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rasses anU ^lafts* 

OFFA, King of Mercia, 

Founder of St. Alban's Abbey. 

From the Brass of Abbot Delamere 

in 8t. Alban's Abbey Cbarcb.. 

(See page 12.) 





5rf»e Contents of tl;is >7oI«mc tatxe rcaD 


Brasses ant) ^latjs: 






i«l ( D( tr I e ^ g c s;. 










G. BELL, 186, FLEET- S T R E E T. 






I ;qi HI -s ui'qig -jig je aj\Bjj(i3S up'i 


The British PTOtomartyr, 

From theBrassof Abbot Delamere. in St. Alban's Abbey Chnrch 

(Seepage 12.) 






^t. aiban's ^rc^bitectural ^ocictg, 








MEMORIALS OF GREAT INTEREST."— Makkiand's Remarks on 
English Churches, Edition 3rd, ■p. 48. 

3^ t e f a c e^ 

The following pages owe their origin to two papers read before 
the St. Alban's Architectural Society, at their Meetings held 
at St. Alban's in the months of February and June of this present 
year, 1846. These papers were composed solely with the view to 
illustrate the series of examples of monumental brasses and slabs 
exhibited on those occasions, and consequently without any idea 
of publication. In deference, however, to the opinion expressed 
by several members of the above-named Society, as well as by 
other friends, it was subsequently decided that the substance of 
these papers, with certain additions, corrections, and illustrations, 
should form the present volume ^. 

In carrying into effect this decision, the principle uniformly 
acted upon has been to produce a manual of elementary informa- 
tion, exclusively devoted to this one class of our national monu- 
mental memorials : and that, less with the view to add to the in- 
formation already acquired by the careful student of this valuable 
page in the annals of the past, than to reduce the prevalent 
amusement of brass-rubbing into something of a system, and thus 
to enhance its interest as a pursuit, by pointing out and endea- 
vouring to elucidate its utility and importance as a study. 

Accordingly, the more prominent features in armour, costume, 
canopies, inscriptions, heraldic insignia, &c., usually depicted in 
brasses, together with the general characteristics of the several 
classes into which these incised monuments may naturally be 

" A third paper on the same subject was publication of its predecessors had been 
also read at another Meeting of the St. determined upon : the contents of this 
Alban's Architectural Society, after the third paper are incorporated in these pages. 


divided, have been described at length. Detailed descriptions of 
certain examples have also been given ; with the twofold purpose, 
that the complete explanation of their peculiar merits may both 
enhance the estimation in which these examples themselves are 
held, and at the same time lead to a general habit of minute and 
critical examination into such other specimens, as may fall more 
particularly under the notice of different individuals. The original 
form of composition has been retained, as appearing the better 
adapted to the subject under consideration. Occasional references 
have been made to sculptured monuments, when such additional 
illustration was found requisite. The Illustrations will, it is hoped, 
be found sufficiently numerous to exemplify the several passages 
with which they are placed in connection; and also to form a 
small series of faithful delineations, so selected that each specimen 
should either appear to be a type of a class, or in itself possess 
some points of special interest ''. Such technical terms as occur, 
when first used are printed in Italic characters, and then they 
are for the most part fully explained : to these explanatory pas- 
sages reference is made in the concise Glossary appended to 
the volume; or, as in some cases it appeared to be more expe- 
dient, an explanation of the terms is introduced into the Glos- 
sary itself. In this Glossary, however, it must be understood 
that terms strictly architectural and heraldic are not included. 
At the end of the volume will also be found a classified list of 
some choice specimens of brasses : — a table of the contractions and 
abbreviations which occur in inscriptions*^: — and a notice of some 

^ Many of the Illustrations represent and of the head-dress of Lady Burton at 

only parts of entire figures, or compart- p. 85, should have been incorrectly en- 

ments of large compositions. graved : he has added accurate engravings 

The Author greatly regrets that, in con- of the whole figures depicted in these fine 

sequence of an error of his own, the cuts and interesting brasses, 

of the bascinet of Lord Camoys at p. 49, "^ For this most valuable portion of the 


German slabs in low relief*; together with Indices, Chronological 
and Topographical, of the several examples to which reference is 
made in the text and notes, and also an Index of the Shields of 
Arms which are there emblazoned. 

Besides original MSS. and Illuminations, and the Brasses and 
Slabs themselves, among the authorities which have been con- 
sulted it may be sufficient to specify the volumes of the Archseo- 
logia and Monumenta Vetusta : Gongh's Monuments : Waller's 
and Cotman's Brasses : the Monumental Effigies of Stothard, 
Blore, and Hollis : Sir S. Meyrick's Treatises on Arms and 
Armour: Strutt's, Shawe's, Blanche's, and Fairholt's works on 
Dresses and Decorations : the Gentleman's Magazine : the Ar- 
chaeological Journal : Fosbroke's Encyclopedia of Antiquities : the 
Oxford Glossary : Hartshorne's Sepulchral Monuments : Bloxam's 
Glimpse at Monumental Architecture : Markland's Remarks on 
English Churches : Lysons' Magna Britannia : Dugdale's War- 
wickshire : Dallaway's Sussex: Addington's Dorchester; and 
various other works on county or local topography and antiquities. 

To the Committee of the Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, for their courteous liberality in placing at 
his disposal eleven engravings on wood, the Author tenders his 
grateful acknowledgments ; he desires also to thank, for their 
most valuable advice and assistance, Albert Way, Esq.: Dawson 
Turner, Esq.: Rev. G. Proctor, D.D.: Rev. W. D. Willis, Preben- 
dary of Wells : W. H. Blaauw, Esq.: L. A. B. Waller, Esq.: J. H. 
Parker, Esq.: Rev. W. Drake: Rev. H. Addington : Rev. Dr. 

Appendix, the result of laborious and com- monuments. 

prehensive research, the Author is indebted ** The Illustrations to this notice are 

to the liberal kindness of the Rev. Dr. drawn from a very admirable continental 

Jacob : which gentleman has in a state of work, entitled Coslume du Moyen Age 

great forwardness a Glossary of Terms, Chretien, by M. de Hefner, and published 

explanatory of medieval antiquities and at Mannheim. 


Jacob : A. W. Franks, Esq. : Raphael Brandon, Esq. : J. Arthur 
Brandon, Esq.: G. P. R. Minty, Esq.: M. H. Bloxam, Esq.; Mr. 
Richardson of Greenwich, and other friends ^. 

Communications for the Author may be addressed to the care of 
the Publisher, Mr. Bell, 186, Fleet Street, London. C. B. 

Sandridge Vicarage, near St. Allan's, 
December 30th, 1846. 

e Since the completion of the text and 
notes of this volume, Mr. Manning's valu- 
able List of Brasses has appeared: and 
this has heen followed still more recently 
by a general notice of these memorials 
from the pen of the same gentleman. It 

is no slight satisfaction to the Author to 
find his own views on this subject com- 
pletely sustained in this truly excellent 
little treatise, which he hopes to see ap- 
pended to a second edition of the List of 



Compartment of Brass of Robert Braunche, 

Lynn Regis, A.D. 1361 

I See page 17.) 


Introductory Remarks, 

Flemish Brasses, 

English Brasses, 

Military Brasses, 

Brasses of Ladies, 

Brasses of Ecclesiastics, 

Brasses of Civilians, 

Brasses of Demi-Figures, 

Miscellaneous Brasses, 

Canopies, .... 

Miscellaneous Details, 


Palimpsest Brasses, 

Slabs despoiled of Brasses, . 

Incised or engraven Slabs, 

Rubbings of Brasses, . 

Concluding remarks, . 


List of Abbreviations, Contractions 

Glossary, .... 

Index, .... 

, &c, 
































































Abbot Thomas Delamere, St. Alban's Abbey Church . 11 

Robert and Margaret Braunclie, Lynn Regis . . 17 

Alan Fleniinj)^, Newark ..... 19 

A Priest, Wensley, Yorkshire .... 20 

A Piiest, North Mimms, Herts .... 21 

Sir John D'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey . 27 

Sir Rojjer De Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridge . 30 

Sir Robert De Septvans, Chartham, Kent ... 35 

Sir De Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk ... 36 

Sir De Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex ... 37 

Sir John De Creke and Lady, Westley Waterless, Cambridge 39 

Sir Robert Swynborne, ) , .,,, tt i i t7 c, 

c- Til, c 1 r Little Horkesley, Essex . . 55 
Sir 1 homas Swynborne, ) •' ' 

Sir Peter and Lady Halle, Heme, Kent ... 62 

Sir Simon Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk ... 63 

Sir Thomas Bromflete, Wymington, Beds ... 65 

Sir John and Lady Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts . 67 

Cross Fleury, Broadwater, Snssex . . . . 118 

Sir John De Bitton (slab), Bitton, Gloucestershire . . 158 

Slab of the Architects, Church of St. Oueu, Rouen . . 162 

Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent . . . 178 

German Slab of Albract Hohenloe . . . 191 

Ditto of Hewnel Landschaden and Lady . . . 192 

Ditto of Johan, Graaf von Wertheim . . . 193 




1302. Sir Robert De Bures, Acton, Suffolk . . Frontispiece 

c. 1375. Offa, King of Mercia, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . . ii 
.... Ornaments from the Delamere Brass, St. Alban's, 

and Monogram ...... Title 

c. 1375. St. Alban, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's ... iv 

Monogram of the St. Alban's Architectural Society, and 

Ornaments from a Brass in Great Shelford Church, 

Cambridgeshire ...... v 

1364. Civilian, Brass of Robert Braunche, Lynn Regis . . x 

1412. Part of Canopy, Swynborne Brass, Little Horkesley, Essex 1 

c. 1375. Compartment of Canopy, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . 9 

c. 1375. Compartment of Canopy, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . 12 

c. 1375. Specimen of inscription, border, and initial cross, St. Alban's 13 



/c. 1510. 

/ c. 1277. 


^ 1327. 
V c. 1330. 
/ c. 1330. 






c. 1368. 

c. 1385. 

c. 1400. 







>J 1457. 


c. 1450. 

»"' 1455. 

V 1450. 

. 1492. 

V 1505. 
J 506. 
1 372. 

Fiiiiiil, crockets, ami cvispiii^-, Walsokiie Brass, Lynn 

Tart of Fi<;uie of Ailani Dc Walsokne, Lynn 

Part of Fif^ure of JMar-;aret l^o Walsokne, Lynn 

Part of Fi}?ure of Thomas De Topclitfe, Topcliff, York 

Flemish Brass of Knifrht of the Compton F\imily, late in 

Netley Abbey Church .... 
Sir JohnD'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun 
Fylfot-cross ..... 

Tilting-helm ..... 

Enp^raver's Mark, Seal, and Shield . 
Sir John D'Aubernoun the younger 
Sir John De North wode, Kjj^^ j^j^ of Sheppey 
Lady De Northwode, j ' ^' •' 

Bascinet with vizor, Hastings Brass, Elsyng, Norfolk 
Chapelle de fer, Hastings Brass, Elsyng, Norfolk 
Bascinets ..... 
Misericorde ..... 
Studded Mail, Sir Miles De Stapleton 
Sir John De Paletoot, Watton, Herts 
Sculptured Effigy, Bamberg Cathedral 
Hip-belt, Sword-hilt, and Genouilliere, Sir Thomas Cheyne 

Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks 
SoUeret, Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp 
Sir John De Cobham, Cobham, Kent 
Nicholas, Lord Burnel, Acton Burnel, Salop 
A Knight, St. Michael's, St. Alban's 
Sir Thomas and Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland 
Sir William and Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick, (after 

drawing by L. A. B. Waller, Esq.) 
Lord and Lady Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester 

Sword-belt, &c. Robert Albyn, Hemel Hempsted, Herts 
Coudiere, Lord Camoys, Trotton, Sussex 
Sir Reginald De Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey 
Sword-belt, &c. Sir Thomas Peryent, Digswell, Herts 

Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts 

Head-dress, Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts 

Lady (unknown), Sawtry, Hunts 

Sir John De Brewys, Wiston, Sussex 

Sir John De Harpedon, Westminster Abbey 

Shields of Arras, Leventhorpe Brass . 

Sir Nicholas Mansion, St. Lawrence, Kent . 

Sir John Peryent, the younger 

Placcates, Sir R. Dyxton, Cirencester 

John Daundelyon, Margate . 

Walter Green (part of figure), Hayes, Middlesex 

Sir William Fynderne (part of figure), Childrey, Berks 

Sir Anthony De Grey, St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Sword-belt, Coudiere, &c. Henry Parice, Hildersham, Camb 

Head-dress, Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts . 

Sabbaton, Piers Gerard, Winwick, Lancashire 

Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster Abbey 

Gauntlet, Sir R. L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk 

Humphrey Brewster, Wrentham, Suffolk 

Margaret, Lady De Camoys, Trotton, Sussex 

Joan, Lady De Cobham, Cobham, Kent 

Maud, Lady De Cobham, Cobham, Kent 

Head, Israayne De Wynston, Necton, Norfolk 

Head, liady Stapleton, late at Ingham, Norfolk 






1 384. 

Head, Lady Havsick, South Acre, Norfolk . 



Head, Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland 



Head, Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon 



Blanche de la Tour (Statuette), Westminster Abbey 



Lord and Lady De Camoys, Trotton, Sussex 



Head, Ela Bowet, Wrentham, Suffolk 




Part of female figure, St. Lawrence's, Norwich 




Head (lady unknown), Horley, Surrey 




Lady (imknown), Clippesby, Norfolk 




Head (lady unknown), St. Swithun's, Norwich 




Head, Lady Felbrigg, Felbrigg, Norfolk 



Head, Lady Shelton, Great Snoring, Norfolk 



Head, Lady Shernbourn, Shernbourne, Norfolk 



Head, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex 




Head, Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex 



Head, Lady Vernon, Tong, Salop . 




Head (lady unknown), Luton, Beds 



Head, Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex 




Lady Clopton, Long Melford, Suffolk . 



Head, daughter of Sir T. Urswick, Dagenham, Essex 



Head, Margaret Pettwode, St. Clement's, Norwich . 



Head, Jane Sylan, Luton, Beds 



Head, Goodwyn, Necton, Norfolk 



Head, Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk 




Head, Cicely Page, Bray, Bucks 




Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire 




De Bacon, Oulton, Suffolk 




Head, Esmond De Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk 




End of Stole, Shottesbroke Priest 




Priest with crossed Stole, Horsham, Sussex . 




Priest, Broxbuurne, Herts .... 



Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers 



[ Episcopal Vestments .... 
Pall, Archbishop Cranley, New College 





1554, 1611. Mitres . " . 



Pastoral Staff ..... 




Crozier ...... 




Bishop Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey 




Ecclesiastic in a Cope, Hitchin, Herts 



Head, Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex 




Head, Dr. Urswick, Hackney 



Head, Thomas Leman, South Acre, Norfolk 




) Richard and Margaret Torrington, Great Berkhampstead 
] Herts ...... 

.' 1 ^^'^ 





Civilian, Clippesby, Norfolk .... 



Ralf Rowlat, St. Alban's Abbey Church 


\ c. 


A Notary, Church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich 

112 ' 



Sir R. De Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln 




William Canynges (part of effigy), St. Mary's, Redcliffe 




Knight in banded mail. Croft, Lincoln 


N C. 


John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent 





^' c. 


Britellus Avenel, Buxtead, Sussex . 




John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex . 




Lady, Wimbish, Essex . . . . . 




Knight (part of figure), Wimbish, Essex 


V c 













c. 1400. 








Nicholas Aumbeidene, Taplow, Bucks 

Chalice and Wafer 

Joanna Urban, Southfleet, Kent 

Small heart with Monosjrain, Hifjham Ferrers 

Canopy, Camoys Brass, Trotton, Sussex 

Fragment of Canopy, Berkhampstead, Herts 

Pinnacle and shield of Arms, Oakover, Stafford 

Fragment of Canopy, St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Shield of Arms, (Grimston) 

Lady .... Clopton, Long Melford, Suffolk 

Banner of Arms . . . • 

Merchants' Mark, and Shields of Arms of the Merchants of 

the Staple, and the Merchants Adventurers 
Collars of SS., and of Suns and Roses 
Collar of Mermaids, (Badge of the Berkeleys) 
Genouilliere, Lord de Camoys 
Emblems of the Evangelists, Walsokne Brass 
Symbolical Emblem 
Anne Duke, Frense, Norfolk 
Anne Rede, St. Margaret's, Norwich 
Wm. and Agues Complyn, (S. Christopher) Wyke, Hants 
Abbreviation of the letters D. E. R. 
Palimpsest Fragments, St. Alban's Abbey Church 
Palimpsest Fragments, late in Trunch Church, Norfolk 
Palimpsest Fragments, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich 
Knight, (Slab), Avenbury, Herefordshire 
Sir John De Botiler, (Slab), St. Bride's, Glamorgan 
Solleret and Spur . . . - 

Artists at work, (Illumination) 
Fragment of Slab, France 
Ornament, Delamere Brass 
Ornament, Delamere Brass . 
Ornament, Delamere Brass 
Ornament, Esteney Brass, Westminster Abbey 
Civilian, Braunche Brass, Lynn Regis 
Part of Canopy, Blodwcll Brass, Balsham, Camb. 
Ornament, Delamere Brass . 
Part of Figure, Ulrich Landschaden, Germany 
Part of Legend, Sir Bernard Brocas, Westminster Abbey 
Parts of Legends, Monuments of King Henry IIL and \ 
' Eleanor of Castile, Westminster Abbey . . \ 

Achievement of Arms, Say Brass .... 

Head, Jane Keriel, Ash, Kent .... 

Head, Whissonsett, Norfolk .... 

Head, Painted Chamber, Westminster 

Two Shields of Arms, Brass of Eleanor De Bohun, West- 
minster Abbey ...... 

St. George, Hawberk Brass, Cobham 

Elizabeth Shelley, Clapham, Sussex . . Adver 


















LITY." — Gentleman's Magazine. 

*** It ivill be borne in remembrance that the following pages 
were, for the most part, originally read at three Meetings of the 
Sf- Alban's Architectural Society. 


iMtflUe) SliflBS?^^ M 

Having been enabled, by the \ 'Ji^ ^^'^j 
kindness of friends, to exhibit to \ Jt^x^^^. 





the meeting a choice collection of 
rubbings of monumental brasses, 
I am induced to hope that on this %,, 
occasion a few remarks upon these curious memorials may be re- 
garded, as neither inappropriate nor unacceptable. And this hope 
is confirmed by the reflection, that of all the examples of medi- 
seval art yet remaining, none are better known, none are objects 
of more general interest, and that a strictly practical interest, than 
these early specimens of the engraver's skill. 


Engraven plates for monumental memorials, or as thej^ are 
usually denominated, "Brasses," despite the ruthless spoliation 
of fanaticism in one age, and of combined ignorance and dis- 
honesty in another, still abound in almost every part of England : 
and no less numerous than the brasses themselves is the array, 
the association, I would fain style them, of brass-rubbers. The 
facility with which fac-simile impressions of brasses can be pro- 
duced, and the accuracy and durability of the impressions them- 
selves, have doubtless induced many to join in a pursuit, which 
they have thus been led to discover to be replete with diversified, 
but always valuable, always attractive and interesting information. 
It would, perhaps, in the great majority of cases, be difficult to 
assign to any other motive than the mere impulse of novelty or 
curiosity, the first hasty visit to some brass-preserving fabric, — 
the first sweeping away of dust, and spreading out of paper, and 
manipulation of heel-ball : — but it would be far more difficult to 
shew that it is but mere curiosity which, the charms of novelty 
having long passed away, actuates the persevering, the zealous, 
and diligent brass-rubber. And, in their vocation, brass-rub- 
bers are diligent, zealous, and persevering. There is an asso- 
ciation, or rather an inherent quality, in the engraven plate, the 
object of the brass-rubber's research, which calls forth feelings and 
sentiments far worthier than those of the most refined curiosity. 
It is because of their vivid representation of the long dead denizens 
of ages past, — because from generation to generation they bring 
before us, in all points as they were in life, the prince, the noble, 
the lady, the knight, the citizen, and the ecclesiastic, — the mail- 
clad warriors who first made Acre a name famous in the annals of 
British prowess, — " the victors of Cressy and Poictiers, the knights 
of Agincourt,'^ the chieftains of the rival roses, the royal Edwards 
and Henrys, the chivalrous Bohuns, and Nevils, and Mortimers, 
the Howards, Beauchamps, De Veres, De Greys, and Stanleys : 
and with these, a long array of worthies of every rank and calling, 
the honoured Delamere, who ruled so worthily over the once 
splendid, nay, the still splendid establishment of this ancient 
city, Grenfeld and Waldeby of York, Esteney of Westminster, 
Goodrich of Ely, Bewforrest of Dorchester : the merchant, too, of 


by-gone centuries, iu long flowing robe faced with miniver, with 
his and gypciere ; and the civilian in his appropriate gown : 
and though last named, far from least in interest, esteem, and wor- 
thiness, the fair and virtuous of other days, the heroines of many 
a forgotten passage of arms, many a romantic tale, — the Marga- 
rets, and Eleanors, and Philippas, whose regal eminence was 
enhanced by their lofty deeds, — it is because in the engraven 
memorials which mark the last resting-places of these and such 
as these, we possess the means of reproducing themselves in no 
unreal or fancied costumes, but according to their very images as 
they lived and acted, — because we are thus enabled to reinvest 
the personages, whose names make history famous, with form 
and fashion true to the very life, it is, that the study of monu- 
mental brasses is almost invariably pursued with at least some 
degree of enthusiasm. And surely, if this pursuit enabled us to 
do only thus much, it thus must appear to be well worthy of both 
time and labour. 

But, much more than has already been suggested, may be 
learned from these memorials. To the genealogist they afford 
authentic cotemporary evidences : to the herald they furnish 
examples of the original usage in bearing arms, and authorities 
in the appropriation and adjustment of badges and personal 
devices : the architect here will find, in rich variety, the details 
and accessories illustrative, as well of peculiar modes of arrange- 
ment and combination, as of the distinctive characteristics of style 
and design : the chronologist hence may deduce authentic data to 
determine, with truly remarkable exactness, successive eras and 
epochs : the artist has before him original compositions, illustrating 
the early excellence, and then the progressive, though happily only 
temporary, decline in the art of such pre-eminent importance, that 
of incision : to the general antiquary from the same source widely 
diversified information will accrue : the palaeographer also is hence 
enabled to fix the distinctive form of letter used at certain periods, 
together with the prevalent peculiarities of contraction and abbre- 
viation, conformable for the most part to that which is found in 
legends depicted upon stained glass, in illuminations, or on en- 
graved seals. Of the important judicial testimony deducible from 


brasses, the decision upon the Camoys peerage affords a remarkable 
and memorable example. And beyond all, the deep tone of com- 
bined piety and humility which characterizes so forcibly these 
memorials of the departed, — as well the attitude of the figure, as the 
legend on the scroll, contrasting strikingly with the inconsistent 
designs, and the vain, and too often flippant encomiums, so pre- 
valent in monumental structures of more modern date, — " these 
must be our admiration, and ought to be our pattern," — thus, of a 
truth, do our ancestors being dead, yet speak with powerful though 
silent eloquence. 

But let me now turn to these engraven monuments themselves, 
and briefly sketch out their more prominent peculiarities. To the 
inconvenience necessarily attendant upon the introduction of nume- 
rous figures sculptured in relief, flat monumental memorials doubt- 
less owe their origin : the former must occupy space in a church 
which could not be spared for monuments, while the slabs and 
brasses would off'er no obstruction, and at the same time would 
enrich and beautify the fabric in which they were placed. The 
durability of the brass plates also, though incidentally subjected to 
great and constant attrition, rendered them far more desirable 
than sculptured effigies. Thus it is common to find a brass of 
the fourteenth century still as essentially perfect as when first laid 
down ; whereas monumental statues of much later date generally 
shew evident impressions of the hand of time. 

Accordingly, about the commencement of the thirteenth century, 
the custom appears to have been adopted in this country of affixing 
to slabs of marble or stone, portraitures of the deceased engraven 
on plates of metal, the slabs themselves being laid in the pavement 
of churches, or in some comparatively rare instances placed upon 
altar-tombs^. Purbeck marble and sandstone were in common 

" Altar-tombs surmounted by brasses more suitable recumbent effigy, merely in 

usually occupy a cbantry, or sepulchral compliance with the then prevalent fashion 

chapel constructed expressly for their re- of monumental portraiture. It may here 

ception; or they commemorate some per- be added, that some few late examples of 

sonage having a claim to unusual distinc- brasses occur fixed to mural tablets ; and 

tion, as the founder or benefactor of the that, in again securing plates of early date 

edifice. In these examples, the brasses which have been loosed from their original 

themselves appear to have superseded the slabs, a similar position has sometimes been 


use for this purpose ; and more particularly slabs of forest marble 
from the Kirkford quarries in Sussex. The metal employed in 
constructing the engravings was denominated latten, laten, or laton, 
and appears to have been a compound somewhat resembling brass, 
but more costly and far more durable than that alloy. It was 
manufactured exclusively on the continent, previous to the middle 
of the seventeenth century, and from thence imported into this 
country. In Flanders and Germany, and especially at the city of 
Cologne, this manufacture was carried to the highest perfection ; 
as may be inferred from the Beauchamp-chapel contracts, which 
provide that the metallic accessories and ornaments of the tomb of 
the earl of Warwick should be " made, forged, and worked in most 
finest wise, and of the finest latten:" the "large plate," which 
should sustain the recumbent efiigy, being further specified as " to 
be made of the finest and thickest Cullen plate" the latten, that is, 
of Cologne. In shields of arms and those portions of the effigies 
which were designed to be tinctured argent, a white metal now 
presenting a pewter-like appearance, or lead, was in general use. 
These plates were embedded in pitch, and also firmly secured to 
the stone by means of cramps and rivets of brass ^. 

The earliest recorded example of a brass in England, is the long- 
lost memorial of Simon de Beauchamp, earl of Bedford, who com- 
pleted the foundation of Newenham abbey, and dying before A.D. 
1 208, was buried at the foot of the high altar in St. Paul's church, 
Bedford ; his epitaph was engraven in brass, and set on a flat marble 
slab, each letter being inserted in its own separate casement or cavity 
sunk in the stone ; a portion of it has been preserved in memory, — 

" 3Bc i^cllo ©ampo jacct I)tc gub marmorc ^tmon funtiator Dc 


Jocelyn, bishop of Wells, who died in 1242, had a brass in the 

adopted: in either case, this arrangement also desirable to embed the plate in pitch, 

is altogether at variance with the true cha- in accordance with the original practice, 

racter of this species of monument. If additional security be considered requi- 

l> In refixing brasses which, from what- site, spikes of iron might be soldered to the 

ever cause, have become detached from under side of the plate, in such a manner 

their original slabs, it is very important as to avoid any contact between the brass 

that brass-headed nails, or rather small and iron, and these may be riveted to the 

spikes entirely of brass, be used. It is stone. 


clioir of that cathedral : and on the north side of the choir of 
Salisbury cathedral, the matrix or indent of the brass of Bishop 
Bingham may still be distinguished; this prelate died A.D. 1247, 
and his brass appears to have consisted of a cross flory with a 
demi-figure <^. Richard de Berkyng, abbot of Westminster, who 
died A.D. 1246, had his effigy in pontificalibus, with a fillet bearing 
an inscription in brass. Bishop Gravesend, A.D. 1279, had a 
brass in Lincoln cathedral : Bishop Longspee, A.D. 1297, at 
Salisbury: and Ehas de Beckenham, A.D. 1298, at Botsford, 
Cambridgeshire. At Much-Hadham in this county a fine cross 
flory has been torn from a slab, which still retains the name of 
Simon Flambard, rector of that church at a period not later than 
A.D. 1280. x\nother cross once enriched the pavement of the 
chancel of Pulham church in Norfolk ; it was the memorial of 
Simon de Walpole, rector, A.D. 1301. "Ela, countess of War- 
wick," says Leland, " a woman of very great riches and nobilitie, 
lyethe under a very fair, flat marble, in the habit of a woves, 
(vowess or nun,) graven in a copper-plate." She died A.D. 1300. 
In the choir of our abbey-church lies a slab, once adorned with 
an effigy of an abbot in brass, with a legend : this is certainly 
of a very early date, and as certainly commemorates an Abbot 
John; but whether John de Cella, A.D. 1214, John de Hertford, 
A.D. 1260, John de Berkhamsted, A.D. 1301, or John Marinus, 
A.D. 1308, it now is impossible to decide. Other brasses, some 
of them gilded, are described by Dart and Leland, which were 
decidedly anterior to the earliest known existing specimens, those 
of Sir John D'Aubernoun, A.D. 1277, Sir Roger de Trumping- 
ton, A.D. 1289, and the demi-figure of Sir Richard de Busling- 
thorpe, of about the same date. After the close of the thirteenth 
century examples rapidly increase. Their original abundance is 
attested by the vast collection of despoiled slabs existing in almost 
every church : in our own noble abbey-church, scarce an early stone 
remains which has not its own deed of spoliation to denounce. 
And doubtless the pews, those unsightly excrescences of modern 

c A matrix of precisely similar character St. Alban's abbey-church : itisthememo- 
and very deeply cut, appears on the face rial of a priest, and decidedly of early date, 
of a slab lying in the south transept of 


times, conceal numerous and important additions to the long 
series of brasses, known and recorded as yet extant^. Notwith- 
standing their abundance, however, and a certain general simi- 
larity of character particularly apparent in brasses of about the 
same date, or which were probably the productions of the same 
artist, so varied was the treatment of these compositions, that no 
two specimens have hitherto been noticed, which in all respects are 
precisely identical. 

It is remarkable that, in the earliest examples, a far higher 
degree of artistic excellence is manifested, than at a subsequent 
period : the designs are more bold, simple, and spirited ; and the 
execution generally more skilful and meritorious. Breadth of com- 
position, and true artistic feeling in the management of details, 
combined with a power of energetic expression effected by the 
simplest process, characterize almost universally these early engrav- 
ings. But, when the arts in all other respects became generally 
advanced, these monumental plates appear, without exception, 
to have lost almost every trace of that high excellence as works of 
art, which they once so signally displayed. Nor is it less worthy of 
remark, that these incised monumental plates were produced in 
abundance, and in high perfection, more than two centuries previous 
to the discovery of the art of engraving plates of metal for the pur- 
pose of impression. To Mazo Finiquerra, a goldsmith of Florence 
who flourished about the year 1460, is assigned the distinguished 
honour of having made the discovery of copper-plate engraving, 
properly so called : and thus, during no less a period than 250 
years, with an abundance of engraven plates in existence, all of 
which were expressly calculated to produce fac-simile copies by 
means of impression, the art of taking impressions remained 
altogether unknown. It ought, however, to be borne in mind, 
that brasses, to be available as engraven plates for printing, 
require to be in the state in which we now generally find them ; 
having, that is to say, their incised lines clear and open for the 
reception of the printer's inkf whereas originally the work was 
considered to be incomplete, until the lines were filled-in with 

^ Instances have been known of fine ing, or by the erection of new or additional 
brasses being covered over by modern floor- pews. 


some black or coloured composition : and thus, before leaving 
the artist's hands in the first instance, these engra\dngs were re- 
stored to an unbroken uniformity of surface, and consequently 
while in that state they were deprived of their faculty of pro- 
ducing impressions. 

I have spoken of brasses as occupying a prominent position 
amongst the productions of mediaeval art ; still we now see them 
shorn of the completeness of their original beauty and magnifi- 
cence. " The sepulchral brass in its original and perfect state, was 
a work rich and beautiful in decoration." The surface of the plate 
was gilt and burnished ; the outlines were filled-in with some tena- 
cious substance of a glossy blackness : and the diapered field, the 
tracery, the tabernacle work, the armorial insignia, and the various 
decorations of rank or office, all glowed with enamel of diversified 
and vivid colours. The injuries of time and wanton mischief, 
together with the expansion and contraction of the metal, have 
left us but few traces of this once gorgeous decoration. Enough, 
however, is left to convey some idea of what has been lost ; and, 
better still, enough to guide us faithfully in effecting the restora- 
tion of original examples, and also in the execution of other works 
of like character and design. 

Some few of the brasses yet existing in this country are of foreign 
workmanship, and were for the most part imported from Flanders. 
These were worked in one unbroken plate of metal'', the field 
being richly diapered to display the figures, shields of arms, archi- 
tectural designs, devices and inscriptions : whereas in brasses of 
English manufacture, the effigy, canopy, escutcheons and inscrip- 
tions were engraven on separate pieces of metal, and each piece 
placed in a distinct casement or indent of form corresponding 
with its own, sunk in the face of the grey marble slab, which 
thus became the field or back-ground of the entire work. This 
difference between the continental and English brasses may, in 
all probability, be accounted for, from the circumstance of the 
greater facility in obtaining large plates of metal on the conti- 

e These brasses really are constructed of so united as to present the appearance of 
several pieces of metal ; but these are all one unbroken plate. 



nent, wliere, as has already been observed, the latten-plate was 
manufactured ^ 

Besides the distinction thus produced, brasses may generally 
be divided into four classes, — the Ecclesiastical, the Military, the 
Civil, and the Miscellaneous : the former three severally exhibiting 
effigies of ecclesiastics, warriors, civilians, and ladies, while the 
latter comprises all simple inscriptions, with every variety of de- 
vice, whether emblematical or otherwise, which is unaccompanied 
by any effigy, or in which such effigies as may be introduced 
must be regarded as subordinate members of the composition. 
A further, and that a most important classification of brasses, is 
according to their chronological succession : and here the most ad- 
vantageous system will be found to arrange the examples in classes, 
corresponding with the eras of cotemporaneous sovereigns. 

Of the Flemish Brasses yet remaining 
in England, seven bear strong, and indeed 
convincing internal evidence, of having 
been produced by the same artist : these 
are the splendid memorials at Lynn, Nor- 
folk, of Adam de "Walsokne and his wife, 
A.D. 1349, and of Robert Braunche with 
his two wives, A.D. 1364; of another civi- 
lian and his lady at TopclifF, near Thirsk, 
in Yorkshire, bearing date A.D. 1391 ; of 
Alan Fleming, A.D. 1361, at Newark; 
of Abbot Thomas Delamere, in the abbey- 
church of St. Alban ; of a priest in eucha- 
ristic vestments at North Mimms, near 
St. Alban^s ; and of another ecclesiastic 
similarly attired, at Wensley, Yorkshire; 
in both of these two last-named effigies the chalice is intro- 
duced, but in neither of them is it represented as grasped in the 
hands, in the former being placed upon the figure below the up- 

Compartment of De'amere 
St. Albans c A.D. 1370 

* To the same circumstance of the con- 
struction of their material in the Low 
Countries, must be assigned the greater 
prevalence of brasses in those counties 

which were most easy of access from the 
continent, and where the woollen manufac- 
tory was principally carried on. 


raised hands, in the latter above the hands, which are crossed and 
point downwards ^ : these two brasses differ from the five previously 
enumerated, in being without the diapered back-ground of metal ; 
the Wensley priest is simply an effigy; while in the example at 
North Mimms the effigy is cut clear of the canopy, and only con- 
nected at the base of the design with the rest of the plate ; it is, 
however, highly probable that originally this brass consisted of one 
unbroken plate, the back-ground having at some subsequent period 
been removed. The canopy of this brass has been remarked as 
bearing a striking resemblance to the sedilia, constructed so gene- 
rally near the altars of churches, for the officiating priests : the 
association thus indicated is curious, and indeed important. 

To these seven examples of the works of the same Flemish brass 
engraver, an eighth may be added, though now no longer in exist- 
ence : it was the brass of Robert Attelathe, A.D. 1378, also once at 
Lynn Regis, from which Cotman has given the effigy of Attelathe 
himself, drawn after Gough. Neither can I here omit to notice a 
fragment of yet another Flemish brass, an impression from which 
has recently come into my possession, and which without hesitation 
I assign to the same masterly hand. The original is, I believe, in the 
possession of Mr. Pugin'. It represents the head of an abbot or bishop, 
wearing a most costly mitre, and having on the left side a pastoral 
staff of corresponding richness : the head rests upon an elaborately 
diapered cushion, and is inclosed within the upper portion of an 
arched canopy, bearing a strong resemblance to that of Abbot Dela- 
mere; to which the fragment is, in all respects, equal, if not superior, 
both in design and execution. The fragment corresponds precisely 
with the similar portion of the brass of the St. Alban's abbot ; pos- 
sibly it may be the sole relic of the ample and doubtless splendid 
plate, once affixed to the large marble slab, recorded to mark the 
spot where Michael de Mentmore, twenty-ninth abbot of St. Alban, 
was buried A.D. 134.2, and which still lies, a memento of sacri- 

s In both the Wensley and North depicted in brasses. Here the consecrated 

Minims' brasses the chalice is covered vessels are represented as lying upon the 

vyith an inverted paten. The position of breast of the deceased minister, as they 

the chalice in these figures strongly cor- really were placed upon his remains when 

roborates the opinion of the recumbeHt utti- prepared for interment, 
tudo, designed almost universally to be 

CIRCA AD. 13 7 5 48" (£dUl : 111. 


DIED A.D. 139 6. 

In ttie Abiey Churcli of S' Albans 
( Canopy &c. omitted.} 

Jli. Johhins, ftci-b 


legious spoliation, at tlie foot of the altar-steps in his abbey 

The brass of Abbot Delaraere, the finest existing specimen by far 
of an ecclesiastical brass, was formerly attached to the surface of a 
large slab of Purbeck marble, still lying immediately at the foot of 
the steps to the altar, on the south side of the choir in the abbey 
church of St. Alban : but having been, for some reason, removed 
from its original slab, and seriously, though it is to be hoped not 
irreparably injured, it has now been placed, for security, within 
the adjoining chauntry of Abbot John de Wheathamstede, from 
which the brass of that eminent personage has been abstracted, and 
his tomb destroyed. Delamere himself, the thirtieth of the forty 
abbots of St. Alban, was son of Sir John Delamere, and his wife 
Joanna, daughter of Sir John de Harpsfield. Having commenced 
his studies at the cell of Wymondham, in Norfolk, he first became 
prior of Tynemouth, whence, in the year 1349, he was elevated to 
the abbacy. Learned, pious, and munificent, he was high in favour 
with King Edward III. : and having ruled worthily over the first of 
the abbeys of England for the long space of forty-seven years, he 
died in 1396, and was buried before the altar of his church, by the 
side of Richard de Wallingford, one of his predecessors '. The mag- 
nificent production of the art of engraving, prepared under his own 
superintendence for his monumental memorial, represents the pre- 
late in full eucharistic habit, of a costly richness suited to the supe- 
rior of the church and monastery of the British protoraartyr : his 
amice, alb, stole, maniple, tunic, dalmatic and chesuble, are all 
wrought with the purest taste combined with the most elaborate 
splendour : his hands, crossed, and tending downwards in all 
humility, are covered with jewelled gloves; his feet are encased 

■» This abbot had the following epitaph, sibility of the fragment above described, 

which, as Gough remarks, "one now in having been originally engraved to com- 

vain seeks for among the many mitred memorate Abbot Michael of St. Alban's, is, 

gravestones in his choir, though extant in of course, nothing more than mere conjec- 

Weever's time : ture. 

1|lt jacEt Ijommits pticbael qtwniJam ' The large and evidently splendid brass 

abttas i^uius monasterii, haccalaurcus in of Abbot de Wallingford, A.D. 1335, has 

tf)£0l. qui oftiit pritJic iDus ^prilis, ?lnn. been torn from its slab: and the adjacent 

JH.SCCD.XIEIE." slab, that of Abbot Hugo d' Eversden, 

The opinion advanced respecting the pos- A.D. 1326, has been similarly despoiled. 



in richly embroidered sandals; on his head is the mitra preciosa ; 
and on his left arm rests his splendid pastoral staff; while the 
calm and dignified countenance conveys the very impersonation 
of solemn repose. The effigy, placed upon a field of exquisite 
diaper, is surmounted, or rather enclosed, by a canopy, itself a 
wonderful work of art. On this canopy, divided throughout into 
minor canopied compartments, in the uppermost central part is 
represented the Saviour enthroned, having on either side two 
angelic figures ; and beyond these, on either side, are seated the 
Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul ; below, on either side of the head 
of the abbot, stand St. Alban, leaning on a sword, and in his left 
hand grasping a cross, and Offa, king of Mercia, the founder of 
the church and monastery, crowned and holding a spear : below 
these, on either side, are six double canopies surmounting figures, 
of which six represent the Apostles John, Andrew, Thomas, James 
the Great, Bartholomew, and probably Phihp; in the other six 
figures apparently are represented 
saints or prophets, or possibly bene- 
factors to the church. These six last- 
named effigies wear crowns, or other 
head-coverings, while the head of each 
of the apostolic figures is encircled 
with a nimbus, and the figures them- 
selves present a more majestic aspect. 
The annexed engraving represents one 
of these double-canopied compart- 
ments with the efl&gies of St; Bartho- 
lomew and another saint. Above, the 
great canopy is finished with the roof 
and profusely clustered pinnacles of a 
gorgeous shrine, of which the sides 
are composed of the doubly-canopied 
compartments before described; be- 
yond these sides appears the diapered 
field, except at the foot, which presents 
an elaborate basement : and the en- 

tire work is completed by a broad compartment of Ca.opy of D.,a™ere 

Brass. St. Alban 's. 



fillet, having at the angles the evangelistic emblems, and in 
the midst of either side, in a quatrefoiled panel, a shield bear- 
ing on a bend, three eagles displayed. The greater part of this 
fillet, which is fin- l^ 
ished externally by |<^ 
a series of alternate cz 

square and rounded roses, is plain ; but the upper portion, and 
somewhat more than 
half the left side, bear 
in Longobardic cha- 
racters of unsurpassed 
boldness, the com- 
mencement of a never 
completed legend run- 
ning thus: — "Hic JACET DoMiNus Thomas, quondam abbas 
Hujus MONASTERii." The customary initial cross 
is worthy of notice : in allusion to the arms of 
the abbey, (azure, a saltire, or,) it stands saltire- 
wise, and is surmounted of a more delicately 
formed floriated cross, tending to the cardinal 
points. Of the identity of the individual thus, 
it is to be hoped, imperishably commemorated, notwithstanding 
the omission of his surname in the inscription, there can be no 
doubt. From his Christian name Thomas, one or other of the 
abbots, Thomas Delamere, who died A.D. 1396, and Thomas 
Eamryge, who died A.D. 1525, is, of necessity, indicated. Of 
the latter prelate the incised slab yet remains : and, independently 
of other and that conclusive testimony, the internal evidence of 
both the design and engraving of the brass itself assigns it, 
without doubt, to the thirtieth abbot, Thomas Delamere, the first 
of that Chistian name ^. 

Of somewhat earlier date, and on the whole perhaps even supe- 
rior to this his great ecclesiastical work, are the famous Lynn 

Initial Cross, Delamere 

I" The St. Alban's Architectural Society 
have in preparation an engraving on wood 
of this noble brass, by Mr. O. Jewitt ; and 
the plate itself is about to have its injuries 
restored by the Messrs. Waller : — A most 
interesting memoir of Abbot Delamere is 

given by Mr. W. S. Gibson in his history 
of the IMonastery at Tynemouth, a cell of 
the abbey of St. Alban. 

Another brass of a Delamere occurs in 
the cathedral at Hereford ; it is the memo- 
rial of Richard Delamere, A.D. 1421. 



brasses of the same artist. These master-pieces of " this Cellini 
of the fourteenth century/' as Gough not inaptly designates him, 
are both contained in the church of St. Margaret at Lynn Regis, 
and commemorate two burghers of that once wealthy mercantile 
town, with their wives. Of these, the former, Adam de Walsokne, 
has left no other memorial of his existence than this splendid 
monument, which exhibits ef&gies of himself and Margaret his 
wife, placed under a doubly-arched canopy, richly fohated, crock- 
eted, and finialed. The side-shafts of this canopy, after the man- 
ner of the St. Alban's brass, contain on either side four pairs of 
figures • in canopied niches, the uppermost pair on each side having 
two smaller sitting figures between them and the. canopy next 
below : from these uppermost niches spring the arches of the two 
grand sub-divisions of the main canopy, while above them rise 
elaborate turret-like finials, composed of clustered buttresses with 
crocketed-pinnacles, &c. From these, arch-buttresses diverge to 
the crest of the main canopy: this is worked in two compart- 
ments, each surmounting one of the principal eflBgies, and each 
containing three elaborate canopied niches with nimbed figures. 
Between the principal effigies rises a slender niched shaft, which 
is finished above with a splendid pinnacle. Of this pinnacle the 
finial is made to pierce the outer fillet, which forms the border of 
the entire plate : this arrangement, productive of the happiest 
efi'ect, is repeatedly introduced in all the greater works of this 
artist". I may here also notice the finials, crockets, and folia- 

Finial. crockets and cusping, Walsokne brass. 

' Figures of the twelve apostles (in- " The central finial of the canopy of 

eluding St. Paul) are introduced, in con- Prior Nelond's superb brass at Cowfold, 

nection with others, in the composition of Sussex, is another instance of this most 

this canopy. effective arrangement. 



tions of the main arches of the canopies in this and the other 
great Flemish brasses; the latter are most beautifully double- 
feathered, and the cusping of the whole is managed with consum- 
mate skill. In the Walsokne brass, the diapered field exhibits 
dragons, butterflies, and various other figures ; and this forms a com- 
plete back-ground to the entire work". At the foot of the brass, the 
architectural design springs from a regular basement, having, in 
two compartments, curious designs comprising groups of figures, 
with animals and trees °. Beneath the lowermost niches in the two 
exterior and central shafts of the canopy, are five small figures. The 
border fillet is double, the outer being ornamented with roses, the 
inner charged with a legend encompassing the whole work : at the 
angles are the evangelistic emblems within quatrefoils : in the fillet 
at the head and foot, at regular intervals, in similar quatrefoils, are 
two shields ; the one at the foot of the effigy of Adam de Walsokne 
himself, displaying the letter ?f surmounted of a cross patee-fitclie 
within an orle of roses : on either side of the fillet are three other 
similar quatrefoils, each central one containing a shield, that on the 
dexter side charged with the royal arms, (France and England 
quarterly, — France, semee de lys;) 
and in each of the other four quatre- 
foils the figure of an angel. The heads 
of both the principal effigies rest on 
elaborately embroidered cushions, sup- 
ported by angels : De Walsokne him- 
self is represented with flowing hair, 
but without any beard or moustaches : 
he is habited in a plain close tunic, 
open in front from the waist down- 
ward ; the sleeves of this tunic, which 
are also close, reach no lower than 
the bend of the arm, and thence 
they hang down in short lappets : Adam ae waisokne, ad. 1319 

" The diaper of the field of the St. Alban's 
brass consists of small elaborately foiled 
compartments, each containing a figure of 
a dragon or a clustered trefoil ; and this 

same design is repeated in the diaper of 
the brass of Alan Fleming at Newark. 
" These are figured iu Waller's Brasses. 



id, Margaret De WalB 

from beneath these appear the tight sleeves of the under vest, 
fastened to the wrist with a closely set row of buttons ; the 
skirts of this under garment appear through the narrow open- 
ing in the front of the super-tunic. Over his slioulders is 
a short capuchon or hood, hanging down in front, but having 
behind a standing collar. The feet are encased in plain half- 
boots, laced within ; and below them is represented a lion prey- 
ing on a savage man. The lady wears on her head a cover- 
chef and wimple, her hair being dis- 
posed in braids : her ample tunic is 
plain, but with a rich border; its 
sleeves resemble those of her hus- 
band; the skirt is gathered up under 
the right arm, and hanging down in 
hea\y folds, shews beneath a richly 
embroidered close vest; over all is a 
flowing mantle, having a border cor- 
responding with that of the tunic : at 
the feet rests a dog. The inscription, commencing a little to the 
left of the centre of the fillet at the base of the composition, runs 
thus, in Longobardic characters, — •' ^i?ic \acct SlDam Dc Mlabofenc 
^uonDam 9l3urgcu5 Scnn, qui obtit qutnto Die mcn^ig %Mnii anno Mni 

millfSimo trtccnte^stmo quaDrigcsimo nono i^Hargcrcta uxor ciug 

in ©lege nata quourum anime par IBet migerttotlitam in pace requtescant. 
amen." Another legend, in the same character, and facing upwards, 
is introduced beneath either compartment of the group at the foot 
of the principal effigies ; it comprises two lines of doubly-rhyming 
Latin : — 

" ®um flai, cum Umug cum Ke btltssitma si'mug 
2EnDe superbimug aD tetram terra rctimus." 

Of an ancient and well-known family, Robert Braunche is the 
other Lynn merchant, whose brass forms the companion to that of 
De Walsokne : its date is fifteen years later, A.D. 1364, the 27th 
of Edward III. In this brass three principal personages appear, 
and consequently a comparatively smaller space is left for accesso- 
ries in this, than in the preceding composition. Here the canopy 
comprises three arches, which, besides their elaborate foliation. 

D. 1364. 37" &XCI. Ill 

/J?. Johbuis, Wi,. 


In S'MVrargaxet's QiiltcIi, Ithtl Re|is, JNorfolt. 
(Canopy &c. omitted.) 


display in perspective the vaulting of their soffits p : between the 
effigies are very slender shafts ornamented with a running pattern, 
which is continued over the sweep of the arches, and externally be- 
yond the two outer figures : in close contact with this, rise, on either 
side, the slender singly-niched main shafts of the upper canopy, 
each exhibiting, in four canopied compartments, as many figures, 
two male, and two female, in the habits of civilians of the period. 
The main canopy is triple ; each subdivision being separated from, 
and also connected with, the others by arch-buttresses, and termi- 
nating above in tabernacle work of most elaborate richness : five 
canopied figures are introduced into each of these three upper 
compartments; the central figure of each group is aged, and 
seated on a throne; and of the other four figures in each group, 
two represent angels with thuribles, and two similar angelic forms 
hold instruments of music. The border fillet, which here also is 
double, immediately adjoins the shafts of the canopy : at its angles 
are the emblems of the Evangelists ; and in the centre of either 
side, within a quatrefoil, is a shield, the dexter charged with the 
arms of France and England quarterly, and the sinister with sable, 
a cross engrailed, or, for Braunche. The diapered field of the com- 
position, with its flowered and figured patterns, appears beside the 
effigies, and as a back-ground to the upper main canopy. The cos- 
tume of the three persons thus commemorated exhibits in all, an 
outer garment or tunic, which fits closely to the person, and has 
short sleeves with long pendent lappets, thus displaying from above 
the elbow the sleeves of the under vest. In the male figure, these 
sleeves have embroidered cuff's, and they are fastened by a close row 
of small buttons : the general arrangement of this figure resembles 
that of De Walsokne ; the tunic is made open in front ; the shoes 
are laced over the instep ; and at the feet is the same singular allego- 
rical composition ; here, however, in place of a lion is an eagle. The 
two ladies wear each a coverchef and wimple : and the full, plain, 
but richly bordered drapery of the tunic is gathered up, in the one 
under the right, and in the other under the left arm, displaying 
below the superb embroidery of the under dress. The sleeves of 
these splendid garments also appear from the elbow. The heads 

P This is by no means an uncommon arrangement in the canopies of brasses. 


of all three figures rest on cushions of rich workmanship. The 
inscription^ which occupies the entire inner portion of the border 
fillet, commences at the upper right hand angle; in the Longo- 
bardic character, its words are, — 

**»J<©ratc jpro antma6u3 Iflobetti 35tauncl)e Scticic ct JWargaretc uiorum 
ejus ct pro omnibus quibus tcncntur qut quiDfin Kobertiig obUt XV Ue 
©ctobtig anno IBomtnl 0i(i^&&^MM% anime fotum pec mi^erkorHtam 
13ct in pace rcqulcscant. ^mcn." 

The most remarkable feature in this noble brass yet remains to 
be noticed : it is the " Peacock Feast," represented in the compart- 
ment immediately below the three principal figures, and extending 
across the entire composition. This most curious, and indeed 
unique delineation of " Early English" civic hospitality, comme- 
morates the entertainment given by the mayor of Lynn to King 
Edward III., when on his journey to visit his mother at Castle- 
Rising. At the head of the table sits the monarch, wearing his 
royal crown : be' him is the cup of King John : the table is 
spread with "splL ^id delicacies," amongst which appears "the 
peacock, that nobP bird, the food of lovers, and the meat of lords," 
without which no princely banquet could worthily be furnished. 
Here the favourite dish appears served up with distinguished hon- 
ours ; it is to grace the board of a king, and minstrels with music 
and song greet its entrance. The guests on this august occasion 
are clad in mantles which, being worn open in front, disclose the 
body-armour worn beneath, and which usually is concealed by the 
surcoat *i. No belts or arms are worn, it not being consistent with 
due etiquette to sit down armed coram rege. Sheffield whittles, 
however, are in readiness for the service of the table. The ladies have 
put aside their mantles and vests with pendent sleeves, and adopted 
over a close-fitting tunic the sleeveless cote-hardi, open at its sides 
from the shoulders to the hips, and closed in front, and guarded 
or faced with fur. Their hair is plaited. And pointed sollerets 
are worn by all, who are engaged in earnest conversation. The 
back-ground was coloured of a light blue, spangled with silver 

1 The general vestment the surcoat, ju- is receiving a dish from one of the attend- 
pon, or cote d'armes, in this group only ants, 
appears on the person of the esquire, who 


A.. D, 13H1 . 3'1" tfdui:UI. 

Kewaric, XoltiiL^hanishire. 
( Canopy Si.o. ojniUed.. ) 

^.R Jobhins . Fecib, 


stars, in a manner resembling the decoration employed in the 
Painted Chamber at Westminster, a fashion introduced during the 
reign of Henry III. 

The now lost brass of Robert Attelathe appears, from the exist- 
ing impression of the eflfigy of Attelathe himself, to have formed a 
worthy compeer to those of his fellow citizens, Braunche and De 
Walsokne. He wears the small bifid beard, trimmed after the 
fashion represented in the monumental effigy of Richard II. His 
tunic is long and somewhat loose, with plain sleeves ; it is fastened 
down the front by buttons in pairs. Fastened also by buttons on 
the right shoulder is a mantle or cloak, having a small capuchon 
which forms a species of standing collar; this cloak hangs across 
the breast and over the left arm. Round the waist a narrow belt 
is buckled : the sleeves of the under tunic are continued to cover 
the clasped hands, after the fashion of embroidered mittens: the 
shoes are long, pointed, and cut very high behind ; they are fas- 
tened over the instep with buckles, and rest iipon two lions. 

Remarkable no less for its ample dimensions'" than elaborate 
richness of details, the brass of Alan Fleming, A.D. 1361, at 
Newark, displays a system of treatment generally corresponding 
with that already described as exemplified in the Lynn and 
St. Alban^s works of the same artist. Here but one principal 
effigy, that of Fleming himself, is introduced beneath a triple- 
arched canopy, which abounds in niched figures, and is supported 
by massive side compartments of most elaborate workmanship. 
The costume of the principal effigy is almost a counterpart of that 
worn at Lynn by Robert Braunche ; the sole diflference worthy of 
note being the introduction here of pockets in front of the super- 
tunic. Between the uplifted hands is held a scroll, bearing the 
legend, — " miserere . mei . domine . deus . meus." And the head 
reposes on an embroidered cushion supported by angels. The 
diaper of the field in this composition resembles in design that 
introduced into the brass of Abbot Delamere. The effigies in the 
niches of the canopy exemplify several curious and interesting 
varieties of civic costume, both male and female. The architec- 
tural designs are even unusually excellent and effective. And the 

r This brass measures 9 ft. 5 in. by 5 ft. 7 in. 


border fillet, which has on either side of it an elegant running 
pattern of foliage, is inscribed, in the early Black letter, with a 
legend which surrounds the entire plate. At the angles are the 
evangelistic emblems ; and in the centre of either side, the con- 
tinuity of the border fillet is interrupted by a quatrefoil containing 
a merchant's mark accompanied by a monogram. 

The brass at Topcliff" is of considerably 
smaller dimensions; but its merit, as a 
work of art, is of the very highest order. 
It represents, beneath a doubly-arched 
canopy, the effigies of a civilian and his 
lady, both attired in long tunics and man- 
tles ; the man wears, at his right side, an 
anlace. Tabernacle work, with figures 
of angels playing upon musical instru- 
ments, appears on either side, and rises 

. . /> • 1 Thomas deTopcliffe, A. D. 1391. 

above the effigies into clusters of niches, 

pinnacles, and rich tracery. The effigies are placed upon a ground 
of diaper of a flowing pattern, and beneath their heads are em- 
broidered cushions, each supported from above by an angelic figure 
with out-spread wings. The inscription, in Black letter, beginning 
at the middle of the plate, at the foot, runs as follows : — 

♦•»J< l^ic . \actt . benctabtU^ topclgff . qui . oU\t .an 

J^o.Cr^^o.a^'F" . quoru' . ani'e .... quoiiDam . uxor . cius . que . obiit . 
anno . Domini . iKo, @@@o. ^*®3I°. quoru' . ani'c . propicietur . teug." 

On either side is introduced an escutcheon with these arms, a 
chevron between three peg-tops,- and the evangelistic symbols 
appear in the angles of the plate. This brass is mentioned by 
Gough, who gives the name Thomas de topclyff, of which the 
Christian name now is lost. 

The chaliced priests at North Mimms and Wensley complete the 
series of this engraver's works, known yet to remain in England : 
these are by far the finest examples of engraven priestly effigies, 
and are both in excellent preservation. These plates belong to 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, and notwithstanding 
the splendour of the ecclesiastical vestments which they represent. 

CIKTA A.-D. 1360^ 34'^ &>\». lU. 


la Wensley Chiiroi., YoAshire. 

( Canopj onutted.) 

JJi Johitrui. Fed^. 


ClRCA A - D 13riO 

J Jf Mhns hA 

North Mimms Cliuroli, Hertfordshire. 
( CaxiopT omUtpd.l 


were designed to commemorate personages of no higher rank than 
parochial ministers, though possibly the founders or special bene- 
factors of their respective churches ^ It is remarkable that the 
names of both these individuals have "floated away down the 
stream of time, leaving behind no trace of their" identity. The 
dates of these brasses having been assigned to them from com- 
parison with other works of similar character, it may be presumed 
that Nicholas de Crekesawe, rector of Wensley, A.D. 1360, and 
Thomas de Horton, vicar of North Mimms at the same period, are 
the persons designed to be thus commemorated *. 

It is remarkable that no vestiges of colour or enamel yet remain 
upon any of these grand engravings : it may, however, be confi- 
dently asserted that the incised lines were originally filled-in with 
some composition, calculated to relieve and enrich those portions of 
the work in which the burnished, or perhaps gilded, metal was 
permitted to remain. Among the peculiarities of treatment com- 
mon to all these brasses, with the works of the same artist yet 
remaining at Bruges, the manner in which the mouth is expressed 
in all the principal effigies is very remarkable : in the diapers, 
embroideries, and ornamental accessories also, animal forms 
abound, in connection with a striking predominance of triplicity 
in the arrangement of parts and details : and the various archi- 
tectural members are characterized by an elaborate richness, com- 
bined with the most elegant lightness. The crockets and finials 
of the canopies are indeed singularly beautiful; and these are 

' The beautiful little church at North cution, to that of Abbot Delamere. Be- 
Mimms, a pure Decorated English- Gothic tween the feet of the effigy a stag is couched ; 
structure, agrees well with the date of the and below are two lions addorsed, support- 
fine brass which lies in the midst of the ing a basement to the general design, and 
chancel : of the architectural character of having between them a shield charged with 
the church at Wensley I am unable to a saltire between four crosses crosslet fit- 
speak. North Minims' church is figured chee : I lament that I am by far too im- 
in the work on "Parish Churches," by perfect a herald to assign this coat of arms 
Raphael and J. A. Brandon, Esqrs., archi- to its right possessor. 

tects, and some of its details appear in the t Xhe original engraving on the Palimp- 

" Analysis of Gothic Architecture," by the sest fragment from Trunch, Norfolk, evi- 

same accurate and talented authors. dently a Flemish work, ma)'^ possibly have 

The canopy of the priest at North been executed by the same artist with 

Mimms, it may here be added, is in all Lynn, St. Alban's, aaid Newark brasses, 

respects similar in style, design, and exe- See pages 40, and 149. 


commonly relieved by being placed upon a ground which is 
masoned, worked, that is, to represent courses of masonry". It 
appears also to have been a favourite habit with this artist to 
introduce at the feet of his effigies two figures of animals, placed 
together back to back, in the language of heraldry, addorsed. 
In these plates also is several times repeated a singular and some- 
what quaint expression of the artistes idea of the translation of the 
departed spirit, under the image of a very minute undraped figure, 
borne on high and placed on the knees of an august personage, 
enthroned, and having his head encircled with a nimbus. In the 
greater number of these foreign examples, as also in some few 
others, the heads of the principal effigies are represented as repos- 
ing upon embroidered cushions, the cushions themselves being in 
some instances supported by small figures of angels; in other 
examples, as in the fine brass of Alianore de Bohun, A.D. 1399, in 
Westminster abbey, and also in that of Sir Richard de Busling- 
thorpe more than a century earlier, there are two cushions, the one 
laid lozenge-wise upon the other : when the brass, or its fac-simile, 
is placed in an upright position, these cushions have a singular and 
disagreeable eff'ect ; but when laid down horizontally, they appear 
to be both consistent and ornamental appendages of the recumbent 

In Aveley church, Essex, is another Flemish brass, bearing date 
A.D. 1370, the 43rd of Edward III. : this commemorates Ralph 
de Knevynton, whose singularly curious and interesting effigy it 
represents beneath a crocketed and richly foiled canopy^. At 
Newcastle, bearing date A.D. 1429, is the only known Flemish 
specimen of the fifteenth century : it commemorates Roger Thorn- 
ton, his wife, and family, and is a large and fine brass. The prin- 
cipal effigies, depicted as habited in the ordinary costume of 
civilians of their day, are placed beneath elaborately wrought 
canopies, containing, as in the earlier examples, numerous figures 
of saints in canopied niches. The children, who are fourteen in 
number, are represented under small canopies, below the figures 
of their parents. The principal figures fill the entire space be- 
tween the shafts of the canopy, and their heads rest on cushions 

" See cut at page 12. » See p. 51. 


supporter! by angels. The man wears a long anlace. At the 
angles of the composition are the evangelistic emblems; and a 
shield of arms in the centre of either side-fillet completes the 
diversified enrichment of this interesting and valuable plate. The 
inscription, which is written in the black letter, is as follows, — 

^ ^}k . facet . Domicclla . agncsi . quoDam . uxor . rogert . tj^ornloii . que . 
obilt . in . bi'gcUa . ganctc . featcrinc . anno . Domini . iW. ®©©©. dCl. pro= 
pt'clctur . Ocus . amen, t^ |l?tc facet rogerug t&ornton mcator . nofat . castri 
super . ttnam . qui . obtit . anno . Dnt . miUegimo . ®@®©. ^*^.3I^\ et iij. 
Die . fanuartf. 

Two other Flemish brasses of later date have also been noticed : 
these are the memorials of Thomas Pownder, his wife, and family, 
A.D. 1525, in the church of St. Mary Quay, Ipswich; and of 
Andrew Evyngar and family, A.D. 1536, in the church of All- 
Hallows, Barking, London : these two brasses appear to have been 
the work of the same artist, and they both furnish a variety of 
curious and valuable illustration. The heraldic blazonry displayed 
by these two citizen-merchants demands special notice : they each 
bear upon a shield their respective marks, while upon two other 
shields Pownder has the arms of the borougli of Ipswich on the 
dexter, and those of the association of Merchants Adventurers on 
the sinister chief of the design^; and two shields similarly placed 
in the brass of Evyngar, are severally charged with the arms of 
the Merchants Adventurers, and of the Salter's Company. At 
Fulham, Middlesex, Margaret Saunders, A.D. 1529, is commemo- 
rated by a demi-figure engraved on a lozenge-shaped plate : and 
again at the late period of 1638, the 14th of Charles I., occurs the 
brass of Sir Edward Filmer, his lady, and their eighteen children, 
which is worked in one large plate of metal, but without any dia- 
per or other ornaments : it is in the church of East Sutton, Kent. 

Though executed in several detached pieces of metal, the brass 
of Sir Hugh Hastings, A.D. 1347, the 20th of Edward III., at 
Elsyng church, Norfolk, must also be regarded as the work, or at 
least the design, of some Flemish artist. This elaborate compo- 

y Seep. 132. 


sition, though now unhappily mutilated, is still a very valuable 
example, and that not of knightly costume only, but also of the 
application of enamel to these monumental plates. For, as Cotman 
remarks, in this brass "all the shields were formerly enamelled 
with the arms in their proper colours : the lines of the brass were 
also filled-in with enamel, and the ground of the fillet, which went 
round the whole, and contained the inscription, was enamelled red ; 
so that this monument, when entire and in good preservation, must 
have been singularly splendid ^" 

In the church at Minster, in the Isle of Sheppey, is preserved 
another brass which, from certain peculiarities of habit and equip- 
ment, is conjectured to have been engraved in France : it is the 
monumental memorial of Sir John de Northwode, and Joan de 
Badlesmere, his lady; and may be assigned to about the year 
1325. In this exa. pie, as it now appears, the effigy of the knight 
is in the cross-leggjd attitude; though it would seem, at some 
unknown period, to have been cut into two parts, and, after the 
removal of a strip o^ the metal, the extremities to have been again 
placed in juxta-position, thus destroying all appearance of propor- 
tion in the entire f o"ure. I am enabled, however, to state, upon 
the authority of M Waller, that the greater part of the original 
lower portion of this figure was, in reality, entirely abstracted ; the 
existing lower portion from below the knees proving, on a careful 
examination, to be a restoration, or rather an alteration, executed 
at a period subsequent to the other parts of the work : both the 
design and engraving are evidently the production of another, and 
that an inferior hand, while the metal itself betrays a diversity of 
composition. This is a highly remarkable circumstance, inasmuch 
as thus the very effigy, which appeared to militate against the 
assertion that the cross-legged attitude is exclusively characteristic 
of British monumental memorials, strongly corroborates that opi- 
nion ^. Besides this brass, but one other specimen can with any 
degree of certainty be attributed to French artists : this is the 
interesting memonal of Margaret de Camoys, A.D. 1310, at Trot- 
ton in Sussex^. 

The fine brass of Archdeacon William de Rothewelle, A.D. 1361, 

' See p. 45. a See p. 42. " See pp. 80, 131. 



in Rothwell church, Northamptonshire, ought perhaps to be here 
inserted, as certainly another specimen of Flemish design, if not 
actually the work of a foreign engraver. And, in like manner, 
besides the few examples which may without a doubt be attributed 
to the brass engravers of Flanders, there are very many other 
brasses executed in this country after designs by artists of the 
early Flemish school ; to whose talents we are further indebted for 
the original designs of many figures, painted upon screens and other 
tabernacle work, and also of numerous monumental efiigies sculp- 
tured in relief, or incised upon flat slabs of stone. 

The few brasses which yet remain in Flanders'^, together with 
the numerous drawings in the Bodleian Library, of similar monu- 
ments once existing in France, confirm the theory which assigns a 
foreign origin to those examples in our own country, which are 
worked on large unbroken sheets of metal ; these foreign brasses 
being invariably executed in the same manner. And this theory 
receives still further confirmation from the existence in the cathe- 
dral of Constance of a large and elaborate brass, precisely resem- 
bling in every peculiarity both of design and workmanship, the 
brasses of England, and which commemorates Robert Hallum, 
bishop of Salisbury, the special envoy of Henry V. to the council 
of Constance, who dying there in the year 1416, during the sitting 
of the council, was buried in the cathedral with great solemnity. 
This brass, figured in vol. xxx. of the Archeeologia, is traditionally 
asserted to have been brought over from England : and such 
assuredly was the fact; the brass itself, in its general charac- 
teristics, strongly corroborating the authenticity of its imputed 
origin. And thus we discover, in the only similar memorial of 
an Englishman of distinction of this period, known to exist in a 
foreign church, all those peculiar features which specially charac- 
terize brasses engraven in this country. I am induced, from the 
singular interest associated with this memorial, to add a short 

"= The cathedral of Bruges contains some of these, representing a corpulent burgher 

examples which, in every particular of size, having attached to his belt an anlace, 

design, and style of workmanship resemble thrust through the lappets of his gypciere, 

the brasses of St. Alban's, and Lynn, and is beautifully engraved in the tenth part of 

are without doubt tlie productions of the Waller's Brasses, 
same hand. A portion of a figure from one 


descriptive notice of its composition. The several plates of which 
it is composed, are embedded in distinct matrices in a slab of dark 
blue marble, measuring nine feet by five : in the centre is the 
effigy vested in an amice, alb, chesuble, stole and maniple ; on the 
head is worn a rich mitre, and in the left hand is held a corre- 
sponding pastoral staff", having its crook turned outwards, and the 
staff enveloped with the vexillum ; the right hand is uplifted in 
benediction. About this effigy is disposed a highly ornamented 
canopy, consisting on either side of five canopied compartments, 
each occupied by an angel with a radiated nimbus ; the canopy is 
finished above by a square embattlement, under which a rounded 
arch is turned, thus forming foliated spandrels : beneath this arch, 
springing on either side from the upright sides of the design, is a 
second canopy immediately surmounting the head of the prelate ; 
this beautiful member consists of a trefoil arch, double-feathered, 
which rises above into graceful ogee curves, enriched with crockets, 
and terminating in a floriated finial : on either side of this finial is 
a garter enclosing a shield, radiated ; the garter on the dexter 
side is ensigned with the motto of the order, and the shield 
bears the royal arms of England; the sinister shield has been 
abstracted, but the garter which once encircled it displays the 
legend, — ''Misericordias Domini in sternum cantabo :" near 
the verge of the slab is a fillet of metal with the following singular 
rhyming inscription, and having at its angles the Evangelistic 
emblems : — 

»J< ^ubjacct \)\t gtratug iflobcrt lijallum bocitatug 

^uonDam platus <Sar sub j^onotc creatus 

|i?ic Dfcrcto Doctor pacisq creator 

iHobilts ^nglor Kcgtg fult amba^ciator 

iFcgtu ©utl)bcrti scptembris mense faigcbat 

5n quo l^obti mortem ©onstantia flcbat 

^nno millcno tviccnt octuagcno 

Sbtx cu tcr Dejto cu XPO btbat amcno '^. 

^ The contracted words severally are, to :" the contracted Greek form of our 
"prelatus," " Sarum," " Angloriim," Saviour's name in the last line is very 
" Festum," " Roherti," "cum," "Chris- remarkable. 


Late in Netley Abbey Church, but now in private possession. 
See Appendix C.) 

ClKGA r^77 5" Of^^lU: ] 

J. I!- Jobhur.-: Fmt 

b Stolte l)'Al)enion OmrcTi, Suirey. 


Among other foreign examples yet occupying their original 
positions, a very remarkable, and I am inclined to believe unique 
brass, is affixed to the wall in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle : 
it commemorates John Bollart, a canon of that " insignis eccle- 
si^," who deceased September 24th, A.D. 1534. This memorial 
is worked on an unbroken plate of metal, representing the Virgin 
and Holy Infant, attended by St. John the Baptist and St. Chris- 
topher, the latter standing above the ankles in water: columns of 
somewhat fanciful design support a canopy of interrupted and 
intersecting arches : and in the base of the entire composition is 
introduced the inscription between two compartments, each occu- 
pied by a shield of arms with crest and mantling, beneath a tre- 
foil-arch. Enamels of red, black, dark grey, and a pale green 
illuminate several portions of the work; while in other parts, the 
surface of the metal is diapered, and its effect heightened by bur- 
nished gilding. 

An excellent specimen of foreign brasses may be seen in a plate, 
now forming part of the collection in the museum of Economic 
Geology, in Craig^s court, London, Avhither it was brought from 
the ruined chapel of the castle of Corteville, in Flanders : this 
engraving is in a high state of preservation, and exemplifies, in 
the most satisfactory manner, the several peculiarities of the Flem- 
ish artists in brass. It is the memorial of Louis de Corteville and 
his lady, and bears date, A.D. 1496. 

Some of the more remarkable English Brasses, properly so 
called, next claim attention. Of these, the earliest, indeed, the 
earliest brass known now to be in existence, is the memorial of Sir 
John d^Aubernoun, in the church of Stoke d'Aubernoun, near 
Guildford, in Surrey : its date is about A.D. 1277, the 5th of 
Edward I., and it is the only military whole-length example of 
this reign which is not in the cross-legged attitude. In this no 
less noble than interesting effigy, the knight is represented as 
armed, with the sole exception of his Genouillieres, or knee-plates, 
in a complete suit of interlaced chain-mail : his body is enveloped 
in a Hauberk, having its sleeves continued to cover the hands, and 
thus forming gauntlets without divisions for the fingers : over his 



head is drawn a hood, or Coif-de- 
mailles : Chausses, continued hke the 
sleeves of the hanberk, protect the 
legs and feet : at the knees are orna- 
mented genouilheres of plate, above 
which depends the skirt of the hau- 
berk : and from the heels project sin- 
gle-point or pryck spurs e. The mail 
is surmounted by a plain loose sur- 
coat, apparently of a rich material : it 
has a fringed border, and reaching 
below the knees, is confined at the 
waist by a plaited cord, from beneath 
which it opens in front, and falls on 
either side in ample folds. Sustained 
by a hip-belt exhibiting a peculiar ar- 
rangement of straps, the long strait 
sword, with crossed hilt, curiously 
worked pommel, and plain scabbard, 
hangs on the left front of the figure. 
An enriched Guige, (its ornaments 
being roses alternating with a peculiar 
species of cross',) passing over the right shoulder, supports on 

1 d'Aubernouu, c. A.D, 

e No monumental brass has yet been 
discovered, which represents the deceased 
warrior as clad in mail without any admix- 
ture of plate : many sculptured effigies, 
however, exist, in which mail is the sole 
defensive equipment. The demi-figure 
(see p. 114) of a knight at Croft, Lincoln- 
shire, exhibits indeed no plate-armour : but 
this brass belongs evidently to a period in 
which portions of plate were worn in con- 
nection with the mail. And doubtless such 
portions of plate would have been expressed, 
had a complete effigy been depicted in this 
brass. The hood of mail was drawn under 
the chin, and fastened by a ring on the side 
of the head. The spurs were attached to 
the person by straps. The surcoat was 
laced up at the side of the figure. 

In the brass of Sir John d'Aubernoun 
the mail is chain-mail, and consists of rings 
of steel interlaced one with another, and 
strongly fastened with rivets. See note p, 
p. 32. 

' This cross, denomi- 
nated in a MS. of the fif- 
teenth century, the " Fyl- 
fot," was in use at a very! 
remote period, as a mystic 
symbol, amongst religi- 
ous devotees in India and' 
China, whence it appears to have been 
introduced, probably in the sixth century, 
into Europe. " It occurs," says Mr. Wal- 
ler, " on very early Christian remains, and 
is found on the girdle of a priest of the 
date, A.D. 1011." On brasses it is a com- 



the opposite side, in front of the arm, a small flat heater- 
shaped shield, still retaining its enamelled tinetures for the 
D'Aubernoun bearing, azure, a chevron, or^. Under the right 
arm passes a lance '^ displaying, immediately below the head, a 
small fringed pennon charged with the armorial insignia of its 
owner ; while the staff, resting on the ground, is grasped by a lion 
couchant stretched at the feet of the knight. Of the two small 
shields originally at the head of the slab, that on the dexter side 
alone remains, and is enamelled with the D'Aubernoun arms. 
The brass letters of the inscription, with the two narrow fillets of 
the same metal which enclosed them, have long been lost : from 
their incised matrices, however, may be still distinguished, in 
Longobardic capitals, the legend, — 

" Considered as a work of art," observes Mr. Waller, " it will be 
found that the figure is ill-proportioned, but the arrangement of the 
drapery judiciously contrived : whilst, as a production of the burin, 
this brass is not excelled by any posterior example : each link of 
the mail is distinctly represented, and the mere work of graving 
up so large a surface must have cost many weeks of patient 
labour ^" 

mon ornament, anterior to the accession wielded by such hands as those of our gal- 
of Richard II. See Waller's descriptive lant IGth, we have but to turn our eyes east- 
notice of the Shottesbroke Brass of a ward, and call to mind the pierced and 
Priest and Frankelein. Also see p. 96. discomfited squadrons of Lahore. See 

•? Chaucer makes reference to the shield- Planche's British Costume, p. 61. 

belt, the guige or gige, when he speaks of ' This most interesting monument has 

his knip'hts as " gigging their shields.", long been in a great measure concealed by 

^ This, the earliest known brass in exist- the rails of the Communion-table ; and thus 

ence, is the only example of which I am archaeologists and artists have been deprived 

aware, in which the principal effigy appears of the power even to examine the first speci- 

armed with the knightly lance. Nearly 800 men that now can. be referred to, of this im- 

years now have elapsed, since the proud perishable and valuable class of monumental 

array of Norman lances were marshalled memorials : as a trifling alteration will lay 

on the fatal field of Hastings : the lance, both this plate and the brass of the second Sir 

however, and, as of yore, still decorated Juhti d' Aubernoun completely open to view, it 

with a fluttering pennon, after long disuse, is to be hoped that the necessary arrangements 

again has become an English weapon ; and for effecting so desirable an object will speedily 

for evidence of its deadly efficiency, when be completed. 


Next in chronological succession follows the first of the cross- 
legged knights, Sir Roger de Trumpington, A.D. 1289, the 17th 
of Edward 1.^ Five hrasses alone now complete the knightly 
brotherhood in this remarkable attitude^, which I consider may- 
have been adopted in so many monumental effigies of this era, 
solely as an expressive token that the departed warrior, having 
lived a true son of the Church, died professing the Christian faith. 
That the priestly soldiers of the Temple, even if they be thus com- 
memorated at all, are not thus exclusively commemorated, we have 
positive evidence : no less certain is it, on the other hand, that 
the cross-legged effigy does not necessarily denote the crusader; 
though, from the very circumstance of a knight serving, or taking 
the vow to serve, under the banner of the cross, he, if any man, 
would naturally and consistently be represented in this posture : 
still, the same posture might with equal propriety be assumed in 
delineatiug the monumental effigies of others, who never had been 
in any way connected with a crusade". 

The Trumpington effigy rests upon an altar-tomb beneath an 
elegant canopy, in the church of that place, near Cambridge. As 
in the last example, the figure is depicted in the attitude of re- 
pose, with the hands conjoined over the breast; and so dignified is 
the expression of the departed knight, that truly may he be said to 
lie "like a warrior taking his rest." The costume also accords 
generally with that of Sir John d'Aubernoun, but is remarkable 

^ The demi-figure of Sir Richard de or chapels. That it should be restricted 

Buslingthorpe is, probably, of the same to monumental effigies in England, with 

date as the complete effigy of De Trump- the sole exception of one at Dublin and the 

ington : a description of this curious brass four atCashel, (of which three are females,) 

will be found at p. 1 13. in the sister island, is a very singular fact ; 

' Though now having the legs crossed, while here, figures carved in this attitude 
the brass of Sir John de Northwode at abound in every part of the kingdom. It 
Minster in the Isle of Sheppey, must be would be curious, were it practicable, to 
excluded from the series of cross-legged trace the connection, if any, between such 
knights, in consequence of the compara- figures and the sacred edifice in which they 
tively recent adaptation of this attitude to lie. The effigies of Sir Roger de Kerdes- 
the figure, by means of a substitution of ton, A.D. 1337, at Reepham, and of Sir 
fresh lower extremities, in place of those Oliver d'Ingham, A.D. 1343, at Ingham, 
originally constituting a part of the effigy. Norfolk, are cross-armed as well as cross- 
See p. 24. legged: but neither of these knights were 

°i Possibly this attitude may indicate the crusaders, while both appear to have been 

founders and great benefactors of churches benefactors of their respective churches. 

AD. 128 9. 17° $hix>: 1.^. 

In TrumpmgtoiL Church, Camtridge shire. 


for the entire absence of ornament. Here, however, the head is 
supported by the tilting-helm, which is large and conical, having 
at its apex a staple for affixing either the heraldic crest, or the 
lady's scarf, known in chivalrous phrase as the "kerchief of plea- 
saunce " :" the helmet itself is secured by a chain to the narrow 
cincture round the waist, with a view thus to enable the knight to 
recover this important piece of his defensive equipment, should he 
chance to be unhelmed in the melee. A plume of feathers, I may 
here observe, as an ornamental accessory, and not an heraldic 
bearing, was rarely if ever worn upon the steel head-piece of the 
knight before the reign of the fifth Henry, A.D. 1411; when the 
Panache, or plume consisting of at most three feathers, set upright 
upon the helmet, was introduced and generally adopted. It was 
not till about eighty years later, in the reign of Henry VII., that 
a rich profusion of feathers were attached to a small pipe, affixed 
for that purpose to the back of the helmet, whence they streamed 
down the shoulders of the knight almost to the crupper of his 
charger, or floated luxuriantly in the wind. In the Q^^y of Sir 
Roger de Trumpington, also, are first introduced the Ailettes, the 
prototypes of the epaulettes of modern times : and this with the 
Buslingthorpe, Chartham, and Gorleston brasses, and a sculptured 
effigy of a knight of the Pembridge family in Clehongre church, 
Herefordshire, is the only known example of a monumental figure 
in England, which displays this singular appendage to the accou- 
trements of the armed knight : in illuminations and upon seals, 
ailettes repeatedly occur. The shield of Sir Roger de Trumping- 
ton, which is large and concave to the person, is charged with the 
armorial bearings of the family, — azure, crusuly and two tru mpets 
in pale, or: upon the ailettes, and also upon the sword-scabbard °, 
the same heraldic blazonry is repeated, but here differenced by a 
label of five points; and thus the bearing corresponds precisely 

1 The monumental .^^^^k ° '^^^ sword- scabbard of Sir Richard de 

memorial of Sir Wil- /"^ \ \ Montfort, in his sculptured effigy, c. A.D. 

liamde Staunton, A.D. M^ \ \ 1270, at Hitchendon, Bucks, is similarly 

1312, at Staunton, Jf (K / \ ornamented with shields of arms: and 

Nottinghamshire, sup- ^p^^jjl' / I small shields are also worked upon the 

plies a good example \^ J genouillieres of Brian, Lord Fitzalan of 

of the tilting-helm of ^^^.a^mm^mm^ I Bedale, A.D. 1302, at Bedale, Yorkshire, 
his time. 

'X ilung-hckn. 


with the arms of a second knight of the same name, as they appear 
entered upon the roll of the battle of Boroughbridge, fought 
March 16th, A.D. 1322, — " Sire Rog de Trupeton dazur ij 


Sir Roger was grandson of the former; and both, being eldest 
sons, might equally bear the label. That this interesting brass 
never was finished, clearly appears from the shield, which exhibits 
the commencement of preparations for sinking or cutting away 
the field, for the purpose of inserting the enamel which should 
indicate its azure tincture : the plainness of the entire work also, 
and the general uniformity of breadth observable in all the en- 
graven lines, bold and effective as they nevertheless are, serve to 
confirm this supposition p. The narrow fillet of brass which origi- 
nally bore the inscription, has long since been removed from 
round the verge of the slab ; its casement is curious, since it mea- 
sures at the head about an inch and a half more than at the feet 
of the figure. This knight in the year 1270 assumed the cross, 
and accompanied Prince Edward to the Holy Land ; and thus his 
effigy, (but of effigies engraven on brass, his alone) supports the 
generally received opinion, that the cross-legged attitude bespeaks 
the crusader. 

Ailettes or ailerons i, as they were appropriately termed, came 
into fashion early in the reign of Edward I. ; although the first 
English royal seal upon which they appear is that of Edward III., 
during whose reign they ceased to be worn. Ailettes designed for 
actual service appear to have been formed of steel, and usually dis- 
played the arms of the wearer, or some personal badge or device : 
they were attached by laces or arming points to the hauberk ; and 
their object was to furnish additional protection to the shoulders 

P The mail of this effigy is represented cised lines are deeply cut, and still as sharp 
by rows of small crescent-shaped incisions and clear as when first executed by the 
in the plate, facing alternately to the right graving-tool. Some traces of gilding may 
and left : this is the usual mode of ex- be observed on a close inspection, 
pressing in these engravings that species "i The ailettes were occasionally termed 
of mail armour, which is to be distinguished Gonfa7ions; but this term more generally 
as ring-mail, and which is composed of indicates the small pennon, in shape some- 
small rings of steel sewn edgeways upon a what resembling a ship's vane, which flut- 
strong garment of leather or quilted cloth. tered from beneath the head of the knightly 
The plate upon which this brass is en- lance, 
graved is of unusual thickness, and the in- 


and neck'". The ailcttcs of Sir E,. de Buslingtliorpe are plain, 
and, like those of Sir R. de Trumpington, arc fixed in a perpen- 
dicular position : in the Chartham and Gorleston brasses they are 
so worn as to rise lozenge- wise above the shoulders ; and of these 
the former is charged with the badge of the wearer, and the latter 
simply ensigned with a cross. The first mention of ailcttcs which 
has been noticed in any document occurs in the roll of a tourna- 
ment held at Windsor, A.D. 1278 ; from this curious memorial we 
learn that dress ailettes were formed of leather covered with cloth 
or silk, and bordered with iringe, and that they were laced to the 
shoulders of the hauberk with silken cords. Among the list of the 
knights present at this tournament occurs the name of Sir Roger 
de Trumpington himself, together with his entire equipment for 
the occasion, including " par alett," — a pair of ailettes. At a sub- 
sequent period, a pair of ailettes garnished and fretted with pearls, 
occur in the inventory of the effects of Piers Gaveston, taken 
A.D. 1313 : and a similar entry appears in the inventory of Hum- 
phrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, A.D. 1322, respect- 

After an interval of thirteen years, A.D. 1302, the 30th of Ed- 
ward I., appears the memorial of Sir Robert de Bures, at Acton in 
Suffolk, unquestionably the finest early brass, and on the whole 
the finest mihtary brass in existence ^ The costume difters but 
little from that of the two preceding figures, but its details are 
more elaborate, and the drapery is disposed with a greater degree 
of elegance. The guige in this effigy is so arranged as to pas-i 
under, and consequently be partially concealed by, the coif-de- 

r The ailettes of Sir — de Pembridge at whose hilt as well as his knee-pieces is 

Clehongre, are plain and concave to the highly ornamented, is girded on his left 

person; and they are attached to the side before ; and on his left arm, suspended 

shoulders by arming-points. by a baudric over his right shoulder, is 

s See Frontispiece. a pointed shield charged with ermine, on 

Gough thus describes this noble plate : a chief indented, sable, three lionels, ram- 

— " A neat brass figure, cross-legged, in pant. His spurs are in single point, and 

mail, round helmet, surcoat falling lightly at his feet is a lion. At the north-west cor- 

in handsome plaits which are gathered ner of the plate (slab) remains in Gothic 

round his waist by a kind of cord, and capitals his name," — ROBERTVS : DB : 

fringed at the bottom and sides : his sword, BVRCS : 


mailles : it sustains a shield of form resembling that of Sir Roger 
de Trumpington, and, like his, charged with heraldic insignia, 
being the arms of De Bures, — Ermine, on a chief indented, sable, 
three lioncels rampant, or^ Below the skirt of the hauberk, 
which is composed of chain-mail, are seen the gamboised, or pad- 
ded and quilted trews, denominated " cuisseaux gamboisez," which 
cover the chausses from the knee upwards : this garment, having 
its surface usually of silk, or other even more costly material, 
in the brass before us is richly "embroidered with the fleur- 
de-lys, and an ornament resembling in shape the Greek lyre, 
disposed alternately in lozenges formed by the reticulation of 
silken cords." The sword-hilt exhibits a corresponding reticu- 
lated enrichment; and the knee-plates are likewise elaborately 
engraved. The brass Longobardic letters of the legend have 
been long taken from their respective matrices; and so worn is 
the verge of the slab itself, that the forms even of these are for 
the greater part obliterated : the name, however, happily is pre- 
served, so that we may safely reckon the legend to have com- 
menced thus, — 

►J< SimiE : m©131Em_^ : B1E : 13TJ3aiES : ©ISS) : ICDg :» 

But four years later, A.D. 1306, the 34th of Edward I,, follows 
the last military brass of this reign, and the last example of mail 
having no further admixture of plate-armour than the steel genou- 
illieres : it commemorates Sir Robert de Septvans, and lies in the 
fine church of Chartham in Kent, of which very probably he had 
been the founder. "The execution of this brass," remarks Mr. 
Waller, "is not so careful as usual, the plates are less skilfully 
joined together, and the mail seems to be unfinished, a small por- 
tion at the ankle of the right foot being more elaborate than the 

' In the shield, as depicted on the brass, memorates anotlier member of this family 
but two lioncels are emblazoned on the Isaia Bures, once vicar of Northolt in Mid- 
chief, dlesex, who, dying A.D. 1610, was buried 

" Another brass at Acton, bears date in his church ; where, over his grave, en- 

A.D. 1539, and is the memorial of Henry graven in brass, is his effigy, in academic 

Bures, Esq., who is habited in armour. habit and in a kneeling posture. 
And again a brass of much later date com- 

A D . 13 6. 34° ^bW: ] . 

In Ciidrtham Church., Kent. 

''S.Johhtns, Fecit- 


rest; but on the wholes it is well designed, and a very useful 
memorial of the military costume at the close of the reign of Ed- 
ward I." 

The costume in this brass differs from that of the preceding effi- 
gies, in having the head and hands uncovered ^ ; the coif~de-mailles 
is thrown back, and lies on the breast and shoulders, and the ter- 
minations of the sleeves of the hauberk hang down from the wrists. 
Beneath the hauberk appears the quilted under garment, called 
the Haqueton ; and chausses of similar material pass over the knees, 
forming a pad for the genouillieres, which here are shaped somewhat 
like the elbow -pieces of a later period; their edges are escaloped. 
The sword- belt and scabbard are highly ornamented, and the spurs 
still devoid of rowels. The long and flowing surcoat is emblazoned 
with the arms of the family ; and it is worthy of remark that there 
are seven fans displayed on the figure, besides the independent 
charges of the shield. 

The singular name of Septvans or Seven-fans, is derived from the 
ancient cognizance of the family ; though it would seem that their 
armorial bearing displayed but three fans of gold upon an azure 
field, — "dazur e iij vans dor.^^ The fan thus borne, and so 
clearly represented on the brass, is the ancient instrument of 
wicker-work for winnowing corn ; and in form and construction 
bears a strong resemblance to the similar implement of modern 
husbandry. Peaceful as it must be regarded in its primary accep- 
tation, there is something strikingly suitable to the warrior in this 
emblem, a suitableness not lost sight of by him who wrote for all 
time : for in " Troilus and Cressida ^," we read, — 

" Distinction, with a broad and powerful /an, 
Puffing at all, winnows the light away; 
And what hath mass, or matter, by itself 
Lies, rich in virtue, and unmingled." 

Thus, the chivalrous qualities of the knight could be dispersed by 
no adverse blast ; while, like chaff before the wind, he scattered 
afar all that was worthless in itself, and adverse to the cause he 

'^ Possibly the bare head and hands may ^ Act I. Scene iii. 

denote the peaceful death of the knight. 


had espoused. Such, doubtless, were the principles, as such was 
the motto of De Septvans, — " Dissipabo inimicos Regis mei, ut 
paleam," — 'the enemies of my king will I disperse like chaff.' 
The grandfather of this knight, who died A.D. 1249, was present 
with King Richard I. at Acre : but Sir Robert himself does not 
appear to have joined the crusade, though there is record of his 
having repeatedly performed good service to his sovereign at home. 
Six years after his last appearance in the field at the celebrated 
siege of Caerlaverock, A.D. 1300, he died, being then fifty-seven 
years of age, and leaving a son named William 2. It is very curi- 
ous to observe the striking similarity in design and general treat- 
ment, exhibited between this Chartham brass and the sculptured 
effigy in the Temple church, probably that of William, lord de Ros, 
who died A.D. 1317: these memorials appear to have been exe- 
cuted after designs from the same artist, and thus would indi- 
cate an identity of origin for the various species of monumental 
portraiture ". 

Though in other points the general aspect of the two remaining 
cross-legged brasses corresponds with the example already noticed, 
in one important particular they exhibit a marked distinction 
from them. No longer are the genouillieres the sole exception to 
the armour being throughout of mail : for here the adoption of a 
considerable portion of plate armour is apparent, in combination 
with the reticvdated hauberk. One of these brasses, now existing 
in the church of Gorleston, near Great Yarmouth, is unfortunately 
mutilated in the lower extremities, and has also lost its armorial 
accessories and a rich pedimental canopy; still, enough of the 
figure yet remains to enable us to form a correct idea of its origi- 
nal appearance. The coif-de-mailles, hauberk, surcoat, and belts. 

^ In the church at Cobham, in Kent, Yorkshire, (figured by Hollis,) would also 

lies buried, and there is commemorated by appear to have been designed by the same 

an Anglo-Norman inscription, Joan de artist. The brass of Sir Richard de Bus- 

Septvans, sister of Sir Robert de Septvans, lingthorpe (p. 1 13) again, maybe regarded 

and first wife of Sir John de Cobham, as the work of both the same engraver and 

baron of the exchequer, who died, A.D. the same designer. The Temple effigy is 

1300. figured ' y Mr. Richardson, in his notice 

'^ The eflSgy of Brian, Lord Fitz-Alan of the restorations recently so ably executed 

of Bedale, A.D. 1302, in Bedale church, by him in that splendid church. 

CIRCA AD - 1320 . 13"(SW):1L 

J.R JobVns. liSi 

SIB.... . BE IBACOI? o 

(jorleston Cltirch.. Siiffolt. 

( Mutila.te i _ C anopy de stroy e i , 

CIRCA. AD. 1320 _ 13° (Efia), 11. 

J.R.Joihins . Wv. 


In Pebmarsh. Churck, Essex. 

I Canopy lost.j 


are retained ; though the sword-belt is somewhat slighter than in the 
previous examples. The back of the upper arms, from the shoulder 
to the elbow, and the front of the lower arms, from the elbow to 
the wrist, have the additional protection of plates of steel, severally- 
designated Demi-Brassarts and Vambraces : the front of the legs is 
similarly guarded by Jambarts or shin-pieces ; these plates are all 
strapped over the mail : at the bend of the shoulders and elbows, 
in front, are Palettes or Roundels ; Coudieres or elbow-pieces guard 
the elbows themselves, and at the knees are genouillieres : these 
all are of plate. The shield is small, flat, and heater-shaped ; and 
it is sustained by a very narrow guige, which passes over the hood 
of mail. From above the shoulders rise the ailettes, which are 
fringed and ensigned with the cross of St. George. This effigy, 
supposed to represent one of the Bacon family, having been ab- 
stracted from its marble slab, came into the possession of the 
late Craven Ord : but at his death in the year 1830, by the care 
of the late John Gage Rokewode, Esq., and of Dawson Turner, 
Esq., it was restored to its original position in Gorleston church. 
Its date is about A.D. 1320. It is in all respects a valuable speci- 
men, well designed and executed, and, as far as it yet remains, in 
fair preservation. 

Bearing this same date, A.D. 1320, the 8th of Edward II., and 
preserved in the church of Pebmarsh, near Halstead in Essex, is the 
fifth and last remaining brass of this series : it commemorates a 
knight of the Fitzralph family ; and, with but a few trifling excep- 
tions, it is in fine preservation. The arming and general equip- 
ment of this knight is precisely the same as I have already noticed 
in the Gorleston brass; with the exception of the ailettes, which 
are here omitted, and the mail which is interlaced chain-mail in- 
stead of the ring-mail. In this example also the arming of the 
legs and feet is completely expressed : it exhibits the jambarts 
continued from the ankles by lames, or small plates of steel, over 
the front of the feet, and thus forming the mixed Sollerets of mail 
and plate. The surcoat is long and ample : the convex shield is 
apparently fringed, and its guige is broad and fastened over the 
hood by a buckle : the mail throughout is admirably expressed : 
beneath the skirts of the hauberk appears the haqueton, or quilted 


under garment^ designed to protect the body from the pressure of 
its covering of reticulated steel : and beneath the haqueton are 
seen the gamboised cuisseaux. The genouillieres, with the several 
appointments of the sword, are elaborately enriched : and from the 
centre of the palettes small spikes project. At the feet of the 
knight reposes a dog. From the circumstance of there being no 
means of positively identifying the individuals, to whose memory 
this and the last described brass were laid down, it cannot be 
ascertained whether or not crusaders are indicated by these cross- 
legged efiigies : and thus, as before observed, of the knights com- 
memorated by the five cross-legged brasses, but one is known to 
have followed the cross-banner into the Holy Land. 

We have already seen that but four brasses representing entire 
figures of the knights of the reign of Edward I., ai'e yet known to 
be in existence^ : and to these, notwithstanding the more general 
adoption at that period of this species of memorial, but five others 
can be added illustrative of the knightly costume worn during the 
reign of his unfortunate son and successor. Of two of this second 
series I have just spoken : two others " are nearly counterparts of 
each other in design, almost contemporary in date, and without 
doubt executed by the same hand :" these commemorate a second 
Sir John d'Aubernoun, the son and heir of the former, at Stoke 
d'Aubernoun ; and Sir John de Creke with the Lady Alyne his 
wife, at Westley Waterless, in Cambridgeshire. This last named 
brass consists of two efiigies still entire; but it has lost its fine 
double canopy, with the inscription and accompanying shields of 
arms. On her head the lady wears a coverchef falling over the 
shoulders, her chin and throat being further enveloped with a 
wimple or gorget, which barely discloses the plaited bands of the 
hair on either side the face : over a long and somewhat close kirtle 
with sleeves, is a second and sleeveless garment of more ample pro- 
portions, which is open'' from the shoulders to the waist, and 
gathered up beneath the left arm; over all is worn a mantle, 

** The Gorleston and Minster brasses which were in the first instance designed 

having originally represented the complete to represent demi-figures. 
effigy, are to be classified with such as still ■= For further notice of this sleeveless 

remain in a perfect state, and not with those garment, see p. 62. 

:■^ 13 2 5 18° fttai. u. 


In We stley Waterless ChiLTcli, CajnindgesMre. 

(Canopies lost) 


whicli is confined on the Ijreast with a short cordon, and also 
gathered up in folds beneath the left arm. In the effigy of the 
knight appears a further change of costume : the long and flow- 
ing surcoat, open in front, has been discarded, and its place occu- 
pied by an extraordinary garment called the Cyclas, which is laced 
at the sides and reaches below the knee behind, while in front it is 
cut very short, and displays the escaloped and fringed border of a 
second garment, probably the Gambeson or Wambeijs, a body-cover- 
ing stuffed with wool and padded in parallel lines of needle-work"^, 
from beneath which descends the skirt of the hauberk, now cut to 
a point in front, and the camail is similarly fashioned ; and again, 
beneath the hauberk, and completing this strange multiplicity of 
garments, is seen the haqueton, reaching to the genouillieres e. 
Chausses of banded ring-mail f, faced with jambarts of plate, cover 
the legs; the sollerets, which rest upon a lion, are of mixed mail 
and plate, and of great length; and the spurs now assume the 
rouelle form. The sleeves of the hauberk terminate a little below 
the elbow, and disclose the fore-arms entirely encased in vam- 
braces of plate : demi-brassarts with coudieres guard the upper- 
arms and elbows : and roundels, fashioned to resemble heads of 
lions, protect the joints of the arms. The upHfted hands are bare. 
The waist is encircled by a narrow cincture and the sword-beltis 
arranged upon a new and simple plan, merely passing round the 
person about the hips, and being attached by swivels to the scab- 
bard of the sword, which is thus girded in front of the figure : the 

^ The Haqueton was stuffed with cotton, also is the case with the noble effigy inWest- 

and also padded : both were worn, partly minster abbey, of John of Elthara, brother 

to protect the body from the pressure of the of Edward III. Again at Ifield in Sus- 

steel-harness,' and partly to serve as an sex is another fine effigy, that of Sir John 

additional defence. d' Ifield, similarly habited ; andin Hereford 

e Possibly Sir John de Creke, thin as cathedral, A.D. 1321, Humphrey de Bohun, 

he appears, may be here represented as earl of Hereford and constable of England, 

wearing yet another garment with the affords in his monumental effigy a third 

gambeson, between his cyclas and hauberk, fine example of the same military equip - 

the fringe terminating one, and the escalops ment. 

the other : the escalops, however, appear to ^ This is another variety of this species 

belong to the same garment as the one im- of armour^ in which the rings were attached 

mediately beneath the cyclas. The com- to strips or bands of leather, and these again 

panion brass of Sir John d'Aubernoun were fastened to some under-lining of strong 

certainly exhibits but four distinct gar- material, 
ments, including: the hauberk : and such 


sword itself is of great length. A narrow guige supports a small 
heater-shaped shield^ charged with the arms of the De Crekes, — 
Or, on a fesse, gules, three lozenges, vair. In place of the coif-de- 
mailles, the head is now covered by a Bascinet of plate, in this 
example fluted, and having at its apex an elegant device for 
attaching the scarf or crest : to this bascinet is attached, by a lace 
drawn through staples termed Vervelles, a Camail, or mail covering 
for the neck and shoulders ^ ; a narrow strip of mail is also attached 
to the rim of the bascinet, having a fringe-like appearance. The 
date of this brass is A.D. 1325, the 18th of Edward II. A singular 
circumstance connected with this monument is thus noticed by 
Mr. Waller. " At the right foot of the lady's figure is a monogram, 
probably that of the artist by whom it was executed : it consists of 
the letter N, above which is a mallet, 
having on one side a half-moon, and 
on the other a star or sun. It, is 
worthy of remark, that the same de- 
vice (without the letter) is found on 
a seal attached to a deed of the 5th 

of Edward I., wherein one Walter Dixi, Cementarius de Berne- 
welle, is conveying certain lands to his son Lawrence. The seal of 
Walter has for its legend, q* S. W.^LTER : Le : C10a:SVN\ 
The occurence of a similar device in two instances seems to shew 
that it was not an individual mark : may it not have been the 
badge of some guild of Masons? If so, it will suggest that the 
same minds which designed the architectural structures of the 
middle ages, also designed the sepulchral monuments; and this 
opinion is strengthened by the fact of their generally agreeing 
with the prevailing taste of the times.^^ In the 
curious palimpsest ^ fragment from Trunch church, 
Norfolk, (both sides of which are subsequently 
figured,) we have upon a shield the same devices 
of the half-moon and star, but without the mallet ; 

g The term Camail appears to be a is drawn, also of the full size, from Mr. 

slight abbreviation for Capmail, —the mail. Waller's engraving, 
that is, appertaining to the head-piece. ' See pages 147, 149. Also see Ap- 

h The monogram on the brass is figured pendix (C.) 
of the full size : and the device of the seal 



in the base of the shield is the letter W : and thus the hypothesis 
of Mr. Waller is confirmed by a third example of the use of this 
singular device^ somewhat modified indeed, but still essentially the 

The brass of the second Sir John d'Auber- 
noun bears date two years later, A.D. 1327 : 
it commemorates the eldest son of the for- 
mer knight of the same name, and lies beside 
the brass of his father in the chancel of the 
church at Stoke d'Aubernoun in Surrey. 
The points of difference between this and 
the brass of Sir John de Creke are sufficient 
to stamp either work with that peculiar indi- 
viduality of character, so remarkable in these 
engraven monumental plates, while their 
general similarity, by confirming the accu- 
racy of both, greatly enhances their value 
as faithful portraitures of ovir island chivalry 
in the olden time. It is also a matter of no 
slight interest to be enabled to trace, as in 
these specimens, the efforts of the same ge- 
nius and the works of the same hand ^. In 
this brass the knight is depicted as wearing 
a beard as well as moustaches : his shoulders 
and elbows are guarded in front by roundels, 
those at the elbows being attached to the 
joints of the coudieres by arming -points : the 
cyclas, which is itself covered on the breast 
by the camail of the bascinet, is drawn over 
the upper part of either shoulder-roundel, 
and it falls unconfined at the waist by any 
cincture : the gambeson is escaloped and 
fringed, and has its outer surface embroidered with rosettes ; the 
spurs are of the pryck form : the very long and strait sword is 

Sir Jobn d'Aubernoun the 

younger, A.D. 1327. 
Stoke d'Aubernoun church, 

k The brasses of De Creke and the 
second Sir John d'Aubernoun are here 
for the first time both figured in the same 

work : and thus an opportunity is given for 
their comparison. 



girded about the hips by a broad and ornamented belt, buckled in 
the front : and the shield, still enamelled with the D'Aubernoun 
arms, rests, unsupported by any guige, upon the left arm '. 

The sole remaining military example of 
this reign is the curious brass, to which I 
have already referred as being preserved 
in the church at Minster, in the Isle of 
Sheppey. This may be assigned to the 
same period, about A.D. 1330; for we 
find that Sir John de Northwode, the 
knight thus commemorated, was sum- 
moned to parliament as a baron of the 
realm, about the 6th of Edward II., 
having previously received knighthood 
from Edward I., at the siege of Caerla- 
verock. He is represented as wearing 
a bascinet and camail of banded ring- 
mail, a hauberk of similar material, a 
cyclas, and haqueton. The bascinet is 
plain, but with an enriched border, and 
it assumes a singular swelling form : the 
camail is finished over the breast in large 
engrailed escalops. Attached to an orna- 
mented staple, projecting on the left side from the cyclas, is a 
chain which passes over the shoulder, for the purpose of securing 
the tilting-helm : the staple itself is screwed or rivetted to a Plas- 
tron-de-fer or Mameliere, a plate of steel secured to the hauberk, 
beneath the cyclas, for the purpose of additional protection "". The 

Sir Jotm de Northwode, Minster, rv'^ 
Isleof Sheppey, A.D. 1330. 

' The Pembridge knight, before men- 
tioned as being commemorated by an 
effigy at Clehongre church, Herefordshire, 
wears the cyclas, gambeson, and hauberk ; 
but the fourth garment, the haqueton, 
though doubtless worn, is not expressed 
in the effigy. The camail of this knight 
has a lining, escaloped at its border to 
correspond with the gambeson. Another 
knight at Atherington, Devonshire, (pro- 
bably Sir Arthur Basset,) wears over his 

camail a mantelet, corresponding with his 

Sir John Blanchefront, in his effigy at 
Alvechurch, Worcestershire, wears a bas- 
cinet finished at its apex in precisely the 
same manner, as are the head-pieces of Sir 
John d'Aubernoun and Sir John de Creke. 
The bascinet of Sir John Blanchefront is 
also fitted with a vizor. 

■" A breast-plate of steel was commonly 
worn beneath the cyclas or jupon, it was 



upper arms have no defences of plate, with the exception of esca- 
loped coudieres and corresponding roundels, at the elbows and 
shoulders : the lower arms have vambraces of scale-like appearance, 
possibly composed of Cuir-bouilli °, or more probably of small over- 
lapping plates of steel; and the hands are bare. The shield, which 
is large and hollow, and charged with, ermine, a cross engrailed, 
gules, for Northwode", is suspended from a very long guige in 
front of the left thigh, immediately below the sword-hilt, thus 
covering the upper part of the scabbard p. The sword itself is 
girded by a belt buckled round the waist, a little below which the 
figure has undergone a singular mutilation, having had a strip of 
the original plate cut out and abstracted : and again from the 
remainder of the lower portion, all that part of the original com- 
position which was below the genouillieres has been altogether 
removed, and its place supplied by the present ill-adapted and 

attached to the hauberk, and necessarily 
imparted to the outer vest its own globular 
form. This arrangement is frequently 
observable in sculptured effigies, though in 
brasses it cannot well be made apparent. 
The chains from the breast-plate were 
afterwards, when worn, generally attached 
to the hilt of the sword and of the dagger. 
In the effigy of Sir John Blanchefront both 
the chains are appropriated to the sword ; 
the one from the right side being fastened 
to the hilt of the weapon, and the other to 
its scabbard. The misericorde or dagger 
is represented as worn in this fine effigy. 

" Cuir-bouilli, the curehuhj of Chaucer, 
was a preparation repeatedly mentioned by 
medieval writers ; it consisted of leather, 
adapted by the process of boiling to vari- 
ous purposes both of defence and ornament. 
See p. 50, and note. The shield of the 
Black Prince at Canterbury is undoubtedly 
an original specimen of cuir-bouilli. And 
now in the beautiful modern preparation, 
known as "impressed leather," this in- 
vention has been revived and brought to 
the highest degree of perfection. 

" Or the bearing on the shield may be a 
cross engrailed between ten chesnut leaves, 
for Northwood Chataigniers. 

P This mode of wearing the shield appears 
to be a characteristic of the knights of 
France, by whom it was termed Ecu en can- 
tiel. A remarkably fine effigy thus accoutred 
is now preserved in the Royal catacombs at 
St. Denis : it commemorates Charles, Conte 
d'Etampes, who fell, in the thirtieth year 
of his age, at the siege of Pincorain, A.D. 
1336. This knight, a prince of the blood 
royal of France, is armed completely in 
ring-mail : his head is unhelmed, and his 
flowing hair is encircled by a wreath of 
roses : the coif-de-mailles hangs loose 
about his neck, and the mail gauntlets also 
depend from the wrists : the surcoat is long 
and plain, and girded about the waist by a 
narrow cincture : over the hips is buckled 
a broad and rich sword-belt ; and a long 
guige, corresponding with it in breadth and 
enrichment, crosses the right shoulder, and 
is attached to the shield, which is adjusted 
over the hilt of the sword precisely after 
the fashion exemplified in the brass at 
Minster. It is impossible not to be struck 
with the similarity in artistic treatment ex- 
hibited between this fine effigy, and the 
memorials of Lord de Ros in the Temple 
church, of Sir Robert de Septvans at 
Charthani, and Lord Fitz-Alan at Bedale. 



incongruous substitute i. The genuine portion of the lower part 
of the figure exhibits the skirts of the cyclas, the hauberk and the 
haqueton, the latter being escaloped, and the hauberk made to 
open for a short space in the centre and on either side. The genou- 
illieres and the base of the shield also remain as originally exe- 
cuted. The head of the knight rests upon 
an embroidered cushion : and another 
cushion diapered after a different pat- 
tern supports the head of his lady. In 
this lady^s effigy we have a very curious 
example of the female costume of the 
period. She wears a long and rather close- 
fitting kirtle, with tight sleeves termina- 
ting in narrow bands at the wrists : and 
over this a flowing mantle, lined with 
vair""; this mantle is wrapped about the 
entire person and gathered up under the 
right arm ; the arms appear through open- 
ings cut for that purpose in the sides of 
the mantle; and from the shoulders in 
front of the figure fall the long pointed 
lappets of this singular outer garment, 
lined throughout with the variegated fur. 
The hair is plaited on either side the face ; 
and the throat and chin are enveloped in 
a most disfiguring wimple or gorget, or 
possibly in the wimple-like collar with 
■which the kirtle or under-dress was some- 
times finished. The lady thus attired, 
the consort of Sir John de Northwode, 
was Joan de Badlesmere, a daughter 

Lady de Northwode, c. A.D. 1330 

"I In the accompanying engraving tlie 
original portions of this figure only are re- 
presented ; and a vacant space is left to 
denote the portion which has been taken 
out from the midst of the figure. The 
legs of this brass, as they now appear, are 
crossed, a position evidently not contem- 

plated by the original artist. See cut p. 42. 
■^ Vair was a species of compound fur, 
made up of numerous small pieces of dif- 
ferent coloured skins ; it was in great re- 
quest for the decoration of various articles 
of dress. Subsequently vair became an 
heraldic distinction. 


probably of Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, of Leeds castle, in 

Armour consisting of mail and plate defences thus combined 
together, continued to be worn, with various slight modifications, 
throughout the earlier years of the long-protracted reign of Ed- 
ward III. Gradually, however, the mail was superseded by fresh 
pieces of plate armour, until shortly after the commencement of 
the succeeding century, the 15th, it altogether ceased to be in 
general use, except as a secondary defence worn under the plate, 
or when introduced in small portions at those parts where, in order 
to admit freedom of action for the limbs, it was essential. Various 
highly interesting brasses exemplify the successive changes which 
intervened, between the first introduction of plate-armour, and its 
ultimate formation of the warrior's complete defensive panoply. 
Of these, in addition to the examples already noticed, the muti- 
lated brass of Sir Hugh Hastings at Elsyng church, Norfolk, 
A.D. 1347, the 20th of Edward III., is by far the most curious 
and valuable ^ The general composition of this brass comprises 
an effigy beneath a canopy of elaborate richness, each side of 
which consists of a series of four canopied niches enclosing as 
many armed figures. This is the latest instance of which I am 
aware, in which the shield is represented in a brass as forming a 
part of the knight's personal equipment. The other pecuharities 
in this brass which require especial notice are the Gorget, Hausse- 
Col, or Menioniere of plate worn by Sir Hugh Hastings himself : 
the Visors, attached to the bascinets of the several effigies intro- 
duced into the canopy, as well as that of the principal effigy : the 
Jupon charged with armorial insignia: the first introduction of 
Haut-de-chausses or trews of Pourpointrie^, studded with small 
circular plates of steel : and the tilting-helm with its crest, placed 
as a finial at the apex of the canopy. In the principal effigy, the 
sleeves of the hauberk are slipped off from the hands, as in the 
brass of Sir Robert de Septvans, and hang down from the wrists. 

^ See p. 23. zoned in a contemporary roll of arms, — 

' For illustration and description of this Or, a maunche, gules, differenced of a la- 

studded-mail, see p. 51. The arms borne bel, azure. 

by Sir Hugh Hastings are thus embla- 



displaying the quilted haqueton beneath the mail: the armorial 
bearing of Hastings, the maunche, or ancient military sleeve, is 
richly diapered upon both the shield and the jupon, and in both 
cases it is differenced with a label of three points : the jupon, or 
sleeveless covering to the hauberk, now appears with a full skirt ; 
and upon this, hanging loosely from over the hips, is the broad and 
rich sword-belt, which is attached to the sword- scabbard on the 
left side, and is buckled in front " : the genouillieres are curiously 
spiked : and the rounded bascinet with its uplifted visor rests upon 
a diapered cushion supported by two angels. In the smaller figures 
a singular double outline will be observed; designed, it would 
seem^ simply to distinguish the effigies themselves with greater 
distinctness from the diapered field on which they are placed^. 
These figures represent, on the dexter side. King Edward III., 
crowned, and displaying on his embroidered jupon the arms of 
France and England quarterly, which bearing was assumed by 
King Edward in the year 1341, but six years anterior to the date 
of the brass : the second figure is Thomas 
de Beauchamp, armed at all points, and 
holding a lance with a pennon V: the third 
figure, now lost, represented one of the 
Despencer family: and the fourth is Roger 
Grey, Lord Grey of Ruthin : on the sinis- 
ter side are figures of Henry Plantage- 
net, earl of Lancaster, great grandson of 
King Henry III. : the second figure is 
lost, but it originally represented Lau- 
rence Hastings, earl of Pembroke, who died A.D. 1348, and his 
shield bearing Hastings quartering Valence, has been considered 
the oldest example of a subject quartering arms : to this succeeds 
the eflSgy of Ralph, Lord Stafford : and the lowermost is that of 

Head of Thorn as de Bea-ichamp. 

Hastings brass, Elsyng, Norfolk. 

A D. 1347. 

" The knight, whose effigy is placed 
within the head of a floriated cross at 
Wimhish in Essex, has his sword girded 
after a similar fashion. See p. 119. 

' The same double outline occurs, and 
with the same object, in the brass of Ralph 
de Knevynton, at Aveley, in Essex. 

"f This figure, and the last on the sinister 
side of the canopy, with the mounted 
figure in the pediment of the canopy, 
form a beautiful plate in Waller's Brasses: 
and the entire brass is figured in Cot- 
man's work. 


Almeric, Lord St.Amand, whose head-piece 
is very singular; it appears to be the Cha- 
pelle defer or steel-bonnet, and is here worn 
over the bascinet, but without any defence 
for the face ; in actual combat, however, it 
might be drawn forward, so that the brim 
projecting over the brow would afford some 
additional protection ; this is the only speci- Head of Aimenc, Lord 

St. Amand. HasLiugs brass, 

men of this head-piece which has been ad. lan. 

noticed engraven in a brass; and the only other example in a 
monumental effigy occurs in one of the equestrian figures of 
Aymer de Valence, on his monument in Westminster abbey. In 
an upper compartment of this canopy, within an octofoil encom- 
passed by a circle, is a mounted warrior, trampling down and 
piercing with his lance a fiend, probably designed to indicate the 
triumph of the Christian faith : in this group, the voluminous trap- 
pings of the charger, and the gauntlets of his rider, which here first 
appear divided into fingers, are both remarkable. The early prac- 
tice of pointing the foot downwards through the stirrup is also 
here exemplified : this position, naturally resulting from wearing 
shoes of mail, was universally adopted by knights when in the 
saddle, from the Conquest till the time of Richard III., A.D. 1483 ; 
during which period the sollerets, or armed shoes, were worn 
pointed ; but subsequently the heel was dropped and the toe ele- 
vated, when broad and rounded Sabbatons were introduced. The 
spurs were not screwed to the armour before the middle of the 
fifteenth century. In brasses these knightly appendages, with their 
accompanying straps, are usually depicted with great distinctness ; 
but few engraven specimens, however, occur of spurs of greatly dis- 
proportionate length, notwithstanding the continued prevalence of 
this extravagant fashion ; the longest spurs which I have noticed 
are in the brasses of Sir John de Braose, A.D. 1426, at Wiston in 
Sussex, of Sir John Say, A.D. 1473, at Broxbourn in this county, 
and of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, A.D. 1483, at Little Easton, 
Essex ; but these are far exceeded by the incised slab, bearing date 
A.D. 1441, at Brading in the Isle of Wight, and which comme- 


morates Sir John Cherowin, or Curwen, constable of Porchester 
castle ^. 

Before I refer to any other individual examples, it may perhaps 
be desirable here to introduce a brief general description of the 
more prominent characteristics of the style of armour, prevalent 
during the latter half of the fourteenth, and the early part of the 
fifteenth centuries, and which immediately preceded the adoption 
of complete suits of plate-armour. The hauberk, curtailed in 
length, and frequently, if not generally, sleeveless, and now it 
would seem denominated the Haubergeon, was worn over the 
quilted gambeson or haqueton, and itself covered by the Jupon ; 
this last-named sleeveless overcoat was also denominated the Pour- 
point, from the Latin word, Perpunctum, indicative of its construc- 
tion ; it being composed of several thicknesses of material, sewed 
through, and faced with silk or velvet, upon which the armorial 
insignia of the wearer were frequently embroidered ^ : the jupon 
fitted close to the person, and, descending midway between the hip 
and the knee, was finished with an enriched border of escalops, 
leaves, or other cut and open Avork ^. Another garment, called a 
jupon, is also spoken of, as having been at this period sometimes 
worn beneath the mail : but this is altogether distinct from the 
rich and splendid covering to the more strictly defensive portion 
of the knight's equipment, and was really a species oijust-au-corps, 
or haqueton, expressly designed to be worn beneath the armour : 
it might have been constructed of very strong materials, such as 
cuir-bouilli, and with a plastron or breast-plate of steel have been 
the only personal defence. To this breast-plate the term hauber- 
geon was occasionally applied; the armour of mail, worn over 
such an haubergeon, being still distinguished as the hauberk. 
A steel breast-plate was also a common appendage to the ordi- 
nary short hauberk, to which it was firmly attached beneath the 
jupon. The arms of the knight were entirely encased in bras- 

^ See p. 160. pourpoint. 

a The jupon was sometimes stuffed and '' This mode of cutting out the borders 

padded, though it would seem to have more of garments into open-work of various de- 

generallybeen constructed after the fashion vices, prevailed in almost every description 

from which it derived its other name of of dress worn at that period. 




sarts '^ of plate, having coudieres or elbow-pieces variously formed, 
but all of small size ; and at the shoulders were Epaulieres con- 
structed of several overlapping plates, but without palettes at either 
elbow or shoulder '^j the gauntlets and soUerets were of plate, 
jointed, like the epaulieres, after the manner of a lobster's tail; 
the nails of the fingers were often engraved upon these steel- 
gloves, and the knuckles were armed with small spikes or bosses 
of steel, denominated Gadlyngs. Cuissarts and jambarts of plate 
enclosed the legs above and below the knees, which were them- 
selves guarded by genouillieres. Double plates sometimes are 
introduced, for the purpose of additional security, immediately 
above and below the genouillieres. At the back of the knee-joint, 
and also at the joints of the shoulders, elbows, and ankles, small 
Goussettes or Gussets of mail were introduced ; and these frequently 
are depicted upon brasses with excellent effect. On 
the head was worn the bascinet, which now was 
often acutely pointed, and indeed may always be dis- 
tinguished by its pointed apex from the more glo- 
bular head-piece of a subsequent period : from the 
rim of the bascinet descended the camail of either 
interlaced or banded mail, covering the neck and j^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
shoulders like a tippet ; the camail was attached to 
the bascinet by a lace drawn through vervelles or 
small staples ; in some examples this arrangement is 
distinctly exhibited, but in others the vervelles are 
covered by a border of steel, generally ornamental, 
worked upon the rim of the head-piece. About the 
bascinet a wreath composed of cloth, silk or velvet, ^^^°'^*^^^°^^^;^^ 
and sometimes enriched with jewels and goldsmith's w^sneee^. 
work, was commonly worn : but in brasses it very rarely is depicted 
Above this wreath or orle rose the heraldic crest. During 
the time of actual combat, over the bascinet the tilting-helm 
was worn; in brasses this, with its crest, wreath or orle, and 

1360. HemelHemp- 
sted, Herts. 

' The armour of the upper arm was the eiBgies, roundels occasionally appear at 

Rerebrace, of the lower the Vambrace. this period, placed both at the shoulder and 

d Small roundels in some few examples elbow-joints : but I have not observed any 

occur at the elbow-joints. In sculptured example of this arrangement upon a brass. 



mantliugj are usually represented as placed beneath the head of the 
recumbent figure^ a fitting pillow for the warrior in repose. Some- 
times, in place of the tilting-helm, a very strong bascinet was worn, 
furnished with a visor capable of completely protecting the face ^. 
The sword was long, strait and tapering ; its hilt and either extre- 
mity of the scabbard were richly ornamented, but the greater part 
of the scabbard was usually plain ; the guard of the weapon formed 
a cross, and the pommel was generally circular or octagonal in its 
outline, and was surmounted by a small angular knob. The sword- 
belt was broad and richly ornamented, and was girded over the 
hips, leaving the waist free from any cincture; this belt was 
usually fastened strait across the person by an enriched Morse or 
clasp; in some examples, however, it has a slight curve in its 
adjustment; and sometimes also it is buckled instead of being 
clasped : the sword was attached to this belt at the uppermost 
part of the scabbard, and it hung perpendicularly at the left side. 
Another weapon was now introduced, and was at- 
tached on the right side to the same belt : this was 
the Miset^icorde, or small strait dagger; it had no 
guard, and both its hilt and scabbard were curiously 
ornamented : in brasses the blade of the misericorde 
sometimes appears in front of the wearer, but more 
generally the hilt only is seen^ The camail was 
drawn closely round the face, generally covering the 
chin, while the long moustaches often protruded over 
the mail. 

In some of the earlier brasses in this style of 
knightly harness, a curious variety of defensive equipment appears, 
consisting of a series of small round plates or roundels of steel, 
secured by rivets to a lining of pourpoint, or of cuir-bouilli, a pre- 
paration, as I have before observed, in common use in the middle 

Misericorde, Earl of 
Warwick. St. Mary's, 
Warwick, A. D. 1401. 

« At Allerton Mauleverer is a fine ex- 
ample of such a bascinet with its visor. 

' It appears from sculptured effigies 
that the misericorde was usually secured 
by a short chain to the broad hip-belt, on 
the light side. In his effigy in Hereford 

cathedral, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
Hereford, wears his misericorde depending 
from a short chain directly in front of the 
person. This nobleman is habited in the 
cyclas, gambeson, hauberk, and haqueton : 
he died A.D. 1321. 



ages, as well for defence as for orna- 
ment «. Perhaps the finest example of 
this Studded-mail, was the brass of Sir 
Miles de Stapleton^ now lost from Ing- 
ham church, Norfolk : this knight died 
A.D. 1364, the 38th of Edward III.; and 
he is represented as wearing a studded ju- 
pon, and haut-de-chausses, with jambarts 
worked in studded bands'. Sir Ralph de 
Knevynton, at Aveley, Essex, A.D. 1370, 
has his jupon studded as well as his chaus- 
ses ^ : he retains the long hauberk, pointed 
in front, and apparently made with sleeves 
reaching below the elbows; his hands and 
head are bare ; about his temples is placed 
an ornamented fillet; the sleeves of his 
haqueton terminate in a species of mittens 
reaching some little space beyond the wrist ; 
and he has chains from the breast-plate 
beneath the jupon, which are severally 
attached to his sword and misericorde i. 
Sir John de Paletoot, A.D. 1361, the 35th of 
Edward III., wears chausses only of studded 
mail ; his jupon is plain, and the mail of his 

sf Effigies of warriors thus armed are of more frequent 
occurrence on the continent than in this country : for the 
fine example annexed (see next page), I am indebted to the 
Committee of the Archaeological Institute ; it represents 
a figure carved in wood in the choir of Bamberg cathedral, 
and appeared in the sixth part of the Archaeological Jour- 
nal. The legs of this warrior are encased in jambeaux of 
cuir-bouilli. The other singularities in his equipment 
will not escape the notice of the careful observer. 

" An early seal of a Stapleton gives the rebus of the 
family, a staple enclosing the letters ton. 

i The portion of the figure of this knight here engraved, 
is drawn from the beautiful etching in Stothard's Effigies : 
this brass is also figured in Cotman's work. 

k See p. 22. 

' See p. 42, and note (m.) 

Sir Miles de Stapleton, A.D. 1364 
Late in Ingham church, Norfolk. 






Genouilliere, Sir 

Tbomas Cheyno, 

A.D. 1368. 

haubergeon and caraail is banded •" : this fine brass lies on the floor 
of a chapel to the north of the chancel at Watton, in this county ; 
it is surmounted by an elegant canopy, and round the verge of the 
stone is the legend, — "Icy gist Monsieur .... Paletoot, Che- 


ccc . . . . " Other examples of studded-mail occur in the brasses 
of Sir Thomas Cheyne, A.D. 1368, and of his son Sir William 
Cheyne, A.D. 1375, at Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks ; of a knight of 
the Argentine family, about the same date, at Horseheath, Cam- 
bridgeshire; and of Sir John de 
Cobham, also about A.D. 1375, at 
Cobham, in Kent. Sir Thomas 
Cheyne wears jambarts of studded- 
mail arranged, like those of Sir 
Miles de Stapleton, in bands ; his 
sword and sword-belt are highly 
characteristic of the period, while 
Hip belt. &c, Sir Thomas Cheyne, his gcnouiUieres arc of unique 

0. AD. 1368. Draytou Beauchamp, . 

Bucks. singularity : this knight was es- 

quire at arms to King Edward III., 
— " dilectus armiger suus," as that 
monarch terms him, — constable 
of Windsor castle, and ranger of 
Guildford park. His son. Sir Wil- 
liam, wears laminated sollerets, 
AD. 1375. sirwiuiam composcd 01 scaics or small snin- 

Cheyne. •"■ ^^ 1 o • 

gles of steel, or possibly ot cmr- 
bouilli, which are also unique". Sir John de 
Cobham, the munificent founder of Cobham 
college, bears in his hands a model of the church 

" In this example, the misericorde has been abstracted ; and 
in the subsequent figure from St. Michael's church, St. Alban's, 
the cross-hilt of the sword is broken. One shield of arms remains 
in connection with the effigy of Sir John Paletoot ; it is charged 
with paly of six, or, and vert, a chief indented of the second, for 
Paletoot, — a good specimen of canting heraldry. 

" The gauntlets of Sir John de Buslingthorpe, and the defences 
of the lower arms of Sir John de Northewode, are constructed in 
a similar manner. 

Laminated SoUeret, 

Sir John de Cobham, o. A.D. 
1375. Cobham, Kent. 



of that establishment : his genouilheres are curious, and in some 
respect resemble those worn by Sir Thomas Cheyne °. Numerous 
specimens exist of the ordinary knightly habit, during what I ven- 
ture to designate the Camail-period of armour. These brasses are 
satisfactorily exemplified in the memorials of Nicholas, Lord Bur- 



Nicholas, Lord B>imell, A.D. 1382. 

° Two other examples of a similar equip- 
ment, and these of the greatest interest, 
are figured in a woodcut in Stothard's work, 
and also at p. 137 of Mr. Planche's most 
excellent little volume, from the initial let- 
ter of the grant of the duchy of Aquitaine 
by Edward III. to the Black Prince, in 

Xnigiit, c, A.D 1385. St. Michael's 
church, St. A] ban's. 

which those distinguished personages are 
represented. Stothard has given two figures 
of knightly effigies habited in chausses of 
studded-mail, the one from the abbey- 
church at Tewkesbury, and the other from 
Holbeach church, Lincolnshire, 

A.D. 1391. 16° Uit: 11 

A.D 1412 . 13° mm: IT 



in Little Horkesley Ciiurch , Essex. 
(Canopies omitted. ) 

A.D. 1382. 6th of Richard IT. 


(See pa^es 56, 62. and 85.) 


nel, A.D. 1382, at Acton-Burnel, Salop ; and of a knight whose 
name now is unknown, also about A.D. 1385, at St. Michael's 
church, St. Alban's. In his brass at South Acre, Norfolk, A.D. 1384, 
Sir John Harsick with his left hand, which is gauntleted, clasps 
his sword-belt, while with his bare right hand he holds his lady, 
whose effigy is placed beside his own, on his right side : by this 
action, the arm displays the arrangement of the armour inside the 
elbow-joint, in the same manner as in the figure of Sir Miles de 
Stapleton, and in the subsequent brasses of Sir Peter and Lady 
Halle, and Thomas Baron Camoys and Elizabeth his lady. The 
effigy of Sir Robert Swynborne is surmounted by a splendid 
canopy, and beside his own figure lies that of his son, armed after 
the fashion introduced subsequent to his own decease: thus the 
same brass furnishes specimens, in the effigies of a father and son, 
of two successive, but altogether distinct, styles of armour, and 
both in the highest possible perfection. This large and noble work 
of art remains in excellent preservation ; and may be regarded as, 
in every respect, an example of the greatest beauty, value, and im- 
portance P. The brass of Sir Thomas Burton, A.D. 138.2, at Little 
Casterton, Rutland, is also a remarkably fine specimen of this style 
of knightly effigy : his camail is of chain-mail, and with the rest of 
his appointments, is admirably expressed : this knight is decorated 
with the collar of SS.^ In Stoke church, Suffolk, A.D. 1408, is 
another very curious and fine brass, to the memory of Sir William 
Tendering : the gauntlets, sword-belt and scabbard, here are elabo- 
rately enriched : the bare head, which is very unusual, rests upon 
the crested tilting-helm •■, the bascinet, which was undoubtedly 
worn under it, being altogether omitted : and the long bifid beard 
descends over a species of gorget of mail. At Merevale abbey- 
church, Warwickshire, is the large and fine brass of Robert Lord 
Ferrers of Chartley, and his wife Margaret, A.D. 1407 : and again. 

P In the accompanying engraving, the ■■ A similar arrangement occurs in the 

canopies have been omitted, in order to shew brass of Walter Green, Esq., A.D. 1450, 

the figures themselves upon a larger scale : at Hayes, Middlesex, (see p. 70): at a 

the canopy which covers one of the figures still later period this omission of the bas- 

will be found figured at p. 1. cinet was a common practice in the com- 

•1 See pages 85, 133. position of these engraved eflBgies. 


at Wootton-under-Edge, Gloucestersliire, is another equally fine 
specimen of tlie same style of brass, in the memorial of Thomas 
Lord Berkeley, and Margaret his lady, who severally died A.D.1417, 
and 1392. Both these figures were probably engraved at the death 
of Lady Berkeley, in 1392 : the armour of the knight is altogether 
characteristic of that period : over his camail he wears a collar of 
mermaids, a badge of the house of Berkeley ^. Lady Berkeley is 
habited in a kirtle and mantle : she wears a small reticulated head- 
dress with a coverchef, and her head rests upon two cushions very 
elegantly diapered. At Baginton, in the county of Warwick, is 
another admirable brass of the same period, the memorial of Sir 
William Bagot, and Margaret his lady, A.D. 1407 : this knight 
was a partizan and favourite of King Richard 11. ; and his name 
appears, in conjunction with Bushy and Green, in Shakespere's 
Richard II. Subsequently he appears to have made his peace with 
Henry Bolingbroke ; for his forfeited lands were restored, and he 
was one of the first who received from that prince the collar of 
SS.* Before Richard's misfortunes, he entertained Bolingbroke 
at his castle of Baginton on the night before the intended combat 
on St. Lambert's day, between Bolingbroke and Norfolk, which 
ended in the banishment of both parties. The armour here de- 
picted is a suit no less characteristic of the time, than excellent 
in itself. Lady Bagot wears a kirtle, sideless cote-hardi, and man- 
tle lined with fur. This interesting and valuable monument, 
having been partially mutilated, has been beautifully restored". 
I may here mention another curious brass of this period, compris- 
ing the figures of an unknown knight and his lady, with a frag- 
ment of a canopy, at Broughton in Lincolnshire : these figures 
hold hearts in their hands. And again, at AUerton Mauleverer in 

* See p. 135. have also been replaced. This work has 
I See p. 133. The arms of Sir William been effected at the cost of Lord Bagot, and 
Bagot as emblazoned by Dugdale, are, ar- in consequence of a suggestion from the 
gent, a chevron, gules, between three mart- Rev. W. Drake, M.A., of Coventry. The 
lets sable ; a crescent for difference. accompanying engraving, executed after 
" Dugdale gives representations of these a drawing by L. A. B.Waller, Esq., ex- 
effigies in their perfect state : and from his hibits the gratifying results of judicious 
engraving they have been restored by the and skilful restoration. 
Messrs. Waller. The original enamels 

I I Foci 

A.D. 1107. 8til of Henry IV 

(Seepage 66.! 

A D 1392. 16tii of fiicbard II. 

A.D. 1417. 4thof Henry 



Yorksliire, is tlic brass of one of the Mauleverers and his lady, in 
which the knight appears wearing a visored bascinet : while at 
Hemel Hempsted, in this county, Robert Albyn, c. A.D. 1400, 
has his sword suspended from the custo- 
mary belt, girded horizontally across the 
hips, and also further secured by a narrow 
diagonal belt buckled in front; the wea- 
pon itself hangs with its blade behind the 
figure, and in a sloping position ''. One 
other brass of this period, also in War- 
wickshire, claims especial notice; the 
memorial at St. Mary's church, Warwick, 
of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of War- sword belt, &c. Robert Aibyn, c. a.d. 

, . . 1400. Hemel Hempsted, Herts. 

Wick, and the Lady Margaret, his coun- 
tess, who severally deceased in the years 

1401 and 1406, the 2nd and the 7th of Henry IV. Armed 
at all points in the style characteristic of the stirring times in 
which he bore such a distinguished part, this formidable baron 
here appears attired with splendour suited to his rank and impor- 
tance : his bascinet, rerebraces, gauntlets, genouillieres, and soUe- 
rets, together with his offensive weapons, are all richly orna- 
mented : the mail of his camail and haubergeon, with the gous- 
settes at the insteps, is finely wrought : and his jupon is embla- 
zoned with his arms, gules, a fesse between six crosses crosslet, or. 
The dress of the countess though rich, is very simple : it consists 
of a kirtle or tunic, made to fit close about the person, but flowing 
in wide folds over the feet; the sleeves are buttoned down the 
arms, and continued to cover the backs of the hands : over this a 
long mantle is secured by a cordon drawn across the breast : the 
hair is partly confined within a reticulated caul, and partly de- 
scends to the shoulders, where the reticulation is repeated ; the 
forehead is also encircled by a bandeau of jewels. The mantle is 
embroidered with the arms of Beauchamp ; and the kirtle displays 
those of Ferrers, gules, seven mascles, three, three, and one, or; 

X This knight is also remarkable for his also see p. 152. This second belt is not 
very acutely pointed bascinet, see p. 49 : unfrequently found in sculptured effigies. 


the countess was daughter of William, Lord Ferrers, of Groby. 
Thes# heraldic charges in both the figures are all wrought with an 
elaborate diaper, produced by delicately puncturing the surface of 
the plate : and by means of the same process, additional ornament 
is also imparted to the costume. " The intricacy of the design," 
observes Mr. Waller, " and the beauty of the workmanship, evince 
the hand of no common artist : the pattern is similar to that which 
appears on the effigy of the queen of Richard II. at Westminster, 
the date of which is about twelve years earlier; and it is possible 
that both monuments were executed under the superintendence of 
the same designer." The effigy of the knight, besides the flowing 
pattern of its diapered decoration, is pounced repeatedly with the 
ragged staff, the celebrated badge of the house of Warwick ; and 
his feet rest on a chained bear, another ancient cognizance of his 
family. With the exception of its occasional introduction into the 
works of the great Flemish brass-engraver, this brass is the only 
hitherto noticed example of enrichment by this species of diaper : 
it is also characterized throughout by that high excellence as a 
work of art, which places it in the very foremost rank of this species 
of monumental memorial. 

The next great change in the general appearance of armed brasses, 
exhibits the knight appointed in armour of plate, in place of the 
camail and haubergeon, with its covering of pourpointerie. The in- 
sufficiency of mail eflfectually to resist the stroke of the lance, which, 
though unable to pierce its close reticulations, still might drive it 
into the flesh, together with the great weight and almost suffo- 
cating oppressiveness of the mail with its thick lining and covering, 
led to the substitution, or in some cases to the addition, of outer 
defences of plate. I say addition, because a light gorget and skirt 
of mail appear still to have been occasionally retained in use. 
Sometimes indeed a complete haubergeon may have been worn 
beneath the plate armour : but more generally a mere fringe only 
of mail was attached at the more exposed points, with a view to 
additional protection. The knight now wears a bascinet of glo- 
bular form, though generally slightly pointed at its apex ^ -, this 

y See p. 49. 

A D. 14 24. -Jud of Henry VI, 

This Lady was the widow of Henry Percy, the renowned Hotspur, ^vhen she raarried Thomas, Baxon 
Camcys. and Lord Camoya himself commanded the left wing of th3 Eq^Usq a-my at Agincourt. 

The canopy of this fine Brass is engraved at page 127, 


bascinet, still frequently encircled with an orle or wreath, encases 
the entire head, merely leaving the features exposed to view, and 
it is firmly attached to a steel gorget which covers the throat, and 
rests upon the upper part of the Cuirass, the covering of plate- 
armour for the body above the waist. Two plates of steel for the 
breast and back compose the cuirass, and these are worked of a 
globular form. The limbs are armed after the same fashion as 
during the preceding period, but now either elongated palettes or 
roundels appear in front of the shoulders, covering the points of 
junction between the epaulieres and the cuirass^; similar roundels 
of smaller size sometimes are attached to the coudieres, an arrange- 
ment which may be regarded as the prototype of the 
fan-shaped coudieres now commonly worn. From the 
waist depend a series of narrow overlapping plates 
attached to a lining of leather or pourpoint, denomi- 
nated Taces ; and these are crossed diagonally from 
right to left by the sword-belt, which is narrower than 
before, but still attached at one point only to the upper- „ 

' i » i i Fan-shaped Cou- 

most part of the scabbard ^ : the long, strait, heavy cai^t^.k j'f4?4. 
sword, thus girded at the left side, and sometimes '^°'"'"'^"'^^''^- 
having its point sloping outwards from the figure, is of the same 
form as before : the pommel now has often a peculiar shape, some- 
what resembling an inverted pear, and the hilt is plainer than at 
an earlier period : the misericorde has its blade now almost univer- 
sally placed behind the figure, and the mode by which it is sus- 
pended, in brasses is rarely, if ever, expressed. The tilting-helm 
with its heraldic accessories continues to form, in many cases, the 
pillow of the knightly effigies ; and in action it was worn, as before, 
over the bascinet. 

The brass of Sir Reginald de Cobham, A.D. 1403, at Lingfield, 

^ Previous to the year 1430, roundels times crossed by mother of like character, 
appear generally to have been worn; but girded from k-ft to right, to which the dag- 
after that period they are almost universally ger was secured. The broad hip-belt also 
superseded by the elongated palettes. Tliis not unfrequently appears in connection 
distinction is a good criterion of date in with the diagonal and narrower belt, or 
military brasses. occasionally alone. 

■ In sculptured effigies this belt is some- 



Surrey, is a transition specimen, 
having the acutely pointed bas- 
cinet and camail in connection 
with the cuirass and taces : the 
sword-belt is also girded across 
the hips, and the sword elabo- 
rately enriched from hilt to 
point. About his head-piece 
this knight wears a jewelled 
orle or wreath. At Wisbeach, 
in Cambridgeshire, Sir Thomas 
Braunstone, A.D. 1401, also 
wears a camail of chain-mail 
with a cuirass and taces : and 
again, twenty-four years later, 
A.D. 1425, at Theddlethorpe, 
Lincolnshire, Robert Hayton, 
Esq., is represented as similarly 
accoutred. Sir Thomas Swyn- 
borne, A.D. 1412, wears an un- 
der gorget of mail, and a shirt 
of mail beneath the taces of 
plate ^ ; his sword-belt is narrow 
and transverse, and with his 
sword and misericorde, is richly 
ornamented : he has at the 
shoulders roundels charged with 
the cross of St. George, and 
smaller roundels are attached to 
his coudieres. Round his neck 

the knight wears the collar of SS ; and his feet rest upon a couch- 
ing lion. Another, and that an equally splendid specimen of the 
earlier brasses in this style, lies within the altar-rails of Digswell 
church in this county ; it commemorates Sir Thomas Peryent and 

SirEeginald deCobham. A.D. 1403. 
Lingfield, Surrey. 

'' These may possibly be merely fringes of mail, attached to the hausse-col and the 
lowermost tace. 



his lady: this knight, who died 
A.D. 1415, retains the broad and 
rich sword-belt clasped straight across 
the hips, but in all other respects 
his equipment resembles that of Sir 
Thomas Swynborne. Sir Thomas 
Percent was esquire at arms to Kings 
Richard II., Henry IV., and Henry V., 
and also master of the horse to Queen 
Joanna of Navarre. The costume of 
Lady Peryent who, as well as her hus- 
band, wears the collar of SS, combines 
dignified elegance with perfect sim- 
plicity : it consists of a super-tunic of 
ample proportions encircled at the 
waist by an ornamented band, and 
having its open collar falling back 
upon the shoulders; the sleeves are 
loose upon the arms above the elbow, 
below which, after the manner of the 
sleeves of a surplice, they fall to the 
ground, hanging open over the mid- 
dle of the lower arm : beneath this 
dress was worn a kirtle, the sleeves 
of which appear gathered in very full 
to a deep and tight cuff at the wrist ; 
the collar of this under garment falls 
over the other collar : and on the left 
side, on the collar of the outer dress, 
a small swan is embroidered. The 
arrangement of the hair is very singu- 
lar j indeed I know of no correspond- 
ing specimen : it is most curiously 
plaited, and rises to a considerable 
height above the head in the form 
of a reversed triangle, and above all 
a small coverchef is seen rolled up. 

Sword belt, taces , &:c Si r John 
Peryent, A.D 1415 
Digswell, HeriB. 

Lady Peryent, Digswell, A.D. 1415. 



\ » "I ^ ^ WW 

Head-dre-s, Lady Peryent, 
jl.D. 1415. 

At the feet of the lady is a hedge- 

The brass of Sir John Lysle, A.D. 
1407, in Thornton church, Hants, is 
perhaps the earhest example of com- 
plete plate armour, without any ad- 
mixture whatever of mail. In Heme 
church, Kent, is a fine specimen of com- 
plete plate-armour, being the effigy 
of Sir Peter Halle, c. A.D. 1420, 8th 
Henry V., accompanied by that of his 
lady, whom he is depicted as holding by the right hand. Here 
we have the peculiarly elegant fan- shaped elbow-piece, so charac- 
teristic of the period, shewn on both sides : and the spurs have 
their rowels guarded c. The costume of the lady also is no less 
characteristic and valuable as a specimen, than is the armour of 
her husband : she is habited in a close-fitting kirtle or cote-hardi, 
encircled by an enriched girdle, adjusted not about the waist, but 
across the hips : over this is worn a singular dress '^, in high fashion 
during a very protracted period, consisting of little more than a 
narrow strip, as well behind as in front of the figure, but united 
over the shoulders, and from a little below the waist enveloping the 
entire person ; thus at the sides, the under dress with its sleeves, 
and the elegant cincture by which it was confined, are visible 
through the openings of this Sideless cote-hardi. This cincture of 
the kirtle is completely shewn in the fine brass of Lady Burton, 
A.D. 1382, at Little Casterton, Rutland, that lady being depicted 
without the sideless super-tunic or cote-hardi. Sometimes the 
skirt of this garment descended no lower than the knee, thus dis- 
playing the under-tunic below it, as well as at the sides of the 
figure ^. The upper part of this robe was usually guarded with fur, 

■^ Spurs thus guarded, or dress spurs, 
have been supposed to indicate that the 
wearer held some office about the court. 

■^ This singular but most elegant article 
of female attire, which for so long a period 
became a regular component of the cos- 
tume, appears to have resulted from a de- 

sire on the part of the ladies, in some de- 
gree at least, to emulate the accumulation 
of garments worn by the other sex. 

^ This garment appears to have been 
adopted by the ladies of that period in imi- 
tation of the knightly jupon. And so also 
the girdle was adjusted by the ladies, after 

C-» 142 0. 8° Btm. V. 

J.X Johhins. UOt. 

In Heme Cliiircli, Kent. 

A.D. 1413. r ^^ttr*: T. 

J£ Joohvns. h^. 

la Felbrigg CJaurcli. NorfolTi, 

( Caxiopy & other figure omitted. ) 


or decorated with rich embroidery. Over it, about the tall figure 
of Lady Halle, a flowing mantle is disposed with excellent eftcct : 
a necklace with a pendent jewel encircles her neck : and she wears 
the horned head-dress with its rich reticulated caul for the hair, 
and the coverchef hanging over the shoulders. At Felbrigg church, 
Norfolk, is another remarkably fine and interesting example of the 
knightly harness of this stirring time : this is the brass of Sir 
Simon de Felbrigge, and Margaret his lady, which was engraved 
under the direction of Sir Simon himself, and laid down over the 
tomb of liis wife, at her decease, A.D. 1413. The knight survived 
until the year 1443, when he was buried, contrary as it would seem 
to his original intention, in the church of the Friars Preachers at 
Norwich, where the remains of his second wife were also interred 
in the year 1459. The knight is armed in complete armour of plate, 
with the addition of the skirt or fringe of mail, appearing below the 
lowermost of the faces ; his palettes are ensigned with the cross of 
St. George ; round his left leg is buckled the garter with the motto 
of the order; and on his right arm rests a small banner, displaying 
the arms of King Richard II., to which monarch he was standard- 
bearer. This efi&gy is well and accurately drawn, and it is en- 
graved with great freedom and boldness of touch. The lady is 
habited simply in a kirtle and mantle ; her hair is closely confined 
on either side of the face in a rich crespine, or caul of network, and 
from her head a coverchef descends upon her shoulders ^ The 
efiigies are surmounted by a noble double canopy, still in excellent 
preservation. The royal arms emblazoned on the banner borne 
by Sir Simon de Felbrigge, are those adopted by Richard II., to- 
wards the latter part of his reign, — France and England quarterly, 
impaling the bearing attributed to the Confessor : the same arms 
again appear on this brass, upon a shield above the head of the 

the fashion of the belt of the knights, not tume of the lady is precisely similar to 

about the waist, but over the hips : its ad- that worn by Lady de Felbrigge, but her 

justment is admirably exemplified in the husband is armed with a camail and ju- 

brass of Lady Burton, above referred to. pon. For the figure annexed, (see next 

f In a fine brass at Sawtrey, Huntingdon- page,) drawn from the Sawtrey brass, I 

shire, which exhibits the effigies of an un- am again indebted to the Committee of the 

known kniglit and lady, but the date of Archaeological Institute, 
which remains, being A.D. 1404, the cos- 




knight, and again on another shield impaling the arms of Anne, 
Richard's queen e. Upon a third shield, suspended from the mid- 
dle pinnacle, is Felbrigge,— or, a lion rampant, gules, impaling a 
spread eagle, the arms of Lady Felbrigge : upon two other shields, 
one on either side of the same pinnacle, is the well-known badge 
of the fetterlock : and below, on the corbel from which the arches 

^ The arms attributed to Edward the Con- 
fessor? , azure, a cross flory within an orle 
of martlets, or. This bearing was assumed 
by Richard II., at the time of his Irish 
expedition, A.D. 1394 ; but with what ex- 
press view it cannot now be positively as- 
certained. These assumed bearings appear 
neither on the seals nor the tomb of the 
king ; but they were notwithstanding evi- 
dently borne by Richard, impaled with 

his hereditary coat, as his royal arms. They 
were also specially granted, as honourable 
augmentations of arms, to certain favour- 
ites or relations, with some armorial differ- 
ence to each; but in all, as in the royal 
arms, were borne impaling their paternal 
coats. The royal arms thus impaled, again 
appear upon the brass in Westminster 
abbey of Robert Waldeby, archbishop of 
Dublin, A.D. 1397. 

AD 1 4. TO 8" i^em VI. 

J K Jobhin.i. Fi',n> 


C-up Bearer to King Henry, V. 
WynuTigtOTi Ckiij-ch, BodfbrdshiT-e . 


of the canopy spring in the centre, is the white hart lodged, the 
cognizance and also the supporter of Richard II. The first Lady 
Felbrigge, commemorated by this brass, was Margaret, daughter of 
Primislaus, duke of Teschen, a near kinswoman to Anne of Bohe- 
mia the queen, to whom she was a maid of honour. Of scarcely in- 
ferior merit was the brass figured by Cotman, which, with others, 
has at a comparatively recent period been abstracted (I use a mild 
term) from Ingham church : it was designed to commemorate Sir 
Bryan de Stapleton, and CeciHa Bardolph his lady, and bore the 
date A.D. 1438. A small label here shewed the name of the dog 
lying at the feet of the knight, to have been jakke ^. At Wyming- 
ton in Bedfordshire, A.D. 1430, is a large and very fine specimen 
of a knight in plate-armour, his head reposing on his crested tilt- 
ing-helm : it commemorates Sir Thomas Bromflete, cup-bearer to 
King Henry V., and is considered by Mr. Hartshorne to be " the 
finest specimen of a brass representing a knight in plate-armour 
in existence'." In the same church is preserved another fine 
brass to the memory of Margaret, wife of the above Sir Thomas 
Bromflete, who died A.D. 1407. Bearing date the 29th of Novem- 
ber, A.D. 1426, at Wiston, in Sussex, the brass of Sir John de 
Brewys or Braose, (see next page,) afl'ords another noble example 
of this truly imposing style of armour : in this valuable specimen 
every peculiarity of the panoply of plate in its highest perfection, is 
exemplified in the most characteristic manner'^. The small append- 
age to the taces, indeed, but this alone, is unusual. A correspond- 
ing example will be found at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, in the now 
mutilated brass of Sir John Drayton, who died A.D. 1411. This 
knight wears the collar of SS : and on his sword-hilt are engraven 
the letters I.S., — the first and the last of the sacred monogram. 
Westminster abbey contains another excellent and well-known 
brass of a knight in plate-armour, — the memorial of Sir John de 

h A similar instance occurs in the brass resembles that subsequently described as 

of Sir John Cassy, in Deerhurst church, worn by Sir John Leventhorpe. 

Gloucestershire, where the word terri * See " Sepulchral Monuments," p. 39, 

accompanies the dog which lies at the feet where the brass of Sir Thomas Bromflete 

of Lady Cassy. The armour of Sir Bryan is figured. 

Stapleton differs slightly from what has ^ See for a further notice of this brass, 

been described in the text; it more strictly p. '14'3, note (b). ,' , , 



Sir John de Brewys, A.D. 1426. 

[jLhti deHai-pudon, A.D, U57, 

Harpedon, A.D. 1457 : in this brass the taces are remarkable from 
the number of their lames amounting to eleven : and the armour 
throughout is unusually simple for the period. Sir John de Har- 
pedon married three wives, one of whom was a daughter of Sir 
John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, who was burnt in the year 1413. 
Among other good examples of this same style, Cotman has figured 
the brasses of Sir Galfridus de Fransham, A.D. 1414, at Great 
Fransham, and of Sir William Calthorpe, A.D. 1420, at Burnham 
Thorpe, both in Norfolk; and in Suffolk, the brasses of John 
Broke, A.D. 1426, at Easton, and of John Norwich, A.D. 1428, at 
Yoxford. In the publication of the Camden Society also, another 
very fine specimen of this same style is figured : it is the brass at 

A n , i4 3 3 11 W?rt: 

J.R.Jolbms. Wii.'- 

In Sawiridgeworth Church, Hertfordshire. 
( Shields or Arms omitted.) 



Wixford in Warwickshire to the memory of Sir Thomas de Crewe 
and Juliana his lady, M'ho deceased in the year 1411. And again, 
in St. Lawrence church, Kent, A.D. 1444, the brass of Sir Nicholas 
Manston exhibits his effigy armed at all points in the same style : 
in this example, however, the palettes have a very peculiar form, 
and the narrow transverse belt is buckled in front of the figure, 
over the faces : the knight wears the collar of SS. 

In addition to the several component members of a suit of plate- 
armour, as exemplified in the brasses last noticed, certain other 
pieces were gradually introduced, either as modifications of the 
existing style of armour, or with a view to provide still more per- 
fect security. The first of these varieties consists in an alteration 
in the arrangement of the faces, which are contracted somewhat 
in depth, and small plates named Tuilles are attached by buckles 
to the lowermost tace, thus covering the front of the thighs with- 
out at all impeding the free use of the limbs. Of this fashion as 
it first appeared, we have an excellent specimen in the noble brass 
of Sir John de Leventhorpe at Sawbridgeworth, in this county : in 
all other respects the armour corresponds with that worn by Sir 
Simon de Felbrigge, but here are tuilles buckled below the taces. 
Beside the knight is the effigy of his lady, habited in a kirtle and 
mantle, and having beneath her coverchef a widow's plaited coif. 

Above the figures on 

either side is a shield, the 

one bearing the royal arms 

of Henry VI., and the 

other England differenced 

of a label of three points, 

charged upon each point 

with as many fleurs-de- 

lys ^ It appears to have 
been customary thus to place the royal arms upon the tombs of 
persons who had borne office under the crown : this was the case 
with Sir Simon Felbrigge, and Archbishop Waldeby, whose interest- 


Arma of Henry V. and VI. Brass 
of Sir John de Leventhorpe. 

Arms of King Henry V. when 
Prince of Wales. Brass of 
Sir John de Leventhorpe. 

1 The former of these two shields dis- 
plays the royal arms of Henry V. at the 
close of his reign, and also Henry VI. : 

the latter is charged with the bearing of 
Henry V. when Prince of Wales. See 
p. 131. 


ing brass is preserved in Westminster abbey : and John Leven- 
thorpe also was a highly trusted servant to the house of Lancaster ; 
he held various offices under Kings Henry IV., V., and VI., and 
in the will of Henry V. was named one of the executors of that 
monarch : he himself died A.D. 1433, the 11th of Henry VI. 

Shortly after their introduction, the tuilles were considerably 
increased in size, and instead of being straight they were worked 
below to a point. Additional pieces were placed upon the ordinary 
armour of the shoulders and elbows; and the mechanism of the 
gauntlets was also altered, with a view to afford a greater degree of 
security to the hands. A singular diversity also appears between 
the corresponding defences of the right and left sides of the same 
figure; the right arm being so accoutred, as to be as well as 
possible adapted for offensive action, while the left was carefully 
protected by defensive armour. The plate attached to the cuff of 
the gauntlet, or to the coudiere, was denominated a Garde-de-bras ; 
that which was placed in front of the shoulder was a Placcate ; but 
when the shoulder was absolutely covered by this second defence, 
it became a Pauldron ". Upon the first adoption of complete suits 
of plate-armour, the jupon was laid aside, and the knightly vanity 
of the time appears to have gloried in displaying the glittering 
splendour of the burnished steel; the intolerable heat, however, 
occasioned by the shining of the sun upon the steel panoply, soon 
led to the introduction of some light vestment to be worn over the 
armour. The vestment of this kind in most general use was the 
Tabard, which almost invariably was embroidered with the arms of 
the wearer : it covered the body armour, and had short full sleeves, 

™ The construction of the epaulieres in trate this progressive developeraent of the 
many examples at a considerably earlier shoulder-armour. I must not omit to re- 
period, gives evident indication of the ap- mind brass collectors, that the truly noble 
proaching introduction of this important plate at Playford has recently been floored 
piece of armour, the pauldron: I may over; it is figured in Cotman. The brass 
refer to the brasses of Sir William Bagot of Sir Nicholas Dagworth here referred to, 
(p. 56) A.D. 1407, at Baginton, Warwick- is a remarkably fine specimen; it closely 
shire; of SirNicholas Dagworth, A.D. 1401, resembles the brasses of Sir William Bagot 
at Blickling, Norfolk; and of Sir George at Baginton, Warwickshire, and of Sir 
de Felbrigg, A.D. 1400, at Playford, in George de Felbrigg: these three plates 
Suffolk; and again, subsequently to the may indeed be confidently ascribed to the 
brass of Sir John de Braose, (p. 66,) same artist. 
A.D. 1426, at Wiston, Sussex, to illus- 



upon each of which, as well 
as upon the body of the ta- 
bard, the entire coat of arms 
was emblazoned. 

At Digswell, in this county, 
beside the brasses of his fa- 
ther and mother, is the brass 
of a second Sir John Peryent, 
who died about 1450 : in this 
specimen, which in every re- 
spect is good and valuable, 
the peculiarity consists in the 
garde-de-brass attached to 
the coudiere of the left arm. 
On either side of the head of 
the knight are the emblems 
of St. Matthew and St. Luke : 
those of the two other evan- 
gelists, together with an in- 
scription, have been lost from 
the foot of the effigy. In the 
brass of Sir Richard Dyxton, 
A.D. 1438, at Cirencester, 
Gloucestershire, pointed tuil- 
les are appended to the taces, 
which nevertheless are eight 
in number : placcates vary- 
ing in size and form, and sir Jotm peryent the younger, c.A.D.UM. DigsweU, Herts. 

fixed by rivets and arming- 
points, afford additional pro- 
tection to the shoulders; a 
Demi-placcate or second cover- 
ing of steel strengthens the 
lower part of the cuirass, and 
the gauntlets have but two 
joints at the back of the 

fingers. This curious and piaccates, sir Richard Cyxton, Cirencester. A.D.U38 



Walter Green, Esq., Hayes, Middlesex, 
A.D. 1430. 

John Daundelyon, Esq., Margate, A.D, 1455. 

valuable effigy is surmounted by a rich canopy, now partly muti- 
lated, but easily capable of complete and satisfactory restoration. 
John Daundelyon, A.D. 1445, at Margate, Kent, wears tuilles 
resembling those of Sir R. Dyxton, but his taces amount to five 
only: he has at either shoulder a placcate, the one altogether 
differing in character from the other ; the same difference charac- 
terizes each garde-de-brass; and the gauntlets have very large 
cuffs. Bearing date A.D. 1458, at Castle Donington, Leicester- 
shire, the brass of Sir Robert Staunton bears a very strong general 
resemblance to that of John Daundelyon ; his bascinet, however, 
is furnished with a vizor. About the same period also, c. A.D. 1450, 
at Hayes, Middlesex, Walter Green wears pauldrons of simple con- 



struction ; and his epaullieres, which are composed of a scries of 
small plates, are banded together at the neck : the taces in this 
effigy are also curious, being worked in broad escalops, they are 
eight in number ; the bare head of the knight reposes on his vizored 
tilting-helm, the bascinet being altogether omitted. 

In the brass of Sir Ralph Shelton, A.D. 1423, at Great Snoring 
church, Norfolk, we have an early example of the tabard of arms, 
worn over the armour. A tabard is also worn, A.D. 1424, by John 
Wantele, at Amberley, Sussex ; but in this instance the arms (which 
are vert, three lions' faces, argent, langued, gules) are not repeated 
upon the sleeves : in this example the armour is very good : the head 
is bare, and round the throat is a small gorget of mail. Another, 
and that an admirable specimen of the tabard, occurs in the 
large* and singularly interesting brass of Sir 
William Fynderne and Elizabeth his lady, 
at Childrey, Berks, A.D. 1444. The head of 
this knight is bare, and his entire person is 
enveloped, nearly to the knees, in the em- 
broidered covering to his armour; and this, 
in the original, from the field of the coat of 
arms being white, is composed of lead run 
into casements or hollows sunk for its recep- 
tion in the latten-plate •". In the effigy of 
Lady Fynderne, the lead occupies a still 
larger portion of the composition, the whole 
of both mantle and kirtle being of that metal, 
in consequence of the field of her own armo- 
rial bearing, as well as that of her husband, 
being argent. Thus, in this figure, in the 
head and hands alone the surface of the 
brass itself appears. The effigies in this 
brass are surmounted by an elegant double canopy, which, like 
that of Sir K. Dyxton and many others, might have its partial 
mutilations restored with certain fidelity at a very trifling cost. 
Other examples of the tabard abound in brasses from the period 

Sir WiUiaju Fynderne, Childrey, 
Berks, A.D. 1444. 

"" The arms here emblazoned are argent, 
chevron between three crosses pattee- 

fitchee, sable, the chevron differenced of 
an annulet of the field. 


now under consideration^ until almost the middle of the succeeding 
century, the sixteenth : of these it will be sufficient for me here to 
refer, for later specimens, to the brasses of Sir Ralph Verney, 
c. A.D. 1546, at Aldbury, in this county; of John Shelley, Esq., 
A.D. 1526, at Clapham, in Sussex; and of Sir Roger ^Estrange, 
A.D. 1506, at Hunstanton, in Norfolk. 

As the fifteenth century advanced towards its close, the character 
of armour gradually degenerated. Until the death of the eighth 
Henry, indeed, armour continued to be splendid and magnificent, 
far richer with elaborate flutings and inlaying than at an earlier 
period: still during the later years of the struggle between the 
rival Houses of York and Lancaster, and throughout the era of the 
Tudor dynasty, we no longer find the knightly effigies accoutred in 
that smart and elegant style, by which they previously were dis- 
tinguished. And in brasses this inferiority of equipment is more 
strikingly apparent than in sculptured figures, in consequence of 
the great and increasing deterioration in these engraven memo- 
rials, as works of art ; a deterioration so remarkable, that very few 
brasses, executed many years after the accession of Henry VIII., 
A.D. 1509, are worthy of much attention, being totally devoid 
alike of interest, merit, and value". After the year 1450 various 
other new and supplementary pieces of armour were introduced, 
designed to be affixed to the cuirass, head-piece, and the defences 
of the limbs; and those more essential components of a suit of 
armour themselves underwent various modifications. The faces 
were more and more contracted, and the tuilles proportionably 
enlarged. Elbow-pieces of extravagant size were worn, with which 
the genouillieres duly corresponded. Pauldrons became uni- 
versal ; and they frequently were constructed with a ridge, for 
the most part serrated at the shoulder, and greatly resembling 
the passe-gardes subsequently adopted. Head-pieces and helmets, 
greatly diversified in form and in the character of their accessories, 
were adopted : but these rarely are found exemplified in brasses, 

" The deep and bold lines, so charac- or hatching with a multiplicity of small 

teristic of the earlier plates, had at this era lines, which was introduced about the year 

long ceased to be employed in brass en- 1450, in the following century became the 

graving: and the attempt at producing an means of completely destroying the beauty 

effect of perspective, by means of sliading of the brasses then executed. 



except as forming a pillow for the uncovered head of knightly 
effigies. The gauntlets covered the hands after the fashion of 
the shell of a tortoise. The sollerets were still long and pointed. 
The sword, having a singularly short and ill-proportioned hilt 
adorned with tassels, hung directly in front of the figure, sometimes 
perpendicularly, but more generally sloping slightly toward the left 
side, from a narrow belt girded about the waist. The brasses of 
Sir Thomas de Shernbourn, at Shernbourn, Norfolk, A.D. 1459, and 
of Henry Parice, about A.D. 1465, at Hildersham, Cambridgeshire, 

have tuilles, elbow- 
pieces, and genou- 
illieres of extrava- 
gant size; the lat- 
ter have overlap- 
ping plates to guard 
the joint behind: 
both these effigies 
exemplify the paul- 
dron with its shoul- 
der-ridge: and in .^,,., 

o ' Sword-belt, tuiUes.&c., A.D. 14D5. 

that at Hildersham HeuryPax.ce.Eildersham.Can.b. 

the lance-rest is re- 
presented screwed 
on the right side of 
the cuirass °. This 
figure is surmount- 
ed by a fine and 
perfect canopy. In 
the elaborate brass 
of Sir William Ver- 

Sir Antliony de Grey. A.D. H80. 
Abbey-churcli. St. Alban'a. 

non and 

A.D. 1467, at Tong 

fa TYl i 1 V Lance rest, Coudiere, and Pauldron, 
IrtlUll^y, Henry Parice, Esq., A.D. 1465. 

Hildersham, Camb. 

church, Salop, we have a splendid example of the armour of this 
period. The brass of Sir Anthony de Grey, in the abbey-church 

" In this brass the skirt of a haqueton, 
with the edge of some defence of mail, 
appear beneath the taces. Another pre- 

cisely similar example occurs at Roydon, 
Essex: it is the brass of Robert Colt, Esq., 
A.D. 1475. 



of St. Alban, may be also regarded as a fair specimen of the same 
style of armour : this knight wears the Yorkist collar of suns and 
roses : he was brother to John Lord Grey of Groby, the first hus- 
band of EUzabeth Woodville, afterwards Queen of England, and 
with his brother fell at the battle of Bernard's Heath near 
St. Alban's, fought February 17th, A.D. 1480?. A more highly 
finished example of the same style of brass exists at Broxbourne in 
this county, the memorial of Sir John Say and his lady : it was 
engraved under the direction of Sir John himself, and laid down 
by his order at the decease of Lady Say in the year 1473. This 
interesting specimen is thus described, as well as admirably 
figured by Mr. Waller: — Sir John Say "wears a close-fitting 
tabard, emblazoned with his armorial bearings i : the neck is 
protected by a hausse-col of mail, over which is a collar of suns 
and roses, the distinguishing badge of the house of York, adopted 
by Edward IV. after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, A.D. 1461 : 
the coutes (coudieres), escalloped and fluted, are attached by 

P Four shields of arms were originally 
placed about this effigy : of these now one 
only remains, bearing barry of six, argent 
and azure, in chief three torteaux, quarter- 
ing Hastings and Valence, earls of Pem- 
broke. Of the original inscription also a 
fragment only has been preserved : 
• . . ftnsgi)t, son anO ijcir to ISlrmonD trie of Kent, 
. . . 6 tfie fourtj) ftole ststrr to our sott'rainc laOn tje 
. . . sear of our iLorO, a. 1480, anU of tl)c tsH 
... fee : on toftosesoule (fioS fjaoe meres. Einen. 
Sir Anthony de Grey was eldest son of 
Edmund Lord Grey of Ruthyn, created 
by Edward IV. earl of Kent, by Catherine 
his wife, daughter of Henry Percy, earl of 
Northumberland : he married Joan daugh- 
ter of Richard Wydeville, or Woodville, 
Earl Rivers, and sister to Elizabeth queen 
of Edward IV., and to Anne wife of his 
next brother George de Grey, second earl 
of Kent. Sir Anthony died without issue 
during the life-time of his father. At 
Grafton Regis is a curious monumental 
effigy of the grandfather of these three 
distinguished ladies. Sir John Wydeville, 
A.D. 1392, engraved on a slab of alabaster. 

1 The arms of Say are per pale azure, 
and gules, three chevronels, or, each 

charged with another humette, counter- 
changed of the field. Sir John Say was a 
privy councillor, Speaker of the House of 
Commons, and an esquire at arms to King 
Edward IV. He died A.D. 1478. These 
effigies are placed upon an altar-tomb, 
about the verge of which runs the follow- 
ing legend, strictly commemorative of 
Lady Say only ;— " ^ Bm ICuell) IBamc 
lEli-abctI) Somtnmc tnof lo Sit Jobn San 
Iftnigf)!, Baugf)tcr of Haurence CDbcnncp 
lEsriuncr of CCambtiggcs'birc a aJEoman of 
noble hloUc antJ most noble in gotic i¥tan= 
nets tol)icl) UcccsscO tf)e .X.Xtl) Ban of Scp= 
tcmbcr. ®f)e i)ere of our ICorD "a JW. 
€r,€(S:€. ICXXEIES antt cntirelr in tftis 
®I)urcI) of ISro^kcsborn abytinng ©ftc boDiie 
of f)tr saiD lilusbantf, tnohose Soulcs C5oK 
IStong to CEticrlasting bltsse." A part of 
this legend has now been lost. The arms 
borne by Lady Say are quarterly or and 
sable, a bend lozengy, gules, for Cheyne, 
impaling two other coats ; first gules, a 
fesse dancette, between six crosses crosslet, 
or ; and secondly, harry of six, or and 
azure, on a bend gules three mullets of the 
first, pierced of the third. 



arming-points, the tagged extremities of which appear tied out- 
side : cufted gauntlets, with flexible defences for the fingers, protect 
the hand and wrist. Under the tabard was worn a skirt of taces, 
to which were appended tuilles and tuillettes "■, which appear over 
the thighs and hips; under these is seen chain-mail, being either a 
skirt worn under the taces, or more probably a narrow band of 
mail attached to them for greater security. Overlapping plates 
are affixed, both above and below, to the genouillieres, gussets of 
mail forming a safe-guard behind: the sollerets are pointed and 
flexible, the spurs long and rivetted to the heel under the edge of 
the jambers (jambarts.) The sword hangs diagonally in front 
from a plain narrow belt; the hilt and pommel have a tassel of 
fringe, the handle is fretted; a dagger is worn as usual on the 
right side." Lady Say is both richly and also characteristically 
attired. Over a sideless cote-hardi guarded with fur, she wears a 
long and flowing mantle emblazoned with her family arms; the 
mantle is closely fastened across 
the breast with a cordon having 
long pendent ends, displaying 
the tight sleeves of an under- 
kirtle, and the jewelled hands 
are uplifted in prayer : the neck 
is encircled by a gorgeous carca- 
net of gems ; and from the hair, 
which is drawn back into a rich 
caul, projects a veil of gauze ex- 
tended by slight wires, denomi- 
nated the '' Butterfly head-dress." 
"The delicacy of the workman- 
ship is shewn from the upper part 

of the caul over which the veil passes, being engraved less deeply 
than the rest." The shoes are excessively sharply pointed : and 
at the right foot lies a small dog. In this brass the heraldic 
tinctures of the armorial insignia are expressed by fine enamels 
of red and blue, which are still almost as perfect as when first 

■^ The tuillettes in this figure are the small plied to the front tuilles themselves when 
tuilles on either side: the term is also ap- composed of several plates, or jointed. 

Head-dress, Lady Say, A.D. 1473 



inlaid*. Other fine brasses of about the same period are by no 
means of uncommon occurrence. One other, figured by Waller, 
is a truly magnificent specimen : it exists in the church of Little 
Easton in Essex, and commemorates Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, 
and his lady, Mary, daughter of Sir John and Lady Say of Brox- 
bourne : its date is A.D. 1483, the 23rd of Edward IV. The earl 
wears the garter with the mantle of the order; and his head rests 
upon his coronetted and crested tilting-helm, the flowing contoise 
of which is powdered with his badge, the water-bouget. The cos- 
tume of the countess for the most part resembles that of Lady Say 
her mother ; with the exception that her proud brow is encircled 
by a coronet richly set with jewels : her head rests upon a diapered 
cushion supported by angels. Both figures wear the Yorkist col- 
lar of suns and roses; and to that of Lady Essex a white lion 
couchant, is attached as a pendant*. At the feet of either effigy 
is an eagle of large size. The brasses of William Berdewell, 
A.D. 1490, at West Harling, and of Sir Henry Grey, A.D. 1492, 
at Keteringham, Norfolk, both display several peculiarities in the 
armour and appointments of the period ". And at Isleham in Cam- 
bridgeshire is the brass of Sir Thomas Peyton, A.D. 1484, which 
furnishes an example of ribbed pauldrons, and also of the enor- 
mous and absolutely grotesque elbow-pieces sometimes worn. 

Shortly after the commencement of the next succeeding century, 
the sixteenth, round-toed and shapeless sabbatons superseded the 
pointed soUerets : a skirt of mail appears behind large and jointed 

' Sir William Say, the eldest son of this placcate which covers the lower part of the 

Sir John and Lady Say, is commemorated cuirass, and from which on the right side 

by an inscription sculptured upon the cor- a lance-rest projects ; the taces are three 

nice beneath the parapet of a chapel, on in number, and from the lowermost large 

the north side of the same church at Brox- tuilles depend : the sword hangs sloping 

bourne, where he was buried in the year behind the figure, at the left side. Sir 

1529: — "Pray for the welfayr of Sir Henry Grey has seven taces, and a pair of 

Wylyam Say Knyght wych fodyd yis small pointed tuilles: his sword is girded 

CHAPEL IN HONOR A Y'E Trenete THE perpendicularly at his left side by a trans- 

YERE OF OUR LoRD GoD, 1522." Verse belt: his epaullieres consist each of 

^ See p. 134. three large overlapping plates, over which 

" The paudrons of William Berdewell on the right shoulder is worn a pauldron : 

differ in form and size, and they appear to a lance-rest is attached to the cuirass; and 

join in front; immediately below their the gauntlets have but one joint at the back 

junction is a buckle for securing the demi- of the hand. , 


tuilles, which when thus constructed are distinguished as tuUlettes : 
and the sword is again girded at the left side, and now having 
the blade crossing behind the legs. In some few instances this 
fashion appears to have obtained during the last 
years of tlie fifteenth century ; as in the brass 
of Piers Gerard, Esq., A.D. 1492, the 7th of 
Henry VII., at Warwick, in Lancashire : in 
this effigy we have an excellent specimen of a 
tabard of arras, worn over the armour". In 

Sabbaton, Piers Gerard, Esq.. 

the same church, dated A.D. 1527, is the ^ d- i^^- ^'i""i<=''- ^••"I'^asbiie 
curious brass of Sir Peter Legh and his lady : the lady is habited 
in kirtle and mantle, the latter emblazoned with armorial insignia, 
and she wears the pedimental head-dress : the knight, who is 
armed, and has resting on his breast his shield of arms, has over 
his armour an ecclesiastical vestment, the chesuble, indicative of 
his having assumed the clerical habit towards the close of his life y. 
Between the figures is a rich heraldic achievement : and the entire 
composition is completed by a border-fillet, bearing a legend, and 
having at the angles the evangelistic emblems. A.D. 1507, the 
23rd of Henry VII., at Wiverhoe, in Essex, is the remarkably fine 
brass of William, Viscount Beaumont and Lord Bardolfe : the 
bare head of this nobleman rests upon his tilting-helm, with its 
flowing contoise or mantling, and surmounted by the crest, a lion 
standing upon an orle or wreath. The armour throughout is cha- 
racteristic, very good of its style, and well expressed : at the feet is 
the Beaumont badge, an elephant with a howdah on its back : and 
above the figure are the remains of a double canopy of unusual 
magnificence. The same badge which is placed at the feet of the 
effigy, is also several times repeated, alternating with portions of 
the legend, on the border-fillet. The brass of Lady Beaumont, 
who subsequently married John, fourteenth earl of Oxford, but 
was buried by the side of her first husband, is equally fine with 

'^ This brass also retains the greater legend are three shields of arms; and 

part of a fine triple canopy of the highest below the centre one a very small figure 

merit ; and which, like the greater number of a boy. 

of canopies in similar circumstances, might y See note (n), p. 97. 
be very easily restored. Beneath the foot- 



that of the viscount. The brass of Sir 
Humphrey Stanley, A.D. 1505, in West- 
minster abbey, bears a general resemb- 
lance to that of Lord Beaumont; but 
here the cuirass, instead of its usual glo- 
bular form, is worked in front to a ridge, 
denominated the Tapul, and the paul- 

drons have Passe-gardes, — pieces rising 
from the shoulders to protect the neck: 
in this example the sword-belt is alto- 
gether omitted^ Another good example 

of each of these pecuharities occurs in the 

brass of Eichard Gyll, A.D. 1511, at 

Shottesbroke, Berks; he was " Squyer 

and sergeant of the bakehous wyth Kyng 

Henry VII., and also with Kyng Henry 

the VIII. :" his brass and that of Sir 

Humphrey Stanley were evidently the 

work of the same artist. These figures 

have a singularly awkward contour, from 

the high-shouldered aspect produced by 

the passe-gardes of the pauldrons. Two 

other brasses, in all respects similar to % 

those of Stanley and Gill, are preserved 

in the church at Luton % Bedfordshire. At Hunstanton, in Norfolk, 

is the elaborate and ample brass of Sir Roger I'Estrange, A.D. 1506, 

the 22nd of Henry VIL; which also, in the several effigies placed in 

the niches of the canopy, commemorates the ancestors of Sir Roger, 
from John Le Strange, who flourished in the reign of Henry HI. 

These figures are all habited in costume similar to that worn by the 

Sir Humphrey Stanley, A.D. 1505 
■Westminster Abbey. 

^- Several instances of this omission 
occur; as in the splendid brass of Sir 
Thomas de Crewe, A.D. 1411, at V^^ixford, 
Warwickshire, &c. 

* It is impossible to name this once 
magnificent edifice, without a remark upon 
its present state of barbarous disfigurement, 
and shameful neglect. A church finer in 
general features, or more interesting in its 

diversified details, does not exist in the 
kingdom : and certainly there is none in a 
more grievous condiiion, a condition the 
less excusable fiom tlie comparative faci- 
lity with which it might be restored. The 
brasses referred to in the text severally 
commemorate John Acworth, A.D. 1513, 
and two wives, and John Sylan, A.D. 1516, 
and his two wives. 


principal effigy. Tabards of arras appear upon every 
figure ; and the hands are uplifted, thus displaying the 
mechanism of the under side of the steel-guarded gaunt- 
lets. From the lichnet of Sir Roger, which stands erect 
above his head, a mantling of extravagant amplitude oc- 
cupies the entire space intervening between the upper 
part of the figure, and the elaborate triple tabernacle- 
work of the canopy. Bearing date, A.D. 1529, at Or- Gauntlet, sir Roger 

l'Estra,nge. A.D. 

mesby, Norfolk, the brass of Sir Robert Clere has but '-'^s Hunstanton 
two taces, and these escalloped ; above them rises a demi-placcate to 
strengthen the cuirass, and below are tuilles, which cover the entire 
limbs from the knee upwards. 

From the middle of this century a series of further changes took 
place; all, however, tending towards the final disuse of armour, 
which its weight, and still more its insufficiency as a guard against 
fire-arms, gradually was bringing on. The general aspect of the 
warrior as thus again altered, is well exemplified in the brass of Sir 
William Molineux, A.D. 1548, at Sefton, Lancashire, who, at the 
battle of Floddon-field, " with his own hand took from the fiercely 
contesting Scots, two standards of arms:" here we see a coif or 
hood of mail again in fashion, while the taces have altogether dis- 
appeared, and ample tuillettes, with corresponding Culettes behind, 
are attached to the front and back pieces of the cuirass itself, thus 
forming a complete defence of overlapping and flexible plates from 
the waist to the knees. These skirts of steel were denominated 
Lamboys, and were first introduced and worn by the bluff soldiery 
of their no less bluff master, King Henry VIII., and they continued 
in use until the final abandonment of armour ''. In this reign the 
armour was usually fluted, and the richer suits were elaborately 
engraved with various ornamental surface work ; it was generally 
worn uncovered by any species of surcoat. Many curious examples 
of the bearded and venerable looking knights of this period, with 
their multifarious defensive accoutrements, exist in Norfolk and Suf- 

^ The abandonment of its use calls to fering injuries by the violence of others, it 

remembrance the characteristic remark of at the same time, by its weight and incon- 

our James I., that armour was in every venience, rendered it impossible for him to 

respect a praiseworthy invention, inasmuch inflict upon others any serious injuries 

as while it preserved the wearer from suf- himself. 



folk. In the latter county, at Wren- 
tham, bearing the date A.D. 1593, 
the memorial of Humphrey Brews- 
ter, Esq., is perhaps the best speci- 
men of this style of brass. Two 
others of these military effigies I 
cannot here pass altogether un- 
noticed : these are the brasses of 
Sir John Greville, A.D. 1546, and 
of Sir Edward Greville, A.D. 1559, 
both lords of Milcof^: these curious 
plates are preserved in the church 
at Weston near Stratford-on-Avon; 
and they are remarkable for their 
close resemblance, as well in the 
style and expression of their accom- 
panying legend, as the costume and 
general character of the effigies 

In connection with their knightly 
and civic lords, I have already no- 
ticed several examples of brasses 
commemorative of Ladies : to some 
few others I would now direct at- 
tention. Of these the earliest of 
which I am aware is the brass at 
Trotton in Sussex, the remarkable 

memorial of Margaret, Lady Camoys, who died in the year 1310, 
the 3rd of Edward II. The wimple, that strange covering for 
the throat, chin, and the sides of the face, is here very distinctly 
shewn ; and it is adjusted, after a fashion prevalent in the ear- 
lier part of the Edwardian era, in such a manner as to impart a 
triangular outline to the features'^. A single curl of hair appears 

Humphrey Biewster, A.D. 1593 Wrenihstm, 

'^ Dugdale mentions the elder as a 
worthy who enticed the unwary to his 
castle, in order to rob and murder them : 
we will hope that in this point at least that 

shrewd antiquary was in error. 

•• Fine examples of the same arrange- 
ment occur in many sculptured female 
effigies of this period ; as in the effigy of 



on either side of the forehead, which is 
encircled by a narrow enriched fillet : and 
upon the head, and falling gracefully upon 
the shoulders, is a coverchcf. The remain- 
der of the costume, with the exception of 
its heraldic decorations, is of the simplest 
character, but is expressed with great 
vigour and effectiveness. A super-tunic 
envelopes the entire person; it has no 
waist-cincture, and its sleeves are loose, 
and terminate somewhat below the elbow, 
thus displaying of the kirtle worn beneath 
no more than the tight sleeves, buttoned 
closely to the wrists ; the clasped and up- 
lifted hands are bare. Originally, nine 
small shields of arms were attached to the 
front of the figure upon the tunic ^ ; but 
these now have been abstracted, and that 
at a very recent period. A fine pedimental 
canopy with slender side-shafts and pin- 
nacles, eight shields of arms, the border 
fillets with the letters of the legend which 
they enclosed, and a profusion of small 
stars and other ornaments with which it 
once was semee, have in like manner but at a more distant period 
been abstracted from the marble slab. The border legend originally 
was as follows, written in Longobardic capitals : — 

jWmiaffimiRIE^IE : ©IE : ®^J«l©iS : ffilSSt : Ed : 
li^FS : BIE : SmXjmiE : IZEST : iWIEm®! : mjWISig. 

This legend commences without an initial cross. 

Ten years later only, at Cobham in Kent, is the brass of Joan, 

Margai-et, Lady de Camoys, A.D. 1310 
Trotton, Susses. 

Aveline, countess of Lancaster, A.D. 1269, 
in Westminster Abbey. The wimple 
thus adjusted may often be observed in 
the sculptured corbels which support the 
hood-molds of windows, &c. in churches, 
from about A.D. 1250 to about A.D. 1330. 

The wimple was evidently an imitation of 
the coif-de-mailles of the knights. 

' For a further description of this re- 
markable mode of decoration by means of 
shields of arms, see p. 131, 




daughter of John, Lord Beau- 
champ, of Stoke-under-Ham- 
den, Somersetshire, and first wife 
of Sir John de Cobham, who de- 
ceased A.D. 1320, the 13th of 
Edward II. The costume in 
this dignified effigy differs but 
httle from that worn by Lady 
Caraoys : the heraldic decora- 
tions are omitted from the kir- 
tle, and its full sleeves terminate 
in very short lappets. The pedi- 
mental or rectilineal canopy, the 
earliest form of this elegant ac- 
cessory, is here admirably ex- 
emplified*^: it rises from slender 
shafts terminating in pinnacles, 
and is crocketed and crowned 
with a finial; beneath, it is 
worked in a large and bold tre- 
foil, having the spandrels foli- 
ated. The Longobardic letters 
and narrow fillets of latten have 
been removed from the verge of 
the slab, to which this fine brass 
is attached : the inscription ran 
thus, — 

1It(©131£l^iW : ©ess; : 3ES3E 

^FIR : lUdi : ^ICi^CE : ^BE 
3©UmS :I91£ : '^%TEim®V^', 

Joan, Lady de Cobham, A.D. 1320. Cobham, Ke nt 

f This is also the earliest specimen of a 
canopy known to be in existence in a 
monumental brass. 

K Gough describes this fine and interest- 

ing memorial as " the figure of a lady in a 
veil, with her hair on her forehead, the 
wimple up to her mouth, close mantle 
easy shape, neck-band open, sleeves ending 



Another lady of this same family, 
Maud, wife of Reynold, Baron de Cob- 
ham, lord warden of the cinque ports, 
is portrayed in a second brass at Cob- 
ham church, the date of which is about 
A.D. 13G0, the 33rd of Edward III. : this 
memorial furnishes an early example 
of the Beticulated head-dress, so long 
fashionable with our fair ancestresses : 
by this arrangement, the hair was en- 
closed within a species of thin close cap 
which encircled the face, and was repre- 
sented by a series of zig-zag lines, pro- 
bably designed to express the delicate 
structure of the material of which the 
cap was composed : from this cap, in 
many examples, as in the present one, a 
part of the hair was allowed to escape, 
and falling on the shoulders, there was 
rolled up within other reticulated cover- 
ings. Lady Cobham wears a close kirtle 
or cote-hardi buttoned in front to the 
waist, and having a border at the foot ; 
the sleeves are tight, buttoned below, and continued to cover the 
backs of the hands : over this a mantle is thrown, which is con- 
fined by a heavy cordon crossing from shoulder to shoulder. The 
dog, upon which the feet of the effigy rest, is of a very large size, 
and has a collar garnished with small bells, a customary appendage 
to this animal when introduced at the feet of female effigies in these 
compositions. Ismena de Wynston, A.D. 1372, at Necton, Nor- 
folk, and the two wives of Sir John Foxley, at Bray, Berkshire, at 
about the same period, wear the reticulated head-dress, but without 

Maud, Lady de Cobham, c. A.D, 1360. 
Cobham, Kent, 

a little below the elbow, then close and 
buttoned to the wrist: the arch of the ca- 
nopy a large demi-quatrefoil with flowered 
spandrels, the pediment charged with oak 
leaves, surmounted by a bouquet, and 

sided by finials." Examples of female cos- 
tume at periods intervening between the 
brasses of the Ladies Joan and Maud de 
Cobham, have been previously described. 



Head, Isaaayxifc de VvyLibtou, A.I 
1372. Nectoa Church, Norfolk. 

having the hair falling from the cap upon 
the shoulders : they are attired in a close- 
fitting cote-hardi which reaches to the feet, 
where it is finished with a plain broad bor- 
der : from the sleeves, which terminate 
above the elbow, long and narrow lappets 
descend almost to the feet: thus all that 
is seen of the under-dress is its closely but- 
toned sleeves. These lappet-sleeves are ad- 
mirably shewn in the brass of Margaret 
Torrington, A.D. 1349, at Great Berk- 
hampsteadh. Lady Elizabeth Felbrigg, A.D. 1380, at Felbrigg, 
Norfolk, wears the same head-dress, with the addition of a cover- 
chef falling down at the back of the head ; and in other respects is 
habited after the same fashion as Lady Maud de Cobham : and 
eleven years later, at Reepham, in the same county. Lady Cecilia 
de Kerdiston again repeats, with but slight difference, this ele- 
gantly simple style of dress. Somewhat 
earlier, A.D. 1364, Lady Johanne de Staple- 
ton wears her hair in broad heavy plaits on 
either side the face, and has a coverchef 
falling over her shoulders from the back of 
the head ; her head-gear is also encircled by 
a rich bandeau of jewels : the dress in this 
interesting figure' is a close-fitting cote- 
hardi with long pendent lappets, displaying 
the buttoned sleeves of the under-dress ; in 
front of the outer dress pockets are here Head, Lady johaa«edestap,eton, 
introduced''. At South Acre, Norfolk, ^■^■^^- ^^^rf^^*^^^'"^^ 

*" See p. 107. Ill illuminations, and also 
in such effigies as still retain their original 
colouring, these lappets are almost inva- 
riably represented as being white. 

' See p. 51, and note (i). 

'' Similar pockets appear in the front of 
the super-tunic worn by one of the small 
figures in a compartment of the canopy of 
Robert Braunche at Lynn : and again in 

the figures of the canopy of Alan Fleming 
at Newark. The same arrangement also 
appears in the attire of one of the beautiful 
latten statuettes, or weepers, representing 
Blanche de la Tour, second daughter of 
Edward III., and now standing beneath a 
canopied side compartnuiit of the altar- 
tomb of that sovereign in Westminster ab- 
bey(see p. 85): it is repeated twice in similar 



Head, Lady Harsick, A D. 133J. 

~ '^i~?'iii4& 

A.D. 1384, Lady Har- 
sick wears the same 

heavy braids of hair, 

with a kirtle and man- 
tle, the kirtle being 

embroidered with her 

own and her husband's 

armorial insignia im- 
paled. In the fine 

brass of Lady Burton, 

A.D. 1382, at Little 

Casterton, Rutland, 

the braided hair has 

an enriched covering 

of net- work, and it is 

surmounted by a rich 

tiara of jewels : the 

costume of this lady is 

the customary kirtle 

and mantled Drawn 

from the brass at Stoke 

Fleming in Devonshire, 
A.D. 1391, Mr. Waller has figured the 
graceful effigy of Elyenore, grand-daughter 
of John Corp, frankelein : here the kirtle 
is the only portion of the attire which is 
exposed to view ; it is buttoned down the 
front to the waist, and the tight sleeves are 
also closely buttoned from the shoulders 
to the back of the hand ; this dress falls 
in full and well-delineated folds over the 
feet : the head-dress exhibits the hair 
enclosed in a netted caul, jewelled over the forehead, and at the 
intersections of the reticulation : over all a coverchef is represented 

Head, Lady Burton, A D. 13S2. 

Blanche de la Tour, A.D. 13T2 
Tomb of Edward III 

Head, F.leamor Corp. A.D. 1391. 
Stoke Fleming. Devon. 

figures (now mutilated) representing the in Oxford cathedral, A.D. 1354. 
children of Lady Montacute, on her tomb ' See p. 62. 


as waving in the wind. This figure stands upon a low pedestal, 
evidently to render it a more fitting pendant to the larger effigy 
beside it : the composition is completed by a canopy of bold and 
unusual design. 

Towards the close of this century, the fourteenth, that singular, 
but also singularly elegant dress, the sideless cote-hardi, which I 
have described"" as worn by Lady Halle, became a regular com- 
ponent of female costume. Lady Walsh, A.D. 1393, at Wanlip, 
Leicestershire, is thus attired; as also are Lady Anderne, A.D. 
1465, at Latton, Essex, and Lady Vernon, A.D. 1467, at Tong, 
Salop. In the brass of Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys, A.D. 1419, 
at Trotton, Sussex, the cincture of the under-tunic is seen through 
the sideless cote-hardi, in the same manner as in the effigy of Lady 
Halle ". This same dress appears in the brasses before described, 
which commemorate Lady Bagot, A.D. 1407, Lady Say, A.D. 1473, 
and her daughter the countess of Essex, A.D. 1483. During this 
period, however, the simpler arrangement of kirtle, tunic, or cote- 
hardi, al one apparent beneath a mantle, continued in fashion, as may 
be seen in the beautiful efiigies of the Ladies Halsham, A.D. 1441, at 
West Grinstead, Sussex ; andinthoseof Juliana Crewe, A.D. 1411, at 
Wixford, Warwickshire; of Lady Felbrigg,A.D.1413,at Felbrigg,and 
of Lady Leventhorpe, A.D. 1433, at Sawbridgeworth, Herts; and 
also of Elizabeth Fynderne, A.D. 1444, at Childrey, Berks. At the 
same period another, and that a no less simple dress, was also worn, 
consisting of a flowing robe, or super-tunic, closed by buttons up 
to the very chin, and at the wrists displaying the extremities of the 
sleeves of an under-tunic, which are made so long as nearly to cover 
the hands. This super-tunic appears some- 
times to have been gathered in closely round 
the throat, as in the fine brass of Lady Cassy, 
A.D. 1400, at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire, and 
also in the effigy of the same date, of Ela Bowet, 
at Wrentham, Sufi'olk ; and sometimes it was 
finished with an open collar, an arrangement 
exemplified in the brass of an unknown female^ 

. Head, Ela Bowet. A.D. HOO 

c. A.D. 1400, at St. Lawrence, Norwich, wrentham, suaroik. 

"' See p. 62. ■' See p. 62. 



Brass, St Lawrence Churcli, Nor 
C, AD. HOO. 

and again at Northflcct, in Kent. Lady 

Cassy wears this dress without any cinc- 
ture : but the wife of Henry Nottingham, 

at Holme, Norfolk, about A.D. 1405, has 

the same style of dress secured by a girdle 

clasped in front : and four years earlier, 

at Shottesbroke, Berks, the brass of Lady 

Margaret Pennebygg exhibits the effigy 

of that lady in a similar habit, buttoned 

from the chin to the feet, and drawn in 

round the waist by a girdle of very rich 

workmanship, the end of which with a 

pendent jewel hangs in front of the figure. 

In almost exact conformity (with the exception of the head- 
gear) with the dress of Lady Peryent already described °, is the 
effigy of Agnes Salmon, A.D. 1430, at Arundel, Sussex?: this 
lady wears a super-tunic with falling collar and sleeves descend- 
ing nearly to the feet, which is confined in folds about the waist 
by an enriched girdle : beneath this an under-dress was worn, also 
having a falling collar, and the full sleeves of which are gathered 
into a broad tight band at the wrist. The hands are clasped and 
upraised : two dogs are placed at the feet : the throat is encircled 
by a necklace, and also by the collar of SS : the coiffure is that 
peculiar form of the horned head-dress, 
which may be distinguished as heart- 
shaped 'i. Another fine example of this 
stately costume occurs at Horley in 
Surrey : here the head-dress is peculiarly 
elegant, and indeed the whole figure is 
characterised by a dignified gracefulness 
of bearing. This brass has, at the feet of 
the effigy, an inscription evidently a sub- Ladyo.AD.uso. Honey, surrey 

° See p. 61. 

P This fine brass in many respects has 
been grievously mutilated ; the figure of 
Thomas Salmon has been abstracted, and a 
rich canopy with the legend have partially 
shared the same fate : the figure of Agnes 

Salmon, however, remains entire. 

1 A similar head-dress is worn with the 
usual kirtle and mantle, by Margaret 
Cheyne, A.D. 1417, in her fine brass at 
Hever, Kent. 


stitution at some subsequent period for that which was originally 
engraved, and consequently it cannot now be correctly assigned ^ 
At the same period we also find another variety in the super-tunic 
of common occurrence, in which the large full sleeve is gathered 
into a narrow band, often of fur, which hangs loosely over the 
wrist : this dress is, like the preceding, worn very short waisted, 
and having a small falling collar which, as Avell as the wrist-band, 
is often composed of fur : I may refer, for examples of this costume, 
to the churches of Hitchin and Wheathamstede in this county ^ 
About the year 1480 we find the exterior dress made open at the 
top, and having a collar of fur, with large cuffs also of the same 
material. At this time the female effigies very commonly have the 
hands thrown back, in an attitude of 
painful inelegance: when clasped also, 
the position of the hands is usually forced 
and unnatural: Katharine, the lady of 
Sir John Fastolfe, A.D. 1478, at Oulton, 
Suffolk; the two wives of Sir Thomas 
Peyton, A.D. 1483, at Islesham, Cam- 
bridgeshire; Elizabeth Clere, A.D. 1488, 
at Stokesly, Norfolk; Lady Rouclyff, 
A.D. 1494, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire; and 
Elizabeth and Jane the two wives of John 
Sylan, A.D. 1516, at Luton, Bedfordshire, 
will be found, amongst many others, to 
exemplify these peculiarities. 

During the earlier years of the six- 
teenth century, dresses of simple con- 
struction were worn by ladies, usually 
secured at the waist with massive cinc- 
tures, slung loosely about the person and 
having long pendent ends : a good ex- 
ample of this style of costume is pre- 
served in the church at Clippesby in Nor- 

Lady of Civilian, Clippesby Churcli, 
Norfolk.c. A.D. 1500. 

' The name on the present inscription is 
that of Joan Fenner, who died A.D. 1535. 

s For a further notice of the Wheatham- 
stede brass, see p. 108. 


folk, the date of which is about A.D. 1500, the 15th of Henry VII. 
Thirty-five years later, we find the wife of Andrew Evyngar simi- 
larly attired, at All-hallows, Barking, London : in this brass the 
rosary takes the place of the pendent end of the girdle. Some- 
what earlier, A.D. 1512, the brass of Dorothea Peckham, at Wro- 
tham, Kent, and the corresponding figures of the wives of John 
Sylan, at Luton, exemplify a similar dress worn in connection with 
the angular or pedimental head-dress, with its pendent lappets. 
A.D. 1525, Emma Pownder, at Ipswich* wears a low super-tunic 
with large open sleeves, through which appear the comparatively 
tight sleeves of the under-dress ; this under-dress is buttoned close 
to the throat, and is partly covered by the Partlet, the prototype of 
the modern habit-shirt : from the waist-cinc- 
ture hangs down the ample rosary : and the 
head-dress is the horned form, shewn in profile, 
and closely resembling the coiffure of a mer- 
chant's lady, as engraved on her brass in the 
church of St. Swithin, Norwich. The six daugh- 
ters of Emma Pownder who kneel at her feet, 
are all habited after the same style as their Head of Merchants Lady. c. 

i 1 A.D 1500. St.Swithin s Norwich. 


With the female costume of the middle and the close of this 
century, and more particularly with that worn during the reign of 
Elizabeth, we are, I think I may venture to assume, sufficiently 
familiar to be able to assign to their proper period such brasses as 
may commemorate the fair cotemporaries of Anna Bullen and the 
virgin queen. Of the personal costume of " Good Queen Bess'' 
herself, at once the type and the consummation of the fashion of 
her times, it seems, as Mr. Planche has happily remarked, an act of 
supererogation to attempt any description: "her great ruff rises 
up indignantly at the bare idea of being unknown or forgotten ; 
her jewelled stomacher is piqued to the extreme, and her portentous 
petticoats strut out with tenfold importance at the slight'' thus 
" insinuated against their virgin mistress "." Instead, therefore, of 
entering, or rather attempting to enter, into a disquisition upon 

* The brass here referred to, is the fine St. Mary Quay, at Ipswich. 
Flemish plate preserved in the church of ■ Planchd's British Costume, p. 255. 



.AD 1413. Felbri^ 


ruffs, and brocades, and farthingales, I proceed at once to complete 
my notice of that important item in the attire of ladies, the head- 
dress, and which is so pre-eminently characteristic of certain eras, 
in examples of medieval dresses and decorations. Lady Felbrigg, 
A.D. 1413, and Lady Crewe «, A.D. 1411, 
exemplify a modification of the reticulated 
head-dress, which was prevalent at that 
period : the hair in this arrangement is 
collected into a bunch on either side the 
forehead, and there enclosed in an en- 
riched caul, while the upper part of the 
head is covered by a close coverchef which ^^''"^■^^%^h!frrhfi 
descends to the shoulders : the forehead is encircled, and the hair 
confined by a fillet enriched with jewels. This head-gear is also 
well exemphfied in a brass, A.D. 1404, at Sawtrey, Huntingdon- 
shire. Lady Shelton, A.U. 1423, has 
her hair more widely plaited, and the 
front of the coverchef drawn forwards : 
thus aff'ording an early indication of the 
mitred or horned head-dress, — a peculiar 
fashion long in high favour, notwithstand- 
ing the severe censures, lay as well as 
ecclesiastical, elicited by its extrava- 
gance y. This arrangement, in its complete state, is really but a 
developement of the last-named coiffure : for the side bunches of 
hair being gradually extended upwards, the coverchef or veil which 
was thrown over, sunk into the hollow between, and at last the 
raised hair was superseded by a wire frame ; the hair, in this case, 
was usually arranged within a caul of rich construction, on either 
side of the face. Lady Halle, c. A.D. 1420, and Lady Camoys, 
A.D. 1419^, wear this head-dress, (see next page:) and with these 
and many others, the same fashion, variously modified, is also ex- 

Head Lady Shelton, A D. M33. 
Snoring Church , Norfolk. 

" These brasses severally occur at Fel- 
brigg, Norfolk, and Wixford, Warwick- 
shire, as before specified. The brass of Lady 
Shelton is at Great Snoring, Norfolk. 

^ The most extravagant specimen of 
tliis head-gear occurs in the sculptured 

effigy of Beatrice, countess of Arundel, at 
Arundel, who died A.D. 1439 : this monu- 
ment is figured by Stothard, and the head- 
dress is also given in their works on Cos- 
tume by Planche and Fairholt. 
» See pp. 62 and 86. 



emplified in the brasses of Joan Skerne, A.D. 1437, at Kingston 
upon Thames*; of Lady Cecilia Stapleton, 1438, late at Ingham, 

Head, Lady Shemboum, A D. 1458. 
Shernbourn Church, Ncrfolk 

Head, Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys 
A.D. 1424. Trotton, Sussex. 

Head, Lady Arderoe, c. A D. 1465. 
Latton Church, Essex. 

Head. Lady Vemon, A.D 1467. TonJ Ch., Shropshire. 

Head in Wenlock Chapel, Luton, Beds. c. A.D. 1450. 

Norfolk; of Lady Fynderne, A.D. 1444, at Childrey, Berks; of 
Lady Shernbourn, A.D. 1458, at Shernbourn, and of Lady Grey, 
1492, at Ketteringham, both in Norfolk ; and also of Lady Staun- 
ton, A.D. 1458, at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, and Lady 
Arderne, A.D. 1465, at Latton, Essex. Lady Vernon, A.D. 1467, 
at Tong, Salop, wears simply a coverchef with a wimple ; a fashion 
repeated in a brass at Luton, Bedfordshire, of about the date 1450 : 
both these ladies were widows, and the latter, whose name is un- 
known, has her wimple plaited ^. In some examples, this head- 

' Joan, wife of Robert Skerne, whose 
effigy accompanies that of his wife on their 
monumental brass, is said to have been the 
daughter of Alice Pierce, celebrated for her 
connection with Edward III. during the 
declining years of that great monarch's 
life. After the king's death she married 

Sir AVilliam de Wyndesore ; but whether 
Joan Skerne was his daughter is uncertain. 
^ This brass is placed upon an altar- 
tomb in the Wenlock chapel in the church 
at Luton, and the effigy is surmounted by 
a fine triple canopy. 



dress appears so arranged as to im- 
part to its upper outline a heart-like 
contour: good specimens of this pe- 
culiarity occur at West Grinstead, 
Sussex, in the brasses of Philippa, 
daughter and coheir of David Stra- 
bolgy, last earl of Athol of that name, 
who married Sir John Halsham ; and 
of the lady of Sir Hugo Halsham, the 
son of this Sir John, who died A.D. 
1421; the former Lady Halsham 
died A.D. 1395 : but it appears that 
both these brasses were executed at 
the same time; and that, subse- 
quently to the decease of Sir Hugo 
Halsham, A.D. 1441. In these 
brasses elegant canopies surmount 
the effigies. 

The next remarkable change com- 
monly apparent in brasses, I have 
already noticed when describing the 
Butterfly head-dress of Lady Say^ 
Of this strange example of the fan- 
tastic eccentricities of fashion, seve- 
ral modifications may be observed : 
as in the brasses of Lady Urswick 
and her daughters, A.D. 1479, at 
Dagenham, Essex ; of a lady of the 
Clopton family, c. A.D. 1480, at 
Long Melford, Suffolk ^ of Mar- 
garet Willoughby, A.D. 1480, at Ra- 
vennigham, and of Isabella Cheyne, 
A.D. 1485, at Blickling, both in 
Norfolk; and of Lady Roucliffe,A.D. 
1494, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire. The 

Philippa, Lady Halsham, c. A D. 1440 
West Grinstead, Sussex. 

Lady of the Cloptwn family. Melford Church, 
Suffolk, c. A.D 1480. 

See p. 75. 

d See p. 130. 



Daughter of Sir T. Urswick, A D. U79 |' 

^six younger daughters of Lady Urswick are 
remarkable for liaving their long flowing 
hair surmounted by tall conical caps, rarely 
seen in brasses, but commonly delineated in 
cotemporary illuminations, and still retained 
in use by the peasantry of Normandy^. Of 
the head-dress generally worn during the 
latter part of the reign of Henry VII., and 
which continued in fashion for some time 
subsequent to the accession of his successor, 

we have characteristic 

specimens in the brasses 

bearing the dates A.D. 

1514, 1516, 1527, and 

1532, and which severally 

commemorate Margaret 

Pettwode, in St. Cle- 
ment's church, Norwich, 

Jane Sylan, at Luton, 

Bedfordshire, LadyLeigh, 

at Winwick, Lancashire, 

and the wife of Robert 
Goodwyn, at Necton, in Norfolk : this is 
the angular or pedimental head-dress, well 
known from its association with the various 
historical portraits of that important era : 
it was composed of velvet or embroidered 
cloth, and sometimes of lighter materials, 
and being pointed somewhat stiffly over the 

Head, Wife of Robert Goodwyn, 

forehead, descended in lappets upon the ad 1532 Necton church, Norfolk. 
shoulders and back. To this succeeded the peculiar coiflFure identi- 
fied with our reminiscences, and indeed with the very name, of 

Jane Sylan. A D 1516. 
Luton, Beds, 

Margaret Pettwode, A.D. 1514, 
St Clement's Church, Norwich. 

6 " The peasantry of Rouen, Caen, 
Caux, &c., to this day wear the identical 
steeple-caps with the butterflies' wings 
that, three hundred and sixty years ago, 
towered upon the heads of the gentle 
dames of Paris and London. The eva- 

nescent caprice of some high-bom fair 
has given a national costume to the pay- 
sannes of Normandy, who have reverendly 
copied for nearly four centuries the head- 
dress worn by their mothers before them." 
Planche's British Costume, p. 208. 



Head, Julian Clippesby, A.D. Ii94 

Mary Stuart, the hapless queen of Scots, 
— the small close cap of Parisian origin, 
designated the "Paris hede," but far 
better recognised as the Mary Queen of 
Scots head-dress : of this fashion the brass 
of Julian, wife of John Clippesby, Esq., 
A.D. 1594, at Clippesby, Norfolk, furnishes 
an agreeable specimen : and, in like man- 
ner, the broad-brimmed hat worn in con- 
nection with the Elizabethan ruflP, is satis- 
factorily exemplified in the pleasing and 
well-executed little brasses of Cicely Page, 
A.D. 1598, in the church of Bray, in 
Buckinghamshire, and of Ann Sewell, 
A.D. 1609, at Coventry; both these 
figures are kneeling, the latter at a fald- 
stool, or small desk. 

I have described the wimple, gorget, or 
barbe, as it sometimes was denominated, 
as worn by Ladies Camoys, Cobham, and Northwode, and other 
ladies ^ : this exclusive and certainly most disguising article of dress 
made its appearance in England at an early period, probably be- 
fore the commencement of the first century in the era of brasses, 
the thirteenth : its use was, from first to last, restricted, or at least 
ordered to be restricted, to the upper classes ^. In mourning, a 
species of wimple appears to have been worn by females of all 
ranks : it usually is depicted as having been plaited below the 
chin, and it is connected with a close cap apparently of linen, and 
covered with a flowing veil. In monumental brasses, widows are 
generally represented as thus attired : for examples I may refer to 
the memorials of Eleanor de Bohun, in Westminster abbey, and of 
Joanna Braham, A.D. 1519, at Frense, in Norfolk. The last- 

Cicely Pa^e. A,D. 1598 Bray, Bucks, 

f See pp. 80, 82, and 44. 

B Among the sumptuary laws so fre- 
quently enacted, but, as it would seem, so 
little regarded by our ancestors and ances- 
tresses, in the 8th of King Henry VIII. it 
was ordained that " duchesses and coun- 

tesses, and all higher estates, may be 
barbed above the chin ; every one not 
being under the degree of a baroness may 
wear a barbe about the chin ; and all other 
gentlewomen beneath the throat-goyll," or 

AJ3. 1337 10th of Edward III. 


(See pa4e 95.1 



named lady is expressly described as "vidua, ac Deo devota,'^ in 
accordance with a practice by no means uncommon, for widows to 
retire into some religious liousCj and assume the veil '\ I must not 
omit to mention another remarkable example of a female elfigy 
wearing the plaited barbe, engraven to 
commemorate EHzabeth Hervey, abbess 
of Elstow, c. A.D. 1530, and now pre- 
served in Elstow church, Bedfordshire : 
this lady is habited in the ecclesiastical 
vestments of her order and rank, and has 
resting upon her right arm her pastoral- 

The earliest example of the brass of an 
Ecclesiastic to which I can refer, exists 
in the interesting church at Oulton in 
Suffolk, and may be assigned to about the 
year 1310, the 3rd of Edward II. : this is 
the presumed memorial of some member 
of the Bacon family, possibly the brother 
of the cross-legged knight in the adjacent 
church at Gorleston \ This brass, which 
is of large dimensions, is in good general 
preservation; it represents the deceased 
as habited in the amice, alb, stole, mani- 
ple, and chesuble, and bears a strong 
general resemblance to the fine effigy of 
Laurence Seymour, (Laurentius de Sancto 
Mauro,) c. A.D. 1337, rector of Higham 
Ferrers, Northamptonshire. In both of 

.De Bacon, c. AD 1310. 

*■ In the broad crimped frill, still worn 
in some rural districts beneath the chin as 
an appendage to the widow's cap, a linger- 
ing relic of this medieval vestment may 
occasionally be discerned. 

' The fine, but unhappily mutilated, 
brass of Archbishop Grenfeld at York, 
bears date 1315: possibly this and tlie 

Ovilton brass may be precisely coeval, and 
so also the demi-figure in jMerton college 
chapel, Oxford; (see p. 115;) and again, 
the small figure of Nichol de Gore, within 
a floriated circle, at Wood-church, and the 
demi-figure of Thomas de Hop, at Kem- 
sing, both in Kent, may possibly belong to 
the same era. 


these figures the composition is very good, the draperies are well 
cast, and the engraving is spirited and effective. Of ecclesiastics 
similarly habited, amongst others, early examples occur at Shottes- 
broke, Berks; Brundish, Suffolk; and Hellesdon, Norfolk, in the 
respective brasses of an unknown individual, c. A.D. 1370, of 
Esmond de Burnedish, c. A.D. 1375, and of Richard Thaseburgh, 
A.Di 1389. These brasses are very similar the one to the other, 
and were very probably produced by the 
same artist. The peculiar wave of the hair, 
so characteristic of this period, is here 
strikingly exemplified-*. In the embroi- 
deries of the vestments worn by the Shot- 
tesbroke priest, the fylfot-cross'^ alter- 
nates with a flower of four leaves: this^'"'°f^'°i^' 

Priest of 
Head, Ksmond de Burnedish • J ' T j_* j_l Shottes- 

c AD. 1375. curious device appears very distinctly ^°^^^ 

Brundish Church. Suffolk. i P,i . i c. A.D 1370. 

upon the end ot the stole. 

But few variations of costume occur in ecclesiastical brasses, the 
vestments worn by the priesthood before the Reformation having 
undergone but very little change. In place, therefore, of a detailed 
notice of particular brasses, it appears rather desirable here sum- 
marily to describe the several ecclesiastical vestments themselves ; 
this I shall endeavour to do in the simplest manner, as well as very 
briefly, leaving alike unnoticed the alleged figurative intention of 
the Roman Catholic vestments, and also the controversy concerning 
vestments which arose at a subsequent period. 

" The Amice," says Mr. Waller, " is an oblong piece of fine 
linen, having on one of its lateral edges an embroidered collar, 
which is turned over and brought round the neck, the ends of the 
amice itself being seen folded across where they meet in front.^^ It 
is the collar of the amice which appears resting upon the chesuble, 
and encircling the throat of the priest in eucharistic habit. This 
vestment was introduced about the eighth century. In the earlier 

J The long and flowing hair, particularly the hair, which in the brasses of eccle- 

when it appears curling in profusion behind siastics had long been less flowing than at 

the ears, (which themselves are large and an earlier period, is represented as quite 

prominent,) is a special characteristic of straight, 

the earliest ecclesiastical brasses: as the '' See note (f), p. 28. 
fifteenth century drew towards its close, 


brasses of ecclesiastics it was adjusted loosely about the neck, and 
with no inconsiderable degree of elegance ; but subsequently it is 
represented as if constructed of stouter materials, and worn after a 
fashion altogether devoid of the former gracefulness. 

The Alb, the most ancient of the vestments, is constructed of 
white linen, and envelopes the entire person of the wearer : it is 
not open in front, like a surplice, but is girded round the loins ; 
the sleeves also are comparatively tight. In front, at the foot, em- 
broidery, or Orfreij-ivork, usually square or oblong in form, is 
attached to the alb : and similar enrichments also appear at the 
wrists; these are the apparels of the alb. In the earlier examples, 
these apparels generally encircle the entire sleeve of the alb ; as in 
the brasses at Oulton, Suffolk, and Woodchurch, Kent; in the 
demi-figure at Merton college chapel^; and again in the curious 
memorial of John de Grofhurst, c. A.D. 1330, at Horsraonden, 
Kent : about this last-named period, however, they first appear to 
cover only the upper part of the wrist, as in the brass of Lawrence 
Seymour, A.D. 1337, at Higham Ferrers'". The same term ap- 
parel, or Parura, also denotes the embroidered collar of the amice, 
and the corresponding decorations of the chesuble. 

This vestment, the Chesuble, or Chasuble, in shape is nearly cir- 
cular, being slightly pointed before and behind : it has an aperture 
in the middle for the head, and its ample folds rest on either side 
upon the arms : it is worn over the other vestments, and is always 
constructed of rich materials ". The chesuble is recorded as having 
been an ecclesiastical vestment, as early as the sixth century : it 
generally appears in ecclesiastical brasses anterior to about the year 
1425, after which period coped ecclesiastics predominate. 

Worn above the alb and over the shoulders, the Stole, a long nar- 

' See pp. 95, 115. they also form a border to the entire vest- 

"' See figures at p. 99. ment. The uppermost apparel of the che- 

" The chesuble commonly appears on suble, or the collar of that vestment, is 

brasses enriched with elaborate embroi- rarely apparent in brasses, being covered 

denes : those in the three Flemish eccle- by the amice : in the brass of Sir Peter 

siastical memorials at St. Alban's, Wens- Legh, however, at Winwick, Lancashire, 

ley, and Mimms, are truly splendid. These A.D. 1527, the chesuble being the only ec- 

embroideries, or apparels, are generally so clesiastical vestment represented as worn, 

arranged as to appear in front of the figure, the arrangement of its collar is satisfac-- 

somewhat in the form of the letter Y; and torily exemplified. 


row scarf of rich embroidery, usually displays its fringed ends from 
beneath the chesuble, one on either side of the front point of that 
vestment. It is crossed upon the breast, and passes beneath the 
girdle of the alb : this arrangement, though usually concealed 
by the chesuble, is clearly displayed in a brass of the 15 th cen- 
tury at Horsham, in Sussex, which has been beautifully figured 
by Mr. Waller". The stole was originally called Orarium, from 
its primitive use as a kerchief to wipe the face. 

The Maniple, a short species of stole, is worn depending from 
the left hand, and was originally substituted for the purpose to 
which the stole itself had been applied. The Golden Legend says 
of St. Peter, that "he bare alway a Sudary (or maniple), vjyth 
wyche he wyped the teerys y^ ranne from his eyen." The maniple, 
like the stole, however, soon became a mere decorative enrichment 
of the costume : " it was accounted a badge of honour as early as 
the sixth century, in the ninth was common to priests and deacons, 
and conceded to the sub-deacon in the eleventh." These constitute 
the ordinary eucharistic vestments, as usually represented in brasses 
of ecclesiastics. Of such brasses the annexed examples (see next 
page), from Broxbourne, in this count j^, and from Higham Ferrers, 
in Northamptonshire, may be regarded as fair specimens : both of 
these priests, in accordance with a prevalent habit, hold in their 
hands a chalice p. 

In connection with certain distinctive additions, these same vest- 
ments also form the costume of the hierarchy. Over the alb, but 

° In the original, this brass is partially examples, considered in connection with 

mutilated. Another example of a crossed- certain other peculiarities of artistic treat- 

stole displayed upon the person of an eccle- ment : thus, in the earlier examples the 

siastic, occurs in the small brass of John apparels are continued round the sleeves of 

West, chaplain, at Sudborough, Northamp- the alb: the stole has its ends wider than 

tonshire, c. A.D. 1430. elsewhere, and so likewise has the maniple: 

P The Broxbourne brass is probably the the vestments apjiear to fit close to the 
memorial of John Merdwyn,v,ho died A. U. person, as made of fine materials: the 
1465 : Henry Denton, A.D. 1498, is the drapery is expressed with much graceful- 
ecclesiastic to whose memory the brass at ness : and the lines are bold]y and deeply 
Higham Ferrers was laid down. Notwith- cut, and there is 7io shading, except in a 
standing the uniformity of costume in ec- few touches where the folds terminate : the 
clesiastical brasses of different periods, it hair also is long and flowing. In later 
will be easy to distinguish their respective brasses, all these peculiarities will be found 
eras by the style of engraving in the several to have undergone a decided change. 

c. A.D. 1430. 8th of Henry VI. 
Engraved on wood, after their plate, by permission of T. G. and L. A. B. Waller, Esqniies. 

(See page 98.) 



qui oliitt 'beriino,i3iiii5u mttifis ■ffebuiaulJlniiodm 

Priest in Eucbaristic Vestments, ■with the Chalice 
Broxboume, Herts, c. A D. 1465. 

A. Apparel or Panira of the Amice. 

B. Stole. D. Chasuble or Chesihlc. 

C. Maniple. E. Alb, with apparel at the feet. 

Henry Denton, Priest, A. D. 149S, Highaim Ferrers. 

beneath the chesuble, ecclesiastics of episcopal and abbatical rank 
are represented in their engraven monumental effigies, as habited 
in a Tunic, Chimere, or Rochet, a robe somewhat resembling the 
alb, but shorter and open at the sides towards the bottom. Another 
vestment, the Dalmatic^, surmounts the tunic, from which it differs 
only in the greater width of its sleeves, and being in a trifling degree 
still shorter : like the tunic it is partially open at the sides, and it 
has a fringed border. The brasses of Abbot Esteney, A.D. 1498, 
at Westminster abbey, and of Bishop Goodrich, c. A.D. 1554, in 
Ely cathedral, exemplify the appearance of these vestments, as seen 
only at the lower part of the figure, beneath the ample folds of the 
chesuble. Abbot Esteney wears the stole beneath both his tunic 

1 W^hen worn without the other vestments, the dalmatic was the distinctive habit 
of a deacon. 



and dalmatic; but Bishop Goodrich places it betiveen them'". These 
are both curious and valuable specimens : in the former, the effigy 
is surmounted by a lofty triple canopy of most elaborate splendour : 


3ishopGoodiicb, A D. 1664. Ely. 

Abbot Esteney, A. D. 1498. Westminster. 


and the latter is remarkable as exhibiting a prelate of the reformed 
Church in the full vestments of an earlier period. 

Over the chesuble archbishops alone wear the 
Pallium or Pall, a narrow scarf, composed of fine 
white wool, and embroidered with purple crosses 
patee fitchee : these crosses probably are derived 
from the series of small fibulae or broaches, with 
which the pall was originally attached to the 
chesuble ^ The Mitre with its TnfulcB or pen- 
dents, the embroidered Sandals, the Gloves having 
jewels, and the Rinff worn over the gloves, also 
form parts of the episcopal attire. The origin of 
the mitre is obscure: some derive it from the 
Cidaris, a Persian head-dress with strings. It 

Pall, Brass of Archbishop 
Cranley. A.D. 1417. 

' In the very fine brass of Archbishop 
Cranley, A.I). 141 7, at New College chapel, 
Oxford, the distinction between the tunic 
and dalmatic is unusually apparent, in 
consequence of the latter vestment being, 
contrary to the ordinary habit, considerably 
shorter than the former. The crozier-head 
of this prelate is remarkable as being a 
crucifix. The distinction above mentioned 
between the tunic and dalmatic is also very 
distinctly shewn in the brass of Bishop 
Bell, A.D. 1494, at Carlisle cathedral. 

"* In the sculptured effigy of Archbishop 
Stratford, A.D. 1348, in Canterbury cathe- 
dral, the pall is represented plain, but at- 
tached to the chesuble by three pins of 
gold, one on the breast, and one on either 
shoulder. Care must be taken to distin- 
guish between the archiepiscopal pall, and 
the apparels of the chesuble which are 
sometimes arranged in the same form, but 
are in character altogether distinct. See 
note (n), p. 97. 


began to assume the shape in which it is generally known early in 
the thirteenth century : at first it was low, and had its sides 
straight; subsequently it was made with a somewhat greater 

Archbishop Grenfeld, York, 
A.D. 1315. 

Bishop Goodrich, Ely, 
A.D. 1654. 

Archbishop Harsenett, Cliii^wdl. 
A.D. 1611. 

elevation; and at a still later period, it assumed the swelling or 
rounded outline still retained *. The brasses of Archbishop Gren- 
feld, A.D. 1315, at York cathedral, of Bishop Goodrich, A.D. 1554, 
and of Archbishop Harsenett, at Chigwell, Essex, A.D. 1611, exem- 
plify these several forms of the mitre. The Pastoral-staff of a 
bishop or abbot has a crook-head; but 
that of an archbishop is surmounted by "^ 

a cross, and is properly called a Crozier. Vl 

The staff itself is frequently encircled by <(|ni ^^^ — [rj j)> 
a scarf or Vexillum, as in the brasses of 
Archbishop Grenfeld, Bishops Goodrich 
and Bell, and Abbot Esteney : this singu- 
lar appendage probably owes its origin to 
the famous cross-banner of the first Chris- 
tian emperor, the Labarum of Constan- 

Pastoral Staff, 
Abbot Esteney, f-jyip u 
A.D. 1498. LIIIC . 

WestminBter abbey. 

' The infulae of the mitres figured in the 
annexed engraving are omitted ; this acces- 
sory is distinctly represented in the follow- 
ing cut, drawn from the brass of Bishop 

"• Archbishop Grenfeld, c. A.D. 1315, at 
York; Bishop Goodrich, A.D. 1554, at 
Ely; Bishop Bell, A.D. 1496, at Carlisle; 
and Abbot Esteney, A.D. 1498, at West- 
minster. It has been set forth as a general 
rule, that archbishops and bishops usually 
hold the staflf in the left hand, the latter 

Crozier, Archbishop 
Waldeby, A.D. 1397, 
Westminster Abbey. 

with the crook outwards, and have the right 
hand upheld in benediction : abbots, on the 
contrary, hold the staff, with its crook turned 
inwards, in the right hand. Abbots having 
episcopal jurisdiction over their own houses 
may, perhaps, be distinguished by holding 
the staff after the same fashion as bishops 
When the staff is not grasped, but rests on 
the arm, it is sometimes found in all cases 
to be placed on the left side, and with the 
crook naturally turning outwards. These 
rules, if rules they are at all, are by no 



Referring, for other examples of engraven episcopal efiSgies, and 
of priests habited in eucharistic vestments, to the series of brasses 
appended to this notice, — here it will be sufficient to remark upon 
the singular memorial of 
Bishop Boothe, A.D. 1478, 
at East Horsley, in Surrey, 
in which the figure, being 
drawn in profile, exhibits the 
lateral aspect of the episcopal 
attire '': and also upon one 
other episcopal memorial, 
which, from the unusual cir- 
cumstance of an allusion to 
the history or actions of the 
person represented, being in- 
troduced into the composi- 
tion of the brass itself, de- 
mands special attention, — 
this is the large brass of 
Robert Wyvill, bishop of 
Sahsbury, A.D. 1375, in 
Salisbury cathedral. The 
castle of Shernborne, with 
its keep, entrance tower, and 
portcullis, are here repre- 
sented: "at the door of the 
first ward stands the bishop '^°'™'^°°'^®'''^^'^°p°^-^^^'*''"^-°-^*'^- ■^^'''•^°''^'®y'^™^^y-'* 
pontifically habited, with his mitre and crozier, and his hands ele- 
vated ; and below him, at the foot of the steps of the gate of the 
outer ward, stands his champion,^' or rather warder, with shield and 

means absolute. The assumed difference 
in the direction of the heads of the pastoral 
staves of bishops and abbots, is considered 
to denote that the former have official juris- 
diction over their entire see, the latter a 
more strictly personal authority over their 
own establishment, and that only. 

In Exeter cathedral, A.D. 1413, in 
the brass of William Langton, the figure 

of this ecclesiastic is represented as habited 
in a cope, and is placed in such a position 
as to be seen in profile with excellent effect. 
The whole work is good and valuable. 
Another kneeling priest, whose figure is 
also shewn in profile, occurs in St. Benet's 
church, Cambridge : it is the memorial of 
Dr. Richard Billingford, master of Corpus 
Christi college, A.D. 1442. 



axe. Concerning tliis castle and its adjacent warren tlie bishop 
had a dispute with William de Montacute, carl of Salisbury, and 
to commemorate his success appears to have been the object of the 
designer of the bishop's brass. The embattled portions of the cas- 
tle are particularly valuable, as 
original examples of that destruc- 
tible member of a military edifice, 
the parapet. Five shields of arms, 
of which however but two remain, 
together with as many of the four 
symbols of the evangelists, and 
a mutilated marginal inscription, 
complete the composition. 

Drawn from a brass, c. A.D. 1400, 
in Hitchin church in this county, 
the annexed figure sets before us 
another variety in ecclesiastical 
vestments which requires descrip- 
tion. Here the entire person of 
the ecclesiastic is enveloped in a 
Cope, worn over a surplice ha\'ing 
large hanging sleeves. This vest- 
ment, the cope, originally a cloak 
designed to protect the wearer from 
the inclemency of the weather, by 
degrees became a regular compo- 
nent of the ministerial costume, and 
partook of the same costliness as 
distinguished the other vestments. 
In form it is usually a semicircle, 
without sleeves, but furnished with 
a Caputium or Hood, the origin of 
the present distinctive badge of 
academic degrees ; and it is fas- 
tened across the breast by a Morse 
or clasp. The apparels or embroi- 
dered enrichments of the cope 

Ecclesiastic habited in a cope, c. A.D. 1400. 
Hitchin, Herts, 



were frequently constructed of the most costly materials, and 
wrought with elaborate splendour : sometimes arabesque and flow- 
ing patterns were adopted, and on other occasions the design com- 
prised a series of canopied figures. The morse also was variously 
adorned : the Hitchin priest has his charged with the sacred mo- 
nogram. Splendid examples of coped ecclesiastics occur, among 
many others, at St. Cross near Winchester ; Castle Ashby, North- 
amptonshire; Knebworth, Herts; Broadwater, Sussex; Upwell, 
Norfolk; Balsham, Cambridgeshire; in the chapels of Merton 
college, Oxford, and of Caius college, Cambridge ; and at Hack- 
ney, Middlesex, in the brasses of John de Campden, A.D. 1383, 
warden of St. Cross ; William Ermyn, A.D. 1401 ; Simon Bache, 
A.D, 1414, canon of St. Paul's; John Mapletonv, A.D. 1420; 
William Mowbray, c. A.D. 1425 : Dr. John Blodwell, A.D. 1465 ; 
Henry Sever, A.D. 1471, fourteenth warden of Merton college; 
Dr. Walter Hewke, A.D. 1517; and 
Dr. Christopher Urswick, A.D. 1521. 
Archbishop Harsenett, A.D. 1611, 
is also habited in a cope curiously 
wrought throughout. 

At Cowfold, Sussex, A.D. 1433, the 
large and noble effigy of Thomas Ne- 
lond, prior of Lewes, furnishes the 
finest example of an ecclesiastic wear- 
ing a Surplice, corresponding in most 
respects in form with the similar vest- 
ment still retained as a ministering 
habit by ourselves. The expression 

of the head in this brass is peculiarly ' /i 

solemn and dignified, and in the origi- Head,PriorNeiond,cowfoid,su..ex.A.D.u33. 

y The apparels of the cope of Dr. Maple- 
ton are chiefly composed of Maple leaves 
and the monogram M. 

The uppermost figure on either side of 
the front apparels of the cope of Dr. Blod- 
well, represents a seraph, precisely similar 
in character to the angelic forms which 
decorate the canopy of Bishop Hallum at 
Constance : nor is this the only point of 

resemblance between these two fine and 
interesting works. The brass of Archbishop 
Cranley also, A.D. 1417, bears, in many 
points of artistic treatment, a strong resem- 
blance to these same plates. See p. 25. 

Besides the memorial of Dr. John Blod- 
well, there is another fine brass at Balsham, 
that of Dr. John de Sleford, in a cope, and 
beneath a triple canopy; date A.D. 1401. 


nal is engraven with admirable effect. In Rothwcll church, Nor- 
thamptonshire, bearing date A.D. 1361, is the fine brass of WilUam 
de Rothewelle, archdeacon of Essex, keeper of the mint, &c. This 
is a choice specimen of canonical habiliments. ''A close-fitting 
dress," I again quote from Mr. Waller, " of which the sleeves only, 
buttoned to the wrist, are visible, is worn beneath the cassock, 
a long garment which reaches to the feet ; it is open in front and 
lined with fur, having an ornamental border of trefoils, and the 
sleeves do not reach much beyond the elbow. Over this is worn a 
surplice with long sleeves : and about the neck is the Almuce, a 
kind of tippet or hood of white fur, having long pendent lappets 
hanging in front. A mantle, of dimensions sufficiently ample to 
envelope the whole figure, is fastened on the breast by a broach." 
The head of this effigy rests on a cushion supported by angels ; 
and the entire composition of the brass is indicative of a foreign 
hand. The inscription is also worthy of special notice : it consists 
of two distinct parts ; the one an intercessory ejaculation, expressed 
in Latin, the canonical language ; while the other, written in the 
ordinary language of the period, Norman-French, is a record of 
the name and dignities of the deceased. 

The Almuce or Aumuce, above mentioned, is frequently repre- 
sented on brasses in white metal, as in the memorials of William 
Ermyn, rector of Castle Ashby, and of Dr. Walter Hewke at Cains 
college. In the greater number of brasses of ecclesiastics, the head 
of the effigy appears uncovered, and consequently discloses the ton- 
sure, or shaven crown of the clergy of the Church of Rome : occa- 
sionally, however, examples occur in which 
a singular species of cap, apparently a 
distinctive mark of a doctor of canon law, 
is worn. Dr. Urswick, A.D. 1521, at 
Hackney, is thus habited : and, amongst 
others, at New college, Oxford, several 
brasses are preserved which exemplify 
this article of ecclesiastical, or rather aca- 

1 • J TIIT"j.1 J.1 • 1 Heaxi Dr. Drswick, Hackuev A.D 1521. 

demic dress. With this cap an ample 

gown, completely covering the person, and provided with a hood 

(usually represented by white metal), is generally worn. In some 


few late brasses, the gown of the master of arts appears, as in the 

small mural memorial of John Burton, A.D. 1608, in Burgh church, 

Norfolk ; this brass is figured by Cotman, who has also given an 

excellent etching of the kneeling figure of Thomas Leman, rector, 

A.D. 1534, from his brass at South Acre church, 

Norfolk ; in this example the hair is worn long, 

and covering the whole head. In the year 

during which he deceased, the authority of the 

pope in these realms was formally renounced 

by parliament, and consequently the tonsure 

was no longer retained by the clergy. It is 

1 i.iii 1 IT i-i- 1 • 1 Head, Thomaa Leman, rector, 

smgular tnat a brass should exhibit this change so^th Acre, Norfolk, ad. 1534. 
in the very year in which it first took place. 

In the long and flowing robes, introduced into this country 
during the reign of Edward III., and usually depicted in the monu- 
mental brasses of Civilians, but little variety is apparent. The 
costumes of Walsokne and Braunche at Lynn, and of Alan Flemyng 
at Newark, I have already described. The greater number of other 
brasses of civilians are, like these, the memorials of merchants or 
burgesses ; and they are chiefly to be found in borough towns, or 
the larger parochial churches of those counties, in which the wool- 
len manufacture flourished. To the piety and munificence of these 
" merchant-princes " of the olden time, the sacred edifices which 
still preserve their engraven monumental plates, were themselves 
largely indebted. Inscribed with the date A.D. 1356, in the nave 
of Great Berkhampstead church in this county lies the fine and early 
brass of Richard Torryngton and Margaret his wife (see p. 107,) the 
founders, or at least the rebuilders of this church : the dress of the 
lady is precisely the same as that worn by Ismena de Wynston, 
while her head-dress resembles that of Maud de Cobham ^ : her 
husband, who wears a beard, is habited in a long loose tunic, 
buttoned to the throat, and with close sleeves and cuff's. At Fel- 
brigg, in Norfolk, A.D. 1351, Symon de Felbrigg wears a similar, 
but somewhat shorter tunic, which is girded by a girdle buckled 

' See pp. 83, 84. 


Y BICHAED AND MaRGAEET TORRINGTON, A.D. 1356, and 1349. Great Berkhampstead, Herts. 

about the waist, to which, on the right side, a small gypeiere or 
purse is attached : over the tunic in this example, a mantle or cloak 
is arranged with no inconsiderable degree of elegance : it is but- 
toned over the right shoulder, and drawn across the left 
arm. This same arrangement is also exemplified in the 
Flemish brass at TopcliflF^: and again at Shottesbroke, 
where the Frankelein there commemorated is attired in 
tunic, mantle and hood : but here, in place of the gyp- 
eiere, from the girdle hangs an Anlace, a short weapon 
between a sword and dagger, usually worn by civilians 
until the end of the fifteenth century : it always is worn 
hanging from a strap, apparently attached to the up- 
permost part of the scabbard. 

a See p. 20 

The shoes of all these ts^lrshotS- 

bioke. Berks. 


figures are pointed, and fastened over the instep. The same tunic, 
mantle and hood, also appear in the brass of Sir John Cassy, 
A.D. 1400, at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire. John Corp, A.D. 1391, 
at Stoke Fleming, Devon, wears a tunic open in front, with a hood : 
he has no waist-belt ; but his anlace is suspended at his left side 
from a rich Baudrick, or belt buckled over the right shoulder. 

V A.D. 1431, at Margate, Kent, Nicholas Canteys has a tunic par- 
tially open in front, and with large full sleeves gathered into small 
cuflPs at the wrists : his anlace hangs from a waist-belt : and he 
wears boots embroidered with stars, which lace up inside the foot. 

^' At Kingston-upon-Thames, we find the same tunic, with fur collar 
and cuffs, worn, A.D. 1437, by Robert Skerne : his boots also lace 
inside the foot, and he has an elegant pendent ornament attached 
by a chain to his waist-belt. Another good example of the same 
costume is preserved on an altar-tomb in Hitchin church, in this 
county, accompanied by the effigy of a lady wearing a dress singu- 
larly similar to that of her husband. The same curious similarity 
is observable in the attire of two figures in the church at Wheat- 
hamstede : this brass, though in no respect remarkable in itself 
beyond being a good specimen of a numerous class, derives from 
its association a high degree of interest. It is the memorial of 
Hugo and Margaret Bostock, the parents of John de Wheatham- 
stede, the thirty-third abbot of St. Alban : this distinguished eccle- 
siastic, the Wykeham of our abbots, presided over the abbey of 
St. Alban during the reign of his friend and patron, Henry VI., 
from A.D. 1421 to 1460 : the brass of his parents, which is without 
date, we may therefore assign to about A.D. 1435. The inscription '' 

'• The entire inscription at the foot of the of the Latin rhyming composition of the 
Wheathamstede brass, doubtless a specimen great abbot, is as follows : 

"%\t pater, !)ic mater, soror %\t jacct, f)ic quoque frater, 
^astoris pccorum proti^omartlris angltgenarum. 
BBostofe llugo patrt, Jttarci Jltargaretaqitc matri 
Jlomen erat simile, genitus traJ)it a genitorc. 
l^uic qui perttansis rogo focmina, bir, puer, an sis, 
®t paritfr recubant in pace prccare quiescant" 

On a shield above the head of the lady brasses of John and Elizabeth Heyworth, 

may be distinguished the bearing of Hey- A.D. 1520; here the same arms appear, 

worth, argent, three bats with wings ex- The predecessor of Abbot John de Whea- 

tended, sable. On an adjacent slab are the thamstede in the abbacy was William Hey- 

HUGO AND MARGARET BOS TOCK, ■Wheathamstede Church, Herts, o. A.D 1435 

at the foot of these figures records them to have been ''pater" and 
" mater." 

" Pastoris pecorum prothomartiris Angligenarum.^'' 
This would appear to have been a favourite mode of expression 
with the abbot when making reference to himself, as we find a 
MS. of Valerius Maximus presented by him to the library of the 
University of Oxford, and still preserved in the Bodleian library, 
thus inscribed : 

iFratrfbus ©loiuc Datur in munus llbcr tste, 
3)o]^ncm a^|)ct]bntstcDe 

^cr pattern pecorum protI)omartiris ^ngh'gcnarum. 
The words 3Jo]^ncnx 212a&ct]^mstcl)e are thus written above the 
second line of the inscription in the original •'. 

worth, on whose elevation to the see of 
Lichfield, A.D. 1421, he was himself elected 
superior of the abbey of St. Alban. Possibly 
John may have been nephew (sister's son) 

to this William. 

* The presentation of various books to 
the University library, and to the library 
of his college (now St. John's), together 



Of the ample dimensions of the dresses worn towards the close 
of the fifteenth century, we have excellent specimens in the brasses 
of Sir Peter Arderne, A.D. 1465, at Latton, Essex -, of Sir Thomas 
Urswyck, A.D. 1479, at Dagenham, in the same county; and of 
Brian Eouclyffe, baron of the exchequer, A.D. 1494, at Cowthorpe, 
Yorkshire. Sir Thomas Urswick wears a rosary, in place of the 
anlace, which at this period ceased to form a part of the civil 
equipment. About A.D. 1520, the long and full gowns repre- 
sented on brasses have sleeves, which hang down after the fashion 

Ralf Ho wlat, Merchant of the Staple. A.D. 1510 
Abbey-churob of St. Alban. 

Civilian, in Clippesby Church, Norfolk, 
c. A D. IfiOO. 

with the circumstance of his having placed 
in each an inscription in Latin verse, is 
recorded in a curious memoir of Abbot 
Jo hn, written by his friend John Amersham, 

and now forming a part of the Harleian 
collection in the British Museum. See 
Harl. MSS. No. 3775. 


of a surplice ; and the front of the gown and sleeves are usually 
guarded with fur. We have a good example of this habit in the 
abbey-churchj in the memorial of " Rauff Rowlatt Mchaunt of 
THE STAPLE AT Calais," and late of Holy well-house, in St. Alban^s, 
and of Sandridge. The gypciere was commonly worn at this time, 
and it was frequently accompanied by the rosary ^. In the exam- 
ple from Clippesby church, Norfolk, the fur only forms a collar to 
the dress, and the gypciere is worn alone. (See woodcuts, p. 110.) 
William Norwich, A.D. 1563, in the church of St. George, Colgate, 
in the city of Norwich, wears a mantle over his tunic, and has a 
rosary. And William Layer, mayor of Norwich, A.D. 1537, is 
represented in his brass in the church of St. Andrew in that city, as 
habited in his official robe over his tunic ; he is equipped also with 
both rosary and gypciere. Sixty years earlier, precisely the same 
details of costume appear at Standon, in this county, in the fine and 
interesting brass of John Feld, alderman of London. Among other 
brasses of civilians which are peculiarly valuable as illustrations of 
costume, the Flemish examples at All-Hallows, Barking, and 
St. Mary Key, Ipswich, occupy a prominent position : of these, 
Andrew Evyngar, A.D. 1536, wears a long open gown guarded 
with fur, with large surplice-sleeves, over a shorter tunic, from 
beneath which at the neck the upper part of a third dress or under- 
tunic, is apparent. The dress of Thomas Pownder, A.D. 1525, for 
the most part corresponds with this, but in the sleeves of his gown 
there is an essential distinction, these being made long and full, 
and having an aperture cut in the body of the sleeve for the pas- 
sage of the arms. To the brasses of civilians I will now add a 
notice of but two other specimens, the memorials of a once impor- 
tant class in the civil community, the notaries-public, — scribes, 
employed to draw up documents, and invested by law with peculiar 
authority as witnesses to their execution. Having been long de- 
prived of its inscription, as well as of a light and elegant canopy. 

d The rosary represented in the brasses to the girdle being peculiarly liable to 
of men rarely contains more than ten attack from thieves, gave to the " light- 
beads; but ladies generally wear double fingered," or perhaps rather the strong- 
rosaries containing several decades of beads, handed gentry of those days, the epithet 
The large gypciere or purse worn appended of " cut-purse." 



a date can only be assumed from the 
general character of the work itself, 
for the earliest known brass of a 
notary, ["preserved in the church of 
St. Mary Tower, Ipswich ^ This plate, 
probably engraved about A.D. 1475, 
represents the deceased functionary 
in the long full-sleeved gown and 
low sided-laced boots of the period : 
his hands are uplifted as in prayer : 
from his girdle depends his official 
badge or distinction, the ink-horn 
with its accompanying pen-case : the 
head is bare, but on the left shoulder 
rests a cap of a peculiar character, 
in high fashion with all classes during 
the reign of Henry VI., and not un- 
frequently worn throughout the re- 
maining years of the fifteenth cen- 
tury : in form this cap was circular, 
somewhat resembling a turban, being 
composed of a roll of cloth or other 
richer material, from which on one 
side a broad long band or scarf hung 
down to the ground, unless tucked in 
the girdle or wound round the neck, 
while to the other side of the cap a 
species of loose hood was attached, which fell negligently about 
the head and shoulders. In this brass the long scarf is repre- 
sented as hanging down in front of the figure, and possibly it might 
have concealed the gypciere^ On the breast is a scroll, charged 

A NotHry, c. A.T^. 1175. In the Church of 
St.. Mary Tower, Ipswich. 

6 This curious and interesting^ plate is 
figured by the Messrs. Waller in the first 
part of their excellent work. 

' This preposterous head-gear is well 
figured in Mr. Fairholt's book of Costume, 
pp. 188, 190, in cuts drawn from cotem- 

porary illuminations. It appears worn, as 
in the brass of the notary, on the shoulders 
of the sculptured effigy of William Ca- 
nynges, merchant, A.D. 1474, in St. Mary 
Redcliffe church, Bristol. This interesting 
effigy is figured by HoUis, and is highly 



with the legend, — 


Neither cap nor gypciere appears on the brass of William Curtcys, 
notary, at Holmhale, in the county of Norfolk : in this example a 
simple cincture confines the flowing gown at the waist, and sup- 
ports the ink-horn and pen-case. The 
legend at the foot of the figure bears the 
date M.cccc.Lxxxx. g 

Besides complete effigies, it appears to 
have been an early and by no means un- 
common habit, to engrave Demi-Figures, 
for the purpose of monumental memorial. 
Of these the earliest and most curious is 
the brass of Sir Richard de Buslingthorpe, 
in the church of the village bearing the 
same name, in Lincolnshire. This knight 

Sir Eichard de Buslingthoipe, 
c. A.D. 1280 

characteristic of the civic costume of the 
period : I must not omit to mention that 
William Canynges wears at his right side 
an anlace, hanging, as usual, perpen- 
dicularly. The same cap was also worn by 
Walter Colney, A.D. 1479, at Lynn, The 
hoods of the knights of the Garter are still 
made after this fashion ; and such a hood 
appears, forming part of the costume of the 
Order, in the brass of Sir Thomas Bullen, 
K.G. at Hever. For a further illustration 
of this same cap and its appendages, see 
p. 162. 

s Another but that a very inferior brass 
of a notary is also contained in the same 
church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich : its 
date is 1506. And again at New College, 
Oxford, is a fourth equally inferior speci- 
men. These are all that have been noticed 
in this country. Mr. Waller mentions a 
fifth brass of a notary who lived in tlie 
beginning of the sixteenth century, as ex- 
isting in the cathedral church of St. Sau- 


William Canynges, A.D. 1474. 

veur, at Bruges : and this appears to be a 
fine work; indeed, a meirorial worthy of 
one, whom it records to have been the chief 
founder of the cathedral choir, and to have 
increased the stipends of the prebendaries. 



is represented in chain-mail^, with plain ailettes, equally plain 

surcoat, and with gauntlets formed of small overlapping pieces of 

plate, or of thick leather, arranged after the same manner as the 

laminated soUerets of Sir William Cheyne. The head, enveloped 

in a coif-de-mailles, rests upon two cushions; and the uplifted 

hands appear to be holding a small heart. 

There is no guige, shield, or weapon. The 

date is about A.D. 1290. At Croft, also, 

in Lincolnshire, is another demi-figure 

of a knight, armed in banded ring-mail. 

At Debenham, in Suffolk, A.D. 1424, 

are the similar memorials of Sir John 

Framingham and his lady : this knight 

is armed in complete plate-armour of 

excellent character. In a brass at Bed- 

dington, in Surrey, to the memory of a 

lady of the Carew family, beneath the complete figure of the 

lady herself, are thirteen demi-figures of her children, arranged in 

a connected series. Demi-figures of priests, however, are those of 

Kjiigbt in baxided Kiu^-m.-iU, c. A.D. 1310. 
Croft, Lincolnshire. 

JOHN TUBNEY. c. A. 11 1430 

most general occurrence. The annexed example, c. A.D. 1430, is 
drawn from the brass in Southflect church, Kent, of John Tubney, 

l" The mail in this plate is expressed in lines precisely resembling those in the brass of 
Sir Robert de Septvans, at Chartham. 


rector, archdeacon, and chaplain to John Lowe, lord bishop of 
Rochester. By a singularly felicitous arrangement, these eccle- 
siastical demi-figures were often placed at the intersection of a 
floriated cross, in which case the figure appears as if resting upon 
the cross ; a fine and very early example of this arrangement once 
existed in the chapel of Merton college, Oxford, to the memory 

RICHARD DE HART, Merton CoUege, Oxford, o. A D 1315 

of Richard de Hart, c. A.D. 1315 ; of this brass the demi-figure 
remains, but the cross has long been lost'. The similarity between 
this demi-figure and the corresponding portion of the brass of the 
priest in Oulton church, Suffolk, is at least sufficient to identify 
these two early ecclesiastical memorials as the work of the same 
artist. In other examples the demi-figure is encircled by a flori- 
ated quatrefoil, which itself forms the head of the cross : of this 
latter arrangement a beautiful specimen occurs at Buxted, Sus- 
sex, to the memory of Britellus Avenel, " once rector of the church 
of Buxted," (see next page :) this is also an early brass, its probable 
date being about A.D. 1375."^ At Rusper, in the same county, 
and also of about the same date, is the brass of John de Kygges- 
folde, a civilian, and his wife " Agneys," whose demi-effigies afl'ord 

' See p. 95. A precisely similar brass abbey church of St. Alban. 
once existed in the south transept of the ^ Seep. 119. 







valuable examples of costume at that period : the legend, which 
is in Norman-French, runs thus, — 

John de Kyggesfolde et Agneys sa feme gisount icy, dieu de lo almes bit mrcy 

And again, at East Wickham, in Kent, the demi-figures of John 
de Bladingdown and his wife, c. A.D. 1325, appear within the 
head of the floriated cross. 

Of Miscellaneous Brasses it will be sufficient to notice some 
few of the most curious and interesting. Foremost amongst these 
are the few remaining examples of a once numerous class of brasses, 
those which, with various modifications of details, are arranged in 
the form of the great Christian symbol, the cross ^ Their usual 
design consists of a tall stem of slight proportions, from the sides 
of which clustered foliage sprouts forth ; and the head and arms 
terminate in similar foliage, or in some emblematical device"". 
The parents of Archbishop Chichele, the munificent founder of All 
Souls' college, Oxford, are thus commemorated in the chm'ch of 
Higham Ferrers, A.D. 1400 : the arms of this cross are enriched 
with an elegant flowing pattern, and terminate in the evangelistic 
emblems, while at their intersection is introduced the symbol of 

1 Originally these engraved crosses con- 
stituted perhaps the most numerous class 
of brasses : their despoiled matrices may be 
still seen in almost every village church, 
as well as in the cathedrals, and abbeys, 
and other larger edifices. The slabs upon 

which the earlier crosses were affixed, were 
generally of immense size. 

™ In the later examples, the head and 
arms of the cross are generally simply 
trefoiled, and the stem is plain. 


the Saviour °. Another similar memorial exists at Broadwater, in 
Sussex : here the cross is fleury at the extremities, and on the arms 
are the words, Sanguis Xri salva me. Passio Xri comforta 
ME. From the slab the original foot-legend has been removed and 
lost, and its place is now supplied by an inscription to the memory 
of John Corby, rector, A.D. 1415°. At Cassington, Oxfordshire, 
is another elegant cross-fleury, to the memory of Sir Eoger Cheyne, 
c. A.D. 1420, once esquire-at-arms to King Henry VII. And 
again at a later period, 1516, at Sutton, Bedfordshire, the brass of 
Thomas and Elizabeth Burgoyne is worked in the form of a cross- 
fleury, rising from steps drawn in perspective : at the foot is this 
legend, — 

Of goTcJjargtie pg for if}t goulcg of Zijo^ ^Durgognc ant) lEh'jafict]^ ftgg 
togfr, tDf)^tf)t ^j^omag tecessgD g^ t.T Dag of August t^e ger of out lort) gotJ 
a tDouganl) fgfac j^unlirft]^ ant) %exitn on fo^osc goulcg ant) all crggten soulfg 
5JfSu j^auc nwtcg, ^men. 

At Flore, Northamptonshire, is another curious specimen, consist- 
ing of a small cross, which is drawn in perspective on a rock : at its 
foot lies a nail, and other nails were attached to the arms : the date 
is A.D. 1537, and it is the memorial of Alice Wyrley. 

Sometimes the upper part of the cross is worked in the form of a 
quatrefoil, upon which it appears to have been a common habit at 
an early period to place a demi-figure : the earliest partial remains 
of such a specimen, of which I am aware, exist in the brass to 
which I have already referred, at Merton college chapel, Oxford p. 
In other examples, the head of the cross is formed of a large and 
open double quatrefoil, richly cusped and floriated, and containing 
within it some eftigy or device. The fine example of this species of 

n One emblem, that of St. Mark, has The despoiled slab of Bishop Bingham, 

been removed from the original; but this A.D. 1247, at Salisbury cathedral, appears 

loss is, of course, capable of easy restora- from its much worn casement, to have ori- 

tion. ginally been enriched with a cross-flory 

° See Cartwright's Topography of the supporting a demi-figure. Simon de Wal- 

Rape of Bramber, vol. ii. p. 36, where it pole, A.D. 1301, rector of Pulham, in 

is stated that this cross is probably the Norfolk, had a fine floriated cross without 

memorial of Richard Tooner, rector of any effigy, the casement of which still re- 

Broadwater from A.D. 1432 to 1445. mains very perfect. 

P See. p. 11.5. 

liu tattt JolusTtnlm iimm&fn Kn'Un liui rtrlifquuiInitmijiV' 
ttt'bnttmi ln\w tm ^ir^itT" ru: an an ;;niu-tm- itni& ;Rmfn, 



M Broadwater Church. Sussex. 
Said to commemorate fiichard Turuer, JXector. 

./'. }i Jodb/Tis. Fecit 



arrangement at Hildersham, Cara- 
bridgesliire, A.D. 1408, exhibits 
within the quatrefoil the remarkable 
symbol of the blessed Trinity i, ex- 
pressed by an august personage seated 
on a species of tomb, and supporting 
a crucifix. On either side of the stem 
of this cross, which is also floriated 
and stands on steps, are the kneel- 
ing figures of Hobert Parys and his 
lady. A similar cross at Stone 
church, Kent, A.D. 1418, contains 
within the quatrefoil the beautiful 
effigy of John Lumbarde, once rec- 
tor of that church, in eucharistic 
habit : here a legend is engraved 
upon the stem of the cross. I have 
already noticed the cross-brass of 
Britellus Avenel, at Buxtead'". At 
Wimbish in Essex, a recently dis- 
covered specimen of this style of 
brass, of great beauty and interest 
though now lamentably mutilated, 
has figures of a knight and lady within 
the quatrefoil. The knight here de- 
picted wears a jupon greatly resemb- 
ling that of SirH. Hastings, A.D.1347, 
and his sword is also girded after the 

•i In this instance, this device may very probably 
be designed to indicate the divine and human 
nature of our blessed Lord. The dove is usually 
added to the composition, when the Trinity ap- 
pears certainly to have been the object of the in- 
tended symbolism. The symbol thus complete is 
substituted for a finial to the canopy of the brass 
of Henry Pariee, Esq., c. A.D. 1460, in the same 
church. See p. 138, and note (t). 

r Seep. 116. 

Lady, c. A.D. 13 !5. Wimbiah, Essei 
ISee next page.; 

Portion of Knight's figure, 'WimbiBh. 


same fashion ^ : he has a bascinet and camail with rerebraces and vam- 
braces of plate, but his legs are armed partly in plate and partly in 
mail. The figure of the lady is singularly elegant, and it remains 
yet entire. The foot of the cross was originally based upon the 
figure of an elephant, the badge of the Beaumont family. Another 
beautiful cross occurs at Taplow, in Buckinghamshire, (see opposite 
page,) the memorial of Nicholas de Aumberdene, " Fishmonger of 
London," whose effigy is depicted within the quatrefoil : the costume 
is that of the reign of Edward III., and the probable date of the 
brass is about A.D. 1350. The stem of the cross is supported by a 
dolphin embowed naiant : and the legend, in Norman-French, and 
now reversed, is placed at the head of the cross ; it runs thus, — 
Bit\)oU He auinftertenc salifs ptsioncr He aonOrcs gfst its : He salmc tit mcrcp . amen. 

One other specimen of these crosses is too beautiful to be omitted : 
it bears date A.D. 1400, and represents the cross rising between 
the kneeling figures of a civilian and his lady, and within the 
quatrefoil at the head it encloses the figure of St. Faith, crowned 
and with a nimbus, and holding a sword and a gridiron, the instru- 
ment of her martyrdom ^. The field on which this beautiful figure 
is placed, is diapered, and in the two lateral foils are the words 
ScA Fides, and Virgo et mr. This brass is at Newton, in North- 
amptonshire ". 

At Woodchurch, in Kent, c. A.D. 1330, the efiigy of Nichol de 
Gore, priest, habited in an alb and chesuble, appears within a qua- 
trefoiled circle, which itself is enclosed within the four points of a 
rich Greek- cross fleury. The circle is charged with a legend in 
Longobardic character. 

s See p. 45. very singular, lies in the church of St. 

• The instrument of the martyrdom of Lawrence, in the city of Norwich, having 

St. Faith is properly a brazen bed, upon probably been removed there at the de- 

which she was burned to death towards the struction of the monastery at Horsham: 

close of the third century, during the per- the legend speaks of the prior as being 

secutions by Dacian, prefect of Gaul : in istius loci. The effigy in this composition 

that country the virgin martyr was born, remains, and is placed upon a low bracket, 

at Pais de Grave. Cotman has engraved " The Gentleman's Magazine for April, 

another beautiful figure of St. Faith, in his 1812, contains a description and an engrav- 

time forming a part of the interesting brass ing of another fine floriated cross containing 

of Galfridus Langley, prior of St. Faith's a figure, which now is covered by the pews 

priory, at Horsham: the brass, which is in the church of St. Michael at St. Alban's. 



/ . 

ICE0LA3 ADMBERDENE, c, A.D. 1350. 



lu another form of arrangement sometimes found, the figures of 
the composition are placed upon a species of bracket, which is 
generally made to expand, so as to form a tall and slender stem 
rising from steps. A.D. 1405, at Upper Hardress, Kent, is a fine 
example of this species of brass : it is the memorial of John Strete, 
rector, who is represented in his cassock and hood, as kneeling at 
the base of the composition, while the figures of the Apostles 
St. Peter and St. Paul stand upon the bracket above. A scroll 
encircles the stem of the bracket, and below is a commemorative 
inscription. Tliis is a very fine brass, remarkable for the high 
artistic feeling displayed, as well in the design as in its execution. 
In the brass at Bray, Berks, of Sir John Foxley and his two wives, 
the figures are placed on a wide bracket, which is based upon a/0,27. 
The brass of Joanna Urban, A.D. 1414, at Southfleet, Kent, is 
another elegant specimen of this mode of arrangement, (see next 
page). And again, in Merton college chapel, Oxford, is the brass 
of John Bloxham and John Whitton, A.D. 1387, members of that 
society, in which the two effigies are placed under an elegant double 
canopy, while at their feet is uncoiled a scroll, bearing a legend : 
here the foot of this beautiful cross-like composition is based upon 
a niche enclosing an Agnus Dei. In some examples the bracket 
has but a slight elevation, and has rather the character of a 
pedestal, as in the brass of Eleanor Corp, A.D. 1391, at Stoke Flem- 
ing, Devonshire : and again, A.D. 1524, at 
Norwich, in the church of St. John in the 
Maddermarket, in the singularly merito- 
rious brass of John Terri, merchant, and 
mayor of Norwich, and lettys terri, 
his wife, the figures are placed on low 

In Norfolk and some other places, 
priests are frequently commemorated by 
an engraved chalice, accompanied by a 
brief inscription, usually placed beneath 
it on a fillet. The annexed example is 
drawn from the brass of William Curtes, 
at South Burlingham, A.D. 1540: here 

Chalice and Wafer for William 
Cartes, A.D. 1540 



l^itiaotjolp. qiMDaSBG]o^ 'fflibanaMiin tfia 
j9°.0igjnima''to a'xcM- OMgaiag jiocfgg Mm. 


I — i 

JOANNA URBAN, AD 1414 Southfleet Church, Kent. 

with the chalice the consecrated wafer is represented, ensigned 
with the sacred monogram. 

The device of a heart inscribed with a legend or monogram 
is sometimes found, as at Higham Ferrers. At Martham, in Nor- 
folk, on a similar heart are engraven the words, " post tenebras 


SPRO LUCE : LAus DEO MEo/' and be- 
neath ou a fillet, is an inscription 
commemorative of Robert Alen, A.D. 
1487. Scrolls with legends sometimes 
issue from hearts, as at Caversfield, 
Bucks, and Loddon, Norfolk, Figures 
also are occasionally represented hold- 
ing hearts : the brass of Sir Richard 
de Buslingthorpe is an example of this 
peculiarity : the brass of Robert Beau- 

ner, C. A.D. 1470, monk, at St. Al- Heart with Monogram, Hicham Ferrers 

ban's, is another example; the heart 

is here ensigned with drops of blood, and about the head of the 
figure upon a scroll are the words, " Cor mundum in me crea, 
Deus." At Broughton, in Lincolnshire, a knight and lady in their 
upraised hands each hold a small heart : their date is c. A.D. 1370. 
And in the brass of John and Joan Baron, A.D. 1437, at All- 
Hallows, Barking, above the figures is a heart inscribed with the 
word Mercy, and encircled by a scroll charged with the legend, — 

S&w • fill • tci • misfrcrc • met • 
0iaUv * Dei • memento • mei. 

The heart thus introduced is generally considered to be indicative 
of a vow accomplished ; but with what degree of accuracy I am 
unable to affirm. It sometimes is placed at an angle of the slab, 
to which a figure is attached; as in the memorial of the coped 
priest at Hitchin, in this county ^. 

Another singular variety of brasses consists of emaciated figures 
and skeletons, usually represented as enveloped in winding-sheets. 
Several of these painfully truthful emblems of human nothingness 
occur in the church of the last-named town of Hitchin : and in 
other places they are by no means of rare occurrence. The skele- 
ton, as the figurative impersonation of death, is also occasionally 
introduced: thus, at Biggleswade, A.D. 1482, in the mutilated 

* See at p. 103, a figure of this brass: the heart at one upper angle of the slab 
remains, but the other is lost. 


brass of Archdeacon Rudyng, the gristly image of the king of 
terrors, armed with several spears, with one of which he is pre- 
paring to strike, is holding a dialogue with his victim : the sen- 
tences of this dialogue are very curious, and are executed alter- 
nately in letters incised and worked in relief y. And again in 
the "death's-signe brasse" of James Gray, A.D. 1591, park- 
keeper at Hunsdon, in this county, the same form appears : the 
figure of a man is here depicted, as shooting with a cross-bow at a 
stag, while death at the same moment is striking the shooter with 
his shaft. 

Effigies in brasses are usually represented as recumbent, and in 
the attitude of supplication. Some few examples, however, are 
designed to convey the idea of standing figures : and again in the 
sixteenth century, it was customary to place the figures as if kneel- 
ing, and that for the most part at faldstools, or small desks. In 
this latter case, the principal personages generally appear face to 
face, instead of one beside the other ,• and the children, in place 
of being arranged beneath their parents, according to the previous 
custom, are introduced behind them, the boys behind the father, 
and the girls behind the mother ^. In accordance with a conven- 
tional habit of expression, children are uniformly represented of 
comparatively diminutive stature, even though themselves grown 
to maturity at the time of their parents' decease ^. It will also be 
found that, where two or more families have been united, a dis- 

y Besides the skeleton figure andthe in- of Waltham, who died A.D. 1475. In 

scription in this brass, one side of a border- altar- tombs, which are themselves sur- 

fiUet with its legend remains, together with mounted by sculptured effigies, small 

a crescent on a roundel, and a strange de- figures of the children and friends of the 

vice of two angels bearing the head of the deceased are frequently introduced; they 

Baptist in a charger: all the other portions occupy niches worked in the sides of the 

of the composition have been torn from the tomb, and produce an admirable effect, 

slab, which is ofunusually large dimensions. One of the children of Lady Montacute, 

'^ The children in the Flemish speci- upon her tomb in Oxford cathedral, is 

mens at All-hallows, Barking, and St. episcopally vested : and another wears the 

Mary's Quay, Ipswich, are exceptions to costume of an abbess, and holds a pastoral 

this general arrangement. staff. This is in strict accordance with the 

» In the brass of VV^illiam Lucas and regular practice, to represent the children 

family at Wenden Lofts, Essex, c. A.D. of the deceased, as dressed in accordance 

1450, one of the children appears habited with their several callings and stations in 

in episcopal vestments ; this probably was life, 
designed to represent John Lucas, abbot 


tinctive position is carefully assigned to the children of the respec- 
tive families. Where a husband and wife are depicted in the same 
composition, numerous examples occur in which the female, con- 
trary to the more regular usage, is placed on the right hand of the 
male effigy : this arrangement has been supposed to indicate that 
the lady was an heiress^. Brasses are occasionally found which 
exhibit the effigies of a husband and two wives, or even three : 
and sometimes the same wife appears associated with a first and a 
second husband. Brasses to the memory of children but rarely 
occur : Cotman has figured three in his work : of these one repre- 
sents two infants, John and E-oger Yelverton, A.D. 1510, at Roug- 
ham, Norfolk ; the figures are in swaddling-clothes, and are placed 
beneath a canopy, the whole being engraved on one plate '=. At 
Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the brass of John Shorland, who died A.D. 
1601, aged seven years. And at Blickling, Norfolk, a third brass 
commemorates Anna, the youthful daughter of Sir William Boleyn, 
aunt of the unfortunate queen who afterwards bore her name : the 
figure in this brass is simple and interesting, and the inscription 
curious from the circumstance of its specifying the exact age of the 
deceased to have been three years, eleven months, and thirteen 
days : she died A.D. 1477. 

The Canopies very commonly placed in brasses about the persons 
of the engraven effigies, exhibit an almost infinite variety of design, 
and abound in admirable details. The earliest specimens are pedi- 
mental in form, and without subdivision into compartments'^ : they 
rise from slender shafts, and their inner foliation is bold and simple: 
but subsequently they appear double, triple, and even quadruple, 
with tall and slender pinnacles, and the outlines of the canopies 
themselves are adapted to the graceful sweeps of the ogee-arch; 
and at the same time, their foliation becomes more elaborate, and 

•> In the fine brass of Sir Thomas and Norfolk, Ann, wife of Thomas Asteley, 

Lady Burton, A.D. 1382, at Little Cas- A.D. 1512, is represented as holding on 

terton, Rutland, the legend records the either arm an infant similarly enveloped 

effigy of the lady to be placed on the left in swaddling-clothes, 
side of her husband: "Dna Margeria ^ See figure of canopy of Joan, Lady 

UXOR SUA, IN EJUS siNisTRis." Cobham, at p. 82. 

•= At Blickling, in the same county of 

\ «-^«* ® ^ « * & 5^ S * 4- * 'K\/f_ « ■«! •& . *. _& « tft 5} * Sf t? 55 x?/. '"' 

The sides of this canopy are only partially represented, from want of space : in the original, the canopy rises, 
from the foot^legend, and completely encloses the figures. 

The shields of arms here introduced, are Camoys, argent, on a chief, gules, three plates : and Mortimer, 
azure, three bars, or, an inescutcheon, argent : on a chief, of the first, two palets, between as many gyrons, 
of the second. 



FragineQt of Canopy, Berkbampstead, Herts 
Brass of K. Toning ion, A.D. 1319. 

the groined soffits of the un- 
der arches are often shewn 
in perspective. In these 
canopies, the crockets and 
finials and other details are 
usually characterised by great 
elegance. In place of finials, 
small figures were in some 
instances introduced : these 
may be generally regarded 
as representing the patron 
saints of the person comme- 
morated, or having some 
special allusion to the church 
in which the brass was laid 
down. Shields of arms were 

sometimes placed immediately below the finials of lofty canopies, 
and thus impart to the design great richness of eflfect : good exam- 
ples of this occur in the brasses of Brian Uouclyff, A.D. 1494, at 
Cowthorpe, Yorkshire, and of Humphey Oker, at 
Oakover, Staffordshire : the arms emblazoned on 
the shield here drawn from the latter brass are 
Oker, ermine, on a chief, gules, three bezants, 
impaling argent, a fesse and in chief three lozen- 
ges, sable. The brasses of Alianore de Bohun 
and Abbot Esteney, in Westminster abbey, and 
of the Swynbornes at Little Horkesley, afford 
beautiful examples of the clustered pinnacles in- 
troduced with such happy effect into these com- 
positions ^ : and, on the other hand, in the brasses 
of John Corp, A.D. 1391, at Stoke Fleming, 
Devon; of Sir William Calthorpe, A.D. 1420, at 
Burnham Thorp, Norfolk ; and of Dr. John Blod- 
well, A.D. 1465, at Balsham, Cambridgeshire, we have specimens 
of embattled canopies : and again in the fine brasses of Thomas 
Lord Camoys and his lady, at Trotton, Sussex, A.D. 1424, and of 

Shield of Anns on a 
Pinnacle. Oakover. 

e See p. 1. 



Thomas Cranley, archbishop of DubUn, 
A.D. 1417, at New college, Oxford, both 
varieties of canopy are introduced ^ ; in 
these compositions the embattled member 
of the canopy surmounts the pinnacles, 
which are clustered immediately above 
the effigies. Perhaps the canopy of most 
elaborate beauty known to exist amongst 
brasses of English workmanship, is that of 
Prior Thomas Nelond, A.D. 1433, at Cow- 
fold, Sussex; to which the fragments of 
the canopy of Abbot Stoke, A.D. 1462, 
in our abbey-church, bear, as far as they 
yet remain, so striking a resemblance : 
amongst the other enrichments of these 
admirable works of art, a species of arch- 
buttress springs with the happiest eflPect, 
from the outer to the interior members of 
the composition s. 

It must be borne in mind that canopies, like the effigies with 
which they are associated, are almost invariably designed to con- 
vey the idea of being placed in a recumbent position : and hence, 
as in the brass of Abbot Esteney of Westminster, they frequently 
occur without any basement. These canopies, indeed, are really 
engraven representations of the similar accessories, worked in rehef 
about the heads and persons of sculptured recumbent effigies ; such 
as in the contract for the tomb of King Richard II. and his queen, 
are specified as "tabernacles, called hovels, with gabletz :" and these, 
though designed to serve the same purpose as erect canopies placed 
over statues, stiU so far differ from them, as to be intentionally 
adapted to the recumbent position of the monumental effigy. 

Fragment of Canopy of Abbot Scoke. 
A .D. 1462. Abbey obuxcb of St. Alban. 

' The canopy of Bishop Hallum at Con- 
stance exhibits another admirable example 
of the same beautiful arrangement. See 
p. 25. 

s Several other fine specimens of cano- 
pies will be found specified in the appended 
list of choice brasses. 

As in other particulars, a gradual de- 
basement is observable in the canopies 
depicted in brasses, as the fifteenth century 
drew towards its close : and in the century 
following they, for the most part, cease to 
possess any interest or value. 

Arms ofGrimston, AD. 1699 


A shield of arms, or a monogram accompanied 
by an inscription, is frequently found to consti- 
tute the entire memorial : two good specimens 
of this style of brass occur in the church at 
Eishangles near Eye, in Suffolk, to the memory 
of Sir Edward Grimston, and Edward his son ; 
the former was governor of Calais when that town 
was captured by the French, and died A. D. 1599. 
Both of these inscriptions are very singular compositions^. 

Monograms are commonly introduced into various parts of more 
elaborate compositions : sometimes they appear as personal decora- 
tions, as on the hip-belt of Sir Robert Swynborne ; sometimes they 
occur in the spandrels of canopies, and occasionally on separate 
shields or roundels. 

The shields of arms, personal devices, and official badges intro- 
duced into brasses, contribute greatly to heighten the effect of the 
engraven plates, as well as to augment their historical importance. 
These it will be well in all cases to stud}? with especial care. Armo- 
rial insignia appear in monumental brasses, not only upon shields, 
but also emblazoned upon the surcoat, jupon, or tabard of nobles, 
knights, and gentlemen ; and, what certainly does seem somewhat 

" These inscriptions are as follows : — 

By twice two kings and qveenes his life was grac't, 
Yet one relligion held from first to last, 


His yeares more then himselfe, did others please. 
For covncell and discovrse of warre and peace. 
His life was rvle to lives, his death a mirror. 
One felt noe vaine care, nor the other terror. 

The SONNE paied to his father's parts increase 


What first he chvs'd for good he changed never. 
His care was temperate, his zeale fervent ever, 
And theise fayer gifts y' heaven his powers did give. 
Did make the father in the sonne to lyve 
Wher trvth hath writt that envie cannot blot, 
The name of Grimeston cannot be forgott. 



strange, upon the dresses of ladies. 
In the latter case, the arms of 
the lady's own family were embroi- 
dered upon her kirtle, and those 
of her husband upon her mantle 
or outer garment : or, the two 
coats of arms were impaled upon 
the same garment, generally the 
outer. The example from Long 
Melford church, Suffolk, exhibits 
upon the mantle the arms of Clop- 
ton, a family for a long period the 
lords of Melford; and on the kir- 
tle, those of Francis. And the 
brass of EHzabeth, wife of John 
Shelley, Esq., A.D. 1526, at Clapham, 
Sussex, exemplifies the impalement 
on the mantle of the arms of Shel- 
ley and Michelgrove: John Shel- 
ley himself bears upon a tabard his 
armorial insignia, sable, a fesse en- 
grailed, or, between three welk shells, 
argent, for shelley K When shields of 
arms are introduced into the compo- 
sition of a monumental brass, it is 
a common arrangement to place each coat upon a separate shield, 
and also the same coats impaled or quartered upon other shields. 
The same shield is frequently repeated : and the arms of several 
branches of a family no less frequently associated with those of the 
individuals specially commemorated. The shields of arms in brasses 
are often so arranged as to appear suspended from the canopy, as 
in the noble brasses of Alianor de Bohun, in Westminster abbey, 
and of the Swynbornes at Little Horkesley''. Various devices were 

Lady of the Clopton family. Melford Chivroh, 
Sufifolk, c A.D 1480. 

' This is an instance of the class of arms 
called canting or allusive. The figure of 
the lady in this brass will be found en- 
graved in an advertisement appended to 
this volume. This brass, besides the two 

effigies and a very complete foot-legend, 
also contains a curious emblematical group, 
designed to indicate the blessed Trinity; 
and also four shields of arms. 
^ See p. L 



resorted to, with a view to render these heraldic accessories essen- 
tially component members of the main composition. From the 
brass of Margarete de Camoys, A.D. 1310, at Trotton, Sussex, a 
series of small shields have recently been abstracted, with which 
originally the robe of the lady in this most interesting and valuable 
memorial was semee : their loss is to be the more regretted, " not 
only because they were doubtless enamelled, but as a very singular 
specimen of costume ; for this is the only sepulchral brass" known 
to have presented "this peculiar feature of ornament; and it would 
have been deserving of attention to ascertain whether the bearing 
thus introduced were her own arms (Gatesden), those of Camoys, 
her first, or Paynel her second husband." Mr. Hollis has figured 
in his work on Monumental Effigies, a sculptured effigy of a lady 
of the Cliff'ord family, in Worcester cathedral, whose flowing mantle 
is thus semee of small shields, each bearing the arms of Clifford, 
chequy, or and azure, a fesse gules. The surcoat of William de 
Valence, earl of Pembroke, A.D. 1296, in Westminster abbey, was 
originally decorated after the same fashion with a profusion of 
small enamelled shields, of which now three only remain, though 
the situation and number of those gone may easily be traced. This 
appears to have been a mode of decoration commonly practised in 
French monuments, but rarely occurring in this coun- 
try ; or rather, here restricted to memorials of French 
design and workmanship. 

In the fine brass at West Griustead to the memory 
of Sir Hugh Halsham and his lady, between the finials 
of the canopy which surmounts the effigies, were three 
banners of arms, of which the central one now alone 
remains ; it is charged with, quarterly, first and fourth, 
argent, a chevron engrailed, between three leopard's 
faces, gules, for Halsham ; and second and third, paly 
of six, or and sable, for Strabolgy, earl of Athol. 
Arms of rank or office also appear: thus, at Saw- 
bridgeworth, the Leventhorpes, as tenants of a royal 
manor, and servants of the crown, have the royal 
arms in connection with their own arms upon their 
brasses. And again at Twickenham, in Middlesex, 




Banner of Arms, 
A,D. U41. 



Richard Burton, A.D. 1443, chief cook to the king, also bears the 
royal arras. In the brass of Brian RouclyflF, A.D. 1494, at Cow- 
thorpe, Yorkshire, where several shields of arms are introduced, 
scrolls charged with the names of the bearers of each coat are placed 
above each shield. 

Crests generally appear, as they were actuallj'- worn, upon the 
helmet, which, in brasses, constantly forms the pillow of the recum- 
bent warrior. In some examples, however, they are placed above 
the shields of arms, especially towards the close of the fifteenth 
century, when regular achievements of arms, consisting of shield, 
helmet, mantling, and crest, were introduced, as in the brasses of 
Sir John Say, and Sir Peter Legh : in these achievements the 
shield is usually set diagonally. 

Besides the more regular heraldic insignia commonly found in 
brasses, the Marks of merchants form a curious series of personal 
cognizances, occupying similar positions. These marks, originally 
adopted as distinctive signs to be stamped upon bales of merchan- 
dise, were speedily assumed in place of armorial bearings, then 
refused to all persons engaged in commerce : they seem usually 
designed to convey some rude idea of a ship's mast and flag, in 
combination or connection with a monogram or initials : the ex- 
ample annexed is taken from the brass of Thomas Pownder at 
Ipswich. Two other shields, one or other of which generally accom- 
panies a merchant's mark, are those of the merchants of the Staple 
at Calais, and of the Merchants Adventurers or Hamburgh mer- 

Merchanf s Mark, B)-a53 of 

Thomas Pownder, St. Mary Quay 

Church, Ipswich, A.D. 15J5. 

QS of Men han;s of the Staple, Arms of iierchants Adventurers, 

ass of John Feld , A D 1474. Brass of Andrew Evyngar, c. A D. 

Standon Church, Herts. 1536 AU-haUows. Barking, London. 

chants : the former company were incorporated by Edward III., and 


their arms, as in allusion to the naval supremacy of Britain, were 
harry nebulee of six, argent, and azure, on a chief, gules, a lion of 
England: the first incorporation of the Merchants Adventurers took 
placeA.D. 1296, the 24th of Edward I.; and this society subsequently 
obtained ample privileges from Queen Elizabeth, together with a 
confirmation of their original charter; they bore, harry nebulee of 
six, argent and azure, a chief quarterly, gules and or, on the first 
and fourth quarters a lion passant, gold, and on the second and 
third two roses of the third, barbed, vert. The arms of corporate 
towns, or of the London mercantile companies are also found : thus 
Pownder bears the arms of the borough of Ipswich, Evyngar those 
of the Salters' company ; John Clarke, at St. Andrew's, Norwich, 
has the arms of the Mercers' companj'^; and on the brass of another 
civilian at Luton, Bedfordshire, are the curious arms of the Mer- 
chant Tailors : and again at St. John's Madderraarket, Norwich, 
in the fine brass of John Terri, the arms of the Merchants Adven- 
turers are impaled with those of the Mercers' company, in the 
chief of the shield, while in base are emblazoned the mark and 
initials of John Terri '. 

Collars frequently occur in military brasses : they were worn bv 
nobles, and knights bannerets ; and also by every officer of the 
rank of esquire in the royal household, whether employed in a 
military or civil capacity, previous to the reign of Henry VIIL, 
when it was enacted that no person, unless he were a knight, 
should wear a collar of gold. Next to the Garter itself, the most 
celebrated knightly decoration of this class is the collar of SS. 
introduced by King Henry IV., apparently as a memorial of the 
success with which his aspiring ambition had been crowned : this 
letter S, repeated either in links of gold, or in gold embroidery 
worked upon a fillet of blue, is the initial of the word "Souveraine," 
Henry's motto, which he bore while earl of Derby, and which, as 
he afterwards became sovereign, appeared auspicious. It was in 

' Another shield in this brass is charged this company, incorporated A.D. 1394, 

with the ancientarmsofthe city of Norwich, the 17th of Richard II., bear, gules, a 

gules, a castle triple-towered, argent, in demi-virgin, her head dishevelled, vested 

base a lion of England. At Worstead, in and crowned, or, wreathed about the brows 

Norfolk, a merchant's mark appears im- with roses, and issuing from an orle of 

paling the arms of the Mercers' company: clouds, proper. 



exact keeping with the heraldic usage of the time, thus to adapt 
the monogram of the king to the purpose of chivah-ous decoration: 
nor was it less characteristic of the politic Henry, to render a deco- 
ration of honour a distinctive badge of adherence to the House of 
Lancaster. This collar appears to have been usually secured in 
front by an enriched trefoil-shaped clasp, attached to the collar 
itself by buckles : it is thus worn by Sir Thomas Swynborne ">. 

I CollarofSS. Sir John Drayton. 

A.D. 1411. Dorcheater. Oxon. 

Collar of Suns and Rosea. Countess of 
Essex, A.D. 1483. Easton, Essex. 

This decoration was worn by ladies of rank, as well as by their 
lords, particularly such as were personally attached to the court : it 
appears, for example, on the brasses of Lady Peryent at Digswell, 
and of Lady Bagot at Baginton ". Another collar, also worn by the 
distinguished of both sexes, consists of roses alternating with suns, 
in allusion to the well-known Yorkist badge, the rose-en-soleil, 
adopted by Edward VI. after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, 
A.D. 1461 : to the clasp of this collar, the white lion of the House 
of Marche was commonly attached. This collar appears in the 
brass of Sir Anthony de Grey, at St. Alban's ; and at Little Easton, 
Essex, it is worn, in their brasses, by both the earl and countess of 
Essex o. A third collar, composed simply of roses, in colour either 

■" See p. 55. 

To the late lamented artist, Charles 
Alfred Stothard, we are indebted for the 
judicious remark, which assigned to the 
motto of Henry Bolinbroke the device dis- 
played in the Lancastrian collar of SS. 
Sculptured effigies wearing the collar of 
SS. are of frequent occurrence : in Mr. 
Stothard's noble work, are figured six 
effigies of knights, and three of ladies, thus 
decorated. The effigy of John Gower at 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, also appears with 
this same decoration, having hanging from 

the clasp a swan. 

n See pp. 56, 61. 

° See pp. 73, 76. 

The suns and roses in this collar are fre- 
quently linked by some personal device of 
the wearer: thus, the oak-leaves of the 
house of Arundel appear used for this pur- 
pose in the collar worn by tlie countess of 
Arundel, in her sculptured effigy. The 
original usage, thus exemplified, of assign- 
ing knightly decorations to the ladies of 
knights, who themselves had received these 
insignia of honour, receives a further very 



fe th 

Collar of Mermaids, brass of Thomas, 

Lord Berkeley, A.D. 1417. Wotton, 

G louce stershire . 

white or red, was worn by the respective partizans of the great 
rival houses identified with these badges. And so also collars of 
suns only were sometimes worn, as by Robert Colt, Esq., and his 
lady, A.D. 1475, at Roydon, Essex. Pri- 
vate personal badges were also occasion- 
ally adopted in their collars by knights ; 
as in the very fine brass at Wotton-under- 
Edge, Gloucestershire, of Thomas, Lord 
Berkeley, who wears over his camail a 
collar of mermaids, one of the cognizances of the Berkeley family p 
Knights of the Garter appear decorated with the 
insignia of that most illustrious order. Thus with 
many others. Sir Simon de Felbrigge, A.D. 1413, at 
Felbrigg, and Thomas Baron Camoys, A.D. 1424, at 
Trotton, wear the garter buckled round the left knee : 
Sir Thomas BuUen, at Hever, A.D. 1538, is also 
habited in the mantle, collar, and hood of the order. 
Occasionally devices, expressive of some personal oenouiu 
office or distinction, appear introduced in brasses 
thus the small figure of a knight, of about the date A.D. 1480, 
exhibits a crown or coronet placed upon the left shoulder : this 
brass having lost its accompanying inscription, and being itself 
now removed from its original position which cannot be ascertained, 
it can only be conjectured that the person thus represented was a 
keeper of the regalia : and this conjecture is strengthened from 
the circumstance of a somewhat similar specimen having been 
observed at Slapton, Bucks; in this brass the effigies are those 
of a civilian and his two wives, and these are accompanied by an 
inscription which declares " James Tornay, late keeper of the crown 
to Kyng Henry VIIL," to have deceased in the year 1519*1. This 

nd garter 
Lord Camoys, A.D. 

remarkable illustration in the fine eflBgy of 
Margaret, wife of Sir Robert Harcourt, 
K.G., who died A.D. 1471, now preserved 
in the church at Stanton-Harcourt, in 
Oxfordshire : this lady about her left arm 
wears the garter ensigned with the motto, 
precisely in accordance with the fashion 
adopted by her present most gracious 

majesty, as sovereign of the order. 

P See p. 56. 

1 In Sir J. Cullum's collection of rub- 
bings of brasses in the British Museum, is 
a third effigy of a crown-keeper, but with- 
out any notice of the place where the ori- 
ginal was laid down. 


same badge again appears upon the shoulder of Thomas Noke, 
A.D. 1567, at Shottesbroke ; and here the legend explains this 
appendage to have resulted from the said Thomas having been 
" made yoman of the crowne of England." I have already noticed * 
the brass of Sir Symon Felbrygge, A.D. 1413, who, in token of his 
office of standard-bearer to the king, bears the royal banner of 

The animals which so very generally are placed at the feet of 
effigies, whether sculptured in relief or engraven on plates of metal, 
represent, in many instances, personal badges of the families of the 
deceased : thus the brass of Lord Beaumont has the elephant, the 
earl of Essex the eagle, and the earl of Warwick the bear. And 
sometimes a rebus of the name is expressed : as by the rabbit on 
the brass of Walter Colney, late at Lynn, and the fox on the brass 
of Sir John Foxley. This explanation, however, has reference to 
but a few isolated specimens ; figures of a lion or a dog being 
those which occur in the great majority of examples. A knight 
has generally a lion, sometimes a dog : ecclesiastics have generally 
a lion : while at the feet of ladies a dog, with a collar of bells, or 
sometimes two dogs are placed. Cotman has recorded it as the 
opinion of Mr. Dawson Turner that the lion is here meant to be 
the type of strength and courage, qualities of course inherent in 
every true knight, and in like manner also under certain modifica- 
tions, in every faithful ecclesiastic ; while the dog indicates atten- 
tion and fidelity, ^^rtues inseparable from the female character. In 
every case, the dog may also typify the same amiable and admirable 
qualities. There yet remain some few brasses which contain figures 
difficult, if not impossible satisfactorily to explain : such are the 
strange devices in the great Lynn and Newark brasses, and some 

Personal devices are sometimes introduced, emblazoned as 
charges upon shields, as sculptured accessories in canopy-work, 
or as ornaments of dress : thus, as I have before noticed, in the 
brass of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, at Little Easton, Essex, 
the mantling of the helmet is semee of water-bougets, — the badge 
of the Bourchier family : and again, in the remains of a brass to 

■■ See p. 63. 



the memory of anotlier member of the same family, Sir Hum- 
phrey Bourchier, A.D. 1470, in Westminster abbey, the Bourchier 
knot is repeatedly introduced. Other accessories of a kindred 
nature are the Evangelistic Emblems, which commonly are placed 
within quatrefoils at the angles of brasses : these, the angel, the 
winged lioli, the winged ox, and the eagle, are severally the em- 


St. Matthew. 

blems of St. MattheAv, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. Jolm^ In 
place of these emblems, shields of arms are often introduced in late 
brasses at the angles of the composition : these shields are, like the 
emblems, usually encompassed by a quatrefoil. Another singular 

^ The figures in tliese emblems usually 
hold scrolls, as if designed to be severally 
inscribed with the names of the evange- 
lists : this, however, is but rarely found to 
have been done, the scrolls being in most 
examples quite plain. In the brass of 
Provost Hacumblene, A.D. 1528, at King's 
college chapel, Cambridge, these scrolls 
are thus inscribed. As figures of the 
apostles often appear in brasses, either in 
canopies, or in the embroidered apparels of 
copes, it may be well hereto insert the em- 
blems by which they may be severally dis- 
tinguished : — St. Peter, a key or two keys ; 
St. Andrew, a cross saltire (X) ; St. John, a 
chalice and serpent ; St. James the Great, 
a pilgrim's staff and wallet, &c. ; St. Philip, 

a Tau-cross (T) ; St. Bartholomew, a knife ; 
St. Thomas, an arrow or spear ; St. James 
the Less, a fuller's bat; St Matthew, a 
money-box for the receipt of tribute ; 
St. Matthias, a hatchet or battle-axe; 
St. Simon, a saw; St. Jude, a club. The 
emblems of St. Paul are a sword and book : 
he is generally associated with St. Peter in 
monumental engraving and sculpture. In 
allusion to his learning, St. Paul is usually 
designated "the apostle and doctor," — 
"doctor populor : " and St. Peter is 
apostrophized as " clavg celor," claviger 
ceelonim, because, says the Golden Legend, 
"he receyved of our lord y* keyes of y^ 
kyngedom of heven." 



Symbolical Shield. 

emblem which sometimes occurs, and is designed to indicate the 
doctrine of the blessed Trinity, is best ex- 
plained by the accompanying figure, drawn 
from the brass of Prior Nelond, A.D. 1433, 
at Cowfold. The same great truth is also 
typified after a manner far less objectionable, 
in a group consisting of an aged figure hold - 
ing a crucifix, over which a dove is hovering *. 
The sacred monogram I.H.C., or as, at a later 
period, it was written I.H.S., is also of fre- 
quent occurrence in brasses, in which it occupies very diversified 
positions, forming at one time an ornament upon the hilt of the 
knight's sword, or engraven on the brow of his bascinet, while at 
other times it appears worked upon the morse of the ecclesiastic's 
cope, or sculptured in the spandrels of a canopy. 

Founders and benefactors of churches are usually depicted as 
bearing a model of the edifice, which had been indebted to their 
munificence : interesting specimens of this no less appropriate than 
expressive usage occur in the brasses of Sir John Cobham, at 
Cobham, Kent^; of Brian E/Ouclyff and lady, Cowthorpe, York- 
shire; and of a civilian, c. A.D. 1490, at North Creak, Norfolk. 

The circumstance of brasses being laid down to the memory of a 
deceased husband or wife by the survivor, sometimes produced 
curious results : for, in the original composition the figure of the 
survivor as well as of the deceased was almost invariably introduced, 
and in the inscription spaces were left for the purpose of being 
subsequently filled up with the date of the survivor's decease. 
Sometimes, however, it occurred that the survivor was buried in 
some other spot, and thus the engraved effigy does not mark the 

' See p. 119, and note (q) at tliat page. 
Speaking of this same device, Mr. Bloxam 
remarks, (Gothic Architecture, edition 7, 
p. 277,) that " some of the symbolical 
sculptures of the middle ages were intro- 
duced at a comparatively late period : for 
instance, the conventional representation 
of the blessed Trinity, in which the Al- 
mighty, He Whom eye hath not seen, is 
personified in the likeness of fallen man, 

(a practice which cannot but be con- 
demned,) in sculpture was not met with 
earlier than the fifteenth century, though 
in illuminations and drawings it appears so 
early as the twelfth." It must be noted 
that in the cut at the head of this page, 
the letters do not resemble those in the 
Cowfold brass. 
" See p. 53. 



actual place of interment, and the legend remains incomplete. 
And occasionally, in consequence of a second marriage, the sur- 
vivor of the first marriage was depicted a second time in a brass 
laid down over the actual place of interment : a singular example 
of the existence of two brasses, each containing an engraved effigy 
of the same individual, and thus exhibiting the same person in the 
costume of two consecutive periods, is noticed in vol. ii. of the 
Archaeological Journal''. Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Blener- 

Duke, A.D. 1561. 

Anne Kede, A.D. 1677 

haysett, the lady thus doubly commemorated, first married George 
Duke, Esq., on whose decease, A.D. 1551, her efiigy with that of 

^ Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 21C. 
From this interesting article by the Rev. 
William Drake, the .statements in the text 
are derived: and the two wood-cuts are 

also supplied from the same source by the 
kindness of the Committee of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute. 



her husbaud was laid down in Frense church, Norfolk : here she 
appears in a long-waisted dress, with tight sleeves terminating in 
mitten-shaped cuffs ; a pediraental head-dress; and having attached 
to a girdle a rosary and an aulmoniere. Anne Duke afterwards 
married Peter Kede, Esq., whom also she survived nine years, and 
A.D. 1577, was buried by his side in the church of St. Margaret, 
Norwich, where her effigy appears upon an altar-tomb, accom- 
panied by a legend which sets forth her two marriages, and that 
she "Departed y* lyfe ye xvj day of Aprill in yere from 
Christes incarnacion 1577." "In this second brass she is re- 
presented not as a widow, but with the French-hood ; a small ruff 
appears round her neck, and little frilled wrist-bands under her 
sleeves, which fit closely to the arms, and are tied with a number 
of small bows of riband; they are also padded and high-shouldered, 
according to an ungraceful fashion of the times of Elizabeth : 
and in front, as if appended to her girdle, appears an oval or- 
nament of rather disproportionate size, 
which was either one of those portable 
mirrors, termed Venice steel-glasses, or a 
box of goldsmith^s work, intended to con- 
tain a pomander, or other perfumes. The 
difference in costume caused by a lapse of 
twenty-six years between the first and 
second effigy, is very remarkable, and it 
is a proof how closely the artist in such a 
case followed the fashion of the period at 
which the brass was executed." 

Figures of saints sometimes constitute 
the entire, or at least the greater part of, 
the composition in brasses : thus at Wyke, 
Hants, the figure of St. Christopher is en- 
graved to commemorate, with an accom- 
panying legend^, William and Agnes Com- 

^ This legend is as follows : — • 
Here lieth will'm Complyn, Agnes his 
wife, yfi whiche will'm decessid y^ xxj day 
of may y^ yere of oure Lord m.c.c.c.c- 

Ixxxxviij. Also this be y*^ dedis y* y^ said 
will'm hath down to this Church of Wike 
yt is to say frest dedycacion of y^ Church 
xP and to make newe bellis to y^ sam 


plyn, A. D. 1498 : and at Upper Hardress, Kent, in the brass of John 
Strete, rector, A.D. 1405, the figures of St. Peter and St. Paul 
are introduced above the kneeling efFigy of the rector himself. In 
some late examples also, representations of the resurrection of our 
Lord, or some other important events recorded in Holy Writ, are 
introduced; as at Alton Priors, Wilts, in the brass of Agnes Bul- 
ton, A.D. 1528. 

Personal peculiarities or bodily infirmities are occasionally com- 
memorated : thus, at Ingoldmells, on the coast of Lincolnshire, is 
the small brass of a civilian having by his side a crutch or walking- 
stick, and who, in the accompanying legend, is described as " Wil- 
liam Palmer wyth y*^ stylt," who died A.D. 1520. At Berk- 
hampstead in this county an example occurs, in which the disease 
which proved fatal to the person commemorated is specified. 

Inscriptions, if not so interesting as the figures with which 
they usually are connected, are always valuable ; and that no less 
from their general characteristics of style, composition and letter- 
ing, than because of the direct information which it may be their 
special province to convey. The earliest inscriptions engraven to 
accompany incised monumental memorials in brass or latten, were 
worked in separate metallic letters, each inserted in a distinct 
casement or cavity, sunk in the face of the marble-slab, and so 
arranged between very narrow fillets also of metal, as to form an 
oblong border to the entire composition : the angles are quite 
plain; the language is Norman French; and the character Uncial 
or Longobardic. The usual form of inscription merely indicates 
the name and title of the deceased, with a brief pious ejaculation or 
consolatory sentiment, to which sometimes is added the year in which 
the person commemorated died ; and the whole is generally couched 
in rhyme. In the middle of the fourteenth century, the same cha- 
racter and style of record appear in Latin inscriptions, engraven 
upon and not between fillets of metal, which have at the angles the 
evangelistic emblems, and also are sometimes further enriched by 

Church x' also gave to y* halloyeng of y'= Church vjs. viijd, on whos soules ihu haue 
grettest bell vj^. viij'i. and for ye testi- mercy . Amen, 
monyall' of the dedicacion of y' sam 


shields of arms or monograms encompassed by quatrefoils. In the 
Newark and Topdiff Flemish brasses, the border legends are not 
written in capitals. And towards the close of this same century, 
the fourteenth, the Black-letter character is found generally to have 
superseded the more dignified Longobardic, and the legends them- 
selves, whether in Norman- French or Latin, convey after the name 
of the deceased a more detailed enumeration of his offices, and the 
precise date of his death; to which, as before, some invocation suc- 
ceeds. It is by no means uncommon for the date at this period 
to be expressed partly in capital letters, and partly at length in 
words : thus on the curious brass of Bishop Wyvil, in Salisbury 
cathedral, A.D. 1375, the prelate is recorded to have deceased 

Anno Dni Millio ccclxxv. 

Sometimes the dominical letter is added to the year : this occurs 
in the brasses of Ealph de Knevynton, A.D. 1370, at Aveley, 
Essex, and of John de Bettesthorne, A.D. 1390, founder of the 
chantry in which he lies buried at St. Michael- in-Mere, Wilts : 
these inscriptions severally conclude thus, — "Obitus idem die 


ccc. Lxx. Lra dmcal. F^'; and "qui obiit 6° die Februarii 
Anno Dni, m.ccc.lxxxxviij . Litera dominicaljs, E, cujus 
ANiME," &c. The computation by calends, &c., is also occasionally 
found : thus at Little Casterton, Rutland, A.D. 1382J Sir Thomas 
Burton is recorded to have deceased, " Calendas Augusti.'^ 
And again twenty years later at Hurstmonceaux, Sussex, in the very 
fine brass of Sir William Fienes, the form of expression, in specify- 
ing the date, is as follows: — "William Fienes Chevaler, qu 


Seigneur Jheu Cryst Mile ccccij, jist ycy, dieu de sa alme 


Mr. Markland well remarks, that epitaphs " of early date, though 
often tinged with superstition, were striking and solemn, and 
flowed naturally from the faith they professed. They expressed 
also deep humility, a feeling that posterity would have done well 
to cherish \" For example, we continually find at this period such 

' Markland's Remarks, Ed. 3. p. 141. 


sentences as follow, engraven upon that class of monumental me- 
morials now under consideration, — 

Dne • Deus • sedm • actu • mem • noli • me • judicare. 

Pili Dei miserere mei. 

Suscipiat me Christus qui vocavit me. 
In sinu Abrahe Angeli deducant me. 

In the fifteenth century the inscriptions, invariably written in 
Black letter, are still more diffuse, while in many instances orna- 
mental devices are introduced between each word of the legend ^ : 
the letters are often cut in relief: and scrolls, each bearing some 
brief sentence, issue from the mouth of the figure, or are re- 
peated in various parts of the design ^ : the border-fillets sometimes 
are omitted, and the sole inscription is placed at the foot of the 
effigy ; while in other examples distinct inscriptions occur in both 
positions. Now the date is entirely conveyed in capital letters : 
the ordinary language is Latin, with occasional examples of Nor- 
man-French and also of English early in the century"^, which latter 

a These devices consist of leaves and words jesus and mercy, and they amount 
animals in the earlier examples ; but sub- to no less a number than thirty. Again, 
sequently heraldic charges were introduced at a later period, A.D. 1531, in the church 
in similar positions. The brass of Sir John of Yetminster, Dorset, the same enrich- 
Cassy is an example of this mode of deco- ment appears in the memorial of Sir John 
ration : so also is the fragment at St. Horsey and his lady. 
Alban's, figured at p. 148. The same •= An early example of an English legend 
practice was continued in the succeeding occurs in the brass of Sir Thomas Walsh 
century, as appears from the brasses of and lady, A.D. 1393, at Wanlip, Leicester- 
Lord Beaumont, A.D. 1507, at Wivenhoe, shire; and again in the brasses of Robert 
Essex, and of Sir Robert Clere, A.D. 1529, Poyntz and Ann his wife at Iron Acton, 
at Ormesby, Norfolk: in the latter ex- Gloucestershire, A.D. 1420, and of Henry 
ample a shield of arms is introduced be- Hawles, A.D. 1430, at Arreton in the Isle 
tween each word in the border-legend. of Wight. At Northleach, Gloucestershire, 

" A remarkable instance of this repe- the brass of J. Fortey, A.D. 1458, has its 

tition of small detached scrolls occurs in marginal inscription in English, while at 

the brass at Wiston, in Sussex, to the the feet of the figure is a sentence in Latin, 

memory of Sir John de Brewys, A.D. 1426, And again, at Luton, Bedfordshire, occurs 

where the slab is powdered with these ac- an admixture of the two languages in the 

cessories : the scrolls bear alternately the same composition. 


language towards its close becomes more frequent ; and sometimes 
the Latin and English languages both appear upon the same me- 
morial : abbreviations occur in the lettering, particularly in the 
customary initiatory and concluding sentences, — " Orate pro 
ANiMA," or "animabus," and "quorum anima,'' or "animabus 
PROPiciETUR Deus. Amen." — wliicb are written "Orate • p * 
aia," or AiBS, and "quo • aia," or "aibs ppiet • Deu • Ame :" 
the legends, whether written in Latin or English, are frequently 
arranged in rhyme; and short sentential secondary inscriptions 
are of common occurrence '^ Where two figures are represented 
in the same composition, one common scroll is often found apper- 
taining to them both : and it is thus arranged either by having a 
double commencement, or by each end of the scroll proceeding from 
the respective figures. 

In inscriptions of the sixteenth century, though the Latin lan- 
guage is retained in the brasses of ecclesiastics, the English tongue 
generally prevails : the legends set forth the names, titles, and fre- 
quently the family connections of the deceased, with great exact- 
ness and minuteness of detail : dates are given at full length in 
words, or more generally in figures ; and the year of the reign of 
the reigning sovereign is commonly added to the ordinary date, or 
sometimes, as twice at Berkhampstead, the year of the reigning 
sovereign is the only date specified ^. A new, and somewhat fan- 
tastic form of character, the Tudor, supplants the Black letter, 
properly so called ; and sometimes the Roman character appears : 
abbreviations abound in all parts of the legends, which thus are 
occasionally rendered exceedingly obscure ; as a specimen I annex 
a fac-simile of the last syllable of the surname of Thomas Pown- 

•• An example of such sentences is as toicfe^^rmigr qui obut XFBE W ffefiruarii 
follows : — 

" Quisguis eris qui trmsierh, sta, perlege, plora. ^ ,g -^tmki FF pOSt COnOUCStU XV 3IE3£° 
isumquoa ens, jueram que quodespro meprecor — — 


^'' tJut jm^erecaCXXXIX. lEt %" rcgnt 

©III ate ppicict Be." 
** This custom is occasionally exem- 

plified at an earlier period ; as in the hrass ^ ^^y "^^'^ ^^ate that the letters M and 

ofEdmondFord, A.D.1439,atSwainswick, ^ will be found very generally elided m 

Somersetshire, where the legend is thus abbreviated syllables : and also that capital 

expressed: letters, when used, are subjected to no 

_ general rule of appropriation. 

"©rate p aiaTEDmuDitforfte Be Stoar!nes= 


der from his Flemish brass at Ipswich. 
Scrolls besides appearing to proceed from 
the mouth of the figure^ now are sometimes 
held across the person, as at King's college, 
Cambridge. Secondary inscriptions convey- 
ing sentential expressions, and devotional in- 
vocations, still continue in use. Metrical com- Abbreviation of the letter der 
positions are also of frequent occurrence. Inscriptions noAv com- 
monly begin thus, — " Here under lyeth buried y^ bodye of," 
&c. ; or "Op y"" charyte py for y*^ soule of," &c. : and conclude, 
"on whose sowle and all crysten soulis Ihu haue mercy, 

In the seventeenth century, the Roman letter was commonly 
used in such brasses as were then constructed : and the inscriptions 
partook largely in the general debasement of taste and feeling, so 
characteristic of the period ^ As Mr. Markland has well observed, 
"A marked change in the composition of epitaphs, as well as in 
the designs of monuments themselves, took place in the reign of 
Henry VIII. They now bore a worldly or adulatory character, 
and all that was originally devotional in them," but too generally 
" ceased. The one composed by Sir Thomas More for himself, in 
1532, and inscribed on his tomb in Chelsea church, may be adduced 
as one of the earliest instances of this change of style. It is a con- 
cise piece of biography ; comprising some notice of his family, and 
of the offices held by his father and himself, and is closed by twelve 
Latin verses ; poetry, about this period, being adopted as a favourite 
portion of an epitaph. Such also was the epitaph on Sir Francis 
Walsingham^s tomb, A.D. 1590, where we have somewhat of an 
angry remonstrance with our last enemy; and a victory over death 
and the grave is sought to be achieved, not through the only source 
pointed out by the apostle, but by the agency of the sculptor and 
the poet ^." Inscriptions not unfrequently occur in brasses, which 
set forth the person commemorated to have been the builder or 
restorer of some part of the church, in which his remains are in- 

' A strange, but by no means uncommon English legend some expression in Latin, 
habit appears to have prevailed in inscrip- s Markland's Remarks, ed. 3. p. 143. 

tions of this era, — that of adding to an 


terred : these, particularly when accompanied by a date, are most 
valuable, from the evidence they afford illustrative of the various 
changes in both the constructive and decorative features of archi- 
tectural designs, and of the period when such changes had taken 
place ^. 

When brasses are placed upon altar-tombs, the border legends 
generally are worked upon fillets of metal inserted in hollows 
prepared for their reception in the cornice of the tomb : and thus 
they are set sloping, an arrangement producing an excellent eflPect. 
The inscription of Alianore de Bohun, A.D. 1399, in Westminster 
abbey, is thus placed : it is a good specimen of late Norman-French 
monumental composition. It runs thus : — 

*^ ®g gist Alianore Dc Uoj&un dsnc ^lle ct un Dcg Jftts a honorable 
0cignouc mons p?umpf)rcr» De 33ol^un ©ounte Dc ?^frfforl)c IBcgscj et lie 
iaott|)am}3ton ct ©onestablc 33tnglctfre ipcmme a pntg^ant ft noble prince 
IZTfjomas lie 2i2loticstofee fi'lg a trcseicellcnt et tresput'gsant grignouc lEtitoavD 
3^og Sengletere puig (e conquest txtii, ^\xc le GlouceStre ©ounte SBegiSex et 
lie 33ufesnl)ani et ©onestable Sengleterc ©e mourlgt le trei? jour l9octobre 
Ian l>u ^race JWil (i^&&3iXXXM Se C^ug alme Dieu face mercg. amen. *^. 

This lady, the greatest heiress of her time in England, after the 
murder of her husband, retired to the nunnery at Barking in Essex, 
and there spent the remainder of her days. 

In many brasses, the legends will be found to be incomplete, 
the century perhaps being expressed, but the exact year and day of 
the decease of the person commemorated being omitted; or two 
persons being specified as commemorated by the brass, while there 
appears a record of the death of one only. These singular omis- 
sions arise, in the former case, from the work having been prepared 
during the life-time of the deceased, and never subsequently com- 
pleted ; while in the latter, the brass was executed by the survivor, 
on whose death the date, before necessarily omitted, was, as in the 
other case, suffered to remain unrecorded '. 

See Bloxam's Gothic Arclaitecture, to have their own brasses prepared ; and 

iidition 7, p. 287. no less common is it now to find those 

' It was a common custom for persons portions of the inscription thus necessarily 


A few brasses have been remarked in wliicli the inscriptions 
appear reversed : at llever in Kent, in the brass of Sir Thomas 
Boleyn, A.D. 1538, an instance of this occurs, and here the inscrip- 
tion plate is fixed above the head of the effigy, and has its legend 
reversed : and again in the brass of John Symonds and family at 
Cley, Norfolk, 1518, this singular usage is thrice repeated •'. 

To one of our vice-presidents, Mr. Albert Way', we are indebted 
for the application of the term Palimpsest to denote those brasses 
which, from some cause or other having become detached from the 
monumental slab, are found to have been engraved on both sides 
of the plate. Of the limited number of examples, the reverse of 
which is open to inspection, a singularly large proportion appear to 
have been a second time engraven : the value of the metal, and 
that more particularly when in a form adapted for the operations 
of the engraver, doubtless rendering it highly desirable again to 
employ a cancelled plate "". 

I am inclined to consider that in the earlier palimpsests, the 
first engraving was generally rejected on account of some defect of 
design or workmanship ; but at a later period, beyond a doubt, we 
have in these brasses specimens of a secondary appropriation of 
former memorials of the dead. ''A curious example," I quote from 
Mr. Way's letter in the Archseologia, of a second engraving " on 
the same plate occasioned by some imperfection in the first," 
occurs at St. Margaret's, Rochester, " where the representation of a 
vicar of that church," Thomas Cod, " who died A.D. 1465, is found 
on both sides of the plate, the only difference being some slight 
variations in the ecclesiastical costume; the first having evidently 

omitted in the first instance, left incom- similarly reversed. 

plate : thus the exact date is wanting in ' The Director of the Society of Anti- 

the brass of Bishop Yomig, A.D. 1526, quaries, and Secretary of the Archceo- 

in New college chapel, Oxford. And logical Institute of Great Britain and 

what is still more remarkable, in the brass Ireland ; and a V. P. of the St. Alban's 

of John Balsam, A.D. 1410, at Blisland, Architectural Society. 

near Bodmin, Cornwall, the month and ■" Several twice-engraved plates contain 
year of his decease are both specified, but a on the reverse Flemish words : these evi- 
blank space appears where the day should dently had their original engravings can- 
be inserted. celled, for some cause or other, before they 

'' The foot-legend in the brass of Brian were imported into this country. 
Kouclyff, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire, is 



presented some impropriety 
in that respect, for which it 
was cancelled, and the figure 
given in due form on the other 
side. It is described in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, De- 
cember, 1840. A similar ex- 
ample is afforded by the brass 
of an ecclesiastic, c. A. D. 1550, 
at Burwell, Cambridgeshire :" 
this very remarkable brass is 
engraven on the one side with 
the effigy of an abbot, proba- 
bly of Ramsey, c. A.D. 1500, 
while on the other side appears 
the figure of a priest ; and, as 
if to enhance its curiosity, the 
reverse of a portion of the ca- 
nopy exhibits a part of the 
figure of a deacon, of a date 
as early as about A.D. 1340. 
In our own abbey-church of 
St. Alban is a fragment of 
another palimpsest, scarcely, 
if at all, less interesting : it 
displays on the side of the 
plate first engraven the lower 
part of the figure of a female, 
having at her feet a dog with 
a collar of bells ; and on the 
reverse is the similar portion 
of the figure of an ahhot in 
pontijicaVihus . The alb with its 
apparel at the feet, the stole, 
tunic", and chesuble of the 
prelate are clearly depicted; 

— tJ 

Palimpsest fragment, ScW. St. Albaa's Abbey, o. A.D. 1400. 

Palimpsest fragment, St. .ilban's Abbey. 

The dalmatic is omitted from the vestments depicted in this curious plate. 



and the staff of his pastoral office is encircled by the vexillura 
or scarf. Portions of the border-fillet, having between each 
word of the legend some strange device ; an evangelistic emblem, 
that of St. Luke; and another legend cut in relief at the foot 
of the effigy, yet remain. The slab displays the casement or ma- 
trix, originally sunk to receive the plates of the entire compo- 
sition, in so perfect a state, that I have been induced to figure the 
whole, as Avell as the two sides of the palimpsest fragment". I 
have already noticed the curious heraldic blazonry which is ex- 
hibited on one side of another palimpsest fragment, formerly in 

j^alteu wIbmDuttcae[ocitlH out 

Palimpsest fragment, late in Trunch Cburoh, Norfolk 

Reverse of Palimpsest fragment, late in TruncU Church, Norfolk 

Trunch church, Norfolk, but now in private possession p. This 
plate appears originally to have formed a portion of some now lost 
large Flemish brass, coeval with the works of the first great artist 
of that school of brass engraving : and subsequently, towards the 
close of the fifteenth century, it appears a second time, bearing on 
its reverse some words of an inscription to the memory of Walter 

'^ The foot-legend runs thus : — 


P See p. 40. 



Beaumont and Melicent liis wife. In the churcli of St. Martin in 
the phiin, Norwich, is a stone from which a brass shiekl of arms 

PaJimpsest, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich. 

has become detached, and thus on its reverse the drapery of a 
figure has become distinctly visible. This shield, thus cut from a 
larger engraven plate, is of unusual thickness, and was laid down 
the second time as the memorial of Jane, wife of Sir Philip Cal- 
thorpe, knight, and daughter of John Blenerhasset, Esq., who died 
A.D. 1550 : it is charged with Calthorpe, chequy, or and azure, a 
fesse, ermine; impaling Blenerhasset, gules, a chevron, ermine, 
between three dolphins, embowed, argent ; Lowdham, argent, three 
escutcheons, sable ; Orion, vert, a lion rampant, argent, crowned and 
armed, gules, and Keldon, gules, a pall reversed, ermine q. The 
present condition of this shield appears calculated to throw some 
light upon the ancient process of producing heraldic tinctures in 
brasses, and therefore it claims our special notice : the outline of 
the whole shield and of each quartering with its bearings appears 
raised, owing to the enclosed spaces having been sunk or depressed 
to receive the enamel, except the or of Calthorpe, and the argent 
and ermine as often as they occur. In the case of the or, the brass 
is left, and was probably covered only with a wash of gold, and 
burnished. According to general usage, the argent and ermine 
present a surface of lead or pewter, on which small fragments of a 
very thin white enamel are here and there observable, shewing 

•< The same arms appear at Frense, Norfolk. 


that the whole was originally thus covered over. Where other 
colours were to be represented, a bed composed of red lead mixed 
with wax or oil, fills the casement, leaving, however, room for the 
addition of a coat of enamel considerably thicker than the white 
just mentioned : of these enamels but very small portions now 
remain ; while in two of the azure compartments of the Calthorpe 
arms the red lead has itself been removed, exposing the metal, 
quite irregular in its surface, below. I am not aware of any simi- 
lar instance of the preparation for the reception of the enamel, 
being so distinctly apparent as in this example. 

Mr. Way has noticed in the brass of Margaret Bulstrode, A.D. 
1540, at Hedgerley, Bucks, another singular instance of an early 
plate having been made available for a secondary purpose. The 
inscription to this lady, at the feet of her effigy, having become 
loose, "it was found that the reverse presented a memorial of a 
period two centuries anterior to the date of its secondary appli- 
cation; and fortunately the piece of brass having required an 
addition of some inches in length, in order to receive the later 
inscription, the earlier has been preserved without mutilation. It 
consists of the following distich :" — 


the simple and only known record of Thomas de Totyngtone, pre- 
viously sub-prior, and from A.D. 1301 to 1312, abbot of St. Ed- 
mund's Bury'". This magnificent establishment was surrendered 
to the king, November, 1539; when the plate of Abbot Totyng- 
tone, it may reasonably be surmised, became part of the spoils : it 
was scarcely eleven months before the same plate, engraved again 
with the name of Margaret Bulstrode, was laid down in another 
county, so rapidly had the work of spoliation proceeded, and the 
spoil, even in its smallest details, been turned to profitable account ! 
This same term Palimpsest, is also applicable with equal correct- 
ness to all such brasses as have been a second time laid down, with- 

J" Possibly the reverse of the effigy of Margaret Bulstrode may contain some further 
memorial of the abbot. 


out reversing the plates of metal. It is possible that in this, as in 
the former case, the memorial may, from some now long-forgotten 
cause, have been rejected from fulfilling the original purpose to 
which it had been destined, and subsequently adopted to supply 
the requirements of some less fastidious personage ; still, it is diffi- 
cult to imagine that this species of palimpsests have not been dis- 
honestly and sacrilegiously perverted from their original design, 
and appropriated to the purposes of the occasion. Examples of 
effigies of one period now appearing in connection with inscriptions 
of considerably later date, occur in Norfolk, at Great Ormesby, in 
the brass of Alicia, widow of Sir Robert Clere, A.D. 1538, the very 
year of the suppression of the monasteries ; the effigy is a demi- 
figure holding a heart, and its real date is about A.D. 1420. Again, 
at St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich, Peter Rede, Esq. % is commemo- 
rated by an armed effigy, at the feet of which an inscription in the 
Roman character bears the date A.D. 1568; but the armour be- 
longs to a period about a century earlier. Also at Laughton near 
Gainsborough, upon an altar-tomb, and beneath a rich triple canopy, 
is a brass effigy of a knight of about the date A.D. 1405, which is 
set forth as being the memorial of Sir William Dalison, who died 
the 37th of Henry VIII., A.D. 1543. This is a fine specimen of 
that most martial and picturesque period of armour, the close of 
the fourteenth and the commencement of the fifteenth centuries : 
and it somewhat resembles the brass of Robert Albyn at Hemel 
Hempsted, in representing the knight as wearing a narrow belt 
crossing his person transversely from the right hip, in addition to 
the broad and highly enriched horizontal belt of the period*. 
Another singular example of misappropriation exists at Howden 
in Yorkshire, " which purports to be an effigy of Peter Dolman, 
Esq., Avho died A.D. 1621, but is manifestly to be referred to the 
earlier part of the preceding century:" nor is this all, for "the 
plate on which the inscription is engraved has lines on the reverse, 
which prove it to have been a portion of a female figure, probably 
the wife of the knight whose figure now represents Peter Dolman"." 

* See p. 140. " See Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. 

t See p. 57. p. 189. 


The brass of Humphrey Okcr, Esq., Isabel his wife, and their 
children, is remarkable as being an example both of the secondary 
application of early figures, and also of the reversal of a plate for 
the purpose of a second engraving. This composition consists of 
a rich triple canopy, having immediately below each Hnial a shield 
of arms " : under the central canopy is a figure armed after the style 
of the year 1450, but bare-headed and wearing a tabard : on the 
right a lady is represented in the ordinary costume of the same 
period : and on the left, upon what appears to be the reversed 
figure of a priest, thirteen children are engraved in three tiers, 
and above them is a shield of arms hanging from an oa^-tree; 
these children are in the costume of the year 1525, the 16th of 
Henry VIII. 

From the pains taken to adapt it to its secondary position, the 
brass of Walter Curzon, Esq., and his lady, A.D. 1527, at Water- 
Perry, Oxfordshire, must occupy a prominent position in a series 
of palimpsests : these figures were originally engraved about 
A.D. 1450, and were adapted to their requirements by the execu- 
tors of Walter Curzon, by adding numerous small lines with the 
graver, altering the early taces of plate into tuilles worn above a 
skirt of mail, rounding the pointed sollerets, and adding a new 
head and shoulders : while the female figure was unhesitatingly 
divided, and the lower half altered to correspond with an entirely 
new upper, we can hardly consider it better, half; the only addi- 
tions to the lower portion of the original being the continuation of 
the chain attached to the girdle, and the hatching, or touches en- 
graved besides the lines which represent the folds in the drapery. 
The lines in which the old and new portions are joined are dis- 
tinctly visible in both figures. What completes the curiosity of 
this example is, that a portion of the border-fillet having become 
detached, a legend appears cut on both sides of the metal y. I 
again quote from the Archseologia a notice of one other palimpsest, 
preserved at Bromham in Bedfordshire; this is the fine brass 
which represents "Thomas Wideville, Esq., who died about the 

^ See p. 127. year 1845: and again in the Guide to the 

y This brass is figured in the Report of Churches in the Neighbourhood of Oxford, 
the Oxford Architectural Society for the published by that same Society. 


year 1435^ and his two ivives, in the costume proper to the times 
of Henry VI. These, by an extraordinary appropriation, have 
been employed a hundred years later, to supply a memorial for a 
descendant, in the fourth generation, of the sister of tlie individual 
for whom they had been originally designed, — namely, for Sir John 
Dyve, who died in 1537, his mother and his ivife." 

Brasses sometimes occur which, though altogether inconsistent 
with the period specified in their dates, still are not palimpsests ; 
having in fact been executed many years subsequent to the de- 
cease of the person commemorated, and, as was invariably the 
custom with medieval artists, in the style both of costume and 
legend appertaining, not to the times in which deceased had lived, 
but to the periods in ivhich the plates ivere engraved^. Thus in 
Stoke church, Suffolk, the brass of Catharine, widow of John 
Howard, duke of Norfolk, who died A.D. 1452, is in eA^ery respect 
characteristic of the subsequent period when the plate itself was 
laid down, that is, of about A.D. 1520^. 

These palimpsest brasses necessarily weaken the generally re- 
ceived opinion of the fidelity of individual portraiture being as- 
cribable to incised monumental effigies : for, not only are these 
last described specimens in no respect portraits, but it remains un- 
certain how many other brasses would be correctly classified with 
them, were they unfixed from their monumental slabs. It is, 
however, possible that many of those may still be portraits, which 
are engraven on reversed plates : and perhaps we may conclude, 
with as exact a degree of accuracy as can be attained upon this 
point, that while the works of the better class of artists were gene- 

' To tliis habit of representing persons in whose time the drawings were executed, 
the costume of the times of the artist him- These figures, all of considerable merit as 
self we are indebted for being enabled to works of art, are every one dressed after 
fix, with a degree of accuracy very nearly varieties in the fashion of regal costume, 
approximating to the exact truth, the age prevalent in the days of Henry VI. This 
of brasses, the date of which is without manuscript forms a part of the Cotton col- 
other record. A singular but no less valu- lection ; it is numbered Julius E. 4. 
able example of this mode of artistic treat- a The fine brass of Philippa Lady Hal- 
ment occurs in a manuscript preserved in sham, (see p. 92,) at West Grinstead, 
the British Museum, which contains a Sussex, bears the date of that lady's de- 
series of full-length figures of the English cease, A.D. 1395, but the plate was evi- 
sovereigns from the time of the Norman dently engraved about the year 1410. 
Conquest till the reign of Henry VI., in 


rally designed to convey a representation of the features, as well 
as of the costume of the individuals commemorated, in many in- 
stances a spirit of sordid economy prevented the possibility of any 
attempt whatever at correct personal delineation''. 

Besides the brasses which yet remain attached to their monu- 
mental slabs, these Slabs themselves very frequently furnish subjects 
for curious and interesting research, in the casements or matrices 
from wliich engraven plates have been removed. On these despoiled 
stones, the witnesses of that sacrilegious violence and rapacity in 
times past, a full atonement for which we would fain anticipate 
from the better and more truthful spirit which now so happily has 
arisen, — on these brassless slabs it always is desirable to bestow 
careful attention, with the view to gather from the remaining 
matrices that information relative to their former occupants which, 
in a greater or less degree, they are generally able to convey. In 
our own abbey-church, the slabs from which brass-plates have been 
torn off, still indicate the splendid character of some of these lost 
engravings, and the curiosity and simple elegance of others. Six 
of these stones were once enriched with brasses of abbots, and two 
others retain but a few fragments of similar memorials. Eight 
other stones once had crosses in brass, some of them of great beauty 
and interest. Many fine examples may, in like manner, be traced 
in almost every church : thus the stones have already been 
noticed, upon which formerly existed the brasses of six other 
knights in the cross-legged attitude; two in Suffolk, at Lether- 
ingham and Stoke by Nayland; one at Peterborough; one at 
Emneth in Norfolk; and two others in Cambridgeshire. In his 
valuable history of the abbey-church at Dorchester, in Oxford- 
shire, Mr. Addington has figured a slab now existing in that in- 
teresting edifice, from which a brass, unlike any specimen known 
to be in existence, has been torn off and abstracted : the casement 

'' It has been remarked that in the that in more than one instance, a family 

earlier brasses of priests, the countenances likeness may be distinctly traced between 

bear so strong a general res-inblance, that the different members of the same family ; 

they cannot possibly be regarded as por- in a series of their brasses ; and also that, 

traits, as we now understand that term. when a stranger became associated with 

Very possibly, brasses of ecclesiastics were such a family, his brass presents features 

kept ready engraved. It is no less certain of a character altogether dissimilar. 


yet remaining in the stone shews it to have originally represented, 
between four small crosses, a hand grasping a pastoral-staff, the 
hand itself appearing as if uplifted from the grave below '^ : this is 
the memorial of John de Sutton, abbot of Dorchester, who died 
A.D. 1349**. Many other valuable examples might be adduced, 
did the claim of these monumental slabs to attentive observation 
appear to require any further support e. 

From these slabs originally prepared to receive in hollows sunk 
below their surfaces plates of metal, I naturally pass on to notice 
another and still more important species of monumental stones, 
the Incised or Engraven Slabs, which very frequently supplied 
the place of the flat tomb inlaid with metal, and which were not 
less varied or elaborate in their design than the brasses themselves . 
though from the nature of the material employed they have in 
most cases become defaced and unsightly, and consequently they 
hitherto have attracted comparatively but little either of attention 
or regard. The difference of material is, apparently, the sole real 
distinction between the two varieties of monumental memorials : 
the character of the incised slab being in every respect analogous 
to that of the engraved brass, and both probably having repeatedly 
been produced by the same artists. 

"In England incised slabs do not appear ever to have existed in 
great number, the prevalent fashion being to use the brass : speci- 
mens, however, are not deficient in this country, and it is probable 
that more careful research regarding this kind of monument, would 
shew the frequent use of such memorials in England, of a character 
not inferior to works of the kind on the continent. When placed, 
as was usually the case, so as to form a portion of the pavement of 
the church, the design on the incised slab quickly became effaced ; 

•" See note (k) p. 160. A portion of a Richard Bewforreste, c. A.D. 1520. Here 

monumental slab, yet remaining in Romsey also is an incised slab, representing in full 

abbey-church, exhibits another example of vestments Roger, abbot of Dorchester, 

this same device of a hand and pastoral- c. A.D. 1510. 

staff, as the emblematical memorial of ^ Of course the matrices of these slabs 

some departed abbot. can be faithfully as well as easily copied 

In this same church there yet remains by the ordinary process of rubbing with 

an interesting brass of another abbot, heel-baU. 


its original beauty being destroyed, the slab was often turned over, 
when a renewal of the pavement or other cause occurred for its 
being disturbed, and the reverse was dressed to form a part of the 
new laid floor : occasionally, however, these works occur in fair 
preservation, either from having been placed upon altar-tombs, 
or affixed to mural tablets*/' The material employed for these 
incised slabs was either Purbeck or forest marble, or any of the 
more durable kinds of marble in ordinary use, or sometimes 
common paving, or even sandstone; in some examples also the 
alabaster of Derbyshire is found to have been employed. The 
lines being boldly and deeply cut, were filled up with some hard 
black compound which, when the slab was placed upon an altar- 
tomb, was raised above the face of the stone, thus imparting to the 
lines the appearance of having been worked in relief. Coloured 
compositions of a like nature were introduced into the armorial 
accessories and decorations ; and also, when requisite, into the dia- 
pered back-grounds and other ornamental portions of the various 

Their similarity in all points to corresponding effigies, legends, 
and devices in brass, renders superfluous any detailed or lengthy 
description of these engravings, thus wrought upon the monu- 
mental slabs themselves : I shall therefore here merely notice 
some few of the more valuable or interesting specimens of incised 
slabs. It is necessary, however, to remark that here and there 
occurs an example which forms, though certainly the connection 
is but shght, a connecting link between the flat engraved slab and 
the effigy sculptured in full relief. Such are the figures for the 
greater part expressed by incised lines, but having some portions 
of the design, as the head, hands, weapon or pastoral- staff", &c., 
wrought in low relief: this relieved portion is sometimes worked 
from the solid slab, and sometimes produced by the insertion into 
matrices sunk in the slab, of suitable pieces of a diff'erent kind of 
stone. The head, hand and sword-hilt of the Brading slab appear 
to have been originally thus constructed : while of the former style 
of slabs, there remains at Bitton, near Bath, a most curious exam- 

' See Oxford Glossary, edition iv. vol. i. p. 207. 



pie, being the effigy of a kniglit, cross-legged, and having the head, 
arms, and shield, cut in low relief; the lower part of the figure, 
the surcoat, and the animal at the feet of the warrior, being ex- 
pressed by incised lines. The position of the shield is very un- 
usual, covering, as it does, the breast and body of the figure : it 
is unsupported by any guige^. This has been considered to be 
the memorial of Sir John de Bitton, who died A.D. 1227, the 12th 
of Henry III. : and to this early date, the 
long flowing surcoat, the total absence of 
plate defences, and the general treatment 
of the figure in connection with important 
documentary evidence, induce me to in- 
cline **. The memorial of another cross- 
legged knight, represented altogether by 
lines incised in a slab of sandstone, is pre- 
served in the church at Avenbury, in Here- 
fordshire. Here also the armour is wholly 
of mail, but the skirt of the haqueton ap- 
pears beneath the hauberk. The shield, 
suspended by a very narrow guige, covers 
the left arm ; the surcoat reaches no fur- 
ther than a little below the knees; and 
the gesture is that of the warrior who, 
at the close of the conflict, returns his 
sword to the scabbard. The date of this 
slab is probably about A.D. 1260, or some 
few years earlier. A third memorial of a 
knight in the cross-legged attitude, en- 
graved upon a slab of stone, has recently 

Incised Slab, Aveubtury, Herefordahire 
c. A.D. 1260 

8 This may be merely an omission of the 
artist. Such omissions are common in 
brasses, particularly in belts ; thus Sir 
Thomas Crewe, A.D. 1411, is represented 
in his fine brass at Wixford, Warwick- 
shire, without any sword-belt whatever, 
though armed at all points, and in every 
other respect fully accoutred. 

*" It is a singular circumstance in the 

execution of this effigy, that the figure 
appears to have been drawn somewhat too 
large to be completely expressed upon the 
face of the slab ; and thus the right elbow, 
the outer portion of the left arm, parts of 
the surcoat, and of the animal at the base 
of the composition, are engraved on the 
sides of the stone. 

J R.JoUiTii.Feal 


Bitton Church Somersetshire. 

C Incised Slat. ) 



been discovered in the 
church of St. Bride's, Gla- 
morganshire ; it is the 
memorial of Sir John de 
Botiler, and may be as- 
signed to about A.D. 1285. 
There is no indication in 
this effigy of the connec- 
tion of the hauberk and 
mail chausses. The ar- 
rangement of the surcoat 
about the shoulders, and 
the wavy ridge upon the 
blade of the drawn and 
uplifted sword, are very 
singular. The shield is 
charged with three covered 
cups, the heraldic bearing 
of Botiler or Butler; and 
the same charge is twice 
repeated upon a small Cer~ 
ve/iere, or scull-cap of plate, 
worn over the coif of mail. 
The spurs have rowels '. 

Other early and in- 
teresting slabs exist in 
the cathedral at Wells, to 
the memory of Bishop 
William de Byttone, or 
Bitton, A.D. 1274, a kins- 
man of the Bitton knight : 
at Morthoe, Devonshire, 
A.D. 1322, to William 
Tracey, rector of that 
place : to Adam de Framp- 

Slab of Sir John de Botiler, c, A.D.l'JbO. 

i For the accompanying admirable figure of this slab I am again indebted to the 
Committee of the Archaeological Institute. 


ton, who died A.D. 1825, and Sybilla his widow, at Wyberton, 

Lincolnshire : to de Baldock and Agnes his wife, about 

A.D. 1365, at Tempsford, Beds. ^ : to William Villers, who died 
A.D. 1370, and his two wives, Johanna and Agnes, who severally 
deceased A.D. 1350 and 1400, at Brooksley, Leicestershire: to Sir 
John de Wydeville, the father of the queen of Edward IV., at 
Grafton Regis in Northamptonshire, who died A.D. 1392 ; this 
effigy is remarkable for being armed in plate, with taces beneath 
which appears a skirt of mail formed at its border to resemble 
the tuilles of a later period, of which it may perhaps be regarded 
as the prototype; a gorget or hausse-col of plate covers the upper 
part of the camail of the bascinet; and the head rests upon the 
tilting-helm '. At Newbold-on-Avon, "Warwickshire, is the slab 
of Geoffrey Allesley, A.D. 1401, and his wife Alianore : at Mal- 
vesin Ridware, Staffordshire, is another fine slab to the memory 
of Sir Robert de Malvesyn, who fell at the battle of Shrewsbury, 
A.D. 1403. Another, and that a very richly ornamented and 
curious slab, lies in the chancel of Brading church in the Isle 
of Wight, to the memory of Sir John Cherowin, or Curwen, 
A.D. 1441, constable of Porchester castle : this elaborate work 
appears to have been designed by a Flemish artist; the canopy 
comprises a series of figures in niches, and rich tabernacle-work; 
the principal effigy is armed in plate with a gor- f f^ 

get of mail ; and a skirt or fringe of mail appears 
beneath the lowermost tace, from the centre of 
which also depends a single tuille; pauldrons de- 
fend the shoulders ; the spurs are of extravagant 
length ; the sword is girded in front of the wearer soneretandspurofsir 

John Cherowin, Bradiug. 

'' This slab represents a civilian and lady which the slabs of altar-tombs were fre- 

in the usual costume of the period assigned quently appropriated. It is very probable 

to them in the text; and portions of a that the brass-despoiled slab of Abbot John 

legend in Longobardic character still re- de Sutton, now lying in the pavement at 

main at the verge. It is a singular circum- Dorchester abbey-church, (see p. 156,) 

stance that five small crosses, one in the originally was placed upon an altar-tomb, 

centre, and one near each angle, appear and used for a like purpose, 
upon the engraved face of this slab : these ' This slab, from the style of the armour, 

probably indicate the slab to have been, at may with greater accuracy be ascribed to a 

some period subsequent to its being en- period fifteen years subsequent to the deatli 

graved, consecrated as a credence, a use to of Sir John de Wydeville. 


after a very unusual fashion ; and the head is unhelmed "". In the 
undercroft of the lady-chapcl at Hereford cathedral, another in- 
teresting slab commemorates Andrew Jones, A.D. 1497, and Eliza- 
beth his wife, by whose pious exertions the building in which they 
are interred was restored. Again, at Darley in Derbyshire are no 
less than five incised slabs, of which two still continue in excellent 
preservation, and may be reckoned amongst the finest examples 
known to be yet remaining : they were laid down to the memory 
of two members of the old and distinguished family of Rollisley or 
Rowley, and their respective dates are A.D. 1513, and 1535. In 
the church at Selby, Yorkshire, are the incised slabs of Abbot 
Laurence, A.D. 1486, and Abbot John Barwicus, A.D. 1526. In 
our own abbey-church is the large, and though worn, still splendid 
marble of Abbot Ramryge, A.D. 1524. And in the neighbouring 
church of North Mimms, upon an altar-tomb, a slab of alabaster 
displays the engraven effigy of a lady, wearing an ample ruff, and 
otherwise attired in accordance with the fashion of the year 1584 : 
this example retains the black composition with which its incised 
lines were filled in, in almost as perfect a state as when the work at 
first was executed °. At Watton also is preserved another slab of 
alabaster, upon which have been incised the effigies of John Butler 
and his two wives, Elizabeth and Constance ; and here the lines of 
the engraving are similarly filled in. 

As a companion to the noble series of brasses at Cobham, in the 
very curious chapel at Malvesyn Ridware is preserved a collection 
of incised slabs, ranging from the time of Henry IV. till the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century; and then again continued at a 
more recent period, by the addition of a considerable number of 
alabaster slabs arranged round the walls of the building. 

Representations occur in medieval MSS. of the artificers occu- 
pied in the process of fabricating such incised slabs of stone. The 
accompanying engraving has been drawn from an illumination of 

™ This fine and valuable slab is figured parts of the effigy, which originally were 

by Mr. Waller in the first annual volume worked in low relief. 

of the Archaeological Association. I have " It is not certain whose effigy this may 

previously noticed (p. 157) the insertion be; possibly it is that of Margaret Beres- 

of portions of a different stone in some forde. 



Workmen making incised Mon'omental Slabs 

this kind : it affords a curious illustration of the costume and 
habits of the period. One of the slabs represented bears the date 
A.D. 1316.° 

Notwithstanding the ravages made in modern times upon the con- 
tinent, from which but few monumental brasses have escaped, many- 
valuable examples of incised slabs yet remain ; and this is particu- 
larly the case in France, where not a single brass can at this day be 
pointed out. At Paris, Rouen, and in several of the cathedrals of 
France, and particularly in Normandy, some incised slabs of beau- 
tiful character, and in fair preservation, may still be found. Of these 
none is more beautiful as well as interesting, than the memorial in 
the church of St. Ouen at Rouen, of the two architects engaged 
upon the earlier and later portions of that splendid structure : the 
latter architect, Alexander de Berneval, also architect to Henry V. 
of England, died A.D. 1440. Depicted as placed in a double niche 
surmounted by a rich canopy, the two effigies stand side by side, 
habited in long loose tunics with full sleeves, and they respectively 
hold in their hands a mold for window tracery, and a ground-plan 
and compasses. In both of these effigies appears the cap with long 
depending scarf, placed upon the shoulder, precisely resembling the 

" This design is taken from Addit. MSS. 
British Museum, 10. 292. f. 55. v". The 

engraving originally appeared in the 
Archaeological Journal, vol. i. p. 301. 

D ,1440. 18" ^nU: VI. 


Inci.secl Slai . 
Ill the QiiiTcli of $?• C iien. 

( Canopies omit-ted.) 



similar appeiidage to the costume of the notary before described p. 
In Rouen cathedral is the slab of Etienue de Sens, archdeacon of 
Eouen, A.D. 1282. Other examples of dates as early as A.D. 1303, 
1326, 1350, are at Dijon and Paris'': and at St. Denis, the slabs of 
two abbots, Adam and Peter, though not coeval with their decease, 
bear the early date of A.D. 1260. The slab of Nicholas, abbot of 
St. Ouen, at Rouen, about A.D. 1325, is another noble specimen. 
And again, considerably later, A.D. 1535, at Bocherville near Rouen, 
is another truly splendid incised slab of black marble, into which 
portions of white marble are inserted, to exhibit the head and hands 
of the figure, together with the crook of the pastoral-staff, and the 
roundels at the angles of the composition : this is the memorial of 
an abbot of St. George de Bocherville. This custom of inserting 
portions of stone of a colour and quality different from the re- 
mainder of the slab, and sometimes even of metal, appears to have 
prevailed no less in the incised slabs constructed in this country, 
than in those of the continent ^ 

Besides these and other still existing foreign examples, in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford is preserved a very extensive and valu- 
able collection of drawings of engraved tombs of both metal and 
stone, which have now been destroyed in France. These drawings, 
executed about A.D. 1700, form a portion of Gough^s collections: 
among them one represents the incised slab of Robert III., Comte 
de Dreux, who died A.D. 1223, and which formerly was laid down 
in the choir of the church of St. Yvod de Braine. This curious 
engraving bore the name of the artist by whom it was executed, as 

p Seep. 112. 

1 The slab of a late canon of Poictiers 
and chancellor of Noyon, now at the 

Palais des beaux arts, Paris, is a truly 
magnificent specimen of this species of 
ecclesiastical memorial. The chesuble 
of this dignitary is embroidered through- 
out; the devices which appear most con- 
spicuously in the embroidery being lions, 
flowers, mermaids, and the cock of France. 
"■ To my friend Mr. J. A. Brandon, I am 
indebted for the sketch, from which the an- 
nexed engraving has been made ; it repre- 
sents a fragment of the monumental 
incised slab of a priest, in the church of 
Petit Andelys, dep. de I'Eure. 

Fragment of Incised Slab of Priest, churcli 
of Petit Andelys, France. 



appears from the legend " Letarous me fecit." In like manner, 
the brass of Bishop Philip, A.D. 1341, which once existed at Eureux, 
had the words "Guillaume de Plalli me fecit." 

I may here observe that, besides the few examples which I have 
already stated to remain in Flanders, and Aix-la-Chapelle, monu- 
mental brasses now form a class of memorials almost exclusively 
restricted to our own country. Denmark is said to contain some 
specimens : but these appear for the most part to have portions of 
the figure executed in very low relief, while the remainder, and 
that by far the greater portion of the work, is expressed by simple 
lines incised upon a flat surface. In Germany a great number of 
tombs formed of metal exist, which are throughout wrought in very 
low relief: these, with the Danish plates, form the two subdivisions 
of an intermediate class of monumental memorials, between the 
brass or slab and the sculptured effigy \ The attention at the 
present time bestowed in this country upon the brasses which com- 
memorate our forefathers, has naturally led to the partial revival of 
the long neglected art of brass engraving : several of these monu- 
mental plates have already been executed, and laid down in the 
churches where the persons thus commemorated were respectively 
interred. From the skill evinced in the execution of some of these 
brasses, considered in connection with their intrinsic superiority to 
every other class of monument, it may reasonably be inferred that 
no long period will elapse before the adoption of monumental 
brasses again becomes general amongst us *. 

Compartment of Canopy, Delaxoere bra-sfi, St. Alban'^a. 

' Meissen cathedral is said to contain 
some brasses, properly so called : one may 
be seen in Spain, at Seville : the brass at 
Constance has been already fully described: 
and to these may be added a few other 

specimens at Funchal in Madeira, two at 
Dublin, and one at Glasgow. See also 
Appendix (B). 

' See Appendix (D). 


Various methods have been devised for obtaining fac-simile im- 
pressions of brasses and other incised works of art. The first col- 
lection of these impressions, now in the British Museum, was made 
by Craven Ord, about the year 1780, when Gough was engaged in 
preparing his great work on sepulchral monuments. This primi- 
tive collection " was formed by filling the incised lines of the plates 
with printing ink, which was from them transferred by means of 
pressure to large sheets of paper previously damped. The impres- 
sions thus obtained were necessarily reversed'': and besides this 
serious fault, this process is further liable to many objections. It 
was, however, soon discovered "that if paper of a moderate thick- 
ness were laid upon the brass, and any black substance rubbed 
over the surface of the paper, the incised lines would be left white, 
in consequence of the paper sinking into them, and offering no 
resistance to the rubber, whilst all the other parts received from 
that substance a dark tint : and although the effect of the ordinary 
impression is by this process reversed, the lines Avhieh should be 
black being left white, and the light ground of the design rendered 
dark, yet a perfectly distinct fac-simile is thus obtained with little 
labour, and great precision, in consequence of the progress of the 
work being visible throughout the operation y.^' Of all substances 
available for the execution of this process, (and it may be effected 
by any substance which by friction will discolour the paper,) none 
is to be compared with the preparation known as Heel-Ball, a 
compound of bees-wax and tallow with lamp-black, which is used 
by all shoemakers, and may be made of any desired consistence ^. 

u Craven Ord was assisted by Sir John y See Mr. Albert Way's excellent paper 

CuUum and the Rev. Thomas Cole, in upon brasses in the Archaeological Journal, 

forming his collection, which now is of vol. i. p. 204. 

especial value in consequence of the de- ^ I cannot refrain from here animadvert- 

struction of many fine examples since his ing upon a system, prevalent in some 

time : this interesting series was purchased places where the churches contain fine 

at the death of Craven Ord in 1830, by the or curious examples of brasses, by which 

late Francis Douce, Esq., for £43, and by impressions, or rather rubbings of these 

himwasbequeathedtothe British Museum, memorials, are made regular articles of a 

where it was deposited in 1834. most exclusive kind of traffic. It may be, 

X Many of Gough' s engravings, having indeed, a great convenience to be enabled 

been drawn from these reversed " black- to procure from duly authorized and quali- 

ings," as they termed them, exhibit the effi- fied persons, rubbings of distant or very 

gies in reverse. elaborate brasses : still, such a demand 


This admirable material will, with the greatest facility, produce a 
fac-simile, which may be worked to any depth of colour, from a 
grey tint to a glossy black of the deepest shade : and it besides 
possesses the invaluable qualification of such decided permanence, 
as to be affected by no subsequent friction. Proficiency in the 
manipulation of heel-ball may speedily be acquired: it will be 
found desirable to continue the rubbing until there cease to be 
any distinct marks of the heel-ball, and the work presents an uni- 
formly smooth appearance. The most desirable colour is a deep 
grey, which can be obtained without obliterating any one of the 
finest lines of the composition, and at the same time produces the 
most agreeable effect. Of course it is indispensably necessary that 
the paper should not slip, or move in the slightest degree upon the 
brass: this may eff'ectually be prevented by unrolling the paper 
over but a small part of the brass at one time, and keeping the 
spread-out portion steady by means of a few flat lead weights. The 
outline may be marked out by pressing the thumb upon the paper: 
and the left hand may be employed to guard the margin from 
being soiled by the rubber ^. It is also an important preliminary 
to press the thumb or fingers upon the broader and bolder lines of 
the engraving, in order to cause the paper to sink slightly into 
these lines, and that thus they may be the less exposed to the 
action of the rubber; and, from being seen through the paper, 
their perfect whiteness may be the more effectually secured. 
Imperfections in the rubbing may be subsequently corrected : after 

surely might be met, without giving to be used for this purpose : or the rubbing 

these persons a species of control over the may be made without regard to the outline, 

brasses, to the exclusion of all others, who and subsequently cut out and mounted. In 

may not choose to pay some exorbitant fee using the heel-ball, the paper should be 

for their permission to make rubbings for rubbed in the same direction as that taken 

themselves. And the rubbings thus made by the main lines in the part under mani- 

for sale, — might not some place be found in pulation. In subsequent corrections of 

which their imperfections could be corrected, rubbings, any superfluous black may be 

without a SYSTEMATIC DESECRATION of removed by the pen-knife : and the imper- 

the CHURCH for that purpose ? fections in the original may be remedied by 

To the almost universal courtesy and small pieces of heel-ball, or by lithographic 
kindness of the clergymen in those parishes, chalk, or by lamp-black mixed with gum- 
where brasses yet remain in the churches, water and laid on with a brush. A leaf of 
I gladly as well as gratefully bear testi- a dining-table reversed will be found an 
mony. admirable board for rubbing on, during the 

• Pieces of card or the lead weights may process of correction. 


which the paper should be mounted upon linen, and attached to a 
roller ^. 

In place of heel-ball, a piece of leather of the same kind as the 
upper leather of a boot or shoe, will sometimes be found a valuable 
substitute : this is particularly the case where expedition, combined 
with careful accuracy in the expression of the minutest details, are 
required : these rubbings, however, though most excellent for the 
purpose of drawing from, will not stand ; and indeed are from the 
very first but faint, and to a certain degree dim and unsatisfactory. 
Another process, still more advantageous where the sole object is to 
obtain a fac-simile for the use of the artist, without any reference 
to a collection of rubbings, is effected by means of rubbers of wash- 
leather, stiffened with paper, and primed with a thin paste formed 
of very fine black lead in powder mixed with the best linseed oil : 
tissue-paper of somewhat stronger substance than is commonly used, 
answers best for making rubbings by this method ; and this, like 
other qualities of paper, may be obtained of any size. I must repeat 
that where the sole object is to obtain an impression from a brass or 
other incised work, any material which may be at hand will be found 
available, as a lead pencil, a glove, or the bare hand; the latter, 
more particularly, if not at the time in the most delicate state of 
neatness '^. 

Besides the heel-ball rubbings, a second process available for col- 
lections has been introduced by Mr. Richardson of Greenwich: 
this consists of a "Metallic Rubber," to be used upon a black paper, 
which thus produces impressions in fac-simile of the brass-plate 
itself, as well as of the design engraven upon its surface. These 
rubbings are cut out and mounted upon a stout grey paper, thus 
producing the complete eflfect of the original brass and its monu- 
mental slab. The process of manipulation with the metallic rubber 

^ For the readiest means of procuring effected, the omission of certain details 

paper, rubbers, &c., see Appendix (E). becomes of comparatively trivial import- 

^ In taking rubbings, it is always im- ance. In rubbing shields of arms which are 

portant to mark out any portions of the designed to be subsequently emblazoned in 

work which may have become mutilated, colours, a lead pencil or plummet of lead 

or may be lost; as thus alone the general maybe used with advantage; it being thus 

character of the complete original compo- easy to clean the paper as far as may be 

sition can be preserved. And this being required with Indian rubber. 



is most effective, when rubbed across the paper : it requires a con- 
siderable exertion of strength, as well as some dexterity, in order to 
produce an even and perfectly metallic surface, and at the same 
time to leave the lines of the engraving distinctly and purely black. 
In cutting out these rubbings, care must be taken always to leave 
at the edge of every portion of the work, a very narrow border of 
the black paper, as an outline from which the several lines of the 
engraved composition may be traced*^. The effect of rubbings thus 
produced is greatly heightened by the introduction of colour into 
the various heraldic devices, which may form component parts of 
any brass. And indeed, a similar treatment of the heraldic acces- 
sories may be very satisfactorily adopted in heel-ball rubbings. 


Bcrder, Delamere Irass. St AlbaJi's. 

" It is one of the most striking features of the human mind," 
observes Mr. Stothard in the Prefatory Notes to his admirable 
work on the Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, "that it 
invariably embodies and gives form to description, more or less 
strong and perfect, as the mind is gifted and cultivated : and it is 
from this property in man, that the study of antiquity, as con- 
nected with, and illustrative of history, is the source of some of 
the greatest intellectual pleasures we are capable of enjoying. By 
these means we live in other ages than our own, and become nearly 
as well acquainted with them. In some measure we arrest the 
fleeting steps of time, and again review those things his arm has 
passed over, and subdued, but not destroyed. The researches of 
the antiquary are worthless, if they do not impart to us this power, 
or give us other advantages : it is not to admire anything for its 

•' Glue will be found preferable to paste 
for mounting: a serviceable composition 
consists of half a pound of common glue 
soaked for twelve hours in a quart of hot 
water, to which a dessert spoon full of 
treacle is then added, and the whole dis- 

solved over a fire. Care must be taken to 
lay but a thin coating of this upon the back 
of the rubbing, and also to keep it liquid 
till the rubbing be placed upon the mount- 
ing-paper. See Mr. Richardson's adver- 
tisement appended to this volume. 


age or rust, that constitutes the interest of the object, but, as it is 
conducive to our knowledge, the enlargement of human intellect 
and general improvement. Among the various antiquities which 
England possesses, there are none so immediately illustrative of 
our history, as its national monuments, which abound in our cathe- 
drals and churches. Considered with an attention to all they are 
capable of embracing, there is no subject can furnish more various 
or original information." 

In concluding this notice of one of these, our " national monu- 
ments V' I cannot refrain from pressing the search after this 
" information," not upon archaeologists alone, but upon every one 
who would desire to attain to a thorough acquaintance with history. 
Or rather, assuming, as I am persuaded I justly may assume, that 
archaeology is to history herself as a twin-sister, by the influence 
of whose faculty of graphic elucidation the written records of the 
past can alone be faithfully realized to the mind, — in now advoca- 
ting research into the subject of monumental effigy, to students 
of archeeology I would in some respect restrict my appeal, because 
an accomplished historian I cannot but identify with a sound 
archaeologist. And in conducting this research, it always is de- 
sirable, and indeed important, to associate the sculptured effigy 
with the engraven brass ^ The study of our "national monu- 
ments," and the " information" resulting from that study, can then 
only be complete when carried out in all its branches. True, the 
once gorgeous marble may now at first sight, but too often, appear 
but little better than a mis-shapen mass of those modern barba- 
risms, house-paint, whitewash and plaster: but by trouble, and 
care, and labour, it may be disencumbered of these cases, and the 
beauty of the original, if not restored, may at least be distinguished. 
And this is a result well worthy of the trouble, and care, and labour 
incurred in bringing it about : for, the brass and the effigy, with 
but comparatively very few exceptions, " present the only existing 

e I have already remarked, p. 164, that, strong claim upon us, for attentive obser- 

so few are the examples now remaining in vation and diligent research, 

other countries, that brasses constitute a ' The author has in preparation a notice 

species of monumental memorial almost of sculptured Monumental Effigies, de- 

exclusively English ; and consequently signed to form a companion to the present 

they appear to have naturally a peculiarly volume. 


portraits we possess, of our kings, our princes, and the heroes of 
ages famed for chivalry and arms ;" and, with them, of other wor- 
thies no less distinguished in more peaceful callings. Thus con- 
sidered, these memorials become indeed " extremely valuable, and 
furnish us not only with well-defined ideas of celebrated person- 
ages, but make us acquainted with the customs and habits of their 
time. To history they give a body and a substance, by placing 
before us those things which language is deficient in describing." 

To the importance of such a pursuit, as the almost alone faith- 
ful illustrator of history, the great necromancer of chivalry himself 
bears undeniable witness : for, had he been a rubber of brasses and 
a studier of effigies, would Sir Walter Scott have armed his Ivan- 
hoe in a fashion, not known for more than two centuries after the 
victor at Ashby-de-la-Zouch had left to other lords the fair domains 
of R/Otherwood ? 

Convinced, therefore, of the manifold advantages to be deduced 
from the study of monumental brasses, (to revert once more exclu- 
sively to this class of memorials,) and also practically conscious as 
I am of the progressive and deepening interest which accompanies 
that study, it is with sincere gratification that from the St. Alban's 
Architectural Society, and the many other similar Societies 
which now appear springing up on every side into vigorous exist- 
ence, I anticipate the continual accession of fresh strength to the 
already numerous ranks of the brass-rubbing fraternity; that term 
of course, including the no less skilful and enthusiastic, than fair 
sisters of the craft. I speak of Brass Rubbers the more particu- 
larly, because it may be taken as an axiom in this, as indeed in 
every pursuit directly connected with the professed objects of these 
Societies, that practice is everything. What Mr. Paley remarks of 
moldings, in his admirable essay on those most important archi- 
tectural members, is true of the entire study, of the length and 
breadth of archaeology. " The student," says Mr. Paley, " must 
not only observe ; he must copy moldings, in order to understand 
them. Without the latter, his knowledge can never be otherwise 
than vague, partial, and imperfect :" — a passage which we now may 
thus render, — It will be of but little use to look at brasses, if you 
do not rub them. It is the rubbing brasses which leads to the 


understanding them. Without this, at best vague, partial, and 
imperfect must be our knowledge of the incised monumental 
memorials of the middle ages. 

At the same time, however, that I would insist upon the neces- 
sity of a strictly practical study of monumental art, as the most 
luminous and unerring of the illustrators of history, let me not be 
supposed unmindful of those more elevated and awe-inspiring asso- 
ciations which, in every rightly constituted mind, must, as I con- 
sider, be inseparably connected with thoughtful reflection upon the 
memorials of the dead. The roofs are hallowed which shelter those 
memorials, and the ground on which we tread when in search for 
them, is holy ground. Let nothing tempt us for a single moment 
to forget the reverence due to scenes and localities such as these. 
And, yet more, while seeking to augment our stores of information 
upon subjects, becoming indeed and most valuable, but which the 
very authorities we study proclaim to be changeable and evan- 
escent, — may we ever bear in mind that our monuments, and they 
too mouldering and ruinous, possibly may afford subjects of re- 
search and also of admonition to distant generations: the su- 
preme importance of erecting, if by any means we may be enabled 
to erect in other regions an imperishable memorial, thus will be 
impressed upon the mind; and that not the less convincingly, 
because in the already time-worn monuments at our feet, we 
recognise at once the origin of such a train of thought, and its 
most powerful corroboration. 


^ ]p p e n ti t X. 


Compartment of Brass of Robert Braunche. 
Lynn Refits, A D. 1361 

Part of Canopy of 
Dr. John Blodwell 

Balsham Chorcti, Cambridge- 
shire, A D. 1465. 

^ ©lassifieti Hist of some fine examples of 23rasses, 
cl)ronoIogicaUg arrangetr. 

A. D. 

/ 1397. 


c. 1360. 

/ 1478. 





Archbishop Grenfeld, York cathedral. 
Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster abbey. 
Archbishop Cranley, New college, Oxford. 
Archbishop Harsenett, (with a cope,) Chigwell, Essex. 
Bishop Trellick, Hereford cathedral. 
Bishop Wyvill, Salisbury cathedral. 
Bishop Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey. 
Bishop Bell, Carlisle cathedral. 
Bishop Goodrich, Ely cathedral. 

176 APPENDIX (a). 

A. D. 

c. 1375. Abbot Delamere, St. Alban's abbey church. 

V 1498. Abbot Esteney, Westminster abbey. 


c. 1310 De Bacon, Oulton, Suffolk. • 

c. 1330. John de Grofhurst, Horsemonden, Kent. 

1337. Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 
c. 1370. A priest, (unknown,) Shottesbroke, Berks. 
c. 1375. Esmond de Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk. 

1389. Richard Thasburg, Hellesdon, Norfolk. 

1404. John Hunter, Clothall, Herts. 

1407. A priest, (unknown,) West Wickham, Kent. 

1410. John Balsham, BKssland, Cornwall. 
c. 1430. A priest, (unknown,) Monkton, Kent. 

1432. William Byschopton, Great Bromley, Essex. 

1487. Roger Clerk, St. Peter's, Southgate, Norwich. 


c. 1360. A priest, (unknown,) Wensley, Yorkshire, 
c. 1360. A priest, (unknown,) North Mimms, Herts, 
c. 1400. A priest, (unknown,) Standford, Notts. 

1429. John Yslington, Cley, Norfolk. 
c. 1425. A priest, (unknown,) Brightwell, Berks, 
c. 1465. A priest, (unknown,) Broxbourne, Herts. 

1478. Ralph Parsons, Cirencester, Gloucestershire. 

1498. Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

1527. William Richardson, Sawston, Cambridge. 

1535. Thomas Westley, Wivenhoe, Essex. 


c. 1370. WiUiam de Eulbourn, Eulbourn, Cambridge. 
1383. John de Campden, St. Cross, Winchester. 


A. D. 

1400. A priest, (unknown,) Hitchin, Herts. 

1401. William Ermyn, Castle Ashby, Northants. 
1401. John de Sleford, Balsham, Cambridge. 

1403. Richard Malford, New college, Oxford. 

1404. Henry de Codyngtown, Bottesford, Leicester. 
1411. Thomas Pattesle, Great Shelford, Camb. 
1413. William Langton, (kneeling,) Exeter cathedral. 
1420. John Mapleton, Broadwater, Sussex. 

1424. Thomas Harlyng, Pulborough, Sussex. 

1425. John Mersden, Thurcaston, Leicester. 
1428. William Mowbray, Upwell, Norfolk. 
1436. William Prestwick, Warbleton, Sussex. 
1465. John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambridge. 

1471. Henry Sever, Merton college, Oxford. 

1472. Thomas Tonge, Beeford, York. 

1500. A priest, (unknown,) Winchester college chapel, Hants. 
1517. Walter Hewke, Caius college, Cambridge. 
1521. Christopher Urswick, Hackney, Middlesex. 


1361. Archdeacon William de Rothewelle, Rothwell, Northants. 
1427. John Lowthe, New college, Oxford. 
1 433. Thomas Nelond, prior of Lewes, Cowfold, Sussex. 
1437. Galfridus Langley, prior of Horsham, St. Lawrence, Nor- 

1441. Dr. William Hautryne, New college, Oxon. 

1442. Dr. Richard Billingford, (kneeling,) St. Benet's, Cambridge. 
1447. Geoffrey Hargreve, New college, Oxon. 

1468. Thomas Hylle, New college, Oxon. 
c. 1480. John Darley, Heme, Kent. 

1494. Thomas Butler, Great Haseley, Oxon. 

1515. John Stodely, Over Winchendon, Bucks. 
c. 1520. Abbot Bewforreste, Dorchester, Oxon. 

1528. Provost Hacumblene, King's college, Cambridge. 

1534. Thomas Leman, (kneeling,) Southacre, Norfolk. 

A a 

178 APPENDIX (a). 

A. D. 

1558. Arthur Cole, canon of Windsor, Magdalen college, Oxon. 
1578. Bishop Edmund Geste, Salisbury cathedral. 
1615. John Wythines, dean of Battle, Battle, Sussex. 


c. 1430. John West, chaplain, Sudborough, Northants. 
c. 1435. A priest, (unknown and slightly mutilated,) Horsham, 



"^ 1277. Sir John d'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey. 
» 1289. Sir Roger de Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridge. 

1302. Sir Robert de Bures, Acton, Suffolk. 
^ 1306. Sir Robert de Septvans, Chartham, Kent. 


c. 1320. Sir . . . . de Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex. 

c. 1320. Sir . . . . de Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk. 

1325. Sir John de Northewode, Minster, Kent. 

1325. Sir John de Creke, Westley Waterless, Camb. 

1327. Sir John d'Aubernoun II., Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey. 

1345. Knight, (with cross, mutilated,) Wimbish, Essex, 

c. 1347. Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk. 


1354. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kenf. 
1361. Sir John de Paletoot, Watton, Herts. 

* This brass forms a part of the series of by none in interest and value. There is 

noble plates yet remaining at Cobham ; not perhaps a finer brass in existence than 

they comprise in all seventeen specimens, the memorial of Sir Nicholas Hauberk, 

and of these a large portion are surpassed A.D. 1407. 

A D 14 7 

Menx: :\' 

J R Johhmj , Fecit 

§118 K]ICM®LAS HAWj 

Gotham Church, Kent . 

( Canopy &c, omitt-ed . 


A. D. 

1367. Sir Thomas de Cobham, Cobhara, Kent. 

1368. Sir Thomas Cheyne, Draytou Beauchamp, Bucks. 
*' 1370. Sir Ralph de Knevynton, Aveley, Essex. 

c. 1370. Sir John Foxley, Bray, Berks, 
c. 1375. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kent, 
c. 1375. Sir ... . D' Argentine, Horseheath, Camb. 
c. 1375. Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks. 
' c. 1380. Sir Roger de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 

1382. Sir Thomas Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland . 

1382. Nicholas, Lord Burnell, Acton Burnel, Salop. 

1384. Sir John Harsick, Southacre, Norfolk. 
c. 1385. Sir .... de Maulevqrer, Allerton Mauleverer, York, 
c. 1385. A knight, (unknown,) St. Michael's, St. Alban's. 

1387. Sir Robert de Grey, Rotherfield Greys, Oxon. 

1390. Sir Andrew Louttrell, Irnham, Liacolnshire . 

1390. Sir John de Wingfield, Letheringham, Suffolk. 

1391. Sir Robert Swynborue, Little Horkesley, Essex. 

1392. Thomas, Lord Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester. 

1400. Sir George Felbrigge, Playford, Suffolk. 
c. 1440. Sir ... . Harflete, Chartham, Kent. 

c. 1400. Robert Albyn, Hemel Hempsted, Herts. 

1401. Sir Nicholas Dagworth, Blickling, Norfolk. 
1401. Thomas, earl of Warwick, St. Mary's, Warwick. 

/ 1402. Sir William de Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex. 

1404. A Knight, (unknown,) Sawtry, Hunts. 

1405. Sir Reginald Braybrook, Cobham, Kent. 
1407. Sir William Bagot, Baginton, Warwick. 
1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent. 

1407. Robert, LordFerrers of Chartley, Merivale abbey, Warwick. 

1408. Sir William Tendering, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk. 

1409. Sir William Burgate, Burgate, Suffolk. 


1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Cambridge. 
1403. Sir Reginald de Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey. 
1425. Robert Hay ton, Esq., Theddlethorpe, Lincoln. 

l<i^ APPENDIX (a). 


A. n. 

1407. Sir John Lysle, Thornton, Hunts. 
c. 1410. Sir John Wilcote, Tew, Oxon. 

1411. Sir Thomas Crewe, Wixford, Warwick. 

1412. Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex. 
/ 1413. Sir Simon Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 

1414, Sir Geoffrey de Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk. 

1415. Sir Thomas Peryent, Digswell, Herts. 
1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. 

/c. 1420. Sir Peter Halle, Heme, Kent. 

1423. Sir Ralph Shelton, Great Snoring, Norfolk. 

1424. Thomas, Lord Camoys, Trotton, Sussex. 

1425. Sir Baldwin Seyntgeorge, Hatley St. George, Camb. 

1426. Sir John de Brewys, Wiston, Sussex. 

1426. Sir Thomas L'Estrange, Wellsbourn, Warwick. 
1426. Sir John Brooke, Easton, Suffolk. 
1430. Sir Thomas Bromfiete, Wymington, Beds. 
1433. Sir John Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 
' 1434. Sir Lawrence Fynton, Sunning, Berks. 
c. 1435. Sir Thomas Wideville, Bromhara, Beds. 
1438. Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester, Gloucester. 
1441. Sir Hugh Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex. 

1444. Sir Nicholas Manston, St. Lawrence, Kent. 

1445. John Daundelyon, Margate, Kent. 
1450. Walter Greene, Hayes, Middlesex. 

c. 1450. Sir John Peryent II., Digswell, Herts. 
1457. Sir John de Harpedon, Westminster abbey. 


1424. John Waltele, Esq., Amberley, Sussex. 

1444. Sir William Fynderne, Childrey, Berks. 

c. 1450. Humphrey Oker, Esq., Oakover, Stafford. 


A. D. 

1473. Sir John Say, Broxbourne, Herts. 

1477. John Feld, Esq., Standon, Herts. 

1492. Piers Gerard, Esq., Winwick, Lancashire. 

1501. Robert Baynard, Esq., Lacock, Wilts. 

1506. Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk. 
1526. John Shelley, Esq., Clapham, Sussex. 

c. ] 546. Sir Ralph Verney, Aldbury, Herts. 



1451. John Bernard, Esq., Islesham, Cambridgeshire. 
1459. Sir Thomas de Shernbourn, Shernborne, Norfolk. 
c. 1460. Henry Parice, Esq., Hildersham, Camb. 

1462. Sir Thomas Greene, Green's Norton, Northants. 

1467. Sir William Vernon, Tong, Salop. 

1471. John Goston, Swinbroke, Oxon. 

1475. Robert Colte, Esq., Roydon, Essex. 

1480. Sir Anthony de Grey, St. Albau's abbey church. 

1480. John, Lord Strange, Hyllingdon, Middlesex. 

1483. Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, Little Easton, Essex. 

1484. Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb. 
1492. Sir Henry Grey, Ketteringham, Norfolk. 


1505. Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster abbey. 

1507. William, Lord Beaumont, Wivenhoe, Essex. 
1511. Richard Gill, Esq., Shottesbroke, Berks. 
1529. Sir Robert Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk. 
1531. Sir John Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset. 
1546. Sir John Greville, Weston, Warwickshire. 
1548. Sir William Molineux, Sefton, Lancashire. 
1559. Sir Edward Greville, Weston, Warwick. 

1593. Humphrey Brewster, Esq., Wrentham, Suffolk. 

1594. John Clippesby, Esq., Clippesby, Norfolk. 

182 APPENDIX (a). 


c. 1310. Margaret, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex. 

1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent, 
k 1325. Lady de North ewode, Minster, Kent. 

1325. Lady de Creke, Westley Waterless, Carab. 

1345. Lady, (with cross, mutilated,) Wimbish, Essex. 

1349. Margaret de Walsokne, Lynn, Norfolk ^. 
v^ 1349. Margaret Torriugton, Berkhampstead, Herts. 

1360. Maud, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 

1364. Margaret and Letitia Braunche, Lynn, Norfolk. 
^ c. 1370. Wives of Sir John Foxley, Bray, Berks. 

1372. Ismena de Wynston, Necton, Norfolk. 
^ c. 1380. Lady Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 

1381. Albreda Curteys, Wymington, Beds. 

1382. Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland. 
'J 1384. Lady Harsyck, Southacre, Norfolk. 

1385. Lady Margaret Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 
1391. Lady Cecilia de Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk. 
1391. Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon. 

1391. Lady of Thomas de Topclyffe, Topcliff, York. 

1392. Lady Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester. 

1393. Lady Walsh, Wanlip, Leicestershire. 
1395. Lady Margaret Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 

J 1399. Eleanor de Bohun, Westminster abbey. 

1400. Lady Gassy, Deerhurst, Gloucester. 

1401. Countess of Warwick, St. Mary's, Warwick. 
1401. Lady Margaret Pennebrygg, Shottesbroke, Berks. 
1407. Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick. 

1407. Lady Ferrers of Chartley, Merivale abbey, Warwick. 
1407. Lady Margaret Bromflete, Wymington, Beds. 
1409. Lady Burgate, Burgate, Suffolk. 
1411. Lady Crewe, Wixford, Warwick. 
■" 1413. Lady Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 
1415. Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts. 

•^ See note p. 184. 


A. D. 

1417. Margaret Cheyne, Hever, Kent. 

1420. Eleanor, Lady Cobliam, Lingfield, Surrey. 
c. 1420. Lady Halle, Ilerne, Kent. 

1425. Wife of William Chichele, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

1424. Elizabeth, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex. 

1430. Agnes Salmon, Arundel, Sussex. 
c. 1430. A lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey. 

1433. Lady Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 

1433. Matilda Chaucer, Ewelrae, Oxon. 
c. 1435. Wives of Thomas Wideville, Bromham, Beds. 

1436. Lady of Judge Martin, Graveney, Kent. 

1441. Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex. 
0. 1441. Philippa, Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex. 

1444. Lady Fynderne, Childrey, Berks. 
i 1446. Joyce, Lady Tiptoft, Enfield, Middlesex. 

1458. Lady Staunton, Castle Donington^ Leicester, 
c. 1460. Merchant's wife, Cirencester, Gloucestershire. 

1465. Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex. 

1467. Lady Vernon, Tong, Salop. 

1473. Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts. 

1479. Lady Strange, Hyllingdon, Middlesex. 

1479. Lady Urswick, Dagenham, Essex. 

1483. Countess of Essex, Little Easton, Essex. 

1484. Wives of Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb. 

1524. Letitia Terri, St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich. 

1525. Emma Pownder, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich. 

1526. Elizabeth Shelley, Clapham, Sussex. 

1527. Lady Legh, Winwick, Lancashire. 

c. 1530. Elizabeth Harvey, abbess, Elstow, Beds. 
1531. Lady Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset. 

1536. Ellen Evyngar, All-hallows, Barking, London. 

1537. Countess of Oxford, Wivenhoe, Essex. 

1548. Wives of Sir William Molineux, Sefton, Lancashire. 
1594. Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk. 
c. 1595. Mary Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. 
1598. Cicely Page, Bray, Berks. 

184 APPENDIX (a). 


A. D. 

1349. Adam de Walsokne, Lynn Regis, Norfolk <=. 
* 1350. Symon de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 
)^1356. Richard Torrington, Berkhampstead, Herts. 

1361. Alan Fleming, Newark, Notts. 

1364. Robert Braunche, Lynn Regis, Norfolk. 
c. 1370. A Frankelein, (with anlace,) Shottesbroke, Berks. 

1381. John Curteys, (with anlace,) Wimington, Beds. 

1391. John Corp, (with anlace,) Stoke Fleming, Devon. 

1391. Thomas de Topclyffe, (with anlace,) Topcliff, York. 

1400. Sir John Cassy, Deerhurst, Gloucestershire. 

1401. William G revel, (with anlace,) Chipping-Camden, Glou- 


1409. Edmund Cook, (with anlace,) Berkhampstead, Herts. 

1419. Judge Lodyngton, Gunby, Lincolnshire. 

1425. Wilham Chichele, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

1429. Roger Thornton, (with anlace,) Newcastle. 

1431. Nicholas Canteys, (with anlace,) Margate, Kent. 
/ 1436. Judge Martin, Graveney, Kent. 

1458. John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucestershire. 

1465. Sir Peter Arderne, Latton, Essex, 
c. 1475. A notary, St. Mary Tower, Ipswich. 

1477. John Feld, alderman, Standon, Herts. 

1479. Sir Thomas Urswick, chief justice, Dagenham, Essex. 
c. 1490. Civilian, (unknown,) founder. North Creak, Norfolk. 

1524. John Terri, mayor, St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich. 
\ 1525. Thomas Pownder, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich. 

1536. Andrew Evyngar, All-hallows, Barking, London. 

c The engraving upon this fine brass is now nearly obliterated. 



A. D. 

c. 1320. Thomas de Hop, Kemsing, Kent. 
c. 1340. Richard de Belton, Corriugham, Essex. 
' c. 1350. John Verreu, Saltwood, Kent. 
' c. 1360. Walter Frilende, Ockham, Surrey. 
/ c. 1370. Ralph Peichehay, Stifford, Essex, 
c. 1375. A priestj (unknown,) Berkhampstead, Herts. 

1380. Alexander Chelsege, (with chalice,) Chinnor, Oxon. 
' c. 1380. Robert Levee, Hayes, Middlesex. 
1382. Adam Ertham, Arundel, Sussex. 
c. 1390. Adam de Aldebourne, Lewknor, Oxon. 
' 1391. William Lye, Northfleet, Kent. 

1398. Roger Campedene, Stamford-in-the-Vale, Berks. 
1417. William Tanner, Cobham, Kent. 
1419. John Desford, (with chalice,) New college, Oxford, 
c. 1430. John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent. 

1445. John Kyllingworth, Merton college, Oxford. 
c. 1450. William Carbroke, Wymington, Beds. 

1457. John Bradford, St. Michael's, Lewes, Sussex. 
/ 1458. John Bradstane, Ewelme, Oxon. 

1478. Ralph Vawdrey, chaplain, Magdalene college, Oxford. 
c. 1500. A priest, (unknown, with chalice,) Merton college, Oxford. 
1507. John Frye, (with chalice,) New college, Oxford. 


c. 1290. Sir Richard de Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln, 
c. 1310. A knight (unknown) in banded mail, Croft, Lincoln. 

d At Beddington, Surrey, is a brass demi-figures of her children. It is a good 
containing, beneath the full-length figure as well as a curious specimen, 
of a lady of the Carew family, thirteen 


186 APPENDIX (a). 

A. D. 

1380. Sir Esmond de Malyns aud wife^ Chinnor, Oxon. 
1403. Sir Ralph de Cobham, Cobhara, Kent. 
14.24. Sir Jolin Framingham and lady, Debenbam, Suffolk. 
1435. Sir William Arnold, Battle, Sussex. 


c. 1375. John and Agnes de Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex, 
c. 1395. A civilian, (unknown,) Temple church, Bristol. 



v^c. 1370. Sir John Eoxley and wives, (canopy destroyed,) Bray, 
1387. John Bloxham and John Whytton, (with double canopy,) 

Merton college, Oxford. 
1405. John Strete, rector, (with figures of St. Peter and St. 
Paul,) Upper Hardress, Kent, 
v' 1414. Joan Urban, Southfleet, Kent. 

1420. Robert Wyutryngham, priest, (with canopy,) Cotterstock, 
c. 1420. Reginald Cobham, priest, (small, with canopy,) Cobham, 
1437. Galfridus Langley, prior of St. Faith's, (canopy destroyed,) 
St. Lawrence, Norwich. 

(2.) CROSSES, &C. 

c. 1310. Richard de Hart, priest, (demi-figure upon a cross, which 
now is almost entirely destroyed,) Merton college, Ox- 


A. D. 

c. 1320. Nicliol de Gore, (Greek cross fleury, with full-length figure,) 

Woodchurch, Kent. 

/c. 1325. John de Bladigdone and wife, (demi-figurcs with cross- 

fleury, much mutilated,) East Wickham, Kent. 

c. 1330. A priest, (unknown, with mutilated cross,) Chinnor, Oxon. 

c. 1345. A knight and lady, (unknown, with much mutilated cross,) 

Wimbish, Essex. 
c. 1350. Nicholas Aumberdene, civilian, (with i&ne floriated cross,) 

Taplow, Bucks, 
c. 1350. A priest, (unknown, with mutilated cross,) Merton college, 

c. 1 370. Brittellus Avenel, priest, (demi-figure, with fine floriated 
cross,) Buxtead, Sussex. 
1400. Thomas Chichele and wife, (plain cross, with emblems,) 

Higham Ferrers, Northants. 
1400. Figures with floriated cross, Newton, Northants. 
c. 1400. Fine floriated cross with effigy, (under the pews,) St. Mi- 
chael's, St. Alb an' s. 
/ 1408. John Lumbarde, priest, (with fine floriated cross,) Stone, 
1408. Robert Parys and lady, (with fine floriated cross and 

sacred emblem,) Hildersham, Camb. 
1416. William Bacon, (cross fleury,) St. Mary's, Reading. 
c. 1420. Robert Cheyne, (cross fleury,) Cassington, Oxon. 
c. 1440. Richard Tooner, (cross fleury,) Broadwater, Sussex, 
c. 1500. Plain cross, Royston, Herts. 

1516. Thomas Burgoyne, (plain cross,) Sutton, Beds. 
c. 1530. Thomas Bullayne, (small plain cross,) Penshurst, Kent. 
.... Cross-fleury, Beddington, Surrey. 


The Flemish brasses of the civihans at Lynn, Norfolk, and at 
Newark ; of Abbot Delamere at St. Alban's ; of the ecclesiastic at 
North Mimms, Herts ; and of the civilian at Newcastle, all affbrd 

188 APPENDIX (a). 

splendid examples of elaborate canopies. Amongst many others, 
fine canopies also occur in the following brasses : 

A. D. 

c. 1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent, 
c. 1330. John de Grof hurst, Horsmonden, Kent. 

1337. Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northants. 

1347. Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk. 

1354. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 
c. 1365. Sir John de Mereworth, Mereworth, Kent, 
c. 1370. A priest and frankelein, Shottesbroke, Berks, 
c, 1370. William de Fulbourn, Fulbourn, Camb. 

1381. John Curteys, Wymington, Beds. 

1382. Sir Nicholas Burnell, Acton Burnel, Salop. 
1382. An ecclesiastic, Cottingham, York. 

1390. Sir Andrew Loutrell, Irnham, Lincoln. 

1391. John Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon. 
1394. Margaret, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent. 

c. 1395. Sir Edward Dalyngrugge, Fletching, Sussex. 
/ 1397. Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster abbey. 

1398. Walter Pescod, Boston, Lincolnshire. 

c. 1398. A civilian, (unknown,) Boston, Lincolnshire. 

1399. Eleanor de Bohun, Westminster abbey. 

1400. Sir John Cassy, Deerhurst, Gloucester. 

1401. John de Sleford, Balsham, Camb. 

1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Camb. 

1402. Sir John de Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex. 

1404. Henry de Codyngton, Bottesford, Leicester. 

1405. Sir Reginald Bray brook, Cobham, Kent. 
1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent. 
1411. Sir Thomas de Crewe, Wixford, Warwick. 

1412.) Sir Robert and Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, 
1391.1 Essex. 

1414. Sir Galfridus de Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk. 
* 1416. Sir George de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk. 
1417. Archbishop Cranley, New college, Oxon. 

1419. Sir John de Lyndwode, Linwood, Lincoln. 

1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk. 


A. D. 

1424. Lord and Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex. 

1425. William Chicliele, Higliam Ferrers, Northants. 
c. 1425. Canopy, (figure gone,) Stoke, Suffolk. 

c. 1430. A lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey. 

1432. William Byshopton, Great Bromley, Essex. 

1433. Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex. 

c. 1435. Sir Thomas Wideville, Bromham, Beds. 

1436. Prior William Prestwick, Warbleton, Sussex. 

1438. Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester. 

1441. Sir Hugh Halsham, W^est Grinstead, Sussex. 

c. 1441. Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex. 

1444. Sir William d' Etchingham, Etchinghara, Sussex. 

1444. Sir William Fynderne, Childrey, Berks. 

1447. John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucester. 

1448. Nicholas Dixon, (figure lost,) Cheshunt, Herts, 
c. 1450. Humphrey Oker, Oakover, Stafford. 

1458. Sir Robert Staunton, Castle Donington, Leicestershire, 
c. 1460. Henry Parice, Hildersham, Camb. 
c. 1460. Merchant and wife, Cirencester. 

1462. Abbot Stoke, (mutilated and figure gone,) St. Alban's 
abbey church. 

1465. John Blodwell, Balsham, Camb. 

1472. Robert Ingylton, Thornton, Bucks. 

1484. Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb. 

1492. Piers Gerard, Winwick, Lancashire. 

1494. Brian Roucliffe, Cowthorpe, York. 

1496. Bishop Bell, Carlisle cathedral. 

1498. Abbot Esteney, Westminster abbey. 

1506. Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

1507. Lord Beaumont, (mutilated,) Wivenhoe, Essex. 


Of these it will be sufficient to specify : 
c. 1400. Fragment of an abbot, (palimpsest,) St. Alban's abbey. 

1426. Sir John de Brewys, (slab, semee of small scrolls,) Wiston, 


190 appe:ndix (a). 

A. D. 

c. 1450. William Lucas and family, (one of the children in episco- 
pal vestments,) Wenden Lofts, Essex. 
\ 1494. Brian RouclifFe, chief-baron, and lady, (holding model of a 
church,) Cowthorpe, York. 
c. 1500. An abbot, (unknown, palimpsest fragment,) Burwell, 
/ c. 1510. Small Flemish plate to a knight and lady of the Compton 
family : late in Netley abbey-church, but now in pri- 
vate possession. 
1527. Sir Peter Legh and lady, (armour worn beneath a che- 

suble,) Winwick, Lancashire. 
1527^ ) Walter Curzon and lady, (palimpsest,) Waterperry, 
c. 1450.) Oxon. 

Note. It will be borne in mind that the foregoing list contains only a selection of fine 
specimens of brasses : it does not by any means pretend to comprise every fine or remark- 
able brass. 

CIRCA A . U . 131! 

In ScoiithcLl ClixiTcli . 

JM.Mhms Ri^b. 

APPENDIX (is). 191 


Slabs sculptured in low relief occur in many parts of Germany : 
of these the three specimens here introduced afford interesting and 
valuable additions to a series of incised monumental figures, and at 
the same time they satisfactorily exemplify that peculiar species of 
memorial, which occupies the middle place between the effigy sculp- 
tured in full relief and expressed by engraven lines ^. 

In the leading essentials, no less of general treatment, than of 
armour and costume, these monuments exhibit that resemblance to 
English effigies, which might naturally have been expected in pro- 
ductions of the same class and era ; while, at the same time, they 
possess several highly characteristic features peculiarly their own. 
The earliest of these three monuments is the memorial of Albract 
Hohenloe, a German knight, who died A.D. 1319, and lies buried 
beneath a slab of sandstone engraven with his effigy, in the church 
of Schonthal. The knightly equipment here depicted will at once 
call to remembrance the brasses of Sir John d'Aubernoun II., and 
of Sir John de Creke, and the noble effigies of Prince John of 
Eltham, and Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, though in 
many respects it differs from the accoutrements of these knights. 
The chief peculiarity, however, in this figure, and that which re- 

» These effigies have been drawn from mental Art, published at Manheim by 
an admirable German work on Menu- M. de Hefner, 



quires special notice, is the Nasal ^, or defence for the face, which 
in the present instance consists of a strip of mail, represented as 
hanging down below the chin, over the camail : this strip, at the 
pleasure of the wearer, could be raised and secured to a small stud 
or rivet, attached for that purpose to the front of the bascinet; and 
thus it could cover the greater part of the face, without materially 
affecting either the sight or breathing. 

The second slab bears date A.D. 1377, and commemorates Hew- 
nel Landschaden and his lady : it is preserved in the church of 
Neckarsteinach, Heidelberg. This knight wears plate-armour on 
the limbs, with a bascinet, camail, hauberk, and jupon ; the latter 
having short sleeves of peculiar construction, which partially cover 
the armour of the upper arms. Chains are attached to the hilt of 
both the sword and misericorde ; and a third chain is led over the 
left shoulder of the knight, 
in order to be attached to 
his tilting-helm, which with 
its crest is represented as 
standing erect between the 
heads of the two figures. 
The lady wears the flowing 
reticulated head-dress, with 
a kirtle and mantle. The 
figures are surmounted by 

^ This curious arrangement for 
protecting the face is also exempli- 
fied in the annexed admirable cut, 
drawn from the same German work, 
for the sixth part of the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, and from thence 
transferred to this place. The figure 
is that of Ulrich Landschaden, 
knight, who dying A.D. 1369, was 
interred in the same church with 
Hewnel Landschaden at Neckarstei- 
nach. Besides the nasal this effigy 
is remarkable for the form and ar- 
rangement of the jupon, and the evi- 
dent absence of any defence of plate- 
armour from the person of the knight. 

CIRCA A. D i; 


niRi'A AD. iio'; 

Ill Wertiieiin Qiurch. 

J Ji.Mhuis Iiuc. 

APPENDIX (b). 193 

a slight yet elegant canopy, having, on either side of its central 
finial, a shield of arms. 

The elaborate and still very perfect slab of Johan Graaf von 
Werthcim, A.D. 1407, completes this brief series of German 
effigies : it lies in the church of Werthcim, of which the count 
himself was the munificent founder. This knight, one of the most 
renowned of a chivalrous race, is armed in a cuirass, with taces 
deeply escalloped, and girded with the hip-belt ; the latter arrange- 
ment being after the fashion exemplified in the brasses of Sir John 
de Peryent and Sir Reginald de Cobliam : on his head is a basci- 
net of peculiarly elegant form, surmounted by his coronet and 
crest : his right hand rests upon his tilting-helm which is similarly 
decorated, and in his left he grasps his banner of arms. The sin- 
gularly fashioned zigzag or slashed sleeves, occasionally worn 
at this period, appear hanging in ample folds from either side of 
the figure. 

c c 

194 APPENDIX (c). 




Note to page 14. 

Since this page was in type the Author has been enabled to 
examine the Lynn brasses, and he cannot refrain from here ex- 
pressing his regret at their being in a condition far more unsatis- 
factory than he had anticipated : the brass of Adam de Walsokne 
is almost obliterated, and that of Robert Braunche most seriously 
injured. These brasses, on a minute examination, appear decidedly 
inferior in artistic merit to the memorial of Abbot Delamere at 
St. Alban's, the work of the same artist. 

Note to page 27. 

Besides the Flemish brasses noticed in the text, there exists 
in private possession a very curious small plate, the memorial of 
a knight and lady of the Compton family, which once was fixed, 
in fancied security, in Netley abbey church. This brass is a 
square plate, measuring nineteen inches and a half; it contains the 
figures of the knight and his lady, kneeling on a pavement, and 
having on scrolls encircling their heads, portions of the fourth 
and the eighth verses of the twenty-seventh Psalm. The back- 
ground of the composition is diapered pine-apples and roses, and 
the Compton badge a fire-beacon, with the legend ' So have I 
CAUSE.' The date of this brass is about A.D. 1510. 

APPENDIX (c). 195 

Note to page 40. 

For some interesting remarks upon the device of the star and 
crescent, see the Archaeological Journal, vol. iii. p. 345. This 
device occurs upon the seals of two documents, severally dated 
A.D. 1256 and 1287, the property of Mr. Brabant, of «t. Alban's : 
in one of these seals the device is reversed, the star being in base, 
and the crescent in chief with its rays pointing downwards. The 
same device is continually found in both public and private seals. 

Note to page 91. 

The Lady Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys, whose effigy is here 
engraved from her monumental brass at Trotton in Sussex, was 
daughter of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, and widow of 
Henry Percy, the renowned Hotspur. In this fine brass, there- 
fore, we have a portrait from the life of the " Lady Percy :" and 
also a most valuable example of costume and armour to illustrate 
both the histories of those stirring times, and the works of our 
great dramatist. It were indeed well if artists, no less than 
authors, would seek authorities from such memorials for the per- 
sonal equipment of their heroes and heroines: and thus, by pre- 
senting them to the eye and to the mind as they really were, 
impart to their own works a degree of truthfulness and value in 
which but too generally they are lamentably deficient. 

Note to page 110. 

Ralph Rowlat, late of St. Alban's, and of Sandridge, near St. 
Alban^s, Esq., whose brass is noticed and figured at pages 110, 
111, was the lineal ancestor of Sarah Jennings, duchess of Marl- 
borough, and also of the Lords Maynard. 

]96 APPENDIX (d). 


With reference to the adoption of engraven plates of brass for 
the purpose of monumental memorials at the present time, the 
Messrs. Waller have published the following statements : " Sim- 
plicity of design and boldness of outline are the distinguishing 
features of a brass, yet admitting of detail more or less elaborate 
according to circumstances; hence, a monument of appropriate ^ 
design may be obtained at a very moderate cost, the increase of 

expense depending on the enrichment And an elaborate 

brass, with canopies, figures, and ecclesiastical devices, inlaid with 
appropriate colours, will be far less expensive than the incongruous 
piles of stone or marble which disfigure and encumber so many of 
our churches. That this branch of monumental art is capable of 
much beautiful developement there can be no doubt ; and the 
authors, having bestowed considerable time and attention on the 
subject, are prepared to superintend the execution of brasses, for 
which they will furnish original designs and estimates." 

Upon the suitableness of brasses for monumental purposes, the 
same gentlemen have also remarked that " the costly altar-tomb, 
with its recumbent efiigies in the attitude of prayer, was unquestion- 
ably a beautiful and devotional work of art ; but it was only attain- 
able by individuals of rank or wealth, and besides this, in a church 
of humble dimensions, its size seriously interfered with the interior 
arrangements : but brasses, equally devotional in style and charac- 
ter, occupied no portion of the church that could be required for 
more important purposes ; their position for the most part was on 
the floor, which they richly adorned, and it was also the best that 
could be adopted for commemorating the departed, and at the 
same time bringing practically before the minds of the living the 
stern lesson ' Memento homo quia pulvis es, et in pulverem rever- 
teris.' " 










Materials for making rubbings of brasses and other incised 
works of art, may be obtained of the publisher of this volume, 
Mr. Bell, bookseller, 186, Fleet-street, London, at the following 
prices : — 

Heel ball, in cakes, at Id., 3d., and 1*. each. 
White paper, in rolls, each 12 yards in length, and 

57 inches wide 

47 ditto .... 

40 ditto . 

23 ditto .... 

ditto ditto a thinner quality 

Other sizes or qualities of paper can be made to order ; but the 
paper above specified will be found well adapted to almost every 

Full particulars of price, &c., of the metallic rubber and black 
rubbing-paper and grey mounting-paper, will be found in the 
advertisement of the Inventor, Mr. Richardson, of Greenwich, 
which is appended to this volume. 

White paper and heel-ball may also be obtained of Mr. Dufour, 
17 «, Great George-street, Westminster ; and of Mr. Limbird, 143, 
Strand, London. 

Messrs. Eichards and Co., stationers, in St. Martin's Court, 
London, also supply another style of paper, which is manufactured 
for the envelopes of newspapers, but which will be found suitable 
in some cases for brass-rubbings. The heel-ball is sold by the 
manufacturer, Mr. UUathorne, of Long Acre. 

19S APPENDIX (f). 


The following remarks upon inscriptiojis on brasses, with their abbreviations and 
contractions, are from the pen of the Rev. Dr. Jacob. 

Inscriptions on sepulchral brasses are either round the ledge 
or under the figure. In the former case a cross marks the com- 
mencement, and this is sometimes repeated at the beginning of 
each separate sentence. The intervals between the words are 
occasionally filled up by animals, flowers, leaves, and foliated 
ornaments'*. This is not common in inscriptions under the feet. 

iT^ wfiNT jffinaiw 


Part of Inecripticn. Monument of Sir Bernard Biocas, A.D. 1400 Westnimster Abbey. 

The readers of these inscriptions have two difficulties to contend 
with, the character in which they are written, and the language. 
To these two may be added the contractions employed ; which, 
being without any settled rule, frequently prove great stumbling- 



Parts of Longobardic mscripiionB, MonumeDts of Henry III. and Eleanor of Castile, 
A.D. r37i, and 1290 ■Westminster Abbey. 

The more ancient inscriptions in what is called the Lombardic 
character and in the old French language are frequently thought 

^ See cut at p. 148. 

APPENDIX (f). 199 

illegible, from want of care in the rubbing, and from a want 
of patience in the examination of them. But as there arc only 
few of these, and some of the same expressions are found in all, 
they are read with more ease than is usually supposed. Those 
which are on incised slabs should be rubbed lightly ; otherwise the 
decayed parts of the stone will leave their marks upon the paper 
so strongly as to make the inscription confused, and the decipher- 
ing of it difficult. An explanation of some of the words employed 
will be found in the following list. 

A little practice will master the Black letter, introduced early 
in the fourteenth century, and which does not vary much in its 
form. Inscriptions in this character abound in contractions which 
are of the most arbitrary kind, and appear to have depended very 
much on the size of the piece of metal, and the want of due 
measurement on the part of the engraver. When the plate is 
small the contractions are numerous : sometimes the engraver, 
finding more space at the end to fill up than he had calculated 
upon, puts the concluding words at full length, and the final 
" amen" has each letter widely separate. On the brass of Simon 
Felbrigge, in Felbrigg church, Norfolk, the words "eit" and 
"amen" are repeated, so that no void space might be left, "eit 
eit pite amen amen." And on the contrary, when the words in 
the first part of the inscription are full, the rest are in very many 
cases violently contracted. 

The usual sign of the omission of a letter or letters is either a 
short straight, or a slightly waved line, over that part of the word 
where the omission occurs : the apostrophic mark is more common 
at the end, though found in other places, particularly where " m " 
or "n" is left out; as "mane'tes," "obiere't." The form of the 
mark affords no clue whatever to the letters omitted; that can 
alone be taught by practice and observation. Occasionally no 
sign of contraction is given. 

In Latin inscriptions there are certain conventional marks at 
the end of words which are readily distinguished and learned: 
these represent " um," " ur," " us," " er." One of more frequent 
use is for " et," which is also found in English inscriptions for the 
corresponding " and." 

200 APPENDIX (f). 

Diphthongs are never written, the concluding letter being the 
only one inscribed, as "que" "for quae" &c. : "ci" is also fre- 
quently used for "ti;" as "Marciis" for " Martiis," the month 

In old French the article and the substantive are united; as 
" salme" for "son ame," "lamur" for " 1' amour," &c. 

Double " f" and double "p" are frequently found at the begin- 
ning of words. 

A contraction for " sir " is often seen on the brasses of eccle- 
siastics, being a translation of the Latin " dominus ;" this title was 
given to them as bachelors of arts : thus in the church of Chalfont 
St. Peter's, Bucks : 

" Of yer charite py for y^ soul of Sr Roberte Hamson sutyme 
vycar of this church^, ^c." 

Considerable difficulty arises occasionally, even in English 
inscriptions, from the quaint and varied mode of spelhng. The 
same word is often found in the same inscription in two, and 
sometimes in three, different forms. To know what is really 
meant, the best method is to pronounce the words as it is en- 
graved, and the sound will frequently determine it ; as " fykell," 
" fickle ;" " lytyll," " little." It is not unusual to find the spelhng 
of a word according to the provincial pronunciation of it; as 
" moder," for "mother," " sens" for " since." 

No rule whatever was observed in introducing capital letters 
into inscriptions. They often appear of the same size as the other 
letters of such words as they commence. 

Border inscriptions engraved upon fillets of metal usually have 
at the four angles, the emblems of the Evangelists, to signify that 
the individual whose effigy is depicted died within the pale of the 

An attention to these few observations and a little practice will 
soon conquer any apparent difficulty. 

The following lisr contains only those contractions and words 
which appear most to require explanation, and will, it is hoped, 

•> "Master" is a title also in many in- lation of the Latin "magister," — a mas- 
stances bestowed upon ecclesiastics in their ter of arts. This word is often contracted, 
monumental inscriptions; it is the trans- 



facilitate in some degree the deciphering of inscriptions. To the 
archaeologist these are valuable not only for the sake of palaeogra- 
phy, and for the account given of the persons to whose memory 
they are written, but also for incidental, but valuable information 
concerning the history, &c. of their times. 

All inscriptions should be rubbed very carefully in order to 
secure the smaller strokes of the letters. They are much more 
easily read from the rubbing than on the brass itself. 









apere, appear 

a'i'a, animn 

aplis, aprilis 

a'i'ab, 1 . , 
' > ammabus 

a'i'abs, J 

ar , armiger 
arciu', artium 

a'i'am, animam 

aungeles, angels 

a'i'ar 1 

avera, F. aura 

V ammarum 
a'i'arm, J 

awtere, altar 

' > animce 

an'e, J 
aisnez, J 


baccal', baccalaurius 

al, F. au 

be, beat(B 

al, alle, all 

be'ficia, beneficia 

almys, alms 

bellez, bells 

amic', amicus 

bles, bliss 

a'o, anno 

bre/g, Iring 

D d 



c. a. p. d, cujus animcB propicietur 

Cal', CalesicB, Calais 
camare', camerarius 
cant'ie, canteria 
cely, F. celui 
ces, F. ses 
cheyfFe, chief 
chor', chorus 
cis, F. six 
c'lc'i, clerici 
co'i, communi 
com', comitatu 
cowched, couched, buried 
Crysten, Christian 
crwll, cruel 
cui, 1 
cuj', \ cujus 
cu's, J 
cy, F. ici 


dagust, F. d'Aodt 

d'c'a, dicta 

de', ) 

ds, > deus 

d'us, ) 

deceb'r, december 

dec'b's, decembris 

decessid, deceased 

ded, 1 

dede, J 

del, F. du 

dept'd, ) 

dep'ted, / departed 

dept'yd, j 





Devemchir, Devonshire 


■ F. dieu 


disme, F. dixi^me 

div'sis, diver sis 

dila, domina 




doi, J 

d'n'm, dominum 

d'n'o, domino 





done, F. donne 


J ^ C dauqhte 

dowter, J ^ 

duquil, F. duquel 

i'nus, 1 

i'n's, J 

3m', 1 

yus, ) 






ecc'e, "^ 
eccl'ie, / 
eccl'a, ■> 
eccl'ia, / 
einne, 1 „ 
eisne, ) 
eit, ) 
ei', ) . 

Elyn, Ellen 
ep'atus, episcopatus 
ep'i, episcopi 
ep'o, episcopo 
ep'us, episcopus 
erchdiakn, archdeacon 
e'te't, i«^e«# 
ev', eyer 
eyre, heir, heiress 

F. a^7 








^^^y''\ father 
fad', j-^ 

feme, Y.femme 

fest, Y.f^te 

fieux, ^ 

fitz, V F. //s 

fiz, 5 

fist, F. fit 
fleache, flesh 
fu, Y.fus 
fykell, fickle 


jr'e, J 




° V gratiee 

gr'e, ) 
g'd, ^ooc? 
gen'osi, generosi 
gere, F. guerre 

°. 'If. gisent 
gisount, j 

^^^^' I F. git 

gyst, ) 

gl'ia, gloria 
gl'iain, gloriam 
gram'cy, grammercy 
gr'ia, gratia 

flC6', /'«?« de grace 

j'tus, j 



halud, halloioed 
he', Aer 
hem, ^Aew 
her, Me«r 
h'of, hereof 
heyre, heir 
hole, whole 
huj, A2(/m5 


1 , iri 

iadys, Y.jadis 

Ih'u, Jie5M 

loh, ^ 

lohes, > Johannes 

lohns, \ 

' I Johannis 
lohis, ) 

lohfie, Joannce 

Ion, John 

ipm, ipsum 

ist', ^5?^MS 

jur, F.j'our 



kahi, ^ 
kl, / 

kechyn, kitchen 

kynne, Arm 

' V F. qui 

lalme, F. I'dme 
lamur, F. Vamour 
latt, late 

leaten, letten, let 
lendmayn, F. lendemuin 
lez, F. leurs 
lithe, lyeth 
lour, "i - 
lo', / 
lumi'e, lumine 
ly, F. lui 
lyne, /le 
lyttyl, Zi7//e 

-F. leur 


maden, marfe 

J^ag', "1 

, rmagister 
magr, J 



, . y maqtstn 
m ri, ) ^ 

maist', master 


°'' \ our 

maistris, masters 

or, before 

malme, F. mon dnie 

o'is, omnis 

ma'tis, majesty's 

om'e, omne 

mat'nis, maternis 

om'es, omnes 

m'cator', mercatorum 

om'ia, omnia 

m'cer, mercer 

o' ni', omnium 

m'ci, 1 

' V mercy 

mc'y, J 

oueke, F. avec 

me', mens 


mens', ^ 

ip, pro 

mes, > mensis 

pais, F. pays 

mess, J 

pardoun,| p^^^^^^ 

mere', mercator 

pardun, J 

M'get, Margaret 

pasith, passeth 

m'iam, misericordiam 

passets, F. passez 

m'le, misericordice 

pasun, passion 

mlg'vlt, migravit 

p'batus, probatus 

[ V militis 
mills, ) 

p'bend, j 

mill'mo, millesimo 

p'camina, precamina 

misere, miserere 

p'centor, precentor 

mort', mortis 

p'cor, j)recor 

morrult, \ 

p'dc'a, pr (Edict a 

morust, f ^ 

, >r. mourut 
murult, 1 

p'dc'am, pradictam 
p'dc'i, pradicti 

murt, / 

p'dc'or', pr(sdictorum 

moys, F. mois 

p'dc'us, pradictus 

m'r, mater, master 

p'didi, perdidi 

m'r'ia, misericordia 

p'don, ^ 

mu du, mundum 

p'do', > pardon 

pr'dn, ) 


p'egit, peregit 

no'ie, nomine 

penltm, penultimo 

nove'b', novernbris 

p'ennis, perennis 

noun, F. name 

p'entum, parentum 

n'ri, nostri 

pep'it, peperit 

n'ris, nostris 

pessoner, F. poissonnier 

n'tre, F. notre 

p'fata, prcefata 

nup', 7iuper 

p'fessor, professor 



phecez, F. peche's 

q'ru, "4 quorum 
q'm, / quarum 
que, 5'M« 

piculu, j 

p'ish, parish 

qwos, i<;Ao5e 

ppicietur, - 

qure, quire, choir 



qy, F. ywi 



plasis, places 

raing, re?p'« 

p'lege, per lege 
plys, F. plus 

rey, F. ro« 
redecion, redemption 

pmo, primo 

pochial', parochialis 


p'petuye, perpetuity 

sa', sancti 

Pr » ypropriis 
p'rys, J 

sac', s«eer 
s'ccii, saccarii 

p'pter, propter 

sc'a, sancta 

priets, Y.priez 

sc'e, sancta 

prim', primus 

sc'i, sawc^i 

prische, parish 

sc'is, Sanctis 

psbiter, ) , . , 
'■ V presbiter 
psbr, ) 

sc'or, sanctorum 

se', ^ 

pson, ) 

^ V parson 

psone, j 

se'du, > secundum 
secudu, 5 

pste, /^^^^^' 
p'va, parva 

se'da, secunda 

se'de, ) , 

J. secundce 
se'ce, J 

pur, F. ^owr 

se'di, secundi 

p'y, pray 

se'do, secundo 
seint, ) 


seynt, > 5ff««^ 

q, F. jMi 

seyt, 5 

qatre, F. quatre 

septante, seventieth 

q'd, g-Morf 

seriets, F. serez 

q'dam, quondam 

sez, F. s«> 

q'dem, quidem 

sisme, F. sixieme 

qe, F. qui 

sov'aine, sovereign 

qestoit, F. qui Aoit 

soubs, F. sous 

qi, F. qui 


q's, cujus 

soulis, / , 
s. souls 

^ ' I quondam 
q'drn j 

saulys, r 



sp'avi, speravi 

vil', villee 

sps, spiritus 

vintz, vingt 

sqyr, squire 

v'ra, vestra 

sr, sir 

stap', stapulee 


stapull of Caleys, staple 



weche, i<?^icA 

J \ steeple 
stepyllj ^ 

su, F. suis, also sum 

whos, \ 

whoos, 1 , 

> whose 
wo, / 

su'tyme, sometime 

woys, J 

sup', super 

Will'ms, Wilelmus, Gulielmus 

suster, 1 . , 

s. sister 
systyre, J 

' I William 
Will'm, / 

s'vant, servant 
sy, F. ici 

^ ' V which 
wyche, J 

wyf, wife 


thred, ^Afrrf 
thyrde, thread 
thyke, think 

wyffis, "1 

■' y wives 
wjrvys, ) 

wy'n, within 

tiers, \ J, ^^^ ^^.^^ 

tierce, ) 

trespassa, F. tr^passa, died 


■^"' X Christi 
Xti, j 

troiscenz, F. trois cents 

Xro, Christo 

twey, two 

Xtan, Christian 

tweyn, twain 

Xte, CAr25^e 
Xtus, Christus 


ulti'o, ultimo 


unzisme, F. ouzieme 
ux', uxor 

ux'is, uxoris 

ye, ^Ae 
yer, year 


yi, My 

^ J ' I F. vigil of a saint's 
veille, J 


yr, your 
ys, Mis, A«s 

verray, F. vrai 

yougen, upon 



The figures of reference indicate the pages at which the several Terms 
will be found fully explained and illustrated. 

Achievement of arms, brass of Sir William and Lady Say, 
Broxbourne. Herts. A.D. 1473. 12th Edw. IV. 

Ailettes or Alerons 

Alb . 

Almuce, Aumuce, or Almutium 

Amice . . . . 

Anlace . . 

Apparel, or Parura 


31, 33 






Banded Ring-Mail ..... 39 

Barbe : see Wimple ..... 94 

Bascinet ...... 40 

Baudriek, a belt so adjusted as to be worn over the 

shoulder ...... 108 

Bifid, double-pointed. 

Brassarts ...... 49 

Butterfly Head-dress ..... 75 

Camail . . . . . . . 40, 78 

Camail Period ...... 54 

Canting Heraldry . . . . .53, 130 

Caputium, or Capuchon . . . . 103 

Casement, a hollow sunk in the face of a slab of stone or 

marble, to receive the plates of a Brass : or any 

similar indent. Also a hollow moulding. 

Cerveiliere . . . . . . 159 

Chain-Mail ...... 28 

Chapelle-de-fer ..... 47 

Chasuble, or Chesuble ..... 97 

Chausses ...... 28 

Chimere ...... 99 

Coif-de-Mailles ..... 28 

Collar of SS. ...... 133 

Contoise . . . . . . 76, 77 

Cope ....... 103 

Cote-Hardi, a close-fitting garment or tunic : the term 

is alike applicable to both male and female attire. 

Coudieres ...... 37 

Coverchef, a kerchief worn upon the head : see cuts at . 81, 82 

Crozier, the official staff of an Archbishop . . 101 

Cuirass ...... 59 

Cuir-bouUi . . . . . . 43 

Cuissarts ...... 49 

Cuisseaux . . . . . .34 

Culottes . . . . . .79 

Cyclas ....... 39 

Dalmatic ...... 99 



Demi-Brassarts ..... 37 

Demi-Placcate ...... 69 

Diaper, ornamental surface-work, whether carved in 
low relief, or worked in colour, or in some cases 
both carved and coloured. It was a common prac- 
tice with medieval artists thus to enrich tlie 
heraldic tinctures of shields of arms. The shield 
of AVilliam De Valence in Westminster abbey is a 
splendid specimen of this usage. 
Epauheres ...... 49 

Evangelistic Emblems ..... 137 

Fillet, a narrow strip of metal, or other material. 

Fylfot ....... 28 

Gadlyngs ...... 49 

Gambeson, or Wambeys .... 39 

Garde-de-brass ..... 68 

Gauntlets, armed gloves. 

Genouillieres ...... 27 

Gonfanons ...... 32 

Gorget ....... 45 

Goussettes, or Gussets .... 49 

Greek Cross, one in which the stem, head, and two 

arms are all of equal length. 
Guarded, bordered, as with fur : see cuts at . . 110 

Guige, a shield-belt ..... 28 

Gypciere, a large purse, worn appended to the girdle : 

see cut at . . . . . . 110 

Haqueton .... 35, and note (d) 39 

Harness, armour, or any defensive equipment. 

Haubergeon ...... 48 

Hauberk . . . . . • 27 

Hausse-col ...... 45 

Haut-de-chausses ..... 45 

Heel-ball . . . • • • 1^5 

Heraldic crest, some device worn erect upon the lielmet : 
it always rises from either a coronet, cap of mainten- 

E e 



ance, or wreath ; and when represented without 
the helmet, may thus be distinguished from a 
badge, which has no such accompaniment 

Horned Head-dress : a most extravagant 

specimen of this head-dress occurs in 

a brass of an unknown lady at Ash 

in Kent, c. A.D. 1460 . 

Incised Slabs 


Head, brass of a lady, 
Ash, K:ent,c. A.D. 1460. 

. 89, 90,91 


100, and note (t) 101 


Jupou . 
Kirtle, a term best explained by stating it to be 

synonymous with the modern word gown. 
Lamboys ... . . . 

Lames .....•• 

Laminated ....•• 

Lance-Rest, a kind of hook attached to the cuirass on 
the right side, for supporting the lance in the 




Latten . 




Mantle, an outer robe, or cloak. 

Mantling, or Contoise . 

Matrices, indents or casements. See Casement 

Mentoniere, a steel gorget or defence 
for the throat and lower part of the 
face : it was secured to the cuirass, 
and also to the bascinet. A brass 
at Whissonsett inNorfolk, furnishes 
a curious specimen of a mentoniere 
worn without the bascinet. 
Merchant's mark 

see cut at 73 





. 76, 77, 78 

Head of kDight, 'WtLissoaaett 





Mitre . . . . . . . 100 

Mitred Head-dress ..... 90 

Monogram, an abbreviation, initial letter, or some 

similar device. 
Morse . . . . . . . 50, 103 

Nasal, a defence for the upper part of the 
face, or in some instances for the nose, 
mouth and chin : the earlier form of the 
nasal is shewn in the annexed cut from 
the Painted Chamber, Westminster; 
and for a description and illustration of 
HeadofkBifthtwitb » ^^tcr Variety of this defence, see Ap- 

Ba^al.Painted Chamber. ^^^^^^ (g)^ 

Nimbus, a glory surrounding the head of a Divine or 

sainted personage. 
Nimbed, having the head encircled with a nimbus. 
Orfrey, or Aurifragium . . . . 97 

Orle or Wreath, a roll of cloth, silk, or velvet, of two 

colours, encircling a helmet, and supporting an 

heraldic crest : also any wreath ... 60 

Palettes .... 37, and note (z) 59 

Palimpsest ...... 147, 151 

Pall, or Pallium . . . . . 100 

Panache . . . . . . 31 

Partlet ...... 89 

Parura, see Apparel. 

Pass-gardes ...... 78 

Pastoral-staft^ the official baton of a bishop, abbot, or 

abbess ...... 101 

Pedimental Canopy ..... 82 

Pedimental Head-dress ..... 93 

Placcate ...... 68 

Plastron-de-fer . . . . . .42 

Pounced, studded, or ornamented with a repetition of 

some device. 
Pourpoint ...... 48 



Pourpoiuterie ...... 

Pryck-spurs, spurs having a single sharp point: see plates 
at 31, 35, and Frontispiece. 

Rerebrace, or Arriere-Bras .... 

Reticulated Head-dress .... 

Ring-Mail ...... 

Rochet ....... 

Rouelles ...... 

Roundels .... 

Sabbaton ...... 

Sideless Cote-hardi ..... 

Sollerets, pointed shoes, composed either of mixed mail 
and plate armour, or entirely of plate 

Stole ....... 

Studded-raail ...... 

Super-Tunic, a dress worn above another; and so con- 
structed and worn, as to display some portions of 
the under garment. 

Surcoat, any garment worn over defensive armour : the 
term, however, is more generally applied to the 
long and flowing drapery of knights anterior to the 
introduction of plate-armour. 



37, note (z) 59 
47, 77 
62, 86 


Surplice ...... 


Tabard . . ... 

68, 71 

Taces ....... 


Tapul ....... 


Tilting-helm ...... 


Tuilles ..... 


Tuillettes ..... 

75, 77 

Tunic, see Rochet. 

Vambrace or Avant-Bras 

37, 43, 49 

Vervelle ..... 


Vexillum . . . 

. 26, 101 

Vizor ...... 


Weepers ..... 


Wimple ..... 





1208. Simon De Beauchamp, St. Paul's, Bedford, (lost) . . 5 

1242. Jocelyu, Bp. of Wells, Wells Cathedral, (lost) . . 5 

1246. Abbot Richard, Westminster Abbey, (lost) . . 6 

1247. Bishop Bingham, Salisbury Cathedral, (lost) . 6,118 
V 1277. Sir John D'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey . 27 

1279. Bishop Gravesend, Lincoln Cathedral, (lost) . . 6 

1280. Simon Flambard, Rector of Much-Hadham, Herts, (lost) . 6 
/ 1289. Sir Roger De Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridgeshire . 30 

1290. Sir Richard De Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln- 
shire .... 22,30,33,53,113,124 

1297. Bishop Longespee, Salisbury Cathedral, (lost) . . 6 

1298. Ehas De Beckenham, Botsford, Cambridge, (lost) . . 6 

1301. Simon De Walpole, Rector, Pulham, Norfolk, (lost) 6, 118 

1302. Sir Robert De Bures, Acton, Suftblk . , .33 
/ 1306. Sir Robert De Septvans, Chartham, Kent . . 33, 34, 43 

c. 1310. Margaret, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex . . 80, 131 

c. 1310 De Bacon, (Priest). Oulton, Suffolk . . 95, 97, 115 

c. 1310. Demi-figure in mail, Croft, Lincolnshire . . 28, 114 

1312. Abbot Thomas De Totyngtone, Hedgerley, Bucks . . 151 

/ 1315. Archbishop Grenfeld, York Cathedral . . 95, 101 

1315. Richard De Hart, Priest, xMerton College, Oxon . 95, 97, 115 

1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent . . .82 

c. 1320. Sir De Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex . . 37 

c. 1320. Sir De Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk . . 33, 36, 95 

c. 1320. Thomas De Hop, Kemsing, Kent , . . .95 

'^ 1325. Sir John De Northwode, Minster, Kent . . 24, 42, 53 

/ 1325. Lady De Northwode, Minster, Kent . . 24, 44 

1325. Sir John and Lady De Creke, Westley, Cambridge . 38 
r' c. 1325. John De Bladingdown, East Wickham, Kent . .117 

1326. Abbot Hugo D'Eversden, St. Alban s Abbey, (lost) . 1 1 
/ 1327. Sir John D'Aubernoun II. Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey 39, 41 

1330. Nichol De Gore, Woodchurch, Kent . . 95, 97, 120 

c. 1330. John De Grofhurst, Horsmonden, Kent . . .97 




c. 1345. 
t c. 1350. 

• 1351. 
/ 1356, 

c. 1360. 
c. 1360. 








c. 1370. 
c. 1370. 
c. 1370. 
c. 1370. 

c. 1375. 
c. 1375. 
c. 1375. 
c. 1375. 
c. 1375. 
■; c. 1375. 
c. 1375. 




V c. 1380. 


/ 1384. 

Abbot De Wallingford, St. Alban's Abbey, (lost) . 

Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northaiits 

Abbot Michael De Mentmore, St. Alban's Abbey, (lost) 

Knight, Lady, and Cross, Wimbish, Essex . 

Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk 

Abbot John De Sutton, Dorchester, Oxon, (lost) 

Adam and Margaret De Walsokne, Lynn, Norfolk 

Nicholas Aumberdene, Taplow, Bucks 

Symon De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk, 106, and Appendix (F) 

1349. Richard and Margaret Torrington, Berkhampstead, 

. 11 


. 10 

. 119 


156, 160 

9, 14, 137 

. 120 

Maud, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent 
Priest, Wensley, Yorkshire 
Priest, North Mimms, Herts 
Sir John De Paletoot, Watton, Herts 
Alan Fleming, Newark, Notts 
William De Eothwelle, llothwell, Northants- 
Robert Braunche and wives, Lynn, Norfolk 
Sir Miles and Lady De Stapleton, Ingham 

A Burgher, Bruges Cathedral 
Sir Thomas Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks 
Sir Ralph De Knevynton, Aveley, Essex . 22 

Sir John Foxley and wives. Bray, Berks 
Knight and Lady, Broughton, Lincolnshire 
Ecclesiastic, Shottesbroke, Berks 
Frankelein, ibid. .... 
Ismena De Wynston, Necton, Norfolk 
Britellus Avenel, Buxtead, Sussex 
John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex 
Esmond De Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk . 
Sir John De Cobham, Cobham, Kent 
Sir .... D'Argentine, Horseheath, Cambridge 
Fragment of Abbot, (Flemish, in private possession 
Abbot Delamere (died 1396), St. Alban's Abbey 
Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks 
Bishop Wyvill, Salisbury Cathedral 
Robert Attelathe, Lynn, Norfolk, (lost) 
Sir Roger and Lady De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk 
Nicholas, Lord Burnell, Acton Burnell, Salop 
Sir Thomas and Ladv Burton, Little Casterton, 

land . " . . 55,62,85,126,142 

John De Campden, St. Cross, Winchester . . . 104 

Sir John and Lady Harsyck, Southacre, Norfolk . 55, 85 

84, 106 

. 83 

9, 20, 97 

9, 20, 97 

. 51 

9, 19, 84 

24, 105 

9, 16, 84 


51,55, 84 

. 25 

. 53 

,46,51, 142 

83, 122 

56, 124 

96, 107 


. 83 

. 115 

. 115 

. 96 

53, 138 

. 53 

. 10 

9, 11,97 

. 53 

102, 142 

10, 19 

. 84 

. 55 




c. 1385. Kiiig-lit, St. Michael's, St. Albaii's . . .55 

f c. 1385. Sir .... De Mauleverer and Lady, AUei'ton Mauleverer, 

York . . . . .50,57 

1387. John Bloxham and John Whytton, Merton College, Oxford 122 

1389. Richard Thasburg, Hellesdon, Norfolk . . . dQ 

1390. John De Bettesthorne, St. Michael in Mere, Wilts . .142 

1391. Lady CeciUa De Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk . . 84 
1391, 1361. John and Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon 

85, 108, 122, 127 
1391. Sir Robert Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex 1, 65, 127, 129 

1391. Thomas De Topclyffe and Lady, TopclifF, York . 9, 20 

1392. 1417. Thomas Lord Berkeley and Lady, Wotton-under-Edge, 

Gloucester ..... 5Q, 135 

1393. Sir Thomas and Lady Walsh, Wanlip, Leicester . 86, 143 
•^ 1397. Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster Abbey . 64, 67 
y 1399. Eleanor De Bohun, Westminster Abbey 22, 94, 127, 130, 146 

1400. Sir George Felbrigge, Playford, Suffolk . . .68 

1400. Sir John Cassy and Lady,.Deerhm-st, Gloucester Q5, 86, 108, 143 
1400. Ela Bowet, Wrentham, Suffolk . . . .86 

1400. Thomas Chichele and wife, Higham Ferrers, Northants . 117 

1400. Cross with Figures, Newton, Northants . . . 120 
/ c. 1400. Robert Albyn and Lady, Hemel Hempsted, Herts 49, 57, 152 

c. 1400. Cross with effigy, St. Michael's, St. Alban's . . 120 

c. 1400. Lady, unknown, St. Lawrence, Norwich . . .86 

c. 1400. Ecclesiastic, Hitchin, Herts . . . 103, 124 

c. 1400. Abbot St. Alban's Abbey . 143, 148 

1401. William Ermyn, Castle Ashby, Northants . . 104, 105 
1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Cambridge . . 60 
1401. Sir Nicholas Dagworth, Blickling, Norfolk . . .68 
1401, 1406. Earl and Countess of Warwick, Warwick . . 73 
1401. Lady Margaret Pennebrygg, Shottesbroke, Berks . . 87 
1401. John De Sleford, Balsham, Cambridge . . .104 

/ 1402. Sir William De Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex . .142 

1403. Sir Reginald De Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey . . 59 

1404. Knight and Lady, Sawtry, Hunts . . . 63, 90 

1405. John Strete, Upper Hardress, Kent . . 122, 141 
1405. Henry Nottingham and wife. Holme, Norfolk . . 87 
1407. Sir John Lysle, Thornton, Hunts . . . .62 
1407. Sir William and Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick 56, 68, 86, 1 34 
1407. Lord and Lady Feri'ers of Chartley, Merivale Abbey, Warwick 55 
1407. Lady Margaret Bromflete, Wymington, Beds . . 65 

1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent, Appendix (A). 

1408. Sir William Tendring, Stoke, Suffolk . . .55 
1408, Robei't Parys and Lady, Hildershara, Cambridge . .119 




1410. John Balsham, Blissland, Cornwall . . .147 

1411 1418. Sir Thomas and Lady Crewe, Wixford, Warwick 

67, 78, 86, 90, 158 
.. 1411. Sir John Drayton, Dorchester, Oxon . . 65,134 

1412. Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex 55, 60, 127, 134 

1413. Sir Simon and Lady De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk 

63, 67, 86, 90, 135, 136 

1413. William Langton, Exeter Cathedral . . .102 

1414. Sir Galfridus De Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk . 66 

1414. Simon Bache, Knebworth, Herts . . • -104 
X 1414. Joan Urban, Southfleet, Kent .... 122 

1415. Sir Thomas and Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts . 61, 134 

1416. Robert Hallum, bp. of Salisbmy, Constance Cathedral 25, 128 

1417. Archbp. Cranley, New College, Oxford . 100, 104, 128 
1417. Margaret Cheyne, Hever, Kent . . • .87 

/ 1418. John Lumbarde, Stone, Kent . • • -119 

1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk 66, 127 

/ 1420. John Mapleton, Broadwater, Sussex . . -104 

1420. Robert and Anne Poyntz, Iron- Acton, Gloucester . .143 
c. 1420. Sir Roger Cheyne, Cassington, Oxon . . .118 
c. 1420. Sir Peter and Lady Halle, Heme, Kent . . 55, 62, 90 

1421. Richard Delamere, Hereford Cathedral . . .13 

1423. Sir Ralph and Lady Shelton, Gt. Snoring, Norfolk 71, 90 
/ 1424. John Wantele, Esq., Amberley, Sussex . . .71 

1424. Sir John and Lady Framingham, Debenham, Suffolk . 114 

1424. 1419. Thomas, Baron Camoys, and Lady, Trotton, Sussex 


1425. Robert Hayton, Esq., Theddlethorpe, Lincoln . . 60 
0. 1425. William Mowbray, Upwell, Norfolk 

1426. Sir John De Brewys, or Braose, Wiston, Sussex 
1426. Sir John Brooke, Easton, Suffolk . 

1428. John Norwich, Esq., Yoxford, Suffolk 

1429. Roger Thornton and family, Newcastle 

1430. Sir Thomas Bromflete, Wymington, Beds . 
1430. Henry Hawles, Arreton, Isle of Wight 

^^ 1430. Agnes Salmon, Arundel, Sussex 
c. 1430. A Priest, (unknown,) Horsham, Sussex 
c. 1430. A Lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey 
c. 1430. John West, Sudborough, Northants 
^ 0. 1430. John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent 
V 1431. Niqholas Canteys, Margate, Kent 

1433. Sir John and Lady De Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, 

Herts . ... 65, 67, 86, 131 

1433. Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex . . 104, 128, 138 

. 104 
47, 65, 143 
. 66 
. 66 
. 22 
. 65 
. 143 
. 87 
. 98 
. 87 
. 98 
. 114 
. 108 




c. 1435. 
^ 1437. 

^ 1437. 



c. 1440. 
c. 1440. 
c. 1441. 





' 1445. 


c. 1450. 

c. 1450. 

c. 1450. 

' 1457. 



c. 1460. 



c. 1465. 

0. 1465. 


t' 1470. 

c. 1470. 



c. 1475. 





Hugo and Margaret Bostock, Wheathamstede, Herts . 108 

Robert and Joan Skerne, Kingston, Surrey . 91, 108 

Galfridus Langley, St. Lawrence, Norwich . .120 

John Barron and wife, All-Hallows, Barking, London . 124 

Sir Bryan and Lady De Stapleton, Ingham, Norfolk, (lost) 65, 91 
Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester, Gloucester . . 69 

Edmond Ford, Swainswick, Somerset . . . 1 44 

Civilian and wife, Hitchin, Herts . . . .108 

Richard Tooner, Broadwater, Sussex . . .118 

Lady Halsham, (died 1395,) West Grinstead, Sussex 86, 92, 154 
Sir Hugh and Lady Philippa Halsham, West Grinstead, 

Sussex .... 

Dr. Richard Billingford, St. Benet's, Cambridge 
Richard Burton, Twickenham, Middlesex . 
Sir Nicholas Manston, St. Lawrence, Kent 
Sir William and Lady Fynderne, Childrey, Berks 
John Daundelyon, Margate, Kent . 
Walter Greene, Hayes, Middlesex . 
Sir John Peryent, Digswell, Herts 
Lady, (unknown,) Luton, Beds 
Wm. Lucas and family, Wenden Lofts, Essex 
Sir John De Harpedon, Westminster Abbey 
John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucester 

Sir Robert Staunton and Lady, Castle Donington, Leicester- 


Sir Thomas De Shernbourn, Shernbourne, Norfolk 

Henry Parice, Hildersham, Cambridge 

Abbot Stoke, St. Alban"s Abbey Church 

Thomas Cod, Rochester 

Sir Peter and Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex 

Priest, Broxbourne, Herts . 

John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambridgeshire 

Henry Parice, Hildersham, Cambridgeshire 

Sir William Vernon and family, Tong, Salop 

Sir Humphrey Bourchier, Westminster Abbey 

Robert Beauner, St. Alban's Abbey Church 

Warden Sever, Merton College, Oxon 

c. 1375. Walter Beaumont, Trunch, Norfolk 

Sir John and Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts 

A Notary, St. Mary Tower, Ipswich 

Robert Colte and Lady, Roydon, Essex 

John Feld and son, Standon, Herts 

Aima Boleyn, Blickling, Norfolk 

Sir John and Lady Fastolf, Oulton, Suffolk 

86, 92, 131 
. 102 
. 132 
. 67 
. 70 
. 70 
. 69 
. • 1 
. 125 
. 66 
. 143 



. 119 

. 128 

. 147 

6, 91, 110 

. 98 

104, 127 

. 73 

73, 86, 91 

. 137 

. 124 

. 104 

. 149 

47, 74, 86, 132 

. 112 

73, 135 

111, 132 

. 126 

. 88 




Y 1478. 

s 1479. 
. c. 1480. 
c. 1480. 

c. 1490. 





c. 1500. 
c. 1500. 
c. 1500. 
c. 1500, 





c. 1510. 













, , 


Bp. Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey 
Sir Thomas Urswick and family, Dagenham, Essex 
Sir Anthony De Grey, St. Alban's Abbey Church 
Margaret Willoughby, Raveningham, Norfolk 
Knight with coronet, in private possession 

Lady Clopton, Melford, Suffolk 

Archdeacon Ruding, Biggleswade, Beds 

Earl and Countess of Essex, Little Easton, Essex 

47, 76, 86, 134, 136 
Sir Thomas Peyton and wives, Islesham, Cambridgeshire 76, 88 
Isabella Cheyne, Blickling, Norfolk . . .92 

Robert Alen, Martham, Norfolk . . . .123 

Elizabeth Clere, Stokesby, Norfolk . . .88 

William Berdewell, West Harling, Norfolk . . 76 

William Curteys, Holmhale, Norfolk . . .113 

Civilian, (founder,) North Creak, Norfolk . . .138 

Sir Henry and Lady Grey, Ketteringham, Norfolk 76, 91 

Piers Gerard, Esq., Winwick, Lancashire . . 77 

Brian Roucliffe and Lady, Cowthorpe, York 

Bishop Bell, Carlisle Cathedral . . . 100, 101 

Louis De Corteville and Lady, Museum of Geology, London 27 
Abbot Esteney, Westminster Abbey . 99, 101, 127, 128 

Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers, Northants . . 98 

William and Agnes Complyn, Wyke, Hants . .140 

Civilian and Lady, Clippesby, Norfolk . . 88,111 

Lady, St. Swithun's, Norwich . . . .89 

A Notary, New College, Oxford . . . .113 

c. 1550. Ecclesiastic, Burwell, Cambridge . . 148 

Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster . . .78 

Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk . 72, 78 

A Notary, Church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich . .113 

Lord Beaumont, Wivenhoe, Essex . . 77, 143 

John and Roger Yelverton, Rougham, Norfolk . .126 

Sir .... Compton and Lady, in private possession, Appen- 
dix (E). * ■' ' ^/,ytf^^^A^L^^j^ ( 

Richard Gill, Shottesbroke, Berks . . . .78 

Thomas and Dorothea Peckham, Wrotham, Kent . . 89 

Anne Asteley, Blickling, Norfolk . . . .126 

John Ackworth and two wives, Luton, Beds . . 78 

Margaret Pettwode, St. Clement's, Norwich . . 93 

John Sylan and two wives, Luton, Beds . 78, 88, 89, 93 

Thomas and Eliz. Burgoyne, Sutton, Beds . . .118 

Walter Hewke, Caius College, Cambridge . 104, 105 



1518. John Symonds and family, Cley, Norfolk . . .147 

1519. James Torney and wives, Slapton, Bucks . . .135 

1519. Joanna Braham, Frense, Norfolk . . . .94 

1520. John and Elizabeth Heyworth, Wheathamstede, Herts • 1U8 
1520. William Palmer, Ingoldmels, Lincolnshire . .141 

0.1520. Ecclesiastic, King's College, Cambridge . . .145 

c. 1520. A Notary, Cathedral of St. Sauveur, Bruges . .113 

c. 1520, c. 1450. Humphrey Okerand family, Oakover, Stafford 127, 153 

c. 1520. 1452. Duchess of Norfolk, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk . 154 

•■' c. 1520. Abbot Bewforreste, Dorchester, Oxon , . .156 

I-' 1521. Dr. Christopher Urswick, Hackney, Middlesex 104, 105 

] 524. John Terri and wife, St. John's Maddermarket, Norwich 122, 133 

/ 1525. Thomas Pownder and family, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich 

23, 89, 111, 125, 132, 145 

1526. Bishop Young, New College, Oxon . . .147 
/ 1526. John Shelley and wife, Clapham, Sussex . 72, 130 

1527. Sir Peter and Lady Legh, Winwick, Lancashire 

77, 93, 97, 132, 133 

1527. c. 1450. Walter Curzon and Lady, Water Pery, Oxford 153 

1528. Agnes Bulton, Alton Priors, Wilts . . . .141 

1528. Provost Hacumblene, King's College, Cambridge . . 137 
k 1529. Margaret Saunders, Fulham, Middlesex . • . .23 

1529. Sir Robert Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk . . .143 
c. 1530. Eliz. Harvey, Abbess, Elstow, Beds . . .95 

1531. Sir John and Lady Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset . .143 

1532. Wife of Robert Goodwin, Necton, Norfolk . . 93 
1534. Thomas Leman, Rector, Southacre, Norfolk . .106 
1534. John Bollart, Canon, Cathedral, Aix-la-Chapelle . . 27 
1537. c. 1435. Thomas Widville and two wives, Bromham, Beds 154 

\ 1536. Andrew Evyngar and family. All-hallows, Barking 


1537. William Layer, St. Andrew's, Norwich . . .111 

1537. Alice Wyrley, Flore, Northants . . . .118 

1538. Sir Thomas Bullen, Hever, Kent . . 113, 135, 147 

1538. c. 1420. Alicia De Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk . . 152 

1539. Henry Bures, Esq., Acton, Suffolk . . .34 

1540. William Curtes, South Burlingham, Norfolk . . 122 
1540. Margaret Bulstode, Hedgerley, Bucks . . .150 
1543, c. 1405. Sir William Dalison (?) Langton, Lincoln . 152 
1546. Sir John Greville, Weston, Warwick . . ,80 

V c. 1546. Sir Ralph Verney and Lady, Aldbury, Herts , . 72 

1548. Sir Wm. Molineux and two wives, Sefton, Lancashire . 79 

1550. Shield of arms, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich , 150 
c. 1550. RalfRowlatt, St. Alban's Abbey Church . . .111 

1551. Anne Duke, Frense. Norfolk .... 139 




1554. Bishop Goodrich, Ely Cathedral . 

1559. Sir Edward Greville, Weston, Warwick 

1563. William Norwich, St. George Colgate, Norwich 

1567. Thomas Noke and wives, Shottesbroke, Berks 

1568, c. 1460. Peter Rede, St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich 
1577, Anne Eede, St. Margaret's, Norwich 
1591. James Grey, Hunsdon, Herts 

1593. Humphrey Brewster, Wrentham, Suifolk 

1594. John and Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk 

1598. Cicely Page, Bray, Berks . 

1599. Sir Edward Grimston, Rishangles, Suffolk . 
1601. John Shorlond, Woodbridge, Suffolk 

1608. John Burton, Burgh, Norfolk 

1609. Ann Sewell, Coventry, Warwick 

1610. Isaia Bures, Vicar, Acton, Suffolk . 

1610. Sir Edw. Grimston, H., Rishangles, Suffolk 

1611. Archbishop Harsenett, Chigwell, Essex 
1621, 0. 1500. Peter Dolman, Howden, York 
1638. Sir Edw. Filmer and family. East Sutton, Kent 

99, 101 
. 80 
. Ill 
. 136 
. 152 

139, 140 
. 125 
. 80 
. 94 
. ib. 
. 129 
. 126 
. 106 
. 94 
. 34 
. 129 

lOl, 104 
. 152 
. 23 



Bedford . 






\/{ Bray 

Childrey . 



1208. .Simon De Beauchamp, (lost) . 

1482. .Archdeacon Ruding . 

1537, c. 1435. .Thos. Widville and two wives 
c. 1530. .Eliz. Harvey, Abbess 
0. 1450. .Lady (unknown) 

1513. .John Ackworth and two wives 

1516. .John Sylan and two wives . 78, 88 

1516. .Thos. and Ehz. Burgoyne 

1407. .Lady Margaret Bromflete 

1430..Sir Thos. Bromflete . 





c. 1370. .Sir John Foxley and two wives 83, 122 

. 1598.. Cicely Page ... 94 

. 1444..SirWm. and Lady Fynderne 71,86,91 

c. 1370.. Ecclesiastic . . . 96,107 




Shotteshroke c. 1370. .Frankelein 

. 1401 . .Lady Margaret Pennybrigg 

. 1511.. Richard Gill . 

■ . 1567. .Thos. Noke and two wives 

t'^rayton-Beauehamp 1368. .Sir Thos. Cheyne 




Balshmn . 


Cambridge : — 
St. Beliefs Church 
Cams College 
King's College c. 

t^^ly Cathedral 

Islesham . 
\ Trumphigton 
^yWestley- Waterless 
^ywisbeach . 


1 375.. Sir Wm. Cheyne 
1312. .Abbot Thos. De Totyngtone 
1540. .Margaret Bulstrode 
1519. .James Torney and wives 
1350. .Nicholas Aumberdene 

1401.. Dr. JohnDe Sleford . 
1465..Dr. John Blodwell . 
1298. .EHas De Beckenham, (lost) 
1500, c. 1550. .Ecclesiastic . 

1442. . Dr. Rich. Billingford 
1517..Dr. WalterHewke . 
1520. . Ecclesiastic 
1528. .Provost Hacumblene 
1554. .Bishop Goodrich 
1375.. Sir .. D' Argentine 
1408. .Rob. Parys and lady 
1460. .Henry Parice 
1465. .Henry Parice 
1484. .Sir Thos. Peyton and wives 
1289. .Sir Roger De Trumpington 
1325 . . Sir J. and Lady De Creke 
1401 . .Sir Thos. Braunstone 


1410. .John Balsham 

Carlisle Cathedral 1494. .Bishop Bell . 


96, 107 

. 136 


. 104 

104, 127 


. 148 

. 102 

104, 105 

. 145 

. 137 

99, 101 


. 119 



. 76, 88 





100, 101 


Exeter Cathedral 1413. .William Langton . . .102 

Stoke.Fleming . 1391, 1361 . . John and Eleanor Corp 85,108,122,127 


1531 . .Sir John and Lady Horsey 



' Aveley 

Chigwell . 
» Dagenham 

Easton, Little 
K^y^orhesley , Little 

Latton ' 


Wendell Lofts 
^^'^imbish . 












c. 1450. 
c. 1345. 




Sir Ralph De Knevynton 22, 46, 51, 142 

Archbishop Harsenett . 101, 104 

Sir Thos. Urswick and family . 92, 1 10 

, Earl and Countess of Essex 47, 76, 86, 1 34, 1 36 
Sir Robert Swynborne 1, 55, 127, 129 

Sir Thos. Swynborne 1, 55, 60, 127, 134 

86,91, 110 


73, 135 



77, 143 

Sir Peter and Lady Arderne 
Sir . . De Fitzralph . 
Rob. Colte and lady 
-Wm. Lucas and family 
Knight, Lady, and Cross 
Lord Beaumont 

Deerhurst . 
Iron Acton 
^Votton -under -Edge 

1438. . Sir Rich. Dyxton 
1400. .Sir John and Lady Cassy 
1420. .Rob. and Anne Poyntz 
1 458.. John Fortey . 
1392, 1417. . Thos. Lord Berkeley and lady 

Q5, 86, 

Arretonjsle of Wight 1 430 . . Henry Hawles 
St. Cross, Winchester 1383. .John De Campden . 
Wyke . 1498. .Wm. and Agnes Complyn 

08, 143 

56, 135 


Hereford Cathedral 1421 


.Richard Delamere 


*'' Berhhampstead 




Hemel Hempsted 

Mimms, North 

c. 1546. 



c. 1450. 
c. 1400. 
c. 1400. 
c. 1440. 


c. 1360. 




.Sir Ralph Verney and lady 

1349. .Richard and Margaret Torring- 

ton . . . . 84, 106 

.A Priest .... 98 

.Sir John and Lady Say 47, 74, 86, 132 

. Sir John and Lady Peryent 

.Sir John Peryent . 

.Rob. Albyn and lady 

.An Ecclesiastic 

. Civilian and wife 

.James Grey 

.Simon Bache 

.A Priest 

.Simon Flambard, (lost) 

. 61, 134 


49, 57, 152 

103, 124 




, 20, 97 




St. Alban's: — 
^ Ahhey Church 

-^t. Michael's 


Standon . 


Wh eathamstede 


1 Chartham 
i>^obham . 


Hardress, Upper 



Kemsing . 
Margate . 

Minster, Isle of 

St. Laiorence 


Sutton, East 
> Wickham, East 


1326. .Abbot Hugo D'Eversden, (lost) . 11 

l335..Abbot De Wallingford, (lost) . ib. 

1342. .Abbot De Meiitmore, (lost) . 10 

c. 1375. .Abbot Delamere, (died 1396) 9, 11, 97 

c. 1400.. Abbot, (unknown) . . 143,148 

1462.. Abbot Stoke ... 128 

c. 1470.. Robert Beamier . . .124 

1480. .Sir Anthony De Grey . 73, 134 

c. 1550.. Ralph Rowlatt . . . Ill 

c. 1385.. A Knight .... 55 

c. 1400.. Cross with effigy .- . . 120 

1433. .Sir J. andLadyDeLeventhorpe 65,67,86, 131 

. 1477..JohnFeldandson . . 111,132 

. 1 361.. Sir John De Paletoot . . 51 

c. 1435. .Hugo and Margaret Bostock . 108 

1520. .John and Eliz. Hey worth . . ib. 


. 1404.. Knight and lady . . . 63,90 

. 1407.. Sir John Lysle ... 62 


, 1306 . . Sir Robert De Septvans 

1320. .Joan, Lady Cobham 
, 1360.. Maud, Lady Cobham 
c. 1375. .Sir John De Cobham 
. 1407 . .Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Appendix 

1405. .John Strete, Rector 
c. 1420 . .Sir Peter and Lady Halle . 

1417 . . Margaret Cheyne 

1538..Sir Thos. Bullen 
c. 1330. .John De Grofhurst 
c. 1320.. Thos. De Hop 
. 1431 . .Nicholas Canteys 
, 1445. .John Daundely on 

1325. .Sir John De Northwode 

1325. .Lady De Northwode 
. 1465.. Thomas Cod 
. 1444. .Sir Nicholas Manston 
. 1414. .Joan Urban . 
c. 1430.. John Tubney 

1418. .John Lumbarde 

l638..Sir Edw. Filmer . 
c. 1 325 . . John De Bladingdown 

33, 34, 43 



. 53, 138 


. 122, 141 

55, 62, 90 


13, 135,147 





24, 42, 53 

. 24, 44 













. 1330 

.Nichol De Gore . 

97, 120 


. 1512. 

. Thos. Peckham and Avife . 



. 1548 

. cSir Wm. Molineux and wives 


Wimvick . 

. 1492 

.Peter Gerard 


Castle Bonington 


.Sir Rob. Staunton and lady 



. 1393 

. .Sir Thos. and Lady Walsh 


86, 143 


c. 1370 

.Knight and lady , 

. 56, 124 

Buslingthorpe c. 

1290.. Sir R. De Buslingthorpe 22, 30, 33, 53, 113,124 | 


c. 1310. 

.Demi-figure in mail 

28, 114 



.William Palmer . 


Langton . 

. 1543, 

c. 1405..Sir Wm. Dalison, (?) 


Lincoln Cathedral 


. Bp. Gravesend, (lost) 




.Robert Heyton 


All-hallows, BarUng 1437. 

.John Barron and wife 


- 1536. 

.A. Evyngar and family 23,89,111,125,132,133 | 

Fulham . 


, Margaret Saunders 


Hackney . 


.Dr. Urswick 

104, 105 



. Walter Greene 


Museum of Geology 1496 . 

. Louis De Corteville and lady 




.Richard Burton 


/ Westminster Abbey 


.Archbishop Waldeby 



.Eleanor De Bohun 22, 94, 127 
.Sir John De Harpedon 

, 130, 146 


. Sir Humphrey Bourchier , 



.Abbot Esteney . 99,101 

, 127 128 


.Sir Humphrey Stanley 



Blickling . 


. Sir Nicholas Dagworth 




.Anna Boleyn 

.Isabella Cheyne . • . 




.Ann Asteley 




.John Burton 


Burlingham, S. 

. 1540. 

.William Curtes 


Burnham Thorpe 

. 1420. 

.Sir Wm. Calthorpe 

66, 127 


. 1518. 

.John Symonds and family . 


Clippesby . 

c. 1500. 

. Civilian and lady . 

88, 111 

. 1594. 

.John and Juhan Clippesby 






Creak, North 

c. 1490. 

.Civilian, (founder) , 




.Sir Hugh Hastings 

23,45, 119 

Felbrigg . 

. 1351. 

. Symon De Felbrigge 


c. 1380. 

. Sir Roger and Lady De Felbrigge . 84 | 


.Sir Simon and Lady De Felbrig 
63, 67, 86 


X X 1 1-' • 

90, 135, 136 

Fransliam, Great 


. Sir Galfridus De Fransham 




. Joanna Braham 


1 ^'^i 

Atiti IliiuP 


Harling, West 

lOO i . 


.Wm. Berdewell 


HeUesdon . 


. Richard Thasburg . 


Holme. hj-the-Sea 


.Henry Nottingham and wife 




. Wm. Curteys, Notary 




. Sir Roger L'Estrange 

. 72, 78 



. Sir Miles and Lady De Stapleton,(lost) 51 ,55,84 


.Sir Bryan and Lady De Stapleton, (lost) 65,91 



. Sir Henry and Lady Grey 

. 76, 91 

Lynn Regis 


.Adam and Margaret De Walsokne 9, 14, 137 | 


. Robert Braunche and Avives 
.Robert Attelathe, (lost) 

. 9, 16, 84 
. 10, 19 



.Robert Alen 




.Ismena De Wynston 



. Wife of Robert Goodwin . 



St. Andreiv's 


.Wm. Layer 


St. Clemenfs 


. Margaret Pettwode 


St. George Colgo 

ite 1563. 

.Wm. Norwich 


St. Johi's Mad- 

1 1524. 

. John Terri and wife 

. 122, 133 

St. Laiorence 

c. 1400. 

.Lady, unknown 



.Galfridus Langley . 


St. Margaret's 


.Ann Rede . 

. 139, 140 

St. Martins 


.Shield of Arms 


St. Peter' sMancr 


c. 1460.. Peter Rede 


Si. Swithin's 

c. 1500. 

.Lady, unknown 


Ormesby . 

. 1529. 

. Sir Robert De Clere 



. 1538, 

c. 1420.. Alicia De Clere . 



. 1301. 

.Simon De Walpole, (lost) . 

. 6,118 



. Margaret Willoughby 


Reepham . 

. 1391. 

. Lady Cecilia De Kerdiston . 


Rougham . 

. 1510. 

. John and Roger Yelverton . 




. Sir Thos. De Shernbourn . 

. 73, 91 

Snoring., Great 


. Sir Ralph and Lady Shelton 

. 71,90 

Stokeshy . 

. 1488. 

.Elizabeth De Clere 







' South Acre 

. 1384 . .Sir John and Lady Harsick 



. 1534. .Thomas Leman 

. 1473, c. 1375. .Walter Beaumont . 





c. 1425. .William Mowbray 


Castle Ashhy 

. l40l..Wm. Ermyn 

104, 105 


. 1 537.. Alice Wyrley 


Higham Ferrers 

. 1337. .Lawrence Seymour 


. 1400. .Thos. Cliichele and wife 

. 1498.. Henry Denton 

. 1400. .Cross with figures . 





Rothivell . 

. l361..Wm. DeRothwelle 

24, 105 


c. 1430.. John West 




. 1429. .Roger Thornton and family 



. 1361 . .Alan Fleming 


9, 19, 84 

Cassington . 

c. 1 420.. Sir Roger Cheyne . 



. 1349. .Abbot John De Sutton, (lost) 

156, 160 

. l4ll..Sir John Drayton . 
c. 1520, .Abbot Bewforreste . 

fi^ 1 "^4 


Oxford : — 

Merton Coll. 

l3l5..RichardDe Hart . . 95,97,115 

1387 , .John Bloxham and John Whytton 
1471 . .Warden Sever 
. 1 41 7.. Archbishop Cranley . lOC 



Neiv Coll. 

, 104, 128 

c. 1500.. A Notary . 


. 1526.. Bishop Young 

. 1527, c. 1450. .Walter Curzon and lady 


Water Perry 

■ Xi-i 



Casterton, Little 

1382 . .Sir T. and Lady Burton 55, 62, 85 

, 126, 142 

Acton Burnell 

. 1382.. Nicholas, Lord Burnell 



. 1467. .Sir Wm. Vernon and family 

73, 86, 91 


. 1 439.. Edmond Ford 


Wells Cathedral 

1242 . .Bishop Jocelyn, (lost) 



c. 1520, c. 1450. .Humphrey Oker and family 127, 153 




Bnmdish . c. 



Gorleston . c. 

Ipswich : — 
St. Mary Quay 
St. Mary Tower c. 



1302. .Sir Robert De Bures 

I6l0. .Isaia Bures, Rector 

1375. .Esmond De Burnedish 

1424. .Sir John and Lady Framingham 

1426..Sir John Brooke . 

1320.. Sir .. De Bacon . 






33, 36, 95 

Melford . 

Playford . 





1525. .T. Pownder and family 23,89,111,125 
1475.. A Notary . 
1506.. A Notary . 
1480.. Lady .. Clopton . 

1310 De Bacon, Priest 

1478. .Sir John and Lady Fastolf 

1400. .Sir George Felbrigge 

1599.. Sir Edw. Grimston 

1610. .Sir Edw. Grimston IL 

1408..Sir Wm. Tendring 

1520, 1452.. Duchess of Suffolk //^ 

1601 . .John Shorlond 

1400..ElaBowet . 

1593. .Humphrey Brewster 

1428.. John Norwich 



Horley . c. 1430. .A Lady, unknown . 

' Horsley, East . 1478. .Bishop Boothe 
' Kingston . . 1437. .Rob. and Joan Skerne 

Lingfield . . 1403. .Sii- Reginald De Cobham 

v' Stoke D'Aubernoun 1277. .Sir John D'Aubernoun 
/ 1327 . . Sir John D'Aubernoun II. 

V Amberley . 

V Arundel . 
v Broadwater 

v' . 

\ Bicxtead 
'" Clapham . 

Cowfold . 

Grinstead, TV. 

Horsham . 
■• Hurstmonceaux 

1424.. John Wantele 
1430. .Agnes Salmon 
1420.. John Mapleton 
1440.. Richard Tooner 
1375..Britellus Avenel 
1526. .John Shelly and wife 
1433 .Prior Nelond 
1441 . .Sir Hugh and Lady Halsham 
1441. . Lady Halsham, (died 1395) 
1430. .A Priest, unknown 
1402 . . Sir William De Fiennes . 


92, 130 














91, 108 






. 72, 130 

104, 128, 138 

86, 92, 131 

86, 92, 154 








c. 1375. .John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde . ] 15 

c. 1310.. Margaret, Lady Camoys . . 80,131 

. 1424, 1419. .Thomas, Lord Camoys and 

EHzabeth his lady . 55, 86, 90, 127, 135 

. 1426. . Sir John De Brewys . 47, Q5, 143 



1407 . .Sir Wm. and Lady Bagot 56, 68 

, 86, 134 

Coventry . 



Merivale Abbey 

1407 . .Lord and Lady Ferrers of Chartley 


Warwick . 

1401, 1406. .Earl and Countess of Warwick 



1 546.. Sir John Greville . 


1 559 . . Sir Edward Greville 

1411, 1418. .Sir Thos. and Lady Crewe 


Wixford . 



Alton Priors 

1528,. Agnes Bulton 


St. Michael-in-Me') 

^e 1390. .John De Bettesthorne 


Salisbury Cathedra 

I 1247. .Bishop Bingham, (lost) 

6, 118 

- 1297. .Bishop Longespee, (lost) 


- 1375.. Bishop WViU 

102, 142 


Allerton Mauleverer 

c. 1385. .Sir . . De Mauleverer and lady 


\ Cowthorpe 

1494 ..Brian Roucliffe and lady 

88,92, 110, 127, 132, 

138, 147 

Howden . 

1621, c. 1500. .Peter Dolman 


Topcliff . 

1391 . .Thos. De TopclyfTe and lady 


Wensley . 

c. 1360.. A Priest .... 

9, 20, 97 

\ York Cathedral 

1315.. Archbishop Grenfeld 
Brasses in private possession. 

95, 101 

>/c.l375. Fragment of Abbot, Flemish . 


0. 1480. Knight with coronet 


. c. I5l0. Knight and Lady of Compton family, Appendix (C). 

Foreign Brasses. 

Aix-la- Chapelle 

1534. .John Bollart, canon 



1 365.. A Burgher . 


c. 1520.. A Notary .... 


Constance . 

1416. .Rob. Hallum, bishop of Salisbury 

25, 128 








Robert III., Comte Ue Dreux, St. Yvod De Braine, 

France, (lost) ..... 



Sir John De Bitton, Bitton, Somersetshire 


c. 1260. 

Abbots Adam and Peter, St. Denis, France . 


c. 1260. 

Cross-legged knight, Avenbury, Hereford 



Bishop William De Byttone, Wells Cathedral 



Etienne De Sens, Rouen Cathedral . 


c. 1285. 

Sir John Botiler, St. Bride's, Glamorganshire 



William Tracey, Rector, Morthoe, Devon 



Adam and Sybilla De Frampton, Wyberton, Lincoln . 


c. 1325. 

Abbot Nicholas, St. Ouen, Rouen 


c. 1365. 

and Agnes De Baldock, Tempsford, Beds 



Wm. Villers and wives, Brooksley, Lincoln . 



Sir John Wydeville, Grafton Regis, Northants . 74 



Geoffrey AUesley and wife, Newbold-on-Avon, Warwick 



Sir Robert De Malvesyn, Malvesin Ridware, Stafford . 



Two Architects, Church of St. Ouen, Rouen 



Sir John Cherowin, Brading, Isle of Wight . 47, 157 



John Butler and wives, Watton, Herts 



Abbot Lawrence, Selby, York 



Andrew and Elizabeth Jones, Hereford Cathedral 


c. 1510. 

Abbot Roger, Dorchester, Oxon 



1535. Members of the Rollisley family, Darley, Derbyshire 



Abbot Ramryge, St. Alban's Abbey Church . 



Abbot John Barwicus, Selby, York . 



Abbot . . . . , St. George De Bocherville, near Rouen . 



Margaret Beresforde (?) North Mimms, Herts . 


Canon of Poictiers and Chancellor of Noyon, Paris 


Fragment of Priest, Petit Andelys, France 







Morthoe . 
SL Bride's 


c. 1365.. 

- and Agnes De Baldock 


1513, 1535. .Members of the Rollisley, or Rowly 
family . . . . . 

1322 . .William Tracey, Rector . 





c. 1285.. Sir John Botiler 

Brading, Isle of Wight 1 44 1 .. Sir John Cherowin 

Avenbury . c. 1 260 .. Cross-legged Knight 

Hereford Cathedral 1497. .Andrew and Elizabeth Jones 

North Mimms . 1584. .Margaret Beresford, (?) . 
St. Allan's Abbey . 1524. .Abbot Ramryge 



Grafton Regis 


1465. .John Butler and wives . 

1370. .William Villers and wives 
1325. .Adam and Sybilla De Frampton 

. 1392..Sir John Wydeville 

c. 1510.. Abbot Roffer . 

Malvesin Ridware . 1403. .Sir Robert De Malvesyn 

Bitfon . . 1227.. Sir John De Bitten 

Wells Cathedral . 1274. .Bishop William De Byttone 

. 159 

47, 157, 160 




74, 160 

. 156 

. 160 

. 158 
. 159 




Newhold-on-Avon . 1401 . .Geoffrey Allesley and Wife 

1486. .Abbot Lawrence 
1526. .Abbot John Barwicus 

Foreign Slabs. 

France: — 
St. Denis 

Paris . , 

Rouen Cathedral 1282 
St. Ouen, Rouen c. 1325 
. 1440 

c. 1260. .Abbots Adam and Peter 
Canon of Poictiers 

Etienne De Sens 

Abbot Nicholas 

Two Architects 

Bocherville near ) 

Rouen j 

St. YvodJDe Braine 1223 

Petit Andelys .... 

1535.. Abbot 

.Robert III., Comte De Dreux 
. Fragment 














1269. Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, Westminster Abbey . 81 

c. 1270. Sir Richard De Montfort, Hitchendon, Bucks . .31 
1296. William De Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Westminster Abbey 131 

1302. Brian, Lord Fitzalan of Bedale, Bedale, York 31, 33, 36, 43 

c. 1310. Lady Clifford, Worcester Cathedral . .131 

1312. Sir William De Staunton, Staunton, Notts . . .31 

1317. William, Lord De Ros, Temple Church . . 36, 43 

c. 1320. Sir .... De Pembridge, Clehongre, Hereford . 31, 42 

1321. Humphrey De Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Hereford . 39, 50 

1323. Aymer De Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Westminster . 47 

c. 1 325. Sir John DTfield, Ifield, Sussex . . . .39 

1334. Prince John of Eltham, Westminster Abbey . , ib. 

1336. Charles, Comte D'Etampes, Royal Catacombs, St. Denis . 43 

1337. Sir Roger De Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk . . 30 
1343. Sir Oliver DTngham, Ingham, Norfolk . . . ib. 
1348. Archbishop Stratford, Canterbury Cathedral . . 100 

c. 1350. Sir John Blanchefront, Alvechurch, Worcester . . 42 

1354. Lady Montacute, Oxford Cathedral . . 85, 125 

1372. Blanche De La Tour, tomb of Edward HI., Westminster . 85 



c. 1375. Sir Arthur Basset (?), Atherington, Devon 

c. 1375. Knight, carved in wood, Bamberg Cathedral 

1394. Anne, Queen of Richard II., Westminster Abbey 

1402. John Gower, St. Saviour's, Southwark 

1439. Beatrice, Countess of Arundel, Arundel, Sussex 

1471. Sir Robert and Lady Harcourt, Stanton Harcourt, Oxon 

1474. William Canynges, St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol 


. 42 
. 51 
. 58 
. 134 
. 90 
. 135 
. 112 






c. 1270. 

.Sir Richard De Montfort 

c. 1375. .Sir Arthur Basset, (?) 

Bristol : — 

St. Mary Redcliffe 1474. .William Canynges . 


Clehongre . c. 1320. .Sir De Pembridge 

Hereford Cathedral 1321 . .Humphrey, Earl of Hereford . 

Canterhury Cathedral 1348. .Archbishop Stratford 


St. Saviour' s, Southwarh W^l. .ii)\mGovj ox . 
Temple Church, London I3l7 . .William, Lord De Ros 
Westminster Abbey . 1269. .Aveline, Countess of Lancaster 
1296.. William De Valence . 

1393. .Aymer De Valence 
1334. .Prince John of Eltham 
1 372 . . Blanche De La Tour 

1394. .Anne, Queen of Richard II. . 



l343..Sir Oliver D'Ingham . 
1337. .Sir Roger De Kerdiston 







. 134 
. 81 
. 131 
. 47 
. 85 
. 58 





Oxford Cathedral 
Stanton Harcourt 




. 1312.. Sir William De Staunton 


. 1354. .Lady Montacute 

. 1471 . .Sir Robert and Lady Harcourt 


1439, .Beatrice, Countess of Arundel 
c. 1325.. Sir John D'lfield 


Alvechurch . c. 1350. .Sir John De Blanchefront 

Worcester Cathedral c. 1310. .Lady .... Clifford . 


1302. .Brian, Lord Fitzalan 

Foreign Effigies. 



85, 125 
. 135 



St. Denis . . 1336. .Charles, Comte D'Etampes 

Bamberg Cathedral c. 1375. .Knight carved in wood 

31, 33, 36, 43 


Foreign slabs carved in low relief. 

Germany : — 



1369. .Ulrich Landschaden . .192 

1377. .Hewnel Landschaden and Lady . ib. 

l3l9..AlbrechtHohenlohe .191 

1407 . . Johan, Graaf von Wertheim . 193 







Ciiomas Bt aaooUstocft. JBuftc of (ffiloticesUr. 







King Edward the Confessor 

. 64 

King Henry V. . 

. 67 

King Henry V., when Prince of Wales 

. ib. 

King Richard II. 

. 63 


. 57 


. 150 

Botiler, or Butler 

. 159 

Braunche - 

. 17 


. 150 


see Cut opposite page 127 

Chej^ne u/ . 

. 74 

V D'Aubernoun <^ . 

. 29 

De Bures ly . 

. 34 

De Creke <-^ . 

. 40 

■ De Northwode . 

. 43 

De Septvans '^ . 

. 35 

De Trumpington ^y 

31, 32 

• Felbrigge V . 

. 64 

Ferrers of Chartley V 

. 57 


, 71 

Grey of Groby 

. 74 


. 129 


. 131 

Hastings . , 

. 46 


. 108 


. 150 



Mercers' Company 
Merchants Adventurers 
Merchants of the Staple 
Norwich, City of 

Strabolgy, Earl of Athol 
V Wantele 






see Cut opposite page 127 









A.D. 1407, 8 HENRY IV. 





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