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Brandeis Review 

Fall 1982 

Volume 3 

Number 1 



Has Gone 






What the 







of the 

Brandeis Review 

Fall 1982 

Volume 3 

Number 1 



Has Gone 






What the Musicals 

New of the 

President ''Me 

Should Generation" 




Evelyn E. Handler 
Elected Brandeis' 
Fifth President 

when the Board of Trustees emerged 
from an executive session October 14, 
its members had elected Evelyn E. 
Handler as the University's fifth 
president. She is the first woman to 
hold that position at Brandeis. 

After President Bernstein announced 
last year his intention to resign in 
1983, a search commmittee was 
constituted with Trustee Paul 
Levenson ('52) as its chairman. 
Composed of 20 members, 
representing the Board of Trustees, 
faculty and students, the committee 
reviewed scores of candidates and 
recommended Mrs. Handler to the 
Board of Trustees. After the decision, 
Mr Levenson commented: "We have 
concluded that Dr. Handler has the 
qualities and abilities needed to lead 
this distinguished institution." 

That same confidence was expressed 
by Dr Henry L. Foster, chairman of 
the Board: "Her record as a capable 
administrator, her strong academic 
background and her deep concern for 
educational values, make her ideally 
suited to succeed President Bernstein, 
who has given Brandeis such able 
leadership since 1972." 

Commenting on her appointment, 
Mrs. Handler noted: "The presidency 
of Brandeis University offers a unique 
opportunity to serve higher education. 
I am very proud to accept this 
position. ..." 

Born in Budapest, Hungary in 1933, 
Evelyn Handler came to the U.S. with 
her family in 1940 and was educated 
at Hunter College. She received her 
master's and doctoral degrees in 
biology from New York University in 
1962 and 1963, respectively, and began 
teaching at Hunter College in 1962 
where she was named professor of 
biological sciences in 1975. Her 
research on blood cell formation in 
the leukemic state was supported 
by five major National Science 
Foundation and National Institutes of 
Health grants. Named dean of the 
Division of Sciences and Mathematics 
at Hunter College in 1977, she served 
in that position until elected 
president of the University of New 
Hampshire in 1980. 

In her first year as president of New 
Hampshire's land and sea grant 
university, she launched the largest 
capital fund-raising campaign in the 
school's history. During her tenure, 
she also initiated a master plan review 
of the University's priorities and 
completed a major curriculum review 
of the academic programs. 

She is married to Eugene S. Handler, a 
biologist. They have two sons. 

Evelyn Handler will assume the 
presidency of Brandeis University in 
July 1983. 

Brandeis Review 


Fall 1982 

Volume 3 

Number 1 


Nada Samuels 

News Editor 
lerry Rosenswaike 


lohn P. Redgate, ]i. 
Debra Schatz 

Sports Editor 

Rack Brown 

University Photographer 

Kevin H. Strauss 

Design Director 

Dietmar R. Winkler 


Darlene Fenera 

Production Coordinator 

Shirley Meymaris 

Alumni Editorial Board 

Nina L. Baron '77 
Ellen Feinberg Blitz '76 
Barbara Krasin Kravitz '57 

Director of Alumni 
Relations and the 
Alumni Fund 

Gladys R lacobson 

What the New President 2-3 

Should Know About Brandeis 

From the President's Desk 
by Marver H. Bernstein 

What Has Gone Wrong 4-8 

With America's Refugee Policy 

The Relationship of Immigration 
Policy to Foreign Policy 
by Lawrence H. Fuchs 

Brandeis Today: 9-12 

A Student's Perspective 
New Concerns Face Today's 
by Kriss Halpern 

Digging in the Negev: 13—15 

A Brandeis Archaeological 


by Martha A. Morrison 

Freshmen: 20-21 

Introducing the Class of '86 

Cover photo: From the 
Museum of the City of 
New York 

Musicals of the 

"Me Generation" 

The Message from Broadway 

by John Bush Jones 


Yiddish Holocaust Poetry 

Translated by Students 


Alumni Profile: 24-26 
Survival a la Rena Blumberg '56 

The Ashton Graybiel Spatial 
Orientation Laboratory 


University News 


The Office of Career Planning 
Expands Its Services 




Alumni in the News 


Brandeis Bookshelf 


Faculty Notes 


Class Notes 


Board of IVustees 

Henry L. Foster 

Edwin E. Hokin 
Vice -Chairman 

Irving Schneider 
Vice -Chairman 

Stephen R. Reiner '61 

Nathan S. Ancell 

Marver H- Bernstein 
President of the 

George Alpert 
Manlyn H. Appel '54 
Rena Blumberg '56 
Robert S. Boas 
Alva T. Bonda 
Sol C. Chaikin 
Arthur G. Cohen 
Donald |. Cohen '61 
Maurice M. Cohen 
Arnold R. Cutler 
Leonard L. Farber 
Stanley H. Feldberg 
Joseph F. Ford 
Charles H. Goodman 
William Haber 
Jacob Hiatt 
Dona S. Kahn '54 
Milton Kat2 
Dudley F Kimball 
Jack K. Lazar 
Paul Levenson '52 

Joseph M. Linsey 
Martin Peretz '59 
Norman S. Rabb 
Gustav Ranis '52 
Harry Remis 
Walter A. Rosenblith 
Madeleine H. Russell 
Michael J. Sandel '75 
Carl J. Shapiro 
Robert Shapiro '52 
Malcolm L. Sherman 
Cynthia Shulman 
Dolores K. Solovy '55 
David E Squire 
Melvin M. Swig 
Sigmund Wahrsager 
Sanfordl. Weill 
Lawrence A. Wien 
Paul Ziffren 

TYustees Emeriti 

Leonard Bernstein 
Hal Davis 
Maurice B. Hexter 
Irving Kane 
Joseph L. Mailman 
William Mazer 
Maunce Saltzman 
Samuel Schulman 
David Schwartz 
Jacob Shapiro 
Richard G. Shapiro 
Theodore H. Silbert 
Harry H. Stone 
Robert L. Wolfson 
Morris B. Zalc 

Abram L- Sachar 
Chancellor Emeritus 

Faculty Representatives Student Representatives 

James E. Haber 
Robert C. Hunt 
Denah L. Lida 
Richard S. Weckstein 

John Jamoulis '83 
Jane Rubinstein '84 
Leslie E Brown 'G 

The Brandeis Review 

Vol2, No,5. Fall 1982. 

The Brandeis Review (ISSN 

0273-7175) IS published by 

Brandeis University, 

415 South Street, Waltham, 

Massachusetts 02254 

with free distribution to 

34,000 alumni, students, 

tnends, parents, faculty and 


Postmaster: Send address 
changes to The Brandeis 
Review, Brandeis University, 
415 South Street, Waltham, 
Massachusetts, 02254. 

Statement of Reaffirmation by 
the President and Board of 
Trustees of the University's 
Commitment to Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity and 
Affirmative Action 

In their original statement 
dated July 3, 1975. the Presi- 
dent and Trustees set forth 
the University's policy on 
Equal Opportunity and Affir- 
mative Action As President 
of Biandeis University, I 
should like to reaffirm that 
policy. Brandeis University se- 
lects Its faculty, staff, and stu- 
dents consistent with 
Affirmative Action guide- 
lines, without discrimination 
against persons on the basis of 
race, color, sex, religion, na- 
tional origin, age, disability, or 
veteran status. The President 
and Trustees call upon every 
academic and administrative 
office to plan and implement 
procedures which will ensure 
nondiscriminatory recruit- 
ment, hinng, and promotion 
o( all persons, at all levels of 
admission to and employment 
by the University. 

Brandeis has had a policy of 
Equal Opponunity for every- 
one for many years, but policy 
must be translated into daily 
action. As a contractor with 
the Federal Government and a 
recipient of Federal funds, the 
University must meet the re- 
quirements of Affirmative Ac- 
tion and the Department of 
Education and the Office of 
Federal Contract Compliance 
Programs in the Department 
of Labor. These offices moni- 
tor the University's hiring 
policies to insure equal em- 
ployment and equal access to 
the programs and activities of 
the University. 

Withm the Office of the Presi- 
dent, Herbert E. Hentz serves 
as an Assistant to the Presi- 
dent I have appointed Mr 
Hentz as the University Affir- 
mative Action Officer. Fiis 
task IS to cooidinate all of the 
University's efforts to meet 
its objectives of Equal Oppor- 
tunity and Affirmative Ac- 
tion, He works with the 
University Administrative 
Officials, the Dean of the Fac- 
ulty, and the Vice President 
tor Administrative Affairs in 
formulating and pursuing spe- 
cific practices and goals for 
the University, and is respon- 
sible for overseeing their im- 
plementation. He also serves 
as liaison with the Federal 
Government on all matters 
concerning Equal Employ- 
ment Opportunity and Affir- 
mative Action. 

The President and Trustees of 
Brandeis University instruct 
all offices of the University to 
cooperate with Mr Hentz in 
order to implement the Uni- 
versity's policy of Equal Em- 
ployment Opportunity and 
Affirmative Action and to 
achieve its goals. 

what the New 
President Should Know 
About Brandeis 

Now in my eleventh and final year at 
Brandeis University, I am tempted to 
look back at the past decade of 
unremitting challenge with 
something like a sigh of peace and 
leave the future quietly to my 

The temptation lasts only a moment. 
When has any member of the Brandeis 
community ever refrained from 
offenng cogent advice, informed 
opinion, reasoned argument? It is one 
of the sources of our greatest strength 
as a community of learning that we 
are all — students, faculty, alumni, 
members of the administration — 
questioners, debaters, "disturbers of 
the intellectual peace," a phrase I 
borrow often from Veblen. It is one of 
the hallmarks of this University that 
each of us cares deeply about its 
continued academic vigor and the 
fulfillment of its special mission as 
the only lewish-sponsored, 
nonsectarian university in the liberal 
arts tradition in this nation. Brandeis 
has an irresistible way of 
commanding our loyalty and our 
concern for its immediate and longer 
term future. 

And so, my welcome to the new 
president of Brandeis must inevitably 
be framed in terms of my devotion to 
this University and my appreciation 
of Its singular nature. What should the 
next president of Brandeis know about 
the University? What are the central 
characteristics and the particular 
qualities of this place? What makes 
Brandeis different from other colleges 
and universities? What makes it 

There is obviously no way, within the 
limits of this page, even to highlight 
all the specific features that together 
create the tangible and intangible 
whole that is Brandeis. The new 
president will know that this is a 
university which has achieved a 
position almost unique in higher 
education in the United States — that 
It stands alone as a small, liberal arts, 
research university of the highest 

3 Brandeis has succeeded in combining 
the range and depth of graduate 
programs and advanced research found 
in large universities vvfith the 
intimacy and individual attention 
enjoyed by students of a small college. 
With only 2750 undergraduates, 600 
graduate students in a score of 
graduate programs in the arts and 
sciences, one graduate professional 
school with 200 students, and a 
faculty of 350 teacher-scholars, 
Brandeis is an exciting community 
of intellect wfhich provides rare 
opportunities for individual growth 
and achievement at the cutting edge 
of many scholarly disciplines. 

The new president will come to know 
a faculty that is deeply committed to 
research and scholarship — whose 
quality, I might add, is evident in the 
first-rate books and articles they 
publish each year, in prizes and 
awards, and federal support 
amounting to more than $18.5 
million — an astonishing sum for a 
small institution with only one 
professional school. It is a faculty that 
is equally committed to teaching and 
takes the greatest satisfaction in 
maintaining the undergraduate 
curriculum in the best humanistic 
tradition. At the same time, members 
of the faculty enthusiastically devise 
new, cooperative, interdepartmental 
programs that cut across traditional 
academic lines of demarcation. 
Brandeis' University Studies in the 
humanities and in history may be the 
most imaginative and successful of 
the many "core" curricula instituted 
by American universities today. 
Brandeis' interdisciplinary programs, 
such as Legal Studies, Medieval 
Studies, Cognitive Science, and the 
History of Western Thought, to 
choose only some at random, 
allow our students to think 
comprehensively and to explore with 
independence and originality 
humankind and the worlds we 

Like the sciences, the humanities, 
and the social sciences, the creative 
arts flourish on this campus — and 
have from the beginning. Music, 
theater and the fine arts surround us 
in our daily life. They are the air we 
breathe at Brandeis, an habitual 
delight to the senses and to the mind. 

In the deepest sense, the faculty is 
Brandeis — as delightful, contentious, 
brilliant, critical, hard-working, and 
dedicated a group as can be found at 
any outstanding university — only 
more so. 

The new president will find Brandeis 
students and alumni sui generis. They 
argue a lot, they care passionately, 
they work tirelessly. They are very 
bright and independent, generous, and 
questioning. And they are "doers." 
Apart from qualities such as these, 
which are prized and fostered with 
much affection and respect, there is, 
to my mind, no "typical Brandeis 
student." What is remarkable to me, 
in fact, is the broad diversity of 
interests, tastes, opinions, 
backgrounds, and particular goals I 
have met in individual Brandeis 
students and alumni. Thirty classes 
have now been graduated from 
Brandeis, and some 14,000 
undergraduate alumni carry the name 
of Brandeis throughout the United 
States and in some 40 countries 
abroad. They have one thing clearly in 
common: on any issue of institutional 
or political sensitivity, it will seem 
that all 14,000 get in touch with the 
President to express their views. 

The Heller School is a jewel to be 
treasured by the next president of this 
University. It is a unique training 
place, workshop, research center, and 
professional school in the field of 
human services and social welfare. 
How can we best identify and provide 
for the basic needs of people? Health 
care, youth employment, alcoholism, 
aging, family structure, criminal 
justice — these are some of the 
fundamental concerns of the Heller 
School faculty. Their research 
programs and the education they 
provide their students are 
indispensable to the survival of our 
country as a civilized, responsible, 
and compassionate society. 

I would happily continue this 
newcomer's tour of Brandeis. But let 
me conclude with a subject that must 
be of the greatest interest to anyone 
assuming leadership of an American 
university in the early 1980s: 
financial stability. I am glad to say 
that Brandeis is in the soundest 
financial position in its 35-year 
history. AJi examination of its balance 
sheet shows steady growth in assets, 
in University equity, in endowment 
funds, and in funds for plant and 
equipment. Even in the current 
recession, fundraising has reached 
$15-16 million annually, with major 
contributions made regularly by the 
Alumni Fund and by another unique 
feature of Brandeis — its National 
Women's Committee. This October 
the Women's Committee passed the 
$20 million mark in fundraising for 
the University libraries, a mission 
they undertook when Brandeis opened 
its doors in 1948. 

There is no question that the level of 
voluntary financial support must rise, 
not only to keep pace with inflation 
and increased costs but also to keep 
this University in the forefront of 
higher education. Faculty salaries, the 
renovation of old buildings, the 
construction of laboratories, 
dormitories, and athletic facilities, 
scholarships and fellowships for our 
students, the funds necessary to 
maintain the quality of our academic 
programs and to increase the 
amenities that enhance the character 
of life on this campus — funds for all 
these must be sought and secured, so 
that we may keep faith with the 
vision of our founders that Brandeis 
be a university non paieil. But that 
is another message. 

A university never stands still nor is 
complete. My wish in this short piece 
has been merely to sketch the superb 
foundation on which the new 
president will build, to capture, for 
this moment, something of the nature 
of this very special place. 

f7l4f4A/ R OlmJL^ 

what Has Gone Wrong With 
America's Refugee PoUcy 

by Lawrence H. Fuchs 

Lawrence H. i^uchs. 
the Meyer and Walter Jaffe 
Professor of American 
Civilization and Politics, is 
chair of the American Studies 
department. He is a former 
executive director of the 
U.S. Select Commission on 
Immigration and Refugee 
Policy and has written several 
books dealing with ethnicity 
in America. 

rnotos by 

United Press International, 
Viva/Francois Hers, 
Committee for European 
Migration, U.S. Navy/ 
Lutheran Immigration and 
Refugee Service and the 
Museum of the City of 
New York. 

American policy toward immigration has historically been 
intertwined with America's foreign policy, often bending 
and twisting with this country's latest ideological 

Any consideration of that relationship requires an 
understanding of the scale and nature of refugee flows. 
Three major political/technological changes account for 
the tremendous increase in refugee flows witnessed in the 
20th century; the withdrawal of colonial powers from 
Asia, Africa and the Middle East led thousands to flee from 
the violence resulting between different ethnic, racial and 
political groups vying for power in the formation and 
consolidation of new nation states; the creation of a new 
empire by the Soviet Union, including the colonization of 
many different nationalities, led many persons to flee 
totalitarianism; and, rising global consciousness and 
advances in transportation technologies combined to 
make flight from persecution and civil war possible for 
larger masses of people. 

The scale of such migrations is awesome. Twelve million 
Hindus, Moslems and Sikhs relocated within the year 
following the 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent. 
The partition of Palestine in 1948 generated the movement 
of over one and a half million Arab refugees while at least 
an equal number of Jews simultaneously fled Arab 
countries to go to Israel. In Asia, several million 
Kuomintang supporters left for Taiwan and Hong Kong 
after the communist victory in China in 1949; over four 
million Koreans fled from North to South Korea in 1950- 

53; more than 800,000 Cubans have been accepted in the 
U.S. as refugees since the revolution in 1959; a temporary 
deluge of ten million persons went from Bangladesh to 
India in 1971-72; and the permanent relocation of over one 
million refugees from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia has 
taken place since 1965. 

The latest wave of refugees has been produced by wars in 
Afghanistan and Africa. More than one and a half million 
refugees fleeing the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan entered 
Pakistan; and over one and a half million Ethiopians have 
sought refuge in Somalia, only a portion of the 
approximately four million refugees estimated to be in 

There are a great many refugee migrations over which 
American foreign policy has had or could have little or no 
substantial influence (e.g. the partition of the Indian 
subcontinent and the more recent African refugee 
migrations). In most such cases, the U.S. can do little more 
than provide humanitarian support to a fraction of those 
suffering from starvation and brutality. 

Refugee policy is governed by a combination of three 
factors: a standard of international and domestic law; 
foreign policy considerations; and domestic politics. In 
order to examine these influences, several important 
questions need to be asked. 

To What Extent Should 
Our Refugee Policy Reflect 
Strategic Interests? 
And How Should We Define 
These Interests? 

One of the more interesting questions faced by the Select 
Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was 
whether or not to count refugees against a total ceiling for 
the admission of immigrants to this country. There is a 
foreign policy interest in keeping refugee numbers separate 
and distinct from numbers allocated for immigrants for 
purposes of family reunification or work. The reason is not 
just that refugees often happen suddenly but that refugees 
are very mixed up with foreign politics. 

To resolve this question, let us consider three basic 
approaches to refugees and asylees taken by the U.S. 
during the past 150 years. 

The first, and most deeply rooted approach, grew out of 
Axnerican support for national liberation movements in 
Europe and, to some extent in Africa and Asia, from the 
beginning of the Republic through the presidency of 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 

It was to the U.S. that revolutionary leaders looked for 
support, encouragement, material aid and sometimes 
refuge. When Louis Kossuth, leader of a national liberation 
movement in Hungary, arrived in New York Harbor on 
December 5, 1851 with other Hungarian and Italian 
refugees, a crowd of 200,000 persons crammed the Battery 
in lower Manhattan to welcome him. It was to the United 
States that Sun Yat-Sen, China's first great revolutionary 
leader, came for inspiration as well as refuge. It was in the 
United States that Edward Benes and Czech refugees 
planned the creation of a free and democratic 
Czechoslovakia. It was here that Eamon DeValera, leader 
of the movement to establish the Irish Republic, found 
refuge and gained support for his eventual triumphant 
return to Ireland. It was to the U.S. that many national 
liberation leaders from Africa came to study and work and 
receive support in the years immediately following World 
War II. 

Following World War II, refugee policy was marked by a 
humanitarian concern for displaced persons which 
increasingly took on an anti-communist slant. The 
Displaced Persons Act of 1948 was primarily a 
humanitarian measure although it did give special 
preference to escapees from Eastern Europe. The Refugee 
Relief Act of 1953 was the first of many emergency refugee 
enactments outside the basic framework of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, which had been codified 
in 1952. It combined helping refugees from war with 
assisting escapees from behind the Iron Curtain. With the 
unsuccessful Hungarian revolution of October 1956, 
President Eisenhower, under the authority of the Attorney 
General, offered asylum to 21,500 Hungarians as parolees. 
This was the first use of the parole provision for the mass 
admission of refugees. 

With the fall of the Batista government in late 1959, 
Cuban refugees began entering the United States in 
sizeable numbers under the parole authority of the 
Attorney General. Presidents Kennedy and lohnson 
encouraged Cubans to flee from communism and a series 
of executive and legislative measures facilitated the 
admission of what eventually would be more than 800,000 
of them. 

With the 1965 amendments to the Immigration and 
Nationality Act allocating 17,400 visas for refugees, a 
national policy had emerged which virtually equated 
refugee with someone turning his or her back on 
communism. The law was quite explicit in defining a 
refugee as a person who had fled from "any communist or 
communist dominated country" and was "unable or 
unwilling to return" to his or her place of origin. 

The American foreign policy interest in supporting 
democratic national liberation movements by providing 
refuge for those fleeing authoritarian governments had 
been replaced by one which emphasized the 
destabilization of communist regimes and assistance to 
those fleeing them. 

With the passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, within the 
context of the renewed American emphasis on human 
rights, the United States appeared to have shifted to some 
degree toward a reassertion of its previous foreign policy 
emphasis of supporting freedom-seeking refugees who flee 
from tyranny regardless of the political ideology of the 

But the allocations process for refugees and asylees 
continues to favor those from communist dominated 

The problem is clear. Congress may proclaim a policy 
through legislation; but the executive branch executes 
foreign policy. 

To What Extent Should We 
Permit Foreign Policy Tactics to 
Bend Our Refugee and 
Asylum Law? 

In dealing with this question, Congress should not stay on 
the sidelines but should think through an answer to a 
fundamental question: is it not in the interests of the 
United States of America to have a refugee and asylum 
policy which transcends the power struggle between the 
Soviet Union and the United States as the Refugee Act of 
1980 clearly intends? Would it not make sense to go back 
to our historic policy of support for persons who fight 
tyranny regardless of the nature of tyranny in order to once 
again become the party of hope for the average man and 
woman in their fight against oppression? 

We cannot accept everyone who seeks refuge in the United 
States, either as a refugee or asylec; but can we develop a 
refugee allocations process and asylum procedure which is 
more consistent with what our law specifies and which, at 
the same time, serves our longer, stronger national interest 
as a champion of freedom? 

At the present time, we are bending that law considerably, 
if not outright violating it as in the case of Haitian and 
Salvadoran refugees. As of [anuary 1982, 5,572 Salvadorans 
applied for asylum in this country. Thus far only two 
requests for asylum have been acknowledged as valid, 
although the State Department advised the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service to act favorably on six others, 
indicating some possible change in policy. In its "Country 
Reports on the World Refugee Situation" given to Congress 
in September 1981, the State Department acknowledged 
that between October 1979 and the time of the report, over 
15,000 Salvadorans had died as a result of political 
violence and that political refugees were leaving the 
country because of threats from the left and the right. 

The Reagan Administration believes that our foreign 
policy interest of strengthening the present government in 
El Salvador and persuading the American people that it is 
not repressive overrides humanitarian concerns in 
applying refugee policy. Since Salvadorans are sometimes 
held for long periods of time in detention centers awaiting 
the processing of refugee claims, one way to deter such 
migrations in the future is to make the conditions under 
which they are retained rather harsh. This is reported to be 
the case at the INS detention facility at El Centro, 
California, a condition now being investigated by Senator 
Dennis DiConcim (D. Ariz.). Another tactic is to set the 
level of bonds extremely high, which the U.S. High 
Commission reported has been done in the case of 
Salvadorans. Another is to threaten border crossers with 
long periods in jail. 

The contrast with the treatment accorded Polish asylum 
claimants is striking. While we want to welcome Polish 
dissidents, the law states that each claimant for asylum 
must prove that he or she has a well-founded fear of 
persecution. For foreign policy reasons, our presumption is 
that Poles who enter this country illegally have such a 
claim and they are awarded extended voluntary departure. 
It IS in our interest to embarrass the present Polish 
government, as it has been in our interest to embarrass 
Castro, and the present government of Vietnam. Yet the 
State Department, in its report to Congress in September 
1981, acknowledged that bad economic conditions in all 
three countries have in recent months prompted increased 
requests for refuge and asylum. 

About two months ago six Polish seamen were detained by 
the Immigration and Naturalization Service in Anchorage, 
Alaska. They were detained under a provision of our law in 
a normal, orderly fashion. Since INS does not have a 
detention facility in Anchorage, they were put in a local 
jail. Of course, both United States Senators from Alaska 
and the White House became exercised immediately and 
they were released. Once again, the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service learned that evenhanded, impartial 
law enforcement is not to be applied with respect to 
asylum claimants. 

The question is whether the bending and twisting of the 
law to such an extent erodes not only confidence in the 
law generally but also fundamentally undermines a major 
strategic foreign policy interest: the development and 
maintenance of an image in the world of the United States 
as a champion of human rights. 

To What Extent Should 
We Let Domestic Politics 
Shape Refugee Policy 
to the Possible Detriment of 
Foreign Policy, 

Including Our 
Commitment to Human 

If someone is a Polish national claiming asylum in this 
country, one can count on the mfra-structure of the Polish- 
American community for support. If someone is a Soviet 
Jew seeking to be admitted as a refugee, that individual can 
count on organized American Jewry for support. But if one 
is Ethiopian, even though fleeing from a Marxist-led 
government (perhaps as many as 2.5 million people have 
fled Ethiopia), there will be very little political activity in 
this country on their behalf. To date, 20,000 to 30,000 
Ethiopian applicants for asylum have been told they must 
leave voluntarily or face possible deportation proceedings. 

The classic case of domestic politics playing a cruel role in 
the determination of refugee policy came in the late 1930s 
with the refusal of our government to accept as refugees 
more than a trickle of Jews who were desperate to escape 
Hitler's grasp. We obliged Jews to come in under our 
restrictive national origins quotas despite the fact that 
they were fleeing for their lives. Anti-Semitism in the 
United States was too formidable for even the great 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt who ultimately 
bowed to the exigencies of domestic politics. 

A combination of domestic politics and short-sighted 
foreign policy concerns have resulted in widespread 
flouting of the law with respect to the Haitians. About 
20,000 Haitians came to the U.S. in 1980 and others have 
since continued to enter this country without documents. 
The State Department has advised the INS to presume that 
Haitians are here illegally as seekers of economic 
opportunity and not as valid claimants for asylum. Our 
government has adopted a series of punitive measures to 
deter Haitians from seeking asylum in the U.S. rather than 
expeditiously process individual asylum claims, separating 
those that are valid from those that are not. Admittedly, 
the United States should try to deter large numbers of 
Haitians from migrating to this country. The question is, 
how should we go about doing that? 

The Select Commission has made a number of 
recommendations in this regard: aid and trade measures to 
build employment opportunities; processing centers as 
distinct from detention centers to hold asylum claimants 
while their claims are being adjudicated; adjudication by 
specially trained asylum offices which would act in part 
on group profiles developed by a source independent of the 
State Department; and in the case of a denial of asylum, 
recourse to appeal to an independent immigration court 
which would be established by Congress under Article I of 
our constitution, a recommendation recently submitted as 
legislation by Representative William McCoUum (R. Fla.). 
Such a policy would result in the deportation of a 
substantial number of claimants — probably a majority — 
but would also result in fair and expeditious decision- 

Instead, the administration appears to have taken a route 
which may satisfy some of the political pressures from 
South Florida but does not satisfy basic American 
standards of fairness, undermines a foreign policy that is 
based to some extent upon our maintaining those 
standards, and even results in the delay of deportation for 
those who are deportable. 

Ironically, refugee policy succumbs to political pressures, 
despite the fact that Haitians in some ways are highly 
desirable immigrants. In contrast to Cuban entrants, 
Soviet refugees and the U.S. population as a whole, they 
are in their early working years and have fewer dependents. 
Both factors mean that they draw much less from social 
security insurance. In addition, according to other 
information released by Dade County authorities, they are 
a law-abiding people. 

To What Extent Should 
We Manage Foreign Policy 
to Inhibit the 
Development of Refugee 

To What Extent Should 
We Use Foreign Policy 
Leverage to Induce Other 
Countries to Take More 
Responsibility For the 
Management and 
Resettlement of Refugees? 

K -7 














what we do in foreign policy sometimes can prevent the 
great dislocations that result in refugee migrations. 

To be sure, to the extent that we escalate the commitment 
to save authoritarian regimes, we increase our obligation to 
save those who stand with us if our side loses. That is a 
lesson one can learn on a large scale from Vietnam and 
Cuba, both relatively large countries, and on a much 
smaller scale from Nicaragua. 

The best way to inhibit future refugee flows in this 
hemisphere is to develop a plan for promoting stability in 
countries tom by civil strife, followed by a strategy for 
economic and social reform in cooperation with those who 
seek such objectives. In this regard the Reagan 
administration appears to be schizophrenic. On the one 
hand, the stated policy of President Reagan to help 
promote prosperity and social reform in the Caribbean 
area; on the other hand, consistent diplomatic and military 
activity to support the repressive, authoritarian regimes 
throughout the hemisphere. 

In the case of Haiti, the poorest country in the Western 
Hemisphere, with an annual per capita income of $300, 
social reform probably is a precondition of inhibiting 
continued migration flows. 

The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee 
Policy concluded that the best way to prevent the 
dislocations that cause large refugee flows would be for the 
United States to have a clear strategy of economic and 
social reform in this hemisphere, worked out in 
cooperation with other nations. We also can do more to 
strengthen international ties in this hemisphere to prevent 
such things as the forced migration of people as occurred at 
Mariel. At present we do not even have an international 
convention under the OAS or the United Nations which 
would provide for sanctions against a government that 
expels people from its own country. 

Yes, foreign policy can be used to prevent refugee 
migrations within this hemisphere but our present foreign 
policy in Central America seems calculated to do just the 
reverse. If our objective is the prevention of refugee flows, 
we should be pressing vigorously now for a negotiated 
settlement to bring stability to El Salvador and to make 
possible genuine social reforms there. 

It is striking that this administration has failed to use the 
OAS or any other international forum in this hemisphere 
in order to deal with the issues of illegal migration and 
refugee migration. There are a great many countries that 
are involved and one would think that it is in the foreign 
policy interest of the United States to strengthen the 
international mechanisms for dealing with these 
questions. Yet, there has been absolutely no initiative on 
our part, not even on the question of forced migration or 

Indeed, there is evidence that the United States has failed 
to exercise its leverage in bilateral foreign relations to get 
other countries to do more with respect to refugees. Let us 
take for a clear-cut example, Saudi Arabia. Here is a 
wealthy, oil-rich country that is willing to finance 
terrorism, but has not been willing to finance the 
maintenance and resettlement of refugees, even with 
respect to Palestinian refugees until fairly recently. The 
U.S. has contributed nearly a billion dollars to the United 
Nations Relief and Works Administration to take care of 
Palestinian refugees from 1950 through 1981 while Saudi 
Arabia has spent only a fraction of that, mostly since 1976. 

Something is wrong here. Not only are we inconsistent 
with respect to our own refugee policy, because of wrong- 
headed foreign policy tactics and domestic politics, but we 
do not even make a strong effort to involve our friends in a 
coherent, overall strategy with respect to preventing 
refugee migrations and helping to maintain and resettle 

Something has gone tragically wrong with American 
foreign policy since Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed that 
the United States should always stand for freedom from 
fear, freedom from want, freedom of speech and freedom of 
religion. Such a pronouncement made us the party of hope, 
the party of the common person who seeks a better life, 
the party of the future. The failure to hold that standard 
high and consistently has given some credibility to the 
charge of the Soviet Union that we are on the side of 
reaction, has weakened us in our struggle against Soviet 
imperialism, has undermined our law, and has tarnished 
our conception of ourselves as a nation that champions 
human freedom. 

Brandeis Today: 

A Student's Perspective 

by Kriss Halpem 

Khss Halpern is a senior majoring in 
History and English. He is currently an 
associate editor of the Justice, served as a 
member of the Presidential Search 
Committee, and was a member of last 
year's B League Intramurals 
championship basketball team — the X- 

^^^^^^ ^"T^Pl 

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7 JH 1 ^H 

The posters lining the walls in Usdan 
Student Center during the first week 
of school include the typical 
assortment: advertisements for 
refrigerators and used cars, a Justice 
organizational meeting, a Hillel 
discussion group. 

Amidst these are an abundance of 
signs promising higher board scores, 
some hinting that Brandeis is merely 
one stop along a career route — another 
credential which must be assiduously 
earned and then quickly filed. 

"Helping Students Become 
Professionals" reads the slogan of the 
Graduate Admission Prep Services 
offering its aid to frightened upper 
classmen. Those slogans and those 
fears are reflections of an environment 
outside this campus which 
contradicts the pure mtellectual 
devotion one hopes to have during 
one's college years. 

Brandeis students today remember 
Richard Nixon as the President during 
our youth (although most of us will 
say that at least one of our parents 
voted for McGovern), and this year's 
freshmen — the class of '86 — are the 
first in Brandeis' history never to have 
been alive at the same moment as 
President John F. Kennedy. 

We've grown up expecting corruption 
in government and uncontrollable 
inflation in the economy. A ten 
thousand dollar a year tuition which 
goes up 14 percent a year is old news. 
We've been told that "the job market 
is slim" and a college degree doesn't 
mean too much. If The Graduate were 
filmed today, Dustin Hoffman 
wouldn't have to deal with being told 
"there is a future in plastics," he'd be 

told there is a glut of lawyers and no 
jobs in academia. 

Clearly we are affected by the signs 
and moods our society shoves at us. 
Tom Wolfe calls us the "Me 
Generation." A soft drink company 
calls us the "Pepsi Generation." We've 
been labeled and described before we 
were aware that we even comprised a 
group m any more elaborate terms 
than a little league team or a brownies 
troop. And we have not been 

Walking the path from Usdan to 
Sherman — the two cafeterias around 
which our "student centers" have 
formed — one senses the changes and 
complexities which have become 
Brandeis. On the left is the sociology 
building in which the 1970 National 
Students' Strike was organized. On 
the right is Goldfarb Library where a 
line formed every morning during 
finals last year, as students waited to 
secure a carrel for the year's final 
grind. Further down the path one 
passes the piles of bricks waiting to 
form the new Father Library which 
will provide needed study space,- 
further down the hill is the imposing 
science quad where hopeful premeds 
rush every morning; there across the 
field one sees the fragile three chapels 
which almost always look distant and 

The students one passes are well- 
dressed and well-groomed. Casual 
means purple jogging outfits from 
Bloomingdale's for women and Izod 
tee-shirts for men. Men wear their 
hair short and many women wear 
make-up. Students are quite 
conscious of their appearance and 
looking neat is rarely considered an 
imposition. Director of Admissions 
Michael Kalafatas says that this is a 
reflection of greater concern with 
"preparation for the world of work." 

A Brandeis graduate of the class of 
'65, Kalafatas notes that the hopeful 
economic conditions of the '60s 
allowed students then to be less 
concerned with the world after 
college. Today, he says, students dress 
and study in preparation for the 
outside world. 

Sociology Professor Gordon Fellman 
notes that students are so anxious 
about jobs that they are even more 
preprofessional than they used to be. 

Under 50 percent of the students' 
recommendations he used to write 
were for law school. Today, he says, 
that figure is 90 percent. 

Brandeis students today seem less 
concerned with "why" they wish to 
earn money than they are with "how." 

Last year's Student Senate President 
Stephen Kozol says that, "People here 
view education as a weigh station to 
future wealth," and interviews with 
students will often bear this out. 

I asked one student representative 
how much money he wants to make 
20 years from now and he said, "I'd 
like to be comfortable." I asked how 
much was comfortable and he said, 
"With today's inflation rate, $200,000 
to S300,000." His figure may be higher 
than most, but few Brandeis students 
mention a figure below $50,000 and it 
is common to cite triple figures. 

One freshman interviewed said she 
was attracted to Brandeis' radical 
image and that going to the same 
school as Abbie Hoffman is "neat." 
Asked what changes, if any, she'd like 
to see in America, she responded by 
saying, "I think America should be 
looked upon as a big corporation." 
The President should be a good 
businessman because "business 
controls government. It's a fact. What 
can you do about it?" 

Students often seem less concerned 
with changing society than they are 
with succeeding in it. Recently 
instituted academic programs include 
Legal Studies, Computer Science, and 
the new Berlin Premedical Center 
Professors involved in these areas will 
defend them as being within the 
liberal arts tradition. And they are. 
But many students take these courses, 
not merely for the sake of knowledge 
or intellectual stimulation, but often 
because they see them as helpful in 
their post-Brandeis lives. 

Computer Science. 
Brandeis' newest department, so 
popular that even with the purchase 
of a new computer center in Ford Hall 
(the newest department in the oldest 
building), its enrollment must be 
limited to 35 majors. No wonder. 
Those who know how to use a 
computer commonly earn as much as 
$400 a week in summer jobs. More 
than half the students waiting to take 

BASIC this semester, the simplest 10 

computer language, were turned down 
so the class could be limited to 60. 

Legal Studies. 

I asked one freshman if he was 
interested in political clubs here. 
"Yeah," he said, "the pre-law society." 
One senior told me last week that she 
is applying to 20 law schools — that is 
one-seventh of all the law schools 
there are in this country and, at $40 a 
shot, quite an investment. 


Ten percent of all Brandeis graduates 
are physicians, so the huge number of 
premeds at Brandeis today seems to be 
consistent with the past. Yet no 
description of Brandeis students could 
be complete without mentioning 
them. It seems that every other 
person one meets and his or her 
roommate started out as pre-med 
majors. The one-year-old Berlin 
Premedical Center is supposed to be a 
training center for the doctors of 
tomorrow. Containing dozens of labs, 
a lounge area holding science journals 
and microfilm, and a small, personal 
classroom, it is billed as a "Home for 

Depending on who you ask, all this 
preprofessionalism is either practical 
or materialistic, anti-intellectual or a 
necessary result of living in today's 
economy. The acting head of Career 
Planning, Millie Tan Steward, relates 
that students will often leave their 
political affiliations off their resumes, 
so that companies to which they apply 
will not be prejudiced against them. 

Lecturers at Brandeis over the past 
three years have included Abbie 
Hoffman, lerry Rubin, Stokely 
Carmichael, and, coming up this year, 
Timothy Leary. They, as well as the 
college years of our '60s alumni, have 
become a part of our history and a 
source of wonderment to today's 
students. When lerry Rubin spoke of 
his current job on Wall Street as an 
investment broker last year, students 
saw it as a hypocritical reversal. Abbie 
Hoffman was welcomed less as a 
radical with an inspirational message 
than as the creator of the 
Sandwichman Corporation. 

Other lecturers have included Lisa 
Bembach — the author of The Preppy 
Handbook and leader of a trend which 
has not failed to make its mark on 

Brandeis students, regardless of the 
difficulty of being a Jewish prep. John 
Houseman — a law professor on the TV 
show "Paper Chase" — spoke recently 
on campus and flocks of prelaw 
students turned out to gather his 

Protests at Brandeis have changed as 
well. Three years ago the Iranian 
hostage crisis produced what was then 
called the first pro-American rally on 
this campus. Two years ago, when a 
group gathered to protest U.S. 
involvement in El Salvador, several 
Brandeis Republicans waved the 
American flag and sang, "America the 
Beautiful" in a successful attempt to 
disrupt the rally. 

One major reaction on campus to 
fears among students over the job 
market, and equally strong faculty 
concern, is an expansion of the Career 
Planning Office. With removal of a 
wall m Usdan, that office has now 
doubled in size and two new 
counselors have been hired to aid 
distraught students. Millie Tan 
Steward says that while five years ago 
70 percent of Brandeis students went 
directly to graduate school, that 
number is only 40 percent today. This, 
she says, is partially the result of the 
high cost of graduate school which 
forces students to earn money first. 
The other part consists of a strategy of 
taking time off and later applying so 
as to be accepted by a more 
prestigious professional school. In 
addition, she adds that even freshmen 
and sophomores now come to her 
office to prepare for the job market. 
Apparently it is common for a new 
student to ask what major is the best 
for acceptance into business school. 

These trends have been accompanied 
by changes in the areas of academic 
concentration among Brandeis 
students. In a study produced by the 
Dean of the College Office last year it 
was found that freshmen indicated 
significant changes between 1975 and 
1982 in the area of their primary 
academic interests. Students 
interested in majoring in creative arts 
have gone down from 5 percent to 2 
percent, humanities interest has fallen 
from 14 percent to 8 percent, and 
social science interest has gone from 
29 percent to 23 percent. Only 
science, rising from 33 to 37 percent, 
has increased in its attractiveness to 
Brandeis freshmen. There was one 

other big gainer, however, as the 
number of freshmen who were 
uncertain about their primary 
interests increased from 19 percent to 
27 percent. 

The clubs and organizations students 
choose to join offer another gUmpse 
into campus hfe. Founded in 1966, the 
Waltham Group was formed as a 
means of integrating Brandeis 
students with the surrounding 
community. Its current director, Lisa 
Berman '82, says that its early 
members were often anti- 
establishment, concerned with 
transforming society by aiding the 

Today, the group still operates as a 
community service, but its 300 
members are not always attracted on 
purely idealistic grounds. As part of its 
primary purpose the group currently 
seeks "to provide the Brandeis student 
with a valuable learning experience." 
The group works closely with the 
Career Placement Office and Berman 
says that virtually all of the 
community health volunteers have 
been premeds for the past five years. 
Many of them view their work as a 
means of getting into medical school, 
she says. 

Ms. Berman tells the story of one 
undergraduate who came to the group 
wanting to organize Waltham 
politically by setting up tenants 
organizations and fighting "the 
establishment." Informed this was, 
"too idealistic for 1982," the student 
was not welcomed by either the 
Waltham community or the other 
members of the student service 

Looking through a copy of the 1967 
Student Handbook, written in part by 
then Student Senate president and 
current Director of Student Life Brian 
Marcus, one notices a number of 
intellectual and political groups: the 
Brandeis Civil Rights Group, Campus 
Americans for Democratic Action, 
the Chelsea Student-Parent 
Association, the Peace Group, 
Students for a Democratic Society, 
and one intriguing group called the 
Committee for an Ideal Campus 
which was interested in university 
reform both at Brandeis and at other 
college campuses. (It conceived the 
ideal university as "an intellectual 

community of teachers and students 
where learning is valued for its own 

Among the new Brandeis clubs are 
The Bulldogs, a social organization 
which attempted to sponsor a mud 
wrestling match last year, and the 
Judges Investment Group in which 35 
students have collectively purchased 
shares of stocks and debate which 
investments are the best for their 

But this is not the complete picture. 
For whatever reasons, there are 
probably more political groups on 
campus today than ever before. Many 
of these are small, however, and clubs 
such as Greenpeace (environmental). 
Clamshell (against nuclear energy), 
and SPOKES (against nuclear war) 
claim smaller numbers than the Ski 
Club, The Pre-Law Society, or the 
Bridge Club. Possibly it is the greater 
diversity of political groups as well as 
the greater number of them that 
makes it appear as if students are less 
politically concerned. 

The 1969 handbook lists no college 
republican clubs, while the Brandeis 
Republicans currently claim 50 
members and were credited by Ronald 
Reagan with having been a significant 
force in effecting the Republican 
victory in Massachusetts in 1980. At 
the same time, the Brandeis 
Democrats claim a few hundred 
members and say they are the largest 
college Democrat group in the 
country. In addition, while organized 
groups against nuclear arms are small 
here, the level of debate among 
Brandeis students on the subject is 
high. Furthermore, social and political 
awareness still seems higher here than 
in most other colleges. 

The 1969 handbook lists separate 
curfew hours for men and women. In 
case you're wondering, the women's 
are earlier. In 1964, the handbook said 
that "men are permitted in women's 
dormitories on the first and last days 
of school to help move luggage." 
Feminism does not seem to have been 
a major force here at the time. 

The '69 handbook also contains a 
section titled "Protest and 
Demonstration." Given university 
regulations, the war in Vietnam and 
the civil rights movement, it seems 
they had quite a bit to protest against. 

Today, an active campus group is the 
Women's Coalition and the various 
feminist subgroups which have 
formed around it over the past few 
years. Separate rules for men and 
women and blatantly sexist 
implications about women's physical 
capacities would not last five minutes 
here without creating a rally the 
intensity of which would rival the 
1969 Ford Hall takeover. 

Other examples of student action 
have included demands for a dredging 
of Massell Pond that had become a 
polluted eyesore over the years, and 
protests in response to various 
proposals to end the Transitional Year 
Program, which gives underprivileged 
students an intensive program to 
prepare them for college. 

According to Senate Treasurer Mike 
Hafter, "Students are more bent on 
serving their community and 
improving Brandeis than on changing 
the world." Indeed, just as Ronald 
Reagan's election has been interpreted 
as a reaction against the failures of the 
old liberal agenda, so have students 
reacted against the failures of '60s 
radicalism. Protests haven't 
eliminated poverty or ended prejudice, 
and working within the establishment 
for a better society is quite appealing 
to many Brandeis students. 

The current deepening recession in 
this country has had a tremendous 
impact on college students in general, 
and Brandeis students have been part 
of that trend. Yet, there remains on 
this campus a strong sense of political 
commitment and social responsibility. 
If Brandeis students are concerned 
with making money, with preparing to 
enter the outside world, they are not 
about to do so at the expense of their 
values or to the detriment of their 

The above article is. of course, the view of 
one student. Others, including students, 
teachers, and alumni, might have a 
somewhat different perspective. We 
welcome letters expressing agreement, or 
differing points of view. 

Digging in the Negev: 

A Brandeis Archaeological 


by Martha A. Morrison 

Martha A. Moihson is an 
assistant professor of Classical 
and Oriental Studies and 
Petrie Term Assistant Professor 
of University Studies. Professor 
Morrison specializes in the 
study of Assyriology and 
ancient Near Eastern history, 

and has published in these 
fields. A graduate of Wellesley 
College, she received her M.A. 
and Ph.D. degrees from the 
Department of Mediterranean 
Studies at Brandeis. 

When fourteen students from Brandeis, Boston College, 
Boston University and other schools and I arrived in the 
Negev of Israel this summer, we v^'cre immediately caught 
up in the challenge of exploring the past as well as the 
tangle of an emotion-packed present. We were there as 
participants in a summer school course in archaeology 
hosted by Ben Gurion University's Archaeology Division, 
ready to immerse ourselves in the first season of the Land 
of Gerar Expedition. However, the war in Lebanon, though 
far away from us, reached into our daily lives as we 
followed the latest radio bulletins and worried about 
friends and colleagues. Even though the events of the day 
were always in mind, the intensive academic and field 
research program on which we had embarked absorbed our 
energies quite completely as the summer continued. 

The Land of Gerar Expedition is the most recent phase of 
the archaeological field research conducted by Ben 
Gurion 's Archaeology Division in the Sinai and Negev. 
Directed by Professor Eliezer D. Oren, chairman of the 
Division, the project focuses on the region of Nahal Gerar 
in the Northern Negev, an area with a rich and varied 
history in antiquity. Some of the earliest evidence for 
urban society dates to the Chalcolithic Period (4th 
Millennium B.C.E.) in this region. Later, Canaanite, 
Philistine, Judahite and Israelite cultures flourished in the 
region. During the late Bronze Age (1500-1200 B.C.E.) 
Egypt occupied the area. In the First Millennium B.C.E. 
the Assyrians incorporated the region into their 
administrative system, as would the Roman and Byzantine 
Empires in later times. Situated on the major route from 
the Sinai into Canaan, the area saw the overland 
commercial traffic that passed between Egypt and the rest 
of the Near East as well as the armies of Egypt, Assyria, 
Babylonia and Persia. The region was also the scene of 
intensive interaction between its settled inhabitants and 
nomadic groups from the desert to the south. The strategic 
and economic importance of the area throughout antiquity 
IS dramatically underscored by a large number of ancient 
mounds that represent settlements dating from prehistoric 
to medieval times. 

The Biblical record provides glimpses into the character 
and history of the Land of Gerar from the time that "they 
(the sons) of Ham (Egypt) dwelt there of old" (I Chron. 
4:39-40) through the invasion of Zerah the Ethiopian 
during the reign of Asa (II Chron. 14). Perhaps the most 
famous references to the region occur in the Patriarchal 
Narratives that recount the activities of Abraham and 
Isaac in the Land of Gerar Sojourning in the area, the 
Patriarchs found pasture for their flocks and dug wells for 
their sheep, though water rights became a subject of 
dispute between Isaac's herdsmen and herdsmen of Gerar 
Attesting to the fertility of the land. Genesis 26:12 reports 
that Isaac "sowed in that land and reaped in the same year 
a hundredfold." Both Abraham and Isaac made covenants 
with King Abimelech of the Land of Gerar, in the first 
instance after that king's designs on Sarah almost brought 
ruin upon him. In these and other references, the Land of 
Gerar is portrayed in the Bible as a rich and fertile region 
that figured prominently in the history of the Hebrews. 

Two components of the Land of Gerar Project are the 
excavation of a large Chalcolithic site on Nahal Gerar and 
the excavation of Tel Haror, the largest Bronze and Iron Age 

The Summer Program 

site in the region. The Chalcohthic site extends tor almost 
half a kilometer along Nahal Gerar and preserves important 
evidence for the beginning of urbanization and the 
development of early technologies. The Brandeis group 
Vk'as involved primarily v^fith Tel Haror (Tell Abu-Hureireh), 
a large (40 acres) and imposing site situated on the main 
road from Gaza to Beer Sheba. In one corner of the site a 
five acre fortified acropolis rises from the lower city; 
elsewhere Nahal Gerar winds around two sides of the site. 
The entire site is part of Ya'ar Sharsheret, a wooded 
recreation area. Surrounding fields are under cultivation, 
and the nahal (the river bed] itself is lush year round with 
heavy vegetation. Seeing the area around Tel Haror as green 
and fertile as it is, one can easily understand how the tribe 
of Simeon, when they entered the Land of Gerar to pasture 
their flocks. ". . . found rich pasture and good and the land 
was quiet and peaceful" (I Chron 4:39^0). Today, when the 
local Bedouin herd their flocks through the harvested 
fields, the scene from Tel Haror is much as it must have 
been over the millennia. 

The ancient name for Tel Haror has long been disputed by 
scholars. It has been suggested that it was the city of Gerar 
itself. If so, it would have been the dominant city in the 
area and the one from which that region of the Negev took 
its name. It is hoped that evidence will be revealed in the 
course of excavations to clarify the identification of the 
site. Whatever its ancient name, this important tel 
certainly played a critical role in the history of the area 
from the third through the first millennia B.C.E. 

The expedition was based at Ben Gurion University where 
housing, laboratories and classrooms were available to the 
project. In addition, the library, its archaeological 
exhibitions and other academic facilities were open to 
project participants. On the lighter side, the tennis courts 
were open into the evening, and the University swimming 
pool offered a very welcome relief from the heat of the day. 

The Brandeis group arrived July 19 for an orientation week 
that included a full day of lectures at Ben Gurion and a 
three-day archaeological tour. Sites near the Dead Sea were 
visited, most memorable Ein Gedi with its associations 
with King David and its Chalcohthic temple and Qumran, 
before arriving at Jericho, considered by some the most 
ancient city in the world. Jerusalem's wealth of 
archaeological sites were examined and an entire morning 
was devoted to the ongoing City of David Excavations. 
Professor Yigal Shiloh, director of the City of David 
Project, guided the group through all phases of his 
excavations and provided valuable insight into the past 
and present at his site. 

With the arrival of other volunteers from the United States 
and Britain July 25, a group of about sixty Israeli and 
foreign students, volunteers and staff was assembled to 
begin work July 26 at the two sites. On the first day of 
excavation, the schedule that would be followed for the 
entire four weeks of field work was established. Awakened 
at 3:45 am, the participants had first breakfast at the 
dormitories and left in a caravan of a jeep, a land rover, a 
bus and some private cars for the half-hour trip to the site. 
By 5 am, tools were distributed and work had begun. The 
heaviest physical work of the day was undertaken early to 
take advantage of the relative cool of the morning hours. 
After second breakfast at 9 am, the lighter and less 
demanding tasks could be accomplished. By 12:30 the 
group was heading back to the University for lunch and a 
siesta before late afternoon classes and other activities. 
Once a week the group went on a field trip to an 
archaeological site in the region. In the course of the 
season, Arad, Tel Sheba, Kornub and Tel Jemmeh were 
visited. By dinner time at 7 pm, most participants were 
ready for sleep, but some chose to join Ben Gurion student 
activities, to visit Beer Sheba's ice cream shops, or to play 

Before this summer only surface exploration of the site had 
taken place. Thus, when the summer's work began, the 
Brandeis group and other team members were the first to 
excavate the tel. On the first morning no one could help 
but feel awed by the monumental task that had been 
undertaken. Working with hand tools in only one corner of 
a very large site, a relatively small group of people was 
beginning the opening of an ancient city in the effort to lay 
bare successive phases of its history. The lessons of 
patience, diligence and hard work were learned early as 
first the weeds were cleared from the squares and then the 
remains of buildings and ancient material culture began to 

Efforts during the first season were directed at testing 
certain hypotheses about the site, ascertaining the extent 
and configuration of fortifications and the settlement and 
identifying periods of occupation. During the first week, 
three teams excavated on the bank of the nahal. in what 


was believed to be the lower city, and in the possible 
location of the main city gate. The remains of buildings 
dating to the Iron Age started to appear early in the lower 
city area. The first evidence consisted of a courtyard with a 
cooking installation and the remains of storage facilities. 
As the season progressed, this area produced further Iron 
Age features including mud-brick walls of buildings, a 
large grain silo, and a pit whose contents of iron slag and 
ash point to metal-working. Among the pottery unearthed 
were Philistine and other Iron Age pieces, including a 
beautifully preserved set of storage vessels. Located only 
inches below the surface, these vessels were discovered 
and single-handedly excavated by Andrew Sherman, '84. 

The team working on the bank of the nahal in conjunction 
with the expedition's geologist demonstrated that the 
steep angle (c. 30°) of the gorge appeared to be a natural 
formation. Thus, the ancient settlers of the site took 
advantage of the defensive potential of the nahal when 
establishing the city. This team, accustomed to working 
on such a problem, moved to the slope of the acropolis 
where their efforts revealed a monumental earth and stone 
glacis extending from the base of the acropolis to its top. In 
an excellent state of preservation, the glacis has parallels 
in a number of sites in the region and dates to the Middle 
Bronze Age (19th-17th centuries B.C.E.), according to the 
pottery evidence. 

After a week of excavation, the gate still eluded the 
excavators. This team left what they had dubbed "the 

ghost gate" and moved onto the acropolis itself. Again, 
very close to the surface, mud-brick began to appear Soon, 
over a four-square area, the features of a four meter wide 
mud-brick wall could be traced and extending towers 
could be discerned. Undoubtedly part of a fortification 
system, this massive structure reflects Assyrian Period 
building techniques as known from other sites. In other 
squares on the acropolis, the remains of courtyards and 
buildings could be seen by the end of the season. Pottery 
from the Iron Age III Period was abundant, as was material 
from the Middle Bronze Period, reflecting the earlier phase 
of occupation described by the glacis. 

The acropolis of Tel Haror has continued in significance 
long past antiquity. The tel takes its name in Arabic, Tell 
Abu-Hureireh, from Sheikh Abu-Hureireh whose tomb is 
located on one corner of the acropolis. A particularly holy 
man, Abu-Hureireh was believed to have had special 
powers of intercession with God. Even today. Bedouin 
families visit the tomb with a sacrificial animal to ask for 
Abu-Hureireh's help in sickness or difficulty. Many a 
Bedouin family walked through the excavations to the 
tomb, and some invited the teams to join in the sacrificial 
meal. Although the hospitality and welcome were 
appreciated, the teams declined politely. The tel was the 
site of warfare between the British and the Turks in World 
War I, and the remains of trenches and other reminders of 
that conflict turned up in the excavations. For years, the 
acropolis and the surrounding fields have been training 
grounds for Israeli helicopter pilots. The expedition was 
visited regularly by military helicopters practicing 
landings on the high ground of the site. On occasion, a 
curious young pilot would disembark to greet the teams 
and be offered refreshment from the water supplies. While 
the group worked to reveal the past, it was constantly 
reminded of the continuity of tradition as well as the 
realities of the present through the daily events at the tel. 

At the end of the season, the important sections of the site 
were covered with plastic sheets weighted with stones and 
a protective layer of earth, so as not to be lost before next 

This past summer marked the first season of cooperation 
between Brandeis and Ben Gurion University in the Land 
of Gerar Expedition. Brandeis students and others will be 
able to study archaeology and related fields in Israel in 
conjunction with this project at least for the next decade. 
It will take that long to even begin to reveal the extent and 
importance of Tel Haror and its environs. 

Musicals of the "Me Generation" 

by John Bush Jones 

John Bush Jones, lecturer with the rank of 
professor in the Department of Theater 
Arts, is a recognized expert on musical 
theater. A former theater critic for the 
Kansas City Star and the Boston Phoenix, 
Professor fones has taught theater arts 
courses and directed theatrical 
productions at Brandeis since 1978. 

"To fight for the right without 
question or pause. 

To be wiUing to march into hell for a 
heavenly cause!" 

These lines from "The Impossible 
Dream" — the most popular song from 
the musical Man of La Mancha — 
fairly define the spirit of the mid- 
1960s, and are an obvious product of 
the sixties' sensibilities. The idealism 
and other-directedness of that most 
idealistic and other-directed decade is 
the essence not just of this song but 
the entire show whose double plot 
recounts the imprisonment of Miguel 
de Cervantes and the adventures of 
his fictional would-be knight Don 
Quixote. The message of La Mancha 
is clear: see the world as better than it 
is and make it so. 

And the message that a Broadway 
musical in 1965 was making such a 
statement is equally clear: as one of 
the few indigenous American popular 
art forms, the musical (a better, more 
encompassing term than "musical 
comedy") not only caters to the taste 
but also often accurately reflects the 
prevailing social values and even 
psychological state of the American 
people. The sixties were years of 
causes — civil rights, the anti-Vietnam 
protest, the beginnings of the 
women's movement — and the 
orientation was toward the group, not 
the individual. It was a "can do" 

Photos by Martha Swope 

1^ decade, infused with the belief that if 
enough people joined together and 
pushed hard enough, they could turn 
the country's thinking and feeling 
around. By the early seventies, the 
minority voice had become the 
majority voice on most of the sixties' 
major issues, and accordingly, the 
mood of America shifted once again. 

Individuals began turning inward, 
introspection replacing altruism. And 
this not out of disillusionment with 
idealistic causes and efforts of the 
group, but because the causes and the 
groups had accomplished their aims 
almost too well. With no more team 
and no more game to play, everyone 
was an isolated entity again. People 
alone, no longer a part of group efforts, 
suddenly had the time to look at 
themselves by themselves. The 
coherence of cause-orientation gave 
way to fragmentation and a kind of 
inner-directed egocentricity. 

The effect on American musical 
theater — and it seems to be a direct 
one — of this shift in social orientation 
from the cause to the self was both 
immediate and staggering. Not only 
was there suddenly a whole new 
subject matter for musical plays, a 
whole new perspective to express, but 
the societal fragmentation even gave 
rise to a wholly revolutionary form or 
shape of music-drama in the 
commercial theatre. Traditionally, or 
at least since the Rodgers and 
Hammerstein breakthrough with 
Oklahoma! in 1943, most major 
musicals had depended on a strong 
plot, more or less plausible characters, 
and song and dance numbers growing 
logically from the story-line, the 
lyncs a natural extension of the 
spoken dialogue. (By contrast, the 
flimsy stories of the "formula 
musicals" of the twenties and thirties 
most often had been mere excuses for 
introducing songs destined for the Hit 
Parade and irrelevant routining by the 
leading comedians.) The so-called 
integrated musicals of the forties, 
fifties, and sixties most closely 
resemble conventional realistic 
drama, with the well-defined 
dramatic progression of exposition, 
complication, crisis, and resolution, 
plus the obvious, but closely-knit, 
addition of song and dance. 

As early as 1968, however, musicals 
with a whole new look and attitude 
began to appear, musicals that have 

been variously called "non-plot" 
musicals and "concept" musicals, but 
which more accurately and 
descriptively are best termed 
"fragmented" musicals. In these 
shows, a rudimentary plot may exist 
at almost a subliminal level, but the 
cause and effect story-telling of 
conventional plot construction gives 
way to action (as well as idea and 
point of view) driven forward instead 
by a series of disjunct scenes, 
vignettes, musical numbers, and 
visual and auditory images. The 
fragmented musical differs from the 
revue in that the latter, also a series of 

songs, dance routines, and dialogue 
sketches, is conceived primarily as 
pure entertainment (or perhaps with 
some gently satiric thrust, as in Julius 
Monk's "Upstairs at the Downstairs" 
revues), but the various numbers are 
otherwise unrelated except perhaps by 
association with a particular 
composer/performer {Ain 't 
Misbehavin'], social and musical 
milieu [Bubbling Brown Sugar), or 
mode of performance [Dancin']. 

Fragmented musicals may also lack 
(or de-emphasize) a story, but they 
contain fully developed characters 
and focus sharply on a central 
thematic statement in their 
progressions of seemingly random, 
discrete songs and scenes. That theme 
is invariably personal, an inward- 
turning look at individual psychology, 
as opposed to the outward-turning 
social and goal-directed musicals of 
the sixties and before. In this sense, 
the fragmented musical's correlation 
with the shifting social phenomenon 
of the seventies is patently evident. 
As Americans turned into 
themselves, as the group splintered 
into isolated — often alienated — 
individuals, so was this expressed in 
the thought and the very form of the 
major musicals of the decade. 

It all started in 1968 with Hair, billed 
as "The American Tribal Love-Rock 
Musical." Professing to describe and 
extol the virtues of the anti- 
establishment, counter-cultural 
movement of the decade's 
communally-centered "hippies" and 
"flower children," Hair was the first 
important musical to break with the 
conventions of traditional dramatic 
form in favor of the fragmented, 
episodic structure just described. 
Scenes and songs crashed together in 
what looked like a haphazard, almost 
psychedelic sequence, each one 
revealing some aspect of the life-style 
and motivations of "The Tribe," as the 
show's youthful personages are 
collectively called. The significance, 
commitment, and euphoria of such 
shared experiences as draft resistance, 
social protest, group love, and tripping 
on drugs were celebrated in an effort 
to educate Hair's essentially middle- 
class audience to the essence of the 
hippie counter-culture. 

And yet, though Hair was deliberately 
a poem in praise of the communal 
way of life, questioning self-doubt and 
criticism crept into the script and 
songs. Here were planted the very 
seeds of the self-centered "Me 
Generation" of the seventies and the 
musicals born of that movement 
toward personal self-reevaluation. At 
one point one of the main characters. 
Sheila, laments Berger's indifference 
towards her, asking, 

How can people be so heartless 

Especially people who care 

About strangers 

Who care about evil and 

Social injustice. 

Do you only care about 

The bleeding crowd? 

How about a needing friend? 

And Claude, confused about whether 
to evade the draft, sings: 

Where do I go 
Follow my heartbeat 
Where do I go, 
Follow my hand 

Where will they lead me, 
And will I ever 
Discover why 
I live and die? 

In these words of Sheila and Claude 
are the two central outcries of the Me 
Generation. The first affirms a 
position of "Hey, look at me — I may 
not be the masses who are the object 
of your enormous social causes, just a 
paltry individual, but / count too. Pay 
attention to me!" The second, less 
secure, asks, "Who am I? Where am I 
going? What do I mean-." The 
individual, with his personal doubts 
or personal assertion of worth, has 
split from the group, and with the 
very first year of the decade of the 
seventies, Broadway's major musicals 
began to convey one or both of these 
attitudes both as their core concern 
and through their fragmented, 
introspective structure. 

In 1970, George Furth and Stephen 
Sondheim's Company dramatized the 
quandry of Robert, a 35-year-old New 
York City bachelor asking himself a 
single, simple question: whether or 
not to marry. His answer vacillates as 
he observes the five married couples 
who are his closest friends and 
interacts with the three women who 
are his more or less casual lovers. By 
the end of two acts containing 
numerous disconnected scenes, the 
order of which could be endlessly 
rearranged with little material effect 
on the story, Bobby is right where he 
started: he has come to no decision. 
Like its protagonist's mind-set, the 
structure of the musical and each of 
its scenes is completely open-ended. 
As Furth and Sondheim probe the 
psychology of Bobby and company, 
their theme is ambivalence, their 
method dramatic ambiguity and 
paradox. Questions are asked, none 
answered. Every song reveals a duality 
in the minds of the characters singing 
them, as they query the validity of the 
lives they lead and the choices they 
have made or are trying to make. 
When Bobby asks one of the 
husbands, "Harry, are you ever sorry 
you got married," his reply begins: 

You're always sorry, 

You're always grateful 

You're always wondering what might 

have been 

Then she walks in. 

And still you're sorry 

And still you're grateful 

And still you wonder and still you 


And she goes out. 

Typical of the entire show, each 
polarity in this lyric is perfectly 
balanced; nothing is ever resolved. 

That the emphasis of Company is not 
on a plot but on the workings of 
individual psychology is borne out by 
the interpretation given to the play's 
overall framework by its Broadway 
director, Harold Prince. Each act opens 
and closes with a surprise birthday 
party for Robert. Are these different 
parties? Do the show's disparate 
vignettes span a period of four years of 
forward-moving action? No, says. 
Prince, they are all the same party, and 
the gathering of friends triggers 
Robert's instantaneous thoughts on 
the choice to marry or not. Thus, the 
entire two-and-a-half hour fragmented 
musical takes place inside Bobby's 
head in what would be only a few 
moments of "real" time. 

While its episodic action does move 
forward in time, Stephen Schwartz's 
Pippin (1972) is thematically akin to 
Company. It, too, is a Me Generation 
musical of the questioning variety, at 
its center a hopelessly lost soul trying 
to find itself. A musical which, save 
for Bob Fosse's dazzling choreography, 
is remarkable in its triviality. Pippin 
recounts the fabricated adventures of 
Charlemagne's young son trying to 
figure out what to do with his life. 
Through two acts, he flounders 
around in war, diplomacy, hedonistic 
sensuality, and romantic love in an 
effort to discover where he belongs: 

Rivers belong where they can ramble, 
Eagles belong where they can fly, 
I've got to be where my spirit can run 
free — 
Got to find my comer of the sky. 

By the end, romantic love — too 
patly — has the leading edge as a 
solution to personal fulfillment, but 
as in Company, more questions are 
asked than answers given. The 
interest, of course, lies not in this 
historical Pippin, Son of 
Charlemagne, but in Schwartz's 
Pippin, latter-day Everyman of the Me 
Generation, an alienated individual 
looking for identity and belonging. 

In other fragmented musicals, the 
characters know who they are, and 
their chief business is to let us know 
they know and force us to be 
cognizant of them as people. The Me 
Nobody Knows (1970)— even the title 


19 is telling — makes a strong assertion of 
individual dignity among the least 
advantaged. Based on writings by 
children in Harlem and Bedford- 
Stuyvesant, this musical asks the 
audience to look beneath the 
impersonal social issues and see some 
of the actual personalities wfho just 
happen to be members of those groups 
of blacks, hispanics, or poor whites 
that en masse are the objects of our 
liberal causes. "Don't lose me in the 
crowd," the show seems to say, as it 
presents through song and monologue 
the inner feelings, fears, and hopes of 
these ghetto kids; and, quite 
realistically, not all the kids' thoughts 
are admirable. Along with pride and 
anticipation of betterment, they 
express anger, selfishness, hostility. 
Typical are the opening lines of the 
first act finale, as the children dream 
of money; 

If I, if I had a million, million dollars. 

Tell you what I'd do 

I wouldn't take no more bullshit from 


Not from the Man, and not from you! 

Yet they conclude with, "I wouldn't be 
nobody better than me." They aren't 
seeking to be different, only to be 
understood as individual human 
beings, not as the faceless 
components of ethnic groups, or, 
worse yet, stereotypes. 

In 1978, Elizabeth Swados attempted 
to clone The Me Nobody Knows in 
her musical paean to New York's 
street kids. Runaways. Too didactic 
(it's all the parents' fault that kids go 
bad and run) and too maudlinly 
sentimental about the plight of the 
runaways, the show lacks the 
toughminded objectivity, though 
following the same fragmented format 
of monologue and song, of its spiritual 
progenitor. It is less successful both as 
statement and as theater. 

Eminently successful is the first of 
the Me Generation musicals to 
combine introspective questions with 
assertions of self-worth in a single 
show — Michael Bennett, Edward 
Kleban, Marvin Hamlisch, fames 
Kirkwood, and Nicholas Dante's A 
Chorus Line (1975). Though it has a 
stronger story-line than the other 
fragmented musicals, the plot is the 
least interesting thing about the play. 
Yes, there is some suspense about 
which eight aspiring dancers will be 

cast in the show whose audition is the 
single setting of this musical, and we 
are made to care somewhat about who 
is finally chosen. But we are made to 
care not through seeing the characters 
interact in a conventional story, but 
through the psychological probing of 
their backgrounds and motivations 
as dancers, while Zack the 
choreographer puts each "gypsy" 
(Broadway chorus dancer) through a 
rigorous interview and audition. 
These separate scenes pointedly 
reveal the dancers' self-knowledge, 
self-esteem, and self-doubts. They 
question the relationship between 
their public and private selves: "Who 
am I, anyway? Am I my resume? Am I 
the picture of a person I don't know?" 
They know and proclaim their 
abilities: "I can do that!" Some realize 
they dance to escape broken personal 
lives: "Everything is beautiful at the 
ballet. You raise your arms and 
someone's always there." And all 
recognize that dancing, though central 
to their entire life, is a transitory thing 
that must someday be given up or 
passed on to new youthful aspirants: 

Look, my eyes are dry. 
The gift was ours to borrow. 
It's as if we always knew 
And I won't forget 
What I did for love. 

In all, A Chorus Line remains the best 
expression of both self-affirmation 
and self-examination in a single 
fragmented musical. 

Running a close second is the 
"documentary musical" Working, 
adapted by Stephen Schwartz from 
Studs Terkel's book of the same name 
and written by five other composers 
and lyricists. Again a series of 
unconnected songs and speeches, 
Working celebrates the often- 
overlooked human beings who 
comprise America's work-force, not so 
much the professionals, but the little 
people — the firemen, construction 
workers, waitresses, newsboys, 
truckers, housewives — whose 
individuality is too often lost when all 
we see is the result of their work. 
Many of the characters complain of 
tedious jobs or wonder what else they 
might have been, but throughout 
there is an undercurrent of pride ("It's 
an art, it's an art to be a fine 
waitress. To see that you pleasure each 
guest."). Overall, Working celebrates 
the dignity of work and the worth of 

the people who do it. Once again the 
focus is on psychology, not plot (there 
is none), and the inner workings of 
individuals, even in the group 
activities of labor. 

Working was the last of the 
fragmented, ego-centered musicals of 
the Me Generation, and as the 
seventies ended and the eighties 
began, Americans, and the American 
musical theater started to reach once 
again for a more firm sense of 
structure both in life and art. 

Yet the fragmented musicals had had 
their effect. The potential of musical 
theater to turn inward, to explore the 
complexities of the human psyche, 
had been realized. The plots of 
Stephen Sondheim and Hugh 
Wheeler's Sweeney Todd (1979) and 
William Finn's March of the Falsettos 
(1981) are conventional in their 
structure and powerful in their 
impact, but within each the emphasis 
is on the psychology of the central 
character: Todd's growing dementia as 
he seeks revenge for his wronged wife 
and life, Marvin's (in Falsettos) very 
contemporary confusion over his 
sexual identity and the role 
expectations he has for his ex-wife 
and present lover. The shape of the 
fragmented musical may have passed 
on with the passing of the Me 
Generation's feelings of 
fragmentation, but the content of 
these musicals showed the way for 
composers, playwrights, and lyricists 
to effectively incorporate and portray 
the depths of human thought in all its 
complexity in their writing of musical 
productions — whatever the form. 

Introducing the 
Class of '86 

It happens every year, during 
those last balmy days of 
summer; first in a trickle, 
then in full flow, freshmen 
flock to universities. Last 
August, the scene at 
Brandeis was no different 
from that at other college 

Past the signs welcoming the 
Class of '86, carload after 
carload inched its way 
toward the clusters of 
dormitories and toward the 
college experiences which 
awaited the new arrivals. 

For some, arriving meant 
gathering a first-time view 
of the campus. For others, a 
prior visit had provided a 
modicum of familiarity. 

At scattered points around 
campus, tearful goodbyes 
were exchanged as parents, 
having reassured themselves 
of their child's safe-keeping, 
prepared for the homeward 

Suddenly left on their own 
to fend for themselves, the 
young men and women 
registered mixed emotions at 
the prospect. 

For some first-year students, 
the social situation felt 
awkward and fnghtemng, 
and thoughts of classes 
brought even greater waves 
of anxiety. For others, 
orientation week was fun- 
filled and fancy-free, a time 
to acquaint themselves with 
new faces and unexplored 

Inside the dormitories, first- 
year students were busy 
settling in: unpacking 
trunks and deciding just how 
the room could best be 
arranged; meeting 
roommates and neighbors, 
and staying up half the night 
getting to know them. 

But more than the nights 
were long. An extensive 
daytime program of 
orientation activities kept 
incoming students absorbed 
and amused, as they learned 
about the University 
through meetings and social 

Marking the formal 
beginning of the freshman 
year was the Freshmen 
Convocation — the first in 
Brandeis' history — whose 
participants included 
President Marver H. 
Bernstein, Attila O. Klein, 
dean of the college, and 
academic advisors from a 
wide range of departments. 
Principal speaker was 
Stephen J. Whitfield, 
associate professor of 
American studies. 

Students taking up residence 
in the newly renovated 
dormitories met with 
residence hall staff to discuss 
dorm life and its governing 

Academic advising, special 
counseling for foreign 
students, discussions of 
financial aid and athletic 
team meetings were only a 
few of the activities vying 
for time in a freshman's busy 

A student activities fair 
enabled incoming students 
to meet representatives from 
many of the over-90 student 

Those who hadn't had 
enough running around 
during the day were invited 
to discover their favorite 
running route during daily 
afternoon exploratory jogs. 

In the early evening hours, 
rollerskating, campfiie sings, 
and non-competitive games 
provided an easy, relaxed 
atmosphere in which to 
make new friends. 

And there were planned 
events off-campus as well. 
Students headed to 
Cambridge, en route to a 
venerable Boston 
institution: Steve's Ice 

That flavorful treat was 
followed by still others: 
movies, lectures, chamber 
music concerts, and a 
campus-wide dance party. 

All of which could leave the 
Class of '86 in only one of 
two places: either utterly 


exhausted or anxiously 
awaiting its first year of 
college. That year began 
with the first day of classes 
September 7. 

Of the 731 members ot the 
freshman class, 78 percent 
entered Brandeis from public 
high schools, 22 percent 
from private schools. Eighty- 
three percent of the class 
graduated in the top quintile 
of their high school class. 
Median SAT scores were well 
above the national average, 
confirming the high 
academic caliber of 
incoming students. The 
freshman class, 44 percent of 
whom are receiving financial 
aid, comes to Brandeis from 
33 states, Puerto Rico, and 
the District of Columbia, as 
well as from 16 foreign 

Among the Class of '86: 

A son of an alumna who 
won the Blue Ridge 
Conference and Maryland 
Under 20 foil championships. 

A young man who finished 
second in the Permsylvania 
State Junior Bowling 

A young woman, also an 
alumni child, who has been 
a professional dancer since 
age 1 1 . She has performed 
with the New York City 
Ballet and the American 
Ballet Theater II. 

A young man from 
Kwajalein, one of the 
Marshall Islands (3 miles 
long and Vi mile wide). 

A young violinist who has 
played with the Greater 
Boston Youth Symphony, the 
N.E. Conservatory and 
traveled and performed in 
Pans, Bogota and at 

A young woman who was a 
National Council of 
Teachers of English Award 

A young man, an actor, a 
wrestler, a soccer player, who 
holds a brown belt in Tae- 
Kwon-Do and whose mother 
is the new president of the 
Brandeis Alumni 

A young woman who lives 
on a horse farm in Orono, 

A young woman from the 
Bronx who spent a summer 
working on an Indian 
reservation in South Dakota. 

A congressional page who 
was on the basketball team 
and was editor of the 
newspaper at the Capitol 
Page School. 

A young man who speaks 
seven languages. 

A young woman who is a 
competitive roUerskater and 
hopes to be in the National 
Rollerdance Championships. 

A young woman who is one 
of ten in her family. 

A young man whose father 
works for the U.N. and both 
of whose parents served as 
Peace Corps volunteers at 
one time. The young man 
has lived half his life in 
Chile and Pakistan. 

A young woman 
photographer who won first 
prize in a Seventeen 
magazine competition. 

A young man from Eugene, 
Oregon, who was a junior 
Olympic qualifier in fencing 

An oboe player who won 1st 
prize in an international 

A gold medal winner with 
the U.S. Figure Skating 

A student body president 
from Hawaii. 

A young man who lives 
deep in the Appalachian 
Mountains, where the 
nearest town is 22 miles 

Yiddish Holocaust 

Translated by 

In the Warsaw Ghetto, in the forests 
of White Russia, in the death camps 
of Auschwitz and TrebUnka, Jews 
trapped in the stranglehold of Nazi 
atrocities expressed, in poetry and 
song, their hopes and their despair, 
their laughter and their sorrow. 

A selection of those Yiddish writings, 
along with English translation, was 
compiled in 1979-80 by six students 
of Yiddish Literature at Brandeis. With 
the editorial assistance of Joshua 
Rothenberg, then associate professor 
of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, 
this collection of translated poems 
has recently been published by the 
Department of Near Eastern and 
Judaic Studies under the title. And 
They Will Call Me 

Feeling a responsibility to use their 
fluency in Yiddish and their 
knowledge of Yiddish literature in a 
meaningful way, the students sought 
an undertaking which would be both 
unique and scholastically valuable. 
The participants included then 
undergraduate students Ronald 
Buchholz of Maiden, Massachusetts 
and Nancy Wiener of Hollywood, 
Florida and sophomore David Maisel 
of Wellesley, Massachusetts. Graduate 
students in Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies involved in the project 
included Sharon Green of Willowdale, 
Ontario, Michael Steinlauf of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts and Zvika 
Schoenburg of San Diego, California. 

The anthology is divided into four 
sections and includes poetry from 
several sources. In the first three 
sections are poems authored by men 
and women in the ghettos, in the 
death camps and among the armed 
resistance fighters. The poems were 
written both by survivors of the war 
and by people who perished in the 
concentration camps. A substantial 
portion of these poems was gathered 
by Yiddish writer and partisan fighter 
Shmerke Kacherginsky immediately 
following the war. In some instances 
they were obtained directly from 
people still waiting in the Displaced 
Persons Camps. The final section of 
poems contains the works of 
recognized Yiddish poets written after 
the war. 

In deciding which poems to include in 
the collection, the students placed 
more importance on achieving a cross- 
section of responses and emotions 
than on the poetic value of an 
individual piece. While the scope of 
the publication is necessarily limited. 
Professor Rothenberg and his students 
believe their collection of poems is a 
valuable source for studying and 
understanding the horrifying 
destruction of six million Jews. 

"The victims of the Holocaust did not 
leave written wills, but from the 
scribbled messages on the walls of the 
chambers of death and from what they 
told those who survived, we know 
that their unwritten will was 
'Remember Us, Remember What We 
Did And What Was Done To Us.' 
Handing down to us their thoughts, 
feelings and emotions expressed in 
poetry is part of that testament," 
Professor Rothenberg explains. 

The six students endeavored to 
provide as full a picture as possible of 
the responses to the Holocaust. There 
had been different experiences during 
those years — for Jews in the ghettos, 
in the camps, in factories, for those 
hiding with Christian families. Just as 
there was a full range of experiences, 
so also was there a full range of 
responses. Even laughter in the 
shadow of death. 

Speaking on behalf of the student 
translators, Michael Steinlauf notes 
that the wide range of human 
responses reflected in these poems 
belies the stereotypical notions often 
associated with Jews of this tragic 
period. The image of the passive 
victim as well as that of the 
uncompromising rebel partisan, he 
claims, are merely the extremes of a 
continuum which comprised millions 
who, with fear and defiance, anger and 
faith, sought to answer a single 
question: Why? 

Historical documentation of the 
period, vital as it is, is not enough, 
Professor Rothenberg contends. He 
maintains that these poems — 
themselves a valuable form of 
documentation — afford us small but 
important glimpses into the lives of 
ordinary Jews, struggling to survive, 
and make sense of, the madness 
threatening to engulf them. 

The meaning behind the collection's 
title is made clear in the anthology's 
Introduction when the six translators 
ask; "These voices call to us out of 
the silence of a murdered world — can 
we hear them?" 

But, they go on to state, ". . . if, for the 
English reader, the tiniest bit of life 
stirs out of the silence, all our efforts 
will have been worthwhile." 


And They Will Call Me . . . 

is available through the Department of 

Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, 

Brandeis University, 

Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 

or by phoning 617-647-2647. 

Price; $6.00 plus $1.25 postage & 

Poems reprinted with permission of 

The Little Smuggler 



Henryka Lazowert 

Aaron Zeitlin 

Author Unknown 

23 Through walls, through holes, through 

Through wire there's a way too. 
Barefoot, hungry and thirsty. 
Like a snake I slither through. 

At noon, at night, or at sunrise. 
In terrible heat or rain. 
You cannot begrudge me my profit, 
I wager my neck for my gain. 

I carry a sack on my shoulders. 
No end to the road is in sight, 
I drag in my arms a bundle. 
And look all around me in fright. 

I put aside my worries, 

Poverty, pain and need, 

I must remember tomorrow 

My mother needs something to eat. 

Through holes, through bricks, 
through walls. 

At dawn, or at noon, or at night 
One day I'll be lost, I am certain. 
An end will come to my plight. 

They'll discover me then and chase 


Hurt me with whips and with blows. 

Lock up, torture and beat me. 

No more of my life and its woes. 

I won't be returning to see you; 
Mother, alone you remain. 
Quickly the street will swallow 
Your child's, your dear one's scream. 

There's one thing that makes me 


Not poverty, pain or need, 

But tomorrow, dear mother, who'll 

bring you 

That piece of bread to eat? 

Translated from Polish into Yiddish: 
A. Zeilony 

He looked as though he could pass, 
So he crossed to the Aryan side. 
Became an old Polish beggar. 

The long-whiskered beggar stands 

next to the church 

And guards every move. 

He fixes his Jewish eyes 

On the ground. 

Sticks out a hand to beg, 

And murmurs with pious emotion: 

"May Jesus 

Christ be praised." 

But once it slips his mind 

That he's a goy. 

And instead of the murmur he lets out 

A Jewish oy. 

A pious Christian woman hears, 

Repeats it for the German's ears. 

The Germans then shot the old 


But the oy got away, long wandered 


Till into my verse 

About the Jew 

Who hid as an old Polish beggar. 

Warsaw, Warsaw, mother city, 
Walls splashed with blood 
Does God not see your wounds? 
The corpses at the gates? 

Cannon in Krashinski Square 
Fire on Ghetto homes . . . 
Has the God of old betrayed 
David and Solomon's kin? 

A host of Samsons and Deborahs rise 

against the foe . . . 

Better that I fall today 

And future generations sanctify . . . 

(Written during the 
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 
April-June, 1943) 

Lekhayim With Death 

Helena Green 
Yanove Death Camp 

We sit at the foot of the sand heap 
And drink lekhayim with death 
We laugh at nations' great yikhes. 
And work as on Khol ha-moed. 

We've already lost our close ones 
We press their pictures to our breasts. 
We live as if we're bom over 
As only a camp inmate can. 

We drink with death "to life," 
And snack on the moldy bread 
We count days of Omer till freedom 
By the fence with the locked-up gate. 

Before the war. Henryka Lazowert was a 
Polish writer with little interest in lews. 
When, however, as a few, she was 
imprisoned in the Warsaw Ghetto, she 
decided to dedicate all her literary talent 
to writing about the Ghetto. Believing 
that lews were being deported to work, 
and hoping to write reports about camp 
conditions, she allowed the Germans to 
take her to Treblinka, turning down the 
opportunity to escape to her Polish 
husband on the Aryan side of Warsaw. 
She was murdered in Treblinka along 
with her mother. 

Aaron Zeitlin was born m 1889 and raised 
in Warsaw. He came to the United States 
as a tourist in the summer of 1939, and 
was unable to return to Poland when war 
broke out. His entire family remained in 
Poland and perished in the war. Zeitlin 
died in New York City in 1973. 

Helena Green perished in the Yanove 


Status based on lineage, here suggesting 

the notion of racial superiority. 

Khol ha-moed 

The intervening days in the feasts of 

Passover and Sukkes. In Eastern Europe, 

Khol ha-moed was a holiday for fewish 

artisans, and a semi-work day for most 

other lews. 

Days of Omer 

The 49 days between the second day of 
Passover and the beginning of Shevues; in 
fewish tradition it is a period of mourning. 

Alumni Profile: 


a la Rena Blumberg '56 

Rena Blumberg is alive. 
Of all the qualities that define and 
describe this dynamic, ambitious, 
brash, bubbling, loquacious, 
successful Cleveland radio 
personality, mother, feminist, civic 
leader, Brandeis trustee and, now, 
author, that simple reality is in some 
ways the most compelling fact you 
need to know about the 1956 Brandeis 
graduate. But, she's more than alive. 
She's well. Five years after being told 
cancerous cells had declared war on 
her body, five years after having her 
left breast removed and three years 
after undergoing an aggressive 24- 
month chemotherapy program that 
caused her to gain more than 50 
pounds, caused her hair to fall out, 
and caused her to become so sick she 
once soiled her dress at a party, this 
never-say-die woman is well. Whole. 
And in charge again. 

"You know," she says, "I could have 
written a nice polite book about my 
experience with chemotherapy. But it 
wouldn't have helped anyone at all. So 
I decided to tell the truth, to tell 
people what someone really goes 
through during chemotherapy." 

Her book, a sometimes painfully 
candid account of her mortal combat 
with the awful disease and its awful 
"cure," is called Headstrong: A Story 
of Conquests &. Celebrations . . . 
Living Through Chemotherapy. 
Published October 29 by Crown, 
Headstrong — her father's description 
of her — is a story that will hit home 
not only to the one out of 13 women 
in America who develops breast 
cancer and the other 12 who dread it, 
but also to untold numbers of men 
who have undergone chemotherapy 
for various cancers. Moreover, in the 
final analysis, the book's message of 
hope and success and its sensitivity 
to human feeling, will recommend it 
to a much wider audience — all the 
healthy men and women who want 
to assume better control of their 
own lives. 

About to embark on a 30-city tour to 
promote her book — Rena Blumberg 
never does anything in a small way — 
this neon lady, as she calls herself, 
seems uncharacteristically taken 
aback when an interviewer comments 
on her willingness to reveal things in 
her book most people, even most 

cancer patients, would be reluctant to 
expose to public view. 

'That's been the story of my life," says 
Rena Blumberg, an unabashed people- 
lover who doesn't mind being the 
center of attention. "I'm willing to 
take a risk if it will help someone 
else. I won't take a risk to ski or to fall 
off a mountain, but I will always take 
a risk with ideas. What I'm doing in 
the book is getting inside someone's 
mind and soul and saying, 'I will 
comfort you because I've been there. 
And if I can give you more peace and 
help you enhance the days you're 
living by sharing my story, I'm willing 
to take the risk to help.'" 

Rena Blumberg's "story" actually 
begins 47 years ago in Cleveland, 
Ohio, where she was bom into what 
she describes as a "very warm, very 
secure, upper middle-class home." Her 
father, Ezra Shapiro, who died in 1977, 
was a prominent lawyer, one-time 
assistant mayor, and founder of the 
American Jewish League for Israel. 
Her mother, Sylvia, now lives in Israel 
where she is chairperson of the 
Hadassah Council. 

Both parents set exceptionally high 
standards for their daughter and 
younger son. "I grew up in the school 
of criticism," Rena Blumberg once 
told an interviewer If she received an 
A minus in school, her parents 
wanted to know why it wasn't an A. 
Her childhood was also marred by a 
mastoid infection which left her 
thin — a condition her parents coped 
with by fattening her up on bread and 
entering her in eating contests. There 
were psychological scars, Rena 
Blumberg concedes. 

"But you have to remember, my 
parents were parents of the 1950s and 
I was a child of that era. You did what 
you were expected to do." 

So partly because it was expected of 
her and partly because "I wanted a 
young school that I could grow and 
expand with," Rena Blumberg enrolled 
at Brandeis. "That was in 1952 — 30 
years ago — and I still have pictures of 
Dr (AbramI Sachar's house where I 
went as a freshman wearing white 
gloves, a hat, and a crinoline skirt. A 
crinoline skirt, imagine!" 


25 If Rena Blumberg was "the ultimate 
child of the '50s who never, ever 
questioned authority," as a student at 
Brandeis she questioned ideas. "I 
remember one time Dr Albert Kinsey, 
the sex researcher, came to the 
University from New York to speak to 
us and how we vigorously cross- 
examined him and challenged his 
ideas. That was why Brandeis was so 
good for me. It was — and still is — a 
place where the mind and intellect 
can be challenged to the fullest." 

Once at Brandeis, Rena Blumberg 
initially majored in psychology. "My 
God, all of us wanted to be 
psychologists because Abraham 
Maslow taught psychology," she 
explains. Later, after being challenged 
by the ideas of Nahum Glatzer and 
Simon Rawidowicz, Rena Blumberg 
switched her concentration to Near 
Eastern and Judaic Studies. 

"But I really did liberal arts the way 
you're supposed to. I took a course on 
the 1920s by a man named Merrill 
Peterson. He was terrific. I took 
wonderful courses in bio-science — 
hey, maybe I should have been a 
doctor. I took all sorts of courses, and 
it was this liberal arts training that 
has turned out to be the tool I needed 
as a radio interviewer. When I talk to 
authors, medical people or people in 
the arts, it's the little unknown bits 
and pieces of knowledge I possess that 
have always been my ace in the hole. 
It's put me ahead of others, I know 

At the end of her junior year, Rena 
Blumberg married. "That's what most 
good girls of the '50s did, you know. 
You got engaged and married and you 
quickly retired to have children." 

And then you lived happily ever after. 
At least in the storybooks, anyway. 

Not Rena Blumberg, who graduated 
cum laude and quickly fulfilled one 
part of the romantic mythology by 
giving birth to a daughter and then a 
son. But on the eve of her 28th 
birthday, after having just returned 
from a dinner at her parents' 
apartment, Rena Blumberg's husband 
calmly informed her in their kitchen 
that he wanted a divorce. 

"Just like that. No scene, no huge 
argument. Just a simple 
announcement," recalls Rena 
Blumberg, who was hurt, embarassed 
and, finally, frightened by the prospect 
of living with her children, alone. 

The divorce was a serious blow to 
Rena Blumberg's self-esteem, but she 
never came to terms with what had 
gone wrong with her marriage. "In 
self-defense, I began to sublimate the 
pain, and this got me through the 
immediate trauma. In my mind, I just 
denied it ever happened." 

Less than a year later, in 1963, she 
met Michael Blumberg on a blind 
date. Within a year, she and the 
electronics executive were married. 
The parents of a 13-year-old boy, they 
still are. Happily. 

For Rena Blumberg, the world was 
turned right side up again. She was, 
once more, in control. But in the fall 
of 1966, she almost deprived cancer of 
the chance to kill her. While driving 
home only hours after a long airplane 
flight — "I must have been suffering 
badly from jet lag" — she passed out at 
the wheel and her car slammed into a 
utility pole. The top of her skull was 
nearly severed and the old-fashioned 
horn of her car tore away the skin and 
exposed her jawbone and carotid 

The only reason she didn't bleed to 
death on the highway was because a 
surgeon who had witnessed the 
accident bound up her wounds and 
rushed her to the hospital. Now she 
had some physical scars to 
complement her emotional ones. But 
she was alive. And, as she did 
following her divorce, she threw 
herself into more civic activities, this 
time to pretend her physical 
appearance had not changed. Later, 
she had plastic surgery performed on 
her face and forehead. 

In 1972, quite by chance, Rena 
Blumberg found a full-time career at 
age 37. A friend at a party told her 
that because it was license renewal 
time, a radio station in Cleveland 
WIXY-AM/WDOK-FM— now part of 
the Gannett Broadcasting Group — 
needed a community affairs director 
to beef up its public service 

"I'm sure the general manager who 
hired me thought it wouldn't be a 
permanent arrangement and that once 
the license renewal inspections were 
over I could be let go," Rena Blumberg 
laughs. He obviously didn't know her. 
Using the many contacts she had 
made volunteering, she quickly 
improved programming and expanded 
the scope of the job. Then she found a 
mentor and soaked up as much about 
radio broadcasting as she could. 

Today, Rena Blumberg hosts 
"Conversations with Rena," a highly 
regarded one-hour interview show 
that airs every Sunday, and a series of 
shorter, pre-recorded shows during the 
week. An executive who speaks 
frequently before civic, philanthropic 
and non-profit groups, Rena Blumberg 
has been honored many times by her 
peers. These include four consecutive 
Twyla M. Conway Awards for Public 
Affairs Programming from the Radio- 
Television Council of Greater 
Cleveland, the 1981 Matrix Award for 
Women in Communications and 
UPI's Newsleader Award for Best 
Public Service Program in 1982. 

Then there are the awards Rena 
Blumberg would rather not have won. 
Not that she isn't proud of being the 
recipient of the American Cancer 
Society Ohio Division's "Courage 
Award" earlier this year or its Media 
Award the last four years. "I cherish 
all my awards," she says, "but it's 
these awards that remind me I had 
been stricken with cancer." 

It happened literally when she wasn't 

"During a routine check-up and 
mammogram in 1975, a radiologist 
found three spots on my left breast. 
After a re-examination confirmed his 
first appraisal, I had a lumpectomy to 
surgically remove the growths." 

Her doctor said she was fine. But Rena 
Blumberg disagreed. "I expected a few 
tiny scars," she says. "What I got 
shocked and disgusted me. The shape 
of the breast had changed. Even the 
nipple was in the wrong place." 

Rena Blumberg — like so many women 
who have gone through similar 
operations — felt mutilated. But, like 
so many times before, she didn't 
assess the psychological damage this 
other scar had caused. Instead, she 
threw herself into her work even more 
fiercely, playing a leading role in 
organizing the Cleveland Congress of 
International Women's Year. 

"Betty Ford was the guest at the 
opening session and when she started 
down the receiving line toward me I 
didn't look her straight in the eye," 
Rena Blumberg says. " I just stared 
straight at her chest, trying to decide 
which was the real breast and which 
was the prosthesis." 

She guessed wrong. 

Two years later — several months after 
her father had died — Rena Blumberg 
was told she, too, would have to 
undergo a mastectomy. 

"Ever since my lumpectomy, I had 
never once examined my left breast. I 
had a horror of touching it, let alone 
looking at it," she admits. Not even 
all her knowledge about breast cancer, 
gleaned from radio shows she had 
done on the subject following her own 
lumpectomy, had galvanized her to 
examine herself. Again, Rena 
Blumberg had been the "super denier." 

Faced with breast cancer — and the 
grim possibility that she might soon 
be dead — Rena Blumberg prepared for 
her surgery by making lists, taping her 
radio shows and throwing another of 
her legendary parties. But just before 
her operation, something she 
describes as "an unexplained force" 
took control of her body. "I couldn't 
feel it. I couldn't see it. But it was 
there, and I thought that the more I 
fought it, the better my chances for 

At that moment, Rena Blumberg took 
control again. No words of farewell to 
her family. No last will and 
testament. No goodbyes of any kind. 
"I just decided right there and then 
that I didn't need to do any of that 
because I wasn't going to die. 
Dammit, I wasn't." 

How she survived is told in her book. 
But it is the "why" that most intrigues 
Rena Blumberg. She believes it was 
her "patterns for living," a recipe she 
feels everyone — not just cancer 
patients — must develop and nurture. 
Near the book's end, she details these 
life-affirming prescriptions: encourage 
intimate relationships, create intense 
friendships — a "family of choice," 
learn to effectively manage stress (she 
practices hypnotherapy daily), 
volunteer time and commitment to 
others, keep a good personal 
appearance (how you look reveals how 
you feel about yourself) and laugh at 

Today, having shed the 50 pounds she 
gained during chemotherapy, Rena 
Blumberg doesn't just laugh at life. 
She celebrates it. "That's the real 
secret I want people to know. Live life 
as a celebration. Never take it for 
granted. Relish the gift of it, the glory 
of it. That's the secret to survival — for 
all of us." 

So, celebrate she does — Mozart's 
birthday, the change of seasons, 
anything will do. She also celebrates 
the joy of her daughter, Catharyn, a 
1979 Brandeis graduate who is 
coordinator of contract development 
for the Cambridge (Massachusetts) 
Hospital Department of Psychiatry. 
She celebrates her son, David, a 
corporate intern with Merrill Lynch 
Pierce Fenner & Smith. She celebrates 
her son, Stuart, an eighth grader in a 
Shaker Heights school. She celebrates 
her husband, "who helped me during 
my ordeal in ways that I cannot even 
explain." She celebrates, too, her 
involvement with Brandeis' National 
Women's Committee, of which she is 
an honorary life member, and she 
exults in her status as Brandeis 
Alumni Term Trustee, to which she 
was elected in 1978. 

"I think that has been one of the high 
points of my life, really. Being a 
trustee of the University I love so 
much has been a great source of 
excitement intellectually for me. I 
also feel that I've brought some good 
ideas to the Board, ideas that have 
helped future Alumni Term Trustees 
and ideas that have helped make my 
alma mater a better place. 

"You know, always at the hardest times -j^ 
of my life, it seems, Brandeis has been 
there. When 1 was divorced, the first 
place I went publicly was to chair a 
Brandeis book and author luncheon in 
Cleveland. Later, when I was at the 
depths of my depression in 1978 at the 
end of my first year of chemotherapy, I 
was elected Alumni Term Trustee for 
five years. I remember telling myself 
then, 'Hey Rena, you're not going to 
die within that time because 
otherwise Brandeis wouldn't have 
given you a five-year term.'" 

Exactly. But, nevertheless, Rena 
Blumberg keeps all her accounts up to 
date now. And if she still hasn't made 
out her will, she has at least ordered 
her own epitaph. 

"Rena Blumberg: She lived with style, 
class, panache, color, bounding 
affection and lots of love." 

Jeny Rosenswaike 

New Spatial Orientation Lab 
Houses Unique NASA 

27 A pioneering research 
facility for the study of 
spatial orientation is taking 
shape in the basement of the 
Rabb Graduate Center. 

The new Ashton Graybiel 
Spatial Orientation 
Laboratory, dedicated 
October 21, is a major 
research center which will 
house over one million 
dollars in equipment 
transferred to the University 
by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration 

In addition to highly 
intricate and precise NASA 
apparatus, the laboratory 
will also contain the only 
slow rotation room in an 
American university. 

The specially designed room, 
now under construction, will 
measure 22 feet in diameter 
and will rotate at computer- 
controlled speeds up to 45 
rpm. It will be used to study 
how humans adapt to 
unusual force environments. 

The Ashton Graybiel 
Orientation Laboratory 
is named after the 
distinguished physician and 
scientist who has been a 
leading figure in the field of 
space medicine and who was 
among the early research 
scientists working on 
human behavior in manned 
space flight. Much of the 
equipment, to be housed 
in the laboratory, was 
developed by Dr. Graybiel 
who will continue his work 
at Brandeis. 

James R. Lackner, Meshulam 
and Judith Riklis Professor of 
Psychology and chairman of 
the psychology department, 
who has collaborated with 
Dr. Graybiel for many years, 
was instrumental in bringing 
the NASA equipment to 
campus and will direct the 
laboratory where he will 
continue his experiments on 
spatial orientation. 

Professor Lackner is also 
developing an undergraduate 
course at the University 
addressing the physiological 
and psychological effects of 
manned space flight. It will 
be the only course of its kind 
in the country. 

President Bernstein, 
members of the Board of 
Trustees and leading 
American scientists in the 
field of space flight research 
were among those attending 
the dedication ceremonies of 
the newly installed 

A unique two-day 
symposium entitled "Man in 
Space," held in conjunction 
with the dedication, brought 
experts from the fields of 
medicine, aeronautics and 
space research to Brandeis. 

At right. Colonel C. 
Gordon Fullerton, an 
astronaut who was a crew 
member on the third 
Columbia space flight, 
addresses the many 
distinguished guests 
attending the symposium. 

Above, student 
demonstrates the use of a 
rotation chair during two- 
day "Man in Space" 
symposium October 20 
and 21 marking the 
dedication of the 
University's Ashton 
Graybiel Spatial 
Orientation Laboratory. 
The chair was part of 
iphisticated research 
luipment transferred to 
he University by NASA, 
i'resent during the 
dedication ceremony, 
which attracted leading 
scientists from throughout 
the United States, were Dr. 
Graybiel (left), for whom 
the facility is named. 
Professor fames R. 
I ackner, and Mrs. and 
President Bernstein. 
At left, Dr. Graybiel, a 
renowned space medicine 
physician, speaks with Dr. 
Lawrence F. Dietlin, 
assistant director for life 
sciences at NASA 's Lyndon 
B. Johnson Space Center. 

Expanding the 
Brandeis Network, 
with the emphasis 
on jobs! 

Last spring, 64 percent of 
the Class of 1982 went 
looking for jobs . . . Five 
years ago, only 30 percent 
of the graduating class 
sought employment; the 
rest entered graduate or 
professional schools. 

As the nation's worsening 
economic woes have 
forced young people to 
rethink their plans and 
their prospects, Brandeis' 
Office of Career Planning 
(OCP) has reoriented its 
focus to meet those 
changing needs and 

While graduate school 
advising remains an 
important function of the 
office, specific programs 
have been developed and 
implemented to address 
growing career and 
employment concerns. 

Inundated with career 
questions from 
prospective liberal arts 
degree recipients, OCP 
has launched a special 
appeal for more alumni 
and friends of the 
University to take part 
in aiding students, 
particularly seniors, in 
their search for jobs and 
job-related information. 

If you're a member of 
the Greater Brandeis 
community who is in 
early, mid or late career, 
or if you're retired, your 
experience can be of 
inestimable value at OCP 
programs held 
periodically on campus. 

As an initial step in 
developing career goals, 
students are encouraged 
to investigate a wide 
variety of occupations 
as possible career paths. 
Information-gathering at 
this stage fills the gaps in 
students' occupational 
knowledge with concrete 

To go beyond mere facts 
and figures, to make 
occupations and careers 
more tangible, OCP 
provides students with 
the opportunity to make 
personal contacts with 
individuals in the field 
through a Career 
Advisory Directory. 

On campus, OCP has 
sponsored Career 
Presentation programs 
and Career Information 
Fairs. Representatives 
from social service 
agencies, business, 
private non-profit 
organizations, law, 
government and 
communications are but 
a few who have attended 
past Career Information 
Fairs. Their presence has 
meant up-to-date 
information for students 
anticipating the job 

Once armed with such 
information, students can 
get a glimpse and a 
glimmer of their intended 
work settings through the 
OCP's Shadow Program. 
In this experiential stage 
of career exploration, 
students accompany an 
alumnus/a or friend of 
the University to gain 
first-hand exposure to 
their field of interest. The 
results are unmistakably 

Laura Rotenberg, a senior 
from Westborough, 
Massachusetts, recently 
spent a day "shadowing" 
attorney Marshall Davis 
'69, a partner in the 
Boston law firm of Davis 
and Gordon, and 
explained; "This was an 
excellent opportunity to 
observe the daily 
operation of my 
prospective profession, 
and I was able to hear 
first-hand the pros and 
cons and advice from 
those who have 

For students more certain 
of their career goals and 
hungry for long-term, 
hands-on experience, 
OCP arranges internships 
under the supervision of 
professionals in the field. 
Students contribute to 
their sponsoring 
organization by fulfilling 
specific assignments and 
meeting certain 
responsibilities, at the 
same time developing 
new skills and new 

Internships often provide 
students with the 
experience needed to 
successfully compete for 
scarce positions in a 
tough job market. Case in 
point: Linda Scherzer '82. 
This Montreal native 
participated in several 
internships. Just three 
months out of college, 
Linda is a reporter for a 
weekly newspaper in 

As students clarify their 
career objectives and 
begin the actual job 
search, the Office of 
Career Planning 
continues to assist in 
several ways. The On- 
Campus Recruiting 
Program is the most 
traditional method by 
which students interview 
for potential positions 
and the OCP works 
constantly to increase the 
number of visiting 

At the same time, newer, 
non-traditional job 
hunting techniques are 
also encouraged. 
Developing contacts and 
networks often enables 
students to get beyond 
preliminary screening and 
into an initial interview 
where they can discuss 
and prove their potential 
worth. OCP actively 

seeks alumni and other 
friends willing to assist 
students with tips of 
potential jobs. 

OCP job-hunting 
assistance goes not only 
to graduating seniors, but 
to those seeking summer 
employment as well. As 
financial aid dwindles, 
students must find ways 
to finance their own 
educations. OCP has 
responded to this need by 
implementing a Summer 
Job Bank. Alumni, 
trustees and fellows of 
the University in major 
cities across the country 
have assisted students in 
finding paid summer jobs 
ranging from retail 
internships to cashier 
positions. The OCP seeks 
to expand this valuable 

Career Planning today is a 
demanding task requiring 
expertise on a large scale. 
Brandeis students need 
you. Please fill out the 
attached Return Card. 
Your knowledge and 
experience are assets 
which, through the 
Office of Career 
Planning, can yield high 
returns for an interested 
and aspiring Brandeis 


Become Part 

of the 

Brandeis Network 

The fact that the majority of top 
administrators of Fortune 500 companies 
hold liberal arts degrees underscores the 
versatility of a liberal arts education. 
Brandeis students, however, need specific 
information on how to translate the high 
quality, liberal arts education they receive 
at Brandeis directly to the world of work. 
Up-to-date information on career and work 

environments are essential to students in 
the midst of career decision-making. You 
can play an active role in assisting 
students investigate and learn about 
career options, trends, and job hunting 
techniques. Join the Brandeis network and 
spread the word about us!! 


I would like to assist 




graduate students. 

I am willing to: 


List my name and 
occupation in the 
Career Advisory 


Participate in the 
lanuary 1983 
Shadow Program 


Assist in developing 


Offer summer job 



Send full-time job 

availability notices 

from my 



Come to campus 

to participate 

in career programs 


Come to campus, 

or send a 

representative from 

my organization, 

to participate in On- 

Campus Recruiting 

Grant interviews 


Informational and/or 


fob placement 


Class (if aluml 


Business address 

Business phone number 

Home Address 

Home phone number 

I am unable to 
participate in any 
of the above. 

but I am willing to: 

With the men's soccer team 
ranked second in the nation 
in NCAA Division III play 
and the cross-country team 
ranked third in New 
England through mid- 
October, the fall season 
augurs extremely well for 
Brandeis University 

In addition, the women's 
soccer, tennis, and volleyball 
contingents all look very 

Coach Norm Levine's cross- 
country team was runner-up 
in the NCAA Division III 
national championship a 
year ago and is returning six 
of the top seven runners 
from that squad. Obviously 
with this amount of talent 
the ludges will have to be 
tabbed strong contenders and 
with three multi-team meets 
under their belts already, the 
Judges are racing along with 
a 15-2 mark. 

After rolling past the six- 
team field in the opening 
meet — the Canadian- 

American Invitational — 
Coach Levine rested five of 
his six runners in a tough 
loss to Lowell, a Division II 
opponent. In the next meet, 
Brandeis lost only to 
Division I standout Boston 
College in another close 

The Judges were ranked third 
overall in New England in 
the last coaches' poll. 
Brandeis will also get a 
chance to showcase its 
talent in a top-notch event 
when It hosts the prestigious 
IC4A championships at 
Franklin Park in Boston, 
Brandeis' home course, on 
Nov. I . Brandeis won the 
IC4As last year for the third 
time to go along with a trio 
of third-place finishes. 

Among the leading runners 
for the Judges this fall are 
seniors George Patnarca 
(Somerville, Mass.), Ed 
Connor (Brockton, Mass.), 
Bob Labadmi (Tewksbury, 
Mass.), and Dan Laredo 
(Newton, Mass.), juniors Ed 
McCarthy (Waltham, Mass.), 

ran s iiuiu-piace niiisii in luc 
Division III nationals, has 
been playing some tight 
defensive ball with 
goaltender Jim Leahy 
(Milford, Conn.) turning in 
three more shutouts to give 
him 12 in his 24 games as a 
starter the past two years. 

Offensively, as is usually the 
case for Brandeis soccer, 13 
players have shared in the 
sconng with II different 
players having scored goals. 
Junior Jim Murphy (Billerica, 
Mass.) and freshman Chris 
Elsasser (Nauset, Mass.) 
share the team lead with two 
goals each. Junior All- 
Amencan sweeperback 
Kevin Healy (Dedham, 
Mass.) IS the leading scorer 
with four points. 

The big victory over Harvard 
avenged a 5-2 loss suffered 
last year in the first game 
ever between the two 
schools. The win over 
Bowdoin was the fourth 
straight in that series, while 
the Judges kept their record 
perfect at 8-0 against Holy 
Cross. The quintet of 
victories gives Coach Coven 
a record of 109-23-11 in his 
10 years at the helm, the 
best winning percentage 
among all of the New 
England coaches. 

llCSilllJCll will llCip LllC LCaill 

out both in depth and 

The women's cross-country 
team has turned itself 
around in the last two years 
under the guidance of third- 
year coach Joli Sandoz. 
While this year's squad 
doesn't have any of the big- 
name standouts that past 
teams have had, the women 
harriers look even stronger 
as a unit than either of the 
previous two 6-2 teams. 

The top runners back in- 
clude Mara Siegel (Geneva, 
Switzerland), Doria Stetch 
(Brooklyn, N.Y.), Sue 
Roussell (Weymouth, Mass.) 
and Kim Coughlin (Concord, 
Mass.). Coach Sandoz feels 
that based on the strength of 
the veterans and the early- 
season showing of the 
freshmen, newcomers to 
track and transfers, this 
year's team could finish m 
the top 10 in the small 
college Eastern 

Rick Brown 




PERMIT NO. 28324 





Office of Career Planning 
Brandeis University 
Massachusetts 02254 

Inundated with career 
questions from 
prospective liberal arts 
degree recipients, OCP 
has launched a special 
appeal for more alumni 
and friends of the 
University to take part 
in aiding students, 
particularly seniors, in 
their search for jobs and 
job-related information. 

If you're a member of 
the Greater Brandeis 
community who is in 
early, mid or late career, 
or if you're retired, your 
experience can be of 
inestimable value at OCP 
programs held 
periodically on campus. 

As an initial step in 
developing career goals, 
students are encouraged 
to investigate a wide 
variety of occupations 
as possible career paths. 
Information-gathering at 
this stage fills the gaps in 
students' occupational 
knowledge with concrete 

Once armed with such 
information, students can 
get a glimpse and a 
glimmer of their intended 
work settings through the 
OCP's Shadow Program. 
In this experiential stage 
of career exploration, 
students accompany an 
alumnus/a or friend of 
the University to gain 
first-hand exposure to 
their field of interest. The 
results are unmistakably 

Laura Rotenberg, a senior 
from Westborough, 
Massachusetts, recently 
spent a day "shadowing" 
attorney Marshall Davis 
'69, a partner in the 
Boston law firm of Davis 
and Gordon, and 
explained; "This was an 
excellent opportunity to 
observe the daily 
operation of my 
prospective profession, 
and I was able to hear 
first-hand the pros and 
cons and advice from 
those who have 

Linda is a reporter for a 
weekly newspaper in 

As students clarify their 
career objectives and 
begin the actual job 
search, the Office of 
Career Planning 
continues to assist in 
several ways. The On- 
Campus Recruiting 
Program is the most 
traditional method by 
which students interview 
for potential positions 
and the OCP works 
constantly to increase the 
number of visiting 

At the same time, newer, 
non-traditional job 
hunting techniques are 
also encouraged. 
Developing contacts and 
networks often enables 
students to get beyond 
preliminary screening and 
into an initial interview 
where they can discuss 
and prove their potential 
worth. OCP actively 

demanding task requiring 
expertise on a large scale. 
Brandeis students need 
you. Please fill out the 
attached Return Card. 
Your knowledge and 
experience are assets 
which, through the 
Office of Career 
Planning, can yield high 
returns for an interested 
and aspiring Brandeis 



With the men's soccer team 
ranked second in the nation 
in NCAA Division III play 
and the cross-country team 
ranked third in New 
England through mid- 
October, the fall season 
augurs extremely well for 
Brandeis University 

In addition, the women's 
soccer, tennis, and volleyball 
contingents all look very 

Coach Norm Levme's cross- 
country team was runner-up 
in the NCAA Division III 
national championship a 
year ago and is returning six 
of the top seven runners 
from that squad. Obviously 
with this amount of talent 
the (udges will have to be 
tabbed strong contenders and 
with three multi-team meets 
under their belts already, the 
Judges are racing along with 
a 15-2 mark. 

After rolling past the six- 
team field in the opening 
meet — the Canadian- 

American Invitational — 
Coach Levine rested five of 
his six runners in a tough 
loss to Lowell, a Division II 
opponent. In the next meet, 
Brandeis lost only to 
Division I standout Boston 
College in another close 

The Judges were ranked third 
overall in New England in 
the last coaches' poll. 
Brandeis will also get a 
chance to showcase its 
talent in a top-notch event 
when It hosts the prestigious 
IC4A championships at 
Franklin Park in Boston, 
Brandeis' home course, on 
Nov. I . Brandeis won the 
IC4As last year for the third 
time to go along with a trio 
of third-place finishes. 

Among the leading runners 
for the Judges this fall are 
seniors George Patriarca 
(Somerville, Mass.), Ed 
Connor (Brockton, Mass.|, 
Bob Labadini (Tewksbury, 
Mass.], and Dan Laredo 
(Newton, Mass.), juniors Ed 
McCarthy (Waltham, Mass.), 

Scott Carlin (Merrick, N.Y.), 
Kevin Curtin (Billerica, 
Mass.), and John Agnello 
(Staten Island, N.Y.), and 
sophomores Misa Fossas 
(Jamaica Plain, Mass.), Mark 
Bceman (Acton, Mass.), and 
Steve Burbndge (Groveland, 
Mass.). Freshmen who have 
been helping out include 
Mike Salvon (Springfield, 
Mass.), George Fulk 
(Newton, Mass.), and Jim 
Merod (Acton, Mass.). 

I he men's soccer team also 
lumped out to a quick start 
with a 5-0 record, the top 
lanking in Division III in the 
country and a number 20 
overall ranking in the 
nation. Included in these 
initial victories were wins 
over Division I Holy Cross 
(1-0) and Harvard (3-0), 
Division II Lowell (4-1) and 
Division III foes Bowdoin (2- 
1) and Bates (3-0). 

Coach Mike Coven's team, 
looking to improve on last 
fall's third-place finish in the 
Division III nationals, has 
been playing some tight 
defensive ball with 
Kiialtender Jim Leahy 
(Milford, Conn.) turning in 
three more shutouts to give 
him 12 in his 24 games as a 
starter the past two years. 

Offensively, as is usually the 
case for Brandeis soccer, 13 
players have shared in the 
scoring with II different 
players having scored goals. 
Junior Jim Murphy (Billenca, 
Mass.) and freshman Chris 
Elsasser (Nauset, Mass.) 
share the team lead with two 
goals each. Junior All- 
Amencan sweeperback 
Kevin Healy (Dedham, 
Mass.) is the leading scorer 
with four points. 

The big victory over Harvard 
avenged a 5-2 loss suffered 
last year in the first game 
ever between the two 
schools. The win over 
Bowdoin was the fourth 
straight in that series, while 
the Judges kept their record 
perfect at 8-0 against Holy 
Cross. The quintet of 
victories gives Coach Coven 
a record of 109-23-11 in his 
10 years at the helm, the 
best winning percentage 
among all of the New 
England coaches. 

The women's soccer team 
improved from its first-year 
record of 1-10 two years ago 
to 4-6-2 last fall and Coach 
Denise King is hoping that 
as her players obtain more 
collegiate experience and as 
more experienced players 
enter the school, the team's 
fortunes will soar. 

Eight of last years starters 
are returning including 
Jennie Casalo (Thomaston, 
Conn.), Michele Dante 
(Billerica, Mass.), Maria Ellis 
(Peabody Mass.), Claudia 
Jaul (Scarsdale, N.Y.), Janet 
Rothstein (Suffern, N.Y.|, 
Jackie Schoendorf (Bedford, 
Mass.), Stacey Zeder 
(Andover, Mass.) and Stacey 
Markowitz (Upper Saddle 
River, N.J.). Casalo was last 
year's leading scorer as a 
lunior and is expected to 
increase her offensive 
contribution this year. 

Coach King feels that the 
addition of several promising 
freshmen will help the team 
out both in depth and 

The women's cross-country 
team has turned itself 
around in the last two years 
under the guidance of third- 
year coach Joli Sandoz. 
While this year's squad 
doesn't have any of the big- 
name standouts that past 
teams have had, the women 
harriers look even stronger 
as a unit than either of the 
previous two 6-2 teams. 

The top runners back in- 
clude Mara Siegel (Geneva, 
Switzerland), Doria Stetch 
(Brooklyn, N.Y), Sue 
Roussel! (Weymouth, Mass.) 
and Kim Coughlin (Concord, 
Mass.). Coach Sandoz feels 
that based on the strength of 
the veterans and the early- 
season showing of the 
freshmen, newcomers to 
track and transfers, this 
year's team could finish in 
the top 10 in the small 
college Eastern 

Rick Brown 

S. Slosberg 
for Endowed 

The late Samuel L. Slosberg, 
long-time trustee who died 
February 1 1 in Phoenix, 
Arizona at the age of 84, has 
bequeathed $100,000 to 
Brandeis University to 
establish the Helen and 
Samuel L. Slosberg Endowed 
Scholarship Fund. This Fund 
will provide scholarships for 
music concentrators in the 
first instance, and then for 
concentrators in the creative 

Mr. Slosberg was a music 
enthusiast and a patron of 
the arts. He and his wife 
established the Slosberg 
Music Center, which was 
dedicated in 1957 in 
memory of his parents, Jacob 
and Bessie Slosberg. He also 
was a founding member and 
chairman of the Brandeis 
Friends of the Creative Arts. 

A trustee at Brandeis for 25 
years, Mr Slosberg was 
named trustee emeritus last 
year. He received an 
honorary Doctor of Laws 
degree from the University 
in 1965. 

Playwriting Faculty Club 
Award Offers Elegant 

Recipients Dining 

David Kent and LauraSue 
Epstein, third-year 
playwriting graduate 
students and artists-in- 
residence at Brandeis, and 
Tracy Shiff '82, who received 
her degree Magna Cum 
Laude, arc the first recipients 
of the Mimi Steinberg Award 
in Playwriting. Recently 
established by Harold 
Steinberg of New York City 
and Palm Beach, Florida in 
memory of his wife, the 
Mimi Steinberg Prize is the 
first award of its kind to be 
designated at Brandeis. Prize 
money totaling $1950 was 
divided among the winners. 
Award judges are Martin 
Halpem, chair, and Samuel 
and Sylvia Schulman 
Professor of Theater Arts; 
John Bush Jones, theater arts 
lecturer with the rank of 
professor and Alan Levitan, 
associate professor of 

It's open. In fact, its been 
open since September 7. Its 
main dining area seats 150 
guests for lunch, its two 
private dining rooms 76 
more, and its eight rooms 
offer overnight 
accommodations. It even 
has a social lounge to just 

It's the Brandeis Faculty 
Club located in the Wien 
Faculty Center The Club 
offers elegant dining to the 
University community and 
will serve as a central 
location for both formal and 
informal gatherings. 

While one need not be a 
member to dine at the 
Faculty Club, members 
may charge meals to their 
personal accounts and are 
entitled to a 20 percent 
discount on all cash or 
charge purchases. 

Reservations for lunch may 
be made by calling 647-3305 
between 10 am and noon, 
Monday through Friday. To 
arrange for University or 
private functions, call the 
Central Booking Office. 


Membership dues for the 
new Faculty Club are: 
professors and senior 
administrative staff — $75; 
associate professors and 
other administrative 
directors — $50; assistant 
professors and other 
academic, administrative 
and support staff — $25. 
Brandeis alumni and 
members of the National 
Women's Committee in the 
Boston area — $50 |outside 
the Boston area, $25). 

Those wishing to join can 
contact the alumni office for 
informational brochures. 


Reunion 1983 Alumni 


Phi Beta 

This is a reminder to mail 
your Alumni Association 
National Dues for 1982-83 
to the Alumni Office as soon 
as possible along with the 
tear-off card provided in the 
recent National Dues 
mailing packet. Please 
complete the reverse side of 
the tear-off card with current 
biographical information for 
Alumni Office record update 

Reunion 1983 will take place 
during the weekend of May 
20-22. Mark these dates on 
your calendar now. 
Alumni/ae Class Committee 
Chairpersons have already 
started to prepare for the 
festivities that will honor 
the classes of 1953, 1958, 
1963, 1968, 1973 and 1978. 

Considerable energy goes 
into reunion planning; there 
is always something to be 
contributed, no matter 
where you arc located or how 
limited your time. If you 
want to help make your 
reunion a success, contact 
the Alumni Office. 

May 1983 marks the end of 
the two-year terms of several 
officers of the Alumni 
Association's National Board 
of Directors. Offices for 
which elections will be held 
include four vice presidents, 
four members-at-large and a 

Herbert Pans '56, chairman 
of the Nomination and 
Election Committee, is now 
accepting recommendations 
for Board candidacy from the 
alumni/ae membership. A 
slate of candidates will be 
determined by the 
Committee at its January 
1983 meeting. Send your 
recommendations to Herbert 
Paris, in care of the Alumni 
Relations Office, and include 
supporting data on your 

In March the following 
alumni were elected 
Iretroactively) to the 
Massachusetts Mu chapter 
of Phi Beta Kappa national 
honor society: Marilyn 
Weintraub Bentov '52, 
Richard H. Kaufman '57, 
Gloria Feman Orenstein '59. 

Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's 
foremost academic honor 
society, accepted Brandeis 
into its ranks October 7, 
1961, exactly 13 years after 
the University's 
inauguration. At the time, 
Brandeis was the youngest 
university to have been 
recognized by the society in 
more than 100 years. 

Women's Committee 


$20 million mark 

The Great 

Behind a backdrop of an 
enlarged one dollar bill — 
symbolizing the first funds 
raised by Brandeis' National 
Women's Committee 
34 years ago — National 
President Cynthia Shulman 
of Newton. Mass. presents 
a check to President 

It's a labor of love, but hard 
work ail the same. 

Since Its founding in 1948, 
the National Women's 
Committee has contributed 
$20 million dollars m 
donations to the University 
Libraries — a sum which 
translates into over $1500 
for each day of the 
Committee's existence. 

Beginning its 35th year of 
service, the 65,000-member 
BUNWC, in addition to 
being the largest friends of a 
library organization, now 
holds the distinction of 
being the largest single 
continuous donor to the 

Addressing the opening 
dinner of the BUNWC 
National Conference in June, 
President Bernstein paid 
tribute to the National 
Women's Committee saying, 
"For 34 years, you have 
provided the books, journals, 
papers and microfilm which 
constitute the Brandeis 
Libranes — an indispensable 
element of our academic 
enterprise. But you have 
done more even than that: as 
representatives of the 
University, as advocates, as 
messengers of our needs and 
our dreams, your constancy, 
loyalty and confidence in 
Brandeis — your presence 
itself — have inspired 
nationwide support and 
strengthened our resolve to 
build a University of 

In arriving at the $20 million 
dollar mark, the BUNWC 
has donated $1,416,000 for 
1981-82— the largest 
amount ever donated in a 
single year by the National 
Women's Committee. 

Not content to rest on past 
accomplishments, the 
women of the BUNWC are 
already looking ahead to new 
challenges in continuing to 
"Stock the Stacks" — in the 
Goldfarb Library and in the 
new Farber Library 
scheduled to open this 

Explains Cynthia Shulman, 
recently elected president of 
the BUNWC, "The National 
Women's Committee 
remains as committed today 
as ever before. As Brandeis 
has expanded and its need 
for educational materials has 
grown, our mission has 
become all the more 
compelling. Building on the 
strong foundation of our 
past, we welcome the 
opportunity to reaffirm our 
loyalty, our involvement and 
our service to the Brandeis 

Extraordinary one-week 
vacation trips are being 
offered dunng winter 1982/ 
83 for Brandeis alumni/ae at 
low charter-value prices. The 
destinations have been 
chosen to satisfy a variety of 
tastes while providing the 
added benefit of group tour 
comraderie and savings. 

The charter- flight vacation 
destinations for Winter 
1982/83 include: Rio de 
Janeiro; "Disney World," 
Orlando; Montcgo Bay; 
Martinique; Miami Beach; 
Barbados; Acapulco; Grand 
Bahama Island; Santo 
Domingo; Nassau; 
Guadeloupe and San Juan. A 
special Israel tour is also 
planned. Contact the 
Alumni Office for further 

The Kresge Foundation, 
Pew Memorial Trust 
Recognize Brandeis 

The Kresge Foundation of 
Troy Michigan, and the 
Pew Memorial Trust of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
two of America's most 
prestigious foundations, 
have granted Brandeis more 
than half a million dollars 
towards the construction of 
the new Leonard L. Farber 
Library and the expansion 
and renovation of the Jacob 
Goldfarb Library. 

The trustees of the Kresge 
Foundation approved a 
$300,000 challenge grant, 
and the Pew Memorial Trust 
announced a gift of 
$250,000. Both grants supply 
a timely boost to the library 
campaign which, as 
President Bernstein noted in 
a letter to Alfred H. Taylor, 
president of the Kresge 

Foundation, "constitutes 
Brandeis' highest priority at 
this time." 

The grant from the Pew 
Memorial Trust marks the 
first time the organization 
has awarded money to 
Brandeis for the construction 
of a building. Responding to 
the honor. President 
Bernstein wrote Robert I. 
Smith, president of the 
Glenmede Trust Company 
which administers all of the 
Pew Charitable Trusts, that 
the grant, "means a great 
deal . . . because it comes 
from the Pew Memorial 
Trust. We know that you 
maintain the very highest 
standards of philanthropy 

Established in 1948 as the 
Pew Memorial Foundation, 
the Pew Memorial Trust has 
made major gifts to the 
nation's best universities 
and medical schools. 

In determining the schools 
that merit support, the Trust 
looks for organizations with 
"well-defined goals and 
services and competent 
people to direct their 

The Kresge Foundation also 
maintains the very highest 
standards. After considering 
1,449 proposals in 1982, the 
Foundation awarded new 
grant commitments totalling 
$28,260,000 to 132 
organizations in 32 states 
and the District of 

Most of the Kresge 
Foundation's grants involve 
the construction and 
renovation of facilities. Only 
after the recipient has raised 
the initial funds does the 
Kresge Foundation make 
most of Its grants. It 
authorizes grants on a 
challenge basis requiring the 
remaining funds to be raised 
and insuring the completion 
of the project. 

Brandeis has until May 15, 
1983 to raise the remainder 
of the $6.5 million necessary 
to complete the construction 
of the new library complex. 
President Bernstein has 
expressed confidence in the 
ability of Brandeis to meet 
the challenge. 

Brandeis Scholar 
Helps Translate 
Hebrew Bible 

Nahum M. Sama, Dora 
Golding Professor of Biblical 
Studies, is one of three 
Hebrew scholars who, for 
the past 16 years, has 
worked on a unique and 
historically important 
translation of the Hebrew 

Begun over 25 years ago 
by the Jewish Publication 
Society of America, the 
project had previously 
published translations of 
the Torah (1962) and the 
Prophets (1978). Translation 
of the Jewish scriptural 
canon, published m June 
1982, marks the project's 
end. This section, referred to 
as the Writings, contains the 
books of Psalms, Proverbs, 
Job, The Song of Songs, 
Ruth, Lamentations, 
Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, 
Ezra, Nehemiah, and I and II 

Working together with 
Professor Sama on this final 
phase of the project were 
Moshe Greenberg and Jonas 
Greenfield, two U.S. -trained 
experts now associated with 
The Hebrew University in 
Israel. Also lending guidance 
were three rabbis 
lepresentmg the Orthodox, 
Conservative and Reform 
branches of Judaism as well 
as Novelist-Rabbi Chaim 
Potok who served as 
secretary of the committee. 

Each book was divided into 
three sections with the three 
scholars preparing 
preliminary' drafts of an 
assigned section. This draft 
was then reviewed by other 
committee members and the 
rabbis, with each person 
submitting comments and 
suggesting alternatives to 
the secretary of the 
committee. A revised text, 
incorporating these changes, 
was then presented to the 
committee for further 
discussion and debate. 

With publication of the 
Writings, the project's 
completion marks the first 
translation direct from the 
Masoretic (original Hebrew) 
text into the vernacular by 
an organized commission of 
Jewish scholars since the 
Septuagint translation of the 
Torah into Greek completed 
in Alexandria during the 
third century before the 
Common Era. 

Professor Harry Orlinsky of 
the Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, 
who first proposed the 
project 29 years ago, called 
the completed three-volume 
work "the greatest scholarly 
event in the history of the 
Jewish community of 
America in the 20th 

Its ramifications extend far 
beyond the Jewish 
community, according to 
Professor Orlinsky. He points 
out that the translation has 
already prompted Protestants 
and Catholics to revise their 
Bible in accordance with the 
philosophy of the Jewish 

The scholars relied on 
numerous ancient sources in 
translating the Masoretic 
text into modem vernacular 
The three-man team 
reviewed the writings of 
rabbinic commentators over 
the past 800 years and also 
made use of such recent 
archaeological discoveries as 
the Dead Sea Scrolls, 
Egyptian papyri, and 
Ugaritic tablets to arrive at 
accurate translations. 

The committee agonized 
over some of the changes it 
made, particularly in 
familiar verses. But, 
according to Professor Sarna, 
the true intention of the 
Masoretic text was the 
decisive factor in all cases. 

"Our task was to reconstruct 
as accurately as possible the 
true meaning of the text 
while reflecting as much of 
its original literary character 
as possible," Professor Sama 

Death Notices 

Vivian Ernst 

of Brookline, an assistant 
professor of biochemistry at 
Brandeis University, died 
September 12 at Beth Israel 
Hospital following a lengthy 
illness. The biochemist and 
molecular biologist was 32 
years old. A Belgian-bom 
scientist whose research 
interests focused on the 
control of cell activity and 
the mechanisms of the 
regulation of protein 
synthesis, Professor Ernst 
came to Brandeis in 1980 
from M.I.T, where she had 
been a research scientist in 
the department of biology. 
"Vivian Ernst was an 
outstanding young 
investigator of exceptionally 
high ability and potential 
whose work was already 
widely regarded," said Dr 
William P. Jencks, the Gyula 
and Katica Tauber Professor 
of Biochemistry and 
"Although this was only her 
third year at Brandeis, her 
death has been felt deeply by 
many. " 

Marcia S. Isaacs 
Brandeis' associate regional 
director of development in 
New York City and director 
of Brandeis House there, died 
in July at age 46. She was 
director of Brandeis' annual 
Creative Arts Awards 
ceremony for many years 
and most recently 
coordinated industry dinners 
for the University. The New 
York-bom executive was a 
1957 graduate of Bennington 
College in Vermont. Mrs. 
Isaacs joined the Brandeis 
staff in 1967. 

Ann R. Lorenz Van Zanten 

'72 was one of six people 
killed in the August 9 
terrorist attack on a Jewish 
restaurant in Paris. 
The 30-year-old art historian 
graduated from Brandeis 
summa cum laude with 
honors in Fine Arts and 
received her doctorate in 
1980 from Harvard 

In extending the University's 
condolences to the Van 
Zanten and Lorenz families. 
President Marver H. 
Bemstein said, "The 
Brandeis University 
community is profoundly 
disturbed that violence once 
again has been committed 
against people because they 
are Jews. All of us are 
diminished by this hateful 
act." A St. Louis native, Mrs. 
Van Zanten was recently 
named curator of the 
Chicago Historical Society's 
collection of architectural 
drawings and records. 
She IS survived by her three- 
year-old daughter and her 
husband, David Van Zanten, 
chairman of the Art History 
Department at Northwestern 
University. Mr. Van Zanten 
was one of the 21 persons 
injured in the Paris attack. 

David Stanley Wiesen, a 

former professor of Classics 
at Brandeis and a widely 
recognized Latinist, died in 
August in Los Angeles. 
Prof. Wiesen taught at 
Brandeis from 1966 to 1975, 
serving as chairman of the 
Classics and Oriental 
Studies Department for most 
of that period. In 1972 he 
was named to the Samuel 
Lembeig Chair in Classics. 
At the time of his death. 
Prof. Wiesen, 46, was Dean 
of Humanities at the 
University of Southem 
California, where he had 
taught since 1975. 

H. Albert Young 

a Fellow of Brandeis since 
1959, and a former Attorney 
General for the State of 
Delaware, died in May. He 
was 78. Mr Young 
established in 1977 the Ann 
B. Young Fund for Science 
Facilities in honor of his late 


Alumni in the News 

A Meaningful 

33 In the presence of princes, 
in the upper echelons of 
academia, and in the 
boardrooms of Big Business, 
Brandeis alumni/ae are 
increasingly found among 
men and women in the 
know, and in the news. 

Word from The Washington 
Post is that Peter Osnos '64 
was the first American 
journalist with whom 
Britain's Prince Charles 
held a fuU discussion of his 
opinions on world affairs, his 
duties and his guiding 
principles. The interview, 
which was conducted in 
London, appeared in The 
Washington Post, The 
Boston Globe and other 
major dailies. 

The New York Times 
Magazine ran an article by 
freelance writer Sidney 
Blumenthal '69 assessing the 
Reagan Administration's 
reliance on sophisticated 
teams of pollsters and 
public-opinion analysts. 
According to Mr 
Blumenthal, Ronald 
Reagan is the nation's 
governing America by a new 
strategic doctrine — the 
permanent campaign. 

We read in the Lexington, 
Kentucky Herald that John 
Newell Oswalt 'G (PhD, 
Mediterranean Studies '68) 
was named president of 
Asbury College in Willmore, 
Kentucky. He succeeds to 
that post another Brandeis 
alumnus, Dennis F. Kinlaw 
'G (PhD, Mediterranean 
Studies '67). 

News of a similar 
appointment comes from the 
Lawrence, Massachusetts 
Eagle Tribune which 
discloses the selection of 
Arthur Levine '70 as 
president of Bradford College 
in Bradford, Massachusetts. 
The Irish Echo reports that 
Joseph S. Murphy 'G (PhD, 
History of Ideas '61) has left 
the presidency of Bennington 
College in Vermont to 
assume the position of 
chancellor at The City 
University of New York. 

Coming across our desks is 
news of still other Brandeis 

alumni who hold positions 
as college presidents. They 
include Andrew Billingsley 
'G (PhD, Heller School '64) 
who heads Morgan State 
University in Baltimore, 
Maryland, and Rev. Bernard J. 
Coughlin S.J. 'G (PhD, 
Heller School '63) who 
serves as president of 
Gonzaga University in 
Spokane, Washington. 

Journalists covering the 
inner circles of industry and 
the conference rooms of 
conglomerates needn't 
search far for the Brandeis 
name. Featured recently in 
the Boston Herald American 
was an article about the new 
president at Playboy 
Enterprises: Christie Hefner, 
Brandeis alumna '74 and 
President's Councilor Ms. 
Hefner assumed her new 
position last April. 

Behind the scenes of Big 
Business we hear news of 
Nancy Dreyer '72, an 
epidemiologist and president 
of the research firm. 
Epidemiology Resources Inc. 
of Brookline, Massachusetts. 
The New York Times reports 
that when the Manville 
Corporation, the largest U.S. 
producer of asbestos and a 
Fortune 500 company, 
decided to file for protection 
from its creditors under 
federal bankruptcy laws, it 
did so based on figures of 
potential asbestos-related 
lawsuits provided by Ms. 
Dreyer 's firm. 

The Danbury, Connecticut 
News Times relays news of 
stage sounds for Brandeis 
alumna Janet Neipris 'G 
(MFA, Theater Arts '75). 
An associate professor of 
dramatic writing at New 
York University, Ms. Neipris 
has had numerous plays 
produced in New York, 
Washington, Chicago and 
other major cities. Her play, 
"The Desert" — originally 
commissioned by "Earplay," 
a drama series broadcast 
nationally over PBS — 
appeared onstage this 
summer at the Sharon 
(Connecticut) Playhouse. 
"Out of Order," another of 
her works, is scheduled for .i 
reading at the Circle 
Repertory Company in New 
York City this fall. 

Brandeis alumna Meredith 
Tax '64 has had a third book 
published, according to an 
article appearing in the 
Milwaukee Journal. Her 
most recent work and first 
novel, "Rivington Street," 
traces three generations of 
Jews from the time of the 
Kishinev pogrom through 
the end of World War I in 

Word from the west comes to 
us from the Davenport, Iowa 
Quad-City Times which 
published a letter written by 
Rose Shirwindt Weinberg '57 
to a friend in Rock Island, 
Iowa. Mrs. Weinberg, who 
resides with her husband in 
Jerusalem, wrote at length to 
protest the unjust media 
coverage given to the Israeli 
invasion of Lebanon. 

The list goes on . . . 

And while space allows only 
a small sampling of the news 
reports which pass across our 
desks, it is abundantly clear 
that Brandeis alumni/ae are 
making impressive inroads 
into all fields — obtaining 
professional recognition and 
achieving personal goals. In 
so doing, they distinguish 
not only themselves, but 
also their alma mater 

"The Brandeis Exchange," 
an exciting new Fellows 
Program inaugurated 
October 15 and 16, offered 
University Fellows and their 
spouses a unique 
opportunity to see Brandeis 
from the students' 
perspective. Paired on a one- 
to-one basis with students 
who served as their hosts, 
the Fellows attended classes, 
toured the campus, 
exchanged ideas with 
undergraduates and enjoyed 
performances by the Lydian 
String Quartet and the 
University's Gilbert and 
Sullivan Society. Program 
participants also met with 
Dean of the Faculty Anne P. 
Carter and other academic 
and administrative officers 
of the University. During the 
two-day program. Fellows 
were challenged to re- 
examine their perspectives 
on Brandeis and to accept 
their new role in the '80s: to 
serve as "goodwill 
ambassadors" for University 
admissions and to help 
Brandeis further develop an 
extensive job networking 
system for undergraduate 

Top (left to right): Anita 
Perlman, a Brandeis Fellow 
from Chicago, Illinois: 
Cheryl G. Cutler, a senior 
from Swampscott, 
Massachusetts; and 
Malcolm Sherman of 
Wellesley Hills. 
Massachusetts, chairman of 
the Brandeis Univer.'iity 

Bottom (left to right): Bessie 
Hahn, Brandeis' director of 
library services; John 
Jamoulis, a senior from 
Oceanside. New York; 
Helene Bernhardt, wife of 
University Fellow Bertram 
Bernhardt; Providence 
resident Bertram Bernhardt, 
a Fellow: Charles E. 
Armstrong, a senior from 
Plymouth, Massachusetts: 
•uta Perlman, Fellow from 
r.icago. Illinois; and Elaine 
Zecher, a senior from 
Monroeville, Pennsylvania. 

Brandeis Bookshelf 

Arabs in the Jewish State 

How to Discipline without 
Feeling Guilty 

Me and the Wierdos 

by Ian Lustick '71 
University of Texas Press 

It IS an issue that often fias 
been tfie subject of 
passionate debate but rarely 
explored in depth: Israel's 
treatment of the one-seventh 
of its citizenry that is Arab. 
In making one of the first 
scholarly forays into this 
emotionally charged 
political thicket, Ian Lustick 
addresses one central 
question: How does one 
explain the strikingly low 
level of Arab political 
activity in Israel' In 
answering, Mr. Lustick 
argues that Israeli 
authorities have successfully 
coopted Arab elites, 
maintained the 
backwardness of the Arab 
economy, and promoted 
parochial rivalries within the 
Arab sector The author 
concludes that in the future 
Israel will have to commit 
more resources and endure 
higher levels of unfavorable 
international publicity to 
maintain control over its 
Arab population. Well 
researched and documented, 
this dispassionate study by a 
lifelong Zionist is required 
reading for those who want 
to be judged knowledgeable 
about this sensitive subject. 

by Melvin L. Silberman '64 
and Susan A. Wheelan 
Hawthorn Books, $10.95 

If there were awards given for 
the best titles of the year, 
this book by two 
psychotherapists would be a 
certain nominee in the non- 
fiction category. Both the 
title and the book's theme 
undoubtedly speak to the 
concerns (and neuroses) of 
millions of Americans, 
especially middle class and 
educated ones, who are 
genuinely confused about 
how and when to assert 
authority over their children. 
Subtitled Assertive 
Relationships with Children, 
the jargon-free volume 
contends that the raising and 
teaching of offspring requires 
strong, confident adults who 
are willing to be in charge. 
Towards that end, the 
authors present a senes of 
steps designed to infuse even 
the most timid parents with 
the skills and confidence 
they'll need to become 
assertive. For it is the adults 
who mean business — yet 
aren't cruel — who most 
readily gain the respect and 
trust of the child. 

by Jane Sutton '72 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 

Can a family whose father 
plants dandelions in the 
backyard, a mother who 
calls herself Squirrel and 
gargles thrice daily with 
orange juice, and a sister 
who collects canned food 
labels find happiness in 
suburbia? Jane Sutton '72, 
who was once voted class 
comedienne in her high 
school, thinks it can. 
However, her heroine, Cindy 
Krinkle, the youngest 
member of this menagerie of . 
individualists, is quite ii 

sensitive to the charge that 
her family, is, well, weird. So 
in Me and the Weirdos, 7- 

Cindy makes an earnest 
attempt to cure her family of 
their dread affliction. But, 
fortunately, she cannot. 
Although ostensibly wntten 
with preteens and young 
teens in mind. Me and the 
Weirdos is one of those rare 
works that adults will enjoy 
as well. It's funny, 
unpretentious, and the moral 
lesson It aims to impart is 
unmarred by heavy- 
handedness. But, admit it. 
Don't you think it's weird to 
name your pet sea urchin 










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tn ^jnf> tlcHtn 

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Dmifl** A- SMrpKT 

Good Company 

Every Goy's Guide to 
Common Jewish Expressions 

Author's Query 

by Douglas A. Harper Ph.D. 


University of Chicago Press, 


Douglas A. Harper is 
assistant professor of 
sociology at the State 
University of New York, 
Potsdam. In his doctoral 
dissertation at Brandeis, 
"The Homeless Man: An 
Ethnography of Work, 
Trains, and Booze," he 
described his experiences as 
a tramp hopping freight 
trains across America and 
encountering a life of hobo 
jungles, skid rows and 
sudden violence. With 
acknowledgements to 
former Brandeis professor 
Everett Hughes and current 
faculty members Charles 
Fisher and Irving Zola of 
the Sociology Department, 
Mr. Harper has now written 
a book version of his 

fascinating sociological 
study. But Good Company is 
more than an academician's 
treatise. It is also a touching 
and engrossing narrative of a 
dying world where fierce 
friendship, honesty trust, 
and most of all, freedom, are 
still possible. Augmented by 
the author 's remarkably 
evocative photographs of a 
sub-culture he called home 
for several years. Good 
Company has much to say 
about our society and the 
way we shape our own lives. 

by Arthur Naiman '62 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 
$4.95 paperback 

Arthur Naiman is guilty of 
the high crime of misleading 
his readers. His Every Goy's 
Guide to Common Jewish 
Expressions will appeal to 
Jews as much as it will to 
Gentiles, if not more. But 
maybe the crafty humorist is 
well aware of this fact. In 
any case, this breezily 
written dictionary — replete 
with stories and jokes — 
defines both Jewish humor 
and the Jewish way of 
looking at the world. And, 
perhaps, saving and savoring 
the best for last, the author, a 
resident of San Francisco 
starved for a good dell, lets 
you in on where in this 
goyisha country you can still 
find good Jewish food. 

Edward Hoffman, Ph.D., is 
currently writing a book 
Beyond the Brain: The 
Visionary Tradition In 
Psychology, which looks 
closely at the life and work 
of psychologist Abraham 

Dr. Hoffman would be 
grateful for any information 
or personal reminiscences 
from students and colleagues 
regarding Dr. Maslow's life 
and work. Please send 
information to: Edward 
Hoffman, 1592 NW 90th 
Way, Pembroke Pines, 
Florida 33024. 

Faculty Notes 

Laurence F. Abbott 

associate professor of 
physics, recently 
participated in a summer 
study on elementary particle 
physics near Aspen, 
Colorado. Program 
participants considered what 
types of national 
experimental facilities will 
be needed for future research 
in high-energy physics and 
explored directions that 
research might take. He also 
spent a month visiting the 
theory group at the Stanford 
Linear Accelerator Center. 

Stuart H. Altman 

dean of the Heller School, 
chaired a June conference 
sponsored by the Heller 
School in Key Biscayne, 
Florida. Among the 
participants were 
Representative Henry 
Waxman (D-Cal.), chairman 
of the Health Subcommittee 
of the U.S. House of 
Representative Charles 
Rangle (D-N.Y), former 
chairman of the Health 
Oversight Committee of the 
House Ways and Means 
Committee; senior 
executives from state and 
federal government, pnvate 
insurance. Blue Cross, and 
representatives from 
outpatient departments of 
major hospitals and private 
physicians. Dean Altman 
also spoke on "National 
Health Insurance: American 
Style" at the 7th Annual 
Health Conference of the 
Government Research Corp. 
in Washington, D.C. He also 
delivered a paper in June on 
the "Growing Physician 
Surplus: Will it Benefit or 
Bankrupt the U.S. Health 
System," at a Robert Wood 
Johnson Foundation 
conference on the future of 
graduate medical education. 

Teresa M. Amabile 

assistant professor of 
psychology, is the author of 
"The Social Psychology of 
Creativity: A Componential 
Conceptualization," to be 
published in the lournal of 
Personality and Social 
Psychology. She presented 
her creativity research to the 
annual creativity conference 
at the Center for Creative 
Leadership in Greensboro, 
North Carolina in 

Kathleen L. Barry 

assistant professor of 
sociology, upon the French 
publication of her book, 
Esclavage Sexual de la 
Femme, lectured in Pans at 
the Maison des Femmes, was 
interviewed on radio 
"France-Culture" and gave a 
press conference at the 
Maison de I'Amerique 
Latine. She delivered the 
keynote speech opening the 
National Conference of the 
Coalition Against Sexual 
Assault in Seattle in July. 
Professor Barry published a 
review of Every Secret Thing 
by Patricia Hearst and 
Growing Up Underground 
by Jane Alpert in New 
Directions for Women, July/ 

Robert H. Binstock 

Louis Stulbeig Professor of 
Law and Politics, has been 
named chair of an advisory 
panel to the U.S. Congress, 
Office of Technology 
Assessment, for an 18- 
month study of the impact 
of technology on aging in 

Saul G. Cohen 
Charles A. Breskin 
University Professor of 
Chemistry, was honored by 
Harvard University's Class 
of 1937 at Its 45th 
anniversary as a "revered 
teacher, firm but kindly dean 
and able chemist in industry 
and academe." 

Peter Conrad 

assistant professor of 
sociology, served as program 
co-chair for the recent 
annual meeting of the 
Society for the Study of 
Social Problems and 
presented a paper on "Cures 
and Conditions: Technology 
and the Medicalization of 

Stanley Deser 
Enid and Nathan S. Ancell 
Professor of Physics, has 
been named to the National 
Science Foundation's 
Advisory Committee for 
Physics. This summer he 
delivered invited lectures at 
the University of Edinburgh, 
Ecole Normale (Paris), 
CERN (Geneva), University 
of Bonn and Niels Bohr 
Institute (Copenhagen). 

Elliot I. Feldman 

assistant professor of 
politics, was interviewed in 
July on National Public 
Radio's "All Things 
Considered" and on WBZ-TV 
(NBC) in Boston about his 
recent book. Technocracy 
versus Democracy: The 
Comparative Politics of 
International Airports. At a 
special conference hosted by 
the City University of New 
York he presented a paper on 
Canadian foreign policy, and 
he published an article on 
Canadian-United States 
relations in Canada's 
Financial Post. He also 
chaired two panels and 
commented on the papers of 
a third during a Harvard 
University conference on 
Quebec-U.S. relations. 

Philip Fisher 

associate professor of 
English, recently completed 
a lecture tour of West 
German universities 
including Frankfurt, 
Stuttgart, Munich, Erlangen, 
Mannheim and Berlin. The 
tour was co-sponsored by 
the State Department's 
Communications Agency 
and the West German 
Society of American Studies. 
Professor Fisher spoke on 
"Art Objects and Mass 
Production," "The Politics 
of Sentimentality and the 
Representation of Urban 
Experience in Literature." He 
also addressed the annual 
conference of the German 
Association for American 
Studies at Eichstatt. 

Lawrence H. Fuchs 
Meyer and Walter Jaffe 
Professor of American 
Civilization and Politics, 
this summer delivered the 
following papers: "Ethnicity 
and Foreign Policy: A 
Question of Multiple 
Loyalties," at the third 
annual University of 
Wisconsin Conference on 
Ethnicity and Public Policy; 
"Critical Issues in the 
Current Immigration 
Debate," at the Rockefeller 
Foundation's Conference on 
Labor Market Impacts on 
Immigration; and 
"Immigration Policy and 
the Rule of Law," at the 
University of Pittsburgh Law 
School Symposium on 

Immigrants and the Law. 
The first paper is to be 
published tn Ethnicity and 
Public Policy, the second by 
the Rockefeller Foundation 
and the third in the 
University of Pittsburgh Law 
Review. Professor Fuchs' 
essay, "Immigration, 
Pluralism and Public Policy: 
The Challenge of the 
Pluribus to the Unum," will 
be published by D.C. Heath 
in U.S. Immigration: Global 
and Domestic Issues in 

James B. Hendrickson 

professor of chemistry, has 
been elected chair-elect of 
the Northeastern Section of 
the American Chemical 
Society for 1983, to be 
followed by the 
chairmanship in 1984. Also 
elected from the chemistry 
department were: Professors 
Saul Cohen, trustee; 
Adrienne Dey, councilor and 
editor of The Nucleus-, 
Kenneth Kustin, councilor, 
and Arthur Reis, auditor. 

Judith T. Irvine 
associate professor of 
anthropology, was awarded a 
National Science Foundation 
grant to organize an 
international conference on 
"Language in Cultural 
Context," held in July at the 
Australian National 
University (A.N.U.). After 
presenting a conference 
paper on "History and Event 
Models in Linguistic 
Anthropology," she stayed in 
Australia for several weeks 
to visit a field research 
site in North Queensland, 
and to work as a visiting 
research fellov^ at the 
A.N.U.'s Department of 
Anthropology, Research 
School of Pacific Studies. 

Robert O. Keohane 
professor of international 
relations, was asked to 
present the "state of the 
discipline" paper at the 
American Political Science 
Association convention in 
Denver, Colorado in 
September. The paper, 
"Theory of World Politics: 
Structural Realism and 
Beyond," is expected to 
appear in a volume edited by 
the Association. Professor 
Keohane's paper, "Economic 
Dependence and the Self- 
Directed Small State," 
presented at a July 1981 
conference in Israel, is 
scheduled for publication 
this fall in the Jerusalem 
Journal of International 
Relations. A third paper, 
"Inflation and the Decline of 
American Power," appeared 
in a recent volume. The 
Political Economy of 
Domestic and International 
Monetary Relations, edited 
by Raymond Lombra and 
Willard Witte (Iowa State 
University Press). 

Richard H. Lansing 

associate professor of Italian 
and comparative literature, 
IS the author of "Dante's 
Unfolding Vision" which 
appeared in the volume 
Approaches to Teaching 
Dante's Divine Comedy, 
edited by Carole Slade 
(Modern Language 
Association of America 

Christopher K. Lcman 

assistant professor of 
politics, was a witness at 
an April hearing of a 
subcommittee of the House 
Agriculture Committee, and 
presented "Thoughts of a 
Political Scientist on the 
Economists' Case for Selling 
Off the Public Lands," at a 
panel of the Eastern 
Economics Association, 
Washington, D.C. He has 
been awarded a Forest Policy 
Fellowship for work in 1982- 
83 at Resources for the 
Future, and in March 1983 
will chair a special session of 
the North American Wildlife 
and Natural Resources 
Conference in Kansas City 

John M. Lowenstein 
Helena Rubinstein Professor 
of Biochemistry, recently 
gave seminars on "The 
Purine Nucleotide Cycle" at 
the University of Utah 
Medical School, Fox Chase 
Cancer Research Institute in 
Philadelphia and Boston 
University School of 
Medicine. He also gave 
a seminar on the 
"Measurement of 
Lipogenesis with Deuterium 
Labeled Water" at the 
University of Oklahoma 
Medical School; spoke on 
"5'-Nucleotidase and the 
Control of Coronary Blood 
Flow" at the University of 
Virginia, Charlottesville; 
was one of the principal 
speakers at the International 
Symposium on Purine 
Metabolism in Maastricht, 
Holland; and was an invited 
speaker at the Institute for 
Physiological Chemistry in 
Diisseldorf, Germany. 

Joan M. Maling 

associate professor of 
linguistics, gave a one-week 
series of lectures on modem 
Icelandic syntax at the 
University of Stockholm in 
May. She also lectured at the 
University of Lund, Sweden, 
and the University of 
Iceland, and presented an 
invited paper on reflexive 
pronouns in Icelandic at the 
Workshop on Scandinavian 
Syntax at the University of 
Trondheim, Norway, in June. 
Professor Maling is the co- 
author, with A. Zaenen of 
Harvard University, of two 
recently published articles: 
"Germanic Word Order and 
the Format of Surface 
Filters," in Binding and 
Filtering, and "A Phrase 
Structure Account of 
Scandinavian Extraction 
Phenomena," in The Nature 
of Syntactic Representation. 

Frank E. Manuel 

Alfred and Viola Hart 
University Professor, 
delivered a paper on "Uses 
of Jewish Thought in 
Christendom" at an 
International Symposium on 
Seventeenth-Century Jewish 
Thought sponsored by the 
Center for Jewish Studies at 
Harvard m March. Professor 
Manuel also delivered a 

lecture and held four 
seminars on "Israel in the 
Eye of the Enlightenment" 
at the Folger Institute in 
Washington, DC. in March 
and April. In May he 
delivered the Schweitzer 
Lecture, on "Seventeenth- 
Century Christian 
Perceptions of Judaism," 
at New York University. 

Ruth S. Morgenthau 
Adlai E. Stevenson Professor 
of International Politics, 
engaged in field work 
applying a novel approach to 
food security in low-income 
areas, recently studied the 
cooperative movement in 
the Cuetzalan area of 
Mexico, and was a keynote 
speaker at the Mexican-Sri 
Lankan Dialogue in Rural 
Development at 
CEICADAR, Puebla, of 
the Graduate School of 
Chapingo, Mexico. During 
the summer she also visited 
villages in Mali, Upper Volta 
and Niger, and presided over 
an executive committee 
meeting in Bamako of Food 
Corps Programs 
International (CILCA). 
Village-level rural food 
production projects applying 
CILCA's principles of self- 
help are now operating in 
Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mali 
and Sri Lanka. 

Alfred Nisonoff 
professor of biology and 
Rosenstiel Basic Medical 
Sciences Research Center, 
was an organizer of a July 
conference on "Mononuclear 
Cell and Antibody 
Networks" sponsored by the 
Federation of American 
Societies for Experimental 
Biology at the Vermont 
Academy, Saxton's River. 

Benjamin Ravid 

Jennie and Mayer Weisman 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History, recently presented a 
paper on "Moneylcnding in 
Seventeenth-Century Jewish 
Vernacular Apologetica" at 
the International 
Colloquium on Jewish 
Thought in the Seventeenth 
Century, sponsored by the 
Harvard University Center 
for Jewish Studies. 

Arthur H. Reis, Jr. 
lecturer with the rank 
of associate professor of 
chemistry, and Irving R. 
Epstein, professor of 
chemistry, co-directed a 
ten-week Undergraduate 
Research Participation 
Program this summer in the 
chemistry department. Mr. 
Reis IS the co-author of 
"Characterization of the 1 : 1 
Charge-Transfer Reaction 
between Decamethyl- 
ferrocene and 2,3-Dichloro- 
5,6-dicyanoquinone (DDQ): 
Structure of the DDQH 
Anion," an article published 
in the recent issue of the 
fournal of the American 
Chemical Society , 204,4403 
(1982). Co-authors were E. 
Gebert, J. S. Miller, H. 
Rommelmann, and A.J. 

Alan Sager 

assistant professor of urban 
and health planning at the 
Heller School, is the author 
of papers entitled 
"Evaluating the Home Care 
Service Needs of the Elderly" 
and "Who Should Control 
Long-Term Care Services?" 
in the Home Care Services 
Quarterly. He spoke on "The 
Closure of Hospitals That 
Serve the Poor" at Health 
Services Administration 
and Health Resources 
Administration in Rockville, 

Howard ]. Sthnitzer 

professor of physics, 
attended the 2 1st 
International Conference 
on High Energy Physics in 
Pans during July. In August 
he was at Ecole Normale 
Superieure conducting 
research in elementary 
particle theory. 

John E. Schrecker 

associate professor of history, 
recently returned from a year 
at the Institute of Advanced 
Study at Princeton 
University, where he 
completed a book on the 
Chinese revolution and 
began work on the 
philosophy of history. 

Marshall Sklare 
Klutznick Family Professor 
of Contemporary Jewish 
Studies and Sociology and 
director, Center for Modem 
Jewish Studies, received the 
honorary degree of Doctor 
of Humane Letters from 
Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion 
in Cincinnati. The citation 
is as follows: 

"Distinguished sociologist, 
university professor, author, 
proud son of the Jewish 
people, who has devoted his 
keen intelligence to the 
study of the American 
Jewish Community and 
whose perceptive and highly 
regarded books illuminate 
experience in contemporary 
society, whose imaginative 
scholarship and teaching has 
elevated American Jewish 
Studies to a respected place 
among academic disciplines, 
whose service to leading 
universities and 
organizations at home and 
abroad has strengthened 
their work and enhanced 
their standing." 

Susan Staves 
associate professor of 
English, spoke on Alexander 
Pope at Harvard University's 
English Institute in August. 
Her paper was entitled 

Louis S. Stuhl 
assistant professor of 
chemistry, was an invited 
participant in two scientific 
workshops this summer: 
The 6th New England 
Organometallic Chemistry 
Workshop in Mt. Kisco, New 
York, sponsored by Yale 
University, and the NSF 
National Organometallic 
Chemistry Workshop at 
Perm State University. 

Bernard M. Wasserstein 

professor of history and 
Tauber Institute director, 
delivered a paper on "Allies 
et Neutres en Face de la 
Politique Nazie" at a June 
colloquium of the Ecole 
des Hautes Etudes en 
Science Sociales at the 
Sorbonne in Pans. The 
central theme was 
"L'AlIemagne Nazie et les 

Malcolm W. Watson 
assistant professor of 
psychology, recently 
presented a paper on the 
development of family 
role concepts in early 
adolescence at the annual 
meetings of the American 
Psychological Association 
in Washington, DC. He 
recently had two papers 
published concerning 
psychological research in 
educational settings and 
will have published 
"Transitions in Children's 
Understandings of Parental 
Roles" in Developmental 

Stephen J. WhitBeld 

associate professor of 
American Studies, is the 
author of "From Publick 
Occurrences to Pseudo- 
Events: Journalists and Their 
Critics," in the September 
issue of American Jewish 

leffrev Williams 

assistant professor of 
economics, wrote "Economic 
Role of Commodity 
Storage," an article in the 
September issue of the 
Economic [ournal. 

Dwight W. Young 
professor of ancient Near 
Eastern civilization, is the 
author of an article entitled 
"Unpublished Shenoutiana 
in the University of 
Michigan Library" which 
appeared this summer in 
the volume Scripta 
Hierosolymitana, published 
by The Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem. 

Harry Zohn 

professor of German, was 
awarded a citation from 
Suffolk University in June 
for three years of service as a 
member of the Board of 
Trustees. Professor Zohn's 
article on Stefan Zweig will 
appear in the November 
issue of the Bulletm des Leo 
Baeck Instituts (Jerusalem). 
This fall the Frederick Ungar 
Publishing Co. of New York 
will reissue his fin de siecle 
Austrian Reader Der 
farbenvolle Untergang. His 
article on Karl Kraus will 
appear in Twentieth- 
Century Thinkers, issued by 

St. James in London this 
winter His article on exile 
writers in the U.S. appears in 
the high holidays issue of 
Das fuedische Echo (Vienna). 

Irving K. Zola 
professor of sociology, 
recently was named 
executive director of the 
Boston Self Help Center. He 
delivered lectures at the 
Conference on the Sociology 
of Deafness, the Brain Injury 
Conference, the American 
Nursing Convention and 
presided over the September 
ASA Session on Disability 
Chronic Disease and 
Rehabilitation. Professor 
Zola is the author of the 
following articles: 
"Disabling Professions," 
translated into Spanish and 
published in Profesions 
Inhabilitantes; "Why Marcia 
Is My Favorite Name," 
Summerfest 3 Magazuie-, 
"Social and Cultural 
Disincentives to 
Independent Living," in 
Archives of Physical 
Medicine and 
"Disincentives to 
Independent Living" and 
"The Evolution of the 
Boston Self Help Center," 
in Working Paper Series on 
Independent Living; and 
"Involving the Consumer in 
the Rehabilitation Process: 
Easier Said Than Done," in 
Technology for Independent 

Dreyfus Grant 
Awarded to 
Alan Stolzenberg 

Alan M. Stolzenberg, 
assistant professor of 
chemistry, won a Dreyfus 
Grant for Newly Appointed 
Yoimg Faculty in Chemistry. 
Professor Stolzenberg is one 
of only ten scholars 
nationwide to receive this 
annual award and the only 
inorganic chemist so 
honored. The $25,000 grant 
from the Camille and Henry 
Dreyfus Foundation of New 
York City enables newly 
appointed faculty members 
in chemistry, biochemistry 
or chemical engineering to 
begin research promptly, thus 
avoiding the lag time that 
often occurs due to a lack of 
outside funding. The 28- 
year-old chemist, who joined 
the Brandeis faculty this fall, 
received his PhD m 1980 
from Stanford University. 

Appointments and 

Three Brandeis faculty 
members will hold term 
assistant professorships 
for the 1982-83 year 
Reuven Kimelinan assistant 
professor of Near Eastern and 
Judaic Studies, and Robert 
Schntider assistant 
professor of history, will hold 
the title of Manheimer Term 
Assistant Professor of 
University Studies. Their 
appointments are made 
possible through the bequest 
of Stephen Manheimer of 

Martha Morrison, assistant 
professor of Classical and 
Oriental Studies, has been 
named the Petne Term 
Assistant Professor of 
University Studies. Her 
appointment is made 
possible through a gift of 
Milton Petne of New York. 

Promoted to Assistant 

Kathleen Barry 

has taught sociology of 
the family, sociology of 
education and feminist 
theory since ioining the 
Brandeis faculty in 1981. 
The author of Female Sexual 
Slavery. Professor Barry is 
currently working on a 
biography of Susan B. 
Anthony under a Radcliffe 
Research Scholars Grant. She 
received her Ph.D. in 
education and sociology in 
1982 from the University of 
California at Berkeley. 

Michael Coven 

has acted as head soccer 
coach, head lacrosse coach 
and instructor in physical 
education since coming to 
Brandeis in 1973. He has also 
assisted in the intramural 
sports program and presently 
serves as coordinator of all 
athletic facilities. Under his 
direction, the Brandeis 
soccer team won its only 
NCAA Division III National 
Soccer Championship in 

Ronald Ferguson 
(effective September 1981 1 
has taught in the 
Department of African and 
Afro-American Studies since 
joining the Brandeis faculty 
in 1978. In addition, he has 
regularly taught an 
undergraduate statistics 
course offered through the 
Economics Department. 
Professor Ferguson received 
his Ph.D. in economics from 
the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1 98 1. 

Pierre-Yves |acopin 

jeffective September I98I), 
an anthropologist who 
received his Ph.D. in 1981 
from the University of 
Neuchatel, has taught at 
Brandeis since 1977. His 
doctoral dissertation was 
based on three years spent 
studying the myths and 
language of the Yukuna 
Indians of South America, 
and a subsequent year spent 
at Jean Piaget's International 
Center for Epistemological 

Robert Lurie 

teaches intermediate 
microeconomic theory, 
industrial organization and 
a new course on money and 
banking. A former junior 
staff economist with the 
Council of Economic 
Advisors, Professor Lurie 
received his Ph.D. in 1982 
from Yale University where 
his dissertation focused on 
the effects of environmental 
regulation on investment 
and R&D behavior in the 
United States copper 

Danielle Marx-Scouras 

joined the Department of 
Romance and Comparative 
Literature in 1980 as an 
instructor of French and 
Italian. She will coordinate 
intermediate level French 
language courses and teach 
advanced literature courses 
in both French and Italian. 
Professor Marx-Scouras 
received her Ph.D. in 1981 
from Columbia University. 

Marver H. Bernstein Elected 
President of National 
Foundation for Jewish Culture 

President Marver H. Bernstein 
whose career has spanned 
education, Jewish communal 
affairs, public administration 
and business-government 
relations, has been elected 
president of the National 
Foundation for Jewish 

"I am honored to be chosen 
to lead the Foundation, " 
President Bernstein said. "In 
a relatively short time, the 
National Foundation for 
Jewish Culture has become 
an invaluable cultural 
resource and an effective 
advocate for Jewish cultural 
life in America." 

Mr. Bernstein was named to 
succeed Amos Comay of 
Pittsburgh at the 
Foundation's annual meeting 
in New York City September i 

He will serve a three-year 
term as head of the non- 
profit organization, which is 
the national coordinating 
body in the field of Jewish 

The 22-year-old Foundation 
develops programs that 
promote Jewish scholarship, 
Jewish cultural projects, and 
the arts. 

Sibley Fellowship 

Sara Reva Horowitz, a 
doctoral candidate in literary 
studies, has been awarded 
the 1982 Sibley Fellowship 
which carries a $7,000 
stipend. Ms. Horowitz' 
dissertation will examine 
a central motif in post- 
Holocaust literature: 
muteness and its variations. 
She plans to relate this idea 
of muteness to the absurdist 
movement m postwar 
France, which reflects 
concerns similar to those 
of post-Holocaust fiction. 
The Sibley Fellowship is 
awarded by Phi Beta Kappa. 


Class Notes 


In May, after completing 
assignments as the Voice of 
America's correspondent m 
Municli and chief of its 
European branch, W illiam 
W. Marsh was named 
director of VO.A.'s news 
division. While in Mumch, 
Bill covered news 
developments in the Soviet 
Union, West and East 
Germany and Scandinavia. 

David A. Swankin,, partner 
in the law firm of Swankin 
and Turner, was named the 
1982 recipient of the 
Margaret Dana Award for 
outstanding contributions 
to the development of 
voluntary consumer product 
standards by the 
international standards- 
writing organization, ASTM. 

Albert Theriaiili professor of 
English at Quinsigamond 
Community College in 
Worcester, Mass., recently 
completed a consultancy 
grant and co-authored and 
directed a pilot grant, both 
for the National Endowment 
for the Humanities. Bert and 
co-author Hannah Laipson 
also participated in a panel 
discussion at the annual 
convention of the National 
Council of Teachers of 

In August Reid Watson 
began a grand tour of Europe, 
having temporarily retired 
from various careers, mostly 
in the fields of physics and 
biology. Much of his free 
time in the past five years 
has been devoted to 


David L. Kline is rabbi of 
Temple Shalom in Colorado 
Springs, and teaches courses 
at Colorado College. David 
is married to Barbara Furth 
and has three children: 
Avram, twelve; Aliza, ten; 
and Shira, six. 

Diana Kurz's recent 

paintings were exhibited at 
Alex Rosenberg Gallery in 
New York City, June 3 - luly 


Stephen Donadio, former 
professor of American 
literature at Middlebury 
College, has been appointed 
to a two-year term as dean of 
arts and humanities at that 
college. Later this year he 
expects to complete work on 
a biography of Henry David 
Thoreau, a project which has 
been supported by the 
National Endowment for the 
Humanities and for which 
Stephen was awarded a 
Rockefeller Foundation 

Kvra M. Kaplan married Or 
Eliot L. Berson in Boston last 
May. Kyra is an 
administrator with the New 
England Organ Bank of 


Along with two partners, 
l>a\id H. Goldman has 
established a law firm under 
the name of Black, Reimer &. 
Goldman, located in Des 
Momes, Iowa. 

Marcia Wilder Oster has 

been working as an 
instructional assistant in the 
English department at Santa 
Monica College, Santa 
Monica, Calif., since March. 

Murray Suid is co-author of 
The Cieativity Catalog, 
lessons in comic book 
format about writing, 
drawing, photography, stage, 
movies, and television. The 
book, published by Pitman 
Learning, is for cfiildren ten 
years old and up. 


iMarilyn ("Mike") Shuffman 
Faust has completed her first 
year at Pace Law School. She 
IS living with her husband 
and three children in 
Larchmont, N.Y. 

Gary Posner is spending 
a six-month sabbatical as 
visiting professor in the 
department of organic 
chemistry at the Weizmann 
Institute, Israel. 

Now the Brandeis 
Traveler & Family 
Can Travel in 
Affordable Luxury 

Unitours launches the 
1983 travel calendar 
with a 12-day 
holiday tour of Israel. 

Unitours has arranged a magnificent 12- 
day family tour of Israel. Depart New York 
on December 23 and return on January 3. 
The tour includes three nights in Tel Aviv, 
three in Haifa, and four in Jerusalem for 
as low as $1448 per person. 

Very special, too, is the Unitours concept 
of travel . . . affordable luxury. 

The Brandeis Tl-aveler and Unitours are 

pleased to offer so many wonderful tour 
opportunities in 1982. In Europe: Spain, 
Italy, Switzerland, Great Britain, and 
Scandinavia. And cruises. On the sunny 
Mediterranean, down the historic Nile. 

Travel to the Orient: Japan, Bangkok, 
Hong Kong. And on to the mysteries of 

And, of course, a whole array of the tours 
that have established the Unitours reputa- 
tion. . . . Israel and Egypt. 

All for you. All in affordable luxury. 

To reserve your place or for more 


call (617) 647-2307 or 2190 or fill out the 

coupon below. 

The Brandeis Ihaveler 

Brandeis University. 
Massachusetts 02254 

n Send me more information on the Holiday Tour. 
D Reserve .. . places for the Holiday Tour 

I've enclosed S ($200/person| on deposit. 

of these reservations are for children under 18 sharing our room 

(at a savings of $269/child|. 

n Send me more information on other 1983 travel in affordable luxury. 

n Israel and Egypt. D Europe 

n The Orient (including China]. 



State Zip 
Phone ( I 

Robert S. Zuckcrman has 
been promoted to associate 
general counsel, antitrust 
and litigation, for Sea-Land 
Industries, Inc., Menlo Park, 
NJ. He has also been named 
chairman of the Regulated 
Industries Committee of the 
Amencan Bar Association's 
antitrust section. 


Victoria Hilkevitch Bedford 
is working on her 
dissertation in psychology 
from Rutgers University. She 
and her husband, Eric, and 
daughters — Sibyl, S'/i, and 
Iris, 1 Vi — have moved to 
Bloomington, Ind. where 
Eric has tenure at Indiana 

Last spring artist/composer 
Richard Lcrman presented 
several performances of his 
work in the Netherlands. 
Works performed included 
Travelon Gamelon for 25 
amplified bicycles with 
riders. Incident at Three 
Mile Island — perhaps an 
Elegy for Karen Silkwood, 
and a piece which used self- 
made transducers to amplify 
the sound of the wind and 
water in the canals. Richard 
also performed at the De 
Cordova Museum in 
Lincoln, Mass. last June, 
with the Sound/Image/ 
Events group. 

Robin Dee Post, a clinical 
psychologist, has been 
promoted to associate 
professor of psychiatry at 
University of Colorado 
School of Medicine. In 
October Robin married 
lames Tait, a Denver-area 


Susan Solender Bailis has 

been named president-elect 
lit the Massachusetts 
Chapter of the National 
Association of Social 
Workers (NASW). An active 
member of NASW since 
1967, she will take office in 
July 1983. Susan is currently 
director of Social Service and 
Professional Standards 
Review at New England 
Medical Center. She is also 
an assistant professor of 
psychiatry at Tufts 
University School of 
Medicine, a clinical 
associate in social work at 
Simmons College and an 
assistant clinical professor at 
Smith College. Susan has 
published articles on co- 
therapy, group therapy and 
alternatives to income 
maintenance, has lectured 
widely on social work in the 
health care setting, and has 
participated in national 
seminars on death and 

In April '^,mv D. Lander 
participated as a panelist in 
the annual litigation 
seminar of the National 
Institute of Municipal Law 
Officers in Washington, 
DC, where he spoke on the 
techniques of settlement 


Paula Barai Fox and her 
husband. Norm, announce 
the birth of their first child, 
Shirajoelle, Apnl 5, 1982. 

Samuel Heilman and Ellin 
Kaufman Heilman '69 
announce the birth of their 
fourth son, Jonah Aaron. 

In June Donald I .Mirisch 
was appointed vice 
president, business affairs, 
for PolyGram Pictures, 
where he has been employed 
since April 1981. 


Barbara Patricia Gould was 

married May 9 to Ronald 
Louis Plesser, an attorney in 
Washington, DC. Barbara is 
a senior conservator at the 
Library of Congress. 


Arthur Levine has been 
appointed president of 
Bradford College, Bradford, 
Mass. Arthur is the first 
Brandeis undergraduate to 
attain the position of college 
president. While an 
undergraduate at Brandeis, 
Arthur developed proposals 
for University curriculum 
reform which later formed 
the basis of fiis book Reform 
of Undergraduate 
Education, 1973. Arthur 
received his doctoral degree 
from the State University of 
New York-Buffalo in 1976. 
He joined the Carnegie 
Council on Policy Studies 
in Higher Education at 
Berkeley during that same 
year, and in 1980 he was 
appointed a senior fellow at 
the Carnegie Foundation in 
Washington, D.C. 


David P. Bell has been 
appointed assistant vice 
president, academic affairs, 
for the University of 
Houston System. He also 
serves as an adjunct faculty 
member at the College of 
Education on the University 
of Houston Central Campus. 

Dr. Steven Berk has been 
named teacher of the year 
by the class of '84 at East 
Tennessee State University 
Quillen-Dishner College of 
Medicine, and distinguished 
clinical faculty member by 
the class of '82. Steven is 
associate professor, chief of 
the division of infectious 

disease at the medical 
school, and chief of 
medicine at the Veterans 
Administration Medical 
Center m Johnson City, 

Jackie Hvman's first 
published novel. Lady in 
Disguise (a historical 
romance), will be released in 
December by Walker and Co. 
Jackie is a reporter for the 
Associated Press in Los 

Rachel Rassen has been 
appointed vice president m 
charge of instructional 
development at Micro 
Courseware Corp., a San 
Francisco-based software 
development company. 

Ellen Wachtel Rosanskv, 

an associate at the National 
Institute of Education, has 
been selected to be a 
Jerusalem Fellow. Using her 
knowledge of linguistics, 
Ellen plans to research the 
differences in the ways 
adults and children acquire 
Hebrew as a second 
language. The Jerusalem 
Fellows program — whose 
aim IS to develop leadership 
for Jewish education in the 
Diaspora — will use Ellen's 
findings to create new 
Hebrew teaching materials 
for children and adults. 

Carole Lichtenstein 
Skowronski and Jack 
Skowronski '6'' announce 
the birth of their son, Rafi, 
in March. He joins five-year- 
old sister, Tamar, and three- 
year-old brother, Uri. 

Edward VVitten, physics 
professor specializing in 
elementary particle theory 
at Princeton University 
recently received a grant 
from the John D. and 
Catherine T. MacArthur 
Foundation in the amount of 
531,200 annually for the 
next five years. MacArthur 
Prize Fellowships are 
awarded to individuals who 
show "exceptional talent, 
originality self-direction, 
and promise for the future." 
The recipients are under no 
obligation to produce a 
product or publication, nor 
arc they expected to 


Alumni . . . 

we want your input. 

complete any research 
projects. The purpose of the 
Mac Arthur grant program is 
simply to relieve scholars of 
economic pressures by 
providing them with a 
steady income. Edward is 
one of only 60 individuals 
to be honored by the 
MacArthur Foundation since 
the grant program began. 

Amv Tacobson Yoffie. a 

research manager at Maritz 
Market Research, Inc. has 
received her MBA from the 
University of Missouri-St. 
Louis. She and her husband, 
Eric H. Yoffie '69, and 
daughter Adina, V/i, live in 
University City, Mo. 


Theodore S. Gup, married 
Peggy Ann Watts, Jime 6, 

After seven years of teaching 
in the Brookline, Mass. 
public schools, Robert A. 
Lcvii! has begun a twelve- 
month program at Carnegie- 
Mellon University toward a 
Doctor of Arts degree in 
history, with an emphasis 
on curriculum development. 
Robert hopes to obtain a 
leadership position in 
curriculum or a school 
pnncipalship upon 

Dr. Karen Giguere Louie has 
completed her training in 
internal medicine and begun 
an oncology fellowship at 
the National Institute of 

Susan P. MacEachron has 

been named general tax 
counsel for Exxon Chemical 
Americas' tax department in 

Warren Soiffer is a foreign 
service officer with the 
Communication Agency 
in Lahore, Pakistan. 

On May 24 lason Worth was 
admitted to the New York 
State Bar Association. 


Allen E. Keme has accepted 
the position of senior 
internal consultant at the 
corporate headquarters of 
Southern Pacific 
Communications in 
Burlingame, Calif. Southern 
Pacific's major product line 
is "Sprint" long distance 
telephone service. 

Robert Alan Mark and lill 
Gordon Mark '75 annoimce 
a new addition to the 
family — Alexandra Lauren, 
bom lune 25, 1982. Bob, Jill, 
(amie and Alexandra have 
moved to a new home in 

Dr. Jules Rosen married 
Anne Heyliger Jacobson May 
30 at The Carriage House, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. Jules is 
completing his residency in 
psychiatry at the Umversity 
of Michigan, and will be on 
the staff of the department of 
psychiatry and a clinical 
instructor at the Veterans 
Administration Hospital in 
Ann Arbor. 

Judith Wildman received her 
J.D. degree, cum laude, from 
Benjamin N. Cardozo School 
of Law in June 1981 and is 
now an associate with 
Graubard Moskovitz 
McGoldrick Dannett & 
Horowitz in New York City. 
She IS married to Dr 
Kenneth S. Bannerman. 

And we invite you to submit articles, photos or 
nev^s of interest to the Alumni Office for review. 
Notes and articles received up to April 1 will be 
considered for the summer issue. 





Having finished his 
residency in internal 
medicine at New England 
Medical Center, Hr. Steven 
B. Gerber is serving a 
fellowship in cardiology at 
Cedars-Sinai Medical 
Center, Los Angeles. 

Barbara Seeal Goldberg and 
her husband, Jerry, announce 
the birth of their son, 
Matthew Saul, April 30 in 

Michael S. Smiley received 
an LL.M. from New York 
University School of Law, 
and has been appointed 
assistant counsel in the law 
departmenf ^.t The Travelers 
Insurance Companies in 
Hartford, Conn. 

Brandeis Degree &. Class Year 

Please check here if address is different from mailing label. 

Please return to 

Alumni Office, Brandeis 


Waltham, Massachusetts 


Please return this form to the 
Alumni Office with items for 
"Class Notes." 

Large classes and mobile alumni 
make it increasingly difficult to 
keep in touch. We depend on 
you to send us material on 
degrees, honors, occupations, 
general activities, marriages, 
births, deaths and changes of 

Ann Bergmann Wilken 

announces the birth of her 
son, Joshua, January 23, 

Catherine C. Wright received 
her J.D. from New England 
School of Law in June. She is 
employed as accounts 
payable coordinator for New 
England Deaconess Hospital. 


David C. Bloomfield is a 

J.D./MPA candidate at 
Princeton University's 
Woodrow Wilson School, 
studying child welfare and 
education. Next year he 
will return to Columbia 
University Law School. 

kcith \. Drzal has been 
appointed assistant actuary 
in the group department at 
The Travelers Insurance 
Companies of Hartford, 
Conn., where he has been 
employed since 1977. 

After being ordained a rabbi 
by Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion 
in May, Debra L. Jacobson 
has been serving as associate 
director of Hillel at 
Washington University, St. 

Steven Kaplan lives in 
Jerusalem and teaches 
African history and 
comparative religion at the 
Hebrew University. Steven 
and his wife, Ruthie 
Horowitz of Rehovot, are 
expecting their first child 
in November 

Last spring Michael Leshin 
graduated from a joint degree 
program, with a J.D. from 
Boston University School of 
Law and an MCRP from 
Harvard University's 
Kennedy School of 
Government. Michael is 
lecturing in the Legal 
Studies program at Brandeis 
under a Joshua Guberman 
Fellowship during the fall 
1982 term. He is also 
workmg as a law clerk for 
the Superior Court of 

Ellen Aschkinasi Mark and 
Jonathan Mark '72 armounce 
the birth of a son, Joshua 
Louis, June 7, 1982. 

Peretz Rodman has been 
named to the first group of 
Jerusalem Fellows by the 
World Zionist Organization. 
He and his wife, Miriam 
Laufer '"'9, will be living in 
Jerusalem for the next three 
years while Peretz studies 
Hebrew and applied 
linguistics. They are 
expecting their first child 
in November. 

In July Ruth Sack assumed 
responsibilities as associate 
director of admissions at The 
Art Institute of Boston. 

Jonathan D. Sama has been 
awarded an American 
Council of Learned Societies 
Fellowship for Studies in 
Modem Society and Values. 
Jonathan is assistant 
professor of American Jewish 
history at Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati, as well 
as academic advisor to the 
Center for the Study of the 
American Jewish 
Expenence. His most recent 
book is entitled People Walk 
on Their Heads: Moses 
Weinberger's lews and 
Judaism in New York 
(Holmes & Meier|. 

Philip Sirkin, executive 
editor for WHDH Radio in 
Boston, won honorable 
mention in the radio, top 50 
markets category of the 
Champion Media Awards for 
Economic Understanding. 
His entry was entitled 
"Boston . . . What's Gone 


Davis Baird graduated with 
a Ph.D. in philosophy from 
Stanford University last 
June. After spending a year 
as visiting assistant professor 
at the University of Arizona, 
he took a tenure track 
position as assistant 
professor at the University of 
South Carolina. 

After leaving his law 
practice in Boston and 
completing a one-year 
instructorship at the 
University of Miami Law 
School, Arthur Chaykin 
became assistant professor of 
law at Northern Illinois 
University College of Law. 

Margie Merlin Holzer and 

her husband, Aaron, 
announce the birth of a son, 
Jesse Merlin Holzer, March 
31, 1982. Jesse joins his 
sister, Morgan Samantha. 

Lewis Kachur delivered a 
paper on Stuart Davis at the 
fifth annual Whitney 
Museum symposium April 
12. Lewis' catalogue essay 
on French futurist Felix Del 
Marie was published in 
conjunction with an 
exhibition at the Carus 
Gallery in New York, April- 

Joel Levinc and Ellen 
Shapiro were married June 
20 in Kensington, Md. Joel 
teaches piano in the Boston 
area, and Ellen is studying 
violin at the New England 

Dan Littman is an economic 
analyst for the Federal 
Reserve Bank of Cleveland. 
Dan and his wife, Heidi 
Libner Littman '79, have one 
child, Rebecca, bom m 
Febmary 1980. 

Jonathan A. Miller was 
ordained a rabbi by Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish 
Institute of Religion in May, 
and began serving in his new 
position as associate rabbi 
at the Stephen Wise Free 
Synagogue, Los Angeles, last 

Thomas L. Schmidt was 

recently awarded a DVM 
degree from Purdue 
University School of 
Vetennary Medicine. He 
is now in practice as an 
associate of Drs. Irving 
Zimmerman and Richard 
Vaigoshe m New York City. 

Dennis Slavin received his 
MFA degree in musicology 
from Princeton University in 
1981. He was appointed 
instructor in music at 
Dickinson College for the 
1982-83 academic year 


Kenneth Brickman was 

ordained a rabbi by the 
Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion 
in New York City May 30. 
Ken will serve as associate 
rabbi/educator at the 
Larchmont Temple in 
Larchmont, N.Y. His wife, 
Gwen Marcus '78, is an 
entertainment lawyer with 
the New York law firm of 
Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, 
Wharton &. Garrison. 

David Cornell, 1980 
graduate of Hofstra School 
of Law, announces his 
engagement to Miss Kathryn 
S. Sank, a registered stock 
broker employed by 
Shearson/American Express. 
David, who has worked 
professionally for the Screen 
Actors Guild and as an 
executive for United Artists, 
is now planning a transition 
to law firm practice. 

Rena Gray Fein and Robert 
Fein announce the birth of 
their daughter, Elana Michal, 
April 4, 1982. Robbie is a 
lawyer m Boston and Rena is 
on leave from her teaching 
position at Solomon 
Schechter Day School to 
be with Elana. 

Karen Helfand received her 
MBA from the University of 
Chicago in June, and is now 
a consultant with the health 
care group at Alexander 
Grant & Co. 

In June Dr. Jerrold Laskin 

graduated from The 
Hahnemann Medical 
College of Philadelphia with 
academic distinctions in 
surgery. Jerry will complete a 
surgical residency at 
Fitzsimmons Army Medical 
Center, Aurora, Colo. 

Dr. David S. Weiss received 
his M.D. from Yale 
University in May 1981 and 
completed a year of surgical 
internship at Yale-New 
Haven Hospital. David is 
now a resident in orthopedic 
surgery at New York 
University Medical Center. 


Mark Wiklund married 
Maureen McGinley April 17, 
1982. Jonathan Glasser '79 

served as an usher. Mark and 
Maureen both work at PWS 
Publishers in Boston, and are 
the proud parents of two 
Siamese kittens. Josh and 

Patricia Zadok, who is 

presently deputy manager of 
the creative department of 
Ogilvy & Mather, N.Y., will 
soon begin an apprenticeship 
at that company to become a 
television producer 

Deborah Zecher has been 
appointed assistant rabbi- 
director of education at 
Westchester Reform Temple 
in Scarsdale, N.Y. In May 
Deborah was ordained a 
rabbi by Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion in New York. 


After graduating from the 
University of Pennsylvania 
School of Medicine in May, 
Dr. Susan Ann Friedman has 
begun her internship at the 
Children's Hospital of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 
On lune 6 she married Dr. 
Fred Weinblatt, a neurologist 
in private practice. 

Since making aliyah to 
Jerusalem in November, 
David Goldman has been 
studying Bible, Talmud, 
Jewish law and philosophy 
at a yeshiva, "Ohr 
Somayach." David reports 
that he is not alone — Ron 
Levitt "'"' is also studying at 
Ohr Somayach — and that he 
enjoys living in Israel. 

Judy Groner has been 
appointed educational 
director of Temple Beth 
Hillel in Wynnewood, Pa., 
after three years as a tedcher 
at Solomon Schechter Day 
Schools in New York and 

Laura Bailen Kaufman 

graduated from Tufts Dental 
School in June. Her husband, 
Howard A. Kaufman '76, 
graduated from Boston 
University Law School last 
year and is now associated 
with the law firm of 
Wasserman & Salter m 

Robert A. Koenigsberg 

received a Doctor of 
Osteopathy degree from 
Philadelphia College of 
Osteopathic Medicine in 

After spending three years 
on the west coast night club 
circuit with Rod Dibble, 
Maryann Leshin has changed 
her tune. She has moved to 
Oakland, Calif., and is now 
working her way up through 
the mail room of Woodward 
& Clyde, a plannmg 
consultant firm in San 

Don Loeb has graduated 
from University of Michigan 
Law School and is clerking 
for Justice Charles Levin 
(Michigan Supreme Court) 
and working towards an 
M.A. in philosophy at the 
University of Michigan. 
Barbara Rachelson is 
executive director of the 
Michigan Network of 
Runaway and Youth Services 
in Lansing, Mich. 

Dr. Paul Resnick is serving a 
residency in medicine at the 
University of Califomia- 
Irvine V.A. Medical Center 
in Long Beach. Paul received 
his Doctor of Medicine 
degree from the Medical 
College of Wisconsin- 
Milwaukee in May. 

Roberta Weiss married 
Jeffrey Daskin m June. The 
couple is living in Silver 
Spring, Md. 

Dr. Gil Wernovsky received 
his M.D. from Hershey 
Medical School in May, and 
is now serving a residency in 
pediatrics at The New York 


Andrea Cooper was 
awarded a fellowship to 
Northwestern University's 
Graduate School of Radio, 
TV and Film, where she is 
working towards her 
master's degree. 

After receiving her J.D. from 
Boston Umversity School of 
Law, Nancy GottlieJi began a 
one-year clerkship with the 
Maryland Court of Appeals 
in August. Nancy's note 
entitled "Vitek v. Jones: 

Transfer of Prisoners to 
Mental Institutions" was 
published in the summer 
1982 edition of the 
American lournal of Law 
Sk Medicine (vol.8:2). 

Steven Greenfield graduated 
from Harvard Business 
School in June, and has 
accepted a position as 
assistant to the president of 
Jiffy Lube International, a 
franchiser of specialty auto 
care centers, in Baltimore. 

Norman Edgar McFarlane, Jr. 

graduated from Vermont Law 
School in May, and is now an 
associate with the law firm 
of Toaz, Buck, Myers in 
Huntington, Long Island. 

Debra Rittneris working 
at the University of 
where she trains academic 
users on working with the 
computer and its program 
packages. Debbie graduated 
from Boston University's 
public management MBA 
program in May. 

Robert Schuckit received his 
J.D. from the University of 
Wisconsin Law School in 
June, and is now an associate 
with Keck, Mahin and Cate 
in Chicago. 

Renee Schwartz is a fourth- 
year medical student at New 
York Medical College in 
Valhalla. She is engaged to 
Dr Robert D. Kaye. 


In Jime Ruth Assaf mamed 
Stephane Nataf of Paris, 
France. Ruth received her 
MSJ from Northwestern 
University in June 1981, and 
Stephane received his MBA 
from Northwestern in June 

Francis J. Donoghue is 

studying for liis doctorate in 
English literature at Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Cynthia D. Fisher is working 
as an assistant to New York 
City Council president Carol 
Bellamy while attending 
New York Law School. 
Cynthia's work includes 
public policy analysis and 

legal research. She is also a 
speech writer and an issue 
director for Robert 
Zimmerman '"^6, who is 
a 1982 Congressional 
candidate from Long Island. 

Nancy Fixler announces 
her engagement to Paul L. 
Abrams. Nancy is enrolled 
in the Master of Social Work 
program at Simmons 
College, and her fiance is 
vice president of sales at Star 
Printing Co. in Brockton, 
Mass. A May 1983 wedding 
is planned. 

William Gorin received 

his master's degree from 
Stanford University 
Graduate School of Business 
and is now associated with 
the corporate finance 
department of E.E Hutton & 
Company, New York City. 

On June 26 Donald R. Hogue 
married Paula J. Lafond, a 
graduate of Rhode Island 
College and teacher at 
Mount Saint Charles 
Academy in Woonsocket, 
R.I. Donald is also employed 
by Mount Saint Charles as a 
teacher of journalism, 
theatre and English on the 
secondary level. 

Scott Israel received his M.S. 
in electrical engineering, 
with a concentration in 
optics, from Northeastern 
Umversity in June. 

Lauren Beth Levy married 
Irwin Barry Miller August 
29, 1982. Lauren is a third- 
year law student at the 
University of Miami and 
Irwin IS the purchasing agent 
for the Miami branch of 
Consolidated Electrical 

No Frets Barred (FF 267), an 
album of bluegrass and other 
acoustic music produced and 
arranged by Orrin Star, was 
recently released on Flying 
Fish Records. The record 
features Orrin on guitar, 
banjo, mandolin and voice. 
In May, he and his 
"supporting cast" completed 
a 22-date European tour with 
appearances in Belgium, 
France, Germany and 




Peter Allen's "Paintings of 
Elderly at the Piety Comer 
Nursing Home" was 
displayed at the gallery of 
the Nucleo Eclettico Theater 
in Boston, June 29-July 31. 

Melissa Spi\ak has been 
appointed account assistant 
in the public relations 
department of Schneider 
Parker Jakuc, Inc. in Boston. 
In her new position, Melissa 
is responsible for 
coordinating internal public 
relations activities and client 

Where there's a Will, 

there's a way 

to remember Brandeis 

In your Will, your care and concern for 
the future of Brarideis University can 
be translated into financial support in 
the form of a bequest. 

Bequests come in all shapes and sizes 
including monetary gifts, securities, 
property and works of art. Whether 
your gift is large or small, it will help 
to ensure the academic excellence of 
Brandeis for generations to come. 

For more information without 
obligation, be sure to send for our new 
brochure, "Share in the Future 
Through Your Will." Just write or call 
Joseph E. Coiield, Director of Planned 
Giving, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts 02254, 617- 


Andrew Billingsley (Ph.D., 
Heller), president of Morgan 
State University (Baltimore), 
received the degree of Doctor 
of Letters, honoris causa. 
from Mercy College m 
Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., May 30. 


Yehuda Yannav (MFA, Music 
Composition) is associate 
professor of music theory 
and composition and 
conductor of the 
contemporary music 
ensemble at the University 
of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He 
received a Fulbnght Award 
for 1982-83, and is spending 
the year as guest composer 
at the Staatliche Hochschule 
fiir Musik in Stuttgart. 


Former Boston University 
professor Ruth Miller Jacobs 

(M.A., Sociology '66; Ph.D., 
Sociology) has been 
appointed professor and 
chair of the Sociology 
Department at Clark 
University, Worcester, Mass. 

David I. Owen (M.A., 
Mediterranean Studies '66; 
Ph.D., Mediterranean 
Studies) was promoted to 
full professor of ancient Near 
Eastern history and 
archaeology at Cornell 
University, where he has 
been teaching since 1974. He 
has published three books 
this year: Neoswnenan 
Archival Texts primarily 
from Nippur and Studies on 
the Civihzation and Culture 
of Nuzi and the Humans in 
honor of Ernest R. Lacheman 
(with M.A. Morrison), both 
published by Eisenbrauns; 
and Selected Ur III Texts 
from the Harvard Semitic 
Museum, published by 
Unione Accademica 
Nazionale, Rome. 


Victor P. Hamilton (M.A., 
Mediterranean Studies '69; 
Ph.D., Mediterranean 
Studies) has written an 
introductory guide to the 
first five books of the Old 
Testament — Handbook on 
the Pentateuch — published 
by Baker Book House, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 


Bartholemew P. Schiavo 

(Ph.D., American 
Civilization) was appointed 
dean of the college at Roger 
Williams College, Bristol, 
R.I. in July. Bartholemew has 
been at Roger Williams for 
nearly 13 years, as acting 
dean of the college since 
February, and earlier as 
assistant to the dean of the 
college, registrar, and a 
member of the faculty. 


Karen Elise Fields (M.A., 
Sociology '73; Ph.D., 
Sociology) has been 
appointed a fellow at the 
Mary Ingraham Bunting 
Institute of Radcliffe 
College. The fellowship will 
enable Karen to pursue her 
project, entitled "I Had a 
Dream: The Sacred and 
Profane in Charismatic 
Religion," in a 
community of women. 

Viigil Thomson's musical 
portrait of Boston-area 
composer |. Rodney Lister 
(M.A., Music) premiered at a 
concert by Dinosaur Annex 
Music Ensemble March 
14 at First and Second 
Church, Boston. Rodney, 
who IS on the faculty of 
Emerson College, has been 
composer, pianist and music 
coordinator of Dinosaur 
Annex since the group's 
inception in 1976. 


Joseph S. Topek (M.A., 
Jewish Communal Service), 
former director of B'nai 
B'rith Hillel Foundation at 
Virginia Commonwealth 
University, is now director of 
that organization at State 
University of New York- 
Stony Brook. 

'63 44 

Ellen Ann Lewis died 
January 9, 1982 after a long 
illness. In 1966 Ellen 
received an A.M. degree in 
Spanish literature and 
language from Brown 
University. She remained 
active in her field, and was a 
member of the American 
Association of Teachers of 
Spanish and Portuguese. 
Ellen is survived by her 
parents, Mr and Mrs. Noah 
Lewis, by a brother, a sister, 
two nephews and two 


Ann Lorenz Van Zanten 

died August 9, 1982. 


Nancy Kamerow died 

August 5, 1982. 



Di. Benjamin Lee Gordon, II, 

'G(M.A., Biology) died Apnl 
19, 1982. Besides his degree 
from Brandeis, Benjamin 
earned an A.B. in biology 
from Rutgers University; a 
Ph.D. m bacteriology from 
the University of California- 
Berkeley; and an M.D. from 
the University of British 
Columbia m I97I. He held 
many academic and 
professional positions in the 
field of medicine/ 
bactenology. His most recent 
position was as a consultant 
m immunology and 
immunhaematology at 
Tnpler Army Medical 
Center, U.S. Army in the 
Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
Ben is survived by his wife, 
R.A. Tnsnowati Gordon; two 
sons, Cyrus Hertzl Gordon, 
n, and Maurice Bear Gordon, 
II; and a daughter, 
Sorayawati Gordon. 

Brandeis University's 

New Pooled Life Income Fund 


'Making a gift to the 
Fooled Life Income Fund 
has many financial benefits 
hut, equally important, 
it is a creative way to fulfill 
our philanthropic 
intentions for Brandeis/' 

Marcia and Matthezv Simons 
Newton Centre, Massachusetts 

Join the many who have chosen this way 
to provide for the future of Brandeis. 
Your gift to the Pooled Life Income Fund 
will he invested to produce for you: 






Attractive rate of 


Elimination of capital 

lifetime income 


for loved ones after 
your death 

gains tax 



Immediate income 

No investment worries 

tax deduction 

Mail to: 

Send today for our 

Joseph E. Co field 

free brochure 

Director of 
Planned Giving 

and discover how the 



Brandeis University 

Pooled Life Income Fund 
can benefit you! 

Formore personalized information please furnish the 
follouung details. This loill allow us to calculate the 
charitable tax deduction that you will realize by making a 
gift to the Fund. All information will remain confidential. 

or call collect 

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1st beneficiary: 




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2nd beneficiary: 





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Brandeis Univerat\^ Press 

"The exploration of truth to its innermost parts" 

Alexander Altmaiin 



Essays in 

Jewish Intellectual 


One of the world's outstanding Jewish 
scholars offers here a selection thai 
demonstrates the range of his thought, 
stretching across the entire spectmni of 
Jewish creativity from the Hellenistic to the 
modem period. The essavs were chosen 
with the intent of providing a glimpse at the 
variety of \\ays in which Jews responded to 
the penasive influence of the cultures to 
which they have been exposed over the last 
two millennia of their history. Significant in 
the selection is the openness with which the 
Jewish mind encountered each period and 
assimilated what was suitable, thus 
articulating new modes of human thought. 
Each of the fourteen pieces has been re\ised 
arirl updated since its original appearance. 
.\le.\ander .\ltniann s works have been 
characterized as ""seminal contributions to 
all areas of Jewish thought' and ""unifomilv 
significant and e.xciling bv his colleagues, 
w ho v\ ill join others in welcoming this new 
collection of important work. 


Kssays in Jewish intellectual History 
.Alexander Altmann 

The .Vlind of the Founder 

Sources of the 
Political Thought of 
James .Madison. 
Revised edition 
Marvin .Meyers, ed 


The Americanization of the Synagogue 


Leon .\. Jick 

Energy and the Environment 

A Stmciural .\nalvsis 
Anne P. Carter, ed 


Kabbalah anil .\n 
Leo Bronstein 

The .Model Country 

Jose Batlle y Ordonez of I'niguav. 


.Milton I. N'anger 


Images and Ideas in .American Culture 

The Functions of Criticism 
Essavs in Memory of Philip Rah\ 
Arthur Edelstein, ed. 


The .Modernization of French Jewry 
Consistory and Community in tJie 
Nineteenth Centur\ 
Phyllis Cohen Albert 

A Community in Conflict 
Frankfurt Society in the 
Seventeenth and 
Early Eighteenth Centuries 
Gerald Lyman Soliday 

A Testament of .VIchemy 
Being the Re\elauons of 
Morienus to Khalid ibn 
Vazid iliii \Iu awivva 
Lee Stavenhagen, ed. and tr. 

Providing Adequate Retirement Inconu' 

Pension Reform in the L nited States and 


James Schuiz, et al. 

University Press of New England 

Hanover and London 

Brandeis University is part of 
Lni\ersitv Press of New England, whose 
other member institutions are 

Brown L'niversity. Clark I iiiversity. 

Dartmouth College. 

L Iiiversity of New Hampshire. University of 

Rhode Island. Tufts University, and 

L niversilN of \ erinonl. 

Brandeis Review 

Brandeis University 

Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 

Nonprofit Organization 

U.S. Postage 


Permit Number 15731 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Address correction requested 

Brandeis Review 




Solving the 
Problem on 
the Local 







Why Are 


Jews Often 

Afraid to 




In Search 
Quarks. . 

Spring 1983 

Volume 3 

Number 2 

Join Inter- 

Evangelical Brandeis 
Politics Delegation 
Visits China 

Needed in 
Health Care 

Letters to the 

Dear folks, 

I just got the Fall '82 issue 
of Brandeis Review. The 
magazine is good, and 
getting better. 

I now look at it with a 
somewhat different eye. 
Since July '82 I have been 
the dean of Columbia 
College. My wife. Amy '64, 
and I have been living in 
Manhattan since 1978 when 
I became a professor of 
biological sciences here. Our 
daughter Marya is now a 
senior in high school, and 
the process of applying and 
waiting for admission to 
college is preoccupying her 
and us as well. 

Even though we are now in 
competition, I look forward 
to your thriving in the 
future. Keep up the good 

Robert E. Pollack 


Ph.D., Biology '66 

New York, N.Y. 

Dear Editor: 

1 simply want to thank you 
for a fine Fall 1982 Brandeis 
Review. In particular, I 
would like to express my 
appreciation for articles like 
Kriss Fialpem's which keep 
alumni like myself in touch 
with the sensibilities, 
activities, and aspirations of 
an ever-changing 
undergraduate community. 
Please pass this letter on to 
Kriss as an expression of my 

Best wishes. 

Bob Bersson '68 
Assistant Professor of Art 
James Madison University 
Harrisburg, Virginia 

Dear Editor: 

I want to congratulate 
Professor John Bush Jones for 
writing a brilliant article, 
"Musicals of the 'Me 
Generation,'" which 
appeared in my recent issue 
of the Brandeis Review. It is 
the best piece I've ever read 
in the Review. 

Flis recognition of the 
"Psychological Musical," 
"with emphasis ... on the 
psychology of the central 
character" is an important 
perception and analysis, not 
only of a development in the 
musical, but of another 
uniquely American focus: 
the ultimate importance of 
the psychology of the 
individual. Any society is a 
sum total — not of 
ideologies — but of 
individuals. The human, is 
what counts. Thus, this 
particular sort of musical he 
has identified is of the 
utmost importance to 
anyone wishing to 
understand our society. It is 
a healthy signal. 

He understands all of that, 
obviously, and his larger 
view of the psychological 
musical as part of the overall 
development of the musical 
art form should make his 
students feel lucky to have 
him for a teacher. 

Louis Golden '72 
Waban, Massachusetts 


Ann Lorenz Van Zanten '72 
(Deaths, Fall 19821 was 
killed by terrorists at Jo 
Goldenberg's restaurant in 
Pans. As those who were 
close to her continue to 
grieve, we must take the 
time to bring pressure to bear 
on governments which 
continue to harbor, aid and 
abet criminals. Time 
magazine said of the attack 
that "Paris has become the 
undisputed center of 
terrorism. . . . Traditionally, 
the country has been known 
as a land of asylum. It has 
favored an open visa system, 
a loose border policy and lax 
airport checks. Mitterand 
has adopted a less stringent 
policy toward terrorists ..." 

Ann and I attended Brandeis 
during a portion of its 
tumultuous protest years. 
We learned firsthand that 
protests did not change the 
world, but that our efforts 
did bring an awareness of 
issues to people who would 
otherwise not have thought 
beyond country and duty. 

If "working within the 
establishment for a better 
society is quite appealing to 
many Brandeis students" as 
Kriss Halpem points out 
(Brandeis Today: A Student's 
Perspective, Fall 1982), then 
please reflect on the tragedy 
of Ann's useless death. We 
must influence our 
government now to effect 
enforcement of human 
restrictions worldwide. No 
person has the right to take 
the life of others in order to 
further a cause (no one 
assumed responsibility for 
the Goldenberg attack). 
Waiting for attention- 
grabbing headlines of 
massacres, martial law, 
fanaticism or invasion is too 
late to prompt us to action. 

Debra Kay '73 
Emeryville, California 

Brandeis Review 

Spring 1983 

Volume 3 

Number 2 

Solving world hunger on the 
local level 

Reaching the Hungry 

by Ruth S. Morgenthau 


Why are American Jews afraid to 
challenge Israeli policy; 

Cliched Responses to 

Israeli Policy 

Mock Jewish Moral Tradition 

by Gordon Fellman 


Brandeis physicists participate in 
major international experiment 

Particle Physics: 
In Search of Quarks 

by Jerry Rosenswaike 


What has happened to health care 
in America 

Drastic Treatment 

Needed in Urban Health Care 

by Alan P. Sager 


President Bernstein leads group 
on official trip 

Brandeis Delegation 
Visits China 


The influence of the moral 

Evangelical Politics: 
Disruptive But Not Deadly 

by Stephen J. Whitfield 


A history of excellence 

Music at Brandeis 
Hits the Right Notes 

by Debra Schatz 


Faculty Notes 


Promotions and Appointments 


Brandeis institutes new 
payment plan 

Innovative Parent 
Loan Program 


A new interdisciplinary study 

Concentration in European Cultural 
Studies Receives Approval 

by Edward Engelberg 


Two photographers 

Alumni Profiles: 
The Differing Perspectives 
Henry Grossman '58 and 
Nicolo Damiano '80 


University News: 
Brandeis in Brief 



Varney Hits His Stride 


Chapter events 

Alumni Area Activities 


A reminder 

National Dues Update 


Class Notes 


Library Dedication 


The Brandeis Review 

students, friends, 


Design Director 


Director of Alumni 

Vol. 3., No. 2., 

parents, faculty and 

Nada Samuels 

Dietmar R. Winkler 


Relations and the 

Spring 1983 


Kevin H. Strauss 

Alumni Fund 

The Brandeis Review 



Gladys R. Jacobson 

(ISSN 0273-7175) 


lohn P. Redgate, Ir 

Darlene Ferreira 

Alumni Editorial 

IS pubhshed by 

Send address 

lerry Rosenswaike 


Alimmi News Writer 

Brandeis University, 

changes to 

Debra Schatz 


Nina L. Baron '77 

Jane E. Goldman '74 

415 South Street, 

The Brandeis Review, 


Barbara Krasin 


Brandeis University, 

Shirley Meymaris 

Kravitz '57 

Massachusetts 02254 

415 South Street, 

with free distribution 


to 30,000 alumni. 

Massachusetts 02254. 

Reaching The Hungry 

by Ruth S. Morgenthau 

Ruth S. Morgenthau, Adlai Stevenson 
Professor of Politics, is president of 
CILCA's Board of Directors. She 
served on the US delegation to the 
United Nations, 1977-1981, and on 
US delegations to Food and 
Agriculture Organization 
Conferences and Councils in 1977, 
1978 and 1979. She has written 
extensively on politics and 

development, and recently organized 
two international workshops on food 
policy at the Rockefeller 
Foundation's international 
conference center in Bellagio, Italy. 



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The number of people in the world 
who live on the edge of famine varies 
according to who is doing the 
counting. The international Food and 
Agriculture Organization (FAO) 
estimates 450-500 million. One 
prediction has that figure rising to a 
billion by the end of the century. And 
the US Presidential Commission on 
Hunger has a figure somewhere in 

Regardless which figure one chooses, 
it is an appalling one, given that we 
know enough food is produced in the 
world to feed everybody and that we 
have the technology to solve the 
hunger problem. These two facts 
contrast hunger at the end of the 20th 
century with hunger in earlier times. 
While in the past the conditions 
leading to hunger were beyond human 
control, they are within human 
control now. Therefore, in a sense, 
hunger today is man-made, a 
symptom of institutional, not 
environmental, failure. 

Of course, a great deal of international 
work has been done since the end of 
World War II to reduce hunger in the 
world. The FAO, the World Food 
Program, the International Fund for 
Agricultural Development, the World 
Food Council are but four of the 
international structures which, with 
very large staffs and enormous 
budgets, are doing much to organize 
the international food market so that 
malnutrition is reduced and 
starvation is avoided. 

On the whole, the work done by these 
international agencies is terribly 
expensive and deals with food which 
is in international trade — constituting 
roughly 10 percent of the total food 
provided and consumed in the world. 

The hunger problem exists in the 
realm of the remaining 90 percent. 
That food is locally or regionally 
produced, marketed and consumed 
and is mainly marketed within 
countries, not among them. This 
means very limited areas, often 
within regions or even clusters of 
villages, so techniques are required 
that are quite different from those 
of centralized international 

Hunger is decentralized and that is 
why it is so terribly hard to deal with. 
What is needed is a form of 


S0 \P 

3 organization that liberates the energy 
of the people to help themselves and 
that reaches into traditional village 
social structures which I call a "food 
corps". That is very hard for people 
from centralized international 
bureaucracies to foster. 

I spent several years looking at the 
United Nations' structure to see 
whether food corps could come out of 
it, but one only has to consider 
budgets to see why the approach has 
to be nongovernmental. 

It costs at least $100,000 to field and 
mamtain an international expert for 
one year. It is not only a question of 
salary, which is large, but of transport, 
housing and so on; $100,000 is a 
modest estimate. 

A place like Mali, in West Africa, 
where hunger has been frequent and 
widespread since the time of the 
drought in the early 1970s, is the size 
of France and Germany combined and 
has 7,000-8,000 villages. How many 
"experts" would be needed? If you 
approached the problem there with 
the operating methods of the 
international organizations, the salary 
bill alone would run to hundreds of 
millions of dollars! There is not 
enough aid money available, now nor 
will there be in the future, for such 
UN-type budgets. 

But if the official international 
approaches will not do this work, the 
bilateral ones are often equally 
limited. Global structures working 
with national ones tend to reach as far 
as provincial cities but they do not 
manage to get to the villages, where 
the real problem lies. 

Therefore an operating concept is 
needed which takes into account the 
fact that the difficulties are human, 
not technical. There may be technical 
answers, but the basic problem is a 
human one and it is essentially a 
challenge to organize those who are 
hungry and those who know how to 
produce more food in a creative 

An earlier version of these ideas first 
came out in an op ed piece in the 
Brandeis justice (October 7, 1975). 
The ideas found their way into the 
McDougall Lecture delivered at the 
UN Food and Agricultural 
Organization in November 1977 by 

Ambassador Andrew Young and 
received a great deal of attention. In 
half a dozen African countries, 
including the Sahel region, Tanzania 
and Zimbabwe, it was decided to set 
up national food corps, separate from 
existing centralized services and using 
to some degree a voluntary principle 
that would help villages to organize 
themselves for food development. 

Unfortunately, the history of village 
development programs is one more of 
failures than of successes so the 
question arises how to help this kind 
of effort; what kind of technical 
support, communications network 
and liaison is needed to support the 
formation of national food corps? 

There are some successful examples 
to follow. One, called Plan Puebla, 
was started in Mexico by a small 
group of technically trained people 
who had participated in developing 
the seeds for the Green Revolution 
but had been appalled at the fact that 
their high-yield seeds had — if I can 
make a sweeping generalization — 
frequently contributed more to pink 
marble palaces than to meeting 
people's food, water and housing 
needs in the villages. 

So this group of refugees from the 
Green Revolution proceeded to build 
Plan Puebla, starting with about 
50,000 families in village 
communities. Without moving people 
off the land and by means of offering 
guidance based on the expression of 
the villagers' needs, these technicians 
were able to help the communities to 
double and even triple their food 
production and to increase their wealth. 

I recently visited Plan Puebla and it 
really is a remarkable program. In the 
space of a dozen years it has managed 
to bring about a dramatic change in 
the standard of living of people who 
previously were living on the edge of 
hunger and from whose villages there 
was a steady migration to Mexico City. 

But it was not easy. In the early days 
they had a rough, slogging time of it; 
they were not welcomed with open 
arms by the authorities and they were 
not overcome by offers of support. It is 
only now, after 12 years, that Plan 
Puebla has been recognized as having 
grasped a non-bureaucratic, 
decentralized, educational and 
hierarchical approach that could help 
solve the hunger problem in Mexico. 

Plan Puebla, then, is one pillar of the 
food corps concept. Another is the 
Sarvodaya movement in Sri Lanka, 
which is on a completely different 
wavelength. Plan Puebla was built by 
technicians, whereas Sarvodaya has a 
more spiritual orientation. 

The Sri Lanka movement was begun 
25 years ago by A.T. Ariyaratne, a 
science teacher whose students left 
the classroom and went out into the 
villages to start a program of direct 
action reinforcing village structures, 
institutions and productivity. 

Now the organization touches 3,000- 
3,500 villages. It has a very large staff, 
runs training and technical 
institutions and remains non- 
governmental. Not only has it 
achieved a great deal in the matter of 
productivity, but it has also been 
concemed with social services and 
equitable distribution. 

In 1980, an international liaison group 
was set up, Comite International de 
Liaison du Corps d'Alimentation 
(CILCA). Its work is based on a dozen 
principles that should underlie village 
self-help schemes. It has a board of 
nine people, from all continents, 
including the leaders of Puebla and 
Sarvadaya. Its executive secretary is 
Aly Cisse of Mali. 

CILCA began working on training, 
evaluation and technical backup for 
pilot projects that have evolved during 
the past couple of years. The 
Sarvodaya movement conducted a 
five-week training program in 
practical, village-level agricultural 
development for Africans from 
Senegal, Mali, Upper Volta, Gambia 
and Tanzania. Other courses followed. 
And the Mexican Graduate School at 
Chapingo has established three- 
month training courses for teams of 
African administrators and 
agricultural research specialists and 
extension officers who return home to 
implement specific projects. 

In 1982, village work began at Uyole 
in Tanzania, Wedza in Zimbabwe, and 
Hambantota in Sri Lanka. This was 
the work we had prepared for so 
eagerly. Village work in Mali began in 
June 1982. 

Toko Project Starts 

With colleagues — Africans, Sri 
Lankans, Mexicans, British and 
Dutch — we entered the village of 
Toko in the Segou region of Mali on 
June 19, 1982. Our mission was to 
install two Sri Lankan volunteers, 
Anula and Subasena da Silva. They 
planned to serve for two years among 
Toko villagers to help increase their 
food supply and improve the quality 
of their lives. Toko had no school, no 
dispensary, no maternity, no store, no 
pharmacy, no modern services of any 
kind. Water is a big problem, for Toko 
is in the Sahel, where rainfall is 
limited. Fuel and fodder are scarce and 
people are very poor; per capita 
income is $100 a year. When the 
harvest fails, many are 
undernourished. In preparation for our 
arrival and the start of this project. 
Toko villagers and the regional 
authorities had sunk a well and 
installed a pump. They welcomed us 
like family to help them formally 
start their project. 

Toko is a Bambara-speaking farming 
village, growing its own food, millet, 
sorghum, peanuts, and raising sheep, 
goats and chickens. The community 
is structured around its TON, 
including the Ton Tigui (chief), Tierno 
(judge), Keletigui (arbitrator), Famade 
(prince), Kamale Kountigui (leader of 
the young men), Sourogourou 
Kountigui (leader of young women), 
Djeli Mamary (prosecutor), Touraba 
(chief of the women) and the 
Dougoutigui (Supreme Chief). The da 
Silvas were to work with this 
structure; to help villagers develop 
themselves, they needed strong local 

We had travelled from Mali's capital 
city, Bamako, by car, and on the road 
to Segou we met the governor and his 
staff. Together we went to Toko, 12 
unpaved kilometers from Segou. We 
left our cars and walked on the dirt 
road to the village, accompanied by 
traditional rythmic drumming, sweet 
music plucked from the strings of the 
cora (a traditional African guitar) and 
harsh bangs of rifles shot into the air 
by hunters and veterans of past wars. 
Colorful banners floated in the breeze. 
Horsemen pranced before us, women 
brought gifts of grain, millet, sorghum 
and corn in dried calabashes. School 
children danced in welcome and 
clapped in time to the music. The 
football team ahead, in uniform, 
cheered us. High school students had 

come home from boarding school for 
the great occasion, and joined the 
village greeters who included a 
committee from the political party, a 
youth delegation, leaders of the 
women's association, the village 
counselors and the traditional chief. 
Before us was a communal 
"mechoui," a picnic of grilled whole 
lamb, millet, corn, peppers and 

We shook hands all around, joined the 
rifle dance of the hunters, and walked 
to the shaded open-air meeting area 
that stood before the volunteers' 
house. The villagers had built that 
house for the volunteers, with its two 
outhouses for cooking and for 
washing; and they had put up the 
meeting area, for they knew their 
future development work would 
involve many meetings with the Sri 
Lankan couple. 

Bila Sina Guindo, the commandant 
(administrator) of the central 
arrondissement, impeccable in his 
white suit with gold braid and Kepi 
hat, spoke first to the crowd of several 
hundred people. He mentioned "the 
spectre of hunger which is the greatest 
danger" in this Sahelian area. He 
spoke of CILCA's (Food Corps 
Programs International) view that 
"the classic way to fight hunger is to 
bring a prepared meal to poor 
countries, and it does them enormous 
damage . . . for it leads to a 
withdrawal of effort and energy by the 
population. ... It makes the recipient 
country a perpetual client of the 
donor. ..." 

After the governor. Chef de Bataillon 
Soumana Traore spoke, and 
introduced me as CILCA's president. 
Yaya Idrissa translated my French into 
Bambara as I described food corps and 
introduced the Sri Lankan couple. The 
villagers were delighted to hear that 
the da Silvas had just married and 
brought their love to Toko. They had 
many years of village development 
experience in their homeland and 
much to share with Mali rural 
communities. Subasena spoke: 
English to French to Bambara. The 
motivation to communicate was so 
high we knew they would manage to 
overcome the culture shocks. 

Hosts and guests moved on to the 
ceremonial picnic under the thatched 
meeting area, built of precious 

(because scarce) wooden branches. All 4 
were merry, in the general spirit of 
camaraderie and affection, until we 
saw two tears appear on Anula's face 
and roll down her cheeks. The sight of 
a whole roasted lamb shocked her, for 
as a Buddhist from a land of plentiful 
rainfall and bountiful vegetation, she 
never touched red meat. Her tears 
moved all of us, Maliens and visitors; 
"(;a me deballe. " cried the governor, 
all solicitude. We knew how big a step 
the da Silvas had taken to bring gifts 
of skill and empathy some 6,000 
miles from their sunny, tropical island 
to this dry, landlocked village of the 
African Sahel; how different were the 
customs! As Anula became weaker, 
Subasena became stronger, danced 
with the hunters and made a speech. 
To ease her strain, we brought Anula 
into her newly built home to rest; and 
with the governor and Fofana Traore 
of the office du Niger, we held a 
"summit" meeting to see how we 
could help. The men drew up a 
shopping list and hoped to comfort 
Anula with familiar food. Could we 
find coconut oil, the cooking oil of Sri 
Lanka; We drew a picture of a coconut 
and suggested pasting it on a bottle of 
local peanut cooking oil! That was the 
best we could do. Coconut palms 
could not grow in the dry conditions 
of the Sahel. The governor, eager to 
help, was all for finding a way to 
refrigerate the food, but the da Silvas 
said no, they were becoming part of 
the village. Refrigeration was low on 
the list of village needs; food 
production was the problem. 

As the moment of parting came, I left 
Anula my Swiss army knife and my 
hat. "May God grant them a good stay 
among us, and the birth of a child 
next year," said the governor, 
promising support. "May there be 
rain," he said, asking Allah's 
blessings. Building up production and 
human services in the village of Toko 
would not be easy, but the organizers 
of the village had already made a good 

Since we visited in June, the village 
has been hard at work and there are 
concrete results. The da Silvas wrote 
from Toko that there is now a pre- 
school attended by more than 50 
children, to whom Anula teaches 
daily the elements of nutrition, 
sanitation and culture as well as 
dance. Each child brings a 
contribution to the noon meal and all 


The CILCA Approach 

5 cook it together. This service to the 
children frees their mothers, much 
overworked vi'ith water carrying, 
child-bearmg, housework and farm 
labor, and gives them energy to do 
additional farm work while they 
know the children are well cared for. 
In addition, the da Silvas brought 
seeds from Sri Lanka, from ipilipil, 
planted them, and each household 
now is raising some ten trees with 
success. This variety of tree has a very 
deep tap root, gives quick shade, and 
fills the need for fodder and fuel. As 
these trees grow quickly, the village 
square is already becoming shaded 
from the relentless sun. To ipilipil, the 
administration has added tree stock 
from its nursery of local tree varieties. 
The women of Toko have also built a 
modest maternity and sent one of 
their numbers for a brief training 
course, as mid-wife, to Segou. A 
medical officer now visits Toko from 
time to time. The villagers are 
carrying out more intensive farming 
and hope for more grain, fruit, 
vegetables, and chickens. 

In January 1983, three young Maliens 
went to Sri Lanka to train for a year 
with the Sarvodaya Movement; upon 
their return, they will take the de 
Silva's place. From these small 
beginnings, a successful Malien self- 
help effort can grow. The plan is to 
multiply the work in Toko, in other 

To help multiplication, CILCA 
recently took one further step. Six 
Maliens went for training, as a team, 
in Mexico, in a course sponsored by 
the "Plan Puebla" group of the 
Graduate School of Chapingo. The six 
are experienced field technicians, 
engineers, hydrologists, agronomists, 
researchers and extension agents, with 
the background needed to place at the 
service of village efforts, like in Toko, 
some of the fruits of the Green 
Revolution. The Mali team is back 
home now; it visited Toko and is 
installed in six other villages of the 
Katibougou region. The team has a 
careful methodology — collecting base 
line data, learning from villagers, 
testing soil and seed, fertilizer and 
rainfall, varying planting techniques 
and calendars, evaluating — to be sure 
each project has the best knowledge 
and technology available. The hope is 
that each village's self-help efforts 
will be crowned with success. 

When I returned to the US, "Common 
people left out of the Green 
Revolution," a headline in the July 27, 
1982 Christian Science Monitor (p. 8), 
caught my eye, reminding me that 
CILCA came into being to help fill 
this critical gap. The large-scale 
investments made in research for the 
Green Revolution will not bear 
enough fruit if the facts are not 
adapted in the hands of small low- 
income farmers. Villagers know what 
has worked on their land and for their 
families. Hence they must determine 
agricultural goals and inputs, give and 
receive training, and be part of 
evaluation. Only thus will they be 
able to produce more and benefit from 
that production. 

If scientific knowledge is to have 
effect, it must relate to and grow out 
of the daily conditions poor farmers 
face. Thus it can take on the strength 
of their will to survive and prosper 
Research by farmers, on their farms, is 
a necessary complement to research 
in laboratories and experimental 
fields. If villagers with their detailed 
knowledge and renewed institutions 
join the development effort, 
governments will be able to do what 
is necessary to end hunger 

Between 1979 and 1982, CILCA 
attracted support from many sources 
and achieved its initial objective of 
launching food corps projects in 
several African countries: Tanzania, 
Zimbabwe and the Sahel. The hope is 
through these projects to stimulate a 
"domino effect" of village-level 
development. The first CILCA 
projects are in Africa because the gap 
is particularly large there between 
agricultural scientists and 
practitioners. Declining production 
and increasing population is the 
depressing record of the last several 
decades in most African countries. 

CILCA-sponsored projects are the 
result of national initiatives linked 
together and supported by CILCA's 
international liaison network. Each 
project bears a distinctive CILCA 
stamp. Each is directed toward the key 
CILCA goals of improving food 
production and nutrition standards at 
the village level. Each employs an 
approach in which adapted research 
and the reinforcement of farmers' 
institutions are given equal weight. 
Each gives priority to supporting 

women farmers. Each emphasizes 
practical training and low-cost inputs. 
And each project is unfolding, not 
according to a standardized blueprint, 
but as a learning process based upon 
careful evaluation of the fit between 
project activities and local 

For the future, CILCA has five specific 
goals: to evaluate and strengthen the 
ongoing national projects in Tanzania, 
Zimbabwe, Mali, Sri Lanka, and those 
about to be initiated in Upper Volta, 
Senegal and Niger; to help them 
achieve financial self-reliance and 
attract more support; to assist 
national CILCA liaison committees 
to multiply successful projects on a 
low-cost basis, using primarily 
national resources; to foster the 
establishment of two training centers 
in Africa; and to support national 
programs by strengthening CILCA 
headquarters and international 

CILCA emphasizes both technical 
knowledge and the social organization 
of farming. Its approach has already 
attracted substantial support, and it 
has the momentum to achieve a wide 
and permanent impact. CILCA has 
received support from many sources, 
particularly the people participating 
in the African projects, Sri Lankans 
and Mexicans, public aid 
organizations from Canada, Norway, 
the Netherlands, AID and private 
foundations like the Rockefeller 
Foundation and the Ford Foundation. 
Brandeis University, by supporting 
this work from the beginning, made a 
significant contribution to this fight 
against hunger. 

These projects are a beginning. The 
idea is to reach the hungry, and with 
them, to build up their institutions so 
they can help themselves. The 
knowledge exists for ending hunger in 
our lifetime. The frontier in this field 
is less in the laboratories than in the 
villages. The challenge is operational. 

See World Paper, February 1981, for an earlier draft of the 
first half of this matenal. Also see the 1979 and 1981 reports 
of CILCA's Bellagio meetings and CILCA's five-year plan. 

Cliched Responses to Israeli Policy Mock Jewish Moral Tradition 

by Gordon Fellman 

Gordon Fellman, 
associate professor of 
sociology, has often written, 
spoken and marched in 
behalf of peace movements. 
His latest article on that 
issue was a co-authored 
piece that appeared in The 
New York Times last fune. 

Professor Fellman is 
chairperson of Social Action 
Committee of the Society 
for the Study of Social 
Problems. He is also co- 
chair of the National Mid- 
East Task Force of New 
fewish Agenda. 

The recent invasion of Lebanon sparked unprecedented 
controversy in Israel and abroad. Never, since the founding 
of Israel in 1948, has the questioning of the nature and 
purpose of Zionism been so anguished and so vigorous. 
What had appeared to most Western people as a history of 
heroic Jewish self-defense is now seen by many as having 
turned into ugly, defiant, self-righteous nationalism. They 
believe that under Begin's leadership, Israel has exchanged 
ideals of justice and peace for conquest and expansion, 
rationalized in the name of peace and security. If so, Israel 
acts like many other nations, but the criticism and the 
soul-searching reflect standards generally not applied by 
or to any other nation. 

How might we handle the conflict between a desire for 
nation and normalcy on the one hand, and a commitment 
to an ethical vision which demands and expects "superior" 
behavior on the other? Many Jews delight in the 
restoration of national power and are glad to support those 
who administer it. They consequently accuse critics of 
Israel's policies of ill will toward Israel and Jews. But there 
are others who experience an unbearable conflict between 
the founding ideals of Zionism and present Israeli political 

In an effort to cling to comfort and communal consensus 
in their thinking, most people, challenged to defend their 
actions and beliefs, fall upon cliches. It is easier to rely on 
frozen formulas of explanation than to submit to the rigor 
and discomfort of analysis that can lead to recognizing 
changes in history and new possibilities. 

In turn, the trite responses to difficult questions serve 
the purposes of establishment figures who encourage 
unthinking loyalty from constituents. Jewish elites, 
like most others, find informed, thoughtful criticism 
threatening to their positions and their interests. They 
encourage cliched thinking to divert attention from 
legitimate ethical concerns. 

Jews have political power now for the first time in almost 
two millennia; perhaps understandably, we are not yet 
accustomed to power. For this and other reasons, we 
have been reluctant to engage very fully in the kinds of 
discussions about proper uses of power that would do 
justice to our ethical tradition. Cliched thinking about 
Israel serves as a pitiable substitute for that tradition; 
it mocks it. 

The battle between cliches and critical reflection 
represents a continuing conflict in Jewish history and 
culture going back at least three thousand years — a 
conflict between nationalism and prophecy, or more baldly, 
between power and ethics. 

Some three millennia back, the Hebrew tribes approached 
Samuel, their judge-prophet leader, and demanded a king, 
because all the other peoples had a king. With a king, 
Samuel told them, they would suffer the trappings of 
kingship — nationalism and all its vain, destructive 
consequences. The people insisted, and Samuel knew 
that his own authority was on the line. He chose Saul, a 
shepherd he thought he could control, to be the king. But 
Saul had a mind and a will of his own, and the nation- 
building that he began continued under David and 
Solomon and their heirs, midst much strife and tragedy. 

The prophets, while rarely hostile to nationalism, have for 
millennia offered not only the Jewish alternative to sheer, 
unprincipled nation-building but also they have presented 
the world-historical alternative to the conventions of 
national behavior. When the Jews were in exile in 
Babylonia, the prophets rendered a remarkable judgment. 

7 From our modern, rational perspective, their presence in 
Babylonia was a consequence of Jews having lost the war. 
And those who lose, the conventional wisdom claims, 
do so because they are the weaker party. 

But the Jewish prophets in Babylonia were not satisfied 
with that obvious explanation. They discovered another: 
the Jews were in exile, the Jews had lost the war, because 
they had done wrong. They were being punished for 
falling from God's ways. The prophets, according to 
sociologist Max Weber, thus invented social criticism, 
the contrasting of a society's behavior with its ethical 
potential. These remarkable men took it upon themselves, 
through their conviction of knowing God's will, to preach 
morality. And for their efforts, they were admired and 
reviled. For any people, just like any person, cannot help 
but respect conscience and also, secretly if not overtly, 
find it an insufferable goad. The prophet was Israel's 
conscience. The conscience is the individual's prophet. 

The tension between prophecy and nationalism is a fixed 
historical feature of Jewish life. Our people have strived 
to return to Jerusalem, to end the horrors of Diaspora by 
recreating a nation. We have returned to Jerusalem. We also 
strive for justice, for peace, for mercy in the world. We 
pledge ourselves to these ends through studying our texts 
and through ritual recognition of historical moments of 
our suffering. 

Without a nation we could pursue both the national and 
prophetic goals in prayers, studies, and festivals, wherever 
we were, without national political consequences. With 
the re-establishment of Israel, in the modern period, the 
clash between nationalism and prophecy is no longer a 
ritual or intellectual issue; it has become politically 

Emancipation of the Jews in Europe, in the middle of the 
nineteenth century, might well have meant full and real 
liberation from the whims and torments of host peoples. 
Many Jews were convinced that they were free, but the 
renewal of pogroms in Russia and Poland in the last 
quarter of that century, and the Dreyfus case in France, 
smashed their hopes. These events led some thinkers to 
believe that the solution to the problem lay in the Jews 
becoming a majority in their own nation, that in a world 
of nations, only nationhood could guarantee freedom. 

Another response to the resumption of anti-semitism 
in the late nineteenth century was based on a different 
analysis. Marx, among others, saw nations as unfortunate 
devices; a world without nations, a world of cooperating 
peoples, in short, a socialist world, would be salvation 
for Jews and for everybody else. Of those Jews who 
reasoned this way, some chose to participate in European 
internationalist movements. They often rose to prominent 
positions in socialist and communist parties in Germany, 
Russia, and Poland. And eventually many of them paid for 
their internationalist idealism with their lives. 

Another group of socialists took a different path. They 
foresaw that Jews would eventually be as unwelcome in 
leftist movements in Europe as they were in nationalist 
ones, for the power of national identification would still 

hold sway over internationalist possibilities. The course 
this group of socialist idealists recommended was a 
socialist nation in which Jews could be safe as a majority 
and from which they would work for socialism in the 

The heirs to the nationalist analysis are Begin and his 
followers, while the Labor Party in Israel used to follow 
the socialist-Zionist analysis. The Labor Party, however, 
has moved far from its socialist origins; today a small 
left wing within it and a few small leftist parties and 
movements are the main representatives of the socialist 

The current debate in Israel and elsewhere, over what 
kind of nation Israel is becoming and over Israel's policies 
toward Palestinians and other Arabs, can be examined in 
this framework of the two major themes of nationalism 
and prophecy in Israel. The nationalists are in power Their 
idea of a strong nation is phrased, reasonably, in terms of 
Jewish survival; but as an undertheme, it also represents 
the diminution of the prophetic, or ethical, tradition in 
Jewish history. 

Until the war in Lebanon, most American Jews were 
content to support unquestioningly the nationalist 
project. Though some people warned that Zionism could 
deteriorate into domination of Jews over another people, 
most Jews were content to take pride and comfort in the 
emergence in the modern period of a strong Jewish nation. 
Whatever sufferings the Israeli government inflicted on 
others were usually dismissed as minor in the context of 
efforts to build a safe, secure Jewish nation. 

The war in Lebanon, though, has struck many as an excess 
of a new order, particularly in its culmination in the 
massacres in the Sabra (has no one noticed the irony in the 
name of that one?) and Shatila refugee camps. Many see 
this in connection with increasingly harsh treatment of 
Palestinians on the West Bank and conditions that will 
make it unlikely or impossible for Palestinians to achieve 
real autonomy. These developments have forged in the 
minds of more and more Jews, as well as non-Jews, some 
fundamental questions about policies and actions of the 
current Israeli government. 

The questioners are heirs to the prophetic tradition in the 
West, founded by those Old Testament prophets. Their 
nationalist detractors brand them as self-hating Jews and 
a danger to Israel. The nationalists try to convince the 
others that support for the dignified national survival of 
the Jews entails unquestioned loyalty to governments of 

The nationalists have elaborated a long list of assertions 
meant to still criticism of Israeli policies. Responding 
favorably to these assertions has by now become for the 
nationalists a test of faith in Israel and the Jews. A great 
many Jews have succumbed to that test, oblivious that the 
asssertions are little more than dangerous, mind-numbing 

American Jews are often told to silence their criticism 
of the Israeli government, for speaking out in protest 
could have an ill effect on Israeli political strategies and 

programs. Speaking out is taking a position, and we are 
told that is too risky, that it is safer to be silent. But in 
this situation, silence is not neutrality. Silence is a blank 
check with a major political effect. For example, to remain 
silent on Reagan's weapons proposals and social program 
cutbacks is to lend quiet support. Silence before Begin 's 
war in Lebanon and his settlements policy on the West 
Bank is support of them. That it is passive support rather 
than active makes no difference to Begin, who uses it 
politically in his dealings with the American government 
as well as with his own people. 

Another powerful cliche is that criticism of Israel fuels the 
fires of anti-semitism. So often have we heard this and so 
fearful are we of anti-semitism that for years many Jews 
voiced no objections to Israeli policies of which they 
disapproved. Where is the evidence for this claim of a tie 
between criticism and anti-semitism? More likely, people 
respect honesty and respect honest dissent in a community 
known for its forthrightness. Pretending consensus when 
we don't have it suggests arrogance and duplicity and that 
likely fuels anti-semitism, as do, more powerfully, some of 
the policies of the Israeli government. When after one 
strike or another against Palestinians or Lebanese, there 
is an attack on Jews in Europe, the attackers are surely 
responding to actions of the Israeli government, not to 
criticisms of it. 

Those who criticize are berated then for contributing to 
the weakening of post-World War II norms against anti- 
semitism. It is as if a totally unified, monolithic Jewish 
community throughout the world would win universal 
admiration and support for Israel, regardless of its actions. 
That vision is inadequate. Even with minimal Jewish 
criticism, Israel has lost much international sympathy 
over the years. The prescription of stiff-upper-lip unity 
denies the profound reality of disputatiousness in Jewish 
communal life, the history of ethical reflection among 
Jews in and out of Israel, and the democratic responsibility 
of any people to monitor the actions of any government 
purporting to represent them. 

If we admire democracy in Israel and in the larger Jewish 
community, then we must accept the responsibility of 
critical support. Democracy demands constructive 
criticism by an enlightened, vigilant population with 
standards against which to measure a government's 
performance. Hardcore anti-semites will hate Jews under 
all circumstances. It would be immoral to swallow our 
dissent for fear of them. Those who warn that critics 
encourage anti-semites appear to assume that the ranks of 
anti-semites will grow if Jews are seen as critical of Israel. 
Thus they shift attention from what the Israeli 
government does to what people who disapprove say about 
it. Cleverly the onus of policies of questionable wisdom is 
transferred from their agents to their observers. Why not 
consider that constructive criticism that takes account of 
everyone's rights in the Middle East might well reduce 
opposition to Israel? The rigid over-defensiveness of 
Israel's actions has done nothing to mitigate opposition. 

Still another cliche claims that criticism of Israel is anti- 
semitic by its very nature. The prophets criticized the 
kings of Israel from love for the Jewish people and the 

Jewish nation. If social criticism was invented by the 
prophets, today's friendly critics are their moral 
descendants. The attack on critics is an attack on the 
prophetic tradition itself. 

Not so, the cliches continue; Jews who cnticize Israel are 
self-hating. Are Americans who criticized our 
government's policies in Vietnam or who disapprove of its 
defense strategy today and its cutbacks in social services 
self -hating Americans? Is a Russian who dares criticize 
Russia's disregard for human rights a self-hating Russian? 
Of course there are in both countries those who attempt to 
define criticism as disloyalty and as self-hatred (Remember 
the "America — love it or leave it" bumper stickers a 
decade back?),- but after Vietnam and Watergate in this 
country and the imprisonment of dissidents in Russia, can 
one seriously hold such a position? Self-respect includes 
self-criticism. Faith in oneself without self-criticism is not 
self-love, it is megalomania. Martin Buber, a Jewish 
prophet of the twentieth century, spoke of "critical 
solidarity" with Israel, as a responsible, proper stance. 

The cliche perpetrators demand that one has to live and 
fight in Israel in order to be able to take it to task. 
Although at first glance, this claim appears sensible, must 
one live in Poland in order to oppose its govemment's 
suppression of Solidarity? Must one live in Russia to decry 
its actions in Afghanistan? Do we deny Europeans a right 
to criticize America's involvement in Vietnam and in 
Latin America? There, the cliche mongers reply that the 
national existence of those nations is not in danger; that of 
Israel is. Criticism from outside Israel (few American Jews, 
happily, seem to object to criticism from inside Israel) 
could endanger the very existence of Israel. It could reduce 
outside support; and the good opinion of Israel's protector, 
the United States, could be weakened. On the contrary, 
might not America's government, clearly exasperated with 
what it often perceives as Israel's recklessness, welcome 
real debate within the Jewish community that could have 
policy effects on Israel? 

What if the critics are convinced that Israeli government 
policies threaten the continued political and/or moral 
integrity and even existence of Israel, and by extension, 
the existence of the Jewish people? If Jews are indeed one 
people, and the Israeli government acts in the name of all 
Jews, as it claims to, then it seems politically necessary to 
speak one's mind and heart. Besides, American Jews are 
not asked to ignore Israel's business, rather are solicited for 
money and political support. Should they offer money and 
commitment with no careful analysis of what they are 
embracing? Suppose Israel were to move a step further and 
annex the West Bank, withholding citizenship from Arabs 
there while continuing to use them as a cheap labor force. 
Should they then be silent? 

The cliche bearers also argue that taking issue with official 
government policy is a luxury that Americans and Israelis 
are afforded, while there is no glimmer of such criticism 
within the Arab world. The public voice in behalf of peace, 
they claim, is therefore one-sided. One nation cannot 
demand of another with which it is at odds, that it adopt 
the social and political system of the first nation in order 
to be worthy of serious negotiations. Israel did, after all, 

9 make peace with Egypt. If the United States is to achieve a 
freeze on nuclear weapons production in reciprocity with 
Russia, it will have to do so with Soviet society as it is 
now, not as it would prefer it to be, and vice versa. The 
point in this context as well as the Middle East is for both 
sides to begin building the trust that will make it possible 
to make peace. Each must recognize the legitimate fears of 
the other and work with any representative in a position to 
negotiate. Neither side will advance the peace process by 
attempting to force the other side to remodel its system. 

The cliche merchants insist that all Arabs want to destroy 
all Jews. But the P.L.O. is a heterogeneous organization, 
and just as some Jews might want to destroy the 
Palestinian people and take over Jordan as well as the West 
Bank and Gaza, that is not true of all Jews or even the 
majority. It is difficult to know what citizens of Egypt and 
Yemen and Iraq really believe and want in the Israeli- 
Palestinian conflict, if it is even important to them at all. 
Although the majority of Arab governments and 
movements may have been committed in the past to the 
destruction of Israel, history does bring about changes in 
thinking as well as in events and opportunities. Many 
peace feelers from the Arab camp are on record in recent 
times. It is sensitivity to changes and the chances they 
afford that makes the difference between supple, flexible 
responses allowing for real change and the rigid, dogmatic 
approach that until recently has prevailed in most quarters 
on nearly all sides of the discussion about the Middle East. 

Nonetheless, the hawkers of cliches assert, even if 
circumstances do change, one thing will not change and 
because of that no negotiation is possible between Arabs 
and Israel. That trump card in the packet of nationalist 
cliches is the axiom that Arab countries are so unstable, 
their politics so volatile, that they simply cannot be 
trusted. A treaty made by one regime surely will not be 
honored by the next. Recall that a week before Sadat 
visited Israel, "everyone" said that peace between Israel 
and Egypt was impossible. Later they said that a treaty 
would never come about. Yet it came about. Then the 
cynics and the realists, who claim to know and honor the 
ways of the world, said that the treaty would never hold. 
Once Sadat died, they predicted, Egypt would nullify the 
treaty. Sadat died, and yet the treaty held. Just wait, 
though, we were assured by the hard-headed, if another 
war breaks out with Israel as a participant, Egypt will join 
against Israel. Another war broke out, and Egypt did not 
join. The treaty continues in force. This is, of course, no 
guarantee that it will last forever, but it has worked far 
longer than those so sure of the eternal untrustworthiness 
of Arab nations expected it would. 

The cliches go on; this is not an exhaustive list. 
Stereotyped thinking serves only the causes of self- 
righteousness and reactionary policies, sustaining 
establishment leaders and allowing for the refusal to 
reassess reality in the light of evolving circumstances. In 
his single-minded pursuit of the nationalist project, the 
current prime minister of Israel eschews subtlety and 
Ignores heterogeneity in the other camp. He has decided on 
the bully's easy way out: the use of force as the 
cornerstone of foreign policy. He has circumvented ethical 
issues by invoking the Holocaust — the most sensitive, 
vulnerable spot in the consciousness of most lews today as 

if that trauma were a license to solve all conflicts 
militarily. Begin and his supporters complain that the 
world expects Israel to behave more morally than other 
nations and simultaneously claim that Israel is more 
moral than other nations. They and we cannot have it both 
ways. Yet is appears that they and many of us would like to. 

Jews of all groups — religious, secular, working-class, 
professional, male, female, Ashkenazi, Afro-Asian — all 
seem to bear the marks of one of the most profound and 
enduring ambivalences of our peoplehood: the desire to be 
a nation "like all the others," and the desire to be "a light 
unto the nations." Like all other peoples, we Jews are at 
war with our superegos; but unlike most peoples, we rarely 
settle for truces. Part of our historical condition seems to 
be a wavering between the ordinary and the ethical, 
favoring one or the other, wishing to realize each, suffering 
the contradictions between the two, and never knowing 
exactly how or whether to let go of either. 

Yet, despite opposition, the ethical vision is re-emerging 
today within Israel. While Lebanon delays its investigation 
of the Sabra-Shatila massacres, the Israeli government, 
despite Begin's opposition, has appointed a Board of 
Inquiry into Israeli complicity and responsibility. That 
board was instituted after government resignations, threats 
from Begin's coalition partners and pressures from abroad, 
and a demonstration of 400,000 Israelis (better than 10 
percent of the population) forced Begin to yield. 

Not only is there a Commission of Inquiry in Israel today, 
but there are also several religious and secular groups that 
actively support a peace movement in addition to Peace 
Now, the largest and best known organization. 
Such remarkable actions as the demand for the 
Commission of Inquiry and the flowering of the anti-war 
movement are celebrated far and wide as exemplifying the 
vigor and vitality of Israeli democracy. They cannot but 
also be seen as fierce commitments to the ethical 
possibility still very much alive in Jewish culture and in 
the Jewish nation. Jews may complain about the double 
standard by which Israel is judged differently from other 
nations, but many of us hold that same standard and 
however peculiar and exasperating it may seem at times, 
we invoke it and are proud of it. 

This in no way suggests that Israel under Begin is the sole 
or even the principal problem in the Middle East. The 
P.L.O. and Arab nations have committed horrible crimes 
and stupid, terrible mistakes, morally and politically. But 
so has Israel. (Space does not permit discussing the 
Russian and American roles in all this.) 

Although Begin claims to "know" his ethical heritage, 
there is a vast difference between merely "knowing" and 
acting on that knowledge. That knowledge must always 
remind us that a strong nation is not an end in itself. If we 
are to be true to the prophetic part of our history, then we 
must ask the question: What kind of nation? 

And having asked that question we then should be 
unafraid to engage in the politics of judgment. 

Particle Physics: 

In Search of Quarks 

Quarks. Gluons. Collider detectors. 
W and Z bosons. 

They sound like something out of 
Buck Rogers. Or perhaps from the 
next installment of Star Wars. 

But they aren't futuristic gadgetry or 
science fiction jargon. They are 
contemporary shards of a cosmic 
puzzle that leading high energy 
physicists from Brandeis and all over 
the world are trying to piece together 
to answer some of the most profound 
questions ever asked: What are we 
made of? Where did we come from? 
And what are the fundamental 
constituents of the universe? 

The field is called high energy physics 
because of the enormous energy of the 
sub-atomic beams used to conduct 
these provocative experiments. It is 
also known as particle physics 
because, unlike nuclear physics, 
which is conducted at low energy 
levels, scientists deal with elementary 
particles rather than collective 

At Brandeis, these high energy 
physicists include theoreticians 
Laurence F. Abbott and Howard J. 
Schnitzer and experimentalists James 
R. Bensinger, Lawrence E. Kirsch and 
Richard A. Poster. Two post-doctoral 
students — Frank Lomanno and Lee 
Spencer — and four graduate 
students — Michael Fortner, Bruce 
Magnuson, Shlomit Tarem and 
Panagoula Zografou — also are 
involved in high energy work at 

Faculty members Bensinger and 
Kirsch are currently collaborating 
with Harvard University physicists to 
construct an electromagnetic 
calorimeter, a large apparatus (each 
section will be five feet by five feet) 
that will be used for measuring the 
properties of the proton, a particle that 
co-exists with the neutron inside the 
nucleus of the atom. The calorimeter, 
which will be placed into 12' x 12' 
modules, is part of a vastly larger 
apparatus known as the collider 
detector. This detector will be used to 
observe very high energy collisions 
between protons and antiprotons, 
particles whose properties are the 
exact opposite of protons. The 
Brandeis scientists will scrutinize 
these interactions by recording on 
magnetic tape the resulting tens of 

particles emitted in each collision to 
learn what new particles may be 

These ambitious experiments — along 
with many others — will take place 
inside an underground tunnel with a 
five-mile circumference located at the 
6,800-acre Fermi National Accelerator 
Laboratory (Fermilab), 30 miles west 
of Chicago near Batavia, Illinois. 
Named in honor of the late Nobel 
Laureate nuclear physicist Enrico 
Fermi, Fermilab is one of three major 

national laboratories in this country 
engaged in high energy physics 
research. The others are Brookhaven 
National Laboratory in Upton, New 
York, and the Stanford Linear 
Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo 
Alto, California. There also are 
accelerators in Europe, Japan, and the 
Soviet Union. 

The Tevatron II Project at Fermilab is 
scheduled to begin its experimental 
phase in 1985 and run for several 
years. It represents one of the most 

11 ambitious and most expensive 
undertakings of its kind in history. 
This colossal mternational scientific 
endeavor vv'ill eventually involve 
hundreds of eminent physicists from 
Japan and Italy as well as the United 
States. In addition to the Brandeis 
contingent, the American presence on 
the collider detector project includes 
scientists from Harvard, Purdue, Texas 
A &. M and Rutgers Universities, the 
Universities of Chicago, Wisconsin, 
Pennsylvania and Illinois and 
members of the Lawrence Berkeley 
Laboratory at the University of 
California in Berkeley, California, the 
Argonne National Laboratory near 
Chicago, and Fermilab. 

The cost of the Tevatron II Project is 
estimated at close to $100 million, 
with much of that spent on building 
the collider or atom smasher, as it is 
popularly called, and constructing a 
new ring of potent, superconducting 
magnets to steer the invisible 
particles through the collider. 

Over the past several decades, bigger 
and bigger accelerators have been 
built in this country and abroad as 
physicists pressed their search for 
the smallest units of matter. 
Unquestionably one of the most 
fascinating of these units is the quark, 
an eccentric and mysterious point- 
like particle that makes its home 
inside the proton. At least, that's what 
most physicists now believe. 

"Actually, no one has seen an isolated 
quark outside of a proton," Professor 
Abbott says. "But despite that fact, 
there is extremely convincing indirect 
evidence that quarks do exist." 

The first suggestion that there might 
indeed be a particle more fundamental 
than the proton — itself a mere one 
ten-trillionth of a centimeter in 
diameter — came in 1947 when 
physicists sent photographic film 
aloft in balloons to record the high 
energy cosmic rays that bombard 
earth from space. When the protons in 
the cosmic rays struck atoms in the 
sensitive film, they created striking 
patterns that offered evidence of 
unexpected behavior in the atom. The 
cosmic rays had served as nature's 
own atom smasher and what they had 
done to the film was split atoms into 
particles that physicists had never 
seen before. 

The race was on as physicists 
aggressively chased these new, 
enticing particles. And, with 
government support, scientists began 
constructing their own atom 
smashers — accelerators. Likened by 
one scientist to 20th century 
cathedrals with their miles of 
precisely designed tunnels and huge 
magnets, accelerators — the largest 
and most expensive pieces of 
laboratory equipment in the world — 
enabled scientists to unravel the atom 
like an onion and to discover an 
astounding number of new particles. 

Yet, no one seriously suggested that 
all these new discoveries were 
fundamental particles. In fact, it 
began to become apparent to both the 
theoretical and experimental physicist 
by the early 1960s that if there really 
were fundamental entities, they 
should be few in number and arranged 
in some simple and beautiful pattern. 

"It was the search for that pattern that 
gave rise to the notion, the idea, of the 
quark," Professor Abbott says. "The 
quark was actually a theoretical 
construct that attempted to make 
order out of the chaos in the ever- 
increasing number of particles known 
to physicists." 

The quark — named for a reference in 
fames Joyce's Finnegan's Wake — was 
proposed by Professors Murray Gell- 
Mann and George Zweig, both of the 
California Institute of Technology. 
Working independently of each other, 
they essentially postulated that 
quarks were the building blocks of 
protons and neutrons. Professor Gell- 
Mann, who won a Nobel Prize for his 
work, further theorized that quarks 
had fractional electrical charges so 
that three quarks could be put 
together to form the proton. A 
configuration of minus one-third, plus 
two-thirds and plus two-thirds 
produces a charge of plus one — the 
proton. An arrangement of minus one- 
third, minus one-third, and plus two- 
thirds makes a charge of zero — the 

The pattern suggested by the theory 
was simple, even elegant. 

Now, all the experimentalists had to 
do was to find these strange particles 
with only a fraction of a charge. 

But they couldn't, not at first. 

"You can't take a picture of a quark 
with an electron microscope," 
explains Professor Bensinger. "It's 
really from reconstructing how a 
proton breaks apart in high energy 
collisions that you 'see' evidence of 
quarks. And what you actually get a 
picture of is the charged distribution 
inside of a proton — the result of the 
existence of the quark." 

The lengths to which experimental 
high energy physicists have gone to 
prove the existence of quarks has been 
bounded only by their imagination. In 
one experiment, quark-hunters fired 
20-billion volt electrons into protons 
contained in a tube of liquid hydrogen 
and measured the energy the electrons 
lost as they deflected off the protons. 
The way in which electrons 
interacted pointed to the existence of 
quarks inside the protons. 

Other experiments later revealed that 
constituents of the proton have 
something called spin, a property that 
theoretical physicists had accurately 
predicted. But how many of them 
were inside the proton? The theorists 
had said there were three quarks. Were, 
they right? 

The experimentalists attempted to 
resolve the question by using another 
unorthodox particle, the neutrino, to 
search for quarks. The neutrino, 
besides possessing no mass and no 
electrical charge, has the ability to 
pass through millions of miles of 
matter without interacting with 
atoms. Putting these qualities to 
efficient use, physicists took 
numerous photographs of neutrinos 
colliding with protons and shattering 
them into other particles. By 
meticulously tracing the "footprints" 
of these particles, scientists 
calculated the number of quarks in 
the proton. 

The number they arrived at then was 
three, exactly as predicted by the 
quark model. 

Similar experiments through the early 
1970s merely seemed to buttress the 
case for both the existence of quarks 
and their exalted status as one of the 
fundamental units of matter. 

But in 1973, a fourth quark — 
"charm" — was discovered, joining 
"up," "down," and "strange." While it 
did not invalidate the basic thrust of 

the three-quark model, the news 
certainly excited the high energy 
physicists. It expanded the 
possibilities. In one experiment 
leading to the discovery of the fourth 
quark, electrons and positrons (the 
electrons' anti-particles) were fired at 
each other. The subsequent collision 
resulted in a tremendous burst of 
energy that annihilated the two 
combatants but created new particles 
in their stead. 

The discovery — for which Professor 
Burton Richter of Stanford and 
Samuel Ting of M.I.T were awarded 
the Nobel Prize — strongly supported 
the reality of quarks. But perhaps 
there were even more quarks. 

In 1980, a fifth quark— "bottom"— 
was unveiled by physicists working at 
Fermilab. Since in the past quarks 
have come in pairs, physicists now 
suspect there's a sixth quark — a "top." 

That is just one of the quests of 
experimental high energy physicists 
from Brandeis and the other leading 
American and foreign institutions 
who will be converging at Fermilab for 
the Tevatron II project. 

"Perhaps what we'll do first is simply 
look for all the things that people 
believe to be there," Professor 
Bensinger says. "Then, if the 'top' 
quark is there, we would want to 
know its mass. We'll also be looking 
to see how all the quarks interact 
with each other." 

(Brandeis physicists Bensinger, Kirsch 
and Poster are hoping to shed new 
light on quark behavior in the 
experimental work they are currently 
doing at Brookhaven National 

Since the accelerator at Fermilab will 
allow scientists to create new 
particles never seen before, their 
investigation comprises an important 
avenue of high energy research. 
Especially intriguing is the race to 
find the W and Z bosons, essential 
ingredients of the theory of weak 
interactions, which cause 
radioactivity. (In late lanuary, a team 
of scientists reported it had discovered 
the elusive W particle at CERN, the 
atomic research facility near Geneva, 

Physicists also will be using the 
world's largest accelerator at Fermilab 
to look for signs of gluons, the aptly 
named particles that stick the quarks 

But there is another element of the 
research for Brandeis physicists at 
Fermilab that has little to do with the 
direct experimental exploration of 
the secrets of the Universe. It is, 
instead, vital work in the area of 
communications, which is used for 
unravelling those secrets. 

"One of the major projects Brandeis 
will be involved in," says Professor 
Bensinger, "is to set up a sophisticated 
communications network between 
the computers of the various 
universities involved in the project. 
Scientists have to understand the 
enormous data produced by these 
many experiments and design 
programs that analyze the data 

Brandeis scientists have been charged 
with helping to create this 
networking, which will have an 
initial demonstration telephone link 
between the University and Fermilab. 
Such a networking plan eventually 
may be operated via satellite. 

"We are trying to enumerate the 
beasts of nature and discover how 
they behave with one another," 
Professor Kirsch explains. "These 
experiments with the accelerator 
simulate the conditions that existed 
in the Universe at different points in 
time. Some of these particle collisions 
share similar properties with the 
fireball of the Big Bang explosion that 
eons ago created the building blocks 
of matter. So, you see, high energy 
physics is confronting some of the 
most basic questions anyone could 
ask: What are we made of? How did 
we get here? What is the Universe?" 

In the past ten years, dramatic 
progress has been made toward 
understanding these questions. But 
much remains to be discovered. 

And Brandeis physicists fully intend 
to take an active part in this cosmic 

Jerry Rosenswaike 


Drastic Treatment Needed in Urban Health Care 

by Alan Sager 

13 Alan Sager '67, 

assistant professor of 
urban and 
health planning, 
joined the faculty of the 
Heller School in 1979. 

A more detailed 
treatment of the issues 
taken up in this 
article will appear in 
the 1983 Urban Affairs 
Annual Review, 
Health and the City. 

Dr. Sager 's book. 
Planning Home Care 
With the Elderly 
was published last 
month by Ballinger. 

These events took place in the past year: 

In Montgomery Alabama, a woman in labor was 
forced to drive 100 miles to Birmingham after being 
turned away from six local hospitals because she 
lacked health insurance and could not pay a 
preadmission deposit. 

In Chicago, major nonprofit teaching hospitals 
threatened to force all Medicaid patients to use 
Cook County Hospital unless the State of Illinois 
restored its reimbursement to those hospitals. 

Nationally large public hospitals reported a 
doubling during the past eight years in the 
proportion of their patients who were admitted from 
other hospitals, "dumped" because they were unable 
to pay for care. 

In California, Proposition 13 and Reagan-inspired 
cuts in federal aid led Los Angeles County to cease 
providing free pre-natal care in its neighborhood 
health centers. (Thirty percent of such centers 
nationally have lost their special federal funding for 
the uninsured in the last two years.) Los Angeles 
consequently expects a considerable increase in 
premature births and a resulting rise in admissions 
to neo-natal intensive care units, at $75,000 per 

In Massachusetts, a woman had to receive special 
permission from the state's Medicaid program 
before she could receive a life-saving liver 

The new governor of New York ordered a twelve- 
month freeze on hospital construction. 

Growing numbers of hospitals faced bankruptcy. 

By every measure, we spend more money for 
hospital care each year. The share of gross national 
product devoted to hospitals rose by 44.4 percent 
between 1970 and 1981. Yet this increase is no 
longer purchasmg improved access to care. (Here, 
access means ability to use appropriate, affordable, 
and convenient services.) 

Rather, we are retreating from the goal of equal 
access to one-class medicine. Money is found to 
develop and deliver dramatic new therapies at the 
same time that established treatments and 
preventive services for some groups of patients are 
being cut. There are signs that even two-class 
medicine — one for the poor and the other for the 
not-poor — is unaffordable. The result will indeed be 
delivery of medical services to a single class, to 
which shrinking numbers of our citizens will 

The twin crises of access and cost of care must be 
solved compatibly. Away of assuring access that 
doubled hospital spending would be useless, as 
would resolution of the cost problem by denying 
needed services. 

Today, regrettably, we are taking the latter path. We 
are attempting to bring spending under control 
principally by making fewer people financially 
eligible for care. Reductions in federal Medicare and 
Medicaid support, state Medicaid programs, and 
city-county spending on public hospitals all work to 
reduce access. The effect of public cuts is magnified 
by employer and union resistance to ever-higher 
health insurance premiums and by the rise in 
unemployed citizens lacking coverage. 

Recent efforts to control costs have been made in 
the context of massive and continuing changes in 
the structure of hospital care. In American cities, 
the shape of patient care has been changing in ways 
that both manifest and exacerbate this nation's 
unwillingness to finance equal access to needed 

There is a vicious circle. Hospital care is so 
expensive that we do not fund equal access to it. 
Many hospitals that choose to admit the poor or 
uninsured therefore close or face financial crisis. 
Because surviving hospitals tend to be more costly 
than those that closed, the prospects for equally 
affordable care recede further 

This dynamic has been played out in four specific 

ways. First, public general hospitals — Bellevue, 
Kings County, D.C. General, Grady, Jackson 
Memorial, Cook County, Denver General, L.A. 
County, and the like — the traditional providers of 
last resort to the uninsured — have suffered massive 
bed reductions. Some have closed. Most that remain 
open face financial calamity if they continue their 
open door policies; many of their patients face 
absolute denial of care if they close. 

Second, many of the smaller and less costly 
voluntary, nonprofit hospitals that have been 
heavily committed to serving low-income and 
minority patients have been obliged to close or 
relocate to suburban areas. 

Third, many of the surviving smaller voluntary 
hospitals serving the uninsured, and larger teaching 
hospitals that share this commitment, are 
experiencing increasingly serious financial 

Fourth, there has been in recent decades a slow but 
cumulatively massive concentration of urban 
hospital beds in fewer and larger and more 
specialized hospitals that have sought closer 
affiliations with local medical schools. 

These changes reflect medical advances, physician 
preferences, desires of hospital administrators and 
trustees, and prevailing distributions of patient 
income and health insurance coverage. They are not 
products of sober judgments about what patients 
need or how much society can afford. 

Because many less expensive hospitals serving 
lower income and minority citizens have closed or 
relocated, and because large teaching hospitals 
willing to serve underinsured citizens have grown, 
our poorest patients are being concentrated in the 
world's most expensive hospitals, or are being 
denied care except in emergencies. 

At the same time, the reshaping of hospitals, in 
combination with the widening range of medical 
interventions, increases the cost of treating all 
patients. This has happened in part because new 
technologies (procedures and equipment) in the 
health field have tended in recent decades to raise 
costs by making it possible to do new things — such 
as open heart surgery — rather than reducing the 
costs of established interventions — as when polio 
vaccines were substituted for iron lungs or, as in 
manufacturing, where new capital investments 
usually aim to lower production costs. 

Ironically, therefore, physicians' and hospitals' 
search for the best services has become both the 
enemy of the good (decent and effective and 
affordable care for all) and the unintended ally of the 
worst (shrinking access for growing proportions of 
our citizens). 

Medicine will not make us immortal, though some 
Americans probably hope that it will. But medicine 



can and should help to shape and meet realistic 
expectations. By developing therapies that can 
never be afforded equally, medicine ceases to 
reassure; it magnifies insecurity. Death that could 
have been postponed becomes tragic. Medical 
progress must not stop; it should be pointed in more 
affordable directions. 

Hospitals have always competed for survival to 
some degree. But in the absence of even a parody of 
a free and competitive market in health care, the 
results of the four types of hospital restructuring 
cannot be endorsed automatically. To make this 
judgment, the causes and impacts of the changes 
must be evaluated. 

The aims of this article are to sketch the major 
ways in which urban hospital care has been 
reshaped over the past decades, analyze the forces 
responsible, weigh the consequences of the changes 
noted, and offer a simple (and possibly realistic) 
solution to the entire problem. 

To do this, we have studied all of the acute care 
hospitals of 50 or more beds in 52 large and mid-size 
U.S. cities from 1937 to 1980. About 800 pieces of 
information were compiled on over 1,100 hospitals. 
(Only a few of the more revealing pieces are 
presented here.) 

Reshaping and Its Causes 

There have been massive changes in the public 
hospital sector. Almost one-fourth of all public beds 
were lost overall, including a drop of two-fifths in 
Northeast and Midwest cities in the last two 
decades alone. The public share fell from one bed in 
three in 1937 to one in seven in 1980. 

Public sector shrinkage was appropriate for several 
decades following the Second World War. The 
decline is apparently irreversible today, even though 
it no longer makes any medical or demographic 

Until the early 1970s, reductions in the share of 
public hospital beds were reasonable because need 
for those beds was declining. With improved 
financing through work-related health insurance. 
Medicare, or Medicaid, former public patients 
sought care elsewhere. Chronic patients entered 
nursing homes and many older or lower income 
patients sought acute services in voluntary 

In recent years, however, construction of new 
nursing home beds has just about stopped, forcing 
chronic care patients to begin to turn back to the 
public hospitals. At the same time, growing 
numbers of urban residents are being deprived of 
insurance for their acute care problems. 
Unfortunately, cities and counties no longer have 
the money to finance as much hospital care for the 

uninsured as in the past. Their principal source of 
revenue, the property tax, has grown much less 
quickly than hospital costs. Higher costs and 
inadequate revenues imperil even current levels of 
public hospital service and make it almost 
impossible to admit many of those patients being 
displaced from voluntary hospitals or nursing 

The decline in the public hospital sector has been 
paralleled by increases in voluntary hospital beds. 
The number of voluntary beds almost doubled 
between 1937 and 1980 and the average voluntary 
institution grew by almost 90 percent to 350 beds. 
These increases were not uniform, either across or 
within cities. As would be expected, beds increased 
fastest in growing cities. 

But overall growth masks important declines. 
Between 1937 and 1980, a number of hospitals 
equal to 42 percent of those open in 1937 closed or 
relocated, taking with them over 30 percent of 
voluntary hospital beds. The number of closings 
and relocations increased steadily from decade to 

Given the uneven distribution of purchasing power 
for health care within most cities, successful 
voluntary hospitals were hypothesized to be those 
institutions able to attract a sufficent number of 
well-insured patients and the physicians to admit 
and care for them. Larger and more specialized 
medical school-affiliated hospitals were thought to 
have both greater ability and willingness to remain 
open. Small institutions, relying more heavily on 
physicians in private practice, were hypothesized to 
have found it difficult to remain open — especially 
when located in minority or low-income 
neighborhoods — if they did not take on many of the 
characteristics of the more successful hospitals. 

These theories were confirmed by analysis of 
hospital behavior. Smaller and less specialized 
institutions relying on physicians in private 
practice, or located in minority neighborhoods, 
were routinely more likely to close their doors. The 
inpatient or neighborhood minority proportion was 
usually the most important factor, both in itself and 
in association with underinsurance, low income, or 
lack of physicians. 

Predictive equations employing these and a few 
other hospital characteristics were up to 95 percent 
accurate in distinguishing hospitals that remained 
open from those forced to close. 

Unexpectedly, the hospitals that survived tended to 
be located in cities with more beds per thousand 
citizens. This suggests that an oversupply of beds 
does not itself cause closings. 

Many surviving voluntary hospitals are also under 
increasing financial pressure. The overbuilding of 
medical school-affiliated teaching hospitals forces 
these institutions to compete for a shrinking pool of 

well-insured patients. (These patients have been 
vital to hospitals, especially when they could be 
charged above cost and the resulting surplus applied 
to underwriting care for the uninsured.) At the same 
time, the closing of hospitals serving large numbers 
of minority and Medicaid-funded patients, 
combined with growth in the uninsured population, 
presents remaining hospitals with the choice 
between serving those displaced — and suffering 
greater deficits — and denying care to many. The 
choice has not been easy for individual hospitals 
because those surviving near closed institutions 
have historically been in poor financial condition, 
owing in part to their tradition of service to many 
patients unable to pay. Nor is the financial choice 
easy for society. Hospitals remaining open near 
those that closed were 44 percent more expensive 
per admission. 

The concentration of voluntary beds in fewer and 
larger medical school-affiliated teaching hospitals 
was accelerated by changes in surviving 
institutions. In 1950, fewer than ten percent of all 
hospitals (with below one-fifth of all beds) had 
major medical school affiliations. By 1980, this 
increased to almost one-third of all hospitals (with 
almost one-half of all beds). Virtually no hospitals 
with major medical school affiliations closed or 
relocated, and many institutions lacking such 
affiliations worked to secure them. 

This was done for several reasons: to upgrade 
quality of care by adding interns and residents to 
provide around-the-clock coverage for the 
increasingly needy or severely ill patients who 
could be served in hospitals,- to meet the demands 
of privately practicing physicians threatening to 
hospitalize their paying patients elsewhere if they 
did not secure relief during evenings and weekends; 
and to serve the growing numbers of urban residents 
lacking physicians who were admitted through the 
burgeoning outpatient departments and emergency 
rooms of the hospitals themselves. 


Even in the absence of conclusive evidence, the 
impacts of hospital restructuring demand more 
careful scrutiny and speculation than they have 
received. Too often, we have blandly equated 
practice at medicine's frontiers with quality; 
smallness with incompetence; low occupancy rates 
with low need; and financial distress and closing 
with mismanagement or a valid result of a free 
market. Most of these associations are incorrect. 
Those that are accurate today are unaffordable and 
must be modulated in ways that conserve 
essentials. If this is not done, we will be propelled 
toward the abyss of massive and tragic denial of 
needed services — and possibly toward health riots 
as well. 

Effectiveness, cost, and access are the three major 
dimensions for judging the impacts of hospital 
restructuring. The potential effectiveness of the 
surviving hospitals in the 52 cities — measured by 
the types of useful care they could competently 
provide — was probably greater in 1980 than at any 
earlier time. Many of the smaller hospitals that 
shut their doors had undoubtedly failed to offer care 
that was either at the state of the art or competently 

But given the cost of care at surviving hospitals, it 
must be asked whether our present structure is 
desirable. Regrettably, care in smaller and mid-sized 
urban hospitals is viewed by many as inevitably 
second-class or disreputable. Smaller hospitals fail 
to practice at the frontiers of medicine, but they 
competently provide — or are capable of providing — 
necessary routine and less specialized services. 

One-half of the nation's hospitals have fewer than 
100 beds. There is nothing inherently wrong with 
hospitals of this size, and it should not be necessary 
to enter large hospitals with major medical school 
affiliations to obtain good care for uncomplicated 
problems. If some smaller or mid-sized urban 
hospitals now provide inadequate care, this is likely 
to be owing to the caliber of the physicians 
attracted or relegated to practice there, or to 
insufficient funding. Closing of these institutions is 
not likely to increase either physician skills or 
funding of care for their patients. 

The perception that good care for any problem is 
possible only in the best and most expensive 
hospitals must be combatted. The best way to do so 
is to upgrade the effectiveness and technical 
competence of smaller hospitals — not to close or 
ignore them. These institutions may possess 
inherent advantages in treating problems that 
respond in part to rest, good food, and attentive 
nursing. All of these can be difficult to secure in a 
high-powered teaching hospital. 

In Boston, which now experiences the highest 
hospital cost per admission in the nation — largely 
because it has gone furthest toward concentrating 
care in medical school-affiliated teaching 
hospitals — the Harvard Community Health Plan, 
the largest pre-paid group practice in the state, has 
taken over a 100-bed hospital in which to serve 
inexpensively those of its members who require 
only routine inpatient care. 

Changes in urban hospital structure have worked to 
increase costs. Surviving hospitals located near 
those that closed are much more expensive. As 
increasing proportions of urban patients are forced 
into specialized teaching hospitals, they may 
receive care that is more esoteric and costly than 
they need. 

Patients can even be charged above the cost of the 
expensive care they do receive, especially when 
they have relatively uncomplicated problems such 


as appendicitis. The overcharge is, in effect, apphed 
to subsidizing the cost of very expensive and 
sophisticated interventions such as organ 
transplants. The resulting lower apparent price of 
these interventions probably leads us to undertake 
more of them than we would if we knew their true 

This deflection of funds towards the frontiers of 
medicine is often central to the interests of many 
urban physicians and hospital administrators, and 
some patients. Such spending on dramatic and 
highly specialized care may be appropriate, but it 
should be evaluated on its merits and in 
comparison to competing aims — such as universal 
financial access to all routine and demonstrably 
effective physician, hospital, and long-term care. 

Access to care has suffered not only through higher 
cost, but through reduced convenience as well. 
Provider proximity is particularly important to 
patients unable to telephone a private physician. 
Our well-distributed networks of urban health 
services have been undermined. More beds and 
other facilities are being concentrated in fewer 

Hospitals have closed disproportionately in heavily 
minority and lower income areas. Both ambulatory 
and inpatient services therefore become less 
convenient. Access to ambulatory care is 
particularly compromised because patients are 
usually reluctant to travel considerable distances 
for a physician visit, and because minority citizens 
rely two and one-half times as heavily on outpatient 
departments as whites. Further, the remaining 
physicians in private practice in the neighborhood 
around a closed hospital, deprived of their 
organizational base, are more prone to retire or 
relocate their practices. Community health centers, 
an alternative source of ambulatory care, have 
typically been located in the same types of areas as 
hospitals that have closed or are vulnerable to 
future closing; but as noted earlier, many of these 
centers are themselves threatened. 

The convenience of inpatient service has also been 
reduced, particularly in large districts of cities from 
which most or all hospitals have closed or 
relocated. North St. Louis is probably the most 
striking example. Extensive sections of south 
Atlanta, west Philadelphia, and parts of New York 
also illustrate this problem. Too few organizations 
with stakes in promoting or providing ambulatory 
or inpatient care remain in these areas. 

A decline in the rate of hospital use by minority and 
Medicaid-funded patients has been noted in the 52 
cities during the past decade — even prior to Reagan- 
era budget cuts. This decline is likely to continue. 

More money will be needed to retain and rebuild 
necessary services: to upgrade smaller hospitals, to 
finance care for the uninsured, and to improve the 
skills of unqualified doctors and other workers. 

The well-to-do have always helped to pay for care of 
the less well-off in this country, but traditional 
arrangements for doing this have collapsed. The 
purchasing power of the philanthropic dollar in 
health care is vanishing. Intra-hospital subsidy 
from wealthier patients to poorer is insufficient, 
unreliable, and under strong attack from those 
charged above cost (and by their insurors). Subsidy 
by severity of diagnosis has begun to supplant that 
by patient financial need. Some hospitals located in 
more affluent areas have generously channelled 
surplus revenues to affiliated, needy institutions, 
but these gifts are inadequate. Direct public action 
is therefore required to urge delineation of hospital 
care that is affordable for all — and then to mobilize 
the sums necessary to pay for that care. 

A Simple Solution 

The first step is to legislate health insurance 
coverage for all Americans, a proposal that was 
seriously considered as recently as the early 1970s 
but was deferred until the rate of increase in cost 
was controlled. In retrospect, this apparently 
sensible postponement was a mistake, since cost 
control may be possible only when there is a 
concomitant commitment to universal access. 
Hospitals absorbed huge spending increases during 
the 1970s without improving access 

Separate developments in public hospitals and in 
the state of Maryland indicate ways in which 
universal access and responsible cost control are 
allies, not enemies. 

In times of city and county fiscal austerity, local 
public hospitals have, in effect, been obliged to try 
to finance unrestricted access to care within fixed 
budgets. This has doubtless reduced effectiveness 
and decency of care in some instances, sometimes 
to unacceptable levels. But local public hospitals 
showed lower rates of increase in cost per 
admission during the 1970s than voluntary 
nonprofit or proprietary institutions. Only in the 
public sector did occupancy rates rise. By these two 
measures, public hospitals became more efficient in 
response to the combined pressures to guarantee 
access and limit costs. 

Maryland has instituted a pioneering method of 
promoting access while controlling all hospitals' 
costs. All hospitals must submit to strict budget 
review and then adhere to rigid revenue ceilings. At 
the same time, all needed hospitals, including those 

serving high proportions of uninsured patients, are 
assured of financial security. The state accomphshes 
this by permitting hospitals to charge all insured 
patients at a rate which covers the cost of serving 
the uninsured. In effect, this disguised tax finances 
something approaching a state program of universal 
hospital insurance. Medicare, Medicaid, Blue Cross, 
and other insurers agreed to pay the tax because 
they were impressed by the effectiveness of 
Maryland's cost control program. 

Just as universal financing in some form is needed 
to ensure access, and as fixed budgets are necessary 
to control costs, so should these budgets be 
provided to accountable providers in order to help 
allocate the right services to the right patients. 

These providers could include hospitals, health 
maintenance organizations, and perhaps other 
entities. They would undertake to provide a broadly 
defined package of services for a specific group of 
people at a set cost. Health maintenance 
organizations, especially prepaid group practices 
such as the Kaiser plans, have done this for decades. 
Hospitals are developing interest in this approach. 
They should over time become increasingly willing 
to accept fixed budgets and accountability for 
certain patients in exchange for stable and adequate 
financing for defined responsibilities. 

All accountable providers that agree to deliver care 
to a defined population at a fixed price should have 
clear incentives to work efficiently to eliminate 
ineffective, unnecessary, or incompetent services. 
Safeguards against beating the system by under 
serving patients or "creaming" by enrolling only 
healthier members should be devised. 

When needs exceed resources, as they invariably do, 
equitable and smooth-running mechanisms for 
making allocations are desirable. Today, health 
services are rationed quietly — though not always 
equitably — largely by ability to pay and physician 
decision. There has been little concern about cost. 
Until recently, higher costs have been passed 
through to insurors, who in turn raised premiums. 
This irresponsible era is passing. 

Charged with ensuring access within fixed budgets, 
accountable provider organizations would have to 
ration care by different principles, such as 
effectiveness and equal affordability. Given the 
difficulty of judging the effectiveness of many 
services today, ability to afford a given therapy for 
all in need would be a useful initial guide. Possibly, 
there is enough fat in the $300 billion we now 
spend annually on health care to finance equally all 
but the most marginally effective or catastrophically 
expensive services. 

Understandable physician preference to emphasize 
specialized and dramatic services would persist. But 
the requirement of equal access would spur 
systematic investigation of the degree to which 

different patients would benefit from various 
interventions. It would also place the engine of 
scientific curiosity squarely on the track of equally 
affordable care. It will check the proliferation of 
potentially more effective but inherently unequally 
affordable therapies — of which the artificial heart is 
only the most tragic of false hopes. 

First steps are being taken in these directions. 
Representatives of hospitals that face closing or 
financial crisis because they are committed to 
serving high proportions of low-income, minority, 
or uninsured patients are becoming more effective 
advocates of adequate federal support for these 
patients. Continuing cuts by public and private 
health insurors will give additional hospitals reason 
to do this. 

Hospitals that reshape themselves to provide 
effective and coordinated ambulatory and inpatient 
services to their communities at reasonable cost 
will buttress their appeals for federal support. They 
will be able to survive financially if adequately 
capitalized and if public and private insurors reward 
their lower costs with adequate reimbursement. 
(The state of California has recently spurred 
hospitals to do this.) Hospitals will be able to 
survive medically without teaching programs or 
medical school affiliations by hiring some of the 
physicians who are coming into over-supply and 
who declare themselves willing to work for salary. 

If enough urban hospitals do this, post-medical 
school physician education could be restructured to 
meet more of the needs of society at large and fewer 
of those of the teaching hospitals that now believe 
they must exploit the apparently cheap labor of 

Like the auto industry, American health care 
providers have pursued their long-run self-interest 
about as effectively as a lemming. 

Unlike the auto industry, urban hospitals do not 
face foreign competition. Still, they suffer shrinking 
markets because they have chosen — partly in 
response to patient pressure — to deliver services 
that are increasingly unaffordable. They could react 
by over-serving fewer well insured patients — by 
building Cadillacs and Imperials for a few. 

The auto industry began to build sturdy and fuel 
efficient compacts only in response to OPEC, 
Japanese pressure, and federal mandates. What will 
be required to oblige hospitals to imitate General 

Brandeis Group Visits China 

1. Dean Carter vvit/i Ms. Chao, a research 
associate of the China Association of La- 
bor Sciences. 

2. President Bernstein in front of the card 
catalog in the library of Bejing Universi- 

3. Dean Altman raising a toast with the ex- 
ecutive assistant to the President of Fu- 
dan University and Mr. Lao. 

4. Professor Leonard Hausman with Mr. 
Lao, director of foreign affairs at the Chi- 
na Association of Labor Sciences. 

President Marver H. Bernstein and 
several University administrators 
visited the People's Republic of China 
in December, at the special invitation 
of that government. 

The trip, initiated by Heller School 
economist Leonard J. Hausman, 
provided a rare opportunity for 
American academicians to learn 
firsthand how Chinese social policy 
operates in the area of human 

In addition to President Bernstein and 
Professor Hausman, the Brandeis 
group invited to China by its 
Association of Labor Sciences 
included Dean of the Faculty Anne P. 
Carter, an expert on international 
economics, and Dean of the Heller 
School Stuart H. Altman, a leading 
health care economist. 

During their 17-day visit to China, 
they spoke to leading government 
officials of the Ministries of Labor and 
Health and members of the Academy 
of Social Sciences and the Association 
of Labor Sciences, institutions 
composed of scholars and 
practitioners interested m social 
welfare issues. The Brandeis group 
also presented lectures in their fields 
of expertise at the Universities of 
Peking and Shanghai. President 
Bernstein spoke on "The American 
Higher Education System," Dean 
Altman addressed health care policies 
and costs. Dean Carter focused on 
economic development and 
technological change and Professor 
Hausman discussed the 
transformation of American's social 
welfare system. 

"The People's Republic is anxious to 
learn how our society is dealing with 
the problems of aging, 
unemployment, health care and other 
socio-economic concerns," President 
Bernstein said. "We regard it as a 
special privilege to have been invited 
by the Chinese government to 
exchange ideas and views with official 
representatives of a nation that has 
become a major political force on the 
world stage." 

Professor Hausman added that the trip 
to China marked an attempt by 
Brandeis to develop scholarly and 
professional exchanges between the 
liberal arts university and Chinese 
educational institutions. "We now 
look forward to a reciprocal visit to 
Brandeis in late April by leading 
officials from the China Association 
of Labor Sciences and the Ministry of 
Labor and Personnel. We hope that 
this is the beginning of a mutually 
rewarding intellectual exchange." 

Evangelical Politics . 

Disruptive But Not Deadly 

by Stephen J. Whitfield 

Stephen J. Whitfield. 

associate professor of American 

Studies, is the author of 

Scott Nearing: 

Apostle of American 

Radicalism and 

Into the Dark: 

Hannah Arendt 

and Totalitarianism. 

The latter book was the 
first winner of the 
Kayden Prize (1981) 
for best book in the 
humanities published by 
an American academic 

One of the most striking features of American politics m 
recent years has been the impact of the right wing, 
frequently associated with evangelical Christians who 
seek to mix religion and politics in explicit and deliberate 
ways. Its proponents helped secure for Ronald Reagan the 
nomination of the Republican Party in 1980, and later that 
year they helped send the incumbent back on that 
midnight train to Georgia. Such activists have targeted the 
defeat of liberal and moderate candidates on the state and 
local level, and they have put on the defensive politicians 
who admit to having been born only once. The recent 
riptide of conservatism ensured the destruction of the 
Equal Rights Amendment in state legislatures and has 
substituted abortion for race as perhaps the most searing 
moral issue in domestic politics. 

The activists of the New Right are thus involved deeply, 
though not decisively, in the issues that may characterize 
the 1980s and perhaps beyond. They will be helping to 
define the terms on which politicians may be elected, the 
limits within which officials may feel obliged to work, the 
cases which will be decided in our appellate courts. This is 
a movement whose influence would threaten values which 
the American public culture ought to sponsor and defend. 

When Reverend Dan C. Fore, the New York state chairman 
of the Moral Majority announced that "God is an ultra- 
conservative," he was challenging, however unwittingly, 
the traditional response of the American political system 
to intense religious conviction. Piety has never been 
absent from our national life, and voters have often been 
addressed by candidates so manifestly devout that they 
seemed to regard the White House itself as merely a 
stepping-stone. But other politicians have perceived the 
dangers that tenacity of religious belief has posed to the 
already robust dialogue of American self-government and 
have sensed the menace that militant theology could 
present to national harmony and civility. 

In this respect the record of the Eisenhower administration 
can be taken as illustrative. For it was during that era that 
the phrase "under God" was inserted in the Pledge of 
Allegiance, and "in God we trust" was printed on 
American money and also became the motto of a postage 
stamp. On the first Independence Day of Eisenhower's 
administration, he urged his fellow citizens to devote that 
Fourth of July to prayer and penance. Yet it must be added 
that Ike himself, whom one observer described as "a 
fervent believer in a very vague religion," set a most 
peculiar example. That Fourth of July according to one 
journalist, the President "caught four fish in the morning, 
played 18 holes of golf in the afternoon, and spent the 
evening at the bridge table." Thus religion was supposed to 
matter to Americans — but not too much. 

Such is the heritage which the resurgent right wing, with 
Its combustible mixture of religion and politics, is seeking 
to alter. For example, its Human Life Statute — perhaps in 
the form of a prelude to a Constitutional amendment — 
would outflank the Supreme Court's majority opinion in 
Roe V. Wade. The justices on that occasion were candid 
enough to admit that they could not define when life 
begins. The New Right wishes to rectify such ignorance, in 
accordance with Catholic doctrine, which teaches that life 
begins at conception. That religious definition, rather than 
any scientific interest, animates the sponsors of the 
Human Life proposal. The New Right seems equally sure 
of when the universe originated, as well as life on this 
planet; and it has sought to require the teaching of 
"creationist" theory in the public schools along with 
Darwinism and current astronomical knowledge. The 
"creationist" theory is derived from, or is intended to be 
made compatible with, a reading of scripture (despite 
differing accounts in Genesis of how and when woman 
was created). Such fundamentalist views have already 
produced political consequences. In March 1981 the 
governor of Arkansas, who had described his election as "a 
victory for the Lord," signed into law a bill — which he had 

21 not read — requiring the teaching of "creationism" along 
with conventional "evolution theory" in the public 
schools. The aim of the legislation was quite explicitly to 
"prevent establishment of theologically liberal, humanist, 
nontheist or atheist (sic| religions." Though struck down 
last January by a federal judge in Little Rock, Arkansas, 
"creationism" has been sanctioned by a more subtle 
Louisiana state legislature, which has more artfully 
disguised the religious roots of this new educational 

It is disturbing enough to consider what further damage 
the instruction of pseudo-biology and pseudo-geology can 
do to an already-battered public school system. It is also 
obvious enough that no foe of fundamentalism is obliged 
to defend any particular set of scientific views, which 
historically have often been proven to be erroneous 
(although scientific methods authorize the hope that 
mistakes can be corrected). "Science has proof without any 
certainty," one anthropologist has written, but 
"creationists have certainty without any proof." But what 
is most significant is the challenge that such victories for 
the Lord represent in a political arena designed to include 
citizens of all persuasions. The law ought not to compel 
everyone, in a system subsidized by the taxes of heretics 
and the unchurched as well, to pay attention to the beliefs 
of a particular religious group. Citizens offended by The 
Origin of Species are not required to enroll their children in 
the public schools, and in their parochial and private 
academies they may — if they wish — teach that the earth is 
flat. But so long as public schools in a pluralistic society 
see fit to offer instruction in biology, they ought not to 
yield to sectarian pressure to disseminate religious 
doctrine camouflaged as scientific theory. 

The analogy holds with respect to the ticklish and terrible 
issue of abortion, a surgical procedure toward which 
anyone with humane instincts should be at best 
ambivalent. Those who condemn it ordinarily derive 
inspiration from religious teachings, and the state should 
not prevent them from expressing their abhorrence in any 
peaceful manner. Opponents of abortion remain free to 
deny that option to themselves. But in attempting to 
prohibit others from exercising their rights, in summoning 
the police power and the criminal sanction of the 
government, the so-called pro-life forces strike at the core 
of religious liberty. Some faiths and creeds do not forbid 
abortion; and in any event our society has to 
accommodate everyone, not only the philoprogenitive. On 
this issue at least, even the Moral Majority itself is a 
misnomer, since the ABC-Harris polls disclosed that 60% 
of the American public favors the freedom of choice 
principle enunciated in Roe v. Wade. In this instance the 
Moral Majority is attempting to impose a minority 
position, though it is a sign of the political effectiveness of 
the far right's lobbying effort that Senator Strom 
Thurmond, who supports the right to abortion in cases of 
rape and incest, is beginning to look like a moderate. 

Perhaps no other issue reveals so strikingly what the New 
Right embodies and the values it sanctions. For opponents 
of freedom of choice are also commonly found among 
those who also rejected the Equal Rights Amendment for 
women, and that demonstrates a certain consistency. For a 
teenager or a young woman, coerced into giving birth to an 

unwanted child, will irrevocably change her life, and will 
thus be denied the same autonomy and freedom that the 
father of her child might enjoy. But inconsistencies haunt 
this particular cause as well. Those who claim that 
abortion is murder and must therefore be forbidden rarely 
object when young, "innocent" life is also taken in 
warfare; few Protestant fundamentalists or Roman 
Catholics are pacifists. Nor are they usually found in the 
ranks of those who wish to eliminate capital punishment; 
pro-life activists do not object on principle when the 
hangman rather than a physician takes a human life. 
Rarely have the champions of the human life statute 
mailed appeals opposing the arms race or asking for foreign 
aid to reduce starvation and disease in the Third World. 

The dream of a pluralistic polity which maximizes 
opportunity is tarnished when freedom of choice is denied 
to pregnant women, when prayer and scriptural versions of 
cosmogony are introduced into the public schools, when 
sin is discovered in books, when pohtical debate becomes 
overloaded with a religious charge. The current drive on 
the far right to infuse the responsibilities of self- 
government with the passions of faith challenges what is 
most promising and perhaps most essential in the 
American experiment itself — what Jefferson called "an 
empire of reason." 

But a principled opposition to political fundamentalism 
need not tap unwarranted anxieties and inflated fears that 
this empire of reason is endangered; and in liberal precincts 
the power of the New Right has sometimes been rather 
overstated. For every viewer of Reverend Falwell's Old- 
Time Gospel Hour, five or six Americans are watching the 
feminist and liberal-spirited Phil Donahue Show. Falwell's 
program is only the sixth most popular of the syndicated 
evangelical programs, the so-called stations of the cross; 
and of the top ten, his is perhaps the only one with an 
explicit political message. More Americans have watched 
M.A.S.H. every week than tuned in to all the "electronic 
churches" combined. Even in the 1980 elections, only II 
percent of those who actually voted for Reagan did so 
primarily because of his conservative ideology. There are 
good reasons to suspect that, whipsawed between high 
crime rates and high prime rates, embittered by stagnation 
at home and humiliation abroad, most voters in 1980 
sought change rather than associate membership in the 
Moral Majority. Since then the legislative achievements of 
the New Right have been very limited, and its agenda has 
received very little judicial sanction. For the ambitions and 
the desire for repression of these activists are less extensive 
and less formidable than earlier manifestations in 
American history of political fundamentalism, and liberal 
segments of Christianity and in the general community 
are far stonger than were their predecessors who combatted 
nineteenth-century nativists and the Ku Klux Klan. The 
New Right threatens no one's freedom of worship and does 
not countenance violence, though its capacity for 
considerable disruption can hardly be discounted. Civil 
libertarians like to say that their victories are never final, 
that their struggle never ceases. And so long as the 
American political culture — with its stress on compromise 
and conciliation and its indifference to theology — cannot 
satisfy the spiritual hungers that many citizens feel, a 
climate will exist in which evangelical politics may be 

Music at Brandeis 

Hits the Right Notes 

The sounds of Chopin, Schubert and 
Haydn float from the basement 
practice rooms of Slosberg Music 
Center, providing a never-ending 
concert for passers-by. In classrooms 
upstairs, students from a wide range 
of academic disciplines listen intently 
as distinguished scholars and 
musicians discuss harmony, 
counterpoint, tonal analysis and 
music history. 

Across campus, in the Goldfarb 
Library, audio equipment gives 
students access to musical recordings 
both for leisure listening and serious 
analysis. Though better known for its 
dramatic productions, Spingold 
Theater also plays host to many 
musical events, including the comic 
operas of the Gilbert and Sullivan 
Society and the annual Louis 
Armstrong Memorial lazz Concerts 
(fast becoming a Brandeis tradition). 
Elsewhere on campus, in Usdan 
Student Center and in the Three 
Chapels, audiences respond to the 
beat of different drummers: student 
rock bands, the Gospel Choir, voice 
recitals as well as a burgeoning 
number of small chamber music 

Music at Brandeis is anything but 
low-key; its pace since the 
University's inception anything but 
adagio. Within the first year of the 
University's founding, music assumed 
a pivotal role in campus life; 35 years 
later the same vitality remains in 

Today the graduate program in music 
at Brandeis ranks among the top ten 
private universities in the country. 
Designed to provide a command of 
composition and an understanding of 
the nature, structure and historical 
development of music, the graduate 
program includes intensive study in 
both composition and musicology. 
Students excel in musical 
competitions and frequently receive 
academic recognition through Sachar 
International Fellowships, Rockefeller 
Grants and DAAD awards given by 
the German government, and each 
year, Brandeis students study abroad 
on such grants. 

In keeping with the liberal arts 
philosophy of the University, the 
undergraduate music program offers a 
broad perspective emphasizing 
musical history, theory and 






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23 performance. Students examine the 
styles, forms and compositional 
techniques of Western music in its 
cultural and historical context. They 
also receive training in basic 
musicianship along with the more 
specific skills required for musical 
analysis and composition. For 
students with special performing 
interests not represented by its faculty, 
the department offers scholarships for 
outside study with a teacher of the 
student's choice. The Boston area, 
rich in highly qualified instructors, 
makes this private study option 
particularly attractive. 

The Brandeis Music Department is 
not a conservatory; a simple fact 
easily obscured. Like a conservatory, 
the department makes individual 
music instruction available to its 
students and fosters a wealth of 
performing activity, yet it does so 
within the framework of a bachelor of 
arts curriculum, with the added 
benefit of a nationally recognized 
graduate program. 

Approximately 40 students are 
currently involved at various stages of 
their graduate music education at 
Brandeis, while undergraduate music 
concentrators number close to 25. But 
these figures fail to capture the true 
impact of music at the University. 
Many of the department's courses, 
most of its facilities, and all of its 
performing organizations are open to 
interested students from the campus- 
at-large. And nearly every week, 
graduate and undergraduate non- 
concentrators, residents from 
surrounding communities, and faculty 
members enjoy, perhaps even take an 
active role in, a wide variety of Music 
Department-sponsored events. 

The offerings are plentiful. The 
department gave 67 concerts last year 
including a Wednesday noon series at 
the Usdan Student Center and an 
evening series at the Slosberg Music 
Center. This year, within an 18 -day 
period in December alone, there were 
11 concerts from which to choose. 

And choose they do. Audiences enjoy 
listening to student vocal and 
instrumental chamber music recitals 
along with performances by 
distinguished members of the music 
faculty and numerous guest artists. 
The Brandeis Symphony Orchestra, 
directed in years past by David Hoose 
and this year by Anthony Princiotti, 
presents works by Dvorak, 

Tchaikovsky, Beethoven, Schubert 
and Haydn. Three choirs currently 
perform around campus: the 60- 
member Brandeis Chorus and the 
smaller Chamber Choir, both 
conducted by Professor James Olesen; 
and Polyhymnia, a new 18-member 
group under the direction of Professor 
Alejandro Planchart, sang Renaissance 
madrigals during its premiere concert 
last November. Other musical groups 
include the Brandeis Jazz Ensemble, 
directed by doctoral candidate Ross 
Bauer, which gives biannual concerts 
at Brandeis and appears at colleges 
throughout the region. The 
Renaissance Wind Band, under the 
direction of artist-in-residence 
Timothy Aarset, plays Renaissance 
music using replicas of early music 
instruments. Early music is also 
performed by another University 
ensemble, the Viol Consort, under the 
direction of artist-in-residence Sarah 

The most visible performing 
ensemble around campus is the 
Lydian String Quartet, now in its third 
year in residence at Brandeis. 
Described by The Boston Globe as "a 
superb young ensemble," and by The 
New York Times as having ". . . 
authority and energy. . . ," the Lydian 
String Quartet, composed of violinists 
Judith Eissenberg and Wilma Smith; 
violinist Mary Ruth Ray; and cellist 
Rhonda Rider, has coached 
extensively with Robert Koff who was 
most active in its formation. The 
group won three major prizes last May 
at the International String Quartet 
competition in Evian, France. In 
addition to regular performances on 
campus where they frequently 
present, along with the standard 
quartet repertoire, music written by 
Brandeis graduate composition 
students or by Brandeis faculty 
members, the quartet's members 
serve as chamber music coaches, 
private instrumental instructors, and 
as section leaders and soloists with 
the Brandeis Symphony Orchestra. 

Away from campus, the Lydian String 
Quartet has performed extensively in 
the Boston area where the group 
already has a substantial and growing 
following. Explains Lydian cellist 
Riionda Rider, "Boston doesn't have 
many string quartets that rehearse 
and play consistently. It's nice to see 
familiar faces in our audiences, 
knowing these people love chamber 
music and enjoy our concerts." 

In addition to local performances, the 
Lydian String Quartet will play for 
audiences in California, Oregon and 
Tennessee during the upcoming 
months. The four young women look 
forward to giving these concerts 
because, as violinist Mary Ruth Ray 
contends, they are a valuable source of 
exposure not only for the individual 
musicians and the quartet 
collectively, but also for the 
University. Such visibility and 
recognition is important in attracting 
music students to Brandeis. 

Perhaps the highest tribute a group 
can be paid comes not from critics but 
from composers whose work it 
performs. Says Andrew Imbrie, a 
recent Jacob Ziskind Visiting 
Professor of Music at Brandeis and an 
internationally recognized composer, 
"The Lydian String Quartet is an 
absolutely first-class ensemble." 
Referring to their performance last 
December at the University's annual 
Irving Fine Memorial Concert, 
Professor Imbrie added that "they gave 

my 4th String Quartet one of the best 
performances it has ever had." 

Countless other performing groups 
bring musical entertainment to 
Brandeis audiences outside the 
auspices of the Music Department. 
Tympanium Euphorium, the 
undergraduate musical theater 
performing organization, each year 
mounts a large-scale production in the 
fall and a smaller one in the spring. 
The Brandeis Gilbert and Sullivan 
Society, established in 1951, is the 
oldest student group on campus. Each 
spring the Society stages one major 
opera — H.M.S. Pinafore played to 
audiences last year — and gives recitals 
throughout the year in the Boston 
area. Since 1971, the Brandeis Gospel 
Choir has served as a spiritual and 
creative outlet for approximately 25 
students each year who perform both 
on-campus and in various Boston-area 
churches. The Christian musical 
organization presents two major 
concerts annually, performs monthly 
at the University's Harlan Chapel, 
and occasionally takes to the road, 
giving concerts throughout New 
England, New York, and as far south 
as Virginia. They have, to date, cut 
two albums: "Solid Rock" in 1978 and 
"The Time is Now" in 1981. 

Performances abound at Brandeis; no 
less so, scholarship. Since its 
inception, the department has 
attracted well-known musicians and 
musicologists to its faculty — as full- 
time professors, visiting scholars, and 
artists-in-residence. The early days — 
of Erwin Bodky Irving Fine, Arthur 
Berger and Leonard Bernstein — were 
hardly inauspicious and firmly 
established a standard of excellence 
for the department. Soon to follow 
were Harold Shapero, well-known 
composer and director of the 
University's electronic music studioS; 
violinist and conductor Robert Koff; 
and nineteenth-century music scholar 
Caldwell Titcomb, all of whom 
remain with the department to this 

The highly regarded music faculty 
also includes composer Martin 
Boykau; musicologist and linguist 
Allan R. Keiler who currently chairs 
the department; Pulitze Piize- 
winning composer Donald Martino; 
and the internationally known 
medieval scholar Alejandro Planchart. 
James D. Olesen and David M. Hoose 

lend their expertise to many of the 
department's performing groups. 
Baroque specialist Eric Chafe, a 
newcomer to the department, 
complements musicologist Edward 
Nowacki, a medieval music scholar 
Brmgmg added strength to the 
program in composition are Peter 
Child, Conrad M. Pope and Allen L. 
Anderson. And next year, one of the 
foremost Bach scholars in the United 
States, Robert Marshall, currently at 
the University of Chicago, will join 
the Brandeis music faculty. 

An already outstanding full-time 
faculty is further enhanced by artists- 
in-residence and visiting professors. 
Departmental lecture series also bring 
to campus such distinguished 
national composers as Milton Babbitt 
and Mario Davidovsky, and music 
scholars Alan Tyson and Richard 
Kramer Last year, a unique conference 
on the contemporary music of Israel 
attracted prominent and promising 
Israeli composers to Brandeis for two 
days of colloquia and concert 

Scholarly music research, although 
less visible than the performance 
activities, is extensive and on-going. 
Each year Brandeis faculty members 
present papers at conferences in this 
country and abroad; books and 
articles reflecting their research 
findings frequently appear in print. 

While at Brandeis, music students 
benefit from the high standards of 
scholarship and performance and from 
the opportunity to work closely with 
an exceptional faculty and their post- 
Brandeis paths attest to the quality of 
training they have received. 

It's no surprise then that so many 
undergraduates go on to pursue 
further study in top-notch graduate 
programs at prestigious universities 
and earn accolades along the way. 
Richard Wernick, a former Brandeis 
student now on the faculty of the 
University of Pennsylvania, is a 
Pulitzer Prize-winning composer 
Others, upon completing their 
graduate studies at Brandeis, have 
assumed teaching positions at UCLA, 
Boston University, Washington 
University, and other leading centers 
of learning. Those who hold degrees in 
music from Brandeis include: the 
dean of the faculty of music at 
University of Toronto; a Baroque flute 

expert currently on tour in Europe; 
the chairman of the chamber music 
program at the New England 
Conservatory of Music; a violinist 
with the Cleveland Symphony 
Orchestra; and the official 
accompanist at the Mozartium in 
Salzburg, Austria, who specializes on 
the fortepiano. Also, a harpsichord 
designer; a member of the faculty at 
the Eastman School of Music; an 
opera librettist and a composer and 

To continue to prepare its students — 
as musicologists, music theorists and 
musicians — the department must do 
more than keep abreast of the times. 
In many instances, it must lead them. 
Back in the early 1950s, when 
chamber and early music activity in 
the Boston area was more limited, 
Brandeis expanded the opportunities 
in this musical style for musicians 
and audiences alike. As one of the 
first universities to install electronic 
music studios in the 1960s, Brandeis 
opened doors for young composers 
interested in a new musical medium. 

Today Brandeis remains in the 
vanguard of education in the field of 
music. For undergraduate students, an 
innovative University Studies 
Program in Creative Arts will 
introduce into the 1983-84 
curriculum newly designed, 
interdisciplinary courses spanning the 
fields of music, fine arts and theater 
The Leonard Farber Library, scheduled 
to open this June, will include two 
floors devoted predominantly to 
music studies and will house modern, 
state-of-the-art audio equipment to 
enhance and expand the University's 
present listening facilities. 

The department will face additional 
challenges in the years ahead: some 
already anticipated and addressed, 
others still out of view. But 35 years of 
experience, expansion, and 
experimentation, have left the 
department ready to sustain and 
surpass the exceptionally high 
standards it has established. 

Debra Schatz 


Faculty Notes 


Laurence F. Abbott 

associate professor of 
physics, recently gave three 
lectures at the Fourth Latin 
American Symposium on 
Relativity and Gravitation 
held in Caracas, Venezuela. 
At the symposium, 
physicists from Great 
Britain, France, Italy and the 
United States met with 
Latin American physicists to 
discuss the latest results in 
cosmology, gravity and 

Stuart H. Altman 

dean of the Heller School, 
was elected to the 
Governing Council of the 
Institute of Medicine of the 
National Academy of 
Sciences. He was one of ten 
U.S. authorities asked to 
write on different aspects of 
the health system for 
LEADERS, a magazine 
directed toward international 
leaders in business and 
public policy concerns. His 
article, "The U.S. Health 
System in the 1980s: A 
Return to the '50s or the 
Decade of National Health 
Insurance?" will appear in 
the magazine's special issue 
on health care. In December 
he was lead speaker and 
chair of the annual meeting 
of Grantmakers in Health, 
the association of all private 
foundations which award 
grants in the health area. 
The Heller School's Center 
for Health Policy Analysis 
and Research was respon- 
sible for organizing that 
association's Atlanta 
meeting. He also spoke in 
December at the fiith armual 
meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Health Data 

Allen Anderson 

instructor in music, is 
composing a new work for 
Speculum Musicae, a 
musical ensemble in New 
York City, to be premiered in 
the 1983-84 season. 

Asoka Bandarage 

assistant professor of 
sociology, spoke dunng the 
fall of 1982 on the issues of 
ethnocentrism in feminist 
theory, women in third 
world development and 
feminism in cross-cultural 
perspectives at the 

Conference of the Society for 
Women in Philosophy at 
Smith College; the 
Conference on Women in 
International Development 
in Winnipeg, Canada; at 
Southeastern Massachusetts 
University; and at the 
Center for the Study of 
World Religions at Harvard 
University. In the summer of 
1982 she was appointed to 
the International Committee 
of the Boston's Women's 
Health Book Collective and 
in the fall of that year to the 
Program Evaluation 
Committee of Oxfam- 
America. She is currently 
helping to organize a session 
on minority women in the 
U.S. economy for the annual 
meetings of the Eastern 
Sociological Society to be 
held in Baltimore, Maryland 
in March 1983. 

Kathleen Barry 

assistant professor of 
sociology, gave campus-wide 
lectures at Yale University 
and Mount Holyoke College 
on the international traffic 
in women. She has been 
accepted for a winter's 
residency at MacDowell 
Writer's Colony to work on 
her new book, a biography of 
Susan B. Anthony. 

Rudolph Binion 

Leff Families Professor of 
Modern European History, 
recently contributed a 
psychohistorical portrait of 
Adolf Hitler to a special 
volume published by the 
Bonn government 50 years 
after Hitler's accession to 
power. He was the only non- 
German invited to 
contribute to this volume, 
aside from the few historians 
writing on reactions abroad 
to Hitler's accession. His 
book, Introduction a la 
psychohistoire, was jointly 
published by the Presses 
Universitaires de France and 
the College de France in 
September 1982. Based on 
four lectures he delivered at 
the College de France in 
October-November 1980, it 
IS the first volume in a new 
series entitled. Essays and 
Lectures from the College de 
France. In October he gave 
the keynote lecture at a 
McGill University 
symposium on World War II 
and spoke on Lou Andreas- 
Salome at Mount Holyoke 

Robert H. Binstock 

Louis Stulberg Professor of 
Law and Politics, has been 
appointed to the National 
Academy of Sciences 
Committee on an Aging 
Society. He is currently 
serving as chair of an 
advisory panel to the Office 
of Technology Assessment of 
the U.S. Congress for a two- 
year study of the impact of 
technology on aging. 

Seyom Brown 

professor of politics, 
addressed the Brandeis 
Leadership Development 
Group in New York City in 
November on "A Post- 
Election Assessment of 
Reagan's Foreign Policy 
Options." He also spoke in 
October at a Foxboro, 
Massachusetts forum on 
disarmament and arms 
control issues sponsored by 
the League of Women Voters. 

Saul G. Cohen 

Charles A. Breskin 
University Professor of 
Chemistry, has been 
nominated for the Board of 
Overseers of Harvard 
University a 30-member 
governing board elected to a 
six-year term by that 
University's alumni body. 

John Putnam Demos 

professor of history, is the 
SATAN: Witchcraft and the 
Culture of Early New 
England, published in 
October by Oxford 
University Press. The book 
was favorably reviewed in 
the New York Review of 
Books, The New York Times 
Sunday Book Review, and 
Newsweek magazine, among 
other publications, and was 
also included in a New York 
Times list of "notable books" 
published during 1982. He 
gave the annual Ruth N. 
Halls Lecture at the 
University of Indiana on the 
topic, "Adolescence in 
Historical Perspective." He 
also gave invited lectures at 
Boston University Medical 
School, Wellesley College, 
The Boston Globe Book 
Festival, and the Fifth 
Annual International 
Conference on Self 
Psychology in Atlanta. 

Stanley Deser 

Enid and Nathan S. Ancell 
Professor of Physics, gave an 
invited talk at the Solvay 
Congress in November In 
December, he delivered 
lectures at the 4th SILARG- 
Latin American School on 
Gravitation in Caracas, 
Venezuela and in Austin, 
Texas at the 11th "Texas 
Conference," the 
international conference on 
relativistic astrophysics. He 
has been invited to "Shelter 
Island 11," in June 1983, a 
sequel to the historic 1947 
Shelter Island conference on 
quantum electrodynamics. 

Philip Ehrlich 

assistant professor of 
philosophy, is the author of 
"Negative, Infinite and 
Hotter than Infinite 
Temperatures" (Synthese 50) 
reprinted in Philosophical 
Problems of Modern Physics 
(D. Reidel Publishers). He 
presented his paper, "Surreal 
Numbers and Nonarchi- 
medean Geometry: Some 
Mathematical, Historical 
and Philosophical Remarks," 
at the Joint Colloquium on 
History and Philosophy of 
Science at Harvard 

Edward Engelberg 

professor of comparative 
literature, recently had his 
essay "Absence and Presence 
in Year's Poetry," published 
in Yeats Annual. I 
(MacMillan and Humanities 

Irving R. Epstein 

professor of chemistry, gave 
invited talks at the national 
meeting of the American 
Chemical Society in Kansas 
City and at Queens College 
in New York on "Oscillating 
Chemical Reactions" and at 
the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology on "Kinetic 
ISING Models for Systems of 
Biological Interest." He has 
received a research grant 
from NATO for collaboration 
with scientists in Bordeaux, 
France on studies of 
oscillating chemical 

Elliot J. Feldman 

assistant professor of 
politics, was named a 
Research Fellow of the 
National Defense University 

where he will complete the 
research he will begin this 
summer in Europe and 
pursue m Washington as an 
International Affairs Fellow 
of the Council on Foreign 
Relations during 1983-84. In 
October his article on the 
politics of the Massachusetts 
Port Authonty was 
published on the op-ed page 
of The Boston Globe and 
Quebec's leading daily, Le 
Devoir, devoted a half-page 
to his fifth and most-recent 
book, The Politics of 
Canadian Airport 
Development: Lessons for 
Federalism (Duke 
University Press). In 
November he chaired a day- 
long conference at the 
Lincoln Institute of Land 
Policy on housing and land 
use policies in Canada and 
the United States. 

Karen E. Fields 
assistant professor of 
sociology, has been awarded 
a fellowship from the 
National Endowment for the 
Humanities (NEHI which 
will support her research at 
The Mary Ingraham Bunting 
Institute of Radcliffe 

Jack S. Goldstein 

professor of astrophysics, 
spoke on "The Current 
Status of Research on the 
CO2 Climate Problem" at 
Kyoto University m Japan 
and at the Government of 
India Meteorological Project. 
In December he spoke in 
India on "Comparative 
Approaches to Worldwide 
Energy Problems" at the 
National Solar Energy 
Conference in New Delhi 
and at the Indian Institute of 
Science, Raman Research 
Centre in Bangalore. 

Gila J. Hayim 

associate professor of 
sociology, delivered a paper 
entitled "Methodology and 
Ethics of Existential 
Sociology" at the 2 1st 
annual meetmg of the 
Society for Phenomenology 
and Existential Philosophy 
at Pennsylvania State 

Michael |. Henchman 

associate professor of 
chemistry, attended the 

Euchem Conference on 
Gaseous vs. Solvated Ions in 
Rome, Italy, in September at 
which he presented two 
papers "Solvent Participation 
in Proton Transfer Reactions 
Involving Solvated Ions"; 
and "Nucleophilic 
Displacement Reactions 
Involving Solvated Ions." In 
November he gave an 
invited seminar at Yale on 
"Solvated Ions in the Gas 
Phase; and the Relevance for 
Solution Chemistry." 

Ray S. Jackendoff 

professor of linguistics, had 
his book, A Generative 
Theory of Tonal Music (co- 
authored with composer Fred 
Lerdahl of Columbia 
University) published by 
MIT Press m December The 
book synthesizes the 
outlook and methodology of 
contemporary linguistics 
with the insights of recent 
music theory and takes as its 
premise the idea that the 
perception of music is a 
cognitive activity in which 
listeners unconsciously use 
certain principles m 
attributing structure to the 
music they hear. 

Edward K. Kaplan 

associate professor of French, 
spoke on "Modem French 
Poetry and Sanctification: 
Baudelaire and Bonnefoy" at 
the University of California 
at Santa Cruz m May 1982. 
In October 1982 he 
presented a paper on Jules 
Michelet entitled, "Mother 
Death: Autobiography of an 
Artist-Historian" at the 
19th-century French Studies 
Colloquium at the 
University of Massachusetts. 
His article, "Howard 
Thurman: Meditation, 
Mysticism, and Life's 
Contradictions," appeared in 
the Spring 1982 issue of 
Debate and Understanding, 
published by Boston 
University. He has also 
had reviews of two books 
published, one on Michelet 
in The French Review in 
February 1982 and another 
on Baudelaire in the 
September 1982 issue of 
French Forum. 

Reuven R. Kimelman 

assistant professor of Near 
Eastern and Judaic Studies 
and Manheimer Term 
Professor of Umversity 

Studies, presented papers at 
the Second International 
Conference on Jewish Law 
on "Third Century Halakha 
in the Light of the Political 
and Economic Realities," 
and at The Association of 
Jewish Studies on "The 
Conflict Between the 
Pnestly Oligarchy and the 
Rabbinate in Eretz-Israel in 
the Talmudic Period." His 
booklet, Tsedakah and Us — 
A Solicitation Manual, was 
published by the National 
Jewish Resource Center 

Lorraine V. Klerman 

professor of public health at 
the Heller School, spoke on 
"Pregnant Adolescents and 
Teenage Parents — A Social 
Policy Perspective" at the 
conference, Strategies for 
Resource Development and 
Advocacy: Pregnant 
Parents, sponsored by the 
Massachusetts Department 
of Social Services. She also 
reviewed "Pregnancy and 
Parenting among Hispanic 
Adolescents: Health and 
Social Issues" for the 
Conference on Critical 
Health Issues Facing 
Mamland Puerto Ricans 
sponsored by the Boston 
Area Health Education 
Center She has received a 
grant from the Department 
of Health and Human 
Services to study needs 
assessment and resource 
development in maternal 
and child health. 

Miroslav Krek 

lecturer in bibliography, read 
his paper entitled "Some 
Observations Concerning 
Arabic Printing in America 
and by Americans Abroad 
Before 1850" at the annual 
Middle East Librarians 
Association meeting in 
Philadelphia in November 
The paper will be published 
in the Association's 
Occasional Papers. 

Norman E. Levine 

associate professor of 
physical education, was 
voted New England Division 
ni Coach of the Year in 
Cross-Country for the 
seventh time. His article, 
"Brandeis Cross-Country 
Program for Middle Distance 
Runners," was published in 
The Harrier magazine in 

Nicholas Linfield 

lecturer with the rank of 
assistant professor of 
English, played the role of 
James Joyce in Nor' at 
Boston's Nucleo Eciettico in 
January. At the Barton 
Square Playhouse in Salem, 
Massachusetts, he appeared 
in Sleuth in April and as 
Scrooge in Scrooge and 
Marley in December He also 
went on a national tour with 
the Boston Camerata's 
production of Play of Daniel. 
His article, "You and Thou 
m Othello," was published 
m the November issue of the 
Iowa State Journal of 

Henry Linschitz 

Helena Rubinstein Professor 
of Chemistry, was chair of 
the panel on Artificial 
Photosynthesis at the Fourth 
International Conference on 
Photochemical Conversion 
and Storage of Solar Energy, 
which was held at The 
Hebrew University in 
Jerusalem in August. He also 
chaired the discussion of 
magnetic field effects on 
photochemical reactions at 
the Gordon Research 
Conference on Electron 
Interactions, held in August 
at the Brewster Academy in 
New Hampshire. 

John M. Lowenstein 

Helena Rubinstein Professor 
of Biochemistry, recently 
gave seminars on "The 
Metabolic Role of the Purine 
Nucleotide Cycle" at the 
Johnson Foundation of the 
University of Pennsylvania 
School of Medicine, 
University of Maryland 
School of Medicine, and the 
Biochemistry Department 
of the University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst. 

Joan M. Maling 

associate professor of 
linguistics, presented two 
papers in December at the 
winter meeting of the 
Linguistic Society of 
America in San Diego on 
"Passive" and "Preposition 
Stranding and Oblique Case" 
m modem Icelandic. She is 
the author of "Transitive 
Adjectives: A Case of 
Categorical Reanalysis" 
recently published in 



Linguistic Categories: 
Auxiliaries and Related 
Puzzles (Reidel). 

Danielle Marx-Scouras 

assistant professor of French 
and Italian, was awarded a 
Mazer Grant last summer to 
do research in Italy on the 
contemporar>' writer, Elio 
Vittormi. She delivered two 
papers: "Culture and 
Politics; the Politecnico 
Experience" for the Italian 
section of the annual 
SCMLA meeting in San 
Antonio, Texas in October; 
and "L'Exorcisme de 
I'oppresseur: la 
problematique du racisme et 
du sexisme dans Le Passe 
Simple de Dnss Chraibi et 
La Repudiation de Rachid 
Boudjedra" for the Division 
on French Literature Outside 
of Europe at the annual MLA 
convention in Los Angeles 
in December. 

Ruth S. Morgenthau 

Adlai E. Stevenson Professor 
of International Politics, was 
a keynote speaker at the 
Mexican-Malien Dialogue in 
rural development held in 
November at CEICADAR, 
Puebla, the training institute 
of the Graduate School of 
Chapingo. She also presided 
in Puebla at a meeting of the 
Executive Committee of 
Food Corps Programs, 
International (CILCAI. 

Alfred Nisonoff 

professor of biology and 
Rosenstiel Basic Medical 
Sciences Research Center, is 
serving as a member of the 
National Research Council 
Committee on Defense 
Against Mycotoxins. 

Susan Moller Okin 

associate professor of 
politics, recently served as a 
visiting resident scholar at 
Hobart and William Smith 
Colleges where she worked 
with faculty members on 
issues involved in 
integrating the study of 
women into the general 

Arthur H. Reis, Jr. 

lecturer with the rank of 
associate professor of 
chemistry, spoke in 
November on "One- 
Dimensional Inorgaiuc and 

Organic Conductors" at 
Fordham University. 

Bernard Reisman 

associate professor of 
American lewish communal 
studies and director of the 
Homstein Program, was a 
guest lecturer at the 
Leadership and Management 
Development Center of the 
Department of the Air Force 
at Maxwell Air Force Base, 
Montgomery, Alabama, in 

George W. Ross 

associate professor of 
sociology, lectured at the 
Institute for French Studies, 
New York University, on 
"French Communism in 
1982, Problems at the Rank 
and File" and at Wellesley 
College on "The Crisis of 
European Social 
Democracy." His book. 
Unions. Crisis and Change, 
co-authored with Peter 
Lange and Maurizio 
Vanmcelli, was recently 
published in London (George 
Allen and Unwin, 
Publishers). His article, 
"French Labor and Economic 
Change," appeared in the 
volume, France m the 
Troubled World Economy 
(Butterworths). Two 
additional articles were 
recently published: "French 
Communism with Its Back 
to the Wall" appeared in 
Socialist Review (no. 65); 
and "France's Third Wa^" 
was published in Studies m 
Political Economy, a 
Canadian ]oumal. He 
delivered papers at the 
annual meetings of the 
American Political Science 
Association in Denver; the 
Western Society for French 
History in Winnipeg, 
Canada; and the Canadian 
Political Science 
Association. He also 
participated in a colloquium. 
Nationalizations: La Voie 
Francaise, in Pans. 

Murray Sachs 

professor of French, read his 
paper, "Flaubert and 
Revolution," in October at 
the annual Colloquium on 
19th-century French Studies 
at the University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst. In 
November he gave the 
keynote address, entitled 
"George Sand and Gustave 

Flaubert; French Literature's 
Odd Couple," at the Sixth 
International George Sand 
Conference, held at Bard 
College. His article, "Two- 
Way Traffic: Some 
Reflections on School- 
University Collaboration," 
appeared in the September 
issue of the ADFL Bulletin. 
In December, he was elected 
to a three-year term on the 
Executive Committee of the 
Association of Departments 
of Foreign Languages. 

Alan Sager 

assistant professor of urban 
and health planning at the 
Heller School, has been 
elected vice president of the 
Health Planning Council for 
Greater Boston. He presented 
papers on public hospital 
survival and voluntary 
hospital closings at the 
November meeting of the 
American Public Health 
Association (APHA) in 
Montreal and co-authored a 
paper at APHA on 
mobilizing and coordinating 
family help for the disabled. 
His book. Planning Home 
Care with the Elderly, has 
been published by 
Cambridge: Ballinger. 

Robert A. Schneider 

assistant professor of history 
and Manheimer Term 
Assistant Professor of 
University Studies, 
presented a paper on "The 
Catholic Community of 
Toulouse," in December at 
the annual meeting of the 
American Historical 
Association in Washington, 

Silvan S. Schweber 

professor of physics and 
Richard Koret Professor in 
the History of Ideas, 
delivered a paper in lune 
entitled, "The Genesis of the 
Origin: 1844-1859," at the 
international "Darwin 
Hentage" conference held in 
Florence, Italy. In luly he 
visited the Umversite de 
Lausanne and the ETH in 
Zurich where he delivered 
seminars on "The History of 
Quantum Field Theory: 
1940-1950." At the 
centennial commemoration 
of Darwin's death held in 
September at the Umversite 
de Paris he delivered a paper 

on "Intellectual and 
Ideological Factors in the 
Genesis of Natural 
Selection." Also in 
September he participated in 
an international workshop 
on The History of 
Probability from 1800 to the 
Present where he delivered a 
paper on "The Development 
of Probabilistic Thought in 
Great Britain in the 
Nineteenth Century: 
Darwin and Maxwell." 

Harold S. Shapero 

Walter N. Naumberg 
Professor of Music, received 
a 1982-83 award from the 
American Society of 
Composers, Authors and 
Publishers (ASCAP) given 
annually to express the 
Society's "continuing 
commitment to assist and 
encourage wnters of serious 

William Shipman 

instructor m physical 
education, has been named 
by the U.S. Olympic 
Committee to serve as first 
alternate coach for the U.S. 
Fencing Team competing in 
the World lunior Fencmg 
Championships m Hungary, 
March 26-Apnl 30. 

Barry B. Snider 

associate professor of 
chemistry, was awarded a 
1982 Dreyfus Teacher- 
Scholar Grant from The 
Camille and Henry Dreyfus 
Foundation of New York 
City to develop innovative 
research and teaching 

Bennett Solomon 

lecturer in Jewish education, 
has been mvited to lead 
several workshops for the 
Board of Jewish Education in 
Metropolitan Chicago 
including one sesssion on 
"Integrating Curriculum — 
the Philosophical Basis and 
Practical Implementation" 
as part of the Institute for 
Trainmg of Master Teachers 
in the Day School, and 
another sesssion on 
"Deliberation and Selection 
for Curriculum" for the 
Institute for Training of 
Master Teachers in 
Supplemental School. 

Promotions and Appointments: 

Susan Staves 

associate professor of 
English, gave a Clark Lecture 
entitled "Where is History 
But in Texts?: Reading the 
History of Mamage," at the 
William Andrews Clark 
Library in Los Angeles, 
California. Her talk was part 
of a year-long series on 
history and literature. 

Thomas R. Tuttle, Jr. 

associate professor of 
chemistry, presented a 
lecture entitled "What are 
Solvated Electrons?" at the 
Chemistry Department 
Colloquium at Fordham 
Umversity in October. 

Gloria Waite 

assistant professor of African 
and Afro-American studies, 
is the author of an article 
entitled "East Indians and 
National Politics in the 
Caribbean" which appeared 
in the Fall 1982 issue of 
South Asia Bulletin. 
Another article, jointly 
written with Chnstopher 
Ehret and entitled 
"Linguistic Perspectives on 
the Early History of 
Southern Tanzania," was 
accepted for publication in 
Tanzania Notes and 

Stephen J. Whitfield 

associate professor of 
Amencan studies, has had 
his article, " 'One Nation 
Under God': The Rise of the 
Religious Right," published 
in the Autumn 1982 issue of 
the Virginia Quarterly 
Review. In November he 
also took part in a 
symposium at the Harvard 
University Law School in 
celebration of the centennial 
of the birth of Felix 

Peter D. Witt 

lecturer in American studies 
and education program 
director, chaired a 36- 
member team which visited 
the University of Massa- 
chusetts at Amherst in 
November for the purpose of 
evaluating its teacher 
certification programs for 
the Commonwealth of 

Harry Zohn 

professor of German, gave 
the closing address at the 
Elias Canetti Symposium at 
SUNY-Stony Brook in 
December His article, 
"Austrian Reflections," 
appeared m The Jewish 
Advocate in December Two 
of his articles on Stefan 
Zweig were recently 
published: "Stefan Zweig, 
the European and the lew" 
appeared m the Winter 1982 
edition of the Leo Baeck 
Institute Year Book XXVII, 
and "Stefan Zweig: Literatur 
zur Zentenarfeier 1981 " was 
published in the Winter 1982 
issue of Zeitschrift fuer 
deutsche Philologie. In 
November the centennial 
edition of Greatness 
Revisited by Fnderike Maria 
Zweig, which he edited and 
introduced, was published by 
Branden Press. 

Irving K. Zola 

professor of sociology was a 
participant in the October 
meetings of the American 
Congress on Rehabilitation 
Medicine in Houston, Texas 
and was a speaker at the 
Institute for Medical 
Humanities of the 
University of Texas, Medical 

Dean ot the Faculty Anne P. 
Carter has announced 
several new appointments 
and promotions approved by 
the Board of Trustees in 
October 1982. 

The Board approved the 
appointment of seven 
additional visiting scholars, 
the promotion of two faculty 
members to full professor 
and granted three-year 
appointments to 15 men and 
women and one-year 
appointments to seven. 

Appointed Visiting Scholars: 

Daniel Aaron 

Fannie Hurst Visiting 
Professor of English and 
American Literature, comes 
to Brandeis for the spring 
semester from Harvard 
University where he is the 
Victor Thomas Professor and 
director of the American 
Civilization program. 

Haim Avni 

visiting associate professor of 
Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies and a fellow of the 
Tauber Institute, is vice- 
chair of the Department of 
Contemporary Jewry and 
head of the Institute of 
Contemporary Jewry at The 
Hebrew University in 

Sam Kirkpatrick 

Jacob Ziskind Visiting 
Professor of Theater Arts, is 
a well-known set and 
costume designer whose 
work has appeared in major 
theaters in America, 
England, Japan and Canada. 

Tzee-Char Kuo 

visiting professor of 
mathematics, has taught in 
China, Hong Kong, England 
and the United States. His 
work deals with singularity 

George Lamming 

Fannie Hurst Writer-Ln- 
Residence in the 
Department of African and 
Afro- American Studies, is 
the author of several novels 
including In the Castle of 
My Skin, The Emigrants, Of 
Age and Innocence, Season 
of Adventure, Natives of My 
Person, and Water with 

Burton Weisbiod 

Jacob Ziskind Visiting 
Professor of Economics, is 
the author of ten books 
including Economics and 
Mental Health, Public 
Interest Law and American 
Health Policy. A faculty 
member of the University of 
Wisconsin since 1966, he has 
also been a consultant to 
major governmental 

Alfred Wiedemann 

comes to Brandeis as a 
visiting assistant professor of 
mathematics from the 
University of Stuttgart. 

Promoted to Full Professor: 

Bernard M.J. Wasserstein 

joined the Brandeis faculty 
in 1980 as an associate 
professor of history; since 
that time he has also served 
as director of the Tauber 
Institute. A native of Great 
Britain, he is the author of 
The British in Palestine: The 
Mandatory Government and 
the Arab-Jewish Conflict 
1917-1929. and Britain and 
the lews of Europe 1 939- 

Robert J. Maeda 

joined the Brandeis faculty 
in 1967 as an instructor of 
fine arts and was named an 
assistant professor in 1970. 
A recognized scholar in the 
field of Chinese painting, he 
was one of only twelve 
Chinese art specialists 
awarded a grant to visit 
China m 1973. 

Three-Year Appointments: 

Donna Aionson 

who received an M.F.A. from 
Florida State University in 
1974, has joined the Theater 
Arts Department. She has 
taught at the Lee Strasbeig 
Institute, University of 
California at San Diego and, 
most recently, was an 
assistant professor at the 
Five Colleges. 



Jay Brodbar-Nemzet 

holds a Ph.D. in language 
and communication from 
the University of Wisconsin. 
A sociologist with specific 
interest in Jewish affairs, he 
is affiliated with the 
University's Center for 
Modern Jewish Studies. 

Eric Chafe 

is an accomplished young 
music scholar who holds a 
doctoral degree from the 
University of Toronto. The 
author of Bach's St. 
Matthew Passion, his 
interest lies in the area of 
tonal theory in the baroque 

Kathleen F. Good 

has joined the Department 
of Romance and 
Comparative Literature as an 
assistant professor of French 
and comparative literature 
on the Mellon Foundation. 
Her scholarly interest is in 
modem critical theory and 

Judith Peller Hallett 

has come to Brandeis on the 
Mellon Foundation as an 
assistant professor of 
classical and Oriental 
studies. Her research focuses 
on the relation of the 
classical tradition to modem 

Robert A. Indik 

received his Ph.D. from 
Princeton University in 
1982. His research in 
number theory concerns 
the construction of non- 
holomorphic forms for 
certain arithmetic 

Hiilel J. Kieval 

has joined the History 
Department and has been 
named a fellow of the Tauber 
Institute. He teaches a 
course on eighteenth- 
twentieth century Central 
European Jewry as well as 
courses on ethnicity, 
nationalism and the modem 

Takashi Odagaki 

received his doctoral degree 
from Kyoto University m 
1975. A theoretical 
physicist, he studies the 
electronic properties of 
solids and the theory of 
disordered systems. 

Shulamit Reinharz 

who came to Brandeis from 
the University of Michigan, 
is the author of On 
Becoming a Social Scientist: 
From Sutvey Research and 
Participant Observation to 
Experiential Analysis. A 
sociologist, she received her 
Ph.D. in 1977 from Brandeis. 

Gregory Saltzman 

who received his Ph.D. in 
1982 from the University of 
Wisconsin, has joined the 
Heller School. A two-time 
National Science Foundation 
Graduate Fellow, he focuses 
his research on the study of 
unions and collective 

Erik Seising 

holds joint appointments 
with the Department of 
Biology and with the 
molecular immunobiology 
group at the Rosenstiel 
Center His extensive 
structural studies of the 
DNA molecule have been 
reported in numerous 
scholarly journals. 

Leigh Sneddon 

who holds a doctoral degree 
from University of Oxford, 
will continue his research in 
solid state theoretical 
physics at Brandeis. His 
recent work has been on 
sliding charge-density waves. 

Alan Stolzenberg 

whose research focuses on 
the study of iron 
hydroporphyrins, has joined 
the Chemistry Department. 
An inorganic chemist, he 
holds a Ph.D. from Stanford 

Gloria Waite 

received her Ph.D. from 
University of California at 
Los Angeles in 1981. She 
teaches courses within the 
African and Afro-American 
Studies Department on the 
American civil rights 
movement and the 
American Black family. 

Philip Wander 

teaches twentieth-century 
French literature as well as 
French language, 
comparative literature and 
humanities courses in the 
University Studies program. 
He holds a doctoral degree 
from the University of 
California at Berkeley. 

William M. Wormington 

holds joint appointments in 
the Biochemistry 
Department and with the 
Rosenstiel Center. He brings 
his grant-supported research 
work to Brandeis and will 
help develop the Center's 
cell and molecular biology 

Professors Reinharz and 
MacEachron Named to 
Chair Professorships 

A renowned scholar in the 
field of Jewish history, 
Jehuda Reinharz has been 
named Richard Koret 
Professor of Modem Jewish 
History. He taught in the 
History Department of the 
University of Michigan from 
1972-1982, during which 
time he also served as 
chairman of the Judaic 
Studies Program. The 
recipient of numerous 
awards including a 
fellowship from the National 
Endowment for the 
Humanities and grants from 
the Memorial Foundation for 
Jewish Culture, the 
American Council of 
Learned Societies, and the 
American Philosophical 
Society, Professor Reinharz 
serves on the editorial boards 
of Modern Judaism and 
Studies m Contemporary 
Jewry. He is the author of 
Fatherland or Promised 
Land' The Dilemma of the 
German Jew 1893-1914. co- 
editor of The lew in the 
Modern World — A 
Documentary History and is 
currently at work on a two- 
volume biography of Chaim 

Ann E. MacEachron 

been named Samuel and 
Rose Gingold Associate 

Professor of Human 
Development within the 
Heller School. A nationally 
recognized expert in the field 
of mental retardation. 
Professor MacEachron has 
published widely in this and 
other health and health 
policy areas. She is the 
author of two recently 
published books. Plan 
Evaluation Guide: A Guide 
to the Planning. 
Management and 
Evaluation of Community 
Based Service Systems and 
Basic Statistics in the 
Human Services: An 
Applied Approach. Professor 
MacEachron, who holds an 
M.S.W. from the University 
of Pittsburgh and a Ph.D. in 
organizational behavior from 
the New York State School 
of Industrial and Labor 
Relations at Cornell 
University joined the 
Brandeis faculty on a full- 
time basis in 1977 as an 
assistant professor On leave 
from the University this 
year, she serves as director of 
the Program Research Unit 
of the New York State Office 
of Mental Retardation and 
Developmental Disabilities. 

Affirmative Action Officer 
Receives $1,500 Grant 

Herbert E. Hentz, Brandeis' 
affirmative action officer, 
was awarded a $1,500 grant 
from the Association of 
Affirmative Action 
Professionals, a Boston 
group, to partially 
underwrite the publication 
of his training manual for 
equal opportunity specialists 
in supervisory positions. 
Entitled "Equal Opportunity: 
The Challenge of Human 
Relations," the manual will 
be a key part of a training 
module prepared by Hentz to 
bring innovative approaches 
to an area which he says is 
"often blurred by technical 
definitions and regulations." 

Innovative Parent-Loan Program 
Aims to Help 
Middle-Income Families 

The New York Times called it "original." 

One parent called it a "godsend." 

Whatever it's called, the University's announcement that 
beginning next fall it was instituting a two-pronged 
assault on rising tuition costs by enabling parents to "lock 
in" four years of undergraduate education at the freshman 
rate has clearly created a stir in academic circles. At the 
same time, it has allowed the University to reaffirm its 
historic commitment to the principle that no qualified 
student be denied an education because of financial 

The Brandeis Plan is composed of 1| a tuition prepayment 
plan, and 2| a parent loan program. Beginning next fall, 
parents with sufficient means can prepay the entire four 
years of tuition costs at the 1983-84 rate. This will enable 
families to escape subsequent tuition increases, which in 
the past several years have grown at a rate of at least four 
to SIX percent above the rate of inflation, making it 
possible for them to save up to $4,000 or more on their 
son's or daughter's education. 

The parent loan option, especially designed for financially 
hard-pressed middle-income families who do not qualify 
for Brandeis' financial aid program, will allow families to 
borrow from the University up to 75 percent of the total 
bill — including tuition and room and board — or 100 
percent of tuition alone and pay the money back in 
monthly installments over eight years, instead of four. 
"Since the University intends to issue tax-exempt bonds 
by a new Massachusetts state authority, we will be able to 
offer parents financing significantly below current market 
rates," Burton Wolfman, vice president for finance, 

It is expected that the loans — which will be serviced by a 
private collection agency— will be available at 12 percent 
interest or even lower. 

The loan program, like the prepayment plan, not only 
eliminates future tuition increases but also benefits 
parents by permitting them to spread the cost of 
education over eight years and shifts the increase in 
tuition to interest payments, which are, of course, tax 

" This loan program will help provide middle-income 
families with liquidity since it effectively reduces their 
cash needs by one-half over the four-year period their 
child is at Brandeis," Mr. Wolfman noted. "The necessity 
for such a program is evident when you consider that one- 
third of our student population fell outside of Federal need 
criteria last year." 

To be eligible for the loan program, parents must pass a 
standard test of credit-worthiness administered by a local 
bank. Repayments begin the first month of the student's 
freshman year and continue for eight years, although 
parents can pay more at the beginning to reduce future 
payments or repay a portion of the loan to reduce the 
amount outstanding. 

Brandeis estimates that monthly payments will be about 
$550 for parents borrowing in 1983 based on a one-year 
tuition rate of $8,415 and a 12 percent interest rate. 
Although students on financial aid cannot qualify for the 
loan program, in most cases it will be financially 
advantageous for parents who receive a minimum amount 
of financial aid to take advantage of the loan program 

"This program is not a financial program and will not in 
any way reduce the University's current commitment to 
financial aid for students in need," Mr. Wolfman 
emphasized. "lust as the University has traditionally 
supported the best students from lower-income levels, the 
Brandeis Plan is an ambitious attempt to insure that the 
best middle and upper-middle income students are not 
prevented from obtaining an education here." 

For further information about The Brandeis Plan, write 
either the Office of Finance or the Admissions Office. 



Offers Pay-Now Fees at 

Fixed Price 

Cv^ft^e nana Km Tafe -itaM 

WALTHAM. Mass.. Dec. 12 ~ Next 
year Brandeis University will offer par- 
ents an opportunity to insulate them- 
selves fnmi as mud) as (4,000 in tuition 
increases by paying m idvance for all 
four yeara of Ibdr children's college 

A handful of other private unlver?!- 
ties have similar tuition prepayment 
loan programs, but Brandeis has devel- 
oped an additional rwisi intended to 
help mlddle-iQcome families. The 
school win lend parents up to 75 percent 
of the total coLege bill, including room 
and board. The loans will be secured 
through the floating of tax-exempt 
hoods by the newly created State Stu- 
dent Loan Authority 

Braixlets will then sell the promis- 
sory notes signed by the parents to the 
authority, and a private collection I 
agency will handle the monthly billing ' 
over eight years. 

Financial officers at the university 
estimated that such loans could reduce I 
parents' cash needs by up to 50 percent 
and save them more than J4.000 in pro- 
jected annual ruition increases. 

Evelyn Handler, president-designate 
of Brandeis, said the program was a 
necessary step for an expensive private 
instituuan competing for a dvnndling 
number of students in an era of eco- 
nomic uncertainty 

"We're trying to avert a crisis," she 
said, ■•All colleges are busy developing 
ways to assist the famihes of their stu- 
dents. They have to " 

Washingtcn University in St Louis 
was the first college to offer such a pro- 
gram, five years ago Urwler its pro- 
gram faniilies can pay four years of tui- 
tion at the freshman year rate, and, if 
necessary, they can borrow the fund'^ 
from the university at 13 percent a year 
with repayment over eight years 

•'It works well for both parties." said 
William H Turner, director of admis- 
sions. "The family gets an income tax 
deduction on the interest As a tioniax- 
able institution, the university gets the 
full income of the money it receives up 

Mr Turner said that Washington Uni- 
versity had received inquines from 
"about half the colleges in the coun- 
try " Others that have adopted some 
sort of plan include the Universit>' of 
Southern California, the Umversit>' of 
Santa Clara. Case Western Reserve 
Univenity and Tulane University. 

PiDgram BesbB Next Fan 

The Brandeis program begins next 
fall and the first tax-exempt bonds will 
not be sold until later in the school year 
In the meantime. Brandeis will rely on 
privaie bank loans to nnance the pro- 

Because the money will come 
through the sale of the lax-exempt 
bonds, the loans will be offered at inter- 
est levels below the martet rate, thus 
helping middle-income students with- 
out forcing the university to cut back its 
assistance lo lower-income students 

The program will enable Brandeis to 
continue its policy of admitting students 
without regard to ability to pay Earlier 
this year, Wesleyan University in Mld- 
dletown, Cotm , announced that it could 
no longer guarantee financial aid to all 
students because of antiapeted cut- 
backs in Federal student assistance 

"Our primary concern is to provide 
middle-income families with liquidity," 
Burton Wolfman. financial vice-presi- 
dent of Brandeis. said "One-thixl of 
our student populaDon fell outside of 
Federal need criteria last year ' ' 

'We cannot afford to lose potentially 
qualified students to public schools be- 
cause of the ccst," be said. "We can get 
the bodies — it's the talent we're wor- 
ried about." 

Tuition at Brandeis this year Is $7,600, 
up 14 percent over the 1981-ffl school 
year, and administrators project 10 to 
12 percent annual increases over the 
next several years Annual costs, in- 
cluding room and board, total SIl.SOO 
this year 

Mr Wolfman estimates that 800 of the 
3.800 undergraduates at Brandeis will 
be eligible for the plan. 

Concentration in 
European Cultural Studies 
Receives Approval 

A concentration in European 
Cultural Studies, offered for 
the first time this fall, will 
provide a three-year 
historical and cultural 
journey through Europe. But 
the travelling will take place 
within the confines of the 
mind and imagination. 

A model for the program 
might be that of an 
intelligent and curious 
traveller abroad who will 
inevitably observe a 
country's art and 
architecture, learn about 
its literature and music, 
and relate its history 
and thought. In short, 
experiencing a foreign 
culture IS like assembling 
pieces of a puzzle in order 
to gain a coherent image. 

Assembling such a puzzle 
will be precisely what 
students enrolled in 
European Cultural Studies 
will be doing. They will 
also be participating in one 
of the most ambitious 
interdisciplinary majors that 
Brandeis has ever offered — 
indeed it may be one of the 
most comprehensive such 
concentrations offered in any 

The trip will not require 
ever leaving the campus, 
although ECS students 
will be encouraged to spend 
some time abroad. The 
concentration will provide 
a guided tour through 
European culture from 
the Middle Ages to the 
twentieth century, which no 
guidebook or tour leader 
could ever provide. 
Those enrolling, will be 
undertaking a serious 
rigorous course of study 
under expert guidance. 
Through various available 
options, students will be 
able to plan individual 
programs in consultation 
with advisers and pursue 
their special interests in 
literature in conjunction 
with one or more of the 
following related disciplines; 
history, philosophy, fine arts, 
music and theater arts. 

For example, a student might 
elect to study the literature, 
art, music, and theater 
in nineteenth or twentieth- 
century England or in any 
one of five continental 
countries: France, Germany, 
Italy Russia, and Spain. Or a 
student may focus on the 
literature, history, 
philosophy, and art of 
Medieval and Renaissance 
culture in any one country or 
several. A minimum of three 
courses in comparative 
literature will provide 
students with a cross- 
cultural base, and all the 
literature courses are 
designed to offer literary 
texts within broad cultural 
contexts. As with any 
foreign travel, the keys to 
success are careful planning 
and a coherent itinerary. A 
carefully integrated course of 
studies can insure that these 
aims are met. 

Concentrators should 
be students who are 
adventurous travellers, who 
have the desire, energy and 
ability to range far afield. 
Their reward will be 
fashioning a sense of unity 
out of diversity — the closest 
humanists can approach the 
experience of theoretical or 
abstract mathematics. 

This new concentration 
holds special significance for 
Brandeis, particularly now. 
Brandeis has traditionally 
been hospitable to an 
international perspective — 
in Its faculty, its students, 
and Its curriculum. In 
addition, Brandeis has been 
sensitive to the meaning of 
a liberal arts education, and 
today, more than ever, it does 
not intend to abandon the 
prized meaning these words 
endow upon any institution. 

Humanistic studies have 
been on the defensive ever 
since the sciences gained 
ascendancy some time in 
the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. At times 
it seemed as if the struggle 
between "two cultures" was 
being waged by two equal 
Titans. When, for example, 
the English poet and social 
critic, Matthew Arnold, 
threw down the gauntlet in 
his lecture, "Literature and 
Science," delivered at 
Cambridge just a century 
ago in 1882, he took on the 
weaker combatant, the great 
Thomas Henry Huxley. The 
study of literature, said 
Arnold, had recently been 
considered "an elegant one, 
but light and ineffectual . . . 
of little use for any one 
whose object is ... to be a 
practical man." 

Sound familiar? Offering 
a number of reasons he 
considered irrefutable, 
Arnold — who in most 
matters was apt to be 
pessimistic — declared with 
a certainty that makes a 
humanist's heart ache: "And 
therefore ... I cannot really 
think that humane letters 
are in much actual danger 
of being thrust from their 
leading place in education 
... So long as human 
nature is what it is their 
attractions will remain 
irresistible." Poor Arnold! 
How wrong he was! 

Or was he? Perhaps one 
ought not to be too hasty m 
mourning the demise 
of the humanities. True, 
the humanities no longer 
occupy the "leading place 
in education;" but the 
establishment of an 
ambitiously conceived 
concentration in European 
Cultural Studies at Brandeis 
augurs well for the future 
and reminds us of the 
strength, the resiliency, 
and the enthusiasm that 
stubbornly holds on to keep 
the liberal arts description of 
our university honest. 

That European Cultural 
Studies comes into being at a 
time when the marketplace 
makes increasingly strident 
demands on the academy 
to serve the needs of those 
mounting numbers 
of students seeking 
"marketable skills" is both 
encouraging and sobering. 
Computers will continue 
to multiply, and economics 
majors will probably not 
decline m number; pre-meds 
will submit themselves to 
the annual rite of passage 
through organic chemistry. 
But European Cultural 
Studies was not created to 
stand in opposition to any 
of these trends. On the 
contrary, all students will be 
welcome whoever they are, 
whatever their major, for 
this concentration is an 
invitation to the whole 
undergraduate community 
to avail Itself of an enriching 
journey, to sign off on a four- 
year investment with a 
genuinely liberal arts 

As Matthew Arnold made 
clear, true culture is not 
an elite nor isolated 
phenomenon, quite the 
contrary. Culture is a "social 
idea; and the men of culture 
are the true apostles of 
equality. The great men of 
culture . . . have had a 
passion for diffusing . . . the 
best knowledge, the best 
ideas of their time ... to 
humanize [knowledge], to 
make it efficient outside the 
clique of the cultivated and 
learned ..." It is difficult to 
conceive of words that better 
blend in with the ideals 
of BrandeiS; and the 
European Cultural Studies 
concentration is committed 
to their eloquent meaning. 

Edward Engelberg 


Committee on European 

Cultural Studies 

Alumni Profiles: 


Henry Grossman '58 

The following photographic 
essay highlights the work 
of two Brandeis alumni- 
Henry Grossman, '58, a 
prominent theater arts/ 
portrait photographer and 
Nicolo Damiano '80, a 
commercial/ documentaiy 
photographer. Their work 
reflects contrasting 
personalities and 
backgrounds, varied 
approaches to a common 
medium, and the different 
influences of a shared alma 

Henry M. Grossman — who 
has since captured on film 
such notables as John F. 
Kennedy, Eleanor Roosevelt, 
David Ben-Gurion, Van 
Clibum and the Beatles — 
received early encouragement 
at Brandeis where he held a 
theater arts scholarship and 
assisted campus 
photographer Ralph 

When John F. Kennedy came 
to Brandeis in 1960 as guest 
speaker for Eleanor 
Roosevelt's "Prospects for 
Mankind" TV program, 
Flenry had the opportunity 
to meet and photograph the 
man who earlier that day 
had announced his 
candidacy for president. 
It was the first of many 
photographs he took of 
JFK. His photographs of 
Kennedy's inauguration, the 
president's historic meeting 
with DeGaulle, and 
eventually the president's 
funeral, made theur way to 
the pages of leading journals. 

Many of Henry's 
distinguished photo- 
portraits were taken while 
he was still a student at 
Brandeis. After five years 
here (one devoted to 
graduate study in 
anthropology) he had 
accumulated an impressive 
portfolio of photographs so 
that, when he returned to 
Manhattan, his work was 
quickly in demand by 
national magazines and 
newspapers. In 1963 he 
photographed the Beatles 
for major publications and 
eventually he became the 
official photographer of 
many Broadway shows. 

Today Henry is known 
mainly as an arts and 
personality photographer A 
long-standing interest m 
theater and opera makes 
photographing actors, 
actresses and opera singers 
during rehearsals and 
performances particularly 
enjoyable for him. When he 
is not busy photographing 
performers for People, Time, 
Glamour, Ultra and New 
York Magazine, he pursues 
another passion — opera. He 
has sung for the Hamburg 
Philharmonic in Europe, and 
at Tanglewood in Lenox, 

Henry believes his strong 
interest in the arts was 
nurtured dunng his student 
days at Brandeis: "The 
liberal arts education I 
received at Brandeis was 
broad based, exposing me to 
a variety of viewpoints. My 
years there provided me with 
heightened sophistication 
and wide-ranging interests — 
qualities essential to the 



Nicolo Damiano '80 


Bom in the village of 
Orsogna, in the Abruzzi 
region of Italy, Nicolo (Nick) 
Damiano '80, the son of 
sharecroppers, was the first 
in his family to receive a 
formal education. For him, a 
university degree became an 
all-important goal. 

As an immigrant, I came 
from a place with limited 
intellectual opportunity to a 
vast pool of knowledge. 
Some of my classmates 
didn't appreciate Brandeis 
the way I did," explains the 
young man who worked on 
the docks of South Boston to 
finance a college education 
not obtained until he was 
well into his twenties. 

"Other students didn't 
realize what Brandeis 
represented and didn't fully 
value the principles upon 
which the University was 
founded and by which I hope 
it will always be guided." 

The summer after graduating 
from Brandeis, Nick returned 
to Orsogna with 40 pounds 
of photographic equipment 
where, after a 22-year 
absence, he proceeded to 
photograph his childhood 
home, portraying the 
influence it had had on his 

He is particularly interested 
in photographing people who 
". . . seem to be one step 
behind, who haven't fulfilled 
their dreams, and perhaps 
never will. Yet they retain a 
sense of dignity which is at 
once touching and sad." 
These people concern him 
because, he points out, he 
identifies with their 

Currently pursuing 
photography in Maiden, 
Massachusetts, Nick is also 
writing a short story about 
growing up in his tiny Italian 
village. His wife, Maria, 
chief technologist of 
vascular radiology at 
Brigham and Women's 
Hospital in Boston, can help 
him recapture those 
childhood memories. She, 
too, is a native of Orsogna. 

University News: 
Brandeis in Brief 

'83 Summer School 
Sets Twin Sessions 

There is much excitement 
around Spmgold Theater 
smce the recent 
announcement of two new 
appomtments. lose 
Quintero, renowned theater 
(and film) director, will join 
the Theater Arts faculty this 
fall, although he is already 
busy organizing the newly 
instituted graduate program 
in directing. Mr. Quintero 
will travel around the 
country in the upcoming 
months recruiting talented 
students and assistants and 
plans to direct main stage 
productions at the 
University The other 
addition is Sam Kirkpatnck, 
a well-known set and 
costume designer. He is 
already on campus. 

Professors Morton Keller and 
Arthur Reis, Jr. assumed 
their newly created duties 
last fall as liaisons between 
Dean of the Faculty Anne P. 
Carter and the various 
University departments. As 
director of science resources 
and planning. Professor Reis 
helps the science faculty 
develop fund-raising 
proposals, while Professor 
Keller, who is devoting half 
of his working time to the 
administrative position, 
works with the social 
sciences, humanities and 
creative arts departments. 

There may be others, but at 
the moment we are aware of 
two Brandeis graduates who 
recently joined the 
University administration. 
Michael Hammerschmidt 
and Jordan Tannenbaum, 
both of the class of 72, are 
members of the 
Development staff serving as 
regional development 

Another recent appointment 
concerns the director of 
public affairs. Barry Wanger, 
who comes to Brandeis via 
the University of California 
at Santa Barbara, the 
National Endowment for the 
Humanities (where he was 
press director) and is a 
veteran of political 
campaigns and newspaper 
writing, assumed his new 
position January 3. 

At the same time that we 
welcome new additions to 
the Brandeis staff, we are 
forced to say goodbye to 
others. This time it is 
farewell to Joe Maher, who 
has been at Brandies since, 
well, since it all began here. 
As a member of the 
buildings and grounds staff, 
he can justly claim that he 
knows the foundations on 
which this university was 

The first Summer Jewish 
Festival designed for alumni 
and members of the 
National Women's 
Committee (and their 
spouses) will take place this 
summer on the Brandeis 
campus. Sponsored by the 
University's Benjamin S. 
Homstein Program in Jewish 
Communal Service, it will 
feature classes on Jewish 
issues. There will be 
lectures, seminars, 
presentations of Jewish 
music and film, among other 

Another major conference 
addressing Jewish issues will 
take place April 16-19. 
Sponsored by the Tauber 
Institute, the conference will 
focus on "The Jews in 
Modem France" and will 
bring to campus historians, 
social scientists and literary 
scholars from this country 
and abroad. The first 
conference of its kind, it will 
be held with the support of 
the French Cultural Mission 
in Boston. 

The University Press of New 
England doesn't usually 
publish the works of 
students, but they've made 
an exception in Fern L. 
Nesson's case. A graduate 
student in history at 
Brandeis, Ms. Nesson has 
written Great Waters, a 
historical account of 
Boston's water supply which 
examines past attitudes 
toward resource use, 
conservation and self- 
sufficiency. Brandeis is a 
member of the University 
Press of New England, a 
publishing consortium 
whose members include 
distinguished colleges and 
universities throughout the 

For Saniord Lottor, director of 
Continuing Studies at 
Brandeis, thoughts of 
summer come early — as 
early as December. That's 
when he buckles down to 
the serious planning of the 
University's next summer 
school program. 

This year the results look 
more promising than ever. 

The Brandeis Summer 
School program will feature 
two 5- week sessions in 1983, 
the first running May 3 1 to 
July 1 and a second from July 
5 to August 5. Both 
undergraduate and graduate- 
level courses are among the 
over 80 scheduled summer 
listings, offered on a credit or 
non-credit basis. 

Along with a solid selection 
of liberal arts courses, 
summer school students 
take classes in the 
premedical sciences, theater 
arts, computer sciences and 
Judaic studies. Brandeis 
boasts one of the premiere 
premedical programs in the 
country and nationally 
recognized faculty members 
instruct classes during the 
summer sessions. 

The Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies Department, the 
largest of its kind in this 
country, offers courses 
examining topics in Judaism, 
Islam and Middle East 
politics. The eleven theater 
arts courses slated for 
summer '83 encompass 
acting, directing and 

choreography as well as the 
technical and admmistrative 
aspects of theater 
production. A top-notch 
theater arts faculty does 
more than preach; they 

In computer science, an 
expanded array of courses 
enables interested students 
to acquire programming 
skills through classroom 
instruction and hands-on 

While diverse course options 
provide excitement on 
campus, there are interesting 
overseas alternatives as well. 
The Classical and Oriental 
Studies Department again 
offers Its "Land of Gerar" 
research project during the 
second summer session. 
This 8-credit archaeological 
expedition affords students 
first-hand experience at an 
ongoing excavation site in 
Israel. Another course with 
international flair is the 
Theater Arts Department's 
costume history and design 
course which includes field 
research in London. 

Brandeis Summer School is 
open to college students as 
well as members of the 
general community. 
Qualified high school 
students will also be 
considered for summer 

For information about course 
offerings and registration, 
contact Sanford Lottor, 
director of Continuing 
Studies, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, MA 02254 or 
phone (617) 647-2796. 

Jose Quintero, 
renowned theater 
director, is named 
Artistic Director of 
Spingold Theater 
beginning in the fall 
of 1983. 


Former Boston Health 
Named Senior Fellow 
at Heller 

David Rosenbloom, former 
commissioner of Health and 
Hospitals for the City of 
Boston, was named senior 
fellow of the Heller School's 
Center for Health Policy 
Analysis and Research in 
January. He specializes in 
health management in 
Heller's Management of 
Human Resources Program 
and is also involved in 
several research projects 
concerning the future of 
public hospitals in this 
country and the changing 
role of Medicaid as a funding 
program for health services 
of the poor Mr Rosenbloom, 
who holds a Ph.D. degree 
from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, has 
been an adjunct lecturer at 
the Heller School smce the 
spring of 1980. 

Homecoming Under 
Full Sail 

Homecoming '82 was 
celebrated in late October, 
the first observance of that 
tradition since 1961. 
Students, faculty and alumni 
cheered the weekend 
victories of the soccer and 
hockey teams while parties, 
dinners and a concert (a few 
of the many programs 
scheduled) drew unqualified 
praise and a warm reception. 
The Programming Board's 
successful effort, 
complemented by strong 
support from the campus 
community, have led to 
plans for 1983. Welcome 
home. Homecoming! 

Solarz '62 

Elected To Board of 


Representative Stephen J. 
Solarz (D-N.Y.I, a 1962 
graduate of Brandeis and the 
first alumnus to win a 
Congressional seat, has been 
elected to the University's 
Board of Trustees for a five- 
year term. A fellow of the 
University since 1976, he 
also served three years as an 
alumni term trustee. 
Representative Solarz 
majored in politics at 
Brandeis and later earned his 
master 's degree in public law 
and government at 
Columbia University. He 
won his first Congressional 
election in 1974. 

Traveling and 
Insurance Programs 
Available to Alumni 

The Brandeis Traveler — will 
take you there, be it China, 
Africa, Egypt, the Orient, the 
Caribbean or other exotic 
places. This travel program 
has been designed especially 
for the entire Brandeis 
community — alumni, 
parents, members of the 
Brandeis University 
National Women's 
Committee, faculty and 
staff. The Alumni Insurance 
Program — is a term life 
insurance program which 
has available plans of 
coverage ranging from 
$10,000-550,000. Alumni 
who are interested in finding 
out more about the travel or 
insurance programs should 
call the Alumni Office |617) 

Joseph Mailman 
Honored at 
Anniversary of 
Counseling Center 

Over 100 people turned out 
to hear a panel of 
distinguished psychologists 
discuss issues of theory and 
practice in psychological 
work with college students 
during a special conference 
November 6 marking the 
30th anniversary of the 
Brandeis Psychological 
Counseling Center. 

Conference participants paid 
tribute to Eugenia 
Hanfmann who established 
the Center in 1952 under the 
sponsorship of Abraham 
Maslow, then chairman of 
the Psychology Department. 
Ms. Hanfmann 's work and 
writing in the area of college 
counseling have been widely 

Also honored at the one-day 
symposium was Joseph 
Mailman, Brandeis trustee 
emeritus, whose donations 
enabled the University in 
1972 to build Mailman 
House, site of the 
Counseling Center, and 
whose continued financial 
support has allowed the 
Center recently to expand its 

Conference attendees 
included graduate students 
and staff members formerly 
affiliated with the Center, 
regional college counselors, 
and practitioners from out- 
patient clinics in the Boston 

Since its inception, the 
Brandeis Counseling Center 
has provided University 
students with easily 
accessible psychological 
services, geared to the needs 
of the student community. 

Wolfman Promoted to 
Vice President For 
Financial Affairs 

Burton I. Wolfman, formerly 
budget director in the Office 
of the President, has been 
promoted to vice president 
for financial affairs. In his 
new post Mr Wolfman 
serves as the University's 
chief financial planner and 
continues to oversee the 
design and implementation 
of Brandeis' new 
management information 
systems. Poor to joining the 
admimstrative staff in 1980, 
he was administrative dean 
and vice president of 
Radcliffe College. His 
professional background also 
includes a period as 
undersecretary of 
educational affairs for the 
Commonwealth of 

Yiddish Film Shown 
at New York Film 

Fianzblau Children 
Establish Scholarship 

Lemberg Children's 
Center Receives 

Popular Jewish 
Communal Program 
Will be Repeated 

Could a 1939 Yiddish film be 
the next box office hit? Well, 
perhaps not, but it was one 
of the few select films 
shown at the 20th New York 
Film Festival and the first 
Yiddish film ever accorded 
that honor. 

"The Light Ahead" was 
directed by Edgar G. Ulmer 
but, unlike Ulmer's other, 
frequently-shown Yiddish 
films such as "Green Fields" 
and "The Singing 
Blacksmith," this 1939 
classic had long been out of 
circulation and feared lost. 

Its appearance at the New 
York Film Festival is 
testimony to the ongoing 
efforts of the National 
Center for Jewish Film, a 
nonprofit archive and study 
center located on the 
Brandeis campus. 

Working in close association 
with the University and the 
American Jewish Historical 
Society, the Center is a 
unique library of Jewish 
cinematographic materials. 
Since its establishment in 
1976, the Center has 
acquired, identified, and 
restored hundreds of films 
from private collections, 
filmmakers and Jewish 
organizations, both here and 
abroad. Last year, the Center 
was one of eight 
organizations chosen to 
receive funding from the 
American Film Institute/ 
National Endowment for the 
Arts for film preservation 

Following its October 6 
viewing at the New York 
Film Festival, "The Light 
Ahead" enjoyed a successful 
commercial run at New York 
City's Embassy Theatre. 

A fellowship honoring the 
late Eugene Franzblau of San 
Francisco was recently 
established at Brandeis by 
his children, Mrs. Morris D. 
Baker of Bloomfield Hills, 
Michigan, and Dr. Michael J. 
Franzblau of San Francisco. 

Eugene Franzblau 's deep love 
of Jewish music and his 
strong interest in Yiddish as 
a viable Jewish language will 
be commemorated through a 
fellowship which will 
support highly motivated, 
outstanding individuals 
interested in pursuing 
graduate work in Judaic 
Studies at the University. 

Erwin M. Sekulow, vice 
president of development 
and University relations, 
called the Franzblau 
Memorial Fellowship "a 
fitting tribute to a man 
whose interest and 
involvement in Jewish 
affairs spanned his 86-year 

In the fall of 1982, Bemice 
Factor of Belmont, 
Massachusetts donated over 
300 books to the Lemberg 
Children's Center, a day-care 
facility established 12 years 
ago on the Brandeis campus. 
This collection of books on 
early childhood education, 
child psychiatry and other 
related fields has already 
been made available to 
members of the Lemberg 
Center staff, parents of 
children enrolled at the 
Center, as well as to the 
Brandeis students who 
receive training at the 
Center as part of their 
program in education, 
psychology or sociology. 

Howard Baker, director of the 
Lemberg Children's Center, 
notes that donations of 
children's books, games or 
puzzles are always 
welcomed and well-utilized 
and aid the Center in 
providing high quality child 

Those interested in making 
such a tax-deductible 
contribution should contact 
Mr. Baker at the Lemberg 
Children's Center. 


Summer institutes that have 
proved to be among the most 
popular ever established by 
the Hornstein Program in 
Jewish Communal Service 
are being repeated June 27- 
30. Continuing Professional 
Education Institutes for 
Jewish communal leaders 
from North America will 
deal with a variety of themes 
and topics — from 
management skills to Judaic 
text study — designed to help 
communal workers, rabbis 
and Jewish educators 
respond to the changing 
needs of the Jewish 

Further information may be 
obtained by calling (617) 
647-2641 or by writmg 
Professor Jonathan Woocher, 
Hornstein Program, Brandeis 

University Fellow Bernard 
Landers of Newton died in 
January at Beth Israel 
Hospital in Brookline, 
Massachusetts. The 89-year- 
old philanthropist was a vice 
president of Phillips Brother 
Chemicals Co. in New York 
until his retirement in 1975. 
He and his late wife, Fanny 
were affiliated with the 
University from its earliest 
days and they established a 
chemistry laboratory at 

Brandeis received 
notification m January of the 
death of Abraham Shiffman 
of Detroit, a long-time 
fellow of the Umversity 
who, with his wife, Lucille, 
underwrote construction of 
the Shiffman Humanities 
Center The philanthropist 
was among the University's 
earliest supporters as well as 
a generous benefactor to a 
number of other causes. 


Varney Hits His Stride 

37 To Brandeis baseball coach 
Pete Vamey, there are some 
things more important than 

After all, how many 1 7-year- 
old sluggers fresh out of high 
school would turn down a 
$78,000 bonus just for 
signmg a major league 

The offer was made to 
Vamey in 1966 by baseball's 
Peck's Bad Boy B.S. (Before 
Steinbrenner) Charles O. 
Finley the colorful and 
controversial former owner 
of the Oakland A's. 

"It wasn't easy turning down 
all that money," admits 
Vamey, a soft-spoken, 
modest sort whose gentle 
tone belies his 6'2", 250 
pound frame. "But it would 
have been a little like 
throwing a sheep to the 
wolves because 1 wasn't a 
very mature individual back 
then. I needed to grow up. 
And I needed some 
additional education." 

Vamey's father also played a 
role in his son's decision to 
forego the big money. "He 
was from a working class * 
background — he's been in 
the roofing business for 
nearly all his adult life — and 
he wanted me to get the best 
education possible." 

So Vamey, who had starred in 
both baseball and football at 
North Quincy 
(Massachusetts) High 
School, passed up Charlie 
O's forceful imprecations 
and went to Deerfield 
Academy in Northampton, 
Massachusetts for a year of 
prep school seasoning. 

"That worked out well," says 
Vamey, understating the case 
a bit. 

He went on to Harvard. 

Pete Varney ... is the name 
coming back to you now? 
Wasn't he the one who 
caught that two-point 
conversion on the last play 
of The Game in 1968 to tie 
Yale 29-29? 

"People still want to talk to 
me about that," says Vamey, 
who, in addition to being 

the answer to that trivia 
question, also happens to be 
the fifth leading receiver in 
Harvard football history. "I 
guess the incredible ending 
when we scored 16 points in 
the last minute to gain the 
tie IS the reason people still 
remember it so vividly. But I 
think what even adds to the 
aura was the fact that both 
teams were undefeated 
coming into the Harvard- 
Yale game that year. And we 
were both undefeated when 
It was over, too." 

In the end, though, it was 
the last, frenetic 42 seconds 
of that almost mythical 
tussle that causes four times 
the 40,000 people who 
attended The Game in 1968 
to claim they remember 
being there. Today, in 
Harvard Yard at least, it is 
still gospel that the Crimson 
"beat" Yale that November 
day 29-29. 

To Varney, who celebrated 
with his father and 20 
friends that night at the Pier 
4 restaurant, football was 
fun, but baseball was true 

'I always knew baseball was 
the direction I was headed 
m, even back in high school. 
I just wanted to be a major 
league ballplayer." 

Apparently the Dallas 
Cowboys knew that too. 
"America's Team" was 
interested in signing the all- 
Ivy League tight end after his 
final Harvard season in 1970. 
"I talked to them, but I think 
even they knew I was just 
trying to get some added 
leverage for a baseball 
contract," Varney smiles. 

He finally signed a major 
league contract in 1971 after 
leading Harvard to the 
NCAA College World Series 
and being named All 
American in his senior year. 
During his three-season 
varsity career, he batted a 
robust and impeccably 
consistent .376, .377 and 

But when he finally signed 
with the Chicago White Sox, 
It wasn't for $78,000. 

It was for less, far less. 

"I had been drafted six times 
during my college career and 
each time the money offers 
kept getting smaller." Pete 
Vamey, the erstwhile young 
phenomenon, was getting 
old. He was 22. 

Assigned to the second of 
baseball's three-rung farm 
system — double A ball in 
Asheville, North Carolina — 
Vamey initially had a 
difficult time of it. "It was an 
adjustment period," he 
concedes. The following 
season he had a terrific year, 
hitting for power ( 1 8 
homers) and average and 
catching well enough to be 
assigned to Tucson in triple 
A. But again, he struggled. 
The next year in Des Moines 
was better and by spring 
training of 1974, he thought 
he had a good shot at making 

Play Ball! 

Brandeis baseball coach and 
former major league catcher 
Pete Varney contemplates 
another fine season for the 

Alumni Area 

the parent club. He didn't 
make the roster, but the 
White Sox called him up in 
the middle of the year and he 
caught 28 games as back-up 
to first-string catcher Ed 

After starting the 1976 
season with the White Sox, 
Vamey was traded to the 
Atlanta Braves and assigned 
to their triple A team in 
Richmond, Virginia. After 
another brief "cup of coffee" 
with the Braves in 1976 — he 
got into three games — he 
had a fine season the 
following year with 
Richmond, batting .290 and 
playing well defensively. 

By the end of 1977, Vamey 
had become a free agent and 
he offered his services to 
other major league clubs. 
There were no takers. At 27, 
his playing career was at a 

" I really didn't think I could 
do much better than I had 
done so I turned to coachmg, " 
says Vamey, who avers that 
often major league scouts, 
coaches or managers will 
attach labels to players that 
can never be erased. 

"They might decide you can't 
mn or your throwing arm 
isn't strong enough and no 
matter how well you do, it 
is extremely difficult to 
overcome their image of 
you," he says. But what 
really hurts is that rarely will 
they ever tell a player what 
they think his deficiency is." 

Now in his second year as 
head coach at Brandeis, 
where the perennially strong 
Judges finished 23-13-1, won 
the Greater Boston League 
title, and captured a berth in 
the NCAA Division 10 
tournament, Vamey is 
resolved not to emulate that 
secretive trait. 

"If someone needs help, 
either on or off the field, I'd 
like to talk to the player 
about It pnvately," he 
explains. "And I want the 
players to feel they can come 
to me if they don't like their 
situation, or they feel they're 
not playing enough. Each 
person is different and you 
can't handle everyone the 
same way." 

The 33-year-old Acton 
resident has a similarly 
"balanced" approach to 
coaching baseball at 
Brandeis, a school that does 
not offer athletic 
scholarships. "We want to 
maximize individual talents 
within a team concept 
because no matter where 
you go to school, very few 
athletes go on to play 
professionally," he says. 
"What we offer is the 
opportunity to get a superb 
education and have fun in a 
very competitive program." 

Vamey, who coached 
baseball for three years at 
Narragansett High School in 
Templeton, Massachusetts 
before coming to Brandeis, is 
optimistic about the 
upcoming season, especially 
on the heels of a 17-4 record 
in the fall. 

"But It all depends on our 
pitching," he smiles, 
sounding an age-old baseball 
refrain. "If our pitching 
comes through, we should be 
strong contenders with 
Harvard and Boston College 
in the Greater Boston League 
because our starting line-up 
looks solid both offensively 
and defensively." The Judges, 
who lost just two starters 
from last year to 
graduation — one, Vincent 
Russomagno, signed with 
the St. Louis Cardinals — will 
field junior Stephen Reid of 
Brockton, Massachusetts at 
first base, sophomores Sean 
Hughes of Nashua, New 
Hampshire at second, 
Ronald Russell of 
Bellingham, Massachusetts 
at third, and Angel Bonilla of 
New York City at shortstop; 
and junior Dwayne Follette 
of Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
the team captain, behind the 
plate. Sophomore William 
Datre of Westbrook, 
Connecticut, junior Michael 
Koff man of Brighton, 
Massachusetts, junior 
Timothy Rapoza of 
Wrentham, Massachusetts 
and sophomore Cesar 
Guillermo of New York City 
will battle for the three 
outfield positions. 

With three fine hurlers lost 
to graduation, Vamey's still 
questionable pitching staff 
includes Massachusetts 

starters Larry Machado, a 
senior from Lowell; 
freshman Rogelio Benitez of 
Jamaica Plain; senior 
William Buckley of 
Dorchester and relief aces 
Rodger Hebert of Warren, a 
junior, and senior Roland 
Nadeau of Newburyport. 

Vamey will get to see how 
his "big boys" look when the 
Judges open the season 
March 25 with a rigorous 
five-game southem trip 
featuring games against 
Norfolk State, Christopher 
Newport, William and Mary, 
Salzbury State and the 
University of Maryland. 

"If it's warm, it'll seem like 
I'm back in spring training 
all over again, " the former 
big league catcher laughs. 
"Especially if we win 'em 

lerry Rosenswaike 


Twenty Brandeis alumni 
gathered at Lisa Mehler 
Cohen's '63 home December 
9 for the purpose of forming 
a Brandeis Alumni Chapter 
m Atlanta. It was a 
successful meeting, and 
several alumni met former 
classmates they had not seen 
in many years. 


Greater Boston Chapter 
members held a theater 
party December 16 when 
they attended the motown 
musical, Dancin' m the 
Street. An alumna who was 
sitting in the front row was 
pulled into the act with one 
of the lead singers — many a 
laugh was had by all! 


Sheldon '60 and Arlene Gray 
hosted a reception and 
dirmer on behalf of the 
Alumni Fund with special 
guest speaker, Tmstee Rena 
Shapiro Blumberg '56, 
December 16. Committee 
members Melanie Rovner 
Cohen '65, John Levin '64, 
Norman Merwise '61, 
Steven Mora '65, Michael 
Oberman '64, Paula 
Dubofsky Resnick '61 and 
David Roston '64 organized 
this event (see photo| . . . 
The Chicago Chapter held 
its second annual broom 
hockey tournament — 
alumni vs. Brandeis students 
in January. Ten students took 
on 1 5 alumni in a battle for 
the championship. The game 
ended in a tie score. A 
general recovery period and 
refreshments followed the 
game at the home of Judith 
Osias Kleiman '65. 

Los Angeles 

On November 20 about 30 
persons from the Southem 
California Chapter met to 
hear Dr. Edward Tobinick '73 
speak about preventative 
dermatology and recent 
advances in that field. Ed has 
a private practice in Beverly 
Hills and is on the faculty of 
University of California, Los 
Angeles School of Medicine. 
Stephen Deitsch '69, 
chairman of the Steering 
Committee of the Southem 
California Chapter, Tani 
Glazer Sackler '57 and 
Richard Silverman '54 were 
of special help in organizing 


National Dues Update 

39 this event . . . University 
Trustee Michael Sandel '75; 
Allan M. Pepper '64, 
chairman of the Alumni 
Fund; and Tammy Ader '83 
brought alumni up-to-date 
on campus happenings at a 
brunch on January 9 at the 
Riviera Country Club in 
Pacific Palisades. Stephen 
Deitsch '69, vifelcomed more 
than 65 alumni to this 
gathering (see photo). This 
was followed by a 
phonathon on behalf of the 
Alumni Fund on January 10, 
organized by Neil Schwartz 

New York City 

The New York City Chapter 
held a cocktail reception and 
Chmese dinner, honoring the 
Alumni Association's 
National Board of Directors, 
January 22 at Brandeis 
House in Manhattan . . . The 
next major New York event 
will be the annual 
phonathon for the Alumni 
Fund in March. 


The Greater Philadelphia 
Chapter had "An Afternoon 
of Food for Thought and 
Palate" at the home of Harry 
and Marilyn Baker Appel '54 
November 14. An energetic 
discussion on "Zionist- 
Palestinian Relations" — 
featuring Harriet 
Freidenreich, history 
professor at Temple 
University; and Fred Khouri, 
political science professor at 
Villanova University — was 
followed by wine, cheese 
and camaraderie. Many new 
faces were amidst the 30 
alumni who attended. There 
was ample opportunity to 
mingle and make new 
acquaintances. Dr. Lawrence 
Brown '67, the new 
Philadelphia Chapter 
president, presided over this 
event which Barbara 
Zemboch Presseisen '58, 
member-at-large of the 
Board, and Marilyn Baker 
Appel '54, president of the 
National Alumni 
Association, coordinated. 

San Francisco 

Fine Arts Professor Gerald S. 
Bernstein met with 
Northern California alumni 
at a cocktail reception at the 
Holos Gallery in San 
Francisco January 15. Gary 
Zellerbach '74 hosted the 
reception which was 
organized by Stephan 
Meyers '69. 

South Florida 

South Florida alumni had 
the opportunity to welcome 
Brandeis President-elect, 
Evelyn E. Handler, at a 
special reception in her 
honor at the home of Dr. 
Harry and Deborah 
Tellerman Berkowitz '71 on 
February 12. Prior to the 
reception, Mark and Marilyn 
Tel' Holzberg '53 hosted a 
dinner party on behalf of the 
Alumm Fund with Mrs. 
Handler as special guest . . . 
Brandeis Sociology Professor 
Gordon Fellman addressed 
South Flonda alumni on 
"American Politics Today — 
The Challenge of the Right" 
at the home of Robert '73 
and Jill '75 Mark January 16. 
Subjects discussed included 
long-range goals of the 
Reagan government, 
affirmative action programs, 
ecological concerns, and the 
neglect of human rights in 
American foreign policy 
today. Bruce Litwer '61, 
chapter president, was 
actively involved in these 

Washington, D.C. 

Robert Simon '62, foreign 
correspondent for CBS, 
spoke on "War Stories of a 
Network Correspondent" at 
a champagne brunch for 
Washington area alumni last 
November. By all accounts, 
the presentation was most 
stimulating. In December 
Washington area alumni had 
a delightful gathering, "A 
Winter Warm-Up With 
Wine, " where they sampled 
white wines, bread and 
cheese, and learned the 
"whos, whats, wheres, whys 
and whens" of wine from 
consultant, Dr. Jay Miller. 

As many ot you already 
know, a new system of 
national dues has been 
implemented by the 
Brandeis National Alumni 
Association, which takes the 
place of local chapter 
collections. Instead of 
collecting annual dues 
directly from its members, 
each chapter now receives 
hinds from the National 
Association based on the 
number of dues-paying 
members in the chapter. The 
intent of this new program is 
to simplify the dues-paying 
process and also to enable 
the Association to maintain 
contact with alumni who 
live in areas where no active 
chapter exists. 

Your Participation 
is Vital and is 
Greatly Appreciated. 

Brandeis University 

Benefits for dues-paying 
members include: 

• Special rates for Reunion 

• Reserved seating at 

• Discounts on admission 
to selected chapter events 

• Discounts on most 
Brandeis Adult Education 
courses (members and 

• 10% off most bookstore 

• Brandeis library borrowing 

• Special rates on the use of 
Brandeis athletic facilities 

Annual national dues are 
$10 (for the Classes of '78- 
'82) and $15 |for the Classes 
of '52-'77). Please mail your 
1982-83 national dues with 
either the form from the 
recent national dues mailing 
or the form below to the 
Alumni Office as soon as 
possible. Payment of your 
dues will help strengthen the 
Alumni Association and 
increase financial support for 
all chapters. 

Alumni Association 
Annual Membership 





Class Year: 

Classes of 197g-S2 $10.00 

Classes of 1952-77 $15.00 

Make check payable to: 

Brandeis Umversity Alumm Association 

Mail payment to: 

Brandeis University Alumni Association 
Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 


Payment of alumni dues does not constitute a contnbution to the Alumni Fund. 

Class Notes 



Rabbi Matthew Derby's 

life has changed since his 
ordeal with cancer. Matthew, 
who is the rabbi at 
Congregation Children of 
Israel in Athens, Georgia, 
said he wasn't going to 
accept the statistics when he 
discovered he had a brain 
tumor. "I turned it all around 
and set goals I wanted to live 
for," he explains. Matthew 
has used his experience with 
cancer to minister to the 
oncology patients at St. 
Mary's Medical Center in 
East Tennessee. Known as 
"Father Rabbi," Matthew 
counseled patients of all 
faiths. "Prayers for health 
and recovery are almost the 
same in every tradition," he 
says. "Prayer is very 
important. It gives a sense of 
strength. This disease is so 
crazy. You need the power of 
inner strength and 
reassurance that there must 
be a reason for this." 

Gloria Goldieich Horowitz's 

novel, This Promised Land, 
was published by Berkley 
Books in July 1982. It is 
Volume I of a trilogy tracing 
the history of a family that 
migrated to Palestine in 
1888 through the present. 

Kaila Goldman Katz 

lost her husband, Benjamin, 
in an automobile accident 
October 1, 1982. He was 
professor of economics at 
New York Umversity Kaila 
lives in Oradell, New Jersey. 


Stanley Z. Mazer 
has been appointed dean of 
humanities and social 
sciences at the Community 
College of Baltimore. 


Wynne Wolkenberg Miller, 

executive director of 
Continuum, Inc., Newton, 
Massachusetts, was honored 
as a Woman of Achievement 
in Business and Industry at a 
YWCA leader limcheon last 

Ghita Maringer Orth, 

who teaches English at the 
University of Vermont, won 
a nationwide competition 
for the Eileen W. Barnes 
Award. Her winning volume 
of poetry. The Music Of 
What Happens, was 
published by Saturday Press 
in October 1982. 

This new. informative 
booklet discusses the 
importance of wills, how 
recent ta.\ laws affect char- 
itable bequests and the 
ways that you can include 
Brandeis in your will. 

it is available by writing 
or calling 
Joseph E. Cofield. 
Director of Planned 

Brandeis L niversity, 
^X althani, 

Massachusetts 02254 
or 617-647-2359. 

The Class of '58 is 
celebrating its 25th Reunion 
this coming May! 


Laurence Silberstein 

(Ph.D., Near Eastern and 
Judaic Studies '72) and his 
wife, Muriel (Mimi) 
Berenson Silberstein '60, 
spent the summer of '82 in 
Israel where Larry was 
completing research at 
Hebrew University. His 
research project was funded 
by a grant from the National 
Endowment for the 
Humamties for work on the 
social and political 
philosophy of Martin Buber. 
Larry has resumed teaching 
in the rehgion department at 
the University of Pennsylvania, 

Joel S. Spiro 

is the economic/commercial 
counselor at the U.S. 
Embassy in Rabat, Morocco, 
and would be delighted to 
hear from Brandeisians 
passing through Morocco. 


Lyman H. Andrews, 

lecturer in English at the 
University of Leicester, 
England, has a new book of 
poems, Kaleidoscope, 
published in the U.S. by 
Manon Boyars, Inc. 

Muriel (Mimi) Berenson 

has been appointed director 
of the Career Resource 
Center at Harcum Junior 
College in Bryn Mawr, 
Pennsylvania. Mimi has also 
been accepted as a member 
of the National Academy of 
Certified Clinical Mental 
Health Counselors. 

Mary-Louise Cohen 

who is married to Lawrence 
Weisman, has wntten a new 
book. Intensive Care: A 
Family Love Story, 
published by Random 
House. ISee book review in 
"Brandeis Bookshelf" 

Norman L Jacobs, 

partner in the Boston law 
firm of Esdaile, Barrett & 
Esdaile, has become a fellow 
of the Amencan College of 
Tnal Lawyers, a national 
association of 3500 fellows 
in the U.S. and Canada. 
Membership is by invitation 
of the Board of Regents. 

Evert M. Makinen 

was appointed vice president 
of exploration, a new 
position at O'Hare Energy 
Corporation in Denver, 
Colorado. Evert was 
previously vice president of 
land at Geodyne Resources, 
Inc., mid-continent land 
manager at Ladd Petroleum 
Corporation, and land 
manager at OFT Exploration, 
Inc. m San Francisco. 

Robert Moulthrop 

is manager of public 
relations and marketing 
services for the New York 
region of Deloitte Haskins &. 
Sells, an international 
accounting and management 
consultmg firm. Bob and his 
wife. Jewel, live in Princeton 
Jimction with their three 
sons — Peter, William and 
Daniel. Bob commutes to his 
office m the World Trade 
Center and continues to be 
active in Brandeis recruiting. 

Martin Zelnik, 

architect and associate 
professor of interior design at 
the Fashion Institute of 
Technology (State University 
of New York), has been 
named chairman of the 
department of interior design 
at the Institute. In addition, 
he was recently elected 
regional chair of IDEC 
(Intenor Design Educators 



Eric Klass, 

partner and co-owner of 
Belson &. Klass Associates in 
Beverly Hills, Calif omia, has 
been elected vice president 
of the Association of Talent 
Agents, which represents 
over 180 member agencies in 
the Los Angeles area. He is 
also serving his second term 
on the organization's board 
of directors. 

The Class of '63 is 
celebrating its 20th Reunion 
this coming May! 


Selwyn K. Troen 

has a Ph.D. in history and is 
a professor at Ben-Gurion 
University in Beer Sheva, 
Israel, where he served two 
terms as dean of social 
science and humanities. He 
is currently on sabbatical at 
the State University of New 
York — Stony Brook, but will 
return to Israel this summer 
Selwyn is married and has 
five children. 


Charles N. Kikonyogo 
who was a Wien scholar at 
Brandeis, has been appointed 
governor of the Bank of 
Botswana in Gaborone, 

Donald W. Koch 

has written a third book. An 
Endless Vista: The 
Recreational Lands of 
Colorado, which was 
published in October 1982 
by Pluch Publishing 

Dr. Anthony I. Kostiner 

joined the radiology 
department of Hadassah 
Hospital (Ein Kerem) as a 
volunteer physician during 
his 1982-83 sabbatical. Tony 
lives with his wife, Priscilla, 
and daughters — Dana, 13, 
and Jennifer, 11 — in 

Maurice M. Roumani 

IS director of the J.R. 
Elyachar Center for Studies 
in Sephardi Heritage and 
program director of the 
Committee on Studies of 
Oriental Jewish Heritage at 
Ben-Gurion University in 
Israel. He is also the author 
of From Immigrant to 
Citizen (1979) and lews from 
Arab Countries and the 
Palestinian Refugees (1978). 
Maurice is married and has 
two children and hopes to 
spend his upcoming 
sabbatical year at Brandeis. 
As a recipient of a Wien 
International Scholarship for 
1960-64, he is most 
interested in re-establishing 
contact with other Wien 
students from that era. 

Maurice notes that the 25th 
anniversary celebration of 
the Wien program is 
scheduled for November 

Meredith T^x, 

author of two previous 
novels. Families and The 
Rising of the Women, has 
written a new book, 
Rivington Street, which was 
published by Morrow in July 
1982. (See book review in 
"Brandeis Bookshelf " 


Dennis E. Baron 

is associate professor of 
English and linguistics at the 
University of Illinois. His 
latest book. Grammar and 
Good Taste: Reforming the 
American Language, was 
published by Yale University 
Press in October 1982. (See 
book review in "Brandeis 
Bookshelf" section.) 

Melanie Rovner Cohen 

has become a partner at 
Antonow & Fink in Chicago. 
Melanie specializes in 
bankruptcy law and 
reorganization and teaches 
secured transactions and 
bankruptcy law at DePaul 
University College of Law. 
She lives in Glencoe, 
Illinois, with her husband, 
Arthur, and children — 
Mitchell, 13, and Jennifer, 

Constance Curnyn Holden 

was appointed assistant 
professor of developmental 
math and science at the 
University of Maine — Orono 
in September 1982. 


Steven H. Hochman 

is an analyst with Moody's 
Investors Service in 
Manhattan. He and his wife, 
Jane, and their daughter, 
Sarah (age six), live in White 
Plains, New York. Steve is 
active on the White Plains 
Jewish Community Center 
Religious School Committee. 

Jane Smith 

was married to John 
Esquivel August 7, 1982. 

Psychologist Carol Tivris' 

latest book. Anger: The 
Misunderstood Emotion, 
was published by Simon &. 
Schuster in January 1983. 
(See book review in 
"Brandeis Bookshelf" 
section.) A dated note — 
Carol married actor/producer 
Ronan O'Casey in 1981. 


Judy Allen, 

a composer residing in 
Putnam Valley, New York, 
performed pieces from her 
musical Murphy's Law 
(which was produced in New 
York in 1980) and selections 
from a work in progress at a 
recent community concert 
held at Garrison Art Center 
in Garrison, New York. 
During the program Judy 
also discussed the special 
problems of the socially 
conscious composer 

Jon (Hoffman) Beryl 

has assumed a new position 
as assistant professor of 
theatre and drama at Indiana 
University in Bloomington, 
Indiana. His duties include 
teaching acting and directing 
in the MFA program and 
directing a full-length 
production. Jon was 
previously on the faculty at 
University of Rhode Island 
as a guest artist. In addition 
to his teaching, Jon has been 
quite active as a professional 
actor and director He 
recently appeared in Talley's 
Folly at the Next Move 
Theatre in Boston, directed a 
show at the Charles 
Playhouse in Boston and 
appeared in an industrial 

Peter Gould 

was married in 1981 and 
now has a daughter, Maria 
Michaela, bom in March 
1982. Peter has been touring 
New England and 
performing mime with his 
two-man troupe, "Gould &. 
Steams." He also wrote a 
play, A Peasant of El 
Salvador, for performance at 
Pete Seeger's Clearwater 
Festival. Peter has been 
awarded the Vermont 
Council on the Arts 1983 
grant to develop new full- 
length mime shows. 


Jill Levin Andron 

and her husband, Richard, 
announce the birth of their 
third child, a daughter, Talia 
Michal, August 3, 1982. 
Talia joins brother Elisha 
(age nine) and sister Rachel 
(age six). Jill has been 
working in New York City at 
the Institute for Middle East 
Peace and Development. Her 
husband has a medical 
practice in internal medicine 
and rheumatology in 
Englewood, New Jersey. 

Naomi Baron 

is associate professor of 
linguistics and associate 
dean of the college at Brown 
University in Providence, 
Rhode Island. She is actively 
involved in curriculum 
planning and the 
development of the 
undergraduate program. 

Mark Simon, 

AIA, of Moore Grover 
Harper, PC, Architects and 
Planners of Essex, 
Connecticut, won the 1982 
Connecticut Society of 
Architects/ AIA design award 
for the Lenz Winery in 
Peconic, New York. Mark 
graduated from Brandeis 
with honors in sculpture. 
(See illustration of Lenz 


Sharon Barnartt 

and her husband, Wayne 
Stinson, announce the birth 
of their first child, David 
Mark Stinson, October 9, 
1982. Sharon is assistant 
professor of sociology at 
Gallaudet College in 
Washington, DC. 

Dr. John Ferris 

recenty joined the Westfield 
(Massachusetts) Area Mental 
Health Clinic as a 
psychiatrist. Prior to coming 
to Westfield, John served as 
director of the Brief 
Treatment Unit at the VA 
Medical Center in 


Richard J. Goldberg 

wrote a screenplay based on 
his off-Broadway drama, 
Family Business, for the PBS 
series "American 
Playhouse." Shot in 
Washington last summer, it 
features Milton Berk and 
will be broadcast during the 
1982-83 season. Dick's 
earlier screenplay. Almost 
Home, was filmed in San 
Francisco last year 

Actress Robyn Goodman 

and Carole Rothman are co- 
producers of the Second 
Stage theatre company on 
West 73rd Street in New 
York City. Five of the ten 
plays they have produced 
originated under Joseph 
Papp's auspices. Many of 
their productions are plays 
which the Second Stage 
rescued from oblivion or 
unfinished, first productions. 
Their next play is David 
Mamet's The Woods. 

Helaine Waxman Raskin, 

A.C.S.W, chaired a 
colloquium and workshop 
on "Married Learning 
Disabled Young Adults" at 
the February 1983 
international conference of 
the Association for Children 
with Learning Disabilities in 
Washington, D.C. 


Dr. Marc L. Citron 

is married, has two children 
and lives in Chevy Chase, 
Maryland. Marc is an 
assistant professor at 
Georgetown University 
School of Medicine and a 
member of the senior staff, 
oncology section, at the 
Washington, D.C. Veterans 
Administration Hospital. In 
his spare time. Marc, who is 
a former Brandeis varsity 
lacrosse player, tries to keep 
pace with his father, a 
seasoned marathon runner. 
Although he has yet to 
complete a marathon, this 
year he hopes to go the full 
distance with his father. 
We'll be looting for you. 
Marc! (Marc's article on 
running, "Going the 
Distance With Dad," 
appeared in the November 5, 
1982 edition of The 
Washington Post] 

In September 1982, 
Marilyn Kanrek Cranney 

was appointed vice president 
of Dean Witter Reynolds 
InterCapital Inc. in New 
York City where she has 
worked since February 1981. 
Marilyn was appointed 
assistant general counsel for 
the firm in January 1982. 

Dr. Paul E. Fenster 

of Tucson, Arizona, has been 
elected to fellowship in the 
American College of 
Cardiology, an 11,500- 
member, nonprofit, 
professional medical society 
and teaching institution. 
Paul is currently assistant 
professor of medicine at the 
University of Arizona 
Health Sciences Center in 

Daniel Prober 

and his wife, Sharon, are 
pleased to announce the 
birth of their second son, 
Joshua Michael, on Yom 
Kippur 1982. Dan is a 
tenured physics professor at 
Yale and would be happy to 
show any Brandeis visitors 
his lab. 

Helen Goldring Quint 

and her husband, Stanley, 
announce the birth of their 
third child, Judith, in April 
1982. Judy joins brother 
Danny (age nine) and sister 
Debbie (age five). 

Jon Quint 

and his wife, Ellen Deutsch, 
announce the birth of their 
first child, Aaron Lavijon, 
May 24, 1982. 


Producer Jonathan Barkan, 

head of Communications For 
Learning in Somerville, 
Massachusetts, recently won 
a Bronze Award at AMI's 
Image '81 for "The Charles 
at Boston" mixed-media 
slide show, which he 
produced and directed. 
Jonathan, who is an 
experienced photographer, 
sound recorder, designer and 
teacher, handles a variety of 
multi-media presentations — 
from exhibit design to slide 
shows, videotapes, 
biochures, posters and 
system design for video and 

David M. Epstein 

has been promoted to 
associate executive director 
of the Jewish Community 
Federation of Louisville, 

Richard Kopley 
and Amy Golahny '73 are 
engaged to be married. 
Richard completed his 
doctorate in English at the 
State University of New 
York-Buffalo in June 1982 
and has been appointed 
assistant professor of English 
at Illinois State University. 
Amy is completing her 
doctorate m art history at 
Columbia University and 
has recently published 
several scholarly articles. 

Yale Magrass' 
book. Thus Spake the 
Moguls, was published 
recently by Schenkman 
Publishing Co. (See book 
review in "Brandeis 
Bookshelf" section.) Yale is 
assistant professor of 
sociology at Southeastern 
Massachusetts University. 

Laurence Posner 

received a doctorate in 
counseling psychology from 
Boston University in 1981. 
He is now a licensed 
psychologist in 
Massachusetts and 
maintains a private practice 
in Salem. Larry is also a staff 
psychologist at North Shore 
Children's Hospital. He and 
his wife, Marilyn, have a 
one-year-old son, Joseph 

Albert Einstein Medical 
Center, Mt. Sinai-Daroff 
Division, has named David 
Wacker of Ewing, New 
Jersey director of the 
department of respiratory 
therapy. David, who 
assumed this position last 
June, was previously the 
senior cardiopulmonary 
technician in respiratory 
therapy at Princeton 
Hospital in Princeton. He is 
currently enrolled in a 
graduate program in hospital 
administration at Rutgers 

Attorney Roy J. Watson, Jr. 

practices immigration law in 
Boston and is enrolled in a 
master's program at Harvard 
University's Kennedy School 
of Government. 

Paul Aranson, 

a practicing attorney from 
Portland, Maine, was 
recently elected district 
attorney of Cumberland 
County, Maine in a stunning 
upset victory Paul launched 
his political career as a 
member of the student 
judiciary at Brandeis. Paul's 
classmates will be interested 
to hear that he will be in 
charge of prosecuting cases 
under Maine's tough new 
drunk driving, pornography 
and drug statutes. In 
addition to his legal 
activities, Paul is the 
drummer for the Tony Boffa 

James Castleman 

and his wife, Claire, have a 
I '/2-year-old son, Michael 
Lawrence. Jim, who has his 
own law practice in Quincy 
Massachusetts, received his 
LL.M. (master's in taxation) 
from Boston University last 

Alan R. Cormier 

married Mary Elizabeth 
Garrity December 12, 1982. 
Alan received a J.D. degree 
from Suffolk University Law 
School and is now a 
corporate attorney for Wang 
Laboratories, Inc. Mary, who 
is studying for an MBA at 
Boston College School of 
Management, is supervisor 
of international purchasmg 
at Wang. The Cormiers live 
in Burlington, Massachusetts. 

Marc Eisenstock, 

a vice president of 
Massachusetts Wholesale 
Drug Company, has been an 
ardent sports fan for years. 
At Brandeis he was captain 
of both the basketball and 
baseball teams. Since July 
1981 Marc has been the 
agent for Red Sox catcher 
Richie Gedman. As his 
agent, Marc handles his 
contract negotiations and 



Richard Galant 

and his wife, Aileen 
Jacobson, announce the birth 
of their son, Gregory David 
Galant, September 10, 1982. 
The Galant family lives in 
Halesite, New York. 

David G. Gotthelf 

married Dr Linda Dauber 
June 27, 1982 in New York 
City. Before his wedding, 
David took one last fling at 
adventure by bicycling 
across the U.S. and Canada. 
He and his wife are living in 
Newton Centre, 

Leon Harris 

and his wife, Gail, have two 
children — Rebecca Beth, age 
two, and Matthew, age one. 
Leon is a pulmonary 
specialist in Nyack, New 

Annette Tarnapoll Lawson 

and her husband, Paul, 
joyfully announce the 
adoption in August 1982 of 
their daughter, Liliana Kate, 
who was bom May 8, 1982 
in Torreon, Mexico. 

Assistant professor 
Daniel C. Matt 

(M.A., Near Eastern and 
Judaic Studies 75; Ph.D., 
Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies '78) is directing the 
M.A. program in Jewish 
studies at The Graduate 
Theological Union in 
Berkeley, California. His 
Brandeis dissertation, a 
critical edition of The Book 
of Mirrors by R. David ben 
Yehudah he-Hasid, appeared 
in Brown fudaic Studies 
(Scholars Press). Paulist Press 
recently published his 
translations from the 
Zohar — Zohar, The Book of 
Enlightenment — in their 
Classics of Western 

Dr. Ivy Fisher Weiner and 
Dr. Jeffrey Robert Weiner '71 

joyfully announce the birth 
of their first child, Emily 
Tara, June 9, 1982. 

The Class of '73 will 
celebrate its 10th Reunion 
this May! 

Ellen Feldman, 

who works in the research 
department of General 
Foods, married Randall R. 
Lunn in Rollins Chapel at 
Dartmouth College, July 1, 

Barbara S. Gline 

will marry Robert M. 
PearlmanMay 1, 1983. 
Barbara has a Ph.D. in 
counseling from the 
University of Maryland and 
is serving a clinical 
psychology internship in 
Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Steven Gudis 

is practicing nephrology and 
internal medicine in 
Randolph, New Jersey. 
Steven and his wife, Sheila, 
have two children — Allison, 
age three, and David, age 

Melody Rich Harris 

and her husband, Robert, 
announce the birth of a 
daughter, Betsy Abigail, May 
30, 1981. Melody teaches 
special education in 
Oceanside, New York, and 
her husband is an attorney 
with the law firm of Linden 
& Deutsch in Manhattan. 
They reside in West 
Hempstead, New York. 

James Kimenker 

has been promoted to 
counsel for the mortgage and 
real estate department at 
The Hartford Insurance 
Group. Jim lives in West 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

Ellen Beth Lande and her 
husband Detlev Suderow 
'70, announce the birth of 
their first child, Alexander 
Lande Suderow, July 14, 
1982. Ellen Beth is director 
of public and corporate 
affairs at Mass-Save, Inc., 
and Detlev is a senior 
personnel representative at 
Digital Eqmpment 

Susan Monsky's 

first novel, Midnight 
Suppers, was published in 
January by Houghton 
Mifflin. (See book review in 
"Brandeis Bookshelf " 
section.) Susan has taught 
creative writing at Boston 

University, Harvard 
University and Phillips 
Andover Academy. She has 
been featured by P.E.N. New 
England as a leading young 
novelist, was awarded the 
Kenan Grant by Phillips 
Academy in 1982, and 
received the Henfield 
Foundation Award in 1 98 1 . 
Susan was published in the 
Canto Review of the Arts in 
1980. She lives in Andover, 

Susan Piela 

of King of Prussia, 
Pennsylvania, graduated 
from the Postbaccalaureate 
Certificate Program in 
Physical Therapy at the 
Hahnemann University 
School of Allied Health 
Professions in Philadelphia. 

Rita Neufeld Silverstein 

and her husband, Alan, 
announce the birth of their 
daughter, Rebecca Beth, June 
4, 1981. Rebecca joins her 
brother, David Jason. 

James Thompson and Mary 
Davis Thompson 

have moved to Chapel Hill, 
where James teaches English 
at University of North 

Elizabeth Vitale 

and her husband. Dr. Stuart 
Wolff, announce the birth of 
their second child, David 
Goodwin, November 15, 
1982. David joins his big 
brother, Jonah Lucien. Liz is 
a certified nurse-midwife. 

Susan Wasserstein, 

who was a fine arts major at 
Brandeis, is public relations 
director for The Art Dealers 
Association of America. She 
has also completed a seven- 
month television series of 
tips on collecting, which 
was aired nationwide on PM 
Magazine. Her first book. 
Collector's Guide to U.S. 
Auctions &) Flea Markets. 
was published by Penguin 
Books in 1981. 

Barbara Wolff Walters 

is married to Ralph Watters 
and works as a counselor and 
instructor at Northern 
Virginia Community College 
in Alexandria. 

Dr. Barry A. Ehrlich and his 
wife, Ruth Hurwitz Ehrlich 
'76, are the proud parents of a 
son, Daniel, age two. Barry is 
emergency room director at 
Community Hospital of 
Sacramento and Ruth is a 
speech therapist for the San 
Francisco public schools. 
The Ehrlichs live in San 
Francisco and are active 
members of Congregation 
Ner Tamid. 

Attorney Mark Gershenson 

announces the formation of 
a partnership for the practice 
of law, under the name 
"Meyrelles & Gershenson." 
His office is located in Los 

Annette S. Kahn 

of Westborough, 
Massachusetts, was named 
director of communications 
at Clark University in 
Worcester last August. In 
addition to serving as 
University spokesperson, 
Annette directs the staff and 
programs responsible for 
public information and 
relations; university-wide 
and constituent 
publications; media and 
community relations; and 
promotional, student 
recruiting and advertising 
support. Several of Armette's 
recent publications for Clark 
have won awards from the 
Council for the Advancement 
and Support of Education 
and the Worcester County 
Club of Printing House 
Craftsmen. Prior to coming 
to Clark in 1979, Annette 
was assistant director of 
alumni relations at Brandeis 

Jeffrey Karp, 

an attorney with the Federal 
Trade Commission, and 
Lynne Vinnacombe Karp '75 
have three daughters — 
Hannah (5), Esther [IVi] and 
Rebecca (8 months). 

Amy Koplow 

(MFA, Theater Design '77) 
married Dr. Louis Miller 
August 1, 1982 at Brandeis' 
Berlin Chapel. Amy is 
assistant professor of theater 
at the State University of 
New York-Albany. Her 
husband is a resident in 
psychiatry at S.U.N.Y-Stony 

Irwin Goldstein Martin 

has completed a two-year 
postdoctoral fellowship at 
Monell Chemical Senses 
Center He is a management 
associate in regulatory 
affairs, U.S. pharmaceutical 
products, for the SmithKline 
Beckman Corporation in 

Peter O'Connell and 

Jean Lusskin O'Connell '76 

announce the birth of their 
son, Timothy. Peter 
completed his Ph.D. in 
biology at Brandeis last fall 
and IS doing postdoctoral 
work in genetics research at 
the University of Utah 
Medical College. 

Marvin Pinkert, 

former assistant director of 
alumni relations at Brandeis, 
is a graduate student in the 
J.L. Kellogg School of 
Management, Northwestern 
University. Melanie Temer 
Pinkert '75 is working for 
the investment counseling 
firm of Chauner, Cotter and 
Graver in Northfield, 


Barbara Alpert 

was elected to a two-year 
term as a member of the 
executive committee and 
secretary of the Metropolitan 
Athletics Congress, the 
governing body for track, 
field and road racing m the 
New York City area. A 
member of the Warren Street 
Social and Athletic Club, 
Barbara ran her first 
marathon (Long Island) May 
2, 1982 and her second 
marathon (New York) 
October 24, 1982. hi 
addition to her running 
activities, she continues to 
work as an editor for Bantam 

Deborah London Arnold 

and her husband, Stan, 
announce the birth of their 
first child. Grant London, 
November 18, 1982 m 

In September 1982, 
Columbia University Law 
School chose David C. 
Bloomfield, a third-year law 
student, as one of the first 
two Paul Robeson Scholars. 
According to an article in 
The New York Times. David 
was chosen for his 
"outstanding service to the 
black community." Prior to 
entering law school, David 
had been a teacher at 
Manhattan's New Lincoln 
School for four years, and 
had worked with Advocates 
for Children of New York. 

Craig H. Friedmann 

began medical school at 
Columbia's College of 
Physicians and Surgeons last 
September and expects to 
graduate in June 1986. 

Kim Geringer 

and her husband, Colin 
Dunn, announce the birth of 
their first child, Rachel 
Hilary, September 15, 1982. 

Dr. Nancy Gordon 

received her M.D. from the 
College of Medicine and 
Dentistry in New lersey and 
is a resident in obstetrics and 
gynecology at Mt. Sinai 
Hospital in Baltimore. Her 
husband is a resident in 
pediatrics at Mt. Sinai. They 
were married in 1980. 

Steven Kaplan 

is living in Jerusalem, and is 
teaching at Hebrew 

Peretz Rodman and his wife, 
Miriam Laufer '79 would 
like to share the news of the 
birth of their first child, a 
son named Eliav Yisrael 
Rodman. Eliav was bom 
November 21, 1982 at the 
Jerusalem Maternity 
Hospital in Kalandia, 

David P. Seaver 

of Milford, Massachusetts 
received his MBA from 
Rutgers last May. 

Elaine Turetsky 

of Brookline, Massachusetts, 
married Dr Stewart 
Greenberg of Hackensack, 
New Jersey, in November 
1982. Elaine is a social 
worker and Stewart is 
completing his residency in 
anesthesiology at Columbia 
Presbyterian Hospital, New 
York City 

Terrie Williams 

has been appointed director 
of public relations for 
ESSENCE Communications, 
Inc. and ESSENCE 
Magazine. Teme was 
formerly executive director 
of the World Institute of 
Black Commimications and 
has also served as executive 
director of the black-owned 
Communications Alliance, 
an oiganization of Black 
media companies. In 1982 
Tenie was the first recipient 
of the D. Parke Gibson 
Award for Public Relations/ 
Public Affairs, given by the 
Public Relations Society of 
Amenca/New York Chapter. 


Dr. Herbert Bimbaum, 

who IS in private practice in 
Newton, Massachusetts and 
on the faculty of the Harvard 
School of Dental Medicine, 
announces his forthcommg 
marriage to Connie Spear of 

Stan Bulua 

and Gail Muschel Bulua '77 
announce the birth of their 
daughter, Ariel Candice, 
August 18, 1982. 

Roy Cohen 

and Miriam (Mimi] Tanzer 
Cohen '77 announce the 
birth of their daughter, Beth 
Tanzer Cohen, June II, 1982, 
m Philadelphia. 

Vicki Kanrek-Clark 

has been promoted to 
corporate commumcations 
administrator at Interaction 
Systems, Inc., a 
manufacturer of touch- 
sensitive computer 
equipment and directories. 
Timothy Clark 'G (Ph.D., 
Music Theory and 
Composition '8 1 ) is in his 
fourth year as assistant 

professor of music at Harvard 
University. Vicki and Tim 
live m Waltham with their 
two cats, Tristan and Wotan. 

Liane Kupferberg-Carter 

is working as director of 
publicity, promotion and 
advertising for Pilgrim Press 
in New York City. 

Leslie Eve Martin 

was named director of public 
relations at Fairview 
Deaconess Hospital m 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
last August. Leslie lives in 
Minneapolis with her 
husband, Patrick Riley, a 
surgical nurse at 
Minneapolis Children's 
Health Center. 

Elena Nierman 

marned Joel Widder October 
U, 1981. Elena is the 
business and convention 
manager of the American 
Theatre Association m 
Washington, D.C. 

In July 1982 Mark B. 
Pearlman was appomted 
director of market strategy 
for CBS Inc. In this newly 
created position, Mark is 
working with the CBS/ 
Broadcast Group in 
developmg strategies to take 
advantage of the emerging 
teclmologies in the field. 
Mark joined CBS m 1978 as 
a financial analyst for the 
television network and has 
since held a number of 
positions, most recently as 
director of sales forecasting, 
analysis and development. 

Dennis K. Slavin 

was appointed instructor of 
music at Dickinson College 
m Carlisle, Permsylvania. 
Dennis received his MFA 
from Princeton University in 


Dr. Hadassah (Dassie) 
Orenstein Barth 

and her husband, Dr Eddy 
Barth, announce the birth of 
their first son, Amital 
Betzalel, July 22, 1982. 
Dassie and her husband 
graduated from Albert 
Einstein College of Medicme 
in 1981, after doing projects 
in Jerusalem, Israel and 
Columbia, South America. 
They then completed a year 



of internship at University 
of Maryland Hospital before 
moving to New York City. 
Dassie is novv' a pediatrics 
resident at New York 
Hospital-Cornell Medical 
Center, and Eddy is a 
resident in anesthesiology at 
Medical Center. 

Linda (Liba) M. Casson 

married Rabbi George 
Nudell August 30, 1981. 
Liba IS a Ph.D. candidate in 
physical chemistry at 
Columbia University. 

Abigail Pastor Cotler and 
Donald N. Cotler 76 

announce the birth of their 
son, Joaquin Pastor, July 1, 
1982. Abby is taking time off 
from counseling to be with 
her new son but continues to 
do art work. Donald is 
finishing his last year at 
Loyola Medical School in 

Alan Leslie FischI 

married Marsha A. Cohan in 
the Bronx, New York, last 
fall. Alan and Marsha are 
both cum laude graduates of 
Harvard Law School and 
both are New York lawyers. 
Alan is an associate with the 
law firm of Paul, Weiss, 
Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. 

Richard Gold and Deborah 
Cohen Gold '78 

have been living in Senegal, 
West Africa, since June 1981. 
Debbie is writing articles in 
French as an intern for 
Senegal's daily newspaper, Le 
Soleil, and also does 
consulting for the Agency 
for International 
Development (AID). Rick 
manages AID's Food for 
Peace program, which 
distributes food and funds 
development projects 
throughout Senegal. 

Barry Goralnick and 
Deborah Franzblau '78 

were married May 1, 1982 in 
New York. Barry received a 
Master of Architecture 
degree from Harvard 
University in 1981 and is 
working for Wayne Berg, 
architect, in New York City. 
Debbie received her law 
degree from Temple 
University in 1981 and is 

now an associate with 
Burrows and Poster in New 
York City 

Amy "Neil" Kolson 
IS doing research in clinical 
pathology at the University 
of Califomia-Davis 
Veterinary Medical School. 

Dalia Kaminetsky Lavon 

was promoted to advertising 
media manager at Saks Fifth 
Avenue where she is 
responsible for budgeting 
and planning for all print and 
electronic media. In her 
"spare" time, Dalia edits the 
Tel-Hai Hadassah bulletin 
and works with her husband, 
Ben, on their house. 

David Milton 

is a senior member of the 
technical staff at Matell 
Electronics' Systems 
Software Group in Torrance, 

Mindy Nierenberg 

is married to Robert Fera and 
has two children — Erin 
Rachel, born October 12, 
1978; and David Nicholas, 
bom December II, 1981. 
Mindy has exhibited her 
watercolors in several 
shows, been employed as a 
victim/witness advocate, 
taught in a home for unwed 
mothers, and taught in a 
community college program 
for senior citizens. Today 
Mindy has her own 
business — "Raining 
Violets" — designing and 
handpainting children's 
clothing. Her creations can 
be seen in stores from Paris 
to Toronto. Mindy and her 
family live in Dorchester, 

Susan Remer 

has decided to join academia 
again. In September, after 
working for five years, she 
entered the MBA program at 
Columbia University 
Graduate School of Business. 

Dr. Mark A. Rich and 
Beverly A. Cohen '80 

were married October II, 
1981. Mark is a surgical 
resident at Beekman-New 
York Infirmary, and Beverly 
is employed at Vogue 

William J. Robertello 

attended three years of 
medical school at the 
Universidad del Noreste in 
Tampico, Mexico, and was 
accepted into the third-year 
class at the Medical College 
of Pennsylvania in 
Philadelphia last July. He is 
presently doing clinical 

James Rosenthal and Lisa 
Burk Rosenthal '78 

live in Dallas. Jim is vice 
president of Whittle Musk 
Co., a state-wide chain of 
musical instrument and 
professional audio stores. 
Lisa IS product manager and 
jewelry buyer for Zale 
Corporation, the world's 
largest retail jewelry chain. 

Robert Russman-Halperin 
and Wendy Russman- 
Halperin '75 

announce the birth of a 
daughter, Liora, May 25, 
1982. Bob received an MBA 
from Harvard Business 
School last June and is now 
working at Data Resources, 
Inc. in Lexington, 

The Class of '78 will 
celebrate its 5th Reunion 
this May! 


David Alexander 

has been appointed program 
guide editor for SelecTVof 
California, a subscription 
television service based in 
Los Angeles. David will edit 
program guides for SelecTV's 
Los Angeles market and 
seven affiliate markets 

Ann Bolts Bromberg 

has joined Lessner Slosberg 
Gahl &. Partners, Inc., in 
Hartford, Connecticut, as 
account coordinator. Ann's 
primary agency account will 
be Ames Department Store. 

Beth Flanzbaum 

is a staff clinical social 
worker and team leader at 
Solomon, Carter, Fuller 
Mental Health Center in 
Boston. Beth has also been a 
head residence counselor on 
the staff at Brandeis for the 
past three years. She received 
her MSW from Simmons 
College in May 1982. 

David Goldman 

married Miriam Rugassy of 
France November 29, 1982 
in Jerusalem, Israel. David 
and Miriam are living in 
Zichron Yaakov. 

Lori Sue Herman 

of Brooklyn, New York, 
received her J.D. degree from 
Franklin Pierce Law Center 
in May 1982. 

Lynn Migliori Rowell 

and her husband, Gordon, 
announce the birth of their 
second child, Craig Andrew, 
July 31, 1982. Craig joins 
older sister, Katie. 

Neil Schwartz 

is an account executive at 
ASI Market Research, a Los 
Angeles firm which 
specializes in testing 
television commercials and 
programs. In 1979 he 
received an MBA from 
Columbia University. Neil 
recently took a nostalgic pre- 
reunion trip to Brandeis. 

Donald Small and Lauren 
Cohen Small 

announce the birth of their 
son, Adam Louis, July 27, 
1982. They look forward to 
introducing him to 
classmates at their 5th 
Reunion this May. 

Ronni Yellen 

is a registered pharmacist 
working at the Medi Mart 
drugstore in Dedham, 
Massachusetts. She is also 
completing her MBA at 
Boston College. 

Chaye Zuckerman 

married Michael Shapot 
October 16, 1982. Chaye 
graduated from New York 
University Law School last 
May and is an associate with 
the New York law firm of 
Schulte, Roth &. Zabel. 
Michael is an associate with 
the New York law firm of 
Andrew M. Schnier. 


Jill R. Fleishman married 
Marc B. Tapper in September 
1982. Jill IS a grant 
administrator of Trustees of 
Health and Hospitals of the 
City of Boston. Marc is 
manager of Empire Burglar 
Alarm Company. 

Pamela Galis and Bruce 
Perlman were married 
August 8, 1982. Pamela is an 
education consultant for the 
blind and visually impaired 
with the Connecticut 
Department of Special 
Education. Bruce graduated 
from Boston University Law 
School in May 1982 and is 
an associate with Bergman, 
Horowitz, Reynolds and 
DeSarbo in New Haven. 
Pamela and Bruce live in 
Hamden, Connecticut. 

David Ginsberg married 
Sharon Kalimian August 19, 

Steven Hentoff is a 

psychotherapist in the 
department of neurological 
surgery at University of 
Miami School of Medicine. 
He IS also working on his 
dissertation in clinical 
psychology, investigating the 
effect of personality and 
family environment on 
chronic pain. Steve expects 
to move back to New 
England this fall. 

Wayne B. Hersher received 
his J.D. from Franklin Pierce 
Law Center in May 1982. 

David G. Hesse and Deborah 
Kirsch were married last 
summer David is a third- 
year medical student at the 
University of New Mexico 
College of Medicine. 
Deborah is attending the 
University of New Mexico 
School of Fine Arts. 

Richard O. Jennings received 
a (D. degree from University 
of Pittsburgh School of Law 
May 29, 1982. Richard began 
an internship last October 
with Fassbender, Von Treu & 
Partner in Munich, West 

loanne Levy and Barry D. 
Citrin were married October 
9, 1982 and are living in 
Tarrytown, New York. 
Joanne is an AEA stage 
manager in New York City. 
Barry is working for 
Travelers Insurance 
Company's real estate 
division in White Plains. 

Marjorie H. Reiter is in the 
MPH program at Boston 
University School of Public 
Health. Her brother, Paul, is 
a member of the Brandeis 
Class of '83. 

Jeffrey Remz and Judith 
Bleiberg '82 will be married 
August 2 1 . fudy is attending 
the University of Pittsburgh 
for a master's in information 
science, and Jeff is a loumalist 
living in Brookline, 

Wendy Robinson spent a 
year in Jerusalem and is now 
studying for her second 
master's degree Jewish 
Education) at Hebrew Union 
College-Los Angeles. Wendy 
IS also working in the 
Skirball Museum's 
education department. 

Steven Rosenzweig is a first- 
year medical student at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Marjorie Bennett Schiffrin 

and her husband, Larry, 
announce the birth of their 
daughter, Jessica Brianna, 
June 28, 1982. 

David A. Schlesinger and 

Jane M. Lefkowitz were 
married in September 1982. 
David IS completing his 
master's degree in computer 
science at Boston University. 
David and Jane are both 
employed by Chase 
Data Corporation. 

Phyllis Segal has moved to 
Toronto, Canada, where she 
is involved in management 
consulting for the public 
sector, after spending two 
years at Cornell earning her 

Holly J. Shaw is on the 
consulting staff of Nolan, 
Norton & Company. Holly 
married Alan Boyer (Harvard 
'751 October 10, 1982. Alan 
is the manager of fixed assets 
and inventory control at 
Wang Laboratories. They live 
in Burlington, Massachusetts. 

Michael M. Sklar announces 
plans for a fall 1983 wedding 
to Jane Sabin, a Cornell 
University graduate. Michael 
is a programmer/analyst 
with Manufacturers Hanover 
Trust in New York City. 

Jay Stiller and his fiancee, 
Susan Nackley, are fourth- 
year medical students at the 
University of Massachusetts. 
After their wedding in May, 
Jay and Susan will live in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, 
where they have both 
accepted residency positions 
in internal medicine. 


Gary M. Clay is a second- 
year social work graduate 
student at Barry University 
Miami, where he recently 
received the Child Welfare 
Traineeship Award. Gary was 
also selected as an 
Outstanding Young Man of 
Amenca for 1982, elected 
president of the Barry 
University Chapter of Black 
Social Workers, and elected 
vice president of the Social 
Work Student Government 
Association. He is a member 
of the National Association 
of Christians in Social Work. 

Deborah Cummis has been 
promoted to administrative 
assistant to the general 
broadcast editor of the 
Associated Press in New 
York City. Deborah is also 
the producer of a talk show 
for Suburban Cablevision of 
East Orange, New Jersey. 

Janet Domenitz, Jennifer 
Edson and Aaron Garland 

were reunited July 4, 1982 in 
Hancock, New Hampshire. 
Missing the reunion was 
Mark Sack, who remains 
holding the fort at Kibbutz 
Can Shmuel. Aaron, who 
has returned from a two-year 
stay at Gan Shmuel, is still 
intent on improving his 
hook-shot. Jenny has entered 
the MBA program at Geoige 
Washington University, 
while Janet is in her third 
year as an organizer with the 
Massachusetts Public 
Interest Research Group 

Come one, come all, and 46 
join in the festivities! 

Brandeis Reunion '83 

Friday, May 20- 
Sunday, May 22. 


Class Reunions for: 

Class 78 

5th Reunion 

Class '73 

10th Reunion 

Class '68 

15 th Reunion 

Class '63 

20th Reunion 

Class '58 

25th Reunion 

Class '53 

30th Reunion 

Non-reunion Please Note: 

classes are 
to join any 
of the 

A Reunion '83 brochure, 
with a detailed agenda, 
has been sent to all 
alumni celebrating special 
class reimions. 


We invite you to submit 
articles, photos or 
news of interest to the 
Alumni Office for review. 
Notes and articles 
received up to July 30 
will be considered for the 
fall issue. 


Brandeis Degree & Class Year 



Please check here if address 

is different 

from mailing label. 

return to 

Alumni Office 
Brandeis University 
Waltham, Massachusetts 





47 Hailan Halper, a placement 
manager with Robert Half of 
NY, Inc., announces his 
engagement to Sheri G. 
Mitnick'83. A May 1983 
wedding is planned. 

Lisa Morgan is an ENG 

producer for WCVB-TV, 
Channel 5, in Needham, 
Massachusetts. Her 
responsibilities include 
producing, editing and 
writing news stories. 

Elaine Sachter, a second-year 
medical student at Oregon 
Health Sciences University 
in Portland, married Michael 
Newman December 28, 
1982. They will be 
immigrating to Israel in 
September 1984. 

Andrew Schneider is a 

medical student at the State 
University of New York- 
Buffalo. He is engaged to 
Ronnie Benvenisty and will 
be married this year. 

Howard Siegel and Renee 
Rieder were married June 20, 
1982 in Encino, California. 
They are living in Highland 
Park, New Jersey, where 
Howie IS in his second year 
at Rutgers Medical School. 
Renee received her master's 
in social service from Bryn 
Mawr college in May 1982 
and IS working at the John E 
Kennedy Medical Center. 

Linda Warshaw married 
Avraham Shimon in January. 
Linda is completing her 
master's degree at Weizmann 
Institute of Science in 
Rehovot, Israel, and plans to 
remain in Israel to pursue a 

Jeffrey Field is a law student 
at University of California- 

Marlene Finn and Harris 
Ruderman will be married in 
April. Marlene is a product 
manager for an electronics 
distributor in Connecticut. 

Steven B. Holtzman is 

serving in the Peace Corps in 
Senegal, West Africa, and 
would appreciate hearing 
from fellow alumni. 
Beginning in July Steve, who 
was a recipient of the Rotary 
International Scholarship 
(1981-82), will attend the 
Nehru Institute, New Delhi, 
India, in pursuit of a 
master's in international 

Stuart Isaacs reports that 
Mod 20 had a reunion in 
Waltham last August. 
Modmates Laura LeBIanc, 
who is in her first year of 
journalism school; Elizabeth 
JaHee, who is married to Fred 
Brancati and is in her second 
year at New York Medical 
College; Chuck Rubin, who 
had a successful year in 
management at Jordan 
Marsh; Harlan Grogin, a 
second-year medical student 
at New York University; and 
Stuart Isaacs, a second-year 
medical student at Yale, 
attended the festivities. 
Janet Robinson was unable 
to attend. Janet is in her first 
year of Medical School at 
George Washington 

Maia Eve Lowenschuss is 

living in Santa Barbara, 
California, and working at 
two local radio stations. 
Maia has been the cantor for 
Hillel High Holy Day 
services at University of 
Califomia-Santa Barbara for 
the past two years. 

Richard Morgan and Jenny 
Goodman were married June 
S, 1982. Jenny is working in 
Baltimore, Maryland, and 
Rick is in his second year at 
Jolms Hopkins University. 

Carmi Neiger, who is a 

graduate student of 
architecture at University of 
Illinois, married Carol 
Lezberg, an art director and 
graphic designer, November 
6, 1982. They are living in 

Marc D. Schneider and 
Eileen S. Merker were 
married August 15, 1982. 
Marc IS in his second year at 
University of Chicago 
Business School, and Eileen 
IS in a two-year program at 
University of Chicago's 
School of Social Service 

Lucy Spencer and Kenneth 
Hornstein were married in 
December 1982. Ken is a 
computer programmer with 
a small company outside 
Philadelphia, and Lucy is a 
second-year student at the 
Medical College of 


Alice Solomon, former 
chairperson of ProBo, is a 
student at Villanova 
University Law School. 

Edwin M. Yamauchi (MA., 

History '62; Ph.D., History] 
has written Foes From the 
Noithem Fiontier: Invading 
Hordes From the Russian 
Steppes, published by Baker 
Book House, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., in 1982. Edwin is 
professor of history at Miami 
University in Oxford, OJiio. 


John N. Oswalt (M.A., 
Mediterranean Studies '66; 
Ph.D., Mediterranean 
Studies) has been appointed 
president of Asbury College 
in Wilmore, Kentucky. 


Sophie Freud Loewenstein 

(Ph.D., Sociology), professor 
of social work at Simmons 
College School of Social 
Work, has co-authoied a 
play — "Reconciliations" — 
with Dr. Marianne Kruell, a 
sociologist at the University 
of Bonn. 

Diane Kravitz Roskies 

(M.A., Psychology) is an 
attorney specializing in 
wills, trusts and estates at 
the New York law firm of 
Whitman & Ransom. She is 
also an adjunct instructor at 
Cardozo Law School, 
Yeshiva University. 


Ralph Gottlieb (M.A., 
Contemporary Jewish 
Studies) received a J.D. 
degree from Georgetown 
University Law Center and 
was admitted to the Bar in 
the District of Columbia. 

In October Martha A. Jaffe 

(M.A., Mathematics '67; 
Ph.D., Mathematics), former 
professor of mathematics at 
Boston College, was 
appointed professor of 
mathematics at Framingham 
State College, Framingham, 



Bany V. Gorewit (Ph.D., 
Chemistry) has joined Stuart 
Pharmaceuticals, a division 
of ICI Americas Inc., as 
manager of quality assurance 
for Stuart's Pasadena, 
California plant. Barry was 
formerly technical director 
for Rich Life Inc. of 
Anaheim, California. He and 
his wife, Christine, live in 


Betty J. Cleckley (Ph.D., 
Heller) was appointed 
assistant vice president for 
academic affairs at Meharry 
Medical College in 
Nashville, Tennessee 
September 1, 1982. 


Judy A. Feierstein (M.A., 
Contemporary Jewish 
Studies) was appointed 
educational director of 
Keneseth Israel 
Congregation Religious 
School in Louisville, 
Kentucky in August 1982. 
Judy is also an MBA 
candidate at the University 
of LouisviUe. 


Douglas A. Harper (Ph.D., 
Sociology) was promoted to 
associate professor of 
sociology with tenure at the 
State University College, 
Potsdam, New York. 

Fernando M. Torres-Gil 

(Ph.D., Heller), assistant 
professor of gerontology and 
public administration at the 
University of Southern 
California, has written a 
book entitled Politics On 
Aging Among Elder 
Hispanics, to be published 
by University Press of 
America in March. 



participated in the Iowa 
State University Shakespeare 
Symposium, Ames, Iowa. 


Susan W. Gersten (Ph.D., 
Chemistry) is a research 
chemist for Stauffer 
Chemical Company at their 
Eastern Research Center in 
Elmsford, New York. Sue is 
working in the field of 
electronic chemicals and 
lives in Elmsford. 

Rabbi Harold S. Jaye (Ph.D., 
Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies) married Laura S. 
Burack May 9, 1982. Harold 
is rabbi of Lakeside 
Congregation for Reform 
Judaism in Highland Park, 

Joel Eric Suben (Ph.D., 
Music) was named 
permanent conductor of the 
Peninsula Symphony of 
Virginia for the 1982-83 
season. Joel has won awards 
from the American Guild of 
Organists, the Eastman 
School of Music, the 
Rochester Association of 
Churches & Synagogues, and 
the Virginia Music Teachers 
Association. In 1982 he was 
named Composer of the Year 
by the Music Teachers 
National Association. In 
1977 he was chosen as a 
MacDowell Colony Fellow 
and also received a Sachar 
International Studies Grant 
from Brandeis. His music is 
published by Belwin-Mills, 
Bourne Company and 
APMN, New York. 

Ronald E. Shor, Ph.D., died Steven Geismar died August 48 
January 29, 1982. 29, 1982. 


Kenneth E. Smith died 
August 21, 1982. 


Ellen R. Greenman died 
August 31, 1982. She is 
survived by her parents, 
Shirley and Jack Greenman, 
and a sister, Susan. 



Since we don't want to 
lose you, 

please let us know your 
new address . . . 






Gideon D. Rappaport (Ph.D., 
Enghsh and American 
Literature) worked on the 
1982 festival productions of 
Shakespeare's The Tempest 
and The Taming of the 
Shrew at the Old Globe 
Theatre in San Diego. In 
April 1982 Gideon 

Also, please attach the 
label from this issue of the 
Brandeis Review indicating 
your old address and send 
this coupon to: 

Brandeis Review 

Brandeis University 
Waltham, Massachusetts 

Festive Day Planned For Farber 
Library Dedication 

The brick and glass facade of 
the five-story Leonard L. 
Farber Library glistened 
against a fresh blanket of 
January snow while, inside, 
workmen were busy carting 
books into place and 
students roamed the stacks, 
undeterred by new 
surroundings. All that 
awaited the University's 
newest structure were 
warmer days and an official 

Dedication ceremonies, 
slated for June 8, will bring 
over 500 people to campus 
for a festive day of specially 
planned events and 
activities. Included among 
the guests will be University 
trustees, dignitaries of the 
Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, library 
campaign contributors. 
University officers and 
members of the National 
Women's Committee, whose 
armual conference takes 
place on campus at that 

The new library complex, 
consisting of the newly 
constructed Leonard L. 
Farber Library, the expanded 
Jacob Goldfarb Library and 
the Rapaporte Treasure Hall, 
is united by an attractive 
plaza area, certain to become 
a focal point on campus in 
milder weather 

Although dedication 
ceremonies are still a few 
months off, Farber Library is 
already very much in use, 
offering the increased space, 
services and technology 
critical to students' study 
and research needs. The new 
facility also provides a 
much-needed place for late- 
night study. 

A successful library 
campaign has raised 
$6,500,000 toward its goal of 
$8,500,000, a sum intended 
to cover the costs of 
construction, furnishings 
and technical equipment as 
well as provide the funds 
needed for endowed 
maintenance. Donor 
recognition is still available 
for contributions to the 
Undergraduate Study Center, 
the Music Listening Room, 
the Phonograph Record 
Room, the Central Reading 
Area and Core Collection, 
and a limited number of 
study room alcoves. 

Brandeis University Press 

'The exploration of truth \(t it^ mncriiiost parts" 

Fern L. Nesson 

Great Waters 

A History of 
Boston's Water Supply 

■'An interesting stcny convincingly told. 
Non-specialists as well as historians of 
technology and politics will enjoy it." 
Mark Rose 
Technological L'niversity 

Provision of water is critical to any 
society. But because water is so funda- 
mental and the basic methods of sup- 
plying it were devised over one hundred 
years ago. we think and know very little 
about it today. Great (Voters describes 
Boston's water supply history from 
1846 until the present. More than a nar- 
rowly conceived narrative, the book is a 
case study of how a city and its suburbs 
dealt with a serious issue of public 
health and economics, how the political 
system worked to adjudicate competing 
demands for the same resources, and an 
in-depth look at what people want for 
their water supplies. 

Great Waters is also a book about engi- 
neers and their role in nineteenth- 
century America. Throughout its his- 
tory, Boston hired the foremost water 
supply engineers to design its reservoirs. 

\\ e see tlieni to(la\ as social anliitecls 
with a deep understanding of the com- 
peting issues involved. 

And finally. Great Haters relates a his- 
tory of past attitudes toward issues of 
resource use, conservation, and self- 
sufficiency. Because Vt'estern Massachu- 
setts rivers have provided pure water to 
Boston m such abundance and for such 
low cost that conserv ation has never 
been necessary, the rivers near Boston 
remain undrinkable and unswimmable. 
Boston's water system has operated, 
therefore, not only to its great benefit 
but also to inhibit resource conservation 
and geographical self-sufficiency. 

Boston's water supply history is engross- 
ing and complicated, but it is also a 
story of vision and success told in read- 
able fashion. 

Fern L. Nesson, a lawyer, graduate of 
Harvard Law School, and former editor 
of the Harvard Law Review, is a doc- 
toral candidate in American history at 
Brandeis L'niversity. 

$ 15.00 

University Press of New England 


anover an 


Brandeis L riivcrMlv is part ol 

I iiiver-iiv Press dl \t>w Kiiiiland. whose 

(itlier member irisliliitioris are 

Brown University. Clark Lniversity. 

Dartmouth (lolleee. 

I iiiversitv of New Hampshiif. I iiixersitv ol 

Rliode Island. Tiilts Iniversiiv. and 

Liuversitv ol \ ermoiil. 

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Brandeis Review 

Summer 1983 


Number 3 

The Erosion of Economic 
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United States 

by Leonard 1. Hausman 

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The Erosion of Economic Security in China and the United States 

by Leonard J. Hausman 

Two Social Protection Systems 

Leonard /. Hausman is the 
Lester and Alfred Morse 
Associate Professor of 
Economics at the Heller 
School, where he chairs its 
Center for Employment 
and Income Studies and 
co-directs its Center for 
Social Policy in the Middle 

He visited China a few 
months ago, the first step 
of an exchange of scholars and 
education programs 
between Brandeis' Heller 
School and the People's 
Republic of China. 

















These are actual headlines appearing in newspapers and 
originating from the Ministry of Labor and Personnel in 
the People's Republic of China. Conversing with 
government officials responsible for the redesign of 
China's labor market and social protection system, an 
American economist needs to pinch himself twice: once, 
because he knows that his counterparts, those who 
develop the policies behind these headlines, represent the 
world's largest socialist republic; twice, because the 
rhetoric in Vice Premier Deng's China is so akin to that 
heard m President Reagan's America. 

A Chinese academic visiting the United States, one 
imagines, would need to pinch himself but once. 
Listening to presidential tales of budgets hemorrhaging 
from ballooning social programs, cancerous growth in the 
food stamps program, and the need to force the indolent 
to work while supporting only the truly needy, he, too, 
would find the quality of the rhetoric awfully familiar 
though not as surprising. 

In both of these countries, rhetoric reflects a new reality; 
the economic security of households is eroding. 

In the United States, economic security is provided 
through one's job and by a vast array of government 
programs. Most households are supported by the labor 
income of one or more of its members and some, such as 
government employees and university professors, have 
what often amounts to life tenure m their jobs. Recent 
studies by American labor economists have shown that, 
at least until the current recession, the average American 
will hold a job for about eight years, which is somewhat 
longer than the job tenure of Japanese workers who are 
often viewed as the most secure. While some workers 
have life tenure, many, especially those with few skills, 
turn over rapidly and frequently. 

When employees take ill, become disabled, or retire, their 
fringe benefits are the mam source of support in a 
majority of cases. In addition to an individual's savings, 
health insurance, disability insurance, and private 
pensions protect against big spending needs or 
interruptions in income. 

Backing up wage and benefit compensation from jobs is a 
set of income transfer programs run by state and federal 
governments which tax people to finance unemployment 
insurance. The federal government runs Social Security, 
the largest income transfer program in the world; 
Medicare protects the elderly and disabled against large 
health care costs, while those unprotected by social 
insurance may find coverage under various welfare 
programs, such as food stamps or Medicaid. In addition, 
supplementary aid may reach people through agencies in 
the voluntary sector, such as religious organizations 
operating soup kitchens. 

The American social protection system constitutes 
roughly one-third of our trillion-dollar economy. The 
federal government spends over $425 billion yearly on 
health, welfare, and services, and the state governments 
another $75 billion. Employers and employees spend over 
$300 billion on employee benefits; individuals spend 
another $100 billion on health services; and individual 
savings and expenditures through voluntary 
organizations bring the total over $1 trillion. The system 
is huge. 

Social protection is provided in China through jobs, and 
most workers in urban areas have life tenure on their jobs. 
This institution is called the "iron rice bowl." That 
society's protection of its workers is so rigid that, until 
recently, it virtually was impossible to lose one's job or to 
find a superior one on one's own. If a firm did not require 
workers because its products were unneeded, it still 
retained its full complement of workers. Discipline 
problems did not result in dismissal and "Lazy Workers," 
as noted at the outset, were not uncommon, so that in 
effect, the state, through its subsidies, underwrote vast 
quantities of surplus labor. The iron rice bowl offered 
income security, but that came at a great price. China's 
labor officials calculate that five people have been holding 
jobs that require the work of three; thus under- 
employment has been vast. 

As for wages, those for highly skilled workers are low 
relative to those for the unskilled; and often people with 
limited skills are paid more than their output justifies. 

Has Social Protection Slowed Economic Expansion? 

This wage policy is also part of China's protective system. 
It should be noted that, to a degree, the wage system has 
been redistnbutive beyond the needs of social protection. 
It has put a relatively high minimum and low maximum 
on wages. 

The Chinese worker is also entitled to a long list of 
benefits: free health care for the worker and half price for 
all relatives; paid sick leave at between sixty to one 
hundred percent of full pay; retirement pensions; child 
benefits; convalescent homes; and even showers and 
baths, since they typically are unavailable at home. As m 
the United States, benefits add on the average about 
one-third to wages. For example, in 1981, workers earned 
a total of $3.2 billion in wages in Shanghai and benefits 
added $1.2 billion to this total. 

The last component of China's social protection system 
is a series of price subsidies. The government controls the 
price of food, clothing, and housing to make consumer 
goods accessible to all citizens. For example, the rent for 
an average household may be three to four percent of its 
income. In Shanghai in 1 98 1, the average household 
earned $1,125. Its rent, therefore, was $40. In the absence 
of the state subsidy for housing, the rent might have been 
$380, twenty-five percent of income, which means that 
the state subsidy amounted to about $340. These 
benefits, which come either through the job or directly 
from the state, add measurably to purchasing power. 

The variety and size of benefits, along with the egalitarian 
wage payment system and relatively small public sector 
income transfer programs, distinguish China's social 
protection system from that of the United States. 

The prevailing powers in China and the United States 
have concluded that social protection systems must be 
redesigned to stimulate a higher rate of economic growth. 
Whether programs providing people with financial 
security contributed to recent economic troubles in these 
two countries and, if so, how substantially, are separate 

The expansion since 1 96 1 of the social protection system 
in the United States is not a principal factor in the sharp 
decline in growth and more recent stagnation experienced 
here. In America, popular pressure for cutbacks in social 
programs is the fundamental reason for such reductions; 
and this popular pressure is a result, not a major cause, of 
slower economic growth. As people have witnessed a 
reduced rate of growth in their incomes, they have 
reacted by trying to cut out what they view as frills, 
including aid through taxes and transfer programs that 
often go to quite needy families. 

Big budget deficits and the growth of social programs are 
not principal sources of America's economic woes. Social 
programs have grown steadily, not suddenly, since 1961 
and thus could not have occasioned the sudden economic 
break observed around 1973-74. Moreover, growth in 
social programs was offset substantially by a decline in 
defense expenditures. In fact, at the end of the seventies, 
there was virtually no deficit in the public sector when 
one combines the budgets of federal, state, and local 
governments. Big budget deficits are a very recent 
phenomenon and are the result of tax cuts legislated 
federally in 1981 and of economic stagnation between 
mid- 1981 and now. 

In terms of dollar expenditures and enrollments in 
income transfer programs, the biggest growth in the last 
twenty years has been in the social insurance programs 
(unemployment, disability and old age insurance) rather 
than in the welfare programs (AFDC and food stamps). 
Expenditures on the welfare programs are also much 
smaller, roughly $85 billion annually. Expenditures on 
social insurance now are $240 billion a year. Also, 
insurance programs enroll people whose roles in the labor 
force are much more important in economic terms than 
those who receive welfare. 

A reasonable question to ask is whether individuals work 
less when they receive benefits from social programs. For 
example, are individuals less likely to work if they can 
receive unemployment insurance, and do they retire 
earlier if they can receive Social Security? If there was a 
substantial decrease in the amount of work people do 
because of such subsidies, then our economic output 
would be lower than if the benefits were not available. 

Although studies have shown that work is affected 
adversely by income transfers, and far more by insurance 
than by welfare programs, their effects by no means 
account for the sharp drop in the rate of economic growth 
since late 1973. 

In China, economic difficulties are rooted in its economic 
institutions as well as in political turmoil. According to a 
Chinese economist writing in the Beijing Review in 
1981, the wages of workers (adjusted for inflation) in state 

enterprises in 1978 actually were slightly lower than they 
were twenty years earlier. Increases in industrial output 
over those twenty years came about largely by adding 
more workers to the economy, not by increasing j^Xv 

productivity. ''-^ 

Besides the Cultural Revolution, which lasted from 1966 
to 1976 and which greatly disrupted the economy, the 
stagnation in wages has its roots in good part in what we 
have called the social protection system. A recent study 
by Professor of Economics D. Gale Johnson at the 
University of Chicago has specified China's economic 
institutions that have contributed measurably to its 
economic difficulties. Some of these institutions form the 
core of China's social protection system. 

Although the iron rice bowl system affords jobs and 
financial security to workers, it also retards economic 
growth. If workers receive life tenure when they start a 
job, then employers are bound to keep them even if they 
do not require their services or if they view their services 
as inadequate. The iron rice bowl system thus 
undermines discipline and hard work and loads 
enterprises with surplus labor. The system clearly raises 
production costs. Insofar as it keeps workers in places 
where they are not needed, new or expanding enterprises 
cannot get workers they require. So in periods of full 
employment, the iron rice bowl stifles development. 

Interest in egalitarianism rather than m productivity has 
motivated the wage payment system under which 
everyone has been paid from "the big communal pot." 
The result has been, according to leading economists m 
China, a stifling of workers' incentives and, thus, great 
losses in output. So instead of motivating workers to 
produce, economic institutions were obstacles to hard 
work and high output. 

Lastly, the vast network of price subsidies on consumer 
goods and services has interfered with economic growth. 
As an example, the prices that the state has paid to 
farmers for agricultural goods have been kept low relative 
to those for industrial goods. This has meant that returns 
to farmers from production, and thus the rewards for hard 
work, have been low by comparison with those for 
industrial goods. Lower rewards have meant lower farm 
outputs. Secondly, the state has kept consumer prices for 
foods below what the state had to pay for them. This 
results in overconsumption of foodstuffs, another source 
of economic waste. Lastly, the gap between what the 
state pays producers and charges consumers has to be 
made up by state subsidies. In one way or another, 
something akin to taxes must cover the cost of these 

In sum, China's social protection system is made up of a 
critical set of economic institutions. These institutions 
have been cornerstones of prevailing political thinking for 
several decades. The judgment of economists in China is 
that while institutions have resulted in a fair degree of 
security (and equality), they also have been costly in 
terms of economic growth. 

Reforms Taking Shape in China 

China's problems with its social protection system are 
serious. The challenge tacmg reformers is great in China 
because of the centrality of its protective institutions and 
because of the repercussions that must come from 
changes. As workers are freer to make choices, employers 
will be allowed to choose their own workers. Moreover, 
new workers will not immediately and automatically 
receive life tenure on their jobs but will be enlisted on a 
short-term contract basis. Workers will be free to leave 
their jobs for new ones, and employers will be permitted 
to dismiss workers for disciplinary reasons and not renew 
the contracts of unwanted employees. This dramatic set of 
reforms lessens security by increasing the probability of 
unemployment and leads to a more productive use of 

New wage policies are replacing those that shape the 
communal wage pots. Enterprises will be able to retain 
profits resulting from brisk sales and efficient production, 
in part to reward workers with higher wages and more 
ample benefits. Withm such successful enterprises, 
workers who are particularly productive are going to be 
given above average promotions and wage increases. 
Along these lines, wage incentive systems are being 
studied with the intent of pushing productivity upward. 
In a stark and revolutionary manner, egalitarianism in 
wage policy is being abandoned. "From each according to 
his work, to each according to his contribution." This is 
the guiding principle for wage policy. The big communal 
wage pot is being cracked. 

A brand new and startling reform is that proposed for the 
administration of employee benefit programs. A central 
feature of Chairman Mao's China was the association 
with the factory of the great variety of benefit programs. 
Health care clinics, day care centers, apartment houses, 
cafeterias, and baths, all are frequently part of the factory 
establishment. Thus, the factory encompassed virtually 
all aspects of life. A new experiment is the unhinging of 
these ancillary activities from the work place by having 
community agencies develop health clinics and day care 

Should the reform go forward, a worker no longer will 
rely on his factory for everything he needs so that 
factories can concentrate on the production of goods. 
Therefore, a new sector must develop to manage services 
previously run by enterprises. This will undoubtedly 
undermine a sense of security but, at the same time, 
make it easier for workers to change jobs because doing so 
will not entail altering every aspect of life. Another 
revolutionary reform has been set in motion. 

It must be stressed that the three reforms just noted are in 
the early stages of implementation. How far they proceed 
is unclear, and problems may be anticipated. 

A startling development is the recent announcement that 
price subsidies are being abandoned for many goods. 
Henceforth, supply and demand will set prices. One 
suspects that this development will spread, although how 
far and how fast is difficult to foretell. 

Until this very recent announcement, price subsidies for 
fresh produce were already undermined in a subtle way. 
Farmers have been allowed for some time to grow fruits 
and vegetables on their own plots and then sell their 
products in open-air markets at free market prices, 
retaining the financial rewards. So, consumers in China 
have been able to get tomatoes at a fixed, low, subsidized 
price at state stores and at a floating, usually higher, 
unsubsidized price in the open air market. The tomatoes 
in the open markets are likely to be superior m quality. 
One wonders, therefore, even if price subsidies are not 
abandoned, what the quantity and quality of produce 
appearing in state stores in a few years are likely to be. 

The reforms since early 1981 in the United States 
stemming from supply-side economics, have had their 
greatest impact on the poor. In the first year of the Reagan 
administration, the rate of growth in income transfers for 
the poor was cut by fifty-four percent. By contrast, the 
rate of growth m the (much larger) insurance programs 
was cut by fourteen percent. Dollar expenditures on both 
will continue to grow, but at a reduced rate. 

To meet public pressures on budgets and, of late, to 
improve work incentives for the poor, benefits in AFDC 
and food stamps have been held back since 1973. AFDC 
benefits, adjusted for inflation, will have fallen by an 
average of one-third across the nation between 1974 and 
1984. Starting in 1981, several hundred thousand families 
receiving AFDC and food stamps were removed from 
those programs because adults heading those families 
were working. Workfare programs for welfare recipients 
have become more widespread. One could enumerate 
many other cutbacks in welfare designed to save 
government funds and make welfare less attractive as an 
alternative to work. 

Nothing like the above changes have been made in the 
insurance programs, but cuts have come there, too. For 
example, administrative changes have removed many 
people from the Disability Insurance program, and in 
1981, extended benefits for the long-term unemployed 
through the Unemployment Insurance program were 
reduced by Federal law in many states. Recently, though, 
the Congress has had to extend benefits for much longer 
periods because of the serious recession. The reforms just 
enacted in Old Age Insurance include a provision to delay 
by several years the age at which people may begin to 
collect benefits. This reform, however, does not take 
effect until the next century. Important, though, in terms 
of the erosion of security, is the fact that Social Security 
benefits will now become taxable for high income people. 
Health insurance programs, private and public, so far 
have escaped serious reform, but reforms eroding benefits 
in these programs, one suspects, will also come along in 
the next few years. 

In America, then, as in China, there is an erosion of 
security, sometimes in the interest of reducing 
expenditures and sometimes in the interest of improving 
incentives. Faced with economic pressures similar in 
nature but different in extent, China and the United 
States are traveling similar roads, but at different speeds. 
In China a revolution seems to be underway. 

Toward International 

by Asoka Bandarage 

Asoka Bandarage, assistant professor 
of sociology, serves on the Projects 
Evaluation Committee of 
Oxfam-America, the International 
Committee of the Boston Women's 
Health Book Collective and the 
editorial board of the Bulletin of 
Concerned Asian Scholars. 

Her first book. Colonialism in Sri 
Lanka: The Political Economy of the 
Kandyan Highlands, 1833-1886 wiii 
be published by Mouton Publishers 
this summer. 

Spurred by the women's movement in 
the West, women's liberation has 
rightfully emerged as a global issue. 
The internationalization of feminism 
IS one of the most controversial 
intellectual and political 
developments of our time. Women 
around the world have begun to 
address the age-old, deep-seated 
phenomenon of female subordination 
and the strategies to overcome it. 

In 1 975 the United Nations 
inaugurated the International 
Women's Decade at the Mexico City 
conference. Many governments 
established women's bureaus in 
preparation for the mid-decade 
conference in Copenhagen in 1980. 
Extensive arrangements are now 
under way for the end of the decade 
conference scheduled for 1985 in 
Nairobi. Meanwhile, a new field 
known as "Women in Development" 
has emerged giving legitimacy to 
academic inquiries and policy 
planning pertaining to women in the 
Third World. Women social scientists 
and international aid agencies 
including the World Bank and the U.S. 
Agency for International 
Development are identified with this 
field. Their ideas and strategies are 
exported to the Third World to 
integrate women into the processes of 
economic modernization. Many 
non-governmental organizations and 
networks have also begun at the 
international, national and regional 
levels to deal with issues specific to 
women such as reproductive control 
and sexual violence. Even the 
multinational corporations now give 
the liberation of women as a reason 
for their expansion overseas. 

But the solidarity among women is 
tenuous. At every international 
women's gathering the divisions of 
race, class, nationality and ethnicity 
erupt, tearing at the unity that brings 
women together. The official U.S. 
delegation is already discussing 
strategies to avoid the infiltration of 
such divisive issues at the Nairobi 
conference. Indeed, we can pretend 
that differences do not exist, or we can 
explore them and, in the process, 
reformulate feminism itself. The 
latter is more difficult and painful, but 
indispensable, if sisterhood is to 
become more than a slogan. 

In spite of all the conferences, 
declarations, academic treatises and 

7 women's projects, many women 
around the world have yet to hear of 
feminism or the women's movement. 
It is unhkely that they will until 
opportunities for literacy and a 
general improvement in living 
standards are available to them. But it 
is also the case that some women who 
know of the women's movement 
show great antipathy and resistance 
to feminism. Such negative reactions 
are more apparent in the United 
States, the center of modern feminism 
and the women's movement. But why 
should any woman oppose 
feminism's attempts to eradicate 
those social constraints placed by sex 
which inhibit women (and men) from 
realizing their human potential? 
Indeed, why do so many women who 
stand to gain so much from feminism 
see it as either irrelevant to their lives 
or are threatened by it? 

To a large extent the anti-feminism of 
such women is attributable to 
dominant interests, especially male 
ideologies which succeed in 
manipulating these women's fears 
about the risks and dangers of 
feminism. The new right in the U.S., 
which depicts the women's 
movement as a threat to the alleged 
security of women's lives, and 
reactionary nationalist movements as 
the one in Iran, which denigrate 
feminism as a Western fad or an 
imperialist plot, are examples. The 
distortion of feminism by the media 
as constituting mostly the pranks of 
bra-burning, white, middle-class 
women has also played its part in 
alienating some potentially 
sympathetic women from the 
fundamental concerns of feminism. 

Does this mean then that women who 
are alienated from feminism are 
ridden with "false consciousness?" If 
the feminist vanguard were to 
enlighten these irrational women of 
the objective conditions of their 
oppression, namely male dominance, 
could a mass-based, international 
feminist struggle be launched? 

Obviously, the answer is not that 
simple. We need to move beyond the 
familiar factors of male manipulation, 
media distortion and the implied false 
consciousness of the masses of 
women. Being careful not to blame 
feminism for the deteriorating 
conditions of many women around 
the world, we must ask nevertheless if 

the feminist theories and strategies 
currently available are adequate for 
comprehending and changing the 
oppression of most women and the 
alienation of many from feminism. 
Have the class and cultural biases of 
contemporary feminism and the 
women's movement, for example, 
contributed in any way to the 
successes of anti-feminist forces 
among certain groups of women? If 
reactionary backlashes against some 
of the hard-won victories of the 
women's movement such as women's 
reproductive rights are to be 
countered, a reassessment of the 
objectives and strategies of feminism 
IS clearly necessary. 

We need also to ask if in fact most 
women are opposed to the broad 
ideals of feminism — increased social 
and psychological freedoms for 
women — or if their resistance is to 
that particular brand of feminism 
arising out of the white, middle-class 
experience in the West, but popularly 
projected as "the Women's 
Movement" by the media and most 
Western, middle-class feminists 
themselves? Those studies which 
have inquired into the consciousness 
of poor and Third World women 
without resorting to Western feminist 
concepts are quite instructive. They 
have revealed a great enthusiasm for 
and acceptance of the broad principles 
and objectives of feminism among 
such disparate groups as "untouch- 
able" women in India and poor black 
women in the United States. 

It is necessary then to make a clear 
distinction between feminism as a 
universal ideology potentially 
acceptable to most women and the 
middle-class, predominantly Westem 
feminism which has become 
synonymous with the contemporary 
women's movement. This distinction 
is at the root of many of the conflicts 
that break out among different groups 
of women at international women's 

What is problematic of course is not 
that there are differences among 
women but that there are inequalities 
and conflictive interests among us, 
as among men, based on the 
hierarchies of social class, race, 
nation, ethnicity, etc. For example, it 
IS obvious that imperialism (Westem 
economic, political and cultural 

hegemony) has given white women a 
higher social status in the world over 
Third World women (women of color 
in Asia, Africa, Latin America as well 
as the racial minorities in the West). 
Similarly, women from the privileged 
social classes m the West and the 
Third World, though themselves 
subordinated to their men, are placed 
in relations of dominance vis-a-vis 
poor women and men. The radical 
feminist assertion that all women are 
oppressed by all men, developed 
around issues of sexual control and 
violence, needs qualification in the 
context of such realities as the racist 
use of the rape charge against black 
men in the United States. In the last 
forty years or so four hundred and 
fifty-five men have been executed for 
rape. Four hundred and five of them 
were black. No white man has ever 
been executed for raping a black 
woman in this country. 

Note too that the contrasting racist 
and sexist images of white and black 
women here depict the former as 
passive, dependent and delicate 
creatures to be protected and the latter 
as strong matriarchs or bad black 
women to be cast aside. These 
stereotypical images alone should 
raise questions about the prevalence 
of uniform models of womanhood and 
manhood for all groups. 

Not surprisingly perhaps, feminist 
analyses and the women's movement 
arose within the ranks of the 
relatively deprived white, 
middle-class women in the West 
rather than the absolutely deprived 
majority of poor Third World women. 
What is important to note is that the 
analytical categories and social 
change strategies produced by 
Westem middle-class feminists, while 
couched in universal terms, are 
derived from the unique historical 
experience of their own social class 
and culture. 

Western Feminism and Middle Class 

Both the nineteenth-century 
women's suffrage movement and the 
contemporary women's movement in 
the U.S. have emerged largely as 
responses by white, middle-class 
women to the contradictions created 
in their lives by the processes of 
capitalist industrial development. 
The nineteenth-century movement 
in particular can be seen as the 
challenge of educated middle-class 
women already engaged in "public" 
activities, notably the abolition 
movement, to the ideology of 
femininity that confined them to the 
"domestic" sphere. Their aim was to 
legitimize their integration into 
public life through the vote and 
eventually to become the legal and 
social equals of the men of their class. 

Similarly the contemporary women's 
movement emerged among 
middle-class women (some confined 
to the home and others already in paid 
employment) seeking greater 
integration into public life through 
satisfying careers and eventual 
equality with their men. This 
movement must also be seen 
in the context of increasing 
commercialization of domestic 
services and rapid absorption of 
women into the wage labor force. 

The liberal integrationist strategies 
and their emphasis on legislative 
change unite the two women's 
movements in the U.S. What 
distinguishes them is the emergence 
of a newer more radical branch of 
feminism in recent decades which has 
politicized personal relations between 
men and women within the family. 
Extending its critique to other social 
institutions, radical feminism argues 
that women's liberation cannot be 
achieved without the overthrow of 
male dominance or patriarchy, which 
is the very foundation of social life 

Many of the popular categories of 
feminist analysis today, such as the 
private-public dichotomy and the 
patriarchal nuclear family, have been 
formulated by white, middle-class 
feminists in the process of reassessing 
their unique historical experience 
under industrial capitalism. Like 
much of Western male scholarship 
then, feminist analyses and practices 
too are ridden with middle-class and 
Western biases. Feminist thinking 
which takes the middle-class 

experience as the norm may not only 
be irrelevant and alienating to most 
women, but the social change 
strategies emanating from such 
thinking may have negative 
consequences for poor and Third 
World women and men. 

In this regard, we should remember 
how the nineteenth-century women's 
movement in the U.S., which 
emerged from within the abolition 
movement, later capitulated to the 
racial and class politics of the time. 
When white supremacist politicians 
pitted the vote for women against the 
vote for black men, the suffragists, in 
their exclusive concern for the vote 
for women — that is white, 
middle-class women — went along 
with the racist forces. During the 
early decades of the twentieth 
century, some feminists searching for 
allies in their campaign for birth 
control took positions supporting the 
reduction of "undesirable" elements 
in the population, such as blacks, 
foreigners (immigrants) and the lower 
classes. Such positions fed into the 
eugenics movement and the racial 
hysteria of the time. Unless the scope 
of feminism is broadened, the 
contemporary women's movement 
(in spite of its roots m the civil rights 
struggle) can again be aligned with 
white male politicians seeking to 
keep women, minorities and the 
working classes divided and 

Perhaps the most important strategy 
of liberation advocated by 
contemporary liberal feminism is the 
incorporation of women into the paid 
labor force as the equals of men. 
Indeed, for middle-class women 
formerly confined to domestic chores, 
a professional career can offer greater 
self-fulfillment despite the new 
stresses that come with those careers. 
Women from the priviliged social 
classes in the Third World have also 
benefited from higher education and 
integration into paid employment. 

But for the majority of other women, 
integration into the wage labor force 
entails at best working as a factory or 
field laborer and at worst as a maid or a 
prostitute. Can absorption into the 
prevailing structures of employment 
bring liberation to most women? In 
the absence of changes in those 
hierarchical structures at the 
international and national levels. 

integration results merely in 
prestigious careers for a few women 
and men but continued underpaid and 
undervalued work for the majority. 
Data now available indicates that 
unequal integration further deepens 
the class, racial and national cleavages 
among women rather than helps build 

Demands made in the name of 
women's liberation by liberal 
feminist organizations in certain 
Third World countries only 
exacerbate this trend. Take for 
example the cry for imported luxury 
kitchen equipment that would 
supposedly lighten the household 
chores of busy professional women. It 
is no secret that the conspicuous 
consumption of the privileged classes 
diverts scarce foreign exchange from 
the survival needs of the masses of 
poor women and men in those 

Turning briefly to radical feminism 
now, it can well be argued that some 
of its basic postulates such as the 
"personal is political" are broadly 
applicable everywhere. But a closer 
analysis of some of the specific 
institutions, such as the male-headed, 
nuclear family against which radical 
feminism directs its critique, helps 
recognize the limits of this analysis. 
Research into social classes and 
cultures outside the Western middle 
class reveals a diversity of family 
structures. At least one third of the 
households in the world today are 
headed by women. Research also 
shows that the family is not the 
primary focus of women's oppression 
everywhere. In some communities, 
especially those subjugated by racism 
as under slavery in America or 
apartheid in South Africa, black 
women have experienced family life 
as essentially supportive rather than 
oppressive. Women m such situations 
may consider labor for their families 
as their only labor of love. 

It should also be noted that while 
sisterhood may be a new discovery for 
Western, middle-class housewives 
isolated in their suburban homes, it 
has long been a reality for women in 
many sex-segregated societies 
whether in Asia, the Middle East, in 
the female-headed, kin networks of 
the Caribbean and perhaps even in 
working-class communities in the 
United States. Of course it could be 

Capitalism and Feminism — 
Are They Compatible? 

^ argued that the sisterhood prevaihng 
in such communities is essentially 
conservative and directed toward 
women's survival rather than the 
overthrow of male dominance. 
Lesbianism, when it exists in these 
situations, is not politicized either. 
Nevertheless it must be recognized 
that the conjugal role relationship is 
not the central relationship for 
women in many of these 
communities and that their 
emotional needs are met primarily 
through their relationships to other 
women. To this extent, women in 
these alternative class and cultural 
contexts may be psychologically freer 
from men, especially their spouses, 
than their Western, middle-class 
counterparts. Women's liberation 
then cannot be a uniform exportable 
ideology. It has to be defined and 
achieved contextually. 

My purpose here is not to denigrate 
either the legitimate concerns of 
white, middle-class women or their 
efforts to find freedom from their own 
particular oppression but rather to 
begin placing Western feminism and 
the women's movement in 
comparative and historical 
perspective. The contemporary 
women's movement is of world 
historic importance. It has the 
potential to improve the quality of 
human relations everywhere. But 
given the tremendous diversity and 
deepening inequalities among women 
we must work toward an inductive 
and comparative feminist framework 
within which the concerns of wider 
groups of women can be adequately 
addressed. If not, the very legitimacy 
of feminism and the women's 
movement is seriously threatened. 

Where do we turn then for theoretical 
direction toward a more inclusive 
definition of feminism and strategies 
for broadening the concerns of the 
women's movement? Few of the 
alternative theoretical frameworks 
and women's networks now emerging 
do carry the potential toward making 
feminism relevant to wider groups of 

Socialists have long argued that most 
women, and men for that matter, 
cannot find liberation within the 
unequal and exploitative social 
relations under capitalism. The 
prerequisite for the liberation of 
women, that is nonbourgeois women, 
they point out, is their absorption into 
economic production withm a 
socialist economy. The growing body 
of feminist research on the effects of 
capitalist development on women, 
particularly in the Third World, gives 
much credence to this position. 

The processes of capitalist 
development in the Third World have 
led to the marginalization of women 
in the least productive and least 
remunerative sectors of Third World 
economies. While a handful of 
women have gained access to 
prestigious jobs, most women are 
confined to either unpaid or 
underpaid and exploitative work as 
subsistence producers, maids, 
prostitutes, etc. The expansion of 
private property, wage labor, new 
technology and the cash nexus have 
disadvantaged women categorically. 
In many places in Africa for example, 
these new developments have robbed 
women of the relative independence 
and mobility traditionally associated 
with their role as the central 
subsistence producers. In India, the 
disparity between the sexes with 
regard to both employment and 
chances for physical survival have 
steadily increased with the 
socio-economic changes of the recent 

At the mid-decade conference in 1980 
women accounted for half the world's 
population; two-thirds of the world's 
work hours; one-tenth of the world's 
income and less than a hundredth of 
the world's property. Less than one- 
third of women are literate and in 
many African and Asian countries 
only one in ten females even enters 
school. "Feminization of poverty" is a 
structural feature of capitalism in the 

Third World. It is fast becoming so in 
the United States (and Europe) too 
where women are pushed into the 
permanent "under class" m larger and 
larger numbers as domestic work is 
subsumed by capitalism and the 
nuclear family weakens. 

The structural analysis of women's 
oppression and long-term vision 
toward liberation presented by 
socialists are highly compelling. But 
in the absence of practical strategies 
leading to social revolution, the 
socialist vision can result merely in an 
evasion of the daily realities of poor 
women's lives. In the presence of 
poverty and massive unemployment 
most women prefer exploitation on 
the job to starvation. Those who are 
able to find regular employment, as a 
field hand on a plantation or a 
"hostess" in "sex tourism", often 
consider themselves relatively 
privileged. Even many Third World 
governments that espouse socialist 
ideologies, including China, have not 
been able to extricate themselves 
from the constraints placed by the 
world capitalist economy. Their 
experiences bespeak the tremendous 
difficulties of realizing a socialist 
vision within a capitalist world. 

Without abandoning the structural 
analysis and long-term vision of the 
socialists, it is nevertheless important 
to implement strategies that are of 
immediate value in improving 
women's lives. These should include 
the provision of literacy, credit and 
marketable skills for women and the 
incorporation of women's concerns 
within the agenda for a new 
international economic order 
(including the new world information 
order). Women's needs in particular 
must be included in the codes of 
conduct being devised for regulating 
the multinational corporations. 

It IS also important to note that 
although many poor and Third World 
women prefer exploitative jobs to 
starvation, they are ignorant neither 
of their exploitation nor the necessity 
for change. The courage and 
resourcefulness of poor women, both 
in the Third World and the West have 
been indispensable historically for the 
survival of their communities and the 
world at large. Today we are 
beginning to hear of isolated but 
remarkable struggles by such women 
for higher wages and better working 

conditions in the multinational- 
owned factories of South East Asia; 
against nuclear explosions and the 
dumping of radioactive waste by 
Western powers m the islands of 
Micronesia; and against sterilization 
abuses in the U.S. and the Third 
World. A number of women's 
networks such as the Women and 
Global Corporations Project of 
the American Friends Service 
Committee, the Boston Women's 
Health Book Collective and feminist 
]oumals such as Isis and Connexions 
are supporting these women in their 
struggles around the world. 

Reverting our attention now to the 
socialist position it should be noted 
that while it provides a most incisive 
analysis of the politico-economic 
bases and class dimensions of 
women's oppression under 
capitalism, it lacks any real 
understanding of the cultural and 
psychological roots of this oppression. 
This becomes particularly clear m the 
light of the experiences of women in 
"socialist" countries such as the 
Soviet Union. The persistence of a 
sexual division of labor and sexual 
hierarchy at "work" and male 
resistance to the implementation of 
the Family Code — the first legislation 
anywhere toward equalizing 
domestic work between men and 
women — in Cuba, are also highly 
instructive. They point out that the 
incorporation of women into social 
production and benevolent state 
legislation are insufficient for 
eradicating sexual inequality either in 
the public or the private sphere. 

The experiences of women in socialist 
countries and the experiences of 
middle-class women integrated into 
the higher echelons of paid 
employment in capitalist countries 
(both in the West and the Third 
World) reveal a basic fact: while 
material well-being is a prerequisite, 
it alone will not guarantee the 
liberation of women as women. This 
confirms the broad postulate of 
radical feminism that the concerted 
struggle of women against sexist 
attitudes and behavior in all spheres, 
including the most intimate realms, 
is necessary for liberation. Sexism is 
not simply sociological but deeply 

The obvious shortcomings of each of 
the currently available feminist 
theories — liberal, radical and 
socialist — have led some women 
intellectuals in the West to work 
toward a broad synthesis of 
Marxist-socialist and radical feminist 
thinking in conceptualizing the 
oppression of women. Very briefly, 
most such attempts toward a 
Marxist-Feminist synthesis locate 
women's subordination in the 
dialectical interaction between social 
production within market sectors and 
domestic production (including 
biological reproduction and the 
reproduction of labor power) within 
the family. 

But the emergent Marxist-Feminist 
syntheses, like their liberal and 
radical feminist counterparts are 
rooted in the processes of capitalist 
development in the West and derive 
their categories of analysis from that 
experience. The "domestic labor 
debate" concerned with the 
patriarchal nuclear family and the 
housewife role, which are both 
historically specific class and cultural 
phenomena, bears witness to this. 
These attempts toward a 
Marxist-Feminist synthesis which are 
based on the Western capitalist 
experience have limited relevance to 
the c^ualitatively different forms of 
subordinate or dependent capitalist 
development and cultural 
transformations taking place in the 
Third World today. Moreover, 
Marxist Feminism, like Marxism and 
other theories formulated by 
Westerners is unlikely to provide a 
coherent analysis of racism and 
imperialism that speaks to the 
concerns of women of color in the 
Third World or the West. 

However, very interesting and 
promising research on women in the 
Third World is now being done by 
some Marxist Feminists, mostly 
women anthropologists. It is their 
research on the impact of 
multinational industries (especially 
textiles and electronics in free trade 
zones), the Green Revolution, 
tourism, etc. on women that has 
helped question strategies to further 
integrate women into the processes of 
dependent capitalist development. 

This Marxist-Feminist research into 
the Third World is still very much at 
an incipient stage. Like Marxist- 
Feminist inquiries in the West, they 
have focused largely on the effects of 
the expanding capitalist mode of 
production on women and have 
neglected those aspects of women's 
oppression which he in culturally 
specific ideological and familial 
structures. An integration of the older 
anthropological tradition of intensive 
cross-cultural research with the 
emerging Marxist-Feminist 
perspective could be highly fruitful in 
overcoming the inadequacies of 
current research on Third World 

Nevertheless, it needs to be reiterated 
that the psychology of racism and 
imperialism may inhibit even 
sensitive Western researchers and 
activists from understanding some of 
the complexities of female 
subordination in the Third World. For 
this reason Western researchers and 
activists need to be very careful in 
their interventions. Take the outcries 
of Western feminists against the 
horrors of "female circumcision" in 
many Muslim (and a few other) 
communities around the world. 
Unless interventions against 
involuntary sterilization, corporate 
"dumping" (of dangerous drugs, 
chemicals, etc.) and other abusive 
phenomena rooted m Western 
economic, political and ideological 
institutions accompany those 
outcries, the charge of Western 
imperialism hurled at Christian 
missionaries and others can easily be 
evoked against feminists too. This 
charge comes not only from male 
supremacists but also from feminists 
in the Third World. 

While there are few, if any, national or 
international organizations that work 
explicitly within a Marxist or socialist 
Feminist framework, there are a 
number of them which do so 
implicitly. Some of the international 
women's health networks involved in 
the Nestle's boycott and the campaign 
against the export of Depo-Provera — a 
dangerous hormonal contraceptive 
banned m the U.S. — to the Third 
World, are examples. Groups such as 
the National Women's Flealth 
Network campaigning against 
Depo-Provera direct their struggles 
against both the sexist ideologies of 
the social and medical sciences 

and the unethical and exploitative 
control exercised by capitalist 
pharmaceutical companies and 
international population control 
agencies over women's lives. These 
multi-pronged efforts have in turn 
helped forge links of solidarity among 
many grassroots women's 
organizations around the world. 
Similarly the recent feminist actions 
against militarism in the West could 
be extended toward a struggle against 
the politico-economic and ideological 
roots of the arms race thereby 
enabling the incorporation of many 
different groups of women. 

But given basic inequalities and 
conflicts among different groups of 
women, how likely is it that a single 
women's movement which could 
address all the issues of all women 
everywhere would ever emerge? It 
seems that culturally specific gender 
oppression has to be dealt with within 
alternative movements organized by 
women experiencing those particular 
forms of oppression themselves. The 
white, middle-class women's 
movement in the West, particularly 
in the U.S., is one and perhaps the 
first. In the wake of this movement 
other localized women's movements 
are now emerging in countries such as 

This does not mean, however, that the 
separate women's movements must 
necessarily be isolated or antagonistic 
toward each other. Feminism today is 
an international issue. Women's 
subordination is a systemic feature of 
the world political economy and 
ideology. The struggle against 
women's subordination must also be 
international in character. It is in this 
common struggle against those 
aspects of women's subordination 
rooted in the "world system" that 
different groups of women and their 
culturally specific movements can 
come together. If feminism is truly to 
be internationalized it must have the 
flexibility to become a distinct but 
interconnected struggle within a 
wider and holistic movement toward 
social change and human freedom. 

Yugoslavia at the Crossroads 

by Steven L. Burg 

Steven L. Burg is assistant 
piofessoT of politics and 
chairman of the Soviet 
Studies Program. He is the 
author of many articles on 
Soviet and Yugoslav politics 

and of a new book, Conflict 
and Cohesion in Socialist 
Yugoslavia (Princeton 
University Press). 

For many Western observers, the death of Josip Broz Tito in 
May 1980 at the age of 88 called into question the 
continued survival of Yugoslavia as a single state. For 35 
years Tito had been the only authoritative arbitrator 
capable of imposing, with the unquestioned support of the 
professional army, solutions to the ceaseless conflicts 
among the regional, economic, ideological and, especially, 
ethnic groups and interests into which Yugoslavia is 
divided. And for more than 40 years he had led, and 
imposed discipline upon, the Communist Party — known 
officially since 1952 as the League of Communists. 

The Yugoslav federation comprises six republics and two 
autonomous provinces. These are more than simple 
political-administrative units. They are also historical 
communities. Each is claimed by one or more of the 
country's many ethnic groups as its "national homeland." 
But as the result of complex historical circumstances, 
none of the borders of these regions corresponds precisely 
to the boundaries of ethnic settlement. Hence, 
ethnonational claims to part or all of each of them are 
hotly disputed among Yugoslavia's nationalities, and the 
rise of nationalism among any of them is necessarily 
viewed as threatening by one or more of the others. These 
ethno-national antagonisms complicate federal economic 
policy making, for the levels of development of the 
republics and provinces are widely divergent. Any policy 
that affects the regions unequally is likely to generate 
nationalistic resentment among those who perceive 
themselves to be the "losers." 

The republics of Slovenia and Croatia in the north and 
west are highly developed regions whose Slavic peoples, 
divided by distinct languages, share a common central 
European Catholic heritage. Vojvodina, an autonomous 
province of the Serbian republic in the northeast, is a 
highly developed agricultural region populated by 
Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Croats, both of them Slavic 
peoples, and a large Hungarian minority. Together, these 
three regions constitute the developed "north." Their 
representatives often take common positions on questions 
of economic policy and related ideological or political 
issues. And on questions of development policy and the 
redistribution of resources, their interests are almost 
diametrically opposed to those of the southern, 
underdeveloped regions. 

The Slavic and culturally Orthodox republics of 
Macedonia and Montenegro are small, underdeveloped 
regions in the south. Kosovo, an autonomous province of 
the Serbian republic, is a southern region bordering on 
Albania and populated by ethnic Albanians. It is both the 
economically most underdeveloped and the 
demographically fastest-growing region. The republic of 
Bosnia and Hercegovina is a large, multinational territory 
geographically in the center of the country but 
economically in the "south." It is composed of Muslims, 
Serbs, and Croats. Together, these four regions are the 
primary beneficiaries of the party's commitment to 
equalizing the levels of development of the republics and 
provinces and the standards of living of their peoples. 

Serbia, the sixth republic, is as a whole neither developed 
nor underdeveloped. However, like the country- as a whole, 
it is divided into a developed north, comprising the capital 


13 city of Belgrade and its environs, and an underdeveloped 
south. Its Slavic and culturally Orthodox Serbian 
population, together with the Serbian populations of 
Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Vojvodina and Macedonia, 
constitute the largest national group in the country, 
although not an absolute majority. As a result, 
representatives of Serbia share certain interests with each 
of the major economic "blocs" m Yugoslav politics but 
inevitably come into conflict with them over the status 
and fate of their ethnically Serbian populations. 

As a result of these regional-economic and ethnic 
divisions, Yugoslav politics since the early 1960s have 
been characterized by a relatively high degree of intra-elite 
conflict. Tito was, therefore, seen by outsiders as an 
essential element holding the otherwise conflicting 
regional leaderships together. Conscious efforts to provide 
some institutional mechanisms for his succession began 
as early as 1963. But these were subject to much dispute 
and were revised in 1968, 1970, 1974, and 1978. At the 
time of his death, a complex system of collective 
leadership had evolved in both the state and the party. It 
was based on the representation in all leading political 
bodies of each of the republics and provinces, as well as the 
federation itself, and the rotation of all leading positions on 
an annual or biannual basis. This system, implemented 
under Tito's personal direction in the last years of his life, 
resulted m a dizzying movement of leading figures from 
position to position in the government and the party. And 
It left even the most optimistic outside observers with 
little confidence in either the probable stability of 
post-Tito political institutions, or the ability of even the 
most capable of his individual successors to build the 
nationwide support and provide the leadership necessary 
to make a country as deeply divided as Yugoslavia "work." 

Indeed, since Tito's death, Yugoslav politics and society 
have been beset by a dramatic resurgence of inter-ethnic 
hostilities, by serious economic difficulties, by renewed 
intellectual dissent, by a decline m the effectiveness of 
established decision-making institutions and procedures, 
and by an increasing level of conflict among Tito's 
successors in the communist political leadership. 
However, not all of these problems can be attributed to the 
absence of Tito. And even those that can are not solely the 
product of his departure. 

There is little doubt that the declining effectiveness of 
federal political institutions apparent in the past three 
years is at least partially attributable to the absence of an 
authoritarian leader willing and able to impose his 
preferences on quarreling subordinates. But it also appears 
to be in large part the inevitable result of the system of 
decision making based on inter-regional negotiation and 
consensus that evolved during the late 60s and 70s in 
response to ethnic and economic conflicts between 
republics and provinces. That system, of which the 
post-Tito provisions for collective leadership and rotation 
are only logical extensions, gives each of the regions an 
effective veto over almost all decisions at each step of the 
central policy-making process. It is a system designed to 
enable each of the regional leaderships to defend its 
interests against pressure from the others. 

As a result, decision making in Yugoslavia has been 
characterized by frec^uent and long delays, intense 
haggling over policies, and sometimes even failures to 
come to any agreement at all. In short, it had been 
inefficient even with Tito and has only become more so 
without him. 

But Yugoslavia cannot long survive without such a 
system — at least, not a "liberal" Yugoslavia, based on 
market socialism, self-management in the workplace, and 
political decentralization. Historically, these "liberal" 
reforms have been threatened from two extremes — from 
hardline conservatives intent on reestablishing a more 
Soviet-like system of centralized rule, and from 
nationalist-separatist forces in the regions. The present 
system of decision making reflects the efforts of Tito and 
his supporters to appease both these forces by devolving 
enormous power to the regions but, at the same time, 
compelling them to accommodate each other's interests. 

If such a system is to work at all, it requires regional 
leaders constantly to negotiate compromises. The 
experiences of other ethnically divided countries with 
similar systems, Belgium for example, suggests that the 
forging of such compromises requires a high level of 
stability in the regional leaderships, manifest in long 
tenures in office. This enables political leaders to exchange 
immediate concessions for future ones, confident that 
they will receive just compensation. The introduction of 
compulsory rotation, however, increases the rate of 
turnover, already high because of the generational change 
now taking place in the Yugoslav leadership and therefore 
undermines the ability of post-Tito leaders to make this 
system work. While the positive real and symbolic 
functions of collective leadership by representatives of the 
regions argue for its continuation, it seems clear that 
"rotation" must be drastically limited, if not eliminated, 
as a first step toward the stabilization of the post-Tito 
political order. But this will be a giant step, for Tito placed 
all his personal prestige behind the adoption and 
implementation of this principle; and to undo it will 
require his successors to undo the most recent component 
of his "legacy." 

There is little doubt that the increasingly obvious 
divisions in the communist leadership have been made 
possible by the absence of Tito. While no other individual 
approached Tito's personal authority and prestige, a 
considerable number shared places on the next level down. 
These members of the central party organs and regional 
party leaderships each enjoyed an identifiable power base 
immune to intervention by anyone other than Tito. With 
his passing, they are now entirely free to engage in debate 
and must do so in order to forge inter-regional agreements 
and formulate policy. Debate among them in the post-Tito 
period has reflected the conflicting economic interests of 
their respective regions and the ethnonational 
sensitivities of their populations. For they must, m a real 
sense, "represent" the "constituencies" if they are to 
retain the confidence of those who must nominate them to 
other leadership positions at the next rotation, and m this 
way retain political power. Thus, it is not the passing of 
Tito alone that explains the increased level of conflict 
among the leadership but a very real conflict of interests 
among the constituencies they present. 

The conflict of interests among the regions certainly are 
not due to the absence of Tito. Indeed, in some respects 
they are the product of his having remained present for so 
long. As a fundamentally conservative communist leader 
whose support for "liberalization" reflected his pragmatic 
reactions to the constraints of Yugoslav multmationalism 
rather than any personal "liberalism," Tito remained 
unhappy with the reforms he was compelled to carry out. 
As a result, he used his power to limit necessary reforms 
where possible and to prevent those that were unnecessary 
for the simple preservation of the communist order and his 
personal rule. It seems clear now, too, that he was an 
important brake even on discussion of reforms necessary 
to implement established principles if they seemed 
inconsistent with his own ideological preferences. Thus, 
he appears to have prevented serious discussion of what to 
do about the mounting foreign debt and declining 
agricultural productivity, for their solution entailed the 

introduction of further reforms that he apparently was not 
prepared to accept. 

Tito agreed only reluctantly in the early 1960s to go along 
with the majority of the communist leadership who 
supported the partial dismantling of the centrally-planned 
economy and its replacement by a system of semi- 
autonomous, worker-managed enterprises operating in a 
limited market economy. He personally remained an 
advocate of political intervention in the economy at the 
expense of "market forces." In part, his advocacy had its 
roots in a commitment to the egalitarian redistribution of 
resources among the regions — a policy goal that could not 
be achieved without such intervention. But, as long as Tito 
remained an advocate of such intervention, party leaders 
at all levels of the system were able to intervene in the 
formulation of social plans and the operation of ostensibly 
self-managing enterprises despite official ideology to the 


15 contrary. This meant that they could corrupt the market 
and ct)mmit scarce resources to economically irrational 
ventures. Enormously expensive and often unprofitable 
projects were undertaken in order to contribute to the 
personal prestige of particular leaders and the economies 
of their power bases. Such projects not only wasted 
resources, they also contributed to the country's mounting 
international debt, now greater than Poland's if calculated 
on a per capita basis, for many of them were financed by 
foreign loans. 

The passing of Tito has meant that these economic 
problems and the changes necessary to correct 
them — economic and pohtical, "liberalizing" or not — can 
now be discussed openly. As a result, public policy debate 
in Yugoslavia has now become remarkably open, and is 
being reported in an increasingly more open and 
inquisitive press. Although this debate is still evolving, it 
appears to suggest the existence of three broad groupings in 
the post-Tito leadership. The first of these consists of 
advocates of further decentralization through the 
strengthening of the prerogatives of the regions. There is 
some evidence of this in the positions of the leaderships of 
Slovenia, Croatia, and Vojvodina — the most developed 
regions — on a number of different issues. However, such a 
development would represent a retum to conditions 
characteristic of the late 1960s that culminated in an 
inter-regional deadlock and systemic crisis. Moreover, it 
would necessarily be opposed by the representatives of the 
underdeveloped southern regions who depend on central 
power for the transfer of capital resources, and by the 
central party apparatus in Belgrade. And, while the latter is 
a far less powerful actor in Yugoslav politics than the 
regional leaderships, it cannot be discounted entirely. 

The second grouping consists of the proponents of an 
opposite tendency; re-centralization, or the traditional 
"hardline" response. This grouping comprises proponents 
of party intervention in the economy and "traditionalists" 
or conservatives who favor greater centralization and 
discipline in the party itself. It is members of this grouping 
who are leading the attack on the alleged "excesses" of the 
press presently underway in Yugoslavia. Many of the 
figures in this grouping are Serbs, and Serbian nationalism 
has traditionally been associated with a more conservative 
political orientation. 

These two tendencies in the debate represent the extremes 
and, at least up to now, have tended to balance each other 
out. If one can be said to have the upper hand, however, it is 
the decentralizing tendency. For Yugoslav leaders 
themselves estimate that no more than 20 percent of the 
party as a whole remains sympathetic to the conservative 
orientation. And that orientation is also strongly opposed 
by the third grouping in the leadership; the advocates of 
reforms intended to increase the role of market forces in 
economic decision making at the expense of political 
"interference." The members of this group, however, also 
remain committed to the party's long-standing policy of 
equalizing standards of living, and this means that even 
they recognize the need for at least some state intervention 
in the economy on behalf of the interests of the 
underdeveloped. Moreover, their clear commitment to 
meeting the international economic obligations of the 
country by acceding to the demands of the country's 

creditors also requires the state to play a continued role in 
the economy. 

The regional development issue is especially powerful 
today, for the country was severely shaken in spring 1981 
by an outburst of nationalist-separatist mass 
demonstrations and violent riots among the Albanians of 
Kosovo. The demonstrators alleged that they had been 
exploited by "Belgrade" and its Serbian political elite and 
demanded at a minimum the formal elevation of Kosovo 
to the status of a republic, equal to the six other republics, 
and at a maximum the separation of Kosovo and 
surrounding Albanian-populated areas from Yugoslavia 
and their incorporation into a "greater Albania." Sporadic 
episodes of unrest there have continued since then and are 
a powerful reminder to the leadership of the danger of 
allowing material dissatisfaction to mount. And, while the 
Albanians and Kosovo may be an exceptional case in the 
Yugoslav context, recent fragmentary evidence of 
nationalist activity among Croatian students in Croatia 
and Moslems in Bosnia, as well as a Serbian nationalist 
backlash m reaction to events in Kosovo, must suggest to 
the present leadership the potentially explosive 
consequences of allowing the economy to deteriorate as it 
has for the past three years. For declining living standards 
can only accelerate the rise of nationalist unrest. 

The advocates of reform in the direction of greater reliance 
on the market represent a compromise position in 
Yugoslav politics. That compromise has been reflected in a 
number of important recent decisions and appears to 
promise the greatest hope for resolution of the country's 
problems. It is a response essentially consistent with the 
overall direction of changes since 1966 and can be 
advanced as a continuation of Tito's "legacy." Moreover, it 
IS consistent with the image of the Yugoslav system as an 
authentic one, created in response to domestic conditions, 
and not one created by the mechanical application of an 
"Eastern" or a "Western" model. 

While the rhetoric of recent party meetings, the pressures 
of the international economic position of the country, and 
the logic of the ideology of self-management all support 
the eventual victory of those who advocate moderate 
reforms m the direction of a market economy, no decisive 
movement in this direction has yet taken place. 
Implementation of such reforms will inevitably 
undermine the real basis of the party's practical pohtical 
power; ultimate control over the allocation of scarce 
resources. As a result, this solution to the current 
problems of Yugoslavia is unlikely to be adopted until the 
party as a whole, and especially each of its regional 
leaderships, devises an alternative basis of power that will 
not be threatened by it. 

The Yugoslavs have faced this monumental task twice 
before. Once, as a consequence of the split with Stalin. The 
result was the establishment of the ideology of 
self-management, the transformation of the party into a 
"league" and the redefinition of its role from "ruling" to 
"leading." They faced it again in the late 60s and early 70s, 
and the result was a second transformation of the party and 
the state and the devolution of power and authority from 
the federal center to the regions. Now they must do it again 
if Yugoslavia as we know it today is to survive. 


Computer Science 


An English and Classics major wrote 
a senior thesis analyzing the work of 
a seventh century B.C. Greek poet. A 
psychology major studied data from 
numerous experiments on creativity. 
And a mathematics major solved a 
series of complex equations in 

Despite their widely disparate fields 
of study, the tliree Brandeis students 
shared a common ally in their work: 
the computer. For the English and 
Classics concentrator, the machine 
facilitated the study of the repetitive 
pattern of certain phrases m the 
poet's work. For the psychology 
major, the computer made it possible 
to eliminate countless hours of 
collecting and recording results of the 
experiments. And for the 
mathematician, the computer not 
only saved considerable time, but 
also insured a level of accuracy 
unlikely to be attained without it. 

Today at Brandeis, the presence of 
computers and a strong computer 
science program — that will emerge 
even stronger as the result of a recent 
$4 million endowment — is enriching 
the academic experiences in ways 
unimaginable just a few years ago. 

Next fall, nearly 80 percent of 
Brandeis students are expected to 
take at least one course in computer 
science during their academic career, 
a figure that represents almost a 
two-fold jump in just five years. 
During the past academic year, 
forty-two students graduated with an 
undergraduate degree in computer 
science, ranking it eighth m number 
of majors. Three years ago, there were 
only eighteen computer science 

To put the entire matter in proper 
perspective, these forty-two 
computer science majors from the 
class of 1983 embraced a disciphne 
that did not even exist fifteen years 

Jacques Cohen, who chairs the 
computer science program, 
remembers how it was: "When I 
came here in 1968, the University 
only offered several courses in 
computer programming and some of 
these were taught by graduate 
students from MIT and Harvard." 


17 The professor of computer science 
also remembers the state of the 
hardware art at Brandeis in 1968. 
"We had an IBM 1 130 back then," he 
smiles. "To give you an idea, that 
represented less computing capacity 
than a standard Apple personal 
computer does now. And that was for 
the entire University. Can you 

Perhaps even less imaginable, 
especially to those already inundated 
with countless television entreaties 
to buy a home computer, was the fact 
that in 1968 computer science at 
Brandeis was actually part of the 
physics department. 

To Cohen, however, it is not at all 
surprising that computer science — a 
field that promises to revolutionize 
the way Western civilization 
processes, stores, and transmits 
information — was until recently 
considered a subset of another field. 
He points out that in other leading 
colleges and universities in the late 
1960s and even through the 1970s, 
computer science had been harbored 
in mathematics, physics and several 
other academic departments. 

"But now, computer science is 
legitimately recognized as a science 
itself," says Cohen, "and it has 
brought great excitement to the 
academy." It has brought more than 
excitement, however. It has even 
gone so far as to bring new definitions 
of what it means to be educated, 
according to Naomi Schmidt, adjunct 
assistant professor of computer 
science. "It's becoming an 
assumption that an educated person 
in this society is literate in the use of 
the computer and familiar with 
computer programming," she says. 
Schmidt, who teaches introductory 
programming courses to 
noncomputer science majors, adds 
that "anyone who is going to be doing 
quantitative analysis at Brandeis will 
find the computer a valuable tool." 
And that covers everyone from 
students majoring in the sciences — 
biology, chemistry, biochemistry — 
to the social sciences — sociology, 
economics, psychology, 
anthropology. Even certain fields in 
the humanities, especially 
linguistics, will feel the full force of 
the computer in the years ahead. 

For nonmajors who are intrigued by 
the computer, Brandeis offers 
computer programming courses that 
teach a variety of computer 
languages, as well as courses that 
investigate fundamental concepts 
and methods in computer science. 

Because Brandeis is not an 
engineering or trade school, the 
interdisciplinaiy links between 
computer science and other fields 
really do not have to be taught 
directly, according to Cohen. 
"Students can naturally combine 
their expertise in computer science 
with their expertise in music, in 
sociology, in psychology, m 
economics. These — and other — 
interdisciplinary links exist naturally 
because of the way a liberal arts 
program is organized." 

Thus, computer science majors are 
encouraged to take courses in 
linguistics. Philosophy majors are 
encouraged to take computer science 
courses. And on it goes, in the 
traditional liberal arts mode. 

Indeed, it is because of its liberal arts 
tradition, not in spite of it, that 
Brandeis has decided to make such a 
heavy investment in the science of 
computers. "The simple fact of the 
matter is that we would lose a 
multitude of very bright young men 
and women in many areas of study if 
we did not offer a wide-ranging 
program in computer science," 
Cohen declares. "Having a strong 
computer science department is 
necessary for us to successfully 
compete with some of the other 
excellent schools in the country." 

At Brandeis, students do seem to 
buttress Cohen's oft-repeated 
argument that exposure to computer 
science enhances their entire 
undergraduate experience. 

It was true for Tim Blackman, a 
music and mathematics major from 
Teaneck, New Jersey, who graduated 
in May. "I took a course in artificial 
intelligence," said Blackman, "and I 
found it intriguing. It led me to an 
interest in Zen philosophy, 
something I had never heard of 
previously, and helped me m my 
mathematics concentration." 
Blackman plans to put the knowledge 
he acquired m computer science to 
work for him at his first job — as a 
computer programmer. 

A computer science and economics 
major who already had some 
experience in the field, Barry Bonder, 
worked as a computer programmer at 
Stone & Webster, Inc. of Boston, the 
world's largest engineering 
consulting firm. "I taught 
consultants at Stone <!k Webster how 
to use an IBM personal computer 
partly because they were very 
impressed about what Brandeis had 
taught me," said Bonder, who also 
graduated m May. "They liked our 
UNIX operating system — that's the 
software that allows you to run 
programs on a computer — and they 
liked the fact we used the C language, 
which Brandeis uses to implement 
the programs." 

The fact that Bonder took computer 
science at a liberal arts university 
stood him in good stead. "There's a 
need to communicate with 
businessmen about what they want 
in simple, concise language," he said. 
"First, you have to turn to the 
technical aspects to discover what 
they want from the computer, and 
then return to a nontechnical stance 
and express to them in their own 
terms what the computer can offer. 
Having that broad, liberal arts 
background enables you to move 
back and forth easily between these 
two worlds." But, as his liberal arts 
training has taught him. Bonder will 
question the computer as rigorously 
as he would any other aspect of his 
education here. "People have to get 
an idea of what a computer can do 
and what it can't do," he says. "How 
much should we trust computers and 
how much should we question 

One of the people searching for 
answers in computer science — and 
even posing some of the questions — 
is James Storer, who came to 
Brandeis in 1981 from Bell 
Laboratories. Storer, an assistant 
professor, is one of a new breed of 
men and women whose expertise is 
in computer science theory. 

"Most people, when they think about 
computers, think about 
programming, but many theoretical 
computer scientists don't program in 
their work," Storer says. 
'Trogramming, in principle, has very 
little to do with computer science. 
It's a basic skill, like reading, that 
anyone can learn. In fact, I haven't 

programmed as part of my research in 
the last five years." 

What Storer does, in addition to teach 
courses in theory, is to think about 
"deep questions" that go to the ver>' 
nature of what computers are, what 
they can do, what they cannot. He 
might, for example, examine 
theorems about what kind of 
problems can be solved by the 
machine and how long it will take to 
solve them. Consider the practical 
problem of a salesman who has to 
travel to several hundred cities and 
needs to know the exact order he 
should visit each to minimize his 
travel and maximize his selling time. 

"It turns out that no one knows of an 
efficient algorithm to solve this 
problem," Storer says. "For example, 
the best known algorithm could have 
been started a billion years ago on a 
computer that was running at the 
speed of light and it wouldn't be done 
yet. That's how long it would take to 
solve this seemingly straightforward 
problem. You can actually prove that 
this problem has no efficient solution 
for determining the best ordering of 
cities without trying every single 

So, as a theoretician, Storer will prove 
on a blackboard, using mathematical 
theorems, that no computer can ever 
solve this problem efficiently. Then, 
again on a blackboard, he will show 
students how the computer can 
efficiently find an alternative 
solution that approximates the 

Another field of computer science — 
the one most familiar to the rapidly 
growing number of owners of home 
computers — is languages. 

"We are interested in the easiest and 
most effective way to 'talk' to the 
computer," explains Jacques Cohen. 
"We want to know how to get the 
computer to perform a certain task. 
And, by understanding how the 
computer works, we want to 
communicate messages without 
ambiguity and be sure these 
messages are correctly translated into 
material the computer understands." 

As computers become more 
sophisticated, the languages used to 
talk to the machine have obligingly 
proliferated. There are now dozens of 
computer languages. But perhaps 
more impressive than the increase in 
the quantity of these new languages 
is the corresponding decrease in the 
amount of words necessary for 
expressing the same communication. 

By using one of the high powered 
languages available today, one can 
write the same program in a fraction 
of the pages required with the old 
languages, Cohen notes. 

At Brandeis, students are taught 
courses in a variety of computer 
languages. One of these is called 
BASIC. As its name imphes, BASIC is 
a simple language for people who 
have small programs to write. "You 
might use it to figure a monthly 
budget or plan a series of activities," 
says Cohen, "but if you want to send 
a rocket to the moon, you will need a 
much more sophisticated program 
that requires a more sophisticated 
language." Another language taught 
in the department is FORTRAN, 
which is employed primarily for 
numerical analysis. "The science 
departments here and elsewhere 
'speak' a lot of FORTRAN," Cohen 
says. There are also courses given in 
Pascal, a structured language that is 
used to implement various data 

But it is not enough to be familiar 
with individual computer languages. 
Students who major in computer 
science are also required to write a 
compiler, a program that translates a 
high level language like Pascal into a 
low level one like the actual 
assembly codes the computer uses. 

director of the University's Feldberg 
Computer Center. These courses 
investigate the logical organization of 
computers and the way machines 
communicate with each other. 

A fourth topic m computer science is 
artificial intelhgence. Perhaps no 
aspect of the science of computers 
has generated as much controversy 
and excitement as the burgeoning 
field of artificial intelhgence. The 
subject has caused passionate debate 
among computer scientists, perhaps 
not unlike the biologists' endless 
brouhaha about the ratio of heredity 
to environment on an individual's 

To some proponents of artificial 
intelligence, there is no intelligent 
behavior by humans that potentially 
cannot be mimicked by the 
computer. "Artificial intelligence 
involves using the machine to 
perform tasks usually thought of as 
requiring intelligent behavior," 
Cohen explains. "For instance, you 
might tell the computer your 
investment objectives and ask it to 
come up with an investment 
strategy. The computer will then list 
the possibilities and select the ones 
with the highest probabilities of 
success. Because the assessment of 
these probabilities imphes 
consideration of all the decisions a 
human would have to make, this can 
be regarded as simulating intelligent 

While Jacques Cohen is not of the 
opinion that computers pose an 
intellectual threat to those who build 
and communicate with them, he is 
convinced that in the future it will be 
more difficult to distinguish a 
computer's answer from a human's. 

A third field of computer science is 

systems, which is sometimes called 

operating systems. In its most 

primitive form, it is the interaction 

between hardware — the computer 

itself — and software, the program 

written for it. "It's really the nuts and 

bolts mechanism of communicating Jerry Rosenswaike 

with the machine," says Cohen. 

Courses in systems are taught by 
several members of the department. 
In addition, there are courses in 
computer architecture and networks, 
which are taught by Lawrence 
Kirsch, professor of physics and 

"This, however, is not a future to 
fear, but one to control, to shape, and 
to conform to human values, not the 
machine's," Cohen argues. "That is 
our goal here." 

Past Valedictorians: 
Where Are They Now? 


19 An economist who fled Nazi 
Germany. A rabbi who challenged 
Golda Meir. Two veterans — one 
whose life changed dramatically 
because of the Vietnam War, another 
whose did not. A man who writes 
about heroes able to leap tall buildings 
in a single bound, and a woman whose 
goal is to build them. 

Six very different individuals with one 
thing in common: one Sunday 
afternoon in late spring, sometime 
between 1952 and 1976, each stood 
behind the podium at a Brandeis 
commencement and delivered the 
valedictory address. 

The speeches they gave, like the 
choices they made after graduation, 
were a reflection not merely of 
individual ambitions, but also of the 

Gustav Ranis '52 

The University's first 
commencement — and the senior 
commencement speaker was Gustav 

Born in Darmstadt, Germany in 1 929, 
Ranis might have been another victim 
of Adolph Hitler. But in October 1941, 
he and his family fled to Spam on one 
of the last trains to leave the Third 

Eventually, they joined his father in 
Danbury, Connecticut — five years 
after he had left Buchenwald. Rams 
adjusted quickly to American life, and 
in 1948, the same year that Brandeis 
was founded, he graduated Danbury 
High School first in his class. 

Then, along with 106 other 
pioneering freshmen. Ranis enrolled 
at Brandeis. "I was kind of taken with 
the idea of a completely new 
venture," he once said. "I felt I would 
not get lost in the shuffle." And as to 
the uncertainties of attending a new 
school, he thought that if American 
lewry was committed to it, they 
would "do It right." 

It was a sound decision. Four years 
later, he received his BA degree 
summa cum laude, and was again first 
in his class. Before a commencement 
audience of 8,000, he delivered his 
speech alongside Eleanor Roosevelt, a 
member of the Board of Trustees who 
would later become his good friend 
until her death. 

Max Lemer, then a Brandeis professor, 
said this about the address; "The 
speech of the class president was a 
good one, but it was (I suppose) keyed 
to the prevailing student mood. He 
said he and his fellows didn't expect 
much of life, that they had no 
illusions any of them would set the 
world on fire, that it was a pretty bleak 
world anyway. You couldn't deny its 
truth, and it must have echoed what 
most of the students felt — or thought 
they felt. It left us with a feeling of 
being cornered in a narrow corridor, 
with the exits blocked. It was the 
Generation Without Illusions 

Rams may have had no illusions 
about life, but he did take full 
advantage of its realities. Now the 
.Frank Altschul Professor of 
Economics at Yale University, he was 
awarded his PhD there in 1956, and 

became, in 1964, the first graduate of 
Brandeis to attain full professorial 
rank. He won numerous awards in 
graduate school — among them a 
Sterling Fellowship and a Social 
Science Research Council Award for 
study in lapan. 

After a year there, studying lapanese 
Economic development, he went to 
Pakistan as director of the Pakistan 
Institute of Development Economics 
for the Ford Foundation. He held a 
presidential appointment in the 
Department of State from 1965 to 
1 967, was chief of a 40 man 
international team to evaluate the 
economy of the Philippines in 1973, 
and, in 1976, was named organizer of 
the National Academy of Sciences 
Bicentennial Symposium on the Role 
of Science and Technology in 
Development. He is presently on 
leave from Yale, on a National 
Science Foundation research project 
at Nuffield College, Oxford, and the 
London School of Economics in 

Ranis is first to admit that life has 
been good to him since his 1952 
graduation, and he credits much of it 
to Brandeis. After all, it was a Brandeis 
education that sent him on his way to, 
as he calls it, "a pretty good career" as 
an economist. And it was at a Brandeis 
reunion that he met his wife, the 
former Ray Finkelstein '56. It was at 
the university, too, that he was 
retroactively named first member of 
Phi Beta Kappa in 1961 — the same 
year that Brandeis was recognized by 
that organization. And it was 
founding President Abram Sachar 
who called him one day in 1968 at his 
Connecticut home to tell him that he 
was the first alumnus of Brandeis to 
be elected to the Board of Trustees. 



While Ranis was working toward a 
PhD at Yale, Robert Samuels 
delivered his valedictory address. 

Now a Reform rabbi who lives with 
his wife and three children in Haifa, 
he has devoted the last twenty years of 
his life to the Reform Judaism 
movement m Israel, a movement 
shunned by the Orthodox rabbinate. 

In a 1973 alumni questionnaire, he 

"Both Annette (in music) and I (in 
education) have much to offer Israel. 
Israel meets our deepest needs and 
provides our children with as total a 
Jewish mode of life as possible given 
our liberal and progressive world- view 
and Jewish interest. However, Israel is 
in crisis — spiritual and otherwise. We 
wish to do our share to lift its 
developing social patterns. 

"We feel that there is a place for liberal 
Judaism in the country. They have 
made rapid advances m agriculture, 
industry and living standards, but 
religious growth has stood still." 

Samuels has addressed this struggle 
not only as rabbi at Or Hadesh 
Synagogue m Haifa but also as 
headmaster of the Leo Baeck 
Secondary School in that city — the 
first liberal Jewish day school in the 
world, and still the only one of its kind 
in Israel. 

In 1949, when still a senior in high 
school, this young Texan had not yet 
heard of the fledgling Brandeis nor its 
industrious founder, Abram Sachar. 
But not long after he had met Dr. 
Sachar through a mutual friend, 
Samuels made his exodus from the 
South into the year-old University's 
"fantastic new world of intellectuals." 

A Judaic Studies major, "there was no 
'Near Eastern' back then," he was 
introduced to two Brandeis professors, 
Nahum Glatzer and Simon 
Rawidowitz. They sparked his 
interest in the plight of liberal 
Judaism, and the University did the 
rest, "lending the general atmosphere 
that molded the educational 
philosophy" which he instituted at 
the Leo Baeck Center. "Brandeis made 
me understand what liberalism and 
civil libertarianism are . . . and I've 
been fighting for them all my life." 

Robert Samuels '54 

Michael Pine '62 

It's a fight that took on new meaning 
at a meeting of the Central 
Conference of American Rabbis in 
Jerusalem in 1974 when he joined 
over 1,000 Reform rabbis to hear 
Golda Meir address their fight for 
equal status with the Orthodox. 

'Be patient," she said, "difficulties 
that have existed for 2,000 years won't 
disappear as though touched by a 
magic wand." 

Samuels spoke up: "We have been 
very patient; we are still patient. But 
we put the question to you: How 
long? If Reform Jews can fight for 
Israel's tank gunners, they can be full 

He won loud applause. 

Ranis was assistant professor of 
economics at Yale and the 
newly-ordained Samuels had joined 
the staff of the Leo Baeck School, 
when Michael Pine spoke about 
academic and intellectual integrity in 
his senior commencement speech. 

Four years earlier. Pine's high school 
advisor had warned him that he would 
not survive a premedical program, let 
alone Brandeis. 

But with acceptance letter in hand, 
the freshman made his way into Ford 
Hall to tr\' his hand at the sciences and 
"spent many happy hours cleaning rat 
cages, getting males and females 
mixed up, and having lots of little rats 
around." For his efforts. Pine was 
awarded 80 cents an hour. 

But he was determined. 

Today, Dr. Pine is chief of cardiology 
at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. 

The transformation began when 
"Brandeis, unlike Harvard or 
Columbia, was willing to take a 
chance on a somewhat shaky 
(academic) background." 

Pine became a devout academic 
maioring in history and under the 
guidance of department chairman 
Edgar Johnson, wrote a complex 
thesis on William Langland's 
apocalyptic poetry. 

But professors, he recalls, were as 
instructive outside the classroom, 

". . . just standing out in the snow 
talking." History professor Eugene 
Black taught him to appreciate both 
fine wines and, in one unfortunate 
instance, the cost of cleaning a 
Bordeaux-stained Oriental rug, during 
conversations that often drifted into 

'heated discussions about reality and 
the perception of reality." And he 
learned the most basic premedical 
survival technique from math 
professor Maurice Auslander — how to 
remain in a class that started with 50 
students and ended with about seven. 

During his sophomore year, when 
Goldfarb Library' was completed, 
Brandeis was able to meet the 
qualifications of Phi Beta Kappa; and 
in 1961 Pine was among the first 
group of Brandeis students elected to 
the nation's oldest and most 
prestigious honor society. 



John Peter Chabot '67 

"It was a time when a Brandeis 
student could feel free to apply to the 
best medical schools and know that 
his credentials would be seriously 
considered." One year, and one 
medical entrance examination later, 
Pine took advantage of this freedom 
and became the second student in the 
history of Brandeis to be accepted to 
Harvard Medical School. 

He graduated from Harvard in 1966 
and went on to Montefiore Hospital 
for his internship and first year of 
medical residency. That residency 
was interrupted, however, when in 
1968 at the height of the Vietnam 
War, he was drafted. 

Unlike many other draftees. Pine was 
not sent to Vietnam. He was asked, 
because of his MD degree and 
mathematics background, to be a 
medical economist during the war, 
took the commission and spent the 
war years investigating physicians 
who were trying to solicit "easy 
money" for doubtful research 

At war's end. Pine resumed his 
medical career with renewed 
dedication, and attained his present 
position as chief of cardiology and 
associate professor at the Cincinnati 
VA Medical Center. 

Ranis was assistant administrator for 
a Washington State AID program at 
the Colegio de Mexico in Mexico 
City, Samuels was fighting m the '67 
war, and Pine was in his first year of 
residency at Montefiore when (John) 
Peter Chabot gave the valedictorian 
address for his Brandeis 

He spoke not about politics nor, as he 
called it, the "incipient" war in 
Vietnam, but rather about the 
Brandeis experience from a Catholic's 
point of view. If he had had to give a 
title to his speech, he might have 
called It, "How I Leamed Not to Pick 
up the Egg from a Seder Plate." The 
war was simply an event that had not 
yet personally engaged him. 

Which IS not to say that he wasn't 
involved in a protest or two. During 
his freshman year he joined a group of 
angry students by dismantling the 
door of his room and carrying it to 
Gryzmish Administration Building. It 
was a protest against parietal rules, 
which required every student who 
wished to entertain a member of the 
opposite sex in a dorm room to leave 
the door open. 

But for the most part, Chabot saw 
Brandeis not as a political forum but 
rather as a theater major's haven. 

His first two years were spent putting 
on shows in Ullman Amphitheatre 
and in his junior year, the new 
Spingold Theater. The new facility 
brought "culture shock. We had an 
amateur theater, and then suddenly 
we were in a professional 
environment. Of course theater 
professors Howard Bay and Charlie 
Moore came in, and we already had 
lim Clay. We had a company of six 
professional actors in residence who 
were all, without exception, 
wonderful to the undergraduates." 

When the first main stage play, 
Volpone by Ben Jonson was produced, 
Chabot was house and assistant stage 
manager. He was also president of the 
Hi-Charlie club, which produced an 
original musical comedy each year; 
and he worked with Michael Weller 
'65 (author of the screenplay for 
Ragtime] on his first full-length play. 

It's not surprising that Chabot decided 
to make the theater a career when he 
left Brandeis. But one year later, while 

programming lunch-time theater for 
New Yorkers as part of the NYU 
Graduate School of the Arts program, 
his "burgeoning career came to an 
immediate halt. Uncle Sam had 
decided he needed my tired bt)dy for 
his forces." 

Stationed in Savannah, he was 
assigned his "military occupation 
specialty" — head of the 
entertainment office for the Third 
Army entertainment unit. In this 
capacity, he produced and often acted 
in plays that were staged for audiences 
of two to three hundred military 

Chabot served three years in the 
service, but was not sent overseas. 
And It was not until the Vietnam 
War's end that he began to discover its 
true impact on his life. 

When he returned to New York City, 
he found that certain things had 
changed. For one, the NYU graduate 
program he had attended no longer 
existed. For another, he realized that 
he "had fallen in love with 
Savannah." That is why he decided to 
work there for the next two and a half 
years as manager of the Savannah 
Symphony Orchestra. Four years 
later, in 1976, he moved to Atlanta 
where he worked with the Atlanta 
Music Festival, the organization 
responsible for bringing the 
Metropolitan Opera to that city. 

That was seven years ago. Chabot's no 
longer in Georgia. Nor is he in New 
York City. He's still in the field of 
management, but not with the theater 
and not with the symphony. 

Travel the streets of Newport, Rhode 
Island, and you will eventually come 
to a restaurant called "The White 
Horse Tavern." Built as a tavern over 
300 years ago, it has been in operation 
ever since. A staff of 23 will serve 
Duck-au-Poivre, or whatever other 
French dish one chooses to order. 

And don't be surprised if Chabot 
greets you at the door. Restaurant 
managers often do. 



Ranis was named a Ford Foundation 
Faculty Fellow, Samuels celebrated 
his 12th year in Israel, Pine was 
finishmg his residency m general 
medicine at Columbia Presbyterian 
Hospital, and Chabot managed the 
Savannah Symphony Orchestra, 
when Elliot Maggin was named 
valedictorian of his class. 

When he wrote his commencement 
speech, he tried to make it sound like 
poetr>'. But when he showed it to a 
friend, he was told it read more like a 
"Marvel" comic. 

Maggin laughs about that now. The 
author of Superman: Last Son of 
Krypton, its sequel. Miracle Monday, 
and a host of over 200 comic book 
stories, he has devoted much of the 
last ten years of his life to comic book 

It's a devotion that began at Brandeis. 
As chairman of the Waltham Group, 
he doled out his large collection of 
comic books to the kids. He pocketed 
a few of the magazines, reading them 
every so often instead of a textbook. A 
renewed interest in comics 
eventually led to a topic for his junior 
year term paper, "How President 
Kennedy and Superman Influenced 
My Life." 

'I only got a B+ on it," he admits. But 
on the advice of American studies 
professor Max Lemer, he submitted 
the paper, and a comic book stor>' 
written for it, to DC Comics for 
publication. DC published it, and the 
profits paid for his senior year at 

Following graduation, he spent a year 
writing comic book stories. But after 
he had penned almost 300, he came to 
the realization that "there are only so 
many ways to throw a punch, or save 
an airplane." So he left a lucrative job 
at pulp-style publishers "Weird 
Heroes" for Columbia School of 

He went, not surprisingly, with the 
intention of being a joumalist. But 
once there, he heard that the average 
life expectancy of a journalist is 
somewhere in the fifties — which 
posed a problem. Maggin wanted to 
live forever. 

Elliot Maggin '72 

Today one will find him on a farm in 
Campton, New Hampshire, with his 
"family" — Mocha (a dog), Sherlock (a 
cat) and Rainbeau (a horse). 

Rainbeau also happens to play a role 
in Maggin's novel-in-progress. It's a 
story about the fictional encounter 
between nineteenth-century 
historian Francis Parkman and Sioux 
Chieftain Crazy Horse. But that's the 
only clue he'll give. 

In addition to writing, he also works 
for Atari, creating the characters and 
concepts for new computer games 
that pick up where "ET" and 
"Superman" leave off. 

Maggin thinks he has a lot in common 
with Clark Kent. "He's kind of a 
wimp. He walks through life not 
being noticed by anyone, but 
undemeath he's strong. Actually he's 
the greatest man in the world." And 
while he will not exactly say that, like 
Clark Kent, he is also immortal, he 
will admit even at age 33 that he could 
still pass for an undergraduate. 

Ranis was named a Ford Foundation 
Visiting Professor at the University of 
the Andes in Bogota, Colombia, 
Samuels had spoken at the Central 
Conference of American Rabbis in 
Jerusalem, Pine became an instructor 
at Harvard Medical School, Chabot 
began work with the Atlanta Music 
Festival, and Maggin had written his 
first novel, when Razel Tnigman (nee 
Solow) gave the valedictory address. 

She dedicated it to the five women 
who had taught her "the beauty of 

Among them was Lenore Israel, her 
high school English teacher. "She 
lived life dow-n to earth," said 
Trugman. ""She was honest, dedicated 
to teaching, and epitomized what I 
think life is all about ... no 

Lenore Israel (nee Cohen) was also a 
member of the Brandeis class of 1957. 
It's not surprising that Trugman 
chose the alma mater of the teacher 
she admired so much. Nor that when 
she graduated Brandeis, went to 
Cornell University for a master's 
degree in English and became, like 
Israel, a high school English teacher. 

What is surprising is that after two 
years at Morris Greely High School in 
Chappaqua, New York, Trugman 
decided that she didn't want to teach 

Trugman had always been an explorer 
by nature Even at Brandeis, she saw 
her undergraduate experience, ""not as 
a ticket to graduate school, but rather 
a place to explore a myriad of 

She left Brandeis, as she calls it, 
"happily irrelevant." But in 1980, 
when she had given up teaching and 
started thinking about what to do 
next, she found that she had no idea. 

It was a Brandeis professor who helped 
her find the answer. 

Architecture had held a certain 
fascination for Trugman ever since 
high school. But m those days, ""girls 
enrolled in home economics, and I 
was denied permission to take 
mechanical drawing." So it was not 
until she was at Brandeis, enrolled in 
Professor Gerald Bernstein's modem 



Razel Sviuw Tru^man lb 

architecture course, "that my interest 
in architectural spaces surfaced." 

Six years after graduation, she went 
back to see Professor Bernstein. "And 
I said, 'You know, I've got this crazy 
idea that maybe I would like to do 
architecture' and I thought he was 
going to say 'Are you crazy- Do you 
know how much that entails?' But he 
just said, 'I think that's great- ' " 

Trugman is now a second year student 
at the University of Minnesota School 
of Architecture. A year ago, she didn't 
know that a parallel rule was the mam 
instrument in architecture, now she's 
working on the design of her first 

She also views her Brandeis 
education — and the "happy 
irrelevance" it brought her — quite 
differently. "I think that among other 
things, to be a really excellent 
architect, you need a good liberal 

Which is why she would still choose 
to go to Brandeis, even had she known 
earlier that she would end up m 

"I hope that people go to Brandeis 
thinking that they want to go into 
architecture and end up in medicine, 
or even tap dancing. You've got to 
explore and you've got to take a few 
chances and you've got to enjoy and 
figure out who you are." 

Janice Friedman '82 


Gustav Ranis. 
Professor of Economics at 
Yale University. 
Trustee of Brandeis. 


Abraham Heller. 
Professor of Psychiatry and 
Common Medicine at 
Wright State University, 


Robert Lewis Samuels. 
Rabbi and headmaster of a 
Reform secondary school 
in Haifa, Israel. 


Thomas |. Egan. 

Partner in a Monroe, New 

York law firm. 


Morton Leon Ginsberg. 
Tax attorney in New York 


Donald ). Cohen. 
Professor of Pediatric Psy- 
chiatry and Psychiatry at 
Yale University's Child 
Study Center. Trustee of 


Michael Boehmer Pine. 
Director of Cardiology at 
the Cincinnati VA Medical 


Stephen Louis Donadio. 
Professor of American 
Literature at Middlebury 
College, Vermont. 


Risbon Menabem Bialer. 
Deceased. Killed in an auto 
accident in 1968 during his 
last year at Harvard 
Medical School. 


Michael I. Sandel. 
Professor of Government at 
Harvard University. 
Trustee of Brandeis. 


Razel E. Solow. 
Architectural student at the 
University of Minnesota. 


Brian T. Wilson. 
Employee of the 
Massachusetts Port 


David M. Stemberg. 
Associate attorney in 
Washington, DC. 


David Adierstein. 
Freelance writer m Ohio. 


City. Fellow at Brandeis. 


Carl F. Barnes. 

Robert Irving Lerman. 

Second year law student at 


Senior research associate 

Harvard University. 

Elliot Martin Epstein. 

and adjunct lecturer at 

Partner in a New York 

Brandeis' Heller School. 


City law finn. 

Stuart |. Chanen. 


Second year law student at 


Stephen R. Raskin. 

Northwestem University. 

Richard Kaufman. 

Radiologist in West 

Unable to locate. 



Paul David Underberg. 



Second year law student at 

Simon Arthur Sargon. 

lohn Peter Cbabot. 

University of Pennsylvania. 

Music director at 

Restaurant manager in 

Temple Emmanuel m 

Newport, Rhode Island. 


Dallas, Texas. 

Elaine Zecber. 


Will attend rabbinical 


Joseph Tenenbaum. 

school in Jerusalem this fall 

Lyman H. Andrews, Jr. 

Cardiologist in private 

Professor of American Lit- 

practice in New York City. 

erature at the University of 

Leicester, England. 


Justin Daniel Simon. 
Partner in a Washington, 
DC law firm. 


Members of the senior class. 




Elliot S. Maggin. 

Writer m New Hampshire. 


James Katz. 

Attorney in Haddonfield, 

New Jersey. 


Adam Jon Stein. 
Unable to locate. 

May 22, 1983 
Brandeis' Thirty-Second 

Highlights of Brandeis' thirty-second 
Commencement included a 
thought-provoking speech by noted 
physicist Victor F. Weisskopf 
exhorting students to work on behalf 
of nuclear de-escalation; the reading 
of a poem by Polish expatriate and 
Nobel Prize winner Czeslaw Milosz 
and a student address by Elaine S. 
Zecher. Honorary degrees were 
awarded to: (clockwise above) 
President Bernstein, dancer Mikhail 
Baryshnikov, Admiral Hyman 
Rickover, Chicago University 
President Hanna Gray, sociologist 
Robert K. Merton, Dr. Mitchell T. 
Rabkin, president of Beth Israel 
Hospital, poet Czeslaw Milosz, 
historian C. Vann Woodward, 
philanthropist Irving Schneider and 
Professor Weisskopf. 

The Commencement was also the 
occasion for President Bernstein to 
say farewell to the University he 
headed for eleven years, and an 
opportunity for the University 
community to welcome President 
Evelyn E. Handler. 

Approximately 700 students received 
their bachelor's degrees and graduate 
degrees were awarded to 149 

President Evelyn E. Handler and 
Founding President Abram L. Sachar. 

"Whatever we may think about the 
Soviet regime, the time is past when 
an objectionable regime can be 
removed by force. Nuclear weapons 
have changed the meaning of war. 
War between the nuclear powers is 
no longer acceptable. A hundred 
million people would be killed and 
the earth no longer inhabitable. 

In spite of all this we witness today 
an ever escalating nuclear arms race 
between the super powers. Only a 
few hundred bombs are enough to 
destroy the world but the two 
opposing super powers have deployed 
ten thousands of them and add 
thousands every year. This is the 
craziest arms race the world has ever 

seen. Crazy because the opponents 
know very well that the use of even a 
fraction would annihilate both sides. 

Fourteen years ago the youth of 
America ended the Vietnam war. The 
young people were able to force the 
government to change its policy. 
Today you have a much more 
important task: You must save 
yourself, your children and the whole 
world from nuclear annihilation. 

Stand up and join the forces that are 
already active here and abroad in 
declaring your revulsion against this 
senseless arms race. The arms race is 
the result of fear. We fear that the 
Soviets want to spread their power 
over the world, and they fear our 
encirclement and our intent to free 
the world from Communism." 

From the Commencement address 
by Victor F. Weisskopf 

'If we were to compromise a liberal 
arts education for the pressure of the 
job market, we would narrow our 
horizons and lessen the parameters of 
our education. More skill-oriented 
courses in our curriculum would 
only take away from the beauty of a 
liberal arts education, and we do not 
want to be technocrats." 

From the senior address 
by Elaine S. Zecher '83 


Marver H. Bernstein's 




If I were in the place of 
young poets 

(quite a place, whatever 
the generation 
might think) 

I would prefer not to say 
that the earth is a 
madman's dream, 

a stupid tale full of 

sound and fury. 

It's true, I did not 

happen to see the 

triumph of justice. 
The lips of the innocent 

make no claims. 
And who knows 

whether a fool in 

a crown, 
a wine cup in his hand, 

roaring that 

God favors him 
because he poisoned, 

slew and blinded 

so many, 
would not move the 

onlookers to tears: 

he was so gentle. 

God does not multiply 
sheep and camels 
for the virtuous 

and takes nothing away 
for murder and 

He has been hiding 

so long that it has 
been forgotten 

how he revealed himself 
in the burning 

and in the breast of a 
young lew 
ready to suffer for 
all who were and 
will be. 

It is not certain if 

Ananke awaits 
her hour 

to pay back what is due 
for the lack of 
measure and for 

Poem read by Czeslaw Milosz 

Man has been given to 
that he lives only 
by the grace 
of those in power. 

Let him therefore busy 
himself sipping 
coffee, catching 

Who cares for the 

Republic will have 
his right hand 
cut off. 

And yet, the earth merits 
a bit, a tiny bit, 
of affection. 

Not that I take too seri- 
ously consolations 
of nature, and 
baroque orna- 
ments, the moon, 
chubby clouds 

(although it's beautiful 

when bird-cherries 
blossom on the 
banks of the Wilia). 

No, I would even advise 
to keep farther 
from nature, 

from persistent images 
of infinite space, 

of infinite time, from 
snails poisoned 

on a path in a garden, 
just like our 

There is so much death, 
and that is why 

for pigtails, bright-col- 
ored skirts in the 

for paper boats no more 
durable than we 

are . 

Distinguished guests, trustees, 26 

alumni, members and friends of the 
University community. 

I welcome you to these 32nd 
Commencement exercises of 
Brandeis University. As graduating 
seniors and graduate students receive 
their degrees I want to address 
members of the Class of 1983 and 
offer them the special 
congratulations of the faculty, 
administration, and trustees. 

This IS a day in celebration of your 
education in the liberal arts. We 
come together in this place, among 
parents and teachers, family and 
friends, to honor you for what you 
have done and for what you have 
become these past four years. And in 
honoring you, we celebrate our 
University and its ideals. 

I confess I feel a special tie to the 
Class of 1983. For this year is also my 
year of commencement — although 
in my case, as Elaine Zecher has said, 
it has taken not four but eleven years 
to reach this bittersweet moment. 
My farewell to your class carries an 
added measure of pride as well as 
sadness. We have learned and 
disputed and reasoned together. We 
have cared deeply, and we have 

Milton's comment is pertinent to 
this community of ours. "Where 
there is much desire to learn," he 
wrote, "there of necessity will be 
much arguing, much writing, many 
opinions,- for opinion in good men 
(and women) is but knowledge in the 

As you and I come together to the end 
of our Brandeis days and look forward 
to our next steps with mingled 
anticipation and regret, I know we 
also share a continuing warm 
affiliation with the University and a 
heightened appreciation of its special 

Brandeis has provided you a spacious 
and protected place for testing and 
exploring your dreams and ideas and 
your capacities. You have tested new 
opinions and attitudes. You have 
reexamined your values and your 
goals. These past four years have 
been both culmination and prelude. 
Your sense of who you are and how 
you stand within the worlds that you 

2'' inhabit is different now: sharpened, 
questioned, revised, confirmed, in 
some cases transformed. Most 
important, you have learned to 
distinguish between data and 
knowledge, and you have learned the 
important truth that knowledge is 
not a product, stored up and tucked 
away, but a way of being and 
behaving. This is the special kind of 
good we offer here: this openness to 
new ideas, the habit of learning, and 
the will and capacity to act 
humanely. These are the precious 
gifts you carry away from your 
undergraduate years. 

At the same time, you leave behind 
an exuberant vitality that I personally 

You have contributed enormously to 
the spirit of fun on this campus. You 
created the Pep Band, the Ice Hockey 
Team, the }azz Band. You spurred the 
revival of Homecoming Weekend. 

You pitched in to help administrators 
and faculty members welcome 
potential new students to Brandeis, 
and your success is measured in our 
five-star enrollment prospects for 
next year. 

You are the class that worked 
effectively to focus attention on 
student concern for the quality of 
undergraduate education. 

You helped to nurture a more fruitful 
partnership in the University 
community. Your imagination and 
sense of responsibility created the 
campus Escort Service and the Van 
Service to improve personal safety 
and security on the campus. 

The Class of 1983 is the largest class 
to graduate from Brandeis. And you 
are the first class since the early '60s 
to leave behind a class gift, one that 
will bring delight to all who come 
after you: the line of flowering pear 
trees edging the walkway up the hill 
to the new library that was 
completed in your senior year. 

At this moment of our joint 
commencement, I want you to know 
that I am very proud of your 
accomplishments. I have valued you 
— at times grudgingly, I confess — 
when you probed and challenged 
established authority and contributed 
to the intellectual unrest that 

characterizes a first-rate university. I 
am grateful for your spirit, your 
persistence in questioning 
conventional wisdom, your disdain 
for prejudice, your good humor and 
independence, intelligence and 
originality, and your active concern 
and compassion for others in our 
community and in society. These 
qualities provide a vital touchstone 
in your lives as you plunge into the 
uncertainties and the perils of the 
world that lie ahead of you. 

My fellow graduates, I have learned, 
since my own student days, that on 
Commencement Day a university 
president should leave exhortation to 
others. I shall not today speak of 
unemployment or environmental 
trashing or nuclear weapons. 

Still, in this privileged and shining 
moment, the voice of apprehension 
must also be heard. 

Civilization has never been secure on 
this globe. The ideals of freedom and 
justice have, more frequently than 
not, been unattained goals. Despite 
the glorious achievements of science 
and technology, much of humankind 
still walks with uncertainty and 
often with terror and fear on this 

As we take leave of this hallowed 
place, let me risk a single 
exhortation. You have much to give 
and great opportunities to seize. As 
graduates of Brandeis, you have the 
ability to challenge the status quo 

and to solve problems. You have the 
capacity to combine imagination, 
knowledge, and discontent into a 
process of change and renewal. You 
have acquired "the courage to live in 
uncertainty" that Eleanor Roosevelt 
prized so highly. You have discovered 
at this University that learning — the 
unfolding of human intellect, 
personality, and wisdom — is a 
journey of unknown destination — 
winding, unpredictable, endless. 
You have formed values, and you 
have made friends here that will last 
a lifetime. The compassion and 
affection that you have experienced 
here may yet help us achieve links 
with all humankind. 

A sobering thought about the world 
beyond permits an affirmation after 
all — of the great good we have to 
share and to preserve, worthy of our 
celebration on this day and on 
commencements yet to come. 

It is in this spirit that we honor you, 
the Class of 1983, with pride and 
affection. I wish you joy and 
achievement in making your lives 
and sharing your good with others. I 
know you will keep in your hearts, as 
will I, the vibrant recollection of this 
special place. 

May we go from here, you and I, and 
return always in peace. 

Notes on Brandeis 

Success Story: 
Tom Friedman '75 
Wins Pulitzer 


When the Puhtzer Prize 
Committee announced that 
Thomas L. Friedman 75 
had been awarded the 1982 
Puhtzer Prize for 
International Reporting, his 
friends and associates 
weren't surprised. Even 
though the Pulitzer is the 
highest award a journalist 
can receive, it was always 
clear that Tom Friedman's 
career would be brilliant. 

After all, he had been an 
exceptional student at 
Brandeis, graduating summa 
cum laude, and the winner 
of a Marshall Scholarship, 
one of the most prestigious 
awards given to a select few 
students by the British 
government, for study in 

Merit Scholarships 
Awarded: Recruitment 
on the Upswing 

With the Marshall 
Scholarship in hand, he 
went to Oxford University 
where he received a degree 
in Middle Eastern Studies. 
Eventually he became a 
New York Times 
correspondent in the Middle 
East, and is now its bureau 
chief in Beirut. The Puhtzer 
board awarded him the pnze 
for his reporting of the war 
in Lebanon. 

As one of his associates at 
the Times wrote recently: 
"Tom Friedman has earned 
(ourl respect m one 
authoritative dispatch after 
another during the long hard 
summer of Beirut's agony. 
With a skill and grace that I 
still hnd astonishing, he 
explained it and made it real 
for readers of the Times. 
And unlike many reporters 
in situations like these, he 
never forgot to bnng alive 
the people he was writing 

about There are a lot of 

reasons why this guy 
deserves a Pulitzer at the 
ripe old age of 29." 

Tom has called his 
experience in the Middle 
East "Fascinating, absurd, 
sometimes frightening and 
always exciting . . ." It is 
clear that he has translated 
all these emotions and his 
learning into first rate 
reporting. We are proud of 


Although competition 
among top schools for 
highly quaUfied students 
has increased, Brandeis' 
recruiting for the 
forthcoming year has 
actually shown an upswing, 
according to Dean of 
Admissions David Gould. 

The upswing was aided in 
part by a newly instituted 
Merit Scholarship program 
whereby the University is 
granting scholarships to 
students based on their 
academic achievement — a 
concept that is receiving a 
good deal of praise and 
attention in newspapers 
across the country. 

"Brandeis University is 
receiving well-deserved 
applause of late for 
recruiting top high school 

scholars with the same sort 
of inducements other 
schools use to recruit 
athletes," The Boston 
Herald editorialized. 

A front page story in The 
Chronicle of Higher 
Education focused on a high 
school senior from Denver 
who IS one of the recipients 
of a Brandeis Merit 
scholarship. "Mr. Weinberg 
decided to attend Brandeis 
next fall without even 
waiting to hear about the 
status of his application to 
Harvard," The Chronicle 

In another major article in 
the Wall Street Journal 
about the merits of Merit 
Scholarships, Dean of the 
College Attila Klein was 
quoted saying: "Every 
school is vying for the best 
students from a smaller pool 
.... Outstanding students 
are a precious commodity 
these days." 

One segment of that 
precious commodity will be 
forty-two students receiving 
Merit Scholarships next fall 
of which twenty-three will 
receive $4,000 each, while 
nineteen others who are 
eligible for financial need 
awards, will receive $2,500 
in addition to their 
need-based grants. 

Merit Scholarships are 
awarded on the basis of high 
school achievement, SAT 
scores and leadership 
qualities. Dean Gould 
stresses that the funds for 
these scholarships do not 
come from the pool of funds 
set aside for financially 
needy students and points 
out that some forty-five 
percent of Brandeis' 
students will continue to 
receive some form of 
financial aid next year, as 
they have in the past. 

Linking Science and 

29 The distance between 

scientific laboratories on the 
Brandcis campus and 
corporations along famed 
Route 128, and beyond, has 
narrowed considerably in 
the past year. 

It IS not unusual these days 
to see chief executive 
officers from established 
corporations and corporate 
foundations walking 
through the campus, visiting 
laboratories, and socializing 
over lunch with faculty and 

This recent increased effort 
in developing new links is an 
outgrowth of a realistic 
assessment of the benefits 
that higher education and 
industry can contnbute to 
each other. 

At Brandeis this link is 
already paying off m an 
increase in private support. 
For example, a grant for 
$1 78,000 was received from 
the Digital Equipment 
Corporation for the 
computer science program 
to purchase an additional 
computer and terminals. 
Grants from DuPont, 
Polaroid, Shell, Dow and 
GTE have allowed the 
departments of chemistry 
and physics to conduct 
summer programs for 
talented undergraduate 
students to begin research 

Brandeis has also received 
grants from IBM to support 
additional fellowships m the 
department of mathematics, 
for graduate students in the 
department of physics and 

augment summer faculty in 
the computer science 
program, joint research 
projects also have developed 
between faculty members 
and several science 
departments at Dow, GTE, 
Polaroid and New England 

Although both the academy 
and industry are already 
deriving benefits from their 
joint association, they are 
also forging the basis for 
future insurance when, 
predictions say, there will be 
fluctuating support for 
scientific research from 
federal agencies. It is those 
federal grants, which 
totalled a healthy ten 
million for science programs 
m 1982, that have provided 
the bulk of scientific funding 
at Brandeis. 

Much of the credit for the 
strengthening of the link 
between sciences at 
Brandeis and industry goes 
to a newly created team 
consisting of Arthur H. Reis, 
Jr., director of Science 
Resources and Planning; 
Susan Thomas, director of 
Corporate and Foundation 
Relations; and Ellen 
Stevens, her assistant, plus a 
new aggressive program 
within the development 

Despite Brandeis' relatively 
small size, the excellence of 
Its sciences is well known. 
The new links now being 
forged will not radically 
alter what is already 
happening within Brandeis' 
laboratories, but will add 
new strength to an already 
sturdy scientific chain. 

MIT Biophysicist and 
Colorado Biologist Win 
Rosenstiel Award for 
Basic Research 

A pioneer in cellular biology 
and a biophysicist whose 
discoveries have 
significantly advanced DNA 
research are the recipients of 
the 1983 Rosenstiel 
Medallion, one of the most 
prestigious awards in the 
country in the field of basic 

Keith Roberts Porter, 
professor of cell biology at 
the University of Colorado, 
and Alexander Rich, 
professor of biophysics at 
MIT, were cited by a 
committee of nationally 
prominent scientists for 
their "profound biophysical 
contributions to 
understanding the structure 
of living cells." The award 
was presented by Harlyn O. 
Halvorson, director of the 
Rosenstiel Basic Medical 
Sciences Research Center. 

In recent years, the 
announcement of the 
Rosenstiel winner has been 
closely watched by the 
scientific community 
because four of the 
recipients in the past ten 
years have subsequently 
been awarded Nobel Prizes. 
The Rosenstiel Medallion is 
presented annually to 
scientists in basic research 
who previously have not 
received major recognition 
for their achievements. 

Porter, 70, and Rich, 48, 
accepted the bronze 
medallions during dinner 
ceremonies in April, at the 
Brandeis Faculty Center. 
They also shared a $10,000 

feff Thomas 

Keith Roberts Porter, 
Harlyn O. Halvorson, 
Alexander Rich 


Representative to the 
Board of Trustees 

Jeff Thomas '85 has been 
elected to a two-year term as 
one of two undergraduate 
representatives to the Btiard 
of Trustees. 

A native of Huntsville, 
Alabama, Jeff is an American 
Studies concentrator. 
During his freshman year he 
coordinated the Black 
History Week program 
sponsored by the Brandeis 
Black Students Association 
and the Office of Student 
Affairs. This past year, he 
helped organize the Black 
Lecture Series, under the 
auspices of the Helmsley 
Fund, and has been an active 
member of the Brandeis 
Black Students 

Prize-Winning Poet 
Named to Prestigious 

Allen Grossman, 
prizc-winning poet and 
longtime member of the 
English department, has 
been named to the 
University's prestigious 
Paul E. Prosswimmer 
Professorship in Poetry and 
General Education. 

The Prosswimmer Chair 
honors "distinguished 
academicians whose 
teaching and research 
exemplifies the Brandeis 
philosophy of education of 
the whole individual." 

Grossman, who has been 
teaching at Brandeis since 
1960, is the author of five 
well-received books of verse 
includingi4 Harlot's Hire. 
The Women on the Bridge 
Over the Chicago River and, 
most recently, Of the Great 

Renowned Economist 
Appointed to Sachar 
Chair in International 

- Charles Kindleberger, 
president of the Amencan 
Economic Association and 
professor emeritus from 
MIT, has been named first 
holder of the newly 
established Sachar Chair in 
International Economics. A 
distinguished scholar of 
international reputation, he 
is author of scores of books 
and articles. 

He IS the recipient of the 
Garrison Award for Poetry, 
the 1981 Witter Prize from 
the American Academy of 
Arts and Letters, and a 
1982-83 Guggenheim 
Fellowship for distinction in 
the field of poetry. 

A New Book by 
Abram L. Sachar is 

The endowed $750,000 
Abram and TheLma Sachar 
Chair in International 
Economics, one of the most 
heavily endowed at 
Brandeis, was funded by 
Trustees and Fellows in 
honor of the University's 
foundmg president and his 


It is called Redemption of 
the Unwanted: From the 
Liberation of the Death 
Camps to the Founding 
of Israel and it is a 
comprehensive account of 
what happened to the 
European lews after World 
War II. Using secret 
documents and interviews, 
it details America's role in 
the creation of the state of 
Israel. The book's author is 
founding President Abram L. 
Sachar. The publisher is St. 
Martin's Press. 

Working for the 

Graduate Programs 
Rated Highly in 
National Survey 

Two members of the Heller 
School faculty have recently 
been snatched by the newly 
elected governor of 
Massachusetts to work in 
the new administration of 
Michael Dukakis. They are 
fames Callahan, director of 
the Levinson Policy 
Institute and director of the 
PhD program at Heller, who 
was named Massachusetts 
Commissioner of Mental 
Health; and Thomas Glynn, 
assistant dean for extemal 
affairs, who will be Deputy 
Commissioner of Welfare. 

Five Brandeis University 
Graduate Programs were 
rated in the top 15 programs 
among all private 
universities in the country. 
The programs cited were 
cellular-molecular biology, 
anthropology, history, and 
music. The study placed 
Brandeis with such schools 
as Harvard, Yale, MIT, 
Stanford, Columbia, and 
Princeton, all of whom 
posted similar ratings. 

"It is an outstanding 
achievement," said 
Graduate School Dean 
Robert ]. Art. "We compete 
successfully in the league of 
the rich and the large, while 
we are small in size and 

The study reconfirmed that 
Brandeis has achieved its 
primary goal: academic 
excellence within a small 
research institution. The 
University's supenor rating 
becomes a more notable 

achievement when viewed 
from a historical 
perspective. In less than 
thirty-five years, Brandeis' 
programs have achieved a 
level of excellence 
comparable to institutions 
which are among the oldest 
in the country' and whose 
endowments are far larger. 

The study, the latest in a 
series of assessments of the 
nation's graduate schools, 
was prepared by the 
Conference Board of 
Associated Research 
Councils and published by 
the National Academy of 
Sciences. More than 1,000 
professors nationwide 
participated in the two-year 
effort which was sponsored 
jointly by federal agencies 
and private foundations. 

Michael L Walzer '56. has 
been elected Alumni Term 
Trustee to the University's 
Board of Trustees. Professor 
Walzer, the first alumnus to 
receive an honorary degree 
from Brandeis. teaches at 
the School of Social Science. 
Institute for Advanced 
Study at Princeton. 

$500,000 from 
Goldfarb Estate 
Gives Needed Space 
in Goldfarb Library 

31 New rctcrcncc and 

circulation departments are 
part of the expansion and 
renovation of the lacob A. 
Goldfarb Library- made 
possible by $500,000 
received from the estate of 
the late benefactor and 
trustee of Brandeis after 
whom the library was 
named. Mr. Goldfarb and his 
wife, Bertha, gave $1 million 
for the construction of 
Brandeis' first new library 
building in 1956 and by the 
time it was opened m 1959, 
they had contributed 
another $500,000. From 
1961 until the time of his 
death in 1978, Mr. Goldfarb 
served as treasurer of the 
University's Board of 
Trustees. His wife, Bertha, 
passed away last year. 

Student from China 
Wins Karpf Peace Prize 

Cognitive Cuisine 

A peace prize that seeks to 
foster "understanding 
among the peoples of the 
earth" was awarded to an 
undergraduate from the 
People's Republic of China 
for his proposal to increase 
the level of protein in that 
country's diet. 

Erh-fei Liu, a junior 
economics major, received 
the $2,000 Karpf Peace Prize, 
the first such prize offered to 

an undergraduate student by 
an American college or 
university. The funds will 
enable Liu to travel to China 
this summer to continue his 
research on the feasibility of 
Sino-Amencan economic 
cooperation in the 
production of isolated soy 

The Karpf Peace Prize is 
endowed by a gift from the 
late Maurice I. and Fay B. 
Karpf. Liu, a dean's list 
student, plans to go to 
graduate school in the 
United States before 
returning to China where he 
plans to pursue a career in 
international economic law 
or international trade. 

In the spring, the Office of 
the Dean of the College 
created a program designed 
to bring promising 
undergraduates together 
with faculty members in a 
different setting . . . the 
faculty member's home. 

The pilot program began 
with sixty freshmen and 
sophomores who were 
invited to choose a faculty 
member they wished to dine 
with, and then twelve 
faculty members were asked 
to participate. The response 
was so positive that, as the 
semester continued, the 
program was expanded to 
include 180 students and 36 
members of the faculty. 

"Cognitive cuisme" was so 
well received that the 
organizers promise it will 
become a tradition. 

Women's Committee 
Honors Dr. Calderone 

Humanists Teach 

Student Wins Watson 

Representatives of the 
largest friends of the librar>^ 
movement in the world, i.e., 
Brandeis' National Women's 
Committee, awarded the 
Abram L. Saehar Silver 
Medallion to the 
distinguished physician, 
public health expert and 
pioneering leader in the field 
of human sexuality — Dr. 
Mary S. Calderone. 
Presented by BUNWC 
President Cynthia Shulman, 
the annual tribute goes to a 
woman of outstanding 

The award was presented 
during the 35th Anniversary' 
Conference held on the 
campus in early [une, which 
was attended by over 300 
delegates from every region 
of the country. 

The Office of Continuing 
Studies and the Legal 
Studies Program have 
developed a program called 
"Literary Texts, Humanistic 
Values and the Professions" 
for professionals within the 
legal system who wish to 
broaden their understanding 
of such themes as judgment, 
ethics, and human choice. 

Participants attend day-long 
sessions where classic texts 
such as Shakespeare's King 
Leai, Conrad's Secret 
Sharer. Melville's Billy 
Budd and Camus' The 
Stranger are used as the basis 
for discussions led by 
humanists from Brandeis 
and other area schools. 

The Massachusetts 
Foundation for Humanities 
and Public Policy awarded a 
grant to Brandeis for 
1 98 1 - 1 982 to present these 
sessions to judges in the 
Massachusetts District 
Court system. The 
foundation, which has called 
the program "the best 

project with a discussion 
format ever sponsored by the 
MFHPP," has re-funded 
Brandeis for 1983-1984 to 
conduct similar sessions for 
clerk-magistrates in the 
court system. 

The Rhode Island Hospital 
in Providence arranged with 
Brandeis to conduct similar 
sessions for physicians and 
medical administrators. The 
project IS called "Medical 
Decision-Making: Literary 
Texts, Humanistic Values, 
and the Healing Professions.' 

Sanford M. Lottor, director 
of Continuing Studies, and 
Saul Touster, loseph M. 
Proskauer Professor in Law 
and Social Welfare and 
director of the Legal Studies 
program, are co-directing the 

Naomi Hillel ot 
Ramat-Chen, Israel, won the 
prestigious $ 1 0,000 Watson 
Fellowship for a year of 
independent study following 
her graduation in May. The 
Thomas f. Watson 
Fellowship was awarded to 
only 70 college students in 
America this year. Ms. 
Hillel, a music major, will 
study the application of the 
Suzuki method in piano 
teaching in Japan and 

Sherman and Farbei 
Head Trustees 

Theater Arts Alumni ■ 
Where Are You? 

Malcolm L. Sherman of 

Wellesley, Massachusetts, 
executive vice president of 
Zayre Corp. and president of 
Zayre Stores, is the new 
chairman of the Trustees 
Development Committee. 
Vice-chairman is Leonard L. 
Farber of Ft. Lauderdale, 
Florida, president of the 
Leonard L. Farber Co. of 
Pompano Beach, Florida, one 
of the nation's leading real 
estate development firms. 

Both members of the 
Brandeis Board of Trustees 
have been actively involved 
with the development of 
Brandeis over the years, and 
served as President's 
Councilors and Brandeis 

Under Mr. Sherman's 

chairmanship, a new and 
ongoing program, "The 
Brandeis Exchange," was 
introduced last year to 
increase Fellows' 
involvement with the 
University and the students. 
As a result, the Fellows 
Resource Bank was 
established through which 
Fellows are helping Brandeis 
students by offering their 
personal expertise and 
business contacts to 
students seeking career 
information. Brandeis 
alumnae in the Sherman 
family are his wife, Barbara 
Cantor Sherman '54, and his 
daughter, Robin '83. 

Mr. Farber's lead gift for the 
construction of the Leonard 
L. Farber Library' initiated 
Brandeis' campaign in 1981 
for a new library complex 
involving the Farber Librar\- 
the Goldfarb Library and the 
Rapaporte Treasure Hall. 
The dedication of the 
Leonard L. Farber library was 
luneS, 1983. Mr. Farber 

continues to be a prime 

mover in University 
development functions both 
nationally and in his 
community. In March, he 
received the University's 
Medal for Distinguished 
Service to Higher Education. 

Heller School Receives 
Largest Chair Gift in 

The Florence Heller 
Graduate School has 
received a gift of over 
one m.illion dollars to 
endow the Sol C. Chaikin 
Chair in National Health 

Chaikin is the president of 
the International Ladies 
Garment Workers Union 
and a Brandeis Trustee. The 
gift, which IS also one of the 
largest m the Heller School's 
history, comes from many of 
Chaikm's friends m labor 
and industry. 

The first person to hold the 
chair will be Heller School 
Dean Stuart Altman, one of 
the national's leading health 
economists and a strong 
advocate of a National 
Health Insurance Program. 

"This magnificient gift, 
which honors one of our 
great labor leaders, is a major 
step forward m our effort to 
stay m the cutting edge of 
health policy research," said 
Altman, former Deputy 
Assistant Secretary for 
Health Planning at HEW. 

Altman said that in the past 
several years, the Heller 
School has strengthened its 
reputation as a preeminent 
research center in Medicaid 
cost control, ambulatory 
care in hospitals and 
long-term care for senior 

Leonard L Farbei 
"This support will enable us Malcolm L Sherman 
to balance humanitarian 
concerns for equal access 
against the need for public 
policies which can 
reasonably be supported by 
government and the private 
sector," said Altman. 

Stuart Altman 
Sol C. Chaikin 

The Theater Arts 
Department is preparing 
its semi-annual newsletter 
for all Its graduates and 
undergraduates and is asking 
all those who have received 
the "Information Sheet" to 
fill It out and retum it to the 
office. Those theater arts 
majors (or non-majorsi now 
working in the theater, film, 
video, etc. who may not 
have received one, are urged 
to contact lohn-Edward Hill 
at the Spmgold Theater. 



Planning for the October 
Homecoming event is well 
under way, according to Beth 
Goldstein '85 and Mark 
Rosenberg '85, coordinators. 
The celebrations begin 
October 14 and will 
continue through the 
weekend when there will be 
speakers, concerts, the 
traditional soccer game . . . 
and surprises. For more 
information contact the 
Office of Student Affairs. 

Scholars Differ on 
French Jews 

Differences over the past and 
future of French Jewry 
emerged at the conference 
on The lews m Modern 
France held this spring at 
Brandeis. Attended by more 
than 250 scholars from 
France, Israel, Britain, 
Canada, and the U.S.A., the 
conference was organized by 
the Tauber Institute. 

Keynote speaker, Eugen 
Weber, stressed that the 
Jews formed only a tiny 
proportion of the population 
of France. Weber, who is 
professor of history at the 
University of California, Los 
Angeles, and author of 
Peasants into Frenchmen, 
suggested that recent 
research showed that most 
Frenchmen were not greatly 
concerned about the Dreyfus 
affair nor about most other 
issues of concern to Jews. 
The lewish problem in 
France, he argued, "is a 
Jewish problem." 
Anti-Semitism did not exist 
in France but "the fact that 
the French don't particularly 
like the lews is irrelevant 
because the French don't 
particularly like anybody." 

Other participants differed 
from Weber, viewing the 
French lewish experience as 
central to modem French 
history and current French 

Sharp disagreement emerged 
in a session on "The Left and 
the lews" in which Stephen 
Schuker, professor of history 
at Brandeis, stressed the role 
of French Jews in the 1930s 
in the communist party and 
other left-wing groups. 
Schuker was strongly 
criticized by William 
Cohen, professor of history 
at Indiana University. Pierre 
Bimbaum, a political 
scientist at the University of 
Pans, pointed out that 
recent public opinion polls 
in France showed that 
Jewish voters, who had been 
strong supporters of the 
socialist party of President 
Frangois Mitterrand, were 
now deserting the st)cialists 
and moving to the right. 

The final session was 
entitled "Dilemmas of 
French Jewry under the Fifth 
Republic: Retrospect and 
Prospect." Among the 
speakers was Michael 
Marrus of the University of 
Toronto and co-author of the 
recent book, Vichy and the 
lews. Marrus argued that, 
notwithstanding the recent 
bomb attacks on Jewish 
targets in France, 
anti-Semitism in the 
country had been declining 
steadily since 194.S. Citing 
opinion poll evidence, 
Marrus suggested that the 
bomb attacks were pnibably 
the work of Arab or other 
non-French groups. 

Participants were 
entertained at a special 
reception held at the 
headquarters of the 
American Jewish Historical 
Society. To coincide with 
the conference, the Society 
held an exhibition of 
Franeo-Judaica and a display 
of French-Jewish materials 
was also mounted in the 
Judaica wing of the library. 

As part of the conference, 
the University Press of New 
England sponsored a 
reception and dinner to 
launch the latest book in the 
Tauber Institute's series. 
The book is entitled French 
and Germans, Germans and 
French: A Personal 
Interpretation of France 
under Two Occupations. 
1914-18 and 1 940-44 hy 
Richard Cobb, professor of 
history at Oxford 

The conference was 
organized by Professor 
Frances Malino of the 
University of 
Massachusetts, Boston; 
Scholar-m-Residence of the 
Tauber Institute Professor 
David Landes of Harvard 
University, chairman of the 
Tauber Institute's Board of 
Overseers; and Professor 
Bernard Wasserstein, 
director of the Institute. 
Additional support was 
provided by grants from the 
French Cultural Services in 
Boston and the Helena 
Rubinstein Foundation. 

The main papers from the 
conference are to be 
published in a volume m the 
Tauber Institute series. 

Having a 
is like 
a winning 

You are 



With a will... 

\ oil decide how vnur assets are 
to he used, and bv whorji, in the 
future. V ou name your own execu- 
tor. You can establish tnists. You 
can reduce and soiiietiiiies elimi- 
nate taxes and other adniinist native 
expenses. Gilts ol'cash or pro|KM"t\ 
to charities and institutions can 
ix'iielil \()u. 

W ithout a will . . . 
you have control. It will then 
be u|) to the state to decide how 
your as.sets are to l)e distributed. 

For more inlbrniation about the 
itii|)ortance of a will and ways 
that vou can inclutfe Brandeis. 
send lor our new brochure. 
"Your Living Legacy." Copies 
a\ailable liy writing or calling 
.|ose|)h L. (Jolield, Director of 
Planned Giving, Brandeis L'ni- 
versitv. Vi altharn. Massachusetts 
022.34 or () I ?-()■+ 7-235'A 

Faculty Notes 

Laurence E. Abbott 

associate professor of 
physics, recently lectured at 
the University of 
Vancouver, Brown 
University and Oberlin 
College in Ohio. 

Joyce Antler 

assistant professor of 
American studies and 
director of the Women's 
Studies Program, presented a 
lecture, "Meaning and 
Meanmglessness: Education 
atRadcliffc, 1900," at the 
Radcliffe Research Scholars 
Colloquium Series held at 
Radcliffe College last spring. 

Albert S. Axelrad 

chaplain and B'nai B'rith 
Hillel director, is the author 
of "Doctors' Meditation," 
published in Linacre 
Quarterly — A lournal of the 
Philosophy and Ethics of 
Medical Practice in 
November, 1982. The article 
was selected by Harvard 
Medical School's 1983 
graduating class for 
publication in its 
commencement program. 

Asoka Bandarage 

assistant professor of 
sociolog>', gave the opening 
speech at Yale University's 
Women's Week Program, 
and spoke on "Women and 
Third World Development" 
at Boston University's 
School of SocialWork. She 
was invited to organize and 
chair the session on 
"Development and 
Developing Societies" at the 
1984 meeting of the 
American Sociological 
Association. She was a 
panelist at a conference on 
"Common Differences: 
Third World Women's 
Perspectives" at the 
University of Illinois. The 
syllabus for her course, 
"Comparative Ethnic 
Relations" was selected by 
the Committee on World 
Sociology of the American 
Sociological Association 
|ASA) for a collection aimed 
at internationalizing 
sociology curricula. She was 
elected to the editorial 
board of The Bulletin of 
Concerned Asian Scholars. 

Stephan Berko 

William R. Kenan, Jr. 
Professor of Physics, gave an 
invited lecture last summer 
at the Gordon Conference 
on "Particle-Solid 
Interactions." He also 
presented talks at the 
"International Meeting on 
Spin, Charge and 
Momentum Density" held 
in Nikko, lapan, and 
participated in a workshop 
on Positron Physics at 
Tsukuba University also in 
lapan. In September, he 
spent two weeks in India 
lecturing on new 
experimental results m 
positron physics obtained at 
Brandeis, at universities m 
Delhi, Calcutta, Kanpurand 
Madras. He was guest 
speaker at the Indian 
Atomic Energy Center at 
Kalpakkam and the Bhabha 
Atomic Research Center in 
Bombay. He also presented 
seminars at the Bell 
Research laboratories and 
more recently at the 
Universities of Washington, 
Seattle and British 
Columbia in Vancouver. 

Joseph S. Berliner 

Rosen Family Professor of 
Economics and chair of the 
economics department, has 
been named to both the Joint 
Committee on Soviet 
Studies of the Social Science 
Research Council and the 
American Council of 
Learned Societies. His 
article, "Planning and 
Management in the USSR," 
was recently published m 
The Soviet Economy: 
Toward the Year 2000. He 
also presented the summary 
report at the Berkeley 
Conference on Social 
Welfare and the Delivery of 
Social Sciences, USA/USSR. 

Robert H. Binstock 

Louis Stulberg Professor of 
Law and Politics, delivered 
the Kent Award Lecture, 
"The Aged as Scapegoat," to 
the Gerontological Society 
of America. It was 
subsequently published m 
The Gerontologist. He 
chaired a conference on 
Long-Term Care Policy 
Issues for the Office of 
Technology Assessment, 
U.S. Congress at Millwood, 
Virginia. In addition, he gave 
a series of talks as the Holy 

Cross Endowment Lecturer 

in Shreveport, Los Angeles, 
and presented invited 
lectures at Harvard Medical 
School and North Texas 
State University. 

Egon Bittner 

Harry Coplan Professor in 
the Social Sciences, 
authored the presidential 
address, "Technique and the 
Conduct of Life," given last 
August at the annual 
meeting of the Society 
for the Study of Social 
Problems. The address also 
appeared in the February 
1983 issue oi Social 

Maureen Boulton 

assistant professor of French 
and comparative literature, 
was awarded a grant by the 
American Philosophical 
Society last summer to do 
research m Pans for a book 
on the use of material from 
the Apocrypha of the New 
Testament m Old French 
Literature. Her first book 
has been accepted for 
publication by the Pontifical 
Institute of Medieval 
Studies in Toronto. Her 
article, "The Evangile de 
I'Enfance: The Rediscovery 
of the Didot Manuscript," 
appeared in Romania, and 
an article on a related topic is 
scheduled for publication in 
Scriptorium. She has also 
had several reviews 
published m Romance 

Jay Y. Brodbar-Nemzer 

assistant professor of Near 
Eastern and Judaic studies, 
recently presented a paper at 
the annual meeting of the 
North Central Sociological 
Association in Ohio on "Sex 
Differences in Attitudes 
Toward Israel: The 1981-82 
National Survey of 
American lews." 

Anne P. Carter 

dean of the faculty and Fred 
C. Hecht Professor of 
Economics, was invited to 
serve as coordinator of the 
international symposium, 
"Revitalizing the World 
Economy Through 
Improved Productivity," 
held in Tokyo last May. At 
the symposium she also led 

an all-day session on 
"Business Environment and 
Productivity." Her most 
recent publications include: 
"International Effects of 
Energ>' Conservation," in 
Scandinavian Journal of 
Economics which was 
reprinted as chapter one of 
The Impact of Rising Oil 
Prices on the World 
Economy (Macmillan, 
1982), "Changes m Input 
Output and Business 
Planning, "/omadfls de 
Estudio sobre las Tablas 
Input-Output de la 
Economia Espanola and 
"Materials in the Industrial 
System, " m the forthcoming 
Encyclopedia of Materials 
Science and Engineering. 

Peter Child 

assistant professor of music, 
was awarded a New Works' 
Prize by the New England 
Conservatory of Music for 
his original composition, 
Ensemblance. The award 
included a cash pnze and 
performances of the piece at 
Boston's Jordan Hall, Clark 
University and UMass, 
Amherst. Ensemblance was 
commissioned and 
premiered by the Boston 
Musica Viva. 

Jacques Cohen 

professor and chair of 
computer science, gave an 
invited talk on "Recent 
Results in Computer 
Assisted Analysis of 
Programs" at a seminar held 
at Rutgers University in 

George L. Cowgill 

professor of anthropology, 
received a two-year grant of 
$120,000 from the National 
Science Foundation for 
continuation of computer- 
aided analyses of 
archaeological data from 
Teotihuacan, Mexico. Two 
of his articles have recently 
been published: "Clusters of 
Objects and Associations 
Between Variables: 
Two Approaches to 
Classification, " infssays on 
Archaeological Typology. 
and "Rulership and the 
Ciudadela: Political 
Inferences from 
Teotihuacan Architecture" 
in Civilizations in the 
Ancient Americas. In 


35 October and December 
1982, he gave colloquia at 
Boston and Yale 
Universities on his 
Teotihuacan research, and 
in March, a paper in a 
symposium held at UCLA. 
He IS also consulting editor 
for mathematics and 
statistics ior American 
Antiquity, journal of the 
Society for American 

Charles Cutter 

lecturer in Near Eastern and 
Judaic studies and head of 
the fudaica department at 
Goldfarb Library, had his 
book, Jewish Reference 
Sources: a Selective, 
Annotated Bibliographic 
Guide (co-authored with 
Micha F. Oppenheim, 
librarian at the Jewish 
Theological Seminary) 
published by Garland 
Publishing, New York. His 
review of Brad Sabin-Hill, 
"Incunabula Hebraica and 
Judaica" was also published 
in Library Quarterly. 

Stanley Deser 

Enid and Nathan S. Ancell 
Professor of Physics, 
delivered invited lectures at 
the University of Florida and 
Florida State University, 
Yale University, and at the 
Joint Theoretical Seminar at 
Harvard University. He is a 
member of the Review 
Committee on 
Gravitational Physics 
at the National Science 
Foundation, Washington. 
He was also nominated 
"Honorary Scientific 
Investigator" at the 
Venezuelan Center for 
Astronomy Research. 

Donna Devlin 

associate professor of 
physical education and 
women's basketball coach, 
was selected to be head 
coach of the East Basketball 
Team at the 1983 National 
Sports Festival held in |une. 
She recently took office as 
president of the NatK)nal 
Women's Basketball 
Coaches Association after 
serving as vice president of 
that organization for the past 

Adrienne S. Dey 

adjunct assistant professor 
of chemistry, is councillor 
and editor of Niicieus, the 
monthly newsletter of the 
Northeastern section of the 
American Chemical 
Society. The section, 
comprised of 4,000 chemists 
in Eastern Massachusetts 
and Southern New 
Hampshire, held its first five 
meetings for 1983 at 
Brandeis under the title, 
"The James Bryant Conant 
Lectures in Current 

Herman T. Epstein 

professor of biophysics, is 
co-author of "Studies of 
Chloroplast Development in 
Euglena" (with J, A. Schiff, 
Abraham and Etta Goodman 
Professor of Biology, and A. I. 
Stem) which was recently 
named a "citation classic" 
by Current Contents for 
having been cited m over 40 

Irving R. Epstein 

professor of chemistry, 
chaired and delivered the 
keynote address at a meeting 
of the American Association 
for Advancement of Science 
on oscillating chemical 
reactions. He gave invited 
talks at a NATO workshop 
on chemical instabilities, 
and at Boston College, MIT, 
Wellesley College and 
Florida State University. His 
article, "Oscillating 
Chemical Reactions" 
(co-authored with Professor 
of Chemistry Kenneth 
Kustin and colleagues from 
Bordeaux and Budapest), was 
published in the March issue 
of Scientific American. 

Elliot ). Feldman 

assistant professor of 
politics, addressed the 
conference of the Parti 
Quebecois in Montreal on 
management of the 
Canadian economy and was 
the guest of Premier Rene 
Levesque. He was 
interviewed on CBS's 
evening news show, 
Actualites Regionales. on 
his book. The Politics of 
Canadian Airport 
Development: Lessons for 
Federalism. He was guest 
lecturer at Brigham 
Young University on 
Canadian-United States 

relations and policy 
analysis, and at the 
University of Calgary was 
advisor on the development 
of an M. A. policy analysis 
and lecturer on comparative 
public policy. 

Gordon A. Fellman 

associate professor of 
sociology, had his article, 
"Israel at a Crossroads, 
Zionism: Left and Right," 
published in WIN 
(Workshop in Nonviolence) 
Magazine. His column, 
"National Dilemma for 
Israel: Power vs. Morality," 
was distributed by UPI and 
appeared in numerous 
papers, including the Boston 
Herald. He has given talks 
on the Middle East at 
UMass, Boston, Harvard 
University, MIT, and Boston 
University; co-led a 
workshop on arms and the 
Middle East at a Physicians 
for Social Responsibility 
conference on arms control; 
and appeared on various 
radio programs and a 
syndicated cable television 
show. He also debated the 
topic of possible Israeli 
annexation of the West Bank 
at a March meeting of the 
New England Zionist 

Judith Ferster 

assistant professor of 
English, recently gave a 
paper entitled, "Intention 
and Interpretation in 
Chaucer's frank/in 's Tale" 
at the eighteenth annual 
Congress on Medieval 
Studies at Western Michigan 
University's Medieval 

Randall K. Filer 

assistant professor of 
economics, is the author of 
"Sexual Differences in 
Earnings: The Role of 
Individual Personalities and 
Tastes," which appeared in 
the Winter, 1983 issue of 
The fournal of Human 
Resources. In addition, he 
has been commissioned by 
the National Bureau of 
Economic Research to 
prepare a paper on 
"Absenteeism from Work 
Among Inner-City Minority 
Youth" (with Assistant 
Professor of African and 
Afro-American Studies 
Ronald F. Ferguson). 

Philip Fisher 

associate professor of 
English, recently presented a 
lecture on art objects and 
mass production at the 
annual conference of the 
German Society of 
American Studies in Kiel. 
He also lectured last month 
at the European Conference 
on Marxist and 
Approaches to Literature m 
Dubrovnik. His recent 
essays on Dreiser, 
sentimentality and art 
objects have appeared in 
Representations, American 
Studies and American 
Realism: New Essays. 

Lawrence H. Fuchs 

Meyer and Walter Jaffe 
Professor of American 
Civilization and Politics, 
visited universities in China 
during March and April to 
assist in the development of 
their programs. He lectured 
at Beijing and Wuhan 
Universities and at the 
Shanghai Institute for 
International Studies. At 
Wesleyan University, he 
addressed a convocation of 
university presses on "Risk 
Taking m University Press 
Publisbing." He also spoke 
at the annual meeting of the 
American Jewish Historical 
Society on "John F. Kennedy 
and the American Jewish 
Community." He is author 
of "Immigration Policy and 
the Rule of Law," recently 
published in the University 
of Pittsburgh Law Review, 
and "Jews and Hispanics m 
America: The Meeting of 
Two Cultures," published 
by the American Jewish 

David G. Gil 

professor of social policy at 
the Heller School, had six of 
his recent articles published: 
"The Social Context of 
Domestic Violence" in 
Vermont Law Review. "Not 
by Bullets, Nor by Ballots, 
But by Counter-Education 
and Direct Action. . :" in 
Socialist Forum. "Social 
Sciences and Human 
Liberation" and "Dialectics 
of Individual Development 

and Global Social Welfare" 
in Humanity and Society. 
and "Dilemmas of Political 
Practice" and "How to Lick 
Unemployment" in The 
Human Sociologist. He 
delivered lectures at the 
American Orthopsychiatric 
Association, Massachusetts 
General Hospital, the 
Human Services Conference 
in Rhode Island, the Child 
Welfare League of America, 
and at the International 
Conference on 
Psychological Abuse of 
Children and Youth m 

Allen R. Grossman 

professor of English, has 
been named the Paul E. 
Prossvv'immer Professor of 
Poetry and General 

Andrew Hahn 

lecturer and director of the 
Center for Employment and 
Income Studies at the Heller 
School, has received a 
planning grant from the 
Edna McConnell Clark 
Foundation to assist in the 
implementation of a youth 
employment strategy. He 
has also received a grant 
from the Rockefeller 
Foundation to write a book 
on youth employment (with 
colleague Robert Lerman). 
His article on "The Effects of 
the Federal Budget Act of 
1981 on New England's 
Poor" was published in last 
fall's issue of TH«!7ST, the 
Journal for Empkiyment and 
Training Professionals. In 
April, he spoke on youth 
unemployment at the 
annual meeting of the 
Council of Community 
Foundations in San 

Martin Halpem 

Samuel and Sylvia 
Schulman Professor of 
Theater Arts, won a 1982 
Massachusetts Artists 
Foundation award for his 
play, "The True Irving 
Rifkin," which premiered at 
the Boston Lyric Stage 
Theater on May 25. His play, 
"Day Six," also premiered in 
May at the Philadelphia 
Festival Theater. 

Penelope Jencks 

Saltzman Visiting Artist, 
has been chosen one of four 
finalists in a competition to 
sculpt the Arthur Fiedler 
Memorial for the Charles 
River Esplanade. 

William P. Jencks 

Gyula and Katica Tauber 
Professor of Biochemistry 
and Molecular 
Pharmacodynamics, was the 
Chambers Lecturer at the 
University of Rochester 
where he presented a 
week-long series of lectures 
entitled, "How Does a 
Reaction Choose its 
Mechanism?" In January, he 
delivered a lecture on a 
related topic at the eighth 
Enzymes Mechanisms 
Conference at the Asilomar 
Conference Center in 
California. In March, he 
presented a senes of lectures 
as Visiting Professor of 
Chemistry at Texas A & M 
University. He also lectured 
at the Fox Chase Cancer 
Center in Philadelphia and 
recently gave an invited 
lecture at SUNY Buffalo. 

John Bush Jones 

lecturer with the rank of 
professor in theater arts, has 
been elected treasurer of the 
newly-formed Boston 
Theater Critics Circle. 

Edward K. Kaplan 

associate professor of 
French, was featured 
speaker at a New York 
commemoration of the 
tenth anniversary of 
Abraham J. Heschel's death, 
and at Boston University for 
a commemorative of the 
second anniversary of the 
death of Howard Thurman, 
former dean of the chapel. 
He also presented a paper 
entitled, "Abraham I. 
Heschel's Poetics of 
Religious Thinking," at the 
Heschel Symposium 
sponsored by the College of 
St. Benedict in Minnesota. 
His article, "Contemplative 
Inwardness and Prophetic 
Action: Thomas Merton's 
Dialogue with Judaism," 
recently appeared m the 
book, Thomas Meiton: 
Pilgrim in Progress (Griffin 
Press, 19831. 

Philip M. Keehn 

associate professor of 
chemistry, delivered an 
invited lecture on 
"Intramolecular Non- 
Bonded Interactions in 
Cyclophanes" at Rockefeller 
University m New York 

Robert Owen Keohane 

professor of international 
relations, was a member of a 
six-person group of 
mtemational relations 
theorists who went to the 
Soviet Union last lanuary for 
a meeting with Soviet 
specialists, under the 
auspices of the US'USSR 
exchange program, 
coordinated by the Council 
on Foreign Relations and the 
Soviet Academy of Sciences. 
He also joined an invited 
group of international 
relations theonsts in China 
last month, under the 
sponsorship of the National 
Science Foundation and the 
Chinese Academy of Social 
Sciences. In May, he 
presented a paper to the 
Social Science Research 
Council's working group on 
Order and Conflict m 
Westem Capitalism 
entitled, "The World 
Political Economy and the 
Crisis of Embedded 

Reuven R. Kimelman 

assistant professor of Near 
Eastern and Judaic Studies 
and Manheimer Term 
Assistant Professor of 
University Studies, 
authored a tribute to his 
teacher, Abraham Joshua 
Heschel, which appeared in 
the winter issue of The 
Melton Journal and in the 
Hebrew weekly, HaDoar. 
His analysis of the Israeli 
Commission of Inquiry 
entitled, "Judging Man by 
the Standards of God," was 
the cover article in the May 
issue of The B'nai B'rith 
International Jewish 
Monthly. He also spoke at 
the Seventh National 
Workshop on Christian- 
Jewish Relations on 
"Foundations of Jewish and 
Christian Social Visions," 
and served as scholar- 
in-residence at a retreat of 
the National Jewish Welfare 

Lorraine V. Klerman 

professor of public health at 
the Heller School, 
co-authored two chapters, 
"Effects of Early Parenthood 
on the Cognitive 
Development of Children" 
(with E. Milling Kmard, 
adjunct lecturer at Heller), 
and "Comprehensive 
Service Programs for 
Pregnant and Parenting 
Adolescents" (with James F. 
Jekel), in a book entitled, 
"Premature Adolescent 
Pregnancy and Parenthood." 
She also co-authored (with 
Virginia Cartoof, Heller 
School doctoral candidate) 
the article, "Massachusetts' 
Parental Consent Law: A 
Preliminary Study of the 
Law's Effects," published m 
the Massachusetts Journal 
of Community Health. 

Blanche Linden-Ward 

lecturer with the rank of 
assistant professor of 
American studies, led a 
walking tour- workshop at 
Spring Grove Cemetery in 
Cincinnati for a meeting of 
the Organization of 
American Historians. She 
also lectured and gave 
walking tours of Mount 
Auburn Cemetery to classes 
in Landscape Architecture at 
the Harvard Graduate 
School of Design. She 
presented a paper entitled, 
"A Room of One's Own: 
Inns and Hotels in 
Cincinnati," at a joint 
meeting of the Great Lakes 
American Studies 
Association and the 
American Society of 
Environmental Historians at 
Miami University, Ohio. 

John W. Lowenstein 

Helena Rubinstein Professor 
of Biochemistry, gave 
invited lectures on 
"Intercellular and 
Intracellular Signalling by 
Adenosine" at the 
University of Surrey in 
England, "The Purine 
Nucleotide Cycle" at 
Jefferson Medical College in 
Philadelphia and Procter &. 
Gamble Company in 
Cincinnati, and "The Use of 
Stable Isotopes for 
Measunng Lipogenesis" also 
in Cincinnati. 


37 Robert S. Lurie 

assistant professor of 
economics, presented a 
paper at the December 1 982 
meetmg of the American 
Economic Association on "R 
& D, hmovation and 
Environmental Regulation" 
which was subsequently 
published in The American 
Economist. He is presently 
on a grant as research fellow 
at the International Institute 
for Environment and Society 
in Berlin. 

Robert J. Maeda 

associate professor and 
chairman of fine arts, 
delivered a series of four 
lectures entitled, "Tradition 
and Change: An 
Introduction to Chinese 
Painting," at the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts. 
The series was held m 
conjunction with the 
reopening of the Museum's 
Asiatic galleries. 

Frank E. Manuel 

Alfred and Viola Flart 
University Professor, won 
the American Book Award 
for the best paperback in the 
field of history for Utopian 
Thought in the Western 
World (co-authored by 
Fritzie P. Manuel). His new 
book. The Changing of the 
Gods, IS scheduled for 
publication in September. In 
January, he delivered two 
lectures in Israel; "The Uses 
of Jewish Thought in 
Chnstendom" at Tel Aviv 
University, and "The 
Nature of the History of 
Ideas" at the Van Leer 
Jerusalem Foundation. 

Leslie Ann McArthur 

associate professor of 
psychology, has had her 
research on "The How and 
What of Why: Some 
Determinants and 
Consequences of Causal 
Attribution" featured as a 
"citation classic" in the May 
2 issue of Current Contents 
for being one of the most 
cited works in its field. 

Teresa Mendez-Faith 

assistant professor of 
Spanish, has had her 
forthcoming book, 
Contemporaneos, accepted 

for publication by Holt, 
Rinehart & Winston. Her 
article on the Peruvian poet 
Cesar Valleio will appear in 
Cuademos Americanos and 
Sm Nombre and "The 
Theme of Dictatorship in 
the Paraguayan Novel of 
Exile," m Monografias 
Latmoamericanas. Her 
interview with Mexican 
writer Elena Pomatowska 
will be published in Inti: 
Revista de Literatura 
Hispamca and Atlantis: A 
Women's Studies journal. 
She presented lectures on 
Borges and Bertolucci at the 
MLA convention in Los 
Angeles, and on Gabriel 
Garcia Marquez at a 
symposium at Wellesley 
College and at Brandeis. She 
IS currently in Argentina on 
a Mazer grant. 

James B. Merod 

assistant professor of 
English and American 
literature, recently 
presented a paper to the 
International Association of 
Philosophy and Literature 
on "Oriental 

Deconstruction?" at SUNY, 
Stony Brook. 

Ruth Schachter Morgenthau 

Adlai E. Stevenson Professor 
of International Politics, 
delivered a paper on "Food 
Prcxiuction and African 
Politics" at the Harvard 
Center for International 
Affairs. She was keynote 
speaker on world hunger 
at a conference on 
"International Dimensions 
in Education" sponsored by 
Universities Field Staff 
International. She was 
recently a participant in an 
international workshop on 
"Supporting Women 
Farmers" held in Bamako, 
Mall, and sponsored by Food 
Corps Programs, 
International (CILCA) and 
the Union des Femmes du 

Wellington W. Nyangoni 

associate professor of 
African and Afro- American 
studies, presented two 
lectures at Emory 
University last April and 
also lectured at Salem State 
College. A specialist on 
OECD multinational 

corporations in Southern 
Africa and consultant to the 
UN office of the high 
commissioner for Namibia, 
he IS presently preparing a 
United Nations Handbook 
on South African-based 
Transnational Corporations 
Doing Business m Namibia. 
During intersession, he 
conducted business and 
political discussions in 
Botswana, Zambia and 

Takashi Odagaki 

assistant professor of 
physics, had his chapters 
from the English translation 
of the Japanese book, "The 
Structure and Properties of 
Matter," (ed. T. Matsubara) 
published by Springer Verlag 
as part of the Springer Series 
in Solid State Sciences 
(Volume 28). 

Susan Moller Okin 

associate professor of 
politics, presented a paper at 
the Center for European 
Studies at Harvard 
University on "Patriarchy 
and Married Women's 
Property in Eighteenth- 
Century England." She also 
participated in a panel 
discussion as part of 
Women's Week at Yale 

Robert O. Preyer 

professor of English, gave the 
opening address at a 
conference on Italy and the 
Victorian Imagination 
entitled, "Breaking Out: The 
English Assimilation of 
Continental Thought in 
Rome." The conference was 
held at CUNY Graduate 
Center in NYC. Last 
summer, he delivered 
lectures at Heidelberg and 
Tubigen Universities. He 
also lectured to the Harvard 
Victorian Society on "John 
Stuart Mill and Victorian 
Classicism." In addition, he 
was elected to the Btiards of 
the Massachusetts ACLU 
and the Legal Defense Fund 
of the NAACP. 

Arthur H. Reis Jr. 

lecturer with the rank of 
associate professor of 
chemistry, spoke on " 'One 
Dimensional' Inorganic and 
Organic Materials" at the 

University of New 
Hampshire in April. 

Myron Rosenblum 

professor of chemistry, gave 
invited talks at Dartmouth 
College and the University 
of Califomia at San Diego on 
"Transformations of Vinyl 
Ether-Iron Complexes of 
Synthetic and Chemical 

Robert A. Schneider 

assistant professor of history 
and Manheimer Term 
Assistant Professor of 
University Studies, is 
currently doing research in 
France on a grant from the 
American Council of 
Learned Societies. 

Silvan S. Schweber 

professor of physics and 
Richard Koret Professor in 
the History of Ideas, was 
commentator at a Boston 
University colloquium on 
the history and philosophy 
of science and of Professor 
M. Hoshin's paper, "The 
Riddle of the Nebulae." In 
March, he delivered a paper 
entitled, "The Genesis of 
Feynman's Formulation of 
Quantum Mechanics: 
Visualization Recaptured" 
at a three-day conference on 
the history of probability in 
the physical sciences held at 
the University of Bielefeld in 
West Germany. He was also 
appointed an associate 
editor of Historical Studies 
in the Physical Sciences. 

Colin Steel 

professor of chemistry, gave 
invited talks on "High 
Temperature Infrared Laser 
Chemistry" at the Stanford 
University Research 
Institute, the Atomic Energy 
Commission of Canada, and 
California and Bell 
Telephone laboratories also 
in Canada. In May and June, 
he was visiting professor at 
the Israel Institute of 
Technology (Technion) 
under the auspices of the 
Binational Science 

Louis S. Stuhl 

assistant professor of 
chemistry, presented two 
papers at a national meeting 
of the American Chemical 
Society last March in 

Michael Swirsky 

adjunct lecturer in Near 
Eastern and ludaic Studies, 
prepared a catalog of films on 
European lewry and the 
Holocaust which was 
recently published by the 
Tauber Institute and the 
National Center for lewish 
Film. His translations 
of short works by 
contemporary Hebrew 
authors Yitzhak Ben-Ner 
and Adin Stemsaltz have 
also recently been 
published, and he is 
currently translating 
another work by Stemsaltz 
entitled, Teshuvah. 
Professor Swirsky is founder 
and first director of the 
Pardes Institute of Jewish 
Studies in Jerusalem. 

Robert Szulkin 

associate professor of 
Russian, was guest co-editor 
(with Richard Weisberg '65! 
of the May 1983 issue of 
Human Rights Quarterly. 
His article, "The Terror of 
Transformation in Varlam 
Shalamou's Stories," 
appeared in that same issue. 

Caldwell Titcomb 

professor of music, 
composed the incidental 
music that was used in the 
Rutgers University 
production of Bernard 
Shaw's Sainf Joan. The score 
called for flute, oboe, English 
horn, French horn, 
harpsichord, organ and 
three-part chorus. 

Milton I. Vanger 

professor of history, gave 
talks on "Argentina from 
Peron to the Present" at the 
First National Bank of 
Boston, and "Uruguay's Way 
Back to Democracy: The 
Aftermath of the Party 
Elections" at Yale 
University. His Spanish 
translation of The Model 
Country: lose BatUe y 
Ordonez of Uruguay, 
I907-J9J5 (published for 
the Brandeis University 
Press by the University Press 
of New England), has 
appeared in Montevideo, 
published by Ediciones de la 
Banda Oriental and ARCA. 
He was named a member of 
the prize committee of the 
New England Council of 
Latin American Studies. In 

September, he will be an 
invited panelist at a session 
on the Role of the State 
in Export Economics 
sponsored by the Latin 
American Studies 

Michael Wonnington 

assistant professor of 
biochemistry and Rosenstiel 
Basic Medical Sciences 
Research Center, received a 
three-year grant of $ 196, 1 84 
from the National Institute 
of Child Health and Human 
Development to research 
the regulation of gene 
expression during 
amphibian oogenesis and 
early development. 

Cheryl L. Walker 

assistant professor of 
classical and Oriental 
studies, has been named 
Manheimer Term Assistant 
Professor of University 
Studies for the period 

Stephen ]. Whitfield 

associate professor of 
Amencan studies, had his 
essay, "lules Feiffer 
and the Comedy of 
published m the anthology. 
From Hester Street to 
Hollywood: The 
Jewish-American Stage and 
Screen (Indiana University 

Kurt H. Wolff 

professor emeritus of social 
relations, had two articles 
published: "On the 
Occasion" (of retirement), 
New England Sociologist, 
Summer 1982, and 
"Scheler's Shadow on Us," 
Analecta Husserliana, Vol. 
XIV, 1983. He gave a talk 
entitled, "Humanistic 
Sociology?" at Framingham 
State College. 

Jonathan S. Woocher 

assistant professor of Jewish 
communal service, wrote an 
article on "The American 
Jewish Polity in Transition" 
which appeared in the 
Fall Winter issue of Forum 
on the Jewish People. 
Zionism, and Israel. He 
contributed an article on 
Amencan Jewish 
self-govemance to a special 
issue on the American 

lewish community of Face 
to Face: An Interreligious 
Bulletin, published by the 
Anti-Defamation League of 
B'nai B'rith. His curriculum 
on "Jewish Community and 
Leadership: Contemporary 
Issues and Historical 
Perspectives," designed for 
use in leadership education 
programs, has been 
published by the Council of 
Jewish Federations in New 

Dwight W. Young 

professor of ancient Near 
Eastern civilization, 
lectured last April at Cornell 
University on his recent 
research regarding 
Mesopotamian calculations 
of reigns of fantastic 
duration and the 
implications for 
understanding the 
incredible life spans of 
biblical patriarchs. 

Judith Francis Zeitlin 

assistant professor of 
anthropology, co-directed 
field operations (with Robert 
N. Zeitlinl for the Belize 
Archaic Archaeological 
Reconnaissance, a NSF 
sponsored project 
investigating the ongins of 
village life in the homeland 
of the Maya civilization. She 
also delivered papers on the 
impact of colonialism 
on native society in 
Mesoamerica at Yale 
University and at the annual 
meeting of the Amencan 
Society for Ethnohistor>' m 
Nashville. She is currently 
on a Mazer grant continuing 
ethnohistorical studies in 
the Mexican national 

Robert N. Zeitlin 

assistant professor of 
anthropolog>', was invited to 
present the keynote address 
at the Seminar on Exchange 
Networks and Spatial 
Analysis in Archaeolog>' at 
the Fourth International 
Flint Symposium in 
Brighton, England. The 
paper will appear in a 
forthcoming volume to be 
published by Cambridge 
University Press. He 
recently had articles 
accepted for publication in 
American Antiquity and 
American Anthropologist, 

which summarize findings 

of his 1982 field work 
of the Belize Archaic 
Reconnaissance, which he 
co-directed with his wife, 
ludith Francis Zeitlin. 

Harry Zohn 

professor of German, has 
written an article on "Satire 
in Translation: Kurt 
Tucholsky and Karl Kraus" 
which appeared in New 
American Review. He is 
also author of " Aus Theodor 
Kramers letzten Jahren," 
published m the spnng issue 
oi Zirkular (Vienna). His 
translation of Josef Rattner's 
book, Alfred Adler was 
issued last month by the 
Frederick Ungar Publishing 
Company. He spoke on 
"Trakl, Kraus, and the 
Brenner Circle" at the Georg 
Trakl Symposium 
held at SUNY Albany, 
and on "The Jewish 
Contribution to German 
Literature" at a history 
seminar held at Bentley 
College. He was recently 
elected a member of the PEN 
Center of German-Speaking 
Wnters Abroad. 

Irving K. Zola 

professor of sociology, spoke 
at the Institute for 
Rehabilitation and Research 
at Baylor College of 
Medicine in Texas, BU's 
Leisure Studies Program, 
and Clark University on 
"Self Help in the Eighties: 
The Disabled Person's 
Movement and the 
Women's Self Help 
Movement." His recent 
publications include: 
Independent Living for 
Physically Disabled People 
and "Chronic Illness and 
Disability " family 
Medicine: Principles and 
Practice. He has also been 
appointed to the editorial 
board of Clinical 
Sociological Review. 

Faculty Kudos 


39 Some of the country's most 
prestigious awards, honors 
and grants have been 
received recently by 
Brandeis tacuhy, mcludmg 
an American Book Award, 
the Bancroft Prize, a 
Guggenheim Fellowship, 
and two Sloan foundation 

Prize in the paperback 
category of the American 
Book Award went to 
professor Frank Manuel, the 
Alfred and Viola Hart 
University Professor, and his 
wife Fritzie for their book 
Utopian Thought in the 
Western World. This highly 
prestigious award is the 
latest addition to other 
honors garnered by this book 
which was also the 1980 
Ralph Waldo Emerson 
Award winner presented by 
Phi Beta Kappa. 

Howard J. Schnitzer, chair of 
the physics department, is 
among a select group of 
nationally prominent 
scholars, scientists, and 
artists to receive a 
Guggenheim Fellowship for 
1983. The fellowships are 
awarded for demonstrated 
accomplishment and strong 
promise for the future. 
Professor Schnitzer will use 
the grant to continue his 
studies in theoretical 
particle physics. 

The American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, a national 
honorary society, has 
elected Alfred G. Redfield, 
professor of physics and 
biochemistry, and Robert O. 
Keohane, professor of 
international relations, as 
fellows of the Academy. 
They join a highly selective 
group of intellectual leaders 
from this countr>' and abroad 
who are Fellows of the 

A study of witchcraft in 
early New England by John 
P. Demos, chair of the 
department of history, was 
awarded the 1983 Bancroft 
Prize, given annually to 
biioks of "exceptional merit 
and distinction m American 
histor>', including 
biography, American 
diplomacy and the 
international relations of the 

United States." The book, 
entitled Entertaining Satan: 
Witchcraft and the Culture 
of Early New England is 
published by Oxford 
University Press. Professor 
Demos was presented the 
prestigious S4,000 pnze 
during a formal dinner at 
Columbia University. 

Laurence F. Abbott, 

associate professor of 
physics, and Michael Harris, 

associate professor of 
mathematics, were the 
recipients of Sloan 
Fellowships in science. They 
were among 88 Sloan 
Fellows selected from over 
400 candidates by a 
committee of senior 
scientists and economists. 
Each Sloan Fellow receives 
$25,000 over a two-year 

Frank Manuel 
John P. Demos 

Brandeis said farewell to four 
longtime faculty members 
who retired at the end of the 
academic year. Each has 
accumulated a long 
list of accomplishments 
in his professional field, 
but beyond that, each 
has also accumulated much 
affection from the campus 
community. The retiring 
faculty are: 

Robert Koff , a member of the 

music department for over 
twenty years. He is well 
known across the entire 
campus for his memorable 
performances (often given 
with his wife Rosalind) 
which the campus 
community followed 
faithfully. A founding 
member of the luilliard 
String Quartet, he recorded 
with that group extensively 
for Columbia Records and 
RCA and performed in this 
country' and abroad. He 
produced a series of 
children's programs for 
National Educational 

Arnold Gurin, the Maurice 
B. Hexter Professor of Social 
Administration at the 
Florence Heller Graduate 
School, has been a member 
of that school's faculty since 
1962, serving as its dean 
from 1971 to 1976. Professor 
Gurin served in several key 
positions within private and 
government social welfare 
agencies, including the 
chairmanship of the 
Academic Committee 
evaluating Israel's "Project 
Renewal." He also served as 
the faculty representative to 
the Brandeis Board of 

Wyatt C. Jones, also a 
longtime member of the 
Heller faculty, he was 
instrumental in that school 
attracting, educating and 
placing minority students. 
He served on the 
Transitional Year Program 
Committee and the 
Affirmative Action 
Committee. He is the author 
of a major study published in 
1965 "Girls at Vocational 
High; An Experiment in 
Social Work Intervention" 
and ser\'ed in the 
"Mobilization for Youth" in 

New York City. He has done 
extensive research in 
alcoholism treatment, 
alternative institutional care 
for mental patients, and 
juvenile dehnquency. 

John F. Matthews, Richter 
Professor of American 
Civilization and 
Institutions, has been at 
Brandeis for thirty-one years 
serving as the first chairman 
of the Theatre department 
where he held the Schulman 
Chair in Dramatic 
Literature. He also was 
chairman of the American 
Studies Department. A 
prize-winning playwnght, he 
wrote for radio, television 
and films and was employed 
as a "playdoctor" adaptor or 
consultant on over thirty 
Broadway and off-Broadway 
plays and musicals. 

Robert Koff 

Bernstein Faculty 
Honor Retiring 

A fellowship program for 
assistant professors has been 
established m honor of 
former President Marver H. 
Bernstein and his wife, 

The Bernstein Faculty 
Fellowships will provide a 
term of research leave, a 
stipend for two summer 
months before or after the 
semester of leave, and up to 
$2,000 for research 
expenses. It is expected that 
three or more fellowships 
will be awarded annually. 

The Fellowships were 
established through an 
endowment fund sponsored 
by the University's Board of 
Trustees in recognition of 
President and Mrs. 
Bernstein's contributions 
during eleven years of 
service to Brandeis. 

Tresident and Mrs. 
Bernstein have always felt 
strongly that the University 
must provide an opportunity 
for young teacher-scholars 
to pursue their research 
interests for concentrated 
penods of time free from the 
demands of the classroom," 
said Henry L. Foster, chair of 
the Board of Trustees. 
"Through the Bernstein 
Fund we not only share their 
belief, but we recognize their 
many years of commitment 
to the University." 


David S. Berkowitz, one of 

Brandeis' thirteen original 
faculty members, longtime 
Fellow Harry A. Bass, and 
former sociology professor 
Everett Cherrington Hughes 
died m recent months. 

Professor Berkowitz, a 
member of the history 
department from 1948 until 
his retirement m 1979, died 
March 8 at age 69. Colleague 
David Hackett Fischer, the 
Earl Warren Professor of 
History, said Professor 
Berkowitz was "a brilliant 
scholar who was 
instrumental in shaping the 
fundamental image of this 
University as home to 
intellectual values of the 
highest order." 

Bass, a University Fellow 
who underwrote the 
Brandeis physics building 
that bears his name, died 
April 15 at age 76. He was 
president and treasurer of 
the Cardinal Shoe Corp. of 
Lawrence, Mass. He and his 
wife, Mae, were members of 
the Patrons and Friends of 
the Rose Art Museum and 
were major contributors to a 
number of scholarships and 
programs here. 

Professor Hughes, best 
known for his sociological 
studies of professions, 
helped found Brandeis' 
graduate department in 
sociology. He died lanuary 5 
at age 85. He loined the 
Brandeis faculty in 1961 and 
remained here until 1968. 

The Israel 

Brandeis with Professor 
Traveler Leon Jick 



October 12-26, 1983 

Tour features: 

• Flights on El Al from 
New York 

•Twin bedded rooms 
with private bath or 
shower in five-star 

• Sightseeing in 
modern deluxe air- 
conditioned motor 

•Porterage of one 
suitcase per person 

•All tips and taxes 
normally added to 
hotel bills 

•All entrance fees to 
tourists centers, 
historical sites and 

• Full Israeli 
breakfasts (buffet 

Optional meal plan 

•Services of 
professional tour 
guides — even on 
leisure days 

Chairperson, Near Eastern and Judaic 
Studies Dept.. Brandeis University, and 
tvlillicent Jick. Museum Lecturer and 

A rare opportunity for the Brandeis Traveler 
— a tour specifically designed for both the 
first-time visitor and the veteran Israel 
tourist. The trip will include all the 
traditional Israeli landmarks plus several 
events especially arranged for the Brandeis 
group. Leon and Millicent Jick will bring 
their particular insights and in-depth 
knowledge on both present-day and biblical 
Israel. An extension to Egypt is available 
under the guidance of Millicent Jick. a well- 
known Egyptologist 

Please send me 
details on the Israel 


State Zip 

Class Year 

Other Brandeis affiliation 

Mail coupon to: Waltham 

Brandeis University Massachusetts 

Office of 02254 

Alumni Relations 617-647-2307 

Leonard L. Faber 

From the Alumni 
Association President 

After one of the largest 
crowds in Brandeis 
University history had 
celebrated the dedication of 
the new Leonard L Farber 
Library fune 8. Mr. Farber, a 
Brandeis Trustee and 
nationally prominent real 
estate developer, and his 
wife. Antje. mark a 
moment of repose in front 

of the five-level facihty that 
his $2.25 milhon gift made 
possible. The Rev. Timothy 
S. Healy, S.f.. president of 
Georgetown University, 
was the keynote speaker at 
the dedication, which was 
attended by more than one 
thousand friends of 

Brandeis University 


Alumni Association 
Annual Membership 






Class Year: 

Classes of 1978-83 


Classes o( 1952-78 



Payment of alumni dues does not 
constitute a contnbution to the 
Alumni Fund, 

Make check payable to: 

Brandeis University Alumni 

It IS with humility and pride that I 
become President of the Alumni 
Association of Brandeis University. 
We have reached an important point 
in the life of the University as we 
welcome Evelyn Handler, our fifth 
President. We pledge to her, to the 
students, and to the faculty our firm 
support, hard work, and concern for 
the institution which nurtured us and 
which we now, in turn, must nurture. 

Through their achievements, 
Brandeis alumni are fulfilling the 
early dreams of the men and women 
who built our school 35 years ago. To 
mention just a few — this past spring, 
Thomas Friedman '75 earned a 
Pulitzer Prize for his lucid and 
courageous reporting in Beirut for The 
New York Times. Edward Witten 71 
has recently joined the newest select 
company in America by winning a 
MacArthur Foundation Prize. 
Benjamin Westervelt '82 received a 
Mellon Fellowship in the 
Humanities. The Brandeis 
Distinguished Service Award was 
bestowed on Marilyn Golden '77 for 
her extraordinary work with Access 
Califomia, an organization devoted to 
providing opportunities for the 
disabled. These and many other 
recent graduates are moving out 
icross the country in ways that bring 
pride to them and honor to the 
University that taught them. 

For me personally this is a fulfillment 
of a dream. I have been involved in 
Brandeis activities for over two 
decades, participating in admissions 
recruitment, my own Chicago alumni 
chapter and, on a national level, 
through the Alumni Board of 
Directors. I am proud that my son, 
Michael, is a member of the Class of 
'86. 1 feel as close to the University 
today as I did as an undergraduate 
twenty-two years ago. 

I welcome the opportunity to 
communicate with the Brandeis 
family through this column, and I 
look forward to challenging and 
fulfilling years of service. 

Paula Dubofsky Resnick '61 

Reunion 1983 

Members of the Class of '58: 
(left to rightl Dene Maydin 
Bernstein, Artfiur 
Brunwasser, Richard Foxx, 
Stuart Damon, Deborah 
Stern Barr and Gerald Segel. 

Members of thi. Class ui do. 

Rena Shapiro Blumberg '56 
receives Friends of Brandeis 
Athletics Award from 
Morry B. Stein '58. 

Members of the Class of '58. 



Stuart Damon '5&, alias Dr. 
Quartermaine of "General 
Hospital" and Brandeis Food 
Services Fan Club. 


We invite you to submit 
articles, photos or 
news of interest to the 
Alumni Office for review. 
Notes and articles 
received up to September 
1 will be considered for 
the fall issue. 

Members ot the Class of '63, 


Brandeis Degree &. Class Year 



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please attach 
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Picnic around Masscll IVuiJ 









Members of the Class of '58 
entertaining at Quincy 

Since we don't want to 
lose you, 

please let us know your 
new address . . . 






Arthur Brunwasser '58 ot 
San Francisco and Paula 
Dubofsky Resnick '6 1 of 

Please attach the label from 
this issue of the Brandeis 
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address and send this coupon 

Brandeis Review 
Brandeis University 
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Alumni Notes 


Burton Berinsky's New 

York haberdashery, ")ay 
Lord Hatters," was the 
subject of an extensive 
article in the February issue 
of Town and Country 
magazine. Burt's custom- 
made hats have topped such 
noteworthy chents as Tom 
Wolfe, Richard Avedon, and 
Joseph Papp. 


H. Peter Metzger, PhD was 

appointed to the 
"Presidential Rank Review 
Board" of the United States 
Office of Personnel 
Management, Washington, 
DC. Also, the Archives of 
the Hoover Institution of 
Stanford University have 
been designated as the 
repository of his collected 
letters, articles, speeches 
and research files. 

The Board of Directors of the 
Analogic Corporation in 
Wakefield, Massachusetts, 
announced the recent 
election of |ulian Soshnick 
as vice president, lulian 
joined Analogic Corporation 
in 1981 as legal consultant. 


Wheaton College in Norton, 
Massachusetts, recently 
announced the appointment 
of Hannah Friedman 
Goldberg, PhD to the 
position of provost. Hannah 
has been an education 
consultant on several 
projects, and most recently, 
was professor of history and 
academic dean at Antioch 
College. She begins her new 
position August 1, 1983. 

Stuart (General Hospital) 
Damon '58 isn't the only 
Brandeis alumnus breaking 
hearts on network 
television. lerry Douglas, 
known to former classmates 
as Gerald Rubenstein, can be 
seen daily on "The Young 
and the Restless" playing 
the part of John Abbott, 
cosmetics tycoon. 


Charlotte Langone McElroy 

)oined the staff of 
Hunneman and Company's 
Topsfield Office. She brings 
with her fifteen years of 
experience m the real estate 
profession in Topsfield, 
Boxford, and surrounding 

Harper is Row has published 
a third book by David 
Zimmerman entitled The 
Essential Guide to 
Non-Prescription Drugs. As 
a medical and science writer, 
David's articles have 
appeared in such 
publications as the "New 
York Times Magazine," 
"Audubon," "Good 
Housekeeping," and 
"Science '82." Both of his 
previous books were award 
winners: To Save a Bird in 
Pen7 won the 1976 
Christopher Award; and 
RH: The Intimate History of 
a Disease and its Conquests 
won the 1973 American 
Medical Writers' 
Association Award for 


Robin Brooks was recently 
promoted to colonel, US 
Army Reserve and has been 
awarded the Army 
Commendation Medal for 
Meritonous Service. He is 
associate dean of students at 
the University of 
Massachusetts- Amherst. 

Psychotherapist Janet 
Cohen David, PhD is on the 
staff of the Center for the 
Study of Anorexia and 
Bulimia m New York. She 
also has a pnvate practice 
and specializes in those 


Donna Medoff Geller has 

received critical acclaim for 
her recent solo piano 
performances with the 
Akron Symphony 
Orchestra. Donna has played 
with the orchestra on several 
occasions since her debut 
performance of "Carnival of 
the Animals" in 1973. 

Simon Sargon's composition 
"If You Will It. .."was 
recently performed at 
Temple Israel in Boston in 

celebration of Israel's 35th 
Anniversary. Simon, who 
has been music director of 
Temple Emanu-El in Dallas, 
Texas, since 1974 was 
commissioned to write the 
cantata by Temple Israel. 
That performance marked 
Its world premiere. 

Norman J. Treisman, who 

served as deputy treasurer at 
Philip Morris Incorporated 
since November 1980, has 
also been appointed senior 
vice president of the Philip 
Moms Corporation. 
Norman joined Philip 
Morris in 1961 as sales 
representative and has 
served m several different 


David A. Skovron has been 
named chief operating 
partner of Kwasha Lipton, an 
employee benefits and 
actuarial consulting firm 
located in Fort Lee, New 
Jersey. David lives in Saddle 
River, New Jersey. 


Alumni Term Trustee 
Donald J. Cohen, MD, who 

is professor of pediatrics, 
psychiatry and psychology' 
at the Yale School of 
Medicine and an authority 
on mental illness in 
childhood, has been 
appointed director of the 
Yale Child Study Center. 
Founded m 1947, the Center 
is an internationally 
recognized mental health 
facility for children. Yale 
President A. Bartlett 
Giamatti announced the 
appointment which began in 

Norman L Jacobs, partner m 
the Boston law firm of 
Esdaile, Barrett and Esdaile, 
has recently been admitted 
as a fellow to the American 
College of Trial Lawyers and 
was inducted at their San 
Francisco meeting. Norman 
just completed a four-year 
term on the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts Judicial 
Nominating Commission 
where he was charged with 
the responsibility of 
approving nominations to 
all judgeships and clerkships 
in the Commonwealth. 


Michael D. Birnbaum, MD 

has submitted what may be 
the most unusual birth 
announcement ever 
received by an alumni office. 
Michael, who is a 

endocrinologist in private 
practice, is also the founder 
of Surrogate Mothering Ltd. 
— the only surrogate 
mothering program on the 
East Coast. The program's 
first baby was bom in 
December, 1982. 

Chr>'sler Corporation has 
announced the appointment 
of Daniel S. Hirshfield, PhD 

to the position of director of 
Communication Programs. 
Daniel comes to Chrysler 
from Union Carbide where 
he was assistant director of 
Corporate Communications. 



Stuart Paris and his wife, 
Elaine, are pleased to 
announce the birth of their 
son, Michael Rov, bom 
March 27, 1983.' 


Helen Alpert Goldenberg 

has made a career change 
from education and is now 
working as a computer 
programmer on cost and 
payroll accounting systems 
for the New York State 
Department of Mental 
Hygiene. Her husband, 
Harvey, also a programmer, 
taught Helen (and their two 
daughters, Ilene, 9, and 
Audrey, 71 how to program 
their highly sophisticated 
home computer system. 

The Kemper Group of Long 
Grove, Illinois, has 
announced the appointment 
of Barbara Bernstein Roston 

as associate systems 
programming officer for its 
pnncipal companies. 
Barbara joined Kemper as a 
programmer in 1970, was 
named a supervisor in 1978, 
project leader m 1980, and 
assistant manager of data 
processing systems m 1982. 


Marie Lambert Campbell 

and her husband, lohn, 
announce the birth of Shaina 
Lark Campbell on February 
6, 1983. Briana, 7, and Cara, 
6, are Shama's older sisters. 

The Peking Mandate, a 
novel written by Peter Siris, 
was scheduled for June 
publication by G. P. Putnam 
and Sons. The book, Peter's 
first, IS an adventure novel 
set in China in 1976 and tells 
the story of Mao's wife, liang 
Qing, and the Gang of Four. 


Congratulations to Sheldon 
Glass, MD and his wife, 
Wanda, on the birth of their 
third boy, Ricky. Sheldon is 
in private practice in 

Steven M. Goldstein has 

been appointed associate 
dean at Florida State 
University beginning this 


Peter and Deborah Dubowy 
'69 Battis have written and 
produced a series of plays for 
children. "The Girl Who 
Followed Her Dreams" and 
"The Spider and the Fox" 
were presented at the Barton 
Se^uare Playhouse in Salem, 
Massachusetts, this past 
March. Peter is assistant 
director of the Inpatient 
Psychiatry Unit at North 
Shore Children's F^ospltal in 
Salem. Deborah teaches 
theatre at two schools in 


Peter Alter has been 

appointed senior partner in 
the law firm of Flonigman 
Miller Schwartz &. Cohn. In 
addition, he has been active 
in a number of Jewish 
community activities 
including the United 
lewish Appeal National 
Young Leadership Cabinet 
Executive Committee and 
the Anti-Defamation League 
of B'nai B'rith's National 
Executive Committee. 

Neil B. Kaufhnan has 

established a practice as a 
registered investment 
adviser. Based at the 
Philadelphia Stock 
Exchange Building, he 
provides independent advice 
on investment opportunities 
and personal finance. He 
holds an MBA from Wharton 
Business School as well as an 
EdD from Harvard. His wife, 
Barbara, joined Philadelphia 
Capital after graduating 
from Harvard Business 
School in June 1982. 


Theodore L Benzer, MD has 

been appointed doctor in 
charge of the new 
Immediate Care Center at 
the Berkshire Medical 
Center. The IMC is a low 
cost, walk-in facility for 
non-emergency treatment. 

Andrew Langsam, MD joins 
the Department of 
Emergency Medicine at the 
Wilmington Medical Center 
in Delaware. His wife, 
Cabella, and their two sons, 
Caleb and Joshua, will 
accompany him on his move 
from Nashville, Tennessee. 

Ronnie Scherer and her 

husband, Peter Jerry, are 
delighted to announce the 
birth of their son, Michael 
Scott, on September 17, 
1982, in New York City. 


Paul and Louise Arthur 
Bikoff announce the arrival 
of Daniel Ross on November 
29, 1982. Daniel Ross loins 
brother Jay and sister 

Rabbi Beniamin Z. 
Kreitman, executive 
vice-president of the United 
Synagogue of America, has 
announced the appointment 
of Victoria Free to the 
newly-created position of 
public relations director. 
Victoria was previously 
assistant to the director of 
public relations at the 
American Jewish Congress. 

Neysa Pritikin has received a 
master's in business 
administration from 
Northern Illinois University. 

Marilyn Salasky Siegel and 

Ken Siegel happily announce 
the birth of their son, Daniel 
llan, born December 20, 
1982 in Virginia Beach, 

Margo Hausdorff Vale, MD 
and Michael Vale, MD 

announce the birth of a 
daughter, Judith Naomi, on 
November 2, 1982. She ]oins 
brother Edward Paul, IVi 
years old. Margo and 
Michael both practice 
dermatology in Huntington, 
New York. 


Bruce Havumaki and Erica 
Fox Havumaki '76 report 
recent accomplishments 
from their home in 
Brooklme, Massachusetts. 
Bruce completed his 
master's in business 
administration with honors 
from Bostt)n University this 
past May and is employed by 
Chase Econometrics- 
Interactive Data in 
Waltham. Erica is a 
management education 
specialist with Digital 
Equipment Corporation in 
Bedford, Massachusetts. 

Michal Regunberg was one 

of four outstanding women 
in the communications 
profession recognized by the 
Boston Professional 
Chapter of Women in 
Communications with its 
highest honor, The Matrix 
Award. Michal is currently 
the director of editorials and 
public affairs for WEEI-AM 
and IS known for her 
hard-hitting editorial style. 
Her critically acclaimed 
public service editorials 
have focused on the 
problems of runaways, racial 
tensions in Boston, and the 
tragedy of child abuse. 


Lisa Tartikoff Rosenthal and 

her husband, Mark, 
announce the birth of their 
second daughter, Lindsay 
Nicole, on December 23, 
1982. She joins sister Emily, 
3'/2 years old. Lisa is on leave 

from her position as 
assistant professor of 
English as a Second 
Language at The College of 
Notre Dame while she takes 
care of her family. She is also 
completing her second 
textbook, Academic 
Reading for International 
Students, to be published by 
Prentice-Hall, Inc. in 1983. 

Lawrence R. Gardner has 

been appointed assistant 
professor of education at 
Teacher's College, 
Columbia University. He 
also holds the position of 
coordinator of the Program 
for Teachers of the Visually 


Samuel Brett and his wife, 
Jill Warren Brett, share with 
classmates the news of the 
birth of their daughter, Jamie 
Warren, born January 23, 

Steven T. Ruby, MD has 

recently moved back to 
Boston from New York after 
completing his residency in 
general surgery at Columbia- 
Presbyterian Medical 
Center. Steven is currently a 
fellow in vascular surgery at 
the Brigham and Women's 
Hospital in Boston. 


Alison Brager Bass is 

currently senior editor of 
"Technology Review," a 
national science and 
technology magazine 
published at the 
Massachusetts Institute of 

Bruce Warren Johnson and 

Linda Ginette Pollack were 
married on August 21, 1982, 
on Star Island off 
Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire. Both have 
changed their last names to 
Pollack-Johnson. Bruce 
completed his PhD in 
operations research at the 
Wharton School of the 
University of Pennsylvania 
and has accepted a three- 
year, tenure-track position 
at Oberlin College in Ohio 
where he will head a 
specialized program for 
math majors. 

Norman R. Kleinberg 

has been appointed 
administrative editor of the 
Outlet Book Company, a 
division of Crown 

Ruth Horwitz Mindick is 

currently living in Ithaca, 
Nevv York, and working at 
Comell University as a 
research assistant to her 
husband, Dr. Burton 
Mindick, doing 
psychological research. 
They were married 
December 18, 1982, and are 
expecting a child in early 

Frances Rosenbaum and her 
husband, Robert L. 
Ginsberg, announce the 
birth of their first child, 
Jonathan Zachary Ginsberg, 
December 23, 1982. 

After clerking for one year 
with United States Distnct 
Court ludge Vincent L. 
Brodenck of the Southern 
Distnct of New York in 
Manhattan, Michael A. 
Schwartz is now working in 
the Appeals Bureau of the 
Manhattan district 
attorney's office arguing 
appeals on behalf of the 
people of the State of New 
York m the appellate courts. 
Michael is the first deaf 
assistant district attorney in 
the history of that office. 

"Cosmopolitan Magazine" 
has accepted a short story by 
Liane Kupferberg Carter for 
publication. Liane continues 
as director of publicity and 
promotion for the Pilgrim 
Press in New York City. 


Debra Chemick, now living 
m North Stonington, 
Connecticut, has joined the 
New London and Groton 
law firm of Suisman, 
Shapiro, Wool, Brennan, 
Gray and Faulkner. Debra 
received her law degree 
from the University of 
Connecticut School of Law 
in May 1982. 

The Great East River Bridge, 
a catalog commemorating 
the centennial of the 
Brooklyn Bridge, included an 
essay by Lewis Kachur. A 
related exhibition was on 
view at the Brooklyn 
Museum this past spnng. 

Corporate lawyer )ulieanna 
Richardson has been named 
assistant administrator of 
the Chicago Cable 
Commission. The 
commission was recently 
established by former Mayor 
lane Byrne to oversee the 
implementation of Cable 
TV in the Chicago area. 

Sarah Spivak Woolf and 
Louis Woolf announce the 
birth of their daughter, 
Rebecca, on December 23, 
1982, at Beth Israel Hospital 
in Boston. 


Michael Bien and Jane Kahn 

announce the birth of a son, 
Benjamin Bien-Kahn, on 
May 19, 1982. They are 
living m San Francisco 
where Mike is an attorney 
with Brobeck, Phlager and 
Harrison. Jane is completing 
her third year of law school 
at the University of San 

A son, Keith Andrew, was 
bom to Jay Pabian and his 

wife, Audrey, on May 12, 
1982. He IS their first child. 

Lorrie Shook writes that she 
is living in New York City 
and practicing law as a first 
year associate for the firm of 
Kaye, Scholer, Fierman, 
Hays & Handler. She 
married Dr. Lloyd Douglas 
Berkowitz March 5, 1983, in 
Stamford, Connecticut. 
Lloyd is a graduate of Mount 
Sinai Medical College and a 
fellow at Memorial Sloan- 
Kettering Cancer Center. 


Amy Levenson McGill and 

husband Hugh are happy to 
announce the birth of their 
son, Evan Alexander, bom 
Apnl2, 1983. 


Mohammad Faisal has 

received his medical degree 
from Albert Einstein College 
of Medicine m Bronx, New 
York, and will begin a 
residency in internal 
medicine at Harlem 
Hospital this summer. 
Mohammad is living m the 
Bronx with his wife, Kazi 
Tahmida Aziz, whom he 
married in Dacca, 
Bangladesh, m luly 1982. 

Karen J. Levenson has 

founded the company, 
Literary Syndications, and is 
currently publishing a 
newspaper for college 
students in Massachusetts 
called "College Man, 
College Woman." A second 
newspaper, yet untitled, is 
scheduled for September. 
Her play, "Andrew, Are You 
Listening," was produced in 
Boston, and a collection of 
poems was published in the 
American Anthology of 


Janis Boyarsky Schiff 

graduated from Suffolk 
University Law School m 
June and with her husband, 
Philip, has moved to 
Bethesda, Maryland. Jams 
has accepted a judicial 
clerkship with Judge Alan 
Wilnerof the Mar>'land 
Court of Special Appeals 
while Philip will be an 
associate with the 
Washington law firm of 
Lillick, McHose and 

Nancy Sorkin, assistant to 
the director of personnel at 
the Massachusetts College 
of Art, was married 
November 27, 1982, to 
Ralph Koretsky of Maiden, 
Massachusetts. Ralph is a 
sales manager for Burroughs 


Jay Inwald is serving as 
notes editor for the George 
Washington Law Review 
and will be working this 
summer as an associate in 
New York City at the firm of 
Kaye, Scholer, Fierman, 
Hays N Handler. Jay also 
reports on the wedding of 
Beth Shenfeld and John 
Connolly on August 14, 

Lois Krupnick has received 
her master's in business 
administration from Pace 
University and has been 
nominated for two 
professional distinctions: 
the American Stock 
Exchange Fellowship and 
the Wall Street Journal 
Student Achievement 
Award. Her master's thesis 
was entitled "A Primer for 
the Commodities Hedger." 

Pamela (Pennyl Rosenthal 

has been named promotion 
coordinator for Delacorte 
Books for Young Readers, 
Dell Yearling, and 
Laurel-Leaf Books. 


Nicolas Bemheim is living 
in Los Angeles and working 
for KCOP-TV as an editorial 
assistant. Recent projects 
have included coverage of 
the 1 983 Academy Awards. 
Nicolas sends greetings to 
former classmates and 

Sharon Silberman, who will 
begin her first year of law 
school this fall, reports that 
she IS spending the summer 
travelling through Europe 
with Sarah Usher '84, Beth 
Lang '83, and Robert Yee '83. 
Prior to her tour of the 
continent, Sharon was 
communications director 
for Marca Industries in 

Benjamin Westervelt has 

been awarded the Mellon 
Fellowship m the 
Humanities for 1983/84. 
This award was created by 
the Andrew W. Mellon 
Foundation m response to 
rising concern over the 
increasing number of young 
people with scholarly 
potential who are not 
entenng academic careers. 



Become Part 

of the 

Brandeis Network 


47 Howard Marblestone |MS, 

McditLTianfan Studies '66, 
PhD Mediterranean 
Studies), associate professor 
of languages at Lafayette 
College in Hasten, 
Pennsylvania, has returned 
this semester from a 
seven-month sabbatical in 
Israel. He and his family 
lived m lerusalem where 
Howard worked on several 
projects, chiefly the 
translation into English and 
adaptation of Professor 
Nathan Spiegel's new book. 
The History of Greek 
Tragedy. While in lerusalem 
he lectured at Hebrew 
University on the topic, 
"Homer: The Greatest Poet, 
and the Transfigurations of 
His Image in Late Greek 

Richard Rowland ( PhD, 

Hellerl has been appointed 
to Massachusetts Governor 
Michael Dukakis' cabinet 
and will serve as state 
secretary of Elderly Affairs. 
For the past seven years, 
Richard has worked as 
executive director of the 
Massachusetts Association 
of Older Americans and 
since 1979 served as director 
of the College of Public and 
Community Ser\'ice at 


Choate-Symmes Health 
Services Inc. has announced 
the appointment of Jane 
Gaudette Jones (PhD, 

Hellerl to the position of 
vice-president for 
ambulatory and community 
services. Prior to her 
appointment at Choate- 
Symmes, lane was director 
of community affairs at the 
Tufts New England Medical 
Center and associate 
professor and assistant dean 
for educational affairs at 
Tufts University School of 

Robert R. Stieglitz (PhD, 
Mediterranean Studies) has 
been promoted to associate 
professor in the Department 
of Hebraic Studies at Rutgers 
University. Robert has been 
chairman of the department 
since 1981. 


Leonard S. Levin (PhD, 
History of Ideas) of Oak 
Park, Illinois, has been 
named financial 
information officer in the 
operations and management 
services department of 
Continental Bank in 
Chicago, Illinois. 


Bowdom College Professor 
of Anthropology David L 
Kertzer (PhD Anthropology) 
IS co-editor with Michael 
Kenny of "Urban Life in 
Mediterranean Europe: 
Perspectives." He is 
currently on sabbatical 
leave, serving as a fellow at 
the Center for Advanced 
Study in the Behavioral 
Sciences at Stanford 


Roberts. Caulk (PhD, 

Heller) has recently accepted 
the position of director of the 
social services division, 
department of Human 
Services in Multnomah 
County (Portland), Oregon. 
As director of the new 
division, Caulk will be the 
administrator for all County 
mental health services, a 
consolidation which 
includes, amongst other 
community action 
programs, the alcohol and 
drug program, the mental 
disabilities program and the 
mental or emotional 
disabilities program. 

James F.Haley, Jr. (PhD, 

Chemistry) has been named 
associate of the law firm of 
Fish & Neave in New York 
City. While studying 
chemistry with Professor 
Philip Keehn at Brandeis, 
lim was also attending 
Suffolk Law School at night 
from which he obtained his 


Michael Cox (PhD, 

Biochemistry) also received 
a five-year grant from the 
Milwaukee Foundation. He 
is currently at the 
University of Wisconsin. 


Howard Stanislawski (MA, 

Polities '72; PhD, Politics), 
lecturer in political science 
at Boston College, recently 
discussed the subject of 
conflicting perspectives in 
Amenca and Israel in 
implementing foreign 
policy goals as part of 
the Social Action 
Committee lecture series. 
He is also a seminar leader at 
the lohn F. Kennedy School 
of Government at Harvard 

Peter Child (MA, Music 
Theory and Composition 
'78; PhD, Music Theory and 
Composition) is one of five 
composers who have 
won the New Works 
Competition sponsored 
by the New England 
Conservatory and the 
Massachusetts Council on 
the Arts and Humanities. 
Peter's winning composition, 
"Ensemblance for seven 
instruments and stereo 
tape," was performed by the 
NEC Contemporary 
Ensemble in concerts 
throughout Massachusetts. 
Child is a member of the 
faculty at the New England 


The Milwaukee Foundation 
has awarded a five-year 
research grant to Peter J. 
Wejksnora (PhD, Biology) 
who IS currently at the 
University of Wisconsin at 

The fact that the majority of top 
administrators of Fortime 500 companies 
hold liberal arts degrees underscores the 
versatility of a liberal arts education. 
Brandeis students, however, need specific 
information on how to translate the high 
quality, liberal arts education they 
receive at Brandeis directly to the world 
of work. Up-to-date information on career 
and work environments is essential to 
students in the midst of career decision- 
making. You can play an active role in 
assisting students investigate and learn 
about career options, trends, and job 
hunting techniques. Join the Brandeis 
network and spread the word about us!! 


I would like to assist 




graduate students. 

I am willing to: 


List my name and 

occupation in the 

Career Advisory 



Participate in the 

January 1984 

Shadow Program 


Assist in developing 



Offer summer job 



Send full-time job 

availabihty notices 

from my 



Come to campus 

to participate 

in career programs 


Come to campus, 

or send a 

representative from 

my organization, 

to participate in On- 

Campus Recruiting 


Grant interviews 


Job placement 


I am unable to 
participate in any 
of the above, but 
I am willing to: 


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Letters to the 

Dear Editor: 

1 regularly look forward to 
receiving your publication 
and to reading the 
observations ot the best 
minds at Brandeis on 
national and international 
affairs. The articles generally 
provide fresh and inquisitive 
ideas on challenging issues. 
Unfortunately, this was not 
the case with Gordon 
Fellman's article, "Cliched 
Responses to Israeli Policy 
Mock Jewish Moral 
Tradition" (Spring, '83). 

Contrary to what Fellman 
implies in his title, there is 
nothing new or courageous 
about criticizing Israeli 
policies. All that amounts 
to, in his case, is adopting 
the arguments of those who 
work for Israel's 
demoralization and 

Perhaps Fellman loses me 
when he describes the 
current situation in Israel in 
terms of "nationalism" 
versus "ethical vision." It 
strikes me as both simplistic 
and presumptuous of 
Fellman to transpose a 
complex conflict into worn 
socialist rhetoric, aligning 
himself with the 
righteousness of the 
prophets while condemning 
nationalism to the bad guys. 
The purposefulriess and 
beauty of [ewish 
nationalism has a history 
which extends back to the 
prophets themselves and 
before. The Labor Zionists 
play a part in this history, 
but It is only one part of a 
patchwork and claims no 
monopoly on an ethical 
route to lewish 

Fellman further diminishes 
what credibility his words 
may have by crying "cliche!" 
at anyone who disagrees 
with him, to the point that 
the article begins to 
resemble an adult chorus of 
"sticks and stones." 

American Jews with courage 
are those who withstand the 
pressures of such "true" 
friends of Israel, who do 
little more than couch the 

arguments of Israel's 
enemies in their professed 
anguish. Fellman may 
sincerely believe that his 
objectives differ from those 
of the enemies of the State of 
Israel. But in voicing his 
"soul-searching" criticism 
(together with his own army 
of tired cliches! the effects of 
his words and theirs are very 
much the same. They both 
serve to promote the myth 
that It is in Israel's power to 
achieve peace. In fact, as we 
see from day to day, peace 
will come only when Arab 
states overcome their 
intransigence and announce 
that they are finally willing 
to accept the reality of 
Israel's existence. 

I am disappointed that your 
magazine could not find a 
spokesperson with fresher, 
more imaginative insights 
on the Arab-Israeli conflict. 


lennifer A. Roskies, '80 

Brighton, Massachusetts 

of Jewish professors. Similar 
though not as drastic 
comments expressing 
hostility and mistrust were 
made to me by Middle 
Eastern professors and 
students visiting Oxtord 

Since fear and suspicion are 
so great on both sides that 
even an elementary flow of 
ideas becomes threatening. 
It IS all the more important 
to encourage open 

The issues that engender 
such fear, suspicion, and 
mistrust must be dealt with 
openly m general discussion 
as well as in negotiations. 


Marilvn Reuschemeyer 

PhD, '78 

Assistant Professor of 


Rhode Island School of 


Providence, Rhode Island 

Dear Editor: 

Dear Editor: 

I have just read Gordon 
Fellman's article in the 
Brandeis Review and 
thought It was excellent and 
beautifully written. I am 
ver>- glad that the Brandeis 
Review printed it. 

I believe there are many fears 
on all sides that have to be 
dealt with. One fear from 
educated and liberal lews 
that I meet is whether 
criticism of Israel serves an 
American policy that is 
unclear to them, and fear 
that ultimately such 
criticism IS dangerous to 
Israel. Since most people are 
uncertain about the aims of 
the United States, they fear 
open criticism. 

Israel does live in a hostile 
environment, yet another 
fear that Fellman also speaks 
about is the fear of Israel by 
Arabs. This, too, often 
results in a closing of 
communications. I have 
heard of Eg>'ptian graduate 
students in this countr>' who 
shun even technical lectures 

As a survivor of 

concentration camp, it was 

with great sorrow that I read crime 

Mr. Gordon Fellman's 

article (Spring '83). 

to the legitimate bearers of 
the Jewish Socialist 

In his reference to "some 
people" who have warned 
the world that Zionism will 
lead to "domination of Jews 
over another people" he 
obviously refers to the 
Grand Mufti, Hitler, Stalin, 
Arafat and their friends; and 
he seems to agree with 
them. . . . 

He further talks about the 
"sufferings the Israeli 
Government inflicted on 
others." What is he talking 
about? I hope he does not 
mean arresting the terrorists 
or maybe the hanging of 

His innuendos about the 
massacres in the Sabra (yes, 
we noticed the irony of the 
name! and Shatila camps are 
making it sound as if the 
Jews have gone in there and 
done the killings. Why does 
he not show concern about 
the fact that nothing is being 
done, and nobody is crying 
for the finding and punishing 
of those who have 
perpetrated this terrible 


Any idea he does not agree 
with he calls "cliches." 
What about slogans, 
innuendos and great 
distortions of truth? Let's 
begin with the fact that I'm 
not "establishment." My 
concerns are for a place that 
lews can go to when they 
have to, a place we can call 
our own and not be trapped 
as we were in Europe. A 
place where Mr. J. 
Timmerman can go to and 
find freedom to abuse his 
government. I believe that 
those concerns are ethical. 

Emancipation of the 
European Jewry was not the 
answer to most and not 
"some" thinkers and to say 
that Mapai is not socialistic 
is an insult to Mr. Ben 
Gurion, Mrs. Meir, Mr. 
Peretz and all their fellow 
party members. It seems 
that Mr. Fellman prefers the 
small fanatic fringe groups 

I want to bring up only one 
more lie; the most ternble 
one. This twisting of truth 
from a man who talks about 
ethics is below contempt. 
He attempts to excuse the 
terrorists, all the cowardly 
killings of innocent men, 
women and children. He 
implies that their actions in 
Israel and m Europe are 
instigated by the Jews. This 
pseudo-mtellectual says: 
"When after one strike or 
another against Palestinians 
or Lebanese there is an 
attack on Jews. . . . The 
attackers are surely 
responding to actions of the 
Israeli Government. ..." 
Not even Arafat has made 
such a claim. 

As long as Gordon Fellmans 
can spout their vicious 
propaganda and try to twist 
young people's minds, the 
death of the six million Jews 
was in vain; no lesson was 

Paul Orlan 
Hollywood, Florida 

Dear Editor: 

The article by Gordon 
Fellman in the spring issue, 
"Chched Responses to 
Israeli Policy," is, perhaps, 
very much in line with that 
strain ot thinking in the 
Brandeis community that 
made it possible for Andrew 
Young, and not Menachem 
Begin, to receive an honorary 
degree from Brandeis in 
1978, the thirtieth 
anniversary of the founding 
of Brandeis and the 
independence of the State of 
Israel. To my knowledge, 
Menachem Begin lacks for 
no critics within the 
Brandeis community or the 
American Jewish 
community. Those opposed 
to Begin, however, betray, 
from time to time, a 
discomfiture with the 
possible consequences of 
their anti-Begin distaste and 
find It necessary to seek the 
stifling of then critics, while 
they send a steady stream of 
anti-Begin criticism to The 
New York Times. 

It IS unfortunate that the 
anti-Begin critics pause not a 
moment to consider 
whether their outbursts pay 
tribute to truth, even unto 
Its innermost parts. I find no 
truth in Fellman's assertion 
that Prime Minister Begin 
has taken "the bully's easy 
way out: the use of force as a 
cornerstone of foreign 
policy." This bizarre 
assertion ignores the fact 
that with the current 
exception of Egypt, the State 
of Israel has been at war with 
the Arab states since 1948. 
Fellman seems to accept, at 
least with regard to the Begin 
government, the Arab ploy 
to obtain a state of unilateral 
belligerency: the Arabs may 
be at war with the |ewish 
State; the Jewish State is to 
be condemned when it 
responds in kind. 

Fellman is sadly blind to the 
fact that the current 
situation m the Middle East 

is very much a reflection of 
Arab animus towards the 
State of Israel — and has very 
little to do with the 
personalities in any given 
Israeli government. The 
Arabs, after all, never 
entered into peace treaties 
when Labor was in power. 

Truth also requires us to 
recognize that current 
distaste for Israel, evident in 
the highest strata of the U.S. 
government, is also very 
much a part of that mind-set 
that moved to prevent peace 
between Hussein's 
grandfather and Israel in the 
1948-49 period that 
maintained an 
"even-handed" arms 
embargo on Israel and the 
Arab states while Arab 
armies sought the 
destruction of Israel. Chaim 
Weizmann sent a letter to 
President Truman m 
January, 1949 that indicated 
astonishment that 
Washington should pressure 
Israel not to fight so hard 
against the Arabs while the 
U.S. supported Egyptian 
membership on the U.N. 
Security Council when 
Egyptian troops were on 
Israeli soil. No, the 
anti-Israel stance taken by 
Mr. Weinberger is not a 
knee-jerk reaction to 
Menachem Begin but rather 
faithful to that invidious 
mind-set in Washington that 
has found assertions of 
Jewish self-determination 
bothersome. Prof. Fellman 
indicates that this invidious 
mind-set is not limited to 


David R. Zukerman '62 

Bronx, New York 

Dear Editor: 

I read with great interest 
Gordon Fellman's article in 
the Brandeis Review. In the 
past I have written letters m 
the same vein which were 
printed in the San Francisco 
Jewish Bulletin. At one 
point this activity even 
earned me some hate calls 
and death threats from IDL 
types. I flirted with an 
organization some years ago 
called Breira, but frankly 
was turned off by the usual 

sprinkling of arrogant 
Israelis spouting irritating 
cliches he so articulately 
described. 1 am still 
interested in some outlet for 
my passion on the subject as 
well as enthusiastic about 
making contact with some 
sensible like-minded folks 
who see the current Israeli 
government taking all of us 
toward tragedy. 

Although my time is limited 
by responsibility in a 
demanding governmental 
position, I can make some 
energy available for 
something in this sphere. 


Sandy Weimer, M.D. 

Encino, California 

Dear Editor: 

The Brandeis Review 
(Spring '83) was a pleasure to 
receive and to read. The 
articles were fine and the 
layout attractive. Finally, an 
A-1 alumni/ae periodical! 

Two comments: (1)1 
couldn't find the "Brandeis 
Bookshelf" section. Where 
was It? (2) In the class notes, 
it might be nice to vary some 
of the third person style of 
reporting with some first 
person quotes, if appealingly 
written. For example, class 
of '55 wnte-up of Matthew 
Derby is made more 
interesting to read than most 
of the others because of the 
personal touch the direct 
quotes give. 

Thank you for all the work 
that has obviously gone into 
th\s Review. 


Susan Schulak Katcher '67 

Madison, Wisconsin 

Editor's Note 

The "Bookshelf" is being 
omitted for lack of space. 

Dear Editor: 

Though my wife and I did 
not attend Brandeis 
University, we are on the 
mailing list for the Brandeis 
Review. We want to 
congratulate Ruth 
Morgenthau on her article in 
the Spring 1983 issue of the 
Brandeis Review. 

The article concisely 
outlined and underscored 
the problem of hunger, and 
described a very realistic and 
practical approach for 
combatting hunger. It seems 
that the CILCA approach 
described in her article really 
brings results. 

Congratulations to Mrs. 
Morgenthau on her efforts m 
fighting world hunger, and 
congratulations on her 
article in the Brandeis 

Very truly yours, 
Richard S. Friedman 
New Orleans, Louisiana 

Nominations Sought 

The Alumni Term Trustee 
Nominating Committee 
convenes in October. 
Nominations may be sent to 
Gladys jacobson, director of 
alumni relations, no later 
than September 30, 1983. 

University Press of New England 

Hanover and London 

Brandeis University is part of 
University Press of New England, whose 
otlier member institutions are 
Brown University, Clark University, 
Dartmouth College, 

University of New Hampshire, University of 
Rhode Island, Tufts University, and 
University of Vermont. 

Bi^andeis Univerekx^ Pi^ess 

"The exploration of truth to its innermost parts" 

Richard Cobb 

French and 
Germans and 

A Personal 
Interpretation of 
France under Two 


Early review acclaim 

■'Cobb knows France and the French 
as well as any foreigner ... It is 
remarkable how much ground 
Cobb's short book covers, poking 
into aspects of life under the Occu- 
pation that most historians have 
Smithsonian Magazine 

■Richard Cobb makes the individual 
and the region the warp and woof of 
his tapestrv of occupied France . . . 
[He] has the imagination to see that 
soldiers, too. are as much the victims 
of an occupation's restraints as are 
the occupied civilians . . . Cobb's 
personal reflections will be both 
indispensable and fun for an) one 
interested in [the history of German 
IKew York Review of Books 

'^ ith infinite sympathy. Cobb accumu- 
lates his images and vignettes ... As an 
imaginative reconstmction of the past, 
it is verv fine stuff indeed." 
Washington Post Book World 

"By necessity, much of what he writes is 
highly speculative — how did con- 
quered Frenchmen feel? — but Cobb 
rarely fails to persuade us with his 
argimients. And if the keenness of his 
intelligence were not enough, there is 
the caliber of his prose: Cobb writes 
Boston Globe 

Tauber Institute Series, 2. 

SI 5. 95 

Braiideis Review 

Brandeis University 
Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 

Nonprofit Organization 

U.S. Postage 


Permit Number 15731 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Address correction requested 

B R A N D i: 1 S 


A N N I \ K R S A W Y 


Braiideis Review 

Winter 1983 
Volume 3, Number 4 

Inauguration Speech 
by President Handler 

Profile of Evelyn E. Handler 

In the Beginning: 

Particle Physics and Cosmology 

by Laurence F. Abbott 

Human Origins and Human Nature 
by D. Neil Gomberg 

Biblical Origins of Exegesis: 
Roots of Jewish Midrash 
by Michael Fishbane 

Origins of Christian Art: 
Resistance and Compromise 
by loachim E. Gaehde 

Ever a "New Found Land": 
Reflections on the Theme of 
Origins in American History 
by John Putnam Demos 

Remembrance of Times to Come 
by Saul G. Cohen 

The Future Challenges the Past: 
The Case of the Welfare State 
by Robert Morris 

Scholars Look Toward the 
Year 2000 

A Spectacular Success Story: 

The National Women's Committee 

by Adrianne Udis Rosenblatt '61 

Brandeis Alumni 

Brandeis Looks Ahead 

Designs for a New Campus: 

Almost Brandeis 

by Gerald S. Bernstein 

Brandeis Review, Volume 3, Number 4, Winter 1983. 
Brandeis Review (ISSN 0273-7175) is published by 
Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, 
Massachusetts 02254, with tree distribution to 30,000 
alumni, students, friends, parents, faculty and staff. 

Postmaster: Send address changes to Brandeis Review, 
Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, 
Massachusetts 02254. 


Nada Samuels 
Design Director 
Ron Recchio 
Reg Taylor 
Shirley Meymaris 
lulian Brown 
Betsey Ball 

Alumni Editorial 

Nina L. Baron '77 
Barbara Krasin 
Kravitz '57 
Director of Alumni 
Relations and the 
Alumni Fund 
Gladys R. lacobson 
Director of Public 
Barry Wanger 

The Inauguration 

As the lights dimmed and the Brass 
Ensemble played Ehzabethan dances, the 
processional into Boston's imposing 
Symphony Hall began. 

As the audience of 2,000 rose to its feet and 
applauded, representatives from the Class 
of 1952, the first graduating class, marched 
down the aisle, followed by National 
Officers of the National Women's 
Committee and delegates, faculty, alumni 
and members of the Board of Trustees. 

It was a gathering the hkes of which 
Brandeis probably had not seen since it 
inaugurated its first president, Abram L 
Sachar, in that same hall, almost to the 
day, 35 years ago. 

To those who had been at the first 
ceremony, the inauguration was a 
sentimental echo of that day, when the 
ideal of a fewish- sponsored, nonsectarian 
university was translated into reality. To 
those who had not been there, the 
inaugural rites on October 9, 1983 were a 
symbol of a university's faith to its initial 
vow to be among the best. 

When Founding President Sachar draped 
the silver medallion, symbolizing the 
office of the presidency, on Evelyn E. 
Handler, he was installing Brandeis' fifth 
president, and first woman in that 
position. And as the audience rose to its 
feet to welcome the new president, once 
again the Brandeis family was one and 
united in its hopes and dreams. 

At the champagne reception in Symphony 
Hall, immediately following the inaugural 
ceremony, emotions ran high. As long-time 
supporters of the University found famiUar 
faces in the crowd, there was much 
embracing and reminiscing. "This is so 
exciting," said one, "so nostalgic, to see the 
Brandeis constituency participating in this 
occasion. " 

October 9, 1983 

President Evelyn E. Handler's 
Inauguration Speech 

The newly elected 

President with Founding 

President Abram L. Sachar 

"An inauguration is 
traditionally a time of new 
beginnings. But today's 
ceremony and the events 
on campus of the 
preceding week symbolize 
also a remembrance and 
reaffirmation of a deeply 
meaningful tradition that 
has left an indelible 
imprint on the fabric of 
American higher 

I am deeply honored to assume the responsibihties as president of 2 
Brandeis University. Mr. Chairman, I accept the charge with 
which you and your fellow trustees have entrusted me. I do so 
willingly, and with full appreciation of the great faith you have 
placed in me. 

Thirty-five years ago Susan Brandeis, daughter of the late Justice, 
was asked what her father would have thought of the new 
university named in his honor. She answered, "He would have 
been satisfied." 

Yesterday, in deeply moving words, the youngest grandson of the 
late Justice Brandeis, Frank Gilbert, who is with us today, 
reiterated those comments. Thus, the dream that was given 
expression in this same hall with the inauguration of the 
founding president, Abram Sachar, has become, not just a reality, 
but a unique triumph in the history of American higher 

We are joined here today by men and women who dreamed of a 
Brandeis University before its birth, who helped found and 
nurture it, and who have remained through the years an integral 
part of its phenomenal success. 

We are also joined by members of the class of '87. We look to 
them — as we look to those who came before and those who will 
come after — for the support and caring that have made it possible 
to establish in 35 short years a tradition of intellectual inquiry 
and excellence that has earned the respect of the community of 
scholars and has lifted the spirits and fulfilled the fondest 
expectations of our family of well-wishers and generous 

An inauguration is traditionally a time of new beginnings. But 
today's ceremony and the events on campus of the preceding 
week symbolize also a remembrance and reaffirmation of a 
deeply meaningful tradition that has left an indelible imprint on 
the fabric of American higher education. 

hi his inaugural address 35 years ago — Abe Sachar spoke 
eloquently of building an institution ". . . on the integrity of 
learning and research, on the passion for service, on the right of 
equal opportunity." Only such an institution, he said, ". . . will be 
worthy of the intellectual and spiritual mantle of Louis Dembitz 
Brandeis . . ."Thisispart of the Brandeis tradition I am inheriting. 

"A tradition without intelligence," T. S. Eliot warns us, "is not 
worth having." But ours is a tradition of intelligence, a tradition 
of dedication to excellence in all its many forms, and a tradition 
that requires us to pass on to generations of students the full 
measure and richness of the humanistic, liberal education 
experience that has been the hallmark of Brandeis and must 
remain its guiding principle. 

The road ahead will not be easy. We live in an increasingly 
complex society, one which has long had a love affair with 
technology and remains fascinated with man's seeming ability to 
triumph over nature. 

In adapting tu the needs of our times and the needs of our 
students, we must find ways not only to maintain the 
meaningfuhiess of an education founded on the humanistic 
tradition, but ways m which to give full expression to its richness 
and beauty. 

We must recognize that the value of a liberal education is only 
fully realized m the context of its application. It is the ability to 
interpret the human condition, to see into the human spirit in the 
light of our own and others' experiences, that gives liberal 
education its most enduring worth. 

Such an education is about the passion of thought, the power of an 
idea, the will to understand. It is through the full enjoyment of 
the liberal education experience that we are enriched by the art of 
Shakespeare, awed by the beauty of mathematics, stirred by the 
adventures of Ulysses, and feel the anguish of Oedipus. 

In facing the challenge to preserve and enhance our tradition, we 
must not allow ourselves to become ensnared in our own 
vision of the past. From the past we can draw strength and 
self-conhdence, but, if we are to ensure that the first 3S years have 
been but prelude to new challenges and new triumphs, we must 
look forward not backward. 

On the Stage at Symphony 
HaW: Professor Saul G. 
Cohen. Grand Marshal of 
the Inaugural ceremony, 
<itands at the podium, 
while behmd him are (left 
to right) Alfred 
Gottschalk. President of 
Hebrew Union College, 
who gave the benediction: 
Paul Levenson '52,- 
\hissachusetts Governor 
Mjchael S. Dukakis: 
President Evelyn E. 
Handler: Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees. Henry L. 
Foster: Donald Kennedy, 
President of Stanford 
University, who gave the 
main address 

"In facing the challenge to 

preserve and enhance our 

tradition, we must not 

allow ourselves to become 

ensnared in our own 

vision of the past. From the 

past we can draw strength 

and self-confidence, but, if 

we are to ensure that the 

first 35 years have been 

but prelude to new 

challenges and new 

triumphs, we must look 

forward not backward." 

Those who dreamed the Brandeis dream have shown what 
determination and will can accomplish. It is up to us — faculty, 
students, staff, alumni (and here I include our adopted alumni), 
trustees, members of the National Women's Committee, friends 
who have supported Brandeis through the years — it is up to all of 
us to do as much and more m the next 35 years as was so grandly 
accomplished in the first three and a half decades. 

The years ahead will not be merely a replication of the past. If the 
early years of Brandeis can be likened to the growth and promise 
of childhood, the exuberance of adolescence, the drive and energy 
of young adulthood, then the years ahead will bring wisdom, and 
the creativity and fulfillment of experience and maturity. 

Chairman of the Board 

Henry L. Foster presenting 

the University's Charter to 

President Handler 

"I look to our alumni for a 
special understanding of 
Brandeis. Those of you 
who are graduates of the 
university know its worth 
for you have been touched 
personally. I look to you 
for allegiance, for caring, 
and, above all, I look to 
you to be involved. The 
alumni are the living 
university in the 
community. " 

The foundation that has been laid for Brandeis has been built 
upon rock. Our university is a monument to the highest 
traditions of excellence, integrity, commitment and dedication. 
And because it is so, all of us carry a special burden and a special 

From the faculty, I expect those characteristics of mind that for 
all academics are a reflection of greatness and strength. I expect, 
and I know I will find in full measure, openness to new ideas, 
fresh approaches to teaching and curriculum, a willingness to 
take chances, to be creative, and a desire to interact with one 
another and especially with students on a variety of levels both in 
and outside the classroom or laboratory. 

The faculty are the backbone of the University. It is they who are 
the interpreters of knowledge, the creators of new knowledge, 
and It IS they who are responsible for putting old ideas into fresh 
perspective and passing this knowledge and insight on to 
students who will form the next generation of scholars. This is a 
sacred trust and a revered obligation that must be borne in its full 
weight if the university, as an institution of our society, is to 
remain a place of scholarship and learning. 

From the faculty, I also expect a commitment to undergraduate 
life and instruction that will serve as a fulfilling complement to 
the dedication to research and scholarship that has already lifted 
our university to the front ranks of institutions of higher 

I call upon the students of our university — those of you here today 
as well as those who will come after you — to accept a special 
responsibility for your own education. The faculty can guide you, 
can provide support and helpful insight, can aid you in sharpening 
the skills of the mind, but it is you — and you alone — who will 
decide if your education at Brandeis is an experience measured 
only in time or, as it should be, as an experience measured in 
terms of growth, broadened vision, and a deeper and more subtle 
understanding of yourself and the world about you. 

The opportunity to learn from and to work with some of the 
preeminent scholars of our day is an opportunity to be 
transformed and fulfilled in a very special and meaningful way. 

I urge you as students to look deeply within yourselves to 
discover who you are and who it is you can become. It is the 
responsibility of the faculty to demand that you grow 
intellectually. It is your responsibility, however, to reach, to 
stretch, to find opportunities, and to take risks — for without 
risk-taking there can be no growth. 

I look to our alumni for a special understanding of Brandeis. 
Those of you who are graduates of the university know its worth 
for you have been touched personally. I look to you for allegiance, 
for caring, and, above all, I look to you to be involved. The alumni 
are the living university m the community. 

You can remain silent and distant, but something will be lost and 
the university will be the poorer for having failed to capture your 
enthusiasm. Or you can share yourself, your energies, your 
individual perspective and thereby enrich both yourself and your 
institution. You are our link with our past and must be partners in 
our future. 

From our friends and supporters, from our alumni of the spirit, 
from the many thousands of members of the Brandeis University 
National Women's Committee, I seek your support. 

You have watched this university grow, and have thus 
participated in an experience filled with personal satisfaction. 
Through your determination to ensure that the name Brandeis 
only be associated with that which is of the highest quahty, you 
have helped tum dream to reality and modest beginnings to 
national greatness. 

From the university's trustees I seek wisdom, a deep 
commitment to the ideals for which the institution stands, and a 
willingness to support the university and help guide her destiny. 

I seek your aid in difficult times, I seek your counsel, I seek your 
willingness to give of yourselves. But above all else, I look to 
you — our trustees — for courage, vision and support. 

It was courage that enabled our university to grow in 35 short 
years from a single building and 107 students to be a respected 
member of that small fraternity of colleges and universities that 
stand at the pinnacle of American higher education. 

And It was courage that made it possible for this achievement to 
be accomplished in the face of seemingly insurmountable 
obstacles and difficulties. 

Boldness, vision, the willingness to give of themselves, and the 
courage to set high standards. These were the characteristics that 
marked our founding trustees and are the measures that I Icnow 
will continue to guide our trustees, now and in the future. 

For myself, I make a pledge that is at once personal and a 
statement regarding the future of our university. As president of 
Brandeis, I pledge my full energies, my best judgment, and the 
courage to take risks in the pursuit of our mission. 

If opportunities are missed, we will find new ones. Neither 
challenge nor adversity will deter us. And as we grow we will 
permit ourselves to experience disappointment and joy, change 
and innovation, and an appreciation of our full potential for a rich 
and demanding future. 

I pledge dedication to the task at hand, pride in ourselves and our 
university, and commitment to the realization that having 
achieved greatness in one short generation, there is no limit to 
what we can — together — accomplish. 

I intend to tum the face of the university outward, to broaden our 
appeal to the best and the brightest of our country's young people, 
to address the quality of student life at Brandeis. 

I pledge a continued commitment to maintain the richness, the 
excitement, and the enduring value of liberal, undergraduate 
education. I pledge wholehearted support to the continued 
excellence of our graduate programs, and to the fullest possible 
encouragement of our faculty in their research, their teaching, 
and their service to the university and her students and the 

The years ahead are going to be among the most exciting in the 
history of our university as we extend our reach and broaden our 
horizons in terms of curriculum, program, and the impact that 
Brandeis will have on this and future generations of students. To 
this mission, I pledge my energy, my heart and spirit. ■ 

President Handler and 
Massachusetts Governor 
Michael S. Dukakis 

"You can remain silent 

and distant, but 

something will be lost and 

the university will be the 

poorer for having failed to 

capture your enthusiasm. 

Or you can share yourself, 

your energies, your 

individual perspective 

and thereby enrich both 

yourself and your 

institution. You are our 

link with our past and 

must be partners in our 



Evelyn Erika Handler 

"Brandeis was founded with a pioneering 
spirit . . a drive to make this a top-notch 
university," says a long-time member of 
the Brandeis community. "Handler seems 
to fit that mold. She has a certain charisma. 
She gives us new hope that we can continue 
the Brandeis dream." 

Evelyn Enka Handler, hfth president of 
Brandeis, took over the stewardship of the 
university in mid-summer, and by this fall, 
she was an established presence on campus. 

By the time students had returned to 
campus, a sizable portion of administrators, 
faculty and staff had met Handler, shaken 
her hand, given their views, expressed their 
hopes, and of course, formed an opinion of 
the new president. The almost unanimous 
response was that Brandeis has a forthright, 
unpretentious, warm and strong president. 

Yet there is another easily detectable trait: 

energy. When Handler says she has "a lot of 
stamina" she is describing what anyone 
who has worked with her notices 
immediately — a trait that was tested as 
soon as she came to Brandeis. "The first 
year on a job is physically and emotionally 
taxing, the pace and intensity of activity are 
enormous," she says, and those who know 
her schedule, concur. 

The pace of the first weeks included reading 
annual reports from each administrative 
unit and responses to her request that each 
outline its goals. Then, she met with each 
administrator. Meetings "to understand 
the Brandeis budget and see how it works" 
followed, along with individual meetings 
with department chairs. From the very 
beginning, she fulfilled her other priorities: 
taking the Brandeis message out to the 
community, meeting Brandeis' supporters, 
working on increasing the base of support 
to the university and, when the students 
returned to campus, meeting with as many 
as possible. In the fall she was scheduled to 
go to 10 different cities to meet alumni, 
supporters, potential donors. 

But within that crowded schedule she made 
room to acquaint herself not only with 
those within the university who set 
pohcies, but also those who are affected by 

7 "I am not anxious to increase bureaucracy; 
in fact I would like to cut it down," she told 
one group, but she also added: "It is 
important for people who feel powerless in 
institutions to be able to speak with those 
who have power. It is not easy for people to 
trust administrators. There must be trust 
between those who set policy and those 
who are affected by it," she cautioned. "If 
you ignore it, it will come back to haunt 
you. . . ." 

Trust is a subject that, in different versions, 
she returns to over and over again. "I 
absolutely want team players. An 
institution works well when ever>'one 
pulls in the same direction. We all suffer if 
we don't play as a team." 

Team work, as she calls it, is one of the 
major criteria she emphasizes in describing 
what she looks for in a staff. The others are 
competence and institutional loyalty. But 
at ever>' conversation she also stresses her 
desire for quality: "I expect you all to do 
what you have been doing, and to do it 
exceedingly well, " she says. "I have a vision 
of Brandeis, an expectation of excellence." 
She places the same expectation on herself: 
"I intend to push myself hard. I can only be 
a team player if I make my own 
contribution. I also must deliver." 

Excellence and quality are words that 
surface repeatedly when she talks of 
Brandeis. "I like quality institutions ... I 
like quality programs. My challenge is to 
take something excellent and make it even 
better." That, she believes, is her mission at 
Brandeis. "I like to listen to the aspirations 
of faculty and students and attempt to 
make their dreams come true. . ." Those 
dreams must at times take a new path to be 
fulhlled: "I would like to foster innovation. 
I value innovation, yet within the confines 
of tradition," she adds. 

To accomplish all she envisions, one must 
have more than goodwill, energy, 
forthrightness . . . one must be a leader. 
Evelyn Handler has reflected on what it 
means to be one. 

"A leader," she says, "is someone who 
understands the characteristics of the 
institution. A leader must understand it 
sufficiently to set direction. Yet a leader's 
vision must be one that constituents can 
follow. A leader," she continues, "is 
someone who takes calculated risks, 
doesn't always play it safe." 

She has never played it safe before. During 
the three years she was president of the 
University of New Hampshire ( 1980-1983) 
her accomplishments were such that at her 
departure New Hampshire editorial writers 
lauded her leadership. "Farewell to a great 
one," read the headline over one editorial. 

Dunng her three years there she launched 
the largest capital campaign in the 
university's history, increased sponsored 
research on campus, revamped the 
undergraduate general education program, 
arranged for the private financing of a 
dormitory facility, secured federal funding 
for a major S15 million science research 
building and streamlined the 
administration and financial management 
of the institution. 

Her accomplishments were recognized and 
applauded widely. Another editorial in 
1982 stated:". . . she is a caring, total 
woman of vision who seems beyond the 
petty and partisan small-minded interests 
of some. She is simply, far from a 
business-as-usual lady. . . Around the state 
she is receiving standing ovations not for 
any one single thing but for the total human 
being she is. She encourages the university 
in thousands of little ways and personifies 
tough-minded management with a heart. 
She gets the job done. . ." 

She came to New Hampshire after being 
associated with Hunter College since 
1962 — first as biology professor, then in 
1 977 as dean of the Division of Sciences and 

The 50-year-old scientist, bom in Hungary, 
received her bachelor of arts from Hunter 
College, and her master of science and 
Ph.D. in biology from New York 
University. She is also a member of several 
professional and honor societies, including 
a recent appointment as chair of the 
National Academy of Science Committee 
on Models for Biomedical Research. She is 
the author of two dozen publications, 
including several she co-authored with her 
husband, biologist Eugene Handler, in the 
field of leukemia research. They are the 
parents of two sons. 

While a member of the faculty at Hunter 
College during the financial crisis m 1974, 
when New York City was teetering on the 
brink of bankruptcy, and Hunter College's 
budget was to be cut by 15 percent, she was 
appointed by then president, Jacqueline 
Wexler, to serve on the college's fiscal 
emergency committee. She became a major 
player during that crisis. Wexler described 
her as "a wonderful combination of 
warmth and toughness. By toughness I 
don't mean hard or brittle. Toughness is 
resilience; the ability to make hard 
decisions and stand by them." 

Although happy and successful at New 
Hampshire, she responded to Brandeis' call 
because, "There are some institutions you 
identify with more than others. . ." And for 
Brandeis, she says she has "many, many 
dreams. . . ."■ 


i^Dii r^ 

The week preceding the inauguration, the 
University held a series of academic 
programs that featured some of the most 
distinguished members of the faculty. The 
unifying topics were "Origins," "Thinking 
About the Future" and "Issues in Higher 
Education." An abbreviated sampling of 
those talks follows the program. 


In the Beginning: 

Elementary Particles and Cosmology 

Laurence F. Abbott 
Associate Professor of Physics 

Omne Vivum Ex Ovo: 

The Origins of Cellular Diversity 

Michael Wormington 
Assistant Professor of Biochemistr>' 
Member, Rosenstiel Basic .Medical 
Sciences Research Center 

Human Origins and Human Nature 

D. Neil Gomberg 

Assistant Professor of Anthropology 


James R. Lackner 
Meshulam and Judith Riklis 
Professor of Psychology 

Biblical Origins of Exegesis: 
The Roots of Jewish Midrash 

Michael Fishbane 

Samuel Lane Associate Professor of 
Jewish Religious History and 
Social Ethics 

The Origins of Christian Art: 
Resistance and Compromise 

Joachim E. Gaehde 

Sidney and Ellen Wien Professor 

in the History of Art 

The Idea of Socialism 

Ralph Miliband 

Morns Hillquit Professor 

in Labor and Social Thought 


Ruth Schachter Morgenthau 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Protessor of International Politics 

Beginnings Marred by Violence: 
The Literary Pre-History of America 

Phihp Fisher 

Associate Professor of English 

Ever a "New Found Land": 
Reflections on the Theme 
of Origins in American History 

John Putnam Demos 
Professor of History 

The Language of Music: 
Some New Beginnings 

Allan R. Keiler 

Associate Professor of Music 


Edward Engelberg 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Thinking About the Future 

The Future Challenges the Past: 
The Case of the Welfare State 

Robert Morris 

Professor Emeritus of Social Plarming 

Remembrance of Times to Come 

Saul G. Cohen 

Charles A. Breskin University 

Professor of Chemistry 

The Future of the Past 

Frank E. Manuel 

Alfred and Viola Hart University 

Professor of History 


Anne P. Carter 

Dean of the Faculty and 

Fred C Hecht Professor of Economics 

Issues in Higher Education 

Evelyn E. Handler, President 

Faculty Panel: 

Eugene P. Gross 

Edward and Gertrude Swartz 

Professor of Theoretical Physics 

Allen R. Grossman 

Paul E. Prosswimmer Professor 

of Poetry and General Education 

Wilham P. Jencks 
Gyula and Katica Tauber 
Professor of Biochemistry and 
Molecular Pharmacodynamics 

Barney K. Schwalberg 
Professor of Economics 

Moderator: Egon Bittner 

Harry Coplan Professor 
in the Social Sciences 

In The Beginning: 

Particle Physics 
and Cosmology 

by Laurence F. Abbott 

Laurence F. Abbott, associate professor of 
physics, has lectured in this country and 
abroad on topics of high energy theoretical 
physics. Last spring he was one of only 88 
individuals awarded prestigious Sloan 
Fellowships. Prior to coming to Brandeis in 
1979, Professor Abbott was a scientific 
associate at CERN in Switzerland and 
research associate at the Stanford Linear 
Accelerator in Palo Alto, California. 

Cosmology is the study of the history and 
structure of the universe. The scientific 
approach to cosmology is based on a simple 
property of all physical systems. Once the 
physical laws governing a system are 
known, as well as the state of that system at 
any one time, astronomers can determine 
what the universe will do in the future as 
well as what it did in the past. In the case of 
cosmology, the system is the observed 
universe. Using our knowledge of the 
physical laws of nature, along with 
observational data from astronomy, 
scientists can reconstruct the early history 
of the universe. 

Progress in elementary particle physics 
over the past decade has greatly increased 

our knowledge of the laws of nature. We 
now understand how matter behaves over 
an extremely wide range of conditions, and 
can apply this knowledge to cosmology. 
The key is to specify the state of the 
universe at a point in time so that these 
laws can be used to reconstruct its early 
history. Today, the universe is clearly very 
complicated with billions of galaxies 
arranged in complicated clusters. The 
universe is nearly 20 billion years old. 
Fortunately, we know that when the 
universe was only 100,000 years old it was 
very simple — it was filled very uniformly 
with hot, glowing gas. We've established 
this time as the starting point in our 
analysis. Using the physical laws to evolve 
forward in time from this point, we should 
in principle be able to arrive at our present 
universe (although the complexity of 
galaxies and galactic clusters makes this 
very difficult). Moving backward in time 
we can study the earliest moments m the 
history of the universe. 

It may seem remarkable that we know 
what the universe looked like at 100,000 
years. When astronomers view distant 
objects they are also looking far into the 
past since light from distant objects takes a 
long time to reach us. When it hnally 
reaches our telescopes it records the 
appearance of a distant object not as it 
exists today, but as it was long ago. We 
observe the universe when it was only 
100,000 years old by detecting light which 
has travelled for nearly 20 bilhon years. 
This light IS the cosmic background 
radiation. Although we are neither 
observing the whole universe when we 
detect the cosmic background radiation, 
nor seeing the part of the universe we live 
in — we are viewing a very distant part of the 
universe. However, it seems likely that the 
universe is pretty much the same 
everywhere, and in fact, this is a 
fundamental postulate of cosmology. Thus 
we can make the reasonable assumption 
that the entire universe looked like the 
region we see at 100,000 years of age. 

Analysis of the cosmic background 
radiation reveals that it was emitted by a 
hot, glowing gas. Most of the light we see 
coming from the sky comes from compact 
sources like stars or galaxies. The cosmic 
background radiation, on the other hand, 
comes uniformly from all parts of the sky. 
In every direction we look, we find that the 
gas which emitted this radiation was at the 
same temperature and density. The 
accuracy of these readings is better than 
one-hundredth of one percent! Our 
conclusion is that at 100,000 years the 
universe was incredibly uniform and 

simple. Instead of being clumped up m 
galaxies and stars, matter was spread 
uniformly throughout space. This raises 
two mteresting questions: why was the 
universe so simple then, and how did it 
become so complex today? Both of these 
questions are addressed in a new cosmology 
introduced by Alan Guth a few years ago 
called inflationary cosmology. 

Let us start at 100,000 years when the 
universe was simple and evolve backward 
toward earlier times. In order to do this, we 
must use one more piece of information — 
our knowledge about the expansion of the 
universe. Astronomers have observed that 
galaxies are receding from each other. This 
means that the density of matter in the 
universe has been continually decreasing. 
The density of matter was even higher 
100,000 years earlier than the period after. 
Higher density means higher temperature. 
The further back in time we go the hotter 
the universe gets. This is the basic concept 
of big-bang cosmology. 

The temperature of the gas which filled the 
universe at 100,000 years was about 
4000°K. At this temperature matter is 
opaque to light which explains why we 
cannot directly see any further out, and 
therefore any further into the past. Before 
100,000 years the universe was even hotter 
than 4000°K. For example, at an age of 
about a minute, the universe was so hot 
that conditions resembled those inside a 
nuclear reactor. Nuclear physicists can 
compute the abundances of the light 
elements created in this reactor-like 
environment and their results concur with 
what we see today. This provides a pattern 
allowing us to understand what the 
universe was like at one minute. If we go 
back to still earlier times, we discover that 
particles of matter, heated to tremendous 
temperatures, smashed into each other 
with very high energy. These coUisions 
resembled those in our huge particle 
accelerator laboratories. The most relevant 
aspect of physics to the understanding of 
the earliest stages in the evolution of the 
universe is elementary particle physics. We 
can use theories that have been tested in 
accelerators to analyze the evolution down 
to about a millionth of a second of its 
existence. Before this we must be more 
speculative. It was m the application of 
elementary particle theories to this 
extremely early time that "inflation" was 

Inflation is similar to the ordinary 
expansion of the universe occurring today, 
except that it is much faster. It is an effect of 

gravity which can occur in certain 
elementary particle theories. Within 
inflationary cosmology it is proposed that 
sometime in the first fraction of a second a 
brief period of extremely rapid expansion 
occurred. The total amount of expansion 
during this inflationary period was 
enormous. Any matter which might have 
been around before inflation took place was 
reduced to zero density by the tremendous 
expansion. Thus, the first act of inflation 
was to clear an empty space for us. This has 
one very nice consequence — we don't have 
to worry about what happened before 
inflation. Although many interesting 
conjectures about pre-inflationary times 
have been made, the dismissal of 
previously existing matter by inflation 
means that whatever happened before 
inflation had no effect on our present 
universe. Inflation has wiped the slate 

Dunng the period the universe was 
inflating, energy was stored in a particular 
configuration of the fields which are part of 
the elementary particle theory. At the end 
of the inflationary period this energy was 
released and the matter which fills our 
present universe was created. We call this 
process the great thaw. The matter 
appeared in the form of a dense gas at very 
high temperature. Most importantly, it was 
created extremely uniformly. Matter 
appeared in different parts of the universe 
with equal temperature and density. This 
explains why the universe was so 
remarkably uniform at the age of 100,000 
years — matter was created uniformly in the 
first fraction of a second during the great 
thaw. Accounting for this is one of the great 
successes of inflationary cosmology. 

If the matter in the universe had remained 
spread out uniformly, then today there 
would only be about one atom for every five 
cubic meters of space. Nature has provided 
for us not by filling the universe with 
matter but by concentrating what little 
matter there is into compact structures. 
The first step in this concentration process 
is galaxy formation. How did matter, which 
was spread so uniformly through space at 
100,000 years, cluster together and form the 
complicated galactic structures we see 
today at 20 billion years? The basic 
mechanism for galaxy formation is 
gravitational attraction. The force of 
gravity will naturally make matter clump 
together. However, in order for this 
mechanism to work, there must have been 
small inhomogeneities in the almost 
perfectly uniform distribution of matter in 
the early universe to act as seeds for galaxy 

formation. The problem of galaxy lo 

formation thus comes down to the problem 
of accounting for the presence of these 
galactic seeds m the matter distribution of 
the early universe. 

Inflation offers a remarkable explanation 
for the presence of the small 
inhomogeneities needed for galaxy 
formation. Earlier I said that when matter 
was created after the inflationary period, it 
appeared with uniform density and 
temperature. Actually, this is not quite true 
as I have been ignoring the small 
fluctuations which are predicted and, in 
fact, required by quantum mechanics. 
Quantum mechanics is normally relevant 
for small systems the size of atoms or even 
smaller matter. It is most unusual to apply 
quantum mechanics to something as big as 
a galaxy. However, inflation connects the 
small and the large. A fluctuation which 
was smaller than an atom before inflation 
can end up as large as a galaxy after 
inflation. If the elementary particle theory 
is adjusted correctly (a problem which has 
not yet been completely solved), we should 
be able to have inflation create matter 
uniformly enough to agree with data on the 
universe at 100,000 years and yet produce 
the small inhomogeneities needed to make 
galaxies. Work on this exciting and unusual 
mechanism for galaxy formation is still in 

I have recently been studying whether we 
can see evidence for the quantum- 
mechanical inhomogeneities predicted by 
inflation in observations of the cosmic 
background radiation. This work was done 
in collaboration with a colleague and 
friend, Mark Wise. We hope that sometime 
in the future, perhaps through satellite 
observation in the late part of this decade, 
these fluctuations may be observed. If they 
are, we will have found evidence that the 
galaxies and other huge structures in the 
universe today might really have originated 
as tiny quantum fluctuations which were 
stretched to their present large sizes by 

We have seen that inflationary cosmology 
clears out an empty space for us in the 
universe and then fills that space with 
matter, even providing the seeds for galaxy 
formation. ■ 

Human Origins and 
Human Nature 

by D. Neil Gomberg 




D. Neil Gomberg, assistant professor of 
anthropology, is recognized as one of the 
outstanding young social scientists in the 
field of physical anthropology. He has 
published his findings in a number of 
leading anthropology journals and has 
been invited to discuss his research before 
anthropologists in the United States and 
Austria. A former winner of a prestigious 
Woodrow Wilson Fellowship, Professor 
Gomberg joined the Brandeis faculty in 

In the beginning of time Father Jaguar 
created people, but they had no mouth. 
Kahipu-lakano, the first of us who gave us 
all that we have, said "it is not possible 
that people cannot speak." So he created 
the mouth. . . 
from a Yukuna origin myth 

Every people attempts in some way to 
explam the mystery of their origin. 
Explanation usually takes the form of 
myths, stories rich in symbolism, which 
may account not only for the origin of a 
particular people, but also of the entire 
cosmos. Anthropological research into 
human origins eschews (we hope!) myth 
and seeks explanations through the use of 
scientific method. In their search, 
anthropologists use evidence derived from 
the material remains of early humans (such 
as bones, tools and structures), from the 
comparison of the biology and behaviour of 
modern humans and primates, and from 
analogies with populations of modern 
human hunter-gatherers. 

Evidence from the comparison of 
biochemical similarities and differences in 
living primates indicates that the ancestors 
of modern humans and those of modern 
apes diverged from a common stock 
(known generally as "dryopithecines") 
around eight million years ago. 
Unfortunately, few fossils are known from 
that period, and the abundant 
dryopithecine remains from a slightly 
earlier date (9-10 million years) are 
somewhat equivocal. The status of 
Ramapithecus, which dates from this 
earlier time and which was once considered 
the earliest human ancestor, is now in 
doubt. Except for a few scraps here and 
there, the earliest direct evidence of 
human-like beings dates from about 3.5 
million years ago, at Hadar in Ethiopia and 

Laetolil in Tanzania. The fossils from 
Hadar, which include the famous "Lucy 
skeleton," have been hailed as our earliest 
ancestors, while footprints in volcanic mud 
from the slightly earher site of Laeotili 
provide the oldest evidence of bipedal 
walking in the human line. 

The shape of the Hadar lower limb bones 
also indicates that their original owners 
moved about as we do, using a bipedal gait. 
Together with the Laetolil footprints, they 
have laid to rest one of the oldest 
controversies in the study of human 
evolution; that is, which came first, the 
characteristic human dentition, tool use, 
bipedal gait or the increase in size of the 
human brain. An important school of 
thought in the first half of this centur\' held 
that It was our large brain that evolved hrst. 
This line of reasoning received an 
important boost from the Piltdown fossils 
(later proven fraudulent) which combined 
an ape's dentition with a modern human 
skull. A later theory, popularized by 
Sherwood Washburn, proposed that the 
large brain, bipedal gait and tool use 
evolved in tandem, spurred on by a hunting 
way of life. According to this model, the 
more our ancestors hunted, the more tools 
and weapons were necessary; the more 
tools were used, the more upright, 
intelligent individuals were favored by 
selection. As tools took over the role played 
by the teeth in apes, the large ape canine 
and incisors began to disappear. This was a 
very popular theory m the '50s and '60s and 
was picked up and somewhat distorted, 
much to Washburn's dismay, by a number 
of popular writers such as Desmond Morris 
and Robert Ardrey. The political and social 
fallout of this "killer ape" model (as some 
called it) has been enormous; certain 
individuals using it to argue everything 
from the inevitability of aggression to the 
low place of women in society. The Hadar 
fossils have, for the time being, quieted that 
debate because they show an upright 
bipedal animal which possessed rather 
apelike teeth and a brain the size of a 

It IS now clear to most paleoanthropologists 
that the key characteristic which 
distinguishes early humans from their ape 
ancestors was the ability to walk erect. The 
reasons for the origin of the human species 
must be sought in the reasons for the origin 
of bipedalism, not in reasons for increased 
brain size. Owen Lovejoy has suggested an 
intriguing hypothesis which ties the 

beginning of bipedalism to a shift in 
reproductive and social behavior. He 
reasons that as our apehke ancestors moved 
out of the forest and into a more 
open-country setting, the slow 
reproductive turnover characteristic of 
modern apes would be inadequate to 
maintam population size. Many tropical 
forest animals reproduce more slowly, have 
long lifespans and longer periods of infant 
dependency than related species hving in a 
savanna environment. Apes are especially 
slow to mature and breed. A species of ape 
moving into the open-country habitat 
would find it difficult to speed up 
reproductive turnover without sacrificing 
some of the advantages of slow 
reproduction such as a long period of 
learning and sociahzation for the young. 
The solution, according to Lovejoy, was to 
maintain the long infant dependency but to 
have more than one dependent mfant at a 
time. This is accomplished by breeding 
again, before the first child is able to go off 
on its own. But, as any parent knows, kids 
restrict mobility; a chimp mother is 
restricted in her movements by one 
offspring, an early human mother would be 
even more restricted with two or three at a 
time. The solution is not to move around 
but stay in one place and leave the little 
beggars while she goes out and forages. 
Even better is to send the males out to 
forage also and use some of the food that 
they bring home. This is the pattern m 
many large carnivores such as wolves, but 
carnivores have an advantage over 
primates m that they can carry a lot of food 
m their stomachs and regurgitate it at the 
home base. Primates are not equipped for 
this and so a different solution had to be 
found — hence bipedalism to free the hands 
to carry. 

Lovejoy has presented a persuasive model 
for the origin of the earhest human 
ancestors; some paleoanthropologists 
strongly agree, others strongly disagree but 
the story doesn't end here. These early 
ancestors (called Australopithecines| 
apparently existed quite well for several 
millions of years with a human gait but a 
chimpanzee brain. If something else had 
not occurred we'd still be out on the African 
savanna. For although our ongins can be 
traced to the development of bipedalism, it 
is our large brains that truly distinguish us 
from all other animals. 

Around two million years ago something 
very important for the history of our species 
happened. No one is quite sure what that 
was, although it may have something to do 
with the appearance of large ground 
dwelling monkeys (related to today's 
baboons) which competed for the same 

resources as the Australopithecines. In any 
event, two very different types of 
human-like bipedal creatures emerged 
around this time. One was a large variety of 
Australopithecus with enormous molar 
teeth and huge chewing muscles. This 
creature may have avoided competition 
with the emerging baboons by eating 
material, such as acacia nuts, which was 
too difficult for monkey teeth to crack. A 
second human-like species or group of 
species emphasized the brain over the 
teeth. These creatures apparently 
broadened their ecological niche, perhaps 
digging tubers with sticks or hunting small 
game. They also began to make the first 
tools, pebble choppers, which allowed 
them to crack bones or open thick skinned 
nuts or fruit. By 1 .6 million years, Homo 
habilis, as these first humans were called, 
had evolved into Homo erectus with double 
the brain size of the Australopithecines. 
Brain size then remained fairly constant 
until the next great advance, which 
produced the Neanderthals around 150,000 
years ago. 

The association of the increase in brain size 
with the emergence of technology in the 
form of stone tools is no coincidence. This 
period marks the time when humans were 
first beginning to substitute cultural for 
biological means of adapting to the 
environment with enormous effects on the 
subsequent evolution of the human 

Culture softens the need to adapt 
biologically — either via natural selection or 
via acchmatization during an individual's 
lifetime — for a variety of environmental 
stresses. For example, humans have long 
existed in temperate chmates where 
survival without fire, clothing and shelter 
would be impossible. Similarly, many 
humans living in cold climates today have 
never experienced sufficient cold stress to 
develop physiological acclimatization 
responses during their lifetimes. Culture 
thus acts as a buffer, or screen, between 
humans and their environments. 

At the same time, possession of the cultural 
means of adapting has led to some novel 
biological characteristics of the human 
species. For example, culture has allowed 
humans to penetrate almost every type of 
terrestrial environment. In each 
environment, however, are problems 
which cannot be dealt with culturally but 
which require biological adaptation. The 
deleterious effects of both too much and 
too little ultra-violet radiation is one 
example; biological adaptation to this 
problem has led to the wide variation in 

skin color characteristics of the human 
species. At the same time, culture allows 
almost any geographic barrier to be 
traversed, thus eliminating the possibihty 
of long term genetic isolation and 
speciation. The result is a species which 
exhibits great variation in certain traits, but 
which, in terms of overall genetic distance, 
exhibits only miniscule differences among 
geographically defined populations. 

Last, culture is a ftne all-purpose tool with 
which to meet the challenge of varying 
environments. It allows rapid adjustments 
to changing conditions, flexibihty of 
response, and the invention of entirely new 
ways of adapting. To the extent that the use 
of culture is associated with intelligence, 
those who are brainier will be favored by 
natural selection. Thus, the evolutionary 
increase m bram size — a biological 
phenomenon — was stimulated by the 
ever-increasing substitution of cultural for 
biological means of adapting. 

The preceding discussion is relevant to 
another old debate in anthropology' (and in 
numerous other disciphnes) centering on 
the degree to which human behaviour is 
determined by our biological or our cultural 
nature. This controversy has flared anew 
with the popularization of the notion that 
specific human behaviours are more-or-less 
determined by the genes. One of the more 
certain ways of insuring a lively, and often 
acrimonious, debate is to whisper the word 
"sociobiology" in a crowd of academics. 
Within anthropology itself, the ghost of 
Margaret Mead (who was one of the most 
forceful proponents of the pre-eminence of 
culture in determining behaviour) has been 
conjured up and ntually slain. In truth, we 
can escape neither our biological nor our 
cultural heritage, but claims of strict 
biological determinism for specific human 
behaviours ignores the pattern of human 
evolutionary history. Thus, although 
human behaviour is ultimately grounded in 
a biological structure — the brain — the 
organ itself, by allowing flexible, learned 
cultural responses to environmental 
stimuh has ehminated much of the 
necessity for genetic selection of specific 
forms of behaviour. There simply is no 
opportunity for genetic selection to occur if 
cultural solutions are found to 
environmental problems and challenges. 
Thus, although the origins of humanity 
must be traced to the causes and early 
evolution of bipedalism, it is the pattern of 
disengaging behaviour from the control of 
the genes — a pattern that began to emerge 
almost two million years ago — that makes 
us truly human. ■ 

The Biblical Origins of 

Exegesis: Roots of Jewish Midrash 

by Michael Fishbane 


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Michael Fishbane, Samuel Lane Associate 
Professor of Jewish Religious History and 
Social Ethics Department of Near Eastern 
and Judaic Studies, is a prominent biblical 
scholar who has written widely on biblical 
studies and Jewish thought. Among his 
books are Text and Texture: Close 
Readings of Selected Biblical Texts and 
Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. 
Since coming to Brandeis in 1 969, he has 
been visiting professor at Stanford 
University and at the Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem, where he was a Lady Davis 

As we try to explore our cultural origins and 
the sources which have shaped our 
civilization, there is one document which 
stands out among all others — the Hebrew 
Bible. But it is not the Bible alone which has 
had a profound impact upon Western 
Civilization. It is rather the Bible through 
interpretations of it: The biblical 
commentaries and canon law of the Church 
Fathers and medieval Christian 
ecclesiatics; the suras and tafsirs of 
classical Islamic literature; and the 
volumes of Jewish exegetical 
hterature — beginning with the Midrash, 
continuing with the Talmuds, the 
medieval codes, the many volumes of 
Midrash, and the ramified mystical and 
philosophical allegories. Reflecting on the 
importance and range of this creativity, an 
old Talmudic repartee comes to mind. 
"What IS Scripture?" it was asked. And the 
answer: "The interpretation of Scripture." 

I might add that the importance of textual 
interpretations is not limited to western 
religions or traditional cultures. In 
Buddhism, for example, Gautama Buddha 
stressed that each individual must find his 
own religious path and not depend upon the 
inherited traditions of the past. But 
remarkably, in only a few generations, the 
human Buddha was reinterpreted as a 
transcendent source of wisdom (as a God, in 
fact) and his teachings were reinterpreted 
by generations of scholars. At the onset of 
the modern world the case of Benedict 
Spinoza comes to mmd as another 
instructive example. Violently opposed to 
the rabbinic and medieval philosophical 
tradition which he inherited, Spinoza 
reinterpreted the philosophical concepts 
which he inhented in the very process of 
trying to give expression to his new 
thinking. And finally, who can think of the 
modern world without the commentaries 
on Freud and Marx' Indeed, so much is 
interpretation a fundamental feature of our 
human world that Thomas Mann, in his 
celebrated essay on Freud, pointedly 
referred to our "zitathaftes Leben " by 
which he meant our life of citation and 
interpretation, our life which reinterprets 
itself by reinterpreting the past. 

And so, with some inevitabihty, we ask: 
What are the origins of this phenomenon of 
exegesis, so characteristic of western 
civilization and Judaism in particular? Is it 
the product of the Graeco-Roman world? 
Perhaps so, some would claim, insofar as 
many of the terms used in early Jewish 
commentaries are translated from 
Graeco-Roman rhetoric, and insofar as the 
great Alexandrian grammarians were 

collating and interpreting the texts of 
Homer at just the same time as the early 
rabbis were evaluating manuscripts and 
engaged in early scriptural mterpretation. 
Or, perhaps, its origins are deeper, and 
antecede Hellenism and the onset of 
rabbinic Judaism. 

Clearly, the paths that lead to an answer are 
multiple and complex. Therefore, in the 
ensuing discussion, we shall take up only 
one aspect of the question and explore the 
origins of fewish Scriptural 
interpretation — of Midrash — within the 
Hebrew Bible itself. For our purposes the 
"bibhcal" penod extends roughly from 
1200 to 200 Before the Common Era (BCE); 
that IS, from the earliest dateable 
documents of ancient Israel down to its 
latest ones, which coincide with the onset 
of classical Judaism and post-biblical 
interpretations. In order to simplify a 
complicated topic and yet provide some 
cultural and historical perspective to our 
theme, I shall filter examples culled from 
ancient Israelite exegesis (interpretations 
found within the Bible) through the 
following three categories: I. Crisis, 2. 
Developments, and 3. Transformations. 

Crisis. To begin our exploration, let us 
reflect on the following, simple point. For 
texts to be accurately transmitted or 
studied, or for their contents to be put into 
practice, they had to be understood. But 
what if the content was less than fully 
comprehensible- Quite clearly, the 
potential crisis involved here is more than a 
textual one, and has serious 
cultural-religious implications. For how 
could the past be remembered or the divine 
commandments observed if the words or 
syntax of a given text were unclear? A study 
of the biblical evidence shows different 
resolutions. In some cases, scribes inserted 
updated versions of a word into a later copy 
of the text (frequently, for example, in the 
Books of Chronicles, which inherited the 
histories found in the Books of Samuel and 
Kings but often contemporized the older 
vocabulary). In other cases, new words were 
actually added alongside older ones. An 
interesting example is found in the Book of 
Leviticus, amid a series of rules prohibiting 
mixtures of various kinds. It is stated that a 
person cannot wear a "mixed garment" 
(I.e., of mixed cloth). Apparently, the 
Hebrew word for such rmxed cloth, 
kilayim, was too vague for the teacher or 
copyist of the text, since he added right after 
the word kilayim the new word 
shatnez — which obviously must have been 
perfectly understandable to him. However, 
at a later stage, when these rules were 
incorporated into the Book of 
Deuteronomy, the word shatnez was no 

longer commonly understood, and so the 
explicit explanation "wool and flax" was 
added to the text and this is probably its 
meaning, being comparable to certain 
ancient Egyptian and Coptic words. 

The process we have just described — and it 
can be multiphed — is of considerable 
interest, for it shows the ongomg lexical 
"updating" of the words of Scripture within 
Scripture itself. The importance of this 
phenomenon cannot be minimized, for we 
are dealing with human comments 
incorporated into texts attributed with 
divine authority. Through such 
incorporation, the additions were 
authorized and their innovative character 
camouflaged. One important implication 
of this phenomenon is that, already within 
the bibhcal period, the Scriptural text is a 
mixture of text and interpretation, of 
received authoritative teachings and 
ongoing human teachings. The cultural and 
theological signihcance of this goes beyond 
the present discussion — but it is obvious 

Let us now tum to another type of "crisis" 
that often gave rise to exegesis: the lack of 
textural comprehensiveness. Certainly this 
IS a basic problem for bibhcal law, since the 
bibhcal law collections are not (singly or 
altogether) comprehensive. For example, 
there are few (and often no) rules in the 
Bible concerning such basic issues as birth, 
marnage, burial, or adoption; about 
varieties of business transactions; or, 
indeed, about many of the safeguards and 
procedures normally considered essential 
to establishing a legal society. What is 
recorded in our biblical collections is, 
rather, typical cases (some of which were 
based on precedents, others on theory) 
which had been passed down in legal circles 
for centunes. Because of this fact, there are 
many gaps m the law and many ambiguities 
which required continuous 
supplementation and clarification. Let us 
bnefly consider several typical problems 
and solutions. 

What if a case arose and there were no legal 
provisions to deal with it? A famous 
example occurs in the Book of Numbers 
(ch. 27), purportedly during the nation's 
wandering from Sinai to Canaan. At that 
time, the daughters of Zelophehad 
complained to Moses that their patrimony 
was about to be lost since they had no 
brothers and they, as females, had no 
inheritance rights. Moses heard their 
complaint, but was unable to adjudicate the 
matter. And so he consulted the divme 
oracle. The result was a new divine 
revelation — added to the earher Sinatic 

revelation. In another instance, found 
among the regulations in the Book of 
Exodus (ch. 23), it is stated that arable land 
must he fallow every seventh year. But 
while this rule is clear, it is also not 
comprehensive enough. For the question 
would inevitably arise, and it undoubtedly 
did, what was the rule if a person had a 
vineyard or olivegrove — could they be used, 
or are they also subject to sabbatical 
prohibitions? In order to answer this 
question, and so make the old rule more 
comprehensive, an answer was added to the 
text. Significantly, this addition was later 
obscured by the legal draftsmen who 
incorporated it into the Book of Leviticus 
(ch. 25) — for the older rule was spliced into 
a more comprehensive legal formulation. 
In both texts, then, human legal 
interpretations were incorporated into the 
rules attributed to divine authority, and 
thereby were fundamentally transformed. 

As a hnal example of the role of "crisis" in 
the rise of exegesis, let us briefly tum to the 
notion of contradiction. Self-evidently, 
contradictions can arise at a variety of 
levels and so generate a variety of textual 
and cultural solutions. Thus, the prod to 
exegesis may be when two laws, deriving 
from different historical and cultic spheres 
but authorized by the same legislator, are 
brought into confrontation for certain 
reasons. An example would be the 
regulation in Exodus 12 which says that the 
paschal lamb must be roasted, whereas the 
formulation in Deuteronomy 16 says that it 
must be boiled (and also allows the use of 
large heads of cattle). The solution found in 
the relatively late Book of Chronicles (ch. 
35) IS strained and somewhat desperate and 
certainly a less elegant resolution than the 
rabbinic harmonization of several centuries 
later. For, faced with this apparent 
contradition but unable to reject either 
divine rule, the historian blended the two 
texts and stated that one should boil the 
paschal offering in fire! Not only this, but 
he added that just this practice was the 
statute recorded in the Torah of Moses. 
Through such illogic and forced 
authorization of exegetical solutions, our 
writer speaks volumes about the new crises 
that arose for a religious culture based on 
divine words that appeared contradictory, 
and about the options for resolution that 
were available. 

In addition to legal cases, contradictions 
also arose around theological issues. For 
example, in the revelation of God to Moses 
in Exodus 34, God is presented as a merciful 
deity who can in fact defer punishment to 
the third and fourth generation of a guilty 

Continued on page 34 

The Origins of Christian Art: 
Resistance and Compromise 

by Joachim E. Gaehde 





Joachim E. Gaehde, Sydney and Ellen Wien 
Professor in the History of Art. has earned a 
reputation as a leading historian of early 
medieval art. His book, CaroJingian 
Paintmg, has been translated into several 
languages. A recent contribution entitled 
"The Rise of Christian Art" appeared in the 
book, The Christian World. Prior to coming 
to Brandeis in 1962, Professor Gaehde 
taught at Harvard University and was 
research fellow in the history of art at the 
American Academy in Rome. He also was 
a fellow of the Byzantine Research 
Institute at Dumbarton Oaks in 
Washington, D. C. 

The roJe of the arts in society lias frequentJy 
been a matter of fierce contention. For 
instance, Plato, whiJe strongly feeling the 
lure of poetry and pamting, nevertheless 
excluded them from his ideal republic as 
being far removed from essential truth. 
Also, there are religions which, for good 
reason, exclude imagery from their places 
of worship. It is not easy to remember that 
Christianity was originally one of these 
when one stands, for instance, in the Sistine 

For about two centuries after the 
foundation of Christianity, there was no 
Christian art. The written sources of this 
period do not tell us why this was so. But 
the few surviving references to visual art, 
written by theologians at the beginning of 
the third century, clearly convey their 
hostile attitude. Tertullian, for example, 
was scandalized by depictions of the Good 
Shepherd on glass cups and, in his work On 
Idolatry, he wrote that artists, should they 
want to become Christians, must give up 
their art and become humble workmen. 
Most revealing is the eloquent argument of 
Minucius Felix addressed to his pagan 
friends: "Do you suppose we conceal our 
objects of worship . . . 1 What image can I 
make of God when, rightly considered, man 
is an image of God? Is not the mind a better 
place of dedication, our inmost heart of 
consecration?" These passages suggest that 

the early Church avoided the visual arts as 
manifestations of pagan custom and that 
"graven images," already prohibited by 
Mosaic law, could too easily lend 
themselves to idolatric abuse. 

By the end of the third century, however, 
imagery was irrevocably established as an 
integral part of Christian life. Why this 
happened is still a matter of general 
assumptions. Was it the price of success? It 
is, indeed, most likely that the growing 
Christian communities had no choice but 
to adapt themselves to the cultural 
traditions of the Roman empire. 

Most of the earliest preserved wall 
paintings appear in the funerary context of 
the catacombs. Their decorative schemes 
follow those found in contemporary pagan 
houses or tombs. The walls and ceilings are 
divided by thin frames into a variety of 
geometric fields in which small 
insubstantial figures were painted in a 
sketchy style no different from that used by 
pagans. Also borrowed from pagan contexts 
are floral motifs, birds, cupids and 
personifications of the seasons, all 
innocuous subjects of generalized felicity 
acceptable to pagan and Christian alike. 

Other images, however, are Christian in 
content: the Good Shepherd, Adam and 
Eve, the adoration of the Magi, scenes of 

baptism, Christ as the fisher of men, fish 
and bread or communal banquets, the last 
two alluding to the Eucharist. Most 
subjects are based on the Old Testament 
and, in lesser number, on the New; most 
show instances of the deliverance of the 
faithful from death or want. 

The painters who executed these images 
were routine artisans at best and they did 
not create them on their own, solely 
inspired by Scnpture or liturgy. They 
extracted and adapted their figures from the 
vast repertory of paganism. This was not 
difhcult because pagan models often 
earned similar connotations of piety and 
salvation. The Good Shepherd of the 
parables of the Gospels of Luke and John, 
for example, had various precedents: the 
bucolic imagery cherished by pagan city 
dwellers, or Hermes Knophorus 
representing philanthropy to the pagans, or, 
in some versions, the figure of Orpheus, 
focus of a mystery cult. 

Jewish pictorial sources arc also likely to 
have been used although evidence is here 
more circumstantial. It is certainly no 
coincidence that the lews renounced their 
taboo against images at about the same 
time as the Christians, if not somewhat 
earher. As seen, for instance, in the 
mid-third century paintings of the 
synagogue at Dura Europos, which 
presuppose earlier Jewish models, they also 
adapted current pictorial forms to affirm 
the reality of redemption by reference to 
their past history. 

There is, however, a significant difference 
between the murals of the synagogue and 
the Christian paintings. Many of the panels 
m the synagogue preserve some narrative 
continuity and present themselves as 
paradigmatic tales in the manner common 
to late antiquity in general. The Christian 
images, on the other hand, are for the most 
part so abbreviated that they convey but 
one message; deliverance through divine 
intervention and through the sacraments of 
baptism and the Eucharist. It is this 
message that must have justified imagery 
to the Christians, but reluctance to express 
spiritual truths through art is still 

Until and beyond the middle of the third 
century, the paintings are generally so 
abridged and cursory that they cannot be 
thought of as art in the usual sense. They 
were rather meant to be hgurative 
short-hand signs which were to evoke 
mental associations with the central ideas 
of the Christian mystery. Their descriptive 
form, using the pseudo-illusionistic 

language also current in contemporary 
pagan imagery, is signitive rather than 
symbohc. A sign merely passes on a 
meaning while it is an indifferent thing in 
Itself, whereas a symbol makes the form of 
the sign respond to the idea signified. This 
was not to appear in Christian art until the 
later fourth century. 

Visualization of religious concepts by 
means of "sign images" had been part of 
pictorial programs of some mystery cults 
and It is also found in Jewish contexts. The 
earhest Christians painters, however, used 
this pictographic language only. As 
commonplace as the paintings are in type 
and style so are they overcharged with 
content. A small still-life showing a fish 
and a basket of bread (fig. 1) would have 
brought to mind the entire mystery of the 
Eucharist. Pagans might not have 
understood the meaning of such an image 
lut it is a mistaken notion to see it as a 

secret" sign, just as it is mistaken to 
assume that the catacombs were "secret" 
meeting and hiding places during the 
persecutions. They were the answer to 

seal needs. The cost of available land 
made it advantageous to go underground as 
much as was needed. 

From about the mid- third century onward, 
the style of catacomb painting began to 
change. Larger, more individualized and 
more carefully painted figures appear and 
bear witness to the tastes of affluent 
Christians and their ability to engage more 
skilled artists trained in the classizing 
styles current in contemporary pagan art. 
This trend is especially marl<;ed in 
Christian marble sarcophagi, a fact not too 
surprising as many workshops served pagan 
as well as Christian cbents. In addition to 
subjects known from catacomb painting, 
there appear figures in the act of reading or 
teaching, a subject taken fiom pagan 
sarcophagi where the deceased is 
represented as a philosopher. On a 
Christian sarcophagus |fig. 2) the 
philosopher image now shows that the 
deceased had been initiated into "True 
Wisdom," the teachings of Christ which 
\Hiuchsafe salvation to the baptised as 
alluded to in the reliefs on each side: Jonah 
delivered and the Good Shepherd followed 
by the baptism of Christ. 

However, in a large series of Christian 
sarcophagi turned out by Roman 
workshops about the time of the Peace of 
the Church under Constantine the Great, 
the traditional styUstic vein of pagan 
funerary sculpture adapted to Christian use 
was abandoned. These so-called frieze 
sarcophagi (fig. 3) exhibit instead a 

vulgarized style which, current in the lower 
strata of Roman society and the provinces 
for centuries, Constantine had seen fit to be 
employed, between 3 1 2 and 3 1 5, for reliefs 
on his triumphal arch in Rome depicting 
his campaign and victory over Maxentius. 
Of course, these sarcophagi do not deploy 
their figures and scenes to represent a 
coherent historical narrative as do the 
rehefs on Constantine's arch. The central 
female, the Orans, seems to mvoke, by her 
prayer gesture, precedents of salvation by 
divine intervention culled from the Old 
Testament, the Gospels and apocr>'phal 
stories of the life of St. Peter which are 
randomly signified by the figures to both 
her sides. The obvious aim was to include 
as much of the Christian message into 
limited space as was possible. This stresses 
again the importance of content over form, 
which was made deliberately tenuous by 
indifference to its aesthetic values. 

Roman sarcophagi produced during the 
second quarter of the fourth century 
gradually returned to a classicizing style 
and new themes reflecting new concerns 
came to the fore. This trend reached a Jiigh 
point in the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, 
city prefect of Rome, who died in 359. (fig. 
4) While the style of this work shows an 
almost saccharine sweetness in its attempt 
to recapture echoes of classical art, the 
single scenes are more easily accessible 
than the repetitive invocations of the frieze 
sarcophagi. The beholder is now invited to 
look at events before pondering over their 

Besides the still random distnbution of 
such Old Testament scenes as the sacnfice 
of Isaac, the suffering of Job, Adam and Eve, 
and Daniel in the lions' den, there are now 
also such "historical" representations as 
Christ brought before Pilate, Christ 
entering Jerusalem, and Paul arrested and 
led to his execution. Also new and most 
important by its central placing is the 
representation of Christ transfernng the 
New Law to the Apostles Peter and Paul. 
This so-called Traditio Legis introduces an 
official and ceremonial subject which refers 
to doctrine. Christ is no longer disguised as 
the Good Shepherd, Orpheus or as any 
other kind of allusive substitute; he is now 
enthroned as the world ruler whose feet rest 
on a veil held by Coelus representing 
heaven and taken fiom the context of 
imperial allegory. 

Thus, after the middle of the fourth 
century. Christian imagery began to 
become official and to compete openly with 
the art of the pagans who, around 400, 
launched a strong classical revival linked to 

a last attempt to preserve the ancient cults 
of state. Short-lived as it was, this pagan 
revival movement had a strong impact on 
Christian art. Indeed, the finest works of a 
group of Christian ivories made in Italy 
around the turn of the century succeeded in 
transcending the self-conscious coolness of 
the pagan examples. A plaque representing 
the three Marys at the tomb of Christ and 
his ascension (fig. 5) narrates these events 
with eloquence. Two concepts are 
embodied in this small ivory which were 
destined to guide art for centuries to come: 
the rendering of the transcendental as a 
reality and the portrayal of religious 

The impact of such early fifth century 
works as this ivory was to be felt m the 
narrative and didactic art of the early 
medieval west. The most characteristic 
contnbution of the Byzantine east, on the 
other hand, was to be the portraiture of the 
Holy, the icon. 

Commemorative portraits of holy 
personages had become popular already by 
the fourth century. To a society long 
accustomed to official, private and funeran,' 
portraiture, it seemed only natural to extend 
this practice into the Christian 
environment. Constantina, for instance, 
sister of Constantine, requested bishop 
Eusebius to send her a painted portrait of 
Christ. He refused, answenng that Christ, 
being God, could not be portrayed 
accurately in human form. From St. 
Augustine, about a hundred years later, we 
hear first of Christians actually 
worshipping images of martyrs displayed in 
their tombs and, in another context, he 
argued against such images on the grounds 
that they must, necessarily, contain an 
element of illusion, a contradiction of that 
higher truth "which is not 
self-contradictory and two-faced." The 
issue of idolatric abuse was most succinctly 
stated by Augustine's contemporary, 
Epiphanius of Salamis on Cyprus: "When 
images are put up, the custom of the pagans 
does the rest." 

The eastern Church Fathers of the fourth 
and fifth centuries, however, regarded 
images favorably. St. Basil, for instance, 
considered them to be equal to the written 
word as hortatory devices. Whatever the 
theological arguments, individual images 
of Christ, the Virgin and saints became 
increasingly popular, and their 
commemorative or didactic function 
became overshadowed by a growing belief 
in their miraculous powers. After the 
middle of the sixth century, images are 
reported to have bled when attacked, to 

have moved and spoken, to have cured 
disease, to have granted some material 
favor and to have brought help in times of 

Some mid-seventh century votive mosaics 
in St. Demetrius at Salonica belong to this 
class of imagery, insofar as their 
inscriptions give thanks to the saint for his 
succor dunng a naval attack by the Avars 
and Slavs, (fig. 6) It is significant that the 
reality of the concerns that caused the 
dignitaries of Salonica to dedicate such 
votive mosaic has no reflection in its 
abstracted style. A deliberate avoidance of 
nearly all pictorial devices of illusionism 
preserved in other seventh century works 
of art was here part of the mosaic's function 
as an object of individual piety, testifying 
once more to the touchy issue of the 
"graven image." 

However, the caution sensed in this 
Salonican mosaic had elsewhere and earher 
been worn down by the growing role of 
icons in private and public worship. This is 
confirmed by portable icons preserved in 
the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount 
Sinai. The most beaufiful of these is a near 
life-size portrait of Christ, which has been 

dated to the later sixth century by some 18 
scholars, and to the late seventh by others, 
(fig. 7) Faced with the haunting immediacy 
of this image of Christ, the modem 
observer has httle difficulty in imagining 
the effect it must have had on 
contemporary believers inclined to accord a 
veneration to icons which, properly, only 
belonged to their prototypes. By the same 
token, one might, perhaps, understand the 
hostility of those to whom such life-like 
icons were proof of a relapse into idolatry. 

The issue came to a bloody head when, in 
726, imperial officers attempted to remove 
an especially popular icon over the entrance 
to the imperial palace in Constantinople 
but encountered the murderous fury of the 
populace. In 730, the emperor Leo III 
decreed the destruction of all holy images 
and from then on, save for a period under 
the Empress Irene from 780 to 802, 
iconoclasm prevailed in the East until the 
final restitution of images and the triumph 
of orthodoxy m 843. 

Iconoclasm deflected the course of 
Byzantine reUgjous art for more than a 
century' but from the arguments between 
iconoclasts and orthodox emerged a clear 
definition of holy images. Against the 
iconoclasts' contention that divine nature 
cannot be encompassed by "the ilHcit craft 
of the painter," it was reasoned that the 
image must not be confused with its 
subject. The icon is only an imitation of the 
person depicted, just as man was made in 
the image of God. It reflects the invisible as 
a shadow is cast by a material object and as 
the Father produced the Son in the 
incarnation of Christ. The image, although 
differing from the prototype in its essence, 
IS nevertheless identical with it according 
to its meaning, and the honor, not worship, 
accorded it, is passed on through the image 
to its prototype. 

It was this orthodox definition of the icon 
which safeguarded its survival even after 
the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ■ 


1. Eucharistic Fish and Loaves 

Rome, cemetery ofDomitilla. crypt ofLucina. 
Early third century. 

2. Sarcophagus of Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome. ca. 
260 -270 A. D. 

3. Frieze Sarcophagus Vatican, Museo Pio Christiana. 
Early fourth century. 

4. Sarcophagus of fumus Bassus. Vatican. Grottoes of 
St. Peter. 359 A.D. 

5. Ivory panel: Holy women at the Tomb and 
Ascension. Munich, Bayerisches National- 
museum, ca. 400 A.D. 

6. St. Demetrius and donors. Mosaicin St. Demetrius, 
Thessalonici. ca. 650 A.D. 

7. Icon of Christ. Monastery of St. Catherine, Mount 
Sinai, ca. 700 A.D. I!j 

Ever a "New Found Land": Reflections on the Theme of 

Origins in American History 

by lohn Putnam Demos 


Vespucci "Discovering" Ameiica, late sixteenth 

John Putnam Demos, chair of the History 
Department, was awarded the Bancroft 
Prize this year, and was nominated for the 
National Book Award for his book 
Entertaming Satan: Witchcraft and the 
Culture of Early New England. He is also 
the author of A Little Commonwealth: 
Family Life in Plymouth Colony. Professor 
Demos came to Brandeis m 1 968, 
following two years as a teaching fellow at 
Harvard University. He also taught history 
in Ghana for several years as member of 
the U.S. Peace Corps. 

Our textbooks tell us that when Columbus 
discovered America, he didn't know what it 
was. He was anticipating a landfall in the 
Orient, and he hopefully called the natives 
"Indians." In fact, he may have known 
more than he hrst let on; but this 
conventional account, whether or not it 
falsifies Columbus, serves to identify a 
deeper truth about the process of discovery. 
Europeans of that bygone era— far more 
"medieval" than "modern" — did not 
expect to discover new lands, new 
principles, new forms of human 
community. This was, of course, the 
essence of their traditional outlook: truth 
was assumed to be a known, or at least a 
fixed, property. Theirs was a 
Weltanschauung of long-established 
borders, inelastic quantities, and structural 
regularities inherited from time out of 

One sign of all this was their difficulty in 
describing the New World, even after they 
realized that it was not part of the old one. 
Again and again the "explorers" of America 
struggled to make word-pictures of their 
experiences — for their colleagues and 
patrons, and increasingly for the wider 
literate public. Yet these pictures, when 
examined from the vantage-point of 
today, are remarkably vague, fuzzy, 
platitudinous — in a word, unreal. In part, 
the problem was a problem of description in 
the narrow sense — reflecting, that is, a lack 
of literary and linguistic conventions 
sufhcient to deal with such unfamihar 
material. But I suggest there was also a 
problem oi perception m a deeper sense. 
Briefly and crudely put: they had a hard 
time seeing the New World straight, for 
what it truly was. In fact, to read the 
literature of exploration is to enter a kind of 

dream-world, in which size, shape, 
color — indeed every object of 
sense-perception — seems distorted. 
Moreover, hke most dream-worlds, this 
one runs to positive and negative 
extremes — m short, is polarized. On the 
one hand, the New World comes across as a 
kind of paradise, a "garden" full of beauty 
and bounty, where life is longer, happier, 
sweeter than anything known elsewhere. 
On the other hand, it is a special kind of 
Hell, a "wildemess" that teems with 
fearsome beasts, savage men (cannibals, for 
instance), and all manner of lurking danger. 
These two pictures — "image" and 
"anti-image," as Howard Mumford Jones 
has called them— compete directly with 
one another in a century's worth of 
exploration literature. And there is little 
enough in between — little, that is, of 
intermediate positions, where opportunity 
and danger, good and evil, are combined in a 
real-world blend. But, the New World was 
not the real world for most 16th-century 
Europeans; instead it was more like a giant 
fantasy-screen, on which their highest 
hopes and darkest fears stood sharply 
projected. Historians who study this 
material are not unlike clinicians amassing 
Rorschach records. Which is almost to say 
that in its origins America was an inkblot 
before it became an actual place. 

Lest the metaphor carry us all away, I want 
to shift at this point from the period of 
discovery to the period of settlement, and 
thus from problems of perception to 
problems of survival and of adaptation. And 
in so doing, I shall narrow the focus from 
"the New World" as a whole to those 
regions within it which eventually became 
the U. S. of A. 

Virtually all the earhest settlements in 
North America — from Spanish Florida, 
through English Virginia and Dutch New 
Netherland, right up to Puritan New 
England— began under circumstances of 
extreme difficulty. There were "starving 
times." There were grave social and 
political disorders. There was death and 
misery all around. In most cases, the worst 
of these experiences passed within a few 
years; but even then— and for decades 
thereafter— life in the new communities 
was laborious, unpredictable, sometimes 
cruel. The settlers responded to such 
conditions with a curious mix of courage 
and terror. The courage — nonchalance 
might almost be a better word— was 
manifest in the way they attacked their 
difhculties: attacked the wilderness and 
cleared it so as to plant their crops; attacked 
the native peoples (the Indians) whenever 

-^ -. r^a/Atu/'etf i 

they were crossed; attacked the problem of 
social disorder by creating new systems of 
authority and control. If one stands back 
and thinks about it, the sheer strength — the 
chutzpah — in their response is 
extraordinary. These were people, after all, 
with no prior experience of a woodland 
environment, people who had never known 
others of different race and language and 
culture, people who were apparently 
unprepared for any aspect of 
community-building. Occasionally, to be 
sure, fear and a sense of desperation do 
break through m their own accounts of 
their experience. "Oh, that you did see my 
daily and hourly sighs, groans, and tears," 
wrote one young man from Virginia to his 
parents back in England. "I thought no head 
had been able to hold so much water as hath 
and doth flow from mine eyes." But this 
reaction seems not to have been the 
predominant one. Indeed it is my strong 
impression that most of the settlers 
managed somehow to shut out the danger, 
the isolation, the strangeness of it all. There 
was an element of what psychologists call 
"denial" in the way they carried on. 
Or — the same point expressed in 
phenomenological terms — they were 
remarkably insensitive to "otherness" of 
many kinds. Perhaps if they'd had our 
sensitivity in that respect, they might not 
have survived at all. 

To speak of "otherness" is to circle back on 
the issue of "newness" — and hence of 
"origins." And one needs to realize that 
none of these early settlements were 
conceived as new departures in social 
experience — if by "new, "we mean "other," 
that is, different from received traditions 
and precedents. The Virginia colony, for 
example, was at the outset a business 
project — an extension of English 
mercantile enterprise. The founders of 
New England might seem to ht better with 
notions of planful community 
experimentation; and their "Puritanism" 
did indeed convey a rebuke to the social and 
religious order they had left behind. Yet 
they did not see themselves as devotees of a 
new social order; rather, they would restore 
the traditions and values of a much older 
order that their contemporaries had 
apparently forgotten. The Puritans, in 
short, meant to be heirs of the early 
Christians. They lamented the "evil and 
dechning times" m the land of their birth, 
but regularly affirmed their connection to 
it. Thus John Winthrop and other leaders of 
the settlement at Boston disavowed any 
motive of "separatism." England remained 
for them "our native-country [from which] 

we cannot part without much sadness of 
heart;" the English church, in particular, 
would always be "our dear mother." And 
William Bradford claimed that his 
fellow- "Pilgrims" had come to Plymouth 
for "weighty and solid reasons . . . and not 
out of any newfangledness, or other 
such-like giddy humors, by which men are 
often transported to their great hurt and 

"Newfangledness, and other such-like 
giddy humors": the pejorative tone is 
unmistakable here. And this, in turn, 
reflected a general pre-modern attitude. 
"Innovation," for example, was a favorite 
term of insult, which Puritans in Old 
England and their religious opponents 
regularly flung back and forth at one 
another. And New Englanders followed 
suit. Listen to Cotton Mather writing in his 
diary of one particular dispute: "I see Satan 
beginning a terrible shake unto the 
churches; and the innovators that have set 
up a new church in Boston (a new one 
indeed!) have made a day of temptation 
among us." Four words in this passage are 
underscored: "Satan," "temptation," 
"innovators," and "new." Evidently, there 
was an equivalence among them. 

There is one more type of evidence to 
mention here. Colonial place-names 
replicated those of the mother-country, by 
the dozens. Some embraced entire 
provinces: New Jersey, New York, New 
Hampshire. Some were for counties: for 
example, Middlesex, a county-name in 
three different colonies. And numerous 
others were for local communities: Boston, 
Chelsea, Cambridge, Maiden, Winchester, 
Wobum, Billerica, Reading, Sudbury, 
Frammgham, Dedham, Bramtree, 
Weymouth — to consider only those towns 

I I D/J i X, 

within a radius of about 15 miles from the 
Brandeis campus. The qualifier "new," 
when part of a place-name, was obviously 
not pejorative — but neither was it 
distinctive. Thus "New England" meant 
(roughly) another edition of the old 
one — more recent, but of similar design. 

Nor did these efforts of naming proceed in a 
vacuum. There were Indian names 
everywhere — which the colonists 
occasionally retained, but mostly set aside. 
Agawam became Ipswich; Acushnet 
became Dartmouth; Wmnacunnet became 
Hampton; Pyquag became Wethersheld; 
and so on. Thus did the settlers — as one of 
their own historians put it — "imprint some 
remembrance of their former habitations in 
England upon their new dwellings in 

Naming was but the most precise sign of a 
mass-transfer of culture. The tendency to 
replicate EngUsh practice was evident in 
many sectors of colonial hfe: in land-use, 
and house-construction, and the "ancient 
mysteries" of artisanry; m foods consumed, 
m clothes worn, in books read, in words 
spoken — and in too much else to be noticed 
here. Of course, the process was not always 
the same; and the goal was not everywhere 
realized to the same degree. Houses were 
smaller, at least for the first generation; and 
maize — "Indian corn" — was grown in more 
and more of the "arable" fields. Indeed, in 
some areas — Virginia, for example — the 
pattern of matenal life diverged 
dramatically from Old World norms. But 
these were never wished-for developments. 
In all the colonies the preferred ways 
remained English ways. And, in some of 
them, preference closely matched reality. 
Thus was Massachusetts described, 20 
years after its founding, as having "become 
a second England ... in so short a space [of 
time] that it is indeed the wonder of the 

The point of all this discussion is simple, 
but hardly unimportant. The settlers of 
America did not mean to be "originators." 
They sought, insofar as they could, to block 
out the strangeness of their circumstances, 
to avoid the pitfalls of "innovation," to 
create a "second England." When the 
country was most profoundly new, the 
people involved did not — would 
not — recognize it. ■ 

Editor's Note: 

The subsequent parts of Professor Demos' lecture 
explored the gradual acceptance of the idea of 
newness during the national period of American 
history — indeed, the celebration of that idea as the 
core of American identity. 

Excerpts from ''Remembrance of 
Times to Come" 

by Saul G. Cohen 


Saul G. Cohen, Charles A. 
Breskin University 
Professor of Chemistry, is 
a preeminent physical 
organic chemist whose 
work in enzyme reactions, 
photochemistry and 
energy radiation is 
internationally known. 
Since coming to Brandeis 
in 1 950, he has served as 
the first dean of the 
faculty, first chair of the 
school of science, first 
university professor, and 
for nearly 10 years, chair of 
the Chemistry 
Department. Professor 
Cohen, who holds a dozen 
patents in chemistry, is the 
author of more than 150 
research papers that have 
appeared in leading 
science journals in this 
country and abroad. 
Professor Cohen, who 
serves on the Board of 
Overseers of Harvard 
University, has been 
honored on numerous 
occasions for his 
achievements in 

The dangerous present is the product of the 
past; I reflect on a small part of that past, 
with mind in the present and an eye to the 

The Greeks, quarrelsome, thoughtful, 
ineffective, were perceptive. The "Iliad" 
starts with the abstract, anger, and goes to 
the concrete, war and death. They went to 
war for an apparently trivial reason — a 
mini-king's wife went off with another 
mini-king's younger son. The Russians 
would call it violation of a sacred border. 
But anger, insult, honor, revenge, magnify 
the circumstance. They sacrificed a child, 
sailed off to kill and be killed, and destroyed 
a city. The survivors wandered, and 
returned home to their fates, playthings of 
the gods. 

The Romans, orderly, brutal, effective, 
conquered. The "Aeneid" starts with the 
concrete, Arma, and in pompous cadence 
envisions a golden age under Roman law 
and force. But viewed from below, the scene 
was different. The hubris and insecurity of 
empire required concretizing of 
authority — an emperor's statue in a sacred 
place. This was of little moment to most, 
but crucial to a small rebellious group. The 
Romans laid waste to their land, "created a 
desert and called it peace." A sect withdrew 
from that Hell on Earth and placed faith in 
the next world, a position so reasonable and 
so attractive, under the circumstances, that 
in not too long a time they were 
administering the empire, very much in 
this world, while retaining the next. There 
have been other empires, and many such 

unanticipated consequences, in the 
intervening centunes, but this will suffice 
to exemplify empires of our time, to which I 
will allude later. 

Several fields of thought have been exposed 
this week. Physicists, studying at 
subatomic level on the one hand, or cosmic 
on the other, derive laws, universally 
applicable, statistical perhaps, predictive, 
immutable, for a time. Chemists, studying 
molecules and matter, derive rules of their 
behavior; exceptions abound and the 
physicist may compare that activity to 
stamp collecting. But the variety makes it 
fun, and very real and relevant. Biologists, 
working at virus, organism or ecological 
level, establish dogmas, beliefs which 
flourish and fade, like the life they describe. 
The economist reflects on Shumpeter and 
Keynes; one economist draws lines on a 
napkin, and determines national fiscal 
policy. The historian projects his 
conclusions, his fantasies, onto the past, 
perhaps so that we may not repeat ancient 
error. The psychologist, philosopher and 
wnter describe, explain how we behave, 
think and feel. Can the brain explain the 
mind, the mind understand the mmd, and 

In these processes a talented mind creates 
concepts, projects them on an area of the 
universe, modifying it, to some extent 
recreating it. Applications may follow, new 
social forms, new materials or machines, 
new sources of energy. Thus much progress 
has been made. However, the individual 
uses a field of knowledge which may be 
only one aspect of a complex of factors, 
both known and undiscovered, to which 
the area is subject. The change introduced 
by one contribution may bring 
unanticipated changes from unconsidered 
factors, hitended benefit may be 
augmented or negated or lead to harm, as 
consequence of neglected but influential 
factors. Complex interactive effects are the 
hallmark of all systems, from empire to 
chromosome to atomic nucleus. 

At present the future doesn't appear to be 
what it used to be; perhaps it never was. We 
are on a steep slope of development, which 
requires change in our thinking. The 
change is fundamental, and habits are self 
perpetuating. After a long, rather static 
period, rapid change occurred, over the last 
200 years, in the way people spend their 
waking hours, and this change may now 
accelerate. Even when we accept that we 
are in a rapidly developing scene, our 
behavior may not reflect this 
understanding. It is easier to behave as 
though the main features of our landscape 

Continued on page 22 



Ctrrmfinitt •ind fcttitities 
Inauguration of Bnndcts Univcreit>' 

Intdllition «( 

"Brandeis will be an institution of qual- 
ity, where the integrity of learning, of 
research, of writing, of teaching, will not 
be compromised. . . It will be a dwelling 
place of permanent values — those few 
unchanging values of beauty, of righ- 
teousness, of freedom, which man has 
ever sought to attain. . . It will offer its 
opportunities of learning to all. " 
Abram L. Sachar at ceremonies inau- 
gurating the University, October 7, 1948 



"It was unthinkable that a university 
could flourish without the resources of a 
nch library. We wanted the Brandeis 
University Library to be adequate and 
well-equipped so that it would, one day, 
take Its place among the fine university 
and college libraries throughout the 

Edith Michaels, first president. National 
Women's Committee. June 17, 1949, 
First Conference. 




IJmnUiii MrtiWrji'/y 

J d, u~J., 

i. L UL,.l I, 

More than 6,000 hear Eleanor Roosevelt, 
a Brandeis Trustee, speak at University 
convocation; construction of Shapiro 
Athletic Center announced . . . Serge 
Koussevitzky, director of Boston Sym- 
phony, meets with University officials 
to set goals for school of music . . . 240 
incoming freshmen bring student body 
to 470. 




"We are a small people and we will 
always remain so. Econormcally and 
mihtanly we will never compare, nor 
have the ambition to compare with the 
great and mighty on earth. . . . Our am- 
bition IS to be second to none in the way 
of humanity, m the way of culture, in the 
way of science, m the way of art ..." 
David Ben-Gun on, Israeh Pnme Minis- 
ter, Third Annual Convocation, 
Brandeis, 1951 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
grants Brandeis authonty to confer un- 
dergraduate and graduate degrees . . . 
Leonard Bernstein and Henry Steele 
Commager )oin faculty. 


Eddie Cantor 
and students 





Golding Judaic Center, focal point for 
broad range of studies in Judaism, is 

Brandeis announces the Hiatt Institute 
m Israel, offering accredited study in that 
country for any Amencan college stu- 
dent. To date more than 500 students 
have participated . . . Rose Art Museum 
is opened . . . University is authonzed to 
form Phi Beta Kappa chapter, the 
youngest independent institution since 
the eighteenth centurv to be so honored. 

Construction of Gerstenzang Science 
Quadrangle is Isegun, includes science 
Ubrary and lecture and demonstration 
halls . . . Ford Foundation announces 
$6,000,000 Challenge Grant to Brandeis. 

Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Brandeis announces program in Con- 
temporary Jewish Studies including the 
history, literature and sociology of Amer- 
ican Jewry; modern Jewish history; his- 
tory of Zionism; and rehgious and cul- 
tural pluralism in Amenca. 

Feldberg Computer Center 

Marver H. Bernstein, former dean of the 
Woodrow Wilson School of Public and 
International Relations at Princeton, is 
appointed president of Brandeis . . . Swig 
School of Political Science is inaugurated 
. . . University opens Feldberg Computer 

National survey ranks Florence Heller 
Graduate School among top four in coun- 
try among university-affiliated schools 
of social work. 

Brandeis basketball team wins New En- 
gland Division III championship — first 
basketball championship in school's 

"Brandeis is the expression of people 
committed to learning but who, for mil- 
lennia, have been deprived of formal 
education, condemned toghettos and 
excluded from the professions and 
common channels of communication." 
Bern Dibner, Brandeis Fellow at the 
presentation of the University's Distin- 
guished Service Award Oct. 1975 . . . 
Foster Biomedical Research Laboratones 





(first commencement features festival of 
acanve arts including premiere of 
LLonjrJBernstem's opera, Trouble m 
Tahiti, jnd first English performance of 
The Three Penny Opera. First Com- 
mencement with 101 students graduat- 
ing Mrs Roosevelt gives Commence- 
ment address. 


Brandeis opens its Graduate School of 
Arts and Sciences, admitting 42 students 
for work on advanced degrees m chemis- 
try, music, psychology and Near Eastern 
andludaic studies. 


■Membership in the New England Asso- 
ciation is not lightly bestowed. Stan- 
dards of admission are high and cover 
every area of an institution's operations. 
Over the years many more institutions 
have been denied membership than 
have been awarded membership. Mem- 
bership IS a seal of distinction earned 
only through conscientious effort and 
high ideals . . ." 

Dr. Nils Y Wessell, eighth president of 
Tufts University, speaking at the first 
public announcement of Brandeis' ac- 
creditation by the New England Associa- Brandeis dedicates its "Three Chapels," 
tion of Colleges and Secondary Schools, underscoring nonsectarian character of 
Feb. 1954 the University, 

for Goldfart) Library 

"A s / stand here, about to exercise the 
privilege of unveiling the statue of lus- 
tice Brandeis. I see before me the genera- 
tions of young men and women who. as 
the years unfold, will pass this way. . . . 
h IS our confident hope . . . that the spirit 
and ideals of the man — his dauntless 
courage, creative thinking, and unselfish 
labors. . . will find even more perfect 
and lasting expression in the hves of 
those future young Americans . ." 
Chief lustice Earl Warren, November Umversity dedicates Slosberg Music 

^^^^ Center . . . estabhshes Creative Arts 

University opens $2,500,000 Science Re- Awards in fields of fine arts, literature, 
search Center. music, dance, theater and film. 

Wien International Scholarship Pro- 
gram, which brings foreign students to 
Brandeis, is inaugurated. By 1983, stu- 
dents from 89 countries have attended 
the University under its auspices. 

Ford Foundation awards grant to Bran- 
deis to expand its educational TV ac- 
tivities With WGBH. educational tele- 
vision station in Boston, the University 
launches live class in Amencan Civiliza- 
tion with Max Lerner; Roben Koff con- 
ducts musical programs; Lawrence H. 
Fuchs newscasts from radio and televi- 
Mon outlets at WGBH. 
Brandeis opens its hrst professional 
school. The Florence Heller Graduate 
School for Advanced Studies in Social 
Welfare. Goldfarb Library. University's 
central library faality, is dedicated . . . 
Marc Chagall is hrst appointment of 
artist-in-residence program. 

S^r ^'e\tl y ork Shncs 

Joseph Linsey 
greets top 
student athlete 
Richard Hymoff 

Director Irv Olin 
and K. C. Jones 

Maior gift from Rogoff Foundation aids 
dtvelopment of University's science 
pniKTams , . second 56.000,000 Ford 
Fiiundation Challenge Grant is 


"Brandeis, which has been friendly to 
the arts from the beginning, has made 
plans to embrace the Amencan Theater 
with new ardor in what well may be a 
sigmficant union." 

Elliot Norton commenting on the open- 
ing of the Spingold Theater May, 1965 
. . . American Association of Collegiate 
Registrars and Admissions Officers 
ranks Brandeis among top 25 "hardest to 
enter" schools in U.S. 

M iiiiiiiii iiiiiiii 1^^% 

fe /j^rMt 

Students' big concern: 
anti-war momentum 

BOSTON aiPli - \r» Eng- 
land college iludrnli concen- 
Irilcd th«ir efforts today on 
k»«ping the 
il«l from li 

Brandeis estabhshes the Lown School of 
Near Eastern and ludaic Studies, hrst 
such program at a nonsectanan Ameri- 
can university . , . opening of Poses 
School of Fine Arts Samuel Lemberg 
underwntes Center tor the Study of 

Stft Uta fork G^nucl 

"There IS a revolution today in ar- 
chaeology, and some of the most revo- 
lutionary findings have been made by 
Dr Cyrus Gordon, a 58-year-old Bran- 
deis Umversity scholar- " — The 
Washington Post. 1967. 

$19,000,000 gift establishes the 
Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Re- 
search Center at which research teams in 
structural biology, molecular and cell 
biology probe fundamental life processes 
that underbe important medical prob- 
lems - . . establishment of Danielsen 
School of Philosophy, Ethics and Reli- 
gious Thought and Fisher School of 
Physics . . President Sachar retires and 

IS named chancellor; Morns B. Abram is Fierman School of Chemistry is 
appointed president, established. 

Usdan Student Center 

Usdan Student Center, a hve-building 
complex, IS dedicated . . . Charles 1. 
Schotiland is named acting president of 
the University. 

Charles I, Brondot Uni*«nitv BcnetiT 

Schottland «, 



Amencan Council on Education ranks 
Brandeis' graduate school among the best 
in the countr>-. 





Cidwn Schwl ot Graduate Studies in 
Amencan Civilization is esublished , . 
d'-'dication of Fellows Garden is feature 
ot _ith commencement . . . Soccer team 
^^'ins NCAA Division III title - hrst 
national championship in Brandeis' his- 
^"^ Abram Sachar's A Hosi at Last. 
^n account ot the University's hrst 20 
y^ars, IS published 

Brandeis estabhshes the Center for Pub- 
he Service, designed to aid elected and 
appointed state officials in the adminis- 
tration of their ofhces, sponsor work- 
shops in vital policy issues and stimulate 
citizen involvement in civic affairs 
Court Alternative Placement Program, 
developed by Waltham Group, Brandeis 
student voluntary organization, receives 
$200,000 federal grant for program which 
places misdemeanor offenders in ]obs, 
while providing restitution to victims 
. . . Heller School, Boston University 
Medical School and MIT form Heahh 
Policy Consortium, supported by 
$3,268,000 grant from HEW. 

Eubie Blake and Lucille Armstrong 

Usen Castle, a Brandeis dormitory, is 
designated a historic landmark by the 
U.S. Department of the intenor and the 
Massachusetts Historical Commis- 
sion, , The National Women's Com- 
mittee purchases more than 100 rare 
documents from the Nazi era, including 
the original copy of a top secret speech 
delivered by Hitler to his leading gener- 
als in 1944. 

University Office Park is completed. It 
consists of three four-story buildings and 
three parking lots near the Charles River 
Railroad tracks, Following a 30-year re- 
fusal by the U.S. to admit Chinese stu- 
dents into Its institutions, Brandeis ac- 
cepts the first three Chinese students in 
Its history. Two Canadian under- 
graduates organize the Brandeis Ice 
Hockey Club. 

Michael L. Walzer, hrst alumnus to 
receive an honorary degree from Brandeis 

Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation 

"It is time for you to respond to the 
bigots, the prophets of doom, the dem- 
agogues, the breast-beaters. It is time 
for you to assert your faith in reason 
rather than dogma, m rationah ty rather 
than inevitability, in the free rather 
than the shuttered mind " 
Honorable Sol M. Linowitz, Com- 
mencement address. May 1982 

National Women's Committee an- 
nounces total contribution to Brandeis 
reaches $20 million. 



TheLeon.iiJL Farhti Library i> dedi- 
cated. . . Brandeis receives S4 million 
gitt, third largest in itshistorv fnim the 
Michtom tamily it> endow computer sci- 
ences Univcrsit\ celebrttcs 25th 
anniversarv of Wien International Schol- 
arship program. Evelvn E. Handler is 
mauguratttl fifth president and Brandeis 
celebrates its 35th anniversar\- 


October 1983 

Remembrance of Times to Come 

Continued from page 21 

are old and will persist. The achievements 
of the past 200 years have been almost 
beyond comprehension; but, they have 
brought great problems. Further, one must 
restrain expectation of facile solutions to 
present problems, and note that much that 
is fundamental is very old, our ways of 
thinking, institutions and basic tools. 
Philosophy and religion; tribalism, 
nationalism, the state and empire and their 
associated paranoias; royalty, citizenship 
and demagoguery, slavery and exile, 
reformers, public works, boondoggling, 
international trade, travel and warfare, are 
the subjects of millennia of recorded 
history. But the past 200 years have 
changed our world. 

Rulers or governments may support study 
of nature for a variety of reasons, and among 
them IS the power that may accompany 
such knowledge. The pursuit of nature may 
lead the individual to thoughts of power, to 
the seat of power, and thus may be 
seductive and dangerous. But, to the 
scholar, the search for knowledge is an 
addiction, and the fruit of the tree of 
knowledge leads to burdensome labor. 
Such work, intended for benefit, may lead 
to unforeseen harni; this may have been 
exemphfied in an early BiWe story, that of 
Noah and the flood. Farming in the Eastern 
horn of the fertile crescent depends on 
irrigation, and as this became more highly 
organized, a large earth dam was built. As 
years passed the population grew, 
downstream, naturally, and the lake above 
the dam silted up, as it must. After a 
particularly long rainy spell, perhaps 40 
days, the dam broke, the first account of a 
devastating ecological and human disaster 

arising from ingenuity and industry. 
Solutions have problems. But use of * 

technology seems irresistible. 

Disease control is an essential activity of 
the future. Such programs have had great 
success, and unexpected failures, and offer 
careers into eternity. In developed 
temperate zone countries young parents no 
longer mature by sitting up nights with 
children ill with measles, chicken pox, 
whooping cough, scarlet fever, diphtheria, 
poho, rheumatic fever, pneumonia, etc., 
common illnesses during my childhood, 
now largely controlled by vaccines and 
antibiotics. But disease control can be very 
difficult. For example, malaria persists, 
with hundreds of millions ill, and millions 
of deaths each year from it despite intense 
efforts to stamp it out. Persistent 
application of insecticides to destroy the 
mosquito carrier, and of antimalarial drugs 
to destroy the parasite, programs successful 
with other illnesses, led only to resistant 
strains of both vector and parasite. The 
cures sped evolution of the targets, led to 
better, or worse mosquitoes, and the 
disease continues. And when sanitation, 
cleanliness, insecticides, vaccines, drugs, 
have all had their intended good effects, 
populations grow, pressure is put on food 
supplies, and hunger looms, presenting 
new problems of distribution in the 
growing depressed populations of both 
developed and less developed countries. 

Danger also lies in the tyranny of wish 
fulhllment and of bnght ideas. The wish to 
transmute base metals into noble trapped 
many, including the great Newton. A 
plausible attractive theory of combustion 
blocked understanding for a long period. 
Wedded to an idea, people seek evidence to 
buttress it, interpret new evidence in terms 
of the preconception. In the 1 9th century, 
simple, laborious methods of 
investigation — synthesis, analysis, 
weighing, measurement of volumes, study 
of combining proportions and 
properties — and thinking, led to 
characterization of almost all the elements 
of the universe, laid out in their proper 
places in the penodic table, without 
knowledge of atomic structure, but with 
awesome implications. These results then 
led to structural organic chemistry, one of 
the great triumphs of the human mind. With 
an alphabet of just six letters, C, O, H, N, S, 
P, symbols for the corresponding elements, 
and a few simple ideas of bonding and 
geometry, chemists have found or 
synthesized over hve million compounds 
and largely understand their chemical, but 
alas, not yet their biological properties. This 
science has informed us about much of what 


23 we sense and use, our foods, vitamins, 
flavors, perfumes, colors, clothing and 
structural materials, medicmes and 
therapeutic agents, from nature and the 
laboratory, and so on almost endlessly. 

We have of course benefited greatly from 
this vast knowledge but there have been 
costs, unforeseen consequences. To cite an 
example recently in the news, brilliant 
investigation defined the simple molecules 
which stimulate plants to grow and 
mature. Then it was realized that such 
compounds might be used as herbicides 
that might bring weeds to maturity and 
death without hurting the crop; or the 
compounds could be sprayed on a jungle, to 
defoliate it and reveal guerrillas — a 
progression from benign use to disastrous 
misuse. Worse, there was a hidden danger. 
In the manufacture, a small amount of a 
very toxic by-product, a dioxin, was 
produced with the compound. This 
by-product is very stable chemically, and 
might, quite innocently, not have been 
thought to be toxic even if its presence had 
been known. We now know that chemicals 
may be active physiologically, for good or 
bad, not by undergoing chemical reactions 
but just by being at a certain spot in the 
organism. Indeed many, if not most, of the 
dazzling array of biological control 
mechanisms appear to be of this nature. 

There is an occasional positive anticipated 
consequence. Many organic compounds are 
isolated from plants, which have uncertain 
functions in the plants and powerful 
physiological action on humans — toxic 
strychnine, analgesic morphine, 
comforting cannabis, antimalarial quinine. 
A hundred years ago a French scientist 
reasoned, with French logic, that if opium 
relieves pain, there should be opiate 
receptors in the brain, and if the receptors 
exist the organism must generate its own 
opiates to act on them. Just a few years ago 
these were found, bearing little or no 
obvious relation to the structure of 
morphine. They are simple peptides, fairly 
common fragments of proteins, easily 
prepared. This discovery now broadens the 
intensive search for potent biological 
modulators and neurotransmitters, which 
may relieve pain, anxiety, depression, and 
schizophrenia, and has implications for 
many diseases — Parkinson's, Aldzheimer's 
and others. There have been many 
advances in medicine, and more will come, 
but there will be limits. 

Let us consider an odd triplet, acid rain, the 
end of slavery, and robots. In 1661 John 
Evelyn petitioned his sacred majesty King 

Charles "to banish Brewers, Dyers and Soap 
Boilers from London," since their burning 
of sea-coal (from Newcastle) caused such 
smoke as to kill half the infants in London 
before the age of two years. One hundred 
years later, in 1 77 1 one B. White reissued 
the petition, since the noxious fumes had 
worsened, but he now called for 
purification of the coal, and high chimneys 
to blow the stench away. Now, 200 more 
years along, we have the high chimneys 
spreading acid rain. 

The mark of the modern era is that the fuel 
is burned to generate steam for engines, to 
push pistons, drive wheels, turn rotors, 
generate electricity, provide power and 
transport, to do work. In earlier times, 
when work was done only by the muscle of 
man and beast, it was tempting for rulers to 
treat the two species similarly. Only when 
mechanical pumps could lift water from 
mines, and machines could perform 
burdensome tasks more cheaply and 
reliably than man, could slavery be 

Now there is talk of people-less factories. 
A new transition is at hand, in which 
computer controlled machines may 
perform many productive tasks and 
eliminate jobs at all levels. Unlike the 
transition of the industrial revolution, it 
seems that now more jobs may be 
eliminated than will be created. Of course 
we do not know what has not yet been 
invented, but serious social problems 
appear near at hand, paradoxically along 
with the potential for increased overall 

These are problems of peace, old m 
character and manageable, I trust. But new 
problems of atomic energy and atomic 
warfare seem most menacing, and 
intractable. Let us turn to the atom and the 
modern superpowers. About a hundred 
years ago Henry Adams wrote "Man has 
mounted science and is now run away with 
it. I firmly believe that before many 
centuries more, science will be the master 
of man. The engines he will have invented 
will be beyond his strength to control. 
Some day science may have the existence of 
mankind in its power, and the human race 
commit suicide by blowing up the world." 
This was even before the invention of 
dynamite, and apparently in one of his less 
pessimistic moments. In fact the danger 
was nearer at hand than he thought; it took 
less than one century for the power to blow 
us all up to come into existence. It remains 
to be seen whether humans can control 
their need to control others, and their fear of 
being controlled. 

Radioactive decay of uranium was found in 
1896, by accident. Transmutation of one 
element to another, long sought by 
alchemists, finally ruled by scientists to be 
impossible and unworthy of future search, 
was found to occur unaided in nature. The 
nucleus of the atom was itself divisible, and 
m the division much energy was released. 

Leo Szilard, brilliant, plump, moody, 
cherubic, and energetic, soaking in his bath 
tub, conceived of plans to effect branching 
chain nuclear hssion and applied for 
patents, essentially on the nuclear reactor 
and the atom bomb. He and others 
questioned the wisdom and morality of 
using the bomb, well before Hiroshima. Its 
use ended the war, and opened an age. 

Scientists were fascinated by the nuclear 
reactor, sitting there majestically, 
generating heat without flame. They 
predicted that power would be so cheap 
that cost would be largely that of 
distribution, too cheap to be metered. That 
was a quick fix that very clearly hasn't 
worked out. Corrosion and cracking of 
materials never before exposed to such 
intense radiation for so long a period are real 
problems. The system is monitored on 
walls of lights, gauges and signals, and it 
works well enough that when something 
appears amiss it isn't obvious whether it is 
the machine or the monitor. Malfunctions 
may result by the maintenance procedures 
meant to prevent them. At Brown's Ferry, a 
maintenance worker looking for the source 
of a problem used a candle( ! ) and burned 
some wires — a mind-boggling 
anachronism. At Three Mile Island the 
cleanup still goes on, and the cost is in the 

There is relatively little radioactivity in the 
initial fuel assembly compared to the large 
amount generated as the reactor operates, 
m the so-called spent fuel rods. There are 
now tons of this radioactive spent fuel, the 
rods resting ominously in swimming pools, 
cooling, radiating, awaiting decision on 
how they will be stored, safely, for 
thousands of years, by societies, while 
governing systems, throughout all history, 
have usually lasted a few centuries. 

Power reactors now operate in many lands. 
Many countries are at war, either with their 
neighbors or internally. Wartime bombing 
of nuclear reactors and their adjacent spent 
fuel storages, even with conventional 
weapons, could spread massive 
radioactivity, adding a new dimension of 
danger to customary national behavior. 

Continued on page 39 

The Future 

Challenges the Past; 

The Case of the 
Welfare State 

by Robert Morris 

Robert Morns, Piofessoi Emeritus of Social 
Planning, Florence Heller Graduate School 
for Advanced Studies in Social Welfare, is a 
noted scholar in the fields of social 
planning, organization of health and 
human services, and gerontology. A former 
director of the Levinson Policy Institute at 
Brandeis, he also is past president of the 
Gerontological Society of America and has 
held several key posts within major 
welfare and social service agencies. He is 
the author of several highly regarded books 
including Centrally Planned Change, 
Urban Planning and Social Policy, and The 
Welfare State. 

How will the so-called welfare state evolve 
in the next decade- Are we likely to use the 
national government more, or less, for 
social purposes' 

The subject is one aspect of applied social 
science and also of nation building. It 
involves welfare programs on which 
several million Americans depend for their 
existence and which improve the comfort 
of many more millions in the middle class. 

We spend about one-fifth of the nation's 
goods and services directly on such 
programs. But besides funds, the support 
we provide as a nation involves our basic 
beliefs. What do we, today, think we owe 
others? And, how much of the obligation 
we feel do we expect the government to 

I believe there are four tendencies 
converging that will force this nation to 
reconsider the premises on which present 
welfare efforts are based, and, as a result 
will alter what we will expect of our 
national government. 

These tendencies are: the changing nature 
of dependency; changing attitudes and 
obhgation to self; persisting beliefs about 
public altruism; persisting optimism of 
liberal or of welfare advocates vis-a-vis the 
role of national government. 

In considering this subject, I find it useful to 
resort to the concept of helping the 
stranger, as a starting point. The idea of 
obligation to strangers is embedded m both 
Christian and Judaic thought, and is part of 
the substratum of thinking about welfare. 
Today, all benehciaries of public help are 
strangers to those who help them 
impersonally through taxation. 

The advocates and supporters of 
government responsibility for the poor, the 
dependent or troubled, used to rely on 
human conscience that was shaped by 
religious teaching, when religion had some 
authority. Or they appealed for support by 
claiming that such action strengthens the 
nation and avoids civil unrest. In recent 
decades, the argument has shifted 
somewhat to the notion that a poor person 
has the right to expect help. Advocates have 
also expected continuous expansion and 
growth in rights, and government 
responsibility. They also try to convert 
behefs about charity to the poor into 
enforceable nghts. 

Therefore, every human difhculty, 
regardless of its source or cause, is 
perceived as requiring a human response, 
which in turn becomes a national 

obligation. This approach has worked for 24 

the past 50 years, in part because annual 
growth in the GNP made it possible to 
satisfy most selfish interests leaving a 
"social increment" with which to 
collectively relieve distress. 

The memory of the 1930s depression was 
still fresh in citizens' minds, and the 
confidence that came from winning a war 
was reinforced by a post World War II 
economic boom. Almost anything was 
possible and worth trying. The New Deal 
became the Fair Deal and the Great Society. 
To most welfare advocates, these great 
expectations still have force. The present 
Republican interruption is perceived as a 
temporary set-back, the product of an 
aberrant ideolog>'. The basic beliefs of 
average citizens are still relied on to support 
steady growth in giving to help others. 

This stance of high expectations in 
government has been reinforced by the 
challenge of socialist thinking. The faith 
that socialism, in some form, will resolve 
basic human needs, has stimulated those 
who believe that state power in a capitalist 
economy could also be used to deal with 
almost all difficulties. 

Welfare advocates have two weaknesses: 
they often justify new rights for the poor by 
appealing to charitable impulses based on 
individual human interaction, not abstract 
legal concepts. This leads to confusion 
between what is given voluntarily and 
what can be claimed. Further, they give the 
impression that more rights and benefits 
can be promised without pam to any, 
except a few wealthy individuals. This is 
transparently inadequate for a large 
majority of voters. Having the costs spread 
through most of the population, reduces 

If we turn to the behefs of citizens, it is 
surprising to discover how consistent has 
been over the centuries a much more 
limited view about obligation which 
citizens owe to others, either as individuals 
or acting through their government. 

Beginning with present attitudes and 
working back in time, one finds that social 
surveys over 40 years are consistent. They 
show that Americans are supportive of a 
few "deserving" dependents: the sick or 
very obviously disabled, the aged, widows 
(until recently), veterans, and children who 
are orphaned or abused or abandoned. 

Except for the period just before the 1930s 
depression, the able-bodied adult has been 
expected to be self-supporting, based on the 

23 assumption that some kind of work could 
be found for all capable of labor. Help to the 
able-bodied adult has been, and still is, 
grudging. It is based on a work requirement 
and IS often administered as a form of 
punishment, with open doubt about the 
recipient's capacity to handle his/her own 
affairs. There is very little, if any, evidence 
that the public favors using welfare to 
equalize conditions between the poor and 
the better-off. 

The welfare state, which assures security 
and equality from cradle to grave, has 
narrow and shallow roots in public behefs. 
More often, citizens approach welfare as an 
expression of charity or philanthropy 
deserved by victims of natural diasters, over 
which individuals have little control. The 
background for this narrow view is rooted 
in history. 

Colonial America began with an 
acceptance of the poor, with communal 
help for the widow and the sick and the 
orphan; poverty was widespread, accepted 
as a natural part of pioneer life and as a part 
of God's divine providence. By the 19th 
century, with more population, mobility, 
industry, and cyclical depressions, the 
bonds of community were loosened. For 
some decades, poverty came to be seen as 
the consequence of personal failure, of sm, 
or of laziness. Poverty was viewed m 
moralizing terms until the late 19th 
century. Economic liberalism of the 18th 
century dominated. Freedom for individual 
effort, freedom from government 
constraints, were valued standards for 
organizing society. 

Reciprocity and pity for a few categories of 
helpless defendants constitute the pool of 
thinking about public or private obligation 
toward the stranger with which an 
American electorate entered the 20th 
century. That thinking still dominates, if 
results of public opinion surveys are any 
guide. And that includes the belief that 
poverty, or lifetime security, are seldom in 
the public canon. 

If this summary is accurate, then public 
views are much narrower about the scope of 
government responsibility than welfare 
advocates would Uke to believe. 

Public advocacy views about the scope of 
national obligation are slowly being made 
irrelevant by the changing nature of 
dependency in the modern world. The 
helpless are now being joined by the 
able-bodied for whom there is lack of work. 

Lack of work for the able-bodied crosses 
many boundaries. Technology creates 
fewer jobs than it abolishes, and only some 
of those new jobs require advanced 
education. Youth without educational 
aspirations are committed to long periods 
of unemployment, or sporadic work at low 
pay without hope for improvement. Racial 
minorities have disastrous unemployment 
rates and middle-aged adults are made 
redundant by new technology. The aged, 
once considered weak and helpless, are now 
much more physically fit, alert and active, 
wanting some useful role m society. 

Thus, while the conventionally accepted 
dependents grow in numbers, new groups 
of poor have to be incorporated. 

While these changes have been taking 
place, public attitudes toward obligations 
have diminished. Resistance to taxation is 
pervasive within the middle-class. 

And, in addition, there is a decade-long 
increase m skepticism about government's 
ability to do everything well and an even 
deeper dissatisfaction about the way our 
welfare system is working, a dissatisfaction 
shared by all sectors of the political 
spectrum, including the poor. 

More disturbing than this, is the growth in 
self-concern, which leaves less and less 
room for caring about others, especially 

We have come to expect that each 
individual is entitled to realize his or her 
potential to the utmost, but obligation to 
help others has not been a major criterion of 
citizenship, of morality, or of behavior, 
especially when helping a stranger reduces 
one's means for personal improvement. 
The force of obligation, once rooted in 
primary institutions such as the family and 
the neighborhood, has been attenuated. No 
institution teaches regularly concern for 
others as a major criterion of character; not 
church, nor schools, nor family. And if they 
try to, their authority is weak. 

Families are less powerful, they are more an 
assemblage of individuals than collectives. 
Individual freedom is enhanced, not group 
obligation. Individuals relocate easily so 
that neighborhood roots are shallow. 
Individuals have personal associations 
which arise out of work or hobby, both 
means of personal satisfaction, and not a 
basis for social sharing. 

The economic profile of the population 
supports this self-regarding tendency. 
Fifteen percent of this nation is very poor, 
although by world standards and standards 
of the past, the condition of this group is not 
desperate misery. About 80 percent fall 
within the middle, or lower middle class 
and live in reasonable comfort. They 
acquired this comfort recently, and expect 
even better conditions for their children. 
But, they are insecure about their hold on 
this comfort. How much generosity is it 
reasonable to count on when this majority 
in the middle receives appeals for the poor 
who are able-bodied, who are seldom seen, 
and who are sometimes of a different race 
and culture- 

This self-regarding tendency has been 
building for at least a hundred years, aided, 
incidentally, by the power of Freud's work 
which tums thoughts of so many of us to 
that inner world of self which he opened up. 
Most of us are freer than were our forebears, 
but It IS doubtful that we are more caring 
about strangers. 

The consequence of these four tendencies 
is to shatter the paradigms we have used up 
to now to deal with those in trouble. There 
is a real danger that we are unwittingly 
creating an underclass — a class not a 
caste — of untouchables in the very poor 
who are disbarred from participating in the 
society of which they are a part. Avoiding 
this outcome is the major task confronting 
the re-casting of the welfare system — a task 
more urgent and achievable than Utopian 
ends of security and equality for all. 

The way we handle this issue will 
determine what kind of a welfare state we 
will have in the last part of the 20th 
century, whether it will be one based on the 
realization of a few basic rights, or one 
based on older philanthropic values. 

The future will be shaped by the way 
ordinary citizens and moulders of public 
opinion recombine old and current 
elements based on two choices: How much 
obligation will most of us feel to strangers 
and how much of this obligation do we 
want to make compulsory for state action. 

I suspect the future will be neither as selfish 
as the enemies of the welfare state propose, 
nor as expansive as the advocates hope. ■ 

Scholars Look Toward the Year 2000 

American Studies 

by Lawrence H. Fuchs 

Walter and Meyer Jaffe 
Professor of American 
Civilization and Politics 

American Studies has 
emphasized two important 
methodologies. First, it crosses 
traditional disciplinary 
■boundaries m the study of the 
myths, values, symbols, 
institutions, heroes and 
heroines and behavior of 
Americans. Second, it 
increasingly has emphasized 
comparisons between the 
dominant middle class culture 
of Americans with foreign 

cultures and sub-cultures 
within the United States. 

In the years ahead scholars will 
emphasize comparative cultures 
even more — regional, ethnic 
and foreign — and will utilize 
artifacts and audio- visual 
technology in addition to 
traditional literary and 
historical data in trying to 
answer four major questions. 
First, how are Americans able to 

balance the ideal of ethnic 
diversity with that of national 
unity? How does the plurihus 
relate to the unum * The second 
important question will be how 
do Americans manage the 
transition from an industrial to 
post-industrial society? A third 
question will be how do 
Americans cope with the 
disintegrating impact of 
weakened family life, 
particularly the erosion of the 

by Harlyn O. Halvorson 

Professor of Biology and 
Director, Rosenstiel Basic 
Medical Sciences 
Research Center 

Soon It will be Orwell's year of 
1984 and only 16 years later the 
year 2000. Experience in the 
past two decades has shown 
that the field of biology has 
moved even faster than its 
greatest proponents could ever 
have imagined. The emergence 
of molecular biology in the 60's 
and recombinant DNA in the 
70's has led us to the point m 
which the nature of the 
mammalian chromosome and 

how it functions will be solved 
in a relatively short time. We 
soon should know the 
composition of genes, their 
organization in the chromosome 
and the manner in which these 
genes are activiated and 
function. By the year 2000 the 
majority of the critical genes 
involved m differentiation, 
growth and behavior will be 
defined and understood at the 
molecular level. The mysteries 

of genetics and how these genes 
change with evolution should be 
largely defined. 

By the year 2000 we should be 
able to diagnose genetic diseases 
and provide, in a number of 
these cases, corrective measures 
through gene therapy. 
Biomedical science will have 
advanced to the point that gene 
replacements should be possible 
where defective genes are 

Russian Literature 

by Robert Szulkin 

Associate Professor of Russian 

The best Russian hterature 
today is being created outside of 
Russia. In the United States, 
Israel, France, Germany one sees 
every day the appearance of new 
and startling works of literature 
in Russian comparable to those 
great masterpieces of the past. 
The reader of Russian literature 
has not seen anything like this 
since the so-called Silver Age of 
Russian literature that existed in 
the four decades between 

1890-1930. The genuine 
excitement this new, essentially 
dissident literature is generating 
is so pervasive that one does not 
have the time to finish one truly 
masterful work when another 
makes its appearance. 

Yet, what of the future? Can this 
continue? There is no doubt that 
in the short run the future looks 
bright as more and more 
interesting work is written. 

taken out of drawers and dusted 
off, discovered; but in the long 
run I am afraid that this prolific 
outpouring cannot continue. 
Eventually, this new generation 
of dissident writers will 
disappear; the audience for this 
literature will grow older and die 
off; the questions posed by the 
works themselves will become 
increasingly parochial; the 
truths expressed by this 
literature will be smaller and 

Women's Studies 

by Joyce Antler In the year 2000, perhaps there 

will be no Women's Studies. It is 
Assistant Professor of American conceivable that by that time. 
Studies the experiences, history and 

culture of women will be so fully 
integrated into the content of 
traditional courses that separate 
Women's Studies programs will 
be unnecessary. 

Conceivable, yes, but unlikely. 
In spite of the vast increase in 
recent years in scholarship 

about women, the inclusion of 
this material into the regular 
liberal arts curriculum has not 
followed apace. In all 
probability, it will take 
considerably longer than the 
next two decades to achieve 
truly "balanced" or "integrated" 

In the interim. Women's Studies 
programs will become more 
vigorous and more inclusive. 

Fifteen years ago, most teaching 
efforts in Women's Studies 
involved courses in literature, 
history, or sociology. Today, 
fields as diverse as anthropology, 
biology, economics, philosophy, 
politics, and religion have been 
markedly affected by new 
critical perspectives emanating 
from scholarship about women. 
By the year 2000, femmist 
perspectives will have 
penetrated even further into the 

continuity of authoritative 
parental loving care for children 
and, also, how they deal with the 
related question of changing 
gender roles. 

Finally, there will be an 
increasing interest in the 
powerful impact of American 
popular culture on other parts of 
the world — everything from 
music to jeans — and one can 
expect that scholars in foreign 

countries particularly will be 
interested in exploring the 
penetration of popular 
American art, music, film, and 
letters in their own societies. 

The fascination of scholars with 
the discipline of American 
Studies will continue to grow in 
universities throughout the 
world — there are now 
American Studies departments 
in universities in Asia as well as 

Europe — because there is an 
immense curiosity about a 
society which was founded to 
some extent in hostility to 
traditional or prescriptive 
authority. In a world 
increasingly divided by those 
who retain tribal ideals and 
those who embrace the ideal of 
individual freedom and its 
implicit egalitarianism, 
American civilization, seen by 
millions as the major cause of 

rampant decadence and by 
millions of others as the major 
source of hope for humanity, 
will receive a great deal of 
scholarly attention. ■ 

involved. Advancements in the 
field of neurobiology should 
permit us to regulate 
neurotransmitters which affect 
motor functions, senses such as 
sight and behavior, and to 
regulate some of our major 
medical problems such as high 
blood pressure, allergy and 
vascular diseases. 

Through molecular studies the 
unsolved medical problems of 

the 1980s, such as parasitic 
diseases and immune 
deficiency, will be well 
understood so that approaches 
to their solutions will be defined 
by immunological or gene 
therapy techniques. A refining 
of the ability to manipulate the 
genome should lead not only to 
an emerging and more realistic 
industry in biotechnology, but 
also to improvements in 
agriculture, protection of the 

environment, and a 
reappearance of biological 
catalysts in both the fine 
chemical and bulk chemical 

The greatest accomplishment 
by the year 2000 will be our 
understanding of how the 
chromosome of a virus cell is 
organized and how gene 
migrations and alterations play a 
role in evolution and speciation. I 

smaller; individual works will 
tend to become narrower in 
scope, more idiosyncratic in 

In the end this very same 
literature, once so vibrant and 
dynamic, will be reduced to 
unredeeming silliness at worst 
or uninspiring introspection at 
best. The entire edifice will 
become implosive and collapse 
unto itself like some no longer 

usable "Grand Hotel. " And this is 
the most tragic truth of all. For 
this is the ultimate fate of all 
emigre literatures. Having lost 
Its rootedness, having been cut 
off from the native soil, its very 
lifeline severed, the once 
magnificent plant will wither 
and die. Oh, there is always a 
blossoming forth, but the fading 
is inevitable. And even if the 
plant survives it is bound to be 
sterile. For Russian writers. 

rootedness, connection to the 
native soil is particularly 
important because Russia has 
always perceived the role of the 
writer and his mission as being 
almost sacred. As Solzhenitsyn 
states in his First Circle, "... a 
great writer is, so to speak, a 
second government. That is why 
no regime anywhere has ever 
loved its great writers, only its 
minor ones." Therefore, I 
suggest that Russia will always 

need its dissident writers, and a 
new generation of dissident 
writers will inevitably arise. But 
I have painted a gloomy picture 
of that future (quite Russian of 
me). Yet, literature can never be 
tied to any category of time. 
Russia's future literature is 
intimately connected with its 
past; It IS always engaged in a 
dialogue and polemic with 
itself. ■ 

heart of the academy, perhaps 
emerging more fully and 
completely in fields such as the 
creative arts and even the hard 
sciences, where today they are 
relatively little developed. At 
the moment, the second 
generation of feminist scholars, 
themselves trained m the 1970s, 
is taking its place in the 
academy and training a new 
generation of students. The 
increasing numbers of women 

selecting professional education 
and the growing tendency of 
these women to work in 
full-time, permanent careers, 
will continue to foster interest 
in the experiences of women and 
the ways in which gender has 
affected the organization of 
society and culture. 

This new scholarship about 
women cannot fail to influence, 
and perhaps even transform. 

traditional paradigms. Literary 
cntics like Sandra Gilbert, Susan 
Gubar, and Myra jehlen, 
historians Nancy Cott, Mary 
Beth Norton, and Rosalind 
Rosenberg, psychologists Carol 
Gilhgan and Jean Baker Miller, 
and political theorists Jean 
Elshtain and Susan Okin have 
taught us new ways of looking at 
the world, as well as a new 
comprehension of the social 
construction of knowledge 

Itself. Many other scholars have 
shown us how to integrate the 
experiences of women into the 
framework of our disciplines. 
The inclusion into the 
curriculum of the contributions, 
history, and culture of women 
will be an evolutionary process. 
But, however slowly it may 
proceed, I doubt that it will fail, 
over the next 1 7 years, to shape 
the perspectives of students and 
professors alike. ■ 

Linguistics and Cognitive Science 

by Ray lackendoff 
Professor of Linguistics 

The last 30 years of linguistics 
have brought us a rich 
understanding of the phonology 
(sound structure) and syntax 
(phrase structure) of language. 
While there are doubtless major 
breakthroughs yet to come in 
these areas, the real frontier is 
semantics — the theory of 
meaning and of the relation 
between language and thought. 

The reason semantics has 
always been so difficult is that, 
while we have some intuitions 
about how language sounds and 
how words are put together into 
phrases (recall sentence 
diagramming in grammar 

school), it is incredibly hard to 
imagine what sort of thing the 
meaning of a sentence could be. 
It can't just be a translation into 
another language — for how 
then is this other language 
understood? Philosophers and 
logicians have been wrestling 
with this conundrum for 
centuries, without notable 

But it seems now that help is on 
the way. Recent research in 
human vision has begun to 
discover the nature of the 
information we unconsciously 
use to interpret the spatial 
organization of physical objects 

and to create visual imagery. 
This, combined with our 
recently-won understanding of 
syntactic structure, gives us two 
independent points of attack on 
the same problem: how we 
conceptualize the physical 
world, and what we mean when 
we talk about the things we see. 

Such an integration of the 
theories of language and vision 
IS now only beginning, but it 
seems fair to guess it will be in 
the mainstream of research in 
another 15 years. A more distant 
hope is for theories of other 
mental faculties, such as motor 
control, that can be integrated 


by William P. Jencks 

Gyula and Katica Tauber 
Professor of Biochemistry and 
Molecular Pharmacodynamics 

We can speculate on the 
biochemical understanding of 
living systems that will be 
available in the year 2000 only 
on the basis of new directions 
now beginning to develop. The 
most general prediction is that 
we will understand on a 
chemical basis many of the 
processes that have been 
considered peculiar to living 
systems ever since they were 
first identified and, until 

recently, considered to be beyond 
the scope of scientihc inquiry. 
This will include an 
understanding of how chemical 
compounds and energy, from the 
utihzation of foodstuffs, can give 
results other than conversion to 
other chemical compounds. 

One example is the conversion 
of biochemical energy to work 
— such as muscle contraction, 
the development of electrical 

energy by nerves and electric 
eels, and the movement of 
chemicals across membranes. 
This area is just at the point of 
becoming understood on a 
biochemical basis, based on the 
results of recent studies of the 
biochemistry of muscle, nerves, 
and enzymes. This work is even 
beginning to provide an 
understanding of mental 
processes, such as learning, 
which IS now being studied on a 


by Paula Rayman 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Sociology has traditionally 
addressed the nature of the 
relationship between 
individuals and social 
institutions, from pnmary group 
associations such as the family 
to the organization of the 
nation-state. Sub- fields of the 
discipline reflect its wide 
concerns ranging from social/ 
psychological to political/ 
sociological theories. 

Rooted in the examination 
of the form and substance of 
what constitutes society, 
sociology has as its task the 

comprehension of social reality: 
What are its core values? The 
essence of its social fabric? The 
possibilities for new growth and 
the potential of decline? In 
addition sociology that is well 
done will always, paraphrasing 
C. Wright Mills, be aware of the 
historical perspective and 
delineate where biography and 
social forces intersect. 

Historically it seems clear that 
many industnalized and 
developing societies find 
themselves in a paradoxical 
situation. Since the flounshing 

of the Age of Enlightenment and 
Emancipation much emphasis 
has been placed on values of 
individualism and freedom. Yet 
a combination of modern forces, 
new forms of technology, 
bureaucratic centralization, 
economic and social domination, 
inhibit genuine individuahty 
and lead to emerging realities of 
mass control, mass insecurity 
and last but especially not least 
the mass destruction possible 
under a nuclear age. There is 
increasing dependency on 
institutions that appear 
uncontrollable and 

with these two. Such theories 
would enable us to understand 
not only how we talk about what 
we see, but also how we talk 
about what we do, and how we 
use our sight to help us move 
about in the world. This sort of 
research may well be taking 
place, though hardly in a big 
way, by the year 2000. 

I think it's also reasonable to 
imagine that we will come to 
some better understanding of 
how the brain actually encodes 
the information that the 
theories of language and vision 
have uncovered. Through 20 
years of painstaking research. 

we now have a good idea of the 
neurological instantiation of 
some very primitive aspects of 
the visual system. On the other 
hand, we haven't the slightest 
notion of how the nervous 
system encodes a speech sound 
— not to mention one's 
knowledge of words or world 
wars. Although much has been 
made of the analogy between 
computers and brains, in 
actuality the digital 
organization and serial 
processing of a computer do not 
bear much resemblance to the 
quasi-analogue organization and 
massively parallel processing of 
the brain. This disparity, often 

sloughed over in the enthusiasm 
for computer modeling of the 
mind, is slowly beginning to be 
recognized as serious. I would 
hope that by the year 2000 this 
recognition will bring about an 
active collaboration between 
cognitive science, neuroscience, 
and computer science, with the 
goal of developing a realistic 
theory of what sort of 
information-processing device a 
nervous system might be. The 
outcome will be fascinating, and 
quite unlike any theory of 
information processing now 

In short, we are at present on the 
brink of a grand integration of 
evidence from many different 
areas, an integration that is 
conceivable only because of the 
exciting advances in each of 
these areas during the past 15 
years. By 2000, 1 expect to see 
much more clearly what form 
this integration will take, and I 
eagerly look forward to 
participating in the continued 
exploration of the perplexing 
and awesome question of how 
the human mind works. ■ 

biochemical basis for the first 
time, m snails. Even emotions 
are being found to be mediated 
by biochemical substances, and 
it IS virtually certain that the 
control of the release and the 
action of these substances will 
be largely understood in the next 

The understanding of the 
chemical basis for many life 
processes is beginning to make 

possible the rational 
development of drugs, which 
previously were found almost 
exclusively by chance. This will 
certainly lead to dramatic 
differences in the treatment of 
disease. The best known 
developments are m the 
mechanism of heredity and 
expression of genetic material — 
the DNA story. The 
understanding of these 
processes is well developed in 

primitive organisms and is 
beginning to be understood in 
organisms as complicated as 
man. It is hkely that it will be 
possible to change these 
processes in controlled ways, so 
that a number of difficult, 
non-scientific decisions will 
have to be made about the 
utilization of this knowledge. 

The most interesting aspect of 
progress in science is that the 

most important developments 
occur in ways that no one 
predicted. That is why it is 
important to carry out research, 
and support research, on the 
basis of its excellence rather 
than merely its relevance to 
some immediate need. ■ 

insurmountably complex and 

Sociology in the next two 
decades needs to carefully 
consider these principal social 
issues of our times and 
stimulate reasoned thinking 
about a transformative society. 
Among the central topics that I 
hope will capture the best of our 
individual and collective 
sociological imaginations: 

- The Nature of an Increasing 
Technocratic Society: the 
problems it poses for 
individual dignity and social 
liberation; can humanity 
have a "coming of age", with 
moral and ethical 
achievements catching up 
with the progress of 

The Meaning of Feminism 
and the Women's Movement: 
is there a distinct mode of 
"feminist thinking" or a 
female morality which is 
potentially species 
liberating? How will the 
feminization of poverty and 
the prospect of genetic 
engineering shape and 
redefine choices in the private 
and public spheres? 

- What is the Meaning of Living 
in a Nuclear Age: can we 
understand the experiences of 
"psychic numbing" and the 
acceptance of the possibility 
of global annihilation; how 
will religious movements, 
state governments, grassroots 
efforts respond to the threat? 
As we move towards the year 
2000 is there evidence that 
war could ever be a means tor 
socially productive ends?H 

A Spectacular Success Story: 

The National Women's Committee 

by Adnenne Udis Rosenblatt '61 

Adrienne Udis Rosenblatt graduated from Brandeis in 1961 
with a B.A. in English and American Literature. She resides in 
Bloomfield, Connecticut, with her husband. Joel. Class of '61. 
and their two children. She is a past national vice president of 
BUNWC and currently chair of its quarterly newspaper Imprint. 
She has been chair of the Connecticut Admissions Council since 

its inception in the early 1 970s. 

Edith MichuL'h iFir^t National BUNWC President 1948-511. 
Eleanor Roosevelt, and Polly Slater, BUNWC Conference Chair, 
at an early commencement. 

Cutting the ribbon at June 1983 ceremonies dedicating the 
National Women's Committee Wall in the new Farber Library. 
BUNWC founders (l.-r.j Augusta Katz and Tillie Thorner. 
National Vice President Ellie Shuman, National President 
Cynthia Shulman, and Founder and former National President 
Hannah Abrams. 


In 1948 eight daring Boston women came together to form a 
volunteer group whose goal was to help build and stock a library 
for a fledgling university just beginning to nse on a hill above the 
town of Waltham. 

They called the group the Brandeis University National Women's 
Committee (BUNWC). 

Thirty-five years later, that original, small, volunteer 
organization has developed into one of the most spectacular 
success stories in the annals of volunteerism. 

Edith Michaels, a former president of Boston Hadassah, is the 
woman to whom George Alpert, the first president of the Board of 
Trustees, tumed to suggest the formation of such a volunteer 
group. She, along with the seven other Boston women, formed the 
strong base on which the organization has grown. 

The first ofHcial meeting in June 1948 was attended by 40 
women, who were able to donate $10,000 and the first 2,000 
volumes to the university library. The gift was made one month 
before the first students matriculated. 

The excitement of the task spread quickly and chapters sprouted 
throughout New England, the Atlantic seaboard, m the South, 
the Midwest, the Southwest, and on the West Coast. By 1949, it 
was possible to convene a national conference in Boston with 
representatives from all over the country. 

Each successive national president's report glowed with the 
enthusiasm of geographical expansion and mounting 
membership so that today the organization boasts a membership 
of 67,000 in 125 chapters— including Hawaii. 

This accompHshment has made the National Women's 
Committee the single largest benefactor in Brandeis' history and 
the largest volunteer library support group in America. 

From its humble beginnings in a converted stone stable in 1948, 
to the three-story hbrary wing addition m 1953, to the 
magnificent Goldf arb Library in 1 959, to the Gerstenzang Library 

JA f, Ml. I I 



of Science m 1962, to the newly opened Father Lihrary in 1983, 
the National Women's Committee has overseen the 
development, growth, and expansion of the university library 

It has translated its $21 milhon benefaction into 868,000 books 
and over 600,000 microtexts. Besides hlling the stacks and 
providing the daily maintenance of the libraries, the Women's 
Committee has also provided scholarships and salaries to 
Brandeis students who work in the library. 

Sensing the extraordinary' showcase of intellectual talent 
residing, literally, m its backyard, BUNWC sought to take full 
advantage of the remarkable willingness of the Brandeis faculty 
to aid in its activities. In 1956, m order to bring the membership 
closer to the university and to involve new members, the 
organization embarked on its exciting Study Group Program. 
Faculty members prepared syllabi for courses ranging from 
literature and drama, to world affairs, the arts, and Judaic studies, 
for use by Brandeis members in their own communities. 

From early conferences and panel discussions, featuring such 
luminaries as Abraham Maslow, Irving Howe, Max Lemer, 
Ludwig Lewisohn and Eleanor Roosevelt, the Women's 
Committee established its speakers bureau and encouraged 
chapters to invite a university professor annually to an open 
meeting. Many chapters and regions have also participated in the 
innovative University on Wheels program m which two or three 
professors take to the road and present day-long seminars. 

Brandeis Abroad is a unique travel program offered by BUNWC. 
Women's Committee members are accompanied on travel tours 
by faculty members familiar with the areas to be visited. Their 
expertise adds immeasurably to the quality of the program. 

The library is both geographically and symboUcally the physical 
and academic heart of the campus. Without the consistency, 
selflessness, and hard work of the Women's Committee, 
university officials agree that the library program would have 

been limited. However good and competent it may have been, it 
would not have been unique. And unique is the word that best 
describes these energetic, devoted women who, despite raising 
$1,700,250 last year, are still not satisfied. "We don't have time 
for basking in our glory," says National President Cynthia 
Shulman. "The successes we have had merely prepare us for the 
challenges that face the Brandeis libraries tomorrow." 

This epitomizes the attitude shared by these atypical women 
who have made work their pleasure and responsibility their love; 
who dared to dream a dream almost as large as the Brandeis dream 
Itself; who, possessing the courage and vision, found the means to 
shape the dream into reality; and who continue to magically turn 
the word "challenge" into success. 

Newly inaugurated Brandeis President Evelyn E. Handler 
summed up the administration's feelings toward the Women's 
Committee: "Its impact on the university has been remarkable. It 
has provided the books, journals, papers, and microfilm that fill 
the Brandeis hbraries. But it has accomplished more than that. It 
represents the university with elegance in communities across 
the country, serving as advocate, as messenger of our needs and 
dreams. Through its constancy, loyalty, and confidence in 
Brandeis, the Women's Committee has inspired nationwide 
support in helping us build and strengthen a distinguished 
university of excellence." 

Founding President Abram L. Sachar sees the National Women's 
Committee's contribution to the university's libraries as "much, 
much more than a tribute to fundraising resourcefulness." He 
praises the "tens of thousands of women who became, and are, 
ambassadors for the university. . . . The achievement is unique 
because we received not only the gifts but the givers too." 

It is both interesting and understandable that the National 
Women's Committee also serves as an unofficial recruiter for the 
university. "Over the years, many of our students first heard the 
name Brandeis through the National Women's Committee's 
Used Book Sales in their home towns, " says David Gould, dean of 

Perhaps what makes the achievements of BUNWC all the more 
impressive are these two remarkable facts: only a relative handful 
of its members are Brandeis graduates, and very few of the 67,000 
women have ever seen the campus whose libraries they so 
lovingly support. 

Why, then, this unbehevable devotion ? How does one account for 
the incredible support lavished so consistently on Brandeis: 
Certainly, there is the association with the academic life, the 
world of ideas. There are the bonds of firmly forged friendships, 
shared goals and experiences with women from coast to coast. 
Also, there is the acquisition of skills — learned, refined, and 
utilized — that the many project areas provide. 

An important and appealing ideology; a specific project, purpose, 
and goal; the right timing; the right people — mix these 
ingredients together and add Max Lerner's descnption of a 
library: "It has a musty smell about it from the dust that has 
gathered on books and ideas over the centunes, but there is also in 
the air a slight smell of dynamite." 

BUNWC has set the charge, and the academic world is reeling 
from the explosion. ■ 

Brandeis Alumni: 

Assertive, Principled and 
Opinionated — 
From 107 to 17,472 

June 16, 1952. The sun shone that day, as it 
had all week, on 8,000 friends of Brandeis 
who had assembled to witness the granting 
of the University's first degrees. 

One hundred and seven seniors marched in, 
led by Gustav Ranis, senior class president, 
and Paul Levenson, president of the 
Student Union. After everyone was seated 
in place, Phylis Levins Acker stepped to the 
podium to receive the official parchment 
signalling completion of a college 
education. She thus became the first person 
to receive a degree from Brandeis. 

She has been followed by some 17,471 other 
black-robed students. 

Yet 35 years later, it is not the number of 
graduates that is impressive; it is the 
imprint that they are leaving in almost 
every field of endeavor. The richness of 
their lives, their outstanding careers, their 
visions and contributions to society 
validate the energy, commitment and 
dedication that have been harnessed 
through the years to make Brandeis 
what it is. 

"I come across Brandeis graduates in all 
walks of life. In community work, in the 
business world. They are often m positions 
of public and private trust. I am proud and 
pleased when someone I came to admire 
turns out to be a Brandeis graduate," 
commented Barbara Kasm Kravitz '57 who, 
through her community activities and 
work in newspaper and financial 
development in Boston, has had extensive 
dealings with a large and varied 

The 17,472 graduates came to Brandeis for 

different reasons: 

"To live up to my potential," Lois Lindauer 

Seltz '53; 

"To retire early, since I dislike most work," 

John B. Crosby '59; 

"To be a contributing member of society," 

Marshall J. Mott '61; 

"To make the world a better place," Nina 

Judd Hersh '65; 

"To seek the truth, even into its innermost 

parts ..." Albert A. Foer '66; 

"To be happy and successful and good at 

whatever I chose to do with my hfe," Jane 

Kunstler '66; 

"To have a job that would be beneficial to 

society," Kathi Rook Conley 71. 

Although they came for various reasons, 
and have scattered to different professions 
and locales, a majority share a common 
feeling: "Brandeis graduates tend to feel 


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Cover photograph on the August 1952issue of the "Official Pubhcation of Brandeis University." 

they are part of a family unit," says Paula 
Dubofsky Resnick '61, president of the 
Brandeis Alumni Association. 

"Brandeis alumni," she says, "felt they 
owned the school and during the first 20 
years while Abram Sachar was president, 
they felt he was also their father." And as 
sons and daughters are meant to do, the 
students fought with their Brandeis 
"father." Resnick points out that, "Early on 
we had face-to-face arguments with Sachar 
about the direction of the school. In the 
1950s we fought tuition increases, and the 
rebellion continues to this day with 
students Hghting for stock divestiture." 

This questioning, opinionated, principled 
and assertive student body has gone on to 
forge impressive careers. Today, the 
University can already point to two 
graduates who are Pulitzer Prize winners 

(Richard Wernick '55, in music and 
Thomas L. Friedman '75 for international 
reporting), three graduates who are 
recipients of the prestigious MacArthur 
Fellowship (Karen Uhlenbeck '68, 
Lawrence Rosen '63 and Ed Witten '71), and 
Oscar and Emmy winners (Jeremy Lamer 
'58 and Letty Cottm Pogrebm '59). 

The University can also point with pride to 
innumerable winners of lesser known 
awards, to those whose books continue to 
appear on publishers' lists, those 
outstanding joumahsts whose bylines are 
visible on our most influential newspapers, 
those who are conducting symphonies, 
holding honored positions within our most 
distinguished museums and universities 
and on and on. 

The well-estabUshed tradition of large 
numbers of graduates entering into the 

medical profession continues to this day. 
For several years it has been estimated that 
about ten percent of each graduating class 
goes on to medical school, and last year's 
figure shows the same high acceptance rate. 
Though times have changed, ambitions 
have not. In response to a c;[uestionnaire 
circulated to the class of 1982, 97 percent of 
that class said they had plans to acquire 
advanced degrees, although 53 percent of 
them indicated they would attend graduate 
or professional school after one or two years 
of work experience. 

But education should stretch beyond 
professional success. "Even though a 
significant portion of Brandeis alumni/ae 
are successful, they have not abandoned 
many of their altruistic causes. There is 
still, among them, a strong and caring 
concern about the rest of the world. If a 
university can give that legacy, it is doing 
an excellent job," says Resnick. 

Resnick's viewpoint is confirmed by a 
casual leafing through the alumni 
directory. In addition to doctors, 
psychiatrists, lawyers and teachers, there 
are large numbers of alumni/ae working 
within social service agencies. 

What also stands out is the large number of 
women graduates holding responsible and 
varied positions: doctors, lawyers, 
presidents and vice-presidents of 
corporations, an assistant attorney general, 
television commentators, writers, 
psychiatrists. These accomplishments are 
not surprising for recent women graduates, 
but are an impressive record when one 
recalls the limited careers of previous 
generations of women. 

"I had few personal aspirations beyond 
educating myself sufhciently to attract a 
worthy husband — a goal that was typical 
for women of my generation. I felt 
subordinate, when it occurred to me in my 
junior year to think about my own future," 
said Letty Cottm Pogrebin who has 
achieved a very successful career as writer, 
founder and editor of MS magazine, author 
of three books, numerous articles and 
winner of an Emmy for a television series. 
Like Pogrebin, many other women found 
their spirit and voice while at Brandeis. 

"Brandeis graduates have a deep 
commitment to their alma mater," says 
Gladys Jacobson, Director of Alumni 
Relations. "Even those who may have 
differed strongly with the administration 
while students, as the years go by, return to 
Brandeis with strong emotional ties, and a 
sense of pride and appreciation for their 
undergraduate education." The Alumni 
Association is the formal structure that 
pulls together all the scattered voices. It 
grows stronger, larger and more active each 
year, and today has 14 chapters across the 

Styles may change, pastimes may change, 
and even individuals may change, but, 
perhaps, what Jane Kunstler '66 found at 
Brandeis, will not: "What I got out of my 
years at Brandeis were feelings of pride and 
independence, the idea that life held many 
possibilities for me, and that it would be 
what I made it. All these feehngs were the 
result of many individual experiences, a 
dozen different teachers, lots of discussions 
wdth other students. A Brandeis education, 
to me, was even more than the sum of its 
parts. "■ 


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Brandeis hie aii<l Miuinw n. 

The Biblical Origins of Exegesis 

Continued from page 14 

person. However, this notion of deferred 
and vicarious punishment was considered 
offensive theologically and morally to later 
generations, and so many attempts arose to 
reverse it. Most remarkable among these 
reversals is a statement found in 
Deuteronomy (ch. 7), where Moses (no less) 
recites the old revelation but with a 
strategic exegetical variation. Instead of 
citing God's original words, Moses says 
that God punishes each person directly. In 
other words, the old doctrine was flatly 
rejected in favor of the pnnciple of 
individual responsibility; and the rejection 
is formulated through the mouth of Moses, 
the sole recipient of the original revelation! 
Once again, a textual crisis is revolved 
exegetically and preserved in Scripture. 

Developments: In reviewing the evidence 
of exegesis preserved in the Hebrew Bible, 
the following three points are of particular 
historical interest. (I) The development of 
scholarly traditions of exegesis. Over long 
periods of time, ancient Israelite scribes, 
legal scholars, prophetic disciples, and so 
on produced a thesaurus of technical terms 
which disclose (in some measure) the 
existence of different schools of exegesis 
and different ways of reasoning about 
textual difhculties. In many cases, these 
technical terms of exegesis appear together 
with specific types of exegetical reasoning. 
For example, the exegetical terms found in 
the biblical legal collections show an 
intense concern with the scrutinization 
and comparison of concrete cases, as well as 
an interest in drawing legal analogies and 
inferences, harmomzing contradictions, 
and even circumscribing the sphere of 
certain rules in order to make them more 
functional or livable. Overall, we see an 
increase of technical terms as the biblical 
period draws to an end, and a concomitant 
increase of rational analysis reflecting a 
serious legal culture. Moreover, one can 
also detect tendencies towards 
generalization in the law and the 
beginnings of rational self-sufficiency in 
the law. But the movement toward general 
concepts and a legal exegesis justified 
entirely on human reasoning (and not in 
some manner by divine authority) does not 
develop fully until the classical rabbinic 
period and later. 

(II) The development of a comprehensive 
vision of the received texts. As separate 
texts were produced and accumulated over 
the centunes, and as scholars from different 
traditions studied these texts and 
correlated them, there began to develop a 
tendency to produce new, eclectic 
formulations. For example, m the 
post-exilic period (from the 6-5th century 

B.C.E.) we find new collections of rules 
drawn from vanous earlier sources. The 
covenant established by Nehemiah among 
a certain group of the faithful returnees 
from the Babylonian exile is a good case, for 
in Neh. 10 we find a hst of rules collated 
from diverse biblical legal sources and the 
clear attempt to harmonize and reinterpret 
many of them. Or again, to take two 
different genres, we find homiletical 
speeches in the Book of Chromcles and 
liturgical prayers in the Book of Nehemiah 
composed of textual snippets culled from 
older sources. These anthological 
compositions are not simply examples of 
epigonic creativity, or attempts to give an 
archaic cast to the new compositions. They 
rather point to the increased awareness of 
late biblical writers that they were the heirs 
of a rich textual culture, and witness to new 
possibilities of utilizing this patrimony in 
new forms. 

We may now ask an obvious question. 
What accounts for the development of a 
comprehensive textual vision, such as 
begins to characterize the final stages of 
bibhcal culture? We can briefly point to 
three factors. Of premier importance was 
Babylonian exile in the 6th century. At this 
time, ludeans met their compatriots from 
other cultic regions, compared traditional 
texts and customs, and attempted to create 
a workable national consensus fiom among 
the diversity of received traditions and 
rules. We may imagine pnests and teachers 
confronting new documents, comparing 
them, and attempting to coordinate, 
combine, and reinterpret them for their 
times. This process is related to a second 
factor: contemporary Persian policy. For 
one of the remarkable features of 
Achaemenid foreign policy in the 6-5th 
century was that it encouraged the revival 
of native law in the various areas under its 
hegemony. Thus, not only was Ezra given 
the right to establish the Torah of his Lord 
in Judea, but similar rights were granted to 
legal scholars in Egypt and ancient Iran as 
well. Undoubtedly, Persian sponsorship of 
the use and development of native law 
within the larger superstructure of the 
Achaemenid empire encouraged the study 
and comparison of different Israelite texts, 
as well as the attempt to coordinate them 
into a workable constitution for the entire 
people. One result was that those who were 
chiefly involved in writing and comparing 
the ancient texts and traditions tended to 
develop new logical and technical 
procedures for comparing, contrasting and 
analyzing the diverse materials. It is of 
historical interest to note that centuries 
later, the early Jewish bookmen (called 

sopherim ] also developed their techniques 
of exegesis while preoccupied with copying 
and comparing the sacred documents in 
their charge. 

(Ill) A third type of development may now 
be touched upon: the development of new 
religious groups around traditions of 
interpretations. It is hard to overemphasize 
this phenomenon whose first traces may be 
detected in our early post-exile sources 
(from the 6-5th centur>'). Thus, when Ezra 
comes back to Judea, he does so with a 
coterie of Levites highly trained in the arts 
of exegesis and proficient in the use of 
highly technical vocabulary. (See Ezra 7. ) So 
much, in fact, was Ezra and his circle 
involved with the exegesis of traditional 
texts that when these men determined to 
banish foreign wives fiom the restoration 
community they did so principally on the 
basis of the reinterpretation of older 
pentateuchal rules — and did not simply 
utilize such expediencies as political or 
police enforcement. 

If one examines this and other instances, 
the first traces of an important historical 
phenomenon can be detected. For what is 
noticeable is that rehgious groups were 
now forming on the basis of their 
interpretations of biblical texts as 
presented to them by a teacher or wise 
scribe. This development was fateful 
dunngthe centunes withm which classical 
Judaism emerged. One thinks, for example, 
of the Qumran community, the Pharasaic 
Havurah, or the earUest Christian 
communities in this regard. Over and over 
again our sources speak of the emergence of 
groups formed around teachers who 
claimed the exegetical authority to 
expound Scnpture rightly and truly. 
Significantly, the sectanans do not follow 
their teacher's Scnpture; they rather follow 
his interpretation of the received Scriptures 
of ancient Israel. Accordingly, early 
sectarian differentiations were marked by 
contending exegetical claims. And this was 
essentially because the critical issue turned 
on the question, "Who is the true Israel?" 
Since the Scnptural text was the common 
patrimony of all Jews, the real bone of 
contention was its proper meaning — or 
exphcation — and so the proper practice of 
the divine teachings. 

Let us now briefly tum to our third overall 
category: Transformations. As the 
authoritative texts and traditions of ancient 
Israel were accumulated and collected they 
became the basis of an increasingly text 
centered or a "Scnptural" rehgion. 
Moreover, to the extent that it was felt that 


35 the basic divine teachings were given, a 
great cultural burden fell upon exegesis 
whose task it was to prolong contact with 
the sacred written sources and give them 
meaning. Several interesting shifts may be 
observed in this connection. The first 
example comes from the Book of Ezra (ch. 71 
where the priest-scholar Ezra is presented 
as the one authorized by the Persians to 
institute the Torah as a national-legal 
constitution for those Judeans returned to 
their homeland. 

Now in earlier texts, when a person posed 
an oracular inqun-y of the Lord, the verb 
daiash ("to mquire") was commonly used. 
With Ezra, however, this term has 
undergone a fundamental transformation; 
for we read that Ezra is charged with the 
duty "to inquire (daiash) of the Torah of 
the Lord." The change is fateful, for, as 
against earlier usage, Ezra does not inquire 
of the Lord directly (through oracles) but 
inquires of the words of the Lord as 
inscribed in Scnpture. A second example 
attesting to the gradual transformation of 
ancient Israelite religion into a Scriptural 
religion can be found in Psalm 1 19. In this 
late hymn to the Torah the psalmist 
requests a manifestation of the wonders of 
the Lord — a divine revelation. But he does 
not simply ask for immediate contact with 
the Lord, as is frequently the case in older 
Psalms. Instead, the psalmist requests a 
divine revelation of the true interpretation 
of the Scripture. He thus does not hope for a 
new divine word, but rather requests a 
divine guidance in the proper exegesis of 
older words — of Scripture. Our final 
example comes from the Book of Daniel. 
Whereas in the early levels of prophecy the 
divine word was given directly to a prophet 
by means of an oral communication, and 
concerned a present or near future moment, 
in Daniel 9 the old oracles appear as written 
texts which are studied and reapplied (with 
divine guidance) to historical situations 
quite unrelated to their original text. From 
this, it is quite clear that a remarkable 
transformation in the very nature of 
prophecy has occurred. Now prophecy is 
the written record of older divine 
communication which must be 
reinterpreted and applied to new 
generations, and is no longer living divine 

Several related transformations may be 
briefly added here in order to fill out our 
sketch of a developing Scriptual religion in 
ancient Israel. With exegesis, we encounter 
the emergence of lay leaders: no longer is 
the study, teaching and apphcation of the 
divine teachings restricted to priestly 
guilds. Relatedly, the focus on texts and 

their interpretation sponsored and 
supported the emergence of a religion not 
solely dependent on cult and sacrifice. 
Undoubtedly the exile was an important 
factor in this transformation. Since 
sacrifice was not permitted in the exile, the 
study and interpretation of texts and 
traditions emerged as a vital preoccupation. 
In fact, this transformation survived the 
exile and gave Judaism the vitality to 
withstand the ultimate decimation of its 
sacrificial system, centuries later, when the 
Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the 

And finally, with exegesis came the 
emergence of a text culture. One result of 
this development was that the cultural 
universe of ancient Israel became 
increasingly a universe of textual discourse. 
To be sure, this development expanded 
exponentially with the processes that led to 
the closing and canonization of Scripture, 
beginning around 200 B.C.E. For with this 
latter development the old religion of 
ancient Israel was transformed into 
Judaism, a Scriptural religion par 
excellence; and the phenomenon of lay 
teachers and complex exegetical 
techniques proliferated and became the key 
mediating point between the divine world 
and the human realm. 

Moreover, m direct continuation of Ezra's 
"inquiry" into Scnpture, we see that with 

the closing of the canon, the Scriptural text 
was often treated in rabbinic texts as a 
dream or omen which exegesis had to 
decode (remarkably, the early rabbis 
borrowed many exegetical terms from the 
world of Greek dream and omen 
interpretation and often related the 
interpretation of Scripture to the 
interpretation of dreams). Scripture was 
now an oraculum, a sourse of ever new 
teachings dependent upon exegesis. At the 
same time, it is important to note that with 
the closing of Scripture the commentaries 
based on Scripture were no longer 
incorporated within the Scriptural text, and 
they were no longer authorized simply by 
presenting them as divine words. Now 
commentary became an independent genre 
m its own right, one that was soon dignified 
in ancient Judaism with divine significance 
and even Sinatic origins. 

In the hght of all this, we may close with a 
final paradox. At the outset we referred to 
the Bible as a fundamental foundation 
document of our culture, having served as 
the bedrock of Judaism, Christianity and 
Islam, as well as the basis for their many 
splinter movements. But now, at the end, 
we may observe that the very Scripture 
which fostered and founded our exegetical 
culture is itself an exegetical text of 
paramount interest, one truly at the origins 
of our zitathaftes Leben — our exegetical 
existence. ■ 

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Brandeis Looks Ahead 

New Sports Complex 


The university is planning to 
build an eight-million-dollar 
sports-complex and major 
renovation of Shapiro 
Gymnasium and Linsey 
Athletic Centers, according to 
President Evelyn E. Handler. 

The Shapiro family, 
instrumental in building the 
original Shapiro Gymnasium, 
has provided an initial gift of 
$500,000 to renovate that 
facihty. Groundbreaking for the 
new sports complex is 
tentatively projected for Spring, 

The new building will be 
adjacent to the current one, to 
which it may be connected. 

Among facilities being 
discussed are an indoor track, a 
full-size intercollegiate 
basketball court with bleacher 
seating for at least 2500. Other 
fatilities include tennis, 
basketball and volleyball courts 
in the track inheld and several 
multi-purpose rooms capable of 
use for fencing, weight lifting, 
gymnastics and physical 
education courses. The sports 
complex may also be used for 
convocation and 

President Handler appointed a 
committee to dehne what sports 
programs are needed at Brandeis. 
The committee is looking into 
the following areas: 

intercollegiate and intramural 

activities, physical education 
curricular needs, recreational 
activities, other potential uses 
such as commencement, and site 
and structure considerations. 
The group, chaired by Shelley 
Kaplan, assistant to the vice 
president for administrative 
affairs, will transmit its 
recommendations to an 

George Oommen, special 
assistant to the vice president for 
administration at Harvard 
University, will serve as a 
special consultant on the 
project. Oommen has been 
project manager of construction 
and renovation of Harvard's 

sports facilities since 1975 and 
serves as a consultant to the 
United States Olympic 

Upgrading of current sports 
facilities has been recognized as 
a long-standing need. The 
Shapiro and Linsey Athletic 
Centers were built in 1952 and 
1967 respectively, and designed 
for a campus population one 
third the current size. Neither 
complex has had extensive 
renovation since its 
construction. ■ 

The Libraries 

Within three years, Brandeis 
faculty and students will be able 
to connect to the library's 
catalog from computer 
terminals located in private 
offices, homes or dormitories, 
according to Bessie Hahn, 
director of library services. 

This technological addition will 
be an extension of an 
automation process begun in 
1978 when the university library 
joined a cataloguing network 
that allows members to share 
cataloguing records with each 

Since then several other library 
functions have been automated. 
For example, each journal is 
entered into a system that not 
only keeps track of the 
enormous numbers of journals 
arriving daily, but also provides 
immediate access to journal 
records in many area libraries, 
such as those at Boston 
University and M.I.T. libraries. 

The library also has 
computerized information 
retrieval services which allow a 
person searching for articles and 
books on a particular topic to 
retrieve these sources in a 
fraction of the time that 
previously was required. 

Faculty and students returning 
to the campus next fall will be 
greeted with yet another change. 
Plans for an automated 
circulation reserve catalog 
system have been completed, 
according to Hahn, and the 
months ahead will be devoted to 
installation and testing. The 
circulation component will be 
implemented next fall when the 
library' plans to close its manual 
card catalog. 

Looking further into the future, 
Hahn sees maior developments 
and changes in Hebrew 
cataloguing, document delivery 
and preservation and 
information storage. 

One of the great strengths of the 
Brandeis library lies in its 
ludaica collection which 
includes many Hebrew and 
Yiddish titles. Although 
experimentation with Hebrew 
language and cataloguing 
computerization is being 
conducted on both sides of the 
Atlantic, no single system is 
seen as promising enough for 
wide adoption by libraries. 
However, Hahn says that it is 
only a matter of time before a 
national network of Judaica 
libraries will come into effect. 

Another radical change in the 
offing is the nature of library 
acquisitions and document 
delivery. Recent improvements 
in telefacsimile equipment, plus 
increasing interest in electronic 
publishing will change the 
nature of the book trade. 
Extensive items such as 
multi-volumed reference works 
and scientific journals may 
become available in electronic 

format and paper copies 
published on demand only. Also, 
in many instances, it will not be 
necessary for libraries to 
purchase works available 
through telefacsimile. 
Consequently, says Hahn, the 
rate of growth for library 
collections will be slower. 

As more information is stored 
on devices such as optical disks, 
demands on space will also 
decrease. As changes in 
publishing, storage and retrieval 
take place, libraries will need to 
adapt to the evergrowing 
computerization, and according 
to Bessie Hahn, Brandeis does 
not intend to be left behind. ■ 

Hiatt Career Development Program 

Preparation tor lite atter college, 
and concerns about career 
choices are among the central 
issues confronting students 
today. Responding to this 
concern, Brandeis is planning an 
ambitious program designed to 
link the liberal arts experience 
and the world of work. 

The program, tentatively called 
the Hiatt Career Development 
Program, will be implemented 
in stages beginning next spring, 
with the full scale program 
expected to be launched by next 

The overall goal of the Hiatt 
program is to provide academic 
options, experiential learning 

opportunities and support resume writing and 

services that will bridge the interviewing with brief versions 

formal academic experience and of these programs available on 
professional and career options, video cassette. 

The Hiatt Career Development 
Program will include several 
components, starting with the 
Career Development Center 
which will contain state-of- 
the-art equipment and 
information concerning work 
and graduate or professional 
school. The center will be 
furnished with computer- 
assisted guidance capability as 
well as video equipment to aid 
students in developing 
interview techniques. The staff 
will continue to provide 
workshops on job search, 

Students participating in the 
"career curriculum" must take 
selected academic courses 
including a series of non-credit 
seminars taught by experienced 
practitioners offering 
orientation and skill-building in 
a particular field. Students must 
also fulfill an internship. 

Although approved in substance, 
details of the program are under 
discussion by faculty, staff, 
students and members of the 
career planning staff. 

This ambitious career program, 
to be underwritten by Trustee 
lacob Hiatt, a longtime 
supporter of Brandeis, is 
expected to serve as a model for 
other American colleges, just as 
the former Hiatt Program in 
Jerusalem served as a model for 
Israeli and American 

Funds for the new career 
program will come from the 
Jacob Hiatt Institute in Israel 
which will close by the end of 
the year. The closing is 
prompted by the fact that the 
once original and highly pt)pular 
institute is no longer necessary 
since universities within Israel 
are offering similar programs. ■ 

Heller Schoo 

The Heller Graduate School, 
which recently installed a $1 
million endowed chair in 
national health pohcy, and new 
programs in health care and 
unemployment, is embarking 
on two new international 
programs of major significance. 

In the works are programs that 
will bring scholars from Heller 
to China and the Middle East, to 
share their expertise on 
unemployment and other social 

At the invitation of top Chinese 
officials, a Brandeis sponsored 
exchange program of executive 
education for civil servants and 
academics working in human 
resources and income security is 
expected to begin next summer. 

"China has a vast 
unemployment problem and an 
even more vast under- 
employment problem," said 
Heller's Leonard J. Hausman. 

"Their numbers suggest about 
one-third of the labor force is 
under-employed, and it takes 
five people to do the work of 

Meanwhile, the recently created 
Center for Social Policy m the 
Middle East, focusing initially 
on Israel and Egypt but with 
possibilities for expansion, will 
be conducting research and 
education proiects dealing with 
the region's health, welfare and 
unemployment problems. 

Brandeis will be coordinating 
the work. Joseph A. Califano, 
the former secretary of health, 
education and welfare, is 
chairman of the program's 
international board of advisers, 
and former Secretary of State 
Alexander Haig is a member of 
the executive committee. 

"At the doctorate level," said 
Heller School Dean Stuart H. 
Altman, "a major new focus is 

the increased interest in Heller 
by nurses with a master's degree 
who want to become involved in 
health policy research and the 
problems of long-term health 

A new doctorate program to 
train scholars who can guide 
industry and government in 
containing health care costs was 
begun this fall, funded by a joint 
$3 million grant from the Pew 
Memorial Trust to Brandeis and 
Boston Universities. 

In the master's program. Heller's 
focus is broadening to 
encompass the entire social 
protection system, private as 
well as public. 

Courses on managing 
employees benefits, which are 
estimated to represent about 
one-third of total payroll costs 
nationally, have recently been 
included in the master's 
curriculum, and a specialization 

in benefits is expected to be 
available next year. 

Focusing elsewhere on the 
income scale. Heller's Center for 
Human Resources, headed by 
Erik Butler, has begun working 
with nine cities across the 
country to help them improve 
opportunities for unemployed 
youth. The program is funded by 
a grant from the Aetna Life and 
Casualty Foundation and will 
support community efforts to 
coordinate services to 
disadvantaged young people. 

While the school looks ahead to 
an expanded role in several 
areas, it also has been accruing 
honors for past efforts. 

Two Heller scholars. Professors 
James H. Schulz and Robert H. 
Binstock, won awards this fall 
from The Gerontological 
Society of America, for their 
work in the field of aging. ■ 

Four-Million-Dollar Gift to Computer Sciences 

One of the largest private gifts in 
Brandeis' history has been 
awarded to the University's 
computer science department 
from the estate of former Fellow 
Benjamin F. Michtom. 

The gift of over $4 million 
dollars will provide for a 
Michtom chair in computer 
science, the purchase of new 
equipment and will enable the 
computer science division "to 
double Its computing capability 
and aggressively pursue some of 
the finest scientists in the 
country," according to Jacques 
Cohen, chairman of that 

"Many people have spoken 
about the computer's potential 
for improving our lives," said 
Mark Michtom, the donor's son. 

"But I believe this potential 
must be harnessed in the 
humanistic environment of our 
leading liberal arts universities. " 

•The gift will also foster 
interdisciplinary links with 
mathematics and physics 
departments as well as the 
newly created cognitive science 
program and will allow Brandeis 
to accommodate an increase in 
students seeking to major in 
computer science. 

The gift, the fourth largest in 
Brandeis' history, also honors 
Beniamin Michtom's widow, 

Benjamin F. Michtom, a 
longtime Brandeis Fellow and 
President's Councilor, was a 
leader in the toy industry. He 

was co-chairman emeritus of the 
Ideal Toy Corporation at the 
time of his death in 1980. 
Michtom had been associated 
with Ideal since 1923 and served 
as its executive vice president 
and chairman of the board. He 
also served as executive vice 
president and chairman of Ideal 
Plastics Corporation and 
chairman of Kimaro Trucking 
Company. He was on the board 
of directors of the American 
O.R.T. Federation and the 
American Jewish Committee. 

Founding President Abram L. 
Sachar, who was instrumental 
m negotiating the gift, said Mr. 
Michtom originally was 
interested in providing funds to 
establish a School of Business 
Administration at Brandeis, but 
judging that idea impractical at 

the time, he arranged for the 
bequest to go to the Computer 
Science Department. 

"The Michtom gift," Dr. Sachar 
said, "validates again that the 
University's greatest strength is 
the affection and concern of 
families such as the 

Rose Art Museum Commissions Video Art 

For over two decades, the Rose 
Art Museum has been devoted 
to recognizing talented new 
artists whose work challenges 
the frontiers of modern art. This 
commitment to discovering and 
celebrating new forces and 
directions in art is evidenced by 
the Museum's permanent 
collection, a collection widely 
regarded as the most 
comprehensive and important 
gathering of contemporary 
American art in New England. 

Next year, the Museum again 
will explore the boundaries of 
art. With a $26,000 grant from 
the Massachusetts Council on 
the Arts and Humanities "New 
Works" program, the Rose will 
commission internationally 
renowned composer, artist, and 
performer Nam June Park to 
create a video artwork that will 
be installed next September. 

This IS not, however, the first 
association between the 

Museum and the Korean-born 
artist. The Rose was the first 
museum in the world to 
formally recognize Paik's 
potential in the new artform. In 
1970, the Museum hosted a 
history-making exhibition of 
Paik's work when both the artist 
and the art were virtually 

Now regarded as "the 
grandfather of video art," Paik is 
universally acknowledged as 

one of the most important video 
artists working today. Last year 
the Whitney Museum in New 
York hosted a detailed 
retrospective of his work, and, 
earlier this year, the Pompidou 
Center in Paris commissioned 
Paik to create a major work for 
Its permanent collection. ■ 

Remembrance of Times 
to Come 

Continued from page 23 

39 When fission was demonstrated, Einstein 
said that tor the first time mankind was not 
dependent on the sun. This may be almost 
true, metaphorically. We are dependent on 
the sun, and it would be wise to be more 
dependent on it. Apart from new 
technologies, it may be surprising in this 
era to mention seriously the oldest of fuels 
and building materials, wood. Vast areas of 
the world have been deforested, and we are 
largely the worse for it. Reforestation can be 
economically sound and very important. 
Beyond the direct use for fuel and building 
material this biomass can be converted to 
valuable chemicals and, with 
microorganisms, to protein food supplies. If 
the humor is not too black, trees would 
assure the necessary weapons for World 
War IV. 

In addition to the mirage of cheap nuclear 
energy, there was that of the "bigger bang 
for the buck," atom bombs for war-making 
on the cheap. But if there is no limit to the 
size of the bang, or the number, there is no 
limit to the dollars to be spent. Further, 
atom bombs are not weapons since there 
are no ends to be achieved with them 
commensurate with the destruction they 
would cause. 

This brings us to a statement that I have 
made previously about the future; it was in 
a note to The New York Times on 
November 9, 198 1, when there was much 
discussion about developing the neutron 
bomb as an artillery weapon that would be 
preferable to other atomic bombs because it 
would only kill people. I wrote: "After 
much consideration, I believe the following 
conclusion about the use of nuclear 
weapons — fusion, fission, neutron — in war, 
is correct. 'There is no future in it'." 

We are told they are a deterrent. Is there 
enough of deterrent? One U.S. Trident 
submarine off the coast of Norway carries 
24 missiles, each missile carries 10 
warheads, 240 warheads m all, each about 
one megaton, a million tons of TNT. How 
many targets worthy of this attention are 
there in the U.S.S.R.? And this is only one 
Trident submarine. The Russians are fully 
aware that it and others are out there, very 
difficult, virtually impossible, to find and 

Harold Brown, physicist and former 
Secretary of Defense, has coolly written 
"The destruction of more than 100 million 
people in each of the United States, the 
Soviet Union and the European nations 
could take place during the first half hour of 
a nuclear war." A presidential directive and 
the present Secretary of Defense indicate 

that it may not be all that bad. We can use 
tactical nuclear weapons, they imply, and 
have an orderly prolonged nuclear war. 
Many, including President Eisenhower's 
science adviser, have written that there is 
no way that use of tactical nuclear weapons 
will not escalate to final disaster. 

Bernard }. O'Keefe, no dupe of the 
communists, president of E. G. and G., was 
involved in his youth in the assembly of the 
bombs that effaced Hiroshima and 
Nagasaki. His company has manufactured 
firing systems for nuclear bombs and 
managed test programs. War with nuclear 
weapons is nonsense, he says, and tactical 
nuclear weapons can safely be phased out 
unilaterally; the concept of nuclear 
superiority is meaningless and there is no 
point in continuing the East-West arms 
race. Robert McNamara, former Secretary 
of Defense, writes that nuclear weapons 
serve no military purpose, and their 
deterrent value is rapidly diminishing. 

Yet the atom bomb laboratories and 
production plants hum along. We are 
beguiled by our inventiveness and 
technological skills. We are reluctant to 
forego advances in arms because of the 
chimaera of the supreme offensive weapon, 
the perfect defensive weapon. We forget 
that our advanced technology has made us 
the most technologically integrated, and 
thus interdependent, delicate society, 
sensitive to breakdowns. Our country, 
alone, has not experienced in living 
memory, at first hand, the destruction of 
war — now grown horrendous. It sometimes 
appears that our leaders confuse gnm, mad, 
disastrous reaUty with cinema effects. 

Glen Seaborg, Nobel Laureate in 
chemistry, former Chairman of the Atomic 
Energy Commission, after a lifetime in 
nuclear weaponry has an eloquently cogent 
argument for a Comprehensive Test Ban 
Treaty, and I urge scientist and non 
scientist alike to study it. A comprehensive 
test ban would help reverse the arms race. 
The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. have pledged in 
the past to negotiate such a treaty, which is 
now essential to prevent prohferation. The 
terms of the treaty would be simple, no 
more nuclear explosions, monitored by 
automatic seismic detection stations. With 
such a treaty in effect, the drive to 
quahtative improvement would slow and 
stop, and give time for the complex 
negotiations of freeze and reduction. One 
percent of the weapons we now have could 
serve as a deterrent. 

The temptation to get ahead of the enemy is 
a snare. Ten years ago we would not forego 

the MIRV, many warheads in one missile, 
more bang for the buck again, because we 
thought we were ahead. Now both sides 
have it, and each is more vulnerable, 
because the other has a more dangerous 
weapon, and the weapon itself is more 
vulnerable. Now the Scowcroft 
commission calls for phasing out MIRVS 
and going back to the status quo ante, one 
missile, one bomb. We should forego the 
temptation of "improvements", and the 
Complete Test Ban is the simplest means 
toward this. 

There are now two superpowers, quite 
different in their origins, political and 
economic systems, and the relation of the 
individual to the state. Tragically, both 
have the power to blow up the world. The 
difference between the two systems derives 
organically from their origins and the two 
exist, massive and menacing. It is unwise to 
describe them in terms of good and evil, and 
impossible for one to change the other by 
physical force, in this era. The governments 
must understand their own and the others' 
origins and fears, the nature of the possible 
relations between nations, and the dangers 
of modern warfare, and of nuclear disaster. 
The people who influence or are led by their 
governments should also have this 
understanding. This is complex and may 
require a fair level of education and 
information, certainly among the leaders 
and, one hopes, among the people. 

This bnngs us at last to problems and 
possibility of education, and I should like to 
comment briefly on college and graduate 
education. Great benefits and problems 
arise from applications of science. 
Solutions will require political wisdom. I 
would be the last to gainsay the importance 
of literature, the arts and the social 
sciences. But not to have an elementary 
awareness of what scientists have learned 
in the past few hundred years is to be 
Ignorant of the greatest rational 
achievements of mankind and of the 
attendant perceptions of order, beauty, 
complexity, opportunity and danger in 
nature, and to be unprepared to participate 
intelligently in the political and economic 
decisions that are being made by our 
government. I would recommend that 
graduate schools of law and administration, 
which educate leaders of government and 
industry, require greater undergraduate 
study of science of their apphcants. If 
properly trained and sensitized to the 
complexity of search, research and 
solutions, our leaders might become 
rationally skeptical about ultimate 
weapons and perfect defense. ■ 

Designs For A New 


By Gerald S. Bernstein 
Associate Professor of Fine Arts 

Thirty-five years ago, a hill merely ten I 

miles west of Boston was the Virgm Land, 
to a group of enterprising dreamers. 

On its original 100 acres, one found a 
replica of a medieval castle along with a few 
undistinguished buildings — remnants of a 
veterinary'medical college that had come 
upon hard times. 

Who could have envisioned then that 
within four decades that isolated tract of 
rolling land, dotted with outcroppmgs of 
geological rock ledges, would be the site for 
a major university. That withm that short 
span of time, the hill would be populated by 
over 90 buildings that taken as a whole 
serve as a virtual textbook of modern 

Some of the most influential architects and 
architectural hrms of the post World War II 
era, have left their stamp on the Brandeis 
campus. Saarinen, the Bauhaus or 
International Style, venerable names m the 
history of architecture, are associated with 
the campus, as are such distinguished 
architectural firms as Harnson and 
Abramovitz, Hugh Stubbms and 
Associates, Benjamin Thompson and 
Associates, and the Architectural 
Collaborative, founded by another giant of 
modern architecture: Walter Gropius. 

It was Saarinen's decision to retain that 
quirky building known as the Castle, 
which has become through the years the 
architectural symbol of Brandeis. Located 
on one of the high points of the campus 
looking toward Boston, the Castle is a 
remnant of the fanciful imagination of Dr. 
John Hall Smith, one of the founders of the 
Middlesex School. This fantasy-like 
structure is a conglomeration of towers and 
turrets whose pseudo-medieval appearance 
of rustic stone was meant to associate Dr. 
Smith's school with the great Enghsh 
medieval institutions of learning such as 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

Of course, the result was more fantasy than 
archaeology, but the whimsical design of 
the Castle has over the years added a sense 
of nostalgia to the campus. 

The building of the Castle took place 
dunng the depression years of the '30s and 
much of the construction reflects the 
tightness of funds as much as an 
imaginative flair. Combining local field 
stone with concrete construction. Smith 
included second-hand windows taken from 
demolished industrial buildings to save on 

... '^'^ 

1 An aerial view of a majoi portion of the 
original 150-acre campus and the 

2 The proposed quadrangle around which 
are located the University library, the 
Brandeis Union, the Science building, the 
Humanities and Social Science building, 
the Theater, the Art and Music studios and 

3 Groupings of small units in an inegulai 
quadrangle were meant to be residence 

4 The architects proposed a Creative Arts 
Center that would link classrooms, 
studios and theater to their novel design for 
an auditorium. 

In 1950 Dr. Abram Sachar decided that a 
Master Plan was an important priority for 
the new university. The choice of Eero 
Saannen, an internationally recognized 
proponent of modern architecture, set an 
important precedent for the development 
of the school. Although Saarinen's 
involvement with Brandeis was brief, he 
left an indelible imprint on the growth of 
the campus. 

Saarinen, along with his father Eliel, had 
wide experience designing campus 
buildings. The celebrated Saarinen style 
was a combination of "form follows 
function" theories based on a strong 
emphasis on rectilinear buildings of brick 
and glass. It is a style clearly evident 
throughout the campus. 

Calling Saarinen a second generation 
Bauhaus architect was a correct 
observation for at Brandeis he followed the 
architectural direction that first emerged 
from pre-war Germany. Known as the 
Bauhaus theory of architecture, and later as 
the International Style, its doctrine was 
based on the assertion that the function of 
any object is reflected in its design. 

The Saarinen plan for Brandeis envisioned a 
series of academic buildings forming 
quadrangles at the center of the campus 
with residential units at the periphery. The 
concept of right angle orientation is 
strikingly similar to Mies van der Robe's 
(the second director of the Bauhaus School) 
earher design for the campus of the Illinois 
Institute of Technology, especially in its 
grid-like articulation. 

An early Saarinen perspective of the 
campus indicates the academic buildings 
located around open plazas with a tall 
campanile rising at the center. It is 
interesting to note that the rendering seems 
to pay little attention to the existing hilly 
terrain of the Waltham site, with only 
minimal indication of the dramatic stone 
outcroppings that dot the campus. 

Although Saarinen's plan eliminated most 
of the existing Middlesex buildings, the 
significant exception was the retention of 
the Castle. For all of the architect's strong 
commitment to the tenets of modernism, 
he was fascinated by the picturesque 
quality of the stone structure. He 
characterized the architectural style of the 
Castle as a kind of "Mexican Ivanhoe." But 
the decision to save it has had even greater 
ramifications than the building itself. For 
the style of the Castle has exerted a strong 
influence on many of the subsequent 
architects who came to work at Brandeis. 

In a brochure entitled "A Foundation For 
Learning," published in 1950, a series of 
Saarinen's renderings depicted various new 
facilities, including a science center of 
box-like structures with four-story glass 
facades. Besides quadrangles for the arts, 
the humanities and social sciences, 
Saarinen also proposed a student center, 
museum and library. All were projected in a 
crisp geometry of rectilinear forms with a 
large glass area. The only exception to the 
use of right angle construction was the plan 
for a circular auditorium located at the 
center of the main quadrangle. The plan 
also indicates an irregularly shaped 
structure set in the woods to serve as the 
college chapel. 

Saarinen's proposal for the grouping of 
dormitory buildings at the periphery of the 
academic areas has survived to this day. 
Although recent research suggests that the 
design for the Ridgewood quad may 
pre-date Saarinen's involvement at 


Brandeis, the general characteristics of 
these two-story brick structures are 
strongly related to the concepts of the 
International Style. The buildings, 
completed in 1950, were financed with 
Federal Housing funds. Because of early 
doubts concerning Brandeis' survival, one 
of the requirements of the government loan 
was the ability to convert the new 
dormitories to conventional apartments in 
the event of the new university's failure as 
an academic institution. 

Saarinen's hand is clearly visible on another 
dormitory complex built in the early fifties. 
The Massell quad, formerly known as 
Hamilton, was indicated on the Saarinen 
Master Plan as a grouping of box-hke 
buildings. The original site placed them at 
the edge of the campus, but the subsequent 
development of the creative arts complex 
has spread beyond them. Although all the 
buildings of the quad are similar in their use 
of brick facades with windows set in thin 

metal frames, only Sherman Student 
Center and the Shapiro dormitory, 
completed in 1952, were built under 
Saarinen's supervision. The remaining 
buildings that surround the old Middlesex 
ice pond were completed a few years later 
by local architects working from Saarinen's 

Over the years certain changes have been 
made in some of Saarinen's original 
buildings. The facade of Sherman facing the 
pond was once a prime example of the 
International Style's glass-walled facade, 
but recent additions tmd energy conserving 
measures have altered the overall effect of 
the building. 

Another of Saarinen's designs has met an 
even sadder fate. The addition to the old 
Middlesex stables, which had served the 
new university first as a library and later as 
a bookstore and mailroom, was destroyed 
in the early '70s to make room for the 
Feldberg Computer Center. One surviving 
structure of the early '50s building 
campaign was the Shapiro Gym across 
South Street from the main campus. It was 
designed by a Boston architect, but its brick 
and glass appearance connects it with the 
overall effect of Saarinen's campus style. 

In contrast to the rectihnear grid-like form 
of most of Saarinen's projected designs was 
his conception for the Brandeis chapel. He 
envisioned a single non-denominational 
building with undulating walls in which 
light entered from a skyhght above. 
Although the University authorities were 
pleased with the aesthetic appearance of 
the structure, they felt that a so-called 
inter-faith chapel was not appropriate for 
Brandeis and the concept was rejected. It is 
interesting to note that a chapel of 
strikingly similar form was built just four 
years later on the campus of M.I.T. and 
designed by Eero Saarinen. 

The original Master Plan had been 
conceived as a tentative sketch for the 
future. The intention had never been to 
execute it in totality or even to limit the 
commissions to one architectural office. As 
early as 1952 the firm of Harrison and 
Abramovitz was already building the 
Ullman Amphitheatre in accordance with 
its location on the Saarinen plan. 

By 1953, Harrison and Abramovitz had 
succeeded Saarinen and Associates and 
produced a new Master Plan for Brandeis 
University. Max Abramovitz took 
responsibility for the growth and 
development of the campus, particularly in 
regard to the placement of buildings and the 
choice of materials of construction. The 
new master planners were also responsible 
for the selection and approval of other 
architects who would work at Brandeis. 

Brandeis' growth in more than three 
decades has been nothing less than 
phenomenal. From the rehabilitated 
Middlesex buildings to the academic and 
residential quadrangles of the '60s and '70s, 
the evolution of Brandeis architecture is a 
microcosm of the history of modern 
architecture. We look to the eighties and 
beyond to carry on this tangible tradition of 
excellence. ■ 

Editor's Note; Professor Bernstein served as a guest 

curator at the Rose Art Museum where "Designs for a 
New Campus: Almost Brandeis" is on exhibit 
throughout the fall semester. The show contains 
about two dozen renderings and photo murals 
depicting the original Saarinen Master Plan as well as 
other proposed designs for the Brandeis campus. 

5 Master Plan proposed by the 
architectural firm of Eero Saarinen and 
Associates. Key to the plan: A-Library; 
B-CreativeArts Center; C-Humanities and 
Social Sciences; D-Brandeis Union; 
E-Science Building; F- Advanced Studies; 
G-Chapel; H-Men's Residence Halls; 
I-Women's Residence Halls; f-Existing 
Classroom Building; K-Service Center; 
L-Existing Dormitory. 

Class Notes, omitted in this special inaugural edition, 
will resume in the next issue due out in March. 

Brandeis University Press 

"The exploration of truth to its innermost parts" 




Or, On Religious Power and Judaism 

Moses Mendelssohn 

Translated by Allan Arkush 
Introduction and commentary 
by Alexander Altmann 

A classic text of enduring 
significance, Moses Mendelssohn's 
Jerusalem (1783) stands as a powerful 
plea for the separation of church and 
state and also as the hrst attempt to 
present Judaism as a rehgion 
eminently compatible with the ideas 
of the Enlightenment. In its pages are 
elucidated a great variety of issues, 
ranging from politics to theology. 
Indispensable for an understanding of 
the beginnings of the modern phase in 
Jewish history, this new English 
edition has been urgently needed. 
Completely faithful to the original 
text, it is accompanied by exemplary 
editorial apparatus by the 
acknowledged dean of Mendelssohn 
scholars. A Brandeis book. 
$10.00 paper, $20.00 cloth 

Essays in Jewish Intellectual History 
Alexander Altmann 

The Mind of the Founder 

Sources of the 
Political Thought of 
James Madison, 
Revised edition 
Marvin Meyers, ed. 


Kabbalah and Art 
Leo Bronstein 

The Model Country 

Jose Batlle y Ordoiiez 
Milton L Vanger 


of Uruguay, 


The Americanization of the Synagogue 


Leon A. Jick 

Images and Ideas in American Culture 

The Functions of Criticism 
Essays in Memory of Philip Rahv 
Arthur Edelstein, ed. 

The Modernization of French Jewry 

Consistory and Community in the 
Nineteenth Century 
Phyllis Cohen Albert 

Energy and the Environment 
A Structural Analysis 
Anne P. Carter, ed. 


A Community in Conflict 

Frankfurt Society in the 
Seventeenth and 
Early Eighteenth Centuries 
Gerald Lyman Soliday 

A Testament of Alchemy 

Being the Revelations of 
Monenus to Khalld ibn 
Yazid ibn Muliwiyya 
Lee Stavenhagen, ed. and tr. 

Providing Adequate Retirement Income 

Pension Reform in the United States and 


James Schulz, et al. 

University Press of New England 

Hanover and London 

Brandeis University is part of 
University Press of New England, whose 
other member institutions are 

Brown University, Clark University, 
Dartmouth College, 

University of New Hampshire, University of 
Rhode Island, Tufts University, and 
University of Vermont. 

Bi aiideis Review 

Brandeis University 

Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 

Nonproht Organization 

U.S. Postage 


Permit Number 15731 

Boston, Massachusetts 

Address correction requested 

The Arts 

Brandeis Review 


Volume,^ Numbers 



the highest and best feelings to which 
men have risen. 


Early winter. Noontime. An ordinary day on the Brandeis campus, yet many 
extraordinary happenings are taking place. 

In the newly renovated, exquisite Rapaporte Treasure Hall, the library's 
repository for rare books, the Chamber Choir is performing one of its "Concerts 
at Noon." Under the direction of James Olesen, an angelic chorus of voices 
envelopes the room. The audience, some munching on sandwiches, sit in 
silence. The concert demonstrates a care for perfection worthy of a symphony hall. 

Just as the concert comes to an end, the Rose Art Museum opens its doors. 
Another peaceful oasis in the middle of the bustling campus. Two exhibits are on 
view. "Designs for a New Campus" traces Brandeis' architectural heritage from 
Eero Saarinen's master plan to the new Leonard L. Farber Library. The other 
exhibition features a selection from the museum's permanent collection. Some 
of the most influential contemporary artists are on view. Paintings by Mark 
Rothko, Louis Norris, Franz Kline, Helen Frankenthaler, Jasper Johns, James 
Rosenquist, Roy Lichtenstein, David Smith and a sketch by Christo of his 
Running Fence Project in Marin Counties. 

Just a few yards away, at the Spingold Theater, there are other activities. 
Remnants of a recently closed photography show of portraits by Cecil Beaton are 
still visible. An extraordinary exhibit in Spingold's Dreitzer Gallery, the Beaton 
show brought to the campus some of the most remarkable portrait photography 
of this century. 

But on November 30, Spingold is abuzz with the frenetic activity that precedes 
the opening of a new production. That evening. The Crucible by Arthur Miller 
opens its two-week run. 

Around two in the afternoon it appears as if almost everyone is headed in the 
direction of the Levin Ballroom. About 500 people fill that auditorium at that 
unusual hour to hear novehst Chaim Potok talk about his work. The audience 
sits there, for almost two hours, asking questions, listening. 

And, of course, as always, students are painting in the design studios, playing and 
composing in the music building, writing for their creative writing classes. 

It is one day in the life of Brandeis University. 

The arts at Brandeis are a vital part of campus life, and have been since the 
school's inception. 

It is symbolic that Brandeis, at its first commencement in 1952, presented a 
dazzling display of creative genius. There was the American premiere of a 
specially commissioned operetta, Trouble in Tahiti by Leonard Bernstein; a new 
production of Stravinsky's Les Noces choreographed and danced by Merce 
Cunningham. There were poetry readings by Karl Shapiro, William Carlos 
Williams and Peter Viereck, a iazz festival, an afternoon of art films, an 
exhibition of art works already acquired by the university. 

That early commitment has remained, and through the years some of the leading 
writers, composers, painters, and, of course, critics of the arts, have been at 
Brandeis. Creative Arts Festivals were a major event on the campus, and to this 
day the university grants Creative Arts Awards annually to the most 
distinguished individuals in the arts. 

This issue of the Brandeis Review is devoted to the arts. What follows is a short 
sampling of its presence on this campus and in the work of alumni. 


The Arts 

Cover: Detail of painting by Paul Georges, 
Professor of Fine Arts at Brandeis. Paulette, 
60 X 38, collection of Paulette Theodore. 

Brandeis Review 

Spring 1984 

Volume 3 

Number 5 

Writing for the Stage and 

Jeremy Lamer '58 and 
Michael Weller '65 


Peter Child's Opera 
Has Premiere in Boston 

Young composer is 
making his mark 


Creative Arts Awards 



Paul Georges 

1 0- 1 1 


Costume Design 



Letting Her Fall 
Susan Monsky 73 


Around the University 




Faculty Notes 



Books written by 
faculty and alumni 


Alumni News 

10a- 15a 

Rose Art Museum 

by Carl I. Belz 



Peter Markman 



Graham B. Cainpbcll 



Scene designer 
Bob Moody 



Profile of theater 
director Jose Quintero 



Allen R. Grossman 
Louis E. Yglesias 
Denise Levcrtov 



The Lydian 
String Quartet 


Center for Jewish Film 


Creative Arts Center 


Brandeis Review, Volume 3, Number 5, 


Design Director 

Faculty Advisory 


Spring 1984. Brandeis Review (ISSN 

Nada Samuels 

Ron Rccchio 


lulian Brown 

0273-7175) IS published by Brandeis 

lack Goldstein 

Betsey Ball 

University, 415 South Street, Waltham, 

Director of Public 


Attila Klein 

Massachusetts 02254, with free 


Reg Taylor 

Robert Szulkin 


distribution to 30,000 alumni, students. 

Barry Wanger 


friends, parents, faculty and staff. 


Alumni Editorial 

Shirley Mey maris 

Postmaster: Send address changes to 

Mark Levine 

Nina L. Baron '77 

Director of Alumni 

Brandeis Review, Brandeis University, 415 

Barbaia Krasin 

Relations and the 

South Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 

Kravitz '57 

Alumni Fund 


Gladys R. lacobson 

Writing for Stage 
and Film 

Dialogue on the 
Art of Writing 

Michcifi Wfller '65, ^i . ■ l' 

composition while an undergraduate. 
In his senior year, he started writing 
plays and wrote skits for the Brandeis 
musical society Hi Charlie. After 
graduation, he went to England to 
study drama. His play. How Hoho 
Rose and Fell in Seven Short Scenes, 
was performed in 1 968 at the national 
Union of Students Festival in Exeter, 
England. It was later transplanted to 
Broadway and, also, had a highly 
successful revival off-Broadway. 
Another play, Moonchildren, based on 
his undergraduate days, was first 
performed at the Royal Court Theater 
in London under the title Cancer. He 
has written several other plays 
including Loose Ends which had a 
successful run at the Circle-in-the- 
Square Theater in New York. The play 
won a citation from the American 
Theater Critics Association. 

Weller has also written several 
screenplays. He wrote the film script 
for Hair and the screen adaptation of 
Ragtime. He is currently working on a 
script for director William Friedkin. 

Weller's latest play. The Ballad of 
Soapy Smith, which premiered in 
Seattle last fall, will be staged by the 
New York Shakespeare Festival this 

Shortly after graduating from Brandeis 
in 1 958, feremy Lamer began to work 
as a free-lance writer in New York 
City. In 1964 his first novel Drive, He 
Said won the coveted Delta prize. 
During the 1960s, Earner published 
five books, as well as stories, articles 
and essays in national magazines. 
Lamer was Eugene McCarthy's 
principal speechwriter during the 1 968 
presidential campaign and afterwards 
wrote a book, Nobody Knows, about 
the events of that year. In the 1 970s his 
energies turned to screenwriting and in 
1973 his script for The Candidate 
received an Academy Award for Best 
Original Screenplay. Drive, He Said 
was also turned into a movie with a 
script by Earner and fack Nicholson. 

He has devoted the last few years 
writing a novel about a male movie 
star which was recently completed 
and is titled On Top Of The World. He 
is currently working on a film script for 
Austrahan director Graeme Clifford. 

For this special issue on the arts, the 
Brandeis Review asked two Brandeis 
alumni — leremy Lamer '58 and 
Michael Weller '65 — who have 
distinguished themselves as writers to 
talk ahiiut their profession. 

Although their undergraduate years did 
not overlap, they are familiar with each 
other's work. This winter they met for 
the first time when Larner visited 
Weller on a trip to New York. They 
talked for several hours about their 
professions, their literary opinions and, 
of course, about their days at Brandeis. 

Lamer, who lives m Berkeley, 
California, and writes in a house 
overlooking San Francisco Bay, found 
Weller working in a radically different 
setting. Weller's studio is a storefront 
on New York's Lower East Side. He 
works at a battered roUtop desk a few 
feet away from passing pedestrians. 

Feb. 3, 1984 

Lamer: Michael, do you see your 
writing for the movies as contradictory 
to writing plays- 

Weller: No, they're both crafts that I go 
on practicing and learning. I never 
consider in the abstract that there's 
anything less worthy m writing a film, 
but with a play I know it's going to be 
done as well as I want it to be done. The 
play is my statement and it can't be 
tampered with. I own the copyright, 
I'm the boss. When I do a movie, I'm a 
hired hand. Even with an original 
script — which I never write 
anyway — you will be dealing with 
people who will ask you to make a lot of 
revisions and changes. But you know 
that going in. It's Hke eating in a diner. 
You simply lower your expectations 
and eat the meal you're served. 

Lamer: What about the consequences 
of eating that meal? It keeps you 
solvent so you can write your plays, but 
I would think you get more useful 
critical feedback from your 

Weller: Not really. I don't read reviews 
to find out what anybody thinks of my 
plays. I watch the audience. That's how 
I tell if my play is getting across what I 
want It to. In movies the only criticism 
that matters comes from the director I 
usually work with, Milos Forman. 
Over the years Milos has been training 
me to write scripts, and so if my scenes 
are not useful for him I have to accept 
the fact that they still need work. 

Lamer: Do you also get the chance to 
explain to Forman how your scenes 
might come across on film' 

Weller: He knows way more than I do. 
He has devoted his life to imagining the 
perfect film. It was a great thing when 
he came to me in my mid-thirties with 
a chance for me to start thinking about 
writing films. Suddenly there was a 
whole different esthetic I could study. 
To discover how to use film was 
exciting — and all the technical stuff, 
too — how a crew works, what camera 
angles are all about, the whole 
vocabulary of film- making which you 
can take into account and use just as a 
playwright uses his knowledge of the 

Lamer: I share that fascination. Yet the 
writer's idea of a well-made movie is 
usually shredded by the pressures that 
come from the money-people. The 
anxieties are such that most directors 
and producers not only want 
something wild and fresh, they want at 
the same time to do exactly what is 
done m other successful movies. They 
want you to make them a new parade 
with hitherto-unseen animals, but they 
want to run that parade down the 
middle of Main Street. The usual 
solution is to shoot all kinds of 
contradictory scenes and piece the film 
together in the cutting room. The 
result is the patchwork texture of most 
current movies. 

Also the most challenging scripts that 
are commissioned are the least 
obviously promising commercially so 
that directors and stars, when the chips 
are down, won't commit to them. The 
more unique the script, the less likely it 
is to be made. At the same time, the 
more I write movies, the more deeply 
I'm hooked on the idea of the perfect 
collaboration through which a script is 
turned into a really good film. The 

vision of the good film haunts me. I 
think every screenwriter has to develop 
that kind of hallucination just to write 
the script — even thiiugh he will almost 
never be able to go out and make his 
dream come true. He is totally, 
helplessly, at the mercy of other people. 

Weller: Personally, I try to make my 
dreams come true writing plays. Rut 1 
think of the process differently. A play 
arises from my desire to give shape to 
my own preoccupations — strange 
things that I see people do, new feelings 
I'm aware of in myself. Writing 
becomes a series of technical 
challenges. How do I get the various 
elements I've collected to work 
together, how does one thing lead to the 
next? And I begin to think, no one's 
ever seen a play like this before, this 
will be wonderful. But that feeling is 
really no more than when you're a baby 
and you make something you want the 
whole world to see. As an adult, I want 
to put something together that will 
convey a new way of seeing things to an 
audience that is as smart as I am. I don't 
concern myself with the social purpose 
of the play or what I can do to make 
people think differently. I only think 
that if I can see the material in a fresh 
way, if I see right through to the heart of 
It, then the audience will experience a 
clear and powerful shock of 
recognition. People will see what they 
knew all along. 

Larner: What if they don't see it? 

Weller: Then I've got to go back and 
figure out how to do it better. 

Larner: You take the responsibility? 

Weller: Oh, yes. This is only possible 
when the writer controls the text and 
the production. With a movie this just 
can't happen. 

Lamer: That's why it's hard for a 
screenwriter to develop from one script 
to the next. He can never see his work 
complete and take responsibility for its 
shortcomings before going on to his 
next effort. 

Weller: If artistry has something to do 
with the most effortless motion from 
conception to execution, then 
everything about making movies is a 
violation of that principle. 

Larner: If only it were simply a problem 
of dealing with respected collaborators. 

Weller: But it isn't. Inevitably, you 
have to take your concept in some 
premature version and submit it to a 
series of committees. 

Larner: — all of which have interests 
other than the quality of the film. 

Weller: Yes, they're looking for the 
mythical property — a term that 
belongs to real estate. But even if a 
perfect set of backers comes along and 
says, we love your idea, here's the 
money — even then you'd soon have 
80 different concepts of the truth 
you're after. For instance, the 
cinematographer has to design the 
shots and then describe them to the 
camera operator. This is like requiring a 
painter to have another person hold the 
paintbrush, while he calls out, a little 
more red over there. . . . 

But for a playwright, the central task is 
simply to sit down and write. If one 
production of your play doesn't work, 
you can get another production. It 
doesn't ruin the chance of your play 
being done correctly the next time. 

Lamer: And the playwright retains the 
right to alter his own material? 

Weller: Yes, exactly, you keep your 
play and you change it while it's being 
produced. In fact, most plays are really 
written in the final stages of their 

A film-maker can't do that, unless he 
has a clause in his contract like Woody 
Allen's, wherein he can re-shoot 20 to 
30 per cent of his film after it's been 
edited and shown to a trial audience. 

Larner: What a privilege! And yet 
Woody Allen, m his very effort to 
explore and spread his wings, seems to 
have become more pompous and to 
have lost touch with what was fresh in 
his material. It seems to me in fact that 
vei7 few celebrated hlm-makers get 
better as they go ak)ng. They make a 
few films that come from their own 
direct experience, then they decline 
into staginess, cleverness and false 

Weller: It's a paradox that film is a 

medium which allows an artist to reach 
a wide public — which is every artist's 
dream — but at the same time it's an 
instrument for preventing him from 
doing what he really wants to do. 

Lainei: To me, the conditions of the 
all-pervasive celebrity-making media 
machine make it harder for any artist to 
develop a stronger grip on his feelings 
and his material. Of course, it's only the 
newest version of an old story. But I 
think it's harder today for a writer to get 
his bearings. Sometimes one's fellow 
writers seem like so many salesmen 
competing to merchandise new 
gimmicks. Do you yourself find 
strength or solidarity in what others are 

Weller: In my field I do. There are a 
number of playwrights who, I think, are 
doing very e.xciting work. 

Larnei: Here's your chance to name 

Weller: Sam Shepard and David 
Mamet. I find their plays full of vitality. 
I love the language they write. It's just 
too bad there's some commercial 
resistance to their work, but it doesn't 
matter so much because m the theatre 
you can always find a venue. You can 
stage your play wonderfully in small 
places and achieve exactly what you 
want. Then if you think you should 
have become more famous or gotten 
better paid, you have two choices. You 
can study the public taste and learn to 
please it, or learn instead to be pleased 
with what you yourself do well. It's an 
indulgence to bemoan your fate. You 
have to decide what you want. 

Lainei: It isn't fate then, it's ourselves. 
If we take movie contracts, we take 
with them the liabilities of the people 
we work for. If we write exactly what 
we like, we have no guarantees. After 
all, we are aware of this merchandising 
atmosphere when we sit down to write. 

Wellei: How can we not be aware of it- 
It's all around us. It's swamping us. 

Lainei: I think you are more of an 
exception than you realize. You've 
found a way to get what you want done 
in the theatre, and all the while you can 
earn a living through your work on 
relatively ambitious movies. 

Wellei: I agree. My position is 
incredibly unusual, but I knew very 
early on what I was up to and I've been 
careful in controlling it. It's a question 
of situating yourself so that you don't 
have large expenses, doing your work, 
not paying too much attention to what 
anybody thinks about you, just 
working and writing. Sooner or later 
opportunity will come along, and you 
take It. But you don't go hustling for it, 
because that wastes time. Almost 
every writer I know wastes too much 
time worrying about getting the 
opportunities and not getting on with 
what he should be doing, writing. 
When writers spend a lot of time 
marketing themselves, then they're 
subject to all sorts of weird fantasies 
and painful rejections, all of which are 
out of their control. 

Lainei: It isn't just marketing that 
leads to those weird fantasies of 
success. The fantasies themselves are 
merchandized; the fantasies are our 

Wellei: Early success can be a great 

Lainei: Yes, because one believes it. 
One thinks the fantasies are coming 

Wellei: But we are well warned. I 
looked at other writers as I was learning 
how to write and when Moonc/iiiciren 
hit, I knew this was great for me, but I 
also knew the bullshit machine would 
turn in my direction, and I just had to 
get out of the way. That was the choice 
I made: no interviews, don't see 
anybody, no parties, just write. Because 
the rest of it doesn't count. 

Lainei: I think it's hard just to sit m 
your room and write. You get isolated. 

Wellei: No, you have a bunch of 
friends. Friends are little anchors you 
can hitch yourself to. You eat and talk 
and go to shows. There's just too much 
evidence around of what you can 
become if you let your head go crazy. 
I'm at the point now where I would say 
that anyone who's fooled by acclaim 
just hasn't opened his eyes when 
walking through the woods. 

Lainei: I gather you've been in danger 
more than once. Didn't Universal 
Pictures pay a large sum for the rights 
to your play Loose Endsl 

Wellei: That was my first windfall. 

Lainei: Did they hire you to write the 

Wellei: That, too. 

Lainei: And did the play actually 
become a movie? 

WeUei: Now that tar they didn't go. But 
in the beginning it was one of those 
wonderful things where an executive at 
Universal bought my play as if there 
were a big bidding war going on. She 
came m and said, this is my offer, I'm 
not going one penny higher. She was 
very sweet. In fact, no one else had 
made an offer. She just happened to be 
touched by the play and she thought 
everybody else was, too. 

Lainei: She probably lost her job. 

Wellei: No, she's still around. Those 
mistakes don't lose you your job if 
you're a movie executive. Anyway, she 
bought the play and then, after they'd 
already spent all this dough, she 
couldn't sell Universal on actually 
making the him. 

Lainei: What's a lot of dough to us is 
merely the initial investment to them. 
It costs at least ten million more to go 
ahead and make the film. This is where 
a lot of scripts get left on the shelf. 

Wellei: At least I had the satisfaction of 
having done the play. 

Lainei: Is that dialogue I see on your 
desk? You must be working on a new 
play right now. 

Wellei: No, it's the second draft of a 
movie that I already know is not going 
to be made. 

Lainei: This is the ultimate test. Can 
you keep up your morale as you write 
something which you have already sold 
but which you know is not going to be 

Wellei: The first draft I did I was very 
excited about. Now I see it can't 
possibly work out but I wanted to be a 
good sport. I have a lot of other things 
I'd prefer to be doing. But it won't take 

Larner: When you write a movie do you 
work from an outline? 

Weller: Vaguely. It depends on the film. 
Sometimes it's fairly detailed, 
sometimes I just pitch in and keep 
going until it's over. How about you? 
Do you put each scene on an index 

Larner: Yes, I usually do, because to me 
movies are the end product of a 
compression. You always think of so 
much more than you are able to get on 
the screen. If you turn in a script that's 
too long, then other people are going to 
make the cuts. There are movies like 
Frances, which I admire, where the 
director — m this case Graeme 
Clifford — had a three hour script, shot 
it all, then had to cut the picture to 160 
minutes. Inevitably, he was left with 
big holes, both in the story and withm 
scenes. As a screenwriter I don't want 
that to happen. 

Another reason I use cards is that in a 
visual medium you can create 
marvellous changes by taking your 
cards and rearranging them. It's like 
shuffling time. 

Finally, anything I can do to get a grip 
on the story-line will help me when it 
comes to that crucial diplomatic act of 
explaining the script to the people who 
will actually film it. 

Weller: With Milos Forman we always 
work so closely together I don't have to 
explain the story. 

Larner: When he filmed Hair and 
Ragtime, did he keep you on the set? 

Weller: Yes. I actually ended up 
directing parts of them. 

Larner: I had a similar experience on 
the set of The Candidate, rewriting 
scenes to suit the actors and locations. I 
remember one morning we were out on 
Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, 
which we were going to set on fire. A 
dozen fire departments had been ferried 
out there at an astronomical cost, but 
the script didn't fit the location and I 
had eight actors gathered round me, 
each trying to tell me what his 
character should be saying. Meanwhile 
the director was waiting to burn down 
the island and he was getting angry 

Robert Redford in The Candidate 

because the wind was going to shift and 
he had his helicopters up in the air with 
their cameras, and yet I enjoyed the 
excitement and even the pressure. I was 
having a terrific time and was able to 
come up with a much livelier movie 

Of course, if the original screenwriter is 
not on the set, then someone else 
makes these adjustments and the scene 
almost never fits with the rest of the 

Weller: How did you actually drift into 
film writing? 

Larner: In the 60s, I knew an unusual 
young actor in Los Angeles who was 
down on his luck, couldn't get an acting 
|ob and was trying to write screenplays. 
He was one of a number of young 
people in L.A. who wanted to make a 
movie out oi Drive, He Said. The book, 
as it turned out, had prophesized the 
student uprisings of the 60s and had 
collected an underground following. 
Now in early '69, this actor phoned me 
in New York and said, "Jer, I'm going to 
be a star." I reminded him he'd been 
saying that for years. He said, "No, I am 
Hollywood, and they're going to let me 
direct whatever I want. I'm going to do 
Drive, and you can write the script." 

Well, this was lack Nicholson, so I 
came out and wrote the movie, which 
turned out to be a wild and crazy flick, 
marred by exactly the same faults as 
the book. When it's funny, it's alive and 
working, and when it's serious it's an 
embarrassment. Another break for me 
was that Nicholson got Bob Towne to 
play a minor part in the picture. At that 
time Towne was a writer without a 
single screen credit, but he was 
working on The Last Detail. Shampoo, 
and Chinatown, and he and I used to go 
over his drafts as well as rewriting 
scenes for Drive. That was the start of 
my screenwritmg education. 

Weller: It seems odd that Redford 
would choose you for The Candidate 
based on Drive, He Said, which is so 

Larner: Maybe it seemed odd to him, 
too. But he and the director, Michael 
Ritchie, were looking for a screenwriter 
who knew about political campaigns, 
and he discovered I had been Eugene 
McCarthy's main spcechwriter in 
1968. 1 started telling them some of the 
tunny and disturbing things that 
happened m the McCarthy campaign 
and it became clear that we could work 
a lot of it into the movie. And as I spent 
time with Redford, I began to notice 

that a movie star was like a politician. 
Each can become the victim of his 
image. That was the main idea of The 
Candidate. Public people just don't 
know what they're doing. There are 
always forces that sweep them along 
that are much bigger than the 
rationalizations they give at the time. I 
took up this idea again in the novel I 
just finished writing, which is about a 
movie star (not a Redford-type, by the 
way, more a Nicholsonian|. Back when 
I was writing The Candidate, Redford, 
who is a good story-teller, would tell 
me about the bizarre encounters of his 
daily life. You may remember the 
business m The Candidate where a guy 
stops him on the street and insists that 
he comment on his dog — as a crowd 
gathers and there's an overtone of 
violence in the air. That really 
happened to Redford in the Bronx, and 
when properly reconstructed it made 
one of my favorite moments in the 

Weller: It's interesting how real life 
situations will sometimes work and 
sometimes not. When I first did Loose 
Ends in Washington, I had a man and 
woman play a whole scene naked. But I 
found the audience simply could not 
listen. Important things that were 
being said were all missed. Finally, we 
made a choice to clothe the actors. We 
had to give up on something that to me 
was real and natural. 

Lamer: In a movie, you might have 
gotten around that problem by using 
different close-ups or cutting away 
frt)m the actors. But the language of 
movies is completely different. Good 
movie dialogue is sometimes nothing 
more than a series of grunts to clue the 
audience in on what they're seeing. It 
always seems worse in movies when 
the actors stop to explain the action to 
one another. 

Weller: That's just bad writing 
anywhere it happens. Self-conscious 
"exposition" is always going to stand 

Lamer: I think your play Moonchildren 
is a good example of indirect 
exposition, because your characters 
were people who were unfamiliar to the 
audiences of that time. The media were 
covering student protests and drug use 
and so on — the external parts of their 
lives — and yet you largely ignored all 

that and dealt with the subtext — the 
angst, stagnation, perversity. The more 
obvious stuff your students might have 
engaged in was left offstage. 

Weller: Everything that happens in that 
apartment is about how the characters 
avoid saying what is really going on. 
But I didn't know that when I started to 
write. I had no plan, I just sat down. 
Actually I was trying to reconstruct 
what my college life was like for some 
people I was living with m Britain. 
They had no idea about my past, so I 
thought, well, I'll do a little play and it 
will explain what it was like to live in 
that apartment in Waltham. 

This makes me think about Brandeis. 
Brandeis created a feeling of having 
been present among people who were 
larger than life. I remember certain 
teachers, certain students I was friends 
with, who seemed to go about their 
lives in ways that were more 
outrageous — and more outrageously 
clever — than the stereotyped doings of 
people at other colleges. There was 
something almost philosophically 
great about the way they fooled around. 

Lamer: You mean like that one guy 
who re-staged the crucifixion of Christ 
one Easter Sunday; 

Weller: Yes, that was a very famous 

Lamer: Marvin Garson! 

Weller: He was one of the proto-hippie 
types, what the Yippies were going to 
become. You really captured it in your 
book, too— the way the self-appointed 
revolutionary immolates himself at the 
end. That's exactly the sort of Brandeis 
thing that I'm sure existed at Berkeley, 
and maybe at Michigan and Wisconsin. 
These places, too, had their little 
pockets of people who in the end were 
middleclass and probably just played 
better than anyone had ever played in 
college before, and felt a commonality 
in their antic moods. 

Lamer: At times Brandeis was 
fantastically theatrical. I remember 
there was a controversy my freshman 
year about whether to show Birth of a 
Nation. It seemed as if half the school 
gathered m Ford Hall with great 
passion running on both sides. A fellow 
named Paul Lucas made a brilliant 

speech in behalf of civil liberties, but 
there was a black grad student, John 
Howard — a man, I believe, who had 
done his thesis on the sociology of 
garbage collecting by going out on the 
garbage truck — who got up and spoke 
about the humiliations of being a 
Negro. He brought tears to my eyes, but 
I remember voting to show the film 
anyway. The argument was bitter, the 
vote was close, and the film lost. 

I also remember when Britain, France 
and Israel crossed the Suez Canal and 
later had to go back, the whole campus 
gathered to discuss the meaning of this 
event. I remember when the 
Hungarians tried to throw off their 
government in 1956. Again the whole 
school, including faculty, gathered m 
Usen Commons m the Castle, and 
Herbert Marcuse (who was larger than 
life if ever anyone was) told us there 
were anti-Semitic elements and 
counter-revolutionary elements and 
we had to reserve our judgments. The 
sociologist Lew Coser stood up and 
shouted, "People are dying in the 
streets for their freedom and you want 
to wait and make scholarly 
judgments!" Again the campus was 
divided. When the writer Howard Fast 
came to speak, I was moderating the 
discussion between him and Irving 
Howe, who at the time was my English 
teacher. Fast — who had been a Stalinist 
for years — droned on about "scientific 
socialism." Howe suddenly pounded 
the table — waking me up — and cried, 
"You have blood on your hands!" Half 
the campus was furious at Howe for 
what they considered his bad manners, 
yet this was something we talked about 
for weeks and thought about for years. 

Weller: That atmosphere did not 
prepare us very well for a culture where 
style so overshadows content. 

Lamer: It might have prepared us, 

though, to be the kind of writers we are. 

Weller: How could we deny it? Still, I 
get uncomfortable with these 

Lamer: So do I, though I can't resist 

Weller: It's time to get back to work. 

Lamer: You said it.B 


Peter Child's Opera 
Premieres in Boston 

In 1952, a yi)ung member of the music 
faculty by the name of Leonard 
Bernstein premiered his opera "Trouble 
in Tahiti" at Brandeis. 

On May 1, 1984, another young 
member of the faculty — Peter Child — 
will premiere an opera, "Embers," at 
the Huntington Theater in Boston. 

Both operas will be on the same bill. 

"Embers" will be Child's first venture 
into opera and marks the first time that 
a relatively early work by Samuel 
Beckett is being set to music. 

Pairing Bernstein and Child is the plan 
of Alea III, a contemporary music 
ensemble affiliated with Boston 
University. The two operas were 
chosen, according to Theodore 
Angoniou, Alea's music director, 
because one represents the work of an 
established composer, and the other, 
the work of a promising younger artist 
who "has already proven himself to be 
very good." 

The double bill places both composers 
in good company, though it will not be 
the first time those two names have 
been hnked. In 1978, Child held a 
Leonard Bernstein Scholarship at the 
Berkshire Music Center. 

Although Child is many years the 
junior of Bernstein, the 30-year-old 
British-born composer has 
accumulated a list of honors, 
scholarships, printed praise, and 
commissioned work worthy of a much 
longer established presence. 

Presently an assistant professor of 
music. Child is teaching in a 
department that has through the years 
had a good share of distinguished 
composers. It is also a department that 
in many ways shaped him as an artist. 
He came to Brandeis in 1976 as a music 
student enrolled in the master's of fine 
arts program and studied with such 

Brandeis teachers as Seymour Shifrin, 
Arthur Berger and Martin Boykan. He 
completed his MP A in 1978 and his 
Ph.D. in music composition in 1981, at 

While earning his degrees. Child 
garnered scholarships, fellowships, 
prizes and commissions including a 
Watson Fellowship; a WGBH 
Radio-Boston Musica Viva Recording 
Prize; first prize in the East and West 
Artists Composition Competition; a 
"New Works" prize from the New 
England Conservatory; a "New 
England Composer" prize from the 
League of Composers International 
Society for Contemporary Music and 
the Margaret Grant Memorial prize in 
composition at the Berkshire Music 

Recently, Child was one of five 
composers commissioned to create 
major new works using computers by 
the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology's Experimental Music 
Studio under a grant by the 
Massachusetts Council on the Arts and 
Humanities. At the world premiere m 
Boston of an earlier work using this 
medium, the Boston Globe's music 
critic wrote: "Child has put his mastery 
of the hardware (the MIT Experimental 
Music Studios) to resourceful, artistic 
purposes. . . . You get the sense of a 
spacious mental canvas being excitedly 
filled up with discoveries and insights 
and speculations about mixtures of 
sonority, but with a difference — a keen 
sense of harmonic color and rhetorical 

Child has received additional 
commissions funded by the 
Massachusetts Arts Council from the 
Boston Musica Viva and the New 
England Conservatory Contemporary 

The world premiere of "Embers" in 
May will demonstrate the versatility of 
this young composer. 

The opera, based on an early play by 
Samuel Beckett, uses two main 
characters and three small subsidiary 
ones. The chamber opera is 
accompanied by six instruments, a 
departure from the electronic 
compositions Child has successfully 
been doing. 

After he was commissioned to write 
the opera, Child spent two months 
looking for a suitable libretto and 
eventually settled on Beckett's play. 
Although he didn't expect to be granted 
permission from the elusive 
playwright, who apparently supervises 
personally the granting of all rights to 
set his work to music, permission was 
granted. However, Beckett provided 
him not only with a suitable text, but 
also one that helped enlarge Child's 
own creative musical boundaries. 
"Largely due to the stimulus of an 
immensely powerful text, writing this 
opera has contributed enormously to 
the development of my musical 
language," he says. 

Working in the contemporary musical 
mode. Child has little patience with 
those who grumble about the 
inaccessibility of contemporary music. 
"I believe people's rejection of new 
music is, at its worst, a form of bigotry, 
or prejudice," he says, and notes that, 
historically, music with a new and 
unfamiliar approach invariably 
received vitriolic rejection at its first 
performance. "Emotional and 
intellectual receptivity to new forms of 
art is the essential ingredient that 
allows an individual to absorb what is 
the unic]ue, and necessary, message of 
new music," Child believes. 

The public's refusal to confront 
unfamiliar musical language causes 
"principal performing organizations to 
pay only token lip service to new music 
and thereby continue the cycle of 
self-generating hostility. The 
economics of survival cause the major 
symphony orchestras and opera 
companies, for the most part, to present 
audiences only what they want to 
hear," he says. 

The general public's antagonism 
toward new music is a rejection felt by 
most contemporary composers. Yet 
judging from Child's rising number of 
commissions, and the attention paid by 
the popular press to his work, neglect 
has not been a ma)or problem for him. a 

Creative Arts Awards 

The Goal is Absolute 

When reading the roster ot medahsts 
and citation recipients in the 28 year 
history of the Creative Arts Awards, we 
recognize the names of some of the 
most important artists of the last three 
decades. As the years go by, some of the 
award recipients have grown to almost 
legendary proportions. Names like 
Charles Chaplin, Alexander Calder, 
Vladimir Nabokov, Aaron Copland, R. 
Buckminster Fuller, Martha Graham, 
or George Balanchme. Individuals that 
are synonymous with artistic 

Excellence, whether fulfilled, or 
promising, has been the cntenum on 
which the awards have been made. As 
Edw^ard Albee, chair of the 30 member 
Creative Arts Commission, said 
recently, "The awards are voted to 
creative people by creative people, and 
set a standard of absolute excellence 
that few other awards reach." Albee 
also emphasized that selections are 
devoid of parochialism, politics or cant, 
which places the Creative Arts Awards 
in a very small and select category. 

When the awards were established m 
1956, under the sponsorship of Trustee 
Jack Poses and his wife Lillian, they 
were meant to stimulate recognition of 
outstanding artistic creation in a 
variety of fields. Their purpose was also 
to highlight the essential and vital role 
of the creative arts in this society and 
express the university's commitment 
to support the arts. 

Each year, the Creative Arts 
Commission selects a distinguished 
jury for each category of awards. The 
jury IS chaired by a member of the 
commission and consists of artists, 
critics and members of the Brandeis 
faculty. Medals are awarded to artists in 
celebration of a lifetime of artistic 
achievement, and citations are 
conferred on particularly talented 
artists in the same fields who are in the 
earlier stages of their careers. The 
Creative Arts Commission presents a 
special award for Notable 
Achievement in the Creative Arts. 
Each category carries an honorarium. 

More than 220 medals, citations and 
special awards have been given since 
the program's inception. Many of the 
awards have gone to ensemble groups 
in theater and dance or acting teams, 
such as Alfred Lunt and Lynn 
Fontanne, medals winners for theater 
m 1972. 

The first ceremonies w ere held at the 
Ambassador Hotel in New York when 
Nelson Rockefeller, then chairman of 
the board of New York's Museum of 
Modern Art made the presentations. In 
1964, more than 1,000 guests of the 
university attended the awards 
ceremony at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel 
when Brandeis Trustee-emeritus 
Leonard Bernstein was master-of- 
ceremonies. Since 1976 the ceremonies 
have been held at the Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum in New York 

From the beginning, the vision of 
Brandeis as a university of excellence 
included a commitment to the 
Creative Arts. That commitment was 
important to Jack Poses and me, since 
we were devoted to Brandeis and felt 
strongly the obligation of individuals 
and institutions to encourage and 
nurture the arts. Art is essential to a 
free society, we believed, and it is a 
better society when it wholeheartedly 
supports its artists and recognizes their 
important achievements. This 
Brandeis does through the Creative 
Arts Awards Program. It is a source of 
immense satisfaction to me that over 
the past 28 years, the university has 
continued by this program to fulfill 
our original hopes and dreams. 

Lillian Poses 

Paul Taylor 

Stephen Sondheim Robert Lowell 

Aaron Copland 

Charles Chaplin 

1962 — Louis Kronenberger, Louise Bogan, Alexander Calder, 
Edgard Varese, S. N. Behrman 

As chairman of the Brandeis University 1984 Recipients 
Creative Arts Awards Commission, it 

IS my responsihihty and joy to sit in on 
the dehberations of the juries in each of 
the celebrated disciphnes. 

The eight recipients of the 1984 
Creative Arts medals and citations are: 

The responsibility becomes joy as I 
watch the generosity of spirit, the lack 
of parochialism, the bee-line toward 
absolute excellence — fashion and favor 
pushed to one side — that informs these 

First rate creative and critical minds 
joining to honor the first rate — this is 
what makes the Brandeis Awards such 
a true honor. 

It is the way all awards should be run. 
Indeed, it is probably the way the world 
should be run. 

Edward Albee 

Isaac Bashevis Singer 

Medal winners 

Sam Sbepard (theater arts) has won the 
Obie award on numerous occasions and 
received the Pulitzer prize in 1979 for 
"Buried Child." 

fohn A. Chamberlain (sculpture) was 
cited by the jury for work that is 
"highly resolved in its formal and 
philosophical concerns" — creations 
that "have not been achieved by 
exclusion but by breadth." 

William Maxweii (fiction) is the author 
of numerous short stories and books 
including "Time Will Darken It" and 
"So Long, See you Tomorrow." He 
served as a member of the editorial staff 
of New Yorker magazine from 1936 to 

Jerome Rabbins (dance) is a 
choreographer and director whose 
credits include more numerous ballets 
performed with maior dance 
companies around the world, as well as 
Broadway and motion picture 

Citation recipients: 

Mabou Mines, in the forefront of 
experimental theater groups since its 
founding in the 1960s, was cited for 
"challenging audiences, extending the 
life of the avant garde and widening the 
possibilities of theatrical experience." 

Joel Shapiro (sculpture), who has had 
numerous national and international 
shows and whose work is displayed in 
many maior museums, was 
commended for art that is 
"distinguished by its psychological 
potency and sculptural presence." 

Paula Fox (fiction) was judged "an 
American writer in the tradition of 
those masters who have made the short 
novel into a high form of artistry." 
Noted in particular was her recent 
novel "Desperate Characters." 

The American School of Ballet (dance), 
the official school of the New York 
City Ballet, was called the ideal school 
for the education of professional ballet 
dancers — "setting great examples in 
the classroom (and) on the stage." 

Juries for 1984 Awards 


Howard Moss, chair; Maureen 
Howard; Irving Howc; Wilfred Sheed 
and |ohn Updike. 


Genevieve Oswald, chair; Mindy Aloff; 

Beverly D'Anne; George Jackson. 


Tom Armstrong, chair; Carl Belz; 
Victor Ganz; Barbara Haskell; Donald 
Judd; William Lieberman. 

Theater Arts: 

Richard Barr, chair; Mel Gussow; 

Martin Halpeni; Terrence McNally. 

Edward Albee serves ex-ofticio on all lunes. 

Helen Hayes 

George Balanchine 

Louise Nevelson 

Claes Oldenburg 


Paul Georges 

"On any list of cnntcmporary painters, 
the name of Paul Georges would have 
to be written large. For more than 30 
years he has patiently upheld the great 
realist tradition without making 
concessions to wide or popular taste. 
He is a persona/ artist in the best sense 
of the word," wrote the art reviewer for 
the Chicago Tribune last year when 
Georges' work was being shown in a 
Chicago gallery. He added, "still-life, 
landscape, portraiture — how rare it is to 
find a contemporary artist who has 
mastered even one. But Georges is 
equally adept at them all, and he owes 
nothing to photorealist sham. His is 
painting without the trendiness that 
can pass as an alibi. It is painting in the 
grand style." 

Similar sentiments have been 
expressed through the years as Georges' 
work IS viewed in maior museums and 
galleries and in public and private 
collections. His work is in the Museum 
of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum, 
the Hirshorn Collection and MIT, 
among others. The Rose Art Museum 
had an exhibit of his work in 1 98 1 . 

Professor Georges was one of the 
founders and is Chairman of the Board 
of Artists of the Artists Choice 
Museum, in New York City. Its 
obiective is to provide encouragement 
and exhibit space for works of artists 
that may run counter to conventional 
modern art. 

Georges has been at Brandeis since 
1977, where he teaches courses in 
painting theory and practice and 





umes on a stage are an integral part 
heatncal production and their 
ion requires talent and training. 
3ugh period plays requiring 
ffate costumes make the artistry of 
igner more obvious, a spare, 
:rn script demands equal talent. In 
production, the costume designer 
interpret the playwright's intent 
he director's vision. 

3randeis Master's of Fine Arts in 
ter program trains students to be 
;d craftspeople knowledgeable 
t the arts. The costume design 
am, under the direction of 
■een Heneghan Tripp, requires 
student to design three, 
■times four, complete productions 
h are staged in Spingold Theater, 
itudents' research notes and 
hes serve as entrance to the union, 
essary association for costume 
n professionals. Many pass the 
3us United Scenic Artists 
ination and remain in New York, 
? others design for regional 
ers and productions on college 
luses. Still others become film and 
ision image makers. 

al graduates have gone on to 
;ssive careers and professional 
•d. Among them are |ulie Weiss 
/ho designed her first production 
orris Carnovsky's Henry IV Part I 
e Spingold stage in 1971. Her 
mes for the Broadway production 
: Elephant Man received a Tony 
nation. Her classmate, Charles 
ler '71, has received accolades for 
ork at the Mark Taper Forum in 
mgeles. Frances Blau '78, designs 
; Cleveland Playhouse and )ean 
cman '82 is costume designer at 
on College. 

Maureen Heneghan Tripp, associate 
professor of theater arts, who heads the 
costume design program, taught and 
designed at Harvard and Boston 
Universities before coming to Brandeis 
in 1958. Bom and educated in London, 
she won honors in costume design 
while still a student. Before coming to 
the United States, she designed-for the 
Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, 
England, and was the designer for the 
Stratford-Upon-Avon Theater for three 
years, the company headed by Sir 
Laurence Olivier. Other credits include 
designing for B.B.C. television and 
C.B.C. television in Toronto, Canada. 
While teaching at Brandeis she has 
continued to work professionally, most 
recently as a consultant for the San 
Francisco Opera. 

At Brandeis, she is assisted by Mabel 
Haley, from Argentina, and Denise 
Loewunguth, from France. 

Above left; MaratlSade. 1973, costumes by 
lames Franklin, Getting Married. 1970, 
costumes by [ulie Weiss '7 L Below; 
Midsummer Night's Dream. 197(S, 
costumes by Maureen Heneghan Tripp. All 
were staged in Spingold Theater, 

Bobbie Frankel received her Master's of 
Fine Arts in Costume Design m 1982 at 
Brandeis, and by graduation had already 
accumulated a long list of credits tor 
her design work. She was deemed so 
accomplished that when she apphed for 
membership in the United Scenic 
Artists Costume Designers union she 
was accepted without taking the 
customary examination. Her credits 
include designing costumes for He 
Who Gets Slapped at Brandeis and the 
Odyssey II series for Public 
Broadcasting Associates. She held a 
Warner Communication Fellowship in 
1980. She IS currently working on the 
Broadway musical Fanny slated to open 
this summer. 

Above; Sketches by Bobbie Frankel iorA 
Doctor in Spite of Himself. 1966, and below 
ior He Who Gets Slapped. 1980. 



Letting Her Fall 

by Susan Monsky '73 

Grandma Rittcr, whom s'cars before my cousin l^an and I 
had named Jennie-Bitch, wailed and moaned at Aunt 
Greta's funeral. That was on Easter Sunday, 1976, one week 
before my twenty-fifth birthday. She screamed and howled 
and made a scene. Later she wondered what people had 
thought of her. "I did not even thank Minnie Safer for the 
salad," she mourned. 

Grandma had not been able to dress herself for her 
daughter's service. I tried to thread her skinny, 
unsubmissive arms through the sleeves of a gray Imen suit, 
a three-piece garment she boasted, even through her grief, 
had lasted her six seasons — and would be good for at least 
two more. 

"No one takes such good care of their clothing. No one cares 
the way I do," she had instructed me habitually since I was a 
little girl hard on my clothes. "I get wear from my apparel. I 
always get so much wear. Because I learned htiw to take care 
of my belongings many years ago," she said, "when we 
didn't have anything." 

I needed very badly for Grandma to let me take charge of 
making her ready for that day. It was the only way I was 
going to get through. Aunt Greta and I had been painfully 
close. Aunt Greta had been my grandmother's favorite 
child. Cordoning myself off with Grandma gave me 
something real to do, an essential task to execute. I did not 
want to talk to all those family and friends filtering in and 
out of my parents' home that morning, bringing food, extra 
serving dishes, and flatware for the gathering later that 
afternoon. But, of course, my grandmother — always 
independent — would not allow me to take her in control. 
Instead, she droned on and on about the reciprocity between 
herself and her wardrobe, while I struggled with her 
extremities. At the very least, I was able to keep her at bay 
from my mother who had been suffering with her sister's 
illness for almost three years now, and today was stunned 
with sadness. My mother was barely thirteen months 
younger than Aunt Greta. Both beautiful women, they had 
been like twins. 

As long as I can remember, I had resented my grandmother 
for my incapacity to manage. Jennie Ritter had never hidden 
from me — or, for that matter, from anyone else — her grave 
disappointment in my lack of dexterity. To this day, I will 
avoid putting in a hem. I am lennie Ritter's only 
granddaughter, and what a shame, for, in the traditional 
"female" sense, I am no good with my hands. According to 
Grandma, if I would only submit to using my hands more, I 
could be married within the week. 

Last month on my thirty-second birthday. Grandma called 
me in the middle of the day at the design firm where I work 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She urged me to save my face 
with the gift certificate she had reserved for me for a 
cosmetic consultation at Yout Countenance on Madison 
Avenue. She went into one of her familiar hard-sells. 

Susan Monsky, '73, had her 

first novel. Midnight 
Suppers, published last year 
by Houghton Mifflin 
Publishing Company. She 
was awarded the Kenan 
Giant by Phillips Academy 
in 1 982 and the Henfield 
Foundation Award in 1981. 
She was a teaching fellow in 
English and Creative 
Writing at Boston 
University. Currently she 

teaches fiction at Harvard's 
Summer School and an 
advanced fiction workshop 
at Harvard Extension 
School. She is also 
Co-Writer in Residence at 
Emerson College. Monsky 
also w^rites a book review 
column for The Boston 
Globe. "Letting Her Fall" is 
excerpted here from a longer 
story which will be the 
basis of a novel. 

"Miriam, I'm very sorry you've turned into such a lonely girl." 
A long pause. 


"The Blumenthal twins, Miriam. Have you kept up with organ. "No sweeter man has ever hved," she would often 

them; lust you look at those girls. They've certainly got say in a continuous litany of adoration. 

nothing to brag about — certainly not in the area of their 

looks — but you sec how they both got themselves such "No sweeter man has ever lived without a spine," my 

good husbands. Such fine boys. Now, that Ralph Lesser. Dt) mother would correct. 

you know he has five stores now. In the malls! Now, they've 

got themselves all set. Just you look. If they can do it, so can To that, my aunt would reply, "Oh, damn you, Myma. I 

you. I never did understand why your mother let you go to swear. Damn you, Myma. You're getting more like Mother 

those schools." everyday." 

Mt. Holyoke and Yale School of Art and Architecture. 

"Why Myma ever let you fall into that brainy set, I'll just 
never know. Those fancy schools. What does it get a girl, 
Miriam? You tell me. And, Greta, I only say this because I 
love you. It's just not good for a girl to be all alone the way 
you are." 

I do not even pay attention to the fact that Grandma has 
once again called me "Greta," but she realizes her error and 
clamps down on my name. "Miriam. Miriam. Miriam." 

After the evocation of my name, even through the 
telephone wires, I am able to experience my grandmother's 
genuine fear for my well-being. I know just how vigorously 
she is shaking her head; I hear just how deep a sigh she is 
expelling straight from her heart; just how tightly she is 
clutching the receiver. 

"Myma, is that you? Are you here too? " Grandma called out 
to my mother, who had just entered the room, and her 
youngest daughter immediately fled that bedroom, warning 
me in her speed, "You shouldn't have to do this now, 
Miriam." She spat out my name again. "Miriam. I should be 
handling this. She's my mother." 

Indeed, Grandma had always had a much firmer possession 
of my mother than of her favored girl. My mother was the 
good one. Submissive. No challenge. 

In the spring of 1934, just before Dan and I turned three, my 
grandfather, Abraham Ritter, was taken suddenly by a 
massive coronary. He had been a miserable failure in his 
lifetime, entirely lacking in business sense and humility. 
Each of his money-making schemes, most of which 
involved precious gems, had been wilder than the next. He 
traveled a great deal, no doubt tracking after the family 
funds he was so adept at losing. I look at my grandparents' 
wedding pictures. My grandmother, who had a fine, robust 
figure, wears a resolute dark suit; Grandpa Abe, a big, 
strapping man, is staring off into space. If, indeed, my 
grandmother did earn our nickname for her through the 
years, she could, nevertheless, at least in regards to her 
relationship with Catastrophic Abe, be seen as anything less 
than a victim of hit-and-run. My own father, in fact, had 
moved the aging couple from St. Louis and set them up in a 
small apartment complex near us in Westchester. At the 
end of her marriage, Grandma had no resources of her own. 

The severity of her father's heart attack, however. Aunt 
Greta always seemed to correlate to the size of his afflicted 

After her father's death. Aunt Greta would not allow Jennie 
Ritter to come live with her. And Jennie Ritter would never 
forgive her that. My mother and father, though, the dutiful 
pair, stepped in to do the work of family. Grandma moved in 
with us. However, Grandma, of course, was technically free 
to come and go and roam through Aunt Greta's home as she 
pleased (she even had a key), but it was not the key to her 
oldest daughter's house that she wanted; she had expected a 
bed there. Always we want what we cannot have. 

The logical choice of keeper for her, according to Aunt 
Greta, would have been Uncle Jack. He was so easy-going 
that Jennie had never dared to make any claims on her son's 
personality. Nothingever bothered Uncle Jack, but he lived 
so far away — in Chicago. No doubt, though, had Grandma 
gone to live with him and Aunt Lou, her daughters would 
have been able to romanticize their mother's absence. They 
might have remembered how "close" they had all been in 
St. Louis. "We girls," they might have referred to 
themselves. If Grandma had only moved to Chicago, her 
"girls" would have been able to welcome her home on long 
visits; they could have sat with her at either of their kitchen 
tables when she retumcd. They might have done needle 
work together or anything else that would have made them 
happy with their hands. But another of my grandmother's 
hard and fast rules was that a mother does not impose upon 
her son. And Aunt Lou, after all, was a Unitarian. "She 
keeps a dirty home," Grandma always commented after her 
stays there. "Her ways are not ours," she judged. 

I could not blame my mother for not wanting to be close to 
Grandma the day of Aunt Greta's funeral. 

"Cora. Cora," her stretched and terrified voice screamed 
toward the kitchen. "Cora, I am not m control. Take care of 
my mother now. Please just come in here and take care of 

Cora Powell had worked for my family for over twenty 
years. Family. No one knew better than she how to handle 
Grandma. I envied Cora what seemed her effortless ability 
to manipulate my grandmother kindly. 

"Here now, Mrs. Jennie, you put that strong right arm right 
in through here. That's it. There," Cora said. 

"Arthur told Myma not to take me to the funeral home, 
Cora, but I'm going," Grandma said. "What mother 
wouldn't? My child. My baby Greta. My little Greta. Why 
wouldn't they tell me? No one would tell me. No one here 
knows, Cora. No one here knows what it means to lose a 
child like this. No one." 


"Greta knows," Cora said to my grandmother and then 
tumed to me. "Child," she said, "Mimi, your Aunt Greta 
loved your grandma, but, Lo-ord, she couldn't stand her." 

I shook my head "no," wanting to protect us all, but, 
oblivious. Grandma said, "I want to wear the jade brooch 
my precious Greta gave me." Cora had trouble with the 
clasp, perhaps on purpose, and immediately Grandma 
focused, took command. "Oh, here, Cora, I can do that by 
myself. I haven't forgetten how to do that sort of thing — not 
yet. See this lovely lovely brooch my precious gave me. She 
gave me so much. She was so good to me. It's from the 
Orient. Did you Anow that?" 

Jennie-Bitch took the piece away from Cora, fingered it for a 
few moments, and then, with deft precision, she attached it 
to her bosom. It was like a milky green eye pinned to her 
chest. Cora's strategy had worked. 

Grandma stared down at the simple oval omament, gazing 
cross-eyed into the face of the pm as if it might have been 
Aunt Greta herself, seeking forgiveness. But then the old 
woman snatched the brooch off her jacket and hurled it 
across the room with all of her strength. The brooch hit the 
full length mirror with a musical plink and then was lost to 
sight in the thick green carpet. But Cora retrieved the 
jewelry. She stomped back over to Grandma who was 
sitting on the end of her bed, and Cora took her by the 
shoulders as if she were a child she was going to have to 
shake hard — a last resort to make her behave. 

"You wear this pin, Mrs. Jermie. You want to wear this pin, 
so you wear it. You hear me?" And Cora fastened it back 
onto her charge's chest. 

Grandma could not give up. "You snagged my coat," she 
cried. "You snagged my pretty coat." 

At the funeral home. Grandma would not leave her 
daughter's coffin. "Kiss your Aunt Greta. Kiss your 
mother," she said to Lewis and Joe. Daniel had refused to 
come into the "visiting chamber." 

"Lord Jesus," he had said, "Mom doesn't want to be on 
display like this. Who's responsible? I need to know who's 
in charge here." 

"Kiss your sister, " Grandma directed my mother and Uncle 
Jack. They obeyed as if they were children submitting to 
their mother's instruction to be polite to a departing dinner 

"Oh, just once more. Oh, just once more," she demanded. 
"Let me kiss my Greta goodbye just one more time. Oh, see 
her pretty dress. Evan brought it back to Greta from New 
York for New Year's. This New Year's." Grandma was 
obviously speaking of some New Year's long past; Evan 
Rothman, whom my aunt had always called "that big bag of 
wind," except where money matters were concerned, had 
been entirely out-of-touch with his ex-wife for the past 
seven years. 

"And no one would tell me. Why wouldn't anyone tell me 

what was so wrong all this time ? This New Year's — he had 
It made for her. An Italian designer. He's been good to me 
too. Evan has been good to me. Even afterwards, he sent me 
cards on all the occasions. He is a good boy. No one should 
say he isn't." 

Jennie-Bitch stroked Aunt Greta's satin sash and then 
played at an opal button at Aunt Greta's neck as if to 
straighten something out for them both. "Lovely," she said. 
"Lovely Greta always looks so fine in pale colors." Grandma 
was taking true pleasure now. Aunt Greta had not been so 
attentive to her in years. 

I had moved just outside the entrance to Aunt Greta's room. 
Lydia Blumenthal, Lisa and Linda's mother, approached me. 
"Mimi, darling. It's so good to see you. It seems like years. I 
understand you're doing such interesting things these days. 
We always knew what interesting things you would 
accomplish one day. And, dear, you look so lovely, so well. 

I was tempted to tell her that for the most part, I just 
designed fancy kitchens for rich clients like herself, that, 
honestly, it was little more than manual labor. I had enough 
of my mother in me to thwart that impulse though, and, 
besides, Lydia Blumenthal had expected no response. Her 
gaze was now fixed on the mother and child in the center of 
the room. "Oh dear, how sorry I feel for her," she said. 

Uncle Jack and my father moved in close on Grandma to 
bear her away from the casket. But Grandma held on to its 
side as if it were the edge of a precipice onto which she was 
clinging for her life. Adhering herself to the chair in which 
she had been attending her eldest daughter, she refused any 
offer of assistance to leave. "No. No. No, no, no. Get away 
from me right this minute. You get away from me now. I 
mean that. You're both being such bad bad boys." 

I moved back into the center of the room, once again hoping 
that I could make something right with Grandma. "This is 
so painful," Uncle Jack said to me. I stared at Aunt Greta, 
fascinated. She looked like a waxed statue. The lipstick she 
was wearing was much darker than the shades she usually 

Several years ago, when my grandmother's oldest brother, 
Nathan, died, his son — an Elizabethan scholar — had 
insisted that his father's marker bear the Shakespearean 
inscription (something to this effect): "Good Prince Hal, 
he's not gone; he's away." At the unveiling ceremony. Aunt 
Greta had called me aside for one of her lessons. "Don't let 
anyone ever try to fool you, Mimi. That man's not away. 
He's gone!" 

Aunt Greta's timing, the way she had elongated gone to 
emphasize the stark truth of her pronouncement, had made 
us both laugh — something we often did at family 
occasions. Rabbi Eisenstein, who, because of his 
Alzheimers, would not be officiating for Aunt Greta, had 
approached us. We giggled on, but had the grace to hide our 
faces in an embrace. Eisenstein huddled with us, trying his 
best to provide comfort. "I know just how hard this sort of 

Continued on page 1 7 


Around the University 

Celebrations Mark 
25th Year of Wien 
International Program 

President Evelyn E. Handler 
congratulates Arthur F. Burns. U.S. 
Ambassador to West Germany, as 
he receives an honorary degree. 
Dean of the Faculty Anne Carter is 
on the left. 

The Wien International 
Scholarship Program, one of 
the nation's largest privately 
funded scholarship 
programs for foreign 
students, celebrated its 25th 
anniversary last fall. 

The celebration, called 
"International Week at 
Brandeis," culminated with 
the awarding of honorary' 
degrees to three prominent 
individuals that have made 
substantial contnbutions to 
international relations. 
They were Robert O. 
Anderson, chairman of 
Atlantic Richfield 
Corporation, Arthur F. 
Bums, United States 
Ambassador to West 
Germany and Henry R. 
Labouisse, former director of 
UNICEF. Wien alumni from 
around the world returned to 
the campus to loin in the 

In addition to granting 
honorary degrees, the 
convocation featured talks 
by President Evelyn E. 
Handler, Lawrence Wien 
and Wien scholar 

Week-long events included 
academic colloquia with an 
international theme, music, 
dance, film and handicraft 
exhibits, an international 
food bazaar and even a 

The scholarship program, 
endowed in 1958 by 
Lawrence A. Wien, a Board 
of Trustees member and 
former chairman, has 
enabled nearly 600 students 

from 89 countnes to study in 

Recognized by political and 
educational leaders around 
the world, the Wien 
International Scholarship 
Program was honored by 
President Reagan and Sen. 
Edward Kennedy, who sent 
congratulatory letters to 
Wien, and Massachusetts 
Governor Michael Dukakis, 
who issued a proclamation 
noting Wien's contributions 
to education and 

Dana Foundation 
Awards Brandeis 
$285,000 Grant 

The Charles A. Dana 
Foundation of New York 
City has awarded Brandeis 
University a $285,000 grant 
to recruit and retain four 
new junior faculty members 
in the social sciences, 
creative arts or humanities. 

Known as Dana Faculty 
Fellows, two junior faculty 
members will assume 
full-time, tenure track 
positions in these 
disciplines by September 
1984. Two additional junior 
members will join the 
faculty by September of the 
following year. 

The 5285,000 award to 
Brandeis is among the first 
grants presented by the Dana 
Foundation to assist in 
faculty development. 

Candidates for 
Nomination to Appear 
at Brandeis Forum 

The candidates ior the 
Democratic nomination for 
president spoke on campus 
this spring as part of the 
newly formed Brandeis 
Forum. The hour-long 
session with each candidate 
included a brief opening 
statement followed by 
questions from a panel of 
invited journalists and 
students and questions from 
the audience. 

The Forum also includes a 
series of seminars scheduled 
to take place later in the 
semester, that will feature 
pollsters, campaign 
strategists, and party leaders 
who will interpret the 
nominating process as the 
candidates prepare for the 
national conventions. 

According to President 
Evelyn E. Handler, the 
Forum was established on 
campus in order to educate 
the community not only 
about the specific candidates 
and major issues but also to 
explain the mechanics of a 
nominating process. 

The moderator for the panel 
sessions was J. loseph 
Grandmaison, a nationally 
recognized political 
consultant who also served 
as the director of the Forum. 

Applications up 27.2 

As of February 9, 
applications for next fall's 
freshman class are running 
27.2 percent ahead of last 
year, a fact that David L. 
Gould, dean of admissions 
calls "very good news for the 
Brandeis community." 

In addition, early decision 
applicants, those who have 
designated Brandeis their 
first choice, are running 55 
percent ahead of last year 
and 13 percent ahead of 1982 

As of February 9, admissions 
has received 3,148 
applications for the 750 

openings in the freshman 
class, compared to 2,474 
applications at the same 
time last year. 

"We're delighted, and we 
continue to look forward to a 
hard-working spring ,getting 
the best to matriculate," 
said Gould. Spnng activities 
aimed at this goal include 
campus visits by prospective 
students and receptions for 
them around the country. 
The highlight is the annual 
Spring Thing, April lO-II, 
when 300 to 500 accepted 
students are expected to 
visit the campus — sleeping 
in dormitories, attending 
classes and participating in 
university activities. 

$1 Million Endowment 
for Chair in Theater 
Arts at Brandeis 

A $ I million gift to endow a 
chair m theater arts has been 
given by retired New Jersey 
industrialist Irving Laurie. 

President Evelyn E. Handler 
said the new Laurie Chair in 
Theater Arts "is a major 
contribution to the 
university's commitment to 
maintain a theater faculty of 
outstanding artists and 

Laurie, of New Brunswick, 
N.I., endowed the chair in 
memory of his wife, 
Blanche, and daughter, Edith 
Barbara. This is his second 
major gift to theater at 

Shortly after his daughter's 
death in 1965, Laurie 
established the Edith 
Barbara Laurie Theater at 
the university to 
memorialize the young 
playwright who had just 
begun her career when she 
was stncken with cancer. 

The Laurie Theater within 
the Spingold Theater Arts 
Center is used chiefly to give 
plays written by faculty and 
students their first critical 

Laurie has been a fellow of 
the university since 1968, 
and is a patron of the Rose 
Art Museum. 


Book Marks 
English Program's 
30th Anniversary 

The 30th anniversary of 
Brandeis' first graduate 
program, Enghsh, is being 
marked in an unusual way 
— by the publication of a 
volume of literary criticism 
and original works, 
"Brandeis Essays in 

"The department has had a 
rich tradition of creative 
writers on its regular faculty 
or as visiting professors," 
said lohn Hazel Smith, 
professor of English and 
editor of the book. 

The volume includes 
literary criticisms by some 
of the department's current 
and emeritus faculty: ludith 
Ferster, |. V. Cunningham, 
Smith, Victor Hams. Susan 
Staves, Philip Fisher, 
Michael T. Gilmore, Karen 
Klein, Milton Hindus, Allen 
Grossman, Jim Merod and 
Peter Swiggart, as well as a 
small portfolio of poems by 
Demse Levertov, Grossman 
and Cunningham. 

I. V. Cunningham came to 
Brandeis in 1953 with the 
charge of launcliing graduate 
work m English and 
Amencan literature. He 
recruited the first class of 
students, who began the 
program in September, 1954. 
Since then, 1 58 doctorates 
have been awarded by the 

The idea of a book to mark 
this 30th anniversary was 
conceived two years ago as a 
volume of scholarly critical 
pieces about literature. 

"There was never an 
intention to focus the essays 
on a single topic or critical 
approach," said Smith. "If all 
of the contnbutions were to 
be from within the 
department and a wide 

representation of 
contributors was to be 
included, there was scarcely 
a way of achieving unity, for 
the department, though 
relatively small as befits a 
small university, is quite 
diverse in its interests. 

"In fact, the collection is a 
partial microcosm of the 
trends in literary criticism 
over the past 30 years," he 
said, adding that a "very 
great" distance separates 
"Shakespeare: Three 
Textural Notes" with either 
Merod's "On the Use of 
Bookshelves" or Swiggart's 
"Criticism and the New 

There also was no conscious 
attempt to achieve such 
vanety. "Literary criticism 
is a living organism, for it is a 
product of living beings — 
each one learning from 
elders and thus being 
influenced by them, but 
then going wherever his or 
her own talents and interests 
lead," Smith said. 

The first copy of the book 
was presented to Alan 
Levitan, chairman of the 
English Department, at a 
recent reception marking 
the anniversary. 

Additional copies of 
"Brandeis Essays in 
Literature" are available for 
$15 each through the 
English Department. 

Gillis Appointed 
Executive Vice 

Tuition Going Up 

The Board of Trustees 
approved a 9.4 percent