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BY DR. CHARNOCK, F.S.A., F.R.O.S., &c. 



HsDa«BLa:— aAJ9qO>T t vanlisrstes 

' \ ■ 


Fsw parti of the Continent are to worthy of a visit as Spain. In the beauty and 
rariety of its scenery, it falls little short of Tyrol and Styria ; it contains some of 
the finest buildings, and has given birth to some of the greatest artists in Europe ; 
while it is at the same time especially interesting for its historical associations. 
Spidn, however, has been much neglected by travellers. The alleged reasons are — 
the fear of brigands; the fact of the language being so little studied; and the 
difficulty of travelling and obtaining accommodation. The answer to these objec* 
tions is — ^that brigands in Spain are almost entirely unknown; that although no 
language can be properly acquired without a residence in the country where it is 
spoken, those who can master ]g*rench or Italian, or who are tolerably acquainted 
with Latin, will find little difficulty in making themselves understood in Spanish. 
Moreover, in the principal hotels and several places of public resort the French 
li^nguage is spoken. And, finally, every year sees a marked improvement in the hotel 
accommodation all over Spain. 

The most agreeable way of seeing Spain was formerly to travel by diligence or by 
mule. There is scarcely any part of the country that has not been for a long while 
traversed by diligences, which are perhaps better conducted there than in any other 
part of the Continent, whilst mules may be had in all the mountainous parts. Rail- 
ways, however, are now open throughout the most frequented parts, and branch 
lines are multiplying by degrees. The hotel accommodation is, as a rule, rather 
below that of France, Belgium, Germany, or Switzerland, but may compare advan- 
tageously with some parts of Europe, where provision is only made for the 
eommercial traveller. The only real difficulty for the tourist is the absence of a con- 
venient guide book. There are hosts of works on Spain, but till lately there was no 
good practical hand-book, which in a small form gives the trateller all he requires to 
know upon the route. In the following pages the author has endeavoured to 
accomplish this object. Among other useful information, the work contains the best 
routes; notices of the principal towns and places, and the different objects of interest, 
full details on the coinage ; a glossary ; and a vocabulary in English and Spanish. 
The publishers have still further increased the value of the work by adding plans of 
the chief towns, and illustrations of the most interesting places. 

It was not until the Spanish portion of the work was in the press that the author 
eoneeived the idea of extending the work to Portugal. He trusts, nevertheless, that 
he haiy in a small space, given such information at may enable the tourist to ti^«3&^^ 
eonple of summer racationi in that interettiti^ to^t^^sTj. 

/ 1 


. , ^ ... 

- • • < 

■ \ 

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* • « « 

V -. 

4* • « 

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I ....... . 



Abrantos, 88, 175, 1S9 
Adradas, 110 
Aflrnilaa, 76 
Alagon, 39 
Ala rd, 136 
Albacete, 31 
Albatera, 116 
'Albergrarla, 181 
Alhnfera, Lake of, 100 
Albnfeira, 187 
Albnixech, 93, 118 
AlcaK de Qnadalra, 69 
Alcali de Hefiares, 81 
Aicaltf la Real, 68 

. ..A&CAHTABA, 86 

Ayiintamiento, 86 

Bridge, 86 

OaidJe, 86 

Church of El Mayor, 

Convent S. Benito, 86 

Caartel deVeteranos, 

Exports, 86 

Alcantarilla, 76 
Alcaudete, 61, 69 
*' ■ Aleazar, 88 
Alcira, 117 
Alcoba^ 176 

Monastery, 176 

Moorish Castle, 176 

Atcoy, 100, 116 
Alcttdia, 186, 187 
Alcuneza, 110 
Alf aro, 109 
Algeciras, 61, 63 
Algemisi, 117 
▲Ihama (CalaUyndX 80 
AllMma (Malaga), M 
Alhuma oeMnreia, 76, 76 
. : AlhamV^ra, 66 
AUiamiUa,113 • 

Alhondiguilia, 61 
AtiCAN'riE, 84, 116 

Castello de Fernando, 

Ch.of& Nicolas, 116 
Paintings and Medals, 

Conveyances, 116 

Paseos, 116 

Steamers, 116 

Trade, 116 
Aljubarrota, 177 
Almaden, 83 
Almaden^os, 38 
Almagro, 83 
Almansa, 117 
Almaraz, 36 
Almaztfn, 19, 110 
Almendralejo, 37 
Almendricos, 76 
Almeria, 113 
A]m<$dovar, 61 
Almorchon, 61 
Almuilecar, 111 
Alora, 68, 60 
Alsasua, 16, 38 
Amieira, 178 
Amposta, 119 
Andalusia, 49 
Andorra, 106, 132 
Andraix, 188 
Andnjar, 60 
Antequera, 64 
Aramayona, 17 
Aran, 181 
Aranda, 19 
Aranjnez, 81 
Arapiles, 78 
Arbo, 100 
Archena, 114 
Archidona, 66 
Arentim, 190 
Arenys del M«r, 136 

Argentona Baths, 124 

Amedillo, 108 

Arroyo (de Malpartida), 

Arroyo del Pnerco, 87 
Arta, 136 
Ascorea, 188 
Asmenal, 77 
Astorga, 4:4 
Aveiro, 181,186 
Avila, 19, 76 
Aviles, 48 
Ax, 133 
Azuqueca, 81 

Badajoz, 33, 87, 87, 189 
Baena, 68, 61 
Baeza, 69 

Bagnl^resdeLuchon, 130 
Bailen, 69, 61 
Ualagner, 40, 130 
Balearic Ides, 133 

Etymology of Name, 

History, 183 

Population, 188 

Works on, 143 
Bafios, 84 
Barbantes, 100 
Barbastro, 40 
Barca d*Alva, 80, 184 
Babcelona, 38, 104, 134 

Academias de Bnenas 
Letras, 88 

Aduana, 89 

Aijama, 39 

Archivo de Aragon, 89 

Baths, 87 

Blblioteca Nacional,38 

Boat Hire, 39 

Bocario, 38 

Casa de Caridad, 88 
„ Consistorial, 39 
„ Lonja,89 

Cathedral, 37 

Cimenterio, 39 


Barcelona-^ Continued. 
Church of S. Angustin, 
„ S. Ana, 38 
„ S.. Belem, 88 
„ S. Cucufat, 38 
„ S. Jaime, 88 
S. Just, 38 
S. Maria del Mar, 




„ S. Mariadel PI, 88 

„ S. Miguel, 88 

„ S.Pablo, 88 

„ S. Pere, 88 
Coleglata S. Ana, 89 
Diligences, 88 
£1 General (HospltalX 

Franciscan Convent, 

Harbour, 87 
Hotels, 37 
Liceo, 39 
Montjuich, 89 
Muralla del Mar, 88 
Museo Salvador, Z8' 
Omnibuses, 89 ■ 
Paseo Nuevo, 38 
Pescaderia, 99 
Plateria, 39 
Presidio, 38 
Railway Stations, 89 
Rambia, 39 
Real Palacio, 38 
Roman Remains, 88 
Santa Cruz (Uos]^ital)b 

San Carlos (fort), 88 
Steamers, S:i * 
Barceloneta, 88 
Barreiro, 188 

Convent, 177 
Baths (near Al^isua), 16 
Baths of Panticosa, 180 



Beleiu, 1S7, 186 
UeUegarde, 49 
Betlodig, 39 
Balaiez, ol 
Benifica, 170 
Bemposta, i75 
Benacazoii, 69 
Benalbufar, 188 
Benasque, 181 
Benavente, 104 
Benedeta Pass, ISO 
Beiiifavo, 117 
Berlengas Islnndn, 175, 

Beiiicarlo, 118 
Besain, 16 
Betajutos. 48 
Bilbao, 40 
* Bill-far, 40 
Binisalem, l.^O 
Bobadila, 53, 54, 58, 60 
Booairente« 117 
Books — 
On Bpatii, 9 
Oil Portttiral, 16D 
• Boija8,128 
. Botany— 
' Spain, 5 

Fortagal, 154 

Boulott (Eli, 4V 
Bonrg Madame, 188 

^raga, 19>) 

Bragan^ IPl 
' Brbehe de Roland, lao 

Bucharo, 130 


Burgasot, 100 

Bargo ((SI), 46 

Bargos, 17 

Burriano. 1I8 

Basaco, 17S, UO 

&i^on^o, 47 

Cabtnas, 82 
Cabra, 61 
Cabrefa (tato), 141 
Gacein, 178 
Gacerea, 87, 84, 87 
Ci^Diz, 69, 70 

Aduani, 72 

Alameda, 72 

Artillery Barrack*, 72 
V' Baths, 70 

Battle of Traf algar,73 

Calle Ancha, 72 

Capuchins, 72 

Casa de Esposltoa, 72 

Casa de Misericordia, 
■ Casing 70 
' CkfAadntJs;. 7) 

Cadiz— Cbn/^ntiAi. 

Escttola de Comerclo, 

Excursions, 72 

Exports, 71 

Guadalquivir, 70 

Hospital de Mujeres,71 

Hotels, 7i 

Imports, 71 

Lunatic Asylum, 72 

Matagorda (lort), 71 

Medical Scho«l, 72 

Mnsco, 72 

Plazas, 71 

Plaza de Toros, 72' 

Port 8. Mary*N 72 

Ramparts, 72 

S. Bartolomeo, 72 

Sieges, 71 

Steamers, 72 

Tlieatres, 72 

Trafalgar, 72 

Wines, 71 

Works on, 72 
Cahide 184 , 
Calahorra, 107 

Antiquities, 108 

Bathsof Arnedillo,lU8 


Cathedral, US 

Etymology, 108 
Hermitage, 108 
History, 108 
SiCe^e, 108 
Cdlamonte, 37 
Calatayud, 30, 87 
Culdasda Baiuha,176,l78 
Caldas de Gerez, 191 
Caldas del Rey, 42 
Caldas de.Montbuy, 48 
CTaldelas, 100 

Caldetas, 124 


Calzada, 77 

Camas, 69 

CambrUs, 120 

Caminha (fort), 185, 190 

Campillo, 80 

Campos, 188 

Ca&averal, 84 

Candieras, 176 

Canfranc, 181 

CangMS de Tineo, 48 

Canigou, 49, U8 

Cantalapiedra. 80 

Gape Carviero. 186 

Cape da Roca, 186 

Gape Espichel, 186 

Gape Fliiistcrre, 42 

Cape Mondego, 186 

Gape St. Vincent, 187 

Gtxpt Sines, 166 

CHrcidMte, 84, loo. 117 
CMrdelU, 18 


Cardona, 105 
Cardonet Valley, 105 
Carmona, 61, 69 
Garpio, 80 
Carrutraca, 53 
Garregado, 175, 17t> 
Carril, 42 
Cartagena, 75,112 
Gartama, 53, Gl 
Gasarabonela, 54 
Casa BrMnca, 188 
Casariche, 60 
Gascaes, 186 
Gascante, 110 
Gaseval, 188 
Gaspe, 123 
Gastejon, 28, 111 
Castcjoii (Lerida), 40 
Castclio Branco, 190 

Caste] Rodrigo, 190 
Caatl.leja de la Cucsta, 

Crtstillejo, 31 
Castro Marim> 187 
Catarroja, ll7 
Caudcte, 88 . 
Gauterets, 180 
Caxai'ias, 17U 
Gerbe.-i', 49 
Gcrdiigiie, 133 
Cervantes, 31 

Geivera, 39 

Cestuna, 16 

Ceuta^ 51 

Cezimbra, 186 

Ghanca, 175 

Chaves, 191 

Chiclana, 72 

Chilches, 118 

Chinchilla, 34, 75 

Ghinihon, 81 

Chirivel, 74 

Spain, 5 
Portugal, 158 

Cid (The) 17 

GiNTRA, 171 

Colaresi 171 
Ccnverttion. 172 
Cork Convent, 178 
Months Lun«, 171 
Moorish Bath, 173 
Palace, 172 
Penha Convent, 172 
Pen ha Verde, 173 
Sitiaes, 173 

Circular Notes, U 

Giudad Real, 38 


Alameda, 81 

Ciudad Rodrigo— (7on. 

Casa de Beneficiencia, 

Castle, 81 

Cathedral, 81 

Convent of S. Clara, 81 

Excursions, 81 

Sieges, 81 
Giudedela, 141 
Cleopatra's Needle, 48 
Climate — 

Spain, 2, 4 

Portugal, 155 
Coast Tour— 

ripain, 13, 111 

Portugal, 155 

COIMBRA, 1.7^ 

Aqueduct, 180" 

Bridge, 179 

Busaco, Battle of, 180 

Cathedral, 180 

Churches, 180 

Fountains, 180 

History, 179 

Monasteries, 180 

Mondego River, 180 

Quinta das Lag^rimas, 

I'niversity, 180 

Works oil, 181 
C'Ul de Balaguer, 120 , 
Co) deMarcadaon, ISO 
Col de Somport, 181 
Gullbato, lot 
Concepcion de AIiiia< 

ru'liel, 83 
Columbus, 62, 82, 111 
Condeixa a Nora, and 

Spain, 13 
Portugal, 161 
Corcubion, 42 

Cordova, 60 

Alcazar, 60 

Ancient City, 60 

Archbishop's Palace, 60 

Cathedral, 60 

Cvflegio, 60 

Con veyauGM, 60 

Corredera« 60 

Excursions, €0 

Works on, 60 
Gorumta (Curulla), 4Sl 
Couriers, 8 
Povadonga, 47 

CUEN'OA, 85 

Cueva del Judio, 86 
Cutivas de Vera, llH^. 

Cullard0Baxa,74 \ 
CnUera, 118 . . 

\ CuLStoms Tariff, Ell|^■l^ 


Denia, 100, 117 
Despefla-perrot, 66 
Deva. 41 
Dieima, 78 

Sp^n, 10 

Portugal, 100 
Dm Hannanat, 00 
Donro, 1 

Dragonera (Me), 100 
Dnrango, 41 

Eanx ChaudM, 100 
Ebro(riTW), Etymology 

of nama, 110 
Eclja, 01, 09 
El Boaloa, 40 
El Bargo, 40 
Eivas, 08, 180, 100 
Enpalna, 46, 138, ISO 
Ensabaya, 188 
Entronoamento, 170 
Ermezlnda, 190 
Escaeena, 00 
Escaldas, 180 
Escalona, 90 
EacarialorEscorial, 19 
Esparragnera, 104 
Eapeluy, 09, 01 
Esplchel Cape, 171 
Eapiel, 01 
Espinbo, lot 
Espoeende, 106 
Eitella, 17 
Estreila, Serra de, 163 
Evora, 188 
Extremox, 100 

FamalHao, 41, 104, 190 
Fkro, 187, 180 
Ffiyon, 120 
'FelanlelM, 100 

Fenr eh ea e Fountain, 181 
Figneira da Fos, 81, 180 
FlgneraB, 49 
Fllgneira, 100 
Fitero, SO 
Flassa. 49 
Fontainhas, 184 
Formentem (laUX Ul 
FormoseUu^ 179 
Fort Camfnlia, 180 
Frejeoal, t7 
Frieira, 10» 
FaeneebMoD FaMi 4$ 
Fnenterrabtat 10 
Fnentv deJffidnk ^ i 

Oaba«, 180 
Gallechs, 48 
Gandla, 100, 117 
Garriga Baths, 104 
Gaocin, 52 
Spain, 1 

Portugal, 163 
Spain, 6 

Portugal, 154 
Gerona, 48, 126 
Getaf e, 81 
GnsALTAX, 49 

Algeciras, 61 

Almoralna, 62 

Cartela, 62 

Conveyances, 61 

Cork wood, 62 

Drives, 61 

Enropa Point, 62 

Excursions, 62 

Fortiflcatlons, 60 

Foreigners, 61 

Garri8<m Library, 61 

Governor's Parade, 61 

Hotels, 50 

Lazaretto, 60 

Money, 51 

Monkeys, 60 

Neutral ground, 60 

Peitnits, 61 

Post-Office, 61 

Promenade. 60 

Public worship, 61 

San Boque, 52 

Sieges, 50 

Spanish Lines, 50 

St. Miehaers Cave, 50 

Steamers, 51 

Sugar Loaf Hill, 60 

Tunnel, 52 

Works on, 61 
Gijon, 47 
Spain, ziU 

Portugal, 152 
Gobantes, 61 
Grado 48 
Gri^al, 40 

Gran Mina Tunnel, 88 
Gbahada, 56 

Aicahiceria, 60 

Alhambra, 60 

Bivarambla, 60 

Carti^a (Convent), 66 

Cathedral, 66 

Cerro del Sol, 68 

Churches, 66 

Conwyancaa, 68 

Hotels, 66 

Jenenlifa, 6ft 



Granada— Coiv^MdL 
8. iTuan da Diet (Hos- 

pitalX 60 
Soto de Roma, 60 
University^ 66 

Granja (La), 88 

Granja, 181 

Granollers, 48 

Grao, 100 

Grao. EL, 100 


GuadajoB, 61 

Guadalajara. 80, 86 

Guadalquivir, 1 

Guadalviar, 1 

Guadiana, 1 


Guardia (La), 186 

Guillarey. 100 

Guimaraes, 191 

Haro, 106 

Henarejos, 100 

Hiendelaencina, 80 

Spain, 8 
Portugal, 156 

Hospitalet, 120, 188 

Hostalrich, 48 

Spain, 12 
Portugal, 102 

Huelva, 87, 69, 111 

Huercal, 76 

Hueica, 131 

Huetor, 78 

Ilhavo, 186 

Illan Cebolla, 82 

Inca, 180 

Spain, 1 
Portugal, 102 

Irun, 16 

Iviza, 141 


Jadraqna, 80 

Jaen, 69, 01 

Jaralcejo, 87 

Jativa, 117 

Jerez, or Jeru de la 

Frontera, 00, 70 
Jijona, 110 
Jucar, 2 
Junquera, (La) 41 

La Enclna, 84. 100, U7 
La Giai^a (SegoviaX Zi 
La Gnardia, 185 
La Hedionda, 64 
La Mancha, 88 
Lamego, 190 
Spanish, 8 

Portuguese, 102 
Lanhellas, 190 
Lanjanw, 111 
La Palma, 09 
La Puebla, 180 
La Roda, 84, 60, 09 
Las Alcantarillas, Of 
Las Arenas, 41 
Las Batuecas, 82 
Las Casetas, 29 
Las Nieves, lOO 
Las Tablas, 70 
La Teste, 10 
La Zaida, 80 
Laundos, 184 
Lebrija, 09 
Lebrilla, 74 
Ledesma, 77 
Leiria, 178 
Leok, 48, 44 

Ay untam lento, 46 

Casa Capitular, 46 

Casa de Los GondtM* 

Casa Ck>nsiatorial, 45 

Casa de Guzrannea, 46 

Cathedral, 44 

Climate, 44 

Convents, 44 

Conveyances, 40 

Espolon, 45 

Esposltos, 46 

Horse Fair, 44 

Mercado, 45 

M useo, 46 

Palacio Eplseopa^i ^ 

Plazas, 44 

Promenades, 46 

Public Ubrary, 46 

Real Casa, 45 

S.Isidoro (Convent),45 

S. Marcos (Convent), 

Theatre, 46 
Lcrida, 89. 4i» 
Librilla, 75, 70 
Linares, 68, 59, 01 
LiaBOV, 163 

Acadeoda dos Bellas 

Acadcmia Real \&% 



' Asyio de Mendicade, 

Belem, 168 
Blbliotheca da Acade- 

mia, 169 
Bibliothecai da Ajnda, 

Blbliotheca da Mar- 

Black Horse Square, 

QQtfts, 163 
Garmo, 167 
Casa^e Moeda, 169 
Casa Pia, 169 
Castello dc S. Jorge, 

Cathedral, 166 
Cemeteries, 170 
Churches, 167 
Climate, 165 
Concei^ao V'elha,167 
Cony cut of B^Iem, 167 
Cordoaria, 170 
Cortes, 168 
ITaupia Oallery, 168 
Death of Prince John, 

Ac, 165 
Earthquakes, 164 
' English and Scotch 

Churches, 168 
English and Irish Col- 
leges, 168 
Estrella, 167 
Excursions, 170 
Forts, 168 
Fundi^, 168 
Histoiy, 164 
Libraries, 169 
* IMannfactures, 165 
Marine Hospital, 169 
Markets^ 170 
Memoria (S. Jostf),167 
Money, 168 
Jfnseu Real, 168 
Natives. 166 
N. S. da Gra^a, 168 
N. S. de Loretto, 167 
N. S. das Merces, 167 
N.S.dis Martyrs, 166 
N. S. do Monte, 167 
N. S. de Penha, 167 
■ ' Paf03da>Bemposta,-1 68 
Pa^o dasNecessidades, 

Palaces, 168 
Paseios, 170 


Lisfooh— ^^Ott^tiatt . 

Popttfation, 168, Vth 

Post Office, 163 

Public' Edifices, 169 

Public Gardens, 170 

Public Promenades, 

Public Squares, 166 

Quintas, 166 

Railway Terminus, 163 

S. Antonio da Stf, 167 

S. Casa de Mlseiicor- 
dla, 169 

S. Domingos,167 

S. Engra^da, 167 

S. Julilio, 167 

S. Maria Magdelena, 

S. Roque, lfi7 

S. Vicente de Fora, 

Steamers, 163 

Tagus, 166 

Theatres, 170 

Torce de Belera, 170 
Llerena^ 37 
Liobregat, 2 ". ' 
LIuchmayor, 138 
Lluvj^ 136 
Loarfe, 131 
Logrofio, 105 
Loja, 54 
Lorca, 74 
Los Santos, 87 
Lourinhaa (Lourinham), 

Luchon, 130 
Lugo, 48, 104 

Madrid, 22 to 28 
Alameda (La), 25 
Armeria(La), 26 
Atocha Convent, 26 
Ayuntamierito, 26 
Baths, 22 
Biblloteca Nacional, 25 
Bolsa de Comercio,25 
Buen Retire, 26 
Bull Fights, 27 

Casa de Monedu, 25 
Casa del Salader6, 25 
Casus de Hh^spedes, 

CAurches, 25 
Clubs, 22 
Congreso, 25 
Convents, 26 
Deficias,26 ■ 
Deposito Hidrografico, 


Descalzaa RenleSf 26 

Madrid — Contiiiw^. 

Drinks, 22 

El (ieneral (Ilospftal), 

English Church Ser- 
vice, 27 

Environs, 27 

Excursions, 27 

Galeria Resenrada, 24 

Hospitals, 26 

Hotels, 22 

Imprenta Real, 25 

Inclusa (La) 26 

Jardin Botanico,'26 

Murillo, 24 

Museo (£1), 23 

Museo Nacional, 25 

NationalBank, 26 

Palace, 23 

Platcria, 25 

Plaza de Toros, 26 

Post Office, 26 

Prado, 26 . 

Promenades, 26 

Public 4)uildings, 25 

Puerta del Sol, 22 

Railways, 27 

Kecogidas (Las), C5 

Klbera, 24 

Restaurants, 22 

Salesas (Las), 'JH 

San Fernando, 25 

S. Antonio, 26 

S. Domingo, 26 

S. Francisco, 26 

S. Geronimo, 26 

S. Ildefonso, 26 

S. Isidro, 26 

S. Marcos, 26 

S. Maria, 26 

Sculpture Gallery, 24 

Steamers, 27 

Theatres, 26 

Through Routes to, 

To Lisbon, 86, 82 

Velasquez, 28 

Works on, 27 

Yepcs, 27 
Mafra, 173, 178 
Mahbn4 140 
Muirena, 61, 6ii 
Majotoa, 134 

Climate, r»4 

Distance, 134 

Exports, 135 

Fauna, 135 

Geology, 135 

History, 135 

Imports, 135 • 


LanguiCge, 135 

Majolica W«re,l^ 


Majorca— Cbii/Viiffecf. 

Population, 184 

Productions, 185 

Rivers, 134 

Springs, 134 
Mala, 124 
Maladetta, 125, 181 

Malaga, 63, 61 

Alameda, 54 

Cathedral, 54 

Cemetery, 54 

Churches, 64 

Cigar Factory, 64 

Convents, 64 

Conveyances, 64 

Old Malaga, 64 

Railway, 54 

Routes, 64 

Siege, 58 

Steamers, 54 
Malpartida, 86, 84 
Malpartida dePlasencia, 

Mana^or, 186, 188 
Manhuca, 190 
Manresa, 89, 104, 182 
Mansilla, 46 
Manufactures, 8- 
Manzanares, 88 
Maps — 

Spain, 8 

Portugal, 161 
Maqueua, 90 
Marchena, 69 
Marinha-grande, 178 - 
Marrataxi, 186 
Martinho, 186 
Martorell, 104, 133 
Martos, 61 
Marvao, 175 
Mataro, 124 
Mazuecos, 46 
Mealhada, 181, 190 . 
Measures — 

Spanish, 12 
Medina del Campo, 19, 

35, 76, 80 
Medina Sidonia, 72 
Medinaceli, 80 
Mcquirienza, 40 
Merens, 182 
Merida, 33, 37. 61 
Mindello, 184 
Minho, 1 • 

Minorca, 189 
Climate, 146 
Distance, 189 
Exports, 140 
History, 1-40 
Language, 140 



Popnlation, 140 
- -PiXKlnets, 140 

Miranda, 17, 40, 105 
Miranddla, 184 
Molente, 117 
If olins de Rev, 104, 128 
Mollet, 48 
Moncaya, 80 
Mondego Siver, ISO 
Mondxagon, 16 

Spanish, 10 

Portttgnese, 161 
Monforte, 42, 48 
Monistrul, 89, 104 
Monsech, 40 
MonMirate, 171 
Montbuy, 48 
Montilla. 60 
Mont Loois. 138 
Mont Perdn, 180 
Monzon, 40 
Mora, 128 
Mori4co, 80 
Moron, 69 
Motril, 111 

Monntalh Routes, 180 
Mhalhacen, 1 
Mnchamiel, 116 
Mujacar, 112 
Murcia, 75, 76, 118 
Mnro, 186 
MnsviSDXo, 91 

Castle, 92 

ChoTch of S. Maria, 92 

Circus, 92 

Conyents, 99 

History, 91 

Ho^ltal, 92 

RoSMUi Theatre, 92 

'Bagnntum, 92 

NaTalcamero, 86 
Navalcerrada. 84 
Navalmoral, 86, 82 
Niebla, 69, 111 
Nine, 190 
Novelda, 84 
NoTes, 90 

Obejo, 61 
Ocafln, 86, 82 
Olhot de Pedro, 178 

Oliveira d'Aiamflit,181 
Oiireln </• Burma, 181 

Onteuiente, 117 
Oporto, 181 to 184 

Alto Douro, 182 

Bankers, 181 

Bar of the Douro, 

Barracks, 1P4 

Bourse, 184 

Carmo, 188 

Casa da Camara, 184 

Casa de Roda, 188 

Cathedral, 188 

Ch. of Cedofeita, 183 

Ch. of Ildefonsa, 183 

Ch. of N. S. da Lapa, 

Ch. of S. Pedro, 183 

Climate. 182 

Colegio da Gra^ 183 

Convent of Cruzios, 

Convent of Sao Bento, 

Con vent of SaoLazaro, 

Cordoaria, 184 

Com Market, 184 

Crystal Palace. 184 

Douro River, 181, 182 

Earthquake, 165 

English ChHpcl, 188 

English Factory, 181, 

Episcopal Palace, 184 

Entre Quintas, 184 

Excursions, 184 

Exports, 182 

Franciscan Convent. 

Freixo, 184 

Gardens, 184 

History, 182 

Hospitals, 188 

Hotels, 181 

Italian Opera, 184 

Imports, 182 

Largo da Torre da 
Marca, 184 

Market Place, 184 

Manufactures, 182 

Mosteiro da Serra, 188 

N. S. de Matozinhos, 

Port Wine, 182 

Public Library, 184 

Quinta do Melo, 184 

Railways, 184 

Rook of 8. Cosnae, 184 

S. Gens, 184 

S. Joao da Foi. 184 

Serra Convent,' 134 

Situation, 181 


Suspension Bridge,l 82 

Theatre, 184 

Torre dos Clerigos, 188 

Tramway, 181 

VUla Nova, 182 
Oran, 51 
Ordufia, 40 
Orknsk, 101 

Baths, Its 

Bridge 102 

Burgas (Las), 108 

Cathedral, lUl 

Cemeteries, 102 

Ch. ofS. Kufcmia,l02 

Ch. of S. Maria, 102 

Convent of 8. Do- 
mingo, 102 

Convent of 8. Fran- 
cisco. 102 

Conveyances, 104 

History, 101 

Manufactures, lOl 

Public Walks, 104 
Organic, 105 
OrihuclH, 114 
Oropesa. 86, 82, 118 
Osma, 19 
Osnna, 69 
Ovar, 181,185 
Ovlcdo, 47 

Paillette, 181 
Painters, Spanish, 9 
Palanquinos, 46 
Palcncia, 43, 46 
Palma, 186 
Palmella, 188 
Palos, 111 
Palumbaria, 188 
Pamplona, or Pampe- 

luna, 28, 40, 111 
Panticosa, 180 
Parameras, 19 
Pardo, 27 

Paredes-de-Nava, 46 
Passports — 

Spain, 8 

Portugal, 168 
Pau, 181 
Payalvo 179 
Pedestrians, 8, ISO 
Pedras Rubras, 184 
Pedroso, 61, 80 
Pena Convent, 172 
Pefia Oolorada, 181 
Petia de Gorbea, 16 
Pefiafiel, 19, 181 
Pefiaflor, 61 
Pefia Labra, 48 

Perellb,.liO'~ ' •-'^ - 

Perpignan, 49, 104 

Peso, 175 

Petra, 186 

Pias, 188 

Pic de Nethon, dec, 125, 

Pic de Rious, 180 
Piedra, 80 
Pina, 80, 128 
Pinhal Novo, 188 
Pinhao, 184 
Pizarra, 53, 61 
Pla, 105 

Plana-Picamolxons, 128 
Plasbncia, 86,82 

Aqueduct, 88 

Cathedral, 88 

Columbus, 83 

Distance, 88 

Excursions, 84 

Fortress, 88 

Fountains, 88 

Geology, Ac, 88 

History, 82 

Hospitals, 83 

Nunneries, 88 

Palaces, 83 

Paseos, 88 
Pocinho, 184 
Pola de Lena, 47 
Pollen za, 188 
Pomlml, 174, 179 
Ponferrada, 48 
Pont dlnca, 136 
Ponte Reguengo, 175 
Pontcvedra, 41 
Portalegre, 88, 175, 189 
Portbou, 49 
Port de Venasque, 180 
Port Mahon, 140 
Port St. Mary's, 70 
Portugal, 152 

Authors, 161 

Chronology, 168 

Climate, 155 

Coast tour of, 185 

Coinage, 161 

Diligences, 161 

Distances, 162 

Divisions. and Popu- 
lation, 156 

Flora, 164 

Geography, 153 

Geology, 164 

Glossary, 152 

History, 156 

Inns, 162. 

Language, 162 

Portngal—Ciii rt iiii irf . 

Paatports, 16& 

Political DlYistoni, 156 

Portngues* Bove- 
reigns, 160 

• Poatal iaformation, 

" 162 

Produetlona, 164 

Railways, 161 

Riyen. 152 

Skeleton Tonra, 162 

Statistics, 166 

Steamers, 161 

Sulpliaroas Springs, 
Book on, 168 
Works on, 130 
Portngalete, 41 
Port Vendres, 49 
Posadas, 12 
Postal information- 
Spain. 12 

Portugal, 162 
Potes, 41 
Pousa, 100 

Povoa doVarzim, 184^185 
Prades, 138 
Spain, 8 

Portugal, 154 
Puda, La, 104 
Pnebla La, 186 
Puebla do Hijar, 80 
Puente Genii, 68, 60, 61 
Puente lo« Plerros, 47 
Puerto deNayalcerrada, 

Puerto de Pajares, 48 
PuertoUano, 38 
Puerto Real, 69, 70 
Puerto Sta. Maria, 67, 70 
Puig, 98, 118 
Puycerda,132, 188 
Puzol, 91, 118 

PTRBNEB8, 126 tO 180 

Amphitheatres, 126 

Bi^'be de Roland, 130 

Cirques, 126 

Climate, 126 


•Cols, 126 

Elevation of Moun- 
tains, 125 

Elevation of Towns, 

Etjrmology of Name, 

Fauna, 128 

Flora, 12i 

Geology, 127 
• 6laciars,195 

Hiatorlcal Events, 129 



Mala4«tta, 126. 130 
Metals, 128 
Mineral Springs, 128 
Mont Perdu, 130 
Passes, 129 
Pass of Bidassoa, 129 
Peace of, 129 
Population, 128 
Port de Venasque, 130 
Ports, 126 
Products, 128 
Rivers, 127 
St. Jean Pied de Port, 

Valleys, 126 
Works on, 129 

Queluz, 171 
Quintos, 188 

Rabida (La), HI 

Railways — 
Spain, 8 
Portugal, 160 

Railway Trains- 
Spain, 13 


Redinha, 179 

Redondela, 41, 100 

Regoa, 184 

Reinosa, 47 

Renteria, 16 

Reus, 128 

Rlbadavla, 101 

Rielves 82 

RioTinto, 111, 190 


Spain, 1 
Portugal, 168 

Rolipa, 176 

RONDA, 62 

Roncesvalles, 120 

Roquetas, 112 

Rosas, 49 

Rota, 70 

Routes to Madrid, 14 

Sabadell, 89 
Sacedon, 86 
Sagres, lH7 
Sagunto, 93. 118 
Saguntum, 92 
Sahagun, 4'i 
St. Beat, 132 
Salamanca, 78, 184 

Augustinas Recoleti^. 

Antiauiti^s, 80 

Arapil^s, 78 

Salamanca— Cfutimvei, 

Ayuntamiento, 80 

Bridge, 80 

Bull Fight^ 79 

Cathedra], 79 

Ch. of S. Marcos, 79 
„ S. Maria, 79 
„ S. Nicolas, 79 

Clcricia (La), 79 

Coliseo, 80 

Columbus, 78 

Conveyances, 80 

History, 78 

Hospital de la Trini- 
dad, »<0 

Hermitage of La Cruz, 

Manufactures, 78 

Palaces, 80 

Plaza Mayor, 79 

Plaza de la Verdura, 

S. Esplritu (Convent), 

S. Esteban (Convent), 

Seminarlo Concillar, 79 

Scmlnarlo de Carbajal, 

Torre de Clavel, 80 

University, 79 

Works on, 80 
Salinas de Medina-Celi, 

Salobrina, 111 
Snlvatlerra, 100 
Sama, 48 

Sanabrla Lake, 44 
San Audits, 124 
San Bento, 190 
San Carlos de la Rapittf, 

San Esteban, 80 
San Felipe de Xativa, 117 
San Fernando, 69, 70 
San Juan (Majorca), 136 
San Juan(Abade8asX 48 
S.inJuaii del Puerto, 69, 

San Lucar, 69,70 
San Lucar la Mayor, 69 
San Mardal, 77, 138 
San Martin, 48 
San Martino, 186 
San Pe Iro da Torre, 190 
San Qiilrlco, 49 
S in Koqiie 62 
San Sebastiiin, 16, 41 
Santa Agti(M|<i, 16 
Santa Eulalia, 176,189 
Santa Fe. 66 
Santtini. 138 
S4n!a >f aria. 1 36 
Sintnnder, 41 

SanMroi, M,17M741»i 

Santiago de Compostela, 

SanUllana, 41, 47 
San Vicente, 121 
Sasagossa, 29, 49, 87, 128 
Sarrlon, 90 
Season for travelling, 9 

Segorbe, 90 

Carthusian Con ventt 91 

Cathedral, 91 

Convent of 3. Martin, 

Glorleta, 91 

History, 91 

Monasteries, 91 
Sbgovia, 84 

Alcazar, 34 

Sights. S4 
rteixal, 175, 188 
Selgua. 40 

Seo d'Urgel, 105, 182 
Serpa, 188 
Setubal. 186, 188 

Seville, 61 
Aduana (La), 67 
Alameda, 62 . 
Alcazar, 66 
Alhondiga, 68 
Angel de Guarde, 6S 
Archieplscopal Palaee. 

Atarazanas, 68 
Audlencla, 68 
Barbacana, 68 
Blblioteca Colambfaia, 

Boo' 8 on, 69 
Botanical Gardtaa, 68 
Bull Fights, 62 
Caridad (La). 66 
Cartcja (La), 65 
Casa de Moneda, 68 
Casa de Pilatos, 65 
Casas Conslstorlales, 

Cathedral, 62 
Cemetery, 68 
College ot S. Telmo,.66 
Colon) hi no, 67 
Cuna (La), 66 
Dehesa (The), 69 
Dellclas (Lti), 68 
Duefias (Las), 64 
Fabrlca de Tabeooa, 67 
Fairs. 68 
Feria (La), 68 
Glralda (La), 69 
Holy Wedc69 



Magdatena (U> 62 

Market PloM, eiB 

M«f adero, 68 

Mnrillo, 34, 65, 66 


Omniam 8aoctonim,64 


Paaion (La), 61 

PIfua de ToriM, 67 

PftTtte Ckttleries, 67 


Quemadero, 67 

Koouin Aqueduct, 68 

Routes, 6A . 

8. Albert<»,64 

8. Ana, 66 

8. Andrei, 68 

8. ^rnardo, 68 

8;^idaliiia, 68 

8. Clemente (Gon- 
veiU), 64 

8.i^s, 68 


8. Geronfmo (Con< 
▼ent); 68 


it indflve (Monastery), 

8. Isidoro, 66 

8. Juan, 68 

8. Julian, 63 

8. Lucia, 68 

0. Lorenzo, 68 

8. Marcos, 68 

8. Maria, 68 

8. Marina, 68 

8. Martin, 68 

8. Miguel, 68 

8. Paula, 64 

8. Pedro, 64 

8. Sebastian (Ceme- 

Santiago, 64 

8. Vicente, 64 

Sangre (La), 66 

Santa Semana, 63 

Squares, 57 

Suburbs, 68 

Torre del Oro, 68 

Trade, 63 

Triana, 63 

University, 68 

Vmerables (Los), 64 

Worlu on, 69 
Sierra Cnenca, 84 
Sierra de Guadalupe, 83 
Slarra Morena, 60 
Sfemi Nevada, U 

Sierra Sagra, 88 
Sieta Plcos, 84 
SiUa, 117 
Simancas, 19 
Seller, 188 
Solsona. 105 
Somport, 131 
Soria, 80, 109 
Soure. 179 
Spanish Authors, 9 

Language, 8 

Painters, 9 

Vocabulary, 143 

Spain, 3 

Portugal, 156 
Sta. Maria, 186 
Steamers — 

To Spain, 18 

To Portugal, 161 

Tadim, 190 
Tagus, 1, 166, 186 
Talavera, orTalaverade 

la Reyna, 86, 81 
TaUvera la Real, 36 
Talavera la VleJa, 36 
Tamel, 190 
Tangier, 51 
Tarancon, 85 
Tarazona, 110 
Tardienta, 40 
Tarifa, 51 

TABRAooirA,40, r20(des.) 

Antiquities, 123 

Capture, 121 

Cathedral, 132 

Conveyances, 128 

Excursions, 12S 

History, 120 

Manufactures, 121 

Promenade, 121 

Rambia, 121 

Torredeios Escipiones, 

Works on, 128 
Tarrasa, 89 
Tavciro, 179 
Tavira, 187 
Telegraphs, 12 
Tembloque, 83 
Ter, 2 
Terras Novas, 189 

Aqueduct, 90 
Baths, 90 
Cathedral, 88 
Church of 8. Pedro, 

Church of Santiago, 


Taruel— Caal^tMidL .-.■ 

3:x-Convent of la 
Trinidad, 90 

History, 89 

Lomb«[dera, 90 

Lovers of, 89 

Nunnery, 90 

Seminario Coucillar, 

Theatre, 90 
Tetuan, 47 
Thomar, 189 
Tibi Gorge, 116 

Titus, Baths of, 128 
Tuboso, 33 
Tocina, 37, 61 

TOLKDO, 31, 90 

Af urea, 32 

Alameda, 38 

Alcazar, 32 

Archbishop's Palace, 

Ayuntamiento, 33 

Azotca, 38 

Carmen (El), 33 

Cathedral, 32 

Conveyances, 38 

Cuvachuelas, 33 

Fabrica de Armas, 38 

Hospitals, 3) 

Manufactures, 82 

Mirador, 83 

Nuncio (El), 33 

Puerta del Sol, 33 

Roman Circus, 33 

S. CKmentc, 33 

S. Eugenio, 32 

S. Ildefonso, 32 

S. Juan de la Pene- 
tencia, 32 

8. Juan de los Reyes, 

S. Maria de la Blanca, 

S. Pedro Martlr, 82 

S. Roman, 83 

S. Tom^, 32 

Santa Lucia, 33 

Santiago, 38 

Silos, 83 

Transito (El), 83 

Works on, 33 

Zocodover, 33 
Tulosa, 16, 40 
Tordera, 125 
Torello, 48 
Tonnes liaths, 78 
Tomeros, 46 
Torre das Vargens, 178 
Torrelodones, 84 
Torres Cabrera, 60 
Torres Novas, 88, 175 

Torres yedras.l74« lit 

Torrevleja, 118 

Torrljos, 83 

Tortosa, U8, 119 

Totana, 74 

Spain, 14 
Portugal, 163 

Trafalgar, 73 

Trajacete, 86 

Trigueros, 111 

Trocadero, 70 

Trofa, 190 

Trujillo, 37 

Truxillanos, 87 


Tudela, 28 (des.),110. III 

Tuy, 101, 190 

Uldecona, 118 
Ultimo Sospiro, 56 
Urdus, 131 
Urgel, 89, 105, 183 
Uticl, 100 
Ctrora, 69 

Vacia Madrid, 85 
VadoHanti, 59 
Val d* Andorra, 105, 133 
Val d'Apse, 181 
Valdelamusa, 87, 111 
Val d'Ossau, 131 
Val de PeHas, 88 
Valen^A do Minho, 101, 
184. 190 

Valencia, 84, 93, 118 
Aduaiia, 98 
Audiencia, 98 
Ayuntamiento, 97 
Baths, 98 
Capilla de los Desam- 

parados, 95 
Casa de Beneficencia, 

Casa de la Ciudad, 98 
Casa Consistorial, 98 
Casa de la Misericor- 


Casa del Vestuario 98 
Casino, 98 
Cathedral, 94 
Cementerio, 99 
Church of S.Andros, 95 
S. Bartolomtf, 

of S. Cruz, 96 
S. Juan del 
Hospital, 95 
,t 8.Loreiua^Q4 









Church of 8. Martin, 95 
8. Miguel, 96 
8. Salyador, 


„ 8. Tomas, 95 
Citadel, 99 

Colegio Andresiano, 97 
Colegio de C. Christ!, 

„ Imperial, 97 

„ de la Presenta- 
oion, 97 

„ Real, 97 
Conservatorio, 98 
Convent of S. Do- 

ming<>, 96 
Conveyances, 100 
£8<$ttela Normal, 97 
Escuela Pia, 97 
Excursions, 100 
Gardens, 99 
Hippodrome, 99 
History, 98 
Hospital En-Bou, 97 
r Hospital En-Oonill, 97 
Hospital de Pobres, 

Estudiantes, 97 
Hospital de Pobres, 97 
Jardin Botanico, 98 

Liceo Yalenoiano, 98 
Library of 8alTa, 98 
Lonja del Aoelte, 93 
Lonja de la 8eda, 98 
Manufactures, 94 
Mercador, 99 
Monasteries, 96 

Palacio Arxobispal, 98 
Paseos, 99 Toros, 99 
Presidio (El), 97 
Private Collections, 99 
Royal Garden, 99 
8. Miguel de los Reyes 

Tapia, 99 
Temple (El), 97 
Theatre, 99 
Universidad, 98 
Works on, 100 

Valencia de Alcantara, 
86, 87, 175 

Valladolid, 18 

Valldemosa, 188 

Valverde, 111 

Vasco da Gama, 186 

Vasequillo, 61 

Velasquez, 28 

Velez Malaga, 55 

Velez Rublo, 74 

Venasque, 181 

Vendrell, 188 
Venta de BaBos, 18 
Venta de Qor, 74 
Ventas, lU 
Vianna, 185, 190 
Vich, 48 
Vidago, 191 
VleUa, 181 
Vigo, 41, 100 
Vilafranca, 1» 
Villada, 46 
Villafranca, 88, 175 
Villalba, 84 
Villana de la Mlnas, 61 
Villa Nova deGaya. 181, 

Villa Nova de M. Pontes, 

Villa do Conde, 184 
Villa Nova dePortimao, 

Villa Real, 118, 187 
Villarejo, 85 
Vlllar Formosa, 83, 186 
Villarobleda, 84 
VUlaseca, 120 
VlUatoya, 84 
Villaverde, 36 
VlUavlclosa, 48 
Vlllena, 116 
VlmbocU, 40 
Vlmlclro, 175 
Vinardz, 118 

Vincent (6L),t/4pe,l 
Viseu, 189 
Viso,61, 69 
Vitoria, 16, 40 
Vizella, 191 
Vocabulary — 
8panish, 140 

Wazan, 51 

8panish, 12 

On 8pain, 8 

On Portugal, 160 

Xativa, 117 
Xerez, 69 
Ximena, 52 


Yuste (Monastery), 8^ 

Znfra, 87,69, 111 
Zalamea, 69, 111 
Zamora, 76 
Zaragoza, 29 
Zujar, 61 
Zumarraga and Bail 

Zurgena, 75 




« Biflli»(ln8pftln) 

OiBliio d« hitrro 

Quw d« limMMdM > 

OkM d« pnpiiot > 

Compi (in Spain) 






Oftiptfeho (Andalniia) 

Qtntro PlftUrMOO 


If la. 











A pnblio promcoada. 

Palaoa or oaitla. 





Ohapti« chapel in a church. 


A railway. 


Choir of a church. 

Imperial (In France). 


Dloi, Ood. 


A muiqneteer, a foot 
•oldler with a rlfla. 

Railway station. 

Hotel, Inn. 

(Dish made of bread, oil, 
< Tinef ar, onions, salt, 
( red pepper, and water. 


(Fancifully ornamented 
( architecture. 

fPublio Garden (W. a 
( bower). 

A large fertile plain, 
land whichcan be Irri- 
gated; lit. a garden. 

Iglesia, i.«., church. 



Painting on linen 




Morning; to-morrow. 

A large block of build- 
ings surrounding a 



Mesa redonda 


011a (or 011a podrida) 

Oule (or Cirque) 




Port (Pyrenees) 



Rl. Bi. 







Tren,p<. trenes 





Table d*hOta. 


Nuestro Se&or, Our Lord. 

! A stew of many different 
sortsof meat and Tege- 

fA local word, meaning 
"pot** (LaUn, oMa),a 
large circle or semi- 
circle, walled round 
by precipices. 

(Inn of the Diligence, a 

< house of entertain- 
( ment for travellers. 

Post data, postscript. 

A plain. 

A natural door or way, 
cut in the crest of the 

An inn, a tavern. 

Small gate of a town. 


Puerto, i.0., port. 

(Meat stewed In an 
( earthen pot. 

(Picture or painting 

< drawn on a board; 
( altar-piece. 

(Real, pi. reales, a piece 
( of money so called. 




A ridge of mountains or 
craggy rocks; litiT' 
ally^ a saw. 

(Stalls about the choir of 
( a church. 

Afternoon (p.m.). 

Railway train. 

An extensive plain. 



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n 1 r- . 

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PLANS:- Paqi. 

Baxoblova 38 

Cadis 70 

Madbh) 22 

Valbvoxa 93 



Chuboh or St. Fbancisco, OrpBTOr %.... ...........;« 181 

Gatb or FoNOABBAL, Madbid 24 

LuQUB 82 

Opobto 181 

Placbnoia 82 

BoTAL Palaob, Madbid 24 

St. Vblha Cathbdbal, Coiubba 181 

Sbooyia 82 

Stbbbt or Aloala, Maobib 24 

Stbbbt or Sah Bbrnabdo, Madbib 24 

Villa Nola...... r****f* * *• IBi 

i: ■.. .,. 

f. •• . - ■ . J* i ;■ 

• ■ ■: I • i'- ' 

*4i* See BRADSHAw'g Contiiibntal Guidb, issued Monthlj^ 

• • • * - It • t ' 1 

for the latest particnlan respecting Passports, Hotels, Chaplaiiuv^ . . ^ 
lifedical Men, Bankers, Population^ Railways^ SteamerSj^ and ptl^ef 
iiatters which are liiible to change. ** 

t •• 

»».•••••••> if*«. *>' 

.- c? 




■ t 

Spain (8)>anMr, EBpafla), called by the ancients 
Hispania and Iberia, colloquially termed the 
"Peninsula," is bounded north by the Bay of 
Biscay and the 'Pyrenees, which separate it from 
Franoe, M^th, .l^y the Mediterranean and the 
Straits of Gibraltar, east by the Mediterranean, 
and west by Portugrai and the Atlantic. Its in- 
terior sarfaee fmrms a vast elevated table-land, 
which in the plateau oi- Castile, has a mean 
elevation of 2,800 feet. The plateau in question 
occufrfes oae-haU of the superficies, and is nearly 
surroundad by moontaing. The peninsula is 
trav^«ed by fiye principal chains of Mountains, 
callad JSierroM.. 1. The Pyxeneas, extending from 
Gape Creu^ on the east, to the Bay of Biscay on 
the west, and their westerly continuation, the 
Asturian and Cantabrian Mountains. 2. The chain 
which separates the basins of the Douro and Tagus, 
the Siorraa GuadAcrama, Gredos, and Gata. 8. The 
Mountains of Toledo, Sierra Mames, and Sierra 
Guadalupe, b^tWden the Tagiid and the Guadiana. 
4. The Sierra Morena, which separate the basins of 
the Guadalquivir and Guadiana, and which arc 
connected to the west with the Sierra Monchique 
in Portugal. 5. TheSierra Nevada, extending west- 
ward to Cadiz, and eastward to Carthagena, below 
whieb are the Alpujarras, near Almeria. 

Th« cujtminatiQ^ point of the Pyrenees is the 

highest paak of theMaladetta, known as PicN^thon, 

11,170 feet above the level of the sea. Some of the 

Asturian and Cantabrian Mountains rise to the 

height of 10,000 feet; the highest of the Sierra 

Gredos is 10,500 feet; the most elevated point of the 

Sierra Nevada and of the whole Peninsula is 

Mulahaeen, 11,664 feet; the Picacho dl Teleta near 

n la 11,S87 feet.' 

The principal Biyers of Spain are the Tagus, 
the Douro, the Ebro, the Minho, the Guadiana, the 
Guadalquivir, the Guadalaviar, the Ter, the Llo- 
brogat, and the Jucar. The Tagiu (Spanish, Tajo; 
Portuguese, Tcjo) rises in the Sierra Albarracin, 
on the borders of Aragon and New Castile, flows 
west- south-west in Spain, through New Castile 
and Estremadura, and in Portugal between the 
provinces of Beira and Alemtejo, and through 
Estremadura, and enters the Atlantic near Lisbon ; 
total course, about 640 miles. The Douro (Spanish, 
Ducro) rises in the province of Soria, flows generally 
west, through Leon to Miranda, then turns south- 
south-west, forming the boundary between Spain 
and Portugal, and flowing west through the latter 
kingdom, falls into the Atlantic near Oporto; total 
course, about 400 miles. The Ebro (Latin, Iberus) 
rises in the province of Santander, near Reynosa, 
flows generally south-east, past Frias, Miranda-de- 
Ebro, Logrollo, Calahorra, Tudela, Saragossa, 
Mequineuza, and Tortosa, and enters the Mediter- 
ranean; total length, 340 miles. The J/iwAo (Latin, 
Minius) rises in Galicia, SO miles north-cast of 
Santiago, flows east, south, and west, lattcrty 
bounding Portugal on the north, and enters the 
Atlantic near Caminha, 52 miles north of the mouth 
of the Douro ; total course, 130 miles. The Guadiana 
(Latin, Anas) rises in La Mancha, near Villaber- 
mosa, flows at first west, and for some distance 
under ground through New Castile and Estrema- 
dura, thence south through the Portuguese province 
Alemtejo, and between Axgarve and Andalusia, 
and enters the Mediterranean 13 miles cast 
of Tavira, west of Huelva; total course, 880 
miles. The Guadalquivir (Latin, Bastis) rises 
in the Sierra Cazorla^ IS tbJ^k^ ^^^^--^-csvassiow- 

pa«t KaeLTx\w, Cw^Qs^> ^^>i^'^> ^^^ ^^^^^^ "^^ 


MeditorrAnean, 18 miles north of Cadiz; total 
length, 280 miles. The Ouadalariar (or Turia) rises 
In the Sierra Aibarracin, and after a south-east 
course of 100 inile% enters tlie Mediterranean 8 
miles east of Valencia. 

The Ter rises in the Pyrenees, flows south and 
east, passes Gerona, and enters the Mediterranean 
by several mouths south of the Gulf of Rosas, after 
a course of 90 miles. The Llobr:gat (Latin, Rubri- 
catus) enters the Mediterranean 3 miles south of 
Barcelona, after a southern course of 80 miles. The 
/ttcar, or Xucar, rises In the Sierra Aibarracin, flows 
successively west, south, and east, and enters the 
Mediterranean at Culleru, 28 miles south of Val- 
encia, after a course of about 200 miles. Few of 
these are navigable, and those only for small boats 
near their mouths. 

Spain has many good Havens. The chief 
are Biltiao, Fcrrol, Corunna, Cadiz, Cartagena, 
Malaga, Valencia, Barcelona, San Sebastian, Fuent- 
errabia, Pasajes, Santander, Gijon, Vigo, San 
Lucar, Algociras, Tarragona, Mataro, and Rosas. 
The chief Oapas are those of Finisterre on the 
north-wcHt, and Trafalgar on the south-west, in 
the Atlantic ; G Ibraltar, Gata, Palos, and Creux, in 
the Mediterranean ; PeAas and Ortegal, in the Bay 
of Biscay. 

The climate of Spain varies wltholevation and 
position ; it is warm on the coast; the table-lands 
arc exposed to great heat in summer, and extreme 
cold in winter. The limit of the snow line in the 
Pyrenees, and also In the Sierra Nevada, is about 
0,000 feet. Winter Is the rainy season. The 
most noxious winds are the Solano (the Sirocco of 
Italy), a hot wind from the south, and the Gallego, 
a cold wind from the Mountains of Galicia. Frost 
Is often severe during the night In the winter. 
(See Climate, \ a.rc 4.) 

Statistics. —Mttdoz, Diet. Qeog.^ estimates the 
population in 1846 at 15,439,168. In 1887 it 
amounted in round numbers to 17^ millions, besides 
Di millions In the Colonies. The Universities, 
formerly twenty-four in number, are now reduced 
to ten, with G.")! professors und 16,870 students. 
Anuy, about 80,(0') men. Nnvy, 44 steamers, 
8 being ironclads. The Revenue and Expenditure, 
at present, may be taken at 29^ mllliuns sterling. 
•J he public Debt amounted (1893) to £238,600,000. 

Two-thirds of the CooiBMrce !• with 

England. About 8,710 mtlet of Railwayaaad IMH 
of Telegraphs are open. The religioa is Bonn 
Catholic, but other croeds are t<derated. Tkt 
number of archbishoprici is nine; of blshoprlei^ 
fifty-one; the Archbishop of Toledo belaf the 
primate. The Legislature consists of « Cortei, 
composed of a Senate and a Chamber of DepntlsSi 








New ProTinoes. 

/Madrid ^..».„., 68S,644 

Toledo „ „., 980,MS 

Guadalajara S01,fl8 

Cuenca ^.,.... M2(46S 

LaMancha. Cludad Rdal .,^......... flff,Sn 

Bargos „ Sa8„Ml 

^fSroho .^.„....„..... 18l,4M 

Santander ^.„...... 9^974 

So'** — 1«1,M0 

8«8rovi« lUMt 

^^"* 18tOM 

P»»«nci* • 188,84$ 

Valladolld 987448 

g (^^®n 88<K887 

JKZamora ^ st^^q,, 

iSalamanca 814,479 

Asturlas. Oviedo „ iii,tfO 

« CComna eiS,881 

SjL^ffo 489,181 

5 ^"'»»« 40».m 

V Pontevodra , , 448,888 


S g JBadaJoz ^\,um 

•S-o (Cacercs 888,798 






Iluelva , 


Jaen 487,849 

Granada 484,888 

Almeria 889,489 

Malaga ^ 819,977 



IDMlUy or eieeUonl (root; their pMtltns* li 

^ Jculcllon do li Plana ... 


-" 1.AUTS (VltortD g 

Biileulc IaUnili(Medtn.) ... 31 
CuniirlBi (AtliDlIe) 29 

Total i;,llS 

Prodnot*, Agrlcnltnre, fta-Tbee 

i< fDond U Bilbao, Ulrsbella. and la tha Balearic 
and Valencia. Rock-ult 1> plentiful neai 

Id the Fynneei: and W 

n mUloni. In Eitrenudurr 

«. rim 

m Ihe Atlantic coatt. 

Hum&OltlTM.— The mannCaotinin; Indnitrr 
)( Spain hai greatly declined; (he govenmient bu 

. ... ■ n, and glau.but Iter 

iottly In 


and dai. The principal nli 
(rtieny), Malaga, Hota. Man: 
vaila, and VildepeDaL Tl 

for beaatf and tlie. Cattle are ol good bn«d>. V lomxA i«i«<& 


rtHeffccledbymeaniofinnlet Therosre 

laTlgatlon. The 

the« am the Imperial C 

right bank of the 

Ibe canala of Ca.llle. Mac 


Jpened in IMg. 

;enl of iti coaM 

nral prodncH, Spain pom 

ad.anuge. Ihnn any other countr, of 

of Iti foreign commcrc 

are wool, wine, brandy, 

oU, fmit., Ir.*, 

dried flih, and lalted pro 

rice, cotton, and woollen 

goodi! cDtlotT, 


Ad bnlldlng limber. 

HI8T0BT. fte. 

ngdomi of Spain 

nnd P 

ccofelittp called the U^rliio yleldi ^ gtoii\ Vl tt**Jiin»'o»,»l>-«»-iMN!*» 


they divided it into three great prorinces, ris.: 
Taraconeruii In the east, north, and craitre ; Bmtica 
in ihe sonth ; and Lutitania in the west. Abont 
A.D. 414 the Yisigoths absorbed the Bnevi and 
Vandals and mled until conquered by the Arabs in 
711. The kingdom of Portugal was founded in 1090. 
During eight centuries the Christian princes were 
engaged in continual warfare with the Moham- 
medans. From this state the country was delivered 
under Ferdinand and Isabella, by the conquest of 
Granada, in 1402. This was followed by the pillage 
and expulsion of the Jews, who had possessed 
themselves of most of the commercial riches of the 
country. In the same year Columbus discovered 
the new world, and Spain became mistress of the 
greater part of America as then known. Of these 
vast colonial possessions, Spain has now only the 
Islands of Cuba, Puerto Uico, and some smaller 
islands in America; the Philippine and Marianne 
Islands, in the Pacific; the Canary Islands, in the 
Atlantic ; Fernando Po, and the Island of Annabon, 
In the Gulf of Guinea; and Ccuta, Oomera, and 
part of MelUla, places used for the transportation of 
convicts, in Barbary. From the sixteenth century, 
Spain was divided into large provinces, having 
mostly the title of kingdom, but by a royal decree 
of April, 18W, it was partitioned into forty-eight 
flCaaller provinces, each bearing the name of its 
capital, except Navarre and the three Basque pro- 
vinces, which remain unchanged, and possess pecu- 
liar privileges. In 1808, Napoleon I. attempted to 
place his brother (m the throne, but, in 1818, the 
French were driven out of the peninsula mainly by 
the British under Wellington. Since then there 
have been repeated civil wars, and a republic. The 
government is now a constitutional representative 
monarchy; the religion exclusively Roman Catholic. 
Education is very little difitised, the lower orders 
are nearly destitute of any means of instruction, 
e&eept in the principal cities, where infant schools 
have been recently established. Before the sup- 
pression of the monastic orders, education was 
entirely in the hands of the Jesuits and other 
clergy. The children of the upper classes arc 
chiefly educated in France, and other countries. 
For a considerable portion of the above succinct 
account of Spain we are indebted (with the author's 
permission) to the article on Spain contained in 


The climate of Spain varies exceedingly In eon- 
sequence of the great differences of elevation and 
diversity of position. The central table-land Is 
exceedingly hot in summer, and cold in winter. 
The coasts of the Mediterranean are very hot in 
summer, and the atmosphere Is very mild in winter. 
The winter is the season for rain. On the northern 
and western coasts the annual fall of rain is from 
26 to 85 inches, while on the central table-laud it is 
only 10 inches. 

According to Laborde, the climate of New 
Castile is more mild than that of the Old; in the 
former, the winters are temperate, and the sum- 
mers very hot ; in the latter the plains are very 
temperate, and the mountains, as well as the 
parts bordering on them, very cold; there are 
even some parts of the low country where the 
cold is severely felt in winter. The skies of both 
arc very fine, nln^ost always clear, serene, and of 
a bcnutifiU blue, Imt those of New Castile are the 
most constantly so; in some parts of the old it is 
often cloudy. ThcclimateofValenciaisverytcmpe- 
rate in winter, hot in summer, but refreshed by 
breezes from the sea ; dry in the interior, somewhat 
moist in the plafai of Valencia, generally inconstant, 
and subject to winds. Catalonia is the most tempe- 
rateprovincooif Spain ; the winters, with someexcep- 
tions, arc mild, and the heat of summer is not often 
extremely violent ; but the hills and valleys bor- 
dering upon the Pyrenees are verj- hot in summer, 
and cold in winter, at which time the summits are 
covered with ice and snow. Aragon is much drier 
tlwn Catalonia; its temperature is even rather 
colU than hot, yet its plains and valleys are eome- 
thaes scorchhig, and a keen cold is felt upon its 
mountains. Navarre is a cold tract; its winters 
arc usually very severe. 

Biscay, comprehending the three districts of 
Vizsaya, Guipu^coa, and Alava, is cold; the winters 
arc sharp, and the summers temperate; it Is dry in 
the interior, and moist on the coasts, where the 
cold is less felt. The Asturias are mild near the 
sea, but cold further up the country, and upon the 
mountains; there are frequent and violent winds; 
the air is moist, and it rains frequently. The 
climate of Galicia is very similar in all respects, 
and nvore rain falls here than in any other part. 
Estremadarft is a very hot and dry country, wheire 



tho heats of summer are rcry rioleiit, and the 
winters extremely mild. Its air is usually very 
dry, and its skies are, perhaps, the finest and 
brightest in Spain. 

Leon yaries in different tracts. The eastern 
part is similar to that of Old Castile, in the north 
and west it resembles that of Gallcia, and in the 
south it is similar to that of Estremadura. Anda- 
lusia is rery hot on the coast, temperate in the 
interior, yery cool at the foot of the mountains, 
^nd oold on their summits. It is a dry country, 
though watered by several rivers, and is exposed 
to several winds, especially near the sea. The east 
Is the most prevalent near the Mediterranean ; and 
% wind sometimes blows there from the south- 
south-east, called the Solano^ which has a dangerous 
effect upon the human frame, and occasionally 
produces a state very similar to frenzy. The 
ellmate of Mureia is cool upon the mountains, 
temperate towards the sea, and at the foot of tho 
mountains in the south, but very hot in the valley, 
which is watered by the Segura, and in which the 
city of Mureia stands, as well as in the Campo de 


The geologist will do well to explore tho Sierra 
Nevada, the Sierra Morcna, the Sierra de Guadar- 
rama, and the Sierra de Almagrera, the highest 
^dge of the mountains between Daroca and Sara- 
gossa; the -mountains north of Madrid and north 
<)i l/oon, and those surrounding Toledo, the vicinity 
of Yich in Catalonia, the Cape de Gata in Granada, 
the Asturias, the mines of Cardona, Linares, Santa 
Crux de Mudela and Almaden, both in La Mancha, 
and those in the neighbourhood of Carthagena. 
The botanist will find many rare and valuable 
plants, especially at Guadalupe, in Estremadura ; 
IConcayo, in Aragon; Pineda, Guadarrama, and 
Cuen^a, in New Castile; Carascoy, in Mureia; 
Fena-Coloso, Mongi, Aytona, and Mariola, in 
Valencia, and in the Pyrenees. 



986. Madrid said to have been built. 

S39. Carthagena built by Asdrubal, the Cartha- 
ginian General. 

316. TheSagnntinesinvitetheRomans to their aid. 
KasrJLerfdd, 8eipio defeated the Carthagi- 

208. Carthagena taken by Sciplo. 

306. Spain conquered by the Romans. (Some say 

35 B.C.) 
200. Barcelona founded by the Carthaginians; 

supposed to have derived its name from 

Hamilcar Barcino. 


409. Roman power overturned by the Visigoths, 

Alani, Vandals, Suevi. 
420. Theodoric I., a Gothic King, killed in battle 

against Attila. 
427. Genseric, the Vandal, passes over to Africa. 
467. Toledo taken by the Goths. 

711. Roderic, the lait of the Gothie Kings, killed 

in battle, near Medina Sidonia. Seville 
taken by the Moors. 

712. The greatest part of Spain overrun by th 

714. Toledo taken by the Moors. 
714-65. Mohammedan Emirs reign at Cordova; 
succeeded by kings, down to 1288. 

718. Pelayo, Christian King of Asturias and 

Leon, drives back the Moors. 
739. Alphonso the Catholic, King of Asturiaa and 

778. Pamplona taken from the Arabs by Charle- 
860. Made capital of Navarre. 
865, Garcia I., King of Navarre. 
970. Garcia II., King of Navarre and Castile. 
1027. Vermundo (Bermuda) III., last King of 

Asturias and Leon, killed. 
1035. RamiroL, first King of Aragon. 
1088. Ferdinand the Great, first King of Leon and 

1070-90. The Cid fights against the Moors. 

1085. Toledo taken from the Moors and perma- 
nently annexed to the crown of Castile. 

1212. Total defeat of the last of tho dynasty of 
the Almahides. 

1217, Ferdinand III., King of Leon and Castile. 

1288. Mohammedan Kingdom established in Gra- 
nada; lasting till 1492. 

1246. Jaen taken by Ferdinand II., King of (3astile. 

1247. SevUle taken by Frederick II. 
124S. ^«ccv^«^ l^KCTaMcAsA^ ^x V^n >SVS«iW«^iS*i^; 



fiItAt>dtlAW*fi di>AlH A)7D t»0&tU6AL. 

1252. Alfonso X., King of Leon and Castile, com- 
piles the Alphonsine Tables (astronomi- 

1276. Peter III., King of Aragon, conquers Sicily. 

1800. Bilbao founded. 

1850. Pedro the Cruel deposed, and reinstated by 
his relat'on, Edward the Black Prince. 

1462. Gibraltar ceded to Spain by the Moors. 

1479. Ferdinand 11., of Aragon, and his wife 
Isabella, of Castile, unite the kingdoms 
into one. 

1491. Canary Islands conquered by the Spaniards. 

1492. Moors finally expelled from Spain by Ferdi- 

nand and Isabella. Expulsion of the Jews. 

Columbus sails from Palos, and discoveri 

the New World. 
1504. The kingdom founded by union of the two 

crowns of Castile and Aragon. 
1509. Jamaica settled by the Spaniards. 
1512. Ferdinand V., King of Spain. 
1516. Charles I., King of Spain, becomes 

Charles V., Emperor of Germany, 1519; 

resigns 1556, and dies, 1558. 
1519. Magalhaens embarked at San Lucar on the 

first circumnavigation of the world, 

August 10th. 

1521. Mexico first conquered by Spain. 

1522. The Victory, the only ship surviving from 

Magalhaens* expedition, returned Septem- 
ber 8th. 

1586. Society of Jesuits established by Ignatius 

1556. Philip II , King of Spain, married Queen 
Mary of England. 

1580. Portugal taken by the Spaniards. 

1581. Philip II. landed a force In Ireland to assist 

the Catholics, which was driven off. 

1585. Vigo attacked by Drake. 

1588. Spanish Armada set sail from Corunna, May 
29th. The Sp.anish fleet sail up the English 
Channel, July 20th, and anchor near Calais, 
July 27th. Part of the Armada taken or 
destroyed, July 28th and 29th. Remains 
of the Armada retnm to Spain, September. 

1689. Vigo attacked by Drake. 

1591. Gipsies banished from Spain and other parts 
of Europe. 

1593. Philip III., king. 

1621. Philip IV., king. 

1640. Portugal revolted from Spain, awd the t)uk6 
of Braganza sat on the throne, under 
Philip IV. of Spain and III. of Portugal. 

1665. Charles II. King. Jamaica taken from the 
Spaniards by Admiral Penn, May 7th. 

1700. Philip v., Duke of Anjou, king. 

1702-13. War of Succession. 

1704. Gibraltar taken by Sir George Rooke, July 
20th, and made a free port. 

1706. Ciudad Rodrigo taken by the Portuguese. 

1707. Lerida stormed by the French during the 

war of Succession. 

1708. Minorca taken by the English. 
1714. Barcelona taken by the French. 
1719. San Sebastian taken by the French. 

Vigo attacked by Lord Cobham. 

1727. Gibraltar besieged by the Spaniards, Feb- 
ruary 27th. 

1739. Portobello, in South America, taken from the 
Spaniards by Admiral Vernon, November 

1746. Ferdinand VI., king. 

1766. Minorca taken by the French. 

1759. Charles III., king. 

1763. Minorca restored to Great Britain. 

1766. Gibraltar nearly destroyed by a storm, Feb- 

ruary 8rd. 

1767. Jesuits expelled from Spain. 

1779. Gibraltar besieged by the Spaniards to 

February, 1788. 
1782. Minorca surrendered to Spain, Februar>'5th. 
1788. Charles IV, king; abdicated, 1808. 
1704. San Sebastian taken by the French. 
1802. Minorca annexed to Spain at Treaty of 

1S05. Battle of Trafalgar, under Lord Nelson, 

October 21st. 

1806. Buenos Ayres taken from the Spaniards by 
Sir Home Popham, June 21st. Re-taken 
after an attack of three days, August 12th. 

1807. British repulsed off Bue:ios Ayrcs under 
Whitlock, July 6th. 

1808. Ferdinand VII., king, forced by Napoleon to 
resign to Joseph Bonaparte, who after- 
wards abdicates. Santander, Pamplona, 
San Sebastian, niul Barcelona taken by the 
French. Ciudad Rodrigo taken by the 
French. Insurrection at Madrid, May 2nil. 
Capitulation of Bailen, Jane 20th. The 

CHBOKOLi^OY, btC<itilR£M)Sl^tfl FOtt A 6tX WKBK8* TOUR. 

tVench gained a complete rictory over 
the Spaniards at Tudela, November 23rd. 
The French entered Madrid, December Ist. 

Id^. CSkiona blockaded by the French, under 
Augereao, who lost 15,000 men there in 
7 months. French defeated near Corunna, 
by Sir John Moore, January 16th. 

1810. Defeat of the French under Mass^na, at 
Bosaco, by the English under Wellington. 
SeTille and Lcrida taken by the French. 

tna. Cindad Rodrigo taken by the Duke of Wel- 
lington. Badajoz taken by storm. Wel- 
lington defeats the French under Marmont 
and Closel, July 22nd. 

1815. The French surrender Pamplona to the Duke 

of Wellington. The French driven out of 
Spain by Wellington. Inquisition abol- 
ished in Spain. San Sebastian stormed 
and tak<m by the British, August 3 Ist. 

1814. Ferdinand VII. restored. Inquisition re- 
established in Spain. 

1816. Declaration of Independence of Buenos 

Ayres, July 19th. 

1819. Plot for restoring the Constitution discovered. 

1850. Revolution in Spain by Qulroga and Riego, 

January 1st. Inquisition suppressed in 

1851. Barcelona desolated by the yellow fever. 
1829. Massacre at Madrid, July 2nd. 

1838. French army of observation assembled on 
frontiers, and, after many pretences, entered 
the country', April 7th. They reached 
Madrid, and Due d'Angoul§mc appointed a 
council of regency, &c. The French took 
Seville. Mina, the Spanish guerilla chief, 
arrived at Plymouth to seek a refuge in 
England, November 30th. 

1828. Conspiracy against the Oovemor of Mexico 

discovered, January 1st. 

1829. Expulsion of the Spaniards from Mexico, 

March 8th! 

Earthquake In the province of Murcia, when 
four towns and several villages were en- 
tirely destroyed, and about 6,000 inhabit- 
ants, March 24th. 

Spanish expedition against Mexico sailed 
from the Havannah, July 5th. 
1880. SaUc Law abolished. 

1833. Ferdinand died; succeeded by his daughter 
Isabella II. 

1835. Zumalacarregni killed at Bilbao, June 10th. 

1848. Barcelona botabafded by Elsp.irtcro. 

1845. Zurbano, the Christine general, shot at Lo- 
groho, January 2Cth. 

1818. First railway in Spain (from Barcelona to 
Mataro) opened. 

1859-60. War with Morocco. 

1?68. Isabella driven from the throne. 

1870. Accession of K. Amadeo, after an interreg- 
num of two years. Assassination of Trim. 

1873. Abdication of King Amadeo, 12th February, 

and a Republic proclaimed. First sitting 
of the now Federal Cortes, Ist June. 
Don Carlos entered Spain, 15th July. 
1873-4. The Intransigentes riseagainstthegovern> 
ment, and get possession of Cartagena; 
re-taken January, 1874, when Contreras 
and other rebel leaders escape to Oran. 
Marshal Serrano is proclaimed Chief of the 
Executive power, in March. The Carlists 
hold their ground In the Basque Provinces. 

1874. .Alfonso XII., son of Isabella, born 28th Nov., 

1S57, is proclaimed king, 31st Dec. 

1876. Don Carlos leaves Spain for Englaiid, 27th 

February; termination of the civil war. 
Meeting of the Cortes and Constitution of 
30th June procliimed. 

1877. The Basque provinces arc placed on the 

same footing as the rest of the liingdom. 

1878. Marriage of King Alfcn^o to his Cousin 

Mei cedes, daughter of the Duke of Mont- 
po.naitr, 23rd January; born 18G0. 
1885. Death of Alfonso, Nov. 25th. Alfonso XIII., 
his posthumous child, born May 17th, 1886, 
is now king. Queen Maria Christina acthig 
as Regent until 1902. 



*Carpet bag or small valise, with handle at the 
back; ♦three or four straps for cloaks, books, &c., 
umbrella, silk or alpaca; ^powerful double opera- 
glass ; *light leather pouch to sling over shoulder, 
for hand-book, money, Ac, &c. ; *parchmcnt labels ; 
lucifers in tin box, or, if a smoker, box with two 
compartments, one for lucifers, other for fusees ; 

* All these may be prooared of Mewrs. W. J, Adams itad 
Boas, W, Fle«t Street, London, 

.i 'pol/glot WMlllPB 

Oonrlen.— On i 

.b Tllti CgCDBC IDd drinklDi 


fltrong vateTproDf fthootLng Jacket irLlh urenl 
de«p pocketft; twYi pain of troaflera; Tnlatcoii 


r, with nalli, 

bnl not tipped, .11 


oloared flannel thin 

linen nlg-ht ihErt; tonr pa 

n thick Iambi' w» 

•IIbM -■slerpn 

of knapuck 

a Wrong, gMod >lz 

'umbrella, wit 

iron .plko 

•loek-Oack fiv«-in 

Spjnliti knit; 

flatk with 

drlnkinsr enp: eoc 

; lln hoi fo 

ap; lln box 

■rith eommon wndl 

om of kkLh 

nceflks and threo 

pin., Mrtns, A 

KOOdn«po(Bp.ln, -memo 

.ndumbook.; -pai. 


ckM Spanlt 



-A Foreign 


UlnaTi found 



. Th^yoMn 

ot absolntcly require 

InSpsia. In 

Dgut by the princlp 

et lafiUj' nsMiiary, n 

' ev«n (he object of hi 

icriptlon, and of ri! 

CTiI date. 



unify and speak 

tbelancuaee. If goi 

S by mnl. 

or hone, or on 

fMl IhrOBgh tha CO 
nicful and pwFent 


bnt yon will 

a«l.t him. The «af 

lit plan wll 

be to apply to 

A Sana, Bradibaul Qnlda 

Office. SB. Fleet Sim 

1. lyindon. 

of tbe Spnnlih 



qomted parts ot Bpilr 

For Vocabulary, w 

end of Bpanlib Secllon. 

Pnnch and Engllih a 

re hardly ipoken; tew nil. 


ything bnt 

Spuirii. Srad- 

.h.w'i A^jli-apanm 

PhroH-Batt win be foond 

eitremely aiefal, and 

win go In 


Hap* and CHarti oT Spain. 



h (the London Atlai), 1K8, 

fcli E»pap.o .t PO 

rtngal. with 

notice par Lt 

nlrerKl. pa 

A. H. Dnfonr, 



mUltary Bi"P of Spal 

and Porw 

Dn,lM2: Spain 

and PortBgal, reduced 

beet., pubH.hed by J. WyW, Lon 

on, lBt6; Chart 

01 the Coast, ot Spat 

n and Fori 

ngal, from Cap. 



Coast of Bpaln, 


Cape St. A 

tonlo, with the 


TrfBo [Ad 

miralty Chart), 

London, ISl!; a Charl 

of Iho Co 

■t of Portugal, 


] Uoroi 

ilty Chart], ISII. I^rehaia 
MagnlBco Uapa do loa Caminoi de 
Hletro (Ballway Map) de Etpalla y I^irtngal, M 
the Gacela de lot Caminoi 
deHlerro; or at Ihellbrsrlei. 

VOTlU OD Spain.— The best general hisioriea 
)l Spain nrs—'-La Cronlca General de Eepalla." 
Samorn, UKl, foM "Ls Cronlca de Eipalla," by 
Florisn de Ocampo; Alcali, 16TS, fol, with tho 
.iOTiilnustion ot Ambroslo Uoralea Oh, IW4}i 
Uarlnna. "Hlitorla General de EipaDo," tranilMed 
InloSpanlihi the beiE edition pnbllibed at Talan- 
Ja,II8),in>Talninei,roUo, aun»7,"Cai^w»dig 



Blitorliili" "Synopils ill 
b^wBa, Madrid, 1T7S-0I.1 
ilni, 'CoDIHindlo Cronnloglca," Ac., Madrid, 1~U3, 


1 Ctitlvs 

BquDarde In Collura Erpnnaln, Uadrtil,i;8I- 
UOC, SO lolitnici, 4ta: AKaTgnto, "CompmHlla di 
la Hlitoria de Espaln" (PDrli, IBID), siul Ilio run- 
llnnatlon or Uarinna, li; SsLinn (Hnclrld. 1RIT-31) 
■ad HaSana (Madrid. 1TM-I>)j "III^tulrcd'EaiHisnc 
tiwdalUdcUoriBDa,' par lo P.Cli 

ITW, S TldUDltt, 




1 da E'piillu," 
n, In 4ta, ITOO, 
.nil, Par. 1741, 

U. Ch. Romcy , 

l>«nln(, Pari>,lSll, 

Pari*, IMS. t. 1, par M. Balnt HIlDlrc, t. 1 e 
t,Parli,18S«i Unrphy; the "Illgliiirof liilUabc 
netan Empire In apaln,"4to, Ptrhnpi tho bn 
aotln i)fS]ialn,lnBiig1iBh.l>t]iatori)r.Danlisin,] 
Dr.L»rdn«r'm-CablnDlCj-elop»dl«." Olhcmioti 

Tonrthrongb Spain," IBM; Anilllon, "Elfmenti 
it la OHgrafls dc EipaBs y Portmrair Car 
"DoerlptlTO Trawli In Bpnin;" Qiiln, "Vlult I 
Bpair," lS31-i»i M111«uo, "IUcclonarlo Goosrafli 

"IllnJraln dt rSipig 

(Harray. London); i 

Gtfocnphio UniverHtlo; Korfljpi Qi 

Vleir, Km. Ii and it. Sec al» "^iclnb 

Traveli kn flpaln," London, im. 41o; ^'I 

end'i Joomty tbroogh Bpnln," S Tula, Bto, t,< 

im. AIM "Hlftocy of H|ianliih Mtorelni 

S. Tlcknor, S Toll., 8v 

of Spuihb and PortngniHS Lllernlllrr,' 

•■Pt*:li I 



t9Ut LaekbaR-> "Aneiont Spanlih 


InfilnBpaln:" C. Klng'i "Monnlnlnci 

flllrni noTada;" Antastni Han 

In Spain;" H. J.Roie'i '<Untnidd 

BUck Cgnntry," 2 Tots., IBTS; "Spnln," by tho 

Hsr. Wsnt worth Wcbiter, 16A0. 

■panUb Antlion.— Tbc principal spaniib 

aatbon anCald^ion, CtrrinlDa. Lope da Vrga, 
QDarada, Uandoia, Matoo Alcmao, Bauan. Kara- 
tin, Faraui Ptraa da OUnt, Fray Lnl> do Lmii, 
Jaan dt Mana, CtarUtoral da Caitlllajo, Ambroilo 
nael (PrUiolpe d* Ca»- 



u Ccraand.'i, Ulloa Saa 



<ll»o (A 



«U.'<1 by de 

ba lamp of 





una. Ai 
d unllrM 

•one modoni 
• a» raid*. 


I du la Boaa, 


, Gutlerroi, 

lilet, Breton d 


l«m, E«pr. 

nccla, Mo.<u 

ro. Gar. 

la, Qnlroff^ 

Svanlah Palnten—Tbr bc>t Spaniihpitinion 

ire Uai't<:Iom« iil>te*an Hurillo, Ulogo Vda«|nca, 
loi* de Klliera (Hpaipiotetta), Alonto Cano, 

Cupedca, Ulk-ue 
Cacrcllu, Anlonl< 

and Cla 

dlo Coollo. 

F.and J 


brol..d ar 

Jnan do 

. Gl-larlf 

J. JUUM*. 

ula de Cnrba|*1, Pablo 



.tan, nnrc 


lo dd Ca 

•tlllo, Jua 

>n, Juan 

de Vaidoi, 

nil "Dictionary ( 


' by Matlbew 

llonnalre Hliloriqao del Fl]blIrc^ dc toutea lea 
to1e>,par Adolplig Bird, Sto, ParU, ISU; "Aa- 
mil o[ Ibo Artlalg of Spain," by William Stlrtlns, 
M,A. (Ibo late Sir W. etlrllne-Haxwell), Sva.. 
London, 1848, In which will bo fonnd a catalofpuof 


nd wbore Ihcy are lo bo fo 


k of Palntinir, from th 


4 TQli. 8.O.! "The Frcnc 


by Sir F^mnnd Road; 


-."Handbook to tho Plci 

B«BMinforTTftTalliiiK: Spring or Antmmi. 

Hderato boat. Dnrlni April, May, and Jina, 
raTollInf la TbTy affroeablo ; while Jnly, An^lC, 
nd Saptembor are abont Uh wont auBlbi tor 



trayelUng^ in Spain, on account of the scorching 
heat, son-glare, and sufTocathi? dnst. The summer 
heats subside in October ; and November is also a 
pleasant month. See article, *' Climate." 

Dtstances.— Madrid is about 680 miles south- 
south-west of Paris, and 265 north-east of Lisbon. 
The distance from Madrid to Alicante is 282 miles; 
Bordeaux to Paris, 363 miles; Bordeaux to London, 
by Folkestone, 644 miles ; Bordeaux to Bayonne, 
123 miles; Bayonne to Irun, 22 miles, to San 
Sebastian, 34 miles; IruntoSan Sebastian, 12 miles; 
Seville is 212 miles south-south-west of Madrid, 
and 60 miles from Cadiz. 

Money. — since 1870, the monetary system is as 
follows: — lCOcentimos=l pesetas=l franc nearly. 

Gold Coins. — 100, 50, 25, 20, 10, and 5 pesetas^ 

Silver Coins.— 1, 2, 5 pesetas, and 20 and 25 

Bronzb Coins.— 1, 2, 5, 10 centimes. 100 pesetas 
&= £4 Os. lOd.; 10 pesetas = 7s. Ud.; and the other 
ooins in proportion. A 25 peseta gold piece is 
nearly equal to a sovereign. 

In Qibraltar the peseta is current at an official 
sterling rate, which is revised quarterly. See p. 51. 

Money was formerly reckoned in reals = 2 Jd., and 
dollars or duros = 20 reals. A peseta = 4 reals; 
escudo = 10 reals; 20 reals = 50d. at the current 
exchange; sometimes ^d. to \il. higher. 5 dollars = 
£1 Os. lOd. = 100 reals. A gold onza (ounce) = 16 
dollars = 820 reals. Besides bronze eentimos of a 
peseta, there are2| and 5 cent, pieces of an escudo = 
\ and i real respectively. In Catalonia (Barce- 
lona, Ac.) these hundredths of a peceta are not 
recognised; but the bronze coins an called 
cuartos; and 8} cuartos = 1 real, or 84 cuartos = 
1 peseta. Much bad money Is current, especially 
gold. Sliver coins with holes in them should not 
be taken. Railway bufTets pass off a good deal. 
When receiving change at diligence offices, rail- 
ways, hotelp, or from boatmen, examine your coin. 
Provide yourself with small change before starting 
on a Journey. As the greatest abuses prevail in 
respect of money, the traveller ikIU do well on 
learing his country to provide himself with gold 
ooini^ sovereigns and 20 franc pieces. Paper money 

Circular Notes form a safe a&d convenient kind 
of letters of credit. The arrangements for cashing 
them in the various countries through which the 
traveller may have to pass are very simple and 
efficient, almost precluding the possibility of fraud. 
As a letter of indication is given with them, tourists 
would do well to keep the one In their pocket-book, 
and the other In their baggage. These letters are 
Issued by most of the London banks. The Cheque 
Bank will be found convenient for the purpose. 
They may be had also of Messrs. Cates and Son, 
84, King William Street, E.C. 

Perhaps the simplest plan after all is to pay 
your money into Coutts', who have agents In all 
the principal towns of Europe. No charge Is made 
except for postage. 

Weights and Measures.— The sundard of 

length was formerly the foot, which was divided 
into 12 pulgadas (Inches), and each of these Intc 
12 llneas (lines). The pie real, however. Is very 
little used, many provinces having their own 
peculiar foot. The foot of Catalonia measures 11 
Inches and fths of a line of the royal foot; that of 
Valencia 11 Inches and 2| lines; that of Castile 10 
Inches and 4 lines. 

12 pulgadas &= 1 pie = foot. 

IJ pie = 1 codo c= cubit. 

2 codos or 3 pies.. = 1 vara sr yard. 

N.B.— The metre (metro) for measure, and the 
gramme (gramo) for weight, are now the 
officially recognised standards. 
The English foot is = 13 Spanish inches. The 
new Spanish legua is s about 3f English miles. 
All distances are officially reckoned in kilometros. 
Hotels.— -There are three sorts of accommoda- 
tion for travellers; 1, the Fonda and Parador; 2, 
the Posada; 3, the Venta. The two former are 
hotels where both board and lodging may be had. 
The Parador Is properly the hotel of the Diligence 
(Parador do las Diligenclas). The Posada Is 
strictly a house where only lodging Is to be had, 
but it is very frequently merely another name for 
Fonda. The Venta Is a country Inn where only 
lodging is provided, but where cooking materials 
are provided at a small charge to travellers 
bringing their own provisions. The expense of 
board and lodging at the hotels averages from 5«. 
to IDs. per day; 80 reals per day Is a very com- 
mon charge. The piVncV^t^ \ucA.^« Vcl ^^\Sk Vjjv^ 

H6*EL6, POBtAti 1K1?0»MATI0», &C. 


clkber Italian or l^Vench waiters, and the landlords 
are frequently French. Of lite years there has 
been a great improTement in every respect in the 
Spanish hotels. Clennliness and comfort have 
inereatedtoa rfmarkable degrree; the cookery is 
now quite up to date, and the ordinary wines served 
at dinner good. Travellers will do woU in Spain not 
to order separate dinners or lunches, but partake of 
the nsnal public meals; the first from 10 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and dinner at half-past six, or there- 
abouts. Prices vary according to floor, and if you 
hare a private sitting-room, for 15s. a head per 
day you can live well. Do not bo impatient with 
•enranis. Spaniards take things easy. Be very 
oivil, and yon will be repaid by being well served. 
Serrants are not usually charged in the bill, and 
they expect something. Spain is the land of " tips," 
and you will, perforce, have to submit to small ex- 
tortions of this kind. The amount given in cafds, 
boerhousos (cervecerias), at the barbers, or to 
cabmen (per course), is 10 centimos; in a res- 
taurant, or when a cab is taken by the hour, 20 
eentimos; and to guardians of public buildings, 
porters, Ac., 60 centimes. Few hotels send omni- 
buses to the station. Two good dishes of Spain 
are gallo con arroz (fowl and rice), and pucliero, a 
stew. Spaniards are fond of chocolate and sweet- 

Postal InformatiOZL— ToEngland, vid France, 
if prepaid (otherwise double) the postage is about 
2|d.under I ounce. For registered letters, 4d. extra. 
From any part of Spain, to any other part, 10c. per 
I ounce (1$ gn^amos). From one part to another of 
the same town, 5c. Asingie letter is called una 
carta uneilla. A post card (lOc.) is called tarjeta 
postal. Kewepapcrs under 4 ounces arc charged 
lOo. Time of transit between London and Madrid 
about two days. Mail made up in London morning 
and evening, Sundays excepted. Mail due in 
London daily. The charge for pamphlets and 
papers, open at the end, is 5c. for 60gr. in Spain; 
to other countries, 10c. The is called 
el eartero ; postage stamps arc called sellos. To 
post your letters ot the office of the hotel is the 
safest plan. The parcel post is now in operation 
between Spain and England. 

EleotrlO Tel6|g2«plL - The charge for ten 
words in SpMltif inelndittg addresses, Is 4 reals 

for twenty words to Prahc^ 16 reals; twenty 
words to London, 34 reals. Every word is charged 
for. Special stamps for tole^jrams are sold at the 
post-ofllccs, tobacconists, Ac. 

Steamers between London and Spanisb 

Ports. —London to Cadiz, Gibraltar, and Malaga, 
by Hall's Line, weekly; London to Son Sebastian, 
Bilbao, Santandcr, Ac, about every three weeks; 
Marseilles to Barcelona, thrice weekly; Peninsular 
and Oriental Company's Steamers from London 
(Tilbury) to Gibraltar, weekly, time occupied, 
about five days. London to Cartagena, Alicante, 
Valencia, and Barcelona, once in three weeks. 
Also Pacific Steam Navigation Co.'s Steamers 
from Liverpool to Corunna, Vigo, and Lisbon. 
(See Bradshaw't Continental Guide.) 

Spanish Steamers are uncertain. A lino of these 
(Clyde-built) runs from Liverpool ; Agents, Bahr, 
Behrend, and Co. Do not depend on information 
offered by servants of the hotel, commissioners, 
and such like. The best plan will be this, either 
go straight to the Company's ofi^ce, or go to your 
Consul, who will give you the most reliable in- 
formation. Spanish steamers are often far from 
comfortable or clean, but are improving. French, 
English, and Italian boats are very good, and to 
be relied upon, and the captoins are civil and 
obliging as a rule. 

Railway Trains.— See Bradshatc's Continental 
Railway Guide for the month, and the local 
Oaide. Buy your ticket nt the station, or 
your courier will get them a few hours before. 
Should you want a Couptf, engage it and pay the 
full fare, if travelling without a courier, otherwise, 
leave it all in his hands. Remember Spaniards 
smoke, and are very independent in their ways. 
Give up your seat with good humour if a Spanish 
lady asks you. Refreshments are to be had, but 
they are dear nnd indifferent. 

The Peninsula is now fairly well supplied with 
railway accommodation. The trains are not so 
fast as in most other countries, and a great deal of 
travelling is done by night, which seems to suit 
the people, who, especially the third class passen- 
gers, chatter incessantly, and usually indulge in 
tobacco and f retvaiatvt t<s1x^'«J«ssv'«!^> >s^^. x>w.'«&c<i 

BUIIBSi.W's BtiBf f 

DlTeat SoTTlM imii Pitrl* to HadiUL- 

X didlreipruituTHpirlKOrleani) forHidiid 
iboDl lOlOp.m. ToUldlitance,<ib<>iit8«0mlli 

SsdrlduSOp.m. Sud-Bx^rcu, (Hard). Uaaitji, 

9 Hidrld. il hnnci la LKbon. 

r Time 

. BnffcMon tin nMd nt Imn, Mlrand« ds Bbro, 
BnrsDi, VslUdolld, AtIIii. mi MkUdb dsl Cuupo. 
In Fraone, st Bordaini, 4o. 
. ClrcnlBt tiDlieti cm be obMtned For loatti rmn 
Pirle to fiorduux and llironerh Spiln, ratnnilng, 
U deilred, by Lyoiii. or t>Ui vtria. Tbs rontc 
triclli idheied to. The l«ln» 1»t« bj- 


tbe Irooble. Lsarjng Miulrld for Fa^ luggage It 

OonTayulMI.— Ulllgencci run tbrongh miut 
of the frequented TVDlei: Ibey are eondiuKod much 

"KoUndm." the compenr li mliod. The SlUai 
9or[Hi9 onlf take two or tbree pauengeri. and 

tittle iDCgoge ihauld be taken in tiavelling In 
Spain, II eicese tarei ate verf high, and Inggago 
fe not alwari weighed falily. A cbeaper lort of 

Tbe beat ira; of acclng the imnmtalnoiudiitrlcti 
ol Spain li <a taorHbaek. Pedotrian encnnlan) 
■vr mtjvtiy taowB, and an oal^ to 6e nnder- 

I in llin PyreneM and iheli 

EzpanwB and 0«iiarftl informatlatL— Th* 

thing iDlerably dcnr; rHllroad (nret, dlllgoiiEei 

And pDlitoneu wUl avail. 

ETorj-lhine it Bdmltled duty free oicept — ». d. 

Cigars perl b _ i 

Eau de Culoane in bolOfls Cpw (allon) IT > 

Uqncnri* (per gaUon) 11 3 

Fcrfamotr in irhlcb thare li ipirtt^ (pw 

Spirits,* (per proof galloo) „ IB 10«.o(perlb.) „ „ 4 • 

WlM,lnboKlB(porEallon) It to i S 

BpaniBb Cnstoma Datlas. 

law. it., are snli]ocl to duly. Tubacou and gun- 

Frencli Onstonu DuUm. 

Tho following Spanish nrllciti inltodocBd InW 


ifuffi, ]<■« 

0, only 1 doz-clgari allow 

DI8TANOX0 Of PSZlTOtPAL TOi^lfS tttOtt tti]>BID, ETC« 



Alcftsar ..........*. , 91i 

4J||(i;Gi|jr«f « 460 

Ajieute ,.„.» »^ 28$ 

^•MM ..*.. 8M 

Araiijnez 81 



Badijos 317 

Bw«elMia 440 

KItao ..........;... 8W 

BniipM ^9| 

GkdiK : 4»8J 

Cartagena ^5| 

Ciudad-Baal 107^ 

Cdrdova 273J 

Oofianna ,*.•*,» 624 

XI £«eorial.....» 82 

Oljoa -*^ ........^ 867 

OraiuUa 427 

Guadalajara .;....: 88 

Hnelva 428 




Jerez 428 

:..... 2i80 




Mtflaya ; 894 

Haosanares ;„ 1221 

Medina del CamtM) j28 

Merlda 530 

Miranda de Ebro „ 2S4 

Murcia „ „..„ I....... 8S8| 

Oporto ..,.„„ 466 

Oviedo „ jj47 

Palcncia „ 134^ 

Salamanca , 175 

San Sebastian ; 537 

jBaatander g^O 

Saragosaa 212 

Segovia 62J 

Seville :,^ 854^ 

Toledo ,.,„ 47 

ValladoUd 164 

Venta de ]3aflos ,..,. 177 

VUlalba .', ^^ 

Vitoria ■...'. 306 

Zamora , 134 

Tarragona to Valencia 171 

Tarragona to Castellon , 128 

Valencia to tJtlel « ^ 

Alicante to MnrciiEi m......« 6 




1. By Paris, Bordeaux, Bayonnc, Iran, San 
Sebastian, Tolosa, Beasain, Yitoria, Miranda, 
Burgos, Yalladolid, Avila, Escorial (Escurial). 
See Route 1, page 15. 

2. By Paris, Bordeaux, Bayonne, Pamplona 
(Pampelona), Tudela, Alagon,Saragossa,Calatayud, 
Alhama, Guadalajara, and AlcaU. See Route 2, 
page 28. 

3. By Paris, Perpignan, Gerona, Barcelona, and 

4. By Paris, Marseilles, and Barcelona; or Mar- 
seilles and Valencia; or Marseilles and Alicante. 

6. By Cadiz (Steamer from London or Liverpool), 
Seville, Cordova, Espeluy and Alcazar. This is 
probably on the whole the cheapest. 

6. By Santander (Steamer from London), 
Beinosa, Palencia, and Yalladolid. 

7. Bj* Corunna (Steamer from Liverpool), Lugo, 
Leon, and Yalladolid. 

8. By Yigo, (Steamer from Liverpool), Orense, 
I/eon, and Yalladolid. 

9. By Lisbon (Steamer from Southampton), 
Valencia de Alcitntara, and Talavera de la Reina. 


Route A. 

Route B. 




Ijondon to Alsasna, 


as in Route A 











Yenta do Balios 





* Yalladolid may also be reached direct from 
London as follows:— Steam from London to San- 
tander, and thence by rail, in about 8 hours, 
vid Reiuosa, Alar del Rey, Palencia, and Yenta 
de Balios. The cost of Route A is about the 
same as Route C. 

Route C— London to Paris, Lyons, and Mar- 
seilles ; thence by steamer to Barcelona ; thence to 
Saragossa and Madrid, by rail. Approximate 
fares: — First class, about £10; second class, 
aboat £7. Approximate time, about 4 days. 

Instead of stopping at Barcelona, the traveller 
can continue by steamer to Yalencia or to Ali- 
cante, and reach Madrid by rail, vid Almansa. 

Route D.-»London to Bordeaux, Toulouse, Nar- 
bonne, and Perpignan ; thence by rail to Gerona 
and Barcelona. 


Marseilles (or Paris and Toulouse) to Barcelona, 
Lerida, Saragossa, Pamplona, Yitoria, Bilbao, 
Santander, San Sebastian, Irun, and Bayonne. 


London to Yigo, Pontevcdra, Santiago, Corunna, 
Lugo, Oviedo, Gijon. Santander, Reinosa, Palencia, 
Burgos, Yitoria, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Pamplona, 
Saragossa, Lerida, Barcelona, Gerona, and Perpig- 


Bayonne to Irun, Saragossa, Lerida, Barcelona, 
Tarragona, Yalencia, Cuenca (or Almansa), Alba- 
cete), Aranjuez, Madrid, Escurial (Escorial), 
Madrid, Toledo, Ciudad Real, Granada, Malaga, 
Gibraltar, Ronda, Ecija, Cordova, Seville, Jerez, 
Cadiz, London. 


Paris to Bayonne, Irun, San Sebastian, Bilbao, 
Santander, Gijon, Corunna, Yigo, Cadiz, Gibraltar, 
Malaga, Almeria, Cartagena, Alicante, Yalencia, 
Barcelona, and Marseilles. For details see the 
body of the work, In which this route Is varied 
and extended. 


London to Gibraltar by steamer, Ronda, Malaga, 
Granada, Jacn, Ballen, Andujar, Cordova, Seville 
(or Co]<clova, Eclja, Carmona, Seville), Jerez, and 



London to Madrid, hj Paris, Bayonne, 
mn, Vitorla, Burgos, Valladolld, Avila, 
and Escorlal. 


Population, 26,361. 

HotolS. — Hotel Commerce; St. Etienne; des 
Bains; du Midi; da Grand d'Espagne; de 

OonTeyances.^)mniba8es from the railway 
station to the town, 25c.; each package, 25c. Rail 
to Biaxritx (about 5 miles); rail to Pan, by Dax; 
to Hendaye and Imn for Madrid. The distances 
to Madrid are as follow : — 

BOUTE 1 Miles. 

Bayonne to Iron 28 

Irun to Alsasna 63 

Alsasnato Burgos 108 

Burgos to Madrid •, 229^ 


ROUTB 9. Miles. 

Bayonne to Imn 28 

Iron to Alsasua 68 

Alsasua to Saragossa, via Pam-> -, m^ 
plona and Tndela | "* 

Saragossa to Madrid 213 

Luggage should be registered through from 
Bayonne to Madrid, if the traveller is going on 
quickly. If not, it should be ptombi at Irun to 
save further annoyance. 

IRUN Stat.) 

Population, 7,010. 

HottfM.~Fonda del Norte ; de Arupe. 

A town in the province of Guipuzcoa, on the left 
bank of the Bidassoa, and near the French frontier. 
It is rendered celebrated from the victories gained 

by the English under the Duke of Wellington, 
and by the Spaniards, over the French. The town 
has manufactories of ironware and leather. The 
name of the place has been derived from the 
Basque Irona, which is said to sigrnify '^the 
town.'' The Biscay, or Basque, language is so 
difficult that the Andalusians say, *'They write 
Solomon and sound it Nebuchadnezzar." It ia 
believed to belong to the Tartar group. A transla- 
tion of St. Luke's Gospel was made by George 

Sights.— Hill of San Marcial (fine panorama), 
celebrated for the repulse of the French by an 
inferior force of Spanish troops, 1813; Casa de 
Ayuntamiento (town hall), church, and hospital. 
Many Roman remains in the environs. 

Custom House.— Luggage from France ex- 

Conveyances.— Rail to Bayonne, San Sebas- 
tian, Tolosa, Alsasua, Pamplona, Yitoria, Burgos, Ac. 

Fbou I bun to Saktandbb by rail, or by rail 
and diligence. — It may be reached by rail via 
Yitoria, Miranda, and Yenta de Bafios. Or more 
directly by rail to Yitoria and Bilbao; thence by 
diligence to Santander. 

The distance to Fontarabia (Sp. FuenterrabiaJtAt 
the mouth of the Bidassoa, in the Bay of Biscay 
is 8 miles. 

Between Irun and San Sebastian the small town 
of Renterla is passed, where formerly a good 
deal of shipbuilding was carried on, and then the 
magnificent Puerto de Pasajes, which can shelter 
an enormous number of vessels. 


Population, 21,855. 

Hotels.— De Londres; Continental; Berdeja 
Basilio; du Commerce. 
Omnibus, 2i reals; luggage under 601bs.,2i reals. 
Theatre and Casino. Bull Ring. 



[Section L 

A city and seaport, capital of the province of 
Guipnzcoa, on a peninsula in the Bay of Biscay, 
insulated at high water by the Urumea, here 
crossed by a long wooden bridge. Good bathing, 
and a fine sandy beach. 

Its harbour is defended by a system of batteries. 
This place has a large import trade in English 
and French goods, <fec., and an export trade in 
com, Ae. It was taken in 1719, 1794, and 1808, by 
the French, who held it till dlst August, 1818, 
when it was stormed and taken by the British, 
after considerable loss. 

. With their usual disr^ard of historical truth, 
Frenbh writers, even of repute, do not lose the 
(^portunity to blacken the English and the glory 
of their arms. Thus, Germand de Larigne, in 
Joanne's ** Itinerary to Spain," quoting Quatrefages, 
does not scruple to devote long columns to an over- 
coloured account of the sack of San Sebastian 
wh/MitakiMi by the British withthe utmost gallantry, 
which he does not notice. Nor does he appear to 
remember while making so much oi these diswders, 
and severely blaming the English generals f orthem, 
that French soldiers had converted many thriving 
ports and cities of Spain into a howling wilderness, 
perpetrating horrors that still make their name 
detested in the Peninsula. We have only to allude 
to the storming of Saragossa, of Tarragona, of Mura, 
and many other scenes of horror, to show the want 
of consistency and truth in these French critics. 

The pages of Thiers are sufficient evidence of 
the unprovoked oppression and ruin inflicted on 
many parts of Spain by the French. 

Si£f]lt8.— Castle of De la Mota, on MontoOrgullo, 
MO feet above the town; beautiful view from the 
rocks; many graves of British officers; several 
churches and convents; civil and military hospitals. 
The bay, called La Condia, is only safe for small 
retsels. During the bathing season, an animated 
•paotaele is presented by the encampment of tents, 
Ac, oa the beach. Military band on the Alameda. 
The females are noted for beauty. 

ConveyailCMk — BalltoBarcena, Palencia, Yal- 
ladolid, and Madrid. Rail to Bayonne. Rail to 
Tolosa and Pamplona; steamers to Bayonne, Ac; 
and to La Teste in France, communicating by rail 
with Bordeaux. 

Distance to Bayonne, 84 miles; Iran, 11; Fucn- 
tcrrabia (Fontarabia), 10. 

Rail from San Sebastian to Tolosa takes about 

TOLOSA <Stat) 

Population, 7,488. 

Hotel. — Parador. Some inns in the town have 
tables d'hdte. 

A town in the province of Guipuzcoa, on the 
Oria and Arages, deep in a narrow defile of the 
Basque hills. 

Siglltji.— Church of Santa Maria— note tM 
portico and retablo ; Casa de 4yuntainiento (Toivn 
Hall); two plazas, one used for a builortog; hoqpit|d; 
prison; several fountains; two bridges, and some 
ancient gates. One house bdonged to Domenjou 
Gonzales, who was knighted, 1471, by our 
Edward IV. 

From Tolosa to BoasailL, the train continually 
crosses the Oria and passes 4 tunnels. After Bea- 
sain the gradients are very steep, and the pace is 
frequently only about 30 miles an hour; the train 
takes about 3^ hours. Between 2tUlUtITaga and 
A1«A«^^» there is a series (rf tunnels through th^ 
mountains. From Zumarraga several Bath* are 
accessible, as those of Aleola^ near Loyola's Her- 
mitage, Arechavaleta, Cestana (Jnnjy Elorrlo, 
Mondragon, Sta. Agueda (sulphur), S. Juan de 
Azcoitia, and Urberruaga. The Junction for 
Pamplona (Route 2) is passed at 4^^^^^mft, 27 miles 
further on we reach 

VITORIA (Stat.) 

Population, 25,089. 

Hotels.— Fonda de Quintanillas; Fonda Euro- 
pea; Fonda Pall ares. Caf^ del Teatro. 

Buffet. Omnibus to to^ni, 2 reals. A trunk, 
under 40 kilos. (90 lbs.), 8 reals. . 

Capital of th« province of Alava, <m the high road 
from Bayonne to Madrid. It is celebrated for the 
signal victory gained here by the English over the 
French, on the 2l8t June, 1813. iThe Pefla de 
Gorbea, to the north, is 5,000 feet above the sea. 


Sights.— Church of San Vicente, once a fortress; 
note the retablos. Church of San Miguel ; note 
the statue of the Conception. Church of Santa 
Maria, 1150; note the gothic arches of the nave, 
also the pictures by Ribalta. CasaConsistorial; note 
especially the staircase. Hospital, with a beautiful 
facade by Jordanes; Plaza N*teva; liceo; Circalo; 
theaiire; Cam de Ayantauiiento(i<»wn h«U); ipaelotis 

Jtouie 1.2 



mrket place ; custom hotifte ; publie library, and 
tftiitfliimof antiquities; beautiful promenad^toalled 
£1 Prado and La Florida. 

Distance : 39 miles south of Bilbao. The sulphur 
Baths of Aramayona and Escoriaza may bo 
reached from here. At Estella, a few miles south 
of this, Marshal Concha was killed, 27th June, 1874, 
In an unsuccessful attack on the Carlist lines. 

The line now traverses a fine plain, crossing the 
Zadorra at Manzanos, to 

Miranda de Ebro (Stat). Buffet. Here 

the Ebro is crossed by a bridge. Population, 7,456. 
This is the Junction for the Bilbao and Saragpossa 
lines, and is the first town in Old Castile. Most 
of the r>6 miles between here and Burgos is 
mountainous and very picturesque. 

BUBOOS (Stat) 

Population (1887), 81,301. 

Buffet charge, 12 reals; dinner, 14 reals. Omni- 
bus to the town, 2 reals each; luggage up to 801bs., 
'8 reals. 

Hotels.— Paris ; Fonda del Norte; Parador 
de las Diligencias Generalos; Parador de las 
Fenlnsulares ; Casa de Postas. 

Casas do Pupilos are furnished lodgings which 
are numerous. 
Post Oi&ce.— 58, Calle do Espoldn. 

Telegrapll Oi&oe.— lO, Plaza de la Llbertad. 

Whiter lasts nearly eight months; snow has been 
eren known to fall at the St. Juan (June 21). Tet 
the climate is healthy; preralent winds N.N.W. 
and N.E. The Cerro de S. Lorenzo, to the east, is 
7,555 feet above sea level. 

A large and interesting city, capital of the province 
of the same name, and formerly eapital of Old 
Castile. It is situated on the left bank of the 
Arlanzon; here crossed by three fine bridges. It 
is built in the form of an irregular semicircle, por- 
tions of its old walls remaining on the side of the 
river. It has some few manufactures, but these 
are steadily declining. Here the famous CVtf, 
Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, was bom about 1040. It 
was taken by the French in 1808-9; and besieged by 
. the English after the battle of Salamanca (22nd 
July, 1812), but the siege was abandoned in October. 

Siglita.— Celebrated Catbedral, considered by 
some one td the finest Giotbie structures in 
0piUii. ItwMbnUtbyKluf StFerdluaqdtUitbe 

thirteenth century, and contains a6mo very fine 
sculpture. The interior is profusely decorated 
with pictures, statues, bas-reliefs, Ac. Note also 
the fine stained glass windows. Some of the large 
chapels in the aisles contain some beautiful sculp- 
ture, paintings, and monuments; one is particu> 
larly deserving of attention, the Capilla del Con- 
destable, containing some fine sculpture, by Jean 
do Bourgogne, representing the Crucifixion, the 
Resurrection, and the Ascension. The Capilla de 
Santiago contains the fine sepulchres of Juan 
Cabeza, and his brother, Don Pedro. The Capilla 
de San Enrique contains a bronze figure of its 
founder. One Capilla has a Crucifixion by Cerezo, 
and another the miraculous and strikhig image of 
El Cristo de Bui^os. In the cloisters are some fine 
sepulchres; and the door, staircases, and windows 
are worthy of notice. The spires, with delicate 
open work, are nearly 300 feet high. 

Church of San Esteban, with an elegant facade, 
and some fine bas-reliefs. Church of San Gil, Con- 
taining many Gothic Sepulchres. Church of San 
Lesmes, some fine sculpture. Church of Santa 
Agueda, or Gadoa; the font, the statues of the 
Virgin and St. Peter, and the Sepulchre of Delga- 
dillo. Church of San Pablo; fine cloister and 
tombs. Church of San Nicolas; superb rotable, and 
the tombs of the Palancos. Church of Santa Ana; 
some fine tombs. Church of Santa Maria la Real 
(Las Huelgas), a Cistercian convent, not far from 
the Ijsla. It contains some tombs worthy of note, 
and possesses some peculiar privileges. Hof>pitaI, in 
the Calle de San Juan ; fine facade. Archiepiscopal 
Palace, near the Cathedral,. A bronze statue of 
Charles III., in the Plaza Mayor, a square sur- 
rounded by arcades. Arcos of Santa Maria and 
of Ferdinand Gonzales. A Castle, formerly very 
strong, but now in ruins. Casa de Ayuntamiento, 
a modern building. The Promenades, called 
Espolon, Cubes, and Isla; the two Utter on the 
banks of the river. 

Gonvesrances, fta -Rail to Vitorla, Bilbao, 
Yalladolid, Avila, and Madrid. Rail to LogrOno, 
by Miranda de Ebro Haro, Briones, and Ccnicero. 

The coach road to Santander runs by Huermcees, 
Llanillo, and Reinosa (Stat.). 

Burgos is situated 180 miles north of Madrid, 
8291 miles by rail. It is distant from ValUdolid, 
by rAil, 76 miles { (r^m Yitorio, 78 mtlti , 


1lttAJt)dHAW*S «I»iaW AUD PORTtJdAt. 

faction 1. 

SXCursloilfi to the Cartuja (the Carthusian 
convent) dc Miraflores, about 3 miles out of the 
town, containing a magnificent tomb, erected by 
Isabella, to her parents, Juan II. and Isabella of 
Portugal. Note also, among other things, the fine 
retablo and the sllleria, with some good carving. 

Convent of San Pedro de Cardefta, not far from 
the Cartuja, and containing the tomb of the Cid ; 
who died about 1099. It is, however, doubtful 
.whether he was buried here. The convent once 
formed part of the estate of the Cid ; for an account 
of whom, consult the works of Von Huber, Mttller, 
and Lockhart. 

From Burgos the line runs along a w«ll populated 
country, rather flat, 52 miles to Venta de BaAOB 
(Stat.)» the junction for Palencia, Santander, 
Leon, Ac; whence it traverses the fertile valley 
of the Pisuerga to 

Population (1887), 62,012. 
Hotels.— Fonda de France; Cueva; del Slglo 

de Oro. 

Buflfct. Omnibus to hotels, 60 cents, for each 
person and trunk, 26 cents, for a hand-bag or 
small package. There is a fixed tariff for cabs. 
From twilight to midnight, and again after mid- 
night, the charges are raised. 

Post Office.— Plazuela de los Arces. 

Telegrapll Office.— At the Goblemo Civil. 

It is thought to be the ancient Pincitt, and is the 
capital of the Province, and of Old Castile, in a 
hollow of the Pisuerga, at the infiux of the Esgneva. 
The first mention of the name occurs in 1073. The 
modem name is derived from Moorish Belad 
Walid. It was formerly the capital of Spain; and 
the residence of the Court prior to its removal to 
Madrid, at the close of the sixteenth century. It 
is enclosed by old wails, and decayed dwellings. 
Columbus died here on the 20th May, 1606, in a 
street named after him. The town is prosperous 
and steadily improving. The Castile Canal comes 
in here. 

WglltS.— The University (chiefly celebrated for 
jurisprudence) had, in 1841, 1,300 students. At 
present there are about 800. In the Colegio de 
Sta. Cruz is the Library and the rich 3£uieo PrO' 

value after Madrid and Seville. Amoaff its a|ira% 
tions are: Grand Salon, containing is parttcnlar 
the Rubens pictures from the Fuensaldafia coft* 
vent, and bronze statue^ by P<Mnpeid Leoni. 

St. Peter, by Ribera. Several copies of Rubens. 

A St. Joaquin, thought to be Murillo's. A 
St. Bruno by Zurbaran. 

Among the sculptures. — A St. Theresa, a master- 
piece of Hernandez ; a St. Francis, by the same ; 
also, a Christ bearing his Cross, and a Virgin, all 
by Hernandez. 

The Death of Christ, a fine conception. A fine 
Pieta, by Hernandez. The CKx>d and the Wicked 
Thief, by Leoni; and St. Simon receiving the 
Scapulary from the Virgin, by Hernandez. N.B.<— 
The pictures, ftc, have been completely re- 
arranged. The Library contains 14,000 volumes, 
300 MSS., and 600 medals. 

At 7, Calle Colon, Columbus died; Cervantea 
lived at 14, CaUe del Rastro; Calderon at 23, Calle 
de Teresa Gil. 

A granite-built OfttbedCEl, in the classic style, 
unfinished and half -ruined: note the superb Cus- 
todiu; a picture of the Crucifixion (artist un- 
known); a Trausfigujati(Ma, by L.Giordano; the 
Sepulchre of Conde P. Auzurez; and the un- 
finished cloister. 

Among the OhUTClies and Convents, Ac., are 
San Lorenzo, with some paintings by Hernandez. 
La Antigua, a Gothic church of the Seventh cen- 
tury: note the tower. San Miguel: note the 
statue of St. Michael, by P. Leoni; the retablo, 
with its carvings; the ivory omeifix, by Michael 
Angelo. San Salvador: note the sculpture and 
the sepulchres. San Martin, with its Roman- 
esque tower. Las Huelgas: note the retablo, by 
Hernandez. Santiago, Adoration of the Magi, by 
Juni. Descalzas Reales: note the paintings by 
Carducho and Blasco. Las Colaterales, with 
paintings by Mascagni. La Magdalena: note the 
retablo, by Jordan, Ac. Portaceli, fine retabI6, 
altar, paintings by Stanzioni. La Cruz, contain- 
ing some fine works of Hernandez. El Peneten- 
cial : note the fine Corinthian facade, with the fine 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, the Magdalea, 
4c. HoaplUl d« U BetpJ T OOctoB. The Biffp^ 

Konte 1.] 

VALtAOOXlD, AVlLiL, flsetAlAt* 


Ptfaee, with a AM 6o\at and two ginlleirles; and 
busts of the Roman Etnperow, Ac. The Governor's 
residence (formerly El Colegio de San Gregorio, 
fotmded in 1488). San Pablo (formerly a Domi- 
nican Convent), containing a grand church : note 
the fine fapade; the picture of St. Paul struck 
blind, by Cardenas; the beautiful portals and the 
roof. Some ancient mansions, worthy of inspec- 
tion, especially those in the Plazuela Vieja, the 
Calle de la Cenlza, and the Calle del Rosario. 
Campo Grande, surrounded with palaces and con- 
vents. Plaza de Toros ; Casa de Espositos ; Public 
Library; some fine Promenades, among others, 
La Magdalena, Las Moreras, the Gampo Grande, 
and El Espolon Nuevo. 

Valladolid has two Theatres— the Grand Theatre, 
with room for 2,400, and Lope Theatre— the latter 
the best. The Corridas de Toros, or Bull Fights, 
are held in September, and there is room for 
6,050 persons. 

Conveyances.— Rail to Avila, ■ Madrid, Pa- 
lencia, Leon, Medina de Rio-Seco, Santauder, 
Burgos, and Yitoria. 

Rail to Arixa (on the direct lino Madrid to Sara- 
gossa). 159 miles, passing through Tudela de 

Zhiero, PelLaflel, Aranda> Osma, andAlmazan, 

forming direct through communication between 
Valladolid and Saragossa. 

Excursions are miade to the town and castle 
of Blmancas (the ancient Septimancce), 8 miles 
south-west of Valladolid, here crossed by a bridge 
over the Pisuerga, with a Castle, in which are kept 
the famous ArefHve* of Castile and Leon; some 
curious wills, inventories of Isabella's jewels, Ac; 
documents relating to the Invincible Armada; the 
original deed of capitulation at the taking of Gra- 
nada; the title deeds of the Duke of Wellington's 
estate, called El Soto de Roma; Isabella's last 
will; also that of Charles V. Note also the old 
chapel, with its roof, and a salon richly decorated 
by Berruguete. The Archives are open from 9 to 8. 

Diligence, or carriage, from Valladolid. 

The Inns at Simancas are bad. 

From Valladolid to Avila, 79J miles, through a 
poor, plain country, past Medina del CamjK) 
(Stat,), the Junction for Zamora and SaHmanca 
(Route 18X aad tor Se^via, the last 15 mlUs 
being more bfffy, to 

ATILA (Stat.) 

Population, 9,196. 

Hotels.— Fonda del Ingles ; Fonda Victoria. 
Buffet. Omnibus to the train. 

The ancient Abula, a city of Old Cagtlle, capital of 
the province, on the right bank of the Adaja, 8,484 
feet above the sea. It had formerly a flourishing 
University. There is some shooting to be had in 
the environs. 

Sig]lt8.^Gothic Cathedral: note the oholv 
stalls, the retablo, the relievos, fine painted glas*, 
pictures by Berruguete, Borgolia, Ac. Note alto 
the chapels of San Segundo, San Antoliu, tho 
CapiUa del Cardenal, and the Capilla Mayor con- 
taining the tomb of Tostado, Bishop of Avila, a 
celebrated scholar. Church of San Vicente, built 
in the beginning of the fourteenth century: this 
and the other churches are only interesting to 
students of ecclesiastical architecture. The 
Markets (mercados) ; some fine ancient Mansions. 
Cross the bridge at the lower end of the town, 
to the opposite hill, for a good point of view of 
the city walls and spires; visit the convents 
outside — as San Tomas, a Dominican convent, 
founded in the fifteenth century; note the coro, 
the sepulchre of Prince Juan, the monument to 
Juan DUvila (or d'Avila), and Velasquez, the 
paintings of Gallegos, and the. cloisters. Convento 
de las Madres; note the superb tombs and some 
paintings. Sta. Teresa was born here. In this 
neighbourhood, Henry IV. of Castile was 
solemnly deposed by the nobles, 14M, 

ConveyanoeS.— Rail to Madrid and Valladolid. 
Montemayor Baths are accessible from here. 
Diligence to Salamanca. A rail is being made. 

The line between Avila and Escorial is cut at 
great expense through the rocky granite range of 
Guadarrama, there being no less than 17 tunnels. 
The country is wild and picturesque. One neigh- 
bouring peak, that of Parameras, is 4,450 feet 
above the sea. 

B8GURIAL (Stat.), Spanish El EscoriaL 

Population (of the twoX 1,554. 

Inns.— Fonda de la. y\.'LR."a5cB».\ ^^'^^^^ ^'s.^*. 



[Section 1, 

should be made ttitm Madrid, 82 miles by rail. 
Omnibns from the station to the Tillage. Guide 
not neo«S8ary. 

Tbe Escurial, or ExoriaJ^ more properly 
San Lorenzo ei Real, is situated about half 
a league from the village; it was erected by 
Philip II., to commemorate the victory of 
St. Qnentin, gained by the Spanish over the 
French on the 10th August, 1657, the anniversary 
of St. Lawrence. The story that Philip, amid 
the roar of battle, offered a vow to the saint to 
build this edifice, and hence it was called San 
Lorenzo el Real, is totally incorrect, as he was not 
present. (See Cabrera's "Vida de Filipe II.*') 
The term Escorial is considered by some to be 
of Arabic origin, and to signify a place full of 
rocks. Others derive the word, with more proba- 
bility, from teorise (iron dross), from the great iron- 
works formerly in the vicinity. Its situation Is 
rocky and barren, devoid of all natural vegetation, 
and appears to have been chosen for the advantage 
of procuring stone. It was erected on tho site of 
a miserable convent, the chapel of which had once 
been a bed-chamber, and could boast no better 
altar-piece than a crucifix sketched in charcoal on 
the wall.* By a fantastical conception, in accord- 
ance with the ideas of the time, the ground plan 
was laid out in the form of a gridiron, because, 
according to the legend, that instrument had 
served at the martyrdom of the saint, a part 
(which forms the royal residence) advancing to 
form the handle, attached to a long rectangle, 
forming several courts and quadrangles.! It is 
well named by Thdophile Gautier "lugubre 
fanUlsie da triste fils de Charles Quint." 
This part of the building is 640 by 580 feet, and 
the average height tu the roof, 60 feet. 

At each angle is a square tower, 200 feet high. 
The plan is divided so as to form a convent -^rith 
cloisters, two colleges, three chapter-houses, three 
libraries, which are rich in Arabic, Hebrew, and 
Greek manuscripts, and adorned with frescoes by 
Carducho ; five great halls, six dormitories, tl rce 
halls in the hospital, with twenty-seven other 
halls for various purposes, nine refectories, ind 

• Porreno, p. 64. 
tTb« interii*r ii divided into » great number of aqvare 
fourtt, whose fSKvlw U&ep esU to miud the inten-ala1)«|ir«eD 
|h« ym of a p)<Ur9a (Mnq/v, in 9«m (hi ^mmM A 

five infirmaries, with apartments for artizans and 
mechanics. There are no less than eighty stair- 
cases. The gardens, which are extensive, and the 
parks formed by art, are decorated with fountains. 
The Monks of the Order of St. Jerome, for whom 
the monastery was erected, were 200 in number, 
and formerly had a revenue of £12,000 per annum. 
The stone of which the building is constructed is 
white, with dark grey spots. 

It was accidentally set on fire by lightning, 
20th October, 1872, and burnt to the extent of 
£80,000; but fortunately no pictures, books, or 
MSS. were damaged. The cost of restoring it was 
to have been defrayed by the ex-King Amadeo. 
This is the eighth fire which has threatened the 
pile since its foundation. 

There are 1,110 windows on the outside, and 
1,518 within. Of the former, 200 arc in the west 
front, and 366 in the east. Including the out- 
offices, there are not less than 4,000 windows. 
There are fourteen entrances or gateways and 
eighty-six fountains. 

The Palace contains vast galleries, ornamented 
with tapestry, and contains some pictures. One 
Saloon, called the ''Salade las Bat alias," is painted 
in fresco. The paintings, executed by Granello 
and Fabricis, represent different battles in which 
the Spaniards have been successful. Without, as 
within, the proportions of the royal residence con- 
trast strangely with the magnificent monaster^-. 
In the middle of tho immense square of the Escorial 
rises the superb GhUTCll, surmounted by a dome 
and two towers. It is approached from the side of 
the interior court by a staircase and a portico, 
above which are placed six colossal statues. The 
church is 374 feet long and 280 broad, and is divi- 
ded into seven aisles. The cupola rises to a height 
of 830 feet, and the interior is paved with 
black marble. In the church are forty chapels 
with their altars. The interior of the church is 
ornamented with marbles and paintings in frescoes. 
The altar is placed upon a raised stage. From the 
magnificent staircase, designed by Bergamasco the 
elder, you enter the chamber or tribune of Philip 
II., where the king died whilst they were saying 
masses for him at the altar. The cloisters have a 
double row of porticoes in granite one upon the 
other. In the palace and in tho church is a pro* 
fusion of gilded bronse w( rk And incmstations of 

Rout« 1.] 

marbles. Philip lY. added a beautiful MaUBO- 
letim, 86 feet in diameter, and incrusted with 
marble. The design of the mausoleum is in imita- 
tion of tJie Paiitlieon at Rome. It contains the 
remains of the sovereignis of Spain from Charles V. 
It was formerly rich in paintingfi, in vases of gold 
and silver, and other precious objects, placed In the 
principal sacristy. The monastery formerly con- 
tained the two chefdCoeuvres of Raphael, "La Vlerge 
aupolRson," and "La Vlerge ^ la perle." and also 
some of the finest pictures in the world. The three 
principal artists employed in the decorations of the 
Escorial were Italians, viz., Pompeyo Leoni, 
Giacomo Trezzo, and Benvenuto Cellini. The 
Spanish artists employed were Josef Frccha and 
Bautista Monegro. The high altar and the Royal 
monuments were executed by Leoni. Trezzo, from 
desigiis of Herrera, executed the superb Custodia 
(for which Arias Montanus wrote the Latin inscrip- 
tion), a domed temple, 16 feet high, of gilt bronze 
and agate, a work which cost him seven years' 
labour, and which was demolished in 1808, by the 
French troopers under Houssaye, its metals being 
mistaken for gold. The matchless marble crucifix 
behind the Prior' seat, in the choir, was sculptured 
at Florence, by Benvenuto Cellini, who presented 
it to the Grand Duke Cosmo I. The chaste wood- 
work of the choir and library was carved by Frecha. 
The indifferent colossal statues of Saint Lawrence 
(over the great portal), and the Hebrew Kings and 
Evangelists (in various external parts of the build- 
ing) were hewn each from a single block of granite, 
by Bautista and Monegro, both of them Spaniards 
and sculptors of repute. The total cost was 6,000,000 
piastres. Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell says, "the 
Escorial is probably the greatest architectural 
undertaking ever conceived and executed by one 
man. No Egyptian or Roman builder is recorded 
tojiavo completed a pile, of which the ^doors, like 
those of the Escorial, if we may credit Fray 
Francesco de los Santos, required l,2501bs. weight 
of iron to make their keys. Minutely to describe 
the Escorial in its palmy days, would be to 
review the elegant arts and manufactures of the 
age of Philip II., and to enumerate half the pro- 
ducts of his monarchy— the first that could vaunt 
that the sun never set on its shores. Italy was 
ransacked for pictures and statues, models and 
(}(»igns; the mountains of Sicily (Mid Sardinia 



for Jaspers acd agate; and every Sierra of Spain 
furnished Its contribution of marble. Madrid, 
Flor^ice, and Milan supplied the sculptures of the 
altars; Guadalajara and Cuenca, gratings and 
balconies; Znragoza, the gates of brass; Toledo 
and the Low Countries, lamps, cnndelabra, and 
bells; the New World, the finer woods; and the 
Indies, both East and West, the gold and gems of 
the Custodia and the five hundred reliquaries. The 
tapestries were wrought in Flemish looms; and fur 
the sacerdotal vestments, there was scarce a nun- 
nery in the Empire, from the rich and noble orders 
of Brabant and Lombardy to the poor sisterhoods 
of the ApuHan highlands, but sent an offcrhigof 
needlework to the honoured fathers of the Escorial." 
In spite of its colossal proportions, the building 
offers an aspect by no means imposing. M. de 
Custincs, in his "L'Espagne sous Ferdinand VII.,' 
says of it "le dedans est forteresse et palais, le 
dehors tient V hospital et de la caserne." The win • 
dows have been considered too small, and the pro- 
jections deficient in boldness, and it wants more 
reU|f and variety in the long gray facades. " There 
is,'^8ays Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell, " a monotonous 
sternness in the fronts of the Escorial. The grand 
front facing the mountain is somewhat varied by 
the imposing height of its central position, and by 
the state entrance; that which looks over the plain 
to Madrid is the most faulty of them, by being 
broken, yet not relieved by the palace, a mere 
excrescence inferior to the rest of the pile in 
elevation." According to some, this colossal edifice 
was commenced in the same year as the before- 
mentioned battle itself, and was finished in the 
succeeding ten years. According to others, how- 
ever, Bautista de Toledo laid the first stone on the 
2nd of April, 1563, more than five years after the 
battle, and superintended the works till his death 
in 1567; and the building was carried on, and the 
masonry finished, by his pupil, Juan de Ilerrera, 
in 1584. 

TheprincipalworksontheEscurial are "Descrip- 
cion del Monasterio y Palacio de San Lorenzo, Ac.,' * 
8vo, March, 1848; "Catalogue dcs manuscrits 
Grecs de la Biblloth^que de I'Escurial," par E. 
Miller, 4to, Par. 1848; Ponz, Viage x., tom II. ta; 
•' Descripcion Artistica," Par Damien Bermcjo, 
12mo, Madrid, 1820; Beckford's account of his 
promenade through tU^ Vi^^JWsSis*^ VN^<i«>j<sc*. %»««». 


PpMn.xxvI.). ronsultftlso "AnnMgof thcArtlnta,'" 
by Sir W. Htlrllii;r-Mnxwcll, Rvo., I^»d«»n, 1848, 
3 vols.; to whkh wc nrc Indebted for uiiith URcful 

(2 days) can be poated up to 6 p.m. Tel^nuns : 
Office In Calle Correo, 4d. per word to England. 
ClaXM, ftC. — Casino, Cullc Seyllla; Atoneo; 

information. For some curious details of ilic Vdoz (sportinp). Strangers Introduced by mem- 

Jisourlal, see "The Kscurial : or, tlmt w.nulerof the bcrs on payment of 16 pesetas a month. 

r-"*!"' .I"';'"";""': ""■' >•>»!""«■■-»« "f •'"•«• ■ Tram Cart (El TranrU) run everywhere. 
tare, ikc, truntUated into Kn«rlM» hv a servant 

of the Earl of Sandwich, la his extraor.linarv ^>rhi]KB.-One of the beat wines is that calM 

ombawy thither, I^,ndon, 1071. An excellent ^'«l<J*M><*n«; Aj-rat, Agna dcCcbada, andCorreia 

collection of riews of the Kscorial (12 in numl>er), ^^" ^*'"""' *™ P^*^*»«"' ■^"^*'' *^'^°^*- 

drawn and cngrarcd by Josef Uoniez de Navia, Climate.— Treacherous; cold winds mornlnff 

were published in 1800, at the Estamperia Real, *"d evening; hot sun during day. Good wrapi 

Ma«lrid. See also "Differentes veues dc I'Escu- needed. The wind from the Gaadarrainai 

rial," oblong 4t(», MadrM, 1C50. (10,000 ft.) are dangerous for invalids. Excellent 

The distance by rail is 82 miles; the Journey is ^''^^n^^nff ^«*"- ^est time: March 15th to Jane 

made In 14 hour. Four trains daily. ViUalba, ^^^^' October and November. Carnival time 

junction of the line to Segovia and Medina del' *'**o»'C8tJn»- 

Campo. Madrid is situated in the province of New Castile, 

MADRID (Btat ) ^"^^ ^' ^^^ capital of the kingdom, as declared by 

Population (1892), 480 825 Philip II., from being the supimsed centre of Spain 

Hotel«.--The best are in or near Puerta del Sol. ""'^ ^'^^^^^^^ (^hi«h he then held). It occupies the 

The best French Hotel is Hotel de la Paz, situated ""^ *"' ^^"^ ''"*'^''"* Carpetanorum, in the middle ag«a 

^n the finest part of the Puerta del Sol, kepWby <^«"oJ f'>;"'«'»- " *» !»«"* «" «>«>e sandy hills. 

J. Capdevlelle. Hotel de Ldndres. Hotel de Ru* le, T" . T^. the Manzanares, over which 

1st class, near Puerta del Sol. Hotels Santa Cruz; tl'^ejire four bridges. The country surrounding 

Orlcnte; UnlvenK); Cuatro Naclones; Leones de the city is almost a desert. 

Oro; de Madrid; de Ports; Peninsular; de Emba- ^^ cannot be considered a distinctively Spanish 

Jadores. Prices have advanced of late. The tariff city. The monuments and public buildings hare 

includes 2 meals per day, whether taken or not. nothing special about them, and the chief attrac- 

fmamm AArrt-,Am^^ju».^ ^ i ^ i *# i-ij tions are the grand Plcturc Gallery and the Royol 
Casas Cle HttMpedes, a name given in Madrid „, .... n *v x „* , 
and «♦!,«• «-..♦- ^/ P.V 1- * v^ I* 1 Palace, but more than all the great life and move- 
ana other parts of Spain to boarding-houses. . .' , , , . x .,: ^ .. ~ 

Tr« valla.. !«*»...«< A I 1 xu * XI meut in the wide streets, the madrilenos beiuK 

X ravellers intending to remain any length of time , , ,. , -,, .x . . . . 

in tKo /,o*>u.i /^- -* ««,. ^t *u« 1- * X lovers of the open air. The city is increasing, the 

in the capital (or at any of the large towns, as at , . , , - . ©i •«" 

Mai.o.\ «*ii a » —11 * * X * XI- water supply, formerly very dcBcient, is now 

Malaga) will do well to put up at one of these , , x ^u -i -x / *u * i -a 

hr>ii.A. ^...^ii..^ 11 XX .X.. abundant. The modem part of the citv is fine, 

nouses. Excellent and clean apartments, with , , , . ^ * i u. * x . . V 

hr^m^A.^A I i i j x* ,x ,« havlug good housos, and Straight strccts pavcd wlth 

hoard and service, may be had at from 5 to 10 pesetas x,, * ^ ,, ^ I^u t * . Lu r* -,, 

t%a..i.» A 1 1 x^ .., . , flint and lined with foot pavements. The Calle 

perday. As a rule, meals must be paid for whether .^ .... ,. .„. ...*h« « * ♦ .....*.;„ a.,„.„T:: 

taken or not. 

de Alcald is one of the finest streets in Spain, and 
is perhaps the only very fine street in Madrid. It 

Restaurants.— Los dos Clsnes; Hermann. leads to Puerta dc Alodla, under a unique trlum- 

Caf^S. — The best arc Fornos; Suizo; Ingles; phal Arch. The Puerta del Sol is a large open 
CerveceriaIngIcsa(goodEngllshbeer on draught); area, where eight of the principal streets meet, 
Levantc, 5, Puerta del Sol (English newspapers); and which is the centre of the city life An 
Dos Clsnes, 17, Alcald (excellent dinner at 5 electric light is placed here. The best shops are 
pesetas). in Calle Montera. The Calle de Toledo is the moit 

Baths.— Ba&os Arabas, Calle Velasquez, hot, Spanish-looking, and the Calle de San Bernardo 
cold, and awimmiug; Ba&os de Felipe Nori, contains the fincbt private houses. The Plaza de 
Uileres, 4. Orieute and the Plaza Ma^^rt fVlso the old Horer|S| 

Post 0ft09i-~CaU9 Carrels; letters to l^o^dvo should bp visited, 

Houte 1.] HADBID. S^ 

Madrid is the blrth-plftce of many kings of 

Spain, and many eminent men, among whom are 

Alonzo de Ercilla, Lopo do Vega, Cnlderon dc la 

^ xr„««, n^iinnfrss. the brothers 

Flemish, Dutch, German, and French schools in- 
elude, among others — ten by Wouvermans, sixty- 
two by Rubens, thirteen by Antonio Moro, twenty- 
one by Vandyke, forty-nine l»y Brcugliels, twcnty- 
^ ~ ~ =-=" — ^ — *'y Tenters, ten by 

' .n. 

j Uez arc— A sruliv- 

;■ , ano; St. Anthony 

I .-St Hermit; Do!\a 

leon of Philip IV., 
I stuff in his hand, 
the Corsair, in red 
(the Drunkards); 
landscape, garden, 

I arden, portico, and 

us at Rome; Land- 

nd a river; Don 

ke of Olivares, on 

ruins; Landscape, 

, fountains of the 

:juez ; LasMcninas, 

IV., in mature age; 

nfanta Dofia Mar- 

•hter of Philip IV., 

; ' uth, standing; An 

' illlp III. in armour; 

j tteen of Philip III., 

I sabella of Bourbon 

j tria at prayers, life 

n a cloak, standing ; 

in a ragged dress, 

arf, with a beard, in 

I place-hunter of the 

k dress ; The Infant 

ooting-dress, with a 

8 trimmed with red 

Sf in a green dross ; 

»ld armour; El Bobo 

'oila Isabel of Bour- 

, on a white palfrey; 

of Velasquez (bust), 

i.ilthazar. Prince of 

id Isabel of Bourbon, 

as, (.r tapestry manu- 

urrcndcr), of Breda; 

Girl, with chestnut 


Spain, xxTi.). Oonsultalso "Annalsof the Artists/' 
by Sir W. Stirling-Maxwell, 8vo., London, 1848, 
3 Tols.; to which we are indebted for mach useful 
information. For iQtaa^maaMiatt^^iatmMmmihi^tmi^^^ 

EsouriaL, sec '*Thc £« 
world for arcUitectar* 
Jture, Ac," translatec 
of tUo Earl of Sand 
embassy- thither, Lc 
.collection of riews of 
drawn and engraved 
were published in 18 
Madrid. See also '' 
rial," oblong 4to, Mad 

' The distance by rai 
made in 1^ hour. Fc 
Junction of the line 


Population (1892), 4 

H0tel8.--The best 
The best French Hote 
^n the finest part of ' 
J.Capderielle. Hotel 
1st class, near Pucrta 
Oriente; Uni verso; < 
Oro; de Madrid; do F 
Jadorcs. Prices have 
includes 2 meals per ( 


and other parts of 
Travellers intending t 
in the capital (or at ai 
Malaga) will do well 
houses. Excellent a 
board and service, ma; 
per day. As a rule, m( 
taken or not. 

RoBtaurants.— L( 

Caf^S.— The best I 
Cerveceria Inglcsa (go 
Levante, 6, Pucrta dc 
Dos Cisncs, 17, Ah 

BatlUk— Ba&os A I 
cold, and swimming 
Uileres, 4. 
-fl:v/ i?jff(V, —Ca/Jf 

(2 days) can be posted up to 6 p.m. Telegran: 

Office in Callc Correo, 4d. per word to England. 

Clubs, &C. — Casino, Ciillc Scvilla; Atone 

Botite 1-1 M. 

Kadrid li Ih« blnh-pUcc of mtMf klnga i 

Alonio da Erelll*. Lops d« Vegn, Cnlderan da 1 
Baru {^ed l«tl),Nun*i CoHanio. the b[oth« 
ValiHjuai.aBd Ciilniw. A itatce ot Cnldcrn 

N.B.— aslIeriH.Huuimii, ^,ire oTIen c7i»n 
«<■ iH( dayi. Ticket! For Ibe Hoieo, the AniUfr; 
NaTst. Engineering, uid Arch solsg leal Unuamf 
■re to be bsd Bt (he Lltrerlk de Ban Mulln 
Piitru del Sol, No. 8. 

Bl^ta.— Th« ItOT>l Palace, > maenlHcen 
bnlldlngr of tIiII* itonv, conildand Ut i>t one ot thi 
■not rojul naldmcei tn Eon^, Each fttmt tt 
no [»t Jon^. and 100 Irtt high, encloiing a conr 

ityle Df ooitly magnlllcence. On the »nth ildi 

world. (See page 
have 4 permiitt. 
enly in the abum 

App); te the olBce 

* by Spanlih BrlllH, 

It dlUrlhDled among 
MJKncl de Tobar, 

I ttoelai, Pedro Orrante, Franclaco 
ranclnco de Hlhalta. Jnan PnreJ«, 

Coolie, Juan 8a i 
PHoda, Joan d 

i Lopes, Dom 

Flomleh. Dotch, Geiman. and Frenoh Kliwili In- 

tno by It Dbeni, thirteen by AnlonluMoru. twenty 
LMie by Vai^dyko, rutty-nlne by Brcuj^hels, twenly- 
Ihree by Bnydeti, fifty-three byTeiitcr\ ten by 
Clando, aiid IwelTe by S. PouaMln. 
Amonglheirorloof TelMqueiate— Aai-nlp- 

Vncen el Thlllp IV.. 

chef Uttia at Rome; Land 

.bay be 

iir theHaldt of Honoar ; Philip IV., In matoTO age i 
The Forge of Vnlcnn^ The Infanta Doha Har- 
farlta Haria of Attilria. danghter of Philip IV., 
standing ; Philip IV. In hl> yonth. Handing ; An 

Dolta Margarita of Anttrla. tincen ol Philip III., 
on a piebald horic; Qnoen lubella of Bonrbon 
(but); Queen Mariana of Anuria at prayen. lUa 
<lic; Manlppna,aii01dMaiilnacloak,iitndlng| 

rf; Eaoi 

jibbon.; El NiBo de V 
lie Cana, a laaghlng Idl 

a In 

nmod with ltd 
laour; E] Bubo 

Jnana Pacbcco, vrlfe of Velasquez (buat), 
lie! the Infant Don Balthaisr, Frlnce of 
lu, >on of PtiUlp IV. and liabel ot Boarbon, 

:ndro de Laniaa {the anrrender), of Dredd; 
ryi Lull de Qosgorl; Glil, wltli choslnut 
plaltad <.hiittVVSit«.\joi\»i.VCv,w?i^«K»^T***'^ 

«i\ « Mi.T.^i«»-, ■%»«iw™-'«»«'* 

bkambaw'b trux axd romroaih. 


CroM! Uiri. 

naked flgoK, H>l>d 


Amoiis t 

« paliilinn » 

ttlrtUO, aro-HolT 

Family, del 

PuarltDi On 

Lord iB hi. Childhood, 

John Ihe BaptlW *> ■ 

ehild, Willi 

aUiubi th<,C 

Ln PorciiilicuU— Chilit,lh 


n of Our Lml) 

Oar Lady ol the !m- 

Marjr Magdaleno,lna 

c.«mi Ob 

nith (homi (a bold) ( 

Onr Ltiy 

Ferdinand, •naed :md 

rQl»d, nl p 

cKco do Paula In bli 

lliien robe^ 

.taff; Sl-Franciicodo 

P«nl«. lull 


Odt Lord 

ai a Child, a 

leep .m a Croii; th. 


ot 81. Andrew 

he ApoMlc, at Patra. 

81. Jerorat, 

n porplB dm 


IhD doieil 

ApoMUi Adoration ot 

tho Sl,(!|,hO 

rd.; 0<ir Lord 

andSl. JohnlhoBep 

liit—thc R 

.1 giving Ih. 

■econd wiler onl of a 

[SmUod 1. 

Th* paiDtlBfa bj Am /m*m ub— VI>U of 
Sanu iHbel tEUtabeth) to the Tlrtln ; Dtaih oT 
; Chrlit beuing Iba 
Crou; PoTtiilt otCaitelil; Lite *ad Kartycdoio 
. Stephen; The Laat Bapper^ JeiDi on th* 
WonDIi Deicent trom Ihe Groii, 

^lell. and thcretoie known ai "Loi Nlfloi i 
(juncka," Ihe children of Ihe •hell; Behecca 
Ihe Maldoni meeting Ellazeri Four iketchi 
Ihe Prodigal Sou; tbe Head nt Si . Paol ; Ihel 
of St. John the Baptist, on a Cliargoi ; the Coi 
tlon; at, AngngllDO; Onr Lady ot Ihe Imraac 
Coneepllon; Onr Ladv wllh the li^ant SarlD 
her Up: OurLady ollhe ImmacnlalBCmcep 
Koeky Danki of a River, and Figures: I' 
«eape-a lake amongit mgged hUK with i 
h.illdlngi on Iti bank); Santa Ana toactaliig 
Virgin 10 read ; Ban Bernardo fed nlth the 

hands claiped; OldWoman Sji 

nlngwltha Die 
Toledo, InTeiled 
bihehvlychuubleby llurLaily, lnlhcCa■he- 
1: Oar Lady of the Koaat}-, with the Infant 
■lour on hor knaea ; St Jerome In the Deitrt. 
niong llio work, of RllMn are-Martndom 
i. Barthotomew; a Virgin: the Uartyrdoni of 
ateiiheni the Hermit Hi. I'aul i J atob'a Ladder; 
motheni \'lnctiu; tho Martyrdom of Bt Sebaa- 
i; the Trinity; aMagdalen; St. Jerose: El 
(fodeOambaio.a blind acnlptor; SI. Jerome; 
JoHph and Ihe Infant Sa>loDr; Ixlon on the 

and Sar 

by Cano; UoHi Striking the Rock, br 
Roelas; a Dead Chrlit, by Rlballa: Vlilon of Collantci: St. Bernard, by Palomlnoi 
Don Ca^lo^ aoo of Pblllp II., by Coello; laabal, 
daughter of Philip II„ by ditto; Virgin and Child, 
by MoralDi : Virgin and Salntt. by Bhia del Pardo; 
Birth of tho Vlrglo, by Pantoja; Birth of onr 
Havlour, by ditto; Margaret, wife of Philip III, 
byPantoJn; aBt. Jerome, by Cano; Fhlllp II., in 
adraneed age, by Pantoja: Santa CaiUda, by 
Znrbaran; Virgin and ChrlBl, hy Cano; Baptism 
of NaTarrete; (Sleeping Cbilil: Por- 
trait ot Cherlei II., by CarreBo; a Dead Chrlit, 
by TheotoeopnII. Laat, nal Uail, Baphael'i Sne 

The muienm o( PIctniee Is open to the pnbllc on 
Sundayt, and to (orelgnert every day In Ihe waek, 
10 to Z, The &^plura can be seen on Monday. 

lA OalerU KAMtmda, containing three 
Titian^ a Tintoretto, and loiiie coplet from Cor- 
reggio; aiM tome Jewelled plate, eupi, *c., of the 
clnqne-eenlo period, by Cellini and otben. The 
•cntptnre gallery la below. The best works are 
those of Sala and Alvarez. There are alao soma 

Uadraio, Madrid, ISIS, Svo. ColKcion LlIograBca 
de cnadroi del Key de EapaDa el Bellor Don Fer- 
nando IV.. que le coniervaa en lus realel 
palaclos. Acidemia de Ban Fernando, con In- 
clBtlon de lot del real monastarlo del Eicurlal, 
Madrid, IBM. El Real Mntao de Don Mariano 
Lopei Ainado, Madrid, ISU. A chapter by M. 
Vlardol on the Museum of Madrid, ^tudot >ar 
I'hlitolre del liutltatlont de U Utt«ralurc. dn 
tMUre et del b«au-arta en Espague. Par. IBIlf, 
Catnlogode loactudroi qne eiliten colocadoi fit 
El RmI HliaM <l« c'''tBni del Pudq, Hadrlll, 

Route 1.] 





I8M. Notlila de lot euadroi que lo h«llAn coloca- 
doi en la galerta del Museo del Rey, ilto on el Pardo 
de esta corto, Madrid, 1828. 

Muieo Naolonal (in the Calle de Atooha), a 
new muieum opened by Espartero, on the anni- 
Teraary of the 3nd May, 1842, and named from 
the auppreBsod convent in which it has been 
formed. It contains a large number of pictures, 
•ome of which are worthy of inspection. Koto 
a Cruciaxton, by £1 Qreco; the Miracle of 
Manna, by Hcrrera tho Elder; a portrait of 
Melmdez, by himself; several pictures ropre- 
MOting the lifo of St. Bruno, by Carducho; 
Charles II., byCarrcflo; a Coiicepcion, by Spag- 
noletto; a portrait by Rubens; the Abbot Socinas, 
byCamiUo; several pictures representing the life 
of the Saviour, by I). Correa. Note also a (Ino 
•tatue of San Bruno, by Peroyra; and tho carvings 
by Rafael de Leon. 


The boat collections of paintings and drawings 
are those of tho Infanto Don Sebastian, Calle de 
Alcala, containing about 600 works, Titian's 
Woman taken in Adultery Murillo's Poreiuncula^ 
a picture of St. Francis d'Assisi, woU known for 
Its eventful history, formerly in the Museo 
Nacional, others by Greco, Salvator Rosa, Gor- 
reg^io, Ac.; gallory of the Duke de Medina Cell; 
of the Duke de Sossa, with flno Snj-dcrs and heads 
by Rubens ; and thot of Don Vicente Carderara, 
Paerta de las Cortos (drawings). 

San Fernando (tho Roynl Academy), in tho 
Calle de Alcalif, contains a collection of natural 
history, and about 800 paintings, a few of which are 
food ones. Among these aro a Christ before 
Pllato, and a Picti(, by Morales; a Christ in 
Purple, ond a Christ CruciAed, by Cano; Figures 
of Monks, by Zurbaran. By Murillo, a Rosur- 
rec ion of our Ix>rd; Elizabeth of Hungary, 
Duchess uf Thuringia, tending tho sick in her hos- 
piul (it Is called El Tindso, or the Scabby); tho 
Dream of tho Roman Sonotor and his Wife, which 
produced tlio Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, at 
Rome; and tho Roman Senator and his Wife 
telling their Dreams to Pope Liberlus; two fine 
pictures. St. Jerome, a::d St. John Baptist's Head, 
by Rtbora ; and some by Moya. The museum con- 
mns bronzes by I^cou Loonland Pedro Tacca; and 
(m\\)o ground floor fB a coltcctiou of plas^cr-caita by 

Mengs. Tho Cabinet of Natural Science! (Gabi- 
neto de Ciencias Naturales), which ocouples eight 
rooms of the museum, contains a fine collection of 
Spanish marbles and minerals. Note especially a 
nugget of silver, weighing 260 pounds ; and one of 
copper of 200 pounds; also a loadstone (piodra 
iman) supporting 60 pounds. 

The animal department contains tho interesting 
skeleton of the Megatherium, found near Buenos 
Ay res, and doscrlbod by Cuvior; and another fossil 
monster, discovered in tho vicinity of Msdritl, 
20 foot below the surface. There are also some 
Chinese, Indian, Moorish, and South AmorlQaa 

Tho Palacio de Xlfre, on the Prado, opposite 
the Museo, in the Oriental style, full of bright 
colour, should be specially noted. 

Mateo ArqueolOfiOO, Calle Rmbajadores, Is 
worth a visit. 

Public BuUdlnaa— Congreso de los Diputados 
on the Plaza de las Cories, scarcely worihy of a 

San Fernando (tho National Bank), Calle de la 
Montera. Tho notes of this bank do not circulate 
outside Madrid. 

La Casa de Monoda, or Mint, in the Paseo de 
Recoletoi. This avenue contains several other 
handsome buildings, residences of the nobility. 

Deposito Hidrograflco, founded by Charles III. 
Library, with a collection of nautical Instruments. 
Biblioteca Nacional, on the Plasa del Oriente, 
containing 280,000 volumes. The works on topo< 
graphy and theology are important. There are 
also some valuable MSS.; some antiquities; a rare 
collection of coins and medals, and specimens of 
Gothic, Moorish, and native Mints (open from 
10 till 8). La Imprcnta Nacional, in the Cnlle del 
CId. Ministerio de Hacienda (Agriculture), and 
Museo de Historia Natural, both in Calle de 
AlcaU. Casa de Ayuntamionto (Town Hall), built 
in tho sixteenth century. La Casa del Saladero 
(the city prison), near tho gate of Santa Barbara. 
Las Recogidas, the house of correction for women, 
in the Calle do Hortalise; it is also called Santa 
Maria Magdalcna. The Govtrnmont Toba0eo Fo^ 
tory, employing about 1,800 hands. 

Ohurchei. — The city C((»\V«5ab.x iSa^-^iia- 



men and thirty-two for wt>men. Some of these 
hnve since been polled down, either to widen the 
streets or to form squares ; others have been con- 
Terted into barracks, hospitals, magazines, and 
government offices. Among those most worthy of 
a visit are Santo Domingo cl Real, founded In 
1217; note the portal and choir, the woric of 
ilerrera, also the effigy of Don Pedro; San Marcos, 
In the Calle de San Leonardo; San Ildcfonso, 
built on the site of the church destroyed by the 
French; Santa Maria dc la Almudena, once a 
Moorish Mosque; it contains a San Isidro, by 
Cano, and the chapel of the Bozmedianos is worthy 
of inspection; San Gincs, in the Callc del Arenal, 
built about 1358, contains a Christ stripped, by 
Cano, and the Paso dc Santo Cristo, by Vergas. 
In the Boveda or crypt the devout are wont to whip 
themselves in Lent. San Isidro, formerly belonging 
to the Jesuits, has Mengs' large painting of the 
Trinity. Descaltas Reales (conrent of), in the 
Plaia of the same name : note the Retablo of the 
high altar, by Becerra, and the effigy of the founder, 
Juana, daughter of Charles If., by P. Lconi. Las 
Sal e8asyieja8,avery considerable nunnery,fonnded 
by Ferdinand VI., and his wife Barbara. It is a fine 
building, and the interior, of the church is orna- 
mented with the richest marbles. The high altar 
is very grand; note also the tombs of the King 
and Queen, by Qutierrez ; also the fa9ade of the 
Palacio. Convent o/Atochti, near the Puerta de 
Atooha, founded in 1628. In the chapel is a very 
ancient image of the Yirgiu. Tombs of Palafox, 
Narvaez, Prim, &c. Convent of San Geronimo, 
near the Pelota Gate, half a ruin, but worthy of 
k visit. San Francisco el Grande, the finest in 
Madrid; restored at a cost of £300,000; magni- 
fieent paintings; old carving. 

Hospltalfl.— La Inclusa (the foundling hospi- 
tal), in the Calle de los Embajadores. HoapitcU 
de San Fernando, in the Calle de Fuencarral, founded 
in 1688, for poor persons of both sexes; a great 
building, with an ornamental front by P. Ribera, 
styled "Churrlgueresque" for its extravagance. 
Hospital de San Antonio, Corrcdera de San Pablo, 
founded in 1606. The chapel has some good 
frescoes, by Rizzi and others. It contains a Santa 
Engracia aii4 a Santa Isabel, painted by Cuzes, 
^^^ j^ji/ue of Jts salntf hj Pereyr&. El General, 

[Section 1. 

Calle de Atocha, founded by Philip W., in 1582. 
El Cotegio de San Carios, founded by Charles III., 
in 1783, adjoining the last. It contains an ana- 
tomical museum, and many wax i^reparations. 

La Armerla, in front of the south side of tlie 
Palace. This gallery was built by Gaspar de la 
Vega, and is 227 feet long by 36 wide. It contains 
some of the most beautiful specimens of armour 
(especially of the cinque-cento period) in Europe. 
There are several complete suits of armour which 
formerly belonged to Ferdinand V., Charles V., 
Juan de Austria, Garcia de Paredes, and other 
illustrious Spaniards. Trie most interesting of all, 
perhaps, is a coat of mail with the name and arms 
of Isabella upon It, which she is said to have worn 
in the campaigns against the Moors. It contains 
the best arsenal in Spain, and is said to possess the 
finest collection of historical swwds in the world, 
among -which are those of St. Ferdinand, the con- 
queror of SoTillo, Ac., Philip II., and Charles V., 
Garcia de Paredes (double-handed), and of Gonzalo 
de Cdrdova. The finest armour is of German 
and Italian origin. Note Ihatof Philipof Burgundy, 
and of Philip II.; also those supposed to have been 
worn by the Cid. The gallery is open daily between 
ten and three free to foreigners with passports. 

EnglislL Ghurch Service, at the Embassy, 
Calle Leganitos. Chaplain— Rev. R. H. Whereat, 
M.A. There are now several Chapels for Spanish 
Protestant Services, attended by 4,000 persons, 
represented by a Synod at Madrid. Protestantism 
is protected by the State. A Biahop-Elect is 
nominated by the Spanish Protestant Aid Society. 

Theatres. — The Opera (T. Real); Teatrd 
EsiMtfiol, for Spanish drama, Calle del Principe; 
Toatro de la Zarzuela, for comedies, farces, and 
dancing; La Comodia, Calle del Principe ; Teatro 
y Circo del Principe, Paseo de Recoletos; Apolo, 
in Calle de Alcala; Las Variedados, in the Calle 
deMagdalena; Princesa; Lara; English Circus. 

Jardin BotaniCO, near the Museo. It was 
founded by Charles III , in 1781. 

Among the Public Promenades are, the Prado, 
with its continuation, the Castellana, 2| milos long, 
on the cast side, with several fountains. Adjoining 
the Prado is the Buen Retiro, a beautiful garden, 
with theatre, Ac. Another favourite promenade is 
a vast plantation outside ii\t Pt^ertf^ de At^cf^a. 


fKtll Figbta are usually held every Monday 
during the summer in the Plaza de Toros, and 
•re frequented by most classes of the population, 
diiefly by young men, and are doubtless unfavour- 
able In their influence on Spanish society. They 
last from Easter Day to the end of October. 
The office for tickets is in the Calle de Alcaltf. An 
early apjriication is necessary to ensure good seats. 
These bull fights, though inferior to those of Seville, 
are at times very full of excitement and danger. 
The ring, unlike that of Seville, has no screens for 
the men to run behind, and escape from the charges 
of the bulls ; consequently the former leap the bar- 
riers, and at times arc followed by the bulls. The 
death of Peplto, the veteran matador, is still fresh 
in the public recollection. 


Post Office.— When a letter directed "Poste 
Restante, Madrid," is applied for, the traveller 
should first examine the daily list of letters, 
which is posted in a prominent place in the post 
office. Letters not properly addressed are placarded 
on a list; and those not sufficiently prepaid are 
returned to the country they came from. Letters 
to France or England are received up to 6 p.m. at 
the post office, and up to 7 with a sello de alcanee. 
Postage stamps (sellos) can bo purchased at all 
tobacco shops, as in Paris. 

DlUgenoes.— The principal diligence offices arc 
to be found in Calle do Alcalit, Calle del Correo, 
Calle de la Victoria and Calle del Fuentes. 

£ailway8.-Station for the Northern Rail, Paseo 
do San Vicente; that for Saragossa, Aranjuez, 
and Alicante, east, south, and west of Spain, out- 
side the Puorta de Atocha. For departures, dsc, sec 
Bradskaufa Continental Ouide. Tickets can be taken 
and luggage registered at Railway Offices in the 
centre of Madrid. For Northern Line, Puerta 
del Sol; Southern Lines and Barcelona, Calle 
Alcala 2 ; Portugal and Toledo, Calle Victoria 3. 
Sleeping-car office under Hotel de Paris. All close 
to Puerta del Sol. Through tickets are issued at the 
Madrilena office, at Madrid, to Cadiz and the in- 
termediate places; also for Granada; but travellers 
complain that having taken first-class tickets at 
Madrid, on arriving at the railway station these 
tickets have been repudiated by the railway officials, 
who alleged that the Madrilena company hUd onVv 

been compelled to pay the difference before they 
were allowed to enter the train. 

There is now direct railway communication with 
Gibraltar by way of Alcazar, Cordova, Doba- 
dilla, Konda, and Algcciras. 

Steamers. — Vapores-Corrcos of the Ibarra 
Compafiia leave Alicante for Barcelona and Mar- 
seilles ; and for Malaga, Valencia, Ac. See Steamer 
List, BradsJiatc's Continental Ouide. 

Distances.— Madrid is about 680 miles south- 
south-west of Paris, and 265 miles cast-north-enst 
of Lisbon. By road the journey to Lisbon, via 
Talavera de la Reyna, Almaraz, Trujillo, Mcrida, 
and Badajoz, is about 103 leagues (411 miles by 
rail); to Badajoz, 69 ditto (816 by rail); to Granada, 
by Aranjuez, Tembleque,Valdepena8, Baylcn, An- 
dujar, and Jacn, 71J ditto; to Malaga, byAndujar, 
Luccna, and Antequera,78J ditto(294 miles by rail); 
to Cordova, byAndujar, Aldca del Rio, Carpio, and 
Cortijo, 64^ ditto. To Bayonne, via the old dili- 
gence road, by Guadalajara, Almazan, Pamplona, 
and Roncesvalles, is82f ditto (415 miles by rail). 

For Works on Madrid, consult Laborde's 
"View of Spain," vol. ill.; "Viaje Artistico de 
Espafla," vol. ill.; "Grandeza de Madrid," by 
Quintana ; and especially " Manual de Madrid," by 
Mesonero. Purchase also "El Indlcador de los 
Caminos de Hlerro," Madrid; Cervantes, 16, 
Principal, or at the Despacho de los f erro-carrilcs, 
Calle de AlcaU, 80; also at the Despacho delos 
fcrro-carriles del Norte, Puorta del Sol. 

EX(nir8ions.— In the environs of Madrid are 
the royal residences of La Casa del Campo, 
Moncloa, and Zarzuela. La Alameda Is a charm- 
ing villa, on the road to Guadalajara, with grounds 
well laid out. A visit should also be made by coach 
to El PardO, a shooting box on the Manzanaros, 
among gardens and forests, about 7^ miles from 
Madrid, built by Charles V. The Royal apart- 
ments are fine; ceilings in fresco by Bibera 
andGalvez; fine tapestry and glass chandeliers; 
In the retablo of the oratory is a copy of Christ 
bearing the Cross, by Francisco de Rlbalta. 
Tepes may be visited from VilIase<xtLllle.N«.^v^i«^»^ 

on the line f toxa kx^s^xs*.-!. \.^'^^'*Sk»- x\.n»^^ '^ 
paid them for sfiQond Qli^B tickets, una tbey ^a^^ \ ^\\w\^ ^wtV^«^ %5wss'5> ^Xc* '^'*^'«'^ 




[Section 1. 

cart; it is pleasantly situated on the table-land 
between Ocafla and Toledo, amidst corn-fields and 
olives, and Tlneyards, of wtiich the white wine is 
famous among the harsh vintag^es of Castile. It is 
a picturesque old town, with towered gates and a 
quaint market place, and houses resting on wooden 
arcades. The Posada del Sol, at the comer of the 
Plaza, is neat and 

Sights. — '^A Greco-Roman church still standing 
entire, with heavy towers, and rich internal 
decorations. Rctablo of hi^h altar, an elegant 
structure of the four orders, richly gilt, and adorned 
with wooden statues. In each of its throe storeys 
arc placed two large compjsitlons of Tristan, 
illustrating passages in the life of the Saviour. 
Of these, the lower pair, are the 'Adoration of 
the Shepherd,' 'Adoration of the Kings; ' the 2nd, 
Christ at the Column,* ' Christ Iicaring His Cross;* 
the 8rd, * The Resurrection,' and * Ascension.' The 
altar also contains eight half-length pictures by the 
same artist, of various saints, of which San 
Sebastian is perhaps the lest; ami on the pillars 
of the aisle, nearest to the high nltar, hang two 
mitred saints, which arc probably the work of the 
same pencil. These paintings are fine monuments 
of the genius of Tristan."— .S/r W. Stirling. 

Excursions may also be made to the Escnrial, 
Aranjuez, and Toledo. Each of the two first will 
occupy a day, and will be found under other routes. 
They may all be reached by rail. 

Trains to the Escurial in 1^ hour to 2| hours; 
to Aranjuez (30^ miles) in about 2 hours. 

Bayonne to Madrid, by Pamplona and 

Railways.— Coming from Bayonne, the line to 
Pamplona turns off at Alffasna (Route 1) The 
ordinary trains from Alsasua to Saragossa take 
10 hours, and from Saragossa to Madrid about 15 
hours. The express from Saragossa takes 10 hours. 
The train from Alsasua to Saragossa starts about 

PAMPLONA (Stat) or Pampeluna. 

Population (1887), 25,630. 

HOtOlS.— Fonda deEuropa; El Parador General 
- 4e las Diiigencias ; La Pcrla. 

T//0 oJd J^MjDeiopoJis, a fortified town, capital of 
r^0 J'/vrfffce pf ^'ararrc. oa the Arga. It wtis J 

taken from the Moors by Charlemagne in 788, and 
made capital of Navarre ki 860. It was taken by 
the French in 1808, who surrendered it to the Duke 
of Wellington on the 28th July, 1818. It has a 
celebrated annual fair in June; a brisk trade with 
France in silk and wool; and manufactures of 
leather, woollens, and paper. 

Sights.— Oothic Cathedral, built in the four- 
teenth century, by Charles the Noble. Notice the 
tombs of Carlos el Noble and his Queen Leonor, 
and of the Count of Gajes; also the chapel of Igna- 
tius Loyola, and the refectory and kitchen of 
the Canons. The choir-stalls are finely carved. 
The iK>rtal(1788) is good, but does not harmonise 
with the rest. The Citadel, commanding a fine 
view of the Pyrenees. Plaza del Castillo, a splendid 
square. Bull-fights, July and August. Casa de la 
Diputacion contains a few pictures. Splendid 
Aqueduct. Fine Theatre. The Market Place. 
Several public Fountains. Amongst other fine 
promenades, that called La Taconera. Trinquete 
(tennis court). Tennis, c&lled juego de pelota^ is a 
favourite diversion of the Navarrese. 

Pamplona has always been noted for its Carlist 
proclivities, and Estrella, a former residence of 
Dpn Curios, is not many miles distant, on the road 
to LogroR J. The city is styled " muy noble y muy 


Conveyances.— Rail to Tudela, Alagon, Sara- 
gossa, Lerida, and Barcelona ; to Alagon, Jadraque, 
Guadalajara, and Madrid; to Logrofio and Miranda. 

The high road from Pamplona to Saragossa passes 
through Tafalla, Yaltierra, and Tudela; nearly 
following the rail. That to Logrofio, through 
Pnentede la Reina, Estella, Los Arcos, and Viana; 
that to Tolosa, through Lecumberri and Aribca; 
that to Irun, by Ostiz, Latasa, San Esteban, and 
Vera; that to Bayonne, by Ostiz, Lanz, Elizondo, 
Maya, and Urdase. France may be also reached, 
via road, by Zubiri, Roncesvalles, Valcarlos, and 
St. Jean Pied du Port (14| leagues). In the Pyrenees. 

The line from Pamplona to Tudela passes 

Castejon (Stat.), the junction with the line for 

Miranda; whence diligences run to the Baths of 

Fitero (in a deep glen) and Orabahs. Castejon to 

Tudela, 11 miles. 

TUDELA (Stat.) 

HoW*~~'^o^^<^ ^^ Cat&vaca. 

Hottte 2.J 



Omnibus from tlio station, SO centlmos. 

The ancient Tutela, province of Navarre, on the 
Ebro, liere crossed by a stone bridge of 17 arclies. 
It was taken from the Moors by Aionzo I., at the 
commencement of the twelfth century. On the 
23rd November, 1808, tlie French gained here a 
complete victory over the Spaniards. There are 
manufactories of coarse woollens, hair fabrics, 
soap, tiles, bricks, and earthenware. 

Sights. — A fine cathedral; note the tomb of 
Blanche of Castile, Queen of Peter the Cruel ; also 
the curious cloister. Several churches, conyeiits, 
hospitals, Latin and medical schools, &c. ; remains 
of ancient fortifications. Boca del Rey, or 
entrance of the Canal of Aragon, a fine work, 
begun by Charles V. A dam of masonry across 
the Jalon, near the Ebro, 500ft. broad, was finished 
in 1784. Benjamin of Tudela, a celebrated Jewish 
traveller of the 14th century, was a native. 

Conyejrances. — Rail to Pamplona, Saragossa, 
and Madrid. Kail to Tarazona and diligence to 
Fitero Baths. 

The high road to Saragossa (following the rail), 
runs by Cortes, Pedrola, Caballas, and Alagon ; 
that to Aranda, by Tarazona, Agreda, Soria, Osma, 
and Padecondos; that to Logroflo (following the 
rail), by Alfaro, Calahorra, and VcntadeTamariccs. 
(Sea Route 17.) 

Distance : 48 miles north-west of Saragossa by 

ALAOON (Stat) 

PoptUation, about 2,000. 

Is situated near the confluence of the Ebro and 
the Jalon, in the province, and 15 miles north-west 
of the city of Saragossa. It has a large annual fair 
in September. 

The time taken up between Alagon and Sara- 
gossa, is about li hour. 

At Las Casdtas, 8{ miles from Saragossa, i^ 
the junction for Madrid. A stay of about 25 
minutes is made licre. 

SARAGOSSA (Stat.), the Spanish ZaragOZa. 

Population (1887), 92,407. 

Hotels.— Hotel de las Cuatro Kaciones y del 
Uiiiverso; Fonda de Europa. 

Caf^— Suizo, Constancia. 

The ancient Ccetarea Augusta^ a very anclont 

The ancient Caesai'ea Augusta, a very anclont \ avw \\v^ "EX^xq. ^^sssawtwv.% ^'w»^sg«' ^^ ^ 
towD, on the Ebro, by which it is divided Into tivo \ t«m«i\».v woa <A ^>oX^\v^'^^^*«°^ ^^"^ 

portions, connected by a fine Stond bridge. Prerlona 
to its disasters in 180S-9, its churches were the 
most magnificent in the kingdom. Its manufac- 
tures have much declined, but it has a considerable 
trade in wine, Ac. It was taken by the French in 
January, 1809, after a siege of eight months, 
memorable for a defence reckoned among the most 
heroic of modem times. 

Sights.— The Cathedral (called the Seo, i.e., the 
Sec or Cathedral Church), in the Gothic style; 
note the great Moorish portals, the Mosaic work by 
Donatelo ; the retablo of the high altar, the Gothic 
choir, the cupola (cimborio), the tabernacle with 
its black and white pillars, the carving in the 
chapel of Saint Bernard, the Resurrection in Ala- 
baster, by Becerra, the Sacristia and Custodia; the 
pictures of Juan Galvan, in the Capilla del Naci- 
miento, also the retablo; the paintings by Ribera 
and Zurbaran, in the Sala Capitular; note also 
the fine marbles. The Cathedral Church of Seftora 
del Pilar, celebrated all over Spain forits sanctuary, 
which attracts many pilgrims; note the coroand 
siileria, also the high altar of alabaster, containing 
the Assumption of the Virgin; the Capilla del 
Pilar, with its pavement of superb marbles, the 
retablo with some good medallions; note also the 
Sagrario and Sacristia, with their relics. Church 
of Santiago (or St James), containing some relics 
and antiquities. Church of San Pablo, of the 
thirteenth century ; note the facade, the high altar, 
the Tomb of Diego de Monreal, and the cupola 
painted by Secano. 

The University, founded in 1474, ranking third 
in the kingdom, had, in 1841, 1,400 students, but 
at present has only about 800. Musco Nacional, 
in an ancient convent, scarcely worthy of a visit. 
Plateria. The Hospital, called El General, one of 
the most extensive in Spain. La Casa de Mlseri- 
cordia, another large hospital and house for the 
poor. Torre Nueva, a curious leaning tower, from 
which an extensive view may be had. The CitadH^ 
called Aljaferia, outside the north-west gate, called 
El Poftillo; note the fine staircase, the chamber 
where Santa Isabel of Hungary was bom, in 1271 ; 
the fine roof, and the gallery. The Aragon Canal, 
connecting Saragossa with Tudela, projected in. 
1628. Plaza de Tqtq^. '^■^.-igcCv'QRAsoSv. '«x.^sc«»^«ijesS!ise«k 



the Puerta del Sol. The gates, called La Ceneja 
and Toledo. Many picturesque houses, well worthy 
the attention of the atchitect, especially those in 
the Calle de San Fedro, the Calle de Santa Maria 
Mayor, and the Calle del Coso. The best public 
Promenade is the Pasco de Santa En^acia. 
Visit Torero, whence there is a good prospect, and 
Casa Blanca. 

To the west of it is Moxioayo, the Boman Mons 
Caivia^ St,600 feet above sea; near the source of 
the Douro, with a view of the Pyrenees, 110 miles 
distant. It is reached vid Tudcla and Tarazona; 
from which it is 5 hours to the top. 

Conveyances.— Rail to Pamplona (111 miles), 
in b\ hoars. To Lerida and Barcelona (226 miles), 
in lOf hours to llj hours. To Teruol, by Daroca, 
Torrcmocha, and Villarquemado ; thence to Va- 
lencia, through Puebla de Valrerdc, Sarrion,AlTcn- 
tosa, Barracas, Segorbe, and Murviedro. A rail- 
way is in progress in this direction, and is open as 
fi^r a } Carifiena, 28| miles. A line is open down 
the Ebro, past £1 Burgo de Ebro, to Fina, La 

Zaida, and Puebla de Hijar, 44 miles. A 

railway open past Huesca to Jaca is in course of 
construction to Ganfranc, and will communicate 
by a tunnel through the Pyrenees, 2^ miles long, 
at Somport, with the South of France (Midi) line 
at Oloron, and thus shorten the route from Paris 
to Madrid. 

In about 2| (express) to 4ft hours (ordinary) 
from Saragossa the train reaches Calatayud, 
passing Las Casetas (page 29) and Ricla. 


Population, 11,512. 

HoteL—Parador de las Diligencias. Buffet. 

The ancient Bilbilis, and a Moorish town, on 
the left bank of the Jalon. It is dilapidated and 
dull, but the vicinity is fertile. It has a celebrated 
annual fair, on the 8th September, and in the 
neighbourhood are some mineral springs (Para- 
cuellos) and stalactitic caverns. It is the birth- 
place of Martial. The present name is derived 
from Kalat'Ayub^ the "Castlcof Ayub," i.e. <Jf Job, 
nephew of Musa. 

S^htB.— Church of Santo Scpulcro, which 
originally belonged to the Templars. Church of 
Santa Maria, anciently a mosque note the beau- 
MhU portal and the octangular belfry. Dominican 
oonnnit. Bpiscopal palace. Sevex^l ho^iluUs. 

[Section 1« 

Barrackslor 4,000 mtn. PlasuideToroa. Theatre. 
Castillo del Relojor, of the clock. Caves, once in- 
habited by the Moors. Some charming public 

A railway, 180 miles long, is projected to Valla- 
dolid, down the Douro. 

The rail follows the river Jalon, and (after 
Medina Cell) passing a tunnel of 1,000 yards enters 
the valley of the Henares; fine scenery. 

Alhama (Stat.), a name signifying a bath, 
common to several places in Spain, is situated on 
the Jalon, under a fine rock, with some excellent 
sulphur Baths in the vicinity. 

From here a visit may be paid to Piedra, 
11 miles (coach 2 hours) from Alhama; a romantic 
•pot in a gorge of the mountains, with an old 
Castle and Convent (founded 1195-1218), surrounded 
by picturesque waterfalls and stalactite Ckives. 
There are remains of sculpture, frescoes, &c., at 
the Castle. Hotd^ open May to October, in view 
of the PaUsi some of which are 90 to 170 f)aet high, 
under the names of Cola de Caballo (Horse-tailX 
Fresnos, Requijadas, Caprichosa, Vado, Ac. (See 
L. Jornet's '' Monasteriode Piedra.") Salinas de 
Medinaceli (Stat.) gives the title to a well- 
known and ancient dnoal family. Omnibus to 

Soria, (page 109). 

SICniENZA (Stat) 

A decayed city, on the Henares. 

Population, 4,567. HoteL— Fonda de Ventura. 

Sights.— Grand cathedral; note the marbles 
in the trascoro; the rose window; the retablo of 
the high altar; the statues and fine sepulchres; 
the saciisty; the Gothic cloisters. El Colegio; 
note the cloister and the tomb of the Bishop de 
Risova. The Alcazar, or Episcopal palace, on a 
height. A magnificent aqueduct. Remains of 
ancient walls and gates. The Alamedas, or public 
walks on the banks of the river. 

There are some exceedingly old houses of the 
Byzantine and Gothic atyles, the latter near the 

Jadraane (Stat) Population, about 1,500. A 

small town, in a well-cultivated plain. Near here 
are the celebrated galaia mines of Hiende la 
Encina, which are argentiferous. 

Population, 8,5( 3. 

BoML-ParadordeUsDUtgenelas. Bulfot. 


GtJAbAtAJAiU, AlCAtA, AttA^Jt7B2, 'fOt£:t>0. 


I« ^tuated on the left bank of the Henares,here 
ero9sed by a bridge, partly of Roman architecture. 

mg^tlt— Palace of the Mcndoza family, built iu 
XAQli note the Moorish windows; the hall; the 
Sala do Linages, or Saloon of the Genealogies of the 
family; and the fine chimncy-plcccs. San Miguel, 
a Church (formerly a Mosque), in the Plaza dc 
Santa Marin. San Estebaii, a curious church. San 
Francisco, a Franciscan Church, founded in 1200; 
bote the Capilla do los Davalos, with a beautiful 
•tatuc, and the Panteon, where formerly rested the 
remains of the Mendozas. Museum, with a fine 
tomb of one of the Mendozas. Las Casas Consis- 
tori^les, built in 1&85. 

The line continues to follow the valley of the 
lleuarcs, which runs between high banks to 
Aaiuqueca, whence it is 7 miles to 

ALCALA (Stat.) 

Population, 12,317. 

HotoL — Parador de las Diligencias. 

The ancient Comp^u^Mm^commoulycalled AlcaU de 
Henarcs; the name is derived from Arabic Alkalat, 
the castle. Since its University was removed to 
Kadrld it has greatly declined, but latterly its 
j^ulation has increased. Here Cardinal Ximenes 
founded the printing establishments which pro- 
duced his Complutensian Polyglot Bible; and 
here, also, Cervantet was bom, in 15 1 7, in a house 
marked with his name. 

Sttglltfi.— Colegio de S. Ildefonao, or University, 
built by Cardinal Ximenes; note the chapel, called 
the Capilla del Cardinal Cisnoros, with Ximenes' 
tomb; the balustrade, the ornaments, the grand 
Mloon. Archiepiscopal Palace; note the square 
towers and spires, tlie facade, the courts, and stair- 
oase. Church of San Diego; note the fine sepulchre 
of Carillo. El Magistral, a Gothic Church; note 
the fine portal and the sillcria. Cliurch of Sta. 
Maria, where Cervantes was christened. The 
register can bo seen. 

Distance: 21 miles east-north-east of Madrid. 
The high road passes Puente de Vivcros. 


Xadrid to Getaf 6, Aranjuez, Toledo, dudad 

Seal, Albacete, Almansa, and Valenola. 

At Gtotafe (fttal), population, 3, {60, at 9 miles 
south-oast of Madrid, on the road to Toledo, is a 
fine brick Charch containing six larg« pic- | 

turea, treating of the life of Mary Magdalene, 
which still adorn the fine retablo of the high altar. 
They were painted by Cano. Two of them excel all 
the rest, and are painted in Cano's best style. One 
represents Mary washing Our Lord's Feet at the 
Banquet of the Pharisee; the other, Mary kneel- 
ing before Him In the Garden. Two of the side 
altars contain pictures by the same artist, princi- 
pally single figures of saints; and an Ecce Uomo, 
painted on a small tabernacle, and much injured. 

There is now a direct line from Madrid to 
Toledo {4Aii miles), thence through Giudad Real 
(page 33) to Bada joz. It does not pass through 
ARANJUEZ (Stat) pronounced '^Aranhwayth.'' 

Population, 8,164. 

Hotels.— Fonda de Embaj adores ; Fonda de las 
Cuatro Naciones. 

The ancient Ara Jovts^ a town and royal resi- 
dence on the left bank of the Tagus, near the 
Jarama, in a beautiful and fertile hollow, 1,640 
feet above the sea. 

Sights.— The Palace, the retreat of the Court, 
after Easter, situated near the Tagus. It contains 
some pictures (one room full of Quixote paintings) 
and frescoes, a porcelain cabinet, and a picture 
by Titian in the chapel. The gardens and walks 
by the river arc picturesque, and the view is 
charming. Note the fountains, the cascade, the 
elm trees brought from England, and La Casa 
del Labrador. Obtain orders from the Intendente, 
but the landlord of the Embajadorcs Hotel can get 
them. Fees to porters of both Palace and Casa. 

To the north-east is dlinchon (pop., 4,771), 

with remains of the Castle of its old Counts. One 

was Viceroy of Peru, 1628-40, whose wife, having 

been cured of fever by Peruvian bark, brought the 

use of It over to Europe. From her it was called 

Pul vis ComtIssaj(Countess'sPowder)and Cinchona. 
Conveyances.— Rail to Madrid (.31 miles In 1 J 

hour); to CastillejO (Stat.) in ^hour; thence 
by a branch line, via Algodor (page 36), to Toledo 
(16 miles) in 1 hour. 

TOLEDO (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 19,927. 

Hotels.- Fonda de la Imperial ; Fonda de Linb 

Guldeson enquiry at the hotel, aboat9dr. per day 
Omnibus from the station, outside the town. 



[Section 1. 

The ancient Tolelum^ ft Celebrated city, capital of 
the proTince of the same name, and under the 
Ooths and Moors capital of the whole kingdom. 
It stands on a rocky height, on the Tagus, here 
tsrossed by two splendid bfidgcs. One of these, 
•St. Martin's, on the west side, has a curious 
tradition attached to it, viz., that it was set on 
•fire by the architect's wife when half finished, 
<>ocause improperly built, thus saving his hf^nour. 
It is surrounded by a Moorish wall, flanked by 
tiumerous towers, and has many steeples ; is well 
-supplied with water; and is still celebrated for its 
vword blades, though not more than seventy hands 
■are now employed. It was taken by the Goths in 
•467, and by the Moors in 714, who retained it up 
to the year 10S5, when it was annexed to the 
Spanish crown. Its population formerly exceeded 
'200,000. The climate is very cold in winter and 
9iot in summer. Near it is the mountain range of 
Sierra do Guadalupe, 5,115 feet above sea. 

Sights.— Magnificent Gothic Cathedral. It 
was designed by P. Diaz, 1227, and was completed in 
1492, and plundered successively in 1521 and 1808. 
It is 404 feet in length, and 204 in width. The 
only tower which is finished is 325 feet high. Of 
the exterior, note La Puerta de los Leones, at the 
«nd of the south, and La Puerta del Reloj, at that 
of the north transept ; also the rich great west Door^ 
oalled La Puerta del Pcrdon. The interior is 
-very fine, especially the painted windows. Note 
the fine sculpture in the coro (choir). In the 
Capilla Mayor note the Gothic rctablo, ascended 
iby jasper steps, containing carvings of the Saviour 
and Virgin, by Borgolia, Rincon, and Fellpi ; also 
the tombs of Alonso VII., the infant Don Pedro, 
Sancho el Bravo, Sancho el Deseado, and Cardinal 
Mendoza. In the Capilla de Santiago, note the 
tombs of Juan de Zereguela, and of the Conde de 

After visiting the Capilla de los Reyes Nuevos, 
And that of San Eugeuio, containing some relics of 
the ancient mosque, and some Cufic inscriptions ; 
observe the Capilla de Santa Lucia, with some 
■ancient monuments, and a painting of the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Peter. The Capilla de San Ildefonso 
contains the fine tombsof Cardinal Albornoz, Alonso 
do AvUa, Carrillo de Mendoza, Juan de Contreras, 
MsfoT <xr CardiaaJ Borja. Note also the Qoihic 

Chapel. The walls of the Capilla Muzarabe, or 
Muzarabic Chapel, were painted in fresco by 
Borgofta, and are intended to represent the cam- 
paign of Oran. In the Sala Capitular de Inviemo, 
note the portal ; also the Puerta, by Gutierres, and 
the ceiling by Francisco Lara. It contains some 
very fine paintings, by Borgofia, some of the best 
of which are a Holy Family and a Nativity of the 
Virgin. In the Sacristia are pictures by Vandyck, 
Rubens, Greco, Orente, Bassano, and Guercino. 
It contains a fine carved image of San Francisco, 
by Cano. The Ochavo, or Octagon, the dome of 
which is painted In fresco, contains some fine 
marbles, and many relics; note an image of the 
Virgin in black wood, on a silver throne, her crown 
being studded with jewels. In the Vestuario, 
among other paintings, are a sketch of St. George 
and the Holy Family, by Rubens; and a Circum- 
cision and Nativity, by Bassano. The great bell 
weighs over 17^ tons. 

Note also the Gothic cloisters; the superb gate, 
called Puerta del Nifio Perdido (of the lost child); 
a fine picture of Velasquez, in the chapel of San 
Bias: the fine gates, called Puerta de Catalina, 
Puerta Nueva, Puerta de los Canonigos. In the 
library of the chapter are some fine pictures, a 
large number of printed books, and a collection of 
Latin, Greek, and Arabic MSS. Many of the 
former paintings of the Cathedral have been 
transferred to the National Gallery at Madrid. 

Alcazar, the former residence both of Moorish 
and Castilian monarchs, was an extensive pile of 
three storeys, surrounded by a balustrade ; after 
being restored at an outlay of about £200,000, it 
was almost destroyed by fire on the 9th January, 

El Transito, formerly a Jewish Synagogue, 
and now restored to what is believed to be lis 
original state; it is not so ancient as tho 
other synagogue, but much finer. Church of San 
Tome, near El Transito, with a wide tower in 
the Moorish style; it contains the master-piece 
of Theotocopuli or Domenico (sumamed El Greco), 
representing the Burial of Gonzalo Ruiz, Count 
of Orgaz, a descendant of the celebrated Esteban 
Juan. Zocodover, or square market, near tho 
Alcaxar, in the Moorish style. 


fotnbo, iMfiiMh^, ottt>ii> i^it. 


San Juan de los Rbjfe^, the remains of a Fran- 
ciscan convent; note the portal by CoTarmtiias, 
aiid the fine cidisters and Gothic arches in the 
chapel. El Carmen, a convent near the Hospital 
'de la Santa Cmz ; note the fine tombs of Lopez de 
- Ayala, and of Don Pedro, both by Bermgnete. 
Santiago, or Santa F€, a nunnery, containing some 
fine pictures; note the Dead Christ, by Cano, in the 
Sala Capitular. Beautiful views from La Azotea 
(platform) and El Mira^or (balcony or gallery). 
San Juan de la Penltencia, near San Qlnes, and 
founded by Cardinal Ximenez, in 1611 ; note the 
fine tomb of Francispo Ruiz, also the paintings in 
the retaUo. Santa Maria la Blanca, near the con- 
vent of San Juan de los Reyes; it was built in the 
ninth century for a Jewish synagogrue, and was 
converted into a church in 1405; the architecture 
is peculiar. Los Silos, a Bernardino convent; note 
the Xonic chapel, and the Assumption of the Virgin, 
by El Greco. Visit San Roman, San Clemcnte, 
and San Pedro Martir, the latter containing some 
fine statues. 

Hospital de la Santa Cruz, overlooking the Tagu», 
founded by Podro Meuduza, and one of the finest 
buildings in Spain ; note the fine chasing of the 
portal, the two superb hulls, the ceilings, staircase, 
Ac. It is now used as a foundling hospital. Hos- 
pital de San Juan el Bautista, commonly culled de 
Ai ucra (near Las Covachuclus), built by Busta- 
mante in 1642. Fine hall, Doric chapel, portal by 
Berruguete; rotable painted by £1 Greco. Casa del 
Niincio, a hospital for lunatics, near the Puerta 
Lodada. Moorish Mosque, in the Calle de Cristo 
delaLuz. Casa del Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), 
built by Domenico Greco; handsome staircase. 
Las Covachuelas (the small caves or grots), some 
Roman remains in the suburb near the Alameda. 
La Fabrica de Armas, about one mile from the city, 
still noted for its manufactory of swords. Puerta 
de Visagras, 9th century. Puerta del Sol, a fine 
Moorish gate of granite arches, near the church of 
Santiago. Roman Circus, remains of, near the 
hospital called £1 Nuncio. Archbishop's Palace, 
in the west plaza of the cathedral. A public walk, 
called Alameda, adorned with statues, outside the 
Pfierti^ de Vismpra, called alsa Puerta ,Lodada. 
Artists will find endless occupation in the environs. 

COKHfffBBkm^—l^tAX \o Madrid, Artnlttei) an^ 

For works on Tdle{!o,.consnti ttfstorta de Toledo, 
by Pedro de Rojas, folio, 2 volumes. Mad. 1661-68. 
La Primacia de Toledo, by Diego de Castejon y 
Fonsoca, folio, 2 volumes. Mad. 1645; and Toledo 
Pljitorcscu, by Jose Amador de los Rios, Mad. 1846. 

Ret nm to Castillejo. Castillcjo to Tcmbleque in 
1| hour. 


A poor, tumble-down town in the province of 
Toledo. Near it, at La Conocpclon de Almaradiol, 
the first of the few villages .of the Sierra Morena, 
commences the plain of La Mancha. 

Aloazar (Stat.), an old town of 8,728 inhabit- 
ants, 20 niiles north of which is El TobOSO, a 
poor village. 

Alcazar is the junction for Cordova nnd Seville 
vid Manzanares, <fec. From Manzaiiarcs a line 
runs 41 miles to Ciudad Real. 

OiUDAJ) REAL (Siat.) 
Population (1886), 13,689. 
Hotels. — Posada de las Moreras; Fonda 
Mirucielo. Buffet. 

Cap! t.**! of thcprovinccof the saine name,formcrly 
capital of I A Maricha, situated between the (jlua* 
dianaand the Jabalon. The town, built by Alfonso 
el Sabio, at first called Villareal, became the 
head-quarters of the celebrated Santa Hermnndad 
(holy brotherhood), founded in 1249, for the 
suppression of highway robbery. The ruins of 
the original walls still remain. 

In the neighbourhood of this town the French 
completely routed the Spanish, on the 27th March, 
1809. Commerce in wine, fruits, oil, and mules 
and it has a large annual fair in August. 

Slights. — Fine large hospital, now barracks for 
6,000 men. Church, with some fine carvings, hy 
Merlo, Puerta de Toledo, with Arabic inscriplions. 

Conyejranoes. — Tlie direct line from Madrid 
to Merlda and BadaJOZ (Route 6) now runs 
through Toledo and Ciudad Real, and thence past 
PaertOUanO (Stat.), noted for its coal and 
its iron springs. Diligences to Vaidepefias 

(Stat.), through Almagro and Moral, and t.<i. 





[Section 1. 

The main line from Madrid to Alicante runs from 
Alcazar, 8;^ miks, past VillarOlllOda (popula- 
tion, 9,320, with a fine church) and La Roda to 


Population (1887), 18,599. 

Hotel— Fonda dc Us Diligenclas. Buffet. 

The ancient Alhula^ a town in La Mancha, capital 
of the province of that name, having five churches, 
a hospital, and house of mercy; with a trade in 
common cutlery (made here). A large cattle fair 
in September. The principle church is remarkable 
for a tower the base of which is of clay^ the rest 
being stone. 

Uail to Mnrcia and Cartagena, the Junction for 
this line being at Chinchilla. 12^ miles further on. 

For Murcla and Cartagena, see Route 18. 

Baths at Yillatoya. 

To la Encina (Stat.) junction for Valencia, 

passing Caroajente (page lO^*), and from La 
Encina, 48^ miles, past NOTelda (population 
8,S02X to Alicante. (See Routes 14 and 18.) 


Madrid to La Qranja and Segovia. 

The road to La Granja and Segovia (15 leagues) 
passes Torrelodones and Navalccrrada ; but the 
best way will be to take the rail vlA Villalliai 
6*i| miles in 9 to 8| hours. 

La Qranja, otherwise colled San IldefouM), a 

Royal Palace, is now best reached by diligence 

from Segovia, 7 miles. Iloteh. — Do Paris; Europeo. 

In a mountain region, among pine woods, 3,840 feet 

above the sea, and was built by Philip V., in the 

French style. It contains a superb Chnrch, many 

tine apartments and works of art, some of the finest 

gardens in Spain, with statues and beautiful 

fountains, 26 in number. The best time for a visit 

is ou Sunday in the Summer months, when the 

fountains play, and on saints' days and royal 

birthdays. It is a sort of Versailles. Two 

le:igues from La Granja is the ancient Carthusian 

Convent of El Paular, built by Juan I., now a 

glass manufactory, which is worthy «f a visit. 

Note the fine rctablo in the Capilla de los Reyes, 

and the Sepulchre of the Friars. 

Within a short distance are the peaks of Siete 

J'/oom mad reJIaralar, i'/P/>0|o£^ffDa/eetbJgh, in the 

Population, 11,465. 

H0tel8.~Fonda Durgalesa ; Fonda del Aguila ; 
Posada Nueva. 

A city nearly encircled by the Eresma, which 
flows into the Douro. It is the capital of the pro- 
vince and Is enclosed by walls, perfectly preserved ; 
and in the vicinity are quarries of black marble, 
and mines of copper and lead. Its origin is Roman, 
and it is a fine sample of an old Gotho-Spanlsh 
city. It was held by the French from 1804 to 1814. 
SightS.—A Gothic Cathedral, considered to 
be one of the finest in Spain ; note the high altar, 
the great retablo, with its superb marbles, the 
custodia, the stained glass, the retablo by Juni, 
the cloisters, and the sepulchres : note especially 
the cupola (830 feet high), from which a fine view 
of the surrounding country may be had. Among 
the churches and convents are, San Esteban, with 
a curious tower and remarkable tombs. San 
Juan and San MartiA, each containing some fine 
tombs. El Parral, formerly a Gcronimite Con- 
vent, built in the fifteenth century; note the choir, 
the great retablo, the tower, and the cloister. 
Santa Cruz, a Dominican Convent, founded by 
Ferdinand and Isabella. Las Carmelitas, or of the 
Barefooted Carmelites; note the miraculous image 
of the Virgin, and pictures in the retablo of the 
chapel. Casa de Mcneda (near the Eresma), a mint 
for copper coinage. Casa de Sesrovia, the oldest 
house in the city, in Calle dc los Leones. 

The Alcasar (3,294 feet above the level of the 
sea), still containing some magnificent rooms, 
formerly tenanted by Ferdinand and Isabella; 
note the halls of reception, and of the throne, the 
statues and inscriptions, and the arabesques in the 
chapel. It is undergoing restoration shice the fire 
of 1862, which in some parts only left the walls, 
destroying the Interior. 

An Aqueduct^ supposed to have been built in 
the time of TriO<^n, consisting of 161 arches, in 
double tiers, built of square stones without mortar, 
with a channel at the top 750 yards long, and 
rising 100 feet above the valley. The noble Plaza 
del Azoquejo. Military Barracks. Among the 
gates, note La Puerta de San Andres and La 
Pnerta de Santiago. 

Segovia is a perfect paradise for artists, ever^ 
comer affording «om« »tT\Y\Tv«%\]^^\^v 


Boute 2. By Rail to Arganda, tlieneo Road. 

From Segovia a line of 67| miles runs to Medina, 
or Medina del Campo, on the main lind from Paris 
{vi4 Bordeaux, Burgos, and Valladolid) to Madrid. 

Population, 5,396. Inn.— Parador del Pepe. 
A poor place, once of much greater importance, 
situated in an immense plain, watered by the 
Zapardiel. Above the town is the large ruined 
fortress of La Mota, a court residence at the end 
of the 15th century. Isabella died here, 1504. 
Chnrdi with square tower and octagonal belfry. 
The Ugh altar, retabk), ancient royal banner of 
1>itttWTt aad. Isdj rhapil are worth inspection. 
Sail to flalai— fit •«« RoBtftllt 

The only place of any ia ipac U act between 
Segovia and Medina ia 

OLMEDO (Stat.), 
An ancient town of 2,634 Inhabitants, formeiiy 
one of the strong places of Old Castile, taken f nnn 
the Moors in 1085. Bemains of ancient walls and 
gates, and the fine old churches of Sta. Maria la 
Mayor and San Andres. 

Madrid to Cnenca. 

There are three routes from Madrid to Cuenca— 

1. By Rail through Getaf e and Aranjuez, 80| 
miles (see Boute 8), thence by the Aranjuez and 
Cuenca line, through Ocafia, Tarancon, Huelves, 
Yellisca, and CaHtilleJo (there are two of this 
name), 94i mfles, together 125 miles. Only one 
train per day. 9} hours in all. 

2. By rail and road through Vacia Madrid, 
Arganda, Villar^o, and Tarancon. From this 
latter place train can be taken, 45 miles. In 4^ 

3. To Guadalajara, 85 miles by rail (see Boute 
2X thence by road through Sacedon (62| miles) 
and Canal^o to Cuenca. 

Boute 1. ByRalL 
The most noteworthy place between Aranjuez 
and Cuenca is 

A wdl-built town of about 5,000 inhabitanta, on 
the right bank of the Rianzates. Church, partly 
Gothic, with three naves. Palace of tb« Biike ot 


The line, 17i miles long, runs past Yictflbafo 
and Montarco over a sandy and waste district to 
Vacia Madrid, a small hamlet, the only note- 
worthy building being the Casa de Arriba, a 
former palace of Count Altamira. Then across 
the Jarama, to 


Population, about 8,400; in a pleasant valley. 
Here wine of good quality is grown. With the 
exception of a pretty valley, in which is situated 
the little town of Perales, the country from here 
to Yillarejo is poor, with occasional olive groves, 
from Arganda by road to Vlllarejo* In the 
church are good pictures by Pedro Orrente. After 
crossing the T&gus at Fuenteduefia de Ti^Ot the 
place is Bclinchon, then Tarancon (see above), 
which place there is little of special interett 
UBliiMadUng Cuenca. 

RoniAtt (not often taken). 

The most interealiay place is 


An agreeable watering-place, muchiirislted. 

The ancient Thertnidae, in the pro^riAee of, afid 
27 miles south-east of, Guadalajara. It U on the 
Tagus, and has a royal palace, barraek^ and 
saline Baths^ frequented from June to Septe|i{h%r. 
Fine gardens, ruins, and pleasant walks. 

OUENOA (Stat) 

Population, 7,916. 

HoteL— Fonda del Sol. 

A city, capital of the province of the same name 
most charmingly situated on a peak, near the con- 
fluence of the rivers Huercar and Jucar. It is 
enclosed by high walls, and is situated 8,400 feet 
above the level of the sea. It is quite a Moorish 
city; has six gates, and the rivers are crossed by 
eight bridges. It gives name to the Sierra Cuenca, 
which traverse the province. The mountains to 
the north are 5,920 feet above sea at Cerro de S. 
Felipe, near the heads of the Tagus, Jucar, and 
Guadalaviar. The neighbouring forests are very 
fine, and fishing and shooting are to be had in the 
vicinity. It has manufactures of paper an.<L 
woollen stuffs. 



^ttAttSHAW^is SPAiN A^ 


[iSection 1. 

' its ftne jaspers and bronze capitals. Note especially 
tbe CapUladelosApostoles, andtbatof SaHMiirtin, 
wKh its carviBgs and sepidchres ; also the cloisters, 
the Sala Capitular, with fine f apade, and bcantif ally 
carved walnut doors. The other chapels worthy of 

. note aio thoso of Santa Elenn, tho Asuncion, La 
Onda, San Juan, and Santiago ; also the Capilla do 
los Caballcros y Alboraoces, which contains some 
very superb sepulchres, and some good pictures. 
Archiepiscopal palace, a handsome building, con- 
taining a splendid saloon, called '^Snlon dc San 

■ Julian." Among the pariish Churches is Juan 
Bautista, containing the tombsof the Montcmayors. 
llan 'Pablo, a conrcnt, beautifully situated on a 

* precipice ; note tho rctablo of the church. Several 
other convents, the best of which is Pctras, 

* with good fresco paintings. The Church of Sta. 
•Maria de Gracia was once a synagogue. San 

Cristobal and El Socorro, two heights. Viaduct, 
350 feet long, ahd 150 high; some curious old 
houses built on the heights. Ac Bridges of San 
Anton and Las Esealas, which cross the Jucar; 
also tliat of Son Pablo, whence there are fine views. 
I Promenade^ in the viduity, with ilno views. 

Cpnveyancea.— To Valencia, pj^sses Fuentes, 
. Cardellctfi, Utid, Siete Aguas, and Chiva. There 
' is ali^ a route to Valencia by Alarcon, Mijiglanilla, 
' and Bequona. The road to Teruel (page 88) runs 
by Trajacetc, Frias, and Albajracin. Trajacete 
lies at the base Of an eminence, in a valley sur- 
rounded by hills, and watered by the Jucar. Here 
are found rock crystals. 

EXCtffSlons.— In the neighbourhood of Cuenca 
the botanist, tho geologist, the antiquary, and tho 
sportsman will be repaid. Some trout may be had 
at ITRa, about 5 leagues from Cuenca. Thegeolo- 

■ feist should visit La Cueva del Judio; Buenachc, 
about 2 leagues oflT; and La Cueva do Pedro Cotillas, 

■ a fitalactltic cavern, up Ibo Huorcar valley. 


Madrid to Talay era, TrnJillOi Bferida, and 
BadaJoz, by road. 

The road to Bad(Ooz passes Navalcamcro, 
. iiaqucda, Talavera de la Eeyna, Navalmoral, 

Almaraz, Trujillo, and Merida. The conntry is 
.poprly cultivated, except in the. vicinity of towns 

and yHUtges. Many of these being near the line 

* b( rall\ VUl te found either biere or la Soiite 18. 

Rl^Ut^ay.— Tl»e shortest and best route to 
Lisbon (4il miles), by the Dei Tajo line, passes 
through Villavcrde, CabaRas, Torrijos, Talavera 
(86 milesX Navalmoral, Plasencla, Arroyo (branch 
to Caceres), Hcrrauela,. Valencia de Alcantara 
(252 miles); hence to Oporto (438 milcsX or to 
Lisbon, via Marvao (near Portalegrc), Torrcde 
Vargcnsa, Santarem, &c. A detailed description 
of this route will be found at page 82. Only those 
desirous of seeing the country, and having plelity 
of time, would take the carriage road. 

TALAVERA (StiatX or Talavera da 

Population, 10,029. 

HoteL — Posada de las Postas. 

The ancient. STo/obrfi^a, beautifully situated on 
the light bank of the Tagus, here crossed by a 
bridge of thirty-five arches. Here, on the 27th 
and 2Sth July, 1809, was fought thei3d///e in which 
the English and Spanish troops, under the Duke of 
Wellington, totally defeated tho French under 
Joseph Bonaparte and Marshals Jourdain and 
Victor. I* is called Talavera dc la Reyna, having 
been the dowry of Dofia Maria, and todistinguiKh 
it froni Talavera la Heal, in the province of Badajoz, 
and Talavera la.Vieja, in that of Toledo, It has 
manufactures of earthenware^ leather, soap, and 
silk, and two large annual fairs. 

Bights.— La Colcgiata (Sta. Maria la Mayor), of 
the Gothic order; also several other churches. A 
fine Convent, now tumod into a manufactory; also, 
other convents. Several Hospitals and schools of 
Latin and Philosophy. Bridge over the Tagi|s, 
built in the fifteenth century. Public Promenade, 
called La Alameda. Some Roman remains, ai^d 
many Moorish Towers. 

Distance : 37 miles west-north-west of Toledo. 

The Talavera line was extended westerly Jn 
1877-8 to Oropesai nn old town which has a Castle 
of the Duke de Frias; and Nqvalmoral^ or A'aval- 
moral de la Mata (pop. '3,471) ; from whence it riyis 

to Malpartida (pop. 4,ooo>, Plasencla (page 82), 

Arroyo. (bi*abch to Caceres, page 84), i\nd 
Vai'iklCl& de Alea&iara,. near Alcantitra 
Cp^ ^5; ; and thence Iiito Portugal. 

The distance froioi Talavera to. I^avAlmorAl ahd 
Almdrojiiiiy rott'djlsHleagtids. ■•■■>■ 

Route 6.] 

• ." .. . . • ■'■;■• 


Shortly before arriving at Almaraz, the Tagus is 
crossed by a bridge, 6&0 feet long, and 134 feet in 
height; it was built in 1552. Almaraz to 
Jaraicejo is 6 leagues. This place contains con- 
siderable vestiges of Moorish architecture. From 
Jaraicejo to Trujillo is 4 leagues. 


Population, 9,428. 

HoteL — Posada de los Gaballcros. 

The ancient Turris Julia, province of Cacores. 
It stands on the declivity of a granite hill, 
crowned by an ancient castle, and has an imposing 
appearance. It has earthenware factories, and is 
the birth-place of Pizarro^ the conqueror of Peru. 

Sights. — La Villa, the ancient part of the town, 
with some Roman and Moorish remains. Church 
of Santa Maria Mayor ; note the windows and the 
tomb of Diego do Paredes. The base of this church 
is the Roman tower from which the town is named. 
Santa Maria de la Conccpcion, where Pi^arro lies 
buried. San Martin, well worthy of a visit ; 
curious tombs and fine rose window. Church of 
Santiago; very ancient, fine retablo. Palace of 
San Carlos, with a fine court. La Alberca, said to 
have been a Roman reservoir. Casa de Ayunta- 
micnto (Town Hall), containing some paihtings. 
La Plaza. Moorish Tower, near the Arch of 

Distance: 28 miles east of OacerOB (Stat.), 
page 84. 

From Trujillo to Morida by road is 13 leagues. 

USRIDA (Stat.) 

PopiUation, 7,390. 

Hotels.— De las Animas; del Leon. Bufifet. 

A city on the right banlc of the Guadiana. It is 
tlic Emerita Augusta of the Romans, and was 
founded in the year 25 B.C., by Augustus, for 
the settlement of his veteran troops (emei'iti). It 
afterwards became the capital of Lusitania. It 
fell into the hands of the Moors a.d. 713, and was 
attaclied to the kingdom of Castile in 1228. 

Slgbts.— Santa Eulalia, a huge convent. Church 
of Santa Eulalia, near the convent. Castle, partly 
Roman and partly Moorish ; well worthy of a visit. 

Alcazar, partly Roman and partly Moorish. 
Arch of Santiago, built by Trajan. Palacio, a 
prison of the Count de la Boca; partly Hopian 
and partl;r Moorish, 

A fine Roman Aqueduct of one hundred and 
forty arches. El Tajamar (cutwater), a Roman 
dyke, to prevent inundations. Roman Bridge, 
of four arches, crossing the Albarrcgas, of pcculliir 
interest to the antiquarian, the historian, and 
the architect. Roman aqueduct, called Lbg 
Milagros. Remains of a Roman circus. Roman 
Amphitheatre outside the town. 

Morida was the largest city of the Roman* 
Hispania; it had 84 gates, and a garrison of. 
90,000 soldiers. A Moorish historian declared that 
no man could tell the wonders of Mtfrida. 

Oonyeyances.— Rail to Badajoz and Cindac^ 
Real. Diligence to Madrid, through Trujirfo 
and Almaraz, to Talavcra de la Reyna;"thcncc by 
rail. Branch rail from Merida to Tocina (on the 
line between Seville and Madrid) via Oalamonte, ' 
AlmendralejO, a pleasant spot in Estremadiira, 
Los Santos, under Sierra di S. Cristobal, Za&a,' 
with a Moorish Castle and the Palace of Itar 
Dukes, and Llerena, an ancient town near' the 
Sierra Morena. From Zftfr^ a line of 111 miles 
runs to Huelya (page 111), the principal stations 

being Fregenal and Valdelaxnusa. 

ExoursiOlIS to the Roman water reservoir.^ 
one about 1 league from the city, the other about 2 
leagues, near Trujillanos. ^ 

BADAJOZ (Stat.)i pron. Badahdih. 

Population (1887), 27,279. 

HoteL— Gran Hotel Central. B.uflfet. 

The ancient Pax-Augusta, a strongly fortified 
frontier city, at the confluence of the RlviUas With 
the Guadiana. It is strengthened by outworks, 
and by the fortified height called San Cristobal. 
The river is crossed by a superb granite bridge 
of twenty-eight arches. It was taken by the 
French under Soult, on the 10th March, 1811, and 
by the English, under Wellington, on the 6tli April, 
1812. It is the birth-place of the celebrated 
Spanish painter, Luis Morales. 

Sights.— Cathedral (begun in 1248), contaiiiingT 
a Conception, and other pictures by Luis Morales";' 
also a Magdalen, by Cercso ; note also the cloisters,' 
Church of the Conception, containing among other 
works, a Virgin and Child, and a' Christ, bearing a' 
Cross. Church of San Augustin ; note a curious 
tomb of Wi^ ^arquis^'de Bal, gcne?:a\ at I?\N5i>5c<^'^ **. 



[Section 1. 

Citadel, with lofty tower, with the remAins of a 
mosque. Arsenal. Several hospitals. 

OonyeyanOM.— Rail to Lisbon (174 miles), 
through £1 va^ Portalegre, Abrante^ Torres Noras, 
Santarem, Yillafranca, and Ollraes; two train* 
dally; 12 to 15 honrs. Rail toMerida, and thence 
to Madrid, by Ciudad Real; two trains a day. 
Time, 20 to 25 hours. 

Distance: 5 miles from the Portuguese frontier, 
and 314 miles from Madrid. 

A Tour In tbe North of Spain, Barcelona 
to liOrlda, SaragOBsa. Pamplona. Vitorla, 
Miranda, Bilbao, and Santander. 

Ordinary trains from Paris to Marseilles in 
about 23 hoars; express train in about 15 hours. 

Steamer or rail from Marseilles. The usual 
route is from Paris vid Toulouse, Narbonne and 
Port Bon, as in Route 9, in reverse order. Time 
to Barcelona, about 26 hours. 


Population (1887), 264,400. 

Hotels.— Las CuatroNaciones; Fonda Falcon; 
Grand Continental; Unirrrso; Del Oriente; Dc 
lasCuatro Partes del Mundo; Fonda Peninsular ; 
Fonda deEspalia; Fonda Catalana; del Gomerclo. 

Several Posada8,or second-class hotels. Lodgings 
only second-rate. First-class Caf^s. 

Post Office.— PlazB de Cataln&a. 

Telegrapll Office.— Plaza de Palaclo. 

The ancient BarkinOy a strongly fortified city and 
sea-port on the Mediterranean, formerly capital of 
Catalonia, surrounded by a charming and highly- 
cultivated country, under a fine heilthy climate, 
and commanded by a citadel on the north-east, and 
the fortress of Montjuich on the south-west. It 
Is divided in half by a fine broad promenade called 
the Rambla, which name is retained throughout 
with various suffixes. New suburbs have grown 
up, as, for instance, at Gracia, which is connected 
With the old town by a fine street, Paseo de Gracia. 
Population of town and suburbs, over 400,00\ 

Its Harbour is deep enough for large ships to 

anchor inside tho port. Its ancient name is due 

to Its Carthaginian founder, Hamilcar Barkino, 

about 200 years B.C. It was taken by the French 

/(7 J7JJ, jfjf^ 4//fir^4r^» in IB^ desolated by tlie 

yellow fever in 1821, and bombarded by Espartero 
In 1843. It is a place of great trade, and has much 
increased of late years, in spite of revolutions 
and the Carlists. It has manufactures of cotton 
goods, silks, &c., employlnir 100,000 hands, "fte 
suburb of DaivOoneta (popniatton, 5,000X acroat 
tho harbour, is now an integral portion of the 
town. A bank was founded here in 1401, perhapi 
the first on record. Here Columbus, returning 
from his discovery of America (1498), was recoired 
in triumph by Ferdinand and Isabella. 

Bights.— Gothic Cathedral, La Seo, containing 
many beautiful tombs, and some grand stained 
glass; the choir and sillerla are deserving of 
especial attention for their fine carvings; the view 
from the tower is very fine; note also the cloister, 
with its frescoes. 

The old Cathedral Church of Santa Mariadd Mar, 
of the fourteenth century, containing some magni- 
ficent stained glass; note also the high altar, and 
the pictures by Villadomat. San Miguel, very 
ancient, with a Roman inscription. San Justo y 
San Pastor, of the fourteenth century. Santa 
Marta del Pino, with a fine nave and tower. San 
Augnistin, modem. San Pedro, of the tenth century. 
San Pablo, Byzantine, built in the tenth century. 
San Cucufat, of the tenth century. Santa Ana, of 
the twelfth century. San Jaime, of the fourteenth 
century, with a fine nave. 

Franciscan Convent, with some curious tombs. 
La Cologiata Sta. Ana; note the sepulchre of 
Boera. San Belem ; some fine marbles, pictures 
by Villadomat, and sword of Loyola. El General, 
a hospital. Santa Cruz, a hospital. Casa de 
Caridad, for poor men, women, and children. 

Real Palacio, originally built in the thirteenth 
century, but since modernised. The old chapel of 
S. Agueda, which was part of it, now Sta. Clara 
Convent, has a Museum of Architecture and 
Antiquities. Museo Salvador, containing some 
curious MSS., coins, a collection of marbles, some 
Spanish swords, a museum of natural history, and 
a splendid herbal. Library of San Juan (Blbllotcca 
Nacional), containing 40,000 volumes, and an 
interesting collection of MSS. 

There are also three other public libraries, 
one of which is called the Episcopal. Academia 
49 3ncna8 Letra^ cQn\a\TiVng %t»m« ^\s,V>aA«,% «^^> 



Route 7.] BARCELONA. 89 

few Roman antiquities. University, the second Steamers.— There are several steamboat com- 
In rank in Spain. Its library contains 160.000 panics in Barcelona, possessing vessels, sailing to 
vnlumfia, _ all parts— as to Alicante, Malaga, Gibraltar, Cctte, 

Ameiica.— See 

companies run 
e 10.3) may be 
mcc via Suria, 

station, 5rs. 

)nsj omnibtisei 
everdl «tatiori« 
) the entlfwi8| 
•gedfor. Street 
; fares, during 
*eals; at night, 
Ihe first hour; 
8 p.m. to mid- 

>arking, 2 reals 

ataro, Gerona, 
ilcrs and Vich, 
ntrca, Tnrrasa 
11. They are 21 

About 18,600 — 
Catalonia. It 
ies, employing 
aanufacture of 

11,199— is thg 
ures of kersey - 

From MonlB" 
Tarrasa, a dili- 

xougb North 

.ell (above), 14 
Tera, 77 mllcs 
led by IMiiUp V., 

^ . Bellpulg. to 

s. At Bellpulg, 

* Vnglcsola family, 

*** Viceroy, Ramon 

pal ^«W% x««S«w»:e«-«>«5>f5 

Ad, \'*SS.5S.%S?S»S:'«w- 



[Sectioa 1. 

ikRiPA (Stat.) 

Population, 17^72. 

J)uftet'at station. 

Boti^-^^onda San Lais. 

The ancient Ilerda, a l^ustling town, capital of 
tKe province, pleasantly situated on the" Scjre, 
hcte crossed by a noble bridge. It stands on a 
hiil slope, commanded by a lofty citadel. It was 
stormed by the French during" the War of Succes- 
sion in 1707, and was again talcen by them under 
Suchet in 1810. Here Gsesar defeated two of 
Pompey's generals; and in the adjoining plain 
Sc|plo defeated the Carthaginian Hanno, 216 B.C. 

Ugllts.— The old Cathedral (originally a 
mosque), built in the thirteenth century. It is 
n«)w a ruin, but still presents some rare studies of 
the Byzantine-Gothic style. The cloisters are 
especially worthy of attention. From the tower 
is a most charming and extensive view. The new 
Cathedral, in the lower part of the town, is a fine 
Corinthian building, containing some good carving 
and sculpture. The churches of San Lorenzo and 
San Juan, anciently mosques. The latter is 
especially worthy of notice as offering samples of 
12th century art, 

Cohye3r94(Ce9. — Rail to Saragossa and Pam- 
plona; to Madrid; to Barcelona. Diligences to 
Fraga and Balaguer. Rail throughout to Tarra- 
gona by Ecus, Villaseca, Ac. (See Tarragona, 
lieufe 18). A line from Lcrida to Monsech is pro- 
jected to join the French Southern (Du Midi), via 
La Cunca de Tremp and Las Caldas do Bohi, in 
ccAinection with a tunnel through the Pyrenees. 

Balaguer (population, 4,742), is a fortified town 
oii ' the ' Segre, 16 miles north-cast of Lcrida. 
Distance: 82 miles west of Barcelona. 

Pass Blnefar and Uonzon to 8elgaa(8tat.X 

where a -branch goes bff via Castejon, to 

Bar^astro (Stat.) -population, about 8,200— 
fiO miles north-cast of Saragossa, It is an ancient 
walled city on the Cinca, and contams a cathedral, 
with some paintings of the sixteenth century, and 
three convents. The road from Lerida to MOQUi- 
n^XUa (population, 8.677), 60 miles south south- 
east oL Uuesca, runs past Torre and Aytona. It 
is <^|ie ancient Qctogeua^ situated at the conflaeoce 
^y^>^a.CSiaa0 w/ili the EJbto, and Is deimid^ }>y « 
^y^^^ fr^/cfi frasfajffiii b^ tite rrencb in 1811. ( 

From Letida to Tardlenta and Saragossa, 

by ordinary trains, tn 6| hours. Thence to Vitoria 
and Bilbao. 

For Saragossa, Painplona, Tolosa, and 

VltOirla, see Bioutes 1 and 2. Trahi f rom Vitc^j^ 
to Miranda (ditto) in l^ hour. Ordinary trains 

from lOranda to Orduna and Blil>ao, in 

5 J hours, quick trains, 3^ hours. 

BILBAO (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 60,772. 

Hotels. — De Inglaterra; las Navarras; Tcle- 
grafu. English Heading Boom, with papers, Ac. 

It is the chief port of the North of Spain, capital 
of the Province Vizcaya (Biscay), and is situated 
on the River Nervion. It is surrounded by lofty 
mountains. The town is well built, but damp and 
unhealthy. The river was once crossed by an 0I4 
stone bridge, replaced by a new iron suspension 
bridge. The name signifies "fine bay." The 
place originated in the year 1300. ' Towards 
the close of the fifteenth century the celebrated 
Consulado, which, as a commercial tribunal, holds 
the highest rank in the kingdom, was removed 
here from Burgos, where it was at first established. 
At the epoch of the earliest wars it was the scene 
of frequent contests and was twice besieged. It 
was here the celebrated Carlist chief, Zumala- 
carregui, received his death wound on the 10th 
June, 1835. In 1874, it was besieged three months 
by the Carlists, including a bombardment of 40 
days; until relieved by Marshals Serrano and 
Concha, in May. The chief exports are of wool, 
fish, iron, and fruits, and iron ore, of which large 
quantities are shipped to South Wales. Much 
also goes to foundries in the northern provinces. 
There are mines of copper and iron, and smelting 
works in the neighbourhood. Large ship-building 
yard on the river Nervion. 

SlglltS.— Cathedral and several churches; 
Casa de Ayuntamicnto (Town Hall); arsenal; 
Camiccria, or public slaughter-house; superior 
schools, supported by the tribunal of commerce; 
Campo Santo, a large public cemetery; Casa 
Torre; Punta de Banderas, with its gardens; 
Puente de San Anton, of the twelfth century ; new 
suspension bridge; large rope-walks; dock, for 
building merchant vessels. The greatest attrac- 
tion are the public tnUMi the mo^t frequented 
being tl^e Are^al^ wp^x \Vvft i^oxX. T^w^WaV C.\v»x^\v 

Route 8.] 




at Portugalete. English PhyBioifui. 
English and American GonsnU. 

Conveyances.— B«U to Ordu&a, Miranda, ^aro, 
Castejon, and Logrofio. To Miranda Junction on 
the main line (Paris to Madrid), 4 hours. 
Steamers to Bayonne, San Sebastian, and Santan- 

der. Tram to Las Arenas and Fortugalete 

(7 miles), situated at the embouchure of the 
Nervion into the sea. -ffoteZ.— Fonda de Portu- 

gaiete. Rail to Durango and Zumarraga 

(page 16), on the line from Madrid to Iran. 

The road to Santander is by Somorrostro, Islares, 
Santolia, and Langre; that to San Sebastian 
through Guernica, Ondarrea, Motrico, Debat or 
Deva, a bathing place, and Orio. 

Take steamer or coach to Santander. 

Population (1887), 42,125. 

Hotels. — Europa; Urana; Comcrcio. 

The Portus Blendium of the ancients ; capital of 
the proTince of the same name, and a seaport of the 
first class. It is beautifully situated on a head- 
land stretching into the Bay of Biscay. Its harbour 
is large and well sheltered, and is accessible at all 
times to the lai^est ressels. Since 1890, consider- 
able improvements have been carried out, and a 
largo dry dock, the only one on the Spanish and 
Portuguese coast all the way to Cadiz, has been 
constructed. Length of the bay, 4i miles; average 
width, 2^. It is a flourishing commercial town, 
and has a large trade with Great Britain, France, 
Holland and Italy. 

The vicinity abounds in com, fruit, and cattle; 
and in the neighbouring mountains are iron and 
coal mines. The chief articles of export are wheat 
and flour, ores, and wine. It was sacked by the 
French, under Soult, in 1808. 

£Ugll^.^ Spacious liarbour and fine quays. 
Cathedral; note the cloister, the relics, and the 
Arabian font. Plaza dc Toros, accommodating 
8,000 spectators. Good theatre and baths. Tobacco 
manufactory (formerly the convent of Santa Crui), 
where cigars and tobacco are manufactured to a 
large extent, giving employment to upwards of 
1,000 peogie. The fine promenades, called Alameda 
Primera, and Alameda Secunda, and at £1 Sardin- 
ero Bathing Eatabliihmcnt, to which there is a 

Bes}||eo^-AvKi& 7ice-Coii8uL 

bdo, Bayonne, Conuma, Cadis, Bordeaux, London, 
Liverpool, Brazil, West Indies, ±c. Rail to Madrid, 
vid Palencia (Boute 1.) Time 18i hours. Bullet 
at Bafios. Diligencet to Castrourdiales, Laredo, 
Los Ballos d« Onka^eda (20 miles), and Viesgo. 
About 40 miles south-wett is Potes, a fine spot 
among the Asturian mountains, in the Liebana 
Valley. On the road to Gijon is SantUlana 
(15 miles), in the country of "Gil Bias." 

Good fishing (trout, salmon, bream, &o.) here 
and all the way to Gijon, see Route 8. 

A Toiir In the nortb-west, by Vigo, Fonte- 
yedra, Coxnpoift^lla, Oomnna, Ferrpl, 
Lugo, Astorga, iieon, Oyiedo, Oijo^ 
Santander, to PaleSda. ' 


Population, about 18,416. 

Hotels. — Continental; Europa; Cuatro Naci- 

The ancient VigoSpacorum, a seaport town, in pro* 
vince of Pontevedra ; beautifully situated. It is 
enclosed by walls, and has a good harbour. The 
roadstead beyond Vigo is about 20 miles long. 
Narrowing at the points of Bestia and Uauda, it 
forms, afterwards, a vast land-locked bay, having 
on its shores the little town of Bedondela. It was 
much injured by the attacks of the English under 
Dra)co in 1585 and In 1589, under the Duke of 
Ormond in 1702, and in 1719 under Lord Cobham. 
Treasure from the Spanish galleons, sunk in 1702, 
was recovered in 1888 by an American company. 

SU^tS.— Modern church, with fine columns; 
castles of Del Castro and San Sebastian, with fine 
views; Lasarctto; Alameda. 

British Vlce-Gonsnl. 

CrOnyesrancea— Steamers to Lisbon, Cadiz, 
Gibraltar, and Malaga, and to St. Nazaire; to 
Oporto in from 8 to 9 hours. Rail from Vigo to 
Corunna in the northerly direction (see Boute 15), 
and to Leon and Palencia in the southerly direc- 
tion. Those who do not care to visit Santiago 
may avail themselves of this route to Lugo 
Orense and Monforte on the line to Lugo and 
and Corunna. Kail vid Redondela (Junction) to 


Population^ £0^810. 




[Section 1. 

built and has a oommodloas port for small craft. 
It has a good coasting trade and an extensire 
pilchard fishery. The manufactures comprise wool- 
len cloth, muslins, leather, and hats. The name is 
deriyed from Pon$ Vettu^ or "old bridge." 

Brltlah Viee-CoiuniL 

Slfl^ts. — Plflza del Teucro. Santa Clara 
(Gothic). Gonrent of Augustines (in ruins). 
Franciscan conrent in the Plaza de la Herreria. 
Palaee of the Churruchaos (In rains). Long 
bridge. Agreeable promenade, with some pretty 
views. The vicinity of Pontovedra is one of the 
most beautiful and fertile parts in Spain. 

Diligence to Padron by OaldftS del Bey, with 
warm mineral Baths, thence 14 miles rail to 

St James of Campus StellsB, 

The terminus of a line (called Compostelano de 
Santiago) of 26 miles, from Carril, on the coast. 

Population, 24,200. 

BOtelS.— Fonda San Miguel: de la Vizcala; de 
las Animas ; Vizcaina. 

Formerly capital of Oalicia, on the Sar, in 
a moor tract. The town is built around its 
cathedral, and has numerous arcades and foun- 
tains. It is an archbishop's see, and the metropolis 
of the Knights of St. James of Gompostela. Its 
principal resources arc derived from being the 
resort of numerous devotees. Fiesta of Santiago, 
patron saint of Spain. July 25th. 

Sights.— A celebrated Cathedral ; part of the 
building is of the ninth century; the front is 
modem; each of its sides faces a public square. 
It stands on the Pico Sacro, and is dedicated to 
St. James the Elder. Though built of granite, it 
is full of good carved work. Note the Norman 
round arch; the gothic cloister, and tall bell 
tower; and especially the triple OloiHa portal of 
the 18th century, by Mateo, of which there is a copy 
at South Kensington. Note the bronzes of Celma, 
the alto-relievos, the pictures by Bauzas, the jaspers 
and marbles, Ac, in the Capilla de la Virgen del 
Pilar; also the Capilla del Reyde Francia; the 
sepulchral statues, and the tombs; with the relics, 
among which arc a thorn of the crown, some milk 
of the Virgin, a tooth of St. Cristobal, a portion of 
^acjvas, Iff a beauillu) cruciBx, which bears date 
-^ ^^spaerema/ffsof fAe 11,000 Vir^ns, 

Among the churches and convents are San Felice 
a church of the fourteenth century. La Cortesela, 
near the cathedral; note the cloisters. San Fran- 
cisco, a fine paririi church, formerly a convent. 
San Martin, a Benedictine convent, founded in the 
tenth century; note the sacristy and pulpits, the 
fountain, and the garden. San Domingo^ a con- 
vent ; note the belfry. San Augustin, a convent ; 
note the cloisters. Hospicio de los Royes, facing 
the cathedral ; a large hospital, founded by Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella in 1501, for the use of the 
pilgrims; note the portal, the fountain, and the 

University founded in the sixteenth century It 
has about 800 students, and in it have been incor- 
porated all the colleges of the city, more especially 
the library. £lScminario(in front of the cathedral), 
built for the education of priests, but now used for 
the Town Hall. Quintana de los Muertos, formerly 
a cemetery of the Canons. La Plateria, at the 
south entrance of the cathedral. El Mercado, the 
market on the Plaza del Par; note the costumes on 
Sundays. Casas Consistoriales. Plaza Mayor, 
where the bull-fights take place. Plaza de los 
Plateros, with its beautiful fountain. The public 
walk, called El Gran Campo de Santa Susana. 
The best streets are the Rua Nueva, and Rua del 

Roads.— The road to Cape Flnlsterre passes 
Puente Maceira, Buen Jesus, and Corcubion; that 
toLugro, through San Miguel and Sobrado; that 
to Corunna, through Sigoueiro, Leyra, andCarral; 
that to Pontevedra, through £1 Padron and Caldas 
del Rey ; that to Orense, through Sistrama, Castro- 
vite, Fojo, and Pifior. 

Diligence to Corunna; the distance is 33 miles; 
6 to 7 hours. 

CORUNNA (Stat.): Spanish La Conma; 
French La Corogne; the Oroyne of our 


Population (1887), 34,098. 

Hotels.— Fonda del Comercio, in the Calle 
Real; Fonda Universal; Fonda Ferro-oarrilana; 
Iberia. C&f4 Suizo. 

The ancient Ardcbicum Corunium^ the chief sea- 
port of Galicia. It is situated in the bays of 
Betanzos and £1 Fcrrol, on the east side of a small 
penhisula. The town, which is fortified, is divided 
Into two parts, the upv«t, ox o\4 iQvm^ «s\d t^e 

Bonte 8.] 



lower, or new town, called Pescaderla. The latter 
is well built, but the streets are narrow. It was 
from Comnna that the Spanish Armada set sail in 
1588, and on the heights of Elvina the French were 
defeated by Sir J. Moore on the 16th January, 1 809. 
The population are employed to a great extent in 
the herring and pilchard fishery. The climate is 
delightful, and favourable to longevity. Capital 
fishing. The Bay of Ferrol is directly opposite 

Blf^ts. — Church of Santiago, of the eleventh 
century. Church of La Santa Maria, with a Norman 
porch. The Pharos, or lighthouse, called Torre de 
Hercules, on a Roman foundation. It is situated 
about one mile north-west of the town, is 868 feet 
above the level of the sea, and can be seen at 20 
miles distance. Darsena, or dockyard. The slips for 
shipbuilding. Hospital. Presidio, or convict prison. 
The tobacco manufactory (called La Pulloza), which 
employs upwards of 2,000 hands, principally women, 
and turns out 400 tons of cigars annually. Several 
good promenades; Calle Real; Calle Espoz y 
Mina ; that called La Marina is much frequented 
on summer evenings. Tlie garden of San Carlos 
(Jardin do San Carlos), containing a monument to 
the memory of Sir John Moore, erected by the 
French to the ''Leader of the British Ann)'," who 
was buried here. General Graham (Lord Lync- 
dochX who was with Moore when he fell, was 
confirmed in his rank at Moore's dying request. 

Resident Bni^h and American Consuls. 

Conveyances.— Steamers to all the northern 
ports, and also to Vigo, Cadiz, ^c. ; also twice a 
day to Ferrol. To Liverpool, Pacific Steam Navi* 
gation Co. Reg^ilAr communication with South- 
ampton. Diligences for Vigo every evening. 

Railway.— To Lugo (see below), 72 miles ; with 
several bridges and seven tunnels; thence to 

Monforte, Ponferrada, Astorga, Leon, and 

Falencia* in conjunction with the line for 

Excursion to Ferrol.— steamers once a day 
from (^rufla to Ferrol and back. Time of trip 
1^ hour. By land, 82 miles, a delightful ride. Rail 
to Betanzos, 9 miles, thence by diligence. 

FERROL, or El FerroL 
(Posada de San Felipe), with 28,811 inhabitants, 
has the first and safest naval port in SpaV 
Jf 8 position ltA9 been rendf rod alpiost impregi\ab\ 


being only accessible by a narrow passage of 4 
miles, bristling with batteries. Old town of Fer- 
rol irregularly built. Admission to arsenals, A^c, 
readily granted. Parish Church of San Julian is 
well built. Walks near the town, especially the 
Alameda, are pretty. Cleopatra't Needie^ which 
left Alexandria in tow for London, having been 
cast oiT in a storm in the Bay of Biscay, was 
picked up and brought in here, in October, 1877. 
It was safely towed to London in January, 1878. 

Coach carrying the mails leaves every forenoon 
for Betanzos, on the line to Lug •, Leon, Palencia, 
Vulladolid, and Madrd. 

Luaa (gtat) 

Population, 19,760. 

HoteL — Posada, in the Barrio de San Roque. 

A city, capital of the province of the same 
name, on a height over the Minho. It is enclosed 
by high walls, and has a large plaza surrounded 
by arcades. In the time of the Romans it was the 
capital of this part of Spain. 

Sights.- Gothic Cathedral of the twelfth cen- 
tury; notice the north portal. Some curious 
walls of immense thickness, defended by buttress- 
towers, and a very old fortress with quaint chim- 
ney. Ancient warm mineral Bathi and a spring 
<m the left bank of the Minho, about a quarter of 
an hour's walk from the Puerta de Santiago. 
Roman remains. See the Plaza Mayor, where 
will be found many curious types oi the provincial 

Convesrances.— Railway to MonforteCStat.); 

thence to Orense and Vigo; and from Monforte to 
Astorga and Leon. Rail to Corufia as above. 

Roads to OriedO. — Under the Asturias 
mountains, one by Gonda, Fontanegra, Acevo, 
Berducedo, Cangas de Tineo (population, 
1,200), Tineo (a fine spot up the Nacera, popu- 
lation 1,800X Salsas, and OradO (population, 
2,000). Those who prefer the rail may travel 
vift Monforte, Ponferrada, Astorga, and Leon, 
198 miles. 


Population, 4,483. 

Inn.— Fonda del None. 

Rail to t «AftTv«\«.« ^ \tfyax%. ^ 

TYv^ Asturka Augxula ^"^ ^^"^ ^^TS:l^«t^^^ 



[Section h 

Of Moorish Goths, near the Telleno hills. In the 
time of riiny it was capital of the Atture^^ and was 
styled Urhs magn^fica. It has an old castle and some 
ruined fortifications. The walls are similar to those 
of Leon, but in a more perfect state, flanked by many 
semicircular towers, none of which rise higher 
tiiaii the walls'. 

The Gothic Cathedral, built in 1471, has been 
disfigured by repairs and alterations. It has two 
toVrers, one of grey the other of red stone. The 
rotable, by Becerra, was executed in 1669, and is 
considered his chef d'oeuvre. It represents sub- 
jects from the life of the Saviour, but has been 
somewhat injured by re-painting. There are also 
some convents, and two Roman tombs near the 
Pucrta de Hierro (gate of iron). In the vicfaiity of 
the town Is the castle of the Counts of Benaveote, 
situated on an island in the lake of Sanabria. 

LEON (Stat) 
population, 11,240. 

Hotels.— Parador del Norte; Posada de los 
Catalanes. Casas de Pupilos (lodging and board), 
on the Santa Domingo. A posada on the Rastro. 

Leon is capital of the province (and anciently of 
the kingdom) of the same name. It occupies alow 
and level tract under a sloping hill, at the con- 
fluence of the Torio and the Bemesga, each of 
which is here cro8se<I by a bridge. The two rivers 
form nearly an isle, which is surrounded by deli- 
cious hucrtos, prados, and woodland. The climate 
is, generally speaking, cold, on account of the 
quantity of snow, which, for a great part of the 
year, covers the mountains to the nortli, east, and 
went. The province of Leon, with the two Castilos 
and Estramadura, stands on the grtat central 
tableland of Spain, 2,000 feet above sea, dry and sun- 
burnt, without woods or water. The Duoro, or 
Douro, rises in the highlands to the north. 

This old and now somewhat decayed city is the 
ancient Legio Septiina, and is said to have been 
built by the Roman soldiers of the 7th leglun in the 
time of Vespasian, and was for more than two 
centuries the reHidoncc of the kings of Christian 
Spain. It is built in the form of an octagon, sur- 
rounded by ancient walls, in a somewhat dilapi- 
dated state, and is entered by eleven gates. The 
^*M«f mrffrtA^ of notice is the Puorta del Castillo. 
;^'^%'J^JAoBcJi> tJbe arntmlesoranhvLrha, there 

inhabited, and in a stateof decay. Thereare seventy- 
two good streets, besides some smaller ones, five 
principal plazas or squares, and several plazuelas, 
or little squares. The streets called Nueva, Santa 
Cruz, La Rua, and San Marccio are thA best 
The four principal plazas are lined with handsome 
buildings. Plaza de la Constitucion is a beautiful 
square, and has a fine front of balconies. The 
others are, that of the Conde de Luna, whence the 
name of his palacio, San Isidoro, San Marcelo, and 
de la Catedral. The city contains also some supef b 
fountains, composed of marble and jasper, with 
allegorical groups. 

The manufactures are unimportant, the city 
having become rather an agricultural market town 
than anything else. There are two weekly markets 
and three annual fairs; all the latter are well 
attended, and last several days. Horse fair, 24th 

BlglltS.— The Cathedral, one of the best speci- 
mens of Early Pointed Gothic architecture extant, 
was begun a.d.1200; although smaller than many, 
for elegance, delicacy, lightness of structure, and 
fine proportion considered to be unrivalle<l In Spain; 
it is constructed of hewn stone of a beautiful colour; 
the masonry is superb, the walls are 105 feet high. 
It was partly restored by Mondrago In the early 
half of this century. The principal fafade, thir- 
teenth century, comprises five richly scalpturcd 
pointed arches, ornamented with forty statues, 
and surmounted by two very elegant and lofty 
towers. The plan of the building is that of an 
irregular fignii^ composed of others of a regular 
shape, which include the church, the sacristy, and 
oratory, the chapels of Santiago and Santa Teresa, 
and the cloister and its dependencies. The nave, 
transept, and presbj'tcry form a perfect Latin cross, 
decorated with light pillars sustaining the high and 
beautiful fronted arches. Over the Cruccro and 
eastern part of the building arc seven Chapels; at 
the south part is the Sacristia and Sala Capitular, 
and to the north the entrance to the CapDla de 
Santiago and the passage to that of Santa Teresa 
and the cloister. The decoration of these chapels, 
their arches, ^., is like that of the naves; and they 
are closed with beautiful iron grates, and contain 
some good rctablos. The Capilla de Santiago is 
•of the figure of a leciaugular parallelogram;' it is 

^y«»iuvurage/jr tlte Arrahtilee or Buburha, there j 'Of the ngurcoi a leciauguLar parauciogram; ins 
' -^^^^a^^fiaan^o/wbtcfffJiowcvcrtiirevLn' I large and Ui good Va»V^ ^\\i «X^'i«l>ii^ wOw^^wj^ 

jibuih 8.]- 



beantifnlly painted windows, representing saints, 
apostles, virgins, Ac, by Flemish artists; the 
principal retablo in the niche of the prcsbj-tery is 
dedicated to the Assumption of Our Lady. The 
basement is composed of darkmarbles,well polished, 
and brought from the quarries of the country. 

Above is the first tier of the Corinthian order, and 
above it another tieroratticof the same order with 
columns. In the centre is the statue of the Assump- 
tion, of good execution and of regular dimensions, 
and at the sides figures of the apostles scattered 
over the field of the retablo. Li the centre of the 
basement is the custodia, lieautifully executed in 
stiver, adorned with statuettes of apostles and 
patron saints of the city and the cathedral. In the 
middle is a small temple of the same material, with 
highly finished eolnmns. The back of the choir is 
carved In white alabaster ami gold, the subjects 
being the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Adoration, 
and the Offering of the Three Kings. The cathedral 
is being thoroughly renovated and almost rebuilt 
in somie parts, the internal arrangements being 
changed ; the retablo and choir being taken away 
and the choir rearranged, and the altar placed 
under a baldacchlno. The cloisters have also 
been modernised. The cathedral was completed 
about 1512. The Interior is mainly fourteenth 

San Isidore, or Real Casa, a massive structure; 
Romano-Byzantine of the eleventh century. In the 
chapel of Santa Catallna Is the Pantcon, which in 
early times was the royal mausoleum; note the 
roof, the arches, and the curious paintings inside 
the vaults. 

San Marcos, outside the walls, Platercsqne of 
sixteenth century; note the fine fa9ade of the 
convent and the medallions. This church and 
monastery will well repay a visit. The church 
has been carefully repaired, but the interior of the 
monastery is not worth seeing. Few of the other 
churches or convents are of any Interest ; that of 
San Domingo, near the Pnerta San Domingo, was 
half destroyed by the French; It contains seme 
ancient tombs of the Gtitman family. San Marcclo, 
rebuilt about 1100, has a good portal of the 
twelfth century, with sculpture representiiiK.the 

Hospital de San Antonio Abad, situated in the 
western part of the city, between the church of 
San Marcelo and the Casa Municipal. There are 
also several other hospitals. 

Casa de Espositos, or foundling hospital, a large 
buildlnpr outside the town, opposite San Clodlo. 

El Palucio Episcopal to the east of the city, its 
principal fumade fronting the Santa Iglesia; one 
part of the building Is occupied In winter, the other 
in summer ; there is a fine garden attached to it. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall). Gaaa 
Consistorial, a vast edifice situated on one of the 
sides of the Plaza Mayor, and used for great muni- 
cipal ceremonies ; it is flanked with two towers, 
surmounted by pointed cupolas. Casa Cajpitular, 
appropriated to the secretariat and the archives of 
the municipality. 

Museo in the Santa Catalina,an ancient niuiiler}'t 
which also contains the Public Library of 6,000 

A Diocesan Seminary. A Gymnasium, or Insti- 
tute lately established to afford a superior general 

A Theatre in the Plaza de San Marcello, near 
Casa de i^yuntamionto. It is capacious and well 
decorated, but the exterior is unimportant, and Ls, 
moreover, confounded with contiguous buildings. 

Casa do los Guzmanes, on the Plaza de San 
Marcelo, formerly a magnificent palace. It was 
founded about the year 1&80, by Don Juan de 
Guzman who died at Calnhorra; note especially 
the windows and the balconies. Contiguous to this 
house, and separated only by the Calle de Reco- 
letas, is that of the Marqueses de Villasinta* 
Count of Sevilla la Nuova. It is spacious,, 
solidly built of hewn stone, with balconies, bat 
not so fine as those of the Casa de los Guzmanes. 
Opposite is the Casa de los Condcs, an unfinished 
palace of the Luna family; note especially the 
tower and curious window. 

El Mcrcado (the market); Plaza Maj-or, sur- 
rounded by fine buildings, and much frequented 
by the Slite. 

Espolon dela Puertadel Castillo, a finely planted 
8^ce, Affording a beautiful and much frequented, 
proihenade. Several ^tc«fiWBi«A»«QX»^>SMfeS;5>»^ ^'«5s^^ 

Virgin lurrpunled by angels. Church of 8ta. 

Maria del Mereado; archta o! the naves and thflVr \ \atR6Mv^aM^^Va»5^«^^^'^'^'^'*^ ,ij^vix* 

capitals ax^notewori^Y. \ onte^VA^sAsA*.'^^^-^^*^'*'*^ 

Otmvajruie.i.— Leon i^ 

rail. M) mllci. put Boido 
thiODgh tbe Aitnrlan Modi 

From Ijran by direct nil , 
through UonsiJli. gshnirn 
KiUDecin, Fjimlt*, Ae„ T«) m 

§, dHpnlatian, U71), a 

TlclnCty I 

an Toravroa, PftUnqainos, ud El surgo. 


. HoteL-A pa»d>, 

Tbli town I> iitiut«d on t AeclWUy, In 
pluunl and ncH-irnodcd country, on tbe banl 
of the rlrer Cm, or Cos. It jg of ancient [ouiide 

.c merKin ol I 

Bcido. a Town HeU 

MhooH, and other public 

ediacei, there >re (o 

SiDte EulallB, Sen Joe 

n, San Martin, and'semi 

Marlt The high alt 

r ol Santa Enlalla -»>■ 

carrtd bj Beirnguete. 

o( Dim. of the ordor 

f SanU Brlglde, boldei 

i CrlMo do la Caea de la 

C™*, Naeitra Sellora 

do Canjai end NDeetia 

reiu, at about i league 

north of the hill, whlc 

defend the place It la 

Ihe birth-place of Pedri 

and of the colebretcd 

immciitalDr end political 

brother Sam 

ded bra height. It ig 

'o^wHT,^ *//u jM ui jujGioDi louKution. jt bag 
J^f^ v^i^/oarrrmtA mail in^y good boaagA% or 

loim ball, nlih prison attached, a parigh chc 
1 primary Khool, nnmeroui flour mlllg. an 
trade In flonr and game. 


Popslatlan, 11,00«. 

HoM.— Fonda Vlicalna. 

The aiKleirt PaUantia. pleauntly aitnatedoii 
BiTer Carrlini. It la a blghop'a ace, and 

Route 8.] 



Sights.— A smftU ele^Ant Gothic Cathedral, 
partly of the fourteenth and partly of the sixteenth 
centnry; note the coro, the custodia, the tine 
sculpture, and some paintings by Murillo, &c. 
Several convents. Hospicio de San Lazaro, 
once the palace of the Cid. Roman sepulchral 
stone near the Puerta del Mercado. Old town 
walls and public walks. 

Conyeyanees. — - Rail to Venta de Baflos 
(page 18X Yalladolid, and Madrid; to Leon, 
Astorga, and Branuelas; thence for Corunna and 

From Palonciabyrailto Reinosa and Santandcr 
(page 41), 125f miles, through the Cantabrian 
or Astorlan range, with many tunnels and curves. 

REINOSA (Stat.) 

Population, 2,780. Buffet. 

The chief place of the district extending from 
the Cantabrian mountains to near Burgos, and 
called Las Montaflas de Burgos. It is situated on 
the Ebro, which is here crossed by a fine bridge. 
It is a place of some trade, and good fishing is to 
be had in the vicinity. To the west is Pefia 
Labra, 6,570 feet above sea. 

Large coalfields in the viciisity. The railway 
between Barcena and Reinosa presented con- 
siderable engineering difficulties, which were 
eventually successfully overcome. 

OVIEDO (Stat.) 
Population (1687), 42,716. 

Hotels.— Luisa ; La Catalana; La Ti&ana; 
La VIzcaina. Cafd Suizo. 

A city, capital of the province, between two 
mountains, near the confluence of the Ovia with 
the Nora. It was the chief place of refuge for 
the Christian clergy during the early dominion 
of the Moors. In its vicinity are hot mineral 
springs and baths, and beds of coal extending over 
240 square miles. It has manufactures of arms, 
hats, and leather. 

Slghta— The OathedraKcalled La Santa), one 
of the finest Gothic buildings in Spain; note the 
facade, the painted glass, the cloisters, the shrine 
of Santa Eulalia, the CiCmara Santa (holy cham- 
ber), with its relics, comprising the bones of 
the Saiots Pantaleon, Cucn/ato, and nlQ« other 
OotAJo kUigti nuuuu^ from the deserL out 
Msr/our'0 thrond, tome of the Virgin's mttk, the 

sandal of St. Peter, a wine vessel used at the 
marriage of Cana, and the Cross of Pclayus, 
which fell from Heaven, another Cross, date 846, 
Library and curious MSS. 

Church of San Miguel ; note the whidows and 
pillars in the transept (very ancient). Church of 
Santa Maria (very ancient), worthy of a visit by 
theantiquarian. Santullano (a mile from the town), 
of the Byzantine order. San PeUyo (Pelayus). 
San Tirso, in ruins. San Juan. San Vicente, a 
large Benedictine convent, now used for govern- 
ment ofilces. Dolla Bolesquida, a pilgrim hospital 
San Domingo, a hospital. San Francisco, a hos- 
pital, formerly a large convent, in the vicinity of 
the town; note the cloister and chapel. Las 
Casa Consistorial. La Corte, a prison, formerly 
a fortress. University, large building of the 17th 
century, containing a library of 12,000 volumes, 
and a cabinet of natural history, mineralogy, Ac. 
Las Caldas, the warm Baths, beautifully situated 
at a short distance from the town. A fortress of 
the tenth century. Monument of black marble to 
Jovellanos, outside the Puerto de Nocera. Eleven 
public Fountains, supplied with water by two 
Aqueducts; one called Pllares, which brings 
water from Gitoria, was built in 1699. Interest- 
ing streets and promenades are those named 
Chambel, Bomb^, and La Tenderina. 

Conyejrances.— Diligences to Santander, from 
Gijon, Lastres, Colombres, San Vicente, or by 
another road by Infiesto, Covadonga, and San 

Vicente to Santillaxia (page 41). Covadoiiga 

is the historical capital of the first Asturian 
kings. Pel ay 0, <fec., whose remains lie in Sta. 
Maria, in Cueva Grotto. Diligence to Norena for 
Railway.— To Gljon, Sama,and Laviama; and 

through Pola de Lena, Puente los Flerros, 

and BusdongO to Leon, 86} miles, a rough and 
picturesque country ; the rail traverses the Astu- 
rian mountains. 

Th^road to Leon passes Mferes, La Muela, 
Pajares, and Carbajal, crossing the Puerto de 
Pafares, a mountain gap, 4,470 feet above sea. 

GUON (Stat.\ 
T^i. e^^Vc^xvV. Ge^lU*.*. ^«^^>: "^^ In. v. 



[Section i. 

townj remarkably cleatif is w^ll supplied with pro- 
Tifions, and is madb frequented for sea-bathing. 
It has a large trade. It exports a g^eat deal of 
coal, nuts and other fruits, through its harbour, 
which is a good one. The largest street is called 
La Corrida, and runs the entire extent of the 

dictlne Conreni; on to San Juau (de las 
AbadcsasX 54 miles. The volcanic peaks of O/o/ 
are to the east.] 

Hostalrldl (BtaD— An important fortress, 
taken by the French in 1694 and 1809. Windows, 
constructed in the old walls, give light to dwellings 

town. The town was sacked by the French under behind, an arrangement which is probably unique. 


JfilgTltff. — A fine arched gateway called del In- 
fante, built by Charles III. The palaces of the 
llarquis de San Esteban, Yald^s, and Revillajigedo. 
The college fodnded in 1797. The church of San 
j^e^ro, witb some statues by Antonio Borja. A 
high school, school of navigation, Ac, in the In> 
Btituto Astnriano, with a valuable museum. The 
tobacco manufactory, employing upwards of 1,670 

English yice-Consul. 

iSXCUrslonS are made to the Cistercian Con- 
"^eni of Santa Maria, and also to Deva; neither of 
irhlch is far off. 

. Co&YdyanCM. — Railway to Ovicdo, and to 
Sasia and Laviana. Rail to Aviles, vid Villa- 
bona. Steamers (in fine weather) to Santandcr 
and Corunna. Diligences to Santandcr at 8 a.m. 
and 2 p.m..; fare, 20 reals. Fur the most part 
the road follows the coast through VlUaviciOSa 

^population, 1,400), Lastres, Ribadcsella, Llaucs, 
San Vicente, and San till ana. (See page 41.) 

Empalme (Stat.) 

GEBONA (Stal) 

Population (1887), 16,015. 

HotCSl. — Fonda Italiana. 

The ancient Gerunda, capital of the province of 
the same name. It is situated at the confluence 
of the rivers Ter and Ofia, and commanded by a 
fortified height called Montjuich. It is partially 
enclosed by walls and is well built. It was taken 
in 786 by Charlemagne, who made it into a 
bishopric. It was blockaded by Philip V. in. the 
war of succession, and iif'1809 by the French 
under Augereau, who, in seven months, lost 
upwards of 16,000 men. The siege of Gcrona in 
1808 is as memorable as that of Saragassa. 
The name of its heroic veteran, Don Mariano 
Alvarez do Castro, deserves to live in history 
by the side of those of Lconidas, Zrini, 
Sobieski, and other strenuous defenders of 
their country and of the faith. The town of 
Gerona was exposed to three sieges (1808-9). 
It stands on both banks of the Ofia, united 
by a fine stone bridge. The defences consisted 
chiefly of an old wall with turrets, to which 

Barc6loiia, to Oerona, Flgneras. Rosas. ««^^" ^'^^^^''^^ ^" ^*^**""^ ^^" "^***^ ** *^'^ 
and Perplgnan. on the Rrench border. *^°»« °^ ^^\ '^5^- ,^ 

•MftM.* ''•o 1 ^^^ population of Gerona amounted in 1808 to 

Barcelona (Stat.) See Route 7. To Gerona, ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ j^^ garrison at the beginning of the 

by raU, in about 4 hours. To Granollers(i8 miles) third siege was 5,700 men. Its trade is small ; but 

inlihour;pastMoUetorS.VincentedeMollet, j^ ^^^ manufactures of cottons and woollens 

where a short branch turns off vi& Gallechs, to hosiery, paper, and soap, 

the hot springs of Caldas de Montbuy, very siglltB.— The Cathedral, a fine edifice of the 

plentiful and efiicacious. 

QranOUem (Stat)— A small town, with exton- 

: sive manufactures of sandals. [A branch rail 

towards the Pyrenees passes San Martin to 

VlCby or Vique, the ancient Vicug^ an old Cata- 

fourteenth century; it is approached by a mnjnji- 
ficent fiight of eighty-six steps ; note the facade, 
the Pucrta de los Apostolcs, the Silleria, the altar 
with splendid retablo, by Benes, the sepulchres of 
Bercnguer, Anglesola, and Bernardo de Pavo, the 


Ionian town (population 19,478), with a Cathedral, Bala Capitular, the cloisters, the Cemcterio, and 

.A'ood Rambla, and thriving manufactures; tfiencc the Galilea, with their inscriptions, and the ar- 

^^^6ta OaJrico, fbf&n6,and MipoU, 24 miles, chhres. From the belfry a fine view is to be had. 

a Tej-aaef/snu^r, wm ruins of M Sue Bene- Colegtata de San ¥ft\V<ift iy€VVx.^» Vii \.\xv^ ^XxwCb. 

Route 10.] 



note the relics, among which arc the body of San 
Narclso and the head of San Felice. Capuchin 
convent, with an Arab bath. Diocesan school, 
large library, several hospitals, and nine convents. 

Conyesrances.— Rail opened 1878, to Port 
Vendres (Stat.), for Perplgnan ; following the 
coast, across the French border. The stations are 
Bordils. Flassa, S. Miguel, Figueras, FortbOU, 
Ccrbbre, &c. 

The high road to Perpignan passes Bascara, 
Figrueras, La Junquera, and £1 Boulou. 

naUERAS (Stat.) 

Population, 11,789. 

Hotels. —Fonda del Comercio; Dcssays. 

The ancient Ficaris, a frontier town of Spain, 
one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, and 
situated on a fertile plain, 21 miles north-north- 
east of Gcrona. It was taken by the French in 
1808, 1811 (twice by surprise), and 1823. It has 
trade with France, and its manufactures comprise 
paper and leather. 

Sights.— The large Citadel, called San Fernando, 
from having been built by Ferdinand VI., with 
large arsenals and magazines, and quarters for 
16,000 men, is the only object of interest. 

[To the right of Figueras, at the distance of a 
few miles, is 


Population, 8,219. 

The ancient Rhoda, a seaport on the north shore 
of the g^lf of the same name. It is situated at an 
angle between Perpigrnan and Gerona, and con- 
sists of one large street along the shore, and several 
others which traverse it. A torrent divides the 
town into two parts. It has a trade in timber, 
machinery, iron, steel, oil, wine, brandy, and hemp. 
There are also some flour mills. 

Sights. — Fortress, in a ruinous state, in which 
it has remained ever since it was besieged by the 
French, in 1808, and most gallantly defended by 
British blue jackets; another Castle, for the de- 
fence of the bay, on a peak south-east of the town, 
and a battery with five guns at its foot. A parish 
church and elementary school]. 

The route to Port Vendres (Stat), the old 
Portu» VenerU^ which is situated 17 miles souiYi- 
MBk ot Petptgaant 9b the French side, runs by 

Cabo de Crcus and Cervcra, or Ceih^re (Stat.), 
as above. 

Between La Junquera and El Boulou the road 
has a fine view of the Pyrenees. The fortress of 
Bellegarde, situated on an eminence, was built by 
Louis XIV. to protect the entrance into France. 
It is 17 miles south of Perpignan and from it a 
fine view of the Canigou may be had. The Canl" 
gOU is situated 24 miles south-west of Perpignan, 
and is one of the culminating points of tho 
Pyrenees. It is 9,130 feet in elevation. 

FERFIONAN (Stat), in France. 

Population, 34,188. 

Hotels.— Grand Hotel de Perpignan; del'Enrope; 
du Nord. 

Omnibus to railway, stopping at all the hotels, 
in about 15 minutes. 

Oonyesrances.- To Prades, 25| miles. To 
Narbonne, 40 miles. 




Gibraltar to Malaga, Granada, Cordoya, 

Seville, Zeros, and Cadiz. 

London to Gibraltar, by stenrocr, direct, about 
b\ days; P. & 0. Co., Orient Co.; Liverpool to 
Gibraltar, Cunard and Moss Lines. 


Population (1891), 25,775, inclusive of the 
garrison (nearly 6,000). 

Hotels.— Koyal; Europa. The Club House was 
some time the residence of the Duke of Connaught. 
Accommodation for strangers limited. Lodgings 
scarce, and rather dear. 

The promontory, fortress, town, and bay of 
Gibraltar, situated on the Spanish side of the 
Strait, belong to Britain. The promontory is a 
vast Rock, jutting into the Mediterranean, consist- 
ing principally of grey compact limestone, about 
1,400 feet above the sea; is about 2} miles in length, 
and from half to three-quarters of a mile in width, 
and is Joined to the mainland by a low, sandy 
isthmus, about 1^ mile in length. On the nurth 
side, fronting the isthmus, the rock- \.% •5>lcvsssai«-'«6'«.- 




this ilope, facing Algectras, lies the town, and above 
rise the principal ramparts of the rocky fortress, 
which is generally garrisoned by upwards of 5,000 

It was taken by Tarik, the Moor, in 711, who 
efected a castle on the shoulder of the rock called 
Gibel Tarik (the mountain of Tarik) ; whence its 
present name is derived. Traces of this castle may 
still be seen. From here he marched to Medina 
didonia, and defeated Roderic, the last of the 
Ooths. The Moors continued in possession of 
Gibraltar till the beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury, when it was recovered fromthem by Ferdinand 
IV., Khig of Castile and Leon. It subsequently 
fell into the hands of the Moorish King of 
Granada, from whom it ^^as taken in 1462 by the 
Christians, under Henry FV., Khig of Castile, who 
gave it the t^rms it still bears, namely, a castle 
with a key hanging to the gate, alluding to its 
being the key of the Mediterranean. From this 
time to the end of the seventeenth century Gibraltar 
remained in the hands of the Spaniards, by whom 
the fortifications were so far increased and modern- 
ised that the place was looked upon as impregnable; 
iintil taken by an English and Dutch fleet, under 
Hiv George Rooko and the Prince of Hesse-Darm- 
atudt, on the 24th July, 1704. During the nine 
following years several unsuccessful attempts 
were made to recover the fortress by force or 
stratagem, in which the loss of the assailants was 
Very great. In 1713 the possession of the place 
was confirmed to the English by the peace of 
Utrecht. In 1727 it was again attacked by the 
Spaniards, "»rith an army of 28,000 men. The 
siege continued for several months, and was termin- 
ated by the {general peace on the 12th May. The 
last and mt'St memorable of all the sieges of 
Gibraltar was commenced by the French and 
Spaniards, in 1779, and did not terminate till the 
*Jnd Februai y, 1783, when it was announced that 
the prellmir arles of a general peace had been 
bigned. On this occasion it was attacked with 
great deterr ilnatlon by land and sea, the enemy 
b(ing provided with all the appliances of destruc- 
tion that could be devised in that day; but the 
Ihitish general. Governor Elliot (Lord llcathfield), 
and his garrison utterly foiled all their attempts. 
- T^a Hock, virbicb is hard grey Jurassic lime- 
^/(fW0 ^ifoantis wUJt Catw, tJte most rmnrk»hU ot 

which is St. Michael's, on the south-west %X^, 
The entrance, 1,000 feet above sea, leads to a 
spacious hall, apparently supported by massive 
stalactites. Beneath is a succession of descending^ 
caves, very picturesque, but of difScult access. 
Not far from these are some other Caves, dis- 
covered by the late Captain Brome, 1863. In the 
perpendicular fissures of the rock, bones of various 
animals, mostly African (as described by Professor 
Busk), including human bones, and other relics, 
have been discovered. 

The Spanish Lines, which extend across the 
isthmus, are defended by two forts, the principal 
of which is called St. Philip. The space between 
these lines and the foot of the rock is called the 
Neutral Ground, and it is here that the Lazaretto 
is situated. 

Sights.— Fortifications: magnificent view from 
the signal tower and batteries; Iiarbour; markets, 
with great variety of fish; extensive promenade; 
military prison and convict establishment. Good 
English and Foreign Library, called the garrison 
library, in Governor's Parade. It contains upwards 
of 45,000 volumes. English newspaper^ and 
periodicals are also ta^en in. The building com- 
prises two suites of handsome rooms, to which 
strangers are admitted by a subscriber, towards 
whom the greatest liberality is always shovim. ThQ 
lions of the place arc the monkeys, which are held 
in great respect. They are of a dark fawn-colour, 
and without tails. They arc few in number, and 
not always seen by casual visitors. The highest 
points are the Signal Tower (El Hacho, i.e. the 
bale-fire) and O'Hara's Tower. Under this, on 
the east side of the rock, is a remarkable sloping 
bank of sand, 600 feet above sea at its upper edge, 
blown up by the wind. From the north end of 
the Alameda an aerial cable-rail runs to the 
Signal Station, obviating the necessity of curts 
conveying stores by a steep and circuitous hill 

The Alameda is one of the principal attractions 
of the place, as it is here that all the various types 
of nationality, in which the Rock abounds, may be 
•<eon in picturesque variety. It is a large public 
promenade laid out with gardens, the geraniums 
which grow luxuriantly being especially remark- 
able; the palmetto and eucalyptus are also met 
with. The reglmeiila\ XjmiOa ^\«*.^ flXVa&VKArt-Mkss.^^ 

3outQ IQ.] 



in tbe parade ground, almost every erening. 
Fine views of the bay and opposite coast. The 
maricett near CfHomcrcial Square, not far from the 
Royal Hotel, is also well worth an early morning 
visit. Notice the troops of goats driven round to 
be milked at the door of the customer. Many 
Moors are seen in the streets, and their noisy 
Arabic frequently rises above the sonorous and 
stately Spanish, and the less striking English 

|*ublic worship at the Cathedral on Sundays, 
twice ; at the King's Chapel, three times ; and at 
the South, twice. There are also a Roman Catholic 
Church, a Presbyterian, and other chapels, and a 

Charges fbr Landing and fimluirklng 

Pasiwilgen, Ito. — The published tariff fixes the 
charges fbr going to or from the landing place to 
or from any place in the Bay, notwithstanding 
which passengers who are charged the tariff rate 
may consider themselves fortunate. The demand 
Usually varies from ^ dollar to 3 dollars cacli, and 
if the slightest wind blows, 5 and even 10 dollars 
have been demanded and paid. There is no tariff 
for cabs, charges for which are high. 

Post Office.— A mail is made up daily, for Eng- 
land, rid Madrid, Paris, Ac Since the opening of 
the line from Algeciraa to Ronda and Bobadilla, 
the service has been accelerated, and letters to 
London now take a little over 4 days, in place 
of 6 days or more as formerly. 

Foreigners cannot reside on the Rock without a 
consul or surety becoming responsible for them, but 
little difficulty is occasioned. The magistrates, 
moreover, grant permits of from 10 to 20 days. 
Shooting may be had in the vicinity of Gibraltar. 

The gates are shut at from 6 to 15 minutes after 
the evening gun has been fired; second gun, 8-30 
to 9 p.m. Martial law is in force. 

Several Consuls reside here; also an Agent to 
Lloyd's, and Agents to the Peninsular and Orien- 
tal Steam Navigation Company. There are a 
resident Senior Officer of the Royal Navy, and a 
Captain of the Port. 

Works on the Rock: Drinkwater*s "Siege of 
Gibraltar;" "The Mediterranean," by Admiral 
Smytb,8voMl894; andKelxart's* Flora Calpensis.'' 

Money.^lOO centimes = 1 peseta = about 8d. 
sterling for Spanish silver and notes. The coins are 
Spanish and British. The official sterling rate 
for Spanish varies, and is revised quarterly. In 
April, 1896, it was about 29} pesetas for £1. From 
1872 to 1881 the moneys were dollars of 20 realsr 
vellon each of 20 decimos; before 1872, dollars of 
12 reals each of 16 cuartos. Dollar = 5 pesetas. 

Conveyances. — steamers from Liverpool, 
weekly; P. and O. Steamers and Hall's line to 
and from London, weekly; French Steamers, 
three times a month, to Malaga (hours uncertain) ; 
and to Cadiz (hours uncertain) ; first class, 4 dol- 
lars. Spanish Steamers, about three times a week« 
to Cadiz and St. Lucar, touching at Algcciras and 
Tarifa; first class, 2 dollars. About three times 
a week to Malaga; first d^s^ 2 dollars. To Cadis, 
Lisbon, Vigo, and St Nazaire, three times a montli. 
To Algeciras and back, daily. To Tangier 
(English and French), on the African side (twice 
a week), which belonged to England, 1682-4, being 
part of Catherine of Braganza's dowry. Pepys 
went there, as Commissioner, with Lord Peter- 
borough, Ac. Twice a week. Wazan, 70 miles up 
the country, is the sacred city of the Grand 
Sheriff. To Ceuta and Tetuan, carrjing the 
mail (returning same day), about twice a week 
(days uncertain). These two places are Spanish 
possessions, on the African mainland. To Oran 
(Algiers) once a month, French steamers. To the 
Canaries, Mazagau, and Mogador, once a month. 
Liverpool steamers about every ten days, to Genoa, 
&c. See Steamer List, Bradthaw's Continental 

Ferry to Algecixas In connection with the new 
line to Jimena, now continued to Ronda and 
Bobadilla. See next page. 

Distance: Gibraltar is 60 miles south-east f 
Cadiz, and 1,640 miles from Southampton. The 
road to Cadiz lies over the Sierra de Fonda, with 
a splendid view of land and sea. It passes Algeci- 
raSt under a hill, on the Spanish side of the Bay; 
Tarifa, a Moorish place, at the most southern 
comer of Spain, celebrated for the conduct of 
Alonzo Guzman, the patriot, 1292, ancestor of the 
Medina Sidonia family; thence, in view of Cape 
Trafalgar (page 68), to ConlK «k^y, ^-V^ -^^^^ "^^ 

•I ■DdB tbe Slrilt< hu been profoMd, Tbcn in two 

which <r«Ud b« ),Ma fHt da- 
It, loai mlllUnii. The hluli mannli 
an tba Afrkaii caul, irlitcb urrciponili lo t 
Rock gf OlbralUi, ud funot the albti PUlir 
HcnsKt«<H<»uAbrli). Iiulled JIbel Muu. 
OUJ' 1>* TliUed (ram CcaU or Tangier. 

Vilki And Ezcnnioni-'-TiK waiki ■ 

ridai ttirmih the AUmnli, «i tlic t\aft at t 

(ba ca« ilda ii fat at the M«<l<tarraDeui StaL 
ara (audrllhrtandliiE the llmlled eiltnt oTcr wh< 
Iha roeh It awaitlblBl numerout at well at bea 
tUol, Adriiemaybetaken Ibrmghlhetown 
(ha Nanlral Onmnd, and (llla^ a( &■■ Roqm. 
■Hat: M Cartela, » milett to tbe cotiTenl or I 
BOtaliu; to (he Cork wood. It mile*: and 
Al(<el^al^ along the tea-ibore, abont II inll> 
Euartloiit are (reqacDllr made from Olh nil 
ts the Barh.ry eoait to tIiII Tangier, Tel nan, ■ 
OanU. Malaga B 

Botedllla (pag- MX forming a 
UoB. by C«doTa and Madrid, bi 
aod England. 

The cflyof Bonda, w 

There It no | 
n fron any ; 

arehlgh. Bitr 

pay ilaly fur th 

Ihey may haT< 

Travallart ai 

honr arior tni 


and Marl 

' carrlageenterlng Spain It taarchad 

I wlno, tobacco, talt, Ac, with wlilct 
provided IhomKlvei lor the day. 
t rralnded that <ti1bralur being ■ 

The road oTot Iho mounralna to Ronda paiaot 
BanHoque.Oaocln.Algatooln, and Atajats. The 
ruulo it grand, pleluretqne, froqoontly rugged, 
and not wlthunt danger. The diitinco It It 
leaguea, wlileh may bo ridden In IS oris hoori; 
^ni the beat plan will be to meku two diyi of It, 
atopplng tba Brat night at Ooj-rtn whtoh li charm- 
iatkf 'Mnated an a ridge. A ihort ont by the 
■MiwirtBn A Orrlei tant I Itmgaa. Tht dJi- 
*-«**« &brmlUt U gtaelB It tboat 8 lugau. 

Foiada de San 

la longevity of 

hta.-Th« Bridge, over the 


teparatei the old from the n 

lean conrent. The Alcais 

Mooriib Tower, In Calle de 


hei,hlghlrdocorated. Ptaia 

do Ton 

wn, near the Alameda, conild 

ett bnll-rlngi In Spain. Ace 

nd. La Mlna, the Malr-oa 

da, at the edge of the cliff 

o«ma«nlBcont.l6w. The 11 


0«mrutMa<— t^^ ^"i 

Koute 10.] 



by OlverA, Zaframagon, and Moron, and thence 
by rail, via Utrera. Cordova is now (1892) acces- 
sible by direct rail to BotMldilla (pages 54 and 
58), passing through Teba and Gampillos. 

Granada may be reached on horseback in three 
days, by way of Cuevas del Becerro, Gampillos, 
Bobadilla, Antequera, Archidona, and Loja. Konda 
to Gampillos, 9 hours; Gampillos to Loja, 12 hours; 
Loja to Granada, 9 hours; totMl, 80 hours. But 
the shortest way is by rail vui Bobadilla. 

The road to Jerez passes Grazalema, Puebia, 
El Bosque, and Arcos. It may be ridden in about 
16 or 17 hours, but the traveller would do well to 
rest at Arcos, where there is a tolerable Posada. 
Arcos is situated on a rocky eminence near the 
right bank of the Guadalete. 

Rail from Ronda to Malaga via Bobadilla, but 
the Journey may be made on horseback, in about 
14 hours, by way of Al Borgo, Gasaboncla, and 
Cartama. It is a rough mountain ride, but the 
scenery is magnificent. At Cartanui (Stat.) the 
rail may be taken to Malaga. There is, and rather 
nearer, another route by Alora (Stat.), popula- 
tion, 10,014, with ruins of an ancient castle, 20 
miles north-west of Malaga; whence train to 
Malaga. PizaXTa (Stat.), between Alora and 
Cartama, is the starting place for the Sulphur 
Baths of Carratraca, 2 hours distant, in a 
picturesque valley, 1,600 feet above sea. Two 
Hotels (Principe, ftc), and Bath-house. The 
waters are good for skin and rheumatic disease, 
and bronchial complaints. 

MALAQA (Stat) 

Population (1887), 184,016. 

Hotels.— Roma; Alameda; Nuevo; Victoria; 

CA8A8 DX PupiLOS (boarding houses).— 
tolerably good. Rate of living, from six to eight 
pesetas per day. 

Several bath establishments, 8 clubs, and reading 

English and American C<mtuls. 

Post Oj^«.— Calle de Gasapalma. 

Telegraph Office.— At the Aduana. 

Church of England Setviee^ 

Spanish Protestant Service. 

Malaga, the ancient Malaea, is a seaport city on 
the Medlterrsnosutf and is reckoned as the fourth 
Important cttyin Spain. It stand* at tho head ol 

a bay, near the foot of a mountainous range, and 
is situated in the midst of a delightful country, 
producing wines and fruits in abundance. It is 
built in the form of an amphitheatre. The streets 
in the old town are narrow and dirty; those in the 
new town are clean. The houses are low and 
painted or whitewashed with gn^ecn balconies, 
verandahs, and alcoves, often furnished with 
flowers and shrubs. Malaga is much frecjuented by 
British invalids during winter for its fine climate, 
snow and ice being things almost unknown. Dr. 
Edwin Lee says of it: ^* Malaga has a south- 
eastern aspect. The houses on the sunny side of 
the Alameda look directly south. The mountains 
by which the small plain is enclosed, rise to the 
height of 3,000 feet, at a distance of 4 to 5 miles. 
On the lower acclivities the vine is cultivated. On 
the eastern side the town is protected by the Castle 
Hill, whence a range of hills extends along the 
shore. It is comparatively open to the west. At 
one part of the mountain-chain to the north-west 
there is a considerable break or depression, admit- 
ting cold winds which occasionally blow with 
force, and, like the mistral of Provence, oblige 
invalids to remain within doors.'* In fact, Malaga, 
having a fine sheltered climate, open to the south, 
Is pronounced by Dr. Granville to be better than 
Nice for consumptive persons. 

It was taken by Ferdinand on the 18th August 
1487, after a terrific siege; and by the French 
under Sebastiani, on the 5th February, 1810, and 
again in 1828. It has several times suffered very 
severely from plague, which on one occasion swept 
off 30,000 of the inhabitants in forty days; and 
again, in the years 1833-34 the population was 
nearly decimated by the yellow fever. It has a 
large export trade in wines, the best of which 
are those called "Mountain" and "Lagrimas." 
Other exports comprise grapes, raisins, figs, 
oranges, almonds, lemons, olive oil, esparto grass, 
lead, and iron. About 14 million boxes of muscatel 
raisins are sent to England yearly, and nearly as 
much to the United States. The imports are silk, 
woollen, and cotton fabrics, colonial produce, salt 
fish, bar iron, iron hoops, and uaV.1%, V.V>».'».'aawsc«k.- 
facture& ol 'WWiW«sw,<i^^.atv^ wv^XNsnsscw^ Vt«c^^«&^ 
leather, ro^e, *«SV-tV>v\w^ vi«^> ^"t- ^N^^^*^ 



{Section 1. 

Sights.— The Oatbddral, one of the largest in 
Spain, a splendid edifice on the site of a mosque 
commenced by Philip II.. at the time of his mai- 
rlage with Mary of England. It contains a beau- 
tiful choir, some good paintings, remarlcable altar- 
piece, one of fine marble in the chapel of La 
Encanvacion, being particularly deserving atten- 
tion. Note the fine picture of the Virgin of the 
Bosary, by Alonso Cano. The Virgin is seated on 
a throne of clouds, and is adored by a group of 
saints (men and women) in various religious 
habits; note especially one of the child's feet, 
gracefully placed on the left hand of the mother. 
The picture is fast decaying. The spire 0/ the 
cathedral is over 800 feet high. From the summit 
II Qne view may be had of the town, harbour, and 
the environs. Church of Los Santos Martires, with 
interior richly decorated, and some good sculpture. 
Puerta del Sagrario, near the Cathedral. Of the 
other churches the only one of interest is El 
Cristo de la Victoria; tombs of the Buenaristas, 
and near the altar Ferdinand's royal standard. 

Plaza de Toros, or bull-ring, capable of accom- 
modating 12,000 persons. Casa de Ayuntamiento 
(Town HallX with a beautiful fa9ade. Large iron 
foundries. The Harbour, formed by a mole 700 
feet in length (on >vliich is a lighthouse), which 
may be entered during any wind, and capable of 
holding 450 merchant ships. The Atarazanas, or 
dockyard, used as a store-house. The fine old 
Moorish castle perched on a pointed rock called 
Gibralfaro. It was built six centuries ago, but 
the alcazaba, or lower part, is i>erf ectly Phosnician. 

Protestant Cemetery, formed by the late British 
c<m8u], Mr. Mark. It is situated on an eminence 
about half a mile along the road to Velez Malaga. 
It is laid out with considerable taste, and contains 
sopie fine monuments, the most conspicuous among 
which is that erected to the memory of the founder. 
Some antiquities. The promenades called Ala- 
meda and Calle Hermosa, the former extending 
from the Atarazanas to the port ; the latter com- 
manding a fine view of the bay. English Church 
Service held in the Consulate house. A special 
MifiHfant _,oI MaJa^a will be found in Dr. Lee's 

M^"^" ^'' '^^ *^''°*^ " ^adon, W. J. Adunn, 
rs^' J^^^'^^'PresM Eugenie waa bom at GrAnadA, 

' ^^^'^^^ ^^^^^J> CantnJ jmd yiee-Coiwa. 

English Church Service at the Consulate, Peligro, 
No. 7. 

ConvesranoeB. — steamers three or four times 
a week on uncertain days, to Gibraltar, in 8 hours ; 
to Cadiz, San Lugar, and Seville, stopping from 12 
to 24 hours at each intermediate port ; once a week 
to Cadiz direct in 13 hours; to Cartagena in about 
24 hours; by Ibarra A Co.'s and other steamers to 
Almeria, Alicante, Valencia, Barcelona, and Mar- 
seilles; to Lisbon, Vigo, and St. Nazaire; to Mar- 
seilles direct ; to London, John Hall & Co.'sline, 
weekly; and to Genoa and Leghorn direct. 

Railway.— To Madrid open throughout, vid Cor- 
dova. The new braneh (1894) from Pnente Genii 
(page 60) to Linares (page 59) opens up a nearer 
route leaving Cordova to the west. The branch to 
Granada, vid AnteQUera (population, 25,449) and 
Loja, turns off at Boliadilla (where the branch 
to Las Salinas comes inX by many tunnels and 
bridges through the striking defile of Sierra de 
Antequera. A direct line to Granada is projected. 
At Bobadilla is also the junction for the line to 
Gibraltar vid Bonda and Algeciras. Pizarra (p. 58) 
isthe station for Carratraca Baths. 

The numerous stalactite caverns in the neigh- 
bourhood are well worthy the attention of the 

Routes.— The road to Gibraltar passes Mar- 
bella and EstOPOXta ; at the latter place is a mine 
of magnetic iron ore. Near here are the valuable 
sulphurous baths of La Hedionda, a place of 
considerable resort. The road to Bonda passes 
through Cartama, or Pizarra (page 63), Casara- 
bonela, and Al Borgo (2 days). There are two 
routes to Granada, the one by Colmenar ahd Loja ; 
the other by Velez Malaga and AUxama; or the 
whole distance may be done by rail as above. 
There arc two conveyances daily t<i Granada, by 
way of Colmenar and Loja. The road as far as 
LoJa is very bad, and the best and most interest- 
ing route is by way of Vclcz Malaga and Alhama, 
which may be ridden in 2 days, resting the first 
night at Alhama; or Granada may be reached in 
1 day by taking diligence or carriage to Velez 
Malaga (4 or 5 hours), and making the rest of the 
journey by mules previously sent on, by a zigzag 
road over the Sierra. Mules may even be engaged 
for the who\e Joutuft^ lTQm"tt»^«J«^^A<lx«^wia^ 
Ronda, and Qibi&\Ui. 

fioute 10.3 



The distaricie from Malaga to Velcz Malaga, or 
Old Mali^a, is 5 leagues; to Alhama, 6 more; and 
to Granada, a farther journey of 7 leagues. 

VdldS Malaga lies 14 miles east-north-east of 
Malaga, near the Mediterranean. Population, 
34,832. It is situated in a tropical valley of the 
raisin country, and has a Moorish castle. 
Alhi^Tfift. (Inn : Casa de los Caballcros), 24 miles 
south-west of Granada has a population of 7,760. 
It is picturesquely situated under Sierra Tejeda, 
a peak of the Sierra Nevada 7,670 feet high; has 
Moorish walls in ruins; and in the vicinity are the 
celebrated warm Balhs^ from which it derives its 
Arabic name. A spot where Boabdll took his last 
look at Granada is called SI Ultlino Sosfliro. 
The whole district, with Antequera, suffered in 
the earthquakes of 1884-5; 1,500 houses were 
ruined, nearly 400 persons and 10,000 bead of 
cattle killed. 


Population (1887), 71,870. 

Hotels.— Fonda Victoria; Washington Irving 
Hotel; de los Slete Suelos; del Comerclo; de 

There are many Boarding Houses, both clean 
and reasonable. 

The city of Granada is the capital of a province, 
and was formerly that of a kingdom, and the 
ancient metropolis of the Moors in Spain. It is 
situated at the confluence of the Darro with the 
Genii, and is 2,245 feet higher than Malaga. It 
stands partly on the slopes of, and partly in the 
valleys of the A Ipujarra Hflls, overlooking the Vega 
de Granada, a fertile plain 70 miles in length by 20 
in width. Its terraced gardens, crenelated walls, 
minarets, old mosques, flat-roofed houses, and foun- 
tains attest its Mahomedan origin . Its environs are 
beautiful, with the snowy peaks of Sierra Nevada 
about 20 miles off (11,000 feet). It was built In the 
tenth century by the Saracens, out of the ruins 
of the ancient lUibetHty and appertained to the 
Kingdom of Cordova. After the overthrow of the 
Moors, it became, in 1288, the capital of the new 
kingdom, and the last bulwark of the Moslems in 
the Peninsula. It increased to the extent of 3 
leag^ues in circumference, and in 1311 had a popu- 
lation of 280,000, which, at a later date, some have 
carried as high as 400,000; and finally, in 1\^\, 
100,000 meOf under King Boabdll, defended V\.« 

under Ferdinand and Isabella, who reduced It on 
the 2nd of January, 1492. Santa F^ (doly Faith), 
20 miles down the Genii, was founded by them to 
commemorate this triumph. 

Granada, like Malaga, Seville, and Cadiz, is 
remarkable for the beauty of its women. It Is the 
birth-place of many illustrious men ; among others, 
of Alonso Cano, called, on account of his talent for 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, the Michael 
Angelo of Spain ; the historian, Luis del Marmol; 
Rueda, the Spanish Thcspis, who flourished before 
Lope de Vega; Luis de Granada, the greatest 
of Spanish orators; the Jesuit Suarez, who gave 
name to the Suaristas ; Hurtado de Mcndoza, tho 
Spanish Sallust, and the historical painter, Pedro 
Athanasio. The University has 1,200 students. 

In the Sierra de Nevada there is plenty of occupa- 
tion for the botanist and geologist. Mula Hacefi 
(11,664), or Picacho de la YeleU (11,387 feet), may 
be ascended without fatigue. 

Sights.— The Gathodral, a fine structure, 
though irregular, profusely ornamented with 
exquisite Jasper and marble works, from the 
quarries of the neighbourhood ; the fine dome rests 
on twelve arches, supported by as many pilasters, 
beneath which stands tho high altar; the silleria 
is half Gothic, half modem ; the two organs, which 
occupy each an inter-columniation, are full and 
well adjusted to the harmony of the voices; the 
cathedral contains some superb pictures by Cano, 
relating to the Virgin, viz., the Annunciation, 
(jonceptlon, Nativity, Presentation, Visitation, 
Purification, and Ascension, and some good pictures 
by his pupil, Pedro de Mena; in the Altar of Jesus 
Nazareno is an exquisitely carved Virgin and 
Child; in the Capilla de la Trinidad are three 
paintings by Rtbera, viz., St. Anthony, St. Jerome, 
and St. Lawrence, also the following pictures by 
Alonzo Cano, viz., a Saviour bearing his Cross, St. 
Augustine, a Virgin, and a Father bearing the 
Dead Son ; in the Capilla de la Santa Cruz are 
heads of John the Baptist and of St. Paul, natural 
size ; the Capilla de San Miguel contains a Virgin, 
by Cano, and in the opposite chapel are some 
curious pillars, brought from Loja by Archbishop 
Galvan ; in the transept are two large pictures bv 
Bocane«t«^> «^ ^NsrJs^n*' ^"^^ ^*»»- ^^i^-^o^NR*^ 

^eL^«c^Q wjpaN.'eX'Wk 

iralJs and fortressea against all ChrlsUan Si^Vii,\ dsX«ijOa»^^^'^''*^'^"^ 



BftAl>3itAw's Vl^kVA AKD POHTUGAL. 

[Section 1. 

Cano. The finest thing in the catliedral, or ratlier 
annexed to it, is the Oapllla delOSBeyes (of the 
kln^s of Spain); it is placed between the Sngrario 
and the Sacristia; note the rich Gothic portal, and 
the magnificent tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
and of Juana and Philip; casts of these fine 
monuments have been taken, at an enormous 
expense, for the gallery of the Louvre. Below the 
chapel are the plain coffins, which may be seen at 
the close of the service; the Oratorio contains a 
Virgin, in blue drapery, by Cano, and a Crucifix 
by Becerra ; above the door of the Sala Capitular 
is a Charity, in marble, by Torrigiano. A library 
of 30,000 volumes was bequeathed by Ferdinand 
Columbus (son of the great navigator), who is 
buried here. The facade was much injured by an 
earthquake, December 25th 1884, at the same 
time one of the towers of the Alhambra suffered 

The parish ChUTChes were once twenty-three 
in number, most of which have been suppressed. 
Few are of interest. San Angustias; note the 
tptendid high altar; the Twelve Apostles carved 
by Comejo, and a miraculous image of its patron. 

Ban Juan de los Reyes, formerly a mosque 
named El Teybir. San Cristobal, in the Albaycln 
quarter. Fine view from the belfry. 

La Cartuja,a Carthusian convent ; note the doors 
of the chapel, the cabinets and marbles, the paint- 
ings in the passages ; the doors of the choir, and the 
presses and woodwork of the sacristy, were carved 
by Fray Josef Manuel Yasqnez; the vault was 
painted in fresco by Antonio Palomino; note also 
the sacristy, the cloisters, and the gardens. 

San Gerdnimo, once a magnificent convent. The 
chapel formerly contained the remains and the 
■word of Gonsalro de Cordova. The interior and 
retablo should by all means be seen. 

San Juan de Dies, an extensive general hospital 
or infirmary for all complaints, even lunacy, the 
finest of the kind in Spain; and containing at 
the entrance an inscription recording that its 
founder, Don Jos^ Robles, "/it'«o tambien lospobres'' 
(made also the poor), an expresstor which has 
become proverbial in Spain. Another large hos- 
pital, in the Calle de San Lazaro; Hospital de los 
Locos (Lunatic Asylum), founded by Ferdinand 
aud Isabella. It is situated at the comer of the 
Plaza del Trinnfo. 

The bnll-flght arena in the Plaza del Trinnfo; 

the archiepiscopal palace; the Alcaiceria, or 
Moorish bazaar, near F.l Zacatin, the principal 
Moorish street ; the University, founded in 1526; 
also six colleges, academies of mathematics and 
design ; and a picture gallery at S. Domingo 

The gipsy colony in the Monte Sacro is interest- 

Fine Prado, with noble old trees, Ac; several 
fine squares, the three principal being El Campo, 
La Plaza Mayor, Bivarambla, in which last is a 
handsome fountain of jasper. The city is also 
adorned with numerous other fountains. Many 
fine public walks and objects of interest, the 
principal of which is tlic Soto de Roma, or wood 
of pomegranates, which surrounds tlie city. 

The Alhambra is the lion of Granada. This 
ancient palace of the Moorish kings stands on a 
lofty eminence between the rivers Darro and Jenil. 
It was commenced bj' Ibnel-Ahmar, about the 
year 1248 and continued by his son, Mohammed 
II. According to some writers, it received its 
appellation from the royal tribe of the Alhamare; 
but others, with more reason, assert that its 
founder gave it the name of Mcdinat Alhamra, or 
the Red City, on account of the red colour of the 
materials of which it was built, viz., a kind of red 
clay, or rather a cement of red clay, and large 
pebbles. It is surrounded by a strong wall fianked 
by square towers, and inclosing an area of 2,500 
feet in length and C50 breadth. The walls of the 
palace follow all the windings of the mountain. 
The River Darro flows at the base on the east, 
north, and west. 

The easiest ascent is by the street of the 
Cromeles, so called from a distinguished Moorish 
family of that name. In coming out of the 
Puerta de las Granadas the road is divided 
into three— the middle one for carriages, and the 
other two, which are very steep, for foot travellers. 
The middle road ascends between the hills of the 
Alhambra and the Torres Bermejas, through a 
very thick wood of lofty elms, the branches of 
which are so interleaved that the rays of the sun 
never penetrate their thick foliage. Innumerable 
clear rivulets glide through the forest, irrigating 
the ground, which is covered with verdure, or 
fall from rock to rock, forming a number of 
beautiful ca£C:)des. Near the summit of the hill is 
the fountain of Charles Y., on a sort of natural ter- 

Route 10.] 



race, from which there Is a bird*s-eyc view of all the 
ascent, which amply repays for the fatigue. 
After passing this fountain, the traveller comes in 
sight of the Alhambra gate, called Jndiciaria, or 
Torre de Judicia, because justice was administered 
there, after the custom of the East. It is a square 
tower, the horse-shoe arch of which rises to half 
the height of the tower, and is a perfect model of 
this kind of arch, so characteristic of Arabian 

Upon a stone in this tower is an inscription 
in Arabic, which is thus rendered by James 
Murphy : '* This gate, named Babu ifteriat — 
may God prosper through it the law of Islam, 
even as he has established it a monument of glory — 
was built at the command of our lord the com- 
mander of the Muslims, the just Sultan Abu-1- 
Hajjaj, son of our lord, the warlike, sanctified 
(deceased) Sultan Abu-I Walid ibu-Nasr, whose 
pious deeds for religion may the Almighty recom- 
pense, and whose valorous performance in the cause 
of the faith may He graciously accept. And it was 
completed in the month of the glorious birth of 
Mohammed, in the year 743 (1348). May Heaven 
constitute it a protecting bulwark, and reckon it 
among the lasting actions of the righteous.'* 

Over the first arch is a sculptured hand, over 
the second a key, respecting which there is a 
curious tradition. 

We next enter a passage, which vrinds along the 
barbican, and leads to the Plaza de los Algibes, or 
square of the cisterns. These are two in number, 
the largest of which is 102 feet long by 56 wide. 
It is arched over, and enclosed by a wall 6 feet 
thick. On the east side of this Plaza is the Palace 
of Charles V. (begun by that monarch but nAver 
finished), a beautiful specimen of the cinque- 
cento style, by the famous architect, Alonso 

On the north is the entrance to the Mesuar, 
or common bathing court, an oblong court 
150 feet in length and 75 in width. It is 
paved with white marble, and the walls are 
covered with arabesques of admirable workman- 
ship. The inscription, " Wala ghalih Ula-Uah;' 
that is, "There is no conqueror but God," which is 
often repeated throughout the building, is read on 
the peristyles at each end of the court. In the midst 
of this court is a basin sufficiently large to swim 
in, bordered with parterres of flowers, beds of 

roses, end rows of orange trees. This court was 
designed as a common bath for servants and other 
dependants of tlio palace, and supplied with water 
the fountains of the other apartments. At the 
lower end of the Mesuar is an archway leading to 
tlic Patio de lOB Leones, or Lions' Court, which 
may be considered as the type of Arabian archi- 
tecture. It is 100 feet by 60, and is paved with 
white marble. In the centre is a large basin of 
alabaster, supported by twelve lions. Over this 
basin rises a smaller one, from which a large body 
of water spouts into the air, and, falling from one 
basin into the other, is sent forth through the 
mouths of the lions. This court is surrounded by 
a gallery supported by a great number of slender 
and elegant columns, 9 feet high and 8| inches in 
diameter. The walls, up to the height of 15 feet 
from the ground, are covered with blue and yellow 
mosaic tilings. The peristyles and ceiling are 
beautifully ornamented with arabesques and fret- 
work in the most exquisite taste. Around the 
upper face of the fountain of the lions are some 
Arabic verses, which describe, in a style of Ori- 
ental hyperbole, the wonders and beauty of the 
fountain. At each end of the court projects a 
sort of portico, or gallery, on light marble columns. 
On the left side of the court of lions is the Sala 
de los Abencerrages, opposite which is the Sala de 
las dos Hcrmanes, or the Hall of the Two Sisters, 
so called from two large flags of white marble, 
without a flaw or stain, which are in the pavement. 
On the upper end of the Mesuar arises the magni- 
ficent tower of Comares, so called from delicate 
work named ComarcLgia. This massive tower rises 
above the rest of the building, and overhangs a 
deep ravine, which descends almost perpendicu- 
larly to the Darro. The prospect from this tower 
is truly magnificent. The delightful valley through 
which the Darro flows, part of the city of Granada 
and of its beautiful plain, present an enchanting 
natural panorama. The Sala de Comares was 
undoubtedly the richest in the Alhambra, and still 
preserves traces of its past splendour. The walls 
are richly stuccoed, and ornamented with ara- 
besques of such exquisite workmanship, that the 
most skilful artists would be greatly embarrassed 
to imitate it. The ceiling is of cedar wood, inlaid 
with ivory, silver, and mother-of-pearl. The three 
sides of the hal" are full of wiud<y«%\wroas6.^>«v'C«w*. 

AS BSADSHAw's 8PA» akd fobtuoal. [S<iction t. 

a free clrenlation to the air, and admit a faint At a short distance from the Alhambra rises 

light, which produces a surprising effect. In the the Cerro del Sol, or *' Sun Mountain," on which 

same manner all the halls of the Alhambra are is situated the Qeneralife, where the Muhamma- 

ligfated and ventilated. On the cast of the Sala dan kings spent the summer months. This palace, 

de Comares is the Tocador de la Reina, or Queen's the entrance to which is adorned by two immense 

Toilet; in a comer of this apartment is a stone cypress trees, reputed to have flourished for many 

drilled full of holes, through which arose the smoke ages, is built in the same style as the Alham- 

of the cosOy perfumes burned beneath. Close by bra. The gardens and fountains are charming. 

Is the charming little garden of Lindajara, with an a permiso is necessary, and a small fee to the 

alabaster fountain, and groves of roses, myrtles, gardener. See also Penny Cyclopcedia; Swinburne's 

and orange trees. The parts of the building most Travels In Spain, letter xili., Colmenar; D«ices 

worthy of notice are the halls of the Abenccrragcs ^^ I' Espagne, vol. III. ; James Murphy's Arabian 

and ambassadors, the mezqulta (mosque), and the Antiquities of Spain ; and Washington Irving'i 

bastioned walls and arches. Tales of the Alhambra. 

Townsend gives the following succinct account ConveyanC6f.-Glbraltar may be reiched by 

of the Alhambra:- "The ascent to this edifice rail Wd BobadlUa and Ronda. The road to Mnrcia 

(unique in its style of architecture) Is through a ^^^ gj^„^ g ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,„ 

■at'' ^^^^''Y I ^?^% ! r!' •^"^f "«^ one part. Diligence from Granada to Menjibar, 

with nightingales. You enter first Into an oblong ^, . , 7 .,«v ... ^ . x tml^^^ 

court of 160 feet by 90 feet, with a basin of water *^"^5*» ^^^^ /P»^^ *^>' ^'^^"^^ *f *^ ^1 ^'^^ 

tn the midst, of 100 feet in length, encompassed by ^^^ *»!^ ^*»^^« ^^"'"^^ "^^^ ^^ °*^« ^^ ^'^' 

a flower border. At each end is a colonnade. ^* ^""^^ ""« "«^ open, connecting Granada 

Hence you pass into the court of the lions (so ^**» ^^^ Antequera, and BobadUla on the 

called because the fountain In the middle Is sup- ^"^"^^ ""^ ^^^'^^o^* "»^- Whence to Cordova, 

ported by lions). It Is adorned with a colonnade ^*«^*' *"^ Madrid. A buffet at BobadUlft. 

of 140 marble pillars. The royal bed-chamber has F'^om Archldona (8tat.), 12 miles flrom Ante- 

ttro alcoves adorned with columns, and a fountain *1°«^*» ^^^ Alhama Baths (p. 55) are accessible, 

between them in the middle of the room ; adjoin- Distance: Granada to Cordova direct is 2J| 

Ing are two hot baths. The great hall Is about 40 leagues. The places passed through are Finos 

feet square, and 60 In height, with eight windows Puente, Puerto Lope, Alcala la Real, Alcaudete, 

and two doors, all In deep recesses. Between this Baena, and Castro del Rio. The first part of the 

and the oblong court is a gallery of 96 feet by 16. ride Is made through fine mountain scenery. The 

All these lower apartments have fountains, and traveller may pass the night at AlcaU (where are 

fcre paved either with tiles or marble in checkers. ^^^ posadas), or Baena. The inn at Baena is not 

The idea of the ceiling is evidently taken from ^^^ There is work for the geologist and botanist, 
stalactites or drop stones found in the roofs of 

hatural caverns. The ornaments of the friezes AlCftlA la Keal is picturesquely situated, and 

are Arabesque, and perfectly accord with the its Moorish castle Is worthy of attention. 

Arabic Inscriptions, which are here suited to the Baena (population, 13,886) Is the ancient Coitra 

purpose for which each apartment was designed. yiniancL, and lies 26 miles south-cast of Cordova, 

Thus, for instance, over the entrance of the hall of ^ hours from Cordova. It has a pood square and 

Judgment Is the following sentence: 'Enter, fear several churches, with extensive salt mines In its 

not, seek justice, and justice thou shalt find.' A vicinity. The site of the ancient Roman town 

handsome staircase leads to a suite of apartments is still visible, and In 1833 a sepulchre wai 

Intended for the winter.'* discovered, said to be that of the families o^ 

The building has been steadily restored since Pompcy and Gracchus. The church of Santa 

JSaS', sad )3 now being zealously kept in repair. Maria has some old inscriptions. Baena is now a 

J'^/f opea in the forenoon, and from 4 to 7 p.m. A station on the line from Puente Genii (page «0) 

y^^f'^'^'^^^^^'/'eetotAocongcrratoriBneceBSAry through JaenaniL'aaVXetv^tvwLX.^^.^^^Vi iJ^s&KEtt^ 

^/^eJXr^t risit, but not atterwarda. (next page). 

^tite 10.] 

The road to Jaen li picturesque, and passes 
M ituganda, Segri, and CamplUo de Arenas. The 
distance is 16 leagues, and inay be done by dili- 

JAEN (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 22,654. 

Hotelfl.— Pftrador de las DlHgenciaS; Fonda 
Europa; El Cafe Nuevo. 

It is situated about 2,500 feet above the level of 
the sea, and is enclosed by walls and commanded 
by a fortress. At the time of the Romans it was 
an important city, Auringi, and under the Moors 
Was capital of the kingdom of the same name. It 
Was taken by Ferdinand n., in 1246. It has ex- 
tensive lead mines, and produces olives, inferior 
Wine, and fine f i*uit. In the time of the Moors it 
iiad manufactures of silk. 

Sl^tB. — Grsco-Roman Cathedral, on the site 
of a mosque; note the custodia, the sacristia, the 
statues, and relics, one of which is the Santo ftostro 
^Sacred Countenance). This is said to be a hand- 
kerchief with which the sweat was wiped from 
the Saviour's face. S. Miguel and S. Juan are 
worth a visit Handsome Alameda. 

Rail, 20i miles, to Bspoluy, on the line between 
Cordova and Madrid. FromE8peIuytoVa4pIlaiIO 
(through Bftesa) 21| miles. From Yadollano, a 
short branch of 5| miles to 

LXNABES (Stat.) 
(Population, 86,627), a fine town, situated in a 
fertile plain, under the Sierra Morena. It has 
several convents, and in the vicinity are some 
antiquities, including a Roman aqueduct and a 
palace, both in ruins, and a fountain. Some 
ancient mines of copper and lead are still worked. 
It was here that Mr. A. Hamilton, while looking 
after the mines, was captured by brigands, 8rd July, 
i874, and ransomed for £6,000. Here Scipio put to 
{light Asdrubal. Some good shooting and fishing 
are to be had. A line is projected to Jaen, 
Cabra, Lucena, and Puente-Genil. 

On the diligence road from Linares to Andujar 
(see next page) is 


Population, 10,041. 

Hotel.— Parador de las Piligencias. 

JAE», LlNAkBB, bAlLBN. 59 

in the Peninsula, was signed 28rd July, 1808, at An- 
di^jar, after the J^tJe of Ballcn, one of the most 
remarkable in the wars of the great Napoleon, 
because it was the first great reverse that bcfel his 
army. After the entrance of Joseph Bonaparte, the 
intrusive king, into Madrid, General Dupont de 
I'Etany, one of Napoleon's most distinguished 
officers, was sent at the end of May into Andalusia, 
with a corps of 8,000 men, to secure the possession 
of Cadiz. Dupont passed the Sierra Morena, beat 
(June 7th) the Spanish patriots at Arcolea, then fell 
back on Andujar to await reinforcements, which 
wis led up by Generals Vedel and Oobert. Mean- 
while the Spanish army led by Castafios came up 
by forced marches, and after several sharp actions, 
threw itself between Dupont and Vedel, making 
the former believe that it was his intention to 
march on Andujar. Dupont having detected the 
real aim of CastaAos, marched during the night 
of July 18th on Bailen, when he encountered tlie 
Spanish divisions of Reding and Couplgny, whom 
he attacked vigorously several times in the morn- 
ing of the 19th. But he was soon after attacked 
in flank and roar through the masterly manoeuvre 
of the Spanish leader; and thus hemmed in, 
ignorant of the fate of Vedel, and with troops 
harassed bjr the great heat (for they had not the 
endurance of Havelock's British force under the 
fire of an Indian sun), Dupont proposed a truce, 
which was granted by the Spaniards. 

Meanwhile Vedel who had marched off north- 
wards returned on his steps and attacked the 
Spaniards. But biipont ordered him to cease, 
including him in the capitulation which he made 
of all the French forces under his command. By 
this capitulation Dupont's force was declared pri- 
soners of war, and Vedel's was to be transported 
by sea to France. But on the march they were 
nearly torn In pieces by the infuriated population, 
whom they had robbed and maltreated in every 
manner. Indeed the Spanish authorities over- 
ruled the capitulation, crowded the prisoners on 
the galleys at Cadiz, and left many to perish of 
want, conduct which could not be excused, but 
which was natural after what the French had 
inflicted on them. Dupont, who was a \sAsfl^Jv'^ 

It has a ruined CastJe. The capitulation ol\ Tft*^«t«A\ww^l\A^x\^^^^^^^^^^,gc^.^^ 
JBaJJen, the commencement of the French disasteTB \ 1>ci^ <ia.p\\.T3\^>2kS^ ^ 


ASOUlAa. (Stat). 

[Section 1. 

iwrphjry. JMper, Ac.; 

iblD b]- llerra^tle, In Ihe Capllli ( 

w» dgned the Coniei 
Stb Augait, ISsa. Ihe 
tm Doc d'Angogieme 


3nl July. IBOB. 


90 mllei Bi»tb-i»Rh-weiI of Jaen. 
OoUTSnnce.— Rail to Madrid and lo 
OOSDOVX (Stat.) ; or Glrdata, In t 
Population (IWT), 4B,8S4. 

[; Orionte, 

Thtf large decayed city Man 

I •>( the Guadalqnidi 
. Under the Hwn (who li 

belhi, 18 BDbnrbi, 80,45S ihnpi, Sig.D70 dnellLng' 

>I■^»llll^ and wai the Bnl Somao colony ettab- 
liihed In Spain. Ii bouti of haying given birth 

phT«lcLann,ATcrroB.andA»lcenna; Mataonlde); 
.PablodcCMpedes; thcSpanlsh 

Chancer, Juan d« N 
Jnnlni Oo/Hd, ttieproi 
anllquUlei. To the 

and Ooii 

^«ao»*B -rae atatdna (calledZj MbzhkIU, 
•Bi^-eJ, ereclea artgintllj by the Konuoi, 

Vanyra lufleted. Th« Archleplicopal Palace, 
hulli in the eighteenth Eentnry. In a bid Kite ol 

Inferior pirlurei. La Corredcra, fornierly ntid 
lor bull'flghti. lloBpIl^ de Bui Sebaitlang 
KDiD old Ijsthii ocUgon lower, near La Pnertk 

MDurlihBriJge fieurci In theClty Amu. Syna- 
gogue [nboiit .ID, 19S0I dltcoieted in isai. The 
whole may be seen in a day and a half. For 
works on Cordova, consult Anlieiifdaitei dt t%f- 
dom. by P. D. do Rl»tts,4to, 162^; tbe ImUiador 

It waa rimout (or Iti painted leather, called Ona- 
Londou Conlnalnert' Company traded. 
aainray.-Slallon near the city, to the north, 

! blrlh-placo o[ GonulTO <te Cordova, the Great 
Captain, aiiciilurof the Dukes oF Medina Cells 

' noted fur wine; thence to Asullar (pDpulollon, 

I n.Ut), Poente Mnil, near the Oenll, Oww- 
rtobe, La. Rtxla [■lieie iht brancb trom Utrern 

I ccmea In, pBge •»), TilWM Sa niAn, uul tu 

Boute 10. 



of Antequera, on the Qaadalhorce (branch to 
Qranada), and (Sobantes; by several tunnels, 
throngh Sierra Morena, to AlOTSi,, near the Sierra 
del Hacho, Plzarra (for the road to the Uaths of 
GlCrratraca, page53), Gartama (population, 4,906), 
to Malaga (page 53). In 1894, a line was opened 

from Puente Qenil, (above) through Gabra, 
Baena (page 58), Martos, Jaen (page 59), 

Espelny (page 59), and Balldll (piige 59 to 
UnareB (page 59), For Badajoz and Lisbon, 
a train starts daily from C!ordova, past ObeJO, 

AlliondUriillla, EBpiel, Belmez, Penarroya, 
VaseqTiillo, and Ziijar, to Almorclion, on the 
Madrid-Badajoz line; saving a wide detour, by 
way of Manzanares and Ciudad Real. 

Excursions may be made to the Hermitages on 
the Sierra Morena, which date from remote anti- 
quity. Also to ruins of a Convent of Hieronymite 
monks, embowered in orange-groves, oaks, and 
luxuriant trees of all kinds, many of them of 
great interest. 

Resident English Vice-Consul. 

Convesrances. — From Cordova to Granada by 
way of Santa Crucita, Castro del Rio, Baena, 
Alcalit la Real, Puerto Lope, and Finos Puente. 
The railway route is by Bobadilla, 154 miles. 

Railway from Cordova to Seville passes through 

Almod6var,Penaflor,Garmona, and Todna. 

Distance about 80 miles; time from 3 to 4^ hours. 
The route follows the Guadalquivir, but has little 
interest. At Tocina, a branch goes off via Villana 
de la Mlnas to PedrOBO and its large iron 
works, and thence to Merida (page 37). 

Distance by the road from Cordova to Seville, by 
Ecija and Carmona, 25 leagues. 

Instead of proceeding direct to Seville by rail, 
the tourist can take the railway to Ecija and 
Carmona; or proceed to QuadaJOZ (Stat.), as 
below, for Carmona. 

The distance from Cordova to Ecija is lOleagues; 
through Valchiilon and La Carlota. 

EGUA (Stat.\ 
On a branch from Marchena, on the Utrera and 
La Roda line (page 69). 
Population, 24,955. 

Hotels.— Posada de la Posta; Parador de la 

The town of Evija la pleaaanily situated on the 
Jeft bank of tb9 CfeoU, nnd ia well buUt* The h«at 

is so excessive that the place is called tht '^frying- 
pan of Andalusia" (Strtenilla de Andalucia). It 
has manufactures of linens, coarse woollen cloths, 
and leather. It is the ancient Astigis, which denotes 
its Greek origin. In the time of the Romans it 
rivalled Seville and Cordova. The vicinity is rich 
in oil and com. 

Sights.— The Church of Santa Maria; Church of 
Santa Barbara; San Doming^, a convent; San 
Francisco, a convent; note the cloisters. Fine 
Plaza de Toros, on the site of a Roman amphi- 
theatre; bridge over the Genii ; Plaza Mayor, with 
its fountain and arcades, a great evening resort of 
the natives; several finely painted and decorated 
houses; Moorish gates. Several hospitals. A fine 
public promenade. 


Diligence to Garmona, 9 leagues. 


Population, 17,426. 

HoteL— Parador de las Diligencias. 

This city is the Moorish Karmunah, and is 
picturesqely situated on a hill, and enclosed by 
Moorish walls. It has manufactures of woollen, 
hemp, leather, glue, soap, <fec. Its annual fair, on 
the 25th April, is celebrated, and should be visited 
by artists. Numerous oil mills in the neigh- 

Sights.— Ruined Castle, or Alcazar; Church 
of San Pedro, with a remarkable tower; University, 
partly of Moorish architecture; fine Moorish gate- 
way; Puerta de Cordoba; Alameda, or public 
promenade, with its fountain. 

ConyeyanceB.— Rail to Seville in about 2 hours, 

27 miles, via Alcaudete, VlBo, Mairena, &c. ; to 

Cordova in about 3^ hours, via Quadajos (Junc- 
tion), on the Guadalquivir, near Todna. 

SEVILLE (Stat.), or Sevilla in Spanish. 
Population 163,000. 

Hotels.— De Madrid; de Paris; Fonda de 
Europa; English and American Pension; Calle 
Fernandez Espino. 

There are good Casinos. Casas de Pupllos, or 
Casas de Huespedcs, 25 to 30 reals per day. Post 
and Telegraph Office, Calle Sieroec^^^^co. ^ocv\ss^^. 
Near Plaza 8 . To-ai«A ^«a 'Ocv«8k\»a^i't.i? -a. -«^«^'<»*x^^ 

Ca\> texe% ^5>x«k \iQX*«iV '^"i «i«"o*^^ 
hours ^ t«eAi\ 

^, xJ^-siN* 

Bsu>iai.w's SPUN 

a PUsa Ban FrancUco, an< 
Flaia d« la Eneamackm, to the termlona, for Cor 
dor*, ovttfda FiuiU B«al, and Cadli tfiminna 
ontilde Paartft Urn Fernuido. 

Senile, the ancient BUpalb, lUiHK on Ihc lef 
bank ol the Oaadotnulvir (or BatU) to Andaloala 
and wa» the onpltol ol Spsin ilnrliur a part o( Ih 

Engliih mllei; Ithaiadrj 
Ir. It iienrronndedby old Wgll9,paTllxa[ 
1 and partly of Mooriih conilmctloo. flanked 

ISII, and they took It as*'" 1° I^S- Am 
many other celebrated palntentnm at Serllla 
piar mention Velatqnei, Murlllo, and Carbi 
Colnmbai itarted on hit yoyage of dlMOTery f 
Ibe port o( Palot, la the piolliice of ScTllle. 

The Holy VMk— Santa Semana-i>reienta 
vine In all Iti glory. Thit aiWiordliiary leri 
commences abont the middle ol AprU. 
Ihuradiy and Friday the ttllglaai 
begin at 4 SO p.m. eacb day, and lait 

I Virgin 

BDrBwmly decoraleri In vi 
diy li a qalet (lay: Sunday, bnll-flghilng; llou- 
day, the great lair li held ; and on Tuesday the 
AA- tmf alK, M butl-fight, itUch ttrminatei the 
^/Ki/. 1v/i(e be/orebtnd ta *pcu« apart- 

the Holy Week. T 

ic fight. 

X procnr%d 
In fort Ha 


8l|aita.-Thc noble Oathedral, of tbe loarteenlh 
and Bltecntfa caitiulea. ii 414 foel In length by 370 
In breadth, partly in the Bfanan and partly in tba 
Gothic ityla. It oceaplu the ilte of a movgoB, 
and l< the largcM and flneilchuch In Spain. Tin 

a minaret, colled 1A fljralflft ^ or the vaatlier- 
cock, li aaO feet high, and it ancmonatea bf ■ 

Dinuo. Snn FranclKB, Del Triiuifo, and 108 
others. The honice are handaome. The tItbt 
li crossed by an Iron bridge, and on the oppo- 
ilte side It the enbnrb called Trlana. The taVn 

movable hrooio ttalne of Paltli. In the Cathedr*!, 
note the fine organ ; the jupcrh painted wlndoirii 
the retablo af the high altar, the Bala Capitular; 
tboCoro; the Bacrlstla. vrilh it, marble WblH «.4 

the principal entrep«t of the Booth American 
In the export o( orangei. The trafilo on the rirer 

pavement; the Capllla Real, with its itatnei^ 
tombs, and medallions; (he Capllla de Santa Ana, 
with its reublo.aud the tomb In wblch the remains 
of Columbus (or Colon) were flrrt deposited, under 
a atone Inscribed:— 

Ihalr ospltal from Toledo to Seville. It wai taken 
by the Moon In 711, and by Frederick II. In 
1247, from which period boHI Ihc tlmcof Philip V. 
11 was the chief residence of the Spanish monarchs. 
The city wat oecDpled hy the French from the 

Perdon. of Hoorinh architecture, haa four atatiiea 

eonetraetodby order of Alon 


HO. tetamlng vlctorioni f roi 

n the battle of Salado. 

rillo, Alonso Cano, 

Koela., Valde^ Znrbar.o, 

El Grtego, Uoralea, 

Is de Vargas, Pedi« 

Oampsna, Fachecho, Cesped 

s; also [rc»DM hf 

D. Uartlnes, and a fine carvl 

g by J. M. Montane*. 

One of the pictnrea by Eoel 

s Is that of Santiago 

at the battle of Clavigo, on 

hi. whlti war-hon.. 

The Mnrillos are 


tolllghl. Harlllo-B 

OmrdiaB Angrl Is pUcoil 

vcr the altar of its 

small chapel. The angel, 1 

a rich yellow robe 

nd purple mantle, points wHh his right hand to 

eaven, and with the other 

cads a lovely child. 

S^Ttdor QalUrrei, la 1800, 1> now >t Blr W. U. 

8llrllnr.«»l,Perthrtii«. Note al». bj- MoriUo, 

(arm, uid »doraed with b«otHii] itatoeg; In th^ 

a Bl. Ferdlniina. Hli SI. AnUiiy nf Padaa, la 

procinoH »« wme eiceUent pletntM. 

Church of Ban Lorenio; also once 1 inoK|ni); 

■dveiitnre in 1874. The principal figure wis, om 

Bight, cat unt 0/ the (mrnn »nii .Qcgoi.fully csrrleJ 

off by the thinTBi; bnl "« tecoverfd >i»ii ifler 


Id New York, upon being offered for ule [or UD 

Church o( Santa LucU; note the high .Itar, 

doUnrs. It is now fitted ugaiu iutoll. proper plice. 

«(lorbeingmanlpnliitcd by ifclHul liaiulg to hide 

.Mrtrrdom of tho Mint; bHu a statue of th« 


Conccpcloii, and an BiBgy of Santa Lucia. Th^ 

ObntObM.— Chnceli a 

■tylo, and one of the Anas 

mn b; tha light of the 

3anU Ana. In the Oothlq 
lna«villii; note the high 

(a by Fedro Delgada. 

pie, Alonu MartlneE, and iDine pie 
Valdiia, a eontempamry of MnrilTo. 

OthCTl, a magnificent Duo of the I.ut . 
Chnrch o( Santa CataUaa^ not« I 
the aalnt In the great ict&bliv and 
Jems at tbe colnoui In the Sagrario. 
.. Cbnteh of Santa Cm. capadoni a 
Charcta of San Eitebsn; a fon 
Moorish rtyle; note the anperb ps 
beintlf ul Corinthian coli 


high allar is 1 

ralntinga, itUI retains a 
Sagrada Cena ; note the c 
Vargas, call*d SeKora de 
Chorch of Bantn Marl 


of Morillo'l 
, called I^ 

Chajrh of San Uariln, In tbe aide of the Itlgh 
Itar are seTcral paintings by Pranclaco Herrofn 

tainting D[ the Descent, by Alonio Cans; btaldM 
our lateral pictures figuring the Ascension, tha 

Church of San Mlgnel, of the Qothic order, and 

nie pictures are merely Indllfe: 
•ithont intoreit. It conulns thi 
earned antiquary. Rodrigo Can 

I of ihg 

Ctgnh efg^ Jalliiai note tbe reUblc ol Ub \ en\aE7' 


Nnflti t>el|»d». In thtpmatupUla Hatha 

Sl-,and hitl<rDbn>1hers,whodladitKTiMy 
gr. Tha ihoir nmwlin the lombi o[ the 
s DoHa DaatrlE. daoglilrr of Enrtqca II.; 
«onor and Dollm Boim^rU. Churuh oC tlie 

nolo a fine pain 

hapel of San P« 
ing by l{otla^ 


il VIncula. 
enllng the 

Angel [mlnp the 

parti of the pcec 

net uc other piti 

and UbUs 

worthy of attent 

Choreh of Santiago; note the rei 


of the great 




teo Perez Ale.l», 


of Clailjo. 

Near the altar ma, ba «on the 


one which 



hWorlan. Gonia 

o Argole da MoU 

Chureh of S 

n Vicente, proliably 

anient (in pnrt 

n.) In Seville. A. 

authors, It «r™ 

a> enlhedral in 

time of the 

hopel entltlad Lo 

nedlDi il a 

lo containing ie« 

ae picture*. 

In the Capilla d 

1 Santiiinio 1: a p 

aintlng alluding 

t» the ucramen 

; and. among olh 


picture, a snpa 



her ehnrchea a 

n Alberto, 

which contain 

»me work, wall 

worthy of 

la hy Cano. re 


n Hlgad. Iha Bubli 

the C<Hlnthlan order; the latarala,R] 

San Joan Bantiita and 1h» Erai^lta, conUIa 

Chnrch of SanU In«i. of the flolhlc nder, bnt 
complelely dladgnred. The gnat tetablo CAntalni 
the etatne of tha aabit ; and in the two other eol- 
lataalH are that of Sania Clara, and a Ccnceptlon 
by Uontanei- Thii church eontalnn the ambalmed 
bodr of Delia Maria CoriHiel, wife Dt Uon Jaan de la 
Carda, which !• annually .hown to the pablic on 

Chnrch of Santa Paida ; note tlie Gothic portal, 

tba two fine rotahlos by Cano, and, in the ralabta 
of Onr Lady of the BoMry. all fine plctorei by 

Conymt of San Clemenla, for II. hl.lorlc rcmem- 

Bevltle. The (Treat retahloof the chnrch IwlonBslft 

the ganero platereuo. In the prcibylery are mcne 

painting, with paiugei of tha lite qI the ealnl. 
n* ,fi:Ma/M oHrUJai s reUHo with alfbt picture. 
^J^eitec^ rtpret^llag ibe tpottlea il\d eT«nje- 
"*" A. tlitivlaeipitl ai4bt U » aamllBUi iUlUa 1 DoH* Kl»U«i * "^ 

klngg of Gasttle, and the Uarqnii 

Koutc lU.J 



century, for the exliibition of the dramatic works of ; 
Juan de Cucva, Juan de Mallara, and other Spanish 
authors of that epoch, so renowned for their contri- 
butions to the national literature. The church 
formerly contained some fine paintings by Murillo 
and others ; note on the high altar a painting by 
Valdez, representing San Fernando ; and the fresco 
on the celling by the same artist. 

La Cartuja, an ex-monastery, occupyfaig a very 
picturesque and charming situation on the western 
bank of the Guadalquivir, and to the north of the 
Arrabal de Triana. It is now a pottery, carried on 
by the Marquis de Plckman, an Englishman. The 
chapel, however, has been preserved. 

San Isidore de Campo, another ex-monastery, in 
the same state as when it was inhabited by its 
monks. It is picturesquely situated on a hill, sur- 
rounded by olive groves, to the east of the ruins of 

Convent of San Gerdnimo de Bucna Vista, 
situated a quarter of a league north of the city, on 
the eastern bank of the river. Its architecture is 
of the Kenaissancc. The building is grand and 
severe. The principal court and the superb gallery 
which surrounds it are of two styles of architecture, 
the Doric and Ionic. The principal staircase is 
remarkable for its solidity, its construction, and its 
costliness. The building received the appellation 
of Bucna Vista from the beautiful views from its 
towers and windows. 

Santas Justina and Rufina, a Capuchin convent 
near the Puerta de Cordova. 

Hospital de la Caridad, situated in El Postigo del 
Carbon y del Acelte, an alms-house, founded in 
1578, and rebuilt by the Caballero Mafiara, for the 
relief of the poor. In the two courts are spacious 
galleries, with many marble columns, and two 
groups of figures in marble, of Charity and Faith. 
The church has some fine PainttngB by Murillo, 
Pedro Roldan, and Valdds Leal. Among the 
Murillos, are a San Juan, an Infant Saviour, 
Moses' striking the Rock (La Sed), the Loaves and 
Fishes (Pan y Peces), and a San Juan de Dios ; and 
an Exaltacion de la Cmz, by Vald^s Leal. The 
high altar contains a Descent from the Cross, carved 
and painted by Roldan, coniidered by some to be 
his ehef-d^«Biivre. 

Hospital de la Suign (bmllt in 154«), an immoiM 
bnUding, tritk « hfiUUwi /n^de, «b4 htTinff 

accommodation for 300 patients; note the portal, 
the fine chapel with medallions by Maehuca, and 
some pictures by Zurbaran. 

La Cuna, or the cradle, a foundling hospital in the 
Callc of the same name. The city contains also a 
great many other richly endowed hospitals. 

College of San Telmo an immense building near 
the promenade called Las Delicias. It was founded 
by the son of Columbus, for a nautical coU^r^ and 
built in 1682. 

Alcazar (Al-Kasr), a Royal Palace. It is the 
ancient palace of the Sultan Abderrahman, and 
though modernised and spoilt by the Christian 
kings, it still preserves much of its original beauty. 
In its present state, it is a compound of (}othic and 
Arabian architecture. Note the superb court, the 
Moorish doors and ceilings,the Patiode las Mullecas 
or of thePuppets, theCuarto del Principe; Isabella*! 
chapel ; the rooms fronting the garden, and the gar- 
dens themselves, which are very beautiful. TheHall 
of Ambassadors is as fine as that of the Alhathbra, 
of which it seems to be an imitation. The pavement 
is of marble, the ceiling is painted in blue and gold, 
and the panelling of the wainscots is formed of 
painted tiles. It also contains the Royal apartments; 
and its "Court of Lions " is considered by some to 
be the finest piece of Arabian architecture in Spain, 
In one of the rooms on the ground-fioor are several 
statues, inscriptions, and other remains of antiquity, 
which have been found on the site of the ancient 
Italica. On the fa9ade which looks to the north, 
in the great garden is the Puerta, called El Laber- 
into, so named from the great difficulty of exit, 
occasioned by the combination of the streets. In 
the interior of this garden, and behind the laby- 
rinth, has been built a rustic house, which is called 
La Gruta (the grotto). There are several other 
reserved gardens, to which the public are not 
admitted. Pedro the Cruel bestowed great palnf 
on the renovation and embellishment of the Alcazar. 
Many of its marble columns were brought from 
Valencia, and much of the delicate stucco embroi- 
dery was the work of the Moors of Granada . Apply- 
to the Teniente de Alcaide (resident) for a permit, 
or fee the sentry. 

La C<ua de PUatos, a magnificent Palace of <Vl<^ 
ancient dnkes of Al«i.Vl V». %«'^*^^•^s&»3l^*ew.^».•efes^ 



the Interior !• fliM, «tpeeUlly tlio Ktnirraiio. The 
caiUtigof tb« Hall, called Can tmlnrl A AttAj<i>»inteil 
in distemper by the colcbrntwl Fnuicioo rmheiN*. 
and in one of hln lie«t work*. 'Flic lower n»«im!« nf 
the palace nro ndoniod in the ArnTiewiuo Mylo. tho 
walls covered with pinjted tilef«. and l>e;iutiful 
desiffnii; tho doorn contiiin inNoriptionii wurko*! in 
the wood, like those in the Alraxar. Henee yon 
paw into a frallory of arches nnd cohnnn^ which 
servos a» the entrance to a beautiful franleti. sur- 
rounded with myrtics and oran^-treen. In tho 
other two frallerics which corres)ii-»nd to the frardcn. 
are a Venus with a dolphin, many relics of fine 
statues, various pedestals and stones with inscrip- 
tions of much merit: the walls of the capilla are 
of exquisite workmanship. Proprietor, the Duke 
de Medina Cell, descendetl from the dukes of 

C<»isnlado, or Casa Lonja de Mercadores (EJL- 
02UUlge)t A very tine buildinfr of the Tuitcan order, 
situated to the south of the cnthcJnil, and Iiavinjr 
tho Alcazar to the cast; it was desijrnoti Ity the 
celebrated Ilerrera, and built by his distinpui^hcd 
pupil Juan de Mingarcs, at the exi>en9e of the mer- 
chants of the city; it was commenced in 1585. in tlie 
reigrn of Philip II, but not finished till the year 1698 . 
Its plan is entirely square, having four equal fa9ades 
of 200 feet in length, in tho style of architecture 
called Oreco-Romano: it has three storeys: the 
height to the breastwork or paraiK't is only 73 feet: 
the exterior has 119 windows and doors, inclosed by 
a balustrade; it has two puertas or doors one on tlie 
northern, the other im the western facade: the mag- 
nificent court, which is 72 feet square, and 58 in 
height, is snrn>unde<i witli grand and spacious 
galleries. The column^ above which are the arches 
of the first storey, are of the Doric onler, and those 
of the second, of the Ionic. In the first storey arc 
various saltNins and department Hu«ed by the tribu- 
nal of the Consul ado. The principal staircase which 
leadsto the second storey is bn>ad and spaciou«. with 
tjiree landing places, and is rich in the variety of 
marbles of which it isconsitructcd: the second storey 
contains three magnificent snlfNins. of the lenirth 
of the three f.-i'-rid'*- viilfh rf.rr'-fionil t« it. and in 
tlie^e are pn- served, in nia^idiU'eut iiiah ipany 
sbulves, all the ItorumeAiM relaiinc to thn di«><v>very 
mar) co9»gae*t f>f the Ameri^«4. by (<A\mihn% n.w\ 
Corte^ sm/Mlw 9ota0 of the puptn o( the archives 

[Bectioa I. 

of SiiiiaiK-as. relating to the very numerons anbjeeti 
of th.i*e auriferous regions. Thli collection it 
calltil ArcMros * Indiat. Admissioii free. 
An.'thir superb »tairrase conducts to the plat- 
fiTm«. whioh are sp.icinus and magnlAcent ; Add 
fmni which may lie had charming Tlewa of the 
cathedral, the alcazar, and the vast plalna of the 
Vc^-a do Triana. 

El Hiuao, in the cz-eonvento de U Hened, 
whicli was founilo«l by Ferdinand, in 1249 and 
which if remarkafile for its size and nrchitectiire. 
The Mu«eo is of modem foundation, dating onl/ 
from is.^<i. and was destined as a reeeptade for all 
the pictures ami Inxiks collected In the oooTenta of 
the capital and other towns in the piwince, with 
the view t,^ the formation of a principnl libnry 
and gallons- uf paintings: it contains fivo aalooiu; 
the fir*t occupie5 the ancient church (oonaiitinv 
only of a nave\ the plan of which repreaenU the 
diixiTc of a Latin cros<; the second waa deatlned for 
the ma;:niiiccnt Silleria de Santa Maria de laa 
Cuovas: tho third and fourth contain, Uko tha 
roft. a considerable number of painttnga, b/ 
several authors; the fifth saloon containa tho* 
superb paintings of Murillo. which wero fonwriy 
in the Convent of Capuchins. In tho npper f«l- 
lery of the northern court are a great nnmbor of 
PaintlDgB, but of inferior merit to thoae In tho 
salixms. With the exception, bowevor, of tho can- 
vases of Murillo all are disposed without order; 
the Kscuela Sevillana includes the following dla- 
tinguihhoil ma«ter«, viz.. Ifnrilhii, Znrbaran, 
Roclns. Vald^s Leal, Herrera, Cespodca, Caao^ 
Castillit. Varela Perez. Gutierrez, Mcnoaea, Ttovar, 
£1 Mulato. and others. Considering tho mnaber 
of works by Murillo, especially thooe whleh 
he painted for the many convents of thla dktf, thii 
musi>o iH>ssesscs very few. 

Thirteen are to be found in the aaloon which 
bears his name : they are San Leandro^ 8a& BwNMh 
Ventura, both of natural size; TTariHitento <tht 
nativity): San Felix de Cantallcio; 9aa T^i^^ 
de Villanucva. giving alais to the poori tfanta 
Ju«ta y Santa Rufina. sustaining tho toworof tha 
chnri-h: Vioion de San Antonio: a fVwMiajwihMn ■ 
Cuiicepclon of somewhat less sizei Jkamiam§km^ka^ 
de Nuestra Sellm-a; St. Franola aMwaali^ fht 

Route 10.] 



iu the Museo; St. John the Baptist (natural 
size) in the Desert; Virgin, surrounded by 
angels, weeping over the dead Christ, a striking 
picture, full of feeling and expression; San Jos^, 
with the Infant Jesus held up over his right 
shoulder (natural size). Such are the principal 
obras maestras (chef d'ceuvres) contained in the 
saloon which bears the name of Murillo. It contains, 
hon-evcr, four more of his canvases, of less size, 
although not inferior in merit and value, repre- 
senting San Feliz, San Antonio, La Virgen de 
Bclcn, and the one called La Sercilleta, because 
painted on a dinner napkin, magnificent creations 
of the celebrated pupil of Velasquez. The salon 
of the church contains also some of Murillo's 
works, the most notable of which are a Concepcion, 
.ojid two pictures of San Augustin; the works of 
Zurbaran (a pupil of Roclas) comprise his Apoteo- 
sis de Santo TomiCs de Aquino, considered his 
master-piece; altoLa Coronacion deSan Jos($; an 
Etcrno Padre, Dos Frailes (natural size), two 
Christs, a Nuestra Sciiora de las Cucvas, a San 
IIu^, a San Bruno in conference with Pope Urban, 
a Refectory of Dominicans, an Archbishop invested 
in pontificals, a Cardinal, and a Supreme Roman 

The most notable production of Roclas is tlie 
Martiro de San Andres. The Museo contains 
other paintings attributed to Roelas, among 
which are a Concepcion, but the authenticity 
lias been doubted. The works of Valdds are a 
Cnlvario (natural size), a Via Dolorosa, an Ascen- 
oion, a Concepcion, a San Gerdnimo, a Clnco 
Santos, viz., San Antonio, Santa Catalina, San 
Andre's, San Anton, and San Sebastian; a Dos 
Frailes, and a Bautismo de San Qerdnlmo. The 
works of Francisco de Herrera the older, comprise 
nn Apotcosls de San Hermenegildo (his principal 
work), a colossal picture, and an Apoteosis de 
San Basilio. Those of Pablo de Cespedes, a Last 
Supper, and a Salvador. The works of Juan de 
Castillo comprise an Annunclacion, a Nacimiento, 
an Adoracion de los Reyes,a Visitacion, and above 
all, a Coronacion de Kuestra Seflora. Alonso 
Cano and Juan de Farela (a disciple of Roelas) 
have each only one work : the former, an Animas 
(little noteworthy), the latter a Batala de Olavijo. 
The MuMO containt alto t Bt. Ftttt by FraneltM 
^Hcheeo. Amoa^ p$ifti€r» of 0«eond rank figure 


the two brothers, Palanco and Beniabtf de Ayala 
to whom is attributed an Apostolado. The 
Museo also contains some paintings by Andrtfif 
Perez, Juan, Simon Outlerrez, Tovar, FrMielsed 
Meneses, and other painters who lived about tha 
epoch of the decadence of the Seville School j 
there are also two pictures of the Artlsta Impro- 
visado by Sebastian Gomez (better known as 
Mulato de Murillo); they are called La Vition 
de Santo Domingo, and El San Jos^ del Mulato 
In the Museo are also some works of the Italian 
School, by Francisco Frutet. They comprise a ^ 
Calvarlo, a Via Dolorosa, a Descendimlentb, a 
Virgen de Belen and a San Bernardo; there is 
likewise a marvellous picture of the Flemish 
School, representing El Juiclo Flnrfl, by Martin 
de Vos. 

Seville has also many private (HillerleS of Pic- 
tures, some of which are very fine; among these 
are the Galcria del Sellor D. Anlceto Bravo (con- 
sidered by some the finest) ; Galetia de los Here- 
dores del Seflor D. Manuel Lopez Cepero; Galerla 
del Seflor D. Pedro Garcia; Galeria del Seflor D. 
Jos^ Saenz. All these galleries are of the 
Spanish school. There are also private colleetlont 
of foreign art. In purchasing, great caution Is 
required, as swindlers abound. 

BibllOteoa Colomblna.— A most interesting 
collection of books and MSS., chiefly formed by 
the son of Christopher Columbus, about 30,000 
vols. This library is but llitle known, and it 
certainly worthy the investigation of scholars. 
Admission free. Closed on holidays. 

PttbllC Buildings.— Fabrica de Tabacos (to- 
l>acco manufactory), an immense building, cover- 
ing a quadrangle of 612 feet liy 624, and enclosing 
twenty-eight courts ; it was erected in 1757, at a 
cost of £870,000, and sometimes employs 6,000 
hands, principally females. 

A Roman Aqueduct of 400 arches, which still 
conveys water to the city from Alcald. 

La Aduana, or custom-house, built In 1702, with 
both facades of the Composite order ; It Is near 
the Postigo de Carbon. 

Plaza de Toros, a buU-ring, capable of holdhv^, 
14,000 spectators ; It is tilt^^'^ \n!%wx "Csn^. Kx^sfesN. 



[Section 1. 

B,etween the years 1481 and 1808, besides those 
bnmed in effigy and imprisoned, nearly 35,000 
persons are recorded to have been burnt alive by 
order of this infamous tribunal. 

Qasas Consistoriales y Capitularias, on the 
Plaza Mayor; note especially the staircase and the 
carved doors. 
La Barbaoana, the Barbican. 
Universidad, containing nine colleges, founded 
in the sixteenth century. Its church contains 
paintings by Roelas, Alonso Cano, Pacheco, and 
Zurbaran. Tlie Roelas include, among others, a 
Holy Family adored by St. Ignatius Martyr and 
St. Ignatius Loyola; a Nativity, and an Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. There are also a St. John 
the Baptist, and a St. John the Evangelist, by 
Cano, and an Annunciacion by Pacheco; note 
also the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul by 
Montafies. The Library, 60,000 vols., and valuable 
MSS., with a good catalogue. 

Atarazanas de Azogues, or warehouse, in which 
are stored the produce of the government quick- 
silver mines at Almaden. 

Casa de Moneda,or old mint, now transferred to 

Torre del Oro, or Golden Tower, on the bank 
of the Guadalquivir, is not, as has generally 
been stated, octagonal, but consists rather of 
twelve sides. It has three storeys; the third 
storey served in ancient times as a faro, over which 
floated the Spanish banner on the anniversaries of 
a signal victory or solemn festivity. The stair- 
case which leads to the three first floors is broad 
and commodious, and has arches. There was 
anciently a communication between this tower 
and the Alcazar. In 1827 it was proposed to re- 
open it, but it was never carried out. There are 
many conjectures concerning the name, some con- 
sidering it to be of Roman construction, while 
others state it to be of the date of Don Pedro, and 
to have been the place in which the treasures of 
the crown were kept. According to others it was 
the depository of the chests of gold and silver 
brought from America. This is certain, that it 
anciently had its especial alcaid, and that it per- 
tained to the Alcazar. It shine&like gold in the 


JtrmtaderOf or Shtnbles, M 3ne bnildingf paved 

Alhondiga, or public Granary, a costly edifice, 
of Moorish origin, with a large court on the right 
side of which are ranges of piazzas. 

The Audiencia, or High Court of Seville. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace, commenced in 1664, 
whose fa9ade forms an angle nearly opposite the 
Giralda. Many of the paintings and sculptures 
which it contained were carried off by Soult, who 
resided in it during the French occupation. 

Cemetery of San Sebastian, which attracts a 
great many visitors between the last night of 
October and the 2nd of November, All Souls' Day. 

Botanical Gardens, near Las Delicias. 

La Feria, where there is a fair every Thursday, 
which is well worthy of a visit; it is situated near 
the Alameda de Hercules. A great Feria Is held 
beyond the railway station about the middle of 
April, and visited by thousands from all parts. 

Seville had fifteen Puertas or Gates, the names of 
which are as follow : — Puerta Real, Pucrta de San 
Juan, Puerta delaBarqueta, Puerta de la Macarena, 
Puerta de Cordoba, Puerta del Sol, Pucrta del 
Osarlo, Puerta de Carmona, Puerta de la Came, 
Puerta Nueva de San Fernando, Puerta de Jerez, 
Postigo del Carbon, Postigo del Aceite, Puerta del 
Arenal, and Puerta de Triana. Some of these are 
Moorish, and date from the time of the Arab occu- 
pation, but most have been so much modernised 
that their character is quite altered. 

Among the Houses most worthy of notice are 
those in the Calle de los Abades, the Calle de los 
Dneflas, the Calle Botica del Agrua, the Calle de la 
Inquisicion Yleja, and La Juderia. &an TtlmOy the 
seat of the Duke of Montpcnsier, has a good front, 
and fine pictures. 

El Paseo, a charming promenade and ride along 
the bank of the river, 1^ mile long, terminating in ^ 
the delightful garden of LcuDelieiat; the Alameda, 
a promenade near the Plaza del Duque; note the 
Roman pillars, statues of Hercules, Caesar, Ac, and 
the Calle del Duque. 

The Triana suburb, beyond the river, is the 
gipsy quarter. Here was formerly the House of 
the Inquisition. In the vicinity is a Moorish dam, 
to prevent inundations. It is supposed to derive 
its name either from three antique arches which its 
gate once had, or from the Emperor Trajan. The 
houses are perhaps some of the most picturesque 
in Spain. Amoug Wi% o\V?% is^qn«% \,<» \\x* ^ ^%\ ^< 

Route 10.1 



It, is CaStllleja de la Cuesta, where (No. 66 of 
the main street) Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, 
died in 1547. 

Macarena, the poorest and dirtiest quarter, 
shouli be visited for picturesque effects. 

At No. 2, Piftza del Alfaro, is shown the cell in 
which Murillo died. 

The ancient Italica is at the village of Santa 
Ponce, about a league to the west of the city. It 
was founded by Scipio Africanus, and is the birth- 
place of the emperors Hadrian and Trajan, and 
of Theodosius the Great. Here are to be seen the 
ruins of a Roman Amphitheatre, and other antiqui- 
ties. Excavations have lately been made at the 
expense of the Spanish government. Large annual 
fairs are held both at Italica and Triana. 

Cecilia Bohl de Faber, the authoress, who called 
herself "Fernan Caballero," died here, 1877, and 
had a sort of public funeral. 

Seville can scarcely be seen in less than nine or 
ten days ; a guide will save tlie tourist three or 
four days. Several good ones are to be met with, 
some of whom speak English. Visit the Olive 
farms. The open Dehesa stretches from here 
towards Xeres. 

For Books on Seville, consult Glorias de Sevilla 
(1849), C. Santigosa, editor, Calle de La Sierpes, 
No. 81 ; Seville and its Vicinity, by F. H. Standish, 
Ix>ndon, 1840, octavo; and DaviaVs Guide, Seville, 

Resident Ensllsh and American Consols. 

English Church Service.— See Bradshato's Con- 
tinental Guide. 

Steamer to Cadiz, down the river, from Torre 
del Oro. 

Railway. — Rail to Cordova in about 5 hours ; 
to Jerez and Cadiz in about 4i hours. The station 
is close to the gate of San Fernando. A branch 
of 24 miles is open to Al Cft lA-de-QT1ftfla1rft 
(Stat.), where the Seville bread is made, 

Kairene, Vlso (Stat), or Viso del Acor, Alcau- 

dete, and Carmona (page 61X The rail to 

Huelva, 68 miles, passes by San Lucar la 
Vayor, or de Barrameda (population, 22,700), 

in a rich fruit country, called by the Arabs 
Aljarafe^ or Garden of Hercules, Camas, BeBa- 

okMon, Etoaoana, La PaZma (a pretty spot on 

two streams), San Juan del Puerto (branch to 
Zalamea, page 111 ), mebla (a decayed old Arab 
town), to Huelva (page 111 ). 

Routes.— There are two roads to Badajoz ; the 
one through Guillcna, Ronquillo, Santa Olalla, Los 
Santos, Santa Marta, and Albuera; the other, by 
way of Algarrobo, Castillo, Rio Tinto Aracena, 
Segura de Leon, ZaftU (Stat.) (page 87), Santa 
Marta, and Albuera. ' 

Trains to Utrera (Stat.), where two branch 
lines to Moron and Of>una go otf. Utrera (popula- 
tion 15,093) with Moorish walls, has a pilgrim 
church, Moorish alcazar, barracks, Ac, and gookl 
salt springs. Horon, or Moron de la Frontera, on 
the branch rail towards Ronda, 12 miles from 
Utrera, has a population of 14,879, and producet 
good olive oil. The other line from Utrera passes 
Marchena to Osuna and La Roda (page 60), 
Harchena (population, 13,768) is on a branch of 
the Guadalquivir (branch to Edja, page 61), 
Osuna (population, 17,211), which belongs to one 
of the grreat Spanish dukedoms, is the Roman Urto, 
and a military post, on a plain, where mach esparto 
fibre is grown. It had a university, and possesses 
several churches and suppressed convents. 

The rail from Utrera to Cadiz, 96 miles, goes 

past Dos Hermanas, Utrera (above). Las 
Alcantarlllas, LebrUa, Jerez (branch to San 
Lucar), Puerto Sta. Maria, Puerto Real, San 
Fernando, to Cadiz. 

LEBRIJA (Stat.) 

Population, 12,864. 

Hotels.— Fonda San Luis ; Porada del Hospital ; 

It is the Ancleni yebt-issa-Veneria, and is situated 
on an eminence on the left bank of the Guadal- 
quivir, in a marshy district. Its manufactures 
comprise soap, pottery, and cloths, and it is cele- 
brated for its oil. 

Sights.— The parochial Church, part of which 
was formerly a mosque, with some carvings in the 
altar by Alonso Cano; note also the cloister, with 
a crucifix by Montafies. Be.lCr?^^'«^^s*»'^^s«»^''^^'% 
GlraVdix u.\. ^«sVi\^. C^>^«se.^^ ^^^^'ft.^w ^a^^^ 

r / 



JSRB2 (ttoi), or JEREZ DE LA 

Population (1887), 64,538. 

HotelB.— Busch's Private ' Hotel ; De Jerez. 
From Jerex we get the name for ''Sherry,'* its 
tt«ple produce. 

Jerts it situated near the right bank of the 
Gnadalete. The old part of the town has narrow 
tad erooked streets, but the more modem part is 
well Imilt. It is supposed to stand on the site of 
tb« ancient Aiti Regia^ near wliich spot Boderic, 
last monarch of the Visigoths, lost tlie battle that 
pat A period to their dombUon in Spain. Its manu> 
f actures comprise wocrflen cloths and leather, and it 
has numerous Willt Storoi or bodegas. It exports 
from 5,000,000 to 7,000,000 gallons of sherry wine, 
About one half being exported to England. Some 
is IftO years old. The l>est is dear, very little drunk 
ia Spain, and is almost looked upon as a liqueur. 
The best wines are those called Moscadel, Pedro 
Jimenex, imd Paxarete. Jerex is denominated 
Jerex de la Frontera, in contradistlncticm to Jerez 
de los Caballeros, in Estremadura. Thcro are 
several conjectures as to the meauhig of the name 
Jerez. It was called by the Moors, Sheruh FiiUtin. 
. It is most probably derived from Cseris, the abbre- 
viation by the Moors of Asidona CsBsaris. Some 
shooting is to be had in the neighbourhood. 

Sights. — Moorish Alcazar, near the Alameda or 
public walk. La Coleglata. The churches of San 
Miguel, Santiago, and San Dionisio, a fine sample 
of Moorish-Gothic. La Cartuja, a Carthusian 
monastery, situated about 2 miles from the town. 
The chief bodegas, or wine stores, arc tiiose of 
Domecq, Gordon, Ysasi, Eemates, Garvey, Gon- 
•alez, Cosens, Mackenzie, Ac. 

OonTeyanoes. — Rail to Cadiz in about li 
hour; tit Seville in 2| hours and Zi hours. To 
Ban Lucar (Stat) by branch line (rtd Las 
TWblas)* 1 hour; a port in the mouth of the 
Cloadalqaivir, on the Bay of Cadiz, once noted for 
•dventurers of the Picaresque, or roguish class, as 
dsseribed ia Meudoxa's *'Laxarillo de Tormes.** 
Coaches to Arc<y$^ a picturesque town on the 
f^as4ia}^9 (i^ the river of Lethe or Death), with 
» ane cAarcb. Stcamera to Puerto de 8t. Maria. 


[Section 1. 

Puerto de Bta. Maria (Stat.) or Port St. 

Mary's, formerly a Greek and Moorish port, at 
the mouth of the Guadulete (a suspension bridge), 
on the opposite side of the Bay from Cadiz, 7 miles 
from Cadiz by sea, but 21 by land, round to the Isth- 
mus of Leon. Population, 22,122. It has numerous 
bodegas or wine stores, and a noted breed of bulls 
for fighting, /nn.— Vista Alegra. At Rota, the 
Tent wine for sacramental use is grown. 

Puerto Real (Stat), the ancient Partus Oa^ 
tonus, where a branch goes off to TrocaderO, on a 
point facing Cadiz, which the French occupied 
1823, now the site uf tiie Spanish Transatlantic 
Co.*s docks. 

San Fernando (Stat), near the Naval ynrd, 
San Carlos Hospital, and CarrHcas Dockyard and 
Arsenal. Population, 26,880. 

CADIZ (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 62,531. 

Hotels.— Hotel dePoris; de America; de Cadiz; 
Fonda de las Cuatro Naciunes. Very many Casas 
de Pupilos (Hoarding Houses). Casino. 

BatilS in the Plaza de Mina, near the Corrcos 
(Post Office) ; sea-bathing establishments on the 
Alameda and the Muelle. 

Shops.— The best shops for fans, mantillas, 
gloves (for which Cadiz Is celebrated), perfumery, 
and confectioner^', are in the Calle Ancha, which 
leads from the Plaza San Antonio to the theatre. 

GaslnO.— On the Plaza San Antonio, where 
strangers are introduced without difficulty. Here 
the principal Spanish, French, and English Journals 
are taken in. 

Large hackney carriages, by the hour, 20 reals { 
smaller, 16 reals. Second hour, 15 reals and 10 reals. 

Fare of boats to steamers, 4 reals each pers(m. 

Head Post Office : Calle Enrique. Telegraph, at 
the Custom House. 

Cadiz, the Phoenician Gaddir, Oadet of th9 
ancients, stands at the extremity of a peninsula 
of the Isle of Leon, the small isthmus of whleH 
forms an immense Bap; being elevated, and built of 
white stone, it has a beautiful appearance from the 
■oa. The entrance is commanded by three Porta, 
called Santa Catalina, St. Sebastian, and Matagorda. 
On the other H\(\e& \i V* vatrouwAftA Vy; «K<^vV. ^M\k«., 

Hoiite 10.] QXDtz. 'Tl 

punken reefs, and a precipitous bcAcli. On the imports are Dtaveg and tuhaccu, f ruiu Amt^ricu : 

land side, the only access is by a long belt of hides, cocoa, indigo, cochineal, dyewoods, sugar. 

)and, in some places not more than 200 yards wide and other colonial produce, from Cuba, Puerto 

MMUiriat llng with cannon. T he idtv in aiirrAnn>ir>/i m-. .. t» d from Mexico and 

n Newfoundland; 

besieged. It was 

nd again attacked 

' it was blockaded 

rich galleons, and 

'iUglish ex])edition 

'02, but failed. In 

c; when the plaee 

1, under the Du«- 

a f roe port in 18'2i^, 

to enjoy in 18-32. 

Spanish colonies its 

d. Here the first 


acrce, a judicatur«, 

interesting to the 
ilightful residence 
t of English com- 
thc Peninsula. 

i c called La Vleja 

(the new). The 
i id used merely as a 

i is a much larger 

: 'ith a nave 279 feet 

irmounted by two 

re ttill incomplete. 

Churches, besides 

That called Los 

suppressed. The 

by Murillo, yis.: 

last wor^, finished 

a San Francisco. 

s, and sotne paint- 

ich is a refuge for 

8 1 note especial! )r 

^ agio, de San Ser- 

I., free. 

yf . 



[Section 1. 

m«ndad de Caridad, in the church of the Military 
Hospital, a society established for rendering 
roligious offices, Ac, to culprits, and conducting 
them to the place of burial. 

ElUxaeOy coutainhig some pictures by Zurbaran, 
Tobar, and \s. Giordano. 

Medical school, and several superior Mchouls, nil 
> in connection with the Seville Universit}-. 

Several private collections of pictures, shells, 
botanical specimens, and arms. 

Casa de Espositos, founded in 1621, in the Calle 
de Cuua. Aduana, an immense building. Govern- 
ment cigar factory. 

Two Theatres, in one of which, El Principal, 
operas are performed during the wiuter. 

Artillery barracks; ArtenaltX S.Feruando; naval 
eollege; new prison; school of commerce (Escuela 
de Commercio), Plaza de Toros; Torre de la Vigia, 
or of the look-out, worth ascending. San Sebastian, 
a fort and light-house, 172 feet in height. 

La Calle Ancha, a very handsome street. Puerta 
del Mar, containing the fish markets, where every 
variety of fish may be seen. 

Charming Alameda, a public promenade, with 
fountains and trees. Ramparts surrounding the 
city for four miles, affording agreeable promenades, 
commanding fine views of the bay and country 
beyondf and much frequented. Las Dclicias, a 
winter resort, and La Muralla del Mar, a summer 

Railway statioUf outside the town. 

Resident English Consul ; English Church Ser- 
vice at the Consulate. 

For works on Cadiz, consult Manuel de la Pro- 
Yincia, by Igartnburu, Cadiz, 4to, 1847 ; and Cadiz 
|[*benicia, Mondejor, 3 yolumes, Madrid 1806, 8vo. 

Qonyeyances.— Rail to Jerez, Seville, and 

Steamers.— To Huelva, Seville, Gibraltar, 
Malaga, Alicante, Barcelona, and Marseilles ; also 
to Lisbon, Vigo, and St. Nazaire. The average 
passage from Cadiz to London, stoppages included, 
if about seven days. The voyage from Cadiz to 
Lisbon takes between 80 and 85 hours. 

Passengers arriving at Cadiz, disembark in the 
bay, and boats convey them to the shore; four 
reaU each person, and three reals each package. 

All baggage is examined .it the Custom-House en 
entering Cadiz. 

A steamer ascends the Guadalquivir every 
second morning, and reaches Scrillc in about 7 or 8 
hours. The site of Tanhith, Tharsis, or Tartc^ms, 
is placed somewhere near the mouth of this river 
(anct. Boetis); from which the Phoenicians ex- 
ported the mineral produce of the south of Spain. 

Excursions.— The land route to Gibraltar is by 
Chlclana, Venta de Vejcr, Vcnta de Ojen, and Los 
Barrios; or by Chlclana, Venta de Vejcr, Tarifa, 
and Algeciras. Excursions are made to Ronda; 
also to Chiclana and its sulphur springs (12 miles 
south-east of Cadiz, population 11,627), where the 
inhabitants of Cadiz have numerous countrj' houses. 
In the vicinity of Chiclnna is an ancient Moorish 
Castle. At the old Arab town of Medina Stdonfa 
Roderick the Goth was defeated by Tarik, a.d. 711. 
Rail or steamer to Puerto de Stu. Maria (19 m.): 
rail to San Fernando (good observatory); steamer 
to Huelva, a pleasant trip. 

About SO miles south-east of Cadiz is Cape 
Trafalgar, a low heiidland terminating in two 
points. Oflf this Cape, on the 21st October, 1806, 
was fought the memorable battle in which the 
English, under Lord Nelson, gained a complete 
victory over the combined fleets of France and 
Spain, and in which Nelson was killed. The name 
is sounded Trafalgar' by Spanish sailors, whom 
Byron followed in his *' Childe Harold." Taraf-al- 
Ohar means Cape of the cave. 

Positive intelligence having been received in 
London that the French and Spanish squadrons 
were equipping themselves for another excursion. 
Nelson, on the 15th September, 1805, left England 
for the last time, animated with the most de- 
termined resolution, and carrying his flag on board 
the Victory, of 100 guns. Apprehending that the 
enemy might be deterred from putting their design 
into execution, if the amount of force under his 
command became known to them. Nelson stationed 
the main body of his fleet behind Cape St. Mary, 
and only posted a smaller detachment in sight of 
Cadiz. Several manoeuvres were subsequently 
practised to deceive the enemy, and on the lOtli 
October they sailed from Cadiz, to every appear- 
ance confident that only an inferior force was 
opposed to their passage. On Monday, the 21st, the 
two fleets came in sight at a distance of about six 

Route 11<] 



leagues from Cape Trafalgar, llie British had 
twenty-seven, the French eighteen, the Spaniards 
fifteen ships. 

To save the delay of forming a regular line, 
?f elson ordered his fleet to bear up in two columns, 
of which he led the weather side in person, and 
appointed Collingwood, in the Royal Sovereign, to 
head the lec. The combined armament drew 
themselves closely up into the figure of a crescent, 
and awaited the attack with steady composure. 
The action became general at twelve o'clock, when 
almost every ship throughout the lines was en- 
gaged muzzle to muzzle. The enemy displayed 
great vigour, and the conflict raged for some time 
with severity; but the fury of the assault was 
Irresistible. By three o'clock they began to strike 
their colours, and the order of their array was com- 
pletely broken. The result was, one ship of sixty- 
four guns, and nineteen sail were left in our posses- 
sion, amongst which were three first-rate ships, with 
their three flag ofl^cers on board. The fate of 
Nelson remains to be recorded. About the middle 
of the battle the Victory fell aboard the Redoubt- 
able, and a great struggle took place. The 
superiority of the British ship was, however, 
evident; the crew of her adversary were swept 
away from their decks; and she was at the last 
extremity of resistance, when a musket ball from 
the mizen top struck Nelson in the left shoulder; he 
fell on the instant, and was quickly removed to the 
cockpit. When the surgeon approached, he com- 
plained of acute pain in the back, and frequently 
declared that the bone was shot through. His 
extremities soon became cold ; he lost all sense of 
bodily motion, and confessed that death was fast 
approaching. In the course of an hour his pulse 
grew indistinct, and his forehead became cold. To 
the last moment his faculties were undepressed, 
and the energy of his mind remained conspicuous. 
To every cheer given by his crew he listened with 
lively interest, and earnestly enquired after the 
state of the battle, and the number of captures. 
When told that only twelve ships could be counted 
with their colours down, he expressed surprise, 
and affirmed that, by his own calculation, at least 
twenty ought to be seized, a conjecture which was 
ultimately realised. Far from expressing any 
concern at bis fall, he declared the day to be the 
happiest of his life, and rejoiced greatly when 

assured that his anticipatiohs of a decisive victory 
were fulfilled. As his excitement subsided, h« 
said he could have wished to have survived a 
little longer, and seen the fleet safe ; but as tlir.t 
was impossible, he gave God thanks that he had 
outlived the victory, and done his duty to his 
country. He lingered on for about two hours, and 
expired without a struggle at five o'clock. 

HOOTB 11- 

Oranada to Hurda, through Dlezma, 
Ouadlz. Baza, Collar, Veles Rnhlo, Lorca, 
and Lebrilla. 

The road to Ouadix passes Huetor, Molinillo, 
and Diezma. 

The distance from Granada to Guadix is about 
34 miles; and may be ridden in from U to 15 hours. 
The road is mountainous, and a great part of it is 
very picturesque. The ride to Huotor takes 
about two hours. It lies seven miles east-north- 
east of Granada, has a decent posada, a church, a 
Casa de Ayuntamiento (town hall), a prison, several 
flour and oil mills, and a population of 813. 

The road, after passing through magnificent 
defiles, descends to Molinillo and Diezma, which is 
about 16 miles from Huetor. 

From Diezma to Guadix is about 12 miles. 


Population, 11,787. 

Hotels. — Fonda del Sol ; besides several posadat. 

Guadix, which is the ancient Aeei^ is situated on 
the slope of the Sierra Nevada, on the left bank of 
the river of the same name, signifying ^* river of 
life,'* from the Arabic wadi-ai-apth. The place is 
of ancient origin, having been founded, according 
to some authors, by the Phoenicians. It was the 
principal seat of Battitania. The Romans, who 
re-peopled it, conceded to it the privileges of a 
colony, and it was rebuilt by the Moors. It is 
surrounded by ancient walls and mulberry planta- 
tions. The houses are badly built, and the streets 
narrow and ill paved. The Plaza de la Consti- 
tucion is a rectangular parallelogram, 120 yards 
long by 60 broad. It is of the Corinthian order, 
anu is supported by arches, under which is a paseo, 
or public walk. 

The manufactures comprise hempen goods, salt- 
petre, earthenware, and hats. It has also a trade 
in wool, cotton, silk, flax, corn, and Uojsa^sxvv v**^** 



[Section 1. 

weekly markets, and a well attended fair, which 
lasts eiglit weeks. There is interest for the 
geologist in the environs. The mineral haths 
of Graena are about 3 miles distant. 

BiglltS. — Cathedral: partly Doric, partly Corin- 
thian; note the choir and the pulpit. It was 
begun in 1710, and finished in 1796, at an expense 
of 10,500,000 reals. It occupies the site of a 
considerable mosque. There are four parish 
clmrohes, one with three naves, a fine portal, and 
a tower. There are likewise two nunneriesi viz.: 
Santa Clara and La Concepcion ; four suppressed 
mcmaiteries, one of the order of Santo Domingo, 
another of that of San Augustin, and the two 
remaining ones of the order of Ban Frnncisco. 

The other objects worthy of note are a Moorish 
oastle called La Alcazaba, finely situated on a 
height, but nearly in ruins. It was repaired 
during the War of Independence, and is now the 
public cemetery. A good Casa Consistorial, where 
the Ayuntamiento holds its sessions; an indifferent 
prison situated, as well as the Casa de Ayuntamiento, 
in the Plaza de la Constituclon; a hospital, occupy- 
ing the buildings of the Jesuit college; an Eccle^ 
siastical seminary for latin grammar, philosophy 
and theology; aSociedad Econdmica; four primary 
schools; a hospicio established by Carlos IV. in 
1803; an episcopal palace; and seven public foun- 
tains, having their sources at a short distance from 
the town. 

From Guadiji there is a road to Almeria, H 
miles, through Ocafta, and ra^i 63 miles. 

The road from Guadix to Murcia runs past Venta 
de Gor, Venta de Baul, Baza, Cullar, Chirivel, 
Velez Rubio, Lorca, Totana, and Lebrilla. The 
distance is about 37 leagues. A diligenee runs 
from Lorca to Murcia. 

The road to Baza is somewhat hilly, and of a 
wild character. 

BAZA (Stat) 
(Population, 12,992) is situated In aplalnat thefoot 
of the Sierra of the same name, near the rivulet 
Guadalquiton. It derived its ancient name, Batti^ 
from a part of the Sierra in which the Guadalquivir 
has its source. It streets are crooked and narrow. 
Its manufactures comprise linen f abries, hats, earth- 
mrmsrii, and gypBum. It has an annual fair in 
Metftmuber, and ta eetebnted for Us red wiaea, and 

for its beautiful women. In th^ environs, mules, 
sheep, and cattle are reared. 

It is renowned in early Spanish history-, more 
especially in the history of Granada. It was taken 
by the Spaniards from the Moors in 1489, after a 
siege of nearly seven months; and here on the 8rd 
November, 1810, the Spaniards, under Blake and 
Preire, were defeated by the French, under Sebas- 
tian 1. In the first attack of the Spaniards the 
French were routed, and abandoning their positions, 
fell back upon Baza. Their cavalry however made 
a dexterous movement, in order to surround the 
Spaniards who were advancing; upon this, Freire 
made a retrograde movement, whereupon the French 
made an impetuous charge with a thousand Uor^er 
men and routed the third Spanish division corar 
manded by Sanz, who lost two standards and fire 
pieces of artillery. The division commanded, by 
Elio was alone able to protect the retiriugSpaniards. 

Sigl^tS— The town has three Plazas, a Collegiate 
and two other churches, Casa de Ayuntamiontp 
(Town HallX a college, four schools, hospital, QivU 
and ecclesiastical prisons, several public fountaini, 
and some fine gardens and paseos or promeuades. 

Railway to I«orca (next page). 

The distance from Baza to Cullar is about H 
miles. The road is in a bad state ; several watttTr 
courses have to be forded. 


(Population, 7,417) is situated in a plain mmr tht 
summit of the Sierra (rf the same name, wlileh 
separates the waters of the Guadalquivir and tka 
Segura. The place is of Moorish origin. Iteontaint 
600 houses, besides many eaves in which the inhabi- 
tants dwell. It has its Plaza or square, and, in the 
centre of the town, a torreon or round towar, 
anci(Nitly a fortress; a parish church callad Kueztra 
Sellora de la Annnnciacion; four hermitagee lu 
the town dedicated to Ban Agustin, San Jof¥, 
Ban Antonio, and Angel d« la Guarda, and five in 
the aldeas or hamlet, named Vertientes, Barrio* 
Nuevo, El Margen, Martian, and Poso-Iglesiaf ; a 
Casa Consistorial, a prison, a cemetery, and thrae 
fountains. It has a large manufactory Qf saltp«tf«u 
The vicinity produces grain, fruits, and vogetablait 
and an annual cattle fair is held here in tha montb 
of August. From here the country it txtrraialy 
picturesque and lulaTavtVuc, 

Houte 11. J 



The distance from Cullar to Cllirivel is 14 miles, 
And 1(4 miles more by a rocky road to 

Velez RubiO (Posada del Rosario), situated at 
the foot of a gentle eminence in a pleasant valley. 
It hasfonr Squares, called Plaza dclos Constitncion, 
Plaza de Fatin, Plaza del Capitan Martin Garcia, 
and Plaza de la Ximencz. There arc some 
handsome houses, a well-built prison, a Casa Con- 
sistorial, an ancient Convent of Franciscan monks, 
and another which now serves as the grange to the 
palace of the Marques of Villafranca, a fine hos- 
pital, and a philological college, established in 1838 
(having four professorships), and incorporated in 
the University of Granada. 

The Church of Nuestra Seliora de Encarnacion, 
built hi 1753, upon the ruins of an ancient temple, 
which dated from the conquest of the Moors, in 
1488, and destroyed on the 4th March, 1761, by a 
terrific earthquake. It is a substantial edifice of 
brick and stone; the exterior is elegant, the 
portal is wholly of hewn stone, very lofty, con- 
posed of several colunms, statues, and cornices, 
crowned by a gilt cross, supported by two figures 
of angels, with a medallion of demi-relief of some 
merit, in which is represented the mystery of 
the Annunciation ; and underneath the puerta are 
the arms of the House of Vclez. Two elevated 
towers form the comers, which terminate with 
beautiful capitals, surrounded with broad cor- 
ridors, whence there is a good view of the town 
and the puerta. Near the walls are three liand- 
aoDne fountains. 

The road from Yelez Rubio to Lorca passes 
the defile of Jjumbrcras. Distance: about 28 


LORCA (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 62,935. 

UUL— Fonda de San Vicente. 

Lorca the ancient EHeroca, is situated in an 
uneven tract, on the banks of the Sangonera. It 
it said to have been founded by the Phocian 
Greeks ; to have been subsequently ruled over and 
enlarged by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and 
Bomah*, and in the time of the Goths was the 
episcopal see. It Is irregularly built and dull, 
btit the streets are clean, and there are some good 
houMS, and an old plaza. Its manuf aetures com- 
prise linen cloths, thread, and saltpetre; and it has 
a lorg* annoal fair, beginning on the BtUt and icr- 
minatio^ om the 29rd September. 

Sights.— A Collegiate church, partly Gothic, 
partly Composite, containing some relics: the 
Gothic church of Santa Maria ; the modem Church 
of Santiago; and the Churches of San Mateo, San 
Cristobal, San Pedro, San Juan, and San Clemente. 
Two nunneries. Las Mercedes, and Santa Ana y 
Magdalena. Episcopal Palace. A college. Two 
hospitals. Casa Consistorial. An old castle, once 
considered the key of Murcia. Some Roman anti- 
quities, including a pillar with an inscription. 
Four public fountains; and some pleasant Alame- 
das or public walks. 

Conyeyances.— Lorca is connected with 
Murcia (page IIS) by a line running through 

Totana (below), Alliama de Murcia (next 

page), and LibriUa to AlcantariUa, where it 
joins the main line from Madrid vid Ohlnchilla 

(for Alicante), and MuTcia to Cartagena, ftc, 

(Route 13). A direct line to Cartagena is projected . 

From Lorca a line runs through AlxnendriCOS 
to AgUilas, a small port, of about 9,000 people, 
on the Mediterranean, and to Baia (page 74). 

From Almendricos junction another line passing 
through Huercal runs to ZUTSttUa a town of 
13,000 inhabitants on the Almanzor. 

These lines will probably bo continued to 
Almcria. Their immediate development is owing 
to the opening up of the mines in the district. 

Distance : Lorca lies 29 miles west-south-west 
of Murcia. 

The distance from Lorca to Totana is 14 miles. 
The route is dull and uninteresting. 

TOTANA (Stat) 
(Population, 0,648) lies 10 miles north-cast of 
Lorca ; and 27 miles south-west of Murcia, on the 
brow of the Sierras which surround that of 
Espaila, and is of ancient foundation. It is divided 
by a rambla or sandy space, running from east to 
west, the southern part being called Barrio de 
Sevilla, the northern. Barrio do Triana. The place 
has been reduced to its present size by wars and 
epidemic diseases. It consists of ill-built and 
Irregular houses, and dirty and ill-paved stre<;ts. 
The Plaza de la Constituclon contains somo good 

The parish Church, which is situated in tUe. 
centre of the towu, ^ %. v»VA. v^iSSt^'«^ ^'^ *^'*^'^**^%, 



[Section 1. 

called dc la (*oui:epciuii was anciently the parbh 
ohnrch; that of San Buenaventura belonged to 
the conuuunity of bare-footed Francisenns. Tliere 
are also the Churches of San Josd and San Roquc. 
The Casa Consistorial is of solid cunstritction. 
There arc several schools, and a cemetery. In the 
Barrio is a pretty fountain of jasper, vrith eighteen 
satyrs. In the Triana is another fountain. There 
arc eight potteries, which produce a great deal of 
Une earthenware; and some looms for linens, and a 
stuff made of wool and silk called tocas. About 
6 miles further on is Alhama de Hurcia 
(Btat.)i see preceding page. Population: 5,000, 
with mineral springs, efficacious in rheumatism, 
and known to the Romans. 

The distance to Lebrllla (Stat.) by road is 
fi miles, and 14 miles further to Hurcla (Stat.); 
for which see Coast Tour, Route 18. 

HOXJXE 153- 

Madrid to ATlla and Medina del Campo 
for Zamora, Salamanca, Clndad Bod- 
rlgo» Colmbra, and Oporto. 

Madrid to Avila and Medina del Campo (see 
Route 1, reversing the order). 

At Medina del Campo (page 35) a line 66 
miles long runs oft to Zamora, a place of con- 
siderable interest, from which the tjurist can 
reach the baths of Ledesma (see page 77), which 
can also be visited from Salamanca. 

ZAMORA (Stat.) 
Population (1887), 14,137. 

Hotels. — Posada dc la Morera, on the Plaza del 
Carbon. Two or three other decent Inns; one on the 
Plaza Santa Lucia. 

A good buffet. 

Omnibus from the station to the centre of the 
town, not quite a mile distant. 

It is situated for the most part under a gentle 
eminence, near the margin of the Duero, over 
which it has a fine bridge. It is nearly surrounded 
by a wall of hewn stone, and of irregular figure, 
from the many angles and comers which it 
Axnas. The wail is not thick, but parts of it 
'^^ f^'e/yr ancJent. 

Beside eighty-five streets, a plaza, and thirty 
plazuelas, there are five arrabales or suburbi*. 
named San Lazaro. E^piritu Santo, Olivarcs. 
Cjibai\alee, and San Frontis. The principal street 
in the city is that of Santa Clara; the next in 
importance arc those called San Torcuato. 
Costanilla, and Balborraz. This very old city was 
from early times an ot>jcct of contention, as its 
position and importance made it the key of an 
extensive district, the old kingdom of Leon. It is 
the ancient Oeeilodurum, and is said to have been 
founded by Jews, B.C. 590. It subsequently came 
under the dominion of the Moors, but was recovered 
from them by Alonso, the Catholic, in 748. Nearly 
destroyed and abandoned, it was re-peopled in 904 
by Alonso III. of Leon, when it was known by the 
name of Sentica. It was retaken and destroyed by 
Al Mansur in the tenth century, and was rebuilt 
by Ferdinand I., who, in 1065, gave it to his 
daughter Urraca. Those who are curious respect- 
ing the history of the city in the time of Don Sancho 
should read the well-known Romancero del Cid. 

It has manufactures of blankets, sOTges, hats, 
tanned leather, liqueurs, dyes, and gunpowder, 
and there is some commerce. 

Its great fair is important both for its du- 
ration and its articles of traffic. It is called 
Botigero, because, according to tradition, it com- 
menced by selling botijos, or earthen jars or 
cachdrros of the country. With regard to the 
name, Lamartini^re says it was anciently calle<l 
Sentica, which the Moors, on becoming masters, 
changed to Zamora, or Medinato Zamorati, "the 
town of turquoises," because most of the neighbour- 
ing rocks have mines which produce turquoises. 
Ford says **it is said to be derived from the Moorish 
Samurdhy a city of turquoises, which it does not 
signify, and of which it possesses none." 

That the name is of Moorish origin seems 
probable, inasmuch as there is or was a very 
ancient place in Barbary of the same name. 
Zumar in Arabic signifies crowds of people, troops, 
families; but the name of the place in modem 
Arabic is written Semurah, and may be derived 
from Madinat-al-Samurat, "the town of thorny 

Sights.— Byzantine Cathedral, 11th Century; 
note the tower. \V\e fta-x-wiv wcVvwk, \\\«^ vlome, the 

Iloute 12.] 


t t 

superb rose windows; the high altar, with its marble 
pillars; the fine retablo ; the choir, sarrounded by 
a wainscot of walnnt, representing above each 
stall the patriarchs, the apostles, and the evange- 
lists, with sacred inscriptions; note also, in one of 
the chapels a St. Paul, and a mummy in a perfect 
state of preservation, which was found in the con- 
vent of Moreruela, and is supposed to bo the body 
of the unknown founder of the convent. Observe 
also the tombs of Bishops Bernard and Perez, 
and of Alvaro Romero, and the modem cloisters. 

Among the twenty-three parochial Churches, 
that called De la Magdalena is well worthy of a 
visit. It is partly Moorish, partly Gothic, and is 
said to be of the twelfth century. It formerly be- 
long^ed to the Templars; note especially the fine 
portal ; the rose window ; the altar mayor, and the 
ancient tombs. The oldest church is S. Pedro y 
S. ndefenso. 

A Hospital for men, in the centre of the city, one 
of its best edifices; it was founded on 10th February, 
1629, and is capable of accommodating 300 poor 
people; there is also one for women nearly as 
capacious, but not so fine a building as the other. 

Palace of Dolia Urraca (near the Pnerta de la 
Foria), where Bellido Dolfos took refuge after he 
had accomplished the assassination of Sancho II. 

Prison, a solid modem building both commodi- 
ous and capacious, but possessing no architectural 

Casa de Hacienda, or of the Exchequer, a capaci- 
ous building, in the most central part of the city, 
in a small square, by some called Plazuela de la 
Ycrba, a name which has its anecdote. 

Seminario Conciliar, formerly a convent of the 
''Company of Jesus," a fine building; all its 
facades are of hewn stone, and it commands beauti- 
ful views to the south-east. 

Episcopal palace, ten nunneries, barracks, a 
public granary, Casa del Cid, near the episcopal 
palace, and the Pnerta del Obispo. Castle, or 
rather citadel of the third class, in the extreme 
south-west of the city. It is garrisoned by a com- 
pany of artillery. The powder magazine is in the 
most elevated part of the principal tower ; the en- 
trance to the fortress is facilitated by a raised 
bridge, and it has a glacis and a semicircular moat, 
on the former of which 2,000 foot aoldiers can be 

A good Town Hall, and a powder magazine 
outside the city. 

In the neighbourhood some geological and 
botanical excursions may be made. 

Promenades: San Martin dc Arriba and San 
Martin de Aba|o. 

ConyeyaACeS.- Madrid is reached by rail, «t<s 
Medina, Avila, and Escorial. Rail to Medina del 
Campo. Time 3 hours. 

A line is projected from Zamora to Astorga. 

Diligences to Alcaflices (near the Portuguese 
frontier), Bermillo de Sityago, La B^veda de Toro, 
and Rionegro del Pnente (on the road to Orense). 

The road from Zamora to Ledesma passes San 
Marcial, PeAa Oseoda, Asmenal, and Calzada 
Six hours of mountain travelling. 

LEDESMA (the ancient BMisM). 

Population, 8,070. 

HoteL— A Posada. 

A walled town, picturesquely situated upon a 
rock on the le/t bank of the river Tormes, which is 
here crossed by a fine old bridge on Roman founda- 
tion. It was taken from the Arabs by Alonso 
the Catholic, third king of the Asturias, and suc- 
cessor of Don Favila, in the year 739. The present 
town was founded in 1196 by King Ferdinand, of 
Leon, who gave it its present name. It has seven 
gates, the principal of which are Son Pedro and de 

It has a Plaza and eight Plazuelas; that 
of the fortress is one of the most frequented 
and most picturesque of the town, being situated 
in the centre of an alameda or public walk. The 
houses of the interior of the town are of two storeys. 
There are six small suburbs. The climate Is very 

Bights. — A Hospital with fine fa9ade and win- 
dows. It has capacious saloons and a large granary 
with three great naves. It was destroyed in the 
time of the French, and has beoi since rebuilt. 

Church of Santa Maria in the centre of the town. 
The roof of the capilla mayor is of great artistic 
merit, and is of the figure of a shell. The tower is 
raised over an arch, which serves as a passage or 
entrance to the Plaza connected with the houses. 
Church of Santa EleMsVewVJafe ts^xse^v- ^^^ssssw^ 




Brld|r«of art krthtB orer the Tormes; the middle 
arch is very fine, It is 180 feet in length, 8 in breadth, 
and 25 yards in height; several fotintains; some 
antiquities outside the Puerta de los Toros; curious 
old walls. 

Sulphur Baths, much frequented, about 3 leagues 
from the town, on the Tormes; season from the 
beginning of June to the end of September. These 
baths were well known to and much used by the 
Moors, who built part of the present erection.] 

Rail from Medina del Campo to Salamanca, 

47} miles (tee page 80). 


Population (1887), 22,199. 

Hotels. — Fonda del Comercio; Fonda Burgalesa. 
Several good Casas de Pupilos, and private lodging- 

The city, the capital of a province in Leon, is 
situated on three rocky heights in the middle d a 
kind of horse-shoe, on the right bank of the river 
Tormes, which is here crossed by a fine Bridge 
(on the foundation of a Roman one) of twenty-seven 
arches. There are three other bridges, that of 
Marin Salud being the best. In the Sierra de 
Oredos, a wild region said to be haunted by 
monsters, the cabra montes or ibex is still hunted. 

It is built in the form of an amphitheatre, the 
river washing part of its walls. A great part of 
the city within the walls is in a ruinous state. The 
houses are mostly old-fashioned but commodious. 
Some of the palaces and private residences are 
distinguished for their size, solidity, and elegance. 
It was celebrated in the time of Carthage, and was 
taken by Hannibal b.c. 222. Its ancient name was 
Elmantica, which some derive from Elman, god of 
war among the Iberians. In latter times the name 
was changed to Salamantiea, probably formed from 
Sal-Elmantica. Under the Romans it was a muni- 
cipium, and was the 9th military station between 
Saragossa and Merida on the road called Via Lata, 
a part of which exists to the present day in a good 
state of presei'vation ; and here have been discovered 
from time to time bits ot R<nnan mosaic and also 
pieces of moresque work. It was ravaged by the 
Moors, hut I'e-oonqttered In 1095. 

In the War of Indepoideoce it was attacked 

^r i/f» Frioeh, and m tht 3ftad of June, 181f , it 

la^e ma Aanevf^tie capliuhtloa, utter A WocHde 

[Section 1. 

or Biege of 11 days. Finally on the 22nd of July, 
1812, was fought the famous Battle between the 
French, under Marmont and Clusel, and the £^9- 
lish and Portuguese, under Wellington, when the 
latter obtained a complete victory. The battle wai 
fought on the heights of ArapUeS, about 4 miles 
south-cast of the city. 

Several councils have been held here, in one of 
which the suppression of the Templars was dis- 
cussed. Here also Alonso el Casto convoked a 
Cortes, as also did Juan II. in 1430. It is the birth- 
place of the lyric poet, Luis do Leon, who is buried 
in the Agostinos Calzados; and Quintana and 
Melendez were among the recent members of the 
university. From its venerable appearance it was 
anciently called by the Spaniards Little Rome 
(Roma la Chica). 

The manufactures comprise leather, woollen 
cloths, excellent blankets, hats, shoes, coarse earth- 
enware, glue, and starch. It has also a trade in 
dressed leather, barley, wheat, and vetches, and 
there are several flour mills. The climate is oold. 

Uniyerflity.— The University (the Oxford of 
Spain) is one of the most ancient, and was at one 
time one of the most celebrated in Europe. It was 
founded about the close of the 12th century, by 
Alfonso IX., of Leon, and was afterwards, in 1239, 
extended by Alfonso X., sumamed "El Sabio" 
(the learned), so celebrated for the progress which 
astronomy made under his auspices, and who 
incorporated with it the University of Palencia. 
It soon rose into importance, and its professors 
became eminent in Europe by their acquaintance 
with the Arabian writers on medicine and philoso- 
phy, and through them with the writings of the 
Greeks. In the fourteenth century it was resorted 
to from all parts of Europe, the students numbering 
as many as 14,000. In the sixteenth century its 
fame began to decline, and in 1846 it was only 
attended by some 400 students. The number on the 
occasion of the last census was only 370. The Uni- 
versity consists of two edifices, called greater and 
lesser schools, begun in 1415, and finished in 1488, 
down to which time the schools were kept in the 
old cathedral cloisters. The University Library 
contains 00,000 volumes. Its fapade Is a superb 
spechnen of architecture. The cloisters are fine, 
having gtacetuX wc\iw wi^^ ^i\t\>ox>V%tft«^^^"Vk- 

colleva, udled E] Coleglo Vtfjo (Sui Birtnlom^ 
Cglagio del Rey (Kinj'. Ct>llcge>. Colegfo de 

of Toledo! 

>j Alon» de FoDMw, 



txEng ilmDiUneODiIr omployvd In lit en 

It lisculi>9»[ and niperbedUee Bndliin pretty 

good preserrillon; noteespeclilly the fine lin«de, 

btantllnl f hapel with KDlptiins on Its higti ilUr, 

now oMopled partly by Irish rtndent" >iid Part 
■ ntlltiry hmpltil. Bl Colegia dd Rey (K 
Collejel WBi commenced In HIS; Iti qiudningl* 
la Doric; Ithu b«n partially reitorad froi 
rnlnoni Hate In which It wta left by (he Freneb. 
lUid la Ho* con«rted Into Infaniry burrackt. 
Cnenci Collcse waa (onnded In ISt»; it waa 
foiDerly a alpeib cdifloe, but ll now In ralm. 

The new Ostbedrsl, begnn by Juan Oil de 
Monmnon, InlMM 
lit feet In length an 

at IhenarelalSlfeet: It l> a magiilflcent bnlld 
Ing, In 1 Myle partly Oothlo and pinly Italian 
ttaeportal Itrlchlyoniamentaa; the building ha 
IhnealilM; Iheniof,i^lchl9anpportedbyo1esiin 
folamna. i> adorned with glided rosetteii th 

El Coleglo del 
Santiago, wsa , 
LFcbbltbop , BUu de Nararrcte, aanuuned EL Undo 
(the daabX Qaipu Becerra, and Joan de Jnaneti 
not* the sopsU (dnbarlo), the CapUla de Han 
Antonio, cont^Dltif plotuM. by ZarbArao and 
Iho CapllU dri Pnaldaala, wllh rane pabitlngt by 

1 the CapUla de Ba^ 
one of tbe Ca^iillai fn 
cording to the Uoiar- 

SinUHarU, with three uaTO; It 

old Cathedral, bqt wllh some mo 
Cbsrcta of Sun NIcolai, beyond tb 

magnlflccnlfafode. the beautiful aacrlaty, tbe dome, 
painted by Palomino, and a martyrdom of Si. 
Stephen, by Coel ho. Here,lnl484-«,CalDinbuiwai 
lodged, the monka baring eaponaed bla ecbemo of 
dl»co»cry after 11 bad been condeinned by the 
nnlTcnky. LaCarldad (n^laaTlejaa}. founded 
in IB^by Don Bartolnm^ Cabatlero. Laa Aagni. 
tinaa RAxilMaa, o content built of rad BiarUe; In 
the chnrch, note the allar-piece, lb* prcclou 
marbles, iba toain, the bronn talieniaele, and 
■ma paintlngi by BIben, Idnfnnco, and Btaa- 
ilonL SanID Eaplrlto, a coDTCst; note the flne 
TO«t of the dwlr, the portal by Berrngsete. Ih« 

Hermitage of La Crui, wllUo the city. In the 

Coleglo delai IttandeieiorCaaadelei Jeanitat, 
clerteal •emlnary, a large and handiome ediace 

built to tbe beginaiBg of tha eerenteenlh cantoix j 
ita Mipeih chapel, gemlurlo de Carbsjal. 

lounded by Antonio da VargKi, for the support 
d educatloD of a eartain nnmber at chlldran, 
LO afterwardi follow a llterar)- u>«». %>«■''- 
rio ConeUiai tw.t.&t& Vt, VW^ \n ■<s™. ^«»* 



8. Domingo Convent is of different styles, tlie 
Gothic churcli being richly ornamented, with a 
fine portal. 

La Trinidad, ft hospital, supposed to have been 
founded at the time of the Catholic kings (Reyes 
Catdlicos); its ward of San Bernardo contains 
4wenty-two beds for males suffering from diseases 
CHrable by medicine; the ward San Vicemte 
has twenty beds for surgical cases. There is also 
a medical ward for women, called de la Pasion, 
and another for surgical cases called San Juan de 
Sahagun. In the Hospicio are supported, for a 
period of five years, a number of children, from the 
age of sixteen months up to seven years, besides, 
annually, many children during the period of lac- 
tation. Las Recogidas, a hospital founded in 1455 
by Alonso de Soils and his wife. Niflos EsptSsitos, 
a foundling hospital. 

In the cloister of the Convent of S. Esteban is 
the Muteo Provincial^ with nearly 300 pictures and 
some sculptures. 

El Coliseo (belonging to the civil hospital), a 
beautiful building, having two balconies with 
parapets of gilt iron, capable of containing 1,500 
persons, and commanding a fine view. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), on the 
Plaza Mayor. 

Torre de Clavel ; antiquated architecture ; curi- 
ous turrets. 

The splendid bridge over the Tormes, on twenty- 
seven arches, rests on Roman foundations. It 
is 500 paces in length, 12 in breadth ; the date of 
its construction is unknown; according to some it 
was built by Trajan, while others assert that it 
was rebuilt by Trajan, and afterwards by Adrian. 
The style is the same as that of the aqueduct of 
Segovia, and the bridges of Miranda, Alcantara, 
and others of the Roman epoch. 

Palaces of the Marques of Valdecarzana, and the 
Counts of Garcigrande, Espinosas, Monterey, and 
Maldonados; also a Moorish house in the Plaza 
Santa Tom^; and that of the Marques of Almarza 
in the Plaza de San Boal, wh^re the Duke of Wel- 
lington lodged when at SalaiKanca. 

Puerta de San Pablo, with many statues of 

*A}BtM, Ac. Plaza de la Verdura, or vegetable 

lojij-Ai't, a sqamre aear the PUzh Mhvot (plc- 

[iSuctiua 1. 

turcsque). Casa del Sal; note the facade, the 
pillars, the windows, and the gallery supported 
by grotesque figures. Plaza Mayor, a magnificent 
square, perhaps the largest in Spain. It is «ur- 
rounded by a striking colonnade of eighty-eight 
arches, under which are shops, the post-«fiice, and 
the Casa de Ayuntamiento. In this Plata the 
bull-fights take place, when the balconies are 
usually filled with from 16,000 to 20,000 spectators. 
Several Fountains, none of which arc remarkable 
for their beauty, and all badly supplied wit>i 

Books. — Forworkson Salamanca, consult "Com- 
pendio Historico," by B. Dorada, Salam., 1776, 
4to ; and " Reselia Historia," by DavUa, Salam., 
18t9, 8vo. 

Ck>nye7EnceB.— By rail, to Valladolid, Avila, 
Madrid, Ac, via the branch of 48 miles to Medina 
del Campo. It passes up the Tormes soma dis- 
tance, and then strikes through the hills, passing 
the following stations: — MorlBCO; PedreSO; 

Cantalapieilra (population, i,8oo) ; Caxpio» a 

small village, with a Moorish tower, an old castle 

and church ; Campillo ;«nd Medina del Campo. 

Diligence to the Sulphur Baths of Ledesxna, 
see page 77. 

Rail to Ciudad Rodrigo, 66 J miles. The line from 
Salamanca to Villar Formosa was opened in 1885 
and joins those to Figuclra da Fez and to Oporto. 
The latter line runs off at Sail Esteban and runs 
through Lumbrales to Barca d'Alva (page 184). 

The high road from Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo 
passes through Tejares, Calzadilla, Calzada, Alde- 
huela de la Boveda, Boadilla, San Esteban, Martin 
del Rio, and Puebla de Seltes, and is for the most 
part monotonous and bad. The railway line 
follows the same route. 

Population, 6,856. Hotel —Fonda de la Colada. 
A fortified frontier city, in a level tract, near the 
right bank of the Agueda, here crossed by a bridge 
of seven arches. 

There is a well attended market every Tuesday. 
The principal articles for sale ^re fruits of every 
sort, and olives. There arc two fairs; one in the 
second week of Lent, and the other on the Tuesday 
after the A«cen«lou. 

mlldJHid bMltby. Ttaetownwo 
■ .D-Udei tbe immet of Uerobilci 
ga. I(wi>nbblll by F«rdlniind 

wat re-rfoplcd in ITDS by Count Rodrli 
GIton, fTDm whom Lt Acquired lU pn 
•Igslfylng Roderick's Tonn. lt> trjn 
colBDUii, wllh the Istten R.G.Q^ o 

under. It 
r, 1707, by I 

Froncuco; alw-thS raUied comenli of Sunto 
I>onanso,1nTrlnti!jid; SjintiCnH, nnd Snnnwii- 

Tbe OoTernoi'i BtHldcni^l s CaMlo of thoClms 
»f Buiique II., of CaMlle ; it t« wlidly conitni««*, 
md well [ortlSed, nnd Is ono o[ tbe prlnclpul 

Th« most UKmorable Slefa that It 
was that tram tbe »tb April, 1810, t, 
July of the aaioe jaa, agtlnit tha Fn 

Bapitlicenl bridgie, o 

■rrabalor lubnrb 

1811, tl 


took place between Ihe Englirt and the Frencb; 
■nd the gnarllla chief, Julian Banchei, iiituoopted 
a. convoy, and took prisoner Monaieur ReynaiLd, 
gofemor 0* the plaee. Finally, the place was 
beaieged by W^Ingtoo, who took It by auaalt on 

fillfhtS. — Cathedral, begun In 1190, and enlarged 
in lllMi It i« In the form of a croM, and has tbreo 
nurei; the baaea of the eight prinolp^ pillars are 
Duie, and tbe cBpltali Cotlntblan! It hat two 
grand wlndowi, one sbore tbe collateral doora, the 
otber.aboTo Ibeportlcool the principal door. Note 
Bspecially the pnerta, irilh it> Blla-rallB»o^ the 

fuljof f rscturojnado by theFrench cannon In 1810. 
Coleglata, or'Capllla de Cciralbo, fonnded by 
Cardinal Pianciaoo Paoheoo In 1E8S, formerly i 
ttry »B0 bBlMfng. 

I are made (0 El Bodon, aabngat, L» 
anarda. and Fvailet dt Onore, the scene of on* 
r the Duke of Wellington's actions. To th« 
luth-eist of It Is La Ftaa de Fraviia, ifiM feet 
have KB, Tborc li a grand pilgrimage bllhsi 
q the Sth aeptembcr. 

The Flgoclra da Foz Hue is lontlnued front 
Cludad Rodrlgo. 

■Ihor to Vlllar Formow,ln the : 
. y; whence e.Ul.aTO,w\W\-B^ 


[Sectiun I. 

^niOM who are &ot dotlront of yititlng Portugal 
. Mn strike acntes country to Plasencia (lee next 
Bonte), S6 leaguei, a rough road, wild, and rery 
interesting, with horse and guide. On the way Is 
the district of Las Batuecas (bed at the ConrcntX 
the inhabitants as wild as the strange country they 
inhabit. From Plasencia to Navalmoral on the 
Madrid line. 

Madrid to Talavera, Arroyo de Malpar- 
tlda (for Caceres), and Valencia de 
Alcantara; direct railway route to 

At present there is only one through train per 
day, leaving Madrid about 6 p.m., by the station 
near the Paseos de Atocha and de las Delicias. 
The Sud ExpreUf thrice a week, to Lisbon in 
16f hours. Consult Bradshaw'i Continental Guide. 

For the first 60 miles no station of any special 
interest is passed. Cabanas (354 miles) being the 
only place of any note, most of the distance being 
through the plain lying betwesn the Sierra de 
Oredos and the Sierra de Toledo, the middle of 
which is occupied by the Tagus. 

Rlelves (49i miles), a village of 300 inhabit- 
ants, in the midst of well cnlivated lands. 

TonlJOS (53f miles), a place of over 2,000 
inhabitants; formerly a walled town, in a very 
damp and unwholesome district, subject to fevers. 
The only bui'ding of importance is an old palace 
of thi Counts of Altamira. 

BmsteS (65 miles) ; lUan-CebOlla (69| miles) ; 
the small t wn of CeboIIa, about | mile from the 
Tagnis, possesses only the palace of the dukes of 
Frias and their country residence on a hill outside 
the town. 

Talavera (84) miles); stay of 30 minutes. (See 
page 86 for description of this town.) Buffet. 

Oropesa (lOOi mlles); a small town (popu- 
lation, 3,340) ; on a bill covered with dwarf oaks 
and olives, with a ruinous palace and castle of 
the dukes of Frias. Between 

La Calzada (iio mUcs), and Navalmoral 

(136| miles), the province of Estremadura is 
entered, and the country becomes pastoral, and 
cultivated spots only rarely appear. 

Navalmoral (population, 3,471) is a good-looking 
tQwn of no importance. 

Malpartlda de Plasencia (i63f miles); 

8,000 inhabitants, with a church of 16th century, 
having some statues and sculpture by Castafio. 

Population, 7,9 '0. 

HoteL— Posada de las tres Pucrtas. 
The ancient Deohriga Pleuentia, province of 
Caceres, picturesquely situated on the right bank 
of the river Jcrtc, which is here crossed by three 
bridges. It lies in a dale, surrounded by hills and 
sierras, and a well-cultivated and charming 
country. It is enclosed by a strong wall of stone 
and mortar, constructed In 1197, by Alonso VIII., 
of Castile ; Is pierced with six gates, and flanked by 
68 strong towers, regularly placed. Its streets are 
straight, and generally well paved. Its foundation 
is of the time of the Romans, who gave it its first 
name. It was taken in 1180, by Alonso VIII. of 
Leon, and III. of Castile, and, being in a ruinc<l 
state, was re-founded by him in order to serve as a 
bulwark against the Moors. It was the head of 
the dukedom ruled over by Don Alvaro dc Zuniga. 
In 1488, the Catholic kings incorporated it with 
their crown, giving in recompense, Bejar, with the 
same dignity which it held. It was at one time a 
place of great importance; but has never recovered 
the sack by Soult, in 1809, occasioned by Cuesta's 
neglect to secure the passes of Balios and Perales, 
in spite of Wellington's oft-repeated solicitations. 
The family of Christoihcr Columbus, who 
dwelt at Plasencia, had already numbered several 
distinguished sailors. The part which it took in 
the political tumults of which the city was the 
victim, compelled the family to quit Spain, and to 
emigrate to Genoa, whence returned the illnstrlons 
navigator, to bestow upon his country his grand 
ideas. The Spanish name of Columbus was Chris- 
toval Coldn. 

The city Is surrounded with ancient walls, and 
has six Puertas or gates. The Pnerta de Trujlllo 
Is to the south ; those of Corla and Berrozana to 
the west ; that of San Anton to the north ; and 
those of del Sol and de Talavera to the east. The 
Postlgo de Santa Maria to the south-east, and that 
of Salvador to the north-east, are In a good state of 
preservation. Many of the houses are well built, 
and have two and three storeys. Water is brought 
from the Sierras de Tomo by an Aqueduct, carried 
in somo places over arches of great elevation. 

Boiile ID.] 
Tb* gnilnini ure plclantque, etpecUIly In the 
buutlful aUrra de Sanla Barbara, wlib Iti (tns 
lilanlitlani or olli« Irces. vino, orchard!, and 




la a bcaDtiruU)i icaJptured edlSce of granlle, but 
wiloHunalcly [ncomplelB. The facade of the prin- 
cipal door !• delLralely icnlptared with bniti, 
rdleTi. Ac; tho colitmm irhlch support Ihc rmr, 

TyardahiEh; thDdllcrl 

Id 1< alu rcmukiib1« [01 
t iDllienDiiwrtiuipaLiillne 

by Hcm.ndei, which Ig only .hown nnthe ISlh 

(Tsal calamily. In Ihg nail of Iho Froibytcry, at 
tha tide of the eraneclla, li a niche contalnine the 
tonDh or (taB bikfaop of the cbarch, Don Pedro Ponce 

■ome other fine wpulcbrei, and there are three 

IMS. in Iha time of Blihcp OotlenH de Toledo anil 
Dit^ro lie SllTC, and the work irse contlnnHl by 
Alonio de Corarmblaa. The reja of Ihe Coro ma 
cOBMnieltd In IWt, by Juan BaDtlNaCdma, and 
tbt idUerla la laid to ban been tarred In 1S3« by 
Rodrlgo Alemu. 

of Biiliop Carbajtl kneeling. 

Chnrebaf Son Juan BaatleU; note the itiituof 
Ue f oDuder, Franeleco de Almaraj, on ■ leimlohie 
of flne vbile mirble. 

ebapel; itott tti» aatUmtd ttttr ot UnMa UMa. 

A Hoapklo and FooixdILng Hoipllal (In the 
ormer College of Jeaulln), It l9 a TaHedlDos, irlth 
i fpaciout pueria, a nugniflcent alone ilaireaw, a 

Palace of the Uarque. de Ulrabel, called J* 
;mb do lae Boiedas (ol the vaulli), attached id 
;an Vleeule. Nolo the great nalrcaae, the pal lu 

genloglit, the bolanlit, and tha uiAU.. 



[Section 1. 

The distance to Cabezuela, 6 leagues; to £1 
Puerto, 8 leagues. 

The road to Salamanca passes Aldea Nueva, 
Bonos (noted for Its baths), Bejar, Fuente Roble, 
and Monte Rublo ; that to Cludad Rodrigo, through 
Abadia, Lagunllla, Batuecas, Alberca, Mailo, 
and Tenebron. 

BxcUTfllOIIS may be made to El Puerto, and 
the convent of Batuecas, see page 82. 

Eight leagues from Plasencia, in the territory 
of Vera, and not far from Magdalena, is the 
monastery of San Geronlxno de Tuste. It Is 
celebrated as baring been the final retreat of 
Charles Y. after his abdication of the crown in 
favour of his son, Philip II. Charles died in the 
conyent on the 2l8t September, 1558. This Convent 
is well worth visiting, apart from its historical 
associations, and there is abundance of game, 
inch as wild boars, cabras montesat (a kind of 
chamois), deer, and wolves. There is also good 
fishing to be had in the neiglibonrhood. Enquiry 
should be made at the inn at Plasencia before 
making arrangements. Horse-road only. The 
French soldiery under Soult considerably injured 
the convent, and the rough peasantry still further 
despoiled it, but there has been some talk of its 
being restored under a new proprietor. Notice 
Charles V.'s walnut-tree (el Nogel Grande) and 
his bedroom. The silleria of the ohapel was the 
work of Mateo Aleman. 

Canaveral (178 mllcs); population 1,824, in a 
rocky and uncultivated district; shortly after 
passing this place the Tagus is crossed, and the 
next station of interest Is 

HO^Cd. — Aposada. Buffet. Junction for Cftceres. 
The distance to Cl[ceres is 10§ miles, one station 
only, Las Minas, intervenes. 

CAOEBES (Stat.) 

Population (1885), 14,204. 

Hotels.— Posada Nueva; Posada de los Cabal- 

It is the ancient Ocutra Csesaris, and is the capital 
of the province, of the same name, formed of the 
north part of Estremadnra. It is situated south 
of the Tagus, upon a ridge of hills, running from 

•Mt fewest. The aUmate is agreeable, fogs and sepulchres of alabaster 'and Dewn stone. 

snow being scarcely known. The town dates from 
two epochs. The first and most ancient part is en- 
closed by a strong wall, which crowns the 
summit of a lofty eminence, and is dominated by 
many hi^h towers, which call to mind its ancient 
strength. It had formerly five Paertas or doors, 
now represented by the arches called de la Estrclla. 
de Santa Ana, del Christo, and del Socorro, which 
remain in a perfect state, and the Puerta de M^rida 
which has disappeared. The wall and its towers 
arc in some parts incorporated with subsequent 
additions, which have extended it beyond its 
original length, and which form the modem part 
of the town. The Arco de la Estrella, which, by a 
broad and commodious flight of steps, leads to the 
interior of the ancient town, is built of the finest 
g^ranite, and is in the form of a shell. Above is a 
small temple, with an image of Nucstra Seflora do 
la Estrclla, of Salamanca stone, and well worked. 
It was constructed in 1726, at the expense of the 
Marques de la Enj.irada, under the direction of 
Manuel Churriguera. The other arches arc not 
remarkable ; but under each is the statue of the 
saint to which it owes its name. It has a plaza, 
seven plazuelas, and 115 streets; the latter are 
narrow, irregular, unpaved, and for the most part In 
steps. The plaza, situated outside and at the foot 
of the primitive precincts, is the largest of the kind 
in Estremadnra. It is an oblong square 200 yards 
in length by 60 in breadth. In the centre fs a 
handsome paseo or promenade. The plazuelas 
front the church and other buildings, and are 
spacions. The most beautiful of all is that of San 
Juan, commonly called La Corredera. 

Its manufactures^ comprise cloth, linen, baize, 
leather, hats, ropes, earthenware, wine, oil, and 
soap. There are also some floiu and fulling mills, 
dye wofl^s, and a ccmsiderable trade in cattle, 
pigs, bacon, merino wool, manufactured goods, 
Ac. The annual cattle fair is in April. 

SisrlltB- — Santa Maria, the principal church, a 
Gothic edifice with three naves, re-constructed iu 
1556. Its grand retablo, carved by Guillen, reprtf- 
sents,in a scries of tableaux, the principal passages 
in the life of the Saviour, it is omameuted witk 
statues of the Apostles, the Evangelists, and the 
doctors of the church. Note also some of the fine 

Bottte 130 



Church of San li^teo, situated in the highest 
part of the town, near the Casa do las Yeletas. It 
is a capacious Gothic edifice, wholly of hewn 
stone, and haring only a single nave, and was 
anciently a mosque. Note especially the superb 
arch which sustains the coro, the fine tower, the 
cliapel of Diego de Obando C^^ceres, at the side of 
the epistola; and in that of the Marqueses de 
Valdef uentes, a very fine alabaster sepulchre, well 
finished, with the arms of the defunct. 

Church of Santiago Apostol, outside the wall to 
the north-east of the town. In this sumptuous 
edifice was preserved the Catholic worship during 
the dominion of the Moors, and in it was founded 
the first convent of the order and knighthood of 
Santiago in 1171. It has been re-built and enlarged. 

San Juan Bautista, a small church, situated to 
the south-west of the town. It is of the Gothic 
order, and wholly of stone. It contains some 
sepulchres, and a good chapel of the Espadcros ; 
and the family of the Saavedras has a small one in 
the presbytery at the side of the Evangelio, with a 
strong and well-finished fence of iron. 

Santo Domingo, a monastery* founded in 1524, 
at the instigation of Dofia Catalina de Saavedra. 
Its church, although having only one nave, is very 
capacious, and its transept and chapels are fine. 
The modem building is used for the hospital, but 
its church is still preserved for religious purposes. 

The other monastery, called San Francisco, is 
situated in the environs of the town. 

Five nunneries, now united under those named 
Santa Clara and San Pedro. Santa Clara was 
founded in 1593; La Concepcion in 1616. Casa 
Enfermeria, containing the Santuario de San 
Antonio de Padua, with a fine and well-proportioned 

College of the Company of Jesus, in the ancient 
town, situated under a great hill which looks to 
tlie east. It is a large, solid, and beautiful build- 
ing, with two towers, and its principal fa9ade is 
approached by a fine flight of steps. It contains a 
fine and capacious church. The whole building is 
now occupied bjr the' institute of second instruction. 
A seminario, founded in 1603; normal and local 
schools; an episcopal palace; an audiencia; a 

Casa delas Yeletas, part of the ancient Alcazar 
of the kings or Moorish governors of the place. 

Casa de los Golfines, with a (furious facade, 
presenting a very ancient mosaic. 

Casa del Duque. de Abrantes (Santa Cruz). 
The mansion of the Conde de la Torre, the portico 
of which possesses an ancient statue of Diana in 
alabaster, an excellent work. The mansion of tho 
Carbajales, occupied by the provincial deputation 
and the civil governor. The palace of the Godoys ; 
also several other houses, in which are found 
stones, inscriptions, coats of arms, successive 
souvenirs of the Romans, Goths, and Moors, and 
of the ricos hombres or grandees of the middle 
ages. Plaza de Toros, to the north-cast of the 
town, a modern construction, built of granite, iand 
of great solidity. It is considered to be the largest 
and one of the most complete of its kind in Spain. 

By rail 44{ miles to Merida and Badajoz. (See 
page 37). Fron% CiCccres 6 hours on horseback to 

ALCANTARA, not far from Valencia de Alcan- 
tara (Stat.) 

Population, 3,267. 

HoteL— Posada Nueva, near the bridge. One 
or two Casas de Huespedes. 

The ancient Norba Ccesarea^ a walled town, 
province of Caceres, about six miles from the 
Portuguese frontier. It is built on the summit of 
a rocky height on the left bank of the river Tagus, 
over which is a magnificent bridge of the time of 
the Romans. It is surrounded by old walls, 
mounted with cannon. It has two Plazas or 
squares, and several Plazuelas m little squares, 
and five Puertas or gates. The streets are for the 
most part steep and narrow. 

The Plaza de Toros, or la Corredera, is a perfect 
oblong square of 40 yards in length and 30 in 
breadth; the other Plaza, which is the principal 
one, contains the Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town 
Hall). The most noteworthy of the Plazuelas is 
that of Santa Ana, the highest part of the town. 

AlctCntara, founded by the Romans, was taken 
from the Moors in 1214 by Alonso VIII. of Castile, 
and given to tho Knights of Calatrava, to whom 
were afterwards united the military Order, of 
monks or KnighU of AldarUara, founded 11^ by 
San Juan de Pereyro. Some of ih<bir tombs are at 
San Benito Couyent. The Poct>t}%NS5^v >«s»^e«v 


'mtuEII lU Indaiti? hi 

bnt npiind m lull by Colon 
bnnied by the DitLsnal Iroopi 

Cburch or lt[ Uiyor, bIk cilloJ Oar Lidy or 
AlmocobBr (In Ariblc, "high pUce"). a Gothic 
•dlBn ta Ih* thirtciuth century, of hcnn ilano, 
vail woikaJ. It coni^stai of l naTe of 108 tcet 

englh. 1 

John, a St. Uiehael, a Pcntecoit, an Apoatle, and 
a Trangagncallon 1 they are all In an ln)nnd italo. 

good irorkiDiuiahip; In Ihal to the right li a nicha 

n, with ai 


S«, thl. chap. 

li anoth 


D> on^ called 

d "Pelmt da 

Mpnlchrt. with 

a figure 


nller. or Don 


Iha .epulchn H 

allloDi, r«pr«- 


Bungolt.ta. Tho corrida 

nof Ih 

tilt of two fOWt 

t eight be 

uulilul a 

rche., AboT. 

illcry or 

Hiidilf . Dot- 

al defect.! .t 

:;iirIof T^ but 

n the pa 

remeiit of tb* 


c order. 


cond angle la 


pel com. 

nlns tw 


one of which It 

Marllnei. tha 

chapel b a marb 


anolhor pedejta 

or Ada 

Jeilroycil duHn 

ths Fro 

cblnvuton; thay ara 

■aid to be ths wo 

k of Alb 

Tha T»t of 

the conTCnt h». 



of not*. Tha 

he yoiT 

IMS, and the 

whole bnllding 1 

the tlm 

of Philip 11. It U at 

order of BeneJictine 

^tober, IKJ. The 

. Banctl 

ladlei oC title, who were aabordlnaU to tha prior 
of thcarder; Hi walli alone teoiDln. ConTCDld*. 

Karcfl}- worlhj al noV\c<;, 

Koate 14.] 



CuBrtol de Vcteranos, A convent: It was a 
donation of the ancient house of the Carbajales; 
it still preserves its beautiful facade, which is 30 
feet in height, and 50 in length, of hewn stone, 
with four columns of granite, each of a solid piece, 
8 feet high. 

A Castle, to the east of the town, having a sub- 
terranean communication with the river, whence 
a plentiful supply of water can be obtained. 

The houses of the Conde de Canilleros, the 
Vizconde de la Torre, and the Marques de Torre 

The road to BadaJOZ (Stat), on the railway 
between Badajoz and Lisbon, passes Arroyo del 
Puerco, AUseda, Albuquerque, and Campo Mayor. 

The road to CacereB (Stat.) runs by Villar de 
Ucy, Brozas, Navas del Madroflo, and Arroyo del 
Tucrco; the distance is 35 miles. 


A desolate town of Estrcmadura (province of 
Cacftres), on the high road from Alciintara to 

SiglltB.-- Gothic church, containing sixteen ol 
the grandest works of Luis Morales ; the finest are 
a. Christ and Joseph of Arlmathea, St. John, Christ 
bound, Christ at the column, and the Descent from 
the Cross; the others are the Annunciation, the 
Nativity, the Circumcision, the Adoration of the 
Kings, the Saviour with the Reed, the Burial, 
Christ in Limbo, the Ascension, St. Jerome and 
the Pentecost. A sulphur spring Is near It.] 

Resuming the direct route to Lisbon, the only 
remaining station of any interest after Arroyo, 
frequently styled Arroyo de Malpartida, Is 

Valencia de Alcantara (25ii miles), the last 

Spanish station. For remainder of the lino to 
Lisbon, see page 175. Notice the change of time; 
Lisbon time, which is later than Madrid time, 
being kept on the Portuguese portion of the route. 

Sara^ossa to Daroca, Teruel, Segorbe, 

Murviedro, and Valencia. 
For SaragOBSa. see Route 2. 
The road from Saragossa to Daroca runs through 

Miede8,andRetascon. ThedistancefromCalaiayud 
to Daroca is 8 leagues. A line towards Temel 
is projected. 

Near Daroca Is the brackish lake called L« 
Gallocanta, the waters of which overflowed part 
of the town In 1854. (See be!ow.) 


Population, 2,500. 
HoteL— A good posada. 

A town of Aragon (province of Saragossa), pic- 
turesquely situated in a deep valley surrounded by 
hills, on the right bank of the river Jiloca. It la 
encircled by an old wall flanked with towers. The 
houses are generally of two storeys, irregularly 
built; and many of tliem are in a ruinous condition. 
It has some spacious and well-paved streets. The 
principal one, called La Calle Mayor, crosses th« 
whole of the town 

It has three Plazas; that called La Colcgial, 
which is the largest, forms a perfect square, in 
which are situated the carcel or prison, and the Casa 
de Ayuntamlento. The Plazas ot San Pedro and 
Santiago are both In the Calle Mayor. 

According to some, the name of the place is 
derived from that of a Roman family. Mr. Ford 
iseems to think It may have been at one time the 
douar or residence of the tribe of Auca. The name 
may be etymologically connected with that of the 
river, which may have been anciently called Wady- 
al-Auca or Oca; and Dar-Oca may have simply 
denoted a ''residence near the Oca or Auca.'* The 
environs are fertile, and the Inhabitants are chiefly 
employed In agriculture. 

SightB.— La Colegiata, a fine Gothic church, on 
the site of a mosque, remains of which are incor- 
porated in the new edifice. It was built in 1479 by 
Juan II. of Aragon, and renovated by Juan Marron 
in 1587. It has three handsome naves; the roof Is 
supported by elegant columns; the egg-shaped 
cupola Is peculiar; the choir, which Is situated 
behind the tabernacle, Is capacious, and under Its 
boarded floor Is a trough-like concavity, to increase 
the power of the music; and below the high altar 
is a well of fresh water of great d«ft<.Vv, \s^^s«fc.v^. 

Santa Maria, ViUadcmul.Longares, Cariftena, and ^tlleD<itVc,^\l«L^\%^^Q^^^'^'^'*'•^*^'^^^^ 

Magnar. It may bereacbcd b^ taking the RailwaV \ *^^ %\.uct,o^ wt 'wQt13o\\«^^^^Si^ ^^^^«^ ^-cOn^i* 

to CAJatJijrad, and proceeding thencQ by Belmohtc, \^<i'^'^^^^'^^'^^'''^'^'^^*^^^^^^ 



[Section 1. 

a jTfllkarte of gold, the gift of Fernando the Catholic, 
at whof e expense the chapel was also built. There 
is a legend attached to the sacred wafers preserved 
in this reliquary, which is much venerated \^y the 
faithful. They are exhibited on Corpus Christi. 
Note, in this chapel, the. retablo, with its black 
marble columns, and an Ascension of the Virgin, 
by Franco: note also the fine portal of the church, 
and the tower. 

Church of Santiago, in the Calle Mayor. The 
modern fa9ade, which is unfinished, is supported 
by elegant granite columns, and the ornaments are 
in good taste. It contains the picture of the Battle 
of Clavigo, by Piano, a native of the place. There 
are also five other churches. 

ConyeiltB. — The convent of San Francisco was 
fo'hnded by Don Jaime cl Conquistador, In 1237; 
that called de Capuchinos, on the 11th April, 1647; 
the TrinitariosCalzados (dedicated to San Marcos), 
was founded by Juan de Marta, in 1264, and is now 
used as a civil and military hospital. The Mercen- 
aries, which was founded in 1881, has been used as 
a military quarter, and is now an alhondiga, or 
granary. The convent of the Dominicos was 
founded by St. Sisanion ; and the city on the 20th 
September, 1522; and El Colegio dcla Escucla Pia 
Was established by the city for public instruction 
in 1731. It was abandoned at the time of one of 
the late wars, from being near the fortifications 
and military posts; but secular iuBtmction has 
been again resumed ; it is a fine building. 

Ancient Moorish Wall, partly of stone and partly 
of brick, and fourteen towers, crowned with solid 
turrets. The wall runs along the tops of the 
mountains, is 7,890 feet in length, and encloses a 
Citadel, with a lofty tower upon a rocky eminence. 

La GranMlna, a Tiumel, made to prevent the 
fearful inandations to which the place is exposed, 
from the high land between the east and north of 
thctown. It lies between the city and the neigh- 
bouring hills, and empties itself into the valley 
below. It is 2,340 feet long, 24 wide, and 
about 30 in height. This construction, which is 
coq^dered to be without its. rival .in Bpalo, was 
c^Dunenoed .on.ihe ;2Qth ']9€pteo)i)er;i555, . and was 
JWM6ed. 4m the 7th FebroAiy, 15^9, Although ad 

Pierre Bedel, ihe. celebrated French architect and 

The Cemetery: ^£rCemenferio% about' | ^^agae 
irom the city, in a healthy situation. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall). 

Large Prison (carcel), a fine edifice,' biillt* of 
stone, with a spacious portico. 

Three fountains of the Plazas of San Pedro, San 
Domingo, and Santo Mercado. In the environs is 
a fountain with twenty bronze tubes. Its front 
is of stone, with bas-reliefs, an elegant cornice, 
and in the centre the arms of the city. It 
also bears signs of having been formerly adorned 
with obelisks and statues. In the Paseo de la 
Buelta is a fountain of delicious water, called 
Fuente del Mambru; it was called by the Moors 
the round fountain. It has a good front of stone, 
and the water gushes forth from the mouth and 
hands of a curious figure. Around is a spacious 
Plaza, with seats. 

Distance: Daroca Is situated 66 miles south- 
west of Saragossa. 

The places between Daroca and Teruel are 
Vaguena, Calamocha, Camin Real,' Monreal, Villa- 
franca, Torremocha, Vniarquemada, and Candete. 

The distance from Daroca to Caudete is 49| miles. 


(Population, 5,439) lies 50 miles east-south-east of 
Albacete. It is situated on the slope of a hill, in a 
beautiful and well cultivated plain. It was formerly 
fortified ; it has some well built houses, a miserable 
hospital, and a tolerable church, and there are some 
Roman remains. In the eharmtng environs is a 
country house of the Bishops of Orihuela. There 
are remarkably large bone deposits in the 
vicinity, which are supposdd to be indicative of 
some great battle having been fought here in re- 
mote times. A road branches off here to Albarracin, 
Frias, and Trajacete, for Cuenca. 

The distance from Caudete to Teruel is about 7 
miles. TERUEL. 

Population (1887), 9,359. 

Hotels.— Fonda and Caftf, tn the Calle de los 
Ricos Hombres. 

It is the capital of 'Uie|>rdtliioe, and iH tieautifully 
isituAted ^ikm i''Mli,"at thefoot'of-^icil'tto^^the 
'GuadiOjiTiar. It staiid8'8,t)tO:ieetiibo^etb^ level 

^^^<?ia^'F0rejiunieapio,U62. J/ i# tte wrtof j of tHe IW. to«l^W*V<il V\W t^^5<rfort^*5;»<0 

Hoaloli.]- "■ 

ttel aboTe the bm : aooth of it. Li Jinlunbre, 8,(170 
feef. II was mcleoUy fortilled. ond iflLl pMicms 
■ portion oflti undent wBlLi. It Ij entered by lU 
imcrtat or gutes, »nd hasionw dun anr! well piTcd 

liflTirge'poljrgon, sarronndodirllh urehean nndcr 

with o> 

liiR Id Florinn de Ouiupo, called It alwTnrdeti 

from whom It wu taken by Aloniw el Caato, of 
Ara^n. Its liihabltancs rendered usilsUnce lo 
Janici,eal)edelCunqulslad<jr, when the Ullcriras 

onjuj-a teTenl charters and prlTllegos; among 
gtlicn.lhatealledSepnlTcda. I ' 

The OuidataTlar Irrigates the beiutllul and I 
well-cultlvatedplalu,nndtlicrcarechiruiliigwa:k3 ! ; 
b)-[tabank9. The river iboundt with trout, celt. I 

prlM cloths, tanned leather, pottery, dyes, flitd fnl- 

I brueii Lorari ol Tamal, Don Ulogo de Hir- 
I cilia and DoRa Isabel de Segura. Theli ihort 
hlitory li as foUowa: "They llred at the eom- 
meqcement of the tenlh cenlnrj-, during tba reign 

tlmecipired. and receiving no tidings at herlOTtr, 
■he allowed hereeit to he betrothed to Aiagra. On 

if laabcl, who frightened a( 

[(aellhat Idle!'cr]edDiega,aBdhcaTlnsaii^, 
itlsdead. ItabellndlQei towards h loo, and calls oat 
[>lego is dead 1 ' Aiagra wakes np. laahd lelgqg 

1 of the Kings; Biaqnert's plett 

-B him Ihc Inanimate body of 

t'huKh of SenllagD, laid te have been anclenti; 
magnllicent relablo and a Dead Christ, by DlaqnerT 

befelled state Joins the fuitiral prvHislon. ' 



[Section 1. 

hodj is placed at the foot of a magnificent catafalco. 
A female, concealed beneath a veil, api roaches and 
kneels. Uncovering the visage of the dead, she 
considers it an instant, gives it a parting kiss, and 
remains Immovable, the mouth glued to the pallid 
lips of the dead man. They approach her, beseech 
her to retire; she answers not. They raise her 
veil, and recognise that she has died, enclosing in her 
arms the body of Diego. Azngra arrives in haste, 
lind commanding his grief explains the cause of 
this double catastrophe. It is then proposed to re- 
unite the two lovers In the same tomb, which Is 
done on the spot. The bodies of Diego Marcilla 
and Isabel deScgura were deposited in an alabaster 
mausoleum, in one of the chapels of the church, 
where they were found in a perfect state of pre- 
servation in 1666, at the time of the works then in 
progress in the chapel ; they now occupy a niche 
in the walls of the cloister, with an inscription, of 
which the following is a translation: 'Here- are 
deposited the bodies — of the celebrated lovers of 
Teruel— Don Juan Diego Martinez de Marcilla— 
and Dofta Isabel do Segura— who died in 1217— 
They were placed here in 1708.' " The above parti- 
culars will be found in the work of M. Germond De 
liavigne, entitled Itineraire de I'Espagne; Par. 
1859. For the Spanish account, see Los Amantes 
(le Teruel, by Perez de Montalban. 

Nunnery, founded by Queen Leonor, in 1867, 
having a church with three naves, and some frescoes 
by Vicento Vidal. 

Ex-convent of La Trinidad, to the south of the 
town, and now used as a public school. The Car- 
mclitas Descalzas, having a nave in the form of a 
Latin cross. 

Seminario Conciliar, or Auxiliar, the ex-college 
of the Jesuits, an edifice of colossal dimensions, 
solid construction, and good proportions. Being 
the best military point, it has been frequently oc- 
cupied by the troops in time of war. It has a 
magnificent church of one nave, in the form of a 
Latin cross, and containing many frescoes and 
ornaments. The finest thing in the church is the 
bust of its founder, the Bishop of Teruel and In- 
quisitor General, Perez de Rado, executed by 
Felipe de Castro. The interior of the building is 
^r^t)y deteriorated, and is now used as a barrack. 
, T-fro AospftjUf. J, graiiRrr, the bjfbop's palace 

Theatre, fronting the principal fa9adc of San- 
tiago, and capable of accommodating 700 persons. 

Lombadcra* a tower ; and San Martin, a Moorish 
watch tower, near the Puerta Andaquiila. 

Aqueduct, called Los Arcos de Teruel, con- 
structed by the French architect, Pierre Bedel, 
who also built the aqueduct at Daroca. This is 
considered the finest work of the kind in this part 
of Spain. It is 160 feet high near the city. 

Distance: Teruel lies 72 miles north-west of 

At about a quarter of an hour's walk to the 
north of the city are Baths^ which are said to be 
efiicacious in rheumatism and stomachic affections. 

The carriage road from Calatayud, 26 leagues, 
to Teruel is a part of the old Roman road from 
Bilbilis to Tarragona. 

Ro&dS. — The road to Cuenca passes Venta de 
Fulantrc, Albarracin, Frias, Trajacetc, and Buen- 
achc; that to Molina, through Caudete, Albar- 
racin, Orihucla, Alcaroches, and PradiUo. The 
mean elevation of the latter Is 4,331 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The road from Teruel to Segorbe passes Puebla 
de Valverde, Sarrion, Barracas, Vivel, and Jerica 
or Xcrica. This is the old diligence road between 
Saragossa and Valencia. The distance is 48| miles. 
The country is rugged, and in some parts game is 

Sarrion (population, 2,070) is a market town 
on the right bank of the Martin, and has a mineral 
fountain. Jerlca (pop. 8,000), a walled town with 
a castle, is situated on the Palancia, which is here 
crossed by a bridge. It is supposed by some to 
have been settled by the Hebrews. In like man- 
ner Escalona is said to have been named by them 
from Ascalon; Novcs from Nove; Maqueda from 
Megiddo ; Jepes or Yepes from Joppa ; and Toledo 
from the Hebrew toledoth, signifying "genealo- 
gies." There is little foundation for these fancies. 


Population, 8,096. 

Hotols. — Several posadas. 

It is in the province of CastcIlon-de-la-Plana. It 
is situated on the slopes of a hill on the right bank 
of the Palancia, and is surrounded by gardens. The 
streets of the old town are crooked^ somewhat nar- 
row and bRng\ng,V»u\ w\^t\\vt\t«*\v^^^>^«^^^\^i 

Koate 14.} 


Til ie Crlilo. n Ciiri 

of Ihc modem clly ate itrnlghter, broad, Md clem, j Tirana. It 
[I hai elersn p1aIB^ tB^wctlTtly nmned do 1m manyoUie 
Jnrado", d«1 Olmo, do la BinKie. de San Pedro, dd | Caia de 
Mereodo, de tu Monjaa, de loj Hnone^ del Agua- c«m Cm 
IliniilR, de Sopella. de Pidlii(a< ■■"I ^'> '"' Karao- ^ at simple n 
Jos; that called dd Mercado ram In a right line . ei Semli 
by the Calls del Semlnarlo. The market li held ^^^ ,^ 
In the P1.W del Olmo. ! Cartel: . 

d deU Torre and del 

of » 

pApcr, Btareh, and bnuidj'. 

The cUj l> of ancient origin, 
foanded hy the CeltlberLans, who 

nion of the Moon, fii 
s Fnnch. under SncI 


lortlAeatkin, not Car from 
lerla de CapncMnoi. Ill 
Id is encloMdh)-abala>- 
mameiilcd vlth poplan. 

Bimta^-Cathed ral (ma 
wlthplctnreibT JnanJna 

i; SsnltlnideCapa- 

l> one o[ Ihs fortiaed polntt. 
Snn Martin, a coo'ent, [oandod li 

wllh two Done pllulcra. andthoH In 
Older. The great retnh 

at oil 

tit ion of Chrii 


ie chapel. 

«ar gftrmtO <8Ut) and the ica. 

lUtlon, e,9S7. 

BL— La Vlrgen de U Ettrella. 

rtlfied town on the right bank of the Pilan- 


1> a good i^claro of the bapllnu otSan Miiri 
and thai ol Ban Agiulin abovo the raja )■ a ci 
ol Pedro de Cortona. The charch conulni mi 
other good pletnrH bj- Eqdnou. Ribilta. ftc, 

r, reprMwtlng th« ■ jdVrw tt 

rally pBTedandlighled. lit Pta» 
are with porlicoi. It hat alio ilx 

If. and some floni and oil milli, 
nts are chleflf engaged In agrirnl- 
■klng. In the nelghlionrbood are 




Murvlc^ro was wrested from the Moors in 1239 
by James the Conqueror. During the Wars of 
Succession, although surrounded by enemies, it re- 
mained firm and faithful to Philip V. It was taken 
by the French, under Suchet, on the 25th October, 
ISll. It was called by the Romans and the 
Goths Murveti'um^ and by the Moors Murbiter. 
The name is of Roman origin, and is derived from 
its old walls (muri veteret). 

Saguntum, according to some historians, owed 
Its origin to Tubal, the very first of blacksmiths; 
according to Strabo it was founded by the Greeks 
of Zacynthus or Zakynthos (Zante), 1384 B.C., at 
which time It was a seaport ; and hence its name. 
Since then the land has greatly gained upon the 
sea, which Is now 3 miles off. It was attacked and 
destroyed by Hannibal, 219 b.c, after an arduous 
SUge of eight months (when its defenders had 
nothing but turnips to feed on), which led to the 
second Punic war. It was rebuilt by the Romans 
and became a municipium. Of its forme: grandeur 
few traces now remain, it having been used as a 
quarrj' by the Goths, Moors, and Spaniards. 

Sights.— Church of Santa Maria, In the centre 
of the town. It Is a solid Corinthian edifice; the 
roof, walls, and towers are of a darkish marble; It 
has spacious doors looking to the north, west, 
and south; the centre nave, which is somewhat 
higher than the two lateral ones, has six chapels; 
the high altar, which is of considerable size, is gilt 
and very beautiful; In It are sixteen small columns 
and 300 demi-reliefs, repres^ting various religious 
mysteries. It has an altar wholly of black marble. 
The silleria del coro is of walnut-tree. There are 
two sacristias, a handsome pulpit, and a fine organ. 
Above the arch of the principal door of the church 
is inscribed in a flat stone the year of its foundation. 
Between the door facing the north and the angle 
of the wall to the right is another stone, with a 
dedication to its curate, Don Raimondo Ferrer, and 
in the wall of the landing of the staircase are some 
sepulchral Inscriptions. The church was com- 
menced In 1334 and was finished In seven and a 
half y«ars. Its architect was Francisco Estruch 
of Valencia. 

Coiivient de Franciscos, In the centre of the town, 

fcmiided in 1300, in which are .estal)H8hed the Sala 

f^^Ajntaiam/ento, ^/re AndJehcia, and the Court of 

[Section 1. 

schools, the residence of the Alcaid, and a quarter 
for the troops. The church is used as a public 
chapel; and the adjoining puerta as a public paseo 
or walk. 

Convent de Trinitarios, near the last named, and 
founded in 1266. According to some It occupies the 
site of an ancient temple of Diana, out of whose 
ruins it is said to have been built. 

Convent of Santa Ana, at the extremity of the 
suburb of the same name. It was founded in 1520; 
at the present time there arc only a few mms; 
there are also seven Hermitages. 

Hospital; several schools; Aduana or custom 
house; and a small theatre. 

El Castillo, extensive ruins on a mountain, 
commanding the city. It was built In the time of 
the Saguntlnes, but there are traces of the Moors, 
and of still later times, particularly of the War of 
Independence. It has five principal plaza?, each 
Independent of the others by means of the wall 
which separates them; and there are some Moorish 
cisterns. The whole is in a ruinous state. 

Roman Theatre, at the foot of the castle, in 
the slope above the town, and commanding delight- 
ful views. It is of the Tuscan order, and Is built 
principally of small blue stones, so perfectly united 
that they have the appearance of entire blocks. 
There are thirty-three rows of steps, and the 
remains of all the ancient distributions of the classi- 
cal theatres may be here seen, as the •centum the 
proscenium, the choir, and the orchestra. The 
three first rows were for the senators; the next 
seven for the oldest knights. The seven following 
were for the junior knights, and beyond these were 
seats for the people (called summa cacea); and 
above the upper portico four rows for the women, 
who were not permitted by the Greeks to occupy 
any other place. The upper portico, which has 
disappeared, had six doors at the side of the gi'en- 
deriOj and the same number at the side of the 
top. The people and the women, as well as the 
senators and knights, entered the theatre by separ- 
ate doors and staircases; vestiges still remain of 
the doors by which the senators and knights 

This theatre was capable of accommodating 1,200 
persons. Some attribute Its foundation to the 

/ «re also are the prisons aa4 one ot the I Romans, In the tVme and aX \.\v^ T<i«vaA^\ otl\\ft Sclvlos^ 

l?Ollte 14.] MlRVlfiDRO.. VALENCIA. 93 

at the cost of the puMic treasury of Rome, in token 
of their gratitude to the Sa^ntines, their constant 

per day. There arc also several good Casas do 
Pupilos, or lodging houses. Caf4$: The best are 
" ? . rafi^ do Amnn in thft H a ll e dc Zaragozn, del 


ilota, No. 5. 

ivil Calle de la 

They arc open from 
i; at other times it 

ty founded in 1846). 
ibinete de lectura). 
and cards. Public 
periods. It is open 
and strangers arc 
a resident member, 
iriff. From 7 to 
more, and after 12 

Ha Edetanorum, and 
It is situated on the 
?8 from its mouth 
miles from its port 
plain, and the city 
of the fourteenth 
drcumference, and 
iso the largest and 
:ta do Serranos on 
Juarte on the west, 
jr is especially fine, 
It has a Moorish 
ow, and many of the 
er is crossed by five 
names of the Plaza* 


Plaza de la Consti- 
.cion. Plaza de la 
ngo, Plaza de San 
alo de la Glorieta, 
aza dc Villarrasa, 
Lorenzo, Plaza do 
tei Plaza de Pelliccro, 

Bade San Gil, Plaza 

Sorell, Plaza do 

' Plaza del Tcatro, 

Jan Vicente. Tb«>. 

Earopay J'onda Orlente ; Fonda Francesca- \ TVve'W?.! %Vt<i<i,V& «t«i >0c^^ ^^JS^^ $^<3^^«^«t^^ ^v^^sx 
Uniysrso. Board and lodgings nt hotels, 25 reals ^ \«to%, Acl.^'RxJ^i.**^^ ^-^^^ ^«, -^^w^^J^*^ '^^ 




Murvicdro was wrested from the Moors In 1239 
by James the Conane ror. During the Wars of 
Succession, although su 
mained firm and f aithfu 
by the French, under S- 
1811. It was called 
Goths Murvetrum, am 
The name is of Roman 
its old walls (muri veter 

Haguntum, according 
Its origin to Tubal, the 
according to Strabo it • 
of Zacynthus or Zaky: 
which time it was a sc 
Since then the land hi 
sea, which is now 3 mil 
destroyed by Hannibal 
Siege of eight months 
nothing but turnips to 
second Punic war. It 
and became a municipi 
few traces now rcmai 
quarry by the Goths, '^ 

Sights.— Church of 
of the town. It is a so 
roof, walls, and towers 
has spacious doors lo 
and south; the centre 
higher than the two lal 
the high altar, which i 
and very beautiful; in 
and 300 deml-roliefs, r< 
mysteries. It has an a 
The sillcria del coro is 
two sacristlas, a hands 
Above the arch of the 
is inscribed in a flat sto 
Between the door faci 
of the wall to the rig 
dedication to its curat* 
in the wall of the landl 
sepulchral inscriptioni 
mcnced in 1834 and v 
half years. Its arc 
of Valencia. 

Coiivent de Frtf 
founded in ISOfl,^ 

schools, the residence of the Alcaid, and a qua 
ior the troops . The church is 

ihed the Bala 
the Court of 

persons. Seine attrl>)ute its foundation 


Md one of the i Romans, in xVveUmca.TidaX\.\v^x^^>aft%VQU\viac 

Route 14.-] 



at the cost of the public treasury of Rome, In token 
of their gratitude to the Saguntines, their constant 

^ ^friends and allies. According to others, it was 
built by the Emperor Claudius Gennanicus, with 
the like object; while others assert that it existed 
prior to the Roman dominion in Spain; and if so, 

' its construction dates from the time of the Greeks. 
It was greatly ruined by the French under Suchet, 
who used the stones to strengthen the castle. 

The Circus was situated to the north-east of the 
banks of the Palancia, at the back of the convents of 

I the Trinidad and San Francisco, in the space now 
occupied by several private orchards. It was of rude 
construction; its form was oval, and its proportions 
corresponded with those of the Circus Maximus of 
Rome. To the west were the prisons, whence the 
chariots started. The twelve doors to the prisons 
were closed by grates of iron or wood, and in the 
centre was another larger door, which was called 
"door of the sun;" In front, above the pedestal or 
altar, were two statues of Mercury; one at each side, 
to hold a cord or chain to prevent the chariots and 
horses starting before the requisite signal was given 
by the praetor or magistrate who presided over the 
games. In the middle of the circus was a wall 
(called espina)y of which there are still some slight 
vestiges ; and at Its extremes were three columns 
called las Metas^ in thQ form of a pine or cypress. 
At the part next the river were the caverns for the 
wild beasts. 

Distance : Munrledro Is situated 18 miles north- 
north-east of Valencia, and is about 3 miles from 
the sea. 

The rail from SagUUtO (Stat.) to Castellon 
passes Almenara, Nules, and Villa Real. See 
Route 18. 

Valencia may be reached by rail from Sagunto 
in about one hour. The stations passed are Puzol, 
Puig, and Albuixech. 

PUlg (Stat.)— population 2,059— Is 11 miles 
north-east of Valencia, on a hill close to the Medi- 


Fopalation (1887), 170,768. 

Btfltlll.— Grand Hotel d'Espagne; dc Paris des 
Qoatn- nations; de la Ville de Madrid; Fonda 
Europe^ 9onda Oriente; Fonda Franceaca; 
VfAwrm. Board and lodgings at hotels, 25 reals 


per day. There arc also several good Casas de 
Pupllos, or lodging houses. Cafei: The best arc 
the Caf4 de Amau, in the Calle de Zaragoza, del 
Tcatro,-and del Cid. Tramcars ran. 

Post Office :— Plaza do la Pclota, No. 5. 

Telegrapll : - Goblerno Civil Calle de la 

Baths (Casas do Baftos). — They arc open fi*om 
April to October, at all hours ; at other times It 
is necessary to give a day's notice. 

Casino (supported by a society founded In 1845). 
containing a reading room (gablnete de Icctura). 
caf^, and rooms for billiards and cards. Public 
balls also take place at certain periods. It Is open 
from ten a.m. to twelve p.m., and strangers arc 
introduced without difficulty by a resident member. 

Cabs (tartanas) by fixed tariff. From 7 to 
12 p.m. fares are half as much more, and after 12 

Valencia is the ancient Valentia Edetanorttm^tLnd 
is the capital of the province. It is situated on the 
Turia, or Guadalaviar, 3 miles from its mouth 
in the Mediterranean, and 2 miles from Its port 
La Grao. It stands In a fine plain, and the city 
proper is enclosed by walls of the fourte^ith 
century, about 2} miles In circumference, and 
pierced by eight gates. Of these the largest and 
most remarkable are the Puerta de Serranos on 
the north, and the Puerta de Cuarte on the west, 
the road to Madrid. The former is especially fine, 
and both are used as prisons. It has a Moorish 
appearance; its streets are narrow, and many of the 
houses have flat roofs. The river is crossed by five 
bridges. The following are the names of the Plazas 
In the centre of the city, viz. : /%iza de la Coruti- 
tucion^ Plaza de la Congregaclon, Plaza de la 
Aduana, Plaza de Santo Domingo, Plaza de San 
Francisco, Plaza del Cld, Ovalo de la Glorieta, 
Mercados Nuevo y Vlego, Plaza de Villarrasa, 
Plaza del Pilas, Plaza de San Lorenzo, Plaza de 
San Agustin, Plaza del Correo, Plaza de Pellicoro, 
Plaza del Conde de Carlet, Plaza de San Gil, Plaza 
del Museo, Plaza de Mosen Sorell, Plaza de 
Maniscs, Plaza de San Pablo, Plaza del Teatro, 
Plaza Coleglo de Niftos de San Vicente. Th* 
principal of these ata t\!kaftfc ^s^j^e^*^ >ce>^ ^.v«^-V»"*- 



Tfaeheight of theprlncipt^ buildings is AS follows: Zaragoza; it is small, consists of a single round 
The veleta or veather^cock of Miguelete is 217 Cas- arch, and is closed with a verge of iron ; the fa9ade 
tilian feet<each=l(^ inches); Santa Catalina, 117 : is narrow, of a convex figure, and of three storeys ; 
SanLorenzo,197;8anNicolas,lS8;SanEsteban,161; in the first are three Corinthian columns at each 
San Martin, 150; San Bartolom^, 150; La Escucla side of the door, between them two niches, with 
Pia, 147 ; Santa Tomtfs or la Congr^acion, 188 ; statues of San Pedro Pascual and Santo Tomas de 
Santa Cruz and los Santos Juanes, 187 ; La Yirgen Villanueva; and above the arch of the entrance is 
delosDesamparadoSfllS; thetowers of the Temple, a basso- relief, representing Mary, with glory of 
113; the height of the head of the statue of angels and other decorations; the second storey 
Carlos III. in the Aduana Vicja is 148 feet; the has four columns of the same order; in the inter- 
cross of the principal facade of the Cathedral,. 116; columniation of the centre is a window, and in 
the tower of the Colegio del Patriarca, 110; that the laterals the statues of San Vicente Ferrer, San 
of Santa Domingo, 108; that of the Casa de la Luis Bertran, San Lorenzo, and San Vicente Mar- 
Ciudad, 88; and that of San Miguel, 78. These tyr ; in the centre of the third storey is an Assump- 
heights are probably only approximatively correct, tion in demi-relief , and two medallions at the sidea, 
Its principal manufactures are silks, linen, woollen terminated with a cross above a globe of gilt 
fabrics, gauzes, camlets, and other woven fabrics, bronze. 

leather, paper, glass, hats, artificial flowers, and The other doors are called de los Apostolcs and 

tiles for flooring. It employs about 8,500 women del Palau. The first, which faces the Plaza de la 

and 50 men in the tobacco trade, and manufactures Constitucion, is of the ogival style, with statues at 

about 8,000 lbs. of cigars and 50,000 lbs. of tobacco its sides; and in the arch of the entrance is a 

monthly. Its harbour has been greatly improved, Virgin surrounded with seraphim playing different 

and its trade is prosperous and increasing. The musical instruments, of but small merit. The 

elimate, though hot, is salubrious, and the city o*^^*" door, which fronts the Archiepiscopal place, 

is resorted to by invalid*. is a round arch ; in the cornice are fourteen heads, 

Valencia was taken and fortified by Scipio, "^^ "*^^ *°^ «®^®° ^*'°'**«- Provincial histo- 

destroyed by Pompey, and rebuilt by Cajsar. It '**"* *" °' opinion that these heads were placed 

was wrested from the Romans by the Goths, taken *»®'® *° °'^°'^'^' °^ **»^ ^"* warriors and their 

in 1094 by the famous Cid Ruy Diaz de Vivar and '^*^®"' "^^^ **^^P^ ^"^ re-people the town after it 

bore, during four years, the name of Valencia of the *'*'* ^^" conquered by the Christians. The cathe- 

Cid. It wasaltogcther230 years under thedominion f *^ ^T*'*" ""* .^^'^^ "T"' T*^"^ ^X twenty- 

of the Moors, from whom it was finally captured in ^^^ "^^^f • '«»""& ^P«" forty-two squared pillars 

1238 by Don Jaime. It was enlarged and embel- ^"*' ^"""^Tu ^^^^l^V I n » ."^ l^' f "^*" 

lished by Pedro IV. of Arragon. It was taken in *"** "*' *" ***^ ""*"' ^' *^^ ^^"^*"^ ** °' '^^^^^'^ 

1812 by the French under Suchet, who held it till ^"P®"' the walls, pilasters, and arches of scagliola; 

June, 1818. The word manzana, so frequently used *"^ ***^ '*P"**' *"** mouldings of the arches are 

at Valencia, signifies an assemblage of houses ^"*' the Capilla mayor, which is ornamented with 

bounded on every side by a street. precious marbles and jaspers, has two lateral doors, 

and a window above adorned with Salomonic 

Slgllt8.--ACa/;ierfra/, called El Seo, "The See," columns and bas-reliefs of marble, representing 

said to have been built on the site of a temple to histories of the tutelar saints; the ancient altar 

fA?** . '* T** ****^''" ^" *^^^' *°^ extended in ^„ ^11 of silver, but having been burnt in 1498, 

1481 ; the original architecture was Gothic, but it ^as replaced by the present one, which is closed 

has since been much altered and mixed up with ^^^^ ^^^ ^^and doors, in each of which are six 

GrMian styles Its octangular Gothic tower, called superb pictures, representing subjects in the life of 

«1 Miguelete (in Valencia, Jfkalet), Is 162 feet high, the Saviour and the Virgin Mary ; they have been 

Md eommands magnificent views of the huerta, or attributed to Pablo Areggio and Francisco Neapoli, 

•mrroundlng plain. It has three principal doors, and are of the year 1505. The sUleria is carved in 

^0ma»tBoUih}e, called del Miguelete, from being walnut; the Trasooro is of alabaster. Therdioa 

^^ /^^ Me of the taw^r, frontt th0 Guile de incMt » \QQ\\i ol Siiu CtVi^ohal, the cu^ us^d nt 

ttoute 14] 



the last Supper, the arm of St. Luke, and the spurs 
and. bridle of James the Conqueror. 

Note the fine painted windows, the alta mayor, the 
three sacristias, the Silleria del Coro, the Sala 
Capitular with a crucifix by Cano, the chnpcls of 
San Vicente, San Mi^cl, 5an Pedro^ San Luis, San 
Sebastian, Ac, Ac, containing paintings by Juanes, 
Ribalta, Orrentc, Jean Bellno, Espinosa, Palomino, 
and Sassoferrato ; frescoes by Vergara, Baycn, and 
Goya; the tombs of the archbishop Ayala, and 
Diego de Covarrubias and his wife. The paintings 
by Ribalta include a Christ bearing his cross, 
a Christ mocked by Pilate, and an Ecce Homo. 
Those by Juanes, a Saviour with a lamb, a Christ 
with the wafer and chalice; a Holy Family, a 
Virgin, a Baptism of the Saviour, a Santa 
Toml[s de Villanueva, and a Conversion of 
St. Paul. There is a Virgin by Saspafcrrato, an 
Abraham and Isaac by Espinosa, and a Jesus 
delivering the keys to St. Peter by Palomino. 
*^ Vidal executed for the cathedral a picture of Our 
Lady of Concord; and Ignacio Vergara, the group 
of angels adoring the name of the Virgin in the 
principal front." 

Capella do Nuestra Sefiora de los Desamparados, 
or of the unprotected, adjoining the cathedral. It 
was rebuilt in 1667, and has since been modernised 
and spoilt. It is not very capacious, but deserves 
attention for its elliptic figure, its cupola, some 
frescoes by Palomino, and its camarin of marbles 
and Jaspers, under which is kept the utgrcufa 
imagen, or original sacred image, which is worship- 
ped as the protecting patron both of the city and 
of the province. 

Ohurches.— Church of San Martin, Callo de 
San Vicente (Manzana 6); note the bronze eques- 
trian statue over the portal ; a Dead Christ over 
the chief altar, and a Crucifixion over the retablo; 
a San Pedro and San Pablo, of the Espinosa school, 
and some frescoes by Camaron. Jos^ Veijara 
executed the medallion of St. Anthony the Abbot, 
over the doors, and the facade and bas-relief were 
executed under the direction of the same artist. 

Church of Santos Juanes, Plaza del Mercado 
(Manzana 891). The old building was of the 
year 1866. The modem one was finished in 
1699. It was painted iii fresco by Antonio 
Palomino, in 1707. The pulpit is very elegant. \ 
IU9 mirbles were exocnted in Genoa, by 

Ponzanelli. The stuccoes, the statues of the Sons 
of Jacob, and other decorations of raised work, 
and the sculpture In the pillars of the chapels, are 
by artists from Lucca. In this church lies the 
celebrated painter Ribera. 

Church of San Juan del Hospital, Calle del 
Trinquete de Caballeros (Manzana 95). It con- 
tains a great picture of the battle of Lepanto, by 
Jos^ Garcia, a San Joaquin, a Santa Ana and la 
Virgen, by Ribalta, and some paintings of the 
school of Joanes, In one of the chapels are pro- 
served the remains of Constantia Augustn, Empress 
of Constantinople, which were presented by her 
step-son, the Emperor Theodorus Lascaris, who 
found an asylum at the court of James I. of Spain. 

Church of San NicoWs, in the Plaza of the same 
name (Manzana 878). It was formerly a mosque. 
Note the numerous paintings by Juanes, and the 
arches and walls of the chapels painted In fresco 
by Vidal, a pupil of Palomino. The celebrated 
picture by Juanes, known as La PurUima 
Coneepeion^ and considered to be his finest work, 
was much torn and defaced by the explosion of an 
anarchist bomb, which destroyed the altar of the 
Virgin, March, 1892. 

Church of San Esteban, In the Calle of the same 
name (Manzana 119). It was anciently a mosque, 
as may be seen by its chief altar and baptismal 

Church of San Salvador, In Calle de Trinitarios 
(Manzana 144), containing three fine paintings by 
Conchello, and a miraculous image. 

Church of San Lorenzo, in the Calle of the same 
name (Manzana 158). 

Church of San Andres, in the Plaza of the same 
name (Manzana 53). The principal entrance is 
fine, the sculpture is of the Renaissance. It con- 
tains paintings by Ribalta, Vergara, Orrente, and 
Camaron, some of the most renowned of the Valen- 
cian school. 

Church of San Bartolom^, in the Plaza of the 

same name, and Calle de la Concordia (Manzana 

373); note the retablo by Juanes, the ancient 

sculpture and pictures. The altar of San Sepulcro 

Is said to date from the time of Constantine the 

Church of Santo Tomas or dfcV*. <i.«\NSKt««M^i«^ 

96 BRlDanAW S »PA 

US<, iDd conlBlni um* good picture), cipecially 
a Vii^n md ChUd, by Leonirdo di VlncL. 

CborchDl SanU Crai. It lioT ancient origin, 
bQt the d&te of the original baltdln^ L« dffnbthil; 

.Brest pomp 





hnrch of Bm 
Higoel (Ma 






(he I 



chapela. Note, unoBe other olijecta, 
tower, near which l> still to he seen on 

H0IIMlterl«8, fto— There atnl exist within the 
lit)' fourteen monejterlei and thirteen nnnnertee, 

tlons In accordance wllh Iho new law.. The names 
ol the former are Sonlo Domingo, Ei Temple, La 
Trinidad Descalza, La Conplgaclon, El Carmen 
Caliado, La Corona, Sui Afrnalin, E] Pilar, 
San Camilo, San Francisco, Baa Fulgenclo, 
Las Jesnltu, La Escuela Fla, and Ln Merced. 
The latter are named Santa Tecia, Santa tTnula, 

Clara, San Cristobal, Santa Ana, San Jos<, La 
Prcientaclon, San aregarlD, La Pnrldad, and 
Santa Maria Magdalena. 

Tha Convent of St. Dimiliiso i< Bitnaied in 
the Plaznela of the same name (Uaniana, lOS). At 
the extremity of Its church are two chapcli of ei- 
traordinary magnitnde, named La Vlrgen del 
Botario, and San Tlcenle Ferrer. The latter com- 
nanlcatei with a third, called de loi Reyes. The 
ehoreh containa two great pictures by Joi^Vergara, 
bothmodern. Tha Cimbeiiohai tome line windows, 
which are beantlfitly ornamented, and is crowned 
with a hmTTe correipondlng with the rest of the 
bnllding. The paTement la a moaalc of beantltul 
marbles. The nunsolenm, which Is of whlK 
«'■ jam JBorfrffB deMti\doia, DaBt Uirii Fonseca, 
"«/ bonm Mtnelt He Itendoa, widow of Don 


emando de Aragon, Duke of Calabria, Viceroy of 
'alencla. This samptnooiaepulchTC was enclosed 
J a balustrade of marble, fli which only_lhB frie»^ 
smnlns. At the hack partol the altar mayor la 

'hich serves at a eampanarlo or Belfry, and which 

)rmerly »ory elegant, was destroyed by the French, 
nd only a portion of it now remalni. One of the 
hapeli la of the Corinthian order, adorned with 
clurans and pllaslera of marble, and statuea. The 

ly the ' 

:, Tlcci 


especially the ilatnes andl 

Caliado, In the Ptaia del Cimen or del Huseo 

spaelDDS. The facade has splendid Balomonlc 
colnmns, and la adorned with staloet by Balmuudo 

Convent of Lob Jcsaltaa, a nst edifice, now 
occupied by government, and the provincial depo- 
Utlon and eontalnlng the archives of the ancient 

kingdom. Baa Hlgncl de loa Beyeo, a sup- 

from the city, in the bsrrlo of the Calle de Mar- 

I of h' 

, of tl 


ch give light (0 the choir, and In the 
e of San Uigneli the third Is of ttia 
der, with Salonumlo coltimnt, and 
Holy Kings; atthesldesof thefa(ad» 

others of theC 



cupola, equal 
mayor is of beau 



steps a 

trade of the presbitcrlo are 

At the sides w< 
were of wood, 



lioute 14.] 



magnificent cloister, 160 feet long, with nine arches 
in each lienzo, like to that of the Apostles in the 
Escorial, after whose model it was constructed; and 
ne»r the entrance is the principal staircase, of a 
marvellous size, with a double flijfht, with stairs of 
a single block of stone. "C. ZarlHcna painted some 
large pictures for the convent in a style of colouring 
like that of the Venetian masters. Most of Itsnumer- 
ous pictures have been transferred to the Museo, 
and its magnificent library to the Universidad." 
This superb convent is now abandoned, and in a 
state of ruin, being only inhabited by some poor 

El TemplO, in the Plaxa of the same name 
(Manzana 117). It formed part of the ancient 
Palace of the Moorish kings. Having been ceded 
to the Knights Templars, the latter erected a small 
church and some dwellings. The order having 
been suppressed in 1812, the building was given, 
in 1317, to the order of Montcsa. In 17-J8, the castle 
of the order, near Jativo, having been destroyed 
by the earthquakes which the country suffered, 
gave rise to the construction of this superb con- 
vent, which was begun in 17C1, according to the 
plans of the architect, Miguel Fcniandcz, at the 
expense of Don Carlos III. Note the portico, the 
elegant and richly decorated chapel, the circular 
altar, with jaspers, Ac. with the image of the 
Virgin, the presbytery, Ac. 

Hospital de Pobres Estudiantes (of poor stu- 
dents), in the Calle of the same name (Manzana 57, 
Nos. 2 and 12), established in 1540. 

Hospital de En-Bou, Calle de Ruzafa (Manzana 
19, Nos. 15 and 34.) It was founded in 1399 by 
Don Pedro Bou, and is appropriated to poor fisher- 

Hospital de En-Conill, in the Calle de Camicers 
(Manzana 286, Nos. 5 and 19), founded on the 28th 
August, 1397. 

Hospital de Pobres (of the poor), in the Calle del 
Trinquete de Caballeros (Manzana 100, Nos. 16 
and 18). 

Casa de la Misericordia, or poor-house, in the 
Calle of the same name (Manzana 291). It was 
founded in 1670, and is a fine building. It main- 
tains from 700 to 750 poor people, who are employed 
in indufftrlal worka. 

Casa de B«neficencU, in the Plazft de la Corona 
Olanzsna 208)i etUbliBbed in 16'26. 

£1 Presido, or Penitentiary, in San Agustin, in 
which about 1,500 prisoners can be confined. 

El Colegio de Corpus Christl, or del Patrlarca, 
founded in 1586 by Juan de Ribera, patriarch qf 
Antioch, and Archbishop of Valencia; note the 
noble Corinthian Chapel; the celebrated crucifix; 
many fine paintings by Ribalta, also some by 
Juanes, Morales, and F. Zuccaro ; the altar mayor, 
with its green marbles and jaspers; the cupola; 
the sacrista ; the relics ; and the cloisters. ^' Bar- 
tolomd Matarana, who flourished at Valencia early 
in the seventeenth century, is known only by his 
frescoes in the Chapel of Corpus Christl. Those 
on the dome are figures of Jewish prophets, and 
passages from the story of the stiff-necked people; 
others on the walls, and in some of the side 
chapels, represent various sacred histories, with the 
achievements of the blessed St. Vincent Martyr 
and St. Vincent Ferrer." " Juan Zarifiena painted 
for the college a picture of Christ at the column as 
early as 1587, and a portrait of the founder in 
1612." The pictures of Ribalta comprise a Cena 
(a Last Supper), San Vicente de Ferrer visited by 
the Saviour, a Holy family, a Beata, and a Christ 
in the Garden of Olives. There is a Christ bearing 
the Cross, by Morales. The pictures by Juanes 
comprise a Supper, an Ascension, and a Birth of 
St. John. The visitor should go on a Friday 
morning, 'nhen the miserere is represented. 

Colegio Andre>lano, in the Plaza de la Escuela 
Pia (Manzana 234, Nos. 1 and 6;. Colegio Real de 
San Pablo, in the Plaza de San Pab^o (Manzana 
292, No. 60). Colegio de la Presentacion de Kues- 
tra Seliora, in the Plaza de las Barcas (Manzana 
14, Nos. 12 and 13) ; note the fine picture by Rib- 
alta. Colegio Imperial de San Vicente Ferrer, in 
the Plazuela de los Nifios de San Vicente (Man- 
zana 49). Seminario ConcUiar, in the Plaza del 
Conde del Real (Manzana 144, Nos. 1 and 3), 
Escucla Pia, in the Plaza of the same name 
(Manzana 234), a seminary built in 1788, by Arch- 
bishop Mayoral. The form is that of a great 
rotunda, with a cupola and louvre in the centre; 
the altars are in good taste, with marbles, greoM 
Jaspers, and paintings by Vergara, Planes, and 
Camaron ; in the centre of the church. U. ^s»j!scv«^ 
the cclebtatA^ 't. ^Otf>^ vi ^^^ ^kbss^tbw Vst. x^' 
V)VYAicti\ \«tow«%. Y.%c\i5^«. ^sixta»^^^^»''«*' ^""^ 






[Section 1. 

Public Buildings.— La Univcrsidad, in the 
Calle de la Nave (Mahtana 68), a fine large build- 
big, with a reddish facade; the patios and halls 
have been renovated. The university has facul- 
ties of jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy. 
' It has also good collections of natural philosophy, 
Chemistry, and natural history, and a splendid 
library of 40,000 volumes, which is open to the 
public, and which comprise some rare bibles and 
MSS.; botanicalgarden outside thetown; a beautiful 
theatre; a capacious chapel, dedicated to Nuestra 
ScHora de la Saplencia. It is supported principally 
by the fees payable on matriculations and degrees, 
the government making up the annual deficit. 
In 1841 the university had 1,600 students and 
70 professors. At present there arc over 2,000 

Library of Don Vicente Salva, containing some 
curious native works. 

Palacio Arzobispal (archiepiscopal palace), in the 
Plaza del Arzobispo, near the cathedral; it formerly 
possessed a fine library, but many of the books 
were destroyed during the French occupation. 
Palacio de la Audiencia, Calle de Caballeros 
(Manzaua 134, Nos. 1 and 4). 

Casa de la Ciudad, in the Calle de Caballeros 
(Manzana 180, Nos. 1 and 3), commenced in 1342, 
and finished in 1876. The grand salon was con- 
structed in 1423, but having been burnt, another 
was built in the following year. It has a profusion 
of fanciful figures and rich decorations. The 
capilla was constructed in 1454, and the magnificent 
ceiling of the salon which serves as an antechamber, 
in 1512; in the lower storeys were the prisons, 
until they were burnt in 1505. In this building 
are preserved the sword of King James the 
Conqueror, the keys of the city, which were 
delivered up by the ivioors to the king, the ancient 
' banner of Valencia, and the Moorish standard, 
which was also given up. In this casa, also the 
Ayuntamieuto has all its oflices, and holds its 

Casa Consistorial, a noble Ionic pile, whore the 
Audiencia or supreme court of justice holds its 
sittings. Note the room called El Salon de Cortes, 
with frescoes by XariHena; the carv^cd gallery; the 
panelled ccilhig, and the relics. 
Coyjservatorio de Aries, ih the Plaza de la Aduana 
f^r^jijgana »S, No. ij, fonn^ed tji l$8f. 

Casa del Vestuario, in the Plaza de la Constitii- 
cion. Here the A>nintamiento formerly met on 
days of ceremony for the purpose of proceeding in 
a body to the cathedral. The building is now 
occupied by the Jnge de Paix. The architecture 
is gftod; the roof of the principal salon was painted 
by Vicente Lopez. 

Liceo Vaienciano, established for the encourage- 
ment of the sciences, arts, and letters. 

Lonja de la Seda (the Silk Exchange), in th« 
Plazuela del Mercado (Manzana 826, Nos. 1 and 67). 
It is a beautiful Gothic edifice of the year 1482. 
Note especially the staircase, the fine hall, and the 
Gothic windows. It is occupied by the Chamber 
of Commerce. It is the most interesting building 
in Valencia. 

Lonja del Accile (Oil Exchange), in the Calle de 
Lonja (Manzana 824, No. 8). 

La Adwma, or Custom House, situated in the 
Plaza of the same name, at one extremity of the 
city, near the Puerta del Mar. It is a fine large 
modem edifice, with its fa9ade facing the Paseo de 
la Olorieta. It was begun in 1768, and finished in 
1760, under the superintendence of the architect, 
Chilavert. Its form is that of a rectangular paral- 
lelogram. Its greater side, which is the front, is 
228 feet long; its lesser side 213 feet; and its total 
height, 78^ feet. It has a fine staircase, with a 
double landing-place. The building is now con- 
verted into a cigar manufactory. 

El Museo : After the suppression of the monas- 
teries, the pictures which they contained were 
removed to the convent Del Carmen, where a 
provisional museum has been formed. It contains 
upwards of 600 pictures, all of the Valencian school. 
In fact it is only here and in the private collections 
of the city that the works of this school of paint- 
ing can be properly studied. The principal masters 
arc Ribalta, Joanes (or Juanes), Esplnosa, Orrente, 
C.Zarillena, ElBosco P. Barras, Salvador, Gomc2, 
Juan Conchilcs, and Gaspar de la Huerta. J*cw of 
them possess much merit, 'the best are to be seen 
in a reserved salon, the Salon de Juntas. Th«3r 
comprise an Ecce Ho&io, and two of the Saviour, 
by Juanes. The Crowning with Tlioms, a Supp^i 
(Cena), St. Vincente Ferrer, San Francisco, St. F^tcr 
and St. Paul; the Pour Doctor's ; fhefev^ngellsts; 
and the Coronation of the Virgin, ty liibalta. 'Jftie 
Vi^^n; &0tJ6itn; 4llft|«il«h; MiftiH^HiaU 

Boute UJ til: 

tiblcux, KpnsouUiib- Smi I'TiU'^LHeo. ■ UUhoi 
■ncl San Crlstopber. by Cristobal ZirJBons. j 

Bmco. The fQltowIng pnEntera (re al» repre 
MDttit la [hit tDllsclloD:-J. de Verdun, A. d 
VillsDucvB, Blbcca. Uarch, Canmtou, VIccnt 
LaiHi.aDdCluyii. Ths piclui'^a will 

iraeni are— Judln it In Botcdid. or 
ner; ' Jardin del Scllor Crnide d* 

Faieoi.— Ls Glorictn, between tbo Adoiiin,thB 
Cnpltanlnaenornl, Ite. It I> of in Irregular flfrnrc; 
eateit leiiEth. which li the ran botwe«h the 


di cooUlubiF; n gicit Tarictjr of ihrubi, md 
twpcn the tteQ« Bto oriuigo and other (mil Ireet, 
dsibtroes irTordlnf; belh abude and frogiine*! 
re al»o are four marble itntuei, repregenthig tb* 

KS, cedars, pnitachlof, roianarlBt, Ag., wblch 

c tcati. and at nl^hl It ii lighted with g»: 
The other paseo, called La Alameda, vhl^ 
tends to the north-cut or tbe cltj-, In rroni 
tho gardens Del Real and De CahreHfe, 
;l Mar, It 

Ire l9 the I 

sr foot pas^cn^rli 

elBhteen rectangular 

TheBoy.! Garden Oardln (fe la reaa) Is sltnated 
In frinit jf Iho bridge and gate eallod Del Rea" " 
bni Sne altsya ol etdDge trees, producing bMitlTal 
ftatu. It li Opba Bier^ ThnrWay npon prodnetl* I 

at 'tefc Ai«tN» »»**" 

hilC B iHsac), pIsntKl with toai 
right and left of the Puerls de Se 

■IthDDgh that to the left l> broadc] 
They nn entered by moinB of n Si 

paiMoa ■» nol much frfquentod. 

RMldeut BrlUdi ConaiU. 
EngllBh PIirilclajiB. 

BookB.-For work! on the p 

OANDU (Stftt.) 
If Valentli, near the Ueditcrro 

I OaroaKeuto i 

para ForatUru, por J. O., ^ 
mat efSjxKn. 

ConvtyuiiWB.— Rill 
LkBDOlna (pugeg M and 
fnimC«ca;eiitethronEhOaiuUaio Dailla (9 
beloir), a mlleti to Almanu iiid Allcaiile; 
Cutcllon; lDMaTTJedra{3aeButo)inanehauti 
Bl(tt»0.m the MeilLUr»o™n, Simile., H. 

being .leadlly improved. The wort Qrao Is fri 
Latin, Orodm, » elepi and tlli« has been a hathl 

:slci. Theslchlse 
rieirs. Theplaeot 

e Goadala-lar, in the Med 
:a (page 35) i> ipoken of to i 


10 jAke ol Mbufera ii 

Mt deep. It l> crQwn 

e K»llond«la, QnlUarer (for Tny, vhnnc* 
; PoHugai), nnd Ihen up Ihe MInho to Daldelu, 

. BaiTftUena, Las HieTBa, Aibo, Fonn, 
, FTlelra, FUsnelra (Upper and Lower;, Blba* 

I davla (on the Alia, in a monnuln gorgt), BaT- 
banMa (on ih« BaibuitmaJ.ts Orcoie. 71c«^ 

Rotit6 15.] 



TUY (Stat.) 
The ancient Tude ad Fines, U a walled frontier 
town of Spain, on the Minho. opposite the Portu- 
guese town of Valen9a de lUnlio (Stat.), to 
whichthe railway to OportOis continued, see page 
19D. The country is very fertile, and the valleys 
are charming, but marshy. The manufactures 
comprise table linens, hats, leather, and liqueurs. 
There is plenty of good sport for the angler. The 
wines arc good. 

Sights. — Cathedral ; note the silleria and clois- 
ters; the tomb of San Telmo, the patron saint. 
The Alcazar; and the college of San Fernando, 
containing a museum, with pictures and books. 
The old episcopal palace and the church and con- 
vent of San Domingo. 

(Population, 4,247) is situated on the banks of the 
Avia, whence its name. The wines made are 
very celebrated. The Cnnvento de Iios Dominlcns 
with an elegant ogival church, and the ancient 
palace of the Counts of Ribadavia. 

OBEKSE (Stat.) 

Population (1885), 13,290. 

Hotels. — Two or three posadas. 

It is charmingly situated above the left bank of 
the river Minho, over which there is a bridge. Its 
streets are narrow but clean, and its Plaza Mayor 
is very regular. It is of ancient origin, and was 
formerly much larger. The city is said to have 
been founded by the Greek Amphilocus, In the 
year 1179 B.C., from whom it derived its ancient 
name, Amphiloeopolis. Subsequently, the Romans, 
on account of the springs of hot water here, called 
it Aquae Calidae, CUiorum, and Urientes, of which 
Its present appellation is a corruption. 

Its industry consists of linen fabrics, leather, «kc. 
It has also manufactures of chocolate, and a trade 
in hams, wliich are both in high repute through- 
out Spain. It has a monthly fair. The town pre- 
serves some Roman inscriptions. The arms of the 
city are a bridge over the Minho, a castle and a 
lion, with a naked sword and a royal crown. 

In the invasion of the Moors in 713 it was almost 
levelled to the ground, and it remained a heap of 
ruins till 832, when It was rebuilt by Alonso el 
Casto. From Orense, Soult invaded Portugal with 
26,000 men and 78 cannon, and thither he retreated 
two or three months After, hotly pursued by We\- 

lington, his army reduced to 19,500 stragglers, and 
almost naked. The neighbourhood abounds in 
wine, but the process of manufacture is very 
primitive, and there is scarcely a bodega or cellar 
in which to store it. One of the best wines is that 
called Tostado. There is sport for the angler in the 
neighbourhood. The surrounding valley is very 
chai-ming, with its variegated trees, thick vine 
districts, fields, and rivulets. In the distance are 
seen the maisons de campagne of the Marquises of 
Villaverde, Bdveda, and others, besides several 
small villages and places, amongst which are 
Lolla, Oira, Cudeiro, Viso, Valenzana, and Scjalbo. 

Sights.— Gothic Cathedral, dedicated to St. Mar- 
tin, situated nearly in the centre of the town. In 
consequence of the injuries that it has sustained, 
and the renovations that have taken place at differ- 
ent epochs, its fa9ades are of irregular form. Its 
dimensions are as follow:— breadth between the 
doors of the Crucero, 1- 7 feet; length from the 
principal door, called Del Paraiso, to the Altar 
Mayor, 249 feet; and from the latter, or from the 
Trascoro of San Martin, to the wall of the Capllla 
do la Concepcion, 33 feet; height from the pave- 
ment to the cupola, 98 feet; and to tlie boveda of 
the great nave in the middle, 63 feet; breadth of 
the grreat nave outside the columns, 26 feet; length 
of the porch or corridor of the principal portal, 96 
reet; breadth of the same, 7| feet. In the facade is 
a tower of not much merit. In the middle of the 
church, as in the other cathedrals of Spain, is the 
choir, with a large railing of iron, and within, the 
silleria of walnut, of good workmanship, decorated 
with the effigies of saints, and contahiing seventy 
handsome seats. Under the core are two organs, 
and a balustrade for the musicians. At the side of 
the Epistola is an altar, with a silver coffin enclos- 
ing the body of Santa Eufemia, and In that of the 
Evangelio is another coffin, with the bodies of San 
Facundo and San Primitivo; near this Is the 
magnificent sepulchral monument of Quovedo and 
Qulntana. It was sculptured at Rome by the 
Spanish artist, Antonio Solh, at the expense of 
Manuel Fernandez Vcrela, about the year 1840. 

The Capllla Mayor del Cristo, of which the Cond^ 

*T— ' 



[Section I. 

to 1S4S, and whoM sepulchre may be seen in the 
OmMro, In front of the altnr mayor. The cabinet, 
in whieh the Santlsimo Cristo is placed, is in an 
•lerdted position, and is surrounded by rctablos, 
representing the Passion; and near the collateral 
altar of the camarin is a balcony, and a place for 
the musicians, with a good organ. There arc also 
nineteen other caplllas, containing effigies of great 
Itierit; note especially the Capilia de Nuestra 
Sellora de las Augiistias. At the altar of the 
Cmcero is celebrated the mass of the Alba. The 
Cimborio of the Crucero is a well finished work. 

The origin of the Episcopal See and the date of 
the foundation of the cathedral are doubtful. The 
dHginal cathedra] is said to hare been built as early 
as 550; the present altar mayor, dedicated to San 
itartin, was consecrated in 1194. The modern 
cathedral was erected by Bishop Alonso, in 1220 ; 
pote especially the shrine of Santa Eufcmin, the 
tomb of Quintana, the relics, nnd the cloisters. 

Church of Santa Maria la Mayor. The principal 
^a^ade, which is on the Plaza Mayor, is elegant: it 
has two storeys, with Corinthian columns, and in 
the upper part two symmetrical towers. The interior 
is simple, with a good cupola and five regular 
fltars. In the chapter is celebrated the festival of 
|he Cu^renta Horas, and here is preserved the ef&gy 
■?rith Avhlch the Passion is represented every Friday, 
frhieh i? worth attending. The gallery of the 
church communicates with the door of the contigu- 
ous episcopal palace. 

Church of Santa Eufemia del Centre, occupying 
|he church of the ex-convent of the Jesuits, which 
(g still in an unfinished state; its facade is good; it 
U of two storeys, the first of the Doric, the second 
of the Corinthian order; the interior of the building 
is adorned with columns. 

Church of Santa Eufemia del Norte, a parochial 
oharch, in the church of the suppressed convent 
of San Domingo. It has six altars and an organ. 

Church of the Santisima Trinidad; note the 
Capilia Mayor and the cupola. 

Convent of San Francisco, situatod to the east of 
^1)0 city. It has two square cloisters, in one of 
vbioh is A well of excellent water. Its church is 
Rapacious, and contains an organ and a good 
(mage of the Concepcion, which is open to public 
generation by order. At the side is another pmall 

church, belonging to the brothers of the order of 
Tercera. The rest of the building serrea as a 
quarter for troops ; it has accommodation for two 

Convent of San Domingo, small and having only 
a single square cloister; it was formerly occupied 
by the provincial deputation, and was afterwards 
used for the offices of the political government, but 
yielding to demands made in 1847, the government 
conceded the building to the province, with the 
exception of the portion required for the dwelling 
of the curate of Santa Eufemia. 

Oemeterles— One in the hospital, and two 
others, named I^a Santisima Trinidad and Santa 
Maria la Madre. The latter is small and badly 
situated. There is also another near the convent of 
San Francisco, in the high part of the city; it is 
capacious, and in a good situation. 

Orphan asylum, Casa de Beneficiencin, Hospital, 
House of Industry, EI Seminario Conciliar de San 
Fernando, and College for girls; Casa de Ayunta- 
miento (Town Hall) in the principal square, which 
is surrounded by well-paved colonnades ; a pretty 
theatre, a prison, and an abattoir. 

Four Fountains In the centre of the town, called 
Del Key, La Nueva, De Cos Cueros and De San 
Cosme. All but La Nueva are badly supplied with 

The Bridge- — According to a popular song, 
there are three things to be seen in no part of 
Spain except Orense, viz.. The Holy Christ, or 
Imagen de Cristo (as above), The Bridge, and La 
Burga — 

" Tres coBiu hAjr en Orense 
Que no las hay en EspAfia, 
EI Santo Criato, la Puente. 
Y la Burga hirviendo el agua." 

The fine Bridge (Pucnte) over the Mifto is about 
600 paces to the north of the town, at the entrance 
of the route to Santiago. It is really two bridgot. 
The first, which crosses the river at right angles, 
is 1,819 feet In length, and 18 in breadth; it conr 
slsts of seven arches; the middle arch, which Is 
the largest and most elegant, is 156 feet from pillar 
to pillar, and 135 high from the bed of the river to 
the Iceystone, and one of the other arches is 90 feet 
in diameter. The second bridge is united to the 
former at the side next the city, and serves to 

ttonte 15.] os£K8B. 

cross a sand>^bank trhlch U hete formed In time of 
great innndatiops from the rircr. It has three 
small arches, the greatest of which, however, does 
not exceed 40 feet in diameter. Both bridges are 
very solid and well built, and have triangular 

Not many ytors since there stood at tha 
%Btrance of the larger bridge, on the city side, a 
tower, on the portal of which were the royal arms, 
and those of the Conde de Lemos, besides several 
Inscriptions. According to some historians, the 
bridge was built by the Emperor Trajan; others 
assert that it was erected in 1230, by Bishop 
Lorenzo, and that it was repaired in 144i), by 
3l8hop Pedro. Whatever the date of its founda- 
tion, there can bo no donbt of its antiquity, ai)d 
that it has undergone many rccuuiiK>sition8 at 
different epochs. M. Gcrmond dc Lavigne says of 
^hlsbridgc:—" The bridges of Martorell in Cata- 
lonia, and of Cangas de Oniii in the Asturias, arc 
not comparable for boldness to this work, nor yet 
the celebrated bridges of Almaraz and of Alcan- 
tara, on the Tagus, also of Roman construction. 
That of Almaraa is only 150 ft. In span, that 
of AlcanUra 94 ft., but the latter is 175 ft. above 
the ordinary level of the river." Near the bridge, 
the Barbafio falls into the MlAo, and a little higher 
up, near the hermitage of Nuestra Seilora de 
Portovello, the Loila falls in. 

IA8 ^lurgaS.— The Burgas or hot springs, which 
have been celebrated for ages past, gush forth 
out of a rock, in the lower part of the town, to the 
west. There are three distinct sources, called 
Burga de Arriba, Burga de Abajo, and Surtldcro. 
The word burga is a provincial term for a hot 
spring of mineral waters, and is very possibly 
derived from the sound made by the water as It 
Issues forth, though similar words are to be found 
for springs in other European tongues. The 
colour of the water Is perfectly transparent, and 
has no odour when insulated In a glass; the 
temperature Is 150 degrees of Fahrenheit. Experi- 
ments made Indicate no other composition than 
aquantltyof carbonate of soda and carbonic acid 
ga^ mixed with atmospheric air. The intense 
colour which some vegetables assume when boiled 
In the waters of the Surtldcro Is ntidoubtedly owing 
to the presenca of the carbonate of soda. This 


water, which is accounted so valuable In thera- 
peutic applications. Is also much In use for cooking 
vegetables and dissolving soap. The unfounded 
error that It contains sulphur Is evident from the 
fact that the people use It, after It Is cold, for 
drinking purposes; It Is, In fact, considered tha 
most drinkable water in the province. The Burgas 
are frequented from June to September for bathing. 

M. A. Germond de Lavigne says of the Burgas : 
"The Burgas are three In number, 89 yards dis- 
tant from one another. The Burga d* Arriba (upper) 
and that of Abajo (the lower), each furnish ?7J 
gallons of water per minutes; this Is conducted 
by pipes Info a basin of 100 square metres. The 
third, named Surtldcro, Hows directly, with a 
strong emission of gas, into a smaller basin. I'lic 
temperature Is 150 to 155 deg. Fahrenheit. Tlie 
water is perfectly clear, differs very little in taste 
from ordinary drinking water, and lias no odour, 
though Father Feijoo says, in his 'Tcatro Critico 
Universal,' that it threw oft much sulphurette4 
hydrogen. Analysis shows 0*220 carbonate of soda, 
0-1G7 chloride of sodium, and 0*157 of salycillc acid, 
to 1,000 parts of water. The gas disengaged by 
the Surtldcro is composed partly of carbonic acid, 
with 80 parts of nitrogen. These springs, which 
present a great analogy with those of Carlsbad* 
by their temperature, their abundance, and to 
some extent by their composition, have been, 
up to now, but little used therapeutically, 
but they serve, like those of Dax, in France, 
for all domestic purposes, such as cooking food, 
baths, and washing dothes. The large basin bOV 
been transformed into a public wash-place; In 
that of the Sunldero, they steep birds before 
plucking, potatoes before peeling, tripe to bleach 
it, and it is not astonishing that the decomposition 
of animal matters should produce in this latter 
the sulphurous odour noticed by Father Feijoo, 
Mr. Rubio hopes that, following the example of 
foreign thermal establishments, he will be able t(\ 
make use In certain affections of the gas which i^ 
produced by the Surtldcro spring." 

At a quarter of a league from the city are two 
thermal liaths, situated In two difTcront directions, 
and known by the names of LasCaldasand Mcndc; 
thev are considered good lu c\3L<toc\^'<v^5-^ccv.^«.v^'*'<^^^''*s*' 



[Section 1. 

affecttoiis; thcro is also a fountain called del 
Obispo, which is said to be efficacious in removing' 

Public Walks.— There are some pleasant paseos 
or public walks, but they arc ba«lly paved and 
much obstructed by stones and mud. One of the 
best alamedas is that called De Posio, which is 
capacious and filled with trees. In the neighbour- 
hood, there is good Sport to be had near a Laltc, 
16 miles long; with boar, deer, duck, and hare 
•hooting; license, £1 a year. 

COZLYOyanCdS. — Correos for BraAuelas, for 
ai«itiago, Ponteredra, Tuy, Vigo, Ribadavia, 
Tribes, and Barco. There are Diligences to 
Santiago and Lugo. 

Rail to Monforte on the line from Palencia 
(Madrid) to Comnna, for which see Route 8. 
The line, about 33 miles, passes no stations of 

The road to Santiago (14 leagues) passes Pilior, 
Pbjo, Castrovite; that to Lugo, by St. Estevan, 
Monforte, and Sarria ; or by Readago, Chantada, 
Taboada, Naron, and Puntin. The latter is 
I8| leagues. The road to Benarente passes Taboa- 
dola, Allariz, Ginzo, Abavides, Verin, Ferreira. 
Oudina, Canizo, Canada, Sanabria, Monbucy, and 

Distance : Orense lies 46 miles south-south-west 
of Lugo. 

Barcelona to Montserrat, Manresa, Car- 
dona, and UrgeL 

The Montserrat trip is one by itself, and may be 
done by Tarragona rail to Molins de Rey (10 miles) 
and Martorell (18 miles), in about one hour. Omni- 
bus to the fountain; thence down to Monistrol, for 
the rail back (Saragossa Line.) The whole may be 
got through in one day's hurried trip, by 5-20 a.m. 
train, allowing 2 hours at the mountain ; but three 
days Isthebestforaleisurely visit— thus: 1st Day- 
Rail to Martorell at 8-30 a.m., \\ hour; omnibus 
to Collbatd (Caevas InnX 2 hours, 8 reals, by noon. 
Ascent to the grottoes, with ladders, 8 to 4 hours, 
Sfirea/0io0€eanthc8)ghtB. Sleep here. 2nd Day— 
-^ fo t/te ffermlfagc of S. CerMimo, 4 hourt. for 

the prospect; horse or mule, with guide, 18 reals: 
take provisions. Down to the Monastery, 2 honr^, 
! and fcleep there ; 10 reals. 3rd Day— Early sun- 
rise view at the Monks' Balcony. Visit the grotto«*s 
of tlie Virgin, Joan Garcin, «kc., and the Degutallt 
or dripping rocks. Omnibus (6 real") from the 
Monastery down to Monlatrol (Stat.), page 89, 
about 1 hour; thence back to Barcelona. Brad- 
shatc's Continental Guide should be consulted for 
the hours of the above trains as they vary 

Barcelona, as in Route 8. To Martorell 

(Stat.) Population, 4,331. (Posada de la Cruz.) On 
the river Llobregat (Rubricatus). It has a bridge 
supposed to have been built by Hannibal, but one 
arch is of Moorish construction. Tlierc is a Trium- 
phal Arch of Roman origin. Garriga Baths may be 
reached from here. A few miles further on is 
Esparraguera (population, 8,396), also on the 
Llobregat. In the vicinity are the celebrated 
sulphur baths called La Fuda ; which may be 
reached by diligence from Olesa, on the Saragossa 
line. At a short distance is Ck>llbat0 (as above), 
whence the ascent begins to Monttferrat, a 
solitary mass of meedle-shaped granite rocks, 
4,050 feet above the sea at the Hermitage (with 
an immense prospect^ and split down the middle by 
a ravine, nearly 3,000 feet deep, over which hangs 
the old Monastery, founded 880, a chaos of stone gal- 
leries and cells. Retablo by Jordan at the Chapel. 
The Hermitages of S. Benito, S. Ana, Ix)ca Estredia, 
Ac, are scattered about. There is occupation for 
the botanist and geologist on the mountain; l>ut 
after all the grand attraction is the savage 
Salvator-Rosa-like scenery, which has a character 
peculiarly its own. 

For Montserrat consult Ouia de Montserrat p de 
sui Cuewu^ su autor D. Victor Balaguer^ 12mp., 
pp. 188, Bare. 18l>7. 

Instead of returning from Montserrat by Monis- 
trol (as indicated above), the descent maybe made 
to Manresa, about 10 or 11 miles. This station is 
9 miles further from Barcelona than Monistrol. 
MANRESA (Stat), on the Saragossa line. 

Population, 16,526. 

HoteL— Posada del Sol. 

This town, the Roman Minorisa, is most pic- 
turesquely situated on a hill between the Cardoucr 
and the Llobregal^ and Yvas «ou\« ^Uaslns views. 

B->iite 17.] 



It lies 40 miles by railway from Barcelona. It 
is a busy place, and its inhabitants are engaged in 
the ranuufacture of cotton and silk fabrics, broad 
cloths, Mc. Steam Tram to Salient, Puigreig, and 
Olvan, 29 miles. Coaches to Bcrga. 

SiglltB.— The Seu (Seo, cathedral church) is a 
magnificent church, bnilt of hewn stone ; note the 
belfry tower, the high altar, with its chapel of 
jasper, the painted glass, and the tombs. 

La Cueva de San Ignacio (Loyola), with a con- 
vent, of the year 1660; note the marbles, the altar 
of the saint, and his crucifix. Here Ignatius 
Loyola wrote his book. 

Threading the valley of the Cardoner, the tra- 
veller reaches Suria, situated on a hill above the 
river, at a short distance from which is Cardona. 


Population, 4,360. 

Hotels. — Posada de Suiza ; del Oriente. 

A fortified town, in the province of Barcelona. 
It is a straggling place, is interspersed with cypress 
gardens, and has some imposing edifices and de- 
fensive works. The town has manufactures of 
•ilks and cutlery. 

SiglltS.— The celebrated Salt Mine, situated to 
the south-west of the town. The mountain is 500 
feet in elevation, and affords an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of rock salt, in absolute purity. The salt is so 
hard that it has to be blasted with gunpowder, 
and from it are turned vases, crucifixes, and other 
articles. The mountain is homogeneous and the 
only one of the kind known in Europe. To visit 
the mine a permit is necessary, but is easily pro- 
cured from the Inlendente (Steward) of the Duke 
of Medina-Celi. For a good description of the 
mine of Cardona, see Diet. dHist. Nat. de Bomare, 
torn, xiii., pp. 167, 169. 4d. ed. 

The Citadel, or Castillo, with its chapel. 

San Vicente, a Gothic church note the altar 
mayor and the carvings. 

In the neighbourhood of Cardona the sportsman 
and the artist will be rep ild. 

I)ilig«»nce to Puycerda. 

At a few miles from Cardunn, and situated in a 
hilly country, is 

(Population, 2,600), the ancient CeUa, 55 ml\cs 
north-easf of Lerida. It has an anciciit cast\c, 

situated on an eminence above the town, and an 
Episcopal palace, built in 1779. The manufactures 
are principally of iron wares, 

A few n iles further on is Ollana, on the Scyre, 
whose valley Is ascended to Organs, Pla, and 

Organd is about half way between Oliana and 
Urgel, called SeO dlJrgel (the see or bishopric of 
Urgel), 70 miles north-east of Lerida (see p. 132). 
This strongly fortified mountain post was taken 
from the Carlists 1875. 

From Urgel the Val d'Andorra (page 132), 
under the Pyrenees, may be visited, by way of 
Santa Julia. The best plan is to take a guide and 
mule. It is a rough day's journey to Santa Julia. 

The traveller can reach Perpignan from Urgel 
in two days ; the first day on horseback to Puy- 
cerda and Bourg Madame; the second day by 
diligence by way of Mont Louis and Prades. 



Railway.— From Miranda to LogroRo, by Haro, 
Briones, Ceuizero, and Fuen-Mayor, in 2 to 2f 

For Miranda de Ebro (Stat.), on the Northern 
line from Hendaye (Bordeaux) to Madrid, 
see Route 1. 

HARO (Stot.) 

(Population, 6,447) is charmingly situated in a 
fertile plain at the foot of the mountains of Tulofio, 
which form, to the north, the passage of the Ebro, 
named las Conchas, and at a little distance from 
the confluence of the Tiron, coming from the east. 
Its territory is rich; the vine is cultivated. It 
has manufactures of leather, hats, brandy, and 
liqueurs, and a highly esteemed claret wine is 
made hero. There are copper mines in the vici- 
nity. Haro was the chief place of a county which 
gave title to an illustrious family, one of whom 
was first minister of Philip IV., and who treated 
with Mazarin concerning the peace of the Pyre- 
nees. It lies 21 miles north-west oC Ijft^^tvSsa. 




[8ecti6ti t 

HOtolfl.--Poiacla de Ub Diliffencias; Fonda del 
Carmen. There are also several good caf^s. 

Logroflo is the capital of the proYince of the same 
name. It lies in a charming plain on the right bank 
of the Ebro, which is here crossed by a handsome 
stone bridge, and is surrounded with a beautiful 
and fertile vega, a wooded country, huertas and 
Tincyards. It is a walled town, and is over-looked 
by the remains of an old castle. It is well built ; 
the streets are cheerful, and some of them spacious, 
and kept clean by the waters of the brook 
Iregua. From the varied construction of the 
edifices, it is evident that the city has been 
built at different epochs; the part called Rua 
Vioja, nearest to the river, is the most ancient; 
the most modem part is the Calle Mayor, and 
that of Villanueva: still more recent are los 
Portales and el Mercado, which arc the finest parts 
of the city, and in which are some well-frequented 
caf^s. There are five Plazas, called de la Redonda, 
del Scminario del Ooso, -de 8an Bins, and de Sun 
Bartolomd. The first is distinguished by lt9 
i^agrnificent edifices, which have been erected of 
late years, and arc in the style and taste of the 
houses at Madrid. The other Plazas are small, 
and the three last named are of an irregular figure. 
4"he Plaza del Coso is only used for bull-fights ; 
in San Bias is held the market for vegetables and 
provisions; San Bartolom€ is not made use of for 
any special purpose. 

Logroflo has manufactures of linen, woollen, and 
hempen fabrics, leather, soap, candles, hats, cards, 
hrandy, wine, oil, and vinegar; and there are some 
tanneries and distilleries. It has a considerable 
traffic, and its vicinity is fertile in com and fruit. 
The place is considered of importance as a military 
post. It is of ancient origin, in the territory of the 
Vascones ; and was a very important city In the 
time of the Romans. 

It was afterwards under the dominion of the 
Moors, from whom it was taken by Sahcho Alvarez, 
King of Navarre, a.d. 906. It was then retaken, but 
was finally recovered by Alonso el Sabio, in 1160, and 
in 1280 was rebuilt, and surrounded with walls, by 
Don Sancho VIII., of Navarre. It was twice taken 
by the French, viz., in 1808, and in 1823; and here, 
on the 20th January, 1845, was shot the Christino 
Gfeaera/, ^urbano. lis srms are a bridge with three 
fofrors, and a fleur-deUs (or), In a field (azuI) In 

the border, which artos wew glrtn to it in IWS, b^ 
Carlos V. and his mother, Delia Juana, In honour 
of the citizens who tepulsed the French nndo^ 
Andrd de Foix. Here, in 1875, Etpartero, then 
in his 83rd year, was visited by the new kingr, 
Alfonso XII. He died 1879. He was born the son 
of a wheelwright, and might pertiaps have been 
King of Spain. 

Sights.— La Colegial de la Redonda. In th4 
principal facade, which is of good proportion, are 
two towers in the Chnrrigueresque stylo. Tho 
facade is more modem than the nave; the cbolr 
contains some good carving. 

Church of Santa Maria del Palacio, with a l»y- 
ramidal tower, 200 feet in height, rising from tho 
centre, thought to be very ancient; the original 
church is said to have been built by order of 
Constantine. Within the last two or three 
centuries, three stones have been discovered in 
the most ancient part of the building, with an 
inscription partly in the monastic, and partly in 
the Gothic or Moiarabic character, which are thill 
rendered, A qui yace el Baehiller: and other ehamet^iPi 
on the stones are said to prove that the Church fi 
of the year 510 after Christ. This ndaghifltiMIt 
edifice is a portion of the palace Mrhich the Kings 
of Castile foi*mcrly inhabited; and in Its cloist^rfl 
the monks of Santo Sepulcro once resided. 

Church of Santiago, built Of stone, and having 
only one nate; It is 120 paces in length, by dO In 
breadth. In this building was founded th6 ordef 
of the Knights of Santiago. 

Church San Bartolom^ (suppressed); it is yfeU 
built, wholly of well-finished stone; it is pi||« 
centuries old, and in a good state of preservation. 
The portal is in the Gothic-Byzantine style. 

Convent of nuns of San Augustin ; Content of 
Carmelitas Descalzas; Convent de Rellglosasde 
la Madre de Dios. 

Oratorio, at the end of the Calle Vieja, dating 
from the seventeenth century. 

La Casa Hospital, properly a Refugio, in front of 
the Calle de "Villanueva. Here mendicants are 
provided with light, fire, and chamber for a single 
night. It now lacks funds. The date of its founda- 
tion is unknown, but there is evidence of its having 
belonged to the hospitallers of Juan de Dios. 
Hospital c\v\\, caWeA Aft \^ "^\^T\<iot^\«l^ «t «l4 

Route 17.5 

r.eonoKo, calahorhi. 


Boqac Amadez, very ancient. Casa de Niflos- 
Espdsitos (foundling hospital), a solid edifice, but 
unfinished: it serves at present as a quarter for 
the troops. 

Jesuits' college; seminario conciliar; several 
schools; literary and scientific association; So- 
cicdad Economica ; a Liceo ; a theatre, constructed 
in the time of Felipe V. ; and a prison. Casa de 
Ayuntamiento, a large and well-built edifice; the 
interior, however, is badly distributed. 

Cemetery, constructed at the expense and 
under the direction of the presbyter Cayctano 
Sierra, a native of the place. Fine bridge over 
the Ebro, built in the twelfth century, by Juan 
Ortega, a Dominican Friar. It Is 716 feet in length, 
and has twelve arches, with immense buttresses 
and three fortified towers in ruins. 

Paseo de Siete, a beautiful promenade, within 
the walls. There Is also another paseo, called 
Espolon, outside the La Puerta del Cdrmen. It 
was formerly a most charming promenade, but is 
now greatly deteriorated bj- the wall. Fountain 
In the Plaza Mayor; there is also another outside 
San Angustin; and two others called de Santiago 
and de Terrazas. 

Ck>ILyey&I10ei. — Rail to Miranda, for Yitoria 
and Irun, Ac. ; to Miranda for Bilbao; to Castejon 
and Pamplona ; and to Tudela and Saragossa. 

Distance: LogroHo lies 37 miles by rail from 
Miranda, and is 60 miles east of Burgos, and 158 
miles north-east of Madrid (323 miles by rail). 

[Here the road to Soria may be taken through 
Nalla, Torrecilla, Villanueva, Lambreras, and 
Oaray, 45 miles by diligence ; see after Alfaro.] 


Population, 8,134. 

Hotels. — Posada Juliana; Posada Espinosa. 

It is in Old Castile, in the province of LogroHo, 
and is not far from the borders of Navarre. It is 
pictnrcsqucly situated on a slight eminence on the 
left bank of the Cidacos, two miles from its con- 
fluence with the Ebro. It has several plazas. The 
houses in general arc without much taste. There 
are, however, some spacious and solid edifices; 
among others, the Town Hall, the Palacio Epis- 
copal, and the Seminario Conciliar. 

There is a beautiful bridge of ten arches over 
the river. The chief occnpntions of its inhabitants 

are weaving, oil-pressing, and agriculture. It has 
an annual fair in August,, and Is the seat of a 
bishop. The vicinity of the town yields a con- 
siderable quantity of fine wool. It was in ancient 
times a place of considerable distinction, and ves- 
tiges of its grandeur are still visible. At the 
present day it is a dull and decayed town. It is 
famous for the siege which it sustained from 
Cneius Pompey, B.C. 72, by whom It was taken. 
It was re-taken by Sertorius after a loss of 8,000 
men ; and a few years afterwards was taken and 
burnt by Afranius, after an obstinate resistance 
and the most dreadful sufferings from famine. 
During this siege the famine was so terrible th.'>t 
the besieged preferred to eat their women and 
their sons sooner than surrender, and this famine 
has become proverbial in history, undor the nnmc 
of "fames calagurrltana," or ^^hambre cafagurri- 
tanay The defenders, indeed, obeyed to the letter 
the ancient statute law of the country referred to 
In the Partidas of Alfonso el Sablo — 

"E aun hi ha otra razon por que el padre podrlo 
esto fazer; ca segund el fuero leal de Espaila, 
seyendo el padre cercado en algun Castillo que 
touiesse de Seftor, si fuesse tan cuytado de fambre 
que non ouiesse al que comer, puede comer al fijo 
sin mala estran^a, ante que diesso el Castillo sin 
mandado de su Seflor (Las Slete Partidas, tit. xvll., 
ley vlll.); <.«., that a father besieged In his lord's 
castle, and pressed by hunger, may eat his own ifon 
without Incurring any reproach, sooner than sur- 
render without his lord's mandate." Again Cala- 
horra was taken by Garcia VI. In 1045. 

Ptolemy (L. 2, c. 6) calls this place, by mistake, 
Calagorlna; Pliny (L. 8, c. 3) names the Inhabi- 
tants of Callgurls, Calaguritani, and also Fibula- 
renses, probably from the manufacture ofjlbuloe, or 
buckles. The Spanish historians, however, give 
two places named Calagurrls; one called Cala- 
gurris Fibularia, and the other Calagurris Nasica 
which latter, without doubt, refers to Callurgls 
In Old Castile. Morales, indeed, mentions an 
Inscription here, "Mun. Calagurls, Julia Nasica." 
In Its shield are two naked arms fighting wltli 
swords, from which sparks fly., awd W*. 'sx^'««-"ns» 
a womaw viWcv ts. vncvt^ Vcv "Ow^ xV^^.^•^:^^- "^^^^^ 

llllSnC, Kurlqui II. trail 

N ls^ 

CoiiTcni of Carmelite nam: FnnelHan eonnnt. 

lulFFon, Cexr nbulK ud csluiilied II. Hie rule 

illuatcd bi Ihe eenlre of tlie town. It ii opuloni, 

or tlie Oulhii wunat prodncLlvc ol ■• y cvcnl, iii<t 

and arm tar a prlton, «liool. fte. 

111 llic 10th ceiilory It bolmeiji! to tlio Arabt. Dod 

Capllla or Ilermlliga etUod San Emeterlo y 

Oirein, of Vmrn, droTe Ibnn ont In lOtSi iiid 

10 y«r. lM.r (ii> 1. rcWfd by Kmt hi.t r;.ii.). 

•cried «« a prtwn for Ihcw mattyri. 

Don R^uilro rt. Ar.Bon, .nd l)«i Fmiando I, ut 

EpiHopal ; Seailnarlo ConcUlar, now nfed ■• a 

romidllngiiotpitol ; and four Khogli. 

Aruguu, Slid tlio CId (ur I'mlllci Iho l»lier *». 

Itemalat of Iti .nclent wall, and lowei™, ud of 

a Roman CIrFDt and Aqnodncl. 

DUtanee: CalahorralletBl niH«oa«-touUi-<!i«t 

Diifluoclln, dlipHycd buineri with llw -ordi 

The celebrated warm Salhi of Amdilla an 

Cu.tUtl Oailllo tor King Don Enrlqnil' «nd 

•Itnalcd about 4 leagu» from the town, and in 
mnch frequented from the beginning of Jon* to 

proclninisd Ihe brother o[ Don Pedro the Cruel iu 

M.Oermond De Lavigneaay.of them:— "Tbwe 

Id ma, on hi. nay from LogroBo to Tudola: 

batlii are iltuated about it kl1.(l4raUei) to tho 

ZuDwIiicamgDl sltcuiptcd to mrprlM 11 In 1814! 

toDih, loiiowlug the coanc of Ihe CIdacoi. Ame- 

OeroraL Cordobn it;i)«l ilim In 1*34, >r<er Ills 

dlllo, a unall town of I.JOQ Itihobltanti, ll« In a 

refuul at Uadrld lo tate Ilio ontli to the Cunitltn- 

valley formed by two .pun of lli« Slem da 

tion of 1811." 

The Calasnrrla hai boon dcrircJ from the 

■bout tea yard, from the town on the other ildo 

Arabic .taraZ-Aorraf, ^„iil tying " a CDMic in > Mony 

plact- II U e>idcnt that llii. elj-mology onnot 

named the Enclnela. which appear* to be an 

b« Kcoptcd. ■■ It »«» already cilled CaloffKrri. in 

extinct Toicano. The principal i4irlng li on tha 

wol .Ide. and throwi np about galioni per 

PbtHleiui vonli of a almllir louud and inoanlai;. 

The wonl kalat, ■ eaUle or lort (eipecloLy on the 

top of a mountain), occutt In many local nomes In 

n-Mi: eorbonalooninicO-srO; proloxlde of Iron, 

OH, to 1,000 gr.. water, wllh a large quantity of 

oarl-inlc acid. There are Tapnur batbt, and 85 or 

Teruel; and Calataiiaior, in Iho prorinec of Sorla. 

40 chaBiIsm, properly fumlslioil. a large talon, 

It linot coiiflnod toSpnIni llicro uroCuloti Dellola, 

and alceplng roomi for the mlllrary and Ihe poor. 

Cllui Fiffii. Caluta Girone or Caltaglronc Calala 

Pcntlon, Including lervlee and bnlhing towela. 

l.tcUailr..perdayi Snd el., 18 ri. A Kparate 

e for douche and vapour battin. Near 
WIoMh, periai-. Vrt\\cU»tioiaC»\t.VnTk. 

Route 17 ] 



From Calahorra the next important station is 
ALFABO (Stat.) 
(Population, 5,800), which is on the borders of 
the old kingdom of Navarre, is situated under a 
hill on the banks of the Alhamo, a feeder of the 
Ebro. It is of ancient origin, and contains remains 
and inscriptions of the Romans. On the 27th 
August, 1808, about half a league from Alfaro, 
400 French soldiers, under Leferre, fell in with the 
artillery of the Lanza division, which had left 
Saragossa. The Spanish artillery- had taken a 
different route from the rest of the division, and 
were easily overpowered by the French; but the 
news having been conveyed to the rear, the com- 
mander of the king's dragoons, with on'y a 
hundred horse, pursued the enemy, and recovered 
part of the artillery. 

It has a fine collegiate Church, and is situated 
87 miles south-east of Logro&o. 

Diligence to Soria. 


(Population, 5,867) is the capital of the province 
of the same name. It lies on the banks of the 
Duero, near the ruins of the ancient Numantia, 
and is surrounded with ancient walls, crowned 
with round towers, now in a dilapidated state. In 
the neighbourhood are fertile plains and pastures. 
It has some good Plazas; that called de Teatinos, 
in which the normal school is situated, is 80 yards 
in length, by 85 in breadth; the Plaza de San 
Esteban, which is in the vicinity of four streets, 
has some good buildings, and a beautiful iron 

of Castile, having been ceded to Don Alfonso VII. 
by Don Ramiro of Aragon, in whose reign the 
division of the two kingdoms, following the line 
of the Sierras of Moncayo, was made. In this city 
Fernando II., of Leon, held Cortes, and in 1380 
Don Juan I., of Castile, made a curious ordinance, 
by which all women of the town were to wear a 
piece of cloth upon the head to distinguish them 
from the fair sex of other towns. 

Soria was taken by Ney in 1803. According to 
some, the name of the place is derived from a castle 
near the new city called Oria; others assert that 
it was named from a hermitage called Santa Oria, 
not far from the city. Another derivation is 
from the Phoenician tsur, or <«r, a " rock," 
whence Sor, which the Greek-s changed into 
Turos, and the Latiifs into Sara, Tyros, Tyrus; 
whence Tyre. 

Sights.— La Colegiata (dedicated to San Pedro), 
situated to the east of the city, close to the river 
Duero. It is a solid edifice of the Doric order, in 
the form of a basilica. Loperraez, in his history 
of the bishopric of Osma, says it is composed of 
three naves, but it has really only one, which is 
broad and spacious, having six columns in its 
length, and four in its width. The arches are very 
solid. The church is 63 yards long by 48 broad, 
without counting the collateral pillars. In the 
centre of the church is the choir, with a fine 
silleria, and above it a good organ. At the altar 
called del Trascoro is a picture of some merit, re- 
presenting the Descent, and said to be by Titian. 

railing on the northern side, over a breastwork At the entrance of the church, to the left, is the 

3 yards high. 

The Plaza de Herradores is spacious and cheer- 
ful, and has some good buildings, among which 
is the palace of the Marquis de la Viluefia. Its 
contiguity to the Paseo del Espolon, the imposing 
Pucrta del Portillo, and the great traffic from the 
six streets which lead into it, contribute to make it 
a most charming spot. 

The industry of the place consists in cattle, 
wool, silk fabrics, tanned leather, and dyes, and 
there are some looms for linen. The town is very 
ancient, having been founded, according to the 
most reliable opinion, by Don Alonso de Aragon, 
el Batallador (the warrior). In 1117 (some say in 

sepulchre of Don Martin Sanchez, who was dean 
of this church, and chaplain of Don Juan II. In 
the beautiful cloister are many other tombs ; one 
of them contains a skeleton in a perfect state of 
preservation, the head resting on a pillar of crim- 
son. Near this sepulchre is a small chest made of 
walnut, containing a parchment writing, the 
character of which has not been deciphered. The 
church was erected into a collegiate by bishop 
Don Juan, the second of this name, in 1152. 

Church of Santa Maria la Mayor, a solid edifice 
of the Tuscan order, with three naves, the c«a»5i.x^ 
one of greater eIevaU<Mv lVsk^xw^2t^^<5J:i>^»^.'«sJS.«o«l^i- 

C^UTc\vol ^aX^^Aox^ VwmAsAXsi ^ss^^-^^S^-* 

1186) it passed from the dominion of Leon to thai \ itYlo c^«4\W>\:s» wc^«t ^A^a^^***^^^^ 



[Scciiun J. 

Church of Santo Tumei unitod to the former 
Dominican convent. 

Church of Bta. Maria del Espino, with three 
naves; a solid edifice, and of good construction, but 
much injured (especially the exterior), from Imviug 
served as a fortification during the civil war. 

Church of San Juan, with a single nave, of solid 
ahd good construction, and having four caplllas. 

Church of San Nicolas, an ancient building of 
solid construction, of the Gothic order, but scarcely- 
Worthy of attention. 

ConVOZltS. — At the suppression of religious 
communities, there were five convents of monks. 
That of Do Franciscanos is said to have been 
founded by a disciple of San Francisco. This 
convent has suffered from twa fires, the first in 1618, 
and the last in the War of Independence. It is 
now used as a hospital. 

Convent de Domiuicos (one of the parocliials), 
dedicated to Santo Tom^. Convent del Carmen, 
in which is the school for children. Convent 
de la Merced, whose church is closed. Convent of 
San Agustin, which is now in a bad state of 
repair, especially the church, of which iittle more 
than the f a9adc remains. There are three convents 
of nuns; the Carmelitas, Claras, and ("ouccpcion- 
istas. The first, ^^hich was founded by Santa 
Teresa, is now occupied by a few nuns. Santa Clara 
Was fortified in the last civil war, and at present 
Serves as quarters for the garrison, the eight nuns 
which occupied it having removed to the Cuncep- 
cionistas. The large old palace of the Counts 
of Gomara Is occupied by the municipal i^ovrrn- 
taient ; the principal entrance is of some merit. 

Hermitage of San Saturio, a celebrated sanc- 
tuary, dedicated to the tutelar saint of thel(»cality. 
It is at a short distance from the town, and occupies 
a very picturesque situation upon the flanks of 
the Sierra do Pefialva. After following the pro- 
menade along the right bank of the Duero, you 
^ome to a wall, 600 paces In length which leads 
to a door at the foot ot an ebormous rock. Here 
£€aamonco» a subterraneou gallery, at the extre- 
mity of which is f wwt of •tairease, which having 
ase9o4«4i 70« reach the church, boUt over an 
^*9'^fmK>¥0 m^M of rockt. S!kf tlew tnm the 

Tlic Alcazar or fortt-csK, situated to the east of 
tlie town, but now in ruins. 

A fine bridge over the Ducro. Several Fountains. 

PaseOB.— The Pa5>eo del Espolon, situated to the 
west of the town, with a wooden railing, and a 
spacious garden in the centre, surrounded with 
trees. To the right is another pasco of modem 
formation ; it is protected from the winds by a wall, 
beginning at the house of the Marques de la 
Viluella, in front of the palace of the same name, 
which wall is connected with that of the convent 
do Conccpcionistas. Another pasoo is called La 
Dehesa. The poseo named Camino de Madrid is 
well wooded on both sides, and extends in a line for 
half a league, as far as a fountain called de la Tejas. 
There is also the paseo del Miron, which overlooks 
the city to the north; it forms two branches, one 
of which leads to the Vcnta de Valcorba, and the 
other to the celebrated hermitage of San Saturio. 
The place called San Puhi, with its many groups of 
trees and gardens, forms a very charming pasco and 
place of rest. 

ConyeyanceS.— Diligences to Medina Cell 
through Almazan. Rail to AldUtldSa, on the 
line from Madrid to Saragossa, 65 miles, passing 

through AlTtia.gaTi and Adradas. 

The road to Tttdela (Stat.) passes Fncnta 
Sauco, Aldea del Pozo, Agreda, Tarasona, and 
Cascante. From Tarazona there is a short rail to 
Tudela, through Cascante (sec next page.) 


(Population, 3,1 9fi) is at the foot of the Moncayo, in 
the province of, and 28 miles north-east of Soria. 
It is divided by the Queiies, which is crossed by a 
magnificent stone bridge of one arch. Note the 
fine view up the river, the Episcopal Palace, the 
Town Hall, and the Cathedral with itsinperb altar 
and cluistcrs. There are also tome fine family 
mansions. It was the Roman Graehuria. 

TARAIONA (Turlaao) StatloiL 

(Population, H,S70) is in the ptovincn of SaragOMft 
and 52mlle8 west-north-west of that city. It Is oil 
thf QuallM, wbibh is h^re crossed by two bridge*; 
BOU tti« Ctttwte%l %«th iu UolsUrt tita €««* 44 


Roate 18.] 

iVyantamicnto with its fine facade, the Episcopal 
Palace, and the Moorish Alcazar. This is the best 
point for Moncayo Convent (5 hours distant), and 
its fine Tiew. (See Saragossa.) 

The road to Tudela passes Cascante (Cascan- 
ium), population, 8,945, which lies 53 miles south 
of Pamplona, on the Quciles. Note the church 
with its fine retablo and sagrario; also an old 
church containing an image called La Virgen del 
Romero; also the mineral spring named La Fuente 

Three miles beyond Alfaro is CasteJOlI (see 
page 28), the junction for the line to Pamplona 
(Route 2). 

[For Tudela (Stat.), see Route 3. From Tudela 
it is 47| miled to Saragossa.] 


A COAST TOUR.— Bayonn* to Vigo, 
HiielTa, oadii, HUaga, Almerla, Cartagena, 
Murda, Alloante, Castellon, tarragona, ftc. 

This route is only adrisable fbr those who can 
bear sea voyage and put up with accommodation 
inferior to that of our first-class steamers. To 
such it is very enjoyable. 

Rail from Bayonne to Bilbao, where steamer 
can be taken for Santander, Gijon, Corunna, Vigo 
(see former Routes) . Steamer past the Portuguese 
Coast to 

HUELVA (Stat.) 

Population (1885), 18,617. 

Hotels. — Columbus; CuatrasNaciones; Villa. 

It is at or near the ancient Onoba^ or TariMsh. 
It stands on an inlet of the Atlantic, at the junc- 
tion of the Rio Tinto and Odiel rivers, and is a 
great shipping port fur the pyrites and copper 
which come down from the rich Minety which 
employ a large population. These mines are 
prUicipally located at Bio TintO, TliarsiS, and 
J||ritannO| to which there are narrow-guage lines. 
Tlie piers, on^ of which Is 900 yards long, afford a 
busy spectacle. Much wine is now exported. 

The Plazd d« la Conititacion is of modem con- 

Slglltf.— Church of Ban Pedro, very ancient, 
formerly « noeqie, aad prfMrvinir some remains 
of its primitive architecture, particularly the 
minaret. 9««4|Bf 9i • i(aBi«9 AqQednct. 

Church of the Cuncepeiuu, situated in the has- 
ville. It is in the Roman style, and dates from the 
sixtecutli century. In an artistic point of view it 
is more remarkable than San Pedro, and has soine 
paintings and sculptures worthy of attention. 

Palacio del Duque, the ancient habitation of the 
Marques of Villafrauca, but now devoted to the 
public service. 
Resident Briish Consul. 

Conveyances.— There are plenty of boats to 
Cadiz and the different ports of Portugal. The 
distance from Huelva to Ayamonte and San Lucar 
de Guadiana is 87 miles. A steamer runs every 
10 days from Cadfi to Huelva and these places. 

Rail to Seville (page 69), past IHellla, to 
Ban Juan del Puerto, where a branch turns 
off, vi^ Trl^erOS, ValVerde and its copper 
mines, to 2a1amea la Real, on the RIo Tinto. 
Rail from Huelva to Valdelamusa and Zafta. 

An excursion by water may be made to La 
Rablda, to visit the Franciscan Conveni, where 
Columbus went, in 1484, to obtain the protection 
of Isabella, through her confessor. Fray J. P. de 
Marchena, the prior. He embarked from PalOB, 
near Mogner, hereabouts, for America ; and landed 
there 1498, after his first memorable voyage. 

Steamer from duelva to Oadix, Gibraltar, 

Malaga (see Route 10). 

The road from Malaga to MotHl passes Veles ' 
Malaga, Torroz, to AlffiunOOar (the ancient Sexi), 
with a ruined castle, and seaport on the Mediter- 
ranean. Almuftocar lies 38 miles south of Granada. 

The road from Almutlecar to Motril continues 
along the sea coast, past Salolurlna, which is 
near the mouth of the Motril and 84 miles south- 
south-east of Granada. It has a Moorish cattle 
built on a rock, but in ruins. A little further on is 


(Population, 16,665), 35 miles south-south-east of 
dranada and close to the Mediterranean. I'he 
climate of this valley is delightful, and pleasanter 
and more healthy than any other on the Spanish 
part of the Mediterranean. The sugar cane is 
cultivated in thi9 neighbourbood. 

The road from Motril to (Jranada runs thron«!bL\ 
the Sierra Nevada^ by Vvilvk ^jssk"*^ ^wsskW^SaKs*. vw««!«. 

n the kdX PInos. ReaUbil, Dorcs 

iirnB in Spiln. Mmt 

Qruindi, Tben iin li 

Resident Bntlih. Vlos-Coiiral. 

Tht direct riMd to Jocn (Route 10) runitbrough 
lloj», Alculiil1»fc TlBeni, Qmulli, PHrullem, 

Scgnra, UbtdK, ind Linirc! 

land uul&cu-.iaCneTaade Vera, 

Hotels.— Foods del'siclo XIX.: F<>n<l* ^ 'oi 
Vaporet! )1a]ii|niFiiK. 
Almerla 1) ■ toim and Hapart of Andalmli, and 


ft Uj 01 

not (bt off. AlmeriBl 

inied br ■ Hoorlib Ciutle.tbe gi 
icb )• la rnlDi. Tbere li ■ 
1 Constltucion, bol no goo4 u 

'a Papiiiat, t ipeela of bMrdlBg hoait, o. 

ji. lIl9pra>ectDdfromBllw[nd!b)-iiuTanDd- 
Ing belgliti. Bnd by im Island on Itae Hnlh, irhltb, 
owEll mlhocll)-, i.rtrongrlyfonifled. Theeltj 
IB dilapidated and vra) (ormerly ouheilthy. owint 
to the nelghbonrlriRiwiimp, the Almajar.wbUb K 

and honiei, and many poWIe bnildlngi. It eom- 

vtrere-dlKoveredareiryeaiislnee; ■nd.ln l<iS>. 
by • toini-aiock company, Bluce tben, dninifea 
niid Inm and lead mining bare proceeded JigW' 


Route 18.] 

was, according to Livy, one of the richest cities in 
the world. Even as late as 1786, it had a population 
of 60,000. It was ruined by the Ooths; and its 
mo tern importance dates only from the time of 
Philip II. It 8 manufactures of cordage and canvas, 
with its trade in barilla and agricultural produce, 
have decayed, but it has still a valuable tunny 
fishery, and a glass factory established by an 
English house; and in 1843, fourteen new smelt- 
ing works had been set up here (Sec Blackie). The 
name of the place is said to be derived from the 
Phoenician Kartha^hadatha^ signifying "new 
city." Among the more ancient Romans, however, 
the name (derived from the Carthaginians them- 
selves) was CattKO (as appears from the Columna 
Rostrataof Dnilius), perhaps an abbreviation. 

SlglltB.— New Forts constructing on both sides 
of the harbour; arsenal fine dock-yards for 
building men-of-war ; and a bagnc or prison for 
galley slaves. The forts and vessels of war here 
were besieged by the Insurgent Red party in 1873-4, 
under Contreras and other leaders, assisted by 
2,000 galley slaves released from prison. They 
held out for several weeks against the Madrid 
government; levied supplies from Aguilas, 
Alicante, and other places on the coast; and at 
length escaped in January, 1874, in the Numancia 
iron-clad, to Oran, In Algiers. Fort Atalaya was 
much knocked about. A naval combat took place 
at Escombrera Bay, on 10th October, 1878, be- 
tween Admiral Lobo and Contreras, ending in 
nothing but noise and smoke. 

Numerous Churches and Convents, marine 
school, large royal hospital, foundling hospital. 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall); Aduana 
or custom house ; observatory; theatre; circus; 
fine Parade. 

Plaza de la Merced, and la Callo Mayor. 

Beaident British Vice-ConsiO. 

Conveyances.— Rail to Orlhuela (see below) 
and Murcia (49i miles) In 24 hours, by express. 
Steamers to Alicante, Barcelona, and Marseilles. 
Steam Tramway to Descargador. 

MUBGIA (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 94,327. 

Hotels. — Fonda del Commerclo; de Paris; 
Europa; Fonda Patron; Fonda Francesa; Fonda 
de Sari Antonio. Several C<i8as dc Hncspcdes, or 


It Is the Murgi of the Romatw.and the cajiltiU of 
the province of an nncient kingdom of its name. It 
Is situated in a rich tract of country on the river 
Segura, which divides the town into two unequal 
portions, connected by a handsome bridge of two 
arches. The city is surrounded by a brick wall, 
erected during the last civil wars, and Is entered 
by three principal pucrtas or gates. It was re-built 
by the Moors from the materials of the Ronnu 
city; and in 1240, was taken from them by 
St. Ferdinand. It was reconquered 1 y Alfonso the 
Wise, and was taken and sacked by the French ^ 
1810. The streets are generally straight and well- 
paved ; and the houses, mostly two storeys high, 
are painted in pink and yellow, and adorned with 
grotesque carvings; those of the nobles, some of 
which are spacious and lofty, have pretty gardens 
attached. It has been considered the dullest city 
in Spain, and has a semi-Oriental character. l)i 
has a trade in red pepper and silk, and there are 
potteries, cloth mills, white lead works, and tan- 
neries. It is by no means a place for invalids, 
owing to Its aridity and extremes of temperature. 
Sights.— A richly decorated Cathedral; com- 
menced in 1353, and modernised In the 16th century; 
the facade is a combination of the Corinthian and 
Composite Orders, and has a fine effect ; note the 
Porch of the Apostles ; the niches behind the choir; 
the old carving of the Retablo; the Sacristia; the 
Custodia; the Relics; and a painting of the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, by Juanes. In the Capilla^an 
Jos^ is a good Holy Family, a copy of Raphael. 
The belfry rises in compartments like an elongated 
telescope, and is crowned with a dome. It com- 
mands an extended view over the Huerta, or plain 
of Murcia, studded with farms and drooping palm 
trees; as well as of the city, with its flat bluish 
roofs, and pigeon houses. The cathedral suffered 
greatly through the earthquake of 1829, when th6 
tower, fa4^de, and dome of the transept were 
cracked. Churches of San Lorenzo, San JuQn;^ 
San Bartolom^, San Nicolas,. and six other parish 
churches. San Nicolas contains a fine St. Antony, 
in marble, by Alonso Cano. 

College of San L«andro, being an academy of 
music connected with the cathedral v *. "%nxss>jc>«k«4-v 
an instltxxKi Iqt tc^-^^Tv-c^^ ^$v.^«^>:x««.^Vs«snSv^^«v: 


Oolleges of Sftn Fulgencio and San Uidore^form- 
ing one range of building, near the Episcopal 

Hospital of San Juan, with spacious apartments 
for the sick, and a magnificent staircase. Hospital 
for convalescents. In connection with the preceding ; 
a foundling hospital and a house of refuge. 

Casa de Ayuntamlento (Town Hall) ; Aduana 
or custom house, and the Almudl or g^ranary. A 
prison containing some Moorish remains. 

The Alcazar, a large Episcopal Palace In the 
Flaza, one of the finest edifices of Its class in Spain. 
It was built In 1752. 

A prlrate gallery of pictures belonging to Sefior 
Estor, which deserves the attention of artists ; La 
Platorla, where the curious jewellery, worn by the 
peasants. Is sold; La Traperla, or street Inhabited 
by woollen drapers. 

A good Botanical Garden ; Plaza dc Toros ; and 
t)vB alamedas or public walks called La Glorleta, 
El Carmen, and El Arena! . 

Conveyances- — By rail to Madrid, via Ar- 
oliena Clcza, Chinchilla, Albacete, and Alcazar; 
to Cartagena, via Orlhuela; to Alicante, via 
Orlhuela. To Granada, by road, via Lebrllla, 
Totana, Lorca, Lumbreras, Velez Rublo, Chlrlvel, 
Cullar de Baza, Baza, Guadlx, PuruUena, Dlezma, 
MoUnlllo, and Huetor, 46 leagues (Route 11). 

Rail to Alicante, 46 miles, through Orlhuela, 
Albatera-Catral, and Elche. 

Archena, about 17 miles from Murcia, on the 
line to Madrid vid chinchilla. Is a bathing-place, 
much visited In the season. 


(Population, 20,929), a city In the province of Ali- 
cante on the Segura, which divides the town. It 
stands at the foot of a ridge of rocks. In a tract of 
country, termed from Its fertility, "The Garden of 
Spain." It Is a straggling town, and has an Oriental 
appearance. It has manufactures of linens and 
hats, some tanneries, and com and oil mills. It is 
the Orcells of the Goth?. 

Dr. Edwin Lee, speaking of Orlhuela and the route 
t#Mnrcia, says—" The country around Orlhnela Is 
comparatively fertile, being watered by the Segura. 
THstown, formerly a place of considerable Import- 
«|e«,and still containing over 20,000 Inhabitants, is 


[Section 1. 

situate at the base of a rocky hill, crowned by ma 
extensive castle. It possesses a cathedral, and 
three or four large churches, which, however, con- 
tain nothing remarkable. The aspect of the town 
and Its Inhabitants is still very Oriental, which is 
lost on quitting the province of Valentla and enter- 
ing that of Murcia, a few miles further on. The 
low, stone, Arab-looking dwellings give place to 
thatched cottages with mud walls; fertility suc- 
ceeds to drought; the oleander, the prickly pea;, 
and other edible productions abound, and the popu- 
lation presents less appearance of poverty. The 
road to the city, traversing an extensive plain, is, 
however, but indifferent; the only object par- 
ticularly calculated to attract attention being the 
Monte Agudo, a peaked Isolated hill, with a castle 
on Its summit, to the right." 

SlglltB. — Gothic Cathedral, built upon the mlns 
of an ancient mosque; enlarged, and of course 
spoilt. In 1829. It Is small, and the exterior is 
scarcely worthy of notice. The Interior has some 
merit, and is divided Into twelve chapels. The 
Coro Is surrounded with a Sllleria In mahogany, 
with subjects from the Old Testament, In sculpture ; 
note especially the Sacrlstia. Three other churches 
and several convents, whose long facades and railed 
windows give the streets a sombre appearance. 

Coleglo de los Predlcadores, with windows of 
the fifteenth century. 

San Domingo, a museum, with some indifferent 

Coleglo de San Miguel. 
Episcopal Palace of the year 1733. 
Two hospitals, foundling asylum, alhondlga or 
public granary, and cavalry barracks. 

Monte del Castillo, several fountains, but badly 
supplied with water. Several charming alamedas 
or public Promenades, surrounding the town. The 
best Is that called Del Chorro, situated to the south 
of the town upon the bank of a canal, bordered 
with willows, poplars, and other trees. On the 
opposite side of the canal are some splendid 
gardens with orange trees. 

Conyeyanoes, by rail to Alicante, through 
Albatera and Elche; to Guardamar; and to Car- 
tagena, Murcia, Novelda, Ac. 

Route 18.] 



The road to Alicante passes Albatera and Elche, 
and runs chiefly through uniulmbited plains. The 
distance from Orihuela to Elche is 5 leagues, 

(Population, 2,000), situated near the Scgura. 
Branch from Albatera- Catral to Torrevleja. 

The route from Albatera to Elche traverses a 
rich country, which has quite an Oriental appear- 
ance, and about Elche the palms rise up on all 
sides and group thcmselyes in the most picturesque 
manner, enveloping the town to such an extent 
that the houses are scarcely discernible. 

ELCHE (Stat.) 

population, 19,686. 

HoML — A good posada. 

Elche, th« ancient lUiee, is situated in the pro- 
vince of Alicante, on an eminence above the 
torrent bed of the Yinalopo, over which is a 
magnificent bridge. The place has quite an 
Oriental appearance, the houses being built in the 
Moorish style, and being surrounded on all sides 
by extensive plantations of date palms. 

It was anciently fortified, but at the present 
day, there are but few vestiges of the walls which 
surrounded it. It is the birth-place of Don Jorge 
Juan, the fellow-traveller of Ulloa in South 
America. Its principal article of export are dates, 
which are shipped from Alicante as '^Barbary 
dates.** The female palms en bon rapport produce 
annually from four to eight arrobas of dates. 
Annual value of the crop about £11,000. The 
fruit ripens in the month of November. There 
is a large trade in palm leaves for Palm Sunday. 

SlglXtS. — Church of Santa Marfa ancient and 
worthy of a visit ; note the portico, the tabernacle 
of precious marbles, a fine retablo, in the centre of 
which is a statue of tlie Assumption of the Virgin, 
covered with rich garments, and much venerated 
hereabouts. Ascend the tower, from which may 
bo had n magnificent view over the town, the 
gardens, the palm plantations, and the rich plain. 
The festival of the Virgin talces place on the 15th 
of August. 

Casa Capitular, on the Plaza Mayor. 

La Calandura, a prison of very ancient construc- 
tion, having a tower containing a clock with the 
figures of a man and child, which strike the hours 
and the quarters. 

Many Roman inscriptions. 

Dr. Edwin Lee says of Elche— "The aspect of 
the town itself, with its low flat-roofed houses and 
narrow streets, is eminently Oriental. The popu- 
lation amounts to 18,000, and has a decidedly Arab 
cast of features and complexion. The men wear 
throughout the year drawers made wide and open 
at the knee, leaving the legs bare, and sandals; 
their upper clothing consisting of a shirt, bound 
round the waist with a sash, and a vest, over 
which is occasionally worn a manta or blanket. 
The costume of the females presents no striking 
peculiarity. From the appearance of the various 
picturesque groups In the fruit-market, the travel- 
ler might well fancy himself in an eastern town. 
The church of Santa Marfa was the mosque during 
the occupation of the Moors. Its Interior is 
striking, and contrasts pleasingly with the excess 
of carving and stucco-work by which so many of 
the Spanish churches are overlaid. The view from 
the bridge crossing the ravine would offer a fine 
subject for the painter, the houses and palms being 
thickly clustered on either side." 

For an account of Elche, consult lUice^ by 
Mayans y Sisear, 4to., Valencia, 1771. 

Distance: Elche is situated 13 miles south-west 
of Alicante, and is about 7 leagues from the sea. 

Roads.— The road toXativa, or Jativa (Stat.X 
runs past Monforte, Elda, Yillena, Fuente de la 
Higrncra, and Mojente ; but the best way is to take 
the rail at Villena (see page 116). The road from 
Elche to Albaccte runs through Yecla, Venta 
Nueva, Monte Alegre, Venta de la Higuera, Pretola, 
and Pozo de la Pefla ; but this also may be done 
by rail from Novelda to Villena, Ac. 

On quitting Elche the route traverses great 
plains without any verdure, after which it ap- 
proaches the sea, which it coasts as far as Alicante. 
On approaching the latter the road is enlivened 
with trees, and some estates are seen to the right, 
and to the left is the railway station for Madrid, 
situated upon a little eminence. 

At the terminus of the rail from Madrid. 

Population (1887), 85,479. 

Hotels.- Fonda de Bossio, Calle del Duque de 
Zaragoza; table d'hdte. Fonda del Vapor (Steam 
Boat Hotel). Fonda de la Marina, 



[Section I, 

Alicante Is a seaport and fortified city, and 
capital of the prorince of the same name. It is 
situated on a bay of the Mediterranean. The 
lower town is clean and well built. It has a good 
casino, with French papers. Apply to the Consul 
to get admission. There is a brisk trade in wine, 
almonds, raisins, and matting, and it is the port of 
Madrid, with which it is in direct communication 
by railway. Its forbign trade is rather on the 
decline. There are some fine markets. In landing 
by boat at this< or at any other Spanish port, 
it will be adyisable first to ascertain the proper 
tarifif. At present it is 2 reals for each passenger, 
and 2 for each box or package; but ten times 
this amount is sometimes demanded. A small fee 
(say 10 rs.) will avoid custom house examination. 

SlglltS. — Church of San Nicolas de Bari, com- 
menced in 1616, and remarkable for the richness of 
its decorations. Church of Santa Marfa. Convent 
of Santa Faz, with the much venerated relic of the 
Santo Sudario. There is another at Rome, and a 
third at Jaen. 

EI Museo. Old Castle, on a rock, which was 
held by the English during the Peninsular war. 
It was attacked by the insurgents, 1873. 

Marquis de Algorfa's collection of medals and 
paintings, in the Calle Mayor; it contains in all 
about 1,000 pictures, among which are some by 
MuriUo, Velasquez, and Albert Diirer. Apply for 
pennission, and state what time you will wish to 

Casa de Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), with a fine 


Castillo de Fernando, out of repair; a college; 
a fine theatre. The Mole, with a fixed light 96 feet 
high, and seen at a distance of 15 miles. Some of 
the houses, especially those in the Calle de Altamira, 
are worthy of note. 

FasOOS. — ^The promenade within the city called 
Paseo, or Alameda de la Reina, forms a sort of ter- 
raced Boulevard, and is planted with trees, and 
surrounded with a balustrade of iron, and seats of 
stone; a street below skirts one of its sides. There 
are also other promenades outside the town, called 
Alameda de San Francisco, and de Capuchinos, both 
of which are planted with trees. 

Resident Britldi Vice-consul and Consuls 

for other Enropeui Stotea. 

i Conveyances.— Rail to Mnrcla, in 3f hours. 
Rail to Almansa, Albacete, and Madrid, In 
15 to 16 hours. Steamers to Valencia (in about 
12 hours), Barcelona, Cette, and Marseilles; also to 
Cartagena, Almcria, Malaga, Algeciras, and Liver- 
pool, touching at Cadiz, Vigo, Carril, Corunna, and 
Santander. Lopez steamers (Vaporcs Correos) in 
connection with railways from Madrid and Paris. 
Alicante for Malaga and Cadiz, weekly; and for 
Barcelona and Marseilles, weekly. The French 
Company, "Service International entre la France et 
TEspagne,'' have oflSces at Madrid and Marseilles. 
The steamers of this company leave Marseilles and 
Alicante three times a week. The voyage from 
Alicante to Marseilles takes 40 hours; from 
Madrid to Paris, 72 hours. 

Travellers leaving Madrid, vid Alicante or Bar- 
celona, for Marseilles, or vice versa, would do well 
to book through, by doing which they will, by 
one payment, clear railway charges, omnibus fares, 
and boat hire to and from the steamer. The com- 
missionnaires, faquines, &c., are found at various 
appointed stations in Alicante. They are distin- 
guished by a b rass badge on the arm. The authorised 
charge for loading or unloading baggage at the 
railway station is 2 reals; for conveying baggage 
from the railway station to the hotels, 5 reals. 


(Population, 3,654) is a town on the road to S. 
Felipe (page 117), in the province of, and 7 miles 
north-east of, Alicante. The wine in its vicinity 
is of superior quality. To the north of it are 
Jijona (Xixonia), noted for its turrones, a sort 
of marchpane, and AlC07 (population, 82,497J 
where coarse woollens, paper, &c., are made. Rail 
from Alcoy to Denla (page 100.) The gorge of 
Tibi is to the west, under Sierra de Mariola. 
Take rail from Alicante to Villcna. The distance 
is 36^ miles inland, the time occupied about two 

VILLEKA (Stat.) 
(Population, 11, 124) is a town in the province of 
Alicante. It is situated in a fertile plain, neap 
the foot of Mount San Cristoval. It has an exten- 
sive moo.em suburb, and there is a great fair is 
the autumn lasting a week. It is the ancient 
Turbula, and was sacked by Montbrun in 1818, 

Hoaie 18.] 


On the 11th of April, 1813, Suchet advanced to 
Villena, and captured the Spanish garrison, which 
defended the castle. He then fell npon the advance 
of the allied army, under Col. Adam, which, after a 
gallant contest with a much superior force, fell back 
upon Castella, where the main body was posted. 
On the 13th, Suchet made a general attack upon 
the allied army, which was drawn up in a long line, 
occupying a range of hills and other strong ground, 
protected by batteries. Although the attack was 
vigorous, it was repulsed with equal spirit, and the 
enemy was foiled at every point, and lost 3,000 in 
killed and wounded. The loss on the part of the 
allies in killed and wounded amounted to Hbout 600. 
Suchet, after the action, retreated to Villena, which, 
however, he hastily quitted at midnight, to fall 
farther hack. He must still, however, have main- 
tained a superiority of strength, since he was able, 
soon after, to detach a strong division against the 
Spanish general, Villacampa, who had gained some 

SiglltS.— Castle, now in ruins, on Mont San 
Cristobal (Cerro San Cristobal); town hall; palace; 
hospital ; and barracks. 
' Conyesrances.— Rail to Almansa, Alcazar, and 
Madrid, and to Alicante. Rail to Bocalrente 
in about 1| hour. 

Distance: It lies 87 miles north-west of Alicante. 

Rail from Villena to Almansa, by La Encina, 
in about If hour. 

ALMANSA (Stat), 
On the Madrid line, near which, at LaEnclna, the 

routes to Alicante and Valencia part off. 
. ropulation, 7,960. 

HoteL— Parador de las Diligenclas. Buffet. 

It is situated in the province of Albacete, and is 
a well built town. It has a linen manufacture, and 
an annual fair of fifteen days. In the neighbour- 
hood is a monument on the spot where Philip V.'s 
army, under the Duke dc Berwick, gained a vic- 
tory over the Archduke Charles, on the 25th of 
A pril, 1707 . The town has a fine reserve! r of water, 
called Fontano de Albufera. 

Conveyancea.— Rail to Albacete and Madrid; 
to Alicante; to Jatlva, Valencia, and Castellon. 

Distance: it lies 68 miles north of Murcia. 


We now follow the coMt rail to MojMrte OK 

Mogente (population, 4,171X near the Canoles ; and 
Jativa (San Felipe) towards Valencia. 

SAN FELIPE DE JATiyA(Stat.).or Jatlva. 

Population, 14,534. 

HoteL— Parador de las Diligenclas. 

A pretty place, the ancient Scetabis^ situated near 
the confluence of the Albayda and the Guadamar, 
in the province of Valencia. The modem town was 
founded by Philip V,, who conferred on it his name. 
It has manufactures of woollens and linens. It was 
stormed by the French in the War of Succession ; 
and here was bom the celebrated painter RiberOy 
sometimes styled Lo Spagnoletto. 

Sights.— Colegiata (dedicated to San Felio), 
built in the beginning of the fifteenth century ; 
note the superb dome. 

El Monte Santo, a convent with a Moorish cistern 
near it. 

San Feliu, a hermitage. 

Palacio dc Moncada, in the Calle de Moncada. 

A very large Castle, with a fine view extending 
over Valencia, the lake of Albufera, and Murvicdro, 

El Campo Santo. Monte Caivario, with a fine 
view. Two Aqueducts. El Ovale, with a fountain, 
Plaza de Toros. Roman ruins, and magnificent 
remains of Moorish architecture. Alameda, with 
its palm trees. 

About 12 miles south-west of Jativa, on the Cla- 
riano, is Ontexiiente (pop., 11,727), with a college 
and hospital, and manufactures of woollens. 

Rail to Alcira in about an hour, passing Carca- 
gente, where there is a branch rail of 41^ miles to 

Oandia and Denla (see page 100). 

ALCIBA (Stat.) 

Population, 16,146. 

HoteL — Fonda Nueva. 

The ancient Saetabicula, a walled town in the 
province of Valencia, on an island in the Xucar. 
It has two fine bridges, and in tfie vicinity is a 
remarkable stalactitic cavern. Its inhabitants are 
chiefly engaged in agriculture. It is called the 
garden of the Kingdom of Valencia. 

Distance : It lies 25 miles south-west of Valencia. 
. Rail to Valencia, past the following Stations: 

Algemisi, Beni&vo, Silla, Catarroia.^ «»a^ 
Alfafur, in about I l\"5i^. bX^V^N* *.>«»— ^ " 



OuUenu A fortified port At the mocih of the 
Jacar, among fmit gardeng. 

VALENCIA (Stat)— See Route 14. 

From Valencia, by rail, to Sagunto, pant the 
following stations : Alboizech, Pulg, and Pozol, 
in aboat an hoar. For SaguntO and Mnrvledro 
stations on the Valencia and Tarragonal railway, 
see Route 14. 

Rail from Sagunto to Castellon, past tlic follow- 
ing stations, ChUclies, Noles, Bnrrlana, 

Vlllareal. in about li hour. 

' Population (1887), 23,204. Buffet. 

Hotels.— Parador del Leon ; Fonda del Ferro 

The ancient Ccutdlia, a flourishing town, capital 
of the province of the same name, on the high road 
to Barcelona. It is situated in a fine plain (whence 
its distinguishing adjunct), is enclosed by walls, 
and is well built. It has brandy distilleries, and 
an active commerce. 

SiglltB — Several churches ; one of which, called 
the Parroquia, contains good paintings by Ribalta, 
Carlo Maratta, Zurbarau (?), Ac. 

Torre de las Campanas, a remarkable tower, 260 
feet high. 

Aqueduct from the Mijaros river, 5 miles south 
of the town, by which the surrounding country is 
well watered. 

ConyeyancOB.- -Rail to Valencia (43 miles) 

There is no direct road hence to Terucl. If 
desirous of proceeding thence, the traveller would 
do well to make for Murviedro, and take the high 
road through Segorbo (see p. 90). 

The road to Pefiiscola passes Oropesa, Torre 
Blanca, and Alcala. 

Distance : Castellon is 4 miles from the Mediter- 
ranean, 40 north-north-east of Valencia, and 5 
north-north-east of Villa Real, a town enclosed by 
ruined walls. 

Excursions are made to Pella Qolosa, Las Santas, 
La Cueva Santa, and the Beniardine convent of 

Kailway.— To Tarragona, past the stations of 

Uldeoona, Ventallas, Tortosa,and Amposta. 

. The road from Castellon to Tortosa runs near 
the fta coast, past O rnn a— T orre Blanco (Srat.). 

[Section 1. 

AlcaU (Stat.), Santa Magdalena, Benlearlo (SUt.), 
Vinardz, and Amposta. 

OROPESA (Stat.) 
(Population, 300) lies 18 miles north-east of Cas- 
tellon, on the Mediterranean. It is situated upon a 
hill, in the vicinity of the cape to which it gives 
name. In the Moorish occupation it was an im- 
portant point. In 1811, at the time of the War of 
Independence, the French besieged the Castle, 
which commands the route to Catalonia. It was 
defended by 250 men, and armed with four cannons. 
It was taken by Suchct on the 11th October, 1811. 
Near the town are the remains of a Roman arch. 
There is another place of this name (see p. 82). 


(Population, 2,842), which is to the right of the line, 
between Santa Magdalena and Benicarld, is a 
fortified town. It is perched upon a rock rising 
240 feet above the Mediterranean, and is connected 
with the mainland by only a narrow slip of land 
often covered with water, whence its name, signify- 
ing a peninsula. 

(Population, 7,922) is a seaport, 42 miles north-east 
of Castellon. It is ill built, and mean; has a mined 
castle, a fishing port, and a trade in full-bodied 
wines, which arc exported chiefly to Bordeaux, for 
mixing with French wines. The place was taken 
by Cabrera in 1833. 

VINABOZ (Stat.) 
(Population, 9,528) is 46 miles north-east of Castel- 
lon, near the mouth of the Ebro, and close to the 
Mediterranean. It is an ancient place, and is partly 
enclosed by ruine.l walls. It is ill-built, but has a 
fine parish church, a hospital, and a ship-building 
yard. It has a coasting trade, and its inhabitants 
are principally engaged in fishing and ag^cultnre. 
The Due de Vendume died here of apoplexy in 1742, 
and his remains were removed to the Escorial by 
Philip V. 

The distance from Vinardz to San Carlos de la 
lUpita is 11 miles. On leaving Vinaruz the little 
river Scrvol is forded, and a few miles further on 
is seen a square tower which shows the boundary 
between the ancient kingdom of Valencia and the 
province of Catalonia. The boundary which runt 
.north-east is formed by the river Cenia, wkleli ii 

Boate 18.j 



eroiMd by a fine bridge of one «rch, built in the 
time of Charles lY. 

Ton now enter Catalonia, the route running along 
the sea coast. San CarloB de la Bdpita is a 

small town of about 1,00 J inhabitants, with houses 
of regular construction, but Tery low, forming a 
street of great width. The canalisation of the Ebro 
and the port of los Alfaquis (».«. of the sand-banks 
which form its mouth), at the end of which San 
Carlos is built, would give a great importance to 
the town. San Carlos is in communication with 
the Ebro by a canal recently rendered narigable, 
and which strikes off in a right line towards the 
river, which it joins at 5 miles to the north, 
near Amposta. By means of this canal the navi- 
gation avoids the mouths of the Ebro, which are 
obstructed with sand-banks, and impracticable. 

The distance from San Carlos to Amposta is 5 

AMPOSTA (Stat.) 

(Population, 1,800) is a town in the province of 
Tarragona, on the right bank of the Ebro, and is 47 
miles from Tarragona, in a south-south-westerly 
direction. Itis atpresentan unimportant place, but 
is likely to rise in importance by the canalisation 
of the BlTer Ebro. This river rises a few miles 
to the west of Reyftosa, flows generally south-east, 
past Frias, Mlranda-de-Ebro, LogrroAo, Calahorra, 
Tudela, Saragossa, Mequinaza, Tortosa, and Am- 
posta, and enters the Mediterranean in lat. 40* 42^, 
long. 0* SO' E., after a coarse of 310 miles. It is 
navigable from Tudela; but its navigation is very 
difficult, on account of its grehi rapidity, and the 
rocks in Its bed. It is the Ibents or Hiberut of the 
ancients, and is said to have given its name to the 
district Iberia. Spanish wiseacres connect the 
name with Eber, the nephew of Shem, which is not 
so bad considering that Eber's son was Peleg, a 
name which may be traced to the same root as the 
Greek pelagos, the sea. Bochart derives the name 
from the Phoenician ibra^ a boundary, it having 
formed a boundary between the Iberians and Celts, 
and the Carthaginians and Romans. Others, again, 
trace the name to the Basq, ihai-tro, a foamy river ; 
or «r6«ro, a warm river. The name is really 
connected with the original root from which came 
tlic Greek vdor^ water, which took in Celtic the form 
of wr, eur, eure, and afterwards by change of u Into 

V takes the form of srer or iter, and by change of v 
into 6, finally becomes Eber or Iber. Compare 
Evreux, in Normandy, situated on the Eure (now 
the Iton), anciently called Ci vitas Eburovicomm, 
Ebroicorum, and Ebroicoe ; the river Evre, depart- 
ment Cher; Tverdun, in Switzerland, anciently 
Ebrodunum, on the lake of Neufchatel; York, 
anciently Eboracum, on the Eure ; and the river 
Bore in Norfolk. There are, indeed, perhaps 
a hundred European rivers whose names may h% 
traced to the same Celtic root. 

The distance from Amposta to PerellO Is 13 

M. De Lavlgne thus describes the route between 
Amposta and Perello:— "This river (the Ebro' is 
passed by a ferry-boat, not always without dlfll- 
cnlty, and traversing a wide nncultirated plain, 
often stony, tlie sea is gradually approached. 
Ascents and descents follow r ne another, and a 
high eminence is ascended, at the bottom of which, 
in a hollow surrounded by a doable range of 
mountains, 11. s Perello." 

To the left of Amposta, about a league off, Ilea 
TORTOSA (Stat.) 

Population, 24,057. It is the ancient Dertoia^ 
and is a town in the province of Tarrafonik 
It is situated on a hill slope on the left bank 
of the Ebro, which is here crossed by a bridif* 
of boats. It is fortified (m all sides; some portion 
of its walls are very ancient, and it is entered by 
seven gates. It was wrested from the Moors by 
Louis-le-D^bonnaire in 811, but was soon after re- 
covered by them. Eugenius III. proclaimed a 
crusade against it, and took it in 1148. The Moor*, 
in 1149, made a desperate effort to regain possession 
of it, but were defeated. It was taken by the 
French under the Duke of Orleans, on the Ifith 
July, 170S, and surrendered to Suchet on the 2nd 
November, 1811 ; and here, in 1836, Nogueras put 
to death the mother of Cabrera. It has an im- 
portant trade through its two ports. El Fangar and 
Los Alfaquis, at the mouth of the Ebro, as well as 
directly— the river being navigable by vessels of 
100 tons— in the wheat of Aragon ; timber from the 
Pyrenees, Aragon, and Catalonia; wine from 
Galera, Ac: oil, wool, alum, silk, kc. It haa 
'manufactures of earth»\w%xv ^%»^« ■vs^^ -^^s^^v 



•ad an actlre flibery, eipecUUy of storgeoni and 
lamprejs. Near the town are quarries of jasper, 
l^e railway connects it one way with Tarragona 
and Barcelona, and the other way with Castellon, 
ih continuation of the line to Valencia. 

Sllflltd.— Large Gothic cathedral, with Ionic 
facade, occupying the site of a mosque ; note the 
carvings, by Cristobal, the bas-reliefs and ancient 
pulpits; the Jaspers in the rcja del cora; the 
DMrhles; the relics; nndthetomb) tnthcOapiUa 
de Santa Candia. Church of San Juan, contain- 
ing, among other objects worthy of notice, a fine 
sepulchre of Bautista Veschi; numerous ottier 
churches and chapels, three nunneries, and six 
convents, now converted to secular purposes; El 
Colegio, a handsome college, founded in 1362; 
note the cloisters and medallions; theological 
school ; a school for the higher branches of educa- 
tion, besides numerous primary schools, and a 
Lioeo. La Barbacana, near the Puerta del Temple; 
a castle in ruins; Episcopal palace; Casa de Ayun- 
tamiento (Town hall) ; Palace of the Vail Cabra 
fflmily; Hospital for the sick; also a foundling 
ho^ital; Alhondiga or public granary; Aduana 
or custom-house; Plaxa de Toros; shambles, 
baths, and barrncks. 

• conveyances.— By road, to Tarragona, 
through Al PcrcUo, Ilospitalet, Cambrils, and 
Rous; by railway direct, past Amposta, Ampolla, 
Atmella, Hospltalet, Cjmbrils, and Salon. 

• Distances : Turtosa lies 52 miles south-west of 
Tarragona, and 22 miles from the mouth of the 
Kbro. Rail projected to S. Carlos de Rapita 
(page 119). 

• The road from Tortosa to Tarragona passes 
through Porcllo, Ac, as above. After leaving 
FwrellO (Population, 4,130), you traverse a charm- 
ing valley, well cultivated, and covered with 
tfeei; after which the winding road penetrates 
the mountain. '' Nothing is seen ail around," says 
M. de Laborde, ^'but abysses, which the eye 
measures with trembling; anon wo are, as it were, 
buried at the bottom of narrow and profound 
gorges, where only glimpses of the sicy, the rocks, 
lifid shrubs are obtained. The Vcnta del Plate ia 

^^ oji/jr /ioi/tfe at the hoglniiing of this mountain 
^1/s^ soon s/ter which Mother high mom^til^ if 

[Seetion 1< 

teen, whieh miut also ba croiaed. Tha 
of the road has been modified by ■MildBg' maaj 
detours ; parapets and stone walls afford secnrltj 
against accidentsw This pass is named the Cdl dfl^ 
Balagner.'' This pass was formerly a notorions 
haunt for robbers. From the Col the road descends, 
and after threading a ravine, arrives at Hofpir 
talet (Stat.), originating in a sort of hostelry, 
not far from the sea coast. This is an old 
Gothic-like building flanked with towers, and 
was founded by a prince of the house of Aragon, 
as a refuge for travellers passing over the moan- 
tain. The country is now lined with vines, ollvee, 
almond trees, carabs, and mulberry trees. The 
wines made hereabouts possess a rich colour, and 
are in good esteem. After traversing another 
ravine, Cambrils is reached. The distance from 
Hospltalet is about 7 miles. 


(Population, 2,480) lies 8 miles south-west of 
Tarragona, at the entrance of the celebratad 
Campo de Tarragtma, which abounds in beauty 
and fertility. The steeple of the church is a square 
tower pierced with loop-holes. The inhabitanta 
are principally vine-dressers and sailors. Cambrils 
was Uken by Philip V., in 1711. Shortly after 
leaving CUimbrils the small port of Salon is seen to 
the right, upon a headland jutting out into the 

The distance from Cambrils to Villaseca (a 
station on the line to Lerida) is h miles. The 
view over the Campo de Tarragona is here very 
grand, with its vines, gardens, and fruit trees. 

Distance by rail from Villaseca to Tarl^agona It 
h miles. The high road is disagreeable, hefng 
flooded in the rainy season, and in the dry season 
the wheel ruts being hidden by the dust. The 
river Francoli is crossed by a bridge of six arches, 
after which the road ascends a rocky ominenee, 
at the summit of which the town is entered by 
the modem gate of San Carlos. 


Population (1887), 28,0i6. 

Hotels.— Fonda de Paris; Europa. 

Tarragona, the ancient ron'ooo, is a seaport city, 
and is capital of the province of its name. It ia 
said to hi^xe beeu ta9Kfti^>d'9 \.\i«'(\iq^«\R.\»aQ^v^VA 

Route 18.] 



Cftlled it Tarchon, which Bochart interprets as 
meaning "Citadel." It is sltoated on a lofty 
rock of limestone, nearly 800 feet high, at the 
mouth of the Francoli, in the Mediterranean. 
It occupies only a small portion of its ancient 
site. The hill upon which it is situated slopes 
down to the east to the borders of the river 
Francoli, which waters the beautiful Campo 
de Tarragona. It is entered by six gates, three 
of which are of very ancient origin. The town 
ia divided into the high and low town, which 
arc completely separated by a line of ancient walls. 
A great number of the houses in the upper town 
arc constructed out of the debris of Roman tem- 
ples and palaces ; the lower town is the modern 
city, in which arc the port, the rising establish- 
ments of commerce and industry, and a great many 
elegant houses, with fafades painted in fresco. 

Tlio streets of the old town are irregrular, narrow, 
and badly paved ; the quarter in which the Calle 
Mayor is situated is a little animated. The only 
remarkable artery is the Ramhlct^ which is about 
625 yards in length, and 20 in breadth, and tra- 
verses the town from the north-east to the south- 
east, from the Puerta de San Francisco, to the 
Puerta de Santa Clara. It forms in the centre a 
sort of elevated terrace, provided with seats, on 
botli sides of which runs the public way. In the 
high part of the Rambla arc many wooden houses, 
built upon the part of the rampart recently des- 
troyed. The Plaza de la Constitucion has been 
opened upon the site of the ancient Roman circus. 
A Hue promenade, planted with acacias, elms, and 
plantains encircles the ramparts; from the upper 
part of this promenade may be had a fine view 
over the city ; but that from the rampart of Oliva 
is still grander. Tlie town is defended by two 
c^stics. Its manufactures consist of coarse cloth 
and hats, barrels, spirits, and soap; and it has a 
considerable export trade in Barcelona nuts, al- 
njonds, wine, brandy, and cork though its harbour 
is only accessible to small coasting vessels. Tar- 
raco is considered to have been an important place 
in tlic time of the Romans. It was occupied by tlie 
Scipios, and was afterwards taken by the Goths, 
ix'ho made it their capital. It was subsequently 
destroyed by the Moors, and remained uninhabited 
for several 
horouffh iu ttie 

Towards the end of April, 1811, Suchet marched 
upon Tarragona, and on the 4th May the invest- 
ment was completed to the sea. Its defence be- 
came more obstinate as the attack advanced, for, 
being open by sea, it was able to receive succours 
by means of the English fleet on the coast. On the 
ICth June, the capture of an outwork gave access 
to the interior of the lower town. On the 2l8t a 
furious assault was made, and, after much blood- 
shed on both sides, the lower town and its depen- 
dencies were put into the power of the French. 
Although scarcely any hopes now remained for an 
effectual resistance, the garrison still held out, and 
determined to await a final assault. This was 
given on the afternoon of the 28th, when a practic- 
able breach being made, the assailants rushed in 
and almost immediately carried the town. 

Suchet, in his former despatch, had expressed his 
apprehension of being obliged " to set a terrible 
example, and intimidate for ever Catalonia and 
Spain, by the destruction of a whole city." He too 
well verified his menace ; he thus relates the catas- 
trophe. " The fury of the soldiers was increased 
by the resistance of the garrison, who every moment 
expected its deliverance, and thought to secure suc- 
cess by a general sortie. The fifth assault, still 
more vigorous than the preceding, made j-csterday 
in broad day, on the fortification, has occasioned a 
horrible massacre, but with little loss on our side. 
The terrible example which I foresaw, with regret, 
in my last report to your highness has taken 
place, and will for a long time be recollected in 
Spain ; 4,000 men have been killed in the city; from 
10,000 to 12,000 more endeavoured to make their 
escape over the walls into the country; 1,000 have 
been sabred or drowned ; nearly 10,000, of whom 
600 are officers, have been made prisoners, and 
are setting off for France; nearly 1,000 wounded 
are in the hospitals of the city, where their 
lives were respected in the midst of the caiTiage. 
Three field-marshals and the governor are among 
the prisoners; many others among the slain." 
Further particulars of this day of horror are given 
in a letter from Capt. Codrington, of H.M.S. Blake, 
to Sir C. Cotton. He describes the panic that 
prevailed on the entrance of the French. " TK<i«A. 
already without \.^si >?«ia;^-9>^ -sXxVjj^^^ "*«^^ ^sssS^'sa:"*- 

centuries. It was captured by Peter- \ oure^L \.o a^Vco. Vq xXv^ ^\\i^w\^^ ^^^^'*'^^^S^ 



[Section 1, 

each party 4ka» eqaally endangering^ their llres 
more than they wonlfl Inire done by a firm resist- 
ance to the enemy. A large mass of peop le, -Mine 
with muskets, and some without, then pressed for- 
ward along the road, suffering themselves to be 
fired upon by about twenty French, who continued 
running beside them at only a few yards distance. 
At length they were stopped entirely by a volley 
of fire, by one small party of the enemy, who had 
entrenched themselves at a turn of the road, sup- 
ported by a second a little higher up, who opened a 
masked battery of a few field pieces. A horrid 
butchery then ensued; and shortly after, the 
remainder of these poor wretches, amounting to 
above S,000, tamely submitted to be led away 
prisoners, by less than as many hundred French. 
The launches and gun-boats went from the ships 
the Instant the enemy were observed to be collect- 
ing In their trenches ; and yet, so rapid was their 
success, that the whole was over before we could 
open our fire with effect. All the boats of the 
squadron and transports were sent to assist those 
who were swimming or concealed under the rocks; 
and notwithstanding a heavy fire of musketry and 
field-pieces, which was warmly and successfully 
returned by the launches and gun-boats, from 500 
to 600 were thus brought off to the shipping, many 
of them badly wounded." 

Captain Codring^on further mentions, that the 
governor, Gonzales, with a handful of men, defended 
himself to the last, and was bayoneted to death in 
the square, near his house; that man, woman, and 
child, were put to the sword upon the first entrance 
of the French, and afterwards all those found in 
uniform, or with arms in their houses ; and that 
the females underwent the most brutal violation. 
A thousand men were left to destroy the works, 
and the whole city was set on fire. Thus Tarragona 
fell, leaving to the French army a triumph that 
perhaps more than compensated all their failures 
in other quarters. It put the whole coast of Cata- 
lonia in their possession, and enabled them to carry 
on their designs against the provinces to the south- 
ward without apprehension of any considerable 
force remaining behind to check their movements. 
The citadel was again besieged in 1813, by Sir John 
3Jnrrj>j% nnder the orders of the Duke of Wellington, 
frAai // mts defended by Bertolletti with only 
V^nwmeit, s^4laaUd,ifO0e/roctire troops. On the 


8rd of June, Murray completed the investment of 
the place, but on the 11th, when about to storm the 
place, upon some rumour of the approach of Snchet, 
count e r nia n^efl M« orden, aiMllMd 'ttie aTtmery 
and stores drawn to the beach for embarkation ; 
instead, however, of conveying the guns on board, 
he spiked them, and made a precipitate retreat 
with his men to the ships. At the termination of 
the war he was tried In England by a court-martial, 
and being convicted on one charge, was severely 
reprimanded. Suchet, however. In the Augrnst 
following blew up the fortifications, and evacuated 
the place, in order to proceed to the relief of Soult. 

Tarragona is a good place for invalids, and hat 
a thriving trade In red wine with England. The 
wine coopers made a cask for King Amadeo at hit 
visit, 1871. 

SiglXtS.— Cathedral, early Gothic, of the llth- 
12th centuries, the interior of which is very richly 
adorned; note the Gothic facade, the baptis- 
mal font; the windows in the transept; the 
ancient tombs; the Sillerla del Coro, carved by 
Gomez; the Capilla del Sacramento; the Capilla 
del Corpus ChristI ; the paintings, sculptures, and 
bronzes; the Flemish tapestry, and the fine cloister. 
There are Roman and Moorish remains in the 
chapter-house and cloister. 

San Pablo, a very ancient church, Noniuin 

Santa Tecla, a church of the twelfth century. 

Archiepiscopal Palace, quite modem, and occupy- 
ing the sight of the ancient capitol. 

Cuartel del Patriarca, or quarter of the Patriarch. 

Hospitals, seminary, academies of design and 
naval architecture, and a theatre. 

Many remains of its walls. Between the Puerta 
del Rosario and the Puerta del Socorro especially, 
may be seen the most remarkable part of these 
constructions, formed of enormous layers of rocks. 
The superstructure is thought to bo Roman, the 
basement Celtic or Carthaginian. A Roman 
aqueduct, 876 feet in length, and some vestiges of 
a circus and an amphitheatre. The ramparts. For 
works on Tarragona, see Tanxigona Monumental, 
by Arhonara; Orandezcu de Tarrngona, or Luyt 
Pons de Vcart Urida, 1572-73; Diccionario Oeogra- 
fico de Barcelona; Die. Oeog., «&<:., par D. Pateual 
.M<tdoz, 16 vols.y ito.y Madrid; and Sottthey'i Penin- 

Roate 18.] 



Ctonvoyances.— Rail to Saragossa, via Reus, 
Montblanch, Borja^ and Lerida. To Barcelona; 
and also to Tortosa, Castellon, and Valencia. 

Distance : 63 miles west-south-west of Barcelona. 
In 1878, the train to Barcelona was robbed by 

Ezcnnlons are made to the Roman Aqueduct, 
Hire • miles on the road to Lerida, the Torre de los 
Escipione^ Reus, Pablet, and Vails. 

The Torre de los EsdpioneS is a Roman 
Kcpulchrc, situated at about a leagnie from Tarra- 
gona, on the sea coast. The tourist should not fail 
to rinit it. A conveyance may be obtained 
at the hotel, the time required will bo about 
1| hour. M. de Larigne says, *' Tradition asserts 
without much foundation, that this monument 
tncloscs the remains of the Scipios. It is 
sqiiaro, of two storeys resting on a base constructed 
of lirge ronjrhly dressed stones, without any 
o-nam''nt, and 2rt feet high. On the side towards 
the sen are two figures, in an attitude of gr!ef ; 
b'twecn them there was formerly a marble slab, 
which is said to hare been talccn away by 
Cardinal Cisneros. Two Cartouches above the 
st itnes bore an inscription, now defaced, the sense 
of which can no longer be deciphered. From the 
position which this tower occupies, the view is 
magnificent, at foot winds the road, ha'f-way 
down the strand; and below, beyond a bend 
formed by the coast the town of Tarragona, f of 
0n hour distant, stands out boldly on a hill." 

Rail to Lerida (see route 7) 64 miles, passing 
through Villaseca, Reus, Plana-Picamoixons 
(rail to Barcelona), Boxjas, Ac. 
REUS (Stat.) 

Population (1887), 27,695. 

Hotels. — Several good ones ; also some caf^s. 

It consists of an old and a new town. The more 
ancient one was founded in the twelfth century ; 
the modem to^vn, which is well built, sprung up 
abont the end of the last century, in consequence 
of the settlement here of some English merchants. 
The place is connected by a canal with its port 
Salon, which is distant 5 miles. Rous is a busy 
place, and has manufactures of silk, cotton, linen 
fabrics, twist, leather, glass, soap, spirits, Ac. It 
has a weekly market, held on Monday. The place 
surrendered to the French in 1808. Marshal Prim, 
mbo vruB MSiasBittHted 1870, was Count of Reus. 

Sights —Numerous churches and hospitals, bar- 
racks, and a theatre. San Pedro, an elevation, 
conunanding a fine view. The market (mercado) ; 
the boulevard called Arrabal, formerly a suburb. 

Ballway.— To Barcelona, by way of Roda, 

Vendrell, Vlllafranca, Martoreli Ac. 

This line has been continued from Reus to 

Mora, FayoD, Gaspe, Pina, and Saragosia, 

forming direct communication between Barcelona 
and Saragossa in 7| hours. 

The road to Barcelona runs through Vendrell, 
Arbas, and Vlllafranca. The distance is alK>ut 14 
leagues. Some picturesque scenery is to be met 
with, especially in the vicinity of Villnfrnnca, and 
there are also some Roman remains, the Portal do 
Barra, n well built arch, t^ hi ch formerly ^oro an 
inscription stating to whom it was dodictted, 
Lucius Licin^us F. S. rgins Sura. 


(Popnl.ntlon, 5,291), the ancient Pa'furiana, Is a 
town In the province, and 17 miles north-east of 
Tarragona, near the Mcd»tcrrancan,on which it has 
a small fort. There is a fine view from the belfry 
of the parish church. The distance from Vendrell 
to Vlllafranca Is 3 leagues. 

VILLAFRANGA (Stat), or Vlllafranca dels 


Population, 6,981. 
HoteL— Parador Nuevo. 

It Is situated In the province and 27 miles north- 
cast of Tarragona. It Is enclosed by walls, and 
has some very old palaces of the royal famllv of 
Aragfon, Ac. The neighbourhood Is very fertile. 
The place Is said to have been the earliest settle- 
ment of the Carthaginians In this part of Spain. 
It has a fine parish church, with a lofty bdfry, 
crowned by a bronze angel; and a charming 

The distance from Vlllafranca to Barcelona Is 
S3 nr. lies. 

After loving Vlllafranca, the road ascends to 
Coll dc Onial (whence Barcelona Is visible), where 
the splendid bridge of Llandoncr Is cart^*.*. •*!««»». 



[Section 1. 


Population, 4,821. Posada. 

Martorell is situated on the Llobregat^ over 
irhich there is a bridge, said to have been built by 
Hannibal, the centre arch of which is 133 feet 
wide, and of Moorish origin. It is called by the 
people "the Devil's bridge." There is also a tri- 
umphal arch of Roman construction. 

MoUafl dtf Bey (8tat.), situated on the Llob- 
r«gat (Att6riea/a*),and surrounded by hills covered 
with Tines. It was sacked by the French in 1808. 

The rail from Molins del Key to Barcelona (10 
miles) takes about half-an-hour. 

BARCELONA (See Boute 7). 
Hence by rail to Gerona, by way of Matartf, 
Arenys, Ac. 

' From Barcelona to Matard, a distance of 13f 
miles, the rail takes about an hour. 

MATARO (Stat.) 

Population, 17,405. 

Hotel.— Posada de las Diligencias; also some 
other good posadas. 

Matard, the lUuro of the ancients, is a seaport 
town in the province of Barcelona. It is situated 
at tlic extremity of a small fertile plain, and con- 
sists of an old and a new town. The ancient town, 
built upon an eminence, still preserves its precinct, 
its gates, and its narrow streets, common to old 
southern towns. The new town slopes down to the 
sea: its streets are large and straight, its honses 
ele;i^ant, and mostly decorated with frescoes. 
The Plaza dc la Constitucion Is a large square of 
regular construction. It is a thriving town, and 
has manufactures of leather, velvets, cotton, silks, 
and ribbons, and there are docks in which ship- 
building is actively carried on. It was sacked by 
the French in 1808. 

SiglltS. — A fine parochial church, with some 
fine pictures of the Passion by Villdomat, and 
some good wood carving. 

San Miguel, an ancient church. 

Casa de Ayuntamicnto (Town Ilall); a college; 
a good hospital; a school of navigation; hermitage 
of S. Matcu; a Moorish tower, called Barriach. 
Tiiere is also a beautiful modem theatre; a fine 
railway station; and several beautiful fountains. 
<^iifVjrMllcas.—The r»il to Barcelona was the 
^rff made Jji SpaJn, and WM8 opened mif October^ 

1848. The coach road to Barcelona nms by Bad*- 
lona, following the rail; that to Gerona runs by 
S. Pol, Tordera, and Granota, also following tha 

Distance: 17^ miles north-east of Barcelona. 

At a short distance from the town are the Baths 
of Argentona, the waters of which are carbon- 
ated, and efficacious in nervous complaints. 

From Matard to Arenys de Mar the train takes 
about 20 minutes. The line first passes the 
faubourg of Habana, then traverses a bridge over, 
the dried-up torrent of San Simon; then the 
town of 

Mala, an annex of Mataro, is passed, after which 
you sight the ruins of the ancient Castle of Nof re 
Arf au, of which only a tower remains. The line 
then crosses a stone bridge over the little river 
Llevaneras, which gives name to two villages, 

San Vicente and San Andres de Lleva- 

neras, situated at a short distance to the west. 
Previous to arriving at Caldetas, upon the heights 
which border the sea-shore, are sererol charm- 
ing country-houses, in the centre of which jises 
an old tower, the last vestige of the ancient 
Castle of Rocaberti, celebrated in the Chrtmides 
of Catalonia. Most of the dwellings hereabouts 
were formerly on the sea-shore, and their 
inhabitants have been frequently, down to the 
beginning of the present century even, victims to 
those acts of piracy which were of such common 
occurrence on the tracts bordering the Mediterra- 
nean. The houses were pillaged and burnt, and 
the inhabitants sent into slavery to Algiers or to 
Tunis. In later times the houses have been rebuilt 
for greater security, at a distance from the shore. 
You next arrive at Caldetai (Stat.) or Caldas de 
Estrachs, a small place of 700 inhabitants, standing' 
in a very picturesque position upon the hills, and 
divided into two parts, called Caldetas de Mar, and 
Caldctas dc Arriba. It is renowned for its thermal 
waters, which have similar properties to those of 

After leaving Caldctas, to the left, upon an 
isolated height, in a wild country, is seen a fine 
crenelated tower, preceded by some fortifications, 
and called Torre de los Encantados (the tower of the 
haunted). The line then crosses the little rirer of 
Caldetas at its mouth. Between Caldetas and 
Arenas, tl^e raU p&tw^»\,Vvto^^Vv «k Vv<wu%\*^%<^%x^ 

we.t-nonh-wsft. It doet no(, howiwtr, lie in (He 
line KtrnlKht tins, bnt nHherconiMa of Ino Una, 
■rhich [arm pirkllel rldgra sbout IB mllei duisnt 

lonii. Ill tho pMviiioo mid 26 mUes north-east of 

>t rifhl angle, to lhop^LncipaLaIl^a^li 
rapidly u Ihcy reciulo fron II, Icmlne 
IranBverw, but very (uw luiigitnAiniil 

In Kgaril to tho Enropsiin 

Uma ol Cii«te« III„ the title of Hoyal Nantical 
Sehoid. llhuiomeminDfaFloroio! cotton, illk, 
luce, ana tHHleiy. The ehief eiporta ire nine, 
timber, and chareool, 8«e the BalliE of Argon- 

The high road lo Oerona psirns CaleTla, Tordeni, 

OalfllU IStat.) liei ao mllct north-eaBt of 

Ciaetia. At Torftera (Stat;) there ii i good 

(*.'., a. 

JL (Bonto 

open (o Perplgnan, 

E.OTTTB le. 


than !,0[H) feet. To Ihewest theheig-htdlmlnlshM 
moch more gmdnall)', and many peoit tiiVi 
belf kti varying from 6,1X111 to 7,00D feet, and evM 

principal VOIIIltaiIlB^-LaMaladetu.or Plcdg 
NiithDu or N^ton, ll.UO! Pic Pojeti, 11,0«: Mont 
Perdu, 10,19S; Pic de VlgnemaK, 10,8a)! Ho da 
Caeoade, 10.7*6: Monlcalm, JO.BSS; Pic dea Eitatt, 
10,011; CarbloDle9,ia,SUiTraiiniooBe,10,«M! Plu 
de Soobe. 10,170; Pic de NrfooTllla, 10,145; Pic da 
Serre. »,840! Pic dn Midi de Blgorre, S,U1; Pte 
Pedrone.9,6ni »nilLeCanlgon,»,l*l, Inlhehlrte* 


10 Alpi. The aisdan 

AlhouBb the chain thns define 

to tlia veat It li obrloiuly ci 
nortb ol Spain hy tbc Cant 
The dlraclion of tba cbsln li 




[Section 1. 

th« moRt part on the northern monntulnt. The 
principal are thoee of Maladetta, Carbioulos, Mont 
Perdu, Ilrbche do Roland, Vigmemale, and N^on- 
viUe, which take thoir names from the peaks or 
depressiuns adjacent. 

All the flrroat Valleys of the Pyrenees are 
transverse. The hond of the valley is usually at 
a "col" or a "port," and the valley extends 20, 80, 
or even 40 miles towards the north or south, 
bounded by the lateral branches of the mountains. 
The larffost valleys, as that of the Garonne, and 
the vailey of Lafvedan, which is watered by the 
(Uve de Pau, are near the centre of the great range. 
There are some valleys which have their direction 
parallel to the principal range, and though not 
equal in extent to the transverse valleys, are nearly 
SO miles in length. Sometimes the mouth or opening 
of the valley into the plain is open or broad; in 
other cases the valleys have narrow entrances. 

Many valleys of the Pyrenees, instead of a rapid 
and narrow dcfllo, or of a series of little basins of 
greater or less extent, rising by degrees to the 
height of the chain, present at their origin a single 
basin, surrounded on three sides by lofty walls of 
rook, and open on the fourth side, whence extends 
a continuation of the valley. The wall of rock 
enclosing these basins is of ton of a surprisingheight. 
The top is commonly formed by a steep shelving, 
whence rises another tier of walls, which attain 
the crest of the mountain. This regular arrange 
ment of the steep rocks gives the basin the 
appearance of an amphitheatre or cirque by which 
name they are generally called. 

These Amphitheatres constitute the grandest 
and most distinctive feature of the Pyrenees. The 
inhabitants of the mountains call them oule or 
houle, which, in their patoi.«, signifies pot or bowl, 
and is derived from the Latin c^la. The celebrated 
"oule de Gavamie," at the origin of the valley of 
Barbges,isthemost beautiful of these amphitheatres. 
It is not the largest of the cirques of the Pyreness, 
but it is the one of which the walls are the loftiest 
and most perfect. The cirque of Troumouse, at 
the head of the valley of Hdaz, is larger 
than the oule of Gavamie, but not so deep. 
Another cirque at the commencement of the 
▼allej of Estavbtf, is smaller and more broken. 
-^ /Ae apper part of the r»JJexi, where these 
/'^'^^Mnmcrefrequmt smd more perfect In their 

lonn, they often contain lakes. These lakes are 
numetins on the French or northern side of the 
mountains; «n the Spanish or southern side they 
are seldom seen. Some of the n are in very elevated 
sites. Malte-Brun ensmerates eight which are at 
an elevation of above 2,00e metres (3:6,557 English 
feet;. When at such elevation at to be surrounded 
with glaciers, they are commonly tnrnm. The lake 
at the "port" of Oo (elevation 8,800 feet) t^covered 
with ice all the year round; the lake of Moot 
Perdu (8,898 feet), and the lakes of Estoon and 
Soubiran, in the valley of Cauterets, are covered 
with ice until the end of August. The most elevated 
lake given by Malte-Brun, is that of the Pic du 
Midi (8,818 feet). 

The basins described, seldom, if ever, exceed 8 
miles in length by 3 or 4 in breadth. They are 
always at the point of Junction of several valleys 
or gorges, and their extent bears a proportion to 
the number of valleys or gorges which open into 
them. They are found also in the elbows formed 
by the alteration in the direction of a valley. Their 
soil is alluvial, and often marshy, or composed of 
peat. The manner in which the streams that water 
them break away through deep and narrow gorges 
is aproof that they have been anciently the bods 
of lakes, the water of which has been drained off 
by bursting through the rocky barrier by which 
they were surrounded. The line of perpetual con- 
gelation in the Pyrenees appears not to have been 
ascertained. Ramond fixed it at from 1,850 to 1,400 
toises (8,600 to 9,000 English feet), but on some 
mountains, as on the Pic du Midi of Bigorre, which 
exceeds this limit (9,544 feet), the snow melts in 
August. Malte-Brun gives the line of perpetual 
congelation at 2,826 metres (=9,266 feet) on the 
northern slopes, and 2,534 mbtres (=8,308 feet) on 
the southern. 

Like the Alps, the Pyrenees present a surprising 
variety of climates and productions, and the same 
rapid transitions from sterility to luxuriant vegeta- 
tion : from the barren rock, to the verdant slope 
or smiling valley. It is warmer at the extremities, 
because of the inferior height of the mountains 
and the proximity of the sea; this is especially the 
case at the eastern extremity, where the olive grows 
luxuriantly. The winters are short, and in the 
lower valleys snow rarely lies more than a day or 
two. In the upv^t tsSVe^%> VYv« <^\VBDkKV« \% \sa\^ 

Route 19.J 



rigorous. The pine and the fir, the box. rhododen- 
dron, the alpine rose, and a variety of other trees 
and shrubs gn^ow on the sides. The summers are 
very warm, and vegetation in all the valleys is 
very luxuriant. Thunder storms are very frequent, 
and are accompanied by rain, which cools the air 

Numerous Rivers rise on both sides of the 
Pyrenees. Those on the southern side, except a 
few near the eastern extremity, flow into the Ebro. 
The Arga, which passes Pampeluna; the Iratic, 
the Esca, and several others fall into the Aragon, 
which flows into the Ebro between Calahorra and 
Tudela. The Gallego, after receiving numerous 
mountain streams, joins the Ebro below Saragossa. 
The Cinca and the Segre, which unite and flow 
into the Ebro near Mequincnza, receive all the 
drainage of the southern slope from the neighbour- 
hood of the Bareges to that of Mont Louis; several 
of the tributaries of these rivers, as the Ara, the 
Essera, the Nogucra, the Ribagorsama, and the 
Noguera Pailleressa, are considerable streams. 
The Cardonner, the Fluvia, the Ter, and some 
others near the eastern extremity, flow immediately 
into the Mediterranean. The waters of the northern 
slope, near the western extremity, chiefly flow into 
the Adour. The Bidassoa, indeed, flows directly 
into the Bay of Biscay, but it is an inconsiderable 
stream, and would be of no importance but from 
the accidental circumstance of its forming the 
boundary between France and Spain. The Adour 
rises in the valley of Campan above Bagu^res de 
Bigorre, and all the streams to the westward, as 
far as the Nive and the Hourepeleco, which rises 
in the neighbourhood of St. Jean-Pied-de-Port, 
fail into it. 

Eastward, from the source of the Adour, to the 
source of the Arribgc, in the valley of Carrol, near 
the town of Ax, the waters all fall into the Garonne. 
Tlie latter river rises at the head of the valley of 
Aran, at the point where the tvro portions of the 
principal range of mountains approach each other. 
Mont Maladctta orMaudit is situated on the south 
side of this valley. The Spanish river Nogucra 
Piiilleressa rises very near the source of the 
Garonne, and flows in the opposite direction. Tlie 
streams eastward of the Arri^ge fall into the Aude, 
Wbich vTJters Carcassone, except the Tech, the TJet, 

and the Gly, which fall immediately into the 

All the principal geological RockB are to be 
found in the Pyrenees; but they occur in very 
unequal quantities. The extent of primitive matter 
is remarkably small, but peculiar in its arrange- 
ment; its composition is extremely simple; the 
principal formations are granite, micaceous schist, 
and primitive limestone. Transition rocks form 
the great bulk of these mountains. They are prin- 
cipally divided into argillaceous schist, schistous 
grauwacke, common grauwacke, and limestone. 
The secondary matter abounds less on the north 
versant than the transition; whereas, the contrary ' 
obtains on the southern face, being composed of 
three formations in particular; these are red sand- 
stone, alpine limestone, and Jura limestone, besides 
the secondary traps. These various kinds of 
mineral rocks are not arranged in isolated masses, 
but form cones or bands running in the main 
direction of the chain, so as to be parallel; the 
granitic matter forms but a single band, and 
resembles a suite of hills or protuberances, 
touching each other at their bases, and frequently 
connected by rocks of a more recent formation, 
which have filled up the gorges or intervals between 
them ; these protuberances follow nearly the same 
line of direction. Though tliis granitic chain ex- 
tends nearly the whole length of the Pyrenees, it 
only occasionally coincides with the crest or central 

In the eastern half of these mountains, it is 
invariably found at some distance to the north of 
the chain. In the valley of the Garonne, where 
the central chains enter to the south, the 
granitic chain makes a considerable bend ; 
the two chains hence occasionally mingle. The 
granite band along the western half of the 
Pyrenees is by no means so uniform in its direction 
as that on the eastern. Its protuberances may be 
traced sometimes to the north, and sometimes to 
the south of a line parallel to the central chain. 
The line that comes as near as possible to the 
direction which tliey follow is the granitic axis of 
Ramond. This axis has determined the dlrcctAf^^ 
and disposition of tVvis. ^\^v«<ivX Vixaa»sX'sc».^'<^a:t'=^^ 
out Vti^i M\vo\^i OEtfjJ«v. 'W'i >^vx5w ^"^^;^^^ 



[Section t. 

and its continaity is frequently Interrupted. Its 
thickness is small when compared with the breadth 
of the granite. The transition rocks are of an 
extraordinary bulk; one lies to the north, and the 
other to the south of the granitic chain, and both 
arc in a perfect and almost uninterrupted state. 
The one to the south constitutes the crest of the 
principal chain. The different kinds of rocks 
forming the transition matter are disposed in 
bands. The direction of all these bands, whether 
primitive or secondary, is governed by the direction 
of the granitic chain, not by that of the principal 
range. In accordance with the hypothesis that 
the granitic chain also influences the inclination 
of the strata, it is found that the inclination of the 
strata follows that of the declivity which supports 
them, at least in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the granite. As the rocks depart from the parent 
band, its influence in this respect manifestly 

A phenomenon, which has likewise excited much 
conjecture, is the great inclination of the strata 
and beds of the rocks of the Pyrenees. In most 
cases it exceeds 45 degrees, and nothing is more 
common than to find it above 60 or 80 degrees. 
This, of course, indicates that the strata have been 
upheaved after their formation. Another distin- 
guishing peculiarity is, that strata of the Pyrenees, 
far from presenting plane regular surfaces, suffer 
the most extraordinary inflections, both in the line 
of their direction and in their inclination. A sec- 
tion will show that they sometimes make angles in 
different directions, sometimes zigzags, and some- 
times the bed twists itself into a spiral form. 

ProdUCtionB.— The Flora of the Pyrenees com- 
prises the rhododendron, the alpine rose, and a large 
variety of plants, common to high elevations ; the 
principal forest trees are the box, fir, pine, and in 
lower situations, the deciduous oak. The Fauna 
comprises the izzard, a variety of the chamois of 
smaller size, and possessing rather less strength 
and agility than the chamois of the Alps. The bear 
and the wolf are also found ; but the former is not 
•0 ferocious as that of Switzerland. There is also 
a variety of birds, many of which are migratory. 
OI Metallic productions, iron has been found chiefly 
tamards emch end of tbe Pyrene^ irhJIe lead and 
^''^fiper pradoaUuMte in the ceatn. The preeioas 

metals, as well as cobalt and zinc, are likewise 
found; and the mining business Is likely to be 
much more productive when better understood ; "st 
present, the machinery and mode of working are 
extremely backward. The rural economy of the 
Pyrenees is very similar to that of Switzerland. 

The manners of the People are marked by that 
hospitality and primitive simplicity, which in all 
ages have been the distinctive features of sequestered 
societies. The shepherds have often winter habitaT- 
tions in the lower valleys, and a summer residence 
in the higher. There, as in the lower country, in 
this warm latitude, the productiveness of the soil 
depends on irrigation; and much ingenuity is dis- 
played in conducting the water of the springs by 
petty channels, from one patch of land to another. 
But the cattle are inferior to those of the Alps; 
cheese and butter are scanty, and the income of the 
shepherds is derived from the sale of young cattle 
of little value. Timber fit for ship building growi 
in great quantities on the ascent of these mountains. 
Pitch and tar are also abundant; but the great 
difficulty is in conveying them to the sea-side. 

There are numerous Mineral Springs, both 
cold and thermal, in the neighbourhood of the 
Pyrenees ; several of those on the French side are 
of considerable repute. Those of Bagn^res de 
Bigorre; Bagn^res de Luchon ; Bareges; St. Sau* 
veur, in the valley of Lavedan; Cauterets; Eaux 
Bonnes, in the valley of Ossau ; Kaux -Chaudes, 
in an adjacent valley; Ax, in the valley of the 
Arifege; Aleth, in that of the Aude, are much 
frequented by visitors. 

The Pyrenees on the French side are divided into 
Pyr^n^es-Basses, or Lower Pyrenees, of which the 
capital is Pau; Pyr^n^es-Hautes, or Uppcr- 
Pjrrenees, of which the capital is Tarbes; and 
Pyrtfn^es Orientales, or Eastern Pyrenees, of which 
the capital is Perpignan. The elevation of some of 
the towns and villages in the Pyrenees is as follows: 
— Bagnbrcs de Bigorre, 1,820 feet ; Barbges, 4,336 ; 
Luz, 2,400; Gavamie, 4,855; Tarbes, 990; Yenasque, 
8,829; Hospital of Venasque, 5,542; Bagnbres de 
Luchon, 2,018; Cauterets, 3,250; Mont Louis, 5,310; 
St. Beat, 1,748; Tarascon, 1,501 ; Foix, 1,316; BielsA 
(Aragon), 8,255; Baths of St. Sauveur. 3,503'; 

(AnifWiMiM*; 8iiuJiuD(AtiiB»ui), 3,839; H( 
or Boocluro (Aragon), 4,S»3; Tiella (Calal 
3.S6S: Laurie. J.SiC. 

Tho P;r«ice> «re eonnected with nunj In 
ui HUtorlcal ETtnti. Huntilbiil croiied 
on hl> -nij to Italy at tho bsffLnnlns of tho a 
Puiic nsr. nmst pnriubly by tho Pus at F 
or PorthaK, neat ttie oagt end. Jnllug Cbu 
tr«T6r«ed them wlthhlmrmy, whonmirchln 
Spain iigBlnBt Pampey. ChiTlemagnc urrl' 


tbe umpire of the Frmnki. Ed 
riiice led hl> amy over one ot thi 
Hben Aglillng In defence of Peler 

ol WelllDgloii, 
Tlie Pesco ol 


d Spain by Hutrin a 

(16J^)dec]Brad war a^Iiut Spain, and taken iCTcral 
■troiii? places In the Spanish EfethcTlandK. Spain 
atvognffercdby waand In America. Portnjnilhad 
rcoltod In 1G40, Cntilonin woi In tabollluN. and 
Andula^ diipQKd 10 InBurrectlon ^ indlnllalr. 
Batos bail seized Spanlih Lombaidy. Philip III^ 
King: of Spain, coiiicnted therefore to that peace 
which confirmed the ascendancj of Louii XTV. 

of Perplffnan.Cunflani,andapart of theCerdogne, 

le Nctherlandi, 

1 PVRBN&Eg. 
esperially) were left in Halt 
at thla peace, Lonis Xl^ 
flaof hter of Philip ly., who 

Ptrinia! In Oenuan 
by the Bbepherda, who 


ably f rot 

of the ' 

V. G. C. 


ravel laei, Li 
of Cond^ud 

tof Flandcia.ira!naiilt,ai 

iidrccy, Quoanoy, Thlonvlllc, Mont- 
inrg. Pbllllppetillo, 4c. The Prince 
(be pukeiDf Lomijie. SaToy. and ; 
»r Frinci! a Moatct (the two firit 

alU." Consult Eact- 
article, "Pyreneei." by the 
£hcik. Lond.; Till Popalar 
I Siegrapiarrri Dlrlimar^i 
leer, ! volai Fiyretyn Quar- 
-jinac, Anicie o; Charpcntlcr, Suai «b- fs 

uOaPfi-tHia FrancaiMa, Par. IIIS.StoIi. 
DkHonnairt O^ograpUgvt UmiwvttI, p^, 
Chansencqnc, La Pyrinrcii Pilauon, Bin. 
■iPgrrn^l. 2 vols.; Obm-Taliom <fe il. Ra- 
Par. 1789; rn^ie piUonmtm iau la Pfrt. 
ranniui el Touri <la<ii lei iep. mHaimu, 
Ion de 73 graTDrea par MeHlag, In lol. 

1837; Jfinano; UalU-Bnm: BoH*; JfcllaOi; and 
Diaieaariii Ocografrii BilaJUIici Hiftcria for 
Paicual Uador, IG rola., 4to., AJadrld, ISIS-fio. 

There arc no leas llmii aeroiity.fivc Fmiw Into 
3paln, ol which tweoty-olghl may be cra»ed on 

.retiiePaaacautColilePcrtuaajH) tn Petche in 
lieeaal.aod St. Jean Pied d* Port In (ba weal, 
rho latter Ucalicd the Paasof Illdasfoa (e,T?o ((,), 
md conducts from Bnyonoo to Irun and San i4«™», 
Ian thronnh Bgn£*1NV^«», ■■'Mx* -^jJik^s. -iix.- 



[Section 1. 

»ud enters Spain by way ot Gerona. The most 
important of those that can only be passed on 
horseback or on foot are r.rkJie de Roland, near 
Mont Perdu (10,995 ft.), and the Port deVenasqne. 
The former defile lies about 11 miles south of Luz, 
and forms a difiScult passage, from 200 to 300 feet in 
width, in a rocky wall from 300 to 600 feet high, 
surrounded by rocks, at an elevation of 9,500 feet 
aboYO the level of the sea. The latter, which is 
entered by way of Luchon, exhibits the finest 
view of the Maladetta, the highest peak of which, 
called Pic Nethou, is 11,170 feet above the level of 
tiie sea. Among the other Passes are those be- 
tween Eaux Chaudes or Cauterets and the baths 
of Panticosa ; from Pau to Campf ranc, by Oloron 
and the Val d' Aspc ; from Gavamie to Bnsaruelo, 
or Bucharo Hospice (4,695 f t.)i and Fanlo ; from the 
Val d' Aran ; and from Ax to the Val d' Andorra. 


lung.— Grand Hotel d'Angleterre ; de France; 
Continental des Bains; de Paix; de Paris; des 
Ambassadenrs. See Bradshatc's Hand-Book to 

Cauterets, 8,250 feet. 

Cauterets to Pont d'Espagne, in 2 hours ; thence 
to Panticosa by the Col de Marcadaou, in about 
9 hours. From Pont d'Espagne the road runs 
along the Gave de Marcadaou, leaving the lake of 
Ceratella on the left. The road is rough, and for 
some part of the descent to Panticosa there is no 
well defined track. Panticosa, 7,500 feet above 
sea, has an Inn and an Establishment des Bains, 
with sulphur and saline springs. 

From Panticosa to the Cauterets Baths is 

reckoned as follows: — 


Hard climbing 2 

Over swampy ground to foot of Col 1 

Ascent to frontier 1( 

Descent on French side | 

Do. to foot of Col 1 

Do. to Pont d'Espagne 1 

Do. to Cauterets 1^ 

Hours 8J 

Inag Motel Benudot; Hotel deFrant^. There 

are also several other hotels and many lodging- 
houses. See Bradshaw's ffemd-Book to France. 

The route to Panticosa is neither deep nor diffi- 
cult, and may be made on foot or horseback. It 
takes about 12 hours without reckoning stoppages. 
A guide costs 5 francs; each horse, 5 francs. It 
will be as v/ell to start at 5 a.m. The high road 
ceases at Gabas, about 2 hours from Eaux Chaudes. 
From Gabas a mule-path ascends to the Plateau of 
Bioux Artiques (about 2 hours), whence there is a 
superb view of the Pic du Midid'Ossau. From Gabas 
to the Casa de Brousette, which is the boundary 
between France and Spain, takes about 2 hours. 
There is a hospice, but the traveller had better 
provide himself beforehand. From the Casa over 
the Port d'An^ou to Salient in Spain, takes abont 
3 hours. The distance hence to the Baths of Pan- 
ticosa, is about 5 hours. The path ascends through 
the gorge of El Escular. The baths are situated 
in a valley (partly occupied by a lake) 8,300 feet 
above the level of the sea, and encircled by moun- 
tains. The inn has a good cuisine, and there is a 
table d'hote. 

From the village of Panticosa, Gavamie, Broto, 
or Torla may be reached by the Pass of Benedeta. 
It will take a good day, and a guide is desirable. 
From Panticosa there is a regular diligence ser- 
vice to Jaca, whence rail to Huesca (next page) 
and Saragossa. 

LUCHON, in France, to VENASQUE, in Spain - 
Bagnires de Luchon; accessible by rail from 

Bordeaux to Montr^jeau. 

Hotels.— Grande Hotel Bonne Maison; De 
Richelieu; du Pare; Sacaron; de France; 
d'Angleterre; dc la Postc; de Paris; Princes; 
Canton. Good lodgings are also to be had. 
In the height of the season 2 to 5 francs are 
paid for a small room and closet. Luchon 
has a Post-office, Telegraph, Casino, Baths, &c. 
Guides (only a few are reliable). Population, 3,829. 
See Bradshaw's Hand-Book to France. 

It will be advisable to take a guide and horse. 
The ascent to the Hospice de Bagn^res, which is 
the last dwelling in France, takes about 1| hour. 
Tlic Hospice affords but poor accommodation. The 
ascent lo the Pott d« VenaACtUQ^ which Is 7,917 
feet above \Y\c Aev<i\ oi Wi^ ^t,«i, \.«^k^^ »>ciW5X ^ 

Iloateld.] i-DciiOK, pif, 

hDun outre. The (ronKer Ig morkea by en Im 
eroH. The monnleln Hcn (rnm the Port la the P 

de N^ihou (HaladetU). wincii i> th« iiiirhen r 

pcLccs. Venaaqns er Benuqne (pnpuintion IfiW) 

o(ths»»,.ndl.BirK.Qndeilbyiieopr.y|n.^ It 
»tdihU U Bllea nortb-eaal of llueaca- It tiat a 
cuile,Trhle]iiru*an)ng;taDld of the middle >sei, 
iinJwaitiikanbrtbeFieDcbln 18]«. There ere 
■ereral pIctnniqDe old boiues onumented vllh 
Knlptared flgrureB, eofft > oT armf, ^.» jtnd 4 oortooe 

PoKuUtton, *.1I7. 


1, \» 8,IW 





de Fra 









Ac. aetSradiluiK 


Pan li beialllully eltnited 


Ight ban 



e capital 

f tbe 

of B^nm. > 


BuHi Py« 


n iti anc 

Ule Hear 


of Bemad 


King of 


11 a pU 

great re«»n 

gllsh fam 

In the n 

aan, and 

Tlewi or Ih 





. 8oe Sradilkiiv'i 

I. The dlttai'ice 10 
lilace in Frame. Ig 
.e Joon,.)- to Can- 

aDfnn<^ and llinugh the Pyrei 

ho eiistlng line between Saragogga and l!arc«lon« 
lYoldlng (be detour to Hneica. 
J&ca (Stkt.), population. 4,199, is BltaaKd 

I employed In the menu 
anuory, 1814 the fort, i 

• the peak of Pefla 
a, Ayerbe, La Pen a, 

I Poso\atto«!.V»,%T,,\.Si,wi- 
\ aanlAVswe\-, »Y««a'i--<«^ V«*»- 




A very ancient city oil JlXICOQ, of wliich it was the 
early capital. It lies on the right hftolc oi the 
liieiilia, in a fertile plain, more than $ leagues in 
e^Ltent, called the Haya fte Haeac*. The aopt 
ancient part of the town occupies the sommit of a 
hill, and was foimeriy surrounded by ninety-nine 
towers, of which only two remain. The streets, 
e^»eciaUy i liosfB in the centre of the town, are nar- 
row and winding, but are all paved and well kept. 
The principal one called £1 Coso is tbe most cheer- 
ful. jaer^B are Uub l|iops, Ac, and the rendesTons 
of the inhahitayrff. The place hat some tanneries, 
linden manufafitvres, and a lacge annual fiair. It is 
th|e Ropian Q$ea and Avfc*, which was destroyed 
by Mm ¥Qon, ]l>at recorered by the Christians in. 
1096, after a siege of two years. 

)3jig]Kt8.~A fine Gothic Cathedral of th^ four- 
teenth century, with numerous statues, and mag- 
nificent rei^iblos of al«kb»st<cr find black marble. 
Kote tjlj^e elegant silleria, whjlch dates from the 
reign of Philip II; tke earrings and medallions; 
the pictures by Martinet; the archives; and a 
belfry tower, whence a fine view may be bad. 

flan Juan, a cations old church ; also another 
chur<^, named San Pedro. Here are the celebrated 
relics of the martyred 88. Justo and Pastor. 
AnciexU; palace oi the kings of Aragon, memiMtthle 
for the massacre of the Bell. 

Las Casas Consistoriales, near the cathedral. 
University, founded in 1354. Note ikfi postal, 
the ha^, and the library. 

Colegio d^ San Vicente, founded by Charles V., 
an elegant building; also the Colegio de Santiago. 

Santa Cruz, a seminary of the 16th century. 

Plaza de Toros; a foundling hospital; two 
monasteries in the vicinity, the one called Ermita 
de Saa MigUjBl , the other El Monasterio Reel. The 
former contains some ancient tombs, and some 
paiatinga of the Byaantine sohocd. 

Co^veyaa^MS.-By nil tf> 8a|ragoiw^ ffia 
Tardienta. The road passes Aln^^bar, ^nera, 
and Yillanudva. 

Distance: Huesca lies M nJles (by rail) aorth- 
efpt fli «mtm^ #n« ataNit M jBUei ttrnt^-mt 
/>/Jaca. DiligiVMtePciittooML 


Eail from Paris to Bor4^Mz« TonJonp^, Fei^ 
Tarascon, and Ax. 

A lij^ rail Cftrrovfa teom^mita) from Baroalotta, 

via KaarMa (page 104X is in progress in tida 

direction, and has already reaolwd OtVAS, M 

miles, whence there is dllig«DM to Berga. Tlia 

principal stations are BaBent and Poigrelg. TIm 

line Witt probably aUimately te canted to Uxsal, 

bat there is llttie Hkellhood of lU bateg extendad 

to Andorra Oa tlM other ha8d It may be fottaA 

advisable to ^ctead it along the aoDve leval grooad 

to Fayoer«a(S^nish-P«lgoerda^ catiM frontier, 

whUe the Fruoh line froai Perpignaa, which |iaa 

already nached Pnulei, asigfat ha prolpaged to 


Population, 1,609. 

aotel8.-8iore (the best). It has thermal batbi 
and tprlngs; good defeuner It la foarolMtie, and 
table d'hdte ; charges moderate. Here horses, 
mules, and guides can be procured. Hotel Boyer; 
d^Espagne. Several boarding hoases, and aaase 
01^^. See Bradtkaw"* Btmd-Book #• Prmm, 

Ax is fdiarmfaigiy rituated at the foot of 'tiba 
mountains at the Jnnetion of three vidleys, watered 
by three torrents, which unite near the town ta 
form the Arilhge. It is madi frequented tat Its 
hot sulphur springs, of trhich there are abowt 41 tyr. 
The temperature yaries from UiT to ljS8^ Fabr. 

According to knbm vrUers, any one bjonnd /or 
AaillBlza shdUd provide himself with good lettMf 
of reconunendatioDy otherwise he irUI bare to 
sleep in the jopsa air, and fMhaps die of starratton. 
Bat a tour can be made through Yal de Andonm 
without letters of recommendation and withoi* 
enduring rery great haxdthips. The JoanMy ta 
rather rough «nd dMigerous idong the namur 
passes ; the best plaoes to sleep at are at fios|iitalat 
and Santa Julia, but food and wine may ha 
had at other plaoes e» roitft. In tears like itiM^ 
your idan is to charter a horse and guide; y^mr 
mide idil not go vjtthont either his rest or kll 
dinner. At the oi^rttal, Andorra la VieiQe 
(Andorra la VUifa)^ there are Hotels and a 0mm 
del Falla, «r aaat aT govenunent. Hm tttie 
republic is ruled jaiatly by ftauea i 

Boiif 6 ifO-l 

^IMUnai ^fit^tii, nxiiAtic fstits. 


of Urf^ (In dpiiii}, and exteiids of e^ S piUlstiM. 
^t i?«oa/dlfltf are otfief Hoi spring, 'the ih&abitaiiis 
apoak a m^ange of t^e Catalan dialect oi Spanish 
and French. 

Ax to Merens (5) miles) ; to Hospftalet (5} milc«)* 
walk or ride. The carriage road runs a little past 
Mereni. Hospitalet to Saldcu, Canillo, £ncamp, 
Escalda^ Andorre la Vleilte, Santa Julia, and 
tjrgelt In 2 days (horse or mule), italie Perplgnan 
by Pttigcerda, Bourg Madame, Moni Louis, and 
Prades. Horse to Puigcerda, 1 day; diligence to 
Perpignan, 1 day. Sleep at Boufg if adame (France) 
rather than PuigcerdtC (Spain). The ascent of the 
Ciudiroia (9,141 feet) may be made from Pfftdes 
(lEttat.), population, 3,856, which lies at its' north 
base. The summit of the mountain may he reached 
in about 8 hours* walk. There is a good Inn at 
prades, which lies 24 miles west-south-west hy rail 
from Perpignan, oh the River Tet. From Urgel to 
Prades the route runs to a g^eat extent through a 
plain called the Cerdagne, which Is upwards of 
30 mites in length, and in some part^ 4 of 5 miles 
in breadth. It is divided into the Spanish iiid the 
French Cerdagne. In the former the chifef town Is 
Pnigeerdtf ; in the latter, Mont Louis. 


tOtrH IN THE tAl^BARia lILBt- 

These Iffles, which are sttHated in the MedltCfr- 
ranean, between lat. 88* A(/ and 40* 5' N., eomprite 
Xajorca, Minorca, Iviza, Formcntera ("Isle of 
Com"), Cabrera ("Isle of Goats"), and Conejera 
("Isle of Rabbits"), and some small isles of little 
importance. There is a service of steamboats 
between Barcelona and the Baleares. The isles 
form a Spanish military arrondisscment, under 
the denomination of a captaincy-general, a civil 
province of the third class, an Audiencia, a naval 
arrondisscment, and three dioceses, with scats at 
Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza. The united popula- 
iion of the Archipelago amounted, In 1887, to 
312,593. The soil is fertile, and the climate is both 
temperate and healthy. The total imports and 
total exports exceed half a million each way. 

It Is thought probable that at the time when 
Spain and Africa were united, the Balearic Isles 
formed part of the Spanish Peninsula, and that they 
are a prolongation of the mountain chain which 

trav«i<ii« th4 proffdo* «f AHeaife, ticf ^ii at the 

Mong^ find Cape San Martin. Moreover the 
nature of the ioll and the productions are the same 
as those of the neighbouring provinces of the 
Peninsula. According to Strabo, these isles were 
colonised by Rhodians. Tliey afterwards fell into 
the power of the Carthaginians, as did the whole 
littoral of Spain, and later, they were conquered by 
the Romans, but the Carthaginians seem to have 
subsequently regained their liberty. In B.C. 12l2, 
they were subdued by Metellus, the Roman Consul, 
who treated the inhabitants with such cruelty that 
out of 30,000, scarcely 1,000 were left alive. In 
the Isle of Minorca, Magon is said to have founded 
Portas Magonis, now Mahon. Metellus founded 
Balearica, in the Isle of Majorca, Palina, and 
Polienza, and peopled them with 3,000 Romans 
^rom Spain. After having been successively occu- 
pied by ihe Vandals, the Greeks, and the Arabs, 
the Baieares were conquered (1229-35) by James 
of Aragon, styled the Conqueror ; who, giving them 
to his second son, they formed an independent 
kingdom down to the middle of the fourteenth 
centory, when Don Pedro IV. of Aragon re-united 
them to his crown. Since then they have formed 
a part of the kingdom of Spain. 

The Greeka called Majorca, Minorca, and Cabrera, 
Gjfnuietioi^ beeause their inhabitants went naked 
to combat ; and iviza, Formentera, and Conejera, 
Fitifiuet, on aecount of the pine forests with which 
they are covered. The term Baleareawas anciently 
applied only to Majorca and Minorca. The most 
western, being the greatest, was named Balearis 
Major ; the other and the most eastern, for the same 
reason, was called Balearis Minor; whence Minorca. 
Bochart and others consider the name to be of 
native origin, and they derive it from the Phoeni- 
cians, baal, lord, also skilful, and zarah, to throw, 
».«., sidlful in the art of throwing. According to 
others, they were colonised by Balea, one of the 
companions of Hercules. The most commonly 
accepted derivation of the name is from the Greek 
ballo, to throw, because the inhabitants were good 
slingers. Diodorus says that no helmet, cuirass, or 
buckler could resist their blow ; and Florus men- 
tions the great skill of these islanders in the art of 
slinging, in which they were trained from their 



£Sectioa 1. 


The Urgcst of the Balearic islands, is situnted l>e- 
tween Iviza, on the west, and Minorca, on the east. 
It is 135 miles from Barcelona; 16} from Tunis; 
and 370 from Toulon, and has a population (1887) 
of 239,000. It is nearly GO miles long from east to 
west, and in some parts 45 broad from north to 
south ; its circuit is 143 miles. The general surface 
of the country is hilly. On the north-west side a 
mountain range crosses the island, the highest 
summit of which, called Puig Mayor de Torello, is 
about 5,000 feet above the sea. Another range of 
lofty hills nins parallel to this through the heart of 
the island, and high grounds in many parts border 
on the coast. The eastern and southern districts are 
the most level in character. Near Campos on the 
south, and near Alcudia on the north of the island, 
are marshy tracts which generate malaria to a 
very pernicious extent. The general aspect of the 
country is extremely beautiful and picturesque. 
The roads in the interior are very rugged and 
stony, and are traversed only by mules, which 
form the ordinary mode of conveyance, and by 
carts of clumsy and primitive construction similar 
to those of Spain. 

The climate is delightful; the air is clear and 
temperate ; and by its situation the heat of summer 
is so qualified by the breezes, and the winds of the 
mountains, that it is by far the most pleasant of all 
the islands in the Mediterranean. The winters are 
mild, though occasionally stormy. The soil is 
excellent; its extreme fertility is mentioned by 
Strabo. Firs, holm-oaks, and wild olives adorn 
the slopes, and often cover the summits of the 
higher mountains; lavender, rosemary, thyme, 
marjoram, saffron, and roses perfume the air; and 
the valleys and level tracts produce great quantities 
of corn, of as good a quality as any in Europe. 
Red wine of good quality, olive oil, and salt; and 
nearly all the fruits of the south, viz., the fig, olive, 
almond, orange, melon, citron, and lemon are in 
great abundance. The date palm and the plain- 
tain attain their full size, though seldom yielding 
fruit. The other products are hops, vegetables, 
honey, hemp, wool, and a little silk. The valley 
most famed for beauty and fertility is that of Soller, 
11 or 12 miles in circumference, abounding in 

orchards of orange and lemon trees, and hemmed 
in by mountains luxuriantly clothed with wood. 
The island is poorly watered, for though there are 
said to be nolcss than 210 stream^s only two deserve 
the name of rivers. The larger of these is the 
Riera, which falls into the sea beneath the 
ramparts of Palma, the capital. It is almost dry in 
summer, but in the rainy season it is very full and 
impetuous, and on several occasions in past ages 
has carried away a great part of the city, and 
drowned many thousands of the inliabitants. One 
writer, speaking of the soil, &c., says, " a chain of 
mountains which extended from north-north-east 
to south-west, divides it into two very different 
climates. Tlic southern part, protected by the 
mountains against the terrible winds of the north, 
is mild and temperate. During the winter, the 
thermometer seldom decends below 46 degrees 
Fahrenheit; and during summer the fresh breezes of 
the sea temper the ardors of the sun. The north- 
em part, on the contrary, is moist and cold, and at 
times furious hurricanes overturn the crops and 
tear up the trees. The most common maladies are 
catarrhs, consumption, and intermittent fevers. 
The nature of the soil is so different that within a 
very short distance you might fancy yourself in a 
totally different country. From the mountains, 
you suddenly find yourself on the plain ; here the 
country is parched up, presently it is watered by 
numerous streams, whilst arid and peaked rocks 
arc succeeded by fertile hills." 

George Sand says of it,— "Majorca is one of the 
finest countries in the world for painters, and one 
of the most overlooked. Everything there is 
picturesque, from the cabin of the peasant, who 
preserves, in the smallest thing he constructs, the 
traditions of the Arab style, to the diild clothed In 
rags. The character of the landscape, richer than 
that ot the greater part of Africa, has quite as 
much breadth, quietness, and simplicity. It is a 
green Helvetia under a Calabrian sky, with the 
Solemnity and silence of the East. In Switzerland, 
ihe ubiquitous torrent and the constantly shifting 
cloud give to the scenery a mobility of colour, and, 
so to say, a continuity of movement which the art 
of painthig is not always successful in producing. 
Nature seems to mock the artist. In Majorca, she 
seems to expect him, to invite him; the vegetation 

Route 20.] 

affects stately and strange furms. but docs not 
display the Irregular luxuriance under which the 
outlines of the Swiss landscape too often disappear. 
The contours of the rocky summits stand out 
clearly on the background of a brilliant sky ; the 
palm-tree bends freely over the precipice, without 
the capricious breeze disarranging the majesty of 
of its leafy fringe, and everytliing, down to the 
smallest stunted cactus by the wayside, seems 
posed with a sort of vanity to please the eye of 
the beholder." 

The geology of Majorca is but imperfectly known. 
Granite and porphyry are found, the former at 
BuHola; but the generality of the rocks are of 
secondary or tertiary formation. There is slate; 
fine marble of various colours, with abundance 
of sandstone, freestone, and chalk. Copper at 
Albarca, and Iron at Valdemosa. Seams of coal 
have been discovered, but have not been worked. 
Coral is found in the bay of Alcudia. Salt is 
procured by the evaporation of sea-water in the 
low grounds about Campos ; and in the same dis- 
trict is a warm sulphureous spring, celebrated for 
its efficacy in removing cutaneous complaints. 

With the exception of a few foxes and hawks, 
the island is free from beasts and birds of prey; 
and there are but few venomous reptiles. It pro- 
duces sheep, goats, and horned cattle; pigs are 
numerous; poultry and game are abundant. Deer, 
rabbits, and wild fowl are in such abundance that 
they alone suffice for the subsistence of the inhabi- 
tants. In 1860, the productions of the island were 
Talued at 58,000,000 reals, or about £560,000. The 
manufactures comprise linen, cloth, silk, stuffs, and 
woollen goods, as tapestry, blankets, sashes, and 
corded stuff. Of the leaves of the palm are made 
brooms and baskets. The exports are oils, vege- 
tables, fresh and dried fruits, wines, brandy, cheese, 
and woollen goods. Most of these are taken by 
Spain; but some by Sardinia, Malta, England, 
Holland, France, and even America. The imports, 
which in value bear a small proportion to the 
exports, are corn, salted provisions, sugar, coffee, 
spices, tobacco, rice, cutlery, and other manufac- 
tured goods and articles of clothing. 

Although uncommonly fertile, agriculture is 
rery backward; and from the l)ad state of the 



; roads in the intvriorof the isle, thv Majorcansonly 
reap a small revenue from their productions; thus 
for example, 1,000 oranges, which in the centre of 
the isle may be l)ought for 5 or 6 francs, cost 10 or 
12 francs upon the coast, the only means of trans- 
port being by mules — a state of things which the 
new railway has already to some extent altered. 

In character, the Majorcans resemble the Cata- 
lans, but are lem industrious and enterprising. 
They are robust and active, and much attached to 
their country, loyal to the government, and make 
excellent soldiers and sailors; bigoted in religion; 
boastful, though mild and amiable in disposition ; 
hospitable to strangers, and prepossessing in their 
manners. The women are elegant, and fond of 
dress and ornament. The Castilian is only spoken 
at Majorca in official circles; in private life, the 
rich as well as the poor speak Majorcan, a dialect 
of Catalonian, mixed with Castilian and Arabic 
words. The words puig (hill), raxa, arc pronounced 
respectively, pooitch, rasba. The ware called 
McyoluxL, Maiolica, or Maiorica, was so named 
from Majorca or Mallorca, where it was first made, 
riie name is properly applicable to the eartli from 
irhich it was manufactured. The term was also 
applied to a kind of ware which was anciently 
made at Faenza, in the Italian Romagna. 

The original colonists of Mallorca were Phoeni- 
cians. The island fell, with Spain, successively into 
the hands of the Carthaginians and Romans. It 
was seized by the Vandals a.d. 426, and conquered 
by the Moors in 798, during whose dominion it was 
in its most flourishing state. The Moors being 
very industrious, and also populous, surrounded the 
whole c"ast with fortifications; cultivated every 
spot that was not either rock or sand and had no 
less than fifteen great towns. After being several 
times taken by the Christians, and retaken by the 
Mohammedans, the island was finally wrested from 
the latter in 1229, by Jaime of Aragon, who estab- 
lished in it a new kingdom, feudatory to that of 
Aragon ; this was upset in 1341, since which it has 
been subject to Spain, and has entirely lost its im- 
portance. The island possesses several good har- 
bours. The population, though much decreased 
since the time of the Moors, is still considerable, 
The only cities are Palma and Alcudia. 



[Section 1. 

PALMA (Stat). 

Fopnlntion (1887X (9,586. 

HotolS.— Fonda de las Tre« Palmas; Fonda di 

British Vice-Con sal. 

The capital, which in the time of Strabo was one 
of the principal towns, lies on the south-east of the 
Island, pletnresqnely situated on a slope in the 
bight of a deep bay, 10 or 12 miles wide, and formed 
by the capes Blanco and Gala Figuera. A Rail- 
way from Palma is open to Manacor, vid Pont d' 

Inoa (a torrent), Karrataxl, Sta. Maria, 
OotntiD. (branch to Alaro), BUHtelem, Inea, 

Blltpalmd, i-e., Junction (for La Puebla), SaO. 
Juan, Pefcra, to Hanaeor. The branch runs 
9tA LlUTl, Kuro, to La PneVla, for Alcudls. 
It is nearly level, and was made by an English 
firm. The trade Is Increasing. Cheap go:d wine 
bf a clear sherry colour Is groii^^n. 

The streets are in some parts narrow and mean, 
tn others, wide and regular; the houses are large 
lind without external ornaments, mostly lit ihe 
iifoorlsh sfyle of architecture, and many are 
built of marble. Palma has now, comparatively, 
but little commerce. Its port Is small, and will 
only admit vessels of little draught. Both ^vithin 
and without the city are io be seen numerous 
evidences of the superior size, population, and 
commercial importance of past ages. 

The Cathedral is a large Gothic edifice of great 
simplicity and beauty. It was built in the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, by James of Aragon, the 
Conqueror (who is interred within its walls), and 
was finished in ICOl. Its form is that of an 
oblong, extending from east to west, in whicii is 
the principal fa9ade ; width, with chapels, 190ft.; 
length, 147ft.; height, 150ft.; the spire is of such re- 
markable delicacy and airiness that it has received 
the appellation of Torre del Angel, "Angel's Tower." 
The interior of the cathedral is divided into three 
naves, the ogival arches of which are supported by 
two rows of seven columns, extremely light. With- 
out being a chef d'oeuvrc, as the Majorcaus assert, 
the edifice Is worthy the attention of the traveller. 
Among its numerous beauties are the Capilla Real, 
destined for the sepulchre of the kings of Majorca. 
The tomb of Jaime II, is a simple sarcophagus of 
black marble, with a crown, a sceptre, and a sword 

in gilt and bronze. Upon a truncated pyramid are 
the following inscriptions : 

Aqui reposa el cadaver 

Del serenisimo t). Jaime de Aragon 

II. Rey de Mallorea, 

Que merece la mas pia y laudable memoria. 


Fallecid en 28 de mayo, 1311. 

Este monumento 

Lo mand<$ erigir a sus espensas 

El religiose animo del Rey N. 8. Carlos III. 

(Que Dies Guarde) 

Para que tuviesen digno desposito 

Las Reales cenizas que en 41 detoanten. 
Ano 1779. 

in the lateral nave, to the left of the entrance, is 
the Capilla containing the fine mausoleum erected 
by the Cortes of 1811, to the memory of tbe ttarqiils 
de la Romana, chief of the partisans In the War of 
Independence. In the centre is the Coro; the 
exterior sculptures are in stone, and the 110 of 
which it is composed are remarkable for the fini^ 
and the variety of their ornaments. The baptistery 
is wholly of marble and gilt stucco; and Upon the 
keys of the vauH are the blazons of the great f asBilies 
of Majorca. Ifhe large windows ate mi^nBttceut, 
and like the eathedra) of Barcelona, the TSult of 
the organ is sarmotmted by the head of a Moor, 
with a turban, and a beard, painted partly white 
and partly red. 

There are six parochial Chun^tety some of which 
are not wanting in merit. Of the twenty-four 
convents which were in existence in 1835, 
nineteen hate been suppressed; the remainlag 
five are occupied by nuns. In the oonyent of St. 
Dominic, between the cathedral and the Plaata, 
called Corts, the Inquisition was established. It is 
now little more than a heap of ruins — columns, 
cornices, mosaics, <fec., are piled up pell-mell, and 
some light arches alone remain. Judging from the 
beauty of the debris, which covers the ground, this 
edifice must have anciently been very fine. In ran- 
sacking the archives of this convent, M. Tastu 
made a curions discovery. Among the ilhistrlous 
personages interred in its churcli, he found the 
name of Bonaparte. Having discovered the tomb 
of the family, and compared the armorial bearings 
with others in authentic documents, he arrived 

Route 20.] 

at the conclaaion ihat the name of Bonaparte is of 
ProTen9al or Languedoc origin. "En 1411 Hu^o 
Bonapart,natIf de Mallorca, passa dans TlIc dite de 
Corse en qualitd de rdgent ou gouvcmeur pour le 
roi Martin d' Aragon ; et c'est i lui qu'on ferait 
remonter I'orlgln dea Bonaparte; ainsi Bonapart 
est le nom Roman, Bonaparte- Tltalicn ancien, et 
Buonaparte I'ltalicn modcrne. On sait qui les mem- 
bres de la famille de Napoldon signaient indiffdr- 
emmcnt Bonaparte, Buonaparte''' (Sec note of M. 
Tastu, and Un Hiver a Majorque by G. Sand). 

The Palace of the Captain-General is in a very 
picturesque situation, but is distributed without 
order or taste. The same remark may he made of 
the Episcopal Palace, which is badly situated. The 
royal palace is a very andcnt edtficc. 

La Lonja (the exchange) is one of the finest monu- 
flsents of the Gothic style in Spain. It was com- 
menced hi 142€, and finished in 1448. Its form is 
oblong; the ornameiits of the interior are simple 
and in excellent taste. The interior of the building 
is not less remarkable; it is composod of a fine 
large hall, supported and divided into naves, by 
tlx light fluted columns. The building is now only 
used for public fetes and bal masquds. Casas Con- 
aistorialcs (Town Hall) dating from the sixteenth 
century. Its fa9ade is not remarkable in an archi- 
tectural point of view, but the penthouse which 
f urrounds It is worthy of attention. G. Sand says 
of this building: *'It has this peculiarity, that it 
is upheld by compartments with roses richly 
sculptured in wood, alternating with long carya- 
tides crouching under the penthouse, which they 
seem io uphold with suffering, for most of them 
have their faces hidden in their hands.." The 
interior contains a gallery of portraits of celebrated 
ihen, natives of Majorca, and a great tableau 
representing the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, 
by Van Dyck. 

The Hospital General, which was founded in 1456, 
by Alfonso V., is partly used as a lunatic asylum ; 
there are also several other hospitals. The Casa 
d* la Miserloordia is a fine establishment of modern 
construction. There are eighteen chambers for 
women, and five for men. The poor of both sexes 
6f the town and the environs areadmftted by a cer- 
tificate signed by the curd of the parish, and the 
Mlftddr, or enntor of the quarter. The himates 


are Allowed to remain any length of time, and arc 
occupIe<i in spinning and weavhig. In the Casa de 
Esposltos, orphans arc taken care of up to the a?e 
of six years. If at the expiration of that period 
they are not reclaimed, they are transferred to the 
Casa de la Mlserlcordla, whence they are not dis- 
charged until they have learned a trade. Ferdi- 
nand V. founded a Univerdty here in 1483. Private 
picture-gallery of the Conde de Moutciiegro; apply 
to his steward. 

ElC n rg i onBr To Raxa, the country mansion of 
this nobleman, where there is a fine collection of 
antique sculpture. To Bellver Castle, two miles 
from Palma, now a state prison. 

Tliere are diligences to most of the towns, Ac, 
named underneath. 


(Population, 1,000) near Pnebla(8tat.) on the coast 
on a neck of land between the bays of Akudia and 
PoUraza, alx>ut two miles from the sea. It stands on 
a rishig ground, and is fortified with ancient walls 
of great height. It was for a long time rich and 
fk>urishing, and diq;>uted with Palma the title of 
capital of the Isle, but for more than a century 
past its commerce and its population have steadily 
diminished. This depopulation is attributed to its 
vicinity to unhealthy marshes, and to the want of 
good air. An English Company have, however, 
partly drained the marshes, and built the branch 
railway from Sou Bordils to La Puebla. The only 
church worthy of notice is that of San Jaime. The 
origin of the place is doubtful. According to some 
it was founded by the Romans ; while others assert 
that it only dates, at least as a town of Importance, 
from the time of the conquest of the isle by the 
Aragonese in the thirteenth century. The former 
opinion is not justified by any monument that has 
yet been discovered. Accessible by rail from 
Palma to La Puebla. 


^Population, 8,000) lies near the north-tast part of 
the island, on a range of hills which extend east to 
Cape Pera, 8 miles from ManaOOT (ttatX 
whose point Is defended by a castle. It h«8 
manufactures of eoarse linen, dyeing, Ac. Its 
Inhabitants are also engaged fn fishing, and It hi^s 
a commerce In fruit. It is 45 miles by diligence 
f *om Pahna, but may be realched froih Mati«.e«iv 



[Section 1. 

From Arta a visit should be made to the Cyclo- 
pean constructions, and the grotto of La Cueva de la 
Ermita. The former are situated in the mi<ldle of 
an ancient forest of oaks, and resemble the 
noraghes in the isle of Sardinia. The Cueva de la 
Krmita lies about 6 miles off, at the foot of a hill 
planted with pines. Guide necessary. 

MANACOB (Stat.) 
(Population, 14,929) is situated in a fertile plain 30 
miles east of Palma. It is a bishop's see, and has 
ft convent. Some of its houses are large and fine, 
and some very ancient. Here, and in its environs, 
the Majorcan nobility pass the summer. 

the PoUentia of Strabo, lies on the north side of the 
inland, 28 miles north-cast of Palma, and about 2 
miles west of the bay of the same name, and in 
1877 had a population of 8,547. The bay, which is 
secure, and capable of holding large vessels, is 
formed by two narrow peninsulas, the points of 
which are called Capes Formentar and Del Pinar. 
Pollenza has a fine church, dedicated to Nuestra 
Sefiora de los Angeles; a Jesuit college; and 
active manufactures of fine black woollen cloth. 
It was once a Roman colony and for a long time 
afterwards appertained to the Knights of Malta. 


(Population 11,018) lies 27 miles east-south-east of 
Palma, and has a convent, a hospital, and manu- 
factures of linens and woollen. In the neighbour- 
hood of this town is the chapd of San Salvador, 
which is held in great veneration in the country. 
In the vast plain to the left are many small 
places, among which are Porrcras, Montuyri, 
Petra, Ac. 


(Population, 4,600) lies on the north-west coast, 
and is 21 miles north of Palma. It has a port 
on the Mediterranean, and considerable exports of 
oranges and wine; indeed nearly all the oranges 
exported from the island are from this port. This 
is the most beautiful part of the island. Puig 
Mayor may be ascended easily from here. Guide 

(Population, 8,981) lies 21 miles south-east of Pahna. 
In its enrirons are some salt pits, capable of pro- 
ducing a good reyenue, and a hot mineral spring. 


(Population, 8,000) lies to tiie south-east, and 7 
miles from Campos It is well built, and the 
ncii^iibourhood is fertile in wheat and barley. The 
place has been frequently rava^yed by the Aljjcrine 

has a population of 5,000. 


(Population, 5,000) is built upon the plateau of a 
fountain, and the side which fronts the sea is 
planted with beautiful vines. 


(Population, 6,329) is a small port on the south 
coast, and lies 8 miles south-south-west of Palma. 


(Population 8,558) is situated 17 miles cast-south- 
east of Palma. It lies in the middle of a yast 
plain, where James III. was defeated and lost 
his crown. The town is well built, and has manu- 
factures of woollens and linens. Not far from it 
is the pool called Del Prat, fonned by the iraters 
from the neighbouring heights. There are like-' 
wise 32 smaller towns, besides numerous villages. 


lies at the bottom of a rich valley, and is protected 
by the mountains to the north-west. It is known 
in the isle by the sanctuary of Notre Dame de 
Lluch, and to the foreigner by the wines of Malvoi- 
sia and Montana, which are produced on the neigh- 
bouring declivities. 


is built upon an eminence which overlooks the port. 

From the summit of the escarped mountains is seen 

the magnificent plain of Sullcr, planted with 

oranges and citrons, watered by several streams, 

and surrounded with hills covered with olives and 

carob trees. 


is a little port to the north-west of Pollenza. 


(Population, 2,600) was founded by Jaime the 

(Population 1,200) is a small town. It is the native 
place of Santa CatalinaTomasa, and above it is an 
ancient Carthusian convent, founded 1899, and 

Route 20.] 

enlarged in the 18th centurj', whlcli is well worthy 
of a Tisit. George Sand lived here some time. It 
is about 10 miles from Ptilma. 

M. Gerinond dc la Lavigne says of it: — ''On 
entering the liilly district you ascend a road which 
was probably made by the Carthusians, very 
narrow, and horridly steep, and more dangerous 
than all the rest of the way. To reach the Convent 
it is necessary to get out of the vehicle, for no 
car can pass up tiie paved road which leads 
thither, which, however, delights the eye by its 
bold lines. Its windings amongst beautiful trees, 
and tlie charming scenes which are disclosed at 
every step, increasing in beauty as you ascend.'' 
George Sand says:— "I have never seen anything 
so smiling, and at the same time so mournful, as 
these perspectives, where the evergreen oak, the 
carob, the pine, tlie olive, the poplar, and the 
cypress, blend their various shades in deep hollows, 
Teritable abysses of verdure, where the torrent 
pursues its headlong course under thickets of 
sumptuous richness and inimitable grace." 

The Valldemosa chain of hills rises from one 
plateau to another, until you reach a sort of funnel 
surrounded by higli mountains, and closed 
towards the north by the slope of another plateau, 
at the foot of which lies the monastery, which 
was deserted by the monks in 1885. The building, 
with its great square tower, and its old barbican, 
which still retains some battlements, resembles, 
from a distance, a fortress rather than a convent, 
It is composed of three edifices, built at diticrent 
periods, which do not show any remarkable beauty 
of external architecture. In strolling through 
them one can form an idea of the desire for com- 
fortable living, and even of luxury, which had 
glided imperceptibly into Carthusian life. Whilst 
the cells constructed in the 15th century are small 
and gloomy, tliose built in the 18th are well 
lighted, and consist of three tolerably large apart- 
ments, an oratory, a sleeping-room, and a work- 
shop. The former look on a common wiclosure, 
which was used as a cemetery; thts latter on a 
private parterre, planted with oranges, citrons, 
and pomegranates, and abundantly supplied with 
water. Each recluse had, independently of the 
oratory, bis chapel, whither he retired to pray 
alone. These chapels were vaulted, covered with 


tasteless gilding and coarse paintings, but em- 
bellished with handsome enamelled designs in 
china, and a marble fountain. They had to be 
washed out every day. The church of the com- 
munity is of thecomp)8ite order, and so gay, if 
one may be allowed the expression, that we are 
astonished to find it in a convent, the rules of 
which were so severe. Its form is that of a Latin 
cross. Four pilasters divide the part comprised 
between the transept and the facade, and on the 
border which runs round their capitals are en- 
graved the escutcheons of the benefactors of the 
convent. Above the entablature rises a species 
of attic, on whi.h the vaulted roof seems to rest, 
constructed of brick, by the advice of Jovellanos, 
and ornamented with fine fresco-paintings. Its 
single nave is paved with marble and with 
pretty china tiles, skilfully painted and arranged 
so as to form various designs. Finally wo will 
notice the Presbiterio, the front of the altar, a 
reading desk and prior's sta'l of a peculiar shape, 
three fine pieces of wood carving, and, in the 
sacristry, a Gothic chair, which if tradition may 
be credited, belonged to King Don Martin. 

At half-a-mile to the west of Majorca is the Isle 
of Dragonera, which is wild and thinly peopled. 

ISLE OF MINORCA (Spanish Menorca) 

Is situated 24 miles east-north-east of Majorca, 
about 125 miles south-east of the coast of Cata- 
lonia, 162 miles east by south from the mouth of 
the Ebro, the nearest part of Valencia, and about 
100 miles north from the territory of Algiers in 
Africa. The isle is of an irregular form, being 33 
miles in length, and 13 in the broadest part. It is 
the second in size and the most eastern of the 
Balearic isles. The soil is poor and sandy. Monte 
Toro, the only eminence deserving the name of a 
mountain, is in the centre of the isle. It is in the 
form of a cone, with a flat summit, which is 
occupied by an Augustine convent, to which pil- 
grimages are often made by the natives with bare 
feet. The mountain is 4,793 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

Mount Sta. Agueda, the eminence next in import- 
ance, is supposed to have been a military post in 
the time of the Romans. Traces of Moorish 
fortifications are visible on its summit. The 
mineral productions of the isle are limestone, free- 



[Sectt6ii 1. 

ttofic, Burble of rarions colours, potter s cUy, and 
fgyptam nsed for cement. There are likewise some 
unproduetiTe lead mines, and iron ore is foond in 
small quantities. It is rich in cattle, goats, sheep, 
and pigs; and also in game, as patridges, quails, 
and rabbits; woodcocks, snipes, and teal are 
plentiful in winter. The coast abounds with fish, 
especially anchovies, oysters, and lobsters. The 
fsle swarms with Iizard^ and there are a few 
renomons reptiles, but no beasts of prey. 

The natives are engaged in agriculture, fishing, 
and commerce. The imports comprise wheat, oil, 
tobacco, colonial produce, woven fabrics, and other 
manufactured goods. The chief exports arc flax, 
hemp, capers, saffron, cheese, wax, wool, honey, 
lead, iron, copper, and fine marble. From the 
comparatively level character of the Island, the 
air fs more humid and the summer heat more 
oppressive than at Majorca ; the spring is mild and 
temperate, and the winter Is often cold, although 
snow and fee are rare. In character and manners 
the Mlnoreans resemble the Majorcans, and the 
same dress and language are common to both 
islands. The population of the whole island Is 
about 39,000. The most important of the neigh- 
bouring isles are Colon to the east, and Ayre to 
the south. 

Minorca was successively possessed by the 
Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, and 
Arabs. On the conquest of Majorca in 1229, by 
t)on Jaime of Aragon, the island, which was still 
held by the Moors, became tributary to that prince. 
In 1287 It was conquered by Alfonso, his grandson, 
who banished or enslaved the Moorish Inhabitants. 
In the reign of Charles V. it was seized, but soon 
evacuated by Barbarossa. It remained subject to 
the crown of Spain till 1708, when the Earl of Stan- 
hope, with 3,000 British troops, attacked Mahon, 
and by shooting Into the town arrows to which 
wore attached papers threatening the garrison with 
labour in the mines unless they immediately sur- 
rendered, he Induced them to capitulate. The con- 
quest of the island followed that of its capital, and 
was confirmed by the treaty of Utrecht. The 
English retained possession of Minorca till 1756, 
when Mahon was attacked by the French under 
Marshal do Richelieu ; and Admiral Byng, having 
Called in relieving It, the island fell into the hands 
6^ ttukce. The Adnilral was tried by court-martial 

and shot to save the credit of the Ministry, and 
' **pour encourager les autres." as foltaire said- At 

the peace of 1763 it was restored to the English, 
I from whom it was wrested by the Spaniarils in 
! 1782: it was retaken in 1798. and finally ceded to 
j Spain at the peace of Amiens in 1802. 

The island is divided into four districts, named 
Ciudadela, Mahon, Alhayor, and the united districts 
of Ferarias and Mercadal. The principal towns 
are Port Mahon and Ciudadela. 


Population, 15,842. 

Hotels.— Fonda de la Mariana; de la Estrella. 

Britith Viee-Catuul. 

It is picturesquely situated at the I>otto9n of a 
de^ and narrow bay, on rocks greatly Novated 
above the sea, and in many places usdermined by 
the waves. It communicates with the capital b^ a 
carriage road. It was formerly surrounded with 
walls, the only relic of which is a gateway of 
Arabian architecture. The streets are ste^^ naf- 
row,crooked,andbadly paved; the governor's house, 
town hall. Church (with an organ gfrcn by the 
English), hospital, barracks, aHd other l^ltb^lc 
buildings are scarcely worthy of notice; the 
private houses are neat and elean, and buflt trith 
taste, but often without regard to conlfort; for 
many of ihetn being on the English model, the^ ate 
ni adapted to the dultry climate. Sotne of their htfoia 
ate tiled, and some flat-terraced 111 the Orl&iitil siyie. 
A risit should be made to tfie Talayots, megalHhlc 

The Spaniards have a saying — "Las Ptertos del 
Mediterraneo son Junio, Julio, Agosto, y l*iierto 
Mahon," i.e., the ports of the Mediterrane«{ft are 
June, July, August, and Port Mahon — tfce pdrt, 
ranking as one of the best in the Medlterraiiean, 
and according to some, indeed, as one of the finest in 
the world, being capable of sheltering a large fleet 
of llne-of-battle ships. In the harbour are four 
rocky islets; on one stands a hospital, on another 
a quarantine establishment, on a third a lazaretto, 
and on a fourth an arsenal, with naval storehouses, 
all erected by the English. At a short distance 
from Port Mahon stood Fort St. Philip, celebrated 
in the military annals of the last century, and above 
a league in circumference. It is now a heap of 
ruins, having been blown up by the Spaniards ih 



1808, to prevent its bein^ used by the English, in 
ease they should agAin take the island. 


(Population, 7,777) is situated on the west coast, 
35 miles north ot Hahon. The city is fortified, and 
is surrounded by a wall in a good state of pre- 
senration, except the part overlooking the ravine, 
which dates from the time of the Moors. It has a 
deep fosse, wliichhas been filled up in front of each 
of its gates. Ciudadela is the ancient capital of the 
isle. The streets are narrow, crooked, and badly 
paved. The houses are furnished with wells and 
cisterns, and some of them are handsome. The 
cathedral is in the centre of the town. It is 
composed of a single nave of the Gothic order, and 
is flanked by a fine square tower. The date of its 
construction is unknown; but from an inscription 
above the southern portal, there is no doubt that it 
existed in 1360. There are two parish churches, 
several convents, a hospital, a barrack, and a 
government house. The harbour is small and 
shallow, and diflScult of entrance, but well pro- 
tected, and suffices for its vessels, which are engaged 
in commerce with the neighbouring isles. At its 
southern extremity is fort San Nicolas. Not far 
from this fort, in the midst of enormous rocks, are 
two caverns, in which the sea is engulfed: one 
that makes a noise has been likened to the blow 
of a forge; the inhabitants of the country call it 
Fuelle de diablo, "devil's blow." About two miles 
to the south of Ciudadela is La Cava Perella, a 
curious grotto, full of stalacites and stalagmites; 
and not far off, a cavern containing a small salt- 
water lake. Alhayor, Mercadal, and Fcrarias, the 
other district capitals of Minorca, are little more 
than villages, and contain scarcely anything 
worthy of notice. 

About two miles from Alhayor is a megalithlc 
monument, one of several here, some 20 feet high, 
tupposed to be of Phoenician origin ; small statues 
of bronze, urns, lamps, vases, <fec., chiefly of 
Roman orig^in, have been discovered, besides several 
Punic, Greek, Roman, Arab, and Gothic coins. 

the ancient EbasuSy lies due south of Formentera, 
from which it is divided by a channel three miles 
wide. It is 42 mile; south-west of Majorca, and its 
south-west point is 50 piles east by north of thft 

Cabo Nao, on the coast of Valencia in Spain. It is 
about 27 miles long from north-east to south-west, 
and about 15 miles in its greatest breadth. It is 
hilly, and in many parts stony, but there arc some 
fertile spot*, and the mountains are covered with 
timber trees. The inhabitants are indolent and un- 
informed, and their mode of agriculture is slovenly. 
They speak a dialect of the Limousin, resemblinj|^ 
the Catalan. The island produces wiojc, corn, 
and fruits of every kind; has a large stock of 
sheep, and the sea- coast abounds with fisb. The 
manufacture of sea-salt constitutes a grei^ibrancji 
of industry. Population, 22,800. 

The isle is divided into five cuartones or districts, 
viz.: — Llano do Villa, Santa Eulalia, Balanzat, 
Pormafly, and De Salinas. The capital, iTiga 
(population, 7,398), is built on a peninsula on the 
south-west coast of the isle. It it fortified, has a 
good harbour, a cathedral, and six other chnrdies, 
two hospitals, and a public school or gymnasium. 
Pliny informs us that the figs of Ebusus were verjr 
large and excellent, and tliat the inhabitants used 
to dry them and export them to Rome in oaiM. 
Bochart accordingly derives Ebxutu from ]t|uB 
Phoenician iehtao or ibuao '"dried" (figs under- 
stood). In confirmation, Lamartiniere says that 
dried figs were called caunse^ from Caunus, ia 
Caria, whence they were first brought ; and that 
certain plums were called brignoles, from groiri]i|p 
in the environs of Brignoles, in Provence. 


(Population, 906) is situated 6 miles south of 
Ivlza. Its length from west to east is ISmiles ; its 
breadth from 2 to 10 miles. It is the ancien^ 
Pityusa. The houses are scattered in the country 
and upon the coast. This isle is supposed to be 
infested with serpents, wolves, and foxes ; but the 
only animals whidi are found in its woods and 
prairies are goats and sheep, which have become 
wild ; on its shores are seen the great long-legge4 
birds known by the name of fiamants. Its inhabit- 
ants are chiefly engaged in agriculture. Its name 
is said to be derived frtun the great quantity of 
wheat, which, considering Its size, It produces. 

lies 9 miles south of Majorca. It has a fort and 
a small harbour, and is used !)y the Spanhdi 
Government as a place of exile. It was In thU 
inhospitable isle, after the ca^ltxs.V^A.Vssok'A'^'^S^jeft.... 



Section 1. 

in 1808, thai the Spaniards landed more than 5,000 



French prisoners. 

For an account of their suifer- 



in{j^ consult Apentures cTun Marin de la garde, par 



M. H. Ducos. 



For the Balearic Isles c nsnlt Strabo, 167; 


Fdnda, Posdda 

Casaubon; Mairiana, Jlistoria General de Espana; 

M roadside 


Itineraire DescripHf de VEipagne; Dameto and 



Mert, History of the Balearic Kingdom ; Armstrong, 

„ country 

Casadfi campo 

History of the Island of Minorca : Laborde, Itinir- 

„ lodging 

Casa de poatfda 

aire DescHptif del Espagne; St. Sauveur, Travels 

„ mad 

Casa dc locos 

through the Balearicand Pithyusian Islands; Minafio, 


Call^ja, Calleju^Ia 

Diedonario Geografico de Espana; Dodd's Three 

„ narrow, between 

- Callejdn 

Weeks in Minorca. 




„ water 
„ wind 




MoIAto de igua 
Molfno de ri^nto 


a Country. 


Casa dc Mon^da 

Farm house 





Biirco de traspdrte 

Post office 







Ltfgo, Lagiina 



Mountain -chain 


„ baker's 




„ cloth 

Ti^nda de pallos 

Place (small) 


„ cook's 



Llano, Ve'ga 





Square, little 






RiTcr, Stream 


„ cross 

Citlle trariesa 

„ bank of a 


„ entrance of a 

Boca de ciClle 



„ main or leading 

CiClle mayor 



„ public 

Ciille publica 

,, (Country) 

Camino estrecho 







„ shore of the 




Of a City, 

Town, or Village. 





Town (small) 



Calle sin salfda 

Town Hall 

Casa de Ayuntami^nto 

„ in a garden 

Calle de fCrboles 





Of a House 

or Building. 




Alcdbfl, Cuiirto de dormir 













„ Protestant 


Floor, ground 

Curfrto brfjo 



Front, Facade 







Ldnjst B61a& 












Eating and Drinking. 

„ brown 
t, household 
„ new 
., white 

„ new 
Cod fish (salt) 

„ wild 
„ boiled 
„ fried 
„ hard 
„ new 








PKu btfzo 

PiCn cas^ro or btf zo 

Pdn fresco 

PiCn bUnco 






Qu^so fresco 












Hu^vo cozfdo 

Hu^vo estrellado 

Hu^vo duro 

Hu^vo fresco 






















„ boiled 

„ cocido 

„ broiled 

„ carboniCda 

„ fried or roasted 

„ asfCda 







„ leg of 

Pie'rna de cam^ro 




Tortilla de hu^vog 
















Pu^rco, Tocino fresco 




























PflYO, Pjiva 







„ cold 

Agua frfa 

„ fresh 

Agua dulce 

,, warm 




„ claret 

Vine clardtc 

„ light 


„ tftd 


„ \?\vV\.e 




[Scetion 1. 

Apparel, Wajberwoman, Aec. 








Caja, Cajita 

TX 1 f 

(Lencdro, Mercadtfr df 
\ lidnzos 



Draper, linen 




Mercader de s6da 


Rop{(ge, vestido 

„ woollen 

Mercad^r de pafios 






Collar, Cuello 






Orffice, Plat^ro de cm 








Mdzo de cabiClIos 






















Camisa de hdmbre 





Justice of the Peace 


Shoes (light) 


Lady*s Maid 








Lirery stable keeper 







Escarpfnes, Calcetas 






\ NogocilEnte 

,, worsted Madias dc liCna 















Pastry cook 





Portdro, Cargador, Moao 






























Qufmico, Boticario 

„ maid 



Maestro de cdches 

7 » 






Tenddro, Mercaddr 





( Conductor (of a 

cliligcnce) MayonQ 







„ female 






Waiter (at an Hotel) 













vorAiur.AiiY or F.xaT.isii and 



i Thursday 



Fno, una 

; Friday 

































The Months. 






















Di^z y s^is 




Di^z y si^e 




Di^z y dcho 




Di^z y nu€vo 

















Other Useful Words. 








BUrro, Borrlco, Asn 









One Hundred 

Ci^nto, Cien 

„ cold 

B4no frio 

Five Hundred 


„ hot 

Btffio caldo 

Nine Hundred 



Las Barbtfs 

One Thousand 



Ctfma, L^cho 


Prime ro 





Boar (wild) 

















Bot^lla, Frrfsjo 



Boy, Lad 







Nono, Noveno 














Cepillf » Brrf a 

Days of the Week. j 

















Carpet Bug 

Chamber vessel 

Cigar, large 
Coach, Carriage 
Copper coin 

Current coin 


[Section 1. 




„ pointer 

„ setter 

„ shepherd's 

„ water 


Earth, the 











Qirl, Lass 

Glass (drinking) 













Sacco Noche 





Cigtfrro, Puro 




Mon^da de velldn 

Tirabuzdn, Saca-corches 


Mon^da corri^nte 




P^rro de prdsa 

P^rro de ayiida 

P^rro de mu^stra 

Pdrro de agdo 

P^rro careador 

P^rro de aguas 














Yiso para beb€r 










Pntfrco, MarriCno 


Horse coach 
a hunter 








11 red 



Journey, tour, 


„ pen 























Ox, Bullock 

„ sheet of 
„ quire of 
„ waste 



Plate (a) 

Cab&llo de cdche 

CabtfUo de alquil^r 

CabtfUo de clUa 

(Cabtfllo de carr^ra or 
( correddr 

fCabitllo de monttfr or 
\ siM 



Tfnta incanu(da 



Toya«e,| y^^^^ 











Mi pa, Ctf rta geogr^Qca 



Mon^da, Din^ro 














Pli^go de pap^ 

MiKno de pap^l 

Papfl vi^jo 


Lechdn, Pnerco 






Postage Stamp< 
















Saddle bags 
















„ of war 

Navfo gutfrra 



„ merchant 

Navfo mercilnte 



Ship, store 

Navfo de almac^n 



„ transport 

Navfo de transptfrte 






QoBt6m), Caro 












































Miximo, Grandlsimo 









Table d'hdie 

M^sa reddnda 

































Light (not dark) 



Totflla, Fitio de numos 

Light (not heavy) 






































Usettti Adjectiyes. 








Optimo, Bonfsimo 


Cdonfda, R4iQ M 




\ . 



(Doiide, En doudc, Por 
( dondc, Adondc 

J En todas partes, Por todas 
( partes 

Que, El cual, La cual, Los 
cuales, Lascualcs, Ciial 

B ? Cual qui^re ustcd ? 

(Por dondc, Por que ca- 
\ mfno? 

Vender al ramo 

®"'v Ponscase usted en la razon 

En respecto tf En cunnto d 
Por raz<$n 
Cosa de cntidiid 

No hay tal cosa, No es asf 
1 No vale cosa 
A costa de 

* t A toda costa 

nch Me cnesta tanto 
Cudnta corridnte 

''^'l' A buena cucnta, d cuenta 

A osa cudnta 
A razdn de 
A oricnte 
Dos d dos 

A las ocho 

A declrverd^d 

The nearest way 



El camfno mas derccbe 
or mas corto . 

^^^inf" "^^ ('^ * I Aedrcate 


To rise early 

Early in the spring 





Never (negation) 

„ (time) 
Well enough 






( temprtfno 

^Al principio de la prima- 
\ vdra 




one nor the » Ni uno nl otro, Ni el uno 
j ni el otro 


Eso es el cn^nto 



A mcniido 

Ahf, AIU 


Bastante bien 

(Bien, bicn; Come usted 
(. quiera 

En hord buena, Bien esttf 

A si como, Tambien como, 
Tanto como, Lo mismo 

I do not understand you No le entiendo 

WcU, well ! 
Well and good 

As well as 


Muy bien 

Quicre usted ? 

Que tidmpo hacc? 

Hace bcl tidmpo? 

Haco mal tie'mpo ? 

Se dice 
jfaitA buen paso 
tly Al paso 

A pocos pasos 

A jiie 

iC'orcii de, Inmediato iC, 
I Junto d. Proximo d 

f C'crca de cinco mil ; ot\ 
/ linos cinco mil 

PnrienU corcaHo 

I am hungry 

I am thirsty 

I am quite sleepy 

What do you say? 

It is late 

Do me the favour 

Whence do you come ? 

As you like it 

A laughing-stock 

A thing worth seeing 

A hard task or thing 

It is very hard 

It does not matter, it is) xt 
a trifle {■ No es cosa 

So much the worse 
So much the better 
So much moT^ 

In iUe m^MAVxoL<^ 

Tengo hambre 
Tengo sdd 

Estoy muy dormido 

Que dice usted ? 

Es tarde 

Hagame el favor 

De donde riene uxted ? 

Como usted guste 

Cosa de risa, Cosa ridfcnla 

Cosa de ver 

Fu€rte cosa 

Es fudrte cosa 

Tanto peor 
Tanto melor 















[Section 1. 
















Knock (at a door) TociCr 

Mnke Hac^r 

Mount Snbfr 

Open Abrfr 

Pay F&gdT 

Place Pon^r 

Bead Le^r 

Run Corr€r 

Say Decfr 

See V^r 

gen Vender 

Shut Cerrjir 

Sleep Dormfr 

Smoke (tobacco) Fum^r 

Speak Hablitr 

Sup Ccntfr 

Take Tomar 

Wash LavlJr 

Write EscrlMr 






Espdso, Den^o 







Common Verbs. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Llegar, Venfr Llegtfdo, Vcnfdo 

Almorzdr Almorztfdo 

Tra^r Trafdo 

CompriCr Comprddo 

LlamfCr LlamfCdo 

Vcnfr Venfdo 

Cubrfr Cubi^rto 

Partlr Parftdo 

Descender Descendfdo 

Comdr Comfdo 

Beb^r Bebfdo 

Corner Comfdo 

Ir, andiCr Ido, andddo 

AlquiUr AlqulIiCdo 

Conoc^r, Sab€r Conocfdo, Sabfdo 




















Some Useful Phrases. 

Give me Deme ustcd 

Give me something to cat Dcmc nsted de corner 

Give me a pen and ink Dome una pliima y tinta 

Give mc a candle 

As you please 

Take care 

You are right 

Bring me, let me have 


Have you ? 

Too much 



Dcmc una v^la 

Como le gustard 

Tenga ustcd cuidtido 

Tiene V. rnzdn 









The day before yesterday Anteayer 

I speak a little Hablo un poco 

At break of day Al amanecdr 

At sun-set Al poner del sol 

How do you do ? Como estfC usted ? 

Do you Speak English? Habla usted Ingles? 

Do you speak Spanish ? Habla ustcd Espailol? 

At night-fall 
From top to bottom 
It is more than a year 
It is worth nothing 
What a pity! 
On horseback 
I am going to Madrid 
Tell me 

Al anochec^r 
Arrf ba dicho 
De arriba abtf jo 
Hace mas de un aAo 
No vale nada 
Que Ustima ! 
A caballo 
Voy tf Madrid 
Digame usted 

What do you think of it ? Que le parece a usted ? 

Saddle my horse Ensilla mi caballo 

How many leagues is) Quantas leguas hay de 
It from here to ? ) aqui i —. — ? 

Is the road good ? 

Yes. No 

Where is the best inn? 

In short 

Let us attend to this 

I leave it to you 

In town 

In the country 

At home 

Hay bucn camino ? 
Si, No 

Addnde esti( la mejor po- 

En rcsumidas cn^ntas 
Estemos d cucntas 
Yo lo pongo en usted 
En la ciudad 
En el campo 
En casa 



When (of time) 

Since then, since when P®*^® entdnccs, Desde 

( cvyo tiempo 





(Doude, En donde, For 
( dondc, Adondc 

(En todas partes, For todas 
( partes 

(Que, £1 cual, La cual, Los 
( cuales, Las cuales, Cual 

Which will you hare ? Cual qui^rc usted ? 

Which way? {^mfno""^^ ^''' "^""^ ''*' 

To retail wine Vender al rdmo 

^demand*** ^" y^""*} Pongase usted en la razon 

With regard to En respecto i En cuanto d 

Consequently For razcJn 

An important thius^ Cosa de cntidtid 

Very, most Muy 

No such thing No hay tal cosa, No es asf 

Quickly Prdnto 

It is not worth a rush No vale cosa 

At the expense of A costa de 

^ e^llts "'"''^'' *^ *"} A toda costa 
It stands mo in so much Me cuesta tanto 
Now Ahdra 

Account current Cudnta corridnte 

0.jaccount,inpartpay-| ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ 

At that rate A esa cudnta 

At the rate of A razdn de 

In the east A orieiite 

Two by two Dos d dos 

At eight o'clock A las ocho 

To tell you the truth A decirrerdltd 

There is the rub, that) „.^ , , . 

is the difficulty I Eso es el cudnto 

The nearest way 



El camfno mas derccbe 
or mas corto . 

Come near me (to a ) a«^,«„*« 
child) j- Acdrcate 


To rise early 

Very well 

Will you? 

IIow is the weather ? 

Is it fine weather ? 

Is it bad weather? 

They say 

Muy bicn 
Quicre usted ? 
Quctidmpo hacc? 
Hace bol tidmpo ? 
Hacc mal tie'mpo? 
Se dice 

At a good rate, step, or gait A buen paso 
Without delay, instantly Al paso 
At a short distance A pocos pasos 

On foot A »,io 

Near iCerca de, Inmediato iC, 

< Junto i(, Froximo A 

Near five thousand ^^'^rcA de cinco mil ; or, 

( unos cinco mil 

A near relation Pariente corcano 





(Madrug^r, Levantarse 
( temprtfno 

Early in the spring -f^^^PJ^^^P^^ *^« ^^ P*^*' 

Enough Bastante 

Here Aquf 

How Como 

Neither one nor the » Ni uno nl otro, Ni el uno 
other / ni el otro 

Never (negation) Jamds 

„ (time) Nunca 

Often A meniido 

There Ahf, Alltf 

Well Bidn 

Well enough Bastante bien 

Well well ! (Bien, bicn; Como usted 

' (. quiera 

Well and good En horiC bnena, Bien esttf 

f Asi como, Tambien como, 
As well as -j Tauto como, Lo mlsmo 

I do not understand you No le entiendo 

I am hungry Tengo hambre 

I am thirsty Tengo sdd 

I am quite sleepy Estoy muy dormido 

What do you say • Que dice usted ? 

It is late Es tarde 

Do me the favour Hagame el favor 

Whence do you come ? De donde viene usted ? 

As you like it Como usted guste 

A laughing-stock Cosa de risa, Cosa ridfcuU 

A thing worth seeing Cosa de ver 

A hard task or thing Fudrto cosa 

It is very hard Es f udrte cosa 

It does not matter, It Is) xt 
a trifle J- No es cosa 

So much the worse Tanto peor 

So much the better Tanto mejor 

So much more Tanto ma» 

So much less Tanto monos 

In the QX^T^WCBJ^ '^wN.^wV^^'^J^sivX^NW 


fiMi«l«x-tr'i «t>in) 

Let me sit 


A irift^ il little, li H^ Algun tanto 

Although Bien que 

But if Bien si 

Now, this being so Mora bien 

There is plenty of that Hay bien de eso 

Willingly, amicably De bien, A bien, Por bien 

Enough, abundantly Tanto de ello 

Froportionally 6" su tanto 

Equal numbers Tantos i tantos 
There&boiit8,moriBot1e«s Tanto mas cuanto 


fDdjemeusted sentar; ori 
permita usted que me 

Let me alone t>ejcmc usted eh paz 

T fit me tra (Ddjeme usted \r; (>r, per- 

Letmego j mita usted qile the ^^h 

Let us go ViCmonos 

Of little moment De tres al cutfrto 

Not to be worth a f ktthing No tener un cuiCrto 

At leisure Despacio 

A little before Poco antds 

A little iftef Poco despues 

It cannot be Es imposible 

Latterly Pepoco tiempoactf 

Let us hare clean sheets D^mos s^banas limpias 

What have we to pay ? Que hemos de pagir ? 

What o'clock is it ? Que hora es ? 

It is late £s tarde 

It does not miitier Ko 16 htee 

Open the window Abra usted li t^httfhit 

Night and da^, al#ays Noche y dia 

Last night A noche, ayei* noche 

Rather Mas bien 

Well, and what of that?|. ^^j^^' y ^^^ ^«°»°* <^«" 

To the best of my recol-) gj ^ien me acuctdo 
lection j 

. .^ «.„ \ Despues de n^ted, Cab- 

After you, Sir J- ^lY^y^ 


AN1> PdHtUOAt. 

Au revolr 

Bread iihd biitUi' 

If I can but see him 

VHiat ^or? 
As soon Ai caii be 
As soon as 
As good as 

As sure as can be 

As I am informed 

As for, as to 

As far as 

As if, as though 

As well as 
As for me 



[Section 1. 

(Hastalavista; Hastamas 
( ver 

Pin y mant^ca . 

fGon tal que yo le piieda 
t ver 


Al insiahtc (^ue ^iiBAk 

IfUego que 

Tan bueno como 

fSe^ramcnte, Sin di!da 
"i algtina 

Por lo que he oido clecir 

JEn cuanto a, Por 16 quo 
\ toca i 


Como si 

(•tan bien, oi tiii h^inb 
( como 

(Por lo que looa i mf, En 
t cuanto & mf 

As big again Dos veces tan griiqde 

AtthesignoffH^Wliitcl Al, signo del Cabkllo 

Horse > Blanco , . 

Take our horses i'oma nuestros caballos 

Open the door J^hra usted la pu€rta 

Shut the window Cierre U yentana 

Shut the door feierfe ia puerta 

I am ill Bstoy mrflo 

I am well Estoy bien 

It is true Es verdtfd 

Is it true ? Es esto verdild? 

I am a native of London Yo soy de Lo^^ra 
How did that happen ? Como fni e90 ? 
What is the price of that? A como es eso ? 

To speak oht, tb sj)eak 1 ^^^^ ^^ ^mjhdfe 
plainly > . 

T^ * - ~«.uf^.o JHa menester usted de 

Do you want anything? < ^j , 

We want nothing Nada nos hac^ fdlta 

Let us walk out Vamos i, pkieir 

To what purpose? A qu^ prbpo^ltb* 

In the English fashion A la Inglesa 

Every hour cohtiriually Cada hora 

At a seasonable time A Duenti hofii 

At the nick o! ttihe A la hora 

Now-a-d»ys En el dia de hoy 

C^rtaiijl^ Corri^nte, Ya se vd 

Of cojutp Por supu^sto 

Fareweii A dios 

Qood day Bn^nos didl 


Good night Batfnas noches 

Excuse me Perdone asted 

Immediai^l^, In a short) a » 
time }• ^ P®<^<* 

How little (indicating) 
thedifficultyorimpos-)- Que poco 
slbility of anything) ) 

Unwillingly, undesign-) 
edly, without inten- > Sin qnerer 
tion or design > 

What does that mean ? <^tie qnlere decir eso ? 

What is all this ? (Jne quiere ser esto ? 

Wiiat more does he) 

Wish ? What more it [• Que mas quiere ? 

necessary ? > 

Happ^ jrhat will» it), g ,^ , j, 

d9es not concern me i ""*»" •" h**" »»"wx^o 

Perfectly, completely A fondo 

''°h«l'tf *" ''°°*'"'''}Deberi(U8aladdcalffnno 
Face to face Frente i f rente 

In fi'ontf in a right line A frente 

Opposite, orer the Way {^'^/f-^Su ""•"'""*« 
A fresh breeze Viento fresco 

^o«fCT^^''*'^^*^^} Dlnero fresco 

Upon my honour A f6 mia, or por mi (4 

Down the stream Agna abajo 

Against the stream Agua arriba 

The measure is some-) La medida es algo 
what short f de&ciente 

Aii excellent beginning Belio i)rineipio 

Of one's own accord 
Abundantly, copiously 
In truth, in good earnest 
Still more and more 
Although, even 
Besides this 
Perhaps, if 
At latest 
To be out of humour 

To be merry, to be in) 
good humour y 

To knock or rap at the) 
door j 

Much less 

A little more or less 

Neither more nor less,) 
just equal j 

A burnt child dreads) 
the fire J 

A man of his word 

The cheapest goods are) 
dearest ) 

As you will it, let it be so 

The sun sets 

At the fall of night 

The sun rises 

The sun scorches 
With the utmost speed 
Without rhyme or reason 

Without more ado,) 
heedlessly j 


De stt bella gracia 

A chorros 


De mas i mas 

Mas que 

A mas de esto 

Mas sf 

A mas tardar 

No estar pai a fitfsta 

Estar de fiesta 

Llamar i la pu^rta 
Mucho m^nos 
Poco mas 6 mdnos 

Ni mas, ni m^nos 

El gato escaldado del 
fCgua f rio huye 

Hombre de su palabra 

Lo barato cs caro 

Como usted quisiete 

El sol se pone 

Al sol pu^sto 

El sol sale 

El sol pica or abrasa 

A mas correr 

Sin mas acf( ni mas all 

Sin mas ni mas 






Arri^iro, Azom^I, Almo 



The custom house 
Sand, a sandbank 

A muleteer 






















A water-mill 

jA ward, a district, a por- 
( tion of a city 

A ferry-boat 

A ford, a shallow place 

A wharf, quay 

(A bank of stunes in the 
1[ rlver,literallyn flint stone 

A railway, a road 

A fountain, conduit 

A district 

The post office 

Junction on rail 

An inn 

A road or street 

At Lisbon, the military 
arsenal: literally, afoun- 
dry or casting-house 

A largo place or square 

A shop 

(A tank, a dam to keep 
i rivers from overflowing 

Court, palace 


(A stoppage or impediment 
( in the river. 

A large place or square, a 

{A country house, a farm ; 
so called because the 
farmerpnid to the land- 
lord the fifth part of Its 

A street 


A two-horse cab so called 

A cross street 

A road-side i|in 



Portugal Is the most westerly kingdom of Europe. 
It forms part of the Spanish Peninsula, and Is not 
divided from Spain by any well defined natural 
boundaries. The greatest length from north to 
soutli Is about 350 miles. The average width from 
east to west Is about 100 miles. The area Is 6,500 
square miles. The principal Mountains of the 
primary chains of the different provinces are as 
follow: — 

In Traz os Montes, the highest summit of the 
Serra de Montezinho, to the north of Bragan^n, 
7,870 feet; iii Minho, Murro de Burragelro, In the 
Gerez range, 4,800 feet; In Belra, the Serra da 
Estrclla, overlooking the Zezere, Is 7,525 feet; 
In Estremadura, the loftiest summits of the 
Serra de Lousaa or do Coentral, 2,800 feet; 
in Alemtejo, the Serra de Ossa, 2,030 feet; in 
Algarve, La Foya, the loftiest peak of the Serra 
de Monchique, 3,830 feet. N.B.— The authorities 
vary exceedingly as to these heights, which must 
be considered as only approximate. 

The length of the coast line Is about 500 miles. 
Traz OS Montes is the only province which is not 
washed by the ocean. On the north, the coast is 
at first low, but It soon swells up and becomes 
steep and craggy. In Belra it again sinks, and Is 
sandy and marshy; whilst In Estremadura It varies, 
being sometimes low and unsafe for navigation, 
sometimes elevated, especially In the vicinity of 
promontories, many of which rise to a considerable 
height, particularly those of Rocca (2,000 feet high), 
and Espichel (660 feet high). Below the latter the 
coast Is high but it is considerably depressed In 
Alemtejo; and the sea being shallow, and thickly 
bestrewed with shoals, becomes very dangerous. 
From CapeSt. Vincent thecoasttrcndsofl to theeast, 
being at first high and precipitous, then, sinking 
rapidly, it is lost on the Spanish boundaries, in la]*ge 
ii\\\i\ bapks of i>|es of sand, one of yy\\\i:\\ fovpis tU§ 



low point called Cabo Santa Maria. Besides those 
sandy islets on the south, no others arc found along 
the coasts of Port^agal,exceptthe Borlengas, a small 
group to the east of Fenich in Estremadura. 

Tho TagUS, called by the Portuguese Tejo, and 
by the Spaniards Tajo, rises in the Sierra de 
Albarracin, flows through New Castile and Spanish 
Estremadura, andhaving divided PortugueseEstre- 
madura into two unequal parts, disembogues in the 
Atlantic. Its great width near the mouth, which 
resembles an immense lake, forms at Lisbon one 
of the finest and safest ports in the world. Its 
watcrft annually overflow and fertilise the extensive 
plains in the environs of Santarcm and Villa 
Franca, and form lower dow^n many marshes, 
called Lizirias, which yield a considerable revenue, 
and whose superficial area occupies 70 square miles. 
It is navigable for flat-bottomed boats as far as 
Abrautes; and in winter as far as its confluence 
with the Roda6. Both tho rapidity of its current, 
and the rocks which block up its channel, render 
it unfit for navigation further. The influence 
of the spring tides is felt as far as Omnias, a little 
below Santarem. It was formerly celebrated for 
the grains of gold mingled with its sands. Its 
principal tributaries are, on the north, the Elga, 
the Ponsel, and the rapid Zezere; on the south, the 
Sever, the Sorraga (in some maps wrongly called 
Zatas), and the Camba. None of these arc navig- 

The other navigable rivers are the Douro, the 
Minho, the Guadiana, and tho Saado, but these, 
with the exception of the latter, come more properly 
under Spain. The Saado or SadaO (in some maps 
termed Caida{}) rises in Alemtejo, on the declivity 
of the Serra de Monchique, and flows in a north- 
west course towards Estremadura. Here it becomes 
navigable from Porto de Rey, after which it forms 
a bay to the south of Setubal, by which it enters 
the ocean. The Mondego, the largest stream that 
rises in Portugal, has its source in the Estrella, 
not far from Guarda, crosses Beira and the vast 
plains of Coimbra, and finally forms the port of 
Figueira, near Buarcos. Tliis river is navigable 
for CO miles, except in summer, when it admits 
vessels no farther than Coimbra. Its sands 
occasionally yield grains of gold. Its chief 
tributaries arc thp paO on the right, and the Ccira 

on IJie left. The Gavado rises in the Serra de 
Gerez, i*! Traz os Montes, traverses the province 
of Minho, and enters the sea near Esposenda. It 
is only navigable for seven miles. The Ave springs 
out of the Serra de Cabreira, and disembogues 
near Villa do Conde. The Vouga rises in the 
mountains of Beira, runs through this province, 
and having joined the Rio d'Ovar, and formed a 
small lake, empties itself into the sea below Aveiro, 
of which place it forms the port. The Odemira 
rises in the Serra de Monchique, and at its mouth 
forms the port of Villa Nova de Milfontes. It is 
navigable for 12 miles up to Odemira. The 
Portimad has its source in thcsameScrra, and forms 
at its mouth the port of Villa Nova de Portimad. 
This river, which is the principal stream in 
Algarve, is navigable as far as Silves. The 
Quarteira descends from the Serra de Caldeira5, 
and forms at its mouth the small port of Quarteira. 

Although all these rivers have channelled bods 
of no mean depth for themselves, they arc yet very 
low in summer, and many of the smaller are 
completely dried up. On tho other hand, when 
swollen by the winter rains, they inundate the 
neighbouring country, much to its advantage, on 
account of tho rich deposits wliicli they in general 
leave. Those rivers might be rendered much more 
available for commerce, if tlie rocks and sandbanks 
which block up the entrances of the i)orts formed 
by their several embouchures, and which obstruct 
their channels, were broken up and removed. A 
partial plan of this kind has been attended with 
complete success in the Upper Douro, and towards 
the termination of the rivers Vouga and Mondego. 

There are no lakes in the lower lands of Portugal, 
but there are a few small mountain lakes. There 
are salt marshes in the vicinity of Setubal, and 
also near Aveiro. 

Compared with its extent, Portugal aboundsmore 
than any country in Europe with Mineral waters, 
particularly warm springs, which, according to 
Vasconccllos, amount to 200; but which are little 
known out of tho kingdom. In a work published 
at Cuimbra, in 1810, by a learned physician, named 
Francisco Tavares,they are classified as follows:— 
Simple warm springs, different from common water 
by their temperature— chiefly gaseous mineral 
watf rs, whicU besides th«ir ^t:V,^<5-'>^*N ^«!s«^qjis^93's&cv 



of carbonic add g&t and sulphuretted hydrogen, 
contain portions of soda and of magnesia, with, 
occasionallf, a trace of alum, and frequently Ircm 
though in a very small quantity ; there are both 
hot and cold saline mineral waters, the bases of 
which are clay, magnesia, and lime ; some have an 
alkaline base, as the carbonate, muriate, and sul- 
phate of soda ; many contain carbonic acid gas, and 
a few even hold metallic particles in solution. Sul- 
phurous springs, both hepatic and hepatised. 
Chalybeates, in which the iron is generally accom- 
panied by the calcareous earths, selenite,the muri- 
ate of magnesia, and soda. 


The highest mountains are composed of granite. 
This primitive stone is found in many parts of the 
kingdom; the entire province of Minho, and the 
northern part of that of Traz os Montes, are formed 
of it. The Serra d'Estrella is entirely a granitic 
formation, which reappears afterwards near 
Cintra. To the south of the Tagus the granitic 
mountains pass through Portalegra and Elvas, as 
far as Beja; and the loftiest summit in this district, 
that of Foya, is of the same formation. There are 
few other primitive mountains in Portugal ; where 
the granite blends with schist it is in layers, 
and it is connected with the latter by a strati- 
fication which resembles micaceous schist. The 
calcareous structure is changed In Traz os Montes 
into a true micaceous schist; and it is only in this 
province that mountains of the latter. In a pure 
state, are seen. An enormous mass of schistose 
rock covers a large proportion of the country. 
Although of a different colour, it yet forms part of 
the primitive mountains, and contains micaceous 
schist. It lies over the granite. The frontier 
mountains of Algarve, all those of moderate height 
in Alemtejo, those of Beira In the environs of 
Castello-Branco, and the chain which accompanies 
the course of the Douro, are formed of it. The 
primitive calcareous rocks form a continuation of 
the mountains between Lisbon and Ooimbra, as 
the Serra de Loustfa, Porto do Moz, and Monte- 
Junto, with the Serra de Arrabide, and the chain 
of mountains which reaches to Algarve. In this 
formation coal is met with near Buaroos, and it 
eontatfii « ff w )tf trtfactlons . Tbii t^ck It nom- 

AHD PORTUGAL. [Section «. 

times covered with sandstone; and ai t^ape Etpl<^ 
with traces of mineral coal. 


The great difference of level in the snffao* of the 
country, which subjects It to so great a variety of 
climate, renders the vegetable productions of a 
varied description . On the loftiest summlii forests 
of birch arc met with on the sites covered with sollf 
and the cornel on the rocks. Among tlie plants ill 
the northern districts some rare vegetablea of the 
Spanish Flora are found, which, accustomed to great 
alternations of heat and cold grow here only. 
Few Alpine plants occur; since those belonging 
to the inferior regions of the Alps ean aloae 
resist the summer heat on these mouhtain^. 
Descending the mountains into the northf forests 
of oak may be seen, in which the trees, to thiek 
as to overshadow the roads, are, however, to 
far from each other as to form an agreeable pro- 
menade. The valleys of the province of Minho 
are covered with almost continuous forests of oak. 
To these succeeds a country with forests of chest- 
nut trees, true Portugruese forests, whose branches 
interlace each other and mingle their foliage. Thej 
form the ornament of the back of the Serra de 
MaraO, of the Serra d'Estrella, towards FUndaO, of 
the Serra de Portalegre, and that of Monchiqne; 
the chestnut does not grow in the warmer plains. 

Orchards are met with at the foot of the larger 
mountain chain; and lower down the cork tree, the 
kcrmet, and the fir, with lower yet, the lemon and 
the orange tree. The latter comes to perfection 
in warm and sheltered places only; it, however* 
grows equally in the deepest valleys, and in the 
region of the chestnut tree, where it forms, togethef 
with the orchards and chestnut forests, the deli- 
cious groves of Mondiique and Cintra. The olive 
grows still more widely, and it found near the 
birch trees of Gerez, and side by side with the 
orange near Lisbon. Finally in the lowest and 
warmest regions, the aloe of America is seen to 
flourish, and the date tree screens the harvest by 
its shade. 

The plants of the Flora of the south of France 
and Spain are not found In PortogaL Those of 
the Italian Flora are nearly unknown ; a few only 
of the S(clUan grow in the tenth of porttita), 



whoM i«ci preeiwly retonblet that of northern 
Africa. A flora pecnliar to the country is that of 
the shady and well watered ralleyi of Minho, and 
of lome parts of Beira. In the colder parts of this 
proyinoe some plants belonging to the west of 
England are met with, as the Sibthorpia Europea, 
ScoMhria Minor^ Ac. The low and sandy landa 
of Alemtejo, and the coasts of Beira and Estrema- 
dora, are adorned with the cistus, and many 
varieties of heath. The basaltic and calcareous 
hills present in abundance the Tarious siliqui, 
orchideonSf and bulbous plants. The odoriferous 
plants, as the rarieties of thyme, the umbelliferi, 
and spinous plants cover the highest elevations of 
the calcareous mountains. The deserts begin with 
the schistus formation; in the warmer parts is 
seen the poppy, in the colder the cistus; beautiful 
arbutes crown the backs of the hills, especially 
the granitic, with the tinus, the myrtle, the laurel, 
and the various species of broom. The Faya of 
Mad^s is found in the south of Portugal; and the 
northern mountains have a tree of a species pecu- 
liar to them, the Azeriro (Pruntu LusitanicaJ. Link 
and Hofiinanseg^, the celebrated naturalists, who 
traversed Portugal in every direction between the 
years 1797 and 1801, collected 2,104 species, of 
which 1,682 were phanerogamous, and 572 cryp- 

The soil of t*ortugal is naturally rich, and the 
country picturesque. Husbandry is conducted in 
the most slovenly manner, and there are few pass- 
able roads. Wheat, barley, oats, flax, and hemp 
are cultivated in the elevated districts, rice in the 
lowlands. The cultivation of the vine is thp most 
important branch of industry, and the produce of 
the vinpyards, watered by the upper Douro, form 
part of the staple export. The olive oil is of 
inferior quality. Mules and asses are the chief 
beasts of burden ; oxen are used for draught in 
the provinces. Cattle and sheep are reared in 
considerable numbers, but the wool is not of fine 
quality. Goats and pigs are numerous, and fish 
abound in the rivers and on the coasts. Iron, 
marble, and salt are the chief mineral products, 
but there are also mines of tin, lead, and antimony. 
The mAhufactiuii ire dhiefly arms and porcelain 
at Lisbon, wdoilins at i*ortAtegre and Pandad, 
cotioii-8J)innini Ai Thomar, jewellery ahd trinkets 

at Lisbon and Oporto, glass at Marinha Grande, 
paper at Alemquer, and silks at Braganf a and 
at Oampo Grande, near Lisbon. 


The climate presents considerable variations in 
the northern and southern provinces. The latter 
are very hot in summer, and are subject to 
drought; the climate, nevertheless, is upon the 
whole healthy, except a few spots south of the 
Tagus, and near Setubal . The harvest is gathered 
in June. Spring tLovexfi succeed those of autumn ; 
the young herbs and foliage begin to show them- 
selves ; the orange and other fruit trees put forth 
their blossoms ; and October, the second spring, is 
one of the most agreeable months of the year. 
The winter begins about the end of November 
and lasts till February. December is generally 
characterised by heavy rains, accompanied by 
violent whirlwinds. During this season the over- 
flowing of the rivers almost puts a stop to travel- 
ling; and military operations are as eflcctively 
checked as by the drought of summer. 

The cold, however, is seldom excessive ; and it 
rarely freezes during night. At Lisbon the year, 
according to Franzini, ought to be divided as fol- 
f ows : —December, January, February, and March 
constitute the winter; the spring lasts through 
the next two months; the true summer continues 
during the four succeeding months; and autumn 
occupies October and November. The climate of 
Coimbra is more temperate than that of Lisbon, 
but much more humid, and less healthy. That of 
Oporto is wet and cloudy in winter, and it is 
colder than that at Lisbon and other places along 
the coast ; and on the other hand the summer is 
very warm. The province of Algarve, from its 
proximity to the sea, which bathes it on two sides, 
never suffers the excessive heat felt at Lisbon, 
Coimbra, Penafiel, and other parts of Portugal. 
During the winter, its temperature is milder 
than the spring of Venice. The rainy months 
here are October, November, December, January, 
and April. From May, the wind generally 
follows the course of the sun, which peculiarity 
the Algarviaqs term Vento Rodeiro. iSnow, 
especially in the southern provinces, is very 
rare; although it falls more frequently than Is 
generally supposed, \xv.^^^^\Q^^^'^^^^^ Kc«wc^^^ 



[Section 2. 

however, this phenomenon is almost unknown. A 
great quantity falls yearly in the mountauis; 
nevertheless, with the exception of the loftiest 
peaks, it lies only a month in the provinces south of 
theDouro. In the two tracts into which the cold 
region is divided it often freezes, and snow falls in 
abundance; yet the rivers and brooks are seldom 

The Revenue of Portugal for 1895 was nearly 
£10,600,000. The National debt amounted (1895) to 
£ 148,500,000. The Army numbers about 84,000 men, 
in time of peace, and 150,000 when on a war footing, 
exclusive of troops in the colonial possessions. 
The Navy consists of 85 steamers (I ironclad), 
many of which are in bad condition, manned 
by about 4,400 sailors. The Population of Portugal 
in 1881 was about 4,708,178, besides 3,330,000 in 
the colonics. 


Provinces. Population, 1890. 

Minho 1,098,656 

Tn\z-08- Monies 418.917 

^**^^" Alta ^ 1,461,834 

Bcira Baixa ) 

Estremadura 1,111,351 

Alemtejo 333,054 

Algarve 228,551 

Total 4,712,073 

Exclusive of the population of the Azores and 
Madeira; which would make the total 890,134 
more. Alemtejo includes Portalegre, Evora, and 
Hcja. Algarve includes Faro. Beira includes 
Viseu, Castello Branco, and Colmbra. Minho 
includes Oporto and Braga. Traz os Montes in- 
cludes Braganpa and Villa. Estremadura includes 
Lisbon, Santarem, and Leiria. 


Portugal, which forms the greater part of the 
ancient Lusitania, was successively conquered by 
the Romans in the 2nd century B.C. ; by the Visi- 
goths a.d. 688 ; by the Arabs in 714; and after- 
wards by the Christians of Spain. In 1139, 
Affonso llenriqucz, son of Henry of Burgundy, 
having gained a victory over the Moors at Ou- 
reque, was proclaimed the first King of Portugal. 
In 1348 9ne half of the population of the kingdom 

died of the plague. The dynasty of Bnrgundy 
governed the country till 1880, at about which 
period the country rose to the highest point of 
political and commercial splendour. The Portu- 
guese discovered the greater part of the west and 
south coasts of Africa, and the maritime route to 
India, and founded numerous colonies; they also 
took possession of Brazil, which they retained 
till 1826, when it finally separated itself. 

On the invasion of the French in 1807, the royal 
family went to Brazil. On the 10th March, 1836, 
Jofto VI. died, having first named the Infanta 
Isabella regent, who governed the kingdom in the 
name of Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, as King 
of Portugal. On the 23rd April, Dom Pedro 
granted a constitution, establishing two chambers, 
and in other respects resembling the French 
charter. On the 2nd May, however, he abdicated 
the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter, 
Dolla Maria da Gloria (he remaining king during 
her minority), on condition of her marrying her 
uncle, Dom Miguel. But a party, secretly favoured 
by Spain, aimed at the overthrow of the constitu- 
tion, and proclaimed Dom Miguel King of Portu- 
gal. The Marquis of Chaves and the Marquis of 
Abrantes appeared at the Iiead of the insurgents, 
and Spain, which alone had not acknowledged the 
new order of things, assembled an army on the 
Portuguese frontiers. Thereupon Portugal ap- 
pealed to England, and 15,000 troops were landed 
at Lisbon. Thus assisted, the insurrection was 
completely put down ; Spain was forced to yield, 
and the Cortes, which had been convoked in 
October, 1826, closed its session in March, 1827. 

In July, Dom Pedro named his brother Miguel 
lieutenant and regent of the kingdom, with all the 
rights established by the charter. The Prince 
accordingly left Vienna, and arrived at Lisbon in 
February, 1828, at which time the Cortes was in 
session, and on the 26th he took the oath to observe 
the charter, in the presence of the two chambers. 
But thcabsolutists, to whom the regent's disposition 
was well known, already began to speak openly of 
his right to the throne, and to hail him as absolute 
king, and the populace were permitted to add to 
their cry of "Long live the absolute King," that of 
"Down with the Constitution." It was now deter- 
mined tUat Dopi Miguel should proc9«d to Vil)4 



Vieosa, near the Spanish frontier, where lie could be 
supported by the troops of the Marquis of Chaves, 
and be proclaimed absolute King; but this project 
was frustrated by tlic Brit ish minister, who counter- 
acted* the order for the departure of the British 
troops, and prevented the payment of the loan made 
to the prince under the guarantee of the British 
Government. The Cortes, being opposed to the 
designs of Miguel, was dissolved on the 14th March, 
and on the 3rd May he issued a decree in his own 
name, convoking the ancient Cortes of Lamego, 
which had not met since 1697. The military in 
general was not favourable to the projects of the 
prince, and on the 18th May the garrison of Oporto 
proclaimed Dom Pedro and the charter. Other 
garrisons joined them, and the constitutional army, 
6,000 strong, advanced towards Lisbon, but after 
sustaining a severe defeat, towards the end of June, 
the troops either forced their way to the Spanish 
frontiers or embarked for England. Thus termin- 
ated the first efforts of the constitutionalists, and 
with the extinction of that party the influence of 
England with the Portuguese government ceased. 

Dom Miguel now turned his attention to the 
consolidation of his power ; severity and cruelty 
were his expedients; the prisons were crowded 
with the suspected, and foreign countries were 
filled with fugitives. Many noblemen who were 
known to be attached to the cause of the young 
queen made their escape, and some of them came 
to England, where they were supported by money 
from Brazil. In June, Dom Miguel called together 
the Cortes, was declared sovereign of Portugal and 
the Algarves, chiefly on the grounds that Dom Pedro 
had forfeited all right to the crown, as well as to 
the appointment of a successor, by becoming a 
Brazilian citizen and not residing in Portugal. On 
the 4th July, 1828, Dom Miguel confirmed the 
judgement of the Cortes, and assumed the royal 
title. He immediately established a special com- 
mission to punish all who had taken a part in the 
Oporto insurrection. Portugal now became the 
prey of political and religious bigots. In March, 
1830, the regency appointed by Dom Pedro was 
installed in Terceira. The other islands were 
afterwards reduced by the forces of the regency; 
and, upon the return of Dom Pedro to Europe, 
it was w^U known that be was making pre- 

parations for displacing Dom Migtel from hin 
usurped seat. Meanwhile, insurrections repeatedly 
broke out at home, but were suppressed by the 
vigour of the government, and the want of concert 
in the insurgents. In 1830 it was estimated tliat 
the number of prisoners confined for political causes 
was above 40,000, and that the number of persons 
concealed in different parts of the country was 
about 5,000. 

In consequence of some acts of violence, and a 
refusal of redress on the part of the goTemment, 
a British fleet was sent to the Tagus, on the 4th 
May, 1831, but on its appearance the required con- 
cessions were made. In July, Dom Miguel was 
obliged to suffer a second humiliation of this 
nature; a French fleet having forced the passage of 
the Tagus, and taken possession of the Portuguese 
fleet, in consequence of the demands of the French 
government for satisfaction for injuries to French 
subjects, committed by the Portuguese authorities, 
not having been complied with. In Augrust an 
insurrection of the troops broke out against Miguel. 
On the 24th February, 1832, the naval forces of 
Dom Pedro arrived off the island of Terceira, of 
which island they took possession in the name of 
Dofia Maria, as lawful queen of Portugal. In Juno, 
1832, an expedition, 10,000 strong, sailed from St. 
Michael's, in the Azores, and on 10th July landed 
at Oporto, which was taken without opposition. 
The Miguclitc forces laid siege to Oporto, but were 
defeated in several engagements by the troops of 
Dom Pedro, who were chiefly Englishmen. 

After a siege of several months, an expedition wa s 
fitted out by means of a loan raised in England, and 
Dom Pedro, encouraged by the recent victory won 
by Admiral Napier over the naval forces of Miguel, 
sailed with part of his forces for Lisbon, of which 
he took possesion with comparatively little trouble. 
He then established a permanent government, and 
shortly after sent to England for the young queoii, 
who was received by the Portuguese nation with 
every demonstration of joy. In the meantime the 
army of Dom Pedro prosecuted its successful strug- 
gle. On the 26th May, 1834, after the surrender of 
Santarcm and otherplaces, Dom Miguel was obliged 
to capitulate and sign the conyention of Evora. 
He was permitted to leave Portugal, and to embark 
for Genoa. This event end«4 tbo straggle, and the 



[Section 2. 

jromig qaam mut firmly seatdd on the throne of 
Portagal,her father being Begent. 

One of the first acts of his administration was 
the suppression of the monastic establishments; 
and another was the partial abolition of paper 
money, and the foundation of a metallic currency. 
On the 15th August Dom Pedro was confirmed in 
the regency by the Cortes, but in the following 
month the declining state of his health having 
induced him to resign his office, the Cortes declared 
the young queen of age. She then assumed the 
full exercise of royal authority. Dom Pedro died 
on the 22nd September, 1884. In January, 1886, 
Dofia Maria married Duke Augustus of Leuchten- 
berg, who died in the following March, and in 
April, 1836, she married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha. Dofia Maria died on the 16th 
November, 1863, and was succeeded by her eldest 
son, Dom Pedro V., who being then only in his 
16th year, his father became Regent. In 1868 Dom 
Pedro married the Princess of Sigmaringen, who 
died soon after. Dom Pedro V. died at Lisbon, of 
typhus fever, on the 12th November, 1861, at the 
age of 24 years, and was succeeded by his brother, 
Dom Luis, who was a student of English, and the 
anthor of a Portuguese version of "Hamlet." 
Dom Luis died 19th Oct., 1889, and was succeeded 
by his son Dom Carlos I., the present sovereign. 

During the reign of Pedro V., considerable 
progress was made in remedying the evils 
which the War of Succession had entailed on 
Portugal, and in reforming the commercial, 
civil, and penal codes of his kingdom. The 
press was made free, and successive ministers 
governed the country by parliamentary majorities, 
and, alike in the affair of the "Charles et Georges," 
as on the occasion of the epidemic of 1867, Pedro Y. 
showed both manly courage and warm hearted 
sympathy, which made him exceedingly popular. 



2nd century. Lusitania conquered by the Romans. 

A. D. 

686. Conquered by the Visigoths. 

714. Roderic, last of the Gothic kings, vanquished 

by the Moors. 
1609. Shocks of earthquake at Lisbon. 
1994. AileB8o,bom at Qiiimaraens(ofiierf say 1109). 

1117. Shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1125. Affonso confers honour of knighthood spon 

1128. His mother disputes the sovereignty withhim. 
1139. He is proclaimed 1st King of Portugal. 
1141. In conjunction with French fleet foiled in an 

attempt to regain Lisbon from the Moors. 
1146. Shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 
1172. Affonso, with sanction of Pope Alexander, 

crowned King of Portugal. 
1186. Dies in December. 
1186. Sancho I., sumamed the Populator, succeeds 

Afifonso I. 

1188. Silves, metropolis of Algarve, taken from the 


1189. Sancho assumes title of King of Algarve as 

well as Portugal. 

1191. The Moors invade Portugal, take Torres 
Novas, lay siege to Santarem,but are com- 
pelled to abandon it on account of the 
plague breaking out in their army. 

1211. Sancho dies in March. 

Affonso II., sumamed the Fat, son of Sancho 
I., ascends the throne. 

1228. Affonso II. dies. 

1223. Sancho II., sumamed the Chaplain, or Sancho 
with the Hood, ascends the tlirone. 

1248. He dies after his deposition. 

1248. Affonso III., sumamed the Bolognese, who 
assumed title of regent on his brother's 
deposition, proclaimed King. 

1249 He reconquers the kingdom of Algarve. 

1251. Algarve retaken by Affonso the Wise, of 

1279. Affonso III. dies at Lisbon. 

1298. Denis, his son, sumamed Husbandman, 

1335. Affonso IV., sumamed the Brave, son of 
Denis, ascends the throne. 

1348. Half the population of Portugal die of a 

1856. Severe shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1357. Affonso IV. dies at Lisbon. 

1867. Peter I. ascwds the throne. 

1867. He dies. 

1S67. Ferdinand succeeds his father Peter. 

1888. Dies at Lisbon. 

CflllONO^OGT or tOKfUQAt, 


1|§§. 4^hii t. of "9fFpy Memory," lurtwa^ wn of 


|4S|L ^^tnm|, ffomamed the p^oqnent, saccee4i- 

l^i^ ^Ague l)reaks out at Lisbon. 

)^8^. Edward d^es at Thomar of the plagiie. 

Ii88. Affonso Y., surnamed the African, succeeds 
his father Edward. 

}480. He renounces in favor of his son, and dies at 

1^0. John II. ascends the throne. Daring his 
reign he received Oolnmbus after his first 
voyage to America. 

U9B. John II. dies at Alvor. 

H9B. Emanuel, or Manoel, surnamed the Fortu- 
nate, succeeds. 

14^7. Yasco de Gama saUs to India by the Cape. 

IMl. Emanuel makes an unsuccessful attempt to 
aid the Yenetians against the Turks. 

il(06. Certain persons assembled in Church of St. 
Pominic having fancied that a crucifix in 
one of the chapels emitted a supernatural 
light, and a new convert from Judaism 
having affirmed tliat it was produced by 
the reflection of the sun*s rays tiirough an 
opposite window, he is forthwith dragged 
out of the chapel and burnt, and 
9,000 other converts barbarously murderftd, 
6tb AprU. 

Iftl4. ^Btunuel makes a successful descent on the 
coast of Africa. 

im. He dies at Lisbon. Gamoens bom about 

l^n. J<rfin III., surnamed fihe Compassionate, 
8ec<md son of Emanuel, succeeds him. 

IMl. Shocks of earthquake at Lisbon at intervals 
for three days. 

|i3l. John III. persecutes the Jews. 

1657. Dies at Lisbon of apoplexy. 

1557. Sebastian, surnamed the Regretted, succeeds 
his grandfather, John III. 

1578. In an expedition against the Moors his army 
is utterly routed at Alcazarquivir, in 
Africa, and himself slain. 
Hmry, surnamed the Chaste, eighth son of 
EmaAuel, succeeds. 

579. Shocks of earthquake at Lisbon, when three 
street! wer« thrown down. 

|58Q. 69ary4iet; fmd Philip tl.olSpMn, surnamed 
the Prudent, establishes his claim to the 
tlirone of Portugal. 

}598. ^e dies, and is buried in the Bscurial. 

I5£f^. Philip III., surnamed the Pious, crowned. 
Does not visit his kingdom till 

)619. when he enters Lisbon with grand pomp. 

1631. He dies and is buried at the Escurial. 

1621. Philip lY., surnamed the Great, succeeds. 

164Q.8rd December.— Bevolution in Portugal, which 
ended in the downfall of the Spanish power, 
and proclamation of the Duke of Braganza, 
or Braganza, as king. 

1640. 15th December.— John lY., surnamed the 

Restorer, crowned king. 

1641. Slst August.— Nearly fifty persons executed 

for a conspiracy against the government. 

1656. John lY. dies at Lisbon. 

1666. Affonso YI., surnamed the Victorious, suc- 

1663. His mother acts as regent till he assumes 
the reins of government. 

1674. Abdicates in favour of his brother Peter. 

1683. Dies of apoplexy at Gintra. 

1683. Peter II., surnamed ^he Pacific, crowned with 
great pomp. 

1699. Yiolent shocks of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1706. Peter II. dies. 

1706. John Y. succeeds. 

I792. Yiolent shocks of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1760. John Y. dies. 

^760. Slight shock of earthquake at Lisbon. 

1750. Joseph succeeds. 

1755. 1st November.— <7rea< Earthquake a( LUhonj 
when 30,000 persons perished. 

1777. Joseph dies. 

1777. Succeeded by Maria, who becomes deranged. 

1792. John, Prince Begent; afterwards John YI. 

1807. On invasion of the French, the royal family 

depart for Brazil. 

1808. Dom Pedro, eldest son of John YI., taken 

with the rest of the royal family to 
1817. He marries Leopoldine, Archduchess of 

1826. Portuguese retain possession of Brazil tiU 

1827. Throne of Portugal usurped by Dom idlgiiel 

for several years. 

IHatanoeB.— rnie di 


•t. ThsTBarcbowerer. 

and UivU. Lisbon to Badaloi, by PorUH«™ ud 

porto. Him lome 0/ Ihe 

EIt«. Lisbon to Evor» and Bilrenwi. Oporto 

« chsrKo tor board ud 

to Bmja, by Ponte de Leo do Ballo, Cacrlca. 

to St. pu (ln)-. Ataomo 

Villa Ko'a, SanllDgo da Cruz, and Tebou. 

be haa without boird. 

Oporto lo Cobnbra, by Aveiro. Oporto to Sala- 

manoa, by Ssrca fl'AWa. Oporto to Vlanna, by 

rindpBll J reaatUi W by 

da>,»nd ai-e uo bcllsr, 

Oporlo to Vl^ by sea. Oporto (0 Lamego, Tlien, 

Vcntai of Spain. 

ODlmarses, Amsranle, and Lamego. Bits* to 

UIC8 by league. ganeraUj- 

Arcos, Montao. and Uelgaijo. Bnga toValeDfa, 

hat by mile, to tbe b«o- 

ortoTnymapsln, byB«™Uos, and Pont, de Limn. 


BrigainaloBrQga,byVlnbaei, Monforte, Chav«a, 

Colnibr>>,ia leagues! '» 

and Biilva^B. Faro to Lagos, by Albnfelra and 

iro, by Castro- Verde, 41 

TUlanovadePortlnmS. Faro to Caatro Marlnl, by 


lugnet; toColmbra. U' 
to Madeira, leO leagi 
league); lu Vale 

Braga, by Chavei, M lenguesi to Chaves, 41 inllcB ; , 

Tavlra, H) lea^ei ; to Lagos, 10) leagaei. Colo- 1 
bra to Flguelra, 24 mllel. Banlai«m to Torres I 
No-Ba,16nille«. Lalrla to Bataiha, i miles. Pon- 
talegre to Erora, 19 mllei. 

Postal InlormSitlon.— ' 

Aliranles. Aleoba^s, Barcelloi. Batalha. Belem, 
, Brags, Clntra, Coiinbra, Elvaa, ETOra, Golmarftes, 
, Le«a do Hallo, Lisbon, Malra, Oporto, Ban Pedro 
' de Rates, Banlarem, Thomar, and YiMti. 




via Ftanee and Hpaln, dally, Snnday OKCt 
and dne dally. The Electric Telegraph u 
over 4,000 miles (ISSS) rollowliig the la 


strella. in 

the pnvlneeof Belra, 

VllTcatre, thai of the 

erer between F 

rtugal an 

d Spain; the HaiM 

aoontaln. and th 

80^0. Soma of the 

nest BOBnery of Portugal Is 

10 bo met Trtth on Ihe 

nnka of the aomer 

loditreama. Among 

he most heautltnl 

are the Z 

zero, the Qaina. and 

ho Sever. Ajnon 

otbeis I 


ao, Pal«. Zatas 

or Soraya 

Alva, Dave, Vereia. 


la. Naba 

Le?a, and Cavado. 


panlab. Is derived from lb 

Latin. It eoirtaina, 

lowerer, many On 

able word), •odaome 


0. As Uu royal line 


Prenchorlgln, it conCalna, as one 


ny Freneh 

terms. The pronnn- 

, Oport. 


to BragBDza, by Santsrem, Abraolea, V< 

Moral Caatello Brasco, Almeida, Plnhd, Caatd I li the -variety of dialects obj 

Hoilrlgo,ToiTodoKoiMorTO,aiidOntelro. Lisbon I Uance to eacb other. Tl 

to Faio, by Uoita. Falbota, Qolnta da Badrlgo, aocordlng to Ui« nelgbbonrbi 


Castilian, or Andalasian Spanish. The letter* 
are pronounced more like tEe French than is the 
case in Spanish. Ch answers to Spanish 11, pr to 
Spanish pi, x to Spanish j, nh to Spanish 11, but the 
pronunciation is diflTerent, except in the latter 
case. French is understood at the large hotels, 
but in the interior of the country nothing but 
Portuguese, not even Spanish, is of much use. 


LISBON (Portuguese, Liaboa; French, Ll8- 


Population (1890), 307,661, Including Belem and 

Hotels.— Hotel Durand, kept by Englishwomen ; 
Hotel Central, Caes do Sodr^, close to the river 
and steamer landing; Hotel de Braganza, Rua 
do Ferrejial, at the highest part of the city; Uni- 
versal; Hotel de Paris, Rua Almada— French 

Caf<68 and Restaurants.— Several in the 

principal streets; Estrella, Rua do Ouro; Ldja da 
Neve, Largo de Camoens; Tavares, Rua S. Roque. 
GlUlMk— There are several, to which a stranger 
with friends In Lisbon can easily be introduced. 

Tramway. — Cars every few minutes throng 
the principal streets to Belem, &c. Omnibuses 
also run from Pelonrinho Square. 

Cabs. — Drive or course from point to point, 
within the walls, from 400 to 500 rels. By the 
hour, 600 reis. 

MoneYi ftc— 20 reis (the plural of real) = Id. ; 
100 reis = 6id.; Milreis, or 1,000 reis = 48. 6id. 
A Sovereign = 4| milreis ; An Oitara = 58^ grains 
Troy; Arroba = 32ilbs. avoirdupois; Quintal, 
4 arrobas. 

Post Offlce«— At the Administra^aO Geral. 
Letters to England posted up to 6 p.m. 

TeiegraplL— In Pra9a de Commercio. 

Railway Terminus for Oporto (s. e. rail), 

near Black Horse Square (Pi'ttqa do Commercio). 
That for the S. E. rail is at Barrdro, across the 

Boats to Steamers in the river, about 500 reis 
a head. A bargain should be made. 

8t6amorS.'--Tb Almada,* good point of view 
acroM the Tagaai to Balenif OaoQhas, Barreiro, 
Seixal, Ac— See BradikaM'M ConUinenM QwUk. 



cmurdi of England and Sooteb Oburcb 

Servlces.~See BradAaw'* Continental Guide. 

Houses are let by the half-year, from l&t 
January to let July. 

BritiSb Consul, &C.— See Bradihatc"* Con- 
Hnental Guide, 

Bankers.— Branch of London and Brazilian 
Bank; Banco Lusitano; and Branch of Union 
Bank of Oporto. 

Passports still required for the seaports, but 
not afterwards for the interior. On arrival by 
sea, the passport is given up at the Custom- 
House, and must be applied for again at the Civil 
Grovornor's Office. No one cai\ leave Lisbon with- 
out a passport. It can be obtained of Messrs. 
Adams & Sons, 59, Fleet Street 

Lisbon is the capital of the kingdom, and of the 
province of Estremadura. It is beautifully situated 
on the northern or right bank of the Tagus, about 
12 miles above the bar or entrance of the river into 
the Atlantic. The city is in the form of an amphi- 
theatre from the bank of the river, being built on a 
succession of hills, the highest of which is that of 
Buenos Ayres or Estrella to the west, and. the 
Castle-hill to the east. The broad Tagus gives 
Lisbon one of the finest and safest harbours in the 
world, and, according to some, capable of containing 
all the fleets of Europe. Indeed, the largest men-otf- 
war are able to anchor close to the city. Tha 
Mitrance of the river is defended by Fort SaO 
Juliad (fort S. Julian), near the north sand, and by 
Fort Bugio on a low point of rock, near the south 
sand; higher up it is protected by the Torre do 
Belem (Towerof BethlehemXbuiltunderthe reign of 
Emanuel the Great, and by several batteries on both 
banks. To the north the city is protected by hills, 
which, rising in successive ranges and somewhat 
abruptly, near Torres Vedras, extend in a line from 
the sea-coast to Alhandra, on the Tagus. On these 
ridges were constructed the intrenchments and 
fortified positions called the Lines of Torres Vedras. 

The town occupies three leagues in length 
by more than one in breadth. It has superb 
and commodious quays. The streets of the 
oldest part of the city are steep, irregular, 
tortuous, and ill-paved. The modem porUo,^**. 
the city, which haa t«^\3wwA.\X«.'^xx ^'^^'^^^ 



[Section 2, 

fine, and well laiil out. It has two fine Plazas. 
adorned with bcantiful buildings, which include 
the Exchange, the Custom-House, the India- 
House, the Public Library, and some of the houses 
of the ministers. The city Is divided into six 
bairros or districts, viz.: Alfama, Bairro-Alto. 
Bclcm, Moureira, Rocio, and Santa Cathcrina. 
Many of the squares and streets are planted with 
olive, palm, orange, and accacia trees. It is 
lighted with gas, clean, and well drained. The 
gas lights are numbered— for public convenience 
at night— 80 that a stranger has only to notice the 
number of the lamp in order to know whereabouts 
he is in the city. 

Lisbon is one of the most ancient cities of Europe. 
It was successively under the dominion of the 
Pnoenicians, the Carthaginians, and the Romans. 
At the time of the Roman dominion it was called 
Olisippo or Olyssippo, a fact attested by ancient 
inscriptions. Ptolemy mentions it under the name 
Olios Ippon. It was theonly municipium of Roman 
citizens in the province, and was named by Julius 
Cffisar, Felicitas Julia (Plin. 4, 22). After the deca- 
dence of the Roman empire it was in the possession 
of the Snevi, Alauni, and Visigoths, and formed part 
of the empire of the latter until its destruction 
under Roderic, in 713, from which time, until the 
year 1093, it was under the dominion of the 
Moors, from whom it was retaken by Dom Affonso, 
or Affonso VI. of Leon. It was shortly after- 
wards reconquered by the Moors, who retained 
possession for upwards of thirty-six years. 

In 1147 or 1148, Affonso Henriquez, 1st king of 
Portugal, with the assistance of some crusaders, 
took it from the Moors. In the reign of Dom Joad it 
was made the capital of the kingdom. In 1493, 
Columbus reached the Tagus, on his return from 
his first voyage, whence the news of his great 
discovery spread over Europe. The day after 
the battle of Alcantara, in which the Portuguese 
were defeated by the Duke of Alba, the conqueror 
entered Lisbon, and severely punished the friends 
of the Duke of Braganza, but on the 1st December, 
1640, the Portuguese proclaimed the Duke of Bra- 
ganza, in Lisbon, King of Portugal, and the latter 
assumed the name of Joofi IV. Lisbon had been 
•rected into « bishopric In the filth century, and 

when it was taken from the Moors by Dom AfTondo 
the bishopric was re-established by Pope Eugenins 
III. In 1340 it was erected into an archbishopric, 
and in 1706 Pope Clement XI. consecrated a chapel, 
in the king's palace, as a patriarchal church, and 
granted it a chapter. The Archbishop is styled 

From the earliest times Lisbon has been subject 
to earthquakes. There were shocks in 1009, 1117, 
1146, and 1356. In the last year they were more 
severe. In 1539 the shocks lasted for three days. 
In 1579 several streets were thrown down, and in 
1699 and 1722 there were some violent horizontal 
shocks. The great Earthqualce of Lisbon took 
place on the 1st November, 1755, but its eflects were 
felt at an immense distance from the city. Previous 
to it the following peculiarities of the weather were 
remarked. In 1750, Lisbon experienced a slight but 
sensible tremour of the earth, and similar very 
slight tremours were frequently perceived in the 
course of the four following years, which proved so 
very dry that several springs and fountains, usually 
abundant, failed entirely. The wind mostly blew 
from the north, or the north-east. The next year 
(1755) was very wet and rainy ; the summer was 
unusually cool, and during the forty days which 
immediately preceded the earthquake the weather 
was clear, but not remarkably so. On tlie day pre- 
ceding that of the earthquake, a remarkable 
gloominess prevailed in the atmosphere, and tlie 
sun was obscured. On the fatal day, November 
1st, a thick fog arose early in the morning, but this 
was soon dissipated by the heat of the sun. There 
was no wind, nor the least agitation of the sea ; the 
weather was remarkably warm. In the midst of 
this universal stillness, at 9 35 a.m., a subterranean 
rumbling noise was heard, and soon after a tremen- 
dous earthquake shook the whole city, throwing 
several of its buildings to the ground. The shocks 
were at first short and quick, but they soon changed 
into a different kind of vibration, which tossed the 
houses from side to side with such violence as to 
destroy the greatest part of the city, killing at the 
same time, a great number of its inhabitants. The 
entire work of destruction lasted about six 

The effects In the Tagus were equally remarkable. 
At the commoDccmentof theeitrthqnake, those who 

Route 31.] 



were in boats at about a mile from the city, board 
a noise, as if their boats were running ag^ronnd, 
though they were in deep water, and at the same time 
they saw the houses fall on both sides of the river. 
The vessels were driven from their moorings, and 
violently tossed about, repeatedly appearing to 
strike, or actually striking the ground ; for in many 
places the bed of the river rose above its surface. 
It is remarkable that a new quay, with hundreds of 
persons upon it, sunk to an unfathomable depth, and 
not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the 
surface. At first, the bar was laid dry from sliore 
to shore; but soon after, the aex rolling in like a 
mountain, instantly rose to the height of about 50 
feet near Belem Castle. Another shock happened 
:it about noon of the same day, and during this, the 
walls of the few houses that remained standing 
were seen to open about a foot from top to bottom, 
and then to close again, leaving scarcely a mark 
of tl<e fissure. The same earthquake was felt at 
Oporto, at Golares, and at St. Ubes, which was 
entirely swallowed up; and all over Spain, except 
in Catalonia, Aragon, and Valencia. All the 
public buildings and 6,000 private houses were 
destroyed; 80,000 persons lost their lives; and 
the loss of property has been estimated at 20 
millions sterling. 

Lisbon was occupied by the French in 1807, but 
was retaken by Wellington 1808. 

On the 6th November, 18G1, Prince Don Fer- 
nando, youngest brother of the king, died at 
Lisbon. The death of the king himself on the 
I'ith of the same month, and of his other brother, 
Prince John, on the 22nd December of the same 
year, gave rise to reports of the most painful 
character, and to the suspicion tliat, during an 
excursion to the province of Alcmtcjo, from which 
tliey had only just returned, the two latter had 

appreciated by them as a relief from the vicissi- 
tudes of a sanguinary civil war. These facts will 
explain what to many appeared the otherwise 
inexplicable tumults which followed these succes- 
sive deaths. 

The people of Lisbon 
three successive blows 
family dear to them by 
they enjoyed under it, 
to the conclusion that 

were alarmed by these 
falling upon a royal 
reason of the blessing! 
and accordingly rushed 
these deaths were the 

result of poison. Hence riotsr— demands for the 
exhumation of the body of the king, and the attacks 
upon the druggists' shops which ensued. 

The spring in Lisbon occupies April and May ; 
the summer months are June, July, August, and 
September ; llic autumn Is In October .and Novem- 
ber: and winter begins in December and ends in 
March. The climate is healthy and genial ; it is 
very hot and dry in the summer months, but is 
relieved by north-west winds. Heavy rains fall 
in November and December; cold clear weather 
prevails in January; in February the weather 
becomes mild, and spring begins very early. 
Snow is of very rare occurrence. Average temper- 
ature in summer, 71'; in winter, 62i'. Geraniums 
and aloe trees are seen in the hedge-rows. 

The population of Lisbon is very mixed, con- 
sisting of people from every province of Portugal, 
who resort hither in quest of employment; of a 
great number of coloured men from the Colonies, 
and of numerous Gallegos, or porters and water- 
carriers from Galicia, and other foreigners. 

Lisbon has from the earliest times held commer- 
cial relations with the principal maritime nations. 
Its commerce was formerly very extensive, but 
since the separation of Brazil from the crown ol 
Portugal it bos greatly declined. The exports con- 

been poisoned, wbereas,in truth they were attacked sist principally of wine, fruit, oil, and salt; the 
by fevers peculiar to the marshy grounds which principol imports are hemp, flax, corn, linen, silk, 

they had visited after the autumnal rains. 
The royal family of Portugal seems to have 
lived united in its affections, and to have 
otTcred none of t]\ >se sic'ct.irles of contention 
so frequently found in tlio. history of the earth's 
rulers. Under the Govrrnmcnt of the mother 
and her son, the Portuguese had enjoyed a pros- 
perity and trnnqniUty which were the better 

cotton, and woollen cloths, steel, iron, hardware, 
ale, porter, dried fish, and coals. The total 
exports and imports exceed fonr millions sterling. 
The domestic manufactures are paper, silk« 
and soap, all of bad quality; there are also 
potteries and sugar relincriei. The goldsmiths land 
jewellers are highly esteemed, but in most of the 
mechanical trades t lie worknicu a.c«.xvt>^ *>,<t^^5SKS!fi«^. 



[Section S. 

It was from the port of Lisbon that Vasco de 
Gama, in 1497, set sail on his celebrated voyage 
round Africa, by way of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The TaSTUS, from Belem up to the western end 
of Lisbon, is little more than one mile in width, 
but opposite the centre of Lisbon it widens con- 
siderably, the left or southern bank turning 
suddenly to the south, near the town of Almada, 
and forming a wide bay or reach about 5 or « 
miles in breadth, and extending far to the north- 
east. This bay gives to the river in front of 
Lisbon a sea-like appearance, which adds to the 
effect of the scenery. The southern bank, which 
is hilly about Almada, becomes low higher up the 
rircr, and is swampy at low water; it is however, 
studded with small towns and villages, such as 
Aldca Gallega, Mouta, Alhosvedos, Lavradio, Bar- 
reiro, Coina, Seixal, Casilhas, Montella, and 
Almada. The wine stores of Sacavem are about 
8 miles up the river, on the north side. These 
places keep up a constant traffic with Lisbon, 
which they supply with fruitj«, vegetables, 
wine, &c., besides being the medium of inter- 
course between the capital and the southern 
provinces of the kingdom, and also with Spain by 
the rail to Badajoz. Olive and orange trees, 
cypresses and judas trees, and some elms and 
poplars, are the trees seen in the neighbourhood. 

Orange trees abound both in the quintas or 
gardens, and also in open spots; they require 
much water, which is distributed by small troughs 
or channels, which are supplied by water-wheels. 
The earth is heaped up at the roots, and the water 
is conducted between these heaps. The fruit is 
perfectly ripe in May, and continues till August. 
Oranges for exportation are gathered in February, 
before they are ripe. The grreater part of the 
country round Lisbon, particularly on the east 
and north sides, is covered with large gardens, 
surrounded by high walls, which bound the view 
on every side. These gardens, called "Quintas," 
arc often of considerable extent, and laid out 
rather for use than pleasure, generally containing 
plantations of orange and olive trees, and some- 
limes vineyards and even com fields. A pretty 
large house is attached to them, in which the 
families spend part of their summer. To the west 
of Lisbon the country it not «o well cultiratod; 

the hills are more rocky and naked ; the soil eon- 
sists of basalt, covered here and there with lime- 
stone. The basalt on which Lisbon Is built 
extends to the north-west, towards the market- 
town of Bellas, and thence to the north as far as 
the Cabe9a de Montachique, and to the south as 
far as the Tagus, near Belem (Link, Travels ii 
Portugal)' Beyond Bellas, running north-east to 
south-west, and terminating on the sea at Cabo de 
Rocca, rises a high range of mountains, full of 
peaks, consisting of granite partly covered with 
limestone. The south declivity of these moxmtaint 
towards Lisbon is naked, and it is on the opposite 
or northern declivity that the delightful quintas 
and shady groves are situated, which afford a 
summer residence to the wealthy inhabitants. 

Lisbon is the birth-place of St. Antony of 
Padua (where he died) ; Camoens, the author of 
ibeLusiad; Pope John XX.; I«obo, the traveller; 
and others. 

Public Squares. — The two finest are the 
Pra^a do Gommercio and the Rocfo. The 
former, near the river side, is also called 
Tcrreiro do Pa^o, and by the English, Black 
Horte Square ; so named from a handsome eques- 
trian statue of Don Josd I., twenty-one feet 
in height. It was executed in 1776, after the 
design of Machndo de Castro. Here are the 
Exchange, -thd Custom Ilouse or Alfandega, 
several Government Offices, and an Arch (on 
the north side) seventy feet high. From this 
Pra^a issue the three finest streets of the 
city, viz. : the Rua do Ouro (gold street), Rna 
da Prata (silver street), and the Rua Augusto. 
The Rocfo, or Pra^a de Dom Pedro, is a fine 
oblong square; in it is the Theatre de Dona 
Maria (Theatre Nacional). One Square is dedi- 
cated to Camoens, and contains his statue (1867). 
The other public squares are the Largo do 
Pelourinho, where the new Town Hall stands, 
and from which the omnibuses start; Caos do 
Sodro or Prapa dos Romulares, on the banks of the 
Tagus; the Largo do Carmo, near the Ro^fo; the 
Largo do Rato ; the Largo de S. Paulo ; and the 
Caropo de Santa Anna. Bullock carts are seen. 

Cathedral, situated below the Castle of S. 
George^ It is supposed to have been anciently a 
mosqoe. The present bnikling dates from the 

Route 21.] 



twelfth century. It was much injured by the 
earthquake of 12M4, but was restored by A£fonso 
IV., whose mausoleum it contains. The chapel of 
Sao Vkmte contains the relics of the saint, and 
In a chapel of the cloisters is a miraculous image, 
called Se&or Jeses da Boa Senten9a de S^. 
The cathedral is called the Sd or Basilica de Santa 
Maria Nossa Senhora dos Martyres. It was 
erected upon the site where Affonso defeated the 
Moors, and is the most ancient church in Lisbon. 
The present building is of modem origin, and con- 
tains but few remains of that destroyed in 1765. 

Churches* — Nossa Senhora de Penha da Franca^ 
on the summit of a hiil, is held in great veneration 
by snilors, and has its history. 8. Domingos^ near 
the Ko^fo, containing the tomb of the writer, Fr. 
Luis do Granada. Nosm Senhora do Monte^ situ- 
ated on an eminence. It was much injured by the 
great earthquake, and contains the chair of 8. Gens, 
the first bishop of the city. Nossa Senhora de 
Loretto^ the most fashionable church. S. JuHao, 
built on the site of a very ancient church. It 
was much injured by the great earthquake, and 
was entirely destroyed by fire in 1816, but has 
finco been rebuilt. 

San Roqut, to the west of the Ro^fo. The 
exterior is plain, but one of its chapels, dedi- 
cated to Sad Joa6 Bautlsta (St. John the Bap- 
tist), is very splendid. Note also the fine marbles, 
the mosaics, the columns of lapis-lazuli. The 
mosaics, whicli were executed at Rome, represent 
the Annunciation, after GuidoReni; the Pente- 
cost, after Raphael; and the Baptism of the 
Saviour, after Michael Angclo. Tlie pavement is 
also a fine mosaic. In the centre is a terrestrial 
globe. To obtain admission, application must be 
made to the Sacristan. 

"The pilasters (says Mrs. Starke)" "are formed 
of porphyry, verde antique, lapis-lazuli, and 
other precious marbles. The doors are bronze, 
beautifully worked and gilt; the candelabra and 
tbc lamps are of solid silver ; and the altar is com- 
posed of lapis-lazuli, amethysts, and gold, and 
ornamented with a scriptural group in alto-relievo, 
which is one entire block of silver." When Junot 
commanded at Lisbon, this alto-relievo, together 
with most of the church-plate in the city, was 
HacKcd up, for the purpose of being conveyed to 

France, but, owing to the suddennesf and rapidity 
of hisretreat, this valuable plunder was left behind. 
The chapel of S. Roque is reported to have cost the 
Portuguese nation a million of crusades (crusados) ; 
a crusado being 2s. 2d. According to others, the 
small shrine alone cost 14,000,000 crusados. 

St. Engracia^ a large church, near S. Vicente. 
It was commenced in 1682, and is still in aa 
unfinished state. S. Antonio da Si near the Cathe- 
dral. The architecture is both severe and graceful. 
Santa Maria Magdalena^ in the Pra9a of the same 

Memoria (San Jo:i), at Belem, founded by Dom 
Jos<?, on the 3rd September, 1760, to commemorate 
an unsuccessful attempt upon his life while passing 
the spot, on the night of the 8rd September, 1758. 
In order to punish the perpetrators of this plot, 
which was without doubt contrived by Pombal, 
several of the nobility, among whom were the 
Duke de Aveiro and the Marquis and Marchioness 
de Tavora were put to death on the 13th January, 
1759, and their dead bodies, after being consumed 
by fire, were thrown into the Tagus. 

Nossa Senhora das JIferces, formerly the convent 
of Jesus, and containing sonic good paintings, 
especially the finest picture of Gran Vasco. 

CarmOj founded in 1389 by Don Nuno Alvarea. 
It was much injured by the great earthquake, and 
is still in ruins, but is well worthy of a visit. 

Saa Vicente de Fora, founded by Affonso Hen- 
riquez, but pulled down by Philip II., of Spain, in 
1582. It contains the remains of the rulers of the 
house of Bragan^a, from Dom JoSo IV., and the 
grave of the Duke of Saldanha (1876). Note the 
roof of black and white marble, and the high altar, 
by Machado. It is considered the finest church In 
Lisbon, and was much injured by the g^'oat earth« 
quake. The Naval Hospital is near it. 

Coneeigad Velha, in the Rua do Ribeiro Velho. 
It was formerly a Jewish synagogue, and suffered 
severely from the great earthquake, and the fire 
which afterwards took place, and still more so from 
modem improvements. Note the carvings in the 
sacristia, and the sacred image of Nossa Setihor* 
do Restillo. 

Estretla, finished in 1796. It is a copy on a small 
scale of St. Peter's at Ro^t vocv^.v*. ^w^ 'a.v s>5v*s.xs«*^ 



[Sectioa 2. 

superb churches In Lisbon. Note the statues of 
the saints, and in the interior the coloured marbles, 
and the monument to the founder, DoRa Maria I. 
This church is sometimes called Basilica do 
Cora^ae de Jesus, and is in the English quarter. 

Nona Senhora da Oraga, a church and convent, 
on an eminence overlooking the river. It was 
nearly destroyed by the groat earthquake. It con- 
tains the tomb of the renowned Albuquerque. 
Note also the paintings in the choir, and the two 
sacred images. 

Palaces.— The Palaco of Belem was bought 
1726, by John v., of Count de Aveiras, and here 
tlie Prince of Wales lodged 187G. It takes name 
Irom the great Hleronymite Church of Belem (or 
Bethlehem, half a mile west), founded by Dora 
Manuel, under whom Vnsco da Gama discovered 
or re-discovered the way to the Indies. The 
original building sulTerci fr.m lire in IGOl, and 
from the groat earthquake of 1755. It furras a 
curious assemblage of incoherent styles, the Gothic 
contending with the Renaissance and Moorish. 
The lateral portal possesses beauties of the highest 
order. The Church has three naves, with sculp- 
tured pillars. Among the statues is that of the 
Infante Dom Henrique, the navigator, who greatly 
promoted maritime discovery. Here are also the 
tombs of Dom Manuel and his queen Maria, and of 
Dom John III. a»d Queen Cathcrina. Catherine 
of Braganza, wife of our Charles II., lies behind 
the grand altar, in a coffin like a huge trunk, with 
a convex lid. Here the bones of Vasco da Gama 
andCaraoens were deposited on 10th June, 1880, the 
tercentenary of Camoens' death. Notice the Casa 
Pia, with a fine restored porch and window (p. 169). 
There are some noble cloisters, 180 feet square. 
Since 183* it has been used as an orphan asylimi, 
and a riding school. M. Henriade Pbnc (Esquispcs 
Portugaises) says of it:— "Les ddtails en sont plus 
beaux, qiu*- rcnscmble, auquel manqucnt Tnuitd ct la 
pcnsde. Chaque pierrc est une mervelllc adu ruble 
de grflcc, de fini et de ddlicatessc,rchausst'c encore 
par les tons dor^set harmonieux que k tcraps, dans 
ces climats bdnis, ajoute a ee qu*il toujlic.' 
y^/r/ar/if Oa^A'tftressiilatles. situated above iJic Pra^a 
'/^ A/cantara, wns the palace of K\\\\i Lui^'.s 
'^fAer, t/ie titular Kinff Ferdittaml : and is »o 

called after the Necessidades Church, which con- 
tains statues of S. Carlo Borromeo, S. Peter and 
S. Paul, &c. Here are many objects of art, and a 
rich library of books and T^ISS. It Is the royal 
residence. The gardens are well laid out, and 
contain some fountains and aviaries, and there is 
a fine view of the Tagus. 

Palacio da Ajuda (at the top of a hill, above the 
bairro or suburb of Belem), built by Dom Joa6 VI. 
Here the queen dowager lives. It contains some 
paintings (open Sunday, 1 to 4), a library, collec- 
tions of coins, (fee, and an observatory. 

Pago da Bemposta, a palace near the Campo 
Santa Anni, to the north of the city; built by 
DoHa Catherine of Portugal, widow of our Charles 
II. It is a whitewashed building, faced with stone, 
handsome, though small. Its foreground is a 
prclty garden, which, unfortunately, is separated 
from the river by a public load. Here Dom Joa6 
died on the 16th March, 1826. The building is now 
used as a Military School. Other Royal Palaces 
arc at Qucluz .and Caxias, outside the city. 

Among private Palaces the most noteworthy are 
those of the Dukes of Lafoens and Palmella; of 
the Marquises of Niza, Castellomelhor, Borba, and 
Pombal; of the Count of San-Lauren90 Farrobo, 
of the Count of Pontc, and of the Marquis of OlhaO. 
Cortes, or Legislative Chambers, consisting of the 
Houses of Peers and Deputies,, meet in the old Con- 
vent of S. Bcnto or Benedict. Here arc the public 
Archives, among which are an old Hydrographical 
Atlas (1571), and a Hleronymite Bible (1495-7). 

Museum, &C. — Mtueo Real, in the suppressed 
Convent of tlie Jesuits, or Polytechnic School. It 
contains a collection of natural history,minerals,&c., 
Chinese and Indian ornaments, &c., weapons, carv- 
ings, &c., from Africa and Asia, some indifferent 
pictures, a meteorological observatory, and a 
library. It is open to the puljllc on Thursdays. 
Viscount Daupia's Picture Gallery is near Neces- 
sidades Palace. 

Academia das Bellas Attes, or National Gallery, 
in the suppressed Convent of San Francisco. The 
collection of about 870 works is neither hnporlant 
nor large. The best pictures arc by Gran Vasco, 
the Coclhos, and Soqueira. The academy is open 
from nVnc Vo Wuc^ 'u\ %vvvuu,v<iv. ami nine to two ii\ 

Route 21.] 

Academia Real das Sciences (Royal Academy of 
Sciences), founded In 1779, by the Dukeof Lafoens, 
and subsequently extended by government aid. It 
is at the Jesus Convent. 

CoUegio dos Inglezinlios (English College), founded 
in 1628, for th« education of English Roman Catho- 
lics for ihe priesthood. It has a fine view from 
the observatory. 

There is an Irish Roman Cmtholic College in the 
Dominican Convent, for the instruction of priests. 

Libraries.— Lisbon possesses a great many 
libraries. One formed of books from the libraries 
of the suppressed convents Is styled the Dihliotheca 
Publico (Public Library), situated In the convent 
of San Francisco, near the Picture Gallery (as above) 
and contains 300,000 vols., and 5,000 MSS., among 
which are the 300 Cistercian MSS. It possesses 
the large Bible which belonged to the kings of 
tJustile. The public are admitted daily (except 
Sundays), between nine and three. The BibHotheca 
ila Academia (Academy of Sciences) is situated in the 
Rua de Arco. It possesses about 90,000 vols., and 
there is a good catalogue. It is open to the public 
on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from nine 
to three, and on Wednesdays and Fridays. 

The BiMiotheca da Ajitda^ at the Palace, containing 
a good collection of books; the Bibliotheca da Afar inlia 
and the Archlvo do Torre do Tombo, In the Cal^ada 
da Estrella, which Is said to possess some valuable 
documents. It is necessary to obtain a special 
permit to inspect these. There are also several 
private collections, containing some rare works. 
Among others are that of the Marquis de Penalva 
(17,0U0 vols.) ; that of Baron Sombral (from 
10,000 to 13,000 vols.); and that of the Count de 
Linhares. The collection of Dom F. do Mcllo, 
containing 15,000 vols., has been purchased by the 
Government, and added to the Blbllotheca Publlca. 

Charitable Institutions.— -i^ Casa Pia, in 

the Bclcm Convent, for orphans. It takes care of 
about 1,030 children, of both sexes, and Includes an 
asylum for «lcaf and dumb, and for the blind. It 
id the largest and most import aut charitable Insti- 
tution in the kingdom. Tha Sala dos Keys cou- 
taiuH full length portraits of ail the kings of 
Portugal ; they arc poorly executed but are 
jlUtlientic. and th<?r<?fore JnlcveMiug, Note also 



the fine marble staircase. Santa Casa de Miseri- 
cordia, adjoining S. Roque, founded by Dom 
Manuel, for orphans and foundlings. It receives 
about 2,000 children. Hospital da Estrellinha, a 
military hospital, near the Passelo de Estrella; 
Hospital de Belem, another military hospital for 
ocular diseases. Hospital de Rilhafolles (lunatic 
asylum), near the Campo de Santa Anna. Tho 
number of Inmates Is about 400. It was orl> 
glnally a convent, and subsequently a military 
college. Marine Hospital, capable of accommo* 
dating 400 patients. The marble statue at tho 
entrance. Is that of Dom Joa6 VI., during whose 
regency It was established. Prior to 1747 It apper- 
tained to the Jesuits. 

Hospital de S. Lazaro, for cutaneous diseases. 

Asylo de Mendicade^ in the suppressed Convent 
of S. Antonio, for aged persons having no means 
of subsistence. 

Public Edifices. — CVwa de Moeda (Mint), on 
the banks of the Ta:us, near the Largo de S. 
Paulo. Parliament Hottse, near here. 

Fundigaif, or Arsenal do Exercito (Military 
Arsenal), situated on the banks of the Tagus. It 
Is divided Into two parts, the Fundl9a6 de Clma, 
contalnhig the cannon foundry, and the Fundl^ad 
do Baixo. The latter has a fine fa9ade, with 
Corinthiiin columns, and the painted ceilings arc 
very fine. It contains, amongst other objects 
worthy of note, an armoury of ancient weapons 
and engines of war. The lion of this place is the 
great caxuion, 20 feet long, taken by Da Cunha, at 
the siege of Dlu, In India, 1639. Strangers arc 
readily admitted on application to the officer on 

Arsenal da Marinha (Naval Arsenal), also situ- 
ated on the banks of the river, near Pelourinha 
Square. It contains the naval magazines and the 
Marino Schools, with a Museum (open 1 to 3); and 
a good Sulphur Spring. The large room called 
the Sala do Rlsco is 250 feet long by 45 broad. 

CastellodeS. Jorge (castle of St. George), situated 
on one of the loftiest heights, at a good point of 
view. It is surrounded with walls, and anciently 
had seventy-seven towers and seventy-six gate». 
Its walls enclose quarters for soldiers, a military 
prison, and a church, which contains an image of 

S. Jorge, 

» Tooroi, where tha bnll-flghts tnkt 
mer. li •Itutcd iD tha Fnifa do 
■.BQ. It It ntiuUy opeu In nuniMr. 
,t) In FortDgsl ere not on tha Isrga 

e«(hed»li sndtbeAl)ube,foi 
Aqncduet. dai Agtxu Um 
b« cDmp»rad with muir o\ 
(iitnedact may t>« looked upon 

PolylAshnicBL Atenida da Liberdadt, ft 
1 beanlltui bonlaTird (well (toqoented)i 

CBP Tslley, by n runge of lhlrty-fi«* nrches. The 
ntre ona of these l9 snlil lo be the hlehat ucb 
tha world, end the view from the gronn.l, lookldp 
pwerdi at It, Is beyond meuura grand and Im- 
loilnff. The arched man acrnii tha •allay near 

Ciunpa da Koiia Ijanbarsdot t^Bzerea.contBlnlnE 
Cemlterlo Alio, the Ajnda; and the 0. Cyprai^ 

te> on the hill at the Eitrella. Tha Uit l> tfa« 

to Fielding, tha ngveliil, who died here, wid la 

tlio English chaplain, the Bet. 0. Pope. 
UarketS near the Rocfo and the Caa. da Sodra. 

l.bon li abont I,tM (act long, J*0 feet high, and 

lor Tegetablea, fish, 4c. 

10 reet wide \ and I9 ot sseh solidity that only a 

Carriage! may be hired of tha CompanMs 

one In the principal arch wa> dl,placed .1 tha 

ad one to holle-e thnt they were, at the anclantt 

DiBtM10e»-Ll.l.on Ilea SIM milet <by rail) 8.W. 
Badajoi! 7J miles W.N.W.otETor.- and SO a-TT. 

here elia inperioded Ihe necetiltyof inch >to- 

of Abrantas. Raaaaf lo Madrid, vli Talanola da 
Alcantara, lee Rente 23. To Oporto, tta Pombal 
and Colmbra. >ee Eonte. M and SB. 

TllWtrea, fcO.-msK™ & SaJ Cai-'o. (Italian 

HOXJTE Sl—Conftnuerf. 

Tba Ovma 

London without Kt 
SI. Panrt The di: 

I Snndayt, Tneadayi, and I < 

Route 21 .] 



in the midst of orange trees, orchards, &e. In the 
vicinity is the once famous Dominican convent, 
now converted into a manufactory. The church 
is still standing, and contains some monuments 
worthy of inspection, and the image of S. Maria, 
brought by the Portuguese squadron from Tunis. 
The palace at QudUZ was founded by Dom 
Pedro III. In one of the rooms is the bed in 
which Dom Pedro IV. died. This room is called 
Don Quixote, from a series of painted panels, 
representing adventures of the knight. In the 
Oratory is an agate column, brought from Hercu- 
laneum. The gardens are all very charming. 

Bamalliao, at the entrance to Cintra, was 
occupied 1787, by Beclcford (the author of Vathek}, 
for a few months. In 1794, he bought Mont- 
B6rrate, a mile or two west, which Mr. De Yismes, 
an English merchant, had built some years 
previously. This fell into ruin (see Byron's 
Childe Harold)^ and has been rebuilt by its present 
owner, Mr. Cook, of St. Paul's Churchyard, who 
has the Portuguese title of Viscount. It is 
a richly furnished marble pile, in the style of 
the Alhambra, surrounded by gardens of rare trees 
and shrubs, and may be seen by ticket obtained at 
Lisbon, Mr. Payant, Rua da Magdalena. 

The only station between Lisbon and Cintra is 
Cacem, where the line to Figueira da Fox turns off. 


Population, 4,810. 

Hotels. — Lawrence's; Nunes. There are a 
great many lodging houses in the town. 

Cintra is situated in the province of Estrema- 
dura, in the comarca or district of Alemquer. It 
stands near the mouth of the Tagus, on the slope 
of the Serra de Cintra, which is the western 
extremity of the great central chain that crosses 
the peninsula from the Ebro to the Atlantic, 
and of which the Serra d'Estrella and the Monte 
Junto in Portugal form part. Cintra and its 
neighbourhood are celebrated for their mild 
climate. It is the summer residence of the wealthy 
inhabitants of Lisbon, and especially of the 
foreign merchants, and persons of rank under 
government. The months of August and Sep- 
tember, when everything is parched round Lisbon, 
are passed here on mountahis which aflbrd plenty 
of water, verdTwe, and shada. In the midst of 

summer the nights are cool, and the houses, which 
are dispersed among rocks, gardens, and wood, 
present an agreeable retiremoit. The mountains 
of Cintra, called by the ancients. Monies Luna, lie 
north-east and south-east, and terminate in the 
Cabo de Rocca. They consist of granite, com- 
posed of clear white quartz, a somewhat reddish 
felspar, and black mica, against which leans a 
white or foliaceous limestone, or a proper stink- 
stone. The south side, towards Lisbon, is arid, 
naked, parched up, consisting of bare, heaped-up 
rocks, and affords a wild, desert, dreary prospect. 
But on the north side, looking down the slope 
or "Serra de Cintra," everything seems to be 
changed. The whole declivity, to a certain height, 
is covered with country houses and charming 
quintas, forming a shady wood of the finest trees, 
such as oaks of various kinds, pines, lemons, figs, 
and other fruit trees. Streams issue everywhere 
from the rocks, and form cool, mossy spots. It 
produces a well-known pleasant wine like Bur- 
gundy. Pure white marble is quarried here. 

On one of the high points, floating, as it were, 
in the air, is seen a monastery, and on another the 
ruins of a Moorish castle. Where the quintas 
cease begins a thick but low coppice of strawberry 
tree, mock privet, buck-thorn, and gale or sweet 
willow, with other trees indigenous to the island 
of Madeira. A fine prospect of the well-cultivated 
valley of Colares, of the great monastery of Mafra, 
and of the sea, completes the beauties of the scene. 
Southey calls this " the most blessed spot in the 
habitable world." 

To the west of Cintra is the market town of 
Colares, and on the mountain, towards the west, 
is a small Capuchin monastery, built between the 
rocks, and called the Cork monastery. Towards 
Cabo de Rocca the mountains become lower and 
lower, terminating in a flat, desert, naked, lonely 
ridge, which forms the cape. The height towards 
the sea is from 50 to 80 feet, being broken straight 
off, and consisting of granite. Near the extremity 
is a lighthouse, not far from a small chapel. On the 
naked plain the storms rage with great violence, 
the sea bursts with vehemence against the rocks, 
and is very deep in their vicinity. From hence 
are seen the mountains of Mafra, an^ opposite ia 
the corresponding cape, Cabo de Espichel. FactbAx 



[Section 2. 

to the northward is another chain of mountains, 
parallel to those of Cintra. with which it unites; 
high and detached mountains, the Labei^ de Mon- 
tachique and others. From the sea these moun- 
tains appear like a lofty amphitheatre. Thiscliaiu 
consists of thick and foliaccous limestone. On the 
part which runs towards the sea is the castle of 
Mafra, built by JoaO V., with its monasterj-. 

Byron (ChUde Harold) says of Cintra : — 

" Poor, palliy gl«ves ! yet bora midst noblest aeeum— 
Why Nature, waste tby woadexs oa curb men ? 
Lo ! Cintra'a glor;oas Eden intervenes 
la variegated mase of mount and glen. 
Ah, me ! irhat band can pmcil guide, or pen 
T.< follow half en which the eye dilates, 
rijrough views more daxzling unto mortal ken, 
Than those whereof such things the bud reUtes. 
Who to the awestruck world unlocked Elysium's gates. 

The horrid crngn, liy toppling convent crown'd. 
The cork trees hoar that clothe the shaggy steep. 
The mountain moes by scorching dcies embruwu'd, 
'1 he sunken glen, whose » unless shrulie must weep. 
The ten<ier azure of the u* ruffled deep, 
The oi-aoge i ints ih<it gi d the greenest bough, 
The torrents that from c iff to valley leap. 
The vine on high, the win ow branch below, 
illxd in one mighty scene, wiih varied beauty glow. 

Then slowly climb the many- winding way, 
And frequent turn tu linger as you go, 
From loftier rocks new loveliness survey. 
And rest yet at ' Our lady's house ' of Woe ; 
Where frugal monks their liitle relics sho#, 
And sundry legends to the stninger tell : 
Here impious men have puiiish'd been, snd lo 
Deep in yun cave Hunorius lung did dwell. 
In hope to merit heaveu by making earth a hel\ 

And here and there, as up the crags you spring, 
Mark many rude-carved croeses uear the path: 
Tet deem not these devotion's offering - 
These are memorials frail of murderous wrath : 
For whereso'er the shrieking victim hath 
Poured forth his blood beneath the assaMin's knife. 
Some hand erects a cross of mouldering latb, 
Jl^ud grove and glen with thousands such are rife 
Turoughout tbls purple land, where lav secures not life. 

On sloping mounds, or in the vale beneath, 
Are domes where whilome kings did make repair, 
Xut now the wild flowers round them only breaUie ; 
Yet ruln'd splendour still is liugering there. 
Aud yonder towers the prince's palace fair : 
There thou, too, Vathek ! England's wealthiest son. 
Once form'd thy paradise, as not aware 
When wanton wealth her mightiest deeds hath done, 
Meek Peace, voluptuous lures was ever wont to shun. 

Here didst thou dwell, here schemes of pleasure plan. 
Beneath yon mountain's ever beauteous biow : 
But now, as if a thing uublest by man, 
Thy fairy dwelling is as lone as thou ! " 

And inn note he says:— "The village of Cintra, 
about 15 miles from the capital, is, perhaps, in every 
respect, the most delightful in Europe. It contains 
l>eautios of every description, natural and artificial ; 
palaces and gardens rising in the midst of rocks, 
cfttAractB, and prpcipicos ; convents on stupendous 
licights ; a distant view of the sea and the Tagus," 

, The Convention which Sir Hugh Dalrymple 

' signed with Marshal Jnnot, 1808, and which was 

' so n toriously favourable to the French, is usually 

called the Convention of Chitra, and was said to 

have been signed here, at the seat of Marquis 

I Marialva; but this is a mistake, as it was really 

signed at Lisbon. 

The King's Palace was formerly the residence of 
several Portuguese monarchs. It was destroyed 
by the earthquake of 1755, but rebuilt in the same 
style by King Jose, and is a mixture of Moorish 
and Christian architecture. Several of the halls are 
adorned with historical paintings. The Sala das 
! Pegas, or Magpies' Saloon, is painted all over with 
; magpies, each holding a white rose and the motto 
" Por bem" (for good) in his beak. The wliite rose 
is explained to be an emblem of iimoccnce; and 
the motto is an nllasion to the answer given by 
King John I. to his wife (Philippa of England) 
when she caught him kissing a maid of honour. 
The Sala dos Cervos was built by Dom Manoel, and 
is so called from the painted arms of seventy-four 
nobles, coming out of stags' heads. The visitor 
will be shown the room where Dom Sebastiilo held 
his last audience before siiiling on his melancho'y 
expedition, 1578 ; also the chamber where Dom 
Aflfonso VI. was confined for eight years, and 
where he died of apoplexy in 1683. There are 
some fine gardens, ornamented with numerous 
fountains. Permission to view the palace may be 
obtained from the superintendent, who is called 

Not far from the Palace, on the summit of a 
granitic mountain, ascended by donkeys, there 
existed the Penha Convent^ founded 1571. After 
the suppression of convents. King Ferdinand, 
the reigning king's father, built on its site a Gothic 
Chiiteau, in the style of Stolzenfels upon the 
Rhine. It is well worthy of a visit. The cloister 
aud chapel still exist. In the Chapel, note the 
rctablo of jasper, inlaid with alabaster, the sculp- 
tures from the New Testament, and the columns 
of black jasper. The View from the summit has 
been considered one of the finest in the world, 
embracing the lines of Torres Vedras, the 
mouth of the Tagrus, the Serra Baragueda, the 
monastery of Mafra, and the Atlantic. Beslow the 
castle are gardens and walks cut in the roc)i. 

Route -22.] 

Nossa Senhora de Pcnha has been rendered " Our 
Lady of Panishment," but, as Byron afterwards 
admits, the name means 'Our Lady of the Rock; " 
the mistake having arisen from confounding the 
two words Pena, "punishment," and Pcnha, "rock," 
written by Spaniards, Pei\n. 

One of the sights of Cintra is the Cork Convent, 
fonnded by Dom Joa6 do Castro. It is a small 
monastery of Capuchins, situated on the mountain 
towards the west, below the convent of Nossa 
Seflora da Penha. It is cxcavatc<lin the rock, and 
received its name from the cells being cased with 
cork. The elevation and vicinity of the sea cause 
a great accumulation of clouds and moisture, which 
render it expedient to have a coating of cork upon 
the walls. Here the hermit, St. Houorius, dug his 
den, over which is his epitaph: 

" Hie Houorius vitam Onivit 
Bt ideo cum Deo in coelis revivit." 

From the hills the sea adds to the beauty of the 
view. Near the Penha convent is a Moorish castle 
upon the summit of a hill overlooking Cintra. Note 
the Moorish Bath ; and the remains of a mosque 
about half way up the mountain. 

The Penha Verde was formerly the residence of 
the celebrated Dom Joad de Castro, who died in 
1548. Note the Monte das Alvlyaras, the chapel 
built by Dom Joad, after his return from India, 
and containing a Sanscrit inscription. The grounds 
are well laid out. Sitiae*, a quinta belonging 
to the Marquis of Lould. 

Short excursions may be made on donkeys 
to the Varzea Lake (or Tanquc), and the chestnut 
grove of Afaia. Your boy will take charge of tliree 
donkeys for 5 hours for 6 vintems, equal to about 
6|d. English. 

For a fuller account of Cintra, consult the LUbon 


Lisbon to Maflra, Torres Vedras, 
and Fenlche. 

The line to Hgueira da FOZ (page 186) now 

affords access to Mafra(26 miles) and Torres VedraSt 
through Cacem, 44 miles In all. 

The distance from Lisbon to Mafra is about 20 
miles by road, in a north-westerly direction, and 
9 miles north of Cintra. 


1 -q 
1 4 o 

MAFRA (Stat.) 

Population, 3,231. 

Inn.— Hotel Manoel. 

Mafra is a towni in the province of Estremndura. 
It is built in the form of an amphitheatre, from 
the foot to the summit of a hill, upon the plateau 
of which Is a vast edlQcc, combining a Palace, a 
Church, and a Convent. This magnificent build- 
ing was erected by Dom Joa6 V., in consequence 
of a TOW made in a dangerous fit of illness, to 
found a convent for the use of the poorest priory In 
the kingdom, which was found to be that of Mafr.i. 
The building, which is built of white marble, 
was designed to exceed even the Escnrial. In the 
centre is the Church, with the Palace on one side, 
and the (Convent on the other. It was commenceil 
in 1717, and finished in 1742, from the designs of a 
German (?) architect, named Ludovicl. The whole 
building forms a parallelogram, of which the 
longest sides are 770 feet. It is said to contain 
870 rooms, and 5,200 doors and windows. There 
are also two towers, 350 feet high, and nine courts. 

The Palace is four storeys in height. Of the 
size of this edifice an idea may be formed from the 
quantity of metal used ii\ every tower for bells, 
bars, (fcc, amounting to 14,500 arrobas (each arroba 
being 321bs.) for each tower. It possesses one of 
the finest Libraries in Portugal; it is 300 fe t 
long; the pavement is of red and white marble., 
and It contains upwards of 30,000 volumes. A 
wall 15 miles In circumference surrounds the royal 
hunting grounds belonging to the palace. The 
convent was formerly Inhabited by 300 FrancU- 
can monks, and some of the royal family gcneraily 
occupled the palace. Part Is used as a Military 

Beckford, the author of Vathek, says of the 
Church, "never did I behold an assemblage of such 
beautiful marble as gleamed above, below, an:l 
around us. The collateral chapels, which are six 
In number, are each enriched with finely finished 
bas-reliefs, and stately portals of black and yellow 
marble, richly veined, and so highly polished as to 
reflect objects like a mirror. The pavement, the 
vaulted celling, the dome, and even the topmost 
lantern. Is encrusted with the same costly and dur- 
able material. Roses of white marble and wreathes 
of palm branches, most exquisitely 8culQtQx<:.^> 



[Section 2. 

enrich every part of the edifice. I uever saw 
Corinthian capitals better modelled, or executed 
with more precision and sharpness, than those of 
the columns which support the uavo. Having 
satisfied our curiosity by examining the ornaments 
of the altar, we passed through a long covered 
gallery to the sacristy, a magnificent vaulted hall, 
panelled with some beautiful varieties of alabaster 
and porphyry, and carpeted, as well as a chapel 
adjoining it, in a style of the utmost magnificence. 
We traversed several more halls and chapels, 
adorned with equal splendour, till we wercfatigued 
and bewildered, like knights errant in the mazes 
of an enchanted palace." 

The route from Mafra to Torres Vedras runs 
through Guadil and Azucira. A rail was opened 
in 1887 to Torres Vedras, Gaidas da Rainha, Leiria, 
and Figrueira da Foz, see page 178. 


(Population, 4,926) lies to the north-north-west 
of Lisbon, on the Zizandre, in front of the first of 
the ridges which were fortified by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley to resist the French army under Massena. 
This famous series of redoubts, entrenchments, 
and other defences were called the Lines Of 
Torres Vedras. 

The lines of Ton'es Vedras, says Napier in his 
Peninsular War: "consisted of three distinct ranges 
of defence. The 1st, extending from Alhandra on 
the Tagrasi to the mouth of the Zizandre, on the sea 
coast, was, following the inflections of the hill, 
29 miles long. The 2nd, traced at a distance, 
varying from 6 tu 10 miles in rear of the 1st, 
stretched from Quintella on the Tagus to the mouth 
of the S. Lorenza, being 24 miles in length. The 
3rd, intended to cover a forced embarkation, ex- 
tended from Passo d'Arcos on the Tagus to the 
tower of Junquera on the coast. Here an out- 
ward line, constructed on an opening of 8,000 
yards, enclosed an entrenched camp, the latter 
being designed to cover an embarkation with 
fewer troops, if such an operation should be 
delayed by bad weather. This second camp en- 
closed Fort St. Julian, whose ramparts and deep 
ditches defied an escalade, and were armed to 
enable a rear-gaard to resist any force. From' 
J*Mti0& d''Arce§ to the neareet part of the Mcond 

j line was 24 miles, from the first line it was two 
marches, but the principal routes led through 
Lisbon, where means to retard the enemy were 
prepared. Of these stupendous lines, the second, 
whether for strength or importance, was the prin- 
cipal, the others were appendages; the third a 
mere place of refuge. The first line was originally 
designed as an advanced work to stem the primary 
violence of the enemy, and enable the army to take 
up its ground on the second line without hurry or 
pressure; but while Massena remained inactive on 
the frontier, it acquired strength, which was now 
so much augmented by the rain, that Wellington 
resolved to abide the attack there permanently. 

It offered five distinct positions; first from Al- 
handra to the head of the valley of Calandrix, 
second from the head of the Vale of Calandrix to 
the Pd de Monte, third, the Monte Agra^a, fourth, 
from the valley of Zibreira to Torres Vedras, fifth, 
from the heights of Torres Vedras to the mouth of 
the Zizandre. The second and most formidable 
line offered throe positions ; first from the mouth 
of the St. Louren9a to Mafra; second, the Tapada 
or royal park of Mafra; third, from the Tapada 
to the pass of Bucellas. The third line was from 
Bucellas to the low ground about the Tagus. Five 
roads practicable for guns pierced the first line of 
defence; two at Torres Vedras, two at Sotral, one 
at Alhandra ; but as two of these united again at 
the Cabe^a, there were only four points of passage 
through the second line; that is to say, at Mafra, 
Monte Chique, Bucellas, and Quintella, in the flat 
ground. Hence the aim and scope of all the 
works were to have those roads, and strengthen 
the favourable fighting positions between them 
without impeding the movements of the army; 
the loss of the first line therefore, would not 
have been injurious, save in reputation, because 
the retreat was secure upon the second and 
stronger line: moreover the guns of the first 
line were all of inferior calibre, monnted on 
common trustlc carriages, immovable, and useless 
to the enemy. The allies^ movements were quitt 
unfettered by the works, but those of the French 
army were impeded and cramped by the Moot« 
Junta, which, rising opposite to the centre of the 
first line, sent out a spur called the Sierra de Bara- 
gneda In a slanting direction towaf di tk« Tonm 

Koute 23.] 




Vedras mountaixi, and only separated ftrom it by 
the pass of Rulia, which was commanded by heavy 
redoubts. Massena was therefore to dispose his 
army on one or the other side of the Baragueda, 
which could not be easily passed; nor could a 
movement over it be hidden from the allies on the 
Monte Agra^a, who from thence could pour down 
simultaneously on the head and tail of the passing 
columns with the utmost rapidity, because conve- 
nient routes had been pr^Mured, and telegraphs 
established for the transmission of orders. These 
celebrated lines were great in conception and 
execution, more in keeping with ancient than 
modern military laboui's; audit is clear that the 
defence was not dependent, as some French writers 
suppose, upon the first line. 

In the neighbourhood of these works are Roli^a^ 
Vimieiro^ and Btisaco (1810), the scenes of battles 
with the French lender Massena, who was finally 
obliged to retire into Spain. One of the duke's 
titles was Marquis of Torres Vedras. 

From Torres Vedras a road runs through Lour- 
inha to Peniche. The railway to Leiria (page 178) 
and Figueira da Foz, passes through Caldas da 
Rainha (page 176). 

LOUBINHA (Louxlnliam, or Lourinam) 

Is a town of 4,262 inhabitants. It is charmingly 
situated, and the country houses and the beautiful 
environs render it an agreeable place of sojourn. 

(Population, 2,969) is a fortified town in the pro- 
vince of Estremadura, and is one of the strongest in 
the kingdom. It lies 13 miles west of Obidos, on 
the Atlantic, and the south side of the peninsula of 
the same name. The latter is a league and a half 
in circumference, and united to the mainland by 
a long narrow isthmus. The strength of Pcnlche 
consists principally in its isolated position in the 
middle of rocks, which render the approaches ex- 
ceedhigly difficult. Besides a fortress of the first 
class, it has a good fort and a phare or lighthouse 
upon Cape Carvoeiro. In 1589, the English, under 
Drake, who were sent to Portugal to aid the 
pretender, Don Antonio, against Philip II., took 
possession of Peniche, and penetrated as far as 
Lisbon. In ancient times certain Lusitanians, 
desirous of not falling under the Boman yoke, took 
refuge in the peninsula of Peniche, which then 
formed an isle, but Cnsar, after many efloTtt, 

discovered their place of retreat in the rocks, which 
they had considered inaccessible, and they were 
forced to yield. Opposite the tovra, 10 miles north- 
west of Peniche, is a group of small, rocky, and 
very dangerous islands, called the Berlengas. 
These islands, called the Burlings by sailors, are 
sighted on the voyage from England to the 
Mediterranean. The small island of Bcrlenga is 
defended by a fortress. Peniche has a small but 
good harbour, and an active fishery. In the 
church of Misericordia, note the 55 oil paintings, 
representing scenes from the New Testament. 


Llsbon to Santarem, for Madrid, vl& the 
direct line through Talavera. 

Railway.— From Lisbon the principal sta- 
tions are Alhandra, VUlafranca (buffet), 
Carregado (22 miles), Ponte Reguengo, San- 
tarem (47 miles), Torres Novas, Entronca- 

mento (the junction for the Oporto line), 

Ahrantes, Bemposta, to Torre das Vargens 

(108 miles) ; where the direct line parts off to 

Peso, Marvao, and over the frontier to Valencia 

de Alcantara, <bc., for Madrid (page 36). 
From Torre das Vargens the Badajoz line proceeds 

to Chanca, Portalegre, Sta. Enlalia, Elvas, 

and thence to BadaJOZ, across the frontier 
(page 37). See page 189. A steamer runs to 
Seixal and back. 

Alhandra (Stat.) lies on the right bank of the 
river, 18 miles north-east of Lisbon, and has a 
population of about 2,300. It has a safe fort, a 
fishery, and an extensive manufacture of tiles 
and bricks. It is the birth-place of Alfonso de 
Albuquerque, the renowned viceroy of India, and 
the point on the Tagus where the lines of Torres 
Vedras terminated. 

Villaftanca (Stat.) lies on the left bank of 
the Tagus, 20 miles north-east of Lisbon, has a 
population of 4,204, and is the residence of 
a military governor. It is well built, has a port, 
and an active general trade. It has manufactures 
of linen, cottons, and leather ; there are numerous 
saltworks on the banks of the Tagus, and hor«ft.«^ 
are reared here . It \a ^^'^ \r» X^sM'Sk x^-won. \sf«!c«aks*^ 



Henriqucz. and to have been named by them 
Cornualla (Cornwall). According to others, it was 
founded by French colonists, and if so. It was 
probably named from the old district of Cornou- 
ailles, in Lower Brittany. Hero in 1823, Dom 
Miguel issued a proclamation against the con- 
stitution. From CaxregadO (Stat.), the sulphur 
springs of Caldas da Ratnlia (Queen's Baths) 
may be reached. Good accommodation. This is 
now a station on the line from Lisbon to Figueira 
da Foz, see page 178. 

Road to AlCObaca, for which place see next 


Population, 9,414. 

HoteL— Da Felicia; Buffet. 

It is a river port and town, in the province of 
Estremadura, capital of Comarca, and lies 50 miles 
north-north-east of Lisbon. The river ceases to be 
navigable about two or three leagues higher than 
Santarem. It stands on an eminence to the north 
of the Tagus, and is divided into the three districts 
or bairros ; that called Maravilla, at the summit, 
the Ribcra, on the eastern slope, and the Alfange, 
near the river. It has an active trade with Lisbon, 
and the environs are very fertile and productive. 
It is the SccUabis or Praesidium JuHum of the 
Romans. The present name, Santarem, is derived 
from Santa Irene, a virgin and martyr. It still 
preserves some curious vestiges of the Moorish 
architecture of the middle ages, and its origin 
dates from the time of the Romans, under whose 
rule it was renowned for its beauty and its 
opulence. Santarem was taken from the Moors in 
1093, by Affonso VI., of Castile, but was soon 
afterwards retaken. It was finally recovered by 
Affonso Henriquez on the 11th of March, 1147, and 
was the last stronghold of the Miguelites in 1833. 

Sights. — Church of Sad Joa6 do AIporaG, now 
used as a theatre. 

Church of Santa Maria de Marvilla, of the thir- 
teenth century. 

San Francis, a conventual church of the same 
date. Note the crucifix at the principal entrance. 

Cbnrcb of the Jeftaits, containing some mosaics. 

[Section 2. 

Convent of Gra9a. Note the fine tomb of the 
founder, Count Ourem, also the chapel of Santa 
Rita, with her picture by Ignacio Xavier. 

Conveyance.— Rail to Valencia de Alcdntara, 
and by tlie direct line to Madrid (Route 13). 
Rail past Portalcgrc and Elvas (Route 28) to 
Badajoz (Route 7), and to Madrid. Rail to Oporto 
vid Pombal, Coimbra, and Avciro. 

Santarem to Alcoba^a, Batallia, & Leiria. 

By road, to Alcoba^a, through olive plantations 
and over the Serra do Junto. The places passed 
arc Gio Maior and Candieras. 


Population, about 1,500. 

Hotel near the church. 

The town of Alcoba^a is situated in the province 
of Estremadura, at the junction of the Alcoa and 
Ba^a, whence its name. It lies about 20 miles 
south-west of Leiria. It is justly renowned for its 
Cistercian Monastery, which is said to be the 
largest In the world, and is situated in the middle 
of the town. It owes its origin to Affonso Hen- 
riquez, who founded it in remembrance of the 
taking of Santarem, as appears by an inscription 
engraved in the Salle dcs Rois. The present 
building was commenced in 1148, and finished in 
1222. It is one of the most note-worthy buildings 
in the kingdom, and is remarkable for its sim- 
plicity. The total length of the Church is 360 feet, 
and its height is probably 70 feet. Note espe- 
cially the west door of seven orders of architecture, 
the pier arches of the nave, the circular apse and 
its nine windows, the tombs of Affonso II. and 
Affimso III. and their wives, but especially those 
of Dom Pedro and Iflez de Castro. 

The Monastery was nearly destroyed by fire by 
the French under Massena, previous to his retreat, 
but has since been rebuilt. It is said to hare been 
originally 620 feet in width by 750 In depth, and to 
have contained five cloisters. The kitchen was 100 
feet in length, and the refectory 92 feet by 68; and 
the library contained 25,000 volumes and 500 MSS., 
which, since the suppression of convents, have been 
removed to the National Library at Lisbon. Th« 
Monastery has been restored to a considerable 
extent on the ancient lines. 

Route 24.] 



The fafade, says M. Liclmowsky, although very 
ancient, reaembles that of a building of the last 
eeutury ; in the centre rises the great pignon of the 
church, flanked by two towers, and surmounted 
by a statue of the Virgin ; to the right and left 
extend two gi'eat portions of the edifice, each 
haying eighteen windows. The church is entered 
by a flight of steps leading to a terrace. The 
interior is remarkable for the beauty and simplicity 
of its Gothic style, and its admirable proportions. 
The rose window, with colours variegated like a 
kaleidoscope, rounds off above the porch. The five 
altars of gilt wood are in very bad taste; the high 
altar adorned with figures in wood, which can 
scarcely be called statues, and six grand Ionian 
columns, are the only ornaments. Behind the 
great altar is a semi-circular alley, in which open 
seven dark chapels, with altars richly gilt. In one 
of these chapels is interred the brother of the 
founder, the first abb^ of the convent.'' In the 
royal chapel are two sumptuous marble tombs, of 
liicz de Castro, of tragic memory; and the proud 
monarch Dom Pedro, surnamed the Lover of Justice. 

The remains of the Moorish Ccutle are also 
.worthy of a visit. Not far from Alcoba^a is the 
Pilgrimage church of Kossa Senhora de Nazareth, 
whi(di is worthy of a visit. 

Leaving Alcoba^a, the Alcoa is traversed and at 
a distance of 2 leagues Aljubarrota is reached. 

AJjUliaZTO^ is a place of but little importance. 
It is built at the entrance of a long and beautiful 
vdlley, where Joa6 I. gained a victory over the 
Kingof Castile on the 15th August, 1385, in memory 
of which ho caused to be built the magnificent 
convent of Batalha. 


A good inn near the Church. 

The Coil.V0llt. standing in a pine forest is one of. 
the most splendid buildings of the €h>thic style 
in the peninsula. The decorations are partly 
mystical and hieroglyphical, and have not yet been 
deciphered. The most difficult of them are on the 
mausoleum of the founder, John I., who erected 
the church after defeating John of Castile, at 
Aljubarrota, 18S5. Fordgn monarchs have also 
enriched kdA adorned this convent. It "was 
formerly the roysJ bujial piade; bat the sepulchre 

of the family of Braganza is now at Belem. 
This chef cPauvre is said to have been designed 
by a British artist, Stephen Stephenson, owing to the 
fact of the wife of the founder, John I., being 
an Englishwoman, the amiable and exemplary 
Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancaster. Another story is that a Portuguese 
Affonso Dominjuez, and an Irishman, whose name 
is variously miscalled by chroniclers, were the 
architects. York Cathedral is said to present 
many remarkable points of resemblance. The 
extent of the building, from the western entrance 
to the eastern extremity is 416 feet; from north tb 
south, including the monastery, 541 feet. The 
principal Entrance is rivalled by few other Gothic 
frontispieces in Europe. The portal, which is 28 
feet wide by 57 high, is embellished with upwards 
of 100 figures in alto-relievo, representing Moses 
and the prophets, saints, &c. 

Each figure is on an ornamental pedestal, beneath 
a canopy of admirable workmanship, and separated 
by mouldings terminating in pointed arche?. 
Below the vertex of the inferior arch is the figure 
of the Saviour seated on a throne, with one hand 
on a globe and the other extended, dictating to the * 
four evangelists, by effigies of whom heis encircled. 
The summit of the building is surrounded by a 
railing about 100 feet from the pavement. There 
is a noble chapter-house with vast cloisters. 

The church is a cross, 260 feet long, 110 feet 
wide, and 104 feet high; with a transept 110 febt 
long. The front of it, at each side of the high 
altar, is subdivided into four chapds. One is dedi- 
cated to Saint Barbara, and contains a low 
sopnlchrc of a cardinal, supposed to be of royal 
descent. The second, dedicated to Our Lady of 
' the Rosary, contains the monument of Queen 
' Isabel, wife of Affonso V. In the third, dedicated 
to Our Lady of Mercy, are the remains of John IT. 
The fourth was appointed for the remains of the 
Grand Master of the Order of Christ, JDon Lopes 
Denis de Sousa, whose valour and great .services 
as his namesake, and doubtless relative, the chroni- 
cler adds, with natural laudable partiality, well 
merited the posthumous honours. In the centre 
of the great chapel, below the altar, lie King 
Edward (or Duarte), aiid his "wife, Eleanor <s.l 
Aragon, 1438. The toxo):^ Sa VvSJs^ssqN. \»sr.xk«$Cnss«^^ 

sad that o/tHe queen grs 

spa a book. 

Opposiio to ihc truue 




ones, have no altsl- piece 





■oleuB of Hie louniler. 

^ueen, PhUippa, Is i qn 


and turmoimted hy ui of 

by eight pllUrs. The win 


■laineii e's's- The mou 




19 and b 

i. the motto, "lime pW 

On the 

^tw» recumbent lleure 

> of the 


and a 


■ right I 

togetber. IJear to this tomb 
tour tepulchtes, which conlaia the relics of thi 

Peter, the eldest, eihlbita the device of the Oriiei 
of the Ganer, o( which he wae a knigbl. Tbi 

Henry, l>uko of Viseu, shows an eacntcheon, on 
which Is the device of the Order of the Ganer, and 
the motto, "Taian dc bicn fere." The third Hn 

Is -Le bien me plait," An nnBnlehed Chapel (the 

The Hansoleom of King Emp 

LEIBU (Slat) 
I line from Uit»n to Flgnelra da Foi (pafe 

■mil inronrh Oaoem, Haita, Torrai 

■ea to the west. It la now and hai [or some yean 

»is originally a xerj splendid cdlflce, 

Lelrls contains some inlei-esting honies, wUdi, 
hough nut Moorish, have strong claims lor thdr 
mtlqnlty. The town bss saflered greatly by thi 
itrocions and wjnlon devastation cansed l)y the 
■rencb, nnder M.irgaron and Loleon, 1808. Tba 
aagulHeent pine forest. In the neighbourhood o( 
^Irla, Is said to have been planted by King Denis, 
Jid,iti" asserted, bus been the means olarreatlng 

f the eonntry. At the foot of Monte SSo Mignd 




to Pomual. (tolmbra. aM Oporto. 



reached by the diroet 

ine from 

Lisbon to Oporto, a 

own on nest page. 

miles north-west o 


granile (Stat) popniation. 

1.600, celebrated /or 

ti gia» 

eiported not only 


and the rest of 

Ponngat, hat aiao 

KouU 25.] 

ToanXLj REDiNUA, comuuA. 


to tlic most distaut colunics. The country now 
becomes very solitary, and scarcely any ventas arc 
met with. You pass the bridge over the Sora, 
a river of but small importance, which gives name 
to the market-town of Soure (Stat.), situated 
13 miles north-west of Pombal, and which falls 
into the Mondcgo. We then arrive at 

POMBAL (Stat.), on the Oporto line. 

Population, 4,478. 

Inn. — A decent estalagem. 

Railway.— From Lisbon, via Santareiu, <bc., 

to the EntroncamentO, or Junction (as in Route 
23), where the line to Madrid parts off, 66 miles; 

hence to Fayalvo, Caxarlaa, PomtMd, 105 

miles, Soure, AlfarelllOS (line to Flgaeira da 

Foz), FormoseUia, Taveiro, and Colmbra. 

See Iloute2G/oreontinu€Uion of the line. 

Pombal lies near the Sora, in a charming valley, 
and has three churches, all in a state of decay, and 
a provincial asylum. The surrounding country is 
fertile and well cultivated, and com, barley, maize, 
wine, and oil are raised. The inhabitants are 
few, and, with but few exceptions, very poor. 
There are, however, manufactures of hats, and 
large weekly markets arc held. The town gave 
the title of marquis to the statesman whose name 
recalls great deeds both good and evil. Sebastiad 
Jos6 de Carvalho e Melho was born at Soure 
(others say Lisbon) on the 13th May, 1699. After 
having been ambassador to London and Vienna, 
he was, in 1750, appointed secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, and in 1766, prime minister. He 
introduced many reforms and changes in the 
government; but as his measures were frequently 
severe and arbitrary, he raised up many enemies, 
and on the death of the king, in 1777, he was dis- 
graced, and exiled to his estates, where ho died in 
1782. To him was due the expulsion of the Jesuits, 
under circumstances of great cruelty. A good 
account of his life may be found in the Towist in 
Portugal, by W. H. Harrison, 1839. 

SlghtA—The Parochial Church, of good archi- 
tecture. Church of the Templars, in ruins (Ro- 
manesque). Moorish Castle on an eminence, now 
reduced to a mere wall. 

About 2 leagues from Pombal is 


( Population,4,600), romantically situated, 8 miles 
from Pombal. It is one of the most ancient places 

in the kingdom, and in the neighbourhood Roman 
remains are very frequently met with. The French 
claim a victory here. "Le mare'chal Ncy ylivra 
h Lord Wellington, en Mars 1811, un comliat 
glorieux pour nos armes, qui co&ta aux Anglais 
environ 1,800 hommes morts ou blesses et d nous 
seulement 200." — De Lavigne. Correct this exagge- 
ration of French gasconading by Napier's answer 
in his "History of the Peninsular War." At 8 
leagues from Redinha, the route passes Condeixa 
a Nova (Population, 1,200). From here it is 
about 9^ miles to Coiaibra. 

The traveller desirous of visiting Condolxa a 
Vellia must turn to the right of the route. At 
this latter place may be seen some ancient fortifi- 
cations and vestiges of Roman baths. The Junta 
Mountains are passed between Pombal and Coimbra. 

At a short distance from Condeixa a Nova are 
seen the charming banks of the Mondego. A long 
stone bridge thrown over the river conducts to 

COIMBRA (Stat.) 

Population (1890), 17,829. 

HoteL — Mondego. Buffet at the station. 

Access to Coimbra, from Lisbon, by rail (Por- 
tuguese Northern), 135 miles. 

Coimbra, the capital of the province of Beira, is 
picturesquely situated on the side of a hill on the 
right bank of the beautiful Mondego. It is en- 
closed by old walls, and is badly built. Its industry 
comprises earthenware, linen, and woollen fabrics, 
and combs, which are its principal manufactures 
and are prosperous. Coimbra is a bishop's 
see, and was formerly the seat of the Inquisi- 
tion. "In this city the Jesuits once had 
one of the finest Colleges which their order 
could boast; but, on the suppression of the 
society in Portugal, their college and other pos- 
sessions were applied to the uses of the University, 
which indeed is now the principal object of interest 
in Coimbra. It was instituted by King Denis, who 
removed the seat of learning thither from Lisbon 
in 1306. It was subsequently restored to Lisbon, 
whence it was again transferred to Coimbra in 
1627, by John llir—(Harri»on.) It is said to te 
the Conimbriga of the Romans. The name no doubt 
has been corrupted from €ton<m6H(^^bu.tlVsft.\^^^.vt. 
occupied the sil^ ol VVv^ WNNXt Vw^ra. ^V ^wA.*ev-«. 



[Section 2. 

few miles ditUnt. Coimbra wai taken from the 
Moors, in 872, who, however, re-conqaered it in 

It was in 1064 re-4aken from the latter by Don 
Fernando the Great, with the aid of theCid. Coim- 
bra has fignred very conspicnonsly in the military 
annals of Portugal, and has been the scene of 
some se^<■rA conflicts. It was in the yicinlty 
of Coimbra that the battle of Busaco was won 
by the Eng^iA and Portug^iese, 1808. 

The MondegOy the largest rircr that rises in 
Portugal, has its source in the Estrclla, 14 miles 
south-west of Oaarda, flows west-south-west and 
enters the Atlantic at Cape Mondcgo, close to 
Figueira, after a course of ISO miles. It is justly 
celebrated for the verdure of its banks, and the 
gentleness of its current is praised by Camoens; 
but in the winter it is liable to inundations, wldch 
frequently oocasion considerate damage. 

SS VOha (the Old Cathedral), situated at the 
summit of one of the streets. It is supposed to be 
of the date of Aifonso Hcnriquez and has been 
modernised, and of course spoiled. Note the tri- 
forium of the nave; the windows of the clerestory; 
the Romanesque windows and door; the fine retablo 
of the altar mayor; among other tombs, that of 
D. Sisnando. The interior of the building is very 
curious, it being lined from floor to roof with 
Dutch tiles presenting a variety of subjects, painted 
in bine and purple. 

The Jesuit Church is the present Cathedral, and 
is devoid of interest. 

Churdi of S. Joad de Almedina, founded by Don 
Fernando after his victory over the Moors, 
and Romanesque in style. Church of St. SalvadWt 
near the top of the hill. It is said to have 
been built in 1169, and is in the Romanesque 
style. Note the small chapel of Nossa Senhora do 
Salvador, and the Inscription over the west door 
and that outside the chancel, marking the burial- 
place of Bermudo Bermudez in 1186. 

Semia Orut^ a large convent in the lower part of 
the eity, founded in 1181 ; the church rebuilt inUli. 
Kote the tombs of Aflbnso Henriqnci and Bandio 
L; tlie coro-alto, the dauatro da numga (the 
eloiatere), the ohi4»ter-hoase, the ohapol with the 
tanb of Bt. TbMtoBloi the Mootwuto, eontainlnf 
BiTMt«Miisr Mitos mm m % wMoh an tberindh 

of the five Franciscans who were martyred in 

Santa Clara, the old monastery, near the 
river; founded in 1186, and re-founded 1866. 
The ruins of the church are still in existence, hot 
the rest of the building has been almost buried in 
the sands by the inundations of the river. At this 
convent Don Pedro corresponded with Ifiez by 
means of a pipe which convejred water from the 
FontedosAmores and how also IBez was disinterred, 
after her death, to undergo the ceremony of corona- 

Banta Clara (the new monastery) on the eammit 
of a hill to the south of the river. The old eonveni 
was nemoved here in 1649, in consequence of the 
devastations made by the Mondego. In the church, 
note the silver shrine of Santa Isabella, daaghter 
of Pedro III. (of Aragon), the work of Blsbof 
Aifonso de (^astdlo Branoo. Convent of fikan F^b- 
Cisco containing some cnriodtles, both ardrttaetiiral 
and claustral. 

nnlvenlty, alarge but plain bnildiagicanalitteff 
of eighteen colleges, now attended by 1,100 atndcoti^ 
with a library <^ 60,000 volumes, an tatttoal^fm 
museum, and an observatory. The Lisbon aolMKAi 
were transferred to Coimbra in 1806. Hie preeent 
buildings occupy the ennunit of the hiU, «m1 an 
of modem origin, principally dating from the tliaa 
of Pombal. Fine collection of natural history. 

Fine Bridge over the Mondego, the first biUlt hj 
Affonso Enriques (or Henriques). It is supposed to 
be the third that has been erected, and that there 
are two others under it, which have been sneoea- 
sively burled in the accumulating sands; even 
now, in the winter, the water occasionally ov«r- 
fiows the bridge. Rhys speaks of it as being par- 
ticularly grand. He says, *' it was built by Aflonao 
Enriques in 1182, and rebuilt by his son Sancho i» 
1210. It consists of twenty-nine archea, over 
which is raised another row, by means of which 
the people cross the river under cover," which 
would seem (says Harrison) to bear out the theory 
of the three bridges, and shows that Rhys saw two 
of them. 

Aqueduct, fronting the Botanical Garden, bnilt 
by Don MMitllo in 1666, and havfaif twtaly-oiie 

Houte 96.] 

Q^inta das Lagrimai, or Villa ol T«a¥» (on the 
farther side ef the river), the loene of the death of 
Ifiez de Castro. The story forms the subject of a 
most beantiful episode In the Lusiad. 

Books.— For the history, Ac, of Coimbra, con- 
sult Historia Breve de Coimbra, by B. de Botelho, 
1733; Antiqnidades de Coimbra, by A. C. Gasco: 
Almanach de 1' University de Coimbre ; and Monthly 
Magazine, 1841-42. 

Rhys mentions a curious Fountain near Coimbra, 
to the north-west, called Ferven9as; which, 
"though it is no more than one foot in depth, it 
•wallows up everythhig that la thrown into it, as 
trees, animals, Ac.'* 




Ootmlxra to Oporto. 

There are two routes to Oporto ; the one by 

rail, past Healhada, OllTelra de Barros, 
Areiro, Orar (page 185), Ssplnlto, Qranja, 

fo Villa Koira do Oaya ; the other by road 
through SardaO and Oltveira d'Azameis. Distance 
hy the former, from Coimbra, 74 miles. By the 
Utter, 17| leagues; past Mealhada, 3^ ; Aguada, 3; 
SardBo, 1; Aibergarla Nova, i}; OUvcira d*Aaa- 
ineis, 11; Corvo, 4}; Oporto, 1|. 

Ayelro. — Populatioii, 7,d61. The Roman 
Ateriumj on a lagoon ol the same name, is at the 
Inouth of the Vouga. See p. 185. 

Orar.— Population, 10,447 ; three miles from the 
•ea, a busy export town, mnrholesotee. 8e« p. 185. 

This route is both grrand and picturesque, itome- 
tlmes passing through Immmse ravines; at other 
times watered by limpid streams, or In view of 
distant mountains. Some of the land is well culti- 
vated and abounds with vines, oranges, olives, and 
figs ; but some of it is much neglected. Most of 
the villages are either situated in the midst of 
charming valleys, or on the declivities of hills, 
covered with luxuriant vegetation. Good accom- 
modation can be had at Sardao and Albei'garia. 
The former is a town of 2,400 inhabitants, and 
produces the wine called Bairrada or Figneira. 
The neighbouring country presents a variety of 
hdl and dale, is well watered, and abounds in 
Indian com. 

OUyelra d'Azamels 

(l*opuIation, 2,000) is a strong position, and was 
til« head-quarters of Don Miguel in 1832, at the 
tS§g»of Oporto. 

OPOBTO (Portuguese, Pocrto) (0tatX 
The railway from Lisbon, which at first ended 
at Villa Novade Qaya (or Gala), opposite the town, 
is now brought up to Campanha terminus, by a 
viaduct over the river, opened November, 1877, 
by the king, 390 yards long and 67 high. It 
connects with the lines to Braga, Vianna, and 
Valen9a, for Vigo, and to Barca d'Alva, for Sala- 
manca, Medina del Campo, Avila, and Madrid. 
Population (1890), 189,856. 
Hotels.— Grand Hotel de Paris; Grand Hotel 
do Porto. 

TramwayB.— Through the city to Foz, Ac. 

Bankers.— Van Zeller and Co.; Mercantile 
Bank of Oporto. 

Olub-llOUSe, at the English Factory, to which 
strangers are introduced by a member. 

Resident British Consul. 

Oporto (so called from Porto, the Port, or 
Harbour), the second city of Portugal, the first 
in commercial importance, is situated 206 miles 
by rail north-east of Lisbon, on a steep declivity, 
on the north or right bank of the Douro, and 
is about a league and a half from the sea, at 8. 
Joao da Foz, near the Fort and Lighthouse. The 
city proper was formerly partly surrounded by an 
old wan, 5 or 6 feet thick, flanked at intervals by 
strong towers. The appearance on a first approach 
is pleasing, the buildings rising one above the 
other. There are fine public squares or cainpos, 
and open spaces, in which are some of the prin- 
cipal buildings. The houses are of irregular con- 
fttruction, mostly in steep, narrow streets, but the 
city nevertheless contains several broad, straight 
streets, with many new and handsome houses, 
with gardensattached, filled with vines and orange 
trees. The best streets are Rua das Flores and 
ttna Nova dos Ingleses. Specially noteworthy 
are the gilded and gaily painted balconies of the 
houses, most numerous in Rua das Hortas. Of 
the squares, Campo dos Martires and Pra9a de 
SaCi Lazaro are the best worth notice; also the 
new market-place. La Cordoaria. The town has 
magrnificent quays, is well lighted with gas, and is 
clean ; certainly much cleaner than most of the 
towns of Portugal. 



[Section 2. 

Palace within the city. It has a cathedral, 90 
churches, 14 hospitals or charitable asylums, 
besides 17 monasteries, now suppressed. The 
steep declivity of the hill on which the town Is 
built makes it a very laborious task to ride on 
horseback or in carriages, although this incon- 
venience has been somewhat remedied by recent 
improvements. On the east side of the town. 

seldom freezes. In summer the heat is excessive, 
especially in the narrow valley formed by the hills 
on the southern declivity on which Oporto is situ- 
ated. Most of the plants of the Cape of Good Hope 
grow in the open air, as well as gooseberries, cur- 
rants, and other fruits of the colder countries of 
Europe. The soil, though well cultivated, is not 
fertile, and few of the productions wliich are annu- 

houses are built against so steep a part of the ally exported by the Douro, are grown within any 
declivity over the stream, that they can only be short distance of the town. 

approached by steps cut out of the rock. A Bar 
in the river keeps ships out two or three miles; 
only small craft can come to the town; and thence 
the Dour(> is navigable 100 miles above the city. 
The navigation of the upper part of the river is 
difficult and often dangerous, but the dexterity of 
the navigators of the flat -bottomed craft in which 
the wine is conveyed is wonderful. 

The city has manufactures of cotton goods, wool- 
len, linen, shawls, leather, soap, and earthenware, 
Iron foundries, and ship-building yards, and many 

Oporto was a city of great Importance under the 
Moors, but was destroyed by Almansa in 820. It 
was occasionally the residence of the ancient king's 
of Portugal, until Alfonso I., assisted by a fleet of 
English crusaders under the command of William 
Longsword, wrested Lisbon from the hands of the 
Almoravides in October, 1147. During the middle 
ages. Oporto was famous *for the strength of Its 
fortifications. To the westward along the declivity 
of the hill, a place called Cale or CaUo^ mentioned by 

silk factories In and around the city; with the ex- °^*^ ^'"^''^ ^« «**d to have stood. Oporto being 
ception of melons, which are fine and cheap, and the afterwards built, and, in consequence of the greater 
smallblackgrapes,thefruit8ofPortugalareinferior <^°P*^ <*' **»« "^e*"' ^e^"? ^«>^nd more convenient 
in flavour to those of England. Bread is of good '*»' ^^^P^ *^« ^"""^^^ ^'*« abandoned by its Inhabit- 
quality and reasonable in price ; mutton is small »°*^ ^^<> migrated to the latter: hence Porto or 
andinferior,andthebeef is tolerable; thatof Oporto ^^*'*'^ ^«'*' *•«- **>« harbour of Cale ; whence Por- 
frequently as good as the beef of England. The '«<•«'' '^"^ fi"*^"y Portugal were derived. Accord- 
production of i^ort Tr»»« is diminishing, though the ^"S ^^ «*^e'^ ''o°» *^e *i™e of Its dispersion 
export is increasing; in 1892 over 50,000 pipes ^ ^^O, it remained deserted till 899, when it was 
were sent to Great Britain, and a considerable refounded by Gascons and l^ench, and from the lat- 
quantity to Brazil and the United States. There 
are upwards of twenty English mercantile firms 
established here, who have large warehouses or 
Lodges along the Gaya bank of the river, and by 
whom much of the foreign trade is conducted. 
The wine is mostly supplied from the Alto Douro, of a fierce contest for the throne of Portugal, be- 
about 60 miles up the river, in a space extending tween Dom Pedro, the ex-emperor of Brazil, and 

his brother Dom Miguel, who had usurped the 
crown from his niece Dofla Maria. During the 
siege, which lasted upwards of a year, the town 
was partly destroyed by the artillery of the 
assailants, and several wealthy mercantile houses 
were entirely ruined by the complete stoppage of 

A Suspension Bridge (opened 15th October, 1842) 

ter received the name of Partus GaUorum^ or, Port 
of the Gauls or French. 

In 1807 the Portuguese threw off the French 
yoke. The place was sacked by the French, 1809. 
It became afterwards, in 1881-8-3, the scene 

24 miles by 12 miles on both sides of it. The 
yearly production is about 'i 0,000 pipes. The 
other exports comprise fruits, corn, oils, gold 
filagree, salt, leather, cork, sumach, and bullion. 
The imports are o-f hemp, flax, woollen fabrics, 
metal, codfish, bricks, wood, drugs, coals, &c. 

The climate of Oporto is damp and foggy in win- 
ter, in consequence of its mountainous situation ; 
but although, owing to the above circumstance, connects Oporto with the suburbs of Villa Nova 
the air is cooler than anywhere else in Portugal, it de Oaya and the Lodges there, and San BOQUe. 

Route 26.] 



Previously, there was a bridge of boats. All 
communication across was, however, suspended 
during a few weeks in the spring, when tlic river 
was so much swollen by the heavy rains and the 
melting of the snow on the mountains, tliat the 
water often rose to the height of 20 feet, as in 
1820, when it did incalculable damage to the 
shipping in the river. 

On a rocky eminence to the west of the Villa 
Nova, commanding a view of the whole of Oporto, 
is the celebrated convent and garden called 
Mosteiro da Serra (called also convent of the 
Cruzios), which once belonged to the religious order 
of Angustines. Through the ravages of civil war 
nothing now remains of this once beautiful build- 
ing but a shapeless ruin surrounded by rude 
palisades. It was here, during the Peninsular war, 
1809, that the British crossed the Douro under a 
tremendous fire from the batteries, erected by the 
French on the north side. It was from this 
convent also that in 1832, Dom Pedro, aided by the 
British, repulsed the royalist troops commanded 
by Dom Miguel. 

Churches and Public Buildings. 

Cathedral, finely situated on the summit of a 
precipitous hill, not far from the Largo de Sta 
Clara. The original edifice was built by Count 
Henrique. It was rebuilt by Henry of Besanfon, 
first Count of Portugal, a.d. 1106. Note the early 
Gothic cloisters containing the tomb of Pedro 
DuraS, who died in 1291. A fine west-end and 
handsome rose window. 

St. Martin's Church of Cedofeita, near the Rua 
da Cedofeita. It is probably of the twelfth 
century; and claims to have been first founded 
by King Theodomir, a.d. 669. Note the small 
Romanesque doors. Part of the building has 
been modernised, and of course spoilt. 

Church of N. S. da Lapa, near the barracks, 
occupies a fine position, being approached by a 
long flight of steps, and is a handsome building of 
the Corinthian order. In a sarcophagus of stone 
is preserved the head of Dom Pedro, who figured 
in the civil wars of Portngal. 

Church of San Pedro, on the site of the first 

Nosso Senhor de Matozinhos, outside the city 
near the Le^a. It contains the most noted of all 

the miraculous images in the kingdom, and attracts 
many thousand pilgrims annually. 

Carrao, in the Pra9a do Carmo. It is the most 
frequented church in the city. 

Church of Sa5 Ildefonso, in the Largo of the 
same name, near the Rua de Sad Antonio. It is a 
superb modem building. 

Torre do$ Clerigos, or Tower of the Clergy, near 
the Pra9a da Cordoaria. It is one of the most 
striking objects in the city. The steeple is 210 feet 
high, and contains a lamp which is lit up every 
night to Santa Barbara, the patroness of the 
church, to protect it from lightning, with which it 
was once struck. It was built in 1779, at the 
expense of the clergy; whence its name. Mount 
to the top for a fine view. 

English Chapel and cemetery, near the Rna da 

Convent of Sao Bento das Freiras, near the Cal> 
9ada dos Clcrigos. 

Convent of Sad Lazaro, forming one of tlie sldeg 
of the Prafa de Sa5 Lazaro, now used as an estab- 
lishment for young ladies who have been left 

Franciscan Convent, at the end of the Rua 
Nova, built by cliaritable contributions for mendi- 
cant friars. This convent, as well as the street in 
which it stands, suffered greatly during the late 
troubles. The street has been since to some 
extent restored. The church attached to this con- 
vent contains a dwarfish figure of Saint Francis, 
wliich is greatly honoured by the fair sex. There 
are also two nunneries of the Franciscan order, 
dedicated to Santa Clara, a Dominican Convent 
in Oporto, and a nuimery of the same order at the 
Villa Nova. 

Hospital Real, in the Pra9a da Cordoaria. It was 
commenced in 1769, and, although still unfinished, 
is nevertheless a magnificent building. It is ex- 
cellently managed, and Is deserving of the liighest 

Hospital de Santa Clara, an almshouse for tiged 
women in the Cordoaria. 

Gasa de Roda (Foundling HospitaH, in the 
Pra9a da Cordoaria. It receives yearly upwards 
I of 2,000 infants. 

J Colegio da Ora9a, an asylum for orphans, one of 
1 the principal public buildings. 



[Section 2. 

Episcopal Palace, to the south-west of the cathe- 
dral, situated upon a precipitous rock, and com- 
manding a splendid view. It has a good library, 
and the staircase is considered the most elegant in 
the kingdom. The edifice was greatly injured by 
the siege of 1832. 

EsgUsll Factory, near the Episcopal Palace. 
It was erected about 1790, and is one of the hand- 
somest buildings in the city. It is a sort of Club- 
house, designed to bring merchants and foreigners 
together, and contains a fine library, reading- 
room, refreshment room, and a spacious ball-room. 
Strangers are, without difficulty, introduced 
through a member. 

The Town Hall ; Academy of Fine Arts, and other 
institutions; with a Crystal Palace, in which 
meetings and concerts are held. 

Italian Opera, a large building of about the year 
1780. It is by no means remarkable for elegance. 

Theatre, in the highest part of the town. It was 
built by Mazzolleschi, an Italian architect, and is 
greatly admired. 

The Bourse, lately built, one of the most perfect 
buildings in the city. 

Public Library and Museum, occupy uig the 
former Capuchin Convent. The library, founded 
by Dom Pedro, occupies a handsome room, and 
contains about 70,000 volumes. 

In the museum is a gallery of mediocre paint- 
ings, collected by Mr. John Allen; with a very 
good cabinet of natural history. 

Hospital for British and other seamen. 

Market-place, called Cordoaria, near the Torre 
dos Clerigos, well supplied with meat, fish, poultry, 
fruit, and vegetables. The beat time for a visit is 
Saturday morning. 

Corn-market, In the Pra^a do Carmo. 

Barracks (Quartel de Sa5 Ovidio), in the Campo 
da Regenera9a6, capable of holding 8,000 soldiers. 

Casa da Camara, in the Pra^a de Dom Pedro. 

Largo da Torre da Harca. beyond the barriers, 
on the summit of the cliffs that overhang the river. 
The view from this table-land embraces the river 
as far as Foz, the Villa Nova, and the Serra 

Sad Gens, an eminence to the north-wost, com- 
manding a beautiful view. 

Gardens of Count de Rezende, open to the public 
every Sunday ; very fine. 

The capacious harbour of Leizoes, destined to 
form the future port for the external trade of 
Oporto and the surrounding country, was offlcifilly 
declared open by the king in 1891. 

BxcnrslOIUI may be made to the rock of St. 
CoSme, the village of Yal Longo, and the mines of 
antimony, in the midst of charming scenery ; also 
to the Bntre Qitintas, four beautiful quinfas, 
which command a fine view. In one of these 
Charles Albert of Sardinia died, and in that called 
do Mcio is the celebrated Magnolia Grandiflora, 
whose trunk is 12 feet in circumf erencei Another 
excursion may be made to S. Joao da Fozj where 
capital bathing may be had, and where there are a 
great many charming houses, assembly rooms, 
club house, Ac. (Steamers to La Cantareira). The 
Freixo is an ancient mansion of a very remarkable 
style of architecture, on the right bank of the 
Douro, two miles from Oporto. The great attrac- 
tion of the place is the splendid view it commands. 
In the distance are the Serra Convent and its 
aqueduct, on one side of the river, and the Semin- 
ary on the other. Villa de Feira has an ancient 
but ruinous castle; it was the Roman Locobriga, 
about 15 miles from Oporto. 

Ballway8.~To Lisbon (210 miles). To Braga, 
and round by the coast to yalen9a do Minho (see 

Route 31). ToPenaflel, CaUde, Regoa, Pin- 
liao, Tua (branch to MirandcUa), Poctnlio, 

and Barca d'Alva, on the Spanish frontier (124 
miles), whence the rail is continued to Salaznanoa 
(see page 80). Along the coast to Pedras £u- 

bras, SUndello, Villa do Conde, PavoA do 
"(Tarzlxn (page 185), Laundos, FontaizUia6, and 

Famali^ao, joining the line to Yalen^a do Mlnho, 
described In Route 81. 

Route S7.] 







This information is given especially for the use of Yachting parties. 


There are coasting steamers which ply regularly 
along the coast between the above stations, and, 
although they do not touch at every nnail port, 
there are ample opportunities for the tourist visit- 
ing any place of material interest during his 

The steamer approaches near enough (weather 
permitting) for the passengers to enjoy the beauti- 
tal seaboard, and delight in the extensive and ever 
changing panorama before them. On leaving Vigo 
the steamer is steered for Cape Sillciro, after 
rounding which the small town of Bayonna is 
paased, and La Quardia is made; this small town 
ii situated at the western extremity of the moun- 
tains of Testeyro, at the Jimction of the river Minho 
with the Atlantic. From hence, crossing the mouth 
of the firontier river, at which point the aspect is 
very grand — the mountains in the background, the 
ine dear river flowing into the sea, with its banks 
adorned with profusion and variety of rich vegeta- 
tion—we pass the little fortified town on the left 
bank of the river, Fort Camlnlia (StalX Pafire 
190. Contin ning our course south, we occasionally 
•team through a fleet of fishing boats, in pursuit 
ef sardines, 4;c., and are often accompanied 
by dolphins. Now and then the sea is covered 
with great numbers of little Portuguese "men-of- 
war"— a sort of Jelly fish, having a sail above and 
feelers below. 

We now find ourttives abreast of the pretty 
town and harbour of TlaBBa (Stal, pop. 9,M9, 
page 190X iitteta oa the right bank of the Lima, 
and nearUfjimetloii with the sea. Theturrounding 
country it charWit, «nd it of itself a perfect 
iAetvrc Tb« fairs fttOMU md #all buUi, tb% 

harbour admits of small craft up to 300 tons, and 
is fortified ; but, as is the case with all the ports 
on the western coast of Portugal, its ports wee 
seriously interrupted by the accumulation of sand, 
forming decided bars to the entrances of the 
harbours. The trade of the place is its fishery. 
From hence coasting, we make Esposende, at the 
embouchure of the Gavado, in a beautiful and 
picturesque situation. Proceeding we pass in 
succession the fishing places of Pdroa dO Varilia 
(8tat., on the new line from Oporto, Route 96, 
pop. I2,468X Villa do Condimntozinhos, flan Joa6 
da Foz, and, gradually approaching the Buignift- 
cent river Douro, we arrive at Oporto (Me 
Route 26, page 181.) 

The brief stay of the steamer admits only of a 
cursory view of the city, yet the tourist is amply 
recompensed by the pleasing duty imposed upon 
him of contemplating the grandeur and beauty of 
the shores of the noble river, and the encbaHtUig 
coast in its vicinity, at the embouchure of the 
Douro with the ocean. Proceeding ooastwtte to- 
wards the south, we make OrarCMat., population 
11,003), after about 80 miles steaming. This Is an 
teiportant town, in the province of Beira, and is 
situated on Ihe Ovar, at the bottom or northern end 
of the immense lake, or lagoon, which is about 80 
miles from north to south, and which runs parallel 
with the Atlantic. It is a commercial port, and 
its mariners are renowned for their courage and 
nautical skill. The fisheries hefe give fttll em- 
ployment to the population. 

Proceeding about 80 mflea to the southward we 
come tc the south end of this lagoon or lake, on 
which is situated the town ot a?lfAsrAV»«^'^'"^i^<''=^> 

7,mv ^vt^xvx ^\«^ wi -^s^ Tv^t«;^S^^ 

Dume of Ihe Holltind of Fortuiral. Leading [liK 
and piuslns ittam, n tmall town, whlcU exports 
4|liiiiilltl» of Halt frotlected on Ihe beadi, and n oon- 
«ldenibloqo™tlijr ot cnred fiih, we arrive al Mln 
(popnlAtLon, &,AM), aJLet enJoylDg Ihe fambolfl ot 
Ihe dolptalni chsBln^ the ajring Rih. which are 

right, the cfl.tle ot Almada. and on the let! Ihe 
noautllnl eriTlroni and the Toner ol B«IeiIL 

Uabon to Cape Bt. Vincent and Cartro 

li >lde or Liabon bi 

.f Algan 

d Alemt^o, thli li 

Sahlng. Qoauiltlei of lalt and 

lenvlnitiheTagiu, on iti left ehore 
village of TrataTfa, and our conn 
under the Capo Etplchel, the ande 
Prvmontorium of the RomanB' In a ehart lime tha 
, a seaport of Eitremadura; Ihe antique fori heia 

I rrame'erj-ilraneer; fmm henee, proceeding along 

on th« Mondego, o 


Junction on the 

Oporto and Colm 


From Fiffoelra, 


TUlar Formoia 


borter, which 

1< continued to Cindad Rodrigo 

and SaUmanca, 

t«BootelS. Ra 

cid Lcltia, 

01 Flgnelra a] 

Llibon i. al«at 

00 ml] 

N, SenhoradeNaiaret, 

and San Martlno 

r«ched, the prin 


Ins that 

now double Cape 

fo or Penlohe,™ Route 

K. Athortdiita 







illlaEei of Santiago and Helldet, and donb 
Oape Sines (popniatlon ot tbetown.8,(74)i tl 

tb« WMt nbtWl eaniUnt clianga of icane. W* 

I tuiinago. AlBeiui 

II TeiKli, gained a victory orcr the coml 
of BnglAnd snd Holland. In 17»7. A 

■rds; when Nslson. then Commoilorc, tc 

Nm>ler deTui 


le bay in resorted to by mnrincn In 
icr tu a place of nfnge. The coo- 

bigh«r cbaln of lb 
■URlly In Tlew, 

a1mond^ fljr^ and 
From Faro, proci 

bouchurc of Ihc R 
ocrly the Purtugo 

:be ^tmtdaylhe ' ^^^^ Beildcnt English Vlce-Consni. About 

h^B Ip '^' I "^ ""'^ '"" ""''• *'" "'"™' ^■^- "' P""i>- 

beBratPortOBD^s gal, we arrive st TUU Seal (popnliitlan. »,«0), 

I the right bank o( the Gudbuia, nt Itg jDnctlon 
ldcoMt,havtnnihe I wlih the set Oartro KMlm (populmlon, !,»*)). 

It VlUa Ma™ a« hlsl'^'- "P '™n •Se sea, alw [rontlem -iirlth Spain. 




$»li. The town is surrounded by a double wall, 
flanked by seven towers, and defended by the an- 
cient castle, Castello Branco. The churches, with 
the exception of the cathedral, are of no note. The 
latter is a handsome buildingr. The hospital and 
the poorhouse arc worth risiting. The industry 
of the place consists of potteries, tanneries, wine, 
brandy, distilleries, and grain. The plains around 
the town are very productive. In 1701, Mar- 
shal Berwick ordered a part of its walls to be 
blown up, and the Spanish army, under Count 
d'Aranda, aud the auxiliary corps, commanded by 
the Prince of Beauvau, were unable to penetrate 
further than this town in 1762. It was occupied 
by the French in November, 1807, who, however, 
only spent one night here. GastcIIo Branco may 
be reached by way of Thomar or Puuhete. 


Population, 3,000. 
> A small fortified town in the province of Beira, 
near Ciudad Rodrigo, over the frontier of Spain, 
on the River Coa, 32 miles north-east of Ouarda. 
During the War of Independence it was besieged 
by the Duke of Ossuna, and reduced to great ex- 
tremities; but, having obtained timely aid, the 
Spanish army were nearly all cut to pieces, and 
their artillery taken from them. It is best 
reached by the new line from Oporto to Barca 

Oporto to Lamego, Braga, Brai^anga, by 

road, and by rail to Val6n9a dO Minho. 

Oporto (Stat.), see Route 26. From here a 
line runs past Rio TintO, Ermesinde (junction 
of the line to Salamanca), Trofa (branch to 

Oulmaraes), Fainall9ao (junction of the 

Oporto to Povoa do Varzim coast line), Vianna 
do Castello (a watering place, page 185), 

CamlTiha (page 185), LazU7.ella8, S. Pedro da 
Torre, 78 miles, to Valenca do Minho, at the 

junction with the line to Tuy, on the Spanish 
side (page lOlX OuiUarey, and Vigo. The 
Spanish trains from and to M onforte, Orense, Vigo, 
icc.y connect here with the Portuguese express 
trains to and from Oporto, Lisbon, Ae. At NU&e 
there ii a short branch of 9k miles to Braga past 

Arentlm and TMUm. 

[Section 2. 
[From Oporto, by road across the Douro, to 


(Population, 8,214), a city in the province of 
Beira, capital of a comarca, near the Douro. The 
principal buildings are a large Gothic cathedral, a 
church called Alcamave, a castle, and a bishop's 
palace. There are also many interesting Moorish, 
and some Roman remains. 

Lamego lies 46 miles cast of Oporto, and about 
1 to the south of the Douro. It may be reached 
from Viseu.] 

BRAOA (Stat.) 

Population (1890), 23,089. 

Inns.— Real ; Estrella do Norte. 

A city, capital of a comarca, province of Minho, 
32 miles north-east of Oporto, by rail, and about 
15 miles from the sea. It is situated on an 
eminence in a fertile valley, watered by the 
Deste on the south, and by the Cavado on 
the north. This valley is covered with 
quintas or country-houses, and planted with 
oak, vine, orange, i^d other fruit trees. The 
oranges of Braga are the best in Portugal. It is 
the Bracarra Augusta of the Romans, and is said 
to have been founded b.o. 296. It is one of the 
most ancient cities in Portugal, and was capital of 
the kingdom when the Suevi were masters of it. 
It Is now the seat of an archbishop, who is primate 
of Portugal. Until recently, ruins of a Roman 
amphitheatre and an aqueduct existed; but at 
present no remahis of its ancient gprandenr are 
found, except some coins, and five milestones be- 
longing to the five Roman roads leading into 
Braga, which one of the archbishops removed to a 
square in the south part of the city. It is sur- 
rounded by old walls, and defended by a fortress. 
The streets are narrow and Irregularly laid out. 
There are two squares, and many fountains. It 
has manufactures of firearms, jewellery, cutlery, 
and hats. 

Sights.— Cathedral, a stately edifice of the old 
perpendicular style, rebuilt by Henrique, the first 
king of Portugal; church of Santa Cruz, of the 
seventeenth century, with a fa9ade in the Campo 
dos Remedios; church of St. John Marl( tad 
church of St. Benedict. Hospital, one of tbellaeit 
in the kingdom. In the cathedral note tbe eapUla 
de N. S. Liyrtmento, the capilladt 8. Pedro de 

Route 31.] 



Rates; the high altar with its sepulchres, the 
sacristia, and the western porch of the exterior of 
the building; Archiepiscopal palace, containing a 
good library ; Public Library in the Campo Santa 
Anna; the Campa dos Remedios, a magnificent 
square; and the Campo Santo Anna, a large square, 
surrounded with handsome houses. For works 
on Braga, consult Hittoria de Braga^ by D. R, da 
Cunha; and Antig. de Entre Douro e Minho, by 
Dr. J. de Barros. 

About 3 miles east of the city is the pilgrimage 
Chapel of Bom Jesus, or Jesus do Monte, situ- 
ated on the summit of a lofty hill, commanding a 
delightful view over all the plain. In the principal 
church note the altar-piece, the sacristia, the cru- 
cifix of ebony ; the chapels of the Ascension, the 
Last Supper, the Sepulchre, and the Resurrection. 

Near Braga are the hot springs of Caldas de 
(?er«z, good for liver complaints, in a bracing spot; 
and the hot sulphur springs of Vizella^ near 
Gulmaraes (pop. 19.OOO) which has manufac- 
tures of cutlery and table linen. The road ftom 
Braga to Braganza crosses the Tamega at 
Cliayes, 54 mllcs, the Roman Aquoe Favice, after 
passing Vidago, a modern watering-place, with 
springs like those of Vichy, good for liver, gout, &c. 

From Lamego (as above) the road ascends the 
river and then turns off to the north-east for 


About 60 miles from Lamego, or 60 from Braga. 
Population, 5,495. 
A good inn. 

This town (the ancient Brigantium) is in the pro- 
vince Traz OS Montes, near the north-east frontier, 
and is capital of the comarca. It stands in a very 
agreeable and fertile plain, on the River Ferrenza, 
an afliuent of the Sabor, and lies 26 miles north- 
west of Miranda. It was erected into a duchy by 
Alonso v., in 1442, the eighth possessor of which, 
John II., was raised to the throne of Portugal in 
1640, under the title of John IV. From him the 
present royal family of Portugal, of the Bragnnza 
line, is descended. It was formerly fortified, and 
still contains a ruined castle. It has manufac- 
tures of velvet and other silk fabrics. 

Sights.— Cathedral (in bad taste); Church of 
Sac Vicente; Pa^o Episcopal, containing a library 
and some pictures ; Market Place and Pelourinho ; 
Alfandega, or Custom House ; Castle, situated on 
a hill, a short distance from the town, from the 
summit of which may be had a most extended 
view; and a spacious plain where the people 
hold their races. 













CARIi BOHMER, Proiirletor. 

THIS large and well-known Establishment, close to the Karsoal, and opposite the principal Bath 
Houses, has an excellent reputation for its general comfort, cleanliness, superior accommoda- 
tion, and very moderate charges. The Proprietor lived several years in England. Table d*Hdte at 
1 and 5 o*clock. Carriages at the Hotel. Arrangements in the Winter season from the 1st October. 




T>£COHHBNDED by the Army and Navy Society. 100 Bedrooms and Private Suites of Aparbnenti. Beeently 
^^ enlaarged and Improved by a new Uain Entrance and large Hall. Opposite the Gkardcni of the two Casiuoe. 
Beautiful sitiiation near the Baths. Largest " Jardin d'Hiver and public Saloons. Arrangements from 9 francs a 
day. Lift Bath Booms. English Landlady. Swiss ICanagement. Y» PIGBf AT* 


EleTatcd Situation, near the Batlig. LIFT. 



BICHARD and GABCIN, Proprietors of Hotel Brltanni«ne, Canmen. 

AJAGCIO asland of Corsiea). 


The Mediterranean Cowes of the Fnture. Quiet, Retired, Historic. 



English Comforts and Sanitation. Newly Built and hsoriously Furnisbed. 

Choice Cellar and excellent Eitchen. 


Spboial Featubje : 


EMIL EZNEB, Proprietor. 

AM90 Hotel Roytd el de i«iiunr«». CliaBMnnf z. 

•. - V 

ALASKA (Sesia) Ital;. 



A T llic loot D[ Ih« Mpnnt Bou. Sp:cndid PmigoruDa. OppoBlle the grral waterfall of Otro. 
-"- Maenlficenl Promonadei In ■' "■ - ■- -. ■ • - 



, FIR3T-CLAS3 FAKILY HOTEL. FoU South. Bplendid altnotlon o"erHKikine Tot 
BayofAlglfn. Eycrj- modam comfort. BnBlbh Billiard Tiblc. Modeata Tenoi. 
Onmltnu to TnUna anil StwunerB. T. EIRBOH, Proprietor. 


3?U(m ST. DEMia. 

lAUSa HEHTHA, Proprietor. 


Amstel Hotel 


Patroniied k; tbe bl|btsl class of I 



THIS First-class Hotel is situated in the oentre of the Town. Open view on 
the River Amttel. Patronised by the hicfhest claae of English and American F»ipilie». 

fiiWtnrk^y famishad. Every modem comfort and conveoienoe. 

Tdi^^pbtic A^dfCM: ''Doeien, Anwtec^am.*' H. F. HAHN, PrOiPKielor. 


THIS ms^nlficent newly built Hotel is the finest and largest in town, with a cantral situation 
between the Cathedral, Picture Gallery, and Boalevards. TWO HUNDRED MOIIS & SALOONS. 
Sitting, ftmoking, and BUliard Rooms. Fitted Dark Boom for Amaimur rnoiograx»lier8. 


Omnihus of ih» Hotol meets eveor Train and BMt. 

«r. LAIJWBlfffik tbe same Proprleior as flC^tel de r9ii**»e» 


THIS important establishment has been entirely restored by the new Pro- 
prietor. E?ery desirable comfort will now be found in the hou^e. Excellent Cuii^e. weU famiahed 
rooms and apartments. Large Music and Conversatioa Saloons. Table d'Hdte. Restaurant a la Oarte. 
Winter Garden (2)0 metres). Calorifores heating the Hotel all through. Hot and Ck>ld Bathe. Perfect 
hydrotherapy. Steamers and Boats for excunuons, be'onging to the house. Lawn Tennis. Twice a 
week Concerts or Balls organised by the direction in the saloons of the Hotel. Postal and Telegraphic 
Address: Fsrras— Arcachon. B. FBAULAS, lltr.» Pl^prM^r* 

aw— — — SBaaMaBMBBgasBBBBBM^^gaeBg i liuii ai if -h i h i Baaaegsgagaaaip—Mt IWl. 



FIRST GLASS. £. LAMPS A, Proprietor. 
Special Office in the Hotel for Railway and Steamthlp Tickets, ataio Pest Mbe. 




tftXBUu PonMCtar ''Dat iQuatre Nations."" SAXBLA. 

Tbe EaM Is the Sleeping Oar Ageney. 




Now anrroanded by 

its own 




Open all 
-o^x' tJiB year, 


Special arrangementa for a prolonged slay. 



A. ROSSLIR, Propri etor. ' 



VIOHLY-EEFUTED and well patronised Firet-class Familr 
Hotel, combining every modem comfort wltli moderate 
cbarffea, Beantlftil eltnatlon in the meet elegant part of 
Badm, at the entrance of the Liohtenthal Allee, facing Pro 
menade, Theatre, and Oonf ersati^ Bonae, 

Lift, Ms, Electric Light tlmmghoat. 

Alil. THE TEAB. 


imijgmtiits (Vlirttr Ptisloi). 

H«¥ Proprtitor, iWU TOs^^ , 

BB&BUU. BUUBBB-. ^.^•]WW». 



■ ■' — - — ■ — — — — . -^ . — — ■ ■ _ 




First-class House. Beautifiilly situated, witb Mineral Water 

Springs (Einzelbader). 


Omnibus meets principal Trains at the Mnlbeim Station. 



First-class Hotel, near the Railway Station, situated in 
the centre of a beautiful garden, commanding magnificent view. 

Both establishments have large Dining, Reading, & Billiard Rooms. 
Excellent Cooking. Fine Wines. Moderate Prices. 




THIS Beautiful First Class Establishment is the most important and the 
best sitaated, opposite the Central Stotion. It h&B been entirely reftixnlslied and 

fitted with the most recent Improvementt. Vast Terrace. Lift Highly rccommendea. 
Terms moderate. Managed by the New Proprietor. E. J. OOETZINOER. 



^f OP TBB LAROEST AND BEST MANAGED HOTEl.a lo b* ^<i\w\\ wv W^ \^iN\»Ax ' 
»n//£S5!!^ JP^. JRwprf«tor smuvf no efltort to give salValacU^ixi to VA* ^\%VtoT%. \\. \% 

JSnglUb nirtn^ ^^^^ ^ ^ belonging to lYie ^J^^J^^^^^^Jvw- 



Vnter den Unden, 39, opposite the Royal Palaee* 

Tills old, reputed, first-class Hotel, has the best situation in the Town, close to all the principal 
sights and Royal Theatres. Lately re-f aruished thronghont. SpUndid Restaurant, looking ont 
over the ^'Lindra." *' Cafe." Drawing Room for Ladies. Baths. Lift. Table d'Hote. Electric 
Light. Newspapers in all Languages. Omnibus at Stations. Moderate Charges. 

Proprietor : ADOLPH MUHLINO, Puryeyor to the Imperial Court. 



rpHIS beautiful First Class Establishment is the most important and the best situated in (he town, 
-*■ at two minutes* walk from the Station, and close to the House of Parliament. It i<i surrounded 
by. a beautiful g^arden, with a large terrace, and commands a full view of the Alps. Its superior 
interior arrangements, the comfort of its Private Apartments, Public Parlours, Reading Saloon, &c., 
make it the most desirable residence for English Families and Shigle Travellers. Reduced prices for 
protracted stays and in Winter season. Lift. Electric Ligllt. 



FORMERLY the Reaidence of the EMPRESS EUGENIE, is now open as 
a First Class Hotel. It stands in its own grounds, with a Terrace ou the border of the Sea. 
The finest position in Biarritz. Perfect English Sanitary Arrangements. Lawn Tennis. Golf 
(Uub adjacent to the Hotel. Proprietor : C. DIETTE, from the Berkeley Hotel, London, W. 

BISEBA (Algeria). 

ROYAL HOTEL, b»kra. 


In tlia best situation of Biskra. Full South Yiew oyer the Desert 

Most perfect Sanitary arrangements. P ension from 10 francs a day. 



Fei7«wmrorlaiae Table d*l&ote wail veVi%.^^Vh^««^ .«Rsst^3Ss 

A PARTMENT8 for FamUies. Close to We. Cit^xNs^ ^l^SJ;...^^^-^"^ 

-^X Carr/ii^ for Wt/tfngChnmbord and t^eeivv\Toiv*. OxMsSto^^N.^^^'^^ 



giTTTATKnr witbout eqoa], fadng Um Shine. Svrea IToimtkiiu, Vtu Itok. Ti»aidlny Plv, ma BaOwiQr B Utt aa. 
^ BxtenaiTe Bngliak awdMi*. BMritag. BbuUbc aad BUliatd Boomk I«diM SaleoK. AMerican, Franeh, aad 
CngUahi Mewtpapari. Wuiu and CoM Batli» in ths BofceL Bpedal OmnilrasM balonglBf to ihtt MrtaWlnhiiMmt to and 
from an Traiju and Staancn. Moderate ohaivee- AdTantageoai. amania i t a - for » anlnMdMlnnB. Tmtiom 
Highlir MeoncaaBdwL TMe d'BMe at IJ aad C o'«ft>«k. •. — MmW*g»"y#<Wf W, MMIiJCr* 



(HOTEL de FRANCE et de NANTES, r^anis). 

9mMj IlMt €bHS Hotel, tmU •oHtli» patrmUMil Ivy II.B.II. tte Pttece •€ WalM. 

TELEPHONE, latest system, commtmicatintf with FABIB. 





8itiia«ed opposite the Graad Theatre, the Prefectnrc, the Exchange, tiie Bank of 
France, and the Port. Saloons and 90 Rooms from 8 francs npw^Hs ; in Pension 
£3 28. a week. 

Mr. PETER'S magnificent Cellars under the Hotel, containing 80,000 bottles, 
can be visited at any time in the day ; he is also Proprietor of the Doinailie dn 
Phenix, and Purveyor of Wine and Liqneors to H.M. the Queen of England. 
He sells this article in small and large quantities, in bottles or in wood, in fall 


aoTEL »» fbhtoes dIIa faiz. 

msT cues Mtm with every modem impiioveiieiit. 

A DMIBABLT litiuitcd In the centre of the Town, Highly reeommended. Booma with Etoetiic 
'^^ Light from 2 shillings upwards. Restaurant : Breakfast, 4 frs. ; Dinner, 5 frs., wine included. 
In Pension from £2 16s. a week. 


▼«rj CMBf^rtaMi ButoMIiiliaiait. Host 0«BtraI SilMiloB. 

iivt. suwnnc uonr. 

^masin^ wJae jnaUhhd, MtHUaa tnta 2 ihUliiigft upwax4». 



I7IA8T-.GL4SS BSTABUSHHBNT, fai^l; T«conUMndtrd to BnElirii 

eudsB. ranrithcADark RocailiiT PkMDtraelieri. Hndcnis ehirmi. OmnlMito rtltntnud 
to VsoUmlaH* BnllH II nqautM. J. SUNXLZB, Pnpiletof UA XSllM«r> 



SttMitad mw tha KAIL'WA'S: STATION and STKAMKaS. 

H»- VVB. aAONiBB OHSmOL, PnqurittreoB. 




... II [ar Familial. 

Beat SanltuT urilnnmenli, Roomi 
rrom i It. tu II fr. Ranuimid Colalna. 
BotEc* k la Carta. Peniluii fttaa I fr. la 
M h. Armfamfidti for HpecLal ra^mai 
ncoordlBt la nadlMI adrica. 

BleotFlo Clgbt. TelepboM. 



VIRiTT-CI.ASa VAHILY HOTEL, ktfhW pMionliKa tyr 'B&#\«. u> 
•^ falftofAatA«H*^fla old aeat al the Ibbdu 0«Ua it \:M%T<> 

.^ 'k«nnt-sluBHoMlotBnK».uADn«x*Mi^»<'C- __ ™b»i 






^PHIS nnrirallpd Establishment, orerlooking the Park, the Place Royaleyand 

JL the Kuo K-'valr. ha» been C(in«i«lenbl]r cnlanred and «mbeUlihed by the present Proprietor, 
Mr. i:. HKLMKI..' l'a^:K■ Sal-*n». Keadin;. Smoking, and Bath Rooms. Spacious Terrace Garden 
oTcr:«.--k:tv the whole |>Ark. Electric Ligut in all the Boom*. Ticket and Booking Office for Lng-'e ii. the 11. :«. ;. ii^^tois from 4 f rs. 90 c, inclndinp Electric Light. Otis Electric Lift. 



L( EDGING, inclusive of attendance and electric light, from 7 frs. per day. First 
Dnakfa-t. I fr. iv c. : Luncheon. 4 frs.: Tal-le dilute. & frs.: Pension: Bedroom, attendance, 
liL'ht, and three Reals d.tily. frum 15 frs. &0 c. per day. Public Saloons, Bllliardi, and Bath Boom. 
Electric Li;rht. Lift. Ticket and liuoklng Office for Lvggaffe. 


BOULEVARD BOTANIQUE. Close to the Station for Germany, Holland, 
France. Spa, O.tend. Antwerp. Ghent, and Broires. The Waterloo Coach passes before the 
note! cvcrr morninjr. Charges moderate. BatllS in tJbe HoteL Telephone. 

Dark RcM»Bi for Photoflmpha. 



The JWiresf, Handtomegt, and Largest in the Capital af HMnoarjf, 



B. J. GLtfcac, Manager. 



CPLEKDID flnt«laM Hotel, sitosted opporiie the Eibekieh Oanlen. the Opera Theatre, the Biudiah TelMrmph and 
Kcyptian Poet Oflloes, ConTcreation Boom. Ladles' Room. Arabic Saloon, Smokinf Boom, Oriental Bar. Lawn 

TenoLi. Magniflcent Oardens evrroaadinB the Hotel. The New Hotel ia the only one in Egypt that, b^ its splendid 
eltnation, ita aalubrlDae air. its luxurious and tasteful InstallatioD, its excellent French Cooking, is able to afford to 
travellers every couifort they are accustomed to meet with in the first Hotels of Europe. Tuuu:— U to SO iranoe pat 
day. Pension, Board, and Benice, according to the Booms. Special arrangements for nunilies. Omnibus to all Traua. 

Interpreter. AHeensear-Ufil. Electrie LlKhl. P. 9IAYER« M«Baarer« 


TERMINUS HOTEL (Gare Maritime) 

Opposite the Steam Packe t Pie r. Baths. Post and Teleg raph Offices. 

CENTRAL HOTEI. ^Oare 'V\Xk«^. 





npHIS BENOWKED FIRST-CLASS HOUSE, entirely renewed and refnmidied. now with Lift Electric Light 
■*- throughout. Baths, Calorlferea. aoc Best and Sons' regular declaration. Fall South, splendid view of Sea and 
Bsterel Mountains. Beautiful Garden. Best Home for Winter. Terms and Pension most reasonable. Tariff on 
application. Kept and Dlreeted hy P. BOROO, foxiMrly of th* Burop*, Tnrin. 



Ciolcl«mer SteUId and zwel devtoelie Monarclieii. 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL, finest position in Town. 200 Rooms and Saloons. Concert Garden. 
Large Promenade Garden. Splendid Dining Room with extensive glass Verandah. Cat4 with 
Newspapers in every language. Weekly, two concerts by the Concert Orchestra. Baths. Electric 
Light. Lift. Telephone. Carriages Omnibus. F* ROSCHER* Proprietor* 



I?IRST-CL ASS Family Hotel, splendid free situation, with a large Park and Garden in full view 
-^ of Mont Blanc. Excellent Telescope for free use of visitors. Electric Lightb Baths. 

Rooms from 8 firancs. Pension firom 9 firancs. Special Airaiigenients. 

£• BXIiERf Proprietor «Hd Hasaser. Hn. BXBTCR If BmrlUli* 

Same Proprietor: Cyrnos Palace Hotel, Ajaeeio (Coreied). 



X*lx*eit OlA^ss laCotol. x^m. 

COMMANDING a splendid view of the "Rhine and the Castle of Ehrenbreitstein, and close to the 
landing place. It deserves in every respect the patronage of English Families and Single 
Travellers. Good attendance. Excellent cooking. Choice Wines. Hot and Cold Batbs. Elegant 
Carriages in the Hotel. Moderate charges. H. HOGHB, Proprietor. 




THIS WELL KNOWN FIRST CLASS HOTEL most centraUy situated, 
close to the Cathedral, near the Central Station, and the Quay of the Rhine Steamers. 200 
lofty, airy Rooms and Saloons; 800 Beds. Electric Light. Hydraulic Lift. Calorifei-es in winter. 
Excellent Kitchen. Large Stock of Choice Wines, wholesale. 


78 the No. 4, difltfiied strictly according to t^eoT\«ai»\^^^^«^^'^^^ 
jBjr Moceetor, by the most ancient distiller .^- ^ - 

JOSAim tfABIA. PAAINA., 3xiitt.dft»r"«N»'«'>^**' ^ 

OONTBEXBVlUifl (VosffM.) 


FBST-CLASS, the only one in the Park of the SitablWimMlt. Ba^C 
Dwrtn tAjtAtiai tha Hold. Lufi ud Smitl Apulnieiiti. Xoom Itnu i tH. TabU 
d'KslB uhI Statamnpl t U C*rM , 

FB^Z PETIT, oonMUbttUT ; Oo-Br^prlator at Vkt JBnriMMi, P^da. 


Tke HacM nnMaw HMd ■■ CorfB. ■vcctatlly PMM>iHd to- 
■>rt]ak BBd AnertiMM FKHlIlcik 

10 to 20 per cent, oiaconnt allowsd to Members ol tha Armf nod N»t7 Co-<q>entiTS 
Society, Limited, London. JEAN GAZZI, Proprietor, 


"il!!; ■itf*M}iJ:f"''jffii. 

■"^ B. f** itopi DorVb or BiiUoiL UDrBpTlT*UukdtaoiMUk«auB 



JiIBHT-CLABS HOTEL, b*it illDiIed la tb« T«IIer. In the mlddli of u mtenilTe Eirdwi. 

BlUlird. i>nd Smoklag Hwou. HnileBalBon. Lift. Elietrlo Llg).t In sll tba roona. Wmrin 
and Cold Shoner Bithi. EngUib CBupellti Uie girdn. G*od sttenduica. HoMnle chargf s. 

ED. OATTASI, Propriator. 

?AirLSNSEI-BAD (Lake of Thoniie) Switierland. 

faulehsee-bad; hotel VXCTORIA. 

Atwrv A>ft>. iUike sC Hmwm. Oink l*«t etevre Met. 
£\^TjesiSBmsiilQS of the QUEB» of "aOlAiKSD. OBwawiSasm 
'•*■***•*»■ or tt. rata, BHntlfaliitaMioadiMteOwliinfc. ■|to»0«««»»^'»»A« 
" » i i*e fc K«««M» dMSM. lu 4Kaai«««««»<^'<"**'> 




VkamcUm^ IdtL (Mwtitnm. Oyfoihe the Geaiaml Railmy ataslte. 

Vtnt^lass Hold* Brery Hodent CwmtoirU 

OHAltT.KB FRANK, Broprt<fk)r 

CONTINENTAL HOTEL, fibst class. 

Opposite the Central Railway Station. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT and Central Steam Heating in every room. Heading 
And SmoUog Booms. Splendid poa^Ooa. LUt. B«Uis. ModenUe chargas; Bervio«, Ugbt, 
and Hwting indndfd. Telephone ISMSO. Fint-claM faToiurite House for English and Ameman 
EaipUlM* The only Hotel <»i the StatiiOB -with groimd-floor Rooms end Apavtmento 

Pioprtotor; B. CffiRaTgNBRAUP. 


FRBV9BNSTADT <S,6ee feet above Sea), 

Railway Line-Sluttirarl;. Wteuhmrg, Slrasbnrff. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, surrounded by a very beautiful Park. Comfortable 
Bedrooms and Saloons. Water and Milk cures. Pine-needle and Sole Baths. Sanitary 
. jurrange»ents perfect Central Residence for Ezouraions. Carriages at the Hotel. Modersto 
charges. Pension. ERMBST LVZ, Junior, Propctotor. 



n^HIS HOTEL, with the best sanitary arrangements, is situated in the finest part of the Tova. «ioae to 
-^ the General Post Office, the principal BanJiers. and the New Opera House. Fine view. WmI recom- 
mended to Families and Single Gentlemen for its great comfort and very moderate chazfes. Tahle 
d'hote at 12-15 o'clock, 3 frs. 5 j c, at 5-30 o'clock, 4 frs : Supper at 7 o'clock 3 f rs., wine included. Baths. 
Reading and Smoking Booms. 100 weU fumlBhed Betfrooms, ftom 2k to 4 firs.. Electric Light 
included. Central Steam-heating. Pension fh>m 7 to 10 firs, a day. Telephone. 

■• eiAI>I.lER, Proprietor. 


I^ Ume da Mont Blancs near English Cfetwrch* 

MOST comfortable family Hotel. Every modern convenience. New sanitai'y 
arvangemeats. Electric Light in every room. Lift. Baths. Reading and Smoking Rooms. 
No extra charge for light and attendance. Ancaugeuonts for Pmsion. 

GEBARDMER (Vosgee). Trance. 


Tks tmfyotte with a Largt Park awt a Sl>Vend\d >l\e^ w :^i^^ 




FIBST CLASS HOTEL, enlarged and entirely renewed, with the best comfort* 
150 Booms. One of the finest situations in Switzerland. Central Heating* 
Moderate Charges. Open all the jear. 

F. BIEOHELMANN, Proprietor. 



LABGE TERRACE commanding an unequalled view over the Lake, the 
Rhone Valley, and the Alps. Most reasonable rates. Corered Veranlah and Promenoir. 
Baths and douches in the Hotel. Highly recommended to English and American Families. 

PAVJL WEIBEI., Proprietor. 



rpHIS FIRST RATE HOTEL, situated in the quietest quarter of the City, in the vicinity of the 
•*• Opera, Museums, and Royal Park; cannot be too highly recommended for its accommodation, 
the excellence of its Table d'Hote and Wines, added to the attention and cirllity shown to travellers. 
*' Restaurant k la Carte" at any honr. Splendid Reading and Dining Rooms. The only Hotel with 
Lift (ascensor). Electric Light nil through the Hotel. Bnth. Carriages. Moderate Charges. 
Arrangements made during the Winter Season. 






Best position near the KurhaiUL the Springs, the Bathing Estahllshments, and 
Lawn Tennis Courts. Perfect SanlCary Arrangements* Splendid Dining Boom 

with covered Veranoahs. 

Mmrm^ l»Jin4r Ctarden* 4,M0 sannre yaHto. «tt«elied to the Hotel. 

-'^ «# ««i^ Mad Ut0 pmgt of tb9 Bemmm (May, Jtuie, Btipttmbw. ia4 OcMbnx^ •R«A%«a«iLtB ar« 

aa4« «t T«ry Bodvnto Trkw. 




One of the Largest and most Elegant Family Hotels of tbe Town, 


More than a Hundred Rooms and Saloons, famished with every luxurious 

oomfort, and 



(A Curiosity of the Town), 





Moderate chargea bom ISth OCTOBER to ist HAT. 

BRANCH HOUSE : Hotel Kaiserin Elisabetb at Zell-am-Sea. 

TT^ffT^ff QT^TJTTfJTP ^ espeolally reoommended by Prof. Dr. Jaooond. of Paris, for beneficial effect* of its 
wtJB\ JB\ O JPAW W W Ai climate on weak constitution* both in Summer and Winter. It has a renowned Univer- 
sity and offers great eduoatioiud advantages. Splendid Skating in Winter. Turkish, Vapour, and Salt Swimming 
Baths. Very frequented Winter Station at low altitude. 




CBNTRJLL STATION. SCHAETTl BBO'llSS:^^^ t««^ ^%tl^^^^^^^ . 

T7INEST SITITATION. Moderate "Ptvce^. ^exv^xOT.. ^^'"^^tt^^^ 

JL modem oomtOTb. Elecfcrio Lisht. BatiiKoom. TiwV.^Qom Vix fckMai«s» 'cxsa ^_ .. - 

^4^ 1 Kectrio Light. BathHoom. TiwV.^QomVajt 

SaaiUrr AmagmmU, Buff et at the Btalloii* 




rmB lM|t«i* ^n' iMrt Hotel, nith fivtry modsBn oMilnrt at ^lary moAftnte okMmft hnm 
•*- Gard««. Xcnr ]f«t>l« Batln. Lift. P«rfMt Saaltary arrmiifememfts. P«t«ad TeltfB^h 
Office in the Hotel. Omnibus at botli Stations — SLrtuznach Town and Krensnacli Bath. 

Manager: OTTO AESCHUMAHN, and ermmdMoUiMmtri«mr^ canned 

ENOOEE-SUB-HEB (Belgium). 


THIRST CLASS SSTABLISHMBNT. Sploodidlj situated fimng the Qtm. 

X? Unsurpassed for elegance and comfOTt, combined with moderate charges. 200 splendid Bed- 
rooms with Saloons. Billiards. Beading Boom. Terraoe. Playgrouds. Omnibus at the Station. 
The latest English Sanitary ImproTements. 





The most popuIaF and &thioBabIe« 

'■I ru \ I ■■ ■ni l M il I MMBHBBeSg WH I II II naff MH'llg ggeMBMBi l l l . 1 J l I UiU— ULJ. i- jLg^xa 



SPECIAL Honae for funilies and TourlstB, fire mlnntes from the Station. This large establiahmmt, the best of the 
town, situated in the valley of the Saune, offers a magnificent panonuna iucladlng Mont Blanc. East situ&tion 
Moderate charges. Interpreter. Connected with the "Vraach Arte— bile Club" and Touring Clubs of Frmnoe. 
Minoral essences fnr s^-moying carriages to be had. Tel^hons. Xedtnte terms. Sole correspondent for Maoon of 
Cook's Agency. On arriTal at Macon, wire for the omnibuses of the Hotel, always in attendance for every train. 
Travellers should not listen to Agents within or outside the Station, inviting them to go elsewhere. 


Zfy^BST CLASS IfdTJEX^ the mort fn^anted bj PtmUiet nd Tminsts 
-^ mitamiea cmmite ibe JStetion. Tte only OM^trfLTx&iH^w^Qnwiakm. INse^mk 
^f^^*"^ JKviiAh eomlbrt. LaratdftQktt6rftMM4«E^ik«»^mH»^«JL\ldy^ 


:iD's Hotels 


>intment to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh. 


Te!egrams: "REID, FUNCHAL." 

t Free of PaBBmore, 124, Cheap&lde ; "Hotel Tariff 
3, Ke^ent Street, London; and J. and H. LiudiEay, 
I Place, Edinburgh ; or Wm. Reid, Madeira. 





J. CAFDXVIELLE. Proprietor. 

rSiadi, e.H, ILM. ElSf iDd qiwi ol FcRdOI, Bji'. Ihiu'.lI»iiiH ill., ihlt tit SD^'iuij^. 

iw^^iojum.' I KARL nw»«« » «K« ^:.;l^' 

la xnnmnawwiM- 

MENTONE (Alpes IKwritunes) 



rpHIS elegantly coDstracted and beaatif ally flimished Hotel enjoya a bigh rapuiatiMi for it9 gi^t 
-*- comfort, teioklng Boom and Bstha. Amma^VkemU for Funlllfis. 
Known for its excellent Onlaine. Obargee moderate. 

The Hotel is under the personal superintendence of the Proprietor, 




COKSO VICTOR EMMANUEL, 9, 11, full south, near to the Cathedral, 
the Scfda Grand Theatre, Victor Emmanuel Passage, Post and Telegraph Ofllce. Quiet 
Boom* fftGlng. th« Garden. "Table d'lldtc'* nnd ''Restaurant/' Reading Saloons, Smoking 
Boom, and. foseini New^Mipers^ Hydraulic Lift to each floor, Central Steam-heating iHI»parar 
tus, and Electrio Light in all the Rooms. Omnibus at the Station. Moderate charges. Pensiqn. 
Cook's Coupons accepted. E. MABGIONNI, Proprietor. 


'M'ODERN, first-class English Hotel, conveniently situated on the Central Railway Square. 
-"^ Large Garden. Open and best position. Lift. Electric Light and central Steam heating in 
all rooms. Winter Garden. Restaurant. Moderate terms. Room, light, and attendance, 2frs. 50o. 
Cook's Coupons accepted. 

V. OOLLEONI, Proprietor. OH. QALIJA, Director. 


In tbe Immediate vicinity of tbe Ballway Station* 

"^EW; expressly built for an Hotel with all modern iraprorements. Situated In the healthiest 
-^^ part of the Town. Pleasant Garden. Airy Apartments. Tal)le d'Hote. Restaurant and 
Reading Rooms. Baths. Heated throughout. Scrupulously clean. Careful attendance and very 
moderate charges. Real English Hotel, near the Station. Porter meets all trains. Hotel Coupons 
accepted. No Examination of Luqgage for Visitors to this Hotel. 

J. BEIiIiIBn« Proprietor. 


A DMIRABLT situated, full South, on the Corso, a few steps fi-om the Duomo, Scale, and 
■^^ Galleries. This Hotel, comfortably furnished and fitted up with the greatest care, is warmly 
recommended for its comfurt and moderate charges. Hydraulic Lift. 


BOBELLA, BBOTHEBS, Proprietors. 




' ~ iMo and firaquflBted of tl 
inifL Oottas^ Yillaa. 

Apply to Mr. «AB.ClBL<m-UlkS&Kl»T^ 

j^* ^ A*i* 4 f^^«»^^ ■M»» mo*^ oomConaUo and firaauoBted of tide Town. Saaitaiy 

MOMTBEOX (Clarene). 


[?IR9T-0WkSS HOTBI^ dtuatad in cI^im Tioinitf t« tlie ftfonti 

L^ aiiJ L«fidlu Qiuy of iteAmH^ Vut 'remo4«uid ib^ded Gullwi with a i 
nrtlwAlpiHatlwLiikt. UydniLlIc Uft. I«ria PnbUe H^U. EleMrli! Llfht 
f>\Otntu,t^ixy. A. EKKRY. 



FIRBT-CLAAS HOTEL. UninnwHil. floHb Hid. But qalit lUutkHi -n "-Tlm'ffinHW, 'n. 
lAanlddltof thoToHD, sndnxwtDMtnl Kavialttns ThMtiM *Bd*ll pUwn nf 1ilt«™t Alt 
uodHa somforta. Lift. ElKiric lA^t. Uodant* chirga. FiTsnrlte WlDte ^Tt'iW>*t ^hm.- 

MPBR8H. ^^ 


"^PEN from the lat of Ma; till 30th Ootober. CombinM ererp nuidfrB 

II U^ttd by eiwitrle Llfbl. Qood MconmudMloii. 




Splendid n«n or tbe oeieUr&tad 



Bf meHu of Btoctricit^ and Beagttl Lights the F»Us ol tbe Bhme rfp titfiJioiisiSfa 
laminated STsr; night dariDK th« exuc-K^n^ieMKA- 

IHOLISH DIVIHB 8BKYI0K Vu tti» mm ^3lwa^^^w!^**-'«^'**■ 




Ill J rrm: „ 





[ Lifted Uironghant 

b; Bitttleltj. 




Close to theft em Kunaal and the Residence of the Royal Famitjf. 



08TSND Contlaued. 


nnHE most fashionable Hotel and Restaurant in the place. Finest situation teeing tlie Sea Mid the 

-^ Baths, and next to the Palace of the Boyal Ftunily. " Elevator." All Modern Comfort. 

200 Beds and Saloons. Omnibus meets Steamers and T rains . 

Address for Letters and OaUeirraiiui : "SPLENDID. OSTEND." 

I. SCHWITZING* Mmumubt. Wtnfer Season: NlcOt Hotel 4e Fnmee. 

Bnadi House during the Winter : VHE SHIP HOTEL, opposite tlie TjMHiing Btsge of the Royal Bdgium Hftll 

Bteamers and cloee to the Railway Stations. Newly fnmiaihed. Perfect Bimitary arrangements. 





"DBCOMMENDED First-class English Family Hotel and Pension. Splendid situation. Nearest to the Baths, 
■'-^ Kursaal, and Casino ; close to and with view of the Sea. Every modem comfort. Onhr Hotel lighted by 
Electricity in ih9 town. Sitting and Smoking Rooms. English Servants. Oood Bedrooms, U^t anA atMndance 
from 3 fri. a day. Board (bedroom tliree mMOs, Ught, and attandanee) from 9 frs. a day. Very Mvantageous 
arrangements for Families and long stay. All enquiries reoelve prompt attention. 'Bus at Itains and Steamers. 
4lood Cuisine and Cellar. Civility. OrxK aix tbm txab. . 

E. DA'VID VANOtJTOK, Proprietor and Manairer, resided many years In England. 
Concessionary of the Restaurant and Cafe— KnrsaaL 

FABAME (Near St. Malo) FRANCE. 

Sea B a t h i ng of Parame— near St. Malo (France) — The finest Sand Shore on the Coasts of Brittany, surrounded 
by charming panoramft, picturetque sights, and splendid views. Sweet and very salubrious climate. 

CITUATED on the very Shore, near the Casino and Bathing Establishment First Class Hotel, much frequented by 
*^ the best English Families. Beautiful Dining Room. Restaurant Saloon. Lawn Tennis. Hot Baths and 
Telegraph in the House. Yery large garden. Great comfort and moderate charges. Very advantageous conditions 
in July and S^tamber. Omnibus of the Hotel to all Trains and Steas&ers. 

. 1U01JJBI.I.B and GttASOK, Propjrle««M« 



14, Roe Gaumartin. Near the Madeleine and the Opera, In proximity of the * 

Grand Bonleyards and Gare St. Lazare. 

RE-DECORATED and re-furnished. Doulton'a Sanitary arrangements. 
Bedrooms from 8 to 10 francs. Apartments of all sizes. Bedrooms aad^^'6»^J^^^^^■«^'^^^'«=^ 
« day. Sestanrant k la Carte, moderate prices. Excelleiit C"a\»\xwfc vcA^OXvc . '«\^t3«esR.'S^s^*-'«;;^ 
Rooms. Telephone. Bath Rooms. Itead\ng Koom. ^^^\«\\«t\3Mk Vix ^^ss«^'it^'*=^» ^>«s?«!V 
House, particuiari/ recommended \9 FAodUes. 

/ . 






8, RUE DE liA PAIX, 8, 

(fhce Yenloiin. Place <le F 




r- r ■--— " T* -'TM ■ 

OLD RENOWNED FIRST CLASS HOUSE, a few steps from the Central 
station. In the centre of the town *t the comer ot the ChanneL Large Dining Room. 
Winter Garden, Ac. Electric Light. Telephone. Baths. Carriagea^ _Moderate Gbarget. 
Hydranlic Lift, Otis System. W. BBMES, Proprietor. 



:(Lalt6 of Lucerne.) 


(Lake of LuMTiM). 

< » ■ ■ 1 1 

1. 400 M . 

Oh the Shore of the bike 4ea IT. CanteHs. 

IMSBT-CLASSHOTBLAND-FfiNSIOM. 400 Bwiik -MoiiBtain air eure. HydntlwH;^. '^tlie 

^ BKWt sMItered iNWltloa with spleadSd Pasonina. Physician. Orchestra. BailwayOtJUiu. 

'jnttM'! TtiegHMx, Likne'uphalte T«rtsb«luid V«raUdiAs. Romantic Pine Wood. Lawn Ttifays. 

/9fimt 'Wdttr. Lm$Mt AglUh BmMrj itfmnifMaMdto. AmuigMBeiita for pr^traetMl fturl fron. 

^^29MM#>wdm^. A.niMAmriS^^cniMrredlKSMltcHaa. _. . .^ 

Jte PrpiV^oliu and Twu i!irtD!Ui \o >iii<bli»Mi^ t^^ 

i.d^Mf!fitf flitii^ • '^ 


MOST Difitingroifihed House in the most elevated and sidubrioafrpart iKfUome. 
Moderate CliM^es. Arrangements for protracted stay. 



All Modern Comforts. O^cin all Year "ftound. 

P. LUQANI. Proprietor. 



OPPOSITE the Ptok. £stabliriiedsincel826. Bafrtialljr hesfced by CMorifere. 
naamy ihdly Keiini, Dally Telegraph, Sttuidard, and ScotBDUui mailed 

dally. Omnibuses meet Ti^ins and Bosti on appliccition. 

Telei^ime'Ko. te Telesrams: LETGRAAFF, ROTTBBDAIC. 



Very llntiieiaaa and best ftttnafetf'Votel. 

VIBW on the Seine, Bon Secours, Pont Comeille, and lie Lacroix. Near a Post and Tel^raph Office, 
* the Theatre, and the principal Monnments. Earge Tind 'small Apa rtiueuts . Ohoiee Chihriiie. 
B«nowned Wi nes. English spoken . Cook's Coupons accepted and abatement of 5 per cent, for an ei|fht 
da^pB stay. SlejisleH nay be ^tepoeited. 

Ktyt by Mn. Tve. BATAIIiiiARD. fihnMriy proprMrte dr-*e HoM 4»tBm»»9, at MMweB. 


ROOMS lighted by Electricity and heated by Oalorifere. Sitaated opposite 
the Post Office in the iSnest central part of the Town. Magnificent Garden in front of the 
Hotel. Reading, Hasic, and Writing Baloons. English Newspapers. English and German spoken. 
Rooms from 3 francs; Breakfast 1 fr. 50c.; Lnnch 2 frs. 50c.; Dinner 3 frs. 50c. Very comfortable. 

ST. MORITZ DORF (Engadine), Switcerland. 

HOTEL BAYIEIt du SELYEDBtE-sr. hmmtz vulmg. 

18MlWetv4s MAit'e Ih'e Sea. ComMk^€te4 hy Eleetirte'tlraai Wfth St. iTolMte^toid. 

FntST-^Li^SB HOTKL, in exeeptioiially fine wtaatidfa, qx^vl "^^sc^^J^n^ 
June to ttst of March. Fire-proof Stalrcagea. lamj^Vfiti^uMinrs W««w^«^«^^^***"' 
hot water iHM (not air or stcMDX ^^^ OrA%6tawu \>V(Aiet^. "^^"^^^T^^Jt^^^**^** 






HOTEL de t'EUROPE ei do Im PAiX. 

A HANDSOME Hotel on the Promenade, opposite the Railway Station and 
Public Gardens, with a fine out-look. South aspect: Arrangements made 
for a prolonged stay. Deservedly recommended. 


LAUBBNT BBRTOUNI, JUN., formerly of Grand Hold RoyeU, San Remo, ondHoUl de VEurope, MHan. 

SCHINZNACH (on-the-Aar) Switzerland. 






Season, Hay 15 nntil September 30. 


Rich Snlphurons JErated Mineral 
Springs, efflcacious for Clironic -Skin 
Diseases, Chronic Catarrh, Scrophnlose. 
Specific Discretions, Bheumatism, Neyro- 
818, Atmiatry. 

Fine new Building for Special Treat- 
ment by Inhalations, Pulverizations, and 
Oarglixijg. Milk cure. 


Reduced prices until June 10. . Pro- 
spectus free from 

HANS AMSLEB, Proprietor. 

SESTBI-LEVANTE (Italy). (Route, Genoa-Spezia.) 


ANCIENT First-class House, entirely renewed. Situated in the prettiest 
' and quietest qaarter of the Town, on the Shore of the iSea, and full South. Exceptional 
position, well sheltered. Garden looking over the Sea. Baths. Electric light. Modern comfort. 
Very moderate charges. Arrangements for a long stay. PAGGI, Proprietor. 

SORRENTO ataly). 


THESE EXCELLENT HOTELS, which are situated in the best part of what is worthily named 
the " Beauty Spot of Italy/* are the annual resort of the most disting^iished English and American 
Families. The Principal Centre for Excursions. 

Mr» «• TRAVOSTAMO, Proprtetor and Hanaver. 


SPA— Oldest, Ooest, and most eOlcacions Hln^l hmtglnons Waters— SPA 


SURY, Senior, Proprietor. 




BeaalltWPsrk witb f nTBlsbed VIIlBii and < 

■ Motel, tovermi BjiBBMlBMi. ■ATHB. 



" THIRST-CLASS HOTEL, greatlj improved and beautifully situated, in close 


R FAMILIE8. Orwtco 

SPIEZ (Switzerland). 

spiEz. HOTEL SGHONEGG. ^ke of thouhe. 






me Lanreil and Mint CaBftrtabl 
Holcl IB Btrasslnirc. 

SItiuilcd In tkc atuutt Dart of II 
Taw> Bear Ike CawcAral. 

Baths and Sho'wer Baths. 

UMc d'Hote BBd BMlMranl. 


36 Ab^RTiiBrKiiBiifii. 



IS situated in the finest part of the town, in the beautiful Plaice Roykl, 
adjoining the Railway Station and the Post OflSce, near to the Theatre and the lEo^^ardens, 
opposite the Palace, and facing the new Odeon. This Hotel will be found most comifortaUe in every 
reu>ect; the apartments arc elegantly furnished and suitable for families or single gentlemen. Table 
d*H6t« at 1 and A o'clock. French and English Newspapers. H. and O. MASQViltfiv, Frt)fHeMn. 

TAHARIS-ST7S-HEB (Near Toulon) Var-IV&ttce. 

NEW Winter Station on the Mediterranean, picturesque and welUwooded, 
facing entrance to Toulon roadstead. Open all the year round. Modem comfort -cad-sMii- 
tation. Excellent Cuisine. Frequent communication with Toulon by Land and 8ea In MIUMiMi. 

Address : H. JlTST, Proprietor, OBAUD fiOTEL, TUnartsHnir-Her (Ylacr). 



(Black Forest). ^TRXBERO. (715 metres above ISea). 


'DEST situation, near the Waterfalls; for a long time well known as "HOTEL I. OOHSBN." Every 
-*-' English comfort. Baths. Electaic Light Milk Core. Omnibus at the Station. Oarriages. 
Moderate ohi^;es. Pension. The proprietor gives best information for Excurrions in the Bladi Forast. 
The Hotel wehrle, not very large out retj comfortable, is highly recommended by German and 
Foreign Guide Books. Park. Garden. Good Trout Fishing. P. 1IVEIUKIJB» Proprietor. 


AVER'f comfortable First Class Family Hotel, close to the WaterflBJlB and FoMMb Very 
higli and charming position, overlooking the Village and Valley. Large and Airy Dining 
Room ; nevfly decorated Drawliur Boom and Bostaurant. Balconies all round the House. 

Fine Garden. Baths. ElectricLiglit. English Comfort Pension. Moderate Charges. 
QmnihaB meet an Trains. aIiBBBT BOTZINOBKj Proprietor. 

VARALLO (Sesia), Three hours from Milan. 


PIRST CLA8S HOUSE, splendidly situated facing the Sacro Monte. Lift. 
Sleetrio Light thronghont. Bcantlfnl Garden and Park. Lawn Tennis, TbtfiMif moden 
.mrtfropstkio JoMtalUitioD. Bauiturj arrangements perfect. Pension from 9 francs. 

^^tmuauaemi luitf Motel will be oika from VtX Hiai vo I5ii\k ««\<;i^Y« 

■ 1 I ' ■ ' — ■ • • • ■ 


Grand Hot«l k FEnrope 

THIS SPLENDID HOTEL, situated on the Piazza Castello, 
^ and five minutes' walk from the Station, Post, Telegraph, etc., 
is furnished to afford Residents every possible convenience and 

Lighted by Electricity. Heated by Hot-air Stoves. 


Single and Double Bedrooms, and splendid Suite of Apal%- 

ments at moderate charges. 

A. BOROO, ProprielKKr. 


.^^^■. : : — -^ -• 


ft^cns OLD ESTABLtSHED FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, sftiiated on thb best todsitton clttie'GfHnd 
-*- Canal, has just been repaired and n-eatly improved. New rich Dining Boom on thelfroimd 
floor iPfMooVxtg the 0mnd Canal. Mydranllo Ulk 





THIS Fu^flt^^^aas Hotel, containing; 45 Salmons And 235 Bedrooms, with a 
■•Iflmifis BrMikflist, Reading and ConrerMtlon Roimis, a« Veil m a 49moking Bidoon^ 
a ^ery eMenstte and elegant DIntng Room, and &n Artificial GT&rden oYer'lhe r!V6r,'fs Matftlftilly 
sitsated in eoBneotion with the Old and New Bath buftdlngs and CoYlTersation HoVlfi,^kl(l=in the 
immedtateTi^feiity of the Pifomenade and Trinkhalle. It is celebrated for Its elegailt mM Mftifort- 
sCble Apartments, good CuiHne and Cellar, wnd deserves its wide-spread reputation as an excellent 
Hotel. Table d*Hdte. Breakfltats 'and Sapitare A fa C^tuefe. Exchange Office. Gorrespondtta^^ 
•1lievtlii«l|>aV'BMdd«g Hoaaet of London for the payment of Ciro«latHMft.%^ia^f(wXASAriK<£^«»^^'^ 
Onmibnaea -of the Hotel to and from eaoh Traiii^. ¥Vb» '^tV^^Jw ^*!E*flMK6i%- ^'^R«x«t''«w^ 
BAtbiltttba Hotel. Lift to every floor. BxcelUniaficomx^^^N^. 


WILDBAD Continued* 


THIS First-class Hotel is beautifully situated on a terrace facing the new 
Trlnkhalle, at the entrance of the Promenade, and within five minutes' walk from the English 
Church. It is well known for its cleanliness, good attendance, and moderate charges. The 
Cuisine department and Wines will afford satisfaction to the most fastidious taste. A great part of 
the Hotel has been newly furnished, and the drainage entirely reconstructed. Excellent Sitting and 
Bed Rooms, furnished with English comfort. Conversation, Reading, and Smoking Rooms. Ladies' 
Music Room. The Times and other Papers taken in . Warm and Cold Baths in a separate building. 
The Hotel Omnibus meets every Train durin g the seaso n. Covered communication between tlie 
Hotel and new Bath House. 



Formerly the Official Residence of tne Lieutenant-Governor of t he Isuno. 

THIS long-established and first class Hotel, for Families and Gentlemen, 
is famed for its exceUent Cuisine, its choice Wines, and the thorough comfort of all its arrange- 
, ments, combined with the most moderate charges. 

Standing in its own grounds, and situated in the higher and best part of the town of St. Peter-Port, it 
commands from its windows and lawn unrivalled views of the entire Channel Group— including 
Aldemey on the north ; Jersey on the south ; Sark, Herm, and Jethou inmiediately opposite; wi^]^ the 
distant and historic coasts of ^Normandy beyond. 

An extensive new wing has been addea, comprising about forty additional aiMtrtments— including 
spacious and lofty Bedrooms, with southern aspect and magnificent sea views. Hot and Cold Baths. 
Smoking Rooms, and all the modem improvements. Tariff on application. Special arrangements 
during the Winter months. 


OapaUe of Accommodating Two Hundred Ouesta. 

TCA.TITm'PI ID'^Z^VZI. filepA.X'A.te VA*'l3les. 



PriTate Carriages. Id on parle Franfais. Hier man spricht Deutsch. 

Five minutes' walk from the Landing Stages. A Porter from the Hotel attends the arrival of all 
Steamers. Rooms may be secured by letter or telegram. 

Registered Telegrapltle Address-*' GO¥. GIJEKBISEY.'* 




IS delightfully situated between Cambridge Park and Candie Grounds. 
Large Garden. Splendid Sea View from every room. 10 minutes to boats. Terms, Cs. 6d. 
jpor day. Special Winter TenoB. 

, ^ ■ . Conducts \)i9Vx.«J^.lS£«.HAB.T, 


A Fitst-CIaas Country Hotel. 

Tb« Lturest 'and onlr Hotsl an tbe lilond 
Tltti oBea View. 

D. KOBIS, mprtctor. 


[. SmiATIOK). 

Terms Moderate. Established over 60 years. 


stands in an unrivaUed position facing the Sea- 


TeleeivpM.iAddreui "OKAlfD. JEBBBT." Q. OK LEIDI, ^''M'Wtf. 

Royal Yacht Club Hotel 



Re-Built aria'IRe-PrihHshed.- - Over- 140 ^jawssa. 


opMUywnr cnnttttninfl, 





Charaiinvly Siteated oh Sea Shore* 

The only Hotel in Channel Islands affording facilities for Sea Bathing. 
Beoently enlarged. Tariff on application. 

A. B* HAR»Eir« ProwtotOF. 




FIRST-CLASS FamUy and Commercial Hotel. Centrally situated, within 
Three Minateg' Walk of Pier, Markets, and Post Office. Omnibus meets all Boats. Billiard 
Room. Hot and Cold Baths. Terms moderate. Table d'hdte at 6 p.m . The Proprietor's own 
Drag starts from the Hotel daily. J. H; VENN, Proprietor. 


THE oldest establisbed and most centrally, situated Family and.OominereUl 
Hotel In St. Heller's. LadieA' Roooi. Six Stock Booms. 'Ens meets Steamers. 

E. CHAPMAN, Proprietor. 




Tenun^ €/€ per df em. Ommllims me«t« a\\ RoM»« 

* ill lLJ I ii.>Ji J ' l ■■1..1. ■ ■ ■ . ■ U. . 

JXR8XT CkmtliilMd. 


LflMy eoKducted JairMm^' IMb6pi|M» 

TerJCQS fTom 6», 64, per dg^y inclusive. 

01CMX9ini lfS$Tfl AkU B0479. , 

Proprietor, PIKBHil T9;VMiMl|i 







TariflMnclusire from 6g. 6d. to 8s. per.daj. F. W. H. SIMON, Proprietor. 


Ui Close proximity to Har1>onr, Piers, Eastern Railway, Beaoli, and Batldnff. 


Moderate or inclusive Tariff of 6. E. WIIXiS, Proprietor. 



Dark Room for Photographeps. Hotel Qmnllmii laftrtu i41: Bloaiiiepik 

B9TAB19aia» 18«0f^ 


'§<•«. ■ • "•<< 

«K> and SBBiiErAST. 3/6. "rOljS^TSP^^sSs^ 


view of dj - 


STANDS dinctlj on the. edge of the Clifl^, and hai & spUndu 
IilandB «nd the Coast or Fnace. Flemont la nmmiEit the loait plcturri 

haigii. Tailffforwari 

PropiletoT, E J. Le BLAHOQ. 


A Charming and Romantic Spot. Two-and-s-half mUea from St. Helien. 
The Flneit Vle<r of the laland. LanehFoni, Dimlen. Tm. at the ihoruil notice. 

H. VICEBE8, Propiletor. 


St. CS-uonL's. 

^HIS Hotel conimanda grand views of the largest Bay in the Island, indud- 




FACES the Sea. Stands in four acres 
of OrnHDAnt^l flronndj. OoDtAloB apwardi of 
on» hDDdnd uxd twonty ■nipptuouilf appointed 
Boomi. XunUnent Publlo Boami, BSdiuUe UK, 
ud an BoSn tMismniHata. lb mliimtw' w5i 
fnmXalhnvStatloD and Golf ^ika. OvaMadd 
TiufD. Ar Tmbii wUAare slrMlT 









PARIS 68, Rue de Clichy. 

PARIS 4, Place du Theatre franjais (Palais Royal). 

MARSEILLES 38, Rue de la R^pubUque. 

CANNES 6, Rue des Marchfe. 

BRUSSELS 6, Rue de la P^pinifere. 

ANTWERP 44, Rue Dambrugge. 

BERLIN 33, Wilhelmsstrasse. 

BASLE 4, Stapfelbeig. 

BERNE 9, Naegeliegasse. 

VIENNA 6, Elisabeth Strasse. 

PESTH 4, Deakplatz. 

PRAGUE Franzens Quai, 6. 

MADRID Leganitos, 4. 

SEVILLE 31, Plaza de la Constitucion. 

LISBON Janellas Verdes, 32. 

ROME 63, Via Due MaceUi. 

FLORENCE 22, Via deUa Vigna Nuova. 

GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

NAPLES 101, Strada di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, RueTanger. 

ST. PETERSBURG ...4, New Isaac Street. 

ODESSA 58, Khersonskaya Street. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. . .Tunnel Squats, ^^t^.. ^^^^ 

ALEXANDRIA Woivodich BvnV^ii^ TL«v«^ ^,,sSdsw^^»^ 

fikvlmfomMtion Ma be obtained at amy ot \^e e3MM ^^^^^^^^^'^Tj^SCE 

'■ 146, Queen VitWrta. tt««*H ^^_ 





Book work 


Letter Head ngs B I Forms 

Invoices Memo Forms Note Head ng^ Cheques 



WHfoiRDS, mrm, spool tickets, vemn & other labeu 


"^ - .Apnimiaimrei. 

y ivarMTf \s;ws/nit' »v » t 

•* Are tmly 

Medicines of blessiDgi relief 

to all irlio are out of health. 
Are you auflFering 

k from iDdigeetion, Want of Eii«r^, 
\ DiBordered Stomaoh, Liver trouble, 
'iLuck of Tone ? 
* Try the Pilla, 
and yoD nill rejoioe 1 
I TSetored health, strength, and appetdte. n 

Havfl ypu taken oold 
t have Cheat troubles, Bheumatdmn, | 
r Goat or NeoralgiaiP 

Uaa the Ointment. 

like a chana. For Cnts, Woondj, 
Spraiiu, and all mnaonlar oon- 
P traotiona, it has no equaL 

Tbese Remedies are Invaluable 

in all complainta iuoidental to Feoialea. For 
ohildrea and the aged they are priceleu.