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Ex Ubris 
C. K. OGDEN 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



lnttp://www.arcliive.org/details/bradwellancientmOOevaniala 




Faithfully yours. 

THE AUTHOR. 



BRADWELL : 

Ancient and Modern. 



HISTORY OF THE PARISH . 

AND 

INCIDENTS IN THE HOPE VALLEY & DISTRICT. 

BEING 

collectldns and recollections in a 
peakland village. 



By SETH EVANS, 

MEMBER OF THE DERBYSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

AUTHOR OF 

"METHODISM IN BRADWELL," ETC. 



I912. 



PA 

PREFACE. 



This little Yolume has been issued in 
response to a desire expressed by many 
that the articles should not remain " buried 
in the files" of a newspaper. Hence, the 
subject matter has undergone revision, and 
with additions, and many illustrations, it 
makes its appearance in book form. 

In the work of love in which he has been 
engaged it has been the author's desire to 
place on permanent record information col- 
lected diiring many j'ears, so as to place 
this matter in the hands of those who care 
to interest themselves in these " collections 
and recollections of a Peakland village," 
and it is to the kind encouragement and 
assistance of the proprietors of the " Derby- 
shire Courier" that this has been made 
possible. 

It has, of course, been necessary to con- 
sult many publications in order to procure 
reliable information^, and to these the 
author has laid himself under tribute, es- 
pecially the journals of the Derbyshire 
Archaeological Society. And there are 
others to whom he desires to tender his 
sincere thanks. To W. H. G. Bagshawe, 
Esq.. J.P., D.L., of Ford Hall, he is in- 
debted for a great deal of valuable infor- 
mation relating to the Apostle of the Peak 
and farly Nonccnformity ; to Edward G. 
Bagshawe, Esq., solicitor, Sheffield, for the 
loan of M.S. of his late father, Benjamin 
Bagshawe; to Sydney Taylor, Esq., B.A., 
of Buxton; to N. J. Hughes-Hallett. Esq., 
Clerk of the Peace, for his courtesy in 
allowing the inspection of county records; 
to the Vicars of Hope and Bradwell, and 



to the authorities of the Wesleyan and 
Primitive Methodist Chapels, for their 
kindness in placing their registers at his 
disposals to the Eev. R. S. Eedfern, for 
information relating to the old chapel ; and 
to Mr. Walter Morton, for the loan of the 
precious letters of his distinguished 
ancestor. 

There are many others the author desires 
to thank for assistance rendered, including 
those who have so kindly granted him the 
loan of photographs, and in this connection 
he tenders his warmest thanks to Chas. E. 
Bradshaw Bowles, Esq., J.P., lord of the 
manor of Abney, and editor of the Derby- 
shire Archaeological Journal, for the loan 
of valuable plates. The old houses, church, 
chapels, etc., are from the camera of Mr. 
H. V. Tanfield. 

But especially does he desire gratefully 
to acknowledge the kindness and encourage- 
ment received from the noblemen, ladies, 
and gentlemen, whose names are in the 
List of Subscribers. 

To those who may say that the author 
has overstepped the bounds of the village, 
it may be said that to toe a strict topo- 
graphical line in these things is difficult, 
and he has related incidents in the sur- 
rounding villages that will cause a wider 
interest to be taken in the book. 

With these remarks he craves the indul- 
gence of the public for the imperfections 
of these "collections and recollections in a 
Peakland village." 

February. 1912. 



1C194SS 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. I.— IN PEE-HISTORIC TIMES— WHEN MEN LIVED IN 

CAVES. 
Discoveries in Hartle Dale Caves— Stone Circles Explored— Deposits 
of the Flood found in a Lead Mine — Ancient Barrows Explored— 
—Grey Ditch, a Monnment of the First Oenttiry ... ... ... 1 

CHAP. II.— THE ROMAN OCCUPATION OF BRADWELL. 

The Boman Eoad, Batham G<ate — Discoveries at the Eoman Station 
Anavio — Boman Pig of Lead — Ancient Baking Ovens — ^The Battle 
of Edwin Tree ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

CHAP. III.— IN THE TIMES OF THE FORESTERS. 

Earliest Foresters and First Settlers— Breaking the Bad Old Lawe 
—Those who first Enclosed the Land— The First Houses and who 
bnilt them— At the old Oourt Leet ... ... ... ... ... 6 

CHAP. IV.— WHEN THE FOREST WAS CLEARING. 

Landowners at Loggerheads ... ... ... ... ... ... t 

CHAP, v.— OLD CHARTERS FOR FIVE HUNDRED YEARS. 

Landowners and Inhabitants in the Middle Ages and after— Seven- 
teenth Century Residents— When Voting was open ... ... ..( 10 

CHAP. VI.— WHEN KNIGHTS WERE BOLD. 

Curious Tenure of Brough Mill— Hazlebadge Hall and the Vernon« 14 

CHAP. VII.— IN THE OLD FIGHTING DAYS. 

PetitioHs for Pensions— When Militia Service was Compulsory— 
—Drawing Lots in Church— When the Miners Rebelled ... ... 16 

CHAP. VIII.— BRADWELL'S RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS. 

The earliest Nonconformists — Chapel of the Apostle of the Peak- 
First Nonconformist Chapel wrecked— An Eccentric Parson ... 19 

CHAP. IX.— METHODISM'S EARLY STRUGGLES. 

John Wesley and his Pioneers— Some Curious Items — Rise and Pro- 
gress of Primitive Methodism— The Baptists— Dipping in the Holmes 22 

CHAP. X.— EARLY CHURCHWARDENS. 

How St. Barnabas' Church was built— Educational History— First 
Bradwell Schools— School Board History ... ... ... ... 26 

CHAP. XL— IN THE PARISH WORKHOUSE DAYS. 

How the Poor Existed— Overseers' Old Records ... ... ... Sd 

CHAP. XII.— INDUSTRIES OF THE PAST. 

Lead Mining Vicissitudes— Miners' Liberties and Customs— A Pre- 
carious Occupation— Calamine— Sulphur and Petroleum— Barytus— 
Fluor Spar— Lead Smelting— White Lead making ... ... ... 33 

CHAP. XIII.-SOME TRAGEDIES OF THE LEAD MINES. 

Rescued from a Living Tomb— The Magpie Mine Tragedy— Weaving 

— Cotton Spinning— The Hat Trade— Opticians— Lime Burning ... 39 



VIL 

CHAP. XIV.— SOME ANCIENT CUSTOMS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 
Funeral Customs—" Chicking " at Easter— Christmas Eve Mischief— 
An Old Wedding Custom— The " Lumb Boggart "—The Lady on 
Horseback— Well Dressing and Garland Day — Bull Baiting ... 43 

CHAP XV.— FAMILIES OF THE PAST. 

Creswell- Trickett— Greaves— PadLey— Wagstaffe— Worsley — Oliver — 
Millward— Pearson— Pickford— The Dudden or G'oodwin Family- An 
Interesting Romance — The Parish Clerk's BeooUeotions ... ... 46 

CHAP. XVI.— BRADWELL'S BENEFACTORS. 

Outram's Charity— Thomas Middleton— An old Weaver's Bequest— 
—Thomas Hallam's Charity— A Friend to Poor Children— Mary 
Hall's Charity— Built a School House for Po-or Children— Endowed 
and Buried in the Old Chapel— Samuel Fox— Bradwell Lad's Dis- 
tinguished Career- A World-wide Celebrity— Benefactor and Bene- 
factress ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

CHAP. XVII.— ANCIENT FAMILIES AND NOTABLE PEOPLE. 

Distinguished Sons and Daughters— Jacob Morton— Joseph Hibbs— 
John Hallam — George Birley— John Morton— Ealph Benjamin Somer- 
set—George Middleton— Robert Middleton— Joseph Middleton— Adam 
Morton— Edward Townson Churton— Jonn Child Becking— John 
Edwy Bradwell -Adam Hill Cooper, a witty rhymester— Poems : 
" My Little Son"—" Man "— " The Royal Wedding "— " The Free 
Rangers " — " A Journey to Eyam and Back "— " To His In- 
digent Cobbler "— " Shank Steaks "— " To an Abstainer from Drink 
but an Inveterate Smoker " — " The Bradwell Convert " — Samuel 
Cooper — George Bird— Horace E. Middleton— Thomas Fanshaw Mid- 
dleton, first Bishop of Calcutta ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

CHAP. XVIII.— FAMOUS SOLDIERS. 

Thomas Mortoa -Charles Castle, Barnsley Family— William Bock- 
ing— Benjamin Barber— Captain Benjamin Barber— John Barbei^- 
Sir John Winfleld Bonser— Family of Bradwell— John Bradwell- 
Henry Bradwell— Damlcy and others— Family of Marshall— Middle- 
ton — Morton — Somerset ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

CHAP. XIX.— SOME REMARKABLE CHARACTERS. 

Left his Bride to follow the Hounds— An Eccentric Worthy— Done 
as many as had ever done him— Strange Character's Money Buys 
Church Clock— Money all over the House— Putting the "Axins" in- 
Little Martin Middleton, the Duke's Favourite... ... ... 69 

CHAP. XX.— SOME REMARKABLE ENTRIES. 

Curious Epitaphs and Gretna Green Weddings— Body Snatching- 
Some Curious Epitaphs of Bradwell Folk— Gretna Green Weddings 71 

CHAP. XXI.— EIGHTY ODD YEARS AGO. 

Leading Inhabitants in 1829— When the Rivet was Forded— A Com- 
munity of Eighty Years ago— A Musical Community— When a Cattle 
Fair was held— The Wakes 75 

CHAP. XXII— LONGEVITY AND TRAGICAL DEATHS. 77 

CHAP. XXIIL— A TRAGIC VISITATION OF FORTY YEARS AGO. 

Seventy Persons mysteriously cut off ... ... ... ... . . 80 

CHAP. XXIV.— SOME PLACES OF INTEREST. 

Robin Hood's Cross- The Batham Gate and Roman Camp— The 
Bagshawe or Crystallized Cavern— Bradwell Dale — Medicinal Waters 
of the Bath— The Echo 81 



VIII. 

CHAP. XXV.— FAMOUS SOLDIEE IN THIRTV-SIX BATTLES. 

Career of Thomas Morton— Through the Afghjin War— In the Cri- 
mean War and Indian Mutiny— Marked for Promotion ... ... 85 

CHAP. XXVI.— THEEE HFNDEED YEARS AGO AT HAZLE- 
BADGE HALL. 

Family Litigation of the Vernons ... ... ... ... ... 92 

CHAP. XXVII.— HOW PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY ROSE 
IN THE PEAK. 

The Ejected Clergymen of 1662— Queen Parsons in Olden Times— 
Bradwell Men Fight in Church— The Nonconforming Parsons— Bake- 
well, Hope, Castleton, Edale, Tideswell, Hathersage, Eyam, The 
Apostle of the Peak— Brad well Churchwardens ... ... ... 95 

CHAP XXVIII.— WESLEYANISM^S ESTABLISHMENT IN 
BRADWELL CIRCUIT. 
Early Looal Preachers, Tideswell Methodists rforse-whipped— First 
Chapel in a Farm »^use— Bradwell Preachers Mobbed at Castleton 
—Hope Vicar's Wife at Wesleyan Class Meetings— Prayer Meetings 
in the Snake Inn— A Bamford Centenarian Methodist— Persecuted 
at Hiathersage— Pelting the Methodists at Eyam— A Century's 
Ministers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

CHAP. XXIX.— EARLY PRIMITIVE METHODISM. 

The Bradwell Pioneers— Travelling Preachers on Fourteen Shillings 
a week — John Verity the Stonemason Preacher— Female Preachers 
—Refractory Members— Some Comical Preachers— The First Pioneers 
—Complete List of Ministers ... ... ... ... ... ... 105 

CHAP. XXX.— FAMOT'S VISITORS OF A CENTURY AGO. 

Author's Amusing Experience — Historian on Early Marriages- 
" Sterling Worth and Integrity" — James Montgomery's EQuestrian 
Feat— Hope Vicar's Wife at Wesleyan Class Meetings ... ... 109 

CHAP. XXXI.— FRIENDLY SOCIETIES OF THE PAST AND 
PRESENT. 
Some Curious Records—" Charitable and Brotherly "—Those Pints 
of Ale— Bridling the Tongue— Football Unlawful— The Whitsuntide 
Jollification— The United Society Disunited— Nutting Forbidden- 
Beer and the Bible— Oddfellows 110 

CHAP. XXXII.-vSOME TRAGIC DEATHS— A REMARKABLE 

CHRONOLOGY. 114 

CHAP. XXXIII.-SOME MEMORABLE SNOWSTORMS. 

The Lost Lad— Starved to Death on Winhill— Perished on Sir 
William— Starved to Death on Eyam Moor— Perished in the Snow 
on Tideswell Moor— A Hathersage Hero— Houses Buried in Snow- 
storms—Buried by an Avalanche— Skeltons Found on the Moors— 
Edale People washed away in Floods— Present Day Freeholders ... 120 

ADDENDA: Roman Brough 125 



IX 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The Author ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

£roagh Mill and Approach to Boman Camp ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Hazlebadge Hall 14 

Ancient Chapel of the Apostle of the Peak ... ... ... ... ... 19 

William Middleton. a Presbyterian of 80 years ago ... ... ... ... 21 

First Primitive Methodist Chapel ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Old Baptist Chapel 23 

Primitive Methodist Chapel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Wesleyan Chapel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

First Wesleyan Preaching Boom ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Portion of the First Wesleyan Chapel ... ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Old Sunday School at Brookside ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Saint Barnabas' Church ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Bev. W. J. Webb, First Vicar of Bradwell 28 

Group of Old Lead Miners ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Job Middleton, the Last of the Hatters ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 

The Old Hall. SmaUdale 47 

Cottage where Samuel Fox was bom ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Eamuel Fox, Inventor of the Umbrella Frame ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Bev. Joseph Hibbs, Primitive Methodist P'oneer ... ... ... ... 54 

Bev. George Birley, Wesleyan Minister ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Bev. Jacob Morton, Famous Wesleyan Minister ... ... ... ... 55 

Bev. John Morton, Primitive Methodist Minister ... ... ... ... 55 

Bev. Balph Benjamin Somerset, Dean of Cambridge ... ... ... ... 55 

Bev. George Middleton, Primitive Methodist Minister ... ... ... ... 56 

Bev. Joseph Middleton, Primitive Methodist Pioneer ... ... ... ... 56 

Bev. Bobert Middleton. Primitive Methodist Minister... ... ... ... 56 

Adam Hill Cooper, a Witty Bhymester ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Thomas Fanshaw Middleton, First Bishop of Calcutta ... ... ... 61 

Charles Castle, J. P., an Indian Mutiny Veteran ... ... ... ... 63 

William &:)oking, 60 years a Sunday School Teacher ... ... ... ... 64 

John Barber, a Famous Local Preacher ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Mrs. Violet Hall, a Pioneer Lady Preacher ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Chief Inspector Oliver Morton ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Robert Somerset, well-known Local Preacher ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Thomas Somerset, 20 years Poor Law Guardian ... ... ... ... 67 

A Group of Old Time Worthies 68 

Obadiah Stafford, 60 years Sunday Sch-ool Teacher ... ... ... ... 69 

Dr. Joseph Henry Taylor, "The Old Doctor" ... ... ... ... ... 69 

Gretna Green of the Peak ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Joseph Hibberson, Famous Singer of 19th Century ... ... ... ... 77 

Clement Morton, Famous Singer of Last Century ... ... ... ... 77 

Bobin Hood's Cross ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 82 



X. 

Stile made from Bobin Hood's Cross ... ... ... ... ... ... 82 

Bradwell Dale, where Margaret Vemon's Ghost appears ... ... ... 84 

Historical House in Nether Side ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 86 

Thomas Morton, a Famous Soldier ... ... ... ... ... ... 88 

Wilfred Piske, South African Hero, killed on Railway ... ... ... 92 

William John Bradwell, a Churchwarden ... ... ... ... ... 101 

Thomas Bradwell, a Churchwarden ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

John Dakin, a Churchwarden ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

Bradwell Wesleyan Chapel ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 102 

James Ingham, the Pioneer Primitive Methodist ... ... ... ... 105 

John Hallam, a Pioneer Primitive Preacher ... ... ... ... ... 10& 

Eobert Shenton, Unitarian Preacher 63 years ... ... ... ... ... 106 

Map of Roman Brough ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 126 

Plan of Excavations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ■•■ 127 

West Corner of Main Wall .- 12* 

North-West Corner of Praetorium ... ... ... ... ... ... 129 

Underground Chamber or Well ... ... ... ... ... ... 13ft 

Another View of Underground Chamber ... ... ... ... -.■ 131 

Boman Workings in Stone at Brough ... ... ... ... ... 132 

Inscribed Tablet of the Second Century ... ... .,. ... ... ■•• 133- 
Key to Inscription on Tablet ... ... ... -. ... .• ••• 134 

Remains of Ancient Oven in Charlotte Lane, Bradwell ... ... ... 13& 




XI. 



List of Subscribers. 



Adams, Samuel. Dialstone Villas, Bradwell. 

Allen, Francis, Hugh Lane, Bradwell. 

Andrew, Abraham, Hollow Gate, Bradwell. 

Andrew, John S., Hilltop Farm, Unstone 

Andrew, Robert, Victoria Villa, Totley Rise. 

Andrew, Thomas, Brook View, Horner 
House, Stocksbridge. 

Andrew, Thos. 8., The Hall Farm, Totley. 

Ash, Joseph, " Heatherfleld," Bradwell. 

Ashton, Ellis. The Kennels, Hope. 

Ashton, James, Clitheroe Road, Longsigh;. 

Ashton, Robert How, J.P,. Losehill Hall. 
Castleton (2 copies). 

Ashford, 8. J., 57, Surrey Street. Sheffield. 

Athorpe, Colonel R., J.P., Learn Hall, Grindle- 
ford. 

Austin, John, High Street, Sheffield. 

Bagley, Mrs. Ella Victoria Norris, ex- 
Mayoress of Penzance, The Cliff, Pen- 
zance, Cornwall (2 copies). 

Bagshaw, Dennis, Little Hayfield. 

Bagshaw, W., Providence Road, Walkley, 
Sheffield. 

Bagshawe, Edwd. G., 63, Norfolk Street, 
Sheffield. 

Bagshawe. W. H. G., J.P., D.L., Ford Hall, 
Chapel-en-le-Frith (4 copies). 

Bamford, Thos. 8., Lord Street, Elton, Bury. 

Bancroft, John, Fulham Palace Road, 
Hammersmith, London. 

Barber, Arthur, Sherwood Street, Notting- 
ham. 

Barber, Ellis 8., Manchester Road, Hadfleld. 

Barker, Wm. Ward, Quoit Green House, 
Dronfleld. 

Bateman, Mrs. Hannah Birley, Mildred 
Avenue, Watford, Herts. 

Battersby, Mrs. R., Burlington Street, \sli- 
ton-under-Lyne (2 copies). 

Beard, Raymond, Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Beaumont, Thomas, High Street House, New 
Mills. 

Beeston, Rev. A. T., St. James", New Mills. 

Bennett, "Wm. Fox, Edmund Road, Sheffield. 

Bird, Rev. George, M.A., The Vicarage, Brad- 
well. 

Bingley. J., Grimesthorpe Road, Sheffield. 

Black,* W., Grimesthorpe Road, Sheffield. 

Bland, George. The Hills. Bradwell. 

Boardman, Joseph, Brooklands, Hope. 

Bocking, Rev. John Child, M.A., Gnosall 
Vicarage, Staffordshire. 

Bolton, H., Frickley Road. Sheffield. 

Booker, H. H., Albert Road, Heeley, Sheffield 
(2 copies). 

Booth, Mrs., Station House, Broughton Lane, 
Sheffield. 

Boothby, Mrs. Mary Hannah, Kettleshulme. 

Bonser, Right Hon. Sir John, 3, Eaton Place. 

London, S.W. 
Boswell. Wm., Market Street, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 

Bowles. Chas., Dover Road, Sheffield (2 

copies). 
Bowles. C. E. B., J.P., Nether House, Wirks- 

worth. 
Boycott, John Burton, Welby Croft, Chapel- 
en-le-Frith. 



Bradbury, J. L., Attercliffe Road, Sheffield. 

Bradbury, E., Attercliffe Common, Sheffield. 

Bradbury, John, Stocksbridge. 

Bradley, Luke, Bowden Lane, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 

Bradwell, Abner, Corporation Buildings, 
Sheffield. 

Bradwell, Alan, Netherside, Bradwell. 

Bradwell, Edwin, " Netherside," Hale, 
Cheshire (4 copies). 

Bradwell, Harvey, Kirk Oswald, Cumberland. 

Bradwell, Edmund, Glenooe Road, Pariv, 
Sheffield. 

Bradwell, Horace, Norfolk Road, Sheffield 
(3 copies). 

Bradwell, John Edwy, Malton Street, Pits 
moor, Sheffield (2 copies). 

Bradwell, Sidney A., Vicarage Road, Totten- 
ham, London. 

Bradwell, 8. J., " Brownsville," Heaton 
Moor, Stockport (2 copies). 

Bradwell, Mrs. Nancy, Church Street, Brad- 
well. 

Bradwell, Mrs. Hannah, Reddish Green 
House, Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Bradwell, Valentine, Catherine Street, Ash- 
bon-under-Lyne (2 copies). 

Bradwell, Walter, Hayfield. 

Bradwell, Mrs. Sarah E., Dobbin Hill, Shef- 
field. 

Bramall, William. Old Hall, Shatton. 

Bramwell, Thos., Stocksbridge (2 copies). 

Bramwell, E. C, J.P., " Ivy Dene," Grindle- 
ford. 

Bramwell, Mrs. W.. Windmill, Hucklow. 

Brady. Chas. R., C. E., Town Hall, Chapel- 
en-le-Frith. 

Bridge, Charles. Crookhill, Woodlands. 

Brierley, Wm., J.P., Sterndale House, Litton. 

Broadbent, Major John, Castleton. 

Broadhurst, J. W., J.P., The Haugh, Bugs- 
worth. 

Brownhill. George Henry, White Hart Hotel, 
New Mills. 

Buckstone, Rev. Henry, J.P., The Hall. 
8utton-on-the-Hill. 

Bunting, W. Braylesford, Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Burton, J. E., Main Road, Handsworth, Shef- 
field. 

Caterer, Mrs. Florence, Newburgh Arms 
Hotel, Bradwell. 

Chambers, Wilfred, St. Mary's Road. Glossop. 

Chambers, William, Main Road, Hadfleld. 

Chapman, Fredk., Stanley House, Tideswell. 

Chapman, Wm., Great Hucklow. 

Chapman. Dr. Wm., The Rocks, New Mills 
(2 copies). 

Clarke. Mrs. Allan. St. John's Road, Long- 
sight, Manchester (3 copies). 

Clegg, Leonard, J., Figtree Lane, Sheffield. 

Clegg. John Charles, J.P., Figtree Lane, Shef- 
field. 

Clegg, Dr. Joseph, J. P., Edentree House, 
Bradwell (2 copies). 

Clegg, Sir W. E., J.P., Figtree Lane, Sheffield. 

Cooper, Abram., Upper End Farm, Peak 
Dale. 



XII. 



Cooper. Jun., George. Nether Padley. Grindle- 
ford. 

Cooper. John, The Hills, Bradwell. 

Cooper. Thomas, Ford Bank. Buxton. 

Corker. George, Atterclifle Common, Shef- 
field. 

Cox. G. W.. Langham. Rutland. 

Cresswell. John T., Chinley. 

Craig. Robert. " Kockside." Bradwell. 

Cramond, James Hy., Atterclifle Eoad, 
Sheffield (2 copies). 

Cutler. T. T.. The Bank. Hathersage. 

Dakin, Mrs. Jane, Ashopton (3 copies). 

Darnley, Edwy. Maltby, Dale End Cottage, 

Br*£Ld.W6ll> 

Darrand, J. C, Hawthorne House, Hope. 

Dearden, Dr. V. S. G.. Beech House. Car- 
brook. Sheffield. . 

Derby Free Library (Sir E. T. Ann, chair- 
man). 

Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of. Lord 
Lieutenant of Derbyshire, Chatsworth. 

Dicken, Captain, Great Hucklow. 

Dickie, Matthew, " Ravenstor," Miller's 
Dale. 

Dickinson, Edward, Woodbank Cre30i3iit, 
Sheffield. 

Diver H. H., Middlewood Road, Hillsboro , 
Sheffield. . , 

Dixon, John, The Hills, Bradwell (2 copies). 

Dixon, Robert, Brookside, Bradwell (4 copies). 

Dodds, Henry, The Hills, Bradwell (2 copies). 

Dormand, W., Shiregreen Lane, Sheffield. 

Dyall, Jas., Carfleld Avenue, MeersbroDk. 
Sheffield. , „ , 

Eagle, George, Barmaster for High Peak, 
Brown Street, Manchester. 

Earwaker, Robt. P., J. P., Fern Lawn, Chelten- 
ham. 

Elliott, Alfred, Lord Street, Glossop. 

Elliott, Allen. Smalldale, Bradwell. 

Elliott, Ernest. Nether Side, Bradwell. 

Elliott, Joel, Storrs, Stannington. 

EUiott, Marshall, The Hills, Bradwell. 

Elliott. Mrs. Martha, Ashton Road, Newton, 
Hyde. 

Elliott, Robert, Oscar Street, Moston, Man- 
Chester. 

Ellis, Jun., Joseph, Lord Street, Elton, Bury. 

Evans, Alwyn, Geraldine Road, Yardley, Bi»-- 
mingham. 

Evans, Cyril, Town Gate, Bradwell. 

Evans, Dennis, Town Gate, Bradwell. 

Evans, Fred, Town Gate, Bradwell. 

Evans, Maurice, Atterclifle Common, Shef- 
field, and Upland Cottage, Bradwell (2 
copies). 

Evans, Josiah Barber, Horner House, Stocks- 
bridge. 

Evans. John, Peak Dale. 

Evans, Samuel, Great Hucklow. 

Eyre, Rev. Daniel, " Homeleigh," Devoran. 
Cornwall (2 copies). 

Eyre. Percy. Hill Head. Bradwell. 

Eyre, Jesse. Church Gates, Bradwell. 

Eyre, Robert, Primrose Lane, Glossop. 

Eyre. William, New Bath Hotel. Bradwell. 

Eyre, V. H., Cavendish House. Castleton. 

Firth, Ambrose, The Knoll, Bamford. 

Firth, E. WiUoughby, J. P.. Birchfleld, Hope 
' (4 copies). 

Fiske, Samuel, Dialstone Villas, Bradwell 
(2 copies). 

Fleicher. Mr«. Annie. The Knoll. Bradwell. 
Ford. Miss Hannah. The Hills. Bradwell. 
Ford. George. Now Zealand. 

Ford. John. Fitzwilliam Street, Sheffield, and 
The Hills, Bradwell. 

Ford, Joseph, Fitzwilliam Street. Sheffield. 
Ford. J. J.. Hayfleld Road. Chapel-en-le-Frith 
Fox. Thomas. Hazlebadge Hall. Bradwell. 



Fryer. C. W.. J.P., " Brookdene." Thornhill, 

Hope. 
Furness, Richard. Whirlow Hall. Totley. 
Fuzzard. B. J.. Chapel-en-le-Frith. 
Garside, Luke.. High Street, Hayfield. 
Gee, John T., The Ashes, Kinder, Hayfield. 
Gent, Mrs. Amanda, Idaho Falls, Idaho, 

U.S.A. 
Gilbert, Herbert. Marple. 

Gilbert. W.. Mauldeth Road. W. WithingtoB. 
Goddard. Joel. Lower Lane. Chinley. 
Goddard. Ernest. Ollerbrook, Edale. 
Goddard. Joseph. Buxton Road, Chinley. 
Goodman. Major G. D., V.D.. Manchester 

Road. Buxton. 
Goodyer, Rev. Samuel. Redland Villa. Mill- 
houses, Sheffield. 
Green, Charles, Shrewsbury Road, Park, 

Sheffield. 
Gregory, John, The Briers, Saltergate. Bam- 
ford. 
Gregory. Wilton, Post Office, Chinley. 
Hagger, R. H., Newtown, New Mills. 
Hall, C. W. G., Dean Street, Ashton-under- 

Lyne (2 copies). 
Hall. Colonel Edward, J. P., V.D., Horwicb 

Park, Whaley Bridge. 
Hall, Mrs. Hannah, Bridge End, Bradwell. 
Hall, Mrs. J., Gladstone Road, Ranmoor.. 

Sheffield. 
Hall. Rev. John. Swan Street. Congleton. 
Hall. Michael. Greenheys Lane, Manchester 

(2 copies). 
Hall, Jacob. Granby Road, Bradwell. 
Hall, Joseph, New Terrace, Peak Dale. 
Hall, Isaac. The Steep, Bradwell 
Hallam, Colour Sergeant Absalom, Little 

Eaton, Derby. 
Hallam, Alfred, Bradwell. 
Hallam, Cheetham W., The Knoll, Bradwell. 
Hallam. Miss Edith, Hill Head, Bradwell. 
Hallam, Ethelbert. Paradise Farm, Bradwell. 
Hallam, Harvey, Hugh Lane, Bradwell. 
Hallam. Harold, ' Blytheswood," Sylvan 

Avenue, Levenshulme (2 copies). 
Hallam, Mrs. Jason, Hill Head, Bradwell. 
Hallam, Rev. John W., Bradford. 
Hallam. Rev. Samuel Henry, Finsbury Park, 

London. 
Hallam, William, Goosehill, Castleton. 
Hampson, John, Horwich End. Whaley 

Bridge. 
Hancock. J. 8.. 57. Surrey Street, Sheffield. 
Harrison, Francis. " Westward Ho," Ryde, 

Isle of Wight. 
Hattersley, Mrs., Great Hucklow (2 copies). 
Haws, Frank, Freestone Plao-e, Attercliffe, 

Sheffield. 
Hawkins, Harold B.. Stocksbridge. 
Hayes, Mrs. John, Longlands Road, New 

Mills. 
Hayward. Rev. F. M.. Dervvent. 
Heaps, Edward Knowles, The Nook, Bradwell 

(8 copies) 
Heathcott. Joseph, J. P., West Horderns, 

Chapel-en-le-Frith. 
Hewitt, Mrs. John. Hayfield Road, Chapel-en- 
le-Frith. 
Hewsoll. Geo. H.. Burnside Avenue, Meers- 

brook. Sheffield. 
Hibbs, Clarence, Paracamby, Rio de Janeiro, 

Brazil. 
Hibbs, Horatio, Kipple Road, Chorlton-cum- 

Hardy. 
Hibbs. Jabez. Higher Openshaw. Manchester 

(2 copies). 
Hibbs, John, Leam, Grindleford. 
Hibbs, Joseph, Yard Head. Bradwell. 
Hibbs, Joseph, Olun Road. Sheffield. 
Hibbs, T. Andrew, Oak Bank. New Mills. 
Hibbs, Mrs. Francis. Union Road, New Mills. 
Hibbert. Edwin, Market Place, Chapel-en-le 

Frith. 



XIII. 



Hick. J. W., Dove Holes. 

Hilton, Henry, Tunstead, Wormhill. 

Hipkins, Rev. F. C, M.A., The Rectory, Bam- 
ford (2 copies). 

HiH, Abraham, Manchester Road, Stocks- 
bridge. 

Hill, Henry, Norfolk Road, Sheffield. 

Hill, Winfield, Norfolk Road. Sheffield. 

Hill. Mrs. M. E., Shirebrook Road, Sheffield 
(2 copies). 

Hill, Isaac. Church Street, Bradwell. 

Hill, Thomas, Smalldale, Bradwell. 

Hill, Rev. William Henry, Soutbbourne Road, 
Sheffield. 

Hobson, John T., Main Road, Bamford. 

Hobson, Walter, Bank Chambers, Chapel-en- 
le-Frith. 

Hodkin. Edgar, Norfolk Road, Sheffield. 

Hodkin, Walter, Osborne Road, Brincliffe, 
Sheffield. 

Horobin, Thomas, Tunstead, Wormhill. 

Houlbrook, Dr. W., Nether Side, Bradwell. 

How, Rev. John Hall, M.A., North Bailey, 
Durham. 

Howe, George. M.R.C.V.S.. Buxton. 

Hoyle. J. Rossiter, J. P., Grange Cliffe, Eccles- 
hall, Sheffield. 

Hubbersty, H. A., J. P., Burbage Hall, Buxton. 

Hunstone, Advent (sculptor), Tideswell. 

Hudson, W. A., Post Office, Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Hunter, E. L., " Keleliffe," Fulwood, Sheffield. 

Huss, H. P., Bank House. Chapel-en-le-Frith 
(4 copies). 

Hyde Public Library, John Chorlton, 
librarian. 

Hyde, Joseph, The Greggs. Chapel en-le-Frith. 

Ingham, James Anthony, Union Road. New 
Mills. 

Ingham, Walter Gilbert, Tideswell. 

Inman H., Foxglove Road, Shiregreen, Shef- 
field. 

Jackson, Ed., Wheat Sheaf Hotel, Dove Holes. 

Jackson. Henry, Windmill, near Bradwell. 

Jackson, Isaac G., Union Road, New Mills. 

Jackson. Rev. J. C., Tideswell. 

JefFery, Joshua G , Town End, Stocksbrid;ce, 
(8 copies). 

JefFery, Robert, Hill Head, Bradwell. 

Jennings, Thomas, Hartle Moor, Bradwell. 

Johnson, George, Randall Street, Sheffield. 

Johnson, William. Rose Cottage, Smalldale, 
Bradwell (2 copies). 

Johnson, Miss, Rose Cottage, Smalldale. 
Bradwell. 

Jodrell, Sir Edward Cotton, K.C.B., Rease- 
heath Hall and Shallcross Manor (2 copies). 

Jowett, William, The Manor House, Mellor. 

Kay. Mrs. John Thomas, Bradwell. 

Kenworthy, Joseph. Stretton Villa, Deepcar. 

Knowles, Rev. J. Lionel, R.D.. New Mills. 

Lacey, J., Brunswick Street, Sheffield. 

Lamb, James. Steade Road. Sheffield. 

Lander, Dr. H. W. Graham, Hathersage and 
Bradwell (2 copies). 

Leighton, H. B., Mount View, Heeley, Shef- 
field. 

Littler, Mrs. Josephine, Higher Tranmere, 
Birkenhead. 

Littlewood, Mrs. F. L., Idaho Falls, Idaho, 
U.S.A. 

Lloyd, Rev. G. E., Lairgato, Beverley. 

Lomas. J. E.. Harley Grange. Buxton. 

Longden, Wm.. White Knowle Farm, Chinley. 

Mabbott. H. E. D., The White Hou?e, Chapel- 
en-le-Frith. 

Macrone, A., Club Garden Road. Shefifield. 

McLcod, Mrs. Fanny, ' Holly Bank," 
Cadishead. 

Maltby, Arthur, The Old Hall, Great Huck- 
low. 

Maltby, Mrs. Olars. Chippingham Street, 
Attercliffe, Sheffield. . 



Manchester Free Public Libraries, C. W- 

Sutton. librarian. 
Maples, Charles, Graham Road. Sheffield. 
Mason, Miss, " Beaconsfleld." Wrexham. 
Mason, Rev. W. H., Llydan House. Welshpool, 

Montgomeryshire. 
Maw. J., Broomhall Street, Sheffield. 
Melland. Mrs.. Longsight. Manchester. 
Mellor. Wm., Sunny Lea. Fernilee. Whaley 

Bridge. 
Miller. J. T.. Smalldale. Bradwell (2 copies). 
Middleton, Arthur Somerset. Buxton Road, 

New Mills. 
Middleton. Archie C. Moston. Manchester. 
Middleton, Miss, Chester Street, Birkenhead. 
Middleton, Miss Ruth, Mill Street, Bakewell. 
Middleton, Charles. Hylton Cliffe. Broomhall 

Park, Sheffield. 
Middleton, Martin, Greenway, Hyde. 
Middleton, Robert, Oakbrook Road, Ranmoor. 

Sheffield. 
Middleton, James A.. Manchester Roa^d, 

Denton (8 copies). 
Middleton, John, Town Clerk of Chesterfield 

(4 copies). 
Middleton, Miss Lucyj Hawksworth Road, 

Sheffield. 
Middleton, Thomas, The Old Post Office, 

Bradwell. 
Middleton. Thomas, Manchester Road. Hyde. 
Middleton, William. Smalldale, Bradwell. 
Morris, • Samuel, Minchester Road, Denton, 
Moore, Colonel J. H., J. P., Castleton. 
Morton, Miss Alice Maud, Town Gate. Brad- 
well. 
Morton, Fredk. J. H.. Capetown. South 

Africa. 
Morton, Gladstone. Manchester. 
Morton, Jabez, Cheetham Hill Road. Man- 
chester (2 copies). 
Morton. Leonard, Manchester. 
Morton, Miles, Ellesmere Place. Longsight, 

Manchester (2 copies). 
Morton. Miss M. H., New Mills. 
Morton, Thos. M.. J. P., Lister Lane, Halifax 

(2 copies). 
Morton, Vernon, Manchester. 
Morton, Walter. Pulman Street, Rochdale. 
Moseley, J. E., Church Street, Hayfield. 
Mosscrop, Rev. Thomas Gilbert, Pool, near 

Leeds. 
Mower, Thomas. Torr Street, New Mills. 
MuUiner, George. Albert Terrace, New Mills. 
Murray, J., Burngreave Street, Sheffield. 
Nadin, Dr. Joseph, Bradwell. 
Naish, Frank E., Manor View. Handsworth, 

Sheffield. 
Newbold. T. E., Grange Road, Buxton (2 

copies). 
Nicholson, Edward, C.C, Brough House, 

Bradwell. 
Norfolk, His Grace the Duke of. Derwent 

Hall (2 copies). 
Oldfleld, Edward, " Ashford," Rusholme. 

Manchester (4 copies). 
Oldham, Robert, Spring Villas, Birch Vale. 
Padmore. T. H., Stanley Road, Meersbrook, 

Sheffield. 
Palfreyman, Frank C, Horwich End, Whaley 

Bridge. 
Palfreyman. Mrs. George, Litton. 
Palfreyman, John, Horwich End. Whaley 

Bridge. 
Palfreyman, William, Bollinjrton. 
Palmer, John, Union Road, New Mills. 
Parke. Dr. T. H.. Poxlowe House, Tideswell. 
Partington, Oswald, J.P.. Cadogan Square, 

London, and Easton, Glossop. 
Paton, R. A.. The Moor, Sheffield. 
Peacock, J. W., Station Road. Hathersage. 
Pearson, Robert, The Lumb, Bradwell. 



XIV. 



Pearson, 'William, Myrtle Cottage, Stocks- 
bridge. 

Pearson, Vincent, Stocksbridje. 

Pinder, J. T., The Hills, Bradwell. 

Plant, B., Guest Boad, Hunter's Bar, Shef- 
field. 

PoUitt, J. Sumner. "Holker Lea." New Mil! 3. 

Porter, Dr. W. S., Phoebe Croft. Hope. 

Proctor, Frank, The Hall, Bugsworth. 

Puttrell, J. W. Derbyshire Pennine Club, 94, 
The Moor, Sheffield (4 copies). 

Pursglove, Samuel, Hope. 

Pye Smith and Barker, solicitors, 5, East 
Parade, Sheffield, and Bradwell (2 copies). 

Eawson, Mrs. John, Hurtley Cottages, Wil- 
mington, Hull. 

Eedfern, Rev. R. Stuart. Leigh, Lancashire. 

Reynolds, Predk. T., J.P., Mayor of South- 
port. 

Robinson, George, Brookfield, Edale. 

Robinson. John W., Firth Park Road, Shef- 
field (2 copies). 

Robinson, Joseph, Brooklands, Hope (2 
copies). 

Robinson, R. H., Heanor. 

Rogerson, Rev. Thomas, The Vicarage, Tides- 
well. 

Ross, John, Station House, Hope. 

Rowarth, Miss Elsie, Freebirch, Cutthorpe, 
Chesterfield. 

Rowarth, Harry, Freebirch, Cutthorpe, Ches- 
terfield. 

Rowarth, Mrs. Hannah, Freebirch, Cutthorpe, 
Chesterfield. 

Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, Belvoir 
Castle (2 copies). 

Sandeman, Edward, C. E., Bamford. 

Sanderson, Mrs. Violet, Mona Road, Cro-^kes, 
Sheffield (2 copies). 

Scarsdale, The Rev. Lord, Kedleston Hall, 
Derby. 

Sellars, Joseph, High Lea Road, New Mills. 

Shaw, A. P., J.P.. Whitehall, Buxton. 

Sheffield Free Public Libraries (10 copies). 
8. Smith, F.R.H.S., F.8.A., Librarian. 

Sheard, W. C, New Mills. 

Shepley, Eli., The Rocks, New Mills. 

Shepley. Thos., Market Place, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 

Shepherd, Dr. H. R., Peveril House, Castleton. 

Shipton, W. Louis, Spring Gardens, Buxton. 

Shirt. Jabez, Slack Hall. Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

Sidebotham, John, Market Street, Cbapel-en- 
le-Frith. 

Sidebotham, Joseph, Spring Gardens, Buxton. 

Sidebotham, Joseph, Cross Street, Castleton. 

Simpkin, W. F., Hyde Road, Gorton, Man- 
chester. 

Sidebottom, Major R. Bennett, J.P., Red- 
court, Olossop (2 copies). 

Sidebottom, Colonel Wm., J.P., V.D., Hare- 
wood Lodge, Broadbottom. 

Slack, Mrs. Hannah Lax, Harvest Lane, Shef- 
field. 

Slack, Jabcz, Lawson Cottage, Tideswell. 

Slack, James Handel, The Mount, Saughall, 
Chester. 

Black, Vandyke, Tideswell. 

Slater, Thomas, Hague Bar, New Mills. 

Smith, Mrs. Joseph, Stockabridge. 

Smith, Mrs. Harry, Stocksbridge. 

Smith, Mrs. Rachel, Hornsea, London. 

Somerset, Miss S. M., Broomhead Institute, 
I>incoln (2 copies). 

Routhall, Rev. Albert, Carbrook Vicarage, 
Sheffield. 

StaHord. Mrs. Matilda, Whitle Farm, New 
Mills. 

Stockport Free Library (2 copies), R. Har- 
greavew. Librarian. 

Stevenson, John, Eden Tree Lodge, Bradwell. 

Stone, Durham, Porter Street, Staveley. 



Stone, Mrs. S., High Street, Staveley. 

Stubbs. Philip, Sheffield. 

Swain, W. H., " Ivy Lea," Roslyn Crescent, 
Hatherrage. 

Taylor, F. H., Overdale, Bakewell. 

Taylor, Colonel H. Brooke, The HaH, Bake- 
well. 

Taylor, John, J.P., Crossings West, Chapel- 
en-le-Frith (2 copies). 

Taylor, Sydney, B.A., Buxton. 

Taylor, Dr. T., Portchester House, Bourne- 
mouth 

Thornley, Mrs. M. A., Union Road, New 
Mills. 

Toler, T. C, J.P., C.C, Taxal Lodge, Whaley 
Bridge (2 copies). 

Travis, W., Burnside Avenue, Meersbrook, 
Sheffield. 

Tym, Nathan, Edale. 

Unwin, Joseph, Laneside, Hope. 

Wainwright, J. W., Wincobank Avenue, 
Shiregreen Sheffield (2 copies). 

Walker, Aaron, Station House, Nuneaton. 

Walker, Henry, Dale View, Bradwell. 

Walker, John, Small Dale, Peak Dale. 

Walker, Mrs. Olive, The Hill, Bradwell. 

Walker, Saml., Carbrook, Sheffield. 

Walker, Z., Da,le View, Bradwell. 

Wallworth, Mrs., Angler's Hotel, Bamford 
(2 copies). 

Walton, H., Windmill, near Bradwell. 

Waterhouse, B., Greenwood, Hope. 

Waterhouse, William, Great Hucklow. 

Watts, James, J. P., Abney Hall, Cheadle 
and Kinder (2 copies). 

Watts, Samuel, Edale House, Edale (4 copies). 

Watts, Henry T.. Harcourt Road, Sheffield. 

Ward, F., St. Mary's Road, Sheffield. 

Ward, George, High Peak Hospital, Chinley. 

Ward, G. H. B., Park Farm, Cricket Road, 
Sheffield. 

Welby, E. M. E., J.P., Stipendiary Magistrate 
of Sheffield, Norton House, Norton. 

Wells, Barton, Croft House. Aston, Hope. 

Whiteway, Rev. R. W. B., " Elmfleld," Lymm, 
Cheshire. 

White, Wm. Edward, Turf Lea, Marple. 

Whitehead, Robert, J.P., Hargate Hall, 
Wormhill. 

Whitney, W. H., Deakin's Walk, Ranmoor, 
Sheffield. 

Whittam. Mrs. Elizabeth, Walkley Road, 
Sheffield. 

Wharmby, J. T., Longlands, New Mills. 

Wilde, H. E., London City and Midland Bank, 
Atterclifle, Sheffield. 

Williamson, Walter, Duckworth Road, Brad- 
ford. 

Wilson. Henry J., M.P., Osgathorpe, Shef- 
field. 

Wilson, Joseph, Chapel-en-le-Frith. 
, Wilson, Mrs.. East View, Smalldale, Bradwell. 

Winnard, Mrs. Bertha, Fitzwalter Road, 
Park, Sheffield. 

Wolfenden, James, H., Manchester Road, 
Denton. 

Wood, Mrs. Sarah Ann, New Street, New 
Mills. 

Wood. S. Hill, M.P.. Park Hall, Hayfleld. 

Woodroofe, Mrs. Jane, Stanley Road, Wake- 
field. 

Wragg, Albert E., Edensor, Bakewell. 

Wragg, Durham, Glen View, Bradwell. 

Wragg. John, The Lumb, Bradwell. 

Wrench, E. M., M.D., J.P., V.S.O., Park 
Lodge Baslow. 

Yates, Abraham, Stoneyford, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 

Young, Albert, London City and Midland 
Bank, Attercliffe, Sheffield. 

Young, Mr. and Mrs. A., Water Gjrove, Eyam 
(2 copies). 



BradwcU. Ancient and Modern. 



A History of the Parish and of Incidents in the 
Hope Valley. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The old-world Peakland village of Brad- 
well has a history, and a most interesting 
history too. Its steep winding streets — if 
streets they can be called — and all sorts of 
^ueer little out of the way places running 
in and out in all directions, break neck, 
obliqxie, skew-tilted, beginning everywhere, 
leading nowhere, make the stranger feel 
that he is living iu mediaeval times. Oc- 
cupied by the Eomans, who left their 
traces everywhere, recognised as one of the 
boundams of the Forest of the Peak this 
romantic spot was never troubled with a 
surveyor. Every man was his own archi- 
tect. He built what he liked where he 
liked, and as he liked, with the result that 
in the twentieth century there remains one 
of the most comical looking, beautiful, and 
picturesque old towns even in picturesque 
Peakland. 

But its very name has been deplorably 
corrupted. The statement made in the 
middle of the last century that its name 
was derived from " a well on the 
verge of the village" is errone- 
ous. It is one of those place-names 
which indicates the occupation and mili- 
tary organization of its people — Brad, 
from broad or spacious, and Wall, indicat- 
ing a site at or near a Roman fortification. 
The original name was, therefore. Broad- 
wall, or Bradwall, for a portion of the 
Roman fortification still exists, and upon a 
portion of the wall of the ancient Forest of 
the Peak the town is built. Its very ear- 
liest settlers, too, who took their name 
from the place itself, retained its original 
spelling of Bradwall iu the Hope Church 
registers right down to the year 1843, and, 
at least, one of these oldest of local fami- 
lies, now resident in Sheffield, very pro- 
perly retains its name, Bradwall. Fur- 
ther, the death comparatively recently, of 
a resident of Bradwell, inscribed on the 
family gravestone, describes her as of Brad- 
wall. 



CHAPTER I. 

"I will show you caves and barrows, 

Of a world before the flood. 
When the bison and hyaena, 

Rang'd over moor and wood; 
Where races of men lie buried, 

Who fought with weapons of stone. 
And sew'd their deer-skins together 

With implements of bone." 

J. H. J. 



IN PRE-HISTORIC TIMES. 
WHEN MEN LIVED IN CAVES. 
Discoveries in Hartle Dale Caves. 

A place with distinct evidence of its occu- 
pancy by the Early Britons, Romans, 
Saxons, Danes, and Normans cannot fail to 
be interesting. The district abounds in 
caves, and in many of these there are dis- 
tinct traces of Pre-historic man. There 
are several small caves in Hartle Dale, and 
exploring one of these in 1872, the late 
Rooke Pennington, of Castleton, says that 
the floor consisted principally of blackish 
mould containing a few limestone frag- 
ments, and pieces of chert. It contained 
bones of the goat and pig, fox and rabbit. 
Two pieces of pre-historic pottery were 
also turned out. The ornamentations were 
unusually rude for such a remote period, 
being simply punctures made in the clay 
before baking, with a sharpened stick, 
without any regard to regularity. 

In 1877 Mr. Pennington, the late Mr. 
John Tym, and Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
whilst examining other small caves and 
rock shelters in Hartle Dale, picked up a 
milk-molar of a young woolly rhinoceros, 
which had been thrown up to the surface 
by rabbits burrowing in the floor of the 
small cave at the mouth of which it was 
found. In an adjoining cavern there lay on 
the rock the tooth of a bear, evidently 
washed out of some fissure within. The 
first mentioned cave they dug out thorough- 
ly, finding bones of the rhinoceros and 
bison, which Mr. Pennington thought had 



2 



been carried to their last resting place by 
water. About tlae same time a fine arrow 
head was Iciiiid on the Bradwell Moors. 

These discoveries take us back to the 
daj's of pre-historic man who dwelt in the 
caves, and an examination of the many bar- 
* rows, or " lov.s " has shown them to be 
burial-places of long forgotten races who 
once lived in Britain. 

Stone Circles Explored. 

The author of the same work says that 
one of the most interesting barrows ever 
explored was on Abufy Moor, near Brad- 
well, but it was destroyed to build a wall. 
Upon a rampart of earth, by which it was 
surrounded were ten upright blocks of 
stone each about three feet high, and placed 
at equal distances round the barrow. 
When the mound was dug into, Mr. Pen- 
nington and his party found in the centre 
of the tumulus a large flat piece of sand- 
stone upon which was a mass of burnt 
human bones, deposited with considerable 
care. There were also flint flakes, 
some jet beads, some amber beads, 
and an arrow head. The beads had 
evidently formed portions of necklaces. 
There were pieces of burnt gritvstone and 
sandstone, found, evidence that the funeral 
fire had been lit upon the spot. 

Two other barrows on the same moor had 
been previously explored and human 
bones, urns, heads of flint, etc., 
found in them. In the immedate 
vicinity were a number of pit dwellings 
which Mr. Pennington says were no doubt 
once covered with some sort of thatch such 
as heather would supply. 

About a mile distant, in the direction of 
Hope, is The Folly. This is a small circular 
entrenchment, aboiit 75 feet in diameter, 
with a slight elevation in the centre. On 
one occasion a cell was found here, and it 
is probable that this circular rampart ori- 
ginally had a stone circle. 

Travelling along that portion of Batham- 
gate, which is best preserved, separating 
the Bradwell and Tideswell Moors, will be 
seen on the Tideswell moor side of the road 
an almost perfectly circular enclosure or 
camp within a now verj' low rampart, the 
whole having a diameter of 300 feet. A 
small part of the north-west arc of the 
circle has been cut off by the old Roman 
road, which is a proof of the early or pre- 
Roman origin of this circular camp. 

Deposits of the Flood Found in a Lead 

Mine. 

In a book on "Darbyshire," printed in 1660, 

there is the following record of a curious 

discovery : — 

"Near firadewalle were dug up in sinking a 
lead-grove, a piece of a bone, and tooth of 
wonderful proportions, namely, the tooth 
(though a quarter of an inch of it was 
broken off) was 1.3 inches and a half in com- 
pas-s, and weighed three pounds ten ounces 
and three quarters; and with this, among 
other pieces of bones, a very large skull 
which held seven pecks of corn. The con- 



jectures of the learned upon them are vari- 
ous, some supposing the tooth and bones 
to be a man's (and why not when a skull 
so monstrous was found with them); but 
others have thought it the den molaris of 
an elephant, and for this opinion they pro- 
duce some elephants" bones found near 
Castleton. ,The most probable conjectures 
about the:e phenomena are that they are 
the exuvie of thofe creatures brought 
hither by the general deluge, and deposited 
by specific gravitation in the earth, then 
rendered as fluid as mud." This strange 
discovery was made in the Virgin Mine at 
Hazelbadge, which was worked for lead at 
least five hundred years. 

Ancient Barrows Explored: Human 
Remains Found. 

About the year 1867 a great deal of inter- 
est was taken in discoveries of pre-historic 
man on Hazlebadge Hills, about midway 
between the Hall and Bradwell. On this 
field, close to Hill's Rake there is a large 
barrow, which was explored by Mr. Ben- 
jamin Bagshawe, solicitor, Sheffield, a gen- 
tleman well versed in local lore, and an 
antiquarian, and local archgeologist of re- 
pute, whose ancestors had for many genera- 
tions been located in the Grindlow and 
Foolow district. 

Having obtained permission from the 
Duke of Rutland's agent, Mr. Bagshawe 
seciired the services of two reliable miners, 
Robert Evans and John Bancroft, who 
went about their work with the greatest 
care. They had not been at work long, 
when only about a foot beneath the sod 
they came upon a stone cist, which on being 
opened was found to contairithe skeleton of 
a man, not lying down, but seated upright, 
with his elbows on his knees, and his head 
on his hands as if he had been shut up in 
the tomb and buried alive. By the side of 
another man was the skeleton of a horse, 
and altogether fourteen skeletons of both 
sexes were found, in addition to many burnt 
bones, and a number of flint arrow heads. 
Only about half the barrow was explored, 
and the explorers believe that if the other 
portion was searched many interesting dis- 
coveries would be made. There does not seem 
to be any doubt that these bodies had lain 
there two thousand years, having been de- 
posited by the ancient Britons long before 
the Romans came to the Island. 

In the winter of 1891 some' workmen get- 
ting out the foundations for a kitchen at 
the rear of a house belonging to Mr. John 
Ford, on Bradwell Hills, facing what is 
known as " The Green," made a discovery 
which went to prove that the house itself 
was built upon an ancient barrow. Only 
about two feet below the surface of the 
ground, three skeletons were discovered. 
Two were lying on their sides, with the 
knees tucked under the chin, and were 
within a wall of flat stones placed on edge, 
which formed three sides of a square. The 
third skeleton was found lying at full 
length on its back with a square stone 



standing at the head and another at the 
feet. Near the two skeletons within the 
small cist a very rough flint flake was 
found. Ihe skeletons were terribly broken 
by the v^crkmen. and an official of the 
British Archieological Association who 
visited the place and took away the flint, 
aiid as many of the bones as he could get, 
tried to put together the fragments of two 
of the skulls, but was not very successful. 
One skull seemed to be ot a very low type 
of man, the forehead was very shallow, the 
bone projected over the eye, and at the top 
of the nose the bone was very wide and 
thick. The remaining part of the barrow 
had quantities of human bones mixed up 
with it, which were supposed to be early 
burials disturbed for the later interments. 
Probably if a search was made there would 
be many similar " finds " in the immediate 
locality. In 1897 Avorkmen excavating foun- 
dations of new houses for Mr. T. Cooper, in 
" Nether Side,'' opposite the Newburgh 
Arms Inn, discovered a sepulchral cist of 
gritstone slabs containing male adult 
bones (supposed to be pre-Roman), leaden 
" spindle whorl," iron spearhead, about 
seven inches long, copper button, and a 
Roman coin. The spearhead and whorl 
were placed in the Buxton Museum. A 
week or two later the workmen found a 
copper coin of 1738, and a three shilling 
bank token of the reign of George III., 1815. 
The spindle whorl was one inch diameter 
and about quarter of an inch thick, and its 
upper surface was decorated with five raised 
fillets, and the button consisted of a disc of 
copper about quarter of an inch in diameter 
with a small ring attached to the back. It 
was decorated with small hollows, inlaid 
with gold. 



Grey Ditch, a Monument of the First 
Century. 

One of the most interesting features of 
Bradwell is thie long strip of defensive 
earthwork known as Grey Ditch, which 
one authori'y declared is " the mcst import- 
ant remaining fragment of the Limes Brit- 
tannicus of the first century, in its third 
stage between Templeborough and 
Brough." 

Grey Ditch shows itself plainly, telling 
without doubt of early tribal resistance to 
onslaughts up this valley. Standing on the 
high road at " Eden Tree," near the New 
Bath Hotel it may be seen stretchiiig along 
to Micklow on one side, and to the summit 
of Bradwell Edge on the other, right away 
up " Rebellion Knoll " to the mountain 
road leading to Abaey and Brough 1,100 
feet high. One writer of the 17th century 
(Mr. Bray) said it was carried from the 
camp on Mam Tor, and was a fore fence of 
the Romans, crossing Bathamgate and 
Bradwell water, but subsequent authorities 
doubt whether it ever was connected with 
Mam Tor. Its elevation is about 10 feet, 
and its total average width about 35 feet. 
It is a rampart thrown up to resist attack 
from the Brough side, and well known 
archaeologists are of opinion that it was 
possibly once a boundary, of the ancient 
kingdom of Northumbria or Brigantees. 

There is no doubt that it was for some 
military cr defensive purpose, and probably 
there is a rich reward for the future ex- 
plorer of such an interesting spot. More 
than a century ago pieces of swords, spears, 
spurs, and bridle-bits were found on both 
sides and very near it, between Batham 
Gate and Bradwell water. 



WKKKKKIt^^^^" 






• 




j 



GENERAL VIEW OF BRADWELL. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE ROMAN OCCUPATION 
BRADWELL. 



OF 



THE ROMAN ROAD, BATHAM GATE. 

Discoveries at the Roman Station Anavio 
f Brough.) 

Bradvvell is built on the Eoman Eoad 
from Buxton baths to Brough Fort, the 
most famous of the Roman roads in Derby- 
shire, Bathgate, or as the natives call it, 
Bathamgate, which ran from Buxton over 
Fairfield Common, crossing Peak Dale, 
Small Dale, and over Bradwell Moor, where 
it is in a splendid state of preservation, in 
fact, almost in its original condition, to- 
day. Passing through the gateway at the 
bottom of " Bathamgate," the road crosses 
the Moss Rake between the Upper and 
Nether Cross Mines, again enters the moor- 
land and stretches along right down Small 
dale (a portion of Bradwell), Gore Lane, and 
"Streetfield" (so called from the Roman 
street) where it entered the military camp 
at Brough, or Anavio. From thence it con- 
tinued along through Hope, over the ridge 
which divides Edale from the Woodland 
Valley, along the Doctor's Gate to Cold 
Harbour and so on to Glossop and the Roman 
Fort of Melandra, where interesting ex- 
cavations have been made within recent 
years. Built on this important road, and 
being also on one of the recognised bound- 
aries of the King's Forest of the Peak, Brad- 
well was a place in the very earliest times, 
of considerable importance. These were de- 
clared to be the" bounds of the Forest at an 
inquisition in 1274. " Beginning at the south 
end of the River Goyt, and so along that 
river to the River Ederowe, and so by the 
River Ederowe to Langley Croft near Long- 
dendale Head, and so by a certain bye-way 
to the head of the Derwente, and from the 
head of the Derwente as far as Mittenforde 
(Mytham Bridge) and from Mittenforde to 
the River of Bradwall, and from the River 
of Bradwall to a place called Rotherlawe 
("Ralley Road ") ; and from Rotherlawe to 
the Great Cave of Hazelbache, and from the 
Great Cave to Little Hucklowe, and from 
Hucklow to Tideswell, and so to the River 
Wye, ascending to Buxton and to the 
Springs of Goyt." 

In the Record Office there are some old 
maps showing the " Forest Wall," so con- 
striicted that it would keep cattle off the 
great tract specially reserved for the deer, 
whilst the deer themselves could leap it to 
wander at their pleasure over the rest of the 
forest. In ancient records the name of the 
place is spelt " Broadwall," a name that 
occurs on many Roman sites, and " Brad- 
wall," and one part of the village is still 
known as " Wall Head," a continuation of 
the ancient forest wall from the head of the 
Bradwell Brook. That access was gained 

from every side through gates, is evident. 

for — in addition to the great military road 



of Batham Gate — Moor Gate, Hollow Gate, 
Town Gate, Hall Gate, and Over Gate, all 
remain to-day, entrances to the town from 
all sides. 

Built, partly, on the old Roman Road, 
Bathamgate, it would be of considerable im- 
portance 1700 years ago, because of its close 
proximity to the Roman station, Anavio, at 
Brough, just a mile distant. It was in the 
upper of two fields called the Hallsteads, 
where the fort was planted, close to the 
Bradwell Brook, low enough to be near the 
water, " high enough to command an out- 
look all over the valley, and guarded by 
nature on three of its four sides." 

The excavations made in 1903 by Mr. John 
Garstang, on behalf of the Derbyshire 
Archaeological Society, were most interest- 
ing. 

The fort was a rectangular oblong with 
rounded corners, about 285 feet by 340 feet, 
and its internal area, exclusive of the de- 
fences, amounted to about 2j acres. The 
fort was defended by a stone wall six feet 
thick. There were four gateways, and each 
corner contained a turret. There was a 
central building, or headquarters, and a 
well built edifice close by, but other edifices 
in the fort were not then excavated, though 
there are indications of the bath-house near 
Brough Mill and the union of the Noe and 
Bradwell Brook. 

But the most important discovery was a 
pit or vault, nearly rectangular in 
shape, eight feet long, by five to seven feet 
wide, and eight feet deep, walled with eleven 
courses of good masonry, floored with 
cement, and entered by eight steps. 

The writer was present when this dis- 
covery was made, and during the greater 
part of the time the treasure-house was 
emptied. The walling contained a frag- 
ment of an inscribed slab dated about 
A.D. 158, which had been broken up and 
used as building material. Lower down 
were three othe» fragments of the inscribed 
slab, a drum of a column, a stone trousrh, 
a few f>orroded coins of the fourth century, 
Roman Dottery and bones. The regimental 
standards and military chest were kept in the 
headquarters building close by, and this pit 
was a strong room where the valuables were 
kept. The fact of there being a big flow of 
water into the pit led some to believe it to 
be a Roman bath, but experts consider this 
to be owing to the defective drains of the 
fort. When the pieces of' the inscribed 
slab were put together and the slab restored 
it was found to contain an inscription, 
which being interpreted, read : " In honoui 
of the emperor, Titus Aelius Hadrianus 
Antoninus Pius, pater patrial (erected by) 
the First Cohort of Acquitani, under lulins 
Verus, legatus Aiigusti pro praetore (Gov- 
ernor of Britain), and under the superin- 
tendence of Capitonius Fuscus, praefect of 
the Cohort." The emperor is Pius, who 
reigned A.D. 138-161. The Cohors I Acqur- 
anorium presumably garrisoned Brough 
when the slab was erected. 



There was also found a square block 20 
inches high and 12 inches square. On the 
front Avas rudely carved in low relief a 
wreath or garland, with tassels, which en- 
closes an inscription. It was placed in the 
Buxton museum. 

Two other Roman altars were found, and 
were evidently once inscribed. The larger, 
28 inches high with a panel for lettering, 
stood for many years in the village of 
Hope, and the other was found among the 
debris in the vault. There were also num- 
erous tiles inscribed with the name of the 
regiments in garrison at Brough when they 
were manufactured. 

When the excavations were suspended in 
1903, the walls were covered up, but the 
vault, complete, was left open, being railed 
round for the protection of cattle. 

But there had been occasional " finds " at 
the Hallsteads for centuries past, and it was 
well known to archaeologists as the site of 
a Roman camp. Some authorities have de- 
clared that a town stood on the site, which 
is not unlikely, considering that the locality 
stretching right away to Eccles House is 
known as " The Breach," i.e., a gap, par- 
ticularly in a fortification made by a 
battery. Some masons getting out the 
foundations of a barn on " The Breach," 
nearly half a mile from the camp, bared 
ancient walls of immense thickness. 

In the year 1747 a bust of Apollo and of 
another deity, in stone, were pi > i^hod up 
on the Hallsteads. Some years later two 
large urns containing ashes, were taken out 
of the ground in a fine state of preservation. 
They were found on a tongue of land be- 
tween the camp and Bradwell Brook, which 
was doubtless a cemetery. Xo doubt when 
this comes to be explored there will be 
more interesting discoveries. At a still 
later period — about 1767 — a half-length 
figure of a woman was found, with her arms 
folded across her breast and wearing a large 
peaked bonnet on her head. One valuable 
find in 1783 was a gold coin of Vespasian, 
and foiindations of buildings have been 
tiirned up by the plough on every side, also 
loads of tiles, bricks, broken swords, spears, 
and bridle bits, and during the excavations 
of 1903, there were found pieces of lead ore 
and spar, evidently from the Bradwell 
mines, some of which were worked by the 
Romans. 

A double row of gritstone pillars, between 
which three men could walk abreast, for- 
merly crossed the field where the Bradwell 
Brook and the Noe have their confluence. 
It is said that the original church of Hope 
was built of .stone from the fort. It is 
certain that the village of Brough was so 
built, in fact, it aboiinds with inscribed 
stones, and the capital of a Roman pillar 
is built on the wall of a field in the centre 
of the village by the roaidside. About the 
year 1790. Mr. Samuel Sidebottom, a farmer, 
found in the Hallsteads a gold coin of 
Agustus Csesar. • 



A Roman Pig of Lead. 

When foundations were being dug for new 
Bradwell B.nrd Schools in 1894, 
the workmen found an ancient pig 
of lead, which is now in the 
Sheffield museum. It \.eighed 112 lbs, was 
20 inches long, 5^ wide, auJ 3 high. It was 
considerably worn, and the part which 
might have borne the inscription had per- 
ished. It was unquestionably Roman, and 
being found close to the Roman road, with 
so many ancient lead workings all round, 
it was probably smelted at the place. 

Ancient Baking Ovens. 

About the same time highly interesting 
discoveries were made in Nether Side on 
property belonging to Mr. John Hall, and 
at the foot of Charlotte Lane, just behind 
the old chapel. When Mr. R. Barker was 
taking down some old property at the latter 
place some curious buildings were exposed, 
which were, by some, supposed to be Roman 
ovens, used when the garrison was at 
Brough. It Avas a circiilar building of 
dressed sandstone blocks, turned red by the 
heat, and the top, almost flat, was held by 
a massive keystone of rectangular shape. 
The floor was composed of blocks of dressed 
grey sandstone, and the structure was 
most elaborate and skilfully constructed. 
It was hoped by some, that these interest- 
ing relics would remain uninjured, so as to 
add to the many antiquarian attractions of 
the locality, but they were destroyed. There 
is, however, very good reason for believing 
that they were not Roman at all, but that 
they were public bakehouses, of which there 
were many in Bradwell centuries before, 
when the inhabitants sent their meal to be 
baked, before the modern ovens came into 
use. As a matter of fact octogenarians could 
remember the one near the old chapel be- 
ing used. On the top sides of the stone- 
work was a great thickness of lime ashes, 
in fact, the building was covered with it. 
It was first heated by burning chafp which 
was withdrawn before the bread was put in, 
and the accumulated heat of the chamber 
would be retained for weeks. It is, per- 
haps, a pity that this splendid object lesson 
of our forefathers was not preserved. 

The Battle of Edwin Tree. 

The very ground which the Roman 
soldiers occupied was later the 
scene of fierce conflicts during the Hep- 
tarchy, when England was under the gov- 
ernment of the seven Saxon kings. Derb.v- 
shire was included in the kingdom of 
Mercia, founded by Crida in the year 582,and 
ended in 874. After Crida it was in every 
way enlarged by Penda, and afterwards 
converted to Christianity by Peada. Having 
long endured the miseries of the Danish 
wars, it was, after a duration of 250 years, 
subjected to the dominion of the West 
Saxons. 

Standing on the old Batham Gate, and 
close by the Gre.y Ditch is " Eden Tree." 



This is statfd to be the site of a battle 
during the heptarchy, and at the close of 
the engagement a king named Edwin was 
captured and hanged on a tree near the 
f,pot. This tree was afterwards called 
" Edwin's Tree/' long since corrupted to 
" Eden Tree," and after the tree had per- 
ished the spot where it stood bore the same 
designation as it does at the present day. 
There must have been an habitation here 
at the time of the battle, for tradition says 
that the King was captured in a garden. 

About 1850 Mr. John Maltby, a local 
worthy who was the owner and occupier of 
the " Eden Tree " when making some ex- 
cavations there found ancient places of 
interment in which were many human bones. 
Indeed, Bradwell is built on a battlefield, 
and ever.ywhere there are names of places 
strongl.y indicative of human carnage — 
Grey Ditch, Rebellion Knoll, Gore Lane, 
Deadmen's <^"lough, and many others. Gore 
Lane is close to Eden Tree, on the line of 
Batham Gate, the Roman road. 



CHAPTER III. 



IN THE TIMES OF THE FORESTERS. 

The Earliest Foresters and the First 
Settlers. 



" Beshrew his horn, beshrew his heart. 

In my forest he may not ride; 
If he kills a deer, by the conqueror's bow, 

By forest law he shall bide. 
Eide on. Sir Payne, and tell the churl 

Ho must cease his hunting cheer, 
And come to the knee of the Suzeraine lord 

Awaiting his presence here. 
Hide with him, sirs, some two or three, 

And bring him hither straight; 
'Twere best for him to come at once. 

Than cause his lord to wait. 
There are trees in the forest strong enow. 

To bear the madman's corse. 
And he shall han? on the highest bough 

If thither he comes perforce." 

Wm. Bennett. 



It has already been stated that a 
thousand years ago Bradwell was a recog- 
ni.sed boundary of the Forest; in fact, the 
river was the boundary line to its source, 
the forest wall running parallel. Conse- 
quently that part on the east side of the 
river was outside the forest. There was no 
coal in those days; the people burned turf, 
hence they were very jealous of their rights 
of turbary. In the time of Henry the 
Third (121C), Castleton, Bradwell, and 
Hazlei)adge had extensive rights to tur- 
J)ory, and Sampson de Arcel, "lord of the 
town which is outside the forest," although 
he had common of pasture, was not satis- 
fied, and he was fined for digging turf. The 
following places also look turbary without 



license: Ilocklowe, Tideswell, Wormhill, 
Buckstone, Bowdeu, Estou (Aston), and 
Thornhill. 

'Ihe ancient records contain numerous 
entries relating to the " waste of woods " 
in the Peak, and cue of these reads : " Wood 
cf Nunueley, wasted by vill of Bradwall, 
bail, Ricliard Danifl, and Rcberl- io Archer, 
of Thornhill and Aston." The district was 
formerly well wooded, but it has been com- 
pletely cleared, and most of the timber used 
up in the lead mines. 

Whfn the Don:esday Book was compiled 
in the reign of William the Conqueror 
(1086) — the first account we possess of the 
tenurfs of English estates — we find that: 
■ 111 Bradewelle Leving and Sprot and 
Owine had i.i. carucates of land hidable. 
Land for i.i. ploughs. There now in 
demesne i.i. ploughs, and VIII villeines 
having i.i. ploughs. T.R.E. value xx 
shillings; now xxx shillings." 

A carucata was as much land as one man 
cculd manage and till with a team of oxen 
in a year. Thcrc^ could be no certain 
quantity, for an industrious man would 
plough a great deal more than an idle man. 
In the time of Edward II. (the martyr), 975, 
it contained about 100 acres. The tax was 
called hidc-.ge, which meant a payment of 
money to the King. The villeines were 
farmers, such as had goods and stock of 
their oAvn, and paid rent to their lords, part 
in money, at this time very scarce and 
dear, and part in labour. They were 
obliged to till and plough the land, sow and 
carry the corn and hay, etc., for the use 
of the lord and his famil.y. They took 
their name from Villa, a hamlet, small 
town, or village, where they generally 
dwelt, and in process of time they became 
copyholders. 

j Breaking the Bad Old Laws. 

j It should be mentioned that many of the 
offenders against the forest laws were men 
I of position themselves. They were not 
passive, but very active resisters of those 
bad old laws, and seemed to unite in 
. breaking them so as to bring about a better 
j state of things, and were invariably bail for 
I each other. As long as 35 years passed be- 
tween courts of eyre being held, when sons 
were called upon to answer and receive 
punishment for something done by their 
fathers, long ago deceased. To kill any 
animal of the forest was more heinous than 
murder, and was visited with inexecrable 
torture. 

If the Foresters, who were olticers sworn 
to preserve the vert and venison in the 
forest, found a man trespassing on the vert, 
they might "attach" him by the body, 
and cause him to find two pledges, or bail, 
to appear at the next attachment court, 
when he was set at liberty under bail (or 
mainprized) until the next e.yre of the 
justices. If offending a second time foxir 
pledges were necessary, for a third time 
I eight pledges, and for a fourth time he 



had to be imprisoned until the eyre. One 
of the offenders within the king's demesne 
in the year 1242 was Galf de Bradwall. In 
1272, the first year of Edward I. (Long- 
shanks), John Gooring of Tychill was con- 
senter to the crimes of John de Oke and 
Peter de Ospring, who took one doe, and 
one of his six bondsmen was Elias de 
Bradwall. The same Elias de Bradwall 
was bail for Roger Woodrove (probably of 
Hope), who harboured all night Allcock de 
Stones, who took one doe in Edale, in the 
year 1282, and in the morning took the 
venison to the house of William Foljanibe 
at Wormhill. 

In the year 1275 it was presented that 
when the King hunted at Campana in the 
Forest, on the Feast of the Assumption, 
William, son of Rankelle of Hocklow, 
came, and where the King's hounds had 
t)ut at bay a certain stag in the park 
teyond the bounds of the forest, hunted and 
killed the .said stag, together with the 
hounds, and when the King's huntsmen 
came and cried him, that he fled, and the 
huntsmen carried that venison to the 
King's larder. Those who became bail for 
him were William Fabre de Bradwall, 
Eichard le Nuke (? Newwall Nook), Robert 
de Abeny, Alan de Wormhill, Richard de 
Duffield, and Henry Coteril. How this 
Hucklow worthy was dealt with we are not 
told, but if ever he was caught, doubtless 
he would have the most severe punishment 
the cruel forest laws could inflict upon him, 
seeing that he had not been content with 
shooting a stag, but actually .shot the King's 
hounds as well. 

Those Who First Enclosed the Land. 

At Forest pleas the assart rolls were 
always presented. The word "assart" 
signifies the reduction of waste or woodland 
to a state of cultivation, and for thus 
cultivating the land our forefathers were 
fined for trespass, and always had to pay 
so much per acre for the crops sown on it, 
generally Is. per acre for every crop of 
winter corn and 6d. per acre for spring 
corn. In a list of assarts allowed by 
Warner Engaine (the Bailiff) in the year 
1237 at 4d. per acre, Gregory de Bradwall 
had enclosed 2 acres, and Galf de Bradwall 
was his bail. Matthew de Bradwall had 
also enclosed 6 acres. In another roll a 
few years later, there is an entry of in- 
terest showing that there must have been 
camps or soldiers' quarters in Bradwell, for 
in the list of assarts there is : "Fratees 
Hospital de Villa Castra at Bradwall, 
Thomas Bante la, bail Galf de Bradwall. 
Robert Sergeant Prior of Lenton i a, bail 
Gregory de Bradwall and Galf Quental." 
Another offender was Nicholas, son of 
William de Bradwall, who had enclosed an 
acre, and William, son of William de Brad- 
wall (evidently the offender's brother), be- 
came bail for him. In the time of John de 
Grey (1242) William de Bradwall gets 
another acre. 



The First Houses and Who Built Them. 

Another form of forest encroachment was 
purpresture, which meant building a house 
or homestead within the forest bounds. 
During the first 35 years of Henry III.'s 
reign there was an average of eight houses 
a year built in the Forest, and as a fine 
had to be paid for each, it was a source of 
considerable revenue. In 1283 Galf de 
Bradwall was called to account for having 
raised three houses in the forest without 
warrant, and Clement do la Ford (Ford 
Hall) became his bail. Another offender 
was Magister John de Derby, Dean, the 
Prior of Lenton in Bradwall. In the same 
year the following were proceeded against, 
before Roger L'Estrange, for breaking the 
forest laws in a similar fashion : Richard 
Millward de Bradwall, William ad Fontein 
de Bradwall (twice), Richard Cnizer de 
Bradwall, Elias de Bradwall (three times), 
Nicholas the Clerk of Bradwall (twice). 
Galf, son of Faber de Bradwall, again turns 
up for building a house to the injury of the 
forest, and this time has to find two bonds- 
men, his friends Clement de la Ford and 
Adam, son of Thomas of Castleton, again 
coming forward. 

At*the Pleas of 1286 it was presented that 
" The Queen Consort of the King had a 
horsefold in the forest with 115 mares and 
young, to the great hurt of the forest, and 
It is found that many had horses and mares 
in the same campana under cover of the 
aforesaid horsefold. who when required to 
answer say that they are the Queen's." 
Four of these belonged to Nicholas de Brad- 
wall. 

In the Pleas, in the time of Henry IV. 
(1399), there is the entry: "Arthur Eyre, 
for demesne of Bradwall, £4 16s. 4d.," and 
on a subsequent roll are the following: 
Bradwall, Robert Eyre for Strylly's londe, 
Robert for Hucklow land, Robert for his 
land, Robert for land of John Howe, Robert 
for land of John Kocke, William Townsend, 
Thomas Woodroffe for land of R. Hunt, 
Elias Marshall, John Kirke, John Medalton, 
Roger Howe for an intacke, Roger 
Townsend, Robert Myddleton for an in- 
tacke, John Kocke for land of R. Greene, 
Johis Wryght, Ric. Kocke, Thurston Eyre, 
Hugh Bradwall, Henry Forness for land of 
John Tyme, Johis Burton, Wm. Elott, 
Thomas Eyre for land of R. Slacke, Thomas 
Wodroffe, Thomas Barley. Total villa for 
turbary. Total villa for pinfold. Robert 
Eyre for demeyne de Bradwall £6 16s. 8d., 
Robert Halom for one Cantabulo. 

At the Old Court Leet. 

The rolls of the various courts, or views 
of Frankpledge held throughout the reign 
of Henry \'I., are interesting as con- 
taining the old names. A court was held 
at Castleton on Wednesday after the feast 
of St. Edmund, king and martyr (1472), 
when Nicholas Howe attached Nicholas 
Eyre, who acknowledged that he owed " one 
lode of ore and five dishes; "Wm. Gervis 



attached Wm. Morten, in plea of debt 23s. 
4d., acknowledged 4d. Eichard Slacke de 
Burgh attached Nicholas Eyre in plea of 3 
lodes of lead ore. Wm. Middleton attached 
Thurston Hall. Eobert and Wm. Elott 
attached William Townsend. Wm. Morton 
attached Matilda Wragg, because he is not 
responsible for distress of corn. John 
Donne attached Nicholas Eyre because he 
killed one ewe price 2s. 6d. John Gervis 
admitted owing Nicholas Eyre 6 lode of 
lead ore. Hugh Howe was fined because he 
did not prosecute his claim against Ernest 
Cooke and others in four pleas of trespass. 
In the same year, at a court held Wednes- 
day, on the feast of St. Leonard, John 
Middleton attached Eobert Elott of Brad- 
wall, who admitted debt and " is in mercy." 
There was another item of interest at a 
view of Frank Pledge at Castleton on 
Wednesday after the Feast of St. Edmund 
king and martyr (13th Oct., 1472), when 
Nicholas Eyre, Thos. Howe, Nich. Seward, 
Wm. Bagshawe, Eoger and Wm. Townsend 
took of the Lord the demesne lands of Brad- 
wall for 10 years, paying four marcs 
annually, and they did fidelity. Wm. 
Morten, son of Eich. Morten, Johanna, wife 
of Jo. Barbour, and Thos. Glover, were 
offenders at this court. 

In the following year, at a great Court 
Leet, John Middleton attached Nicholas 
Halle of Cotes, and John Howe attached 
Eobert Middleton. At another court held 
the same year on the Vigil of the Apostles 
Simon arid Jude (28th October), Wm. 
Townsend, Thos. Bradwall, Jo. and Wm. 
Hall, Wm. Forness, Eoger Townsend, and 
Nich. Howe were on the jury. At this 
court Wm. Forness surrendered a cottage 
in Bradwall near the tenement of Thomas 
Woodruff, to Eobert Elott, fine 4d., and 
"did fidelity." Wm. and Thomas Middle- 
ton assaulted Nicholas Eyre. Alexander 
Walker assaulted Jo. Crosby. Jo. Halum, 
Thos. Donne, and Eoger Marshall fined for 
offences. When the tenants of these 
assarts died their heirs paid double rent 
for the first year, and the King had also 
the second best beast, the first going to the 
Church. 

For many of these extracts we are in- 
debted to Mr. Yeatman's "Feudal 
History." 

There are interesting references to several 
of the leading people of Brad well in the 
Lichfield Mortuary List for the year 1399. 
These dues were payable, on the death of a 
householder or his wife, to the official re- 
ceiver for the Dean and Chapter. The 
custom in the l*eak was that the second 
best beast was taken (horses and cattle), 
and when no beasts were kept the best 
wearing apparel of the deceased was 
claimed. But it was a merciful provision 
that no l)east was taken except where there 
were three, so that the survivor of the 
deceased had always a beast left. 

In the list the vahie of a tunic (clothing) 
varies from 2d. to 3s., a cow 4s. to 8s , and 



an ox from 6s. to 15s. But in order to 
arrive at the relative value to-day these 
sums should be multiplied by twenty. 

On the death of Margarite, wife of Thos. 
de Bradewalle, the Church claimed her 
tunic, valued at 4d. On the death of 
Alicia, widow of Eichard, son of Galf de 
Bradewalle, an ox, value lis., was claimed, 
and after the death of Arabella, wife of 
Thos. de Bradewalle, her husband had to 
forfeit a cow worth 6s. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

WHEN THE FOREST WAS CLEARING. 

Landowners at Loggerheads. 

About the year 1400 the forest was 
gradually getting cleared of trees, and the 
beasts of the forest were being thinned. 
The lands were getting into the possession 
of many small owners, and in Bradwell 
their descendants still remain on the spot. 
The Wirksworth Hundred Eolls relate how, 
in the reign of Henry VI. (1438), Eobert 
Eyre and Eichard Walkden, vicar of Hope, 
gave £20 to John Birmingham and Alice his 
wife; John Woodhouse, Margery his wife, 
9 a. in Little Hucklowe, and the same in 26 
Henry VI. gave 100 un. to Thomas Padley 
and Eose his wife for J of 3 messuages and 
50 a. land, and 10 a. meadow in Hope and 
Bradwell. 

At an Inquisition taken at Ashbourne in 
the 10th year of Henry the Sixth, to 
ascertain the Knight's fee, etc., within the 
County of Derby, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the subsidy for the defence of the 
realm, one of the entries reads thus: 
" Eichard Coke, of Bradwell, 20s. in Brad- 
well," and another : " Edmund de Ashen- 
hurst, of Eyton, Notts., 13s. 4d. in Brad- 
well." There is a list of all the great 
landowners in the Peak on whom levies 
were made, from which it would appear 
that the two named were landowners here. 

On the 2nd of March, 1486, in the first 
year of his reign, Henry VII. leased to Sir 
John Savage, junior, of Castleton, for seven 
years, tlie following at the undermentioned 
yearly rents:— The herbage or agistment in 
Campana in the High Peak called le 
Champaigne in le High Peak £40; for the 
herbage of Crokhill and the pasture called 
Eowley and Asishope, and the herbage of 
Westendene and the pasture Birchendever- 
both, and the pasture called Alport, in 
Crokhill £30 7s. 6d., for the messuage called 
Crokhill, in the parish of Hope, in Crokhill, 
25s. lOd. ; for the vacarry of Eydale £38; for 
the demesne land called le Castel Flattes, 
in the field of Castelton, £4; for the lands, 
meadows, and pastxires of Bradlowe with 
the herbage of Bradlowe. £10; for all the 
demesne lands and meadows of Bradwell, 
in the High Peak, £5 6s. 8d. ; for the herb- 
age of Maynstonfeld, or otherwise called 
Chyneley, £10 13s. 4d. ; for the herbage of 



9 



Shelf and Combes, £4 7s. 8d. ; for the mill of 
Maynstonfeld, 36s. 8d. ; for the mill of 
Tynstide, 36s. 8d. ; for the water-mill of 
Newmyll, with the meadow called Erles 
Medew, in Ashbourne, £6 13s. 4d. ; for "lotte 
and cope " arising from the lead mines 
within the King's lordship of the High 
Peak, £6 13s. 4d. ; for the fishery of the 
water of Wey, with all rivulets and waters 
within the precinct of the forest of the High 
Peak, 5s.; for passage, stallages and 
advowson of the toll of the market of la 
Frith 33s. 4d. The said John Savage is to 
keep all the said premises in repair, the 
King finding sufficient timber for the said 
repairs, but the said John to be at the cost 
of carrj'ing the same. 

. The calendar to the Pleadings in the 
Duchy of Lancaster contains many interest- 
ing entries relating to the litigation cen- 
turies ago. In the 41st year of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign (1599) the Attorney-Gen- 
eral was plaintiff and Rowland Eyre, other- 
wise called Ayer, the defendant, the pre- 
mises and matters in dispute being, " in- 
trusion on the Grange called Howfeilde, 
grounds called Hobholmes and Fearn- 
holmes, the demesne of Bradwall, fishing 
of the river, and lott and cope of the lead 
mines." 

In the same year there was another ac- 
tion concerning exactly the same proper- 
ties, the parties being Rowland Eyre and 
Jarvis Eyre, on behalf of the said Row- 
land, plaintiffs, and John Millward and 
Robert Millward defendants. 

But there had been actions at law prior 
to this, for in 1594 the Attorney-General, 
on behalf of the tenants and inhabitants of 
the Manor as plaintiffs took action against 
"Andrew Eyre. Hugh Bradwall, and EUys 
Marshall, the defendants, the premises and 
matters in dispiite being common of pas- 
ture for beasts and cattle on divers specified 
lands in Bradwall Town." 

There was another suit in 1597, when 
Alexandra Eire, Walter Marshall, Richard 
Middeton, Ellis Ashton, Robert Bowman. 
Hugh Marshall, and William Marshall 
were the plaintiffs, and they contended that 
Thomas Eire, the defendant, was in illegal 
possession of demesne lands in Bradwall, 
and fishing in the Wye water. 

There was, in fact litigation extending 
over many years between the Eyres and the 
rest of the freeholders. 

Being completely sick of the forest laws, 
and anxious to be freed from them, as well 
as from deer lying and feeding in their 
corn and grass, and have the wastes im- 
proved, the freeholders petitioned King 
Charles about 1639 to improve the wastes. 
In the following year the forest was dis- 
forested and the deer destroyed, and 
Charles II. granted his share to the Earl 
of Chesterfield in trust for Queen Catherine. 
But in 1684 Thomas Eyre, of Highlow, by 
some grant from the Queen, obtained the 
lands at a yearly rent, including waste 
lands in Bradwell, Hope, Castleton, Aston, 



Thornhill, Wormhill, Chapel-en-le-F; ith, 
Shallcross, Fairfield, Fernilee, and Mellor. 

In Vol. xi. of the "Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission," relating to the docu- 
ments of the House of Lords, there are 
some interesting particulars of a case heard 
before the Chancellor and three Barons of 
the Exchequer in the year 1685, when 
Thomas Eyre, of Hassop, accused his rela- 
tive, Thomas Eyre, of Highlow Hall, of 
land grabbing. It is the petition of Eyre, 
Henry Balguy, "and divers others, free- 
holders and inhabitants of the towns of 
Hope, Bradwell, and Wormhill, in the 
County of Derby." The document is dated 
May 26, 1685, and reads:— 

"Charles I., in sight of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, was seized of the Manor and 
Forest of High Peak, in the County of 
Derby, and several waste grounds parcel 
whereof, wherein are the towns of Bowden- 
Middlecale, and Chappell-en-le-Frith, and 
divers others, besides the towns of Hope^ 
Bradwell, and Wormhill, in which last 
three towns the freeholders and tenants 
have time out of mind had common pas- 
ture and turbary, and other profits upon 
the waste thereof. Thomas Eyre, of Gray's 
Inn and Highlow, the Relator, Respondent, 
upon a pretended discovery that a moiety 
of the waste in the said forest belonged to 
the Crown, obtained a lease or grant 
thereof, at fifty pound per annum, during 
the Queen Dowager's term, and interest 
therein (of which nothing has been paid), 
and one hundred yearly in reversion, and 
thereon exhibited two informations against 
the tenants of Bowden-Middlecale, and 
Chappell-en-le-Frith and other hamlets, 
and obtained decree allotting him several 
thousand acres, far beyond the value of the 
rent reserved, pretending that enough 
would be left for those entitled to the 
rights of common. Not content with that, 
he exhibited a distinct information at the 
suit of Sir John Heath, late Attorney- 
General for the Duchy, on behalf of the 
late King and the Queen Dowager, and Sir 
James Butler, Her Majesty's Attorney- 
General, and others, against Petitioner and 
others. Freeholders in the towns of Hope, 
Bradwell, and Wormhill, suggesting that 
in 1639 or 1640 the latter petitioned the 
late King to disforest the Forest of High 
Peak, for which he was to have a moiety of 
the waste there, and that the same was 
accordingly disforested and divided between 
the Crown and the Commoners by certain 
agreements made forty or fifty years ago, 
and praying to have a moiety of the waste 
of those three towns, containing over three 
thousand statute acres, and to have an 
execution of the said pretended agreement 
by decree of the Duchy Court." 

The names attached to the petitions are 
of considerable interest at this day, because 
we get at the local men of note so very 
long ago. Those from Bradwell are in 
small capitals. They were :— Thomas 
Eyre, William Inge, Henry Balguy, 



10 



Thomas Balguy, Nicholas Thornhill, Jo. 
HuBLEE, Jo. Wagstaffe, Eobert Hallam, 
John Booking, Anthony Hall, Gkorge 
Hallam, Adam Bagshawe, Nicholas Stones, 
Anthony Longsdon, George Bagshawe, 
Richard Bower, Humphry Thornhill, 
Thomas Fletcher. There is a long report 
of the case in the Government records, 
from which it appears that Eyre, of High- 
low, somehow got possession of lands which 
belonged to Rowland Eyre, cf Hassop, but 
when later on, there was redistribution, 
fresh fences a:ound Bradwell. Hope, and 
Wormhill, and when there had been pur- 
chases made, then Rowland Eyre, of 
Ha.ssop, about 1687. got a fresh order from 
the Chancellor of the Duchy, and the peti- 
tioners won their case. "In the tenth year 
of Queen Anne, 1711, the Chancellor de- 
creed that the Plaintiff and all other the 
'iaid tenants, freeholders, and copyholders 
of these several townships may for ever 
hereafter peacefully enjoy their moiety of 
the said common."*, etc., and the soyle 
thereof." 



CHAPTER V. 



SOME OLD CHARTERS FOR FIVE 
HUNDRED YEARS. 



LANDOWNERS AND INHABITANTS IN 
THE MIDDLE AGES AND AFTER. 

Here are a number of charters showing 
grants and conveyances of properties and 
curious tenures, dating back more than 600 
years. 

In the 151h vear of the reign of Edward 
I. (1287), William de Bradwall was on the 
jury at an inquisition, and Clement de-la- 
Ford was a contemporary. 

On May 6th, 1298, a grant was made from 
Robert, son of Ellis de Bradewall, and 
Alice his wife, to Thomas Foljaumbe, of 
Teddeswell, of a yearly rent of 12d. secured 
upon their lands in Schatton. 

On March 25th, 1305, William, son of 
Willhelmini Blaunchard, of Castiltone, 
made a grant to Peter de Shattone, forester, 
of a rent of 2s., with a day's reaping in 
autumn, price 2d., from a tenement in 
Burgh. Witnesses, Clement de la Ford, 
Ballious de Pecco, William Hally, Robert 
le Eyr, etc. 

On August 24th, 1405, power of attorney 
was given by Richard de Rouworth, of 
Hope, to John Dean, chaplain, and 
Ricnard Bocking, to give seisin to Ana- 
bella his sister of a piece of land under 
Nunley. 

On August 15th, 1411, William Horderon 
and Aiiabella his wife granted to John de 
Staveley a piece of arable land lying 
))etween " Le Greensyde " and " Le Nunn- 
ley." 



In the tifth year of the reign of Edward 
III. (1332), John de Bradwall was witness 
to a Shatton deed. 

In the 19th vear of the reign of Henry 
VII. (1504), Robert Eyre, of Padley, died, 
seized of lands at Broadwall, 6 messuages 
and 124 acres, held of the King as parcel 
of the Duchy of Lancaster. A service twice 
a year at the court of Peak Castle. 

In the first year of the reign of Richard 
III. (1483), Nicholas Eyre, of Redseats, 
Castleton, had lands in Bradwall. 

In October, 1657, William Fitzherbert 
and his son Basill, his heir apparent, owned 
the Farcotes, in Bradwell — probably 
alienated about this time by them. 

In 1711, Thomas How, husbandman, of 
Youlgrave, and Mary How, his wife, in 
consideration of forty pounds and one 
shilling, conveyed to Thomas Middleton. of 
Bradwall, butcher, a barn adjoining " Ye 
Hollowgate and Ye Gutter." The witnesses 
to the deed were Laurans Marshall, Hugh 
Bradwall, and Chr. Marshall. 

In 1715, John Derneley, of the Mountains, 
in Bradwall, is mentioned in a Duchy deed, 
and Mark Furness in the same document. 

In the reign of Henry III. or Edward I., 
Robert de Bradewell, son of Will, son of 
Fabiana de Bradewell, granted to Richard, 
his brother, half a bovate of land in Brade- 
well, the rent being a rose on the Feast 
of St. Peter and Paul (29th June). The 
witnesses to the deed were John Flemink, 
bailiff of the Peak, Will Hally, Robert 
Balgy, etc. 

On the Wednesday before the Feast of 
St. John (24th June), 1376, a final concord 
was made in the Court of John, King of 
Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, at 
Castelton, whereby .John de Wetton and 
Elena, his wife, relea.se to Walter de Brad- 
walle a messuage and nine acres of land in 
Bradwalle. 

Under date 15th July, 1.532, there is a 
lease for five years from James Denton. 
Dean, and the Chapter of Lichfield, to 
Nicholas Bagshawe, of Capella de by Fryth, 
of the tithes of hay and corn at Bradwall, 
and of the null of Brugh. 

Under date 1430, there is a lease from the 
Prior and Convent " des Preez," of Derby, 
to Walter Halley, of Blakebrook, Henry 
Joye, Hugh, son of the said Walter Halley, 
and William del Kyrke, of Chapel, of the 

Sasture of Byrstalle<jh (Berristal Lodge, 
Iradwell), in the parish of Hope. 
On October 5th, 1551, Henry Wyllyaves, 
Dean, and the Chapter of Lichfield, leased 
for 99 years the tithes of Bradwall, Brugh- 
mill, Ofi'reton, Abney and Abney Grange, 
Upper and Lower Shatton, Overton and 
Hvlowe, to Nicholas Bagshawe, of Farewell, 
CO. Staff. 

On November 11th, 1483, Nicholas Eyre, 
of Redseats, Castleton, executed a feoffment 
to Richard Vernon, of Hasyl Badge. Henry 
Columbell, of Darley, Walter Halley and 
Hugh NPedham, of all his lands in Red- 
seats, Castylton, Bradwall, Herdikwall. 



11 



and Sterndale, iu High Peak, in trust for 
the said Nicholas, with remainder to his 
sous, Nicholas and Martin. 

In 1714, Thomas Eyre, gentleman, leased 
to Thomas Middleton, Bradwall, clothier, 
his one-sixth part of a farm in Bradwall, 
called Lif^tle Martin's farm, namely, 3 
closes of land in Stretfield, and a little 
Pingle iindfr Eden Tree, one-fourth part of 
pasture under Eden Tree, one Bastard Rood 
in Grey Ditch, one Butt under Micklow, 
and one-sixth part cf all commons to the 
same, on payment rf £4 lis. 8d., and one 
fat hen yearly, and the keeping of a hound 
or spaniel fvery sixth year. 

In 1742. Martin Middleton, yeoman, and 
Thomas Middleton, of Smalldale, weaver, 
granted to Thomas Middleton, for £20, a 
close called The Hassocks, subject to the 
pavment of 5s. a year to the ooor of Brad- 
well as charged by the wifl of Thomas 
Middleton, father of Martin Middleton, on 
the Feast Day of St. Thomas the Apostle 
for ever. 

In 1766, Elizabeth Middleton, widow, and 
her son Martin Middleton, husbandman, of 
Bradwall, for £32, conveyed to Isaac 
Maltby, blacksmith, " all that housing and 
backside known by the name of Gutter 
Barn," on payment to His Majesty King 
George fourpence a year. The deed was 
signed by the vendors, and also by Thomas 
Middleton. ciergynian, brother and heir to 
Martin Middleton, and witnessed by Robert 
Hall and Elias Marshall. 

In Calendar of Deeds at Derby is : 14 
July. 14 George III. (a.d. 1774), John 
Wagstaff, then late of Glossop, in the 
County of Derby, farmer, but then of 
Youldgreave, in the same county, of the 
first part; Edward Timperley, of Yould- 
greave, aforesaid, gentleman of the second 
part; and Samuel Hadfield, of Newton 
Heath, in the Parish of Manchester, in the 
County of Lancaster. 

Bargain and sale in fee of a messuage in 
Bradwell, in the County of Derby, a parcel 
of land thereunto belonging, one other 
messuage and one croft called Whortley 
Yard in Broadwall. another messuage there, 
a bam and a little building in Bradwell 
aforesaid, and a barn called the Cock Barn, 
and the several hereditaments within Brad- 
well aforesaid, subject to a life estate 
therein of Olive Wagstafi. 

In 1784 Adam Hallam, butcher, con- 
veyed to John Bradwall, yeoman, a house 
and butcher's shop in Bradwall. In 1794 
William Jacson, of Smalldale, miner, in 
consideration of thft upper part of a croft 
called Ofierton Croft, and five shillings in 
money, conveyed to Charles Andrew, of 
Smalldale, farmer and lime burner, a croft 
at Eden Tree. The witnesses to the deed 
were Robert Whitley and John Ellis. 

In 1798 Charles Andrew, late of Eden 
Tree, near Bradwall, but now of Chester- 
field, labourer, and Mary, his wife, for £83 
12s. 6d., conveyed to George Ibberson. of 

Bradwall, labourer, the croft at Eden 



Tree, on which he had built a house and 
barn. This deed was witnessed by 
Benjamin Barber and Robert Middleton. 

Even in the 16th Century the working 
classes were little better than slaves, for 
an Act of 1562 compelled all persons be- 
tween the ages of fifteen and sixty not 
otherwise employed or apprenticed to serve 
in husbandry; if they left their employ- 
ment unlawfully they were sent to p*;ison, 
and servants leaving a parish without a 
testimonial were liable to imprisonment. 
The magistrates in Quarter Sessions fixed 
both the hours of work and the rate of 
wages, and any labourer who did not obey 
was liable to be fined £5 and serve a month 
in gaol. And no employer was allowed to 
give higher wages; if he did so he was 
liable to a fine and imprisonment. Single 
women between twelve and fo:ty were com- 
pelled to work, and a workman who as- 
saulted his master must be imprisoned for 
not less than a year. And in 1597 the Act 
was extended to weavers. 

The condition of the working classes in 
Bradwell may be gathered when it is men- 
tioned that in the year 1634 farm lads 
under twenty had to work for ten shillings 
a year, and a female of that age a pound, 
while the wages of a harvestman varied 
f!X)m eightpence to a shilling a day, and 
a woman haymaker sixpence a day, while a 
day labourer had sixpence a day in winter 
and sevenpence in summer. Those receiv- 
ing these sums had to find their own food. 
Carpenters, joiners, plumbers, glaziers, 
masons, bricklayers, slaters, and plasterers 
had only a shilling a day, reduced by 2d. a 
day dunng winter, and the law compelled 
all tradesmen to work for the farmers dur- 
ing harvest, or be punished by being put 
in the stocks. In twelve years the wages 
had been raised about 4d. a day. No 
wonder that the Bradwell men preferred 
to work in the mines, where they had their 
liberty rather than be under such servitude. 
And at a time when wheat was 41s. 8d. a 
quarter. 

In the 16th Century subsidies or ^ aids 
were granted by Parliament to the Crown 
on varioiis occasions for Royal or Imperial 
purposes, and were levied upon landowners 
in respect of the annual value of their 
lands at the rate of 4s. in the £, and upon 
other persons in respect of their movable 
goods, including crops on the gross value 
at the rate of 2s. 8d. in the £. In 1599 
those who were assessed and paid this tax 
on their lands in Bradwell were Elliz 
Marshall. George Howe, and Mark Trickett, 
and in 1634 the freeholders were John 
Hallam. William Marshall, and Miles 
Marshall. 

Seventeenth Century Residents. 

From the Easter Roll for the Parish of 
Hope for the year 1658 we get a very fair 
glimpse of the condition of the people of 
Bradwell in the middle of the seventeenth 



12 



century. These Easter dues were quite dis- 
tinct from the tithing of animals. In Hope 
parish it was the custom to pay 2d. upon 
each cow. Id. on each calf, an acknowledge- 
ment of Id. from every keeper of sheep, and 
2d. from every bee-keeper. These ecclesi- 
astical dues were rigidly enforced. 

As showing that Bradwell must have 
been a populous village even so long ago, 
the list is of value, there being over 150 
who had Easter dues to pay on their live 
stock. Here again, many of the old family 
names will be found, some of whom have 
long ago left the soil, while others remain. 
The "Bradwall" list is as follows: — 
s. d. 



Adam Slack 11 

Adam Wright ... 9 

Adam Kirk 1 4 

Adam Thornehill 1 1 
Adam Padley ... 10 
Adam Balgay, 

gent 9 

Adam Hallam ... 9 
Adam Marshall 9 

Allen Bower 9 

Andrew Smith ... 9 
Andrew Hallam 10 
Baggot Hadfleld 10 
Eliz. Wood ... 
Edw. Slacke ... 
Edw. Marshall 
Edw. Wright ... 1 
Ellis Middleton 1 
Ellis Ashton 1 



Ellis Lyderland 1 



Ellis Mellor 
Ellis Morten ... 
Francis Yellot 
George Morten 
Georsre E.vre ... , 
Geo. Doodin ... 
Geo. Slacke ... 
Geo. Wilson ... 
Geo. Bridocke - 
Geo. Worseley 



10 



Geo. Hunter 



Geo. Bradwall 
Geo. Andrewes ... 
Geo. Burrowes ... 
Gilbert Charles- 
worth alias 

Marshall 9 

Godfrey Hallam 1 
Godfrey Marshall 11 
Godfrey Morten 1 
Godfrey Chap- 
man 9 

Henry Slaoke ... 7 

Hen. Tricket 10 

Hen. Bromehead 9 

Hen. How 9 

Hugh Taylor 

alias Hall ... 9 
Hugh Hill. sen. 
Hugh Bradwall... 
Humphrey Mid- 
dleton ... 
Humphrey Mar- 
shall 

John Downing 
John Wyld ... 
John Hurler... 
Jo. Case, sen. 
Jo. Case, jun. 
James Bagshawc 

John Wood 

Jo. Yellott . 
Jo. Bradwall 



1 2 
10 



9 


9 
10 
9 
9 
9 

10 

1 



Jo. Hambleton 
Jo. Hallowe ... 
Jo. Wright ... 

Jo. Ogden 

Jo. Swinscow 
John Bullock ... 
James Middleton 
Jo. Lingard and 
his mother-in- 



3. d. 

11 

1 
11 
9 



law 

Jo. How 

Jo. Morten ... 
Jo. Wilson ... 
Jo. Middleton 



.. 
.. 



9 

6 Joseph Burrowes 

11 Lawrence Balgay, 



10 
9 
9 
9 



Mar- 



gent 
Lawrence 

shall 

Matthew Thorn- 
hill 1 

Mark WoodrifFe 
Martin Marshall, 

BaylifiFe 

Martin Middleton 1 

Martin How 

Martin Marshall 
Martin Furnesse 
Matthew Brome- 
head 

Michael Hill 

Nicolas Sykes ... 1 
Richard Millward 
Rob. Offerton ... 1 
Rob. Middleton, 

sen 1 

Richard Middle- 
ton 

Robt. Clowes 

Rbt. Marshall ... 
Rbt. Burrowes ... 
Ro. Bradwall 
Ro. Hallam, 



10 



fil. 



9 

1 4 
9 

9 
10 
6 
9 
9 

9 
9 

1 



9 

1 4 
1 1 
10 
9 



Ellis 9 

Rob. Heyward ... 9 

Roger How 9 

Richard Ragg ... 10 

Rob. Leech 8 

Rob. Hall, jun. ... 9 
Ralph Cowper ... 

Robt. Eyre 9 

Rich. Frost 9 

Rob. Palfreyman 9 

Rob. Hallam 1 1 

Rob. Hall 11 

Rob. Middleton, 

jun 9 

Roger Smyth ... 1 6 

Steven Jackson ... 9 

Tho. Slacke 11 

Tho. Armefleld ... 7 
Tho. How, ye 

Sonne of Mich. 1 



B. d. I. i. 

Tho. Ashton, alias Uxor, John Chap- 

Quimby 10 man 6 

Tho. Dower 10 Uxor, Tho., 

Tho. Morten 10 Padley 6 

Tho. Brownell ... 9 Uxor, Wm. Eyre 6 

Tho. Padley ... 9 Uxor, Wm. Wilson 6 

Tho. Hall 1 Uxor, Bradwall 

Tho. Bromehead, cum Alio 

jun 9 Dennis 1 

Tho. Marshall ... 1 1 Uxor, Low 7 

Tho. Dolphin ... 9 Uxor, Francis 

Tho. Bradwall ... 1 10 Heyward 7 

Tho. Eyre 11 Uxor, Tho. Jack- 

Tho. Bromehead son, sen 7 

sen 6 Uxor, Miles Mar- 

Tho. Hallom. shall 1 

Sonne of Uxor, Dernelly ... 9 

Humph 11 Wm. Midleton, 

Tho. Bray 1 6 alias Wilson... 9 

Tho. How, fil Wm. Hunter ... 10 

John 10 Wm. Jackson 1 6 

Tho. Doodin 9 Wm. Nelson 9 

Tho. Marshall, Wm. How. fil 

sen 9 Jo 9 

Tho Hallom, Wm. How, fil 

Outland 1 Mich , 1 3 

Uxor, Jo.: Wm. Burgesse ... 9 

Barbor 9 Wm. Hartle 1 

Uxor Jo.: Nowell Wm. Hill 1 2 

Uxor Jo.: Doodin Wm. Hall 10 

Uxor, Tho.: Wm. Smith 9 

Midleton 1 2 Wm. Case 9 

Uxor, Wm., Wm. Hugill 9 

Bramhall 7 Wm. Downing ... 9 

Uxor, Noden ... 7 Wm. Hall, sen.... 1 

Uxor, Heath, Wm. Charles- 

Anderton ... 7 worth 10 

Uxor, Rich., 

Hallom 10 

" Uxor," of course, means "widow." 

The enclosure of the common lands was 
made in the year 1806, and the award exe- 
cuted in 1819. The lands thus awarded to 
various owners measured 718 acres 17 
perches. 

In "a particular account of the rents due 
and payable to her present Majesty Queen 
Anne within the Manner of High Peak for 
tho year 1709," wo have : — 

" BRADWALL." 
Rowland Eyre, Esq., for Brough 

Mill 00. ..07. ..00 

Ditto for Nether Hall 00. ..09. ..00 

Ditto for Thornhill 00. ..06. ..00 

Ellis Middleton for Land near 

Brough 00...00...01J 

Ellis Middleton, of Brough 00...02...00i 

Hugh Bradwell, son of George ... 00...02...00i 

William Bradwell 00. ..01. ..00 

Edmund Greaves, for part of 

Ellis Bradbury - ... 00...00...08J 

Wm. Ragg for part of the same 00...00...09J 

Godfrey King, for Land there... 00. ..02.. .00 
Mr. Richard Bagshawo and John 

Hurler for part of Mr. Eyre's 00. ..02.. .00 
Hugh Bradwall, for part of Mr. 

Eyre's 00. ..00. ..03 

George Lingard for an Intack for 

Coppy 00. ..00. ..01 

George Bagshawe for Land 00. ..00. ..01 

Ditto for Land, late Revels 00. ..00.. .02 

John Middleton for fallow land... 00. ..00. ..06 

Libertys of Bradwall 00. ..10. ..00 

Edward Eyre for Land, late Old- 

fleld's 00. ..00. ..04 

Turbcry 00.. .04. ..00 

Pinfold 00. ..00. ..06 



13 



Isaao Morton for Land late 

Marshall's 00...00...01J 

Martin Middleton for Gregory's 

Eevil's 00...01...01i 

Ditto for Land, late Ward's ... 00...00...07J 
Ditto for more late Middleton's 00. ..00. ..03 
John Morewood, Esq.. for Land 

late James Middleton's 00. ..00. ..04 

Edwd. Bradwell, son of Hugh, for 

Geo. Bradwell 00 00 01 

Ditto for more, late Eevill's 00.. .00.. .02 

Humphrey Blackwell for oopp.... 00. ..00. ..01 

Rowland Eyre, Esq 00...00...11i 

Thomas Toft for Land 00. ..00. ..02 

John Crooks 00.. .00.. .04 

William Middleton 00. ..00. ..04 

Thomas Howe 00. ..00. ..04 

Do. for Derneley's 00. ..00. ..02 

Thomas Thornhill 00. ..00. ..04 

Mr. John Wagstafl 00...04...u0 

Thos. Silvester 00. ..01. ..04 

John Howe for Ooppy 00. ..00. ..01 

The Heires of John Hurlor for 

part of Stephen Marshall's... 00. ..00. ..04 
Ditto for more late Heathqot's 00. ..00. ..04 
Jolin Roe for Land late Mr. 

Eyre's 00. ..05. ..04 

Mr. Ward for Land late R^vil's 00. ..00. ..04 
Joseph Ibbotson, for ooppy 00...00...01i 

When Voting was "Open." 

At the Parliamentary election of 1734 the 
candidates for Derbyshire were the Eight 
Hon. Charles Cavendish, Liberal; Sir 
Nathaniel Curzon, Bart. ; and Henry 
Harper, Esq.. Tories. The following were 
the electors of Bradwell at that time : — 



Name. Place of Abode. 

John Bradwell Bradwall. 

Robt. Burrows, sen.... Bradwall. 

Robt. Burrows, jun.... Bradwall. 

Joseph Burrows Great Hucklow. 

Thom,as Chapman... Bradwall. 

Thomas Duddin Bradwall. 

Robert French Smalldale. 

John Greaves Bradwall. 

Godfrey Hall Bradwall. 

Robert Hallam Bradwall. 

Thomas Hallam Bradwall. 

— . Ibbotson Smalldale. 

Benjamin Kirk Bradwall. 

Elliss Marshall Bradwall. 

Martin Middleton Bradwall. 

Martin Middleton Bradwall. 

Richard Middleton ... Bradwall. 
Richard Middleton, 

jun Bradwall. 

Thomas Middleton Bradwall. 

Isaac Morton Hognaston. 

Monk Morgan Ashover. 

Philemon Pickford... Bradwall. 

Daniel Roe Smalldale. 

John Salt Bradwall. 

Georoe Trickett Smalldale. 

Joseph Vernon Ohinley. 

Richard Wragg Bradwall. 

William Wragg Bradwall. 

Richard Worsley Bradwall. 

All these voted for Cavendish with the 
exception of Daniel Eoe, who voted for 
Curzon. The result was: Cavendish, 2,077; 
Curzon, 2,038; Harper, 1,800. Cavendish 
and Curzon were elected the members for 
Derbyshire. At the election of 1868, the 
following were the votes of the Bradwell 
electors : — Lord George Henry Cavendish 
(L.), 120; Sir William Jackson (L.), 124; 
Captain A. P. Arkwright (C), 28. 




BROUCH MILL AND APPROACH TO ROMAN CAMP. 



1^ 



CHAPTER VI 



WHEN KNIGHTS WERE BOLD. 

THE STRELLEYS OF HAZLEBADGE 

AND BROUGH. 

CURIOUS TENURE OF BROUGH MILL. 

" I come to where the old Corn Mill 
Cast its long shadows down the hill; 
Through the rent sails the wind did moan. 
The battered top returned a groan ; 
The canvas flapped — each creaking sail 
Bore to my ear a mournful tale; 
And, listening as the breezes stir'd. 
This strange soliloquy I heard." 

— Platts, Eyani. 
What historian, or archaeologist, or anti- 
quarian, can pass through the Roman 
station of Brough and look at the old corn 
mill, built of the stone from the Roman 
camp, without thinking of the once power- 
inl family of Strelley.'^ They were original 
owners oif the place near Nottingham, from 
whence they derived their name, and 
possessed lands there Icng before the Nor- 
man. conquest. And they were amongst the 
first in antiquity and prestige in De'-' by- 
shire. 

In or about the first year of Henry II., 
A.D. 1154, Hazlebach, with the rest of the 
Peveril estates, was forfeited by its owner 
for poisoning the Earl of Chester, and it 
came into the hands of the Strelleys. 

But what about Brough? It is certain 
that Philip de Strelley was in possession of 
Brough Mill before King John began to 
reign in 1199, because in the Pipe Rolls 
there is a list of those assessed for the 
Coronation of King John, among them 
being "Philip de Strelley, £4 for the M'll 
of Burgh." And in the Hundred Rolls of 
1275 it is recorded that "the Mill of the 
Burgh was in the hands of the said King 
John, and he gave it to Philip de Strelley 
for the service of finding a valet for carry- 
ing a falcon trained to tako herons in the 
season, and so it was held from King to 
King, by heir to heir, and Hugo Strelley 
now holds it." It was indeed a curious 
tenure, but a great honour to attend the 
K'ug on horseback whenever he should 
come into Derbyshire carrying a heroner. 
"If his horse should die on the joxirney, 
the King was to buy him another, and to 
provide two robes and bouche of court." 

But the office was no sinecure, because the 
King was often in Derbyshire, and some- 
times on the very threshold of Brough and 
Ifazlebadge. King John was often in the 
county, Henry III. stayed at the castle of 
the Peake in 1264, ana Edward I. visited 
Derbyshire in 1275, and stayed both at 
Tideswell and Ashbourne, while Edward II. 
was often here. Henry IV. was frequently 
in the I'eak. and in 1402 tarried for a tinn- 
at Tideswell, from which town he issued 
o'ders an to niilitar.y preparations against 
the Welsh, and the Strelleys were horsemen 
under Henry V. at the Battle of Agincourt. 



There were strange doings in those day>, 
for we are told that Philip de Strelley paid 
to the King ten marks and a palfrey (i.e., 
a small horse fit for ladies) for the privilege 
of marrying Avicia, the posthumous daugh- 
ter and heiress of Richard FitzRogers. 
Sampson, son and heir of Philip, i)aid two 
marks for his relief of the mill at BrougU 
in 1247, and in 1250 he held the manor of 
Hazlebach. In 1252, Adam de Langesdone 
and Albredo, his wife, gave to Sampson de 
Strelley, for a sparrow hawk, 3 oxgangs of 
land in Haslebach, in iee, performing all 
serv'ces pertaining to the same land. In 
1250 William Burdett granted to Robert 
"Molendarins" (the miller), of Haselbache, 
half a vigate of land in the fields of Hasel- 
bache. and there are other charters of 




HAZLEBADGE HALL, 

where the kingly Vernons held their courts 
and Sir Richard Vernon lived. 



about the same date confirming to Sampson 
two "tofts" of land in Haselbache, " pay- 
yearly one pair of white gloves as one 
farthing." Hugh de Strelley died in 1292, 
and in a transcript of the original inquist- 
tion, held at Hazlebadge in the 20th year 
of King Edward I., when "Nicholas, Clerk 
of Bradwall, and Robert, son of William or 
Bradwall," we:e on the jury, they "say 



15 



that the said Hugh on the day of his death 
held a certain water mill at Brough, in 
chief of our Lord the King, by the service 
of carrying a heron falcon to the court of 
our lord the King in the season, at th& 
King's charge, whilst he shall dwell there, 
except that he shall have his own proper 
horse when be come to otfer his service, 
which horse, if he die, shall be made good 
to him by the King. And the mill is worth 
£9 6s. 8d. per annum. Item, they say that the 
said Hugh on the day of his death had a cer- 
tain manor at Hasseibach with edifices and 
enclosure.s, and it is worth eleven and a 
half marks per annum. Item, he had in 
demesne five bovates of land worth six shil- 
lings the bovate yearly. Item, he had lu 
bondage sixteen bovates of ploughland, 
worth six shillings the bovate yearly. Item, 
in iree tenants, six shillings. Item, 
"Loth Minerie," worth 10 shillings." (A 
tenure of lead-mining upon which the King 
claimed evey thirteenth dish.) Item, pro- 
fits of Court, worth half a mark. Item> 
herbage in a certain wood they value at 40 
pence. Ihere is a certain mill at Hasel- 
Bach enclosed worth 20 shillings per 
anniim. Item, the said Hugo had from a 
certain freehold in Wardlow six shillings. 
Item, they say that the said Hugh held 
the manor of Haselbach of Mr. Robert de 
Strelley, by homage, and the service of the 
fou:-th part of a knighf s fee. Item, they 
say that Philip, son of the said Hugo, is 
his next heir, and is of the age of twenty 
years on Michaelmas next." 

The Strelleys held Brough and Hazle- 
badge until 1421, when Joan, widow of Sir 
John Strelley, Knight, granted to Richard 
Vernon and his heirs all their estates in 
Castleton, Hathersage, Brough, Haselbach, 
AUestree, etc., on payment to her of ten 
marks annually during her life, and so the 
estates passed into the hands of the Vernons 
of Haddon. The Hazlebadge mill was in 
what is now known as "Mill Meadow." 

Bishop Littleton was here 11th August, 
1743. He says : "A Roman road is very 
conspicuous near Braddall in this (Hope) 
parish, being about 6 feet in breadth, and 
rising about 2 feet above the line of ihe 
meadow where he first observed it. The 
course of this road, he thinks is from 
Castleton westward up the ridge of the hill 
called Waller Edge eastward on the sum- 
mit of which I hea:d there were entrench- 
ments. The road is called the Bullwark. 
Query if it has not a communication witli 
tlie Batham Gate leading ironi Buxton to 
Burgh. At Burgh, vulgarly called Brough, 
the ruins of round buildings are daily dis- 
covered, and just by the town in a rough 
stone enclosure I met with a carved stone 
representing a man's head, which, though 
not very well executed, yet was undoubtedly 
dug out of the adjacent mines, and a work 
of the Romans. I also purchased of one 
of the inhabitants a fine vase, somewhat 
broken, with the following letters : 
V T A R. Between Braddal and Brough 
are certain grounds called the Stead Fields, 



where they say a battle hath been fought, 
and I was told that sword blades, rings, 
and coins were sometimes discovered by the 
plough. The inhabitants have a tradition 
that a great town was overwhelmed by an 
earthquake, that one King Peveril had a 
palace here and one King Aiding, of 
Hathersage, the next adjoining par.sh. and 
they have the following saying : — 
"When King Peveril reigned at LJroagh, 
Then there was gold and silver enough. 
King Peveril was Robert Peveril. the great 
Norman Baron. As to King Aiding, I can 
say nothing, but by the name I should 
guess he was a Saxon thane." 

HAZLEBADGE HALL AND THE 

VERNONS. 

A Portion of Dorothy Vernon's Dower. 

"I'll show j'ou ancient :uins, 
Oi castle, camp and hall. 
Where feudal chiefs and barons 
Once held high festival." 

—J. H. J. 

Bradwell has reason to be proud 
of one of the most historical and 
finest manor houses in the county, in 
Hazlebadge Hall, at the head of Brad- 
well Dale, an old home of the Strel- 
leys. What history is there in everv stone 
of the building! But the Hall of the 
Strelleys has long ago been demolished, and 
the material used up in the erection of farm 
buildings, the present being a wing built 
by the Vernons in 1549. What a grand 
Elizabethan gable is that which fronts the 
road, with its magnificent .nuUion 
windows and how bold in the apex stands 
out the Vernon crest, a boar's head ducally 
gorged, and the quartered arms with the 
Vernon frett, ana the bwynnerton cross 
fleury! And the initials 'H.V and the 
three strokes are no longer a puzzle to tlie 
wondering beholder, for they are doubtless 
the initials of Henry Vernon, the son or 
Sir John, who rebuilt this part of the 
Manor House, just about the time of the 
birth of his second son, -Henry, ana 
signalised the birth by terming tne new 
comer Henry Vernon the Third. 

And the fine old Hall has played a pro- 
minent part in the history of the di.strict 
for not only did it shelter the Vernons for 
many generations, but was a residence ot 
the Tamily, and a shooting box for the lords 
of Haddon. But it was more. "It was 
dignified as a vice-regal lodge. It was the 
seat of judgment, for here Sir Richard 
Vernon, as High Steward of the Forest and 
Constable of the Castle, held his Courts." 

Tie records of these courts of this high 
and mighty man go to show that he car- 
ried things with a high hand. On one 
occasion, Roger Clark, one of Sir Richard's 
servants, went with seven men armed with 
Jacks and Sfilets, and hauled Robert Bag- 
shawe, one of the King's tenants off to tbe 
Castle of the Peak, and imprisoned him 
there for three days without any cause. 



16 



And he was oppressed by various amerce- 
ments being made upon him. Well might 
poor Bagshawe complain to the Earl of 
Suffolk. On another occasion William 
Hadfield. a tenant of the King in Edale, 
complained to the King's Council of the 
Duchj' of Lancaster that Sir Richard had 
sued him in the King's Court for trespass- 
ing with his cattle. And Hadfield was so 
terrified that he declared "the said Richard 
is so mighty in the said county that the 
said ' besecher' may not abide the danger of 
his suit." 

The mighty Sir Richard was evidently 
very fond of throwing his neighbours into 
prison, for there are many such complaints. 
One day in 1440, the notorious Roger Clark, 
with his seven armed men, collared Robert 
Woderofe, of Hope, one of the foresters of 
fee of the High Peak, hurried him off and 
imprisoned him in the Castle without any 
cause. And he did this, in spite of the 
fact that Woderofe and his fellow foresters 
had had liberty since the time of King 
John, Duke of Lancaster, either to occupy 
their claim with cattle of their own, or to 
agiste the cattle of other people. 

In 1480, at the Court of Henry Vernon, 
Esq., held at Hazlebach, a large niimber 
were fined for various offences, among 
whom were Elias Furness, Wm. Poynton, 
Thos. Bytley, Hugh Howe. Robert Eyre, 
Uxor (widow) Thurston Eyre, Hy. Staf- 
ford, Thos. Middleton, Thomas Bradwall, 
Hy. EUott, Elias Marshall, and Denis 
Marshall, of Bradwall. At a great Court 
held at Hazelbach on the 4th August, 1488, 
there seems to have been a regular raid on 
offenders against the laws, as the records 
contain the following : — Jo. Bradwall of 
Bradwall, trespassed with 20 sheep; Wm. 
Bradwall the like, with 20 sheep and cattle ; 
Hugh Johnson 12; Robt. Middleton 40: 
Elias Marshall 40; Edwd. Bradwell 16; 
Hugh Howe 1 cattle 60 sheep; Richard Cox 
20 ; Thos. Howe, 1 mare and 12 ; Roger Eyre, 
1 mare and 3; Richard Thompson, 1 mare 
14 beasts; John I)onne, 1 mare 20 beasts; 
John Elliott the same; Wm. Elott, 1 maie 
4; John Miadleton 20 sheep; Richard Elott 
the same; Robert Halom 30 beasts; Chris- 
topher Stafford, 1 colt 30 sheep; Nicholas 
Seward, 4 beasts and sheep. There were 
about a score others fined for similar 
offences, those from Bradwell being Wm. 
Poynton, Elys Furness, Roger Bradwall, 
John del Hall, Robert del Hall, Denis 
Marshall, Henry Hawksworth, Thurston 
del Hall, Nicholas Marshall de Butts, and 
Jo. Halom, of Overtown. 

But more interesting still is the old Hall 
as having been the property of the famous 
Dorothy Vernon, who brought it to the 
Manners family, in whose possession it still 
remains. It is a pity that a score years 
ago the fine old building was disfigured with 
a roof of blue slate, when it might just as 
easily have been roofed with grey slate in 
conformity with the structure. Well 



might the late Duchess of Rutland con- 
demn such disfigurement the first time she 
beheld it. 

Under date 1630, there is the following 
entry in Hope Church Register :—" John 
Manners, of Haddon, Esquire, grants liberty 
to install a seat in the place belonging to 
the House of Hazlebadge, in Hope Church, 
during the pleasure of Thomas Eyre, or 
Southwinefield, gentleman." 

This is interesting as showing how the 
famous Dorothy Vernon brought Hazle- 
badge to John Manners. 



CHAPTER VII. 
IN THE OLD FIGHTING DAYS. 

Petitions for Pensions. 

" Can you to the battle march away. 
And leave me here complaining; 
I'm sure 'twill break my heart to stay. 
When you are there campaigning." 

Under the Anglo-Saxons all men were 
required to bear arms as a sort of rent for 
the land they held. By the Laws of Assize, 
in the year 1511, every holder of land was 
bound to produce one or more men fully 
equipped or capable of fighting in national 
defence. In 1558 an Act was passed by 
which all gentlemen having estate of in- 
heritance to the value of £1000 had to keep 
and maintain at their own cost and charges 
six horses and requisite weapons, ten light 
horses and weapons, 40 suits of plate 
armour, 40 coats of plate corselets, 40 pikes, 
30 long bows, 30 sheafs of arrows, 30 steel 
caps or skulls, 20 blackbills or halberts, 20 
acquebuts, a kind of hand gun with a 
carved stock, and 20 morions or sellets. 
Those who had land worth less than £1000 
had to find fewer, and all in proportion to 
their income, while those who had goods 
value £10 to £20 had to find certain weapons. 

In the year 1574, Vid. Vernon de Hazel- 
batch presented one light horse, and the 
freeholders of the parish of Hope, in which 
Bradwell was situate, had harness and 
weapon in readiness for four men — two 
archers and two bill-men, in addition to 
foiir archers and 16 bill-men without 
harness. 

The old Parliamentary pensioners were 
discarded after the Restoration, and those 
who had fought on the other side were put 
in their place. There were very large 
numbers of .such pensioners, and for many 
years the Royalists had to petition the 
justices in Quarter Sessions. There was a 
petition at the Quarter Sessions, held at 
Bakewell in 1689, from Thomas Heathcote, 
of Hope, and as there are Bradwell names 
among the petitioners, it will not be out of 
place here. It reads : — 

"Whereas you said petitioner Haveing 
formerly beene a Souldier for the late King 
Charles the First from the year 1642 for the 



17 



Terme of six yeares untill the end of the late 
Civill Warr under the Command of Sr. 
William Sevvile for the two years or there- 
abouts untill Collonell Rowland E^yre late 
of Hassopp, Esqr. tooke up Arms for his 
said Late Matie King Charles the First who 
then was Released from the said Sevvile 
and went under the Command of the said 
Collonell Rowland Eyre for about foure 
yeares longer And whereas your said 
Petitioner having severall wounds at diverse 
and severall Battells and Sieges, and beene 
severall times Imprisoned And now being 
very Aged poore and Indigent Most Humbly 
Craves yor Worships favour to Admitt him 
into p'sent pay as a Maimed Souldier within 
this County there being a vaccancy upon the 
death of Francis Rippon late of Pilsley." 

"Wherefore wee his Neighbours duely 
Consider the truth or the premises doe 
hereby Certifie in behalf of yor said petition 
that it is an object of Charity to entertain 
him into the said pay And in soe doeing you 
will much oblige your worshipps Servants 

WILL : BROWNE 
JO : HALL 
ANTHONY HALL 
JOHN DOCKING 
MATHEW BERLEY 
RICH: THORNHILL 
HENERY ASHTON." 

" I am crediby informed the contents of 
this petition is true 

THO: LEAGH; SAM: CRYER, RICH: 
TERRY." 

"Will: Browne" was the Rev. W'm. 
Browne, who was Vicar of Hope from 1685 
to 1690, and " Sam : Cryer " was the Rev. 
Samuel Cryer, who was Vicar of Castleton 
from. 1644 to 1697. 

'Poor old Heathcote's petition was at last 
granted, for we read that it was " ordered 
upon a Certificate read in Cort that Thomas 
Heathcote of Hope bee Admitted a maymed 
Soldier in this County in Roome of Robert 
Bramwall and that hee receive his Pention 
and due this Mich's and soe to bee con- 
tinued and paid quarterly till further 
Order." 

In 1703 the constables were, by Act of 
Parliament, ordered to bring before the 
Justices all able bodied men within their 
township who had not ai),y lawful calling 
or employment, or visible means of liveli- 
hood, and who had no vote for a member 
of Parliament and these were forcibly en- 
listed in the army. Large numbers of men 
from all parts of the county were compelled 
to serve against their will, not only un- 
employed, but debtors. The latter were 
liberated from prison when they consented 
to enlist, but they might obtain a substitute 
to serve. There is an entry relating to one 
such debtor from here, — William Wragge, 
who although he only owed 12 li, at the 
suit of George White, John Wragge was 
listed in his room with Captain Nicholas 
Revell in Lord Pasten's Regiment of Foot. 



When Militia Service Was Compulsory. 

In the year 1638 we have " A List or Rolle 
of the names of all such persons as are 
betwixt the age of sixteen and three score 
yeares within every such all Townshippes 
of the said Hundred of High Peak as the 
same were delivered to the hands of Richard 
Greaves Chiefe Constable of the said 
Hundred of the Pettie Constables of every 
of the aforesaid Townshippes as hereafter 
particularly foUoweth." 

BRADWALL. 

Gilbert Charlesworth, Will. Charlsworth, 
Thomas Garlick, Edward Newton, Thos. 
Hallam, Myles Marshall, Robert Walker, 
Adam Marshall, George Burrowes, Robert 
Overton, Thos. Chippingdale, Will. Wilson, 
Gy. Hallam, Robert Eyre, Mark Woodrowe, 
Roger Howe, Thomas Braie, John Dudden, 
George Dudden, Thomas Dudden, Richard^ 
Brailsford, Robert Morton, Humphrey Mar- 
shall, Martin Marshall, Will Cocfcey 
Richard Cocke, Robert Hall, Ffrancis Key- 
ward, Thos. Howe, Robt. Morton, John 
Overton, Roger Smithe, Jervis Hallam, 
Robt. Bradwall, Ellis Bradwall, Will Brad- 
wall, Ffrancis Eyre, Robt. Eyre, George 
Bradwall, Job Swinscowe, John Cave, Robt. 
Eyre, George Hunter, Stephen Marshall, 
Martin Marshall, Ellis Morton, Matthew 
Thornhill, Deonise Bradwall. Thomas l/owe, 
George Bradwall, Thomas Bradwall, Will 
Derneyley, Matthew Broomhead, James 
Broomhead, Matthew Johnson, Richani 
Tymme, Thomas Spencer, Richard Philips, 
Thomas Philips, Adam Balgie, Jonn 
Heathe, Anthony Walker, James Ogdeo, 
John Ogden, John Chapman, John Brad- 
wall Richard Ragge, Robt. Leech. 'Ihos, 
Hall, Will Hall, Thos. Eyre. Thos. -^ag-e, 
John Hallam, Nicholas Howe, Thomas 
Hallam, Thos. Rogers, Ricb«rd Kirkman, 
Richard Hallam, Thos. Dove, Hobt. Dove, 
John Bradwall, Will H^M, Will J^raye, 
George Mellor, Richard Morten, .Atlara 
Hallam, Leonard Taxli^. Tkojuaa Brad- 
wall, John Hadfield, Ad«ixu MAr&hall. Hugh 
Hill, Nicholas Sykes. Ge(Wg« ;\Iorten, 
Godfrey Morten^ Anthony Woade. Roger 
Overton, John Marshall. Qodftey Marshall, 
Robert Barber* ThonwkS ^^rber, John 
Ffurness, Will Bramhe^ll, TrvftTOer Arnfleld, 
Thos. Marshall^ Walter Marshfil, Humohrey 
Hallam. John Ashnxore, Rabert MidletoBu 
Will Middleton, Thomas Jackaon. 

Drawing Lots in OKur«h. 

Parish Churches have be^i p«t to strange 
uses, and it is interesting to lr»ow that in 
some of the churches lots were drawn for 
those supplying the military contingent de- 
manded from the township for the local 
forces. 

On the second of February, 1782, the lots 
for the Militia were drawn in Hope 
Church "at a table in the ile in front of 
the screen." The identical copy of the 
Bradwell list affixed on the door of Hope 
Church 130 years ago, is the property of the 
author. It is of interest as showing various 



18 



occupations followed by the inhabitants of 
that time. Here is the copy with the 
exception of the number of names. 

"A true List of all the Men now dwelling 
or usually residing in the Hamlet of Brad- 
well in the Township of Hope, Between the 
Age of 18 and 45. Taken June 8th. 1782." 

First Class Men Liable to Serve : 

Thos. Hall, ffarmer. 
Thos. Andrew, miner. 
Geo. Andrew, jun., 

miner. 
Bobt. Morton, miner. 
Eobert Middleton, 

miner. 
Samuel Duding, 

labourer. 
Geo Andrew, sen., 

miner. 
Thos. Brad well.miner. 
Geo. Bradwell, miner. 
Itobt. Middleton, sen., 
miner. 
Isaac Bradwell, 

miner. 
John Jackson, miner. 
•Christopher Jackson, 
miner. 
■Ohristopher Broad- 
bent, mason. 
*John Broadbent, 

mason. 
John Hall, mason. 
Bobt. Middleton, 

weaver. 
Elias Burrows, miner. 
Geo. Marshall, 

labourer. 
Geo. Ibbotson, 

labourer. 
Wm. Ashmore, 

ffarmer. 
John Birley, cooper. 
Josiah Birley. cooper. 
John Andrew, 

"'•r- labourer. 

Jacob Hyre, baker. 
Robert ^Bradbury, 

't •■;_%,-■-•' sjrinner. 
Denpid;^ l^a^^eU,< 

■ ,.^'' '" ■^' ifliiler. 
JosGBji', JTifbbe,- - ijiin'er. 
Eich\fi4 BeB»btt', 

■ ^?^._ -'..itjner^ 
Thurd^toi^.'Jaeks&av' • ; 
„^ '•-;'■"•>/• mJBJei.- 
Thoftiaa Howe, -nii|ie)r, 
Husrh Pearsohjl^riiiiier,. 
Joseph BarberJ'itiiftjEtk'. 
John Elliott. mi}i_er. 
Ilobt.-Mi3I.eton, Tjivfior.. 
Wm. ; Wr»fj{f.,'njincf;. 
Rami. Barht»r-. nxip/fer. 
EichWd 'wfri^gg, / ^j 
:.■!":: '■ *; , fliihaF. . 
Thorf.i-Wratf«; rtlherV 
Robt. Bocking^iner. 

carpenter. 



Wm. Bocking, miner. 
Eobt. Bocking, miner. 
Josiah Cheetham. 

miner. 
George Barnsley, 

ffarmer. 
Eobt. Elliott, miner. 
Thos. Cheetham, 

miner. 
George Hall, miner. 
Mark Ashton, miner. 
Thos. Walker, miner. 
Solomon Barber, 

miner. 
Wm. Ibbotson, miner. 
Eobt. Marshall, 

cordwainer. 
Andrew Barber, 

miner. 
John Hatfield, 

blacksmith. 
Francis Fox, baker. 
Thos. Marshall, 

miner. 
Thos. Bocking, 

cordwainer. 
Eobert Whitle, miner. 
Rowland Middleton, 

wheelwright. 
Wm. Hobson, weaver. 
Abram Dakin, grocer. 
Thos. Marshall. 

miner. 
Adam Hallam, miner. 
*Robt. Hallam, miner. 
Thos. Morton, miner. 
Henry Hill, miner. 
Robt. Hill, grocer. 
Anthony Wright, 

miner. 
Geo. Palfreyman. 

miner. 
Martin Middleton, 

miner. 
George Maltby. miner. 
£Phos. Hallam. miner. 
Jflhfl H^ll^i^' miner. 
*Ebbt. Hall, miner. 
Bobt. . Hawksworth, 

miner. 
:^ed'. >Iiddleton, miner. 
Abram Walker, 

miner, 
yios. Ward, taylor. 
:^os. Hallam, miner. 
Rob.t. Burrows, miner. 
"Charles Middleton, 

miner. 
Robt. Bocking, miner. 
Wm. Cheetham, miner 
*Robt. Barber, miner. 



m 



Second Class i 



Wm<^Ryalls, three 

v. children. 

Wm. Hill. do. 

Johnson Evans, do. 
Bobt. Marshall, do. 
Isaac BradweM, do. 
Geo. Barber, do. 



Emmanuel Downing, 

three children. 
Thos. Cheetham, do. 
Joseph Bradwell, do. 
Miles Marshall, do. 
John Cheetham, do. 
Ellis Cheetham, do. 



Third Class ; 



James Morton, 
Christopher 

Morton, 
Miles Marshall, 



do. 



do. 
do. 



Adam Bunting, 

apprentice. 



John Noel, infirm 
Wm. Bennett, do. 
John Cooper, do. 
Thos. Hilton, do. 
Wm.Palfreyman. do. 

Balloted Before : 

Daniel Stafford. Isaac Furnace. 

Wm. Howe. Eobt. Poynton. 

Elias Hall. John Bradwell. 

Elias Middleton. Thos. Greaves. 

George Furnace. Isaac Walker. 

Fourth Class. — Exempted by Law. 

George Fox, 

Headborough. 
John Jennings, 

apprentice. 

" Any man who Finds himself agreevd 
must Make His apeal on Tuesday the 18th 
inst at the sighn of the White Horse in 
Bakewell." 

On the back of the document is written : 
"This list was wrote by Mr. Edwd. Fox, 
Schoolmaster." Those names preceded by a 
star (*) were evidently those whose fate the 
next ballot had decided. 

When the Miners Rebelled. 

The dread of an invasion, in 1796, brought 
about a more stringent Statute for the 
raising of extra local forces of Militia. The 
public rebelled against it, and in the Peak 
•district there were riots. There was a 
serious riot at Bakewell when the Militia 
lists such as the one given above were burnt 
before the faces of the Justices. On the day 
the magistrates met, the lead miners of 
Bradwell, Castleton, Eyam, Tideswell, 
Longstone, ond other places, marched into 
the town armed with clubs, picks, miners* 
spades, and other weapons. The mob took 
all the Militia papers from the officers, being 
lists (such as the above) of men liable to 
serve in the Militia, went into the room 
where the magistrates were sitting, seized 
Dr. Denman, the chairman, and turned out 
his pockets to see that no papers were left. 
They then made a bonfire of the whole of 
their booty in front of the White Horse, 
and destroyed all the papers. So serious 
was this riot that the Cavalry attended the 
next meeting of the magistrates when a 
large mob again assembled, but were dis- 
persed, and a number of them taken 
prisoners and conveyed to Chesterfield gaol. 
There were no Bradwell men taken 
prisoners. 

The first Volunteer Corps in Derbyshire, 
was founded in 1803. The North High Peak 
Corps wore scarlet coat with blue collar and 
cuffs, and white trousers. One company was 
called the Bradwell, Peak Forest, Great 
Hucklow and Grindlow Volunteers, but 
nearl.y all the men were from Bradwell. 
There were 66 effective rank and file, and 
the officers were Benjamin Barber, captain; 
Robert Needhamj lieutenant; and Benjamin 
Pearson, ensign ; all gentlemen of position 
in Bradwell. Curious enough, Benjamin 
Barber was a well known Wesleyan local 
preacher, known as Captain Barber. He 



19 



was a lead mine owner, and Benjamin 
Pearson (a cotton mill owner) was a church- 
warden at Hope. The company formed part 
of the Chatsworth Eegiment of Volunteer 
Infantry, and Benjamin Barber was ooe of 
the captains. 

About 1796 there were many Peakland 
men who were by the Act of Parliament at 
that time compelled or " impressed " to 
enter the army, a number of lead iriucrs of 
Bradwell being among the number. Each 
parish had to find men, and some ( f there 
were married with children. One of these 
was Hugh Hill who became a sergeant in 
the 65th Regiment of Foot, who on October 
30th, 1800, when his regiment was stationed 
at Sandown Fort, Isle of Wight, wrote a 
long letter to his children. It is addressed 



CHAPTER VIM. 



BRADWELL'S RELIGIOUS 
MOVEMENTS. 



THE EARLIEST NONCONFORMISTS.' 
CHAPEL OF THE APOSTLE OJ?i)Kl&H[i 

PEAK. '■■'■' "-^s*''' 

.no «4c;''<' 
Nonconformity existed among^t^ J^-I'f 
miners of Bradwell in the very darnfest 
times of dissension from the Church. ''As 
already stated there was no church here.th© 
inhabitants being compelled to attend the 
Church at Hope or take the consequences of 




The ancient Chapel of the Apostle of the Peak. 



to " Mr. Henry Hill to be Left at Mr. Thos. 
Willson's across Smith Field, Sheffield, 
Yorkshire," and after mentioning various 
family affairs he says : " We expect the 
French to invade England very shortly, 
there is a camp of the French opposite Deal. 
It makes duty go very strict with us. When 
the sky is clear we can see their camp, 
which is upwards of 4000 men, but they have 
a good dea'lto do before they pass our wooden 
walls of old England. Our batteries and 
forts and castles which we have three 
castles and two forts to do duty at. We 
have a* No. 1 and 2 forts 12 thirty-six 
pounders, four long nine-pounders, besides 
Howitzers and other implements of war." 
In a postcript he says : " Pray God send a 
speedy peace, for everything keeps rising 
now as fast as ever." Hugh Hill returned 
to his native place, and was always known 
as "The Sergeant," down to his death in 
1824, at the age of 54. 



their neglect. Early in the 17th century 
the constables had to make presentmc nts at 
Quartpr Sessions of all those persons who 
had not attended church. Some of tliese 
we'*e Catholic-^:, some Quakers, and others 
Presbyterians. These recusants or Non- 
conformists Avere very numerous in Derby- 
shire, especially in the High Peak, and at 
the Sessions of 1634, Francis Eyre, the con- 
stable of Hope, presented these recusants for 
absence from church for two months past : 
"Robert Jackson, of Bradwall. niyndr; 
Gartrude Jackson, wife of William^ 'ack- 
son of the same, mynor; Gartrude YeUntt, 
wife of Thomas Yellott. of Aston, hu'-'i nd- 
man; and .Joan Wilks. of Hope, w d w." 
These, then, may be considered some f ^^he 
earliest Nonconformists in Bradwell How 
many more there were it would be ii't'* e t" 
ing to know. 

But in spite of the penalties, N "con- 
formity continued to spread, and '"'2 



20 



over 450 persons in Derbyshire were hauled 
up at the Assizes on warrant either to 
show some reasonable excuse for absent- 
ing themselves from church for twenty-one 
Sundays past or to pay a shilling for every 
Sundav they had been absent, the fines to 
go to the poo:- of the several parishes where 
the offenders resided. Many of the offenders 
lived in the parishes of Hathersage, Tides- 
well, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Ashfo:d, Mony- 
a«b, and Hope. The t^radwell names on 
thjd Hop© list were Andrew Hallam, Robert 
MiddleiDB. Margaret Middleton, Laurence 
Trickett (Sinalldale), and Hugh Fox. From 
this time the penal laws against Noncon- 
foraafsts were gradually relaxed. At this 
very time the Apostle of the Peak was 
spreading the Gospel in the Peak district, 
and before long he had established con- 
gregations and built chapels in about a 
dozen villages, the old chapel at Bradwell 
being one of the number. 

The First Nonconformist Chapel Wrecked. 

Tho old Presbyter-'an Chapel, which 
stands in a secluded situation hemmed in 
by cottages, is one of the most interesting 
and historical religious edifices in the 
county. The eld building, which with its 
walls a yard thick, appears as if intended 
to last a thousand years, was bn'lt f c r the 
Apostle of the Peak, the Rev. William Bag- 
shawe, the ejected Vicar of Glossop, in 1662. 
and was the first edifice erected for public 
worshin in Bradwell. Its his'ory would 
make up a thrilling story, for it sheltered 
the men and women of two centuries ago, 
who were persecuted and suffo'ed martyr- 
dc<m for freedom .to worship God according 
to their conscience. The saintl.y Bagshawe 
visited Bradwell, and was received with 
open arms by the miners, in whose cottages 
he held meetings for worship with closed 
doors and windows, so as not to expose his 
auditors to the lash of the severe laws in 
force against them. But the seed was 
sown to such an extent that soon after the 
repeal of the Five Mile Act (in 1689) meet- 
ings for public worship were held, and the 
Presbyterian congregation formed. Mr. 
Bagshawp's diary contains interesting 
entries giving glimpses of the religious life 
of Bradwell at that time. Under date 
January. 1695, he observes : "On the 25th. 1 
was at Bradwell, had many hearers, and 
divers appeared much affected." In April 
he wrote. "On the 7th my labours lay at 
Bradwell, when I spoke on the soul and on 
coming to Christ without money. The 
people continue willing, and J. Turner by 
presents obligeth my dear wife." The next 
entry is instructive as being the first to 
mention the old chapel. It is in August of 
the same year 0695). and reads : "On the 
25th, I preached and played in the new 
meeting place a*^ Bradwell, where very 
many heard, and I was assisted." Again 
on Aug. 29, 1695: "One fruit of my poor 
labours t» last year is ye poor people of 
Bradwall have prepared a more meet place 
to oleet in, and they are more than willing 



that my younger brethren should take their 
turns in preaching there." " August ye 
25th. Flocked in." A New Year's Da.y 
visit of the fine old man is thus 
recorded: "1696. January 1st. After 
praying" in secret, and with those of the 
family who could bo got together, God 
favoured me this daj as he had done yes- 
terday, in that there was little wind or 
wi-eglass. Though T. Barber and I were 
lost in a close mist as we went to- 
wards Castleton and Bradwell we 
got thither in due time. Many 
were heeding hearers; I hope they were 
more. For the main mine heart was 
right. On April 8th the same year he 
writes : "I laboured at Bradwell with some 
help Jo. Hadfield was hurt by my mad 
horse, and fainted, to our affrighting, yet 
recovered through mercy." There are other 
interesting entries relating to Mr. Bag- 
shawe's visits to Bradwell down to his 
death on April 5th, 1702, and it was when 
regularly visiting and exhorting the people 
of Bradwell that he wrote a lit^^le work, 
"The Miner's Monitor," in fact, the 
Apostle of the Peak was the principal 
religions factor in Bradwell in those days 
of trial. 

It was a memorable time for Bradwell 
when the sanctuary cf the Nonconformists 
was wrecked. Pr. James Clegg, who suc- 
ceeded the Apostle of the Peak as the 
minister at Chinley Chapel, has this entr.y 
in his diary : 'August, 1715. A Ponish mob 
demolished the meeting house of the Dis- 
sente-g at Bradwell." Previous to this, on 
October 1st, 1714, the doctor writes : "I set 
out for Bradwell to view ye old Meeting 
House. It's a good building. Son Middle- 
ton and Wm. Eva<t were with me. We 
dined at Martin Middleton's." 

During the year 1715 the hopes of the 
Romish party were much excited by the 
prospects of a French invasion in support 
of the Pretender, and they fomented riotous 
assaults upon Nonconformist places of 
worship throughout the kingdom. The 
weight of the storm foil elsewhere, but the 
skirts of it extended as far as the Peak of 
Derbyshire, and the chapel erected for the 
Apostle of the Peak was wrecked by a mob 
from Hope, who smashed the windows, 
, pulnit, and seats to pieces, and left the 
building in ruins. It is stated that the 
mob entered Bradwell during the night, 
otherwise there would have been Hjcdshed, 
as the minors of Bradwell were mostly dis- 
senters. 

From the death of Mr. Bagshawe in 1702 
the chapel was in charge of his grandson, 
the Rev. John Ashe, who wrote a memoir 
of the Apostle of the Peak, and Dr. Clegg, 
down to 1720, when Rev. Robert Kelsall, a 
young man of just over twenty-four, took 
charge. 

In the year 1893, Mr. C. D. Heathcott, 
of Exeter, a native of Derbyshire, was 
transacting business at a bookseller's shop 
in London, when he eaw offered for sale a 



21 



mahogany reading-stand bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription : "This reading-stand 
belonged to that excellent minister, the 
Rev. Robert Kelsall, who was for nearly 
50 years pastor of the old Presbyterian con- 
gregations at Great Hucklow and Bradwell 
in Derbyshire. He died 23rd of June, 1772, 
aged 73." Mr. Heathcott purchased this 
valuable article, and ieeliug that either 
Great Hucklow or Bradwell was the proper 
resting place for so interesting a relic, he 
very considerately made his way to Derby- 
shire, called upon the pastor — Rev. R. &'. 
Redfern — and kindly placed it in his keep- 
ing as the representative of the congrega- 
tions for the time being. 

On a tombstone in Tidrswell Churchyard 
there is the following inscription :— 

"To the memory if the Reverend Robert 
Kelsall, who originally came from Pool 
Bank, near Altrincham, in Cheshire, and 
was Minister of the Gospel at Great Huck- 
low and Bradwell. which charge he fulfilled 
with great zeal and integrity near the space 
of 50 years. His life was spent in the 
practice of most virtues that can adorn and 
digniiy the human mind. Of gentle man- 
ners and ingenious conversation, he was 
agreeable to all who had the opportunity of 
his acquaintance. But these were only 
secondary qualities; he had an unfeigned 
piety towards God, and was charitable and 
benevolent to his fellow creatures. He was 
a .sound scholar, well skilled in the writings 
of the Ancients, yet free from ostentation 
and the love of praise. As a Minister of 
the Gospel he had great talents, and was, 
as St. Paul says, an example to his flock, in 
conversaticn, charity, faith, and purity. He 
has left an example not easy to be equalled, 
but must ever he admired, and we hope, 
imitated. He died June 23, 1772, aged 75 
years." 




WILLIAM MIDDLETON. 
a Presbyterian of 80 years ago. 

The Chapel was destroyed by fire during 
Mr. Kelsall's pastorate, and the date 1754 



"ver the door, probably denotes its restora- 
t'ln in that year. 

The Rev. John Boult was appointed 
minister at Mr. Kelsall's death, and 
laboured here about twenty years, when he 
was succeeded by the Rev. Ebenezer Aldred. 

An Eccentric Parson. 

An eccentric man was Mr. Ebenezer Aid- 
red, the minister of the old Chapel here, at 
Hucklow, and other places more than a 
hundred years ago, after the congrega- 
tion had become Unitarian, and he had a 
curious history. He was the son of a 
minister at Wakefield, and was brought up 
to business there, but was unsuccessful. 
Hunter, the historian of Hallamshire, says: 
"When I fi:.st knew him. which was about 
1796, he was living in Sheffield with a 
brother-in-law without employment. He 
got some commission to America from the 
Sheffield merchants, but this did not suc- 
ceed At la.st, when more, perhaps, than 
fifty years of age, he became a minister, and 
had the care of a chapel in the Peak of 
Derbyshire. There he lived in a kind of 
solitude, became dreamy and wild ; laid 
hold on the prophecies; saw Napoleon in 
the Bock of Revelation; at last fancied him- 
self the Prophet who. standing neither on 
land nor water, was to proclaim the destruc- 
tion of a great city; came up to London; 
drove through the streets fully laden with 
copies of a book, of which I have a copy, 
and, himself dressed in a long white robe, 
got into a boat on the Thames, and i^o 
claimed his commission. Thi,s, I believe, 
is merely a literal account of the afiair. 
He lived some years after. He had two 
sons, clever youths. One was a school- 
fellow of mine. The other (father of the 
Rev. J. T. F. Aldred, Vicar of Dore) was a 
partner with his brother-in-law. Dr. War- 
wick, and now lives at Rotherham." 

The late Thomas Asline Wa-d, in Ms 
diary under date August 18, 1812, mention- 
ing a walking tour in Derbyshire with 
Messrs. Nanson, Ebenezer Rhodes, the his- 
torian, and Wood, alludes to this remark- 
able man. He says : "We sauntered over 
the mcors to Hathersage, dined, crossed 
the country to Tideswell, supped, and 
slept. Passing through Hucklow. saw 
and conversed with Mr. Aldred, a I'ni- 
tarian minister who has the care of three 
or four chapels in the Peak. He is u tall 
venerable looking man with grey hair 
floating over his shoulder, and is the same 
who. several months ago, sailed in a boat 
on the Thames clothed in a white garment, 
denouncing woe to the Metropolis. He has 
also published a book of prophetic conjec- 
tures, which are so extravagant as, com- 
bined with his eccentric conduct, to induce 
a supposition that he is beside himself." 

For these quotations we are indebted to 
Mr. R. E. Leader's article on Mr. Ward's 
diary. The eccentric parson's wife was a 
daughter of the Rev. Samuel Moult, who 
was minister at Rotherham from 1743 to 
1776. Dr. Warwick, who married one of 



22 



their daughters, was a physician and minis- 
ter of the Unitarian Chapel, Eotherham, 
and another daughter was the wife of the 
Kev. John Williams, who was some time 
minister at Norton and Halifax. 

The old Chapel used to be designated 
"The Naylor's Chapel," after the Rev. 
Robert Naylor, who was Aldred's successor 
in the pastorate about 1814. Naylor's term 
was a long one, for he laboured here until 
1840, when he retired. 

Another who occupied the pulpit regu- 
larly for 33 years, and occasionally for 
twenty years longer was the Rev. Robert 
Shentou, who came into Bradwell 
a mere stripling of a youth to do missionary 
work for the Primitive Methodists, quite a 
new organisation. He preached the open- 
ing sermons of the Primitive Methodist 
Chapel at Little Hucklow in 1826, but be- 
came pastor of the Unitarian Chapel at 
Flagg, and on Naylor's retirement was ap- 
pointed to Bradwell and Hucklow. For 
many years he was a powerful influence in 
every progressive movement in the Peak, 
and his body lies in the tiny graveyard 
close to the chapel door. On the headstone 
is inscribed : "In memory of the Rev. 
Robert Shenton, of Bradwell, who died 
January 5th, 1889, aged 83 years. His 
earnestness as a preacher and devotion as 
a worker in every good cause won him 
many friends and admirers by whom this 
stone and the tablet in the adjoining chapel 
were erected as a memorial to his work. 
Selina, his wife, born September 18th, 1819, 
died on Christmas Day, 1881." 

And a handsome marble scroll inside the 
Chapel reads : "Sacred to the memory of 
the Rev. Robert Shenton, of Bradwell, 
minister of the Old Chapel at Great Huck- 
low and Bradwell for upyards of 33 years, 
and for half a century a devoted and 
eloquent preacher in this district. An 
earnest advocate and faithful worker in any 
cause having for its object the welfare of 
the people. His labours in the interest of 
education were recognised by his election 
as the first chairman of the Bradwell School 
Board, which office he held till a short time 
before his dea,th. This tablet, together 
with the stone in the adjoining gravej'ard, 
are intended as a testimony to the esteem 
in which he was held by Peer and Com- 
moner alike, by whose united efforts these 
memorials were erected. Died January 5th, 
1889, aged 83 years." 

Robert Shenton retired from active 
minis.terial work in 1871, and took as the 
text of his farewell sermon the words "Call 
to remembrance the foi'mer times," his ser- 
mon extending over an hour, being reminis- 
cent of events during the period of his long 
ministry. 

The other ministers of the Old Chapel 
have been : 1871 to ]87.'5. R. Cowley Smith; 
1876 to 1885, Henrv Webb-Ellis; 1886 to 
1895. R. Stuart Redfern ; 1895 to 1897, W. F. 
Turland; 1897 to 190n W. H. Rose; 1901 to 
1903, Sydney H. Street; 1903 to 1911, 
Charles .\. Smith. 



The Chapel was endowed with certain 
lands by William Evans, of Smalldale, 
Bradwell, who died on April 13th, 1844, at 
the age of 72, and was buried in the chapel 
at the foot of the pulpit. On the wall over 
his grave there is a marble tablet to his 
memory, and at the foot of the inscription 
we read : "He being dead yet speaketh." 
In 1879 most of the old high box-like pews 
were removed, and modern seats substi- 
tuted, but one or two were left, and remain 
an interesting relic of former days. 

It is, perhaps, the tiniest burial ground 
in England, for in the whole of its two 
hundred years' history there have been but 
three interments therein. 



CHAPTER IX. 



METHODISM'S EARLY STRUGGLES. 



John Wesley and His Pioneers. 

The story of the introduction of Wes- 
leyanism in Bradwell has already been told 
in Evans' " Methodism in Bradwell." It 
dates back to the very beginning, for in 
1738 David Taylor, the earliest preacher of 
Methodism in Sheffield, missioned the 
Peak, Bradwell included. 

In 1747 John Wesley himself visited 
Bradwell and preached in the Town Gate, 
close to the stocks, and in his journal for 
1765 he wrote : " March 23rd, Saturday, we 
took horse from Sheffield in a furious wind 
which was ready to bear us away. About 
10 I preached at Bradwell in the High 
Peak, where, notwithstanding the storm, 
abundance of people were got together. I 
had now an opportunity of inquiring con- 
cerning Mr. B y. He did run well till 

one offence after another swallowed him 
up. But he scarce enjoyed himself after. 
First, his eldest daughter Avas snatched 
away, then his only son, then himself. 
And now only two or three of that large 
family now remain." But twenty years be- 
fore Wesley came, earnest men and women 
were daring to carry on the work and wor- 
ship God in their own fashion at the risk 
of their lives. The first to open their 
houses for the reception of the Methodists 
were Isabella Furness and Margaret Howe 
— names that yet survive — and in their 
homes Sarah Moore, a young woman from 
Sheffield, used to hold prayer meetings, and 
walk from Sheffield to Bradwell and back. 
But the first society class here was formed 
by William Allwood. a young butcher, of 
liotherham, about 1750. 

The work was carried on in those days 
by devoted men and women, upon whom 
insult and assault were heaped regardless 
of the consequencfs, and so much did Ben- 
jamin Barber suffer for his religion that 
he went to his grave as " the Methodist 
martyr." A story concerning him is well 



29 




(1) First Primitive Methodist Chapel in Bradwell. Built 1823; now a cottage. 

(2) Old Baptist Chapel ; now the Primitive Methodist Sunday School. 

(3) Primitive Methodist Chapel. Built 1845. 

(4) Wesleyan Chapel. Built 1807. 



worth repeating. Mr. Joseph Clay, of 
Sheffield, who was interested in lead mines 
here, and was the principal proprietor of 
Water Grove Mine, which then employed 
between 200 and 300 men, interviewed Ben- 
jamin with a view to engaging him as his 
agent, but as though he had received some 
previous intimation, he asked " What is 
your religious profession ?" " A Methodist, 
sir," was the reply. " Well, now," said 
Mr. Clay, " if you engage in this work I 
shall expect you to renounce all connection 
with the Methodists, and attend the ser- 
vices of the Church of England." " Sir," 
said Benjamin, " 1 am a poor man, and 
have a large family to support, but if that 
be one of the conditions of my engagement, 
I must say that from the good I have re- 
ceived from the Methodists, rather than re- 
nounce them I will beg my bread from 
door to door." Benjamin was engaged, and 
ever after Mr. Clay spoke of him as " my 
trusty servant Benjamin," and when he 
died he bequeathed to him his old- 
fashioned silver watch. 

In 1760. when accompanying William 
Green, of Rotherham, from Castleton, 



where they had been endeavouring to hold 
a meeting, but were prevented by a mob, 
they were followed on the road to Brad- 
well and almost stoned to death, Benjamin 
being almost murdered, and the marks of 
the wounds he carried to his grave. 

From a barn the Methodists removed to 
the upper room of a house on Smithy Hall, 
belonging to Wm. Cheetham, and on one 
of the old window-panes there still re- 
mains, cut with a diamond, the verse: 
" If any ask the reason why 
We here together meet. 
To such inquiries we reply, 
' To bow at Jesus' feet.' " 

William Cheetham, 1768. 

On another pane there is the following : 
" Would you credit Jesus' cause, 
Walk uprightly in His laws; 
Would your soul to Jesus win. 
Let your life be free from sin." 

William Cheetham. June 14, 1770. 

" I wish, William, your name was written 
in the Book of Life." 



24 





First Wesleyan Preaching Room, In William 

Cheethim's House, Smithy Hill ; it is now a 

Bedroom marked X. 



Portion of the First Wesleyan Chapel In 

Treacle Street (now Fern Bank), at the 

top of Smithy Hill. 



The first cliapel was built in 1768, in what 
was known as " Treacle Street," now Fern 
Bank. Benjamin Barber was the principal 
factor in the work. In 1807 the present 
chapel was erected at a cost of £877 3s. Sid., 
on land sold by Thomas Somerset, carpen- 
ter, the first trustees being: John Middle- 
ton, miner; George Maltby, miner; Ben- 
jamin Barber, shopkeeper; Thomas Hill, 
miner; PhiTp Biu-brr, miner: .Trsioli Bar- 
ber, mineT.l agent; Jorcph Earucr, miner; 
Edward Somerset, carpenter ; Nathaniel 
Somerset, caiTJCnter; Thomas Cheetham, 
minor, ail of Bradwell ; and Ralph Penis- 
tone, of Baslow, farmer. 

The chapel was renovated in 1891 at a cost 
of £1.358 3s. Id., including a new organ, 
and the cemetery has been enlarged from 
time to time. Many of Methodism's most 
famous preachers have held forth in this 
chapel, with which all the old families in 
the village have been prominently con- 
nected at one time or other. Bradwell was 
constituted the head of an important circuit 
in 1812, but in 1905 was, much against its 
will, included in the North Derbyshire 
Mission. 

Some Curious Items. 

There are some curious and amusing en- 
tries in the well-preserved accoxint-books 
of the Wesleyan body. A hundred years 
ago teetotallers were unknown, and ale 
drinking was apparently the proper thing 
to do. At any rate, even a chapel could 
not be built without it. Some of William 
Marsh's (the contractor's) men were thirsty 
Bouls, and the Bull's Head and White Hart 



were handy then as now. At Mrs. Ellen 
Bradwell's, the Bull's Head, they put 
on a shot of £7 Os. 6d. " for ale," 
and £2 lis. 6d. at Richard Bennett's 
the White Hart, and the trustees 
paid the bills. And seven years later 
even the scaffold holes could not be filled 
up without a wet. for we "paid Ellen 
T^radwell frr ale that William Marsh had 
7s. 6d." Twenty years later the chapel 
could not he painted without " ale for the 
workmen 5s. 9d.," and we have "ale for 
the workmen 4s." when the gates were 
erected at the entrance to the chapel yard. 

Musicians were famous for having to wet 
their whistb s, and it was feared that if the 
tap stopped the music would cease to have 
charms. Ileiice, when the harmonium was 
opened one Sunday in 1818, Clement Mor- 
ton, himself a musician, and landlord of 
the "Rose and Crown," was paid "for re- 
freshments to the Hayfield singers £2 Is. 
4.1d." It would be interesting to know how 
these Hayfield singers reached home. 

And at ffstivities for children, here and 
elsewhere, ale was often given to children, 
and on (^ueen Victoria's Coronation Day 
in 1837 the scholars partook of "currant 
cake and ale " in the chapel. We have 
improved on those times. 

The first Sunday School was established 
by Benjamn Barber about 1780, and at one 
time was conducted in an old silk mill, 
now Brook Buildings. In 1826 the school 
over the lirook was built, now the Con- 
servative Club; in 1814 the one at Bridge 
End, now the Liberal Club; and in 1878 the 



25 



present school was built in Town Gate at 
a cost of £700. 

Rise and Progress of Primitive 
Methodism. 

As with the parent body, so with Primi- 
tive Methodism, to Bradwell belongs the 
distinction where it first gained foothold 
among the mountain villages of Derby- 
shire. In fact, it was one of the fruits of 
the Sheffield mission, begun by Jeremiah 
Gilbert, who was imprisoned in Bolsover 
Round House for preaching there m the 
year 1819. 

Another of these pioneers was James 
Ingham, one of the first itinerant 
preachers, who afterwards left the itiner- 
ancy and settled in business at New Mills. 
Ingham wrote : " Six of us, including Gil- 
bert, went from Sheffield, October 7th, 
1821, to Bradwell, to hold the first camp 
meeting there, and I believe we had not a 
member in the town. Well might we say 
'What are these among so many?' Many 
expected it would be a wet day, but God 
can answer prayer. It was a fine day, and 
the wicked were heard to say, ' See, they 
can change the weather.' As the result of 
that Michaelmas camp meeting there were 
quite a score of converts reaay to be en- 
rolled as members." 

Thus began Primitive Methodism. Then 
it was that George Morton allowed the new 
sect to hold their services in his barn, next 
to his house in Netherside. That barn is 
now the property of the trustees. 

In 1822 a chapel was opened by the 
famous Hugh Bourne, and in 1823 Bradwell 
became the head of a circuit, and had as 
its first minster the Bev. Jeremiah Gilbert. 
The old chapel was plain to the last de- 
gree; no porch, no vestibule, no pews, but 
loose forms without backs ; no stove or 
heating apparatus; no boarded floor, nor 
even flagged, but the ground covered with 
what was called ".small feith " or spar 
from the lead niiiifs, which sparkled and 
glistened with little pnrticles of lead ore; 
this was renewed every year. The Rev. 
John Ver'ty, one of the m^st notable 
pioneers rf the movement, who was ap- 
pointed to this circuit in the year 1831. 
gave an excfedingly quaint description of 
this time-honoured sanctuary to those who 
had never seen it. He would say : " My 
chapel is floored with sparkling gems and 
diamonds ; the people make no noise tread- 
ing upon it. coming in or going out; if a 
baby cries the mother quietens it by put- 
ting it down on the ilobr to play with the 
diamonds. If I want anyone to engage in 
prayer two or three forms from me, I get 
up a handful of gfms and throw them at 
the person's back." Yet from this humble 
place of worship such gifted ministers were 
sent forth as Joseph Hibbs. John Hallam, 
Joseph Middleton, George Middleton, John 
Morton, and others. It is now a dwelling- 
house on Farther Hill. 



From Bradwell the seed was sown 
throughout the villages of the Hi^h Peak, 
and the circuit extended over a radius even 
to Marple and Disley, in Cheshire, and 
included what is now Bradwell, Buxton, 
New Mills, and Glossop circuits. 

Fancy that little tabernacle, now a cot- 
tage, the principal chapel in the Peak m 
Derby-shire ! But so it was. Many amusing 
stories could be told of the early Primitive 
Methodists, both men and women. Amon^ 
their women preachers were Violet Hill 
and Ann Maltby, and Violet Hill (Mrs. 
Violet Hall) lived and died in the Chape] 
House after the new chapel was built. 

In 184.T the new body extended their boi- 
ilers by erecting the jiresent chapel at a, 
cost of £700, and in 1878 i'was enlarged at 
a cost of £700, other improvements, in- 
cluding a new organ, having been carried 
out since. 

The Sunday School is an enlargemen*- of 
the old Baptist Chapel, and the old grave- 
stone with an undecipherable inscription, 
in the lower part of the graveyard, close 
to the school, was in the old Baptist grave- 
yard before the Primitive Methodists ac- 
quired the premises. 

The chapel contains several memorial 
tablets to the Eyres, Hallams, Halls, and 
Mortons, one of these being to George and 
Hannah Morton, who first opened a dojr 
for the reception of the Primitive Method- 
ists ; one to Thomas Morton Moore, a 
famous soldier, whose career is noticed else- 
where; one to the Rev. Jacob Morton, Wes- 
leyan minister; one to the Rev. John M .r- 
ton. Primitive Methodist minister ; one to 
the Rev. John Hallam ; to Isaac ani 
Catherine Eyre; and to the late John Hall, 
of New Wall Nook. 

The Baptists—" Dipping " in the Holmes. 

The Baptists had a cause here in the 
latter part of the. 18th century, and built 
a chapel. But the adherents were never 
very numerous, although there was a regu- 
lar minister. Those who joined the cause 
were immcrsrd in the waters of Bradwell 
Brook down the Holmes, and not long ag'i 
there were persons living who could well 
remember witnessing these "dippings," a.s 
they were termed. But the cause never 
prospered, and about the year 1841 services 
ceased and the chanel was abandoned. By 
this time the Primitive Methodists had es- 
tablished a Sunday School, and occupied 
the old Baptist Chapel, which they ac- 
quired, improved, and enlarged as it is seen 
to-day. There was a small burial ground 
attached to the Baptist Chapel, containing 
a few graves, ovfr one of which is an old 
headstone still remaining. The chapel was 
all on the ground floor, which was com- 
posed of lime ashes, with an old stove in 
the rentre and the nipes through the roof 
of the building. The ground floor, with 
the stove and the pulpit of the Baptists, 
was in its original condition down to forty- 
five vears ago. 



CHAPTEE X. 



EARLY CHURCHWARDENS. 

How St. Barnabas' Church was Built. 

There being no church here until the year 
1868, the adherents of the Church of Eng- 
land had to attend service at the Parish 
Church of Hope, but there were not many 
after the Wesleyan Chapel was built. But 
prior to that time those who attended a 
place of worship — and it was compulsory 
to go to church — had to go to Hope. The 



the Poyntons from Bradwell and Little 
Hucklow; the Bookings from Hope and 
Bradwell ; the Halls from Hope and Brad- 
well ; and so on. Therefore, in the under- 
mentioned list is to be found the name of 
the warden or wardens, bearing a Brad- 
well name, though some of the Greaves, 
Middletons, Halls, Poyntons, Bockings, 
Bradwalls, and Andrews lived in other 
places. 

1686, William Bradwall ; 1688, Dennis 
Bocking; 1689, John Booking, Henry Ibut- 
son, Smalldale; 1690, George Tricket, 
Smalldale, Henry Ibutson ; 1692, John Poyn- 
ton, John Hall; 1693, Edward Dernelly, 




The Old Sunday School at Brookside, where the first Church 
Services were held. 



list of churchwardens of Hope for nearly 
300 years contains many old Bradwell 
names. There were generally three war- 
dens, and very often one was from Brad- 
well, and a strange thing about it is that 
sometimes a Bradwell Dissenter would be 
filling the office. In the year 1529 Thomas 
Lowe, vicar of Hope, was inducted by 
Thomas Bradwell, chaplain of Hope. 

As there are so many bearing the same 
surname, but resident in diff'erent places 
in the ancient parish of Hope, it is difficult, 
yea impossible, in some cases to distinguish 
the Bradwell wardens from others, so that 
accuracy in this respect is out of the ques- 
tion. For instance, there were the Middle- 
tons of Hope. Bradwell, and Woodlands; 
the Greaves from all thoee three places; 



William Poynton ; 1694, John Hall, William 
Poynton ; 1695, John Hall, Joseph Ibber- 
son ; 1697-H, John Ibbutson ; 1699, Isaac 
Morten, Joseph Ibbutson; 1700, Thomas 
Middleton; 1702, John Hall{ 1703-4, John 
(Jreaves, Wm. Greaves; 1705, Robert 
Middleton; 1707, Ralph Bocking, Nathaniel 
Greaves; 1708, George Burrows; 1710, Wm. 
Greaves; 1711, Thomas Morton; 1714, 
Christopher Bocking; 1715, Philemon Pick- 
ford, Smalldale; 1718, Robert Burrs; 1719, 
Christopher Bocking, Robert Poynton, 
Robert Marshall; 1720, Thomas Morton; 
1723, Robert Middleton ; 1724, Godfrey Hall, 
Bradwall, Thomas Morton; 172.5, Benjamin 
Andrew ; 1727, Ellis Needham, Robert 
Middleton; 1730-1, Hugh Bradwall; 1730-1, 
Robert French, Smalldale; 1733, Robert 



87 



Booking ; 1734, John Greaves, Bradwall; 
1735-6, Isaac Morton, Bradwall; 1738-9, 
Charles Greaves, Thomas Booking; 1740-1, 
Robert Marshall; 1743, Thomas Gleadhill; 
1744, Isaac Hamilton, for Mr. Oliver, of 
Smalldale, William Oliver; 1745, John 
Elliott, Joshua Needham; 1746, Ealph 
Booking, John Yellott; 1747, Martin 
Middleton; 1750, Thomas Fox, Thomas 
Marshall; 1751, John Greaves; 1752, Joseph 
Ibbotson, John Greaves ; 1754, Robert 
Needham; 1755, Samuel Oliver; 1756, Ellis 
Marshall; 1757, John Middleton, Thos. Fox; 
1759, Ellis Marshall; 1761, Abraham Ibbot- 
son; 1764, John Bocking, Zaccheus Middle- 
ton, Robert Middleton; 1765, Anthony 
"Wright; 1766, Francis Ashmore; 1767, 
George Hall; 1768, John Wright, John 
Bocking; 1769, Thomas Greaves; 1770, 
Christopher Bocking; 1774, George Barns- 
lev, Francis Ashmore, Thomas Bradwall ; 
1775, John Middleton ; 1778, Thomas Glead- 
hill, Samuel Oliver ; 1780, Robert Hill ; 1781, 
Godfrev Fox ; 17S3, Robert Poynton, George 
Fox; 1784, Benjamin Elliott; 1785, Hugh 
Bradwall ; 1786, Thomas Fox ; 1789, Thomas 
Cresswell, Joshua Needham ; 1792, William 
Ashmore ; 1794. John Middleton, Thos. 
Greaves ; 1795, Robert Hill ; 1796, John Ash- 
more, Hugh Bradwall; 1797-8-9. Robert 
Middleton; 1801-2, Edmund Ashmore; 1803, 
John Gleadhill; 1804, Joseph Ashmore; 
1806, Benjamin Pearson (Brough); 1807, 
Isaac Hill, Isaac Middleton, John Brad- 
wall; 1808. Isaac Hill, Thomas Jennings; 
1811, Hugh Hill. 

From this date the residences of the war- 
dens are given, and down to the year 1842 
the name of the place is spelt Bradwall. 
Henceforward the wardens from Bradwell 
were : 1814. Robert Middleton ; 1817. Thomas 
Jeffery; 1823, William Bramall; 1826, 
William Ashmore; 18.30. Thomas Hill, 
George Bingham, Hazlebadge; 1833, 
William Bramall ; 1834. Robert Middleton, 
Brough; 1836, Robert Middleton, Bradwall; 
1839. William Ashmore; 1841, George Fox, 
Hazlebadge: 1842, William Kenvon; 1845-6, 
Elias Needham; 1849-50-51, Robert Hill; 
1853, Durham Wragg, Hazlebadge; 1856, 
Thomas Bradwell. 

For this valuable information we are in- 
debted to Dr. Porter's " Notes on a Peak- 
land Parish." 

Building of the Church. 

It was not until the year 1868 that the 
present church was built and dedicated to 
St. Barnabas. Bradwell was then in the 
extensive parish of Hope, and those of the 
inhabitants who professed to belong to the 
Established Church were obliged to attend 
service at Hope Church, although for some 
twenty years occasional services had been 
held in the town's day school, which was 
licensed by the Bishop of the diocese. In 
1862 the Rev. Alfred Harrison was curate. 
At this time the Rev. Chas. John Daniel 
was vicar of Hope, and his curates were 



the Revs. Ridley Daniel Tyssen and Edwd. 
T. Churton, and it was through their efforts 
that the church was built as a chapel-of- 
ease to the mother church of Hope. It was 
a small building of local limestone, in the 
perpendicular style, consisting of chancel, 
nave, vestry, organ chamber, and a small 
turret containing one bell. 




St. Barnabas' Church. 



The contractors for the building were 
Messrs. Ash and Clayton, of Sheffield, 
whose tender for the work was £1,117, and 
"extras" amounted to £145 15s., making 
the total paid to the builders £1,262 158. 
The exact sum paid to Colonel Leslie, of 
Hassop Hall, for the ground on which the 
church was built, was £76 17s. 6d., the wall 
round the churchyard cost £60, and other 
expenses connected with the building and 
furnishing brought up the total cost to 
about £1,800. which was raised by local 
efforts, the largest subscribers being : The 
Rev. C. J. Daniel, £152 10s.; Samuel Fox, 
Esq., £100; Robt. How-Ashton, Esq., £100; 
Lichfield Diocesan Society, £100; Rev. 
Ralph B. Somerset, £100 ; the Duke of Rut- 
land, £75; the Duke of Devonshire, £50; 
Mr. Thos. Somerset and his sisters, £50; 
Miss Kawson. £50; J. R. D. Tyssen, Esq., 
£53 15s.; Rev. R. D. Tvssen, £37; Lichfield 
Dean and Chapter, £35; W. A. Tyssen- 
Amherst. Esq., £25; Rev. E. T. Churton, 
£25; T. B. Cocker, Esq., £25; John Fair- 



burn, Esq., £25; William Pole Thornhill, 
Esq., £25; Rev. Chas. Bradshaw Bowles, 
£20; Thos. Brocklehurst, Esq., £20; Joseph 
Hall, Esq.. £20; Wm. Jackson, Esq., M.P. 
for INortli Derbyshire, £20; Martin Middle- 
ton, Esq., £20; and many smaller sums, 
amountinf>: to a total of £1.800. Many local 
people gave team work and labour. Samuel 
Eox, Esq., gave land to enlarge the church- 
yard, and also a site for the vicarage. The 
fine organ was the present of Wm. Jack- 
son, Esq., M.P., at a cost of £200; it was 
built by Mr. Brindley, of Sheffield. The 
Rev. Chas. John Daniel presented the beau- 
tiful window in the east end, representing 
the Fall and Redemption of Man, and also 
the silver communion service. The Rev. R. 

B. Somerset was the donor of the com- 
munion rails, chancel screen, and pulpit, 
made partlv from two desks given by 
Trinity College, Cambridge, a book-desk 
and light for the nulpit, and a sedilia ; Rev. 
R. D. Tysseu, tiles for the chancel ; Mr. 
Daniel-Tyssen, a corona; and Miss Daniel- 
Tyssen, a silk altar cloth. On the day of 
con.>-ecration the sum of £26 was collected 
in church. Subsequently, various improve- 
ments were effected in the grounds, the 
paths formed, trees planted round the 
churchyard, and the tine avenue leading 
from the gates to the church door con- 
structed. 

When the church was erected it was in- 
tended that ere long a separate parish 
shonld be formed, and with this end in 
view some handsome subscriptions were 
promised towards its endowment, including 
-— Siunuel Fox, Esq., £100; Wm. Jackson, 
Esq.. £100; Duke of Rutland, £75; Rev. C. 
J. Daniel, £25; W. .-V. Tyssen-Amherst. 
Esq.. £25; Rev. E. T. Churton, £20; and W. 

C. Moore, Esq., J.P., of Bamford, £20. For 
some years subscriptions continued, and in 
1875, during the curacy of the Rev. Wm. 
James Webb, an intimation was received 
from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for 
England that thev had granted an applica- 
tion made to them to separate certain 
townships from the very extensive parish 
of Hope, and form them into a distinct 
parish. Tlie townships referred to were 
Bradwcll. Ilazlebadge, Great Hucklow, 
Little Tlucklow, Abney, Grindlow, and 
Wardlow. and from the first of May in that 
year those townships constituted a separate 
parish, with St. Barnabas' as the Parish 
Ch\irch. As an endowment for the new dis- 
trict, the Vicar of Hope (the Rev. Henry 
Buckston) gave xip £60 r^er annum from the 
income of the mother church, and the capi- 
tal sum of £1.200 was raised by the contri- 
butions of landowners and inhabitants, and 
other friends of the church and parish. 
This the Ecclesiastical Commissioners met 
witli a grant of £1 .'jOO from the Consoli- 
dated Fund Of the Church Revenue at their 
disposal, and the patronage of the new 
parish was vested in the Dean and Chapter 
of liichfield, the patrpns of the parish of 
Hope. 



The first vicar of *he new parish was the 
Rev. Wm. Jas. Webb, who laboured here 
thirteen years as curate and vicar respec- 
tively, when he removed to Alrewas in 1881. 
In that year the vicarage was built — one of 




Rev. W. J. WEBB, 

First Vicar of Bradwel 



the handsomest and best-appointed parson- 
ages in the country. In August, 1881, the 
Rev. Henry Thornton Dudley, M.A., of 
Queen's College, Oxfoi-d, was ordained to 
the living, and during his vicariate (in 
1889) a square embattled tower in the 
Decorated style was added at the south- 
west angle of the church, at a cost of nearly 
£700. The tower clock has a curious his- 
tory, given on another page. 

The east window represents "the Fall and 
Redemption of Man. There is a very fine 
window by Burlisson and Gryll to the 
memory of the Rev. Wm. James AVebb, 
curate-in-charge 1868 to 1875, and vicar 1875 
to 1881. .An alabaster monument in the 
chancel commemorates Kalph Benjamin 
Somerset. Fellow and Dean of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, who died in 1891. 

The Rev. George Bird has held the living 
since 1893. 

The church schools were built in 1873, at 
a cost of £1,150. including a Government 
grant of £236 18s. Id. 



29 



Educational History. 

A perusal of the original trust deed of 
the ancient school of Hope makes it clear 
that Bradwell had an interest in that 
school even at the time it was founded, for 
in 1688 Adam Kirk and Godfrey Kirk, of 
Bradwell, were trustees of the school. The 
premises consisted of school-house and mas- 
ter's residence combined, and a small gar- 
den, in fact the very plot of land on which 
the present school at Hope is built. When 
a new trust was constituted, in 1742, Isaac 
Morton, of Bradwell, Richard Oliver, of 
Smalldale, and George Bagshawe, of Hazel- 
badge, were trustees. 

First Bradwell Schools. 

The first provision for elementary educa- 
tion was made by Elias Marshall, who in 
1762 (as is noticed elsewhere) left land 
worth £3 per year, the rents to be paid to 
a schoolmaster or mistress to teach five of 
the poorest children in Bradwell to read. 
Those who availed themselves of it were 
described as " charity scholars." Edward 
Fox was a schoolmaster so long ago as 1782. 
In 1825 John Birley built a school-house in 
Hugh Lane, where the two houses now 
stand next to the Primitive Methodist 
Sunday School, and in this building John 
Darnley, a famous schoolmaster of that 
day, taught these poor children. From 
time to time trustees of the charity were 
appointed. But reading, writing, and 
arithmetic were then taught in the Sunday 
Schools. Subsequently a National School 
was opened in the public schoolroom over 
the brook (now the Conservative Club). 

The National School was built in 1871 at 
a cost of £1.200. 

School Board History. 

Bradwell was one of the first places in 
England to take advantage of the Educa- 
tion Act of 1870. for at four o'clock in the 
afternoon of February 25th, 1871, a public 
meeting of the ratepayers was held in the 
schoolroom to consider the expediency of a 
School Bo*rd for Bradwell. A great deal 
of feeling was shown, and excitement was 
high. Mr. Thomas Shaw Ashton. of Whes- 
ton, Tideswell, presided. Mr. John Barber 
proposed " That in the opinion of this 
meeting it is expedient that a School Board 
be formed for the parish of Bradwell." Mr. 
John Hall seconded. Mr. Thomas Somer- 
set proposed an amendment " That it is 
not expedient," and Mr. Joab Hallam 
seconded. Among the speakers in favour 
of a Board was Alderman Fairburn, of 
Sheffield ; against it the vicar of Hope, the 
curate of Bradwell, and Mr. Robert Somer- 
set. The result of the show of hands was : 
For the B^^ard 72. against 52. Of course a 
poll was demanded on the question, and 
was fixed for the following Saturday. 

The Saturday following, March 4th, was 
a memorable day. Polling went on from 
10 o'clock to 5, the result being: For a 



Board 128, against 115, majority in favour 
13. 

After this steps were taken to form a 
School Board, and Auga.st 19th, 1871, wa» 
the polling day for the first members of 
the Board. Five members had to be 
elected, and, as at almost every election for 
30 years, the struggle was to get th© 
majority, generally three members on each 
side being nominated. Here is the result 
of the first poll : — 

Elected. 
Rev. Walter Graham, Primitive 

Methodist minister 227 

John Barber, grocer, Wesleyan.. 221 
Rev. Robert Shenton, Unitarian 

minister 213 

Thomas Somerset, farmer, 

Eccles House. Churchman .... 211 
Rev. Wm. James Webb, curate 
of Bradwell 190 

Not elected. 
Joshua Jeffery, farmer 173 

The first five were elected, and consti- 
tuted the first Board. 

There were remarkable scenes at the first 
meeting of the Board, which was held on 
September 7th at the house of the Rev. 
W^alter Graham. Mr. Shenton was elected 
chairman, and Mr. Webb vice-chairman. 

The opening of a Board School in th& 
Primitive Methodist Sunday School was 
celebrated with a tea and concert in a 
marquee, but a good deal of stiife was en- 
gendered between those for and against a 
School Board. 

In 1893 the premises were condemned as 
unsuitable, and new schools were built, 
and have long required extension, the 
Wesleyan Sunday School being used as an 
Infants' School in order to relieve the 
main building. 

Subsequent triennial elections of School 
Board resulted as follows : — 

1874 (Uncontested). 

Rev. Robert Shenton, Nonconformist. 
John Barber, Nonconformist. 
Robert Tanfield, Nonconformist. 
Dr. Joseph Henry Taylor, Churchman. 
Robert Hallam, Churchman. 

1877 (Uncontested). 

Mr. Robert Somerset and Mr. Thomas 
Bradwell withdrew, leaving the following 
elected : 

Rev. R. Shenton, Nonconformist. 

John Barber, Nonconformist. 

Robert Tanfield, Nonconformist. 

Thomps Elliott. Churchman. 

Joab Hallam, Churchman. 

1880 (Uncontested). 

Rev. Robert Shenton, Nonconformist. 
John Barber, Nonconformist. 
Robert Tanfield. Nonconformist. 
Joab Hallam. Churchman. 
Wm. B. Prisk, Churchman. 



3d 



1883 (Contested). 
Elected. 
John Barber, Nonconformist ... 211 
Robert Tanfield, Nonconformist 191 
Eev. Eobert Shenton. Noncon- 
formist 188 

Robert Hallam, Churchman 179 

William Bramall, Churchman... 170 

Not elected. 
Joab Hallam, Churchman 150 

1886 (Uncontested). 
Rev. Robert Stuart Redfern, Unitarian 
minister. 
Stephen Dakin. Wesleyan. 
Robert Tanfield, Primitive Methodist. 
Robert Hallam. Churchman. 
William Bramall, Churchman. 

1889 (Contested). 
Elected. 
William Bramall, Churchman... 198 
Zachariah Walker, Noncon- 
formist 195 

Robert Hallam, Churchman ... 171 
Rev. R. S. Redfern, Noncon- 
formist 157 

Stephen Dakin, Nonconformist.. 155 

Not elected. 
Robert Tanfield, Nonconformist... 144 

1892 (Uncontested). 
Rev. R. S. Redfern, Nonconformist. 
Stephen Dakin, Nonconformist. 
Z. Walker, Nonconformist. 
Robert Hallam, Churchman. 
Wm. Bramall, Churchman. 

1895 (Contested). 
Elected. 
Zachariah Walker, Noncon- 
formist 311 

Charles Castle, Nonconformist.. 295 

Seth Evans, Nonconformist 274 

Joseoh Allen Middleton, 

Churchman 239 

Charles Maples, Churchman .... 212 

Not elected. 
Wm. BramalJ, Churchman 183 

_ 1898 (Contested). 

Seth Evans, Nonconformist 272 

Z. Walker, Nonconformist ....'..'267 . 

Chas. Castle. Nonconformist ... 261 
Wm. Bramall, Churchman ...... 254 

Stei'*^^on Thos. Hallam, Church- 
man 190 

Not elected. 
Jos. A. Middleton, Churchman 99 

1901 (Uncontested). 
Z. W; Iker, Nonconformist. 
Seth Kvans, Nonconformist. 
Chas. (Jastlo, Nonconformist. 
Wm. Hrickwood Prisk, Churchman. 
Harvf V Hallam, Churchman. 

How the schools passed to the County 
Council under the Education Act of 1902 
is a nuiter of recent history. 



CHAPTER XI. 



IN THE PARISH WORKHOUSE DAYS. 
HOW THE POOR EXISTED. 



OVERSEERS' OLD RECORDS. 

The old accounts and records of a parish 
are always interesting and instructive, but 
in our case we have not those of a parish 
but of one township within a parish. The 
accounts of the overseers of the poor, con- 
tained in an old book known as " William 
Evans' Book," covering a period from 1818 
to 1850. are eloquent as shewing the life of 
the village poor in the first half of last 
century. 

Before making any allusion to the con- 
tents of this book it ought tO' be said 
that the author is in possession of the 
ancient Deeds for a century and a half, 
showing that a century ago, when Bradwell 
kept its own poor, the workhouse was at 
Edentree, — the very house that was en- 
larged and is now the " residence of Dr. 
Clegg. And real workhouses they were in 
those days, for the inmates were compelled 
to work, and our Bradwell workhouse was 
fitted up with weavers' looms. A Deed 
dated 29th October, 1812, sets forth that 
John Hibberson, of Sickleholme, innholder, 
a member of one of the oldest Bradwell 
families, variously spelt Ibbutson, Ibbot- 
son, Ibberson, and lastly Hibberson, sold 
for £125 to Thomas Hill, shopkeeper, and 
Robert Middleton, of Smalldale, miner, the 
overseers, at the request and by the pro- 
per order and direction of the inhabitants 
of Bradwall, the dwelling-house, cow-house, 
barn, loomshop, and garden at Edentree. 
But in 1819, having an eye to business, the 
overseers removed the paupers and their 
looms to other premises at Yard Head, now 
two houses belonging to Mr. Albert Brad- 
well, which was the workhouse down to 
the Bakewell Union being formed. 

In those days the overseers expended 
something like £500 a year, and collected a 
rate once a quarter, and their accounts give 
us a glim.pse, not only of the primitive 
kind of workhouse, but of the lives of the 
inmates, the out-door poor, and most other 
things in the parish. 

For instance, in 1818 we had "oile for the 
house 5 weeks at Id., 5d." — probably to oil 
the looms of the paupers, and at the same 
time they were sui)])lied with "thread. 
bid.," and when the flitting had taken place 
we "paid Is. 4d. for a pair of spindles,' and 
"William Kenyon for a beam 8s." Then 
wo have "Adam Hill for a pair of looms 
£1 10s.," and being short of money we paid 
"Adam Morton on account of looms 10s.," 
giving him the other half-sovereign next 
year when we gave "John Smith towards 
looms 18s. 6d." In 1825 we have "setting 
up looms 8s. Gd.," and the following year, 
determined not to allow old Webster to eat 
any idle bread, they bought "a five dozen 



31 



bobbins, new pickers, cording, etc., for 
Webster " and paid " William Ollerenshaw 
6d. for setting up Webster's looms." 

In food and cooking, the inmates of this 
institution, and the out-door paupers as 
well, appear to have had a fairly good time 
in those days of small things. Their 
supplies of potatoes, butter, meat, candles, 
etc., were liberal, but they appear to have 
baked their own oatcake with the meal 
provided by the overseers. There was "paid 
for setting up Backstone 2s. 9d." — that 
"backstone" was in the house not long ago, 
— and there was also "paid to Jacob Eyre 
for two troughs 16s." Old Jacob Eyre 
was a baker in Nether Side, and when he 
got too old to carry on his business he 
sold his mixing troughs to the overseers for 
the paupers to mix their dough in. 

In 1819 we "relieved old Nanny" at a 
cost of lis. 9d., and soon afterwards we 
"paid William Revill for old Nany's shoes 
2s. 3d.," and "relieved old Nany and 
Hannah instead of milk 12s. 8d." We 
also "paid for baking old Martha's bread 
6d.," and later "bought flannel for old 
Martha." ' Not long after this the old 
lady was taken to her long home. 

"Richard Kay for Townend's breeches 
3s. 2|d." shows that the personal appear- 
ance of the paupers was not neglected, and 
Is. lid. was "paid for I yard of fustian to 
mend William Hibbs' breeches." It is to 
be feared that William had rheumatism, 
for there is an entry "To William Hibbs, 
oil of Pigma to rub his thigh, i^d." 

The ladies had a touch of pride in them, 
which the overseers encouraged, for they 
spent 2s. 8d. on "Hannah Gee's bonnet," 
and sundry fineries for others. They 
"bought Mary Hall, Castleton, two shifts 
5s. Id.," and also a "bedgown for Mary 
Hall, Castleton, 2s. 6d." This lady was 
doubtless fond of a dance at Castleton 
Wakes, like most people in that famous 
village, and so they "relieved Mary Hall at 
Castleton Wakes 2s."; indeed, the entries 
show that Mary was often "set up" with 
cash to visit Castletoin at a "good time." 
And the inmates had generally a spree at 
these "good times," especially at Bradwell 
Wakes, on the second Sunday in July, for 
there are numerous entries. Here is one, 
in the handwriting of William Evans, over- 
seer, "1831. July 9, To cash to the House 
for the Wakes 7s. 6d." 

Unfortunately, the records disclosed 
many lai>ses from the strict path of 
morality, for a great deal of money was 
spent in tracing runaway fathers of illegiti- 
mate children. The custom seemed to be 
to outrun the constable, who had to follow 
them all over the country with a warrant 
in his possession. The expense was 
enormous. And when magisterial business 
had to be transacted journeys had to be 
made to Chesterfield, Bakewell. Hathersage, 
Hayfield, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Tideswell, 
Glossop, Low Leighton, or anywhere else 
where a magistrate lived. 



The sick poor were well looked after, 
judging from the quantity of intoxicants 
that found its way into the "House," for 
there are hundreds of such items. On one 
occasion there had b^en a new arrival at 
the workhouse, inci-easing the population 
by one, when there seems to have been a 
very nice feast over the job at the rate- 
payers' expense, for they paid for "goods to 
the House for the merry meal 3s.," and 
"Ale for Charlotte Palfrey 4s." It is the 
first time we have come across a merry 
meal in a workhouse on such an occasion, 
and paid for out of the rates too ! In 1824 
we "relieved Isaac Furness when going to 
the doctor Is.," and when a man was in 
Chapel Gaol we " gave his wife Sukey 4s. 
6d." We can imagine the wry faces that 
would be pulled after half-a-crown had been 
"paid fo'r saults and pills for Mary Wragg's 
child," and five shillings was given "to 
Robert Hawksworth's wife having a bad 
leg." 

Behind these entries there may be many 
a tragedy. For instance, in 1831, "To 
Alice Smith, for wine, being poorly, 2s." 
Poor Alice evidently got worse, for she 
lingered on more than a year, when we read 
"To Alice Smith for a peck of malt, being 
poorly, 2s. 5d." The end was fast ap- 
pi-oaching, for the next entry mentions old 
Doctor Lowe, "To James Lowe attending 
Alice Smith, 5s.," followed by "Alice Smith, 
extra, being poorly, 2s.," the story closing 
with the items, "Alice Smith's coflSn 18s., 
fees 8s., shroiid Is. 3d." 

The wayfarer was not turned empty away 
— the overseer had at least a copper for 
him. He gave a shilling "to relieve a 
woman in distress from America," and 
another shilling "to a man in distress 
through loss at sea," and he paid "to a 
poor woman in distress to pay her lodgings 
3d." 

And the overseer interested himself in 
getting employment for those who would 
otherwise be on his hands, and an entry 
tells u% that we paid "expenses to Bam- 
ford getting Deborah Walker a place Is." 
He got a good many others a "place" so as 
to keep them off the rates, and there is an 
item, "To Elizabeth and Jane Marshall to 
prevent thenl being excluded from the club 
at Bakewell 5s. 6d." One man, although 
wanting bread, had great expectations, for 
the overseers gave "Robert Hobson for 
bread, and promised to return it on the 
receipt of his fortune, 5s. 6d." Amongst 
the hundreds of curious entries are : "To 
two chamber potts to House 6d.," and 
"Idleback Id." — an almost obsolete name 
for potmould. 

How poor lads were rigged up and placed 
out as parish apprentices is shown by 
numerous payments. In 1818 we have a 
payment "for Isaac Eyre's hat," and five 
years later there was "paid with Isaac 
Eyre to his master £2 2s." "paid for his 
new cloaths 14s. 6d." "for his new hat 2s. 
6d.," "expenses at binding him 6s. 6d.," 
"expenses going to Whetstone about Isaac 



32 



Eyre Is." One poor lad who wanted to 
make his way in the world is mentioned 
where there was "given to John Middleton 
going to seek a situation 6s." He was suc- 
cessful at Bollington, twenty miles distant, 
and the next item we come across reads : 
"To Joseph Wright taking John Middle- 
ton to liollington 13s." That lad became a 
prosperous tradesman at Bollington. Why 
a docT-tenter w&s necessaiy at the work- 
hc'use is a puzzle, but there was paid "to 
Will am Smith for door-tenting two years 
5s. 3d." 

There are numerous payments of good 
stifi sums for law costs, mainly cases of 
settlement that had been taken to Quarter 
Sessions. In 1818 there was "Pade Mr. 
Cheek and Counselors £8 17s." This was 
old Lawyer Cheek, of Wheston, near Tides- 
well, who was cften "pade" to unravel legal 
problems. There is "Expenses to Ponte- 
fract Sessions £22 16s. 8d.," and a payment 
of £40 14s. "Parker and Brown's law till." 
It would be interesting to know where 
were the rights of turbary, and what led 
to half a guinea being paid tor "Parker and 
Brown's opinion on tu;f," and 12s. 6d. to 
Benjamin Barbe:- fcr drawing up the above 
case." 

It would appear that teetotalism was 
then unknown, for everything had to 
be washed down with liquor. All the 
meetings were held and the bus'ness trans- 
acted in public-houses — good old injis of the 
olden times. The Bull's Head was kept 
by Ellen Bradwell ; the Green Dragon by 
Joseph Booking ; the Eose Tree by William 
Bradwell; the Rose and Crcwn by Robert 
Morton ; the Newburgh Arms by William 
Kenyon ; the Whito Ha: t by Elias Need- 
ham; the Miners' Arms by Robert Howe; 
and the Lord Nelson at Brough by Joseph 
Sidebottom. These appear to have reaped 
a rich harvest, for nothing could be done, 
without something being "spent," and the 
amounts per meeting varied from five to ten 
shillings; indeed, there are hundreds of 
these items. 

About a dozen of the solons of the village 
attended when there was "spent at the 
accompts 5s.." and c<ften more. Even 
Outram's Dole of 15s. could not be paid 
without those who doled it out spending 5s. 
at the Bull's Head. 

The Headborough was an important func- 
tionary, who was resp9nsible for the town- 
ship list of Militia ndeini, and there appears 
to have been a good deal " spent " when he 
was appointed. In 1818 there was " paid 
to William Revill for serving Headboroiigh 
£1," and in the following year "William 
Fox for serving Headborough £2 4s. 8d." 
Revell was a shoemaker and kept a beer- 
house in Nether Side, where the bank now 
stands, and Wm. Fox was a .shuttle maker. 
Considerable sums were paid to " Militia 
men, 19s. 4d."; and Given Militia 
men Ss." A meeting respecting the 
militia resulted in 6s. 6d. being 
" spent." and it is followed by some curious 
entries. Here they are : " expenses of three 



Militia men over the subscriptions, £6 28. 
6d. ;" "Paid for 737 parts of two Militia 
men, 19s. 4^d. ;" and "Given Militia men, 3s. 
The second item is a mathematical problem 
that will bear solution. Of course we 
"spent at Headborough meeting 5s." The 
next year we " expended at two Militia 
meetings 7s. 7d.," and "paid for Militia 
men £5 5s. 4d." In 1824 we "spent at 
choosing a new Headborough 3s. 6d." and 
at " marking a Militia list 5s," while 
"George Elliott headborough's bill" was 
£1 9s. 3d., and "Thomas Booking do." 
£1 6s. 7d. Next year we have " To a Militia 
man £3 12s. 4^d." and so on ad lib, and in 
1829 we have " To soldiers red coats 2s. 6d." 

We are also given an insight of the old 
Church rates, a rate levied on the 
parishioners for the support of the Parish 
Church. In this township it was unpopular, 
because most of the people were Dissenters. 
The amount appears to have varied, for 
while the " Church score " in 1819 was six 
guineas without any information as to how 
the amount was arrived at, we have next 
year " Church rate 7 penny lay £6," while 
in 1823 " Church score " had gone up to .<'9. 
Of course, something had to be " spent '' 
at the inn where these men were paid as 
well as where the overseers were appoiiiied. 
indeed there appears to have ben a jovial 
time when William Evans and William 
Ashmore were appointed overseers, for 
15s. 6d. was "spent." and later, "me"^t'ng 
at William Bradwell's, nominating overseer, 
15s." In 1823 there apears to have been •* 
good deal spent m ale and tobacco over 'ho 
tithes for we have " Tobacco and pipes at 
Tythe meeting. 6d." " spent at Joseph Side- 
bottom's on Tythe business Is.," " spent at 
Elias Needham's on Tythe business 5s," and 
" spent at Robert Morton's on Tythe 
business 8s. 8d." 

There appears to have been a "Town's 
Box" in those days. We wish it was in 
existence now, and all its former contents 
in evidence. It would tell a strange tale. 
Whether or not its contents had been tam- 
pered with is not said, but in 1824 we " paid 
for a key for the Town's Box 7d." After 
this there appears to have been a systematic 
inspection of the box. for in the early part 
of 1826 we " .spent at a meeting at Robert 
Morton's 5s.." and the very next day " a 
meeting at Ellen Bradwell's 3s. 6d." 

Another important functionary, the con- 
stable, had plenty to do, and a rate was 
levied to recompense him, for in 1821 we 
read " Constable rate 3 penny lay £2 14s.," 
and in the previous year the " constable's 
score " was £1 10s. There was " paid for ale 
on the appointment of constable at Robert 
Morton's 5s," and Henry Hill was paid £11 
for serving the office. Who the poor 
creature was, who was hustled off to the 
asylum is not stated, but there was " paid to 
Constable and John Bradwell going to 
Bedlam, together with Glossop constable 
expenses 13s." The constable's accounts 
would be still more interesting reading. 



53 



The mole-catcher was quite an institution I 
in the place. In 1819 we " paid mole-catcher | 
half a year's wage £4," and the payment is j 
continued from year to year. And the same \ 
year we " paid for a lock for the pinfold 
8d.," and "paid John Cooper for pinning 
10s," but both mole-catcher and pinner are 
functionaries of the past, and the pinfold 
in Hungry Lane was thrown into the road 
widening a few years ago. 

How or by what means King George was 
' proclaimed" we are not told, but in the 
accounts of 1820 we have "expenses at pro- 
claiming King George the Fourth 10s." 

There was no "penny post " in those 
days, but the overseers had occasional 
letters for which they had to pay. Here 
are a few of the items : " Paid for a letter 
for Micah Wright 2s. 5d." "a letter from 
Manchester 9d," " letter to Oldham lOd." 
And they were occasionally worried with 
communications from London, thus " letter 
from Parliament 2d." " paid for a letter 
from the House of Commons 3d." " a letter 
from London respecting a petitioner 2d.," 
" making a return to the House of 
Commons and expenses 5s." 

We have an entry " To a letter from 
London to take the population Is. Id." This 
relates to the census of 1831, when the 
population of Bradwell was found to be 1153. 
Another entry reads : " To expenses at 
justice meeting with population 3s. 6d." 
We don't suppose that William Evans, the 
overseer, took " the population " to the 
justice meeting, or he would have his hands 
full. The stormy period of the Reform Bill 
was just over, and so under date July 16th, 
1832, we read "To the Reform Act from 
London 2d." Two years afterwards we 
have " To instructions respecting voting 
from London 2d." and " To a second in- 
struction respecting voting from London 
2d." In 1837 there is the entry "To a 
parcil from Bakewell respecting the Polling 
Places 3d." A complete change came over 
the scene when Poor Law IJnions were 
formed, and so we came across the entry in 
1838, "To an order from London to join the 
Union 2d." And this joining the union 
caused ructions. The Workhouse was 
closed, and the few paupers removed to 
Bakewell. But that was not all. The ac- 
counts of the overseers had to come under 
the lynx-eyed Government auditor, and at 
the end of the accounts for 1841 we have the 
ominous entry: "The accounts of Thomas 
Middleton and Henry Hill of items which 
the auditor will not allow." And these 
items totalled £50 .5s. lOd. But our over- 
seers cared not for auditors, for they kept 
strictly to the old path. They "paid for 
ale at a meeting 5s," " paid for ale and 
tobacco at a meeting with John Hall 
5s. Ud." and "to ale, gin, and tobacco at 
meeting William Butcher 6s. 6d." In fact, 
thev had a separate list of " the items 
which the auditors will not allow," for they 
never "allowed " him to see them, but paid 
them out of the rates all the same. 



Our book ends with 1852 when George Fox 
and Robert Evans were the overseers, and 
from that date the accounts are not such 
as to call for special mention. 

A deed dated 17th June, 1831, in the 
author's possession, is interesting as show- 
ing how and when the old Workhouse at 
historical Edentree passed into other hands 
and became private property. The parties 
to the deed are Thomas Hill, shopkeeper, 
Isaac Somerset and William Evans, over- 
seers of the poor, and the several persons — 
principal inhabitants of the township of 
Bradwell. Those " principal persons " are 
Thomas Hill, Isaac Somerset, William 
Evans, Robert Middleton, Josiah Barber, 
Abraham Dakin, George Bradwell, Thomas 
Middleton, Thomas Jeffrey, Thomas An- 
drew, Thomas Somerset, Abraham Ashmore, 
Joseph Wright, William Burrows, and 
Robert Morton. 

The deed goes on to recite that at a vestry 
meeting of the inhabitants held in the 
Sunday School house in Bradwell, on the 
15th of April last, convened by public 
notice for the purpose, it was unanimously 
agreed by all the said inhabitants then 
present who were the major part in value 
of the inhabitants of the township, that the 
property should be forthwith sold by 
auction to the best bidder, the purchase 
money to be paid to Isaac Somerset and 
William Evans, and applied by them as the 
inhabitants should direct. 

Accordingly the overseers offered for sale 
the two dwelling-houses (forming one house 
called Edentree House), barn, cowhouse, 
loomshed and garden, also a croft adjoining 
the said garden, and an allotment late part 
of the waste which was allotted to the 
devises of George Ibberson, by an Act of 
Parliament enclosing the Commons in Brad- 
well, the properties being in the occuoation 
of William Burrows, Benjamin Hill and 
Thomas Elliott. The sale took place on 
May 15th. 1831, when Mr. John Maltby was 
declared the purchaser for £110. 



CHAPTER XII. 



INDUSTRIES OF THE PAST. 



Lead Mining Vicissitudes. 
The oldest industry in this locality is that 
of lead mining, and it is known that some 
of the mines here were worked by the 
Romans, %vhose pigs of lead have been 
found. Pieces of ore have been found 
during the explorations of the military 
camp at Brough, doubtless from the Brad- 
well mines. It is asserted by ancient 
authors that the lead, tin and copper mines 
of Great Britain were known to the Bel- 
gians, Romans, Saxons, Danes, and Nor- 
mans, who invaded the Kings of this Isle 
to rob them of their mineral possessions. 



34 




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That the inhabitants of this isle were 
anciently very careful in defending and se- 
curing their mines is evident from the 
speech of King Canutus to his army when 
drawing them up against the Romans. He 
called upon his soldiers to defend his rich 
mines, which would be to show themselves 
Englishmen, truly valiant, tenacious of 
their rights, and inspired with a due sense 
of the price of their country and its pro- 
ductions. 

A few mines were left by the Romans at 
the conquest of this isle, under the com- 
mand of Julius Caesar, whose descendants 
continued their work in the lead mines of 
the High Peak. The Kings of England 
were always jealous of the mines and 
minerals, several of whom, after the con- 
quest, woul'd not allow their mines to be 
worked. In 1246, Henry the Third executed 
a writ of inquiry at Ashbourne, when it 
was given for the King that the mines in 
the High Peak were the royal prerogative of 
the Crown, and not the property of those 
who had by long custom worked them, but 
he permitted the miners to proceed till fur- 
ther order, paying to him the thirteenth dish, 
cope and lot. 

A volume could be written on the history 
of Peakland lead mining. At an inquisition 
taken at Ashbourne in the year 1288, one 
of the jury was "William, son of the smith 
of Bradwcll." Their findings are highly in- 
teresting. A miner could, and still can. dig 
where he likes in search of lead ore (gar- 
dens, orchards, burial grounds, and high- 
ways excepted), and having found a vein he 
can call in the Barmaster and have staked 
out to him a meer of ground, sufficient to 
work and dress and prepare his ore and gen- 
erally carry on his workings. And he can 
go to the nearest water and conduct it to his 
mine for use in dressing the ore, and can 
also make o read across anyone's land to the 
nearest highway for the purpose of convey- 
iusr his ore from the mine. .\nd the miners 
still govern themselves through their 
ancient Barmote Court, though many of 
their ancient laws have been very much 
modified. Formerly wh'en convicted of 
stealing the ore of another miner he was 
fined the first and second times, but for the 
third offence he was taken to the top of the 
shaft where are the " stowses," a contriv- 
ance for winding the biickets of ore up the 
shaft, and a knife sent through the palm of 
his right hand up to the haft in the stowse. 
where he was left either to tear himself 
loose or die on the spot. And the miner 
could have as much timber as he chose for 
working his mine withoiit paying for it. 

Coroners had no juri.sdiction whatever 
over the miner, and fatal accidents in the 
mine were inquired into by the Barmaster 
only, and a jury of miners themselves. 

The Bradwell mines are in the King's 
Field, and formerly belonged mostly to the 
working miners and held in shares fre- 
quently very small, as 48ths, 96th8, and 
even 384ths and 768ths. The verv smallest 



mines often had many partners concerned 
in them. 

For hundreds of years lead mining was 
the principal employment of the inhabit- 
ants. Both men and boys worked therein, 
while women were employed on the surface 
dressing the ore. The whole district is 
completely undermined, and scores of shafts 
have been covered over, and their exact 
locale not now known. Veins of ore run 
east to west for miles and cross veins in all 
directions, as well as " pipe " mines. There 
are several main " rakes," such as Moss 
Rake, Hills Rake, Shuttle Rake, and 
Dirtlow, and among the mines that have 
been extensively worked for centuries on 
Moss Rake are Yeld. Mule Spinner, Butts, 
Outland Head, Windy, Bank Top, Hartle 
Dale, Sykes, Bennetts, Nether Cross, Upper 
Cross, Raddlepits, Rake Head, Hills Grove, 
Broctor, Providence, and New York. There 
were also Peveril. Dirtlow. Bird, Hazard, 
Holland Twine, Nunley, Smalldale Head, 
Picture End, Tanner's Venture, Virgin, 
Wet Rake, Moor Furlong, Cronstadt, 
Maiden Rake, Nail Hole, Chance, Gateside, 
Neverfear, Pack of Meal, Hunsrv Knoll, 
Dore, Bradwell Edge, Water Shaft, Pal- 
frey's, Cobbler's, Frog Hole, Burrows, 
Eyre's, Ripper, God Speed, and many others. 
Miners wages were always exceedingly 
low, and 15s. a week was the top price to 
the one who was foreman. Here is the 
exact copy of "A Reckoning. at Naw Hole, 
ending May 15th. 1806." This was at " Nail 
Hole," at the top of Hill's Rake, in Hartlo 
Dale. 

" Jacob Maltby wages £3 5s. Od., Robert 
Maltby £3 5s. Od., Edwd. Bennett £3 
10s. Od., Godfrey Walker £3 Os. Od., John 
Cheetham £1 12s. 8d.. Pegv Maltbv £1 2s. 
Od., Bettv Maltby £1 3s. Od.. Sarah Malt- 
by £1 2s. Od., Mary Palfrey £1 3s. Od.. Ann 
Walker £1 3s. Od., drawing to Jacob Malt- 
by Hi, drites £1 3s. Od., driving to do. 
.5s. 9d., To Robert Maltbv ax and spade 
shafts 5s. 6d., John Ellis' bill 4s. 2d.. 
Thomas Somerset Bill 12s. 6d., for ale 8s. 
9d., total £23 6s. Od." 

"Ore. 8 load, at £4 4s. Od.. comes to £33 
12s. Od. Calamy £4 2s. Od.. total £37 14s. 
Od.. profit £14 8s. Od." 

This was a five week's " reckoning," and 
from the accounts before us. extending over 
a period of three years at this small mine, 
it is plain that the men's wages varied from 
lOs. to 15s. per week, and the women Is. per 
day. 

But however low the wages, or small the 
ouantity of ore raised, there was no diminu- 
tion in the quantity of " ale " at the reckon- 
ing. The old lead miner is known to his- 
tory as having loved good ale as well as 
good music, for 
" On takin'-days when wit and ale were- 

free. 
He join'd the light duet and merry glee. 
Sang such a powerful bass, the story goes. 
As shook the optics on his ample nose." 



36 



And Philip Kinder in the preface to his 
intended History of Derbyshire, written 
about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, tells us that " They love their cards. 
The miners at Christmas tyme will carry 
ten or twenty pounds about them, game 
freely, return home again, all the year after 
good husbands." 

Right away down for years, at every 
" reckoning " the item for ale is in evidence, 
varying anywhere from 4s. to 25s., and at 
one reckoning extending over a period of 
four months, the sum paid to " Eichard 
Bennett for ale " was £5 4s. Od. The hos^ 
at the " White Hart " evidently had good 
times, judging from the patronage extended 
to him from Nail Hole, where not more 
than eight persons were employed, some of 
whom were women. Two of these men. 
both named George Maltby were killed at 
this mine. And at many of the larger 
mines where large numbers were employed, 
the workmen — and women too — were, ex- 
pected to buy a quantity of malt every pay 
dav to brew their own beer at home. 

We came across an item in 1780, " given 
men when rearins? coes 2s." and " spent at 
Windmill Is." There was formerly a public 
house at Windmill. The " coe " was a 
small building over the climbing shaft by 
which the miners descended the mine, and 
in which they divested themselves of their 
clothing for the ordinary attire of the 
miner. On every mine there was another 
and larger " coe " in which the ore was de- 
posited when dressed, and on the 13th of 
Mav the miners used to dress their " cr.es" 
with oak branches, garlands, etc. The day 
was always kept as a general holiday, and 
a dinner of beef, pudding, and ale provided 
in the open air, music and singing at the 
inns concluding the carousals of the day. 

Miners' Liberties and Customs in Rhyme. 

In the year 1746 there was found in the 
office of the Duchy of Lancaster the fol- 
lowing relating to " the Liberties and 
Customs of the Lead Mines within the 
Wapentake of Wirksworth, in the County 
of Derby, part thereof appearing by ex- 
tracts from the bundles of the Exchequer, 
and inqui.sitions taken in the 16th year of 
the reign of King Edward the First, and in 
other kings' reigns, and continuPd ever 
since." "Composed in meter by Edward 
Manlove, Esq., heretofore steward of the 
Baruhmnot Cr.iirt, for the loud ■ inos 
within the Wapentake. T,ondon. Printed 
Anno Dom. 1653." It should be remPm- 
hered that this is exactly applicable to the 
" King's Field," of which the Bradwell dis- 
trict iforms a part: — 

By custom old in Wirksworth wapentake, 

rf any of this nation find a rake. 

Or sign, leading to the same, may set, 

In any irround, and there lead oar may get; 

They may make crosse-s, holes, and set their 

stowes, 
Sink «hafts, .build lodges, cottages, or coes; 
But churches, houses, gardens, all are free 
Prom this strange custom of the minery. 



A cross and hole a gqod possession is 

But for three days, and then the custom's 

this : 
To set down stowes, timbered in all men's 

sight. 
Then such possession stands for three week's 

right, 
If that the stowes, bossinned, and well 

wrought 
With yokings, sole-trees, else they stand for 

nought ; 
Or if a spindle wanting to be nick, 
'Tis not possession, no not for a week. 
But may be lost, and by another taken. 
As any grove that's left, quit or forsaken; 
For the Barghmaster (by the custom) ought 
To walk the field to see that works be 

wrought, 
And on the spindle ought to let a nick. 
If that the grove unworked be three week. 
According to the custom of the mines. 
Then the Barghmaster may the stowes 

remove. 
And he that set them loseth the same grove ; 
Unless the work by water hindered be. 
From losing any meer of ground or grove. 
For then such stowes none ought to remove. 
And the Barghmaster ought to make arrest. 
Upon complaint, if mines be in contest. 
Receiving four pound for his lawful! fee. 
Or else by wind, the miner then is free 
That the next court the wrong redressed may 

be. 
The vulgar term is, setting for a mine. 
For th' grace of God, and what I there can 

find. 
And tiien at him some other miners take. 
And gain possession in the selfsame rake; 
Another miner for a cross-vein sets. 
Some take at him, and then possession gets. 
Some take for one thing, some for other free. 
As new thing, old thing, cross-vein, tee, or 

pee; 
But yet a difference may be taken clear. 
Betwixt a founder and a taker meer, 
Because the finder that do find a rake 
May have two meers met, and set out by 

stake. 
Which is in length twice eighty-seven feet, 
And so is to be measured and laid out. 
But first the finder his two meers must free 
With oar there found for the Barghmaster's 

fee. 
Which is one dish for one meer of the 

ground; 
The other's free, because the miner found ; 
But by encroachment they do two demand. 
And wrong the miner which they might 

withstand; 
Then one half mere at either end is due. 
And to the lord or farmers doth accrue ; 
And if two founders in one rake be set, 
Perchance the farmers may a prime-gapp 

get. 
To nick the miners' spindles that offend; 
And when the spindle nicked is three times. 
And every three weeks, until nine weeks' end. 
Then must the miners chase the stole to th* 

stake. 
From mere to mere, and one at other take; 
Each taker gains a mere, no more he can 
Have that finds oar in working an old man. 
And he (by custom) that his mine doth free, 
A good estate thereby doth gain in fee, 
And if he die and leave behind a wife. 
The custom doth endow her for her life; 
But if the grovo be lost for want of stowes. 
Or forfeited, her dower she doth lose. 
By word of mouth eke any miner may 
Such fee and freehold freely give away. 
Egress and regress to the King's highway 
The miners have, and lot and cope they pay. 



37 



The thirteenth dish of oar within their mine, 
To th' lord for lot they pay at measuring 

time, 
Sixpence a load for cope the lord demands, 
And that is paid to the Barghmaster's hands. 
Against good times the lord ought to provide 
A lawful measure, equal for both sides. 
Both for the buyer's and the seller's use, 
And forfeits forty pence if he refuse; 
And he that sells by any other dish. 
His oar so sold thereby forfeited is; 
Small parcels yet poor men may sell for need. 
If they cannot procure the dish with speed; 
Provided always that to church and lord 
They pay all duties custom doth afford. 
For which the vicar daily ought to pray 
For all the miners that such duties pay. 
And reason good, they venture lives full dear 
In dangers great, the vicar's tythe comes 

clear ; 
If miners lose their lives, or limbs, or 

strength, 
He loseth not, but looketh for a tenth ; 
But yet methinks if he a tenth part claim. 
It ought to be but a tenth of clear gain. 
For miners spend much money, pains and 

time. 
In sinking shafts before lead oar they find. 
And one in ten scarce finds, and then to pay 
One out of ten, poor miners would dismay ; 
But use them well, they are laborious men. 
And work for you, you ought to pray for 

them. 
And suit for oar must be in Barghmoot 

Court. 
For justice thither miners must resort; 
If they such suits in other courts commence. 
They lose their due oar debt for such 

offence. 
And must pay costs, because they did 

proceed 
Against the custom; miners all take heed. 
No man may sell his grove that's in contest. 
Till suit be ended after the arrest; 
The seller's grove is lost by such offence. 
The buyer fined for such maintenance. 
And two great courts of Barghmoot ought 

to be. 
In every year, upon the minery; 
To punish miners that transgress the law. 
To curb offenders and to keep in awe 
Such as be cavers, or do rob men's coes. 
Such as be pilferers, or do steal mens' stowes. 
To order grovers, make them pay their part. 
Join with their fellows, or their grove desert. 
To fine such miners as men's groves abuse. 
And such as orders to observe refuse; 
Or work their meers beyond their length and 

stake. 
Or otherwise abuse the mine and rake. 
Or set their stowes upon their neighbour's 

ground. 
Against the custom, or exceed their bound : 
Or purchasers, that miners from their way 
To their wash-troughs do either stop or stay; 
Or dig or delve in ajiy man's bing-place. 
Or do his stowes throw off, break or reface: 
To fine offenders that do break the peace. 
Or shed men's blood, or any tumults raise. 
Or weapons bear upon the mine or rake, 
Or that possessions forcibly do take. 
Or that disturb the court, the court may fine 
For their contempt (by the custom of the 

mine). 
And likewise such as dispossessed be. 
And yet set stowes against authority. 
And open leave their shafts, or groves, or 

holes. 
By which men lose their cattle, sheep, or 

foals ; 
And to lay pains, that grievance be 

redressed. 



To ease the burdens of poor men oppressed. 

To swear Barghmasters, that they faithfully 

Perform their duties on the minery ; 

And make arrest, and eke, impartially, 

Impannell jurors, causes for to try. 

And see that right be done from time to 

time. 
Both to the lord, and farmers, on the mine; 
To swear a jury for a half year's time, 
(By custom called) the body of the mine. 
Who miners are. and custom understand. 
And by the custom they have some 
command : 
They may view groves when miners do 

complain : 
Believe the wronged, wrong-doers restrain. 
They may view trespass done in any grove. 
Value the trespasser, the trespassers remove 
They may lay pains that workmanship be 

made: 
And fines impose if they be not obey'd. 
They may cause opens, drifts, or sumps, to 

see. 
If anyone by other wronged be. 
When strife doth rise in groves, the miners 

all 
These four and twenty miners use to call. 
To make inquiry and to view the rake. 
To plum and dial (if beyond the stake) 
(A mere bewrought and miners wronged be;. 
For by that art they made discovery. 

The steward ought a three weeks court 

withal. 
To keep at Wirksworth in the Barghmoot 

Hall, 
For hearing causes (after the arrests) 
And doing right to them that be opprest. 
And if the Barghmaster make an arrest. 
The steward may (at the plaintiff's request) 
Appoint a court for tryal on the rake. 
Within ten days, that th' jury view may 

take. 
And for attendance there, the steward be 
By mineral custom, hath a noble fee. 
Four shillings to the jury must be paid. 
Who for that cause were summoned and 

arrayd. 
And if the verdict be for the plaintiff found. 
The Barghmaster delivers him the ground; 
And if the adverse party him resist. 
The four and tweuty ought him to assist. 
Then may he work (by custom) without let. 
Till the defendant do a verdict get. 
Then the Barghmaster ought to do him right. 
Him to restore unto his ancient plight; 
But if three verdicts for the plaintiff's found. 
By custom the defendants all are bound; 
So if three verdicts with defendants go. 
The plaintiffs are (by custom) bound also. 
And neither side may make a new arrest. 
For the same title that was in contest ; 
And yet the Duchy Court (if just cause oe; 
May yield relief against these verdicts three : 
Or by injunction parties all injoin 
From getting oar in such a meer or mine. 
Tint '1 the cause be heard, and here urinar 
A title just for them that worked thore. 
Or may appoint a steward that may try 
The cause again upon the minery. 
Or may sequester any such lead-mine 
tJntill the title shall be tryd again. 
And if the plaintiff chance non-suit to be. 
He pays a noble for a penalty; 
For which (by custom) Barghmasters dis- 
train. 
The party non-suited must pay the pain. 
No miner's timber, pick, or lawfull stowes. 
May be removed from their ground or coes ; 
If by mischance a miner damped be. 
Or on the mine be slain by chance-medley. 
The Barghmaster or else his deputie. 
Must view the corpse before it buried be, 



38 



And take the inqtiest by Jury who shall try 
By what mischance the miner there did die; 
No coroner or escheator ought may do, 
Nor of dead bodies may not take their view. 
For stealing oar twice from the minery, 
The thief that's taken fined twice shall be. 
But the third time that he commits such 

theft, 
Shall have a knife stuck through his hand to 

th^ haft. 
Into the stow, and there till death shall 

stand. 
Or loose himself by cutting loose his hand ; 
And shall forswear the franchise of the mine. 
And always lose his freedom from that time. 
No miner ought of an old man to set 
To seek a lead mine, or lead oar to get, 
Untill the Barghmaster a view hath taken. 
And find such work an old work quite 

forsaken ; 
With him two of the body of the mine 
To take such view (by custom) ought to join; 
Which being done the miner may go on 
To sink and free his mere (the lord hath 

none) 
If oar be found, the fruit of his desire. 
And woughs he strete the miner then may 

fire. 
Yet not at all times of his own accord. 
But at such times as custom doth afford, 
I' th' afternoon, and after four o'clock, 
He may make fire on the ragged rock; 
But first he must give notice, lest the smoke 
(In other groves) his fellow miners choke; 
And after notice if they careless be 
And lose their lives, the firers shall go free. 
If miners' groves arrested be, yet they 
Go on and work, the arrest must make no 

stay. 
But for oar got before the tryal be, 
The Barghmaster must take security. 
And at next court all parties do appear. 
And the arrest must be returned there, 
And then and there the cause must tryed be 
Before the steward of the minery. 
Most of the customs of the lead mines here 
I have describ'd, as they are used there; 
But many words of art you still may seek. 
The miners' term are like' to heathen Greek, 
Both strange and uncouth, if you some would 

see. 
Read these rough verses here compos'd by me. 
Bunnings, polings, stemples, forks, and 

slyder. 
Rtoprice, yokings, soletrees, roath, and rider, 
Water-holes, wind-holes, veins, coe-shafts, 

and woughs, 
Main-rakes, cross-rakes, brown-henns, 

buddies, and soughs, 
Breakoffs. and buokers. randum of the rake 
Freeing, and chasing of the stole to th' stake. 
Starting of oar, smelting, and driving drifts, 
Primgaps. roof-works, flat-works, pipe-works, 

and shifts, 
Cauke, spar, lid-stones, twitches, danlings, 

and pees. 
Fell, bous, and knock-bark, forstid-oar and 

tees, 
Bing-place, Barmoot Court, Barghmaster, 

and Btowes, 
Crosses, holes, hange-benches, turntree, and 

coes, 
Founder-meers, taker-meers, lot. cope, and 

sump, 
Stickings, and strings of oar, wash-oar, and 

pump, 
Corfes, clivies, deads, meres, groves, rake-soil, 

the guage, 
Bing-oar, a spindle, a lamp-turn, a fauge. 
Fleaks. knookings, coestis. trunks, and sparks 

of oar. 
Sole of the rake, smithara, and many more. 



This have I written for the miner's sake. 
That miners are in Wirksworth wappentake; 
Perchance if these few lines accepted be. 
An exposition may be made by me, 
Of mineral terms, to most men now obstruse. 
Which by expounding may be of more use; 
But for the present I commit to view 
This little book, the mineral law to shew; 
Which ancient custom hath confirmed to 

them 
That miners are, and poor laborious men. 
And much desire this custom to present. 
Unto the worthies of the Parliament, 
And humbly pray, that they for justice sake, 
Will them confirm in Wirksworth wappen- 
take. 
Good reader spare me if I thee offend 
With this strange custom, which I have here 

penn'd; 
But miner read me, take me for thy friend. 
Stand to thy custom, thus my poems end. 

A Precarious Occupation. 

In 1830, before the passing of the Reform 
Bill, there must have been a great deal of 
poverty owing to the depression in lead- 
mining, when the "Sun," an influential 
paper published in London, wrote thus : 
" A numerous and respectable meeting of 
the inhabitants of the village of Bradwell, 
held on Wednesday the 29th ult., for the 
purpose of considering the best means of 
administering relief to the suffering fami- 
lies in the neighbourhood^ especially those 
who are in indigent circumstances, in con- 
sequence of the low rate of wages afforded 
to those employed in the above trades, who, 
it is well known, cannot by the most diffi- 
cult exertion earn more than three to four 
shillings per week. It is impossible to 
conceive the vast depth of misery which 
exists. It appeared, from the statements of 
some of the speakers that many of these 
poor sufferers had their children in bed 
when visited, whose bedclothes had not a 
vestige of either linen or flannel about 
them, but was composed of wrappers and 
old clothes ; others had not a little of fire. 
The respectable inhabitants of the village 
and neighbourhood subscribed nearly £50, 
which sums they are actively distributing 
in coals, meats, and blankets. Several 
resolutions were unanimously adopted, ap- 
pointing a committee, and earnestly recom- 
mending a subscription from all who could 
afford it." The working miners gradually 
abandoned the small workings, for they had 
no capital to work in a scientific way and 
put down machinery to cope with the 
water, and the larger mines folloAved suit 
when the low price of lead made them no 
longer profitable. 

But doubtless there is yet much more 
ore in the bowels of the earth than has ever 
been got out, and a rich harvest awaits 
those capitalists who acquire the miles of 
mines and work them on up-to-date 
methods. 

Calamine. 

Calamine was formerly found in large 
quantities in most of the Bradwell mines, 
and was separated from the lead in the or- 
dinary process of dressing the ore. It is an 



39 



ore of zinc, and was much used in the 
manufacture of brass, and was formerly 
raised in considerable quantities from the 
Nail Hole Mine. 

Sulphur and Petroleum. 

Sulphur has been found in layers, and 
in very great purity in the Virgin Mine, 
also on Tideswell Moor, and at the Odin 
Mine, Castleton. It is generally combined 
with lead, barytus, and fiuor spar. Sulphur 
was formerly met with in the cellural parts 
of baroselenite, and also in galena. It was 
found in a layer four inches thick in the 
mines at Hazlebadge, Bradwell, and in a 
layer of one inch thick in the toadstone 
at Tideswell Moor. It was in a state of 
such purity in these places that it would 
flame with a candle. " Petroleum, or rock 
oil, was found in veins of the black marble 
at Ashford, and when the sun shone upon 
the stone it gently exuded. Stones contain- 
ing a considerable quantity of rock oil were 
formerly met with near Stoney Middleton, 
and were so common that the miners used 
to burn the oil they produced in lamps." 

Barytus. 

From the lead mines barytus was raised 
in very large quantities, especially in the 
New York vein and in the Moor Furlong 
mines. Millions of tons of this mineral 
have been got. It is known as cauk, and 
was converted into a material which is used 
for many of the purposes for which white 
lead was formerly applied. 

Fluor Spar. 

This mineral has become exceedingly 
valuable during recent years, and as many 
of the Bradwell mines abound with it — yea, 
there are thousands of tons ready got in 
the mines, and left there by the miners of 
former days as refuse — these mines have 
been acquired by capitalists, who have sent 
large quantities of the mineral abroad. 
But it should be explained that in the 
mineral laws of the Peak only the lead ore 
belongs to the miner, every other mineral, 
cauk. spar, feigh, etc., being the property 
of the landowner. 

Lead Smelting. 

When the ore is dressed and sold it is 
conveyed to the smelting furnaces. The 
cupola furnace was introduced into Derby- 
shire nearly 200 years ago, and several of 
them were erected at Bradwell. One of 
these was at the bottom of the Dale, and 
was worked by Thomas Burgoyne, of Eden- 
sor, seventy years ago, and afterwards down 
to its closing by John Fairburn, of Shef- 
field. It was known as the " Slag Works," 
from the slag made by smelting. The only 
vestige of these once extensive works is the 
base of the once tall chimney, and the 
dilapidated old flues along which the 
poisonous fumes passed and deposited most 
of their poison before reaching the 
chimney. 



There were other cupolas for the smelting 
of lead on Bradwell Hills, one where Over- 
dale houses now stand, and the other, " th' 
owd cupola," on the site now occupied by 
Mr. Z. Walker's houses. Nearly a century 
ago these were worked by James Furness 
and Company, and Jeremy Eoyse, of Castle- 
ton. A fourth cupola was in the meadow 
below Edentree. It belonged to Messrs. 
John, Thomas, and Edward Middleton, 
three brothers, who were mineowners as 
well. The cupola has long been used as 
farm buildings. 

Many elderly people remember that 
awful calamity on the night of the 19th of 
April, 1854, when there was a fearful catas- 
trophe at the Slag Works. Two workmen, 
William Mitchell and Joseph Hallam, were 
suffocated by the poisonous fumes, and- 
other two, highly respected young men of 
the village, John Edwy Darnley and Jonah 
Elliott, met with a similar fate by ven- 
turing too near the spot in their eagerness 
to lend a helping hand in the work of 
rescue 

White Lead Making. 

The importance of Bradwell as a centre 
of the lead industry may be gathered also 
by the fact that on this very spot the 
article is not only raised from the mines, 
but smelted into lead, and actually manu- 
factured into the genuine article, white 
lead. The late Mr. Robert How Ashton, of 
Castleton, erected the works at Brough, or 
rather enlarged a disused cotton mill, about 
1860, and there commenced the manufacture 
of white, grey, and red lead. Subsequently 
the works were extended by his son, Mr. 
R. H. Ashton, J. P., who built smelting 
mills and a refinery, and these industries 
are still carried on successfully by Colonel 
Joseph Hall Moore-, J. P. 



CHAPTER XIM. 



Some Tragedies of the Lead Mines. 

" B.y Death, who suddenly overwhelmed 
them there. 
Where the.y themselves had digged a 
Sepulcher." 

" Before our feet, a Corps digged up we see. 
Which minds us what we are, or ought 
to be." 

To compile anything like a complete list 
of tragedies of the lead mines in this part 
of the Peak district is an impossible task. 
Thousands of men and boys must have lost 
their lives in pursuit of this dangerous 
occupation. Formerly the Coroner had no 
jurisdiction over the fatalities in lead 
mines, the Barmaster being the coroner 
for such inquiries down to about sixty 
years ago. Every effort has been made to 
trace the old books of the Barmaster for 



40 



this district without success. The ap- 
pended list has been compiled from various 
sources, but it represents only a compara- 
tive few that must have occurred during 
the period covered. It will be seen that 
the cases are taken from mines not only in 
Bradwell, but in Castleton, Eyam, Huck- 
low, and other places in the locality. 
1637— April 27th, William Grooves, Eyam, 

killed in a mine at Eyam. 
1658— January 24th, John Syddall, Eyam, 

killed in a mine at Eyam. 
1690— May 11th, John Daniel and Eobert 

Berry, killed in a mine at Eyam. 
1697— January 6th, Francis Gregory, killed in 

Eyam mine. 
1699- June 30th, Edward Torre, Eyam, killed 

in mine. 
1708— November 27th, Arthur Skidmore, killed 

in mine at Eyam. 
1721— May 12th, George Knowles, Eyam, 

killed in Haycliif mine. 
1732— June 23rd, Richard Turner, Foolow, 

kil.\3d at Stoke Sough. 
1734— April 20th, Robert Andrew, killed at 

Middleton Pasture Mine. 
1734— November 18th, Joseph Marsden and 

John Taylor, killed at Stoke Sough. 
1734— September 20th, Richard Holmes, the 

Bridge, killed at Stoke Sough. 
1734— February 28th, Benjamin Pidcock, 

killed in a mine at Eyam. 
1736— Ottiwell Bramall, Castleton, killed in 

the mine. 
1736— John Barber, junior, Castleton, killed 

in the mine. 
1741— February 13th, John Barber, Richard 

Wlnterbotham, and Henry Merrill, 

killed in Haycliff Mine, Eyam. 
1742— John Bennett, Castleton, killed in the 

mine. 
1744— John Dakin, killed in a mine at Castle- 
ton. 
1744— March 4th, Edward Cooper, Foolow, 

killed in a mine. 
1746— November 5th, Wm. Townsend, Bretton, 

killed in Haycliff mine. 
1746— Robert Allen, Castleton, killed in a 

mine. 
1747— Godfrey Morton, killed in the mine. 
1751— June 16th, Francis Mower, killed in 

Haycliff Mine, Eyam. 
1763— October 15th, William Fox, killed in 

Show Enirine. Eyam. 
1766— Philip Hinch, killed in Shaw Engine 

Mine. 
1773- December 19th, James Drabble, killed 

at Watergrove. 
1777— February 14th. Wm. Hancock, killed in 

Watergrove Mine. 
1778— December 21st, William Syddall, Eyam, 

drowned in Stoke Sough Mine. 
1782— William Bradshaw, Castleton, drowned 

in a mine. 
1782— Joseph Frost, Castleton, killed in the 

mine. 
1784— .John Nail.. Castleton. died in the mine. 
1786— William Cheetham. Bradwell, killed in 

a Moss Rake mine. 
1790— James How, Castleton, killed in the 

mine. 
1791- May 10th, Edward Dooley, killed in 

Haycliff Mine, Eyam. 
1795, January 19th, Robert Unwin, Eyam, 

killed in Haycliff Mine. 
1800 (about), Michael Walker. — . Bramwell. 

and — . Simpson, of Hucklow, killed in 

Twelve Meers Mine; J. Bennett, killed 

in New Engine; — . Fearest, killed at 

Sfoke Sough; and — . Staley, killed in 

Twelve Meers. 



1804— Samuel Heyward, killed at Water 

Grove, Eyam. 
1805— George Benson, Eyam, killed in Pasture 

Grove, Eyam. 
1805 — Thomas Middleton, killed in Morewood 

Engine, Eyam. 
1805— Robert Middleton, killed in Slater's 

Engine, Eyam. 
1808— George Broadbent, Castleton, killed in 

Odin Mine. 
1810— James Clayton, killed in a mine on 

Oxlow. 
1811 — Isaac Royse, Castleton, killed by light- 
ning in a coe at the top of Linacre 
Mine. 
1812 — February 3rd, Humphrey Rowland, 

Eyam, killed in Black Hole Mine. 
1827— George Maltby (64), killed in Nail Hole 

Mine, Bradwell. 
1830— Francis Taylor, Tom J. Water, — . Long- 
stone, and Isaac Bagshaw, Sheldon, 
suffocated with sulphur in Maypits 
Mine, Sheldon. 
1830 (about)— Robert Elliott, killed in South- 
field Mine, Bradwell. 
1833— April 27th, Thomas Wildgoose (11) 

killed at a mine in Bradwell. 
1833— July 11th, Joseph Middleton (28), killed 

in a mine at Bradwell. 
1836 (about)— Benjamin Bennett, killed at 

Bennett's Mine, Bradwell. 
1838 — John Evans, Bradwell, killed in Hazard 

Mine. 
1840 (about)— Benjamin Barber, Bradwell, 
killed in Town End Mine, Great Huck- 
low. 
1840 (about)— Robert Maltby, killed at Syke's 

Mine, Bradwell. 
1840 (about)— John Cheetham, killed at Red 

Rake Mine, Bradwell. 
1841— Edwin Barber (23), killed in Bank Top 

Mine, Bradwell. 
1841— September 2nd, George Maltby (45). 
killed in Nail Mine, Hartle Dale, Brad- 
well. 
1842— Jacob Furness (10). killed by falling 
down a mine shaft in Wortley, Brad- 
well, whilst birdnesting. 
1844— Samuel Wright (29). killed by a stone 

at Outland Head Mine. Bradwell. 
1845— Henry Jackson (18), killed in Nether 

Liberty Mine. Great Hucklow. 
1845 (about)— Thomas Middleton, killed in 

Raddlepits Mine, Bradwell. 
1845 (about), Samuel Bradwell, of Bradwfell, 
killed by falling down shaft at Water 
Grove. 
1854— February 16th— Isaac Morton (21). killed 
by falling down shaft of Ripper Mine, 
Bradwell. 
18.54— A nr'l 19th. William Mitchell, 
Joseph Hallam, John Edwy Darnley (30), 
and Jonah Elliott (27), suffocated by sul- 
phurous fumes at Slag Works, Dale End, 
Bradwell. This catastrophe caused great 
consternation in the place more than half 
a century ago. The pump engine not 
acting properly, William Mitchell, the 
manager, had occasion to let out air by 
opening a valve fixed on a stage that 
covered a well six feet six inches deep and 
five feet diameter. He went down by 
means of a ladder, but as he did not re- 
turn Joseph Ilallam went to his assistance, 
and he, too, remained in the pit. Men ran 
for assistance, and the first to arrive at the 
spot were John Edwy Darnley, a school- 
ma.ster, who lived with his widowed mother 
at Dale End, and Jonah Elliott (also the 



41 



son of a widow), who had only just re- 
turned from Australia. These two young 
men, whose names have been handed down 
as heroes, were returning from a prayer 
meeting at the Primitive Methodist Chapel. 
Elliott went down the pit regardless of 
danger, but on getting one of the men part 
way up the ladder he, too, was over- 
powered by the fumes, and let him go, 
while Darnley, who tried to save his friend, 
shared a similar fate, and all four men 
were suffocated in the pit. Mitchell left a 
widow and two children, Hallam a widow 
and four children, and the other two were 
unmarried. 

1855— William Bagshaw, Huoklow, killed by 

falling down a mine. 
1855^Benjamin Barber (39), Bradwell, killed 

in a mine. 
1857— November 20th, Abraham Middleton 

(36), killed in Serin Rake Mine, Brad- 
well. 
1857 (about)— John Evans (8), when at play 

fell down shaft at Shuttle Rake Mine, 

Bradwell. 
1857 (about)— Richard Andrew, killed at Bird 

Mine, Bradwell 
1858— May 3rd, Abram Marshall (16), crushed 

to death by a grinder at a mine at 

Hazlebadge 
1858— March 2nd, James Gilbert, Tideswell, 

killed at Dusty Pit Mine, Eyam. 
1858— John Alsop, Wardlow, killed in Cross- 
low Head Mine. 
1859— April 18th. John Barker, Foolow, killed 

in Back Dale Mine. 
1859— Wm. Bradshaw, killed in Pippin Mine, 

Eyam. 
1861— September 8th, Aaron Hallam (26), of 

Bradwell, and Martin Chapman, sen., 

of Little Hucklow, fell to the bottom of 

shaft whilst being lowered down at Mill 

Dam Mine, Great Hucklow. 
1862— George Mitchell, killed in Calver Sough 

Mine. 
1863— May 29th, Samuel Andrew (19), killed 

at Hill Top Mine. 
1864— September 6th, Benjamin Barber (19), 

killed by a fall of gravel at Gateside 

Mine, Great Hucklow. 
1864— John Dale, Tideswell, killed in Dusty 

Pita Mine. 
1764— September 10th, William Wragg (15), 

killed at Outland Head Mine. Bradwell. 

He was drawn up the engine shaft by 

the thumb. When near the top his 

thumb came off, and he fell to the 

bottom. 
1866.— October 3rd. Isaac Andrew, Bradwell, 

killed by a stone at Dirtlow Mine. 
1867.— Benjamin Bagshaw, Bradwell (35), 

killed in Seedlow Mine. 
1867.— William Oldfleld, Hucklow, killed in 

Mill Dam Mine. 
1868.— June 9th. Matthew Hodgkinson, shot in 

a mine at Magclough, Eyam. 
1869.— Jan. 26th. Francis Hodgkinson (43), 

killed by a fall at CliS-stile Mine, Eyam. 
1870.— Thomas Elliott, Bradwell, killed in 

Seedlow Mine, Wardlow. 
1870.- March 24th. Isaac Middleton (49), Small- 
dale, killed in "Co-op" Mine, Moss 

Bake, Bradwell. 
1871.— February 24th. Isaac Middleton (43), 

Smalldale, killed in Shuttle Rake Mine. 

Bradwell. 
1872.— April 5th. Robert Elliott and George 

Watson, killed by a shot in Glebe Mine, 

Eyam. 



1874.— August 21st, William Unwin, killed in 
a mine at Eyam. 

1877.— October 8th, George Ashmore (48), 
killed in Wortley Mine shaft, Bradwell, 
by bar of iron falling down shaft. 

1882.— September 11th, Aaron Maltby (22), 
Bradwell, killed by fall of roof in 
Silence Mine, Hucklow. 

1889.— July 20th, Joseph Middleton (51), hung 
himself in Outland Head Mine, Brad- 
well. 

Rescued from a Living Tomb. 

There have been many hairbreadth es- 
capes from death in the lead mines, and 
some have been rescued from a living 
grave. One or two such cases may be 
noticed. 

In the winter of 1815, John Frost, a 
young local preacher in the Wesleyan body, 
who was engaged in one of the mines at 
Hucklow, had a miraculous escape from a 
most perilous situation, in which he was 
involved by the falling in of the earth 
where he was at work. A scribe of that 
day remarks that " his voice was heard 
from beneath the ground in which he was 
entombed, and it was ascertained that his 
head and body remained unhiirt, the prin- 
cipal weight having fallen upon and bruised 
his thighs and legs. Great care was re- 
quired to accomplish his release, and some 
of the most experienced miners were em- 
ployed. A mass of earth was strangely and 
almost miraculously suspended over his 
head, where it hung like an avalanche, 
ready at the slightest touch to crush him 
to pieces with its fall. The miners, aware 
that his situation was one of infinite peril, 
durst not attempt the attainment of their 
object by the most direct and expeditious 
means; slower operations were, in their 
opinion, essential, even though they 
dreaded the consequences that might at- 
tend their protracted efforts. Had that 
impetuosity of feeling, which, however 
honourable to our nature, sometimes de- 
feats its most benevolent purposes, been 
alone consulted on this occasion, the poor 
man must inevitably have perished. They 
therefore proceeded with great caution and 
the most unwearied perseverance from 
Monday, the day when the accident took 
place, until the evening of the following 
Thursday, at which time they had the 
satisfaction of witnessing the complete suc- 
cess of their exertions, and the restoration 
of a fellow creature to his family and the 
world. The man was extricated from his 
dreadful situation with only a few slight 
bruises and a broken leg, after a temporary 
burial of upwards of seventy-five hours. 
A drop of water that fell near his head, 
which he contrived to catch in the bottom 
of his hand, allayed his thirst that other- 
wise would, probably, have become ex- 
cessive; this fortunate occurrence, no 
doubt, contributed to the preservation of 
his existence. He was a Wesleyan Method- 
ist, and his strong religious feeling supplied 
him with fortitude. Neither pain nor ap- 
prehension destroyed his composure, and 



42 



he employed many of the hours of his 
premature interment in singing those 
psalms and hymns he was previously ac- 
quainted with. Under any circumstances 
this man would have been a hero." So 
runs the account of the premature burial 
of John Frost, who lived to be an old man, 
remained a local preacher to the end of his 
days, and is still remembered by many. 

The hero of another memorable incident 
is still living. In 1879 Dennis Bagshaw, of 
Hucklow, was working with others in 
Black Engine Mine, on Eyam Edge, when 
the roof fell in. Bagshaw's workmates 
were on the engine shaft side, and could 
get out, but he was on the other side of 
the subsidence, and so was imprisoned iv 
the workings from Monday morning until 
the following Sunday at noon. Miners 
from Bradwell, Tideswell, Hucklov "^lyam, 
and other places bravely worked in i-elays 
day and night, not lagging a single 
moment. At one time the work ^" Tescue 
became dangerous owing to fou^ /, and 
the candles of the workmen wuald not 
burn, but ventilation in the mine was re- 
stored by the opening of a " gate." Some 
of the workmen were on duty continuously 
all the time, never changing their clothes, 
and having their food brought to the mine, 
and after nearly a week they opened the 
tomb of Dennis Bagshaw, completely ex- 
hausted, but living, having kept himself 
alive by sipping water that had dripped 
from the roof, having caught the drops in 
a cup which he made of clay. Dennis 
Bagshaw removed to Hayfield some time 
afterwards, and still lives there. 

The Magpie Mine Tragedy. 

About the year 1830 two lead mines were 
being worked at Sheldon, the "Magpie" 
and the " Maypits." For some time the 
owners of the two mines were " cutting 
things very fine " in their workings, and 
considerable animosity existed between 
them as to their limits. The Maypits lay 
to the south of the Magpie, and their 
borings were continued until the workings 
met or cros.sed, and at this stage a fearful 
tragedy was said to have been perpetrated 
by the Magpie party. 

It was alleged that on the Magpie side — 
one of the Maypits men having " turned 
coat" and given them all the information 
they desired — straw, saturated with coal 
tar or impregnated with sulphur, was taken 
down the mine and placed at their 
boundary, then lighted, and the fumes 
driven into the Maypits workings during 
the time the miners were busy there. As 
may be supposed, whether the effects were 
intended to cause death or not, they did so. 
Three of the workmen, Francis Taylor and 
Tom J. Wager, of Longstone, and Isaac 
Bagshawe, oi Sheldon, were overcome by 
the fumes and succumbed, about twenty 
others being rendered insensible and taken 
up for dead, but eventually were restored. 
Several of the Magpie men were arrested 



and tried at Derby for murder, but the 
whole were acquitted, the evidence being" 
purely circumstantial, for, of course, the 
Magpie party declined to give an;^ infor- 
mation that would tend to incriminate 
their associates. 

Weaving. 

Weaving of silk and cotton by the hand- 
loom process was extensively carried on 
more than a century ago. The block of 
buildings at the bottom of Water Lane 
now known as Brook Buildings, was for- 
merly a silk mill worked by a Mr. Street, 
and a considerable number of hands were 
employed there. There were other small 
weaving establishments, and many of the 
cottages had their pairs of looms from 150 
down to 80 years ago. Indeed, there was 
also a manufactory of weavers' shuttles, the 
Fox family carrying on this business. But 
the last of the weavers has long ago passed 
away. 

Cotton Spinning. 

For quite 200 years cotton spinning was 
carried on at various small mills in the 
locality. The most ancient of these, now 
a ruin, is the old " Bump Mill," by the 
brookside just below Edentree, which de- 
rived its name from the " bump," or coarse 
kind of cotton, which was manufactured 
there. This mill was working in the latter 
part of the 18th century, as appears from 
an Indenture of Assignment (in the posses- 
sion of the author), in which James Hyde, 
cotton spinner, of Bradwall, on June 25th, 
1798, assigned to Benjamin Barber, shop- 
keeper, and Wm. Palfreyman, shopkeeper, 
as trustees for the benefit of his creditors, 
all his " household goods and furniture, 
stock-in-trade, working tools, machines and 
implements of his trade or calling, goods, 
wares, merchandise^ book debts," etc. The 
creditors were Messrs. Hugh and Isaac 
Hill, Benjamin Barber, Wm. Palfreyman, 
James Ramsden, and Catherine Dakin, and 
the witnesses to the deed were Thomas 
Morton, Joseph Barber, and Kitty Booking. 
The mill then appears to have got into the 
hands of Hugh Hill, but it has been dis- 
used since the Hills gave up the business 
about 1830. 

The next oldest cotton mill was the one 
which now forms part of the lead works at 
Brough. This was extensive. It was 
worked by Messrs. Pearson a century ago, 
and the same firm had two other mills, 
one at the bottom of Stretfield, now con- 
verted into farm buildings and a house for 
the farm bailiff, and the other what is 
known as the " New Mill," in Stretfield. 
The latter was in later years worked by 
the late Mr. Thomas Somerset. 

The Hat Trade. 

Another industry, now extinct, was the 
manufacture of felt hats, which was car- 
ried on for quite a hundred years. There 
were some half-dozen of these hatting 
shops on the Hills, and others in Smalldale. 



43 



As showing the importance of this industry 
nearly a century ago, it may be mentioned 
that in the year 1820 the" following had 
manufactories of hats here: William 
Evans, James Evans, Robert Jackson, 
Charles Middleton, Joseph Middleton, 
Robert Middleton, George Middleton, and 
Obadiah Stafford. Twenty years later 
those carrying on the business were Job 
Middleton, Wm. Middleton, Robert Middle- 
ton, and Thomas Howe, but as these manu- 
facturers retired or died, the trade gradu- 
ally declined, the old hat shops were de- 
serted, and all have long ago been de- 
molished, and hoiises erected on the ground. 




JOB MIDDLETON, 

The last of many generations of Hatters. 

Player of the" Serpent." Died 1899. 

with one exception, that of the " shop " 
of the Evans family, which still stands at 
the bottom of Smalldale, a detached build- 
ing of three storeys, now used as a ware- 
house. 

Opticians. 

Another industry of which the village 
could boast for many years was that of 
optician. The business was established 
about 1850 by the late Isaac Barber, and 
here, at the top of Smithy Hill, was the 
manufactory of telescopes, opera glasses, 
etc., where a number of young men served 
their apprenticeship. About 1862 another 
establishment was started by Evans 
Brothers (Stephen, Isaac, and Joshua), in 
Smalldale, in the building formerly the hat 
manufactory, and later still the late John 
Dakin carried on the business in the old 
Sunday School, now the Conservative Club. 
But this trade is now extinct. 

Lime Burning. 

A considerable trade in lime burning was 
carried on here more than a century ago. 
There were small lime kilns along one side 
of Bradwell Dale, and many in Smalldale. 
Some place names, as " Kiln Lane," denote 
the extensive trade formerly carried on in 
lime burning, and there are many disused 



quarries where the stone for burning was 
got. Here is a description of a night scene 
in Smalldale close on a century back. 
Rhodes, in his "Peak Scenery" (1818), and 
his friend Chantry, the famous sculptor, 
found themselves when darkness set in on 
the road overlooking Smalldale, and he 
writes thus: 

" The burning of lime is here a consider- 
able trade, and the kilns used for the pur- 
pose are situate at the bottom of the dell, 
one side of which was formed by the rocks 
where we stood; of the other, aided by a 
transient light emitted from the fires of the 
lime kilns, we caught occasionally an un- 
certain glimpse; all beneath was a gloomy 
vacuity, which the eye could not penetrate. 
The whole dale, indeed, was one immense 
cauldron steaming with smoke, that at in- 
tervals was partly illuminated by momen- 
tary gleams and flashes from the fires below 
— then curling into mid-air, it rolled over 
our heads in murky volumes, forming a 
canopy as dark as Erebus. The obscurity 
that pervaded this nocturnal scene, to- 
gether with the short and feeble emana- 
tions of light shot from the kilns in the 
deep dale beneath, only made darkness 
more palpable, and powerfully assisted the 
impressions it produced. We stood to con- 
template the picture before us until some 
heavy drops of rain and the hoarse mur- 
murs of distant thunder warned us to de- 
part." 

Such was a night scene among the Brad- 
well lime kilns a hundred years ago. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Some Ancient Customs and Superstitions. 



Funeral Customs. 

In common with other Peakland villages, 
Bradwell had its own funeral customs. 
People in very poor circumstances had what 
was known as " pay buryings," which 
meant that those who attended the funeral 
would be expected to pay something — 
generally a shilling or sixpence — towards 
defraying the expenses of the funeral. 
When the person went round to " bid to 
th' burying " he was generally asked 
whether it was to be a " pay burying." 
Many of the old inhabitants can well re- 
member the custom, which has become ob- 
solete within the last forty years. 

" Burying-cakes " — a large round spice 
cake of excellent quality — iised to be given, 
one to each person at the funeral, so large 
that it was tied in a handkerchief and 
carried home. That custom has given way 
to the biscuit and wine. 

A century ago, when flour bread was the 
luxury of the well-to-do, the children of the 
poor tasted it only at funerals. In those 



44 



days old Jacob Eyre, the baker in Nether 
Side, whose descendants in Bradwell are 
numerous, used to stand at the door of the 
deceased's home with a basketful of small 
pieces of white bread about two inches 
square. There would be quite a crowd of 
village children round the door to get a 
piece of the bread. 

Formerly all the singers and music people 
in the place were invited to the funeral of 
an old resident, and the oldest of them used 
to chant a solemn dirge all the way to the 
cemetery, the rest of the company joining 
in the responses. For many years old 
Daniel Booking, a well-known resident, was 
the leader on these solemn occasions. The 
last time this was done it was so impressive 
that those who were present will never 
forget it. It was at the funeral, in 1900, of 
Mr. Job Middleton, aged 85, a notable 
native, a leading Wesleyan, who sixty years 
before was a well-known performer at 
Sunday-school anniversaries in many of the 
surrounding villages, with a curious in- 
striiment callfd " The Serpent." 

One ancient funeral custom still survives. 
In the Bradwell Oddfellows' Lodge there 
is what is known as "The Twelve." A 
dozen members are chosen every year to 
attend the funerals of members during the 
year. Attired in black sashes and white 
gloves, they walk in front of the colhn, and 
drop sprigs of thyme xipon the coifin of 
their dead brother before they leave the 
graveside. 

" Cucking " at Easter. 

An Easter custom in which scores now 
living have taken part was that of 
" cucking." On Easter Monday morning 
girls who refused to kiss young men had 
to be cucked, or tossed iip, and on Easter 
Tuesday the girls returned the compliment. 
But the practice was not only vulgar, but 
sometimes positively indecent, and very 
properly died a natural death. 

Another Easter Monday, but confined to 
the children, was "Shaking," or " Shak- 
king." Even this has almost "gone out." 
" Shakking " is a mixture of peppermints, 
Spanish juice, and other sweets placed in a 
bottle, which is filled with water from a 
well and then shaked up, and sippetl by 
the children, the youngest of whom had the 
bottle fastened round their necks by a piece 
of string. There was a superstitious belief 
that unless the children put pins into a 
well on Palm Smulay they would break 
their bottles at Easter, and that the lady 
of the well would not let them have any 
clean water. There were many of these 
wells where children used to deposit their 
pins—behind Micklow, in a field called 
"Daniel's Garden," on the slope of Brad- 
well Edge; in Charlotte Lane; in New 
Eoad, leading up to the Bradwell Edge 
Hoad to Abney; and inan.y others where 
children might be seen merrily trooping to 
depf)sit their pins. The writer remembers, 
when a child, with other children, deposit- 
ing his pin in a well in Nev/ Road, and 



finding whole handfuls of pins in the sand 
at the bottom of the well, the deposits of 
the village children for many generations. 
Nearly all these wells are now disused, 
filled up, and no longer exist. 

Christmas Eve Mischief. 

Many are the stories that could be re- 
lated anent the old ciastom of doing mis- 
chief on Christmas Eve. It was formerly 
quite a common thing for gates to be lifted 
off their hinges, and with carts, barrows, 
etc., found in the brook next morning. On 
one occasion a wheel was taken off a cart 
at Hill Head, started off down Town Gate, 
and gaining in velocity all the way down 
the hill, it crashed into a grocer's shop at 
the bottom. 

One Christinas Eve a number of young 
men were bringing a cart down Smalldale, 
and taking it to the brook, when they were 
met by a farmer named Wright, who was 
eager to join in the mischief. He did so, 
and assisted them with the cart until, when 
about to pitch it into the brook, he found 
out that it was his own cart. " How'd on, 
chaps, it's mine !" he shouted, but the cart 
went into the water all the same. 

But the cvistom was attended with loss 
of cattle and sheep through gates being 
removed, and damage to property, that 
after the advent of the police it gradually 
fell ofF, and is now observed only to a very 
small extent as compared with former days. 

A much pleasanter ("hristmas Eve custom 
was the giving of a candle, called a "Yule 
candle," by the shopkeepers to their cus- 
tomers, and a " Yule log " by the carpen- 
ters to the children who fetched it. And 
with the candle burning on the table, and 
the log on the fire on the cold Christmas 
Eve, the family would sit round the table 
joining in the big mug of "posset," made 
of hot ale and milk, spiced with sugar and 
nutmeg. But the Yule log and the candle 
are no more, though some of the older in- 
habitants cling to the posset. 

An Old Wedding Custom. 

Down to within a few years ago it was 
the custom to exact toll from wedding 
parties before they would allow them to get 
married. The method was to stretch a rope 
across the road to prevent them passing to 
church or chapel, and not to allow the bride 
and bridegroom to pass until the latter had 
paid toll. Often the church or chapel gates 
were fastened while the ceremony was going 
on, and only unfastened when the toll was 
paid. The inoney was generally spent at 
the nearest })ublic-ho\ise. 

The " Lumb Boggart." 

"Woman and fish, so strangely blent in one. 
So fables tell, and so old legends run. 
Now on the wave greeting the newborn day; 
Now on the velvet ))ank in sportive play; 
And when prevailed the part of woman fair. 
Into long flowing locks it curled its hair. 



45 



Breathes the swift zephyrs as they gently 

rise. 
And its fair bosom heaves with human 

sighs; 
But when the fish prevails beneath the 

tides. 
Like lightning it a scaly monster glides; 
And in its wat'ry cavern must remain 
Till Easter Sunday morning comes again." 
Eedfem, Hayfield. 

Like all other mountain villages. Brad- 
well has its superstitions, and they would 
not be complete without the ghost story. 
Many a time have we crouched and run 
past " The Lumb," on a dark night, and 
oftener still has the hair on many heads 
stood straight when passing " Lumbly 
Pool," between Brough and Bamford. 

It used to be said that about a century 
and a half ago the body of a young girl, 
who was supposed to have been murdered 
was found buried under the staircase of a 
house at Hill Head. The ghost of the girl 
appeared every night until everybody iv 
the neighbourhood were terrified and 
thrown into a cold sweat. Unable to bear 
it any longer the people got a well known 
individual who belonged to the Baptists, 
then called " the new-fangled body," to 
undertake the task of " laying " the ghost. 
As this individual professed to be able to 
rtile the planets, of course no one doubted 
his power of getting rid of the ghost. 

The time came, and the haunted house 
was filled with affrighted spectators when 
the exorcist appeared among them with hi^ 
paraphernalia, and when he prayed until 
streams of sweat poured from his face as he 
knelt within a ring he had chalked on the 
chamber floor, the lookers-on kneeling 
around, and later afterwards declared that 
they " felt the floor move for yards up and 
down in quick succession." Then the 
magician arose and exclaimed, " Arise ! 
arise ! I charge and command thee," when 
the spirit appeared, and the man ordered it 
to depart and assume the bodv of a fish, 
and to locate itself in the Liimb Mouth. 
He also ordered that every Christmas eve 
the ghost should assiime the form of ?. 
wliite ou.sel, and fly to Lumbly Pool. 

Such is the story of the " Lumb Boggart," 
an absurd tale which everybady believed 
even down to half a century ago. 

The Lady on Horseback. 

It would never do for the romantic Brad- 
well Dale, the dell of the fairies, with such 
an ancient hall as that of the Vernons at 
Hazlebadge, to be without its ghost story, 
hence we are told that, " On any wild night, 
when the winds howl furiously and the rain 
falls in torrents, there can be seen in the 
gorge between Bradwell and Hazlebadsre 
the spirit of a l{\dy on horseback, the steed 
rushing madly in the direction of the old 
Hnll. Thev say it is the ehost of Margaret 
Vernon, the last of that line of the Vernr.ns 
who were living at Hazlebadge for three 
centuries. She had given her heart, with 



its fulness of afiection, into the keeping of 
one who had plighted his troth with an- 
other, and when she discovered his 
treachery she had braced up her nerves to 
witness his union in Hope Church. But at 
the fini,sh of the ceremony she had ridden 
to her home as if pursued by fiends, with 
eyeballs starting from their sockets, and 
her brain seized with a fever from which 
she would never have recovered only from 
the tender nursing of those around her. 
Her spirit, they say, on a spectre steed, 
still rushes madly between Hope and 
Hazlebadge at midnight." 

Well Dressing and Garland Day. 

Bradwell had formerly its Garland Day 
and Well Dressing, as also had Hope. The 
garland was similar to that at Castleton, 
a man riding round the village with a huge 
garland of flowers on his head, the band 
heading a procession, and dancing taking 
place in the Town Gate. On the same day 
was the well dressing, several wells, not- 
ably the one with a pump affixed, in Water 
Lane, opposite the Shoulder of Mutton, 
being beautifully decorated with flowers. 
But the custom has been discontinued 
nearly half a century. 

Bull Baiting. 

" The wisdom of our ancestors 

(A well known fact I'm stating). 

Thought Bulls and Bears, as well as Hooks, 

Were suitable for baiting. 

But now this most degenerate age 

Destroys half our resources — 

We've nothing but our hooks to bait. 

Unless we bait our horses." 

Ward. 
Bull and bear baiting were very popular 
in Derbyshire at one time, and Bradwell 
Wakes never passed without one or the 
other of them, often both. The villagers, 
or those who delighted in such a brutal 
sport, gathered in some open space, either 
the Town Gate or the Town Bottom, where 
the bull was tied to a post securely fixed 
in a stone let into the ground. At a given 
signal dogs were let loose on the bull, and 
betting was made on the dogs, the one that 
could pin the bull by the nose being de- 
j clared the winner. The dogs were trained 
1 CO avoid the bull's rushes, but now and 
then he woiild toss the animal into the air. 
I There have been some strange scenes at 
Town Bottom diiring the<«e baitings. Some- 
times the bull w"uld break loose, when the 
sne^tators lyould take to their heels helter 
skelter for their l^fe to elude him. But one 
of the most excitin? scenes was witnessed 
at one of the=e bull by>itines. ab^tit the 
vear 1820. There was the bull, the dosrs, 
anfl the crown, but no post. .Among the 
snecta*^nrs was old Frnnk Baershaw, r^f 
Hfi^le^adtre. who stepped into the bre»rh. 
and runinsr into the rine cripd "Tev him 
to mev; tey him to mev" They tied the 
Hill bv the tail to ponr Basrshaw, and when 
the dogs were set at the brute it darted off. 



46 



dragging Bagshaw at its tail up BradweLl 
Brook— a deplorable spectacle. Fortunately 
this cruel amusement has long been a thing 
of the past. 



CHAPTER XV. 



■" Yes, I will leave my father's halls, 
To roam along with thee ; 
Adieu, adieu, my native walls ! 
To other scenes I flee." 

Families of the Past. 

Although many of the oldest families re- 
main, having tenaciously clung to the 
homes of their forefathers, a few have 
completely disappeared, among them being 
those mentioned below : 

In a previous chapter those voted from 
Bradwell at the election of 1734 were men- 
tioned. But we have been favoured with an 
extract from the Poll Book of the Election 
at Derby on the 11th, 12th, and 13th Decem- 
ber, 1701, when the candidates were the 
Right Hon. William, Karquis of Harting- 
ton, Right Hon. Lord John Roos, John 
Curzon, Esq., and Thomas Coke, Esq. The 
following electors from " Bradwall " voted : 

.At the Crown Barr, Thursday, 11th 
December, George Trickett voted for Har- 
tington and Roos. 

At the Nisi Prius Barr, same day, Robert 
Balguy, Edmund Greaves, and Ellis Middle- 
ton voted for Curzon and Coke. 

At the Town Hall, 12 December, there 
voted from "Bradwall" the following: 
Thomas Hallam, Thomas Toft, and Ellis 
Slack voted for Hartington and Roos; 
Godfrey Webster, Godfrey Kirk, and Joseph 
Ward for Curzon and Coke; and Ellis 
Middleton for Roos and Coke. 

The total number of voters in the county 
who polled at this election was 3057, and 
the candidates polled as follows : Coke 1659, 
Curzon 1581 elected, Hartington 1562, Roos 
1289. 

Cressweil. 

.V history of this once notable family 
would be highly interesting. Their seat 
was at "The Old Hall," at Smalldale Head, 
a fine old house that ought not to be al- 
lowed to suffer any further disfigurement. 
This spacious hail, now in two tenements, 
has over its main entrance "I. H. 1670," so 
that it is clear the CrfsswoUs did not build 
it. But it was not long their seat for they 
^id not live here a century. The lands 
above were allotted to them when the Com- 
mons were enclosed, hence their name 
^' Cressweil Part." The splendid fences 
round the gardens, and some of the fine old 
yew trees still remain. It is said that the 
carriage drive to the Hall was from Granby, 
along what is now known as " Boggart 
Lane," and forward through the lands 
(since enclosed) to the Hall. There are 
still distinct traces of the drive. The Rev. 



Jacob Cressweil was vicar of Hope 200 years 
ago, and Thomas Cressweil, of the old Hall 
was a churchwarden in 1789. It is said 
the last of the Cresswell's to reside at the 
Hall, a famous sportsman, was killed whilst 
hunting. 

The Cresswells were an ancient Derbyshire 
family from Malcalf, Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
and Ralph Cressweil bought lands in Edale 
in 1630. Thomas Cressweil, of BlakeloAv, 
Edale, afterwards of Smalldale Hall, 
yeoman, was baptised on the 27th of March, 
1726, an-d died on the 12th August, 1808, 
and was buried at Hope. He married 
Betty, daughter and heriess of Mr. Oliver, 
and niece of Daniel Roe, of the Hall, Small- 
dale, at Hope Church, on the 12th July, 
1749, and she died on May 17th, 1801. From 
this short pedigree it will be seen that the 
heiress of these brought the estate to the 
Cresswells. 

Tricl<ett. 

The Tricketts were a family of wealth 
and influence here and in other parts of the 
Peak for many generations, but they have 
long ago completely disappeared, and no one 
knows where their Bradwell residence was. 
But they had land and residence in other 
places. One of their old homes was in 
Smalldale. In 1599 Mark Trickett had a 
tax levied upon his land for imperial pur- 
pose, and in 1658 Henry Trickett resided at 
the old home and occupied the lands of his 
ancestors. A member of the next genera- 
tion. George Trickett, was a churchwarden 
of Hope, in 1690. A George Trickett was 
the owner of the Smalldale estate in 1701 
and 1734, and went to Derby to record his 
vote. The Trickett lands have long passed 
into other hands. 

Greaves. 

The Greaves family, long ago extant so 
Car as Bradwell is concerned, has left its 
name as a place name in the village. They 
were a family of influence, position, and 
substance, and although no trace of their 
old homestead remains, we have the well 
known " Greaves Croft," a portion of their 
estate through which a public footpath 
runs. Edmund Greaves was here in 1701 
and voted at Derby in that year. John 
Greaves was the owner of the family estate 
at the beginning of the 18th century, for 
he voted at Derby in 1734.- and in the same 
year was a churchwarden for Hope. The 
importance of this family may be gathered 
from the fact that their vaults are inside 
Hope Church, and beneath their tomb- 
stones in the central aisle lie many genera^ 
tions of the family. 

Padley. 

The ancient family of Padley held lands 
here for several centuries, biit they have 
long ago disappeared. In 1448 Thomas 
Padley and Rose, his wife, sold some of 
their property, but several members of the 
family were here more than 200 years later. 



47 



for in 1658 there was Adam Padley, two 
Thomas Padleys, and the widow of a 
Thomas Padley. all holding lands in Brad- 
well. 

Wagstaff. 

One branch of this old Glossop family 
appears to have long been settled at Brad- 
well, and were considerable landowners 
here. Their estate was at " Wortley Fold," 
near the Bridge, at the bottom of Church 
Street. That John Wagstaff was one of the 
leading lights centuries back may be 
imagined from the fact that he was one 



Worsley. 

Certainly far more than two hundred, 
years the family of Worsley were settled 
here, and for more than a century it was 
a family of considerable property and some 
influence. When this ancient family first 
settled here is not known, but George 
Worsley was a landowner, farming his own 
lands in the year 1658, when his " Easter 
due " to the vicar of Hope was one of the 
largest in the parish. And nearly a cen- 
tury later — in 1734 — Eichard Worsley was 
owner of the lands. The family appear to 




THE OLD HALL. SMALLDALE. 
For long the residence of the family of Oliver. 



who, in 1685. dared to proceed against the 
sreat lyvre, of Highlow, which resulted in 
his having to give up certain lands belong- 
ing to the Bradwell Commnns, wlj'ch he 
had enclosed. The last of the family of 
which we have any record, is another John 
Wagstaff. in 1774. then late of Glosson. 
farmer, who sold "a messuage in Bradwell, 
a parcel of land thereunto belonging, one 
other messuage and one croft called 
Whortley Tard, in Bradwall, another 
messuage there, and a little building in 
Bradwall aforesaid, and a barn called the 
■Cock Barn, and the several hereditaments 
s\ibject to a life estate therein of Oliver 
Wagstaff." 



have fallen on evil days, for the last of the 
Worsley s is remembered to have been in 
humble circumstances. 

Oliver. 

For nianv vfars the family of Oliver re- 
sided at the Old Hall, in Snialldale. They 
were people of substance, and strong 
Churchmen, but the members of the 
family were not numerous. In 1744 "Mr. 
Oliver, of Smalldale," and William Oliver 
too, were churchwardens of Hope, an office 
which in those days was held only by 
prominent people. More than thirty years 
later Samuel Oliver was one of the wardens, 
but these are the only records we have of 



48 



the family, other than that the heiress took 
the estate to the Creswells. 

Millward. 

A family of ancient lineage and substance 
was that of Millward. Nearly seven 
hundred years ago, to be exact, in the year 
1284, Eictard Millward de Bradwall, with 
other notabilities of those times, were pro- 
ceeded against for breaking the forest laws. 
That they held lands here for several cen- 
turies is proved by the fact that in 1599 
John Millward and Robert Millward were 
defendants in an action brought against 
them by Rowland and Jarvis Eyre, some of 
the properties, etc., in dispute being the 
demesne of Bradwall, fishing of the river, 
and lott and cope of the lead mines. They 
were still here in 1658, when Richard Mill- 
ward paid Easter dues to the parson of 
Hope, but the name is afterwards lost. It 
would be interesting to know whether the 
family had any connections with the 
famous Millwards of Snitterton Hall. We 
suspect they were, as their shield contains 
the heraldic quarterings of the families of 
Savage of Hope, Balguy of Hope, and 
Daniel of Tideswell. 

Pearson. 

The Pearsons were an old family. In the 
eighteenth century they were in business 
as cotton spinners with the Arkwright 
family, at Cromford, when the Preston 
banker, afterwards Sir Richard Arkwright, 
was laying the foundation of the family's 
fortunes. From Cromford they removed to 
Brough, where they erected three cotton 
mills, one of which was afterwards con- 
verted into white lead works, another 
transformed into farm buildings and a 
house for the farm bailiff, at the bottom 
of Stretfield Road, and the third was the 
large mill between Bradwell and Brough. 
These three mills were kept running by the 
family for over half a century, during 
which time they were the largest employers 
of labour in the district. They built and 
resided at Brnugh House, and were owners 
of considerable property in the neighboiir- 
h'^^'l Bnt *^hey r><ust not be confounded 
with the still older family of Pearson, 
many of whom still remain. 

In the 12th year of the reign of Elizabeth 
(1570), there was a great case in which the 
plni'i'^'PTs were Roljcrt Perfson and .\nthony 
Marshall, tenants of the Town of Bradwell. 
anfl the defendants were John Marshall and 
\\"ll = "'M SiriA'tbe. fl-'imi"g by conveyance 
from Thurstran Townsende as seized in fee. 
The premises and matters in dispute were 
" divers specified lands, parcel of the waste 
of the Manor of Castleton, particularly 
Snifil'lnlo and Edwentrie, and Lands in 
Bradwall Field." 

Pickford. 

The old family of Pickford has long ago 
been forgotten by those who remain on the 
soil. They were landowners and residents 



here centuries ago, and became famous 
folks in the world. Few are there who 
know that their old home was here. They 
were a family of substance and importance, 
and Philemon Pickford was a church- 
warden of Hope, in 1715. He voted as a 
freeholder of Bradwell at the Parliamentary 
election of 1734, and died in 1749. Thomas 
Pickford, probably his son, was a church- 
warden in 1753. 

Other Families that have Disappeared. 

Other old families of note that have long 
ago removed are those of Hamilton, Charles- 
worth, and others mentioned in variou.? 
parts of this work. 

The Dudden or Goodwin Family. 
An Interesting Romance. 

One of the most ancient families is that 
of Goodwin. It may not be generally 
known to this generation that Goodwin 
(locally pronounced " Guddin ") is merely 
a corruption of the name " Dudden " or 
" Dudding." The Duddens will be seen 
throughout this work in various capacities, 
down to about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, when the name is spelt " Good- 
win." They were prominent people here 
at least three hundred years ago. In the 
year 1658, George Doodin, Thomas Doodin, 
and the widow of John Doodin, all paid 
Easter dues to the vicar of Hope, and in 
1638 among the inhabitants of Bradwell 
between 16 and 60 years of age were John 
Dudden, George Dudden, and Thomas 
Dudden. Thomas Dudden was the owner 
of a freehold estate in Bradwell in 1734, 
and voted at Derby at the election of mem- 
bers of Parliament for the county. And so 
late as 1782 Samuel Duding was one of those 
liable to be called upon to serve in the 
Militia. A member of this family was 
connected with what may be described as 
one of the most interesting romances of 
modern times, and revealed a claim to the 
earldom and estate forty years ago. 

This, indeed, is a highly interesting 
romance, contained in the documents put 
forward at that time. In these it was 
stated that : 

The Honourable Charlotte Radcliffe, 
eldest daughter of Charlotte Maria. 
Countess of Newburgh, -and Charles Rad- 
clyffe. Earl of Derwentwater, was born in 
France in 1729. In the year 1743, when a 
girl of, foiirteen, she was brought to Scot- 
land by Sir Archibald Primrose, a Jacobite 
onfederate of her father in the caxise of 
the ' Prince Charles Edward, and placed 
with Mrs. Murray, of Perth, a relation of 
James Murray, the Prince's secretary, with 
whom she resided till 1747, suffering in con- 
sequence of hpr father's attainder and 
ignominious death. 

It is at this time that the Bradwell lad 
comes on the scene, for on the second of 
April, 1747, the Hon. Charlotte Radcliffe, 



49 



when 18 years of age, was married in Scot- 
land, it is said at the house of Mrs. 
Murray, to George Goodwin (or Dudding), 
who 'descended from an old Derbyshire 
family, and was a native of Bradwell, in 
the parish of Hope. This marriage at 
Perth was solemnised in accordance with 
Scotch law. 

Here the trouble began. George Goodwin 
was a Protestant, apd his wife a Catholic, 
but they were devoted to each other, and 
so they journeyed over to England, landed 
at Bradwell. and on the 25th of the same 
month, it is said, that the marriage was 
again solemnised according to the rites of 
the Church of England, at Hope Church, 
by the Eev. Thomas Worniald, who was 
vicar of Hope at that time. 

The course of true love did not run 
smooth, and so the aristocratic young 
bride, having married a Protestant, became 
alienated from her family, and wa^s 
anathematised. The couple made their 
home at Bradwell, where the husband's an- 
cestors had lived for generations, and there 
in a cottage in Hugh Lane, dwelt those 
who had contracted a wedding under such 
romantic circumstances. 

But tragedy followed comedy. On the 
l4th of February, 1749, they had bom to 
them a son — her only child. This son was 
named George, after the father. But 
Goodwin lived only eight years after his 
child was bom, for he died in the year 1757. 
As often follows such marriages, differences 
arose as to the religious training of the 
child, and at the father's death the child 
was adopted by its uncle, who resided in 
Bradwell, the mother returning to Lisle in 
France, where she re-entered the Roman 
Catholic Church, and lived at Lisle. 
" suflering great mental and pecuniary dis- 
tress," until 1790 when she removed to 
London, where she died on March 11th, 
1800. She lived under her maiden name. 

But what about the child— the Hon. 
George Goodwin? As time goes on the 
story grows in interest. His un-^le Birley 
was his Protestant guardian. The. father 
had desired that his son should be brnuarht 
up in the Protestant faith, and therqf'^re 
the mother, under the influence of the 
giiardian. had not been allowed to interfere 
with the religious training of her son, who 
was received into and broueht up in his 
uncle's family. When a young man he 
went Barnsley wav. and at the ase of 27 
married Margaret Senior, of Dodworth. but 
he had to fieht the ^attle of life, "in 
obscuritv and novertv." and when thrive 
score years and ten. Georse' Goodwin and 
his wife entpr^rl tji© Shrewsb\irv Alms- 
houses at Sh<^'=ol'd: where he died in 1835 at 
the asre of eisiitt six. 

Thereon han;j<! a tr-le* that has 'often 
been tvild, in which, the 'fe«nsters 
of Ho-oe Church a-e concernf^d. for 
it being alle'^'ed that certain en- 
tries therein were ' tampered with ' a 
centurv asm. The Bishop of T,if>hfield held 
a Court of Inqm-y into the matter- in the 



year 1870. Evidence was heard at great 
leiigth, and here is the aflBdavit of the 
Parish Clerk of that day, or rather that 
portion of it relating to the romantic 
wedding, omitting all reference to the 
registers : 

The Parish Clerk's Recollections. 

1. I, Nathan Woodroofe Ashton, of 
Hope, in the County of Derby, deceased, 
make oath and say that I am the sexton 
of the parish of Hope aforesaid; and that 
I am tne grandson of Nathan Woodroofe, 
the parish clerk of the said parish of Hope, 
deceased; and that I was brought up with 
my said grandfather and lived in his 
house until I was about seven years of 
age, when I went to live with my said 
father, and lived with him until he died 
in 1837, when I again went and lived with 
my grandfather, the said Nathan Wood- 
roofe, again, I being then nearly 13 years 
old, and I lived with him till October, 
1844, I being then over twenty years old. 

2. And I further say that I first heard, 
in February, 1838, about the marriage of 
George Goodwin, of Bradwell, and Lady 
Charlotte Radclyfie (the daughter of the 
Earl of Derwentwater) when my grand- 
father, the said Nathan Woodroofe, and 
William Evans, of Smalldale, deceased, 
were talking about it at my said grand- 
father's public-house, and were wondering 
if the Goodwin family would ever get any- 
thing from the Eadclyfie family; and that 
whilst my grandfather and William Evans 
were talking about the said marriage and 
the families, Thomas Elliott, of Eden Tree, 
deceased, came into my said grandfather's 
house to order a grave to be made for his 
father, and the same subject was talked 
over again, and thereupon the said Thomas 
Elliott told my said grandfather that the 
said George Goodwin and Charlotte (for- 
merly Radclyfie) his wife, lived at Brad- 
well in a house in Hugh Lane; and I 
declare that I know that such talk as 
aforesaid took place in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1838, because it was at the end of 
a long and very severe frost, and just after 
my said grandfather and I had to dig a 
grave in the cross-roads for Thomas Bag- 
shawe, of Hazlebadge, who had hung him- 
self, and we found great difficulty in dig- 
ging the grave on account of the frost hav- 
ing struck upwards of a foot into the 
ground; and I further say that my said 
grandfather frequently afterwards during 
his life told me of the sad marriage of the 
said George Goodwin and Charlotte Rad- 
clyfie, the daughter of the Earl of Derwent- 
water. 

3. And I further say that up to some 
years after eighteen hundred there is only 
one book for the entry of the register of 
baptisms, deaths, and marriages for the 
said parish of Hope. And I further say 
that my said grandfather. Nathan Wood- 
roofe, was parish clerk from about the 
year 1798 until the time of his death in 
1855, and that the said Nathan Woodroofe 



60 



had access to the registers from the time 
he commenced clerking, which was in 
March, 1798 (when his father, who was 

Sarish clerk up to the time of his death, 
ied), until the death of the Eev. John 
Ibbotson, the vicar, which took place in 
December, 1828, as is shown by the entries 
of baptisms, deaths, and marriaees. in the 
said registers made in my grandfather's 
handwriting; and that after that time the 
said Nathan Woodroofe, my said grand- 
father, had the sole charge of the said 
registers until May, 1843, when they were 
taken possession of bjr the Eev. W. C. B. 
Cave, the then new vicar; and I say that 
the said registers were generally kept in 
an old oak chest in the church, but if any 
person wanted to see them the said Nathan 
Woodroofe would often fetch them to his 
own house and get what was required from 
the said book of registers there while sit- 
ting over their glasses, the parish clerk's 
house being a public-house. And I fur- 
ther say that I have seen the said book 
of parish registers lying on the table in the 

garlour of my said grandfather's public- 
ouse for weeks and months together, in 
fact, until it was taken back into the 
church, so that any person who went into 
the room might have access to them. And 
I say that I often stayed away from 
Church on Sunday afternoons to look at 
the said book of registers, to find out how 
old different people were whom I knew. 
* * * # • 

4. And T further say that from what I 
have heard from my said grandfather and 
others talking about the said George Good- 
win and Charlotte his wife (formerly Lady 
Charlotte EadclySe, the daughter of the 
Earl of Derwentwater), I firmly believp 
that thev, the said George and Charlott#» 
Goodwin, were man and wife. 

5. And I say that I have always heard, 
and I believe, that George Goodwin, the 
son of the said George and Lady Charlotte 
Goodwin, lived with his relatives at Brad- 
well village, in the parish of Hope, in the 
County 01 Derby aforesaid, from the time 
of his father's death till he was old 
enough to go to work for himself, when he 
went to and settled at Sheffield. 

Such is a romance of the Duddefls. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



Bradwell's Benefactors. 

The parish has not many charities, but 
thos? bequests it does enjoy have been left 
by natives of the place, other than the 
charity of Gishorne. which was common to 
n hundred Derbyshire parishes. 

Outram's Charity. 

The Outran family were settled in Brad- 
well several hundred years ago, and their 



burials are recorded in Hope Church regis- 
ters. It is recorded on a board in Hope 
Church that " Mr. Artram " left to the 
poor of Bradwall 12s. to be paid every St. 
Thomas' Day. The family had extensive 
possessions at Grindleford, where they were 
settled for centuries, and still remain. It 
would seem as if the money came from that 
district, for in the account book of the 
overseers of the Lordship of Stoke, near 
Grindleford, for the years 1794 and 95,. we 
have the item — " Paid to the poor of 
Bradda 7s. 6d." The charity is still dis- 
tributed. 

THOMAS MIDDLETON. Nearly two 
centuries have gone by since Thomas 
Middleton died in 1729. He owned a field 
called the Bank Close, in the meadow on 
the road to Hope, and left a rent charge of 
five shillings a year to be paid out of it for 
ever to the poor of his native place. And 
it is paid yet. 

An Old Weaver's Bequest. 
THOMAS MIDDLETON. He was one of 
the old weavers when most of the cottages 
contained hand looms, and he was son of 
the above, and came into possession of his 
father^ land. When be died in 1786 he 
followed in the footsteps of his father, and 
doubled the rent charge on Bank Close, and 
the 10s. is paid to the poor to this day. 

Thomas Hallam's Charity. 
THOMAS HALLAM, by will 1729, gave to 
the poor of Bradwell half an acre of land 
in a place called the Moor Hall, for ever, 
the rents thereof to be distributed to poor 
widows and fatherless children on St. 
Thomas' Day. George Barnsley, who for 
many years occupied this land at the rent 
of 12s. 6d., sold it about the year 1806 as his 
own property, subject to the above rent for 
the poor. About 1811 an allotment of seven 
perches on Bradwell Edge was awarded in 
respect of it, the whole of which was for- 
merly let for £2 17s. per annum. A Com- 
mission of Inquiry reported that he had 
no title to the premises, and that the 
charity was entitled to the land, with the 
allotment set out in respect of it. The 
owner, at the time of the inquiry about 
1830, paid 12s. 6d. to the overseer, who dis- 
tributed it on St. Thomas' Day. 

A Friend to Poor Children. 

ELI AS MAESHALL, a churchwarden of 
Hope in 1759. This worthy, who died in 
1765, gave a piece of land beneath the Long 
Meadow causeway, containing half an acre: 
another parcel of enclosed land in the town 
furious;, with a barnstead at the east end, 
nrion trust, but of the r«>rtts, to cause five 
of the poorest children in Bradwell to read. 
The property now consists of a close called 
the Molly Pingle. in Town Lane, containing 
2r. 34p., and an allotment set out at the 
enclosure of Ir. 22p. in the Butts. Another 
small allotment, too trifling to enclose, waff 
sold for £5. The land lets for £3 per 



51 



annum, and since the abolition of school 
fees the trustees of the charity have divided 
the money between the Council School and 
the Church School for the purchase of 
prizes for the scholars. 

Mary Hall's Charity. 

MARY HALL, by will 1762, bequeathed 
to poor widows and fatherless children of 
Bradwell 15s. yearly, to be paid on St. 
Thomas' Day by her executor, George 
Barnsley, chargeable on a piece of land 
callpd " The Moor Law." By an agreement 
with the overseers d^ted 16th December, 
1799, the said George Barnsley gave to the 
poor of Bradwell two cottage houses on 
Bradwell Hills, each of them let at the rent 
of 18s. a year, on the payment of £5 to the 
said George Barnsley, and 15s. yearly on 
St. Thomas' Day. When the Charity Com- 
missioners held an inquiry about 1830, the 
overseers of the township were in possession 
of the cottages, and the yearly sum of 158. 
was paid out of the poor rates and dis- 
tributed according to the donor's intention. 

It would appear that George Barnsley was 
grandson of the lady who left this charity — 
at least such may be surmised fronx the 
inscription on an ancient but very hand- 
some tombstone near the Bradwell entrance 
to Hope churchyard, as follows: 
"Godfrey Hall, died September the 26th, 

17.55, aged 78. Also Mary, his wife, died 

May the 11th, 1762, aged 77." 
" Their lives exemplar were. 
In death to heaven resigned. 
May all survivors keep with care 
Eternity in mind." 
" George Barnsley, of Hasslebadge, died the 

3rd day of February, 1825, aged 82 years." 
" Also Mary, his wife, died the 25th of 

^ovemlj^r, 1810, .aggd 67 years." 

We have the will of Mrs. Mary Hall. It 
reads : — .— 

" In the Name of God. Amen. 

" I Mary Hall of Bradwall. in the Parish 
of Hope, in the County of Darby, Widow 
and Executrix of Godfrey Hall, late of 
Bradwall, aforesaid., being Sick and Weak 
in Body, but of Sound Mind and Memory 
(Blessed be God for his Mercies), do hereby 
make, and Ordain this my Last Will and 
Testament, in Manner and form following: 
(That is to say) first and principally I com- 
mend my Soul into the Hands of Almighty 
God who gave it. and my Body to the earth 
to be decently Interred, at the discretion 
of my Executor herein after Named. And 
as touching my worldlv Estate, I give and 
dispose thereof as foUoweth. Imprimis I 
will that all my just Depts, funeral ex- 
penses and Probat of this ray last Will and 
Testament be Paid out of my Personal 
Estate; then I give, defise, and bedueath 
all my Real and Personal Estate whatso- 
ever, to my Grandson Georee Barnsley, he 
paying such legacies as shall be herein 
after mentioned : vix.. first I give and be- 
queath to ray Granddaughter Mary the 



! Wife of William Steeple of Aldwark and 
1 her Heirs the Sum of Seventy Pounds of 
Good and lawful Money of great Britain 
to paid in twelve Months after my de- 
cease : Item, I givje and bequeath to my 
Granddaughter Catherine Barnsley and 
her Heirs the Sum of Seventy Pound of 
Good and lawful Money, of Great Britaiu 
to Paid likewise in twelve Months. Item, 
I give and bequeath to Elizabeth Barnsley 
the Sum of Seventy Pounds of Good and 
lawfull Money of fire|it Britain, to paid 
to her when She attains to the Age of 
twenty one Years, or to her Heirs or 
Assigns: 

Item, I give and bequeath to Joshua the 
Son of John Barnsley late of Aldwark 
Grange, the Sum of forty Pounds, of good 
and lawfull Money of great Britain to be 
paid to him when he comes to the age of 
twenty one Years, if he so long live. Item, 
I give and bequeath to my Godson Martin 
Middleton the sum of five Pound, of good 
and lawful Money of great Britain, to be 
Paid in twelve Months after my decease. 
Item, I give and bequeath to the Poor 
Widows or Fatherless Children of the 
Town of Bradwall the Sum of fifteen 
Shillings Yearly, to be paid out of the 
Rents and Profits of a certain Piece of land 
Moorlow Torr, and distributed by the over- 
seer and Principal Inhabitants on St. 
Thomas Day for ever. 

Item, I will that whatever Charge or 
Loss shall attend getting or receiving a 
certain Sum of Money due to me upon 
Bond from John Barnsley his Executors, 
Adnirs. or Assigns : the aforesaid George 
Catherine and Elizabeth Barnsley shall 
Bear or pay out of their fore mentioned 
Legacies each an equal share: Lastly I 
do hereby Nominate and apoint George 
Barnsley Sole Executor of this my Last 
Will and Testament. auA I do hereby re- 
voke all former Will and Wills made by 
me at any time heretofore: In Witness 
whereof I have hereunto set my Hand and 
Seal this fifth Day of May. in the Year 
of our Lord one Thousand Seven ^Jlp4^ed 
and Sixtv Two. 

MARY HALL, her X mark. 
Signed, Sealed. Published, and De- 
clared by the within Named Mary 
Hall as and for her Last Will and 
Testament, in the presence of us 
who have hereunto Subscribed our 
names as witness to the Same, 

THOMAS FANSHAW. 

ROBT. HILL, 

MARGEET MIDDLETON." 
The charity is paid to the poor out of Moor- 
low Torr. 

Built a School House for Poor Children. 

JOHN BIBLKY was an old worthy of 
the early days of the last centnry, and a 
meinljer of an old Presbyterian family. He 
was a Baptist, and owned the land on which 
the chapel w.a8 built. It was he who built 
,the firj^.-day school. It stood on the lower 



52 



side ot the Baptist Chapel, and here the 
" free scholars " were taught by a school- 
mistress who received the rent from Mar- 
shall's Charity land. But after the Bap- 
tists left and John Birley died the school 
fell into decay, and it waai pulled down 
about 18G4. 

Endowed and Buried in the Old Chapel. 

William Evans' name will be handed 
down to posterity as having endowed the 
old chapel of the Apostle^pf the Peak. A 
man of considerable means, derived from 
the business of hat making, he resided in 



Samuel Fox. 

Bradwell Lad's Distinguished Career. 

A World-Wide Celebrity. 

One of Bradwell's most distinguished sons 
was Samiiel Fox, the founder of the exten- 
sive works at Stocksbridge, in Yorkshire, 
who died in February, 1887. This lad, born 
of humble parents, attained not merely 
local, but a world-wide reputation. He was 
the son of William Fox, a weaver's shuttle 
maker, who carried on his humble avoca- 
tion and lived in a cottage in Water Lane. 
He was born in June, 1815, and served part 




>I-./M. 



CdAage in Water Lane' (now Church Street) where Samuel Fox was born. 
, This is on6 of the most interesting cottages in Derbyshire. 



Smalldale, and sA%i9 c\^&iii In 1844, at the 
age of 72, hf> left t^rtalil latnds the rents 
of which were to bo paid .^ the .preacher 
at the Old < hapel. He is buried inside the 
chapel at the foot of the pulpit, and a,t 
th« funeral, there was. .^irQDbiwfehlQ inci- 
dent. There was a crowd. rjound thp open 
gray? while "the funeral 'servibip^ was goi'ng 
rtn,' and a Ifidv was accideiitally"mMlM ihto 
t^e pi-aVe. from which she'«-jls%Vi'}.|Ji 'diffl- 
dulty V-xtricated. ' The 'dr;cidfetit'';;(Au!i|^d 
,'qtiiP(e a'fienRatifln among the cWwd.- "'uii liis 
hiohuitienf inside the chnpel is the l)yfes&fge 
"Ho being dead yet speaketh." 



of his apprenticeship to the wire trade at 
Hathersage and the remainder near ' Shef- 
field. Being an fexceed'ingly sharp lad, he 
allowed no oppot-tuMity for advancement to 
escape him, ahd'ori attaini>ig manhood com- 
nienced bitsines*' on his owi<'aCco\int in an 
6ld mill in a secluded Valley with but few 
houses in 'the neighbourhood. For som"e 
yeal's his operatiMia Wei-Q cm -a limited scale, 
but his enel'gy'and persevtfi*ahce soon told, 
and one development succeeded another 
with" such rapidity that his workmen were 
soon to be iiumbei^ed by hundreds, and 
afterwards by thousands. This big concern 



53 



was converted into a linii;:ed company, with 
Samuel Fox as chairman and managing 
director, and the name of this Bradwell lad 
is known the world oyer as the inventor 
of Fox's Paragon Umbrellas." 

A humorous scribe once wrote : " I should 
say that Mr. Fox had the Peak to thank 
for some of his commercial success. He 
was born in the Peak. There the rain- 
clouds are always gathering. What more 
natural than that Mr. Fox should turn his 
attention to umbrellas? He was not one 
of the umbrella-making chiefs of Thibet, 




THE LATE SAMUEL FOX. 

Inventor of the Umbrella Frame, a native of 

Bradwell and benefactor of the place. 



but he was the umbrella-making chief of 
the world — he was the world's friend, for 
his paragon frames have and do still shield 
people of all nations from the wet. They 
have served other useful purposes too — they 
have stopped mad bulls, beat dogs, and 
thrashed eiring husbands; and an old 
Quakeress had ^uch faith in them that, 
when one of her servants was emigrating, 
she gave the girl one of Fox's paragon 
frame umbrellas and a pair of thick boots, 
saying ' Now, Martha, if thou must emi- 
grate thou had better take these. Cling to 
thy umbrella. It will be a comfort to thee 
when it's wet, and when it's dry thou may 
want it to drive off spme man.' " 



With the anxiety attendant on the 
management of one of the biggest manufac- 
turing concerns in England, Mr. Fox al- 
ways took a kindly iaterest in his native 
place, and assisted many of the natives to 
good positions in life. A more hardworking 
couple than Mr. and Mrs. Fox in their 
early days it would be impossible to find. 

He was a frequent visitor to his native 
place, took interest in most things con- 
nected with it, and for many years he 
regularly sent large sums of money which 
were expended at midwinter in household 
requisites for the poor. These charities 
were sent anonymously, and it was only a 
few years before his death the actual 
donor, though long suspected, became 
known to the people. In many ways he 
exhibited his attachment to the village un- 
der the shadow of the hills where he first 
saw the light, and at last bequeathed 
£1,000, the interest to be given to the poor 
of Bradwell for ever. 

There are many memorials of several 
generations of the family in their old burial 
place at Hope, one of which this famous 
man erected to the memory of his parents. 
He also erected a memorial to his sister, 
Mrs. Adam Hill, in the Bradwell Wesleyan 
Cemetery. His only son, William Henry 
Fox, Esq., J.P., D.L., of Bradwell Grove, 
Oxfordshire, was High Sheriff of that 
county in 1883-4. 

Benefactor and Benefactress. 

Horatio Bradwell was a worthy son of the 
oldest family. He was one of three brothers 
— John, Edwin, and Horatio, sons of George 
Biadwell-— who were all in business as 
grocers in Sheffield at one time. He took 
considerable interest in the lead mines of 
his native place, and invested a great deal 
of money in undertakings without, much 
recompense. Mr. Bradwell died on the 5th 
of July, 1887, and his will proved that he 
never forgot the place of his nativity. He 
gave his wife a life interest in his property, 
and at her death bequeathed certain 
charitable legacies. He bequeathed £500 to 
the National Lifeboat Institution, as a 
donation towards the cost of building a 
lifeboat, with its necessary house, boat 
fittings, carriage, and rocket apparatus, to 
be named " Ann Fox," and fixed on the 
coast between Lynn in Norfolk, and 
Berwick-on-Tweed. A legacy of £150 he 
gave to each of the following institutions : 
Sheffield Public Hospital, Sheffield General 
Infirmary, Jessop Hospital for Women, and 
the Totley Orphanage, with these con- 
ditions to the gifts — That each of these in- 
stitiitions should give to a committee repre- 
senting the village of Bradwell, and con- 
sisting of the vicar for the time being, the 
Wesleyan minister and the Primitive 
Methodist minister for the time being, and 
of four parishioners to be appointed at the 
annual vestry meeting to be held at Brad- 
well, a certain number of tickets of ad- 
mission to each of the before-mentioned in- 
stitutions, corresponding to the annual 



54 



Talue of the sum Off £150, such tickets to 
be distributed by the committee as they 
may think fit; and if any of those institu- 
tions refuse to accept the legacy under the 
conditions named, such legacy was to fall 
in the residue of the estate. Among other 
legacies were £50 to the Eedhill Sundav 
School, Sheffield, £200 to the Wesleyan 
Foreign Missionary Society, and £50 to the 
Wesleyan Worn-out Ministers' Fund. 

Ann Bradwell, widow of the above gentle- 
man, who survived him many years, also 



place are to be found in every quarter of the 
globe. It is impossible in this twentieth 
century to locate the ancient home or homes 
of the family, but in all probability they 
formerly were seated at a mansion or large 
hall just at the entrance to the town of 
Brough, where a large block of buildings 
now used as farm buildings, still occupy the 
site. And the road here is to this day 
known as " Hall Gate," and the fields about 
a;5 "Hall Gate Fields," and the large plot 
of table land immediately adjoining the 




REV. JOSEPH HIBBS. 



REV. CEO. BIRLEY. 



remembered her native place. She be- 
queathed £600 on mortgage to found " The 
Anne Fox Memorial Sick Poor Nursing 
Society for Bradwell." She also bequeathed 
the following sums: Sheffield Royal Hos- 
pital £250, Sheffield Royal Infirmary £250, 
Children's Hospital £250, and Jessop's 
Hospital for Women £250. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



ANCIENT FAMILIES AND NOTABLE 
PEOPLE. 

It goes without saying that the family 
of Bradwell is the most ancient on the soil. 
They took their name from the place itself, 
and thev are as numerous as ever to dav, 
while tne sons and daughters of the old 



buildings is called " Beggar Pleck," or 
Place, a spot where the wayfaring poor 
waited for charity at the gates of the Hall. 
Rowland Eyre was assessed for " Nether 
Hall " in 1709. Nether Side is the name of 
the road leading fi"om the old Hall. There 
have been many distinguished sons and 
daughters of the old families, concerning 
whom a volume might be written, but brier 
notices of some, in alphabetical order, must 
suffice, in addition to the references 
throughout this work. 

DISTINGUISHED SONS AND 

DAUGHTERS 
As Clergymen and Ministers. 

Bradwell has contributed to the ranks of 
the Clergy and Ministers of various denom- 
inations. The following may be mentioned : 

The Rev. Thomas Middleton, clergyman, 
was witness to a deed in 1766. 



65 



JOSEPH HIBBS. 

The Rev. Joseph Hibbs, who was born 
here on February 8th, 1801, joined the 
Primitive Methodists when they first com- 
menced services in a barn in 1821. When 
he was only 22 years of age he was employed 
as a hired local preacher in his native cir- 
cuit, entered the ministry in 1829, and in 
1867 was superannuated after an active 
ministry of 38 years. The greater part of 
his ministerial life was spent in South 
Wales, and he was often spoken of as " The 
Bishop of South Wales." For 14 years he 
was a supernumerary minister, and died in 
December, 1881, at the age of eighty. 

JOHN HALLAM. 

Rev. John Hallam, Primitive Methodist 
minister. From a lead miner he entered 
the ministry, being one of the pioneer 
preachers, and associated with the famous 
Hugh Bourne. He was engaged a great deal 
at the Connexional Book Room in London, 
and was called upon to preach in all parts 
«f the country in the early days of the move- 
ment. He was a victim to overwork and 
came to his native place to die at the early 
age of 44. His death took place on Septem- 
ber 18th, 1845. and he was buried inside the 
walls of the chapel, which was then in 
course of erection, underneath where the 
pulpit was to be placed. 

GEORGE BIRLEY. 

The Rev. George Birley. He entered the 
Wesleyan Ministry in 1812, became one of 
the best known ministers in the Connexion, 
and died about 1870. 




JACOB MORTON. 

Rev. Jacob Morton, a well known Wes- 
leyan Minister, and was a Fellow of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. He was dis- 
tinguished by Christian sympathy and sin- 
cerity, possessed of a vigorous mind, 
familiar with a wide range of theological 
and general study, and was an earnest and 
successful preacher. He entered the 
ministry in 1840. and died at Exeter in 1873. 




JOHN MORTON. 

Rev. John Morton, another brother, en- 
tered the Primitive Methodist ministry, 
and had a distinguished career. He was an 
author of several popular works. He died 
at West Bromwich in 1862. 




RALPH BENJAMIN SOMERSET. 

The eldest son of Benjamin Somerset. He 
was born in 1834. He became Fellow of 



56 



Trinity College, Cambridge, took his B.A. 
Degree in 1857, was wrangler, and 2nd Class 
Classical Tripos, took his M.A. degree in 
1860, became Dean of his College, and first 
censor of non collegiate students in that 
University from 1869 to 1881. He died in 
1891. 



ADAM MORTON. 

Rev. Adam Morton (living), a well known 
Primitive Methodist minister, a popular 
preacher, well known throughout the Con- 
nexion. Son of the late Thomas Morton, 
lead miner. 




REV. CEORCE MIDDLETON. 



REV. JOSEPH MIDDLETON. 



On the north wall of the Chancel there 
is a splendid tablet to the memory of this 
gentleman, surmounted with a bust, in bas- 
relief, of the fleceased. In deep black letters 
there is the inscription : — " In memory of 
the Reverend Ralph Benjamin Somerset, 
M.A., son of Benjamin and Fanny Somerset, 
of this place; Fellow and Dean of Trinity 
College Cambridge; First Censor of Non- 
Collegiate students in that University; 
honoured and beloved. The righteous shall 
be had in everlasting remembrance. Born 
February 20, 1834; died March 23, 1891." 

GEORGE MIDDLETON. 

Rev. George Middleton, one of the most 
distinguished of Bradwell lads, as a boy 
worked in the lead mines, but when a young 
man he became a local preacher among the 
Primitive Methodists, entered the itiner- 
ancy and became a regular minister. He 
became one of the most famous men in the 
denomination, gave up circuit work and was 
appointed Governor of Bourne College, Bir- 
mingham, which post he held down to his 
death in 1908, at the age of 77. 




ROBERT MIDDLETON. 

Rev. Robert Middleton was a nephew of 
the Revs. George and Joseph Middleton. 



67 



He was for half a century a Primitive 
Methodist minister, but when a young man 
was a lead miner. He died in 1901, and 
lies in the Primitive Methodist burial 
ground. 

EDWARD TOWNSON CHURTON 

(living). 

From being curate at Bradwell when 
preaching service was held in the old 
schoolroom, before the church was built, 
had a distinguished career in the church. 
In the year 1896 the Eight Rev. Edward 
Townson Churton became Bishop of 
Neissau. He is a prolific writer on ecclesias- 
tical subjects, and the author of a number 
of works, including "First Island Missionary 
of the Bahamas,^' "The Missionary's 
Foundation of Christian Doctrine," " Re- 
treat Addresses," " The Sanctuary of 
Missions," " Foreign Missions," and " The 
Use of Penitence." He married a daughter 
of the Rev. C. J. Daniel, Vicar of Hope, 
and the lady died when on the voyage out 
to Nassau. 

JOHN C. BOOKING. 

Rev. John Child Booking (living). Vicar 
of Gnosall, Staffordshire, to which living 
he was preferred in 1906. He was educated 
at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, took his 
B.A. degree in 1889, and was ordained 
deacon the following year. He is a surro- 
gate of Lichfield diocese, and formerly held 
curacies at Tipton and Fenton. 



POETS AND MINSTRELS. 

JOHN E. BRADWELL. 

John Edwy Bradwell. The son of a 
miner, and himself a miner in his early 
days. He has long been a prominent per- 
sonage in the friendly society world, and is 
editor of the magazine of the SheflBeld 
Equalised Independent Druids. He is the 
writer of a number of poems of considerable 
merit, including " A Coronation Ode," 
which was dedicated to King Edward and 
Queen Alexandra. A copy of the Ode was 
sent to Queen Alexandra, which she 
graciously accepted, and sent a letter of 
thanks to the author. 

ADAM HILL COOPER. 
A Witty Rhymster of Half a Century Ago. 
Interesting Local Ditties. 
One who was famous as a poet in the 
middle of the last century was Adam Hill 
Cooper, who was a son of Samuel Cooper. 
This gentleman had five sons, all of whom 
bore scriptural names — Adam, Job, Ben- 
jamin, Elias. and Jabez. Adam was a born 
rhymster. He was manager of Mr. Ashton's 
white lead works, at Brough, and died in 
1879. His ditties would fill a volume, but 
they were never issued to the world in that 
form. They were, mainly, humorous 
rhymes on local men and things, just a 



few of which will be interesting to the 
present generation. But he produced pieces 
other than humorous. One of his first pro- 
ductions about 1860, was dedicated to his 
infant son, who, however, died young. Here 
it is : 

Dear little stranger thou art come. 
Not knowing where, nor yet to whom; 
But still thou art a welcome guest, 
With such a prize I feel I'm blest— 
My little son. 

Thy home is not a stately hall. 
With servants to attend each call; 
'Mid parks and shrubberies sublime. 
But yet it stands unstained with crime— 
My little son. 

Our best endeavour we will try 
Thy little comforts to supply; 
When we divide our humble fare 
It's sweets and bitters thou must share — 
My little son. 

I love to see those coral lips 
As from its father's cup it sips; 
Thou little sprightly busy bee. 
Pray, who could harm a lamb like thee? — 
My little son. 

May thou be spared, and learn to grow 
In knowledge, and true wisdom know; 
And never cause they parents shame. 
But be an honour to their name— 
My little son. 

Those dimpled cheeks and sparkling eyes 
They make a father realise 
Pleasures that never can be got 
In mansion nor in humble cot— 
My little son. 

That manly arm, that chubby fist, 
That doubled chin, that wrinkled wrist. 
Those mottled limbs that glow with health. 
Are treasured more than earthly wealth— 
My little son. 

Those little pegs are peeping out. 
That little tongue, it rolls about. 
It cannot yet articulate. 
Though it must guide thy future state — 
My little son. 

About the same time Mr. Cooper's pen 
produced the following on ^ 

MAN. 

Man ! what art thou ? I meekly ask. 

Reveal thyself to me; 

Hard labour seems an endless task 

Allotted unto thee. 

I'm bone and sinew, born of earth. 

Composed of living clay; 

With breath infused, there starts my birtn. 

At least the scriptures say. 

I'm very old and cannot give 

To you my exact age; 

The eve I began to live 

Stands a disputed page. 

The changes that you daily see. 

Display my busy hand; 

I must continue faithfully. 

I'm not allowed to stand. 

Each morning brings a special task 

That tries both wit and skill. 

Which to avoid I must not ask. 

But willingly fulfil. 

Stern competition creeps behind. 

And keeps me on the move. 

And gently whispers to the mind 

" Continually improve." 



58 



What difBculties I have wrought 
With wire, and steam, and rails. 
The new inventions I have wrought. 
Throughout the world prevails. 
The scythe, the sickle, and the flail. 
I've left them by the way; 
They find their power of slight avail 
While steam and engine play. 

Proud Theodore did little know. 
When he refused my claims. 
That to his country I should go 
And snap his monstrous chains. 

The heights of Magdala to me. 
My freedom to defend, 
Was thought too big a job to be 
Successful in the end. 

The heathen now may plainly see 
Through our Creator's plan; 
It's hard to say what cannot be 
Performed by thinking man. 




THE LATE ADAM HILL COOPER. 



But those of greatest local interest were 
his humorous ditties. These were legion, 
and in them he hit off local characters ad- 
mirably, regardless of offence either to 
friend or foe. Here is his poetical descrip- 
tion showing how the people of the Peak 
celebrated tne wedding of the Prince of 
Wales (afterwards King Edward VII.), in 
1863:— 

The folks in large towns have long cut it 

fine. 
Telling all country villages that they'd take 

the shine, 
But the men in the Peak have true English 

blood. 



And thought opposition would perhaps do 

good. 
So the clergy, the gentry, and farmers 

combined 
Their gold in abundance some pleasure to 

find; 
Old veterans were there with their tottering 

hand. 
Seated side by side with the lords of the 

land, 
Tho' appearance denoted their race almost 

run 
They drank health to our Queen and her 

newly-married son. 
Young maidens were dancing in ribbon so 

gay 
And all seemed to enjoy the memorable 

day. 
Hathersage people, regardless of cost. 
Determined their loyalty should not be lost; 
Miss Bamford, their neighbour, seemed 

rather dejected. 
For more wanted dinners than what she 

expected. 
Hope is a village without any trade. 
Though tea and spice buns for the children 

were made. 
The Castleton people were happily blest. 
For they could not get through without a 

night's rest. 
At Bramall's, in Smalldale, we now take a 

glance, 
Where youth is engaged in a country dance,. 
One hundred and twenty were seated at tea. 
And all seemed as happy as happy can be. 
O'er Granby to Bradwell we now must 

adjourn. 
And see the great bonfire brilliantly burn. 
Sack racing, and jumping, and all sorts of 

fun. 
Besides Mr. Elliott with his Armstrong gun; 
The Wesleyans and Primitives by this had 

shook hands. 
Were parading the town with both Bradwell 

bands, 
Thus showing the world that in friendship 

they meet 
After giving their scholars an excellent 

treat. 
The conclusion presented a beautiful scene. 
For teachers and scholars sang " God Save 

the Queen." 

THE FREE RANGERS. 

One Sunday night in 1868 three young men 
from Bamford visited the Rose and Crown 
Inn, a public house — now cottages — at the 
top of Smithy Hill, Bradwell. After 
patronising the landlord, Anthony Middle- 
ton, they left at closing time, groped by the 
wall in the dark, until, reaching the corner 
of the building at the top of the Gutter, the 
first of the trio. John Robinson, for many 
years the mechanic at Bamford Mills, fell 
over a low wall into a heap of manure be- 
low. The incident was admirably hit off by 
Cooper in these lines : — 

On a late Sunday night. 

Just after daylight. 
There came into Bradwell three strangers; 

To mention a name 

I should be much to blame. 
So I think I will call them free-rangers. 

Some beer did they want. 

So they went up to " Tant," 
At a house called the Rose and the Grown; 

To have just a sup 

They went right enough up, 
The misfortune was as they came down. 



59 



They reel'd to and fro. 

As they did not well know 
The guides of the place in the dark; 

It was too rough a street 

For to stand on their feet. 
And to fall would be more than a lark. 

They groped for the wall. 

For fear they might fall. 
And one of them started to grumble; 

For want of the moon 

He turned rather too soon. 
And into a dirt hole did tumble. 

What a pity he fell 

For be caused such a smell. 
As he rolled himself o'er on his back; 

And his face and his shirt 

Were both covered with dirt. 
In what a sad plight was poor Jack. 

I am told in the end 

That he met with a friend. 
Who assisted him with an immersion; 

He emphatically says 

He will see longer days 
Before he's another excursion. 

At this time Bradwell Church was being 
built, and one of the contractors, a Shef- 
field gentleman, wished to visit the grit- 
stone quarries at Eyam, but not knowing 
the way he took Charles Gledhill, one of 
the workmen, with him as his guide. Their 
experiences were hit off in this ditty : — 

A JOURNEY TO EYAM AND BACK. 

On Saturday last, 

A tradesman was fast 
To find his way over to Eyam ; 

O'er hedges and stiles. 

About seven miles, 
Required considerable steam. 

One Charles he employed 

To act as his guide. 
The rest of his name I'll keep back; 

It's the very same man. 

Find him out if you can. 
Who laughed at the fall of poor Jack. 

After two hours chase 

They got to the place 
Where at first they intended to go; 

They measured some stone. 

Then turned towards home 
And agreed they should dine at Foolow. 

They did not go far 

After passing the bar. 
Before they turned in to their right. 

At a house kept by Jerry 

They made themselves merry 
With something that baffled their sight. 

Now, whiskey's a thing 

That should make a chap sing. 
But Charles would do nought but take snuff; 

Sometimes he would talk, 

But he would not walk, 
So the tradesman became rather gmS. 

" I engaged you to-day 

To show me the way. 
If we're lost it may cost me my life ;" 

" Don't be in a sweat. 

There is time enough yet. 
We must shake hands with Jer. and his 
wife." 

I am sorry to say 

They turned the wrong way. 
So the tradesman politely enquires; 

What gave him a shock. 

It was past ten o'clock 
When they landed at Wardlow Mines. 



With uplifted hands 

He implicitly stands. 
And wished he'd never been born ; 

They both out of breath. 

Almost frightened to death 
Got to Bradwell at two the next morn. 

"THE GOOSE FROM CALLOW," 

told its own tale. It was about half a 
century ago. The goose was procured from 
Callow Farm, near Hathersage, and cooked 
at the Green Dragon Inn, at that time 
kept by Michael and Ann Hall. The license 
has long since lapsed. Here is the lively 
ditty :— 

Dear reader, it is by request 
That I enclose this simple jest; 
To tell the truth I'll do my best. 
About a goose at Callow. 

One person said he dare be bound 

This goose would weigh full fifteen pound; 

He'd warrant it both fat and sound. 

Because it came from Callow. 
This person could not make a sale. 
For very few believed his tale; 
His mates, to have a drop of ale. 

Raffled the goose from Callow. 

When we the public-house did reach. 
It cost all five shillings each. 
And many a very wicked speech. 
Did this goose that came from Callow. 

To make all previous matters right. 
We had it cooked for Monday night; 
This caused a very funny sight 
While plucking the goose from Callow. 

There was Mike, and Ann, and Harry, too; 
Joe " Bradda " pulled his fingers through; 
Like snowflakes down and feathers flew 
As they plucked this goose from Callow. 

Six pounds was just the weight of it! 
Six hours it hung upon the spit; 
But all the coal from Staveley pit 
Would not cook this goose from Callow. 

Both cook and stoker in despair. 
Exhausted sat upon a chair; 
It proved a serious affair 
To cook a goose from Callow. 

At last the cloth and plates came in. 
We got the signal to begin. 
And Mike cried out, " Now lads, walk in. 
And eat this goose from Callow." 

We all tried hard to pick his bones. 
But might as well have tried at stones; 
So off we toddled to our homes. 
And left the goose from Callow. 

In the sixties the Bradwell Moss Rake 
Mining Company was formed on the co- 
operative principle, to drive a level and 
open out the mines, but after some years 
of unprofitable working the project was 
abandoned. But here is 

"AN ODE," 

written by Cooper in encouragement: 

Ye sons of toil, allow a friend 

To make an observation. 
And my opinion I will spend 

About Co-operation. 

To benefit the working-class 

The project was begun. 
But many years of toil must pass 

Before the work is done. 



60 



What gives an impulse to a cause? 

Intelligent directors, 
Not men that's looking for applause ; 

Such are not your protectors. 

'Twas time the miners made a move, 

Turned over some nevr leaf; 
Co-operation it may prove 

A permanent relief. 

To get an honest livelihood. 

No doubt was their ambition. 
But this could never be achieved 

Without an alteration. 

Month after month they used il'elr lo<^'& 

At jobs that never paid; 
For want of some established rules 

It's been a wretched trade. 

But men of patience .hey must find. 

And perseverance too. 
To guide the prejudiced and blind 

And lead the project through. 

The men who care for others well 

Must stimulate the scheme. 
Who for their fellow men can feel. 

Without regard to fame. 

The men who have their cash to wear, 

And never seem to doubt it, 
But cheerfully support their share 

And think no more about it. 

■ The moment you the treasure find, 
Yoxir shares begin to rise; 
Don't follow every change of wind. 
Stick firmly to your prize. 

Encouragement may seem but small 

And things appear perplexed. 
But never let a sing'e call 

On your part be neglected. 

Your ancestors have often said 

That there was lead in store; 
If there could be a level made 

That you'd get lots of ore. 

Then work like men as you've begun, 

May no one e'er repent, 
And let what ever may be done. 

Be done with good intent. 

Cooper was no respecter of persons. He 
had a dig at everybody he thought deserved 
it. Here is one : — 

TO HIS INDIGENT COBBLER. 

I sent you my order to Sparrow pit. 
Expecting good boots and a capital fit; 
You said you would send them in course of 

a week, 
A pair well adapted for Derbyshire Peak, 
After such a firm promise I'm filled with 

surprise 
To think you should send me such thunder- 
ing lies, 
I need not remind you— you know It quite 

well 
That liars must all have their portion in 

hell. 
I cannot imagine you waiting of leather 
And other odd matters to put them 

together. 
Such as wax, or hemp, or any such stuff. 
And Ihe order I'm sure you've had that 

long enough. 
Do you mean to make them ? I fancy you . 

don't. 
Then it write back and tell me you 

won't. 

Cooper's butcher shared the same fate as 
his cobbler, for here is his 



SHANK STEAKS. 

I wish the country all to know. 

In Bradwell we are not so slow; 

A cow was killed for Hucklow wakes. 

The shanks were pared and sold for steaks. 

There's no deception in this case. 

The trick was done before my face. 

Now, had he cut them off the round. 

And charged a market price per pound, 

I'd then adopt the proper plan. 

And pay the butcher like a man. 

But steaks from shanks are " all my eye;" 

No cook on earth can make them fry. 

They are both tasteless, dry, and tough, 

For such there's no demand at Brough. 

Cooper was at a loss to know how a total 
abstainer could be such an inveterate 
smoker, and after a wordy warfare with 
some of these, this is how he lectured and 
exposed them in rhyme : — 

TO AN ABSTAINER FROM DRINK, BUT 
AN INVETERATE SMOKER. 

Lights of the world without a doubt 
They never ought to be put out. 
And certainly I look upon 
A temperance advocate as one. 
Why not annihilate the pipe 
If for improvements they are ripe. 
And benefit their fellow men 
By all the legal means they can? 
But don't presume to be a light 
Except your lajmp be burning bright. 
Free from tobacco smoke and snuff, 
And all such superfluous stuff. 
For if by taking snuff or smoking. 
The atmosphere is almost choking. 
Such lights as those pray never handle. 
They are not worth a farthing candle. 
Give up the pipe, and not till then 
Can they set up as model men. 

The following is the last piece composed 
by this local celebrity, on the occasion of 
the occasion of the renovation of the Prim- 
itive Methodist Chapel, in 1878 :— 

THE BRADWELL CONVERT. 

Ye followers of the firm old faith. 
Come, hear what *Billy Longden saith 
About the chapel in Hugh Lane, 
Which lately hath been born again. 
The inner part hath been renewed, 
Be-organised and nicely pewed, 
With alterations here and there. 
And one additional gallery stair. 
The heart hath undergone a change. 
So wonderful and passing strange; 
The system of the inner man 
Is formed upon the gospel plan. 
The outer man, the entire frame, 
(Except the vestry) is the same. 
And to complete the whole attire 
There stands a chimney for a spire. 
Now, chapels, they like man's estate. 
Grow old and sadly out of date. 
And this was charged with many crimes, 
And ill adapted to the times. 
Anterior to this changing state, 
The structure was degenerate 
In all its aspects, out and in. 
Conceived in error, formed in sin 

•William Longden. familifirly known as 
Billy Longden, was the chapel keepeor. 



61 



The under bearings ill arranged. 

The upper gearings quite deranged. 

The organ too, did rant and roar 

In a corner on the floor. 

The music of the sacred lyre 

Was sadly mangled by the choir. 

The ventilation and the light 

Were never altogether right. 

The air was dense, the place was dull. 

And, should the chapel chance be full. 

How frequently it's been my lot 

To gasp for breath when reeking hot. 

The windows, I'm ashamed to own. 

Were seldom opened up or down ; 

And further more confess I must. 

The seats were covered o'er with dust. 

At times there was a brimstone smell. 

From whence it came I dare not tell. 

But then, you see, as I've asserted. 

The chapel then was not converted, 

And all their evils were, of course, 

The outcome of an evil source. 

Long it withstood the Gospel blast. 

But *Mr. Smith arrived at last, 

Who, by his faith and great exertion 

Became the means of its conversion. 

From hidden treasures manifold 

He gathered silver, pence, and gold; 

The wind was raised, the fabric stormed. 

And now the Chapel is transformed 

Into a noble, bright example 

Of a real converted tempie. 

Renewed within, improved without. 

A true conversion none need doubt. 

Long may its past and present state 

To sinful man illustrate 

That self improvement is not vain— 

That men must all be born again. 

If ^iiey would see or realise 

God's kingdom here or in the skies. 

•The Rev. William Smith, Primitive 
Methodist minister. 

SAMUEL COOPER. 

He was fath^? of the ab6v6. &Tld like his 
son, he aspired to poetic fame. Such a hatred 
had ho of smoking, and so pained was he 
to see the habit growing among both youii^ 
and old that he composed and published a 
poem, his object being to induce the 
habitual smoker to throw away his pipe, 
and "to prevent the inititiated from learning 
a habit which will make unlawful demands 
upon his purse, injure h's health, and'^give 
him much vexation." As the author Rlitli- 
self frankly admitted, "in point of liibetical 
beauty there is nothing to admire,' and 
therefore poetry in the verses which foljow, 
must not be soughrt for." but if hi^ ehd was 
accomplishied he should "reap more heart- 
felt satisfaction than if my brow we«*, to 
be wreathed with poetical iaiiiels Trathe'ried 
from the top of Parnassus' mountain.'"; ^Tt 
is a remarkable pi-ece of comi^o?:iti6n. put 
together. when its author wgs nearlv seventy 
vears old: He -died in 1872; aged 73;' and is 
buried in the Primitive Cemetery. ■ 

REV. GEORGE BtRq. 

The Rev. George Bird, the Vicar df'Brad'- 
well, has from a youth been a lover or verse, 
and gifted with thespirit of lioetry. "Hi's 
masterpiece is, perhaps, " Ronald's Fare- 
well," issued to the world in 1892. 



HORACE E. MIDDLETON. 

Horace E. Middleton, a distinguished and 
talented musican, appointed in 190S 
Musical Director of the Kings' Theatre, 
Hammersmith, London. 




THOMAS FANSHAW MIDDLETON. 

First Bishop of Calcutta, a Middleton of 
Bradwell. 

Thomas Fanshaw Middleton, the first 
Bishop of Calcutta, was the only son of the 
Rev. Thomas Middleton, one r.f the oldest 
of the family of Bradwell Middletons, who 
was born in a cottage in Nether Side, now 
used as a lock-up shop, and still the pro- 
perty of the Middleton family. Thomas 
Middleton became rector of Kedlf ston, 
near Derby, and he was allied by marpiage 
with the family of Fanshaw of Bmugh. 
It was whilst he was rector of Kedlpston 
that his son Thomas Fan=hawp Middleton 
was born on January 26th. 1769. He en- 
tered Christ's Hospitfil on 21st April, 1779, 
and he became a "Grecian." Among" his 
schoolfello" s were S. T. /"oleridge and 
Charles Lamb, who desbril^es him as a, 
scholar and Bi gentleman in his teejisf' 
whose manner at school^ was " f\tm,~hvit 
mild and •un-s.suming." ' Middlet-on Was 
always gratefyl ;to Christ's Hospital, and 
shortly before his death" gave' a donation 
of £400, and was elected a trovernor of the 
institution. Entering Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, he graduated B.A., January, 



1792, as fourth in the list of senior optimes. 
He became M.A. in 1795, and D.D. 1808. In 
March, 1792, he was ordained deacon by 
Dr. Pretyman, Bishop of Lincoln, and be- 
came curate of Gainsborough, Lincoln- 
shire, where he edited, and in great part 
wrote, a weekly periodical called "The 
<3ountry Spectator." This periodical — an 
echo of Addison and Steele — attracted the 
attention of Dr. John Pretyman, arch- 
deacon of Lincoln, and brother of Bishop 
Pretyman, and he made Middleton tutor 
to his sons, first at Lincoln, then at Nor- 
wich. In 1795 Middleton was presented by 
Dr. Pretyman to the rectory of Tansor, 
Northamptonshire, and in 1802 to the coji- 
solidated rectory of Little and Castle 
Bytham, Lincolnshire. At this time he 
began his well-known work on the Greek 
article, being incited by a controversy of 
this subject in which Granville Sharp, 
Wordsworth, Master of Trinity, and Calvin 
Winstanley engaged. The volume ap- 
peared in 1808 as " The Doctrine of the 
Greek Article applied to the Criticism and 
the Illustration of the New Testament." 
It was praised in the " Quarterly Review " 
as a learned and useful work, and went 
through five editions. In 1809 Middleton 
obtained a Prebendal stall at Lincoln, and 
in 1811 exchanged Tansor and Bytham for 
the vicarage of St. Pancras, London, and 
the rectory of Pultenham, Hertfordshire. 
In 1812 he became archdeacon of Hunting- 
don. On his removal to London in 1811 he 
undertook the editorship of the " British 
Critic," and took an active pait in the 
proceedings of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. He endeavoured, un- 
successfully, to raise funds for a new 
church in St. Pancras' parish. 

The Act of 1813, which renewed the 
charter of the East India Company, erected 
their territories into one vast diocese with 
a bishop (of Calcutta) and three arch- 
deacons. The number of Anglican clergy 
in India was very small. The bishopric, 
the salary of which was £5,000, was offered 
to Middleton. He was consecrated at Lam- 
beth Palace on May 8th, 1814, and reached 
Calcutta on November 28th, 1814. Difficul- 
ties had been prophesied with the natives 
on religious grounds, but the Bishop's ar- 
rival and subsequent visitations created no 
alarm or disturbance He found the Bible 
Society established at Calcutta, but de- 
clined an invitation to join it. He had a 
difficulty with the Presbyterian ministers, 
who were maintained by the court of direc- 
tors of the East India Company. In 1815 
he organised the Free School and the 
Orphan School at Calcutta, and in May of 
the same year formed a diooesan committee 
of the Society for Promoting Christian 
ii^owledge, a society which, when he left 
England, had placed £1,000 at his disposal 
in furtherance of its views. On December 
ISth, 181.5, he left Calcutta to make his 
primary visitation, attended by a party of 
about 450 people. The whole journey was 
one of abojit S,000 miles. He had an inter- 



view with the Nabob of the Carnatic at 
Madras, traversed Southern India, visited 
Bombay, Goa, Ceylon, and the Syrian 
Chri\^ians at Cochin. During this visita- 
tion, which ended in 1816, the Bishop made 
no heathen converts. His view, frequently 
expressed, was that the " fabric of idola- 
try " in India would never be shaken 
merely by the preaching of missionaries. 
He trusted rather to the general diffusion 
of knowledge and the arts to pave the way 
for Christianity. The first duty of the 
Anglican Church was to bring the Euro- 
pean inhabitants under its influence, and to 
set up a high standard of moral and re- 
ligious life. About September, 1820, the 
Bishop's house was struck by lightning 
while the family were at dinner, but no one 
was injured. 

On December 15th, 1820, Middleton laid 
the foundation stone of Bishop's Mission 
College, on a site within three miles of 
Calcutta. The establishment of this col- 
lege was the Bishop's favourite scheme. 
The institution was to consist of a prin- 
cipal and professors, and of students who 
were afterwards to be provided for as 
missionaries and schoolmasters in India. 
In 1821 he again visited Cochin to ascertain 
the cxjndition of the Syrian Church there, 
and in December held his third visitation 
at Calcutta. He died on July 8th, 1822, 
of a fever, in the 54th year of his age and 
the ninth of his episcopate. He was buried 
in Calcutta Cathedral. 

The Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, to which Jie left £50p jind five hun- 
dred volumes from his library, joined the 
Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, in subscribing for a monument to 
him in the nave of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
This memorial — a marble group, by J. G. 
Lough — represents Bishop Middleton bless- 
Hig two Indian children -k}Keeling Jbefore 
him. In accordance with Middleton's will, 
nil h's writings in manuscript were des- 
troyed, including a memoir on the Syrian 
Church. While in India he collected 
Syrian manuscripts and learnt Hindustani, 
but gave up the study of Greek. His 
■' Sermons and Charges " were published 
with a memoir, in 1824, b.y Archdeacon 
Bonne.v. Middleton was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society and a Vice-1'resident of the 
Asiatic Society. 

Middleton's life was written in 1831 b/ 
his friend the Rev. C. W. Le Bas, and it 
contains a portrait of the Bishop in his 
robes. He was a man of handsome and 
vigorous appearance, his voice was clear 
and sonorous, and his preaching im- 
pressive. In Kay's " Christianity in In- 
dia" he is called "a cold and stately 
formalist," who had " an over-weening 
spjif^e of the dignity of the episcopal office, ' 
(hough she admits that the Bishop was not 
actuated by personal vanit.y, and that the 
fxternals of religion had been too much 
neglected in India before his arrival. 
Other, friends of Middleton found him stiff 
and proud in his manner, though, as 



a 



Charles Lamb expressed it, the newly and 
imperfectly defined position of the first 
Anglican Bishop of India, perhaps, justified 
his high carriage. As an organiser he was 
cautious, able, and active, and his suc- 
cessor. Bishop Heber, was not a little in- 
debted to him. 

Middleton married, in 1797, Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of John Maddison, of 
Alvingham, Lincolnshire. His wife sur- 
vived him, but there were no children of 
the marriage. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



FAMOUS SOLDIERS. 



THOMAS MORTON. 

Thomas Morton (who took the name of 
Thomas Morton Moore), who was a son of 
George Morton, was a distinguished son of 
his native place. Although only 44 when 
he died at Parkhurst Barracks, Isle of 
Wight, in March, 1860, he had probably 
seen as much active service as any man of 
that age. He was a Quartermaster of the 5th 
Depot. Batt., and served in India with the 
31st Regiment throughout the Afghan and 
Sutlej campaign, and with the 68th Regi- 
ment during the whole of the Crimean 
War. in which he was wounded. In the 
course of his career he was present in 
thirty-six engagements, and for his services 
he received four medals and six clasps. He 
was honoured by the Turkish Order of the 
Medjidie being oonf erred upon him. His 
widow erected a handsome memorial of him 
in the Primitive Methodist Chapel. 




CUABUES CASTLE. J.P. 



CHARLES CASTLE. 

Although not a native of Bradwell, he 
resided here many years, loved the place 
and its people, took interest in all its 
affairs, and was for many years chairman 
of the School Board. He was a fine fellow, 
a member of the SheflBeld Corporation, and 
a magistrate. In 1856, when only 18, he 
enlisted in the 7th Hussars, and by the end 
of November in the following year he was 
out in India. The Indian Mutiny was 
going on, and Charles Castle was in the 
thick of the fighting. He was present at 
the repulse of the enemy's attack on the 
Alumbagh, and through the siege and opera- 
tions against Lucknow. He was with Hod- 
son, the dashing Colonel of "Hodson's 
Horse," when he fell. He was continually 
engaged throughout the years 1858 and 1859, 
and for his bravery received promotion. 
When in hot pursuit of the enemy, a shell 
burst over him and brought the horse down 
dead, hit in seven places, and the horse fell 
heavily on him. and crushing him into the 
land. 

Mr. Castle passed through the campaign 
with only one wound, although of 78 men 
who belonged to his troop when they rode 
to Lucknow, only 13 were left at the end of 
the operations. After the war was over. 
Mr. Castle who had become Acting Troop 
Sergeant-Major, and Assistant Instructor 
in Musketry, accompanied Lord and Lady 
Canning and Sir Colin Campbell on their 
tour through the Punjab and North-West 
Provinces as sergeant in the escort. He 
had always belonged to the "select side" of 
his regiment, and had in this country 
again and again ridden in the escort of 
Queen Victoria. He purchased hig dis- 
charge in 1862, and joined his brother-in- 
law, Mr. Batty Langley (afterwards M.P.) 
in business in Sheffield. He died in 1904, 
and his funeral, one of the largest ever seen 
in SheflBeld. wa« attended by 45 Indian 
Mutiny veterans. 

HARRY FISKE (Living). 

Eldest son of Mr. S. Fiske. Studied for 
the army under the late Mark H. Wild, of 
SheflBeld. Determined to be a soldier he 
enlisted in the 2nd Devon Regiment with a 
view of obtaining a commission through the 
ranks. He was, as a sergeant, in all the 
fighta on the banks of the Tugela. in the 
South African War. and assisted in the 
relief of Ladysmith, when he was invalided 
home. 

WILFRED FISKE. 

Another son of Mr. S. Fiske. He went 
through the South African campaign with 
'distinction, remained th that country. He 
was killed when walking over a railway 
crossing in 1904. 

LUTHER BRADWELL (Living). 
Served in the South African War. 



64 



OTHER CHRONOLOGY. 
BARNSLEY. 

For 400 years the Barnsley family re- 
sided at Nether Water Farm, an old house 
nestling in a hollow just above Hazlebadge 
Hall, from whence different branches of 
the family have gone out and settled at 
Peak Forest, Aldwark Grange, and other 
places. One of the Peak Forest family 
was blessed with six children — four sons 
and two daughters — all of whom early in 
life agreed that they would never marry, 
that they would leave their estate to the 
survivors, and that they would all find a 
Testing place in the same vault at Peak 
Forest Church. Five of them were faith- 
ful to their vow, and rest in the vault, but 
the erring one, who tasted matrimonial 
bliss, to some extent "made up" for his 
brothers and sisters, for he had no fewer 
than three wives, and, well, the Peak 
Forest vault does not contain his ashes. 

Miss Mary Barnsley, the last of the five 
who remained unmarried, and died a few 
years ago, left £500 to Peak Forest Church 
and School in augmentation of the stipend 
of the vicar; £250 to increase the salary of 
the day schoolmaster connected with the 
church, and £250 for maintaining and im- 

E roving the choir; and in order that her 
equests might not be lost sight of and that 
the parishioners might ever be reminded of 
them, she directed her executors to have 
such bequests recorded by a suitable in- 
scription on a brass plate aflBxed against 
the wall inside the church. 

John Barnsley, the Peak centenarian, 
was born in 1689, and died in 1787. 




". WILLIAM BOOKING, 

^ho'died in 1869, aged 87. w&s a Wesleykh 
Sunday School teacher over 60 yea?8. 

BENJAMIN BARBER. 

Oue of the pioneers of Methodism, a lead 
mine manager, known as "the Methodist 



Martyr," owing to the persecutions he suf- 
fered in the early ages of Methodism. He 
was the principal stay of Methodism here 
from 1760 to 1800, and about 1780 estab- 
lished the first Sunday School; He was 
buried at Hope Church. 

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BARBER. 

He was son of the above, and was a local 
preacher and a captain in the Militia, the 
first company formed in 1803. This re- 
markable individual was part owner of 
many lead mines in the district 100 years 
ago. He built and resided in the house 
known as the Old Post Office, at the bottom 
of Smithy Hill. 




JOHN BARBER. 

Another member of the same family, who 
died in 1910. He worthily upheld the tra- 
ditions of his greatgfrandfather, the Metho>- 
dist martyr, for he was a talented and 
hardworking local pieacher 51 years, and 
filled every office, tjpen to a layman. He 
was one of the first members of the School 
Board, and held^tis seat -many years. 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR JOHN 
WINFIEL^.fiONSER. 

This gentleman Ooij-fers honour upon 
Bradwell, wher<i he livefl for several years 
when a boy. ,-; He was' thei only son of the 
Rev. John Bonjs^r, B-A., whb.'was stationed 
as the Wesleyen, itii»ister at Bradwell from 
1851 to 18.54^ Tafldjesided in the house im- 
mediately bftrow, and opposite the chapel. 
Born in 184,7'J!e 1^9 tducatedr.at Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, LojjglifertJBsh. -and Heath Gram- 
mar Schools'-i^'l'aiMJiftfd student in Common 
Law at Liricdln's TTiin, 1869; and Senior 
Classics, 1870. In 1883 he was appointed 
Attorney-General of the Straits Settle- 
ments, and retained that position for ten 
years, when he was appointed Chief Justice 



65 



of the same, and ret? red iu 1902. In the 
previous year he had been appointed Privy 
Counsellor, and in 1902 he was appointed a 
member of the Judicial Committee of Privy 
Council. 

FAMILY OF BRADWELL. 

Walter de Braddewall sat on a jury at 
the Assizes of the Fcrest, in the year 1216. 

Gregory de Bradwall, bail for the Prior 
of Lenton, for an offence against the forest 
laws iu 1237. 

Galf de Bradwall, an ofiender against the 
forest laws in 1272. 

Elias de Bradwall, often bail for offenders 
against the torest laws about 1280. 

William Fabre de Bradwall, Uregory de 
Bradwall, Matthew de Bradwall and 
Nicholas, son of William de Bradwall, wtre 
amonp the first to enclose land in Bradwall, 
iu the year 1237. 

Galf de Bradwall, in 1283. was called to 
account for having raised three houses in 
the forest without warrant ; and Clement 
De-la Ford (l-ord Hall) became bail for 
iiim- 

Nicholas, the Clerk of Bradwall, in 1283. 

William, son of the Smith of Bradwall, 
sat on an Inquisition re lead mining at 
.Vshbourne, 1288. 

Thomas Bradwall, Chaplain of Hope, in 
1.529. 

JOHN BRADWELL. 

Although landlord of the Bull's Head, 
where h.s parents lived before him, he was 
a popular local preacher in the Wesleyan 
body, and a iriend of William Wood, the 
histo:ian, of Eyam. Here is what a news- 
paper said about him after his death in 
1853: — "Ihe deceased for upwards of forty 
years had generously officiated as village 
scribe; as counsellor and confidential 
adviser to the whole village and its im- 
mediate locality. To the counsel and judg- 
ment of the deceased were referred all 
matters of dispute occurring around him, 
and il is some praise to his deeply ; evered 
memory to add that but i-arely indeed did 
lie fail to bring matters to a satisfactory 
and peaceful termination. In tne political 
world he was an ardent and acute observer; 
as a literary character he was at least 
locally consp.cucus; as a wit and racy 
humcrist he had, in his own locale, few 
equals; as a general reader his great 
variety of book knowledge amply testified ; 
and as a kind and open-hearted neighbour 
and friend his loss will be long experienced 
and deeply lamented. To the provincial 
press the deceased was an occasional con- 
tributor, while his correspcudt nee with 
many eminent characters of the present day 
is all sufficient testimony of the apprecia- 
tion of high mental qualities. As a hus- 
band and parent he was truly exemplary; 
as an advocate of Liberal principles he was 
courageous and unflinching ; and as a Chris- 
tian he bore up under a long and severe 
aflliction, and finally passed from this stage 
of life in a happy state of blissful peace 
and sweet serenity. His end was peace." 



HENRY BRADWELL, 

who died at Bradwell, for the greater part 
of his life held an impcrtant post with the 
famous firm of Fcx, at their Stocksbridg* 
works. During his connection with the 
business he worked out several ideas he 
evolved for improving various machines 
used in the factories. He invented machines 
with certain labour-saving devices of an 
entirely new and intricate character, and 
which, Avhen tested, proved to be of im- 
mense value to the industry. 

Bradwell Ebenezer (living). — Been a 
Iccal preacher in the Wesleyan body 51 
years, and held various offices in Wesleyan- 
ism. 

DARNLEY. 

A very old family, who still retain one of 
their old homesteads at Dale End, and pro- 
perties in other parts of the village. Thev 
have always been a family of education and 
refinement, and repute. Edward Derneley 
was a churchwarden of Hope, in 1693, but 
no other member of the family ever held 
that office, as they were prominently con- 
nected with Nonconformity, but their old 
burial place is still at Hope Church. John 
Darnley was a famous schoolmaster nearly 
a century ago. 

Dakin Stephen (living). — Been a Wes- 
leyan local preacher, and a most active 
Nonconformist 51 years. 




MRS. VIOLET HALL. 



66 



Evaus William. — In a large way of busi- 
ness as hat manufacturer nearly a century 
ago. Endowed the Chapel of the Apostle 
of the Peak, and is buried under the pulpit. 

Evans Seth (living). — Author of the "His- 
tory of Wesleyanism in Bradwell/' "Brad- 
well Ancient and Modern/' etc. 

Furness Isabella. — In 1740 one of the 
first to open her hovise for Methodist prayer 
meetings when the very earliest Methodist 
pioneer ventured to Bradwell. 

Goodwin George, son of Geoi-ge Goodwin 
and the Hon. Charlotte Radclvffe, born at 
Bradwell in 1749, died at Sheffield, in 
poverty, in 1835. 

Hall Mary. — Benefactress. Died 1V62. 

Hall Violet.— Forty years a Primitive 
Methodist local preacher. Died 1S81. 

Hallam .Vbsolom (living). — ('oloui-s?r- 
geant 21 years in Sherwood I'oresters. 
Medals: I'imjaub Frontier (India), l«!)7-8; 
long service and goad conduct, 1900. 

Howe Margaret.— One of the first Metho- 
dists who opened her house for prayer meet- 
ings about 1740. 

FAMILY OF MARSHALL. 

Next to the Bradwells, the Marshalls are 
the oldest family in the locality, and they 
can beast an unbroken descent of at least 
600 years. They were among the first 
Foresters; thev rebelled against the bad old 
forest laws, cleared the first patches of 
land, built some of the first houses; for 
several centuries ranked amongst the prin- 
cipal families of the Peak; and they were 
often involved in litigation with people of 
greater power than themselves, who were 
attempting to take the comnun lands to 
which the people were entitled. The 
principal seat of this distinguished family 
was at "The Bwtts," between the Bagshawe 
Cavern and Outland Head. Here they had 
a large hall, not a vestige of vihich now re- 
mains, but there are traces oji every hand 
of the former splendour of the home of the 
family. The houses clc-so by are known 
as "Jlall IJarn," indeed the lands were in 
the hands of Elias Marshall wlien he died 
in 1768, and left an enclosure, <Jie rent of 
which was to pay for the education of poor 
children. The family were very numerous, 
and had several residences. One of these 
was at the foot of Smithy Hill. It was in 
their occupation 200 years ago, but was s; on 
afterwards converted into farm buildings, 
and aboiit ten years ago these were, de- 
molished and ii new house, "North View," 
built on the site. To mention the vaiifiis 
members of th's distinguished faihily 
through six hundred years v.oiihl be^ impos- 
sible, but in the fifteenth oiv sixteenth 
centuries, they ranked among tffe principal 
familiesNuf tfie I'eak, ami their ilaughtevs 
married into other famous families of tlie 
Peak. 'I*heii- armoury is amn^ig-that of 
the High Peak gentry, anil their crest was 
a man in anmiur i)roj)er ludding in his 
hand a t rnncheon. 



Elias Marshall de Butts, in the Forest 
Pleas for land in 1399. 

Elias Marshall and Dennis Marshall, at 
a great Court Leet of He nry Vernon, Esq., 
at Hazlebadge, in 1480. 

Nicholas Marshall, at a great Court at 
Hazlebadge, 1488. 

Walter Marshall and Hugh Marshall pro- 
ceec'od (with others) against Thomas Eyre 
for dlegal possession of demesne lands in 
bradwall, 1594. 

Willelmus Marshall and Milo Marshall, 
among the vills and freeholders of Bradwall 
in 1633. 

Elias Marshall, a large landowner at 
Derbyshire election of 1734. 

Adam, Edward, Godfrey, Humphrey, 
Tjawrence, Martin, Robert, Thomas, and 
Miles Marshall, all landowners in 1658. 

Robert Marshall, churchwarden of Hope, 
in 17 ij. 

Thomas Marshall, churchwarden of Hope 
in 1750. 

MIDDLETON. 

The Middleton family ranks among the 
very oldest in the district!^ For 600 years 
they have been located here, and are here 
still, in various branches. To give any- 
thing like a history of this family is an 
impossible task. John Myddleton and 
Robe;-'t Myddleton were farming lands in 
iiradwell, as shown in the Forest Pleas, m 
the year 1399, and they liave been on the 
soil ever since, taking active i)art in the 
affairs of their native place. There is not 
a single Court Leet record right through all 
these centuries without the names of some 
of this yeoman stock. Two Martin Middle- 
tons, two Richard Middletons, and a 
Thomas Middleton were freeholders in 1734. 
Thomas Middleton, benefact.;r, died 1729. 

Robert Middleton, Town (liite, died 185'*, 
aesd 94. 

jlartin Middleton, native of Bradwell, 
w;>s a member of the Mancliester Corpora- 
tuju 1849 to 18.58. 

•Tohn Middleton, member of Manchester 
Curporation 1848 to 1851. 

.'ob Middleton, the last of tlie hat manu- 
f£.aurers. died 1899, aged 84 

MORTON. 

A famous family whose sons have gone 
out into all parts of the world, nmny of 
■vhom have distinguished themselves, 
especially in tlie .Vrmy, and the Noncon- 
Ij'rmist ministry. They were for centuries 
connected with lead-mining, and tliey were 
prominent people here in the year 1472, and 
Lave taken active part in the life of their 
r.itive place through all these centuries, 
a id their names are frequently met with 
throughout this work. They have l)eeu 
freeholders for centuries. 



67 



George Morton was the first to open his 
building for the reception of the Primitive 
Methodists, in 1821. He died in 1852. 

Morton, Eev. Jacob. — Famous Wosleyan 
minister. Died 1870 

Morton, Rev. John.— Primitive Metho- 
dist minister. Died 1862. 




OLIVER MORTON. 

Morton Oliver, who died in 1910. ;•. niiiui-, 
joined the liiverpool police force At-hen a 
young man, voiuntemed fcr service abroad, 
and for the long period of 18 years occupied 
the position of <.'hicf Iii.si)ector of th? 
Penang and Singapore (Straits Settlements) 
Police, retiring to his native place in 1801. 
He lies in the family grave in the Wes- 
leyaii Cemetery, where there is a handsome 
monument to his memory. 

Morton Thomr.s. — A famous soldier. Died 
at Parkhnrst Harracks. 



SOMERSET. 

A family of repute and substance who 
were among the leading Wesleyans more 
than a century ago. They were in business 
as joiners, wheelwrights, fellmongers, and 
general shopkeepers, and while some of 
their sons have gone out and become distin- 
guished divines, others have remained pro- 
m'nent laymen at home, and the ))resent 
g-.'ueration of the family are prominently 
connected with Wesleyanism. 

Somerset Benjamin. — He was a Wesleyau 
local preacher forty years, and a promin- 
ent layman all that time. 

Somerset Jabez Birley.— A prominent 
Wesleyan leader and official. Died in 1864. 




ROBERT SOMERSET. 

Somerset Robert. — Ho was a Wesleyan 
local preacher, class leader, and trustee 
more than forty years, and died in 1897. 

f 




THOMAS SOMERSET. 

Somerset Thonia-.— 20 years 
t;i-' poor for Hradwcll. 



niardian of 



68 



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UJ 


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69 



Somerset. Rev. Ralph Benjamin. — Dean 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Died '8H- 




OBAOIAH STAFFORD. 

Stafford Obadiah. — Wesleyaii S.uiday 
School teacher over 60 years. ))ied ihM. 



Strelley Robert. — Hazlebadge, Al.l'. 
Derbyshire in 1407. 



for 



Strelle_v John. 
Derbyshire 1420. 



Hazlebadge. M.l\ fc<r 




DR. J. H. TAYLOR. 



Taylor, Dr. Joseph Henry. — One of the 
best-known medical practitioners in the 
P*ak. Practised in the district more than 
half a century. Died in lS97. 

Taylor, Dr. Thomas (living).— Barn a( 
Bradwell. f-an of Dr. Joseph Henry Tayl ir. 
Resides at Bourne raaiith. 

Tanfield Robert (living). — One of the liest- 
known Primitive Methodists in the Con- 
nexion. Been a local preacher and active 
official 60 years. .Vn r.verseer of the poor 
for 40 years. 

Vernon. Sir Richard.— RosicUd at Hazle- 
badge Hall in tlxe fifteenth century. 

Walker, Zachariah (living). — Been assist- 
ant overseer for Biadwell, and secretary of 
the Welcome Traveller of the Peak Jiodgo 
of Oddfellows nearly 40 years. The family 
have for centuries been interested in lead 
mining. 



CH.'VFTER XIX. 



SOME REMARKABLE CHARACTERS. 



Left His Bride to Follow the Hounds. 

.\ century ago there lived on Hunter's 
Green, an old worthy named .Vdam Morton, 
who was so much devoted to hunting that 
at one time ho kept a small pack himself. 
\ good story is told of this individual, who 
on the most momeiitcus occasion of his 
life, preferred the hounds to his bride. He 
had such a love and passion for liunting that 
it showed itself at the altar, lie was in the 
Hope Church just about t > be married. 
Just as the ceremony was commencing he 
heard the h'lmds pass throu^jh. when out 
of the church he bounded in (|uest of the 
pack, regardless of the feelings even of his 
liride. and the marriage had to be solenui- 
ized on a subsequent day. 

AN ECCENTRIC WORTHY. 

A curious make-up of eccentricity, a 
strange picture, but an honest worthy, was 
Richard Jeffery. 

"Dick," as he was generally called, was 
the character of the village. He had al- 
ways a cheery word both for young and old, 
and by hi • eccentric manner of dress and gen- 
eral character was quite a noted individiial. 
especially with visitors. His clever reciting 
of " Death and th(> I.ady " was a treat. On 
one occasion hf> turned up at the Sheffield 
pantomime, which he enjoyed amazingl.v. 
With mouth agape, eyes filltd with wonder, 
and constantly lifting up his hands in 
amazement, he kept exclaiming " GoW 
upon gold; there can I'e nothing grander 



70 



in Heaven than this; if Queen Victoria wat 
only here it would be complete." Alluding 
to the stage girls, he shouted out that he 
" should just like to take half a dozen of 
them to Bradda, just to let them see." He 
was a tall, big-boned man, with a ruddy 
complexion, high cheek bones, and a pro- 
minent nose, and, despite his penurious 
habits Avas the picture of health. His 
general appearance Avas most grotesque. A 
hat of enormous proportions, tied on his 
head with twine, Avas painted red and blue. 
His shoulders were coA'ered Avith rough 
sacking, and a piece of the same material 
serAed as an apron. His troiisers were so 
patched that in their mosaic appearance 
they resemblejl Sir John Cutler's silken 
hose that had been darned by his maid Avith 
diverse materials so frequently that none 
of the original fabric remained. At one 
time he played the driim in the Bradwell 
band, and he Avould sometimes illustrate 
his proficiency on that instrument by im- 
itating A-ocally a cornet solo, Avith dru'.a ac- 
companiment exectited Avith his fist en a 
door. But he Avas most effective as an 
elocutionist. On inspired occasions he 
would recite a dithery dialogue of some 
twenty or thirty dismal verses in length 
entitled " Death and the Lady," in which 
the striiggle of a Avealthy Avoman to Av^rd 
off the fatal summonses Avith coaxes aiid 
bribes Avas graphically and gruesomely set 
forth. He was carried to his last resting 
place in the churchyard on Good Friday in 
1885, in the presence of hundreds of spec- 
tators. 

DONE AS MANY AS HAD EVER DONE 
HIM. 

One of the characters in the middle of the 
last century was George Goodwin — " Owd 
Goodin" as he was knoAvn to every child 
in the place. He lived in the Avhitewashed 
cottage at the top of Farther Hill, almost 
opposite Dialstone Villas, and Avas a small 
farmer. Many there are who can Avell 
remember the old man fetch Avater from the 
brook Avith a yoke and chains and two big 
milking cans. Stories concerning him 
would fill a pamphlet. 

He never attended a place of Avorship, and 
studiously avoided religious people. When 
he lay on his de,ath bed in 1868, the Rev. 
Thomas Meredith, Avho Avas the Primitive 
Methodist minister at that time, visited him, 
and Avhen he inquired about his state the 
old man retorted " Have you seen my fat 
pig? It's good meat; best in the country." 
The rev. gentleman told him that he wished 
to talk to him about his soul, but still the 
old man persisted in talking about his fat 
pigs. Mr. Meredith spoke to him about 
the stoi-y of the Cross, of the sufferings, 
death and resurrection of Christ, and when 
he spoke of Christ leaving the tomb the old 
man exclaimed "He Avas never likely to 
stop there if he could get out." This cir- 
cumstance is lolnted in "The Hook of 
Marvels." 



It is related of the same eccentric char- 
acter that Avhen a local preacher asked him 
if his niind was easy, he replied "Ah, I think 
•t is." "Why?" "What makes it easy?" ho 
■vas asked. " Well," Avas his reply, " I 
think I've done as many as have ivA^er done 
me." 

STRANGE CHARACTER'S MONEY 
BUYS CHURCH CLOCK. 

rjenjamin Giles, known throughout the 
Peak as " Old Benny," for the greater part 
of his lifetime traA-elled the country as a 
haAvker of small articles which he dragged 
about up hill and down dale on a handcart. 
The old gentleman's life Avas a mystery, 
but it was said that Avhen a young man he 
Avas a London merchant, and lost every 
penny by misfortime, and the rest of his 
life Avas spent in the manner indicated. His 
home — if home it coxild be called — Avas in a 
small chamber behind some lead smelting 
Avorks on BradAvell Hills, Avhere " Overdale 
Houses" now stand, and Avhen on his 
rounds he never lodged at houses, but was 
allowed tt) sleep in outhouses at lead smelt- 
ing Avorks belonging to Mr. E. M. Wass, 
a Avealthy mine owner near Matlock. He 
lived to be more than eighty years of age, 
and Avhen he died in 1883 he left a large 
sum of money — £150 or £200 — to Mr. Wass, 
Avho returned it to Bradwell in the shape 
of a public clock, Avhich he placed in the 
church tower at a cost of £150, and erected 
a monument over the grave of this strange 
character, Avhich is noticed elsewhere. 

MONEY ALL OVER THE HOUSE. 

The curious habits of a Avell-known 
character, Mr. .Joseph AVright, a farmer, of 
Smalldale, Avere revealed Avhen his furniture 
came to be sold after bis death in the year 
1893. He was a highly respected man, a 
member of a very eld familj- Avho had been 
on the spot at least 300 years. His wife 
having long predeceased him, he lived alone 
many years. During the sale of furniture 
the auc^tioneer observed that there was a 
secret drawer in an old box he was offering, 
and a secret drawer there proved to be. 
It Avas opened before the box was sold, and 
yielded a rich reAvard, for it Avas found to 
contain a bank note, a bag of gold, and a 
large quantity of silver coins. There were 
small sums of money all over the house, 
including fifty shillings in copper coins in 
a jng. 

PUTTING THE " AXINS" IN. 

A good story used to be told of a Brad- 
wellite Avho Avas en the point of entering 
into conjugal relations. He Avent to the 
clerk of the parish church at Hope and 
ordered the banns to be published anent his 
forthcoming espoiisal, but he strictly 
charged the clerk to tell nobodv about it so 
as to keep it as secret as possible. The 
clerk acting strictly on his injunctions. 



71 



never told Hie Viear. and the consequence 
was that on the following Sunday the banns 
were not published in the church. On the 
Sunday he was very eager to hear who had 
been " called out " in church, and on ascer- 
taining that his own name had not been 
called he was very wroth. Eushing off to 
the clerk in a great rage he demanded to 
know why he had not been " spurred," 
when the clerk naively replied, "Why 
you charged me not to tell any- 
Ijody, and consequently I did not 
tell the Vicar." This was an in- 
terpretation of the secrecy which the worthy 
fellow had never contemplated and he 
thereupon ordered the clerk to let the pro- 
ceedings take the usual course. The banns 
were published on the following S^inday. 

LITTLE MARTIN MIDDLETON, THE 
DUKE'S FAVOURITE. 

A comical character was Martin Middle- 
ton, known as " Little Martin." But he 
was such a trusted and faithful retainer of 
several successive Dukes of Rutland of that 
period that one of them had his portrait 
painted life size, and it hung in Haddon 
Hall until a few years back. And over his 
grave in Hope Churchyard there is a midget 
of a headstone, no doubt corresprnding with 
the stature of the character it commemor- 
ates, and it informs the passers by that 
" Here lyeth the body cf Little Martin 
Middleton, of Hasslebatch, who died 181.5. 
aged 90." 

REUBEN HALLAM, AUTHOR AND 
PUBLICAN. 

Reuben Hallam, although not a native of 
Bradwell, lived here for several years in the 
early seventies. when he kept the 
"Shoulder of Mutton." A clever and 
widely read man, full of knowledge of men 
and things, and possessed of considerable 
talent, his life was one of strange vicissi- 
tudes and unusual experiences. He was 
l)orn in Sheffield in 1819, and died there in 
1909, aged 90. He was a roving spirit, and 
wrote a serial story " Wadsley Jack, the 
humours and adventiires of a travelling 
cutler." "Lilia Nightingale," and " T'ups 
and Dahns o' Sheffield life," were among 
his productions. It was really an account 
of his own experiences in early life. F;ir 
some years he learnt carving, afterwards 
forged knife blades ; he was a talented 
violinist, for some time performed in a 
travelling theatre, became proprietor of a 
boxing saloon and a professor of pugilism, 
and was at one time double bass singer, 
scenic artist and assistant manager at the 
Theatre Royal, Sheffield. He was f(vr many 
years choirmaster at St. John's Church, 
Sheffield, and published "An introduction 
to the Art of Singing," and in his early 
days he was a famous cricketer. He was, 
indeed a most entertaining person, and 
many a time has he related his reminis- 
cences in the "Shoulder of Mutton." 



CHAPTER XX. 



SOME REMARKABLE ENTRIES. 



Curious Epitaphs and Gretna Green 
Weddings. 

The Hope Church Registers, which date 
from the year 1599, have been well kept, 
and are in a good state of preservation. 
But the cler|;ymen have contented them- 
selves with the bare entry of the Lurial of 
the deceased without any, remarks, except 
in a few instances, and where men have 
been "killed in the mine." But hund:cds 
of these latter could doubtless have been 
shown. 

Under date, March 10th, 1688. we read: 
"William, son of Robert Marshall de Brad- 
wall, biiried. Memorandum, no affidavit 
brought within 8 days and same certified 
to ye overseers of ye poor for Bradwall." 

The very next entry is the burial on 
March 15th, of "Alicia, til Thomas Padley 
de liradwall," and there is a similar mem- 
orandum to the above. 

"1778, July 31. Buried the body of a man 
found upon the moors in the Woodlands, 
and ijlace of abode unknown." 

But this was not the only body buried in 
the Churchyard that had been found upon 
the moors. In the Philosophical Tran- 
sactions : — 

"The moors of Hope parish afford an 
extraordinary instance of the preservation 
of human bodies inte'red in (hem. One 
Barbe:-, :i grazitr, and his maid ser- 
vant, goiiHv to Ireland in the year 1764, 
were lo-t in the snow, and remained 
covered wjili it from January to May, 
when they were so offensive tl^at the Cor- 
oner onhi'cd tlifm to b;» burifd on the spot. 
About twenty-nine years afterwards, some 
countrymen, probably having observed the 
extraordinary properties of this '^oil in pre- 
serving dead bodies, had the curiosity to 
open the ground, and found them in no way 
altered, the colour of the skin bring fair 
and natural, and their flesh as soft as that 
of persons newly dead. They we:e exposed 
for a sight during the course of twenty 
years following, though they were much 
changed in that time by being so often un- 
covered. In 1716, Mr. Henry Brown, M.B., 
of Chesterfield, saw the man perfect, his 
beard strong and about a quarter of an 
inch long ; the hair of his head short ; his 
skin hard, and of a tanned leathe • colour, 
pretty much the same as the liquor and 
e^rth they lay in. He had on a broad 
cloth coat, oi which the doctor in vain 
tried to tear off the skirt. The woman was 
more decayed, having been taken 
out of the ground and rudely handled; 
her flesh, partially decayed, her 
hair long and sPongy like that of a living 
person. Mr. Barber, of Rotherham. the 



72 



man's graudson, had both bodies buried iu 
Hope Church, and upon lo -king into the 
graves some time afterwards it was found 
they were entirely consumed. Mr. 
Wormald, the minister of Hope, was pre- 
sent at their removal. He observed that 
they lay about a yard deep in moist fo 1 
or moss, but no water stood in ' e place. 
He saw their stockings drawn off, and the 
man's legs, which had not been uncovered 
before, were quite fair. The fle^h, when 
pressed by his finger, pitted a little, and 
the joint;; played freely, and without the 
least stiffness. The other pa ts were much 
decayed. What was left of *^heir clothes, 
not cut off for curiosity, was firm and good, 
and the woman had a piece of new serge, 
which seemed never the worse." 

Body snatching \vould appear tn have 
been a considea" le trade a century- ago, 
and there are still people living who can 
relate strange tales about the "I'fsnrrec- 
tion Carts" coming from Manchettor and 
Sheffield, gliding silenth' in the nrddle of 
the night, and returning with h.Klies out 
of the churchyard. There are tw) entries 
to this effect in the register, and singu- 
larly enough, both relate to JJradwell 
people. Here they are: — 

"1831. October 26, agfd 28, William 
Bradwell, Smalldale. The body stolen 
same night." 

"1834. October 2iid. aged 21, Benjamin 
Wi'agg, Bradwall. This body •stolen." 

Evideiitly those who trafficked in this 
ghoulish busine?s carried on their nefari- 
ous job when ilie dark .nij:hts of October 
came. 

"1C36. Began the great death of many 
children and others by a contagious 
disease called the children pock and 
purple pock." 

This relates to the small-pox that was for- 
nierly very prevalent in this country. I c car- 
ried on its ravages f;)r at least two hundred 
years, and killed many. There is the 
entry, "ia34. Dec. 16th. Hannah Cheetham, 
Bradwall, small-pox." 

"1819. Buried Widow Hannah Rose, 
Woodland, aged 100." 

")8."{5. Nancy Furuess, 26, child birth, 
married only 6 weeks." 

;'1K3«. Robert Bird, 80, Bradwall. 
sojourner." 

There are many of these "sojourners" in 
the register, probably wayfarers. 

"1837. Ellis Poynlon, suddenlv at mar- 
ket." 

"1837, July 3rd. Rachel Chfetham, 
perished on the way. 

This wa, the first burial iii the pa ish to 
bo registered under the new .Act by wh ch 
tl:e leturns wore to be sent to the Registrar 
General. 

"1837. James Oldfield. Little Hucklow. 
Killed by a cart." 

"18:)8, February 2nd. Thomas B igshaw, 
Hazlebadge, found hanged." 



"1851, June 29th. A youth unknown 
found in the River .Ashop. About 17 years 
old." 

Baptisms. — "1835, April 8. Nancy, daugh- 
ter of John and Nancy Furness, Bradwall. 
Mother buried same time." 

"1835, IVIarch 8. Isaac, son of Robert and 
Rachel Shirt, Hope. Born with one finger 
and thumb only on right hand." 

"1868, October 22. The new church at 
Bradwell was consecrated. Thanks be to 
God for permitting me to see the accom- 
plishment of this good and important 
work." C. J. Daniel. 

In Wesleyan Chapel Registers: 

1854. "Buried Hannah Cheetham, sister 
to little Isaac Cheetham." 

181.7. "Paid Mr. George Fox £5 borrowed 
money from Mr. Abraham Hill in part for 
h'is croft as burying ground. Marriage 
gifts i>aid towards burying croft £2 Os. 6d. ; 
balance paid to Benjamin Somerset, who 
lent it, £1 7s. 6d." 

1847. "Donation towards obta'ning mar- 
riage license fo" the chapel, handed towards 
this trust account and towards paying 
for the croft l)ought for burying 
ground if the parties do not object and re- 
qu're their money to le retu: ned, £2 Os. 
6d." 

1864. " Buried Hannah Hawksworth. 
This grave belongs to the township of 
Bradwell." 

1864. "Buried Benjamin Barber, 19, 
miner, killed in the mine at Great Huck- 
low." 

Some Curious Epitaphs of Bradwell Folk. 

There is a good deal of originalit.y in the 
epitaphs to l>e found on the gravestone.s of 
Bradwell folk. Here are a few : — 

In Hope Churchyard. 

To Benjamin Kirk, of Brough, who died 
in 1789, aged 37: 

"Reader, whoe'fr thou act, remember 
that the common lit of all mank'nd is the 
grave. Yet know tVat tlie Meek, the 
Charitable, and Religious sliall triumph 
over Death, secure in a blissful Immor- 
tality." 

To AV^illiam i\liddlet;>n, JJradv.ill ■. IS"4), 
and several children: 

"Kind Reader stop and contempla*^o 
The natni-e !)f a futile Sta^e. 
If Christ in judgiufiit shou'd appear. 
Are you jirepared to meet Him there.'" 

To Mary, wife of Ellis Middleton, of 
Bradwall, 1810: 

" My husband dear and children seven. 
Prepare to follow me to Heaven." 

On a table tomb of (-evrral young chil- 
dren of John and Marv Fox, of Smalldal", 
1754: 



73 



•■ The blast which nips our youth will 
conquer thee. 
It strikes the bud, the blossom, and the 

tree. 
Since life is short, and Death is always 

nigh. 
On many years to come do not rely ; 
The present time learn wisely to employ 
That thoii mayest gain eternal life and 
joy." 
To Mary, wife of I'rederick Morton, 1845, 
aged 25: 
" Grace was in all her steps. 
In all her gestures dignity and lo\e.'" 

Here is a curious inscription on the stone 
of a former churchwarden: 
" Abraham Hibljerson lyeth here. 
And so he must till Christ appear. 
Though flesh and bones consume away 
He must appear at Judgment Dav " 
"He departed this life Feb. 15, 1771'., aged 
87 years." 

" Smalldale." 
On the stone of John Cheetham Bnid- 
wall, 1768, we read : 

" Man, know thyself ! 
All wisdom centres there." 

On the monument of James and Mary 
Hibbs. 1779, and nine children, the: s^ is I ho 
fellowing : 
"Wi*h deepest thoughts, spectator view 

thy Fate, 
Thus Mortals pass to an Immortal. State. 
Through Death's dark vale we hope 

they've found the ^Vav 
To the bright Regions of eternal Day. 
Life's but a Moment, Death that Moment 

ends, 
Happy, thrice happy he that Moment 

wisely spends. 
For on that dreadful Point, Eternity 

depends." 

On the stone of Isaac and Ma'y Maltby 
(1802), aged 72 and 73 respectively, there is 
the line: 

"An unspotted life is old age." 

There would appear to be doubts and 
fears concerning a future state, expressed 
in some lines on the stone of Benjamin 
Bagshaw, of Coplowdale, whj died in ISOt. 
At the head of the sh)ne there is : "In hope of 
a joyfuU Resurrection to Enter into Life 
and Glory," but beneath we read : 
"Let no su:viving mortal man ijrosume. 
To state my I'resent or my future Doom. 
Let that a part for Ever to remain. 
To Him who knows our. hearts to be but 

vain. 
So let my Ashes and this brittle Stone 
Rest till i rise and be disturbed by none " 

Hero is another: 

" Behould ! 
this stone .stands near 
upon the bones of 
Martin Middleton 
who Brad well Town 



Inhabited of late 
and dved near Aged 
fifty E ght. 
November 16, 17.53." 

In Wesleyan Cemetery. 

A new marble monument to Isaac Baii- 
croft (1908), aged 79, erected by his daugh- 
ter, says: 

"Farewell vain world, I've had enough of 

thee. 
And now I care not what thou say'st of 

mo; 
Thy smiles I court not, nor thy frowns 

I fear, 
Mv cares are o'er; mv head lies easy 

here." 

(In a monument to John Bradwell (39), 
who died in 1896, it is stated that: 

"This stone was subscribed for by the 
staff and fellow cabmen at Hope Railway 
Station, in loving memory of a departed 
friend, as a memento of the respect and 
esteem in which he was held in the dis- 
trict." 

In Bradwell Churchyard. 

On the flagstone at the entrance to the 
tower doorway : " Jane Maltby Bi'adwell, 
6, and George Edward Bradwell, 18, who 
were buried on February 18, and March 6, 
1889. They were the first to be buried in 
this churchyard." 

On headstone near entrance to vestry : 
"In memory of Benjamin Giles, a native 
of South Wales, but for 40 years a hawker 
in this district, and resident at Bradwell, 
who died February 16th, 1883, and was 
buried beneath this stone February 19th, 
1883, aged 81 years. Lay not up for your- 
selves treasures upon earth .... but 
lay up for yourselves treasures in Heaven. 
For where jour treasure is there will your 
heart be also." 

Gretna Green Weddings. 

It is well known that at Peak Forest, 
often termed "The Gretna Grefn of the 
Midlands," which was extra parochial, the 
parson had formerly unique powers. He 
could legally perform the marriage cere- 
mony withotit previous publication of the 
banns at any hour of the day or night. It 
was exceedingly convenient lor Bradwell 
couples who were desirous of doing it on 
the sly, and doubtless many patronised the 
parson of Peak Forest. 

Extracted from the registry of " Foreign 
Marriages " are the following Bradwell 
names :— 

1727. 

Joseph Bridbury and Lydia Wilson, 
.iugust 1st. 

John Greavs and Hannah Bridbury, 
License. October 18th. 

Abraham Hall and Sarah Longley. March 
the 9th. 



74 



1728. 
Edward Dernly and Elizabeth Bray, July 
the 4th. 

Geofrey Pearson, Ann Burroughs, Septem- 
ber 2.5th. 

1729. 
Joseph and Elizabeth Hall, May 11th. 
Thomas Elliot and Ann Eyre, December 
7th. 

Daniel Pearson and Elizabeth Kei 
December 17th. 

1730. 

Francis Bridbury, Mary Longden, April 

6th. 
Joseph Dennis, Mary Key, October 11th, 
Samuel Spooner, Marv Bridbury, October 

12th. 



1734. 

John Bramhal. Sarah Tattlewood, Jiiue 
4th. 

1735. 

Samuel Edenzor, Elizabeth Greavs, 
September 2Gth. 

1736. 

Thcmas Walker, Elizabeth Pearson, 
July 22nd. 

Benjamin Thorp, Mary Bramhal, July 
25th. 

George Fox, Esther Barber, December 
16th, 

Abraham Ibberson, Sarah Waiuwright, 
February 2nd. 




"GRETNA GREEN" OF THE PEAK. 
The Ancient Church of Peak Forest. Demolished in 1876. 



1731. 

Joseph Bramhal, Hannah .Mien, June 
15th. 

Matthew Furnico, .Ann Hallam, Jul,y 20lh. 

John Cowper, Alico Green, August .'jth. 

Thomas Bridbury, Mary Adsit, .August 
29th. 

1733. 

John Beiinit, Martha Morten, April 1st. 

Edward Bennit, Ann Needham, July 9tli. 

Hugh Hill. Bradwall, Sarah Clayton. 
l*cak Forest. 



1737. 

John Tricket, Mary Greavs, May 3ith. 
John Andrew, Marv Goodwin, May Ist. 
Henry Gelly, Ruth" Slack, August 31st. 
John Taylor, Alice Walker, Octo'er 7th. 
Benjamin Fox, Mary Elliott, October 
18th. 
John Onyon, Ann Elliot, February 5th. 

1738. 
Robert Hill, Mary llallani, April 26th. 
Benjamin Hallam, Jano Froggatt. Decem- 
ber 31st. 



73 



1739. 

Robert Barber, Sarah Morten, July 8th. 
Wm. Daltoii, Elizabeth Greavs, Febru- 
ary Uth. 
Robt. Hall, Betty Fox, February 21st. 
Thomas Kowson, Mary Fox, March 24th. 

1740. 

Robert Hall, Auu Bradwell, October 26th. 
Paul Andrew, Ruth Deykin, October 26th. 

1743. 
Wm. Deykin, Ann Bradbury, May 20th. 
Thomas Morten, Elizabeth Edenzor, May 
82nd. 

Nicholas Devkin, Dorothy Hall, October 
15th. 

1744. 
Benjaniiu Hall, Ann Hall, July 8th. 

1747. 

Thomas Burrows, aged 26, and Margaret 
Dakin, aged 25, Castletou, June ye 11. 

Robt. Hill and Mary Longden, of Castle- 
tou, Juno ye 12th. 

Thomas Andrew and Eliz. Hall (Castle- 
ton). July the 12th. 

Robt. Bradwell and Margaret Hall, Nov- 
ember the 21st. 

1748. 

William Longden and Hannah Needhani, 
September ye 1st. 

1752. 

William Eyri> and Ellen Furnace, Nov- 
ember 2ud. 

1753. 

Benjamin Walker and Mary Hallam, 
October 19th. 

John Maltby and Ann Palfryman, Nov- 
ember 26th. 

1754. 

Godfrey Elliott and Susanna Barb.r, 
February 25th. 

Robert Palmer and ^Jin Marshall, March 
iUt. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



EIGHTY ODD YEARS AGO. 



Leading Inhabitants in 1829. 

The population of Bradwell has varied 
with its vicii^situdes. In the year 1801 
there were 955 inhabitants, and in 1811 the 
iwpulatiou had increased to 1,074. When 
the census of 1821 was taken a further in- 
crease was proved, the number being 
1,130. Ten years later (1831), when lead 
mining was very bad, the number of in- 
habitants was shown to be 1,153 — still a 
slight increase— but in 1841 it was 1,273. In 
1851 the population was returned as 1,334, 
viz., 650 males, and 684 females, this being 
the highest ever known. But f: om thi> 
period there was « gradual declino owing 



to depression in lead mining, and the clos- 
ing of cotton mills, for in 1861 a slight 
decrease was shown, the figiires being 1,304, 
but in 1871 it had further decreased to 
1,141, the low price of lead having caused 
some of the mines to be abandoned. lu 
1881 there was another big decrease, the 
returns showing only 1,019, but in 1891 
there were so many empty houses that the 
total number of inhabitants was but 837. 
But during the next decade the tide 
turned, mainly owing to the construction 
of the Dore and Chinley Railway, and the 
popularity of Bradwell as a resort for 
health and pleasure, and the census of 1901 
returned 1,033 inhabitants. The returns 
of 1911 showed by far the greatest increase 
in the historv of the place, the number of 
inhabitants then being 1,.330. 

When the River was Forded. 

A century ago such a convenience as a 
bridge was not known in Bradwell, al- 
though the Brook flowed right through the 
centre of the place. As a matter of fact, 
the water had to be forded at a spot now 
known as Biidge End; at Town End, Town 
Bottom, The Hills, and other places, every 
water-coui-se, whether brook or rivulet, 
being open. Water Lane, now Church 
Street, was an open stream, with a footpath 
))y the side. 

The date of the erection of Causeway 
Bridge, near the Roman causeway in Hope 
Lane, is not known, but it is the oldest 
! structure of the kind in the district. Nor 
i is it known by whom it was built, but it 
I is repaired by the townsiiips of Bradwell 
■ and Hope. In 1814 the Bridge over the 
j brook at Bridge End was built, and in the 
same year two culverts were constructed 
over small rivulets. In 1817 the Com- 
i nilssioners of Common Lands built another 
bridge over the brook in the Holmes; in 
1818 and 1829 other bridges were con- 
structed. In 1823 three bridges were built 
over the Sitch rivulet on tlie Hills. 

A Community of Eighty Years Ago. 

A glance at the old town and its people 
eighty odd years ago— in the year 1829 — 
cannot fail to be interesting. In those 
days they were a community to themselves, 
isolated from the rest of the world, with 
the carrier's cart to Sheffield the only 
means of communication with the outer 
world, a contra-st to the growing, stirring 
place of to-day, with half the number of 
its inhabitants not natives. But even so 
far back the population of miners and 
weavers was almost as great as now. 

The miners — men, women and children 
— were daily sending their Ipad ore to tho 
smelting mills, of which there were several, 
with their tall chimneys belching forth 
volumes of black smoke. James Furniss 
and Company were the principal firm of 
lead smelters, and their works were es 
tensive. Another smelting mill was worked 
by Isaac and Jeremy Royse, of Castletou. 



75 



Jeremy was born during >ome excitement 
at Speedwell Miiu^ Castleton, and became 
pi-oprietor of that remarkable ))lace. The 
smelting works and cupolas of the Furnisses 
and Royses have long been demolished, but 
that of the Middletjns in the Meadow, is 
now used as farm buildings. 

And this colony of miners found employ- 
ment for a good inimber of tradesmen. As 
blacksmiths there were Thomas Bradbury, 
in Hollow-gate; Wm. ]}ennett. (Teorge San- 
derson, Thomas Bradwell, ^^eorge Holme, 
in Netherside, anci Richard Walker, who 
came to an nntimely end. The only smithy 
remaining is that of George Holme, bnt his 
son is at Hope. 

And as with Ijlacksmiths, so with wheel- 
wrights. The miners found them plenty 
of work. There were Benjamin and Isaac 
Somerset, with their big timber yard full 
of stacks of timber for mining piir poses; 
Jacob Marshall, at ya:d Head; and George 
Bradwell, biit their workshops have long 
ago disappeared. 

The hatters, too, were a force to be 
reckoned with, for hats were made here for 
the London markets, and the rough felt 
hats were fetched to all parts of Derbyshire. 
The big hatters were William and James 
Evans, who were people of means, indeed, 
William endowed the old chapel ; Robert 
Jackson ; and there was a whole family of 
Middletons in the same business, George, 
Charles, Joseph, and Robert, all in business 
on their own account. Bnt the industry 
has long been defunct, and houses now 
occupy the sites of the old hat manufac- 
tor'es. 

Handloom weaving, too, was yet in vogue, 
though not to the same extent as at a 
more : emote period. But the weavers s'ill 
found employment for a shuttle-maker, 
William Fox, whose lad, Samuel, then just 
ai)prenticed at Hathersage, was destined to 
become one of the greatest manufacturers 
England has ever known, and the founder 
of the famous firm of Samuel Fox and 
Company. The house in which the cele- 
brity was born is still there in Water Lane, 
now dignified by the name of Church 
Street. 'J'he Pearsons, too. were finding 
employment for many at Ihe'r cotton mills, 
one wherp the whito lead works now s'^ands 
— indeed, the cotton mill itself remains in- 
tact — another at the bottom of Stretfield, 
a T'ortion of it converted into the farm 
bailiff's houso, and the third, thp new mill 
in Stretfield. 

Such (if the rising generation whose par- 
ents could afford to give them a little 
.schooling were being taught by John Darn- 
ley a famous scho.ilma.ster in those da.ys, 
and he was teaching the "free scholars" 
under 101 las Marshall's Charity in a school- 
room in Hugh Tiane that had just been 
built at the expense of John Birlev, who 
fltni resided in the village. .And tlie Wes- 
leyans were conducting the only Sunday 
School in the place, with 300 scholars, in a 
schoolroom built by public subscription, 
now the Conservative Club. 



]']qually interesting it is to know who 
were catering for the wants of the people 
in those days. There was Thomas H'U, 
the great shopkeeper and "lead ore buyer, 
whose shop is still thei'e at the top of 
Water fjane. But there was no such thing 
as the 'J'ruck Act. There was also John 
Somerset, who did a big trade, in fact it was 
John Somerset who built the bridge over the 
brook at Town Bottom, sr) that carts could 
ge'. to and from his shop, which is now 
known as "Brook House." There was 
Joseph Barlier, who lived and carried on 
business in Town Gate, in the property 
above the White Hart, now enclosed by 
palisadings. One night Joseph Barber and 
his wife returned from a prayer meeting at 
the We.sleyan Chapel to find that their 
house had been entered ond robbed, and the 
marauders had written with chalk across th© 
front of the mantelpiece, "Watch, as well ag 
pi'ay." There was also George Middletun, 
Isaac Hill, Thomas Gleadhill, and Thomas 
Bnrrows, of Smalldale, who v.as the Shef- 
field carrier. 

Whether or not butchers did a roaring 
trade is a question, but there were plenty 
of them, and their old shops still remain. 
There were John ]5radwell and his son John 
in Tow^n Gate; Elias Needham, next to 
the White Hart; and Alexander Chectham, 
in Water Lane. The tailors were Joseph 
IClliott and his son Thomas, and Richard 
Kay; and the shoemakers — there were no 
niacliine-made boots then — were Rol>ert 
Middleton, in Town Gate, Anthony Mar- 
shall, Thomas Elliott, William Rovill (who 
lived in Nether Side), and 01)adiah Staf- 
ford. The stonemasons w-ere John Broad- 
bent, George Downing, and Gforge Walker. 

But the miners were proverbial for wet- 
ing tlieir Vihistles, and on their reckoning 
days the place resounded with th(ir merri- 
ment. No wonder then, that there should 
be a good number of "houses with the pic- 
ture over the door." Which is, or where 
was the oldest of these old inns, is not 
known, but certain it is that in the year 
1577, Godfrey Morton and Ottiwell Yellolt 
kept inns in" Bradwell. Eghty odd years 
ago the White Hart w;-,s kept by Elias 
Needham, the Bull's Head by Ellen Brad- 
well, and the Green Dragon (now cottages) 
by Jose))h Bocking. These three lived in 
tiie old Town Gate, and right in the centre, 
as if placed there ready to catch their vic- 
tims, were the stocks, where the t pplers 
were made fast. At the top of Smithy 
Hill Robert Morton, an auctioneer, kept 
the R<)!-o and ('rown, while the Newburgh 
Anus, wlrch had only just been bu'lt, was 
kept by William Kenyon, and the Bramalls 
were at the Bowl'n"; Green in Smalldale. 
William Bradwell kept the Rose Tree, a 
hou^e that lost its license seventy years 
back, and in Nether Side there was the Old 
Ship kept by Thomas Gleadhill, now ol(t 
cottages clo'-e to the Wesleyan Manse, and 
the New Ship kept by William Revill, 
where Crompton and Evans' Bank now 
stands. The Shoulder of Mutton, the 



77 



Bath Inn, and the Bridge Inn came into 
existence as public-houses some years after- 
wards. 

In religions work the Wesleyans were 
providing accommodation for most of the 
Ijcoplo in their present chapel ; the Primi- 
tive Methodists had not long built their 
first chapel, now a cottage; the Baptists 
were struggling along in their old chapel, 
now the Primitive School, dipping their 
converts in the waters of the brook, and 
the congregation of the old Presbyterian 
Chapel had by this time become Unitar an. 

And there were three F:iendly Societies 
(one a Women's Club), with a total mem- 
l)ership of 280. 



the community the latter felt under fiom« 
kind of obligation to keep their instruments 
in tune. Jacob Hallam was fiddler at the 
Wesleyan Chapel, and in an account book, 
iinder date 1833, there is the following 
entry : — 

"Jacob Hallam's Fiddle Repaired, cost 
with strings 15s." 

"Robe: t Middleton Is.. Josiah Barber I3., 
John Maltby Is., John Middleton, shoe- 
maker. Is., Joseph Barber, sen.. Is., Thomas 
Hill Is. Johnson Evans 6d., George Fox Is., 
Hugh Booking Is., Thos. Bradwell 6d., 
Robert Booking, sen., 6d., Wm. Booking 6d., 
Robt. Booking, jun.. Is., John Bradwell 
Is., Messrs. Pearson 3s." 




TWO FAMOUS SINGERS OF THE MIDDLE OF THE 19th CENTURY. 
JOSEPH HIBBERSON and CLEMENT MORTON. 



A Musical Community. 

Most of the people in the Peak district 
are strongly attached t.o musical pursuits, 
the inhab tants of Bradwell. Castleton, 
Tideswell, Litton, Eyam, Hucklow, and 
othe:' places in particular. Very often 
the whole family cultivate the taste for 
music, and the villages contain their choir:; 
nf singers and bands of instrumental per- 
formers. To mention those who were 
famous as musicians in the olden days is 
impossible, but it is close on a hiindred 
years since the old Bradwell Band was 
rormed. a m-xture of brass and reed instru- 
ments, one of which, a curious inst~unient 
known as the seri>ent, belonging to the la*"e 
Job Middleton, being still in existence, as 
also is the fiddle of the late Jacob Hallam, 
another local worthy. These musicians 
were looked upoli as institutions in the 
locality, and as they rendered service to 



And a glimpse at the Hope Churchwar- 
den's accounts serves to show that Bradwell 
instrumentalists were to the fore quite 
a century and a half ago, at 
the old Parish Church. In 1759, 
"the inhabitants of the parish of 
Hope in vestry assembled agree to pa.y the 
sum of sixteen shillings and sixpence to- 
wards paying for a Bassoon and Hautboia 
to be used in the Parish Church." And 
no doubt William Jeffery, of Bradwell, 
found playing that Bassoon thirsty 
work, for in the accounts there are numer 
ous entries of payments for ale and dinners 
for William at the Woodroofe Arms. Pre- 
sumably, he spent the Sunday at Hope, 
having his dinner provided by the war- 
dens between morning and afternoon ser- 
vices. 

Other notqble folk in the musical wo"ld 
in the early part of last century were 



78 



Joseph Hibber&on, a famous bass singer j 
Ambrose Gleadhill, one of the finest fiddlers 
in Derbyshire; and Clement Morton. 

When a Cattle Fair was Held. 

Formerly a cattle fair was held at IJrad- 
well. A century ago it was well attenaed 
the old Town " Gate being the Market 
Place. There was also all the usual para- 
phernalia of a pleasure fair. But half a 
century ago it declined until it ceased al- 
together. Hero are its latter years: — 

1859, two cows, one sheep, and one stirk; 

1860, two cows and one sheep; 1861, not a 
single thing of any description; 1862. seven 
cows, one sow, three pigs, and one donkey. 
In 1863, six buyers turned up, but not a 
beast of any description was offered for 
sale, and this was the last fair. 

The Wakes. 

The date of the establishment of the 
Wakes is a mystei-y. For centuries it has 
been held on the second Sunday in July, 
and continued through the following week, 
but the bull-baiting, bear-baiting, cock- 
fighting, ralibit coursing, badger-baiting, 
and drinking which characterised the festi- 
val generations back have long ago ceased 
and given way t-o a holiday for health and 
pleasure. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



LONGEVITY AND TRAGICAL DEATHS. 

Peaklandt rs are noted for their longevity, 
and none more so than those in this dis- 
trict. Here are those over fourscore during 
the last 100 years. These indicate the 
long-lived families: — 

1787.~John Barnsley, Netherwater, 101. 

1813.— Widow Hannah Wragg, New Wall 
Nook. 81; Widow Hannah Elliott, 95; Widow 
Ann Middleton, Hazlebadge, 87. 

1814.— Ann Bradshaw, 84; Widow May 
Burrows, 86; Martin Middleton, Hazleb^i^e, 
9). 

1818.— Widow Jane P-vans, Smalldale. 82; 
Jcieph Hibbs, 83. 

1819.— Thomas Middleton, 91. 

1824.— John Ellis, 84. 

1825.— George Barn.sley, Netherwater, 82; 
Rebecca Hallam, 89; George Bramall, 8mall- 
daie. 90. 

1826.— Mary Morton, 84. 

1828.— Widow Hannah Ashmore, 83. 

1829.— Widow Ann Hill, 81. 

1831— Daniel Stafford, Smalldale, 82. 

1832.— Nancy Hall, Cotes, 80. 

1836.— Christopher Jackson, Smalldale, 82; 
Sarah Sidebottom, Brough, 92. 

1837.— Mary Middleton, 81. 

1838.— Robert Middleton. 80. 

1839.— John Eyre, 81. 

1842.— Robert Bradbury, 83, died at Marple. 

1845.— Robert Middleton, 85; Elizabeth 
Elliott. Smalldale. 83. 

1846.— Robert Hawksworth, 84; Betty Jack- 
son, Rmalldale, 88. 



1848.— Maria Barber, 80; Ann Taylor, 87. 

1849.— Thomas Middleton, 92; Edward 
Middleton, Smalldale, 82. 

1850.— Ellen Cheetham, 89. 

1855.— Robert Middleton, 94; George Little- 
wood, 82; Thomas Hill, 83. 

1856.— Sarah Hallam. 80; Robert Maltbv. 
8*. 

1857.— William Bramall. Smalldale, 83. 

1858.— William Kenyon, 81 ; Adam MoJton, 
88; Ann Palfreyman, 80. 

I860.— Ann Eyre, 84. 

1861.— Edward Hartle, 94. 

1862. — Jane Sidebottom, Brough, 86; 
Hannah Kenyon, 82 ; Joseph Elliott, 83. 

1863.— Durham Wragg. 83. 

1866.— Isaac Middleton, 84; Robert Hall, 87. 

1868.— George Goodwin, 88; Martha Elliott, 
80. 

1869.— George Elliott, 82; William Bycking, 
87. 

1871.- Charles Middleton, hatter, 83; 
Richard Middleton, 88. 

1872.- Betty Hall. 85; Mary Bennett, 80; 
William Stafford, Smalldale, 88. 

1874.— Mary Bradwell. £0; Charity Maltbv. 
83. 

1875.— George Fox. Hazlebadge Hall, EO ; 
Martha Booking, 81; Ellis Eyre. 88. 

1876.— Robert Middleton. hatter, £2. 

1877.— Betty Barber. 88. 

1878.— Fanny Somerset. 81; Mary Elliott. 
The Hills. 80. 

1879.— John Middleton, Town Bottom. 82; 
Olive Burrows, Smalldale. 85. 

1881.— Rev. Joseph Hibbs. 80. 

1882.— George Middleton (pinner), 83. 

1883.— Nancy Dakin. 83; Mary Maltby, 87; 
Robert Furness. 81 : Joan Stafford. 85. 

1884.— Obadiah Stafford. 87; Charlotte 
HaHam. 81. ; 

1885.— John Hallam, farmer, 81 ; Jacob 
Hallam. 82; Ruth Booking, 82. 

1886.— Joshua Jaffrey. 82; Barbara Middle- 
ton. 87. 

1887.— Joseph Bradwell, Town Gate. 83; 
1 Deborah Elliott. 100. died at New Mills; 
: William Jeffery. Hill Head. 85; Wm. Long- 
I den. 80. 

1888.— Mary Hallam. Smithy Hill. 88; Ben- 
jamin Giles. 81. 
1 18£9.— Rev. Robert Shenton. 83; Isaac Eyre. 
i 87; Hannah Palfreyman. 86; Betty Hall, 83; 
i William Hill, 82. 

1690.— Daniel Bocking. £0. 
! 1891.— Rebecca Hall, 84; Hannah Middleton. 

83. 
' 1892.— William Jeffrey. 82: Abraham Ash- 
more, Smalldale, 88. 
I 1893.— Ann Eyre, £0; Hannah Cheetham. 83. 

1894.— Hannah Howe. Overgate. 81. 

1895.— Hannah Pearson, died in Sheffield, 91; 
Susan Cockerton. 81. 

1896.- Joseph Bradwell. 80. 

1P97.— Joab Hallam. 82; Thomas Walker. 
Hills. 87. 

1899.— Job Middleton. 85; Nancy Morton, G7; 
Abram Wilson. 90. 

1900.— Hannah Andrew, 85. 

1901.- Elizabeth Humphrey, 82; Elizabeth 
Byre, 80; Samuel Bradbury, blacksmith, 61. 

1902.— Isaac Cooper. 82. 

1901— Harriett Middleton. Smalldale. 84. 

1904.— Harriett Sarah Oldfield. 84; Harriott 
Middleton, 80. 

1905.- Robert Bradwell. 91; William Barber. 
81. 

1906.— Thomas Ford, The Hills. 90; Mary 
Ford, his wife. 88; John Cheetham, Small- 
dale, 80 ; Mary Middleton, Gervase. 87. 

1907.- Rachel Hallam, Within Housi-. 80; 
Ellen Cooper, 81. 



79 



1908.— Robert Middleton, Town Gate. 85; 
Caroline Brookes, 85; George Needham, Wind- 
mill, 88; Samuel Longden, 83. 

1911.— Mrs. Charlotte Hill, Sheffield, 81; 
Joseph Bradwell, died at Longstone, 83; 
Charity Middleton, Smalldale, 82. 

Some Tragic Deaths. 

Helow will he found, in something like 
chronological order, some deaths of a 
tragic character during the last century:— 

1820 (about).— Wharton, found killed in a 
field near Eccles; supposed to have been 
murdered. 
1838.— Thomas Bagshaw, Hazlebadge, hanged 
himself in a btirn. 

Rev. John Wright, Wesleyan minister. 
Bradwell, died suddenly whilst preach- 
ing at Peak Forest. 
1846.— August 9th, Joseph Wright (70), killed 

by a horse on his farm in Smalldale. 
1853.— Robert Middleton (freehold), a pron;- 
inent Wesleyan. died through excite- 
ment after result of general ejection. 
1854.— November 8th, Edwin Fox. thrown out 
of his cart and killed near New Wall 
Nook. 
1858.— Mary Ann Booking, Shoulder of Mut- 
ton Inn, died under tragic circum- 
stances through loss of blood. 
1859.— Sept. 9th, Richard Walker (62), black- 
smith, cut his throat in a barn. 
I860.— Martin Middleton Bland, Abney, killed 
and disembowelled in a horriblo 
manner in a hayfield. 
186C.— William Howe, Bradwell. both legs 
blown off and killed when blasting 
at Peak Forest. 
1861.— William Hallam, Brough, drowned in 

River Noe. 
1862.— Sarah Maltby (51), died suddenly from 
paralysis of the heart. 
Sept. 19th, Joshua Hallam. killed by 
being thrown from a load of coal in 
Cave Dale, Bradwell. Cart overturned 
and killed the horse and driver. 
1864.— John Kirkby (49), ruptured blaod ves- 
sel and died immediately. 
1865.— Dec. 2nd, William Bennett (56), miner, 
fell dead in Thomas Bradwell's grocer's 
shop. Town Gate. 
1866.— Martha Middleton (73), died suddenly 

from fatty heart. 
1867.— Oct. 10th, Charles Pearson (79). of 
Brough House, fell doad in the New- 
burgh Arms Inn, when attending n 
property sale. 
1869.— October. Samuel Howe (63), miji: , 
died suddenly in hi.'? chair after re!-.- -n 
ing from work. 
1872.— Thomas Middleton. farmer. Abney 

Grange, killed by lightning. 
1875.-May 18th. Edward Middleton (62). 
Hugh Ijane. died suddenly after attend- 
ing a miners' meetinir at ths " Bull's 
Head." 
1879.— Mary Hallam. Hill Head, died sud- 
denly from heart disease. 
1880.— May 11th. Elkanah Morton (65), Hun- 
P'y Lane, died suddenly in his chair. 
1881.— May. Mrs. Margaret Fox (56). Ha2.>;- 

badgo Hall, found dead in bed. 
1882.— Sept 7th. John Andrew (67) Hollow 
Gate, killed by falling from a load o* 
hay. 
1883.-Oct 20th, John Hall (42). killed in c 

stone quarry at Dove Holes. 
1884.- March 19;h Francis Palfreyman (6), 
died suddenly on his father's knee. 
March 31st, Robert, Middleton (75), 
hatter. The Hills, died instantaneously. 



. 85.— May 29th. Matthew James Buttery (47), 

Smalldale, hung himself in his house 

when the polic* were searching for the 

body of his wife. Mrs. Buttery was 

never found, and what became of her 

still remains a mystery. 

Dec. 27th, Elizabeth Middleton (4). 

daughter of Samuel Middleton, Hollow 

Gate, burnt to death. 
1886.— May 3rd, George Barnsley (23), Nether- 
water Farm, found dead in his house. 
1886.— November 25th, Ann Walker (70). wife 

of Thos. Walker. The Hills, fell dead 

on the floor. 
1887.— October 7th. Elizabeth Cooper (40), wife 

of George Henry Cooper, died from 

fright. 
1888.— Dec. 3rd. Joseph Bland (30). killed at 

Abney. by his horse and cart. 
1889.— Ellen Wilson (64). found dead in bed 

May 27th. John Broadbent. blacksmith, 
and his wife Louie, both died and were 

buried on the sdme day. 
,890.- March 17th, Abraham Cooper, 36. 

Church Street, killed by falling from a 

plank into a deep cutting at Peak 

Forest. 
1891.— February 17th. Roger Hall (54), Little 

Hucklow. killed by a shot on Dore and 

Chinley Railway. 

June 27th, Elizabeth Bennett (69>. 

Ivilled by horse and trap at Town End. 
./Lugust 29th, Thomas Harrison (69). 

Smalldale. killed by a cart at Peak 

iOrest. 

Oct. 10th. Miss Harriett Middleton (64). 
killed by falling down cellar steps at 
Sheffield. 

Nov. 15th. Mary Middleton (70). Farther 
Hill, found dead in bed. 
l&i?,. -Dec. 20th. Joseph Hall (61). blacksmith 
Vether Side, and Esther, his wife (63). 
loth buried on one day. 
1893 April 7th, Mary Walker (45). wife of 
reorge Walker. The Hills, left her bed 
in the night and fell down Bradwell 
Dale rocks. 

August 16th, Theresa Marsh (43). Little 
Hucklow. died from intemperate habits, 
probably accelerated by drinking laud- 
anum. 
1094.— February 28th, Mary Ann Cooper (18), 
found drowned in the River Wye, at 
Buxton. 

.\pril 4th. William Henry Drayoott, 
late master of Bradwell Church School, 
and organist at church, died from al- 
coholic poisoning and exposure on 
Clifton Downs. 
I. J5.— January 7th, Thomas Middleton (26), a 
native of Bradwell. fell dead when on 
his way to work at Peak Forest. 
Dec. 25th, Benjamin Middleton (50), 
miner, found dead in his house in Hugh 
Lane 
189(^..— June 12th, Hannah Bocking (63). fell 
dead in tho kitchen whilst at work. 
June 17th, George Walker (47), miner,- 
fell dead whilst at work in Ins ta'doR. 
Tune 25th, Joseph Noble Dixon (67),. 
\Voodcroft, retired Inspectar of Light- 
nouses, found dead in his chair with a 
newspaper in his hand. ■ ' 

John Bradwell (39), Church Street, fell 
dead from the seat of his wagonette 
in the railway station yard. 
lH'-': -Sept. 11th. William Hayward (70). far- 
mer, Coplowdale, run over by his horse 
and cart in Bradwell Dale and killed. 
-February 11th. George B. Hawksworth' 
;39). Dialst^ne Villas, died after break- 
ing his leg. comin? from Outland Head;.. 



l£:'i 



.oT 

' A-/ 



80 



1899, 



1901 



1902 
1903 
1904 



1905 
1907 



Aug. 28th. Isaac Daniel Hill (62), Station 

Eoad, killed by falling out of a trap. 

Sept. 25th, Emma Alice Ashton (47), 

Little Hucklow,, died from heart 

disease. 

Nov. 25th, Harriett Bradwell (75), Yard 

Head, died very suddenly in bed. 
— July 13th, John Christopher Hancock 

(18), son of the Rev. John Hancock, 

Primitive Methodist, lost at sea. 

Nov. 9th, Sarah Cramond (77), wife of 

James A. Cramond, tailor, killed by 

falling downstairs. 
—August 23rd, George Bancroft (65), 

Btone mason, killed by falling from a 

new house in Stretfield. 

May 12th, Eobert Morton Palfreyman 

(12), run over by a traction engine and 

killed. 

November 5th, Abraham Furness (75), 

killed by a fall of stone in Pindale 

Quarry. 

—February 23rd, Frederic Cyril True- 
love (20), died suddenly. 
—Samuel Howe (58), killed in Bradwell 

Dale quarry. 
—February 25th, Ruth Hallam (four 

months). Little Hucklow, accidentally 

euffocated in bed. 

November 4th, William H. Hallam, 

killed by a locomotive at Barnsley. 

July 11th, Amariah Cooper (59), Little 

Hucklow, hung himself. 
—August 7th, Maria Burrows (49), died 

suddenly. 
—January 27th, Caroline Bradwell (one 

year), scalded to dea'h. 

February 21st, Oswald John Hill (48), 

" Hill Stile." died suddenly in his sleep. 

June 5th, George Edward Johnson (28), 

butcher, hung himself. 

Aaron Hallam, engine driver, killed in 

railway accident. 



CHAPTER XXIIl. 



A TRAGIC VISITATION 
YEARS AGO. 



OF FORTY 



Seventy Persons Mysteriously Cut Off. 

A visitation of the town by a terrible 
fever forty years ago is considered the most 
terrible calamity that ever happened in 
the place. At the latter end of the year 
1868 a fever of the most virulent type made 
its appearance, and in a few weeks cut off 
several per.sons, young and middle-aged. 
For a long time it completely baffled the 
skill of the medical men, and for the space 
of more than a year the whole place was in 
mourning. With the advent of 1869 the 
malady seemed to increase in virulence, 
and, in February of that year, of six per- 
sons attack d five sup'cumbed to the disease. 
One of the-e victims was Thomas Middle- 
ton, who had served in the army and sur- 
vived the climate of India, but returned 
to his nat.ve place to be cut off by this 
terrible pestilence. The .same month a 
young married woman, Mrs. Levi Brad- 
well, was among the victims, and the 
enemy entered a house and snatched away 



brother and sister, George Edward and 
Jane Bradwell. The church had just been 
built, and the churchyard had to receive 
the last two victims, who were the first to 
be buried there. Their graves are indi- 
cated by a flagstone at the foot of the tower. 
This month claimed another victim, a son 
of Mr. John Dakin, who carried on the 
business of optician. 

There were not many cases in the month 
of March, but all, with one exception, 
proved fatal. While it cut off Mrs. 
William Stafford, of Smalldale, her hus- 
band and sister-in-law recovered. Another 
whom it snatched away was Miss Frances 
Hallam, a popular singer, who was to have 
been married shortly. Another estimable 
young lady. Miss Mary Barber, and Chris- 
tina M;ddleton were numbered with the 
slain. llie malady showing no sign of 
abatement, the whole populace was almost 
panic-stricken, and at this time the entire 
town was fumigated with tar, and the 
mouths of all the sewers with copperas. 

As summer approached the disease con- 
tinued its ravages, and in April, out of 
twelve persons attacked, fiv? succumbed, 
while those who did recover were cases of a. 
most serious character. Strange to say, the 
five victims this month were all in one 
family, four being in one house. The angel 
of death located itself at Yard Head, and 
in three weeks had snatched away Mrs. 
John Hallam, her daughter Alice Ann, her 
two s'^ns James and William, and her sis- 
ter, Mrs. Thomas Hallam. It was a 
pathetic sight to see the funerals of 
mother, daughter, and sister, all taking 
place at one time on the same day. The 
schools and places of worship were now 
closed so as to lessen the risk of infection, 
and death appeared to reign supreme. 

Although there w-ere many cases m the 
month of May, the rate of mortality was 
the lowest, for there was only one death, 
that of George Maltby, a fine young lead- 
miner, but in .Tune the percentage of deaths 
was much higher, and a dreadful summer 
was threatened. There were several deaths 
this month, and no class of person seemed 
to escape. One of the victims was the Rev. 
Thomas Meredith, who then resided at 
Town End. He was faithful in the dis- 
charge of his nastoral duties to his suffer- 
ing flock until he himself was laid low 
and quickly snatched away. And even the 
itinerant showman's household did not 
escape. He had pitched his tent for the 
coming wakes festival, and his child was 
snatched away. 

July brought a big crop of cases, in- 
cluding several fatal. Thomas Meredith, 
junr., son of the deceased minister, was 
borne to his father's grave, so that the 
sorrowing lady had been bereft of both 
husband and .son, and among other victims 
were Ann Burrows, a young woman in 
Smalldale, and Ada, daughter of Joshua 
Evans. Another pathetic case was that of 
Mts. Alfred Middjeton. of The Hijls, who 
left husband and two little children, but 



81 



the husband followed his wife to the grave 

a ffiw weeks later, and the children were 

left orphans. 

All the cases in August recovered, but 
the malady appeared with increased viru- 
lence in September, when there were four 
deaths— Mr. Alfred Mrddleton, P. Bland. 
Miss Dinah Ashmore. and a daughter of 
John Kennett, who at that time was pro- 
prietor of the Tanyard. The month of 
October brought sixteen fresh cases, death 
visiting half a dozen houses, taking away 
both breadwinners, their wives, and chil- 
dren. Those numbered with the d(!ad this 
month were Michael Cheetham, a lead- 
miner, who lived on The Hills; William 
Palfreyman, a fine-looking young fellow, iu 
Smalldale; George Morton and Charlotte 
Booking, who lived opposite each other on 
The Hills; John Frisk, who lived only a 
stone's throw away; and Marina Middle- 
ton. The health authorities were power- 
less to arrest the ravages of the disease, 
and a deputation from the Bakewell Sani- 
tary Authority now visited the place and 
held an inquiry, consisting of Lord Den- 
man, Dr. Fentem. and Dr. Taylor. 

The inhabitants were almost panic- 
stricken by the virulence of the scourge, 
and as it continued its ravages great dis- 
tress provailetl in many homes- In Novem- 
ber there were 20 freslii cases, but only four 
deaths — Mrs. Slack, Miss Euth Bramall, 
Smalldale, Mrs. George Bradwell, and Mr. 
Joseph Middleton, a v.ell-known tradesman 
who carried on business in two shops. 
Town Bottom and top of Water Lane. The 
malady now appeared to be of a somewhat 
milder type, for although December pro- 
duced another score cases there were but 
three deaths — Miss Hannah Hill, a son of 
Thomas Jennings, and Miss Elizabeth 
Somerset. It was a Christmas of mourn- 
ing and distress, for death had stalked 
through the village all through the year, 
and continued some time during the fol- 
lowing year. 

There were several fatal cases at the 
latter end of 1868, Frances Taylor and Her- 
bert Taylor succumbing to the disease ; 
there were also a number in the early part 
of 1870, but the following is a list for the 
year 1869. from the diary of a' gentleman 
at that time : — 

January.— Kecovered : Samuel Howard, 
Anne Howard, Alicia Evans. 

February. — Recovered: John Broadbent; 
died : Thomas Middleton. George Edward 
Bradwell. Jane Bradwell, Mrs. Levi Bradwell, 
John Dakin's son. 

March.— Recovered : William Bradwell ; 
died : Frances Hallam, Mrs. William Stafford, 
Christiana Middleton, Mary Barber. 

April.— Recovered: William Stafford, Nancy 
Stafford, Phyllis Hallam, Seth Evans, Sarah 
Ann Pearson, Martha Marshall, John Mar- 
shall; died: Mrs. John Hallam (mother), 
James Hallam (son), William Hallam (son). 
Alice Hallam (daughter), Mrs. Thomas 
Hallam (aunt). 

May.— Recovered : Mrs. Charles Middleton, 
Dennis Evans, Maurice Evans, Richard Tay- 
lor, Thomas Bingham, Thomas Hallam's 



daughter, Mrs. Joseph Hibbs, Fanny Hallam, 
Sydney Bradwell, Samuel Dakin, Mrs. 
Jacob Hallam, Mary Kay, Hannah Boyes, 
Sarah Middleton; died: George Maltby. 

June. — Recovered : Nancy Morton, Olive 
Walker, Humphrey Hallam, Mrs. Jason 
Hallam, Josephine Middleton, Rachel Hal- 
lam ; died : Rev. Thomas Meredith (Primi- 
tive Minister), Nancy Maltby's son. Travel- 
ling Showman's child. 

July.— Recovered : Charlotte Middleton, 
Abraham Andrew, Elizabeth Andrew. Mrs. 
Benjamin Hall, Maggie Cramond, George 
Middletons daughter, Isaac Bancroft's four 
children, Joseph Pearson's two children, 
Stephen Middletons two children, Delia Brad- 
well, Thomas Hilton. Isabella Cramond; 
died: Mrs. Alfred Middleton, Ann Burrows, 
Thomas Meredith, jun., Ada Evans. 

August.— Recovered : Joseph Cramond, 
James Henry Cramond, Thomas Burrows, 
Reuben Middleton, Mary Jane Marshall. 

September. — Recovered : John Hallam, Mrs 
John Jennings, Mrs. Samuel Longden and 
three children, Stephen Middleton, Mrs. 
George Middleton, Thomas Morton, Joseph 
Pearson, Hugh Morton, Robert Evans' thre& 
children; died: P. Bland, Dinah Ashmore, 
Alfred Middleton, John Kennett's daughter. 

October— Recovered: Aquilla Marshall, Reu- 
ben Bingham, Mary Jane Marshall, Samuel 
Bramall. Oliver Morton, Elias Palfreyman, 
Mrs. Jabez Morton, Ann Bramall. Betty 
Elliot. Betty Walker; died: Michael Cheet- 
ham, Charlotte Bocking. William Palfreyman, 
Jehu Frisk, Marina Middleton, George Mor- 
ton. 

November. — Recovered : Mrs. Hallam, Mrs. 
Joseph Bramall. Mrs. Isaac Hall, Delia 
Middleton. Laxj» Middleton. Joseph Pearson, 
Alice Ann Hall, Mrs. Zillah Hill. Samuel Hill, 
Mrs. Aaron Howe, Charlotte Hallam. Mrs. 
Elias Jeffrey. Emma Elliott. John Elliott, 
George Bancroft, Hannah Bradwell ; died : 
Mrs. Slack, Mrs. George Bradwell, Ruth 
Bramall, Josenh Middleton. 

December.- Recovered : Samuel Hallam, 
Hannah Evans, Joseph Booking. Frank Mor- 
ton, Lydia Thorpe. Hannah Booking. Hannah 
Cheetham. Ann Revill. Ann Marsden, Mar- 
garet Middleton, Eliza Jeffrey, Samuel 
Jeffrey, John Marshall, Jane Marshall, 
Caroline Booking, Frederick Archer; died: 
Hannah Hill. Thomas Jennings' son, Eliza- 
beth Somerset. 

Although more than forty years have 
passed, 55 of the above still survive. Alto- 
gether bot'.veen 200 and 300 persons were 
attacked, and about seventy succumbed to 
the malady, the whole making a tragic and 
sorrowful chapter of local history. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



SOME PLACES OF INTEREST. 

A situation more delightfully romantic 
it would be difficult to find. Surrounded on 
three sides by mountains of great altitude, 
open on the other side to the delightful 
vale of Hope, with Winhill and Losehill 
reminders of the terrible slaughter during 
the Heptarchy, the situation of Bradwell is 
ideal for health and pleasure alike, while 
its curiously winding lanes are lined by 



82 



the cottages that have been there for cen- 
turies, and the summit of Bradwell Edge, 
to which access may be gained by a gradu- 
ally ascending path from the Abney Road, 
affords one of the most extensive and de- 
lightful views t^ be found on any moun- 
tain in England. One or two of the most 
interesting spots may be mentioned. 

Robin Hood's Cross. 

■" I think of ages long since gone. 

Of those who wrought with tools of stone ; 
I think of hunters free and bold, 
Who dwelt up here in days of old." 

—J. E. Bradwell. 



Peak, one of which is of immense interest. 
It was prepared in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, alxjut 1590, and has small pic- 
tures or sketches outlining the churches and 
buildings of the principal places in the dis- 
trict of the forest — Glossop, Hayfield, Mel- 
lor, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Castleton, Hope, 
Tideswell, Wormhill, and Fairfield. There 
are also outlines of the various crosses, in- 
cluding a sketch of "Robin Hood's Cross," 
which is shown to be in Bradwell, but just 
at a point where the township of Bradwell. 
Hazlebadge, and Abney converge. 

The remains of this monument, which has 
weathered the storms of a thousand years. 




.-Ju— 



S^vj^ ROBIN HOOD'S CROSS 

(from an Old Drawing); also a Stile made from the Cross. 



The numerous crosses and remains of 
crosses met with in the Peak provide inter- 
esting study. The base and a portion of 
the shaft of one of these is in a field be- 
tween Bradwell and Hope, but much nearer 
to the latter place. It is the last field 
before descending the hill above Eccles to 
Hope, and is only separated from the road 
by a stone wall. It is a most interesting 
object of antiquity that ought to be care- 
fully preservea. 

There are but few, however, who have the 
least idea that Bradwell ])ossesses the re- 
mains of one of these pr&-Norman crosses, 
for such the learned Dr. Cox concludes 
them to be. 

In the Public Record Office there are 
many plans of the ancient Forest of the 



may be found by following the Abney foot- 
path up Bradwell Edge as far as the stile 
leading into the roadway at Abney Moor 
Gate. As already stated, the cross stood 
on the boundary line of these townships, 
and when the commons were enclosed the 
boundary wall was built over the rough 
base stone of the cross, which with half the 
squared socket may be seen in the bottom 
of the wall. The drawing shows the cross 
to have had a double base, with a shaft of 
considerable height. 

The base of the cross is visible from the 
Abney Road side of the wall close to the 
gate, and is rendered easy of inspection by 
a kind of arch having been formed over 
it. The stone is about twenty inches 
square, but has been broken completely in 



83 



two across the centre, probably when the 
shaft was wrenched* from the socket. 
There appears to be no doubt whatever 
that the massive stones forming the stile 
leading from the first to the second field 
in the direction of Bradwell are the re- 
mains of the cross itself. One of these 
pieces is 3 feet 6 inches long, and another 
three feet long above the ground, but they 
are doubtless a great depth below the sur- 
face, while a third piece 3 feet 6 inches long 
lies on the ground. These would make a 
shaft about ten feet high. One of the 
pieces in use as a stump of the stile is 
clearly a portion of the cross, as it is L 
shape, showing a portion of a Latin cross. 
As an interesting relic of antiquity the 
cross ought to be restored and erected on 
the old base in its original position. 

The Batham Gate and Roman Camp. 

These two highly interesting spots have 
been described in the earlier part of this 
work. 

The Bagshawe or Crystallized Cavern. 

This cavern, one of the most magnificent 
of England's famous caves, is the property 
of Mr. W. H. G. Bagshawe, J.P., D.L., of 
Ford Hall, Chapel-en-le-Frith. It was dis- 
covered in the year 1807 by miners who, 
when working in the Mulespinner Mine, 
broke in on this splendid suite of caves. 
It takes its name from Lady Bagshawe, 
who was one of the first to visit the place, 
and whose husband. Sir William Chambers 
Bagshawe, was one of the proprietors when 
it was discovered. 

A small building on the hillside close to 
the town is over the entrance to this beau- 
tiful place. The cavern is approached by 
126 steps, hewn out of the rock. Here is 
Hutchinson's account of it when he toured 
the Peak in 1808, the year after the cavern 
had been discovered: 

"There is no grandeur in its first ap- 
pearance; it is rather terrific than other- 
wise, and is as much like going down into 
a deep dungeon as anything I can compare 
with. After de.scending about 300 steps, 
very perpendicular, you then walk, or more 
properly creep, on an inclined way for near 
a quarter of a mile, the opening being so 
low that it is impossible at times to get 
forward without going on all fours, though 
the road, if it be so called, is considerably 
improved of late; for it is not long since a 
gentleman of my acquaintance actually 
stuck fast between the rocks and was ten 
minutes before he could extricate himself, 
and then not without severely bruising his 
back. The different crystallizations which 
now attract the attention on every side, and 
above and below the passage, cause you to 
forget the irksomeness of the road and to 
drive away every idea of fatigue. New ob- 
jects of curiosity begin to crowd one upon 
another. Here there is the appearance of 
the pipes of an organ called "The Music 
Chamber"; in other places the stalactites 
are formed into elegant small collonades, 



with as exact a symmetry as if they had 
been chiselled by the greatest aitist. 
Candles judiciously disposed in the inside 
of them gave an idea of the palaces of 
fairies, or the sylphs and genii, who have 
chosen this magnificent abode. In a recess 
on the left there appears the resemblance 
of a set of crystallized surgical instru- 
ments." 

"But still you have seen nothing in com- 
parison with what you are to expect; for 
in the course of 100 yards further, creeping 
at times, and passing down rugged places, 
you enter the Grotto of Paradise. This 
heavenly spot, for it cannot be compared 
with anything terrestrial, is of itself a 
beautiful crystallized cave about 12 feet 
high and 12 feet long, pointed at the top 
similar to a Gothic arch, with a countless 
number of large stalactites hanging pen- 
dant from its roof. Candles placed amongst 
them give some idea of its being lighted up 
with elegant glass chandeliers, while the 
sides are entirely incrusted and brilliant in 
the extreme. The floor is chequered with 
black and white spar, and altogether it has 
the most novel and elegant appearance of 
any cavern I ever beheld. This paradaisical 
apartment would be left with a kind of 
regret should you not expect to see it again 
on returning back." 

"Still continuing a similar road to what 
hag been passed, and entertained at vari- 
ous times with the curiosities of the place, 
and the gentle patterings of the water, 
which scarcely break the solemn silence of 
the scene, at length you arrive at the Grotto 
of Calypso, and the extremity of the cavern, 
above 2,000 feet from the first entrance. In 
order to see this to advantage it is necess- 
ary to rise into a recess about a yard high. 
There, indeed, from the beautiful appear- 
ance of the different crystallizations, some 
of them of an azure cast, from the echoes 
reverberating from side to side, you fancy 
yourself to be arrived at the secluded re- 
treat of some fabled Deity. The water 
also running near this cavern brings a cool 
refreshing air which, from the exertion 
used and the closeness of the place, is very 
acceptable. The size of this grotto is some- 
thing similar to that of the last, and indeed 
it is difficult to determine which is the most 
intenesting. I could not restrain my 
imagination from composing the following 
little sonnet to the titular goddess of the 
place : — 

SONNET TO CALYPSO. 

Ah! Tell m© Goddess, whither wilt thou fly. 
To shun the anguish of a love-sick mind; 
The mockine echoes here will only sigh, 
With baffling breath. " Telemachus un- 
kind!" 
Thy grotto's sweet cirul'an hue in vain. 
To the© its dazzling lustre will impart; 
Amidst thy sorrows here, thou must com- 
plain. 
And pensive wreck thy deep desponding 

heart. 
Alas! the sportive nymphs in vain allare! 
The Ood-like youth distains the beauteons 
form; 



8; 



True to himself, and to his purpose sure. 
Though shipwrecked— bold, again he t raves 
the storm. 
Ah! Fly to Lethe's stream. Calypso, fly! 
In sweet oblivion let thy anguish die. 

"After returning by the same path for a 
considerable distance, there is another 
cavern to be investigated, which branches 
in a south-westerly direction from the one 
already explored. The roads here are still 
more difficult of access, but certainly the 
stalactites are more beautiful. A gy^eat 
many of them are pendant from tho roof 
more tlian a yard long, and almost as small 
as tho smallest reed. The top and sides 



has been expended to make the explora- 
tion of this cavern easier. 

There is a curious hole in the rock called 
"The Elephant's Throat," and in the roof 
a band of chert appears like the sole of a 
foot, with stalactites hanging on to the toes. 
From its enormous size, about five feet 
long, it is called "The Giant's Foot." In 
the rcof of the "Bell House" are a num- 
ber of holes looking like bells hanging in a 
church tower. In a compartment which 
has been named "The Bursting of the 
Tomb," the crystallizations are so magni- 
ficent that a visitor was once so incredu- 
lous as to apply the lighted candle to see if 




THE DALE— ONE OF BRADWELLS BEAUTY SPOTS. 
It is here that the Ghost of Margaret Vernon is said to appear. 



of this second cavern in many places are re- 
markably smooth, particularly the part 
called the amphitheatre. In general this 
place is of a very dark stone, to Avhich the 
transparent appearances before-mentioned, 
with each a drop of water hanging at the 
bottom, form a nne contrast, and indeed 
this cavern is in some degree a contrast to 
the one before examined. 

" Returning liack we still admire the 
curiosities before noticed, and with regret 
leave this beautiful crystallized cavern, its 
representation in idea still continuing 
before the mind's eye, where it will remain 
as long as memory holds her seat." 

Many additional chambers have been ex- 
plored during the century, and much money 



he could not detect what he thought was a 
fraud and not the work of nature. 

"The Chamber of Worms" exactly de- 
scribes the appearance of the small curling 
stalactites on the roof and sides, looking 
like worms wriggling out of the rock, ana 
in "Tom of Lincoln's Bell Hall," a drop 
of water falls from the roof, which fre- 
quently changes colour from white to red, 
giving a beautiful variegated api>earance to 
the stalagmite forming underneath. FiUm 
"The Duiig(on" other spacious openings 
have been found, and could a road from 
the valley be made into this magnificent 
suite of caves there is no doubt the cavera 
would be much more extensively visited. 

The guide resides in the village. 



85 



Bradwell Dale. 

This ix)mantic ravine is considered one of 
the most beautiful of Derbyshire Dales. 
With high rocks and precipitous cliffs on 
each side extending about three-quarters oi 
a mile to Hazlebadge Hall, it is a delight- 
ful walk. The rocks are of immense 
height, and the extensive blasting of stone 
of late j'ears whilst accomplishing the 
widening of the road through the dale, has 
not spoiled the scenery. A lead vein 
crosses the ravine and here the old work- 
ings may be plainly seen. There are also 
public footpaths on the very summit of the 
rocks on one side, from which persons on 
the road in the bottom of the dale look like 
midgets, such are the dizzv heights above. 
From top to bottom the dale is a delightful 
spot. 

Medicinal Waters of the Bath. 

" But those hot waters were known in old 

time. 
The portway or High paved street named 

Bathgate 
Beaching for seven miles together from 

hence unto 
Burgh a little village doth manifestly 



shew.' 



—Camden, 1610. 



An object of considerable interest and 
one that might be made a great asset to 
the district is the Bath at Edentree, from 
which "The New Bath Hotel" takes its 
name, but all that can be seen of a once 
famous medicinal spring is now a building 
in ruins in the Bath field at the rear of 
the hotel. The author of the "English 
Traveller" (1794), speaking of Burgh (or 
Brough) as "a village where there are some 
remains of an ancient Roman Causeway," 
adds. "And it is the opinion of most of 
the learned that those adventurers fre- 
quented the place on account of its baths." 

Pilkington, in 1789, says: "I have heard 
of only one salt spring in Derbyshire. It 
is situate in the High Peak, betwixt the 
villages of Hope and Bradwell, and near a 
rock called Edintree. I have not seen it 
myself, though I took some pains to dis- 
cover it, but am credibly informed that the 
impregnation is considerably strong. It is 
said to be useful in ulcerou^: and scorbutic 
complaints." The "Gentleman's Maga- 
zine" for 1819 mentions the "sulphurous 
spring" at Bradwell, and later Glovei-, the 
historian, mentions "the salt spring at 
Bradwell. which is worthy the attention of 
the faculty." About 1830 the waters were 
collected by Mr. Robert Middleton, of 
Smalldale, the proprietor, the building 
erected, and the bath constructed. For 
many years the waters were sought by 
many on account of their healing nature, 
and conveyed in barrels and vessels long 
distances, and thousands have derived 
benefit from the baths, the waters being 
ver.v few degrees lower in temperature than 
the Buxton waters. But for the last 
forty years the place has been neglected. 
The bath itself is about five feet deep, and 



is approached by a descent of six stone 
steps, the water being conducted from the 
springs into the bath itself. This is 
doubtless a very valuable spring. 

The Echo. 

Although there are some notable echoes 
among the Peaklancf hills, the most strik- 
ingly curious echo ever heard, even by 
;hose who have travelled extensively, is 
ound in Bradwell, and visitors have 
ravelled miles to hear it. Fortunately, 
t is on a public path, and any child knows 
'The Echo Field." Taking the field path 
o Castleton, it is about half a mile out of 
Bradwell, just before reaching Messrs. Had- 
fteld's asphalt works. Such is the echo fi-om 
the "Folly" that to describe it is difficult. 
The sounds produced are most uncanny in 
the night time, many voices responding to 
your own, almost close to your ear. A good 
story is told about a clergyman being 
taken along this path in the dark by a 
farmer. The cleric w as unaware of the 
echo. When they were approaching the 
place, the farmer said, as if in feai", "There 
is only one spot on this lonely road where I 
grasp my stick a bit tighter, and we are 
just coming to it." The parson laughed 
at his dread. Presently a rough hand was 
placed on the preacher's collar, and a score 
of voices yelled, "We've got you now." It 
was only the farmer's joke, but the parson 
confessed that the sensation was not an 
agreeable one. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



FAMOUS SOLDIER IN THIRTY-SIX 
BATTLES. 



CAREER OF THOMAS MORTON. 

In a house on Nether Side, on the 12th 
of June, 1816. Thomas Morton first saw the 
light. Ho was a son of George and 
Hannah Morton, a good Christian couple, 
who, although Wesleyans, first opened a 
door for the reception of the Primitive 
Methodists, who held their first services in 
Morton's barn, which is still standing near 
to the house. George Morton allied him- 
self with the new sect, but his sons, with 
one exception, remained with the parent 
body, and all their lives were prominent 
Wesleyans. Jacob Morton became a famous 
W'esleyan minister and Fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society; John Morton became 
a pioneer minister of the Primitive Metho- 
di.sts and in the early days was thrown into 
prison for preaching ; Frederick and Jabez 
Morton were prominent Wesleyan laymen 
all their lives, and for twenty years 
Thomas Morton saw more active service in 
the army than is given to most men in that 
period of time. 



Thomas Morton left his home and en- 
listed in the 29th Kegiment at Sheffield in 
the early part of 1838. Here is what he 
wrote to his distressed mother — a note 
scratched in pencil on a scrap of rough 
paper :— 

■' Dear Mother, it is to comfort you 
that I write at this time. I am quite 
comfortable of myself, and am fully per- 
suaded it is for the best. Be not uneasy, 
for I will write at Liverpool, and every 
month after. I am pleased with your letter 
and shall be steady and look at my Bible. 
My respects to you all. 

THOMAS MORTON." 



"At Cork I met with Thomas Hibbs, and 
among Sheffielders in the 82nd Regiment, 
and at Dublin 1 met with Ephraim Lloyd 
that opened Bradwell Chapel. He has been 
a soldier, and hc^n bought off." 
■ This is interesting as having reference to 
the opening of the first Primitive Metho- 
dist Chapel in Bradwell (now a cottage). 
In the next letter in July, in reply to one 
from his parents, he remarks : "You said 
you could not understand that Ephraim 
Lloyd. He told me that he had been a 
travelling preacher in the Primitives, and 
that he opened Bradwell Chapel, and had 
slept many times with you. He had been 




HISTORICAL HOUSE IN NETHER SIDE, 
Where lived George Morton, who first opened his door to the Primitive Methodists. 



And the Bible was his guide throughout 
one of the most strenuous lives even of a 
soldier. 

In June, whtn he was sailing with about 
forty other recruits from Dublin to Ply- 
mouth, at midnight the mast-head smashed 
down on the boat, tlie engine and tlie 
compass broke dawn, and in this condition 
the boat was tossed aliout all night uniil 
they were picked up by anoth; r vessel and 
taken on to Cork, 85 miles, where they :e- 
maiiH'd a week leforo the voyage could l)e 
rtsumed. In his own words, "it was a 
miserable scene to see, men, women and 
children expecting to meet with a watery 
grave every moment. T1k> sailors them- 
selves never tJiought of landing any more." 
In his final letter from Plymouth he says: 



in the 99th Regiment, end was bought off. 
You told mo to inquire about William 
Cheetham. He is in the same with me, and 
is my compani,)!!, bui I am torry to inform 
his uncle that he is in hospital very ill." 
In the same letter he giv.s lai account of 
the army discipline of that day, and says: 
"I have sfen (lefertcrs punished in a very 
ciuel maniipr. I havo seen one flogged and 
others sent to the treadmill, and many are 
marching up and down the bricks with a 
pack on iheii- backs. One deserted out of 
our company, servant to the captain, and 
stole £170 from him. He has s'ncei been 
taken to Chatham, having committed an- 
other robbery (^f £500. I should not like 
to see hini punished: I should not wonder 
but he will g.t shot." 



87 



But before he had been in the army a year 
he was tired of a soldier's life, for on 
Christmas Eve, 1838, the following official 
letter was sent to his father : — 

Horse Guards, 24th Dec, 1838. 
"The Adjutant General has now to ac- 
quaint George Morton with reference to his 
application of the 15th instant that tho 
General Commanding in Chief has been 
pleased to authorise the discharge of Pri- 
vate Thomas Morton of the 29th Foot, on 
payment of the regulated Compensation of 
Twenty Pounds, which must be lodged with 
the Paymaster of the Eegiment at Deven- 
port within one month from the date hereof, 
or the authority will be cancelled. 
George Morton, Bradwell. 

But in less than a year, he again joined 
the Army, for Nov. 21st, 1839, saw him en- 
listed in the 31st Foot, where he was 
destined to make his mark, for his Regi- 
ment was soon called out to the East Indies. 

THROUGH THE AFGHAN WAR. 

Morton had an evtntful six years in the 
East Indies. His regiment landed at 
Calcutta on October 26th, 1840, and sailed 
up the Ganges to Chinsurah, arriving at 
Agra on March 3rd, lb41. In a letter at 
this time he mentions that he had received 
a letter from another Bradwell soldier, Wil- 
liam Cheetham, who had been reduced 
from the rank of Corporal. Four years 
later he reports the death of William Cheet- 
ham. 

For about a year he was in Cabul in 
General Elphinstone's army, when there 
was fearful massacre, — "thousands of 
human skeletons strewn all over the road, 
it was heart-rending to hear their bones 
cracking under the wheels of the guns." 
They had to fight all the way to Cabul, 
where the road for six or seven days' march 
was "strewn over with skeletons shocking 
to relate." The Massena battle was fought 
against the tribes that had never before 
been conquered, and this with the sun at 
126 degrees. They destroyed 40 forts. 

The letters written by Morton to his par- 
ents at Bradwell would fill a volume, and 
would certainly provide material for a his- 
tory of the campaign in Afghanistan. He 
was in the East Indies frcm 26th October, 
1840, to Decembtn", 184G. and went through 
the Afghanistan campaign in 1842 includ- 
ing the actions of Mazcena, Tezeen, and 
Jundallah. He was in the Battle of Dubba- 
in 1843. when the Indians, under Shere | 
Mohammed, were defeated by the British, 
under &ii' Charles Napier ; also at Hydrabad 
when tlie Belochees Wv re defeated by the 
British, under Sir Charles. Tho Belochees 
numbered 35,003, and tho Brit sh only 2,600, 
and this led to the surrender of Hydrabad. 

He also served throughoiit the Sutlej 
Campaign of 1845-6, and was present at the 
Battle of Moddkee on December I8th. when 
the Sikhs wer,^ defeated by the Hritish 
under Sir Hugh Gough and Sir John 



Littler, and was there when Sir Robert Sale 
fell. This was on the 18th December, and 
three days later he was in the Battle of 
Ferozeshah. when 16,700 British, under Sir 
Hugh Gough, defeated 50,000 Sikhs under 
Tej Sing. Six days later he was in action 
at Maharajapore, under Sir Hugh, when 
18,000 Mahrattas were defeated by 14,000 
British. He was also in the great battle 
at Aliwal, on January 28th, 1846, when the 
Sikhs (19,000) were defeated by the British 
(12,000), under Sir Harry Smith, and he 
foiight in the still greater Battle of S'obraon 
on February 10th, under Sir Hugh Gough, 
when the Sikhs lost 13,000 and the British 
loss of killed and wounded was 2,338. 

IN THE CRIMEAN WAR AND INDIAN 
MUTINY. 

REMARKABLE EXPERIENCES. 

But the most eventful period of Morton's 
life was that of the Crimean War and the 
Indian Mutiny. England and France de- 
clared war against Russia on March 28th, 
1854, and his regiment, then stationed at 
Preston Barracks, being ordered out to 
active service, he made his will, sent his 
gold watch and other belongings to his 
brother Jacob, and embarked from Liver- 
pool on the first Tuesday in April. 

AT SCUTARI. 

Writing from Camp Scutari opposite 
Constantinople, on May 21st —he had pro- 
mised to write once a month — he says how 
glad the soldiers were to leave barracks, 
as they were "nearly eaten alive with fleas." 
There were fearful thunderstorms that 
flooded the tents, and two of the oflicers of 
the 93rd Regiment returning from town to 
camp after the storm, were washed away 
to sea. In his highly interesting descrip- 
tive letter, he enclosed to his Bradwell rela- 
tives some i"ose leaves from the Sultan's 
garden. Ho says: "Ix)rcl Raglan is gone 
up to Varna with the other bigwigs, French 
and English, to hold a Council of War, so 
that in a few days we expect to move to- 
wards the enemy. Tho steamers are all 
ready to take in the cavalry and artillery 
are just arriving." In his description of 
life in the camp he observes: "Tho men 
drink hard, wine and spirits are so cheap. 
A good many men have lieen flogged — one 
of our regiment, the first for a number of 
years — it is the only i:uuisliment that wilt 
answer for insubordination." Again, "the 
Turkish women are very virtu:,us, eith:r by 
choice or force; if they are known to ga 
astray they aro sure cf death instantly. 
They go aboxit in groups more like Egyptian 
mumniies than anything els:." He con- 
cludes by wishing his friends "good health, 
a good spring, and a prospect of a good har- 
vest with plenty of Hools and a good price 
for lead." Hools, it may be explained, i3 
the miner's te: m for the lumps of lead or© 
got from the mine. 
/ 



A month later— June 19th— writing from 
Camp Slojin, he tells how cholera is affec- 
ting the soldiers. Already some have diid 
of the malady, and two were drowned while 
bathing. He says, "You will begin to 
think in England that we are a long time 
before we commence to fight the Russians, 
but I assure you that our generals, officers, 
and soldiers are all as anxious to be at the 
enemy as you are to ht ar of the success of our 
Arms, but they have to take care that they 
are prepared in everv respect to meet the 
enemy. However, five or six days will 
bring us to the seat of war, and before an- 
other month passes we shall have measured 
swords with the Russians. I believe the 
Turks are giving them plenty to do, and 
when we get up there we shall bring 
Nicholas to his senses. '^ 




THOMAS MORTON. 



With just a touch of humour the brave 
soldier remarks: "I don't think I shall be 
at Bradwell Wakes this year, bvit^ I shall 
think of you all if I am alive, and will 
drink a glass to all your very good health, 
and think that I am amongst you." 

IN "THE VALLEY OF DEATIE." 

A letter of July 2Rth from Camp Marrar- 
tine, shows that the cholera made its ap- 
pearance among the troops at Deona, and 
the Division lost 42 men and two women in 
two days, but since removing there had 



been only six or seven deaths. He re- 
marks pathetically : "Poor Hogan, Quarter- 
master of the Seventh Regiment, was Duried 
to-day. I think Jacob saw him at Chat- 
ham, a littlci man. He only lasted about 
18 hours after he was taken ill. Five of 
our strongest Grenadiers died in a few 
hours. While I am writing I hear that we 
have two more deaths in our regiment, 
and if wo stop at this place long I am 
afraid we shall have it very bad. The 
country is beautiful to all appearance, but 
it is the Valley of Death. The Russians 
lost 40,000 men in 1828-9 by plague and 
cholera, the French have had it at Varna, so 
have our other Divisions. It is very hot. 
This is worse than fighting, losing cur fine 
men for nothing." He adds : "I drank all 
your healths at the Wakes, and wished I 
was with you for a few days." 

Singularly enough, the very next day he 
writes a doleful letter anent the disease in 
the camp. The weather was boiling hot. 
He says : "We have lost two men by cholera 
up to 12 a.m., the 19th Regiment 
next to us lost two also. One bad case in 
hospital. We are to get a dram of rum to- 
day, which I think will do the men good. 
It is better than wine. When we left our 
last camp we left our cases of cholera with 
two doctors, and 21 men on guard behind. 
Three or four of the men died. When I 
wrote last I was not well, and thought it 
might be my last letter to you." 2nd 
August: "Yesterday four men died, and the 
officer 77th. My groom took sick last night. 
I have just been to hospital to see him. 
The tents are full, a melancholy night. Two 
men appear to be dying, and a number 
more bad cases." 3rd: "We have had no 
deaths yesterday or to-day, and I think this 
ground is much healthier than our last. All 
cf us that are well are as jolly as possible. 
We want nothing but work, and it is a pity 
to see such a fine army sent out from Eng- 
land to fight the common enemy and to 
bo left to elie in such a country as this with- 
out a sight of the Russians." "A doctor of 
the 23rci Regiment dead to-day." 

A letter covering events from the 4th to 
the 8th of August is pregnant with interest. 
The eloctors are compelling each man to 
take one eighth of a pint of rum daily. 
Largo numbers of men continiie to die 
daily in hospital, and the doctor told Mor- 
ton that he had over 150 under his treat- 
ment. One of his pioneers died after an 
hour or two's illness. He says: "There is 
a visible change at divine service now. 
Everyone seems to take a part. I hope our 
united prayers will be heard, and that the 
sickness may leave as. It is very dreadful 
to see fine men cut off in a few hours. Oh 
that we may all be ready for the great 
change. 

7th inst. : "Yesterday we got the English 
Mail. I got no letters and was much dis- 
appointed. I got the illustrated and also 
the "Daily News" with the Bradwell post- 
mark oiv it. which did me good. When I 
saw it I called it my "Brada Wakesing." 



89 



We have one man dead to-day in our regi- 
men. We have lost now in our Division 
one Paymaster, one Quartermaster, one 
Doctor, and one Ensign, and about 30 men 
per Regiment." 

8th inst. : "We had one man died last 
night. A captain of the artillery is dead." 

The Regiment frequently removed their 
camp a few miles in the hope of finding a 
healthier site, and every day Morton dotted 
down a few events on a sheet of paper, and 
posted it to Bradwell with every mail. His 
next letter, which begun on August 91 li, 
reports further deaths. Writing from a 
strong Turkish post, where the Turks had 
fortifications, garrisoned with 10,001) moii, 
and where he had been digging wells and 
opening fountains to get water for the 
troops, he says : "I found Roman tiles 
■cemented together with Roman cement, 
which must have been in the ground for 
ages. We have four men dead in hospital 
now. A captain of the 77th died the other 
day. Our army stores have been burned 
downed at Varna by Greeks, and 15,000 

Sairs of boots sent out for the troops were 
estroyed, besides biscuit and other sto'.es. 
Two of the Greeks were killed on the sjxjt, 
and others arrested. I don't think we shall 
fire a shot this year. What a miserable 
prospect before us for the winter." 

In a hurriedly-written letter of August 
29th, Morton info:ms his relatives at Brad- 
well that the cholera was still hanging 
about, that the assistant-surgeon was taken 
ill that morning and died at noon. They 
"brought him "home" in a cart and buried 
Tiim at night. Major Mackie and the pay- 
master were both very ill. He adds: "It 
took 30 native carts with two bullocks each 
to move our regimental sick, and 112 horses 
to carry the mc-n's knapsacks, so by that 
yoii may judge in what state this country 
has left our men. They are not like the 
same men that you saw at Liverpool on the 
4th of Apr:l." At the close he adds: "I 
was very sorr.v to hear of Sister Mary's 
death, but the will of the Lord must be 
done. I hope to be spared to write to vou 
again, but if not I hope we shall all nieet 
in Heaven." 

Morton's regiment. 27 officers, 16 women, 
and 780 men, embarked on August 30Mi on 
the ship Orient. Major Mackie had died 
on the march a few days before, and one 
man died on board ship. 

AT SEBASTOPOL. 

Morton's first letter from the battlefield 
is a curious document. It was written 
"lying before Sebastopol, 3rd October, 
1854." and is scribbled with pencil on narrow 
strips from the margin of a newspaper. 
At his own request he was allowed to do 
the duty of an officer with the men in 
action. Alluding to the great Battle of 
Alma, when the Russian army (46,000). un- 
der Prince Menchikoff, were defeated by 
the British. French, and Turkish forces 
(57,000), under Lord Raglan and Marshal 



St. Arnaud, he says : " On the 20th we 
fought a bloody battle. ... I was 
i^lightly wounded in the right leg, but 
was able to continue the action till it was 
over. . . . We put the fear of the Eng- 
lish and French in their hearts, but at a 
great loss of life on our side. I was the 
only officer in our regiment touched, and 
we were always in front of the battle. The 
Colonel got a ball through his pistol 
bolster, and it lodged in his prayer-book." 
On this narrow strip of newspaper he goes 
on to tell how they have now surrounded 
Sebastopol. He said: "It is tremendously 
strong to look at, and we must expect to 
lose a great number of men in taking it, 
but take it we shall. They keep throwing 
shot and shell at anyone approaching too 
near, and they are working like bees, 
throwing up fresh works. We have not 
fired a gun at them yet, but if any one of 
them come near us we try the range of our 
mine rifles at them. It will be four or five 
da.ys before we are ready to open fire on 
them. What destruction of life will then 
commence! Thousands upon thousands 
must fall on both sides." " My trust is in 
God, the God of Battles, who is able to 
preserve me. I know you all pray for me; 
continue to do, and if we are not spared to 
meet again on this side the grave I hope 
we shall meet in Heaven." 

AT BALACLAVA. 

Morton was at the Battle of Balaclava 
on October 25th, when the Russian armv 
(12,000) were defeated by the British and 
Turkish army, under Lords Raglan and 
Lucan. In this battle occurred the famous 
charge of the Light Cavalry Brigade, under 
the gallant Earl of Cardigan. Here the 
Bradwell soldier distinguished himself. In 
view of the historical importance attached 
to this famous battle, Morton's letter to 
Bradwell, written on November 12th, is of 
the greatest interest. He says : " Since I 
wrote last we have had some rough work 
to do, without mentioning the continued 
fire in the trenches, which causes us a 
great deal of loss at times. The enemy 
have attacked us once at Balaclava, and 
got nearly into the town. To drive them 
back we lest most of our light cavalry. 
. . . I got a good view of the charge of 
the Dragoons. They did their work in 
grand style, but they were outnumbered 
and overpowered, and, poor fellows, they 
had to retire under a heavy fire of artillery 
and musketry. I went over the field after- 
wards, and it was a fearful sight to see 
men and horses strewn in all directions. 
I went to the Balaclava two days after- 
wards with Colonel Jefferys. and we saw 
two horses which appeared to have been 
blown to pieces with a shell. They were 
at a French post, so the Colonel asked the 
French officer how it happened, and to our 
surprise the officer told us that the horses 
had only been shot with musket balls, but 
his soldiers had cut them up for beef 



90 



steaks. ... A few days after this they 
made a determined attempt to turn off 
right flank. I mounted and rode to the 
place, but the balls and shell began to fall 
pretty thick about me, so drew back out 
of range of their guns, and the enemy were 
beaten back with a great deal of loss on 
their side. Our loss was trifling." 

AT INKEEMAN. 

In the same letter Morton goes on to give 
his experiences at the historic battle of 
Inkerman on November 5th, when the 
British and French allied forces (14,000), 
under Lord Raglan and General Canrobert, 
were victorious over the Russians (46,000), 
under Liprandi, the British loss being 2,612 
against a Russian loss of over 9,000- He 
continues : — 

" On the morning of the 5th (this day 
week) they made a most determined attack 
at the same point, namely, the Heights of 
Inkerman, and the slaughter on both sides 
was tremendous. We beat them back, and 
their loss is estimated at 16,000 killed — I 
think myself about 9,000 or 10,000. I went 
twice over the ground after the battle, and 
never saw such a sight. The Russians were 
lying in heaps, hundreds of wounded lying 
with the dead, and lots of our poor fellows 
lying head to head with them just as they 
fell in defence cf our camp and position. 
A more determined attack was never made. 
Our regiment went into action 346 men, and 
lost 131 killed and wounded, including two 
ofiicers wounded, both through the left 
thigh. The regiment was in a most criti- 
cal position. Being so weak in numbers, 
and having a large body of the enemy op- 
posed to them, they fired all their am- 
munition away and still showed a front. 
When I saw them firing so much I loaded 
6,000 rounds on three ponies, and went 
myself to the front with it, and it was very 
welcome. The regiment had greatcoats on, 
and I had not, so I was conspicuous, and 
I drew a heavy fire on them, so I left them 
when I had given them the ammunition. 
Our sergeant-major was killed, and the two 
majors both lost their horses. Colonel 
Shirley, with the remainder of the regi- 
ment, was on duty in the trenches and 
outposts. On my way to the regiment I 
met Sir George Brown, and he told me, if 
1 saw any of his staff, to say that he wanted 
them. I answered, ' Yes, Sir George,' but 
turned round on my horse and saw that 
he was wounded, so I galloped back and 
asked him if he would have a doctor. He 
thanked me and said he would do so. I 
soon found one. and we got him off his 
horse and placed him in my greatcoat on 
the ground, lie is wounded throtigh the 
left arm. He was very cool and in good 
spirits, but he only just got off his horse in 
time. He was quite weak from loss of 
blood. When his arm was dressed he was 
taken to his tent on a stretcher, which he 
first refus?d. saying that the stretchers 
were more wanted for the poor men. but 



he found that he was too weak, and sub- 
mitted. Now we are blazing away at each 
other from morning till night. We have 
batteried the town very well, but the 
houses are built of stone, and I think the 
wood and shipping in the place is fireproof, 
for they won't burn anv length of time ; be- 
sides, they have two guns for our one, and 
they are excellent gunners. Don't be in a 
hurry to hear of the fall, for we understand 
that we are to winter here. God help us, 
for we shall be miserable if any of us sur- 
vive. We have now had six days' rain, 
men and officers drenched to the skin and 
no change of clothing, so how can any con- 
stitution stand it? The regiment is never 
in their tents more than sixteen hours out 
of the forty-eight. Just returned from 
divine service. Our numbers get weaker 
every Sunday. . . . Continue to write to 
me and pray for me. My thanks to Mrs. 
John for wishing to dress my wound ; thank 
God, it does not want dressing, as it is 
quite well. I have only slept one night 
without my clothes since we have been in 
the Crimea, and then I got cold. We are 
in a sad state for want of clean linen. I 
paid 50 shillings for three old shirts at an 
auction. Our adjutant lost his arm in the 
trenches ten or twelve days ago. The 
Colonel asked me if I should like to be 
adjutant. I thanked him, but declined." 

Three days before Christmas (December 
22nd) Morton wrote home, giving a graphic 
description of the hardships the men were 
undergoing. " I don't think we have more 
than 400 men doing duty, and most of them 
would not be able to put their bayonets 
through a Russian's greatcoat We are 
getting lots of reinforcements, but lots of 
them are not able to stand the climate, 
being too young to endure the hardships, 
so they die in dozens, or are sent on board- 
ship. The French assist us in removing 
them, and they took 1,100 sick one day 
from our arm5% 700 another day, and so 
on." 

Other Bradwell ni3n were in this war, 
and Morton says: "I inquired about the 
armour-sergeant of the 68th ; he was well, 
r have not seen anyone that could give any 
record of Hill. If his friends write to him 
and tell him to call on me, 1 will give him 
a glass of grog and be glad to see him." 
He goes on to say that everything is very 
dear, flour Is. a pound, a small loaf that 
would not be enough for brother Fred's 
breakfast 2s., and everything in propor- 
tion." 

Giving his relatives accounts of the pro- 
gress made from time to time during this 
terrible war in the camp before Sebastopol, 
Morton concludes a letter of March 19th 
with: "I hope you all continue to pray to 
God to preserve me and bring me safe back 
to Bradwell to lay my bones beside my 
parents, there to slumber till the great 
day." 

in a letter a week later he says: "Last 
night about midnight the Russians attacked 
the French, also our advance post, and a 



91 



dreadful conflict ensued. The French were 
driven out of their works with a loss of 
about 500 killed and wounded, together 
with some of their best officers. The 
Russians attacked our works at the same 
time, but they were repulsed in grand 
style, but not without serious loss. Colonel 
Kelly^ of the 34th regiment, who was in 
command, was killed, also two captains, 
one of the 7th, the other of the 97th regi- 
ment, and a lieutenant of the 34th killed, 
besides a number wounded. We did not 
lose many men in proportion to officers. 
. . . Colonel Brownrigg came into our 
camp early this morning, and said that our 
men had behaved nobly. A Greek officer 
in the Russian service rushed into our 
8-gun battery, followed by some desperate 
fellows, but they were cut down instantly. 
The officer had a sword in one hand and 
a dagger in the other. The dagger was 
taken by one of our officers, and it is now 
in my tent. Neither party dare go to 
collect their dead till dark." 

In a further letter he says: "We opened 
fire on the town on Easter Monday, and 
we have kept it up ever since. The 
Russians return the fire faintly at times, 
but if we attempt to encroach upon them 
they are most vigorous, and it is with diffi- 
culty and loss that we gain any advantage 
over them. We have had an officer and 
several men killed since we opened fire, 
and eight or ten men wounded. My head 
is completely bothered with the din of guns 
and mortars going off every moment." In 
the same letter there is a reference to the 
kindly interest which the wife of the Vicar 
of Hope took in the soldiers at the front, 
for he says : " I received a parcel from the 
Colonel the other day which had been sent 
to the regiment from Mrs. Cave, of Hope, 
to be. distributed to the officers and men 
of the regiment, and I distributed the 
articles. I think, in the spirit in which 
they were sent, and from the Colonel to 
the private all were most thankful for the 
kind feeling which prompted the gift from 
our native village ladies. The tracts were 
very nice, and I read many of them. I 
write to Mrs. Cave by this mail to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of parcel." 

"Another Bloody Day's Work." 

In a letter dated June he says : " The day 
before yesterday wn opened fire from our 
trenches, which is tremendous, and yester- 
day, between five and six o'clock, the 
French went out to attack the Mamolong, 
which they carried in grand style, after 
which they attempted the Malacoff Tower, 
but they found it too strong, and they went 
back with great loss. At the same time 
they lost the Mamolong, and oh ! what a 
fearful loss of life. The French did not 
lose less than 3.000 men. killed and 
wounded. However, they went at it again, 
and were successful, and this morning they 
are in possession of the Mamolong, and 
are reversing the works so as to cpen r.n 



the shipping in the harbour, which keeps 
a continual fire upon them. At the same 
time yesterday we attacked another out- 
work of the Russians in front of our works. 
This attacking party was commanded by 
(Lionel Shirley, and the greater part of the 
men and officers belonged to our regiment. 
They have done their work well, but at 
what cost! Major Bailey killed; Captains 
Corbett and Wray and Lieut. Webb killt«d; 
Captain Maynard, and Lieuts. Grice, Pear- 
son, and Remy wounded. The number of 
killed we do not know. Other regiments 
lost a great many too. We are going to 
attack them again to day. so that I am too 
much excited to write a letter. . . . You 
must all continue to pray for me, and I 
have great faith that the Almighty will 
spare me to return once more to my native 
village." 

In a further letter of the 18th he says: 
" We have had another bloody day's work," 
and goes on to speak of the " fearful loss 
of life, some thousands and a great many 
senior officers " ; and a week later he says 
that they have more than 1,000 " serious 
praying officers in the army; they are not 
the unthinking people that they are taken 
for." 

Marked for Promotion. 

With the strenuous work Morton's health 
suffered, but he was marked for promo- 
tion, and soon had offer as quartermaster- 
sergeant at Parkhurst. In a letter in De- 
cember he says he heard from Colonel 
Jefferys lately, and he should be in the 
" Gazette " in Januarj-. As usual, he re- 
members everybody at Bradwell, and 
writing to his brother, the Rev. Jacob Mor- 
ton, he says : " Will you be good enough to 
send them all £1 each to make them merry 
at Christmas — John, Louisa, and yourself 
included, that will be to Bradwell, Fred, 
Jabez, Alice. Hannah Ashmore, and 
Fanny, and if there is no chance of my 
being at home soon I will send you a 
cheque." 

Briefly, here is the career of this dis- 
tinguished man : — 

Private 31st Foot, 1839; corporal, 1843; 
sergeant, 1844; colour-sergeant, 1845; 
quartermaster-sergeant, 1851 ; quarter- 
master of the 88th Regiment. 1852; quarter- 
master Depot Battalion, 1855. 

Service: East Indies from 26th October, 
1840, to 6th December. 1846; I'nited King- 
dom from 6th December. 1846. to 4th April, 
1851: embarked for Scutari 4th April, 1854, 
and landed in th^ Crimea 14th September, 
1854. Was in Bulgaria awhile. 

Engagements: Campaign in Afghanistan 
in 1842, including the actions of Mazeena, 
Tc.een. Jungdallurk : served through the 
Sutlej campaign of 184.5-6; was present at 
the battles of Mookee. Ferozeeshah, Buddi- 
wall. and Sobraon; served through the 
whole of the Crimean campaign of 1854 and 
18.55, and was engaged at the Battle of the 
Alma (where he was wounded), Inkerman^ 
and the Siege of Seba.stopol. 



92 



Medal for Cabul; medal and three clasps 
for Moodkee, Ferozeeshah, Aliwal, and 
Sobraon ; medal and three clasps for Alma, 
Inkerman, and Siege of Sebastopol; also 
5th class Order of the Medfidi for distin- 
guished conduct during tbo Crimean cam- 
paign. 

And this distinguished soldier entered 
into rest at Parkhurst Barracks on tho 
2itli of March, 1860, aged d3 yearn, 




LATE WILFRED FISKE. 

(See page 63.) 

CHAPTER XXVI. 



THREE HUNDRED YEARS AGO AT 
HAZELBADGE HALL. 

Family Litigation of the Vernons. 
An Old Time Rhyme. 

Concerning Ilazelbadge Hall, in Bradwell 
Dale, the fine seat of the Vernons centuries 
ago, a volume might be written. As an 
addenda to the reference to the old mansion 
in a former chapter, a portion of a rhyme 
of three hundred years ago may be con- 
sidered fitting for these pages. 

For fifty years, at the latter end of the 
sixteenth and the first four decades of the 
seventeenth century, John Harstaff was the 
trusted agent and confidential clerk of the 
family of Vernon, and lived at Sudbury. 
Carefully preserved at Sudbury Hall, there 
is a book of paper with a parchment coyer, 
endorsed " John Harstaff's Poetry whilst 
he lived at Sudbury, 1635, of the Vernon 
family and concerns." They are most in- 
teresting annals, showing litigation that ex- 
tended over many j-ears, dealing with vari- 
ous estates of the family. The first part, 
written in 1615, has particular reference lo 
Hazel badge Hall and estate, and is as 
follows : — 



I here intend to make a true Belation, 
According to my plaine and simple fashion. 
Of maine troubles and incumbrances, 
With sundrie suites and other grievances 
Which hapt to Maister Vernon in his lyffe. 
And after his decease unto his wyfle; 
Which I (their servant) better can declare, 
Because therein I had noe little share; 

'Tis nowe noe lesse than foure and twentie 
years 

Since first I had to doe in those ailaires; 

About the whiche (I truelie may afiirme) 

For twelve or thirtene yeares I mist noe 
terme. 

Herein I purpose alsoe to relate. 

In what great danger stood his whole estate ; 

And lykewyse make particular narration, 

Howe he disposed his lands by declaration ; 

And howe his friends and servants he re- 
garded. 

Not leaving anie of them unrewarded. 

First then to shewe his name and pedegree. 
This worthie Esquire was Lord of Sudburie, 
John Vernon called, whose father Henry 

Wight, 
The Sonne and heire of Sir John Vernon, 

Knight, 
Of Haddon House a younger sonne was he. 
And married Ellen, second of the three 
Coheires unto St. John Mongomorie. 

By her came Sudburie with other landes 
And manie faire possessions to his handes; 
Whereof to treate I do not here intend. 
But onely shew they linealye descend, 
From her to Henry, and from him to John, 
Who being yonge did enter thereupon. 

He was by suites of lawe encumb'red long. 
And by his mother's meanes endured much 

wrong, 
Who practized by all the wayes she might 
To injure him, and take away his right; 
Not only in such things his father left him. 
But also of his birthright she bereft him. 
And gave her landes unto his younger 

brother ; 
Who can speak well of so unkynd a mother? 

She was coheire unto an anncient squier 
High Thomas Swinnerton, of Staffordshire; 
Whose landes^ she with a sister did devyde ; 
Both Hilton, 'Swinnerton and much besyde 
In Sharshill, Saredon, and in Essington, 
In Hampton, Penkridge, and in Huntington, 
Aspley and Sugnell, and in others moe. 
Which I have heard of, but never did 
knowe. 

Hilton, an ancient house, fell to her share, 
A park and faire demaines belonginge are 
IJnto the same of which and all the rest 
she John depryved, young Henry to invest, 
Who after her decease the same possest. 

But Henry did not long enjoy the same; 
For being wedded to a gallant dame. 
He leaving her with chyld did end his lyffe. 
Committing goods and landes all to his 

wyffe. 
Who shortly after had a daughter faire. 
Unto her father's landes the onelie heire. 
Young Henry's match did verie much dis- 
please 
His elder brother John, who for to raise 
Their house end name did formerlie intend, 
That all his lands should after him descend 
On Henry. But that marriage changed his 

mynd, 
Soe much that afterwards he was unkynd 
Both to his brother's infant, and his wyffe, 
Soe that amongst them soone befell greate 
stryfle 



93 



And suites in lawe; All which I could de- 

For theiin I sustained much toyle and care 
And therfore nowe yt labour meane to 

spare. 
By these he was exasperated more. 
And (which did also discontent him sore), 
One Justice Townsend from ye Marches 

came, . , ,^. -r. 

And did espouse the young and loftie Dame. 

They sell and cut downe woods, great waste 

they make, » * , 

But then, whether it was redresse to take. 
Or for his owne avayle, or else of grudge. 
To them, it fltts not me thereof to judge 
He went about, and by all meanes prepar d 
To fynde his brother's heire the Prince s 

Warde ^ , 

And to that end he quicklie set to worke. 
One Wakoringe then, who for such praies 

did lurke, ^ _ , 

And was as faythfuU as a Jewe or Turke. 

Betweene theim two I think it was agreed. 
That if in this affaire they hapt to speede. 
The Wardship should to Vernon granted be. 
And Wakeringe should in money have his 

fee. 
All their proceedings here for to repeate. 
Would be but little worth (thought labour 

great) 
Short tale to make (which was of all ye 

ground) 
She was prov'd Ward a tenure there was 

found. 
How truly, here I list not to decyde 
Theirs be yt change by whom yt poynt 

was tryed. 
The Wardship Maister Vernon looked *o 

have. 
But Wakeringe (since made knight) proved 

then a , . , , 

AUedgingc that it lay not in his nandes. 
Unto their first accord as then to stand; 
And good cause why, for Justice Towns- 
end's purse 
Bid ipen wyder, and more crownes dis- 
burse; 
He therefore got ye wardship of the chylde. 
And Vernon by Sir Gilbert was beguyled : 
Who made himself the Farmer of her 

landes. 
And during nonage kept them in his 

handes. 
And here might Maister Vernon well repeat 
His labours ill-employ'd and money spent. 

But oftentymes we see it come to passe 

When men. of malice, seeke their neigh- 
bour's losse. 

Or Worke their owne revenge* It pleaseth 
God. 

To beate themselves, they make a smart- 
inge rod; 

As in this case it afterwards befell. 

Both to himself, and those he lov'd right 
well. 

For nowe forthwith newe suites they doe 

commence, 
I'th Court of Wardes against him with pre- 

To right the Ward, whose tytle in such 

sort 
Was favour'd be ye friendship of that 

Court, ,^. ,. J 

That they recover'd there out of his handes, 
A manie parcells of his mother's landes; 
Which for some yeares before he had 

onjoy'd 
As copi-holde, nor sought they to avoyd 
Him from ye same, nor doe I thinke they 



could. 
Had not ye Court of Wardes therein con- 
troul'd. 

Besydes they sued him in the Channcerie, 
For certaine summes of money formerlie 
Recover'd by him for landes which by his 

mother 
Had beene convey'd unto his younger 

brother 
In sale wher of they joy'd the one with th' 

other. 
Which sumes amountinge to nyne hundred 

pounde 
As debte yet due to Henrye's will were 

founde. 

They charged him further with sixe hun- 
dred more. 

Which they alledg'd he had receav'd before 

His brother's death, who mortgag'd for ye 
same, 

A farme he held called Haselbach by name. 

Concerninge which gith thus it comes i' th' 

way, 
I thinke it not amisse something to say; 
This farme of Hazleba«h whereof I speake. 
Is situate nere Castleton i'th' Peake; 
And worth (as by ye rentall did appeare) 
But little less than seavin score pounde a 

yeare ; 
Part of the Vernons landes long had it 

beene. 
As in their anncient Deedes is to be seane. 
Sir George who of ye Vernons was ye last, 
That helde those goodlie landes, from whom 

they past 
By two Coheires out of the Vernons name 
(For which great Talbott was ye more to 

blame) 

Sir George I say of whom yet manie speake 
(For great houskeepinge termed King o' th' 

Peake), 
Was much directed in his younger yeares. 
In all his causes and his greate affaires, 
By's uncle. Sir John Vernon's, good advyse. 
Who was a learned man, discreete and 

wyse; 

Wherfore Sir George to shew yt he was 

kynd. 
And to his uncle have a thankfuU mynd. 
Of Haselbach he granted then a lease. 
To him and his assignes which should not 

cease, 
Untill ye terme of four score yeares were 

spent, 
Eeserving thereupon a pennie rent. 

Sir John until his death possess't ye same; 
And afterwards this farme to Henry came 
His onlie sonne who held it during liffe 
But after his disease there fell great stryffo 
About it, through yo practise of his wyffe. 

This Henry Vernon was of great esteeme 
A man both wyse and learned (as may 

seeme). 
Who in his cuntrie also bore great sway, 
And kept a worthie house, as old men say. 
Who often talke of him even to this day. 

It chanced fmanie yeares before his death) 
He went and served in the Warres at Leath- 
In Scotland, where he was a Captaine then^ 
Ore some three hundred of his cuntrimen 
But he had thought it meete before he 

went. 
For to ordaine his will and testament; 
Wherein to John, his sonne, he did be- 
queath. 
The farme of Haslebach after his death 
When eyighteene yeares of age he did 
attaine 



94 



The one tyme ith mother's handes ^1 

should remaine 
And after yt as seemeth true and plame, 
He never altered it, but left it see ; 
But what's soe foule yt mallice will not 

doe? 
He sicke or deade his wyffe found out ye 

will, ,. .„, 

(And to her elder sonne intendinge ill) 
She secreatlye ye name of John did race. 
And put ye name of Henry in ye place; 
That this is true I know not who will 

sweare, 
Tet strong presumptions make ye case too 

For It was knowne not long before he dyed. 
His will did in ye former state abyde. 
Which was by oath of witnesse testifyed ; 
Besydes it was too manyfestlye knowne. 
She used means to get herself alone, 
Into his Studie, when she did desyne. 
And for that purpose had a crooked wyer, 
Wherwith she easlie could unlock ye door. 
And leave it in such order as before ; 
And when in private she resorted thither 
Both pen and inke some tymes she did 
take with her, , ^ ^ . , 

And set a maid to watch whyle she staid 

Where both his will and other wrytings 

were, • ^ j 

Some servants too who were acquainted 

best , . ^, 

With both their hands did on their oath 

protest, , , , ^ ^ , 

They thought it not his hand, but her s 

much rather. 
As by the forme oth' letters they did 

gather. 
These things and manie other being 

brought 
In evidence on John's behalf, who sought 
To right himself herein against his 

mother . 

Who holde ye Farme, and also gainst his 

brother 
(Whom she defended) gave such satisfaction 
Unto a jury (charged to try the Action) 
(Ith' Court of Comon Pleas) that they had 

greed 
On John's behalf their verdict should pro- 

ceede. 
But too much cunninge all the cause did 

marre; 
For as the Jury unto to the Barre, 
A juror (by a compact underhand) 
In private lett a servant understand 
Gainst Vernon would their present Verdict 

passe ; 
But Goodman Blockhead, lyke a drunken 

asse. 
Forgetting that his Maister's right was 

tryed 
Ith' name of Buck against Vernon forth- 
with hyed. 
And tould his Maister yt the truth was soe 
A present Verdict would against him goe; 
Who caused Buck be non-suite thereupon; 
And lost the cause which else with him had 

gone. 

This suite as by ye copies doth appeare. 
Did happen in the two and twentyth yeare 
Of our late soveraigne Queene Elizabeth : 
About tenn yeares after ye father's death; 
In all which tyme and two or three yeares 

after, 
Continewed suits twixt mother, sonne and 

daughter. 
For she did practize lykewyse to defeate 
Her elder daughter called Margarett, 



Of some fyve hundred marks left by her 

father. 
Which she by changinge of ye names, had 

rather 
Should come unto her yonger daughter 

Mary, 
About which point oth' Will they long did 

varie, 
I dare not say, that it was verie sooth. 
Though manie did beleeve it for a truth; 
For she was cunninge, could both read and 

wryte. 
And to her elder children had much spyte. 
But on ye yonger sett her chiefe delight. 

This farme of Haslebach did still remayne 
Ith' mother's handes till Henry did 

attayne, 
To eighteen yeares and thenceforth he 

possest it. 
For soe (they say) his father's will exprost it. 
But after it once came to Henrye's handes. 
In that he had noe other state or landes. 
Nor other Lyvelihood did as then enjoy. 
His elder brother would not him annoy; 

But shortlie to atonement with him grewe. 
And then good friendship twixt them did 

ensewe ; 
Soe that young Henry held it without 

stryffe. 
From thenceforth duringe all his term of 

lyffe. 
And by his will he left it to his Wyfe 
And Chylde unborn; Whereon this suite 

they ground. 
Gainst Maister Vernon for six hundred 

pounde. 
From which I have digressed somewhat 

longe 
Onely to shewe in part his mother's 

wronge. 
But now I will returne unto the same. 
And here declare what end thereof became. 

The several sumes demanded did amount 
To flfteene hundred pounds, by their ac- 
count ; 
To wit, for sale of Aspley and Sugnell, nine. 
And sixe for Haselbach, which made 
. flfteene. 

Gainst which then Maister Vernon went 

aTjout 
For to declare and sett his tytles out. 
Both to ye landes were sould, and to ye 

lease 
Of Haselbach ; and how he did in place, 
Permitt his brother to enjoy them still. 
During his lyffe of friendship and goodwill. 
Intending to have beene to him more 

kynde. 
If hee had matched accordinge to his mynd. 
Even soe frfrre forth as to have made him 

heire 
To all his landes. Besydes it myght appeare 
That Henry's state was not so absolute. 
But verie manye had ye same in doubt, 
Soe much that he to whom those lands 

were sould. 
To deal with them would not have been so 

bould. 
Had John not joyned with his yonger 

brother. 
And given securitie as well as th' other. 

For Haselbach himself did mortgage it. 
With whom his brother joyned (as was fitt) 
And both had equal power it to redeeme 
But be best right (if conscience they 
esteeme). 

Thus eyther partie laboured for to prove 
Their causes good, as it did theim behoove; 
Yet by the labour of some frendes at last. 



93 



Some motion of agreement mongst them 

past, 
To put this matter to arbitrement, 
Where to ith' end both parties gave con- 
sent. 
The arbitrators at th' appoynted day 
Awarded Maister Vernon for to pay 
To Justice Townsend there demannds to 

clear, 
Upon's owne bonds, one hundred markes a 

yeare, , , „ 

TJntill one thousand marks were fuUye 

paid; 
Which was not hard (one thought) all 

things were maid. 
Yet Maister Vernon thought it was too 

much. 
But nothwithstanding since th award was 

such. 
He gave ye poundes and soe did end ye 

stryfe . , . , _ 

And made one payment onely in his lyne. 
For ere ye second payment did ensewe, 
It pleased God, he yealded nature's due. 

The "rhyme" goes on at great length, but 
this is the part of it having particular re- 
ference to Hazelbadge Hall. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



HOW PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY 
ROSE IN THE PEAK. 



The Ejected Clergymen of 1662. 

The light of the gospel had penetrated to 
this remote and at that time wild region 
long before the ejection of the two thous- 
and. Churches are said to have been 
built in various parts of the Peak which 
dated from the first century of the Con- 
quest. The chosen parishes of the High 
Peak were Glossop, Eyam, Castleton, Hope, 
Hathersage, Tideswell, Bakewell, and Youl- 
greave, to which were afterwards added 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, Edensor, and Darley. 
In addition to these there were about 
twenty-three chapels, but these were built 
during the time which covers the period 
between the Reformation and the passing of 
the Act of Toleration in 1689. To the 
people of to-day it seems strange that 
clergymen of the Church of England at the 
period now spoken of were not necessarily 
preachers, indeed, some of them never at- 
tempted to preach, but only read the homi- 
lies insisted upon by authority. This called 
into existence a body of itinerant or temp- 
orary abiding ministers, men of great zeal, 
and doubtless possessed of an eloquence 
adapted to the times, who went about from 
parish to parish, and soon obtained great 
influence in the country. The labours of 
these lecturers were one principal origin 
which led to the prevalence of dissent. 

For many of the following facts we are 
indebted to an express treatise written by 
one of the fathers of Derbyshire Noncon- 
formity, the Rev. William Bagshawe, the 
Apostle of the Peak, who in his old age 



set down to recall to his memory those who 
had been his fathers and bretlaren in the 
ministry, and who had been, like himself, 
zealous preachers of the word among the 
people of the Peak. The title of this little 
volume is "De Spiritualibus Pecci, notes 
(or notices) concerning the Word of God and 
some of those who have been workers to- 
gether with God in the Hundred of the 
High Peak in Derbyshire." Tho date is 
1702. We have also had the privilege of 
perusal of Hunter's M.S. in the British 
Museum on "The Rise of the old Dissent in 
the Peak of Derbyshire," which was in- 
tended as a specimen of a new Nonconform- 
ists' memorial, 1851. We have also con- 
sulted Mr. Greaves-Bagshawe's "Memoir" 
of his distinguished and saintly ancestor, 
and various other works, and have also had 
the opportunity, by the kindness of Mr. 
Bagshawe, of perusing the diary of the Rev. 



James Cleg 



With this additional and 



reliable information, no apology is needed 
for a supplementary chapter to the some- 
what meagre sketch given earlier in these 
pages. 

In the reign of James the First, two of 
these itinerant preachers, Mr. Dyke and 
Mr. Tyler, were sent into the Peak by Lady 
Bowes, who lived at Walton, near Chester- 
field, an old seat of the Foljambes, to one 
of whom she had been united in her first 
nuptials. She outlived S,ir William Bowes, 
her second husband, and at last became 
Lady D'Arcy, by her marriage with John, 
Lord D'Arcy, a nobleman of the same reli- 
gious spirit with herself. They were mar- 
ried at Chesterfield, on May 7th."^ 1617. which 
serves to fix the era of this lady, who may 
be regarded as having been, more than any 
other, the nursing mother of the Noncon- 
formity of these parts. 

Queer Parsons in the Olden Times. 

It was Lady Bowes' rule not to intrude 
these lecturers into any parish where there 
was no call for them, but some idea may be 
formed as to the necessity for some such 
agency as this from a description of the 
character of some of the clergy. It is 
particularly interesting, inasmuch as the 
letter was written to Lady Bowes by Adam 
Slack, on October 12th, 1609. This Adam 
Slack was a Peakland notability of that day. 
He was a man of considerable property, 
was a wealthy yeoman of Tideswell, a land- 
owner in Bradwell, and at that time was 
Lord of the Manor of Thornhill, which he 
had ten years previously purchased from 
the Eyres of Hassop, but which he sold to 
them again a few years later. His influ- 
ence, therefore, counted for something. 
Ralph Clayton, of Burton, then a chapel of 
ease to Bakewell, is described as "a clergy- 
man of the worst sort, who had dipped his 
finger both in manslaughter and perjury." 
In the same letter he alludes to "the Bad 
Vicar of Hope," and states how one of the 
justices would have licensed the "vicar to 
sell ale in the vicarage, and a special rule 
was made to prohibit him from either 



96 



brewing or selling beer on his premises," 
and he is further charged with some "of 
the most contemptible and loathsome 
crimes." At that time William Leadbeater 
was the vicar of Hope, for he succeeded 
Eowland Meyrick in 1604. But whatever 
might be' Vicar Leadbeater's character his 
signature as vicar appears in the flop:' 
Eegister as late as 1634. 

But unfortunately this was not the only 
"bad" vicar of Hope, for Meyrick^s prede- 
cessor, Edmund Eyre, appears to have died 
under Church censure, as may be inferred 
from the following entry in the parish 
register: "1602, April 15, buried Edmund 
Eyre, Vicar of Hope, without servico or 
bell in the night." 

These were strange tim;s, but they were 
still more strange at an earlier period, judg- 
ing from another Vicar of Hope, John 
Dean, who was appointed to the sacred 
office in the year 139.5. At that time Sir 
Thomas Wendesley was knight of the shire 
in Parliament, and on the Eolls of Parlia- 
ment there is recorded of him a strange 
incident, about the year 1403. Godfrey 
Eowland, Esq., was living at I.ongstone 
Hall, when Wendesley, only a few weeks 
before he was slain at Shrewsbury, together 
with John Dean, Vicar of Hope, and others, 
made a raid upon his homestead with force 
and arms, aucl carrieel off goods and stock 
to the value of two hundred marks. They 
took Eowland prisoner, carrying him to the 
Castle of the Peak at Castleton (which at 
that time had become a prison for the deten- 
tion of criminals), where they kept him for 
six days without food, beside which they 
cut off the vile outrage of cutting his right 
hand off. Eowland petitioned the Com- 
mons for redress, but no light seems to' be 
thrown upon so dastardly an act by a brave 
soldier and a reverend gentleman. 

Bradwell Men Fight in Church. 

Any bloodshed in or about a church in 
former times was regarded in a very grave 
light, even when accidental. There is on 
record a case where a man was killed by an 
accidental fall from the summit of the 
tower and the blood from his nostrils 
flowetl under the west door of the church. 
Service was not allowed to be resumed 
until the Bi.shop had held an inquiry. 
There are records where blood has been 
shed violently within Derbyshire Churches 
and one of these comes within the scope 
of this work. 

It is evident that then, as now, 
folks were occasionally in anything but a 
prayerful mood, even when at churcn. But 
whatever their feelings they were com- 

felled by law to be present at the services, 
t was in the beginning part of the year 
1530 — probably in February — when a couple 
of Bradwell men created a most unseemly 
scene in the parish church at Hope, and 
even before the altar of St. Nicholas. One^ 
would have thought that the.se two Brad- 
well kinsmen would hnve settled their 



difference's at any rate on the road to or 
from church, but we are told that "Eobert 
Elott maliciously struck Edmund Elott- 
on the nose, before the altar of St. Nicholas,, 
and that blood was effused upon the altar.'* 
No time was lost in certifying suth a. 
terribly thing to the Chapter, the three who- 
took the oath as having witnessed the out- 
rage being Otwell Bamtord, Curate of Hope,. 
Nicholas Smyth, and Helia Staley. Hav- 
ing had his revenge, Eobert Elott confessed, 
whereupon the Chapter appointee! Canon. 
Edmund Stretehay to act as their com- 
missary, and Eobert was brought to his; 
knees in more ways than one, for the Canon 
ordered him to submit to corporal punish- 
ment, kneelin" before him. When blood, 
hael be^n shecl in the church there was a 
great to do — the sacred eelifice having been, 
defiled service was not alloweel until that 
defilement had been wip.d out— and in this 
case the church was closed for somethin^ 
like two months. The Bishop^s Chancel^ 
lor was informed of the circumstance, and 
he inhibited the curato from celebrating in 
the church until episcopal "reconciliation" 
had been obtained. And sa matters went 
on — the Bishop caused an inquisition to be 
held as to the circumstances, and on the 
4th of the following May he removed the 
interdict, and the services were resumed. 

The Nonconforming Parsons. 
BAKEWELL PAEISH. 

But to return to the subject. Amongst 
the clergy who, in the reign of Charles the 
First, held livings in the Peak, were Isaac 
Ambrose and Charles Broxholmc. Am- 
rose lived to be ejected, but in another 
county, anel Bi'oxholme died before the Act 
of Uniformity was passed. There were 
also two Eowlandsons, father and son, who 
were Puritan ministers in the time before 
Puritanism became Nonconformity. Mr. 
Bagshawe bears honourable testimony to 
the Eowlandsons, who were in succession 
vicars of Bakewell, but when the great 
day of trial came the father conformed and 
remained in the church although he is said 
to have benefited largely in his income by 
the propert,y confiscated from the Eoyalists. 

In the neighbouring Church of Edensor, 
the incumbent, Eichard Archer, was re- 
turned by the Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners in 1650, as "reputed eiisaffected," 
and as having been formerly in Prince 
Eui^ert's army. The two incumbents at 
Darley. John Pott and Edward Payne, are 
passed over with the remark concerning Mr. 
Payne, that he was "a hopeful man." He 
had been recently placed there. In 1651, 
Samuel Coates was the minister of Youl- 
grave, described as "a godly minister." Mr. 
Cantrell, the minister at Elton was re- 
ported by the Commissioners ' scandalous 
anel insufficient." Eobert Craven, of Long, 
stone, and Anthony Mellor, of Taddington, 
were among tho best-known and highly re- 
snct'liMl ministers of that day. Mr. Bag- 
sha\st« fipeaks very highly of Parson Mel- 



S7 



lor, and relates how he was dragged to the 
sessions at Baktwell for his Puritanism, his 
offence being "his strict observance of the 
Sabbath, and the holding of prayer among 
his fiunily." John Jackson who was at 
Baslow in 1650, but went to Buxton on ac- 
count of his health, remained here till he 
was turned out on Bartholomew's Day. At 
Fairfield, Thomas Nicholson, who had a 
wife and five children, occupied the living, 
and was content to leave all for conscience 
sake, and suffer with the rest. Mr. Payne, 
one of the most remarkable of the minis- 
ters ejected, when he was assistant minister 
of Sheffield Parish Church, continued a 
non-conforming minister in that parish till 
his death in 1708. He was born at Whes- 
ton, near Tideswell. 

HOPE. 

Coming nearer home, in connection with 
Hope parish there is not much more re- 
corded, only that a Thomas Bocking was 
vicar in 1650, that he was a Eoyalist who 
had borne arms on the side of the King, and 
that he was reported "a scandalous minis- 
ter" bj' the Parliamentary Commission. 
His name is carved on the front of the 
handsome oak pulpit in Hope Church. 

CASTLETON. 

In the neighbouring Church of Castle- 
ton, Samuel Cryer was the minister when 
Mr. Bagshawe wrote on the spiritual things 
of the Peak. He had then been more than 
forty years the vicar, and "is now most 
a father of any minister in the High 
Peak." He was the son of an elder Cryer, 
one of Mr. Bagshawe's i r -decessors in "the 
living of Glossop. Mr. Bagshawe appears 
to have had great esteem for Mr. Crver, 
of Castleton— "May they who have heard 
his elaborate and eloquent discourses, evi- 
dence that thty have heard God speaking 
through and by him." Mr. Crver was here 
as early as 1650. and he was a conformist in 
1Q62. 
"It wa.s a privilege," said Mr. Bagshawe, 
to Mr. Cryer, that he was, though not im- 
mediately, the successor of the thrice j 
worthy Mr. Isaac Ambrose, a star of the 
first magnitude, for a time fixed at Castle- | 
ton. I had not the time to converse with I 
or indeed see this saint of the Lord, save I 
once at Manchester. At that time his love i 
to Castleton at the mention of it revived, ' 
tears shot into his e.ves, and from his mouth 
fell the ingenious acknowledgment, "It was 
my sin and is my sorrow that I left that 
place when the Lord was blessing my min- 
istry in it." Mr. Ambrose was a Non- 
conformist in 1662, ref^iring from the vicar- 
age of Garstang, in Lancashire. At Castle- 
ton. he succeeded Ralph Cantrell, was 
buried at Hope in October. 1626. 

EDALE. 

There was a very learned and godly mii.- 
ister of Puritan sjmpathies at the chapel at 
i-^dale, then a chapelry in the parish of 



Castleton. Of him, Mr. Bagshawe says, 
"I have not only heard of, but in my child- 
hood heard worthy Mr. Cresswell, one who 
drew as his first, so his last breath in our 

Earts. He was some time chaplain at 
yrae Hall, and preached at Disley, not far 

from it The Lord called this. 

His servant, from his work when that 
black night was come or coming. Surely 
Edale was a dale or valley of vision in his 
days. May their posterity show their pro- 
fiting by others, as many did that were 
profited by him." 

Mr. Cresswell was succeeded by Mr. 
Robert Wright, a very earnest and sincere, 
though a less learned man than Mr. Cress- 
well. He refused to conform, and was, 
therefore, turned out of the Church. It is 
said that ho afterwards conformed, but he 
was a Nonconformist when he died. He 
appears to have been a warener. However, 
he was silenced by the persecuting Acts, 
and he never took out a license to preach 
after the declaration of indulgence, and 
died between the year 1672 and 1675. The 
chapel in Edale was founded b.y the devo-. 
tion of the Protestant people' inhabiting- 
that "valley of vision," the names of fifteen' 
of the chief of whom ar? preserved in the. 
Deed of Consecration, which bears dato^ 
August 3rd, 1634, 

TIDESWELL. 

At Tideswell the parson at this time was 
William Greaves, "a man whose very plain 
words were directed against the vices of hig 
hearers, and he used that unusual exercise 
of catechising." What the folk of Tides- 
well thought about him, especially the 
catechising part of his ministrations, is 
not stated, but he was there many years, 
while his successors, Christopher Fulnetby 
and Nicholas Cross, were there for a few 
months only. In 1636, Ralph Heathcote 
was given the living, and held it for twenty- 
six years. Mr. Bagshawe says he "could 
not be charged with falling short as to 
conformity oefore the war, whatever is 
chargeel on him for siding with the two 
Houses of Parliament in it." 

In Mr. Fletcher's "Guide to Tideswell," 
Isaac Sympson is given as the vicar in 
1662, but Mr. Bagshawe mentions others, 
and his notes on them are as follows : "After 
some vacancy that followed that minister's 
(Heathcote's) death, followed for a time 
(alas ! a short time), reckoned not by years, 
but by months, and tho.se not many, the 
labouring of one whose attainments" were 
far above his years, with an eye to the pre- 
serving of whose memory, as" well as that 
of others, this piece is penned, to wit, ex- 
cellent Mr. Anthony Buxton, of him take 
the following account : 

"This person derived from parents, well- 
esteemed at Chelmorton, where the water 
that serves it springs at the upper end and 
sinks at the lower end, so in other parts of 
the country. His noted studiousness and 
seriousness when a school bo.y were as hope- 
ful buddings of a fruitful tree." 



98 



After giving an account of his college 
career, Bagshawe says of Buxton that "not 
long after his commencement he was pre- 
vailed with to preach at Hayfield, a paro- 
chial chapel within my beloved parish of 
Glossop, where he showed that none were 
to despise his youth, and to my knowledge 
some to this day bear impressions of the pre- 
cious truths wnich with much exactness he 
delivered." . . . "He was, through the 
importunity of friends, and, I believe, 
through hopes of being a more useful 
instrument of furthering the work of the 
Lord, prevailed with to remove to Tides- 
well but, alas, he saw little more, if so 
much, as a quarter of a year there." Mr. 
Bagshawe relates how "grave, reverend and 
tender Mr. Stanley," tlie ejected minister 
of Eyani, attended Mr. Buxton on his death 
bed, how he (Bagshawe) was a bearer at 
his funeral, and preached his funeral ser- 
mon. 

After him came Mr. Beeby. "He was 
here and elsewhere," says Mr. Bagshawe, 
"particularly in the latter end of his time 
at Cirencester; industrious, apt to teach, 
and well esteemed. One thing was less 
satisfactory to his brethren, that he mar- 
ried his brother's widow, and defended his 
so doing from an order which did. as they 
believed, concern the Jewish nation and 
Church only." Dr. Calamy says that he 
left Tideswell at the Eestoration, and took 
charge of the chapel at Sheldon, when he 
was ejected. After him were Mr. Bryerly, 
and Mr. Creswick, a native of Sheffield, 
both Nonconformists. 

HATHERSAGE. 

The living at Hathersage was held by 
Robert Clarke, who was presented by the 
Earl of Devonshire, in 1627. He must have 
professed himself a Puritan, because in 
1646 he had his living augmented by the 
' Committee for Plundered Ministei-s, with 
£30 a year out of the rectories of Duckman- 
ton and Normanton, sequestered from 
Francis Lord Denicourt, and £9 from the 
tithes of Abney and Abney Grange, seques?- 
itered from Rowland Eyre, papist and delin- 

guent farmer thereof, under the Dean and 
Ihapter of Lichfield, also £5 from the tithe 
of Litton, and the glebe there. We have 
no evidence that he lived to the critical 
year, 1662 but though he had largely par- 
taken of the spoils of the suffering Royal- 
ists, he did not abandon his churcn at the 
Jast. 

The chapel at Derwent lies far remote 
Jrom the parish church of Hathersage, and 
the Parliamentary Commissioners in 1650 
recommended that Derwent should Imj con- 
etituted an independent parish. A Mr. 
Burgess was then the minister, of whom 
nothing more appears to have been handed 
down. 

They also recommended that Stoney 
Middleton should be made a district par- 
ish. There waa a chapel, 400 communi- 
cants, and not above £10 maintenance for 
the minister. Richard Thorpe, the minis- 



ter, is reported to be "scandalous for drink- 
ing," and when the Committee voted an 
augmentation of £40 out of the tithe of 
Glossop, sequestered from the Earl of 
Arundel and Surrey, and the Countess of 
Arundel, his mother, a Recusant, they 
voted it for "such minister as they shall 
approve." Mr. Thorpe, however, received 
at least a portion of it in 1650, and there is 
no account of his resignation of the bene- 
fice. 

But though Mr. Bagshawe has nothing 
to say of the ministers who lived in the 
Puritan times in the parish of Hathersage, 
he speaks with great respect of a gentleman 
who lived at Highlow Hall, who belonged to 
the class so often spoken of as the Moderate 
Conformists. This was Mr. Robert 
Eyre, who was a mao;istrate for the county, 
a man of considerable estate in this dis- 
trict, as well as of very ancient descent. He 
had been left a minor by his father, and 
considered that he had suffered something 
in his wand-time "yet God in wisdom and 
favour ordered that he should match into 
the family of Mr. Bernard Wells," by which 
his estate was so much advanced. This 
Mr. Eyre was a good man, and notwith- 
standing the satisfaction he had as to the 
point of conformity, he was far from per- 
secuting Nonconformists. As before stated, 
he was a magistrate, and he so highly 
esteemed the Apostle of the Peak that in- 
formations were not given against him, 
and "in times of bondage precious liber- 
ties for labour were indulged in by me." 

This Mr. Eyre was the head of one of the 
principal families of the name and stock 
of Eyre, that very old and widely ramified 
family in the Peak. His mother was a 
Jessop, of Broomhall, Sheffield, who, like 
himself, belonged to the class of moderate 
Conformists. 

EYAM. 

The living at Eyam was held by Thomas 
Stanley. He succeeded Shoreland Adams, 
who held two livings, and was dispossessed 
at Eyam for his strong sympathy with the 
Royalist cause. He was of a very turbu- 
lent and selfish disposition. He was re- 
stored to his living in 1660, and Stanley 
acted as his curate till the ejection in 1662. 
It is said that Adams, when speaking of a 
clergyman who had left his living in Shef- 
field said: "Fowler is a fool, for before I 
would have sacrificed my living for a cause 
like that I would have sworn that a black 
cow was white." This contrasts greatly 
with the disposition of Stanley, of whom 
Mr. Bagshawe writes at length. 

Stanley was removed from Ashford to 
Eyam in 1644, from which place he was 
ejected in 1662. After his e]ection he con- 
tinued to reside at Eyam, and was a worthy 
helper to the Rev. WiUiam Mompesson 
during the terrible visitation of the Plague 
in 1666. After his ejection some of liis 
bitterest enemies tried, but failed, to in- 
duce the Earl of Devonshire to remove him 
out of the village, and in reference to this 
a witness of that time says: "It was more 



99 



reasonable that the whole country should in 
more than words, testify their thankful- 
ness to him who, together with the care of 
the town, had taken such care as no one 
else did to prevent the infection of the 
towns adjacent." It would seem from this 
statement that to Thomas Stanley is due no 
small share of the honour which history 
pays to the people of Eyam for their 
heroism and self-sacrifice during that dread- 
ful visitation. 

In the year 1670 Thomas Stanley was 
seized with the sickness that ; suited in 
his death. William Bagshawe -vas called 
from his bed to visit him. Stanley had 
suffered very greatly from his Nonconform- 
ity, but he rejoiced on his death bed that 
he had been permitted to suffer in such a 
cause, and within three days, on the anni- 
versary of his ejection, viz., on "Black Bar- 
tholomew's Day," he went to his reward. 
He had been supported by the voluntary 
contributions of two-thirds of the inhabi- 
tants of Eyam. He died and was buried at 
Eyam, but there was no monument raised 
to" this remarkable man until nearly 120 
years afterwards, when it was done by a 
private individual. ' 

The Apostle of the Peak. 

In the year 1662, good William Bagshawe 
was quietly and effectively ministering to 
\iis parishioners of Glossop, reverenced ana 
loved by all. He was content to remain 
there, doing his duty without any noise or 
oetentation, proof against all temptati-'ns 
to worldly advancement which would in- 
volve his severance from his beloved people. 
Such was his condition when that eventful 
24th of August arrived, which taught 'o 
many ministers and congregations what u 
bitter thing it was to part who had lived 
and toiled and worshipped together. 

William Bagshawe was born at Litton, 
on Jaauary 17th, 1627-8. He received his 
education at several country schools, flhero 
his diligence enabled him to attain to 
greater proficiency than many of his con- 
temporaries. Under Mr. Eowland^on. 
minister at Bakewell, and Mr. Bourne, of 
Ashover, he imbibed very deep religious im- 
pressions. He subsequently went to CajU- 
bridge University, where he took his .'? A. 
degree in 1646. He possessed a strong der ire 
for the ministry, but his wish was opp.-^sed 
by some of his friends, who desired him to 
follow some other pursuit, but he carried 
his point, and preached his first sermon at 
Wormhill, where he remained for three 
months. Being desirous of finding a wider 
field of labour he went to Attercliffe, Shef- 
field, and became an assistant minister to 
Mr. James Fisher. On New Year's day, 
16,51, he was ordained by the presbytery at 
Chesterfield by the laying-on of hands, and 
the confession of faith he them made, and 
the sermon ho preached on Christ's pur- 
chase, was afterwards published. 

In the following summer he married 
Agnes, daughter of Peter Barker, of Darley. 
Early in the year 1652, he was appointed to 



the living of Glossop. Here he laboured 
with very great effect for 10| years; he was 
happy and contenteel in his work, he re- 
fused all offers of preferment, and was con- 
tented to live in the heart and affections of 
his people. But when he was called npon 
to make a sacrifice for truth he freely gave 
up for conscience sake what all the ofiersof 
worldly advancement could not tempt him 
to part with. For this he was will'ug to 
srcrifice friends, and to sever the ties of 1 ve 
and sympathy that bound him to his pe iple 
8'i.ci his people to him. When he prea' hei 
tj them the last time before ais ejectxncnt 
the tears of sorrow that fell from the oves 
of his people testified to the affectionate re- 
gird in which he was held, more eloqu-nt ly 
tha-' woi-ds. On being comiielJed to I mv 
down his work at Glossop, his father pla.ed 
Ford Hall, Chapel-en-le-Frith, entirely at 
his service, and he made "his his i ovular 
residence until his death, nearly forty 
year* later. 

But although Mr. Bagshawe was no 
longer allowed to minister to people inside 
the Church, he still continued to be a 
minister of the Church of Christ. He went 
from village to village, and even from house 
to house preaching the word to such as 
would listen, and his labours were crowned 
with abundant success. It is recorded that 
through his ministrations a spirit of ser- 
iousness, repentance, and faith pervaded 
these wild regions that had never been wit- 
nessed before, and his energy in preaching, 
and in all Christian work was such that he 
was called by his contemporaries "The 
Apostle of the Peak," by which name he 
is known to history to this day. Through 
his untiring and self-denying labours he 
established Presbyterian congregations at 
Malcalf, near to his own home (who after- 
wards built the chapel at Chinley), at Great 
Hucklow, Bradwell,,Charlesworth, Ashford, 
Middleton, Chelmorton. Bank End, and 
some accounts add Marple Bridge and Edale. 
He was called upon to suffer much and 
severe persecutions, but in all his trials 
his faith in God never wavered, and there 
are many stories on record which give an 
account of the very remarkable way in 
which he was delivered from the plots of 
his enemies. 

For a considerable time after his removal 
to Ford Hall, he was compelled to act with 
very great caution. Every Sunday morning 
and afternoon, accompanied by his family, 
he attended the church at Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, but in the evening he held service 
privately in his own house and elsewhere, 
and he also delivered an address to a few 
friends on the Thursday evening. In this 
way there passed another ten years, but 
after the Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 
he entered upon a more active public 
work. He went to his beloved people at 
Glossop once a month on a week evening, 
where the people flocked to hear him. He 
preached at Ashford once a fortnight, and 
very great caution being necessary in order 
not' to expose his hearers to the severity 



103 



of the persecuting laws then in force, he used 
to change" the scene of his labours almost 
everv Sunday morning so as to baffle the 
enemies of Nonconformity and the various 
bands of informers who were ever ready to 
give information to the authorities. His 
whole ministerial life was one continued act 
of suffering for conscience sake. Because of 
his choice of the Christian ministry as his 
profession in opposition to his friends' wish 
he was partially disinherited, and after the 
ejection he was for years in constant danger 
of fine and imprisonment. 

Concerning his private life, he kept a con- 
stant guard upon his heart at all times, and 
he is said to have attained to such a degree 
of grace that few arrived at. The hearts 
of the poor were by him made glad, and 
with his readiness to give of his substance, 
he combined a rare faculty for giving wise 
counsel to those to whom he gave temporal 
aid. As a son he was most dutiful to his 
parents even after he had a family of his 
own ; as a master he was kind and consider- 
ate; as a husband he was loving and affec- 
tionate, and as a father he was anxious for 
the moral and spiritual welfare of his chil- 
dren. 

The bulk of the Apostle's journeys were 
made on horseback — a difPcult task at cer- 
tain seasons of the year— in fact, there are 
frequent references to th^se difficulties and 
dangers in his diary, and he states how on 
one occasion he and T. Barber were l^^st in 
a mist between Castleton and Bra. I well. In 
this diary, too. are very many alhisions to 
Bradwell and Great PTucklow. which are 
very interesting. Some of these are given 
in the chapter on the old chapel, Bradwell. 
The entries in his diary also prove how- 
thorough was the self-examination which 
the Apostle of the Peak continually applied 
and how dissatisfied he was with his own 
efforts. Referring to his preaching he 
writes : — " I cannot get my eyes down to 
the people, nor preach as though I were 
talking with them." Of a petition that was 
being sent round by the Bishops soliciting 
STibscriptions for the poore^r clergymen, Mr. 
Bagshawe writes: — " Is it of good aspect 
that bishops take this course?" He replies 
to his own query by saying : — " It does not 
appear so to me, they themselves going 
away with so large a part of the Church's 
1 avenue. What kind of creatures in their 
eyes are the poor nonconformists, for whose 
relief no motion was made these 33 years." 
And he adds : — " O, the meanness of mean 
measures." 

There is the entry :— 169.5, August ye 25th. 
" One fruit of my poor labours ye last year 
is ye poor people of Bradwell have prepared 
a more meet place to meet in, and they are 
more than willing that my younger 
brethren should take their turns in preach- 
ing there." 

August ye 2r)th " Flocked in." 

Another entry reads : " T preached and 
prayed in ye new meeting-house at Brad- 
well, where very many heard and I was 
assisted." 



Again he writes : — 169.5, Sept. ye 11th. 
"It was said at Bradwell, where ye people 
hear me and ethers attending yt my poor 
endeavours in ye evening of one Sabbath on 
ye 4th had this good effect, that since then 
every Sao bath has been less profaned." 

169.5-6. "When on February the 23rd I 
preached at Hucklow on meekness (1), and 
on the blood of the covenant (2), many per- 
sons seemed much affected, and when, on 
the Tuesday following I preached at Brad- 
well, in the former discourse (1), relating to 
the diligent keeping of the soul, tears shot 
into many eyes, and I hope the following 
one (2), concerning coming, and recourse 
to the waters, or ordinances, especially as 
dispensed publicly, was not unaffecting." 

" Divers and those whose judgments I 
most value, say that my taking so much 
time in preaching is best for writers and 
for those who desire to be edifyers. It is 
said and hoped that there is some reforma- 
tion wrought by the word at Bradwell." 

1697, July 19th. " My preaching at Brad- 
well hath, through mercy, had this effect 
and influence, that many nocked to hear Mr. 
I'arkfr on the last Lord's Day save one, and 
Mr. Haywood is thereby encouraged to go 
and preach to them, and I shall wait to 
hear what effect my sermon the last Sab^ 
bath, which was about sanctifying the Sab- 
bath, had amongst them." 

In the year 1697 and 8 are several entries 
in his diary which tell how acutely he felt 
the infirmities of age weakening his body 
anrl i'lterfering with his labours. On the 
30th January in the former year he wrote : 
" I Avas carried through the cold to Hucklow 
and thei'e led others in mourning and 
prayer." It was his custom at this time 
to preach at Hucklow every Siinday morn- 
ing ;mk1 at Malcalf in the evening. On 
March 20th, 1698, he wrote: "I went to 
Hucklow, taking in a sort, my leave there." 

Speaking thirty-five years after his ejec- 
tion, he said " I have now been an ejected 
minister for so many years, and have had 
much time to review my position and weigh 
the reasons of my nonconformity, and upon 
an impartial and serioxis consideration of 
my case, I see no caxise to change my mind. 
But. some of you may perhaps say, but 
others have better eyes than you. I readily 
grant that, but I must see with my own. ' 
So long as physical strength would permit 
this faithful son of God and earnest disciple 
of Christ continued to labour incessantly in 
God's vineyard but at last his growing in- 
firmities compelled him to shorten his 
journej's and lessen his toils. For a time 
ho liad to confine his ministrations to Mal- 
caJf, and for the last winter of his life he 
was confined to his own house, but even 
then he did not cense his ministry, for he 
conducted service there, and only for a 
single Sunday before his death was he un- 
able to deliver God's message to the people. 
He died on April 1st, 1702. 

The care of his Peak congregations, and 
the work that was so dear to his heart, fell 
into the hands of John Ashe, his nephew. 



101 



of Ashford, and James Clegg, who succeeded 
him at Malcalf. Both these men lived 
very near to the Apostle's heart, and their 
names appear in the Trust Deed as the 
joint ministers of Bradwell Chapel. 



Churchwardens since opening of St. 
Barnabas' Church, Bradwell, in October, 
1868 :— 

1868 & 1870.— Dr. Joseph- Henry Taylor. 

1870 & 71.— Robert Hill, Benjamin James Eyre 

(Brough). 
1872 & 3.-ltobert Hill, Thomas Bradwell. 
1874 -6.— John Dakin, Thomas Bradwell. - 



earlj' days. On one occasion a young man 
in Bradwell had committed suicide, and &3 
his mental condition was laid at the doors 
of the Methodists, William Green, of 
Rotherham, one of the earliest preachers, 
was prevented from entering the town by 
friendly outposts at the various entrances, 
fearing he would be killed as the enemies 
of the cause had vowed vengence on the 
next Methodist preacher who should visit 
the place. 

It has already been said that the first 
chapel— now a cottage— was built in 1768. 
At the conference the following year a grant 



THREE NOTABLE CHURCHWARDENS. 






WM. J. BRADWELL. 
1881-9?. 



THOS. BRADWELL, 
1872-77. 



JOHN DAKIN. 
1874-93. 



1877-8.— John Dakin, Thomas Bradwell, Caleb 
Higginbottom (Great Hucklow) and 
Henry Eyre (Abney). 

1778-80.— John Dakin, Thomas Elliott. 

1881-93.— John Dakin. Wm. John Bradwell. 

1894-5.— C. E. B. Bowles (Abney), Francis Har- 
rison. 

1896-7.— Joseph A. Middleton, Abram Morton. 

1898-1905.— Abram Morton, William Eyre. 

1906.— Abram Morton, Harvey Hallam. 

1907.— Harvev Hallam. Wm. B. Prisk. 

1908-10.— Harvey Hallam. Durham Wragrg. 

1911.— Durham Wragg, Wm. John Harrison. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



WESLEYANISM'S ESTABLISHMENT IN 
THE BRADWELL CIRCUIT. 

Early Local Preachers. 

In the previous chapter the introduction 
of Wesleyanism is briefly touched upon. 
There were many exciting times in those 



of £9 wa3 made (owards the building, and 
in 1772 there is the record " Brada £5," and 
a similar amount the iollowiug year. When 
the pi^isent chapel was built in 1807, Brad- 
well was in Bakewell circuit, with the Rev. 
William Midgley, a famous man in those 
days, as the minister, but in 1812 Bradwell 
became the head of a circuit with a mem- 
bership of 450. The first superintendent 
was the Rdv. Wm. Bird who had Joseph 
Lewis as his colleauuc. At the end of ten 
years the memloership had fallen to 388. 
Later, even a lower ebb was reached, but 
in the thirties there was wonderful activity 
and growth. Chapels were built in the 
smaller villages, and in 1834 the membership 
had reached 580. In 1851 the membership 
had reached 600, the highest ever recorded. 
At this stormy period of the " Reform " 
agitation, John Bonsor and Henry Cattle 
were in the circuit, and it is a remarkable 
fact that although the neighbouring cir- 
cuit of Bakewell suffered very seriously, 
r>nly two local preachers remaining on the 
Wesleyan plan, such was the loyalty and 



102 



devotion of the Methodists of the Bradwell 
circuit that there is not, nor ever has been, 
a single " Reform " cause within its 
boundaries. Owing, in a great measure, 
to the gradual decline in the lead mining 
industrv the membershp declined during 
the fifties to 409, but during the ministry 
of Richard Smailes in 1860-1 it increased 157 
in one y(!ar. On the first Bradwell circuit 
plan iu'lS13 there were nine local preachers 
— Barber, Shaw, Robinson, S. Cocker, Brad- 
well, rielcher, Walker, John Longden, and 



been added to the preaching places. 
William Blundell was the minister and the 
other preachers were Booth, Bennett, Wil- 
son, Chapman, Frost, Longden, Cocker, 
Bradwell, Handley, Somerset, John Frost, 
Middleton, J. Tyongden. Eyre, W^heater, 
Dakin, Clayton, Goodwin, and M. Goodwin, 
with H. Eyre, J. Harrop, and W. Birchell 
" on trial." 

By 1862 Derwent Dale and Litton Slack 
bad been added as preaching places and the 
local preachers were : John Longden, Snake 




BRADW£LL WiSI.EYAN CHAPEL 



Crook. These nine Iccal preachers wore 
fully employed, as the preaching places 
were Bradwell. Hathc-rsage. Hope, Abney, 
Hucklow, Tideswell. Kdale, Castleton, 
Thornhill, Gillot Hay, Hag Lee, Peak 
Forest, Sparrownit. Litton, Wardlow, 
Rider House and Fair Holmes. 

By the year 1837 Cressbrook, Cockbridge 
(now known as Ashopton), and Brough had 



Inn; Jonathan Longden, Hope; Ralph 
Handley, Tideswell ; Benjamin Somerset, 
Bradwell; John Frost, Grindlow; Thos. 
Middleton, Brough ; Janif s Dakin, Castle- 
ton; Matthew Goodwin, Peak Forest; 
Francis Hall, A,shopton ; John Eyre, Castle- 
ton; Thos. Royles, Litton; Thomas Bram- 
well. Tideswell; John Darvil, Hathersage; 
Wm. Roscoe, Priestcliffe; Joseph Robert 



103 



Cocker, Hathersage ; Henry Fletcher, Spar- 
rowpit; Wm. Oldfield, Hucklow; George 
Eobinson, Thornhill; John Andrew, Bani- 
ford; Thos. Hancock. Hucklow; Edward 
Howard, Tideswell; Jonathan Eyre, Alport; 
John Barber, Bradwell; Joshua Evans, 
Bradwell; Ebenezer Bradwell, Bradwell; 
with Stephen Dakin, Bradwell; Eobert 
Somerset, Bradwell; and Benjamin Brad- 
well, Bradwell, "on trial." Only Mr. 
Stephen Dakin and Mr. E. Bradwell are 
now living of these local preachers of half 
a century ago. 

Tideswell Methodists Horsewhipped. 

These were trying times at Tideswell for 
early Methodists there. Such was the feel- 
ing there that on one occasion they were 
publicly horsewhipped by a local niagnate 
named Captain Wyatt. 13ut the cause grew 
and the first chapel was built in 1810, and 
served nearly eighty years until the 
present chapel was built on the site. The 
chapel at Litton was built in 1834. The 
chapel at Hucklow was built in 1806. 

First Chapel in a Farm House. 

But the mother church of the circuit was 
that at Sparrowpit, where the seed of 
Methodism was first sown about 1738 by 
David Taylor, who, when crossing the wilds 
of the Peak, called at the house of Mrs. 
Amy Taylor, and there preached. From 
that day a barn on the farm was thrown 
open for the Methodist services and the 
first class meeting in the Peak was thus 
formed. For more than fifty years the 
house was thrown open for the public ser- 
vice of the Methodists until a small chapel 
was built in the adjoining little hamlet of 
Sparrowpit. The historical farm house is 
still there. Peak Forest built its chapel in 
1852 and it gave to the Methodist ministry 
Edward White, who died in harness in the 
United States. 

Pioneer's Adventure in Edaie. 

The story of how Methodism got a foot- 
hold in Edale is interesting. Quite a 
century and a half ago, when David Taylor 
was travelling late at night through these 
wills in a blinding snowstorm, fatigued and 
almost perishing, he and a companion 
reached a solitary hoiise, knocked at the 
door, walked in, and began to shake the 
snow off their clothes. Thinking the 
strangers were influenced by evil intentions, 
the good man of the house. Joseph Hatlfield, 
reached down his sword which hung oyer 
the mantlepiece with other armour whicn 
had been used by him as a soldier in the 
Battle of Preston Pars a few years before. 

But his fears were soon dispelled when 
David Taylcr. s'^epping up to him. ex- 
claimed "Peace be to this house." Method- 
ist services were commenced in that house 
forthwith, j'nd a society formed, of which 
.Joseph Hadfield was the first member. In 
that house, at Barber Booth. James Ridal, 
a travelling i)reacher, wos bom. and a 

farmstead across the valley is tlic birth 



place of Daniel Eyre and Peter Eyre, both 
Wesleyan ministers. The house has since 
been pulled down, but the chapel, built in 
1811, stands close by. 

Bradwell Preachers Mobbed at Castleton. 

The first Wesleyan service at Castleton, 
in 1765, was held in a house there, by 
Matthew Mayer, of Stockport, and Ben- 
jamin Barber, of Bradwell. It was dis- 
turbed by a mob, one of whom beat a 
drum. After service the preachers and 
their friends from Bradwell retired for re- 
freshments to the liouse of Mrs. Slack, but 
the mob burst into her house, making 
hideous noises, and as they refused to go 
when requested, the lady cut their drum 
end with a large knife. They climbed on 
the roof of the house, threw offensive mat- 
ter down the chimney of the parlour where 
the preachers were at supper, and finally 
waited on the road leading to Bradwell, 
and in the dead of the night made such a 
furious attack with stones on the preachers 
as to place their lives in danger; indeed, 
Benjamin Barber was stoned almost to 
death, and carried the marks of his wounds 
to the grave. It is remarkable that two 
days afterwards the leader of the mob, 
who broke in his master's young horses 
and trained them to the use of firearms, 
placed a loaded pistol in his pocket, which 
by some unknown means went off in the 
.stable and killed him on the spot. Such 
was the dismay caused by this sad occur- 
rence, and it was so regarded as a judgment 
from God. that the Wesleyans were never 
again subjected to such brutal usage. The 
first chapel at Castleton was built in 1809. 

Hope Vicar's Wife at Wesleyan 
Class Meetings. 

Although the Wesleyans had a society 
at Hope from their earliest days, it was 
not until 1837 that the chapel was built. 
From 1843 to 1856 the Eev. Wilmot Cave- 
Browre-Cave was Vicar of Hope, and his 
wife. Mrs. Cave, was a regular worshipper 
at the Methodist Chapel, and freciuently 
sat on one of the forms in the bottom of 
tlie building. Inde?d. the lady often took 
au active part in the services, and some- 
i inies attended the class-meeting. Hope 
gave to tlie We-levan ministry one of its 
nalives. John Kirk. 

Prayer Meetings in the Snake '. .. 

The famous loveft-ast at .\lport in the 
Woodlands has been connected with Brad- 
well Wesleyanism for a century and a half. 
.John L<>ngd«'n, a leal preacher, kept the 
Snake Inn, and held prayer meetings in 
the public-house. One Sunday in 1815 he 
went ti preaf h at Tideswell, fourteen miles 
distant. bu( )in:ling en his arrival there 
that nearlv jill his congregation had gone 
to sec .-Vn'^bony Tinyard hrng in the gibbet 
at Wardlow Miers. he followed and 
preachfil to the multitude beneath the 
gibbet |i(sf When Cockbridge collapsed 



104 



and killed several men, their bodies were 
removed to the nearest farmhouse, which 
was the Wesleyan Preaching House, and 
as thev lay there John Longden preached 
from Christ's words in reference to the 
Tower of Siloani— " Think ye that these 
men were sinners above all men ?" Its 
powerful effect was marked by converting 
power in the crowded company gathered 
together under such solemn circumstances. 
Woodlands Chapel was built in 18C2 by the 
Duke of Devonshire, a monument of the 
goo(1 work done by the Methodists of his 
territories. The first chapel at Ashopton 
was built in 1840, and the new chapel in 
1897. 

A Bamford Centenarian Methodist. 

One of the pioneers of Methodism at 
Bamford was George Wainwright. When 
100 years old he worked at his trade — a 
weaver — at Dore. At the Jubilee of George 
the Third fifty old men were gathered out 
pf the town and neighbourhood of Sheffield, 
whose separate ages exceeded that of His 
Majesty, and to these coats and hats were 
given as a memorial of the day. George 
Wainwright was the oldest, and a sub- 
scription was opened to have his portrait 
painted for the Cutlers' Hall, but though 
the picture was executed it never reached 
its intended destination. The Methodists 
of Bamford built their first chapel in 1821, 
and the new chapel came twenty years ago. 

Persecuted at Hathersage. 

Hathersage was the place which was first 
stirred into active opposition to the ad- 
vances of the Methodist movement in this 
direction, and it is on record that "a 
preacher, through violence of persecution, 
was driven out of Hathersage," but b" and 
by the seed took root, and in 1807 the 
chapel was built in the centre of the main 
street, followed by a Sunday school. The 
Cocker and Darvill families were among 
the principal Wesleyans here for more 
than a century. It was mainly through 
the liberalit.y of the Cockers that the 
chapel at Thornhill was built. 

Pelting the Methodists at Eyam. 

After Mr. Matthew Mayer, of Stockport, 
had preached at Bradwell one night in 1765, 
he was invited to preach at Eyam. He 
went there, and stood by the side of a 
barn in the presence of a multitude of 
people who had gathered from different 
motives. The ringleader of the mob, who 
had sworn to his coin|janions that he would 

fiull the preacher down, was so struck with 
he sermon that, as he confessed after- 
wards, " he had not the power to stir hand 
«)r foot," and Mr. Mayer got off scot free. 
But there were stirring times when, the 
following Sunday, Mr. John Allen, of 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, attempted to preach at 
the same spot. Joseph Benson, who was 
nicknamed by his neighbours " Bishop 



Benson," was the first to receive the 
preacher into his house, as an outrageous 
mob had assembled to have some fun with 
the Methodists. Stones were hurled 
through the windows into the midst of the 
little congregation, and the preacher 
narrowly escaped serious injury. Mr. 
Allen and his friends applied to a magis- 
trate for redress and protection, but with- 
oiit avail, and, ,encouraged by their attack, 
the mob again congregated the following 
week. A narrator of that time says that 
when the preaching was over "the crowd 
.'ioemed like lions and tigers let loose," and 
as the Methodists dispersed they were 
pelted with dirt and mud along the 
streets. "The preacher particularly was 
the target for mud, stones, and brick hats, 
hut he was stoutly defended by a brave 
little bodyguard, and providentially es- 
caped unhurt." Next morning it was re- 
solved, if possible, to punish some of the 
ringleaders, and the Methodists went to a 
magistrate who resided at Stoke Hall. But 
he was a clergyman, and all the advice he 
covild tender to John Allen was " to get or- 
dained and enter the Church." Joseph 
Benson was ejected from his cottage for 
harbouring the new sect, but it was there 
to stay, for when John Wesley visited the 
village the year following he wrote: "The 
eagerness with which the poor people of 
]!]yani devoured the Word made me amends 
for the cold ride over the snowy moun- 
tains." 

There was still opposition from the 
olergj'man, or rather from the Rev. Peter 
Cunningham, who was curate of P]yam, 
who succeeded for a time in driving the 
Methodists out of the place to Grindleford. 
Ho went round the parish and prevailed 
upon many to sign an agreement " not to 
hear the Methodists any more," and in a 
letter to the Vicar of Eyam, the Rev. 
Thomas Seward, at Lichfield, in 1776, he 
said: "No more Methodist preachers ap- 
pear in the chapel at Eyam; the few that 
resort to them at Grindleford Bridge are 
such as an angel from heaven would have 
no influence with. And as I suppose you do 
not expect me to work miracles, since 
nothing less will convert them, the.y must 
even be Ipft to prey upon garbage, and 
follow the wandering fires of their own 
vapourish imaginations." 

There are now two Methodist Chapels at 
Eyam, and one at Grindleford. Wesley 
visited the latter itlace and preached there. 
The house is still standing. 

A Century's Ministers. 

The circuit is now in the North Derby- 
shire mission. Here are tlie Bradwell cir- 
cuit ministers from its formation to the 
present time : — 

1812-13.— William Bird, Joseph Lewis. 
1814-15.— James Johnson, Thomas Hall, John 

Smith. 
1816-17.— Isaac Keeling, Christopher Newton, 

James Mortimer. 
1818.— Thomas Gill, Joseph Brougham. 
1819.— James Hopewell. 



105 



(re- 



1820-1— William Brooklehurst. 

1822-3.— Benjamiu Barrett. 

1824-5.— John Poolo, George Chambers 

signed), Thos. Heushall. 
1826.— William Rennison, Joseph T. Milner. 
1827-8.— Isaac Muff, James J. Topham. 
1829.— John Leigh. Henry Wilkinson. 
1830-1.— William Scholefleld. 
1832.— John Gill. 
1833.-John Eoadhouse. 
1834.— Thomas Rought, Hugh Jones 
1835.— Henry Tuck. 
1836-7. -William Blundell. 
1838.— John Wright, died suddenly whilst 

preaching at Peak Forest. 
1859-40.— Robert iTotheriok, John B. Dyson. 

James Emery. 
1841-2.— John Felvus, James Emery. 
1843-4.— Thomas Catterick, Joseph Garrett. 

Thomas H. Hill. 
1845-6.— Richard Greenwood, E. R. Talbot (re- 
signed). 
1847-8-9.— Moses Rayner, John Nowell (2 yearsi 

Joseph Sutton. 
1850.— David Cornforth, Henry Cattle. 
1851-2-3.— John Bonser, Henry Cattle (2 years), 

S. T. Greathead. 
1854-6.— Thomas Brown, S. T. Greathead (2 

years). 
1857.— William Exton. 
1858-9-60.— Thomas Burrows. 
1861-2-3.— Richard Smailes. 
1864-5.— John Archer. George Chambers 
1866-7.— John E. Doubleday. 
1868-9.— Henry M. Eatcliffe. 
1870-1.— Jonathan Barrowclough. 
1872 3-4.— Edward Russell. 
1875-6.— Joseph Hirst 
1877-8-9.— Cornelius Wood. 
1880-1-2.— George S. Meek. 
1883-4-5.— William R. Dalby. 
1886-7-8.— James Clegg. 
1889-90-1.— William Henry Hill. 
1892-3-4.— William Dawson Watson. 
1895-6-7.— William Wandless. 
1898-9-1900 -Samuel Goodyer. 
1901-2-3.— James Foster. 
1904-9.— Marmaduke Riggall. 
1910-ll.-William Fiddian Moultou. M.A. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



EARLY PRIMITIVE METHODISM. 



The Bradwell Pioneers. 

In a previous chapter the iutrotluct ion of 
Primitive Methodism is touched upon very 
briefly. Since that was written the first 
account lx)ok of the newry-formed body has 
been placed at the disposal of the writer, 
and is highly interesting as showing the 
work of the pioneers, under the most try- 
ing circumstances. 

The very first entry is one of eighteen- 
pence "for small rules given to members 
by Brother Ingham," under date January 
12th, 1822. This shows that James Ing- 
ham was the pioneer. During the first 
three months the town was invaded by 
preachers wlio were paid small sums for 
their work. The chief of these was Slisan 
Berry, who, ou arrival in Bradwell, was 
given three shillings, and during the quar- 
ter was paid lis. Sd. for her work. Messrs. 



Beeley, Fletcher, and Barber were also 
pioneers this quart., r. Ihey were paid a 
few shillings each. These first preachers 
wei'e fed and lodged by William Evans, in 
Smalldale. The only other items of ex- 
penditure were for glazing the windows of 




JAMES INCHAM 
The Pioneer Primitive MethiJIst. 

George Morton's barn so as to make it suit- 
able for a chapel, and numerous payments 
for candles, in addition to 16s. 8d. for 
sacramental wine. The total expenditure 
for the quarter was £7 Is. 11. id., but such 
was the succiss that attended the mission- 
aries' work that the receipts were £16 8s. 
6|d. from the classes that were formed at 
Bradwell (£8 15s. ed.). Little Hucklow, 
Castleton Tideswell, Curbar. Calvcr Eyam, 
Bamford, Hoiie, ICnale, Wardlow, Foolow, 
Taddington, Flagg, I'eak Forest, Chinley, 
Wash, and Chapel Milton. 

The movement spread, and during the 
second quarter, Abney and Rowarth were 
added to the list of societies, then Grindle- 
ford Bridge, Bugsworth, Mellor, Stoney 
Middleton Great Hucklow, Bagshaw, Pin- 
dale, Chapel-en-lc-Frith, Monyash, Chei- 
morton, Thornsett, New Mills, Aspinshaw, 
Derwent, Furness Vale, Litton Slack, 
Bretton, Sheldon, Buxton, Simmondley, 
Whitfield, Kettleshulme, Stone Htad-s 
(Whaley Bridge) Marple, Longstone, Hay- 
field, Glossop. Brooknouses, Birch Hall 
Houses, Xllompstall, Mottram, Tintwistle, 
and Marple Bridge. When, in 1826, this 
big circuit had a membership of 430, it was 
divided, and New Mills (with Glossop, etc.) 
constituted a separate circuit, for on June 
26th there is the entry: "New Mills was 
made into a circuit, and Bradwell took the 
household furniture and the debt which 
was £6 14s. Od., New Mills one half of the 
books." 



106 



TIIAVELLING PREACHEES AT FOUR- 
TEEN SHILLINGS A WEEK. 



Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield was rich 
on forty pounds a year, but these early 
travelling preachers were oblige d to fancy 
tlieni selves rich on much less. Amos 
Ogden and Joseph Hibbs (who became the 
Rev. Joseph Hibbs and was known as the 
I^rimitivo Methodist Bishop of South 
Wales) had to be content with a shilling a 
day, while Thomas Fletcher, Samuel 
Beeley, Humfroy Goddard and Elias Old- 
field had two shillings a day. The first 
regular minister was Jeremiah Gilbert, who 
had chai'ge of this big circuit at the 
princely salary of foiir^^een shillings a week, 
and he had as his assistant, John Hallam 
at seven shillings a week. Hallam was a 
Bradwell lad, who went out into the regu- 
lar ministry, as also did Joseph Middleton, 



<:■ 




REV. JOHN HALLAM. 



another native. No wonder that with such 
salarioH there was occasionally a "present" 
of a few shillings to the preachers. But 
as tilings improved, and the cause made its 
way thcf-e regular preacliers were employed 
at 14-s. a vve( k each, and they were assisted 
by a number of locnl pr aelicrs, who were 

Eaid two shillings a day while the Peak was 
eing missioned. But when the New Mills 
circuit was formed in 1H26. Bradwell had to 
be c.intent with one minister — Josiah Par- 
tington — at 14s. a week, and Rob rt Shen- 
ton a young man, who.so quarterly wage 
was £3 10s., and £1 10s. was paid "for 
Robert, Shenton's ir.eals." Robert Shenton 
was only here one year, for he entered 
the Unitarian ministry, and remained 
a minister here half a century, as noticed 
in a previous chapter. 

. As ther.' was a rapid'y increasing adverse 
balance every quarter, it was found necess- 



ary to reduce the expenses, and so Robert 
Hewson became the preacher in 1827, at the 
magnificent wage of twelve shillings a week, 
and he lived in a house at £3 a year rent. 
But things improved, for his successor. 




REV. ROBERT SHENTON. 

Who left the Primit.ves and was Unitarian 
Preacher 63 Years. 

George Tindal, was pu^ up to the fourteen 
shillings standard, but in order to pay him 
up when he left, the hat was sent round, 
private collections made, and the accounts 
squared up by selling blankets and bolsters 
out of the house. John Graham was tha 
next preacher, and he had to be content 
with being paid on account each quarter 
until there was £11 due to him as arrears, 
and in order to clear it off wh n he left the 
circuit, £8 3s. 3d. was "collected in New 
Mills circuit." 

JOHN VERITY. THE STONEMASON 
PREACHER. 

When the famous John Verity made his 
appearance in 1831, he stirred things up 
There was a great revival, and th inci'eased 
membership meant an improvement in the 
finances, so that the deficiency i (came a 
thing of tho jiast, but only" lor a tijn.\ fot 
when two preachers w(re engi-gcd, finan 
cial troubles re-appeared. 

John Verity was a most popuk r pieacher. 
By tradj ho was a s(onema-o i, and he 
carved the inscription stone over the old 
chapel at Castlet:)n. He also ])ri ached the 
opening sermons of that chapel. Here is 
an interesting entry we came across: 
"Castleton Chapel was opened Ca.srleton 
Wakes Sunday, 1833. There are nine 
Trustees. The debt upon the chapel is £1.2 
10s. Th;i names of the Trustees, and th* 
sum eucb finds on interest of 5 per cen*^. is 
to be received at Christmas are as follow: 



107 



Anthony Gilbert, Tideswell, £5; Wm. Ben- 
nett, Tideswdl £5 lOs. ; Geo. Bennett. 
Tideswell, £5; John Kitchen, Calver, £5; 
Mary Andrew. Hathersage, £5; Francis* 
Ayre, Abuey, £4; George Eo?e. jun., Ahney. 
£4; William Dorw.nt, jun., Thornhill £4; 
Thos. Hadfield, la^e of Sittinglow, £5; £42 
10s. Od. The deed is kept at George Ben- 
nett's, of Tideswell." 

FEMALE PREACHERS. 

In 1834 there is a minute "That we try 
to get a female preacher to travel in this 
circuit as a Second Preacher." The appli- 
cation was successful for Sister Ann Noble 
mado her advent into the circuit, and re- 
mained a year at 3s. a week and her "meat 
bill," and she was succeeded by Sister 
Robotham, who was paid £2 10s. a quarter. 

There were, in the early days of the move- 
ment, manj' women amongst tho local 
preachers of Primi^^ive Methodism, and an 
occasional glimpse is got at the earliest of 
these, who tramped over the Peak in hail, 
rain, wind or snow. In 18"'3 there is the 
entry "that Sister E. Bradshaw's name 
come off the plan, she having left the 
circuit." 

1834. "That Mary Hawkins fce upon the 
plan, and be rejjr.sented by a star." 

"That R. Swift and wife have their cre- 
dentials sent to Macclesfield circuit they 
having removed thither." 

"That a star be upon the plan for th3 
young females, and they have an appoint- 
ment or two." 

"That Mary Hawkins have a few appoint- 
ments on the nlan, signified bv a star." 

1835. "That we pledge Sis''-er NobJ^ at 
the ensuing District Meeting." 

"That Sister Noble stop till Christmas, 
1835, and that wc. have a female the last 
six months." 

"That Hannah Howe b:- exalted to a fnll 
and Credi'^ed Local Preacher." 

"That Ann Bradwell's initials come on 
the plan." 

"That Mary Hawkins Do." 

"That Ann Bradwell's full name come on 
the plan." 

"That Elizabeth Handford be received 
upon the plan." 

"That S-s'^er M. Potter have a note of 
liberty from this meeting to preach 
amongst us." 

"That the initials rf Violet Hill come 
upon the plan." 

These are snfficient as showing some of 
those women who rccuped the pulpits in 
the early days of the movement; 

REFRACTORY MEMBERS. 

The new body was jealous of the conduct 
of its members and did not hr stita'^e to call 
them to account at the Quarter Dav for 
any breach of discipline. Thus,"^ the 
minutes for the "Full Quarter Dav," 
March. ia33, contain an entry, "That 
George Maltby's name be left off the plan, 
he having voluntarily declared that he, the 
said George Maltby, had left the bodv, and 



immediately on his own accord Lft the 
Quarter Day." And the same minutes, 
which are signed by lliomas Jennings and 
John Hallam, go on to say : "This is to 
certify that wo have now laid before us 
every Class paper in tho Circuit, and after 
the most strict examination find them to 
contain, according to Rule, 206 Full Mem- 
bers and 20 on Trial." 

There seems to liavo been trouble with 
another, who had for some years done a 
great d ' of preaching, for at the Decem- 
ber meev.iig in the same year it was de- 
termined "that Richard Hamilton be no 
longer a m;<mber nor preacher in our 
Society in consequence of professing and 
preaching Antinomist Doctrines, and doom- 
ing all to misery who dissent from him." 
Evidently Richard had joined the Anti- 
nomians, who thought that the law was of 
no uso or obligation, that virtue and good 
woi'ks wei'e unnecessary, and that faith 
alone was sufficient to insure salvation. It 
is easy to imagine what a flutter he would 
create, and how promptly he would be ex- 
pelled. But everybody were under the 
strictest obligation to keep the proceedings 
of these meetings a profound secret, and 
a.s somebody had been letting ttio cat out 
of the bag — perhaps Richard the delinquent 
— it was resolved "that every member of 
this me ting keep secret the business of 
this and all other officigJ meetings on pain 
of censure." Some of the members, how- 
ever, had no dread of censure, for at the 
very next meeting there is another resolu- 
tion that if anyone diviilge to others the 
business of the meeting or any part thereof 
his case should forthwith be placed before 
tho General Committee. 

SOME COMICAL PREACHERS. 
There were no college men among these 
early pioneers, they were jiun who had to 
earn their daily bread by the sweat of 
their brow, hence they had to bear with 
th'j gibes of fastidious people. But they 
v.ere urged to improve themselves, and in 
1834 the Quarterly Meeting decided "that 
it be the standing rule of this Society that 
Local Preachers on Tr'al preach trial sei'- 
mons at their Exaltation," and "that all 
our Local Pr.^achers be affectionately re- 
quested to improv.. themselves by reading, 
study, &c., so that there may bo no com- 
plaints again.st them, and that tlieir pro- 
fiting and usefulness may appear unto all." 
One of the local preachers William Wag- 
.s^aff. caused a deal of trouble at this time. 
Whether he had preached Antinomianism 
or how" he had kicked over the traces is 
not stated, but he did not wait for expul- 
sion, for "as Will'am Wagstaff has with- 
drawn himself from our Society we there- 
fore cannot enter into the charges alleged 
against him." There had been trouble also 
with John Hawkswor^h, for we have it 
"that J. Hawksworth's name come off the 
plan in consequencp of NEGLECT of PLAN 
and CLASS." This is written in capitals, 
underlined, as if to serve as a warning to 
posterttf. 



108 



One of the brethren appears to have been 
rather long-winded in his sermons. Of 
all religious bodies the Primitive Metho- 
dists tried to avoid this, hence in 1835 it 
was decided "that Joseph Taylor have a 
note sent to him from this meeting, re- 
questing not to exceed 20 minutes in his 
exhortations." At the same meeting one 
or two pr:achers who did not exactly come 
up to the standard were taken to task, for 
we read "that James Howe have a note 
sent to him caution:'ng him in the regard of 
his future conduct." It is not said what 
his past conduct had been, but that a Cal- 
ver worthy was not strictly teetotal is evi- 
dent from the entry, "That Nathan Cocker, 
of Calver. have a note sent to him, inform- 
ing him that in consequence of his re- 
peated acts of drunkenness wc cannot allow 
him to meet as a member in our Society. This 
entry clearly shoA\s the attitude of the de- 
nomination in relation to intemperance 80 
years ago. 

THE FIRST nONEEES. 

Among those who were local preachers, 
prayer leaders and officers in this circuit 
during the first fourteen years of the exis- 
tence of the donominat'on in this district, 
from 1821 to 1835, were Susan Berry, Thos. 
Fletcher, J. Barber, Joshua Beeley, Hum- 
frey Goddard, Elias Oldfield, Joseph Hibbs, 
John Hallam, James Oven, Samuel Silves- 
ter, Richard Hamilton, John Oldfield, 
Samuel Beeley, Henry Ellis, Thomas 
Stocks, Israel Brown, Robert Marshall, 
Thomas Jennings, George Morton, Robert 
Morton, Ruth Morton, George Holme, 
George Maltby, Thomas Jennings, William 
Cocker, J. Howson, George Bennitt (Tides- 
well), Anthony Jennings, Henry Middle- 
ton, Christopher Broadhent. J. Andrew, 
J. Howe, Thos. Middleton, Robert Calvert. 
George Gyte (Hope), Benjamin Hill, Joseph 
Wilson, Mary Hawkins. William Bennett 
(Tideswell), William Parrett, Thomag Had 
field, Elizabeth Kirk (Castleton), Anthonv 
Gilbert, J. Slack (Tideswell), Joseph Ash- 
ton, Wm. W.agstaif, J. Hawksworth, John 
Cheetham, John Hall, Hannah Howe, Ann 
Bradwell, Joseph Taylor, Thomas Ashton, 
Edward Howard (Tideswell). Nathan 
Cocker, Mary Potter Violet Hill, Eliza- 
beth Handford. John Clayton, Elias Row- 
arth, John Booking Derwent, Wm. Cheet- 
ham, Thomas Palfrey man, and Thomas 
Mosscrop. 

John Morton, wlio entered the ministry, 
■was thrown into prison for preaching at 
Hereford. He was the author of "The 
wife^ that will suit .aou, and how to win 
her"; "The Husband that will suit you and 
how to treat him"; and "Lectures to the 
Young Men." 

COMPLETE LIST OF MINISTERS. 

Here is a complete list of fiiinisters to the 
present time: — 

1822— James Ingham, formed first Society. 
1822 A 1823— Jeremiah Gilbert, Jas. Inirham, 
Joseph Brook. 



1823 & 1824- Thomas Holloday. John Hopkin- 

son, Joseph Hibbs, John Hallam. 

1824 & 1825— Andrew Robshaw, Paul Sugden, 

Abram Harrison. 

1825 & 1826— John Britain, Joseph Buckle. 

James Bilson, Joseph Middleton, Robt 
Shenton. 

1826 & 1827— Josiah Partington. Henry Step- 

ney. 

1827 & 1828— Robert Hewson. 

1828 & 1827— George Tindal, Ruth Morton. 
1829. 1830 & 1831— John Graham. 

1831. 1852. & 1833— John Verity. 

1833. 1834 & 1835— Jonathan Clewer, Ann Noble, 

John Hallam. 
1835 & 1836— Joseph Hutchinson. Miss Ro- 

botham. 
1836— Robert Hill. Jesse Ashworth. 
1837— Robert Hill. Thomas Moscrop. 
1838— G. W. Armitage, Thomas Moscrop. 
1839— G. W. Armitage, J. Cheetham. 
1840— S. Atterby. J. Cheetham. 
1841— Thomas Charlton. James Oponshaw. 
1842— Thomas King( James Openshaw. 
1843— Thomas King. David Holdcroft. 
1844— David Tuton. James Bottomley. 
1845— David Tuton, James Bottomley & John 

Eastwood. 
1846— S. Smith. J. Davy, J. Taylor. 
1847— J. Lawley, T. Aspinshaw, Obadiah O. 

Britain. 
1848— J. Lawley, J. Unsworth. 
1849— John Judson. John Standrin. 
1851— John Judson. John Standrin. 
1851— John Judson. William Wilkinson. 
1852— W. Inman. George Smith. 
1854— James Peet, Joseph Graham. 
1855— James Peet, James Openshaw. 
1856-David Tuton, James Openshaw. 
1857-David Tuton. — Sutcliffe. 
1858— David Tuton. William Harris. 
1859— Thomas Doody, Edward Kershaw. 
1861— Thomas I>oody, John Turner. 
1862— Thomas Doody. John Turner and David 

Thomas Maylott. 
1862— Thomas Parr, John Turner and David 

Thomas Maylott. 
1863— Thomas Parr. David Thomas Maylott. 
1864— Thomas Bennett, Thomas Wilshaw. 
1865— Thomas Bennett, R. B. Howcroft. 
1866— Thomas Bennett, Robert Middleton. 
1867— Thomas Meredith. Robert Middleton. 
1868— Thomas Meredith. 8. Kelly. 
1869— Thomas S. Bateman, John Glass. 
ISJO— Walter Graham. George Morris. 
1873— Walter Graham. John Glass. 
1874— Walter Graham. 
1875— James Hall. 
1876— William Smith. 
1878— William Smith and J. Cleaver (Special 

Missioner). 
1879-John Hancock. 
1880— John Hancock. 
1881— John Hancock. 
1882-3-4 & 5— George Smith. 
1886-7-8 & 9— William Henry Mason. 
1890 & 1— Robert W. B. Whiteway. 
1892-3 & 4— John Edmund Jones. 
1895-6 & 7— John Prince. 
1898— John Hancock. 
1899— John Hancock. 
1900-John Hancock. 
1901— John Hancock. 
1902-John Hall. 
1903— John Hall. 
1904— John Hall. 
1905— Edward Quine. 
1906— Edward Quine. John Hancock (superna- 

merary). 
1907— Edward Quine. John Hancock (superna- 

merary). 
1908— Ralph H. Gent, John Hancock. 
1909— Ralph H. Gent. John Hancock (supernn- 
merary), Mr. Hillard. H.L.P. 



109 



1910— Ralph H. Gent, John Hancock (supernu- 
merary). John T. Pratt, H.L.P. 

1911— John T. Goodacre, John Hancock (super- 
numerary), Luke Stafford (supernu- 
merary). 



CHAPTER XXX. 



FAMOUS VISITORS OF A CENTURY 
AGO 



And Their Impressions. 

Bradwell has often been honoured with 
the visits of men of letters, who have given 
their impressions of the place and its 
people. Some of these are curious reading 
in these days, 

AUTHOR'S AMUSING EXPERIENCE. 

When Hutchinson made his tour of the 
Peak a hundred years ago the Bagshawe 
Cavern had just been discovered in 1807. 
Going down Bradwell Dale he inquired for 
the newly discovered cavern, and here is 
his own version of his experience : — Several 
of the country people answered that they 
knew nothing of it; and it was some time 
before I tound that they did not iindcrstand 
the meaning of the word cavern ; for upon 
changing my question to that of a place 
underground, information was immediately 
given ; observing one person more simple 
than the rest I could not help asking him 
a few further questions. 

" Is it two miles, my good fellow, to 
Hope.'" said I. 

" Aye," answered he. 

' Is it twelve o'clock .'" 

" Aye," answered he. 

"Is that Bradwell before me?" 

" Aye, mester." 

"These ayes being still answered to sev- 
eral other inteiTogations, I asked him, as 
he seemed between forty and fifty years of 
age, whether to the best of his knowledge 
and belief he had ever said yes in his life." 

" The simpleton immediately scratched 
his head, produced the following candid 
and ingenious answer : ' Why mester, to tell 
yo th' truth, for its now use telling a lie, 
I believe I ne'er did.' " 

HISTORIAN ON EARLY MARRIAGES. 

Glover, the Derbyshire historian, who 
visited Bradwell (1829), appeared to be par- 
ticularly impressed with the early mar- 
riages here, and handed down to future gen- 
erations the information that "The young 
people here of both .sexes generally marry 
at the age of 18." With these few words 
he dismisses the subject. 

William Wood, the historian of Eyam, 
with whom Bradwell was a favourite spot, 
said (1862) that "Like all other mountain- 
hid villages, it contains a population 
strongly marked by peculiarities of custom. 



retaining notions of a highly superstitious 
nature, and most pugnaciously tenacious of 
their numerous time-honoured, antique 
usages. Here, to a deplorably excessive de- 
gree, inter-marriage exists, and have existed 
for ages." 

"STERLING WORTH AND 
INTEGRITY." 

Bernard Bird, in his " Perambulations of 
Barney, the Irishman " (1850), alludes to 
this trait of character, for he observes : 
" The attachment of the inhabitants of 
Bradwell to their own people is very strong ; 
they seldom or never inter-marry with, 
strangers, and are a community of relations, 
consisting of about 300 families, or 1,500 
inhabitants. ... I have traded with 
the inhabitants for 38 years, and in justice 
to them must say that I have always found 
them (without exception) of sterling worth 
and integrity." 

JAMES MONTGOMERY'S EQUESTRIAN 
FEAT. 

James Montgomery, " The Christian 
poet," his friends Ebenezer Rhodes, author 
of " Peak Scenery," Sir Francis Chantry, 
the eminent sculptor, James Everett, the 
Wesleyan historian, and John Holland, 
were frequent visitors to Bradwell in the 
early part of last century, and in the life 
of the poet, written by Holland and Everitt, 
there is an interesting and curious refer- 
ence to Bradwell. 

On April 26th, 1823, Montgomery being 
then 51 years of age. he took tea Avith Mr. 
Holland and Mr. Molineaux, of Macclesfield, 
at the house of Mr. Cowley, a SheflSeld 
manufacturer, whose place of business was 
in Pinstone Street. In the course of the 
evening the conversation turned on the 
writing of epitaphs for tombstones. Mont- 
gomery spoke of the reluctance he felt in 
composing them, though they were often 
extorted from him. " I have an order to 
write an epitaph on a good woman at Brad- 
well by next Tuesday," said the poet. " If 
Mr. Holland pleases, he shall write it." 

Holland's reply was " I might surely ven- 
ture to do it for an obscure burying-ground 
in the High Peak. Did you ever visit Brad- 
well?" asked Holland. 

" Yes," replied Montgomery, " on one oc- 
casion many years ago, and I have good 
occasion to remember the visit. The en- 
trance into the village amidst the rocks is 
by a very steep descent. When my horse 
reached a certain part of the road he sud- 
denly went down upon his knees, pitching 
me as suddenly over his head upon the 
stones. I was not, however, much hurt, 
and got up again as well as I could, un- 
assisted by any one of half a dozen petri- 
faction of men who stood and witnessed the 
accident apparently with as little emotion 
as the limestone crags around us." 

" Then they offered neither assistance nor 
commiseration?" observed Holland. 



110 



" Not they," replied Montgomery. 
" Such an occurrence appeared to be not 
strange to them; for I heard one of the 
fellows say 'Aye, that's where everybody 
falls/ " 

The lines of the epitaph sent to Bradwell 
on this occasion were as follows :— 
" The wicked cease from troubling here. 
And here the weary are at rest ; 
Henceforth, till Christ their life appear, 
The slumbers of the just are blest. 
The saint who in this silent bed 
Waits the last trumpet from the skies. 
Shall then with joy lift up her head. 
And like her risen Saviour rise." 

HOPE VICAR'S WIFE AT WESLEYAN 
CLASS MEETINGS. 

Nearly quarter of a century afterwards — 
on July 31st, 1847— the two poets, Mont- 
gomerv and Holland, had the following con- 
versation on Holland's return home after 
spending a few days at Hope. 

" I am glad to find you have escaped safely 
from the caverns and all the other perils 
of the Peak," said Montgomery. 

" I shall not soon forget the alarm of one 
of my nieces on being ferried over the little 
lake in the celebrated Castleton cavern," 
observed Holland. 

" Nor shall I ever forget my sensations 
under similar circumstances," said Mont- 
gomery. Indeed I never felt so powerfully the 
combined impression of awe and sublimity 
as when I lay in the shallow boat on my 
back, and my breast nearly in contact with 
the under surface of a mass of thousands of 
tons of rock that only appeared suspended, 
as it were, by a hair, while the number of 
immense blocks lying about me reminded 
m.^ that these portions of the roots of the 
mountains had at some period been actually 
detached. When I used to visit that neigh- 
bourhood on the annual recurrence of Bible 
Society and missionary anniversaries. Dr. 
Orton was vicar of Hope, and the Method- 
ists, placed as they were, between the noted 
preaching-stead of Bradwell and the famous 
love-feast locality of Woodlands, were ex- 
ceedingly zealous and flourishing. Did you 
you go to the church or to the chapel?" 

" We went to both," replied Holland, " to 
the church in the morning and afternoon, 
and to the Wesleyan Chapel in the evening. 
The present worthy vicar of Hope is the 
Kev. W. C. B. Cave, and I was equally sur- 
prised and gratified to recognise his ex- 
cellent wife sitting on the lowest form 
among the poor women in the Methodist 
Chapel. Indeed, I was more struck with 
the rare fact — for rare it is now-a-days — of 
a lady in her position affording such evi- 
dence that her religion raised her above 
mere church or chapel prejudices than I 
was by the magnificent mountain masses of 
Mam Tor. Winhill, Losehill, and the Win- 
nats, which I could see from the chapel 
windows. I have mentioned to two or thrj^ 
clergymen, since I came home, the fact of 
the frequent attendance of good Mrs. Cave 



at this little hill-side conventicle,, with all 
the circumstantial aggravations of the case 
— such as the vehemence of the rustic 
preacher, the loud and indecorous responses 
of the humble mountaineers, the great 
number of them present, the hearty sing- 
ing of Wesley's hymns, with which the lady 
in question was evidently provided — nay, 
that she had been known to go into a class 
meeting ! and, above all, the consideration 
that she is, in all other respects, an active, 
intelligent and excellent woman. And my 
good clerical friends not only expreesed 
their surprise at my statement, but re- 
garded such conduct in a vicar's wife as 
highly scandalous — the morning attendance 
of those Peak Methodists at church not- 
withstanding !" 

' The more shame for them," exclaimed 
Montgomery. " Her conduct as a Christian 
woman is highly to her credit. Why should 
she not join in social worship with her 
Methodist neighbours when there is no ser- 
vice at the church? And why should she 
not make herself personally acquainted 
with, and even encourage those good men 
who are engaged in preaching the gospel to 
scores of persons in the parish who might 
not come to hear her husband? I warrant 
she is not on that account less active in the 
discharge of her other position and proper 
duties." 

'Not she, indeed," replied Holland, "if 
I may judge from the reports of the vil- 
lagers as to the way in which she labours 
among them, and from what I saw of her 
activity in shepherding up all the boys and 
girls who were old enough, to be examined 
and insti'ucted preparatory to their con- 
firmation by the Bishop." 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

FRIENDLY SOCIETrES OF THE PAST 
AND PRESENT, 



Some Curious Records. 

When a complete history of the 
Friendly Society movement in this 
countr.v comes to be written — not 
the history of one particular Order, 
but covering the whole ground right back 
to the days and doings of the ancient 
Guilds — it will form a highly interesting 
contribution to the literature of the coun- 
try. And not the least interesting portion 
of it will be that relating to the many 
small, self-contained, and independent 
societies established for mutual help in the 
towns and villages during the eighteenth 
century, before the establishment of the 
big incorporated Orders, such as the Odd- 
fellows, Foresters, Druids, Shepherds, etc. 
Certain it is that the men — and women too 
— of Bradwell, then an isolated but popu- 



Ill 



lous place in the Peak, consisting mainly 
of lead miners and weavers, and tradesmen 
dependent on those workers, were among 
the first to set up those organisations, 
which served their day and generation ex- 
ceedingly well. In the latter part of the 
18th century there was an "Old Men's 
Club " and an " Old Women's Club." Un- 
fortunately, the interesting records and 
chronicles of the oldest of these societies 
are not to hand, but it is a fact that one 
called "The Old Club Friendly Society" 
was established in Bradwell very early in 
the eighteenth century. This is clear, be- 
cause there appears to have been some de- 
fection of members in 1789, when the dis- 
affected brethren formed a society of their 
own, which they designated "The New 
Club Friendly Society." But the weakest 
went to the wall, and that happened to be 
the "New Club," which after a struggling 
existence for thirty-four years decided to 
dissolve itself and again unite with the 
parent body. Hence it was that " The 
United Society " was established on the 
3rd of July, 1813, " in consequence of the 
New Club Friendly Society in Bradwell 
(which commenced the seventh day of 
March, 1789) having agreed to dissolve the 
same, and unite with the Old Club Friendly 
Society, for the better benefiting and as- 
sisting each member in the time of sick- 
ness and infirmity, and for the further aid 
and improvement of the stock." 

"CHARITABLE AND BEOTHEELY." 

To members of present-day Friendly 
Societies, at any rate, the " articles to be 
observed by the charitable and brotherly 
members of the United Society in Brad- 
well " will be both interesting, instructive, 
and amusing, as showing how their fore- 
fathers conducted their business. The 
governing body consisted of a master, two 
stewards, and twelve assistants. The first 
master was Joseph Hallam; the first 
stewards were Eobert Middlet^n and 
Obadiah Stafford; and the assistants were 
Robert Middleton (Dale End), Isaac Pal- 
freyman, junr., Philip Barber, junr., Ben- 
jamin Morton, Eobert Bradwell, Isaac 
Palfreyman, senr., Benjamin Somerset, 
Thomas Morton, Isaac Furniss, William 
Bradwell, Charles Middleton, and William 
Jeffery. The "articles" had to be 
"perused and approved" by two magis- 
trates—Samuel Frith, the famous "Squire 
Frith of Bank Hall." the popular sporting 
squire, and Marmaduke Middleton Middle- 
ton, of Leam Hall; and after these two 
dignitaries were satisfied with them they 
were "exhibited to and confirmed by the 
Court" at the Michaelmas Quarter Ses- 
sions, 1813. and signed by A. L. Maynard, 
clerk of the peace. 

The society, curiously enough, had two 
classes of members, and each class was 
dealt with differently both as regards pay- 
ments and benefits ; the entrance fee varied 
from Is. 8d. to 3s., according to age, which 



varied from 15 to 30 years; the subscrip- 
tion was a shilling a month for the first 
class and 6d. a month for the second class, 
the rate of sick pay being proportionate to 
the subscription. And the funeral benefit, 
too, was on a sliding scale; for instance, a 
member of the first class dying after 
having been in the society two years, his 
representatives received £2, for four years 
£4, and for seven years £5, the benefit of 
the second-class member being exactly half 
those sums. 

That they were kept up to the scratch 
in their payments is evident, for a first- 
class member had to forfeit twopence, and 
a second-class member a penny, if he 
neglected to pay; the amount was doubled 
for a second neglect, and for neglecting to 
pay a third time the member was publicly 
exposed by notice being given in the club- 
room, and excluded from the societv — a 
rough-and-ready way of doing things. Evi- 
dently there was no such thing as suspen- 
sion in those days; rigorous expulsion was 
the penalty for those who neglected to pay 

This old society existed before the davs 
of banks in this district. It is not said 
whether the officer who held the cash was 
accompanied by a bulldog, armed with a 
revolver, and guarded home by the con- 
stable, but certain it is that he was pro- 
vided with a box— a big, strong chest with 
three locks and three keys to it, one for 
the Master and one each for the stewards. 
In this box the " cash, deeds, bonds, notes, 
\ books," etc., were kept. 

The Master continued in office one year 
only, when the head steward was promoted 
to the position, "provided he behave him- 
self as he ought to do." By this we are 
led to infer that they were not exactly 
perfect a century ago. Who were to l)e the 
judges as to whether he " behaved himself 
I as he ought to do" we are not'told. This 
: "Master" was an important individual, 
! something approaching a little god in the 
; place — at any rate in the society. For in- 
stance, he had two votes on every question 
that came before the meetings, while the 
stewards and assistants had only " single 
I votes." And the whole of the business was 
I conducted by these fifteen important per- 
' sonages, who " shall sit together in one 
room on all occasions, neither shall any 
interrupt them nor enter therein, but upon 
business of their own. If any offend here- 
in, shall forfeit sixpence, or be excluded." 
Eather a wide difference between " forfeit- 
, ing " sixpence and being expelled. 

' THOSE PINTS OF ALE. 

This rociety of " charitable and brotherly 
j members " flourished in the days long be- 
I fore the temperance movement took nold. 
! Those were the times when most folk 
I brewed their own peck o* - malt, when 
j brewers' drays were unknown, when every 
publican was his own brewer, and when 
it was thought the proper thing to give 



112 



"ale" to children at Sunday School festi- 
vals. The officers of this society loved 
their pint pot, or its contents, because 
while a " forfeit " of sixpence had to be 
made by any one of them who dared to be 
absent from any business meeting, "every- 
one who attends shall have a pint of ale 
allowed him, to be paid for out of the 
box." 

BRIDLING THE TONGUE. 

That there were occasional " scenes " at 
the meetings is not to be wondered at, and 
some of the language used was not too 
choice. When drink was in wit was out, 
and the calling of " nicknames " was quite 
the order of the day. In the days of the 
old society there had been many a lively 
time in the club-Toom, so that when the 
amalgamation came these " charitable and 
brotherly " folk agreed to put the bridle 
on themselves by declaring : — 

" That there shall be strictly observed 
the following orders in the club-room 
during club hours, viz. : First, if any mem- 
ber of this society shall come in disordered 
with liquor, so as to be a disturber, and 
incapable of discharging his office or duty 
as a mem'er, shall curse, swear, talk pro- 
fanely, or call anyone present by any other 
name than to whi"h he answers, he shall 
forfeit twopence, but if he continue to 
offend he shall forfeit sixpence or be ex- 
cluded. Secondly, after the Master or 
stewards shall demand silence, if anyone 
speak, until liberty be given him by the 
Master, he shall forfeit twopence, and no 
more than one to speak at once on matters 
of business. Thirdly, if any member plays 
or promotes playing at any game or games, 
he shall forfeit twoience or be excluded. 
Fourthly, every member shall keep his seat 
during club hours, except he change to 
oblige his brother; in default thereof he 
shall forfeit twopence." 

FOOTBALL UNLAWFUL. 

IJere is another curious "article." show- 
ing that football was among the "unlaw- 
ful exercises" in those days: " If any mem- 
ber of this society has received pay from 
the stock, and sufficient proof be given 
that he has caught the venereal, or has 
been working at any trade or calling, 
drinking to excess., wrestling, fighting, 
football pliying, cv any unlawful exercise 
whatever, he shall be e.xcluded." 

THE WHITSUNTIDE JOLLIFICATION. 

The members had a right good jollifica- 
tion every Whit Tuesday, when they held 
their annual feast, when beer and the Bible 
appeared to be the order of the day. Un- 
der pain of exclusion all the forfeits and 
arrears had to bo paid off on the club night 
before the feast, and for iK'glect to do this 
there was a further forfeit of a shilling, 
to be paid on the feast day. And at the 
same time honorary members paid what 
they jdeased, all the money being thrown 



into the feast, which was held at the 
public-house after the members had at- 
tended service at the Wesleyan Chapel. 
Sometimes, however, John Barleycorn had 
got hold of some of the members before 
they went to chapel, and in order to pre- 
serve some sort of decorum a rule was 
made to the effect that " every member that 
resides within two miles shall attend whei-e 
it (the feast) is held ; the master, stewards, 
and assistants at ten o'clock, or forfeit 
threepence each, and the members at 
eleven in the forenoon, or forfeit twopence; 
they shall attend in good order to hear 
divine service, and every person who quits 
his ranks, either going or coming, shall 
forfeit threepence. If any member shall 
fight, challenge to fight, strike, threaten to 
strike, or in any wise disturb the harmony 
of the society, he shall forfeit two shillings 
and sixpence or be excluded." But ap- 
parently a good many kicked over the 
traces when the tans were turned on later 
in the day and the fine was no longer 
operative. " Likewise if the master, or 
some member appointed by him, does not 
wear the club hat girdle at the funeral of 
a member, and unon the Sunday preceding 
every club night, he shall forfeit sixpence. 

And a member of this society could not 
even be buried without ale, for when a 
member died whose residence was within 
two miles from the place of meeting, " the 
master, stewards, and assistants shall at- 
tend at the house of the deceased, and 
thence attend their brother's corpse to the 
grave, for which they shall receive five 
shillings for ale." The custom survives 
to-day, for in the Bradwell Friendly Socie- 
ties there are what is known as "The 
Twelve " — a dozen members who are ap- 
pointed every year to attend the funeral 
of a brother, but, of course, the " ale " is 
missing. 

After all, the members of this old-time 
Friendly Society were very jealous of each 
other's honour and integrity. If a mem- 
ber was proved to have " upbraided " 
another without cause, for having received 
money out of the box, he had to forfeit 
half-a-crown or be excluded, and anyone 
convicted of felony was expelled from the 
society " for ever." As will bo seen in a 
former chapter, these were the days when 
every man between 18 and 45 years old was 
liable to be called upon to serve in the 
Militia, and in Bradwell a certain number 
were ballotted every year. Even this was 
provided for in the articles of this society, 
for — 

"If any member shall voluntarily enter 
intaHis Majesty's regular forces, and con- 
tinue therein three months, he shall be 
excluded from this society. But if a mem- 
ber be impressed into His Majesty's ser- 
vice, or be obliged to serve in the Militia, 
and be maimed and incapable of work, he 
shall receive such allowance as the club 
shall think fit, but if he be entitled to any 
pay or pension from the Government, then 
he shall receive nothing from our stock." 



113 



By way of closing the notice of this 
society of bygone days, it may be stated 
that, by rule, " every member shall use his 
endeavour, both by example and admoni- 
tion, to suppress and discourage vice and 
profaueness in general, to promote the 
faith and practice of our true religion in 
particular, with good neighbours, to culti- 
vate the peace and happiness of this 
society to the glory of God and the honour 
of our country." 

With the advent of the Oddfellows, and 
the establishment of other benefit societies, 
this club gradually dwindled in member- 
ship and funds, but it struggled on until 
about 1880, when the few remaining mem- 
bers, all aged men divided the funds and 
dissolved the society. 

THE UNITED SOCIETY DISUNITED. 

NAMES OF THE SECEDERS. 
The first defection from the ranks of this 
I'nited Society was in the year 1821. Ap- 
parently they were neither so "united" 
nor so " charitable and brotherly " as their 
name seemed to imply, for there were ruc- 
tions in their ranks. In those days young 
children and old people earned just a trifle 
at "winding bobbins "for the weavers, 
and when old John Wragg's pay was 
.^topped because he earned eighteenpence a 
week at this job there was a big rumpus. 
The section who sympathised with old John 
formed a club of their own, and were joined 
by many young men, who constituted 
themselves " The Independent Union Sick 
Society." Those who met and constituted 
themselves a new society were Thomas 
Jeffery, Thomas Fox, George Fox, George 
Elliott, Thos. Andrew, John Bradwell, 
junr.. John Pearson, John Hallam, John 
Middleton (smith), George Bradwell, and 
Thomas Middleton ("meadow). And al- 
though nearly a century has passed since 
then, the descendants of these men remain 
as members to-day. Here are the members 
of the new club who joined the first day, 
December 8th, 1821 :— 

Mark Ashton. Bobt. Hallam, iunr. 

Ellis Ashton. Edward Hallam. 

Thomas Ashton. Samuel Hallam. 

John Ashmore. Jacob Hallam. junr. 

George Ashmore. William Howe. 

Benjamin Barber. Thomas Howe. 

John Barber. Robert Howe. 

Wm. Bradwell, senr. Samuel Howe. 

Edward Bennett. Eobert Hilton. 

Eobt. BockinK (Hills). Henry Hill. 

William Burrows. Adam Hill. 

William Cooper. John Hall, senr. 

John Cooper. John Hall, .iunr. 

John Cheetham. Micah Hall. 

William Cheetham. Wm. Hibbs, junr. 

Bichard Cheetham. Robt. Jackson. 

Emanuei Downing, Thos. JeflFrey, junr. 

senr. Richard Kav. 

Emanuel Downing, Geo. Maltby. senr. 

„junr. Geo. Maltby, junr. 

George Downing. Thomas Middleton 
Abraham Dakin. (Smith). 

Johnson Evans. Thos. Middleton, jun 

Edward Evans. John Middleton 
Wilham Evans. (Asters). 

James Evans. George Middleton 
Eobt. Elliott, senr. (Hatter). 



Eobt. Elliott, junr. 
William Elliott. 
John Elliott. 
Isaac Furness. 
Robert Furness. 
William Fox. 
Jeremiah Gilbert. 
Thos. Hallam (Hills). 
Richard Hallam. 
John Hallam (New- 
Nook). 
Adam Hallam. 



George Middleton 

(Hill Top). 
Robert Middleton 

(Meadow). 
Robt. Morton, junr. 
Robt. Pearson. 
Isaac Pearson. 
Joseph R-evell. 
Thomas Revell. 
William Revell. 
Kichard Walker. 
Jacob Worsley. 



I Thus the United Society was shaken, 

! and the present Independent Union Sick 

i Society formed. Jeremiah Gilbert was the 

! pioneer of Primitive Methodism, and his 

membership of this club fixes the date of 

his first appearance to mission for the new 

sect. 

The rules of this new club would doubt- 
less be curious composition, but the earliest 
copy we have is dated 1849, when they were 
registered by Act of Parliament, and 
signed by Joseph Hall, George Bradwell, 
Frederick Morton, and Robert Howe. 

There is nothing mentioned about prose- 
cuting members who might embezzle money 
belonging to the society, but if he refused 
to make the same good the club night after 
his fraud was found out he was to be ex,- 
cluded from the society. 

NUTTING FORBIDDEN.. 

The reference to " nutting " in the fol- 
lowing rule is interesting: "If any mem- 
ber of this societ.y, having received pay 
from the stock, and proof be given that he 
had, at the time, caught the venereal, or 
had been working at an.y trade or calling, 
drinking to excess, fighting, football play- 
ing, nutting, making bargains, etc., or any 
other unlawful exercise whatever, he shall 
be excluded." 

Provision was also made for cases where 
members enlisted in the army or were 
balloted in the Militia. If he was balloted 
into the Militia, and happened to be called 
out, he received no pay during the time of 
his "servitude," but on his return he was 
re-admitted, but if a member either en- 
listed into the army or into the Militia as 
a substitute he was expelled. 

In those days imprisonment for debt was 
common, but in such a case the unfortu- 
nate member was excused payment of his 
contribution, nor did he receive any benefit 
whilst in prison, but when he was liberated 
he was received into membership. 

A rule of interest to present-day societies 
was, doubtless, made after a good deal of 
trouble. A sick or infirm member who was 
so reduced in circumstances that he could 
not subsist on the society's allowance was 
permitted to apply for parish relief, but 
if he entered the poorhouse his benefit 
ceased, and if he died there funeral ex- 
penses were not allowed, but if he was re- 
moved from the poorhouse and paid off all 
arrears due he was again received into the 
society. 

('onviction of murder, felony, perjury, or 
larcenj' was attended with exclusion from 



114 



the society, and if he was convicted of any 
other offence on account of which he was 
subject to imprisonment or corporal 
punishment, he had to pay ten shillings or 
be excluded. 

BEER AND THE BIBLE. 

Of course, the members had to have their 
feast day, when there was a good deal of 
festivity, in which ale played a prominent 
part. This " general feast day," " to com- 
memorate our brotherly love and affection 
towards each other," was held on the 16th 
of May every year. The members " walked 
in rank " to hear divine service, and any 
member refusing to walk, or goin" out of 
the rank, was fined. The declaration, 
" every member shall pay one shilling per 
ale if he partake thereof," seems to imply 
that teetotalism was just taking root. 
That some of those who did "partake" 
did so freely may be gathered from the 
fact that for fighting or challenging 
another to fight on the feast day a fine of 
five shillings, or expulsion, was inflicted. 
The expenses of the feast had to be paid 
by those who partook of it, as the funds 
were not allowed to be drawn upon for that 
purpose. 

Beer and the Bible again seem to be 
mixed up, for " every member shall en- 
deavour, as well by admonition as example, 
to discourage and suppress all vice and 
profaneness, to promote the faith and prac- 
tice of our true and holy religion, together 
with good neighbourhood in general, and 
to cultivate the peace and happiness of 
this society in particular, to the glory of 
God and the honour of our village, that it 
may be said unto us at the last day — 
' Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the 
foundation of the world, for I was sick 
and ye visited me.' " 

The society appointed arbitrators to 
-settle all disputes that might arise among 
the members. These arbitrators were men 
who were not interested in the funds. 
' They were seven in number, but only three 
acted in each case of dispute, and they 
were appointed in a somewhat extraor- 
dinary way. The first arbitrators ap- 
pointed were Robert Hill, Robert Hallam, 
George Fox, Robert Hill, senr., John Hal- 
lam, Samuel Becking, and Jabez Birley 
Somerset. When a case of dispiite arose 
the names of the arbitrators were written 
'On separate pieces of paper, and placed in 
■A box or glass, and the three whose names 
were drawn out liy the complaining party 
decided the matter in difference. 

This old society was in the meridian of 
its days in 1881, when it had 168 members 
and a capital of £1,760. Since then it has 
gradually declined in numbers, for there 
has not been a member initiated for the 
last thirty years, the roll now containing 
39 names, with some £900 in the funds. 

THE ODDFELLOWS. 
The "Welcome Traveller" of the Peak 



Lodge of the Manchester Unity of Odd- 
fellows was established on July 20th, 1829. 
In the box there remains to-day an in- 
teresting relic of the past in the shape of a 
couple of swords that were held over the 
heads of the newly initiated, when the 
ceremony took place in a darkened room, 
but the skull and cross-bones have long 
ago disappeared. Here is a complete list of 
those who have held the office of Noble 
Grand since the formation of the lodge:— 
Thomas Bockinsr. Joshua Walker. 

William Burrows. Zachariah Walker. 

George Downinsr. George Walker. 

Thomas Broadbent. Philip Bradwell. 
Benjamin Hallam. John Fox. 

William Taylor. Jas. Allan Cramond. 

Charles Howe. Abram Morton. 

Thomas Barber. John Wragg. 

William Cheetham. Arthur John Bak«r. 
Edwin Bradwell. Thos. Hy. Middleton. 

Robert Hallam. Jabez Bradwell. 

Joseph Hy. Taylor. John E. Jennings. 
Samuel Howe. Arthur Burrows. 

Ernest Morton. Samuel Hibbs. 

Charles Bradwell. Walter Howe. 

John Kay. Benjamin Hallam. 

Benjamin Walker. Isaac Andrew. 

Robert Burrows. Willoughbv Bradwell. 

Isaac Bancroft. John Dakin. 

Christopher Broad- Albert Elliott. 

bent. Anthony Middleton. 

John Bancroft. Isaac Palfreyman. 

George Ashmore. Albert H. Walker. 

George Middleton. James Middleton. 

George Bancroft. Ernest Hilton. 

Philip Middleton. Ralph Middleton. 

John Hall. Charles A. Bancroft. 

The lodge is No. 373 vn the Unity. For 
many years the meetings were held at Ellis 
Needham's, the White Hart; then at the 
Bull's Head, afterwards at the Primitive 
Methodist School, and now at the Board 
School. There are 132 members, and £2,185 
in the funds. 

Within recent years a Rechabites* Tent 
and a Druids' Lodge have been established. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



SOME TRAGIC DEATHS. 



A Remarkable Chronology. 

There will be found compiled below from 
various sources^ in something like chrono- 
logical order, tragic events that 1 ave oc- 
curred in towns and villages within a feAV 
miles of Bradwell. Though far from com^ 
plete, the list will, so far as it goes, doubt- 
less be interesting to the inhabitants of the 
places which they concern. It will be 
noticed that a large proportion of the 
fatalities during the last half century have 
been in the quarries and limeworks of Dove 
Holes, Peak Forest, and Millers Dale, and 
a considerable number of other casualties 
were during the construction of the Mid- 
land main line in the early sixties, and th&i 
Dore and Chinley line thirty years later. 



115 



1£8j— Feb. 28tli. Thomas Carnal, killed by 

falling from the Terrs, Eyam Dale. 
1689 -Sept. 12th. Samuel RatclifFe, shot in 
Highlow Wood by Martin Eobinson, of 
Olferton. 
1692.— Feb. 4th. Elizabeth Trout, starved to 

death in snow on Sir William. 
1694.— Feb. 18th. John White, found dead in 

Eyam Dale. 
1711— Deo. Woman starved to death near 

Edale End. 
1711— Dec. Old man at Hope crushed into the 
fire by a falling beam in his house and 
roasted to death. 
1729-July 10. William Hibbert, killed by a 

cart at Eyam. 
1730. Man and woman starved to death in 
snowstorm on Ronksley Moor, Derwent. 
1736— Jan. 26th. William Ainsworth, killed 

in Litton Dale. 
1744— William Bradshaw, Castleton. drowned. 
1748— Feb. 5th. Stephen Broomhead, starved 

to death in the snow on Eyam Moor. 
1748- May 16th. Hannah Millward, killed by 
falling down Eyam Dale Eocks. 
750— Nicholas Dakin, drowned at Castleton. 
1752— July 12th. Edward Mortin, drowned in 

a well on Eyam Edge. 
1758— May. Lady and gentleman murdered 

in the Winnatts, Castleton. 
1759— Rebecca Cock, drowned at Castleton. 
1762— Joseph Flinders, run over by a cart and 

killed at Castleton. 
1764— Samuel Blackwell. killed by fall down 

a rock in Eyam Dale. 
1767— June 27th. Thomas Brettener, burnt to 
death in a lime kiln in Middleton Dale. 
1768— James Blackwell, killed by a horse at 

Eyam. 
1771— Ellen Hall, killed by fall from a horse 

at Castleton. 
1773— Cct. 12th. Joseph Bradshaw, killed by 

a cart at Eyam. 
1775— Aug. 21st. Sarah' Mills, drowned her- 
self at Eyam. 

Aug. 30th. Wm. Furness, drowned in 
a well at Eyam. 

Dec. 30th. John Hadfield, found dead 
in a field at Eyam. 
1778— Joseph Staveley, killed by falling from 

a hay-loft at Ca.stleton. 
1780— June 16th. William Beeley, killed by a 

horse at Eyam. 
1784— Oct. 14th. Joseph Archer drowned in 

Middleton Mill Dam. 
1785— Jan. 26th. Joseph Vernon drowned in 

the Derwent near Hathersage. 
1787— May 24th. Mary Hall, Bretton, killed 

by lightning. 
1788— Thomas Dain, carrier, of Castleton, 

killed. 
1790— Sent. 8th. George Froggatt, died in a 

ditch at Eyam. 
1791— Oct. 30th. Kirk's Cotton Mill, Bamford, 

burnt down, damages £5,000. 
1792— July 14th. James Ridgeway, cut his 
throat in Bretton Clough. 
Aug. 2nd. Thomas Bagshaw, a child, 
killed from some steps at Eyam. 
1794— John Hall, Castleton, committed sui- 
cide. 
1796— Dec. 1st. Edmund Cocker, died suddenly 

in Eyam Church. 
1802— July. John Ridgway, killed at Eyam. 
Aug. 28th. Edward Dooley, musician, 
died suddenly on Eyam Edge. 
1804— April 28th. Mary Brittlebank, Eyam. 
burnt to death. 
,. Joseph Mar risen drowned at Castleton. 
1806— Feb. 1st. George Sheldon (47). Tides- 
well prison keeper and tax collector, 
starved to death In a snowstorm on 
Tideswell Moors. 



1808- 
1809- 



1810- 
1811- 



1812- 
1815- 



1807— June 11th. Jonathan Fullweed, dropped 
dead in Eyam Dale. 
Longsden, found dead in Magclough. 
-Samuel Slack, Castleton, committed sui- 
cide. Not read ever at graveside. 
-William Shaw, killed by a bull at Eyam. 
-James Hall, found dead in a field at 

Castleton. 
-June 26th. John Wildgeose found dead 

at Green Leo Barn, Eyam. 
-Anthony Lingard, Tideswell, executed 
for the murder of Hannah Oliver, at 
Wardlow Miers, and gibbetted at 
Wardlow. 
1819— Hannah Becking (16), executed for poi- 
soning her cousin, Jane Grant, at Lit- 
ton Lane End. 
1820— Three workmen killed by collapse of 

Cock Bridge, Ashopton. 
1823— July. William Wood, of Eyam, mur- 
dered near Whaley Bridge. 
1854— Mary Unwin, Eyam, fell dead while 
dancing at a public house. 
„ July 20th. Wm. L. G. Bagshawe, Esq., 
Wormhill Hall, murdered by poachers 
in the river Wye. 
1855— Alice Webster, Derwent, killed by horse 
taking fright when crossing the river 
Derwent and throwing her into the 
river. 

Joseph Wya.tt, killed by falling out of 
his cart at Eyam. 
,. Sarah Handley, drowned in a well at 
Peak Forest. 

Mary Ann Howe, burnt to death at 
Tideswell. 
1857— Mytham Bridge washed down by a great 

flood ; present bridge built. 
1858— William Colman, 'Castleton. died sud- 
denly from apoplexy. 
„ Mary Needham, Litton, found dead in 

bed. 
„ John Drabble. Foolow. burnt to death. 
„ Samuel Priestley, Hathersage, found 

dead en the Moors. 
„ John Froggatt. Hope, whilst in drink 
and Quarrelling, get into a rage and 
fell dead. 

Ann Hadfield, Edale. bled to death. 
Thomas Gregory. Wardlow, fell dead. 
John Henry Morten. Dove Holes, killed 
by a cart. 
„ John Vernon, Sparrowpit, killed on the 
Peak Forest tramway. 
1859— William Furness, of Hathersage. killed 
by an overdose of poison. 
„ John Dakin, Castleton, run over and 

killed by horse and cart. 
„ William Darwent, Thernhill, found 

dead in the road. 
„ Polycarpe King, Derwent, fell dead. 
,, Thomas Taylor, Wormhill, killed by a 

horse and cart. 
,, John Dakin, Castleton, run over and 
killed b.v a horse and cart. 
1860— Wm. Howe, Bradwell, killed by a shot 

in New Line Quarry, Dove Holes. 
1861— Thomas Fox. hung himself at Ashop- 
ton. 
„ Frances Hall. Hathersage. committed 

suicide by hanging to bedpost. 
„ Selina Skidmore. killed by a cart at 
Wormhill. 
1862— William Farmer. Litton, killed en Mid- 
land Railway construction. 
„ Ann Wild, Tideswell, found dead in 

bed. 
,, Joseph Warhurst, Litton, hung him- 
self in a plantation on Tideswell Moor. 
,, • Richard Robinson, found drowned in 
the River Vi'^ye nt Cressbrook. 
•Tohn Fo\ (62), killed in a quarry at 
Dove Holes. 



116 



1863— Sarah Garlick, Grindleford Bridee 
burnt to death. ' 

Sarah Ellen Hudson, Tideswell, found 
dead m bed. 

„ Samuel Stone, Litton, killed in Dove 
Holes Tunnel making. 
John White, Eyam, drowned in a tub 
of water. 

„ William Dakin (42). Tideswell. ruptured 
blood vessel and died. 
Henry Knowles, Litton, killed on Mid- 
land Railway construction. 
William Sutton, Tideswell, killed on 
Midland Eailway construction 
Thomas Birchenough, killed by a shot 
m Warhurst's Quarry, Dove Holes 

" "^t"?® ^*^- Sarah Beeson, Ann Bees'on, 
John Beeson, and Ann Hampton, who 
lived in a hut formed in the lime ashes 
hillock in Dove Holes Dale, were killed 
by the hut falling in. Owing to the 
swelling of the hillock the sides closed 
together, the roof fell in and all four 
were buried alive and sufiFocated. 
1864— Richard Turner (62), Wardlow Miers 
fell dead. 

George Wilson (66), Tideswell, died in- 
stantaneously. 

„ John Charles Robinson, TidesweU, ac- 
cidentally suffocated. 

„ Jonathan Wall, killed in a stone 
quarry at Calver Sough. 
Thomas Hibbert, Litton, accidentally 
shot himself. 

„ Mary Blackwell, Eyam, found dead in 
bed. 

„ Thomas Hibbert, accidentally drowned 
in the Derwent at Calver Bridge 
Thomas Kirk (68), Hope, died through 
excessive drinking. 

Thomas Somerset (45), Wardlow Miers, 
killed by falling through the floor of 
his hay-loft. 

Jeremiah Brown (36), killed on the Mid- 
land Eailway works at Dove Holes. 
James Jodrell (18). killed on the Mid- 
land Railway works by a wagon at 
Dove Holes. 

John Wildgoose (37), killed on the Mid- 
land Eailway works at Dove Holes. 
John Daffin (19), killed on the Midland 
Railway works at Dove Holes. 
1865— John Wright (59). Thornhill Moor, died 
through excessive drinking. 

„ Richard Hartley (45), Dove Holes, killed 
by excessive drinking. 

.. Thoaaas Brough (59). Dove Holes, killed 
by a fall of stone on Midland Railway 

1866— Edith Barber (13). Castleton, thrown 

out of cart and killed. 

Henry Kay (18), Hathersage, killed by 

a fall from a horse. 

George Hall (60). Castleton, hung him- 
self whilst insane. 

John Murphy (25). killed by a fall of 

stone on the Midland Railway works, 

Dove Holes. 

Elizabeth Barnes (1), Dove Holes, died 

from exposure and want. 
1867— Abraham Frude (55), Hather-sage, fell 

dead. 

George Fisher (22), killed in a stone 

quarry at Hathersage. 

William Ashmore (58), killed by falling 

out of a cart at Thornhill Moor. 

James Taylor (77). Eyam, found dead 

in bed. 

Catherine Hobson (66), Hathersage. died 

by the visitation of God. 
,, Hannah Dakin (3), Tideswell, found 

drowned. 

Luke Needham (69), Wormhill. fell dead 

through over-exertion 



1867-Mary Robinson (44). Foolow, died by 

the visitation of G-od. 
,. Martha Vaines (12), killed on the rail- 
way at Peak Forest Station. 
„ Alfred Fletcher (16), killed in a quarry 

m Dove Holes Dale. 
„ George Garlick (24), killed in a stone 
,„^„ quarry in Dove Holes Dale. 
1868— John Slinn (62), Grindleford Bridge, 

died by the visitation of God. 

Peter Unwin (66), Eyam, found dead in 

bed. 
1869— Thomas Holme (56), Bamford, hung him- 
self whilst insane. 

John Garlick (12), Grindleford Bridge. 

(drowned when bathing). 

Dinah Marsden (6), Grindleford Bridge, 

burnt to death. 

Thomas Drabble (75), Hathersage, died 

in a fit of apoplexy. 

William Swindell (70), Windmill, died 

by the visitation of God. 

Francis Palfreyman (84), Litton, when 

returning home from prayer meeting 

at Wesleyan Chapel, fell into a quarry 

and was killed. 

Sarah Ann Schofleld (38), Hathersage 

Booths, died instantaneously. 
„ Elizabeth Elliott (81), Hathersage, 

killed by falling downstairs. 
1870— Francis Millward (30), killed by falling 

down rock at Millers Dale. 

George Broomhead (13), Foolow, killed 

by horse and cart. 
„ Ann Shakespeare, Hathersage, found 

dead in bed. 

George Hibbs (50), Little Hucklow. 
.„_, killed crossing railway at Peak Forest. 
1873— Joseph Fox, killed in stone quarry at 

Dove Holes. 

John Frith, killed in a stone quarry at 
Dove Holes. 
1875— August 7th, Henry Vines, fell down rock 

at Blackwell MiU Junction. 

Nov. 5th, James Garside. killed in a 

lime kiln at Potts and Jackson's. Dove 

Holes. 
1876— March 31st, John Hayward. killed in a 

lead mine at Peaks Hill. Peak Forest. 

April 26th, John Storer, fell into a 

lime kiln at Potts and Jackson's, Dove 

Holes, and was burnt to ashes. Noth- 
ing was found but his knife blade, a 

few buttons, and one or two small 

bones, and these were interred in a 

cigar box in the Primitive Methodist 

burial ground. Dove Holes. 

June 7th. Edwin Taylor, killed in Chee 

Tor Tunnel, Wormhill. 

August 8th, Robert Potts fell dead in 

the street at Dove Holes. 

Nov. 24th, Sarah Fletcher died instan- 

taneousl,y at Peak Forest. 
1877- January 22nd, Rachel Harrott died sud- 
denly at Dove Holes. 
„ March 13th. Thomas Cartwright killed 

whilst shunting at Millers Dale. 
May 12th. Ellen Mullins, fell dead in 

Dove Holes Dale. 
„ Nov. 28th. an unknown man found 

drowned in Barmoor Clough. 
1878— January 11th. Henry Lomas killed 

whilst shunting at Bibbington, Dove 

Holes. 
„ May 3rd, William Catlin cut his throat 

at Hargate Wall, Wormhil. 

June 12th, Dr. Alfred Cottrill fell dead 

in the road at Millers Dale. 
1879— March 22nd, George Clayton, killed in 

Great Rocks Quarry, Peak Forest. 
„ March 27th, Samuel Barber killed by 

falling from a plank at Wainwright 

Works. Peak Forest. 



117 



1879— June 6th, Moses Sheldon found drowned 

in Barmoor Clough. 

Nov. 8th, Joseph Heath, killed by the 

explosion of a pistol in Bibbington's 

Smithy, Dove Holes. 
1880— January 12th, George Pearson killed 

by a stone at Wainwright's Works, 

Peak Forest. 
„ April 1st, John Mosley shot himself in 

a railway carriage near Millers Dale. 
„ June 16th, Owen Evans hanged himself 

in a bam at Perry Foot, Peak Forest. 
July 27th. Thomas Derbyshire fell dead 

at work at Dove Holes. 
„ Sept. 10th, Benjamin Mycock, crushed 

to death by waggons on the tramway 

at Dove Holes. 
1881— March 11th, John Brown killed by a 

train in Dove Holes Tunnel. 

Oct. 8th, George Mellor killed by a 

horse and cart in Barmoor Clough. 
1882— June 6th, Francis Garlick killed by fall- 
ing down cellar steps at Upper End. 
.. June 6th, James Lomas crushed to 

death by wagg>ons at Beswick's, Peak 

Forest Station. 
„ August 4th, Thomas Hawley found dead 

in a lane at Upper End. 
,, Nov. 6th, Ada Dicken drowned in a 

reservoir at Upper End. 
1883— In July, Robert Clayton (28), killed by 

falling down Wainwright's quarry. 

Peak Forest. 

August 16th, John Kenyon (56), Grindle- 

ford Bridge, fell dead in Marquis of 

Granby, Bamford. 
„ Sept. 8th, George Berrisford, run over 

by a waggon at Bibbington's Works, 

Dove Holes. 
„ Oct. 22nd. John Hall, of Bradwell, 

killed in M.S. and L. Quarries, Peak 

Forest Station. 
„ Nov. 23rd, James Dakin (57), Castleton, 

died from hydrophobia caused by a 

dog bite. 
„ Dec. 1st, Annie Wheeldon, died sud- 
denly in bed at Higher Bibbington, 

Dove Holes. 

Dec. 12th. Mary Ball, found dead in 

bed at Dove Holes. 
1884— Jan. 2nd, Martin Mullins (50). Dove 

Holes, killed by falling down Bibbing- 
ton's Quarry, Dove Holes. 

May 24th. John Bower, found dead in 

bed at Laneside Farm, Peak Forest. 

June 23rd, John Brough. killed by a 
railway train at Dove Holes. 

Oct. 5th. Walter Gould, Spring House. 

Hope, killed by fall from his horse at 

Hathersage. 
1885— Dec. 27th. George Piatt, Bamford, found 

dead in a cowhouse. 

Dec. 27th, Samuel Austin (53), killed 

by falling down Bibbington's quarry, 

Dove Holes. 
1886— Jan. 1st, Isaac Wilson (40), killed by 

falling over a wall at Hather.sage 

Booths, when " letting the new year 

in." 
„ Jan. 4th, Joseph Longden (30), killed by 

a fall of stone at Great Eocks quar- 
ries. Peak Forest. 

Jan. 5th, John Bagshawe (10), Worm- 
hill, fell when crossing a bridge over 

the River Wye, and was drowned. 
„ Jan. 12th, John Lomas (16), killed by 

machinery in Beswick's blacksmith's 

shop. Peak Dale. 
„ Feb. 10th. John Bocking Darwent (74), 

Thornhill. a well-known Primitive 

Methodist l-ocal preacher, found dead 

on the sofa. 
„ Feb. 12th. James Goddard (36), killed 
by a fall of stone in the Great Central 



Quarries, Dove Holes. 
1886-April 9th, Robert Howe (54), Litton. 

killed by a runaway horse at Millers 

Dale. 
„ May 26th, Thomas Fox (45). killed by 

falling down the rock in Furness's 

Quarry, Eyam Dale. 
„ June 12th, Allen Walker ((35), Tideswell. 

accidentally thrown down the shaft 

at Norwood Colliery and killed 
1887-SamueI Cock (40), found dead in bed at 

Castleton. 
„ July 26th, Hannah Longden, found dead 

m her chair at the Clown Inn, Dove 

Holes. 

Aug. 17th, Sissie Gaunt, Yorkshire 

Bridge Inn, Bamford, accidentally 

poisoned by sucking lucifer matches. 

Aug. 31st, William Boothby (14), Higher 

Bibbington, Dove Holes, killed by 

lightning whilst reading the Bible. 

Five other persons injured. 

December, Charles Hodkin (74), starved 

to death on Froggatt Edge Moors. 
1888— Jan. 6th, William Hall (59), postmaster, 

Castleton, died suddenly. 
„ July 26th. Walter Hall WalJcer (17), 

Riding House Farm, Derwent, killed 

by an avalanche of snow falling upon 

him whilst shepherding. 

Oct. 15th. William Webb. Bamford, 

found dead in bed. 

Oct. 31st. John Hibbert (32), killed by a 

waggon at Heathcott's quarry. Dove 

Holes. 

Nov. 26th, Rev. Charles Smith (56), 

rector of Bamford, fell unconscious in 

the Post Ofifioe, and died in a few 

hours. 

Deo. 2nd, Hugh Isaac Cooper (7), died 

as a result of swallowing a halfpenny 

1889— Feb. 4th, Joseph. Harrott (20), shot in 
Bibbington's quarry. Dove Holes. 
May 18th, Samuel Simpson (11), killed 
by a fall whilst bird nesting, at Dale 
Head Farm. Tideswell. 
May 14th, Eyre, of Great Hucklow, 
killed on new railway works at Dore. 

„ July 24th, Thomas Millward, Litton 
Mill, killed on the railway at Millers 
Dale. 

„ Aug. 12th, Benjamin Clayton, acciden- 
tally shot with his own gun in his 
house on Tideswell Moor. 
Nov. 5th, Richard Green, killed in 
Grindleford Tunnel. 
1890— Jrtn. 31st. John Wm. Bradbury (13), 
Tideswell. killed by falling down the 
face of a quarry at Millers Dale. 
March 7th, John Thomas Cooper (3i), 
of Eyam. burnt to death. 
March 8th, John Marsden, killed by a 
fall of rock in a quarry at Peak Dale. 
March 19th, Abraham Cooper, killed by 
fall at a Peak Dale lime kiln. 
March 26th. Wm. Bland, Farnley 
Eyam, died suddenly. 

„ March, Jonathan R. Hall, killed on 
the L. and N.W. Railway, Dove Holes. 
May 28th, John Daniel Hodson (31), 
poisoned himself at the Snake Inn, 
Woodlands. 

June 18th, Sidney John Rosewell (28). 
killed in Edale railway cutting. 
July 8th, George Chappell (8). killed 
by falling down rocks at Peak Forest. 
Aug. 11th. William Slinn. killed by 
machinery on Dore and Chinley Rail- 
way works. Edale. 

„ Sept 5th. John Higginson. water 
bailiff. Mytham Bridge, fell dead on 
the banks of the Derwent. 



113 



1890— Oct. 29th. Thomas Hartle (34), Dove 
Holes, killed on the railway at Man- 

1891— Jan 10th, Walter Mosby (28), killed in 
Edale Tunnel on railway works. 

„ Jan 24th, Mary Pickford, Litton, died 
from exposure, consequential on a fall 
duriner a fit. 

„ Feb. 4th, Job Hodgkinson (67), run over 
and killed in Peak Forest Tunnel. 

„ February 22nd, Samuel Eyre, Great 
Hucklow, burnt to death. 

„ April 30th, John Marriner (32), cut his 
throat at Hathersage. 

„ Aug. 15th, James Storer fell into a 
lime kiln and was burnt to death at 
Dove Holes. 

Sept. 17th, Thomas Smith (26), killed 
by a shot in Great Kocks quarry. 
Peak Forest. 

, Oct. 4th, Rev. A. B. Camm, Blackpool, 
fell from a train in Peak Forest 
Tunnel. 
, Nov. 19th, Martha Dawson, Cressbrook, 
drowned herself. 
' „ Dec. 1st, Albert Schofleld, killed by a 
fall of clay from the side of the cutt- 
ing on the Dore and Chinley Eailway 
works at Padley Wood, Hathersage. 

„ Dec. 3rd, Herbert Twiner crushed to 
death between two waggons on rail- 
way works at Padley Wood. 
Dec. 8th, Ethelbert Swindell (23), Bam- 
ford, killed at Oughtibridge Kailway 
Station. 
1892— January 13th, Joseph King, killed by a 
waggon at the railway works at Pad- 
le.v Wood. 

„ Feb. 24th, John Moulson, Peak Forest. 
killed by an explosion in Ashwood 
Dale Quarries. 

Walter Gilbert. Tideswell, killed at 
Edgeley Station. Stockport. 

„ April 11th, Roger Barber (37), found 
killed in Bibbington's Quarries, Dove 
Holes. 

„ April 22nd. Charles Ronksley (21). Ha- 
thersage. killed on Dore and Chinley 
Railway works. 

„ May 2l9t. James Millward (60), Stoney 
Hiddleton. cut his throat. 

„ May 30th. Anthony Potter (27). Oastl»- 
ton. killed in Cowburn Tunnel. Edale. 

„ June 3rd. Bernard Robinson. Tides- 
well, fatally injured in Buxton Lim© 
Firm's quarries at Millers Dale. 

„ June 16th. an unknown man, tatooed 
"E.J. P., found drownc'd at Peak For- 
est. 

June 16th. Whitfield Watson (30). run 
over and killed by waggons on the new 
railway works. Edale. 

„ Nov. 8th. Isaac Watts, drowned whilst 
crossing over stones in River Derwent, 
Hathersage. 

„ Nov. 10th. Mary Ann Hunstone (64), 
Tideswell, committed suicide with a 
ra^or. 

„ Nov. 1st, James Fletcher. Peak Forest, 
burnt to death at Beswick's Lime 
Kilns. 
1893-Jan. 18th. William Tym, Hope, killed 
by fall from a cart. 

„ Jan. 22nd. Henry Jones, Hathersage, 
killed by falling into a culvert at Pad- 
ley Raw Mills. 

„ Jan. 22nd, John William Gerrard (14), 
killed by a fall of refuse from a lime 
kiln at Small Dale Lime Works, Peak 
Forest. 

May 18th. William Wainwright, killed 
by wagonette at Hathersage. 

„ May 27th. Harriett Townsend. drowned 
in the river Wye at Litton. 



1893— June 16th. — Edwards, killed by a run- 
away horse on railway works at Edale. 
at Dove Holes Station. 
July 1st, William Barker (70), fell dead 

„ July 8th, Reuben Leech. Tideswell, 
killed by a train on the railway at 
Peak Forest. 

„ Sept. 9th. Ben.iamin Mansbridge. killed 
by a locomotive in Midland cutting 
near Peak Forest. 

Sept. 16th. Percival James Wallington, 
drowned at Hill Farm. Wormhill. 
Sept. 21st, Mary Alice Porter (2), 
scalded to death in a bucket of hot 
water at Great Rocks Farm, Worm- 
hill. 

„ Sept. 26th, Gertrude Howe. Brook Bot- 
tom. Tideswell. burnt to death through 
dress catching fire at a candle. 
1894— Jan. 22nd. Joseph Eley (48), MiUers 
Dale, died suddenly. 
Feb. 6th. Reginald Broom, accidentally 
killed b.v a fall at Taddington. 
March 7th, Mary Ann Cooper (18), Peak 
Dale, drowned in Wye, Buxton. 
March 21st, Jonathan Howe (34). shot 
himself at Castleton. 
May 26th. Mary Walker, a native of 
Castleton. died very suddenly at Bake- 
well. 

June 14th. John Oag. killed on railway 
at Edale. 

July 5th. Henry Lawton (43), run over 
and killed at Hope. 

Oct. 24th, Martha XJnwin. Stoney Mid- 
dleton, accidentally suffocated. 
Dec. 20th. Dr. George Sibley Hicks, of 
Eyam. died from an overdose of lau- 
danum. 
1895— March 17th. George Hardy (56), Castle^ 
ton, ruptured a blood vessel when fight- 
ing with another man and died. 

„ April J6th, John Cheetham (82), form- 
erly chemist, found dead on his house 
floor at Hope. 

„ July 18th, Eliaabeth Roebuck, found 
killed in Dove Holes tunnel, having 
fallen from a train. 

July 25th. John Wilson (65), Thornhill. 
cut his throat whilst temporarily in- 
sane. 

„ Aug. 5th, William Tingle, found dead 
in Burbage Brook. Hathersage. 

„ Sept. 23rd. George Maltby (35), crushed 
to death by dray at Monsal Dale. 

.. Oct. 7th, Fredk. Slack (26). Tideswell. 
killed by iumping out of a trap when 
horse was running away. 

„ Nov. 18th. Mrs. Pears'on. widow of Jos. 
Pearson, of Little Hucklow, fell dead 
at Upper End. Peak Dale. 

„ Nov. 25th, Ann Wain, Eyam, burnt to 
death. 
1896— July 2nd, Elizabeth Cooper (23), a visi- 
tor from Manchester, killed by falling 
from Peveril Castle into Cave Dale, 
Castleton. 

„ July 3rd, John Power, found dead on 
the railway at Peak Forest. 
October 11th. Mary Ellen Johnson, 
drowned at Upper End. Peak Dale. 
October 12th. Charles Neath, killed on 
the L. & N.W. Railway at Dove Holes. 
Nov. 5th. John Woollen found drowned 
in the river Derwent near Hathersage. 
1897— Jan. 16th. Robert James Hallam. Stoney 
Middleton. hung himself. 
Jan. 31st. John Fletcher (43), Ivy House 
Farm. Peak Forest, hung himself in a 
barn. 

Feb. 10th. James Bennett. Dove Holes, 
killed by a fall of stone in "Victory" 
Qnarry. 



119 



1897— March 9th. Thomas Wm. Ludlow (36). 
sigmalman. Peak Forest, when knock- 
ing twigs from telegraph wires, wall 
collapsed and he was killed. 
„ March 30th. James Shallcross (32). 

found drowned in Litton Mill dam. 
., April 19th. John Ward West (66). Bam- 
ford. died from heart disease after a 
fall. 

July 29th. Herbert Oilman (17). Litton 
Mill, shot himself in Marple Hall Park. 
Aug. 27th, Harry Leech, Tideswell, 
killed by a fall of stone in Millers 
Dale quarry. 
„ Sept. 8th, fiichard Brown Berry, a Bol- 
ton visitor to Castleton. died very sud- 
denly. 

Oct. 27th, Samuel Hodgkinson (48). 
Tideswell. killed on the railway at 
Millers Dale. 

Nov. 19th. Abraham Yeomans. killed 
by falling downstairs at Stoney Mid- 
dleton. 
1898— March 18th. James Ashmore, Tideswell, 
killed by a fall of clay at Great Rocks 
quarries. Peak Forest. 
April 23rd, John Henry Mosley, killed 
by being thrown from a cart at Millers 
Dale. 

July 5th, William Hoyle. Peak Forest, 
died in Holding's quarry. Dov© Holes. 
July 5th. Edmund Bennett (29), shot in 
Great Kocks quarry. Peak Forest. 
., Nov. 5th. Mary Hannah Vernon (39). 
killed by falling downstairs at Dove 
Holes. 
1899— April 14th. Elizabeth Grace Broome, suf- 
focated in bed with her parents, at 
Poynton Cross Farm, Hucklow. 
., April 15th. George William Goodwin, 
killed by fall of stone in a quarry at 
Dove Holes. 
„ June 15th, Mrs. James Carrington, 
Edale, found dead in bed. 
Aug. 25th. Mr.s. Lily Middleton (25). 
Bamford. found dead in bed. 
., Sept. 30th. Chas. Wm. Bowden, drowned 
in Litton Mill dam. 

Oct. 20th, James Lewis (62). fell dead at 
Great Rocks kiln. Peak Forest. 
Dec. 29th, William E. D. Palmer, killed 
by an engine at Millers Dale. 
Nov. 8th, Hugh Stafford (32), killed by 
an explosion in Holderness quarry. 
Dove Holes. 
1900— March 18th, funeral at Stocksbridge, 
both on one day, of Charlotte Evans 
and Wilfred Evans, mother and son, 
formerly of Bradwell. 
Mar. 26th, Esther Ellen Lee (3), scalded 
to death in a bucket of hot water at 
Dove Holes. 
,. Sept. 6th. Esther Mycock, bnmt to 
death at Taddington. 
Oct 15th. Martha Green, killed by a 
fall at Wormhill. 

Dec. 23rd. Gladys Broome (1'). crushed 
to death by a cow at Hucklow. 
1901— Jan. 9th. George Jackson, Peak Dale, 
found hanged. 

Mar. 15th. Samuel Booth. Hathersage. 
found hanged. 
,, May Wh, Samuel Gibson, Litton, found 
hanged. 

May 22nd. George Jacks-on. Tideswell, 
drowned himself at Peak Forest. 
Aug. 13th, George Hodkin (58), fell dead 
in a quarry at Peak Forest. 
Oct. 12th. Emily Sellars. and her daugh- 
ter, Emily, found drowned on the Hall 
Farm, Litton. 
1902— Jan. 10th. Joseph Walton (fO). Tideswell, 
fell back in his cha<r and died. 



1902— Jan. 13th. John Jackson, John Flint 
and Henry Swindells, of Tideswell, 
knocked down and killed by an engine 
when walking on the railway at Mil- 
lers Dale. 

Jan. 13th, John Samuel Berrisford (18), 
killed by a wagon at Bibbington's 
Works, Dove Holes. 

Mar. 12th, Isaac Hadfield, killed by an 
engine at Great Central Railway Co.'s 
quarry. Peak Dale. 

„ May 12th. Annie Gertrude Hepworth, 
Tideswell, strangled herself. 

„ July 17th, Charles Smith Herrington, 
killed bv a fall at Eyam. 

„ Aug. 20th, AViUiam Greenhalgh, killed 
by a pole falling on his head at Tides- 
well Gas Works. 
1903— Feb. 12th, William Brewster, killed by 
a wagon running down an incline at 
Bole Hill Quarries, Hathersage. 
April 23rd, A child, named Robinson, 
suffocated in bed with its parents at 
Stone.y Middleton. 

May 1st. George Furnes«, drowned in 
t^le Delph. at Eyam. 

„ May 4th. John Webster, killed by a 
train, at Peak Forest Station. 
Aug. 31st. John Marsh Robinson (45). 
tlirown from his horse and killed at 
Bamford. 

Sept. 6th. John Hill, killed by a fall in 
New Lime quarry. Peak Forest. 
Oct. 14th. Henry Watson (47), killed by 
fall from a hay-loft at Castleton. 
1904— May 17th. John Robinson Gregory hung 
himself at Hathersage. 
May 20th, Matilda Rawles (26), found 
dead on the house floor at Hope. 
June 25th, John Evans killed by a fall 
at Derwent Valley Water Board's 
quarry. Hathersage. 
July 4th. Charles Henry Bullard. killed 
by a crane balance weight falling upon 
him at the quarries, Hathersage. 
July 13th. William Allen Guthrie, found 
drowned in the river Derwent at Ha- 

till &T S 2L. SG 

July 8th, Frederick Garlick, killed by 
an explosion of cheddite in Bibbing- 
ton's quarry. Dove Holes. 
Oct. 19th, Sarah Dean, Tideswell, died 
suddenly during an operation under 
chloroform. 

Nov. 22nd, John Brown (55), found 
starved to death at Bamford. 

1905— Jan. 2nd, An unknown man found 
starved to death on Hathersage Moors. 
Jan. 24th, Jane Ann Blackwell, killed 
by a fall at Tideswell. 
June 23rd, Herbert Lomas, Litton, 
drowned himself. 

July 4th. James Sheldon, hang himself 
at Hathersage. 

Aug. 26th. Mary Elizabeth Jones (21). 
drowned herselif at Bamford. 
Dec. 9th. an unknown man hung him- 
self at Bamford. 

1906— June 12th. Thomas Barker (37), 
drowned himself at Bamford. 
Sept. 10th. Andrew Henry Dungworth, 
poisoned himself at Hathersage. 
Dec. 4th. James Allcock (3), burnt to 
death at Dove Holes. 

1907— Jan. 2nd. William Wilson, hung him- 
self at Peak Dale. 

Mar. 6th. Edward Kirk, killed by being 
thrown from a cart at Dove Holes. 
Aug. 12'h. Joseph Vernon (54), Sparrow- 
pit, killed by an explosion in the 
quarr.y at Peak Forest. 
Sent 4th. John Thomas Heath and 
Wirir.ni Fle'chcr. blo.vn to pieces by 



120 



an explosion of gunpowder whils' 
bla/Stingr in Great Eocks quarries. Peak 
Dale. 
1907— Nov. 4th, Thomas Gibson, killed by a 
fall of stone in Great Bocks quarry. 
Peak Dale. 

„ Nov. 12th, Joseph Martin, killed by a 
train on the railway at Peak Forest. 
1908— March 11th. Reggie Walker (2), burnt 
to death at Tideswell. 

„ April 21st, Eobert How (81), barmaster, 
of Castleton, died from an accidental 
fall. 

„ July 20th, Thomas G'ould. drowned 
whilst fishing in the river Derwent at 
Hathersage. 

,, Aug. 7th. an unknown man jumped in 
front of a train at Thornhill and was 
cut to pieces. 

Aug. 27th, Kathleen Mary Revill (3), 
drowned in the Hay Brook, Hather- 
sage. 

,, Nov. 26th, Arthur Bingham (2), burnt 
to death at Peak Dale. 
1909 — Jan. 1st, Samuel Blaokwell, died from 
concussion of the brain at Eyam. 

„ Jan. 5th, Tom Peel, was felling a tree 
at Hathersage, when a branch fell up- 
on him and he was killed. 

„ Jan. 18th, M. Strickland accidentally 
suffocated at Hathersage. 
Feb. 12th, John Iredale, killed by fall- 
ing downstairs at Tideswell. 

,, March 13th, Isaac Makinson strangled 
himself at Hathersage. 

,, April 7th, Edith Annie Rowbotham (3), 
drowned at Bamford. 

„ April 20th, Hannah Bramwell, death 
accelerated by a fall at Tideswell. 

„ Aug. 12th, Archibald Jerram drowned 
whilst bathing ' in the river Derwent 
at Froggatt. 

„ Aug. 9th, John Wells, killed in a colli- 
sion of a bogey and engine at Bole 
Hill quarry. Hathersage. 
1910— Mar. 11th, Teresa Biggin (11), killed by 
a fall at Hathersage. 
April 21st, William Garlick, killed by 
a fall of stone in the Buxton Lime 
quarries. Peak Dale. 
,/ „ April 27th, Fred Vernon, shot in an ex- 
plosion whilst blasting at Dove Holes. 

„ June 11th, Annie Furness, strangled 
herself whilst not responsible for her 
actions at Tideswell. 
Sept. 29th, Robert Bingham, Peak Dale, 
died from blood poisoning from an in- 
jury to his fingers whilst quarrying. 
Oct. 22nd, Robert Cotterill (58), fell 
dead from his chair at Bamford. 
Dec. 23rd, Mary Jackson cut her throat 
at Eyam. 
1911-Feb. 20th. Thomas Beverley. Castleton, 
cut his throat in a stable during tem- 
porary insanity. 

„ May 1st, Hamlet Tattersall, electro- 
cuted at Great Rocks Siding, Peak 
Dale. 

„ June 23rd, Blanche Wilkin cut her 
throat during insanity at Hathersage. 
In Juno. William HuUey (60). killed by 
a waggon at Holdernesa lime works. 
Dove Holes 

„ June 14th, William Hawley Mycock, 
killed at Calton Hill quarry, Tadding- 
ton. 

„ Aug. 25th, Herbert Brjoks killed by a 
waggon at Perseverance Lime Works, 
Peak Dale. Dove Holes. 

„ Oct. 16th. Andrew John Roche (63), 
steward for the Duke of Norfolk, fell 
into the River Derwont and died from 
exposure. 



1911— Deo.. Mrs. Amelia Seaman (83). Tides- 
well, died from shock after accidental 
burns. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 



SOME MEMORABLE SNOWSTORMS. 

Tragediets of the Snow. 

Although Bradwell is situate in a deep 
valley, sheltered from the stormy blasts, 
the hills that surround it on all sides are 
of such an altitude that snow will remain 
there for several months, and these severe 
storms that visit this part of the Peak in 
the winter, have been responsible for many 
tragedies, a few of which may be mentioned 
here 

"THE LOST LAD." 

Tradition has handed down through four 
hundred years the story of the lost lad of 
the Woodlands, a few miles from Bradwell, 
which gave the name to the mountain still 
known as " The Lost Lad." A lad of 13, 
who lived with his parents in one of the 
neighbouring villages, ventured too far 
from home one winter's day, and when 
darkness approached, he was terrified to 
find himself on the moorlands — lost, ah and 
lost in the snow ! He shrieked until he 
lay down to sleep, completely exhausted, 
and his father searched all night in vain. 
Living on wild berries from the bushes for 
several days, the father searching for him 
miles away on the severest night, the poor 
lad, on the summit of one of the highest 
hills, far away from any dwelling, had just 
sufficient strength left to pile up a few 
stones and inscribe his fate thereon. Here 
marked with the aid of a sharp stone, were 
particulars of his fate, and on another he 
wrote in. J>ig characters " LOST LAD," 
sank beside his own self-erected monument, 
and on this lonely eminence slept his last 
sleep. 

Many years the remains of the poor lad 
lay on these heights undiscovered, until 
some sportsmen, seeing the pile of stones, 
went thither and foixnd the skeleton, which 
was removed and interred. With difficulty 
they deciphered some inscriptions on the 
stones, but very plain, in big capitals, was 
" LOST LAD." For many generations the 
heap of stones remained entire, and the 
hill is still known as "The Lost Lad." 

STARVED TO DEATH ON WINHILL. 

Svich was the severity of a snowstorm 
in the winter of 1674, that a man named 
Barber, a grazier, and his maid-servant, 
crossing the shoulder of Winhill, a little 
over two miles from Bradwell, were lost 
in the snow, and remained covered with 
it from January to May, when they were 



121 



found, and the bodies being too oBensive, 
they were buried on the spot in their cloth- 
ing. 

In his "Additions to the Brittania," as 
detailed from the Philosophical Transac- 
tions. Gough alludes to this, and says : 
"About twenty-nine years afterwards some 
country men, probably having observed the 
extraordinary properties of this soil in pre- 
serving dead bodies, had the curiosity to 
open the ground, and found them in no 
way altered, the colour of the skin being 
fair and natural, and their flesh as soft 
as that of persons newly -dead. They were 
exposed for a sight during the course of 
twenty years following, though they were 
so much changed in that time by being so 
often uncovered. In 1716, Mr. Henry i 
Brown, M.B., of Chesterfield, saw the man 
perfect, his beard strong and about a 
quarter of an inch long; the hair of his 
head short, his skin hard and of a tanned 
leather colour, pretty much the same as 
the liquor and earth they lay in. He had 
on a broad cloth ooat, of which the doctor 
in vain tried to tear off a skirt. Thj 
wcman was more decayed, having been 
taken out of the ground and rudely 
handled; her flesh particularly decayed, 
her hair long and spongy, like 'hat ot a 
living i)erson. Mr. Barber, of Rotherhum, 
the man's grandson, had both bodies buried 
ii Hope Churchyard, and upon looking 
in: J the graves some time afterwards, it 
was found that they were entirely con- 
sumed. Mr. Wormald, the minister of 
Hope, was present at their removal. He 
observed that they laj' about a yard deep 
in moist soil or moss, but no water stood 
in the place. He saw their stockings 
drawn off, and the man's legs, which had 
not been uncovered before, were quite fair. 
The flesh, when pressed by his finger, pitted 
a little, and the joints played freely, and 
without the least stiffness. The other parts 
were much decayed. What was left of 
their clothes not cut off for curiosity, was 
firm and good, and the woman had a piece 
of new serge, which seemed never the 
worse." 

PERISHED ON SIR WILLIAM. 

The winter of 1692-3 was notable for very 
heavy snowstorms in these parts. A 
woman named Elizabeth Trout was over- 
talcen in one of these storms crossing Sir 
William, and was starved to death. 

FROZEN TO DEATH AT EDALE END. 

The winter of 1711 was most severe. 
There was a big snowstorm in December, 
and a woman walking over the hills from 
the Woodlands, perished in the storm near 
Edale End, and was found starved to death. 

STARVED TO DEATH ON EYAM MOOR 

In the early part of 1748 there was an- 
other big storm, and many people perished 
in different parts of the country. On the 
5th of February, a man named Stephen 



Broomhead, was found starved to death ia 
the snow on Eyam Moor. 

PERISHED IN THE SNOW ON 
TIDESWELL MOOR. 

It was on Tideswell Moor, on the verge 
of Bradwell Moor, where more than a 
hundred years ago George Sheldon, of 
Tideswell, lost his life in a snowstorm. He 
was the keeper of the prison at Tideswell, 
as well as tax collector, and it was in the 
exercise of the duties connected with this 
office that he lost his life. The Bradwell 
and Tideswell moors were not then en- 
closed, and when Sheldon was returning 
from Peak Forest on the night of February 
1st, 1805, he was overtaken by a terrible 
snowstorm, lost his way, fell into a snow- 
drift, and perished. And on his memorial 
tablet on the outside wall of Tideswell 
Church we read : 

" By depth of snow and stormy day. 
He was bewildered in his way; 
No mortal aid did him come nigh. 
Upon the snow he there did lie 
Helpless, being worn out with strife. 
Death coon deprived him of his life; 
But hope he found a better way 
To the regions of Eternal Day." 

A HATHERSAGE HERO. 

Occasionally snow accumulated in im- 
mense drifts on the hills above Hathersage, 
obliterating all traces of the road, render- 
ing it not only dangerous but impassable. 
In the old coaching days, when the journey 
from Bradwell to Sheffield had to be made 
by " 'bus," the passengers had exciting ex- 
periences, as many can well remember. 
In the winter of 1813 the carriages that 
attempted to cross this bleak part of the 
moors either returned, or were left buried 
in the snow. A young man from Brook- 
field, near Hathersage, was the means of 
saving several persons from perishing in 
this severe winter. Near Burbage Brook 
he found a sailor and his wife who were 
exhausted with fatigue, and unable to pro- 
ceed on their journey. The poor man had 
fallen under his exertions to support his 
wife, and was nearly dead, but the young 
man carried him on his back to the only 
house he could find, nearly a mile distant and 
then returned and carried the woman in 
the like manner, as she was laid starving 
•to death in the snow. At this time the 
coach from Manchester was overturned and 
nearly buried in the snow, where it re- 
mained for several days. All the passen- 
gers were females, and among them was a 
woman with her two-year-old child. The 
young man carried the child to Hathersage, 
and the woman, in attempting to follow, 
fell into a snowdrift and was almost 
starved to death, when the young man 
extricated her and restored her to ter 
child. The remaining two ladies he re- 
leased from their perilous situation. 



122 



HOUSES BURIED IN RECENT SNOW- 
STORMS. 



Remarkable Experiences. 

The great snowstorm of 1888 was con- 
sidered to be the. most furious that had 
raged over the district for at least half a 
century. Edward Hall, who drove the 
mails from Castleton to Sheffield, had 
some remarkable experiences. He "was 
accompanied on the journey by William 
Eyre, and it was a case of cutting through 
the huge drifts for thirteen miles, but when 
Brough Lane Head was reached, about a 
mile below Bradwell, they were fairly 
beaten. The roads were completely 
blocked by huge drifts, and one, 150 yards 
long and six feet high, it was imjjossible to 
get through, so the cart had to be left 
fast in the snow, and 21 men engaged to 
cut a track just wide enough to let the 
horses pass, when, taking out the mail 
bags. Hall and Eyre put them on the 
horses' backs, and left the cart embedded 
in the snow. The Bradwell convey- 
ances remained at home, the whole place 
being completely snowed up with 'drifts, 
in some places twelve feet high. Old in- 
habitants declared that they never knew 
so much snow as there was at that t'me 
on the roads around Bradwell, extending 
several weeks in Februai-y and March. 

In the old toll-bar house at Slack Hall, 
on the Castleton Road, near Chapel-e,n-ic- 
Frith, there resided Mr. and Mrs. Sam^.e! 
Revill, an elderly couple, natives of Brad- 
well. On the Sunday night the old couple 
retired to rest, little thinking what a ter- 
rible experience was in store for them. 
About 1 o'clock the husband was awakened 
by a suffocating sensation. Feeling very 
ill, and not knowing what to do, he wan- 
dered about for some t'me in oenrr ji (if 
an inlet for air. But in vain. tie en- 
deavoured to procure a J'ght, bat the can- 
dle burned only with grjat difficulty owing 
to the want of air. Both husband and 
wife feeling they were suffocating, and 
naturally expecting an outlet at the chim- 
ney, they proceeded to light a fire, when the 
house was filled with smoke, almost to 
suffocation, and in this terrible situation 
they passed the night. 

The house was buried ; their cries were 
unheard and unavailing, but a band of 
workmen cut a road to the door, and at 
nine o'clock the imprisoned couple were 
released, almost suffocated, but thankful 
indeed that they had been rescued from the 
jaws of death. 

At Sparrowpit there was a remarkable 
scene. The Devonshire Arms public house 
was snowed up to such a degree that to 
cut through the snow was considered an 
impossible task, and a tunnel was driven 
underneath as an approach to the house. 
But even this appears to have been 
equalled, for in thje old coaching days this 
house was completely buried in a snow- 



storm, and for some time the coaches lan 
over the top of the building. 

BURIED BY AN AVALANCHE. 

It was in this storm that a sad fatality 
occurred at Ashopton. Some of the sheep 
belonging to Mr. Mark Walker, of Kid'n;» 
House Farm, were out in the snow, and 
two youths, sons of the farmer, set out to 
look for them. Knowing how sagaciously 
the sheep seek for what shelter is avail- 
able, they went to look behind a mass of 
rock, which overhung a portion of the hill- 
side pasture, being accompanied by tha 
dog. 

Time passed by, and when the dog re- 
turned alone alarm was occasioned. I'heir 
mother went out to look for them, and to 
her horror found that they were 
buried under the snow near the rock. The 
heavy avalanche of snow which lay iipon 
its upper surface suddenly slid down upon 
them and buried them. The terrified 
mother at once sought for help, and one 
of the young men was rescued, but the 
other, Walter Hall Walkter, a youth of 17, 
was dug out a corpse. 

There were snowstorms of unusual 
severity in 1889 and 1892. 

In January and February, 1895, there was 
a long and very severe storm, when the 
roads were blocked for weeks. Leaving 
Bradwell at seven o'clock one night, Mr. 
Bramwell, a Tideswell greengrocer, 
reached Collins Farm, a mile distant, after 
three hours' snow cutting. Here the 
cart was left behind, and home was reached 
after midnight. Even the snow plough, 
although drawn by five horses, was Unable 
to get through the drifts near Tideswell 
Lane Head, and Mr. Slack, another Tides- 
well greengrocer, had to leave his cart 
stuck in the snow, although drawn by 
three horses. All the villages in the dis- 
trict were snowed up, and all the working 
men available were employed cutting 
tracks through the snow. 

This district was visited by another ter- 
rible storm in December, 1901, when many 
persons were dug out of the snow in an 
exhausted condition. A farmer named 
Webb, who had died at Abney Grange, 
was to have been buried at Bradwell, but 
the whole district was snowed up, and the 
funeral had to be postponed for some days. 
In fact, the coffin could not be got to the 
place, and 42 men were engaged all week- 
end cutting a road so that the funeral 
could take place at Bradwell on the 
Monday. A Peak Dale man fell exhausted 
in the snow, and was there 17 hours before 
being rescued. A Sheffield traveller, with 
his boy and horse, stuck fast in a drift 
near Tideswell, and were out in the storm 
all the night. They were dug out of 

the snow next morning by a .young man 
from a neighbouring farm, who found 
them nearly dead. 

SKELETONS FOUND ON THE MOORS. 

In some instances people have been lost 



1S3 



m snowstorms after wandering far off the 
beaten track, and their skeletons found 
years afterwards. Many such cases could 
be cited. 

On the 3rd of July, 1778, the skeleton of 
an unknown man was found on the moors 
in Hope parish, and buried in the church- 
yard. On Monday, the 17th of February, 

1886. Charles Hodkin, a medical botanist, 
of Pyebank, Sheffield, set out to visit his 
sister, who lived at Froggatt Edge. Al- 
though 74 years of age, he was in the 
habit of taking long walks into Derbyshire 
in search of herbs, and on this morning 
it was his intention to walk all the way. 
Soon after he had left his home, snow be- 
gan to fall, and hopes were entertained 
that he would turn back and defer his visit, 
but he seemed to have no fear of continu- 
ing the journey. He reache-d the " Pea- 
cock " at Owler Bar in safety, and asked 
the landlord to direct him the nearest 
route to Froggatt Edge. He called for no 
refreshment, and the landlord, noticing 
that one of his shoes was unlaced and the 
tongue hanging down, that he looked tired, 
and that there was everj' prospect of a wild 
and stormy night, suggested that he had 
better not attempt the journey, but he 
thanked him for his advice and walked on. 

But as he neither reached his sister nor 
returned home, the terrible suspicions 
came to the family that he had lost his 
way, and had by that time perished in the 
snow, which on the night he travelled had 
fallen heavily, and in places on the roads 
and moors had drifted several feet deep. 
Search parties were organised, including 
the police, the Duke of Rutland's keepers, 
with their dogs, and others, and for several 
days a diligent and exhausting search was 
made everywhere about the moors where 
he was likely to have strayed, but not a 
trace of him could be found. It was then 
decided to abandon the search until the 
snow had disappeared, when it could be 
prosecuted more thornughly — for by this 
time all hope had been abandoned of find- 
ing him alive. The snow melted away 
but slowly, and when it was gone, search 
parties went out again, but not a trace of 
poor Hodkin could be found, and what 
had become of him remained a mystery. 

And it was not until the 3rd of December, 

1887, nearly two years afterwards, that the 
mystery was unravelled, and in a remark- 
able way, by a dog. John Slack, a shep- 
herd in the employ of the Duke of Rut- 
land, was walking across the moor with his 
two dogs, when one of the dogs began to 
" wind." He rebuked the dog, which, in- 
.stead of noticing him, started off towards 
the centre of the moors. The shepherd 
followed, and after walking about a mila, 
he came upon the skeleton remains of a 
man. He was lying on his back, with his 
right hand across his chest. His hal was 
a little distance away, and near it was the 
skull, almost covered with green moss. The 
legs were literally bare of flesh, and the 
body was considerably mutilated. Horri- 



fied at the shocking spectacle, the shepherd 
fetched the police. 

The remains were those of poor old Mr. 
Hodkin There was no doubt of it, for one 
of the boots was in precisely the same state 
as described by the landlord of -the "Pea- 
cock," and the relatives could say that the 
hat and clothing were his. Besides, in one 
of the pockets of the coat was a portion of 
a Wesleyan preacher's plan, and Mr. Hod- 
kin had himself been a preacher on the 
same plan. The place where the skeleton 
was found was far from any highwaj', and 
to reach it the poor man must have waded 
through bog and brook, and at length, 
worn out with exhaustion, had lain him 
down in the snow, and had slept the sleep 
of death. It was then that Mr. Peate, a 
gamekeeper, remembered that on the wild 
night of February 17th, 1886. he thought 
he heard cries of distress, and saw practi- 
cally obliterated footmarks, but was unable 
to trace them, and next day they were all 
snowetl up. 

These instances are sufficient to show 
with what severity the wintry blasts come 
over this part of the Peak. 

In times of rapid thaw, when the snow 
has been washed down from the hills by 
heavy rains, the lower parts of Bradwell 
have often been flooded, but there are no 
fatalities to record on that account. Not 
so, however, in the surrounding district, 
when the Derwent, the Noe, and the 
Ashop have been in flood. 

EDALE PEOPLE WASHED AWAY IN 
FLOODS. 

About the year 1830 William Wigley, of 
Otterbi'ook. Edale, and Elias Kinder, of 
Cotefield, Edale, were fetching with horses 
dragloads of timber out of the Woodlands, 
and when crossing the river, where there 
was a ford at that time. Just below Hay 
Lee, to get on the road leading to Hope 
Brink and Edale, there was a terrible cat- 
astrophe. A great flood came rushing 
down the Woodlands, both horses, timber, 
and men being overpowered and washed 
completely away. The bodies of both men 
were found some time afterwards at 
Grindleford, ten miles distant. One of 
them was quite void of clothing with the 
exception of a leathern belt round his body, 
containing seventy sovereigns. The money 
was found intact. 

A few years later a young woman named 
Elliott was one night going to Hollins 
Farm, Edale. She had to cross Hollins 
Bridge, near the Cotton Mill. It was a 
dark night, the river was in flood, but the 
young woman never arrived at the farm, 
and was never seen again. It is supposed 
as her body was never recovered, it was 
that she was washed down the river, and 
expected it was washed down the river, 
right through the country, and away to 
sea. 

PRESENT-DAY FREEHOLDERS. 
For centuries Bradwell has been noted 



124 



for its many owners of freehold propertjjr. 
Indeed, in the olden times, when only 
owners of property voted at Parliamentary 
elections, it was looked upon as a little 
community of freeholders. Consequently 
it received from candidates the attention 
commensurate with its importance. There 
have been some lively times when candi- 
dates for Parliamentary honours have ad- 
dressed the electors from the hustings in 
the old Town Gate. 

Throughout this work the names of 
voters at various periods are mentioned, 
and in closing it may not be out of place 
to give the names of the property owners 
at the present day. Now, of course, every 
householder is a voter, but the following 
list of property owners — male and female 
— will serve to show how the lands and 
houses, for the most part, remain with 
descendants of the old families, although 
some have been acquired by others who 
have made their abode here since the rail- 
way opened out the district. 

Here are the property owners of to-day 
in alphabetical order: — 

Samuel Adams. 4idward Knowles 

Francis Allen. Heaps. 

John Smith Andrew. George Harry 



Thoma-s Andrew. 

Joseph Ash. 

Elizabeth Ashmore. 

Thos. Shaw Ashton. 

Charles Alfred 
Bancroft. 

Alicia Barker. 

Robert Barker. 

Mary Bamford. 

Sarah Bennett. 

George Bird. 

Herbert Booking. 

Aar-on Bradbury. 

Abner Bradwell. 

Albert Edwin 
Bradwell. 

Ebenezer Bradwell. 

Herbert Bradwell. 

Fanny Bradwell. 

Hannah Bradwell. 

Harriett Bradwell. 

John Bradwell. 

Mary Bradwell. 

Spenc/or Joshua 
Bradwell. 

Walter Isaac 
Bradwell. 

William Bradwell, 

Wm. Bradwell. iunr. 

Hannah Bradbury. 

Charles Bramall. 

Samuel Bramall. 

William Bramall. 

John Hy Bramley. 

William Brierley. 

Georsre Wm. Broad- 
bent. 



Hemsoll. 
Joseph Hibbs. 
Samuel Hibbs. 
Henry Hill. 
Isaac Hill. 
Maria Hill. 
Mary Hill. 
Thomas Hill. 
Herbert Hodkin. 
Walter Hodkin. 
Harriett Howe. 
Mary Jackson. 
Arthur Jeffery. 
Ben.iamin Barber 

Jeffery. 
Jeshua Jeffery. 
Joshua Geo. Jeffrey. 
Samuel Fox Jeffery. 
William Johnson. 
Frances Kiddy. 
Henry Birkett 

Leighton. 
Elizabeth Lindsay. 
John Longden. 
Martha Longden. 
Ann Maltby. 
Isaac Maltby. 
Seth Maltby. 
Sir Frank Mappin. 
Abigail Marshall. 
Hannah Marshall. 
Alfred Middleton. 
Allen Middleton. 
Charles Middleton. 
Clarinda Middleton. 
Daniel Middleton. 
Elijah Middleton. 



Frederick Walter 

Burnand. 
Arthur William 

Burrows. 
Cheetham Cooper. 
Horatio Wyatt 

Cooper. 
George Cooper, .iun. 
John Cooper. 
Luther Ben.iamin 

Co-oper. 
Thomas Cooper. 
Robt. W. Coupland. 
Eobert Craig. 
James Hy Cramond. 
John Edwin Dakin. 
Samuel Dakin. 
Stephen Dakin. 
Thos. Percy Dakin. 
Joseph Dalton. 
William DarviU. 
Edwy Maltby 

Darneley. 
Arthur Drabble. 
Bertram Elliott. 
George Hy. Elliott. 
Joel Elliott. 
John Elliott. 
Samuel Elliott. 
Mary Ann Elliott. 
William Elliott. 
Wm. Albert Elliott. 
Hannah Eyre. 
Marmaduke Hallam 

Eyre. 
Percy Robt. Hallam 

Eyre. 
William Eyre 
Dennis Evans. 
Seth Evans. 
George J. Fisher. 
Delia Fiske. 
Samuel Fiske. 
John Ford. 
Joseph Ford. 
William Hy. Fox. 
Armanda Gent. 
William Gyte. 
Arthur James 

Hadfield. 
Francis Hall. 
Isaac Hall. 
Jacob Hall. 
John Hall. 
Hannah Hall. 
Rachel Hall. 
Harriett Hall. 
Cheetham William 

Hallam. 
Ethelbert Hallam. 
Alice Hallam. 
George Hallam. 
Hannah Hallam, 
Harvey Hallam. 
Montague Hallam. 
Samuel Hallam. 
Stenton Thomas 

Hallam. 
Thomas Hallam. 
George Hague. 
Wm. H. Harrison 



George Middleton. 
Hibberson Middleton 
James Alfred 

Middleton. 
John Middleton. 
John Middleton. 
John Bennett 

Middleton. 
Mary Middleton. 
Philip Middleton. 
Samuel Middleton. 
Thomas Middleton. 
Thomas Henry 

Howe Middleton. 
William Middleton 

(Smalldale). 
William Middleton. 
Louisa Miller. 
Alfred Morton. 
Abram Morton. 
Ann Stafford Morton 
Hannah Morton. 
Luther Morton. 
Sarah Allen Morton. 
Walter John Morton. 
Hannah M. 'Need- 
ham. 
Robert Needham. 
Edmund Nicholson. 
James Nuttall. 
Allen Gates. 
Elias Palfreyman. 
John Palfre.yman. 
Wilfred Palfreyman. 
Ann Pearson. 
Mortimer Petty. 
Richard Mortimer 

Petty. 
John Thos. Finder. 
Benjamin Plant. 
Hannah Randall. 
John Robinson. 
Mary Shallcross. 
Thos. Frith Sheldon. 
Ada shirt. 
Benjamin S-omerset 

Shirt. 
George Wm. Shirt. 
Nathaniel Somerset. 
Walter John 

Somerset. 
Ashton John 

Shuttleworth. 
Frederick Stedman. 
John Stevenson. 
Durham Stone. 
Robt. Tanfleld. 
Robt. Tanfleld. iun. 
Thos. Hy. Tanfleld. 
Nicholas Tym. 
Henry Walker. 
George Walker. 
John Walker. 
Olive Walker. 
Mary Walker. 
Mary Alice Walker. 
Zechariah Walker. 
Alice M. Wragg. 
Durham Wragg. 

Wright. 
Thurlow Joseph 



125 



ADDENDA. 



Roman Brough. 



Through the kindness of C. E. 
Bradshaw Bowles, Esq., J.P., editor 
of the Derbyshire Archaeological 
Journal, the following plates of 
Roman Brough, and also the Ancient 
Oven, have been lent to the Author. 
In this connection reference may be 
made to the explorations of Brough 
(Chapter II). 



126 




MAP OF THE SITUATION. 



127 




PLAN OF EXCAVATIONS. 



123 




WEST CORNER OF MAIK WALL 



aa9 




NORTH-WEST WALL OF PRAETORIUM. 



130 




UNDERCRQUNP CHAMBER OR WELL. 



351 




ANOTHER VIEW OF UNDERGROUND CHAMBER. 



152 



rr^\ 



f 

( 
Y 



STONE DISH 



PLAN 




4 SMALL AI-TAR 



l imiiii;»|»iJ 



tnofve^ 



I »„l ,.,.1 h,iJ mill ..mI 



5 4 3 2 I i 



BASE OF COLUMN 

(from farm.) 





V 



D 



I"- 



SQUARE ALTAR ALTAR FROM HOPE 

ROMAN WORKINGS IN STONE AT BROUGH. 



133 




134 




135 




REMAINS OF ANCIENT OVEN DISCOVERED IN CHARLOTTE LANE. 

BRADWELL. 



"Now of the Peak I've said all I intend. 
May health and pleasure wait on — every friend 
At Tideswell, Grindlow, Grange and Abneylow, 
Wardlow and WindmilL Hiicklow and Foolow; 
At Brettou, Bradwell, Middleton, and Leam, 
Castleton, Baslow, Hathersage, and Eyam." 



(Furness.) 



Finis. 



CHESTERFIELD : 

Broad Oaks Press, 

1912. 



(r;:22i^c^^ 



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