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Full text of "Brazil in 1911"

presented to the 
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
SAN DIEGO 

by 
CAPT. JOHN SINKANKIS 



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England. 



BRAZIL IN 191 1 



BRAZIL IN 191 1 



J. C. OAKENFULL 

THIRD ANNUAL EDITION 
(10,000 Copies) 



FEBRUARY, 1912 



FrHJTEI) bv 

BUTLER & TANNER, FROME AND LONDON 

Copyright in the United Kingdom 



INTRODUCTION 

Difficulties which were non-existent when the present 
edition of this work was planned, have retarded its 
publication, but perhaps the contents are bettered by 
the delay. On the other hand, it is now possible to 
insert material which was tabooed in the second, and 
much new matter, only received at the last moment. 
My thanks are due to the press, whose kindly attitude 
has encouraged me to go on with the work, and I feel 
that a want has been met to some small extent by the 
two previous editions. Sensible at the same time of 
their failings, sometimes in the form of errors of my 
own, often due to printers' pie, a great effort has now 
been made, not only to eradicate and expurgate, but 
to tone down and co-ordinate, and to polish as it were 
the rough surfaces, and blend the whole mass of varied 
matter into an harmonious whole. 

When I came back to Brazil in April this year for the 
purpose of gathering materials, I had the honour to 
meet a very distinguished specialist in a branch of 
natural history, and he at once told me that certain 
points of view in my book were diametrically opposed 
to those he considered orthodox. There's the rub : 
one can't get people to see why you have written any- 
thing, and all too frequently the WTiter is credited with 
sordid and unworthy motives, when in reaUty what he 
has done is an altruistic work, a labour of love in the 
best sense of the word. 



viii INTRODUCTION 

It must, however, be remembered that honest coun- 
sellors are all too few, and it is in not losing sight of this 
fact that one may hope to be able to temper their enthu- 
siasm sufficiently to strike a tme balance between two 
opposing forces, which when at variance are productire 
of evil, but form the most powerful union for offensive 
and defensive purposes. What is done in this volume 
is a species of mosaic, of many kinds of materials of 
different origin. The very pith and marrow of a hun- 
dred writers during three centuries has been collected 
and refined, and the whole put together to form a species 
of conglomerate, in which I hope the asperities are lost 
and the colours appropriately blended. In my last 
edition I spoke of education in Brazil, and it would be 
possible to say a great deal on this fascinating subject. 
A very good sign of the times is visible now, in the fact 
that parents are beginning to realize the advantages 
of an English training for their boys at least. Serious- 
thinking people perceive that the Latin-American 
temperament and precocity requires leavening with 
some Anglo-Saxon gravity and sobriety, as well as direct- 
ness of thought and action. Happy the child that 
will learn the virtues of the one race whilst forgetting 
the vices of the other, A little more imagination and 
human sympathy would do the Northern peoples a 
great deal of good, and Brazilians could in their turn 
learn many lessons in the art of making a man. 

When I laid down my pen the end of March, 1910, it 
was only to exchange it for the blue pencil, and the 
latter has hardly been out of my hand ever since, cut- 
ting and contriving, and trying to get a bushel of meal 
into a peck measure. Vain hope, of course. 

My thanks are especially due to Dr. En6as Martins, 
Minister of Brazil to Portugal, and his dedicated wife, 
to whom I owe a great debt of gratitude ; to Dr. Gra9a 



INTRODUCTION ix 

Aranha, Minister to Central America, a steadfast and 
valuable friend ; and to the following, amongst manv 
others : Dr. Orville Derby and Mr. Lee, and Drs. Gomet 
Carmo, Pinto Peixoto, Carlos Moreira, Roquette Pinto, 
Carneiro and Werneck, of the Ministry of Agricidture ; 
Mr. Chalmers and Mr. Bensusan, of the Morro Velho and 
Passagem Gold Mines ; Senhor Brill, of Av Central Rio ; 
and Senhores Rittmeyer and Papf of Petropolis, as 
well as to the President, Librarian and Secretary of 
the Municipality of that city, the librarian especially 
having facilitated my researches in every possible 
manner. 

Finally, to all those who have lightened the burden 
in any way, I must express my sincere thanks. 

J. C. OAKENFULL. 

Paris, 

December, 191 1, 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 
I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 



VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX 

XXI 

XXII 



Geography and Topography 

Climate and Diseases ..... 

Anthropology and Ethnography . 

Discovery and First Settlement 

The Capitanias, and Struggles with the 

French, British, Spanish and Dutch 

Invaders 
Crown Colony and Empire 
The Republic, i 889-1909 
Area, Distribution of Population, and 

Immigration . 
Naturalization, Constitutional and Commer 

ciAL Laws, and Education 
Finance and Commercial Notes . 
Posts, Telegraphs and Transportation 
Natural History — Fauna 
Flora . 
Timber, etc. . 
Agriculture — Part I 
Cereals 

Tropical Fruits, etc. 
The Pastoral Industry 
Geology and Paleontology 
Mineralogy . 

Thermal Springs and Tourist Resorts 
Literature, Art and Science 



page 

I 

10 

21 
40 



47 
62 
76 

85 

106 
124 
132 

147 
158 
172 
191 
206 
217 
238 
249 
256 
303 
330 



XII 



CONTENTS 



APPENDICES 



CHAP. 
I 


Gazetteer 










PAGE 

337 


II 


Glossary 










343 


III 


List of Consuls, etc. 










348 


IV 


Cost of Living, etc. 










355 


V 


Customs Tariff 










363 


VI 


Industries 










370 


VII 


Exporting Houses 










37$ 


VIII 


Bibliography 
Conclusion . 
Index . 










381 
390 

393 




Cl4 

;5 



« 



CHAPTER I 

GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY 

Almost the whole of Brazil is in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. It attains its greatest dimensions between the 
Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. The only South 
American countries which are not in contact with it 
are Chili and Ecuador. 

The Atlantic Ocean forms the natural boundary on 
the east and a greater part of the north, for an exten- 
sion of about 5,000 miles, from Cape Orange, frontier 
of Dutch Guiana, to Chuy on the boundary line of Uru- 
guay. The number of degrees from north to south are 
about 37, and between Pernambuco, on the eighth 
parallel south of the line, and the Cordillera of the Andes, 
there are as many east to west, or a distance of 4,350 
kilometres. In area, Brazil is nearly sixteen times as 
large as France, and excluding Alaska from the United 
States, she is the fourth largest country in the world. 
A most remarkable fact may be noted, viz. : that there 
are few natural harbours or bays of a great size, those 
of Sao Salvador (Bahia) and Rio de Janeiro being by 
far the most important. To make up for this, however, 
the river system is a magnificent one, Americans are 
proud of calling the Mississippi the father of waters, 
but its volume is far less than that of the Amazon. 

1 B 



2 BRAZIL IN 1911 

This gigantic stream freshens the waters of the ocean for 
a distance of at least i8o miles out. It is so deep that 
its very slight inchne is sufficient to give it an impulse 
powerful enough to retard considerably the spread of 
vessels bound up stream. Its lower part, from Manaos 
to the sea, appears to have been formerly a bay, i,ooo 
miles deep, and 400 miles ^vide. 

In the wet season its inundated area is not very much 
less at the present day. Like the Paraguay river, it 
may be said to be navigable throughout its course. 
The latter river rises in the State of Matto Grosso, not 
a great distance from the head waters of the Tapajoz, 
the last great affluent of the Amazon on its course to 
the sea, but, unlike that river, its course is almost due 
south from its source to its junction with the Parand, 
at the point where Paraguay touches Argentina. In 
all there are some 30,000 miles of navigable waterways 
in the Amazon valley. The Parana itself rises in the 
range of mountains (known by its name) which forms 
a natural boundary to the State of Goyaz, on the 
east. These mountains also contain the source of the 
Tocantins, which falls into the sea by Para, whilst 
further west, in the same state, springs the Araguaya, 
which joins the Tocantins at the junction of Goyaz with 
Maranhao and Para on the north. The Madeira river, 
from the Bolivian Acre (now BraziUan), and on the 
northern bank of the Amazon, the River Negro, are the 
other two important tributaries of the great stream. 
Coming eastward we find the Parnahyba between 
Maranhao and Piauhy, and then there are no more 
considerable streams till we encounter the Sao Fran- 
cisco, which rises in southern Minas Geraes, and wends 
its way right through the central part of that state 
and Bahia, before turning eastward, and taking a tre- 
mendous leap of 286 feet at the falls of Paulo Affonso, 



GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY 3 

and so to the sea at Sergipe. We have now only to 
consider the comparatively insignificant Jequitinhonha, 
from central Minas to the coast at Belmonte, and the 
Parahyba, which forms the western boundary of the 
State of Rio Janeiro. Where Argentina, Paraguay and 
Brazil meet, and the Iguassu join the Parana, we find 
one of the world's wonders, the seven falls of the latter. 
The Iguassu itself is noteworthy for a vast semicircle 
of cascades, the largest of which is 200 feet high. There 
are several other rivers which empty themselves into 
the Parana, the great stream which drains most of 
South Brazil. At the Set6 Quedas falls, or cataracts, 
it opens out into a lake 4^ miles long by 2| miles wide, 
and after rushing through a profound gorge, falls some 
310 feet, with a volume of water averaging 13,000,000 
cubic feet a minute. 

From Guayara (Sete Quedas), the mightiest cataracts 
on earth, to the falls of the Iguassu, is a distance of 
125 miles, all torn and scared with cataracts. The 
column of mist above the latter falls, is visible for a 
distance of 12 miles. 

The principal tributaries of the Parana are the Par- 
anapanema, and Rio Grande, and the Tiete, flowing 
through the city of Sao Paulo. These, together with 
the Uruguay (bounding Rio Grande do Sul State on 
the north and west), all rise in the coast ranges, or in 
their offshoots, on the Atlantic side. 

We have then a vast network of streams watering 
almost the whole of Brazil. The volume of some of the 
principal rivers gives a somewhat clear idea of the 
enormous extent of territory through which they wend 
their way, and the sketch map at the beginning of the 
book will demonstrate their relative position and course. 
There is an absolute continuity between the Campos 
at the head waters of the Parand, and those of the upper 



4 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Amazon, which river has a basin of 3,356,400 square 
miles ; length, 3,380 miles. This does not include any 
part of the river extra-Brazilian. The territory to the 
N.E, of the Amazon valley (Brazilian Guiana) is of a 
hilly nature, and consequently dry. 

Northern Affluents' 

Rio Negro — basin, 429,000 sq. mUes ; length, 1,020 miles. 
Japura „ 186,000 „ „ 2,779 .. 



Javarj' - 

Jurua 

Purus 

Madeira 

Tapajaz 

Xingii 



Southern Affluents 

basin, 45,600 sq. miles ; length, 573 miles. 
144,000 „ „ 1,200 „ 



233,200 
637,600 
258,300 
237,000 



2,190 
3,000 
1,158 
1,260 



The Tocantins is 1,560 miles, the Araguaya 1,080 
miles, the Sao Francisco 1,820 miles, and the Jequitin- 
honha 680 miles long. 

Supposing one wished to travel by water from Cuyabd 
in Matto Grosso, to Manaos on the Amazon, the dis- 
tance would be from -Cuyaba to Rio Janeiro, via River 
Plate and Montevideo, 3,242 miles, Rio Janeiro to 
Manaos, 3,204 miles, total distance 6,446 miles, and it 
would be necessary (at present) to allow at least six 
weeks for the journey, which would be performed in 
Brazilian steam-vessels the whole distance. It might, 
however, be possible in a very wet season, to go by 
canoe (with perhaps a little portage) from Cuyabd 
into the Amazon direct. The voyage might thus take 
a third or a fourth part of the time. 



GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY 5 

By looking at the map, one may see that there are 
very few spots indeed in Brazil that are not weU pro- 
vided with water. The natural source of most of the 
rivers seems to be the central plateau, and the majority 
flow either south or north, from the States of Matto 
Grosso and Goyaz. As we have already remarked, a 
narrow mountain chain forms the watershed, in many 
cases, of two rivers whose course is widely divergent. 
Thus, we may call Brazil a country of many mountains. 
This is due naturally to the erosive influences of the 
rivers throughout the ages dividing and multiplying the 
mountain ranges. We shall observe a curious instance 
of this if we turn our attention to the Serra da Sincora, 
in the State of Bahia. The river Paraguassu has, with 
its feeders, separated that range into three or four 
distinct sections, confronting each other. There are 
many great cataracts and falls besides the Iguassu, etc., 
one on the Rio Preto in Goyaz being 240 feet high, one 
on the Tocantins 200 feet, the Salta Grande, Jequitin- 
honha 140 feet, and that of Benevente (Espirito Santo) 
160 feet. 

More than half of Brazil consists of an elevated 
plateau cut into by a vast number of rivers. The mean 
altitude is from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, with isolated ranges 
up to 7,000 feet, and one peak (Itatiaia) reaching 9,000 
feet. We find the highest summits along the eastern 
side of the country, near the sea, and in the centre 
forming three long chains separated by the basins 
of the Sao Francisco and Paraguay rivers. Thus the 
elevation of the land is by no means commensurate 
with the length and volume of the rivers, and it may 
perhaps be safely asserted that the accidence of the 
topography is responsible for the extent of the fluvial 
system. 



6 BRAZIL IN 1911 

There are, then, four quite distinct mountain 
ranges : — 

(i) The Andes, and their offshoots, in which nearly 
all the great tributaries of the Amazon find their 
sources, in territory extra-Brazilian. 

{2) The ranges which separate the valleys of the 
Amazon and the Orinoco, and which divide Venezuela 
and the Guianas from Brazil. 

(3) The central plateau, rising in various localities, 
into elevated peaks. This covers the greater part of 
Matto Grosso, Goyaz, central and western Minas 
and Sao Paulo, Pernambuco, Piauhy and Maranhao, 
and forms the watershed of the Paraguay, Parana 
and Uruguay rivers on the one side, and of the lower 
tributaries of the Amazon on the right bank, and 
of the Tocantins and the branches on the left hand of 
the Sao Francisco on the other. 

(4) The coastal ranges, extending from the Sao 
Francisco river on the north, to the southern part of 
the State of Rio Grande. Here we find the sources 
of all the minor streams that discharge their waters 
into the Atlantic, as far south as the River Plate basin. 
These ranges are practically unbroken. There are 
no extensions of plain or wide valleys intervening. 
Here and there they approach quite close to the sea, 
in the vicinity of Rio Janeiro and Santos notably, 
and lower down they recede, leaving a wide alluvial 
strip in the State of Rio Grande, and in the north, in 
Bahia (at Cannavieiras), a boggy district, but in 
general the line is more or less parallel to the coast, 
and, like it, shows no very great tendency to become 
broken or undulating. 

The coastal range is however divided into three 



GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY 7 

distinct parts. The first, called the Serra do Mar, is 
very near the sea, and lies principally in the States of 
Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, S. Paulo, Parana, and 
Santa Catharina. In the State of Rio it is partly 
bounded on the west by the Parahyba river, which 
forms a natural hmit in this direction. Its highest 
point is Itatiaia, considered to be the culminating peak 
of the Brazilian mountain system. There are many 
different figures giVen for its altitude, but 9,000 feet 
is as near as possible. To the northward of the city of 
Rio, a short spur (separated from the rest by the Pia- 
banha stream) is known as the Serra dos Orgaos (Organ 
Mountains). Here, within 40 miles of the capital of the 
RepubHc, we find a mean altitude of 6,500 feet, Ndth 
one or two summits (Itaiassu) reaching 7,000-7,300 
feet. The massif of the latter peak is noteworthy for 
being isolated on the east from the main range of the 
Organs, by tremendous precipices. At Theresopolis 
(2 J hours from Rio) we find the finger-hke peaks, " Dedo 
de Deus," etc., which give their name to the range. 
The southern half of the Organ Mountains is knov^Ti as 
the Serra da EstreUa, and reaches in the Corti90 (near 
Petropohs, two hours from Rio) about 4,500 feet, or 
some 2,000 feet above the valley in which lies Petropolis 
(the summer residence of the well-to-do). Behind Rio 
Janeiro itself we find the Corcovado (hunchback), 2,200 
feet. The Tijuca, 3,400 feet, and more to the north, 
an isolated mountain of somewhat different formation 
to the surrounding peaks. It is called Tingua, and 
gives its name to some curious mineral found in nodules, 
and knoNvn as Tinguaite. Its origin has been presumed 
to be volcanic, although no crater can be said to exist 
now. Altitude about 5,000 feet. 

The second range (Mantiqueira) lies in the States of 
S. Paulo and Minas Geraes. At Itatiaia, or near it, it 



8 BRAZIL IN 1911 

becomes allied to the Serra do Mar, thus this mountain 
may be said to belong to two systems, as it may be 
stated to be in two distinct states. Like the Tingua, it 
is of a different nature to the others in its vicinity, being 
composed mainly of later eruptive rocks, such as syenites 
and phonolites. The crest of this Mantiqueira Range 
lies at an average of 6,500 feet above the sea, thus form- 
ing the most dominating and imposing mountain chain 
in the east of South America. Its direction from the 
valley of the Tiete is N.E. generally, contrary to that 
of the third section of the system, the backbone of 
Brazil, as it is called (Espinhago), which trends N.W. 
This latter forms part of the eastern edge of the Sao 
Francisco basin. 

The most important mountains in the Mantiqueira, 
beside Itatiaia, are situated near the pass by which 
the central railway makes its way westward at Bar- 
bacena. This little city has an altitude of about 4,000 
feet, and may be termed the gate of the mineral 
district. 

In the Espinha^o Range we find Itacolumi (near Ouro 
Preto), 5,700 feet ; Cara9a, 6,300 feet ; Piedade, 5,800 
feet, and Itambe, 6,000 feet. 

In Goyaz we find the Pyrenees, attaining nearly the 
height of 4,500 feet, and the Serra da Canastra reaching 
4,200 feet. 

The Parana Plateau (Campos Geraes) extends into 
Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul, and thrusts 
out spurs into Minas and Sao Paulo, and its maximum 
height is about 4,000 feet, with a mean level of some 
2,000 feet. The broken series of mountains to the west 
of the Sao Francisco, in Minas and Bahia, attain some 
2,500 feet. 

It should be noted that the triangulation of most of 
the peaks in every state, but Sao Paulo and Minas, has 



GEOGRAPHY, AND TOPOGRAPHY 9 

not been completed, and that in consequence most of 
the old maps are topographically incorrect. 

There are very few lakes of any importance in Brazil, 
the largest being salt water lagoons in Rio Grande do 
Sul, viz., Laguna, dos Patos and Mirim. 



CHAPTER II 
CLIMATE AND DISEASES 

It is impossible to speak of the climate of Brazil as a 

distinct concrete thing. The country is so immense, 
and its topography, as we have seen, so varied, that it 
has at least three different zones. Generally speaking, 
we find that the latitude in Brazil has hardly anything 
to do with its climate. Of course, it is naturally warmer 
(on the coast) in the winter at Para than it is at Rio Grande, 
but the maximum summer heat is quite as great in all 
probability in the latter state. The average tempera- 
ture of Para is 26" centigrade, or 78° Fahrenheit. In 
spite of this rather high percentage (owing to the 
absence of winter, as far as loss of solar heat is concerned), 
the death rate is only 20 per thousand per annum. To 
show how figures prove misleading at first sight, we may 
note that Rio de Janeiro (within the tropic of Capri- 
corn) has a maximum temperature of about 37° centi- 
grade (98° Fahrenheit), whilst Buenos Aires (11 degrees 
further south) has a maximum of 105° Fahrenheit 
(shade). How can one account for such apparent 
anomalies ? To understand the reason for this, one 
must consider the question of winds, and therein lies 
the secret of the relative healthiness of places lying well 
within the tropics, and in some instances almost on the 
line itself. We shall now proceed to deal systematically 

with the three different zones into which we propose 

10 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES 11 

to divide Brazil. It may be safely concluded, in fact 
boldly asserted, that the climate of Brazil, generally 
speaking, is quite suited to European colonists, whether 
from the north or south, and any government warning 
its subjects to the contrary acts either in bUnd ignor- 
ance, or stupid antipathy, \\ith some reason for its 
calumny which may not be very difficult to ascertain. 
To those who are inchned to Usten to warnings as to the 
unsuitabihty of the climate, I would saj^ — Reflect, and 
see if the detractors have any other reason besides that 
of the welfare of the inquirer. 

The average temperature of the first, or tropical zone, 
is 25° centigrade {77° Fahrenheit), but it must be divided 
by its relative humidity into three parts, (i) The upper 
Amazon ; (2) the interior of the States of Maranhao, 
Para, Matto Grosso, Piauhy, Parahyba, and Pemam- 
buco ; and (3) the coast line itself. 

In the first region, the season of rains is from Febru- 
ary to June. From the middle of October till January 
there is a modicum of wet weather, and from July to 
October, and January to February, the weather is dry. 
The temperature rises and falls rapidly in some parts of 
the Amazon valley. Now and then the thermometer 
has marked only 51° Fahrenheit. Although the day 
may be too hot, as soon as the evening approaches, the 
influence of the breeze is felt. Agassiz noted that a 
pecuHarity of this climate was the almost continual 
action of a wind blowing from east to west. Maury 
said : " The rains faUing abundantly during some 
months are invigorating." It is very rare that the 
wind becomes violent. There is between the Amazon 
region and India, for example, the same difference as 
between Rome and Boston, U.S.A. The two cities are 
situated in the same latitude, but their climates are, of 
course, very different. It must not be supposed that 



12 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the average minimum of 64° Fahrenheit, and maximum 
of 98° Fahrenheit is uniform all over Amazonia. In 
the elevated parts of the state, frosts have been observed, 
and the climate may be considered as temperate. At 
a contest in Paris, in 1898, between 1,200 children, the 
first prize for healthy appearance and physical develop- 
ment was given to a boy who had been born in Manaos, 
of Amazonian parents. Longevity is common. An 
authenticated case is chronicled of a man who lived to 
145 years. Malarial fevers, found in some zones in the 
valley, are identical with the Itahan forms, and in the 
Campagna of Rome are far more dangerous and difficult 
to cure. 

The dangerous parts of the Amazon valley are limited 
to a very small section indeed of the country. There 
are 204,000 square miles of territory where, to quote 
Bates (naturalist on the Amazon), the climate is glorious. 
According to Hartt, part of the plateau has the best 
climate in the world, and one finds in the Campos 
Geraes, at least 600,000 square miles of lands well suited 
to stock raising, and even the cultivation of such cereals 
as oats and barley, as well as wheat. 

Wallace says : " The temperature is marvellous, and 
the nights are noteworthy for the balsamic perfumes 
wafted through the air." 

Herbert Smith wrote : "I have travelled through 
Amazonas during four years, without the least touch of 
fever. There are no simstrokes ever known in this 
country." 

Orton says : " Para is an invalid's paradise." 

Bates says, further, " that Englishmen who have 
lived 30 years in Pard, conserve the same aspect, and 
the same freshness of colour as they had when they left 
their native land." 

A British Scientist writes me : " During a residence 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES 18 

in Manaos, I gained more than two stones in weight." 
The Medical Officer of a British cruiser, which pene- 
trated as far as Peru, told me the health of the crew was 
very good all the while the ship was in the river. 

The extension of this first zone may be calculated as 
from the second degree north of the Une to the tenth 
south. With regard to its diseases, there are none pecu- 
liar to the country, and certainly none which are not 
more the result of carelessness or unhygienic habits 
than of climatic or topographical defects. 

Mandos is only some inches above the sea, and Para 
about 22 feet, yet, surrounded as it were by water, they 
present the following remarkable figures. 







Absolute 


Absolute Death rate 




Lat. 


max. temp. 


min. temp, per 1000. 


Para . . 


1-27 


91° (Fahr.) 


66° (Fahr.) 20-2 


Manaos . . 


3-8 


97° >. 


64° ., 



Compare this with Madras, mortality 58 7 ; Bombay, 
48*6; Mexico, 48*5; Lima, 347; Cairo, 34*6; Cal- 
cutta, 34-4. 

The second division comprises the interior of the 
northern states of Brazil. The prevailing winds are from 
the N.W. and from the S.E. They are now warm and 
humid, now dry and cold, causing variations in the 
temperature of as much as 68° Fahrenheit. In the 
month of August the day temperature has reached over 
90° Fahrenheit, whilst at night the thermometer has 
gone down to 44° Fahrenheit. However hot the weather 
may be, the wind and the rain cause it to sink rapidly. 
The dry season lasts about two months, with, at most, 
two days' rain during this time, but an exception must 
be made of the States of Ceara, Parahyba, Piauhy, 
and Rio Grande do Norte, where the dry season some- 
times extends to three or four months. The climate of 



14 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the plateau of Matto Grosso is exceedingly healthy, the 
water is excellent, the air dry, and the temperature 
mild. There are no endemic diseases. Although this 
zone is within the torrid zone, frosts are frequently 
seen during the winter. There are also many parts of 
the States of Parahyba, Pernambuco, and Piauhy, 
where the average temperature does not exceed 68° 
Fahrenheit. It must also be particularly noted, in com- 
paring such a temperature with that of Great Britain, 
for example (of about 50° Fahrenheit), that the latter 
is greatly reduced by the low winter ratio. Presuming 
that in England we had winters such as in the south of 
France, the mean temperature would not be much less 
than that of the whole of Brazil. The maximum heat 
encountered in London is quite as high as Rio de Janeiro 
(or even Para, with a difference of 50 degrees of latitude), 
whilst, as every one knows, the extremes of temperature 
are extraordinary in the British Isles. I have noted a 
November reading of 12° Fahrenheit, and an August 
one of 95° Fahrenheit in the shade. 

The extension of this zone may be reckoned from 10° 
south of the Equator, to the line of Capricorn, 23^° 
south (about), comprising Sergipe, Bahia, Goyaz, Es- 
pirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes, almost all 
Matto Grosso, and the western part of Sao Paulo. 

The third zone is to be calculated from the tropic of 
Capricorn to the southern frontier. It must be divided 
into two parts, the first comprising the coast line of part 
of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catharina, 
and Rio Grande du Sul, where there is an average tem- 
perature of not more than 66° Fahrenheit. The climate 
along the whole of this zone, and indeed much further 
north, is very equable. The Serra do Mar, being very 
steep on the Atlantic side, and covered with luxuriant 
and dense vegetation right up to its summits^ or tp 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES 15 

within four or live hundred feet of them, attracts the 
rain and retains humidity. The highest point attained 
by the mercury at Rio Janeiro, shut in as it is by high 
mountains, is quite 6° lower than at Paris. If we take 
the train northward, after crossing the bay at Rio, we 
shall find two summer resorts ; one, 3,250 ft. above the 
sea, has a mean temperature of 60** Fahrenheit, with a 
maximum of about 89° Fahrenheit, and a minimum, 
July-August, of perhaps 28° or 29°. The other, situated 
2,500 ft. above (and so near Rio that the city may be 
seen from the summit of the pass in fine weather), has 
a mean heat of 64° Fahrenheit, a maximum of 9i°-92° 
Fahrenheit, and a minimum of 1° below freezing point. 
Novo Friburgo, situated some little distance further 
on another line, is 2,845 ft. in altitude, and has a mean 
annual temperature of 62° Fahrenheit, a maximum of 
75° Fahrenheit, and a minimum which marks freezing 
point. The salubrity of the capital itself is unquestion- 
able, being about as low in death rate as Paris and Berhn. 
Santos is now quite healthy, and yellow fever may be 
said to have entirely disappeared from both cities. The 
greater part of the State of Sao Paulo, and southern 
Minas, and the higher parts of Rio Janeiro, as well as all 
the land still further south, is subject to frosts during 
some weeks of each year, but of course the days are 
dehghtfuUy fine and invigorating. The wet season is 
usually from December to April, but at the beginning 
and end of it, the rain frequently comes on after three 
or four p.m., and although it may pour in torrents all 
night, the morning is gloriously fine. Warning is gener- 
ally given of the approach of a wet spell, by a week or 
two of oppressive heat during the day. At Villa Jagua- 
ribe (Sao Paulo) the mean annual temperature during 
1909 was about less than 60° Fahrenheit. There were 
65 days of frost, and the maximum winter temperature 



16 BRAZIL IN 1911 

was 70° Fahrenheit, and the minimum 24° Fahrenheit. 
After a good storm, the air is crisp and invigorating, 
and one feels impelled to get out and up the hills. I 
should hardly imagine that there is a more agreeable 
cUmate than that of the mountain resorts during the 
winter (April to September). It is hardly possible to 
say there are more than two seasons, as flowers are 
blooming in profusion all the while, and one need never 
complain of either the heat or the cold. In 1907 there 
was an influx of new diplomats, and it was rather amus- 
ing to notice their complaints about the weather. They 
said they had not come to Brazil to be chilled to the 
backbone. To sum up, there is no doubt that in many 
towns of the interior, the mortaUty is not so great as in 
similar places in Europe ; indeed in some cities, as Ponta 
Grossa, in Parana, there are years without a single 
death. St. Hilaire, in speaking of this region, says, 
" There is no place in this world where an European 
might establish himself with greater advantage." The 
words of Wallace will prove a fitting termination to the 
unanimous chorus of appreciation : "In Brazil a man 
may, with six hours of labour, obtain more of the com- 
forts and necessities of life, than by twelve hours work 
in Europe." The adventurer has nothing to fear. 
The death rate of this vast country will bear comparison 
with any other. Medical science is undoubtedly as far 
advanced there as anywhere, and as far as sanitary 
hygiene is concerned, Brazil took first prize at the great 
International Congress recently held in Germany. Per- 
sonally speaking, I would far rather be in the most 
despised Brazilian city in the interior, than in a pro- 
vincial European town. 

It may be a recommendation or not, but within the 
short space of time of three years in the mountains, 
I gained not less than' two stone in weight, in spite of 




n3 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES 17 

the most active life, passing at least half my time, either 
in the depths of the virgin forests or attacking the most 
difficult peaks, sometimes marching i6 and i8 hours 
a day, and getting but six hours sleep in the twenty-four. 

A few extracts from the report of Mr. Milne Cheetham 
(First Secretary of the British Legation) for 1908 may 
not be out of place here, and they are the more note- 
worthy as being from a source entirely unprejudiced in 
favour of Brazil : — 

" The climate of Rio de Janeiro is salubrious, and the 
yellow fever has to all appearances been practically 
stamped out, as it has at Para since March, 191 1. Sani- 
tary measures, both in it and Santos, have been taken 
with beneficial results, the health of both cities having 
entirely changed during the last few years." 

" Much of the mortality, even in the most infected 
districts of the upper Amazon, is due to bad food in 
sickness and improper care." 

" The death-rate of many cities, moreover, is also 
raised by outside patients. The highlands of Brazil are 
extremely healthy." 

" In the month of April last (Autumn) readings of the 
thermometer were as follows : — 



Rio de Janeiro 


70° to 80° Fahrenheit 


Para 


77° Fahrenheit. 


Ceara 


84° 


Pernambuco 


82° 


Bahia 


78° 


Espirito Santo 


80° 


Sao Paulo (city) . . 


67° 


Curityba (Parana) . . 


65° 


Florianopohs 


64"' 


Porto Alegre 


64° 



The death-rate, as we have seen, is about 20 per 





18 BRAZIL IN 1911 

thousand annually. The birth-rate is : — Rio de Janeiro, 
25 'iS; Porto Alegre, 2773; Florianopolis, 3473; 
Curityba, 33 -45 ; Sao Paulo, 35 -63 ; Fortaleza (Ceara), 
35 •24. The births for the State of Sao Paulo in 1907 
were 108,438, whilst the deaths were 50,000. The birth- 
rate for London is but 20 per thousand. There are in 
France 184 centenarians to 38,000,000, whilst in the city 
of Rio de Janeiro alone (population 811,000) there are 
178. 
The ratio of density of population in Rio is as follows : — 

As compared with London, 20 times less. 
Berhn, 40 
Paris, 50 

and she has more houses than the latter city, with a 
population of 2,700,000. 

Fletcher and Kidder {see Bibhography) say, on page 
268 : "It would seem as if Providence had designed 
this land for the home of a great nation." 

Bigg Wither {Pioneering in S. Brazil) : " There is 
ample timber, water and pasture, and air than which 
none -purer or mors invigorating can he found in the wlwle 
world." 

In conclusion, it may safely be stated that a constant 
influx of colonists from every part of Europe, and even 
from Asia (Syria), has largely increased the mortality in 
all the more accessible parts of Brazil. This has been 
due to the abominable conditions under which the 
greater number of these people travel to Brazil, and 
also owing to the too frequent incapacity of the ships' 
doctors. It is notorious that the steamship companies 
pay usually a nominal wage to such medical men, who 
are either without means to establish a practice of their 
own, or prefer such service for the sake of their own 
health. Frequently there are more than 2,000 persons 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES 19 

crowded together within a limited space, with one 
physician to attend to their needs. Many of the poor 
emigrants either embark with the germs of disease 
within their systems, or contract it on board, owing to 
the bad diet and want of exercise. This is more especi- 
ally true as regards the little ones, but a great deal has 
been done of late by most of the better class lines in the 
provision of new steamers, fitted with 2, 4, and 6-berth 
cabins for families. 

During 1908 there were disembarked in the port of 
Rio de Janeiro 46,216 immigrants (3rd class passengers) 
belonging to 39 distinct countries. Amongst these there 
were but 293 British ; the great majority being Portu- 
guese, 23,287 ; Spanish, 5,519 ; Italian, 3,764, and 
Austrian, 3,903. 

In the whole of the year, of this 46,216 there were 
but 26 {twenty-six) deaths in all the public hospitals of 
the capital. Many of these people, it must be remem- 
bered, lived under the most unhygienic conditions in 
their native lands. The Portuguese and Spanish 
peasants living, in many cases, on the most meagre and 
unwholesome diet, and the children being brought up 
(if one can use the expression) without any knowledge 
on the part of their parents of a proper food for little 
ones, even if they had the means to supply such. Mante- 
gazza, the Italian writer, has described luridly enough 
the conditions in the latter country, so it is not necessary 
to enter into them. I will content myself with stating 
that in all the southern countries of Europe it is the 
almost universal custom to give babies of the most 
tender age the coarse rough wine of the land, and it is 
small wonder that the newcomer is largely responsible 
for the death-rate in Brazil. Finally, it may be frankly 
asserted that the immigrant, and the negro and mulatto 
of the lower classes, between them account for some 75 



20 BRAZIL IN 1911 

per cent, of the mortality. If we strike a fair balance, 
we shall then find that Brazil is assuredly one of the 
healthiest countries in the world, and that no other 
tropical or semi-tropical zone can possibly rival it, 
even as far as salubrity is concerned. 



CHAPTER III 

ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 

Accepting the hypothesis of Dr. Lund, the Danish 
scientist who spent most of his life in Brazil, that this 
country was the first part of America to be thrust up 
out of the sea, the theory of the settlement of South 
America by immigrants from Yucutan, or the Pacific, 
loses its value. W. Foster {Prehistoric Raus, Chicago, 
1873), said that all America was peopled by autochtho- 
nous wanderers from the Brazihan Highlands. Cerneau, 
Histoire du Canada (Quebec, 1859) expressed his behef 
that all the American languages had a common origin. 
Keane divides the aboriginal Brazilians into four great 
groups, or families, namely, Cariban, Arawakan, Gesan, 
and Tupi-Guaranian. The physical features of the 
country closely connect themselves with the inhabitants, 
but there is no correspondence between the configuration 
of the interior and its political divisions. Both the 
racial constituents from which the American type was 
developed appeared in Brazil. The later neolithic 
Mongolian immigrant, who came by way of Behring 
Strait, represented advancing peoples probably more 
numerous than their pleistocene predecessors, and also 
possessing a much higher development. Survivals of 
the type would, therefore, seem as if they should be 
more widely scattered, and distinctly marked, when 
compared with the ruder, fewer, or less formidable men. 



22 BRAZIL IN 1911 

There is, however, no doubt about these Brazilian 
Proto-Mongols. As Burton remarks, this strain demon- 
strates itself in big, round Calmuck skuUs, flat faces, 
with broad, prominent cheek bones, oblique oriental 
eyes, rather brown than black. They have also dark, 
thick eyebrows and thin moustaches fringing large 
mouths, with pointed teeth, and sparse beards, hardly 
covering the long, pointed chin. Variation, through 
vast ages of wandering, produced another sub-race. It 
came to the southern continent when the cHmates of the 
far north were much milder, and there were no spaces of 
open sea between Scandinavia and Greenland. These 
(the first arrivals in all probabihty) were scattered widely 
over the country, principally due to the pressure exerted 
by the hordes of invading Asiatics. They seem to have 
become more or less concentrated in Minas Geraes, and 
it is supposed that this state is the centre whence 
subsequent migrations took place. 

In the new world these stout, dark men, with narrow 
skulls, receding foreheads, flat crowned incisor teeth, 
and projecting jaws, form a separate group that was 
exterminated, absorbed, or driven into remote and 
isolated regions. Keane supposes them to have held 
their own for some time against the invaders, but accord- 
ing to the scientific dogma of Von Virchow, prognathism 
is not compatible with normal intelligence, and, there- 
fore, this stand could not have been of long duration. 

Tribal catalogues and philological analyses will go 
but a very little way towards bringing these groups into 
view as they are. Information contributive towards 
this end is very unequal with respect to different families, 
while for all of them the constant intercrossing, wander- 
ing, regrouping, and decay, have done their work in the 
way of modification and destruction. Whole popula- 
tions have vanished, leaving hardly a trace behind. 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 23 

In others they have been so broken up, that their very 
tribal names and original languages have been entirely 
lost. The mode of their life, in very small communities, 
continually subdivided by the slightest dispute or diffi- 
culty, was a very potent factor in their disappearance. 
Mirhanas, for example, is an arbitrary title for a multi- 
tude of indistinguishable ethnic fragments, including 
about half of the Indians in the valley of the Amazon. 

Carayas is a term similarly applied to those in the 
basin of the Tingu and Araguaya Rivers. Those 
Indians called Coroados are so termed, because of their 
tonsures. Botucudo means one who wears a botogue 
or labret (an ornament of shell or bone inserted into the 
lip). 

Tapuyo, originally signifying stranger or barbarian, 
is now synonymous with a savage well disposed towards 
foreigners. Caribs cannot be traced beyond Central 
Brazil, where they appear to have originated. Although 
these latter had a reputation as warriors, the fugitive 
slaves, fighting by their side, far excelled them. 

Cari Jones, with Witotos, on the Amazon, are also 
affiliated to this group, as are likewise some scattered 
bands of Pimentaires roaming the borders of Pernam- 
buco and Piauhy. The manners and customs of these 
tribes were (and are) so dissimilar that it is easy to 
understand how it is they never formed a real nation, 
and even to-day do not advance a single step towards 
civilization, unless taken in hand by the white man. 
It is supposed that the flat heads found in certain 
regions of the plateau are derived from unions between 
the conquering Europeans and the Caribs. The Ara- 
waks of Guiana call themselves Loconos (or natives). 
They are widely distributed in Brazil, but their origin 
is impossible to discover. Like many other groups, the 
tribes are hardly more than large famihes, each under 



24 BRAZIL IN 1911 

its own elder. They are, contrary to the Caribs, very 
cleanly in their habits. They have adopted many 
European articles, whilst the latter live in filth, and 
reject all foreign improvements. There is, however, 
an offshoot of the Arawak group (Warrans) possessed 
of much ability in canoe construction, and having the 
virtue of thrift, but indescribably dirty in their ways. 
The Carib distorts his limbs by ligatures, uses the labret, 
arrays himself in feathers, skins, and hand-made fabrics, 
whilst the Warran seems to be entirely destitute of 
personal vanity, is more stolid than his neighbours, and 
not being so well developed physically, hard work soon 
exhausts him. Both these loosely connected hordes 
build temporary huts of branches of trees, and wher- 
ever the Warrans are permanently estabhshed, they 
construct pile dwellings. 

All of these races living in the wide river basins are 
in the habit of proceeding to the most extravagant 
excesses. These orgies are, of comse, succeeded by 
periods of morose, surly depression, culminating in 
destructive impulses. Primary traits having a true 
value for classification purposes, are more marked 
amongst the Gessan than in any of the other families 
inhabiting Brazil. They had this name from Von 
Martius, who took the common terminal of tribal names 
for a collective designation. This individuality (Botu- 
cudo, as Keane calls it), in large measure, escaped the 
process of evolution, which created a distinct American 
type out of entirely different elements coming from 
opposite quarters of the globe. They preserve those 
characteristics which distinguished their paleohthic 
European progenitors. When taken en bloc the mental 
inequality shown by divergent branches of other stocks 
is here scarcely recognizable in varying degrees of 
aptitude, more or less skill or ingenuity, and an unequal 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 25 

response towards incitements that initiate progress. 
Gessan tribes have hardly become modified, they remain 
undeveloped, and no group of this family is otherwise 
than completely savage. 

Caribs, Arawaks, and Tupis are sometimes indistin- 
guishable. Structural survivals cut Aimores or Botu- 
cudos ofi from these, and closely unite them with proto- 
Europeans. Kayapos, Akuas, Cholengs, Karnes, and 
several minor hordes represent a single group, extending 
from Amazonia to La Plata. These are true aborigines, 
fragments of a mass broken up by Tupi-Guarani in- 
vaders, and the nearest representatives, and probably 
the direct descendants of that primitive race whose 
osseous remains have been found in the Lagoa Santa 
caves, and Santa Catharina shell mounds. 

Botucudos, Tapuyos, Capayos, etc., in eastern Brazil, 
have not even reached the stone age, but although on 
the great Solimoes one may travel for weeks without 
seeing a fragment which might be worked, every tribe 
within this latter region has contrived to remedy the 
deficiency. Botucudos use wood almost exclusively, 
and until lately were without hanmiocks, and lived 
entirely on such poor provision that badly equipped 
hunters could supply ; their diet consisting of every 
kind of insect or reptile that might by any stretch of the 
imagination be termed edible. 

Tupi-Guarani tribes are distributed by Deniker, 
over the plains of the Amazon and Orinoco, and in 
Guiana, and on the table lands of eastern and southern 
Brazil. This is a composite group, as indicated by its 
name, although the difference is largely geographical. 
Their ethnical constituents are, in fact, similar, but 
the Guarani branch are presumed to have come from 
Paraguay. It may be remarked in this connexion 
that this country is full of the Guaranis to-day, the 



26 BRAZIL IN 1911 

bulk of the menial service being performed by these 
Indians, so much so that it is frequently necessary for 
employers to learn Guarani in order to make themselves 
understood, even in the capital. Early missionary 
priests constructed a sort of hngua franca, which by 
degrees came to be known as Tupi, although the real 
language of the Tupis had originally a great range, 
covering about one-fourth of South America. Piso, 
a Dutch physician, says that amongst the Brazilian 
Indians, the husbands go to bed when a child is born, 
and eat the most nourishing food they can get in order 
to recover their lost strength. 

Tupi communities, purer in blood, and far more 
powerful than now, or at any rate much more numerous, 
were established on the Amazon itself, and all its 
branches. At present each has dwindled, and, except 
along the Solimoes, it is impossible to find an unamal- 
gamated population. 

These groups, in common with most others, crossed 
in all directions, have mingled foreign strains amongst 
themselves, until by far the greater proportion are now 
Mamelucos (descendants of aborigines and white men) ; 
Mulattos, Cafuzos (crossed between Negroes and Indians) ; 
Curibocos, who combine Cafuzo with Indian blood, and 
Xibaros, the progeny of Cafuzos and Negroes. 

Bates uses the term Tapuza for what he calls semi- 
civilized Tupis. Properly speaking none have reached 
this degree of social development, although in some 
instances there has been a greater or lesser adoption of 
civilized appliances. At certain places aborigines, or 
at least barbarians, masquerade as cultivated Christians, 
but this is all outside show. The savage remains at 
bottom. 

When Cabral reached Brazil he found Guaranis estab- 
lished from Paraguay to Uruguay, in southern Brazil, 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 27 

and already united to Tupis. They were without cloth- 
ing of any kind, although they used some personal deco- 
rations, which have since been abandoned. Nadaillac 
reports them as living in commercial settlements, 
usually consisting of four long houses built in a square. 

Tattooing and scarification is still common, and they 
paint themselves with red and black designs, and use 
the labret. 

This country exhibits every kind of stone implement, 
from the rudest paleolithic wedge, to finely-shaped arrow- 
heads of rock crystal, and the pohshed neohthic axe. 
There is no possibiHty of explaining why Botucudos use 
wooden arrow tips when plenty of shells, stone, and 
metal are at hand, or why Caribs, Arawaks, and Tupis 
often prefer stone to iron. 

The Gessan tribes advanced less than any others, 
and accomplished nothing representing the lowest 
degree of human life in communities. An average 
Botucudo hut is a rude bamboo erection, about 7 feet 
high and 9 feet wide. The openings are barely large 
enough to crawl through, and the interior is black with 
soot. Bugre settlements consist of a few of such struc- 
tures standing in partial clearances in the forest. 

These Indians are not more than 5 ft. 4 in. in height 
on an average, and their lower limbs have generally 
grown crooked. They cut off their coarse, black hair 
in front, and ornament it with toucan feathers, stuck on 
with wax. Every Bugre pulls out his eyebrows and 
eyelashes, and pulls do\\n his under lip with a huge 
appendage, besides ornamenting himself (if fortune be 
kind) with a necklace, composed of rows of teeth ; 
their bows and arrows are very inferior, and a kind of 
snare made of creepers is more effectual against big 
game. They still carry stone axes, counterparts of 
those used in prehistoric times in Europe. Attempts 



28 BRAZIL "IN 1911 

to civilize these wretched beings have generally proved 
entirely in vain, and of 27 taken prisoners by Mr. Bigg- 
Wither, all except one boy died of a mysterious com- 
plaint, in spite of washing, clothing, and proper feeding ; 
or, in all probability, because of these improvements in 
their condition and appearance. 

Near the coast, the Lingua Franca (or Geral) pre- 
dominated amongst the tribes who had made their way 
thither from the central plains. Those Indians who 
have come into enforced and continual contact with the 
white man, are generally docile, but taken as a whole 
it is very difficult to inculcate habits of order and clean- 
liness in them. 

A pecuhar characteristic of the whole of the Indian 
races is a deeply seated superstition. They beheve in 
lunar phantoms and beings of light, who are spirits of 
good. They are afraid of certain dark shadowy forms, 
powers of ill, vengeful, and awful, whom it is necessary 
to propitiate. These are supposed to be the souls of 
their ancestors. They call God Tupa, and say that dead 
men's souls are converted into demons. They also 
believe in spirits of the deep waters, and are afraid 
of bathing in the dark, except in company, as traditions 
are current that many had been dragged down into the 
lakes and rivers, and never returned. A httle reflection 
would have taught them the real, tangible cause of the 
loss of their fellows, as alligators are naturally very 
common in many parts of the country. In common 
with other primitive races, their natural powers of 
observation are very highly developed. Many of the 
tribes are capable of producing artistic ceramic ware, 
and they have some ability for wood-carving, and making 
grotesque masks. Some of them plant maize and man- 
dioca, weave baskets, and construct large canoes, of 
course, by the hollowing out process, aided by fire. 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 29 

Amongst the River Indians harpoons are used, which 
are fitted with heads that become detached on entering 
the fish, or manatee, the shaft acting as a float. The 
tradition of a flood is current amongst them. It is 
related that the Chief Tamandare, on the rising of the 
waters, took his wife in his arms, and cHmbed up into 
the crown of a palm tree ; there he remained for three 
days and nights, until the flood began to recede. The 
palm, which had become uprooted, had floated into the 
middle of a plain, where it stopped, and Tamandare 
descended, and saw that all other humans had perished. 
He remained on the spot with his wife, and originated 
the great Guarani race, like himself, mighty hunters. 
Very few traces of the early inhabitants of Brazil exist, 
Dr. Lund being the pioneer of ethnographic discoveries. 
There are many legends circulating amongst the 
Indians, and they are in the habit of sitting round their 
camp fires to listen to a tale-teller, sometimes the whole 
night through. The dominating note in these stories, 
and indeed in the whole character of the race, is melan 
choly. They were (and are) a very musical people, and 
it is remarkable to notice how Brazilians to-day are 
devoted to melody. Hardly a town of the slightest 
pretensions is wdthout its band of music, in spite of the 
great cost of instruments (all, of course, imported). 
Many of these orchestras are quite good, and we find 
free schools of music established in the most unlikely 
places. Undoubtedly the aboriginal character is pre- 
served amongst the white people now inhabiting Brazil. 
Traces are found of its influence in the mode of celebra- 
ting the carnival, in the very character of the national 
music, in its hterature, and sometimes its art. The 
Negro, on the contrary, has not made himself felt to any 
great extent, of course, owing to his thraldom, as well 
as to his natural characteristics. The evolution of the 



30 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Brazilian type is proceeding slowly, but surely, and out 
of the Sclavo-Teutons, Ibero-Tuscan-Romanos, Franco- 
Iberians, Syrians, and remaining aboriginal elements, 
is being constructed a composite, but none the less virile 
race, destined to play a great part in the future history 
of the world. The predominance of the white is assured. 
Colonization is the predominant question of the day, 
and although such experiments as the introduction of 
Asiatic settlers (Japanese) are somewhat dangerous ones, 
there is no doubt as to the final result. Envy and 
ignorance may work hard to stay the progress of Brazil, 
but her advance to the position of a great nation is sure, 
and even now she demands and obtains a prominent 
place in the world's councils. Who knows what the 
future holds in store for the " Colossus of the South," as 
she may fitly be termed. 

The greatest problem is, not the civihzation of the 
Brazilians, but that of the nations who send forth their 
multitudes across the seas, to the smihng valleys of the 
great Republic. If the right sort of colonists are sent to 
Brazil, the country will soon prove her fitness to take a 
place in the forefront of nations. 

It seems very apropos of the subject of ethnography, 
to consider two diametrically opposed points of view, as 
far as the introduction of Anglo-Saxon colonists are con- 
cerned. The British Government warns its subjects 
that Brazil is not a desirable field for emigration, and 
as a retaliation, Brazilians frequently say — ^The English- 
man is not suited to Brazil. 

Which side does the truth lie ? As far as the second 
hypothesis is concerned, it is easily demolished, for no 
one with an open mind will deny that the Enghsh 
yeoman represents the highest type of agriculturist, 
especially as far as his standard of education and hving 
is concerned. Is not then the best more suitable than 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 31 

the inferior ? The first dogma is not so easy to destroy, 
but I have done my best in this book to show the varied 
resources of Brazil, and those who think they are fitted 
to make a better hving there than in England, must 
take the necessary steps to proceed thither. As far as 
Americans are concerned, no doubt there will soon be a 
steady stream of settlers \vith some capital to ensure 
success, and what is wanted is men who are not likely 
to prove a burden to the country, such as farmers 
and stock breeders, and speciahsts in all branches of 
agriculture. 

Dr. Lund, the celebrated Danish scientist, was the 
first to discover the remains of cave-dwellers in Brazil, 
near Sete Lagoas, in Minas Geraes, where he spent many 
years in researches. The great cave is entered through 
a fissure in a vertical wall of limestone, forming part 
of a series of similar formations in this part of the valley 
of the Rio das Velhas. Ripple marks are plainly visible 
on the rocks some 70 feet above the plain, and other 
indications show that the whole of the country was an 
immense inland sea at some remote period in the world's 
history. The fossil human bones were found in con- 
nexion wth those of a vast number of extinct animals. 
The remains are estimated to be at least 3,000 years old, 
and have been entirely transformed into limestone, having 
an outward appearance like bronzed metal {see illus- 
tration No. i). A large number of caverns were exam- 
ined by Dr. Krone in the vaUey of the Ribera river, 
Sao Paulo, in 1908, but traces of human Mfe were almost 
non-existent. A skull from the cavern of Babylonia, 
Minas Geraes, of Botucudo type has a large capacity 
and an extremely brutal outline (No. 2). On the island 
of Maraca, north of the Amazon, an immense number of 
funeral urns have been found containing remains of a 
race far superior to existing types. Two skeletons were 



32 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



carefully examined, and the principal characteristics 
of the craniums are — Broad fronts, prominent sinuses 
and long faces, with an angle of 70°, as compared with 
62° to 67° in the skulls from Marajo Island. The cra- 
nium from Ceara (No. 3) differs widely from those of 
Lagoa Santa, these latter showing marked doHco- 
cephalic formation with an index of 69-72°. No 3 is 
of a more recent type with a frontal inclination so pro- 
nounced that the forehead disappears entirely. The 





No. I. — LAg6a Santa Skull. 



fimeral urn (No. 4) from Maraca Island is one of a large 
and very varied group found a number of years ago. In 
many cases plants had found their way into the vessels 
and the roots forced their way out below through the 
pottery, twisting and twining amidst the human remains. 
Here, and at Pacoval, a small island on a lake in the 
great island of Marajo, the idols and ornaments, and 
funeral urns buried in the mound dwellings, represent 
every type of human physiognomy, as if the ancient 
inhabitants had studied all races of mankind. The 
figures have in many cases the same characteristics 
as those in the Aztec monuments in Mexico. Amongst 




o 



^ If 


in 


KiV 


\ hi^^ 


^ 


s^^ 


^^^8 


HH 


K^^H 


'^^^ 


^ "^"*^it 


^fl 




^|L 


'vv^^^H 


l^^K^^^^^W ' - — ^» - ^^^^^B^^ 


^^^^^^1 


HI 




Tumayaua Chief (Matto Grosso). 
From Prof. Von den Steinen's.C/«(«r den NatUrvolkern Central Brasilicns {DietnchRe\mer, Berlin 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 33 






No 2. — BoTucuDO Skull, Minas Geraes. 




No. 3. — Skull from Ceara. 



34 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



other curiosities are rattles containing pebbles, labrets 
or lip ornaments (Tembetas) in beryl and rock crystal, 
taking a lifetime to shape and pierce, basalt, syenite, 
amazon stone (No. 5), fossil resin and bone. Cornelian 
is only found in Rio Grande do Sul. Those made of 
crystal and harder substances were (and are) only used 




No. 4. — Funeral Urn from MaracA Island off North of 
River Amazon. 

by chiefs. Jadeite and Nephrite was also in use, but 
not a single trace of either of the two has been dis- 
covered in any part of Brazil in a rough state. 

The source of these ornamental stones is unknown, 
even in Mexico itself, from which those found in Brazil 
(Para southwards) are presumed to have come, yield- 
ing very little indication of the route, perhaps via the 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 85 

Rio Negro and the Magdalena. The Tembetd was 
used as an amulet to ward off danger, and the Indians 
of Espirito Santo use at the present time large discs 
of wood. Soapstone has also been worked up into 
various ornaments, a curious instance of which is seen 
in No. 7. Beads of glass supposed to be of Phoenician 
origin and various tools and weapons fashioned out of 
oligist, porphyry, fibrolite, agate and serpentine, etc., 
have been found in the Sambaquis (kitchen middens), 
or shell mounds in the south of Brazil. These curious, 
conical-shape hillocks are found all along the coast from 
Pard southwards, but yield very Uttle indication of the 




No. 5. — Tembeta, ok Labret of Amazon Stone, National 
Museum, Rio de Janeiro. 

degree of civiUzation of the extinct Indians, that is in 
the way of human remains. The ornament illustrated 
in No. 8 is a Tanga reduced from the natural size of 
I4i X I li centimetres. The greatest thickness is 4 C. 
These were used by women to cover their -partes pudentes, 
especially when on the march and in crossing streams. 
The male members of the tribe encased the virile mem- 
ber in a finely plaited bag, closely fitting, for the sake 
of protection. The Tanga was always made of the 
finest glazed ware, and suspended from the waist by a 
cord of vegetable fibre by means of the holes near each 
end of the top. 



S6 



BRAZIL IN 1911 




No. 6. — Vessel of Ceramic Ware. Maraj6 Island 
(ParA). 

By the courtesy of Dr. C, Moreira, National Museum, Rio de Jaaeiro. 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 37 

The Rio Doce (Espirito Santo) male Indians of to- 
day use a Tanga in cloth, but the women are entirely 
nude. Both sexes on the River Panca go naked, but 
paint themselves red with the seeds of the Urucu. Very 
few traces of cave-dwellers exist in Brazil, but quite re- 
cently the discovery has been made that the Bugres 
of Parana live sometimes in burrows in the Campos 
Geraes, away from the forest zone. Several volumes 
of the Archives of the National Museum in Rio have 




No . 7. — SoAPSTONE Fetish found in the River 
Trombetas (half natural size). 

dealt with the subjects outlined in these notes, and 
the issue for 1885 is almost entirely dedicated to the 
subject, including a valuable series of comparisons of 
picture writing amongst several races in different parts 
of the world. 

The Mundurucus of the River Tapajos bury their 
dead within their Malocas (huts), and if they die at a 
distance the head at least is brought home. The Mahues 



Jte BRAZIL IN 1911 

of the Rio Negro differ from most Indians in not using 
the labret, and the nomads of Espirito Santo are the 
only ones in the south who use poisoned arrows. These 
savages play a bamboo flute with the nose, repeating 
continual^ a series of doleful notes ranging from B to 
F natural. Bamboo tubes are also used to convey 




No. 8. — ^Tanga, in fine Glazed Pottery, prom Mara j 6 
. Island, ParA. In National Museum, Rio de Janeiro. 



water on journeys. In the north, in Para, etc., consump- 
tives are segregated in camps usually on the opposite 
side of a river, and looked after by old women, the young 
and healthy members of the tribe being forbidden to go 
near. The traces of picture writing seen by Bates and 
other travellers on the upper Xingu, in Amazonas, are 
now found to extend on one side into Columbia, and 



ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY 39 

southwards through Maranhao, Ceara and Parahyba, 
ahnost always executed in inaccessible situations on the 
face of high rocks in a caiion. This record of the Odys- 
sies of a lost race has not yet been read. Almost all the 
records existing show the Indians as possessing low 
foreheads, a configuration of skull characteristic of the 
primitive American races from Canada to Tierra del 
Fuego. There are to-day some 400,000 Indians in the 
whole of Brazil, and Dr. Lacerda (director of the National 
Museum) is of opinion that in another century, not only 
these but all the other coloured peoples in Brazil will 
have disappeared. Many of the Indians are now semi- 
civilized, and the Department of Agriculture has a special 
mission under Colonel Rondon engaged in systematic 
attempts to bring the savages into contact with the 
white man and improve their condition materially and 
morally. Matto Grosso is probably the State in which 
the greater number of aborigines are to be found. 



CHAPTER IV 
DISCOVERY AND FIRST SETTLEMENT 

At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Portugal 
was in the throes of transition from the middle ages to 
the modern era. The Church had lost many of its 
powers, and was obhged to reUnquish a number of its 
pretensions. Its pohtical force was a thing of the past, 
except through the astuteness of the prelates. The 
power of the Throne had greatly increased. The desire 
for expansion, stimulated by the triumphs of Bartho- 
lomew Diaz (i486), and Vasco da Gama {1498), had 
turned men's eyes in the direction of the new world. 
The time was ripe for further discoveries, and the rivalry 
between Portugal and Spain served as a greater stimulus. 
Times were hard, and laws severe ; death was the penalty 
for such crimes as robbery of a mark. Moreover, the 
King was the absolute lord of his people. He could 
make war, and force the people to provide for them- 
selves whilst fighting his battles. The animals, car- 
riages and vessels of his subjects were all his ; the roads, 
rivers, ports and port dues, minerals and fisheries, all 
belonged to him. Small wonder then, when Brazil 
offered opportunities of greater riches and freedom, that 
the Portuguese flocked thither. 

The geographical position of Portugal destined her 
people to a maritime life. Arabian traditions speak of 
the Mogharriun adventurers from Lisbon. The expedi- 
tion against Ceuta, in 141 5, consisted already of several 



DISCOVERY AND FIRST SETTLEMENT 41 

hundreds of vessels. The first European who can be 
said to have cast eyes on the southern half of the new 
world was Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a Spaniard of Palos 
(Murcia), and one of the companions of Columbus. He 
sighted Cape Augustine (as it is now called), some twenty 
miles to the south of Pernambuco, on January 26, 
1500. Before Pinzon reached the limit of his voyage 
(the mouth of the Amazon), Portugal had despatched 
Pedro Alvarez Cabral, and in spite of his intention of 
following up Vasco da Gama, he was forced by calms 
and contrary winds, so much out of his course that, on 
April 25, he sighted Brazil in about the loth degree of 
latitude, close to where Alagoas is to-day. 

The entire squadron {13 vessels) dropped anchor on 
Good Friday in a harbour, which was given the name of 
Porto Seguro, and is four leagues north of the place 
actually called so. Cabral established friendly relations 
with the Indians, and after sending home a small caravel 
to convey the news of his discoveries, set sail again en 
route to India on May 2. 

When the tidings reached Portugal, the King, Don 
Manuel, immediately fitted out three ships, and invited 
the Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, from Seville, to take 
charge of the expedition. The little fleet left in the 
middle of May, 150 1, and reached land in latitude 5° 
south, and sent two of their party on shore to negotiate 
with a group of natives they saw congregated on a hill. 
Several days passed without the return of the sailors, 
and another was sent. Women came forward when 
the messenger reached the shore, he was surrounded 
by the Indians, who seized and examined him with 
evident curiosity and wonder. Suddenly another 
woman came behind him with a stake and dealt him a 
blow which brought him to the ground. Immediately 
he was dragged away, and the men amongst the party 



42 BRAZIL IN 1911 

rushed dou-n to the beach and discharged a cloud of 
arrows at the sailors remaining in their boats. Several 
guns were fired at the savages, who then fled to the 
woods. The barbarous Indians cut the poor youth's 
body in pieces, and boiled it within sight of his enraged 
comrades, who would have landed to revenge their 
three fellows if they had been permitted. Disheartened 
at the non-success he met with, Amerigo returned to 
Lisbon in 1502, but set out again with six ships the 
ensuing year. Four of the caravels were cast away 
owing to the incompetence of their commander, but 
the other two reached All Saints Bay (Bahia), where 
they remained five months on friendly terms with the 
natives, and then returned home laden with parrots, 
monkeys and Brazil wood, leaving behind them twenty- 
four men who had been saved from the wreck of the 
flagship (at Fernando do Noronha Island). Thus was 
formed the first settlement in Brazil. 

The Brazil wood had become so noted in Europe, that 
the name which Cabral had given to the coimtry (Vera 
Cruz) became lost in the denomination which it uni- 
versally received of the Brazils, or the Brazil wood 
country, finally becoming Brazil simply. The harmony 
which marked most of the first intercourse between the 
aborigines and the discoverers did not continue for very 
long. The former found Uttle reason to be satisfied 
with their neighbours, and, like most savages, passed 
from the one extreme of attachment and veneration, 
to that of hatred and fear, and their minds were soon 
filled with the idea of taking revenge for some provoca- 
tions which they had sustained. Warfare of the most 
sanguinary sort succeeded, and the Portuguese were 
frequently defeated, and suffered such tortures that 
cannot be related. A temporary end was thus put to 
voluntary emigration to Brazil. At this crisis the 



DISCOVERY AND FIRST SETTLEMENT 43 

Government adopted the plan (borrowed by the EngHsh 
at a latter period) of making the comitry a penal settle- 
ment. Banishment thence taking the place of capital 
pmiishment. Owing to the character of the new colo- 
nists, the Indians naturally lost all awe for those whom 
they at first regarded as vastly superior beings to them- 
selves. Hardened by crime, and rendered desperate 
by their circumstances, the new-comers were well fitted 
to contend with the difficulties that awaited them. In 
the sanguinary battles that ensued, atrocities were com- 
mitted not unsurpassed in enormity by those which 
attended the conquests of Peru and Mexico. It was 
said to be their practice on storming a village, to mas- 
sacre all the old men and children, and carry the rest off 
as slaves. During this time, Amerigo Vespucci had 
returned to the service of the Castihan King, and un- 
doubtedly counselled the latter to take possession of the 
territories which he (Vespucci) had discovered. The 
Spanish Sovereign sent out Don Juan de SoUs in 1509, 
with Vicente Yanez Pinzon as pilot. The King of 
Portugal did not act tardily in remonstrating with the 
Castilian on this proceeding, and on the return of Solis 
and Pinzon, the idea was abandoned. 

Seven years later, De Solis, coasting along the Brazils, 
came to the harbour of Rio de Janeiro. From thence he 
proceeded southward until he reached what he pre- 
sumed to be a strait communicating with the Indian 
Ocean, but which turned out to be the mouth of the 
great River Plate. With this important discovery, the 
career of the great navigator terminated, for in attempt- 
ing to make a descent on the coast, he and several of 
his crew were slain in sight of the ships. Discouraged 
by the loss of their commander, the survivors set sail 
for Europe, without attempting any further discovery. 
The King of Portugal claimed their cargoes, and remon- 



44 BRAZIL IN 1911 

strated so effectually against the interference of Spain 
that Magalhaes, when reaching the coast three years 
afterwards (1518), purchased nothing but necessary 
provisions from the inhabitants. Meanwhile the French 
had formed settlements on the northern coast of Brazil, 
and when Christovao Jacques, a Portuguese commander, 
entered All Saints Bay, he found two Gallic vessels 
laden with Brazil wood. These he attacked and suc- 
ceeded in destroying, after a gallant defence. The 
first settler in Bahia was Diogo Alvarez, a native of 
Vianna do Castello. He was \\Tecked upon shoals on 
the north of the bar. Part of the crew were dro^^•ned, 
others were slain and devoured by the Indians, and 
Diogo himself only saved his life by making himself 
useful to the savages. By design he secreted a musket 
and barrel of powder, and when an opportunity offered 
to astonish his masters, he promptly brought do^^•n a 
bird with a shot. He was in a moment translated 
from a slave to a great personage. The Indians gave 
him the title of Caramuru (man of fire). He became a 
chief, led his followers against the Tapuyas, and the 
fame of his terrible engine of war having preceded him, 
his tribe gained a bloodless victory. He fixed his abode 
upon the spot where Villa Velha was afterwards founded, 
and living as one of the patriarchs of old, soon saw a 
numerous progeny rising round him. It is undoubtedly 
true that the best Balhian families owe their origin to 
him. 

At length a French vessel entered the bay, and Diogo 
Alvarez resolved to take the opportunity of once more 
seeing his native land. He loaded the ship with wood, 
and embarked with his favourite wife Paraguassu. 
They were received with great honour at the French 
Court. His wife was baptized by the name of the 
Queen of Portugal (Catharina), and the King and Queen 



DISCOVERY AND FIRST SETTLEMENT 45 

were her sponsors, and her marriage was then celebrated. 
Diogo would have proceeded home, but the French 
would not permit him. By means, however, of a young 
compatriot (Fernandez Sardinha), he sent the informa- 
tion to Lisbon, that he was not permitted to carry per- 
sonally, and exhorted the Portuguese Monarch (Joao 
III) to colonize the province in which his own lot had 
been so strangely cast. After some time, however, he 
bargained with a wealthy merchant to take him back, 
and leave him the artillery and ammunition of two 
ships, together with a large store of useful goods for 
trading. In return for this he undertook to fill the 
vessel with Brazil wood. The arrangement was faith- 
fully performed on both sides, and Diogo fortified his 
little capital. The Portuguese Government had con- 
tinued to neglect their Transatlantic possessions, and 
for more than thirty years the attempts to colonize it 
had been of the feeblest description. Finding, however, 
that the French were profiting by their apathy, and 
that the Spanish were forming settlements on the bank 
of the Paraguay River, the Portuguese Court took 
alarm, and a plan was formed for the division of the 
country into Capitanias (captaincies), each containing 
about fifty leagues of coast, which were bestowed by 
Joao III upon such grandees as had distinguished them- 
selves by their services to the Crown, and were able 
and willing to embark on such an adventure. They 
were either to go in person, or send colonists at their 
own expense, and in return they were invested with 
complete powers, both civil and miUtant, over their 
respective jurisdictions. We thus see that the policy 
of the Portuguese King and Cortes was the same as that 
of the Spanish, i.e., to colonize and enrich the nation 
at the expense of the people, not of the royal treasury. 
Before proceeding with the next chapter in Brazilian 



46 BRAZIL IN 1911 

history, the paxcelling of the coast into a series of semi- 
independent communities, we will glance at the actual 
state of the country at this time. The first arrivals 
found no difficulties in procuring wives amongst the 
Indians, as the latter had a peculiar ambition to possess 
children by a race of men whom they at first deemed a 
sort of demi-gods, when they saw them apparently call 
down the thunder and lightning at the pointing of a sort 
of wand. Besides, according to their ideas, the only 
side of parentage worth anything was the male. They 
were further seduced by the store of trinkets, such as 
looking-glasses, scissors, knives, rings, etc., which were 
profusely displayed by the mariners. On the other 
hand, of course, the new-comers brought no women with 
them on their first voyages, and so it is easy to under- 
stand that a large number of mestizos soon sprang up 
wherever the Portuguese were settling. Some of these 
became quite as savage as their mothers, and forgot 
their partial white origin, in the primeval instincts of 
the Indian. Others assisted in the brutal massacres of 
their relatives, and were even more ferocious than their 
fathers. An intermediate type is presented in Diogo 
Alvarez, and being the first, as well as one of the best 
of colonists, it is small wonder that the little port he 
founded soon rose to be the capital of all Brazil. From 
the time of his shipwreck (1510) to 1557, when he died, 
progress was slow but never failing. 



CHAPTER V 

THE CAPITANIAS, AND STRUGGLES WITH 
THE FRENCH, BRITISH, SPANISH AND 
DUTCH INVADERS 

The first person to take possession of a Capitania was 
Martim Afionso de Souza, who, with his brother's aid, 
fitted out a considerable expedition. He first began 
to survey the coast near Rio de Janeiro, and gave the 
place its name, being discovered on the first day of the 
year, and thought to be the mouth of a river. This 
allotment was situated near Sao Vicente. Pedro Lopez, 
his brother, had two sections, one part, Sao Amaro, 
immediately to the south of Sao Vicente ; the second 
considerably to the north, not far from where is now 
Pemambuco. Joao de Barros, the celebrated historian, 
obtained Maranhao, and Pemambuco became the por- 
tion of Duarte Coelho Pereira. The territory adjacent 
to the Southern Parahyba River was conceded to Pedro 
de Goes. The country between the River Sao Fran- 
cisco and Bahia was allotted to Francisco Pereira Cou- 
tinho. The next portion of territory southward was 
known as the Captaincy of Ilheos, it was granted to 
Jorge Figueiredo Correa, Cabral's Porto Seguro was 
included in the range of coast which formed the Capi- 
tania of the same name, and came under the control of 
Pedro Campo Tourinha. Espirito Santo was the appel- 
lation given to the next in rotation, and fell to Vasco 
Fernandez Coutinho. 

47 



48 BRAZIL IN 1011 

Few of the settlements were founded immediately by 
the Crown, and the lords proprietors enjoyed feudal 
privileges and most regal rights, except issuing a coin- 
age. They made their own laws and imposed taxes. 
This system of Government was, as might have been 
expected, attended by serious evils. An authority so 
absolute, and so uncontrolled, was inevitably abused 
by the adventurers to whom its administration was 
entrusted. Complaints of their brutal and arbitrary 
conduct became at length so frequent that it afforded 
the Crown a fair pretext for revoking the powers which 
had been so hastily conferred on the proprietors, and 
de facto, the settlements had been entirely alienated 
from the Government. 

A Governor-General was appointed with plenipoten- 
tiary attributions, and the only thing left the adven- 
turers was possession of their lands, as fiefs. 

Thome de Souza, a fidalgo (or noble), was appointed 
to this high office, and he was given instructions to 
build and fortify a city, which was to be called Sao 
Salvador. He arrived at Bahia in Apiil, 1549, accom- 
panied by six Jesuits, the first who had set foot in the 
new world. It should be noted that the introduction 
of slaves had already taken place, most of them brought 
from the West Coast of Africa, and were principally of 
Bantu Race. They came especially for the purpose 
of agriculture, but were made use of in the extraction 
of the precious metal, and as we shall afterwards see, 
entered into the whole life of the country at a later 
|)eriod. 

- Amongst the Jesuits was Father Nobrega, a con- 
temporary of St. Francis Xavier, and his rival in dis- 
interested exertions for the good of his fellows. He has 
been truly called the Apostle of Brazil. Of noble birth, 
he had been disappointed in some position looked for. 




The Rio Negro, near Manaos. 




Public Gardens, Para. 



HISTORY 49 

and renounced the world in disgust, little thinking that 
his future was destined to be far greater than as a simple 
and useless aristocrat. His memory deserves to be held 
by the Brazihans in everlasting honour. 

Some have ascribed the appointment of Thome de 
Souza to other causes than that of the misdeeds of the 
feudal lords. Many Jews had found their way to Brazil, 
being banished thither by the inquisition, after having 
been stripped of all their possessions. Here they 
founded a colony, imported sugar-cane from Madeira, 
and soon were so flourishing that the Crown became 
imbued with the idea of forming a new city in Brazil, 
and making it the seat of (k)vernment. The Jews had 
hardly been a year exiled when the new (jovernor 
arrived, so it can hardly be said that they were the 
cause of his appointment. 

On De Souza's arrival at Bahia he found old Cara- 
muru settled there. This man was of great assistance 
to the Portuguese, in promoting a friendly understanding 
between them and the Indians, and the latter helped 
them to build the city. Within four months a hundred 
houses were erected, a cathedral was begun, batteries 
were made, commanding both sea and land, and a mud 
wall was built to defend the place against any sudden 
attack from the natives. Supplies of all kinds were 
received next year from Portugal, and the year following, 
several young orphans of noble families were sent out 
by the Queen as wives for the officers, with large dow- 
ries in cows, mares, and slaves. 

This was the very first royal settlement, and its pros- 
perity was attended by advantages to all the Captain- 
cies. De Souza did not, however, bring a sufficient 
force to cope with the disorders and repress the insub- 
ordination which began to prevail. By building Sao 
Salvador he gave a Central Government to the colony. 



50 BRAZIL IN 1911 

but the honour of setthng and extending it, and of 
making it really useful to the Mother Country, was 
reserved for the Jesuits. 

These men, by their arts of insinuation and address, 
have been surpassed by none, and they dispersed them- 
selves amongst the savages, and seemingly inspired by 
peace and charity, succeeded in obtaining their attach- 
ment and confidence. The obstacles which they had to 
encounter were most formidable, but their fiery zeal 
and assiduity rose with the difficulties met with, and 
the most salutary effects resulted from their exertions. 
They began by instructing the native children in the 
Portuguese language, and thus whilst fitting the Indians 
to become interpreters, they acquired their tongue, 
and, as we have seen, formed a Lingoa Geral. Nobrega 
had a school near the city, and the children were taught 
the elements of reading, writing, and arithmetic, to 
assist at mass, to sing the church service, and were fre- 
quently led in procession through the to'^^Ti. Great 
pains were taken to substitute the folklore of the Indians 
by legends from holy writ, and as to these poor people 
it was only a case of exchanging one set of stories by 
another, they did not lose by the substitution. Unfor- 
tunately for posterity, through this policy, most of the 
Indian lore has been entirely lost. 

The greatest obstacle in the path of the missionaries 
was the cannibal propensities of the Indians. Their 
very pride and beliefs were implicated in these horrid 
orgies. In spite of their curing the savages of drunken- 
ness, of polygamy, and of the custom of the vendetta, 
they still possessed the propensity to delight in human 
flesh. Southey {History of Brazil) relates a story of a 
Jesuit, who, having administered extreme unction to a 
very old Indian woman, desired to know whether he 
could get her anything to eat. Said the old convert. 



HISTORY 51 

" My stomach rebels against everything, but if you could 
only get me the httle hand of a tender Tapuyo boy, I 
think I could pick the little bones ; but woe is me, 
there is nobody to go out and shoot one for one." The 
priests, who were already established in the country, 
were in continual opposition to the Jesuits. Their 
interests were at stake ; for what the missionaries did 
gratuitously, they demanded payment, for the priest 
maintained that slavery was lawful, because the Indians 
were beasts, although their own manners were not less 
dissolute than those of the savages, and they hated the 
Jesuits, who sought to humanize the natives. The 
first settlement consisted of an array of officials, directly 
responsible to the Governor-General, and who were 
deputed to visit the Capitanias to transact the business 
of the Crown ; four hundred soldiers, six hundred exiles, 
and many mechanics, and others. 

Hardly had the place taken the aspect of a perma- 
nent settlement when the first Bishop (Don Pedro Fer- 
nandez Sardinha) arrived in 1552. The following year 
Thome de Souza, having been four years in Brazil, 
asked for and received his recall, and was succeeded by 
Duarte de Costa, who came, accompanied by Father 
Anchieta and six other Jesuits, who soon after estab- 
lished a college in the Plains of Piratininga (now Sao 
Paulo) on the Tiete River, in a secluded and beautiful 
spot. Southey, on visiting it, complained of the tre- 
mendous ascents, and the thinness of the air, although 
its elevation is not more than about 2,500 feet above 
sea level. 

Difficulties arising between the new Governor and the 
Prelate, the former embarked for Lisbon, with the inten- 
tion of stating his grievances to the King, but was 
wrecked, and, together \vith a hundred Europeans, was 
murdered by the Cahete tribe of Indians. In revenge 



52 BRAZIL IN 1911 

for this the Portuguese hunted them until they were 
ahnost all exterminated, the remainder being condemned 
to perpetual slavery. 

Da Costa was replaced, in 1558, by Mem de Sa, a man 
of enlightenment and humanity. On his arrival he 
immediately set to work to reclaim the natives, and to 
make them fully understand that they might expect 
justice in the future, he issued an order that all who had 
been wrongfully enslaved should be set at liberty. He 
also took vigorous measures to enforce the laws against 
cannibahsm, pursuing and chastising such tribes as were 
found to continue the abominable practice. He soon 
had to turn his attention to a foreign enemy. Durand 
de Villegaignon, a native of Provence, and Knight of 
Malta, a man high in the French naval service, had 
taken possession of one of the islands in the bay of Rio 
de Janeiro, for the avowed purpose of founding an 
asylum there for the persecuted French Huguenots. For 
this project he had obtained the patronage of Admiral 
de Coligny himself, and by this means had succeeded 
in inducing a number of respectable colonists to make 
their way to Brazil. The French Court was inclined 
to view the scheme with entire satisfaction, as it afforded 
a means of forming colonies after the fashion of their 
Iberian neighbours. Villegaignon having landed, he 
began to build a fort, calhng it after the name of his 
protector, Coligny, and although the whole territory 
was hardly a mile in circumference the continent was 
already honoured with the name of Antarctic France. 
On the return of his ships to Europe for another cargo 
of Protestants, a considerable zeal was kindled by the 
establishment of the reformed religion in these remote 
regions, and the Church of Geneva took such interest 
in the expedition that two clerics and fourteen students 
from that city determined to brave all the hardships of 
a new climate and mode of life. 



HISTORY 58 

Repairing to the seat of Admiral Coligny, they soon 
found their numbers swelled, and new recruits being 
continually enrolled as they made their way towards 
the sea. Their departure was hastened by a disagree- 
able adventure. At Harfieur the Catholic inhabitants, 
instigated by the priests, rose in arms against them, 
and one of their best officers was killed. On their pas- 
sage they met with very bad weather, and on arriving 
off the Coast of Espirito Santo they had a slight brush 
with the Portuguese, Finally they reached the settle- 
ment of their countrymen at Rio de Janeiro, where they 
were received at first \vith great apparent cordiality. 
But Villegaignon was a scoundrel, he soon threw off 
the mask, and those who had come so far to enjoy liberty 
of conscience found themselves brought under a worse 
yoke than that which they had previously suffered 
from. They, therefore, demanded permission to leave 
Brazil, and he gave written permission to the captain 
of a ship to convey them to France. When they got 
on board, however, the vessel was found to be in such 
a state, that five of the party returned on shore, rather 
than put to sea in her. Jean de Lery was one of the 
others who thought death better than the cruelty of 
the traitor Villegaignon, and they pursued their voyage, 
and after having endured the utmost miseries of famine 
they reached Hennebonne. They had been forced to 
devour the leather coverings of their trunks, and hunted 
the rats and mice until none remained. Several died 
of hunger, and the frightful thought came to them that 
they would have to draw lots and devour each other. 
Villegaignon had given them a box of letters wTapped 
in cloth, and amongst them was one addressed to the 
chief magistrates of whatever port the}^ might arrive 
at, in which this worthy servant of the Guises denounced 
the men whom he had invited to Brazil to enjoy the 



5i BRAZIL IN 1911 

peaceable exercise of the reformed faith. His devilish 
malignity was, however, frustrated, and his treachery 
exposed, as the authorities at Hennebonne happened 
to favour the Protestants. Of the five who had trusted 
to his tender mercies, three were executed. Others 
fled to the Portuguese, and were compelled to pro- 
fess a religion which they despised as much as they 
hated. 

The attention of the Portuguese Government was soon 
directed towards this fine port, and the nephew of Mem 
da Sa was sent to Bahia, for such assistance as might 
enable him to extirpate the French, and take possession 
of the place. An expedition was fitted out accordingly, 
of two ships of war, and several merchantmen, and the 
Governor himself took command, and was accompanied 
by the Jesuit Nobrega. Early in January, 1560, they 
reached Rio de Janeiro. The intention of the Governor 
was to enter in the dead of the night, and effect a land- 
ing by surprise. They were, however, seen by the sen- 
tinels, and in consequence obliged to anchor off the 
bar. The French retired to their forts with a company 
of eight hundred native archers. 

Mem da Sa now saw that he needed small craft, and 
sent to Sao Vicente for aid, and for men who had some 
knowledge of the harbour. When reinforcements ar- 
rived the Portuguese won a landing, but they vainly 
battered the sohd rock fortifications for two days and 
nights, and uselessly spent all their ammunition, besides 
having many of their men wounded. There was no lack 
of courage amongst them, though they had evinced 
little skill, and in a desperate assault they won the 
largest of the outworks, then stormed the rock which 
hid the magazine. This so intimidated the French that 
they abandoned the other works in the ensuing night, 
and fled, some to their ships, and others to the main- 



HISTORY 55 

land. As this action took place on January 20 (St. 
Sebastian's Day) Mem da Sa called the place Sao Sebas- 
tiao, in honour as well of the young King of Portugal, 
who bore that name. Here the city was founded, and 
the whole of the work of construction was performed 
by the Indians, under the control of the Jesuits, with- 
out any expense to the State. The troubles of the 
Governor were not at an end, however, for he had now 
to contend with the most formidable and savage of the 
Indian races, the Botucudos, who were continually 
attacking the outlying settlements in Bahia, and even 
threatened the capital itself. 

Enghsh adventurers were at this time making endea- 
vours to settle in the country, and they fixed themselves 
in some considerable numbers at Parahyba do Sul. 
Allying themselves with the natives, they might have 
succeeded in becoming a serious menace to the Portu- 
guese, had not Mem da Sa attacked and exterminated 
them. This successful administrator had been in con- 
trol of the colony for an unusually long period, when 
Dom Luiz de Vasconcellos was appointed to succeed 
him, and brought out a new concourse of Jesuits, headed 
by F. Ignacio de Azeredo. Nearing the Azores they 
met with several French and English vessels. The 
new Governor was killed in action, and the Jesuits made 
to walk the plank by a French pirate, named Jacques 
Sore. Only one escaped in a lay habit. Nobrega had 
spent his last breath before, prematurely worn out, and 
thus was spared hearing the sad fate of his brethren. 
Luiz de Almeida being appointed Governor, he reached 
Bahia, and was welcomed by Mem da Sa, before the 
latter 's death (1572). Later, when Luiz de Brito took 
the place of De Almeida, the growth of the colony had 
been so rapid that it was found necessary to divide it 
into two distinct parts, each with its own head. These 



56 BRAZIL IN 1911 

were, however, re-united in 1578, under D. Diogo Lou- 
renzo da Veiga. This coincided with the passing of 
Portugal and Brazil under the Spanish Dominion for 
sixty years, owing to the death of the Portuguese King 
and his chief nobihty in a memorable expedition against 
the Moors. The colony was offered to the Duke of 
Braganza, with the title of King, provided he forfeited 
all claim to the Portuguese Crown, Neither Philip of 
Spain, in making the offer, nor Braganza, when he 
refused it, had any conception of the importance of the 
country and its destiny. Little either dreamed that 
the then insignificant colony was fated to ecHpse Portu- 
gal itself, and to furnish an asylum to the Court in two 
hundred years time. In spite of the search for gold 
and precious stones that had been going on for twenty 
years, very Uttle intimation of the real riches of the 
interior could have been given then, or probably the 
fate of Brazil would have been quite different. 

Bahia, Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro were in a 
most flourishing condition at this time, and would doubt- 
less have made far greater progress had it not been for 
the temporary placing of the power in Spanish hands. 
Phihp had too many affairs to consider at this time, to 
bestow proper attention to Brazil, and his subjects 
were filled with dreams of the better known El Dorado, 
on the Western Coast. This was also undoubtedly the 
reason why the attempts of the Earl of Cumberland, 
under whom Raleigh served, and Cavendish, and Sir 
James Lancaster were fated to produce no lasting re- 
sults, although their fihbustering expeditions were tem- 
porarily crowned with success. At this time Roberto 
Diaz, a colonist said to have discovered a great mine 
of silver, and who lived in such magnificence, that every- 
thing used at the table or the toilet was of the precious 
metrJ, offered to disclose the secret to King PhiUp, on 



HISTORY 57 

condition he was made a marquis. The crafty Casti- 
lian was not wilhng to comply with this suggestion, but 
sent out emissaries with instructions to discover the 
mine. In spite of his ofiers to show as much silver as 
there was iron in the mines of Biscay it was not forth- 
coming. The Governor-General set out with some 
miners for the Serra Itabayana (Bahia), but could dis- 
cover nothing, and only the timely death of Diaz saved 
him from the vengeance of the King. The probability 
is that he had, in common with many of the old colonists, 
amassed his fortune through other means. The exploi- 
tation of the Indians was a vast source of riches. In 
two years no fewer than 80,000 arrived on the coast, 
in the neighbourhood of the capital, to be employed 
in the sugar mills, etc. Almost the whole of these died 
in a very brief space of time, and were replaced by 
Negroes. Astounding stories are still current as to the 
means employed by the first settlers to enrich them- 
selves at the expense of the natives, and when these 
failed, by traffic in black ivory. 

In 161 1 the French renewed their efforts to form a 
settlement, and established themselves until 1620 in 
the Island of Maranhao. The Dutch now turned their 
eyes in the direction of Brazil, and in 1624 the West 
India Company fitted out a considerable armament 
under Jacob Willekins and Peter Heyne. Their instruc- 
tions to attack the capital were completely carried out, 
and Bahia was taken almost without a struggle. The 
Hollanders soon set to work to strengthen the place, 
and prepared to renew hostilities, which were conducted 
with the greatest barbarity on both sides. The Portu- 
guese Bishop, Marcos Teixeira, hoisted the crucifix for 
his standard, and commenced guerilla warfare with 
such success that Sao Salvador was soon blockaded. 
He died shortly after, in consequence of the hardships 



88 BRAZIL IN 1911 

he had undergone, but his successors carried out the 
campaign. The Dutch were weakened by the return of 
Willekins to Europe, and the departure of Heyne, as well 
as by the loss of their General, Hans Vandort, who was 
killed in ambush. In 1626 the Spanish King sent forty 
ships and 8,000 soldiers to retake the place, under the 
leadership of Fabrique de Toledo, and the Dutch capitu- 
lated on condition of being permitted to return to Hol- 
land with their personal belongings and arms. New 
attempts were made by the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, but the enormous expense delayed an expedition. 
They, however, harassed the Spanish and Portuguese 
merchant fleets on their homeward voyages, and in 
thirteen years took 546 vessels, the proceeds of which 
amounted to £7,500,000. 

Early in 1630 Admiral Hendrick Lonck appeared off 
Pernambuco, and took the place after a feeble resistance 
on the part of Albuquerque, the Governor. A preda- 
tory warfare, with the aid of the Indians, was carried 
on by the vanquished, but in three short months they 
had to accept defeat, and were transported to the Dutch 
Indies. Disaster overwhelmed every fleet sent out by 
the Portuguese to recover the lost city, and in 1636 the 
Dutch had made themselves masters of the Provinces 
of Pernambuco, Parahyba, and Rio Grande do Norte, 
in reality the whole of Brazil lying northward of the Sao 
Francisco River. 

These successes inspired the Dutch with the hope that 
they might, by a great effort, complete the conquest (A 
Brazil, and Count Maurice of Nassau arrived at Per- 
nambuco with fresh troops, and made himself Master 
of Sergipe and Ceara. His entire force at this time 
amounted to 6,180 European soldiers, and about 1,000 
Indians. His efforts to reduce the capital were unavail- 
ing, and in 1639 Spain despatched 46 ships of war, and 



HISTORY 59 

5,000 troops under Mascarenhas. Half the fleet was 
lost, and the rest arrived at Sao Salvador in a melan- 
choly condition. Mascarenhas was, however, enabled 
to raise a total force of 12,000 men, and proceeded 
against Pernambuco, The result of an engagement 
lasting three days was the total defeat of the Portu- 
guese, and of that mighty armament, but six ships 
returned to Europe. Negotiations took place, and 
hostilities were suspended for some time. 

In 1640 Portugal regained her independence, and in 
1641 an alliance was concluded between the Dutch and 
the Portuguese, marking the limits of the territory of 
each in Brazil. 

The West India Company now recalled Count Mau- 
rice, and a large number of the troops, and the commis- 
sioners appointed were foolhardy enough to sell to the 
Portuguese vast stores of ammunition. Their conduct 
became besides so intolerable that peace was not pos- 
sible for any length of time, and it was left to the colo- 
nists themselves to finally expel the invaders in January, 
1654. The Portuguese Crown received its Empire of 
Brazil from the hands of the patriot, Fernandez Vieira, 
and although desultory attempts were made by the 
Dutch to regain a footing in Brazil, they were speedily 
obliged to relinquish all pretensions to dominion. 

The loth of August, 1661, a treaty was signed, by 
which the whole of the country was finally ceded to 
Portugal, on payment of 8,000,000 florins in sixteen 
instalments, and free commerce being allowed Holland 
in all commodities, except Brazil wood. The Portuguese 
now appreciated fuUy the value of their possession, 
and Joao IV conferred on his heir apparent, the title of 
Prince of Brazil. 

In 1710 a French squadron, imder M. du Clerc, arrived 
off Rio de Janeiro, and an attack on the city was made. 



60 BRAZIL IN 1911 

After a short but desperate struggle the Portuguese were 
victorious, and massacred all who fell into their hands. 
Du Clerc, himself taken prisoner, was murdered in his 
bed. Next year France sent her great Admiral Duguay- 
Trouin to inflict vengeance on the Brazilians, and he 
led his fleet daringly between the lines of batteries which 
defended the city, and carried it by storm, holding it 
until a heavy ransom was paid. Thus ended the last 
attempt to wrest Brazil from the hands of her discover- 
ers. During the two hundred years that had elapsed 
since the first settlement, the opening up of the Sertao 
(as the interior was called) proceeded slowty. Most of 
the settlements were due to the discovery of gold and 
precious stones, and the convenient course of the rivers 
provided a highway easily accessible. The State of 
Sao Paulo (as it is now) was prominent in the work of 
pioneering. Groups of adventurers (bandeirantes) forced 
their way over the serras, in search of slaves. The}' 
marched under a chief who was completely equipped 
with the fullest power over his subordinates, and a priest 
was an obhgatory member of the band. Montaya 
speaks of these wolves in sheep's clothing whose office 
was to Christianize the natives, whilst the others de- 
spoiled them. Making use of the poor Indians for all 
the purposes of beasts of burden, and for every kind of 
labour, by this means the bandeirantes made their way 
into Minas, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, and Hnked up the 
great plateau with the Amazon. Those of the sixteenth 
century devastated the whole basin of the Tiete, and 
the districts to the south and south-west. By 1610 
the Jesuits established in Paraguay, had extended their 
work by the Uruguay, Parana, and Iguassu Rivers 
to the Paranapanema (Parana). In spite of the un- 
speakable barbarities perpetrated by these bandeirantes, 
it is undoubtedly true that credit is due to them for 



HISTORY 61 

opening up the country. Many of the Pauhstas never 
made their way southward again, remaining in certain 
favourable spots, and forming the beginning of future 
prosperous cities. 



CHAPTER VI 

CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 

In 1699, the first great discovery of gold took place, and 
was followed thirty years later by that of diamonds. 
Amongst the other charges made against the Jesuits, 
was that they had found the precious metal in many 
places, and were working it by slave labour, without 
giving the Government its share. The missionaries at 
first were of serious, earnest character, and entirely 
devoted to good works, but httle by little they became 
contaminated by the greed of their lay neighbours, 
and were gradually losing their influence, and being 
hated by the people. On Sebastiao Joseph de Car- 
valho e Mello becoming Prime Minister he determined 
to remove them. They were the only persons whom 
he feared, and the great multitude of clericals, and the 
continual conflicts between them, gave him an excuse 
to expel those whom he considered the propagators of 
intolerance, ignorance and superstition. The priests 
were let alone, as they were good servants to the Crown. 
One of his most legitimate ambitions was to lessen the 
influence of Rome. The future Marquez de Pombal 
was 50 years of age when he entered into his ministry. 
He found the country in a state of decay, largely due 
to the pernicious influence of the clerics over the Court 
and the people, and he resolved to purge Portugal of as 
many of its most undesirable elements as possible. 

02 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 68 

It was said of him by his enemies that he acted first 
and thought afterwards, and persisted in his plans 
whether they were right or wrong. It is possible that 
he had not at first conceived the thought of extin- 
guishing the Jesuits, but when events arose which 
seemed to render such a measure necessary, he pursued 
this scheme with characteristic perseverance. His 
brother, Xavier de Mendonga Furtado, was appointed 
Captain-General of Maranhao and Para. He used all 
his influence to deprive the missionaries of their autho- 
rity, and finally, in 1760, they were expelled from Brazil. 
Their colleges, churches and other property was confis- 
cated. They were sent home under inhuman conditions, 
by which many died, and others were cast into prison, 
to remain there for eighteen years, until, on the disgrace 
of Pombal, they were set free. 

Brazil suffered many injuries at the hands of this 
tyrant. He granted licences to a number of exclusive 
companies, and ordained that their stock should bear a 
certain price, and in order to enforce this regulation, 
decreed that the script should become legal payment. 
In 1762 the Spanish Governor of Buenos Aires seized 
on Colonia, a port on the opposite side of the River 
Plate, and it never fell into the power of the Portuguese 
again. The following year the Conde da Cunha, on 
being appointed Viceroy of Brazil, was instructed to 
take up his residence at Rio de Janeiro, which being 
more convenient to the mines, and to the River Plate, 
had become of much greater importance than Bahia, and 
presented a more secure and more easily defended port. 
From this period down to the emi^ation of the Royal 
Family from Lisbon, the development of the country 
was uninterrupted, in spite of the exactions of the 
Crown. In 1704, the Brazilians got the better of the 
Portuguese in the municipal elections, and in 1708 



64 BRAZIL IN 1911 

1710 and 1720, revolts occurred in Sao Paulo, Pernam- 
buco, and Minas Geraes (as the mining province was 
now called). The conduct of the home Government 
was little calculated to soothe the Brazihans. The 
colonists were taxed for the benefit of Portugal, as heavily 
as they could be. The Brazilian capital was filled with 
a tribe of functionaries and other Portuguese, who 
found life much more agreeable in Rio than in Lisbon. 
The appearance of a printing press was the signal for 
an order from the Court for its destruction, and every 
means was taken to prevent the fostering of a national 
spirit. In 1755 and 1758, laws were passed forbidding 
the enslavement of the Indians, and by others in 1761, 
1767 and 1776, the introduction of Negro slaves into 
Portugal, including Madeira (which formed part of the 
Reino, or Kingdom) as well as the Azores, was prohi- 
bited. No mention was made of Brazil, where the num- 
ber increased rapidly. After the establishment of the 
capital, in Rio de Janeiro, when the population of the 
city exceeded 30,000, the coffee berry was introduced 
into the country, and many other kinds of industries 
were stimulated, all of them, however, depending for 
their profits on the supply of forced labour, which was 
increased by every means in the power of the colonists. 
The revenues obtained by Portugal from Brazil at 
this time were very great, one fifth of the production 
of the gold and diamond mines going to the Cro\\Ti. 
From 1728 to 1734, this amoimted to an average of 
nearly ;f 500,000 yearlj% and, with the many other iniqui- 
tous taxes, reached an annual sum of not less than 
£2,000,000. All goods imported from the Mother Coun- 
try paid 12 per cent. duty. Salt and iron were taxed 
100 per cent., and most of the impositions were farmed 
out to the highest bidder. Every article introduced 
into the mining districts was surcharged 2d. per lb. In 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 65 

passing ferries, goods paid not according to their value, 
but their weight. No trade of any kind was allowed 
between the natives and the British, although the latter 
often found means to evade the vigilance of the fiscal 
agents, who, on their side, frequently found it worth 
their while to turn their backs when any contraband 
trade was going on. Under such circumstances the 
development of the country was retarded, and the aspir- 
ations of the Brazilians for freedom could not be 
reahzed, owing to the sparsity of the population and diffi- 
cult communications. At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, Brazil is said to have contained 12 cities, 
66 towns, and 430,000 inhabitants of pure blood, as 
well as some 1,500,000 Negroes and 700,000 Indians. 
These figures are as near as can be obtained from various 
sources, but, of course, are quite hable to be somewhat 
erroneous. The colonies were however outstripping the 
Mother Country, and the exports had reached ;f 2,500,000, 
and the imports £2,100,000. Twenty thousand slaves 
were being annually imported, and 5,000 were sold in 
the market at Rio de Janeiro. Many of these poor 
wretches were the property of the Crown, 10,000 being 
employed in the diamond fields. Others were attached 
to convents, the Benedictines having 1,000 on their 
plantations. Social fife at this time was of the most 
degraded kind. The habits of the lower orders were 
filthy, and those of the rich abominably vicious. The 
monks swarmed in every street, and were at once slug- 
gards and libertines. For the sum of two dollars, any 
coward could hire a bravo to waylay and stab his enemy. 
The Negro population were employed in every de- 
scription of labour, both agricultural and domestic. 

It was the custom of a man who had 20, 50 or 100 
slaves, to turn them loose in the morning without a 
crust, and compel them to produce a sum of money at 



M BRAZIL IN 1911 

night. Any surplus they might keep for themselves. 
Builders used to impose a further condition that each 
Negro should bring back with him a large stone suit- 
able for construction. If one hired a mechanic for any 
trifling work about the house, he would bring a slave 
with him to carry his tools. In my lady's chamber 
would be found a group of females ready to perform her 
sUghtest behest. Events had been hastening to a crisis, 
in Portugal, since the beginning of 1807, and on Novem- 
ber 29, the Prince (Joao VI), who was Regent, hastily 
embarked on board the squadron of Sir Sidney Smith, 
with his retinue and all the valuables that could be 
got together. He reached Bahia on January 25, 1808, 
and was joyfully welcomed by the people. He was 
persuaded to stop there, but with praiseworthy firm- 
ness, he adhered to the resolution he had taken, and 
after spending a month in the city, sailed to Rio de 
Janeiro, where he arrived on March 7. 

The great Marquez de Pombal had foreseen the future 
necessity of transferring the seat of the Monarchy to 
Brazil. The first beneficial consequence of the arrival 
of the Royal Family, was the opening of the ports to 
international commerce, and the centenary of this was 
celebrated by a great national exhibition (August to 
November, 1908), at Rio de Janeiro. In the very first 
year, 90 foreign ships entered the new port, and many 
visited Maranhao, Pernambuco, and Bahia. In 1810 
a treaty was concluded with England, which gave a pre- 
ference to British goods, these paying 15 per cent, duty, 
whilst commodities of other origin were taxed to the 
extent of 24 per cent. Gold and silver, however, still 
continued to be prohibited. Santa Catharina Island 
was declared a free port, and privileges were granted 
to employ the splendid woods of the Brazils for the 
purpose of constructing British men-of-war. Before 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 67 

1814, a number of English merchants took up their 
residence at Rio, and the place soon became a great 
commercial centre, and later, the seat of a British pleni- 
potentiary ranking higher than his colleagues elsewhere 
in South America. 

The abrogation of the colonial laws, which took place 
soon after the arrival of the Regent, the introduction 
of the vine, and the encouragements given to improve- 
ments in horticulture, the adoption of vaccination, and 
better sanitary laws, and some reform in the courts of 
judicature may be enumerated among the benefits for 
which Brazil is indebted to the residence of the Court. 
The most vital stimulus in promoting improvement, 
and in forming a national character and feeling, arose 
out of the decree which gave to the country equal rights 
and privileges to those enjoyed by Portugal herself. 
The important declaration of this measure was fixed 
for the Queen's birthday, in December, 1815. The 
new title of the King's possessions was the United 
Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. When 
the merchants of Rio met to congratulate their Sove- 
reign, they subscribed a large sum of money to form a 
fund for general education. Schools multipUed, and 
even the slaves were sent to learn to read and write. 
The classical languages began to be taught, and public 
libraries were established at Rio, and Bahia, and printing 
offices throughout Brazil. A botanical garden was 
opened at Pernambuco, a medical college at Bahia, a 
museum, a school for engineers, and a naval college 
started at Rio. In 182 1 the Cortes invited the Regent 
(now King) to return home. The invitation was couched 
in such language as might have been considered mina- 
tory, but it was coupled with the information, or pre- 
text, that the English were about to take possession 
of the country. The truth was that they were jealous 



68 BRAZIL IN 1911 

of the rising influence of Brazil, and to mark their 
displeasure, ordered the schools and other institutions 
in that country to be closed, and the central Govern- 
ment at Rio to be dissolved. A manifesto issued by 
order of the Cortes bore the significant phrase : " Com- 
merce and industry seemed entirely destroyed by the 
unUmited licence granted to foreign vessels in all the 
Brazilian ports, and by the fatal treaty of commerce 
with England." On February i8, 182 1, the King nomi- 
nated a commission to consider the Constitution, the 
clauses of which had been promulgated in the Mother 
Country. 

Shortly afterwards, the Prince Dom Pedro read to 
the people of Rio a royal proclamation, securing to them 
the Constitution, such as it should be framed by the 
Cortes at Lisbon, and ended by taking the oath to observe 
it. His example was followed by the Governors of 
Pernambuco, Bahia, etc., and the King confiimed all 
that had taken place. Having resolved to return, 
Joao VI embarked on April 24. As soon as he arrived 
in Europe, he found himself in the hands of his Cortes, 
and foimd it necessary to lend his authority to a Con- 
stitution which treated the Brazilians as mere colonists. 
A rupture between the two countries became inevitable. 
Measures taken by the Government at Lisbon, to com- 
pel the abasement of Brazil, and the recall of the Prince, 
hastened a crisis. The decrees reached Rio on December 
10, and, listening to the entreaties of his subjects, the 
Prince decided to disobey the obnoxious laws and re- 
main. Independence was finally proclaimed Septem- 
ber 7, 1822, and the prince was proclaimed Emperor 
Pedro I. The first assembly was opened in 1823, and 
the Parliament was inaugurated in 1826. The reign of 
the first Emperor was, however, unfortunate. The 
southernmost part of the Empire was lost for ever, and 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 69 

now became the Uruguay Republic, acting as a con- 
venient buffer state, between Brazil and Argentina. 
Revolts succeeded each other, and Pedro abdicated in 
favour of his son on April 7, 1831. He then embarked 
for Portugal to take the Government of that country 
into his hands. After a number of insurrections, the 
Regency was placed in the hands of Father Diogo Feijo, 
who exercised a wise control until 1840. He was suc- 
ceeded by Araujo Lima, and the young Emperor came 
into his own at the age of fourteen on July 23, 1843. 
Disturbances had now become chronic, and pacification 
was a long way off. For five years, the reign of Pedro 
II was marked by revolt and insurrection. In 185 1 
the slave trade was abohshed, and was entirely achieved 
by Constitutional means. The fact of the Royal Family 
emphatically refusing any compensation to the prac- 
tically ruined planters, turned against them a great 
majority of the agricultural class of Brazil, who were 
almost entirely dependent on this enforced labour. 

Now begins an heroic page of Brazilian history. In 
185 1, war was declared against the Argentine Dictator, 
Rosas, in defence of the Republic of Uruguay, and, 
although not very sanguinary, lasted three years. The 
second was an affair of quite a different kind. It cost 
Brazil £63,000,000, and many thousands of lives. She 
was engaged in a petty struggle (1864) with Uruguay, 
when Lopez, the Paraguayan Dictator, invaded Brazil 
and Argentina. This led to an alliance between the 
two countries attacked, and Uruguay, and in 1865, oper- 
ations were commenced. At first the allies were under 
the command of the Argentine President, General Bar- 
tolome Mitre. In the battle of the Riachuelo the Bra- 
zilian Navy, under Admiral Barroso, destroyed the 
Paraguayan ships engaged, but the operations on land 
were not so decisive. A victory was won at Uru- 



70 BRAZIL IN 1911 

guayana (1866), but Lopez preserved intact the whole 
of Paraguay. The allied forces were now placed under 
the Marshal Duque de Caxias, and Paraguay was in- 
vaded. General Osario was already there, and the Bra- 
zilian battleships forced the passages of Curupaito, 1867, 
and Humayta, 1868. The latter was a feat worthy to 
rank with the most famed in history, as the Parana 
was Hned with heavy batteries, and the gallant Bra- 
zilian commander forced a passage, after several failures, 
by disobeying the commands of his chief. The army 
was now able to push its way into the interior of the 
country, repulsing the Paraguayans at Itororo, Avahy, 
and Valentinas (1868), and forcing Lopez to take refuge 
in the inaccessible parts of the country, to recruit fresh 
forces. The last campaign, 1869-70, was conducted by 
Conde d'Eu, son-in-law of the Emperor, who defeated 
the enemy at Campo Grande, and so ended the war. 
Lopez, in attempting to escape, was surprised by General 
Camara, and killed. This war secured for Brazil the 
free navigation of the Paraguay, placing Matto Grosso 
in fluvial communication with the capital. It was 
almost the financial ruin of the country, however, and 
the results were so disastrous to Paraguay that she has 
never recovered. Almost depopulated, there were very 
few men of mature age left in the coimtry. The move- 
ment for the complete abolition of slavery had been 
growing for a long time, but the war with Paraguay 
had occupied the entire attention of the country for 
years, and in consequence the advocates for manu- 
mission had no opportunity of appealing to the country 
on this momentous question. Visconde Silva Paranhas 
do Rio Branco, the great statesman (father of the present 
Foreign Minister), succeeded in obtaming Parliamentary 
sanction to a bill providing that every child born of a 
slave should be free. The Emperor at this time was in 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 71 

Europe, and the Regent, Princess Isabel, signed the law. 
The franchise was voted on January 9, 1881 ; proposals 
were soon made for completing the good work already 
commenced, but were not successful until May, 1888, 
when a clear sweep of the whole system of slavery was 
made, by a law promulgated by both chambers, signed 
by the Princess, Regent for the second time, owing to 
the ill health of the Emperor, and received by great 
demonstrations of approval on the part of the populace. 
There is no doubt whatever that the act was premature. 
Sage reflections showed that the supply of free labour 
was entirely inadequate, and that the Negro was, through 
centuries of dependence on his master, quite unfitted 
to suddenly find his relations with his master entirely 
changed. In place of security of tenure and in many 
cases great licence, which he had under the old regime, 
he found himself looked upon as a creature with no right 
to a living, and was all too frequently an outcast. The 
time was not ripe for such a coup d'etat, much less to 
place the franchise in the hands of such a class as the 
ex-slaves were. Chaos resulted, hundreds of planta- 
tions were abandoned or only half-cultivated, and in 
the State of Rio de Janeiro to-day, within fifty miles 
of the capital, one may see the melancholy result of 
what was intended to be an act of humanity. 

The coffee-producing states, and especially Sao Paulo 
and Rio de Janeiro, were the fertile soil in which was 
sown the seeds of revolution, and certainly the Repub- 
lic, impossible to delay much longer, was precipitated 
by that law which gave freedom to the many, and penury 
to the few. The death-knell of the Empire was tolled. 
The Emperor had alienated the sympathies of the lead- 
ing statesmen during the last few years, and his voyage 
to Europe was doubtless a most injudicious act. Isabel 
was disliked, both with regard to her ultra-religious 



72 BRAZIL IN 1911 

principles, and owing to her partisanship of the slaves. 
At this time the doctrines of Comte had found many 
disciples in Brazil, and Masonry had become a force to 
reckon with. Many circumstances were responsible 
for the debacle, but the most important have been 
stated. The leading spirits amongst the planters formed 
a Republican Party. It had, however, been organized 
on a small scale in 1870, by Saldanha Marinho, in Sao 
Paulo. The Church itself became an enemy to the 
Crown, throwing its weight (as always) into the side of 
the balance that appeared heavier. The demagogues 
hated the Emperor for his assumption of so much power. 
Benjamin Constant became the apostle of a movement 
that in one day gained a bloodless and stupendous vic- 
tory. Changing, with the declaration of Marshal Deo- 
doro da Fonseca, an Empire to a Republic, surely never 
had the miUtant arm achieved its aims by such means. 
Dom Pedro found himself without a single powerful 
friend when the crisis came. He bent his venerable 
head to the blow, and one of the most intellectual and 
patriotic rulers the world has ever known passed out 
of history. A proposal made to erect a monument to 
his memory has now borne fruit, and a fine bronze 
statue in one of the beautiful pubUc gardens of Petro- 
poUs perpetuates his memory. This was inaugurated 
in February (1911), in the presence of a distinguished 
assembly, and it is hoped that the proposal made in Par- 
liament, to have his remains brought back to Brazil, 
will bear fruit. Surely Republicans are more noble- 
spirited than Monarchists. What would the British 
House of Lords say to the idea of spending money in 
order to honour Ohver Cromwell, a man who deserved 
far more of posterity than a pitiable and despicable 
return to the principles of hereditary Monarchy ? 
At the time of the Empire, the cities of Brazil were 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 78 

in a very parlous state indeed. The streets of the capi- 
tal were narrow, unpaved and sparsely illuminated 
with fish oil. Sewers and waterworks were not in 
existence, and the necessities of the people in this direc- 
tion were confided to private enterprise. Most of the 
houses were one-storied, and those more elevated 
generally possessed a store on the ground floor. The 
few mechanics were careless and improvident, and 
scarcely any of the smaller master men had their own 
materials to choose from. Take the case of carpentry 
work. Friends had to be found who would travel into 
the country to buy the timber. None would work 
whilst possessed of money. Ladies scarcely ever went 
out, and when obhged by the necessity of attending 
mass, were carried in a sort of sedan chair, surrounded 
by a group of attendant Negresses. In the house, they 
usually sat, without stockings or shppers, in a very bare 
sort of deshabille indeed, listening to all the small talk 
and scandal collected by their favourite body- woman. 
They occupied themselves by lace or sweet making. 
(The Brazihan ladies are great adepts even to-day at 
concocting all kinds of delicious preserves and similar 
dainties.) At i8 they were quite women, and too fre- 
quently began to age before the age of 25. The men 
occupied themselves in gambling, frequenting cafes 
and discussing poUtics. A shop was a convenient place 
of assignation, and apparently the last business trans- 
acted there was to sell the commodities exposed. Lu- 
cock and Burton relate many amusing stories of the 
apathy and indifference of the tradesmen, as well as 
of their profound ignorance of the arts of which they 
caUed themselves masters. There was no social life, 
because there was no society, properly speaking, apart 
from the aristocratic and bureaucratic element. The 
home life of the planter was of the simplest and most 



74 BRAZIL IN 1911 

unpretentious description, and there were no hotels 
or inns deserving of the name. Somewhat previous to 
the declaration of independence, it was a pleasant custom 
of the Prince to ride round with his entourage and point 
out a house he fancied. The door was accordingly 
marked " P.R." (Principe Real), and the owner com- 
pelled to dispose of it at an arbitrary figure, or too fre- 
quently make a gift of it to his august master. In 1826 
the Imperial carriage was accompanied by an escort 
armed with whips, and woe betide the unfortunate 
wight who remained covered. Brazilians were ex- 
pected to alight from their horses and carriages whilst 
the cortege passed. Small wonder, with the exactions 
of the Royal Family and the nobility, the people sought 
to avoid display, or anything which brought them under 
the notice of their rulers. These customs die hard. 
I know a tradesman, rich, even from an English point 
of view, yet he sleeps in a dirty little hovel, dresses in 
the most ordinary of clothes, and eats at the poorest 
kind of chop-house. His manners are as uncouth as 
his habits, and he represents a type still common amongst 
the Lusobrazilieros of the present age. You may meet 
with them in the steerage of homeward bound steamers, 
and little dream that they could in all probabihty make 
you feel small, from a financial point of view. In spite 
of the encouragement given under the Empire to educa- 
tion, yet at least fifty per cent, of the population were 
quite illiterate. Lindley said that when he was there, 
the ignorance evinced on most ordinary subjects was 
startling. During the height of a sanguinary campaign, 
many never knew that the country was at war, and if 
they were aware, didn't care a rap. One or another 
casual reader of an European book might speak of the 
possibility of future liberty. The proletariat had no 
interest in social and concrete questions, and were 



CROWN COLONY AND EMPIRE 75 

more inquisitive in parochial affairs than in national 
ones. Out of this people has sprung, in spite of their 
natural indolence of character, a race imbued with life 
and vigour. It seems as if the nation slept and required 
gigantic efforts to be awakened. If it has done nothing 
else, the Republic has breathed the breath of life into 
Brazil. The whole country is astir, and if the early 
travellers, who found so much to decry, were enabled to 
step from their graves and revisit it, their amazement 
would be great, and they would admit that they them- 
selves were quite out of date. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE REPUBLIC, 1889-1909 

The 15th of November, 1889, saw the advent of the 
Repubhc. 

The mihtary dictatorship of Marshal da Fonseca was 
brief, but remarkable for the formulation of the new con- 
stitution, which took place in February, 1891 ; the same 
year ParUament was dissolved, and he was obliged to 
resign, and place the reins of Government in the hands 
of another soldier, but an abler man. Marshal Floriano 
Peixoto. The crisis caused by the sudden emancipation 
of the slaves now came to a head, and the country was 
plunged, in addition, in a state of disorder and civil war. 

In 1892 a revolution broke out which lasted nearly 
three years in Rio Grande do Sul. The Federal Govern- 
ment was called in by the State to restore order, but 
soon afterwards the revolters were joined by nearly the 
whole of the fleet (September, 1893). A monarchical 
character was given to the affair, in spite of the efiorts 
of one of the admirals. This was one of the most severe 
crises through which Brazil passed, and, contrary to the 
general rule, the army was the saviour of the country. 
Marshal Peixoto played a great part in the struggle, 
and on one occasion the bombardment of Rio de 
Janeiro was commenced, and only stopped through the 
intervention of the foreign war vessels at that time in 
port. 



THE REPUBLIC, 1889-1909 77 

In 1894 Peixoto was succeeded by the first civil 
President, Dr. Prudente de Moraes, who concluded the 
civil war, and started the work of reconstruction, so 
well followed by his successors. An attempt was made 
on his life by a fanatic, but the political disturbances 
were becoming fewer, and the state of the country 
improving, in spite of the terrible financial depression. 
During this period the first efforts of the Methodists to 
make active propaganda met with but little success, 
ov^ing to the attitude of the priests, especially in Bahia, 
where Bibles were pubhcly burned in the squares, with- 
out the slightest attempt on the part of the authorities 
to keep order. This can hardly be wondered at, con- 
sidering the origin and want of discretion, tact, and 
tolerance on the part of the Protestant colporteurs. 

The majority of these men were drawn from a class 
ill- fitted to do pioneer work in such a country. I remem- 
ber a case where one occupied rooms in the same house 
as a CathoUc father. He used to enter the apartment 
of the latter and place testaments on his bed, and lost 
no opportunity of insulting the faith and character of 
his religious enemies. Another fellow, ex-Bible agent, 
blossomed out into a reverend after a couple of years 
in the country. Another took in paying guests, con- 
trary to the expressed rule of the society. 

American girls' schools are springing up in many 
cities, but their Methodist propaganda is not at all 
judicious at times, and they lose many pupils through 
obUging daughters of Cathohcs to submit to their par- 
ticular brand of Protestantism. The great colleges of 
the nuns are carried on with much greater liberality, 
Jews, Positivists or Mohammedans being equally free 
to practise their o^^ti creeds. For the credit of the 
Anglo-Saxon race, it is quite time there were a few schools 
nrn on non-rehgious lines. 



78 BRAZIL IN 1911 

During the administration of Dr. Moraes the limits 
between Argentina and Brazil were fixed in favour of 
the latter, after a dispute of more than a hundred years, 
standing. This was owing to the good offices of the 
United States as arbitrator. 

Dr. Campos Salles became President in 1898, and 
the rehabilitation of Brazil proceeded rapidly. The 
boundary between French Guiana and Para was fixed 
(Treaty of Berne). 

Dr. Salles was a Paulista, and had the mortification of 
seeing the country, and his own state in particular, in 
very bad financial straits. His chief task was to re- 
estabhsh the national credit, and to do this it was neces- 
sary to take serious measures. Specie payments were 
suspended for some time, and paper money, in large 
quantities, withdrawn and burnt. Another President 
from S. Paulo (Rodrigues Alves) came on the scene in 
1902, and found things on a much better footing all 
round. During his term of office railway construction 
was pushed on rapidly, and the City of Rio de Janeiro 
in great part pulled down and rebuilt on magnificent 
lines. 1904 saw a great triumph at the St. Louis Ex- 
hibition, and the wonderful white palace in which were 
housed myriads of splendid examples of Brazilian pro- 
ducts, was transferred to Rio de Janeiro, and rebuilt 
in a few weeks on a site in front of the bay, surrounded 
by gardens and fine promenades. In honour of the 
Monroe doctrine, it was called by the name of the Ameri- 
can President, who was responsible for that much-dis- 
cussed definite exposition of United States political views. 

The Mimroe Palace is constructed of marble and 
granite, and is a distinctive landmark. Its first note- 
worthy use was a meeting place for the third Pan- 
American Congress, attended by 80 representatives of 
20 nations. 



THE REPUBLIC, 1889-1909 79 

The Brazilian Government installed in the building 
a complete telegraph, telephone, and postal service 
entirely free to the delegates. It also maintained 
translators, typists, and clerks, and nothing in connexion 
with the comfort or convenience of the delegates was 
left undone. The conference was opened by Baron Ri 
Branco (Foreign Minister) ; and a few words from his 
address are perhaps permissible : — 

" As young nations still, we should not forget what 
we owe to those who have furnished the capital with 
which we have entered into the world of competition. 
The very immensity of our territories, in a great part 
impopulated and unexplored, and the certainty that 
we have ample resources for a population twenty times 
larger, would suggest to us the advisabihty of strengthen- 
ing our friendly relations, and trying to develop the 
commercial interests which we have in common. From 
Europe we came ; Europe has been our teacher, from 
her we receive continual support and example, the light 
of science and art, the commodities of her industry, and 
the most profitable lessons of progress. What in ex- 
change we can give for this, by our growth and pros- 
perity, will certainly constitute a more important field 
for the employment of her commercial and industrial 
activity." 

Another success was that of the Sanitary Department 
at the Berlin Congress, where Brazil took first prize. 

In 1906, Dr. Afionso Penna became President, but 
did not live to end his term of office, as he died after a 
very short illness on Jime 14, 1909. 

The Presidential Election that came to an end early 
in 1910 was a remarkable one from several points of 
view. For one thing, it was the first in which two such 
redoubtable candidates found themselves in opposition, 
and in which a struggle was assured right up to the 



80 BRAZIL IN 1911 

polling stage. The President Elect, Marshal Hermes 
da Fonseca, is the nephew of the head of the Provisional 
Government from November 15, 1889, to January, 1891 
(the fiery Deodoro da Fonseca), the dictator, whilst his 
adversary, Dr. Ruy Barbosa, was Minister of Finance, 
and actually (although not in name) Vice-President 
during the same administration. The Marshal is a 
grandson, son and nephew of soldiers, and has served 
his country in every grade of military capacity, being 
Minister of War during the Presidency of Dr. Afionso 
Penna. He has for his programme the development of 
railways, public works, agriculture, and the general 
economical expansion of Brazil, and a settled policy of 
peace. 

The Vice-President is Dr. Wenceslao Braz, who 
relinquished the Presidency of the State of Minas Geraes 
to take up the work of propaganda for a higher position. 
Dedicated to politics from his youth, he has been in 
succession State and Federal Deputy, and Minister of 
the Interior of his native State. 

The members of the Cabinet are : — 

Foreign Minister, Baron Rio Branco (since 1902), 
Facile princeps amongst Brazilians, Journalist. Deputy 
and Professor in his youth, then Consul-General and 
Trade Commissioner in Europe, Plenipotentiary on 
special missions, and meriting fully the title of Peace- 
maker, having settled every frontier dispute and signed 
nearly thirty treaties of arbitration with foreign coun- 
tries. He has also been the means of adding to Brazil 
a territory as large as France. 

Dr. Seabra, Minister of Public Works, was Minister 
of Justice during the Administration of Dr. Rodrigues 
Alves. 

Dr. Pedro Toledo, a well-known advocate from Sao 
Paulo, is Minister of Agriculture, and he has initiated 



THE REPUBLIC, 1889-1909 81 

several schemes of great advantage to the country, 
including organization of fisheries, a commission of 
woods and forests, schools of agriculture, and a system 
of technical instruction by travelling teachers, the 
development and improvement of the Colonization 
Department and the organization of irrigation schemes 
in the States of Ceara and Parahyba do Norte. 

The Minister of War is General Menna Baretto ; that 
of Marine Admiral, Marquez Leao, and both services will 
be vastly improved in the near future, owing to the 
decision of Government to call in foreign instructors, 
and to contract professionals in various branches of 
science. 

The Minister of Finance is Dr. Francisco Salles, 
and that of Justice and the Interior, Dr. Rivadavia 
Correa. 

The great National Exhibition in 1908 in Rio at- 
tracted millions of visitors, and the Brazilian Pavihons 
at the Brussels and Turin International Exhibitions 
in 1910 and 1911 were examples of what the country 
can do in the way of Arts, Sciences and Manufactures, 
as well as the immense range of her national resources. 

Amongst the most important measures of the past 
years are : The institution of compulsory military ser- 
vice, the unification of railway control, and the great 
additions to the navy. 

ARMY AND NAVY 

Marine 

The present programme of the Government will be 
completed in 1912, but the " Liga Maritima " (Navy 
League), 40,000 strong, is striving might and main to 
add two more battleships to the fleet. One, the Ria- 

G 



82 BRAZIL IN 1911 

chuelo, is almost a certainty, as a great deal of money 
is already subscribed. The three ships officially sanc- 
tioned were the first in the world to have two tiers of 
l2-in. guns. The personnel for 1912 will consist of 
4,000 sailors, 2,000 more on contract for three years, 
1,500 firemen contracted, 5,000 boys (who wiU serve six 
years after leaving the training school) and 600 marines. 



Fleet, 1912 



First-Class Battleships. 



Rio de Janeiro 



Tons. 
32,000 



Speed. 

Knots. 



Dimensions. 
Feet. 

22J length 665 
beam 62 
draught 26 



12 14-in.guns 

14 6-in. guns 

14 4-in. guns 

3 6-pounder 

landing guns 

6 machine 

guns 
3 i8-in. tor- 
pedo tubes 
The sliip will be driven by four screws, and the engines will 
be the latest type of turbines. The contract price is £2,900,000. 
She will be the most powerful war vessel in the world. 



Sao Paulo . . 
Minas Geraes 


]■ 


21,000 


21- 


Coast Guard. 








Deodoro . 
Floriano . 


■ \ 

■ } 


3,^62 


15 


School Ships. 








Barroso . 
Benjamin Constant 




3,450 
2,820 


21 

14 


Scouts. 








Bahia 

Rio Grande do Sul 


• I 

. J 


3,500 


27 



Metres. 

159 long 
2 5 -6 wide 
7'5draught 



\ 12 i2-m. guns 

in six towers 

22 4-7-in.gun3 

Broadside of 

10 guns 



— 16 gfuns 



28 guns 
16 gims 



/"I oof i2o-mm. 
I 8 of 47-mm. 

\2 torpedo 
tub«s 



THE REPUBLIC, 1889-1909 



83 



;l 



Torpedo Cruisers. 

Tupy . 
Tymbira . 
Tamoyo . 

Gunboats. 

Repubh'ca. 
Tiradentes 

Destroyei^. 

Para, Piauhy, 
Amazonas, Alagoas, 
Matto Grosso,Parand, 
Santa Catharina, 
Rio Grande do Norte, 
Parahyba, 
Espirito Santo 
Gustavo Sampaio 
and 3 others 

Two Torpedo Boats. 



1,190 22 



1,300 
900 



16 
147 



— 10 guns 



10 guns 
10 guos 



700 27-28 

500 18 
190 — 



(6 guns 
J 2 torpedo 
y tubes 



6 guns 

2 of 47-mm. 
2 torpedo 
tub«s 



Five Submarines (type of Holland), some other small 
vessels of different types, and two Auxiliaries. 

The Riachuelo, and the fifth ship proposed, will 
doubtless be bigger, and more powerful. 

Some very fast river gunboats (heavily armed) have 
been recently ordered in England. 

The Army 

It is not intended to largely increase the military 
forces of the Republic, but to put them on a much better 
footing. The Government has lent its aid to the- 
National Rifle Association founded in 1906, and this 
has branches in every state. It must also be remem- 
bered that the police are semi-military in character, 
and instructors have been contracted with from France, 
to drill the Sao Paulo force, which has a total strength 
of 5,000 men. In Rio de Janeiro, lectures are given, 



84 BRAZIL IN 1011 

and military evolutions are shown with the aid of the 
cinematograph. The War Department has also estab- 
lished a smokeless powder factory, and altogether with 
the very gratifying increase in the number of military 
volunteers, it is certain that the Brazilian military 
forces are in a very good condition to-day. By the law 
of 1907, every citizen is hable to serve from 21 to 44 
years of age ; two years in active service, and seven in 
the First Reserve. Peace footing of Army {1912), 
31,285 men, with 20,000 of the first reserve called out 
for manoeuvres. Brazil is divided into thirteen mihtary 
districts, and every city in the RepubUc has a National 
Guard corps. The State of Rio Grande do Sul has a 
special military organization. 

Army Estimates 
1911— ;^8,444,i5i 
1912— £5,315.700 

A central Aerostation Park is proposed, and prizes up 
to £3,250 for aviators. 



CHAPTER VIII 

AREA, DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, AND 
IMMIGRATION 

The first census was taken in 1872, and the last in 1900, 
and the estimated population is given up to 1908. It 
must be understood, however, that with a large number 
of savage and semi-savage tribes of Indians, inhabiting 
such states as Amazonas, Goyaz, and Matto Grosso, not 
to speak of parts of Sao Paulo and Parana, it has been 
found impossible to give accurate figures. 

Alagoas has an area of 35,000 square miles. The 
population in 1872 was 348,000, now 720,000 ; Maceio 
has 36,000, Penedo 18,000, Pilar 16,000, Palmeira 20,000. 
and Santa Luzia 15,000 inhabitants. 

Amazonas — area, 1,138,212 square miles. Population, 
(1872) 57,000, (1908) 280,000. The capital (Manios) 
70,000. 

Bahia — area, 255,855 square miles. Population, 
(1872) 1,379,613, (1908) 1,900,000. Cachoeira has 50,000, 
Santo Amaro 85,000, Nazareth and Maragogipe about 
20,000 each, Valen^a 25,000, (Joazeiro, Bomfim, 
Alagoinhas, Santa Anna, Ilheos, Cannavieiras and Cara- 
vellas are other important towns), and Bahia city 200,000. 

Ceari — area, 62,550 square miles. Population, (1827) 
721,686, (1908) 850,000. The capital (Fortaleza) 50,000 
souls. 

Espirito Santo — area, 26,901 square miles. Popula- 

86 



86 BRAZIL IN 1911 

tion, {1872) 82,137, (1908) 240,000. Victoria 15,000, 
Itapemerim 20,000. 

Goyaz — area, 448,431 square miles. Population, 
{1872) 160,395, (1908) 280,000. Goyaz city 14,000. 

Maranhao — area, 275,931. Population, {1872) 
360,740, (1908) 540,000. St. Luiz de Maranhao 32,000. 
Matto Grosso — area, 897,871 square miles. Popula- 
tion, (1872) 60,417, (1908) 160,000. Cuyaba 40,000, 
Corumba, Matto Grosso, Caceres, etc. 

Minas Geraes — area, 344,913. Population, (1872) 
2,102,689, (1908) 4,500,000. Bello Horizonte (capital) 
25,000, Ouro Preto 20,000, Juiz de Fora 30,000. 

Para — area, 686,829 square miles. Population, (1872) 
275,237, (1908) 500,000. Belem do Para about 120,000. 
Parahyba do Norte — area, 44,838 square miles. Popu- 
lation, {1872) 376,226, (1908) 550,000. Parahyba (capi- 
tal) 30,000. 

Parana — ^area, 132,792 square miles. Population, 
126,722, (now) 400,000. Curityba 55,000. Paranagua, 
Antonina, Ponta Grossa, Castro, are all small towns. 

Pernambuco — area, 77,037 square miles. Population, 
(1872) 841,539, (1908) 1,400,000. Pernambuco city 
(Recife) 120,000. There are many cities beside the 
capital, but all quite small. 

Piauhy — area, 181,078 square miles. Population, 

(1872) 211,822, (1908) 400,000. Therezinha about 50,000. 

Rio Grande do Norte — area, 34,491 square miles. 

Population, (1872) 233,976, (1908) 350,000. Natal 

18,000, Mossoro 12,000. 

Rio Grande do Sul — area, 148,933 square miles. 
Population, (1872) 446,962, (1908) 1,400,000. Porto 
Alegre 90,000, Pelotas 30,000, Rio Grande 25,000, Uru- 
guayana 15,000. 

Santa Catharina — area, 44,493 square miles. Popu- 
lation, (1872) 159,802, (1908) 350,000. Florianopolis 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 87 

(35.000), Blumenau and Joinville are colonial centres of 
small urban population. 

Sao Paulo — area, 174,585 square miles. Population, 
(1872) 837,354, (1908) 2,600,000. Sao Paulo city (1872) 
26,557, (1908) 300,000, Santos 50,000, Amparo 35,000, 
Piracicaba 40,000, Guaratingueta 40,000, Taubate 
35,000. 

Sergipe — area, 23,450 square miles. Population, 
(1872) 234,643, (1908) 380,000. Aracaju (capital) 
25,000. 

The State of Rio has an area of 491,736 square miles, 
and about 1,350,000 population. 

The Federal District of Rio has an area of 669 square 
miles. The population in 1872 was 274,972 ; in 1890 
522,651 ; in 1900 746,749 ; in 1908 the probable popula- 
tion was 850,000, this is, of course, judging by that 
given by the census of 1900, although it was considered 
to be very deficient. 

The city itself has about half a million souls, and 
Nictheroy (Praia Grande), the state capital, some 40,000, 
Petropolis 25,000, Campos 35,000. Novo Friburgo 
is also an important place. 

The Acre Territory has 114,600 square miles. There 
is, however, no record as yet of its population. 

We thus find Brazil has an area of 5,682,415 square 
miles, and an approximate population of 24,000,000, of 
whom 45 per cent, are males. The most remarkable 
thing in these figures is, imdoubtedly, the absolute want 
of comparison between the sizes of the states and their 
population. A curious effect of the gold and diamond 
fever may be also noticed in the disparity between the 
number of inhabitants in the States of Rio de Janeiro 
(including the capital of the Republic) and Minas Geraes, 
in spite of the fact that the latter has no city which 
may, by any stretch of the imagination, be called a large 



88 BRAZIL IN 1911 

one. Of course, the ravages caused in the greater part 
of the former state, up to 1900, by the yellow fever, has 
a great deal to do with the discrepancy, not so much 
through the actual mortality, but owing largely to the 
exodus of the inhabitants. Many parts of the State 
of Rio have a lesser population now than fifty years 
ago. With regard to the Constitutional law, which 
fixes the Capital of the Repubhc at a selected site in 
Goyaz, a syndicate offers to build the Government offices 
and the President's palace, to complete the railways 
necessary, estabhsh power and light, sewage, trains, and 
water supply ; in short, to create a model city, free, if 
the surplus lands and concessions for public services be 
granted to it for a term of 90 years, and that it shall be 
free of taxes for 20 years. 

In the south of Brazil the sexes are pretty well equally 
divided, but in such states as receive the greater number 
of immigrants, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, and 
Minas Geraes, the male sex largely predominates. The 
census will be taken again this year. The present density 
of population is about 2 '40 per square kilometre. The 
most densely populated state is Rio de Janeiro, and the 
second is Alagoas, whilst Para, Amazonas, Goyaz, and 
Matto Grosso have considerably less than one person to 
the square kilometre. I have aheady dealt \vith the 
average mortality in the demographic statistics shown 
under the heading of Chmate and Diseases. In all 
probability the next ten years will show a great altera- 
tion in these figures, as the interior states have their com- 
munications with the seaboard improved, and without a 
doubt Goyaz will be one of the divisions of the Republic 
to profit most. 

The first attempt at colonization, other than by 
Portuguese, was by John VI, in 1818-19. He started 
two German villages in Bahia, and a Swss one at Novo 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 89 

Friburgo (State of Rio). In 185 1 the Emperor, Dom 
Pedro, invited over a number of Germans, and the 
colony of Blumenau, and that of Joinville, were soon 
founded, to be shortly followed by that at Petropolis. 
In 1859 the Prussian Government passed a law pro- 
hibiting emigration of its subjects to Brazil, followed 
long after by the French, and later, by the Italian 
restrictive measures. It cannot be wondered at that 
emigration has fallen off since 1891, the year which 
reached the high-water mark. 

In 1867 a large number of Americans from the south- 
ern states reached Brazil, and were settled in Parana, 
Sao Paulo, Minas, Rio, Espirito Santo, etc., and about 
the same time the British immigration was not incon- 
siderable. 

The grand total of 1891 was 275,808, of whom more 
than 116,000 were Italians. This influx was doubtless 
due in part to the crisis in the Argentine RepubUc 
{1890-92), as at no period since have the arrivals totalled 
half that number in one year. Since 1895 the figures 
have demonstrated the necessity of measures for encour- 
aging the flow of colonists into the country, and the 
first of the states to show the way was Sao Paulo. In 
1896, 1899 and 1907, the State of Minas Geraes created 
laws deahng with this problem, and Parana, Bahia, 
Matto Grosso, etc., followed suit. On April 19, 1907, 
the Federal Government issued a national decree regard- 
ing immigration and colonization, the text of the princi- 
pal articles of which is herewith appended. The raison 
d'etre of this decree hes in the position of irresponsibility 
of the several states before the Federal Government, 
and, in consequence, as regards propaganda in Europe. 
This has been the cause of the obnoxious laws passed by 
most of the European Governments, as regards Brazil, 
and the most important result, of an immediate nature, 



90 BRAZIL IN 1911 

achieved by the new Government department is the 
practical revoking of these measures. 

The fact that from many parts of the United States re- 
peated requests for concessions are coming in, shows that 
the conditions of life in Brazil are not such as certain 
Europeans imagine. A society, numbering i,6oo, 
desires to come all the way from San Francisco, Cah- 
fornia, to Sao Paulo, and the great interest taken in 
Brazil generally in the United States shows that the 
shrewd farmers of that vast Repubhc know a good thing 
when they see it. The Japanese societies of emigration 
have also succeeded in inducing some 5,000 Nipponese 
to leave their native land. 787 arrived at Santos on 
June 18 last year (1908), and to crown all, came in a 
Japanese steamer, the Kasaio Mart*, which made the 
passage from Yokohama in less than six weeks. It is, 
however, doubtful whether the introduction of these 
CooUes will prove an unmixed blessing, and the yellow 
press is now engaged in warning the nation of the 
" Asiatic Peril," as the German question is by this time, 
and deservedly so, a thing of the past. Referring to 
the Teutonic colonies in Santa Catharina and Rio Grande 
do Sul, it is a curious fact that coloured servants are 
often obliged to learn German, instead of the alien 
learning the language of the country. Some towns 
are entirely Teuton : mayor, councillors, police, national 
guards, etc., but they are none the less good Brazilian 
citizens, and would prove good soldiers in defence of 
their adopted Faderland. The fact of their adhering 
to their own language, and to their old forms of Sanger- 
bunds and Vereins, is an instance of their strength 
rather than their weakness. The Englishmen who have 
lost their mother tongue (as many have in Brazil) are 
less virile than those who retain their idiom as well as 
their national attributes. 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 91 

The quality of the immigrants is said by the Director 
of Colonization in his report for last year, to be much 
improved. With regard to the arrangements for the 
reception and 'dispersal of colonists, I have received the 
highest possible praise from Englishmen who have passed 
through the hands of the officials of the department. 
In 1910 there were in preparation and course of settle- 
ment no fewer than 37 colonies. 

Immigration in 1910 



Portuguese 






30,857 


Spanish . 






20,843 


Germans 






3.902 


Austrians 






2,636 


Italians . 






14.163 


Russians 






2,462 


Syrians . 






. 5.257 


Others . 






. 8,444 



Total 



88,564 



Read, mark, learn and inwardly digest, and treat 
with the contemptuous scorn it merits, any attempt to 
discredit such a country as Brazil. 

Again, he who is afraid of the security of his earnings 
need have no care. His wages are the very first call on 
an estate. If he hires himself out through the medium 
of the Government, the latter will see that the contract 
is entirely in order, and enforce its provisions. I speak, 
however, more to the man who will plough his own 
furrow, he who wishes a stake in the country, and I say 
with St. Hilaire, if ever there is a place that could do 
without the rest of the world, it is Minas Geraes, and I 
go further, and add to Minas at least one half of the whole 
of Brazil, from the Amazon to the Parana. There is 



92 BRAZIL IN 1911 

room for all, and the only condition necessary is ability 
to work, and the leading of moral lives. There are no 
religious disabilities of any kind, and one may find 
members of almost any faith, scattered over the Republic, 
including Mohammedans, Jews, EvangeUcals, Positiv- 
ists, as well as the majority, who are Roman Catholics. 
There are, as we have stated in another place, Methodist 
churches in plenty, especially in the State of Minas 
Geraes. 

Surveys have been made by the engineers of the new 
department of colonization, in all of the states which 
have responded to the appeal of the Federal Government, 
and this year will, without a doubt, show remarkable 
activity, and a great increase in the number of immi- 
grants. Bahia has also established a department of 
colonization, and issued literature in various European 
languages. The only state to offer free rural lots at 
present is Matto Grosso, but the cost of land in all the 
others is quite low, and payments are spread over a 
number of years. The special inducements offered also 
quite justify a normal price for the lots, as they are 
surveyed and selected by the Government, and the 
colonists are transported thither at the expense of the 
department. 

The most interesting of the colonial centres is 
that of Itatiaia, consisting of seven estates, having 
a total area of 48,000 hectares, in two states. The cost 
of the land amounted to £25,000, apart from any outlay 
in connexion with surveying or administration expenses 
and assistance given to colonists. The altitude of the 
colony ranges from 2 to 8,000 feet, and the average 
annual temperature of the highest part of the estates 
is 54° Fahrenheit, and the lowest 68° Fahrenheit. The 
colony is laid out for some 500 families as a preliminary 
essay. The Central Railway (Sao Paulo branch) has 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 98 

two stations (Campobello and Itatiaia) convenient to 
the colony. The cost per lot of 50 hectares will be £63 
to the first comers. The Visconde de Maua colony in 
the same state is situated 1,050 metres above sea level. 
The annual mean temperature is 64° Fahrenheit. That 
of Vera Guarany (Parana), 2,400 feet altitude, has a 
mean temperature of only 59° Fahrenheit. Colonists 
in the State of Rio are mostly Swiss and German ; in 
Parand, Austrian Poles and Russians. The Sao Paulo 
Government has established many liberal measures 
for the benefit of colonists, those having passed through 
the hands of the Immigration Department in the State 
capital being enabled to send for their famihes and rela- 
tives, at Government expense, and are entitled to free 
legal advice with regard to contracts with employers, 
etc. Both the Federal and Sao Paulo Governments are 
prepared to enter into contracts with responsible firms, 
for the introduction of agricultural workers and their 
famihes. 

The National Congress has under consideration a 
proposal to concede free grants of land to suitable 
immigrants in groups of families, definite title deeds 
being given after proof that reasonable improvements 
have been carried out, and the land properly culti- 
vated. The State of Para has organized a new system 
of settlement, and the price for 100 hectares is 100 mil- 
reis, the price increasing by 200 reis the hectare for each 
1,000 hectares or fraction. The cost of land for mining 
and quarrying purposes will be double the above. 

Urban lots will cost from 50 to 100 reis the square 
metre. Estates covered with the Brazil nut palm will 
be sold at the same rate as mining lots. All State lands 
must be paid for by three instalments, one on comple- 
tion of purchase, and the third at the end of the second 
year. 



94 BRAZIL IN 1911 

GUIDE TO THE IMMIGRANT IN BRAZIL 

Reception and Lodging of Immigrants in the 
Port of Rio de Janeiro 

Steamers from foreign ports, anchoring in the port of 
Rio, are visited by uniformed interpreters, who speak 
most of the principal European languages, and offer, in 
the name of the Brazilian Government, to all healthy 
persons of good character free disembarkation and pro- 
visional board and lodging in the home in the Ilha das 
Flores. 

This island is situated in the bay, some fifty minutes' 
distance from the city. 

The immigrants are conducted thither, and after 
declaring their names, ages, nationalities, professions, 
and place of origin and destiny, if any, are permitted 
to remain from three to eight days. The immigrants 
may go in parties to the city to perform any necessary 
business, and will, if required, be accompanied by inter- 
preters. 

In the city will be found a bureau of immigration 
where every information will be furnished, as well as 
free passages to any part of the Republic in the case of 
agriculturists recently arrived. 

Aid to Agriculturists with Families 

The above will be given transport to the lot selected, 
together with their families and all their belongings. 

The lots vary in price from 200 milreis to 750 milreis 
for 25 hectares, without a house, and may be paid for 
in instalments extending over seven or ten years, with- 
out interest. Houses vary in cost from 500 $000 to 
2,000 $000. 

The colonist will be given some tools, and in the case 
of being without means, can obtain work in road con- 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 95 

struction, etc., for the first six months. The immigrant 
arriving without his family, must pay cash for any lot. 
Owing to the vast increase in the number of immigrants, 
it is advisable for those who intend to go out to choose 
their domicile after arrival, in consultation with the 
authorities in Rio de Janeiro. 

To those who have been misled by malicious and 
interested statements, I would recommend the penisal 
of any of the books mentioned in the appendix at the 
end of this work. Hear what Wallace has to say, 
laugh vnth the incomparable Burton, and study Fletcher 
and Kidder, Bates, Scully, Ma we, etc., etc. The over- 
whelming testimony of the greatest scientists, the most 
practical business men, and ordinary tourists during 
the last 100 years, is that Brazil is a country eminently 
fitted for the European. 

Extracts from FEDERAL DECREE, No. 6,455, 
April 19, 1907. 

REGULATIONS REGARDING IMMIGRATION AND 
COLONIZATION IN BRAZIL 

Art. I. The peophng of the soil will be promoted by 
the Union in agreement with the State Governments, 
railway and river navigation companies, other compa- 
nies or associations, and with private individuals, pro- 
vided that the sureties and rules hereby guaranteed and 
laid down are duly observed. 

Art. II. There shall be counted as immigrants, all 
foreigners of less than sixty years of age, who are not suf- 
fering from contagious diseases, nor plying illicit trades, 
and who are not criminals, rogues, beggars, vagabonds, 
lunatics, or invalids, who arrive at Brazilian ports, 
travelling third class. Persons over sixty years of 
age, or unfitted for work, will only be admitted when 
accompanied by their families, or when coming to join 



96 BRAZIL IN 1911 

them, provided that there is in the family at least one 
or two against the member whojs over sixty years of 
age. 

Art. III. To immigrants who establish themselves 
in any part of the country, and devote themselves to 
any branch of agriculture, industry or trade, or to any 
useful craft or profession, the following guarantees will 
be granted : complete liberty of action and freedom 
to engage in any trade, provided that the same does not 
endanger pubhc safety, health or morals ; complete 
liberty of rehgious belief ; and finally, civic rights, as 
enjoyed imder the Constitution and laws by Brazilians 
themselves. 

Art. IV. The Union, without interfering with the 
liberty of similar action on the part of the states, will 
enter into an accord with them to direct and facihtate 
the placing the immigrants who desire to settle as owners 
of their own land, and will protect and advise such spon- 
taneous immigrants as need material aid for their first 
instalment. 

Art. V. The colonies shall be of suf&cient extent to 
admit of development, easy and convenient means of 
transport, on land chosen as fertile, where conditions 
are healthy, and there is abundance of drinking water. 

Art. VII. 

(5) The State will provide the immigrants with tools 

and seeds free of charge, on first being installed, 

whilst the Union (Federal Government) may grant 

them these, and other favours for the same. 

Art. VIII. The State may give any assistance to the 
immigrants, independent of that given by the Union. 

Art. XIII. Localities will be chosen which conform 

to the conditions in Art. V, as well as the following : 

(i) Convenient altitude and soil fitted for all kinds 

of cultivation. 




i'".>ta(.ao (la l.uz, Sao Paulo l\t 




Government House, Sao Paulo. 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 97 

(2) A position on or near railways, or navigable 
rivers, or close to populous centres, where the holders 
of the lots will find a ready market. 

(3) A constant and ample supply of water, both for 
domestic and drinking purposes, and for agricultural 
and industrial purposes. 

(4) Topographical configuration, and other condi- 
tions permitting the use of agricultural machinery. 

(5) Forests which will afford a sure and cheap supply 
of timber for building and other works. 

(6) A large enough area to permit of the increase of 
the nucleus, so that relatives or descendants of the first 
immigrants may be invited to come and form new 
households, and hold lots in the same vicinity. 

Art. XIV. When the locality has been chosen, the 
lots will be marked, and all necessary work put in hand, 
and the place prepared for occupation by the colonists. 
Art. XVIII. If the position and importance of the 
nucleus demand the establishment of headquarters, a 
site will be reserved, and the necessary buildings erected. 
Art. XIX. In each nucleus, ground wiU be set apart 
for the erection of schools, and for experiments in agri- 
culture, for instruction farms, and for industrial purposes. 
Art. XX. The lots will be classified as rural and 
urban. 

(i) Rural lots will be devoted to agriculture and 
cattle breeding, and will be of sufficient extent for the 
colonists who own them. 

{2) As a general rule, rural lots will not exceed 25 
hectares (about 62 acres) when situated along or near 
a railway, or river navigated by steamers, but other- 
wise they may be up to 50 hectares. 

(3) Urban lots will be those situated at the head- 
quarters, and will ultimately form the township, and 
all their fronts will be on streets and squares. 

H 



98 BRAZIL IN 1911 

(4) No urban lot may exceed 3,000 square meters, 
unless set apart for some special purpose. 
Art. XXI. As a general rule, a good and sanitary 
house will be built on each urban lot to be occupied by 
the immigrant and his family, whilst the ground will be 
prepared for the first cultivation, to be made by the 
person who acquires it. 

(i) Immigrants who desire to erect houses at their 
own expense and according to their own taste, will 
have lots without houses reserved for them. 

(2) Under the conditions of the preceding, the 

immigrant and his family, who acquire the lot, will be 

afforded temporary quarters, until they have built the 

house, which must be within the space of one year. 

Art. XXII. Rural lots will be sold either for cash or 

for payments in instalments. In the former case, a 

definite title will be handed over immediately, and in 

the latter, a provisional title, which will be substituted by 

a definite one, as soon as all payments have been made. 

(i) Any one purchasing a lot on the instalment 

system, may pay off the debt in full, or in part, before 

the due date, at any time, in order to shorten the period 

for receiving the definite title. 

(2) Under the conditions of the preceding para- 
graph, the purchaser will enjoy the privileges of para- 
graph 2, Art. XL. 

Art. XXIII. Urban lots will only be sold for cash. 
Art. XXIV. Lots will be sold at a moderate price, 
which shall be previously fixed, according to their size 
and position. 

Art. XXV. Where there is a house on the lot, the 
cost price of the same will be added to the debit. 

Art. XXVII. Immigrants not accompanied by their 
families may only purchase rural lots for cash. 

Art. XXVIII. Immigrants accompanied by their 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 99 

families may acquire a new lot after obtaining a definite 
title to the first. When the family consists of more than 
five workers, or when the immigrant has improved the 
first lot, he will be allowed the preference for the purchase 
of a second, near the first. 

Art. XXIX. The foreign immigrant (agriculturist) 
who has been less than two years in Brazil, who marries 
a Brazilian woman, or the daughter of a Brazilian born 
in the country, or the Brazilian who marries an alien 
woman, who has been in the country less than two years 
as an immigrant, will be given a lot with a provisional 
title, without the couple having to pay anything, provided 
that they have lived in harmony for a year, and have 
improved the said lot. 

Art, XXX. If such immigrant desires to obtain a lot 
with a definite title immediately after his marriage, the 
same will be sold to him for half the stipulated price. 

Art. XXXI. On the provisional title shall be written 
the full price of the lot, and the conditions to be observed 
for the obtaining of a definite title. 

Art. XXXIV. Immigrants will be transported to the 
colonial nucleus free of charge. 

Art. XXXV. Immigrants will be given (free of charge 
at first) seeds, hoes, spades, picks, axes, and scythes. 

Art. XXXVI, During the first six months, from the 
date of their arrival at the nucleus, and until the harvest 
and sale of their produce, immigrants coming from 
abroad, and settled as owners of lots shall, when neces- 
sary, be granted means for the maintenance of their 
families. 

Art, XXXVII, For the space of one year, under the 
conditions of the preceding article, all immigrants will 
receive medical attendance and medicines free of charge. 
This period may be prolonged at the discretion of the 
administrator of the nucleus. 



100 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Art. XXXVIII. Stores, where provisions and other 
articles of prime necessity will be sold at moderate prices, 
will be established in the colonies, to guarantee supplies 
to the inhabitants, who, however, will be entirely free to 
purchase where they like. 

Art. XXXIX. During the first year after his instal- 
ment (or for a longer period if the Government so decrees) 
aid may be given to such immigrants as desire it, for the 
purchase, or hiring, of agricultural implements and 
machinery, live stock and vehicles necessary for the 
cultivation of the lots, and the preparation and transport 
of the produce. 

Art. XL. The price of the lots, with or without a 
house, when the same are purchased on the instalment 
system, as well as any aid granted, except for work done, 
or classed as gratuitous, shall be written in a book and 
handed to the debtor, in the form of a current account, 
and shall constitute the debt of the immigrant, for which 
the head of the family is responsible. He shall begin 
amortization by yearly instalments, not later than at the 
end of the second year after his establishment. After 
this date, if no payment has been made, interest will be 
charged at the rate of three per cent, per annum, on the 
instalments due. 

(i) When the colony is situated on or near railways, 
or rivers navigated by steamers, the period for amorti- 
zation shall be five years, counting from the first day of 
the third year of the instalment of the immigrant. In 
other cases, or when the Government deems it advis- 
able, the period will be eight years, under the same 
conditions. 

(2) The immigrant who pays his debt in advance 
will have a right to rebate at the rate of twelve per 
cent, per annum, on instalments that are outstanding. 

(3) The immigrant who pays the full value of the 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 101 

lot, will immediately receive a definite title to the 

same, even though he has still other debts outstanding, 

contracted with the administration of the nucleus. 

Art. XLI. In the event of the decease of the head of 
the family, in whose name the provisional or definite 
title had been drawn up, the lot will pass to his heirs, or 
legal representatives, on the same conditions on which he 
himself held it. 

If the nucleus has not yet been emancipated, the 
transfer will be made by an official order of the adminis- 
tration without any legal intervention. 

Art. XLII. Any debt which the deceased head of the 
family had contracted with the nucleus, will be consid- 
ered extinct, if he leaves a widow and orphans, save that 
arising from the purchase of the lot on the instalment 
system. 

Art. XLIII. If the lot was purchased by instalments, 
and three had been already paid by the deceased, the 
remainder will be remitted in favour of the widow and 
(or) orphans, and a definite title granted. 

Art. XLIV. Government will maintain primary 
schools free, and will organize agricultural shows if 
deemed expedient. 

Art. XLV. Prizes will be offered to producers who 
most distinguish themselves at such exhibitions. 

Art. XLVI. Where the nucleus is intended for aliens, 
not more than lo per cent, of the lots may be sold to 
Brazilians ; but where the former exceed a certain num- 
ber, a special area near the lots will be set aside for 
Brazihans if deemed advisable. 

Colonies Due to the Enterprise of Railway 
Companies. 

Art. LXIII. The choice of the locahties will depend 



102 BRAZIL IN 1911 

on careful study of all the circumstances essential to the 
development of the colony. 

Art. LXIV. The choice must be examined and ap- 
proved by the Federal Government. 

Art. LXV. In addition to the foregoing, the plans, 
roads, divisions of lots, types of houses, etc., must be 
approved by the Government. 

Art. LXX. The Government may authorize, or pro- 
mote at its own expense, the introduction of immigrants 
from Europe to these colonies. 

Art, LXXI. The service of setthng the immigrants 
shall be at the expense of the company, which shall 
furnish the new comers with tools and seeds, and when 
possible, give them paid work on the railway or near the 
lots, and shall supply them, whenever necessary, with 
advances of food or money until harvest time. 

Art. LXXIII. The price of lots, and houses, and 
conditions of payment depends on the approval of the 
Government, which reserves to itself the right to fiscaUze 
anything in the colonists' interests. 

Art. LXXIV. The company binds itself to grant 
a rebate of 50 per cent, on the ordinary tariffs on colonial 
produce for five years, dating from the instalment of 
the first family on a lot. 

Art. LXXV. The company wiU render every aid in 
its power, and will stimulate the formation and increase 
of small industries. It will create free primary schools, 
and build churches for the immigrants, regardless of 
denomination. 

Reception of Immigrants 

Art. XCVII. 

(2) At ports properly equipped for the reception of 
immigrants, disembarkation, lodging, food, etc., until 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 108 

the destination is chosen, and transport there with all 

belongings ; and transport will be gratuitous. 

Art. C. Immigrants' baggage, including tools, will be 
admitted duty free. 

Art. CXVII. The service of reception and distribution 
of immigrants will be carried out at the expense of the 
Union at the port of Rio Janeiro. 

Art. CXVIII. In State ports (as Bahia, Santos, etc) 
the service will be at the expense of the State interested, 
aided by mutual arrangement, by the Union. 

Repatriation 

CXXVII. Government will repatriate such agricul- 
tural immigrants who may have been brought in at their 
own expense, if they have resided less than two years in 
Brazil and are incapacitated from earning their Uving, 
and have none of their family to support them. 

Regulations of the State of Sao Paulo, 
December 27, 1906 

Every immigrant intending to settle in the state, and 
who gives notice to the official of the department before 
leaving the ship at Santos, will be conveyed, with his 
luggage and other belongings, free of charge, to S. Paulo. 
The families of such immigrants are received into the 
home at S. Paulo, and the head of the family is franked 
as far as the colony he intends to settle in, and back 
again to S. Paulo. On arrival at the lot selected the 
colonists are sustained there for fifteen days, and receive 
tools, and seeds necessary for the first crops, without 
any charge. 

Of the colonies under Government protection, it may 
be said that they are situated along the railway lines. 
The annual pa3aiients vary from £6 5s. to £18 15s. 
Recent arrivals, without resomces, are given three days' 



104 BRAZIL IN 1911 

work weekly if required, in order to maintain themselves 
and their famihes until the harvest is in. 

Immigrants are considered to be persons under sixty 
years of age, either in famiUes or single men, who, as 
agriculturists, enter the country with the intention of 
remaining, and come third class or steerage from Europe, 
In the case of those over sixty, they must be accompanied 
by a family of two or more male adults, in order that 
their support may be assured. The price of land ranges 
from 5s. to 35s. per acre, according to its quality and 
situation. Free schools are established in each colony, 
and there are always physicians and ministers of religion 
at hand. Family lists (to be procured from any of the 
Government agents) should be filled in and returned 
before sailing. 

The Leopoldina Railway has deposited in the Federal 
treasury the sum of ^f 125,000 for the purpose of coloni- 
zation in the zone served by its lines, principally for 
centres (neuchi) in the States of Minas Geraes. 

The influx of settlers was so great during 1908 that 
only in very exceptional cases will the Federal Govern- 
ment now grant free passages. It is the policy of the 
state at present not to use any means of inducing emi- 
gration from the United Kingdom to Brazil in accord- 
ance with the strongly expressed views of the British 
Government on this subject. The President of the 
Repubhc has asked Congress to facihtate the settle- 
ment of the country, by granting land free to colonists 
who have cultivated it satisfactorily for two years. 

Sao Paulo 

During the year 1908 the Sao Paulo Government 
found situations for 26,540 immigrants, as compared with 
18,661 in 1907. 18,716 persons were sent to the cofiee 



AREA, POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION 105 

plantations, and 4,717 for railway construction, and to 
mills and factories, 2,206. 

In the above state a family of six persons, five of 
whom (aged from 12 to 45) are able to work, should earn 
as follows : — 



Excess of production of live stock . 
Coffee harvesting (per head, £16) 
Daily labour on estate, £6 

Net minimum savings . . £140 o 

The above estimate relates to a family of agricultural 
workers of average capacity and behaviour, and does not 
apply either to quite inexperienced persons, nor yet to 
good or bad years. 



i 


s. d. 


30 





80 





30 






CHAPTER IX 

NATURALIZATION, CONSTITUTIONAL AND 
COMMERCIAL LAWS, AND EDUCATION 

United States of Brazil [Estados Unidos do Brazil) 

Federal Republic of twenty states, one national ter- 
ritory, and one Federal district. 

Flag, green, charged with a yellow diamond extend- 
ing almost from end to end and top to bottom. On 
this latter is placed a blue sphere, transversed obhquely 
by a white band bearing the device ORDEM E PRO- 
GRESSO. Above the band is a solitary white star, 
and below, twenty others, representing the States. 
National colours are green and yellow. 

The arms are — A five-painted star, each ray half green, 
half yellow vertically. On the left a spray of coffee, 
and on the right, one of tobacco. Within the star a 
double circle in blue, the outer of which contains twenty 
stars and the inner five to form the southern cross. 
In the centre below the circle a vertical sword. The 
label at foot contains in the centre — Estados Unidos do 
Brazil, and underneath 15 de Novembro, de 1889. 

Synopsis of Naturalization Law of May 14, 1908 

Art. I. The following persons are considered to be 
BraziHan citizens : — 

(i) Those who are born in Brazil, although the 

106 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 107 

father be a foreigner, provided he is not employed in 
the service of the nation to which he belongs. 

(2) The children of Brazihan fathers, and illegiti- 
mate children of Brazilian mothers, born in foreign 
countries, if domiciled in Brazil, 

(3) The children of Brazilian fathers employed in 
the service of the Republic in foreign countries, al- 
though not domiciled in Brazil. 

(4) Foreigners who resided in Brazil on November 
15, 1889, and who had not up to August 24, 1891, 
declared their intention of retaining their original 
nationahty. 

(5) Foreigners owning real estate in Brazil, married 
to Brazihan women, or having Brazilian issue, provided 
they are resident in Brazil, and have not declared their 
intention to adhere to their original nationality. 

(6) Foreigners who apply for naturalization under 
the present law. 

Art. II. Naturahzed foreigners shall enjoy all civil 
and political rights, and may hold any public office, 
except that of President of Vice-President of the Repub- 
lic. The office of Senator may be held after six years 
citizensliip, and that or Deputy after four years. 

Art. IV. Foreigners who desire Brazihan citizenship 
must apply to the President of the Republic, through the 
Ministry of Justice. Applications must be signed and 
authenticated by a notary public, and must state nation- 
ality, parentage, domicile, profession, condition, and 
legitimate issue must also be mentioned. 

Applications must be accompanied by certificate of 
personal identity, legal age, residence of not less than two 
years in Brazil, good moral and civil conduct, and proof 
that applicants have not been indicted in Brazil or else- 
where for the offences enumerated in Art. IX. 

Art. V. Necessity of actual residence shall not be 



108 BRAZIL IN 1911 

obligatory in the cases of foreigners married to Brazilian 
women, those with real estate in Brazil, those interested 
in some industrial midertaking, or who are inventors or 
introducers of some industry useful to the country, and 
those recommended by their talents or literary attain- 
ments, or by their professional skill, and finally, sons of 
naturahzed foreigners born abroad before their fathers' 
naturahzation. 

Art. VI. Certificates from public departments, or 
given by judicial, municipal, or police authorities of 
Brazil are sufficient proof of identity. Certification of 
signatures by notaries, or in case of application through 
the latter, power of attorney is sufficient, and birth or 
baptism certificates, or passports, or other admitted 
documents, will be proof of legal majority, and certificates 
from the authorities of his place of domicile, from his 
consul or diplomatic representative will be accepted as 
proof that he has not been convicted of the crimes 
mentioned in Art. IX. 

Art. VIII. Papers relating to naturalization are exempt 
from all costs, stamps or fees. 

Art. IX. Foreigners who have been convicted of 
homicide, theft, bankruptcy, perjury, smugghng, forgery, 
counterfeiting, or immorahty will not be permitted to 
naturalize. 

Art. XVI. The titles of naturalization must be claimed 
within six months by persons Uving in the Federal 
Capital. 

Art. XVII. Persons residing in the states must claim 
their titles within one year. 

Notes on the Constitution (February 24, 1891), 
and Form of Government of Brazil 

The RepubUc consists of the United States of Brazil, 
and the internal affairs of each state may not be inter- 



NATUEALIZATIOX, LAWS AND EDUCATION 109 

fered with by the Union, unless to repel foreign invasion, 
or in the case of civil war between two states, or to 
reestablish order within the territory of any state, by 
request of its authorities. 

Each state must provide for its own necessities, unless 
in the case of pubUc calamity. It is the exclusive pre- 
rogative of the Union to decree duties and taxes on 
imports and port dues, stamp duties, and postal and tele- 
graph charges, to maintain banks, and create custom 
houses, and the laws of the Union shall be executed by 
its officials, but they may be entrusted to State Govern- 
ment by consent. Interstate duties are prohibited, but 
states may create export duties, taxes on real estate, and 
charges of a state nature in relation to postal and tele- 
graph services. 

» Interference with, or aid of religion, is prohibited. 
Coasting traffic must be carried on in national bottoms 
(i.e., under the Brazihan flag). 

Legislative powers are vested in the National Congress, 
vith the sanction of the President. The elections for 
Senators shall be carried out simultaneously throughout 
the country. Legislature shall last for three years. 
There shall not be less than four Deputies for each state. 
The Senate shall be composed of citizens over thirty-five 
years of age, and include three from each state, and 
three for the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro. 

The President and Vice-President of the Repubhc 
shall be elected by direct suffrage of the nation, and the 
mandate of a Senator shall last for nine years. The 
Senate alone shall have the power to try and sentence 
the President of the Republic, and the other members 
of the Government. The President must be a Brazilian 
born, and be over thirty-five years of age. He may 
choose and dismiss at will all Cabinet Ministers, and 
declare peace and make war, 



110 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Adult suffrage is the law, with certain exceptions. 
The Cabinet consists of the Ministers of the Exterior 
(foreign affairs), Interior and Justice, Finance, Marine, 
War, and Industry, Railways, and Public Works, and 
since 1907, Agriculture. 

The judicial power consists of a supreme court of 
fifteen justices, who hold office during life, and ordinary 
Federal Courts scattered through the country. 

The Senate consists of sixty-three members, three 
for each state, and three for the Federal district. 

The Chamber of Deputies comprises 212 members 
(one for each 70,000 inhabitants) elected for three years. 

Brazil forms part of the Postal Union, and is a party 
to the international agreements with regard to telegraphs, 
submarine cables, marine signals, and protection of 
industrial property. 

Foreigners enjoy the same civil rights as Brazilians, 
including trade marks and patents privileges. The army 
consisted of forty battalions of infantry, six of siege 
artillery, six regiments of field artillery, and fourteen 
regiments of cavalry, but since 1902 has been reorganized 
and increased. Conscription has also been adopted. 
No aliens are admitted into the army or navy. The 
navy has been entirely reformed, and will be quite the 
most powerful of the South American marines. Ninth, 
and perhaps eighth place in the world's navies will be 
reached by 1910. 

With regard to marriages, the civil ceremony is obliga- 
tory, and the religious services are not officially recog- 
nized. Both are the rule, however, amongst Brazilians of 
all classes. The laws for the protection of single women 
are very severe, and in case of rape every possible 
attempt is made to compel immediate marriage, thus 
avoiding heavy punishment. Registration of births is 
compulsory, but the law is frequently evaded, as is also 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS ANT) EDUCATION 111 

the new vaccination decree, although schools are obliged 
to publish a notice refusing to take pupils who have not 
been subjected to the operation. 

Education is free, but not obligatory in all the states. 
Elementary schools are of two grades. In the first 
pupils remain from seven to thirteen, and in the second 
until fifteen years of age. Besides the ordinary sub- 
jects, moral and civil instruction is given, and the 
elements of French, and elementary algebra and trigono- 
metry, and commercial natural history. Elementary 
principles of law and pohtical economy are also taught. 
Secondary schools may be entered with a certificate 
from the primary ones. The capital has two schools 
of this class. There are others in all of the states, and 
faculties of law at Pernambuco and Sao Paulo, as well 
as medical schools ; the polytechnic at Rio, and the 
school of fine arts, and the mining school at Ouro Preto. 
Private colleges, with the necessary equipment and 
professors, are permitted to grant degrees of doctorate 
(Bacharel). The course in the schools of law lasts five 
years, and that of the mining school six years. The 
medical school at Rio is connected with the splendid 
Misericordia Hospital, with 1,200 beds. The poly- 
technics are training colleges for engineers, and bachelors 
of physical or mathematical science. 

There are fine public libraries all over Brazil. The 
National Library in Rio possesses more than 400,000 
printed books and manuscripts. There is also a National 
Museum, and Academy of Fine Arts, and a splendid 
world-famous Botanical Gardens. The Brazilian Aca- 
demy of Letters has forty members. 

In Sao Paulo there is a very fine modern museum, 
(Ypiranga) on a site said to commemorate the declaration 
of independence. There is also there the McKenzie 
College, under Presbyterian control, with nearly 600 



112 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



students. The pupils are mostly Brazilians, but there 
are representatives of nearly all the nationalities to be 
found in Brazil. The states of Sao Paulo and of Minas 
Geraes are probably the best equipped with elementary 
schools in the Union. The former has also a fine agri- 
cultural college. 

Holidays 












I— > < 



National 
City of Rio . 

STATES. 

Alagoas . 
Amazonas . 
Ceari 

Espirito Santo 
Goyaz . 
Maranhao . 
Matto Grosso 
Minas Geraes 
Para 

Parahyba . 
Parana . 
Pemambuco 
Piauhy . 
Rio Grande do 

Norte . 
Rio Grande do 

Sul . . 
Rio de Janeiro 
Santa Catharina 
Sao Paulo . 
Sergipe . 



I 24 — 21 3 — 14 — 7 



ID 



O O 4) 

o !z; P 

12 2/15 



10 

2/23 12 



22 



13 

15 



I 17 5 — 21 — 

12 — 16/24 — 

2 — — 26 

28 — 18 — 

— 15 — — — 9 



16 



— — 15 

27 — 6 17 24 — 10 



— — 19 



— 19 7 






20 
18 



17 



25 



— 1 1/24. 



15 



Saints' Days . 6 2 25 24/29 — 15 8 — i 8/25 

Besides the ordinary movable feasts. 

Law Sittings 

Criminal Courts open all the year. Civil Courts are 
closed from February i to March 31, and during Holy 
Weelf. 




A Forest Path, Sao Paulo. 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 113 

Patent Law 

1. The invention must be described fully, and all 
plans, drawings, samples, etc., etc., be presented in dupli- 
cate to the ist section of the chief office of the Ministry of 
Industry. 

2. All details must be in the vernacular (Portuguese) 
without any corrections or erasures, initialled on each 
sheet, and signed by the inventor or his representative. 

3. Weights and measures must be according to the 
metrical system. 

Temperature by centigrade thermometer, and density 
according to specific gravity. 

4. Plans to be on white paper without folds or joins, 
and in black indelible ink. Sheets to be 33 centimetres 
in height by 21, 42 or 63 breadth, enclosed in a single 
lined frame, with an all-round margin of 2 centimetres. 

6. A receipt may be had for the plans (free of charge) 
if desired. 

7. After deposit of plans and specification, petition 
must be made to the Minister of Industry for a patent. 
This must be distinct for each invention, and must 
contain name, nationality, profession and residence of 
inventor, and the purport of the invention. 

8. The petition must contain also a Hst of the docu- 
ments, etc., and in case of being presented by an agent, 
a power of attorney (procuracao), and the original 
patent, if it is a case of an invention already protected 
abroad. 

9. The President of the Republic will sign all patents, 
and then publication of the Presidential despatch will 
be made in the Diario Official and the inventor invited 
to personally demand the titles, pay the fees and dues, 
and witness the opening- the envelopes containing the 
documents, on a day and hour fixed within one month. 

I 



114 BRAZIL IN 1911 

10. In case of Provisional titles, no duplicates are 
required. Such a title may be given, up to a period of 
three years, without formalities, but if the invention is 
worked industrially during this period, the inventor shall 
lose the right of priority. Stamp duties on Provisional 
titles are 5S500. 

11. In case of an invention of a dangerous or dubious 
nature, or one dealing with food, chemicals or materia 
medica, a secret examination is made by the Government. 

There are in Rio de Janeiro now several patent agents, 
and it is better to entrust the conduct of negotiations to 
one of these. 

Trade Marks Regulations 

1. Trade marks showing designs of medals, prizes, or 
diplomas must be authenticated by presentation of said 
medals, etc., etc. 

2. All other signs, arms, blazons, names, etc, must 
be authorized. 

3. Words, signs or pictures offending decency are 
prohibited. 

4. National (Brazilian) arms are not to be used as a 
trade mark. 

5. Registration lasts 15 years, and at the end of that 
period may be renewed. 

To obtain Registration 

Three copies of the trade mark must be sent in con- 
taining : 

1. Description and characteristics. 

2. Reproduction, with all accessories, including sam- 
ple of ink to be used. 

3. A declaration of the business for which to be used, 
and the profession and domicile of the petitioner. 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 115 

4. The petitioner may declare that said mark may 
vary as to size, colours and their arrangement. 

Petitions and copies of mark must be on strong paper 
^^ centimetres high and 22 centimetres wide, wth a 
margin for binding, and no folds or joins, all to be 
stamped, dated, and signed. The secretary of the 
Commercial Board (Junta Commercial), or the official 
appointed, shall certify the day and hour of presentation 
of models, etc., and register same as soon as registration 
is granted, the secretary of said Junta, or officer of 
Department of Commercial Inspection, shall certify 
same on each copy of mark, and cause the petition to 
be filed together with one of the copies, numbering it, and 
also the remaining copies which shall be returned to the 
petitioner. Pubhcation shall be made within 30 days in 
the Diario Official, or in the official organ of any state, 
together with a full description of the trade mark, and 
as soon as the prehminaries are concluded the Diario 
Official shall pubUsh a certificate of registration. 

Appeals for annuUing registration must be made 
within 5 days, or in case of non- residence of the appellant 
30 days. As in the case of patents it is advisable to employ 
a local agent. 

Bankruptcy Law 

This law came into force in December, 1908. It con- 
tains 15 chapters, and the principal items are : 

In case of debtors offering 60 per cent, of amounts 
due, any agreement between creditors must be approved 
by 60 per cent, of the claims. Bankrupts offering 40 per 
cent., at least two-thirds of the creditors must be in 
accord and represent 75 per cent, of the debt. If less 
than 40 per cent, is offered, the composition should be 
approved by three-fourths of the claimants owning not 
less than 80 per cent, of debits. No agreement or com- 



116 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



position will be considered valid, unless at least 20 per 
cent, is offered by the debtor. 



Weights and Measures 

The metric system is in general use, but some of the 
old Portuguese measures, etc., are still in use, as : — 



Weights : Oitava . 


3* 586 grammes. 


On9a 


. 21*961 


Libra . 


•4595 kilogrammes. 


Arroba . 


14' 6896 


4 arrobas 


I quintal. 


13 J quintals . 


I tonelada. 


Long Measure : PoUegada 


•0275 metres. 


Palmo . 


•22 


Pe (foot) 


•33 


Jarda (yard) . 


•91 


Passo (pace) . 


. 1-65 


Tolsa (6 p6s) . 


1-98 


Vara 


I'lIIO 


Braga (10 palmos) . 


2'22I9 


Estadio 


. 2627484 


Milha . 


1,955-3127 


Legua (geographical 


) . 5.555-5 


„ (kilometrical 


6 kilometres. 


Land Measure : Braga quadra 


da 


(S( 


juare) '0484 acres. 


Prato de tiefra 


10*89 


Geira (400 bragas) 


19-36 


Quarta de tierra 


37*12 


Alqueire (S, Paulo) 


. 174-24 


„ (Rio) 


. 348-48 


Cubic Measure : i braga cubic 


a 10*648 cubic metres. 


I palmo cubica 


•9106 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 117 

Liquid Measure : Tonel, 2 pipas (pipes) 95832 litres. 



Pipa (15 almudes) . 


479-16 




„ (commercial) . 


480 




A^mude (12 medidas) 


31944 




Medida (4 garraf as) . 


2 662 




Garraifa (bottle) 


•666 




Dry Measure : Alqueire (Bahia) 


3627 litres. 


.. (Rio) 


39-997C 


) „ 


Quarta 


907 


,, 


Canada (Rio) 


27715 


) y> 


Selamin 


227 


,, 


Sacca (sack) '3 alqueires . 


109 kilos. 


„ „ 2 alqueires . 


73 




„ sugar . 


50 




„ „ „ (Pemambuco) 






for Rio, Santos and Parana 60 




^ for other ports and export 


• 75 




„ coffee 


60 




I barrica (barrel) sugar . 


105 




2 >> >> >» • 


88 




i „ „ „ . 


58 




8 »» " " * 


38 




i ., „ „ (refined) 


52 




I bjirrica flour 


88-95 




I sacca „ . 


88-95 




I barrica cement (net) 


50 




I sacca cotton 


80 




I bde cotton . 


180 





Coinage, etc. 
Unit . . I real (plural reis). 

Bronze, 20, 40 reis (100 xt\s=i\d. and a fraction over). 
Nickel, 100, 200, 400 reis . . (400 xtis=6^^d.) 

Silver, 500, 1,000, 2,000 reis. 



118 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



1,000 reis is expressed i$ooo, and is called i niilreis= 
IS. 3i<i. Paper, i and 2 milreis (being withdrawn), 5, 

10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000 milreis. 
1,000 $000 is called a cento of reis, worth actually 
;f63 los., thus £1 is worth almost 15 $700. 



Notes recalled 

5 milreis. 10 milreis. 

8th, 9th and loth 8th and 9th 

series. series. 



200 milreis. 
loth series. 



Also 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 milreis printed in England. 
Also the above suffer a gradual diminution in their 
value, each year, until worthless. 

Movement of Currency 

Milreis 



1900 


. 9H 


pence. 


1907 . . 


15 ff\ pence. 


I90I 


. . iiU 




1908 . . 


15A „ 


1902 


. iiM 




1909 . . 


i5«* 


1903 


. iifi 




1910 (Jan.) . 


156* » 


1904 


. 12 A 




1910 (Dec.) 


163V ,. 


1905 


. . i5i4 




1911 (Oct.) . 


— 


1906 


. . 163^:, 









Law Relating to Commercial Travellers 

Commercial agents are not required to take out any 
special Ucence, or to have passports or certificates, but 
owing to the new regulation providing for deportation 
of undesirable aliens, it is advisable for such travellers 
to register. Without this precaution they cannot bring 
a suit to enforce payment of a debt, and persons buying 
off an unregistered agent can refuse to pay for the goods, 
if they choose. Most firms who send out representatives 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 119 

establish relations with some local house, and the col- 
lections are taken over by the latter. In this way it may 
be possible to avoid paying taxes in the larger cities. 
Some states require a licence. The states and munici- 
palities have the power to fix fees, which are apt to 
change. Samples are subject to duty, and the latter 
is not refunded, but such samples are not hable to a 
special duty of lo per cent, (vide No. 560 of Customs 
Regulation). All merchandise must be accompanied 
by a consular invoice, except in case of small samples 
not exceeding ;^io in value. A rebate has been granted 
of 25 per cent, on the tickets of commercial travellers 
on the Central Railroad, on production of a voucher 
from the Commercial Association of Rio, that the bearer 
is a bona-fide commercial traveller. Agents' trunks 
must pay duty, but it is intended to remedy that abuse, 
as also the taxes on samples in each port. In the future 
a certificate of charges will be obtained from the first 
custom house entered. 

Food Laws of Brazil 

Article 40, Law 428 (December 10, 1896), prescribes 
as follows : 

Wines, lard, and all other food substances condemned 
by the National Laboratory shall be destroyed, and the 
importers fined 500S000, £31 5s. od. 

There shall be condemned as injurious to health, all 
food products containing boric or salicyhc acid, inferior 
alcohol, free mineral acids (sulphuric, sulphurous, azotic, 
chlorohydric), sulphite, alum fluorates, and alkahne 
fluosilicates, saccharine, compounds of strontium, and 
other minerals in the proportion of 15*4324 grains 
(2 grams) per litre (or i'0567 quarts) of wine. Hop 
substitutes in beer, as quassia, absinthe, aloes, etc. Also 



120 BRAZIL IN 1911 

any essentials prepared with ethereal oils, colouring 
matter prepared from coal tar, and of a lead base ; mer- 
cury, copper, arsenic, antimony, or any other substance 
which science has recognized as injurious to health. 
The importation of artificial wines is prohibited under 
all circumstances. Wines with more than 20 per cent, 
of alcohol may have four grams of sulphate of potassium 
per litre. 

In 1898 and 1905, additions were made to the Ust of 
prohibitions, including adulteration, purposely so made, 
of wines and spirits, and also naturally generated noxious 
properties, due to chemical reaction on hops in transit, etc. 

Immense quantities of beverages of all kinds have 
been condemned, owing to their containing salicylic 
acid, excess of sulphates, colouring matters (anihne), 
and free sulphurous acid. 

Among other products destroyed have been meats 
{particularly hams), preserved vegetables, sweets, and 
fruit preserves, butter (containing boric acid). 

Analysis (fee 25s.) is obhgatory of every kind of food 
or beverage sold within the country. The fee is hable to 
be increased, in case of extraordinary circumstances. 



Subsidies, etc. 

An annual subsidy of 15 contos yearly for 5 years 
will be paid to individuals or syndicates who may put 
into wheat cultivation at least 200 hectares (or 500 acres) 
and maintain an expert cultivator. 

The President of the Repubhc is authorized to grant 
a subsidy, at the rate of £250 per kilometre (0-62 mile), 
to companies or private individuals building roads, and 
organizing automobile services for passengers or goods 
between two states, or across one only. The roads 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 121 

shall be made in accordance with Government regula- 
tions, and the subsidy shall be paid when 120 kilometres 
have been completed, inspected, and approved. 

A bill has been introduced in Congress, to grant four 
per cent, interest to the first five iron works employing 
national materials, to be increased to six per cent, if 
BraziUan coal or other combustible is used. In con- 
nexion with this it must be noticed that very encourag- 
ing experiments have been carried on by Dr. Arthur 
Barbosa, with an electric furnace, at Ouro Preto. The 
expenses of installation (amounting to £4,370) were 
authorized by the late Minister of Industry. 

Subsidies have also been granted by the State of Rio 
Janeiro to a firm commencing the manufacture of paper 
from the piri-piri (papyrus), a reed growing all over 
the swampy lands at the edge of the Bay of Rio (north 
and west), also to producers of silk, cotton, etc. 

A bill has been introduced to exempt from payment 
of taxes all machinery, etc., for rubber factories within 
the next three years, also to grant a premium of 50 
contos (£3,120) to any one inventing an economical 
process for curing rubber. 



Flour Milling 

The Legislature of the State of Rio de Janeiro has 

passed an act granting — to the first company establish- 
ing a flour mill — exemption from taxes on exporting 
wheat- flour for ten years, and a free concession of pubhc 
lands for wheat cultivation. 

Free entry for all machinery will be asked from the 
Federal Government. 

A premium of 15 contos will also be paid for 5 years, 
if the mill has a capacity for over 11,000 bushels. 



122 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Silk Culture 

The Minister of Agriculture has credited to him the 
sum of 100,000 francs to offer as prizes for silk culture. 
For each kilogramme of cocoons, i milreis ; 5,000 Sooo 
(5 contos) for each plantation of 2,000 mulberry trees, 
and 45 contos between the two first silk factories using 
native silk and equipped with modern machinery. 

Wheat Cultivation 

A decree dated December 31, 1908, authorizes an 
annual bounty of £94 5s. to agricultural societies culti- 
vating wheat. The bounty is offered for five years, 
and will be paid quarterly. The syndicate must be 
organized under Brazilian law, and must cultivate at 
least 500 acres under the direction of an expert. A 
bounty of equal amount is offered for the erection of 
flour mills having a capacity of not less than 11,356 
bushels. 

Experimental Stations 

To five or more syndicates combining to estabHsh 
laboratories and experimental stations for the study of 
agricultural chemistry, etc., a bounty is offered of 
£1.250. 

To stimulate the trade in Mandioca flour, prizes are 
offered for the best consignment sent to a European 
market. 

Premiums will also be paid for bacon and ham curing. 

Favours conceded by the State of Pard 

Concession up to 20,000 hectares of pubhc lands for 
rubber cultivation. 



NATURALIZATION, LAWS AND EDUCATION 123 

Reduction of 50 per cent, on export taxes for 10 years, 
and 30 per cent, up to the 20th year. 

Reduction of 30 per cent, on the Braganga railway 
rates, and reduction in the freights of steamers subsidized 
by the State for 20 years. Free transport by rail of 
roUing stock and other effects especially relating to 
colonization, 

5 per cent, interest will be guaranteed up to half of the 
Company's share capital, up to £400,000. 

The company or companies must plant not less than 
20,000 trees a year, maintain elementary schools, and 
all necessaries for the housing of at least twenty found- 
hngs. Cultivate other products, use the most modem 
machinery, and present a complete annual report to the 
State. 

Use the registered mark of the Commercial Junta 
on all packages exported. 

The concession will be for 99 years, at the end of which 
time the property as it stands will revert to the Govern- 
ment. 

Premiums are also offered for general agriculture, 
and 250 milreis for each 500 cacao trees, properly 
planted. 



CHAPTER X 

FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL NOTES 

The postal rates from Brazil to England are now reduced 
in accordance with the Postal Convention of 1907, i.e. 
200 reis isld.) per 30 grammes. At present there is no 
stamp in use in Brazil of the value of 2^d., so the tax 
works out at a httle more than the International rates. 
The old tax was 300 reis for 15 grammes, or about ^ oz. 

Shipping Goods 

Weight of both goods and cases (or other covering) 
should be given separately. Catalogues should be 
accompanied (whenever possible) by fair samples. 

No tenders can be accepted from any European or 
other firm not having an agent in the RepubHc, and not 
being officially authorized to do business in Brazil. 

In the future the only vessels permitted privileges of 
mail boats will be those fitted with refrigerators suitable 
for fruit carrying. 

No new railways will be given concessions, and no old 
ones renewed, unless the companies possess and employ 
cold storage waggons. 

In order to do business successfully in Brazil, several 
things are necessary. First, the goods sold must be of 
a high grade, and before exporting, a visit should, if 
possible, be made to the country, or the consular reports 
(both British and North American) carefully studied. 



FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL NOTES 125 

Catalogues must be in Portuguese, and a clerk employed 
who writes and translates that language correctly. 

Representation on the spot, by a good traveller know- 
ing the country, is essential, and the short-sighted 
meanness of the common exporting houses is strongly 
condemned. First-class German houses pay their men 
equal to £60 monthly, with commission and traveUing 
expenses, as incurred. This may amount to £2 or ^^3 
daily. Hotel charges are not less than 12s. 6d., and 
porters and baggage charges are proportionately high. 
Every pound of luggage put in the brake van pays. 
Credit is also necessary for at least three months. Pack- 
ing requires the greatest care and attention, and, as sug- 
gested by the results of experiments made in the sewing 
machine and phonograph trade, a stock may be advan- 
tageously carried at a central depot (Rio de Janeiro), 
and goods sold on monthly payments. Singer's charge 
5 $000 a week (6s. 3^.) for hire of machines. Almost any 
goods can be sold in this way, such as musical instru- 
ments, furniture, ornaments, etc. A common way of 
doing business locally, is to form a club of 60, 80, or 100 
members, and draw weekly chances for clothing, jewel- 
lery, etc. Probably the best way of doing a large and 
profitable trade in Brazil is to open locally with the 
latest novelties, and employ Brazilian salesmen, under 
European supervision. If travellers are sent from Eng- 
land they must be good men, tactful, sympathetic, 
well read, gentlemanly above all, and possessed of 
tenacity and patience, and should be well paid, properly 
supported, and able to speak Portuguese. 

Floating Dock 

Tenders were invited in Europe for the construction of 
a floating dock to accommodate vessels of the very 



126 BRAZIL IN 1911 

largest size, and also for a docking plant. Tenders 
opened in October, 1909, were all rejected owing to too 
high estimates. One, however, was accepted in 1910, 
and the dock is now in operation in Rio, having success- 
fully dealt with the Minas Geraes and the Sao Paulo. 

The Federal Government has neutrahzed a zone in 
the State of Sao Paulo, and coffee ex Minas Geraes will 
be allowed to pass through to Santos without pajang any 
duty to the former state. 

A wireless telegraph station will be set up at Olinda 
(Recife), and another, in connexion, on the island of 
Fernando do Noronha. From thence it is expected to 
come in touch with Europe directly. 

Pan -American Bank 

Pierpont Morgan is arranging a bank under the above 
title, which will commence operations shortly. 

Industries 

There are in the Repubhc (191 1) 3,400 industrial 
establishments, with 160,000 employees. Of these, 
600 are in Rio State, and 551 in Minas Geraes, and in 
Sao Paulo 323. 

The principal industry is cotton manufacture, and 
there are 137 mills in this business, with 41,018 work- 
people. All of these are paying large dividends, and 
increasing their output. All the raw material used is 
Brazihan. 

Paper Mills 

Two or three only in Rio and Sao Paulo, making 
coarse wrapping paper and cardboard from refuse of 
sugar cane, grasses, reeds, etc., the most useful plant 
being the piri-piri, or Papyrus brasiliensis. 



FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL NOTES 127 

The State of Parana, with its pine forests, ofiers an 
unequalled opening for the above. 



India-rubber Goods 

15 per cent, export duty is charged on raw rubber, 
and at least 50 or 60 per cent, on manufactured goods 
entering the country, of which a very large quantity, 
indeed, are used. 

There are openings for biscuit, fancy soap, starch, and 
chemical works, box makers, canneries, steam laundries 
and saw mills. 

There are no steam fishing boats, no piano manu- 
factories, or factories where jams, jellies and marmalade 
are made on English lines, although the consumption 
of the best European brands is large and increasing. 

There are, in fact, openings for all kinds of factories, 
works, and mills, and inducements are offered by various 
municipalities, such as free sites, lighting, and power for 
a period, and exemption from local taxes. A nominal 
duty is charged on machinery for manufactories, and 
in many cases it is admitted entirely free. 

Motor Gars 

There are some 1,250 motor cars at present in Rio de 
Janeiro, and about 100 in Sao Paulo. A good market 
is open for good low-priced and strongly built cars. 

Hotel 

There is a first rate opportunity for a really high-class 
hotel in Rio, and one on up-to-date lines would be wel- 
comed. 



128 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Interpreters 

The Secretary of the British Legation in Brazil 
suggests the employment of interpreters to commercial 
travellers. This is not at all a practical idea, first 
because of the great difficulty of getting a suitable man, 
and secondly because of the great expense entailed. 
Again I insist on the necessity of the traveller knowing 
Portuguese himself. 

Taxes and Stamp Duties 

All receipts for amounts over 25 milreis must bear a 
300 reis stamp, as well as cheques, petitions (each page), 
memorials, letters of exchange, and all other documents. 

Commercial houses with a capital of over 5 contos 
must have their books registered and stamped in the 
Junta Commercial. A tax of 44 reis is due for each 
page. 

The following arti,cles are subject to Stamp Duty : 
All beverages, manufactured tobacco, matches, per- 
fumery, salt, candles, boots and shoes, vinegar, drugs, 
umbrellas, hats, textile fabrics, etc. Everything must 
bear the necessary stamp before being exposed for sale. 
Heavy fines are exacted for non-compliance. 

House duties vary from 6 per cent, to 12 per cent, of 
the value, and all industries and businesses are taxed, 
and brokers, auctioneers and lottery agents are subject 
to heavy monetary guarantees. 

No income tax is imposed anywhere in the Republic. 

Extradition 

The extradition of Brazihans and foreigners is per- 
mitted. 
Brazilians, whether bom in the country or naturalized 




Sugar Cane, Tunil, Sao Paulo. 




Maize and Beans, Sao Paulo. 



FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL NOTES 129 

prior to commission, cannot be extradited except recipro- 
city is guaranteed by the soliciting country. 

No extradition can be permitted when Brazilian 
law does not impose the penalty of a year or more 
imprisonment for the misdemeanour, or where the 
criminal has been tried by a BraziHan jury for the same 
offence. 

Offences against religion, or miUtary offences, or 
libels, or purely political crimes are not extraditable 
offences. 

In case of the death penalty, the criminal will not be 
given up unless the sentence is commuted to penal 
servitude. 

Extradition must be'sohcited by diplomatic means, 
and the Supreme Tribunal will decide as to the legality 
of the case. 

Copyright {October, 1911) 

The Congress has under study a project to concede 
copyright to all dramatic and hterary authors, subject 
to reciprocity, and the proof of the work being pro- 
tected in the country of origin. This measure will most 
certainly be passed with the minimum of delay. 

Finances 

Exchange — 1909 : ishd. 1910 : i6|i. 
Expenditure — 1911 : £32,603,580 (estimated). 
Revenue — 191 1 : £34,623,928 (estimated). 
Imports— 1909 : £37.139.354- 1910 : £47.871.974- 
Exports — 1909 : £63,724,440. 1910 : £65,423,482. 
Imports — From the United Kingdom, 121,566,411 $000 

gold. Germany, 67,625,762. U.S.A., 54,467,398. 

France, 40,349,069. U.S.A., January-August, 1911 

=£6,800,000. 

K 



180 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



Exports in Milreis Gold (1910). 











Value 
1 
. 237,301,453 


Coffee . . . 9,723,738 sacks . 


Rubber . 






38,546,970 kilos 


219,074,366 


Tobacco . 






34,148,779 „ 


14,280,102 


Sugar 






58,823,682 „ 


6,035,619 


Matte 






59,360,219 „ 


17.413.792 


Cacao 






29.157.579 .. 


12,293,084 


Cotton 






11,160,072 „ 


7.939.877 


Hides 






34,058,825 „ 


15,433.678 


Skins . 






. 2,695,983 „ 


6,151,088 



Legal Tender: Silver up to 29 milreis. 

Nickel up to i milreis. 
Bronze up to 200 reis. 

Silver Coin : 2 milreis piece should weigh 20 grammes ; 
I milreis, 10 grammes ; 500 reis, 5 grammes. 

National debt in 1910, ;f 116,414,507. 

Debt of Rio Municipality, 82 francs per head. 

Debt per head of the population, £5. 

The gold deposits in the Conversion Bank amounted 
to £20,000,000 in 1910 and the exchange was raised to 
i6i. In January, 1911, a decree was signed elevating 
the deposits to £60,000,000. (See Brazil in 1910.) 

In October, 1911, the deposits amounted to£36,ooo,ooo. 

Fresh capital invested in Brazil in i9io=£32,787,i43. 
From January to June (1911), £13,108,131 British, and 
£8,369,200 French money was invested in Brazilian 
enterprises. From January to May a total of £26,000,000 
was reached. French investments (total), i| miUiards 
of francs, British £180,000,000. 

Banco do Brasil (National Bank). 



FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL NOTES 131 

Capital of Foreign Banks 

London and River Plate Bank . . . ;f 2, 000,000 

London and Brazilian Bank . . . ^^2,000,000 

(Dividend, Sept., 1911, equal to 12 per cent.) 

British Bank of South America . . £1,300,000 

Brasihanische Bank fiir Deutschland . £500,000 

Banco Commerciale Italo-BrasiHano . £300,000 

Banque Frangaise et ItaHenne . . £500,000 

The Central Agricultural Bank (estab. 1908) at Rio 
has a capital of 300,000,000 $000 in 150,000 shares of 
200 milreis each. The principal object of the bank is 
loans on approved security to agriciiltural societies and 
corporations. 

There are 600,000 Portuguese in Brazil, and they 
send home some £3,600,000 annually. The ItaHans 
number nearly i^ millions, and their savings which 
find their way to Italy amount to 200,000,000 liras, 
or about £7,500,000. If we consider the vast sums 
which pass from other sources to Germany, Spain, 
Sjnria, Holland, the United States, Austria, England, 
etc., we shall understand a Uttle what a great factor 
Brazil is to-day in the financial world. 



CHAPTER XI 



POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TRANS- 
PORTATION 

Posts 

The organization of the postal service in Brazil dates 
from 1829, and the first postage stamps were issued 
in 1848. 

Stamps are issued of the following values : 10, 20, 
50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 reis, and i, 2, 5 and 
10 milreis. 

Official stamps (green and orange) from 10 reis to 10 
milreis. 

Postal Movement, 1909-1910 
International money orders issued, 3,310. 
Receipts, 6,082,219 $194 paper. 

Postal Rates in the Interior 



Letters . 
Post Cards 




. 100 reis per 15 grammes. 
50 „ each. 


Reply Post Cards . 
Printed matter 
Newspapers, etc. 
Manuscripts . 
Parcels . 




. 100 „ 

20 ,, per 50 grammes 
10 „ „ 100 „ 

. 100 „ „ 50 


Registration Fee 
Advice of reception 




. 200 reis. 
. 100 „ 


Samples: 50 gr., 120 


r. 


100 gr., 160 r. ; 200 gr., 320 r. ; 


250 gr., 400 r. ; 


350 gr., 500 r. 

Ml 



POSTS 188 

Money orders up to 25 milreis, tax 300 reis. 
50 „ „ 600 reis. 
„ „ „ 100 „ ,, 1,000 reis. 

» 150 „ „ 1S500. 
„ 200 „ „ 2 $000. 

And 500 reis for each fraction of 200 milreis beyond. 

Money orders can be sent to most foreign countries, 
but only in francs. 

Parcels post conventions have now been signed with 
England, U.S.A., Austria and Italy. The rates are 
not to hand at time of going to press with this 
chapter. 

Postal rates have already been given. Mails leave 
Southampton and Liverpool alternate weeks, Fridays 
and Thursdays respectively, and via Bordeaux same 
days as via Liverpool. Mails leave Rio de Janeiro weekly 
by Royal Mail steamer on alternate Wednesdays, and 
by other steamers according to arrival. Mails leave 
New York by Lamport and Holt, or Brazilian Lloyd 
steamers about four times a month. Passage, from 
13 to 18 days. 

Telegraphic communication is estabhshed between all 
parts of the Repubhc at the following rates : — 

Capital Federal, 20 words, 500 reis, 

1 State, 100 reis a word. 

2 or 3 States, 200 reis a word. 

4 or more States, 300 reis a word. 

Besides a fixed tax of 600 reis for each telegram, 
75 per cent, abatement for press telegrams. 

Telegraphs 

The electric telegraph was first introduced into Brazil 
in 1852. Present extension of hues over 31,000 kilo- 
metres. 



184 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Wireless telegraphy is now used on board the Bra- 
zilian warships, and some of the larger coasters, as well 
as on many foreign steamers. There are (1911) some 
five stations in the State of Rio, one at Para, Santarem, 
Manaos, and thence to Porto Velho (overland). Sta- 
tions are also working at Bahia, Ohnda, and Fernando 
Noronha Island. Messages have been obtained by 
the latter station from the Tour Eiffel, Paris, and be- 
tween Olinda (Pernambuco) and Port Etienne in Mauri- 
tania near Senegal. New stations are to be opened at 
Rio Grande and Cape S. Thome, State of Rio. This 
latter is destined to be the most important South Ameri- 
can station ; its range will be most comprehensive, 
including nearly the whole of Brazil, etc., and extend- 
ing to mid Atlantic. 

Submarine cables extend from Brazil {vid Western) 
to Europe, the United States, and a new cable is proposed 
to Ascension to tap the Eastern system. 

Telegrams are despatched by pneumatic tube in the 
urban district of Rio,as well as letters bearing express fee. 
During 1910, 2| milUon dispatches were transmitted. 

Foreign rates are : Canada and Eastern States, 5 fr. 
20 cent, per word ; England, 5 fr. ; Uruguay, i fr. 20 c. ; 
Argentina, i fr. 75 c. ; Chih, 2 fr. 55 c. ; Peru, 2 fr. 
55 c. ; Bolivia, 3 fr. 50 c. 

Telephones. — Rio Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Bahia have 
well organized services, as well as Rio Grande do Sul. 
Lines are in operation between Rio, Petropolis, There- 
sopohs, Nictheroy. The Federal Government has its 
own Hues in Rio. There are in all some forty installa- 
tions in the Repubhc. 

In 1910 the Postal Department organized a savings 
bank, with deposits from 100 reis to one conto, 4 per 
cent, interest being given. When the hmit is reached, 
savings may be invested in public funds. 



TRANSPORTATION 185 

Posts, Telegraphs and Transport 
Shipping 

Transatlantic 

Royal Mail Steamers, fares, first class, £33 ; second 
class, £22 ; third class, £8. Leave Southampton Fridays, 
sometimes weekly, otherwise fortnightly, caUing at 
Lisbon Monday, and Madeira Wednesday, and reaching 
Pemambuco as a rule on the 13th day, and Bahia on the 
14th, and Rio on the i6th night or 17th (morning). 
Their newest boats have a tonnage of 10,000 to 12,000, 
and are up-to-date in every particular, the Asturias 
being the best. Pacific line from Liverpool alternate 
Thursdays, calling at Lisbon on the Tuesday, and making 
Rio in nineteen or twenty days. Messageries Maritimes 
(French Line) from Bordeaux alternate Fridays, taking 
15-16 days to Rio. The Hamburg American and 
Hamburg S. American lines run fine steamers also, caUing 
at Dover or Southampton and Lisbon, and taking about 
the same time as the other boats. The Holland Lloyd 
(from Dover) with new fine steamers and low rates 
(every 3 weeks). 

The N. German Lloyd, Bremen and Antwerp to North, 
Central, and South Brazil. 

The Hamburg American (Dover), and Hamburg S. 
American (Hamburg) (mail) to North, Central, and 
South Brazil, The latter Company put the Cap Finis- 
terre on the Brazilian service in September, 1911. This 
fine ship of 16,000 tons steams 17 knots, and carries 
four classes of passengers. 

The Transports Maritimes, Marseilles to Pemambuco, 
Bahia, Rio and Santos. 

Austrian Lloyd from Trieste to Almeria, Las Pal- 
mas, Lisbon, Rio, etc., with new steamers of 16,500 tons. 

Dykman's line. Antwerp to Havre, Lisbon, etc., etc. 



186 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Brazilian Lloyd from New York to Barbadoes, Para, 
Rio, etc. 

Rederie Aktiebolaget. Malmo, Stockholm, Gothen- 
burg, Christiania, Newcastle, Hull and Rio. 

La Veloce, Lloyd Italiana, Lloyd Sabaudo, La Ligure 
Brasiliana, and Italian lines from Naples to Genoa. 
Barcelona, Las Palmas, Rio, etc. 

Lamport and Holt to Barbadoes and New York from 
Rio Janeiro and Santos and vice versa. 

Booth line to N. Brazil via Liverpool, Havre and 
Lisbon, also from New York to N. Brazil, Para and 
Amazonas. 

New Zealand and Shaw Savill steamers from Mon- 
tevideo and Rio Janeiro to Teneriffe, Plymouth and 
London. 

COASTING 

The Brazilian Lloyd has seventy-two ships totalling 
140,000 tons. It receives a bounty of ^f 187,000. 

Services : North (mail) every alternate Thursday 
to Bahia, Maceio, Pemambuco, Ceara, Maranhao, Pard, 
and Manaos. 

North (weekly) Saturdays to Victoria, CabedeUo, 
Fortaleza, Tutoya, Obidos, Santarem, Itacoatiara, as 
well as all the ports mentioned above. 

Monthly to Caravellas (Bahia), calling at Victoria 
S. Matheus and Cannavieiras, and some minor ports. 

Sergipe (15th and 30th of month) via Victoria, Cara- 
vellas, Bahia, Aracaju, etc. 

Rio Grande do Sul (Thursdays) by Santos, Paranagud, 
and Florianopohs. 

To Buenos Aires (alternate Saturdays) via Santos, 
Paranagua, S. Francisco, Rio Grande, and Montevideo, 
etc., etc. 



TRANSPORTATION 187 

To Florianopolis, calling at all ports (first and third 
Saturdays). 

From Florianopolis two voyages weekly, north to 
Paranagua, south to Laguna. 

Montevideo to Corumba (Matto Grosso), by Rosario, 
Parana, Corrientes, Assumption, etc. (every other week), 

Corumba to Cuyaba, etc. Total extension of lines 
6,013. 

Other Companies 

Lage Irmaos, 15 ships (13,000 tons) ; 2 lines, North to 
South. 

Esperanga Maritima, 6 ships (largest 1,200 tons) ; 2 
lines. North and South. 

Companhia Commercio e Nanega^ao, 12 steamers, 
(22,000 tons), cargo only. 

Companhia Pernambucana, 8 vessels (7,000 tons) ; 
North to Fernando Noronha, South to Bahia, 

Also many other lines of small steamers on the coasts 
and on the rivers Tocantius, Amazon (to Iquitos), Sao 
Francisco, etc., etc. 

Local Steamer Fares 

Rio to Montevideo, 130 milreis ; Buenos Aires, 150 
milreis ; Bahia to Cannavieiras, 34 milreis ; Caravellas, 
60 milreis ; Joaziuro to Bom Jardim (Sao Francisco 
River), 56 milreis ; Januaria, 97 milreis ; Pirapora, 125 
milreis ; Para to Manaos, 130 milreis ; Iquitos (Peru), 
317 milreis. 

In 1912 a new service wiU be started from New Or- 
leans, four steamers of 12,000 tons and 18 knots being 
ordered in the United States. 

Shipping entered in 1908, 20,093 vessels of 18,673,898 
tons. 

Shipping entered in 1909, 20,320 vessels of 19,301,659 
tons. 

Shipping entered in 1910, partial returns. 



188 BRAZIL IN 1911 

During 1910, 2,250 British vessels entered of 6,239,330 
tons. 

During 1910, 945 German vessels entered of 2,633,619 
tons. 

During 1910, 395 French vessels entered of 1,224,525 
tons. 

Brazilian Ports 

Geographical miles and distances from Rio de Janeiro. 
Northwards — Victoria, 270 ; Bahia, 735 ; Aracaju, 904 ; 
Maceio, 1,015 ; Recife, 1,125 '» Parahyba, 1,195 ; Natal, 
1,273 ; Fortaleza (Ceara), 1,533 ; Amaragao (Piauhy), 
1.739 .' Sao Luiz (Maranhao), 1,915 ; Belem do Para, 
2,280 ; Manaos, 3,204. 

Southwards — Santos, 199 ; Paranagua, 364 ; Floria- 
nopohs, 523 ; Rio Grande, 875 ; Porto Alegre, 1,008 ; 
Montevideo, 1,180 ; Corumba, 2,803 i Cuyaba, 3,242. 

Distances — From Rio to New York, 4,748 miles ; time 
17-19 days, via Barbadoes (Lamport and Holt Line). 
Rio to Genoa, 5,040 miles, 13^15 days. Trieste, 5,838 
miles ; Bordeaux, 4,894 ; Southampton, 5,034 ; Bre- 
men, 5,507 ; Hamburg, 5,519 ; Antwerp, 5,244 ; Odessa, 
6,341 ; Libau, 5,900 ; Valparaiso [via Magellan's 
Straits), 4,241 miles. Time from Welhngton (New Zea- 
land), 23 days to Rio de Janeiro. From Rio de Janeiro 
to Montevideo, 4 days. By coasting steamer up to 
15-16 days. Rio to Paris, via Barcelona, 13 days ; 
vid Cherbourg, 16 days, or Lisbon, 16 days. Rio to 
Santiago or Valparaiso, via Buenos Aires, and the Paci- 
fic Railway, 7 days. By the same route (and steamer) 
Callao, 17 days. From Cuyaba to Manaos by sea, 
not less than six weeks are required at present, changing 
steamer at Rio de Janeiro (Brazihan Lloyd). 

The New Quays, Rio de Janeiro 
The total extension of the new quays is — 19, 100 metres, 
and the depth of water 10 metres, or nearly 33 feet. 



TRANSPORTATION 139 

They have been leased to a Franco-Brazilian Company 
until the end of 1921. 

Exemption from Taxes 

Boats, launches, and other small craft engaged in the 
transport of passengers and baggage, and belonging to 
ships loading or discharging at the quays. 

Mails, specie, belonging to the Government or to the 
States, passengers' baggage, goods belonging to foreign 
legations, immigrants and their belongings, and embar- 
cations of war vessels are to be considered free of the port 
taxes, and other dues. 

Port works are in course of construction at Manaos, 
Para, Maranhao, Fortaleza, Natal, Cabedello, Pemam- 
buco, Bahia, Rio, Paranagua, FlorianopoUs, Rio Grande 
do Sul and Corumba. 

A contract has been signed for a French and Spanish 
International Railway and Steamship Hne via Tangier to 
Dakar (3,000 kilometres). From the latter port steamers 
will run in five days to Pemambuco, and in a few years 
the railway will be completed to Rio Janeiro. 

Railway 

The first Une opened in Brazil was the Maua Hne, 
■which, leaving the httle port of the same name, made its 
way across the low lands to the foot of the Estrella 
Range. This was inaugurated in 1854, and was soon 
cUmbing the Serra to Petropohs, and running down the 
valley of the httle Piabanha towards Entre Rios. 

The first section of the Central Railway (then called 
Dom Pedro II) was opened in May, 1858, from Rio to 
Queimades. 

The most important lines at present under construction 
are Madeira-Mamore, north-west of Brazil, from Bahurti 
in western Sao Paulo, to Corumba, 1,407 kilometres, 
Sao Paulo- Rio Grande, and the Goyaz Railway. 



140 BRAZIL IN 1911 

The Central Line has now reached Pirapora, 1,009 
kilometres from Rio de Janeiro. 

This (Government) line has now instituted a system of 
carnets kilometricas, or 1,000 kilometres tickets. The 
rates are: 1,000 kilometres, 51 milreis; 2, 84milreis; 3, 
118 milreis ; 4, 152 milreis ; 5, 195 milreis ; 6, 230 
milreis. 

The Goyaz Railway will now pass through Catalao, 
the second city of this state, and have two branches, 
one to Uberaba, and the other to near Araguary, thus 
serving the northern boundary of Sao Paulo-Minas 
Geraes. 

The Central Railway reached, in 1909 (December), its 
present terminal point, " Pirapora," on the Sao Francisco 
river. There will also be a loop from the Victoria- 
Diamantina Railway to Curvello on the Central Railway ; 
a new line from Sao Paulo, Mogy Mirim to Santos ; an 
extension of the Leopoldina Railway to Cabo Fio (north 
of Rio), and the doubhng of this Company's lines and 
acceleration of its service to Petropolis, this trip taking 
only 1 1 hours instead of two, and ten trains being 
proposed daily as a minimum (instead of four), and the 
reduction of freights on this line, and a direct service 
between Rio de Janeiro and Victoria (Espirito Santo). 
(Inaugurated in 1910.) 

The Corcovado Railway will be operated by electricity 
in future. A project is also being started for a line 
between Petropohs and TheresopoUs ; and several other 
small lines are planned to link up the existing trunk 
railways, and increase the facilities for ocean transport. 

In Santa Catharina 200 kilometres of line are surveyed, 
and the Government will grant a subsidy of 15 contos 
per kilometre, repayable according to the profit of the 
Company. 

The rail is also now complete from Rio to Porto Alegre, 



TRANSPORTATION 141 

a distance of 2,752 kilometres, taking 96 hours over the 
journey. 

The hne is also working from Porto Alegre to Monte- 
video (Uruguay), Leaving Porto Alegre on Tuesday 
at 6 a.m., Montevideo is reached in 48 hours. 

The Central Railway has for the purpose of the heavy 
gradients on the Serra do Mar section from Rio to Belem 
three Mallet engines weighing 138 tons each, capable 
of drawing a load of 500 tons at the rate of 25 kilometres 
an hour. The hne will be extended via Formosa and 
Palmas (Goyaz) to the Tocantius and Para, a distance 
of 2,500 kilometres, from the present terminal point. 
Receipts in 1909, £7,756,974 ; Expenses, £5,896,530. 
There are 350 engines on the main line. Briquettes, 
etc., imported from Cardiff cost 23s. to 26s. a ton. 

The Victoria-Minas Electric Railway will be worked 
from two power stations to use 32,000 h.p. each. The 
ore exportation from this line is expected to reach three 
milUon tons annually. 

This line is now open to kilometre 276. 

The Madeira- Maniore Railway has some 250 kilo- 
metres concluded, and the hne from Currahnho to Dia- 
mantina has crossed the Rio das Velhas. 

Surveys have been concluded for new Unes from 
Theophile Ottoni to Arassuahy (160 kilometres), Serro 
to Peganha (100 kils.) Peganha Theophile Ottoni (243 
kils.), all in the state of Rio. 

There will be a new trunk line from Angra dos Reis 
(State of Rio) to Catalao " Goyaz " (1,000 kils.). 

The Bahia Minas hne from Aymore to Theophile 
Ottoni will be converted to an electric one. 

The Great Western Railway will also extend their 
Pemambuco trunk hne to Bom Conselho, and 100 kilo- 
metres of new line will be constructed in the valley of 
the river Cahy in Rio Grande do Sul. 



142 



BRAZIL IN 1911 

Railway, January i, 191 i 



Liaes. 



Central . 
Leopoldina 
Mogyana . 
Soracabana 
Paulista . 
Sao Paulo Ry. . . 
N. Oeste do Brasil . 
Oeste de Minas . 
Madeira-Manior6 
Baturit6 .... 
Great Western . 
Sobral .... 
Central da Bahia 
Bahia a Alagoinhas . 
S. Francisco . 
Sao Luiz a Caixas . 
Compagnie Auxiliare 
Itapura Corumba 

Goyaz 

Rede Sul Mineira 
Victoria e Minas . 
Sao Paulo Rio Grande 
Estado do Para . 
Estado de Parani . 
Estado da Bahia 
Estado de Pemambuco 
Araraquara . 
Sao Paulo e Minas . 
Bahia e Minas . 
Alagoinhas a Propria 
E de Ferro Rio do Ouro 
Central Rio Grande do Norte 
Quarahim a Itaquy 
Pelotas a S. Lourenfo 
Caixas a Araguaya . 
Dourado .... 
Estado de Santa Catharina 
Twenty-seven smaller lines 



Kilometres. 



In 
Operation. 



KUs. Met. 
1,936-861 
2,550-952 

1,487-115 
1,310-477 

1,151-433 
190-014 
435-666 

1,077-728 
152 

413-993 
1,335-346 
277-080 
316-660 
123-340 
452-310 

2,178-688 

24 

113-176 

981-106 

416-537 

1,879-443 
316 

460-858 
416-384 
97-156 
182-136 
126 
233-870 

103-594 
122-374 

83-554 
175-597 



175-486 

69-468 

804-187 



In 
Constructioa. 



Total 21,325'Soi 



Kils. Met. 

9-233 

263-880 



481 

208 
51-700 
48-372 
58-920 



142-280 

941-786 
60-231 

141-875 
175-724 
251-790 



149-500 

94-348 
II 

229 

147-857 



32 
259-448 

3,757-844 



Under 
Survey. 



Kils. Met. 
286-756 
336-852 
265-120 
258-280 
40-000 



78-450 

45 
323-666 
304-960 

100-281 
251-466 



246-793 

46-340 

257-707 

256-100 



44-700 



94-773 



135-590 
182-720 



370-734 



4,4iO'268 



TRANSPORTATION 



148 



Some Railway Excursions and Fares 



From 


To 


Dis- 
tance. 


Line. 


Fare— First 
Return. 






Kils. 






Rio Janeiro 


Juiz de F6ra . 


276 


Central Railway 


34I500 


Rio Janeiro 


Barbacena . 


379 


— 


44 $000 


Rio Janeiro 


Bello Horizonte 


605 


— 


60 $500 


Rio Janeiro 


Ouro Preto 


541 


— 


57*000 


Rio Janeiro 


Sao Paulo . 


498 


— 


54*500 


Santos . 


Sao Paulo . 


74 


SSo Paulo Ry. 


12*900 


Santos . 


Jundiahy . 


140 


— 


21*000 


Rio Janeiro 


Theresopolis . 


60 


Theresopolis 


16 $000 
Sundays 12 $000 


Alagoinhas. 


Serrinha . . 


iioi 


Bahia Rys. 


12*880 


Cachoeira . 


Bandeira de 
MeUo 


254 


Central Bahia 


— 


Alagoinhas. 


Queimados . . 


227i 


— 


21*660 


Alagoinhas. 


J oazeiro 


452i 


— 


29*100 


Bahia . . 


Alagoinhas . . 




— 


11*000 


Caravellas . 


Theophile Ottoni 


376 


Bahia-Minas 


33*900 


Paranagua . 


Curityha . . 


no 


Parana 


16*400 


Paranagua . 


Ponta Grossa . 


301 


— 


37*200 


Paranagua. 


Uniao da Vic- 
toria 


264 


— 


21*700 


Sao Paulo . 


Itarar6 . . . 


— 


Sao Paulo- 
Parana 


26*900 


Itarare . . 


Ponta Grossa . 


— 


Parana 


21*000 


Pemambuco 


Nazereth . 


— 


Gt. Western 


9*100 


Pemambuco 


Pesqueira . 


227 


— 


16 $500 


Pard . . 


Livramento 


141 


Bragan^a 


9*000 


Rio . . 


Petropolis . . 




Leopoldina 


4*000 
(2 days) 


Nictheroy . 


Campos 


— 


— 


36J800 


Nictheroy . 


Victoria (Esp. 
Santo) 


— 


— 


74*400 


Nictheroy . 


Novo Friburgo. 






9*000 
(week end) 



Passenger Rates per 100 Kilometres (First Single) 

Sao Paulo Railway, 6S500 ; Bahia, 5 $000 ; N. Oeste 
do Brasil, 7 $800 ; Magyana, 7^800 ; Soracabana, 7^500 ; 
Great Western Railway, 6^500; Victoria-Diamantina, 
ID $000; Oeste de Minas, 8 $500; Paulista, 6 $750; 



144 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



S. Paulo-Rio Grande, 9S600; Parana, 9 $000; Rio 
Grande do Sul, from 7 to 10 mllreis. 

A round journey may be made from Bahia to Joazeiro 
(rail), Joazeiro to Pirapora (steamer), Pirapora to Rio 
Janeiro (rail), Rio to Bahia (steamer). 

Brazilian Railways 1910 : — 

Total Receipts not to hand, but considerably higher 
than Expenses. 



From 


To 


Line. 


Dis- 
tance- 


Fare. 


Jundaihy . 

Campinas . 
Campinas . 
Sao Paulo . 
Sao Paulo . 
Porto Alegre 

Porto Alegre 

Bauru . . 


Campinas . 

Rebeirao Preto 

Uberaba 

Soracaba 

Bauru . 

Nova Hamburgo 

TaquarA 

Itapurd . . 


Paulista . 
Mogyana. 

Soracabana . 

Rio Grande do 
Sul 

N.W. of Brazil 


KiU. 
44 


4 $700 single 
41 $300 return 
46 $500 single 
14S000 
278000 single 

6 $500 

13 $000 

32 $000 single 



Sud Express, Rio de Janeiro to Curityba. Leave 
Rio (Central Station), 6 a.m. Monday and Friday. 
Arrive S. Paulo, 4.25 p.m. Arrive Itarare, 5.30 a.m. 
Tuesday and Saturday, arrive Ponta Grossa, 1.45 p.m., 
arrive Curityba, 8.6 p.m. 

Leave Curit\'ba 5.20 a.m., Monday and Friday, arrive 
Rio 9 p.m. Tuesday and Saturday. Fare, 93 $300 ; 
sleeping berth, 23 $000 upper or 42 $000 lower. 

International line, Porto Alegre — Montevideo. Leave 
Porto Alegre Tuesday, 6 a.m. Arrive Montevideo Friday, 
6.4 a.m. 

Direct through service to Porto Alegre from Rio 
Janeiro : Porto Alegre — Santa Maria, 380 kil., 12 hours ; 
S. Maria — Uruguay, 538 kil., 20 hours ; Uruguay — Ponta 
Grossa, 642 kil., 26 hours ; P. Grossa — Itarare, 252 kil.. 



TRANSPORTATION 145 

10 hours ; Harare — S. Paulo, 436 kil, 16 hours ; S. 
Paulo — Rio, 496 kil., 12 hours. Total, 2,966 kil., 96 hours. 

The Suburban service of the Central Railway will be 
electrified at a cost of 5,000 contos. During 1908 this 
(residential) service carried over 20,000,000 passengers. 

Rio Grande do Sul will have the first rail motors, on 
the hne Venancio Aires-Soledade. 

During the year 1909, two new English Companies 
have been formed, viz., Brazil Great Southern, capital 
;f 100,000, and the Araquara Railway (extensions in Sao 
Paulo), and in 1910 the Brazil Railway Company. 

In a few years it will be possible to travel by rail from 
Rio de Janeiro to any of the Brazihan States, or to Uru- 
guay, Paraguay, Chih and BoHvia, and (if the pro- 
posed bridge is built across the River Plate) even to 
Buenos Aires. In Brazil, fortunately for the prosperity 
of the country, it is not the railways that have awaited 
population before adventuring into the interior. On the 
contrary they have (as is only natural in new countries) 
proved the pioneers of civihzation everywhere through- 
out the Repubhc. Certciinly they will be harbingers of 
peace, as well as progress, wherever their twin rails 
extend. 

Where receipts are less than expenses, the fact is due 
to length of hne under construction. 

In the near future all the hues in Brazil will be linked 
up, and as far as possible a uniform system of freights 
arranged. 

Electricity and Water Power 

The numberless waterfalls in almost every State in the 
Union are destined to play a great part in the commercial 
development of the Repubhc. Already some of the 
greatest enterprises on the American Continent owe their 

L 



146 BRAZIL IN 1911 

success to this source. The Rio Light and Power Com- 
pany has made use of a great dam at Ribeiro-das- 
Lages, 8 1 kilometres from Rio de Janeiro, with a capa- 
city of 224 million cubic metres of water. With the 
electric force derived from the works it is possible to 
supply light and power to the whole of the Capital, 
besides operating a very extensive system of tram cars. 
The same concern has a great power station in Sao Paulo, 
utiUsing the Tiete river 33 kilometres from the city. On 
the Rio Grande, in the same state, the Urubuhunga and 
Itapura falls have a volume of water calculated to furnish 
a million horse power. A new station is in operation at 
Piabanha (Petropolis) giving some 15,000 horse power, 
and providing current for the illumination of Nictheroy 
and Petropolis itself. The tremendous falls of the 
Iguassu, Parana and Paulo Affonso, are as yet entirely 
imexploited, as well as many others, larger by far than 
any European falls. 

Para has electric light, and 55 kilometres of tramways, 
and Manaos is said by Paul Walle to be the best illu- 
minated city in Brazil. Maranhao, Bahia, Campos, 
Friburgo, Bello Horizonte, Curityba, Porto Alegre, en fin, 
most Brazilian cities of any importance use electricity 
both for power and lighting. Even such out of the way 
places as Diamantina are indebted to this wonderful force 
as yet in its infancy. Brazihan towns in general are so 
situated that it is only necessary to make use of the water 
power close at hand. Here then is a great opportunity 
for the electrical engineer to call into being forces that 
are still lying dormant in every part of Brazil. 



CHAPTER XII 

NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 

Fishes 

In this chapter I have followed the order in the section 
(" Animal Kingdom ") of the great work in Portuguese, 
Brazil, and commence by stud5dng the ichthyology of 
the country. It is necessary at this juncture to refer the 
reader to the wonderful researches made by Agassiz {see 
appendix). 

The food fish of greatest value in Brazil is the pira- 
nicu, inhabiting the rivers and great lakes of the Ama- 
zon region. It measures some seven feet in length, 
and weighs up to 220 lbs. in rare cases, the average being 
about 120 to 140 lbs. It has an elongated snout covered 
with large bony plates or scales, the body being cylin- 
drical, with a somewhat fiat form laterally. The tongue 
is large and osseous. This valuable animal takes the 
place of meat to a great extent, and is eaten dried very 
frequently, and is seen now and then in the markets of 
the far south of Brazil. It is caught with a harpoon, in 
clear water, usually in September and October, and is 
then salted. The price per kilogramme locally, dried, is 
from IS, to 2s., according to the district. When visible 
in Rio, it fetches as much as 3s. 6d. a kilogramme. The 
tongue of this fish is bony and can be used as a file, and 
its scales as a substitute for emery paper. 

The tainha (a kind of tench) is found in many parts 



148 BRAZIL IN 1911 

of Brazil, both north and south, and is caught in vast 
numbers by means of nets. 

The capital (Rio Janeiro) is the principal market for 
fish, and the greatest variety are offered for sale ; some- 
times, however, the quantity is exceedingly small, as the 
vessels engaged in the trade from Cabo Frio, St. Joao da 
Barra, Angra dos Reis, and Paraty, are so small that 
they are unable to go out in rough weather, or to remain 
at sea for any length of time. 

The principal fishes of the Rio market are robalos, a 
variety of sturgeon, from 6s. to i8s. each ; douradas 
(dorados), garaupas, 3s. 6d. to 6s. a kilogramme ; corvinas, 
hnguadas (soles), sardines, badejos (cod), bijupiras, 
meros, 3s. 6d. to 6s. a kilogramme ; mullet, pescadas 
(whiting), xernes, 2s. 6d. to 5s. a kilogramme. Besides 
these there are multitudes of lesser value, and prawns, 
lobsters (several sorts), various kinds of crabs, oysters, 
clams, mussels, etc., etc. On the rivers one also finds 
the surubim, up to six feet long. This is sold dried as 
a rule, and the price varies from is. 6d. to 3s. a kilo- 
gramme. There are also bagres, piranhas, trahiras, 
jundias, piabas, and to quote Agassiz, thousands of finny 
creatures entirely unknown in Europe. This savant 
calculated that there were more classes of fish in the 
Amazon alone, than in the whole of the Atlantic Ocean. 
The method of taking fresh water fish in Brazil is not 
regulated in any way by the appointment of fishery 
commissioners or other officers. The splendid natural 
preserves for trout are entirely without inhabitants. 
Most of the mountain streams are quite fishless, or 
inhabited by such kinds as lurk in the more sluggish 
and muddier parts. Where there are good fishing 
stations, the stocks are decimated by means of dynamite 
bombs, or several Brazihan substitutes for Cocculus 
indicus, or fishers' berries. By^^this latter means, some- 



NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 14.9 

times the whole of a stretch of river is devastated. The 
exports of oysters in 1908 amounted to 26,750 milreis 
in value. 

Considering the extremely high prices quoted for non- 
game fish, it stands to reason that scientific stocking of 
rivers with the hardier kinds of trout, such as S. fario, 
would pay well. Experiments have been made with carp 
in the State of Sao Paulo, and have met with success. 
Referring again to the salmonidae, some encouragement 
for prospective introduction may be found in the fact 
that many sorts of fly are to be found on the rivers. I 
have myself encountered various kinds of caddis, in the 
usual type of case, and undoubtedly the temperature of 
the water is quite low enough, and all other conditions 
highly favourable. 

There are some small fishes that consume a vast 
number of mosquito larvae, and the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture has resolved to breed these largely in malaria-haimted 
districts. 

In spite of the abundant supply close at hand, a great 
deal of dried cod {ex Nova Scotia) is still consumed, and 
to it may in all probabihty be traced many of the dis- 
orders of the stomach prevalent amongst the lower classes 
in Brazil. 

The piranha (quite a small fish) is extremely voracious 
and swarms in the flooded savannahs of the States of 
Para and Amazonas. The Uve stock suffer considerably 
from its attacks, according to Paul Walle in his Au Pays 
de I'Or Noir, where he states that the largest animals are 
frequently entirely consumed by its multitudes, attracted 
by the blood flowing from a single bite. 

Many kinds of fish are very easily caught by rod and 
line, and it is a frequent occurrence to find one's capture 
seized when half-way to the bank, and bitten right o£E 
the hook by some cannibal fellow of a larger species. 



150 BRAZIL IN 1911 

With regard to preservation it should be noted that the 
State of Parana is the only one to see to the adminis- 
tration of the law imposing a close season during spawn- 
ing time, and regulating the size of the mesh to be used 
for different nets. Instruction is even given to the 
children in the elementary schools on the protection of 
fish and game. 

Game, other Animals and Birds 

The supplies of the capital, in the way of game, come 
from the Serras of Tingua, Estrella and the Organ 
Range principally, as well as from Barra Mansa, Merity, 
and as far as Novo Friburgo. Besides rabbits, hares, 
2s. 6d. to 2s. gd. each, deer, pigeons, pacas, agoutis, otters, 
peccarys and wild boars are occasionally seen. The 
best game birds are the mucuco, the jacu (penelope), 
and mutun (cassowary). Many smaller birds are sold in 
bunches of 20 to 30 different kinds and colours. Amongst 
these are foimd toucans, of various sorts, and such 
others as arapongas, tiribars, guaxes, and bem-ti-vis 
(I saw you well), the latter so named from its pecuhar 
aU. 

The forests of all the states, especially far from human 
haunts, as in Amazonas, Matto Grosso, and Goyaz, are 
filled with parrots, fetching up to £1, macaws, £1 to 
£3 los., sabias, one variety, Mtm«s lividus, worth £5 to 
£y, bicudos, up to £2, canaries, cardinals, love birds, 
woodpeckers, avinhados (wine coloured), and, of course, 
the humble swallow and sparrow, owls, various kinds of 
hawks, urubus (a kind of gigantic raven), the common 
scavengers, more hke a vulture than anything else. Dr. 
Paschaal de Moraes, of Rio, says that the urubu pro- 
pagates carbuncle amongst the cattle. In Rio Grande 
do Sul, both black and white swans are found, as well 



NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 151 

as herons, storks, emus, wild ducks and geese, water 
hens, flamingoes, partridges, quails, etc., and eight kinds 
of falconidae and two varieties of owls. 

In the sea there are a hundred sorts of fowl, common 
to other oceans, and some pecuharly local. Pigeons are 
extraordinarily plentiful in some of the states where 
leguminous plants abound. In Ceara thousands have 
been killed in a day or two's sport. Amongst the quad- 
rupeds not mentioned, especially noteworthy is the 
tapir, hving in the reedy lakes on the top of the coast 
and other ranges. Sometimes he is hidden in a dense 
forest of grasses six or seven feet high, and growing in 
tufts with deep holes between. This unwieldy animal is 
found within four or five hours of Petropohs, or two of 
Theresopohs, and a couple, or leash of good dogs are 
necessary to make him move out of his retreat. His 
hide makes excellent harness. When pursued by a 
jaguar, he rushes with tremendous force through the 
undergrowth, and in many cases where the great cat has 
succeeded in lodging on his back, the shock of the en- 
counter with saphngs and cane brakes, has not only torn 
the attacker from his hold but smashed his skull. 

The great and httle anteater are pursued for their 
skin, as are also the numerous family of feUnes, com- 
prising fehs on^a, fehs on^a nigra, fehs concolor (puma), 
the ocelot, wild cat, etc. The greater jaguar is hunted in 
the most courageous manner in Brazil. The native 
hunter armed only with a long knife, and a stout wooden 
fork with two prongs, approaches the jaguar, always 
looking straight at his eyes. When the animal springs 
at him he catches it on the fork and immediately stabs 
it in the heart. Amongst other quadrupeds we may 
notice the guard, wolf, fox, marten, otter, ratao (beaver), 
producing hair worth 40 to 70 milreis a kilogramme, kinka- 
jou, gamba, irara, and sloth. In 1905 about eight tons of 



152 BRAZIL IN 1911 

skins of various sorts, including those of some half dozen 
species of monkeys, were exported, of a total value of 
£i 1,000. The simians, by the way, are well represented 
in Brazil, but none of them are comparable to those of 
Africa, as far as size is concerned. Of the domestic 
animals it is not necessary to treat here, except to say 
that races of bovines accustomed to hilly districts do 
well in Brazil, as also goats. Horses are of a small wiry 
breed, but mules prove best adapted to the northern and 
central states. Pigs do well in the south, and in Minas, 
etc., whilst sheep are only suited to some parts of Sao 
Paulo, Parana, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul. 
Domestic poultry, including guinea fowl and Indian 
game fowls, thrive in most places. The guinea fowls are 
stated to be very useful to keep down the reptiles. 

Of the ophidians, the Cciscavel (rattlesnake), coral, 
python, ]?oa-constrictor, jararaca, and surucucu are the 
better known. The latter serpent attains y^ feet in 
length and its bite is almost always fatal. The sucury 
is a water snake that sometimes reaches 45 feet in length. 
It pursues and devours the manatee, and the largest 
fishes. 

The mussurama {Rhacidelus hrazili) is an entirely 
harmless reptile that subsists exclusively on other 
serpents, and the poisonous ones for preference. It 
has a very flexible blackish-grey body, covered with 
iridescent scales, and may attain the length of y\ feet. 
An individual measuring i metre 70 centimetres, 
kept in the Instituto Serumtherapico of Butatatan 
(S. Paulo), devoured a poisonous snake i m. 40 cent, in 
length. 

This institute is engaged in breeding this usefiil rep)- 
tile, in order to distribute it to farmers. It also pre- 
pares anticrotalic serum, as an antidote to the bite of 
the rattlesnake, antibothropic, for that of the jararacas 



NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 153 

and urutus, as well as anti-aphidic serum to be used in 
doubtful cases. There are some i8o varieties of snakes 
in Brazil, of which ten are known to be venomous. 

Turtles are not so common on the Amazon as fifty 
years ago, owing to the wanton destruction in taking 
them, and thinning out their eggs for the purpose of 
extracting oil. The turtle is largely used for food, and in 
Para at the present time the meat costs some 6s. to 25s. 
a kilogramme, according to season. There are also six 
kinds of tortoises which form important additions to the 
diet of this region. The municipalities of the State of 
Para obtain large sums from the taxes imposed on those 
engaged in the above trade. Oil is extracted from 
various kinds of lizards, tapirs, and capivarys, but the 
principal fount of this product is the whale. 



Whaling 

Whale fishing is carried on along the coast line of the 
State of Bahia. The animal caught is a roqual {BalcB- 
noptera musculus). It contains some 360 pieces of the so- 
called whalebone, but their shortness (32^ inches) renders 
them of httle commercial value. The animal is from 30 
to 70 feet long, and 5delds up to 5,000 quarts of oil. 
The season lasts from May to December, commencing in 
the south of Caravellas. There are thirteen whaling 
stations, eight of which are near Bahia city itself, five of 
which are on the island of Itaparica in the bay. The 
others (with the exception of Caravellas) are more to the 
north. The boats are about 30 feet in length, very 
strongly built with ribs not bent, but hewn to the shape 
required. On each side of the bows is a sort of cleat of 
natural bent wood. There is a single mast, steeped a 
little forward, with a huge mainsail, square in shape. 



154 BRAZIL m 1911 

Each boat has eight to twelve harpoons with some ten 
fathoms of one inch manilla hne. There are also several 
spear- pointed lances mounted on long poles, with six 
fathoms of |-inch rope attached to them. 

On each bow of the boat there are coils of 2-inch rope 
nearly loo fathoms long, and down aft two more coils of 
70 fathoms for emergency use, as well as oars, stores, 
and cooking utensils. Each boat has a crew of ten ; all 
under the orders of the harpooner. The whalers go out 
each morning at sunrise, and return at nightfaU. The 
method of approaching, striking and kiUing the animal 
does not differ much from that employed elsewhere, but 
after it is killed one of the crew must dive under it, and 
pass a rope round its mouth to secure the latter with, 
otherwise the animal would fill with water and sink. 
The whale is towed to the beach and cut up there, and 
the flesh is frequently sold and eaten. There are no 
modem appHances for trying out or refining the oil, and 
no means of utilizing the refuse as manure. The average 
catch per season is 300 to 400. Salaries are small, but 
for each whale caught the harpooner gets £6 los., the 
boat steerer £3 5s., and each of the others 12s. 6d. The 
total number of men engaged is about 900, and there are 
some 50 boats engaged in the trade, those from Caravellas 
being of about 15 tons burden each. The proceeds in 
1903 were ^^30,000. 

Fish Glue 

The silurus (catfish) is the one which suppHes most of 
the above, and the price obtained for it in the market at 
Pard is 3s. per kilogramme, in comparison with is. 6d. 
from other sources. 

The exportation of fish glue from Para and other 
places in 1905 was 72,429 kilogrammes, worth ;^i5,5o8. 



NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 156 

Feathers, Scales, etc. 

The following are the principal birds furnishing 
feathers for export : 

Emu, parrot, macaw, toucans, humming bird. The 
most valuable are those from a pecuhar sort of heron, 
and are taken from the head of the male ; they are known 
in England as ospreys, and are worth £62 los. a kilo- 
gramme (one conto of reis) loccdly. Most of these 
feathers (few in number in each bird) come from the 
northern states. In 1905, 158 kilogrammes 627 
grammes were exported. 

The feathers of the emu are from three to eight inches 
long, and the best are used in the manufacture of boas. 
Exportation (1905) 1,983 kilogrammes, value ;f 1,600. Of 
the feathers from the immense variety of multi-coloured 
birds (exportation 25kiIogrammes, worth ;f 65 only), cis a 
great many are used in the country, made up into orna- 
ments, flowers, etc. The scales exported are from the stur- 
geon, gropers, etc. These are nearly aU made up in Santa 
Catharina and Parahyba do Norte. Flowers are also 
made of shells, leather, etc. In Rio de Janeiro there are 
two or three houses making a speciahty of ornamental 
work of aU kinds, including butterflies' wings, beetles* 
wing sheaths, etc., made up into an infinite variety of 
designs, and costing absurd prices, considering the mite 
given to the countryman who brings them in. Profits of 
200 to 300 per cent/jare very frequently made in this sort 
of business. 

Animals for Collections 

The bulk of the stuffed, or simply dissected birds, such 
as toucans and himiming birds, seem, according to official 
data, to be exported to the United States and Argentina, 
at least as far as those are concerned which are not set up 



IM BRAZIL IN 1911 

and mounted. There are always better prices obtain- 
able locally for natural history specimens, but the de- 
mand is very small for the more expensive kinds. 

For export : stuffed and prepared. AUigators two 
feet six inches fetch up to £i los., lizards same length 
£i 5s., monkeys of various sorts £i to £i los., serpents 
(three feet and longer) £i 5s. to £2, falcons £1 2s. 6d., 
water hens, woodpeckers, humming birds (assorted kinds) 
£1 2s. 6d. to £1 5s. a dozen, penelopes (jaciis) £1 los., 
crabs and lobsters, mounted and varnished, £1 i6s. a 
pair. Armadillo coverings or shells made into work 
baskets, etc., etc., up to £2 10s. Myriads of beetles and 
butterflies and other curious insects are also caught, of 
which the semiramis, up to £y and £10 for a single 
specimen, is most noteworthy. 

More ordinary coleoptera and lepidoptera cost 12s. 6i. 
to £15, according to the number in a case, and their 
relative rarity. Amongst the better class of butter- 
flies one may mention numbers of the argante, morphos 
(four kinds), cahgos, heliconidae, danaedae, papihonidae, 
T. agrippina, darius, codomanus, etc., etc. A class of 
ants (tanajuras) from S. Paulo are also exported, these 
are dressed in various costumes and put up in Uttle 
boxes with a landscape painted in the background. 
Thus arranged, they sell for 12s. 6d. to £1 a box. These 
same ants are cooked and sold in large quantities in the 
interior of the state, and are considered a great delicacy. 
There are also various bizarre tinted fishes, varnished 
and exported, or sold locally at high prices. Apropos of 
this, a man came into a shop in Rio in my presence and 
sold a toucan for 200 reis (3^^.) I asked the owner of the 
store (a personal friend) how much he would sell the 
bird for when stuffed and prepared ? The answer was — 
10 $000 (i2s. 6d.) — verb. sap. Mosquitos. The Ste- 
gomyia fasciata propagates yellow fever, the female 



NATURAL HISTORY— FAUNA 157 

only being considered dangerous. The Anopheles is a 
plague in the malarial districts, and the Culex fatigans 
introduces the terrible disease Filiariasis. Hairy cater- 
pillars are numerous in Brazil in the spring and early 
summer. They are known loccdly as tataranas, a word 
signifying (tupi) in English, false fire, in allusion to the 
fact that the slightest touch causes severe burning pains 
that extend all over the side of the body affected, and 
last for a number of hours. Relief may however be 
instantly obtained by pressing a dahlia leaf over the 
place of contact. 

There is yet room in the capital for a clever naturalist, 
who is at the same time a linguist (French and German 
being essential). The proprietors of the small businesses 
already existing have very httle scientific knowledge, and 
their abihties as taxidermists are rather mediocre. 

There are also ticks called carrapatos found usually 
in the brushwood, especially where cattle and horses 
graze. The chigoe (Bicho de Pe) is met with in many 
parts of the states of Minas, Rio, Sao Paulo, etc., and 
sundry other insect plagues may be found in many parts 
of the country, but careful attention to the foot gear 
and avoidance of sleeping without mosquito netting 
will usually protect the traveller. The body and clothes 
should be carefully examined every night if possible, 
and a small medicine chest is a necessary part of the 
equipment, as soon as the populated centres are left 
behind. Venomous snakes are not at all common, and 
many of the ophidians are harmless. 



CHAPTER XIII 
FLORA 
Rubber-producing Plants, etc. 

According to the great textbook Flora Brasilensis of 
Martius, there are ten species of hevea, besides a simi- 
lar plant, Micranda siphonides ; and in Minas, Micranda 
etata, and in Bahia, Micranda bracteosa. 

In Amazonas exists also the tapuru, the Castilloa 
tlastica, and t\i& Hancornia spectosa, of some six kinds. 

The heveas are true forest trees, reaching at times 
nearly lOO feet high, with a diameter of 15 to 39 inches. 
They are without branches for some three-fourths of 
their altitude. Most of the varieties producing the best 
and most abundant suppHes of rubber are found growing in 
a humid situation very frequently in alluvial soil period- 
ically covered by the floods. They are, with the latter- 
mentioned plants, found over an area of a million square 
miles. Some of them are capable of economic produc- 
tion up to an altitude of 950 feet. The rubber gatherers 
are hardly in the habit of discriminating between the 
various sorts, mixing the produce of many trees to- 
gether, regardless of the quahty of the gum. The 
riches of the valley of the Amazon are scarcely touched. 
It is sufficient to journey a few miles from the river 
banks to find virgin forests, and this over a distance of 
at least 1,000 leagues. 

It is estimated that there are fifty-two companies in 
lu 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 159 

operation, with a total capital of £2,000,000. These 
have been organized in the two years, 1906-07. A 
French traveller, Auguste Plane, who made serious 
studies of the Amazon basin, says that the production 
of rubber can be doubled whenever necessary, and as 
soon as the cost of living is decreased, prices of even 
IS. 3^. or IS. 6d. a lb. for rubber will prove sufficiently 
remunerative. 

The tax on exported rubber, in Para, varies from 15 to 
25 per cent., according to the quality. The freights are 
proportionally high for river transport, never being less 
than y^d. a kilogramme. In Manaos the various local 
taxes amount to 28 per cent, of the value when put on 
board, in addition to the Para tax. Undoubtedly the 
result of such abominable fiscal measures is to encourage 
all kinds of abuses, and attempts at evasion. As the 
author of the " Monograph " in Brasil says, such a 
state of afiairs must not, and cannot continue. It 
means ruination to an exceedingly profitable and great 
industry. Referring to the other rubber-producing 
plants, we find the tapuni, reaching 80 feet, and having 
an average diameter of 3 feet, with a feathery palm-hke 
top. The Castilloa elastica is a much smaller tree, not 
exceeding 65 feet high and 2 feet in diameter. The 
varieties of hancomia are relatively diminutive, about 
10 feet high, and 2 to 3 feet in circumference. In Sao 
Paulo the plantations or forests are worked on the share 
system, the employee receiving usually a third part. 
The system employed is destructive, as both owner and 
worker concur in taking from the plant its entire store, 
not economizing the sap in any way. 

In Ceara, Piauhy, and somewhat to the north and 
south, another variety is found, known as mani^oba. 
Contrary to the habit of the heveas, it is a native of the 
liigher lands of the interior. The leaves are used to feed 



160 BRAZIL IN 1911 

cattle. Tapioca is extracted from the roots, and the 
seeds are in the form of almonds, and either in their 
natural state, or after the oil has been extracted, are a 
valuable food for cattle, pigs and fowls. This tree is 
foimd as high as i,ooo metres above sea level, but its 
usual habitat is from 200 to 300 feet in altitude. 

Many other entirely different classes of plants are 
rubber-producing, including the wild fig, Plumeria, 
sorveira, Lucuma laurifolia, Platonia insignis, Symphonia 
globuluris, and massaranduba {Mimusops elata), a gigan- 
tic forest tree, whose timber is very valuable for con- 
structive purposes. 

Exploitation of Rubber 

The concessionary, or owner of the seringaes (rubber 
forests, or collection of trees producing rubber), is called 
the master seringueiro, or aviado. At the most con- 
venient point he establishes a store [harragao), where 
may be found every necessity and even luxury that man 
may require. We must presume that this aviado is a 
capitalist on a somewhat large scale. He may employ 
200, 300, or even 500 men. Each man wiU be transported 
at the expense of the aviado to the forest, and will be 
advanced some £^0 to £70 worth of different goods, 
including provisions, arms and munitions, medicines, and 
clothing. The aviado is in his turn exploited by the 
wholesale merchants (aviadores) of Manaos or Para. 
Sometimes these latter give credit up to as much as 
£40,000. These latter are furnished with funds and 
goods by Yankee speculators, who receive payment in 
rubber at the end of the season. Each year some 20,000 
collectors are employed, mainly from the States of Ceara 
or Bahia, and the rest are semi-civihzed Indians, or 
natives of the rubber-producing states themselves. Pro- 




1^ 


1 


Ut 




a 


S 


o 


a; 


-3 
71 


1 




a, 



< - 



NATURAL fflSTORY— FLORA 161 

ceeding up the river in a launch, on arriving at the 
selected points, each family lands, and whilst some of its 
members set up their encampment, others proceed to 
blaze with a cutlass a line (or road) of rubber plants, up 
to 150 or 200 in number. This number of trees may 
cover a length of three or four miles, and no more can be 
properly tapped. Each hne is made in a zigzag fashion 
in such a manner that the whole forms an oval, and the 
entrance and exit come together just where the 
seringueiro has estabhshed his smoking place. 

His tools comprise : (i) A machette of soft iron to 
make the incisions (which are made obliquely. A rifle, 
fishing tackle, and half a dozen pots and pans. 

(2) Balde, or pail, a vessel which will hold ten litres 
of latex. 

(3) 700 to 800 tigeUnhas (Httle basins) with a tube at 
one end to insert in the incision. 

(4) A form round which the rubber is moulded. 

(5) Boulhao, or iron chimney, through whose orifice 
passes the smoke to coagulate the rubber, 

(6) The bacia, or basin, which contains the latex. 
The incisions are made early in the morning, and some 

four to six inches apart round the trunk, and the tige- 
linhas placed in each. Not more than i| minutes is 
taken up at each tree. As soon as the whole of the trees 
are tapped he (or another) proceeds with the balde to 
draw off the contents of the basins {tigelinhas). Each 
hne or set of trees generally yields from eight to ten litres 
of fluid (latex) daily, producing four to five kilos of pure 
dry rubber. The maximum amount given is about 15 
to 18 htres. Care is (or should be) taken not to make too 
many incisions in a tree, and wise collectors stop up the 
incisions when the latex is all collected, in order to pro- 
tect the tree from insects. The cuts are made some 
five feet from the ground. 



162 BRAZIL IN 1911 

The latex in the bacia is subjected to a temperature of 
35° to 45° Centigrade (95° to 113° Fahr.) to purify. 
Afterwards a fire is ht with the nuts of the urucury 
palm {Attalea excelsa) which grows in the vicinity, or 
with others similar mixed with resinous woods. When 
a dense smoke is emitted the chimney is put over, and 
with the aid of a calabash {cuia) the collector places a 
quantity of latex on the mould. The handle of this is 
rested on the knees and a rotary motion is given to it 
whilst over the smoke. 

The bolacha (biscuit) of rubber may weigh from 5 
to 100 lbs., and is formed by continually adding fresh 
coats, as soon as one is dry. The average daily produc- 
tion of rubber is 12 to 25 lbs. and up to 40 lbs. 

The collector, or seringueiro, commences work at 
iive or six a.m., and is generally finished by noon. 
One man under good conditions should prepare 700 
to 800 kilogrammes of rubber during the six months' 
•season. An average is from 400 to 500 kilogrammes. 
At the time of writing the rubber is worth some 6s. 
a lb. 

Presuming the seringueiro owes the aviado £80, and 
he is paid at the rate of some 4s. to 5s. a kilogramme for 
the rubber collected, some idea of his saving may be 
obtained. It is true that he pays nearly three times as 
much for his provisions as they cost the aviado, but the 
latter has to put up with every risk, including the dis- 
honesty, or perhaps the death of the collector. The 
transport of one family to the Jurua will run into some 
;fio even under the most favourable circumstances. 
Some gatherers save £200 in six months. The usual 
outfit comprises came secca (dried salt meat), rice, 
beans, mandioca meal, salt and flour, butter, sugar and 
matches, with sometimes condensed milk and tinned 
meats and sardines. 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 168 

Exportation of rubber from Para — 

1907-1908 . 10,189 tons worth £2,209,375 
1908-1909 . 11,729 „ „ ;f3,i76,625 

According to many authorities, if the price of Pari 
rubber should fall permanently, even to 2S. 6d. per lb., so 
much demand would be made for it that all the areas 
imder cultivation would still be well employed. 

A Commercial Congress was held at Manaos from 
February 22 to 27 of last year (1910), when most of the 
rubber-producing countries were represented, and an 
exhibition held, and prizes offered for various essays 
on the subject of rubber cultivation, collection and 
preparation. 

In Matto Grosso the manner of collecting is on some- 
what similar lines to Amazonas, but the aviado is here 
called abonado, and he sends out his men in groups 
under a foreman, and the forests are reached as a rule in 
about two weeks, the journey being made on foot in daily 
marches of some 18 or 20 miles. Each 1 n bears with 
him a small figure of his patron saint, for 1 ck, and woe 
betide the fetish if Dame Fortune does not smile on the 
bearer. The poor saint is either burnt, hung or chopped 
up, and another protector chosen. A strange super- 
stition exists that a stolen mascot brings great luck to 
the stealer, and misfortune to the former owner. 

In this state the rubber {latex) is treated with a solution 
of alum, boiling hot, and as soon as it is coagulated the 
mass is subjected to great pressure, and the rubber 
resulting is in the form of cakes, some 30 inches long by 6 
inches wide, and weighing up to 50-55 lbs. Best quality 
is worth some los. a kilogramme ; 2nd, ys. 6d. ; and 
mangabeira, 4s. 6i. to 6s. a kilogramme. 

Totalexportsofrubber 1909, 39,000 tons=£i9,ooo,ooo. 



1^ 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



rces of extractives 


Percentage 


of Tannin. 


. 25 to 48 




. 40 




. 20 to 30 




. 30 




. 15 to 20 




4 to 16 




. 10 to 15 




. 8 to 15 




. 12 




• 4 




30 to 45 



Plants Producing Tannin 

The following are the principal sources 
used for tannin purposes in Brazil 



Striphnodendron harhatimdo 

Acacia angico (bark and fruit) 

Phyzophora mangle (bark and leaves) 

Buranhem .... 

Murici guassu .... 

Quebracho vermelha (red) 

Ingd sapida, edulis, vera, dulcis . 

Acacia jurema 

Quebracho branco (white) . 

Carapa vermelha 

Compared with oak (in Europe) . 

Many plants used in Europe do not possess more than 
8 per cent, of tannin. 

The barbatimao is the most generally used in Brazil, 
and furnishes also fine woods for the cabinet maker. In 
the States of Minas, Sao Paulo, and Rio Janeiro this 
bark is extensively employed ; but in Sao Paulo, where 
there are more than fifty tanneries, the local supply is 
insufficient, owing to the devastation of the forest. 
This applies, more or less, to the other two states, but 
especially to Rio de Janeiro, where the extraordinary 
clearances have made a great difference in the wet 
seasons, the rainy weather coming now, quite out of the 
usual time, and in volume generally less than heretofore. 
Many tanneries have had to close down in different 
parts of Brazil, owing to lack both of hides and tanning 
material. With improved methods, and great increase 
in stock of store cattle, this is not hkely to occur in the 
future. 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 165 

With the barbatimao, some seven or nine months' 
treatment are necessary. The usual price in the State 
of Minas Geraes is about is. 6d. per arroba (15 kilos), 
or about 32 lbs. There are also five other species of 
stryphnodendron used in Brazil. Exportation has com- 
menced of various barks to Europe (Germany and 
Portugal) from Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao 
Paulo. The embauba {Cecropia palmata), etc., whose 
tender leaves are the favourite food of the sloth, fur- 
nishes also a large percentage of tannin, as weU as being 
very useful in the manufacture of cordage. The num- 
ber of plants used in Brazil for tanning is so great that 
it has been found impossible to quote more than the 
principal, and most widely used ones. 

Fibre Producing-Plants 

Undoubtedly one of the greatest sources of wealth 
in the RepubUc ; it is as yet, perhaps, the least exploited. 
Everywhere there are myriads of malvaceas, and, 
doubtless, Brazil is the country richest in the branches 
of this family. 

In comparison with the canhamo (hemp) it is con- 
sidered that the guaxima vermelha would rival the 
former, if properly prepared. Many of these latter 
plants have been used in making ship's cables in Brazil, 
since colonial days. The urena and the triumpheta are 
used under the name of aramina. 

These plants, in favourable situations, not too dry, 
produce fibres of eight to nine feet in length. In Sao 
Paulo some 12,500 acres are under cultivation, and 
produce about 800 tons of fibre annually. Nearly the 
whole is consumed by one factory in the capital of the 
state. The usual price paid is, rough 2d. per lb., and 
prepared 6d. to 8d. a lb. The cultivation is carried on 
near the coast, and some 60 quarts of seed are used to 



led BRAZIL IN 1911 

the hectare (2 J acres). The harvest commences in 
February, and ends in June or July. The principal 
use of the fibre is in the production of sacking for coffee, 
60,000 to 70,000 bags being made monthly. 

A group of the malvaceas, known as vassouras, is 
so persistent and universal in its growth that, if Brazil 
possessed a department similar to that in the AustraUan 
Colonies, they would become 'proclaimed plants. They 
are, however, very useful, the more delicate fibres making 
good paper, and the others furnishing material for 
brushes, ropes, and twines. This family is allied to that 
of the jute. The one kind that is hkely to prove of most 
value is known dLsCanhamo hrasiliensis (Brazilian hemp). 
Very similar to our own flax, it is now known locally 
by the name of linho Perini, from the name of its sup- 
posed discoverer. It grows in the valley of the river 
Sao Francisco principally, in some places in great pro- 
fusion, and also in the States of Minas and Sao Paulo. 
It appears to be a variety of hibiscus. The stalk grows 
to the length of 10 to 13 feet, without branches. The 
strength of the fibre, as compared to hemp, is about 
four to three. Cultivation on a large scale has been com- 
menced at Rodeio, in the State of Rio. Production of 
1,000,000 square metres of land, three crops yearly, 
380 tons of best quality, and 2,214 tons of second quality 
fibre. Prices offered in Europe £40 and 3^12 respec- 
tively, per ton. Can be sold at a profit of i$200, and 
600 reis a kilogramme. 

Some 2,500,000 square yards have been planted with 
the fibre. Each acre produces at present 3,194 lbs. 
The earnings per acre run up to £60. Experiments 
have been made in growing elsewhere (Texas), but no 
information is forthcoming as to commercial results. 

The family of bromeliaceas present also varieties of 
pineapples, suitable for textile fibres. The north of the 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 167 

State of Rio, along the coast, is covered with this 
{Bromelia lagenaria) type for 60 square kilometres. 
The exploitation of this plant is purely local, in spite 
of the great opening in Europe for the fibre. A London 
house offered £30 a ton, and asked for an immediate 
lot of four tons for experimental purposes. Price 
offered at Hamburg was £15 a ton. 

In the family of amaryUidaceas we must note the 
Fourcroya giganiea and Fourcroya cubensis (pita). 

Both these plants are common in Brazil, and may be 
found at all altitudes. Length of leaves, 10 to 12 feet- 
Compared with sisal, the following figures demon- 
strate the value of this plant : — 

Dimensions of leaf. Weight. 

Sisal, 4 to 6 ft. X 4 or 5 in. i| to 2 lbs. 

Piteira, 8 ft. X 7 to 9 in. 3 lbs. 

Weight, 1,000 leaves. Fibre, 1,000 leaves. 

Sisal, 1,500 to 2,000 lbs. 50 lbs. 

Piteira, 2,500 lbs. 50 lbs. 

The sisal hves 10 to 12 years, the piteira, 12 to 16 years. 
Pita requires three years to mature. The minimum 
5neld per acre is 1,500 lbs. of fibre, worth £1;^. An 
estate of 1,000 acres (400 hectares) would produce 
£13,000 after three years. Expenses calculated in plant- 
ing 5,000 acres, machinery, freight, etc. . £1,200 
Wages, etc. (4 years) . . . 10,000 
Instalment, etc. .... 1,800 
Depreciation, etc. .... 1,000 
Freight, etc. ..... 6,000 



£20,000- 
Expenses, first 4 years . . . £20,000 

Result (one crop) .... 60,000 

Profit £40,000^ 



168 BRAZIL IN 1911 

If we add £5,000 to expenses, and allow no crop in 
the fourth year, we have then — 

Five years' expenses . . . £27,500 
One crop, result .... 60,000 



Profit £32,500 

Calculating £20 per ton, and a minimum crop of 
3,000 tons per 5,000 acres. 

Experts calculate the crop, after three years, at £13 
per acre, thus 5,000 acres = £65,000. 

An ample margin is thus shown, and land is not want- 
ing for planting. If we reckon value of land at 5s. an 
acre it will be an outside estimate. 

In 1904 the price of pita (Mauritius hemp) was from 
£25 to £35 a ton (London). An estate of 25 alqueires 
in Minas will produce 75 tons of leaves, worth at least 
£1,800. 

The exportation of cocoa fibre, etc., is very far from 
being equal to the demand, the total amount in vege- 
table fibres, in 1905, coming to 7,377 kilos (less than 7^ 
tons), valued at about £300. 

Kapok (paina) is another vegetable substance which 
is produced in Brazil, from the fruit of the various famiUes 
of paineras. The best quahty paina branca (white) 
is capable when used in hfe-belts, of supporting 30 to 31 
times its weight, as compared with the kapok from Java, 
26 to 28 times its weight. The painera is abundant in 
the States of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas, Sao 
Paulo, etc. In spite of the excellence of the production. 
of this class of tree, the exportation is infinitesimal. 
Most of the paina is used in Brazil in stuffing mattresses, 
pillows, cushions, etc. 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 169 

Aramina 

This fibre is used by the Sack Manufacturing Com- 
pany in Sao Paulo, which has a monopoly, and uses 
some 350,000 kilogrammes of fibre annually, making 
some 800,000 sacks. 

Ramie Fibre 

Up to the present this is not cultivated, but the 
Government has resolved to plant it wherever possible 
in the new colonies. 

PiASSAVA Fibre 

Piassava {Attalea fumifera) yielding the fibre from 
which brooms, brushes, etc., are made (as well as the 
coquilho nut), is found growing wild in Bahia, mostly 
along the coast, and in the south. It is a kind of palm, 
with just a cluster of tall leaves, growing in a sandy soil. 
Forests contain to an acre, as a rule, about 75 trees, which 
produce generally from 10 to 20 lbs. of fibre each an- 
nually. Several estates are very large, and one com- 
pany has 450,000 acres under operation containing 
6,000,000 palms. A large quantity of the fibre is from 
State territory, exploited under Government concessions, 
the price usually payable per arroba (15 kilogrammes) 
extracted, being fixed by the State. An export duty 
of 21 per cent, is levied, and from July to December, 
1908, this tax brought in some 300S000 per ton. In 
this year 1,318 tons were exported. Land is worth 
from 4s. to 8s. an acre, and labour costs two to three 
milreis per arroba. The British Company owning the 
above large estate north of Bahia uses modem machin- 
ery, but the native companies do all the work by 
hand. 



170 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Relative Strength of Fibres 



m/m=millimetres. 



Aramina {Urena lobata) 

Canhamo Perini {Hibiscus 
unidens) (prepared by Dr. 
Perini) 

Prepared by the Agricul- 
tural Institute 

Sisal (Pemambuco) {Agave 
vivipara) 

(Manilla) Canhamo {Canna- 
bis indica) 

(Madagascar) Raffia 



Diameter of Cord 
(Dry). 



1-5 
m/m 



2-5 
m/m 



I4'0 240 



IO'2 

9-5 

I4-S 

70 
12-5 



20'5 
l8-2 
22'5 

15-5 
24-0 



3-5 
m/m 



25-0 

3I-S 
27-5 



Diameter of Cord 
(Wet). 



1-5 
m/m 



II-7 
iS-7 



22'5 

i7'0 



a-5 
m/m 



22*5 
22-7 



27-0 
27-0 



m/m 



68-5 
34-0 



Greater strength when wet is due to the contraction of 
the cord, and consequent shortening of it. 



Banana 

Unexploited in Brazil for the purpose of textile fibres. 
Sao Paulo could produce not less than 80,000 tons of 
these fibres per annum. 

The above are only a few of the plants which occur in 
profusion all over the Republic, and offer a hundred 
different kinds of utilities to the world of commerce. 
The thing which is most astounding is not the extra- 
ordinary richness of the vegetable kingdom in Brazil, 
but the meagre way in which these sources of wealth 
are utiUzed. Fortune awaits any capitalist who will 
venture to take up the study of any one of a thousand 
different kinds of cultivation, or even the commercial 
exploitation of those multitudinous species growing 



NATURAL HISTORY— FLORA 171 

wild in every state, from one end of the Republic to the 
other. The very cursory glance given in the previous 
pages to this subject is entirely inadequate to give the 
reader any idea of the wealth nature has so bounteously 
bestowed upon this fair land, only now beginning to 
take its proper place amongst the productive countries 
of the world. 

The Bromeliaceas are very common in Brazil, and the 
Gravata de Rede {Bromelia Lagenarh), the wild pineapple 
{Anana sylvestre) and the corvata grow in abundance 
in the sandy wastes near the coast. 



CHAPTER XIV 

TIMBER, ETC. 

Braj^il is undoubtedly the country possessing the richest 
store of valuable woods. The majority are so hard 
that furniture made from them resists the worm. ,;, Many 
possess perfumes as aromatic as any invented by modem 
science. In spite of the wonderful exuberance of nature, 
especially in the north, and the unequalled fluvial 
system of those most favoured states, the melancholy 
fact must be confessed that it does not pay to export 
any but the finest timber. Not only this, but as yet 
an enormous quantity of pine is introduced into the 
country for the purpose of box and case making, general 
carpentry work and building construction. This is the 
case even at Belem (Para), where the forest is at the 
gate of the city. The explanation of this Hes in the 
fact that freights are prohibitive, a cargo sent to Liver- 
pool hardly paying cost of transit, and that the more 
beautiful forest trees are growing isolated. One finds, 
in a great wood, a hundred different kinds of huge and 
stately trunks, hardly two alike in proximity. The 
all-pervading quest of rubber renders labour unavailable, 
and again some of the timber is so hard that it resembles 
iron rather than wood. The future of such trees as 
the massaranduba is in the hands of the railway con- 



TIMBER, ETC. 178 

structor, the enduring qualities of the wood making it 
very useful indeed for sleepers. The so-called cedar of 
Brazil {Cedrela odorata) is found throughout the Amazon 
region, and is principally used in cabinet work, and 
internal fittings of houses. It grows plentifully from 
Bahia southwards. 

The jacaranda (pallisander), mahogany and ebony are 
the woods most commonly used in local furniture and 
cabinet making. For exportation, the former, of the 
best quality from i8 to 25 inches in diameter, and from 
12 to 14 feet in length, weighing over 800 kilogrammes, 
is worth in Havre 600 francs. 

Peroba, vinhatico, valued at 80 $000 a cubic metre, 
ipe, caneUa, piuna, and such names can convey no in- 
formation whatever to the ordinary reader, but some 
of the woods are so fine that they fetch (locaUy) as 
much as £^, £6 and £y the cubic metre. 

The only exportation from the north in 1906 was 
as follows : — From Manaos, ;;f5,8oo, and from Para, 
;f9,900, this latter paying in exportation taxes £567. 
The two woods predominating were the acapu and pau 
amarella (yellow wood), for flooring purposes, as the dark 
and Ught colours alternating are very pleasing to the 
eye. Many of the finest houses in Lisbon are floored 
with these woods. 

Exportation (total) : — 

1907 • • . £17.402 

1908 . . . £43.070 

In Parana most of the owners of pine forests have 
entered into an accord to raise the price. 

The monopoly created at the great European market 
(Hamburg) is considered to be one of the principal 
causes of the failure to develop the timber trade. It is 



174 BRAZIL IN 1911 

stated that a closed ring of buyers fix the prices paid to 
the exporting firms, and then deal for whatever is needed 
amongst themselves. The greatest consumers of timber 
are the Brazihan railway companies and the sugar 
mills. Two fines in Sao Paulo alone burnt wood to 
the value (locaUy) of nearly £100,000, in the year 1904. 
Some idea of the extraordinary state of affairs in Brazil 
may be gathered from the fact that in the capital of the 
Repubhc it is sometimes cheaper to buy coal imported 
from England than wood, which is to be found within a 
couple of leagues of the metropofis. In the vicinity of 
the city it has been found necessary, not only to prohibit 
the destruction of the forests, but also to form reserves 
and plant some of the most useful sorts of the nearly two 
thousand varieties of trees indigenous to Brazil. 

In the State of Sao Paulo a veritable marvel of the 
vegetable kingdom has been discovered, in the shape of 
a tree with luminous fofiage showing a magnificent 
spectacle of phosphorescence at night. 



Paper Making in Brazil 

Adapted from Le Bresil {article by M. Emile Lecocq). 

One hectare of forest in the south should furnish 1,500 
steres of logs i metre x 10 to 15 centimetres, and after 
two months' drying the percentage of moisture is 
reduced to 37. Each stere will weigh 350 kilos on an 
average. Three tons of wood should easily jdeld i ton 
of cellulose, consequently each hectare will produce 
150 tons of material. Manufacturing 6,000 tons of 
pulp annually, or 20 tons in each of 300 working days, 
in 20 years from 800 to 1,000 hectares of forests are 
denuded of their trees. 



TIMBER, ETC. 175 

The expenses of manufacturing a metric ton of wood 
pulp should not exceed: — 

fr. cent. 
3 metres go centimetres of wood at 3 francs the 

cubic metre 27 00 

yielding — 

200 kilogrammes of sulphate of soda . . 20 00 

9 metric tons of firewood 13 5o 

400 kilogrammes of hme at 15 francs per ton 

(manufactured) 6 00 

Wages (at 4 fr. daily average), 150 hands . . 30 00 

Repairs, upkeep, etc., etc 23 00 

Bleaching 20 00 

Total 139 50 

Cost of imported pulp per ton 300 00 

Difference in favour . . . 160 50 

Profits if exported — 

fr. cent. 

Cost per ton as above 139 50 

Freight, etc 20 50 

Total cost 160 00 

Deduct bleaching 20 00 

Total 140 00 

Price per ton (unbleached) c.i.f. at a British 

port 157 50 

17 50 
Thus per 1,000 tons exported =17,500 fr. 00 cent., or 
roughly £700 profit. 



176 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Presuming the pulp is sold locally at a minimum price 
of 300 francs the ton (bleached) we find — 

fr. cent 
The selling price per 1,000 tons . . . 300,000 frs. 
Cost (including freight) 139,500 ,, 



Profit 170,500 frs. 

or £6,820 profit. 

Capital necessary for a pulp mill turning 
out 6,000 tons a year, including ma- 
chinery, construction, water, lighting, 
light railway, and working capital 
(400,000 francs) 1,200,000 frs. 

Production — 

4,000 tons exported 70,500 00 

2,000 tons sold locally 341,000 00 

In one year 411,500 00 

Allowing 25 per cent, of the share capital 
for reserve and amortisation annu- 
ally, or 300,000 00 



111,500 00 



or £4,450 to divide in dividends, equal to nearly 9I per 
cent. 

After the first year 12 per cent, could be paid, and after 
the fourth year 15 to 20 per cent. 

There are also many Bromeliaceas, as the Gravata de 
rede and Gravata de gancho, which grow abundantly 
along the coast, and would furnish 40 per cent, to 50 
per cent, of cellulose in some casesi 




Palatinato, Petropolis. 
i^fhofo, Fapf, Petropolis.) 




River Itamaraty, near Petropolis. 
(Bjr the courtesy of Herr Papf, Photographer, Petrotolis.^ 



TIMBER, ETC. 177 

Nuts, Oils, Wax, etc. 

The castor oil plant, although not indigenous to 
Brazil, has adapted itself locally with great success. 
In spite of the most rigorous methods taken to extirpate 
it, including fire, once introduced into a district it is 
never destroyed, and is considered as a plague. Largely 
used for many years as an illuminant, it is employed 
more and more as a machine oil, mixed with other oleos, 
or alone. The Leopoldina Railway Company has 
established a factory for the purpose of extracting the 
oil as a lubricant. There are some twelve or thirteen 
more miUs distributed over the different Brazilian 
States. Several other plants of the same family are 
common in the country. Each plant will produce from 
2 to 3 kilos of seed, and an alquiere should yield 5 tons. 
The value of the seed in Pemambuco is i6o reis a kilo, 
and the oil 500 reis. 

Exports in 1910 150 tons. 

Copaifera officinalis (copaiba). There are 20 species 
of this family of leguminosas, of which some seven are 
found in Brazil. The oil is extracted from the trunks 
by means of an incision, and in Bahia a suction pump is 
employed. The hmitation of the tree is about 20 quarts. 
The principal places of export are Bahia, Maranhao, 
Para, and Manaos, and the largest importing countries 
are the United States, Great Britain and Germany. 

Brazil nut oil, furnished by the Brazil nut of com- 
merce, and kindred seeds. Contrary to many of the 
trees of the Amazonian region, the chestnut (as it is 
called in Brazil) grows best on high and dry lands, and 
forms extensive woods of lofty trees of great size, attain- 
ing the height of 150 feet, and having a girth of 12 to 20 
feet at 50 feet up. The nuts are contained in a shell 
about the size of a cocoanut. Those called sapucaias 

N 



178 BRAZIL IN 1911 

produce a fruit excelling the Brazil nut in quality and 
worth two or three times the former. The State of 
Para has almost a monopoly in the exportation of the 
Brazil nut. The extraction of the oil is generally per- 
formed locally, for use in the country. The whole of 
the woods are uncultivated, and the collection of the 
nuts is fraught with great difficulty. 

These are found in the silvas, or elevated plains, and 
each shell contains some 15 to 20 nuts arranged some- 
what like the sections of an orange. The outer pod is 
so strong that a loaded cart could pass over it without 
cracking the shell. The trees are too high to climb, so 
only those pods which fall to the ground are collected. 

The retail price of the new crop has advanced steadily 
during the last ten years from 4^. to 6d. and 8d. per lb. 

This nut contains some 17 per cent, of protein, and 
66 '8 of fat, and only 5 -3 per cent, of water, comparing 
very favourably with other foods from an alimentary 
point of view. 

Exports in 1910 = 10,000 tons, valued at ;if350,ooo, 
nearly all sold by auction at Para. 

The sapucaias are quoted now from is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. 
per lb. This class of nut is found in a pod, bearing a 
closely fitting lid, which, when the nuts are ripe, opens 
and lets fall the contents. Monkeys are unfortunately 
very fond of these, consequently the crop is small. 
One tree may produce as much as three tons of nuts in 
a season. 

Exportation of Brazil nuts from Para — 

1907-8 80,255 hectolitres £132,110 
1908-9 80,797 " :^70,ioo 

Carnaubeira {Copernica cerijera) is found as far south 
as Bahia, and grows sparsely in the more temperate 



TIMBER, ETC. 179 

parts of Brazil, thriving best in hot, dry situations. 

Of this palm, Humboldt speaks as the tree of life, and 
its wonderful utihty may well entitle it to lay claim to 
that designation. The roots are useful in skin diseases 
as depuratives, the leaves make excellent cordage and 
twine, and are commonly employed to stuff mattresses 
and pillows ; the fruit is agreeable and nutritious, the 
timber makes fine furniture, taking a high polish, and 
resists putrefaction so well that it is in use in a hundred 
different ways in salt and fresh water. The young shoots 
are the palmito or cabbage palm ; the sap of the adult 
palm contains a very wholesome kind of tapioca, and 
makes a pleasant fermented drink, whilst even the stalks 
and other residues furnish food for cattle. The principal 
product of the tree is, however, the vegetable wax, 
which is found in the youiig leaves. lOO leaves from one 
tree gives about 4 lbs. of wax on an average, but under 
good conditions, as much as 13 lbs. has been obtained. 
To collect the wax, the leaves are dried and beaten. 
The value, per kilogramme, is about 2s. (1905). The 
exportation of this wax, the same year, was valued at 
less than £200,000. Exports (1908), 2,592 tons. ^' 

Cocoanut palm. In its green state the nut contains 
more than a pint of liquid. The substance, in a gelatin- 
ous state, is highly considered in Bahia, and should be 
much better known in Europe than it is. The nuts, 
which are so common and cheap in the Enghsh markets, 
are in comparison with the green ones not at aU palat- 
able. The production on the spot of cocoanut butter, 
fibre and oil seems to be needed, and the enormous 
quantity of plantations existing might find a ready 
market for their nuts. As it is, freights are so high, 
and consumption so small, that a cocoanut costs twice 
as much in Rio de Janeiro as it does in London. The 
value of each nut on the spot (Pemambuco or Bahia) is 



180 BRAZIL IN 1911 

about 1^. There are about loo million cocoanut 
palms in Brazil, principally along the coastal belt 
(central). Nuts from Cannavieiras yield 63 per cent, 
of oil. No copra is as yet exported. Avoeira produces 
the palm oil of commerce. Quite unexploited. 

Goquilho Nuts 

Produced by the piassava palm (see Fibres) and grow 
in a cluster of about 100 at its base. Each nut is about 
the size of a turkey's egg, and contains a large kernel, 
which produces a very fine lubricating oil. The nut 
itself is generally used for making beads, buttons, and 
other small articles. The Government levies an export 
duty of 8 per cent, on this product, working out at 
100 $000 per ton. During 1908, 429 tons were exported. 

Matte {Ilex Paraguayiensis) 

Matte is to the Southern Republics, Chili, Paraguay, 
Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentine, what tea is to the 
European. It is even more drunk in many places than 
its rival, coffee. Here we find a plant which has its 
habitat exclusively in the temperate region, at an alti- 
tude of from 1,500 to 3,000 feet above sea level. Its 
Latin name is, of course, due to its being found, probably, 
in the first instance, in Paraguay, but the State of 
Parana is the great seat of its exportation. 

The tree, or rather bush, is some 12 to 20 feet in height, 
and it rarely reaches 30 feet. It belongs to the hollies, 
but is without spinous leaves. The area over which it 
is distributed in Parana alone is some 140,000 squaire 
kilometres, but it is found in six other states, as well as 
in a small part of Argentina and Uruguay, near the 
Brazilian frontier. The leaves are prepared in two 
distinct ways, (i) Ground up into powder to be used 



TIMBER, ETC. 181 

in the cuia (or gourd), and the decoction, made with 
boiling water, is sucked up through a perforated tube. 
(2) Prepared as a sort of tea in flakes, with some fine 
stalks, and taken in cups, like the Chinese or Japanese 
hquor. The infusion is of a green colour, and when 
brewed in a pot, the Brazilian custom is to put a piece 
of glowng charcoal into it. The effect is to turn the 
liquor into a dark brownish green, and undoubtedly 
much stronger. It improves also by boiling. Matte 
has one great advantage over tea, and that is, that two 
brewings may be made with the same handful of herva, 
cind sometimes the second is stronger than the first. 
Its greatest quality is in its effect on the human system. 
Take a good bowl with a crust of bread at 4 a.m., and 
you may work in the harvest field till noon. It has no 
aftermath, no injurious influence on the digestive organs, 
and its action is stomachic and laxative. During the 
war with Paraguay the soldiers marched and fought 
day after day without any food but matte. 

I have noticed a remarkable fact with relation to its 
medicinal properties. In the Argentine cattle lands, aa 
enormous quantity of meat is consumed, indeed, the 
staple diet of the people is flesh. I have myself break- 
fasted on huge beefsteaks for months together, seven 
days a week. The beef, however, goes together with 
the matte usually a honibilla (in the cuia or gourd). 
The bombilla is the tube, spoon-shaped at base, and 
commonly of silver, through which the matte is drawn. 

The cowboys are great beef eaters, but rarely suffer 
from the effects of the diet. Certainly the matte is 
a blood purifier, at least taken in native fashion, and 
without sugar. This beneficent herb can be placed on 
the market here in England for gi. a pound, and if im- 
ported direct in large quantities would cost no more 
than 6d. per lb. 



1^2 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



Compared with tea or cofiee the analysis is calculated 
as follows : — 



Component Parts 

1000. 


Green 
Tea. 


Black 
Tea, 


Cofiee. 


MattOb 


Essential Oil .... 
Chlorophylla .... 

Resin 

Tannin 

Alcaloids, theine, caiEein . 

Extractives 

Cellulose and fibres 
Ashes 


7.90 

22-20 

22-20 

178-00 

4-50 

464-00 

175-80 

85-60 


6-00 

18-14 

36-40 

128-80 

4-30 

390-00 

283-20 

25-61 


0-41 

13-66 

13-66 

16-39 

2-66 

270-67 

178-83 

25-61 


O-OI 

62-00 

20-69 

12-28 

2-50 

238-83 

180-00 

38-11 



Matte is a tonic, a nutrient, stimulant, and diuretic, 
and according to a medical opinion, a febrifuge, capable 
of preventing intermittent attacks. It is also a great 
aid against alcohohsm, has a pronounced effect on the 
respiratory organs, and excites the appetite and assists 
digestion. It is in all cases an excellent beverage to 
quench the thirst of sick persons. It stimulates the 
nervous system so gently that no ill effects are caused. 
It is eminently the beverage for all ; the brain worker 
or the field labourer, the soldier or the miner. The 
verdict of science is unanimous in its favour, yet it is 
almost unknown in England as yet, being sold at extor- 
tionate prices by quacks and other exploiters of the 
ignorant. 

The Spanish army, during its recent campaign in 
Morocco, found the use of matte magical in its efiects on 
troops on the march. 

A chemist of Kostvitz, in Saxony, has now produced 
a gaseous beverage which somewhat resembles beer in 
its flavour, but, of course, without the alcoholic pro- 
perties of the malt hquor. 



TIMBER, ETC. 183 

To purify water, an infusion of matte is a most ex- 
cellent thing, causing precipitation of lime rapidly 
when the water is impregnated with calcareous matter 

To Replace Tea or Coffee 

Two grammes of matte to one cup of water ; or roughly 
speaking a handful of the herb serves for a quart. 
Costing IS. a lb. each quart of matte would amount to 
roth of a penny. 

A very good drink may be made from two grammes of 
matte and ^ a gramme of centaury tops to i^ quarts, 
of boiling water. 

Exports 

1908 = 55,315 tons = ;fi,648,625. 

1909 = 58,018 tons = £i.657,yS7. 

1910 = 59,360 tons = £1,700,000. 

Each bush produces some 200 lbs. of leaf and fine 
stalk, which is reduced in the factory to about 90 lbs. of 
herb. In its natural state the matte is found in company 
with the monarch of the temperate zone of Brazil, the 
majestic and graceful araucaria (the southern pine). 
The only cultivation the bush receives, under these cir- 
cumstances, consists in clearing the obstructing growths 
from its vicinity. This is done every two or three years, 
under favourable circumstances. The harvest is col- 
lected from May until August. The branches measuring 
less than half inch in diameter are nearly all cut down, 
and then the finer twigs and leaves separated from the 
mass. The leaves are then submitted to the action of a 
quick fire for a moment, and afterwards prepared in the 
factories, and packed in barrels for export. The tea is 
also sent out in packets and tins, principally to Monte- 



184 BRAZIL IN 1911 

video, Buenos Aires, and to Chili. Exportation during 
the last quarter of a century has increased at least 300 
per cent. The most encouraging thing about this trade 
is its development without artificial aid, solely through 
the excellence of the article. The annual consumption 
in the State of Parana, per head of the population, is 
about 10 lbs. The exterior trade is carried on through 
fourteen ports, in six different states, but of the total, 
Paranagui and Antonina between them account for 
more than one half. It is calculated that the bush 
requires three years before being fit for harvest again, 
if the precaution is taken of leaving a few branches, 
covered with leaves at the top, to protect the rest from 
the elements. The price of the tea put on board trans- 
atlantic steamers, works out at about 3^. a pound, and 
some allowance must be made for trans-shipment, for 
the German liners calling at the Parana ports do not 
touch at a British one en route to Hamburg. The price 
stated previously, gd. a pound, will cover all costs of 
delivery (retail). 

Medicinal Plants, etc., etc. 

Quinas, furnishing cinchona, or Peruvian bark. 
There are no less than fourteen or fifteen native kinds, 
and the true Peruvian cinchona has been introduced 
with great success. Angelica, quassia, gentian, cen- 
taury, rue, and many purely Brazilian species of bitter 
tonical plants abound in all the states. 

Ipecacuanha is found very largely in the State of 
Matto Grosso. The collectors take up and dry the roots, 
observing that one is left to propagate wherever a plant 
is found. The price (in Brazil) is about £1 per kilo- 
gramme. Exports (1908) 24 tons = £13,500. 

Tonic stimulants. The principal one (matte) has 



TIMBER, ETC. 185 

already been described. Bitter orange, quassia, gen- 
tian and centaury are also common. 

Anticatarrhic = extracts of the sapucaia nut axe very 
beneficial. 

Other Medicinal Plants 

Capilaria (pectoral), colch cum, Sagittaria Dracaena 
(dragon's blood), tingiheracea tamarind, sassafras, 
verbena, valerian, gentian, jalap, cochlearia, cashew, 
rue, digitaUs, elaterium, Strychnustoxifera (nux vomica), 
and the well known jaborandi, from which pilocarpine 
(the basis of hair tonics) is extracted. There are multi- 
tudes of others that space \\all not admit of mentioning. 

Exports of medicinal plants in — 

1908 = 259 tons, worth £25,000. 
Figures are not available for 1909 and 1910. 

Poisonous Plants 

The most noteworthy are the uirari {Strychnos castel- 
ncei), and icu {Anomospermum grandifolium) , from which 
the Amazonian Indians prepare the paralysing poison, 
curare. The victim dies of asphyxiation, and from 8 
to 15 centigrammes are a fatal dose. The only remedy 
is artificial respiration, which, if persevered in and 
commenced in time, saves the person who has been 
wounded by a poisoned arrow. Special receptacles 
are used for the points of the weapons, and the poison 
is carried in reserve in various shaped vessels. 

Canabi is a convulsive poison found in many parts 
of Brazil, and the Solatium nigrum, Thevetia nerii folia, 
Curassavica and Vtnca rosea are venomous plants acting 
on the heart and as stupefacients, respectively. Strich- 
nos gardnerii and Bothryopsis platyphylla poison by 
dilation of the vascular system. Many plants used in 



186 BRAZIL m 1911 

Materia Medica are extremely poisonous if an overdose 
is taken. 

Deptiraiives. — Sarsaparilla is the best known and 
widest distributed, many rivers having their water 
impregnated with it. 

Ornamental Plants 

Orchids naturally take pride of place amongst the 
above, Brazil occuppng the chief position in the world 
with 1,059 varieties, most having large and beautiful 
flowers. 

Of the cattleyas Pernambuco exports lahicUa, Leopoldii 
guttata and granulosa. Other species of orchids from 
this state are the Burlingtonia fragrans, Oncidium 
devaricaiium, Oncidium gravesianium, and the Miltonia 
spectabilis moreliana. 

The Cattleya lahiata alba is also found, with an exquisite 
white blossom, but it is extremely rare. 

Plants with eight leaves are worth 4|i., those ^vith 
15 leaves ^d., 20 to 30 leaves is. 4^., and 30 to 40 leaves 
IS. lid. each. An extraordinary plant was found 
recently and sold for £1. In the United States or Europe 
it should be worth £30 at least. When in full bloom it 
is expected to bear 500 flowers. 

Buyers representing great growers take up their abode 
at a central spot, and give notice of their intention of 
buying. Every market day the people come in with 
some plants, good, bad, or indifferent. Pernambuco 
exported 15,000 of the Cattleya labiata last season. An 
export duty of two milreis per 100 plants is charged. 
Properly packed they will stand 30 to 40 days' voyage. 

The cattleyas and Icehas are found principally from 
Bahia southwards, in the coastal ranges. The following 
orchids are found on Itatiaia : — 



TIMBER, ETC. 187 

Altitude. 

Epidendnim 800 metres (July) 

Isochilus 1,000 

Pagonia 1,000 „ (March) 

Physurus 900 

Habenaria 1,000 

Octomeria 1,000 , (July) 

Phymatidium 900 

Para exports mostly the C. eldorada, C. superba and 
Oncidium lanceanum. 

Bahia — C. aclandii, C. ameythst oglohossa. 

Espirito Santo — C. labiata, C. harrissonia, C. scho- 
fieldiana, C. schileriana, C. crispa, kelia xantina, L. 
ienebrosa. 

Rio de Janeiro — Loslia perrinii, C. harrissonia, C. 
crispa, C. lobata, C. guttata and miltonias. 

Minas and Sao Paulo — ^The same classes. 

Santa Catharina — Lcelia purpurata, Lcelia elegans, C. 
intermedia, C. leopoldii. 

Espirito Santo and Santa Catharina boast of the 
rarest varieties of these beautiful plants, some, as the 
Cattleya autumnalis alba, being worth £$0, or the C. 
warnerii £200. Amongst the other noteworthy plants 
are the begonias, cannas, almonds, cardamum hlies, hor- 
tensias, magnolias, verbenas, jasmines, lycopodiums, 
gloxinias, bougainvilleas, camellias, waterlily, heliconias, 
amaranths, and all flowers common to Europe, besides 
others without number. The plateaux at an altitude 
of some 6,000, 7,000 feet which are found in several 
places in the States of Minas and Rio de Janeiro, are 
remarkable for a flora of a distinct nature, amongst 
which bulbous plants predominate, growing very fre- 
quently with the roots almost entirely exposed. In these 
elevated regions, the chmate is truly temperate, and 
most of the flowers are found blooming in the spring or 



1S8 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



early summer. The fuchsia, which is a sort of climbing 
semi-parasite in southern Brazil, is not found much 
above 3,000 feet, but between 2,600 and 2,900 feet is 
abundant in most places. Aristolochia gigantea is a 
cUmbing plant that produces flowers 35 centimetres 
long and 30 centimetres wide. In tropical Brazil the 
splendid Victoria Regia flourishes. In the south the 
purple blossoms of the Melastomaceae are seen every- 
where. 

Principal Flora of Itatiaia 



Flowers. 


Altitude in Metres. 


Bloom in 


Amarylides .... 


2,100-2,500 


Jajiuary and June 


Anemones 








1.500 


May to July 


Begonia . 








2,100-2,400 


May 


Bignonia . 








2,300 


,, 


BromeliacesB . 








2,000-2,300 


March to July 


Cannas 








1. 000 


July 


Cassias 








2,100 


March 


eiematis . 








1.750 


May 


Convolvulus . 








2,000 


,, 


Dicksonia. 








2,000-2,200 




Fuchsia . . 








2,000-2,300 


June and July 


Trunk up 


to 


lii 


n. tl 


1 ick, grows up to 


30 or 40 feet high. 


Geranium . 








2,200 


March 


Lobelias . 








1,900-2,400 


December to March 


Lupin . . 








200-2,000 


February 


Lycopodium 








1,800-2,500 


— 


Mimosas . 








2,200-2,600 


March and December 


Nicotiana 








2,200 


December 


Oxalis 








jj 


March 


Passiflora 








2,400 


,, 


Primula . 








2,000-2,300 


May 


Ranunculus 








2,200 


February 


Saxifrage . 








2,000-2,800 


February and July 


Solanum . 








2,000-2,100 


June and July 


Urtricularia 








2,300-2,500 


March 


Valerian . 








»> 


April to June 


Verbena . 








2,100-2,300 


May 


Viola . . 








1,200-2,200 


February 



All wild, of course. 



TIMBER, ETC. 189 

Floriculture 

The cultivation of flowers offers a splendid result to 
those who will dedicate themselves to it. In February, 
March and April, tubers and bulbs of all sorts should be 
put in, with the exception of dahUas, which require to 
be planted in August, September and October. 

Gladioli, angeUcas, scillas, amaryUides, etc., may be 
planted twice a year. In February and March pansies, 
anemones, vanilla, balsams, daisies, sweet peas, glox- 
inias, poppies, primaveras, phlox, ranunculi, petunias, 
violets, verbena, pinks, aquilegia, cinerarias, etc., may 
be sown. 

In the Spring (August and September) begonias, 
pinks, fuchsias, calceolarias, gloxinias, petunias, lobelias, 
forget-me-nots, etc., etc. 

Transplanting and thinning should take place in 
November and December. 

Essences, Resins and Dyes, etc. 

The Quebracho Colorado of Argentina is replaced in 
Brazil by several trees of the Brazil wood type, some 
dozen or more producing a red dye, including three kinds 
of dragon's blood trees. 

Two anils with fine blue colours, both creepers (Cissns 
tindarea and Cissus sicyoides) also the indigo plant itself. 

Some of the fuchsias give a black, and other trees, as 
the Ludwigia caparosa and various bromeliaceas, a brilh- 
ant yellow. Gum arable is obtained from acacias, cashews, 
etc., and copal from hymenaeas, especially the jatoba. 
Resins are produced from the Amyris clemifera and the 
Hedwigia halsamifera. Of the essences the vanilla 
plant is found nearly all over Brazil, especially in Minas 
Geraes. Cinnamon grows exceedingly well in Para and 
Maranhao, and the famous tonkin beans are common in 



190 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the northern forests. Neither of these two latter plants 
have been cultivated to any extent, although the States of 
Sao Paulo and Parana have made attempts, under Govern- 
ment supervision, to produce vanilla on a commercial 
scale ; and the latter state has published directions for 
its successful culture. It may safely be asserted that 
there are many plants producing extremely valuable 
essential oils and extracts, that would repay a hundred- 
fold the man who took up their cultivation in a scientific 
way. It is just the things which are neglected that offer 
the best openings in Brazil. Undoubtedly the state 
most advanced in agronomical studies is Sao Paulo, 
possessing as it does at least two finely equipped and 
managed experimental stations. Here also meteorologi- 
cal phenomena are adequately registered, and the results 
profited by. The Paulistas term themselves, perhaps 
with some justice, the Yankees of Brazil. 



CHAPTER XV 

AGRICULTURE— PART I 

Coffee, Sugar, Cotton, Cocoa, Tobacco 

Coffee 

Coffee is grown in Brazil, principally in Sao Paulo, 
Minas Geraes, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. The 
plants flower from September to December ; earlier 
in the north, and later in the south. The crops are 
gathered from April to July or August, or during the 
dry season. 

Although many parts of the more central states 
(coastal) are adapted by nature to the growth of this 
plant, the fazendas have been reduced to less than half 
their previous extent, owing to the state of the European 
market. The soil of the coffee-producing zone is of a 
red colour, and is presumed to be similar to the Devonian 
in England. Sember says that it is formed of decom- 
posed lavas mixed with decayed vegetable growths. 
The element that seems lacking in most of the soil 
appears to be the oxide of cal (or Hme) ; this, however, 
does not appear to prejudice the coffee plant, as it 
requires but a fourth part of this chemical constituent 
as compared with wheat. Experiments carried out 
with samples of earth from Minas, Rio de Janeiro and 
Sao Paulo, demonstrate that the composition shown by 
analysis does not agree by any means with the result 
obtained by harvest ; after all the most exact method 

191 



192 BRAZIL IN 1911 

of proving the suitability of the soil. The data that 
one finds infallible in cold ground in Europe, are hope^ 
lessly at fault in the cultivated zones of Brazil. Whilst 
in England one finds a maximum depth of soil of some 
24 inches in relation to efficacious agriculture, in Sao 
Paulo there is from three to five times as great a pro- 
fundity. I have myself seen a solid wall of earth at 
least 150 feet high, and decomposition is said to have been 
effected in many locahties to the depth of 1,000 feet. 
All scientific travellers in Brazil remark this extra- 
ordinary phenomenon. 

With regard to the selection of seeds for the propaga- 
tion of coffee, the greatest care is taken nowadays. 
From 75 to 90 per cent, of those planted survive. The 
sites selected are generally cleared as soon as the summer 
rains have diminished, or ceased, at about the end of 
March. The fallen trunks and branches are left to dry 
imtil August, when the whole is set on fire. At the 
beginning of the wet season the young plants (previously 
brought up from seed) are selected and put in. The 
planting continues from November to February. The 
first crop is produced in the third year, and the system 
employed in Sao Paulo for the new plantations is suffi- 
ciently favourable to the colonist. By Decree No. 1,090 
of January 9, 1903, the situation of the planter became 
more untenable, and the Valorization Scheme was 
proposed as a remedy. This, as we have seen, is super- 
seded, 1908. Generally speaking, the new anival 
(immigrant) has a definite contract with his employer, 
and his salary or share of profits is the first charge on 
an estate. He finds a house built, and a lot for his own 
use, already cleared. Between May and September he 
can earn 5^. to 'jd. a half sack (or one and a half bushels), 
picking the berries, and in the case of a large family, 
the earnings are quite substantial, many Italians being 



AGRICULTURE 193 

able to return home for three or four months each year. 
Another method is to pay for each i,ooo plants tended, 
or hoed round, from £i to £i 5s. This operation is 
performed some five times in the year. Ample time is 
left to the colonist to cultivate his own lot, for which 
he pays no rent whatever, neither does he for the house. 
Some of the planters adopt a different system, paying a 
third of the production to the colonist, and advancing 
him means for his subsistence until after harvest. The 
cost of marketing fifty kilos of coffee works out at 
about the same number of francs, or with interest on 
capital and depreciation reaching 66 francs for a fair 
grade of berry. This amounts to 6d. per pound in roimd 
figures. From 1890 to 1895 coffee reached the high 
water mark of 97 francs, and once or twice even 130 
francs. The lowest point touched (i 900-1 905) was 40 
francs. Whilst the present state of affairs continues the 
virgin lands in the State of Sao Paulo alone (some 
2,500,000 acres) must be reserved for other kinds of 
cultivation. Various measures have been taken by the 
planters themselves, including the burning of immense 
stocks of coffee. One great grievance the planter has, 
is the fact that his best efforts to produce a high grade 
of berry bring profit, now and then, not to him, but to 
the European merchant, who buys at the lowest figure, 
and sells the Brazilian production at the price, and under 
the name of Mocha or finest Java. I asked recently 
the manager of a large wholesale house, what stock of 
Brazihan coffee he carried, and the reply was — none. 
One can only judge that he didn't know what he was 
selling. The world's crop 1908-9, was 16,927,000 bags, 
Brazil alone producing 12,812,000 bags. That of 
1906-7 was the greatest on record, totalhng 15,392,000 
bags from Santos alone, and 4,234,000 from Rio de 
Janeiro. 

o 



194 BRAZIL IN 1911 

A fazenda, or coffee estate of 50,000 trees in good 
condition, is worth some £5,000. These 50,000 plants 
should produce 240,000 lbs. of coffee. 

Many different kinds of vegetable crops may be grown 
between the bushes. On the higher lands (up to 5,000 
feet), protection from the cold winds is frequently re- 
quired. 

In addition to the three francs surtax on each bag of 
coffee imposed for a period of six years by the Conven- 
tion of Taubate (Sao Paulo), signed by the Presidents 
of Sao Paulo, Minas, and Rio in 1906, the Govern- 
ment endeavours to prevent the exportation of inferior 
grades of coffee, and has entered into contracts with 
companies in England and elsewhere to further the con- 
sumption. In the whole of Brazil there are 1,320,000,000 
coffee trees, occupying nearly 4J million acres. Sao 
Paulo alone has 688,845,410 coffee plants, representing 
four francs or 3s. 2d. per plant, and occupying over 2 
million acres. Each 50 kilos requires some 70 plants. 
Thus to produce 1,000,000 sacks of 60 kilos each, a 
capital is necessary of no less than ;fi3,430,ooo. The 
total sum invested in the business in this one state must 
amount to £100,000,000 at the present time. The 
probability is that Sao Paulo will follow the example 
presented in England by the hop-growing countries, 
indeed polyculture has been the care of the agricultural 
department for some years past, and the tendency is to 
supplant coffee with more profitable growths. A re- 
markable fact is presented to the student of economics. 
In spite of the high prices ruling in the nineties, Brazil 
was the only coimtry to materially increase its produc- 
tion, rising from five milHon sacks in 1880, to 8| million 
sacks in 1900, and 12 millions in 1905, whilst the total 
output of the rest of the world decreased from 41^ 
millions to 3,"j^ millions, IQ05. Prohibitive taxes now 



AGRICULTURE 195 

rule in Sao Paulo with regard to the laying out of fresh 
plantations. This measure undoubtedly has proved 
very beneficial to those planters farthest from the 
exporting centres, and it is a curious property of the 
business, that plantations recede further and further 
into the interior, being found over 460 miles from the 
sea, whilst formerly they were mostly situated near the 
coast. 

When one compares the price received by the planters 
and that actually attained by the coffee in the retail 
market, one wonders where the difference comes in. A 
httle study of the subject will be extremely enlightening. 

The coffee broker in Santos is responsible for 3 per 
cent, to begin with, but he has four other sources of 
revenue. 

1. 12 per cent, on current accounts. 

2. 200 to 400 reis per sack overcharge on the freight 
from the plantation. 

3. Price of sacks costing iid., and being sold to the 
planters at 2s. 2d. each. 

4. Profit made out of manipulation of the contents 
of the sacks. 

The expenses per sack of coffee from Amparo to 
Santos (280 kilometres) are : freight, 3-500 ; sack, 1700 ; 
export taxes, 5-659 ; commission, 0-720 ; stamps, etc., 
I -800. Total, 13-379. Freight to Havre, 2 fr. 56 cen- 
times. Total cost per sack (60 kilos) to Havre 
= 23 fr. 79 centimes = 19s. 

An Enghsh firm (Johnston & Co.) has formed a 
Warrants Company to imify charges, and put an end to 
this state of affairs, and the brokers have instituted a 
system of boycottage against it, resolving not to sell it 
any coffee. 

A Propaganda Company has been formed in London 
(October, 1908) under the title of the San Paulo Pure 



l^ip; BRAZIL IN 1911 

Coffee Company. The Sao Paulo Government has sub- 
sidized this concern to the extent of £50,000, payable 
in five yearly instalments. The coffee is put on the 
Enghsh market in half-pound tins, hermetically sealed, 
at IS. 4d. per lb., either whole berry or ground, and is 
roasted and put up under the supervision of a delegate 
of the Sao Paulo Government. 

The Minister of Agriculture has decided to make 
every effort to push the sale of coffee in Europe, and has 
allotted for this purpose the sum of £31,500 for the 
current year, this sum having been voted by the Federal 
Congress. 

Freight per ton per 100 kilometres : Oeste de Minas 
Railway, 15 milreis ; Leopoldina Railway, 45 milreis. 

Exportation, 1909, 16,880,696 sacks. 
Exportation, 1910, 9:723,738 sacks. 
Value, 237,301,453 milreis. 
Probable crop in 1911-12 = 13,500,000 sacks. 

Coflfee Substitutes 

In 1905 there were in Italy 23 manufactories of coffee 
substitutes, and in Austria and Hungary at present 
exist no fewer than 412 making fig coffee, 142 using 
chicory, and 14 barley. In Germany (Saxony, Baden 
and Brunswick) there are 723 factories, and in France 
166, whilst in Belgium 60,000 tons of imitation coffee 
are produced annually. 

In England, Russia, Spain, Portugal, etc., chicory is 
the usual substitute, but the quantity used is not very 
great. 

Cocoa 

The theobroma is native to Brazil, in the regions of 
the Amazon valley, but to-day it is cultivated as far 



AGRICULTURE 197 

south as Sao Paulo ; but the coast of south Bahia, 
and northern Espirito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro is 
admirably adapted to its growth when the swamps are 
drained. At a distance of six or more kilometres from 
the sea it begins to produce well, and thrives until the 
colder elevated regions are reached, doing best at an 
average day temperature of some 80 degrees Fahr. 
The soil most suitable is an alluvium, light and porous. 
In some parts of Espirito Santo the climate is so favour- 
able to its growth, that it forsakes its usual habitat, 
and cUmbs high up into the serras. Here it produces 
fruit in the second year, instead of the third. Contrary 
to cotton, cocoa requires a somewhat humid climate. 
The number of acres under cultivation in Brazil is con- 
tinually on the increase, and there are immense terri- 
tories yet available. Shade is necessary for its best 
development, but the trees should not be planted too 
closely together — 12 feet apart allows of some 300 to the 
acre. The second crop is larger than the first, and the 
yield increases until maturity at about ten years. The 
tree continues in full bearing for 20 to 30 years at least. 
Frequently flowers and fruit are seen on the trees at 
the same time. The best quality is that from Maran- 
hao, containing a larger percentage of fatty matter than 
any other kind. One variety in Bahia is a veritable 
giant in relation to its fellows, reaching nearly 35 feet 
in height, and with a trunk 9 inches in diameter. Fre- 
quently two crops are gathered in the year in Brazil, 
each fruit being cut from the stalk without injury to 
either. Expenses of cocoa planting are not more than 
60 per cent, those of coffee. The most encouraging 
feature in this cultivation is the fact that the supply 
continues to be less than the demand. In 1907 the 
consumption was 156,000,000 kilos and the production 
148,000,000, or a difference of some 7,600 tons. In 1906 



198 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the figures were somewhat less favourable, and in 1905 
the balance was on the other side. 

The cocoa-producing zone extends from Amazonas 
to the north of Espirito Santo, doing best from the loth 
to the 20th degrees south of the Equator. Each tree 
produces on an average 200 pods. One person can take 
charge of some 1,000 trees. In some plantations the 
yield is as much as 20 lbs. of beans per tree, which, sold 
at two francs per kilogramme, or is. 7^., would bring 
some £800 per 1,000 trees. Taking the lowest possible 
average 5deld of some 5 lbs. per tree and minimum price 
of 2s. 6d. per 5 lbs., we have for a plantation of 4,000 
trees £500. One plantation in Bahia yields 13 lbs. per 
tree, and the cocoa fetches a much higher price than 
above. This state is likely to export some 27,000 tons 
(1908-9). 

Each plantation may be reckoned to cost some 3 $000, 
or 3s. lod, per tree. In Bahia there are at present some 
8,000,000 trees, and the output is not half what it might 
be, in spite of the fact that this state furnishes 80 per 
cent, of the entire Brazilian crop. Some trees in the 
Belmonte district have produced no less than 32 lbs. of 
dried beans in one year. The area of land suitable for 
the cultivation of cocoa is unhmited {vide British Con- 
sul's last annual report). 

Total exportation: — 

1909, 34,000 tons, worth £1,600,000. 

1910, 29,158 „ 

The State Government would grant a concession for 
a suitable railway line to tap the richest districts, and 
give a substantial subsidy for each kilometre of railway 
completed. The Consul (Mr. O'Sullivan Beare) says 
that it is worth the serious attention of British capital- 
ists. 



AGRICULTURE 19» 



Sugar and By-Products 

Another important industry which has suffered greatly 
from a number of causes is sugar planting. 

The sugar cane was introduced into Brazil shortly 
after the discovery of the country, and cultivation was 
commenced simultaneously in Pernambuco and Sao 
Paulo. It is stated that the soil and climate of Brazil 
are better adapted to the production of sugar than that 
of any other country in the world. The planters have 
(as is the custom of their kind everywhere) taken ad- 
vantage of the fertility of the soil to such an extent, 
that, extracting its vital elements without replenishing 
them, the yield per acre is now only about 20 tons. 
Instances are not uncommon where the same lands have 
been under sugar cane for two centuries, and the methods 
employed in the majority of the mills obtain not more 
than 6 per cent, out of 15 per cent, of saccharine matter. 
Owing to the system of milling, and the small yield, 
the cost of sugar per pound placed on the market, is 
not less than id. Under such circumstances, Brazihan 
sugar cannot compete with that from Cuba, Demerara, 
etc., where the cost of labour is less, and the methods 
in vogue so superior. The principal sugar-producing 
states are Pernambuco, Ceara, Parahyba and Rio Grande 
do Norte. The cane grows well in most parts of the 
Repubhc, and a large industry has spnmgup in the States 
of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The quantity of 
sugar consumed locally in 1902 was about two-thirds 
of that exported, and a huge quantity of cachaga, 
or aguardente, is produced (806,497 gallons in 1904-5), 
a notable diminution from the yield in 1901-2. Alco- 
hol for illuminating purposes is increasing in consump- 
tion, as is also that of treacle. A mill has been started 



sloo 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



at Campos to make paper out of the refuse of the cane, 
and others are likely to follow. 

If we take the figures presented by the State of Sao 
Paulo, we find that the percentage of sugar as compared 
with other countries to be as follows : — 



Tons of Cane per hectare 
(2 J acres). 

Egypt, with irrigation 

Argentina ,, 

Java, intense culture 

Haiwii ,, „ 

Demerara . 

Louisiana . 

Cuba . 

Queensland 

Sao Paulo . 

Campos (Rio de Janeiro) 



38-5 

40 

80 

82 

62 

50 

50 

46 

50 

50 



Proportion of Sugar 
per cent. 


II 
II 


to 15 

to 12 


14 
15 


to 15-5 
to 155 


II 
13 


to 13 
to 15 


13 
14-5 


to 145 
to 15 -5 



The above calculations are sufficiently telling, and 
one can only marvel, and wonder what the result would 
be after the introduction of up-to-date methods. With 
sugar cane growing at its portals so to speak, the price 
of ordinary cubes works out at more than 6d. a lb. in 
Rio de Janeiro. In the north the cane ripens within 
14 or 15 months, and in Sao Paulo in 18 or 20 months. 
One must insist here, as everywhere in this work, on 
the necessity, imperative and increasing, of scientific 
cultivation in Brazil. It is useless men embarking in 
enterprises in that country who are not prepared to 
work on the most approved lines ; those who think they 
can reproduce in Brazil the rule of thumb methods 
by which they have impoverished their farms in Europe, 
are prospective enemies to the RepubUc. On the other 



AGRICULTURE 201 

hand, bright, brainy farmers and planters, with sufficient 
capital, can reap rewards such as they never imagined 
in the old world. Sugar will pay in Brazil, and pay 
well if all is not taken out of the land and nothing put 
in, and if the by-products are properly disposed of. 

The present annual output is some 300,000 tons. 
Materials and equipment for sugar refineries are ad- 
mitted into Brazil free from customs duty. Retail prices 
have risen nearly 100 per cent. (October, 1911), and 
a Conference held the last week in September in Campos 
with a view to valorization is likely to produce disagree- 
able results to the consumer. 

Sugar Exports in 1908 . . . 31,577 tons=£305,597 

1909 . . . 70,208 „ =£689,266 

1910 . . . 59,000 ,, 



Cotton 

During the American civil war, the cotton industry 
was at its height in Brazil, and it is only the last two or 
three years that it is beginning to forge ahead again. 
In 1904, 165,000 bales were produced. The price in the 
Rio market in 1907 varied between 13s. and 14s. per 
10 kilogrammes {22 lbs.). Exportation duties are high- 
est in Piauhy, 12 per cent, ad valorem. Freight is high, 
the Leopoldina Railway (south) and Great Western 
Railway (north) both having a scale which begins at 
something over £2 per ton for 150 miles. The lesser 
distances pay more in proportion, up to double, and the 
lowest rate is for distances exceeding 200 miles (Leo- 
poldina Railway). Both these line^ are English. The 
Natal and Ceara-Mirim Railway charges per kilometre, 
exceeding 300, 30 reis_^ per ^ton ; the Central Railway 



202 BRAZIL IN 1911 

(national) charging something less. Ceara is one of 
the states most adapted to cotton owing to its dryness 
and peculiar climate, but the plant thrives in all Brazil. 
The most up-to-date states, as far as local industry is 
concerned, are Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. In 
1908, there were in Minas some 43 spinning and comb- 
ing mills (mostly small), in Rio de Janeiro 29, but 
with an output vastly greater than Minas, and in Sao 
Paulo 18. In this state in 1903, there were some 
37,000,000 yards of cotton manufactured in caHcoes, 
prints, etc., the largest mill, with 10,000 spindles and 600 
hands, using up 2,000 tons of cotton. In the vicinity of 
Rio city there are several very large mills, one at Petro- 
poUs (Cascatinha) employing about 1,500 persons all 
told. In 1910 the factories round Petropolis used 3,300 
tons of cotton. In Rio State each alqueire yields 20 
arrobas of cotton, worth 390 milreis, and 40 arrobas 
of seed, valued at 42 milreis ; total per alqueire 432 
milreis. Expenses, 100 milreis. The overseers of many 
of the Brazihan mills are English, or of English extrac- 
tion. Without a question this is a flourishing business. 
Dividends are being paid of 20 and 30 per cent., and 
even 40 per cent, at times, and it may safely be stated 
that every mill is making a substantial profit. Every 
state has its cotton fields. 

£12,000,000, one third of the industrial capital of the 
country, is invested in cotton mills, and still Brazil uses 
£6,600,000 worth of imported cotton goods. In an 
appendix at the end of the book will be found details of 
the number of mills working, and the hands employed in 
this industry. At present the southern states consume 
most of their production. In the north the bulk is 
exported. 

Total Exports — 1909, 10,000 tons, worth £591,814. 
1910, 11,160 



AGRICULTURE SOS 

Tea 

A small quantity of tea is grown in Minas Geraes, and 
this culture might be widely extended. 

Tea was first introduced in 1810, and the Premier 
(Linhares) brought over hundreds of coolies from Cen- 
tral China, but they were not satisfied with the con- 
ditions of hfe and most of them returned. The prin- 
cipal plantations were at San Bernardo, bet\\"een Santos 
and Sao Paulo, and were very productive. John Rudge, 
a British settler of Sao Paulo, sent a consignment to 
Rio market packed in Chinese canisters, and it was with 
some difiiculty the customs authorities were convinced 
that it was a national product. An award of merit 
was obtained at Vienna Exhibition, but the industry 
languished till recently, when very good prices were 
fetched by samples from Pouso Alegre in Minas. This 
lot was considered equal to the best Ceylon. The re- 
mains of a small plantation still exist in Petropohs, and 
it is a common thing to see it growing in gardens. 

Another plant is, however, foimd in many localities 
in this state, and is known as Cha Mineiro. Its botanical 
name is Eschniodorus macrophylus. It is used as an 
infusion, and has the most beneficial effects in cases of 
rheumatism and skin diseases. The leaves are roasted, 
the same as those of matte, before being used. 

Tobacco 

The cultivation of tobacco in Brazil dates certainly 
to pre-discovery of the country, for the first voyagers 
observed the Indians using the fragrant weed. In 1500, 
the European conquerors commenced its planting, the 
first experience being in Bahia. In the latter part of 
the eighteenth century a large quantity was exported 



204 BRAZIL IN 1911 

to the mother country (Portugal), and from thence 
imtil the year 1808, to Italy, Germany, Holland and 
England. In 1845 seeds were introduced from Mary- 
land, through the Government, in order to improve 
the local culture. Bahia is to-day the great centre of 
the trade, and a great deal is manufactured there by 
the firms of Dannemann, Stender and others. The 
best known factory in the south is that of Messrs. Poock, 
in Rio Grande do Sul, some really excellent cigars 
being now on the market. The city of Sao Felix, a 
short distance from Sao Salvador (Bahia), is the princi- 
pal manufacturing centre. One thousand plants pro- 
duce in this state some 300 lbs. of tobacco. The culti- 
vation requires much labour and care, and it is especially 
sensible to changes in the temperature or modifications 
of the seasons. Adopting the system employed in 
Sumatra, 150,000 square metres (equal 179,400 square 
yards) requires an outlay of some £1,580, The crop 
should be 10,000 kilos, worth £2,120. This is the result 
of one year's working, but of course is considering the 
plant to be cultivated and dried by really practical men. 
The tobacco trade, like a good many more, suffers 
from the existence of parasites, and traders up to all 
kinds of sharp practices. It is very common to find 
in Bahia that the plant is adulterated with various 
materials to add to its weight. In addition, many of the 
planters strip the leaves in a very careless manner, and 
send to market a product that is calculated to prejudice, 
not only their own interests, but those of the industry 
at large. Prices have been rising of late, owing to the 
improvements of the last few years in the growing and 
preparation of the leaf. In 1903 the municipality of 
Caravellas (south Bahia) instituted four annual pre- 
miums of £50, £37, £25 and £12 los. (at present ex- 
change) to the agriculturists who put in 50,000, 30,000, 



AGRICULTURE 205 

20,000 and 10,000 plants of the first class. From 1901 
to 1907 the exports of tobacco were 199,645,784 kilos, 
of snuff 106,281 kilos, of cigars 12,095,936 kilos, and of 
cigarettes 33,482 kilos. 

The smallest planters in Bahia employ all the members 
of their family in the work, and hire their neighbours 
by granting them lots on condition of one day's service 
per week, others working on salary, but as a rule no one 
being amenable to disciphne, or caring for their labour, 
the cultivation is very desultory. Here, as in other 
classes of agricultural work, the need of hands is severely 
felt. The native Brazilian usually despises such toil, 
especially for another's benefit. One great evil is the 
horde of speculators who advance money on the crops, 
exorbitant interest is charged, and all too frequently 
the price paid is fixed at the pleasure of the usurer. 
Hardly any of the planters are able to deal directly with 
the exporting houses, and moreover are cheated abom- 
inably in the weight of the packages they hand over 
to the middlemen. The consumption of cigars and 
cigarettes in Brazil itself is very heavy, and the well- 
to-do still smoke those from Havana, Turkey, etc. 

The tobacco-producing states are — Bahia, Minas, Sao 
Paulo, Santa Catharina, Goyaz, Pernambuco, Piauhy, 
Sergipe, Ceara, etc., but it may be said that a httle is 
grown in every state in the Union. 

The exports of tobacco from Bahia in 1908 were 
14,509 metric tons, worth £512,959. AH this was shipped 
to Hamburg and Bremen. 

Exports : — 

1909, 30,000 tons = £1,339.336. 

1910, 34.149 » 



CHAPTER XVI 

CEREALS 

Wheat, Rice, Oats and Barley, Maize. Beans and 
Tubers 

Wheat 

In Colonial times wheat was grown in the States of Rio 
Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Sao Paulo, Minas 
Geraes, and Rio de Janeiro. The cultivation, however, 
decreased and was abandoned in the early part of the 
nineteenth century. The real cause of this cessation of 
planting in the south was various diseases, such as rust, 
carbuncle, and caries. In spite of the want of success 
hitherto, the Government offered premiums in 1857 ^^ 
farmers who produced a certain quantity of wheat of 
their own growing. In the north, on the table lands of 
Ceara and Parahyba, and in Minas Geraes, various 
attempts were made with more or less success, but with 
final result nil. To-day the great English flour mills 
(the largest in the southern hemisphere) at Rio de Janeiro 
are fed almost entirely with Argentine wheat. It is con- 
sidered that, with more modem methods, such States 
as Sao Paulo, Minas, Goyaz, Parana, etc., might produce 
immense quantities of this cereal, and experiments now 
being made are decidedly encouraging. The quantity 
imported 1902-7 was 1,244,460,259 kilos, valued at over 
£8,000,000. The best kind of wheat for Brazil is Indian, 
and it should be planted from March to May and Sep- 



CEREALS 207 

tember to October. Rio Grande do Sul, — ^The wheat 
crop from this state 1910-11 is expected to be 51,700 
metric tons from 53,323 hectares. The flour imported 
was worth nearly ;^9,ooo,ooo. Of this, the capital of 
the Republic received almost seven-twelfths, Santos 
nearly one-third, and Rio Grande do Sul the bulk of the 
rest, very httle being directly imported by the other 
states, although, doubtless, a large quantity was re- 
shipped in national bottoms. The importation of 
wheat from the United States has fallen to a value of 
some £10 in 1906, in spite of a preference customs tarifi 
of 20 per cent., in return for the most favoured nation 
treatment, which Brazil receives as regards her produce. 
Flour imports in 1908 show a great falling off, the 
grand total being 151,000 tons, whilst the local pro- 
duction increased from 172,779 tons in 1907 to 181,963 
tons {1908). The Minister of Agriculture has received 
details of experiences made in wheat culture (1908-9) 
in various localities, and in Novo Friburgo in the State 
of Rio de Janeiro (some 3,000 feet above sea level) the 
results have been very satisfactory. The State of 
Parana, south Minas Geraes, and Sao Paulo, and Santa 
Catharina have all produced fair crops. Anywhere 
in Brazil, provided the elevation is sufficient, and other 
conditions equal, wheat should grow well, once a suitable 
variety is selected. 

Rice 

Brazihan farmers are not yet up-to-date in rice culti- 
vation, and the recent arrival of Japanese coolies is 
presumed to be with the view to adopt more intense 
methods. As with the cofiee, the forests are destroyed 
and burnt. No selection is made of the seed, and it is 
either dropped into holes, made with a pointed stick, or 
scattered by hand, and stamped in with the feet. In 



208 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the north, planting is carried on between January and 
April, and preferably after a shower. Usually the rice 
is left to take its own course after planting. That sown 
in September generally produces two harvests, the grain 
of the first being cut away at the top of the stalk. At 
Iguupe (Sao Paulo) the cost of planting 2i acres of land 
is as follows : Clearing, burning, and planting 50 quarts 
(litres) of rice 55 milreis, cost of seed 5 milreis, harvest- 
ing 50 milreis, transport to farmhouse 8 milreis, thrash- 
ing and winnowing 12 milreis, a total of 130 $000, equal 
to £8 2s. 6d., at fixed exchange of is. 3^. The harvest 
amounts to 2,000 litres, costing 3s. 3^. per 40 litres, thus 
65 reis, or about id. a litre. Each 100 kilogrammes of 
rice, in husk, produces 60 kilos of grain, and 30 kilos 
of bran, when treated by a proper cleaning machine, of 
which there are some 30 in the State of Rio de Janeiro 
alone. Excluding wild rice, found along the rivers of 
the north, there are some 15 kinds known in Brazil, one 
of which is native, and is responsible with crossing, for 
other varieties. The most common is a Carolina type, 
and the place mentioned above (Iguape) gives its name 
to a kind grown principally in that district. Importation 
has fallen off considerably.' In 1902 over 100 milhon 
kilos reached Rio, mostly from Burmah (50 to 60 days 
by steamer). In 1907 only ii| million kilos arrived, 
and it is safe to say that the next decade will see the 
entire disappearance of this importation. The State of 
Rio Janeiro has become one of the most important pro- 
ductive zones, increasing its output tremendously the 
last three years, under the Presidency of Dr. Nile 
Pe9anha. 

At S. Gabriel (Rio Grande do Sul) 240 hectares yielded 
(1909) 765 tons of rice. 

The enemies of rice are numerous, and one of them is 
the little tico-tico, which answers to our sparrow. 




Mills and Cyanide Works, Passagem Gold Mine, Minas. 
(By the courtesy of A. Bensusan, Esq., Superintendent.) 




•i"* 




CEREALS 209 

When planted near rivers, the capivary is an extremely 
destructive beast. As yet there is no exportation, but 
an English firm has ordered from a Sao Paulo planter 
(Senhor Carlos Lehfeld, of Taquaritinga) some five tons 
as a trial. Being a staple diet, the home consumption 
is very great. Hardly a Brazilian family that does not 
have rice served up at least once a day. This grain is 
grown everywhere, but the most productive States are 
Santa Catharina, Parana, Sao Paulo, Minas Geraes, and 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Oats and Barley, etc. 

The remarks, with regard to wheat, may be applied, 
with some reservations as regards climate, to the above- 
mentioned cereals, which have every prospect of success 
in such localities as the central plateaux, extending from 
Amazonas to Matto Grosso. Very few attempts have 
been made as yet to cultivate these grains, but results 
have proved satisfactory wherever experiments have 
been made, under reasonable conditions. 



Maize 

The maize was found growing in Brazil by the first 
navigators, and was known by the name of abati or 
avati, by the Indians. The savages had discovered 
also its utility in the manufacture of fermented beverages 
as well as flour. The whole of the planting, harvesting 
and preparation of its products was performed by the 
women of the tribe. In Brazil it is considered that the 
soil, which is unfitted for any other growth, will serve 
perfectly for maize. It is the practice of planting this 
graminea anywhere, which is responsible for the pro- 
duction of so many varieties, and incidentally the 

9 



210 BRAZIL IN 1911 

survival of the unfit. The kind which is most generally 
known, however, is the common yellow maize, popular 
not only by reason of its abundant production, but 
also for its resistance to the disease called calandra- 
granaria. 

No less than 19 other kinds are found growing in the 
different zones, and no proper classification has yet been 
made, nor any determination of which species is best 
adapted to this or that climate, beyond the commonly 
known fact that white maize resists the drought better 
than any other kind. There is no scientific treatment of 
the subject of this culture as yet, and the result is, that 
the yield is entirely out of proportion to the fertihty of 
the soil, and favourableness of the climate. The local- 
ities principaUy favoured by Brazilian farmers are those 
with a western aspect, avoiding the south and south- 
east. With the exception of cold clays, or sandy 
groimd, the plant is suitable to most soils, especially 
admixtures of sand and clay, and the red earths derived 
from diabase (Devonian type). Sloping lands are de- 
prived of their woods, and burnt after the timber is 
dry (July to September). Furrows are made with hoes, 
some four feet apart, and five or six grains are planted 
together. This work is done either from March to May, 
or August to October. As soon as the maize attains 
about four feet in height, the earth is worked up round 
it with the hoe. Sometimes this is done twice, at three 
and four feet high. Between the hues of maize it is cus- 
tomary to plant beans, pumpkins, melons, etc. Harvest 
takes place some three or four months after planting, 
and the cobs are taken one at a time, and carried in 
baskets to be spread out and dried. It is rare to find 
a planter who takes the trouble to manure the land in 
any way, they prefer to destroy the forests, and plant 
fresh fields. The cost of planting and harvesting an 



CEREALS ni 

alqueire of land is reckoned as follows, in virgin forest 
zones : — 

Clearing and preparing land i8o $000 

40 litres of seed .... 4 $000 

Planting and hoeing . . . 119 $000 

Harvesting 48 $000 



351 $000 = £21 18 9 
In second growth lands . £16 11 3 
Using modem agricultural 

implements . . . . 8 15 o 

= 8^^^ acres. 

An alqueire is so-called, because it is just the area of 
land required to plant 40 litres of seed, and according to 
the metrical system, it equals in Sao Paulo and Parana 
2 hectares and 42 ares, or 4y\ acres. In Rio, Minas, 
and Espirito Santo, 4 hectares, 84 ares, or S^V acres. 
In Bahia the measure is tarefa, 2J tarefas equal one 
hectare, and further north, the quadra-alqueire, or 100 
brafas square, is the land measure. Maize suffers from 
rust, and from various roedors, as the agouti and cavy, 
and also from the armadillo (tatii), and above everything 
else, from the all-devouring locust, and a variety of 
other enemies. 

Pernambuco and Maranhao export large quantities 
to Para and Amazonas, and to Peru and BoHvia. The 
state which produces the largest quantity of maize is 
Sao Paulo, and next in order of importance come Minas 
Geraes and Alagoas, Uttle being cultivated in Rio Grande 
do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, etc. 

Beans 

These legumes form, with rice and dry salted beef, 
the staple food of the majority of the lower classes in 



212 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Brazil. The greater part cultivated are of a black 
colour {Phaseolus niger, nanus, etc.). 

In a plantation made in September, using 42 litres of 
seed per hectare, in land previously manured, the result 
was 1,249 litres of beans. Many kinds of red and yellow 
beans are grown in addition to the above, and they are 
subject to the same attacks of rust as the other plants 
mentioned hitherto. The bean being a very gross feeder, 
it is necessary to enrich the soil before planting, except 
in rare cases with the first crop. The harvest is over in 
four or five months after planting, at which time three 
seeds are placed in a small hole, at a distance of an inch 
apart. Very frequently beans are planted together with 
maize, permitting the former to utilize the stalk of its 
sturdier neighbour for cHmbing purposes. 

In addition to beans, peas (of a variety whose pod is 
eaten) and lentils are planted, but on a very small scale, 
and obtaining high prices in the market. As with maize, 
beans are grown more in the central and southern states. 



Tubers 

Mandioca 

The credit of the discovery and utilization of this root 
is entirely due to the aborigines, who also found out the 
secret of destro3'ing its venomous properties. In Brazil 
it may well be asserted that it constitutes a veritable 
underground storehouse of food. The dish of beans, 
rice, and fat pork is always thickened by a handful of the 
coarse flour meal, and it takes the place of bread in 
many places. Found as far as 30° south, it is peculiarly 
a tropical and semi-tropical plant. There are three 
principal varieties, two of which are somewhat bitter. 



CEREALS 218 

and the third sweet. There are, however, many minor 
sorts (twenty or thirty). The most prized (called aypim) 
has a root which weighs about 2 lbs., and is used for a 
variety of purposes, making many delicious preserves. 
The bitter sort (brava or venomous) is used only to 
manufacture flour. This kind sometimes weighs 15 to 
20 lbs., and is full grown in 8 to 10 months. Before this 
root is fit for consumption, it must be pressed well and 
washed, and the water and residue must be thrown away 
out of the reach of animals, as it is distinctly poisonous. 
The largest roots produce some two gallons of prepared 
meal. Some kinds contain 23 per cent, of starch. It 
is planted usually in August or September, in any part 
of the country, from the coast up to 3,000 feet above the 
sea level. The plant, crushed and well washed , is pressed 
into a dry mealy mass, and roasted on hot plates, being 
continually turned until done. A good hand can pre- 
pare two or more sacks per day. 

The finest qualities are worth from 12s. 6i. to 15s. a 
sack, and the coarser, up to 7s. 6i. One disadvantage 
is that the roasting must be done the same day as the 
plant is washed and crushed, otherwise it will turn. sour. 
The water, which has escaped from the mass in pressing, 
contains a large quantity of very fine starch, and the 
deposit is washed several times, and strained off. Tapi- 
oca is a product of the residue. 

In Belgium the roots are used in the production of 
alcohol, in Holland as stock feed, and in England for 
making starch and dextrin. Dessicated mandioca is 
worth £12 per ton in Hamburg, and tapioca £22 los. 
625 kilos of roots produce 100 kilos of dried meal. Tapi- 
oca (when genuine) is a product of the root. Pure tapi- 
oca does not affect the taste of milk or soup, but imita- 
tions prepared from potato starch give a disagreeable 
flavour to any food. 



314 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Arrowroot (Araruta) 

This plant is native to Brazil, and gets its name from 
the fact that the Indians used it to cure the wounds 
made by poisoned arrows. To grow to the best ad- 
vantage the root demands a porous, well drained, 
alluvial soil. Planting is done by means of small shps, 
and as soon as the new growth makes its appearance, it 
is earthed up in a similar way to celery. Planted in 
March, it comes to maturity in from 8 to ii months. 
The smallest fragments of root will soon strike, and 
throw out leaves. The root must be well washed to get 
rid of its impurities ; it is then crushed or grbimd, and 
mixed with plenty of clean water, and passed through 
a bolting-cloth, or sieve, to separate the fibrous parts 
from the powder. The latter is dried in the sun, on 
perforated tables, and is ready for packing in four days. 
The price, locally, ranges from 6d. to is. a lb. The pro- 
duction is not nearly sufficient for home consimiption. 
The state which is best adapted to the cultivation of 
this plant is Espirito Santo. 

Mangarito [Caledium sagittofolium) 

A plant of the family of araceas, little grown, but 
more nutritive, and easier to prepare, and pleasanter to 
the palate than any of the other tubers. 

Potatoes 

The sweet potato is the most common in Brazil, the 
English potato, as it is called, being largely imported. 
Such as are grown in Brazil at present, usually represent 
the kind which is given to pigs in Ireland. The anomaly 
is seen in the maritime cities of the Republic, of large 
consignments of the tuber from England, and latterly 
from New Zealand, although those grown in Bolivia and 



CEREALS 21* 

Peru, at an altitude of 9,000 to 12,000 feet, are con- 
sidered far superior to ours. In spite of the fact that 
the high lands, within a few hours of Rio de Janeiro, 
are admirably adapted to the cultivation of the English, 
or, as an Hibernian correspondent corrected me, the 
Irish kind, and that two crops may be gathered annually, 
the cultivation is very small, and no pains are taken to 
select the right sort of soil. Planted in March, the tubers 
are fit to be pulled up in June ; and sown again in August, 
the harvest is ready in November. 

With manuring by means of sulphate of potassium, 
superphosphates, and nitrates, a grower at Barra Mansa 
(Rio de Janeiro) obtained from one hectare four tons of 
potatoes. In Rio Grande do Sul, at Pelotas, 13J tons 
were obtained. 

Another grower in Minas Geraes made a profit of 
800 $000, or £$0 clear, per hectare (2| acres). 

The yield of the sweet potato is, however, vastly 
superior, being twenty times the amount sowed. The 
latter thrives in a different location, preferring the low- 
lands, and depressions between the hills. Some of the 
kinds are ripe in three or four months, and they fre- 
quently take a disagreeable taste if grown in manured 
lands. The red variety is most esteemed, and is the 
most suitable for the table, the white serving better for 
animals. To fatten pigs, the country custom is, to let 
them loose in a sweet potato patch, thus saving the 
trouble of digging the land, and at the same time enrich- 
ing it. The sweet potato is considered more nutritive 
than the European, as it contains more sugar. 

Yam 

The Brazilian valleys are covered with this plant, 
which is considered as a dernier ressort, when all other 



216 BRAZIL IN 1911 

cultures fail. At ordinary times it serves the same pur- 
pose as the commoner kinds of sweet potato. In virgin 
and fertile soil it develops fully in from six to twelve 
months, the roots weighing from 15 to 22 lbs. Boiled, 
it is an excellent food for pigs, fattening them extra- 
ordinarily. 



CHAPTER XVII 

TROPICAL FRUITS, ETC. 

Brazil possesses clin:!ates suitable for the growth of 
every kind of fruit known. 

In what corresponds to the European winter in the 
southern states, all fruit-bearing plants common to the 
northern parts of the world flourish and give abun- 
dantly of their substance. Amongst the better known 
belonging to the tropical zone is the abacati, produced 
from California to Rio Grande do Sul. The part eaten 
is the inner pulp, surrounding the central mass of seeds. 
The fruit varies from the size of a pear to that of a very 
small melon. In Mexico a delicious salad is prepared 
from this pulp. Eaten alone, it requires sugar or lemon 
juice or both, as it has no acid or sub-acid flavour. It is 
planted by seed, hardly buried in the earth, but success 
has been obtained by experiments with shoots and seed- 
lings. Fruiting only in the fourth or fifth year it 
becomes ripe after January. No diseases are known, 
and it is a very profitable growth, being worth from 6d. 
per fruit up to is. 6d. in the European markets. 

Pineapple 

The abacaxi is the Brazilian name for the finest 
quality of pineapple (ananaz). It is planted by shoots, 
after September in the south, and from March to May in 
the north. It comes into flower in the spring (August 



218 BRAZIL IN 1911 

to September) and ripens by January. Sometimes fine 
fruits are sold in Rio de Janeiro as low as i^d. each 
(retail). Pernambuco is a great seat of the trade, 
mounds being piled up in the covered market, and at a 
hundred stores. The price asked to passengers in 
transit is usually 3^, to 6d., according to size. In 1907, 
270,572 kilos were exported, of a value of about ;^5,ooo. 
On an alqueire of land (220 metres square) 80,000 
pineapple plants may be cultivated, which at 40 reis 
each will bring in £200. The cost of cultivation may 
be calculated at not more than ;f40. 

Abieiro {Lucenna Caimito) 

A plant only found in the more tropical states, and 
never below Santos. The fruit is oval, of a clear yellow, 
and has two to four seeds ; only recently placed on the 
market at Rio de Janeiro. 

Pard Apricot 

The tree grows to 30 feet high and over, and bears a 
spherical fruit the size of a large orange. It has one 
large seed only. Eaten raw or used in all kinds of tarts, 
etc. It has been reproduced hitherto by seed only, but 
it is considered that shps or cuttings would produce a 
fruit of much better quality. 

Araca 

> 

Ara^a, a plant belonging to the myrtaceas, the fruit 
of which is used principally for making a kind of preserve. 

Caju {Cashew) 

There are several kinds of this tree, of the family of 
terebinthaceas, and all are indigenous to Brazil from 
north to south. It is found everywhere, high up on the 



TROPICAL FRUITS 219 

table lands or down in the forests or near the sea shore. 
In the Brazihan cities the fruit is used to make a very 
refreshing drink (cajuada) or prepared as a preserve, 
similar in form to ginger. It is exceedingly agreeable in 
this latter manner, but the packing leaves much to be 
desired. The syrup makes a dehcious wine, and the 
curiously formed nut (outside the fruit) is the portion 
which is well known in Europe. Curiously enough, this 
plant disdains fertile and rich soil, prospering in an arid 
waste. The fruits are ripe in November. One type of 
tree (found only in the woods) attains 50 feet, but the 
fruit is very small. 

Cactus 

Many kinds of cacti produce agreeable fruit in the 
warmer parts of the country. One of the best known is 
the Barbary fig, introduced from Mexico. It is more 
procured, however, for the purpose of cochineal, than 
for anything else, the fruit being insipid and somewhat 
acid. Another, the Cereus triangularis, bears a fruit 
equal in size to an orange. There is no exportation of 
these products, and they are httle considered locally. 

Bread-fruit 

This tree is from 20 to 35 feet in height, and demands 
moist heat for its most perfect development. The colour 
of the leaves and fruit is of a hght green, and the latter 
is usually of the size of a large orange. The part eaten 
is the central pulp, either roasted or boiled. Brazil pos- 
sesses varieties entirely without seeds. The tree is only 
found along the coast line, being entirely unknown in 
the higher lands of the interior. It flowers and bears 
fruit nearly the whole year roimd. 



220 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Fructa de Conde {Anona squamosa) 

The fruit is about the size of an apple, with a very 
rough scaly exterior. The interior is composed of a 
delicious soft mass, eaten with a spoon. The plant is 
reproduced from seeds, slips, etc., and requires a dry 
fertile soil. Like the bread-fruit tree, it is only found in 
warm places. It is very much esteemed in Brazil. 

Gherimolia {Anona cherimoUa) 

Derived from Peru, the plant is relatively small (6 to 
13 feet high). The fruit, equal to an orange in size, is 
scaly outside, and formed of a number of sections. The 
colour when ripe is of a dirty yellow. Sweet to the 
taste, it has a very agreeable perfume, and is considered 
the finest fruit of the anonaceas. It is known in Brazil 
by the name of condessa (countess), to distinguish it 
from the foregoing, conde (count) 

Sour Sop (0. Carossol) 

Brought originally from the West Indies. The fruit 
is equal in size to the citron. It is not esteemed much 
in Brazil, and requires a very hot climate to grow to 
advantage. 

Jambeiro {Eugenia Jambas) 

This myrtacea is found on the sea level, and high up 
on the table lands, and bears fruit at almost any altitude. 
The tree is small, hardly ever exceeding 20 feet. The 
flowers are beautiful, and are succeeded by fine fruit, 
the size of a plum, and of a rose colour. The perfume 
emitted by this plant is very sweet, reminding one of the 
queen of flowers itself, and thus it obtained its name of 
jambo-rosa. It is produced from seed, and the kernel 
is loose. The above is the most highly prized variety of 



TROPICAL FRUITS 221 

the jambos, but there are several others grown, some 
of which are more ornamental than useful. 

Guava (Goiabeira) 

Previously exclusive to tropical Brazil, it has spread 
all over the country, and is one of the plants most com- 
mercially exploited. In the vicinity of Campos (State 
of Rio de Janeiro) it grows in profusion in the woods, 
and at least 20 per cent, of the preserves manufactured in 
Brazil are derived from this fruit. The locahty named 
produces some 600 tons annually of jelly, consuming in 
the factories 120 tons of the fruit. The average price, 
1905-1906, was gd. per 32 lbs. There are two crops 
yearly, January to March, and September to November. 
The preserve (named goiabada) is frequently badly 
made, but one or two marks are excellently turned out. 
In 1905 some 4,517 packages were sent from Campos 
district to Rio de Janeiro. Each packet represents 4 -no 
days' wages, and the total cost per package placed on the 
market works out at £5. Each tin (about a pound) is 
sold at from is. upwards. Attempts at exportation to 
Montevideo and Buenos Aires have not proved remuner- 
ative up to the present, in spite of the freights being less 
to the River Plate from Rio de Janeiro (1,200 miles) 
than from Campos to Rio, a distance of not more than 
one-seventh part at most. The exact rates are, per 
100 kilos (roughly 2 cwt.), Campos to Rio 5s. y^d. ; 
Rio to River Plate 4s. lo^d. 

Jaboticabeira {Eugenia Cauliflora) 

The handsome tree which produces the jaboticaba 
grows abundantly in the forests of Minas, Goyaz, Sao 
Paulo and Matto Grosso, and is frequently found near 
the coast. The trunk is extremely smooth, and reaches 



222 BRAZIL IN 1911 

a height of 30 to 40 feet at times, with an abundance of 
fohage. The flowers grow, not on the branches, but on 
the trunk itself, from the ground to the top of the tree. 
The fruit is about the size of a plum, but rounded, and 
contains dehcious white pulp and one large seed. The 
skin contains a large amount of tannin, and much colour- 
ing matter. This fruit makes a fine wine, and may be 
eaten as dessert, or used as a preserve. The tree takes 
six to eight years to come to maturity sufficient to pro- 
duce crops, but has an exceedingly long life, and con- 
tinues to bear till an advanced age. No attempts at 
improvement of the stock have been made, although it 
is considered that the fruit would be greatly increased 
by propagation through slips or grafting. Exportation 
of this fruit is very difficult, owing to the softness of the 
interior rendering it liable to smash. 

The Orange, Lime and Lemon 

The bitter orange is common in many parts of Brazil, 
and from it is supposed to be derived all the other varie- 
ties. Grafted, it produces the finest kinds of the sweet 
orange. The fruit of the first has a loose rind, and it is 
somewhat flattened at top and bottom. The outside 
rind is frequently of a much darker colour than that of 
its sweet relative. The leaves are used as an infusion 
for various purposes, and frequently take the place of tea. 
The rind is used for making preserves. The citrus 
aurantium is the better known, and the king of them all 
is the kind grown in Bahia, and called navel oranges in 
England. These grow up to 6 inches in diameter. 
This is the famous orange that has rendered the Cali- 
fornia groves noteworthy, although in its Pacific domi- 
cile the fruit has deteriorated. In 1907, the exporta- 
tion of oranges of the above type was some half a 



TROPICAL FRUITS 223 

million, worth £2,000, a mere bagatelle when one con- 
siders the possibihties of this trade, and the annual 
consumption of England alone, amounting in 1904 to 
£2,500,000 for oranges and lemons. The mandarin or 
tangerine orange, brought from China, is much grown in 
Brazil, but the fruit is almost twice the size of that seen 
in the London market. A smaller one has a very deli- 
cate flavour. In 1907, 63J tons were exported, worth 

The lime is grown in most of the states, and in favour- 
able situations attains a large size. I have eaten some 
that were as large as the navel oranges, and were most 
deHcious. 

The Brazilian lemon is usually quite small, but very 
juicy when in perfection. Its rind is thick and of a beau- 
tiful dark green colour when it is usually plucked for 
market. There are two other kinds of lemons besides 
the citrus of commerce, one growing in a state of nature 
in the woods. The other is called the sweet lemon, and 
is obtained by grafting. Neither oranges, limes or 
lemons are at aU cheap in the more populous cities, if 
one considers the abundance produced. Like the quince 
in the Repubhc of Uruguay, the fruit is often left on 
the trees to spoil. 

Citrus 

Cidreira {Cilrus medico), the largest of the citrus 
family, the tree being small, and its branches borne 
down to the ground by the weight of the great fruit, 
some of which are a foot or more long. It is cultivated 
largely for the purpose of making preserves, and requires 
a fertile soil, and is reproduced from either slips, seeds, 
or by grafting. In spite of its not being native to Brazil 
it is perfectly accUmatized, being found in all parts of 



224 BRAZIL IN 1911 

the country, and in all sorts of climate, doing equally 
well to all appearance everywhere it is grown, 

Mamoeiro {Mamona) {Caricaceas Mart.) 

The mamoeiro is a plant of lo to 40 feet in height, 
with a straight trunk. The fruit is large, oval, somewhat 
pointed, and of a dark yellow colour when ripe. It is 
much esteemed in Rio de Janeiro. In Pard it attains 
an immense size, weighing up to 8| lbs. This plant 
cannot exist where frosts occur in the winter months. 

The dried fruit contains some 75 per cent, of glucose, 
6| per cent, of cellulose, besides oxalic acid. The tree 
bears fruit in less than a year of a size varying from i 
to 6 or 7 lbs., and examples have been shown weighing 
as much as 16 lbs. Frosts are entirely prejudicial to 
its growth. A hectare of land will support 2,000 
plants, and the result according to " 0. Fazendeiro" 
of Sao Paulo, on the most pessimistic basis should be : — 

Cost 

Manure, 30 tons 0,300 $000 

Plants, 1,600 at 50 reis. . . . o,ioo$ooo 

Labour 0,960 $000 

Extras 0,140^000 

First year 1,500 $000 

Second, third and fourth years . 3,000 $000 

In five years 4,500 $000 

Revenue, 1,600 plants, average 50 
reis each 9,600 $000 

Profit per hectare 5,100 $ooo=£332 




Snow-white Gypsum Crystals, Carrego Grande Cavern, Sao Paulo. 
Exceedingly rare formation . 




Caverna da Salitreira, Jaguara, Rio das Velhas, Minas Geiaes. 
(By the courtesy of Dr. CarlosMoreira, National Museum, Rio Janeiro.) 



TROPICAL FRUITS 225 

The flowers of the male plant may be employed in 
medicine as a specific against bronchitis, etc. The 
fruit is a gentle laxative, and is very well adapted for 
preserving, and the leaves can be used in the place of 
soap, and the toughest meat wrapped in them becomes 
quite tender when cooked. The mamona is an aid to 
digestion, and a plantation of this tree serves to keep 
away noxious insects. The useful life of the tree does 
not exceed four years as a rule. 



Mango 

Grows luxuriantly in all the hotter parts of Brazil, 
especially in Bahia, Pernambuco, and all northern 
states. 

Banana 

Grows from Amazonas to Rio Grande do Sul, but is 
hardly found above 3,000 feet in the southern and 
central states. There are many kinds cultivated, and 
we may enumerate pacova (in Para), a very large kind, 
usually eaten fried or boiled. The outside is red. Musa 
cavendishii (ana) has a short trunk, dark leaves, and 
produces huge bunches of fruit of a long, curved and 
cylindrical form, light yellow coloured. Musa sapientum 
— trees high and rounded fruit. Exportation of bananas 
in 1907, 1,878,904 bunches, worth ;^6,ooo. Each bunch 
weighs on an average 45 lbs., and the heaviest attain 
125 lbs., or up to 300 bananas. Freights from the plan- 
tations in Sao Paulo (near Santos) to Buenos Aires 
(Argentina) total about 12s. 6d. per dozen bunches. In 
Santos there are some 200 planters who only cultivate 
one class (the ana), most of them occupying the lands 

Q 



226 BRAZIL IN 1911 

without any right of ownership, as they are the pro- 
perty of the state, and have never been considered 
worth seUing. Each kilo of bananas exported pays i 
real of duty, equalling i^d. per lOO kilos. 

In Cubatao (near Santos) one planter has 500 alqueires 
under bananas, and the whole of the district is devoted 
to this culture. The whole of the banana traffic is 
limited to the coast line from Rio de Janeiro south- 
wards. Para and Pernambuco are so well situated, 
however, with regard to exportation to Europe, that 
doubtless when their port works are completed, they 
will prove the shipping centres of an immense trade. 
The best variety in Brazil is known as the Banana de 
Sao Thome (St. Thomas) , as it is of African origin. 

A plantation of 500 trees, properly treated, jdelds 10 
dozen bunches a month, and a grove of the second 
year only, will produce 15 dozen bunches per 1,000 
trees. Some plantations more than 30 years old are 
still producing, the only attention given being the 
clearance of extraneous matter from the vicinity of the 
plants, and the bunches average 70 bananas, even after 
such an extension of time. There are reckoned to be 
2,000,000 trees within the district above mentioned. 
Labourers employed in cutting the bunches (still green) 
are paid at the rate of 4s. 6d. to 5s. daily. 

Planting should be done in the Spring, each shoot 
being put 12 to 16 feet apart. The best situation is a 
low humid one, with a moist soil. 



Other Tropical and Sub -Tropical Fruits 

M angostao. Better suited to the West Indies than to 
Brazil. It is stated that the State of Para is the only 
one where this famous fruit can be grown. 



TROPICAL FRUITS 227 

Maracuja. Principally used for the purpose of making 
refreshing drinks. It belongs to the passifloras, and is 
distinctly a tropical fruit. 

Sapoti. The fruit is of an earthy colour, oval shaped 
and rather sweet. 

Pitangueira. There are several of these belonging to 
the myrtaceas, all bearing fruits of purple and yellow 
hues. They are common to Brazil. 

Gabiroba {Psidium cinereum). Golden yellow in 
colour ; resembles a gooseberry. The campos in 
Minas, etc., are covered with it during the summer. 

Toranjeira {citrus decumana). Used for the manu- 
facture of preserves. Of less importance than it da- 
serves, and has had no attention paid to it. 

The above represent a few of the numerous fruits 
which have so many forms, colours and tastes. Most of 
the purely Brazilian ones, it is safe to say, are entirely 
unknown in England, and it is very difficult to persuade 
a farmer to make any attempt to grow on a large scale, 
much less get him to run the risk of sending a consign- 
ment to Europe at his own cost. His system of business 
is exceedingly simple, i.e., to sell on the spot for cash, 
and chance losing half the profit. Again, apart from 
such staples as oranges, guavas, bananas and pineapples, 
there are hardly any merchants or exporters who trouble 
themselves about fruit. If they do, it is to supply the 
markets of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and 
perhaps Chili. 

Acclimatised Fruits 

The European and Japanese plums have both been 
tried in Brazil, and the latter adapts itself perfectly. Of 
the varieties cultivated, and which produce magnificent 
crops, we may cite — 



228 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Plums. Abundance (Douglas Babcock), burbank, 
and yellow Japanese plums. 

Damson. Like the oriental plum, this fruit does well 
in Minas, Sao Paulo, Parana, etc. 

Mulberry. Acclimatized perfectly, withstanding both 
heat and cold. Not cultivated for the fruit, but for 
feeding silkworms. 

Cherry (bigarreau, etc.). Experimented with recently 
in the southern states. 

Fig. Universal and highly successful. 
At Correias, near Petropohs, there is a fig tree which 
will give shade at noon to 4,000 persons. It covers an 
area of 480 feet. 

Raspberry. Does very well in the south. There is 
also a wild fruit which grows everj^where on the moun- 
tains. 

Apple. Produced to perfection in selected soils in the 
more temperate parts of Brazil. Some grown at P090S 
de Caldas (Minas Geraes) weighed nearly i lb. each. 

Quince. Yields splendid crops. Is principally used 
for the manufacture of jelly. A large quantity of the 
preserve comes to Rio de Janeiro from the small towns, 
high up in the Organ and Estrella Ranges in the same 
state. Theresopolis, for example. No proper attention 
is given to the cultivation of this fruit. 

Strawberry. Fruits perfectly from Rio de Janeiro 
south, but is quite inferior at present to the berry we 
know and appreciate so well in England. 

Nespereira {Phottnia Japonica). This tree is im- 
properly termed the yellow plum in Brazil. It is 
extremely common (or the Japanese variety is) in the 
south, but usually does not bear very well owing to want 
of proper cultivation. 

Peach. Of the fruits introduced from abroad, the 
peach has made itself more at home than any. Most of 



TROPICAL FRUITS 229 

the European varieties are grown with some success, but 
the oriental fruit is not yet seen, except in the catalogue 
of a professional grower of Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul). 

Pear. Not so well adapted to Brazil, unless it is 
the sand or Chinese pear. 

Tomato, Will grow perfectly and produce fine fruit, 
but like most things, it requires more attention than is 
usually given. Does best in the more temperate states. 

MELON 

Both the ordinary and the water melon grow freely 
throughout Brazil. 

WALNUTS 

At Jundiahy (Sao Paulo) walnuts have been grown 
this year, equal to any imported. 



Uncultivated Fruits 

Blackberry, currant, gooseberry, logan berry, wine 
berry, barberry, dewberry, cranberry ; the true medlar 
{MespUus germanica),a.s\ye]l as cob-nuts and chestnuts, 
and the ohve and sweet almond. All worth trying in th^ 
south. 

FRUITS 
The Royal Mail and Messageries Maritimes Companies 
have entered into an accord with the Government to 
transport fruit at the following rates per cubic metre : — 

Pineapples 20 'milreis = 200 pines to cubic metre. 
Bananas 8 „ =50 bunches 
Oranges 15 „ = 3,000 oranges 



»aO BRAZIL IN 1911 

All other fruits the same prices as oranges. Thus, if 
we reckon the outside value of a pineapple as loo reis, 
or i^d., f.o.b. Rio, and freight to England lOO reis more, 
we have a total cost of 3^. each delivered London. If 
the planter exports a large quantity, 4^d. should be a 
good price for him, and gd. a fair retail charge for such 
fruit as costs at present at least double. The Ministry 
erf Agriculture has now offered the following premiums, 
i.e., ID, 5, 3 and 2 contos of reis for those growers who 
export the most fruit during eight months. The quan- 
tity must not, however, be less than 50 tons. 



APICULTURE 

There are some twenty-one species of bees known as 
indigenous to Brazil, but none of these are domesti- 
cated, although several produce very fine honey, accord- 
ing to St. Hilaire superior to the European product. 
One variety is stingless, but most of these insects are 
very dangerous. The honey varies a great deal and 
that produced by some kinds has drastic effects. 

Apiculture is especially adapted to the south of Brazil, 
and most of the German and Italian colonists in Rio 
Grande do Sul have a number of hives. There is a 
special review pubhshed, called, Brastlianische Bie- 
nenpflege. 

A bee farm at Campos consists of 160 primitive hives 
composed of boxes measuring 24 x 12 x 16 inches. 
The bees are of Italian origin, and are derived from 
some imported in 1904. Sao Paulo, Minas Geraes and 
Parana also produce some amount of honey and wax for 
exportation. The most modern apparatus in Parana 
5aelds 30 kilos of honey and 2 kilos of wax per hive as a 
maximum. In 1909, ten farmers in Rio Grande sold 
54 tons of honey and 126 of wax. Local prices (1911) 



TROPICAL FRUITS 2S1 

in Porto Alegre : Honey, per kilogramme, 600 reis ; 
wax, I $700. 

Most of the honey sold in Brazil is in bottles, and 
frequently has the appearance and taste of treacle, 
owing to being largely adulterated with the latter 
(Melado). The south, and only that part with a definite 
winter, is alone suitable for bee-farming, as in two or three 
seasons the imported bees cease to store up honey, 
where there is a constant supply of nectar, and in the 
sugar-refining districts even learn to abandon the flowers 
altogether. 

Exports of wax bear no relation to the production, 
as huge quantities are used for church candles. No 
exact figures are available with regard to the foreign 
trade, mostly with Germany. 

SERICULTURE 

The above industry is still in its infancy, but there 
is a great future in store for it. As we have already seen 
mulberry thrives splendidly, and neither it nor the silk- 
worm suffer in any degree worth noting from the diseases 
so common in Europe. One of the principal reasons for 
the non-development of sericulture, has been the great 
cost of mounting factories capable of dealing with the 
raw silk. In Petropolis, however, there are two mills, 
one Italian and the other German. The chmate of this 
delightful little city (justly termed for its beauty — A 
Rainha do Brasil) — is so well suited to the growth of the 
mulberry tree, that cocoons produced locally prove 
superior to many foreign ones, not only in brilliant colour, 
but also in elasticity of thread. The two PetropoUs mills 
consume 45 tons annually between them, but most of the 
thread is imported. In Nova-Trento (Santa Catharina) 
the whole municipahty is inhabited by colonists from 



282 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Trent, in Austrian-Italy, and most of the inhabitants are 
engaged in silkworm culture, the proceeds being used 
by two small factories belonging to a religious order 
(Brazilian), where the nuns themselves are the actual 
work-people. The first factory was started in 1900, and 
the products obtained three gold medals at the St. Louis 
exhibition. The annual output is now 3,000 yards of 
silk, 216 scarves, and over 100 pairs of stockings. The 
other factory is somewhat smaller, the production 
amounting to about £1,800 in value last year. Besides 
the above there are many handlooms scattered through- 
out the country. In Rio Grande do Sul the industry 
is further developed, two large and various small fac- 
tories being estabhshed, and in Minas Geraes, Barbacena 
is the seat of this culture, already well advanced. The 
colony of Rodrigo Silva, in the above municipality, 
produced 5,158 kilos of cocoons in 1907, and distributed 
no less than 38,600 mulberry slips. The cocoons are 
generally collected from August to September, Septem- 
ber, October, and November to December. 39 grammes 
of eggs produce an average of 36,000 caterpillars, which 
consume 800 to 850 kilogrammes of fresh mulberry 
leaves to produce from 50 to 70 kilos of cocoons, the 
silk being of excellent quality, but somewhat coarse in 
thread. Barbacena is, it is worthy of note, some 3,400 
feet above sea level, and shght frosts are not at all 
uncommon in the winter. Many other districts in this 
state are taking up silkworm culture with success. In 
Sao Paulo a factory has been started, and the silk pro- 
duced took the first prize at St. Louis, three medals at 
Rome, and one at Milan, besides others at Campinas 
and Sao Paulo city. This state produced 22,400 cocoons 
in 1908. The following figures illustrate the profits to 
be obtained from this industry in Brazil, even under 
present conditions. 



TROPICAL FRUITS 288 

Expenses 

30 grammes of eggs .... 9 $500 

Mulberry leaves 20 Sooo 

Labour, etc 65 $000 

Result — say 60 kilos of cocoons, worth 240 $000. 
(16 milreis equals £1.) 

Profit, 145 $500. This is the result of 30 days' work 
only, utiHzing the services of women and children. 
From these figures one may easily calculate the profit 
to be obtained from an outlay of, say £1,000. It must 
be remembered that the duty on imported manufactured 
material is enormous. Notes just to hand from Minas 
Geraes inform me that the Government of this state 
has decided to open the following credit for three prizes : 
(i) 10 contos of reis (£625), being is. ^d. per kilo, to those 
producing 10,000 kilogrammes of cocoous. (2) £312 los. 
to the planter with at least 2,000 mulberry trees properly 
cultivated ; and (3) 45 contos of reis, equals £2,722 los., 
to the two first factories possessing modern machinery, 
employed in the weaving of silk, produced from national 
cocoons. Enough has been said to show the prospects 
open to any inteUigent capitahst in Brazil. 

VITICULTURE 

Grapes have been known in Brazil since early colonial 
days, and the kind mostly grown are white muscatel, 
lady's finger, and ferrar. Amongst others introduced 
more recently, the Uva americana or Isabella dates back 
some 50 years. 

In the States of Rio, S. Paulo, Parana, etc., from 
October to April, the vine suffers from diseases en- 
gendered by the humidity, such as fungi. In spite of 
this, here are found the finest sorts. An expert grape 



234 BRAZIL IN 1911 

cultivator (Dr. Fialho) near Petropolis has some hun- 
dreds of varieties growing, and exhibits the most magni- 
ficent bunches in the capital (3^ hours by rail and water). 
Even in the City of Belem (Para) a vine exists which 
produces three crops annually ; this is under adverse con- 
ditions, as it rains daily in that place. 

In the valley of the river Sao Francisco the climate 
is best adapted to grape culture, and particulars are 
given in a Government report by Dr. Joao Silviera in 
1906, of the results obtained from 175 acres of alluvium. 
To a depth of nearly 20 feet the soil is composed of sand, 
mixed with clay and black earth, without stones or 
foreign matter of any kind. The low lands of this area 
are flooded from December to January for a distance of 
i>300 yards. The chmate is dry, with not more than 
12 or 14 heavy rains in the year (October to May). The 
highest summer temperature is about 100° F., but the 
nights are always agreeable. In the winter the highest 
point reached by the mercury is 85** to 90° F., and the 
lowest 45° to 50° F. Irrigation is carried out throughout 
the dry season. The area is divided into two parts. 
The first has 640 vines remaining from 1,000 originally 
planted, and there are 150 varieties from the four conti- 
nents. The most dehcate and finest European sorts give 
three harvests annually, with a supply of 70 to 80 quarts 
of water daily, and the ground is well manured. The 
quantity of grapes produced under such conditions is 
enormous. In the city (Joazeiro) one vine of three years 
of age had 542 bunches. At the trial grounds, white 
muscatels have weighed over 4 lbs. the bunch. 

This experience has proved one of the most successful, 
and has encouraged the Department of Agriculture 
(Bahia) to further outlay. From this trial ground, slips 
have been distributed all over the country (more than 
34,000). The Agronomical Institute of Campinas (Sao 



TROPICAL FRUITS 235 

Paulo) has also sent out some 30,000 to 40,000 per year. 
The state most occupied with the vine for wine 
making is Rio Grande do Sul. Between 27° and 34° 
south the cUmate is entirely suited to the vine, and 
corresponds with southern Italy, except as far as the 
topography is concerned. In this Brazilian state, the 
Tine is not attacked by its terrible enemy, phyloxera. 
Already native wines have received high recognition 
(Milan Exhibition) in spite of the competition of Euro- 
pean growers with long experience and great reputation. 
Most of the vineyards belong to Italian colonists, and 
the harvests are usually exceedingly good. The follow- 
ing are typical results : — (i) 2J acres equal 7I tons of 
grapes. (2) 2J acres equal 17^ tons of grapes. {3) 
(Caxias) 18 tons per hectare {2^ acres), and Guapore 
and Bento Gon9alves 25 tons per 2| acres, average 
11,480 litres of wine. In Portugal the average jdeld is 
1,870 htres ; France 3,300 litres and Chili 5,000 htres. 
In Nova Trento a vine exists 17 years old, from which 
has been taken i^ tons of grapes, producing 792 Htres of 
wine. 

In Rio Grande grapes sometimes sell at i^d. per 11 lbs., 
and the wine is worth the same price for one-third dozen 
bottles, retailing in Rio de Janeiro for y^d. to is. a bottle 
perhaps. In 1902, the entire export was 288,000 htres, 
and in 1906 it rose to 2,700,000 htres. It is stated that 
the production, including local consumption, totalled 
10,000,000 htres the same year. The average per- 
centage of alcohol in these national wines is 7 to 13. 
The proportion of acid 0-866 to 0-1050. Those of 
France are 028 per cent, to 039 per cent. The above 
figures relate only to wine made from the grape. As 
already mentioned, the pineapple, jaboticaba, cashew 
and other fruits are extensively used for the purpose of 
making wines. 



286 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Balance Sheet of a Vineyard (South Brazil) 



Year. 


Expenses. 
Items. 


Total 

Amount. 
Milreis. 


Produce per 
Hectare. 


Value. 


I 
2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7-10 


Labour, 120 ; Manure, 500 ; 
Planting, 200 ; Plants, 
1,000 ; Stakes, 250 ; Ad- 
ministration, 360 

Fencing, 1,500; Labour, 
etc., 650 

Total expenses .... 

Including wine making 

» » „ 


2.430 

2,150 
1,040 
2,000 

1,000 
1,000 
4,000 


5 pipes of 
wine of 
480 litres 
each 

10 pipes 

20 ,, 

80 „ 


1,000 

2,000 

4,000 

16,000 




Total . . . 


13,620 


115 pipes 


23,000 



Nett profit per hectare, £610. 

If table grapes are grown, the expenses will be about 
£1,050 and receipts £2,100 for the ten years per hectare. 

In spite of the increase in acreage of vineyards, the 
importation of wines is on the up grade in Brazil, In 
1908, 45,521 tons were received from Portugal, and 
19,941 tons from Italy, Spain, France and Germany in 
the order named. 

Of spirits, cognac is the most consumed, with whisky 
a good second. 

Dry Farming and Irrigation 

In the State of Ceara, the only one in Brazil which 
has to study the problem of di'ought, the Government 
engineers are applying the above methods to avoid 



TROPICAL FRUITS 287 

failvire oi the crops. On the highlands in the interior, 
in the most suitable localities, immense reservoirs are 
being constructed, with outlets by which the rain 
collected may be conducted over the parched soil. As 
regards dry farming. Dr. Baeta Neves has been studying 
the Campbell system as employed in the western states 
of North America, and experiments are now being made 
in semi-arid parts of the country. 

Agricultural Inspection 

The Federal Government has created a service of 
agricultural inspection throughout the Repubhc, which 
is divided into 12 districts, which are planned as follows : 



I, 


Amazonas and Para. 


7- 


Minas Geraes. 


2. 


Maranhao and Piauhy. 


8. 


Sao Paulo. 


3- 


Ceara, Parahyba, and 


9- 


Parana and Santa 




Rio Grand do Nord. 




Catharina. 


4- 


Pemambuco and 


10. 


, Rio Grande do Sul. 




Alagoas 


II. 


Goyaz. 


5- 


Bahia and Sergipe. 


12. 


Matto Grosso. 


6. 


Rio de Janeiro and Esr 


)irito 


Santo. 



As weU as a special division in the Acre. 

Each district will be imder the control of a delegate of 
the Federal Government, who will present a most minute 
monthly report. He will be charged with lecturing, the 
organization of agricultmal shows, and of demonstra- 
tions of the use of various machines ; in short, his 
duties will be those of an agricultural expert and ad- 
viser, and he will be especially charged to initiate new 
cultures and improve existing ones of every kind. There 
is no doubt that this measure will be productive of 
great benefit, especially in those states without organ- 
ized agronomical stations or agricultural colleges. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE PASTORAL INDUSTRY 

Forage Plants, etc. 

With regard to pastoral conditions, Brazil must be 
divided into three zones, i.e., tropical, semi-tropical, 
and temperate. The first is naturally the north ; the 
second the central territory ; and the third, the whole 
of the south. Before dealing with the stock it will be 
necessary for the benefit of practical farmers to consider 
the grasses. 

Grasses {Gratnineas) 

Root grass. Not exceeding lo to 12 inches in height, 
always green, and springing up as if by enchantment, 
after being cropped quite close by thousands of beasts. 
The local cowboys say that it contains sufficient salt, 
impelling the cattle to drink. This grass is found from 
Goyaz to the Araguaya and Tocantins. 

Capim branco (white grass), considered to be Andro- 
pogon glausens. There are two or three kinds of this 
graminea, and they are found in patches amongst the 
first -named grass, but are not so resistent. 

Mimoso. Grows along the central part of the Sao 
Francisco River. 

Marmelade grass. A giant reaching 16 to 17 feet high, 
peculiar to the lower parts of the Araguaya. 

Rice grass. On the margin of the rivers generally. 



THE PASTORAL INDUSTRY 289 

Beach grass {Panicum fistolarutn). The principal 
green food of stock in Matto Grosso, 

Capim gordura {Tristegis glutinosa). The commonest 
in Brazil, growing wild everywhere. 

Dr. L. Glaziou collected, in a short time, no less 
than 155 new varieties of gramineas on the central 
plateaux of Brazil. It is impossible to enumerate the 
names of a tenth part of the plants suitable for forage, 
and, if it were, undoubtedly their names would be 
entirely unknown to the general reader. Suffice it to say 
that there is no lack anywhere, either of food or water^ 
and the latter is abounding, and as pure as virgin snow. 

Alfalfa 
This leguminous plant is hardly cultivated at all in 
Brazil, to the great prejudice of the stock breeder. 
Some is imported from the River Plate in the form of 
hay. In the model farm at Gamelleira, various experi- 
ments have been made demonstrating that 10 crops may 
be had yearly, giving 173 kilogrammes from 100 square 
metres. Dr. Carvalho Britto on his farm at Pedro 
Leopoldo (Minas Geraes) planted in 1908, 10 kilogrammes 
of alfalfa seed in 1,200 square metres, and on December 
10, harvested 926 kilogrammes of green alfalfa, and 300 
kilogrammes of hay. The local (Rio de Janeiro) price 
would be about 150 reis per kilogramme. To achieve 
the best results, the soil should be of a good depth and 
fairly light and porous. To each hectare some 700 kilo- 
grammes of lime. Some 40 kilogrammes of seed will 
suffice to the hectare. 

Stock. 

In Rio Grande do Sul there are reckoned to be, at the 
time of writing, 4,300,000 oxen, besides 2,000,000 just 
over the boundary hne in Uruguay, but belonging to 



240 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Rio Grande stock raisers. Calculating the population 
of Brazil as 20,000,000, the consumption, per annum, 
should be about 12,000,000 bovines, and in live stock 
in all, some 30,000,000. In Rio de Janeiro the average 
amount of beef eaten, per inhabitant, is 22 kilos an- 
nually. In the State of Minas there are more than 100 
butter and cheese factories producing merchandise to 
the value of 6,000 contos, equal to £370,000. Exports 
in 1909 amounted to 2,279 ^^ns of butter, 4,511 of cheese, 
and 7,003! of milk. The exportation of butter from 
Santa Catharina, 1907, M^as 667! tons. The Brazilian 
oxen, derived from the primitive and isolated herds, 
probably natural to the country, are quite small, weigh- 
ing on an average not more than 400 lbs, when dressed. 
These animals are noteworthy for their immense horns, 
one preserved having a capacity of five or six quarts. 
In Goyaz, and adjoining states, a variety of cows called 
mocha, is much esteemed, and is considered, locally, 
equal or superior to any of the imported stock. The 
zebii has been introduced with great success, and in the 
north the Malabar is found widely spread. Recently, 
Durhams, Jerseys, and Herefords have been brought 
over, as well as various specimens of the Siminthal (a 
Swiss type). Apart from Rio Grande do Sul, the Bra- 
zilian states employ the most primitive methods of stock 
raising, the herdsmen limiting themselves to visiting 
the pastures now and then, and somewhat more fre- 
quently at breeding time, when the calves are immedi- 
ately separated from the cows, and shut up in corrals, 
where they are allowed to feed twice daily, morning 
and evening, when the cows return voluntarily to the 
enclosures. The cowboys of the great plains of Goyaz, 
Matto Grosso, and other central states, are dressed 
entirely in leather from head to feet. They are usually 
paid by a fourth or fifth part of the production. Each 




h S 




Public Gardens, PeUopolis. 
{Photo, Papf, Petropohs.) 



THE PASTORAL INDUSTRY 241 

stock-raising district of Brazil has its own dress and 
customs, and technical language. 

In the north the oxen are either seized by the tail 
or lassoed. In Rio Grande the cowboys use the bolas. 
In the same state the Argentine-Uruguayan term of 
estancia is employed, instead of the Portuguese word 
fazenda, used in the other parts of Brazil. The animals 
are usually marked by cutting their ears in a distinctive 
form. Where it is necessary to give salt, this is done in 
January, May, and September, in the proportion of one 
sack to 70 oxen. The drover, who is accustomed to 
complain of travelling 10 or 15 miles, with a few beasts, 
over good roads in England, would, doubtless, open 
his mouth at the thought of a hard journey, varying 
from 450 to 600 or more miles, with hundreds of wild 
oxen, many of them laden with stores. From Matto 
Grosso to the south of Minas Geraes is 1,050 miles, and 
the whole of this distance is annually travelled by many 
indefatigable horsemen. It is not only the vast dis- 
tances traversed that render the drover's life an onerous 
one. Sometimes at dead of night the cry of a panther 
in the woods will suffice to stampede a thousand head. 
The noise en route of the clashing horns of the beasts 
can be heard for leagues, and resembles a distant clap 
of thunder As the only time possible to drive stock 
is the rainy season, the camping grounds become quag- 
mires, with the animals breast-deep in mud. The 
average number of oxen in a drove is from one to two 
thousand, and this frequently represents the whole 
capital and credit of the drover. 

Sometimes the owner loses the whole herd before 
reaching his destination. The animals are emaciated, 
living skeletons, on arriving at the resting and fattening 
place, where they remain 8 to 12 months. From Barreto 
(Minas) they are sent to Sao Paulo on foot, or by water. 



242 BRAZIL IN 1911 

if destined for the Federal Capital (Rio de Janeiro). In 
Matto Grosso an animal two years old is worth from £i 
to £2, four years old, £2 10s. to £3. For a saddle or 
draught ox, from £3 to £5 los. In Goyaz an ox, more 
than five years old, is valued at £2 to £6 5s., according 
to the number of heads available. In Piauhy the top 
price is £1 5s. The cost of a journey of some two or 
three months is about £1 per head. The most important 
cattle fairs are, Tres Cora^oes (Rio Verde), Bemfica, 
near Juiz de Fora (Minas), Sitio (Minas). The whole of 
the stock sold at these fairs is destined for the municipal 
slaughter house of Rio de Janeiro, at Santa Cruz, where, 
in spite of the immense population it has to supply, not 
more than 400 beasts are killed daily. The reason of 
this is the entire want of cold storage. This will soon 
be remedied, as a contract has been signed with a com- 
pany that will entirely modernize the whole affair. In 
Rio Grande do Sul there are 21 factories for the prepara- 
tion of xarque (charque) or pemmican, or jerked beef, 
known in Brazilian shops as carne secca (dried beef). 
Brazil consumes 80 per cent, of the world's pi eduction 
of this meat. Fortunately the importation is decreasing, 
and no doubt the consumption of this frequently unpalat- 
able article will be gradually reduced to a very low 
amount. Each ox gives 75 kilos of meat, worth 380 
reis a kilo, 25 to 30 kilos of hide at 660 reis a kilo, 22 
kilos of fat at 300 reis. 40 quarts of salt are used in the 
preparation of each lot of flesh. In Matto Grosso there 
is a large extract of meat factoiy, owned by a Belgian 
companj', and 60,000 oxen are slaughtered annually. 
In Rio Grande there are also several small preserved meat 
factories, and one large cannery, which is also the most 
important biscuit factory in Brazil (Leal Santos & Co.). 
The Devon probably represents the best all-round 
typejor breeding, and in Brazil puts on more weight in 



THE"PASTORAL INDUSTRY 243 

flesh than the Durham or Hereford ox. Texas fever 
must, however, be guarded against. Farmers in Minas 
Geraes who wish to import stock deposit the value of 
the animal, and the State defrays all transportation 
expenses. The Leopoldina Railway has a model farm 
at Bemfica (near Rio), where a complete course in any 
particular subject costs £4 a month, including board 
and lodging. The total number of cattle in the Republic 
(191 1) cannot be less than 25 millions, one- fifth being 
in Rio Grande do Sul. 

A S3mdicate has been formed in London, with a capital 
of ;^i, 000,000 for the purpose of stock raising in south 
Brazil, and an American company has obtained a large 
concession of lands in Piauhy for the same end. 

Exportation of Hides (Rio Grande do Sul) 

In imits. 

1907 (salted and dry) 746,008 

1908 766,493 

1909 (all Brazil) (in tons) 36,000 = £1,820,000. 

1910 35,000 

Skins exported : 1909, 3,900 tons = £973,000. 
1910, 2,696 „ 

Horses 
The principal credit for scientific study of the pastoral 
industry belongs certainly to the State of Sao Paulo, 
This state has now taken in hand the improvement of 
the national race of horses (which is undoubtedly Arab. 
or a degenerated variety of this famous breed). In 
some parts there are Russians and Anglo-Normans, 
some worth £62 los., when broken in. In Minas there 
exists a good stock, derived from Arab staDions and 
national mares. In the northern pastoral zones there 
is a race of horses capable of covering 60 miles daily. 
The Brazilian horses are not, as a rule, large, but 



244 BRAZIL IN 1911 

they are very wiry. By the initiative of the present 
Minister of War, the Brazilian cavahy is being remounted 
with national equines, the regulation demanding i metre 
48 centimetres in height (about 14^ hands), and no 
difficulty is experienced in getting animals over this size. 

The Comte Le Hon offers some very pertinent 
observations in the Paris Journal, Le Bresil, with 
regard to the horse. 

He is of opinion that the native race requires crossing 
with the pure bred Arab at first, and that the result of 
this union should be united to the Anglo-Arab, in order 
to produce size and power sufficient for remounts. The 
sires should be obtained from stallions that are accus- 
tomed to run wild or semi-wild in the vast campos in 
the interior of Minas and Goyaz, etc., and animals 
selected that are not much taller than the average in 
order to prevent the breeding of ungainly and dispro- 
portionate stock. 

Mules and Asses 

The bulk of the carrying trade in Brazil rests on the 
backs of the former of those two useful animals, and no 
others have been so despised and ill-cared for. They are 
sometimes distorted in the legs, and this is attributed 
by the breeders to the insufficiency of lime in the pas- 
tures. The only states that have devoted any attention 
to the raising of this kind of stock, are Rio Grande do 
Sul, Parana, Sao Paulo, Minas Geraes, Goyaz, and Bahia, 
the penultimate state exporting mules to Bohvia. The 
greater proportion of the animals in use in the Republic, 
are, however, imported from the Argentine Republic. 
Whatever progress has been made in recent years is 
principally due, not to the breeders themselves, but to 
the efforts made by the Governments of such up-to-date 
states as Sao Paulo, Parand, Minas Geraes, etc. 



THE PASTORAL INDUSTRY 245 

Sheep 

We must turn again to the Paulistas, if we wish to 
see what has been accomphshed in the way of sheep 
breeding. Amongst these enlightened farmers one may 
come across splendid specimens of the Oxford, South- 
down, Hampshire, and Rambouillet sheep. In Rio 
Grande, the Southdown, known locally as black face 
(cara negra) is preferred, and the wool produced is abun- 
dant and fine. The Romney Marsh breed is suitable 
for most parts of Brazil. Rams should be imported, 
not ewes. Not only the south, but as an illustrious 
Brazilian, Dr. Assis Brasil, says, the plateau of Pararld, 
Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande, with an average of 
2,000 feet elevation, is well suited to the sheep, more 
perhaps, than even Argentina or Austraha. How much 
more, then, central Brazil, with 3,300 to 4,000 feet of 
altitude, and the most deUcious climate in the world. 
In Goyaz experiments have proved that the sheep is 
entirely adapted to this zone. 

Goats 

Here we find the beast who (as in Europe) will get 
a living where any other will starve. Where the Cear- 
ense has to emigrate sometimes, owing to the drought, 
his goat finds ample subsistence, and this state (Ceara) 
exported in igo6 more than 400 tons of skins, worth 
1,500 contos of reis. In Piauhy a splendid milch goat 
is found, of a remarkable size, and all over the northern 
hills, from Maranhao to Bahia, hardly a family exists 
without possessing a herd. The cost of their keep is 
less than that of any other kind of stock, and the pe- 
cimiary results are almost immediate. One may say 
that this animal is found eveiywhere in Brazil, especially 
where others cannot be profitably raised, amongst a 



246 BRAZIL IN 1911 

vegetation composed of cacti and agaves of every kind, 
the most spinous sorts naturally predominating. It is 
said that the goat can pass months without needing 
water, and furnishing milk all the time.^ 

Swine 

Introduced soon after the discovery of Brazil, the 
Portuguese types still preserve their distinguishing 
marks. One kind is an enormous beast, nearly 6 feet in 
length, thick-skinned, short legged and snouted. It is 
known by the name canastrao (big basket). Most 
EngUsh pigs are now found, as the Yorkshire, Berk- 
shire, Hampshire, Tamworth and Leicester, as well as 
-others from Italy, Poland, etc. The food given to these 
animals, all over Brazil, consists of maize, mandioca, 
pumpkins, skimmed milk, etc., and as our hogs are let 
loose in the woods to eat the acorns, so their Brazilian 
brothers fatten on the fruit of the native pine {Aratt- 
caria Brasiliensis). The State of Rio Grande do Sul 
is the centre of the lard trade, having ii factories, sup- 
plied with some 8,500 tons of fat. Minas, Santa Cathar- 
ina, Goyaz, and Rio Janeiro are other pig-breeding states. 
Bacon, such as Englishmen know, is not cured, and a 
Portuguese once asked me what was that meat, with 
a piece of lean and a piece of fat, alternately, that they 
gave him for breakfast on the Royal Mail steamer. 
Brazilian bacon (toucinho) is nothing but a great mass 
of fat, three or four inches thick, with quite an unap- 
petizing look. To sum up, Amazonas is suited to oxen, 
but not to goats or pigs. Para is, more or less, in the 
same conditions, and all the other states are well adapted 
to the introduction of almost any stock. Rio pro- 
duced, in 1906, no less than 3,707 ions of milk, and 61 
tons of cheese ; Petropolis district being one of the 
richest, making 6,984 kilogrammes of butter, and 



THE PASTORAL INDUSTRY 247 

18,012 of cream cheese in 1907. Santa Catharina, in 
1905, already made 419 tons of butter, and Minas 
Geraes exported (principally to Rio) in 1907, 5,100 tons of 
milk, 4,635 tons of cheese, and 1,420 tons of butter, 
nearly all of this passing over one line of raUs (The Cen- 
tral). All the milk was used in the Capital of the Re- 
public. The total value of products of the pastoral 
industry, in this state, amounted to £2,891,599 in 1904, 
and has, undoubtedly, very much increased since then. 
A great feature of Rio now is the dairies, where one 
may sit (as in a cafe), and drink milk, hot or cold, at 
about iji. a glass. 

Poultry 

There is very little to say about this subject except 
that undoubtedly it is a branch of farming which would 
be most lucrative, more especially because up to now 
very little care has been taken with either fowls, ducks, 
geese, or turkeys. Petropolis again is one of the most 
up-to-date centres, and a low estimate calculates the 
annual production of eggs (hens) as 10,000 dozen (1907). 

There is a more or less plentiful supply of scraggy 
fowls, but it is a very rare thing to be able to buy plump 
birds in the ordinary way. 

Premiums for the Introduction of Animals for 
Breeding Purposes, 

subject to conditions as follows : — 

1. A presentation of certificate of pa^Tnent of local 
taxes, or proof of registry as a breeder in the Agricultural 
Department. 

2. Consular factures, etc. 

3. Custom House. 

4. Photographs of animals in duphcate (birds ex- 
cepted) . 



248 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



5. Pedigree of bull or stallion. 

6. Veterinary certificate given in country of origin. 

7. Certificate of inoculation for tuberculosis in case of 
buUs. 

8. Receipt for steamer and railway freight. 

The whole of the above must be in Portuguese, or 
translated. 







From U.S.A. 


From River Plate. 




Europe to 
anv port 










Animal, 












in BraziL 


To North. 


To South. 


To North. 


To South. 




1 


$ 


1 


$ 


1 


BuU. . . . 


500 


300 


500 


400 


250 


Stallion. 






600 


350 


600 


450 


300 


Jackass 






400 


250 


400 


250 


200 


Hog . 






150 


100 


156 


120 


80 


Ram . 






120 


80 


120 


90 


60 


Goat . 






120 


80 


120 


90 


60 


Sheep-dog 






100 


70 


100 


80 


40 


Poultry. 






10 


6 


10 


8 


5 



The Government will also import stock, providing 
the cost of same and partial expenses of freight is de- 
posited in the Treasury previously. 

The Federal Government has a Zootechnic Station 
(Pinheiro, E. do Rio), where prize stock is kept for the 
benefit of breeders, ' 



CHAPTER XIX 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 

Geology 

If we glance at the map of Brazil we find the whole 
country cut up as it were by great rivers, their basins 
being di\aded by long ranges of mountains from 4,000 
to 7,000 feet in altitude, and with a general trend north 
and south, except in what is known as the central 
plateau, where the serras run in all directions, having 
their meeting point where the head waters of the Parana 
and the great affluents of the Amazon, the Tocantins 
and Araguaya, and the Sao Francisco are not far dis- 
tant from each other as distance goes in Brazil. This 
latter river flows parallel with the coast for himdreds 
of leagues, forced into its course by the chains of moim- 
tains which form the eastern side of the central plateau, 
and as soon as it finds an outlet it descends abruptly 
through a wild gorge or canon, to a much lower level, 
having evidently forced its way through fractures or 
joints in the formation of gneiss and granite, and rushing 
over the rocks, bestrewing its bed \nth incredible vio- 
lence, especially immediately below the principal fall, 
where an elbow is formed by the carion, whose chffs 
are composed largety of purple syenite. In its middle 
course the bluffs, sometimes 20 to 30 miles distant from 
the stream, are mostly limestone, characteristic of the 
Paraguassii and Rio das Velhas. Above Perapora and 
the mouth of the latter river, the sandstone formation 



250 BRAZIL IN 1911 

is again predominant, and, below the falls at Paulo 
Affonso, the same rock is found all the way to Penedo, 
near the mouth itself. 

The coast from the Abrolhos to Bahia consists of 
low hills of cretaceous age, especially near Bahia and 
Sergipe, and then in almost an unbroken line to Para- 
hyba do Norte. The strata forming this series are all 
inclined, whilst the tertiary rocks are horizontal. The 
latter (Miocene and Pliocene) form part of Amazonas, 
etc., and the lower part of the basin of the great river 
belongs to the Quatenary Formation, being principally 
diluvium. 

The Guianas are entirely separated from the main 
ranges of the Brazilian highlands, whose mean elevation 
is some 3,000 feet. The culminating point in the Serra 
da Itatiaia, reaches nearly 10,000 feet. Itacolumi near 
Ouro Preto is 5,700 feet. The Pyreneus in Goyaz 
attain 4,450 feet, and Itabira about 5,000, whilst the 
offshoot from the Organ Mountains in the State of Rio 
(Itaiassu) is 7,260 feet above sea level, and the highest 
peak in the Organs themselves is some 6,500 feet high. 
The Serra do Mar, extending from Espirito Santo to 
Rio Grande do Sul, has many eminences over 5,000 feet. 
Itatiaia, Tingua near Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio and 
Pocos de Caldas in Minas, as well as the Island of Fer- 
nando Noronha, are mostly composed of phono! it es and 
other nephehne rocks and represent the only distinct 
traces of ancient volcanic action. In Minas there are 
many hot springs, especially in the Caldas region. The 
Serra da Mantiquera is separated from the coastal 
range by the Parahyba river, and at the head waters 
of the latter it forms part of the massif of Itatiaid and 
the frontier of the States of Rio, Minas and Sao Paulo. 
North-west, the Espinhago forms the watershed of many 
rivers, extending to the Jequitinhonha. The Serras 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 251 

do Mar and Mantiquera belong to the Laurentian 
system, mainly composed of gneiss, estimated by Liais 
to exceed 20,000 in thickness in the Organ Mountains. 
The high lands of Minas, in the Espinha^o, Canastra 
and Matta da Corda ranges are presumed to be Huronian, 
and contain most of the mineral deposits. The Campo 
Geraes, or plateaux, are traps which degenerate in sand- 
stones, leaving fantastical and precipitous cliffs, as at 
Villa Velha, near Ponta Grossa, where the softer strata 
have been entirely removed by the erosive influence of 
alternate sun and rain. 

The Parana itself and the Tiele, one of its principal 
tributaries, afford evidence of the great upheavals to 
which the country has been subjected. The many 
cascades and the tremendous falls of the Iguassu and 
La Guayra are nearly all due to intrusive dykes of 
eruptives, over which the rivers have had to force a 
passage. The famous red earth of the coffee zone in 
Sao Paulo is disintegrated trap. 

Referring again to the Espinhago, we find the older 
crystalline rocks are subordinated to a series of meta- 
morphic schists, quartzites and limestones ; these are 
sharply folded, and a newer series of sandstones (Ita- 
columites, etc.) and conglomerates rests unconformably 
hi gentler folds on the upturned edges of the older rocks. 
The sandstones are diamondiferous, and the schists fre- 
quently rich in iron, manganese, gold, etc. The Car- 
boniferous hmestones extend through Santa Catharina 
to Rio Grande do Sul, with small centres in Sao Paulo 
and Parana. For economical purposes, the scope of 
the present work is hmited, not only through the want 
of adequate space, but more because the geological survey 
of the Repubhc is far from being completed, no rehable 
map being as yet pubhshed, or hkely to be for some few 
years. 



252 BRAZIL IN 1911 

The immense and almost unexplored region between 
the Amazon on the North and the Parana on the South, 
and defined roughly as bounded by Goyaz on the East 
and Boh via on the West, and comprising the greater 
part of Matto Grosso and West Goj'az and Sao Paulo, 
has very few ranges of mountains of importance, and is 
largely forest land, with immense niatural reserves of 
rubber-producing plants. From the point of view of 
economic geology, Goyaz, Piauhy, Maranhao and most 
of the other Northern States are almost viigin terri- 
tory, and the recent discoveries of semi-precious stones 
in the State of Rio itself may encourage prospectors. 
It should be distinctly understood that apart from iron, 
manganese, diamonds and gold, whatever minerals are 
dealt with in the following lists are enumerated without 
any idea of leading readers to gather that their exploita- 
tion would be necessarily a financial success. No respon- 
sibility can be accepted for failure, and before entering 
into arrangements to float concerns for any mineral 
enterprise in Brazil, it is taken for gi anted that capital- 
ists will be pretty sure of their ground first, as they 
would in undertakings of any other nature. 

Paleontology 

The pioneer of this science was undoubtedly Dr. 
Lund, and the results of his explorations may be seen 
in the National Museum at Rio de Janeiro, and in that 
in the Museum of Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen. 
The famous Danish scientist explored more than 250 
caverns in the Lagoa Santa district of Minas Geraes. 
More than 100 species of Mammiferes were discovered, 
including an Equus primogenios with cloven hoofs, a 
variety of dog named by him Cams spelaeus, exceeding 
in size any living canine ; a Pachyteiium, an aimadillo 
the size of an ox, also specimens of the Smilodon, with 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 253 

teeth 4 inches long, Scelydotherium greater m dimen- 
sions than the Rhinoceros, a capivary as large as a 
tapir, pacas, deer, etc, in all 50 genera, and 114 species, 
15 of which were completely new. The fossils are in 
many cases changed into calcites and marcasites. Dr. 
Ule, in his recent explorations of the caverns of Iporanga 
(Sao Paulo), found in the grotto of Corrego Grande 
fragmentary remains of the Mylodon and Megatherium, 
whilst a splendid specimen of the latter, from the allu- 
vium of Bahia, is in course of being installed in the 
National Museum at Rio, Dr. Carlos Moreira, one of the 
scientific staff, having the difficult work of articulating 
the gigantic skeleton. 

Other remains have been discovered in Goyaz, in 
the Turundundum cavern, some rib bones found in 1906 
being 2 J inches wide. All the caverns and grottos in 
the valleys of the Sao Francisco and Rio das Velhas, as 
well as those extensive series in Sao Paulo, etc., are in 
common with the similar cavities in the rocks elsewhere, 
in hmestone formations as a rule, a few being in soft 
sandstones. 

Fossils of the Coal Measures 

The most noteworthy fossil remains discovered in 
South Brazil were those of Mesosaurus brasiliensis, a 
reptile of small size, at its largest not exceeding a metre 
from tip of snout to end of tail. Many fragments of this 
saurian were found near Iraty station (S, Paulo Rio 
Grande Railway), Parana, in bituminous shales. It was 
an aquatic creature with a long jaw and numerous fine 
needle-hke sharp teeth, well adapted to enable it to 
subsist on small fishes. It is considered by Professor 
MacGregor, of Columbia University, N.Y,, to be a new 
type of proganosaurian. From the Permian rocks, 

Scaphonyx Fischeri. This fossil reptile was discovered 



254 BRAZIL IN 1911 

by Dr. J. Fischer, at Serrilo, Rio Grande do Sul (1902), 
Triassic age. It is considered to be the first fossil land 
reptile discovered in S. America which clearly belongs 
to the fauna of Gondwana Land (Africa). Wels exam- 
ined by Dr. Woodward of the British Museum. 

Erythrosuchus. This fossil reptile has been found 
at Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul), thus forming 
another link between the Santa Catharina system of 
Brazil, and the South African karoo. 

In Vol. VII of the archives of the National Museum 
at Rio an exhaustive account of most of the BraziUan 
invertebrate fossils is given by Dr. White, the American 
geologist who examined the coal measures recently, and 
the Trilobites of the Devonian series of Para are studied 
by Mr. Clarke in Vol. IX of the same pubhcation, and 
Dr. Orville Derby, the director of the mineralogical 
department of the Ministry of Agriculture at Rio, is at 
present engaged in uniting and editing a new work on 
fossils. 

The fossils principally studied up to the present are 
those from the cretaceous rocks lying in detached basins 
from the river Amazon southward to 18°. In the 
opinion of Dr. White, this extinct fauna differs consider- 
ably from the contemporaneous remains found in any 
other part of the world. Of the 82 species of Conchifera 
examined, most are from the State of Sergipe, and the 
remainder from Para and Pernambuco. The Gastero- 
pods are especially found in the river Piabas in Para, 
and at Maria Farinha in Pernambuco ; Cephalopods 
and Echinoideas at Trapiche das Pedras Novas in 
Sergipe. The Conchifera are usually found in an im- 
perfect condition, as well as the other genera, but they 
present many beautiful forms. The largest Ammonites 
examined have a diameter of some 8 inches. Fresh 
water molluscs occur in calcareous layers in the shales 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 255 

at Monserrate, Bahia, and at Sao Thiago near Pojuca 
station, 51 miles from the capital of the State. The 
varieties are Anodonta (4 kinds), Sphaerium ativum and 
Pleurocera, Neritina, Planorbis and two varieties of 
Lioplacodes, all small fossils, none exceeding i| inches 
in length. The type is quite modern, almost exactly 
resembling living molluscs. 



CHAPTER XX 
MINERALOGY 

Achroite (colourless tourmaline) 

Found with the other varieties in Northern Minas 
Geraes. 

Actinolite 

Small clear crystals in schists at Ouro Preto. 

Agates 

The best are derived from Rio Grande do Sul, found 
as water-worn pebbles generally. Every variety is en- 
countered, as well as jasper, onyx, sardonyx, chalcedony, 
cornelian, sards and crocedohte. In the Itaperica dis- 
trict, close to Paulo Afionso falls on the Sao Francisco 
river, silicified fossil trees are common, and a huge 
trunk, 70 feet long and 3 feet 8 inches at greatest 
diameter, hes imbedded in the sandstone. 

Amethysts 

Found in almost all the States, but principally in 
Bahia, Minas and Rio Grande do Sul. In the latter 
state a great drusy cavity was discovered in the Serra 
do Mar, at 2,000 feet above sea-level. From this 
deposit, no fewer than 15 tons of crystals, more than 
an inch long and of the deepest purple colour, were 








4 ^-^ ;«^.^f4Ml• 



Itatiaia, Campo Kedondo. 




I Irxa-DiKil ("i-:i. k- in the l',;irlli 



■\i 1 rule dryness. 



(All the photographs of Itatiaia are by the courtesy of Dr. Carlos .Morcira, Xational Museum, 

Rio tic Janeiro.) 



HlfeiirVNiyHll 




Lake Bed in Winter, Itatiaia. 




Ketiro, 2,200 metres. 
The most elevated habitation in Brazil. 



MINERALOGY 257 

extracted and sent to Dusseldorf Exhibition in 1902. 
Amethysts aj;;e also plentiful at Itaberava (Ouro Preto) 
and at Bom Jesus das Meiras (N.E. Minas Geraes). 
Specimens have been found half violet, half yellow, and a 
crystal 12 inches long and 6 inches in diameter was on 
sale last year at Bonn for £14. The export tax from 
Minas Geraes is 100 reis per gramme, or 4 per cent, of the 
estimated local value. 

Analcime. 

At Itapura (Sao Paulo). 

Anatase. 

Common in the diamond-bearing gravels in Minas 
Geraes, in small clear crystals, often mistaken for the 
gem itself. Occurs also in prisms in the schists and allu- 
viums at Capao da Lana, near Ouro Preto, in company 
with the Topaz. Is also found in the old gold washings 
at Valle da Ribeira, Sao Paulo. 

Andalusite. 

In fine crystals and rolled pebbles at Minas Novas, 
in different shades of grey, flesh, brownish red and 
green, frequently dichroic, when it is known locally as 
jacintho. Some from the Serra do Botucatii (Sao 
Paulo) are pale salmon pink. 

Anthophyllite 

In the Itabirites, near Ouro Preto. 

Apophyllite 

Found at Araraquara, Sao Paulo. 

Apatite 



HtCc 

I 



Common in the limestone region of Jacupiranguinha 
So Paulo) and near Salinas (N.E. Minas Geraes). 

s 



258 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Aquamarines 

All shades, from bright to pale blue and greenish 
blue, graduating to colourless. Abundant in the dis- 
tricts of Minas Novas, Arassuahy and Theophile Ottoni. 
The principal area commences at the Itamaranduba 
river, thence north-east to the river Piauhy, near the 
mouth of the Arassuahy and north to Boqueirao, Por- 
teiras and Sahnas. They are found in decomposed 
pegmatites or in the surroimding debris. During 
excavations at Vallongo, in Rio Janeiro itself, many 
crystals were discovered. A greenish blue mass was 
on view at the Brussels Exhibition in 1910, and was 
valued at £2,000. Another of a fine blue colour weigh- 
ing 105 kilos, found in Minas the same year, changed 
owners on the spot for £3,300. This specimen, cut into 
marketable gems, would have been worth 5s. a carat in 
Rio Janeiro. A crystal only 2| x i inch was offered 
by Krantz of Bonn for £30. Export tax, 300 reis a 
gramme = 4 per cent, official valuation. 

Arsenic 

From Minas do Rio de Contas and Cannabrava, in the 
State of Bahia. 

Asbestos 

Large deposits in Minas Geraes at Taquaral (Ouro 
Preto). Found in several other states, but in small 
quantities. 

Atopite 

In Manganese workings at Miguel Burnier (Central 
Railway). Occurs in red and honey yellow octahedra 
in Psilomelane. Retail price of specimen crystals, £1 
to £5. 



MINERALOGY 259 

Barium 

At Araxa in green masses, and also white from Antonio 
Pereira. 

Bindheimite 
At Mono do Bule (Ouro Preto). 

Bismuth 

Sulphide (Radio active), combined with uranimn at 
Encnizilhada (Rio Grande). 

Blende (Sulphuret of Zinc) 

At Henrique Hargreaves, and in the eruptive rocks 
of the Parahybuna, and in contact with Calamine and 
Argentiferous Galena, at Abaete and other locahties in 
Minas. 

Cadmium (Greenockite) 

At Santa Luzia and Bomfim, State of Bahia. 

Gerussite (with Galena) 
At Gonzaga de Campos (Sao Paulo). 

Chalmersite 

A new mineral from Monro Velho mine. Bronze 
yellow and reddish crystals on albite. Fine specimens 
very rare. 

Chrysoberyl and Cymophane (cat's eyes). 

Yellow green, golden yellow and brown. Usually 
found in the Minas Novas district in pebbles not larger 
than a bean, in the valley of the river Gravata and its 
tributaries, in the Serra do Urubii, and in the Neves 
and Novo streams, and in the rivers Piauhy and Calhao, 
in quartz veins cutting through gneiss, and in auriferous 
clays and gravels. 



B60 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Chrome 

Crystals of chrome and chromite of lead are found in 
micaceous schists at Congonhas do Campo (Ouro Preto) , 
and chromate of iron in the serpentines of the same State. 

Cinnabar 

In various parts of Minas, especially at Tripuhy 
(Ouro Preto). 

Citrine (False Topaz) 

Splendid crystals have been found in the Serra dos 
Crystaes (Goyaz), one of which, a clear yellow brown,, 
was 4f X 4 inches and valued at £8. This variety of 
quartz occurs in most of the States, and masses of gem 
quahty are found in the lower parts of the Serra da 
Estrella near Rio de Janeiro. It is common in Minas, 
Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia. Colour varies from 
smoke grey, brown, yellow brown to opaque black. 
Commonly sold by jewellers and even stone merchants 
as Topaz, but may be easily scratched by a point of the 
true Topaz, and is also much hghter, and possesses no 
dichroism. A golden yellow gem weighing 875 carats 
was bought in Rio for £100, to be presented to Mascagni, 
the celebrated composer. 

Coal and Coal Fields 

Bitumen and Petroleum, etc. 

For the following matter the author is indebted to the 
comprehensive report of Mr. J. C. White, the American 
Engineer, employed by the Brazilian Government in 
1904-6 to study the coal measures of the south. 

The deductions to be made from this report are, in 
brief, evident submersion of the coast line from Rio de 
Janeiro, southwards, indicated by the absence of raised 



MINERALOGY 261 

beaches and the depth to solid bed rock, varying from 
49-65 feet at Rio de Janeiro, to 320 feet at Pelotas (Rio 
Grande do Sul). There appears to be no evidence of 
recent glacial action, but glaciation is considered to have 
occurred in the early Permian period of geological his- 
tory. In Santa Catharina the surface of the ground is 
frequently covered with transported boulders, some of 
which are ten feet each way, imbedded in the clay slate 
or killas, far from any outcropping of the granite. On 
the central plateau, in western Minas Geraes, facetted 
pebbles are found in large quantities which are facsimiles 
of similar stones in the dwyka conglomerate of South 
Africa, in about the same latitude, i.e., 25-35° south. 
In the four southern states we find hmestones of various 
characters, as well as other metamorphic rocks of pre- 
<:arboniferous age. 

In Parana there are Devonian beds of shales and 
sandy schists passing into massive conglomerates. 

At Xarqueadas, in Rio Grande do Sul, on the property 
of the S. Jeronymo Railway and Mining Company, a 
deep boring gave the following result : — Shales and 
sandstones to some 1,000 feet, with 10 centimetres of 
coal at 275 metres 78 centimetres, and 6 feet of coal 
below 278 metres 78 centimetres, and veins of 60 cm., 
15 cm., 80 cm., and 30 cm. intervening between 278 m. 
78 cm. level and the bottom of the boring. 

At another trial, 18 kilometres southward of the first, 
a vein of 13 feet in thickness was found, as well as 14 
small ones, totalling 7 feet 3 inches in a depth of 654 feet. 

The Rio Bonito beds near Minas, Santa Catharina, 
have been measured, and correspond as below : — 

Coal 

Total depth of boring 190 -051 metres ; number of 
veins of coal, 6 ; entire width of veins, 4 -370 metres. 



5J62 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Boring was made through clay, shale, and slate. Many 
other sections were cut in the same field, and veins of 
coal were penetrated, varying from 30 centimetres to 3 
metres in thickness. The total thickness of the narrow 
veins of coal at Tuberao is about 10 feet. 

The Candiota seam at Rio Grande do Sul consists of 
four veins separated by clay bands. They are 4 feet, 
6 feet, 8 feet, and 10 feet in thickness. Below the 
coal is : — (i) ironstone (hematite) with very high per- 
centage of metal ; (2) sandstone ; (3) limestone ; with 
veins of calcite (Iceland spar), and deposits of graphite, 
and mica schist. 

The coal measures of Santa Catharina seem to be 
continued into Rio Grande, and to throw offshoots into 
Parana, but these latter are hardly worth attention. 
The S. Jeronymo Company has a monthly sale of some 
1,500 tons at present, and national coal is now being 
used by the Brazilian Lloyd steamers, and by various 
electrical works in the south. 

A recent discovery of coal has been made in Pemam- 
buco, but no particulars are to hand yet. 

Analysis shows the coal (taken from 21 diSerent 
locahties) to be fitted for briquettes more than for use 
in the ordinary way. Thus prepared it has a fuel value 
about the same as that of a good class (Anchor Brand) 
Cardifi briquette. 

The conclusion of Mr. White is, that Brazilian coal 
can successfully compete with that imported, if the 
former is properly prepared. 

A briquetting plant is estimated to cost, ex Koln 
(Cologne), Maschinenbau Humboldt, £11,466 apart 
from woodwork and belting and freight. Capacity, 30 
tons her hour. 

A new field has been discovered at Quixambinha in 
the State of Pemambuco. The area is about 18 square 



MINERALOGY 263 

leagues, and the mineral is found at a depth of some 
65 feet, under clay mixed with a compoimd of sand 
and carboniferous matter. The percentage of carbon 
is 58733, and the average amount of ash is 20-520 per 
100 grammes. 

Petroleum has recently been discovered at Ibitinga, 
Sao Paulo ; a low grade asphalt occurs in the sandstone 
at Bofete, and a vast sedimentary deposit of bituminous 
shale exists along the river Parahba, at Taubate, in the 
same State, containing 21-41 per cent, of carbon suit- 
able for gas making, and formerly worked for oil. 

Boghead. The deposit at Camamu on the Marahu 
river are capable of yielding gas of high illuminative 
power, and each ton should yield three barrels of oil, and 
extracts of benzine, phenol, etc., up to the value of £8. 
There are many places in the States of Bahia, Minas, 
Espirito Santo and Sao Paulo where extensive deposits 
of peat occur, and a concession has been given to a com- 
pany to work those near Macahe. This mineral differs 
very much from that common in Europe. There is 
hardly any trace of vegetable fibre to outward appear- 
ance, the substance being compact. There are two 
great fields of hgnite in Minas, one at Gandarella, and 
the other in the basin of Fonseca. 

The basin of Gandarella is ten leagues from Ouro 
Preto, and six from the station of Raposas (Central Rail- 
way). The thickness of the mineral is about 18 feet, 
and it contains 40 per cent, of volatile matter, and 48 per 
cent, of fixed carbon. One hundred kilos produce 22 
cubic metres of gas. The second deposit named has 
never been properly examined, but its richness is some- 
what less, having almost 18 per cent, of ashes. 

A company is now working at Bom Jardim (Minas 
Geraes) a deposit of hgnite and peat, the latter of which 
contains 7-5 per cent, of ash, 8 per cent, of water, and 



2«4 BRAZIL IN 1911 

62 per cent, of carbon. Briquettes of very good quality 
are being produced. 

Cobalt Bloom (Erythrite) 
also asbolite and wad, near Tijuco (Diamantina). 

Columbite 

Occurs near Ramalhete, Pe^anha (Minas). A block 
weighing 3 kilos was shown at the Centenary Exhibition 
at Rio de Janeiro (1908). 

Cyanite 

Found at Itabira, in the iron deposits, and at Cova 
da Onga (Ouro Preto) and Valle da Ribeira, Sao Paulo. 
Sometimes the crystals are large enough, and of suffi- 
ciently clear blue colour to cut, but it is unfit for a ring 
stone owing to its softness — 5| (Moh's scale). 

Copper 

The principal deposits are at Camaquam (Rio Grande 
do Sul). The mineral occurs here in Gabbro and Sand- 
stone. Four veins have been worked, and the ore 
concentrated on the spot to 28 per cent. pure. Each 
ton of mineral contains 30 grammes of gold. Exporta- 
tion in 1907, 1,464 tons. In Serra Martinho, the mineral 
is a sulphuret, with pyrites, and contains 7 to 25 per 
cent, of copper. In the State of Bahia the Carnahyba 
deposits are in the form of carbonates, with some 4 per 
cent, of pure mineral. The field is large, but at present 
is unworked. There are also copper deposits at Minas 
de Pedra Verde in Ceara, and at Grajahii in Maranhao. 

Derbylite 

A new mineral at Tripuhy (Ouro Preto). 



MINERALOGY 205 

Delessite 

Chlorite from Paranapanema (Sao Paulo). 

Desmine 

Fine crystals found in the SeiTa do Botucatii (Sao 
Paulo). 

Disthene (see Cyanite) 

Aggregates of the fibrous variety, called locally " palha 
de arroz " (rice straw), frequently accompany the 
diamond in the alluvials. 

Diamonds 

Diamonds were first discovered by a gold miner 
named Bernardo da Fonseca Lobo, working a place in 
the Morrinhos river near Diamantina in the year 172 1. 
The stones had, however, been used as counters. The 
Portuguese Government speedily imposed the most 
rigorous conditions for the exploitation of the industry, 
and all freemen were banished from the region except 
those who were charged with the supervision of the 
slaves, and the protection of the convoys. In 1732 
no fewer than 40,000 men were employed in the State 
of Minas, and from 1732 to 1771 Brazil exported 
1,666,569 carats, worth ^^3,600,000. During the eigh- 
teenth century the stones were sold in parcels by con- 
tract, the Government at Lisbon entering into arrange- 
ments by which the whole of the proceeds of the mines 
was turned over to the firm interested at a given price. 
The average rate from 1743 to 1790 was only 9 milreis 
a carat. The diamond fields were thrown open in 1832, 
but the supply had then fallen off considerably. The 
discovery of a gem of 18 carats sufficed to free any slave, 
and the greatest care was taken in the supervision of the 
workers to avoid steaUng, but in spite of every effort a 



266 BRAZIL IN 1911 

great deal of smuggling took place, one tropeiro (mule- 
teer) travelling to and from the capital many times with 
the barrel of his matchlock full of stones, until he was 
denounced by a jealous comrade. 

Brazihan stones are considered to be 50 per cent, 
better on the average than those from the Cape, owing 
to the constant attrition they have undergone for many 
centuries, thus removing all impurities and incidentally 
providing for the survival of the hardest and most flaw- 
less stones. The largest piece of amorphous diamond, 
or boart, came from Bahia in 1895. It weighed 3,078 
carats, and at present prices would be worth £50,000. 
The main source of the diamond hes in an area extend- 
ing some 200 kilometres from north to south, and a 
hundred from east to west, but the gem has been found 
in various locahties, extending from Northern Bahia to 
Parand and Matto Grosso, or from about 10 to 25" S. 
latitude. It is, however, quite possible that the gem 
may be found in the north of Brazil, and in that part 
of Guiana within the confines of the Republic. The 
diamonds in Matto Grosso are presumed by Dr. Arro- 
jado Lisboa to have come from the thin layers of old 
conglomerates which have almost entirely disappeared, 
and which rest on the sandstones at the base of the 
central table land. Where the rivers are rapid and the 
coimtry hilly, the climate in most of the diamond fields 
is quite healthy, but in certain swampy districts in 
Bahia, mosquito nets should form part of the prospector's 
equipment. 

Diamond Fields 

That of Diamantina is one of the most important. 
The city is situated 800 kilometres north-west of Rio de 
Janeiro, and 250 miles in a direct hne from the sea coast. 
It is accessible vid the Central Railway to Curvello or 



MINERALOGY 267 

Curralinho Stations, thence some two or three days on 
mule back. A railway is in course of construction from 
the latter place, and has reached beyond the Rio das 
Velhas, and another line from the coast at Victoria 
(Espirito Santo) is imder way. The elevation of the 
district is from 3,500 to 5,700 feet, and the city is 
situated 18° 29' S. and 43° 30' W. 

Here are the head waters of the Jequitinhonha, 
Arassuahy and Doce rivers. In 1904 there were two 
lapidaries at work, with sixty wheels, each of which cut 
10 carats a month at a cost of 5 milreis a carat, female 
labour of course being employed. There is one lapi- 
dary in the city of Serro, lying to the south. This area 
is full of deep ravines, worn by a multitude of streams 
arising in a saucer-like basin that is filled by the drain- 
ings from the tops of the isolated chapadas. This 
origin of rivers is common in Brazil. The ground in 
the small hollowed out plateaux is damp and spongy 
and studded with clumps of high grass. The outer 
scarps are very precipitous, and in the summer the 
streams soon attain a rapidity and volume that works 
out potholes in their beds where the diamond is most 
likely to be found. In 1847 one of these potholes yielded 
10 lbs. weight of diamonds and 28 lbs. of gold. 

At Sao J5ao da Chapada, 12 miles north from Dia- 
mantina, the gems are found in a sort of blue clay 
deposit in beds a few feet in thickness, interstratified 
through a great mass of multicoloured clays, stained 
by oxides and organic matter. The surrounding rock 
consists of sandstones and schists. The stones here are 
quite small and of a greenish colour, not averaging 
above 6 to 8 grains each. The two mines (Barra and 
Duro) were visited by Dr. Orville Derby. They have: 
been abandoned for many years. 

At Grao Mogul, 100 miles north of Diamantina, the 



•268 BRAZIL IN 1911 

gem was taken direct from the Itacolumite formation. 
The whole of the Minas diamond fields, the isolated 
district in Parana, in the basin of the Yapo and Pitangru 
rivers, and the Tibagy, in the Campos de Guarapuavas, 
-as well as the Parana at Franca, the Rio Verde and the 
Paranapanema, in Sao Paulo, are evidently of sand- 
stone of Devonian age. 

The beds in the Abaet6 and Somno rivers are alluvials 
and gravels, and recent tests have yielded ^^^gth to i^th 
carat per cubic metre, at easily accessible depths. 

THE DIAMOND FIELDS OF CENTRAL BAHIA 

The Lengoes and Sincora fields are reached from 
Bahia, either by rail to Queimadas, and thence to 
Joazeiro on the upper Sao Francisco river, and so by 
mule the rest of the journey, or by steamer to Cachoeira 
across the bay, and on to the present rail head at Ban- 
deira de Mello, about 254 kilometres due west. From 
this latter place a fairly well beaten track leads to the 
diamond district through scrubby second growth called 
catinga, and although the chmate is hot, it is as fine and 
healthy as can be found. 

The matrix according to Professor Branner appears 
to be quartzite, with nearly vertical beds, whilst the 
country rock is composed of granite, gneiss, schists, 
and old eruptives. The series containing the diamonds, 
besides the quartzite comprises itacolumite and con- 
glomerates, and the total thickness of the formation is 
about 2,200 feet. The matrix is of carboniferous age. 
Dr. Branner has the credit of being the first to study 
the geological sequence of the rocks of central Bahia, 
and his discoveries are of the greatest value from the 
point of view of economical exploitation of this diamond 
field. Strange to say, although the derivation of the 
gem may be said to have definitely ascertained, yet 



MINERALOGY 269 

very few prospectors have seen the stone in situ ; abnost 
all the diamonds are found in the debris in the streams, 
the conglomerate in the dry diggings, or in the banks 
of the rivers, or in pockets below the gravels in the bed 
rock. Though the most elementary methods have 
been employed for centuries in winning diamonds, 
yet the search in all easily accessible locahties has been 
so thorough (as far as the surface gravels are concerned), 
that it is only in the most out of the way places that 
the ordinary prospector can expect to find a bonanza. 
Dr. Branner says that the pink quartzites are the main 
beds, and the streams rise and flow through these rocks 
everywhere in the Bahia field. The theory is that 
(according to geological evidence) the gems come from 
these (lavras) beds. A glance at the first map will show 
the principal centres. It must be noted that no eruptive 
rocks occur in direct connexion with the lavras, and 
therefore the diamond cannot be derived from the 
former. There is, however, a remote possibihty of their 
having originated in peridotites of the old crystalline 
series, and finding their way into their present matrix 
after several geological periods, favour the hypothesis 
that the latter is their original place of creation. 

Recognition of the diamond bearing formation deter- 
mines the area in which the gems may be found, or at 
least in such quantities as would pay for exploitation on 
a large scale. The most productive area up to the 
present lies between Sincora on the south, and Morro 
do Chapeu in the north. This may be due to one of 
two reasons, either the richness of the deposits, or to the 
abimdant water supply. The stones are not confined 
to any particular part of the lavras. At Morro do 
Chapeu they are found in one section of the series, and 
at Lengoes and Andarahy in another. The photograph 
taken at Mosquitos shows a sharp line of demarcation 



270 BRAZIL IN 1911 

between the upper (productive) beds, and the lower 
(barren) ones. The deposits are in all probabiUty the 
richest in the hitherto unworkable swampy districts, 
where dredges would be necessary to deal with the 
gravels buried beneath 20, 30 or more feet of sedimen- 
tary deposits and water. It should be also noted that 
for many years prior to the discovery of the value of 
the black or amorphoiis variety these stones were thrown 
away and found a resting-place in these very alluvials. 
Above Bandeira de Mello, boats may be used on the river 
Paraguassu, and the railway will soon be extended to 
Andarahy and Len9oes. It is interesting to note that the 
white and highly coloured stones have their angles 
straight, and the neutral tinted gem rounded. 

Itapicurii (Bahia). During 1908-10 a somewhat 
extensive discovery of diamonds has been made, and 
it is probable that this small field is a continuation of 
that of Central Bahia. 

The carbons are difficult to distinguish from the 
ferrous pebbles amongst which they are foxmd, as they 
have hardly any lustre. They resemble more scraps of 
scoria from a furnace than anything else. 

Diamonds with flaws, or the rough skin very common 
to Brazihan stones, are put into a crucible at cherry red 
heat, heaped round with charcoal and submitted to a 
blast for three or four minutes, when the crucible is 
removed from its charcoal bed and a tablespoon of 
nitrate of potassium thrown over the stones, and the 
vessel shaken and held over cold water. As soon as 
the fumes have gone, the gems are taken out, washed 
and coimted, and are found to have lost some 8 per 
cent, in weight, but doubled in value. The old work- 
ings in Bahia are now being washed to recover the 
carbons formerly thrown away, and there is very httle 
scope for the prospector, except above Andarahy. 



MINERALOGY 271 

The pot holes and deep pools are of course the richest, 
but frequently an immense amount of debris from 
ancient workings has been deposited on the diamond- 
bearing cascalho, in the lower parts of the rivers. 

The deposits above water level have also proved 
worthy of attention. The Abaete river is some 170 
miles long, and varies in width from 200 to 500 feet. 
Its course is between the Serras Canastra (east) and 
Matta da Corda (west). The cascalho (gravel) contains 
jaspers, garnets, gold, platinum, osmium, and iridium, 
besides some 30 other minerals, more or less rare. The 
Somno flows into the Paracatu, and has a total length of 
140 miles. The table lands consist of itacolumite and 
schists, containing sand and clay. The upper series is a 
grey weathered sandstone. The formation in the Somno 
gravels consists of pingos d'agua (rolled quartz pebbles), 
jaspers, black tourmaline, Umonite, rutile, kyanite, 
martite, and gold, and abundance of garnets. The 
whole of the rivers in this district, and the small plateaux 
between, are diamondiferous, and contain gold in con- 
nexion, in almost every case. 

Bagagem and Agua Suja 

Bagagem is eleven leagues from Araguary (terminus 
of the Mogyana Railway, Sao Paulo), but it is situated 
in Minas Geraes on the river Bagagem, a tributary of 
the river Paranahyba. The elevation of the country 
is from 2,500 to 3,500 feet. The distance from Dia- 
mantina is 250 miles, and it is situated in latitude 
19° 50' south and 47" 30' west. Here the Dresden 
diamond was discovered, as well as the Estrella do Sul. 
Agua Suja is some twelve miles from Bagagem. The 
geology of the district consists of schists with granite 
dykes, crossed by quartz veins, overlaid by level beds 
of sandstone, having layers of trap intercalated. In 



272 



BRAZIL IN 1911 




it 



a^ 5-. 



r«W***fe 






J 



Eroded Boukk-r, llaliaia. 




ihe AKulhas .Nt'Kras, (■ullIll^allIl,^ iH)iiit ol Itatiaia. 



MINERALOGY 278 

conjunction with the diamonds here, are staurolite, nitile, 
anatase, tourmahne, phosphates, mica, garnets, and 
pingos d'agua. A large diamond has been fomid at 
Uberaba, 60 miles from Bagagem. This town is acces- 
sible by rail. Although the Bagagem and Agua Suja 
workings have been neglected for many years, the dis- 
covery of a very fine diamond in 1910 at the former 
place has revived local interest, and many people are 
again engaged in searching for the elusive gems. 

GOYAZ 

Although many of the rivers are known to be diamondi- 
ferous, no systematic exploration has been made. In 
the early part of this year (1911) a prospector came into 
the capital of the State with over three hundred fine 
stones, foimd in the Rio Graca, a tributary of the Ara- 
guaya. 

Cannavieiras District (Salobro) 

The route is by steamer from Bahia, or Rio de Janeiro, 
and thence 56 miles up the river Pardo by canoe to 
Jacaranda, and on 12 miles by mule. The place is a 
swampy marsh consisting of the ancient river bed, and 
the cascalho is found beneath 15 feet of soil and whitish 
clay, and the work is rendered difficult by the alternate 
wet and dry seasons, in which latter there is frequently 
insufl&cient water to wash the gravels. 

Method of Winning Diamonds in Brazil 

The diamond industry in Brazil is carried on in quite 
a different way to that of South Africa. There are no 
great companies that hold a monopoly of the gems in 
a very extensive area ; and, of course, there are no 
equivalents of the I.D.B. laws ; indeed, such a thing, 

T 



274 



BRAZIL IN 1911 



would be quite impossible in Brazil. A licence is easily 
obtained, and the whole of the diamond fields are full 

of isolated pro- 
spectors, and 
small groups of 
men that have 
amalgamated 
their capital. 

They use the 
following simple 
tools : A batea, 
or basin of hard 
wood, in which 
the gravel is 
washed; a car- 
imbe, similar to 
the batea, but 
smaller, and used 
to carry earth or 
gravel to a dis- 
tance when water 
is not available 
on the spot. The 
other implements 
comprise a crow- 
bar, a scraper or 
hoe, and a scoop 
for clearing out 
holes, as well as 
a hammer to 
break up the 
masses of con- 
glomerate. 

Some of the miners dive into pot holes, taking down 
with them a small canvas bag extended by an iron ring. 




The Batea. The large vessel on the 
ground, made of hard wood, and used for 
washing the gravel. 

The smaller bowl, that on the man's 
head, is used to convey gravel from one 
place to another. 



MINERALOGY 



275 







Washing for Diamonds and Carbonados, 
(Bahia district.) 



They fiU this 
with gravel and 
rise to the sur- 
face, continuing 
until sufficient 
material has been 
accumulated to 
last them for 
sometime. Those 
'. more up to date 
employ a primi- 
tive sort of 
diving -suit, or 
even an old- 
fashioned kind of 
more canoes are 



diving bell. In this case, one or 

employed. Where sufficient capital is available, the 

bed of a stream is turned, and a dam constructed. 

Storekeepers 
sometimes make 
advances and W^M^ 

supply pro- 
visions, tools, 
and other neces- 
saries. Others 
buy claims, and 
secure perhaps 
25 per cent, for 
allowing more im- 
pecunious miners 
to do the rough 
work. They take 
good care, how- 
ever, to wash the „, ,. , T^. , J^ U J 

J. , ,, Wasning for Diamonds and Carbonados, 

pay-dirt them- (Bahia district.) 




276 BRAZIL IN 1911 

selves, or to entrust this to those in whose good faith 
they have confidence. TraveUing merchants buy up 
stones here and there, but most of the trade is done in 
Bahia. The bulk of the gems go to France, Germany, 
and the United States. 

In Matto Grosso and Minas Geraes several dredgers 
and elevators have been at work during the last two or 
three years, but results have not been divulged. The 
great difficulty to combat is the immense depth to bed 
rock in many places, and the interruption to navigation 
by rapids and waterfalls. What seems to be needed is a 
light, easily portable dredger, with ability to go down 
to bed rock, as much as 40 feet sometimes below the 
ordinary level of the rivers. At the same time it is a 
sine qua non that expenses be cut down, as that is a very 
big item, especially in the case of a large dredger. In 
Bahia lands are usually sold to the highest bidder. 
One good feature of the laws of this state is, that in the 
case of disagreement between the owner of land and a 
company proposing to exploit the minerals thereon, the 
Government acts as arbitrator, fixing the value of the 
property. Again, no one may refuse leave to prospect 
undeveloped properties. 

Some very famous diamonds have been found in 
Brazil. The Abaete, discovered in 1791, weighed 161^ 
carats, and one from the same river in 1809 as much as 
210. Curralinho produced a 70 carat stone in 1806. 
The Bagagem district is famous by reason of the dis- 
covery of the EstreUa do Sul in 1853, weighing in the 
rough 255 carats or 52,276 grammes and 125 carats cut, 
and the Dresden green of 119J carats. In 1910 a third 
gem was encountered and has been named the Estrella 
de Minas — the weight, 175 carats (sSiV/tht grammes). 
Dr. Orville Derby, chief of the Mineralogical and Geo- 
logical Department of Brazil, writing in the September 



MINERALOGY 277 

number of the American Journal of Science, advances 
the theory that the three above-mentioned diamonds 
were of the same original form, i.e., that of a combin- 
ation of curved faces, constituting a dome rising from 
plane surface. The reproduction, from a photograph 
of the Estrella de Minas, gives a somewhat false aspect 
owing to distortion by optical effects. 

Quoting again from the eminent authority first named 
the upper Parana diamond field and that of the Abaet^ 
are the only ones in Brazil that have produced large 
gems. In 1906 a stone of some 600 carats was dis- 
covered in the river Verissimo in Southern Goyaz, not 
very far from Bagagem, but was imfortunately des- 
troyed by being tested on an anvil with a sledge hammer. 
A parcel of fragments shown to Dr. Derby contained 
nothing of note, the largest piece cutting an 8 carat 
stone only. The stone when found must have measured 
some 60 X 36 X 16 millimetres. A splendid briUiant, 
near to ruby red in colour, weighing 2% carats, fetched 
;f3,ooo in London in 1909. This diamond dated from 
Colonial times. A vivid green one of 2^ carats came 
from Douradinho in 1906, and two blue-white ones of 
21 and 36 carats. Senhor Luiz de Rezende , a mer- 
chant of Rio de Janeiro, has a very fine collection of 
coloured stones, but owing to his absence in Europe 
details are not forthcoming for the present edition of 
this book. 

Current Prices in Bahia (Rough Stones) 

Bons (fine stones), 25s. to 50s. a carat. 

Vitriers (small, but good), 50s. 

Fazenda fina (small coloured gems), 40s. to 45s. 

Melee (imperfect), 20s. to 25s. 

Fundos (small, off colour), los. 



278 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Export tax (Minas Geraes) : Rough, 152 $8ba a 
gramme ; cut stones, 450 $000 = i per cent. 

Diamond weights. Oitava, 16 to 17J carats (nomin- 
ally). Oitava really equals 32 vintems. i vintem 
^ carat = Ath drachms avoirdupois. 4 graos = 
I quilate (carat) 2 J grains i vintem. Oitavo = 3-^^% 
grammes or 64 grains. 

Total probable exportation of diamonds in 175 years, 
i.e., up to 1903, 4 tons. Carbonados, from 1894 to 1903 
= 23,466 grammes. 

It is impossible to give an adequate idea of the present 
exportation of Brazilian diamonds, and it is certain that 
many stones of the first water sold as African in London 
are from Minas Geraes, as the De Beers Company is the 
largest buyer of Brazihan stones. 

Senhor Augusto Brill of Avenida Central, Rio de Jan- 
eiro, has kindly furnished me with the following figures 
regarding local prices : — 

Rough diamonds up to J carat, 15S000 to 40 $000. 

Rough diamonds from J to i carat, 50S000 to 80 $000-. 

Rough diamonds from i to 2 carats, 80 $000 to 130 $000. 

Above 2 carats no fixed rates. 

Brilliant cut stones, up to J carat, 80 $000 to i2oSooO'. 

BriUiant cut stones J to i carat, 150 $000 to 250 $000. 

BriUiant cut stones, i to 2 carat, 300 $000 to 450 $000. 

Emery 

Found in Sao Paulo, 35 miles from the capital, at 
Matta do Paiol on the Soracabana Railway. The matrix 
is a micaceous clayey schist in an advanced stage of 
decomposition, surrounded by eruptive and limestone 
rocks. The maes contains at least 70 per cent, of greyish 
blue mineral in lenticular blocks, some of which measure 
more than two cubic yards. Also occurs in the Serr 



MINERALOGY 279 

de Itaqui in the same state, with schorl, quartz and 
andalusite. 

Epidote 

Found in argillaceous schists in north-east Minas 
Geraes, in fine clear crystals, in company with green 
tourmalines. 

Euclase 

In the same matrix of chlorite schist as the Topaz, at 

Boa Vista and Capao da Lana, near Ouro Preto. Good 
specimens very rare, a German who spent three months 
in the locality failing to find a single stone and spending 
;fi5o in vain. Fragments have been recovered that 
would make a crystal i^ lbs. in weight. The National 
Museum does not possess an example of any value. A 
clear blue gem 3x2 centimetres was offered for f62 los., 
and one about 10 x 5 miUimetres at £12. This gem 
has about the same hardness as the beryl, but it is so 
brittle that most lapidaries fail to make a good job of 
cutting it. The crystals are prismatic, and the lustre is 
glassy (vitreous). Export tax same as for the Aqua- 
marine. 

Fibrolite 

Found at Diamantina (Minas). 

Fluor Spar 

Occurs sparingly in Minas Geraes. 

Garnets 

In^quartzose and gneissic rocks in almost all the 
States. Was formerly to be found on the beach at 
Rio itself, and enters largely into the concentrated 



280 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Monazitic sands of Rio and Espirito Santo and Minas 
States, In common with many other gems at Minas 
Novas, Grossularites, Pyropes and Almandines are foimd 
in the rivers S. Antonio, Andarahy and Piabas. Also 
at Cantagallo and Santa Rita (State of Rio). Hessonite 
in Minas. Spessartite in Hmestone rocks at Arassuahy 
and at Registro on the Central Railway. In the Santa 
Maria, a tributary of the CaUiao, and in the Abaet6, 
ranging from red to the rare hyacinthine hue. 

The Hyacinth, or Rubicelle, is found in Minas Novas 
in water-worn pebbles, of a reddish yellow tint. 

Galena (Argentiferous) 

In limestone gangues, or in quartz veins at Abaet6, 
Diamantina, Sete Lagoas, Montes Claros and Caeth^. 
The richest deposit averages 40 J per cent, of lead, with 
6 to 9 oz. of silver per 100 kilos. The carbonates of 
Iporanga (Sao Paulo) yield 450 grammes of silver to the 
ton, and the quartz gangue 600 grammes. 

Gold 

The principal gold deposits are in the State of Minas, 
but there are many deposits in other states. The pre- 
cious metal was formerly worked by placers in the 
Cantagallo district (State of Rio). The gold here was 
derived from gneiss, and the small deposits in the river 
Iguassii and others in the same State were from the 
same formation. The quahty of the mineral wherever 
found in the alluvials is over 20 carats, but it is extremely 
fine as a rule. In spite of nearly 350 years of mining, 
fresh finds are still being made. At Montes Claros 
some nuggets were discovered recently weighing up to 
i^ lbs. At Olho d'Agua, an alluvial deposit yielded 
£200,000 of gold within the last three years. The entire 
output of Brazil up to 1903 was some 1,000 tons of 



MINERALOGY 281 

refined metal. The tax imposed by the State of Minas 
is 3^ per cent., charged ahke on dust, bars or jewellery. 
The average cost of extraction varies from lis. to 2is. 
per ton of ore. 

The State of Goyaz is very rich in gold placers, and 
the Bandeirantes from Sao Paulo were the first to pros- 
pect. Caravans assembled from all parts of the country, 
and mining camps often contained 30,000 people. 

Dredging in Matto Grosso has hitherto not proved 
a success, largely owing to over-capitahzation. The 
rivers have gentle currents with little declivity, the bed 
rock being soft and the alluvium fine. There is an 
ample supply of wood for fuel. Dr. Arrojado Lisboa 
estimates that a capital of £33,000 is sufficient for each 
dredge employed. Two grains of gold should be saved 
to the cubic yard, and the cost of working a dredge of 
3 to 5 cubic feet capacity per bucket, working 120 hours 
a week, should not exceed ^^250 a month. Eighty cubic 
yards an hour ought to produce a profit of £4,000 per 
annum. 

The principal gold mine in Brazil is that of Morro 
Velho, at Villa Nova de Lima near Sahara. It is under 
the management of Mr. George Chalmers, A.M.I.C.E., 
and is a marvel of organization and triumph over diffi- 
culties. The present depth of the mine is 4,900 feet, 
and the proposed total depth 6,500. The temperature 
at the bottom of the mine during the summer is 100" 
Fahr. The two most important vems are the Vianna, 
north-west to south-east for a length of 300 yards, and 
varying from 12 inches to 8 feet 6 thick. The Mina 
Velha is only 100 yards long, but it attains a thickness 
of 16 feet in places. Important developments are 
taking place at Raposos, 6 kilometres from the mine. 
Almost the whole of the mine is illuminated by electri- 
city, but candles made in the Company's own factory 



282 BRAZIL IN 1911 

are employed in the more distant workings, 1,900 
H.P. is used in the hghting and working of machinery 
and hoisting gear, and the cost per H.P. for 24 hours is 
only 2ji. The mineral reserve will last for twelve years 
at least, and it is estimated that 30 tons of gold are 
contained in the million tons of ore in sight. Perfect 
ventilation is obtained by means of compressed air. 
Two thousand four hundred and twenty-eight natives, 
etc., and 161 Englishmen find work at Morro Velho, 
and the population supported by the mine cannot be less 
than 10,000. Brick and tile works, foundries, and wood- 
working factories are in connexion. The ore is crushed 
by 10 stamps of 1,200 lbs. each, and 120 of 750 lbs. 

The load contains 31 per cent, of iron and 20 per 
cent, of siHca. Works will soon be estabhshed for the 
treatment of the taihngs. During the year ending 
February 28, 191 1, 6,579 ^^^^ of arsenic worth £79,000, 
89,889 tons of sulphuric acid worth £135,000, and copper 
to the value of £24,000 were contained in the material 
which was not utihzed. 

The revenue last year was £406,607 and the expenses 
amounted to £285,872. One hundred and eighty-nine 
thousand, six hundred tons of ore were treated at a cost 
of 28s. per ton, and the yield of gold was 98,726 oz. troy, 
worth £418,164 5s. id., equal to 44s. 4Ji. per ton. 
Refined silver to the value of £3,013 lis. 8i. was also 
extracted. The great expense is due to the impossi- 
biUty of using mining timber to any extent, all the 
excavations having to be arched over by stone and 
cement, as in the Passagem mine. The onty other mine 
at present working is that of Ouro Preto (Passagem), 5 
miles from the town and almost under the shadow of 
the peak of Itacolumi. The ore is hauled up three 
inclined plains, diverging at the entrance, and the 
deposit consists of quartz, pyrites and schorl. The 



MINERALOGY 283 

other minerals found in the lode are Kyanite, Calcite, 
Monazite, Graphite, Garnets, Zircons, Andalusite, Cer- 
ium and Tellurium, of course in very small quantities. 
The deepest part of the mine (Nov., 1909) is 1,040 
metres. 

The stamp mills are erected on one side of the ravine 
through which the river Carmo flows. The ore reserve is 
170,000 tons, and the yield per ton for the year ending 
June 30, 1910, amounted to 6 dwts. 9 grains. Profits, 
£15,814 17s, 7^. Rock treated, 75,612 tons. Eighty 
stamps (750 lbs.) are in operation, and under the able 
direction of Mr. Arthur J. Bensusan, A.M.I.C.E., the 
cost of extraction only amounted to £1 4s. 3|rf. per ton 
of ore treated. The mine employs nearly 1,200 men. 

The Serra do Espinhago for a length of quite 200 kilo- 
metres is auriferous. Recent analysis gave an average 
of 15 to 20 grammes per ton for some 200 deposits. 

The Rio Gurupy yields 2/580 grammes, 
Tapera „ 4/900 

Maquine ,, 80/000 „ in veins of 

Itabirite. 

The average for all Minas Geraes may be reckoned 
at 12 grammes per ton, and it is calculated that 8 
grammes wiU give sufficient profit. It is difficult to 
point to any particular locality as being worth prospect- 
ing, as the whole of the Espinhago and its spurs is 
impregnated ; perhaps the most promising speculation 
being placer mining by means of dredgers, and hydraulic 
sluicing of the high banks of gravel left by the old miners 
in many places. The River Doce (upper portion), Ric^ 
de Contas, Pardo, Paraguassu and Itapicuru, all falling 
into the sea between Espirito Santo and the Sao Fran- 
cisco, are undoubtedly worth trying, as well as many 
of their tributaries. The minerals usually associated 



S84 BRAZIL IN 1911 

with gold and diamonds in the deeper gravels, as yet 
entirely untouched, are porphyries, chalcedony pebbles, 
black tourmalmes, rutile, hematite, magnetite, emery, 
etc. 

Graphite 

Abimdant in Minas near Ouro Preto, Marianna, 
Santa Barbara, etc. At Emparedado, i8 miles from 
the right bank of the river Jequitinhonha, it occurs in 
veins from 19 to 40 inches thick, some masses weighing 
hundreds of pounds. The percentage of carbon varies 
from 50 to 85. Want of easy transport has prevented 
this valuable deposit from being worked up to date. 
There are also other occurrences of this mineral at 
Itabira do Matta Dentro, and in the State of Rio, at Sao 
Fidehs, 83 per cent. pure. At Tripuhy and the locali- 
ties first mentioned, graphitic schists occur in thick 
veins and yield 10 to 11 per cent, of carbon. Those 
at Tripuhy are now being worked. 

Heulandite 

Red and yellow crystals 2 to 3 centimetres in length 
are found in the Serra do Botucatii, Sao Paulo. 

lolite (Dichroite, Cordierite or Water Sapphire) 

This curious gem forms one of the numerous group 
of precious and semi-precious stones found in company 
in the river beds of north-east Minas. It is discovered 
in various shades, from greyish white to lavender blue. 
Frequently the stone is very trichroic, a single specimen 
showing giey, smoky blue and white. Hardness 
usually somewhat above that of rock crystal, and specific 
gravity about the same, i.e., 2 -60-2 -66. 



MINERALOGY 285 

Iron 

Iron exists in every state in Brazil. In Sao Paulo, 
Parana, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul the 
ores are magnetic ; in Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Bahia, etc., 
they are usually hematites. The Minas Geraes field is 
crossed for 90 kilometres by the Central Railway, 
between Lafayette and Miguel Bumier stations. The 
Leopoldina Railway is now only some 80 kilos from 
the great outcrop at Itabira do Matta Dentro, and the 
French line from Victoria (Espirito Santo) is expected 
to reach there in a year or two. This company has in- 
stalled special equipment with a view to dealing with 
the mineral traffic. The hematite is known as ita- 
berite, and by erosion the ores have been divided into 
three classes : — (i) The hard metal outcrop ; (2) loose 
rubble mixed with quartzites ; (3) ferruginous sands 
in the valleys. Minimum quantity of ore, judging from 
visible deposits : — 2,000,000,000 tons. One block, con- 
taining 20,800,000 tons of rubble, carrying 50 per cent, of 
iron. 

Analysis at Krupp's Works (Essen), and the United 
States Steel Corporation's Laboratory, gives : — Phos- 
phorus 0-0024 per cent., siHca i to 3 per cent. The 
whole of the 52 outcrops surveyed by the Government 
mining engineers are reckoned to contain not less than 
12,000,000,000 tons of ore of the highest possible grade. 
This is in one district only (Central Minas Geraes). A 
small iion- works (Usina Esperan9a) has been in opera- 
tion a long time now, and producing 6 tons of metal 
daily, makes a profit of 44 francs per ton. 

In Parana there is an immense deposit of ore at Bom 
Retiro do Mundo Novo (Antonina), which is situated 
only 3 miles from a seaport accessible to vessels of 300 
tons burthen. The quantity of ore is calculated as 



286 BRAZIL IN 1911 

6,000,000 tons, and it is 67 per cent, pure iron. Expor- 
tation from Brazil, 1908, 358,595 tons. 

The deposits of Central Minas (Gaya, etc.) are esti- 
mated at 247,000,000 cubic metres. Immense quan- 
tities have been discovered at Theresopohs, in the State 
of Rio Janeiro itself. The above scate offers exemption 
from taxes for 10 years to the first Company operating 
a works. The average metallic contents of eight 
deposits in Minas Geraes varies from 60 to 80 per cent. 

The Federal Government has offered the following 
concessions to concerns starting furnaces for iron smelt- 
ing. Reduction on freights on the federal railways for 
raw and manufactured products. Combustibles and 
other materials for ore reduction shall pay 8 reis per 
ton kilometre. Pig iron in bars, etc., 12 reis. Iron or 
steel, manufactured or partly manufactured, 14 cents. 
Also exemption from consumption taxes and customs 
charges, and special transit and constructive facilities. 

A concession has been granted to a Brazihan Com- 
pany (February, 1911) of free transport over the Central 
Railway of up to i J million tons of iron ore, and money 
subsidies to a considerable amount for each ton of rails, 
plates, girders and other iron and steel goods made in 
the country of native materials. The Victoria-Dia- 
mantina Railway Company has concluded contracts 
with Bessemers, and other steel manufacturers, to 
furnish at least 2,000,000 tons of ore annually. The 
whole of the line will be electrified by Messrs. Dick Kerr 
and Co. of London, falls on the river Doce furnishing 
ample power. Four steamship lines have also under- 
taken to reduce the coal freight 50 per cent. Transport 
of the ore to the ship's side will cost only 8 reis per ton 
per kilometre, or is. per 100 kilometres. Analyses made 
in ten European laboratories give 70 per cent, of pure 
iron in these hematites. 



MINERALOGY 287 

Meteoric Iron 

The Bendigo Meteorite. Discovered in 1784 by 
Beraadino da Motta Botelho, whilst herding his cattle ; 
he informed the Governor of Bahia, and in 1785 an 
attempt was made to remove it by means of a truck 
built on purpose. 

It took three days to load it, and after going back for 
fresh water they harnessed eighty oxen and drew it 300 
yards to the bed of the stream near by, where they had 
to abandon it. 

Mr. Momay, an Enghshman in the State's service, 
visited it with the discoverer in 1811 and found it rest- 
ing in a bed of rust. Spix and Martius saw it in 1818 
and took two days to get a few fragments off with the 
aid of instruments and fire, the largest of which is in 
the Munich Museum. 

In 1883 Dr. Orville Derby, then Director of the Section 
of Geology in the National Museum, conceived the idea 
of removing the mass, as the railway was being con- 
structed in Bahia. The line came within 114 kilo- 
metres, but a report of an engineer detailed to examine 
the road to Bendigo in 1886 was unfavourable on 
account of the great expense likely to be entailed. A 
young naval officer, however, became interested, and 
the " Sociedade de Geographia" of Rio discussed the 
affair in 1887 ; subscriptions were made, and on the 
motion of the President of the Society, the Marquis 
de Paranagua; the naval officer (Jos6 Carlos de 
Carvalho) was given charge of the operations, and 
Baron Guahy generously offered to make good any 
deficiency, and the Government promised its co- 
operation. On August 20, the same year. Lieutenant 
Carvalho proceeded to Bahia with two engineers, 
and a special truck was devised to work on rails if 
necessary, and the work was started on September 7, 



288 BRAZIL IN 1911 

and the march commenced on November 26. The 
rail was reached March 14, 1888, and the Meteorite 
landed in Rio de Janeiro June 15. The distance to 
the railway was covered in 126 working days, at an 
average daily rate of 900 metres. Free transport was 
given both by rail and sea, and the services of the staff 
at the Naval Arsenal requisitioned for landing. The 
dimensions of the mass are : Length, 2 -2 metres ; 
greatest width, i -4 metres ; weight at Bahia, 5,360 
kilogrammes. A piece cut off in Rio weighed 60 kilos. 
It is the largest meteorite in any museum, and contains 
several rare minerals, amongst which are Cohenite, 
Kamasite, Schreibersite, as well as Chromite, Copper 
and Cobalt, and many globules of magnetic iron. There 
are many small meteorites in various parts of Brazil, 
but none worthy of notice. A fall took place in Santa 
Catharina, many years ago, in which the mineral frag- 
ments were scattered over an area of many kilometres. 
The above achievement is one of the greatest ever under- 
taken, as the country was very wild, and mountains 
had to be crossed in one instance 2,400 feet above sea 
level. Many streams had to be forded and tracks made 
through the forest. The undertaking may indeed be 
said to have been quite unique. 

Jasper 

At Areia (Bahia) and in many locaUties in Minas 
and Rio Grande do Sul. 

Kaolin 

At Bom Jardin, Carinhanha and other places in 
Bahia and in Minas Geraes. 

Lewisite 

At Tripuhy, near Ouro Preto. 




Aquamarine, finest sea-green colour. 

Weight, 5 oz. 17 dwts. 12 grains. In the British Museum. 
(From the Gem Cutter's Crafl, by the kindness of Leopold Claremont, Esq.) 





Magnificent Amethyst Crystal. 



White Topaz. 

^1 Jn^lioc KiuVi 




Phenakites, S. Miguel dc Piracicaba, Minas Gcracs. 




Rock Crystal, with bubbles 
of water. 



MINERALOGY 289 

Limonites 

Common in many places. Occurs in Parana at Sao 
Jos6 dos Pinhaes. (See Iron.) 

Manganese 

The principal mines of this mineral are at Miguel 
Burnier (in limestone) and Queluz in a granite gangue. 
At Morro da Mina the ore is 50 per cent, pure, each 
waggon fills in one minute, and wages only average 
2s. 6d. daily. The mineral is remarkably free from sul- 
phur and phosphorus. The Queluz deposit has a 
reserve estimated at five million tons. The Miguel 
Burnier deposit is some 6 miles long, running from east 
to west. The figures relating to the working of these 
two mines are as follows (per metric ton) : — 



Extraction , 
Freight to Rio . 
Cartage in Rio . 
Minor expenses 
Freight to Europe 



Total 



M. Burnier. 


Queluz. 


i6$ooo 


6 $500 


6 $300 


7J500 


4 $000 


4I000 


6 $700 


7 $000 


12I000 


12 $000 


45I000 


37$ooo 


or £3 OS. od. 


or £2 gs. 4d. 



The distance from Queluz to Rio is 500 kilometres, 
equal to 300 miles. 

A very large deposit exists at Urucum, 30 kilometres 
from Corumba (Matto Grosso), with an estimated 
reserve of 30 million tons. Total expense of shipping 
from this mine to a Continental port would average 
not less than 45s. under the most favourable conditions. 
The Argentine Republic should prove a better market 
if smelting difficulties could be surmounted. There are 
also deposits of this mineral, in the form of Psilomelane, 
at Goyanna (Pemambuco) and in the Chapada Diaman- 
tina and the Serra da Jacobina in Bahia, at Villa Nova, 

u 



290 BRAZIL IN 1911 

444 kilometres from Bahia city. Another locality is 
Nazareth, close to the city itself. Manganese is also 
found at Penis in Sao Paulo, nccir Curytyba in Parana, 
and in the State of Rio de Janeiro itself. 
Total exports in 1909 = 240,774 tons, worth £380,334. 

Marble 

Very fine pure white, rose, and onyx marbles are 
worked in Minas, and vermihon, straw-coloured and 
blue-black varieties abound in the Bahia Chapada, as 
well as brecciated and beautifully veined kinds. There 
are also fine deposits near Paty de Alferes in the State 
of Rio and black marble of excellent^quality at Sao 
Roque, Sao Paulo. 

Mica 

The best quality comes from Goyaz, but the principal 
exportation is from Santa Lucia de Carangola (Minas). 
Average size of plates, 6x6x3 inches. It is put up 
in boxes of 100 lbs. weight, and the expenses entailed 
are : Extraction, freight, etc., to the railway, £50 a ton ; 
freight to Rio, £1 ; export tax, /6 ; freight and insur- 
ance to Europe, £7 ; total, £64 ; average value, £150, 
Exportation in 1908 = 43 tons. There are also impor- 
tant deposits at Itaperica (Sao Paulo), Sao Paulo de 
Muriahe (Minas), in Bahia near Paulo Affonso falls, in 
the Itapicuru valley, and near Jacobina in beautiful 
crystals imbedded in pegmatites. In the State of Rio 
it occurs at Campos, Conservatoria, Sao Fidelis and 
Paquequer, plates up to 2 metres long being found at 
the latter place. This mineral is common throughout 
Brazil, but owing to the extraordinary manner in which 
the matrix is disintegrated, it is necessary to excavate 
to a great depth in order to obtain mica of a nature 
suitable for export. 



MINERALOGY 291 

Monazitic Sands 

These extend from the south of Bahia to near Rio de 
Janeiro, along the sea coast, and there are many deposits 
on the banks of the rivers inland. The exportation 
is mostly in the hands of two contractors, who have 
practically a monopoly of the trade. 

In 1910 15,664^ tons of a value of £212,376 were sent 
to Germany. The Federal treasury received in export 
taxes over ;f 100,000. The present stock held in Ham- 
burg amounts to some 8,000 tons. 

There was a working agreement between the two con- 
cessionaries to fix the price at £5 15s. per cent, of oxide 
of thorium, making the value of the sands £28 15s. per 
ton when concentrated. 

A plant is being worked on the Parahyba river (State 
of Rio) at Lage near Sapucaia where the sands pass over 
eight Wilfley tables to separate the quartz, etc., and 
the concentrates pass after through seven Humboldt 
magnetic separators. From raw material containing 
2 per cent, of thorium, mineral worth £28 a ton can be 
turned out at the rate of 50 tons a month. A deposit 
of Monazite at Corrego da On^a (Minas) contains 572 
per cent, of thorium. There are also important beds 
of these sands at Dattas (Minas) and in the Casca and 
Jequitinhonha rivers in the same State. The sands 
are concentrated naturally from deposits of Tertiary 
age, containing decomposed gneiss. The present total 
cost to Hamburg is reckoned at between £15 and £20 
a ton. Professor Otton Haln of Frankfort estimates 
that the radio-active principles found in Monazite will 
shortly quadruple the value of the sands, at present used 
only for making gas mantles, which are composed of 
99 per cent, of thoria and i per cent, of ceria. 

There are now two small factories in Rio utilizing these 
sands. Analysis gives : Cerium, 62 -10 per cent^ ; 



292 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Thorium, i -5-15 per cent. ; Yttrium, i -0-3 -o per cent. ; 
Lanthanum, 2 5 per cent. ; Iron, 2 5 per cent, and 
Aluminium, 30 per cent. Professor Lacroix of Paris 
says that Iridium should also be found as a constituent. 
As the deposits of Brazil are greater than those of all 
the rest of the world, it would be very profitable if 
another use were found for the sands. 

Molybdenite 

Found in quartz veins in Parana, and in small quan- 
tities in the gneissic rocks elsewhere. 

Nickel 

Occurs in Santa Catharina and Minas as p5nTotine, 
and also sparsely in the hematites and other iron ores 
of the latter states. 

Opal 

Milky opal of little value occurs at Agua Suja. 

Palladium 

In the Itabirites in Minas Geraes. Palladium gold 
(very pale) appears peculiar to Brazil. It occurs par- 
ticularly in connexion with the gold from the mine of 
Gongo Soceo, closed down for many years. It appears 
also in lenticular pockets in company with the yellow 
metal sometimes forming 4-80 per cent, of the latter. 
Found also at Candonga, and always in a jacutinga 
gangue. 

Pearls 

Although fine pearls are found in many rivers, both 
north and south, no effort has been made to organize 
fisheries up to the present. The Araguaya and lakes 
caused by its overflow, from Leopoldina almost to the 



MINERALOGY 293 

mouth in Goyaz, contains large numbers of small fresh 
water pearls. 

Phenakite 

The principal source of this stone, which when suf&- 
ciently clear is well adapted for jewellery, is Sao Miguel 
de Piracicaba (Minas), where some splendid specimens 
have been found of a water-clear hue. The exceptional 
crystal illustrated is in the possession of Dr. Krantz of 
Bonn. Some stones of a faint reddish tint, the largest 
aggregation of which is ii^ X9X5I centimetres, 
are for sale in Germany at prices varying from £12 los. 
to ;^20. They are mostly in connexion with muscovite 
mica. The average size of the crystals from this locaHty 
is, however, quite small, some of the clearest being not 
more than 5 millimetres in length. The coloured speci- 
mens are markedly dichroic, and the hardness being 
about equal to the Topaz, i.e., 8, the stone is suitable for 
a ring, when cut briUiant fashion showing to good effect. 

Platinum 

This rare mineral is disseminated through the ami- 
ferous jacutinga in Congo Socco, between the itabirites, 
also in gold-bearing quartz amongst crystaUine schists 
in the river Bruscusin in Pemambuco, also in the dia- 
mondiferous cascalho on the east side of the Espinha90, 
from Itambe de Matta Dentro to Itambe da Serra (Minas) 
and the Abaete river and its tributaries, in deposits 
derived principally from olivine matrices, also at Serro, 
in the veins of primary schists and finally in the alluvium 
of the Matto Grosso rivers, and in the State of Parahyba, 
do Norte. 

Pumice Stone 

At Vizeu in the State of Para. Sometimes large quan- 



294 BRAZIL IN 1911 

tities float down the Amazon, derived from the 
Andes of Peru. 

Pyrolusite 

In the mmiicipaUty of Curytyba (Parand) and near 
Ouro Preto (Minas). 

Rock Crystal 

Conmion in many states, but exported principally 
from Goyaz (Serra dos Crystaes), via Uberaba and 
Santos. It is packed in wet hides and finds its way 
principally to Germany. Worth locally 2s. a lb. for 
the best quaUties. Abundant also at Congonhas do 
Campo, and some exportation is made on a small scale 
from Set6 La.g6as and from the Jequitinhonha valley 
(rose quartz), and many other parts of Minas and Bahia. 
Sagenitic quartz (Fleches d'Amour) occurs in the Valle 
da Ribeira, Sao Paulo. At the time of writing lo tons 
of the finest rock crystal is on show at the Commercial 
Museum in Rio de Janeiro. A most extraordinary 
double-ended crystal was recently sent to Europe. It 
measured lo X g^ inches and enclosed two splendid 
dragon flies, and was valued at £iS. Export tax (Minas) 
on all kinds of crystal except citrine and amethyst is 
100 reis a kilogramme. 

Rhodonite 

Found near Ouro Preto. 

Ruby 

Exceedingly scarce. A gem of half a carat has been 
discovered at Abbadia dos Dourados, and another small 
stone came from the Agua Suja Gold Mine. Ruby 
Corundum in a massive form occurs in several places in 
Sao Paulo. 



MINERALOGY 295 

Rutile 

Magnificent crystals have been taken from cavities 
in the mica schist at Conimba (Matto Grosso), and 
prismatic crystals from Morro VeUio gold mine (Minas). 
This mineral is also found in Sao Paulo, with sagenitic 
quartz, and twin crystals from the Chapada Diamantina 
of Bahia are priced in Europe up to 50s. each. 

Salt 

The principal seat of this industry is in Rio Grande 
do Norte, in the municipahty of Macao, and at Mossoro 
where the marine salt contains 98 per cent, of Chloride 
of Sodium. In 1907 687,785 alquieres of 160 litres were 
exported. Cabo Frio, in the State of Rio, has also 
small salt works. Minas and the Bahia Chapada con- 
tain many salt pans, hardly worked as yet, and the 
best refined salt is aU imported from England. 

Saltpetre 

The largest deposit of this mineral is in the Chapada, 
in an area of 12,500 kilometres in the limestones and 
shales. The caverns in Central Minas contains some 
deposits of saltpetre, especially in the basins of the Rio 
das Velhas and Sao Francisco. The mineral occurs in 
the same way in Sao Paulo, but none of the Brazihan 
deposits are large. 

Samarskite (synonimous) 

Euxenite group. A blackish pitch-hke mineral 
recently discovered by Dr. Ferraz at Pomba (Minas) 
contains : Niobic acid, 40 per cent. ; titanic acid, 19 
per cent. ; yttria, 28-30 per cent. ; thoria, 2 per cent. ; 
uranium oxide, 10 per cent. ; radio active. 



296 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Scheelite 

Found in Morro Velho Mine, also at Sumidouro da 
Marianna (Minas). 

Sapphires 

As satellites of the diamond in the Coxim river in 
Matto Grosso. They are small and cloudy, but common; 
called locally azulinhos. Occur also in the Sapucahy 
river in Sao Paulo. The alluvial clays and detritus of 
Cannavieiras (Bahia), the sands of the river Doce 
(Espirito Santo) and the Sapucahy Mirim (near Gar- 
impo das Canoas), the Salobro (Bahia) and as reported 
some of the river gravels of the State of Rio de Janeiro 
itself, all contain the sapphire. Opaque blue corundum 
is found in SSlo Paulo. 

Scorodite (Arsenate of Iron) 
Fine crystals at Antonio Pereira (Ouro Preto). 

Sphene (Titanite) 

Small green crystals in the Minas Novas district. 
This gem is curiously lustrous, and appropriate for 
any use in jewellery except for rings, owing to its soft- 
ness (5J). 

Spinel 

Many beautiful spinel (red) and balais rubies (crim- 
son) are found in the sands of the river Piuna in Espirito 
Santo. Fancy stones are often foimd, in blues and 
violets. Most of these gems are perfectly crystallized 
in octahedrons like those of Ceylon. They are also 
found in the sands of the river Paraguassu (Bahia) at 
Machado Portella, accompanied by Monazite and 
Xenotime. 



MINERALOGY 997 

Spodumene (Triphane) 

Found at Arassuahy, also near Diamantina, in 
greenish yellow and blue crystals. Called Cambalaxo 
locally. Sometimes sold in mistake for Chrysoberyls. 

Staurolite 

Valle da Ribeira (Sao Paulo), and in the Mica Schist 
of Arassuahy, in crystals up to | X 2 inches. Colour, 
brownish black. Forms a great part of the schists 
some 20 miles from Ouro Preto, also at Franca (Sao 
Paulo). 

Stibnite 

With bismuth, at Furquim, in contact with gold, and 
at Passagem de Marianna. Native antimony is found 
in the valley of Itapirapuan (Sao Paulo). Stibnite 
crystals also exist in the auriferous deposits of Caethe, 
and near the base of Itabira do Campo. 

Stilbite 

Serra de Brotas (Sao Paulo). 

Stolzite 

Marianna, near Ouro Preto, in tabular crystals. 

Sulphur 

The most important deposit is that of Curraes Novos, 
in Rio Grande do Norte. This is very extensive, and 
there are other smaller ones in the same state. 

Talc and Soap Stone 

Common near Ouro Preto, Santa Barbara, Marianna, 
etc., etc. Many churches in Minas and Bahia have 



S98 BRAZIL IN 1911 

their fonts and other ornamental vessels, and parts of 
their interior structure, made of an excellent variety of 
this stone. 

Tin 

Stream tin forms from lo to 40 per cent, of the sands 
of the river Paraopeba in Minas, and small grains are 
•associated with monazitic sands in the Mucury, and 
at SaUnas, and in Rio Grande do Sul. Cassiterite is 
found at Sanga Negra and Cagapava, Rio Grande do 
-Sul. 

Topaz 

The yellow and orange and brown topaz is principally 
mined in a range of hills near Ouro Preto in a matrix of 
lithomarge and chlorites, combined with small angular 
fragments of partly decomposed quartz. The sur- 
rounding rocks are itacolumites and clay slates. It 
•occurs here in every shade of yellow and amber and 
wine yellow, and occasionally fine pink and rose crystals 
^re found. The white and blue gems are derived from 
the decomposed granitic rocks of North-east Minas, 
•near Arassuahy. Here they are usually found water 
worn, in the river gravels. One almost clear white in 
the National Museum weighs 4 J lbs., and far larger 
•ones have been recorded. At Capao da Lana and Boa 
Vista, Ouro Preto, the matrix occurs in a fracture 
parallel to the micaceous strata, bearing west 15° south. 
A small deposit exists in Rio Grande do Sul, and the 
gem is said to exist in the State of Rio. A wonderful 
gem was recently offered to the Brazihan Government 
weighing 2J lbs. It was originally presented by the 
Emperor Dom Pedro to Pope Pius IX, who gave it to 
the King of Naples. The celebrated Cariello engraved 
it with the figure of Christ breaking the Eucharist bread. 
The work is of the most dehcate description, and took 



MINERALOGY 299 

twelve years to execute. The price asked was £40,000. 
Dr. Costa Senna, Director of the School of Mines at 
Ouro Preto, has a clear bluish white stone, weighing 
48J grammes. This came from Salinas. M. Ratte, 
a Paris jeweller, had in his possession a cut gem of 31 
carats, crimson with a yellow centre. Amongst the 
most notable crystals on the market this year may be 
mentioned a blue and white 5x2 centimetres, £13; 
a white one 5 centimetres long, £7 ; a blue 7 centimetres 
long, £6 5s. ; a blue 6\ centimetres long, £5. A really 
blue stone would be a great find. Those called blue 
are quite pale as a rule. 

Tourmalines 

Tourmahnes were first brought to the coast by Fer- 
nandes Tourinho, and they were known as emeralds 
and sapphires (the blue variety) until the eighteenth 
century. The RubeUite was recognized as a tourmaline 
in 1733, but even Mawe, the EngHsh mineralogist, 
imagined the Indicohte was a sapphire. These stones 
were first worked in 1770, but it was not imtil the twen- 
tieth century that any systematic exportation took 
place. Formerly it was the fashion to present strangers 
in the district where they are principally found (N.E. 
Minas) with a fine stone as a curiosity, but in 1905 the 
value of large clear gems had risen to £100 a kilo, and 
of smaller stones from £15 to £35 on the spot. The 
districts of Porteiras, Larangeiras and SaUnas are the 
headquarters of the trade, mostly in the hands of Ger- 
man agents. Those of Itambacury are found in a 
cascalho in the forest, below 2 to 3 feet of earth. Green 
stones have been discovered weighing a poimd, with 
RubeUites (crimson, purple and pink) and Indicohtes 
(deep to clear blue) up to 3 inches long. 

The Itambacury (Theophile Ottoni) gems are all 



800 BRAZIL IN 1911 

green. One stone found in the Piauhy was 30 X 9 
centimetres. The whole of the basin of the lower 
Arassuahy and the Jequitinhonha and upper Rio Doce 
is noted for these stones, and the matrix is usually 
decomposed quartz veins, running through pegmatites 
and gneiss. Some are found with red centres surrounded 
by green, others vice versa, some red at one end and 
green at the other, some brown (Dravite), yellow and 
colourless (see Achroite). Dr. Nilo Pecanha, ex-Presi- 
dent of the Repubhc, had a very rare gem presented to 
him, yellow with a green core. 

TourmaUnes are also common in the auriferous form- 
ation of Antonio Pereira (Ouro Preto). Schorl or massive 
tourmaline and large black isolated crystals are met 
with in many parts of Brazil. Value of Rubellites on 
spot, from los. to 15s. the gramme. Green stones, 
from gd. to is. a gramme. Export tax (all colours) 
from Minas 800 reis = is. per gramme. Recent finds 
of RubeUites, one 13 X 6 centimetres, one end rose vio- 
let, £37 los. ; one 9X3 centimetres, £12 ; one dark 
red i8i X 10 centimetres, £30 ; one 17 X 8| X 12 
centimetres £25 ; and one 14 X 8 centimetres, £25. 
One black, £4 los. Offered at these prices in Europe. 

Tremolite 
Occurs near Ouro Preto. 

Vanidinite 

At Sumidouro de Marianna gold workings. 

Wavellite 

Near Carandahy in Acicular Crystals. 

Wolframite 

As in Cornwall, extending to a few fathoms depth 



MINERALOGY 801 

only. At Encnisilhada in quartz veins from 12 to 20 
inches thick. The proportion of acid is some 40 per cent. 
This Rio Grande deposit is the only one of any im- 
portance known. Copper sulphides and monazite 
accompanies the ore. 

Xenotine 

At Tripuhy (Ouro Preto) and at Datas near Diaman- 
tina, crystals occurring up to 3 centimetres in length. 

Zeolites 

From the augite porphyry, Sao Paulo. 

Zircons 

Usually small. At Caldas (Sao Paulo) and Tripuhy 
and Agua Suja mine (Minas Geraes). 

Mining Openings in Brazil 

There are good openings in Brazil in the Mining 
States for properly organized companies. Only a very 
small portion of the alluvium has been explored. Most 
of the river gravels (imtouched at 20 to 50 feet below 
the surface of the water) contain enough gold to pay 
for dredging propositions. 

One dredge, started in the Diamantina district, digs 
to a depth of 50 feet, and the buckets are able to cut 
into the bed rock (a soft sandstone) to 4 or 5 feet. The 
expense of running is £6 daily, handling 1,000 yards 
of gravel. Quoting from the statement of the operators, 
the affair is a great success. With regard to the new 
law of Bahia, the proprietor of mineral lands is obhged 
to work them, or submit to Government arbitration, 
with regard to their sale. No licence is required to 
prospect with movable plant, and concessions may be 



302 BRAZIL IN 1911 

readily obtained of reaches of public rivers, up to 50 
kilometres. All diamondiferous soil being state pro- 
perty, no litigation can arise through the question of 
ownership. A licence for placer work costs a few milreis 
only. To quote the British Consul at Bahia. The 
new regulations are well calculated to encourage ex- 
ploitation of this, the richest zone in Brazil. The laws 
seem to have been based on the best features of those 
elsewhere. The taxes payable are from J to 10 per 
cent. In the case of monazitic sands they are very 
heavy, but the profits afford sufficient recompense for 
this impost. To sum up, most of the abandoned pro- 
perties were discarded for want of sufficient capital, or 
were failures through bad management. Legislation 
has been effected to protect prospectors, and to guar- 
antee to them the result of their labour. The cHmate is 
excellent, and quite suited to northern Europeans. 
Registration and survey is obhgatory, and no one can 
now pretend to ownership of a claim who is not pos- 
sessed of properly stamped documents. 

There are (1909) some 66 British Mining Companies 
owning properties in Brazil, and the capital involved 
amounts to over £8,000,000. 



It must be distinctlyTunderstood that the Author 
disclaims any responsibihty with regard to the Miner- 
alogy of Brazil treated from a financial standpoint. 
Local investigation is advised before capital is invested 
in mineral propositions. 



CHAPTER XXI 
THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORT& 

Para. Near the City of Monte Algere there are hot: 
sulphur springs that have never been analysed or tapped. 

Parahyba do Norte. At St. Joao do Rio do Peixe.' 
analysis has been taken of some waters hghtly sulphur- 
ous, and with a temperature varying from 21-5 to 32-2-r 
centigrade. 

Ceara. Close to Tamboril there are acidified crystal- 
line springs entirely imused. Another in the vicinity 
of Santa Quiteria has a temperature of 35° centigrade.. 
The most important springs are at Caldas, 12^ kilo- 
metres from Barbalho. 

Pernambuco. Mineral waters are found at Pajehu de 
Flores. 

Bahia. Close to Itapicuru, 220 kilometres from the • 
capital of the state, there are thermal springs, with a. 
temperature of 39° centigrade. They contain chloride, 
of sodium, Ume and magnesia, sulphate of soda and 
bicarbonate of soda, carbonate of Hme and magnesia.. 
Four parts out of five are of the first named. There aret- 
seven other hot springs of a similar nature in the vicinity 
of the above. 

There are also thermal springs at Santa Luzia (Cae- 
tite), Morro do Chapeu, Jacobina and Abbadia. 

Rio de Janeiro, In Parahyba do Sul there is a mineral 
spring, classified between bicarbonates and ferruginous. 



S04 BRAZIL IN 1911 

effervescent types. It is a proto-thermal fountain. It 
is under the name of Salutaris, and is prescribed by the 
local doctors for anaemia, dyspepsia, and female irregu- 
larities. In six years, 49,307 boxes of 48 small bottles 
were sold in different parts of Brazil. In Santa Rita 
(Mage) there is a spring of water, very good indeed for 
affections of the liver and stomach. Of this, in the first 
three months of 1907, 43,930 bottles were sold. 

Federal district (municipality, etc., of the capital of 
the Republic). Formerly there were many ferruginous 
springs (chalybites) in Cosme Velho, Santa Theresa, 
Tijuca and Boa Vista da Gavea, but the growth of the 
city has, so to speak, swallowed them up. 

Sao Paulo. In Tatuhy a spring furnishes 3,000 quarts 
in 24 hours. It is largely impregnated with carbonic 
acid and gas. In Santos there are several mineral 
springs, and in Campinas six of gaseous nature, as well 
as others in different parts of the state, as Leme, Rocinha, 
Mogy-Guassu. 

Parana. The hot springs of Xapeco are of sulphurous 
nature, and are mostly used for affections of the skin. 

Santa Catharina. In this State, at Pedras Grandes 
(Tubarao) there are waters with a temperature of 41° 
centigrade, and very valuable in cases of rheumatics, and 
contagious skin complaints. There are three other 
springs of a similar nature in the same state. 

Rio Grande do Sul. The principal spring is at S. 
Gabriel, and consist of carbonates and ioduretes of iron. 
Four parts out of seven are ferruginous. 

Matto Grosso. From the granite, at a place called 
Frade, water gushes at 42° centigrade of heat, of a ferro- 
magnesia nature, employed in cutaneous diseases. 

Goyaz. In the Serra das Caldas there are three 
thermal springs, varying from 22° to 42° centigrade, of 
the same nature as the above. Experiments prove them 




Dry Workings in Dianiund (jravels, Abactc Kivcr, Minus (Jcraos. 





Green Tourmaline. 
2^ inches high. 



Euclase. 

28 X 20 X 10 milliuietrcs 

Vahic fji. 





Eslrclla do Minas Diamond. 



Weight 1 74 J carats. 

Found near Bngagein, 1909. 

13y tlie ourtesy of Mr. Lee, Dept. of Geology, Rio ile 
Janeiro. 



IMuc JJcryl. 
Natural size. .^1 

Ilhislralioiis A to G are from f. 

kindly riven hy Dr. Kraitt 

Kluincsches Mineral Koiitor, I 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 305 

to be minus acids or alkalis. They are frequented by 
persons suffering from rheumatics and skin complaints. 

Minas Geraes 

Aguas Virtu osas de Caxambii. Caxambu is in the 
municipahty of Baependy, situated about 2,800 feet 
above sea level. The mineral springs have been noted 
for a long time, and their reputation has increased so 
much that there is now quite a small town in the locahty, 
with hotels, electric hght, baths, etc. Nearly 100 per- 
sons are engaged in the bottHng of water from five or 
six springs, others being used locally only, for medical 
purposes. 

The use of these waters cures indigestion and consti- 
pation, diabetes, etc. Character of foimtains D. Pedro 
and Viotti, gaseous acidulated waters like seltzer. 
Fountain D. Isabel more gaseous, and contains a large 
percentage of iron, tonical. Fonte D. Leopoldina, 
more alcahne and gaseous than the first two named. 
Fonte Intermittente, similar to D. Isabel, but more 
alcaline, and uath less iron. Exportation, 1906, 20,917 
boxes, of 48 bottles. Aguas de S. Louren90, altitude 
2,800 feet, average temperature 12° to 16° centigrade. 
Gravel soil. There are two hotels. The springs are 
seven in number, very suitable for stomach complaints 
and dyspepsia. The exportation is not so great as that 
from Caxambii. 

Lambary, 3J leagues from Campanha. There are 
three springs. The most important one is gaseous, of 
carbonic acid type. Its temperature is 23° centigrade. 
There are 43 men employed at the place, which pos- 
sesses a hydropathic estabHshment. Cambuquira, 
waters similar to those at Caxambu. The exportation 
from these two districts, in 1905, was 5,926 boxes, con- 
taining 48 bottles in each. 



806 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Aguas de Fervedouro (Carangola), nearly 2,000 feet 
above sea level. There are four fountains, furnishing 
more than 600,000 litres in 24 hours. The water is 
reputed valuable in cases of paralysis, rheumatism, 
anaemia, scrofula, and other cutaneous and deeper seated 
diseases. 

The most important bathing station is P090S de Caldas. 
These latter have been known since 1786, so they are in 
all probability the oldest frequented thermal springs in 
Brazil. There are two hydropathic estabhshments 
with four springs. Two are tapped with 42° centigrade, 
and one has a temperature of 45° centigrade, and the 
other 36" centigrade. The discharge of the four springs 
amounts to 416,372 Utres daily. They are distinctly 
sulphurous. The concern is a large one, the loan raised 
to form the estabhshment amounting to no less than 
about ;^ioo,ooo. There is an hotel with 400 rooms, 
a casino, park, and athletic grounds. The whole is 
under the control of the State Government. The cHmate 
is splendid, as the place is situated at nearly 4,000 feet 
above sea level, on dry ground. In 1905, 28,502 baths 
were taken. 

Pofinhos do Rio Verde (Caldas). Water suitable for 
diseases of the liver, kidneys, etc. 

Aguas Santas (near Mattosinhos), 2,700 feet altitude. 
Cold waters, arsenical and sulphurous. 

Aguas sulfurosas alcalinas do Araxa. (The title 
describes fully the type of these warm springs, 26° to 27"* 
centigrade). The waters are so strongly impregnated 
with alkaUne properties that the rough loose skin of 
the hands peel off immediately on contact with the 
spring. The smell denotes their vicinity if out of sight. 
Araxa is dehghtfully situated, 2,800 feet above sea level, 
and the climate is perfection itself. Pulmonary diseases 
are absolutely unknown to the natives of the district. 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 307 

The colour of the water is violet, turning to green. The 
springs are seven in number, and yield 3,600 Mtres of 
water daily. Dyspepsias and ordinary derangements 
of the digestive system disappear, as if by magic, after 
a few days use of these waters, which are equally suit- 
able for bathing in and drinking. They are situated 
some httle distance from the town. Medical researches 
lead to the opinion that these springs are superior to the 
most famous European ones, such as Carlsbad, Baden, 
Aix la Chapelle, etc. 

THE VOYAGE TO BRAZIL. FROM LIVERPOOL TO 
MANAOS 

Here we have no choice of routes. The Booth hne is 
our only recourse, and the steamer proceeds via Havre, 
510 miles, 2 days ; Leixoes (Oporto), 820 miles, 6 days ; 
Lisbon, 1,000 miles, 10 days ; Madeira, 1,520 miles, 12 
days ; Para, 4,270 miles, 21 days out. Belem do Para 
is 86 miles from the sea, and nearly all the city is built a 
few feet only above high tide level. Vessels drawing 30 
feet will soon be able to come alongside the quays, and 
the steamer traffic is already very great. In 1907 no 
fewer than 4,866 vessels entered the port, carrying over 
2,000,000 tons. The population of the city (1909) is over 
200,000. It boasts of a magnificent theatre " De Paz," 
a imique system of parks and squares, a fine museum, 
and a first-rate rapid transit service. From here to 
Manaos is, by most direct route, 850 miles, and the 
steamer is due there a week later than at Para. Manaos 
is essentially an American city. A quarter of a century 
since it was but a town of no great pretensions ; to-day 
it is a more cosmopohtan city than Para, with a popula- 
tion approaching 100,000. The principal street is 
Avenida Edouardo Ribeiro. Its theatre rivals that of 
Para, and other edifices abound that would do credit 



808 BRAZIL IN 1911 

to a first-rate European city. Everything is on the 
most lavish scale, the illumination of the place costing 
£40,000 per annum. 

From England to Rio de Janeiro there are several 
routes, and one can travel either by Royal Mail Pacific 
Line from Southampton (Fridays) or Liverpool (alternate 
Thursdays), caUing in the former case at Vigo (Sunday), 
and Lisbon (Monday), Madeira (Wednesday) and reach- 
ing Pernambuco in thirteen days from England. Here 
the steamer has to lie outside, and the passenger em- 
barked in and disembarked from small boats by the aid 
of chairs. As there is usually a heavy swell on this 
operation is more amusing to the onlooker than to the 
person swinging in mid air. The usual tribe of bumboat- 
men crowd round the ship with pineapples (a revelation 
to the northerner), oranges, parrots, marmosets, curios 
and ocelot skins, until the warning siren drives them 
off in a hurry. The 400 miles steaming to Bahia will 
take some 30 hours before Bahia is made, and this 
means 30 hours' steaming, and if any delay occurs, being 
behind time at Rio. Bahia is composed of an upper and 
lower city, the latter being the centre of commercial 
hfe, and the former the residential quarter. One gains 
access to this by means of elevators. This old city is 
representative of colonial Ufe. Here the mulattress 
can be seen at her best, and here, in an atmosphere of 
old time faith and somnolescence, we see revealed Brazil 
as she was. To-morrow this will be changed. The 
tinkling of church bells is already drowned by the more 
strident note of the electric car, and with the com- 
pletion of the new port works, the development of the 
railway system, and the consequent increased volume 
of trade, Bahia wiU be a great city. At present she is 
the centre of the tobacco and sugar and cacao trade, 
and her cotton industries are also not unimportant as 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 309 

well as the exportation of diamonds and other precious 
stones. 

From Bahia to Rio de Janeiro Port is 742 miles, and 
wind and tide being favourable, Cabo Frio, the first 
light, should be abreast by tea time on Sunday, other- 
wise, and in case of delay at Bahia, speed is reduced, 
and it is 5 or 6 on Monday morning when the great cone 
of the sugar loaf, " Pao de Assucar," looms up 1,383 
feet on our port bow, and we wait the officer of health 
and the customs, and as a general rule everybody is on 
shore by 8 o'clock, unless waiting on board for friends 
or going on to Santos the same afternoon. 

Landing fee in small boats, 2 milreis each person. 

The Lamport and Holt line rims fast cargo steamers 
from Liverpool and London to Brazil, but these are 
not specially suitable for ladies. From Bordeaux one 
may take the French mail boat of the Messageries 
Maritimes every fortnight, or the Bremen Lloyd from 
Bremen, or the Hamburg American and Hamburg 
South American steamers from Boulogne-sur-Mer. 

To those desiring a good table, coupled with cleanli- 
ness, pimctuahty, and freedom from snobbishness and 
iron-bound etiquette, I would heartily recommend the 
Royal Holland Lloyd steamers, saiHng every three weeks 
from Dover. These vessels are equipped with sub- 
marine signaUing apparatus, Marconi system of wireless 
telegraphy, Stone Lloyd automatically closing water- 
tight compartments, electric laimdry, and the ist class 
cabins are an eye-opener in every sense of the word. 
The 2nd class is quite comfortable, and my personal 
experience of the Frisia (after having travelled on 
British, French and German ships for the last 22 years) 
was gratifying in the extreme, and I must take this 
opportunity of expressing my indebtedness to the kind- 
ness of the commander, the purser, the doctor and 



810 BRAZIL IN 1911 

maitre d'hotel. Even the stewards and waiters must 
not be forgotten, as they were most attentive and 
obliging. This Company's steamers call at Boulogne 
on leaving Dover, and after touching at Coruiia, Vigo, 
and Lisbon, proceed direct to Rio de Janeiro. The 
tedium of the 14 days from port to port is relieved by 
the appearance of a Marconi bulletin at frequent inter- 
vals, the ships being in touch with Poldhu station (Corn- 
wall) up to mid-Atlantic, and then getting in contact 
with Fernando Naronha Island, whence important 
news is flashed in a moment. During the entire voyage 
the steamer is in constant touch with one or another 
of the vessels which are equipped with wireless, and in 
case of necessity help would be speedily at hand. 

Usually these steamers arrive at Rio at the same time 
as the Royal Mail, and we speedily pass the Sugar Loaf 
and fortress of Sao Joao on the left, and Santa Cruz 
on the right, and come to anchor well within the bay. 
This magnificent harbour is some 18 miles long by 16 
wide, and contains nearly 100 islands, the largest being 
Governador (left) and Paqueta (right), both far in out 
of sight of the city. 

Rio de Janeiro extends 9 miles from north to south 
and 10 from east to west, and may be termed a garden 
city. The area of the Federal District is 1,116-593 
square kilometres, with a population of only 3,928 to 
the square kilometre. The city proper covers an area 
of 158-316 square kilometres. Rio is double the size of 
Paris, with not a quarter of the population. Landing 
at the Caes dos Mineiros, pass up Visconde de In- 
hauma, and turn on the left along Primeiro do Mar^o. 
The Stock Exchange (Bolsa) and the Post Office 
are on the left, and the Cathedral and Commercial 
Museum on the right facing the Pra^a da Republica. 
Here is the Telegraph Office on the far corner, right 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 311 

hand side looking seawards, towards the Caes Pharoux, 
with the Ministry of Public Works hidden at the back. 
Continue on to Rua Misericordia, containing next to 
Telegraph Street the Chamber of Deputies. The Cen- 
tral Market is close to sea front (turn down on left), and 
the Mihtary Arsenal, Laboratory and School of Medicine 
at the end of Rua Misericordia, and the great hospital 
of the same name, adjoining in the Rua de Sa Luzia. 
Following this street the Avenida Central is reached, 
but it is better to traverse this by starting from near 
the Marine Arsenal at Prainha. From the Caes dos 
Mineiros turn along Primeiro doMar9o (right), and taking 
the last street on the left the Avenida Central is struck 
close to the end. This splendid road was cut right 
through the heart of the city, 641 houses having to be 
demohshed. It is about 100 feet wide and some 2,100 
yards in length from Prainha to Avenida Beira Mar. 
At Prainha there is a statue to Visconde de Maua, 
founder of the first railway in Brazil. The continuation 
of the water front leads past the old docks and wharfs, 
through a district full of warehouses and deposits, 
to the new quays in course of construction, 3,400 metres 
of quays, with a minimum width of 300 feet. This 
extension of almost 2^ miles is available for steamers 
of the largest tonnage, as there is a mean depth along- 
side of 31 feet. The equipment is of the most modern 
type, and has cost in the neighbourhood of 120 million 
francs. Commencing at Prainha, we find in the Avenida 
Central, on the right the Brazilian Lloyd building, the 
Conversion Bank, the Light and Power Co., the Jomal 
of Brasil, O Paiz Central Tram Station (Jardim Botanica 
Unes), Naval Club, and the municipal theatre at the end, 
costing over £1,000,000 to build. On the left is the 
Diario de Noticias, Jomal do Commercio Equitative 
Insurance Co. Turn down Rua S. Pedro on same side 



812 BRAZIL IN 1911 

as far as Rua da Candelaria. Here is the most magnifi- 
cent church in Rio, containing many beautiful pictures. 
Continue along Avenida Central we pass the Supreme 
Tribunal of Justice, Western Telegraph Company, O 
Seculo, and reach the National Library. This contains 
300,000 printed books, half a million manuscripts, 
100,000 engravings and 28,000 coins. The building 
has thirty telephone lines, and the clocks in each room 
are regulated by electricity. Pneumatic tubes convey 
readers' forms to the proper section, and automatic 
carriers are in general use. The place is cleaned every 
day by the vacuum process, by machinery fixed in the 
basement. All printed matter addressed to the hbrary 
is conveyed from the G.P.O. in a special motor van. The 
School of Fine Arts is adjoining, and contains pictures 
by many of the old masters, including Raphael, Titian, 
Canalletto, Correggio, Paul Veronese, Reni, Murillo and 
Ribera ; the Flemish painters Rubens, Vandyck, Teniers ; 
and such French masters as Le Brun, Poussin and 
Greuze, as well as many works of note by the leading 
Brazilian artists. The Supreme Tribunal adjoins the 
National Library. At the end of the Avenida is the 
Munroe Palace, brought from S. Luiz Exhibition and 
re-erected in six weeks. The Market took some four 
years to build, and occupies a space of no less than 
22,500 square metres. 

The Custom House is close to the landing-place, and 
baggage can be cleared from 12 to 4 p.m. daily. It is 
necessary to give your name to one of the clerks, and 
obtain a slip bearing an indication of the number of 
packages, etc., before the employees will place them on 
the examining tables. With courtesy and patience the 
necessary formahties are soon fulfilled. 

The Fleet Street of Rio is the Rua Ouvidor, now re- 
named Moreira Cezar, in which there are still some five 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 313 

newspaper of&ces, and the principal publishing houses 
and some of the best shops. Coming from Primeiro 
do Margo (or Rua Directa as it was formerly called)^ 
the Avenida Central is crossed and the Largo de S. 
Francisco reached. Here is the Polytechnic School and 
the Portuguese Literary Society, and a httle to the left 
Praga Tiradentes, containing the S. Pedro Theatre, the 
Derby Club and the Ministry of the Interior, and on 
the left side the Moulin Rouge Music HaU and the 
Theatre S. Jose. In the centre of the square is the 
statue of Jose Bonifacio de Andrade, one of the Empire 
builders. Out of this square leads the Rua do Lavradio 
(on the left), close to the Moulin Rouge, with the Masonic 
HaU, the ApoUo Theatre and the Police headquarters. 
Continuing across Pra^a Tiradentes, the Parque de 
Acclama9ao (Pra^o da RepubUca) is reached, with the 
Palace of Justice on the comer. This great garden 
has an area of nearly 147,000 square metres, and con- 
tains some 66,000 varieties of plants, besides many kinds 
of Brazihan animals and birds in a state of absolute 
freedom. On the left side is the fire brigade, and pro- 
ceeding round the square we find the Senate and the 
Mint, and at the opposite comer the terminus of the 
Central Railway. Below this is the Ministry of War 
Barracks and the Normal School, with the Foreign 
Office opposite, and the Prefecture, Free Law School, 
Faculty of Medicine and National School of Music on 
the remaining side. 

Retracing our steps from the Praga da Repubhca,. 
along Rua Rio Branco and Carioca, we arrive at Largo 
da Carioca, and turning to the right across this pass 
the Lyric Theatre and turn down into the Avenida 
Central close to the Naval Club. At the Hotel Avenida,. 
the largest in Brazil, we take the Jardim Botanica car, 
and in front of the Passeio Pubhco, a garden with aqua- 



314 BRAZIL IN 1911 

rium (admittance iSooo), pass the Casino Music Hall 
and traverse the Largos da Lapa and Gloria (Monument 
to Alvares Cabral, the discoverer of Brazil) by Bema- 
delli, and proceed along the Avenue Beira Mar, a water- 
side promenade 5,200 metres long and 38 wide. The 
tram lines branch here, and our way leads up to the 
Largo Machado (Parque Fluminense Music Hall and 
statue to the Duque de Caixas), and straight on to Pra^a 
Jose de Alencar {Hotel dos Estrangeircs on left). From 
the Largo Machado a line runs up Rua Larangeiras to 
Aguas Ferreas, where the Electric Railway to the Cor- 
covado commences. From Pra9a Alengar the Praia 
de Botafogo is reached, with the Regatta and Auto- 
mobile Clubs and the Moorish Pavilion. The line turns 
down now and proceeds vid Largo de Leoes to the Botan- 
ical Gardens. Their area is not less than half a million 
square metres, and there are 50,000 species of vegetation. 
The great palm avenue is 740 metres long, with 134 
palms averaging 80 feet high, and a cross avenue is 540 
metres long with 140 palms 70 feet high. The mother 
palm, from which every other one in Brazil has sprung, 
was planted in 1809. It is 114 feet high, and its greatest 
diameter is 4 feet 3 inches. 

Besides these incomparable wonders there are magni- 
ficent alleys of bamboos and mangueiras, and a multi- 
tude of other wonders of the vegetable kingdom. 
Retracing our steps the tram returns from the Largo 
Machado vid Cattete, where we see the President's 
Palace on the right-hand side. From Pra^a 15 de 
Novembro we can get frequent cars to Sao Christovao 
for the National Museum and Quinta da Boa Vista. 

The Museum is closed owing to extensive alterations 
(1911), but the park is well worthy of a visit, as is also 
the Aquarium (free). From the main gate to the 
museum leads an avenue of Sapucaias some 500 yards 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 315 

long. The museum contains (in the vestibule) the 
famous Bendigo meteorite spoken of in a previous chap- 
ter, and a fine collection of archaeological and ethno- 
graphical exhibits. The mineral section is quite un- 
worthy of such a place, that of the School of Mines at 
Ouro Preto being the best in Brazil. When the build- 
ing is re-opened there will be some three laboratories 
in active operation (vegetable, chemistry, agricultural, 
entomology and phytopathology), besides the ordinary 
departments of the Museum, requiring the services of a 
small army of scientists. 

Rio Janeiro is full of places of interest, and the Phy- 
sicians, the Misericordia Hospital, is worthy of a detailed 
visit. This great institution has fifty- seven doctors, 
fifty-eight nursing sisters, thirty male nurses, and nearly 
two hundred other employees. In 1910 12,171 cases 
were treated and 154,600 outdoor patients attended to. 
The Oswaldo Cruz Pathological Institute at Manguinhos 
is under the care of the foremost specialists of the coim- 
try, including the doctor from whom it obtains its name. 
It is the most completely equipped in the world. 

Founded in 1900, the smallpox microbe has been 
discovered, and the definition of various obscure dis- 
eases has been made. The museum contains 190 species 
of mosquitos (19 new) and 150 species of tics (9 new), 
including 40 classes of carrapatos. 

Other institutions are : The PolycHnic (treated 
750,000 cases last year), Pasteur Institute, Municipal 
Vaccination Institute, National and ^lunicipal Labora- 
tories of Analysis, MiUtary Bacteriological and Chemical 
Laboratories, also PoUce, Children's, Lying-in and 
British Hospital (Rua do Passagem 188), and Deaf, 
Dumb, Blind, Orphan and Lunatic Asylums. 

The Naval and Mihtary Museum is in Pra9a 15 de 
Novembro, and on the sea front is the Caes Pharaux, 



816 BRAZIL IN 1911 

whence ferry boats run every few minutes to Nictheroy, 
the State capital. 

The Ministry of Agriculture is at Praca Vermelha, 
train from Avenida Central {vid Botafogo) ; the Trea- 
sury in Rua Sacramento (Ministry of Finance). 

The principal clubs are : Germania, Praia Flamengo 
132 ; Frangais, Rua 7 de Setembro 67 ; City (Inter- 
national), Rua Chile, and English, Rua da Quitanda. 
Naval and Military in Avenida Central. 

Navigation Companies. — Royal Holland Lloyd in Rua 
Primeiro do Mar90 29. Hamburg-American Line, 
Avenida Central 79. North German Lloyd, Avenida 
Central 66. Lamport and Holt in Primeiro do Mar9o 121. 
ItaUan Lloyd, Primeiro do Mar90 53. Messageries Mari- 
times, Primeiro do Margo 107. Austrian Lloyd, Vis- 
conde de Inhauma 84. Royal Mail, Avenida Central. 

Banks. — Banco do BrasU, Rua Alfandega 17. London 
and Brazilian, Rua Alfandega. London and River 
Plate, Rua Alfandega. Brazilian Bank fiir Deutschland, 
Rua da Quitanda. Fran^aise-Itahenne, Rua Alfandega. 

The whole of the gas and electric lighting, the trams, 
and electric power of the city is in the hands of a power- 
ful Canadian syndicate, and the sewerage and sanitary 
arrangements are subject to the control of the City 
Improvements Company, an Anglo-Brazilian concern. 

The Postal Department has a pneumatic system 
installed, with ten public and three official stations, 
and messages can be delivered in 15 minutes an5rwhere 
in the centre. 

Churches. — (Foreign) British, Rua Evaresto da Vega; 
German Lutheran in Rua Invalidos ; American Metho- 
dist in Rua Conde de Baependy. 

Hotels. — Hotel Avenida, Avenida Central ; Hotel dos 
Extranguros, Pra^a Jose de Alencar ; Hotel International, 
Sylvestre (electric railway from Largo da Carisca) ; 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 317 

Hotel de France, Praga 15 de Novembro ; Hotel Metro- 
pole, Rua Larangeiras ; Hotel Tijuca, Rua Conde de 
Boranm, 700 reis single fare from Caes Pharoux. 

Press Agencies. — Havas, Avenida Central 145 ; Ameri- 
cana, Avenida Central 296. 

British Consulate : Rua General Camara 2. 

U.S.A. Consulate : Avenida Central 117. 

Corcovado Railway, 3 milreis return from Aguas 
Ferreas. Sylvestre, i| milreis return from Largo de 
Carisca. Nictheroy, 300 reis single. Paqueta or Gover- 
nador Islands, 500 reis. Frequent boats from Caes 
Pharoux. 

Tijuca. Trams to Boa Vista, thence to Alto da 
Tijuca by mule or carriage to the very peak, over 3,300 
feet above the city. Here, hardly an hour from the 
very centre of Rio, right in the midst of nature's mys- 
teries. There is the Vista Chineza, and the fumas 
(ovens), a great pile of eroded boulders. There is the 
distant fiat-topped Gavea Mountains. Across yon blue 
bay, with its hundred wooded islands, chief of which 
are Govemador, and lovely Paqueta, a green fringe 
comes out to meet the water, and behind, the sombre 
cloud-capped ranges of the Estrella (left), and the Organs 
(right), north and north-east. Behind the Estrella is 
the lovely Tingua, a mysterious sohtary peak, evidently 
of different origin to its fellows, judging by its suspici- 
ously volcanic-like cone. Nearer the open sea, and 
somewhat below, the Corcovado (hunchback) rears a 
mighty tower of rock, 2,200 feet high. This mountain 
may be ascended by rack rail, to almost the last step, 
and is crowned by a bandstand, looking curiously Uke 
a gigantic cap or umbrella. From the Alexandra Hotel 
we can gain the shelter of this covering in about three- 
quarters of an hour at most. Cars pass our door, or 
we may walk a stone's throw to the railway station. 



318 BRAZIL IN 1911 

presided over by an Englishman (or Anglo-Brazilian), 
who is stationmaster, etc., all in one. If we want sea- 
bathing, the Jardim Botanica electric cars again are at 
our service, running us out to Ipanema in 30 minutes, 
or to Leme in less time. We shall find clean smooth 
sands, or if we prefer a rocky basin, a few minutes' cHmb 
from the latter, and 20 minutes' walk from the former, 
will bring us all the seclusion desirable. 

The botanist and entomologist, or the geologist can 
revel in a feast of riches anywhere outside the city. 
Across to Nictheroy (the state capital), and a Uttle be- 
yond S. Domingos or Icarahy, we are in the wilds. 

The best, time to reach Brazil is in the winter, from 
June to September. Let us take our baggage and turn 
our attention towards the Queen of the Serras (Petro- 
poUs). Supposing we arrive by steamer at Rio in the 
early morning, and we are prudent enough not to be 
burdened with heavy luggage, we may get our goods and 
chattels cleared, and have done with customs' for- 
malities before noon, if we elect to have late breakfast 
on board. I must go with you to be your guide, coun- 
sellor, and friend, for, of course, you are ignorant of the 
romantic and expressive language of Camoes. Call a 
carregador (porter) and have your luggage trundled to 
Praia Formosa Station. Trams marked Luiz Durao 
will convey one for 200 reis from Praga 15 de Novembro, 
and the station should be reached by 4 p.m. Trains 
leave at 6, 8.20 and 10.30 a.m., and 3.50, 4.20, 5.40 and 
8 p.m., making the journey in some if hours. 

The return fare for two days is 4 $000. Leaving at 
4.20, the Jockey Club racecourse is passed, and a num- 
ber of suburbs until Penha, with its twin-spired church 
perched on a huge rock. Here during the month of 
October, every Sunday, a sort of Kermesse is held, and 
the faithful crowd to the sacred fane in such numbers 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 319 

that trains have to be run every five minutes. A long 
dreary stretch of swamp now faces the traveller, with 
the bullrush and papyrus {Cyperus princeps) growing 
everywhere. Estrella, an ancient decayed port, forms 
a sort of oasis in the morass, and at 5.25 the foot of the 
mountains is reached. Here a strange sort of monster 
comes behind to push us up the steep grade. The train 
is literally buried in the narrow cutting, and tremendous 
boulders overhang the Une at every turn. Some wag 
has adorned one of perhaps 4 or 5 hundred tons with the 
invitation to " Va com esta ! " in AngUce meaning. 
Take this with you. 

If we are going up in the summer, i.e., November to 
March, the vegetation is Uterally sodden with wet, 
reeking strata of mist being passed through at intervals. 
At 400 metres above sea level, Meio da Serra is reached, 
with a tumbledown hovel of a station, the chapel with a 
bandstand in front, and collection of small houses of 
the employees of a large cotton mill in the background. 
The train is usually divided into two or three sections, 
and a Uttle above passengers in the hindmost look across 
the bend at the first part. The simimit of the pass is 
reached at 2,600 feet, and the signs of civilization are 
once more visible in the form of electric Hght, rows of 
pretty villas, aod electric trams. (At least these should 
be running before the middle of 1912.) The engine is 
replaced by one of the usual type, and a very few minutes 
suffice to bring us to PetropoUs itself, between 2 and 3 
miles further on. The space in front of the station is 
crowded with carriages, and perhaps some half a dozen 
private motor cars, and a motor bus. There is no 
lack of hotels, either the Pensdo Central (Austrian), 
Hotel Europa (Portuguese), Hotel Rio de Janeiro (Ger- 
man) or Modern (Itahan) suiting travellers with a full 
purse, or Meyer's Pension or the Braganga Hotel those 
with more modest means. 



820 BRAZIL IN 1911 

The journey up from Rio took four hours in 1865, 
but the tired traveller had at that time an EngUsh hotel 
to fall back on. At present there is none unfortunately. 
Car fares in the city are : per hour 4 wheel, 5 milreis ; 
per hour after, 3 milreis; 2 wheel (seat only one 
passenger), 2 milreis; second hour, i milreis. Mr. 
Dent speaks of the absence of negroes in 1885. This 
can no longer be said, and in the summer coloured 
mendicants flock in from all the surrounding dis- 
tricts. Brazilians are perhaps too charitable, and 
the irresponsible children of Ham abuse this virtue. 
The climate is magnificent from April to October, and 
although the summer is very wet the heat is greatly 
tempered and the vegetation is glorious. Arums, 
roses, jasmins, hehotrope, etc., etc., are always in 
bloom. The principal orchids are Oncidium Crispum, 
Cattleyas, Miltonias, Loelia, Sophronites maxillaria, 
Stanhopea, Houlletia and Jonopsis. 

Amongst other blossoms are MagnoUa grandifiora, 
camellias, hydrangeas, cannas, anonaceas, gladioli, 
carnations, and every other kind of exotic flowers. A 
wild raspberry (Rosacea) fruits freely during most of 
the year, and many kinds of oranges, limes and lemons 
fill the gardens, with a score of varieties of bananas. 
The population of Petropolis is near 30,000, and it has 
two daily and one bi-weekly paper, the latter in German, 
theatres, clubs, and several colleges. The trams will 
shortly run all over the city, and daily milk and garden 
produce cars will bring in supphes from the suburbs. 
There are silk, cotton and woollen mills, breweries, 
nail, furniture and ice factories, and envelope and stock- 
ing factories. Should we arrive in June, the transition 
from Rio to the cool regions of the high serra requires 
care, and a good overcoat should be donned the moment 
the train reaches a few hundred feet above sea level. 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 321 

There are many delightful excursions, but the first thing 
to be seen is the view from Alto da Serra, just beyond 
the gap at the station. Before 8 a.m. the plain at the 
foot of the mountains is quite invisible, being hidden by 
the heavy cloak of white cloud that leaves only some 
of the loftier foot hills peeping above the snowy mass, 
like islands in the midst of an ocean, A gentle breeze 
blowing from seawards opens up gaps in the mer de 
nuages, and the fleecy billows driven against the serried 
cliffs accentuate the illusion, breaking hke huge waves 
in a stormy sea on a rocky shore. In an hour or two 
the freshening wind clears the whole of this away, 
with the aid of the sun, leaving only a dun-coloured 
cloud hovering above the city of Rio de Janeiro in the 
far distance ; in the foreground the dark green-clad 
serra and the speckled plain, with the iron road driven 
straight across it, and in the middle distance the blue 
waters of the bay. 

Another time we can go by the Caminho dos Min- 
eiros (the miner's road), to Caxambu, and leaving the 
dark depths of the reservoir away on our left, ascend by 
a mountain road to the summit of the pass (5,300 feet), 
and look down on the northern side of the bay, and at 
Mage, and Piedade beyond, where starts the tiny line 
that creeps up the Serra to Theresopohs, the coming 
rival to Petropohs, Look across yon awe-inspiring 
valley, there looms in front a tremendous mountain 
mass, with an assemblage of huge boulders at its highest 
point. From where we stand it is inaccessible, but 
we shall succeed in reaching it another day. There is 
also the Fazenda Ingleza, a famous picnic place, the 
Cremerie Buisson, the Presidencia, the Corti^o, the top 
of that towering wall of rock, seen at Meio da Serra, and 
then there is Cascatinha (the Httle cascade), and Correias 
further along the hne towards the interior. In short, 

Y 



822 BRAZIL IN 1911 

there are enough excursions for a month, but what- 
ever is missed, Itaiassu (or Pedra Assu, as it is called 
wrongly with its bi-lingual name, half Portuguese, half 
Guarani), must be visited. We must leave our hotel 
well provided with blankets and creature comforts at 
4 p.m., and take horse, or tramp to Pereira's, the last 
house, the veritable Ultima Thule. Here under the 
hospitable roof of this rosy, cheery old chap, we may 
sleep after our two to two-and-a-half hours' journey, 
as the mom must see us under way as soon as dayhght 
permits, at 6 to 6.30 anyhow. At Pereira's we are 
about 1,100 metres above the sea, or 300 higher than 
the station at Petropolis. From this, if we are wise, 
we shall not attempt more than 100 metres rise per half- 
hour, including halts, and so we shall come out at 
Isabeloca in about four hours, and here we can pause a 
while. In front, as soon as we leave the forest, appears 
a flattened basin, with its edges formed by low hills, 
the most elevated of which is crowned by a huge group 
of boulders of gneiss, forming the Castello of Itaiassu, 
and the culminating point of the whole of the coastal 
ranges. In the winter, the basin is dry, but the summer 
converts it into a lake of some two or three miles in 
length if the season is a wet one, and it is not at all 
pleasant to make the journey after the spring rains 
have set in in October. In any event, a guide is useful, 
as the forest is almost impenetrable and no habitations 
are to be found after Pereira's is left behind, and one 
might wander a week without hearing a human voice 
or seeing a trace of human footsteps. Look down, 
where we stand, and see a tiny white cluster of houses 
representing PetropoUs, and nearer still the winding 
road leading from the city to the sombre way by which 
we have ascended. 
Everything is different here. That great sheet of 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 323 

water with its countless isles that frames Rio de Janeiro, 
is diminished, as if we had been looking through the 
wrong end of the telescope. The ocean looms large 
before us. We stand where man is made to feel his 
littleness. Sea, sky, and mountains combine here to 
exert a dominating influence over the human soul. 
Consider now the herbage at our feet. We left in the 
town a hundred forms of familiar flowers, roses, dahlias, 
magnolias, camellias, heliotrope, jasmine, cannas, hor- 
tensias, and the flaming branches of the bougain- 
villea. Ere we reached Pereira's, the last climbing 
fuchsias had been left behind, and the orchids, those 
mimics of the butterflies, have long since gone, or at any 
rate nearly all of them. In the dark depths of the forest 
we had hardly noticed the change, but now the ground 
is covered with a profusion of flowers we fail to find in 
the subtropical zone below. There are bulbs scat- 
tered here and there, hardly attached to the soil, and 
besides the amaryllides, many sorts of plants of an 
alpine character, and which, alas, would not hve even 
if we were successful in transplanting their seed or roots 
to Petropolis. Breakfast despatched, we step out man- 
fully, in Indian file, along a tiny path that has been worn 
by the tapirs on their way to the pool. Shortly we 
seem to be lost in a lab5mnth of sword-grass tufts, 
reaching six and seven feet in height, and so toiling for 
an hour, we cross the little stream trickling through the 
farther side of the swamp (a lake in February), and climb 
up the other side to the shelter of those boulders that 
form the Castello, or the Itaiassii (great stone) itself. 
Here we are 2,250 metres above Rio, or approximately 
7,400 feet, and the height of the boulders may be 35 
to 40 feet more. One I measured is 33 feet. 

The altitude given is that taken by two compensated 
aneroid barometers, afterwards corrected by observa- 



824 BRAZIL IN 1911 

tions taken simultaneously in Petropolis. If possible to 
climb up one of the higher boulders the labour entailed 
will be well repaid, but one needs nerves and muscles of 
steel for such a task. I think few persons have suc- 
ceeded in getting up by aid of the sparse vegetation 
growing in the clefts of the rocks. I once managed 
this feat at considerable risk, and some damage to my 
clothes, but certainly I was in far better training than 
at present. 

Probably there is no view so comprehensive in all 
Brazil, and certainly there cannot be any so glorious. 
Far as the eye can reach in the west, north, and south, 
rise serried masses of mountains fading away towards 
the setting sun in the distant valley of the Parahyba. 
The ranges take the most fantastic forms, seemingly due 
not to nature, but to the cyclopean architecture of some 
bygone race of demi-gods. Towers, spires, domes, 
minarets are scattered here and there in picturesque 
confusion. In the north there are isolated masses and 
peaks marking the site of Novo Friburgo, and the 
vicinity of Cantagallo, where the gold mines formerly 
existed. We cannot always catch a glimpse of Itatiaid, 
for this monarch of all Brazilian mountains hides him- 
self frequently in the clouds. Here we must sleep, and 
the first thing to do is to collect fuel, a very scanty 
thing indeed, and perhaps we shall find nothing but 
the feathery tops of the taquaril, a small cane, hardly 
as long as a walking stick. Then a pile of these same 
tops must go towards making our bed, and a wind screen 
of some sort thrown up, for the great boulders form a 
sort of funnel here. If we have completed our pre- 
parations to brave the elements, we may perhaps make 
a tour of our fortress, finding that it takes at least half 
an hour. Night comes on apace, and we boil our billy, 
and sit under the dark rock watching the moon rise. 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 325 

surely twice the size of the northern sphere, and as 
bright again. Now with the disappearance of the sun, 
rude boreas comes sweeping and whistling through the 
crevices all around, blowing the ashes of our dying fire 
in every direction. Cover up well, and creep in close 
together as we may, one or other must need jump up 
now and then to replenish the blaze. Towards morning 
there is a thin film of ice over the pool which lies amidst 
the rocks. It is not, however, the temperature marked 
by the mercury that chills us. It is that bitter, piercing 
blast that comes sweeping across this exposed site, all 
the way from the Antarctic regions. 

Sunrise sees a pair of shivering pilgrims, struggling to 
get up their circulation, and to stimulate the flagging 
energies of the fire. Nine a.m. soon arrives, and the 
homeward match must be begun. We go down natur- 
ally much quicker than we came up, and arrive at 
Pereira's by 2 p.m., where we lunch and rest, and take 
liorse back to Petropolis. Unfortunately, although the 
Piabanha River winds through the town, and the Ita- 
marity joins it ere it reaches Cascatinha, there is no 
fishing. The dyes from the factories have poisoned all 
the large fish that have not been destroyed by dyna- 
mite cartridges ; so if we want any angling it will be 
necessary to travel some three or four leagues at least. 
There are, however, many rivers which contain abun- 
dance of finny life, and some, as the dourado and pira- 
rucu, afford good sport. The seas swarm with a hun- 
dred different types of scaly monsters, and some amuse- 
ment may be had, with rod and fine, from the rocks 
near the Gavea (Rio de Janeiro). 

We can take the train, when tired of Petropolis, to 
Itaipava, and from there amble gently into Theresopolis 
the same afternoon. Here there is less distraction. 
Only one hotel worth stopping at {" Hygiene,"), and 



826 BRAZIL IN 1911 

hardly anything to do but amuse ourselves by excur- 
sions amongst the mountains and woods. From here 
we join the iron road again, and afterwards the boat to 
Rio de Janeiro. If limited in time, we can come out to 
Rio by the Royal Mail steamer, leave her on the Monday 
morning, or Sunday night, go straight up to Petropolis, 
visit Itaiassii, etc., and leave for Theresopolis the follow- 
ing Monday, and remain there until Friday, arriving at 
Rio on that day. We have then 4| days left to make 
the acquaintance of the capital, as the steamer leaves 
on the following Wednesday afternoon. Otherwise 
inclined, a journey to Ouro Preto and Morro Velho to 
see the gold mines, Bello Horizonte, and thence to Sao 
Paulo, and, if time permits, from Paranagua to Cury- 
tyba and back, may fill up our time. To do justice to 
Brazil, a month should be spent in Rio alone, adding at 
least from May to the beginning of October in the pro- 
vinces, not forgetting the Iguassu falls (Parana). 

No one need fear the want of the common necessities 
of civilized life. As long as no attempt is made to travel 
away from the iron road, most European luxuries can 
be obtained. The American habit of living in hotels 
has caught on in Brazil, and in such places as Petropolis, 
Friburgo, Theresopohs, Po^as de Caldas, etc., many 
families remain en -pension for months together, to save 
the bother of a house and its attendant worries. Refer- 
ence to the table of cost of living will convince the 
sceptic that prices are not out of proportion to those 
of Europe. I have in my mind a type of los.-a-day 
hotel, very common in the provinces in England, that 
certainly treats its guests far worse than one of the same 
class in Brazil. The Brazilian who has travelled in 
Europe is generally more exacting in the way of diet 
than the average British tourist, and he is not so dis- 
posed to phlegmatically put up with it as the latter ; 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 327 

and, as he expressively puts it, frequently j>assando uma 
descompostura no hoieleiro ; that is, giving him a good 
dressing down, in language more forcible than poUte. 
The verb to descomfor is in common use in every- day 
hfe, indeed, and Anglo-Brazilians are adepts in its 
employment. 

Paulo Affonso Falls 

A capital article has appeared in the Bulletin of the 
Bureau of American RepubUcs. This is illustrated by 
some very good photographs of the falls. To get to 
them, it is necessary to take steamer from Pemambuco 
or Bahia to Penedo. From Penedo to Piranhas, the 
nearest port to the falls, one may proceed by small 
steamer or sailing boat (canoa) taking two days to cover 
the 150 miles. From Piranhas a railway runs to Pedras, 
from whence two or three hours' riding brings the tra- 
veller to the edge of the tremendous cafion through 
which the river runs. Five branches of the river unite 
near here, four of them descending in a series of cascades 
and rapids to form the great Mai do Cachoeiro (Mother 
of the Falls) in its final leap. The best view from a 
spectacular point is obtained from the cliff 300 feet 
above water level, and owing to the exuberance of 
tropical growth, it is necessary to make a clearing before 
the faUs can be seen. Below, the whole mass of water 
roars angrily through a narrow passage, between black- 
ened rocks. Above, a thousand miles of unobstructed 
navigation leads into the heart of Brazil, until at Pira- 
pora the Central Railway is struck, and one may take 
train direct to Rio de Janeiro, less than a couple of 
days' journey. 

Itatiai^ 

Thanks to the Ministry of Agriculture, it is now quite 
easy to visit this mountain. Starting from Rio de 



328 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Janeiro, one may either alight at Campo Bello, or Ita- 
tiaia stations, on the Sao Paulo branch of the Central 
Railway, and those persons who are practically inter- 
ested in colonization should make a point of visiting 
the Government colonies at Visconde de Maua and 
Itatiaia, the latter extending from 800 to 2,500 metres 
above sea level. 

The Casa da Invemada (Winter Lodge) is some 17 
miles from Itatiaia station, and lies at an altitude of 
some 2,200 metres. The region from sea level up to 600 
metres consists of tropical vegetation, and the forests 
extend up to the 1,700 metre level. Palms disappear 
at 1,400 metres, and a few hundred feet higher apples, 
pears and other European fruits thrive. In Santa 
Catharina palms cannot exist above 1,000 feet, but here, 
at a comparatively small difference of latitude, they 
flourish at thrice the altitude. In the high peak district 
of Itatiaia the level lands afford excellent pasture, as 
they are well watered by the small lakes or tarns which 
exist at the top of the mountain. The auracaria, or 
graceful South American pine, rears its spreading and 
lofty head up to 2,000 metres, above which altitude 
the vegetation takes on another character. Summer 
temperature at this level averages 57° Fahr., with a 
maximum of 72° and a minimum of just above freezing 
point. 

There is very httle variation during the year, but 
the weather is usually cold and dry from April to October. 
At 2,200 metres the streams are frozen in June and part 
of July, ice forming up to an inch thick. From the 
Retero, or Casa da Invemada, a day is required to go to 
the top of the mountain and back. The Pyramids, a 
conical mass of rock, are passed after crossing the Ri- 
beirao da Passagem, a small stream, and two other 
brooks and lakes skirted before the toothed crest of the 



THERMAL SPRINGS AND TOURIST RESORTS 329 

Agulhas NegrcLS is reached. Snow lies sometimes for 
a fortnight at this level, nearly 3,000 metres, and ice 
crystals attain a considerable thickness. The whole 
of the jagged series of rocks and boulders is comprised 
of Nephelene Syenite or Foyaite, as in P090S de Caldas, 
Tingua and Cabo Frio, and the edges of the tarns are 
carpeted with Cryptogams (295 varieties) and some 
271 classes of Phanerogams. The highest peaks con- 
tain patches of Sphagnum and Harrisonia. 

Some 300 varieties of flowers may be found on the pla- 
teau or level at 2,200 metres, from which rises the 
curved spine of the Agulhas. The climate of the whole 
of the higher region of the mountain is excellent, and 
Dr. Richardson of London, the food reformer, proposed 
in 1877 that a model city called Hygienopolis shoiild be 
founded here. ^;<t ■ . ■><•- . - • . 

Under favourable conditions, Itatiaia is visible from 
the peak of Tijuca, behind Rio de Janeiro, as well as 
from Monro Assu, but the view from this huge mountain 
mass cannot be compared to that from the Assu. 

Limestone Caverns 

There are so many natural features of interest in 
Brazil that it is difficult to choose, but the naturalist 
should not miss the limestone caverns of the valley of 
the river Ribera in Sao Paulo. Dr. Krone studied some 
41 in 1908, and the stalagmitic formations are so beauti- 
ful that one (exceedingly rare), shown on accompanying 
plate, affords but a poor idea of the splendid groups. 
The air is exceedingly dry, and the region so out of the 
beaten track that such natural gems remain entirely 
undisturbed. In the valley of the Rio das Velhas, in 
Minas, there are also many highly interesting caverns 
worth visiting from many points of view, but especially 
from that of the student of Paleontology. 



CHAPTER XXII 

LITERATURE, ART AND SCIENCE 

RuY Barbosa must be given pride of place as a thinker 
and idealistic writer, and the author of literary works of 
uniform excellence. He has been a journalist, working 
on several Rio papers. His Hterary life began in 1874, 
with a monograph entitled. Crime against Industrial 
Property, and a long series of important treatises, 
written at home and in exile. (Letters from England, 
1896.) 

Amaro Cavalcanti. Was a professor of languages at 
20 years of age. Is a famous political economist. 

Jose Maria da Silva Paranhos (Barao do Rio Branco), 
Foreign Minister. Of this master mind we have already 
written, in men of affairs, otherwise he would have 
undoubtedly headed this page. He is an Admirable 
Crichton, and that is all that need be said of him here. 

Joaquim Nabuco (1849-1909). The polished classical 
scholar and brilliant orator. Another of the old school, 
graduating, like the Barao do Rio Branco, under the 
Empire, formerly Minister to England, and now Am- 
bassador at Washington. Nabuco was not a very 
popular man ; he was at times haughty and uncompro- 
mising, and such quahties did not commend themselves 
to the young Republicans. His books are full of that 
spirit of romantic melancholy which seems engendered 
by the atmosphere and vast brooding silences of Brazil ; 

830 



LITERATURE, ART AND SCIENCE 381 

this minor key, that is sounded by the soft summer 
winds in the palm groves of the north, and the pine 
woods of the south. Nabuco is well interpreted in the 
phrase — " Defiance and contempt of the littleness and 
meanness of man." He wrote, " The Judgment of the 
Masses," which elevates us to-day and lowers us to- 
morrow, represents only the dust of the roads, " and 
tyranny had been revived in Brazil at the point of the 
same bayonets that had put it down." 

Machado de Assis (1839-1908). Graduated from the 
printing form, and attained the first prize in the Academy 
by sheer force of merit. He was called the prince of 
Brazilian literature. First a psychologist, the master 
of comedy, verses (1869) being succeeded by an olla 
podrida of material. His best known work is Braz 
Cubas, a novel. His epitaph is best expressed by sa5dng 
— He was a child of his own work, he owed what he was 
to his constant labour. 

Mello Moraes (a Bahiano). One of the sweetest 
lyrical poets ; is, like most Brazihan writers of repute, 
many-sided. The historian of the gypsies, the student 
of folk-lore, and the voice that cries out as a soul in the 
wilderness. 

Assiz Brazil. Diplomat, agriculturalist, and econo- 
mist. He has written on law, politics, and poetry, and 
excels in all he attempts. 

Gra^a Aranha (Dr.). Maranhao has the honour of 
being the birthplace of this gifted writer. He is a 
jurist, and has been charged with many most important 
international questions, but above all, he is a romancist 
and idealist. So far, the most important work from his 
pen is Canaan, a sad yet fascinating story, breathing 
forth the subtile essence of the national character ; a 
romance, yet a broken melody, a fugue without an end. 
This great book is translated into Spanish, German, and 



832 BRAZIL IN 1911 

French. I say great, because it succeeds in enthralling 
the reader, of holding his attention captive, and thus 
fulfilling the mission of a true work of genius. This 
romance was written in London in 1902, whilst the 
author was first secretary of the special mission to 
England. 

Medeiros e Albuquerque. He is the Didot of the 
Brazilian Academy ; an encyclopedia in himself. Jour- 
nalist, poet, and tale-teller. He was born in Recife, 
and it is no discredit to the south to say that the north 
is the cradle of Brazilian literature. 

Affonso Celso. — " The Catholic." A count of the Holy 
Roman Empire ; meriting a title, if only by his literary 
work. He has translated, in verse, the masterpiece of 
Thomas a Kempis. A member of the Historical Insti- 
tute and the Academy. 

Coelho Netto (Maranhense, hke Dr. Graga Aranha). 
Suffice it to say that any one of his books would have 
made an author's reputation. Comedies, tragedies, 
librettos, criticisms, historical chronicles have poured 
forth from his pen since 1883, when his first work saw 
the light. 

Joao Ribeiro. Is best known as a grammarian, 
having been responsible for several philological works. 
He has been editor of various newspapers in Sao Paulo 
and Rio de Janeiro. 

Rocha Pombo. The leading historian of the younger 
generation. A journalist and novelist. 

Jose Carlos Rodrigues. The Gordon-Bennet of South 
America, A self-made man. He is managing editor of 
Jornal do Commercio, undoubtedly the greatest news- 
paper printed in the Portuguese language. Added to 
literary and linguistic ability, he possesses great business 
capacity, and has rendered the Republic enormous 
services. The Journal of Commerce is the doyen of the 



LITERATURE, ART AND SCIENCE 338 

South American press. During the presence of the 
American fleet in January, and the British squadron in 
December, 1908, a large section of the paper was printed 
in EngUsh for the benefit of the visitors. 

Alcindo Guanabara. Chief editor of Paiz, a journal 
of marked intellectual force. 

No list of literary giants would be complete without 
the name of Capistrano de Abreu. The greatest eulogy 
possible is to say that this historian would have been 
famous in any land,and at any epoch. He is a native of 
the State of Ceara, born 1853, and his works include 
most exhaustive and minute studies of the colonial 
times, as well as translations from English, French, etc. 

Jos6 Verissimo. Para, 1857. The leading critic, 
justly feared and admired. An anthropologist, college 
professor and educational writer. 

Amongst other romance writers, we may mention 
Nestor Victor, Aluizo Azevedo, Xavier Marques, Pires 
de Almeida, Inglez de Souza, ad infinitum. We must 
not, however, forget Madame JuHa Lopes de Almeida, 
perhaps the leading woman writer in Brazil. She has 
published livro das Noivas (The bride's book), A 
Fallencia, and A familia Medeiros, amongst other works. 

The greatest playwright is Arthur Azevedo (Maran- 
hao). Has written more than 40 plays, operas, and 
sketches, besides short stories. 

Poets are well represented by Olavo Bilac, and 
Magalhaes de Azeredo, August© de Lima, Fontoura 
Xavier Lucio de Mendon^a, Luiz Edmundo, Luiz 
Guimares (has had his verses translated into Spanish, 
French, and Swedish), Raymundo Correa and Mucio 
Teixeira are other noteworthy poets. 

Musicians 

Alberto Nepomuceno (Ceara). His magnum opus is 



884 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Artemis, an opera. Henrique Oswaldo, winner of the 
great international contest, organized by Le Figaro, 
his piece, II neige, taking the palm from 600 com- 
petitors. Meneleu Campos, Francisco Braga, and Dr. 
Abdon Milanez (a very popular composer), and Carlos 
de Mesquita head the hst of musicians. 

The Brazilian sculptor, -par excellence, is Rodolpho 
Bemadelli. He has peopled the gardens and groves of 
his native land with beautiful marble forms. Correia 
Lima is a young and gifted pupil of BernadeUi, a fine 
group (Mater Dolorosa) coming from his hand. 

The principal painters are, Aurelio de Figueiredo 
(Paulo e Francesca), Rodolpho Amoedo (a Narra^ao de 
Philetas) , Antonio de Parreiras (a Derrubada) , Rodolpho 
Chambelland (a Sahida do Baile, leaving the ball), 
Elyseu Visconte. J. Baptista, and Henrique Bemadelli 
(Tarantella, Casas Brancas, Meditando, Syria). 

Glancing at anAnthologia Brasileira of prose and verse, 
I find extracts from 155 writers, and it is safe to say that 
this number hardly represents the leading literary 
BraziUans. For a country, whose hterary life hardly 
amounts to a couple of hundred years, the record, both 
of amount of work and quality of output, is a magnifi- 
cent one. A most impressive feature of the history of 
literature in Brazil, is the fact that so many authors 
have suffered (even to death) for their principles, and 
that in nearly every case the work has been considered 
before the workman. Power and preference has been 
sacrificed to the ideal, and the result is glorious tradi- 
tions, and bright promise for the future. 

Science 

Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, head of the most complete biolo- 
gical laboratory in the world, at Manguinhos (Rio de 



LITERATURE, ART AND SCIENCE 335 

Janeiro). Responsible for the sanitation of the capital 
and many other hygienic triumphs. 

Santos Dumont needs no introduction. He is a 
Mineiro, born in 1873. 

Admiral Huet Bacellar. Improvements in torpedo 
tubes. 

Landell de Moura (Father). First inventor of the 
wireless telephone. 

Radler de Aquino (Lieut.). Discoverer of a new 
method of calculating the speed of ships by water 
pressure. 

Mello Marques, naval officer. A new submarine. 

Ribeiro da Costa. Unsinkable boats, hydraulic 
turbines, etc. 

Edwardo Claudio (Dr.). A new propeller called 
" Trochoide." 

Oswaldo Faria. Transformation of alternative cur- 
rents into positive ones. 

Vital Brasil (Dr.) . Discoverer of antidotes for ophidic 
poisons. 

Moreira Fonseca (Dr.) Application of these poisons 
in the cure of various diseases, especially yellow fever. 

Barbosa Rodrigues. Great works on Brazilian Flora, 
etc. 

Capanema, Barao de. Inventor of explosives, wet 
carbonizing process, etc., etc. 

Carlos Moreira (Dr.). Zoologist, botanist and icthyo- 
logist. 

Roquette Pinto (Dr.) . Ethnography and archaeology. 

Lacerda (Dr.). Many works on abstract and concrete 
science. (Director of the National Museum.) 

Drs. Chapot Prevost, Paes Leme, Baptista Lacerda 
are famous physicians. Space does not permit of any 
more names being mentioned, and those of many eminent 
men are omitted because of this. 



386 BRAZIL IN 1911 

Amongst distinguished foreigners in the service of 
the Republic Dr. Orville Derby is facile princeps and 
the Director of the Yperanga Museum at Sao Paulo, Dr. 
Herman von Yhering, must be given a place of honour. 



APPENDIX I 



GAZETTEER 











Meridian of 








Rio de Janeiro, 




Popu- 




Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Placai, 


latioa. 


State. 


Hr. Min. Sec. 


Hr. Min. Sec, ] 


Abrolhos 


. (islands) 


Bahia . 


17 51 31 S. 


4 28 33 E, 


▲lagoinhas 


. 50,000 
(city) 


Bahia . 


12 17 30 S. 


4 49 51 E. 


Aracaju 


30,000 


Sergipe. 


10 54 54 S. 


6 06 52 E. 


Arassuahy 


— 


Minas . 


16 54 25 s. 


I II 30 E. 


Abaete . 


25,000 


Minas . 


19 9 16 S. 


? 




(district) 






Antonina 


12,000 


Parana. 


25 26 30 S. 


5 32 54 W. 


Araxa . 


40,000 
(district) 


Minas . 


? 


? 


Journal— 


Araxa, 








Bag6. . 


30,000 


Rio Grande 
do Sul 


31 20 50 S. 


II 02 21 W. 


Electric light. Theatre. 


Two journals. 


Hotels — Paris, 


Brazil and Com- 


mercio. 










Bahia 


. 280,000 


Bahia 


12 58 16 S. 


4 39 08 E. 



Capital of State. Electric cars, lighting and power. Railway stations. 
IJritish .ind American Consuls. British b:ink. Custom House. Markets. 
Hotels — Bergtnann, Sul Americano, etc. Press — Diario de Bahia, A Bait, 
Diario de Nolictas. Centre of cocoa and tobacco trade. 



Barra do Rio 

Grande 
Barbacena . 

Electric light. 
Central. 

Belem do 
Para 



Bahia 



II 05 51 S. o 00 36 W. 



10,000 Minas . . 21 14 43 S. o 35 06 E. 
1,132 metres above sea level. Hotels — AUanfa, Grande and 



200,000 Parci. 



I 26 59 N. 5 19 39 W. 



Capital of State. Rubber exportation. British and American Consuls 
Hotels — America and Pinnet. Press — Folha do NorU and A Provincia do 
Pari, 

a«7 7 



338 



APPENDIX 



Meridiaa of 
Rio de Jaaeiro. 
Longitude. 
Hr. Min. Sec. 
4 l8 12 E. 
3 50 30 W. 
3 03 II W. 
I 10 6W. 



920 metres above sea. Electric trams, light, etc. Telephones. Central 
Railway. Capital of State. Public buildings include Post Office, Law 
School, President's Palace, Congress Library, Market, Banks, Free Schools 
of Music and Law, Dental College, Clubs. Two theatres. Hotels — 
Grande, Globe, Commercio. Press includes Diario de Minus, Diario de 
Noticias, Minos Geraes. Bello Horizonte is a model city laid out on the 
most approved plans. 





Popu- 




Latitude. 


Place. 


lation. 


State. 


Hr. Min. Sec. 


Belmonte . 


80,000 


Bahia 


. IS 51 soS. 


Bragan9a 


15,000 


Para 


I 5 40 S. 


Bomfim . 


10,000 


Bahia 


. 10 27 26 S. 


Bello Hori- 


25,000 


Minas 


. 19 55 22 s. 


zonte 









26 55 16 S. 5 58 54 W. 



. 23 00 40 s. 
. 19 53 20 S. 
943 metres altitude. 
. 4 51 59 S. 


I 





ID 21 E. 
29 27 W, 

11 03 w. 


2 14 19 S. 6 

3 12 S. 2 

. 22 54 3S. 3 
npinas. Diario de Tarde 


16 39 W. 
28 E. 

54 iW. 
. Centre of 



Blumenau . 10,000 Santa 

Catharina 

Blumenauer Zeitung. 
Cachoeira . 30,000 Bahia 

Hc^el Juvenal. Press — A Bahia, A Cachoiera. 
Cabo Frio . Cape Rio . 
Caethe . . — Minas 

Manufactures of pottery and textiles. 
Caixas . , 20,000 Maranhao 

Jornal de Caixas. 
Cameta . . 10,000 Para 
Camocim . — Ceara 
Campinas . 45,000 Sao Paulo 

Hotel Villela. Press — Cidade de Ca 
coffee district. 

Campos . . 30,000 Rio . . . 21 45 24 S. i 50 21 W. 

Hotel Flavia. Press — Monitor Campista. Seat of sugar industry. 
Cachoeiro . 3,000 Espiri to Santo ? ? 

Hotels — Machado and Serpa. Press — O Argentil. 
Cannavieiras 20,000 Bahia . . ? ? 

(district) 
Caravellas . 8,000 Bahia 

Hotel Argentina. 
Cataguazes . 42,000 Minas 
(district) 

Theatre, electric light, banks, etc. 
Catalao . . 8,000 Goyaz 

Hotel Barbosa. 
Caxambu . — Minas 

Hot springs 
Cruzeiro do 

Sul Acre 



• . 17 43 30 S. 
. . ? 

Press — Cataguazes. 
. 18 10 25 S. 

. . ? 



3 56 ISE. 



4 48 00 W. 



Palace Hotel, Hotel Caxawtbi, Grande, 
1,000 Territory do 7 38 27 S. 29 25 54 W, 



APPENDIX 



339 



Popu- 
lation. 



Meridian of 
Rio de Janeiro. 
Latitude. Longitude. 

Hr. Min. Sec. Hr. Min. Sec. 
714 2 S. 4 02 O E. 
18 59 38 S, 14 25 34 W 



Place. lation. State. 

Crato . . 20,000 Ceara 
Corumbi . 10,000 Matto Grosso 

Hotel International. 

Cuyaba . . 20,000 Matto Grosso 15 16 oS. 1255 iiW. 
Capital of State. British Vice-Consul. Press— Gazeta Official, O Pharol. 

Cur5rtiba . 50,000 Parana . .2525 04 S. 6 06 09 W. 
Capitcd of State. Electric trams, lighting, etc. British Consul. Museum, 
etc. Press — A Republica. Hotels — Grande and Roma. Rail from Rio 
and Paranagui. 900 metres above sea level. Large foreign popiUation. 

Cantagallo . — Rio ... ? ? o 49 48 E. 

Press — Correio de Cantagallo. 
Diamantina. 56,000 Minas . . ? ? ? ? 

(district) 
1,13a metres above sea. Four newspapers, two hosixtals, etc. Famous 
for jewellery and centre of diamond-cutting. Mule from Curraliaho 
(Minas). 

Entre Rios . 12,000 Minas . . ? ? ? ? 

Hotel Franklem. Railway junction. 
Formiga. . 5,000 Minas . . — — 

Hotels — Garcia and do Commercio. 

Feira de Sant 25,000 Bahia . . — — 

Anna 
Cattle fairs. Press — O M-unicipio. 
Florianopolis 30,000 S'ta Catharina 27 36 o S. 5 19 54 W; 

British Consul. Hotels — Grande and do Commercio. Press — O Dia. Capital 
of State on island. 

Fortaleza . 50,000 Ceara . . 3 43 36 S. 4 39 1 1 E. 
Press — A Republica, Jornal do Ceara. Trams, theatre, etc. Hotels — Francs 
and International. 

Fernando do (island) Pemambuco 3 50 30 S. 10 45 9 E. 

Noronha 
Goyaz . . 16,000 Goyaz . . 15 55 26 S. 6 57 31 W. 

Press — O Goyaz, Seminario Official. 
Garahuns . — Pemambuco 85325S. 6 46 17 E, 
Ilheos . . 20,000 Bahia . . 14 47 40 S. 4 7 25 E. 

Press — A Lucta. Hotels — Lopes and Coelho, 
Jaguarao . — R. Grande do 32 33 32 S. 10 10 07 W. 

Sul 
Januaria . 10,000 Minas . . 15 29 35 S. i 10 12 "W. 
Joazeiro. . 14,000 Bahia . . 9 25 14 S. 2 41 20 E, 

Hotel Paris. Press — Correio de SHo Francisco. 
Joinville. . 8,000 Sta Catharina 26 18 16 S. 5 40 3 W. 

Press — Commercio de Joinville. 



840 APPENDIX 

Meridaii of 
Rio de Janeiro, 
Popu. Latitude. Longitude. 

Place. lation. State. Hr Min. Sec. Ht. Min. Sec. 

Juiz de Fdra 30,000 Minas . . 21 45 36 S, o 10 03 W. 
Two banks, four newspapers (principal, Pharol), twelve private colleges, 
theatres. Electric trams, lighting, etc. Hotel? — Grande, Central, Ren- 
aissance. Industrial city. Railway junction. Protestant chapels, etc., etc. 
International population. 

Jundiahy . 16,000 Sao Paulo . 23 11 2 S. 5 42 48 W, 

Press — A Folha. Hotel — Stadt Hamburgo. 
Livramento. 9,000 R. Grande do — — 

Sul 
Hotel Pinto, 
Manaos . . 80,000 Amazonas . 3 06 05 S. 16 52 19 W. 
Museum, theatres. Electric trams and lighting. American and British 
Consuls. Hotels — Cassina and Gran. Press — O Amazonas, Correio do 
Norte, A Noticia, A Illustra{ao. Capital of State. Fine modern city. 
Rubber district. 

Maceio . . 35,000 Alagoas .... 9 40 26 S. 7 27 06 E, 

British and American Consuls. Six colleges, library. Hotels — Commercial 

and Universal. Press — A Tribuna, O Gutemburg. Great Western Railway. 

Natal . . 15,000 Rio Grande 5 46 41 S. 7 51 57 E. 
do Norte 
Hotel Colombo. Press — A Capital, A Republica, Diario do Norte. 
Nazareth . 10,000 Pemambuco — — 

Nictheroy . 50,000 Rio . . . 22 53 46 S. o 03 07 E. 

State capital. Electric cars, etc. Opposite Rio de Janeiro. 
Novo Fri- 20,000 Rio . . . 22 17 15 S. o 38 30 E. 

burgo 
Grande Hotel. Press — O Friburgense. Formerly a German and SwiM 
Colony. 

Ouro Preto . 10,000 Minas . . 20 23 22 S. o 19 54 W. 

Mining and Pharmacy Schools, Gymnasium (State). Electric light. Gr»n4* 
Hotel. 1,250 metres above the sea level. 

Olinda . . 10,000 Pemambuco 8 035 S. 81921E. 

Palma . . 3,000 Goyaz . . ? ? ? ? 

Paranagua , 15,000 Paran4 . . 2531 20 S. 521 30 W. 

Hotel ZancheUa. Seaport. 

Parnahyba . 15,000 Piauhy , . 2 59 00 S. i 26 21 E. 

Press — Nortista. 

Parahyba . 20,000 Parahyba do 6 7 35 S. 8 14 14 E. 
Sul 

Press — Estado de Parahyba and Uniio. British Consul. Hotels — Central, 
Allemd, etc, 

Pelotas . . 30,000 R. Grande do 31 46 538. 9 14 29 W. 
Sul 
Diario Popular, Correio Mercantil. Hotels — AUianfa and Braxil. TraA* 
in dried meat (Xarque), 



APPENDIX 841 

Meridian of 
Rio de Janeiro. 
Popn- Latitude. Longititude. 

Place: lation. State. Hr Min. Sec Hr. .Mia. Sec 

Petropolis . 30,000 Rio . . . 22 30 55 S. o 60 22 E. 

Hotels — Pensio Central, Modem, Europa, Bragatifa, etc. Press — Dinrio 
(daily), Tribuna (daily), Cruxeiro (three times weekly), SachrUen (German). 
Electric trams and lighting. Six colleges, library, etc., etc. 800 metres 
above sea level, ij hours from Rio. Summer resort. 

Penedo . . 16,000 Alagoas . . 10 18 28 S. 6 14 29 E, 

Press — O Ptnedo, O Luctador. Hotel Alagoana. Great market town on 
River S. Francisco, 

Propria . . 7,000 Sergipe . . 10 12 31 S. 6 18 13 E. 

Ponta Grossa 6,000 Parana . . 25 06 25 S. 6 59 37 W. 

Hotels — Paiermo and Brud, Press — Diario de Parand. Rail from Rio 
Janeiro or Paranagul 

P090S de 3,000 Minas . . — — 

Caldas 

Hotels — Giobo and Central. Hot springs. ^ 

Pirenopolis . 5,000 Goyaz . . 15 51 458. 5 47 00 W. 
Porto Alegre 130,000 Rio Grande 30 01 57 S. 8 00 37 W. 
do Sul 
(capital) 
Trams, lighting, water supply and administration" Srst cla5s. Industrial 
city. Capital of the South. British Consul. Hotels— firartV, Central^ 
Becker, Schmidt. Press— M Federafdo, Deutsche Zeitung, Sleila d'ltalia, 

Queluz . . 10,000 Mincis . . 20 39 12 S. o 36 55 W, 

Central Railway. Hotel Moura. Press — Gaxeta de QueJux. 

Recipe (Per- 200,000 Pemambuco 8 5 7 S. 8 19 12 E. 
nambuco) 

G.W. Railway terminus. Great ocean port. Many fine buildings. Electric 
trams, light, etc. British and .American Consuls. Hotel de France. Press 
— Correio de Recipe, Diario de Pernambuco, Jornal de Recipe, A Provincis, 
Four days' steam to Rio. 

Rio Grande. 40,000 Rio Grande 32 00 40 S. 8 57 58 W. 
do Sul 
British and American Consuls. Hotels — Paris, Grande and Germania, 
Ribeirao 20,000 Sao Paulo . 21 10 20 S. 4 38 51 W. 

Preto 

Hotels — Fonseea, Simoes, etc. 

Sao Paulo . 300,000 Sao Paulo . 23 34 05 S. 3 28 30 W. 

Central, Sao Paulo and Soracabana Railways. Hotels — Sportsman, Gamde. 
Albion, Allemao, etc. Splendid service of electric cars. Four theatres 
the principal being the magnificent Municipal Opera House Amongst, 
other buildings of note are the Departments of Finance, Agriculture, 
Police, the Normal School, Polytechnic, Sao Paulo Railway Co.'s station, 
Mackenzie College, Ipiranga Museum, etc. PresscompriscsO/rfarforf* Sao 
Paulo, A Platea, A Tribuna, S:o Paulo, France-Bresil, Messager de St. 
Paul, Deutsche Zeitung, Fanfulla, Vox de Espana and Al Alkar (Syrian). 
A great palace of industries is to be built at once, and a Commercial 
Museum. There are several fine avenues in the city, and the police and 
military organization is the best in Brazil. The population is quite cos- 
mopolitan. There are British Banks and British and American Consulates, 
Sao Paulo it in many respects a fine modem city. 



842 APPENDIX 

Meridian of 
Rio de Janeiro. 
Popu- Latitude. Longitude. 

Place. lation. State. Hr. Min. Sec. Hr. Min. Sec. 

S5o Felix . 25,000 Bahia . . — — 

Has huge tobacco factories (joins Cacboeira). 
S. Joao da — Rio . . . 21 38 10 S. 2 06 56 E. 

Barra 
S. Thome . Cape Rio . . 22 02 00 S. 2 06 51 E. 

S.Francisco — Sta Catharina . 26 14 17 S. 5 28 59 W. 
S. Joao d'El Rei — Minas . . 21 08 00 S. ? 

British Vice-Consul. Hotel — Oeste de Minas. 

Santarem . 6,000 Para , . 2 24 48 S. 1 1 32 37 W* 

Sao Luiz . 50,000 Maranhao . 2 29 23 S. i 07 24 W. 

Capital of State. British Consul. Hotel Central. Press — Avatiie, Diario 

de Maranhao, Revista do Norte. Called the " Athens of Brazil," owing 

to the number of literary men bom in the city, including the poet " Gon- 

9alues Dias." 

Santos . . 70,000 Sao Paulo . 23 56 27 S. 3 9 7W. 

Greatest coffee port in the world. British and American Consuls. Hotels — 
Grande, Washington and Internacional. Press — A Tribuna. Fine docks. 
Electric lighting and trams. Fine modernized town. 

Soracabd . 20,000 Sao Paulo . ? ? ? 

Sabari . . — Minas . . 19 53 10 S. o 36 52 W, 
Sete Lagoas. 4,000 Minas . . ? ? ? ? 

Hotel Drummond. 
Taubate. . 16,000 S. Paulo. . ? ? ? ? 

Steam trams. Hotel Pereira. Press — O Norte, Jomal de Taubati. 
Therezina . 50,000 Piauhy . . 5 04 56 S. o 21 36E. 
(district) 

Hotels — Castello Branco and Castro Silva. Press — O Piauky, O Norte 
(Capital of State). 

Trinidade . Island Espirito 20 32 26 S. 13 50 46 E. 

Santo 
Uberaba . 25,000 Minas . . 19 45 21 S. 4 45 10 W. 
(district) 
Press — Gateta de Uberaba. 

Uruguayana — Rio Grande 2^ 45 18 S. 13 55 09 W. 

doSul 
Victoria . 20,000 Espirito Santo 20 18 50 S. 2 50 35 E. 
State capital. Electric trams and light. British and American Consuls. 
Hotels — Bologne and d'Europe and Internacional. Press — Commercio do 
Espirito Santo, Diario da Manha, A Renascen^a. Rail from Nictheroy 
(Rio). 

Villa Nova de 10,000 Minas . . ? ? ? ? 

Lima 
For Morro Kelho Mine. British Vice-Consul. Press — O Ideal. 
Vizeu . . 1,000 Par4 . . i 05 20 S. 3 18 10 W. 

For Rio de Janeiro see detailed description. 



APPENDIX II 

GLOSSARY 

Agata. Agate. 

Aquas minerals. Mineral waters. 

Alcatrao. Tar. 

Amianto. Asbestos. 

Arenite. Sandstone. 

Areia. Sand. 

Arenoso. Sandy. 

Areias monaziticas. Monazitic sands. 

Ardosias. Slates and slaty clays. 

Argilla. Clay. 

Azulinhos. Small pale sapphires. 

Betmnen. Bitumen. 

Breu. Pitch. 

Batea. Bowl of hard wood used for washing diamond 

bearing gravels. 
Birilio. Beryl. 

Brejo (or Pantano). Swamp or marsh ; bog. 
Cal. Lime 

Calcareos. Limestone rocks. 

Caco. Disintegrated quartz in angular fragments. 
Carvao de Pedra. Coal. 
Camada. Layer. 

Canga. Brecciated, spongy ferruginous deposit. 
Carbonados. Spherical carbon (diamond) of a greyish 

black colour. 
Carimb^. Wooden bowl in which gravel is carried. 



344 APPENDIX 

Cascalho. Diamond-bearing conglomerate or pebbly 

gravel. 
Catinga. Scrub or undergrowth. 
Cata. Open working ; a pit or hole. 
Captivos de Cobre. Rutile, etc., etc., found as satellites 

of the diamond. 
Corrego. Small ravine with water course. 
Chapada. Tableland or plateau. 
Copalina. Fossil gum. 
Cinnabrio. Cinnabar. 
Cobre. Copper. 

Capa. Covering formation of lode. 
Chumbo. Lead. 
Cristal da rocha. Rock crystaL 
Dobras. Folds. 
Enxofre. Sulphur. 
Estanho. Tin. 
Esmeril. Emery. 
Estrada. Road. 
Falha. Fault. 

Favas. Rolled pebbles of various minerals. 
Feizoes. Rolled black tourmalines. 
Ferro. Iron. 
Fenda. Crack. 

Flor da terra. Surface of the earth. 
Fosfato de calcio. Guano. 
Folhelo. Shale. 
Foz. Mouth of river. 
Feitor. Foreman. 
Formagao. Association of minerals amongst which 

diamonds are found. 
Garimpeiro. One who works a garimpo or placer. 

Formerly an illicit miner. 
Gamella. Vessel used in washing diamond-bearing 

gravel. Larger than the batea. 



APPENDIX 84A 

Gres. Sandstone. 

Giz. Chalk. 

Granadas. Garnets. 

Gurgulho. Dry working consisting of cascalho, or 

conglomerate. 
G5rpso or Gesso. Gypsum. 
Hulha. Coal. 
Itabirites. Iron ores of the Itabira district. Generic 

term for hematites in Minas. (Fer Oligiste.) 
Itacolumite. White quartzose sandstone, flexible, in 

thin layers. 
Jacutinga. Multi-coloured iron glance (pyrolusite), also 

occurs in pockets with gold. 
Jazida. Deposit of any mineral. 
KaoHno. China clay. 
Lage. Flat sand bank. 

Lapa. Foot wall usually of clay slate (killas). 
Lavrito. Boart, or amorphous diamond, in appearance 

Hke scoria. 
Leito. Bed. 

Lavra. Gold or diamond washing in a river. 
Malacacheta. Mica. 
Marmore. Marble. 
Morro. Mount. 
Nafta. Petroleum. 
Nivel. Level. 
Ouro. Gold. 
Oligisto. Hematite. 
Pedemeira. Flint. 
Pedra pomes. Pumice stone. 
Pedra hume. Alum. 
Pedra sabao. Soap stone (talc). 
Pedra de m6. Grindstone. 
Pedra de toque. Touchstone. 
Pico. Peak. 



846 APPENDIX 

P090. Well or boring. 

Poeira. Dust. 

Polvora. Powder. 

Pedreiro. Mason. 

Platina. Platinum. 

Praia. Beach. 

Plombagina. Plumbago. 

Rocha. Rock. 

Salitre. Saltpetre. 

Sal. Salt. 

Sertao. Contraction of desertao (great desert). Name 
given to the high plains, etc., of the interior. Al- 
ways being approached but never reached. In 
Rio, Western Minas is the Sertao. In Minas, Goyaz 
is the Sertao, etc., etc. 

Schiste. Schist. 

Salto. Waterfall. 

Servi90. Working, or lavra. 

Sitio. Country house and farm. 

Soldo. Wages. 

Soltar. Let go. 

Sondar. To sound. 

Sublo ca9ao. Sub-letting. 

Tabatinga. Red talcose clay used in pottery. 

Terra-roxa. Red earth common all along the coast and 
in Sao Paulo, Rio, Minas, etc. 

Termo. Term or limit. 

Terra90. Terrace. 

Teso. Escarpment. 

Testada. Ridge or boundary. 

Thermas. Hot springs. 

Tincal. Borax. 

Titulo. Title or claim. 

Turfa. Peat. 

Turvo. Muddy, discoloured water. 



APPENDIX 847 

Turma. Gang of men. 

Usar. To make use of. 

Vasa. Ooze or mud. 

Varar. To gauge or measure. 

Varzea. Meadow or savannah subject to floods. 

Veia. Vein or lode. 

Vieiro. 

Vertente. Watershed. 

Via-ferrea. Railway. 

Viga. Beam. 



APPENDIX III 



LIST OF CONSULS, ETC. 

UNITED STATES EMBASSY 

Ambassador — ^His Excellency Irving B. Dudley, Petro- 

polis. 
First Secretary — G. B. Rives. 

BRITISH LEGATION 

Minister — Sir William Haggard, K.C.M.G., etc. 
First Secretary — ^W. E. O'Reilly. 

BRITISH AND AMERICAN CONSULS IN 
BRAZIL 



Vice-Consul 
Consul . 

»i • • 
Vice-Consul 



British 

Thales Ferraz . 
W. H. M. Sinclair . . 
George Ambrose Pogson 
Harry H. Gomm . 
John Leslie Hart At- 
kinson 
W. B. Chaplin . . . 
Dr. William Studart . 
Edward Guy Paton . 
Wyndham Robilliard . 
Dr. John Spear 
W. J. Knox Little . . 



Aracajii 

Bahia 

Beldm 

Curityba 

Cuyaba 

Florianopolii 

Fortaleza 

Maceio 

Manaos 

Morro Velho 

Parahyba 



APPENDIX 



849 



Pro-Consul 


Marius P. Lauritzen 


Parahyba 


Vice-Consul . 


Joaquim Soares Gomes Paranagua 


Consul . 


Ambrose Archer . 


Porto Alegre 


In charge of 


Adolpho Guilherme 


Porto Alegre 


Consulate 


Luce 




Consul . . 


C. L. M. Pearson . 


Recife 


Vice-Consul . 


E.J.Wigg. . . 


Rio Grande 


Consul-General 


Roger Casement . 


Rio de Janeiro 


Vice-Consul . 


Charles Gordon Pullen 


. Rio de Janeiro 


In charge of 


R. A. Sandall . . 


Santos 


Consulate 






Vice-Consul . 


Charles Causer 


. S. Joao d'El- 
Rey 


In charge of 


C. E. Clissold . 


S. Luiz. 


Consulate 






Consul . 


0. Sullivan Beare . 


S. Paulo 


»» ... 


Arthur F. Lockwood 
Thompson 


- Uruguayana 


>» ... 


Brian Barry 
American 


Victoria 


Consul-General 


Charles C. Eberhardt 


Without fixed 
jurisdiction 


Consul . . 


Southard P. Warner 


Bahia 


,, ... 


George H. Pickerell 


Belem 


Agente Consular Antonio Epaminondas Fortaleza 




da Frota 




>• j> 


George Simpson 


Maceio 


»» >» 


John H. Hamilton 


Manaos 


,, ,, 


Henry J. Green 


Natal 


Consul . . 


P. MerriU Griffith . 


Recife 


Agente Consular Jorge Verker . 


Rio Grande 


Consul-General 


Juhus G. Lay . 


Rio de Janeiro 


Consul . . . 


Jay White . . . 


Santos 



«80 


APPENDIX 




Agente Consular Joaquim M. A, dos 


S. Luiz, Ma- 




Santos 


ranhao 


>f t> 


WiUiam E. Lee . . 


S. Paulo 


tt »» 


Joao Zinzen 


Victoria 


SOME BRAZILIAN CONSULS ABROAD 




Germany 




Consul . . 


Paul Theodor Fritz . 


Berlin 


„ . . . 


Dr. Bento Carvalho do 
Pago 


Bremen 


Consul-General, 


Sully Jose de Sousa . 


Hamburg 


ist Class 






it 


Hermann Meyer . 


Leipzig 


1 
tt 


Seigfried Ballin 
U.S.A. 


Munich 


Consul . . 


Leonce Rabillon . 


Baltimore 


»> • • • 


Stuart E. Alexander . 


Chicago 


• • • 


Charies Dittmann . . 


New Orlean 



Consul-General, Manoel Jacintho Ferreira New York 
ist Class da Cunha 

„ Napoleon Bonaparte 

KeUy 
„ Archibald Barnard 

Austria-Hungary 
Consul-General, Emilio Kuranda . 



Philadelphia 

S. Francisco, 
Cal. 



2nd Class 



Gervasio Pires Ferreira 
Alfredo Freund 



Belgium 

Consul-General, Jose Fortunato do Sil- 
ist Class veira Bulcao 

Victor Thomas . 



Budapesth 

Trieste 
Vienna 



Antuerpia 
Brussels 





APPENDIX 


351 




China 




Consul-General, 


H. Accurti .... 


Tientsin 


ist Class 






" 


Hugo Suter 
Denmark 


Shanghai 


Consul-General, 


Dr. Francisco de Ipa- 


Copenhagen 


ist Class 


nema Langgaaid 




>> 


Prospero H, Moron 
Egypt 


S. Thomas, 
W. Indies 


Consul . . 


Jos6 Nicolao Debbane 
France 


Alexandria 


Consul . . . 


Jose Monteiro de Godoy 


Bordeaux 


»» ... 


Dr. Fabio Ramos . 


Boulogne 


>« ... 


Leonardo Olavo da 


Cayenne, Fr. 




Silva Castro 


Guiana 


>» • . • 


Paul Bancal 


Senegal 


Consul-General, 


Joao Vieira da Silva . 


Havre 


ist Class 






>) 


Eduardo Payen 


Lyons 


*t 


Joaquim Ferraz Rego . 


Marseilles 


tt 


Antonio Jose de Paula 
Fonseca 


Paris 


>j 


Augustin Jore 


Rouen 



Great Britain and Colonies 

Consul . . . John Watson Canaway Adelaide, 

AustraUa 
„ Santiago McCormick . Barbados 

„ J. McCaldin Loewenthal Belfast 

„ J. Courtenay Lord . Birmingham 

„ J. Zuberbuhler . . Bombay 



852 


APPENDIX 




Consul 


B. Alfredo Baker . . 


Bristol 


tt 


C. H. Poppe . 


Cape Town 


It 


W. Freudenberg . 


Colombo 


»t 


J. C. Rohan 


Cork 


f* 


F. W. Prescott . . . 


Dover 


«» 


H. C. Neilson (junior) . 


Dublin 


$t 


D. Small (junior) . 


Dundee 


t» 


Aurelio Onetti . . 


Gibraltar 


»» 


Dr. Jos6 Bazileu-Neves 
Gonzaga Filho 


Glasgow 


t» 


J. H. G. Murdoch . . 


HobartTown, 
Tasmania 


»i 


Joao J. Leira . . 


Hong Kong 


ft 


R. H. Otto . . . 


Kingstown, 
Jamaica 


Consul-General, 


Joao Carlos da Fonseca 


Liverpool 


ist Class 


Pereira Pinto 




>> 


Francisco Alves Vieira 


London 


Consul 


Alvaro de Magalhaes . 


Manchester 




Dr. Andr6 Robert 


Mauritius 




H. A. Sheppard . 


Melbourne 




Dr. Rodolphe E. Lep- 
rohon 


Montreal 




H. G. Williams . . 


Newcastle 




Th^ophile Le Vasseur . 


Quebec 




J. R. Halliday . . 


Rangoon 




H. H. de Vasconsellos 


Southampton 




R. H. Brown . , . 


Swansea 




C. Blackburn . 


St.John.New- 
foundland 


»» 


A. H. MUes . . . 
Greece 


Wellington, 
New Zealand 


Consul . . . 


Dr. Nicolao S. Alivisatos Athens 



APPENDIX 



tss 





Spain 




Consul-General, 


Dr. Raymundo do Sa 


Barcelona 


2nd Class 


VaUe 




>i 


Dario Freire . 


Cadiz 


tt 


R. Jacintho de Chavar- 
ri y Hernaiz 


Madrid 


ft 


D. F, Crooke y Heredia 


Malaga 


»» 


J. Baptista Antunes . 


Las Palmas 


ft 


J. M. Benjumea y 
Pare j a 


Seville 


n 


Alcino Santos Silva . 
Italy' 


Vigo 


Consul-General, 


Joao Antonio Rodrigues 


Genoa 


ist Class 


Martins 




" 


Joaquim da Silva Lessa 
Paranhos 


Milan 


>< 


Dr. Vincenzo Grossi . 


Rome 


f> 


Leopoldo Bizio 


Venice 


Consul-General, 


F. E. R. Vianna de 


Naples 


2nd Class 


Abreu 





Vice-Consul 



Japan 

Jean de Cuers de Cogolin Tokio 



Dr. Alfredo Varela 

Morocco 
Lazaro Eljarrat 

Norway 
Otto Berentzen 

Holland 

Mario Costa 
Francisco Jose da Sil- 
veira Lobo 



Yokohama 

Mazagan 

Christiania 

Amsterdam 
Rotterdam 

AA 



854 



Consul-General, 

I St Class 
Consul-General, 
r- 2nd Class 
Vice-Consul • 



APPENDIX 

Panama 

Ramon Arias F^raud . 

Portugal 

Arthur Teixeira de 

Macedo 
N. Pinto da Silva 

VaUe 
J. Lobo de Miranda . 
C. de Miranda Freitas . 

Luiz da Camara Leme . 

Russia 

Emelie Tottien • • 
Jacques Brodsky . 
Georges Schmidt . 
Carlos W. Lange . . 

Sweden 

Wilhelm Frodi • • 
Dr. Goran Bjorkman . 



Panama 

Lisbon 

Oporto 

Lagos(Africa) 
Funchal 

(Madeira) 
Loanda 

(Africa) 

S. Petersburg 
Odessa 
Libau 
Riga 



Gothenburg 
Stockholm 



Switzerland 
M. P. de Souza Dantas Geneva 
Dr. Joachim de Gia- 
comi 



Berne 



Turkey 
Alvaro da Cunha 



Beyrouth 
(Syria; 



APPENDIX IV 



SALARIES AND COST OF LIVING 

SALARIES 
Daily 



Smith, 6 to lo milreis. 

Millhand, 5 to 10 milreis. 

Leather worker, up to 10 
milreis. 

Scalemaker, 9 milreis. 

Glass-blower, up to 20 mil- 
reis. 

Brick and tUe maker, 8 
milreis. 

Baker, 8 milreis. 

Brewer, 12 milreis. 

Hatter, 8 milreis. 

Shoemaker, 8 milreis. 



Cabinet maker, 10 milreis. 

Founder, 10 milreis. 

Painter, 6 to 15 milreis. 

Tram conductor, 6 to 8 
milreis. 

Day labourers, 2| to 3 mil- 
reis. 

Gardeners, 3 to 5 milreis. 

Turners, 6 to 8 milreis. 

Tailors, 4 to 8 milreis. 

Printers, 6 to 10 milreis. 

Masons, etc., 5 to 10 mil- 
reis. 



Clerk, junior, 100 to 

mUreis. 
Bookkeeper or cashier, 

to 600 milreis. 
Shop assistant, 60 to 

milreis (without lodg 

with board. 



Monthly 

200 Civil guard, 150 to 250 mil- 
reis. 
200 Police, 120 to 200 milreis. 
Seaman, 80 to 100 milreis. 
500 Ship's steward, 40 to 60 
ing) milreis. 

Man-servant, 40 to 100 
milreis. 



S56 APPENDIX 

Salaries Monthly — continued. 

Male cook, 50 to 200 mil- Foreign nurse, 40 to 100 

reis. milreis. 

Female cook, 30 to 100 Wet nurse, 50 to 150 mil- 

milreis. reis. 

General servant, 15 to 50 Postman, 100 to 300 mil- 

milreis. reis. 
Nurse girl, 15 to 40 milreis. 

COST OF LIVING 

3rd class hotel, 5 to 6 milreis daily. 

2nd „ „ 6 to 8 „ 

ist ,, ,, 9 to 16 ,, ,, (in Manaos, 20 

milreis daily). 
Pension, with room, from 100 to 300 milreis monthly. 
,, without room (2 meals), 50 to 100 milreis 

monthly. 

PRICES OF PROVISIONS 
Rio and District 

Beef, kilogrcimme, 400 to 800 reis. 
Mutton, I $200. 
Pork, I $200. 
Veal, I $000. 

Chickens, 800 reis to i $200 each. 
Ducks, I $000 to 2 $500 each. 
Turkeys, 3 $000 to 6 $000 each. 
Eggs, per dozen, 800 to i $500, according to season. 
Bread, 400 to 500 reis a kilo. 
Wine (Rio Grande, 500 to 800 reis a hectolitre. 
,, (Portuguese), i$ooo to 5 $000 a bottle. 



APPENDIX 857 

Rice, 300 to 500 reis a litre. 

Salt, 400 to 500 reis. 

Sugar, 550 to 800 reis a kilo. 

Potatoes, 200 to 400 reis a kilo. 

Parafl&n, a tin (32^ lb.), 4 to 5 milreis. 

Milk, 400 to 500 reis a litre. 

Coffee, I $000 to I $600 a kilo, roasted and ground. 

Tea (Lipton's), 250 grammes, 2 milreis. 

Cheese, per kilogramme, from i^ to 2^ milreis. 

Rabbits, each, from i milreis. 

Matte, per kilo, from 800 to 1,000 reis. 

Cocoa (pure), 100 grammes, i$200. 

Barley, per kilogramme, i $000. 

Tram fares, from 100 to 400 reis. 

One-horse cars (i person), ist hour, 4 $000 ; hour after, 

2 $000. 
Two-horse cars (2 persons), ist hour, 6 $000 ; hour after, 

3 $000. 
Each person extra, i$ooo. 
Taxi-cabs, ist hour, 8S000 ; hour after, 4$ooo. 

I milreis extra in each case per hour from i to 

6 a.m. 



Cost of Living in ParA, Manaos, etc. 

Beef: Para, i$ooo to i$4oo per kilo ; Manaos, i$50(? 

to 2 $500 per kilo. 
Lard (15 kilos), 64 $000. 
Dried meat, 2 $000. 
Chickens, 10 $000 to 15 $000. 
Sugar and butter in the Acre district, prohibitive 

prices. 
Beer, 2 $000 to 3 $500 a bottle. 
Port, whisky, brandy, etc., 10 $000 to 12 $000 a bottle. 



353 



APPENDIX 



PRICES OF CLOTHING, etc. (Rio de Janeiro) 



White shirts, 3$ to 8$. 
Night shirts, 4$ to 7$. 
Undervests, 3$ to 6$. 
Cotton socks, dozen pairs, 

8$ to 15$. 
Woollen socks, 20 $ to 30 $ 

dozen. 
Collars, I $000 to i$5oo 

each. 
Cuffs, I $000 to 2 $000 pair. 
Cotton handkerchiefs, 200 

to 800 reis each. 
Linen handkerchiefs, 

I $000 to I $500 each. 
Braces from 2 $000 to 

3 $000. 
Ties, 500 reis to 4 $000. 
Straw hats, 5 to 10 Sooo. 
Felt hats, 5 $000 to 25 $000. 
Imitation Panama hats, 

10 $000 to 18 $000. 



Legitimate Panama hats, 

25 $000 to 100 $000. 
Boots, 15 $000 to 35 $000. 
Umbrellas, 5 $000 to 

30 $000. 
Waterproofs, 30 $000 to 

60 $000. 
Crash and hoUand suits, 

25 $000 to 60 $000. 
Serge suits, 50 $000 to 

80 $000. 
Fine cashmere suits, 

80 $000 to 120 $000. 
Dress and frock coat suits, 

150 $000 to 200 $000. 
Alpaca jackets, 20 $000, 
Fancy vests, 5 $000 to 

20 $000. 
Linen trousers, 10 $000 to 

20 $000. 
Gloves, 3 $000 to 10 $000. 



Ladies' clothing must be reckoned at least twice the 
European prices, and this rate will apply to most items 
of general use. Pianos and household furniture cost 
still more, but the quahty of the latter is very good. 



WHOLESALE PRICES (Rio de Janeiro) 

October, 191 1 
National Produce 
Fine rice, per 100 kilos, 44 to 47 milreis ; inferior, per 
ioo-,kilos, 32 to 34 milreis. 



APPENDIX 359 

Mandioca flour, per loo kilos, special, i8 milreis ; 

coarse, 13I to 14 milreis. 
Black beans, best, per 100 kilos, 21 milreis. 
Butter beans, per 100 kilos, 31^ to 34^ milreis. 
Maize,* per 100 kilos, good, 15 milreis ; white do., 13 to 

13 1 milreis. 
Aguardente, per pipe, from 140 to 160 milreis. 
Alcohol, 38 to 40 degrees, 240 to 290 milreis ; 36 degrees, 

230 to 235 milreis. 
Pea nuts, per 100 kilos, from 21 to 22 milreis. 
Potatoes, per kilo, 240 to 260 reis. 
Lard, per 60 kilos, from 62 to 72 milreis. 
Pork, per kilo, 400 to 600 reis (fat). 
Flour (sack), 22 to 25 milreis. 
Tobacco, 15 kilos, from 9 to 26 milreis (Goyaz). 
Butter, per kilo, i$8oo to 2 $800. 
Matte, per kilo, 440 to 580 reis. 
Tapioca, 100 kilos, 18 to 20 milreis. 
Salt, 60 kilos, 8 to 10 milreis. 
Tallow, per kilo, 560 to 660 reis. 

Wine (Rio Grande do Sul), per pipe, 120 to 125 milreis. 
Alfalfa hay, per kilo, 180 to 210 reis. 
Bacon (all fat), per kilo, 860 to 960 reis. 
Maize meal, 100 kilos, 14 to 24 milreis. 

Foreign Produce 

Turpentine, htre, 800 reis. 
Tar, barrels of 170 kilos, 43 milreis. 
Rice, 100 kilos, 3.9 to 42 1 milreis. 
Lard (American), per lb., 800 to 840 reis. 
Stock fish (Norwegian), per box, 39 to 40 milreis. 
Stock fish (Halifax), per case, 40 to 41 nailreis. 
Pitch, 280 lb., 34 to 35^ milreis. 

Tea (Indian), green, per kilo, 6^ to 9Ti7 milreis ; black, 
per kilo, 6 to 9 milreis. 



MO APPENDIX 

Cement, lo to 15 milreis a barrel. 

Cinnamon, per kilo, i| to ij% milreis. 

Peas, green, per 100 kilos, 64 to 66 milreis. 

Gin (Focking), per case, 32 to 33 milreis. 

Paraffin, case of 65 lb. net, 6tV to 7t% milreis. 

Bricks, 1,000, 120 milreis. 

Butter, per kilo, i $750 to 2 $400. 

Hams, per lb., ItV to It% milreis. 

Pepper, per kilo, lyV to lyo milreis. 

Starch, 100 kilos, 25 to 26 milreis. 

Wines, Portuguese claret (Collares), per pipe, 340 to 360 
mUreis ; port, inferior to regular, 300 to 340 milreis. 

Linseed oil, per kilo, ItIt to i J milreis, in barrels ; 
940 to 1,000 reis, in tins. 

Timber, spruce, per dozen, 82 milreis ; Swedish white 
pine, 82 milreis ; Swedish red pine (deals), 84 mil- 
reis ; American, per foot, 280 reis. 

Olive oil, 16 litres, 22 to 27 milreis. 

Bran to middlings, 100 kilos, gj\ to 91% milreis. 

French tUes {1,000), 230 to 240 milreis. 



PRICES OF COLOURED GEMS IN RIO 

Given by Senhor Augusto Brill, Av. Central, Rio de 
Janeiro 

Tourmalines of all colours (except fine blues) — 
Rough (per gramme). Cut (per carat). 

Common 200 reis to i $000 4 milreis. 
Gk)od . . I $000 to 4 Sooo Up to 8 milreis up to 

35S000. 
Fine . 5 $000 to 10 $000 8 to 10 milreis for a 

parcel of mixed col- 
ours. Fine blues at 
top prices only. 



APPENDIX 861 

Aquamarines, pale greenish blue or ordinary green, as 
common tourmalines ; pale clear blue, as good 
tourmalines ; fine blue aquamarines, as fine tour- 
malines. 

Topaz (Ouro Preto district), ordinary yellow, 500 reis to 
3 $000 a gramme ; amber to wine-coloured and very 
pale rose, 4 to 12 milreis a gramme ; fine rose (very 
rare), 10 to 20 or 25 milreis a gramme, rough. 
White topazes have no sale ; pale blue, cut, 30 to 
40 milreis a carat, very rare. 

Amethysts from Rio Grande or Minas, 100 to 500 reis a 
gramme, rough ; from Bahia, 500 reis to i $000 a 
gramme. Cut stones, from 4 to 12 milreis a gramme. 

Garnets, citrines, hematites and similar ornamental 
stones, 200 to i$ooo a gramme. 

Cut garnets, 4 to 8 milreis a gramme. 

Chrysoberyls, rough, i$ooo to 4 $000 a gramme ; cut, 8 
to 12 milreis a carat. 

Euclase, rough, with terminal facets, 20 to 40 milreis a 
gramme (very rare). 

Phenakites, andalusites, etc., etc., according to supply 
for mineralogists and collectors. No fixed value. 

With regard to the prices charged by the rubber mer- 
chant to the collector, they do not come within the 
scope of this chapter. It must of course be understood 
in considering the above that salaries are correspon- 
dingly high. If one reckons the cost of living in 
Manaos as double that of Rio, it may be safely assumed 
that pay corresponds. These things, it goes without 
saying, automatically balance themselves the world over. 

In Amazonas turtle flesh is largely consumed. In 
Minas beef is sold without bone, and is relatively cheaper 
than anywhere, except in Rio Grande do Sul. In Petro- 
polis butter is sold by the pound, and is always made in 



862 APPENDIX 

the district. Here most country people bake their own 
bread. Throughout Brazil mandioca flour, rice and 
beans are the staples. Except in the south general use 
is made of dried salted beef (xarque) or came seca. The 
common drink is locally brewed beer. A vast quantity 
of cachaga or paraty is drunk (white rum), and it is very 
cheap, serving as a beverage, or as methylated spirits. 
Fish is dear (in Rio) owing to the want of proper vessels 
for the purpose, and fruit is generally not too cheap, 
bananas being usually about four or six for lOO reis, and 
oranges two to four for the same sum. In Bahia, 
oranges (navel) are, however, of the finest, and in Per- 
nambuco and vicinity pineapples are cheap, and most 
excellent. 



APPENDIX V 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CUSTOMS TARIFF 



Description of Articles. 



Felt or beaver hats. 
Brushes, mother of pearl or 
ivory backs or 
tortoiseshell 
„ bone or wood for 
hair and clothes 
shaving and hat . 
tooth and naU 
metal cleaning . 
scrubbing, 
brooms and others 
for tarring 
painter's . 
artist's (fine) . 
second 

house decoration . 
Harness, one animal . 
P-" 
Boots and shoes, top . 

half . . 
„ ordinary . 

,, satin shoes 



Rate. 



per cent, 
60 



50 



60 

60 
60 



Tax. 



6 $400 



36 $000 kilogramme 

8 $000 dozen 
6$ooo 
2 $000 

2 $000 

9 $000 

4 $000 

6 $000 

3 $200 kilogramme 

25 $000 
I2$000 „ 

5 $000 

from 40 to 240 $000 

set 
20 $000 pair 
15 $000 

7 $000 

up to 14 $000 



864 APPENDIX 

Extracts from the Customs Tariff — continued 



Description of Articles. 



Rate. 



Tax, 



flasks) 



Boots and Shoes, ordinary 
children's, 
etc., also 
slippers . 

Pens (nibs), ordinary 
gilt . 
Hats or caps, any other kind 
Belts, any kind 
Ties, any kind . 
Gloves, kid . 

,, ordinary 
Leggings, leather 
Saddles . 
Oil, animal (tins) 

„ machine (tins or 
Lard . 
Meat, ox, sheep, pig 

„ game . 

,, dried . 
Wax, ordinary . 

„ prepared . 

„ candles, etc. 

„ figures, etc. 
Glue or gelatine 
Condensed milk. 
Tongues, etc. 
Butter, pure 

substitutes 
Eggs .... 
Guano 
Fish, etc., including shell 

fish 



per cent 



50 
50 
60 
60 
60 



60 

50 
50 
50 
30 
30 
20 
50 
50 
50 
50 

50 
60 

30 to 50 

50 
50 



20 to 50 



from 700 reis to 

6 $000 
4 $000 kilogramme 
30 $000 

4 $700 each 

10 Soookilogramme 
6 $300 dozen 
27 $000 „ 
10 $000 

5 $000 pair 

30 to 50 $000 each 

$300 kilogramme 

I $200 

$300 

$100 

I500 

$200 

$700 

1 $600 

2 $400 
4 $000 
$200 
$500 

$300 to I $200 
I $500 kilogramme 

3^500 

free of duty 



from$o6o toi$20o 



APPENDIX 365 

Extracts from the Customs Tariff — continued. 



Description of Articles. 


Rate. 


Tax. 




per cent. 






Cheese 


50 


I $200 kilogramme 


Soap, unscented . . . 


50 


$400 


>» 


Tallow 


25 


$100 


,, 


Sponges, fine .... 


50 


20 $000 


}t 


ordinary . 


50 


5 $000 


>t 


Pearls 


2 


ad valorem 


Buttons, bone or horn 


60 


I $000 kilogramme 


„ ivory, tortoiseshell 








or mother of pear 


I 60 


12 $000 


>> 


Combs, bone or horn . 


50 


6 $000 


ft 


„ ivory .... 




28 $000 


>i 


„ tortoiseshell 


— 


60 $000 


it 


Barley, in grain or malted . 


25 


$040 




Infant's food .... 


50 


2 $000 kilogramme 


Tea 


50 


3 $000 


J, 


Tar 


15 


$200 


>> 


Camphor 


25 


I $000 


It 


Brandy \ 








Whiskey \ in casks . . 


— 


I $500 


tt 


Rum j 








in other vessels 


— 


I $300 


tt 


Gin 


— 


$800 






50 


12 $000 




Bitters, in barrels . 




$500 




other vessels . 


— 


$300 




Wines, champagnes, etc, . 


— 


I $600 




Artificial essences . 


30 


6 $000 




Blacking, hquid 


50 


$250 




paste, etc. . 


— 


$800 




Indigo, anihne .... 


20 


I $200 




Perfumes 


60 


4 $000 




Ink 


50 


$600 




Varnishes 




$500 





8M APPENDIX 

Extracts from the Customs Tariff — continued. 



Description of Articles. 



Rate. 



Tax. 



Mineral waters, any kind 

Acids 

Capsules, medicinal 
Carbonates . 
Chlorate and muriates 
Citrates .... 
Extracts, medicinal 
Vitrates .... 
Oxydes .... 
Pepsine, paste . 

,, powder, etc. 
Phosphates and sulphates 
Sulphurets and tartaxates 
Wines, medicinal . 

Timber 

Chests 

BiUiards, ordinary and fine 

Chairs 

Beds and sofas .... 
Stockings, according to size 

Underclothing, shirts . 

pants, etc. 
Shirts, starched. 
Cuffs, ,, 
Collars ,, 
Cotton piece goods 
Panama hats 
Straw ,, 

Bed clothing, cotton, etc 
Stockings, fine . 
Furniture, not specified 



per cent. 
60 

25 

25 

20 to 50 

50 
40 
50 
50 

15 to 50 
25 to 50 

50 
50 
50 

50 to 60 

60 

50 to 60 



80 
60 



60 
60 

60 
60 

50 to 60 



I350 

20 $000 



15 $000 

5 $000 



3 $000 



200 $000, 500 $000 
each set 



3 $200 to 6 $800 

doz, pairs 
8 $000 dozen. 

8 $000 kilogramme 

5 $000 dozen pairs 
3 $600 dozen 

6 $300 each 

I $600 to 2 $600 



APPENDIX 367 

Extracts from the Customs Tariff — continued. 



Description of Articles. 


Rate, 


Tax. 




per cent. 




Photographs and prints . 


50 




Ditto for educational works 


15 




Printed matter .... 


15 


manuscripts free 


Paper 


50 




Silk and fine linen . 


60 




Asbestos, marble jasper . 


20 




Cement, emery 


— 


coal free 


Precious stones .... 


2 


ad valorem (gold 
free) 


China and glass. 


50 to 60 




Gold jewellery .... 


15 


ad valorem (silver 
free) 


Silver „ .... 


15 




Copper, worked. 


50 




Lead, tin, and zinc . 


30 to 60 




„ in bars . 


15 




Iron and steel .... 


30 to 60 




Aluminium and antimony. 


25 




Arsenic and sulphur . 


20 




Mercury and phosphorus . 


20 




Nickel, potassium, sodium 


25 




Other metalloides . 


25 


ad valorem 


Gims and rifles, steel barrel 


50 to 60 


12 $000 


bronze „ 


50 to 60 


20 $000 


Revolvers, powder . 


60 




Shot, lead 


80 




Swords 


50 




Penknives and razors, fine 


50 


7 $000 dozen 


Scissors and table knives . 


50 




Watches, gold, each . 


20 


10 $000 each 


,, repeaters, each . 


20 


30 $000 „ 


Clocks 


50 




Carriages 


30 to 60 





368 APPENDIX 

Extracts from the Customs Tariff — continued. 



Description of Articles. 


Rate. 


Tax. 




per cent. 




Instruments, scientific . 


15 




„ „ som 


a 




exception 


s 50 




musical . 


1 50 




Balances 


! 50 




Mills, large, motor force 


15 




,, coffee, wheat, etc. 


50 


$700 kilogramme 


Machinery .... 


15 




Tj^e, printing . 


15 




Bicycles 


25 


50 $000 one 


child's . 


25 


20 $000 „ 


Rubber goods . 


50 




Pipes and whips 


50 




Umbrellas and sunshades 






cotton 


r 




Mnen 


— 


I $500 one 


„ „ woollen 


— 


3 $000 „ 


„ silk . 


— 


7 $000 „ 


„ „ lace edge 


;d — 


14 $000 ,, 


Chocolate, fancy and plain 


50 


3 $000 kilogramme 


Games and sealing wax - 


- 50 




Fans, masks, hooks 


50 




Pneumatic t5n-es 


5 


ad valorem 


Motor cars, commercial . 


5 


,, 


private 


7 


>> 


Sauces 


50 




Paraffin 


50 




Skates 


50 


3 $500 pair 



It should be particularly noted that this tariff is in 
course of revision, and that there are other charges to 
be added to the foregoing table, such as two per cent. 



APPENDIX 369 

port works tax, Consular fees, stamps and other addi- 
tions which in some cases bring total duties to over 
100 per cent. Tariffs again frequently include packing 
when by weight, and catalogues, etc., put in cases to 
fill up are charged at the same rate as ordinary printed 
books. I also quote the warning of the Times correspon- 
dent in Brazil against sending goods not ordered, and 
against including stationery, invoice forms, etc., charged 
at a very high rate of duty. 

It should be noted, however, that the future tariff 
will in all probabiUty contain preferential clauses for 
reciprocal abatements. 



BB 



APPENDIX VI 
SOME INDUSTRIES IN BRAZIL 



Industry. 



0-« 

O O 



Matches . . . i8 
Electrical material i 
Rubber goods . 2 
Iron .... 23 
„ wire ... 8 
Marble ... 23 
Lead and zinc . 8 
Optical goods . 3 
Brushes, etc. . . 21 
Balances ... i 
Butter and cheese 138 
Billiards ... 2 
Jewellery. . . 20 
Biscuits ... 13 
Mineral waters and 

spirits . . . 145 
Buttons ... I 
Breweries. . . 186 
Quarries ... 21 
Hats (men's) . 46 

„ (ladies') . 37 



Hands. 



3,969 
33 
18 

501 
54 

439 

321 
23 

250 
16 

981 

14 
167 
467 

1.655 
150 

2,942 
699 

3,105 
163 



In Contos of Reis. 
Capital. 



17,060 
50 

13 
1,746 

76J 
i,099j 

1.941 
270 

671I 
400 

2,9961^^ 
70 
822 
1,995 

6.630tV7tV 
160 

27.555t^ 
1,826 
10,417 

1.398 



Production. 



21,275 

160 

36 

3.669 

181 

1,824 

i,88iT^ 

210 

1.583 
600 

6.998tVA 

160 
1,940 
3.282 

9,2iitVoV 
250 

22,686t2oW 

3.309 
i5.384fV 

1,727 



APPENDIX 871 

Some Industries in Brazil — continued. 



Industry. 



Coal (animal) 
Boots and shoes 
Lime and cement 
Gas mantles 
Cocoa, etc. 
Candles (wax 
Blacking . 
Nails . 
Glue . 

Confectionery 
Preserves. 
Shipbuilding 
Rope making 
Corsets . 
Ties . 
Tanned hides 
Caskets and cases 
Inks . 
Pins . . . 
Hair pins, etc. 
Meat extract. 
Fireworks 
Maize meal . 
Cotton mills . 
Woollen „ . 
Linen „ . 
SUk „ . 

Aramina ,, . 
Artificial flowers 
Foundries 
Lasts (boots). 
Formicides . 




119 

36 

2 

15 
9 
4 
6 

3 

40 

14 

17 

7 

II 

II 

108 

2 

8 

2 

2 

I 

I 

I 

161 

15 
2 

5 

I 

32 
169 

3 
2 



9 

7.379 

1,027 

II 

484 

107 

17 

165 

14 

1,203 

506 
3,622 
586 
148 
689 
1,967 

9 

98 

35 

74 

200 

3 
10 

45.942 

1.957 

160 

244 

200 

432 

6,861 

46 

51 



In Contos of Reis. 



Capital. 



40 
10,117 

II.259J 
31 
2.435 
711 

35 
820 

40 
1,988 
1.530 
2,215 

2,514 

458 

1,003 

9.485 
II 

465 

188 

80 

6,000 

20 

10 

234,4281% 

14,848 

1,230 

965 

1,500 

694 

22,964 

75 
200 



Production. 



54 
26,726T'fl 

4.9761^01^ 

60 

3.680 

914 

106 

1.185 

81 

4,208 

2,211^ 

5.785 

2,382 

879 

2,320 

15.0911^ 
40 

968 1". 
161 
190 
700 
16 

54 

135.025 1»o^ 

ii,375t^" 

648 

1,042 iVo% 
630 

i.337i 
3i.625tVA 
220 
270 



372 APPENDIX 

Some Industries in Brazil — continued. 







Hands. 


In Centos of Reis. 


Industry. 








Z^ 




Capital. 


Production. 


Gloves . . 


9 


89 


288 


468 


Ice .... 


5 


81 


550 


1.734 


Oils and resins . 


20 


532 


3.390T(r 


4A93r%\% 


Images . 


2 


9 


14 


40 


Hams 


6 


37 


238 


403 


Musical instru- 










ments . 


19 


151 


249tV 


402T3ff 


Underclothing . 


31 


2,218 


3.151 


6,298! 


Machinery . 


12 


268 


1.055 


984 


Trunks and valises 


27 


250 


1,248 


2,864 


Matte . . . 


44 


4.975 


14,250 


22,573 


Transport material 


31 


1,718 


8,429 r^o 


ii,oi3f(M)- 


Furniture 


85 


2.843 


6,033 


11,760 


Flour miUs . 


100 


1.499 


i6,4i6tl5 


39.359i 


Cardboard, etc. . 


17 


606 


5,083 


3.987 


Wall papers . 


6 


228 


1,596 


1,620 


Umbrellas, etc. . 


24 


195 


3,221 


3.729 


Perfumery . 


17 


382 


1,460 


2,081 rV« 


Helmets . 


I 


12 


6 


15 


Lace, etc. . . 


I 


28 


45 


96 


PsLStry 


87 


683 


2,602 xij'V 


3.897 iVA 


Preserved toma- 










toes 


4 


100 


515 


570 


Horn combs . 


3 


93 


210 


484 


Photography. 


15 


116 


1.093 


2,099 


Pianos . . 


I 


4 


40 


30 


China and pottery 


179 


2,553 


10,547 UvJ 5 


10,363 


Chemicals 


60 


1.153 


6,502 


10,212 


Sugar refineries . 


22 


454 


io,437iVVv 


15.413 iVA 


Wooden shoes . 


18 


134 


273 


679 Iff 


Lard .... 


34 


587 


4.350 


13.485 


Soap and tallow 










candles. . . 


91 


1.763 


15.145A 


22,039t7^VV 



APPENDIX 373 

Some Industries in Brazil — continued. 





•« to 
. u 

° 3 


Hands. 


In Conto 


s of Reis. 


Industry. 








^^ 




Capital. 


Production. 


Saw mills . 


197 


3,766 


14,488 


31,379 


Salt ... . 


53 


2,146 


9,461 


3,I26t^V 


Harness and sad- 










dlery . 


40 


1,309 


2,517 


4,448 


Syrups and 








1 


Liqueurs . 


8 


35 


250 


475 


Bellows . . . 


I 


6 


15 


28 


Sugar mills . 


199 


13,136 


74,o6iAVtj 


67.257tV^ 


Tobacco manu- 










factories . 


104 


7,407 


i2,95ofoVa 


20,318 rW.^ 


Cooperages . 


4 


14 


20 


72 


Lamps 


I 


12 


6 


32 


Varnishes. 


I 


42 


200 


60 


Glass .... 


7 


1,328 


2,975 


3,638 


Wine .... 


104 


1.316 


2,8771 


4,870^5^ 


Vinegar . . . 


5 


19 


79 


114 


Pemmican . . 


26 


3.782 


6,277 


38,7691^ 


Total . . 


3258 


151,841 


665,976tVvV 


74i,536WW 



In 1910 3,400 establishments, 160,000 hands, 
£55,000,000 capital. 

Five cotton mills in Rio district employ 8,000 hands, 
and turn out 75^ million metres of goods. Four in 
Petropolis, 2,500 hands, manufacturing 17 million metres. 
Apart from the textile trades, the largest establishments 
are engaged in the manufacture of sugar, tobacco and 
jerked beef. The great factory of Dannemann at 
Bahia (S. Felix) employs 1,600 hand workers, turning 



874 APPENDIX 

out £150,000 worth of tobacco and cigars. Three 
match factories produce with 2,200 employees ;(^90o,ooo 
worth of goods. A shipbuilding firm at Rio, " the only 
one worth mentioning in Brazil," employs 1,500 men, 
turning out work value 3^120,000. 

Openings for Factories 

There are excellent openings for paper, cement, pins 
and needles, rubber goods, fine woollens and silks and 
poplins, hats in felt and straw, cooperages, manure 
works, sewing thread, chemicals, paint, varnish and 
starch, cornflour, arrowroot, glass, fine salt, preserves, 
pottery and china, oils and resins, toilet and shaving 
soaps, perfumes, soap and candles, buttons, blacking, 
ice, ropes and canvas, cocoa and chocolate, pianos, 
tanneries, acetylene, aluminium, nails, etc. 

Hop-growing is unknown, and copra, cocoanut oil 
and butter-making and margarine works are non- 
existent ; and amongst other cities BelloHorizonte offers 
free sites, free power and exemption from taxes for 
five years to approved concerns with a capital of over 
to contos of reis. 



APPENDIX VII 

EXPORTING HOUSES 

State. Firm. TowiU 

Carnauba Wax 

Rio Grande do Julius von Sohsten . Natal 
Norte 

„ M. F. do Monte e Ca. . Mossor6 

„ Camillo Figueiredo e Ca. „ 

Castor Oil 
Rio Grande do J. von Sohsten . . . Natal 
Norte 

Coffee 
Bahia . . . Anderson & Rowe, Rua Bahia 
das Princezas 6 
„ . . . F. Stevenson, Rua Cons „ 

Dantas 9 
„ ... Leib e Ca., Rua Cons „ 

Saraiva 4 
„ ... Steinbach e Ca., Rua „ 
Cons Dantas 29 
Espirito Santo A. Prado e Ca. . . . Victorit. 
„ Hard Rand e Ca. . . „ 

„ Omstein e Ca. ... „ 

Rio de Janeiro Arbuckle & Co., R. Sao Rio 
Bento 2-4 



876 


APPENDIX 




State. 


Firm. 


Town. 


Rio de Janeiro 


Herm Stolz e Ca. , Rua Victoria 




da Saude 104 




>» 


John Moore, Rua da 
Candelaria 8 


" 


»> 


Pinto e Ca., Saude 78-84 


>» 


Sao Paulo . . 


Baldwin & Co. . . 


Santos 


>» • • 


Barbosa e Ca. . 


i» 


>» • • 


E. Johnston & Co. 


>> 


>» • • 


Prado, Chaves e Ca., 
Rua S. Antonio 2 


»» 


>> • • 


Theodor Wille e Ca. . 


»» 


>» • • 


Rombauer e Ca. . 




>» • • 


Roxo e Ca. ... 




»» • • 


E. Whittaker & Co. . 
Cocoa 


>> 


Para . . . 


A. Delbert .... 


Para 


>> ... 


A. Marques e Ca. . 


f> 


>» ... 


Gruner e Ca. . 


r> 


Bahia . . . 


F. Benn e Ca., Rua das 
Princezas 13 


Bahia 


>» ... 


F. G. Aldin, Rua dos 
Cohertos 34 


>> 


>> ... 


G. H. Duder, R. das 
Princezas 18 


»> 


Pemambuco . 


T. D. Evans, Rua do 
Commercio 48 


Pemamb 


»» • 


E. Lins Caldas. 


J7 


»» • 


Prohlmann e Ca. . 
Cotton 


if 


Rio Grande do 


Alves e Ca. . . . 


Natal 


Norte 






j> 


JuHus von Sohsten . 


>> 


n 


Francisco Solon 


Macau 


t» 


Luiz Cabral e Ca. . 


Assii 





APPENDIX 


377 


state. 


Finn. 


Town. 


Ceara . 

,, . « • 


Boris Freres . 
J. Lopes e Ca. . 


Fortaleza 


Maranhao . 
>> • • 


Neves e Ca . . 
Bastos Lisboa e Ca. . 

Cotton Seed Oil 


Sao Luiz 


Rio Grande do 


F. Solon e Ca. . 


Natal 


Norte 






>> 


Julius von Sohsten 


,y 




MATfe 




Rio de Janeiro 


Manoel Lisboa, Caixa 
575 


Rio 


Parana . 


David Carneiro 


Curytiba 


>» • • • 


Manoel de Macedo . . 


}> 


»» • • 


B. A. de Veiga . . . 


,, 


jj • • 


H. Gomm .... 


Antonina 


Santa Catharina 


Companhia Industrial 


Joinville 


Rio Grande do 


Schroder e Ca. 


Porto Alegre 


Sul 






»> 


Marquez Veiga e Ca. . 


Passo Fundo 


Matto Grosso . 


Companhia Matte La- 
rangeira 

Mandioca Meal 


Corumba 


Sta Catharina 


Eduardo Horn e Ca. . 


Florianopolis 


Rio Grande do 


C. Torres e Ca. . 


Porto Alegre 


Sul 






>> 


Scares e Ca. 


»» 


tt 


Thomsen e Ca. . 


t> 


>» 


Lawson, Sons & Co. . 


Rio Grande 


>> 


Gran j a e Ca. 
MoNAZiTic Sands 


Pelotas 


Espirito Santo 


Antenor Guimaraes e 
Ca. 


Victoria 



878 


APPENDIX 


State. 


Firm. 




PiASSAVA Fibre 


Bahia . . . 


Duder Brothers 




F. Benn & Son . . 




Wilson, Sons & Co. . 




Alfredo H. de Azevedo 




F. Stevenson & Co. . 




Wildberger e Ca. . 




Precious Stones 


Rio de Janeiro 


Emmanuel Bloch, Ou- 



Town. 



Bahia 



Pemambuco . 

Espirito Santo 
Bahia . 



Rio 

rines 89 
Farani e Ca., Ounidor „ 

39 
Hugo Brill, Av, Central „ 
Castro Araujo, Rua da „ 

Alfandega 68 
Levy, Rua do Ounidor „ 
Luiz Rezende e Ca., „ 

Ourines 69 
M. da Silva Ribeiro, „ 

Av, Central 15 

Resins and Gums 

Julius von Sohsten, Rua Pemambuco 

do Commercio 13 
J. Zenzen e Ca. . . Victoria 
M. Ulmann e Ca., Rua Bahia 

dos Princezas 12 



Amazonas 



Rubber 

A. H. Alden 

B. Levy e Ca. 
Gordon e Ca. 
Leite e Ca. . 



Manaos 



state. 




f;F1rm, 


Town, 


Para . . . 


A. C. A. Astlett . 


Para 


it 






E. Pinto Alves. 


It 


>i 






D. A. Antunes e Ca. . 


n 


it 






Braja Sobrinho e Ca. 


It 


Bahia 






F. Benn & Sons . . 


Bahia 


»» " 






F. G. Alden . . 


tt 


tt ' 






Rossbach Brazil Coy. 


tt 


tt 






Wildberger e Ca. . 


• It 


Rio Grande do 


H. T. Green . . 


Natal 


Norte 






Maranhao . 


Neves & Co . . 
Sugar 


Sao Luiz 


Rio Grande do 


Alves e Ca. . . . 


Natal 


Norte 






» 


Julius von Sohsten 
Skins, etc. 


" 


Rio Grande do 


F, Cascudo e Ca. . , 


Natal 


Norte 






>» 


A. de Souza Mello 


Mossor6 


>> 


Camillo Figueiredo 


It 


Maianhao . . 


Neves e Ca. 
Tobacco and Cigars 


Sao Luir, 


Bahia . . . 


Borel & Co. . . 


Bahia 


tt 






G. W. Bley. . . 


It 


tt 






Moraes e Ca. . 


It 


jj 






Danemann e Ca. . 


It 


»» • 






C. Martfeld. . . 


jj 


tt 






F. Vieira de Mello . 


Maragogipe 


tt 






Stender e Ca. . 


»» 


tt 






Pezler e Hoening . 


Cachoeira 


tt 






Costa Ferreira e Perina 


I Sao Felix 



380 


APPENDIX 




State. 


Firm. 


Town. 


Rio Grande do 


C. Forres e Ca. 


Porto Alegre 


Sul 






» 


Reis e Cezar 


II 


It 


E. Dreher e Ca. 


II 


»» 


M. Minabanij e Ca. . 


II 


tt 


Steno Gomes e Ca. 
Timber (Hard Woods) 


" 


Pemambuco . 


Antero de Vasconcellos 


Pemambuco 


>> 


Affonso Pessoa. 


jj 


»» • 


Azeuedo Irmaos . 


It 


>> • 


Benevenuto Leite . 


II 


Bahia . 


Duder Bros. 


Bahia 


>> ... 


Stevenson e Ca. . 


jj 


>» ... 


Joao Dias Silva 


jj 


Espirito Santo 


A. Prado e Ca. . 


Victoria 


>t 


J. Zingen .... 


II 


»> 


Manoel Evaristo Pessoa 


»t 


»» 


Antenor, Guimaraes e 
Ca. 


" 


Rio de Janeiro 


John I. Duncan . 


Campos 


»» 


Castro e Ca. 


i» 


tt 


Pereira, Soares e Ca. . 


j^ 


It 
tt 


Fernando Bezamat 
Castro e Rocha 


It 
It 



APPENDIX VIII 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

English 

Agassiz, Louis. " A Journey in Brazil." Boston : 
Tickner and Fields (1868), xix., 540 pp., 8vo. 

Andrews, C. C. " Brazil ; its Conditions and Pros- 
pects." New York : D. Appleton & Co. (1889), 352 pp. 
8vo. 

Bates, Henry Walter. " The Naturalist on the River 
Amazon." A record of adventures, habits of animals, 
sketches of Brazilian and Indian life, and aspects of 
nature under the equator, during eleven years of travel, 
2nd. ed. London : J. Murray (1864), xii., 466 pp., front 
illus., plates, fold. map. 8vo. 

" Commission to Exposition of New Orleans " (1885). 
The empire of Brazil at the world's industrial and cotton 
centennial exposition of New Orleans. New York : 
E. P. Coby & Co. (1887), 71 pp., I vol., tables, sq. 4to. 

" Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition." 
Brief notice on the State of Matto Grosso, Rio de Janeiro. 
Typ. — Leuzinger (1904), 40 pp., 12 mo. 

Bensusan. " Notes on Passagem Mine." Inst. 
Mining and Metallurgy. London (1910). 

Brown, C. Barrington. " Fifteen Thousand Miles on 
the Amazon, and its Tributaries." London : E. Stan- 
ford (1878), xiii., 520 pp., front illus., map, 8vo. 

Burton, Richard F. " Explorations of the Highlands 

£81 



882 APPENDIX 

of the Brazil." With a full account of the gold and 
diamond mines, also canoeing down 1,500 miles of the 
great river Sao Francisco, from Sahara to the sea. Lon- 
don : Tinsley Brothers (1869), 2 vols., illus., 8vo. 

Ewbank, Thomas. " Life in Brazil ; or a Journal of 
a Visit to the Land of the Cocoa and the Palm." With 
an appendix, containing illustrations of ancient South 
American arts. New York : Harper & Brothers (1856), 
xvi., (7) 469 pp., illus., 8vo. 

Gcirdner, E. " Travels in Brazil, 1836-41." Lon- 
don : Reeve Bros (1846). 

Hutchinson, Lincoln. " Report on Trade Conditions 
in Brazil." Washington : Government Printing Ofi&ce 
(1906), 116 pp., 8vo. 

" International Bureau of the American Republics 
. . . Brazil." A handbook. Washington : Govern- 
ment Printing Office (1891), 2, 336 pp., illus., plates, 
map, 8vo. (its bulletin No. 7). 

" United States of Brazil." A geographical sketch, 
with special reference to economic conditions and pros- 
pects of future development. Washington : Govern- 
ment Printing Office (1901), 233 pp., 8vo. 

Kerby, G. Arton. " The Land of To-morrow." A 
newspaper exploration up the Amazon and over the 
Andes to the California of South America. New York : 
W. F. Brainard (1906), ix., 405 pp., front illus., 8vo. 

Kidder, D. P. " Brazil and the Brazilians." Por- 
trayed in historical and descriptive sketches. 6th ed., 
rev. and enl. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. (1866), viii. 
(3), 640 pp., front, (port.), illus. plates, maps, 8vo. 

" Sketches of Residence and Travel in Brazil." Em- 
bracing historical and geographical notices of the 
Empire and its several provinces. Philadelphia : Sorin 
& Ball ; London : Wiley & Putnam (1845), 2 vols., 
front., illus. plates, port., 8vo. 



APPENDIX 888 

Koster, Henry. " Travels in Brazil." 2nd ed. 
London : Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and 
Brown (1817), plates, 2 vols. 

Mawe, John. " Travels in the Interior of Brazil." 
Particularly in the gold and diamond districts, by author- 
ity of the Prince Regent of Portugal, including a voyage 
to the Rio de la Plata, and a historical sketch on the 
revolution of Buenos Aires. Illustrated with engravings. 
London : Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and 
Brown (1812), vii., 366 (i) pp., 4to. 

Santa Anna Nery (Frederico Jose de). " The Land of 
the Amazons." Translated from the French, by George 
Humphrey. London : Sands & Co. (1901), xliii., 405 pp., 
front, illus., plates, map, 8vo. 

" Climate and Diseases of Brazil." English Press 
(Rio). 

" Sao Paulo ; Department of Agriculture, Commerce, 
and Public Works." The State of Sao Paulo, statistics 
and general information, 1903. Sao Paulo : Carlos 
Gerke, 1904, 107 pp., illus., maps, i2mo. 

Scully, William. " Brazil : its Provinces and Chief 
Cities." The manners and customs of the people ; agri- 
cultural, commercial and other statistics, taken from the 
latest official documents, with a variety of useful and 
entertaining knowledge, both for the merchant and 
emigrant. London : Murray & Co., 1866, xv., 398 pp., 
(i), map, 8vo. 

" History of Brazil." London : Longman, Hurst, 
Southey, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1817-22, 3 vols., 
map, 4to. 

Wells, James W. " Exploring and Travelling Three 
Thousand Miles through Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro to 
Maranhao." With an appendix, containing statistics 
and observations on climate, railways, central sugar 
factories, mining, commerce, and finance. London : S. 



884 APPENDIX 

Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1886, 2 vols., 
front illus., 2 fold, maps, 8vo. 

Wright, Marie Robinson. " The New Brazil ; its 
Resources and Attractions. ' ' Historical , descriptive and 
industrial. Philadelphia : George Barrie & Son, 1908, 
450 pp., illus., 4to. 

Wright, M. R. " The Brazilian National Exposition, 
1908." G. Barrie & Sons, Philadelphia. 

" The Valorization of Coffee in Brazil." F. Ferreira 
Ramos, C.E., Commissioner of S. Paiilo Government, 
99, Place de Meir, Antwerp, 1907. 

" O Para, 1908." English, French and Portuguese. 
Chaponet, Paris. Published by the State Government. 
A large and costly work, with maps and many 
plates. 

See also Review of Reviews, November, 1907. United 
States of Brazil ; Sao Paulo, Sphere Office. Brazilian 
Year Book (McCorquodale & Co.). 

French 

" Le Br6sil " (Levasseur, E.) Paris : Lamirault et 
cie, 1889, 98 (2), 3 pp. maps, illus., 4to. 

" Moreau de Tours. Le Mate." Paris : Stenheil. 

"Voyage" (Saint Hilaire). Paris: Libraire Gide, 
1833, 3 vols., 8vo. 

"Voyage" (Saint Hilaire). Bruxelles : Delevigne, 
1850, 2 vols., 8vo. 

" Aux Pays de I'Avenir " (De La Forge). Paris : 
Ficker, 1910. 

" Bresil Meridional" (Delgado Carvalho). Paris: 
Desfosses, 1910. 

" En Am^rique Latine " (H. Turot). Paris : Vuibert, 
1908. 

"Au Pays de I'Or Noir " (Paul Walle). Paris: 
Guilmoto, 1909. 



APPENDIX 385 

" Au Bresil " (Paul Walle). Paris : Guilmoto, 1910. 

" Sao Paulo du Bresil " (L. Casabona). Paris : Guil- 
moto, 1908, 230 pp. 

" La Verite sur le Bresil " (A. Hanicotte). Paris : 
1908. 

" A Travers le Bresil " (Dr. Latteaux). Paris : Ail- 
laud, 1910. 

"L'Or a Minas Geraes " (P. Ferraud). Imp. Off. 
Ouro Preto, Minas, 1894. 

" Bresil au 20° Siecle " (P. Denis). Paris : 1909. 

" Anthologie d'Ecrivains Bresiliens " (Victor Orban). 
Paris, 1910. 

Italian. 

" Un Viaggio a Rio Grande del Sul " (V. Bucelli). 
Milan : Pallestrine, 1906. 

German. 

" Das Republikanische Brasilien (Oscar Constatt). 
Leipzig ; F. Hirt Sohn, 1899, 656 pp. 

" Aus Deutsch-Brasilien " (A. Funke). Leipzig : 
Teubner, 1902. 

" Brasilien " (M. Lamberg). Leipzig : Teiger, 1899. 

359 PP- 

" Report Intemationaler Amerikanischer Kongress." 
Wien, 1908. 

" Brasilien von Heute " (H. Schuler). Berlin : D. 
Dryer, 1903, 215 pp. 

" Das heutige Brasilien " (M. Schanz). Hamburg : 
W. Mauke Sohne, 1893. 

" Pluto Brasiliensis " (Dr. Eschwege). Berlin : G. 
Reimer, 1833. 

" Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern " (Dr. Griinberg 
Koch). Berlin : Wasmuth, 1903-5. 

cc 



386 APPENDIX 

Portuguese. 

" Prehistoric Sul Americana " (A. de Carvalho, 1910). 
Typ. : Jornal do Recife, Pernambuco. 

" Anthologia Brasileira," 4th ed. (Professor Eugenic 
Wemeck). Rio Janeiro, 1912. Typ. : Franciscan 
Fathers, PetropoHs. 

" Brasil- Album " (Dr. Pires de Almeida). Typ.: 
Leuzinger, Rio, 191 1. 

" Atlas do Brasil " (Barao Homen de Mello, etc., etc.). 
Briguiet, Rio, 1909. 

" Minas Geraes," No. xx° Seculo (Dr. R. Jacob). 3 
vols., map. Gomes Irmao, Rio, 1911-12. 

" Os Indios do Brasil " (Dr. N. de Senna). Typ. : 
Official, Bello Horizonte, 1908. 

" Annuario de Minas Geraes," 1906-8. Typ. : Official 
Bello Horizonte, 1908. 

" Estudo Descriptivo da Via9ao Ferrea do Brasil " 
(Lassance Cunha Dr. Eng.). Imp. Nacional, Rio, 1909. 

" Coardenadas Geographicas do Brasil " (Dr. Eng. Las- 
sance Cunha). Imp. Nacional Rio, 1909. 

" Oeste de S. Paulo " (Dr. Arrojado Lisboa). Typ. : 
J. do Commercio, Rio, 1909. 

" A Cria^ao do Gado no Brasil " (M. Bemardes). Imp. 
Nacional, Rio. 

" Manual Practice do Viticultor " (Dr. Campos de 
Paz). M. of Agriculture, Rio. 

"Annuario Brasileiro, 1910-11 " (Brandao So- 
brinho.) Casa Vanorden, Sao Paulo. 

" Os Culicideos do Brasil " (Dr. Ant. Gon9alves). 
Institute Manguinhos, Rio Janeiro, 1908. 

" A Defesa Contra o Ophidismo " (Dr. Vidal Brasil). 
Ministry of Agriculture, Rio, 191 1. 

" Agricultura Tropical " (Dr. Semler). 4 vols, (trans- 
lated from the German). M. of Agriculture, Rio, 1909- 

12. 



APPENDIX 387 

" Mappas Agricolas (Atlas)." Sociedade Nacional da 
Agricultura, Rio (Rua da Alfandega). 

" O Brasil." 3 vols., Centro Industrial, Rio Janeiro, 
1908-9. 

" O Apicultor Brasileiro " (Schenk). Ministry of 
Agriculture, Rio, 191 1. 

" O descobrimento do Brasil " (CapistranoDeAbreu). 
78 pp., 4to (Livro do Centenario), 1500-1900. 

" As Bellas Artes, 1500-1900 " (Coelho Netto). Im- 
prensa Nacional, 1900-1901 (Livro do Centenario). 

Various other subjects in same book, 2 vols., 4to. 

" Historia Diplomatica do Brasil " (Oliveira Lima). 
Rio de Janeiro : Garnier, 1901, 376 pp., 8vo. 

" Rio Grande do Sul " (Varella A.). Echenique, Porte 
Alegre, 1897, 507 pp., 8vo. 

" As Riquezas Mineraes do Estado de Bahia, 1908 " 
(Souza Cameiro). Livraria, Rees and Cia, Bahia, 160 
pp. 

Dutch. 

" Brazilie." N. R. de Leeun, Vice-Consul of Brazil. 
Amsterdam : Bussy, 1909, 393 pp. A fine work. 

Publications of the Brazilian Government Information 
Office, Paris. 

" Le Bresil," vols, i to 3, by many authors (a great 
work of reference). " II Brasile " (Italian version), by 
Dr. F. Canella. " Les Progres du Bresil " ; " Salubrite 
du Bresil " ; L'Immigration et le Trachoma au Bresil " 
(N. R. Pestana) ; " Les Finances Bresiliennes " (P. A. 
Ducas) ; " Comment on assainit un pays" (N. R. Pes- 
tana) ; " Les Ressources Minerales du Bresil (H. Gor- 
ceix) ; " Les Progres de Sao Paulo " ; " Le Bresil (O. 
Lima) ; " Les Etats du Bresil " (S. Magdhaes) ; " Le 
Bresil " (P. Doumer) ; " Climat et Salubrite de I'Etat 



388 AlPPENDIX 

de S. Paulo " (N. R. Pestana) ; " Un Centre Economique 
au Bresil Mines, 1908 " (C. M. D. de Carvalho) ; " Mat6 " 
(M. Francfort) ; " Mate " (in English). Also maps and 
diagrams. 

See also the Rio papers as follows : " Jornal do Com- 
mercio " (morning and evening), " O Paiz," " Correio 
da Manha," " Correio do Norte," " Diario de Noticias," 
" Gazetta de Noticias," " Jornal do Brasil," " Folha do 
Dia." " A Impiensa," " O Seculo," " A Noticia," " O 
Mundo," " A Noite," " L'Echo du Bresil," " II Correire 
Italiano," " Bersagliere," " Al Barid " (Syrian), " Revista 
da Sociedade Scientifica de S. Paulo." Also " Jornal 
dos Agricultores," " O Cafe," " A Lavoura," " Revista 
Americana," " lUustra^ao Brasileira," " Brazilian Re- 
view," " L'Etoile du Sud," " Careta," " Fon Fon," 
" Revista da Semana," " Brasilianische Rundschau," 
" Chacaras e Quintaes " (Sao Paulo), and the annual 
reports and reviews of the School of Mines (Ouro Preto), 
Museum Ipiranga (Sao Paulo), Nat. Museum (Rio), 
Nat. Library (Rio), and the boletras of the Commercial 
Museum, and Ministry of Agriculture, Rio, and the 
annual reports of the Ministers of Agriculture, Finance, 
and Public Works ; also " Memorias do Instituto Os- 
waldo Cruz," Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, " Almanac 
Laemmert " and " Almanac Gamier," Rio, the Monthly 
Bulletin of the Pan-American Union, Washington, 
U.S.A. ; " The Gem Cutter's Craft," by L. Claremont 
(London : Bell & Co.) ; and " Precious Stones " (Good 
child) (London : Constable, 1909). 

Periodical Press (Europe). 

London : " South American Journal " (weekly) ; 
"South America" (monthly). 
Paris : " Le Bresil " and " Le Courrier du Bresil." 



APPENDIX 389 

Brussels : " Le Courrier de L'Etat de St. Paul " 
(monthly), published by the State Government at Rue 
Royale. 

Barcelona : " Brazil-Espana." 



CONCLUSION , 

An absence of some three years from Brazil was quite 
long enough to prepare me for the great changes that 
have taken place since Brazil in igog was taken in hand, 
some twelve months before it appeared, or in April, 
1908, under the difficulties inseparable from working on 
shipboard. I left a city in embryo, a sort of vague 
promise for the future, and but yesterday I found a 
place still in the making, but well on the way to com- 
pletion. Rio de Janeiro is fast losing its Latin aspect, 
and taking on the appearance of a cosmopolitan capital. 
English is heard everywhere, on train, tram, ferry or 
taxicab. In the elevators, as one flies up a hundred 
feet in the air, and in all the show places, as well as the 
busy haunts of man. Cockney, North Country, Scotch, 
Irish and American accents on all sides. Most of the 
Britishers, Colonials and Americans are of course here 
on business, and prosperity appears to be coming in 
their wake. The intelligent foreigner is beginning to 
appreciate the country, and the wide-awake pro\4ncial 
has begun to imitate Rio in the matter of sanitation and 
material improvements. Brazilians generally, as well 
as Brazil itself, gain by the introduction of the keener 
Northern peoples, and perhaps Jack will be able to teach 
his master a little in the course of time. I think, how- 
ever, that Brazilians of education would not have said 
(as a certain Britisher did) of Brazil in igio, that the 
preface damned the book, and he didn't want to read 

3M 



CONCLUSION 891 

any more. For the benefit of this gentleman (in case 
he gets hold of this edition) I would say, Don't judge in 
a hurry. There is no prologue in Biblical style in Brazil 
in igii, I am thankful to say, but in spite of that stain 
on last year's book every copy has gone and thousands 
more were demanded ; and I hope that the kind wish of 
the London Financial News, that many annual editions 
will see the light, will be realized, and that each one 
will be more accurate and complete than its predecessor. 
This time I will beg any gentlemen who have fuller 
details on any subject than I to their hand, to have the 
kindness to forward them to me, care of my publishers 
em prol do Brasil. Finally, not to tax the reader's 
patience, 

Au revoir, 

J. C. OAKENFULL 
Paris, 

December f 191 1. 



INDEX 



Abieiro, 218 
Achroite, 256 
Actinolite, 256 
Agates, 256 

Agricultural stations, 237 
Alfalfa, 239 
Amazon, 1-4 
Amethysts, 256-7 
Analcime, 257 
Anatase, 257 
Andalusite, 257 
Anthophyllite, 257 
Apatite, 257 
Apiculture, 230-1 
Apophyllite, 257 
Apple, 228 
Apricot, 218 
Aquamarine, 258 
Araga, 218 
Aramina fibre, 169 
Army, 83-4 
Arrowroot, 214 
Arsenic, 258 
Asbestos, 258 
Asphalt (see Petroleum 
Atopite, 258 

Balais ruby {see Spinel) 
Banana, 170, 225-6 
Bandeirantes, 60-1 
Bankruptcy, 115 
Banks, foreign, 131 
Barium, 259 
Barley, 209 
Beans, 211-2 
Birth rate, i8 
Botucudos, 25 
Brazil nuts, 177-78 
Brazilian ports, 66 
Bread fruit, 219 

Cactus fruit, 219 
Cadmium, 259 
Carayas, 23 
Carnauba wax, 179 
Cashew, 218-1 
Castor oil plant, 177 



Cerussite, 259 
Chalmersite, 259 
Cherimolia, 220 
Cherry, 228 
Chrysoberyl, 259 
Cinnabar, 260 
Citrus fruit, 223-4 
Cobalt, 264 
Cocoa, 196-198 
Cocoanut palm, 179 
Coffee, 191-6 
Colonization, 94-105 
Columbite, 264 
Commercial laws, 118 
Constitution, 68, 108-10 
Copaiba, 177 
Copper, 264 
Coquilho nuts, 180 
Cotton, 201-2 
Cyanite, 264 

Damson, 228 
Death rate, 16 
Delessite, 265 
Density of population, 18 
Derbylite, 264 
Desmine, 265 
Diamonds, 265-78 
Dichroite, 284 
Disthene, 265 

Education, in 
Electricity, 136 
Emery, 278 
Epidote, 279 
Euclase, 279 
Exports, 130 

Feathers, 155 
Fibres, 165-71 
Fibrolite, 279 
Fig, 228 
Fishes, 147-50 
Fish glue, 154 
Finances, 129 
Floriculture, 189 
Fluor spar, 279 

393 



894 



INDEX 



Forage plants, 238 
Fossus, 253-5 
Fossil skulls, 31-2 
Fructa de Conde, 220 
Fruit, Exportation, of, 229 
Funeral urns, 32 

Gabiroba, 227 
Galena, 280 
Game, 152 
Garnets, 279 
Guarani Indians, 25 
Geology, 249-2 
Gessan, 27 
Goats, 245-6 
Gold, 280-4 
Gold, Dredging for, 281 
Graphite, 284 
Greenockite, 259 
Guava, 221 

Heulandite, 284 

Hides, Exportation of, 243 

Holidays, 112 

Huguenots, Persecution of the, 

52-4 
Hyacinth (see Garnet), 280 

Iguassu, Falls of, 3 
Immigrants, Crowded, 18 
Immigrations, 91 
Indian superstition, 28-9 
Indicolite, 299 
Industries, 126 
Insect plagues, 157 
lolite, 284 
Iron, 285-88 
Iron (meteoric), 287 
Itacolumi, 8 
Itaiassu, 7 
Itatiaia, 327-29 

Jaboticaba, 221-2 
Jambeiro, 220-1 
Jasper, 288 
Jesuits in Brazil, 50-1 

Kaolin, 288 

Labrets, 35-6 
Lakes, Brazilian, 8 
Laws, Food, 119 
Lawsittings, 112 
Limestone caverns, 329 
Limonites, 289 
Literature, 330-3 
Live stock, 239-48 



Maize, 209-1 

Mamona, 224-5 

Manads, 10 

Mandioca, 212-3 

Manganese, 289 

Mangarito, 214 

Mango, 225 

Mantiqueira range, 7-8 

Maracuja, 227 

Marble, 290 

Marine, 81-3 

Marriage laws, no 

Matte, 180-4 

Medicinal plants, 184 

Melon, 229 

Meteoric iron, 287 

Methodists in Brazil, 77 

Mica, 290 

Mineralogy, 256-302 

Mining openings in Brazil, 301-2 

Molybdenite, 292 

Monazitic sands, 291 

Monkeys, 152 

Morro Velho gold mine, 281-2 

Mulberry, 228 

Mules and asses, 224 

Musicians, 333-4 

Naturalization, 106-8 
Nespera, 228 
Nickel, 292 
Notes for shippers, 124 

Oats, 209 

Opals, 292 

Openings for trade, 126-7 

Orange, lime, lemon, 222 

Orchids, 186-88 

Orchids in Petropolis, 320 

Ornamental plants, 186-88 

Palaeontology, 252-5 
Palladium, 292 
Paper making, 174-6 
Para, ii-2 
Paraguayan war, 69 
Paraguassu river, 8 
Parana river, 3 
Parana plateau, 8 
Passagem mine, 282-3 
Patents, 113 
Paulo Affonso Falls, 2 
Peach, 228 
Pear, 229 
Pearls, 292-3 



INDEX 



395 



Perini fibre, i66 
Petroleum, 263 
Phenakite, 293 
Piassava fibre, 169 
Pineapple, 166-71, 217-18 
Pita, 167-68 
Pitangueira, 227 
Platinum, 293 
Plums, 227-28 
Poisonous plants, 185-6 
Pombal, Marquez de, 62-3 
Ports, Distance between, 138 
Posts, 132 
Potatoes, 214-5 
Poultry, 247 
Pyrenees, 8 
Pyrolusite, 294 

Quays, Rio de Janeiro, 138 
Quince, 228 

Railway, 139-5 

Raspberry, 228 

Ramie fibre, 169 

Republic, Foundation of, 76 

Resins, 189 

Rhodonite, 294 

Rice, 207-9 

Rio de Janeiro, 310-18 

Rock crystal, 294 

Rubber, 158-3 

Rubellite, 299 

Rubicelle, 280 

Ruby, 294 

Rutile, 295 

Salt, 295 
Samarskite, 295 
Sapphires, 296 
Sapoti, 227 
Schelite, 296 
Science, 334-6 
Scorodite, 296 
Sele Lagoas, Caves of, 31 
Sete Quedas Falls, 3 
Slaves, 65-71 
Snakes, 152-3 
Soap stone, 297-298 
Sour sop, 220 
Sphene, 296 
Spinel, 296 
Spodumene, 297 



Stamp duties, 128 
Staurolite, 297 
Stibnite, 297 
Stolzite, 297 
Subsidies, 120-3 
Sugar, 199-1 
Sulphur, 297 

Talc, 297 
Tanga, 35-7 
Tapioca, 213 
Taxes, 128 
Tea, 203 

Telegraphs, 133-4 
Telephones, 134 
Temperature, 14 
Tijuca, 7 
Timber, 172-4 
Tin, 298 
Tingua, 7 
Titanite, 296 
Tobacco, 203-5 
Tomato, 229 
Topazes, 298 
Torangeira, 297 
Tourmaline, 299 
Trade marks, IT4 
Tremolite, 300 
Triphane, 297 
Tropical fruits, 217-27 
Tupis, 25 
Turtles, 153 

Uncultivated fruits, 229 

Vanidinite, 300 

Vassoura, 166 

Viticulture, 233-6 

Voyage to Brazil (north), 307-8 

Voyage to Rio de Janeiro, 308-10 

Water sapphire {see lolite), 284 
Wavellite, 300 
Whaling, 153-4 
Wheat, 206-7 
Wolframite, 300-1 

Xenotine, 301 

Yam, 215-6 

Zeolites, 301 
Zircons, 301 



Printed by Butler & Tanner, Frome and London 



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