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rasses anU ^lafts*
OFFA, King of Mercia,
Founder of St. Alban's Abbey.
From the Brass of Abbot Delamere
in 8t. Alban's Abbey Cbarcb..
(See page 12.)
A.D. MCCCII SXXo EDW. I.
5rf»e Contents of tl;is >7oI«mc tatxe rcaD
Brasses ant) ^latjs:
HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE NOTICE
i«l ( D( tr I e ^ g c s;.
WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.
THE REV. CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A.,
RECTOR OP DOWNHAM MARKET, NORFOLK :
ONE OF THE SECRETARIES OP THE ST. ALBAN'S ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY :
A MEMBER OP THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, &C. &C.
EXCUDBNT ALII SPIRANTIA MOLLIUS yERA
VIVOS DUCENT PE MARMORE WITVS.
G. BELL, 186, FLEET- S T R E E T.
OXFORD: I. H. PARKER.
I ;qi HI -s ui'qig -jig je aj\Bjj(i3S up'i
ST. ALB AN,
The British PTOtomartyr,
From theBrassof Abbot Delamere. in St. Alban's Abbey Chnrch
RIGHT HONOURABLE THE PRESIDENT,
^t. aiban's ^rc^bitectural ^ocictg,
WITH THE SANCTION OF THE COMMITTEE,
THEIR DEVOTED AND FAITHFUL
"BRASSES FORM AN IMPORTANT CLASS OF OUR MONU-
MENTAL ANTIQUITIES .... AFFIXED AS THEY USUALLY
WERE TO THE PAVEMENT OF A CHURCH, THEY DID NOT
INTERFERE WITH THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE BUILDING,
OR MAR ITS BEAUTIES: AND BEING ALSO OF A SIMPLE,
DEVOTIONAL CHARACTER, THE FEW THAT REMAIN WILL
ALWAYS BE REGARDED BY CHRISTIAN ANTIQUARIES AS
MEMORIALS OF GREAT INTEREST."— Makkiand's Remarks on
English Churches, Edition 3rd, ■p. 48.
3^ t e f a c e^
The following pages owe their origin to two papers read before
the St. Alban's Architectural Society, at their Meetings held
at St. Alban's in the months of February and June of this present
year, 1846. These papers were composed solely with the view to
illustrate the series of examples of monumental brasses and slabs
exhibited on those occasions, and consequently without any idea
of publication. In deference, however, to the opinion expressed
by several members of the above-named Society, as well as by
other friends, it was subsequently decided that the substance of
these papers, with certain additions, corrections, and illustrations,
should form the present volume ^.
In carrying into effect this decision, the principle uniformly
acted upon has been to produce a manual of elementary informa-
tion, exclusively devoted to this one class of our national monu-
mental memorials : and that, less with the view to add to the in-
formation already acquired by the careful student of this valuable
page in the annals of the past, than to reduce the prevalent
amusement of brass-rubbing into something of a system, and thus
to enhance its interest as a pursuit, by pointing out and endea-
vouring to elucidate its utility and importance as a study.
Accordingly, the more prominent features in armour, costume,
canopies, inscriptions, heraldic insignia, &c., usually depicted in
brasses, together with the general characteristics of the several
classes into which these incised monuments may naturally be
" A third paper on the same subject was publication of its predecessors had been
also read at another Meeting of the St. determined upon : the contents of this
Alban's Architectural Society, after the third paper are incorporated in these pages.
divided, have been described at length. Detailed descriptions of
certain examples have also been given ; with the twofold purpose,
that the complete explanation of their peculiar merits may both
enhance the estimation in which these examples themselves are
held, and at the same time lead to a general habit of minute and
critical examination into such other specimens, as may fall more
particularly under the notice of different individuals. The original
form of composition has been retained, as appearing the better
adapted to the subject under consideration. Occasional references
have been made to sculptured monuments, when such additional
illustration was found requisite. The Illustrations will, it is hoped,
be found sufficiently numerous to exemplify the several passages
with which they are placed in connection; and also to form a
small series of faithful delineations, so selected that each specimen
should either appear to be a type of a class, or in itself possess
some points of special interest ''. Such technical terms as occur,
when first used are printed in Italic characters, and then they
are for the most part fully explained : to these explanatory pas-
sages reference is made in the concise Glossary appended to
the volume; or, as in some cases it appeared to be more expe-
dient, an explanation of the terms is introduced into the Glos-
sary itself. In this Glossary, however, it must be understood
that terms strictly architectural and heraldic are not included.
At the end of the volume will also be found a classified list of
some choice specimens of brasses : — a table of the contractions and
abbreviations which occur in inscriptions*^: — and a notice of some
^ Many of the Illustrations represent and of the head-dress of Lady Burton at
only parts of entire figures, or compart- p. 85, should have been incorrectly en-
ments of large compositions. graved : he has added accurate engravings
The Author greatly regrets that, in con- of the whole figures depicted in these fine
sequence of an error of his own, the cuts and interesting brasses,
of the bascinet of Lord Camoys at p. 49, "^ For this most valuable portion of the
German slabs in low relief*; together with Indices, Chronological
and Topographical, of the several examples to which reference is
made in the text and notes, and also an Index of the Shields of
Arms which are there emblazoned.
Besides original MSS. and Illuminations, and the Brasses and
Slabs themselves, among the authorities which have been con-
sulted it may be sufficient to specify the volumes of the Archseo-
logia and Monumenta Vetusta : Gongh's Monuments : Waller's
and Cotman's Brasses : the Monumental Effigies of Stothard,
Blore, and Hollis : Sir S. Meyrick's Treatises on Arms and
Armour: Strutt's, Shawe's, Blanche's, and Fairholt's works on
Dresses and Decorations : the Gentleman's Magazine : the Ar-
chaeological Journal : Fosbroke's Encyclopedia of Antiquities : the
Oxford Glossary : Hartshorne's Sepulchral Monuments : Bloxam's
Glimpse at Monumental Architecture : Markland's Remarks on
English Churches : Lysons' Magna Britannia : Dugdale's War-
wickshire : Dallaway's Sussex: Addington's Dorchester; and
various other works on county or local topography and antiquities.
To the Committee of the Archaeological Institute of Great
Britain and Ireland, for their courteous liberality in placing at
his disposal eleven engravings on wood, the Author tenders his
grateful acknowledgments ; he desires also to thank, for their
most valuable advice and assistance, Albert Way, Esq.: Dawson
Turner, Esq.: Rev. G. Proctor, D.D.: Rev. W. D. Willis, Preben-
dary of Wells : W. H. Blaauw, Esq.: L. A. B. Waller, Esq.: J. H.
Parker, Esq.: Rev. W. Drake: Rev. H. Addington : Rev. Dr.
Appendix, the result of laborious and com- monuments.
prehensive research, the Author is indebted ** The Illustrations to this notice are
to the liberal kindness of the Rev. Dr. drawn from a very admirable continental
Jacob : which gentleman has in a state of work, entitled Coslume du Moyen Age
great forwardness a Glossary of Terms, Chretien, by M. de Hefner, and published
explanatory of medieval antiquities and at Mannheim.
Jacob : A. W. Franks, Esq. : Raphael Brandon, Esq. : J. Arthur
Brandon, Esq.: G. P. R. Minty, Esq.: M. H. Bloxam, Esq.; Mr.
Richardson of Greenwich, and other friends ^.
Communications for the Author may be addressed to the care of
the Publisher, Mr. Bell, 186, Fleet Street, London. C. B.
Sandridge Vicarage, near St. Allan's,
December 30th, 1846.
e Since the completion of the text and
notes of this volume, Mr. Manning's valu-
able List of Brasses has appeared: and
this has heen followed still more recently
by a general notice of these memorials
from the pen of the same gentleman. It
is no slight satisfaction to the Author to
find his own views on this subject com-
pletely sustained in this truly excellent
little treatise, which he hopes to see ap-
pended to a second edition of the List of
Compartment of Brass of Robert Braunche,
Lynn Regis, A.D. 1361
I See page 17.)
Brasses of Ladies,
Brasses of Ecclesiastics,
Brasses of Civilians,
Brasses of Demi-Figures,
Slabs despoiled of Brasses, .
Incised or engraven Slabs,
Rubbings of Brasses, .
Concluding remarks, .
List of Abbreviations, Contractions
LIST or ILLUSTRATIONS.
ENGRAVINGS UPON STONE,
KXLCUTED BY MR. J. B. JOBBINS.
Abbot Thomas Delamere, St. Alban's Abbey Church . 11
Robert and Margaret Braunclie, Lynn Regis . . 17
Alan Fleniinj)^, Newark ..... 19
A Priest, Wensley, Yorkshire .... 20
A Piiest, North Mimms, Herts .... 21
Sir John D'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey . 27
Sir Rojjer De Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridge . 30
Sir Robert De Septvans, Chartham, Kent ... 35
Sir De Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk ... 36
Sir De Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex ... 37
Sir John De Creke and Lady, Westley Waterless, Cambridge 39
Sir Robert Swynborne, ) , .,,, tt i i t7 c,
c- Til, c 1 r Little Horkesley, Essex . . 55
Sir 1 homas Swynborne, ) •' '
Sir Peter and Lady Halle, Heme, Kent ... 62
Sir Simon Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk ... 63
Sir Thomas Bromflete, Wymington, Beds ... 65
Sir John and Lady Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts . 67
Cross Fleury, Broadwater, Snssex . . . . 118
Sir John De Bitton (slab), Bitton, Gloucestershire . . 158
Slab of the Architects, Church of St. Oueu, Rouen . . 162
Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent . . . 178
German Slab of Albract Hohenloe . . . 191
Ditto of Hewnel Landschaden and Lady . . . 192
Ditto of Johan, Graaf von Wertheim . . . 193
ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD,
KXECUTED BY MR. O. JEWI rT, MU. R. B. UTTING, MISS BYFIEI.D, MESSRS. DE LA MOTTE
AND HEAVISIDE, AND MR. E. RICHARDSON.
1302. Sir Robert De Bures, Acton, Suffolk . . Frontispiece
c. 1375. Offa, King of Mercia, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . . ii
.... Ornaments from the Delamere Brass, St. Alban's,
and Monogram ...... Title
c. 1375. St. Alban, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's ... iv
Monogram of the St. Alban's Architectural Society, and
Ornaments from a Brass in Great Shelford Church,
Cambridgeshire ...... v
1364. Civilian, Brass of Robert Braunche, Lynn Regis . . x
1412. Part of Canopy, Swynborne Brass, Little Horkesley, Essex 1
c. 1375. Compartment of Canopy, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . 9
c. 1375. Compartment of Canopy, Delamere Brass, St. Alban's . 12
c. 1375. Specimen of inscription, border, and initial cross, St. Alban's 13
LIST OF ll.l.fSTKATIONS.
/ c. 1277.
V c. 1330.
/ c. 1330.
Fiiiiiil, crockets, ami cvispiii^-, Walsokiie Brass, Lynn
Tart of Fi<;uie of Ailani Dc Walsokne, Lynn
Part of Fif^ure of JMar-;aret l^o Walsokne, Lynn
Part of Fi}?ure of Thomas De Topclitfe, Topcliff, York
Flemish Brass of Knifrht of the Compton F\imily, late in
Netley Abbey Church ....
Sir JohnD'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun
Enp^raver's Mark, Seal, and Shield .
Sir John D'Aubernoun the younger
Sir John De North wode, Kjj^^ j^j^ of Sheppey
Lady De Northwode, j ' ^' •'
Bascinet with vizor, Hastings Brass, Elsyng, Norfolk
Chapelle de fer, Hastings Brass, Elsyng, Norfolk
Studded Mail, Sir Miles De Stapleton
Sir John De Paletoot, Watton, Herts
Sculptured Effigy, Bamberg Cathedral
Hip-belt, Sword-hilt, and Genouilliere, Sir Thomas Cheyne
Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks
SoUeret, Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp
Sir John De Cobham, Cobham, Kent
Nicholas, Lord Burnel, Acton Burnel, Salop
A Knight, St. Michael's, St. Alban's
Sir Thomas and Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland
Sir William and Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick, (after
drawing by L. A. B. Waller, Esq.)
Lord and Lady Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester
Sword-belt, &c. Robert Albyn, Hemel Hempsted, Herts
Coudiere, Lord Camoys, Trotton, Sussex
Sir Reginald De Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey
Sword-belt, &c. Sir Thomas Peryent, Digswell, Herts
Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts
Head-dress, Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts
Lady (unknown), Sawtry, Hunts
Sir John De Brewys, Wiston, Sussex
Sir John De Harpedon, Westminster Abbey
Shields of Arras, Leventhorpe Brass .
Sir Nicholas Mansion, St. Lawrence, Kent .
Sir John Peryent, the younger
Placcates, Sir R. Dyxton, Cirencester
John Daundelyon, Margate .
Walter Green (part of figure), Hayes, Middlesex
Sir William Fynderne (part of figure), Childrey, Berks
Sir Anthony De Grey, St. Alban's Abbey Church
Sword-belt, Coudiere, &c. Henry Parice, Hildersham, Camb
Head-dress, Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts .
Sabbaton, Piers Gerard, Winwick, Lancashire
Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster Abbey
Gauntlet, Sir R. L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk
Humphrey Brewster, Wrentham, Suffolk
Margaret, Lady De Camoys, Trotton, Sussex
Joan, Lady De Cobham, Cobham, Kent
Maud, Lady De Cobham, Cobham, Kent
Head, Israayne De Wynston, Necton, Norfolk
Head, liady Stapleton, late at Ingham, Norfolk
LIST OK II.I.IISTHA IIONS.
Head, Lady Havsick, South Acre, Norfolk .
Head, Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland
Head, Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon
Blanche de la Tour (Statuette), Westminster Abbey
Lord and Lady De Camoys, Trotton, Sussex
Head, Ela Bowet, Wrentham, Suffolk
Part of female figure, St. Lawrence's, Norwich
Head (lady unknown), Horley, Surrey
Lady (imknown), Clippesby, Norfolk
Head (lady unknown), St. Swithun's, Norwich
Head, Lady Felbrigg, Felbrigg, Norfolk
Head, Lady Shelton, Great Snoring, Norfolk
Head, Lady Shernbourn, Shernbourne, Norfolk
Head, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex
Head, Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex
Head, Lady Vernon, Tong, Salop .
Head (lady unknown), Luton, Beds
Head, Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex
Lady Clopton, Long Melford, Suffolk .
Head, daughter of Sir T. Urswick, Dagenham, Essex
Head, Margaret Pettwode, St. Clement's, Norwich .
Head, Jane Sylan, Luton, Beds
Head, Goodwyn, Necton, Norfolk
Head, Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk
Head, Cicely Page, Bray, Bucks
Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire
De Bacon, Oulton, Suffolk
Head, Esmond De Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk
End of Stole, Shottesbroke Priest
Priest with crossed Stole, Horsham, Sussex .
Priest, Broxbuurne, Herts ....
Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers
[ Episcopal Vestments ....
Pall, Archbishop Cranley, New College
1554, 1611. Mitres . " .
Pastoral Staff .....
Bishop Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey
Ecclesiastic in a Cope, Hitchin, Herts
Head, Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex
Head, Dr. Urswick, Hackney
Head, Thomas Leman, South Acre, Norfolk
) Richard and Margaret Torrington, Great Berkhampstead
] Herts ......
.' 1 ^^'^
Civilian, Clippesby, Norfolk ....
Ralf Rowlat, St. Alban's Abbey Church
A Notary, Church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich
Sir R. De Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln
William Canynges (part of effigy), St. Mary's, Redcliffe
Knight in banded mail. Croft, Lincoln
John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent
Britellus Avenel, Buxtead, Sussex .
John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex .
Lady, Wimbish, Essex . . . . .
Knight (part of figure), Wimbish, Essex
LIST OF II.I.USTHATIONS.
Nicholas Aumbeidene, Taplow, Bucks
Chalice and Wafer
Joanna Urban, Southfleet, Kent
Small heart with Monosjrain, Hifjham Ferrers
Canopy, Camoys Brass, Trotton, Sussex
Fragment of Canopy, Berkhampstead, Herts
Pinnacle and shield of Arms, Oakover, Stafford
Fragment of Canopy, St. Alban's Abbey Church
Shield of Arms, (Grimston)
Lady .... Clopton, Long Melford, Suffolk
Banner of Arms . . . •
Merchants' Mark, and Shields of Arms of the Merchants of
the Staple, and the Merchants Adventurers
Collars of SS., and of Suns and Roses
Collar of Mermaids, (Badge of the Berkeleys)
Genouilliere, Lord de Camoys
Emblems of the Evangelists, Walsokne Brass
Anne Duke, Frense, Norfolk
Anne Rede, St. Margaret's, Norwich
Wm. and Agues Complyn, (S. Christopher) Wyke, Hants
Abbreviation of the letters D. E. R.
Palimpsest Fragments, St. Alban's Abbey Church
Palimpsest Fragments, late in Trunch Church, Norfolk
Palimpsest Fragments, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich
Knight, (Slab), Avenbury, Herefordshire
Sir John De Botiler, (Slab), St. Bride's, Glamorgan
Solleret and Spur . . . -
Artists at work, (Illumination)
Fragment of Slab, France
Ornament, Delamere Brass
Ornament, Delamere Brass .
Ornament, Delamere Brass
Ornament, Esteney Brass, Westminster Abbey
Civilian, Braunche Brass, Lynn Regis
Part of Canopy, Blodwcll Brass, Balsham, Camb.
Ornament, Delamere Brass .
Part of Figure, Ulrich Landschaden, Germany
Part of Legend, Sir Bernard Brocas, Westminster Abbey
Parts of Legends, Monuments of King Henry IIL and \
' Eleanor of Castile, Westminster Abbey . . \
Achievement of Arms, Say Brass ....
Head, Jane Keriel, Ash, Kent ....
Head, Whissonsett, Norfolk ....
Head, Painted Chamber, Westminster
Two Shields of Arms, Brass of Eleanor De Bohun, West-
minster Abbey ......
St. George, Hawberk Brass, Cobham
Elizabeth Shelley, Clapham, Sussex . . Adver
"THERE IS NO BRANCH OF ARCHEOLOGY MORE INTER-
ESTING TO THE STUDENT, THAN THAT WHICH EMBRACES
THE INVESTIGATION AND ILLUSTRATION OF THE SEPUL-
CHRAL MONUMENTS OF PAST AGES WHETHER IT IS
VIEWED AS ADDUCING AN EVIDENCE OF COSTUME, OR AS
AFFORDING A GLANCE AT THE ARTS AND CUSTOMS OP
FORMER TIMES, OR FROM THE TREASURY OF HERALDIC
KNOWLEDGE WHICH IT FURNISHES, THE iHonumcntal Brass
POSSESSES A PARAMOUNT DEGREE OF VALUE AND UTI-
LITY." — Gentleman's Magazine.
*** It ivill be borne in remembrance that the following pages
were, for the most part, originally read at three Meetings of the
Sf- Alban's Architectural Society.
iMtflUe) SliflBS?^^ M
Having been enabled, by the \ 'Ji^ ^^'^j
kindness of friends, to exhibit to \ Jt^x^^^.
the meeting a choice collection of
rubbings of monumental brasses,
I am induced to hope that on this %,,
occasion a few remarks upon these curious memorials may be re-
garded, as neither inappropriate nor unacceptable. And this hope
is confirmed by the reflection, that of all the examples of medi-
seval art yet remaining, none are better known, none are objects
of more general interest, and that a strictly practical interest, than
these early specimens of the engraver's skill.
2 MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS.
Engraven plates for monumental memorials, or as thej^ are
usually denominated, "Brasses," despite the ruthless spoliation
of fanaticism in one age, and of combined ignorance and dis-
honesty in another, still abound in almost every part of England :
and no less numerous than the brasses themselves is the array,
the association, I would fain style them, of brass-rubbers. The
facility with which fac-simile impressions of brasses can be pro-
duced, and the accuracy and durability of the impressions them-
selves, have doubtless induced many to join in a pursuit, which
they have thus been led to discover to be replete with diversified,
but always valuable, always attractive and interesting information.
It would, perhaps, in the great majority of cases, be difficult to
assign to any other motive than the mere impulse of novelty or
curiosity, the first hasty visit to some brass-preserving fabric, —
the first sweeping away of dust, and spreading out of paper, and
manipulation of heel-ball : — but it would be far more difficult to
shew that it is but mere curiosity which, the charms of novelty
having long passed away, actuates the persevering, the zealous,
and diligent brass-rubber. And, in their vocation, brass-rub-
bers are diligent, zealous, and persevering. There is an asso-
ciation, or rather an inherent quality, in the engraven plate, the
object of the brass-rubber's research, which calls forth feelings and
sentiments far worthier than those of the most refined curiosity.
It is because of their vivid representation of the long dead denizens
of ages past, — because from generation to generation they bring
before us, in all points as they were in life, the prince, the noble,
the lady, the knight, the citizen, and the ecclesiastic, — the mail-
clad warriors who first made Acre a name famous in the annals of
British prowess, — " the victors of Cressy and Poictiers, the knights
of Agincourt,'^ the chieftains of the rival roses, the royal Edwards
and Henrys, the chivalrous Bohuns, and Nevils, and Mortimers,
the Howards, Beauchamps, De Veres, De Greys, and Stanleys :
and with these, a long array of worthies of every rank and calling,
the honoured Delamere, who ruled so worthily over the once
splendid, nay, the still splendid establishment of this ancient
city, Grenfeld and Waldeby of York, Esteney of Westminster,
Goodrich of Ely, Bewforrest of Dorchester : the merchant, too, of
MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS. 6
by-gone centuries, iu long flowing robe faced with miniver, with
his anl.ice and gypciere ; and the civilian in his appropriate gown :
and though last named, far from least in interest, esteem, and wor-
thiness, the fair and virtuous of other days, the heroines of many
a forgotten passage of arms, many a romantic tale, — the Marga-
rets, and Eleanors, and Philippas, whose regal eminence was
enhanced by their lofty deeds, — it is because in the engraven
memorials which mark the last resting-places of these and such
as these, we possess the means of reproducing themselves in no
unreal or fancied costumes, but according to their very images as
they lived and acted, — because we are thus enabled to reinvest
the personages, whose names make history famous, with form
and fashion true to the very life, it is, that the study of monu-
mental brasses is almost invariably pursued with at least some
degree of enthusiasm. And surely, if this pursuit enabled us to
do only thus much, it thus must appear to be well worthy of both
time and labour.
But, much more than has already been suggested, may be
learned from these memorials. To the genealogist they afford
authentic cotemporary evidences : to the herald they furnish
examples of the original usage in bearing arms, and authorities
in the appropriation and adjustment of badges and personal
devices : the architect here will find, in rich variety, the details
and accessories illustrative, as well of peculiar modes of arrange-
ment and combination, as of the distinctive characteristics of style
and design : the chronologist hence may deduce authentic data to
determine, with truly remarkable exactness, successive eras and
epochs : the artist has before him original compositions, illustrating
the early excellence, and then the progressive, though happily only
temporary, decline in the art of such pre-eminent importance, that
of incision : to the general antiquary from the same source widely
diversified information will accrue : the palaeographer also is hence
enabled to fix the distinctive form of letter used at certain periods,
together with the prevalent peculiarities of contraction and abbre-
viation, conformable for the most part to that which is found in
legends depicted upon stained glass, in illuminations, or on en-
graved seals. Of the important judicial testimony deducible from
4 MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS.
brasses, the decision upon the Camoys peerage affords a remarkable
and memorable example. And beyond all, the deep tone of com-
bined piety and humility which characterizes so forcibly these
memorials of the departed, — as well the attitude of the figure, as the
legend on the scroll, contrasting strikingly with the inconsistent
designs, and the vain, and too often flippant encomiums, so pre-
valent in monumental structures of more modern date, — " these
must be our admiration, and ought to be our pattern," — thus, of a
truth, do our ancestors being dead, yet speak with powerful though
But let me now turn to these engraven monuments themselves,
and briefly sketch out their more prominent peculiarities. To the
inconvenience necessarily attendant upon the introduction of nume-
rous figures sculptured in relief, flat monumental memorials doubt-
less owe their origin : the former must occupy space in a church
which could not be spared for monuments, while the slabs and
brasses would off'er no obstruction, and at the same time would
enrich and beautify the fabric in which they were placed. The
durability of the brass plates also, though incidentally subjected to
great and constant attrition, rendered them far more desirable
than sculptured effigies. Thus it is common to find a brass of
the fourteenth century still as essentially perfect as when first laid
down ; whereas monumental statues of much later date generally
shew evident impressions of the hand of time.
Accordingly, about the commencement of the thirteenth century,
the custom appears to have been adopted in this country of affixing
to slabs of marble or stone, portraitures of the deceased engraven
on plates of metal, the slabs themselves being laid in the pavement
of churches, or in some comparatively rare instances placed upon
altar-tombs^. Purbeck marble and sandstone were in common
" Altar-tombs surmounted by brasses more suitable recumbent effigy, merely in
usually occupy a cbantry, or sepulchral compliance with the then prevalent fashion
chapel constructed expressly for their re- of monumental portraiture. It may here
ception; or they commemorate some per- be added, that some few late examples of
sonage having a claim to unusual distinc- brasses occur fixed to mural tablets ; and
tion, as the founder or benefactor of the that, in again securing plates of early date
edifice. In these examples, the brasses which have been loosed from their original
themselves appear to have superseded the slabs, a similar position has sometimes been
MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS. O
use for this purpose ; and more particularly slabs of forest marble
from the Kirkford quarries in Sussex. The metal employed in
constructing the engravings was denominated latten, laten, or laton,
and appears to have been a compound somewhat resembling brass,
but more costly and far more durable than that alloy. It was
manufactured exclusively on the continent, previous to the middle
of the seventeenth century, and from thence imported into this
country. In Flanders and Germany, and especially at the city of
Cologne, this manufacture was carried to the highest perfection ;
as may be inferred from the Beauchamp-chapel contracts, which
provide that the metallic accessories and ornaments of the tomb of
the earl of Warwick should be " made, forged, and worked in most
finest wise, and of the finest latten:" the "large plate," which
should sustain the recumbent efiigy, being further specified as " to
be made of the finest and thickest Cullen plate" the latten, that is,
of Cologne. In shields of arms and those portions of the effigies
which were designed to be tinctured argent, a white metal now
presenting a pewter-like appearance, or lead, was in general use.
These plates were embedded in pitch, and also firmly secured to
the stone by means of cramps and rivets of brass ^.
The earliest recorded example of a brass in England, is the long-
lost memorial of Simon de Beauchamp, earl of Bedford, who com-
pleted the foundation of Newenham abbey, and dying before A.D.
1 208, was buried at the foot of the high altar in St. Paul's church,
Bedford ; his epitaph was engraven in brass, and set on a flat marble
slab, each letter being inserted in its own separate casement or cavity
sunk in the stone ; a portion of it has been preserved in memory, —
" 3Bc i^cllo ©ampo jacct I)tc gub marmorc ^tmon funtiator Dc
Jocelyn, bishop of Wells, who died in 1242, had a brass in the
adopted: in either case, this arrangement also desirable to embed the plate in pitch,
is altogether at variance with the true cha- in accordance with the original practice,
racter of this species of monument. If additional security be considered requi-
l> In refixing brasses which, from what- site, spikes of iron might be soldered to the
ever cause, have become detached from under side of the plate, in such a manner
their original slabs, it is very important as to avoid any contact between the brass
that brass-headed nails, or rather small and iron, and these may be riveted to the
spikes entirely of brass, be used. It is stone.
6 MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS.
clioir of that cathedral : and on the north side of the choir of
Salisbury cathedral, the matrix or indent of the brass of Bishop
Bingham may still be distinguished; this prelate died A.D. 1247,
and his brass appears to have consisted of a cross flory with a
demi-figure <^. Richard de Berkyng, abbot of Westminster, who
died A.D. 1246, had his effigy in pontificalibus, with a fillet bearing
an inscription in brass. Bishop Gravesend, A.D. 1279, had a
brass in Lincoln cathedral : Bishop Longspee, A.D. 1297, at
Salisbury: and Ehas de Beckenham, A.D. 1298, at Botsford,
Cambridgeshire. At Much-Hadham in this county a fine cross
flory has been torn from a slab, which still retains the name of
Simon Flambard, rector of that church at a period not later than
A.D. 1280. x\nother cross once enriched the pavement of the
chancel of Pulham church in Norfolk ; it was the memorial of
Simon de Walpole, rector, A.D. 1301. "Ela, countess of War-
wick," says Leland, " a woman of very great riches and nobilitie,
lyethe under a very fair, flat marble, in the habit of a woves,
(vowess or nun,) graven in a copper-plate." She died A.D. 1300.
In the choir of our abbey-church lies a slab, once adorned with
an effigy of an abbot in brass, with a legend : this is certainly
of a very early date, and as certainly commemorates an Abbot
John; but whether John de Cella, A.D. 1214, John de Hertford,
A.D. 1260, John de Berkhamsted, A.D. 1301, or John Marinus,
A.D. 1308, it now is impossible to decide. Other brasses, some
of them gilded, are described by Dart and Leland, which were
decidedly anterior to the earliest known existing specimens, those
of Sir John D'Aubernoun, A.D. 1277, Sir Roger de Trumping-
ton, A.D. 1289, and the demi-figure of Sir Richard de Busling-
thorpe, of about the same date. After the close of the thirteenth
century examples rapidly increase. Their original abundance is
attested by the vast collection of despoiled slabs existing in almost
every church : in our own noble abbey-church, scarce an early stone
remains which has not its own deed of spoliation to denounce.
And doubtless the pews, those unsightly excrescences of modern
c A matrix of precisely similar character St. Alban's abbey-church : itisthememo-
and very deeply cut, appears on the face rial of a priest, and decidedly of early date,
of a slab lying in the south transept of
MONUMENTAL BEASSES AND SLABS. 7
times, conceal numerous and important additions to the long
series of brasses, known and recorded as yet extant^. Notwith-
standing their abundance, however, and a certain general simi-
larity of character particularly apparent in brasses of about the
same date, or which were probably the productions of the same
artist, so varied was the treatment of these compositions, that no
two specimens have hitherto been noticed, which in all respects are
It is remarkable that, in the earliest examples, a far higher
degree of artistic excellence is manifested, than at a subsequent
period : the designs are more bold, simple, and spirited ; and the
execution generally more skilful and meritorious. Breadth of com-
position, and true artistic feeling in the management of details,
combined with a power of energetic expression effected by the
simplest process, characterize almost universally these early engrav-
ings. But, when the arts in all other respects became generally
advanced, these monumental plates appear, without exception,
to have lost almost every trace of that high excellence as works of
art, which they once so signally displayed. Nor is it less worthy of
remark, that these incised monumental plates were produced in
abundance, and in high perfection, more than two centuries previous
to the discovery of the art of engraving plates of metal for the pur-
pose of impression. To Mazo Finiquerra, a goldsmith of Florence
who flourished about the year 1460, is assigned the distinguished
honour of having made the discovery of copper-plate engraving,
properly so called : and thus, during no less a period than 250
years, with an abundance of engraven plates in existence, all of
which were expressly calculated to produce fac-simile copies by
means of impression, the art of taking impressions remained
altogether unknown. It ought, however, to be borne in mind,
that brasses, to be available as engraven plates for printing,
require to be in the state in which we now generally find them ;
having, that is to say, their incised lines clear and open for the
reception of the printer's inkf whereas originally the work was
considered to be incomplete, until the lines were filled-in with
^ Instances have been known of fine ing, or by the erection of new or additional
brasses being covered over by modern floor- pews.
O MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS.
some black or coloured composition : and thus, before leaving
the artist's hands in the first instance, these engra\dngs were re-
stored to an unbroken uniformity of surface, and consequently
while in that state they were deprived of their faculty of pro-
I have spoken of brasses as occupying a prominent position
amongst the productions of mediaeval art ; still we now see them
shorn of the completeness of their original beauty and magnifi-
cence. " The sepulchral brass in its original and perfect state, was
a work rich and beautiful in decoration." The surface of the plate
was gilt and burnished ; the outlines were filled-in with some tena-
cious substance of a glossy blackness : and the diapered field, the
tracery, the tabernacle work, the armorial insignia, and the various
decorations of rank or office, all glowed with enamel of diversified
and vivid colours. The injuries of time and wanton mischief,
together with the expansion and contraction of the metal, have
left us but few traces of this once gorgeous decoration. Enough,
however, is left to convey some idea of what has been lost ; and,
better still, enough to guide us faithfully in effecting the restora-
tion of original examples, and also in the execution of other works
of like character and design.
Some few of the brasses yet existing in this country are of foreign
workmanship, and were for the most part imported from Flanders.
These were worked in one unbroken plate of metal'', the field
being richly diapered to display the figures, shields of arms, archi-
tectural designs, devices and inscriptions : whereas in brasses of
English manufacture, the effigy, canopy, escutcheons and inscrip-
tions were engraven on separate pieces of metal, and each piece
placed in a distinct casement or indent of form corresponding
with its own, sunk in the face of the grey marble slab, which
thus became the field or back-ground of the entire work. This
difference between the continental and English brasses may, in
all probability, be accounted for, from the circumstance of the
greater facility in obtaining large plates of metal on the conti-
e These brasses really are constructed of so united as to present the appearance of
several pieces of metal ; but these are all one unbroken plate.
nent, wliere, as has already been observed, the latten-plate was
Besides the distinction thus produced, brasses may generally
be divided into four classes, — the Ecclesiastical, the Military, the
Civil, and the Miscellaneous : the former three severally exhibiting
effigies of ecclesiastics, warriors, civilians, and ladies, while the
latter comprises all simple inscriptions, with every variety of de-
vice, whether emblematical or otherwise, which is unaccompanied
by any effigy, or in which such effigies as may be introduced
must be regarded as subordinate members of the composition.
A further, and that a most important classification of brasses, is
according to their chronological succession : and here the most ad-
vantageous system will be found to arrange the examples in classes,
corresponding with the eras of cotemporaneous sovereigns.
Of the Flemish Brasses yet remaining
in England, seven bear strong, and indeed
convincing internal evidence, of having
been produced by the same artist : these
are the splendid memorials at Lynn, Nor-
folk, of Adam de "Walsokne and his wife,
A.D. 1349, and of Robert Braunche with
his two wives, A.D. 1364; of another civi-
lian and his lady at TopclifF, near Thirsk,
in Yorkshire, bearing date A.D. 1391 ; of
Alan Fleming, A.D. 1361, at Newark;
of Abbot Thomas Delamere, in the abbey-
church of St. Alban ; of a priest in eucha-
ristic vestments at North Mimms, near
St. Alban^s ; and of another ecclesiastic
similarly attired, at Wensley, Yorkshire;
in both of these two last-named effigies the chalice is intro-
duced, but in neither of them is it represented as grasped in the
hands, in the former being placed upon the figure below the up-
Compartment of De'amere
St. Albans c A.D. 1370
* To the same circumstance of the con-
struction of their material in the Low
Countries, must be assigned the greater
prevalence of brasses in those counties
which were most easy of access from the
continent, and where the woollen manufac-
tory was principally carried on.
10 FLEMISH BRASSES.
raised hands, in the latter above the hands, which are crossed and
point downwards ^ : these two brasses differ from the five previously
enumerated, in being without the diapered back-ground of metal ;
the Wensley priest is simply an effigy; while in the example at
North Mimms the effigy is cut clear of the canopy, and only con-
nected at the base of the design with the rest of the plate ; it is,
however, highly probable that originally this brass consisted of one
unbroken plate, the back-ground having at some subsequent period
been removed. The canopy of this brass has been remarked as
bearing a striking resemblance to the sedilia, constructed so gene-
rally near the altars of churches, for the officiating priests : the
association thus indicated is curious, and indeed important.
To these seven examples of the works of the same Flemish brass
engraver, an eighth may be added, though now no longer in exist-
ence : it was the brass of Robert Attelathe, A.D. 1378, also once at
Lynn Regis, from which Cotman has given the effigy of Attelathe
himself, drawn after Gough. Neither can I here omit to notice a
fragment of yet another Flemish brass, an impression from which
has recently come into my possession, and which without hesitation
I assign to the same masterly hand. The original is, I believe, in the
possession of Mr. Pugin'. It represents the head of an abbot or bishop,
wearing a most costly mitre, and having on the left side a pastoral
staff of corresponding richness : the head rests upon an elaborately
diapered cushion, and is inclosed within the upper portion of an
arched canopy, bearing a strong resemblance to that of Abbot Dela-
mere; to which the fragment is, in all respects, equal, if not superior,
both in design and execution. The fragment corresponds precisely
with the similar portion of the brass of the St. Alban's abbot ; pos-
sibly it may be the sole relic of the ample and doubtless splendid
plate, once affixed to the large marble slab, recorded to mark the
spot where Michael de Mentmore, twenty-ninth abbot of St. Alban,
was buried A.D. 134.2, and which still lies, a memento of sacri-
s In both the Wensley and North depicted in brasses. Here the consecrated
Minims' brasses the chalice is covered vessels are represented as lying upon the
vyith an inverted paten. The position of breast of the deceased minister, as they
the chalice in these figures strongly cor- really were placed upon his remains when
roborates the opinion of the recumbeHt utti- prepared for interment,
tudo, designed almost universally to be
CIRCA AD. 13 7 5 48" (£dUl : 111.
BIBILAMERE, ABB^T (D)'F ST AJLJBAIf S .
DIED A.D. 139 6.
In ttie Abiey Churcli of S' Albans
( Canopy &c. omitted.}
Jli. Johhins, ftci-b
FLEMISH BRASSES. 11
legious spoliation, at tlie foot of the altar-steps in his abbey
The brass of Abbot Delaraere, the finest existing specimen by far
of an ecclesiastical brass, was formerly attached to the surface of a
large slab of Purbeck marble, still lying immediately at the foot of
the steps to the altar, on the south side of the choir in the abbey
church of St. Alban : but having been, for some reason, removed
from its original slab, and seriously, though it is to be hoped not
irreparably injured, it has now been placed, for security, within
the adjoining chauntry of Abbot John de Wheathamstede, from
which the brass of that eminent personage has been abstracted, and
his tomb destroyed. Delamere himself, the thirtieth of the forty
abbots of St. Alban, was son of Sir John Delamere, and his wife
Joanna, daughter of Sir John de Harpsfield. Having commenced
his studies at the cell of Wymondham, in Norfolk, he first became
prior of Tynemouth, whence, in the year 1349, he was elevated to
the abbacy. Learned, pious, and munificent, he was high in favour
with King Edward III. : and having ruled worthily over the first of
the abbeys of England for the long space of forty-seven years, he
died in 1396, and was buried before the altar of his church, by the
side of Richard de Wallingford, one of his predecessors '. The mag-
nificent production of the art of engraving, prepared under his own
superintendence for his monumental memorial, represents the pre-
late in full eucharistic habit, of a costly richness suited to the supe-
rior of the church and monastery of the British protoraartyr : his
amice, alb, stole, maniple, tunic, dalmatic and chesuble, are all
wrought with the purest taste combined with the most elaborate
splendour : his hands, crossed, and tending downwards in all
humility, are covered with jewelled gloves; his feet are encased
■» This abbot had the following epitaph, sibility of the fragment above described,
which, as Gough remarks, "one now in having been originally engraved to com-
vain seeks for among the many mitred memorate Abbot Michael of St. Alban's, is,
gravestones in his choir, though extant in of course, nothing more than mere conjec-
Weever's time : ture.
1|lt jacEt Ijommits pticbael qtwniJam ' The large and evidently splendid brass
abttas i^uius monasterii, haccalaurcus in of Abbot de Wallingford, A.D. 1335, has
tf)£0l. qui oftiit pritJic iDus ^prilis, ?lnn. been torn from its slab: and the adjacent
JH.SCCD.XIEIE." slab, that of Abbot Hugo d' Eversden,
The opinion advanced respecting the pos- A.D. 1326, has been similarly despoiled.
in richly embroidered sandals; on his head is the mitra preciosa ;
and on his left arm rests his splendid pastoral staff; while the
calm and dignified countenance conveys the very impersonation
of solemn repose. The effigy, placed upon a field of exquisite
diaper, is surmounted, or rather enclosed, by a canopy, itself a
wonderful work of art. On this canopy, divided throughout into
minor canopied compartments, in the uppermost central part is
represented the Saviour enthroned, having on either side two
angelic figures ; and beyond these, on either side, are seated the
Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul ; below, on either side of the head
of the abbot, stand St. Alban, leaning on a sword, and in his left
hand grasping a cross, and Offa, king of Mercia, the founder of
the church and monastery, crowned and holding a spear : below
these, on either side, are six double canopies surmounting figures,
of which six represent the Apostles John, Andrew, Thomas, James
the Great, Bartholomew, and probably Phihp; in the other six
figures apparently are represented
saints or prophets, or possibly bene-
factors to the church. These six last-
named effigies wear crowns, or other
head-coverings, while the head of each
of the apostolic figures is encircled
with a nimbus, and the figures them-
selves present a more majestic aspect.
The annexed engraving represents one
of these double-canopied compart-
ments with the efl&gies of St; Bartho-
lomew and another saint. Above, the
great canopy is finished with the roof
and profusely clustered pinnacles of a
gorgeous shrine, of which the sides
are composed of the doubly-canopied
compartments before described; be-
yond these sides appears the diapered
field, except at the foot, which presents
an elaborate basement : and the en-
tire work is completed by a broad compartment of Ca.opy of D.,a™ere
Brass. St. Alban 's.
fillet, having at the angles the evangelistic emblems, and in
the midst of either side, in a quatrefoiled panel, a shield bear-
ing on a bend, three eagles displayed. The greater part of this
fillet, which is fin- l^
ished externally by |<^
a series of alternate cz
square and rounded roses, is plain ; but the upper portion, and
somewhat more than
half the left side, bear
in Longobardic cha-
racters of unsurpassed
boldness, the com-
mencement of a never
completed legend run-
ning thus: — "Hic JACET DoMiNus Thomas, quondam abbas
Hujus MONASTERii." The customary initial cross
is worthy of notice : in allusion to the arms of
the abbey, (azure, a saltire, or,) it stands saltire-
wise, and is surmounted of a more delicately
formed floriated cross, tending to the cardinal
points. Of the identity of the individual thus,
it is to be hoped, imperishably commemorated, notwithstanding
the omission of his surname in the inscription, there can be no
doubt. From his Christian name Thomas, one or other of the
abbots, Thomas Delamere, who died A.D. 1396, and Thomas
Eamryge, who died A.D. 1525, is, of necessity, indicated. Of
the latter prelate the incised slab yet remains : and, independently
of other and that conclusive testimony, the internal evidence of
both the design and engraving of the brass itself assigns it,
without doubt, to the thirtieth abbot, Thomas Delamere, the first
of that Chistian name ^.
Of somewhat earlier date, and on the whole perhaps even supe-
rior to this his great ecclesiastical work, are the famous Lynn
Initial Cross, Delamere
I" The St. Alban's Architectural Society
have in preparation an engraving on wood
of this noble brass, by Mr. O. Jewitt ; and
the plate itself is about to have its injuries
restored by the Messrs. Waller : — A most
interesting memoir of Abbot Delamere is
given by Mr. W. S. Gibson in his history
of the IMonastery at Tynemouth, a cell of
the abbey of St. Alban.
Another brass of a Delamere occurs in
the cathedral at Hereford ; it is the memo-
rial of Richard Delamere, A.D. 1421.
brasses of the same artist. These master-pieces of " this Cellini
of the fourteenth century/' as Gough not inaptly designates him,
are both contained in the church of St. Margaret at Lynn Regis,
and commemorate two burghers of that once wealthy mercantile
town, with their wives. Of these, the former, Adam de Walsokne,
has left no other memorial of his existence than this splendid
monument, which exhibits ef&gies of himself and Margaret his
wife, placed under a doubly-arched canopy, richly fohated, crock-
eted, and finialed. The side-shafts of this canopy, after the man-
ner of the St. Alban's brass, contain on either side four pairs of
figures • in canopied niches, the uppermost pair on each side having
two smaller sitting figures between them and the. canopy next
below : from these uppermost niches spring the arches of the two
grand sub-divisions of the main canopy, while above them rise
elaborate turret-like finials, composed of clustered buttresses with
crocketed-pinnacles, &c. From these, arch-buttresses diverge to
the crest of the main canopy: this is worked in two compart-
ments, each surmounting one of the principal eflBgies, and each
containing three elaborate canopied niches with nimbed figures.
Between the principal effigies rises a slender niched shaft, which
is finished above with a splendid pinnacle. Of this pinnacle the
finial is made to pierce the outer fillet, which forms the border of
the entire plate : this arrangement, productive of the happiest
efi'ect, is repeatedly introduced in all the greater works of this
artist". I may here also notice the finials, crockets, and folia-
Finial. crockets and cusping, Walsokne brass.
' Figures of the twelve apostles (in- " The central finial of the canopy of
eluding St. Paul) are introduced, in con- Prior Nelond's superb brass at Cowfold,
nection with others, in the composition of Sussex, is another instance of this most
this canopy. effective arrangement.
tions of the main arches of the canopies in this and the other
great Flemish brasses; the latter are most beautifully double-
feathered, and the cusping of the whole is managed with consum-
mate skill. In the Walsokne brass, the diapered field exhibits
dragons, butterflies, and various other figures ; and this forms a com-
plete back-ground to the entire work". At the foot of the brass, the
architectural design springs from a regular basement, having, in
two compartments, curious designs comprising groups of figures,
with animals and trees °. Beneath the lowermost niches in the two
exterior and central shafts of the canopy, are five small figures. The
border fillet is double, the outer being ornamented with roses, the
inner charged with a legend encompassing the whole work : at the
angles are the evangelistic emblems within quatrefoils : in the fillet
at the head and foot, at regular intervals, in similar quatrefoils, are
two shields ; the one at the foot of the effigy of Adam de Walsokne
himself, displaying the letter ?f surmounted of a cross patee-fitclie
within an orle of roses : on either side of the fillet are three other
similar quatrefoils, each central one containing a shield, that on the
dexter side charged with the royal arms, (France and England
quarterly, — France, semee de lys;)
and in each of the other four quatre-
foils the figure of an angel. The heads
of both the principal effigies rest on
elaborately embroidered cushions, sup-
ported by angels : De Walsokne him-
self is represented with flowing hair,
but without any beard or moustaches :
he is habited in a plain close tunic,
open in front from the waist down-
ward ; the sleeves of this tunic, which
are also close, reach no lower than
the bend of the arm, and thence
they hang down in short lappets : Adam ae waisokne, ad. 1319
" The diaper of the field of the St. Alban's
brass consists of small elaborately foiled
compartments, each containing a figure of
a dragon or a clustered trefoil ; and this
same design is repeated in the diaper of
the brass of Alan Fleming at Newark.
" These are figured iu Waller's Brasses.
id, Margaret De WalB
from beneath these appear the tight sleeves of the under vest,
fastened to the wrist with a closely set row of buttons ; the
skirts of this under garment appear through the narrow open-
ing in the front of the super-tunic. Over his slioulders is
a short capuchon or hood, hanging down in front, but having
behind a standing collar. The feet are encased in plain half-
boots, laced within ; and below them is represented a lion prey-
ing on a savage man. The lady wears on her head a cover-
chef and wimple, her hair being dis-
posed in braids : her ample tunic is
plain, but with a rich border; its
sleeves resemble those of her hus-
band; the skirt is gathered up under
the right arm, and hanging down in
hea\y folds, shews beneath a richly
embroidered close vest; over all is a
flowing mantle, having a border cor-
responding with that of the tunic : at
the feet rests a dog. The inscription, commencing a little to the
left of the centre of the fillet at the base of the composition, runs
thus, in Longobardic characters, — •' ^i?ic \acct SlDam Dc Mlabofenc
^uonDam 9l3urgcu5 Scnn, qui obtit qutnto Die mcn^ig %Mnii anno Mni
millfSimo trtccnte^stmo quaDrigcsimo nono i^Hargcrcta uxor ciug
in ©lege nata quourum anime par IBet migerttotlitam in pace requtescant.
amen." Another legend, in the same character, and facing upwards,
is introduced beneath either compartment of the group at the foot
of the principal effigies ; it comprises two lines of doubly-rhyming
Latin : —
" ®um flai, cum Umug cum Ke btltssitma si'mug
2EnDe superbimug aD tetram terra rctimus."
Of an ancient and well-known family, Robert Braunche is the
other Lynn merchant, whose brass forms the companion to that of
De Walsokne : its date is fifteen years later, A.D. 1364, the 27th
of Edward III. In this brass three principal personages appear,
and consequently a comparatively smaller space is left for accesso-
ries in this, than in the preceding composition. Here the canopy
comprises three arches, which, besides their elaborate foliation.
D. 1364. 37" &XCI. Ill
/J?. Johbuis, Wi,.
!ttT JBMAUMCHE MARGARET BH.AU1CC]
In S'MVrargaxet's QiiltcIi, Ithtl Re|is, JNorfolt.
(Canopy &c. omitted.)
FLEMISH BRASSES. 17
display in perspective the vaulting of their soffits p : between the
effigies are very slender shafts ornamented with a running pattern,
which is continued over the sweep of the arches, and externally be-
yond the two outer figures : in close contact with this, rise, on either
side, the slender singly-niched main shafts of the upper canopy,
each exhibiting, in four canopied compartments, as many figures,
two male, and two female, in the habits of civilians of the period.
The main canopy is triple ; each subdivision being separated from,
and also connected with, the others by arch-buttresses, and termi-
nating above in tabernacle work of most elaborate richness : five
canopied figures are introduced into each of these three upper
compartments; the central figure of each group is aged, and
seated on a throne; and of the other four figures in each group,
two represent angels with thuribles, and two similar angelic forms
hold instruments of music. The border fillet, which here also is
double, immediately adjoins the shafts of the canopy : at its angles
are the emblems of the Evangelists ; and in the centre of either
side, within a quatrefoil, is a shield, the dexter charged with the
arms of France and England quarterly, and the sinister with sable,
a cross engrailed, or, for Braunche. The diapered field of the com-
position, with its flowered and figured patterns, appears beside the
effigies, and as a back-ground to the upper main canopy. The cos-
tume of the three persons thus commemorated exhibits in all, an
outer garment or tunic, which fits closely to the person, and has
short sleeves with long pendent lappets, thus displaying from above
the elbow the sleeves of the under vest. In the male figure, these
sleeves have embroidered cuff's, and they are fastened by a close row
of small buttons : the general arrangement of this figure resembles
that of De Walsokne ; the tunic is made open in front ; the shoes
are laced over the instep ; and at the feet is the same singular allego-
rical composition ; here, however, in place of a lion is an eagle. The
two ladies wear each a coverchef and wimple : and the full, plain,
but richly bordered drapery of the tunic is gathered up, in the one
under the right, and in the other under the left arm, displaying
below the superb embroidery of the under dress. The sleeves of
these splendid garments also appear from the elbow. The heads
P This is by no means an uncommon arrangement in the canopies of brasses.
18 FLEMISH BRASSES.
of all three figures rest on cushions of rich workmanship. The
inscription^ which occupies the entire inner portion of the border
fillet, commences at the upper right hand angle; in the Longo-
bardic character, its words are, —
**»J<©ratc jpro antma6u3 Iflobetti 35tauncl)e Scticic ct JWargaretc uiorum
ejus ct pro omnibus quibus tcncntur qut quiDfin Kobertiig obUt XV Ue
©ctobtig anno IBomtnl 0i(i^&&^MM% anime fotum pec mi^erkorHtam
13ct in pace rcqulcscant. ^mcn."
The most remarkable feature in this noble brass yet remains to
be noticed : it is the " Peacock Feast," represented in the compart-
ment immediately below the three principal figures, and extending
across the entire composition. This most curious, and indeed
unique delineation of " Early English" civic hospitality, comme-
morates the entertainment given by the mayor of Lynn to King
Edward III., when on his journey to visit his mother at Castle-
Rising. At the head of the table sits the monarch, wearing his
royal crown : be' him is the cup of King John : the table is
spread with "splL ^id delicacies," amongst which appears "the
peacock, that nobP bird, the food of lovers, and the meat of lords,"
without which no princely banquet could worthily be furnished.
Here the favourite dish appears served up with distinguished hon-
ours ; it is to grace the board of a king, and minstrels with music
and song greet its entrance. The guests on this august occasion
are clad in mantles which, being worn open in front, disclose the
body-armour worn beneath, and which usually is concealed by the
surcoat *i. No belts or arms are worn, it not being consistent with
due etiquette to sit down armed coram rege. Sheffield whittles,
however, are in readiness for the service of the table. The ladies have
put aside their mantles and vests with pendent sleeves, and adopted
over a close-fitting tunic the sleeveless cote-hardi, open at its sides
from the shoulders to the hips, and closed in front, and guarded
or faced with fur. Their hair is plaited. And pointed sollerets
are worn by all, who are engaged in earnest conversation. The
back-ground was coloured of a light blue, spangled with silver
1 The general vestment the surcoat, ju- is receiving a dish from one of the attend-
pon, or cote d'armes, in this group only ants,
appears on the person of the esquire, who
A.. D, 13H1 . 3'1" tfdui:UI.
( Canopy Si.o. ojniUed.. )
^.R Jobhins . Fecib,
FLEMISH BRASSES. 19
stars, in a manner resembling the decoration employed in the
Painted Chamber at Westminster, a fashion introduced during the
reign of Henry III.
The now lost brass of Robert Attelathe appears, from the exist-
ing impression of the eflfigy of Attelathe himself, to have formed a
worthy compeer to those of his fellow citizens, Braunche and De
Walsokne. He wears the small bifid beard, trimmed after the
fashion represented in the monumental effigy of Richard II. His
tunic is long and somewhat loose, with plain sleeves ; it is fastened
down the front by buttons in pairs. Fastened also by buttons on
the right shoulder is a mantle or cloak, having a small capuchon
which forms a species of standing collar; this cloak hangs across
the breast and over the left arm. Round the waist a narrow belt
is buckled : the sleeves of the under tunic are continued to cover
the clasped hands, after the fashion of embroidered mittens: the
shoes are long, pointed, and cut very high behind ; they are fas-
tened over the instep with buckles, and rest iipon two lions.
Remarkable no less for its ample dimensions'" than elaborate
richness of details, the brass of Alan Fleming, A.D. 1361, at
Newark, displays a system of treatment generally corresponding
with that already described as exemplified in the Lynn and
St. Alban^s works of the same artist. Here but one principal
effigy, that of Fleming himself, is introduced beneath a triple-
arched canopy, which abounds in niched figures, and is supported
by massive side compartments of most elaborate workmanship.
The costume of the principal effigy is almost a counterpart of that
worn at Lynn by Robert Braunche ; the sole diflference worthy of
note being the introduction here of pockets in front of the super-
tunic. Between the uplifted hands is held a scroll, bearing the
legend, — " miserere . mei . domine . deus . meus." And the head
reposes on an embroidered cushion supported by angels. The
diaper of the field in this composition resembles in design that
introduced into the brass of Abbot Delamere. The effigies in the
niches of the canopy exemplify several curious and interesting
varieties of civic costume, both male and female. The architec-
tural designs are even unusually excellent and effective. And the
r This brass measures 9 ft. 5 in. by 5 ft. 7 in.
20 FLEMISH BRASSES.
border fillet, which has on either side of it an elegant running
pattern of foliage, is inscribed, in the early Black letter, with a
legend which surrounds the entire plate. At the angles are the
evangelistic emblems ; and in the centre of either side, the con-
tinuity of the border fillet is interrupted by a quatrefoil containing
a merchant's mark accompanied by a monogram.
The brass at Topcliff" is of considerably
smaller dimensions; but its merit, as a
work of art, is of the very highest order.
It represents, beneath a doubly-arched
canopy, the effigies of a civilian and his
lady, both attired in long tunics and man-
tles ; the man wears, at his right side, an
anlace. Tabernacle work, with figures
of angels playing upon musical instru-
ments, appears on either side, and rises
. . /> • 1 Thomas deTopcliffe, A. D. 1391.
above the effigies into clusters of niches,
pinnacles, and rich tracery. The effigies are placed upon a ground
of diaper of a flowing pattern, and beneath their heads are em-
broidered cushions, each supported from above by an angelic figure
with out-spread wings. The inscription, in Black letter, beginning
at the middle of the plate, at the foot, runs as follows : —
♦•»J< l^ic . \actt . benctabtU^ topclgff . qui . oU\t .an
J^o.Cr^^o.a^'F" . quoru' . ani'e .... quoiiDam . uxor . cius . que . obiit .
anno . Domini . iKo, @@@o. ^*®3I°. quoru' . ani'c . propicietur . teug."
On either side is introduced an escutcheon with these arms, a
chevron between three peg-tops,- and the evangelistic symbols
appear in the angles of the plate. This brass is mentioned by
Gough, who gives the name Thomas de topclyff, of which the
Christian name now is lost.
The chaliced priests at North Mimms and Wensley complete the
series of this engraver's works, known yet to remain in England :
these are by far the finest examples of engraven priestly effigies,
and are both in excellent preservation. These plates belong to
about the middle of the fourteenth century, and notwithstanding
the splendour of the ecclesiastical vestments which they represent.
CIKTA A.-D. 1360^ 34'^ &>\». lU.
PRIEST IE- EmCHAMISTIC VESTJIE:^T§.
la Wensley Chiiroi., YoAshire.
( Canopj onutted.)
JJi Johitrui. Fed^.
ClRCA A - D 13riO
J Jf Mhns hA
ECCLESIASTIC IK' JEITCHAH^llSTIC VESTMTENTS
North Mimms Cliuroli, Hertfordshire.
( CaxiopT omUtpd.l
FLEMISH BllASSES. 21
were designed to commemorate personages of no higher rank than
parochial ministers, though possibly the founders or special bene-
factors of their respective churches ^ It is remarkable that the
names of both these individuals have "floated away down the
stream of time, leaving behind no trace of their" identity. The
dates of these brasses having been assigned to them from com-
parison with other works of similar character, it may be presumed
that Nicholas de Crekesawe, rector of Wensley, A.D. 1360, and
Thomas de Horton, vicar of North Mimms at the same period, are
the persons designed to be thus commemorated *.
It is remarkable that no vestiges of colour or enamel yet remain
upon any of these grand engravings : it may, however, be confi-
dently asserted that the incised lines were originally filled-in with
some composition, calculated to relieve and enrich those portions of
the work in which the burnished, or perhaps gilded, metal was
permitted to remain. Among the peculiarities of treatment com-
mon to all these brasses, with the works of the same artist yet
remaining at Bruges, the manner in which the mouth is expressed
in all the principal effigies is very remarkable : in the diapers,
embroideries, and ornamental accessories also, animal forms
abound, in connection with a striking predominance of triplicity
in the arrangement of parts and details : and the various archi-
tectural members are characterized by an elaborate richness, com-
bined with the most elegant lightness. The crockets and finials
of the canopies are indeed singularly beautiful; and these are
' The beautiful little church at North cution, to that of Abbot Delamere. Be-
Mimms, a pure Decorated English- Gothic tween the feet of the effigy a stag is couched ;
structure, agrees well with the date of the and below are two lions addorsed, support-
fine brass which lies in the midst of the ing a basement to the general design, and
chancel : of the architectural character of having between them a shield charged with
the church at Wensley I am unable to a saltire between four crosses crosslet fit-
speak. North Minims' church is figured chee : I lament that I am by far too im-
in the work on "Parish Churches," by perfect a herald to assign this coat of arms
Raphael and J. A. Brandon, Esqrs., archi- to its right possessor.
tects, and some of its details appear in the t Xhe original engraving on the Palimp-
" Analysis of Gothic Architecture," by the sest fragment from Trunch, Norfolk, evi-
same accurate and talented authors. dently a Flemish work, ma)'^ possibly have
The canopy of the priest at North been executed by the same artist with
Mimms, it may here be added, is in all Lynn, St. Alban's, aaid Newark brasses,
respects similar in style, design, and exe- See pages 40, and 149.
22 FLEMISH BRASSES.
commonly relieved by being placed upon a ground which is
masoned, worked, that is, to represent courses of masonry". It
appears also to have been a favourite habit with this artist to
introduce at the feet of his effigies two figures of animals, placed
together back to back, in the language of heraldry, addorsed.
In these plates also is several times repeated a singular and some-
what quaint expression of the artistes idea of the translation of the
departed spirit, under the image of a very minute undraped figure,
borne on high and placed on the knees of an august personage,
enthroned, and having his head encircled with a nimbus. In the
greater number of these foreign examples, as also in some few
others, the heads of the principal effigies are represented as repos-
ing upon embroidered cushions, the cushions themselves being in
some instances supported by small figures of angels; in other
examples, as in the fine brass of Alianore de Bohun, A.D. 1399, in
Westminster abbey, and also in that of Sir Richard de Busling-
thorpe more than a century earlier, there are two cushions, the one
laid lozenge-wise upon the other : when the brass, or its fac-simile,
is placed in an upright position, these cushions have a singular and
disagreeable eff'ect ; but when laid down horizontally, they appear
to be both consistent and ornamental appendages of the recumbent
In Aveley church, Essex, is another Flemish brass, bearing date
A.D. 1370, the 43rd of Edward III. : this commemorates Ralph
de Knevynton, whose singularly curious and interesting effigy it
represents beneath a crocketed and richly foiled canopy^. At
Newcastle, bearing date A.D. 1429, is the only known Flemish
specimen of the fifteenth century : it commemorates Roger Thorn-
ton, his wife, and family, and is a large and fine brass. The prin-
cipal effigies, depicted as habited in the ordinary costume of
civilians of their day, are placed beneath elaborately wrought
canopies, containing, as in the earlier examples, numerous figures
of saints in canopied niches. The children, who are fourteen in
number, are represented under small canopies, below the figures
of their parents. The principal figures fill the entire space be-
tween the shafts of the canopy, and their heads rest on cushions
" See cut at page 12. » See p. 51.
FLEMISH BRASSES. 23
supporter! by angels. The man wears a long anlace. At the
angles of the composition are the evangelistic emblems; and a
shield of arms in the centre of either side-fillet completes the
diversified enrichment of this interesting and valuable plate. The
inscription, which is written in the black letter, is as follows, —
^ ^}k . facet . Domicclla . agncsi . quoDam . uxor . rogert . tj^ornloii . que .
obilt . in . bi'gcUa . ganctc . featcrinc . anno . Domini . iW. ®©©©. dCl. pro=
pt'clctur . Ocus . amen, t^ |l?tc facet rogerug t&ornton mcator . nofat . castri
super . ttnam . qui . obtit . anno . Dnt . miUegimo . ®@®©. ^*^.3I^\ et iij.
Die . fanuartf.
Two other Flemish brasses of later date have also been noticed :
these are the memorials of Thomas Pownder, his wife, and family,
A.D. 1525, in the church of St. Mary Quay, Ipswich; and of
Andrew Evyngar and family, A.D. 1536, in the church of All-
Hallows, Barking, London : these two brasses appear to have been
the work of the same artist, and they both furnish a variety of
curious and valuable illustration. The heraldic blazonry displayed
by these two citizen-merchants demands special notice : they each
bear upon a shield their respective marks, while upon two other
shields Pownder has the arms of the borougli of Ipswich on the
dexter, and those of the association of Merchants Adventurers on
the sinister chief of the design^; and two shields similarly placed
in the brass of Evyngar, are severally charged with the arms of
the Merchants Adventurers, and of the Salter's Company. At
Fulham, Middlesex, Margaret Saunders, A.D. 1529, is commemo-
rated by a demi-figure engraved on a lozenge-shaped plate : and
again at the late period of 1638, the 14th of Charles I., occurs the
brass of Sir Edward Filmer, his lady, and their eighteen children,
which is worked in one large plate of metal, but without any dia-
per or other ornaments : it is in the church of East Sutton, Kent.
Though executed in several detached pieces of metal, the brass
of Sir Hugh Hastings, A.D. 1347, the 20th of Edward III., at
Elsyng church, Norfolk, must also be regarded as the work, or at
least the design, of some Flemish artist. This elaborate compo-
y Seep. 132.
24 FLEMISH BRASSES.
sition, though now unhappily mutilated, is still a very valuable
example, and that not of knightly costume only, but also of the
application of enamel to these monumental plates. For, as Cotman
remarks, in this brass "all the shields were formerly enamelled
with the arms in their proper colours : the lines of the brass were
also filled-in with enamel, and the ground of the fillet, which went
round the whole, and contained the inscription, was enamelled red ;
so that this monument, when entire and in good preservation, must
have been singularly splendid ^"
In the church at Minster, in the Isle of Sheppey, is preserved
another brass which, from certain peculiarities of habit and equip-
ment, is conjectured to have been engraved in France : it is the
monumental memorial of Sir John de Northwode, and Joan de
Badlesmere, his lady; and may be assigned to about the year
1325. In this exa. pie, as it now appears, the effigy of the knight
is in the cross-leggjd attitude; though it would seem, at some
unknown period, to have been cut into two parts, and, after the
removal of a strip o^ the metal, the extremities to have been again
placed in juxta-position, thus destroying all appearance of propor-
tion in the entire f o"ure. I am enabled, however, to state, upon
the authority of M Waller, that the greater part of the original
lower portion of this figure was, in reality, entirely abstracted ; the
existing lower portion from below the knees proving, on a careful
examination, to be a restoration, or rather an alteration, executed
at a period subsequent to the other parts of the work : both the
design and engraving are evidently the production of another, and
that an inferior hand, while the metal itself betrays a diversity of
composition. This is a highly remarkable circumstance, inasmuch
as thus the very effigy, which appeared to militate against the
assertion that the cross-legged attitude is exclusively characteristic
of British monumental memorials, strongly corroborates that opi-
nion ^. Besides this brass, but one other specimen can with any
degree of certainty be attributed to French artists : this is the
interesting memonal of Margaret de Camoys, A.D. 1310, at Trot-
ton in Sussex^.
The fine brass of Archdeacon William de Rothewelle, A.D. 1361,
' See p. 45. a See p. 42. " See pp. 80, 131.
FLEMISH BRASSES. 25
in Rothwell church, Northamptonshire, ought perhaps to be here
inserted, as certainly another specimen of Flemish design, if not
actually the work of a foreign engraver. And, in like manner,
besides the few examples which may without a doubt be attributed
to the brass engravers of Flanders, there are very many other
brasses executed in this country after designs by artists of the
early Flemish school ; to whose talents we are further indebted for
the original designs of many figures, painted upon screens and other
tabernacle work, and also of numerous monumental efiigies sculp-
tured in relief, or incised upon flat slabs of stone.
The few brasses which yet remain in Flanders'^, together with
the numerous drawings in the Bodleian Library, of similar monu-
ments once existing in France, confirm the theory which assigns a
foreign origin to those examples in our own country, which are
worked on large unbroken sheets of metal ; these foreign brasses
being invariably executed in the same manner. And this theory
receives still further confirmation from the existence in the cathe-
dral of Constance of a large and elaborate brass, precisely resem-
bling in every peculiarity both of design and workmanship, the
brasses of England, and which commemorates Robert Hallum,
bishop of Salisbury, the special envoy of Henry V. to the council
of Constance, who dying there in the year 1416, during the sitting
of the council, was buried in the cathedral with great solemnity.
This brass, figured in vol. xxx. of the Archeeologia, is traditionally
asserted to have been brought over from England : and such
assuredly was the fact; the brass itself, in its general charac-
teristics, strongly corroborating the authenticity of its imputed
origin. And thus we discover, in the only similar memorial of
an Englishman of distinction of this period, known to exist in a
foreign church, all those peculiar features which specially charac-
terize brasses engraven in this country. I am induced, from the
singular interest associated with this memorial, to add a short
"= The cathedral of Bruges contains some of these, representing a corpulent burgher
examples which, in every particular of size, having attached to his belt an anlace,
design, and style of workmanship resemble thrust through the lappets of his gypciere,
the brasses of St. Alban's, and Lynn, and is beautifully engraved in the tenth part of
are without doubt tlie productions of the Waller's Brasses,
same hand. A portion of a figure from one
26 FLEMISH BRASSES.
descriptive notice of its composition. The several plates of which
it is composed, are embedded in distinct matrices in a slab of dark
blue marble, measuring nine feet by five : in the centre is the
effigy vested in an amice, alb, chesuble, stole and maniple ; on the
head is worn a rich mitre, and in the left hand is held a corre-
sponding pastoral staff", having its crook turned outwards, and the
staff enveloped with the vexillum ; the right hand is uplifted in
benediction. About this effigy is disposed a highly ornamented
canopy, consisting on either side of five canopied compartments,
each occupied by an angel with a radiated nimbus ; the canopy is
finished above by a square embattlement, under which a rounded
arch is turned, thus forming foliated spandrels : beneath this arch,
springing on either side from the upright sides of the design, is a
second canopy immediately surmounting the head of the prelate ;
this beautiful member consists of a trefoil arch, double-feathered,
which rises above into graceful ogee curves, enriched with crockets,
and terminating in a floriated finial : on either side of this finial is
a garter enclosing a shield, radiated ; the garter on the dexter
side is ensigned with the motto of the order, and the shield
bears the royal arms of England; the sinister shield has been
abstracted, but the garter which once encircled it displays the
legend, — ''Misericordias Domini in sternum cantabo :" near
the verge of the slab is a fillet of metal with the following singular
rhyming inscription, and having at its angles the Evangelistic
emblems : —
»J< ^ubjacct \)\t gtratug iflobcrt lijallum bocitatug
^uonDam platus <Sar sub j^onotc creatus
|i?ic Dfcrcto Doctor pacisq creator
iHobilts ^nglor Kcgtg fult amba^ciator
iFcgtu ©utl)bcrti scptembris mense faigcbat
5n quo l^obti mortem ©onstantia flcbat
^nno millcno tviccnt octuagcno
Sbtx cu tcr Dejto cu XPO btbat amcno '^.
^ The contracted words severally are, to :" the contracted Greek form of our
"prelatus," " Sarum," " Angloriim," Saviour's name in the last line is very
" Festum," " Roherti," "cum," "Chris- remarkable.
FLEMISH BRASS OF A KNIGHT AND LADY OF THE COMPTON FAMILY.
Late in Netley Abbey Church, but now in private possession.
See Appendix C.)
ClKGA r^77 5" Of^^lU: ]
J. I!- Jobhur.-: Fmt
b Stolte l)'Al)enion OmrcTi, Suirey.
ENGLISH BRASSES. 27
Among other foreign examples yet occupying their original
positions, a very remarkable, and I am inclined to believe unique
brass, is affixed to the wall in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle :
it commemorates John Bollart, a canon of that " insignis eccle-
si^," who deceased September 24th, A.D. 1534. This memorial
is worked on an unbroken plate of metal, representing the Virgin
and Holy Infant, attended by St. John the Baptist and St. Chris-
topher, the latter standing above the ankles in water: columns of
somewhat fanciful design support a canopy of interrupted and
intersecting arches : and in the base of the entire composition is
introduced the inscription between two compartments, each occu-
pied by a shield of arms with crest and mantling, beneath a tre-
foil-arch. Enamels of red, black, dark grey, and a pale green
illuminate several portions of the work; while in other parts, the
surface of the metal is diapered, and its effect heightened by bur-
An excellent specimen of foreign brasses may be seen in a plate,
now forming part of the collection in the museum of Economic
Geology, in Craig^s court, London, Avhither it was brought from
the ruined chapel of the castle of Corteville, in Flanders : this
engraving is in a high state of preservation, and exemplifies, in
the most satisfactory manner, the several peculiarities of the Flem-
ish artists in brass. It is the memorial of Louis de Corteville and
his lady, and bears date, A.D. 1496.
Some of the more remarkable English Brasses, properly so
called, next claim attention. Of these, the earliest, indeed, the
earliest brass known now to be in existence, is the memorial of Sir
John d^Aubernoun, in the church of Stoke d'Aubernoun, near
Guildford, in Surrey : its date is about A.D. 1277, the 5th of
Edward I., and it is the only military whole-length example of
this reign which is not in the cross-legged attitude. In this no
less noble than interesting effigy, the knight is represented as
armed, with the sole exception of his Genouillieres, or knee-plates,
in a complete suit of interlaced chain-mail : his body is enveloped
in a Hauberk, having its sleeves continued to cover the hands, and
thus forming gauntlets without divisions for the fingers : over his
head is drawn a hood, or Coif-de-
mailles : Chausses, continued hke the
sleeves of the hanberk, protect the
legs and feet : at the knees are orna-
mented genouilheres of plate, above
which depends the skirt of the hau-
berk : and from the heels project sin-
gle-point or pryck spurs e. The mail
is surmounted by a plain loose sur-
coat, apparently of a rich material : it
has a fringed border, and reaching
below the knees, is confined at the
waist by a plaited cord, from beneath
which it opens in front, and falls on
either side in ample folds. Sustained
by a hip-belt exhibiting a peculiar ar-
rangement of straps, the long strait
sword, with crossed hilt, curiously
worked pommel, and plain scabbard,
hangs on the left front of the figure.
An enriched Guige, (its ornaments
being roses alternating with a peculiar
species of cross',) passing over the right shoulder, supports on
1 d'Aubernouu, c. A.D,
e No monumental brass has yet been
discovered, which represents the deceased
warrior as clad in mail without any admix-
ture of plate : many sculptured effigies,
however, exist, in which mail is the sole
defensive equipment. The demi-figure
(see p. 114) of a knight at Croft, Lincoln-
shire, exhibits indeed no plate-armour : but
this brass belongs evidently to a period in
which portions of plate were worn in con-
nection with the mail. And doubtless such
portions of plate would have been expressed,
had a complete effigy been depicted in this
brass. The hood of mail was drawn under
the chin, and fastened by a ring on the side
of the head. The spurs were attached to
the person by straps. The surcoat was
laced up at the side of the figure.
In the brass of Sir John d'Aubernoun
the mail is chain-mail, and consists of rings
of steel interlaced one with another, and
strongly fastened with rivets. See note p,
' This cross, denomi-
nated in a MS. of the fif-
teenth century, the " Fyl-
fot," was in use at a very!
remote period, as a mystic
symbol, amongst religi-
ous devotees in India and'
China, whence it appears to have been
introduced, probably in the sixth century,
into Europe. " It occurs," says Mr. Wal-
ler, " on very early Christian remains, and
is found on the girdle of a priest of the
date, A.D. 1011." On brasses it is a com-
MILITAUY BRASSES. 29
the opposite side, in front of the arm, a small flat heater-
shaped shield, still retaining its enamelled tinetures for the
D'Aubernoun bearing, azure, a chevron, or^. Under the right
arm passes a lance '^ displaying, immediately below the head, a
small fringed pennon charged with the armorial insignia of its
owner ; while the staff, resting on the ground, is grasped by a lion
couchant stretched at the feet of the knight. Of the two small
shields originally at the head of the slab, that on the dexter side
alone remains, and is enamelled with the D'Aubernoun arms.
The brass letters of the inscription, with the two narrow fillets of
the same metal which enclosed them, have long been lost : from
their incised matrices, however, may be still distinguished, in
Longobardic capitals, the legend, —
" Considered as a work of art," observes Mr. Waller, " it will be
found that the figure is ill-proportioned, but the arrangement of the
drapery judiciously contrived : whilst, as a production of the burin,
this brass is not excelled by any posterior example : each link of
the mail is distinctly represented, and the mere work of graving
up so large a surface must have cost many weeks of patient
mon ornament, anterior to the accession wielded by such hands as those of our gal-
of Richard II. See Waller's descriptive lant IGth, we have but to turn our eyes east-
notice of the Shottesbroke Brass of a ward, and call to mind the pierced and
Priest and Frankelein. Also see p. 96. discomfited squadrons of Lahore. See
•? Chaucer makes reference to the shield- Planche's British Costume, p. 61.
belt, the guige or gige, when he speaks of ' This most interesting monument has
his knip'hts as " gigging their shields.", long been in a great measure concealed by
^ This, the earliest known brass in exist- the rails of the Communion-table ; and thus
ence, is the only example of which I am archaeologists and artists have been deprived
aware, in which the principal effigy appears of the power even to examine the first speci-
armed with the knightly lance. Nearly 800 men that now can. be referred to, of this im-
years now have elapsed, since the proud perishable and valuable class of monumental
array of Norman lances were marshalled memorials : as a trifling alteration will lay
on the fatal field of Hastings : the lance, both this plate and the brass of the second Sir
however, and, as of yore, still decorated Juhti d' Aubernoun completely open to view, it
with a fluttering pennon, after long disuse, is to be hoped that the necessary arrangements
again has become an English weapon ; and for effecting so desirable an object will speedily
for evidence of its deadly efficiency, when be completed.
30 MILITARY BRASSES.
Next in chronological succession follows the first of the cross-
legged knights, Sir Roger de Trumpington, A.D. 1289, the 17th
of Edward 1.^ Five hrasses alone now complete the knightly
brotherhood in this remarkable attitude^, which I consider may-
have been adopted in so many monumental effigies of this era,
solely as an expressive token that the departed warrior, having
lived a true son of the Church, died professing the Christian faith.
That the priestly soldiers of the Temple, even if they be thus com-
memorated at all, are not thus exclusively commemorated, we have
positive evidence : no less certain is it, on the other hand, that
the cross-legged effigy does not necessarily denote the crusader;
though, from the very circumstance of a knight serving, or taking
the vow to serve, under the banner of the cross, he, if any man,
would naturally and consistently be represented in this posture :
still, the same posture might with equal propriety be assumed in
delineatiug the monumental effigies of others, who never had been
in any way connected with a crusade".
The Trumpington effigy rests upon an altar-tomb beneath an
elegant canopy, in the church of that place, near Cambridge. As
in the last example, the figure is depicted in the attitude of re-
pose, with the hands conjoined over the breast; and so dignified is
the expression of the departed knight, that truly may he be said to
lie "like a warrior taking his rest." The costume also accords
generally with that of Sir John d'Aubernoun, but is remarkable
^ The demi-figure of Sir Richard de or chapels. That it should be restricted
Buslingthorpe is, probably, of the same to monumental effigies in England, with
date as the complete effigy of De Trump- the sole exception of one at Dublin and the
ington : a description of this curious brass four atCashel, (of which three are females,)
will be found at p. 1 13. in the sister island, is a very singular fact ;
' Though now having the legs crossed, while here, figures carved in this attitude
the brass of Sir John de Northwode at abound in every part of the kingdom. It
Minster in the Isle of Sheppey, must be would be curious, were it practicable, to
excluded from the series of cross-legged trace the connection, if any, between such
knights, in consequence of the compara- figures and the sacred edifice in which they
tively recent adaptation of this attitude to lie. The effigies of Sir Roger de Kerdes-
the figure, by means of a substitution of ton, A.D. 1337, at Reepham, and of Sir
fresh lower extremities, in place of those Oliver d'Ingham, A.D. 1343, at Ingham,
originally constituting a part of the effigy. Norfolk, are cross-armed as well as cross-
See p. 24. legged: but neither of these knights were
°i Possibly this attitude may indicate the crusaders, while both appear to have been
founders and great benefactors of churches benefactors of their respective churches.
AD. 128 9. 17° $hix>: 1.
SIR KOGEM BE TRlIIMPIH"(G-TOiro
In TrumpmgtoiL Church, Camtridge shire.
MILITAllY BRASSES. 31
for the entire absence of ornament. Here, however, the head is
supported by the tilting-helm, which is large and conical, having
at its apex a staple for affixing either the heraldic crest, or the
lady's scarf, known in chivalrous phrase as the "kerchief of plea-
saunce " :" the helmet itself is secured by a chain to the narrow
cincture round the waist, with a view thus to enable the knight to
recover this important piece of his defensive equipment, should he
chance to be unhelmed in the melee. A plume of feathers, I may
here observe, as an ornamental accessory, and not an heraldic
bearing, was rarely if ever worn upon the steel head-piece of the
knight before the reign of the fifth Henry, A.D. 1411; when the
Panache, or plume consisting of at most three feathers, set upright
upon the helmet, was introduced and generally adopted. It was
not till about eighty years later, in the reign of Henry VII., that
a rich profusion of feathers were attached to a small pipe, affixed
for that purpose to the back of the helmet, whence they streamed
down the shoulders of the knight almost to the crupper of his
charger, or floated luxuriantly in the wind. In the Q^^y of Sir
Roger de Trumpington, also, are first introduced the Ailettes, the
prototypes of the epaulettes of modern times : and this with the
Buslingthorpe, Chartham, and Gorleston brasses, and a sculptured
effigy of a knight of the Pembridge family in Clehongre church,
Herefordshire, is the only known example of a monumental figure
in England, which displays this singular appendage to the accou-
trements of the armed knight : in illuminations and upon seals,
ailettes repeatedly occur. The shield of Sir Roger de Trumping-
ton, which is large and concave to the person, is charged with the
armorial bearings of the family, — azure, crusuly and two tru mpets
in pale, or: upon the ailettes, and also upon the sword-scabbard °,
the same heraldic blazonry is repeated, but here differenced by a
label of five points; and thus the bearing corresponds precisely
1 The monumental .^^^^k ° '^^^ sword- scabbard of Sir Richard de
memorial of Sir Wil- /"^ \ \ Montfort, in his sculptured effigy, c. A.D.
liamde Staunton, A.D. M^ \ \ 1270, at Hitchendon, Bucks, is similarly
1312, at Staunton, Jf (K / \ ornamented with shields of arms: and
Nottinghamshire, sup- ^p^^jjl' / I small shields are also worked upon the
plies a good example \^ J genouillieres of Brian, Lord Fitzalan of
of the tilting-helm of ^^^.a^mm^mm^ I Bedale, A.D. 1302, at Bedale, Yorkshire,
32 MILITARY BRASSES.
with the arms of a second knight of the same name, as they appear
entered upon the roll of the battle of Boroughbridge, fought
March 16th, A.D. 1322, — " Sire Rog de Trupeton dazur ij
TROMPES dor CROISELEE DOR J LABEL DARGENT." This SCCOud
Sir Roger was grandson of the former; and both, being eldest
sons, might equally bear the label. That this interesting brass
never was finished, clearly appears from the shield, which exhibits
the commencement of preparations for sinking or cutting away
the field, for the purpose of inserting the enamel which should
indicate its azure tincture : the plainness of the entire work also,
and the general uniformity of breadth observable in all the en-
graven lines, bold and effective as they nevertheless are, serve to
confirm this supposition p. The narrow fillet of brass which origi-
nally bore the inscription, has long since been removed from
round the verge of the slab ; its casement is curious, since it mea-
sures at the head about an inch and a half more than at the feet
of the figure. This knight in the year 1270 assumed the cross,
and accompanied Prince Edward to the Holy Land ; and thus his
effigy, (but of effigies engraven on brass, his alone) supports the
generally received opinion, that the cross-legged attitude bespeaks
Ailettes or ailerons i, as they were appropriately termed, came
into fashion early in the reign of Edward I. ; although the first
English royal seal upon which they appear is that of Edward III.,
during whose reign they ceased to be worn. Ailettes designed for
actual service appear to have been formed of steel, and usually dis-
played the arms of the wearer, or some personal badge or device :
they were attached by laces or arming points to the hauberk ; and
their object was to furnish additional protection to the shoulders
P The mail of this effigy is represented cised lines are deeply cut, and still as sharp
by rows of small crescent-shaped incisions and clear as when first executed by the
in the plate, facing alternately to the right graving-tool. Some traces of gilding may
and left : this is the usual mode of ex- be observed on a close inspection,
pressing in these engravings that species "i The ailettes were occasionally termed
of mail armour, which is to be distinguished Gonfa7ions; but this term more generally
as ring-mail, and which is composed of indicates the small pennon, in shape some-
small rings of steel sewn edgeways upon a what resembling a ship's vane, which flut-
strong garment of leather or quilted cloth. tered from beneath the head of the knightly
The plate upon which this brass is en- lance,
graved is of unusual thickness, and the in-
UriLITAUY BRASSES. 33
and neck'". The ailcttcs of Sir E,. de Buslingtliorpe are plain,
and, like those of Sir R. de Trumpington, arc fixed in a perpen-
dicular position : in the Chartham and Gorleston brasses they are
so worn as to rise lozenge- wise above the shoulders ; and of these
the former is charged with the badge of the wearer, and the latter
simply ensigned with a cross. The first mention of ailcttcs which
has been noticed in any document occurs in the roll of a tourna-
ment held at Windsor, A.D. 1278 ; from this curious memorial we
learn that dress ailettes were formed of leather covered with cloth
or silk, and bordered with iringe, and that they were laced to the
shoulders of the hauberk with silken cords. Among the list of the
knights present at this tournament occurs the name of Sir Roger
de Trumpington himself, together with his entire equipment for
the occasion, including " par alett," — a pair of ailettes. At a sub-
sequent period, a pair of ailettes garnished and fretted with pearls,
occur in the inventory of the effects of Piers Gaveston, taken
A.D. 1313 : and a similar entry appears in the inventory of Hum-
phrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, A.D. 1322, respect-
ing " IIIJ PEIRE DE ALETTES DES ARMES LE COUNTE DE HERE-
After an interval of thirteen years, A.D. 1302, the 30th of Ed-
ward I., appears the memorial of Sir Robert de Bures, at Acton in
Suffolk, unquestionably the finest early brass, and on the whole
the finest mihtary brass in existence ^ The costume difters but
little from that of the two preceding figures, but its details are
more elaborate, and the drapery is disposed with a greater degree
of elegance. The guige in this effigy is so arranged as to pas-i
under, and consequently be partially concealed by, the coif-de-
r The ailettes of Sir — de Pembridge at whose hilt as well as his knee-pieces is
Clehongre, are plain and concave to the highly ornamented, is girded on his left
person; and they are attached to the side before ; and on his left arm, suspended
shoulders by arming-points. by a baudric over his right shoulder, is
s See Frontispiece. a pointed shield charged with ermine, on
Gough thus describes this noble plate : a chief indented, sable, three lionels, ram-
— " A neat brass figure, cross-legged, in pant. His spurs are in single point, and
mail, round helmet, surcoat falling lightly at his feet is a lion. At the north-west cor-
in handsome plaits which are gathered ner of the plate (slab) remains in Gothic
round his waist by a kind of cord, and capitals his name," — ROBERTVS : DB :
fringed at the bottom and sides : his sword, BVRCS :
34 MILITARY 15BASSES.
mailles : it sustains a shield of form resembling that of Sir Roger
de Trumpington, and, like his, charged with heraldic insignia,
being the arms of De Bures, — Ermine, on a chief indented, sable,
three lioncels rampant, or^ Below the skirt of the hauberk,
which is composed of chain-mail, are seen the gamboised, or pad-
ded and quilted trews, denominated " cuisseaux gamboisez," which
cover the chausses from the knee upwards : this garment, having
its surface usually of silk, or other even more costly material,
in the brass before us is richly "embroidered with the fleur-
de-lys, and an ornament resembling in shape the Greek lyre,
disposed alternately in lozenges formed by the reticulation of
silken cords." The sword-hilt exhibits a corresponding reticu-
lated enrichment; and the knee-plates are likewise elaborately
engraved. The brass Longobardic letters of the legend have
been long taken from their respective matrices; and so worn is
the verge of the slab itself, that the forms even of these are for
the greater part obliterated : the name, however, happily is pre-
served, so that we may safely reckon the legend to have com-
menced thus, —
►J< SimiE : m©131Em_^ : B1E : 13TJ3aiES : ©ISS) : ICDg :»
But four years later, A.D. 1306, the 34th of Edward I,, follows
the last military brass of this reign, and the last example of mail
having no further admixture of plate-armour than the steel genou-
illieres : it commemorates Sir Robert de Septvans, and lies in the
fine church of Chartham in Kent, of which very probably he had
been the founder. "The execution of this brass," remarks Mr.
Waller, "is not so careful as usual, the plates are less skilfully
joined together, and the mail seems to be unfinished, a small por-
tion at the ankle of the right foot being more elaborate than the
' In the shield, as depicted on the brass, memorates anotlier member of this family
but two lioncels are emblazoned on the Isaia Bures, once vicar of Northolt in Mid-
chief, dlesex, who, dying A.D. 1610, was buried
" Another brass at Acton, bears date in his church ; where, over his grave, en-
A.D. 1539, and is the memorial of Henry graven in brass, is his effigy, in academic
Bures, Esq., who is habited in armour. habit and in a kneeling posture.
And again a brass of much later date com-
A D . 13 6. 34° ^bW: ] .
SIR ROB EM T BE SEPTTAE:
In Ciidrtham Church., Kent.
MILITARY BRASSES. 35
rest; but on the wholes it is well designed, and a very useful
memorial of the military costume at the close of the reign of Ed-
The costume in this brass differs from that of the preceding effi-
gies, in having the head and hands uncovered ^ ; the coif~de-mailles
is thrown back, and lies on the breast and shoulders, and the ter-
minations of the sleeves of the hauberk hang down from the wrists.
Beneath the hauberk appears the quilted under garment, called
the Haqueton ; and chausses of similar material pass over the knees,
forming a pad for the genouillieres, which here are shaped somewhat
like the elbow -pieces of a later period; their edges are escaloped.
The sword- belt and scabbard are highly ornamented, and the spurs
still devoid of rowels. The long and flowing surcoat is emblazoned
with the arms of the family ; and it is worthy of remark that there
are seven fans displayed on the figure, besides the independent
charges of the shield.
The singular name of Septvans or Seven-fans, is derived from the
ancient cognizance of the family ; though it would seem that their
armorial bearing displayed but three fans of gold upon an azure
field, — "dazur e iij vans dor.^^ The fan thus borne, and so
clearly represented on the brass, is the ancient instrument of
wicker-work for winnowing corn ; and in form and construction
bears a strong resemblance to the similar implement of modern
husbandry. Peaceful as it must be regarded in its primary accep-
tation, there is something strikingly suitable to the warrior in this
emblem, a suitableness not lost sight of by him who wrote for all
time : for in " Troilus and Cressida ^," we read, —
" Distinction, with a broad and powerful /an,
Puffing at all, winnows the light away;
And what hath mass, or matter, by itself
Lies, rich in virtue, and unmingled."
Thus, the chivalrous qualities of the knight could be dispersed by
no adverse blast ; while, like chaff before the wind, he scattered
afar all that was worthless in itself, and adverse to the cause he
'^ Possibly the bare head and hands may ^ Act I. Scene iii.
denote the peaceful death of the knight.
36 MILITARY BRASSES.
had espoused. Such, doubtless, were the principles, as such was
the motto of De Septvans, — " Dissipabo inimicos Regis mei, ut
paleam," — 'the enemies of my king will I disperse like chaff.'
The grandfather of this knight, who died A.D. 1249, was present
with King Richard I. at Acre : but Sir Robert himself does not
appear to have joined the crusade, though there is record of his
having repeatedly performed good service to his sovereign at home.
Six years after his last appearance in the field at the celebrated
siege of Caerlaverock, A.D. 1300, he died, being then fifty-seven
years of age, and leaving a son named William 2. It is very curi-
ous to observe the striking similarity in design and general treat-
ment, exhibited between this Chartham brass and the sculptured
effigy in the Temple church, probably that of William, lord de Ros,
who died A.D. 1317: these memorials appear to have been exe-
cuted after designs from the same artist, and thus would indi-
cate an identity of origin for the various species of monumental
Though in other points the general aspect of the two remaining
cross-legged brasses corresponds with the example already noticed,
in one important particular they exhibit a marked distinction
from them. No longer are the genouillieres the sole exception to
the armour being throughout of mail : for here the adoption of a
considerable portion of plate armour is apparent, in combination
with the reticvdated hauberk. One of these brasses, now existing
in the church of Gorleston, near Great Yarmouth, is unfortunately
mutilated in the lower extremities, and has also lost its armorial
accessories and a rich pedimental canopy; still, enough of the
figure yet remains to enable us to form a correct idea of its origi-
nal appearance. The coif-de-mailles, hauberk, surcoat, and belts.
^ In the church at Cobham, in Kent, Yorkshire, (figured by Hollis,) would also
lies buried, and there is commemorated by appear to have been designed by the same
an Anglo-Norman inscription, Joan de artist. The brass of Sir Richard de Bus-
Septvans, sister of Sir Robert de Septvans, lingthorpe (p. 1 13) again, maybe regarded
and first wife of Sir John de Cobham, as the work of both the same engraver and
baron of the exchequer, who died, A.D. the same designer. The Temple effigy is
1300. figured ' y Mr. Richardson, in his notice
'^ The eflSgy of Brian, Lord Fitz-Alan of the restorations recently so ably executed
of Bedale, A.D. 1302, in Bedale church, by him in that splendid church.
CIRCA AD - 1320 . 13"(SW):1L
J.R JobVns. liSi
SIB.... . BE IBACOI? o
(jorleston Cltirch.. Siiffolt.
( Mutila.te i _ C anopy de stroy e i ,
CIRCA. AD. 1320 _ 13° (Efia), 11.
J.R.Joihins . Wv.
Sim JUIE JPITZMAJLPM
In Pebmarsh. Churck, Essex.
I Canopy lost.j
MILITARY BRASSES. 37
are retained ; though the sword-belt is somewhat slighter than in the
previous examples. The back of the upper arms, from the shoulder
to the elbow, and the front of the lower arms, from the elbow to
the wrist, have the additional protection of plates of steel, severally-
designated Demi-Brassarts and Vambraces : the front of the legs is
similarly guarded by Jambarts or shin-pieces ; these plates are all
strapped over the mail : at the bend of the shoulders and elbows,
in front, are Palettes or Roundels ; Coudieres or elbow-pieces guard
the elbows themselves, and at the knees are genouillieres : these
all are of plate. The shield is small, flat, and heater-shaped ; and
it is sustained by a very narrow guige, which passes over the hood
of mail. From above the shoulders rise the ailettes, which are
fringed and ensigned with the cross of St. George. This effigy,
supposed to represent one of the Bacon family, having been ab-
stracted from its marble slab, came into the possession of the
late Craven Ord : but at his death in the year 1830, by the care
of the late John Gage Rokewode, Esq., and of Dawson Turner,
Esq., it was restored to its original position in Gorleston church.
Its date is about A.D. 1320. It is in all respects a valuable speci-
men, well designed and executed, and, as far as it yet remains, in
Bearing this same date, A.D. 1320, the 8th of Edward II., and
preserved in the church of Pebmarsh, near Halstead in Essex, is the
fifth and last remaining brass of this series : it commemorates a
knight of the Fitzralph family ; and, with but a few trifling excep-
tions, it is in fine preservation. The arming and general equip-
ment of this knight is precisely the same as I have already noticed
in the Gorleston brass; with the exception of the ailettes, which
are here omitted, and the mail which is interlaced chain-mail in-
stead of the ring-mail. In this example also the arming of the
legs and feet is completely expressed : it exhibits the jambarts
continued from the ankles by lames, or small plates of steel, over
the front of the feet, and thus forming the mixed Sollerets of mail
and plate. The surcoat is long and ample : the convex shield is
apparently fringed, and its guige is broad and fastened over the
hood by a buckle : the mail throughout is admirably expressed :
beneath the skirts of the hauberk appears the haqueton, or quilted
38 MILITAEY BEASSES.
under garment^ designed to protect the body from the pressure of
its covering of reticulated steel : and beneath the haqueton are
seen the gamboised cuisseaux. The genouillieres, with the several
appointments of the sword, are elaborately enriched : and from the
centre of the palettes small spikes project. At the feet of the
knight reposes a dog. From the circumstance of there being no
means of positively identifying the individuals, to whose memory
this and the last described brass were laid down, it cannot be
ascertained whether or not crusaders are indicated by these cross-
legged efiigies : and thus, as before observed, of the knights com-
memorated by the five cross-legged brasses, but one is known to
have followed the cross-banner into the Holy Land.
We have already seen that but four brasses representing entire
figures of the knights of the reign of Edward I., ai'e yet known to
be in existence^ : and to these, notwithstanding the more general
adoption at that period of this species of memorial, but five others
can be added illustrative of the knightly costume worn during the
reign of his unfortunate son and successor. Of two of this second
series I have just spoken : two others " are nearly counterparts of
each other in design, almost contemporary in date, and without
doubt executed by the same hand :" these commemorate a second
Sir John d'Aubernoun, the son and heir of the former, at Stoke
d'Aubernoun ; and Sir John de Creke with the Lady Alyne his
wife, at Westley Waterless, in Cambridgeshire. This last named
brass consists of two efiigies still entire; but it has lost its fine
double canopy, with the inscription and accompanying shields of
arms. On her head the lady wears a coverchef falling over the
shoulders, her chin and throat being further enveloped with a
wimple or gorget, which barely discloses the plaited bands of the
hair on either side the face : over a long and somewhat close kirtle
with sleeves, is a second and sleeveless garment of more ample pro-
portions, which is open'' from the shoulders to the waist, and
gathered up beneath the left arm; over all is worn a mantle,
** The Gorleston and Minster brasses which were in the first instance designed
having originally represented the complete to represent demi-figures.
effigy, are to be classified with such as still ■= For further notice of this sleeveless
remain in a perfect state, and not with those garment, see p. 62.
:■^ 13 2 5 18° fttai. u.
SIR JTOIW BE C»EKE AMU LABYo
In We stley Waterless ChiLTcli, CajnindgesMre.
MILITARY BRASSES. 39
whicli is confined on the Ijreast with a short cordon, and also
gathered up in folds beneath the left arm. In the effigy of the
knight appears a further change of costume : the long and flow-
ing surcoat, open in front, has been discarded, and its place occu-
pied by an extraordinary garment called the Cyclas, which is laced
at the sides and reaches below the knee behind, while in front it is
cut very short, and displays the escaloped and fringed border of a
second garment, probably the Gambeson or Wambeijs, a body-cover-
ing stuffed with wool and padded in parallel lines of needle-work"^,
from beneath which descends the skirt of the hauberk, now cut to
a point in front, and the camail is similarly fashioned ; and again,
beneath the hauberk, and completing this strange multiplicity of
garments, is seen the haqueton, reaching to the genouillieres e.
Chausses of banded ring-mail f, faced with jambarts of plate, cover
the legs; the sollerets, which rest upon a lion, are of mixed mail
and plate, and of great length; and the spurs now assume the
rouelle form. The sleeves of the hauberk terminate a little below
the elbow, and disclose the fore-arms entirely encased in vam-
braces of plate : demi-brassarts with coudieres guard the upper-
arms and elbows : and roundels, fashioned to resemble heads of
lions, protect the joints of the arms. The upHfted hands are bare.
The waist is encircled by a narrow cincture and the sword-beltis
arranged upon a new and simple plan, merely passing round the
person about the hips, and being attached by swivels to the scab-
bard of the sword, which is thus girded in front of the figure : the
^ The Haqueton was stuffed with cotton, also is the case with the noble effigy inWest-
and also padded : both were worn, partly minster abbey, of John of Elthara, brother
to protect the body from the pressure of the of Edward III. Again at Ifield in Sus-
steel-harness,' and partly to serve as an sex is another fine effigy, that of Sir John
additional defence. d' Ifield, similarly habited ; andin Hereford
e Possibly Sir John de Creke, thin as cathedral, A.D. 1321, Humphrey de Bohun,
he appears, may be here represented as earl of Hereford and constable of England,
wearing yet another garment with the affords in his monumental effigy a third
gambeson, between his cyclas and hauberk, fine example of the same military equip -
the fringe terminating one, and the escalops ment.
the other : the escalops, however, appear to ^ This is another variety of this species
belong to the same garment as the one im- of armour^ in which the rings were attached
mediately beneath the cyclas. The com- to strips or bands of leather, and these again
panion brass of Sir John d'Aubernoun were fastened to some under-lining of strong
certainly exhibits but four distinct gar- material,
ments, including: the hauberk : and such
40 MILITARY BRASSES.
sword itself is of great length. A narrow guige supports a small
heater-shaped shield^ charged with the arms of the De Crekes, —
Or, on a fesse, gules, three lozenges, vair. In place of the coif-de-
mailles, the head is now covered by a Bascinet of plate, in this
example fluted, and having at its apex an elegant device for
attaching the scarf or crest : to this bascinet is attached, by a lace
drawn through staples termed Vervelles, a Camail, or mail covering
for the neck and shoulders ^ ; a narrow strip of mail is also attached
to the rim of the bascinet, having a fringe-like appearance. The
date of this brass is A.D. 1325, the 18th of Edward II. A singular
circumstance connected with this monument is thus noticed by
Mr. Waller. " At the right foot of the lady's figure is a monogram,
probably that of the artist by whom it was executed : it consists of
the letter N, above which is a mallet,
having on one side a half-moon, and
on the other a star or sun. It, is
worthy of remark, that the same de-
vice (without the letter) is found on
a seal attached to a deed of the 5th
of Edward I., wherein one Walter Dixi, Cementarius de Berne-
welle, is conveying certain lands to his son Lawrence. The seal of
Walter has for its legend, q* S. W.^LTER : Le : C10a:SVN\
The occurence of a similar device in two instances seems to shew
that it was not an individual mark : may it not have been the
badge of some guild of Masons? If so, it will suggest that the
same minds which designed the architectural structures of the
middle ages, also designed the sepulchral monuments; and this
opinion is strengthened by the fact of their generally agreeing
with the prevailing taste of the times.^^ In the
curious palimpsest ^ fragment from Trunch church,
Norfolk, (both sides of which are subsequently
figured,) we have upon a shield the same devices
of the half-moon and star, but without the mallet ;
g The term Camail appears to be a is drawn, also of the full size, from Mr.
slight abbreviation for Capmail, —the mail. Waller's engraving,
that is, appertaining to the head-piece. ' See pages 147, 149. Also see Ap-
h The monogram on the brass is figured pendix (C.)
of the full size : and the device of the seal
in the base of the shield is the letter W : and thus the hypothesis
of Mr. Waller is confirmed by a third example of the use of this
singular device^ somewhat modified indeed, but still essentially the
The brass of the second Sir John d'Auber-
noun bears date two years later, A.D. 1327 :
it commemorates the eldest son of the for-
mer knight of the same name, and lies beside
the brass of his father in the chancel of the
church at Stoke d'Aubernoun in Surrey.
The points of difference between this and
the brass of Sir John de Creke are sufficient
to stamp either work with that peculiar indi-
viduality of character, so remarkable in these
engraven monumental plates, while their
general similarity, by confirming the accu-
racy of both, greatly enhances their value
as faithful portraitures of ovir island chivalry
in the olden time. It is also a matter of no
slight interest to be enabled to trace, as in
these specimens, the efforts of the same ge-
nius and the works of the same hand ^. In
this brass the knight is depicted as wearing
a beard as well as moustaches : his shoulders
and elbows are guarded in front by roundels,
those at the elbows being attached to the
joints of the coudieres by arming -points : the
cyclas, which is itself covered on the breast
by the camail of the bascinet, is drawn over
the upper part of either shoulder-roundel,
and it falls unconfined at the waist by any
cincture : the gambeson is escaloped and
fringed, and has its outer surface embroidered with rosettes ; the
spurs are of the pryck form : the very long and strait sword is
Sir Jobn d'Aubernoun the
younger, A.D. 1327.
Stoke d'Aubernoun church,
k The brasses of De Creke and the
second Sir John d'Aubernoun are here
for the first time both figured in the same
work : and thus an opportunity is given for
girded about the hips by a broad and ornamented belt, buckled in
the front : and the shield, still enamelled with the D'Aubernoun
arms, rests, unsupported by any guige, upon the left arm '.
The sole remaining military example of
this reign is the curious brass, to which I
have already referred as being preserved
in the church at Minster, in the Isle of
Sheppey. This may be assigned to the
same period, about A.D. 1330; for we
find that Sir John de Northwode, the
knight thus commemorated, was sum-
moned to parliament as a baron of the
realm, about the 6th of Edward II.,
having previously received knighthood
from Edward I., at the siege of Caerla-
verock. He is represented as wearing
a bascinet and camail of banded ring-
mail, a hauberk of similar material, a
cyclas, and haqueton. The bascinet is
plain, but with an enriched border, and
it assumes a singular swelling form : the
camail is finished over the breast in large
engrailed escalops. Attached to an orna-
mented staple, projecting on the left side from the cyclas, is a
chain which passes over the shoulder, for the purpose of securing
the tilting-helm : the staple itself is screwed or rivetted to a Plas-
tron-de-fer or Mameliere, a plate of steel secured to the hauberk,
beneath the cyclas, for the purpose of additional protection "". The
Sir Jotm de Northwode, Minster, rv'^
Isleof Sheppey, A.D. 1330.
' The Pembridge knight, before men-
tioned as being commemorated by an
effigy at Clehongre church, Herefordshire,
wears the cyclas, gambeson, and hauberk ;
but the fourth garment, the haqueton,
though doubtless worn, is not expressed
in the effigy. The camail of this knight
has a lining, escaloped at its border to
correspond with the gambeson. Another
knight at Atherington, Devonshire, (pro-
bably Sir Arthur Basset,) wears over his
camail a mantelet, corresponding with his
Sir John Blanchefront, in his effigy at
Alvechurch, Worcestershire, wears a bas-
cinet finished at its apex in precisely the
same manner, as are the head-pieces of Sir
John d'Aubernoun and Sir John de Creke.
The bascinet of Sir John Blanchefront is
also fitted with a vizor.
■" A breast-plate of steel was commonly
worn beneath the cyclas or jupon, it was
upper arms have no defences of plate, with the exception of esca-
loped coudieres and corresponding roundels, at the elbows and
shoulders : the lower arms have vambraces of scale-like appearance,
possibly composed of Cuir-bouilli °, or more probably of small over-
lapping plates of steel; and the hands are bare. The shield, which
is large and hollow, and charged with, ermine, a cross engrailed,
gules, for Northwode", is suspended from a very long guige in
front of the left thigh, immediately below the sword-hilt, thus
covering the upper part of the scabbard p. The sword itself is
girded by a belt buckled round the waist, a little below which the
figure has undergone a singular mutilation, having had a strip of
the original plate cut out and abstracted : and again from the
remainder of the lower portion, all that part of the original com-
position which was below the genouillieres has been altogether
removed, and its place supplied by the present ill-adapted and
attached to the hauberk, and necessarily
imparted to the outer vest its own globular
form. This arrangement is frequently
observable in sculptured effigies, though in
brasses it cannot well be made apparent.
The chains from the breast-plate were
afterwards, when worn, generally attached
to the hilt of the sword and of the dagger.
In the effigy of Sir John Blanchefront both
the chains are appropriated to the sword ;
the one from the right side being fastened
to the hilt of the weapon, and the other to
its scabbard. The misericorde or dagger
is represented as worn in this fine effigy.
" Cuir-bouilli, the curehuhj of Chaucer,
was a preparation repeatedly mentioned by
medieval writers ; it consisted of leather,
adapted by the process of boiling to vari-
ous purposes both of defence and ornament.
See p. 50, and note. The shield of the
Black Prince at Canterbury is undoubtedly
an original specimen of cuir-bouilli. And
now in the beautiful modern preparation,
known as "impressed leather," this in-
vention has been revived and brought to
the highest degree of perfection.
" Or the bearing on the shield may be a
cross engrailed between ten chesnut leaves,
for Northwood Chataigniers.
P This mode of wearing the shield appears
to be a characteristic of the knights of
France, by whom it was termed Ecu en can-
tiel. A remarkably fine effigy thus accoutred
is now preserved in the Royal catacombs at
St. Denis : it commemorates Charles, Conte
d'Etampes, who fell, in the thirtieth year
of his age, at the siege of Pincorain, A.D.
1336. This knight, a prince of the blood
royal of France, is armed completely in
ring-mail : his head is unhelmed, and his
flowing hair is encircled by a wreath of
roses : the coif-de-mailles hangs loose
about his neck, and the mail gauntlets also
depend from the wrists : the surcoat is long
and plain, and girded about the waist by a
narrow cincture : over the hips is buckled
a broad and rich sword-belt ; and a long
guige, corresponding with it in breadth and
enrichment, crosses the right shoulder, and
is attached to the shield, which is adjusted
over the hilt of the sword precisely after
the fashion exemplified in the brass at
Minster. It is impossible not to be struck
with the similarity in artistic treatment ex-
hibited between this fine effigy, and the
memorials of Lord de Ros in the Temple
church, of Sir Robert de Septvans at
Charthani, and Lord Fitz-Alan at Bedale.
incongruous substitute i. The genuine portion of the lower part
of the figure exhibits the skirts of the cyclas, the hauberk and the
haqueton, the latter being escaloped, and the hauberk made to
open for a short space in the centre and on either side. The genou-
illieres and the base of the shield also remain as originally exe-
cuted. The head of the knight rests upon
an embroidered cushion : and another
cushion diapered after a different pat-
tern supports the head of his lady. In
this lady^s effigy we have a very curious
example of the female costume of the
period. She wears a long and rather close-
fitting kirtle, with tight sleeves termina-
ting in narrow bands at the wrists : and
over this a flowing mantle, lined with
vair""; this mantle is wrapped about the
entire person and gathered up under the
right arm ; the arms appear through open-
ings cut for that purpose in the sides of
the mantle; and from the shoulders in
front of the figure fall the long pointed
lappets of this singular outer garment,
lined throughout with the variegated fur.
The hair is plaited on either side the face ;
and the throat and chin are enveloped in
a most disfiguring wimple or gorget, or
possibly in the wimple-like collar with
■which the kirtle or under-dress was some-
times finished. The lady thus attired,
the consort of Sir John de Northwode,
was Joan de Badlesmere, a daughter
Lady de Northwode, c. A.D. 1330
"I In the accompanying engraving tlie
original portions of this figure only are re-
presented ; and a vacant space is left to
denote the portion which has been taken
out from the midst of the figure. The
legs of this brass, as they now appear, are
crossed, a position evidently not contem-
plated by the original artist. See cut p. 42.
■^ Vair was a species of compound fur,
made up of numerous small pieces of dif-
ferent coloured skins ; it was in great re-
quest for the decoration of various articles
of dress. Subsequently vair became an
MILITAEY BRASSES. 45
probably of Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, of Leeds castle, in
Armour consisting of mail and plate defences thus combined
together, continued to be worn, with various slight modifications,
throughout the earlier years of the long-protracted reign of Ed-
ward III. Gradually, however, the mail was superseded by fresh
pieces of plate armour, until shortly after the commencement of
the succeeding century, the 15th, it altogether ceased to be in
general use, except as a secondary defence worn under the plate,
or when introduced in small portions at those parts where, in order
to admit freedom of action for the limbs, it was essential. Various
highly interesting brasses exemplify the successive changes which
intervened, between the first introduction of plate-armour, and its
ultimate formation of the warrior's complete defensive panoply.
Of these, in addition to the examples already noticed, the muti-
lated brass of Sir Hugh Hastings at Elsyng church, Norfolk,
A.D. 1347, the 20th of Edward III., is by far the most curious
and valuable ^ The general composition of this brass comprises
an effigy beneath a canopy of elaborate richness, each side of
which consists of a series of four canopied niches enclosing as
many armed figures. This is the latest instance of which I am
aware, in which the shield is represented in a brass as forming a
part of the knight's personal equipment. The other pecuharities
in this brass which require especial notice are the Gorget, Hausse-
Col, or Menioniere of plate worn by Sir Hugh Hastings himself :
the Visors, attached to the bascinets of the several effigies intro-
duced into the canopy, as well as that of the principal effigy : the
Jupon charged with armorial insignia: the first introduction of
Haut-de-chausses or trews of Pourpointrie^, studded with small
circular plates of steel : and the tilting-helm with its crest, placed
as a finial at the apex of the canopy. In the principal effigy, the
sleeves of the hauberk are slipped off from the hands, as in the
brass of Sir Robert de Septvans, and hang down from the wrists.
^ See p. 23. zoned in a contemporary roll of arms, —
' For illustration and description of this Or, a maunche, gules, differenced of a la-
studded-mail, see p. 51. The arms borne bel, azure.
by Sir Hugh Hastings are thus embla-
displaying the quilted haqueton beneath the mail: the armorial
bearing of Hastings, the maunche, or ancient military sleeve, is
richly diapered upon both the shield and the jupon, and in both
cases it is differenced with a label of three points : the jupon, or
sleeveless covering to the hauberk, now appears with a full skirt ;
and upon this, hanging loosely from over the hips, is the broad and
rich sword-belt, which is attached to the sword- scabbard on the
left side, and is buckled in front " : the genouillieres are curiously
spiked : and the rounded bascinet with its uplifted visor rests upon
a diapered cushion supported by two angels. In the smaller figures
a singular double outline will be observed; designed, it would
seem^ simply to distinguish the effigies themselves with greater
distinctness from the diapered field on which they are placed^.
These figures represent, on the dexter side. King Edward III.,
crowned, and displaying on his embroidered jupon the arms of
France and England quarterly, which bearing was assumed by
King Edward in the year 1341, but six years anterior to the date
of the brass : the second figure is Thomas
de Beauchamp, armed at all points, and
holding a lance with a pennon V: the third
figure, now lost, represented one of the
Despencer family: and the fourth is Roger
Grey, Lord Grey of Ruthin : on the sinis-
ter side are figures of Henry Plantage-
net, earl of Lancaster, great grandson of
King Henry III. : the second figure is
lost, but it originally represented Lau-
rence Hastings, earl of Pembroke, who died A.D. 1348, and his
shield bearing Hastings quartering Valence, has been considered
the oldest example of a subject quartering arms : to this succeeds
the eflSgy of Ralph, Lord Stafford : and the lowermost is that of
Head of Thorn as de Bea-ichamp.
Hastings brass, Elsyng, Norfolk.
A D. 1347.
" The knight, whose effigy is placed
within the head of a floriated cross at
Wimhish in Essex, has his sword girded
after a similar fashion. See p. 119.
' The same double outline occurs, and
with the same object, in the brass of Ralph
de Knevynton, at Aveley, in Essex.
"f This figure, and the last on the sinister
side of the canopy, with the mounted
figure in the pediment of the canopy,
form a beautiful plate in Waller's Brasses:
and the entire brass is figured in Cot-
MILITAEY BRASSES. 47
Almeric, Lord St.Amand, whose head-piece
is very singular; it appears to be the Cha-
pelle defer or steel-bonnet, and is here worn
over the bascinet, but without any defence
for the face ; in actual combat, however, it
might be drawn forward, so that the brim
projecting over the brow would afford some
additional protection ; this is the only speci- Head of Aimenc, Lord
St. Amand. HasLiugs brass,
men of this head-piece which has been ad. lan.
noticed engraven in a brass; and the only other example in a
monumental effigy occurs in one of the equestrian figures of
Aymer de Valence, on his monument in Westminster abbey. In
an upper compartment of this canopy, within an octofoil encom-
passed by a circle, is a mounted warrior, trampling down and
piercing with his lance a fiend, probably designed to indicate the
triumph of the Christian faith : in this group, the voluminous trap-
pings of the charger, and the gauntlets of his rider, which here first
appear divided into fingers, are both remarkable. The early prac-
tice of pointing the foot downwards through the stirrup is also
here exemplified : this position, naturally resulting from wearing
shoes of mail, was universally adopted by knights when in the
saddle, from the Conquest till the time of Richard III., A.D. 1483 ;
during which period the sollerets, or armed shoes, were worn
pointed ; but subsequently the heel was dropped and the toe ele-
vated, when broad and rounded Sabbatons were introduced. The
spurs were not screwed to the armour before the middle of the
fifteenth century. In brasses these knightly appendages, with their
accompanying straps, are usually depicted with great distinctness ;
but few engraven specimens, however, occur of spurs of greatly dis-
proportionate length, notwithstanding the continued prevalence of
this extravagant fashion ; the longest spurs which I have noticed
are in the brasses of Sir John de Braose, A.D. 1426, at Wiston in
Sussex, of Sir John Say, A.D. 1473, at Broxbourn in this county,
and of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, A.D. 1483, at Little Easton,
Essex ; but these are far exceeded by the incised slab, bearing date
A.D. 1441, at Brading in the Isle of Wight, and which comme-
48 MILITARY BRASSES.
morates Sir John Cherowin, or Curwen, constable of Porchester
Before I refer to any other individual examples, it may perhaps
be desirable here to introduce a brief general description of the
more prominent characteristics of the style of armour, prevalent
during the latter half of the fourteenth, and the early part of the
fifteenth centuries, and which immediately preceded the adoption
of complete suits of plate-armour. The hauberk, curtailed in
length, and frequently, if not generally, sleeveless, and now it
would seem denominated the Haubergeon, was worn over the
quilted gambeson or haqueton, and itself covered by the Jupon ;
this last-named sleeveless overcoat was also denominated the Pour-
point, from the Latin word, Perpunctum, indicative of its construc-
tion ; it being composed of several thicknesses of material, sewed
through, and faced with silk or velvet, upon which the armorial
insignia of the wearer were frequently embroidered ^ : the jupon
fitted close to the person, and, descending midway between the hip
and the knee, was finished with an enriched border of escalops,
leaves, or other cut and open Avork ^. Another garment, called a
jupon, is also spoken of, as having been at this period sometimes
worn beneath the mail : but this is altogether distinct from the
rich and splendid covering to the more strictly defensive portion
of the knight's equipment, and was really a species oijust-au-corps,
or haqueton, expressly designed to be worn beneath the armour :
it might have been constructed of very strong materials, such as
cuir-bouilli, and with a plastron or breast-plate of steel have been
the only personal defence. To this breast-plate the term hauber-
geon was occasionally applied; the armour of mail, worn over
such an haubergeon, being still distinguished as the hauberk.
A steel breast-plate was also a common appendage to the ordi-
nary short hauberk, to which it was firmly attached beneath the
jupon. The arms of the knight were entirely encased in bras-
^ See p. 160. pourpoint.
a The jupon was sometimes stuffed and '' This mode of cutting out the borders
padded, though it would seem to have more of garments into open-work of various de-
generallybeen constructed after the fashion vices, prevailed in almost every description
from which it derived its other name of of dress worn at that period.
sarts '^ of plate, having coudieres or elbow-pieces variously formed,
but all of small size ; and at the shoulders were Epaulieres con-
structed of several overlapping plates, but without palettes at either
elbow or shoulder '^j the gauntlets and soUerets were of plate,
jointed, like the epaulieres, after the manner of a lobster's tail;
the nails of the fingers were often engraved upon these steel-
gloves, and the knuckles were armed with small spikes or bosses
of steel, denominated Gadlyngs. Cuissarts and jambarts of plate
enclosed the legs above and below the knees, which were them-
selves guarded by genouillieres. Double plates sometimes are
introduced, for the purpose of additional security, immediately
above and below the genouillieres. At the back of the knee-joint,
and also at the joints of the shoulders, elbows, and ankles, small
Goussettes or Gussets of mail were introduced ; and these frequently
are depicted upon brasses with excellent effect. On
the head was worn the bascinet, which now was
often acutely pointed, and indeed may always be dis-
tinguished by its pointed apex from the more glo-
bular head-piece of a subsequent period : from the
rim of the bascinet descended the camail of either
interlaced or banded mail, covering the neck and j^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^
shoulders like a tippet ; the camail was attached to
the bascinet by a lace drawn through vervelles or
small staples ; in some examples this arrangement is
distinctly exhibited, but in others the vervelles are
covered by a border of steel, generally ornamental,
worked upon the rim of the head-piece. About the
bascinet a wreath composed of cloth, silk or velvet, ^^^°'^*^^^°^^^;^^
and sometimes enriched with jewels and goldsmith's w^sneee^.
work, was commonly worn : but in brasses it very rarely is depicted
Above this wreath or orle rose the heraldic crest. During
the time of actual combat, over the bascinet the tilting-helm
was worn; in brasses this, with its crest, wreath or orle, and
' The armour of the upper arm was the eiBgies, roundels occasionally appear at
Rerebrace, of the lower the Vambrace. this period, placed both at the shoulder and
d Small roundels in some few examples elbow-joints : but I have not observed any
occur at the elbow-joints. In sculptured example of this arrangement upon a brass.
mantliugj are usually represented as placed beneath the head of the
recumbent figure^ a fitting pillow for the warrior in repose. Some-
times, in place of the tilting-helm, a very strong bascinet was worn,
furnished with a visor capable of completely protecting the face ^.
The sword was long, strait and tapering ; its hilt and either extre-
mity of the scabbard were richly ornamented, but the greater part
of the scabbard was usually plain ; the guard of the weapon formed
a cross, and the pommel was generally circular or octagonal in its
outline, and was surmounted by a small angular knob. The sword-
belt was broad and richly ornamented, and was girded over the
hips, leaving the waist free from any cincture; this belt was
usually fastened strait across the person by an enriched Morse or
clasp; in some examples, however, it has a slight curve in its
adjustment; and sometimes also it is buckled instead of being
clasped : the sword was attached to this belt at the uppermost
part of the scabbard, and it hung perpendicularly at the left side.
Another weapon was now introduced, and was at-
tached on the right side to the same belt : this was
the Miset^icorde, or small strait dagger; it had no
guard, and both its hilt and scabbard were curiously
ornamented : in brasses the blade of the misericorde
sometimes appears in front of the wearer, but more
generally the hilt only is seen^ The camail was
drawn closely round the face, generally covering the
chin, while the long moustaches often protruded over
In some of the earlier brasses in this style of
knightly harness, a curious variety of defensive equipment appears,
consisting of a series of small round plates or roundels of steel,
secured by rivets to a lining of pourpoint, or of cuir-bouilli, a pre-
paration, as I have before observed, in common use in the middle
Misericorde, Earl of
Warwick. St. Mary's,
Warwick, A. D. 1401.
« At Allerton Mauleverer is a fine ex-
ample of such a bascinet with its visor.
' It appears from sculptured effigies
that the misericorde was usually secured
by a short chain to the broad hip-belt, on
the light side. In his effigy in Hereford
cathedral, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of
Hereford, wears his misericorde depending
from a short chain directly in front of the
person. This nobleman is habited in the
cyclas, gambeson, hauberk, and haqueton :
he died A.D. 1321.
ages, as well for defence as for orna-
ment «. Perhaps the finest example of
this Studded-mail, was the brass of Sir
Miles de Stapleton^ now lost from Ing-
ham church, Norfolk : this knight died
A.D. 1364, the 38th of Edward III.; and
he is represented as wearing a studded ju-
pon, and haut-de-chausses, with jambarts
worked in studded bands'. Sir Ralph de
Knevynton, at Aveley, Essex, A.D. 1370,
has his jupon studded as well as his chaus-
ses ^ : he retains the long hauberk, pointed
in front, and apparently made with sleeves
reaching below the elbows; his hands and
head are bare ; about his temples is placed
an ornamented fillet; the sleeves of his
haqueton terminate in a species of mittens
reaching some little space beyond the wrist ;
and he has chains from the breast-plate
beneath the jupon, which are severally
attached to his sword and misericorde i.
Sir John de Paletoot, A.D. 1361, the 35th of
Edward III., wears chausses only of studded
mail ; his jupon is plain, and the mail of his
sf Effigies of warriors thus armed are of more frequent
occurrence on the continent than in this country : for the
fine example annexed (see next page), I am indebted to the
Committee of the Archaeological Institute ; it represents
a figure carved in wood in the choir of Bamberg cathedral,
and appeared in the sixth part of the Archaeological Jour-
nal. The legs of this warrior are encased in jambeaux of
cuir-bouilli. The other singularities in his equipment
will not escape the notice of the careful observer.
" An early seal of a Stapleton gives the rebus of the
family, a staple enclosing the letters ton.
i The portion of the figure of this knight here engraved,
is drawn from the beautiful etching in Stothard's Effigies :
this brass is also figured in Cotman's work.
k See p. 22.
' See p. 42, and note (m.)
Sir Miles de Stapleton, A.D. 1364
Late in Ingham church, Norfolk.
BCULPTUBED 'EFFIGY, BAMBF.RG CATHEDRAL, A.D. 1370,
haubergeon and caraail is banded •" : this fine brass lies on the floor
of a chapel to the north of the chancel at Watton, in this county ;
it is surmounted by an elegant canopy, and round the verge of the
stone is the legend, — "Icy gist Monsieur .... Paletoot, Che-
VALER, QE MORUST LE XIIIJ JOUR DE AuST, LAN DE GRACE MILL .
ccc . . . . " Other examples of studded-mail occur in the brasses
of Sir Thomas Cheyne, A.D. 1368, and of his son Sir William
Cheyne, A.D. 1375, at Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks ; of a knight of
the Argentine family, about the same date, at Horseheath, Cam-
bridgeshire; and of Sir John de
Cobham, also about A.D. 1375, at
Cobham, in Kent. Sir Thomas
Cheyne wears jambarts of studded-
mail arranged, like those of Sir
Miles de Stapleton, in bands ; his
sword and sword-belt are highly
characteristic of the period, while
Hip belt. &c, Sir Thomas Cheyne, his gcnouiUieres arc of unique
0. AD. 1368. Draytou Beauchamp, .
Bucks. singularity : this knight was es-
quire at arms to King Edward III.,
— " dilectus armiger suus," as that
monarch terms him, — constable
of Windsor castle, and ranger of
Guildford park. His son. Sir Wil-
liam, wears laminated sollerets,
AD. 1375. sirwiuiam composcd 01 scaics or small snin-
Cheyne. •"■ ^^ 1 o •
gles of steel, or possibly ot cmr-
bouilli, which are also unique". Sir John de
Cobham, the munificent founder of Cobham
college, bears in his hands a model of the church
" In this example, the misericorde has been abstracted ; and
in the subsequent figure from St. Michael's church, St. Alban's,
the cross-hilt of the sword is broken. One shield of arms remains
in connection with the effigy of Sir John Paletoot ; it is charged
with paly of six, or, and vert, a chief indented of the second, for
Paletoot, — a good specimen of canting heraldry.
" The gauntlets of Sir John de Buslingthorpe, and the defences
of the lower arms of Sir John de Northewode, are constructed in
a similar manner.
Sir John de Cobham, o. A.D.
1375. Cobham, Kent.
of that establishment : his genouilheres are curious, and in some
respect resemble those worn by Sir Thomas Cheyne °. Numerous
specimens exist of the ordinary knightly habit, during what I ven-
ture to designate the Camail-period of armour. These brasses are
satisfactorily exemplified in the memorials of Nicholas, Lord Bur-
Nicholas, Lord B>imell, A.D. 1382.
° Two other examples of a similar equip-
ment, and these of the greatest interest,
are figured in a woodcut in Stothard's work,
and also at p. 137 of Mr. Planche's most
excellent little volume, from the initial let-
ter of the grant of the duchy of Aquitaine
by Edward III. to the Black Prince, in
Xnigiit, c, A.D 1385. St. Michael's
church, St. A] ban's.
which those distinguished personages are
represented. Stothard has given two figures
of knightly effigies habited in chausses of
studded-mail, the one from the abbey-
church at Tewkesbury, and the other from
Holbeach church, Lincolnshire,
A.D. 1391. 16° Uit: 11
A.D 1412 . 13° mm: IT
SIR ROBERT SWYlfBOfiNE.
SIM THOMAS SWYMJOMNE,
in Little Horkesley Ciiurch , Essex.
(Canopies omitted. )
A.D. 1382. 6th of Richard IT.
SIR THOMAS AND LADY BURTON, LITTLE CASTERTON CHURCH, RUTLANDSHIRE
(See pa^es 56, 62. and 85.)
MILITARY BRASSES. 55
nel, A.D. 1382, at Acton-Burnel, Salop ; and of a knight whose
name now is unknown, also about A.D. 1385, at St. Michael's
church, St. Alban's. In his brass at South Acre, Norfolk, A.D. 1384,
Sir John Harsick with his left hand, which is gauntleted, clasps
his sword-belt, while with his bare right hand he holds his lady,
whose effigy is placed beside his own, on his right side : by this
action, the arm displays the arrangement of the armour inside the
elbow-joint, in the same manner as in the figure of Sir Miles de
Stapleton, and in the subsequent brasses of Sir Peter and Lady
Halle, and Thomas Baron Camoys and Elizabeth his lady. The
effigy of Sir Robert Swynborne is surmounted by a splendid
canopy, and beside his own figure lies that of his son, armed after
the fashion introduced subsequent to his own decease: thus the
same brass furnishes specimens, in the effigies of a father and son,
of two successive, but altogether distinct, styles of armour, and
both in the highest possible perfection. This large and noble work
of art remains in excellent preservation ; and may be regarded as,
in every respect, an example of the greatest beauty, value, and im-
portance P. The brass of Sir Thomas Burton, A.D. 138.2, at Little
Casterton, Rutland, is also a remarkably fine specimen of this style
of knightly effigy : his camail is of chain-mail, and with the rest of
his appointments, is admirably expressed : this knight is decorated
with the collar of SS.^ In Stoke church, Suffolk, A.D. 1408, is
another very curious and fine brass, to the memory of Sir William
Tendering : the gauntlets, sword-belt and scabbard, here are elabo-
rately enriched : the bare head, which is very unusual, rests upon
the crested tilting-helm •■, the bascinet, which was undoubtedly
worn under it, being altogether omitted : and the long bifid beard
descends over a species of gorget of mail. At Merevale abbey-
church, Warwickshire, is the large and fine brass of Robert Lord
Ferrers of Chartley, and his wife Margaret, A.D. 1407 : and again.
P In the accompanying engraving, the ■■ A similar arrangement occurs in the
canopies have been omitted, in order to shew brass of Walter Green, Esq., A.D. 1450,
the figures themselves upon a larger scale : at Hayes, Middlesex, (see p. 70): at a
the canopy which covers one of the figures still later period this omission of the bas-
will be found figured at p. 1. cinet was a common practice in the com-
•1 See pages 85, 133. position of these engraved eflBgies.
56 MILITARY BRASSES.
at Wootton-under-Edge, Gloucestersliire, is another equally fine
specimen of tlie same style of brass, in the memorial of Thomas
Lord Berkeley, and Margaret his lady, who severally died A.D.1417,
and 1392. Both these figures were probably engraved at the death
of Lady Berkeley, in 1392 : the armour of the knight is altogether
characteristic of that period : over his camail he wears a collar of
mermaids, a badge of the house of Berkeley ^. Lady Berkeley is
habited in a kirtle and mantle : she wears a small reticulated head-
dress with a coverchef, and her head rests upon two cushions very
elegantly diapered. At Baginton, in the county of Warwick, is
another admirable brass of the same period, the memorial of Sir
William Bagot, and Margaret his lady, A.D. 1407 : this knight
was a partizan and favourite of King Richard 11. ; and his name
appears, in conjunction with Bushy and Green, in Shakespere's
Richard II. Subsequently he appears to have made his peace with
Henry Bolingbroke ; for his forfeited lands were restored, and he
was one of the first who received from that prince the collar of
SS.* Before Richard's misfortunes, he entertained Bolingbroke
at his castle of Baginton on the night before the intended combat
on St. Lambert's day, between Bolingbroke and Norfolk, which
ended in the banishment of both parties. The armour here de-
picted is a suit no less characteristic of the time, than excellent
in itself. Lady Bagot wears a kirtle, sideless cote-hardi, and man-
tle lined with fur. This interesting and valuable monument,
having been partially mutilated, has been beautifully restored".
I may here mention another curious brass of this period, compris-
ing the figures of an unknown knight and his lady, with a frag-
ment of a canopy, at Broughton in Lincolnshire : these figures
hold hearts in their hands. And again, at AUerton Mauleverer in
* See p. 135. have also been replaced. This work has
I See p. 133. The arms of Sir William been effected at the cost of Lord Bagot, and
Bagot as emblazoned by Dugdale, are, ar- in consequence of a suggestion from the
gent, a chevron, gules, between three mart- Rev. W. Drake, M.A., of Coventry. The
lets sable ; a crescent for difference. accompanying engraving, executed after
" Dugdale gives representations of these a drawing by L. A. B.Waller, Esq., ex-
effigies in their perfect state : and from his hibits the gratifying results of judicious
engraving they have been restored by the and skilful restoration.
Messrs. Waller. The original enamels
I I Foci
A.D. 1107. 8til of Henry IV
BIK WILLIAM AND LADY BAGOT, BAGINTON CHUHCH, WARWICKSHIRE
A D 1392. 16tii of fiicbard II.
A.D. 1417. 4thof Henry
THOMAS, LORD BKaKELET AND LADY, WOTTON-DNDER-EDGE CHURCH,
MILITARY BRASSES. 57
Yorksliire, is tlic brass of one of the Mauleverers and his lady, in
which the knight appears wearing a visored bascinet : while at
Hemel Hempsted, in this county, Robert Albyn, c. A.D. 1400,
has his sword suspended from the custo-
mary belt, girded horizontally across the
hips, and also further secured by a narrow
diagonal belt buckled in front; the wea-
pon itself hangs with its blade behind the
figure, and in a sloping position ''. One
other brass of this period, also in War-
wickshire, claims especial notice; the
memorial at St. Mary's church, Warwick,
of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of War- sword belt, &c. Robert Aibyn, c. a.d.
, . . 1400. Hemel Hempsted, Herts.
Wick, and the Lady Margaret, his coun-
tess, who severally deceased in the years
1401 and 1406, the 2nd and the 7th of Henry IV. Armed
at all points in the style characteristic of the stirring times in
which he bore such a distinguished part, this formidable baron
here appears attired with splendour suited to his rank and impor-
tance : his bascinet, rerebraces, gauntlets, genouillieres, and soUe-
rets, together with his offensive weapons, are all richly orna-
mented : the mail of his camail and haubergeon, with the gous-
settes at the insteps, is finely wrought : and his jupon is embla-
zoned with his arms, gules, a fesse between six crosses crosslet, or.
The dress of the countess though rich, is very simple : it consists
of a kirtle or tunic, made to fit close about the person, but flowing
in wide folds over the feet; the sleeves are buttoned down the
arms, and continued to cover the backs of the hands : over this a
long mantle is secured by a cordon drawn across the breast : the
hair is partly confined within a reticulated caul, and partly de-
scends to the shoulders, where the reticulation is repeated ; the
forehead is also encircled by a bandeau of jewels. The mantle is
embroidered with the arms of Beauchamp ; and the kirtle displays
those of Ferrers, gules, seven mascles, three, three, and one, or;
X This knight is also remarkable for his also see p. 152. This second belt is not
very acutely pointed bascinet, see p. 49 : unfrequently found in sculptured effigies.
58 MTLITAHY BRASSES.
the countess was daughter of William, Lord Ferrers, of Groby.
Thes# heraldic charges in both the figures are all wrought with an
elaborate diaper, produced by delicately puncturing the surface of
the plate : and by means of the same process, additional ornament
is also imparted to the costume. " The intricacy of the design,"
observes Mr. Waller, " and the beauty of the workmanship, evince
the hand of no common artist : the pattern is similar to that which
appears on the effigy of the queen of Richard II. at Westminster,
the date of which is about twelve years earlier; and it is possible
that both monuments were executed under the superintendence of
the same designer." The effigy of the knight, besides the flowing
pattern of its diapered decoration, is pounced repeatedly with the
ragged staff, the celebrated badge of the house of Warwick ; and
his feet rest on a chained bear, another ancient cognizance of his
family. With the exception of its occasional introduction into the
works of the great Flemish brass-engraver, this brass is the only
hitherto noticed example of enrichment by this species of diaper :
it is also characterized throughout by that high excellence as a
work of art, which places it in the very foremost rank of this species
of monumental memorial.
The next great change in the general appearance of armed brasses,
exhibits the knight appointed in armour of plate, in place of the
camail and haubergeon, with its covering of pourpointerie. The in-
sufficiency of mail eflfectually to resist the stroke of the lance, which,
though unable to pierce its close reticulations, still might drive it
into the flesh, together with the great weight and almost suffo-
cating oppressiveness of the mail with its thick lining and covering,
led to the substitution, or in some cases to the addition, of outer
defences of plate. I say addition, because a light gorget and skirt
of mail appear still to have been occasionally retained in use.
Sometimes indeed a complete haubergeon may have been worn
beneath the plate armour : but more generally a mere fringe only
of mail was attached at the more exposed points, with a view to
additional protection. The knight now wears a bascinet of glo-
bular form, though generally slightly pointed at its apex ^ -, this
y See p. 49.
A D. 14 24. -Jud of Henry VI,
lOKD AND LADY CAUOYS, TROTTON CHURCH, SUSSEX.
This Lady was the widow of Henry Percy, the renowned Hotspur, ^vhen she raarried Thomas, Baxon
Camcys. and Lord Camoya himself commanded the left wing of th3 Eq^Usq a-my at Agincourt.
The canopy of this fine Brass is engraved at page 127,
MILITARY BRASSES. 59
bascinet, still frequently encircled with an orle or wreath, encases
the entire head, merely leaving the features exposed to view, and
it is firmly attached to a steel gorget which covers the throat, and
rests upon the upper part of the Cuirass, the covering of plate-
armour for the body above the waist. Two plates of steel for the
breast and back compose the cuirass, and these are worked of a
globular form. The limbs are armed after the same fashion as
during the preceding period, but now either elongated palettes or
roundels appear in front of the shoulders, covering the points of
junction between the epaulieres and the cuirass^; similar roundels
of smaller size sometimes are attached to the coudieres, an arrange-
ment which may be regarded as the prototype of the
fan-shaped coudieres now commonly worn. From the
waist depend a series of narrow overlapping plates
attached to a lining of leather or pourpoint, denomi-
nated Taces ; and these are crossed diagonally from
right to left by the sword-belt, which is narrower than
before, but still attached at one point only to the upper- „
' i » i i Fan-shaped Cou-
most part of the scabbard ^ : the long, strait, heavy cai^t^.k j'f4?4.
sword, thus girded at the left side, and sometimes '^°'"'"'^"'^^''^-
having its point sloping outwards from the figure, is of the same
form as before : the pommel now has often a peculiar shape, some-
what resembling an inverted pear, and the hilt is plainer than at
an earlier period : the misericorde has its blade now almost univer-
sally placed behind the figure, and the mode by which it is sus-
pended, in brasses is rarely, if ever, expressed. The tilting-helm
with its heraldic accessories continues to form, in many cases, the
pillow of the knightly effigies ; and in action it was worn, as before,
over the bascinet.
The brass of Sir Reginald de Cobham, A.D. 1403, at Lingfield,
^ Previous to the year 1430, roundels times crossed by mother of like character,
appear generally to have been worn; but girded from k-ft to right, to which the dag-
after that period they are almost universally ger was secured. The broad hip-belt also
superseded by the elongated palettes. Tliis not unfrequently appears in connection
distinction is a good criterion of date in with the diagonal and narrower belt, or
military brasses. occasionally alone.
■ In sculptured effigies this belt is some-
Surrey, is a transition specimen,
having the acutely pointed bas-
cinet and camail in connection
with the cuirass and taces : the
sword-belt is also girded across
the hips, and the sword elabo-
rately enriched from hilt to
point. About his head-piece
this knight wears a jewelled
orle or wreath. At Wisbeach,
in Cambridgeshire, Sir Thomas
Braunstone, A.D. 1401, also
wears a camail of chain-mail
with a cuirass and taces : and
again, twenty-four years later,
A.D. 1425, at Theddlethorpe,
Lincolnshire, Robert Hayton,
Esq., is represented as similarly
accoutred. Sir Thomas Swyn-
borne, A.D. 1412, wears an un-
der gorget of mail, and a shirt
of mail beneath the taces of
plate ^ ; his sword-belt is narrow
and transverse, and with his
sword and misericorde, is richly
ornamented : he has at the
shoulders roundels charged with
the cross of St. George, and
smaller roundels are attached to
his coudieres. Round his neck
the knight wears the collar of SS ; and his feet rest upon a couch-
ing lion. Another, and that an equally splendid specimen of the
earlier brasses in this style, lies within the altar-rails of Digswell
church in this county ; it commemorates Sir Thomas Peryent and
SirEeginald deCobham. A.D. 1403.
'' These may possibly be merely fringes of mail, attached to the hausse-col and the
his lady: this knight, who died
A.D. 1415, retains the broad and
rich sword-belt clasped straight across
the hips, but in all other respects
his equipment resembles that of Sir
Thomas Swynborne. Sir Thomas
Percent was esquire at arms to Kings
Richard II., Henry IV., and Henry V.,
and also master of the horse to Queen
Joanna of Navarre. The costume of
Lady Peryent who, as well as her hus-
band, wears the collar of SS, combines
dignified elegance with perfect sim-
plicity : it consists of a super-tunic of
ample proportions encircled at the
waist by an ornamented band, and
having its open collar falling back
upon the shoulders; the sleeves are
loose upon the arms above the elbow,
below which, after the manner of the
sleeves of a surplice, they fall to the
ground, hanging open over the mid-
dle of the lower arm : beneath this
dress was worn a kirtle, the sleeves
of which appear gathered in very full
to a deep and tight cuff at the wrist ;
the collar of this under garment falls
over the other collar : and on the left
side, on the collar of the outer dress,
a small swan is embroidered. The
arrangement of the hair is very singu-
lar j indeed I know of no correspond-
ing specimen : it is most curiously
plaited, and rises to a considerable
height above the head in the form
of a reversed triangle, and above all
a small coverchef is seen rolled up.
Sword belt, taces , &:c Si r John
Peryent, A.D 1415
Lady Peryent, Digswell, A.D. 1415.
\ » "I ^ ^ WW
Head-dre-s, Lady Peryent,
At the feet of the lady is a hedge-
The brass of Sir John Lysle, A.D.
1407, in Thornton church, Hants, is
perhaps the earhest example of com-
plete plate armour, without any ad-
mixture whatever of mail. In Heme
church, Kent, is a fine specimen of com-
plete plate-armour, being the effigy
of Sir Peter Halle, c. A.D. 1420, 8th
Henry V., accompanied by that of his
lady, whom he is depicted as holding by the right hand. Here
we have the peculiarly elegant fan- shaped elbow-piece, so charac-
teristic of the period, shewn on both sides : and the spurs have
their rowels guarded c. The costume of the lady also is no less
characteristic and valuable as a specimen, than is the armour of
her husband : she is habited in a close-fitting kirtle or cote-hardi,
encircled by an enriched girdle, adjusted not about the waist, but
across the hips : over this is worn a singular dress '^, in high fashion
during a very protracted period, consisting of little more than a
narrow strip, as well behind as in front of the figure, but united
over the shoulders, and from a little below the waist enveloping the
entire person ; thus at the sides, the under dress with its sleeves,
and the elegant cincture by which it was confined, are visible
through the openings of this Sideless cote-hardi. This cincture of
the kirtle is completely shewn in the fine brass of Lady Burton,
A.D. 1382, at Little Casterton, Rutland, that lady being depicted
without the sideless super-tunic or cote-hardi. Sometimes the
skirt of this garment descended no lower than the knee, thus dis-
playing the under-tunic below it, as well as at the sides of the
figure ^. The upper part of this robe was usually guarded with fur,
■^ Spurs thus guarded, or dress spurs,
have been supposed to indicate that the
wearer held some office about the court.
■^ This singular but most elegant article
of female attire, which for so long a period
became a regular component of the cos-
tume, appears to have resulted from a de-
sire on the part of the ladies, in some de-
gree at least, to emulate the accumulation
of garments worn by the other sex.
^ This garment appears to have been
adopted by the ladies of that period in imi-
tation of the knightly jupon. And so also
the girdle was adjusted by the ladies, after
C-» 142 0. 8° Btm. V.
J.X Johhins. UOt.
In Heme Cliiircli, Kent.
A.D. 1413. r ^^ttr*: T.
J£ Joohvns. h^.
SIR SIMOS" FELBTRKS-lS KHI
la Felbrigg CJaurcli. NorfolTi,
( Caxiopy & other figure omitted. )
MILITAEY BRASSES. C3
or decorated with rich embroidery. Over it, about the tall figure
of Lady Halle, a flowing mantle is disposed with excellent eftcct :
a necklace with a pendent jewel encircles her neck : and she wears
the horned head-dress with its rich reticulated caul for the hair,
and the coverchef hanging over the shoulders. At Felbrigg church,
Norfolk, is another remarkably fine and interesting example of the
knightly harness of this stirring time : this is the brass of Sir
Simon de Felbrigge, and Margaret his lady, which was engraved
under the direction of Sir Simon himself, and laid down over the
tomb of liis wife, at her decease, A.D. 1413. The knight survived
until the year 1443, when he was buried, contrary as it would seem
to his original intention, in the church of the Friars Preachers at
Norwich, where the remains of his second wife were also interred
in the year 1459. The knight is armed in complete armour of plate,
with the addition of the skirt or fringe of mail, appearing below the
lowermost of the faces ; his palettes are ensigned with the cross of
St. George ; round his left leg is buckled the garter with the motto
of the order; and on his right arm rests a small banner, displaying
the arms of King Richard II., to which monarch he was standard-
bearer. This efi&gy is well and accurately drawn, and it is en-
graved with great freedom and boldness of touch. The lady is
habited simply in a kirtle and mantle ; her hair is closely confined
on either side of the face in a rich crespine, or caul of network, and
from her head a coverchef descends upon her shoulders ^ The
efiigies are surmounted by a noble double canopy, still in excellent
preservation. The royal arms emblazoned on the banner borne
by Sir Simon de Felbrigge, are those adopted by Richard II., to-
wards the latter part of his reign, — France and England quarterly,
impaling the bearing attributed to the Confessor : the same arms
again appear on this brass, upon a shield above the head of the
the fashion of the belt of the knights, not tume of the lady is precisely similar to
about the waist, but over the hips : its ad- that worn by Lady de Felbrigge, but her
justment is admirably exemplified in the husband is armed with a camail and ju-
brass of Lady Burton, above referred to. pon. For the figure annexed, (see next
f In a fine brass at Sawtrey, Huntingdon- page,) drawn from the Sawtrey brass, I
shire, which exhibits the effigies of an un- am again indebted to the Committee of the
known kniglit and lady, but the date of Archaeological Institute,
which remains, being A.D. 1404, the cos-
LADT, A D. 1404. SAWTREY. HAKTS.
knight, and again on another shield impaling the arms of Anne,
Richard's queen e. Upon a third shield, suspended from the mid-
dle pinnacle, is Felbrigge,— or, a lion rampant, gules, impaling a
spread eagle, the arms of Lady Felbrigge : upon two other shields,
one on either side of the same pinnacle, is the well-known badge
of the fetterlock : and below, on the corbel from which the arches
^ The arms attributed to Edward the Con-
fessor? , azure, a cross flory within an orle
of martlets, or. This bearing was assumed
by Richard II., at the time of his Irish
expedition, A.D. 1394 ; but with what ex-
press view it cannot now be positively as-
certained. These assumed bearings appear
neither on the seals nor the tomb of the
king ; but they were notwithstanding evi-
dently borne by Richard, impaled with
his hereditary coat, as his royal arms. They
were also specially granted, as honourable
augmentations of arms, to certain favour-
ites or relations, with some armorial differ-
ence to each; but in all, as in the royal
arms, were borne impaling their paternal
coats. The royal arms thus impaled, again
appear upon the brass in Westminster
abbey of Robert Waldeby, archbishop of
Dublin, A.D. 1397.
AD 1 4. TO 8" i^em VI.
J K Jobhin.i. Fi',n>
ilia THOMAS JBE-OMEILETE o
C-up Bearer to King Henry, V.
WynuTigtOTi Ckiij-ch, BodfbrdshiT-e .
MILITARY BRASSES. 65
of the canopy spring in the centre, is the white hart lodged, the
cognizance and also the supporter of Richard II. The first Lady
Felbrigge, commemorated by this brass, was Margaret, daughter of
Primislaus, duke of Teschen, a near kinswoman to Anne of Bohe-
mia the queen, to whom she was a maid of honour. Of scarcely in-
ferior merit was the brass figured by Cotman, which, with others,
has at a comparatively recent period been abstracted (I use a mild
term) from Ingham church : it was designed to commemorate Sir
Bryan de Stapleton, and CeciHa Bardolph his lady, and bore the
date A.D. 1438. A small label here shewed the name of the dog
lying at the feet of the knight, to have been jakke ^. At Wyming-
ton in Bedfordshire, A.D. 1430, is a large and very fine specimen
of a knight in plate-armour, his head reposing on his crested tilt-
ing-helm : it commemorates Sir Thomas Bromflete, cup-bearer to
King Henry V., and is considered by Mr. Hartshorne to be " the
finest specimen of a brass representing a knight in plate-armour
in existence'." In the same church is preserved another fine
brass to the memory of Margaret, wife of the above Sir Thomas
Bromflete, who died A.D. 1407. Bearing date the 29th of Novem-
ber, A.D. 1426, at Wiston, in Sussex, the brass of Sir John de
Brewys or Braose, (see next page,) afl'ords another noble example
of this truly imposing style of armour : in this valuable specimen
every peculiarity of the panoply of plate in its highest perfection, is
exemplified in the most characteristic manner'^. The small append-
age to the taces, indeed, but this alone, is unusual. A correspond-
ing example will be found at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, in the now
mutilated brass of Sir John Drayton, who died A.D. 1411. This
knight wears the collar of SS : and on his sword-hilt are engraven
the letters I.S., — the first and the last of the sacred monogram.
Westminster abbey contains another excellent and well-known
brass of a knight in plate-armour, — the memorial of Sir John de
h A similar instance occurs in the brass resembles that subsequently described as
of Sir John Cassy, in Deerhurst church, worn by Sir John Leventhorpe.
Gloucestershire, where the word terri * See " Sepulchral Monuments," p. 39,
accompanies the dog which lies at the feet where the brass of Sir Thomas Bromflete
of Lady Cassy. The armour of Sir Bryan is figured.
Stapleton differs slightly from what has ^ See for a further notice of this brass,
been described in the text; it more strictly p. '14'3, note (b). ,' , ,
Sir John de Brewys, A.D. 1426.
[jLhti deHai-pudon, A.D, U57,
Harpedon, A.D. 1457 : in this brass the taces are remarkable from
the number of their lames amounting to eleven : and the armour
throughout is unusually simple for the period. Sir John de Har-
pedon married three wives, one of whom was a daughter of Sir
John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, who was burnt in the year 1413.
Among other good examples of this same style, Cotman has figured
the brasses of Sir Galfridus de Fransham, A.D. 1414, at Great
Fransham, and of Sir William Calthorpe, A.D. 1420, at Burnham
Thorpe, both in Norfolk; and in Suffolk, the brasses of John
Broke, A.D. 1426, at Easton, and of John Norwich, A.D. 1428, at
Yoxford. In the publication of the Camden Society also, another
very fine specimen of this same style is figured : it is the brass at
A n , i4 3 3 11 W?rt:
In Sawiridgeworth Church, Hertfordshire.
( Shields or Arms omitted.)
Wixford in Warwickshire to the memory of Sir Thomas de Crewe
and Juliana his lady, M'ho deceased in the year 1411. And again,
in St. Lawrence church, Kent, A.D. 1444, the brass of Sir Nicholas
Manston exhibits his effigy armed at all points in the same style :
in this example, however, the palettes have a very peculiar form,
and the narrow transverse belt is buckled in front of the figure,
over the faces : the knight wears the collar of SS.
In addition to the several component members of a suit of plate-
armour, as exemplified in the brasses last noticed, certain other
pieces were gradually introduced, either as modifications of the
existing style of armour, or with a view to provide still more per-
fect security. The first of these varieties consists in an alteration
in the arrangement of the faces, which are contracted somewhat
in depth, and small plates named Tuilles are attached by buckles
to the lowermost tace, thus covering the front of the thighs with-
out at all impeding the free use of the limbs. Of this fashion as
it first appeared, we have an excellent specimen in the noble brass
of Sir John de Leventhorpe at Sawbridgeworth, in this county : in
all other respects the armour corresponds with that worn by Sir
Simon de Felbrigge, but here are tuilles buckled below the taces.
Beside the knight is the effigy of his lady, habited in a kirtle and
mantle, and having beneath her coverchef a widow's plaited coif.
Above the figures on
either side is a shield, the
one bearing the royal arms
of Henry VI., and the
other England differenced
of a label of three points,
charged upon each point
with as many fleurs-de-
lys ^ It appears to have
been customary thus to place the royal arms upon the tombs of
persons who had borne office under the crown : this was the case
with Sir Simon Felbrigge, and Archbishop Waldeby, whose interest-
Arma of Henry V. and VI. Brass
of Sir John de Leventhorpe.
Arms of King Henry V. when
Prince of Wales. Brass of
Sir John de Leventhorpe.
1 The former of these two shields dis-
plays the royal arms of Henry V. at the
close of his reign, and also Henry VI. :
the latter is charged with the bearing of
Henry V. when Prince of Wales. See
68 MILITARY BRASSES.
ing brass is preserved in Westminster abbey : and John Leven-
thorpe also was a highly trusted servant to the house of Lancaster ;
he held various offices under Kings Henry IV., V., and VI., and
in the will of Henry V. was named one of the executors of that
monarch : he himself died A.D. 1433, the 11th of Henry VI.
Shortly after their introduction, the tuilles were considerably
increased in size, and instead of being straight they were worked
below to a point. Additional pieces were placed upon the ordinary
armour of the shoulders and elbows; and the mechanism of the
gauntlets was also altered, with a view to afford a greater degree of
security to the hands. A singular diversity also appears between
the corresponding defences of the right and left sides of the same
figure; the right arm being so accoutred, as to be as well as
possible adapted for offensive action, while the left was carefully
protected by defensive armour. The plate attached to the cuff of
the gauntlet, or to the coudiere, was denominated a Garde-de-bras ;
that which was placed in front of the shoulder was a Placcate ; but
when the shoulder was absolutely covered by this second defence,
it became a Pauldron ". Upon the first adoption of complete suits
of plate-armour, the jupon was laid aside, and the knightly vanity
of the time appears to have gloried in displaying the glittering
splendour of the burnished steel; the intolerable heat, however,
occasioned by the shining of the sun upon the steel panoply, soon
led to the introduction of some light vestment to be worn over the
armour. The vestment of this kind in most general use was the
Tabard, which almost invariably was embroidered with the arms of
the wearer : it covered the body armour, and had short full sleeves,
™ The construction of the epaulieres in trate this progressive developeraent of the
many examples at a considerably earlier shoulder-armour. I must not omit to re-
period, gives evident indication of the ap- mind brass collectors, that the truly noble
proaching introduction of this important plate at Playford has recently been floored
piece of armour, the pauldron: I may over; it is figured in Cotman. The brass
refer to the brasses of Sir William Bagot of Sir Nicholas Dagworth here referred to,
(p. 56) A.D. 1407, at Baginton, Warwick- is a remarkably fine specimen; it closely
shire; of SirNicholas Dagworth, A.D. 1401, resembles the brasses of Sir William Bagot
at Blickling, Norfolk; and of Sir George at Baginton, Warwickshire, and of Sir
de Felbrigg, A.D. 1400, at Playford, in George de Felbrigg: these three plates
Suffolk; and again, subsequently to the may indeed be confidently ascribed to the
brass of Sir John de Braose, (p. 66,) same artist.
A.D. 1426, at Wiston, Sussex, to illus-
upon each of which, as well
as upon the body of the ta-
bard, the entire coat of arms
At Digswell, in this county,
beside the brasses of his fa-
ther and mother, is the brass
of a second Sir John Peryent,
who died about 1450 : in this
specimen, which in every re-
spect is good and valuable,
the peculiarity consists in the
garde-de-brass attached to
the coudiere of the left arm.
On either side of the head of
the knight are the emblems
of St. Matthew and St. Luke :
those of the two other evan-
gelists, together with an in-
scription, have been lost from
the foot of the effigy. In the
brass of Sir Richard Dyxton,
A.D. 1438, at Cirencester,
Gloucestershire, pointed tuil-
les are appended to the taces,
which nevertheless are eight
in number : placcates vary-
ing in size and form, and sir Jotm peryent the younger, c.A.D.UM. DigsweU, Herts.
fixed by rivets and arming-
points, afford additional pro-
tection to the shoulders; a
Demi-placcate or second cover-
ing of steel strengthens the
lower part of the cuirass, and
the gauntlets have but two
joints at the back of the
fingers. This curious and piaccates, sir Richard Cyxton, Cirencester. A.D.U38
Walter Green, Esq., Hayes, Middlesex,
John Daundelyon, Esq., Margate, A.D, 1455.
valuable effigy is surmounted by a rich canopy, now partly muti-
lated, but easily capable of complete and satisfactory restoration.
John Daundelyon, A.D. 1445, at Margate, Kent, wears tuilles
resembling those of Sir R. Dyxton, but his taces amount to five
only: he has at either shoulder a placcate, the one altogether
differing in character from the other ; the same difference charac-
terizes each garde-de-brass; and the gauntlets have very large
cuffs. Bearing date A.D. 1458, at Castle Donington, Leicester-
shire, the brass of Sir Robert Staunton bears a very strong general
resemblance to that of John Daundelyon ; his bascinet, however,
is furnished with a vizor. About the same period also, c. A.D. 1450,
at Hayes, Middlesex, Walter Green wears pauldrons of simple con-
struction ; and his epaullieres, which are composed of a scries of
small plates, are banded together at the neck : the taces in this
effigy are also curious, being worked in broad escalops, they are
eight in number ; the bare head of the knight reposes on his vizored
tilting-helm, the bascinet being altogether omitted.
In the brass of Sir Ralph Shelton, A.D. 1423, at Great Snoring
church, Norfolk, we have an early example of the tabard of arms,
worn over the armour. A tabard is also worn, A.D. 1424, by John
Wantele, at Amberley, Sussex ; but in this instance the arms (which
are vert, three lions' faces, argent, langued, gules) are not repeated
upon the sleeves : in this example the armour is very good : the head
is bare, and round the throat is a small gorget of mail. Another,
and that an admirable specimen of the tabard, occurs in the
large* and singularly interesting brass of Sir
William Fynderne and Elizabeth his lady,
at Childrey, Berks, A.D. 1444. The head of
this knight is bare, and his entire person is
enveloped, nearly to the knees, in the em-
broidered covering to his armour; and this,
in the original, from the field of the coat of
arms being white, is composed of lead run
into casements or hollows sunk for its recep-
tion in the latten-plate •". In the effigy of
Lady Fynderne, the lead occupies a still
larger portion of the composition, the whole
of both mantle and kirtle being of that metal,
in consequence of the field of her own armo-
rial bearing, as well as that of her husband,
being argent. Thus, in this figure, in the
head and hands alone the surface of the
brass itself appears. The effigies in this
brass are surmounted by an elegant double canopy, which, like
that of Sir K. Dyxton and many others, might have its partial
mutilations restored with certain fidelity at a very trifling cost.
Other examples of the tabard abound in brasses from the period
Sir WiUiaju Fynderne, Childrey,
Berks, A.D. 1444.
"" The arms here emblazoned are argent,
chevron between three crosses pattee-
fitchee, sable, the chevron differenced of
an annulet of the field.
73 MILITARY BRASSES.
now under consideration^ until almost the middle of the succeeding
century, the sixteenth : of these it will be sufficient for me here to
refer, for later specimens, to the brasses of Sir Ralph Verney,
c. A.D. 1546, at Aldbury, in this county; of John Shelley, Esq.,
A.D. 1526, at Clapham, in Sussex; and of Sir Roger ^Estrange,
A.D. 1506, at Hunstanton, in Norfolk.
As the fifteenth century advanced towards its close, the character
of armour gradually degenerated. Until the death of the eighth
Henry, indeed, armour continued to be splendid and magnificent,
far richer with elaborate flutings and inlaying than at an earlier
period: still during the later years of the struggle between the
rival Houses of York and Lancaster, and throughout the era of the
Tudor dynasty, we no longer find the knightly effigies accoutred in
that smart and elegant style, by which they previously were dis-
tinguished. And in brasses this inferiority of equipment is more
strikingly apparent than in sculptured figures, in consequence of
the great and increasing deterioration in these engraven memo-
rials, as works of art ; a deterioration so remarkable, that very few
brasses, executed many years after the accession of Henry VIII.,
A.D. 1509, are worthy of much attention, being totally devoid
alike of interest, merit, and value". After the year 1450 various
other new and supplementary pieces of armour were introduced,
designed to be affixed to the cuirass, head-piece, and the defences
of the limbs; and those more essential components of a suit of
armour themselves underwent various modifications. The faces
were more and more contracted, and the tuilles proportionably
enlarged. Elbow-pieces of extravagant size were worn, with which
the genouillieres duly corresponded. Pauldrons became uni-
versal ; and they frequently were constructed with a ridge, for
the most part serrated at the shoulder, and greatly resembling
the passe-gardes subsequently adopted. Head-pieces and helmets,
greatly diversified in form and in the character of their accessories,
were adopted : but these rarely are found exemplified in brasses,
" The deep and bold lines, so charac- or hatching with a multiplicity of small
teristic of the earlier plates, had at this era lines, which was introduced about the year
long ceased to be employed in brass en- 1450, in the following century became the
graving: and the attempt at producing an means of completely destroying the beauty
effect of perspective, by means of sliading of the brasses then executed.
except as forming a pillow for the uncovered head of knightly
effigies. The gauntlets covered the hands after the fashion of
the shell of a tortoise. The sollerets were still long and pointed.
The sword, having a singularly short and ill-proportioned hilt
adorned with tassels, hung directly in front of the figure, sometimes
perpendicularly, but more generally sloping slightly toward the left
side, from a narrow belt girded about the waist. The brasses of
Sir Thomas de Shernbourn, at Shernbourn, Norfolk, A.D. 1459, and
of Henry Parice, about A.D. 1465, at Hildersham, Cambridgeshire,
have tuilles, elbow-
pieces, and genou-
illieres of extrava-
gant size; the lat-
ter have overlap-
ping plates to guard
the joint behind:
both these effigies
exemplify the paul-
dron with its shoul-
der-ridge: and in .^,,.,
o ' Sword-belt, tuiUes.&c., A.D. 14D5.
that at Hildersham HeuryPax.ce.Eildersham.Can.b.
the lance-rest is re-
on the right side of
the cuirass °. This
figure is surmount-
ed by a fine and
perfect canopy. In
the elaborate brass
of Sir William Ver-
Sir Antliony de Grey. A.D. H80.
Abbey-churcli. St. Alban'a.
A.D. 1467, at Tong
fa TYl i 1 V Lance rest, Coudiere, and Pauldron,
IrtlUll^y, Henry Parice, Esq., A.D. 1465.
church, Salop, we have a splendid example of the armour of this
period. The brass of Sir Anthony de Grey, in the abbey-church
" In this brass the skirt of a haqueton,
with the edge of some defence of mail,
appear beneath the taces. Another pre-
cisely similar example occurs at Roydon,
Essex: it is the brass of Robert Colt, Esq.,
of St. Alban, may be also regarded as a fair specimen of the same
style of armour : this knight wears the Yorkist collar of suns and
roses : he was brother to John Lord Grey of Groby, the first hus-
band of EUzabeth Woodville, afterwards Queen of England, and
with his brother fell at the battle of Bernard's Heath near
St. Alban's, fought February 17th, A.D. 1480?. A more highly
finished example of the same style of brass exists at Broxbourne in
this county, the memorial of Sir John Say and his lady : it was
engraved under the direction of Sir John himself, and laid down
by his order at the decease of Lady Say in the year 1473. This
interesting specimen is thus described, as well as admirably
figured by Mr. Waller: — Sir John Say "wears a close-fitting
tabard, emblazoned with his armorial bearings i : the neck is
protected by a hausse-col of mail, over which is a collar of suns
and roses, the distinguishing badge of the house of York, adopted
by Edward IV. after the battle of Mortimer's Cross, A.D. 1461 :
the coutes (coudieres), escalloped and fluted, are attached by
P Four shields of arms were originally
placed about this effigy : of these now one
only remains, bearing barry of six, argent
and azure, in chief three torteaux, quarter-
ing Hastings and Valence, earls of Pem-
broke. Of the original inscription also a
fragment only has been preserved :
• . . ftnsgi)t, son anO ijcir to ISlrmonD trie of Kent,
. . . 6 tfie fourtj) ftole ststrr to our sott'rainc laOn tje
. . . sear of our iLorO, a. 1480, anU of tl)c tsH
... fee : on toftosesoule (fioS fjaoe meres. Einen.
Sir Anthony de Grey was eldest son of
Edmund Lord Grey of Ruthyn, created
by Edward IV. earl of Kent, by Catherine
his wife, daughter of Henry Percy, earl of
Northumberland : he married Joan daugh-
ter of Richard Wydeville, or Woodville,
Earl Rivers, and sister to Elizabeth queen
of Edward IV., and to Anne wife of his
next brother George de Grey, second earl
of Kent. Sir Anthony died without issue
during the life-time of his father. At
Grafton Regis is a curious monumental
effigy of the grandfather of these three
distinguished ladies. Sir John Wydeville,
A.D. 1392, engraved on a slab of alabaster.
1 The arms of Say are per pale azure,
and gules, three chevronels, or, each
charged with another humette, counter-
changed of the field. Sir John Say was a
privy councillor, Speaker of the House of
Commons, and an esquire at arms to King
Edward IV. He died A.D. 1478. These
effigies are placed upon an altar-tomb,
about the verge of which runs the follow-
ing legend, strictly commemorative of
Lady Say only ;— " ^ Bm ICuell) IBamc
lEli-abctI) Somtnmc tnof lo Sit Jobn San
Iftnigf)!, Baugf)tcr of Haurence CDbcnncp
lEsriuncr of CCambtiggcs'birc a aJEoman of
noble hloUc antJ most noble in gotic i¥tan=
nets tol)icl) UcccsscO tf)e .X.Xtl) Ban of Scp=
tcmbcr. ®f)e i)ere of our ICorD "a JW.
€r,€(S:€. ICXXEIES antt cntirelr in tftis
®I)urcI) of ISro^kcsborn abytinng ©ftc boDiie
of f)tr saiD lilusbantf, tnohose Soulcs C5oK
IStong to CEticrlasting bltsse." A part of
this legend has now been lost. The arms
borne by Lady Say are quarterly or and
sable, a bend lozengy, gules, for Cheyne,
impaling two other coats ; first gules, a
fesse dancette, between six crosses crosslet,
or ; and secondly, harry of six, or and
azure, on a bend gules three mullets of the
first, pierced of the third.
arming-points, the tagged extremities of which appear tied out-
side : cufted gauntlets, with flexible defences for the fingers, protect
the hand and wrist. Under the tabard was worn a skirt of taces,
to which were appended tuilles and tuillettes "■, which appear over
the thighs and hips; under these is seen chain-mail, being either a
skirt worn under the taces, or more probably a narrow band of
mail attached to them for greater security. Overlapping plates
are affixed, both above and below, to the genouillieres, gussets of
mail forming a safe-guard behind: the sollerets are pointed and
flexible, the spurs long and rivetted to the heel under the edge of
the jambers (jambarts.) The sword hangs diagonally in front
from a plain narrow belt; the hilt and pommel have a tassel of
fringe, the handle is fretted; a dagger is worn as usual on the
right side." Lady Say is both richly and also characteristically
attired. Over a sideless cote-hardi guarded with fur, she wears a
long and flowing mantle emblazoned with her family arms; the
mantle is closely fastened across
the breast with a cordon having
long pendent ends, displaying
the tight sleeves of an under-
kirtle, and the jewelled hands
are uplifted in prayer : the neck
is encircled by a gorgeous carca-
net of gems ; and from the hair,
which is drawn back into a rich
caul, projects a veil of gauze ex-
tended by slight wires, denomi-
nated the '' Butterfly head-dress."
"The delicacy of the workman-
ship is shewn from the upper part
of the caul over which the veil passes, being engraved less deeply
than the rest." The shoes are excessively sharply pointed : and
at the right foot lies a small dog. In this brass the heraldic
tinctures of the armorial insignia are expressed by fine enamels
of red and blue, which are still almost as perfect as when first
■^ The tuillettes in this figure are the small plied to the front tuilles themselves when
tuilles on either side: the term is also ap- composed of several plates, or jointed.
Head-dress, Lady Say, A.D. 1473
inlaid*. Other fine brasses of about the same period are by no
means of uncommon occurrence. One other, figured by Waller,
is a truly magnificent specimen : it exists in the church of Little
Easton in Essex, and commemorates Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex,
and his lady, Mary, daughter of Sir John and Lady Say of Brox-
bourne : its date is A.D. 1483, the 23rd of Edward IV. The earl
wears the garter with the mantle of the order; and his head rests
upon his coronetted and crested tilting-helm, the flowing contoise
of which is powdered with his badge, the water-bouget. The cos-
tume of the countess for the most part resembles that of Lady Say
her mother ; with the exception that her proud brow is encircled
by a coronet richly set with jewels : her head rests upon a diapered
cushion supported by angels. Both figures wear the Yorkist col-
lar of suns and roses; and to that of Lady Essex a white lion
couchant, is attached as a pendant*. At the feet of either effigy
is an eagle of large size. The brasses of William Berdewell,
A.D. 1490, at West Harling, and of Sir Henry Grey, A.D. 1492,
at Keteringham, Norfolk, both display several peculiarities in the
armour and appointments of the period ". And at Isleham in Cam-
bridgeshire is the brass of Sir Thomas Peyton, A.D. 1484, which
furnishes an example of ribbed pauldrons, and also of the enor-
mous and absolutely grotesque elbow-pieces sometimes worn.
Shortly after the commencement of the next succeeding century,
the sixteenth, round-toed and shapeless sabbatons superseded the
pointed soUerets : a skirt of mail appears behind large and jointed
' Sir William Say, the eldest son of this placcate which covers the lower part of the
Sir John and Lady Say, is commemorated cuirass, and from which on the right side
by an inscription sculptured upon the cor- a lance-rest projects ; the taces are three
nice beneath the parapet of a chapel, on in number, and from the lowermost large
the north side of the same church at Brox- tuilles depend : the sword hangs sloping
bourne, where he was buried in the year behind the figure, at the left side. Sir
1529: — "Pray for the welfayr of Sir Henry Grey has seven taces, and a pair of
Wylyam Say Knyght wych fodyd yis small pointed tuilles: his sword is girded
CHAPEL IN HONOR A Y'E Trenete THE perpendicularly at his left side by a trans-
YERE OF OUR LoRD GoD, 1522." Verse belt: his epaullieres consist each of
^ See p. 134. three large overlapping plates, over which
" The paudrons of William Berdewell on the right shoulder is worn a pauldron :
differ in form and size, and they appear to a lance-rest is attached to the cuirass; and
join in front; immediately below their the gauntlets have but one joint at the back
junction is a buckle for securing the demi- of the hand. ,
MILITARY BRASSES. 77
tuilles, which when thus constructed are distinguished as tuUlettes :
and the sword is again girded at the left side, and now having
the blade crossing behind the legs. In some few instances this
fashion appears to have obtained during the last
years of tlie fifteenth century ; as in the brass
of Piers Gerard, Esq., A.D. 1492, the 7th of
Henry VII., at Warwick, in Lancashire : in
this effigy we have an excellent specimen of a
tabard of arras, worn over the armour". In
Sabbaton, Piers Gerard, Esq..
the same church, dated A.D. 1527, is the ^ d- i^^- ^'i""i<=''- ^••"I'^asbiie
curious brass of Sir Peter Legh and his lady : the lady is habited
in kirtle and mantle, the latter emblazoned with armorial insignia,
and she wears the pedimental head-dress : the knight, who is
armed, and has resting on his breast his shield of arms, has over
his armour an ecclesiastical vestment, the chesuble, indicative of
his having assumed the clerical habit towards the close of his life y.
Between the figures is a rich heraldic achievement : and the entire
composition is completed by a border-fillet, bearing a legend, and
having at the angles the evangelistic emblems. A.D. 1507, the
23rd of Henry VII., at Wiverhoe, in Essex, is the remarkably fine
brass of William, Viscount Beaumont and Lord Bardolfe : the
bare head of this nobleman rests upon his tilting-helm, with its
flowing contoise or mantling, and surmounted by the crest, a lion
standing upon an orle or wreath. The armour throughout is cha-
racteristic, very good of its style, and well expressed : at the feet is
the Beaumont badge, an elephant with a howdah on its back : and
above the figure are the remains of a double canopy of unusual
magnificence. The same badge which is placed at the feet of the
effigy, is also several times repeated, alternating with portions of
the legend, on the border-fillet. The brass of Lady Beaumont,
who subsequently married John, fourteenth earl of Oxford, but
was buried by the side of her first husband, is equally fine with
'^ This brass also retains the greater legend are three shields of arms; and
part of a fine triple canopy of the highest below the centre one a very small figure
merit ; and which, like the greater number of a boy.
of canopies in similar circumstances, might y See note (n), p. 97.
be very easily restored. Beneath the foot-
that of the viscount. The brass of Sir
Humphrey Stanley, A.D. 1505, in West-
minster abbey, bears a general resemb-
lance to that of Lord Beaumont; but
here the cuirass, instead of its usual glo-
bular form, is worked in front to a ridge,
denominated the Tapul, and the paul-
drons have Passe-gardes, — pieces rising
from the shoulders to protect the neck:
in this example the sword-belt is alto-
gether omitted^ Another good example
of each of these pecuharities occurs in the
brass of Eichard Gyll, A.D. 1511, at
Shottesbroke, Berks; he was " Squyer
and sergeant of the bakehous wyth Kyng
Henry VII., and also with Kyng Henry
the VIII. :" his brass and that of Sir
Humphrey Stanley were evidently the
work of the same artist. These figures
have a singularly awkward contour, from
the high-shouldered aspect produced by
the passe-gardes of the pauldrons. Two
other brasses, in all respects similar to %
those of Stanley and Gill, are preserved
in the church at Luton % Bedfordshire. At Hunstanton, in Norfolk,
is the elaborate and ample brass of Sir Roger I'Estrange, A.D. 1506,
the 22nd of Henry VIL; which also, in the several effigies placed in
the niches of the canopy, commemorates the ancestors of Sir Roger,
from John Le Strange, who flourished in the reign of Henry HI.
These figures are all habited in costume similar to that worn by the
Sir Humphrey Stanley, A.D. 1505
^- Several instances of this omission
occur; as in the splendid brass of Sir
Thomas de Crewe, A.D. 1411, at V^^ixford,
* It is impossible to name this once
magnificent edifice, without a remark upon
its present state of barbarous disfigurement,
and shameful neglect. A church finer in
general features, or more interesting in its
diversified details, does not exist in the
kingdom : and certainly there is none in a
more grievous condiiion, a condition the
less excusable fiom tlie comparative faci-
lity with which it might be restored. The
brasses referred to in the text severally
commemorate John Acworth, A.D. 1513,
and two wives, and John Sylan, A.D. 1516,
and his two wives.
MILITARY BRASSES. 79
principal effigy. Tabards of arras appear upon every
figure ; and the hands are uplifted, thus displaying the
mechanism of the under side of the steel-guarded gaunt-
lets. From the lichnet of Sir Roger, which stands erect
above his head, a mantling of extravagant amplitude oc-
cupies the entire space intervening between the upper
part of the figure, and the elaborate triple tabernacle-
work of the canopy. Bearing date, A.D. 1529, at Or- Gauntlet, sir Roger
mesby, Norfolk, the brass of Sir Robert Clere has but '-'^s Hunstanton
two taces, and these escalloped ; above them rises a demi-placcate to
strengthen the cuirass, and below are tuilles, which cover the entire
limbs from the knee upwards.
From the middle of this century a series of further changes took
place; all, however, tending towards the final disuse of armour,
which its weight, and still more its insufficiency as a guard against
fire-arms, gradually was bringing on. The general aspect of the
warrior as thus again altered, is well exemplified in the brass of Sir
William Molineux, A.D. 1548, at Sefton, Lancashire, who, at the
battle of Floddon-field, " with his own hand took from the fiercely
contesting Scots, two standards of arms:" here we see a coif or
hood of mail again in fashion, while the taces have altogether dis-
appeared, and ample tuillettes, with corresponding Culettes behind,
are attached to the front and back pieces of the cuirass itself, thus
forming a complete defence of overlapping and flexible plates from
the waist to the knees. These skirts of steel were denominated
Lamboys, and were first introduced and worn by the bluff soldiery
of their no less bluff master, King Henry VIII., and they continued
in use until the final abandonment of armour ''. In this reign the
armour was usually fluted, and the richer suits were elaborately
engraved with various ornamental surface work ; it was generally
worn uncovered by any species of surcoat. Many curious examples
of the bearded and venerable looking knights of this period, with
their multifarious defensive accoutrements, exist in Norfolk and Suf-
^ The abandonment of its use calls to fering injuries by the violence of others, it
remembrance the characteristic remark of at the same time, by its weight and incon-
our James I., that armour was in every venience, rendered it impossible for him to
respect a praiseworthy invention, inasmuch inflict upon others any serious injuries
as while it preserved the wearer from suf- himself.
folk. In the latter county, at Wren-
tham, bearing the date A.D. 1593,
the memorial of Humphrey Brews-
ter, Esq., is perhaps the best speci-
men of this style of brass. Two
others of these military effigies I
cannot here pass altogether un-
noticed : these are the brasses of
Sir John Greville, A.D. 1546, and
of Sir Edward Greville, A.D. 1559,
both lords of Milcof^: these curious
plates are preserved in the church
at Weston near Stratford-on-Avon;
and they are remarkable for their
close resemblance, as well in the
style and expression of their accom-
panying legend, as the costume and
general character of the effigies
In connection with their knightly
and civic lords, I have already no-
ticed several examples of brasses
commemorative of Ladies : to some
few others I would now direct at-
tention. Of these the earliest of
which I am aware is the brass at
Trotton in Sussex, the remarkable
memorial of Margaret, Lady Camoys, who died in the year 1310,
the 3rd of Edward II. The wimple, that strange covering for
the throat, chin, and the sides of the face, is here very distinctly
shewn ; and it is adjusted, after a fashion prevalent in the ear-
lier part of the Edwardian era, in such a manner as to impart a
triangular outline to the features'^. A single curl of hair appears
Humphrey Biewster, A.D. 1593 Wrenihstm,
'^ Dugdale mentions the elder as a
worthy who enticed the unwary to his
castle, in order to rob and murder them :
we will hope that in this point at least that
shrewd antiquary was in error.
•• Fine examples of the same arrange-
ment occur in many sculptured female
effigies of this period ; as in the effigy of
BRASSES OF LADIES.
on either side of the forehead, which is
encircled by a narrow enriched fillet : and
upon the head, and falling gracefully upon
the shoulders, is a coverchcf. The remain-
der of the costume, with the exception of
its heraldic decorations, is of the simplest
character, but is expressed with great
vigour and effectiveness. A super-tunic
envelopes the entire person; it has no
waist-cincture, and its sleeves are loose,
and terminate somewhat below the elbow,
thus displaying of the kirtle worn beneath
no more than the tight sleeves, buttoned
closely to the wrists ; the clasped and up-
lifted hands are bare. Originally, nine
small shields of arms were attached to the
front of the figure upon the tunic ^ ; but
these now have been abstracted, and that
at a very recent period. A fine pedimental
canopy with slender side-shafts and pin-
nacles, eight shields of arms, the border
fillets with the letters of the legend which
they enclosed, and a profusion of small
stars and other ornaments with which it
once was semee, have in like manner but at a more distant period
been abstracted from the marble slab. The border legend originally
was as follows, written in Longobardic capitals : —
jWmiaffimiRIE^IE : ©IE : ®^J«l©iS : ffilSSt : Ed :
li^FS : BIE : SmXjmiE : IZEST : iWIEm®! : mjWISig.
This legend commences without an initial cross.
Ten years later only, at Cobham in Kent, is the brass of Joan,
Margai-et, Lady de Camoys, A.D. 1310
Aveline, countess of Lancaster, A.D. 1269,
in Westminster Abbey. The wimple
thus adjusted may often be observed in
the sculptured corbels which support the
hood-molds of windows, &c. in churches,
from about A.D. 1250 to about A.D. 1330.
The wimple was evidently an imitation of
the coif-de-mailles of the knights.
' For a further description of this re-
markable mode of decoration by means of
shields of arms, see p. 131,
BRASSES OF LADIES.
daughter of John, Lord Beau-
champ, of Stoke-under-Ham-
den, Somersetshire, and first wife
of Sir John de Cobham, who de-
ceased A.D. 1320, the 13th of
Edward II. The costume in
this dignified effigy differs but
httle from that worn by Lady
Caraoys : the heraldic decora-
tions are omitted from the kir-
tle, and its full sleeves terminate
in very short lappets. The pedi-
mental or rectilineal canopy, the
earliest form of this elegant ac-
cessory, is here admirably ex-
emplified*^: it rises from slender
shafts terminating in pinnacles,
and is crocketed and crowned
with a finial; beneath, it is
worked in a large and bold tre-
foil, having the spandrels foli-
ated. The Longobardic letters
and narrow fillets of latten have
been removed from the verge of
the slab, to which this fine brass
is attached : the inscription ran
1It(©131£l^iW : ©ess; : 3ES3E
^FIR : lUdi : ^ICi^CE : ^BE
3©UmS :I91£ : '^%TEim®V^',
Joan, Lady de Cobham, A.D. 1320. Cobham, Ke nt
f This is also the earliest specimen of a
canopy known to be in existence in a
K Gough describes this fine and interest-
ing memorial as " the figure of a lady in a
veil, with her hair on her forehead, the
wimple up to her mouth, close mantle
easy shape, neck-band open, sleeves ending
BRASSES OF LADIES.
Another lady of this same family,
Maud, wife of Reynold, Baron de Cob-
ham, lord warden of the cinque ports,
is portrayed in a second brass at Cob-
ham church, the date of which is about
A.D. 13G0, the 33rd of Edward III. : this
memorial furnishes an early example
of the Beticulated head-dress, so long
fashionable with our fair ancestresses :
by this arrangement, the hair was en-
closed within a species of thin close cap
which encircled the face, and was repre-
sented by a series of zig-zag lines, pro-
bably designed to express the delicate
structure of the material of which the
cap was composed : from this cap, in
many examples, as in the present one, a
part of the hair was allowed to escape,
and falling on the shoulders, there was
rolled up within other reticulated cover-
ings. Lady Cobham wears a close kirtle
or cote-hardi buttoned in front to the
waist, and having a border at the foot ;
the sleeves are tight, buttoned below, and continued to cover the
backs of the hands : over this a mantle is thrown, which is con-
fined by a heavy cordon crossing from shoulder to shoulder. The
dog, upon which the feet of the effigy rest, is of a very large size,
and has a collar garnished with small bells, a customary appendage
to this animal when introduced at the feet of female effigies in these
compositions. Ismena de Wynston, A.D. 1372, at Necton, Nor-
folk, and the two wives of Sir John Foxley, at Bray, Berkshire, at
about the same period, wear the reticulated head-dress, but without
Maud, Lady de Cobham, c. A.D, 1360.
a little below the elbow, then close and
buttoned to the wrist: the arch of the ca-
nopy a large demi-quatrefoil with flowered
spandrels, the pediment charged with oak
leaves, surmounted by a bouquet, and
sided by finials." Examples of female cos-
tume at periods intervening between the
brasses of the Ladies Joan and Maud de
Cobham, have been previously described.
BRASSES or LADIES.
Head, Isaaayxifc de VvyLibtou, A.I
1372. Nectoa Church, Norfolk.
having the hair falling from the cap upon
the shoulders : they are attired in a close-
fitting cote-hardi which reaches to the feet,
where it is finished with a plain broad bor-
der : from the sleeves, which terminate
above the elbow, long and narrow lappets
descend almost to the feet: thus all that
is seen of the under-dress is its closely but-
toned sleeves. These lappet-sleeves are ad-
mirably shewn in the brass of Margaret
Torrington, A.D. 1349, at Great Berk-
hampsteadh. Lady Elizabeth Felbrigg, A.D. 1380, at Felbrigg,
Norfolk, wears the same head-dress, with the addition of a cover-
chef falling down at the back of the head ; and in other respects is
habited after the same fashion as Lady Maud de Cobham : and
eleven years later, at Reepham, in the same county. Lady Cecilia
de Kerdiston again repeats, with but slight difference, this ele-
gantly simple style of dress. Somewhat
earlier, A.D. 1364, Lady Johanne de Staple-
ton wears her hair in broad heavy plaits on
either side the face, and has a coverchef
falling over her shoulders from the back of
the head ; her head-gear is also encircled by
a rich bandeau of jewels : the dress in this
interesting figure' is a close-fitting cote-
hardi with long pendent lappets, displaying
the buttoned sleeves of the under-dress ; in
front of the outer dress pockets are here Head, Lady johaa«edestap,eton,
introduced''. At South Acre, Norfolk, ^■^■^^- ^^^rf^^*^^^'"^^
*" See p. 107. Ill illuminations, and also
in such effigies as still retain their original
colouring, these lappets are almost inva-
riably represented as being white.
' See p. 51, and note (i).
'' Similar pockets appear in the front of
the super-tunic worn by one of the small
figures in a compartment of the canopy of
Robert Braunche at Lynn : and again in
the figures of the canopy of Alan Fleming
at Newark. The same arrangement also
appears in the attire of one of the beautiful
latten statuettes, or weepers, representing
Blanche de la Tour, second daughter of
Edward III., and now standing beneath a
canopied side compartnuiit of the altar-
tomb of that sovereign in Westminster ab-
bey(see p. 85): it is repeated twice in similar
BRASSES OF LADIES.
Head, Lady Harsick, A D. 133J.
A.D. 1384, Lady Har-
sick wears the same
heavy braids of hair,
with a kirtle and man-
tle, the kirtle being
embroidered with her
own and her husband's
armorial insignia im-
paled. In the fine
brass of Lady Burton,
A.D. 1382, at Little
the braided hair has
an enriched covering
of net- work, and it is
surmounted by a rich
tiara of jewels : the
costume of this lady is
the customary kirtle
and mantled Drawn
from the brass at Stoke
Fleming in Devonshire,
A.D. 1391, Mr. Waller has figured the
graceful effigy of Elyenore, grand-daughter
of John Corp, frankelein : here the kirtle
is the only portion of the attire which is
exposed to view ; it is buttoned down the
front to the waist, and the tight sleeves are
also closely buttoned from the shoulders
to the back of the hand ; this dress falls
in full and well-delineated folds over the
feet : the head-dress exhibits the hair
enclosed in a netted caul, jewelled over the forehead, and at the
intersections of the reticulation : over all a coverchef is represented
Head, Lady Burton, A D. 13S2.
Blanche de la Tour, A.D. 13T2
Tomb of Edward III
Head, F.leamor Corp. A.D. 1391.
Stoke Fleming. Devon.
figures (now mutilated) representing the in Oxford cathedral, A.D. 1354.
children of Lady Montacute, on her tomb ' See p. 62.
86 BRASSES OF LADIES.
as waving in the wind. This figure stands upon a low pedestal,
evidently to render it a more fitting pendant to the larger effigy
beside it : the composition is completed by a canopy of bold and
Towards the close of this century, the fourteenth, that singular,
but also singularly elegant dress, the sideless cote-hardi, which I
have described"" as worn by Lady Halle, became a regular com-
ponent of female costume. Lady Walsh, A.D. 1393, at Wanlip,
Leicestershire, is thus attired; as also are Lady Anderne, A.D.
1465, at Latton, Essex, and Lady Vernon, A.D. 1467, at Tong,
Salop. In the brass of Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys, A.D. 1419,
at Trotton, Sussex, the cincture of the under-tunic is seen through
the sideless cote-hardi, in the same manner as in the effigy of Lady
Halle ". This same dress appears in the brasses before described,
which commemorate Lady Bagot, A.D. 1407, Lady Say, A.D. 1473,
and her daughter the countess of Essex, A.D. 1483. During this
period, however, the simpler arrangement of kirtle, tunic, or cote-
hardi, al one apparent beneath a mantle, continued in fashion, as may
be seen in the beautiful efiigies of the Ladies Halsham, A.D. 1441, at
West Grinstead, Sussex ; andinthoseof Juliana Crewe, A.D. 1411, at
Wixford, Warwickshire; of Lady Felbrigg,A.D.1413,at Felbrigg,and
of Lady Leventhorpe, A.D. 1433, at Sawbridgeworth, Herts; and
also of Elizabeth Fynderne, A.D. 1444, at Childrey, Berks. At the
same period another, and that a no less simple dress, was also worn,
consisting of a flowing robe, or super-tunic, closed by buttons up
to the very chin, and at the wrists displaying the extremities of the
sleeves of an under-tunic, which are made so long as nearly to cover
the hands. This super-tunic appears some-
times to have been gathered in closely round
the throat, as in the fine brass of Lady Cassy,
A.D. 1400, at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire, and
also in the effigy of the same date, of Ela Bowet,
at Wrentham, Sufi'olk ; and sometimes it was
finished with an open collar, an arrangement
exemplified in the brass of an unknown female^
. Head, Ela Bowet. A.D. HOO
c. A.D. 1400, at St. Lawrence, Norwich, wrentham, suaroik.
"' See p. 62. ■' See p. 62.
BTIASSES OF LADIES.
Brass, St Lawrence Churcli, Nor
C, AD. HOO.
and again at Northflcct, in Kent. Lady
Cassy wears this dress without any cinc-
ture : but the wife of Henry Nottingham,
at Holme, Norfolk, about A.D. 1405, has
the same style of dress secured by a girdle
clasped in front : and four years earlier,
at Shottesbroke, Berks, the brass of Lady
Margaret Pennebygg exhibits the effigy
of that lady in a similar habit, buttoned
from the chin to the feet, and drawn in
round the waist by a girdle of very rich
workmanship, the end of which with a
pendent jewel hangs in front of the figure.
In almost exact conformity (with the exception of the head-
gear) with the dress of Lady Peryent already described °, is the
effigy of Agnes Salmon, A.D. 1430, at Arundel, Sussex?: this
lady wears a super-tunic with falling collar and sleeves descend-
ing nearly to the feet, which is confined in folds about the waist
by an enriched girdle : beneath this an under-dress was worn, also
having a falling collar, and the full sleeves of which are gathered
into a broad tight band at the wrist. The hands are clasped and
upraised : two dogs are placed at the feet : the throat is encircled
by a necklace, and also by the collar of SS : the coiffure is that
peculiar form of the horned head-dress,
which may be distinguished as heart-
shaped 'i. Another fine example of this
stately costume occurs at Horley in
Surrey : here the head-dress is peculiarly
elegant, and indeed the whole figure is
characterised by a dignified gracefulness
of bearing. This brass has, at the feet of
the effigy, an inscription evidently a sub- Ladyo.AD.uso. Honey, surrey
° See p. 61.
P This fine brass in many respects has
been grievously mutilated ; the figure of
Thomas Salmon has been abstracted, and a
rich canopy with the legend have partially
shared the same fate : the figure of Agnes
Salmon, however, remains entire.
1 A similar head-dress is worn with the
usual kirtle and mantle, by Margaret
Cheyne, A.D. 1417, in her fine brass at
BRASSES OF LADIES.
stitution at some subsequent period for that which was originally
engraved, and consequently it cannot now be correctly assigned ^
At the same period we also find another variety in the super-tunic
of common occurrence, in which the large full sleeve is gathered
into a narrow band, often of fur, which hangs loosely over the
wrist : this dress is, like the preceding, worn very short waisted,
and having a small falling collar which, as Avell as the wrist-band,
is often composed of fur : I may refer, for examples of this costume,
to the churches of Hitchin and Wheathamstede in this county ^
About the year 1480 we find the exterior dress made open at the
top, and having a collar of fur, with large cuffs also of the same
material. At this time the female effigies very commonly have the
hands thrown back, in an attitude of
painful inelegance: when clasped also,
the position of the hands is usually forced
and unnatural: Katharine, the lady of
Sir John Fastolfe, A.D. 1478, at Oulton,
Suffolk; the two wives of Sir Thomas
Peyton, A.D. 1483, at Islesham, Cam-
bridgeshire; Elizabeth Clere, A.D. 1488,
at Stokesly, Norfolk; Lady Rouclyff,
A.D. 1494, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire; and
Elizabeth and Jane the two wives of John
Sylan, A.D. 1516, at Luton, Bedfordshire,
will be found, amongst many others, to
exemplify these peculiarities.
During the earlier years of the six-
teenth century, dresses of simple con-
struction were worn by ladies, usually
secured at the waist with massive cinc-
tures, slung loosely about the person and
having long pendent ends : a good ex-
ample of this style of costume is pre-
served in the church at Clippesby in Nor-
Lady of Civilian, Clippesby Churcli,
Norfolk.c. A.D. 1500.
' The name on the present inscription is
that of Joan Fenner, who died A.D. 1535.
s For a further notice of the Wheatham-
stede brass, see p. 108.
BRASSES OF LADIES. 89
folk, the date of which is about A.D. 1500, the 15th of Henry VII.
Thirty-five years later, we find the wife of Andrew Evyngar simi-
larly attired, at All-hallows, Barking, London : in this brass the
rosary takes the place of the pendent end of the girdle. Some-
what earlier, A.D. 1512, the brass of Dorothea Peckham, at Wro-
tham, Kent, and the corresponding figures of the wives of John
Sylan, at Luton, exemplify a similar dress worn in connection with
the angular or pedimental head-dress, with its pendent lappets.
A.D. 1525, Emma Pownder, at Ipswich* wears a low super-tunic
with large open sleeves, through which appear the comparatively
tight sleeves of the under-dress ; this under-dress is buttoned close
to the throat, and is partly covered by the Partlet, the prototype of
the modern habit-shirt : from the waist-cinc-
ture hangs down the ample rosary : and the
head-dress is the horned form, shewn in profile,
and closely resembling the coiffure of a mer-
chant's lady, as engraved on her brass in the
church of St. Swithin, Norwich. The six daugh-
ters of Emma Pownder who kneel at her feet,
are all habited after the same style as their Head of Merchants Lady. c.
i 1 A.D 1500. St.Swithin s Norwich.
With the female costume of the middle and the close of this
century, and more particularly with that worn during the reign of
Elizabeth, we are, I think I may venture to assume, sufficiently
familiar to be able to assign to their proper period such brasses as
may commemorate the fair cotemporaries of Anna Bullen and the
virgin queen. Of the personal costume of " Good Queen Bess''
herself, at once the type and the consummation of the fashion of
her times, it seems, as Mr. Planche has happily remarked, an act of
supererogation to attempt any description: "her great ruff rises
up indignantly at the bare idea of being unknown or forgotten ;
her jewelled stomacher is piqued to the extreme, and her portentous
petticoats strut out with tenfold importance at the slight'' thus
" insinuated against their virgin mistress "." Instead, therefore, of
entering, or rather attempting to enter, into a disquisition upon
* The brass here referred to, is the fine St. Mary Quay, at Ipswich.
Flemish plate preserved in the church of ■ Planchd's British Costume, p. 255.
BEASSES OF LADIES.
.AD 1413. Felbri^
ruffs, and brocades, and farthingales, I proceed at once to complete
my notice of that important item in the attire of ladies, the head-
dress, and which is so pre-eminently characteristic of certain eras,
in examples of medieval dresses and decorations. Lady Felbrigg,
A.D. 1413, and Lady Crewe «, A.D. 1411,
exemplify a modification of the reticulated
head-dress, which was prevalent at that
period : the hair in this arrangement is
collected into a bunch on either side the
forehead, and there enclosed in an en-
riched caul, while the upper part of the
head is covered by a close coverchef which ^^''"^■^^%^h!frrhfi
descends to the shoulders : the forehead is encircled, and the hair
confined by a fillet enriched with jewels. This head-gear is also
well exemphfied in a brass, A.D. 1404, at Sawtrey, Huntingdon-
shire. Lady Shelton, A.U. 1423, has
her hair more widely plaited, and the
front of the coverchef drawn forwards :
thus aff'ording an early indication of the
mitred or horned head-dress, — a peculiar
fashion long in high favour, notwithstand-
ing the severe censures, lay as well as
ecclesiastical, elicited by its extrava-
gance y. This arrangement, in its complete state, is really but a
developement of the last-named coiffure : for the side bunches of
hair being gradually extended upwards, the coverchef or veil which
was thrown over, sunk into the hollow between, and at last the
raised hair was superseded by a wire frame ; the hair, in this case,
was usually arranged within a caul of rich construction, on either
side of the face. Lady Halle, c. A.D. 1420, and Lady Camoys,
A.D. 1419^, wear this head-dress, (see next page:) and with these
and many others, the same fashion, variously modified, is also ex-
Head Lady Shelton, A D. M33.
Snoring Church , Norfolk.
" These brasses severally occur at Fel-
brigg, Norfolk, and Wixford, Warwick-
shire, as before specified. The brass of Lady
Shelton is at Great Snoring, Norfolk.
^ The most extravagant specimen of
tliis head-gear occurs in the sculptured
effigy of Beatrice, countess of Arundel, at
Arundel, who died A.D. 1439 : this monu-
ment is figured by Stothard, and the head-
dress is also given in their works on Cos-
tume by Planche and Fairholt.
» See pp. 62 and 86.
BRASSES OF LADIES.
emplified in the brasses of Joan Skerne, A.D. 1437, at Kingston
upon Thames*; of Lady Cecilia Stapleton, 1438, late at Ingham,
Head, Lady Shemboum, A D. 1458.
Shernbourn Church, Ncrfolk
Head, Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys
A.D. 1424. Trotton, Sussex.
Head, Lady Arderoe, c. A D. 1465.
Latton Church, Essex.
Head. Lady Vemon, A.D 1467. TonJ Ch., Shropshire.
Head in Wenlock Chapel, Luton, Beds. c. A.D. 1450.
Norfolk; of Lady Fynderne, A.D. 1444, at Childrey, Berks; of
Lady Shernbourn, A.D. 1458, at Shernbourn, and of Lady Grey,
1492, at Ketteringham, both in Norfolk ; and also of Lady Staun-
ton, A.D. 1458, at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, and Lady
Arderne, A.D. 1465, at Latton, Essex. Lady Vernon, A.D. 1467,
at Tong, Salop, wears simply a coverchef with a wimple ; a fashion
repeated in a brass at Luton, Bedfordshire, of about the date 1450 :
both these ladies were widows, and the latter, whose name is un-
known, has her wimple plaited ^. In some examples, this head-
' Joan, wife of Robert Skerne, whose
effigy accompanies that of his wife on their
monumental brass, is said to have been the
daughter of Alice Pierce, celebrated for her
connection with Edward III. during the
declining years of that great monarch's
life. After the king's death she married
Sir AVilliam de Wyndesore ; but whether
Joan Skerne was his daughter is uncertain.
^ This brass is placed upon an altar-
tomb in the Wenlock chapel in the church
at Luton, and the effigy is surmounted by
a fine triple canopy.
BRASSES OF LADIES.
dress appears so arranged as to im-
part to its upper outline a heart-like
contour: good specimens of this pe-
culiarity occur at West Grinstead,
Sussex, in the brasses of Philippa,
daughter and coheir of David Stra-
bolgy, last earl of Athol of that name,
who married Sir John Halsham ; and
of the lady of Sir Hugo Halsham, the
son of this Sir John, who died A.D.
1421; the former Lady Halsham
died A.D. 1395 : but it appears that
both these brasses were executed at
the same time; and that, subse-
quently to the decease of Sir Hugo
Halsham, A.D. 1441. In these
brasses elegant canopies surmount
The next remarkable change com-
monly apparent in brasses, I have
already noticed when describing the
Butterfly head-dress of Lady Say^
Of this strange example of the fan-
tastic eccentricities of fashion, seve-
ral modifications may be observed :
as in the brasses of Lady Urswick
and her daughters, A.D. 1479, at
Dagenham, Essex ; of a lady of the
Clopton family, c. A.D. 1480, at
Long Melford, Suffolk ^ of Mar-
garet Willoughby, A.D. 1480, at Ra-
vennigham, and of Isabella Cheyne,
A.D. 1485, at Blickling, both in
Norfolk; and of Lady Roucliffe,A.D.
1494, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire. The
Philippa, Lady Halsham, c. A D. 1440
West Grinstead, Sussex.
Lady of the Cloptwn family. Melford Church,
Suffolk, c. A.D 1480.
See p. 75.
d See p. 130.
BRASSES OF LADIES.
Daughter of Sir T. Urswick, A D. U79 |'
^six younger daughters of Lady Urswick are
remarkable for liaving their long flowing
hair surmounted by tall conical caps, rarely
seen in brasses, but commonly delineated in
cotemporary illuminations, and still retained
in use by the peasantry of Normandy^. Of
the head-dress generally worn during the
latter part of the reign of Henry VII., and
which continued in fashion for some time
subsequent to the accession of his successor,
we have characteristic
specimens in the brasses
bearing the dates A.D.
1514, 1516, 1527, and
1532, and which severally
Pettwode, in St. Cle-
ment's church, Norwich,
Jane Sylan, at Luton,
at Winwick, Lancashire,
and the wife of Robert
Goodwyn, at Necton, in Norfolk : this is
the angular or pedimental head-dress, well
known from its association with the various
historical portraits of that important era :
it was composed of velvet or embroidered
cloth, and sometimes of lighter materials,
and being pointed somewhat stiffly over the
Head, Wife of Robert Goodwyn,
forehead, descended in lappets upon the ad 1532 Necton church, Norfolk.
shoulders and back. To this succeeded the peculiar coiflFure identi-
fied with our reminiscences, and indeed with the very name, of
Jane Sylan. A D 1516.
Margaret Pettwode, A.D. 1514,
St Clement's Church, Norwich.
6 " The peasantry of Rouen, Caen,
Caux, &c., to this day wear the identical
steeple-caps with the butterflies' wings
that, three hundred and sixty years ago,
towered upon the heads of the gentle
dames of Paris and London. The eva-
nescent caprice of some high-bom fair
has given a national costume to the pay-
sannes of Normandy, who have reverendly
copied for nearly four centuries the head-
dress worn by their mothers before them."
Planche's British Costume, p. 208.
BRASSES OF LADIES.
Head, Julian Clippesby, A.D. Ii94
Mary Stuart, the hapless queen of Scots,
— the small close cap of Parisian origin,
designated the "Paris hede," but far
better recognised as the Mary Queen of
Scots head-dress : of this fashion the brass
of Julian, wife of John Clippesby, Esq.,
A.D. 1594, at Clippesby, Norfolk, furnishes
an agreeable specimen : and, in like man-
ner, the broad-brimmed hat worn in con-
nection with the Elizabethan ruflP, is satis-
factorily exemplified in the pleasing and
well-executed little brasses of Cicely Page,
A.D. 1598, in the church of Bray, in
Buckinghamshire, and of Ann Sewell,
A.D. 1609, at Coventry; both these
figures are kneeling, the latter at a fald-
stool, or small desk.
I have described the wimple, gorget, or
barbe, as it sometimes was denominated,
as worn by Ladies Camoys, Cobham, and Northwode, and other
ladies ^ : this exclusive and certainly most disguising article of dress
made its appearance in England at an early period, probably be-
fore the commencement of the first century in the era of brasses,
the thirteenth : its use was, from first to last, restricted, or at least
ordered to be restricted, to the upper classes ^. In mourning, a
species of wimple appears to have been worn by females of all
ranks : it usually is depicted as having been plaited below the
chin, and it is connected with a close cap apparently of linen, and
covered with a flowing veil. In monumental brasses, widows are
generally represented as thus attired : for examples I may refer to
the memorials of Eleanor de Bohun, in Westminster abbey, and of
Joanna Braham, A.D. 1519, at Frense, in Norfolk. The last-
Cicely Pa^e. A,D. 1598 Bray, Bucks,
f See pp. 80, 82, and 44.
B Among the sumptuary laws so fre-
quently enacted, but, as it would seem, so
little regarded by our ancestors and ances-
tresses, in the 8th of King Henry VIII. it
was ordained that " duchesses and coun-
tesses, and all higher estates, may be
barbed above the chin ; every one not
being under the degree of a baroness may
wear a barbe about the chin ; and all other
gentlewomen beneath the throat-goyll," or
AJ3. 1337 10th of Edward III.
LAURENTIOS DE SANCTO MAURO, (LAURENCE SEYMOUR,) HIGHAM FERRERS CHURCH,
(See pa4e 95.1
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
named lady is expressly described as "vidua, ac Deo devota,'^ in
accordance with a practice by no means uncommon, for widows to
retire into some religious liousCj and assume the veil '\ I must not
omit to mention another remarkable example of a female elfigy
wearing the plaited barbe, engraven to
commemorate EHzabeth Hervey, abbess
of Elstow, c. A.D. 1530, and now pre-
served in Elstow church, Bedfordshire :
this lady is habited in the ecclesiastical
vestments of her order and rank, and has
resting upon her right arm her pastoral-
The earliest example of the brass of an
Ecclesiastic to which I can refer, exists
in the interesting church at Oulton in
Suffolk, and may be assigned to about the
year 1310, the 3rd of Edward II. : this is
the presumed memorial of some member
of the Bacon family, possibly the brother
of the cross-legged knight in the adjacent
church at Gorleston \ This brass, which
is of large dimensions, is in good general
preservation; it represents the deceased
as habited in the amice, alb, stole, mani-
ple, and chesuble, and bears a strong
general resemblance to the fine effigy of
Laurence Seymour, (Laurentius de Sancto
Mauro,) c. A.D. 1337, rector of Higham
Ferrers, Northamptonshire. In both of
.De Bacon, c. AD 1310.
*■ In the broad crimped frill, still worn
in some rural districts beneath the chin as
an appendage to the widow's cap, a linger-
ing relic of this medieval vestment may
occasionally be discerned.
' The fine, but unhappily mutilated,
brass of Archbishop Grenfeld at York,
bears date 1315: possibly this and tlie
Ovilton brass may be precisely coeval, and
so also the demi-figure in jMerton college
chapel, Oxford; (see p. 115;) and again,
the small figure of Nichol de Gore, within
a floriated circle, at Wood-church, and the
demi-figure of Thomas de Hop, at Kem-
sing, both in Kent, may possibly belong to
the same era.
96 BRASSES OP ECCLESIASTICS.
these figures the composition is very good, the draperies are well
cast, and the engraving is spirited and effective. Of ecclesiastics
similarly habited, amongst others, early examples occur at Shottes-
broke, Berks; Brundish, Suffolk; and Hellesdon, Norfolk, in the
respective brasses of an unknown individual, c. A.D. 1370, of
Esmond de Burnedish, c. A.D. 1375, and of Richard Thaseburgh,
A.Di 1389. These brasses are very similar the one to the other,
and were very probably produced by the
same artist. The peculiar wave of the hair,
so characteristic of this period, is here
strikingly exemplified-*. In the embroi-
deries of the vestments worn by the Shot-
tesbroke priest, the fylfot-cross'^ alter-
nates with a flower of four leaves: this^'"'°f^'°i^'
Head, Ksmond de Burnedish • J ' T j_* j_l Shottes-
c AD. 1375. curious device appears very distinctly ^°^^^
Brundish Church. Suffolk. i P,i . i c. A.D 1370.
upon the end ot the stole.
But few variations of costume occur in ecclesiastical brasses, the
vestments worn by the priesthood before the Reformation having
undergone but very little change. In place, therefore, of a detailed
notice of particular brasses, it appears rather desirable here sum-
marily to describe the several ecclesiastical vestments themselves ;
this I shall endeavour to do in the simplest manner, as well as very
briefly, leaving alike unnoticed the alleged figurative intention of
the Roman Catholic vestments, and also the controversy concerning
vestments which arose at a subsequent period.
" The Amice," says Mr. Waller, " is an oblong piece of fine
linen, having on one of its lateral edges an embroidered collar,
which is turned over and brought round the neck, the ends of the
amice itself being seen folded across where they meet in front.^^ It
is the collar of the amice which appears resting upon the chesuble,
and encircling the throat of the priest in eucharistic habit. This
vestment was introduced about the eighth century. In the earlier
J The long and flowing hair, particularly the hair, which in the brasses of eccle-
when it appears curling in profusion behind siastics had long been less flowing than at
the ears, (which themselves are large and an earlier period, is represented as quite
prominent,) is a special characteristic of straight,
the earliest ecclesiastical brasses: as the '' See note (f), p. 28.
fifteenth century drew towards its close,
BE ASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS. 97
brasses of ecclesiastics it was adjusted loosely about the neck, and
with no inconsiderable degree of elegance ; but subsequently it is
represented as if constructed of stouter materials, and worn after a
fashion altogether devoid of the former gracefulness.
The Alb, the most ancient of the vestments, is constructed of
white linen, and envelopes the entire person of the wearer : it is
not open in front, like a surplice, but is girded round the loins ;
the sleeves also are comparatively tight. In front, at the foot, em-
broidery, or Orfreij-ivork, usually square or oblong in form, is
attached to the alb : and similar enrichments also appear at the
wrists; these are the apparels of the alb. In the earlier examples,
these apparels generally encircle the entire sleeve of the alb ; as in
the brasses at Oulton, Suffolk, and Woodchurch, Kent; in the
demi-figure at Merton college chapel^; and again in the curious
memorial of John de Grofhurst, c. A.D. 1330, at Horsraonden,
Kent : about this last-named period, however, they first appear to
cover only the upper part of the wrist, as in the brass of Lawrence
Seymour, A.D. 1337, at Higham Ferrers'". The same term ap-
parel, or Parura, also denotes the embroidered collar of the amice,
and the corresponding decorations of the chesuble.
This vestment, the Chesuble, or Chasuble, in shape is nearly cir-
cular, being slightly pointed before and behind : it has an aperture
in the middle for the head, and its ample folds rest on either side
upon the arms : it is worn over the other vestments, and is always
constructed of rich materials ". The chesuble is recorded as having
been an ecclesiastical vestment, as early as the sixth century : it
generally appears in ecclesiastical brasses anterior to about the year
1425, after which period coped ecclesiastics predominate.
Worn above the alb and over the shoulders, the Stole, a long nar-
' See pp. 95, 115. they also form a border to the entire vest-
"' See figures at p. 99. ment. The uppermost apparel of the che-
" The chesuble commonly appears on suble, or the collar of that vestment, is
brasses enriched with elaborate embroi- rarely apparent in brasses, being covered
denes : those in the three Flemish eccle- by the amice : in the brass of Sir Peter
siastical memorials at St. Alban's, Wens- Legh, however, at Winwick, Lancashire,
ley, and Mimms, are truly splendid. These A.D. 1527, the chesuble being the only ec-
embroideries, or apparels, are generally so clesiastical vestment represented as worn,
arranged as to appear in front of the figure, the arrangement of its collar is satisfac--
somewhat in the form of the letter Y; and torily exemplified.
98 BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
row scarf of rich embroidery, usually displays its fringed ends from
beneath the chesuble, one on either side of the front point of that
vestment. It is crossed upon the breast, and passes beneath the
girdle of the alb : this arrangement, though usually concealed
by the chesuble, is clearly displayed in a brass of the 15 th cen-
tury at Horsham, in Sussex, which has been beautifully figured
by Mr. Waller". The stole was originally called Orarium, from
its primitive use as a kerchief to wipe the face.
The Maniple, a short species of stole, is worn depending from
the left hand, and was originally substituted for the purpose to
which the stole itself had been applied. The Golden Legend says
of St. Peter, that "he bare alway a Sudary (or maniple), vjyth
wyche he wyped the teerys y^ ranne from his eyen." The maniple,
like the stole, however, soon became a mere decorative enrichment
of the costume : " it was accounted a badge of honour as early as
the sixth century, in the ninth was common to priests and deacons,
and conceded to the sub-deacon in the eleventh." These constitute
the ordinary eucharistic vestments, as usually represented in brasses
of ecclesiastics. Of such brasses the annexed examples (see next
page), from Broxbourne, in this count j^, and from Higham Ferrers,
in Northamptonshire, may be regarded as fair specimens : both of
these priests, in accordance with a prevalent habit, hold in their
hands a chalice p.
In connection with certain distinctive additions, these same vest-
ments also form the costume of the hierarchy. Over the alb, but
° In the original, this brass is partially examples, considered in connection with
mutilated. Another example of a crossed- certain other peculiarities of artistic treat-
stole displayed upon the person of an eccle- ment : thus, in the earlier examples the
siastic, occurs in the small brass of John apparels are continued round the sleeves of
West, chaplain, at Sudborough, Northamp- the alb: the stole has its ends wider than
tonshire, c. A.D. 1430. elsewhere, and so likewise has the maniple:
P The Broxbourne brass is probably the the vestments apjiear to fit close to the
memorial of John Merdwyn,v,ho died A. U. person, as made of fine materials: the
1465 : Henry Denton, A.D. 1498, is the drapery is expressed with much graceful-
ecclesiastic to whose memory the brass at ness : and the lines are bold]y and deeply
Higham Ferrers was laid down. Notwith- cut, and there is 7io shading, except in a
standing the uniformity of costume in ec- few touches where the folds terminate : the
clesiastical brasses of different periods, it hair also is long and flowing. In later
will be easy to distinguish their respective brasses, all these peculiarities will be found
eras by the style of engraving in the several to have undergone a decided change.
c. A.D. 1430. 8th of Henry VI.
A PRIEST, HORSHAM CHURCH. SDSSEX.
Engraved on wood, after their plate, by permission of T. G. and L. A. B. Waller, Esqniies.
(See page 98.)
BRASSES OF KCCLKSIASTICS.
qui oliitt 'beriino,i3iiii5u mttifis ■ffebuiaulJlniiodm
Priest in Eucbaristic Vestments, ■with the Chalice
Broxboume, Herts, c. A D. 1465.
A. Apparel or Panira of the Amice.
B. Stole. D. Chasuble or Chesihlc.
C. Maniple. E. Alb, with apparel at the feet.
Henry Denton, Priest, A. D. 149S, Highaim Ferrers.
beneath the chesuble, ecclesiastics of episcopal and abbatical rank
are represented in their engraven monumental effigies, as habited
in a Tunic, Chimere, or Rochet, a robe somewhat resembling the
alb, but shorter and open at the sides towards the bottom. Another
vestment, the Dalmatic^, surmounts the tunic, from which it differs
only in the greater width of its sleeves, and being in a trifling degree
still shorter : like the tunic it is partially open at the sides, and it
has a fringed border. The brasses of Abbot Esteney, A.D. 1498,
at Westminster abbey, and of Bishop Goodrich, c. A.D. 1554, in
Ely cathedral, exemplify the appearance of these vestments, as seen
only at the lower part of the figure, beneath the ample folds of the
chesuble. Abbot Esteney wears the stole beneath both his tunic
1 W^hen worn without the other vestments, the dalmatic was the distinctive habit
of a deacon.
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
and dalmatic; but Bishop Goodrich places it betiveen them'". These
are both curious and valuable specimens : in the former, the effigy
is surmounted by a lofty triple canopy of most elaborate splendour :
3ishopGoodiicb, A D. 1664. Ely.
Abbot Esteney, A. D. 1498. Westminster.
and the latter is remarkable as exhibiting a prelate of the reformed
Church in the full vestments of an earlier period.
Over the chesuble archbishops alone wear the
Pallium or Pall, a narrow scarf, composed of fine
white wool, and embroidered with purple crosses
patee fitchee : these crosses probably are derived
from the series of small fibulae or broaches, with
which the pall was originally attached to the
chesuble ^ The Mitre with its TnfulcB or pen-
dents, the embroidered Sandals, the Gloves having
jewels, and the Rinff worn over the gloves, also
form parts of the episcopal attire. The origin of
the mitre is obscure: some derive it from the
Cidaris, a Persian head-dress with strings. It
Pall, Brass of Archbishop
Cranley. A.D. 1417.
' In the very fine brass of Archbishop
Cranley, A.I). 141 7, at New College chapel,
Oxford, the distinction between the tunic
and dalmatic is unusually apparent, in
consequence of the latter vestment being,
contrary to the ordinary habit, considerably
shorter than the former. The crozier-head
of this prelate is remarkable as being a
crucifix. The distinction above mentioned
between the tunic and dalmatic is also very
distinctly shewn in the brass of Bishop
Bell, A.D. 1494, at Carlisle cathedral.
"* In the sculptured effigy of Archbishop
Stratford, A.D. 1348, in Canterbury cathe-
dral, the pall is represented plain, but at-
tached to the chesuble by three pins of
gold, one on the breast, and one on either
shoulder. Care must be taken to distin-
guish between the archiepiscopal pall, and
the apparels of the chesuble which are
sometimes arranged in the same form, but
are in character altogether distinct. See
note (n), p. 97.
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS. 101
began to assume the shape in which it is generally known early in
the thirteenth century : at first it was low, and had its sides
straight; subsequently it was made with a somewhat greater
Archbishop Grenfeld, York,
Bishop Goodrich, Ely,
Archbishop Harsenett, Cliii^wdl.
elevation; and at a still later period, it assumed the swelling or
rounded outline still retained *. The brasses of Archbishop Gren-
feld, A.D. 1315, at York cathedral, of Bishop Goodrich, A.D. 1554,
and of Archbishop Harsenett, at Chigwell, Essex, A.D. 1611, exem-
plify these several forms of the mitre. The Pastoral-staff of a
bishop or abbot has a crook-head; but
that of an archbishop is surmounted by "^
a cross, and is properly called a Crozier. Vl
The staff itself is frequently encircled by <(|ni ^^^ — [rj j)>
a scarf or Vexillum, as in the brasses of
Archbishop Grenfeld, Bishops Goodrich
and Bell, and Abbot Esteney : this singu-
lar appendage probably owes its origin to
the famous cross-banner of the first Chris-
tian emperor, the Labarum of Constan-
Abbot Esteney, f-jyip u
A.D. 1498. LIIIC .
' The infulae of the mitres figured in the
annexed engraving are omitted ; this acces-
sory is distinctly represented in the follow-
ing cut, drawn from the brass of Bishop
"• Archbishop Grenfeld, c. A.D. 1315, at
York; Bishop Goodrich, A.D. 1554, at
Ely; Bishop Bell, A.D. 1496, at Carlisle;
and Abbot Esteney, A.D. 1498, at West-
minster. It has been set forth as a general
rule, that archbishops and bishops usually
hold the staflf in the left hand, the latter
Waldeby, A.D. 1397,
with the crook outwards, and have the right
hand upheld in benediction : abbots, on the
contrary, hold the staff, with its crook turned
inwards, in the right hand. Abbots having
episcopal jurisdiction over their own houses
may, perhaps, be distinguished by holding
the staff after the same fashion as bishops
When the staff is not grasped, but rests on
the arm, it is sometimes found in all cases
to be placed on the left side, and with the
crook naturally turning outwards. These
rules, if rules they are at all, are by no
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
Referring, for other examples of engraven episcopal efiSgies, and
of priests habited in eucharistic vestments, to the series of brasses
appended to this notice, — here it will be sufficient to remark upon
the singular memorial of
Bishop Boothe, A.D. 1478,
at East Horsley, in Surrey,
in which the figure, being
drawn in profile, exhibits the
lateral aspect of the episcopal
attire '': and also upon one
other episcopal memorial,
which, from the unusual cir-
cumstance of an allusion to
the history or actions of the
person represented, being in-
troduced into the composi-
tion of the brass itself, de-
mands special attention, —
this is the large brass of
Robert Wyvill, bishop of
Sahsbury, A.D. 1375, in
Salisbury cathedral. The
castle of Shernborne, with
its keep, entrance tower, and
portcullis, are here repre-
sented: "at the door of the
first ward stands the bishop '^°'™'^°°'^®'''^^'^°p°^-^^^'*''"^-°-^*'^- ■^^'''•^°''^'®y'^™^^y-'*
pontifically habited, with his mitre and crozier, and his hands ele-
vated ; and below him, at the foot of the steps of the gate of the
outer ward, stands his champion,^' or rather warder, with shield and
means absolute. The assumed difference
in the direction of the heads of the pastoral
staves of bishops and abbots, is considered
to denote that the former have official juris-
diction over their entire see, the latter a
more strictly personal authority over their
own establishment, and that only.
In Exeter cathedral, A.D. 1413, in
the brass of William Langton, the figure
of this ecclesiastic is represented as habited
in a cope, and is placed in such a position
as to be seen in profile with excellent effect.
The whole work is good and valuable.
Another kneeling priest, whose figure is
also shewn in profile, occurs in St. Benet's
church, Cambridge : it is the memorial of
Dr. Richard Billingford, master of Corpus
Christi college, A.D. 1442.
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
axe. Concerning tliis castle and its adjacent warren tlie bishop
had a dispute with William de Montacute, carl of Salisbury, and
to commemorate his success appears to have been the object of the
designer of the bishop's brass. The embattled portions of the cas-
tle are particularly valuable, as
original examples of that destruc-
tible member of a military edifice,
the parapet. Five shields of arms,
of which however but two remain,
together with as many of the four
symbols of the evangelists, and
a mutilated marginal inscription,
complete the composition.
Drawn from a brass, c. A.D. 1400,
in Hitchin church in this county,
the annexed figure sets before us
another variety in ecclesiastical
vestments which requires descrip-
tion. Here the entire person of
the ecclesiastic is enveloped in a
Cope, worn over a surplice ha\'ing
large hanging sleeves. This vest-
ment, the cope, originally a cloak
designed to protect the wearer from
the inclemency of the weather, by
degrees became a regular compo-
nent of the ministerial costume, and
partook of the same costliness as
distinguished the other vestments.
In form it is usually a semicircle,
without sleeves, but furnished with
a Caputium or Hood, the origin of
the present distinctive badge of
academic degrees ; and it is fas-
tened across the breast by a Morse
or clasp. The apparels or embroi-
dered enrichments of the cope
Ecclesiastic habited in a cope, c. A.D. 1400.
BEASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
were frequently constructed of the most costly materials, and
wrought with elaborate splendour : sometimes arabesque and flow-
ing patterns were adopted, and on other occasions the design com-
prised a series of canopied figures. The morse also was variously
adorned : the Hitchin priest has his charged with the sacred mo-
nogram. Splendid examples of coped ecclesiastics occur, among
many others, at St. Cross near Winchester ; Castle Ashby, North-
amptonshire; Knebworth, Herts; Broadwater, Sussex; Upwell,
Norfolk; Balsham, Cambridgeshire; in the chapels of Merton
college, Oxford, and of Caius college, Cambridge ; and at Hack-
ney, Middlesex, in the brasses of John de Campden, A.D. 1383,
warden of St. Cross ; William Ermyn, A.D. 1401 ; Simon Bache,
A.D, 1414, canon of St. Paul's; John Mapletonv, A.D. 1420;
William Mowbray, c. A.D. 1425 : Dr. John Blodwell, A.D. 1465 ;
Henry Sever, A.D. 1471, fourteenth warden of Merton college;
Dr. Walter Hewke, A.D. 1517; and
Dr. Christopher Urswick, A.D. 1521.
Archbishop Harsenett, A.D. 1611,
is also habited in a cope curiously
At Cowfold, Sussex, A.D. 1433, the
large and noble effigy of Thomas Ne-
lond, prior of Lewes, furnishes the
finest example of an ecclesiastic wear-
ing a Surplice, corresponding in most
respects in form with the similar vest-
ment still retained as a ministering
habit by ourselves. The expression
of the head in this brass is peculiarly ' /i
solemn and dignified, and in the origi- Head,PriorNeiond,cowfoid,su..ex.A.D.u33.
y The apparels of the cope of Dr. Maple-
ton are chiefly composed of Maple leaves
and the monogram M.
The uppermost figure on either side of
the front apparels of the cope of Dr. Blod-
well, represents a seraph, precisely similar
in character to the angelic forms which
decorate the canopy of Bishop Hallum at
Constance : nor is this the only point of
resemblance between these two fine and
interesting works. The brass of Archbishop
Cranley also, A.D. 1417, bears, in many
points of artistic treatment, a strong resem-
blance to these same plates. See p. 25.
Besides the memorial of Dr. John Blod-
well, there is another fine brass at Balsham,
that of Dr. John de Sleford, in a cope, and
beneath a triple canopy; date A.D. 1401.
BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS. 105
nal is engraven with admirable effect. In Rothwcll church, Nor-
thamptonshire, bearing date A.D. 1361, is the fine brass of WilUam
de Rothewelle, archdeacon of Essex, keeper of the mint, &c. This
is a choice specimen of canonical habiliments. ''A close-fitting
dress," I again quote from Mr. Waller, " of which the sleeves only,
buttoned to the wrist, are visible, is worn beneath the cassock,
a long garment which reaches to the feet ; it is open in front and
lined with fur, having an ornamental border of trefoils, and the
sleeves do not reach much beyond the elbow. Over this is worn a
surplice with long sleeves : and about the neck is the Almuce, a
kind of tippet or hood of white fur, having long pendent lappets
hanging in front. A mantle, of dimensions sufficiently ample to
envelope the whole figure, is fastened on the breast by a broach."
The head of this effigy rests on a cushion supported by angels ;
and the entire composition of the brass is indicative of a foreign
hand. The inscription is also worthy of special notice : it consists
of two distinct parts ; the one an intercessory ejaculation, expressed
in Latin, the canonical language ; while the other, written in the
ordinary language of the period, Norman-French, is a record of
the name and dignities of the deceased.
The Almuce or Aumuce, above mentioned, is frequently repre-
sented on brasses in white metal, as in the memorials of William
Ermyn, rector of Castle Ashby, and of Dr. Walter Hewke at Cains
college. In the greater number of brasses of ecclesiastics, the head
of the effigy appears uncovered, and consequently discloses the ton-
sure, or shaven crown of the clergy of the Church of Rome : occa-
sionally, however, examples occur in which
a singular species of cap, apparently a
distinctive mark of a doctor of canon law,
is worn. Dr. Urswick, A.D. 1521, at
Hackney, is thus habited : and, amongst
others, at New college, Oxford, several
brasses are preserved which exemplify
this article of ecclesiastical, or rather aca-
1 • J TIIT"j.1 J.1 • 1 Heaxi Dr. Drswick, Hackuev A.D 1521.
demic dress. With this cap an ample
gown, completely covering the person, and provided with a hood
(usually represented by white metal), is generally worn. In some
106 REASSES OP CIVILIANS.
few late brasses, the gown of the master of arts appears, as in the
small mural memorial of John Burton, A.D. 1608, in Burgh church,
Norfolk ; this brass is figured by Cotman, who has also given an
excellent etching of the kneeling figure of Thomas Leman, rector,
A.D. 1534, from his brass at South Acre church,
Norfolk ; in this example the hair is worn long,
and covering the whole head. In the year
during which he deceased, the authority of the
pope in these realms was formally renounced
by parliament, and consequently the tonsure
was no longer retained by the clergy. It is
1 i.iii 1 IT i-i- 1 • 1 Head, Thomaa Leman, rector,
smgular tnat a brass should exhibit this change so^th Acre, Norfolk, ad. 1534.
in the very year in which it first took place.
In the long and flowing robes, introduced into this country
during the reign of Edward III., and usually depicted in the monu-
mental brasses of Civilians, but little variety is apparent. The
costumes of Walsokne and Braunche at Lynn, and of Alan Flemyng
at Newark, I have already described. The greater number of other
brasses of civilians are, like these, the memorials of merchants or
burgesses ; and they are chiefly to be found in borough towns, or
the larger parochial churches of those counties, in which the wool-
len manufacture flourished. To the piety and munificence of these
" merchant-princes " of the olden time, the sacred edifices which
still preserve their engraven monumental plates, were themselves
largely indebted. Inscribed with the date A.D. 1356, in the nave
of Great Berkhampstead church in this county lies the fine and early
brass of Richard Torryngton and Margaret his wife (see p. 107,) the
founders, or at least the rebuilders of this church : the dress of the
lady is precisely the same as that worn by Ismena de Wynston,
while her head-dress resembles that of Maud de Cobham ^ : her
husband, who wears a beard, is habited in a long loose tunic,
buttoned to the throat, and with close sleeves and cuff's. At Fel-
brigg, in Norfolk, A.D. 1351, Symon de Felbrigg wears a similar,
but somewhat shorter tunic, which is girded by a girdle buckled
' See pp. 83, 84.
Y BICHAED AND MaRGAEET TORRINGTON, A.D. 1356, and 1349. Great Berkhampstead, Herts.
about the waist, to which, on the right side, a small gypeiere or
purse is attached : over the tunic in this example, a mantle or cloak
is arranged with no inconsiderable degree of elegance : it is but-
toned over the right shoulder, and drawn across the left
arm. This same arrangement is also exemplified in the
Flemish brass at TopcliflF^: and again at Shottesbroke,
where the Frankelein there commemorated is attired in
tunic, mantle and hood : but here, in place of the gyp-
eiere, from the girdle hangs an Anlace, a short weapon
between a sword and dagger, usually worn by civilians
until the end of the fifteenth century : it always is worn
hanging from a strap, apparently attached to the up-
permost part of the scabbard.
a See p. 20
The shoes of all these ts^lrshotS-
108 BRASSES OF CIVILIANS.
figures are pointed, and fastened over the instep. The same tunic,
mantle and hood, also appear in the brass of Sir John Cassy,
A.D. 1400, at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire. John Corp, A.D. 1391,
at Stoke Fleming, Devon, wears a tunic open in front, with a hood :
he has no waist-belt ; but his anlace is suspended at his left side
from a rich Baudrick, or belt buckled over the right shoulder.
V A.D. 1431, at Margate, Kent, Nicholas Canteys has a tunic par-
tially open in front, and with large full sleeves gathered into small
cuflPs at the wrists : his anlace hangs from a waist-belt : and he
wears boots embroidered with stars, which lace up inside the foot.
^' At Kingston-upon-Thames, we find the same tunic, with fur collar
and cuffs, worn, A.D. 1437, by Robert Skerne : his boots also lace
inside the foot, and he has an elegant pendent ornament attached
by a chain to his waist-belt. Another good example of the same
costume is preserved on an altar-tomb in Hitchin church, in this
county, accompanied by the effigy of a lady wearing a dress singu-
larly similar to that of her husband. The same curious similarity
is observable in the attire of two figures in the church at Wheat-
hamstede : this brass, though in no respect remarkable in itself
beyond being a good specimen of a numerous class, derives from
its association a high degree of interest. It is the memorial of
Hugo and Margaret Bostock, the parents of John de Wheatham-
stede, the thirty-third abbot of St. Alban : this distinguished eccle-
siastic, the Wykeham of our abbots, presided over the abbey of
St. Alban during the reign of his friend and patron, Henry VI.,
from A.D. 1421 to 1460 : the brass of his parents, which is without
date, we may therefore assign to about A.D. 1435. The inscription ''
'• The entire inscription at the foot of the of the Latin rhyming composition of the
Wheathamstede brass, doubtless a specimen great abbot, is as follows :
"%\t pater, !)ic mater, soror %\t jacct, f)ic quoque frater,
^astoris pccorum proti^omartlris angltgenarum.
BBostofe llugo patrt, Jttarci Jltargaretaqitc matri
Jlomen erat simile, genitus traJ)it a genitorc.
l^uic qui perttansis rogo focmina, bir, puer, an sis,
®t paritfr recubant in pace prccare quiescant"
On a shield above the head of the lady brasses of John and Elizabeth Heyworth,
may be distinguished the bearing of Hey- A.D. 1520; here the same arms appear,
worth, argent, three bats with wings ex- The predecessor of Abbot John de Whea-
tended, sable. On an adjacent slab are the thamstede in the abbacy was William Hey-
HUGO AND MARGARET BOS TOCK, ■Wheathamstede Church, Herts, o. A.D 1435
at the foot of these figures records them to have been ''pater" and
" Pastoris pecorum prothomartiris Angligenarum.^''
This would appear to have been a favourite mode of expression
with the abbot when making reference to himself, as we find a
MS. of Valerius Maximus presented by him to the library of the
University of Oxford, and still preserved in the Bodleian library,
thus inscribed :
iFratrfbus ©loiuc Datur in munus llbcr tste,
^cr pattern pecorum protI)omartiris ^ngh'gcnarum.
The words 3Jo]^ncnx 212a&ct]^mstcl)e are thus written above the
second line of the inscription in the original •'.
worth, on whose elevation to the see of
Lichfield, A.D. 1421, he was himself elected
superior of the abbey of St. Alban. Possibly
John may have been nephew (sister's son)
to this William.
* The presentation of various books to
the University library, and to the library
of his college (now St. John's), together
BRASSES OF CIVILIANS.
Of the ample dimensions of the dresses worn towards the close
of the fifteenth century, we have excellent specimens in the brasses
of Sir Peter Arderne, A.D. 1465, at Latton, Essex -, of Sir Thomas
Urswyck, A.D. 1479, at Dagenham, in the same county; and of
Brian Eouclyffe, baron of the exchequer, A.D. 1494, at Cowthorpe,
Yorkshire. Sir Thomas Urswick wears a rosary, in place of the
anlace, which at this period ceased to form a part of the civil
equipment. About A.D. 1520, the long and full gowns repre-
sented on brasses have sleeves, which hang down after the fashion
Ralf Ho wlat, Merchant of the Staple. A.D. 1510
Abbey-churob of St. Alban.
Civilian, in Clippesby Church, Norfolk,
c. A D. IfiOO.
with the circumstance of his having placed
in each an inscription in Latin verse, is
recorded in a curious memoir of Abbot
Jo hn, written by his friend John Amersham,
and now forming a part of the Harleian
collection in the British Museum. See
Harl. MSS. No. 3775.
BKASSES OF CIVILIANS. Ill
of a surplice ; and the front of the gown and sleeves are usually
guarded with fur. We have a good example of this habit in the
abbey-churchj in the memorial of " Rauff Rowlatt Mchaunt of
THE STAPLE AT Calais," and late of Holy well-house, in St. Alban^s,
and of Sandridge. The gypciere was commonly worn at this time,
and it was frequently accompanied by the rosary ^. In the exam-
ple from Clippesby church, Norfolk, the fur only forms a collar to
the dress, and the gypciere is worn alone. (See woodcuts, p. 110.)
William Norwich, A.D. 1563, in the church of St. George, Colgate,
in the city of Norwich, wears a mantle over his tunic, and has a
rosary. And William Layer, mayor of Norwich, A.D. 1537, is
represented in his brass in the church of St. Andrew in that city, as
habited in his official robe over his tunic ; he is equipped also with
both rosary and gypciere. Sixty years earlier, precisely the same
details of costume appear at Standon, in this county, in the fine and
interesting brass of John Feld, alderman of London. Among other
brasses of civilians which are peculiarly valuable as illustrations of
costume, the Flemish examples at All-Hallows, Barking, and
St. Mary Key, Ipswich, occupy a prominent position : of these,
Andrew Evyngar, A.D. 1536, wears a long open gown guarded
with fur, with large surplice-sleeves, over a shorter tunic, from
beneath which at the neck the upper part of a third dress or under-
tunic, is apparent. The dress of Thomas Pownder, A.D. 1525, for
the most part corresponds with this, but in the sleeves of his gown
there is an essential distinction, these being made long and full,
and having an aperture cut in the body of the sleeve for the pas-
sage of the arms. To the brasses of civilians I will now add a
notice of but two other specimens, the memorials of a once impor-
tant class in the civil community, the notaries-public, — scribes,
employed to draw up documents, and invested by law with peculiar
authority as witnesses to their execution. Having been long de-
prived of its inscription, as well as of a light and elegant canopy.
d The rosary represented in the brasses to the girdle being peculiarly liable to
of men rarely contains more than ten attack from thieves, gave to the " light-
beads; but ladies generally wear double fingered," or perhaps rather the strong-
rosaries containing several decades of beads, handed gentry of those days, the epithet
The large gypciere or purse worn appended of " cut-purse."
BRASSES OF CIVILIANS.
a date can only be assumed from the
general character of the work itself,
for the earliest known brass of a
notary, ["preserved in the church of
St. Mary Tower, Ipswich ^ This plate,
probably engraved about A.D. 1475,
represents the deceased functionary
in the long full-sleeved gown and
low sided-laced boots of the period :
his hands are uplifted as in prayer :
from his girdle depends his official
badge or distinction, the ink-horn
with its accompanying pen-case : the
head is bare, but on the left shoulder
rests a cap of a peculiar character,
in high fashion with all classes during
the reign of Henry VI., and not un-
frequently worn throughout the re-
maining years of the fifteenth cen-
tury : in form this cap was circular,
somewhat resembling a turban, being
composed of a roll of cloth or other
richer material, from which on one
side a broad long band or scarf hung
down to the ground, unless tucked in
the girdle or wound round the neck,
while to the other side of the cap a
species of loose hood was attached, which fell negligently about
the head and shoulders. In this brass the long scarf is repre-
sented as hanging down in front of the figure, and possibly it might
have concealed the gypciere^ On the breast is a scroll, charged
A NotHry, c. A.T^. 1175. In the Church of
St.. Mary Tower, Ipswich.
6 This curious and interesting^ plate is
figured by the Messrs. Waller in the first
part of their excellent work.
' This preposterous head-gear is well
figured in Mr. Fairholt's book of Costume,
pp. 188, 190, in cuts drawn from cotem-
porary illuminations. It appears worn, as
in the brass of the notary, on the shoulders
of the sculptured effigy of William Ca-
nynges, merchant, A.D. 1474, in St. Mary
Redcliffe church, Bristol. This interesting
effigy is figured by HoUis, and is highly
BRASSES OF DEMI-FIGURES.
with the legend, —
RePOSITA est HEC SPES MEA I SINU MEO
SCA TRINITAS DN DE MISERERE MEI.
Neither cap nor gypciere appears on the brass of William Curtcys,
notary, at Holmhale, in the county of Norfolk : in this example a
simple cincture confines the flowing gown at the waist, and sup-
ports the ink-horn and pen-case. The
legend at the foot of the figure bears the
date M.cccc.Lxxxx. g
Besides complete effigies, it appears to
have been an early and by no means un-
common habit, to engrave Demi-Figures,
for the purpose of monumental memorial.
Of these the earliest and most curious is
the brass of Sir Richard de Buslingthorpe,
in the church of the village bearing the
same name, in Lincolnshire. This knight
Sir Eichard de Buslingthoipe,
c. A.D. 1280
characteristic of the civic costume of the
period : I must not omit to mention that
William Canynges wears at his right side
an anlace, hanging, as usual, perpen-
dicularly. The same cap was also worn by
Walter Colney, A.D. 1479, at Lynn, The
hoods of the knights of the Garter are still
made after this fashion ; and such a hood
appears, forming part of the costume of the
Order, in the brass of Sir Thomas Bullen,
K.G. at Hever. For a further illustration
of this same cap and its appendages, see
s Another but that a very inferior brass
of a notary is also contained in the same
church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich : its
date is 1506. And again at New College,
Oxford, is a fourth equally inferior speci-
men. These are all that have been noticed
in this country. Mr. Waller mentions a
fifth brass of a notary who lived in tlie
beginning of the sixteenth century, as ex-
isting in the cathedral church of St. Sau-
William Canynges, A.D. 1474.
veur, at Bruges : and this appears to be a
fine work; indeed, a meirorial worthy of
one, whom it records to have been the chief
founder of the cathedral choir, and to have
increased the stipends of the prebendaries.
BRASSES OF DEMI-FIGURES.
is represented in chain-mail^, with plain ailettes, equally plain
surcoat, and with gauntlets formed of small overlapping pieces of
plate, or of thick leather, arranged after the same manner as the
laminated soUerets of Sir William Cheyne. The head, enveloped
in a coif-de-mailles, rests upon two cushions; and the uplifted
hands appear to be holding a small heart.
There is no guige, shield, or weapon. The
date is about A.D. 1290. At Croft, also,
in Lincolnshire, is another demi-figure
of a knight, armed in banded ring-mail.
At Debenham, in Suffolk, A.D. 1424,
are the similar memorials of Sir John
Framingham and his lady : this knight
is armed in complete plate-armour of
excellent character. In a brass at Bed-
dington, in Surrey, to the memory of a
lady of the Carew family, beneath the complete figure of the
lady herself, are thirteen demi-figures of her children, arranged in
a connected series. Demi-figures of priests, however, are those of
Kjiigbt in baxided Kiu^-m.-iU, c. A.D. 1310.
JOHN TUBNEY. c. A. 11 1430
most general occurrence. The annexed example, c. A.D. 1430, is
drawn from the brass in Southflect church, Kent, of John Tubney,
l" The mail in this plate is expressed in lines precisely resembling those in the brass of
Sir Robert de Septvans, at Chartham.
BRASSES OF DEMI-FIGURES. 115
rector, archdeacon, and chaplain to John Lowe, lord bishop of
Rochester. By a singularly felicitous arrangement, these eccle-
siastical demi-figures were often placed at the intersection of a
floriated cross, in which case the figure appears as if resting upon
the cross ; a fine and very early example of this arrangement once
existed in the chapel of Merton college, Oxford, to the memory
RICHARD DE HART, Merton CoUege, Oxford, o. A D 1315
of Richard de Hart, c. A.D. 1315 ; of this brass the demi-figure
remains, but the cross has long been lost'. The similarity between
this demi-figure and the corresponding portion of the brass of the
priest in Oulton church, Suffolk, is at least sufficient to identify
these two early ecclesiastical memorials as the work of the same
artist. In other examples the demi-figure is encircled by a flori-
ated quatrefoil, which itself forms the head of the cross : of this
latter arrangement a beautiful specimen occurs at Buxted, Sus-
sex, to the memory of Britellus Avenel, " once rector of the church
of Buxted," (see next page :) this is also an early brass, its probable
date being about A.D. 1375."^ At Rusper, in the same county,
and also of about the same date, is the brass of John de Kygges-
folde, a civilian, and his wife " Agneys," whose demi-effigies afl'ord
' See p. 95. A precisely similar brass abbey church of St. Alban.
once existed in the south transept of the ^ Seep. 119.
BRASSES OF DEMI-KIGURES.
BRITELLUa AVENEL BOXTEAD SUSSSX, c. A.D. 1375.
JOHN AND AGNES DK KYGGE3F0LDE, o. A.D. 1375.
valuable examples of costume at that period : the legend, which
is in Norman-French, runs thus, —
John de Kyggesfolde et Agneys sa feme gisount icy, dieu de lo almes bit mrcy
And again, at East Wickham, in Kent, the demi-figures of John
de Bladingdown and his wife, c. A.D. 1325, appear within the
head of the floriated cross.
Of Miscellaneous Brasses it will be sufficient to notice some
few of the most curious and interesting. Foremost amongst these
are the few remaining examples of a once numerous class of brasses,
those which, with various modifications of details, are arranged in
the form of the great Christian symbol, the cross ^ Their usual
design consists of a tall stem of slight proportions, from the sides
of which clustered foliage sprouts forth ; and the head and arms
terminate in similar foliage, or in some emblematical device"".
The parents of Archbishop Chichele, the munificent founder of All
Souls' college, Oxford, are thus commemorated in the chm'ch of
Higham Ferrers, A.D. 1400 : the arms of this cross are enriched
with an elegant flowing pattern, and terminate in the evangelistic
emblems, while at their intersection is introduced the symbol of
1 Originally these engraved crosses con-
stituted perhaps the most numerous class
of brasses : their despoiled matrices may be
still seen in almost every village church,
as well as in the cathedrals, and abbeys,
and other larger edifices. The slabs upon
which the earlier crosses were affixed, were
generally of immense size.
™ In the later examples, the head and
arms of the cross are generally simply
trefoiled, and the stem is plain.
118 MISCELLANEOUS BRASSES.
the Saviour °. Another similar memorial exists at Broadwater, in
Sussex : here the cross is fleury at the extremities, and on the arms
are the words, Sanguis Xri salva me. Passio Xri comforta
ME. From the slab the original foot-legend has been removed and
lost, and its place is now supplied by an inscription to the memory
of John Corby, rector, A.D. 1415°. At Cassington, Oxfordshire,
is another elegant cross-fleury, to the memory of Sir Eoger Cheyne,
c. A.D. 1420, once esquire-at-arms to King Henry VII. And
again at a later period, 1516, at Sutton, Bedfordshire, the brass of
Thomas and Elizabeth Burgoyne is worked in the form of a cross-
fleury, rising from steps drawn in perspective : at the foot is this
Of goTcJjargtie pg for if}t goulcg of Zijo^ ^Durgognc ant) lEh'jafict]^ ftgg
togfr, tDf)^tf)t ^j^omag tecessgD g^ t.T Dag of August t^e ger of out lort) gotJ
a tDouganl) fgfac j^unlirft]^ ant) %exitn on fo^osc goulcg ant) all crggten soulfg
5JfSu j^auc nwtcg, ^men.
At Flore, Northamptonshire, is another curious specimen, consist-
ing of a small cross, which is drawn in perspective on a rock : at its
foot lies a nail, and other nails were attached to the arms : the date
is A.D. 1537, and it is the memorial of Alice Wyrley.
Sometimes the upper part of the cross is worked in the form of a
quatrefoil, upon which it appears to have been a common habit at
an early period to place a demi-figure : the earliest partial remains
of such a specimen, of which I am aware, exist in the brass to
which I have already referred, at Merton college chapel, Oxford p.
In other examples, the head of the cross is formed of a large and
open double quatrefoil, richly cusped and floriated, and containing
within it some eftigy or device. The fine example of this species of
n One emblem, that of St. Mark, has The despoiled slab of Bishop Bingham,
been removed from the original; but this A.D. 1247, at Salisbury cathedral, appears
loss is, of course, capable of easy restora- from its much worn casement, to have ori-
tion. ginally been enriched with a cross-flory
° See Cartwright's Topography of the supporting a demi-figure. Simon de Wal-
Rape of Bramber, vol. ii. p. 36, where it pole, A.D. 1301, rector of Pulham, in
is stated that this cross is probably the Norfolk, had a fine floriated cross without
memorial of Richard Tooner, rector of any effigy, the casement of which still re-
Broadwater from A.D. 1432 to 1445. mains very perfect.
P See. p. 11.5.
liu tattt JolusTtnlm iimm&fn Kn'Un liui rtrlifquuiInitmijiV'
ttt'bnttmi ln\w tm ^ir^itT" ru: an an ;;niu-tm- itni& ;Rmfn,
V CROSS ]FJLEUEY„
M Broadwater Church. Sussex.
Said to commemorate fiichard Turuer, JXector.
./'. }i Jodb/Tis. Fecit
arrangement at Hildersham, Cara-
bridgesliire, A.D. 1408, exhibits
within the quatrefoil the remarkable
symbol of the blessed Trinity i, ex-
pressed by an august personage seated
on a species of tomb, and supporting
a crucifix. On either side of the stem
of this cross, which is also floriated
and stands on steps, are the kneel-
ing figures of Hobert Parys and his
lady. A similar cross at Stone
church, Kent, A.D. 1418, contains
within the quatrefoil the beautiful
effigy of John Lumbarde, once rec-
tor of that church, in eucharistic
habit : here a legend is engraved
upon the stem of the cross. I have
already noticed the cross-brass of
Britellus Avenel, at Buxtead'". At
Wimbish in Essex, a recently dis-
covered specimen of this style of
brass, of great beauty and interest
though now lamentably mutilated,
has figures of a knight and lady within
the quatrefoil. The knight here de-
picted wears a jupon greatly resemb-
ling that of SirH. Hastings, A.D.1347,
and his sword is also girded after the
•i In this instance, this device may very probably
be designed to indicate the divine and human
nature of our blessed Lord. The dove is usually
added to the composition, when the Trinity ap-
pears certainly to have been the object of the in-
tended symbolism. The symbol thus complete is
substituted for a finial to the canopy of the brass
of Henry Pariee, Esq., c. A.D. 1460, in the same
church. See p. 138, and note (t).
r Seep. 116.
Lady, c. A.D. 13 !5. Wimbiah, Essei
ISee next page.;
Portion of Knight's figure, 'WimbiBh.
120 MISCELLANEOUS BRASSES.
same fashion ^ : he has a bascinet and camail with rerebraces and vam-
braces of plate, but his legs are armed partly in plate and partly in
mail. The figure of the lady is singularly elegant, and it remains
yet entire. The foot of the cross was originally based upon the
figure of an elephant, the badge of the Beaumont family. Another
beautiful cross occurs at Taplow, in Buckinghamshire, (see opposite
page,) the memorial of Nicholas de Aumberdene, " Fishmonger of
London," whose effigy is depicted within the quatrefoil : the costume
is that of the reign of Edward III., and the probable date of the
brass is about A.D. 1350. The stem of the cross is supported by a
dolphin embowed naiant : and the legend, in Norman-French, and
now reversed, is placed at the head of the cross ; it runs thus, —
Bit\)oU He auinftertenc salifs ptsioncr He aonOrcs gfst its : He salmc tit mcrcp . amen.
One other specimen of these crosses is too beautiful to be omitted :
it bears date A.D. 1400, and represents the cross rising between
the kneeling figures of a civilian and his lady, and within the
quatrefoil at the head it encloses the figure of St. Faith, crowned
and with a nimbus, and holding a sword and a gridiron, the instru-
ment of her martyrdom ^. The field on which this beautiful figure
is placed, is diapered, and in the two lateral foils are the words
ScA Fides, and Virgo et mr. This brass is at Newton, in North-
At Woodchurch, in Kent, c. A.D. 1330, the efiigy of Nichol de
Gore, priest, habited in an alb and chesuble, appears within a qua-
trefoiled circle, which itself is enclosed within the four points of a
rich Greek- cross fleury. The circle is charged with a legend in
s See p. 45. very singular, lies in the church of St.
• The instrument of the martyrdom of Lawrence, in the city of Norwich, having
St. Faith is properly a brazen bed, upon probably been removed there at the de-
which she was burned to death towards the struction of the monastery at Horsham:
close of the third century, during the per- the legend speaks of the prior as being
secutions by Dacian, prefect of Gaul : in istius loci. The effigy in this composition
that country the virgin martyr was born, remains, and is placed upon a low bracket,
at Pais de Grave. Cotman has engraved " The Gentleman's Magazine for April,
another beautiful figure of St. Faith, in his 1812, contains a description and an engrav-
time forming a part of the interesting brass ing of another fine floriated cross containing
of Galfridus Langley, prior of St. Faith's a figure, which now is covered by the pews
priory, at Horsham: the brass, which is in the church of St. Michael at St. Alban's.
ICE0LA3 ADMBERDENE, c, A.D. 1350.
lu another form of arrangement sometimes found, the figures of
the composition are placed upon a species of bracket, which is
generally made to expand, so as to form a tall and slender stem
rising from steps. A.D. 1405, at Upper Hardress, Kent, is a fine
example of this species of brass : it is the memorial of John Strete,
rector, who is represented in his cassock and hood, as kneeling at
the base of the composition, while the figures of the Apostles
St. Peter and St. Paul stand upon the bracket above. A scroll
encircles the stem of the bracket, and below is a commemorative
inscription. Tliis is a very fine brass, remarkable for the high
artistic feeling displayed, as well in the design as in its execution.
In the brass at Bray, Berks, of Sir John Foxley and his two wives,
the figures are placed on a wide bracket, which is based upon a/0,27.
The brass of Joanna Urban, A.D. 1414, at Southfleet, Kent, is
another elegant specimen of this mode of arrangement, (see next
page). And again, in Merton college chapel, Oxford, is the brass
of John Bloxham and John Whitton, A.D. 1387, members of that
society, in which the two effigies are placed under an elegant double
canopy, while at their feet is uncoiled a scroll, bearing a legend :
here the foot of this beautiful cross-like composition is based upon
a niche enclosing an Agnus Dei. In some examples the bracket
has but a slight elevation, and has rather the character of a
pedestal, as in the brass of Eleanor Corp, A.D. 1391, at Stoke Flem-
ing, Devonshire : and again, A.D. 1524, at
Norwich, in the church of St. John in the
Maddermarket, in the singularly merito-
rious brass of John Terri, merchant, and
mayor of Norwich, and lettys terri,
his wife, the figures are placed on low
In Norfolk and some other places,
priests are frequently commemorated by
an engraved chalice, accompanied by a
brief inscription, usually placed beneath
it on a fillet. The annexed example is
drawn from the brass of William Curtes,
at South Burlingham, A.D. 1540: here
Chalice and Wafer for William
Cartes, A.D. 1540
l^itiaotjolp. qiMDaSBG]o^ 'fflibanaMiin tfia
j9°.0igjnima''to a'xcM- OMgaiag jiocfgg Mm.
I — i
JOANNA URBAN, AD 1414 Southfleet Church, Kent.
with the chalice the consecrated wafer is represented, ensigned
with the sacred monogram.
The device of a heart inscribed with a legend or monogram
is sometimes found, as at Higham Ferrers. At Martham, in Nor-
folk, on a similar heart are engraven the words, " post tenebras
124 MISCELLANEOUS BEASSES.
SPRO LUCE : LAus DEO MEo/' and be-
neath ou a fillet, is an inscription
commemorative of Robert Alen, A.D.
1487. Scrolls with legends sometimes
issue from hearts, as at Caversfield,
Bucks, and Loddon, Norfolk, Figures
also are occasionally represented hold-
ing hearts : the brass of Sir Richard
de Buslingthorpe is an example of this
peculiarity : the brass of Robert Beau-
ner, C. A.D. 1470, monk, at St. Al- Heart with Monogram, Hicham Ferrers
ban's, is another example; the heart
is here ensigned with drops of blood, and about the head of the
figure upon a scroll are the words, " Cor mundum in me crea,
Deus." At Broughton, in Lincolnshire, a knight and lady in their
upraised hands each hold a small heart : their date is c. A.D. 1370.
And in the brass of John and Joan Baron, A.D. 1437, at All-
Hallows, Barking, above the figures is a heart inscribed with the
word Mercy, and encircled by a scroll charged with the legend, —
S&w • fill • tci • misfrcrc • met •
0iaUv * Dei • memento • mei.
The heart thus introduced is generally considered to be indicative
of a vow accomplished ; but with what degree of accuracy I am
unable to affirm. It sometimes is placed at an angle of the slab,
to which a figure is attached; as in the memorial of the coped
priest at Hitchin, in this county ^.
Another singular variety of brasses consists of emaciated figures
and skeletons, usually represented as enveloped in winding-sheets.
Several of these painfully truthful emblems of human nothingness
occur in the church of the last-named town of Hitchin : and in
other places they are by no means of rare occurrence. The skele-
ton, as the figurative impersonation of death, is also occasionally
introduced: thus, at Biggleswade, A.D. 1482, in the mutilated
* See at p. 103, a figure of this brass: the heart at one upper angle of the slab
remains, but the other is lost.
MISCELLANEOUS BRASSES. 125
brass of Archdeacon Rudyng, the gristly image of the king of
terrors, armed with several spears, with one of which he is pre-
paring to strike, is holding a dialogue with his victim : the sen-
tences of this dialogue are very curious, and are executed alter-
nately in letters incised and worked in relief y. And again in
the "death's-signe brasse" of James Gray, A.D. 1591, park-
keeper at Hunsdon, in this county, the same form appears : the
figure of a man is here depicted, as shooting with a cross-bow at a
stag, while death at the same moment is striking the shooter with
Effigies in brasses are usually represented as recumbent, and in
the attitude of supplication. Some few examples, however, are
designed to convey the idea of standing figures : and again in the
sixteenth century, it was customary to place the figures as if kneel-
ing, and that for the most part at faldstools, or small desks. In
this latter case, the principal personages generally appear face to
face, instead of one beside the other ,• and the children, in place
of being arranged beneath their parents, according to the previous
custom, are introduced behind them, the boys behind the father,
and the girls behind the mother ^. In accordance with a conven-
tional habit of expression, children are uniformly represented of
comparatively diminutive stature, even though themselves grown
to maturity at the time of their parents' decease ^. It will also be
found that, where two or more families have been united, a dis-
y Besides the skeleton figure andthe in- of Waltham, who died A.D. 1475. In
scription in this brass, one side of a border- altar- tombs, which are themselves sur-
fiUet with its legend remains, together with mounted by sculptured effigies, small
a crescent on a roundel, and a strange de- figures of the children and friends of the
vice of two angels bearing the head of the deceased are frequently introduced; they
Baptist in a charger: all the other portions occupy niches worked in the sides of the
of the composition have been torn from the tomb, and produce an admirable effect,
slab, which is ofunusually large dimensions. One of the children of Lady Montacute,
'^ The children in the Flemish speci- upon her tomb in Oxford cathedral, is
mens at All-hallows, Barking, and St. episcopally vested : and another wears the
Mary's Quay, Ipswich, are exceptions to costume of an abbess, and holds a pastoral
this general arrangement. staff. This is in strict accordance with the
» In the brass of VV^illiam Lucas and regular practice, to represent the children
family at Wenden Lofts, Essex, c. A.D. of the deceased, as dressed in accordance
1450, one of the children appears habited with their several callings and stations in
in episcopal vestments ; this probably was life,
designed to represent John Lucas, abbot
tinctive position is carefully assigned to the children of the respec-
tive families. Where a husband and wife are depicted in the same
composition, numerous examples occur in which the female, con-
trary to the more regular usage, is placed on the right hand of the
male effigy : this arrangement has been supposed to indicate that
the lady was an heiress^. Brasses are occasionally found which
exhibit the effigies of a husband and two wives, or even three :
and sometimes the same wife appears associated with a first and a
second husband. Brasses to the memory of children but rarely
occur : Cotman has figured three in his work : of these one repre-
sents two infants, John and E-oger Yelverton, A.D. 1510, at Roug-
ham, Norfolk ; the figures are in swaddling-clothes, and are placed
beneath a canopy, the whole being engraved on one plate '=. At
Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the brass of John Shorland, who died A.D.
1601, aged seven years. And at Blickling, Norfolk, a third brass
commemorates Anna, the youthful daughter of Sir William Boleyn,
aunt of the unfortunate queen who afterwards bore her name : the
figure in this brass is simple and interesting, and the inscription
curious from the circumstance of its specifying the exact age of the
deceased to have been three years, eleven months, and thirteen
days : she died A.D. 1477.
The Canopies very commonly placed in brasses about the persons
of the engraven effigies, exhibit an almost infinite variety of design,
and abound in admirable details. The earliest specimens are pedi-
mental in form, and without subdivision into compartments'^ : they
rise from slender shafts, and their inner foliation is bold and simple:
but subsequently they appear double, triple, and even quadruple,
with tall and slender pinnacles, and the outlines of the canopies
themselves are adapted to the graceful sweeps of the ogee-arch;
and at the same time, their foliation becomes more elaborate, and
•> In the fine brass of Sir Thomas and Norfolk, Ann, wife of Thomas Asteley,
Lady Burton, A.D. 1382, at Little Cas- A.D. 1512, is represented as holding on
terton, Rutland, the legend records the either arm an infant similarly enveloped
effigy of the lady to be placed on the left in swaddling-clothes,
side of her husband: "Dna Margeria ^ See figure of canopy of Joan, Lady
UXOR SUA, IN EJUS siNisTRis." Cobham, at p. 82.
•= At Blickling, in the same county of
\ «-^«* ® ^ « * & 5^ S * 4- * 'K\/f_ « ■«! •& . *. _& « tft 5} * Sf t? 55 x?/. '"'
The sides of this canopy are only partially represented, from want of space : in the original, the canopy rises,
from the foot^legend, and completely encloses the figures.
The shields of arms here introduced, are Camoys, argent, on a chief, gules, three plates : and Mortimer,
azure, three bars, or, an inescutcheon, argent : on a chief, of the first, two palets, between as many gyrons,
of the second.
FragineQt of Canopy, Berkbampstead, Herts
Brass of K. Toning ion, A.D. 1319.
the groined soffits of the un-
der arches are often shewn
in perspective. In these
canopies, the crockets and
finials and other details are
usually characterised by great
elegance. In place of finials,
small figures were in some
instances introduced : these
may be generally regarded
as representing the patron
saints of the person comme-
morated, or having some
special allusion to the church
in which the brass was laid
down. Shields of arms were
sometimes placed immediately below the finials of lofty canopies,
and thus impart to the design great richness of eflfect : good exam-
ples of this occur in the brasses of Brian Uouclyff, A.D. 1494, at
Cowthorpe, Yorkshire, and of Humphey Oker, at
Oakover, Staffordshire : the arms emblazoned on
the shield here drawn from the latter brass are
Oker, ermine, on a chief, gules, three bezants,
impaling argent, a fesse and in chief three lozen-
ges, sable. The brasses of Alianore de Bohun
and Abbot Esteney, in Westminster abbey, and
of the Swynbornes at Little Horkesley, afford
beautiful examples of the clustered pinnacles in-
troduced with such happy effect into these com-
positions ^ : and, on the other hand, in the brasses
of John Corp, A.D. 1391, at Stoke Fleming,
Devon; of Sir William Calthorpe, A.D. 1420, at
Burnham Thorp, Norfolk ; and of Dr. John Blod-
well, A.D. 1465, at Balsham, Cambridgeshire, we have specimens
of embattled canopies : and again in the fine brasses of Thomas
Lord Camoys and his lady, at Trotton, Sussex, A.D. 1424, and of
Shield of Anns on a
e See p. 1.
Thomas Cranley, archbishop of DubUn,
A.D. 1417, at New college, Oxford, both
varieties of canopy are introduced ^ ; in
these compositions the embattled member
of the canopy surmounts the pinnacles,
which are clustered immediately above
the effigies. Perhaps the canopy of most
elaborate beauty known to exist amongst
brasses of English workmanship, is that of
Prior Thomas Nelond, A.D. 1433, at Cow-
fold, Sussex; to which the fragments of
the canopy of Abbot Stoke, A.D. 1462,
in our abbey-church, bear, as far as they
yet remain, so striking a resemblance :
amongst the other enrichments of these
admirable works of art, a species of arch-
buttress springs with the happiest eflPect,
from the outer to the interior members of
the composition s.
It must be borne in mind that canopies, like the effigies with
which they are associated, are almost invariably designed to con-
vey the idea of being placed in a recumbent position : and hence,
as in the brass of Abbot Esteney of Westminster, they frequently
occur without any basement. These canopies, indeed, are really
engraven representations of the similar accessories, worked in rehef
about the heads and persons of sculptured recumbent effigies ; such
as in the contract for the tomb of King Richard II. and his queen,
are specified as "tabernacles, called hovels, with gabletz :" and these,
though designed to serve the same purpose as erect canopies placed
over statues, stiU so far differ from them, as to be intentionally
adapted to the recumbent position of the monumental effigy.
Fragment of Canopy of Abbot Scoke.
A .D. 1462. Abbey obuxcb of St. Alban.
' The canopy of Bishop Hallum at Con-
stance exhibits another admirable example
of the same beautiful arrangement. See
s Several other fine specimens of cano-
pies will be found specified in the appended
list of choice brasses.
As in other particulars, a gradual de-
basement is observable in the canopies
depicted in brasses, as the fifteenth century
drew towards its close : and in the century
following they, for the most part, cease to
possess any interest or value.
Arms ofGrimston, AD. 1699
MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS. 129
A shield of arms, or a monogram accompanied
by an inscription, is frequently found to consti-
tute the entire memorial : two good specimens
of this style of brass occur in the church at
Eishangles near Eye, in Suffolk, to the memory
of Sir Edward Grimston, and Edward his son ;
the former was governor of Calais when that town
was captured by the French, and died A. D. 1599.
Both of these inscriptions are very singular compositions^.
Monograms are commonly introduced into various parts of more
elaborate compositions : sometimes they appear as personal decora-
tions, as on the hip-belt of Sir Robert Swynborne ; sometimes they
occur in the spandrels of canopies, and occasionally on separate
shields or roundels.
The shields of arms, personal devices, and official badges intro-
duced into brasses, contribute greatly to heighten the effect of the
engraven plates, as well as to augment their historical importance.
These it will be well in all cases to stud}? with especial care. Armo-
rial insignia appear in monumental brasses, not only upon shields,
but also emblazoned upon the surcoat, jupon, or tabard of nobles,
knights, and gentlemen ; and, what certainly does seem somewhat
" These inscriptions are as follows : —
EDWARD GRIMESTON THE FATHER OF RISANGLIS
ESQVIER, DIED 17 MARCHE 1599.
By twice two kings and qveenes his life was grac't,
Yet one relligion held from first to last,
IVSTICE and TRVTH HE LOV'D, AND COMMON GOOD,
No LESSE THEN TH' ISSVE OF HIS PRIVAT-BLOODE.
His yeares more then himselfe, did others please.
For covncell and discovrse of warre and peace.
His life was rvle to lives, his death a mirror.
One felt noe vaine care, nor the other terror.
EDWARD GRIMESTON, THE SONNE OF BRADFEILD
ESQVIER, DIED . 16. AVGVST 1610.
The SONNE paied to his father's parts increase
WiTTIE AND wise HE WAS, VSD LAWE FOR PEACE
What first he chvs'd for good he changed never.
His care was temperate, his zeale fervent ever,
And theise fayer gifts y' heaven his powers did give.
Did make the father in the sonne to lyve
Wher trvth hath writt that envie cannot blot,
The name of Grimeston cannot be forgott.
strange, upon the dresses of ladies.
In the latter case, the arms of
the lady's own family were embroi-
dered upon her kirtle, and those
of her husband upon her mantle
or outer garment : or, the two
coats of arms were impaled upon
the same garment, generally the
outer. The example from Long
Melford church, Suffolk, exhibits
upon the mantle the arms of Clop-
ton, a family for a long period the
lords of Melford; and on the kir-
tle, those of Francis. And the
brass of EHzabeth, wife of John
Shelley, Esq., A.D. 1526, at Clapham,
Sussex, exemplifies the impalement
on the mantle of the arms of Shel-
ley and Michelgrove: John Shel-
ley himself bears upon a tabard his
armorial insignia, sable, a fesse en-
grailed, or, between three welk shells,
argent, for shelley K When shields of
arms are introduced into the compo-
sition of a monumental brass, it is
a common arrangement to place each coat upon a separate shield,
and also the same coats impaled or quartered upon other shields.
The same shield is frequently repeated : and the arms of several
branches of a family no less frequently associated with those of the
individuals specially commemorated. The shields of arms in brasses
are often so arranged as to appear suspended from the canopy, as
in the noble brasses of Alianor de Bohun, in Westminster abbey,
and of the Swynbornes at Little Horkesley''. Various devices were
Lady of the Clopton family. Melford Chivroh,
Sufifolk, c A.D 1480.
' This is an instance of the class of arms
called canting or allusive. The figure of
the lady in this brass will be found en-
graved in an advertisement appended to
this volume. This brass, besides the two
effigies and a very complete foot-legend,
also contains a curious emblematical group,
designed to indicate the blessed Trinity;
and also four shields of arms.
^ See p. L
resorted to, with a view to render these heraldic accessories essen-
tially component members of the main composition. From the
brass of Margarete de Camoys, A.D. 1310, at Trotton, Sussex, a
series of small shields have recently been abstracted, with which
originally the robe of the lady in this most interesting and valuable
memorial was semee : their loss is to be the more regretted, " not
only because they were doubtless enamelled, but as a very singular
specimen of costume ; for this is the only sepulchral brass" known
to have presented "this peculiar feature of ornament; and it would
have been deserving of attention to ascertain whether the bearing
thus introduced were her own arms (Gatesden), those of Camoys,
her first, or Paynel her second husband." Mr. Hollis has figured
in his work on Monumental Effigies, a sculptured effigy of a lady
of the Cliff'ord family, in Worcester cathedral, whose flowing mantle
is thus semee of small shields, each bearing the arms of Clifford,
chequy, or and azure, a fesse gules. The surcoat of William de
Valence, earl of Pembroke, A.D. 1296, in Westminster abbey, was
originally decorated after the same fashion with a profusion of
small enamelled shields, of which now three only remain, though
the situation and number of those gone may easily be traced. This
appears to have been a mode of decoration commonly practised in
French monuments, but rarely occurring in this coun-
try ; or rather, here restricted to memorials of French
design and workmanship.
In the fine brass at West Griustead to the memory
of Sir Hugh Halsham and his lady, between the finials
of the canopy which surmounts the effigies, were three
banners of arms, of which the central one now alone
remains ; it is charged with, quarterly, first and fourth,
argent, a chevron engrailed, between three leopard's
faces, gules, for Halsham ; and second and third, paly
of six, or and sable, for Strabolgy, earl of Athol.
Arms of rank or office also appear: thus, at Saw-
bridgeworth, the Leventhorpes, as tenants of a royal
manor, and servants of the crown, have the royal
arms in connection with their own arms upon their
brasses. And again at Twickenham, in Middlesex,
Banner of Arms,
Richard Burton, A.D. 1443, chief cook to the king, also bears the
royal arras. In the brass of Brian RouclyflF, A.D. 1494, at Cow-
thorpe, Yorkshire, where several shields of arms are introduced,
scrolls charged with the names of the bearers of each coat are placed
above each shield.
Crests generally appear, as they were actuallj'- worn, upon the
helmet, which, in brasses, constantly forms the pillow of the recum-
bent warrior. In some examples, however, they are placed above
the shields of arms, especially towards the close of the fifteenth
century, when regular achievements of arms, consisting of shield,
helmet, mantling, and crest, were introduced, as in the brasses of
Sir John Say, and Sir Peter Legh : in these achievements the
shield is usually set diagonally.
Besides the more regular heraldic insignia commonly found in
brasses, the Marks of merchants form a curious series of personal
cognizances, occupying similar positions. These marks, originally
adopted as distinctive signs to be stamped upon bales of merchan-
dise, were speedily assumed in place of armorial bearings, then
refused to all persons engaged in commerce : they seem usually
designed to convey some rude idea of a ship's mast and flag, in
combination or connection with a monogram or initials : the ex-
ample annexed is taken from the brass of Thomas Pownder at
Ipswich. Two other shields, one or other of which generally accom-
panies a merchant's mark, are those of the merchants of the Staple
at Calais, and of the Merchants Adventurers or Hamburgh mer-
Merchanf s Mark, B)-a53 of
Thomas Pownder, St. Mary Quay
Church, Ipswich, A.D. 15J5.
QS of Men han;s of the Staple, Arms of iierchants Adventurers,
ass of John Feld , A D 1474. Brass of Andrew Evyngar, c. A D.
Standon Church, Herts. 1536 AU-haUows. Barking, London.
chants : the former company were incorporated by Edward III., and
MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS. 133
their arms, as in allusion to the naval supremacy of Britain, were
harry nebulee of six, argent, and azure, on a chief, gules, a lion of
England: the first incorporation of the Merchants Adventurers took
placeA.D. 1296, the 24th of Edward I.; and this society subsequently
obtained ample privileges from Queen Elizabeth, together with a
confirmation of their original charter; they bore, harry nebulee of
six, argent and azure, a chief quarterly, gules and or, on the first
and fourth quarters a lion passant, gold, and on the second and
third two roses of the third, barbed, vert. The arms of corporate
towns, or of the London mercantile companies are also found : thus
Pownder bears the arms of the borough of Ipswich, Evyngar those
of the Salters' company ; John Clarke, at St. Andrew's, Norwich,
has the arms of the Mercers' companj'^; and on the brass of another
civilian at Luton, Bedfordshire, are the curious arms of the Mer-
chant Tailors : and again at St. John's Madderraarket, Norwich,
in the fine brass of John Terri, the arms of the Merchants Adven-
turers are impaled with those of the Mercers' company, in the
chief of the shield, while in base are emblazoned the mark and
initials of John Terri '.
Collars frequently occur in military brasses : they were worn bv
nobles, and knights bannerets ; and also by every officer of the
rank of esquire in the royal household, whether employed in a
military or civil capacity, previous to the reign of Henry VIIL,
when it was enacted that no person, unless he were a knight,
should wear a collar of gold. Next to the Garter itself, the most
celebrated knightly decoration of this class is the collar of SS.
introduced by King Henry IV., apparently as a memorial of the
success with which his aspiring ambition had been crowned : this
letter S, repeated either in links of gold, or in gold embroidery
worked upon a fillet of blue, is the initial of the word "Souveraine,"
Henry's motto, which he bore while earl of Derby, and which, as
he afterwards became sovereign, appeared auspicious. It was in
' Another shield in this brass is charged this company, incorporated A.D. 1394,
with the ancientarmsofthe city of Norwich, the 17th of Richard II., bear, gules, a
gules, a castle triple-towered, argent, in demi-virgin, her head dishevelled, vested
base a lion of England. At Worstead, in and crowned, or, wreathed about the brows
Norfolk, a merchant's mark appears im- with roses, and issuing from an orle of
paling the arms of the Mercers' company: clouds, proper.
exact keeping with the heraldic usage of the time, thus to adapt
the monogram of the king to the purpose of chivah-ous decoration:
nor was it less characteristic of the politic Henry, to render a deco-
ration of honour a distinctive badge of adherence to the House of
Lancaster. This collar appears to have been usually secured in
front by an enriched trefoil-shaped clasp, attached to the collar
itself by buckles : it is thus worn by Sir Thomas Swynborne ">.
I CollarofSS. Sir John Drayton.
A.D. 1411. Dorcheater. Oxon.
Collar of Suns and Rosea. Countess of
Essex, A.D. 1483. Easton, Essex.
This decoration was worn by ladies of rank, as well as by their
lords, particularly such as were personally attached to the court : it
appears, for example, on the brasses of Lady Peryent at Digswell,
and of Lady Bagot at Baginton ". Another collar, also worn by the
distinguished of both sexes, consists of roses alternating with suns,
in allusion to the well-known Yorkist badge, the rose-en-soleil,
adopted by Edward VI. after the battle of Mortimer's Cross,
A.D. 1461 : to the clasp of this collar, the white lion of the House
of Marche was commonly attached. This collar appears in the
brass of Sir Anthony de Grey, at St. Alban's ; and at Little Easton,
Essex, it is worn, in their brasses, by both the earl and countess of
Essex o. A third collar, composed simply of roses, in colour either
■" See p. 55.
To the late lamented artist, Charles
Alfred Stothard, we are indebted for the
judicious remark, which assigned to the
motto of Henry Bolinbroke the device dis-
played in the Lancastrian collar of SS.
Sculptured effigies wearing the collar of
SS. are of frequent occurrence : in Mr.
Stothard's noble work, are figured six
effigies of knights, and three of ladies, thus
decorated. The effigy of John Gower at
St. Saviour's, Southwark, also appears with
this same decoration, having hanging from
the clasp a swan.
n See pp. 56, 61.
° See pp. 73, 76.
The suns and roses in this collar are fre-
quently linked by some personal device of
the wearer: thus, the oak-leaves of the
house of Arundel appear used for this pur-
pose in the collar worn by tlie countess of
Arundel, in her sculptured effigy. The
original usage, thus exemplified, of assign-
ing knightly decorations to the ladies of
knights, who themselves had received these
insignia of honour, receives a further very
Collar of Mermaids, brass of Thomas,
Lord Berkeley, A.D. 1417. Wotton,
G louce stershire .
white or red, was worn by the respective partizans of the great
rival houses identified with these badges. And so also collars of
suns only were sometimes worn, as by Robert Colt, Esq., and his
lady, A.D. 1475, at Roydon, Essex. Pri-
vate personal badges were also occasion-
ally adopted in their collars by knights ;
as in the very fine brass at Wotton-under-
Edge, Gloucestershire, of Thomas, Lord
Berkeley, who wears over his camail a
collar of mermaids, one of the cognizances of the Berkeley family p
Knights of the Garter appear decorated with the
insignia of that most illustrious order. Thus with
many others. Sir Simon de Felbrigge, A.D. 1413, at
Felbrigg, and Thomas Baron Camoys, A.D. 1424, at
Trotton, wear the garter buckled round the left knee :
Sir Thomas BuUen, at Hever, A.D. 1538, is also
habited in the mantle, collar, and hood of the order.
Occasionally devices, expressive of some personal oenouiu
office or distinction, appear introduced in brasses
thus the small figure of a knight, of about the date A.D. 1480,
exhibits a crown or coronet placed upon the left shoulder : this
brass having lost its accompanying inscription, and being itself
now removed from its original position which cannot be ascertained,
it can only be conjectured that the person thus represented was a
keeper of the regalia : and this conjecture is strengthened from
the circumstance of a somewhat similar specimen having been
observed at Slapton, Bucks; in this brass the effigies are those
of a civilian and his two wives, and these are accompanied by an
inscription which declares " James Tornay, late keeper of the crown
to Kyng Henry VIIL," to have deceased in the year 1519*1. This
Lord Camoys, A.D.
remarkable illustration in the fine eflBgy of
Margaret, wife of Sir Robert Harcourt,
K.G., who died A.D. 1471, now preserved
in the church at Stanton-Harcourt, in
Oxfordshire : this lady about her left arm
wears the garter ensigned with the motto,
precisely in accordance with the fashion
adopted by her present most gracious
majesty, as sovereign of the order.
P See p. 56.
1 In Sir J. Cullum's collection of rub-
bings of brasses in the British Museum, is
a third effigy of a crown-keeper, but with-
out any notice of the place where the ori-
ginal was laid down.
136 MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS.
same badge again appears upon the shoulder of Thomas Noke,
A.D. 1567, at Shottesbroke ; and here the legend explains this
appendage to have resulted from the said Thomas having been
" made yoman of the crowne of England." I have already noticed *
the brass of Sir Symon Felbrygge, A.D. 1413, who, in token of his
office of standard-bearer to the king, bears the royal banner of
The animals which so very generally are placed at the feet of
effigies, whether sculptured in relief or engraven on plates of metal,
represent, in many instances, personal badges of the families of the
deceased : thus the brass of Lord Beaumont has the elephant, the
earl of Essex the eagle, and the earl of Warwick the bear. And
sometimes a rebus of the name is expressed : as by the rabbit on
the brass of Walter Colney, late at Lynn, and the fox on the brass
of Sir John Foxley. This explanation, however, has reference to
but a few isolated specimens ; figures of a lion or a dog being
those which occur in the great majority of examples. A knight
has generally a lion, sometimes a dog : ecclesiastics have generally
a lion : while at the feet of ladies a dog, with a collar of bells, or
sometimes two dogs are placed. Cotman has recorded it as the
opinion of Mr. Dawson Turner that the lion is here meant to be
the type of strength and courage, qualities of course inherent in
every true knight, and in like manner also under certain modifica-
tions, in every faithful ecclesiastic ; while the dog indicates atten-
tion and fidelity, ^^rtues inseparable from the female character. In
every case, the dog may also typify the same amiable and admirable
qualities. There yet remain some few brasses which contain figures
difficult, if not impossible satisfactorily to explain : such are the
strange devices in the great Lynn and Newark brasses, and some
Personal devices are sometimes introduced, emblazoned as
charges upon shields, as sculptured accessories in canopy-work,
or as ornaments of dress : thus, as I have before noticed, in the
brass of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, at Little Easton, Essex,
the mantling of the helmet is semee of water-bougets, — the badge
of the Bourchier family : and again, in the remains of a brass to
■■ See p. 63.
the memory of anotlier member of the same family, Sir Hum-
phrey Bourchier, A.D. 1470, in Westminster abbey, the Bourchier
knot is repeatedly introduced. Other accessories of a kindred
nature are the Evangelistic Emblems, which commonly are placed
within quatrefoils at the angles of brasses : these, the angel, the
winged lioli, the winged ox, and the eagle, are severally the em-
KMBLEMS OF EVANGELISTS. WALSOKNF, BRASS, LYNN, AD. 1449,
blems of St. MattheAv, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. Jolm^ In
place of these emblems, shields of arms are often introduced in late
brasses at the angles of the composition : these shields are, like the
emblems, usually encompassed by a quatrefoil. Another singular
^ The figures in tliese emblems usually
hold scrolls, as if designed to be severally
inscribed with the names of the evange-
lists : this, however, is but rarely found to
have been done, the scrolls being in most
examples quite plain. In the brass of
Provost Hacumblene, A.D. 1528, at King's
college chapel, Cambridge, these scrolls
are thus inscribed. As figures of the
apostles often appear in brasses, either in
canopies, or in the embroidered apparels of
copes, it may be well hereto insert the em-
blems by which they may be severally dis-
tinguished : — St. Peter, a key or two keys ;
St. Andrew, a cross saltire (X) ; St. John, a
chalice and serpent ; St. James the Great,
a pilgrim's staff and wallet, &c. ; St. Philip,
a Tau-cross (T) ; St. Bartholomew, a knife ;
St. Thomas, an arrow or spear ; St. James
the Less, a fuller's bat; St Matthew, a
money-box for the receipt of tribute ;
St. Matthias, a hatchet or battle-axe;
St. Simon, a saw; St. Jude, a club. The
emblems of St. Paul are a sword and book :
he is generally associated with St. Peter in
monumental engraving and sculpture. In
allusion to his learning, St. Paul is usually
designated "the apostle and doctor," —
"doctor populor : " and St. Peter is
apostrophized as " clavg celor," claviger
ceelonim, because, says the Golden Legend,
"he receyved of our lord y* keyes of y^
kyngedom of heven."
emblem which sometimes occurs, and is designed to indicate the
doctrine of the blessed Trinity, is best ex-
plained by the accompanying figure, drawn
from the brass of Prior Nelond, A.D. 1433,
at Cowfold. The same great truth is also
typified after a manner far less objectionable,
in a group consisting of an aged figure hold -
ing a crucifix, over which a dove is hovering *.
The sacred monogram I.H.C., or as, at a later
period, it was written I.H.S., is also of fre-
quent occurrence in brasses, in which it occupies very diversified
positions, forming at one time an ornament upon the hilt of the
knight's sword, or engraven on the brow of his bascinet, while at
other times it appears worked upon the morse of the ecclesiastic's
cope, or sculptured in the spandrels of a canopy.
Founders and benefactors of churches are usually depicted as
bearing a model of the edifice, which had been indebted to their
munificence : interesting specimens of this no less appropriate than
expressive usage occur in the brasses of Sir John Cobham, at
Cobham, Kent^; of Brian E/Ouclyff and lady, Cowthorpe, York-
shire; and of a civilian, c. A.D. 1490, at North Creak, Norfolk.
The circumstance of brasses being laid down to the memory of a
deceased husband or wife by the survivor, sometimes produced
curious results : for, in the original composition the figure of the
survivor as well as of the deceased was almost invariably introduced,
and in the inscription spaces were left for the purpose of being
subsequently filled up with the date of the survivor's decease.
Sometimes, however, it occurred that the survivor was buried in
some other spot, and thus the engraved effigy does not mark the
' See p. 119, and note (q) at tliat page.
Speaking of this same device, Mr. Bloxam
remarks, (Gothic Architecture, edition 7,
p. 277,) that " some of the symbolical
sculptures of the middle ages were intro-
duced at a comparatively late period : for
instance, the conventional representation
of the blessed Trinity, in which the Al-
mighty, He Whom eye hath not seen, is
personified in the likeness of fallen man,
(a practice which cannot but be con-
demned,) in sculpture was not met with
earlier than the fifteenth century, though
in illuminations and drawings it appears so
early as the twelfth." It must be noted
that in the cut at the head of this page,
the letters do not resemble those in the
" See p. 53.
actual place of interment, and the legend remains incomplete.
And occasionally, in consequence of a second marriage, the sur-
vivor of the first marriage was depicted a second time in a brass
laid down over the actual place of interment : a singular example
of the existence of two brasses, each containing an engraved effigy
of the same individual, and thus exhibiting the same person in the
costume of two consecutive periods, is noticed in vol. ii. of the
Archaeological Journal''. Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Blener-
Duke, A.D. 1561.
Anne Kede, A.D. 1677
haysett, the lady thus doubly commemorated, first married George
Duke, Esq., on whose decease, A.D. 1551, her efiigy with that of
^ Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 21C.
From this interesting article by the Rev.
William Drake, the .statements in the text
are derived: and the two wood-cuts are
also supplied from the same source by the
kindness of the Committee of the Archaeo-
her husbaud was laid down in Frense church, Norfolk : here she
appears in a long-waisted dress, with tight sleeves terminating in
mitten-shaped cuffs ; a pediraental head-dress; and having attached
to a girdle a rosary and an aulmoniere. Anne Duke afterwards
married Peter Kede, Esq., whom also she survived nine years, and
A.D. 1577, was buried by his side in the church of St. Margaret,
Norwich, where her effigy appears upon an altar-tomb, accom-
panied by a legend which sets forth her two marriages, and that
she "Departed y* lyfe ye xvj day of Aprill in yere from
Christes incarnacion 1577." "In this second brass she is re-
presented not as a widow, but with the French-hood ; a small ruff
appears round her neck, and little frilled wrist-bands under her
sleeves, which fit closely to the arms, and are tied with a number
of small bows of riband; they are also padded and high-shouldered,
according to an ungraceful fashion of the times of Elizabeth :
and in front, as if appended to her girdle, appears an oval or-
nament of rather disproportionate size,
which was either one of those portable
mirrors, termed Venice steel-glasses, or a
box of goldsmith^s work, intended to con-
tain a pomander, or other perfumes. The
difference in costume caused by a lapse of
twenty-six years between the first and
second effigy, is very remarkable, and it
is a proof how closely the artist in such a
case followed the fashion of the period at
which the brass was executed."
Figures of saints sometimes constitute
the entire, or at least the greater part of,
the composition in brasses : thus at Wyke,
Hants, the figure of St. Christopher is en-
graved to commemorate, with an accom-
panying legend^, William and Agnes Com-
^ This legend is as follows : — •
Here lieth will'm Complyn, Agnes his
wife, yfi whiche will'm decessid y^ xxj day
of may y^ yere of oure Lord m.c.c.c.c-
Ixxxxviij. Also this be y*^ dedis y* y^ said
will'm hath down to this Church of Wike
yt is to say frest dedycacion of y^ Church
xP and to make newe bellis to y^ sam
plyn, A. D. 1498 : and at Upper Hardress, Kent, in the brass of John
Strete, rector, A.D. 1405, the figures of St. Peter and St. Paul
are introduced above the kneeling efFigy of the rector himself. In
some late examples also, representations of the resurrection of our
Lord, or some other important events recorded in Holy Writ, are
introduced; as at Alton Priors, Wilts, in the brass of Agnes Bul-
ton, A.D. 1528.
Personal peculiarities or bodily infirmities are occasionally com-
memorated : thus, at Ingoldmells, on the coast of Lincolnshire, is
the small brass of a civilian having by his side a crutch or walking-
stick, and who, in the accompanying legend, is described as " Wil-
liam Palmer wyth y*^ stylt," who died A.D. 1520. At Berk-
hampstead in this county an example occurs, in which the disease
which proved fatal to the person commemorated is specified.
Inscriptions, if not so interesting as the figures with which
they usually are connected, are always valuable ; and that no less
from their general characteristics of style, composition and letter-
ing, than because of the direct information which it may be their
special province to convey. The earliest inscriptions engraven to
accompany incised monumental memorials in brass or latten, were
worked in separate metallic letters, each inserted in a distinct
casement or cavity, sunk in the face of the marble-slab, and so
arranged between very narrow fillets also of metal, as to form an
oblong border to the entire composition : the angles are quite
plain; the language is Norman French; and the character Uncial
or Longobardic. The usual form of inscription merely indicates
the name and title of the deceased, with a brief pious ejaculation or
consolatory sentiment, to which sometimes is added the year in which
the person commemorated died ; and the whole is generally couched
in rhyme. In the middle of the fourteenth century, the same cha-
racter and style of record appear in Latin inscriptions, engraven
upon and not between fillets of metal, which have at the angles the
evangelistic emblems, and also are sometimes further enriched by
Church x' also gave to y* halloyeng of y'= Church vjs. viijd, on whos soules ihu haue
grettest bell vj^. viij'i. and for ye testi- mercy . Amen,
monyall' of the dedicacion of y' sam
shields of arms or monograms encompassed by quatrefoils. In the
Newark and Topdiff Flemish brasses, the border legends are not
written in capitals. And towards the close of this same century,
the fourteenth, the Black-letter character is found generally to have
superseded the more dignified Longobardic, and the legends them-
selves, whether in Norman- French or Latin, convey after the name
of the deceased a more detailed enumeration of his offices, and the
precise date of his death; to which, as before, some invocation suc-
ceeds. It is by no means uncommon for the date at this period
to be expressed partly in capital letters, and partly at length in
words : thus on the curious brass of Bishop Wyvil, in Salisbury
cathedral, A.D. 1375, the prelate is recorded to have deceased
Anno Dni Millio ccclxxv.
Sometimes the dominical letter is added to the year : this occurs
in the brasses of Ealph de Knevynton, A.D. 1370, at Aveley,
Essex, and of John de Bettesthorne, A.D. 1390, founder of the
chantry in which he lies buried at St. Michael- in-Mere, Wilts :
these inscriptions severally conclude thus, — "Obitus idem die
JOUIS ANTE FESTU SCI NlCHOLAI EpISCOPI ANNO DNI MILLMO
ccc. Lxx. Lra dmcal. F^'; and "qui obiit 6° die Februarii
Anno Dni, m.ccc.lxxxxviij . Litera dominicaljs, E, cujus
ANiME," &c. The computation by calends, &c., is also occasionally
found : thus at Little Casterton, Rutland, A.D. 1382J Sir Thomas
Burton is recorded to have deceased, " Calendas Augusti.'^
And again twenty years later at Hurstmonceaux, Sussex, in the very
fine brass of Sir William Fienes, the form of expression, in specify-
ing the date, is as follows: — "William Fienes Chevaler, qu
MORAIT LE XVIIJ JOUR DE JaNEUIER L^ AN DE INCARNACON NRE
Seigneur Jheu Cryst Mile ccccij, jist ycy, dieu de sa alme
Mr. Markland well remarks, that epitaphs " of early date, though
often tinged with superstition, were striking and solemn, and
flowed naturally from the faith they professed. They expressed
also deep humility, a feeling that posterity would have done well
to cherish \" For example, we continually find at this period such
' Markland's Remarks, Ed. 3. p. 141.
sentences as follow, engraven upon that class of monumental me-
morials now under consideration, —
Dne • Deus • sedm • actu • mem • noli • me • judicare.
Pili Dei miserere mei.
Suscipiat me Christus qui vocavit me.
In sinu Abrahe Angeli deducant me.
In the fifteenth century the inscriptions, invariably written in
Black letter, are still more diffuse, while in many instances orna-
mental devices are introduced between each word of the legend ^ :
the letters are often cut in relief: and scrolls, each bearing some
brief sentence, issue from the mouth of the figure, or are re-
peated in various parts of the design ^ : the border-fillets sometimes
are omitted, and the sole inscription is placed at the foot of the
effigy ; while in other examples distinct inscriptions occur in both
positions. Now the date is entirely conveyed in capital letters :
the ordinary language is Latin, with occasional examples of Nor-
man-French and also of English early in the century"^, which latter
a These devices consist of leaves and words jesus and mercy, and they amount
animals in the earlier examples ; but sub- to no less a number than thirty. Again,
sequently heraldic charges were introduced at a later period, A.D. 1531, in the church
in similar positions. The brass of Sir John of Yetminster, Dorset, the same enrich-
Cassy is an example of this mode of deco- ment appears in the memorial of Sir John
ration : so also is the fragment at St. Horsey and his lady.
Alban's, figured at p. 148. The same •= An early example of an English legend
practice was continued in the succeeding occurs in the brass of Sir Thomas Walsh
century, as appears from the brasses of and lady, A.D. 1393, at Wanlip, Leicester-
Lord Beaumont, A.D. 1507, at Wivenhoe, shire; and again in the brasses of Robert
Essex, and of Sir Robert Clere, A.D. 1529, Poyntz and Ann his wife at Iron Acton,
at Ormesby, Norfolk: in the latter ex- Gloucestershire, A.D. 1420, and of Henry
ample a shield of arms is introduced be- Hawles, A.D. 1430, at Arreton in the Isle
tween each word in the border-legend. of Wight. At Northleach, Gloucestershire,
" A remarkable instance of this repe- the brass of J. Fortey, A.D. 1458, has its
tition of small detached scrolls occurs in marginal inscription in English, while at
the brass at Wiston, in Sussex, to the the feet of the figure is a sentence in Latin,
memory of Sir John de Brewys, A.D. 1426, And again, at Luton, Bedfordshire, occurs
where the slab is powdered with these ac- an admixture of the two languages in the
cessories : the scrolls bear alternately the same composition.
language towards its close becomes more frequent ; and sometimes
the Latin and English languages both appear upon the same me-
morial : abbreviations occur in the lettering, particularly in the
customary initiatory and concluding sentences, — " Orate pro
ANiMA," or "animabus," and "quorum anima,'' or "animabus
PROPiciETUR Deus. Amen." — wliicb are written "Orate • p *
aia," or AiBS, and "quo • aia," or "aibs ppiet • Deu • Ame :"
the legends, whether written in Latin or English, are frequently
arranged in rhyme; and short sentential secondary inscriptions
are of common occurrence '^ Where two figures are represented
in the same composition, one common scroll is often found apper-
taining to them both : and it is thus arranged either by having a
double commencement, or by each end of the scroll proceeding from
the respective figures.
In inscriptions of the sixteenth century, though the Latin lan-
guage is retained in the brasses of ecclesiastics, the English tongue
generally prevails : the legends set forth the names, titles, and fre-
quently the family connections of the deceased, with great exact-
ness and minuteness of detail : dates are given at full length in
words, or more generally in figures ; and the year of the reign of
the reigning sovereign is commonly added to the ordinary date, or
sometimes, as twice at Berkhampstead, the year of the reigning
sovereign is the only date specified ^. A new, and somewhat fan-
tastic form of character, the Tudor, supplants the Black letter,
properly so called ; and sometimes the Roman character appears :
abbreviations abound in all parts of the legends, which thus are
occasionally rendered exceedingly obscure ; as a specimen I annex
a fac-simile of the last syllable of the surname of Thomas Pown-
•• An example of such sentences is as toicfe^^rmigr qui obut XFBE W ffefiruarii
follows : —
" Quisguis eris qui trmsierh, sta, perlege, plora. ^ ,g -^tmki FF pOSt COnOUCStU XV 3IE3£°
isumquoa ens, jueram que quodespro meprecor — —
^'' tJut jm^erecaCXXXIX. lEt %" rcgnt
©III ate ppicict Be."
** This custom is occasionally exem-
plified at an earlier period ; as in the hrass ^ ^^y "^^'^ ^^ate that the letters M and
ofEdmondFord, A.D.1439,atSwainswick, ^ will be found very generally elided m
Somersetshire, where the legend is thus abbreviated syllables : and also that capital
expressed: letters, when used, are subjected to no
_ general rule of appropriation.
"©rate p aiaTEDmuDitforfte Be Stoar!nes=
der from his Flemish brass at Ipswich.
Scrolls besides appearing to proceed from
the mouth of the figure^ now are sometimes
held across the person, as at King's college,
Cambridge. Secondary inscriptions convey-
ing sentential expressions, and devotional in-
vocations, still continue in use. Metrical com- Abbreviation of the letter der
positions are also of frequent occurrence. Inscriptions noAv com-
monly begin thus, — " Here under lyeth buried y^ bodye of,"
&c. ; or "Op y"" charyte py for y*^ soule of," &c. : and conclude,
"on whose sowle and all crysten soulis Ihu haue mercy,
In the seventeenth century, the Roman letter was commonly
used in such brasses as were then constructed : and the inscriptions
partook largely in the general debasement of taste and feeling, so
characteristic of the period ^ As Mr. Markland has well observed,
"A marked change in the composition of epitaphs, as well as in
the designs of monuments themselves, took place in the reign of
Henry VIII. They now bore a worldly or adulatory character,
and all that was originally devotional in them," but too generally
" ceased. The one composed by Sir Thomas More for himself, in
1532, and inscribed on his tomb in Chelsea church, may be adduced
as one of the earliest instances of this change of style. It is a con-
cise piece of biography ; comprising some notice of his family, and
of the offices held by his father and himself, and is closed by twelve
Latin verses ; poetry, about this period, being adopted as a favourite
portion of an epitaph. Such also was the epitaph on Sir Francis
Walsingham^s tomb, A.D. 1590, where we have somewhat of an
angry remonstrance with our last enemy; and a victory over death
and the grave is sought to be achieved, not through the only source
pointed out by the apostle, but by the agency of the sculptor and
the poet ^." Inscriptions not unfrequently occur in brasses, which
set forth the person commemorated to have been the builder or
restorer of some part of the church, in which his remains are in-
' A strange, but by no means uncommon English legend some expression in Latin,
habit appears to have prevailed in inscrip- s Markland's Remarks, ed. 3. p. 143.
tions of this era, — that of adding to an
terred : these, particularly when accompanied by a date, are most
valuable, from the evidence they afford illustrative of the various
changes in both the constructive and decorative features of archi-
tectural designs, and of the period when such changes had taken
When brasses are placed upon altar-tombs, the border legends
generally are worked upon fillets of metal inserted in hollows
prepared for their reception in the cornice of the tomb : and thus
they are set sloping, an arrangement producing an excellent eflPect.
The inscription of Alianore de Bohun, A.D. 1399, in Westminster
abbey, is thus placed : it is a good specimen of late Norman-French
monumental composition. It runs thus : —
*^ ®g gist Alianore Dc Uoj&un dsnc ^lle ct un Dcg Jftts a honorable
0cignouc mons p?umpf)rcr» De 33ol^un ©ounte Dc ?^frfforl)c IBcgscj et lie
iaott|)am}3ton ct ©onestablc 33tnglctfre ipcmme a pntg^ant ft noble prince
IZTfjomas lie 2i2loticstofee fi'lg a trcseicellcnt et tresput'gsant grignouc lEtitoavD
3^og Sengletere puig (e conquest txtii, ^\xc le GlouceStre ©ounte SBegiSex et
lie 33ufesnl)ani et ©onestable Sengleterc ©e mourlgt le trei? jour l9octobre
Ian l>u ^race JWil (i^&&3iXXXM Se C^ug alme Dieu face mercg. amen. *^.
This lady, the greatest heiress of her time in England, after the
murder of her husband, retired to the nunnery at Barking in Essex,
and there spent the remainder of her days.
In many brasses, the legends will be found to be incomplete,
the century perhaps being expressed, but the exact year and day of
the decease of the person commemorated being omitted; or two
persons being specified as commemorated by the brass, while there
appears a record of the death of one only. These singular omis-
sions arise, in the former case, from the work having been prepared
during the life-time of the deceased, and never subsequently com-
pleted ; while in the latter, the brass was executed by the survivor,
on whose death the date, before necessarily omitted, was, as in the
other case, suffered to remain unrecorded '.
See Bloxam's Gothic Arclaitecture, to have their own brasses prepared ; and
iidition 7, p. 287. no less common is it now to find those
' It was a common custom for persons portions of the inscription thus necessarily
PALIMPSEST BRASSES. 147
A few brasses have been remarked in wliicli the inscriptions
appear reversed : at llever in Kent, in the brass of Sir Thomas
Boleyn, A.D. 1538, an instance of this occurs, and here the inscrip-
tion plate is fixed above the head of the effigy, and has its legend
reversed : and again in the brass of John Symonds and family at
Cley, Norfolk, 1518, this singular usage is thrice repeated •'.
To one of our vice-presidents, Mr. Albert Way', we are indebted
for the application of the term Palimpsest to denote those brasses
which, from some cause or other having become detached from the
monumental slab, are found to have been engraved on both sides
of the plate. Of the limited number of examples, the reverse of
which is open to inspection, a singularly large proportion appear to
have been a second time engraven : the value of the metal, and
that more particularly when in a form adapted for the operations
of the engraver, doubtless rendering it highly desirable again to
employ a cancelled plate "".
I am inclined to consider that in the earlier palimpsests, the
first engraving was generally rejected on account of some defect of
design or workmanship ; but at a later period, beyond a doubt, we
have in these brasses specimens of a secondary appropriation of
former memorials of the dead. ''A curious example," I quote from
Mr. Way's letter in the Archseologia, of a second engraving " on
the same plate occasioned by some imperfection in the first,"
occurs at St. Margaret's, Rochester, " where the representation of a
vicar of that church," Thomas Cod, " who died A.D. 1465, is found
on both sides of the plate, the only difference being some slight
variations in the ecclesiastical costume; the first having evidently
omitted in the first instance, left incom- similarly reversed.
plate : thus the exact date is wanting in ' The Director of the Society of Anti-
the brass of Bishop Yomig, A.D. 1526, quaries, and Secretary of the Archceo-
in New college chapel, Oxford. And logical Institute of Great Britain and
what is still more remarkable, in the brass Ireland ; and a V. P. of the St. Alban's
of John Balsam, A.D. 1410, at Blisland, Architectural Society.
near Bodmin, Cornwall, the month and ■" Several twice-engraved plates contain
year of his decease are both specified, but a on the reverse Flemish words : these evi-
blank space appears where the day should dently had their original engravings can-
be inserted. celled, for some cause or other, before they
'' The foot-legend in the brass of Brian were imported into this country.
Kouclyff, at Cowthorpe, Yorkshire, is
presented some impropriety
in that respect, for which it
was cancelled, and the figure
given in due form on the other
side. It is described in the
Gentleman's Magazine, De-
cember, 1840. A similar ex-
ample is afforded by the brass
of an ecclesiastic, c. A. D. 1550,
at Burwell, Cambridgeshire :"
this very remarkable brass is
engraven on the one side with
the effigy of an abbot, proba-
bly of Ramsey, c. A.D. 1500,
while on the other side appears
the figure of a priest ; and, as
if to enhance its curiosity, the
reverse of a portion of the ca-
nopy exhibits a part of the
figure of a deacon, of a date
as early as about A.D. 1340.
In our own abbey-church of
St. Alban is a fragment of
another palimpsest, scarcely,
if at all, less interesting : it
displays on the side of the
plate first engraven the lower
part of the figure of a female,
having at her feet a dog with
a collar of bells ; and on the
reverse is the similar portion
of the figure of an ahhot in
pontijicaVihus . The alb with its
apparel at the feet, the stole,
tunic", and chesuble of the
prelate are clearly depicted;
Palimpsest fragment, ScW. St. Albaa's Abbey, o. A.D. 1400.
Palimpsest fragment, St. .ilban's Abbey.
The dalmatic is omitted from the vestments depicted in this curious plate.
and the staff of his pastoral office is encircled by the vexillura
or scarf. Portions of the border-fillet, having between each
word of the legend some strange device ; an evangelistic emblem,
that of St. Luke; and another legend cut in relief at the foot
of the effigy, yet remain. The slab displays the casement or ma-
trix, originally sunk to receive the plates of the entire compo-
sition, in so perfect a state, that I have been induced to figure the
whole, as Avell as the two sides of the palimpsest fragment". I
have already noticed the curious heraldic blazonry which is ex-
hibited on one side of another palimpsest fragment, formerly in
j^alteu wIbmDuttcae[ocitlH out
Palimpsest fragment, late in Trunch Cburoh, Norfolk
Reverse of Palimpsest fragment, late in TruncU Church, Norfolk
Trunch church, Norfolk, but now in private possession p. This
plate appears originally to have formed a portion of some now lost
large Flemish brass, coeval with the works of the first great artist
of that school of brass engraving : and subsequently, towards the
close of the fifteenth century, it appears a second time, bearing on
its reverse some words of an inscription to the memory of Walter
'^ The foot-legend runs thus : —
HiC QUID4M TERRA TEGITUR PECCATI SOLVENS DEBITUM :
CUI NOMEN NON IMPONITUR IN LIBRO VITiE SIT CONSCRIPTUM.
P See p. 40.
Beaumont and Melicent liis wife. In the churcli of St. Martin in
the phiin, Norwich, is a stone from which a brass shiekl of arms
PaJimpsest, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich.
has become detached, and thus on its reverse the drapery of a
figure has become distinctly visible. This shield, thus cut from a
larger engraven plate, is of unusual thickness, and was laid down
the second time as the memorial of Jane, wife of Sir Philip Cal-
thorpe, knight, and daughter of John Blenerhasset, Esq., who died
A.D. 1550 : it is charged with Calthorpe, chequy, or and azure, a
fesse, ermine; impaling Blenerhasset, gules, a chevron, ermine,
between three dolphins, embowed, argent ; Lowdham, argent, three
escutcheons, sable ; Orion, vert, a lion rampant, argent, crowned and
armed, gules, and Keldon, gules, a pall reversed, ermine q. The
present condition of this shield appears calculated to throw some
light upon the ancient process of producing heraldic tinctures in
brasses, and therefore it claims our special notice : the outline of
the whole shield and of each quartering with its bearings appears
raised, owing to the enclosed spaces having been sunk or depressed
to receive the enamel, except the or of Calthorpe, and the argent
and ermine as often as they occur. In the case of the or, the brass
is left, and was probably covered only with a wash of gold, and
burnished. According to general usage, the argent and ermine
present a surface of lead or pewter, on which small fragments of a
very thin white enamel are here and there observable, shewing
•< The same arms appear at Frense, Norfolk.
PALIMPSEST BRASSES. 151
that the whole was originally thus covered over. Where other
colours were to be represented, a bed composed of red lead mixed
with wax or oil, fills the casement, leaving, however, room for the
addition of a coat of enamel considerably thicker than the white
just mentioned : of these enamels but very small portions now
remain ; while in two of the azure compartments of the Calthorpe
arms the red lead has itself been removed, exposing the metal,
quite irregular in its surface, below. I am not aware of any simi-
lar instance of the preparation for the reception of the enamel,
being so distinctly apparent as in this example.
Mr. Way has noticed in the brass of Margaret Bulstrode, A.D.
1540, at Hedgerley, Bucks, another singular instance of an early
plate having been made available for a secondary purpose. The
inscription to this lady, at the feet of her effigy, having become
loose, "it was found that the reverse presented a memorial of a
period two centuries anterior to the date of its secondary appli-
cation; and fortunately the piece of brass having required an
addition of some inches in length, in order to receive the later
inscription, the earlier has been preserved without mutilation. It
consists of the following distich :" —
TOTYNGTON ThOMAS EdMUNDI QUI PUIT ABBAS
HiC JACET ESTO PIA SIBI DUCTRIX VIRGO MaRIA,
the simple and only known record of Thomas de Totyngtone, pre-
viously sub-prior, and from A.D. 1301 to 1312, abbot of St. Ed-
mund's Bury'". This magnificent establishment was surrendered
to the king, November, 1539; when the plate of Abbot Totyng-
tone, it may reasonably be surmised, became part of the spoils : it
was scarcely eleven months before the same plate, engraved again
with the name of Margaret Bulstrode, was laid down in another
county, so rapidly had the work of spoliation proceeded, and the
spoil, even in its smallest details, been turned to profitable account !
This same term Palimpsest, is also applicable with equal correct-
ness to all such brasses as have been a second time laid down, with-
J" Possibly the reverse of the effigy of Margaret Bulstrode may contain some further
memorial of the abbot.
152 PALIMPSEST BRASSES.
out reversing the plates of metal. It is possible that in this, as in
the former case, the memorial may, from some now long-forgotten
cause, have been rejected from fulfilling the original purpose to
which it had been destined, and subsequently adopted to supply
the requirements of some less fastidious personage ; still, it is diffi-
cult to imagine that this species of palimpsests have not been dis-
honestly and sacrilegiously perverted from their original design,
and appropriated to the purposes of the occasion. Examples of
effigies of one period now appearing in connection with inscriptions
of considerably later date, occur in Norfolk, at Great Ormesby, in
the brass of Alicia, widow of Sir Robert Clere, A.D. 1538, the very
year of the suppression of the monasteries ; the effigy is a demi-
figure holding a heart, and its real date is about A.D. 1420. Again,
at St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich, Peter Rede, Esq. % is commemo-
rated by an armed effigy, at the feet of which an inscription in the
Roman character bears the date A.D. 1568; but the armour be-
longs to a period about a century earlier. Also at Laughton near
Gainsborough, upon an altar-tomb, and beneath a rich triple canopy,
is a brass effigy of a knight of about the date A.D. 1405, which is
set forth as being the memorial of Sir William Dalison, who died
the 37th of Henry VIII., A.D. 1543. This is a fine specimen of
that most martial and picturesque period of armour, the close of
the fourteenth and the commencement of the fifteenth centuries :
and it somewhat resembles the brass of Robert Albyn at Hemel
Hempsted, in representing the knight as wearing a narrow belt
crossing his person transversely from the right hip, in addition to
the broad and highly enriched horizontal belt of the period*.
Another singular example of misappropriation exists at Howden
in Yorkshire, " which purports to be an effigy of Peter Dolman,
Esq., Avho died A.D. 1621, but is manifestly to be referred to the
earlier part of the preceding century:" nor is this all, for "the
plate on which the inscription is engraved has lines on the reverse,
which prove it to have been a portion of a female figure, probably
the wife of the knight whose figure now represents Peter Dolman"."
* See p. 140. " See Archaeological Journal, vol. ii.
t See p. 57. p. 189.
PALIMPSEST BRASSES. 153
The brass of Humphrey Okcr, Esq., Isabel his wife, and their
children, is remarkable as being an example both of the secondary
application of early figures, and also of the reversal of a plate for
the purpose of a second engraving. This composition consists of
a rich triple canopy, having immediately below each Hnial a shield
of arms " : under the central canopy is a figure armed after the style
of the year 1450, but bare-headed and wearing a tabard : on the
right a lady is represented in the ordinary costume of the same
period : and on the left, upon what appears to be the reversed
figure of a priest, thirteen children are engraved in three tiers,
and above them is a shield of arms hanging from an oa^-tree;
these children are in the costume of the year 1525, the 16th of
From the pains taken to adapt it to its secondary position, the
brass of Walter Curzon, Esq., and his lady, A.D. 1527, at Water-
Perry, Oxfordshire, must occupy a prominent position in a series
of palimpsests : these figures were originally engraved about
A.D. 1450, and were adapted to their requirements by the execu-
tors of Walter Curzon, by adding numerous small lines with the
graver, altering the early taces of plate into tuilles worn above a
skirt of mail, rounding the pointed sollerets, and adding a new
head and shoulders : while the female figure was unhesitatingly
divided, and the lower half altered to correspond with an entirely
new upper, we can hardly consider it better, half; the only addi-
tions to the lower portion of the original being the continuation of
the chain attached to the girdle, and the hatching, or touches en-
graved besides the lines which represent the folds in the drapery.
The lines in which the old and new portions are joined are dis-
tinctly visible in both figures. What completes the curiosity of
this example is, that a portion of the border-fillet having become
detached, a legend appears cut on both sides of the metal y. I
again quote from the Archseologia a notice of one other palimpsest,
preserved at Bromham in Bedfordshire; this is the fine brass
which represents "Thomas Wideville, Esq., who died about the
^ See p. 127. year 1845: and again in the Guide to the
y This brass is figured in the Report of Churches in the Neighbourhood of Oxford,
the Oxford Architectural Society for the published by that same Society.
154 PALIMPSEST BRASSES,
year 1435^ and his two ivives, in the costume proper to the times
of Henry VI. These, by an extraordinary appropriation, have
been employed a hundred years later, to supply a memorial for a
descendant, in the fourth generation, of the sister of tlie individual
for whom they had been originally designed, — namely, for Sir John
Dyve, who died in 1537, his mother and his ivife."
Brasses sometimes occur which, though altogether inconsistent
with the period specified in their dates, still are not palimpsests ;
having in fact been executed many years subsequent to the de-
cease of the person commemorated, and, as was invariably the
custom with medieval artists, in the style both of costume and
legend appertaining, not to the times in which deceased had lived,
but to the periods in ivhich the plates ivere engraved^. Thus in
Stoke church, Suffolk, the brass of Catharine, widow of John
Howard, duke of Norfolk, who died A.D. 1452, is in eA^ery respect
characteristic of the subsequent period when the plate itself was
laid down, that is, of about A.D. 1520^.
These palimpsest brasses necessarily weaken the generally re-
ceived opinion of the fidelity of individual portraiture being as-
cribable to incised monumental effigies : for, not only are these
last described specimens in no respect portraits, but it remains un-
certain how many other brasses would be correctly classified with
them, were they unfixed from their monumental slabs. It is,
however, possible that many of those may still be portraits, which
are engraven on reversed plates : and perhaps we may conclude,
with as exact a degree of accuracy as can be attained upon this
point, that while the works of the better class of artists were gene-
' To tliis habit of representing persons in whose time the drawings were executed,
the costume of the times of the artist him- These figures, all of considerable merit as
self we are indebted for being enabled to works of art, are every one dressed after
fix, with a degree of accuracy very nearly varieties in the fashion of regal costume,
approximating to the exact truth, the age prevalent in the days of Henry VI. This
of brasses, the date of which is without manuscript forms a part of the Cotton col-
other record. A singular but no less valu- lection ; it is numbered Julius E. 4.
able example of this mode of artistic treat- a The fine brass of Philippa Lady Hal-
ment occurs in a manuscript preserved in sham, (see p. 92,) at West Grinstead,
the British Museum, which contains a Sussex, bears the date of that lady's de-
series of full-length figures of the English cease, A.D. 1395, but the plate was evi-
sovereigns from the time of the Norman dently engraved about the year 1410.
Conquest till the reign of Henry VI., in
SLABS DESPOILED OF BRASSES. 155
rally designed to convey a representation of the features, as well
as of the costume of the individuals commemorated, in many in-
stances a spirit of sordid economy prevented the possibility of any
attempt whatever at correct personal delineation''.
Besides the brasses which yet remain attached to their monu-
mental slabs, these Slabs themselves very frequently furnish subjects
for curious and interesting research, in the casements or matrices
from wliich engraven plates have been removed. On these despoiled
stones, the witnesses of that sacrilegious violence and rapacity in
times past, a full atonement for which we would fain anticipate
from the better and more truthful spirit which now so happily has
arisen, — on these brassless slabs it always is desirable to bestow
careful attention, with the view to gather from the remaining
matrices that information relative to their former occupants which,
in a greater or less degree, they are generally able to convey. In
our own abbey-church, the slabs from which brass-plates have been
torn off, still indicate the splendid character of some of these lost
engravings, and the curiosity and simple elegance of others. Six
of these stones were once enriched with brasses of abbots, and two
others retain but a few fragments of similar memorials. Eight
other stones once had crosses in brass, some of them of great beauty
and interest. Many fine examples may, in like manner, be traced
in almost every church : thus the stones have already been
noticed, upon which formerly existed the brasses of six other
knights in the cross-legged attitude; two in Suffolk, at Lether-
ingham and Stoke by Nayland; one at Peterborough; one at
Emneth in Norfolk; and two others in Cambridgeshire. In his
valuable history of the abbey-church at Dorchester, in Oxford-
shire, Mr. Addington has figured a slab now existing in that in-
teresting edifice, from which a brass, unlike any specimen known
to be in existence, has been torn off and abstracted : the casement
'' It has been remarked that in the that in more than one instance, a family
earlier brasses of priests, the countenances likeness may be distinctly traced between
bear so strong a general res-inblance, that the different members of the same family ;
they cannot possibly be regarded as por- in a series of their brasses ; and also that,
traits, as we now understand that term. when a stranger became associated with
Very possibly, brasses of ecclesiastics were such a family, his brass presents features
kept ready engraved. It is no less certain of a character altogether dissimilar.
156 INCISED OR ENGRAVEN SLABS.
yet remaining in the stone shews it to have originally represented,
between four small crosses, a hand grasping a pastoral-staff, the
hand itself appearing as if uplifted from the grave below '^ : this is
the memorial of John de Sutton, abbot of Dorchester, who died
A.D. 1349**. Many other valuable examples might be adduced,
did the claim of these monumental slabs to attentive observation
appear to require any further support e.
From these slabs originally prepared to receive in hollows sunk
below their surfaces plates of metal, I naturally pass on to notice
another and still more important species of monumental stones,
the Incised or Engraven Slabs, which very frequently supplied
the place of the flat tomb inlaid with metal, and which were not
less varied or elaborate in their design than the brasses themselves .
though from the nature of the material employed they have in
most cases become defaced and unsightly, and consequently they
hitherto have attracted comparatively but little either of attention
or regard. The difference of material is, apparently, the sole real
distinction between the two varieties of monumental memorials :
the character of the incised slab being in every respect analogous
to that of the engraved brass, and both probably having repeatedly
been produced by the same artists.
"In England incised slabs do not appear ever to have existed in
great number, the prevalent fashion being to use the brass : speci-
mens, however, are not deficient in this country, and it is probable
that more careful research regarding this kind of monument, would
shew the frequent use of such memorials in England, of a character
not inferior to works of the kind on the continent. When placed,
as was usually the case, so as to form a portion of the pavement of
the church, the design on the incised slab quickly became effaced ;
•" See note (k) p. 160. A portion of a Richard Bewforreste, c. A.D. 1520. Here
monumental slab, yet remaining in Romsey also is an incised slab, representing in full
abbey-church, exhibits another example of vestments Roger, abbot of Dorchester,
this same device of a hand and pastoral- c. A.D. 1510.
staff, as the emblematical memorial of ^ Of course the matrices of these slabs
some departed abbot. can be faithfully as well as easily copied
In this same church there yet remains by the ordinary process of rubbing with
an interesting brass of another abbot, heel-baU.
INCISED OE ENGKAVEN SLABS. 157
its original beauty being destroyed, the slab was often turned over,
when a renewal of the pavement or other cause occurred for its
being disturbed, and the reverse was dressed to form a part of the
new laid floor : occasionally, however, these works occur in fair
preservation, either from having been placed upon altar-tombs,
or affixed to mural tablets*/' The material employed for these
incised slabs was either Purbeck or forest marble, or any of the
more durable kinds of marble in ordinary use, or sometimes
common paving, or even sandstone; in some examples also the
alabaster of Derbyshire is found to have been employed. The
lines being boldly and deeply cut, were filled up with some hard
black compound which, when the slab was placed upon an altar-
tomb, was raised above the face of the stone, thus imparting to the
lines the appearance of having been worked in relief. Coloured
compositions of a like nature were introduced into the armorial
accessories and decorations ; and also, when requisite, into the dia-
pered back-grounds and other ornamental portions of the various
Their similarity in all points to corresponding effigies, legends,
and devices in brass, renders superfluous any detailed or lengthy
description of these engravings, thus wrought upon the monu-
mental slabs themselves : I shall therefore here merely notice
some few of the more valuable or interesting specimens of incised
slabs. It is necessary, however, to remark that here and there
occurs an example which forms, though certainly the connection
is but shght, a connecting link between the flat engraved slab and
the effigy sculptured in full relief. Such are the figures for the
greater part expressed by incised lines, but having some portions
of the design, as the head, hands, weapon or pastoral- staff", &c.,
wrought in low relief: this relieved portion is sometimes worked
from the solid slab, and sometimes produced by the insertion into
matrices sunk in the slab, of suitable pieces of a diff'erent kind of
stone. The head, hand and sword-hilt of the Brading slab appear
to have been originally thus constructed : while of the former style
of slabs, there remains at Bitton, near Bath, a most curious exam-
' See Oxford Glossary, edition iv. vol. i. p. 207.
INCISED OR ENGRAVEN SLABS.
pie, being the effigy of a kniglit, cross-legged, and having the head,
arms, and shield, cut in low relief; the lower part of the figure,
the surcoat, and the animal at the feet of the warrior, being ex-
pressed by incised lines. The position of the shield is very un-
usual, covering, as it does, the breast and body of the figure : it
is unsupported by any guige^. This has been considered to be
the memorial of Sir John de Bitton, who died A.D. 1227, the 12th
of Henry III. : and to this early date, the
long flowing surcoat, the total absence of
plate defences, and the general treatment
of the figure in connection with important
documentary evidence, induce me to in-
cline **. The memorial of another cross-
legged knight, represented altogether by
lines incised in a slab of sandstone, is pre-
served in the church at Avenbury, in Here-
fordshire. Here also the armour is wholly
of mail, but the skirt of the haqueton ap-
pears beneath the hauberk. The shield,
suspended by a very narrow guige, covers
the left arm ; the surcoat reaches no fur-
ther than a little below the knees; and
the gesture is that of the warrior who,
at the close of the conflict, returns his
sword to the scabbard. The date of this
slab is probably about A.D. 1260, or some
few years earlier. A third memorial of a
knight in the cross-legged attitude, en-
graved upon a slab of stone, has recently
Incised Slab, Aveubtury, Herefordahire
c. A.D. 1260
8 This may be merely an omission of the
artist. Such omissions are common in
brasses, particularly in belts ; thus Sir
Thomas Crewe, A.D. 1411, is represented
in his fine brass at Wixford, Warwick-
shire, without any sword-belt whatever,
though armed at all points, and in every
other respect fully accoutred.
*" It is a singular circumstance in the
execution of this effigy, that the figure
appears to have been drawn somewhat too
large to be completely expressed upon the
face of the slab ; and thus the right elbow,
the outer portion of the left arm, parts of
the surcoat, and of the animal at the base
of the composition, are engraved on the
sides of the stone.
SIR JdDHI^ ®E EITT®W
Bitton Church Somersetshire.
C Incised Slat. )
INCISED Oil ENGRAVEN SLABS.
been discovered in the
church of St. Bride's, Gla-
morganshire ; it is the
memorial of Sir John de
Botiler, and may be as-
signed to about A.D. 1285.
There is no indication in
this effigy of the connec-
tion of the hauberk and
mail chausses. The ar-
rangement of the surcoat
about the shoulders, and
the wavy ridge upon the
blade of the drawn and
uplifted sword, are very
singular. The shield is
charged with three covered
cups, the heraldic bearing
of Botiler or Butler; and
the same charge is twice
repeated upon a small Cer~
ve/iere, or scull-cap of plate,
worn over the coif of mail.
The spurs have rowels '.
Other early and in-
teresting slabs exist in
the cathedral at Wells, to
the memory of Bishop
William de Byttone, or
Bitton, A.D. 1274, a kins-
man of the Bitton knight :
at Morthoe, Devonshire,
A.D. 1322, to William
Tracey, rector of that
place : to Adam de Framp-
Slab of Sir John de Botiler, c, A.D.l'JbO.
i For the accompanying admirable figure of this slab I am again indebted to the
Committee of the Archaeological Institute.
160 INCISED OR ENGEAVEN SLABS.
ton, who died A.D. 1825, and Sybilla his widow, at Wyberton,
Lincolnshire : to de Baldock and Agnes his wife, about
A.D. 1365, at Tempsford, Beds. ^ : to William Villers, who died
A.D. 1370, and his two wives, Johanna and Agnes, who severally
deceased A.D. 1350 and 1400, at Brooksley, Leicestershire: to Sir
John de Wydeville, the father of the queen of Edward IV., at
Grafton Regis in Northamptonshire, who died A.D. 1392 ; this
effigy is remarkable for being armed in plate, with taces beneath
which appears a skirt of mail formed at its border to resemble
the tuilles of a later period, of which it may perhaps be regarded
as the prototype; a gorget or hausse-col of plate covers the upper
part of the camail of the bascinet; and the head rests upon the
tilting-helm '. At Newbold-on-Avon, "Warwickshire, is the slab
of Geoffrey Allesley, A.D. 1401, and his wife Alianore : at Mal-
vesin Ridware, Staffordshire, is another fine slab to the memory
of Sir Robert de Malvesyn, who fell at the battle of Shrewsbury,
A.D. 1403. Another, and that a very richly ornamented and
curious slab, lies in the chancel of Brading church in the Isle
of Wight, to the memory of Sir John Cherowin, or Curwen,
A.D. 1441, constable of Porchester castle : this elaborate work
appears to have been designed by a Flemish artist; the canopy
comprises a series of figures in niches, and rich tabernacle-work;
the principal effigy is armed in plate with a gor- f f^
get of mail ; and a skirt or fringe of mail appears
beneath the lowermost tace, from the centre of
which also depends a single tuille; pauldrons de-
fend the shoulders ; the spurs are of extravagant
length ; the sword is girded in front of the wearer soneretandspurofsir
John Cherowin, Bradiug.
'' This slab represents a civilian and lady which the slabs of altar-tombs were fre-
in the usual costume of the period assigned quently appropriated. It is very probable
to them in the text; and portions of a that the brass-despoiled slab of Abbot John
legend in Longobardic character still re- de Sutton, now lying in the pavement at
main at the verge. It is a singular circum- Dorchester abbey-church, (see p. 156,)
stance that five small crosses, one in the originally was placed upon an altar-tomb,
centre, and one near each angle, appear and used for a like purpose,
upon the engraved face of this slab : these ' This slab, from the style of the armour,
probably indicate the slab to have been, at may with greater accuracy be ascribed to a
some period subsequent to its being en- period fifteen years subsequent to the deatli
graved, consecrated as a credence, a use to of Sir John de Wydeville.
INCISED OR ENGRAVEN SLABS, IGl
after a very unusual fashion ; and the head is unhelmed "". In the
undercroft of the lady-chapcl at Hereford cathedral, another in-
teresting slab commemorates Andrew Jones, A.D. 1497, and Eliza-
beth his wife, by whose pious exertions the building in which they
are interred was restored. Again, at Darley in Derbyshire are no
less than five incised slabs, of which two still continue in excellent
preservation, and may be reckoned amongst the finest examples
known to be yet remaining : they were laid down to the memory
of two members of the old and distinguished family of Rollisley or
Rowley, and their respective dates are A.D. 1513, and 1535. In
the church at Selby, Yorkshire, are the incised slabs of Abbot
Laurence, A.D. 1486, and Abbot John Barwicus, A.D. 1526. In
our own abbey-church is the large, and though worn, still splendid
marble of Abbot Ramryge, A.D. 1524. And in the neighbouring
church of North Mimms, upon an altar-tomb, a slab of alabaster
displays the engraven effigy of a lady, wearing an ample ruff, and
otherwise attired in accordance with the fashion of the year 1584 :
this example retains the black composition with which its incised
lines were filled in, in almost as perfect a state as when the work at
first was executed °. At Watton also is preserved another slab of
alabaster, upon which have been incised the effigies of John Butler
and his two wives, Elizabeth and Constance ; and here the lines of
the engraving are similarly filled in.
As a companion to the noble series of brasses at Cobham, in the
very curious chapel at Malvesyn Ridware is preserved a collection
of incised slabs, ranging from the time of Henry IV. till the mid-
dle of the seventeenth century; and then again continued at a
more recent period, by the addition of a considerable number of
alabaster slabs arranged round the walls of the building.
Representations occur in medieval MSS. of the artificers occu-
pied in the process of fabricating such incised slabs of stone. The
accompanying engraving has been drawn from an illumination of
™ This fine and valuable slab is figured parts of the effigy, which originally were
by Mr. Waller in the first annual volume worked in low relief.
of the Archaeological Association. I have " It is not certain whose effigy this may
previously noticed (p. 157) the insertion be; possibly it is that of Margaret Beres-
of portions of a different stone in some forde.
INCISED OR ENGRAVEN SLABS.
Workmen making incised Mon'omental Slabs
this kind : it affords a curious illustration of the costume and
habits of the period. One of the slabs represented bears the date
Notwithstanding the ravages made in modern times upon the con-
tinent, from which but few monumental brasses have escaped, many-
valuable examples of incised slabs yet remain ; and this is particu-
larly the case in France, where not a single brass can at this day be
pointed out. At Paris, Rouen, and in several of the cathedrals of
France, and particularly in Normandy, some incised slabs of beau-
tiful character, and in fair preservation, may still be found. Of these
none is more beautiful as well as interesting, than the memorial in
the church of St. Ouen at Rouen, of the two architects engaged
upon the earlier and later portions of that splendid structure : the
latter architect, Alexander de Berneval, also architect to Henry V.
of England, died A.D. 1440. Depicted as placed in a double niche
surmounted by a rich canopy, the two effigies stand side by side,
habited in long loose tunics with full sleeves, and they respectively
hold in their hands a mold for window tracery, and a ground-plan
and compasses. In both of these effigies appears the cap with long
depending scarf, placed upon the shoulder, precisely resembling the
" This design is taken from Addit. MSS.
British Museum, 10. 292. f. 55. v". The
engraving originally appeared in the
Archaeological Journal, vol. i. p. 301.
D ,1440. 18" ^nU: VI.
TIRIE .ARCTIITECTS ©F 'JTHE OriUECffl ©F ST (DUfiJ^, AT EdDFEN .
Inci.secl Slai .
Ill the QiiiTcli of $?• C iien.
( Canopies omit-ted.)
INCISED Oil ENGRAVEN SLABS.
similar appeiidage to the costume of the notary before described p.
In Rouen cathedral is the slab of Etienue de Sens, archdeacon of
Eouen, A.D. 1282. Other examples of dates as early as A.D. 1303,
1326, 1350, are at Dijon and Paris'': and at St. Denis, the slabs of
two abbots, Adam and Peter, though not coeval with their decease,
bear the early date of A.D. 1260. The slab of Nicholas, abbot of
St. Ouen, at Rouen, about A.D. 1325, is another noble specimen.
And again, considerably later, A.D. 1535, at Bocherville near Rouen,
is another truly splendid incised slab of black marble, into which
portions of white marble are inserted, to exhibit the head and hands
of the figure, together with the crook of the pastoral-staff, and the
roundels at the angles of the composition : this is the memorial of
an abbot of St. George de Bocherville. This custom of inserting
portions of stone of a colour and quality different from the re-
mainder of the slab, and sometimes even of metal, appears to have
prevailed no less in the incised slabs constructed in this country,
than in those of the continent ^
Besides these and other still existing foreign examples, in the
Bodleian Library at Oxford is preserved a very extensive and valu-
able collection of drawings of engraved tombs of both metal and
stone, which have now been destroyed in France. These drawings,
executed about A.D. 1700, form a portion of Gough^s collections:
among them one represents the incised slab of Robert III., Comte
de Dreux, who died A.D. 1223, and which formerly was laid down
in the choir of the church of St. Yvod de Braine. This curious
engraving bore the name of the artist by whom it was executed, as
p Seep. 112.
1 The slab of a late canon of Poictiers
and chancellor of Noyon, now at the
Palais des beaux arts, Paris, is a truly
magnificent specimen of this species of
ecclesiastical memorial. The chesuble
of this dignitary is embroidered through-
out; the devices which appear most con-
spicuously in the embroidery being lions,
flowers, mermaids, and the cock of France.
"■ To my friend Mr. J. A. Brandon, I am
indebted for the sketch, from which the an-
nexed engraving has been made ; it repre-
sents a fragment of the monumental
incised slab of a priest, in the church of
Petit Andelys, dep. de I'Eure.
Fragment of Incised Slab of Priest, churcli
of Petit Andelys, France.
INCISED OR ENGllAVEN SLABS.
appears from the legend " Letarous me fecit." In like manner,
the brass of Bishop Philip, A.D. 1341, which once existed at Eureux,
had the words "Guillaume de Plalli me fecit."
I may here observe that, besides the few examples which I have
already stated to remain in Flanders, and Aix-la-Chapelle, monu-
mental brasses now form a class of memorials almost exclusively
restricted to our own country. Denmark is said to contain some
specimens : but these appear for the most part to have portions of
the figure executed in very low relief, while the remainder, and
that by far the greater portion of the work, is expressed by simple
lines incised upon a flat surface. In Germany a great number of
tombs formed of metal exist, which are throughout wrought in very
low relief: these, with the Danish plates, form the two subdivisions
of an intermediate class of monumental memorials, between the
brass or slab and the sculptured effigy \ The attention at the
present time bestowed in this country upon the brasses which com-
memorate our forefathers, has naturally led to the partial revival of
the long neglected art of brass engraving : several of these monu-
mental plates have already been executed, and laid down in the
churches where the persons thus commemorated were respectively
interred. From the skill evinced in the execution of some of these
brasses, considered in connection with their intrinsic superiority to
every other class of monument, it may reasonably be inferred that
no long period will elapse before the adoption of monumental
brasses again becomes general amongst us *.
Compartment of Canopy, Delaxoere bra-sfi, St. Alban'^a.
' Meissen cathedral is said to contain
some brasses, properly so called : one may
be seen in Spain, at Seville : the brass at
Constance has been already fully described:
and to these may be added a few other
specimens at Funchal in Madeira, two at
Dublin, and one at Glasgow. See also
' See Appendix (D).
RUBBTNOS OF BRASSKS. 165
Various methods have been devised for obtaining fac-simile im-
pressions of brasses and other incised works of art. The first col-
lection of these impressions, now in the British Museum, was made
by Craven Ord, about the year 1780, when Gough was engaged in
preparing his great work on sepulchral monuments. This primi-
tive collection " was formed by filling the incised lines of the plates
with printing ink, which was from them transferred by means of
pressure to large sheets of paper previously damped. The impres-
sions thus obtained were necessarily reversed'': and besides this
serious fault, this process is further liable to many objections. It
was, however, soon discovered "that if paper of a moderate thick-
ness were laid upon the brass, and any black substance rubbed
over the surface of the paper, the incised lines would be left white,
in consequence of the paper sinking into them, and offering no
resistance to the rubber, whilst all the other parts received from
that substance a dark tint : and although the effect of the ordinary
impression is by this process reversed, the lines Avhieh should be
black being left white, and the light ground of the design rendered
dark, yet a perfectly distinct fac-simile is thus obtained with little
labour, and great precision, in consequence of the progress of the
work being visible throughout the operation y.^' Of all substances
available for the execution of this process, (and it may be effected
by any substance which by friction will discolour the paper,) none
is to be compared with the preparation known as Heel-Ball, a
compound of bees-wax and tallow with lamp-black, which is used
by all shoemakers, and may be made of any desired consistence ^.
u Craven Ord was assisted by Sir John y See Mr. Albert Way's excellent paper
CuUum and the Rev. Thomas Cole, in upon brasses in the Archaeological Journal,
forming his collection, which now is of vol. i. p. 204.
especial value in consequence of the de- ^ I cannot refrain from here animadvert-
struction of many fine examples since his ing upon a system, prevalent in some
time : this interesting series was purchased places where the churches contain fine
at the death of Craven Ord in 1830, by the or curious examples of brasses, by which
late Francis Douce, Esq., for £43, and by impressions, or rather rubbings of these
himwasbequeathedtothe British Museum, memorials, are made regular articles of a
where it was deposited in 1834. most exclusive kind of traffic. It may be,
X Many of Gough' s engravings, having indeed, a great convenience to be enabled
been drawn from these reversed " black- to procure from duly authorized and quali-
ings," as they termed them, exhibit the effi- fied persons, rubbings of distant or very
gies in reverse. elaborate brasses : still, such a demand
166 RUBBINGS OF BRASSES.
This admirable material will, with the greatest facility, produce a
fac-simile, which may be worked to any depth of colour, from a
grey tint to a glossy black of the deepest shade : and it besides
possesses the invaluable qualification of such decided permanence,
as to be affected by no subsequent friction. Proficiency in the
manipulation of heel-ball may speedily be acquired: it will be
found desirable to continue the rubbing until there cease to be
any distinct marks of the heel-ball, and the work presents an uni-
formly smooth appearance. The most desirable colour is a deep
grey, which can be obtained without obliterating any one of the
finest lines of the composition, and at the same time produces the
most agreeable effect. Of course it is indispensably necessary that
the paper should not slip, or move in the slightest degree upon the
brass: this may eff'ectually be prevented by unrolling the paper
over but a small part of the brass at one time, and keeping the
spread-out portion steady by means of a few flat lead weights. The
outline may be marked out by pressing the thumb upon the paper:
and the left hand may be employed to guard the margin from
being soiled by the rubber ^. It is also an important preliminary
to press the thumb or fingers upon the broader and bolder lines of
the engraving, in order to cause the paper to sink slightly into
these lines, and that thus they may be the less exposed to the
action of the rubber; and, from being seen through the paper,
their perfect whiteness may be the more effectually secured.
Imperfections in the rubbing may be subsequently corrected : after
surely might be met, without giving to be used for this purpose : or the rubbing
these persons a species of control over the may be made without regard to the outline,
brasses, to the exclusion of all others, who and subsequently cut out and mounted. In
may not choose to pay some exorbitant fee using the heel-ball, the paper should be
for their permission to make rubbings for rubbed in the same direction as that taken
themselves. And the rubbings thus made by the main lines in the part under mani-
for sale, — might not some place be found in pulation. In subsequent corrections of
which their imperfections could be corrected, rubbings, any superfluous black may be
without a SYSTEMATIC DESECRATION of removed by the pen-knife : and the imper-
the CHURCH for that purpose ? fections in the original may be remedied by
To the almost universal courtesy and small pieces of heel-ball, or by lithographic
kindness of the clergymen in those parishes, chalk, or by lamp-black mixed with gum-
where brasses yet remain in the churches, water and laid on with a brush. A leaf of
I gladly as well as gratefully bear testi- a dining-table reversed will be found an
mony. admirable board for rubbing on, during the
• Pieces of card or the lead weights may process of correction.
RUBBINGS OF BRASSES. 167
which the paper should be mounted upon linen, and attached to a
In place of heel-ball, a piece of leather of the same kind as the
upper leather of a boot or shoe, will sometimes be found a valuable
substitute : this is particularly the case where expedition, combined
with careful accuracy in the expression of the minutest details, are
required : these rubbings, however, though most excellent for the
purpose of drawing from, will not stand ; and indeed are from the
very first but faint, and to a certain degree dim and unsatisfactory.
Another process, still more advantageous where the sole object is to
obtain a fac-simile for the use of the artist, without any reference
to a collection of rubbings, is effected by means of rubbers of wash-
leather, stiffened with paper, and primed with a thin paste formed
of very fine black lead in powder mixed with the best linseed oil :
tissue-paper of somewhat stronger substance than is commonly used,
answers best for making rubbings by this method ; and this, like
other qualities of paper, may be obtained of any size. I must repeat
that where the sole object is to obtain an impression from a brass or
other incised work, any material which may be at hand will be found
available, as a lead pencil, a glove, or the bare hand; the latter,
more particularly, if not at the time in the most delicate state of
Besides the heel-ball rubbings, a second process available for col-
lections has been introduced by Mr. Richardson of Greenwich:
this consists of a "Metallic Rubber," to be used upon a black paper,
which thus produces impressions in fac-simile of the brass-plate
itself, as well as of the design engraven upon its surface. These
rubbings are cut out and mounted upon a stout grey paper, thus
producing the complete eflfect of the original brass and its monu-
mental slab. The process of manipulation with the metallic rubber
^ For the readiest means of procuring effected, the omission of certain details
paper, rubbers, &c., see Appendix (E). becomes of comparatively trivial import-
^ In taking rubbings, it is always im- ance. In rubbing shields of arms which are
portant to mark out any portions of the designed to be subsequently emblazoned in
work which may have become mutilated, colours, a lead pencil or plummet of lead
or may be lost; as thus alone the general maybe used with advantage; it being thus
character of the complete original compo- easy to clean the paper as far as may be
sition can be preserved. And this being required with Indian rubber.
MONUMENTAL BllASSES AND SLABS.
is most effective, when rubbed across the paper : it requires a con-
siderable exertion of strength, as well as some dexterity, in order to
produce an even and perfectly metallic surface, and at the same
time to leave the lines of the engraving distinctly and purely black.
In cutting out these rubbings, care must be taken always to leave
at the edge of every portion of the work, a very narrow border of
the black paper, as an outline from which the several lines of the
engraved composition may be traced*^. The effect of rubbings thus
produced is greatly heightened by the introduction of colour into
the various heraldic devices, which may form component parts of
any brass. And indeed, a similar treatment of the heraldic acces-
sories may be very satisfactorily adopted in heel-ball rubbings.
Bcrder, Delamere Irass. St AlbaJi's.
" It is one of the most striking features of the human mind,"
observes Mr. Stothard in the Prefatory Notes to his admirable
work on the Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, "that it
invariably embodies and gives form to description, more or less
strong and perfect, as the mind is gifted and cultivated : and it is
from this property in man, that the study of antiquity, as con-
nected with, and illustrative of history, is the source of some of
the greatest intellectual pleasures we are capable of enjoying. By
these means we live in other ages than our own, and become nearly
as well acquainted with them. In some measure we arrest the
fleeting steps of time, and again review those things his arm has
passed over, and subdued, but not destroyed. The researches of
the antiquary are worthless, if they do not impart to us this power,
or give us other advantages : it is not to admire anything for its
•' Glue will be found preferable to paste
for mounting: a serviceable composition
consists of half a pound of common glue
soaked for twelve hours in a quart of hot
water, to which a dessert spoon full of
treacle is then added, and the whole dis-
solved over a fire. Care must be taken to
lay but a thin coating of this upon the back
of the rubbing, and also to keep it liquid
till the rubbing be placed upon the mount-
ing-paper. See Mr. Richardson's adver-
tisement appended to this volume.
CONCLUDING REMARKS. 169
age or rust, that constitutes the interest of the object, but, as it is
conducive to our knowledge, the enlargement of human intellect
and general improvement. Among the various antiquities which
England possesses, there are none so immediately illustrative of
our history, as its national monuments, which abound in our cathe-
drals and churches. Considered with an attention to all they are
capable of embracing, there is no subject can furnish more various
or original information."
In concluding this notice of one of these, our " national monu-
ments V' I cannot refrain from pressing the search after this
" information," not upon archaeologists alone, but upon every one
who would desire to attain to a thorough acquaintance with history.
Or rather, assuming, as I am persuaded I justly may assume, that
archaeology is to history herself as a twin-sister, by the influence
of whose faculty of graphic elucidation the written records of the
past can alone be faithfully realized to the mind, — in now advoca-
ting research into the subject of monumental effigy, to students
of archeeology I would in some respect restrict my appeal, because
an accomplished historian I cannot but identify with a sound
archaeologist. And in conducting this research, it always is de-
sirable, and indeed important, to associate the sculptured effigy
with the engraven brass ^ The study of our "national monu-
ments," and the " information" resulting from that study, can then
only be complete when carried out in all its branches. True, the
once gorgeous marble may now at first sight, but too often, appear
but little better than a mis-shapen mass of those modern barba-
risms, house-paint, whitewash and plaster: but by trouble, and
care, and labour, it may be disencumbered of these cases, and the
beauty of the original, if not restored, may at least be distinguished.
And this is a result well worthy of the trouble, and care, and labour
incurred in bringing it about : for, the brass and the effigy, with
but comparatively very few exceptions, " present the only existing
e I have already remarked, p. 164, that, strong claim upon us, for attentive obser-
so few are the examples now remaining in vation and diligent research,
other countries, that brasses constitute a ' The author has in preparation a notice
species of monumental memorial almost of sculptured Monumental Effigies, de-
exclusively English ; and consequently signed to form a companion to the present
they appear to have naturally a peculiarly volume.
170 MONUMENTAL BRASSES AND SLABS.
portraits we possess, of our kings, our princes, and the heroes of
ages famed for chivalry and arms ;" and, with them, of other wor-
thies no less distinguished in more peaceful callings. Thus con-
sidered, these memorials become indeed " extremely valuable, and
furnish us not only with well-defined ideas of celebrated person-
ages, but make us acquainted with the customs and habits of their
time. To history they give a body and a substance, by placing
before us those things which language is deficient in describing."
To the importance of such a pursuit, as the almost alone faith-
ful illustrator of history, the great necromancer of chivalry himself
bears undeniable witness : for, had he been a rubber of brasses and
a studier of effigies, would Sir Walter Scott have armed his Ivan-
hoe in a fashion, not known for more than two centuries after the
victor at Ashby-de-la-Zouch had left to other lords the fair domains
of R/Otherwood ?
Convinced, therefore, of the manifold advantages to be deduced
from the study of monumental brasses, (to revert once more exclu-
sively to this class of memorials,) and also practically conscious as
I am of the progressive and deepening interest which accompanies
that study, it is with sincere gratification that from the St. Alban's
Architectural Society, and the many other similar Societies
which now appear springing up on every side into vigorous exist-
ence, I anticipate the continual accession of fresh strength to the
already numerous ranks of the brass-rubbing fraternity; that term
of course, including the no less skilful and enthusiastic, than fair
sisters of the craft. I speak of Brass Rubbers the more particu-
larly, because it may be taken as an axiom in this, as indeed in
every pursuit directly connected with the professed objects of these
Societies, that practice is everything. What Mr. Paley remarks of
moldings, in his admirable essay on those most important archi-
tectural members, is true of the entire study, of the length and
breadth of archaeology. " The student," says Mr. Paley, " must
not only observe ; he must copy moldings, in order to understand
them. Without the latter, his knowledge can never be otherwise
than vague, partial, and imperfect :" — a passage which we now may
thus render, — It will be of but little use to look at brasses, if you
do not rub them. It is the rubbing brasses which leads to the
COXCLUDIN« REMARKS. 171
understanding them. Without this, at best vague, partial, and
imperfect must be our knowledge of the incised monumental
memorials of the middle ages.
At the same time, however, that I would insist upon the neces-
sity of a strictly practical study of monumental art, as the most
luminous and unerring of the illustrators of history, let me not be
supposed unmindful of those more elevated and awe-inspiring asso-
ciations which, in every rightly constituted mind, must, as I con-
sider, be inseparably connected with thoughtful reflection upon the
memorials of the dead. The roofs are hallowed which shelter those
memorials, and the ground on which we tread when in search for
them, is holy ground. Let nothing tempt us for a single moment
to forget the reverence due to scenes and localities such as these.
And, yet more, while seeking to augment our stores of information
upon subjects, becoming indeed and most valuable, but which the
very authorities we study proclaim to be changeable and evan-
escent, — may we ever bear in mind that our monuments, and they
too mouldering and ruinous, possibly may afford subjects of re-
search and also of admonition to distant generations: the su-
preme importance of erecting, if by any means we may be enabled
to erect in other regions an imperishable memorial, thus will be
impressed upon the mind; and that not the less convincingly,
because in the already time-worn monuments at our feet, we
recognise at once the origin of such a train of thought, and its
most powerful corroboration.
^ ]p p e n ti t X.
Compartment of Brass of Robert Braunche.
Lynn Refits, A D. 1361
Part of Canopy of
Dr. John Blodwell
Balsham Chorcti, Cambridge-
shire, A D. 1465.
^ ©lassifieti Hist of some fine examples of 23rasses,
I. BRASSES OF ECCLESIASTICS.
(1.) ECCLESIASTICS TN EPISCOPAL VESTMENTS.
Archbishop Grenfeld, York cathedral.
Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster abbey.
Archbishop Cranley, New college, Oxford.
Archbishop Harsenett, (with a cope,) Chigwell, Essex.
Bishop Trellick, Hereford cathedral.
Bishop Wyvill, Salisbury cathedral.
Bishop Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey.
Bishop Bell, Carlisle cathedral.
Bishop Goodrich, Ely cathedral.
176 APPENDIX (a).
c. 1375. Abbot Delamere, St. Alban's abbey church.
V 1498. Abbot Esteney, Westminster abbey.
(2.) ECCLESIASTICS VESTED IN THE CHESUBLE, &C.
c. 1310 De Bacon, Oulton, Suffolk. •
c. 1330. John de Grofhurst, Horsemonden, Kent.
1337. Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northants.
c. 1370. A priest, (unknown,) Shottesbroke, Berks.
c. 1375. Esmond de Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk.
1389. Richard Thasburg, Hellesdon, Norfolk.
1404. John Hunter, Clothall, Herts.
1407. A priest, (unknown,) West Wickham, Kent.
1410. John Balsham, BKssland, Cornwall.
c. 1430. A priest, (unknown,) Monkton, Kent.
1432. William Byschopton, Great Bromley, Essex.
1487. Roger Clerk, St. Peter's, Southgate, Norwich.
(3.) ECCLESIASTICS WITH A CHALICE.
c. 1360. A priest, (unknown,) Wensley, Yorkshire,
c. 1360. A priest, (unknown,) North Mimms, Herts,
c. 1400. A priest, (unknown,) Standford, Notts.
1429. John Yslington, Cley, Norfolk.
c. 1425. A priest, (unknown,) Brightwell, Berks,
c. 1465. A priest, (unknown,) Broxbourne, Herts.
1478. Ralph Parsons, Cirencester, Gloucestershire.
1498. Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers, Northants.
1527. William Richardson, Sawston, Cambridge.
1535. Thomas Westley, Wivenhoe, Essex.
(4.) ECCLESIASTICS VESTED IN THE COPE, &C.
c. 1370. WiUiam de Eulbourn, Eulbourn, Cambridge.
1383. John de Campden, St. Cross, Winchester.
C;LASSIFIED LIST OF FINE BRASSES. 177
1400. A priest, (unknown,) Hitchin, Herts.
1401. William Ermyn, Castle Ashby, Northants.
1401. John de Sleford, Balsham, Cambridge.
1403. Richard Malford, New college, Oxford.
1404. Henry de Codyngtown, Bottesford, Leicester.
1411. Thomas Pattesle, Great Shelford, Camb.
1413. William Langton, (kneeling,) Exeter cathedral.
1420. John Mapleton, Broadwater, Sussex.
1424. Thomas Harlyng, Pulborough, Sussex.
1425. John Mersden, Thurcaston, Leicester.
1428. William Mowbray, Upwell, Norfolk.
1436. William Prestwick, Warbleton, Sussex.
1465. John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambridge.
1471. Henry Sever, Merton college, Oxford.
1472. Thomas Tonge, Beeford, York.
1500. A priest, (unknown,) Winchester college chapel, Hants.
1517. Walter Hewke, Caius college, Cambridge.
1521. Christopher Urswick, Hackney, Middlesex.
(5.) ECCLESIASTICS IN CANONICAL AND ACADEMIC HABIT.
1361. Archdeacon William de Rothewelle, Rothwell, Northants.
1427. John Lowthe, New college, Oxford.
1 433. Thomas Nelond, prior of Lewes, Cowfold, Sussex.
1437. Galfridus Langley, prior of Horsham, St. Lawrence, Nor-
1441. Dr. William Hautryne, New college, Oxon.
1442. Dr. Richard Billingford, (kneeling,) St. Benet's, Cambridge.
1447. Geoffrey Hargreve, New college, Oxon.
1468. Thomas Hylle, New college, Oxon.
c. 1480. John Darley, Heme, Kent.
1494. Thomas Butler, Great Haseley, Oxon.
1515. John Stodely, Over Winchendon, Bucks.
c. 1520. Abbot Bewforreste, Dorchester, Oxon.
1528. Provost Hacumblene, King's college, Cambridge.
1534. Thomas Leman, (kneeling,) Southacre, Norfolk.
178 APPENDIX (a).
1558. Arthur Cole, canon of Windsor, Magdalen college, Oxon.
1578. Bishop Edmund Geste, Salisbury cathedral.
1615. John Wythines, dean of Battle, Battle, Sussex.
(6.) ECCLESIASTICS SHEWING THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE STOLE.
c. 1430. John West, chaplain, Sudborough, Northants.
c. 1435. A priest, (unknown and slightly mutilated,) Horsham,
II. BRASSES OE KNIGHTS AND OTHERS IN ARMOUR.
(1.) KNIGHTS IN MAIL-AEMOUR WITH GENOUILLIERES OF PLATE.
"^ 1277. Sir John d'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey.
» 1289. Sir Roger de Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridge.
1302. Sir Robert de Bures, Acton, Suffolk.
^ 1306. Sir Robert de Septvans, Chartham, Kent.
(2.) KNIGHTS IN MIXED MAIL AND PLATE ARMOUE.
c. 1320. Sir . . . . de Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex.
c. 1320. Sir . . . . de Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk.
1325. Sir John de Northewode, Minster, Kent.
1325. Sir John de Creke, Westley Waterless, Camb.
1327. Sir John d'Aubernoun II., Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey.
1345. Knight, (with cross, mutilated,) Wimbish, Essex,
c. 1347. Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk.
(3.) KNIGHTS OF THE CAMAIL PERIOD OF ARMOUR.
1354. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kenf.
1361. Sir John de Paletoot, Watton, Herts.
* This brass forms a part of the series of by none in interest and value. There is
noble plates yet remaining at Cobham ; not perhaps a finer brass in existence than
they comprise in all seventeen specimens, the memorial of Sir Nicholas Hauberk,
and of these a large portion are surpassed A.D. 1407.
A D 14 7
J R Johhmj , Fecit
§118 K]ICM®LAS HAWj
Gotham Church, Kent .
( Canopy &c, omitt-ed .
CLASSIFIED LIST OF FINE BRASSES. 179
1367. Sir Thomas de Cobham, Cobhara, Kent.
1368. Sir Thomas Cheyne, Draytou Beauchamp, Bucks.
*' 1370. Sir Ralph de Knevynton, Aveley, Essex.
c. 1370. Sir John Foxley, Bray, Berks,
c. 1375. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kent,
c. 1375. Sir ... . D' Argentine, Horseheath, Camb.
c. 1375. Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks.
' c. 1380. Sir Roger de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
1382. Sir Thomas Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland .
1382. Nicholas, Lord Burnell, Acton Burnel, Salop.
1384. Sir John Harsick, Southacre, Norfolk.
c. 1385. Sir .... de Maulevqrer, Allerton Mauleverer, York,
c. 1385. A knight, (unknown,) St. Michael's, St. Alban's.
1387. Sir Robert de Grey, Rotherfield Greys, Oxon.
1390. Sir Andrew Louttrell, Irnham, Liacolnshire .
1390. Sir John de Wingfield, Letheringham, Suffolk.
1391. Sir Robert Swynborue, Little Horkesley, Essex.
1392. Thomas, Lord Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester.
1400. Sir George Felbrigge, Playford, Suffolk.
c. 1440. Sir ... . Harflete, Chartham, Kent.
c. 1400. Robert Albyn, Hemel Hempsted, Herts.
1401. Sir Nicholas Dagworth, Blickling, Norfolk.
1401. Thomas, earl of Warwick, St. Mary's, Warwick.
/ 1402. Sir William de Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex.
1404. A Knight, (unknown,) Sawtry, Hunts.
1405. Sir Reginald Braybrook, Cobham, Kent.
1407. Sir William Bagot, Baginton, Warwick.
1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent.
1407. Robert, LordFerrers of Chartley, Merivale abbey, Warwick.
1408. Sir William Tendering, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk.
1409. Sir William Burgate, Burgate, Suffolk.
(4.) KNIGHTS IN CAMAIL AND TACES.
1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Cambridge.
1403. Sir Reginald de Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey.
1425. Robert Hay ton, Esq., Theddlethorpe, Lincoln.
l<i^ APPENDIX (a).
(5.) KXIGHTS IN COMPLETE PLATE-ARMOUR, WITH TACES.
1407. Sir John Lysle, Thornton, Hunts.
c. 1410. Sir John Wilcote, Tew, Oxon.
1411. Sir Thomas Crewe, Wixford, Warwick.
1412. Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex.
/ 1413. Sir Simon Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
1414, Sir Geoffrey de Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk.
1415. Sir Thomas Peryent, Digswell, Herts.
1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk.
/c. 1420. Sir Peter Halle, Heme, Kent.
1423. Sir Ralph Shelton, Great Snoring, Norfolk.
1424. Thomas, Lord Camoys, Trotton, Sussex.
1425. Sir Baldwin Seyntgeorge, Hatley St. George, Camb.
1426. Sir John de Brewys, Wiston, Sussex.
1426. Sir Thomas L'Estrange, Wellsbourn, Warwick.
1426. Sir John Brooke, Easton, Suffolk.
1430. Sir Thomas Bromfiete, Wymington, Beds.
1433. Sir John Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts.
' 1434. Sir Lawrence Fynton, Sunning, Berks.
c. 1435. Sir Thomas Wideville, Bromhara, Beds.
1438. Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester, Gloucester.
1441. Sir Hugh Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex.
1444. Sir Nicholas Manston, St. Lawrence, Kent.
1445. John Daundelyon, Margate, Kent.
1450. Walter Greene, Hayes, Middlesex.
c. 1450. Sir John Peryent II., Digswell, Herts.
1457. Sir John de Harpedon, Westminster abbey.
(6.) KNIGHTS WEARING A TABARD OF ARMS.
1424. John Waltele, Esq., Amberley, Sussex.
1444. Sir William Fynderne, Childrey, Berks.
c. 1450. Humphrey Oker, Esq., Oakover, Stafford.
CLASSIFIED LIST OF FINE BRASSES. 181
1473. Sir John Say, Broxbourne, Herts.
1477. John Feld, Esq., Standon, Herts.
1492. Piers Gerard, Esq., Winwick, Lancashire.
1501. Robert Baynard, Esq., Lacock, Wilts.
1506. Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk.
1526. John Shelley, Esq., Clapham, Sussex.
c. ] 546. Sir Ralph Verney, Aldbury, Herts.
(7.) KNIGHTS IN COMPLETE PLATE- AllMOUR, WITH LARGE TUILLES
AND COUDIERES, PAULDRONS, &C.
1451. John Bernard, Esq., Islesham, Cambridgeshire.
1459. Sir Thomas de Shernbourn, Shernborne, Norfolk.
c. 1460. Henry Parice, Esq., Hildersham, Camb.
1462. Sir Thomas Greene, Green's Norton, Northants.
1467. Sir William Vernon, Tong, Salop.
1471. John Goston, Swinbroke, Oxon.
1475. Robert Colte, Esq., Roydon, Essex.
1480. Sir Anthony de Grey, St. Albau's abbey church.
1480. John, Lord Strange, Hyllingdon, Middlesex.
1483. Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, Little Easton, Essex.
1484. Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb.
1492. Sir Henry Grey, Ketteringham, Norfolk.
(8.) KNIGHTS IN ARMOUR OF THE 16tH CENTURY.
1505. Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster abbey.
1507. William, Lord Beaumont, Wivenhoe, Essex.
1511. Richard Gill, Esq., Shottesbroke, Berks.
1529. Sir Robert Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk.
1531. Sir John Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset.
1546. Sir John Greville, Weston, Warwickshire.
1548. Sir William Molineux, Sefton, Lancashire.
1559. Sir Edward Greville, Weston, Warwick.
1593. Humphrey Brewster, Esq., Wrentham, Suffolk.
1594. John Clippesby, Esq., Clippesby, Norfolk.
182 APPENDIX (a).
III. BRASSES 01^ LADIES.
c. 1310. Margaret, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex.
1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent,
k 1325. Lady de North ewode, Minster, Kent.
1325. Lady de Creke, Westley Waterless, Carab.
1345. Lady, (with cross, mutilated,) Wimbish, Essex.
1349. Margaret de Walsokne, Lynn, Norfolk ^.
v^ 1349. Margaret Torriugton, Berkhampstead, Herts.
1360. Maud, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent.
1364. Margaret and Letitia Braunche, Lynn, Norfolk.
^ c. 1370. Wives of Sir John Foxley, Bray, Berks.
1372. Ismena de Wynston, Necton, Norfolk.
^ c. 1380. Lady Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
1381. Albreda Curteys, Wymington, Beds.
1382. Lady Burton, Little Casterton, Rutland.
'J 1384. Lady Harsyck, Southacre, Norfolk.
1385. Lady Margaret Cobham, Cobham, Kent.
1391. Lady Cecilia de Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk.
1391. Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon.
1391. Lady of Thomas de Topclyffe, Topcliff, York.
1392. Lady Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucester.
1393. Lady Walsh, Wanlip, Leicestershire.
1395. Lady Margaret Cobham, Cobham, Kent.
J 1399. Eleanor de Bohun, Westminster abbey.
1400. Lady Gassy, Deerhurst, Gloucester.
1401. Countess of Warwick, St. Mary's, Warwick.
1401. Lady Margaret Pennebrygg, Shottesbroke, Berks.
1407. Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick.
1407. Lady Ferrers of Chartley, Merivale abbey, Warwick.
1407. Lady Margaret Bromflete, Wymington, Beds.
1409. Lady Burgate, Burgate, Suffolk.
1411. Lady Crewe, Wixford, Warwick.
■" 1413. Lady Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
1415. Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts.
•^ See note p. 184.
CLASSIFIED LIST OF FINE BRASSES. 183
1417. Margaret Cheyne, Hever, Kent.
1420. Eleanor, Lady Cobliam, Lingfield, Surrey.
c. 1420. Lady Halle, Ilerne, Kent.
1425. Wife of William Chichele, Higham Ferrers, Northants.
1424. Elizabeth, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex.
1430. Agnes Salmon, Arundel, Sussex.
c. 1430. A lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey.
1433. Lady Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts.
1433. Matilda Chaucer, Ewelrae, Oxon.
c. 1435. Wives of Thomas Wideville, Bromham, Beds.
1436. Lady of Judge Martin, Graveney, Kent.
1441. Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex.
0. 1441. Philippa, Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex.
1444. Lady Fynderne, Childrey, Berks.
i 1446. Joyce, Lady Tiptoft, Enfield, Middlesex.
1458. Lady Staunton, Castle Donington^ Leicester,
c. 1460. Merchant's wife, Cirencester, Gloucestershire.
1465. Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex.
1467. Lady Vernon, Tong, Salop.
1473. Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts.
1479. Lady Strange, Hyllingdon, Middlesex.
1479. Lady Urswick, Dagenham, Essex.
1483. Countess of Essex, Little Easton, Essex.
1484. Wives of Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb.
1524. Letitia Terri, St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich.
1525. Emma Pownder, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich.
1526. Elizabeth Shelley, Clapham, Sussex.
1527. Lady Legh, Winwick, Lancashire.
c. 1530. Elizabeth Harvey, abbess, Elstow, Beds.
1531. Lady Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset.
1536. Ellen Evyngar, All-hallows, Barking, London.
1537. Countess of Oxford, Wivenhoe, Essex.
1548. Wives of Sir William Molineux, Sefton, Lancashire.
1594. Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk.
c. 1595. Mary Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth, Herts.
1598. Cicely Page, Bray, Berks.
184 APPENDIX (a).
IV. BRASSES OP CIYILIANS.
1349. Adam de Walsokne, Lynn Regis, Norfolk <=.
* 1350. Symon de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
)^1356. Richard Torrington, Berkhampstead, Herts.
1361. Alan Fleming, Newark, Notts.
1364. Robert Braunche, Lynn Regis, Norfolk.
c. 1370. A Frankelein, (with anlace,) Shottesbroke, Berks.
1381. John Curteys, (with anlace,) Wimington, Beds.
1391. John Corp, (with anlace,) Stoke Fleming, Devon.
1391. Thomas de Topclyffe, (with anlace,) Topcliff, York.
1400. Sir John Cassy, Deerhurst, Gloucestershire.
1401. William G revel, (with anlace,) Chipping-Camden, Glou-
1409. Edmund Cook, (with anlace,) Berkhampstead, Herts.
1419. Judge Lodyngton, Gunby, Lincolnshire.
1425. Wilham Chichele, Higham Ferrers, Northants.
1429. Roger Thornton, (with anlace,) Newcastle.
1431. Nicholas Canteys, (with anlace,) Margate, Kent.
/ 1436. Judge Martin, Graveney, Kent.
1458. John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucestershire.
1465. Sir Peter Arderne, Latton, Essex,
c. 1475. A notary, St. Mary Tower, Ipswich.
1477. John Feld, alderman, Standon, Herts.
1479. Sir Thomas Urswick, chief justice, Dagenham, Essex.
c. 1490. Civilian, (unknown,) founder. North Creak, Norfolk.
1524. John Terri, mayor, St. John's, Maddermarket, Norwich.
\ 1525. Thomas Pownder, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich.
1536. Andrew Evyngar, All-hallows, Barking, London.
c The engraving upon this fine brass is now nearly obliterated.
CLASSIFIED LIST OF FINE HllASSES. 185
V. DEMI-FIGURES •!.
c. 1320. Thomas de Hop, Kemsing, Kent.
c. 1340. Richard de Belton, Corriugham, Essex.
' c. 1350. John Verreu, Saltwood, Kent.
' c. 1360. Walter Frilende, Ockham, Surrey.
/ c. 1370. Ralph Peichehay, Stifford, Essex,
c. 1375. A priestj (unknown,) Berkhampstead, Herts.
1380. Alexander Chelsege, (with chalice,) Chinnor, Oxon.
' c. 1380. Robert Levee, Hayes, Middlesex.
1382. Adam Ertham, Arundel, Sussex.
c. 1390. Adam de Aldebourne, Lewknor, Oxon.
' 1391. William Lye, Northfleet, Kent.
1398. Roger Campedene, Stamford-in-the-Vale, Berks.
1417. William Tanner, Cobham, Kent.
1419. John Desford, (with chalice,) New college, Oxford,
c. 1430. John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent.
1445. John Kyllingworth, Merton college, Oxford.
c. 1450. William Carbroke, Wymington, Beds.
1457. John Bradford, St. Michael's, Lewes, Sussex.
/ 1458. John Bradstane, Ewelme, Oxon.
1478. Ralph Vawdrey, chaplain, Magdalene college, Oxford.
c. 1500. A priest, (unknown, with chalice,) Merton college, Oxford.
1507. John Frye, (with chalice,) New college, Oxford.
(2.) KNIGHTS AND LADIES.
c. 1290. Sir Richard de Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln,
c. 1310. A knight (unknown) in banded mail, Croft, Lincoln.
d At Beddington, Surrey, is a brass demi-figures of her children. It is a good
containing, beneath the full-length figure as well as a curious specimen,
of a lady of the Carew family, thirteen
186 APPENDIX (a).
1380. Sir Esmond de Malyns aud wife^ Chinnor, Oxon.
1403. Sir Ralph de Cobham, Cobhara, Kent.
14.24. Sir Jolin Framingham and lady, Debenbam, Suffolk.
1435. Sir William Arnold, Battle, Sussex.
c. 1375. John and Agnes de Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex,
c. 1395. A civilian, (unknown,) Temple church, Bristol.
VI. MISCELLANEOUS BRASSES.
(1.) FIGURES ON BRACKETS.
v^c. 1370. Sir John Eoxley and wives, (canopy destroyed,) Bray,
1387. John Bloxham and John Whytton, (with double canopy,)
Merton college, Oxford.
1405. John Strete, rector, (with figures of St. Peter and St.
Paul,) Upper Hardress, Kent,
v' 1414. Joan Urban, Southfleet, Kent.
1420. Robert Wyutryngham, priest, (with canopy,) Cotterstock,
c. 1420. Reginald Cobham, priest, (small, with canopy,) Cobham,
1437. Galfridus Langley, prior of St. Faith's, (canopy destroyed,)
St. Lawrence, Norwich.
(2.) CROSSES, &C.
c. 1310. Richard de Hart, priest, (demi-figure upon a cross, which
now is almost entirely destroyed,) Merton college, Ox-
CLASSIFIED LIST OP FINE BRASSES. 187
c. 1320. Nicliol de Gore, (Greek cross fleury, with full-length figure,)
/c. 1325. John de Bladigdone and wife, (demi-figurcs with cross-
fleury, much mutilated,) East Wickham, Kent.
c. 1330. A priest, (unknown, with mutilated cross,) Chinnor, Oxon.
c. 1345. A knight and lady, (unknown, with much mutilated cross,)
c. 1350. Nicholas Aumberdene, civilian, (with i&ne floriated cross,)
c. 1350. A priest, (unknown, with mutilated cross,) Merton college,
c. 1 370. Brittellus Avenel, priest, (demi-figure, with fine floriated
cross,) Buxtead, Sussex.
1400. Thomas Chichele and wife, (plain cross, with emblems,)
Higham Ferrers, Northants.
1400. Figures with floriated cross, Newton, Northants.
c. 1400. Fine floriated cross with effigy, (under the pews,) St. Mi-
chael's, St. Alb an' s.
/ 1408. John Lumbarde, priest, (with fine floriated cross,) Stone,
1408. Robert Parys and lady, (with fine floriated cross and
sacred emblem,) Hildersham, Camb.
1416. William Bacon, (cross fleury,) St. Mary's, Reading.
c. 1420. Robert Cheyne, (cross fleury,) Cassington, Oxon.
c. 1440. Richard Tooner, (cross fleury,) Broadwater, Sussex,
c. 1500. Plain cross, Royston, Herts.
1516. Thomas Burgoyne, (plain cross,) Sutton, Beds.
c. 1530. Thomas Bullayne, (small plain cross,) Penshurst, Kent.
.... Cross-fleury, Beddington, Surrey.
The Flemish brasses of the civihans at Lynn, Norfolk, and at
Newark ; of Abbot Delamere at St. Alban's ; of the ecclesiastic at
North Mimms, Herts ; and of the civilian at Newcastle, all affbrd
188 APPENDIX (a).
splendid examples of elaborate canopies. Amongst many others,
fine canopies also occur in the following brasses :
c. 1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent,
c. 1330. John de Grof hurst, Horsmonden, Kent.
1337. Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northants.
1347. Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk.
1354. Sir John de Cobham, Cobham, Kent.
c. 1365. Sir John de Mereworth, Mereworth, Kent,
c. 1370. A priest and frankelein, Shottesbroke, Berks,
c, 1370. William de Fulbourn, Fulbourn, Camb.
1381. John Curteys, Wymington, Beds.
1382. Sir Nicholas Burnell, Acton Burnel, Salop.
1382. An ecclesiastic, Cottingham, York.
1390. Sir Andrew Loutrell, Irnham, Lincoln.
1391. John Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon.
1394. Margaret, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent.
c. 1395. Sir Edward Dalyngrugge, Fletching, Sussex.
/ 1397. Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster abbey.
1398. Walter Pescod, Boston, Lincolnshire.
c. 1398. A civilian, (unknown,) Boston, Lincolnshire.
1399. Eleanor de Bohun, Westminster abbey.
1400. Sir John Cassy, Deerhurst, Gloucester.
1401. John de Sleford, Balsham, Camb.
1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Camb.
1402. Sir John de Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex.
1404. Henry de Codyngton, Bottesford, Leicester.
1405. Sir Reginald Bray brook, Cobham, Kent.
1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent.
1411. Sir Thomas de Crewe, Wixford, Warwick.
1412.) Sir Robert and Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley,
1414. Sir Galfridus de Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk.
* 1416. Sir George de Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk.
1417. Archbishop Cranley, New college, Oxon.
1419. Sir John de Lyndwode, Linwood, Lincoln.
1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk.
CLASSIFIED LIST OF FINE BllASSES. 189
1424. Lord and Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex.
1425. William Chicliele, Higliam Ferrers, Northants.
c. 1425. Canopy, (figure gone,) Stoke, Suffolk.
c. 1430. A lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey.
1432. William Byshopton, Great Bromley, Essex.
1433. Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex.
c. 1435. Sir Thomas Wideville, Bromham, Beds.
1436. Prior William Prestwick, Warbleton, Sussex.
1438. Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester.
1441. Sir Hugh Halsham, W^est Grinstead, Sussex.
c. 1441. Lady Halsham, West Grinstead, Sussex.
1444. Sir William d' Etchingham, Etchinghara, Sussex.
1444. Sir William Fynderne, Childrey, Berks.
1447. John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucester.
1448. Nicholas Dixon, (figure lost,) Cheshunt, Herts,
c. 1450. Humphrey Oker, Oakover, Stafford.
1458. Sir Robert Staunton, Castle Donington, Leicestershire,
c. 1460. Henry Parice, Hildersham, Camb.
c. 1460. Merchant and wife, Cirencester.
1462. Abbot Stoke, (mutilated and figure gone,) St. Alban's
1465. John Blodwell, Balsham, Camb.
1472. Robert Ingylton, Thornton, Bucks.
1484. Sir Thomas Peyton, Islesham, Camb.
1492. Piers Gerard, Winwick, Lancashire.
1494. Brian Roucliffe, Cowthorpe, York.
1496. Bishop Bell, Carlisle cathedral.
1498. Abbot Esteney, Westminster abbey.
1506. Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk.
1507. Lord Beaumont, (mutilated,) Wivenhoe, Essex.
Vni. CURIOUS BRASSES.
Of these it will be sufficient to specify :
c. 1400. Fragment of an abbot, (palimpsest,) St. Alban's abbey.
1426. Sir John de Brewys, (slab, semee of small scrolls,) Wiston,
190 appe:ndix (a).
c. 1450. William Lucas and family, (one of the children in episco-
pal vestments,) Wenden Lofts, Essex.
\ 1494. Brian RouclifFe, chief-baron, and lady, (holding model of a
church,) Cowthorpe, York.
c. 1500. An abbot, (unknown, palimpsest fragment,) Burwell,
/ c. 1510. Small Flemish plate to a knight and lady of the Compton
family : late in Netley abbey-church, but now in pri-
1527. Sir Peter Legh and lady, (armour worn beneath a che-
suble,) Winwick, Lancashire.
1527^ ) Walter Curzon and lady, (palimpsest,) Waterperry,
c. 1450.) Oxon.
Note. It will be borne in mind that the foregoing list contains only a selection of fine
specimens of brasses : it does not by any means pretend to comprise every fine or remark-
CIRCA A . U . 131!
In ScoiithcLl ClixiTcli .
APPENDIX (is). 191
Slabs sculptured in low relief occur in many parts of Germany :
of these the three specimens here introduced afford interesting and
valuable additions to a series of incised monumental figures, and at
the same time they satisfactorily exemplify that peculiar species of
memorial, which occupies the middle place between the effigy sculp-
tured in full relief and expressed by engraven lines ^.
In the leading essentials, no less of general treatment, than of
armour and costume, these monuments exhibit that resemblance to
English effigies, which might naturally have been expected in pro-
ductions of the same class and era ; while, at the same time, they
possess several highly characteristic features peculiarly their own.
The earliest of these three monuments is the memorial of Albract
Hohenloe, a German knight, who died A.D. 1319, and lies buried
beneath a slab of sandstone engraven with his effigy, in the church
of Schonthal. The knightly equipment here depicted will at once
call to remembrance the brasses of Sir John d'Aubernoun II., and
of Sir John de Creke, and the noble effigies of Prince John of
Eltham, and Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, though in
many respects it differs from the accoutrements of these knights.
The chief peculiarity, however, in this figure, and that which re-
» These effigies have been drawn from mental Art, published at Manheim by
an admirable German work on Menu- M. de Hefner,
quires special notice, is the Nasal ^, or defence for the face, which
in the present instance consists of a strip of mail, represented as
hanging down below the chin, over the camail : this strip, at the
pleasure of the wearer, could be raised and secured to a small stud
or rivet, attached for that purpose to the front of the bascinet; and
thus it could cover the greater part of the face, without materially
affecting either the sight or breathing.
The second slab bears date A.D. 1377, and commemorates Hew-
nel Landschaden and his lady : it is preserved in the church of
Neckarsteinach, Heidelberg. This knight wears plate-armour on
the limbs, with a bascinet, camail, hauberk, and jupon ; the latter
having short sleeves of peculiar construction, which partially cover
the armour of the upper arms. Chains are attached to the hilt of
both the sword and misericorde ; and a third chain is led over the
left shoulder of the knight,
in order to be attached to
his tilting-helm, which with
its crest is represented as
standing erect between the
heads of the two figures.
The lady wears the flowing
reticulated head-dress, with
a kirtle and mantle. The
figures are surmounted by
^ This curious arrangement for
protecting the face is also exempli-
fied in the annexed admirable cut,
drawn from the same German work,
for the sixth part of the Archaeo-
logical Journal, and from thence
transferred to this place. The figure
is that of Ulrich Landschaden,
knight, who dying A.D. 1369, was
interred in the same church with
Hewnel Landschaden at Neckarstei-
nach. Besides the nasal this effigy
is remarkable for the form and ar-
rangement of the jupon, and the evi-
dent absence of any defence of plate-
armour from the person of the knight.
CIRCA A. D i;
TME KMKG'HT HEJO-ffiL LANUSCHABEIf & ffllS lABYo
niRi'A AD. iio';
m MAJSJL OV WlEMTHEJOyl.
Ill Wertiieiin Qiurch.
J Ji.Mhuis Iiuc.
APPENDIX (b). 193
a slight yet elegant canopy, having, on either side of its central
finial, a shield of arms.
The elaborate and still very perfect slab of Johan Graaf von
Werthcim, A.D. 1407, completes this brief series of German
effigies : it lies in the church of Werthcim, of which the count
himself was the munificent founder. This knight, one of the most
renowned of a chivalrous race, is armed in a cuirass, with taces
deeply escalloped, and girded with the hip-belt ; the latter arrange-
ment being after the fashion exemplified in the brasses of Sir John
de Peryent and Sir Reginald de Cobliam : on his head is a basci-
net of peculiarly elegant form, surmounted by his coronet and
crest : his right hand rests upon his tilting-helm which is similarly
decorated, and in his left he grasps his banner of arms. The sin-
gularly fashioned zigzag or slashed sleeves, occasionally worn
at this period, appear hanging in ample folds from either side of
194 APPENDIX (c).
Note to page 14.
Since this page was in type the Author has been enabled to
examine the Lynn brasses, and he cannot refrain from here ex-
pressing his regret at their being in a condition far more unsatis-
factory than he had anticipated : the brass of Adam de Walsokne
is almost obliterated, and that of Robert Braunche most seriously
injured. These brasses, on a minute examination, appear decidedly
inferior in artistic merit to the memorial of Abbot Delamere at
St. Alban's, the work of the same artist.
Note to page 27.
Besides the Flemish brasses noticed in the text, there exists
in private possession a very curious small plate, the memorial of
a knight and lady of the Compton family, which once was fixed,
in fancied security, in Netley abbey church. This brass is a
square plate, measuring nineteen inches and a half; it contains the
figures of the knight and his lady, kneeling on a pavement, and
having on scrolls encircling their heads, portions of the fourth
and the eighth verses of the twenty-seventh Psalm. The back-
ground of the composition is diapered pine-apples and roses, and
the Compton badge a fire-beacon, with the legend ' So have I
CAUSE.' The date of this brass is about A.D. 1510.
APPENDIX (c). 195
Note to page 40.
For some interesting remarks upon the device of the star and
crescent, see the Archaeological Journal, vol. iii. p. 345. This
device occurs upon the seals of two documents, severally dated
A.D. 1256 and 1287, the property of Mr. Brabant, of «t. Alban's :
in one of these seals the device is reversed, the star being in base,
and the crescent in chief with its rays pointing downwards. The
same device is continually found in both public and private seals.
Note to page 91.
The Lady Elizabeth, Baroness Camoys, whose effigy is here
engraved from her monumental brass at Trotton in Sussex, was
daughter of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, and widow of
Henry Percy, the renowned Hotspur. In this fine brass, there-
fore, we have a portrait from the life of the " Lady Percy :" and
also a most valuable example of costume and armour to illustrate
both the histories of those stirring times, and the works of our
great dramatist. It were indeed well if artists, no less than
authors, would seek authorities from such memorials for the per-
sonal equipment of their heroes and heroines: and thus, by pre-
senting them to the eye and to the mind as they really were,
impart to their own works a degree of truthfulness and value in
which but too generally they are lamentably deficient.
Note to page 110.
Ralph Rowlat, late of St. Alban's, and of Sandridge, near St.
Alban^s, Esq., whose brass is noticed and figured at pages 110,
111, was the lineal ancestor of Sarah Jennings, duchess of Marl-
borough, and also of the Lords Maynard.
]96 APPENDIX (d).
With reference to the adoption of engraven plates of brass for
the purpose of monumental memorials at the present time, the
Messrs. Waller have published the following statements : " Sim-
plicity of design and boldness of outline are the distinguishing
features of a brass, yet admitting of detail more or less elaborate
according to circumstances; hence, a monument of appropriate ^
design may be obtained at a very moderate cost, the increase of
expense depending on the enrichment And an elaborate
brass, with canopies, figures, and ecclesiastical devices, inlaid with
appropriate colours, will be far less expensive than the incongruous
piles of stone or marble which disfigure and encumber so many of
our churches. That this branch of monumental art is capable of
much beautiful developement there can be no doubt ; and the
authors, having bestowed considerable time and attention on the
subject, are prepared to superintend the execution of brasses, for
which they will furnish original designs and estimates."
Upon the suitableness of brasses for monumental purposes, the
same gentlemen have also remarked that " the costly altar-tomb,
with its recumbent efiigies in the attitude of prayer, was unquestion-
ably a beautiful and devotional work of art ; but it was only attain-
able by individuals of rank or wealth, and besides this, in a church
of humble dimensions, its size seriously interfered with the interior
arrangements : but brasses, equally devotional in style and charac-
ter, occupied no portion of the church that could be required for
more important purposes ; their position for the most part was on
the floor, which they richly adorned, and it was also the best that
could be adopted for commemorating the departed, and at the
same time bringing practically before the minds of the living the
stern lesson ' Memento homo quia pulvis es, et in pulverem rever-
Materials for making rubbings of brasses and other incised
works of art, may be obtained of the publisher of this volume,
Mr. Bell, bookseller, 186, Fleet-street, London, at the following
prices : —
Heel ball, in cakes, at Id., 3d., and 1*. each.
White paper, in rolls, each 12 yards in length, and
57 inches wide
47 ditto ....
40 ditto .
23 ditto ....
ditto ditto a thinner quality
Other sizes or qualities of paper can be made to order ; but the
paper above specified will be found well adapted to almost every
Full particulars of price, &c., of the metallic rubber and black
rubbing-paper and grey mounting-paper, will be found in the
advertisement of the Inventor, Mr. Richardson, of Greenwich,
which is appended to this volume.
White paper and heel-ball may also be obtained of Mr. Dufour,
17 «, Great George-street, Westminster ; and of Mr. Limbird, 143,
Messrs. Eichards and Co., stationers, in St. Martin's Court,
London, also supply another style of paper, which is manufactured
for the envelopes of newspapers, but which will be found suitable
in some cases for brass-rubbings. The heel-ball is sold by the
manufacturer, Mr. UUathorne, of Long Acre.
19S APPENDIX (f).
The following remarks upon inscriptiojis on brasses, with their abbreviations and
contractions, are from the pen of the Rev. Dr. Jacob.
Inscriptions on sepulchral brasses are either round the ledge
or under the figure. In the former case a cross marks the com-
mencement, and this is sometimes repeated at the beginning of
each separate sentence. The intervals between the words are
occasionally filled up by animals, flowers, leaves, and foliated
ornaments'*. This is not common in inscriptions under the feet.
iT^ wfiNT jffinaiw
Part of Inecripticn. Monument of Sir Bernard Biocas, A.D. 1400 Westnimster Abbey.
The readers of these inscriptions have two difficulties to contend
with, the character in which they are written, and the language.
To these two may be added the contractions employed ; which,
being without any settled rule, frequently prove great stumbling-
Parts of Longobardic mscripiionB, MonumeDts of Henry III. and Eleanor of Castile,
A.D. r37i, and 1290 ■Westminster Abbey.
The more ancient inscriptions in what is called the Lombardic
character and in the old French language are frequently thought
^ See cut at p. 148.
APPENDIX (f). 199
illegible, from want of care in the rubbing, and from a want
of patience in the examination of them. But as there arc only
few of these, and some of the same expressions are found in all,
they are read with more ease than is usually supposed. Those
which are on incised slabs should be rubbed lightly ; otherwise the
decayed parts of the stone will leave their marks upon the paper
so strongly as to make the inscription confused, and the decipher-
ing of it difficult. An explanation of some of the words employed
will be found in the following list.
A little practice will master the Black letter, introduced early
in the fourteenth century, and which does not vary much in its
form. Inscriptions in this character abound in contractions which
are of the most arbitrary kind, and appear to have depended very
much on the size of the piece of metal, and the want of due
measurement on the part of the engraver. When the plate is
small the contractions are numerous : sometimes the engraver,
finding more space at the end to fill up than he had calculated
upon, puts the concluding words at full length, and the final
" amen" has each letter widely separate. On the brass of Simon
Felbrigge, in Felbrigg church, Norfolk, the words "eit" and
"amen" are repeated, so that no void space might be left, "eit
eit pite amen amen." And on the contrary, when the words in
the first part of the inscription are full, the rest are in very many
cases violently contracted.
The usual sign of the omission of a letter or letters is either a
short straight, or a slightly waved line, over that part of the word
where the omission occurs : the apostrophic mark is more common
at the end, though found in other places, particularly where " m "
or "n" is left out; as "mane'tes," "obiere't." The form of the
mark affords no clue whatever to the letters omitted; that can
alone be taught by practice and observation. Occasionally no
sign of contraction is given.
In Latin inscriptions there are certain conventional marks at
the end of words which are readily distinguished and learned:
these represent " um," " ur," " us," " er." One of more frequent
use is for " et," which is also found in English inscriptions for the
corresponding " and."
200 APPENDIX (f).
Diphthongs are never written, the concluding letter being the
only one inscribed, as "que" "for quae" &c. : "ci" is also fre-
quently used for "ti;" as "Marciis" for " Martiis," the month
In old French the article and the substantive are united; as
" salme" for "son ame," "lamur" for " 1' amour," &c.
Double " f" and double "p" are frequently found at the begin-
ning of words.
A contraction for " sir " is often seen on the brasses of eccle-
siastics, being a translation of the Latin " dominus ;" this title was
given to them as bachelors of arts : thus in the church of Chalfont
St. Peter's, Bucks :
" Of yer charite py for y^ soul of Sr Roberte Hamson sutyme
vycar of this church^, ^c."
Considerable difficulty arises occasionally, even in English
inscriptions, from the quaint and varied mode of spelhng. The
same word is often found in the same inscription in two, and
sometimes in three, different forms. To know what is really
meant, the best method is to pronounce the words as it is en-
graved, and the sound will frequently determine it ; as " fykell,"
" fickle ;" " lytyll," " little." It is not unusual to find the spelhng
of a word according to the provincial pronunciation of it; as
" moder," for "mother," " sens" for " since."
No rule whatever was observed in introducing capital letters
into inscriptions. They often appear of the same size as the other
letters of such words as they commence.
Border inscriptions engraved upon fillets of metal usually have
at the four angles, the emblems of the Evangelists, to signify that
the individual whose effigy is depicted died within the pale of the
An attention to these few observations and a little practice will
soon conquer any apparent difficulty.
The following lisr contains only those contractions and words
which appear most to require explanation, and will, it is hoped,
•> "Master" is a title also in many in- lation of the Latin "magister," — a mas-
stances bestowed upon ecclesiastics in their ter of arts. This word is often contracted,
monumental inscriptions; it is the trans-
facilitate in some degree the deciphering of inscriptions. To the
archaeologist these are valuable not only for the sake of palaeogra-
phy, and for the account given of the persons to whose memory
they are written, but also for incidental, but valuable information
concerning the history, &c. of their times.
All inscriptions should be rubbed very carefully in order to
secure the smaller strokes of the letters. They are much more
easily read from the rubbing than on the brass itself.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, CONTRACTIONS, AND
IN THE LEGENDS WHICH ARE ON
F. SIGNIFIES FRENCH.
a'i'ab, 1 . ,
' > ammabus
ar , armiger
avera, F. aura
' > animce
al, F. au
al, alle, all
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS,
c. a. p. d, cujus animcB propicietur
Cal', CalesicB, Calais
cely, F. celui
ces, F. ses
cis, F. six
cowched, couched, buried
cuj', \ cujus
cy, F. ici
dagust, F. d'Aodt
ds, > deus
del, F. du
dep'ted, / departed
■ F. dieu
disme, F. dixi^me
div'sis, diver sis
done, F. donne
J ^ C dauqhte
dowter, J ^
duquil, F. duquel
einne, 1 „
ei', ) .
eyre, heir, heiress
CONTRACTIONS, AND VARIED ORTHOGRAPHIES.
fitz, V F. //s
fist, F. fit
° V gratiee
gere, F. guerre
°. 'If. gisent
^^^^' I F. git
flC6', /'«?« de grace
1 , iri
lohes, > Johannes
' I Johannis
' V F. qui
lalme, F. I'dme
lamur, F. Vamour
leaten, letten, let
lendmayn, F. lendemuin
lez, F. leurs
lour, "i -
ly, F. lui
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS,
, . y maqtstn
m ri, ) ^
°'' \ our
malme, F. mon dnie
o' ni', omnium
' V mercy
oueke, F. avec
mes, > mensis
pais, F. pays
passets, F. passez
[ V militis
p'dc'a, pr (Edict a
morust, f ^
, >r. mourut
moys, F. mois
m'r, mater, master
mu du, mundum
p'do', > pardon
noun, F. name
pessoner, F. poissonnier
n'tre, F. notre
CONTRACTIONS, AND VAEJKD ORTIIOGllAPHIES.
phecez, F. peche's
q'ru, "4 quorum
q'm, / quarum
qure, quire, choir
qy, F. ywi
p'lege, per lege
plys, F. plus
rey, F. ro«
Pr » ypropriis
psbiter, ) , . ,
'■ V presbiter
^ V parson
se'du, > secundum
se'de, ) ,
pur, F. ^owr
seynt, > 5ff««^
q, F. jMi
qatre, F. quatre
seriets, F. serez
sez, F. s«>
sisme, F. sixieme
qe, F. qui
qestoit, F. qui Aoit
soubs, F. sous
qi, F. qui
soulis, / ,
^ ' I quondam
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, &C.
stapull of Caleys, staple
J \ steeple
su, F. suis, also sum
whoos, 1 ,
Will'ms, Wilelmus, Gulielmus
suster, 1 . ,
' I William
sy, F. ici
^ ' V which
■' y wives
tiers, \ J, ^^^ ^^.^^
trespassa, F. tr^passa, died
■^"' X Christi
troiscenz, F. trois cents
unzisme, F. ouzieme
^ J ' I F. vigil of a saint's
ys, Mis, A«s
verray, F. vrai
The figures of reference indicate the pages at which the several Terms
will be found fully explained and illustrated.
Achievement of arms, brass of Sir William and Lady Say,
Broxbourne. Herts. A.D. 1473. 12th Edw. IV.
Ailettes or Alerons
Almuce, Aumuce, or Almutium
Amice . . . .
Anlace . .
Apparel, or Parura
A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS.
Banded Ring-Mail ..... 39
Barbe : see Wimple ..... 94
Bascinet ...... 40
Baudriek, a belt so adjusted as to be worn over the
shoulder ...... 108
Brassarts ...... 49
Butterfly Head-dress ..... 75
Camail . . . . . . . 40, 78
Camail Period ...... 54
Canting Heraldry . . . . .53, 130
Caputium, or Capuchon . . . . 103
Casement, a hollow sunk in the face of a slab of stone or
marble, to receive the plates of a Brass : or any
similar indent. Also a hollow moulding.
Cerveiliere . . . . . . 159
Chain-Mail ...... 28
Chapelle-de-fer ..... 47
Chasuble, or Chesuble ..... 97
Chausses ...... 28
Chimere ...... 99
Coif-de-Mailles ..... 28
Collar of SS. ...... 133
Contoise . . . . . . 76, 77
Cope ....... 103
Cote-Hardi, a close-fitting garment or tunic : the term
is alike applicable to both male and female attire.
Coudieres ...... 37
Coverchef, a kerchief worn upon the head : see cuts at . 81, 82
Crozier, the official staff of an Archbishop . . 101
Cuirass ...... 59
Cuir-bouUi . . . . . . 43
Cuissarts ...... 49
Cuisseaux . . . . . .34
Culottes . . . . . .79
Cyclas ....... 39
Dalmatic ...... 99
A GI-OSS.\UY OF 'rKOHNICAI, TKItAFS. ;>09
Demi-Brassarts ..... 37
Demi-Placcate ...... 69
Diaper, ornamental surface-work, whether carved in
low relief, or worked in colour, or in some cases
both carved and coloured. It was a common prac-
tice with medieval artists thus to enrich tlie
heraldic tinctures of shields of arms. The shield
of AVilliam De Valence in Westminster abbey is a
splendid specimen of this usage.
Epauheres ...... 49
Evangelistic Emblems ..... 137
Fillet, a narrow strip of metal, or other material.
Fylfot ....... 28
Gadlyngs ...... 49
Gambeson, or Wambeys .... 39
Garde-de-brass ..... 68
Gauntlets, armed gloves.
Genouillieres ...... 27
Gonfanons ...... 32
Gorget ....... 45
Goussettes, or Gussets .... 49
Greek Cross, one in which the stem, head, and two
arms are all of equal length.
Guarded, bordered, as with fur : see cuts at . . 110
Guige, a shield-belt ..... 28
Gypciere, a large purse, worn appended to the girdle :
see cut at . . . . . . 110
Haqueton .... 35, and note (d) 39
Harness, armour, or any defensive equipment.
Haubergeon ...... 48
Hauberk . . . . . • 27
Hausse-col ...... 45
Haut-de-chausses ..... 45
Heel-ball . . . • • • 1^5
Heraldic crest, some device worn erect upon the lielmet :
it always rises from either a coronet, cap of mainten-
A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS.
ance, or wreath ; and when represented without
the helmet, may thus be distinguished from a
badge, which has no such accompaniment
Horned Head-dress : a most extravagant
specimen of this head-dress occurs in
a brass of an unknown lady at Ash
in Kent, c. A.D. 1460 .
Head, brass of a lady,
Ash, K:ent,c. A.D. 1460.
. 89, 90,91
100, and note (t) 101
Kirtle, a term best explained by stating it to be
synonymous with the modern word gown.
Lamboys ... . . .
Lance-Rest, a kind of hook attached to the cuirass on
the right side, for supporting the lance in the
Mantle, an outer robe, or cloak.
Mantling, or Contoise .
Matrices, indents or casements. See Casement
Mentoniere, a steel gorget or defence
for the throat and lower part of the
face : it was secured to the cuirass,
and also to the bascinet. A brass
at Whissonsett inNorfolk, furnishes
a curious specimen of a mentoniere
worn without the bascinet.
see cut at 73
. 76, 77, 78
Head of kDight, 'WtLissoaaett
A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 211
Mitre . . . . . . . 100
Mitred Head-dress ..... 90
Monogram, an abbreviation, initial letter, or some
Morse . . . . . . . 50, 103
Nasal, a defence for the upper part of the
face, or in some instances for the nose,
mouth and chin : the earlier form of the
nasal is shewn in the annexed cut from
the Painted Chamber, Westminster;
and for a description and illustration of
HeadofkBifthtwitb » ^^tcr Variety of this defence, see Ap-
Ba^al.Painted Chamber. ^^^^^^ (g)^
Nimbus, a glory surrounding the head of a Divine or
Nimbed, having the head encircled with a nimbus.
Orfrey, or Aurifragium . . . . 97
Orle or Wreath, a roll of cloth, silk, or velvet, of two
colours, encircling a helmet, and supporting an
heraldic crest : also any wreath ... 60
Palettes .... 37, and note (z) 59
Palimpsest ...... 147, 151
Pall, or Pallium . . . . . 100
Panache . . . . . . 31
Partlet ...... 89
Parura, see Apparel.
Pass-gardes ...... 78
Pastoral-staft^ the official baton of a bishop, abbot, or
abbess ...... 101
Pedimental Canopy ..... 82
Pedimental Head-dress ..... 93
Placcate ...... 68
Plastron-de-fer . . . . . .42
Pounced, studded, or ornamented with a repetition of
Pourpoint ...... 48
A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS.
Pryck-spurs, spurs having a single sharp point: see plates
at 31, 35, and Frontispiece.
Rerebrace, or Arriere-Bras ....
Reticulated Head-dress ....
Sideless Cote-hardi .....
Sollerets, pointed shoes, composed either of mixed mail
and plate armour, or entirely of plate
Super-Tunic, a dress worn above another; and so con-
structed and worn, as to display some portions of
the under garment.
Surcoat, any garment worn over defensive armour : the
term, however, is more generally applied to the
long and flowing drapery of knights anterior to the
introduction of plate-armour.
37, note (z) 59
Tabard . . ...
Tunic, see Rochet.
Vambrace or Avant-Bras
37, 43, 49
Vexillum . . .
. 26, 101
I. CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF BRASSES NOTICED IN THIS
1208. Simon De Beauchamp, St. Paul's, Bedford, (lost) . . 5
1242. Jocelyu, Bp. of Wells, Wells Cathedral, (lost) . . 5
1246. Abbot Richard, Westminster Abbey, (lost) . . 6
1247. Bishop Bingham, Salisbury Cathedral, (lost) . 6,118
V 1277. Sir John D'Aubernoun, Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey . 27
1279. Bishop Gravesend, Lincoln Cathedral, (lost) . . 6
1280. Simon Flambard, Rector of Much-Hadham, Herts, (lost) . 6
/ 1289. Sir Roger De Trumpington, Trumpington, Cambridgeshire . 30
1290. Sir Richard De Buslingthorpe, Buslingthorpe, Lincoln-
shire .... 22,30,33,53,113,124
1297. Bishop Longespee, Salisbury Cathedral, (lost) . . 6
1298. Ehas De Beckenham, Botsford, Cambridge, (lost) . . 6
1301. Simon De Walpole, Rector, Pulham, Norfolk, (lost) 6, 118
1302. Sir Robert De Bures, Acton, Suftblk . , .33
/ 1306. Sir Robert De Septvans, Chartham, Kent . . 33, 34, 43
c. 1310. Margaret, Lady Camoys, Trotton, Sussex . . 80, 131
c. 1310 De Bacon, (Priest). Oulton, Suffolk . . 95, 97, 115
c. 1310. Demi-figure in mail, Croft, Lincolnshire . . 28, 114
1312. Abbot Thomas De Totyngtone, Hedgerley, Bucks . . 151
/ 1315. Archbishop Grenfeld, York Cathedral . . 95, 101
1315. Richard De Hart, Priest, xMerton College, Oxon . 95, 97, 115
1320. Joan, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent . . .82
c. 1320. Sir De Fitzralph, Pebmarsh, Essex . . 37
c. 1320. Sir De Bacon, Gorleston, Suffolk . . 33, 36, 95
c. 1320. Thomas De Hop, Kemsing, Kent , . . .95
'^ 1325. Sir John De Northwode, Minster, Kent . . 24, 42, 53
/ 1325. Lady De Northwode, Minster, Kent . . 24, 44
1325. Sir John and Lady De Creke, Westley, Cambridge . 38
r' c. 1325. John De Bladingdown, East Wickham, Kent . .117
1326. Abbot Hugo D'Eversden, St. Alban s Abbey, (lost) . 1 1
/ 1327. Sir John D'Aubernoun II. Stoke D'Aubernoun, Surrey 39, 41
1330. Nichol De Gore, Woodchurch, Kent . . 95, 97, 120
c. 1330. John De Grofhurst, Horsmonden, Kent . . .97
CHROXOLOGICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
t c. 1350.
■; c. 1375.
V c. 1380.
Abbot De Wallingford, St. Alban's Abbey, (lost) .
Lawrence Seymour, Higham Ferrers, Northaiits
Abbot Michael De Mentmore, St. Alban's Abbey, (lost)
Knight, Lady, and Cross, Wimbish, Essex .
Sir Hugh Hastings, Elsyng, Norfolk
Abbot John De Sutton, Dorchester, Oxon, (lost)
Adam and Margaret De Walsokne, Lynn, Norfolk
Nicholas Aumberdene, Taplow, Bucks
Symon De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk, 106, and Appendix (F)
1349. Richard and Margaret Torrington, Berkhampstead,
9, 14, 137
Maud, Lady Cobham, Cobham, Kent
Priest, Wensley, Yorkshire
Priest, North Mimms, Herts
Sir John De Paletoot, Watton, Herts
Alan Fleming, Newark, Notts
William De Eothwelle, llothwell, Northants-
Robert Braunche and wives, Lynn, Norfolk
Sir Miles and Lady De Stapleton, Ingham
A Burgher, Bruges Cathedral
Sir Thomas Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks
Sir Ralph De Knevynton, Aveley, Essex . 22
Sir John Foxley and wives. Bray, Berks
Knight and Lady, Broughton, Lincolnshire
Ecclesiastic, Shottesbroke, Berks
Frankelein, ibid. ....
Ismena De Wynston, Necton, Norfolk
Britellus Avenel, Buxtead, Sussex
John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde, Rusper, Sussex
Esmond De Burnedish, Brundish, Suffolk .
Sir John De Cobham, Cobham, Kent
Sir .... D'Argentine, Horseheath, Cambridge
Fragment of Abbot, (Flemish, in private possession
Abbot Delamere (died 1396), St. Alban's Abbey
Sir William Cheyne, Drayton Beauchamp, Bucks
Bishop Wyvill, Salisbury Cathedral
Robert Attelathe, Lynn, Norfolk, (lost)
Sir Roger and Lady De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk
Nicholas, Lord Burnell, Acton Burnell, Salop
Sir Thomas and Ladv Burton, Little Casterton,
land . " . . 55,62,85,126,142
John De Campden, St. Cross, Winchester . . . 104
Sir John and Lady Harsyck, Southacre, Norfolk . 55, 85
9, 20, 97
9, 20, 97
9, 19, 84
9, 16, 84
CHKONOLOGIC.VL INDEX OF BRASSES. 215
c. 1385. Kiiig-lit, St. Michael's, St. Albaii's . . .55
f c. 1385. Sir .... De Mauleverer and Lady, AUei'ton Mauleverer,
York . . . . .50,57
1387. John Bloxham and John Whytton, Merton College, Oxford 122
1389. Richard Thasburg, Hellesdon, Norfolk . . . dQ
1390. John De Bettesthorne, St. Michael in Mere, Wilts . .142
1391. Lady CeciUa De Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk . . 84
1391, 1361. John and Eleanor Corp, Stoke Fleming, Devon
85, 108, 122, 127
1391. Sir Robert Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex 1, 65, 127, 129
1391. Thomas De Topclyffe and Lady, TopclifF, York . 9, 20
1392. 1417. Thomas Lord Berkeley and Lady, Wotton-under-Edge,
Gloucester ..... 5Q, 135
1393. Sir Thomas and Lady Walsh, Wanlip, Leicester . 86, 143
•^ 1397. Archbishop Waldeby, Westminster Abbey . 64, 67
y 1399. Eleanor De Bohun, Westminster Abbey 22, 94, 127, 130, 146
1400. Sir George Felbrigge, Playford, Suffolk . . .68
1400. Sir John Cassy and Lady,.Deerhm-st, Gloucester Q5, 86, 108, 143
1400. Ela Bowet, Wrentham, Suffolk . . . .86
1400. Thomas Chichele and wife, Higham Ferrers, Northants . 117
1400. Cross with Figures, Newton, Northants . . . 120
/ c. 1400. Robert Albyn and Lady, Hemel Hempsted, Herts 49, 57, 152
c. 1400. Cross with effigy, St. Michael's, St. Alban's . . 120
c. 1400. Lady, unknown, St. Lawrence, Norwich . . .86
c. 1400. Ecclesiastic, Hitchin, Herts . . . 103, 124
c. 1400. Abbot St. Alban's Abbey . 143, 148
1401. William Ermyn, Castle Ashby, Northants . . 104, 105
1401. Sir Thomas Braunstone, Wisbeach, Cambridge . . 60
1401. Sir Nicholas Dagworth, Blickling, Norfolk . . .68
1401, 1406. Earl and Countess of Warwick, Warwick . . 73
1401. Lady Margaret Pennebrygg, Shottesbroke, Berks . . 87
1401. John De Sleford, Balsham, Cambridge . . .104
/ 1402. Sir William De Fiennes, Hurstmonceaux, Sussex . .142
1403. Sir Reginald De Cobham, Lingfield, Surrey . . 59
1404. Knight and Lady, Sawtry, Hunts . . . 63, 90
1405. John Strete, Upper Hardress, Kent . . 122, 141
1405. Henry Nottingham and wife. Holme, Norfolk . . 87
1407. Sir John Lysle, Thornton, Hunts . . . .62
1407. Sir William and Lady Bagot, Baginton, Warwick 56, 68, 86, 1 34
1407. Lord and Lady Feri'ers of Chartley, Merivale Abbey, Warwick 55
1407. Lady Margaret Bromflete, Wymington, Beds . . 65
1407. Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Cobham, Kent, Appendix (A).
1408. Sir William Tendring, Stoke, Suffolk . . .55
1408, Robei't Parys and Lady, Hildershara, Cambridge . .119
216 CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
1410. John Balsham, Blissland, Cornwall . . .147
1411 1418. Sir Thomas and Lady Crewe, Wixford, Warwick
67, 78, 86, 90, 158
.. 1411. Sir John Drayton, Dorchester, Oxon . . 65,134
1412. Sir Thomas Swynborne, Little Horkesley, Essex 55, 60, 127, 134
1413. Sir Simon and Lady De Felbrigge, Felbrigg, Norfolk
63, 67, 86, 90, 135, 136
1413. William Langton, Exeter Cathedral . . .102
1414. Sir Galfridus De Fransham, Great Fransham, Norfolk . 66
1414. Simon Bache, Knebworth, Herts . . • -104
X 1414. Joan Urban, Southfleet, Kent .... 122
1415. Sir Thomas and Lady Peryent, Digswell, Herts . 61, 134
1416. Robert Hallum, bp. of Salisbmy, Constance Cathedral 25, 128
1417. Archbp. Cranley, New College, Oxford . 100, 104, 128
1417. Margaret Cheyne, Hever, Kent . . • .87
/ 1418. John Lumbarde, Stone, Kent . • • -119
1420. Sir William Calthorpe, Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk 66, 127
/ 1420. John Mapleton, Broadwater, Sussex . . -104
1420. Robert and Anne Poyntz, Iron- Acton, Gloucester . .143
c. 1420. Sir Roger Cheyne, Cassington, Oxon . . .118
c. 1420. Sir Peter and Lady Halle, Heme, Kent . . 55, 62, 90
1421. Richard Delamere, Hereford Cathedral . . .13
1423. Sir Ralph and Lady Shelton, Gt. Snoring, Norfolk 71, 90
/ 1424. John Wantele, Esq., Amberley, Sussex . . .71
1424. Sir John and Lady Framingham, Debenham, Suffolk . 114
1424. 1419. Thomas, Baron Camoys, and Lady, Trotton, Sussex
1425. Robert Hayton, Esq., Theddlethorpe, Lincoln . . 60
0. 1425. William Mowbray, Upwell, Norfolk
1426. Sir John De Brewys, or Braose, Wiston, Sussex
1426. Sir John Brooke, Easton, Suffolk .
1428. John Norwich, Esq., Yoxford, Suffolk
1429. Roger Thornton and family, Newcastle
1430. Sir Thomas Bromflete, Wymington, Beds .
1430. Henry Hawles, Arreton, Isle of Wight
^^ 1430. Agnes Salmon, Arundel, Sussex
c. 1430. A Priest, (unknown,) Horsham, Sussex
c. 1430. A Lady, (unknown,) Horley, Surrey
c. 1430. John West, Sudborough, Northants
^ 0. 1430. John Tubney, Southfleet, Kent
V 1431. Niqholas Canteys, Margate, Kent
1433. Sir John and Lady De Leventhorpe, Sawbridgeworth,
Herts . ... 65, 67, 86, 131
1433. Prior Nelond, Cowfold, Sussex . . 104, 128, 138
47, 65, 143
CHRONOLOGICAL INDKX OF BRASSES.
Hugo and Margaret Bostock, Wheathamstede, Herts . 108
Robert and Joan Skerne, Kingston, Surrey . 91, 108
Galfridus Langley, St. Lawrence, Norwich . .120
John Barron and wife, All-Hallows, Barking, London . 124
Sir Bryan and Lady De Stapleton, Ingham, Norfolk, (lost) 65, 91
Sir Richard Dyxton, Cirencester, Gloucester . . 69
Edmond Ford, Swainswick, Somerset . . . 1 44
Civilian and wife, Hitchin, Herts . . . .108
Richard Tooner, Broadwater, Sussex . . .118
Lady Halsham, (died 1395,) West Grinstead, Sussex 86, 92, 154
Sir Hugh and Lady Philippa Halsham, West Grinstead,
Dr. Richard Billingford, St. Benet's, Cambridge
Richard Burton, Twickenham, Middlesex .
Sir Nicholas Manston, St. Lawrence, Kent
Sir William and Lady Fynderne, Childrey, Berks
John Daundelyon, Margate, Kent .
Walter Greene, Hayes, Middlesex .
Sir John Peryent, Digswell, Herts
Lady, (unknown,) Luton, Beds
Wm. Lucas and family, Wenden Lofts, Essex
Sir John De Harpedon, Westminster Abbey
John Fortey, Northleach, Gloucester
Sir Robert Staunton and Lady, Castle Donington, Leicester-
Sir Thomas De Shernbourn, Shernbourne, Norfolk
Henry Parice, Hildersham, Cambridge
Abbot Stoke, St. Alban"s Abbey Church
Thomas Cod, Rochester
Sir Peter and Lady Arderne, Latton, Essex
Priest, Broxbourne, Herts .
John Blodwell, Balsham, Cambridgeshire
Henry Parice, Hildersham, Cambridgeshire
Sir William Vernon and family, Tong, Salop
Sir Humphrey Bourchier, Westminster Abbey
Robert Beauner, St. Alban's Abbey Church
Warden Sever, Merton College, Oxon
c. 1375. Walter Beaumont, Trunch, Norfolk
Sir John and Lady Say, Broxbourne, Herts
A Notary, St. Mary Tower, Ipswich
Robert Colte and Lady, Roydon, Essex
John Feld and son, Standon, Herts
Aima Boleyn, Blickling, Norfolk
Sir John and Lady Fastolf, Oulton, Suffolk
86, 92, 131
. • 1
6, 91, 110
73, 86, 91
47, 74, 86, 132
CHRONOLOGICAIi INDEX OP BRASSES.
. c. 1480.
Bp. Boothe, East Horsley, Surrey
Sir Thomas Urswick and family, Dagenham, Essex
Sir Anthony De Grey, St. Alban's Abbey Church
Margaret Willoughby, Raveningham, Norfolk
Knight with coronet, in private possession
Lady Clopton, Melford, Suffolk
Archdeacon Ruding, Biggleswade, Beds
Earl and Countess of Essex, Little Easton, Essex
47, 76, 86, 134, 136
Sir Thomas Peyton and wives, Islesham, Cambridgeshire 76, 88
Isabella Cheyne, Blickling, Norfolk . . .92
Robert Alen, Martham, Norfolk . . . .123
Elizabeth Clere, Stokesby, Norfolk . . .88
William Berdewell, West Harling, Norfolk . . 76
William Curteys, Holmhale, Norfolk . . .113
Civilian, (founder,) North Creak, Norfolk . . .138
Sir Henry and Lady Grey, Ketteringham, Norfolk 76, 91
Piers Gerard, Esq., Winwick, Lancashire . . 77
Brian Roucliffe and Lady, Cowthorpe, York
Bishop Bell, Carlisle Cathedral . . . 100, 101
Louis De Corteville and Lady, Museum of Geology, London 27
Abbot Esteney, Westminster Abbey . 99, 101, 127, 128
Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers, Northants . . 98
William and Agnes Complyn, Wyke, Hants . .140
Civilian and Lady, Clippesby, Norfolk . . 88,111
Lady, St. Swithun's, Norwich . . . .89
A Notary, New College, Oxford . . . .113
c. 1550. Ecclesiastic, Burwell, Cambridge . . 148
Sir Humphrey Stanley, Westminster . . .78
Sir Roger L'Estrange, Hunstanton, Norfolk . 72, 78
A Notary, Church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich . .113
Lord Beaumont, Wivenhoe, Essex . . 77, 143
John and Roger Yelverton, Rougham, Norfolk . .126
Sir .... Compton and Lady, in private possession, Appen-
dix (E). * ■' ' ^/,ytf^^^A^L^^j^ (
Richard Gill, Shottesbroke, Berks . . . .78
Thomas and Dorothea Peckham, Wrotham, Kent . . 89
Anne Asteley, Blickling, Norfolk . . . .126
John Ackworth and two wives, Luton, Beds . . 78
Margaret Pettwode, St. Clement's, Norwich . . 93
John Sylan and two wives, Luton, Beds . 78, 88, 89, 93
Thomas and Eliz. Burgoyne, Sutton, Beds . . .118
Walter Hewke, Caius College, Cambridge . 104, 105
CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF BRASSES. 219
1518. John Symonds and family, Cley, Norfolk . . .147
1519. James Torney and wives, Slapton, Bucks . . .135
1519. Joanna Braham, Frense, Norfolk . . . .94
1520. John and Elizabeth Heyworth, Wheathamstede, Herts • 1U8
1520. William Palmer, Ingoldmels, Lincolnshire . .141
0.1520. Ecclesiastic, King's College, Cambridge . . .145
c. 1520. A Notary, Cathedral of St. Sauveur, Bruges . .113
c. 1520, c. 1450. Humphrey Okerand family, Oakover, Stafford 127, 153
c. 1520. 1452. Duchess of Norfolk, Stoke-by-Nayland, Suffolk . 154
•■' c. 1520. Abbot Bewforreste, Dorchester, Oxon , . .156
I-' 1521. Dr. Christopher Urswick, Hackney, Middlesex 104, 105
] 524. John Terri and wife, St. John's Maddermarket, Norwich 122, 133
/ 1525. Thomas Pownder and family, St. Mary Quay, Ipswich
23, 89, 111, 125, 132, 145
1526. Bishop Young, New College, Oxon . . .147
/ 1526. John Shelley and wife, Clapham, Sussex . 72, 130
1527. Sir Peter and Lady Legh, Winwick, Lancashire
77, 93, 97, 132, 133
1527. c. 1450. Walter Curzon and Lady, Water Pery, Oxford 153
1528. Agnes Bulton, Alton Priors, Wilts . . . .141
1528. Provost Hacumblene, King's College, Cambridge . . 137
k 1529. Margaret Saunders, Fulham, Middlesex . • . .23
1529. Sir Robert Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk . . .143
c. 1530. Eliz. Harvey, Abbess, Elstow, Beds . . .95
1531. Sir John and Lady Horsey, Yetminster, Dorset . .143
1532. Wife of Robert Goodwin, Necton, Norfolk . . 93
1534. Thomas Leman, Rector, Southacre, Norfolk . .106
1534. John Bollart, Canon, Cathedral, Aix-la-Chapelle . . 27
1537. c. 1435. Thomas Widville and two wives, Bromham, Beds 154
\ 1536. Andrew Evyngar and family. All-hallows, Barking
1537. William Layer, St. Andrew's, Norwich . . .111
1537. Alice Wyrley, Flore, Northants . . . .118
1538. Sir Thomas Bullen, Hever, Kent . . 113, 135, 147
1538. c. 1420. Alicia De Clere, Ormesby, Norfolk . . 152
1539. Henry Bures, Esq., Acton, Suffolk . . .34
1540. William Curtes, South Burlingham, Norfolk . . 122
1540. Margaret Bulstode, Hedgerley, Bucks . . .150
1543, c. 1405. Sir William Dalison (?) Langton, Lincoln . 152
1546. Sir John Greville, Weston, Warwick . . ,80
V c. 1546. Sir Ralph Verney and Lady, Aldbury, Herts , . 72
1548. Sir Wm. Molineux and two wives, Sefton, Lancashire . 79
1550. Shield of arms, late in St. Martin's Church, Norwich , 150
c. 1550. RalfRowlatt, St. Alban's Abbey Church . . .111
1551. Anne Duke, Frense. Norfolk .... 139
CHEONOLOGICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
1554. Bishop Goodrich, Ely Cathedral .
1559. Sir Edward Greville, Weston, Warwick
1563. William Norwich, St. George Colgate, Norwich
1567. Thomas Noke and wives, Shottesbroke, Berks
1568, c. 1460. Peter Rede, St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich
1577, Anne Eede, St. Margaret's, Norwich
1591. James Grey, Hunsdon, Herts
1593. Humphrey Brewster, Wrentham, Suifolk
1594. John and Julian Clippesby, Clippesby, Norfolk
1598. Cicely Page, Bray, Berks .
1599. Sir Edward Grimston, Rishangles, Suffolk .
1601. John Shorlond, Woodbridge, Suffolk
1608. John Burton, Burgh, Norfolk
1609. Ann Sewell, Coventry, Warwick
1610. Isaia Bures, Vicar, Acton, Suffolk .
1610. Sir Edw. Grimston, H., Rishangles, Suffolk
1611. Archbishop Harsenett, Chigwell, Essex
1621, 0. 1500. Peter Dolman, Howden, York
1638. Sir Edw. Filmer and family. East Sutton, Kent
II. TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSES NOTICED IN THIS
1208. .Simon De Beauchamp, (lost) .
1482. .Archdeacon Ruding .
1537, c. 1435. .Thos. Widville and two wives
c. 1530. .Eliz. Harvey, Abbess
0. 1450. .Lady (unknown)
1513. .John Ackworth and two wives
1516. .John Sylan and two wives . 78, 88
1516. .Thos. and Ehz. Burgoyne
1407. .Lady Margaret Bromflete
1430..Sir Thos. Bromflete .
c. 1370. .Sir John Foxley and two wives 83, 122
. 1598.. Cicely Page ... 94
. 1444..SirWm. and Lady Fynderne 71,86,91
c. 1370.. Ecclesiastic . . . 96,107
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSKS.
Shotteshroke c. 1370. .Frankelein
. 1401 . .Lady Margaret Pennybrigg
. 1511.. Richard Gill .
■ . 1567. .Thos. Noke and two wives
t'^rayton-Beauehamp 1368. .Sir Thos. Cheyne
Cambridge : —
St. Beliefs Church
King's College c.
1 375.. Sir Wm. Cheyne
1312. .Abbot Thos. De Totyngtone
1540. .Margaret Bulstrode
1519. .James Torney and wives
1350. .Nicholas Aumberdene
1401.. Dr. JohnDe Sleford .
1465..Dr. John Blodwell .
1298. .EHas De Beckenham, (lost)
1500, c. 1550. .Ecclesiastic .
1442. . Dr. Rich. Billingford
1517..Dr. WalterHewke .
1520. . Ecclesiastic
1528. .Provost Hacumblene
1554. .Bishop Goodrich
1375.. Sir .. D' Argentine
1408. .Rob. Parys and lady
1460. .Henry Parice
1465. .Henry Parice
1484. .Sir Thos. Peyton and wives
1289. .Sir Roger De Trumpington
1325 . . Sir J. and Lady De Creke
1401 . .Sir Thos. Braunstone
1410. .John Balsham
Carlisle Cathedral 1494. .Bishop Bell .
. 76, 88
Exeter Cathedral 1413. .William Langton . . .102
Stoke.Fleming . 1391, 1361 . . John and Eleanor Corp 85,108,122,127
1531 . .Sir John and Lady Horsey
K^y^orhesley , Little
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OP BRASSES.
Sir Ralph De Knevynton 22, 46, 51, 142
Archbishop Harsenett . 101, 104
Sir Thos. Urswick and family . 92, 1 10
, Earl and Countess of Essex 47, 76, 86, 1 34, 1 36
Sir Robert Swynborne 1, 55, 127, 129
Sir Thos. Swynborne 1, 55, 60, 127, 134
Sir Peter and Lady Arderne
Sir . . De Fitzralph .
Rob. Colte and lady
-Wm. Lucas and family
Knight, Lady, and Cross
^Votton -under -Edge
1438. . Sir Rich. Dyxton
1400. .Sir John and Lady Cassy
1420. .Rob. and Anne Poyntz
1 458.. John Fortey .
1392, 1417. . Thos. Lord Berkeley and lady
Arretonjsle of Wight 1 430 . . Henry Hawles
St. Cross, Winchester 1383. .John De Campden .
Wyke . 1498. .Wm. and Agnes Complyn
Hereford Cathedral 1421
.Sir Ralph Verney and lady
1349. .Richard and Margaret Torring-
ton . . . . 84, 106
.A Priest .... 98
.Sir John and Lady Say 47, 74, 86, 132
. Sir John and Lady Peryent
.Sir John Peryent .
.Rob. Albyn and lady
. Civilian and wife
.Simon Flambard, (lost)
. 61, 134
49, 57, 152
, 20, 97
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
St. Alban's: —
^ Ahhey Church
Minster, Isle of
> Wickham, East
1326. .Abbot Hugo D'Eversden, (lost) . 11
l335..Abbot De Wallingford, (lost) . ib.
1342. .Abbot De Meiitmore, (lost) . 10
c. 1375. .Abbot Delamere, (died 1396) 9, 11, 97
c. 1400.. Abbot, (unknown) . . 143,148
1462.. Abbot Stoke ... 128
c. 1470.. Robert Beamier . . .124
1480. .Sir Anthony De Grey . 73, 134
c. 1550.. Ralph Rowlatt . . . Ill
c. 1385.. A Knight .... 55
c. 1400.. Cross with effigy .- . . 120
1433. .Sir J. andLadyDeLeventhorpe 65,67,86, 131
. 1477..JohnFeldandson . . 111,132
. 1 361.. Sir John De Paletoot . . 51
c. 1435. .Hugo and Margaret Bostock . 108
1520. .John and Eliz. Hey worth . . ib.
. 1404.. Knight and lady . . . 63,90
. 1407.. Sir John Lysle ... 62
, 1306 . . Sir Robert De Septvans
1320. .Joan, Lady Cobham
, 1360.. Maud, Lady Cobham
c. 1375. .Sir John De Cobham
. 1407 . .Sir Nicholas Hawberk, Appendix
1405. .John Strete, Rector
c. 1420 . .Sir Peter and Lady Halle .
1417 . . Margaret Cheyne
1538..Sir Thos. Bullen
c. 1330. .John De Grofhurst
c. 1320.. Thos. De Hop
. 1431 . .Nicholas Canteys
, 1445. .John Daundely on
1325. .Sir John De Northwode
1325. .Lady De Northwode
. 1465.. Thomas Cod
. 1444. .Sir Nicholas Manston
. 1414. .Joan Urban .
c. 1430.. John Tubney
1418. .John Lumbarde
l638..Sir Edw. Filmer .
c. 1 325 . . John De Bladingdown
33, 34, 43
. 53, 138
. 122, 141
55, 62, 90
24, 42, 53
. 24, 44
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
.Nichol De Gore .
. Thos. Peckham and Avife .
. cSir Wm. Molineux and wives
.Sir Rob. Staunton and lady
. .Sir Thos. and Lady Walsh
.Knight and lady ,
. 56, 124
1290.. Sir R. De Buslingthorpe 22, 30, 33, 53, 113,124 |
.Demi-figure in mail
.William Palmer .
c. 1405..Sir Wm. Dalison, (?)
. Bp. Gravesend, (lost)
All-hallows, BarUng 1437.
.John Barron and wife
.A. Evyngar and family 23,89,111,125,132,133 |
, Margaret Saunders
. Walter Greene
Museum of Geology 1496 .
. Louis De Corteville and lady
/ Westminster Abbey
.Eleanor De Bohun 22, 94, 127
.Sir John De Harpedon
, 130, 146
. Sir Humphrey Bourchier ,
.Abbot Esteney . 99,101
, 127 128
.Sir Humphrey Stanley
. Sir Nicholas Dagworth
.Isabella Cheyne . • .
.Sir Wm. Calthorpe
.John Symonds and family .
. Civilian and lady .
.John and Juhan Clippesby
TOPOGKAPHICAL INDEX OF BKASSES.
.Civilian, (founder) ,
.Sir Hugh Hastings
. Symon De Felbrigge
. Sir Roger and Lady De Felbrigge . 84 |
.Sir Simon and Lady De Felbrig
63, 67, 86
X X 1 1-' •
90, 135, 136
. Sir Galfridus De Fransham
. Joanna Braham
lOO i .
. Richard Thasburg .
.Henry Nottingham and wife
. Wm. Curteys, Notary
. Sir Roger L'Estrange
. 72, 78
. Sir Miles and Lady De Stapleton,(lost) 51 ,55,84
.Sir Bryan and Lady De Stapleton, (lost) 65,91
. Sir Henry and Lady Grey
. 76, 91
.Adam and Margaret De Walsokne 9, 14, 137 |
. Robert Braunche and Avives
.Robert Attelathe, (lost)
. 9, 16, 84
. 10, 19
.Ismena De Wynston
. Wife of Robert Goodwin .
NOEAVICH : —
. Margaret Pettwode
St. George Colgo
St. Johi's Mad-
. John Terri and wife
. 122, 133
.Galfridus Langley .
.Ann Rede .
. 139, 140
.Shield of Arms
St. Peter' sMancr
c. 1460.. Peter Rede
. Sir Robert De Clere
c. 1420.. Alicia De Clere .
.Simon De Walpole, (lost) .
. Margaret Willoughby
. Lady Cecilia De Kerdiston .
. John and Roger Yelverton .
. Sir Thos. De Shernbourn .
. 73, 91
. Sir Ralph and Lady Shelton
.Elizabeth De Clere
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
' South Acre
. 1384 . .Sir John and Lady Harsick
. 1534. .Thomas Leman
. 1473, c. 1375. .Walter Beaumont .
c. 1425. .William Mowbray
. l40l..Wm. Ermyn
. 1 537.. Alice Wyrley
. 1337. .Lawrence Seymour
. 1400. .Thos. Cliichele and wife
. 1498.. Henry Denton
. 1400. .Cross with figures .
. l361..Wm. DeRothwelle
c. 1430.. John West
. 1429. .Roger Thornton and family
. 1361 . .Alan Fleming
9, 19, 84
c. 1 420.. Sir Roger Cheyne .
. 1349. .Abbot John De Sutton, (lost)
. l4ll..Sir John Drayton .
c. 1520, .Abbot Bewforreste .
fi^ 1 "^4
Oxford : —
l3l5..RichardDe Hart . . 95,97,115
1387 , .John Bloxham and John Whytton
1471 . .Warden Sever
. 1 41 7.. Archbishop Cranley . lOC
, 104, 128
c. 1500.. A Notary .
. 1526.. Bishop Young
. 1527, c. 1450. .Walter Curzon and lady
1382 . .Sir T. and Lady Burton 55, 62, 85
, 126, 142
. 1382.. Nicholas, Lord Burnell
. 1467. .Sir Wm. Vernon and family
73, 86, 91
. 1 439.. Edmond Ford
1242 . .Bishop Jocelyn, (lost)
c. 1520, c. 1450. .Humphrey Oker and family 127, 153
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRASSES.
Bnmdish . c.
Gorleston . c.
Ipswich : —
St. Mary Quay
St. Mary Tower c.
1302. .Sir Robert De Bures
I6l0. .Isaia Bures, Rector
1375. .Esmond De Burnedish
1424. .Sir John and Lady Framingham
1426..Sir John Brooke .
1320.. Sir .. De Bacon .
33, 36, 95
1525. .T. Pownder and family 23,89,111,125
1475.. A Notary .
1506.. A Notary .
1480.. Lady .. Clopton .
1310 De Bacon, Priest
1478. .Sir John and Lady Fastolf
1400. .Sir George Felbrigge
1599.. Sir Edw. Grimston
1610. .Sir Edw. Grimston IL
1408..Sir Wm. Tendring
1520, 1452.. Duchess of Suffolk //^
1601 . .John Shorlond
1593. .Humphrey Brewster
1428.. John Norwich
Horley . c. 1430. .A Lady, unknown .
' Horsley, East . 1478. .Bishop Boothe
' Kingston . . 1437. .Rob. and Joan Skerne
Lingfield . . 1403. .Sii- Reginald De Cobham
v' Stoke D'Aubernoun 1277. .Sir John D'Aubernoun
/ 1327 . . Sir John D'Aubernoun II.
V Amberley .
V Arundel .
'" Clapham .
1424.. John Wantele
1430. .Agnes Salmon
1420.. John Mapleton
1440.. Richard Tooner
1526. .John Shelly and wife
1433 .Prior Nelond
1441 . .Sir Hugh and Lady Halsham
1441. . Lady Halsham, (died 1395)
1430. .A Priest, unknown
1402 . . Sir William De Fiennes .
. 72, 130
104, 128, 138
86, 92, 131
86, 92, 154
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OP BRASSES.
c. 1375. .John and Agnes De Kyggesfolde . ] 15
c. 1310.. Margaret, Lady Camoys . . 80,131
. 1424, 1419. .Thomas, Lord Camoys and
EHzabeth his lady . 55, 86, 90, 127, 135
. 1426. . Sir John De Brewys . 47, Q5, 143
1407 . .Sir Wm. and Lady Bagot 56, 68
, 86, 134
1407 . .Lord and Lady Ferrers of Chartley
1401, 1406. .Earl and Countess of Warwick
1 546.. Sir John Greville .
1 559 . . Sir Edward Greville
1411, 1418. .Sir Thos. and Lady Crewe
1528,. Agnes Bulton
^e 1390. .John De Bettesthorne
I 1247. .Bishop Bingham, (lost)
- 1297. .Bishop Longespee, (lost)
- 1375.. Bishop WViU
c. 1385. .Sir . . De Mauleverer and lady
1494 ..Brian Roucliffe and lady
88,92, 110, 127, 132,
1621, c. 1500. .Peter Dolman
1391 . .Thos. De TopclyfTe and lady
c. 1360.. A Priest ....
9, 20, 97
\ York Cathedral
1315.. Archbishop Grenfeld
Brasses in private possession.
>/c.l375. Fragment of Abbot, Flemish .
0. 1480. Knight with coronet
. c. I5l0. Knight and Lady of Compton family, Appendix (C).
1534. .John Bollart, canon
1 365.. A Burgher .
c. 1520.. A Notary ....
1416. .Rob. Hallum, bishop of Salisbury
CHUONOLOGICAL INDEX OF INCISED SLABS.
CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF INCISED SLABS NOTICED
IN THIS VOLUME.
Robert III., Comte Ue Dreux, St. Yvod De Braine,
France, (lost) .....
Sir John De Bitton, Bitton, Somersetshire
Abbots Adam and Peter, St. Denis, France .
Cross-legged knight, Avenbury, Hereford
Bishop William De Byttone, Wells Cathedral
Etienne De Sens, Rouen Cathedral .
Sir John Botiler, St. Bride's, Glamorganshire
William Tracey, Rector, Morthoe, Devon
Adam and Sybilla De Frampton, Wyberton, Lincoln .
Abbot Nicholas, St. Ouen, Rouen
and Agnes De Baldock, Tempsford, Beds
Wm. Villers and wives, Brooksley, Lincoln .
Sir John Wydeville, Grafton Regis, Northants . 74
Geoffrey AUesley and wife, Newbold-on-Avon, Warwick
Sir Robert De Malvesyn, Malvesin Ridware, Stafford .
Two Architects, Church of St. Ouen, Rouen
Sir John Cherowin, Brading, Isle of Wight . 47, 157
John Butler and wives, Watton, Herts
Abbot Lawrence, Selby, York
Andrew and Elizabeth Jones, Hereford Cathedral
Abbot Roger, Dorchester, Oxon
1535. Members of the Rollisley family, Darley, Derbyshire
Abbot Ramryge, St. Alban's Abbey Church .
Abbot John Barwicus, Selby, York .
Abbot . . . . , St. George De Bocherville, near Rouen .
Margaret Beresforde (?) North Mimms, Herts .
Canon of Poictiers and Chancellor of Noyon, Paris
Fragment of Priest, Petit Andelys, France
TOPOGRAPHICAJj INDEX OF INCISED SLABS.
IV. TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF INCISED SLABS NOTICED IN
- and Agnes De Baldock
1513, 1535. .Members of the Rollisley, or Rowly
family . . . . .
1322 . .William Tracey, Rector .
c. 1285.. Sir John Botiler
Brading, Isle of Wight 1 44 1 .. Sir John Cherowin
Avenbury . c. 1 260 .. Cross-legged Knight
Hereford Cathedral 1497. .Andrew and Elizabeth Jones
North Mimms . 1584. .Margaret Beresford, (?) .
St. Allan's Abbey . 1524. .Abbot Ramryge
1465. .John Butler and wives .
1370. .William Villers and wives
1325. .Adam and Sybilla De Frampton
. 1392..Sir John Wydeville
c. 1510.. Abbot Roffer .
Malvesin Ridware . 1403. .Sir Robert De Malvesyn
Bitfon . . 1227.. Sir John De Bitten
Wells Cathedral . 1274. .Bishop William De Byttone
47, 157, 160
TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF INCISED SLABS.
Newhold-on-Avon . 1401 . .Geoffrey Allesley and Wife
1486. .Abbot Lawrence
1526. .Abbot John Barwicus
Paris . ,
Rouen Cathedral 1282
St. Ouen, Rouen c. 1325
c. 1260. .Abbots Adam and Peter
Canon of Poictiers
Etienne De Sens
Bocherville near )
St. YvodJDe Braine 1223
Petit Andelys ....
.Robert III., Comte De Dreux
V. CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF SCULPTURED EFFIGIES NOTICED
IN THIS VOLUME.
1269. Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, Westminster Abbey . 81
c. 1270. Sir Richard De Montfort, Hitchendon, Bucks . .31
1296. William De Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Westminster Abbey 131
1302. Brian, Lord Fitzalan of Bedale, Bedale, York 31, 33, 36, 43
c. 1310. Lady Clifford, Worcester Cathedral . .131
1312. Sir William De Staunton, Staunton, Notts . . .31
1317. William, Lord De Ros, Temple Church . . 36, 43
c. 1320. Sir .... De Pembridge, Clehongre, Hereford . 31, 42
1321. Humphrey De Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Hereford . 39, 50
1323. Aymer De Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Westminster . 47
c. 1 325. Sir John DTfield, Ifield, Sussex . . . .39
1334. Prince John of Eltham, Westminster Abbey . , ib.
1336. Charles, Comte D'Etampes, Royal Catacombs, St. Denis . 43
1337. Sir Roger De Kerdiston, Reepham, Norfolk . . 30
1343. Sir Oliver DTngham, Ingham, Norfolk . . . ib.
1348. Archbishop Stratford, Canterbury Cathedral . . 100
c. 1350. Sir John Blanchefront, Alvechurch, Worcester . . 42
1354. Lady Montacute, Oxford Cathedral . . 85, 125
1372. Blanche De La Tour, tomb of Edward HI., Westminster . 85
CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF SCULPTUKED EFFIGIES.
c. 1375. Sir Arthur Basset (?), Atherington, Devon
c. 1375. Knight, carved in wood, Bamberg Cathedral
1394. Anne, Queen of Richard II., Westminster Abbey
1402. John Gower, St. Saviour's, Southwark
1439. Beatrice, Countess of Arundel, Arundel, Sussex
1471. Sir Robert and Lady Harcourt, Stanton Harcourt, Oxon
1474. William Canynges, St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol
VI. TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX OP SCULPTURED EFFIGIES NOTICED
IN THIS VOLUME.
.Sir Richard De Montfort
c. 1375. .Sir Arthur Basset, (?)
Bristol : —
St. Mary Redcliffe 1474. .William Canynges .
Clehongre . c. 1320. .Sir De Pembridge
Hereford Cathedral 1321 . .Humphrey, Earl of Hereford .
Canterhury Cathedral 1348. .Archbishop Stratford
St. Saviour' s, Southwarh W^l. .ii)\mGovj ox .
Temple Church, London I3l7 . .William, Lord De Ros
Westminster Abbey . 1269. .Aveline, Countess of Lancaster
1296.. William De Valence .
1393. .Aymer De Valence
1334. .Prince John of Eltham
1 372 . . Blanche De La Tour
1394. .Anne, Queen of Richard II. .
l343..Sir Oliver D'Ingham .
1337. .Sir Roger De Kerdiston
TOPOGEAPHICAL INDEX OF SCULPTURED EFFIGIES.
. 1312.. Sir William De Staunton
. 1354. .Lady Montacute
. 1471 . .Sir Robert and Lady Harcourt
1439, .Beatrice, Countess of Arundel
c. 1325.. Sir John D'lfield
Alvechurch . c. 1350. .Sir John De Blanchefront
Worcester Cathedral c. 1310. .Lady .... Clifford .
1302. .Brian, Lord Fitzalan
St. Denis . . 1336. .Charles, Comte D'Etampes
Bamberg Cathedral c. 1375. .Knight carved in wood
31, 33, 36, 43
Foreign slabs carved in low relief.
Germany : —
1369. .Ulrich Landschaden . .192
1377. .Hewnel Landschaden and Lady . ib.
1407 . . Johan, Graaf von Wertheim . 193
234 INDEX OF SHIELDS OF AKMS.
VII. INDEX OF SHIELDS OF ARMS EMBLAZONED IN THIS
SHIELD 0? ARMS :
SHIELD OF ARMS :
Ciiomas Bt aaooUstocft. JBuftc of (ffiloticesUr.
BRASS OF ELEANOR DE BOHUN, AD. 1399.
BRASS OF ELEANOR DE BOHUN, A.D. 1399.
King Edward the Confessor
King Henry V. .
King Henry V., when Prince of Wales
King Richard II.
Botiler, or Butler
see Cut opposite page 127
Chej^ne u/ .
V D'Aubernoun <^ .
De Bures ly .
De Creke <-^ .
■ De Northwode .
De Septvans '^ .
De Trumpington ^y
• Felbrigge V .
Ferrers of Chartley V
Grey of Groby
Hastings . ,
INDI'.X or STIIKLDS OF AltMS.
Merchants of the Staple
Norwich, City of
Strabolgy, Earl of Athol
see Cut opposite page 127
BRASS OF SIR NICHOLAS HAWBEKK,
COBHAM CHDRCH, KENT.
A.D. 1407, 8 HENRY IV.
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