Prencli, ISOS. 
OonTeranCM.— By rail to Lialnn. Fn" 

ELTAS (EtKt.) 

Uilnn to AbrftntM. Portalasra, BItu, Hi 

By rail, 174 mile.. 
From UBboa, Roata tl. K 

Santarem istat.), and to Tom* KoM 

(UsA.'i.nuitliaEnlrocaQisDla di janctloi •( >*> 

RoiiMs 29 and ao.] iBBAKtB«, Poiti LBS ■■,*«• mil, viseu. IHtt 

.^ ': LUbon to BanUnm, TtutmU', to TlHu, to 
OMtollo Bnuco, KAd to Ourtal BodriKO. 









•Itiutid at 

«nau«ii« of th. T 

gat and 


II hu 



Hid other frdlM, m 




Ight buk 

of the Tagm, on the 




celollW by narrow 

cnit r 


ha> old 


castle T!itr« l> a 


q,..rtBr of a lo.;ue 

below th. 

e [ondio 



t fit 

rom h«c, Iho Taeu. 


dtwtndi to the Ka a niajcjllc tin 

of Alemlajo, on ono aid*, and of Em 
tha other. The unrroimding counlri 
with arery luiury that a fcrtll* joll c 
fruit and Bowera meet Iho rye on all i 

eonntry were altko OMUpled allcmately by lb 
French and Enell.b, in IBOe and ISIO, and Napolso 

After paaetng Toire du VURBiii «het« lb 
Itnc (o Valencia d'Alctnlara rant off, w« come t 

(Pi^Qlallon.T.SO?), a fortified town In the proTlnc 
af Alacntejo. The surronndins country li ptcll 
and agreeable. Theonljexlettnglniiuttrjlsaclol 
manufactory, einploylns »mc flftj pcr»ns. H 1 

:>. The touriat shoald tialt 
, ... — Cn.lo (16»l-j;) and tU 

N. S. dot OIKaet, tha chapel of a. flregoria, Ihe 

apel of JesDi do >tu»l^ the Leiada. and tlia 

end Intel 

n Hno old bridge. 


iollecllon of Ihc palntlns 
■iBolhc nave, the Cora al 
Ihe CaplUa de Mlnorkordij 
Miguel hal the grave of . 


fish. Tlie town li surrottndod by a doable wall, 
flanked by seven towers, and defended by the an- 
cient castle. Coitello Braneo. The churches, with 
the exception of the cathedral, are of no note. The 
latter is a handsome building. The hospital and 
the poorhouse arc worth visiting. The Industry 
of tho place consists of potteries, tanneries, wine, 
brandy, distilleries, and grain. The plains around 
the town are very productive. In 170J, Mar- 
shal Berwick ordered a part of its walls to be 
blown up, and the Spanish army, under Count 
d'Aranda, aud the auxiliary corps, commanded by 
the Prince of Beauvau, were unable to penetrate 
further than this town in 1762. It was occupied 
by the French in November, 1807, who, however, 
only spent one night here. Castello Braneo may 
be reached by way of Thomar or Funhete. 


Population, 2,000. 

A small fortiiicd town in the province of Beira, 
near Ciudud Rodrigo, over the frontier of Spain, 
on the River Coa, 32 ntiles north-cast of Guarda. 
During the "War of Independence it was besieged 
by the Duke of Ossuna, and reduced to great ex- 
tremities; but, having obtained timely aid, the 
Spanish army were nearly all cut to pieces, and 
their artillery taken from them. It Is best 
reached by the new line from Oporto to Barca 

Oporto to Lamego, Braga, Bragan^, by 

road, and by rail to Valen^a dO MlnllO. 

Oporto (Stat.), see Route 36. From here a 
line runs past Rio TlXltO, Ermezinde (junction 
of the line to Salamanca), TTofa (branch to 

dnlmaraes), Faxnali9ao (junction of the 

Oporto to Povoa do Varzim coast line), Viaxina 
do Castello (a watering place, page 185), 

Camlnlia (page 185), Lannellas, S. Pedro da 
Torre, 78 miles, to Valen^a do Mlnho, at the 

junction with the line to Tuy, on the Spanish 
side (page 101), Gulllarey, and VlgO. The 
Spanish trainft from and toMonforte, Orense, Vigo, 
^., connect here with the Portuguese express 
trains to and from Oporto, Lisbon, ^. At Nine 
tJiere is M short br&ncb of H milen io BrAga,paBt 
Amtttat and nUUXBi* 


[From Oporto, by road teross the Douro, to 


(Population, 8,214), a city in the province ol 
Beira, capital of a comarca, near the Douro. Tht 
principal buildings are a large Gothic cathedral, a 
church called Alcamave, a castle, and a bishop'i 
palace. There are also many interesting Mooridi, 
and some Roman remains. 

Lamego lies 46 miles east of Oporto, and abost 
1 to the south of th« Douro. It may b« retebed 
from Yiseu.] 

BRAOA (Stat) 

Population (1878), 19,755. 

Inns.— Real; Estrella do Norte. 

A city, capital of a comarca, province of HInho, 
32 miles north-east of Oporto, by rail, and about 
15 miles from the sea. It is situated on an 
eminence in a fertile valley, watered by tht 
Deste on the south, and by the Cavado on 
the north. This valley is covered with, 
quintas or eountry-houses, and planted with 
oak, vine, orange, tuid other fruit trees. Ths 
oranges of Braga are the best in Portugal. It is 
the Bracarra Auffusta of tha Romans, and is said 
to have been founded b.o. 996. It is one of the 
most ancient cities in Portugal, and was capital of 
the kingdom when the Suevi were masters of it. 
It is now the seat of an archbishop, who is primate 
of Portugal. Until recently, ruins of a Bonuui 
amphitheatre and an aqueduct existed; but st 
present no remains of its ancient grandeur art 
found, except some coins, and five milestones be- 
longing to the five Roman roads leading into 
Braga, which one of the archbishops removed to s 
square in the south part of the city. It is sur- 
rounded by old walls, and defended by a fortress. 
Tho streets are narrow and irregularly laid oat. 
There are two squares, and many fountains. It 
has manufactures of firearms, Jewellery, cutlery, 
and hats. 

Sights. — Cathedral, a stately edifice of the old 
perpendicular style, rebuilt by Henrique, the first 
king of PorttLgal; church et Santa Cruz, of ttM 
seventeenth century, with a f a9ade in the Can?* 
dos Rcmedios; church of St. John Mark, and 
church of St. Benedict. Hospital, one of the finest 
in the Unborn. In the eathsdral note the eapOlA 
\ de "K. ^. lAvxua^aV^^^ftft «&iKft^2SAk ^ ^.^^m df 

iMrUtta, and the woura poreh 0/ II16 axlerior ( 
UivljuUdlne; Arcbleplocopal palace, contAJnii]^ 
(ood library ; PnWic Librsry In the Campo 3anl 
Anna; the CampB dos Remedioi, a nugnlfioci 

dellghtfnl view svcr nILIhepla 
Lut Supper, the Sepulchre, ac 

OIWiTM, 64 mllea, the Roman Aqua Facia, aflrr 
paialns Vidago, > modem watering-place, with 
Wtiniillhethoieor Vichy, gcodlbrllTer. gout, Ac. 
From Lainego (ai above) the road atcendi the 
ttnr aad then tarn) off to the aoith-emt (or 


It SO mllee (ram Lameta, or SO Irom Braea. 

Alon.D V„ in H*I, ihe eighth poJiwMor of which, 
John II., w». raised 10 the Ihroneot Porlngal in 
1640, under (he title oF John IT. From him the 
present royal familj- of Fortnga(,of IbeBragnlua 
line. <i descended. It was (onnerly foMlfled, and 
.tilt contains a mined cnille. It hai minnfac- 
tnre. of vel.ct and other jUk f.bries. 

'li=ll!lf«ls« §. 





HOTEL IDTJ iDHA-o-onsr Ti'o:R. 

CASE KOHXKR, Proprietor. 

THIB 1ars« ind well-known EBt(l]11> to the Kuruel, end oppoBlts the piioclpe] Balb 
Baniei, hii en ejtcellenl ripntltlDn fai Iti gencta[ comfort. clBuiUneai, mpeiUi Mcmnmodl- 

1 enl f o'clock. Curl atEi M tb'a Hotel. ArnineuHnli ia the WlDteiHEKn from (he I tt October. 




Admirably situated near the Baths. Public Garden, and Casino. 

IH KiMta* ana rrlvHte ApartnenU. OiDBibHa at the Station. 

E. QUIBEBT. Proprlgtor. 


Amstel Hotel 



^^Sff <^^AS8 FAMILY HOTEL. TSw «iW*4.^ *fe«*i«» t. omM 




CONYERSATioN "house ^-^^ 




Now surrounded by 

its own 



Special airaDgemeDts for a 

Open all 
the year. 





A. ROSSLER. Praprietor. 

Braicli Hotel ; HOTEL mf, PALUKZA (UGO HACGIOffi). 





Flrat-clasB House. Beautifully situated, irith Hiner&l Water 

SpiiagB (Einzelbader), 

Omnllras meets principal Trains at tbe Holbelm Station. 



Tint-claas Hotel, near the Ballwar Station, sitnatsd la 
tlM centre of & lieantlfal garden, commanding ma«nl&mii.t-<i^K<K. 

»<rtJj M^Mlahmenta have large Dii\\nB,B.«ftA\.^, ^■'^'^^S^Si^' 
Zxtt»U^at Cooking. Fine "Winw. ■W-^**'^*^^^!^ 




THIS First Class Family Hotel, much frequented by English and Americans, 
is situated in the most fasliioimblc qnartcr of the Town, in the centre of the Theatres, and 
other places of amusement, near the Post and Telegraph OflSces. French Cuisine. Table d'Hote. 
English, German, and French spoken. Terms moderate. Special terms for the Winter Season. 




Entirely under the personal superintendence of the New Proprietor, Mr. D. IM BODEM* 





PIRST-OLASS HOUSE, in the best position amongst the Italian Lakes. Modem Oomfbrt. 
' Magnificent Garden and Park. Electric Light. Lift. Pension for protracted stay. Modmte 

A* METER, PFoprletor. 


VAter den IdAden, 39, opposite the Soyal Palace* 

THIS old, reputed, first-class Hotel, has the best situation in the Town, close to all the principal 
sights and Royal Theatres. Lately re-furnished throughout. Splendid Restaurant, looking out 
over the *' Linden." *' Cafe/' Drawing Room for Ladies. Baths. Lift. Table d*Hote. Electric 
Light. Newspapers in all Languages. Omnibus at Stations. Moderate Charges. 

Proprietor : ADOLPH MUHLIN6, Purveyor to the Impexial Court. 


Opposite the Kew "Ett.vUah Ch«Mh% 

T^^I8 favourite Hotels renovated and ne^\y T^i\3ri»s3ii^^^mVJii^XAT«« %i\iSfi3«sBL 

Zn^^^M '^^^omm, new Drawing Room, Dining Uoom, 'BVWVwV&.ws^, W^ ^^'^SSl^V 
tb^B/l^^ ?*S^ BsUWishrrent with Salt Baths and T^o «»*^^^*,^'S?^^'?J^A^^*»§Sg^ 
»• ^S^^'*" f*"*'^ -"'^ Inhnlinff Rooms ; wiW tiovr be ov^^Jt^^^l^A^^SSS^^V. ^S^^ 
^^ motion. I^arare Park with shaded walks. P©n%Voti. -Sefnaa mfAvtWft. ^.WV^^. 




Very comfortable Table d*IIofe and private DlnucrH. 

APARTMENTS for Families. Close to the Castle of Blois. Comfortable 
Carriage for visiting Chnmbord and the environs. Omnibus at the Station. English spukon. 


LI FT. On the Banks of the Rhine. LI FT. 

Enropean Beputation. 200 Rooms and Saloons. 

SirVAXEOH vittaont equal, faeing tiie Rhine, Seven Movntainf , the Park, Tiandlng Pier, and Railway BtatlMi. 
Sxtencive RngHih Gardens. Beading, Smoking, and Billiard Booms. Ladles' Saloon. American, French, and 
Bni^lah Kewspapers. Warm and Cold Baths in the HoteL Special Omnibuses belonging to the Bstablishment to and 
from all Trains and Steamers. Moderate Charges. Advantageous arrangements for a prolonged sojourn. Pensiou* 
Highly recommended. Table d'Hote at 1^ and 6 o'clock. O. BlERiy<AER«VOCiEIiER« Mnnnner* 



(HOTEL de FRANCE et de NANTES, r^unis). 

Only First Class Hotel, full south, patronised by II.R.II. the Prince of Wales. 

TELEPHONE, latest system, communicating with PARIS. 





Situated opposite the Grand Theatre, the Prefecture, the Exchange, the Bank of 
France, and the Port. Saloons and 90 Booms from 3 francs upwards ; in Pension 
j£3 2s. a week. 

Mr. PETER'S magnificent Cellars under the Hotel, containing 80,000 bottles, 
can be visited at any time in the day ; he is also Proprietor of the Domaine du 
Pheniz, and Purveyor of Wine and Liqueurs to H.M. the Queen of England. 
He sells this article in small and large quantities, in bottles or in wood, in full 

L. PETEB, Proprietor. 




BOTZEN (South Tyrol). 

Immediately Facing the Railway Station (no omnitras needed). 
^PHIS excellent Hotel, long and favourably known to Engliih and American Travellers, is speciaUy 
"^ recommended for its open and airy eituatiou. Splendid view of the Dolomites and Boeengarten. 
Mo0t convenient point for creaking journey between Grermany and Italy. Every latest improvement 
fOr ensnrlnff the OOTif ort of Visitors. 

Bnuiek Haases: Hotel Brltaiiiila* Teniee : Hotel des Alpeg» Belluno (Dolomites)* 

WALTHER & OESTERLE, Proprietors. 



A DMIRABLY tituated, close to the Casino and Sands. Large and small Apartments. Special 
-^^ terms for Families and Parties. Table d'Hdte and Restaurant (open to non-residents). 
Ezoellmt Cuisine. First Clsss Wines. Perfect Sanitation. Ilighly recommended. Cook's eonpons 
accepted. English spoken— On parle Frangais— Man spricht Dentsch, W. FBPFERDIMB, Pro. 



Newly biiilt, close to the Station and Landingr Place of the Steamers* 

O ITUATED on the Lake, it commands a splendid view of the Mountains, and affords every modem 
^ comfort.' 80 elegantly furnished Bedrooms. Saloons. ** Salle ii Manger." Reading Saloon. 
Oood attendance. Moderate charges. Excellent Restaurant. 

A* BBACHEB and T. BfOZABt Proprietors. 

BBIMDISI (Terminal Station of the Peninsular Expreaa). 


The Internatioiial Palace €oiiiiiaBy*s Hotel. 

fpHIS wall-known Hotel has been acquired by the Compai», and has recently undergtme atteonan and 
"^ partial reconstruction. Has been refiimished. Moderate Tariff. Pension. Diredtly opposite 
P. & O. Steamer Quay. Experienced Staff. TeleKrams t ** Hotel Internatlonaly Brtnoui.*' 

London Offices : 14, Cockspur Street, 8. W., 

Where plans may be consulted, and through tickets to all destinations obtained. 




THIS unrivalled Establishment, overlooking the Park, the Place Hoyale, and 
the Rue Royale, has been considerably enlarged and embellished by the present Proprietor, 
Mr. E. DREMEL. Public Saloons, Reading, Smoking, and Bath Rooms. Spacious Terrace Garden 
OTwiooking the whole park. Electric Light in all the Rooms. Ticket and Booking OflSca for Lug- 
gage in the Hotel. Rooms from 4 frs. 50 c, including Electric Light Hydraulic Lift (Heurtebise 

rtr^^-m PliACIB "ROY A.1»"E% 


BRVSSXLS Continned. 


BRUSSELS (central part). 


Unvhralled for its eomfoFt;, excellent Caisine, fine Wines, 

and moderate chari^es. 

The Table d'Hote, BreaMast, Lnncbeon. Dinner, and Grand 
Table d'Hote are accessible to non-residents. 




Telegraphic Address : Metropole, Brnssels. 


HydrauUc Lift. (RUE ROYALE). HydrauUc Lift. 

THIS lam and beautiful First-Class Hotel is situated in the finest and 
heilUiiesc part of the town, near to the most frequented promenades, and ia auppUed wUh 
•vtty modern eomfort. Table d'Hdte, 5 francs. Restaurant *'k la Carte" at any hoar. First-rate 
Cooking and Obolea Wines. Accommodation for 150 persons. Reading and Conversation Saloons. 
Smoking and Billiard Rooms. Baths. Large and splendid Dining Room. 

AmmgementB made with Families during the WINTER SEASON. 

Mr. B. MENGELLE, Proprietor. 

- Q'RMny aoTEL gtss.-si&:x.. 

- Ji£2r5-2S ^•if"* Antwrp, Ghent, and Bturw. '^^'^^•i^^V^^SS^^ 


BRUSSXLS Continned. 


MRS. MATTHYS, 42, Hue t>v Prince Rotal, lets good furnished 
Saloons, Bed-rooms by the Week or the Month, with linen and attendance. Board if 
4ctired. Best situation near the Boulevards, the Avenue Louise, and the Tramv^ays. Moderate 
terms. Mrs. MATTUYS speaks English. 



Highly Recommended Fibst Class Hotel. 


JOSEF MARCHAL, Proprietor. 



FIRST-KATE HOTEL, lately greatly enlarged, situated on the western bank 
of the Lake, opposite Bellag-io. Its situation is delightful for its beautiful views, and fine 
■bady walks along the shore. Cadenabbia is every day rising into repute for the salubrity of the climate. 



First Class Hotels best in the Town. 

L.. JVIAIUCCL, Proprietor. 




t ^^^'^ miles from Cairo, Eeypt, within 5 mVuutw? ^«ajL<ft^3bkft»siX.^^lt«s^^ 

*^^*Sj cJii°'^ ^^"S" »"^ Break?in in regular comtoTmVcaUon^V^^'^^Jl^^^^Srx. 
'^eSloa^f^?;^^''^^^^ *°^ Private DininI Rooms, RwidVue, I>t««\»*, wA%w»«*^to«l^ »i 
^'*^ookt, and most of the English JoumaU ar%Wi^»^ V^, 







This First Class Establishment is nov kept and directed by Sisr. P. BOBOO, lately and for many 
years Proprietor of the renowned Grand Hotel d'Eorope, at Turin. 



This FIBST-GLASS HOTEL offers special comfort to Eiifflish aad 

American Travellers. 


Omnlbiis at the Station. LIFT. ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



With Dependence (Two German Monarchs). 

THIS HOTEL has European celebrity, is very beautifully situated, with large 
Garden, and is newly furnished and decorated. Travellers will Und here every comfort at 
moderate prices. English, French, and German Newspapers. Open all the year. English 
Servants. F. BOSCHEB, Hotelier. 




FmST CLASS ESTABLISHMENT, particularly recommended. 300 Rooms. 
Table d'HOte. Restaurant. Near the Bath Establishment and the Casino. Lift. English 
and other languages spoken. Open all the year. A. MEILLON, Proprietor. 



T ARGE and splendid house of the first order, with extensive Park and Garden on the banks of the 
^ Lake. Former residence of H. M. Queen Caroline of England. Abode chosen by H. M. the 
late Empress of Russia in 1868. Arrangements for families at very moderate rates. Pension. 



Ji,,^ ^^^Ji^f^ment in an open and airy situation cVoa© to lYv«k^»»i^^ ^o^**^^' 
19 outb9 route to India by •* Mont Cenls." no^s- ».>^^tv^e^v^Q^ 

10 j|.DTlfiETl«£H£Nt8. 



FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL, delightfaUy situated in fnU Titw of 
Mont Blanc. Large Park and Garden. £zcellent Telescope for free use of visltora, Batha. 
French Restaurant. Special arrangements. Rooms from 3 franca, Pension from 9 francs. Under 
personal management of the proprietor. 

CHATngQMT (France) Hte. Mame. 


LArge auA small Tery eosilbrfaMe Aparfmento. 

Large and small Roomfl. Recommended to Families and Single Tourists. 


C HUB (Coire). 


PORICBSLT Havsar. Kslm * Ck>. E. KUPPBB Maaacer, fonnerl/ at the Hotel Banr a« Lae. Zorldi. sad 
Hotel HatloBsl, Lvceme. 

FIRHT CIAHS HOTEL, wltk IM Roona amd MUlna Rmuih. 

Boor. BaUwar BooWm OOc 
Carriages ana extra Posts. 

Best sitoation in Town. Batlis en eaob floor. BaUwar BooUm Oflee tor Tiduts anA Lanafe im Mm EMm. 

Carriages ana extra Posts. 

Telephone correspondence )>etween the Post, Post Office fur Diligences, and Extra Post, in the HoteL 



COMMANDING a splendid view of the Rhine and the Castle of Ehrenbreitsteh, 
and close to the landing place. It deserves In every respect the patronage of English FamDlei 
and Single Travellers. Good attendance. Excellent cookhig. Choice Wlnes^ Hot and Cold Batbi. 
Elegant Carriages in the Hotel. Modcrnte Charges. H. HOOHS, Proprietor. 


OnD"E3]Ls 33ISOJEX. 

MOST centrally situated, close to the Cathedral, near the Central Railway 
Station and the Quay of the Rhine Steamers. 200 lofty, airy Rooms and Saloons; dOO Bed*. 
Electric Light. Hydraulic Lift. Caloriferes in winter. Kycellent Kitchen. 


J^'^tbe No. 4, distilled strfctlyaccoTdii\g to l\veoT\«vTv«\^x^^'^.^^^^^xw^V\^^^^ 
wj'itnce^tor, by the moat ancient dlatlUet .. . 

••» _ ^ 




tiig boffdor of the Lake, opposite the Landing Place of Steamers. The sole 
Pink maw Hotel In Como. Cook's Coupons accepted. 

J* O. BAZZI, Proprietor. 



•FSIXj x> 

[Wtors will find this Hotel most comfortable. It is pleasantly situated 

near the Springs and Baths. 

flood OnliliMi BngUali spoken. The Hotel Omnibus meets all trains. 

BOHUHSRAFT, Proprietor. 

■ ^^^— — —————— i^—— I a^— — i^ 



PeB«l«n at very moderate prices* 

Hotel, situated on the best side of the Esplanade, fitted up 

after the Kngllih style, well known and highly recommended for its comfort and good attend - 
lis under the personal Management of the sole Proprietor, Alexander 8. Mazzucliy. 



E. DOIiLE, Proprietor. 
iT GLASS HOTEL, newly built, with a splendid view on the Sea and 

FMt, newly and comfortably fitted up. Good Caisinc. Choice Wines. Warm Sea Baths in 
Two minntes* walk from the Railway DcpOt, fifteen minntcsfrom the Now Sea bathing 
Carrlayes of the Hotel at the Landing place. 



'-jBATX HOTEL of old standing, &\ioex\Qic tt£)(Mmmodfi.tuiSL I'Qc 

«r Jnuailiea. Two Coffee Room*. ExceVVent Ti>A« ^B.^\fe. ^-iSfik^i^ v\ k^^ax- 
$amgort In the BngHBh style, at moderate QY&aT«ai. 'wrMKi. '^tSStft. 

'f AWrf wa« o^bUriied more than half a century a«o\>V^.>'«^^»^^^i^^;SSS 
r«»Menc6 in England enable* lllr. Yyiaw^^oi5\N«k%«V»V*^^^'*^ 


Canton des Grisons.] DAVOZ PLATZ. [Switzc 


LARGEST FIRST CLASS ENGLISH HOTEL (open the whole year), particularly recom 
English Travellers. 180 Bedrooms. Splendid Saloons and vast Assembly Hall, with 
Theatrieals. Beautiful views. Terraces, Verandahs, Lawn Tennis Ground, Sleighing, Skatin 
full sized English Billiard Tables. Library, Bath Rooms. English Sanitary arrangements I 
a weeks' stay. For further information apply to H AlV8 MOsEB, Max 

—"■—■——— -- ■ ■■ 

(France.) DAX. (Landes.) 


THIS large Establishment, with its celebrated Mud and Hot 
Baths. Open all the year, it is one of the best establishments on the Continent. 
greAt repute for the treatm^it and cure of Rheumatism, Gout, Paralysis, Neuralgi 
and Chest Diseases, and is especially patronised by the Government and the Academy o: 
of Paris. The accommodation is the same as in the first class Hotels. Pension 10 francs t: 
8 francs the Summer. 


Th« nearest to the Sea, the Casino, and the Bathing Establi 


LABSONNEUX, Proprietor. 


Hotel Bristo 


Opposite the Central Railway Station, BISHARKPLA' 

Situated in the English- American Square, the finest part of Dresde 



G. WENTZEL, Propri 





IRST CLASS HOTEL, the largest of the Town, close to the Station CArriyal). 

Two "Tables d'Hote" in the Afternoon. 

CARl A EOMUNO ROHRIC, Proprietors (and Wine Merchants)* 

Purveyors to H. G. the Duko of Saxe Weimar. 



F. SCHMITT, Proprietor. 

CHIS First Class Hotel is in the best situation of Ems, opposite the Royal 
Baths, with a beautiful Garden, and combines every comfort. Moderate charges. Excellent 
ooking and choice Wines. Reading, Music, Billiard, and Smoking Rooms. Arrangements, on 
iry reasonable terms, are made at the early and late part of the K^aHon. The Hotel is lighted by 

lectric Light. Omnibus at the Station. Hydraulic Lift. 



»Ilt8T-CLASS HOTEL, best situated in the Valley, in the middle of an extensive garden. 
200 Beds. Lofty Dining Room. Large Conversation Saloon with Veranda. Reading, 
Hiard, and Smoking Rooms. Music Saloon. Lift. Electric Light in all tiie rooms'. Warm 
d Cold Shower Baths. English Chapel in the garden. Good attendance. Moderate charges. 

ED. OATTANI, Proprietor. 



Oonyenation Saloon, Beading, and Smoking Rooms. Electric Light. Baths. 


Vrz. WYltSCH-CATTANI, Manager. 



H. BOBEETa &; 00., . ^^ 

, XT, VJb Tanuibnoni: and Borne, PlaaB& ft. "Loiwoao Va'^'Q^^^^'^'^*^^ ^^^^T^" 

'mcrtpUojiB preptLred by English assistants with diug* 1i<>«l \\vfe '^t*«*'^ ^^'!^^ 

rnmxcB abtd okrbiak MinnitAi- ^ki««»» 




Opposite the Central Railway Station. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT and Central Steam Heatine in every room. New Read- 
Inf And Smoking Rooms. Splendid position. Lift Telephone 1960. M oderate ehaqiM, 
Service, Light, Heating included. New Proprietor: B. OSBSTENBBANB. 

(Hotel where BISMARCK and FAVRE settled the Treaty of Peace, 1871X 

THIS First-Class Hotel, for Families and Single Gentlemen, close to the two 
Theatres and the principal Railway Stations, is one of the finest and best sitnated Hotels in 
the town. 150 Room s and Saloons. Pension at moderate prices. 

UPT. G. smsON, Proprietor. 


FREVDENSTADT (MSe feet abore the Se«>, 

Railway line-Stuttirart, OfTenbars, Straabnrar. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, surrounded by a very beautiful Park. ComfortoUe 
Bedrooms and Saloon?. Water and 3Iillc cures. Pine-needle and Sole Batu. tHuMaj 
arrangements perfect. Central Residence for BzcuniOOB. Carriages at the Hotel. Mod«nto 
charges. Pension. ERNEST LUZ, Junior, PZOprlOtsr. 


. I _ f — ^^^^ 


MOST Popular and Fashionable First-Class Hotel. The finest in Geoefi. 
Best situation, with a beautiful terrace. Concerts in Summer. Baths on each floor. IVfl* 
Sanitary Arrangements with the latest improvements. Electric Light in every room. No eztit 
charge for lights and attendance. LIFT. MATUt ft XUHZ, Proprit t — > 


Proprietor of the Hotel, now begs to inform English Trav»lleri that be has metMl^ 
Mr. DubuB In the above well-known, first-rate^ and beautifully sitnated Establishment, wldefe 
affords extensive and superior accommodaUou toi Y«n\ViR%v{i^%Vck^l« Gentlemen. In tdiiaf,^ 
sbove-nsmed Hotel dc la Foste, Mr. Vasds P\:it« V% «dsXA)&^ \a ^Vrs vaiouAtiuk wMMUMdatMtw 
Jf^J?^'^ opnl^t J^amllied. and to Commetcia\ (iftt^Wftrnwi, «iA^^^ \i5cttaA& ^A ^l^p^tf 

^arlng'tbe Winter S^ttuon iirr«n«^pm«nt«aTftmaeA^VXX^^»«»aMA%t».3Wi»te«aNwta», 

Winter Season arranscmentt aie maAfe 




FIBST-CLASS Hotel, situated in one of the most commanding positions of 
ihis charming Summer Station, so much frequented by lovers of Lake and 
Iknntain iScenery. KUPFEK BROTHERS, Proprietors. 





COMFORTABLE First-Class Hotel. Highly recommended. Mr. Bbacheh, 
the iProprietor, has been in England and America, and knows the wants of English and 
TraTellers. Charges moderate. 


Krt TBII1LAT9 Proprietor <Soii-ln-law and Successor to Mr. SIONNET). 

THIS HOTEL is situated in the PLACE GRENETTE, 14; it offers 
teeellent accommodation, and will be f onnd doserring the patronage of English Families and 
fta^ Oentiemen. Post Horses and Coaches for Aix-les-Bains, Allevard, Ariege, la Motte-les-Bains, 
liiftlletle, Ac. Omnibus at the Station. 



Proprietor, FRED. J. J. C. TAM SAHTENy ToiunioolTeM, 3» 4, antl 5* 

TUIS First-rate Hotel, the largest in the town, patronised by the highest class of Society, is delight- 
"*" folly situated in the rioinit^ of the Royal Park and all the Mnsenms. Electric light and Telephone, 
iftmy be ranked for its conuort and good accommodatlcm amongst the best First^laas Hotels of tJie 
fmUnent. The largest and most l(rfty IMning Boom in the Qty. Comfortable Conrersation, Ladies', 
^A Smoking Bo<»nB. Bath Booms (new system). Lavatory. Beautiful Garden for the use of Visitors. 
ftodUnt Cuisine. Moderate Charges. 



r*' . 

If AiM^cmn Amfli^ for iM comfort, good "Cni«vw^ wA '^Vw*^ •^'^ ^^sstfi^ 
-^Wtof* Proprietor, LUDWIO MBl^'Bl, voiQMiwm ^^* ^" ^ 





EXCEEDINGLY well situated, in the best quarter of the Town, recommended 
for its comfort and modeiate charges. Apartments for Families. Music and Gonrenatioii 
Saloons. Rooms from 2 to fi francs. **Restaaraiit k la Carte.*' Table d'Hdte. Breakfast 
>>f rs. 50c. Dinners 8frs. English and German spoken. OBELLB Proprietor. 




One of the best in the Town, with Dependence 


Situated in the extensive Gardens of the Hotel. 

Best position near the Karsaal, the Springs, and Batliing Establishments. Perfect sanitary 
arrangements. Splendid Dining Room with covered Verandahs. Hydraulic Lift 


In the earlj and late part of the Season (Maj, June, September, and October), 
arrangements are made at very mo derate prices. 

F. A. JJA'Yl^TGr, Px*oprletox*. 

Purveyor to H.B.H. the Grand Dnke of Mecklenbnrg-Strelitz. 


Eai bsea patronised by H.B.H. tke Priiwe of Wales aBd tlie Boyal Family. 

Moftt elevatedaltuatlqii. Wine 4;ar<l en. lacing South. Admlrabl j avlted for tUIIMi 
aAfferlnff from Clout and Rheumatlsin. Moderate eluuwet* 

4;iJSTAVE WEIOABT O, Preprtetor, 

Parresrer to H.B.H. the Prince of Wales and H.R.H. the Grand Dnke of Kaeklealmrf Btr^tti. 


TTOTEL DU TIROL, formerly Hotel d'Autriche. First-class EeUblishmeni 

-/^ close to the Railway Station and the IScw SVeatci tixv^^aW. ^^VtoxsLVB.^ '^«xVL\il«itAbUabiiiMit, 

fommMnda a beautifnl view of the Valley of tYie lut\, wiA *\Kto\x\\d\tv^^tt«^Tw\».VftA. \\. wMutocvwvvi 

j;w elegAntly furnialied hod Booms and SltUng TSloouv*. ^t^^\T^\s«^^^^^a»'^'«^'*e«««^v '^^siJav 

oSn^2^?\. ?(?^'«^ arranircmenta f or a ptottacteOi %ta>f . '^^^^^^'^Jv^JSS^a^^JS^^^ 

AfiVEaTtSKltENTS. 17 



L^41iST CLASS HOUSE of ancient reputation. Most central position on 

. -I? "Holiewef ," the i»incipal promenade, with best view of the Jungf rau and Glaciers. Lift. Kteotrio 
*^l||^t throu^oat. Baths. Iiawu Tennis. Pension rates and special arrangements made for prolonged 
tU^. Moderate Charges in May, June, and September. 


"TONEST SITUATION. Bath Room. Moderate Prices. Pension from 

J? 6 finuQcs upwards. Dark Room for Amateur Photography. Furnished with all modem comfort. 
Onsilras. Best Sanitary Arrangements. 




THIS Maguificent Estabiis ment, just opposite the Kurgirten and Mineral 
Springs, contains now 150 Bediuoms, 30 Silting Rooms, und a Ladiea' Drawing Room,-aU-ef 
, ifith an open view in the gardens. 

The only Hotel with Wineral Baths in the House. 

EONIOSWINTEB, (Petersberg), Rhine. 

llflTCI nil TUE DCTITDQRCPP one of the moat beautiful 

nU I kL .UN I nC rC I CnODCnUs mountains of the Slebengehixse. 

l?irnBELT nev buildin; and every comfort. Airy lodging-rooms and Saloons vitli a fine rlev, laige dining and 
•'^ reBtaaxant rooms. Large plateau vith forest and paries, and beantifol sbady promenades. Magnificent views in 
greater variety than from any other point of the Seven Mountains. Every Wednesday, Military Free Concert. IkUe 
a'HMe, week-days at 1 o'clock, Sunday and Holidays at 12-90 and 2 o'clock; Dinners and Suppers at any hour. 
Acknowledged good cuisine and liquors. Post and Telegraph in the house. Wwe. PETBS JOS. MSLLSa 
Address for letters and tel^irams : Nelles, Petersberg (Khlne). Communication with Kdnlgswinter directly by a 
Cog-wheel Railway. Corresponds with all trains of th^ State Bailway and Steamers. 

!■ 1 . I MBgBgaBBB 



jUUBirably sUvated First Class Hotel* on. tko YvoiBMiaiAftii^ 

Elevator, Electric Light In e^ery room. C>\wi't^^xftsA«tK\ft 

jB-wd^Xf/AMsAv/ OA 

18 At)V£RTl8iSM£Kt8. 


T Ar* A T5 KTO Terminus of the Gothard Railway, on LA KE M AGGIORE. Beit 

MVWAiAJrlWs stoppingplacoontheltalianLaket. OPEN THB WHOLE TBAB. 


The situation unrivalled either for a Summer or Winter Resort 

PATRONISED by all the Royal Families of Europe. Most luxurious and 
comfortable home with large Park and Gardens. Best situation in the mildest and most 
constant climate of Europe, without snow, wind, or fog, but with plenty of sunshine. Entirely 
adapted for winter residence. Chemindes, calorifdrcs, and stoves. Beautiful walks and Monntain 
excursions. EDglish Church. Doctor. Society. Lift. Exquisite cuisine. Frivate steamer 
and carriages for visitors. Most moderate charges. 

Messrs. BALLI, Proprietors. 





This Hotel has a flist class English connection, returning year after year, and has not increased its 

prices. Deservedly known for its comfort and good dinners. Pension from 8 francs, for a long stay. 

ZURICHER- MCVCD'C niflDAMA zurigher- 



MOST interesting and instructive. Splendid view of Rigi Kulm and Mount 
Pilatus, the Girder Bridge thalf-way from Vitznau to the summit of the Rigi), the Top of G<nmer 
(Zemmtt), the Ice-Sea, Range of Mount Rosa and Matterhom, &c, 

First elass HotsL Largely patronised by Eni^iSh THsitors. Splendidly situated. 



PENSION (Room, Li|dit, and Service indaded), ftrom 8 £r. to 10 £r.; July and Angost firom 11 tr. to 14 fr. 
Speelal arrangements tot Famlliea. J. ZIMMERLI-UlASER, Proprietor. 



_-,„ FlR$^T-€liA%« lLOT¥li. 

T^f J'^'-Sreat Hotel and Best Restaurant In tbc 'towtv. 'i^^ ^^ ^^^^^'^'^^?^\t"!i^^\S^^ 

ADV^RI^tSJ^MSNi'S. 19 



FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL. Patronised by the NobiKty and the 
Gentry of all Nations. In the centre and most fashionable part of the City. Elerato)*. 
~ Baths.. Railway Ticket Office in the Hotel. Tariff of Charges in every Room. Modoratt Termi. 

Hydranllc Lift. Electric Lisht. Telephone. 

Telegraphic Address : " QBAND HOTEL, LTON.' 



On the splendid Qnal de la Saone. Five minutes' walk from the Station. 

Vve. BATAILLABD. Oommandlnff a view of the Alps, and Mont Blano. 

First Hotel in the Town. Recommended to Families and Single Travellers. Interpreter 

Trains from Macon to Vichy, to Bourges, Blois, Poitiers, and Tours. 

All Express and First Class Trains take np and leave Passengers at Maeen* 

MADEIRA— (Fanchal). 

Reid's Hotels 


By appointment to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh. 

SANTA CLARA HOTEL. — "Admirably situated, overlooking 
Fanchal, line view of the Mountains and Sea. ' — Vide RendeWs Guide to Madeira, 

REID'8 NEW HOTEL. — Situated on the ClifiFs to the West of 

Funchal, on the New Hoad, overlooking the Sea, grand view of tho Mountains. 
Sea Bathing and Boating. 

MILES'S CARMO HOTEL.— in sheltered central position. 

HORTA8 HOTEL.— German spoken. 

8 ANT' ANNA HOTEL.— (^ood centre for scenery of the interior and 
north of Island. 

These FIRST CLASS HOTELS afford every comfort for famlUA«.^\v^Vxwvi?ss2«». 
Excellent Cuisine and Choice Wines. T^ums Cov«\a.j ^3W^ ^"w.^«»^ "^**^ 
Heading, and Smoking Booms, English and Owmwi'Sk«^«^^«t»* ^^""S^ 05:. 

SANITARY arrangements have been camed out \i^ xV^ ^«wv«* '^-^q.v^wXnk^ 

London. AH Steamers met. 

so Atyvziauwtttma. 



^nnS First Glass Hotel, sitnaie in the middle of the town, and near the 

JL log Pltoet of StfiAmboAta, affords large suites of well-f omislied apartments for f amO 
ecwifortabfo and airy roomft for single gentlemen. Good Table and winest attentive att 
Moderate charges. Foreign Newspapers taken in. An Omnibus from the Hotel meets erer: 

ecwifortable and airy roomft for single gentlemen. Good Table and wines* attentive att 
Moderate charges. Foreign Newspapers taken in. An Omnibus from th e Hotel meets ever 
French and English spoken. BB&NBHAUSEL ti VESFFEL, Froprle 



WBLL-KNOWN Fiist-Claas Hotel, opposite the Central Bailwaj Station, 
and elegantlj famished. Moderate charges. No extra for light and a 
ance. Every comfort. Bath on each floor. Excellent Cuisine. Choice W 

Hear the T*n(Hng Flaoe of the Rhine Steamers. 

MENTONE (Alpes Maritimes). 


CLOSE to the Station. Most sheltered position, and full South. Magni 
view on the Sea and Italian Coasts. Large Garden with Tennis Ground. Arrangemei 
8 firs, per day upwards. T. A. WIDBOSR. Propcii 

D^vpWg t^e Swuaer: HOTEK JJTO PKNSIOV BOBnnnn»K«, KVCE|UI 




FIBST CLASS HOTEL. The largest and most comfortable ix 
Town, Beautifollj situated, with a fine Garden. 

Patronmd by the Royal Families of several Courts of Europe 

PH. BfiSNlIAKDT, Proprietor* 


y^^^TBDott the Corso Victor Emmanuel, tulV «ou\;tv,TMi«t \a \^i<^ ^«a2&fiAsftl^ the Scala 
it^/ 2^***' T^ictor Emmanuel Passaffe, Post andTAegtwB\iO««%. *k^t^M«sB8»\^st\%^Bfla^ 

wi£%?*A?2?W^"- HydrauUc Lift to e^ery fVoot, «^J. Jft«^V^^S?^if«i* 
<"«««* <Ao0e«tion. Mod«rato ehaTges. Pension. CooVa^w 


BCXLAN Costlnned* 


THE most comfortable Hotel, near to the Station. Newly restored (1894). 
Fmll South with Garden, and facing the Pare. Moderate charges. Cook's Coi^Kms ftoeeyt^d. 

V. OOLLBONI, Proprietor. OH. GALLIA, Director, 


Im tlie Immediate vicinity off tlie Railway Station* 

I^EW; expressly bnilt for an Hotel with all moderm improvements. SItnated in the healthiest 
^ part of the Town. Pleasant Garden. Airy Apartments. Table d'Hote. Restaurant and 
Beadug Rooms. Baths. Heated throughout. Scrupulously clean. Careful attendance and very 
moderate charges. Real English Hotel, near the Station. Porter meets all trahns. Hotel Coupons 
aoo^ted. No Examination of Luggaob fok Visitors to this Hotel. 

J. BEIAINI, Proprietor. 

MOHTREUX (Clarens). 


A FIRST-CLASS Family Hotel, in the healthiest, quietest, and most 
charming part, stands well up from the Lake. Splendid unriralled views. Surrounded by 
^neyards. Shady terraces and Garden Park, easy acce ss from Town. Latest Sanitary appliances. 
96 Balconies. Lift. Moderate Charges. TH8. UNQER DONALDSON, Proprietor, 

Lawn Tennis Oourt. Omnibus. Branch House— Grand Hotel Victoria, St. Beatenberv. 

MONTBETJX (Veytaux-Chillon). 



BEAUTIFULLY SITUATED, between the Castle and the English Church. 
Highly recommended to English and American Families. Home comfort. Electric Light ; 
and Bath Room. Garden lately renovated and improved. Terms moderate. 


lODEBI MST-CUSS lODSE, opposite tbe Knrsaal. Finest Situation. 

Electrle Lixht In eyery room. Meals In elfber Hotel. 

E. GAISEB FLOHB, Proprietor of both Hotels. 

Montreux— TERRITET— Lake of Geneva. 

AUnUDS MO uscBsav 

HOTEL MONT-FLEVi^\ '.^^^^S^ 

««»»«i nemoH <Je»ir»bIe »ninmer nnd winter reaVAcwe. 

52? JLjlt . _. 




SPLENDID First-class Family Hotel. Situated in the most fashionable 
Qiuu*t«r, near all objeets of interest. All modern comforts and Imp rovem oats. Moderate 
Charges. Baths. Electric Light throaghout. Hydraulic Lift. M. DIBNBB, Proprietor. 

MttRBEN (Switzerland). 



OPEN from Ist May to Slst October. Electric Light throughout. Pension 
daring the whole Season. Recommended for a protracted stay. Magnificent tIow. 
Namerons Promenades and Exc ursions. Post, Telegraph and Telephone. Prospectus on appUcatlon. 

W. GURTiaSR-KERNEM, ProyHetmr. 



OPEN all the year round. Quai Parthenope (New Embankment). Splendid^; 
situation, full South, close to the Public Garden and the centre of the town, with magntftcttt .• 
view of the Bay and Vesuvius. Hydraulic Lift, Electric Light. Telejjrraph and Post Office. EveiT . 
kind of Bnths. Moderate Char^e^. No extra Charges for Attendance and Lights. 

R. WABHLEB, Proprietor, 

PARKER'S HOTEI. (^aS^Saho). 

900 ^^^''^ above the Sea, passed by the tram from Posilipo to the Museum, 

>vvV/ close to the stations for San Martino and Baiae. The windows look over Veaavins, Capri, 
and the whole Bay. Sanitation on latest English principles. All terms made for rooms loelade 
Baths, Lights, and Attendance. Lift Electric Light in all Rooms. 



MErHAPSn f-SC HAITHAUSEN (Swllzerland ) 



BvleniUiI Views of tbe celebrated. 



means of Electricitj and Bengal I ght= he Fa B f he Rh ne B e brllhan 
illufflinated everv night during the Summer Seawn. 
EKGLISU DIVINE SERVICE In the new Church, looated In the 
GfoundB of the Schweizerhor, 



- ~g; TlielarceBtttrel-olaMHotal, 

-^=- fining the Saa and. Bathi, 

~ ^-I close to th* New Kunul. 

ejid the Reildene* of Uia 



andmusic rooms. 



OSTSND Costlnned* 




^lose to the New Kursaal and the Residence of the Royal Family. 

LEON THOMA, Proprietor. 

GnAND HOTEL LEOPOLD IL ^Bna^lahTraveUenj. IteSownedforitaOookinf 

ViUlilJ/ UVIUU UUVIVUJ/ 111 and Wines. Splendid tituation NMKHtto 

Uie Batbs, Kursaal, and English Church ; close to and with view of the sea. Bveiy Home Oomfort. 
Electric Light throughout. Oonversation Boom, with Piano. Reading Boom. Suites of Booms for 
FftmiUes. a6od and airy Bedrooms, firom 3f^. a day. Full PenBlon, three meals, llglit, and 
attendance, from 9fir. a day. Meals at separate tables. Great reduction for families and long stay. 
All demands for arrangements promptly answered. Omnibus at Trains and Steamers. Rngllgn 
Attendants. E. DAVID V ANCt V€&, Proprietor A Manager <Spealu EngUsK). 

SITU A1 ED, line d'Ouest, close to the Kursaal and Bathing Place. First- 
class Hotel, recommended fur its comfort and moderate fixed prices. Splendid largo Dining 
Rpom. Breakfast Room. Conversation and Reading Saloons. English, American, Germa n, an d 
French Newspapers. Omnibus and Hotel Porter meet the Train and Steamer. ■ OPEN AU THB 



T^^Bmost rAsnioNABLK Hotel andIlfesla\»Mitv[l\3ckft^^3Wss^. '^^VsivwaioKs^ 

SOO Beds and M^JbniT oSSbus t^^^^^^ggS^^^^''*- 
«H. . Cable Addii^ftHs «« APlJ&1|l»™^v.^lJ^^£^% «M^^ 


08TBND Comtlnn«d. 




I^IfiST-CLASS ENGLISH FAMILY HOTEL AND PENSION, Green Square, close to th« Sai, 
*- Kursaal, and Casino. Open all the year. Fall Board, 78. or 88. per day, aooordlng to tiii 
BUMins, Special arrangements per Week or Month darintr the Winter and Snnuner Season. 

N.B.— — The Omnibus ot the Hotel conveys Travellers, free, to and from the Trains and Steamors. 

A. DECIXRCK, Propvletor* 




8, RUE DE LA PAIX, 8, 

(Place Yendome. Place de I'Opera.) 



(Oermany.) FYRMOBT-LES-BAIIIS. (Waldeck.) 


J^ATMOKmD IT THE B07AL FAMZUSB. Bntireljr new and eomfertable ; tnt-rat« for FUnlltes and Blagl 
* Oentlemen. The nmrMt Hotel to the Springs, the principal Allee, and Promenadee. The new Mud Bathe wil 
be open this eeaeon. Ehfljieh and French epoken. Omnibus to all Trains. Pymumt can be reached in 20 hours ria 
Fhishing. Throagh Tl^ets issued at Victoria Station direct to Pyrmont via Queenboro', FlnshingfLohne. Haweln.— 
tweservieesperdasr. ISRIEDB. VOLKBBSt PrOBNTiefor. 


FAMOUS First Class Hotel, opposite the Vienna, Dresden, Karlsbad, and 
Breslan Railway Station (no carriages wanted). Very clean and roost comfortable apartments 
at Ifl. and upwards. Conversation and Reading Room. Beantifnl Garden with Terrace. 
Luminous Tountain. Carriages. Baths. Teleplione. V. BENES, Proprietor. 



PETER WIBTH, Proprietor. 

RE-OPENED Ist June, 1885. The largest First Class Establishment in 
the town, overloolcing three street?. Beautiful building (style Renaissance), with a Granite 
Staircase, and replete with every modem comfort. Superior Cbolcing, choice Wine, and good 
attendance. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages for Excursions to the '* Walhalla.'* English 
Newspapers. Moderate charges. Large Saloon for "Restaurant. * 


MOST Distinguished House in the most elevated and salubrious part of Rome. 
Moderate Charges. Arrangements for protracted stay. 

iiti>»«<r«*«i. /O. B ITZ. firom the Savoy Hotel, London. 
nanagerst-l^ PFTFFSR, from the Grand Hotel National, Luoeme. 



All Modem Comforts. Open all Year Round. 

P. LUGANI. Proprietor. 

^ PAJCLY HOUSE, oomer "Via liaflicnrtA laA hsxw^i. \^. 

•/*r d5;*{JJ ««2« mad Stain heatST Accommodation ol % ftT*V-c\s» ^^^j^Kawy^iS^ 'K'^ 




ESTABLISHED since 1826. Situated on the River and facing the Sark. 
Full-sized English Billiard Table. Marble Baths, Hot and Cold. Omnlbas meets boats aa4 
trains on application. Pension, Board and Senrice at £U Is. per week. 




Very firgt-class and best sltaated Hotel* 

ITIEW on the Seine, Bon Secours, Pont Comeille, and He Lacroiz. Near a Post and Tele^nntph Offloe, 
^ the Theatre, and the principal Monuments. Large and small Apartments. Choice Cuisine. 
Renowned Wines. English spoken. Cook's Coupons accepted and abatement of 5 per cent, for an eight, 
days Istay. Bicycles may be deposited. Kept by Mrs. Vve BATAILLARD, 

Formerly proprietress of the Stotel d« TEwope, at Macon. 

ST. BEATENBEBG (Canton de Berne, Suisse). 


THE largest and newest, rebuilt, with every modern comfort. Baths and 
Douches. Best Sanitary arrangements, own springs furnishing excellent water. Wood, and nice 
shady Terraces. Finest sheltered position, in the centre, between Church and Post Office. Embracing 
the grandest panorama of the Lake of Thun, the Glaciers, and the Mountains of the Bernese Oberland.. 
Telegraphic Address : Vicioria, Beatenbero. Branch House: Hotel Belmont, Montrbux. 

CHS. 1JXGER-HOXAI.HSOX, Proprietor. 

ST. 60AR (Rhine). 

rPHIS WELL-KNOWN FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, established over 500 years, and situated on the 
■*- most beautiful part of the Rhine, was rebuilt in 1888 and provided with every modern comfort 
for travellers. Large Saloons, Reading Room with English papers, and 54 lofty and nirr Bedrooms. 
Hot and Cold Baths. Sanitary arrangements perfect. Splendid views of the Loreley. of the Ruins 
rf the Rheinfels. and Cat and Mouse Tower^ and surrounding hills. English Church. Moderate 
charges. Excellent Cuisine and choice Wines. 


HOTEL DE FRKW:.^. -^„ 

/gpUUtTJOUMKAJ; beH aitwitionia the Town. Opposite the WiuVac '^^»»»^*^'«Sf'*"^SwW«^!5^ 

jS.«^2y^vJ?*"r*' communication through the vYiole to^. IU»tc» iwta-\xAo^tvV»^,^j,,pj^,^ «»» 

SSSJZfis^^^ ^^^* iie«Uogr Boom, with aU BuropeMx TSwwpKpw*: ^^^ '^ _^_- 

HOTSl. BEX^I^E VUE, just opposite \We ^0^«^^^ 








BEAUTIFULLT and healthfully sitnated, commanding magnificent views 
of the Town and Sea. Beautiful large garden. Smoking and Billiard Rooms, Excellent 
Lawn Tennis Ground. Hydraulic Lift. 

L. BBSTOLINI, FtOp. The same as the Grand Hotel Royal, Conrmayeur (VaU^ d^Aoste). 

SCHINZNACH (Switzerland). 






Season, lay 10 nntO September 30. 


Rich SalphnronB Arated lUiiena 
Springs, effloaoioiui for Chronic 8kin 
Inseases, Glironic Catarrli, RhenTnatlmn. 

Fine new Bnildlng for Special Treat- 
ment by InlLalations. VHXk core. 


Rednced prices nntil June IS. Pro- 
spectus free firom 

HANS AMSLEB, Proprietor. 



NEAR the Hotel is a Branch House, newly built expressly for an Hotel, and 
situated fall South. 200 Rooms and Saloons newly furnished with superior comfort. Smoking 
and Reading Rooms. French Cooking. Moderate charges. Special arrangements made for the 
Winter season. Careful attendance under the personal direction of the Manager, Louis Rayizza. 
Large Garden. Omnihus to and from the Station. Interpreter. 
Note. — The Hotel de Madrid is also the Sleeping Cars Agency in Seville. 



FntST-CLASS HOTEL, greatly improved and beautifully situated, in close 
proximity to all the principal Establishments. 140 Beds. Vast Saloons and Richly Furnished 
Apartments. Reading Saloon supplied with papers of all countries. Large Smoking Room. 



^M newjy rebuilt BraUclaBs Hotel, witii moA«ni c««D£«\.«QftL\wAsaE«k^B«», 

wr ^'^^.^'•^y aituAted between the Stf "«« -«^ «- r..ti\i«&3 ' -*-^ ..^ «..«t.^ -iw«^^WA 

from 2 Marks and n 
-Americnn families. 

y rf f ^f v" rebuilt tfrat-class Hotel, witii moA«ni c««c&t\. wAtmsAsw^^msb^, 

* ^^Sl'^^L?^"**®^ ^•t'^een the Station and tWe Ca\.\i«fl^>^\<»»^,.^i]J^««^gf^^ 

W U, Sa^n^^ ^'*'" ^ ^"Tka and upwards, \ivc\udViv« \\«^^ »^ 'SSf^ ^^3SnU 
^»sriJ8i, nnd -American families. ^' 'WKW»> XW«w«** 

AbVCBTlSfeldiNTS. 29 



IS situated in the finest part of the 'town, in the beautiful Place EoyiJ^ 
adjoining tlie Railway Station and the Post Office, near to the Theatre and the Royal Qardefis, 
opposite the Palace, and facing the new Odeon. This Hotel will be found most comfortable in •Vfty 
TMMCt; the apartments are elegantly famished and suitable for families or single gentlemen. Table 
d^HOte at 1 and 5 o'clock. French and English Newspapers. H. and O. BCabqvabdt, Proprieton. 

TAMABIS-SUB-MEB (Near Toulon) Var— France. 

NEW Winter Station on the Mediterranean, picturesque and well-wooded, 
facing entrance to Tonlon roadstead. Open all the year round. Modem comfort and sani- 
tati(m. Excellent Cuisine. Frequent communication with Toulon by Land and Sea In 20 minutes. 

Address: M. JUST, Proprietor, GBAMD HOTEL, Tamaris-sur-Mer (Var). 





BEST idtuation, near the Waterfalls; for a long time well known as "HOTEL i. 0GH8EN." Every 
English comfort. Boths. Electrlo Li|^t Milk Gore. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages. 
Aftoderate chutes. Pension. The proprietor gires best information for Excursions in the Black Forest, 
^he Hotel Wshrle, not yery large but very comfortable, is higlily reco mme nded by Oerman and 
^Vneign Guide Books. P. WBgRfiBi iTOI^etar* 


Opposite tlie Scliwarzwald Hotel <Black Forest Hotel). 

flT the immediate neighbourhood of the grand waterfalls. First-class house, overlooking the 
•^■^ Town and Valley; surrounded by a large garden. Trout fishing. Most excellent Board and 
Accommodation at moderate charges. English Comfort. Most European languages spoken 
Omnibus and Landau meet all trains. 

AI.BERT ROTZmrGER, Proprietor. 



FIRST-CLASS. Well and conveniently sitaated in' the Via BonUL and netr 
the Central Station. Sanitary arrangements perfect. BoQm& l^AA^MV'^iraS&i.'^siw'^ 
BydranliC UfL Omnlbns to and from all Trains. 

'^"'^/awuid Hotel, GeveicXe IBlcAle (JV^tow^^ 




rpHIS OLD ESTABLISHED FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, situated on the best position of the Grand 
-^ Canal, has just been repaired and greatly improved. New rich Dining Room on the ground 
floor overlooking the Grand Canal. E^drauUc Lift 



NEAR St. Mark's Square, on the Grand Canal, facing the Church of St. 
Maria Salute. 200 Rooms. 20 Saloons. Patronised by English and American Travellers. 

The Splendid Bestaurant "Baner Grunwald" connected wifb the Hotel, belongs to 

the same Proprietor. Post Office in the Hotel. 

See Text, under "Venice," Italy Section. JULIUB GRUNWALD, Senior Prop. 



(Near the Taunas and Rhine Railway Stations, Post and Telegraph). 


Newly Enlarged and Renovated, and affording every comfort 

to English and American Families. 



<r. JSoli.»a.ltsB-'\7'oXbL«ia.ix'tl&« 



Formerlir HOTEI, DE I,*01:R». 

THIS First-class Hotel, containing 45 Saloons and 235 Bedrooms, with a 
aepnraie Breakfast and new Reading and Conversation Rooms, as well as a Smoking Saloon, 
a very extensive and elegant Dining Room^ and an Artificial Garden over the river, is bMntlAiUy 
MJioHted in connection with the Old and lliew Qa\.YiWM\vv^«tax4 CouTersation House, and in tlie 
JmmodiAto vicinity of the Promenade and Trin\iY\n\\<i. 1\. \* Cift\Oax«Xfe^\^x Vv,%^%^«i&\.«sk.d oomfoit* 
5xi*/*^^^°'^^^*' grood Cuisine and Cellar, and deaw\fe% \t% ^\eL<^-«VJ^c^^^^'iV<s^»^^^^ 
^rr^- ^j^^Je d^HQte nt J and 5 o'clock. BTcti\ela%U ^^«^ ?^^:E:^^* * i^^.S^h ^:!^^^^ 
^ZrTo}'^?.''^?^ tha principal Banking House* otl^n^oxvloxjXx^W^^^^^^^^^ 
''^'^dCoM^A' , Omnibuses of the HoUl to am\ J»^^ 'l^J^^^J^^^xcvm^^^^^ ^^ 

ftt/»2v ^^thB in the Hotel. Lia to every fVooT. ^xtO\^^ti^ «L«JkMri5ii« v&ft.^Mili( 

^^oMMees tor Rooms daring tue moutto ol KvxW,!^.'^ ,%«iA«iiiX.«^^a^^*«» 


WILDBAD Coatinned. 


SIS First-class Hotel is beautifully situated on a terrace facing^ the new 

Trinkhalle, at the entrance of the Promenade, and within five minates* walk from the English 
rcfa. It is well known for its cleanliness, good attendance, and moderate charges. The 
ine department and Wines will afford satisfaction to the most fastidious taste. A great part of 
lotel has been newly furnished, and the drainage entirely reconstructed. Excellent Sitting and 
Rooms, famished with English comfort. Conversation, Reading, and Smoking Rooms. Ladies' 
Ic Room. The Times and other Papers taken in. Warm and Cold Baths in a separate building. 
Hotel Omnibus meets every Train during the season. Covered communication between the 
)1 and new Bath House. 


loTEL Baur au Lag 




itronlsed by English and American Families. 




as AJbVxtttuaiiKns. 



THE ONLY HOTEL on the Island with a Sea View, and is nearest to 
tba TiaTMlhig Staga, and pooBesaes excellent deeping aooommodAtion. Public Drawing and BmoUM 
Booms. Large Dining Boom (separate tables). The Hotel Grounds haye an altitude oi 800 fMt aH^ 
sea lereL Good Fiahinff and Bathing. D. BOBIN. Pr^prletaCi ' 

H.B.— Steamers leare Gnemsey dally for Bszk after the arriTal of BovUuuapton and Weymoatli BoaMT 




INCLUSIVE TERMS, 6s. 6d. per DAY- 


Charmingly SUanted oh Sea Shore* 

Recently enlarged. Tariff on application. The only Hotel in Channel Islands 

aflbrdlng saiBilities for Sea Bathing. 

A. B. JHARDEir, Proprietor* 




Telegraau : ORAND, JER8ET. BI« de IKIDI, Hummmer* 





Price Twelve ftldlUmsa VCVotS^. 

^ BLACKIjOCK k 00., AI.BERT aQiOAKft, IBX&CJBiairEB.. 









PARIS 58, Rue de Clichy. 

PARIS 4, Place du Theatre fran^ais (Palais Royal). 

MARSEILLES 38, Ruo de la R(5pubHqno. 

BRUSSELS 5, Ruo de la Pepiniere. 

ANTWERP 21, Avenue du Commerce. 

COPENHAGEN Frederiksberggade, 2G. 

BERLIN 33, Wilhelmsstrasse. 

COLOGNE 22, KomodienstraRso. 

BASLE 4, Stapfelberg. 

BERNE Naegeliegasse. 

VIENNA 6, Elisabeth Stra.s8e. 

PESTH 4, Deaks Platz. 

PRAGUE Franzen Quai. 

MADRID Leganitos, 4. 

SEVILLE 31, Plaza de la Constitucion. 

LISBON Janellas Yerdes, 32. 

ROME 63, Via Due Macelli. 

FLORENCE 22, Via della Vigna Nuova. 

GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

NAPLES 101, Strada di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, RueTanger. 

ST. PETERSBURG ...4, New Isaac Street. 

ODESSA 58, Khersonskaya Street. 

ALEXANDRIA Post Office Street. 

uM^laiunmUon ma be obtained at any of the «Jbo^^ «A^5smm»^^^ ^ 

^ 146, Queen VictoT\ai ^\,t wX. \*5«^'^*'^ 







Bookwofk Statements Letter Headings. Bill Formk 

Inreices Memo. Forms Note Heading;s Cheques. 





WORKS: iSAND 33, ALBERT SQ[\3>A¥.,^K^^m'S^SS.. 


\t' 1 \».n ly a Ws'W'J'i' swjiW'i VIMW » K 

JL** Are truly 

Hedlcines or blessing & relief 

all «1io are out of beajth. 
Are yoii aufFeriug 

trom IniligcsfioD, Wont of Kner)^, 
Lack of Tone? 

Try the Pilla, 

and yon will rejoine In 
restored bealtb, atreagth, and appetite. 

Have you. taken cold 

•r hare Obeit troublea, KhenmatiBm, 
Goat or Nemalgja? 

Use the Ointment. 
;e a cbarni. For Cuts, Wonndj, 
Iprams, and all masoulat con- 
t has no equ&L 

These Remedies are invaluable 

all coiiipluii.ti incidiintal to Femalos. For 
children and the ogaH they are pi-iceleea. 

xlDiii;ii.t7S,Kew Oxford I 

id Sold by oil Uldicini 
f •idrfcg;TatfH,aCtheiibaveaddreu,dM\j,\i 

''i^ ■"'•;*■