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Full text of "The Brazil of to-day; a book of commercial, political and geographical information on Brazil; impressions of voyage, descriptive and picturesque data about the principal cities, prominent men and leading events of our days, with illustrations and statistics"

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The Brazil of To-day 



WORKS OF THE SAME AUTHOR 

FOK SAI.IO AT IjAI']MMP"RT & Co's, HOOKSTOKK 

Kio-dk-.Taneiko, Brazil 



Dr. Rodrigues Lima e sua administracao < l^r()|i:igan(l;i ropublicnna). 

— lialiin. T\|Mi-iaiiliia Wilkc I'icanl ^ (1. 1890.— 1 volume 
nun I'.).') jiaginas. 

Problema Naval. — lliu dc .laiicii'". Ty|inf;ia|iliia da Eslalislica. 1885) 

— 1 vuliinic (le ^Tl-xxv (lafiiiias. ('.(Hii inn [H'cfacio dc Sonador 
Fliiy Barbosa. 

Do Rio a Buenos Aires, i lliiisddios c iniiii-cssfio dc unia viai-cni ao 
I'rala). — Kin dt' Janeiro. I'.IOI. Iinprcnsa Nacional. — I i^rosso 
vohimc oniado com cerca dc ^200 csplcndida.s giavuras. 

Algumas Paginas. Oucslucs sohrc dcfcsa |iulilicM, |iolcniica , etc. — 
Italiia. IS)(l(l. 'ly|i. do Correio dc Xotii-i.is. — I volnnic, cm 
o|itiin() |ia|icl, com -I'H) paginas. 




Ills I ACI I I |.^(•.^ |)r AI'loNsd I'l \\\ 

CHI ^Mil M III III! IIIIA/II.IAN IIII'MII IC 



Arthur DIAS 



THE 



BRAZIL OF TO-DAY 



A hook of Commercial, Political and Geograpliical Information 
on Brazil 

Impressions of Voyage, Descriptive and Picturesque data about the Principal Cities 

Prominent men and Leading Events of our Days 

with Illustrations and Statistics 









L A X X E A U & D E S P R E T 

PRIMERS 

X I V E L L E S (B E L G I U >r) 



GIFT OP 



f 



JPO' i 

^ ^, 



X) 



^iMT EARTH 
U*»* SCIENCES 
LIBRA,, f 



GEOGRAPHT--DEPT;- 



THE BRAZIL OF TO-DAY , 



I. — Introduction. — Politics. — Administration. 
Federal Services. 

II. — Sciences. — Fine Arts. — Litterature. — Progress. 



M130739 



The Brazil of To-day 



This great country, already one of the largest in the world when 
it made its appearance as an independent nation at the beginning of 
the last centnrj^ has since added to its map several regions, both at 
the North and South, not by means of military conquests, butthrough 
the decisions of international judges. At the beginning of this cen- 
tury there were only four flags unfurling their colors over communi- 
ties larger than the Brazilian Republic and they were : England, 
which is the largest empire of the world, with its colonies and pos- 
sessions all over ; Russia, with its Asiatic annexations ; the immense 
China which we may compare with a well, as it seems to grow at 
the proportion other nations take away from it some territory: and 
the United States with its four million of square miles much enlarg- 
ed by the victories won in the war against Spain. Of all these great 
countries , however, none has territorial homogeneity, and what is 
still more important , none has the homogeneity of its race as 

Brazil has. 

That enormous English empire is by itself a map of peoples with- 
out anj^ other ties but its powerful instruments of administration, 
so that, what we admire it for, is not its tendency towards desaggre- 
gation nearly exposing itself b}' the independence of the Australian 
federation, but for its aggremiation, as it exists to-day, conglome- 
rating artificially ethnic disj)Ositions, habits and customs, languages 
and social inclinations of impossible assimilation. 

The massive Russia is an aggravation of the English heteroge- 
neity we referred to : is like the English empire but more crowded 
with antagonistic races — the Slavonic, Polish, Laplanders, Finlan- 
ders, Estonians, Armenians, Siberians, Parminiens and Georgians, 
Tartars and Tchoudians, in short, « iine monstriieuse et disconhinte 
agglomeration de penples, « as a certain geographer put it. 



— . 8 — 

About China, empire of Tartars and Mongolians, it is enough to 
say that only half of its enormous population is really Chinese. 

The United States, as a nationality, is the least heterogeneous 
of the four. It encloses within its boundary lines English Conti- 
nental States, French States, Mexican States, without speaking of 
the Spanish-Philippine ones added after the last war. 

In a word : Brazil is the only one of the gigantic countries in- 
habited by a single mition. The Brazilians to counter balance the 
many incriminations justified by their inherited faults, owe to Por- 
tugal the inestimable benefit of the unity of the race , unity main- 
tained and strengthened through the evolution of the nationality, 
mainly by means of these two factors : language and religion. 

The religion adopted by the population of the country generally, 
without either fanaticism or intolerance, but rather with the legal 
consecration of the freedom of creeds, is one and the same in all the 
twenty States of the Republic. The small number of non-Roman-Ca- 
tholic churches, is not sufficient to alter faith in general. It is just 
like the case of that law of the impenetrability, in phj'sics : there 
is no room. 

The language is, in our opinion, still a more valuable factor of the 
national cohesion. Any one travelling in Brazil, as I have done, from 
North to South, and from the cosmopolitan cities of the sea shore, 
with a high degree of European culture, to the most obscure villages 
of the interior, will not hear anything else but the same latin voice, 
harmonious and tuneful, expressing the same feelings, their folk lore 
and traditions, the same thoughts, the same philosophy, the same 
ideals, in short, l)y the productions of their poets, their journalists, 
their orators, any one will understand most plainly the truth of that 
DoImk^'s jiidgnii'nt saying : « the luni>'uuge is the only charucte- 
ristic of :i nulion which cannot be iululterntcil. » 

'I'his docs not mean that the language si)oken to-day in the vast 
territory of Brazil is strictly the language of Portugal and its philo- 
logqrH. — To say that would be not to understand, in its quantity 
and in its variety, the contingent with which the messoneist action 
and the collaboration of tln^ aboiigiual dialects intervene as irresis- 
tible modifiers and regulators, in the transfiguration of the prosody, 
of the syntax and f\«'n of llic Icxii'ology, of (lie voi-abnlary, in the 
diffcri'ucc of the speaking of tlu> two ix'oples, 'i'lic mother tongue 
was providentially sow M in evei-y cornel- of the Brazilian territory 
and iIh re was preserved tlnoiigh all the aiteinatives of the history 
of Brazil, in spite of the piesenee of the diverse elements that ap- 
peared in the foundation of several cities, by Spaniards, Frenchmen, 



— i) — 

Dutchmen , Germans and Italians, either in the cok)nial period, or 
even after the political independence of Brazil. 

This double tie arranged in such a way the unity and the iden- 
tity of the Brazilian people, that, political superveniences which were 
great modifiers as the one that in 1822, by the monarchy, changed 
the a Capitanias w, into (c prouincias », and the one that in 1889, 
by the republic, changed the « provincias » into federated states do 
not succeed in shaking in tlie least the joints of the body of rela- 
tions and interdependences, which transform the political-social life 
of each of the States into the life of only one national organism 
perfectly indivisible. The phenomenon, ^^ Inch is observed, by all 
foreigners who visit Brazil, with astonishment, has caused no little 
amount of envy on the part of the neighbors of Brazil. 

With such proportions, occupying an area of over one half of the 
continent, Brazil presents itself as a true collossus, if not comparing 
it with the territory of European countries , at least comparing it 
with the nations of the same continent. 

The most curious conjunction, j^et, and the one presenting itself 
as casual in its most surprising consequences of the evolutional 
syncretism of the race, is that, to that physionomic-social unity 
corresponds, at the bottom, a most varied ethnic amalgam, a human 
compound, notably mixed, in which there interfered with uneven 
coefficients the European latin-born, the Neerland European, the 
African, the Autochtone , already mixed by the fusion of diverse 
tribes and nations. 

The intermingling of these elements, for a long time elaborated, 
gave in result the alloyage of to-daj^ in which took part also the 
Polish, Teutonic and Latin of the peninsula, giving to the Brazilian 
population of our days the character of a race of transition , in a 
continuous process of purifying itself by the predominance of the 
white types. 

That community received, with the phj^sionomic characteristic 
of its ancestors, its psychic inheritance equally mixed in the fusion 
of a sole type which is none of them being at the same time all of 
them : the blind and solid virility of the Luso-Iberic, the imagi- 
nation and enduring resistence of the indigenes, with the sentimen- 
tality of the African and his affective capacity, 

Theophilo Braza, a Portuguese writer of renown , wrote the fol- 
lowing paragraph in the introduction of a book Contos Popiila- 
res by Sylvio Romero, a Brazilian litterary man, considered the 
best litterary critic of the country : 

(( The co-operation of the three human races, the arica by its 



— 10 — 

spcciihitivc capacity, tlic negro one by its affective superiority and 
the inditrene by its active tendencies, unified in the social fact of 
the lii-a/ilian nationality makes us to au<jur what will be the extra- 
ordinary greatness of the South American civilisation in which 
Hra/.il will predominate »; and that greatness we can already feel ii 
in the figures with which the Brazilian nation increases its nume- 
rical total so rapidly. 

In ITTf) the number of inhabitants was estimated at 1.900.000, 
but at the time of the independence of the country it was already 
:j. 000. 00(1; in 18.")() there were 8.000.000 in round figures, though it 
had separated itself from that colossus called (Jisplulinu Province, 
as it was the only strange part of it under the view point of race and 
language, history and customs; in a short while, after the Para- 
guayan war it was 11.000.000, and the census of 1890 showed offi- 
cially 14.;333.91.5 though did not comprize quite a number of cities 
and villages of the interior. 

To-day the pojjulation is estimated at "20.000. 000, of which more 
than half are whites; the other half is subdivided into a mixed breed 
\\ iili an indefinite number of degrees of crossing by descendants of 
Africans, in smaller number, and by some Indian tribes. 

New arrivals of Europeans, principally latin ones, (Italians, 
Portuguese and Spaniards) as well as Anglo-Saxons, Polish and 
Syrians, in small numbers land in Brazil every year to share the be- 
nefits of this beautiful and happy country, collaborating at the same 
time in the rapid gi'owth of the nation, which, some day, will have 
as France, Germany and Belgium, all its territory recognized and 
(*xpl()it(Hl. It w ill be then (hat, upon these deserts of the AVest, upon 
these melancholic fiehls and mountains, the noise will be heard of 
the active and struggling communities and the music of civilisation 
marching with its industries and earnest life; and in this future age, 
instead of 18 or 2O.(X)0.O()0 inhabitants speaking the language of the 
Brazilian writers and poets there will 100.000.000 or ,".00.000. 000 
doing it and lliey will be (here ready to defend the flag that past 
gcncia(ions have delivered (o (hem spodess, beloved and powerful. 

W hat |{i-azilians have done wi(li (ha( large territory in (heir 
poHSCHsion, is not all tlicy aspired for in their j.atriotic dreams. No 
other people has done more, if are to considci- (he small number of 
its popiihKion. (he conditions (if climate and other drawbacks. Its 
popidadon is and has been unsufficient to exploit its vast territory. 
Aftci- the iialional in<lepen(lcnce. evei-ything (hat tlicre was ])ossible 
of assimihiting from the con(|ues(s of scienci's, arts and industries, 
is well in e\idence in \\w ailniinis(rativ(^ organiza(ion of the nation, 



— 11 — 

in the liberal and humane principles of the Brazilian codes, in the 
activity of the commerce and newly born industries, in the railroads, 
schools, churches, libraries, newspapers and many other evidences 
of progress. Man}' European countries have been excelled in the 
proportion of those exteriorities of the evolutive capacity of peoples. 

The capital of the Republic, the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro, 
which represents the pride and the hopes of the Brazilians, by its 
gigantic proportions, though it may not be celebrated by its buildings 
and monuments it is one of the largest in territory and even in popu- 
lation. The improvements it is now undergoing, opening avenues, 
bay-side-drives, constructing public buildings, theatres and beau- 
tifying its squares and parks give the assurance that Rio will shortly 
be one of the best cities in this continent, no doubt, the first in South 
America. The Harbor Works and the Avenida Central now under 
way, the latter being nearly completed both began by the adminis- 
tration of President Rodrigues Alves and Dr. Lauro Muller, Secre- 
tary of Public Works are two magnificent improvements which are 
causing no tittle amount of envy to the Argentines, always jealous 
of the Brazilians. 

Before going any further we wall now speak of the administration 
of the country. Since 1889 when the Republic was proclaimed, the 
20 Provinces began to be knowm as States, with full liberty to govern 
themselves both economically and politically at their own free will, 
of course, under the surveillance of the Federal Government. Among 
other things they can elect their Governors, vote their taxes and use 
their revenue in the best manner they deem it wise. Besides this 
they received all grants of land, the largest portion of national 
grounds, mines, the power arbitrating the legislature on railroads 
and rivers navigation, once they are within the boundary lines of the 
State, and other advantages. 

If some of the States have made some mistakes of administration, 
the majority have been administrated with great wisdom and pros- 
pering thereby. 

We must say that the 20 States were not by any means on the same 
level as to their capacity development and material improvement, to 
justify such liberality to be granted to all at the same time. On the 
other hand, it would have been convenient to have established a new 
territorial division retailing into two, three or four political-geogra- 
phical unities the largest part of the big States, and maintain under 
the Federal administration those constituted after that sub-division, 
State of international frontier. The simple intuition of self-defense 
suggests it. 



— 12 — 

To be sure siu-li mistakes will be remedied in a revision of the 
constitution which, it is believed, some day will be done. The prac- 
tical good sense of the Brazilians so often demonstrated in several 
historical periods of their evolution warrant our assertion. 

At the moment of tli is writing Brazil is at complete peace with 
foreign powers and in the most pacific tranquility at home. Thus 
Brazilians are engaged body and sole in developing the material 
progress of the Federal District and the 20 States forming their 
fatherland. 

Protected by the propicious shade of the liberty expressed in the 
Brazilian laws there can be seen the speedy progress of sciences, 
litteraturc, fine arts, and that multiplicity of exteriorisations of the 
commercial and industrial activity. Brazil is representing an impor- 
tant role in the concert of civilized nations and the manner in which 
the rest of the world is getting interested in its affairs speaks for 
the recognized importance in which this great country is had bj' the 
foreign powers. 

By reading the following chapters of this book it will be realized 
that the progress of Brazil in all its branches of activity has been 
considerable and we may say right here in a spirit of fairness that 
Brazil at the head of all the South American republics, offers from 
this very moment an undeniable assurance of the happy future of 
the civilization of this continent, laying claim, for the neo latin races 
that occupy it, to those attentions and sympathic demonstrations 
that the Giant of the Xorth knew so well how to conquer for that 
portion of the continent it dominates. 

IsBrazil yet a little away from that progress ? Tt maj' be true, but... 

Pelit jjoisson deviendra grand, 
Pourvit (jiie Dien lui prete vie... 
fSm:ill fish will l)(!coiiio large, so long as God give tlicni life...) 

Brazilians have no reason to be discouraged, neither is it woith 
while to think of how much they have yet to overcome. If the road 
to travel is long, it is nevertheless a glorious (me. They have con- 
(|iMTcd a good deal since the starting point of their colonial freedom. 
Tlicy received a (piite weak and disjointel nation, and from it thoy 
made a great an<l homogeneous nationality with immense future pos- 
sibiliti(^s. They will have to work a good deal more, they will have 
to engage themselves in the struggles for civilisation and nature has 
endowed them with every element of success. Brazilians to-day 
Hi'v.iu to be w.ll imbibed in that thing, which, as Kmerson said : — 
« is tln^ only serious and roniiidahle thing in the world » — tlu' will 
powei". 



COMPARISON OF THE AREA OF THE FIVE LARGEST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD 

Square kilometres. — Scale i lulm — loo kilometres 



English Colonial 
Empire 



25. 052.900 



China 



II . ii5.65o 



Russia 



22.430.000 



United States 



9.212.300 



Brazil 



8.337.018 



COMPARISON OF THE AREA OF THE DIFFERENT SOUTH-AMERICAN REPUBLICS 

Square kilometres. — Scale i mjm = 100 kilometres 



Brazil 



8.337.212 



Argentine 
Republic 

2.789.400 



Bolivia 

1.33i.200 



COLUMBIA 

1.330.873 



Perc 



Vene- 
zuela 

i.oin.soo 



CHILI 

7.=i3,216 



D 

Equador 

n 

Paraguay 

D 

Uruguay 



— li — 

For the peoples just as for the individuals, progress is just that : 
to work and to struggle, as for them, using the words of a Brazi- 
lian poet, 

Vioer e liilnr. 
A vida e combiite, 
Que OS fracos abate, 
Que OS fortes, as bruvos 
So pucle exallar. 
iTii live is 1(1 sU'iigglc. Life is a jjatlle, wliercMlie weak arc llirowii ddwii Ijiil wlicre llic 
strong and brave can only be elovaleil. i 

But, let us go on. We ^vill try to analyze in a eoncise form the 
Brazil of to-day. 

Before passing in review the diverse aspects of Brazilian life of 
to-day, 1).\' means of a trip to each one of the twenty States, in which 
the reader will be kind enough tot let us escort him, we must write 
a few remarks about the Administration and several branches of the 
civil service of the Republic, leaving that descriptive exposition of 
tin; States by their geographical order to follow afterwards. 



TELEGRAPH AND RAILROADS 



The telegraphic net of Brazil, is the most advanced and the most 
extensive, under the technical point of view , of all others in the 
south American republics. Its installation and its initial improve- 
ments ar(! due to a Brazilian of great worth, the Baron of C'apanema. 

The telegraph was operated for the first time in Bi-azil in ISlU. 
The apparatus used then wei'c those known by the name of A, 1>, (', 
with a small show case and which worked by means of Breguet 's 
electric hattcries being in use also at the same time the Stochrer 's 
d<iiil)lc ciin-ciii apparatus. These lasted for some time but right alter 
the Paraguayan war tln-y l>cgaii to use the electro-magnetic current 
apparatus the currents of which were used l)y means of magiu'tic- 
iudiictors lit the house SienuMis »!v: Ilalske. 

The Mppaialiis of the first jx'riod t»f the telegraph service in Hra- 
zil were replaced in 1S77 by those of Morse, which Brazil was com- 
ix'lled to adopt since then once it had joined the St. Petersburg 
con\ cii lion. 

At the same lime wires were, heing si)read all lhroii<;h the coiin- 
II- v. 



— 15 — 

Until a little before the republic Avas jiroclaimed the telegTai)h 
was living a slow life. An official document says in that regard : 
« in the decade 1880 to 1889 the average dit not exceed 420.000 tele- 
grams with about 6.000.000 words annually. The maximum being 
(557.000 telee-rams with 8.100.000 words in 1887. There existed the 




Hio DE Jankiko. — I'liiia « Uiiiiizc-.Novembre ». 



circumstance that the public educated with the slow work of the 
telegraph did not exact very much as to the quickness of transmis- 
sion. » 

This we quote from the report of the General Telegraph Depart- 
ment, published in Rio, in 1902, p. 72. 

From 1900 on, however, the volume of telegraphic traffic deve- 
lopped in such a way that the government was compelled to dupli- 
cate and in some places increase four fold the leading lines. The 
Morse apparatus were replaced by those of Baudot, which are in 
operation in the leading stations of the sea-shore, from Recife to Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

The telegraphic movement in the federal lines in the year 1900 
was as follows : 

Telegrams Words 

Private 1.134.653 13.261.189 

Otficial 83.211 2.628.439 

From the States 39.690 1.231.215 

Pre.ss 34.145 3.087.0 12 

1,291,699 20.227,875 



— 16 — 

To these figures we have to add those who belong to the traffie 
of the States, as some States have telegraph lines of their own. built 
and maintained by their treasuries as it happens with Amazonas, 
Para, Maranliao, Ceara and Rio Grande do Sul. In the schedule 
above are not also included the figures regarding the submarine 
telegrams, English ones, agencies being established in the principal 
cities of Brazil. 

The Brazilian telegraph is extended and distributed through all 
the States of Brazil with an extension of 12.008.000 metres with 100 
stations new lines being under way of construction. 

The follow^iug table shows the progress of the telegraphic net of 
Brazil from the last year of the monarch}' : 

Years Metres I Years Metres 

1889 18.92o.30o I 1896 39.779.133 

1890 20.299.194 j 1897 40.128.045 

1891 28.268.739 I 1898 -40.232 849 

1892 31.229.4,38 | 1899 40.332.404 

1893 34.231. .393 1900 41.677.980 

1894 33.494.383 | 1901 -42.902.244 

1893 37.218 000 1902 -44.383.2-49 

This number goes up to 50,000 kilometres including the States 
telegraph lines, those of private railways concerns, etc. 

As we see, Brazil can be placed among the States possessing the 
most extensive telegraphic nets, of which we now give an account : 
the United States has 6."50,O0O kilometres, Russia 130.000, German j^ 
118.000, France '.Xi.OOO, Austria-Hungary (•)<»,-200, English India 
(53.000, Mexico 01.000, Great Britain and Ireland 55.000, Canada 
52.000, Italy 30.000, Turkey .33,000, Argentine Republic 30,000, Spain 
20.000, ("hili 2."J.()<)0 kilometres, etc, the other countries being below 
these figures. 

The Bai'ao de Capanema for manj'^ years managed the service of 
Brazilian telegraphic lines, always assimilating to the official instal- 
lation the ])r()gresses introduced in the most advanced European 
countries. 'IMiis way the national telegraph has always been able to 
rcMulei- good servu-es, 'IMie successors of the Barao de Capanema in 
the administration of the service followed his example, not only 
devoloi)i)ing the lines, but a('(|uiriug newer api)aratus, some orwliich 
arc manufactured in liic work shops attached to the Ceuti-al Station 
in Kio de .laneiro, 

W lien they closed in Ji<mdou the International Telegrai)hic Con- 
vention in .lune 11(03 deciding to adopt the apparatus of the Baudot 
Hystem, I'oi- the international Telegi-aphie service (as the St. Petei-s- 
burg adopted the Moi-se apparatus 30 years ago) they found Brazil 



— 17 — 

already adopting- the Baudot system of Avliich 25 installations of tlic 
most improved had been made representing four varieties of that 
ingenious system, in types, that soon will become models for the 
other administrations. By means of this system there were operated 
then nine of the leading stations between Recife and Rio Grande, 
connected by over-head lines with more than 5000 kilometres. 

Of those installations foui- are between Rio de Janeiro and Sao 
Paulo and are in operation from November 15 tli., 1897. Nine work 
between Rio de Janeiro, Caravellas, Bahia and Recife from the 
beginning of 1903, the inauguration having taken place in July of 
that year and 12 installations were made between Rio de Janeiro, 
Corityba, Porto Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande. The president of 




I 





Railways in Brazil. — The Grola Fiiiula Viaducl S. Paulu. 



the Republic, Dr. Rodrigues xVlves as well as the Secretary of Public 
Works, Dr. Lauro Muller were present in the Rio de Janeiro Cen- 
tral Station. 

From Rio de Janeiro we can communicate directly with Buenos 
Ayres, Montevideo, Santiago and La Paz which is at 7.000 kilometres 
distance via Buenos Ayres. 

The Brazilian teh;grapli lines which work with all regularitj^ 
have been built bj^ civil and military engineers natives of Brazil. 



* 



1« 



Railways. — The first railway built in Brazil was officially 
inan^^urated on the :{0 th. of April, 1854, representing the efforts of 
one of the Brazilians who moi-e useful were to their father-land, the 
Barao de Mauii. It is the railway line that starts from the Bay on the 
other side of Rio de Janeiro and goes up the hill to Petropolis. The 
fii-st locomotive, the one was used at tliis inauguration, is still kept 
to-day at the C'entral Railway Station. Its name is « Baroneza » and 

it was built in England and 
rendered good services dur- 
ing several j'ears. 

From that small start to 
the great feats of engineer- 
ing built by Brazilians 
there was a great lapse of 
time. The first feat of Bra- 
zilian engineering was the 
plan of the Central Railway 
which starting from Rio had 
to cross the Mantiqueira 
chain of mountains. It is a 
series of dear and trouble- 
s()n)e work of art : collossal 
cuts , successive tunnels , 
etc. The price of this road 
with 1.301) kilometres went 
ui) by the end of 1903 to the 
amount of 167.590.756 mil 
reis and this is explained 
by the nature of the ground 
it liad to be open tlinnigli. 
Another i-aihvay whose constructi(m was worthy of note also due 
to till? elTorts of Brazilian engineering, is the one from Paranagua to 
C'orityba, cutting its way through a wihl i-idge of mountains by tlie 
sea. 11 is extraoi-dinai-y wJKit tliey did there. Sui-eessive tunnels, 
many and large viaducts, some pt'rfeelly superb under the tci'linic 
view ptijnt and the daring of llie engineering feat , form this short 
railway lu-aneh with hut one Imndred and odd kih)niet i-(>s. 

The Coreovado railway is also woillix of note. No loui-isl, (>ven if 
tlic steamer stops in ITio Ixit a few liours, g.ies away without going 
'•' ""• '"!» "'' <l':'l l)eaiitil'nl hill with a -Jii •■ ,, iiKdiiiat ion. This railwax 
was planned and hiiilt l.y the Hra/ilian engineer 1-'. Rassos who is 
to-day MaxMi- n|' tin- citN ol Kio d,- .laneii-o. 




IvNMNKKItl.M. WllKkS IS HitAZII.. 

Hri(l{,'(' over Hit' rio V|»iraiig;i, in Parana. 



Another railway worthy of mention is the one between Santos 

and Silo Paulo, ol' which we will write further down though this is 

not a Brazilian road. 

The present condition of the railways in Brazil is as follows : 
Five States : Amazonas, Piauhy, Sergipe, Matto Grosso and 

Goyaz — have no railways as j^et. All the others have more or less 

as can be seen by the following list : 



Slates. Kilom. 

S. Paulo 4.136 

Minas 3.650 

Rio lie Janeiro 2.335 

Rio Grande do Sul 1.610 

Bahia 1.511 

Pernambuco 813 

Parana 645 

Ceara 449 



Slates. 


Kilom. 


Alagnas 


353 


Espirito Sanlo .... 


258 


Paralivba 


141 


Rio Grande do Norle . . 


. . 121 


Santa Cat liar ina . . 


116 


Districto Federal . . . 


107 


Maranhao 


78 


Para 


61 



In 1896, when Dr. Prudente de Moraes was president, by reasons 
of reduction of appropriations in the Budget all the works under 
way in the line of railway building were suspended, a great deal of 
material and work began being lost. 

The present government, however, recommenced with great 
energy all the work of prolonging railway lines and building new 
ones. 

As can be seen by the table we print above the Brazilian railways 
are very unevenlj^ divided hy the different States. Some have not a 
single mile of road, others have quite a good deal, so that, as it was 
already remarked by an observer, in the three States of Sao Paulo, 
Minas and Rio there are 9.372 kilometres or 62 per cent of the total 
of the whole country. In seven Southern States and the Federal 
district there are 11.998 kilometres against only 3.000 kilometres in 
the eight Northern States that have railway's what represents a pro- 
portion of 3 to 1. We can, though, very easily explain that state of 
things : the road is the function of the traffic, it is built where acti- 
vity demands it. In countries like the United States the inverse 
often happens and the road is built to create or provoke traffic. 
Brazil will come to that soon but needs to encourage foreign capital 
to be invested in those ventures. Unfortunately capital is the great 
drawback for a more rapid growth. The country is extremely 
wealthy but it requires capital to work up that wealth to the point 
of producing and start the motion that has made the United States 
grow so immensely fast during the last fifty years. 



— 20 — 

The four largest railways of Brazil are : 

Till' I.(M.|M.l<lina. Willi "^-258 kilumclres. 

riic Cciilr.il. » '-J^S » 

Till- Mnny:iii:i, » i -3-2:3 » 

The I'aulisla, » 1-O^i:} » 

Tlio raihvays in Brazil have not developped in the i)roi)()rtion of 
the lar^c sums inv('ste(l in theii- oonstrnction, beeause, as it is well 
known, the lar<j;est number of them are built along shore, where 
the commereial and industrial activity of the country first started 
and expanded and the sea shore belt is the most hilly. That explains 
everythini;-. I^ater on when they will spread towards the west, in the 
interior, they will be no longer long shore roads but roads of pene- 
tration , running over the 
vRjwgK; !K'ji;v^'3aH immense fields of the plains, 
.kS-.:^, -;^^m the cost of building will be 
•>afi • .■ ''^>^i^r greatly reduced and rail- 

•'^IB^ •^^''■^'wi^B^^^ roads in I>razil \\ill undergo 
t'J^ '"-*':>. a larger and far easier devo- 

id'* ^ V lopnient than it has till now. 

^ The same liappened in 

■'&:j0( A^ v' Argentine , when they be- 

V''W '' * ' ^'^'^ building their roads in 

gj^jlfv'--,^ ^ ' • ihe plains. 

■^li, ' ■••'r ■" The dcsiilcriiluni of the 

., B feJ' r- -^ ir:y--f'^ ])resent day, is to connect 

- '^ PB^iffl i ^'"^""^^^^.^'^^ the several branches alrca- 

mBBp^LI T '^A:J4i jP dy built, arbitrarih, w ith- 

■'^ mr^^ -^m^' ■ t'" ^ '^"*^ '^^^-^ other systematisa- 

KJ* ' 'W-*,.* ;- T jj^^^j^ but the instinct of the 

local peoples, expressed by 
, , tQK ihc fofuis of the isolated 

i«-^w^^„^...j^,,„^„i,««,^^^ j.,«tovi4l necessities , but there being 

llMiiMiHiM; WdithsiN Hiuzii.. Tlii'iriciiiaicdCai- ''^ the bottom a prescience 

valhn \i,„|i„i nil III.' I>aiaiia liaihvav. of the national sense, tO 

which the connection work 
now very iniicli adxaiieed brings its explanation and sanction. \\ ith 
tliis I do not nic;in to say that, the most provident politii-s is always 
Ihe one that waits for pri \at(^ inil iat i ve to t ranshite and satisfy l)\ 
itself, Ihc necessities of the commnnion. 

Be as it may, the spread out roads of the llspirilo Santo, Haliia. 
.\la;;oas , I'ciiiaiiilMic.. . Tarahyha. U io ( ; i'an<h' th) NoiMe and Ceaia 
are l.cing connected and in a short w liih- all these Slates w ill be con 



— 21 — 

nccU'd to one anollicr l)y railways, l)eing also fonnccted with Rio de 
Janeiro, Silo Palilo, Minas, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul. 

The V^'av Department contemplates to build a long strategic-in- 
dusti'ial railway line in the direction of the central regions of Matto 
Grosso and Goya/, employing in its study and construction a com])a- 
ny of army engineers. 

During ll'0 1 were initiated the following roads, sanctioned by 
laws decreed by Dr. Rodrigues Alves : Timho (Bahia); Sei-gipe, 
the prolongation of the Eaturite in the Ceara : the prolongation of the 
Mogyana to Catalao and many others. 

The i^resent Secretary of Transportation, Dr. Lauro MuUer, in 
whose program of administration is included all possible expansion 
of railroad building has not neglected any efforts to execute his pro- 
gram both at the Xorth and South of the country. The total length 
of Brazilian railroads in 1003 was IG. 359 kilometres, and with new 
inaugurations went up to 17.000 kilometres. The States that opened 
extensions to their lines were : Sao Paulo, Minas, E.io Grande do 
Sul, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Para. 



ARMY — NAVY — MERCHANT MARINE 



Just like all the other South American republics, Brazil main- 
tains a small army, and in case of war would have to improvise eve- 
rything as it happened 
in 1864 when the Para- 
guayan war broke out. 

Brazil is one of the 
nations spending the 
least money with their 
military forces in rela- 
tion with the total of 
the Budget. 

Though as to the 
value of its exports 
Brazil is in the ninth 
place, as to the amount 
spent with the army is Rio di: Janeiro. — Iinbuhy fort, 

in the thirteenth place. 

The following table shows, in pounds sterling, the total of the 




— 22 — 



expenses of each country and the amount they set aside for the 
organization of jxiblic defense : 



Xulionul I'Xju'iisc, iolal and 



Greal-Hrilaiii . 
Germany . 
Frami' 
llollaiul . 
Iliissia 

Aiislria-Hungary 
Belgiiini . 
Italy . . . 
Spain 

Switzerland . 
Turkey . 
Portugal . 
Greece . 
United States. 
Japan 
BitAzn. 



nilitary, of several countries. 



|-2(;.i80 000 

li)8.800.000 

13o.-i.i0. 000 

11.040.000 

l.'Jd. 810.000 

102.480.000 

Io.o20.000 

67.000.000 

31.830.000 

6.200.000 

17.080.000 

12.320.000 

3.960.000 

87.760.000 

16.516.236 

18.464.890 



40.640.000 

35. 080. 000 

35.200.000 

3.280.000 

.36.720.000 

16.160.000 

2.080.000 

13.480.000 

7.400.000 

2.520.000 

6.240.000 

1.960.000 

2.000.000 

16.120.000 

3.495.670 

2.384.367 



By tliis table we can see that no other country having expenses 
nearing the amount of Brazil spends less with its army than this lar- 
gest of the South American republics does. 




Itio 1.1 .l.vsi mil. — l.ai'nc ltl;ilcni;(i carlrid^c lacl(ir\ dl' Ilic \Vai- .Miiuslrv. 



At i)n'sriit the total ol llu- land forces of lirazil composed of the 
f(Hlcral aiiny and police troops under military orj^ani/at ion and 
iiiaiiilaiiicd hv llir respect ivc slates is of about .".(l.tlUd men of the 



— 2S — 

three arms. This excludes tlie civilian guards and fire-men, semi- 
military organizations maintained in many oi' the 20 States of the 
Union. 

The active military force is regulated Ijy the Legislature every 
3'ear. The law for 1901 fixed the following numbers : 

28.100 privates. 

800 military schools cadets. 

1.120 officers. 

In case of war this force is doubled. 

In Brazil there is not as yet the military compulsory service, as 
there is in Chili and Argentine, so that the vacancies are filled with 
volunteers. There is a law to the effect that while military service 
is not compulsory the time of service for a volunteer is three years, 
with facility to renew the enlistment as often as wanted but alwaj^s 
for a three year term. 

The privates who at the expiration of the service time continue 
without interruption in the ranks, with three years engagement, 
have right to certain favors in cash ; and those who so wish it are 
placed in the colonies maintained bj^ the war Department in certain 
places of the territory, where grants of land and agricultural imple- 
ments are given them free of any charge. 

The figures of the Brazilian arm}^ divided by the different 
arms is : 

Two engineers battalions ; 14 regiments with four divisions each 
of 231 men and a company for transportation service, all of cavalry ; 
G regiments and 6 batallions with four batteries each, each of the 
regiments having 229 men and each of the battalions having 187 
men, all of artillery. 

Fortj^ battalions of four companies, each with 241 men, infantry. 

The arms used by the infantry are Mauser improved. 

The artillery material is all from Krupp's works. Studies ai'c, 
however, being made now for the adoption of a superior t3^pe in 
order to reform the whole artillery of the Republic. 

Congress voted 500 contos for the establishment of a smokeless 
powder in Rio de Janeiro. 

The chief objection that could be made as to the organization of 
the Brazilian Army is the lack of reserves, which might fill the 
number to reforce the first call. As the different States, however, 
have all organized x)olice under a military sj'stem just alike the fede- 
ral troops, there Brazil will find a first class reserve, with the 
advantage that it is, we might say, mobilized, ready as they are in 
their barracks to march fully equiped at the first call. 



— 24 — 

The organization ol' those police forces in their majority com- 
njan(hMl \>y rc<;iihu- ann.v oflicci's and armed w itli mauser rifles is 
as follow s : 

Ani.i/HM.is 1.200 

l';ii;. l.:JOO 

Miirjiiilifin •!•.")(» 

Piaiiliv .111(1 Hill (iraiide do .Niirte J-.jo 

Coara 40(i 

I'araliyiia 2oit 

I'crnamhiicd l.SoO 

Aldgitasaiid Sergi|tt' 800 

Haliia 2.500 

Hio dt' Jaiieiiu 1.200 

Clapilal Koderal 4.800 

S. l>atdo 5.000 

Miiias 2.000 

I'araiia 460 

Uiu Grande do Sul 5.000 

Espirito Saiilo, Santa Catliariiia, Guyaz and Malto 

Grosso 1.075 

28.185 

These forces, in several of the States, have an elevated dej-ree of 
instruction and military solidity, as it happens with the regiments 
of Manaos, lielem, I^ahia, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul etc. and 
arc divided in tln-cci arms infantry, cavalry and artillery. 




Iiir;inlr\ i ;iiii|i (luring iiKUuriu rt'.>. 



Till- naliiiMaJ •;uai(l. ;i kind of Lumliiwlir or tt'rritori:d militia is 
getting better organized cvcrv day and in sonu' States as KiotJrandc 
do Snl and tlie JM-deral Capital il has been called upon more than 
onee to assist the regnlai- aiiii\ . 

The wai- ilepai-lnient maintains several leeliuieal establishnu-nts, 



as the cartridge works, the Estrella and the Caxipo powder works, 
the « Brazil )> Military College, the « Reulcns>-o » and the (c Porto 
.1/e^'Te )) Tactics Schools, the Military School, where the children 
of military men are brought up, the Serjeants School, the Army 
Library and several others. 

The forces are spread out through the territor;*' of the liepu- 
blic which under the view point of military administration is divid- 
ed into seven districts with headquarters in the principal cities 
and commanded bv Generals. 







School-cruiser : Benjamin Constant. 



At present the Army Major-State is drawing a map of the coun- 
try and the engineers companies are busy , some extending the tele- 
graph net through the \yestern States, and some studying plans for 
the building of strategic railways. An engineers company is now 
building a railway starting from Lorena city to the mountain region 
where a large militarv Sanatorium is being built. 



The Navy. — Until a certain time Brazil was the only South- 
American power and in all this continent , only the United States 
could present a navy excelling the one of this Republic. 

Lately Argentine and Chili at the cost of enormons financial sa- 
crifices succeeded in disputing this supremacy and to their navies, 
which, however had not the glorious traditions of the Brazilian his- 



— 2f. — 

toryof its navy, tliey added a uuniber of cruisers and battle-ships 
superioi- to the Hrazilian ones. 

The navy or^^ani/ation of Brazil at the present date is a modest 
one and is not in i)rop()rtion with the long- coast it has to defend. 
The federative system adopted increases the responsibilities of the 
navy. 

The existence of a powci'ful navy in the federative system cor- 
responds to the necessity of great links of cohesion between the 
States which may neutralize their disaggregating tendencies, and 
establish predominance of the ideas of the great fatherland. Tliere 
is not, in fact, and we have already once said it, among the links of 
national stability, none tactile, none more dominant because of its 
representative power neither more efficient in multiplicity of its 
objects, than it is the naval power of the Republic. The present 



r 




:^'^-''^!:^ p ' ' ■ ' - ' ^ ^ ^ ^ 'TiU.-U 



'•i^ — .1-1*?- 



-— ~ — ■« 



/ .•/n(,///(/.-i/-c ,CniiMT liiuii I., Iiiiill 1(1 Ilic lliii (!,• .hiiic 



rscniil 



fleet lias Til vessels, couiiling hii-gc and siuall, many of w hich arc 
ulinoKt useless under the \ iew point of modern war value. They 
(•an oidy be used for patroliiig in the ports and inti'rior rivers. They 
an; classified as follow : Seven battle-ships, eight eruiseis, three 
torpedo boats dcKtro.Ncr, five gun boats, eight dispatch boats, thrt'C 
Hteamei-s, nine tori)ed() boats, iliree tugboats, auxiliary steamers, 
a yaelit (the « .S/7p.'< ./;</v////j », the old 1 lupeiial galioti, two brigs 
and thre(! putaches. 



— 27 — 

The headquarters of the Navy forces is composed of several 
pavilions. The present commander is Commander Marques da 
Rocha, to whom the discipline and military garb of the navy infan- 
try forces owe a good deal. 

The principal establishment for naval production and repairs is 
the Capital of the Republic — the Rio Navy Yard — and employs 
2.000 working-men. In its ship-yards several ships, cruisers, small 
river battle ships and others have been built. During the Paraguayan 
war this yard in a few months built and armed several armed moni- 
tors, which were of great assistance in that campaign. Lately were 
built there two small river monitors for the defence and patroling 
in the frontier rivers. 

There are two other navy establishments of this kind, one in 
Para and the other in Ladario. They assist in the work of repairing. 




,-'.s» »»»'*-~ y- 



Battlo-sliii) Deodoro. 



There is also in the Capital of the Republic the Navy College, an 
establishment of technical instruction which is an honor to the 
country and is piobably the best in all South-America. Its present 
director is rear-admiral Duarte Huet de Bacellar one of the most 
distinguished and ablest sailors of the Brazilian Navy. A man who 
has discharged with great honor to the country he represented 
important commissions all over the world. He is not only an able 
man in navigation, he is a competent man in gunnery, ship-building 
and every department required in navy activity. As a practical man 



l'« — 



he is he is improving vcrv iniu-h the Xiivy College under his admini- 
stration to keep pace with modern progress. 

The other Xavy departments are settled in small islands in the 
bay. In one of them is 'rori)ed()es School organised by rear-admiral 
Alexandrino de Alencar and the woi-ks established there for torpe- 
does and mines repairing arc worthy of note. 



11 



Wav ti;itis|)()i'l Curios (ionics. 

The National Sailors ('omiKiny Barracks is a series of buildings 
in the small island of Villegaignon, where is the fortress of the same 
name. This fortress does not serve any strategic function now and 
is all illuminated b\- clcclricitx'. 




I';illlr s||||, /,■;.■;,/,,/<■/< 



'I'll.- S:iil(.is CtMiipaiiy is cnMstihitcd h\ sea nicii. that coiiic lioiii 
tlic S<-li(.()ls for appreiitiecs or from the offices of the Captains of 
tlie Port in Die diffcreiil Slates where they enlist. The largest num- 
ber of iheiM arc rnluxltis (native lii.liaiis). oi- rather, a mixed breed 



— 29 



of those native Indians crossed with Europeans, with a number of 
blacks descendants from Africans and whites. As a ruk', they know 
how to read and write, having- received in school instruction relati- 
vely liberal, learning- geography, arithmetic, civilian rights, music, 
drawing, elementary history, a little manual art appliable tho the 
sea life, and the needed professional instruction : gunnery, signal 
service instructions, torpedoes, marine engines, etc. (Generally the 
Brazilian sailor is a man who knows something and when they come 
from the Apprentices ScJiools they are prepared to sti'uggle for life 
in the cities when they finish their enlistment time. 

This way tho Apprentices Schools in Brazil render a double ser- 
vice to the community and to the man : they not only prepare sai- 
lors for the Navy but men for practical life at the same time. 




Cniiser-toi'pcdo Tymbira. 

The Company of Marine Infantry is an imitation of the colo- 
nial and landing troops of the European navies; among Brazilians," 
however, this company has a capital function on board — ^ it is a 
modifier in the permanent service of the discipline of the ship, an 
aiixiliary actually indispensable to the moral force of the officers. 
This company has a tradition as an orderly organization and its 
services have been highly praised in the Naval history of Brazil. 
Its barracks are at Ilha das Cobras (snake island) , one of the many 
in the Rio bay, near the north east part of the city. 

In the schedule of the officers, the number of those of high rank is 
rather large if we consider the limited requirements of the floating- 
material. The schedule comprises : 
1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 10 rear-admirals, 20 Captains, 40 Com- 



— 30 — 

manders, 80 Lieutenants-Commanders, KiO 1st. -Lieutenants, 150 
2nd. -Lieutenants =^ 4(53 Officers in active work. 

Besides these there are 120 ensij^ns; 1. 000 men of the National 
Navy ('oiiij)anies; inchiding- loO men of the engine firemen compa- 
ny, and 1(K) of the .Matto Grosso company; 000 contracted firemen; 

I.TjOO Navy apprentices; 500 mm 
of Navy Infantry Company. 

In time of war the naval for- 
ces will have the double of this 
number. 

The privates or sailors and 
ex-privates or ex-sailors who ha- 
ve been engaged over three years, 
and following- that, two or more 
years have a right in each enga- 
gement to the value in cash of 
the uniform which is distributed 
free of charge to the recruits, and 
this because the military service 
in l^razil is not compulsory. 

In neai'ly every sea port there 
is an Apprentice Sailor School, 
a curious institution under the 
view i)oint of its civic. -military 
nature and of its utility and its type is a creation of the Brazilian 
administration. Some of them deserve special mention because of 
the correctness of tlieir oi-gani/.ation and discipline, and among 
these are tlie ones of Cean'i, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, 
Santa Catliarina and others. 




(Iniiscr linvrozo. 




Maniir luaclice, slidnliiin .il ;i l;iinfl. 



— 31 — 

References to them ^vill be made in the descriptions of the seve- 
ral States which will be published somewhere else in this book. 

The seat of the Navy administration is in Rio de Janeiro, where 
the Navy Council is compelled to be. The Navy Council is a Board 
comi^osed of Navy generals and high officials of the Navy Depart- 
ment and is settled where the Sailors quarters, the Navy infantry 
barracks and several departments of the same Ministry as well as 
war material are also settled. 




Rio ui; .Ianeiro. — One of llic pavilions ot the Marine iiifaiili'v barracks. 



To-day the Brazilian Navy is largely improved and on a fair way 
to be greatly enlarged. By the end of 1905 the Brazilian Congress 
authorized the appropriation to execute the following naval pro- 
gramme which is beginning to be put in pratice in England with 
the construction of 

Three 13.000 ton battle-ships. 

Three 9.700 ton cruisers. 

Six 400 ton destroyers. 

Twelve 50 to 130 ton torpedo-boats. 

Admiral Julio de Noronha, the Secretary of the Navy, the au- 
thor of this programme, is also building at Ilha Grande, near Rio 
de Janeiro , a large military port like the one of Spezia or Pola, 
with arsenal, dry-docks, ship yards and everything needed for a 
powerful Navy- Yard. 

Besides the ships above mentioned the 1905 programme com- 
prises also 3 submarine boats, a large coal-transporter and a school- 
ship. 

At the present moment Brazil is developing a great activity 



— 32 — 



which \\ ill soon place the c(mntr\' in a prominent i)Iace after the list 
of nations liavin"- first class navies. 



* 
* * 



Mkkchant Mauine. — The fact of many Portuguese officers and 
ship-owners having settled themselves in Brazil, after its indepen- 
dence, explains how tliere was already a considerable nucleus of 
mei'chant niai'ine right at the beginning of the national organiza- 
tion. Besides the extensive 
line of coast filled with nu- 
merous ports most accessi- 
ble, contributed towards the 
great development of a sai- 
ling ships merchant marine, 
served by daring ships fur- 
nished by the sea-shore ci- 
ties and thus soon the new 
Brazilian flag was carried 
to the peoples of distant 
lands. 

This relatively jxjwerful 
marine had, however, a pe- 
riod of difficulties and al- 
most reached paralysis : and 
that was when a l)ill voted 
in 18()1 permitted foreign 
ships to engage themst^lves 
in tlu' coastwise trade, tak- 
ing thus away from the 
Brazilian flag a i)rivilege it 
was enjoying till then and at 
whose protection it was dexeloping in a considerable way its mari- 
time activity. 

It was onl\ in \S\u\ tliat the l!ra/,ilian ('ongi'css l)y means of a 
liill coiiiplei iiig a ('(Mist il ul ional disposition, gave back to Brazilian 
ship-(»wners (lie ohi rigiil of onlv coiiseiil iiig coastwise tradr to Ite 
caiMMcd on hv sliijts willi llic nal ional flag and llins was opened a 
more dclinile and nioic compensal i ve horizon lor the country's 
mercliani marine. 

During the .\-ear of iSl'.i steamship na\igalion licgan ti> he intro- 
ducMMJ in J{razil and the ollu'r South American countries. If was on 




*.rr 



Scli(»ol-slii|i (tiitir.iriijtc's. 



— 33 — 

tlic 1 th. October ISIO lliat General Felisberto Caldeira Brant, later 
on Marquis de Barbaceiia, started a line between the capital of 
Baliia and Caclioeira employing- in that service a small paddle 
steamer and that was the initiation of the Brazilian merchant marine 
using steam-boats. 

When the privilege of coastwise trade for the national marine 
was decreed in 1890, the Brazilian merchant marine took a great 
impulse, occupying to-day the seventh place among the nations with 




Merchant Marine. — Model of river steamers of oOO tons of tlie « Compaiibia Maranhense ». 



largest number of ships in their merchant marine, being right after 
Japan. 

According to an official publication of the Commercial Statistics 
Department the movement of Brazilian ships engaged in coastwise 
tirade between the 52 ports of the Republic during I'JOl, 1002 and 
1903 was as follows : 

1901 



Ships. 

11.554 . 



Entrances 

Sailings 11.246 



Tons. 

5.874.529 
5.870.505 



— u 



1902 



Kntraiifc: 
Sailings 



Ships. 

ii.Ti:; 

II.CSl 



Tons. 

■t.:;67.266 
-i.:j()8.579 



1903 



Knliaiicfs. 
Sailinijs 



Ships. 

li>.i>.V2 
!-».:» 1 7 



Tons. 
i.n'J!».780 
.ftoH.OOO 



My tliese statistics we sec the progressive growth ol" the luer- 
eliaiit marine maritime movement. According to official statistics 
the Brazilian merchant marine has a fleet of 336 steamers with a 
total of 2*.)().000 tons displaccmonf. and oil sailing vessels with about 
30(J.000 also displacement. 

From I'.iol to 1002 the niovcincnt of tlic lii-a/ilian coastwise trade 

navigation increased 3()l) in the number of ships and over (iOO.OOO 

tons, in the entrances and sailings to and from the 52 ports of the 
country. 

These steaniei's belong to companies and j)rivate shij)-owners 

residing in several sea-side cities of Brazil. The principal companies 




.Mlikiiam .M,\I(1m. MimIcI of .sicaiiicrs of -2,W() ions of llic Iti-Mziliaii l.lovd. 



to-day arc : the Xono Lloyd lirnzilciio which jxjssesscs ;V2 steamers, 
some of |,()(H) tons, chu-tric lights, I'cfrigi'ralors, etc., but this com- 
paiix is l)cing reorganized by l)i-. ManocI Huarcpu' dc Macedo, a civil 
engineer dI' leiiow n and ;in industrial genius ol' no small iinporlance, 
and the sei\ ice of iha' company is going to l)e largely improxcd not 
omI.n with better coast w isc sci'vicc i)nl ha\ ing a line of lai-gc steamers 
])lyiiig l.eiwci-n Ura/il and llie I'niled States, a large nnnihiM- of stea- 
mers bein^ now under coiisl rin-l ion foi- llie new ser\ ice, sonu" of 



— 35 — 

^vhicll will be (5.000 (on boats; tlic (Joinpaiihia do Anuizonns, willi 
40 small river steamers from 500 to DOO tons, plying between Para 
and the different points of importance in the Amazon river and its 
affluents; the (^.ompnnliin (u)sli'ir:i, with 12 steamers from 800 to 
1.500 tons, maintaining' regular navigation between the capital of the 
llepublic and the Southern ports of the country; the Companhia Sal 
e Xavc^-acao, which possesses large cargo-boats employed in coast- 
wise service; the Companhia Pernambucana, with 10 steamers; the 
Companhia Maranhense; the GriTo Para and the Paracnsc, both with 
main office in Belem, capital of Para State, and with steamers from 
800 to 2.000 tons; the Esperanra Mariliinn with six small steamers; 
the Via^ao Central do Brazil, with nuiin office in Kahiaand its stea- 
mers navigate in the S. Francisco basin between the States of Minas, 
Bahia and Alagoas; the Companhia Bahiana with internal and inter- 
state navigation and many others of smaller importance, which we 
will give an account of while speaking of the different States in the 
second part of this book. 



INVENTORS AND MEN OF SCIENCE 



It will be seen that hand in hand with the material development 
of the country, and parallel growth of the energies of the race, there 
is springing forth with vigor the blooming of the literature, arts 
and sciences. 

No other country in the American Continent, the United States 
excepted, can present a group of superior men , inventors, men of 
science, artists and literary men, so conspicuous as that host of 
celebrated men who have honored Brazil with the wide publication 
of their names all over the world since the middle of the last century. 

In accordance with the plan of this book, dealing in it, as we 
do, only with the Brazil of to-day, of the Brazil of this very mo- 
ment, we jnust not write but about those of the present age. Men 
who have been intellectual glories for Brazil in the past, artists, 
military men who won reputations worthy of mention in the days 
that are gone, will not be reviewed in this presentation I am making 
to the reader of the contemporary things, men and events. 

But, even leaving aside the names of those illustrious dead, 



— 36 — 

aiiKtii^^ wliicli \<)u would linil individualities "tluit do not ])c'lon<; only 
to the i!;\oi\ of Brazil, but to the whole world, we will have to write 
about most interestin<;- i)ersonages, notabilities of our days, some of 
whicdi arc. no doubt, known to the reader. We will begin by Santos 
Diiiiioni. thf extraordinary air navigator. 

This name which introduces a South American notability has 
been applauded in France as well as in all the other Kuropean coun- 
tries with the same enthusiasm that l>ra/ii has done it. 




Santos Dimont. — lie is the son Ilenri([uc Dumont a I'ai-mcr of 
the State of Minus, whose name is connected with the largest coffee 

l)antation in the S. Paulo State, or, 
for that matter, in the whole world. He 
was born in a plaee known as Rio das 
Yelhas, (Old women river), in the then 
l)rovince of ^linas, in July 187o. Weal- 
thy and well educated he devoted him- 
self since his young days to tlie study 
of air ships. He went to Paris and 
there had a balloon of his own invention 
made. Since then he has kept on modi- 
f\ing it and each modification he 
makes, manufacturing a new balloon 
gives it a higher and suecessi\e num- 
ber. It was with the Xo (') that the da- 
ring aeronaut obtained thc« I)eutsch» 
pri/.e whii'li marks the solution of the 
problem of the direction of air-ships. 

It was in llS'.'S that he made his first ascensions with his baloons 
« JirnzH )) and « Anwrirn », of spherical shape. In those experiments, 
wliicli had no iiitercsl to llic jjiihlie, lie uudei'slooil that the splieroi- 
dic sliape was not iisel'iil ami had one made, cigar shape, wilh 
Kerosene oil as fuel. 

lie has made since many trial trijjs and the l"'reneh ]>ress has 
written about lliem in the most ene(»ui"aging wa,\ anil I'l-oni Paris the 
tclcgi'aph has kcpl on infoi'ming the w hole w oild of t lu' succi'ssiv c 
improvements Santos hnnioni has been introducing in his air-ship. 
Several engineers and iii\enlorsin l!ra/iMia\(' de\.>led ihemsel- 
vc-' lo this inlercsling prol)lcni, the first being Uartholomcu ( ;usman. 
wlio went in his iialoon Inil ncvi-r solved the i)rol)U'm of its dii-ection 



Samu.s Dl.mum 



— :{7 



and the last was the uiilorliniaie Aiigiisto Severo wlio died in Paris, 
victim of the exph)si()n ol' is air-ship « Phx ». 




Mello Marques 



Mello Makques. — From those who travel in tlie air to tliose 
who ti'avel under water tliere is really a great distance but there is 

no space so long that thought cannot over- 
come with ease. 

Several Brazilian inventors propose to 
build a model of submarine boat fulfilling 
all the requirements of the navigation of 
such boats. None, however, has made a 
more decisive experimental demonstration 
than the inventor Mello Marques. The Rio 
press wrote in the highest terms and most 
enthusiastically about tliose experiments, 
made, as they were, before the President 
of the Republic and a committee of techni- 
cal experts. 

Among other things the Tribiiiin of Rio, 

in its edition of the 27 th. September 1901 

said about Mello Marques 'submarine boat. 

« The model used in these experiments demcmstrated to have a 

long-itiidinal and transversal stability as well as complete stability 

in its trip. 

» Both the immersion and emersion are operated with the stron- 
gest safety as to its results , 
and by means of a most 
simple manoeuvre. 

» To avoid a minucious 
and detailed account we may 
say that the experiment we 
arc wi'iting about consisted 
ol' two different parts : 

)) P'. — The boat without 
longitudinal, translation. 

)) -2'"'. — The boat with 
longitudinal translation. 

)) In the P' part the 
boat made the immersion, 

emersion and stop between tivo waters, everything with the most 
strict practical precision, obeying perfectly well to the operator. 




Tlie submarine boat Mello Marques. 



— :m — 

» In llie •2'"' part Mr. Mell<» Marciues showed to have solved the 
iniporlaiit pioldein of the suiliji^- sluhility. 

» Thus it was tliat once the boat phieed between two waters and 
in perleet qniet or static equilibrium, when placed in motion its 
pi-opelling- niaeliine, it slided forward without deviatino- in the least 
from its fluctuation horizontal plan. » 



Landell I)K ]Moi'RA. — Is another Brazilian inventor of our days. 
He is the learned elect ricist Father Landell de Moura, and is now 
residino- in the United States. His inventions are the result of a 
patient investigation and scientific knowledge perfectly solid. He i 
was ])orn in Porto Alegre, where he has two brothers, one a physi- i 
cian, the other an apothecary. In S. Paulo he has another brother 
who is a uierchant. The Xcio York Ilcruld in its edition of the TJ th. 
()ctol)er l'.)()"J published his picture with a long article headed 
« Jiinzilinn Priest's Invention » giving the following information 
about his inventions : 

!>'■ Robert Landell invented his apparatus 
in Porto Alegre, and as soon as he reached 
SJio Paulo in l.SOci, he began with preliminary 
exi)erinients, to obtain his object — to trans- | 
niit human voice at a distance of 8, 10 or 12 
kilonu^ters, without using any wires. 

After several luontlis of hard work he 
ol)tained excellent results with one of the 
apparatus he made. 

I'hicouraged by the results of his exi)cri- 
iiuMits, Father Landell tried to improve his 
invention, which is tlie outcouu' of studies 
and discoveries of sonu' laws relative the 
propagation of sound , light and electricity 
through the space, the earth and water. i 

Thus, he invented several apparatus : the ' 
l<l;iii.\i()i>lii>n(\ the /.•,(/ro/>//o/jr, \\w uiicmutophonr, the Iclctilon, and 
the ((tijilionc. 

The Inlniixioplittnr is the hist word of the telephone, not only 
because of tlie force and inlelligibilily whitli whit-h it transmits tlu' 
Wdids. l)iil also hecatise wilh it teh'phoning at gi'cat dislauces beco- 
mes a i>raetical and econoniical reality. 

'I'he h:ttrnjth,,iu' works also witli wii-e. and presents the (U-igina- 




t.AMtt.l I. Ill Mm IIA 



— :U) — 

lity of not needing to ring the bell to call, to lieai- the articulated 
sounds, or that of the instrument. 

The Hncmntophonc and the Iclctiton are wireless telephones. The 
perfect operation of these apparatus, according to what their inven- 
tor says, reveals laws entirely new and is altogether most curious. 

The cdiphonc is useful to purify and soften the plw)n()graplied 
voice of the parasitical vibrations, reproducing it just as the natural 
voice. 

The wireless telephone is reputed the most imporUxnt discoveiy 
of Father Landell, and the experiments made by him in the presence 
of the English Consul in Sao Paulo, Mr Lupton, and many other 
parties of high social position, were so satisfactory that Dr. Rodri- 
gues Botet, giving an account of those trials wrote the moment was 
not far when Father Landell would be consecrated as the author of 
marvellous inventions. 

In a Porto Alegre daily paper we saw the following biographical 
notes about this inventor : 

(( Father Robert Landell de Moura was born in Porto Alegre in 
the year 1862. 

He is a son of Mr. Ignacio de Moura and a brother of the apothe- 
caries, Joao, Edmundo and Ricardo Moura, of Dr. Ignacio Landell, 
a physician and of Mr. Pedro Landell de Moura a well known Sao 
Paulo merchant. 

Having decided from his childhood to become a priest, Robert 
Landell went to Rome while yet quite a young fellow, there he follow- 
ed the theological course with distinction and was ordained. By 
this time he was already studying with special care physical 
sciences. » 



HuET DE Bacellar. — Tlic clcvcr and 
illustrious Rear- Admiral Huet de Bacellar is 
another contemporary inventor and is one of 
the most distinguished officers of the Brazilian 
navy. As a Captain , commanding several 
men-of-warj he had occasion to observe the 
defects in the tubes of the submarine torpedo- 
throwers, which, in fact, are far from giving 
satisfaction, in their practical work, not only Huet dk Bacellar 

because it is impossible to regulate the charge 

of the cordite, or the pressure of the gas inside the tube, but because 
of other defects verified every time use is made of the torpedo- 




— w — 

throwers, sometimes eansiiig disasters as it liappened on board the 
men-of-war <( Aijnidabaii » and u Deodoro ». 

While eommandinf": the small battle-ship « Floriimo », rear-admi- 
lal lluct (le Haccllar attempted to put in practice a modification of 
the apparatus Scliwartzkopf, whieli lie had in mind to realize after 
lon^- studies in other ships. He ordered in that German house the 
nianiiliuMur*' of a torpedo-thrower as he invented, and experiments 
were made the result of which representing a great triumph for the 
clever sailor. 

In a lecture delivered in the Xavy College on the 23rd. May 1002, 
with tlie i)resi'nce of the President of the Kei)ublit' and high authori- 
ties of the navy, he said : 

The apparatus works by means of compressed air, and in that 
there is nothing new. 

What is really new and what characterizes this invention is the 
peculiar disposition of tubes themselves and the arrangement of the 
valves which let the compressed air pass to the cylinders from the 
external to the internal tube, making it go on till the end of its 
course when the torpedo is expelled. In the initial movement only 
the cylinders of the external tube receive the air, but after the air 
having; gone a certain course the torpedo gets loose from its safety 
links automatically, the valve that gives the double entrance of the 
air in the cylinders is then opened, the air that enters oft hastens , 
the movement of the internal tube and the air that enters fore passing 1 
thi-ough the stems of the embolus causes the firing of the torpedo. 
The remaining air, that stays inside the cylinders, in their fore part, 
serves as a kick-stopper. 

Once tli(; torpedo fired, the internal lulx' gxits in autonuUically to 
its initial position by the external pressure of the water and when by 
some circumstance! this does not happen, it is taken back from the 
battery \>\ llic compressed air, or l)y hand, l)y means of a nu'chanical 
device. 

lira/.ilian and luuopean experts recognized the importance of the 
invention lo which liic gcrman manufacturers gave tlu' name of 
liacellar-Schwarlzkopf ami which was adopted by the Brazilian 
navy, the battle-ship a I'loriuiio ». commanded at tlu' time by the 
inventor being the first one to adopt it. 



l{.\i>i.i;i{ i)i: At^riNo. Is a young navy ollieer w lio invented an 
ai)iiara1us of practical use wliicli proxcs how well prepared in scien- 
tific studies (he l!ra/.ili:iu u;i\ \ ollieers are. 




— 41 — 

His invention is thus described by the oll'icial ()r<;an oT the 
Navy : « It consists of an apparatus in two different parts a trans- 
mitter and a receiver where are a number of copper contacts corres- 
ponding- to tlie different orders to be transmitted or received. 

IJoth receiver and transmitter have a 
lever and not only this has a wire connec- 
ting it to the other, but the contacts that 
correspond to the same indications, in this 
two apparatus, were also connected by 
means of a metallic conductor, 

A current running through the wire that 
connects the two levers, can, indifferently, 
circulate through either of the elementary 
circuits. 

But the electrical communication can 
only take place by one of the mentioned 
circuits, when the lever of the receiver is Lieuioiinnt Radi.ku dk Aquino 
in symetric position with that of the trans- 
mitter, that is, it is necessary that the two levers should mark the 
same signal. 

It must be said : when that takes place, two lamps, one of the 
receiver and the other of the transmitter, placed upon the wire that 
connects the levers, will prove that the general circuit has been 
closed. 

On the other hand, the lever of the transmitter is built in sucli a 
way that while one of the extremes slides by the contacts above 
mentioned, the other extreme, passing over the contacts tliat are 
between it and the other contact indicating the order, produces tlie 
closing of a special circuit, causing that way the vibration of a bell 
in the receiving section. » 

Lieutenant Aquino's device is worthy of mention mainly by the 
simplicity of the apparatus, when compared with those of Fiske, 
used by the United States Xavy and those of Barr and Strond used 
by the English navy. 

Besides, he has also invented a chemical indicator, to substitute 
Lord Kelvin 's mechanical one, in the average soundings of hydro- 
graphy or rapid navigation. 

Radler de Aquino C(mtinues in his scientific studies, and besides 
the above described apparatus has several other inventions, among 
which is the velocimetre, destined, as its name indicates to measure 
the speed of the ship, based upon, in the live pressure of the water 



— +2 — 



caused h\ the presence ol' the boat, tlie apparatus having- been named 
by its autlior « pieso-velocimciro. » 

Kxix'rinionts made in July and August lUOO on board tlie 
(( liiirroso », a Brazilian man-ol-war, produced excellent results. 




lillliiliccr I'Ulll.llU) DA (Uj.STA 



KiiuMKo DA (k)STA. — Is tlic uamc of another Brazilian inventor, 
also ol" the navy. He is an engineer with the i-ank of comnumder and 
is at present in charge of the Work-shops of the Rio de Janeiro 
Navy ^'ard. 

This intelligent jBrazilian [scientist, devo- 
ting all his spare time to the problem of the 
life-saving service, invented and built a life- 
saving boat very curious and original. It is a 
small open canoe, unsinkable destined to the 
lifes-aving service of passengers and crews 
of wrecked boats. It offers the greatest facili- 
ties of being placed in the water and has abso- 
lute safety of fluctuation. 

The Commander Ribeiro da Costa's life- 
saving boat is patented in Europe, and in the 
last Paris exposition 1900 received the highest 
award, the jury of the ex[)ositi()n having recognized the merit and 
true value of the ingenious apparatus destined to represent a promi- 
nent place among the useful collections of the life-saving societies. 
Commander Costa has two different models of his boat. 

An article written on this invention states that for the landing of 
trooi)s in case of war, any of the two types will be of great moral 
effect for the soldiers, since they will know immediately that they 
can't die diMwned even should the boat receive any number of shots 
from th(i (iuemy. 

He also invented the construction of a i-alt appiopi-iated for the 
ships witli lai-ge ci-ews. 'I'his raft is built witli liimlxT and canvas 
and was tried w itii great success as well as picsented lo the Pollock 
comp(!tilion in JMii-opc. lis model, as liic (uu> of (he otlier saving 
boats is on e\liii)ili(.u in ihe Naval Museum of Uio de .laneiro. 

Kngineer Kibeiioda Costa enjoys a gooil reputation as an intel- 
lectual man. lie keeps on devoting himself to that branch of naval 
construeli(ui. but lias invented otliei- apparatus for seviu-al other 
ap|)lieal ions. 

|{esides the two life-saving boats and tlie new raft <> rii:inl », the 
appai-alus <i />//r(//,./(/;,)/,e .. (l,>voted to know the dii(>eli(Mi of the 



— 4-:< — 

sound oi" a steam whistle in lof^j^y weather and the practical and 
inlallible I'ules to avoid collisions in the high seas during ioggy 
weather, he has several inventions, all of them original patented in 
Europe, and submitted to the Brazilian (lovernment, such as : 

A semi-submarine torpedo-))oat with great advantages over the 
other ones used to-day and ordered to be built by the government at 
the Rio Navy Yard. Unfortunately it was not built the material 
having disappeared during the revolution of 180IJ. 

A rotatine steam engine, patented and tried in Brazil. 

A steam engine, completely new in all its devices, with great 
advantages over others, patented in France, Belgium, Germany, 
England and United States, devoted specially to navigation, built 
and tried in Havre in 181)1, received the prize in the Modern Inven- 
tions Exhibition in Paris, receiving great praises in several maga- 
zines as well as the gold medal « Jaceg-iiay » in the Xaval Club of 
llio de Janeiro. 

A new distribution of steam, without excentric, patented in 
several countries. 

A new sucking treading pump, oscillating movement also patented. 

An apparatus to feed boilers automatically. 

A new steam engine for navigation purposes. 

A new four concentric tubes boiler patented in several countries. 

A machine to make tooth-picks. 

A very original engine working by means of compressed air, all 
automatic, the result of 28 years study, built since 1807 in Marseille, 
lacking yet a few small details to make experiments. 

An hydraulic turbine, for navigation purposes. 

A new apparatus to feed automatically any boiler even a ship one 
about to be tried soon in the llio Xavy Yard. 

A new submarine torpedo. 

Francisco Przewodowski. — Is the name of another Brazilian 
inventor. He is a navy officer as is fatlier was. He was born in 
Cannavieiras (Bahia) and as his name indicates is Polish descent. 
He was educated in the Naval College and devotes himself to the 
study of physics and mechanic. The invention that placed him in 
evidence among professionals and which won a 15 year privilege 
from the Brazilian Government was his apparatus « Przewodowski » 
destined to the self direction of torpedoes against movable or fixed 
aims. 

This apparatus, result of patient studies, is a series of pieces 



— 44 — 

disposed so, tluii it permits the use of the iman or ma<-neetie needh' 
to give self direetion to the torpedoes. Aeeording- to tlie patent the 
apparatus lias two parts, the first with an iman, the following- with 
boltiiies where the eleetro-iman necessary is obtained. They are 
separate, caeh oeeupying its ehauTber and the second is lined with 
china except the discs of the eyes were placed the extremities of tlic 
bohincs. 'JMic only communication between the first and the second 
is 1)V Mires, sufficiently isolated crossing the intermediary wall 
allowing (uily the passage of the electric current that is going to act 
upon the helm of the torpedo making it take the direction of the aim 
or target. The inventor received proposals lor the purchase of the 
invention fiom an English house but refused to sell it which he is 
still improving every (la.\' in Rio. lie also applied for patent in seve- 
ral iMiropean counti-ies. Lieutenant Francisco Przewodowski is a 
pei'sistent and intelligent investigator and a hard worker, and 
expects yet to improve considerably his own invention. 

The experiments he has made have, so far, l)een most successful. 








•JS- 



\i.n I'iMo 
i\ fi- i'latc. A mil hci' one v. 



A DEL Pinto. — lie was 
born in S. Ciabi-iel, Rio 
(Jrande do Sul. He first 
studied in the Militai'y 
College of Rio , finishing 
in the Polytechnical Colle- 
ge of the same city. In the 
army reached the rank of 
1"^' Lieutenant of artillery. 
Since his youth he has de- 
voted himself to speeial 
studies on electricity and 
its ai)plications. Several 
(liscoNci'ics and iiicclianic- 
nl inventions gixc him a 
prtuuincnt place am(»ng 
l>ra/iliaii iiuciilors. We 
must inciil ion spceiallv : a 
new process for pri'scrva- 
I ion of meat and fish, \\ hit'li 
is being exploited by an 
exporting enlerpri/e in the 
I'liriniis ap]>aratiis to a\(»id railroad 



collisions by means of a new Hlock-syslem ahsoliilrly auloniatie, 
elect fical-inechanical, simple, sale and economical. It was tested 
and tried by the Central of Brazil Railroad and judged as i)osscss- 
ing splendid and sale conditions to guarantees its objcu't. Another 
o^ie ol" Dr. Adel Barretto Pinto's invention consists in utilizing- the 
j)ower ])roduced by the column of air dislocated by any vehicle in 
motion, such as trains, ships, automobiles, etc., transforming this 
power in electrical energy in benefit of tlus same vehicles, multi- 
plying their motive power with economy of fuel. 

This transformation of power is made hy means of a compressed 
air turbine, constituted by eight paddles in screw form, a(la[)ted to 
the front of the vehicle, the turbine becoming a special generator, 
forming a system, by means of a combination of pulleys with a small 
dynamo of electro motive power proportional t') the power of its 
reversibilitv. 



Gomes Pi':reira. — (An- 
tonio Coutinho ) Another 
military inventor. He be- 
longs to the navy. As the 
reader can sec this class 
gives a good contingent of 
inventoi'S thanks to their 
initiative intelligence, and 
to the excellent scientific 
culture acquired in the Xa- 
vy College of Rio , Gomes 
Pereira was born in Rio, 
graduated from the Navy 
College where he was al- 
ways one of the first in all 
the classes he had to go to. 
After a few trips, both in 
the Atlantic and the Paci- 
fic, having visited the prin- 
cipal Arsenals and Xavy 
yards of Europe , he was 

commissioned as sub-commander of several ships , and later on 
commander of the torpedo-boat « Tanioyo », where he revealed 
himself a sailor well posted on modern warfare. After the Rnssian- 
Japanese war, he invented, taking advantage of what he learnt in 




Gomes Peueira 



— +6 — 

tlial war, a most ing«'ni()iis apparatus an unfoinalic coiunmter Un- 
the circuit of the firing of the ««uns on board. This apparatus, 
patented already by the Hrazilian ( Jovernment has as an object to 
avoid the deviation of the bullet and loss of the shot caused l)y the 
motion of the shij) and is being- adopted by the Brazilian Navy with 
great praises from tlie authorities in this line. He has still other 
inventions but this niitomutir commuter is the one worthy of 
special menticm in this chapter of our book. 




Oliveiua i)k Mknkzks 
fAugusto Xavier). — He 
was born in 187*.». When he 
was 13 years old he entered 
tlie National Gymnasium. 
He followed his preparato- 
ry studies with distinction. 
He had great inclination 
for the study of physical 
and natural sciences , re- 
vealing an inventive ge- 
nius , preparing exponta- 
neously most curious ap- 
paratus to be worked by 
electricity. He has a bat- 
tery of his own that works 
with (MMumou kitcluMi salt. 
Later on he was professor 
at the National Ciymna- 
sium. He entered after- 
wards as student to the 
Medical College, in I".KI-J he wrote a work with the title « Xorocs siic- 
cintiis tic (Ihiin'uii I'hilosopliicnn which made a name for him. In l'.H»;> 
he piiblislicd a new w ork on chcmislry w liich adopt t'd by nearly every 
onc! (»f llie Uio pi-ofcssors. in luor) he took i)art in the Scientific Latin 
American Coiigi-css where he pi'csented a iKttable (( impcr » on <( .1 
Aliiiosplicr.i r:ivtfcH:t u presenting Iiiglily importaul piicnomciion. 
Mis wojk was unanimously approved by llic Icaiiicil men present at 
tiie meeting both foi'eign and natives. 'I'his nu'eting was heM in the 
I'olyleehnical College nl ilio. lie was then but -J") yeai-s old. lie has 
se\eral i ii \ eiil ions worlliy (»l note, wliieli lie lias not put in praeliec 



Oi.ivKiHA i>i: Mknkzks 



— 47 — 

loi- luck of material elements as it is : a;? elcctro-multiplycv^n i-e}>-ul- 
iitor of the incandescent lumps intensity, an electrical accumulator, 
searched by the use oi" a metal not as yet exploited, and wliich accoi-d- 
in<>' to his theories will be the ideal of modern electricians : small 
weii;ht and volume, lari>(^ capacity. lie is now writing- a work on 
physical science entitled « Xocoes succintas de Physica Elementar. 




Eduardu Ci.audio 



Eduardo Claudio. — He is another engi- 
neer, born in Rio de Janeiro, to-day at the 
head of tlie technical section of a tramway 
company. He contributed towards the good 
name of the Brazil of to-day, inventing a pro- 
pelling aj)paratus destined to substitute the 
helix of the steamers, just as Ihe helix sub- 
stituted the wheels or paddles. The Brazilian 
Admiralty inueli interested in the new pro- 
peller, made strict experiments adapting it 
to a port torpedo boat, the « Sabino ]'ieira », 
obtaining results that encouraged the order 

to adapt it to a large ship which is now being done. All the technical 
world accompanies wath an interest that can easily be imagined, the 
trial proofs of the ingenious apparatus to which its in\entor gave 
the name of Trochoidal Propeller, or simply Trochoide. 

^__^ Dr. Eduardo Claudio is a 

serious man , an investiga- 
tor, and endowed with large 
theoretical knowledge. His 
invention is not a casual 
discovery, but the result of 
much thinking and untired 
studies of several years , 
luckly crowned with good 
results. 

The construction of the 
new propeller obeys to a new 
theory absolutely opposed to 
the theories of the lielix. 

These theories claim that 

the propelling action of the 

helix is due to the reaction produced upon the water by the fore side 

of the helix paddles, which would be equivalent to saying that the 

trochoide ouglit not to work efficiently. 




The « Ti'ucliuitle » 



— 48 — 

Xolw iilistamlinj; llic 'I'roclioidc not only proved its economical 
siipcrioiit.v over the helix in experiments realized with a torpedo- 
l)o:il in the hay of Rio, hut also proved that the vibrations tliat seem 
unav()ida!)le in the ships of ^reat speed propelled hy helix have no 
reason to exist, ami will ahsolutely disappear when propelled hy 
the trochoide. 

In si)ite of the imperf(H'tions of the first apparatus experimented, 
comparing it with one of the best helixes, an economy was realized 
of 30 "/,.. 

Tlie Brazilian Government has ordei'cd the construction of seve- 
ral of these apparatus, in the IJio Navy Yard, to he used in the first 
boats to he made which will be propelled by the trochoide, puttini;' 
aside the helix wich does n()t come up to tlie same perfection. It is 
the eternal work of the; indefinite progress. 




ortlcrt 
difical 
lo Ihc 

mcrch 
many 
iiiM-iit 
(o the 
W i 
ill I lia 



ToKQiATo rj.v>rAKAO. — .Vn elec- 
tricist of renown, a native of Para, 
has become quite i)r()minent with 
his work on electrical oscillations, 
ai)plied to the wireless telegraph 
and to the direction of submarine 
war torpedoes. For this torpedo — 
submarine torpedo directed by tlic 
hcrt/.ian electric waves — the Bra- 
zilian Congress has voted a subsidy 
of twenty contos for an apparatus 
to be built . 

This torpedo has in its favor the 

approval of all the Board of (Migi- 

neers of ilic War Dcpartnu'ut. that 

declared officially, after studies 

m1 hy the Si'cretary of war <( that the invention with slight mo 

ions, indicated by the Hoard, could render (he highest services 

defense of (he Hrazilian ports. » 

l)erimenls made on boai-d the steamer k Ihihyn of the Brazilian 
ant marines in r.KK), and others made in \W.'>, in Kio, ln'fcMc 
experts, showed the i in poiManee of eleeti-ieist Laniaran'- 
ion. I''or the last If. years M r. Lainai-ao has (le\ oled liiiiiseif 
study of physics and eheinistr,\ . 

til his apparatus, 1 ransmitler of hert /iaii w a\ es, t he in \ eiitoi' 
i test pill in operation tlie watching tm-pedoes wliieli e\|)lo(le(l 



'l'ur(|ii;il(j l.aiii.iiM 



* —te- 

as soon as tliey recoivod tho waves. AftiM-wards Ik^ mad*' four of them 
explode siniultaneously by means of waves sent also simidtaneously. 

The wireless telegraph, invented and built by him, it is a device 
so arranged that assures safe and perfect work. 

This ingenious inventor and electricist has still other instruments, 
of great utility, invented by him, as the Snndngnipho, devoted to 
register on a dial the soundings in navigated canals, and the Electric 
\Varnci\ to denounce the presence of water in the hold of the ships. 

His most important invention is the tor])edo ai)])aratus, examined 
by military engineers, and, as has been mentioned above awarded a 
l)rize by the Brazilian Congress. The press wrote extensively and 
enthusastically about the success of the experiments made on the 
l(3th. Jt^n-il in Rio where the advantages of his invention were plainly 
seen. 




PLKKIKA 1>L l.YRA 



Pereira de Lyra. — Here is the name 
of another Brazilian extremely fond of the 
natural-physic sciences, a name that has 
just won fame for the invention of a motor, 
extremely ingenious. Dr. Antonio Alves 
Pereira de Lyra was born in the ex-pro- 
vince of Pernambuco. He became a i)hysi- 
cian but kept on studying with the greatest 
love and care pliysics and mechanics mak- 
ing searches appliable to these sciences, 
and in this work he is always patient and 
clever. 

He invented several apparatus and industrial devices, devoting to 
this work all the spare moments of his clinical occupations and his 
functions as a member of the Brazilian Congress where he represents 
his native State. Xone of those inventions, it seems, will meet the 
success which is apparently reserved for his Motor-Turbine, of a 
system entirely new, wdiicli will substitute the steam, gas and water 
engines in use to-day in the industrial establishments. In a compa- 
rative experiment in which it was put side a side with the Cnrtia 
turbine, it was shown that the new turbine is so superior that it does 
not stand comparison, being besides much simpler and clieai)er. 

Being unable to give here a complete description of this invention 
we limit ourselves to transcribe from the Jornal do (Aunmercio, of 
Rio de Janeiro, the following paragraph in which they referred to 
this invention at the time granted a three year patent to the inventor. 



« Entii-cly (lilTciviit from all the others by its shape and disposi- ^ 
tion <>r its ])a(ldles, the iww turbine may be made with one sin<;le 
wheel, which is capable ol' rcduciiif^- its speed to the limit exacted by 
l)racticc. It is a rctin-nablc engine, which, by the simple movement ol" 
a cock, <;()cs inditTcicntly to the i-i<>ht or to the left, without any alte- 
ration in its delivery. It avoids completely shocks and whirls, 
because of tlie special disposition of the i)addles and the direction of 
the throw. The admission is made by means ol" automatic valves, 
moved by the steam itself, which maintain always the same pres- 
sure, never mind what the charge and sj'stem of the engine may be. 
In short, it is a simple a])paratus, light, economical, offering resis- 
tance and able to substitute witli adxantagc the motors of its kind, 
in a large number of ap])licati(ms. » 




t ioni/c 1 1 
II i> 
currents 
t imc a re 
sci'i<'s of 



OswALUo Fakia. — A\'c will now 
mention a name \\ liicli w ill be often 
re])eate(l in futui'e as everything* 
now indicates. It belongs to the 
youngest of inventoi's as he was 
l)ut ].") or K) years old when he made 
his a])i)earance before the scientific 
world as an inventor. He was born 
in Rio de Janeiro but is now in Pa- 
I'is finishing his scientific studies. 
TIk' i)ress of the whole world, and 
niucli spcciallx tlic l-'rcuch one w rote 
cxtiMisiN cly about his discovery. 

Morales dc Los Ivios the well 
known architect of Kio w rote t lius 
about Oswaldo I^'aria the great in- 
xcntor, our confrei'e : 

II Oswaldo l''aria "s in\(Miti(U) is 
really, if we arc to bciicNC tlu' ncws 
that are reaching us, a most lu(d<y 
discovery and is dcstiiu'd to revolu- 
le electrical nicchaiiics, industi'y and econoinw 
no nMU'c or less tiian a t ransftu-nici- of the altei'nalixc 
into conlinnal ciii'rcnls. This I ransrorniei' is at the same 
gulator of power, which permits, or rather, oi'iginales a 
new appbeations for (lie ciccliic euirents. 



().S»\A1.IMI I AlllA 



— 51 — 

It is the solution of the most sought of problem by electrical 
experts. 

Its author until now has reduced these new applications only to 
seven, and among these are more prominent, the suppression of spe- 
cial works and machinery to produce ozone, the suppression of spe- 
cial apparatus and shops to charge the accumulators, the enormous 
and most sought of advantage of becoming fix and steady the light 
of the arc-light lamps, which, as it is known, has been from its 
beginning till now very imperfect. I'hat fixidity of the electric light 
produced by that lamp gives (o the vitascope views a firmness which 
they never had until Oswaldo Faria "s invention appeared and par- 
ties who were present at the experiments of the vitascope with 
Faria's regulator, assure that the views are absolutely firm and that 
the absence of that inconvenient trembling observed until then in 
the reproduction of the views of the vitascopes, is complete. The 
invention of the young Brazilian promises to regulate the power of 
the light, either in the arc-light lamps, the incandescent one, what 
offers the advantages of the ordinary lamps being able to furnish 
light weaker or stronger, at will. 

The same apparatus originates other important improvements. 
We may say it is going to revolutionize in an extraordinary way 
the electrical production under its varied forms of light and power. » 

Through the intervention of His Excellency Barao do Rio 
Branco, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Piza e Almeida, Brazilian 
Minister to France, in Paris, gave the aid of his prestige to safe- 
guard the interests of the young inventor, protecting his rights, and 
to that effect had experiments made by experts of recognized com- 
petency. 

The repercussion of this discovery in the Euroj)ean scientific 
world was such, that the French government wanted to offer the 
young inventor the graduation diploma of one of its Academies. 



Dr. Vidal Brazil. — This inventor has followed quite a diffe- 
rent kind of investigations from the others above mentioned. His 
name is connected with one of the most precious discoveries of the 
medical science and most important to the life of the rural population 
specially those who work in the field or in the woods. 

He has discovered the antidote against the ophidic poison. Some 
time ago, another Brazilian, Dr. Lacerda, discovered a preparation 
having as basis permanganate of potassium, which was a most use- 
ful remedy when applied in time for the bites of certain ophidions. 




Dr. Vidal who is at present the director ol" tlie Insiitnlo Scrum- 
th('rui>i((>,oi S.Paulo, gave the last word applying the scriimlhcnipy 
to the cure of snake bites, and in Brazil there is a large number of 
mighty poisonous ones. Dr. Vidal had to make experimental studies 
most accurate and rigorous during several years. 

In all the medical centres, investiga- 
tions of this kind have progressed but 
little, to be precise, have note advanced 
any. 

The same is not the case in Brazil. In 
this country there are many kinds of sna- 
kes, some most poisonous ones and quite 
^^^ ( i^ a number of men fall victims to them as 

^^^^^^^MH^i^^Hfej^ well as do domestic animals several 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B To 

^j^^^^^JN^HyP^^ had resisted to the efforts of physicians 

^^^^^ and quacks, Dr. A^idal Brazil has disco- 

^ii'^i i:i.v/ii vered that remedy with .ser»/7}s prepared 

by him of three different kinds : the anti- 

(•rotiilic, against the bite of rattle-snake, the anti-bothroi)ic, against 

the bite of the jnrarma-^nako, and the anti-o])]iidic, fornu'd by the 

jiiixtiii'c of these two against the l)ite of the other kinds of suaki's. 

'i'liis way Dr. Mdal put well in evidence the name of Brazil in the 
medical world, and giving credit to the institution he is director of 
in Sao I^aulo. 



Aiiotlier Hrazilian invention, though not of great seientifie value 
as the preceding ones, is the inniohihic scul, inxcnted hy an eni- 
l)loyee of the I'ost Office, Mr. Marcpiesde Souza, eliarged with the 
l)raneli of the Post Office in the l-'ederal Congress Building. 

Il consists in a kind of a holt or lock nnuh' of cai'd and h'ad and 
in which al'lcr closing nuiil bags, enveloix's or an\ other postal 
j)ackage, \)\ nu'ans of an ingenious ap])aratns couhl Ite piinted any 
signals, dales, niimhers, anything wished. 

I he si ni pi icily of I lie invent ion can only l)c com pa red with iis prac- 
tical use and [efficiency for the work, as il is i»ro\ing its real value 
in the post offices of the c(.iinlr.\ . Soon after il was patented, il was 
:'"'"l''''"l ''.\ 111'- I'osI olTicc adniinislralion aii.l il can he seen that 
before lung the //in/o/.;/./r Nc,// iiivciilcd hy Mr. Martpn-s de Souza 
will make disajipcar frMm ;,1| H,,. |„,sl offices, llie use of wax. inuci- 



— r,:{ — 

hig'cd seals iind nil the other ))riMiitiv(' pi'occ^sscs used until now to 
assure the inviolability of the mails. 

Besides this seal and an original mail bag' to eariy tlie mails from 
l)ort to ])ort, Mr. Marques de Souza invented sevei-al otlier devices 
among- which is the Brazilian Grenach', a war ])rojeetile, snl)mitted 
not long- ago to the appreciation of the Major-State of the army, and 
the characteristic of which consists in that, much to the contrary of 
what happens with all the other projectiles used, it is open, that is, 
it has a longitudinal opening ramified with three lines running in the 
direction of the drilled rays of the inside barrel of the gun. The air 
introduced in these openings when the projectile is in motion it 
escapes, impressing greater velocity to it and more penetrating 
energy. 

Should we have time and space we could give a long series of 
inventions, discoveries, scientific applications, etc., of our days, all, 
the work of Brazilians, but the list would be rather long. We would 
have to speak of : 

Freire de Aguiar. — New process of manufacturing extracts of 
hull. 

Angelo Borges. — Rotative motor engine. 

Marao Ferreira. — New^ flat-irons. 

R. de Carvalho. — New process of metal stencil work. 

Antonio Salles Ferreira. — Improved coffee-pot. 

Bemvindo a. Brandao, of Rio. — Hydrometre. 

Francisco Gon^alves Ribeiro, of Sao Paulo. — Improved coffee 
sheller. 

Bernardo Cagmari, of Rio. — Paste board made of peri-peri 
fibre. 

D'" Francisco Cintra, of Sao Paulo. — Apparatus for trigonome- 
tric calculations. 

Jose Vincente Marella, of Rio. — Acetylene gasometre. 

OcTAVio Teixeira Mendes, of Sao Paulo. — Cooler by compres- 
sed air. 

AuGUSTO Barbosa da SiLVA, of Miiias Geraes. — New process 
for the manufacture of pig iron, steel and an electric oven for that 
purpose. 

JoAO FiGUEiREDO RocHA, of Rio. — Meclianic-cxplaining map 
for the study of geograi^hy. 

J. A. DA SiLVA GouvEiA, of Rio. — New style flat-iron. 

A. Costa Sampaio, of Rio. — Oiler to prevent rust. 

IsiDORO J. Machado Lapa, of Rio. — Acetylene apparatus for 
light-houses. 



- 5i — 

Antomo F. dk Cak\ ai.ho, <»t' Rio. — Disinl'(H'tin<; inachim* lor 
barbers inslniiiiciits. 

Caklos M. 1)K Lackkda, of Rio Grande do Sul. — New jjrocess 
to jjrepare dry salted beef making- it iin<diangeable. 

DiAs Die Olivkiua, of Haliia. — Ai)paratus to lift heavy weights 
from the bottom of the sea. 

JoAo T. Vascoxckllos, of Rio. — New night lam])s named 
(( lirazileiras ». 

Maximo P. de Cakvaliio, of Minas. — Hoi-se-shoe nails, named 
a Brazil ». 

Miguel A. Buino, of Rio. — Original drink with therapeutic 
ai)plieation. 

Antonio F. V. da Fonseca, of Rio. — Ingenious deviec called : 
« Automatic Fisber ». 

Jose Kmilio Reiciiardt, of Rio Grande do Sul. — Apparatus to 
cut clotbing- named « Adjusting Ray ». 

Kdiardo J. S. Proen^a, of Rio. — Fishing apparatus. 

JoAQiiM Leocadio Freire, of Siio Paulo. — New system to pro- 
duce sugar, by means of the air and heat. 

AuGLSTo C. S. Telles, of Sao Paulo. — Utilisation of the resi- 
due of araminc to manufacture paper, etc. 

Kdiardo Gomes Ferreira, of Rio. — Improvement in cotton 
weaving, linen, etc. 

Manoel Antomo Guimaraes, of Rio. — New carriage models. 

Arthur O. F. R angel, of Rio. — Photographs by a new process 
called (( celluloidinos » and an Electric Drill. 

Luiz 1"'reike de A(;uiar, of Rio. — Sanitary apparatus named 
« Simplex ». 

Kduardo Gomes Ferreir.v, of Rio. — Improved weaver's shuttle. 

Andre Framu, of Rio. — Substance and process to tan skins, 
named <( Frama preparation ». 

Oscar Si»aldin(;, of Rio (Jrandc do Sul. — Machine to scrai)e 
Mitiulioat. (A Rrazilian plant out of which flour is made). 

.loAo N'asc^uks, of Rio. — A very curious lamp named « Progress. » 

(Jermano !•;. \'ii)\i, , of Rio. — Industrial advertisements by 
means of slercoptii-an views. 

Manoki. (ioMEs, of Rio. — Incandescent alcohol street lamps. 

Oari.os Sii.VA. - Oi-iginal stove. 

Rail HA !•'. Iviioiko, of Rio. — Station indicator for i-ailway 
service. 

Pedro A. |{or(;es, of S;h. I'aiilo. Aiil kilici' machine. 



Pedro J*ekegrino, ol" Rio. — An ai)i)aratiis uuukhI « Flexcmoto », 
to neutralize the shaking- of cai'i-iaf^cs. 

B. F. Costa k Sousa, of Uio. — A process to cool tlie air suddenly. 

Affonso C. Seabra, of Rio. — A motor turbin(\ 

Dr. Francisco Mourao, of Minas Geraes. — Ai)i)li('ation of man- 
ganese and its compounds to a ceramic paste. 

Bento M. Sa, of Rio. — Machines to clean knives and forks. 

Arthur D. Lagerde, of Rio. — Process for cloth to become im- 
permeable. 

Bernardino A. Soares, of Rio. — iVIotor by means of c<)mi)ressed 
air. 

Affonso DOS Reis, of Evio. — Machines for wall paper manufac- 
turing. 

F'ernando Xavier da Silveira, of Minas Geraes. — Brick mak- 
ing machine. 

JoAQUiM LouRENgo RiBEiRO, of Parana. — Hj^draulic automatic 
motor. 

Antonio Ayres Ferreira, of Rio. — Traction machine. 

Dr. Joaquim Leocadio Freire, of Sao Paulo. — Improved dis- 
tiller. 

JoAO XoGUEiRA Malheiros, of Rio. — Xcw maritime vehicle, 
named « Velo-helice ». 

Dr. Francisco Alves de Lima, of Rio. — Air pump, for land 
and sea. 

And an endless number of others, which proves the inventive 
energy and capacity of the present generation. 

It would require two large volumes to describe, even in a con- 
cise form these discoveries and inventions. By what we have writ- 
ten, by what we presented in the above lines, we can affirm that the 
time is gone when the dense forests, the indians, the missionaries 
and the slaves were the essential subjects of the Brazilian social 
scenery, the common reference places for the European traveller to 
write about Brazil as a large lot of tame savages. 

Now, let us have a look at Brazilian investigators, scientists, 
thought workers, etc. 



* 



Among the Brazilian men of science the following names occupy 
pre-eminent places : 

Barbosa Rodrigues. — Is the name of the learned director of the 
Botanical Garden, author of several important photographic mono- 




graphics, a work in two volumes (c Miiiriikytnn unci the Symbolic 
idols », iind numy other \vorks, the most noted of whieli being- a cle- 
ver treatise on palm-trees, entitled a Palmeiras do Brazil », a work 
for the publication of which the Brazilian Congress voted an appro- 
priation of -JdOiOOOSOUU or aboul seventy thousand dollars. 

Dr. A. J. Ferreira da Silva, pro- 
fessor of the Polytechnical Academy 
of Oporto, Portugal , writing about 
this Brazilian scientist, who devotes 
all his spare moments to botanical 
and ethnological studies stated : «Make 
a great mistake those who are thinking 
that Brazil is indifferent to the civili- 
sing progress of the world, characte- 
rised by the development of sciences. 
An impulse of no small importance 
lias been given, and we can even as- 
sure that it will be one of great future 
1;- s possibilities, if the Brazilian Govern- 

ment does its duty. 
Joiio Bai'bosa Rodrigues represents one of the most valiant 
im])ellcrs of that movement of sci(^ntific emancipation in Brazil. His 
magniriccnl botanical stu(li(^s, especially about parnsHes iiud ])uliii- 
/rccs give him one of the most distinguished places among the bota- 
nists and his ethnological studies have thrown light on many i)ro- 
blcms concerning the i-aces of the American continent )>. 

liarbosa Ilodrigiics is the ty])e of a true fi'iend of science : he 
nev»;r devoted himself to nor allowed himself to be attracted by any 
other thing but scientific researches. In 1S71 he enteri'd the Amazon 
valley to study tlic forest, lie lived tlicrc for years. He then founded 
the Bonatical Museum of Manaos, and from there he was invited by 
the Fcdci-al ( JoNci-nment in 1800, to take charge of the Botanical 
Garden <>f Kio dc Janeiro, whei'c he introduced thousands of new 
l)lants, classifying every one he found there. Twice European men 
of science perix'tuated his name in botany, as a recognizance of his 
scientific work : they classified a genus of the palm-tree family 
" liuihosit I) and a genus of parasiti's »* Rodri^uczivlla ». Besides 
these lliere arc some ten other siH'cies devoted to him bearing the 
name of I lie wise Bi'azilian. He has gotu' over every bit of the 
Hra/ilian (eri-ilory in his sciciil ific excursions. 

In IS.SI-IS.S.") he pacified 1 he 1 ndian I li be of I he /•."/•/(7).</;.-i.s, that 
he nii-l wilh and was highly jnaised liy llie i>ia/.ilian jn-ess. 



— 57 — 

His work on parasites was lii<;lily appreciated \)y Eiii'opeaii sei(Mi- 
tists. Ill tlie luteriiatioiial Botanical Con<;i-ess, lield on the 
9tli, Septeniber 1892, where the ceh'brated professor Cogueaux sent 
a great number of drawings from Earbosa Rodrigues manuscript a 
hotter was read in whicli the well known ])rofessor had written : 

« It was then that , at //jy jwrsistcnl nujuesls, Mr. Barbosa Ro- 
drigues, i)romised me all his collection, consisting of nearly nine 
hundred colored drawings. )j 

And the letter ends thus : 

(( Some of these drawings that I took, at hazard, will permit to 
appreciate the artistic talent with which those drawings were made, 
and above all, the great care with which the minutest details of the 
analytical drawings of this i-ich and i)recious series were represented. 

Closing these lines a comparison im])oses itself before my mind, 
between the behaviour of the two old competitors to the editing of the 
parasites monography for the « Flora Brasiliensis »; a (Reichembach 
son) revenged himself for having been set aside, ordering, by his 
death, that his important collections should be closed during 25 years, 
so that they could not be utilised in the editing of the wairk; another 
one (Barbosa Rodrigues), though he could not have been selected 
because of the position in which he was placed , he wanted however 
to render services to science and permitted me to utilise the best way 
I could the fruit of his active researches during many years. I believe 
that this latter botanical scientist will thank his abnegation, and from 
my part I take advantage of this opportunity to publicly present my 
most profound gratitude. » 

He has also some works of gi'eat value on experimental physio- 
logy. His study on the curare was the most interesting that has been 
done in Brazil. A monogi'aphy on « Fecundacrio vegetal » is equall}^ 
one of the most noted works on experimental physiology in Brazil. 

Often have researches made by Dr. Barbosa Rodrigues appeared 
in Europe attributed to other learned men, as it happened with pro- 
fessor Aberdeen, J. W. Trail, to whom Barbosa Rodrigues had to 
write revindicating the right of priority in the classification of certain 
vegetable specimens, as well as wdth professor Drude, later on, w^hen 
he wrote about palm-trees in the « Flora Brasiliensis », 

Barbosa Rodrigues has wi'itten many other monographies , 
pamphlets and books on archeology, ethnography, and several other 
subjects. Here is a list of these works, though incomplete, sufficient 
to give to the reader an idea of the productive energy of this learned 
Brazilian : 

Iconog-raphie des erchidees du Bresil, 1869-1882; La vallee des 



— 5a — 

Ainnzoncs. 1X7-J-1875; Scrluiii Pulinaruin ; lSl-2-\8\n ; Kmuncratio 
piilnuiiiiin novurum (juhs onllc /luiuinis Amazonum invcntas et ad 
Scrtiiiu Palniariiin collcrlas, dcscripsit ct iconibus illustravit, 1875; 
Idolo aiiia-oiiico , achado no Rio Aniazonas , 1875; Explora(;a() c 
cstiido do oallc do Ainazoiias : rio Capim. Relatorio, etc., 1875; 
Explorarao c cstiido do ualle do Amazoiias. Rio Tapajos, 1875; 
Explora^ao c cstiido do vallc do Amazonas : rio Trombctas. Rela- 
torio, 1875; Exploragad do rio J amunda. 'Relsitorio , 1875; Explo- 
rai^ao dos rios Uriibii e Jatapu, 1875; Antig'uidades do Aniazonas, 
1870-1880; Monostychosepalum, }>-en. nob., (Rev. de Ilori.), 1877; 
Genera et species orchidearum (juas collcgit, dcscripsit et inconibus 
illustravit, 1 vol., 1811 ; Estudos sobrc a ii-ritabilidadc dc uma I)ro- 
scra, 1878; Protesto appcndicc ao a Eniiincratio palniariui} nova- 
rum », 1870; Palnieiras do Amazonas. Distribui(^-ao g-eograpliica, 
1879; Attalea oleifera, palmcira nova dcscripta c dcsenhada, \88\ : 
O canto e a dansa selvicola, 1881 ; Lendas, cren(^-as e siipersticocs. 

1881 ; Elora da Scrra do Lcnheiro, 1881; Resiiltado Botanico de uma 
breve excursao a S. Joao d'El-Rey, 1881; Species orchidearum nova- 
rum, ISSl ; Xolas a Liiccok sobre a Elora e a Eaiina do Brazil, 1882; 
() Muirakytan, precioso coevo do homcm anti-columbiano, 1882; Les 
palmiers, observations sur la monographic de cette famillc dans la 
a Elora Brasiliensis », 1882 ; Catalogo dos objectos expostos na Expo- 
sigao Anthropologica, 1882; Tetrastylis, gen. nob. das Passifiorea- 
ceas, 1882 ; Genera et si)ecies orchidearum novarum quas collegnt, 
descripsit et iconibus illustravit, TI vol., 1882 ; Diversos artigos na 
Revisla A nthropologica, 1882; Orchidav Rodeienses et alteras inedito', 

1882 ; Structure des Orchidees, Xotes d'line etude, 1883 ; Escmbechia 
fasciculafa, (jrumary, 188;> ; Muirakytan ou aliby (Revisla Ama- 
zonica), 1881 ; Esterhazia superba. Espccie nova da familia das sci'o- 
j}hulariaceas, 1885 ; Rio Jauapery. Paci/icai^ao dos (Jrichanas, 1885 ; 
Catalogo de productos do Amazonas, 188(5 ; .1 necropole de Mirakan- 
gucra (Mxtr. da Velloisa), 1887; () Tamakuare, especies novas da 
ordem das I'ernstro'miaceas, 1887 ; Vellosia, 1' od., 1887 ; Ecloga' 
plantarum novarum tjuas descripsit, 1887 ; Palma' Amazonenscs 
nova-. 1SS7 ; Viagcns ;'is Pedras Vcrdes, ISSS ; .1 lingua g-eral e o 
Guuntiiy. Annotai^des ao alphabcto indigcna, 1SS8 ; () Muirakytan c 
o Jurupari, 188».» ; Les reptiles fossiles dc I'Amazone (Kxtr. da \'ello- 
sia '. iSS'.t ; lU'cudn dc Slrychnos novos (Kxlr. da \'cllosia - 1S8'.I ; />/- 
gn:ini;i(c<r novo- ( l-lxh". da \'cllosia}, 18S«t : Noras dc luzcr, uoi-.xs, 
18.S'.»; Poraniluba Amazoiwnse (Publ. da Hil)l. Nar. ). IS'JO; Os idolos 
syudu>tici)s c o Muirnkyhui, 1S«.I1 ; Plantas, novas cullivadas no Jar- 
dim lloliinuo, 1 vol., I.S'.M ; Vellosia.!' cd., IS'.U ; Vocabulario indigc- 



— 59 — 

na coinparado { Publ. da l>il)l. Xac. ), 18'.)^ ; Plunias noviis ciillivadas 
no Jardini Botaiiicu, 11 vol., 181)3; Plantas nouas cultiuadas no 
Janlini Botanico, III vol. 1893; Vocabnlario com a ovlo^raphia 
corncia, 181)3 ; Plantas novas cultiuadas no Jardini Bolaniro, 
IV vol., 181)1 ; Ilorins I'lnniincnsis, 181)1; Planlas nonas cultioadafi 
no Jardiin Botanico, V vol., 189(3 ; PaUnae Matto<>rosscnse nouoi, 
1807 ; Plant a' Matto<>resscnsc novai. O Muirakytan c as idolos 
synd)olicos (2 vols.), 181)1) ; Tratado das Palmeiras do Brazil, 11)03. 




Barao de Capanenia 



Barao de Capanema. — Is without 
a doubt one of the most uotcd Brazi- 
lian intellectual men. He was born in 
Rio de Janeiro. 

His life is a continual series of ser- 
vices rendered to his country, and it 
suffices to point out among them the 
one of having introduced in the South 
American continent the electrical te- 
legi-a])h service which were under his 
direction for nearly 20 years. He star- 
ted his public career as a professor of 
physics in Rio de Janeii-o. A little 
before the Paraguayan war, he was one of those charged with the 
study of improvements to be ado])ted in the Brazilian ai-my, by order 
of the Imperial Government. By that time the Estrella powder 
factory in Rio de Janeiro had been destroyed by fire and he was 
charged with re-establishing it. While in that commission he intro- 
duced some novelties, completely ignored in South America one of 
them being the Tourneiron turbine, that he himself had built in the 
Rio Navy Yard. He invented and installed in the factory an appa- 
ratus to carbonise wood by means of over-heated watei- steam. The 
pulverisation of tlie powder elements was also obtained by him by 
means of an ingenious apparatus also of his own invention, a very 
simple one but which substituted with advantage the old crushing 
primitive process ado^^ted in the factory. By his own initiative 
were introduced in the Brazilian army the breech loading rifles, 
the first ones that were sent to South America. 

He also invented some sky-rockets to be used in time of war, and 
which were used in the Paraguayan war with the best results. Those 
sky-rockets were of cylindrical shape and contained explosives. 
But Barao de Capanema did not devote his deep genius to war 



— «0 — 

appliances only. Some years a^o he eonccived a eheniical eompound 
forthe exlini-tion ol' tlie .S'.'u/i;a.s a species of ant which has been a true 
plaj-ije to Brazilian agriculturists. He gave it the name of « Foiinicidii 
Cupiuicmay. An enormous factory estal)lished in Governor's island 
in Rio hay furnished for many years tons and tons of that ant -killer 
to the farmers of the country. In 1803 during the Floriano revolution 
this factory was destroyed during one of the military engagements 
and with the factory also disappeared several most rich conchiologic, 
geologic and mineralogic and industrial chemistry collections which 
represented the result of 38 years of researches made by the learned 
Brazilian. 

He made the plans and began the construction of the Rio Custom 
House Storage houses. He reorganised the Ipanemairon factory. He 
initiated an itinerary maj) of Brazil which could not be finished 
because of the Government having denied the needed funds to do it 
with. He was the founder of the Polyteclniical Institute that lias ren- 
dered such good services to the country. 

As a member of the international committee for the establishment 
of a universal standard he was the introducer of the metric system 
in Brazil. 

The first paper factory established in Brazil was founded by him 
40 years ago taking advantage of a water fall near Petropolis. 

He spent several years going through the province of Ceara to 
make some geological studies. He indicated there the existence of 
coal and iron mines. In the mountain chain known as Carisis lie 
found the formation of cretacea. In a place known as Crato, he dug 
up and classified some fossils finding one belonging to the Jurassic 
formation. 

Later on he directed a committee charged with the deiuarcalion 
of the boundary lines that separate Brazil from the Argentine Repu- 
blic as well as he represented the progress of natural sciences in 
Brazil in different Congresses and Conferences held in European 
capitals. 

* 

In the medical and natural sciences lira/.il has a huig list of nota- 
bilities, many known abroad but (he limited space of (his hook 
comi)cls ns to cite only a few mos( pi'omincnt. There* is no doulM 
that (lie first place belongs to Dr. Clmpoi-IM-cvosl , i)i-ofessor of (lie 
IJit) Medical ( 'ullege. 'I'o give an aecounl of his successful chirurgii'al 
operations wliicli ujeant life and deadi to (he operated would fill i)a- 
gCH and pages of (his hook. It suffices (o mendon (hat as audacious 



— 61 — 

as skilful operation made on the thoroxipliopag sisters, Maria and 
Hosalina, separatinig tlicni. This operation was cause of gi'cat won- 
der to the scientists all over the world. Dr. Chajiot is about to 
perform an identical operation on two little thoroxipliopag girls 
which have just arrived from Ceara at the translating' of this book. 

Other prominent medical men are Barao Pedro Affonso ; Dr. Paes 
Leme; Dr. Baptista Lacerda; Dr. Pizarro; Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, the 
great bactereologist and energetic Director of the Board of Health 
and Dr. Pereira Barreto the wise propagandist in Sao Paulo. 




Dr. Baptista Lacerda. 
— "SVe must write some bio- 
graphical notes about this 
learned Brazilian very much 
spoken of in the scientific 
world of late years for his 
studies and researches, ha- 
ving discovered among other 
things the anti-ophidic ac- 
tion of the permanganate of 
potassium. 

He was born on the 12th. 
July 1846 in the city of Cam- 
pos, province of Rio de Ja- 
neiro. 

His father, who is now 
dead , worked for many 
years as a physician in that 
city having acquired a good 
name both for his skill and 
charitable disposition. 

In 1864 Dr. Baptista La- 
cerda graduated in letters 
and sciences after a brilliant course in the Collegio Pedro II. In 
1870 he graduated in the Rio Medical College and in 1876 was 
appointed vice-director of the zoological section of the National 
Museum and later on was for several years its director. 

In 1881 with the collaboration of L. Conty founded the physiology 
laboratory of the National Museum the first institution of its kind 
then in Brazil. 



Baptista Lacerda 



— «2 



He piihlislKMl scvcriil works ol' valiu" about authroi)olo;;y, pliy- 
siology and iiii('rol)iol()<;y. 

In the same ,\ cai' 1S81 lie discovered the antidotisin of i)ernianga- 
nate of potassium for tlic juiison of the ophidioii. Tliis discovery 
j>av(' liiiii a ^dod name not onl>- in l^ia/.il but in foreij^n countries. 
The Imix'i'ia! Government condecorated him with tlie title of Coin- 
niendndor <lu Rosa, and lie received a prize voted by the Parliament 
as a compensation for his liumanitai'ian discovery. 

During two years he was pi-esident of th(^ Medical National Aca- 
demy and in 1895 was a])pointe(l director of the National Mu- 
seum. 

He was charged with several scientific committees, in Brazil and 
abroad, and several times he was honored w ith the nomination of 
vice-president of foreign congresses. 

He is coi-rcsponding-member of many scientific associations both 
national and foreign. 

He wrote several pajxM's on the yellow fcvi-r, hcri-hcri mid syinpto- 
iinilic carhiinclcs in Minas Geraes, I lie ciirurc, on some Brazilian 
toxic and medicinal i)lants. Ueforming the National Museum he 
reconstituted there the Biology Lal)oratory the direction of \^hich 
h(^ took chai'ge regardless of any comi)i'nsati()n. 

He is one of the Brazilian men of science most known abroad. 



Aliout tlic Icaincd man Pkiumra Hak- 
UKTo, that we mentioned above, it would 
not be exaggeration to say : there is one 
of the giants of the thought in South Anu'- 
I'ica. This noted physician was born in the 
old province of Kio dc .laneiro , but after 
graduating in medicine in Hi-iissels , esla- 
l)lislic(l his I'csidciicc in Sao I*aul(t contri- 
l)Uting as few have towai-ds tlic moral and 
material progress of (hat state and the 
country. He is an earnest and active e\pe- 
rinientalist of iiidiisti'iai and agiaeult urist 
biology. 

He is llie aiitlioi- of tliat tlu'oi-\- that the epidemic lexers of some 
loealilies of Sao I'aido are due to tlic eon>|>ureat ion of tlie slieets n{ 
water, lheor\ originated after t lie most waiinly debated coni ro\ ei- 
sics, the series of nicasui'cs taken for the improxing of the sanitarx 
(•(Uidilions of those places, the dry ing of t he soil, hax ing t hus Sao 




IM lu lu V liAiiiii 1 10 



— 63 — 

Paulo improved and transformed the majority of its cities in the 
hist 15 years. 

Another lai'ge part of the good work of that man of science was 
the campaign of rehabilitation of the weak soil , in Sao Paulo. I£e 
resolved then sevei-al ])rol)lems of public economy, the ])o})ulating of 
several districts and the multiplicity of culture. The latter because 
of the State farmers devoting- themselves to the cultivation of coffee 
exclusively. The large agricultural establishment he founded as an 
experimental demonstration of his ])ropaganda, it is to-day a good 
school for all those of that region who devote themselves to such 
questions. 

Dr. Luiz Pereira Barreto maintains an earnest })ropaganda for 
the introduction of the vines in Brazil. His farm in Piritul)a near 
Sao Paulo is transfoi-med in a large demonstration field where the 
precepts of the scientific cultivation, preached by the propagandist, 
in successive works, have their best illustration and the most 
eloquent in thousand kinds of vines, coming from all over the world, 
and there they are acclimatized and blooming. 

He is also a philosopher. 

Sociology and i)hilosopliical critic take up the balance of his 
spare time, after attending to his medical work, the agriculture and 
journalism. 

Among his books and articles published in the Belgium , French 
and Brazilian jjapers has acquired a just reputation his book (c The 
theory of the three States », which provoked endless and aninuxted 
discussions and is a vigorous book of philosophical critic. 

But we can't delay any longer with this chapter. We must go 
ahead! There is a good dealto be written. 



Dr. Lauro Severiano Miiller (Secretary of Industry and Public 
Works). He is the youngest of all the members of the Government. 
Was born in the province of Santa Catharina in 1864. He is a man 
of su])erior mind, has a strong will power, is calm, i)ersistent and 
determined. He soon took a prominent place among the politicians 
of note, though he does not resemble them at all, detesting as he 
does politics. 

We maj^ say of Dr. Lauro Miiller what H. Taine said of one of 
his fellow-citizens : he prepared himself for politics through sciences 
and morals. He is an enemy of all this : quarrels, conspiracies, dis- 
putes and little subtilities, that constitute as a rule the profile of 
politicians by profession, here in South America, Dr. Miiller never 



— f>4 



wanted t(. un.l.Mstan.l tluit the object of the preoccupations of a 
pul.lic man Nvcre lin.ite<l l>y eternal <iaarrels of the political parties 
and elec-ti<nis disputes. His military education, - he is a major 
belonging- to a military enoineers c()nii)any - his scientific instruc- 
tion, explain fully well the reason why he places before the cogita- 
tions of the party, before the unending- inana'uvres of internal poli- 




l.Aimo Si \ I lUAMi Mm 1 1 it 



tics, a pcrsislcul care and he iicxcr gels lii-cd of looking allcr tli(> 
matci-ial i)r()gr('ss so miicli needed l>y lliis as well as all the other 
count rics of Latin Aineriea. 

Due lo this pai-tieiilar eliarai-leiisi ie lie has lieen eleeled in spite 



— 65 — 

of political differences by all politieal i)ai-ties of his native State in- 
distinctly. He has represented his State both as a Congressman 
and a Senator and was nominated candidate and elected governor. 

It was while he was (Governor of his State that Dr. Rodrigues 
Alves invited him to assist him in fiiirilliiig tlie programme of woi'k 
and material i)rogress that he had promised to the nation. 

]\ragnificent selection it was. For a long time Brazil has not had 
a man like Dr. Mliller and he will be replaced with difficulty should 
he not be invited to continue to serve with the new president as it is 
rumoured. 

Dr. Miiller is not only a man of good judgment and pi-ogressive 
ideas, but he is a hard worker, energetic and the work of his de- 
partment is going on under such an active management that many 
call him Yankee. He visited several points of the country, he opened 
new railroads, he called meetings of scientific Congresses to examine 
de visa questions of importance in charge of liis department and 
last but not least he opened the Central Avenue, Bay-side-drives, 
contracted the harbour works, called experts from the United States 
to study the future possibilities of the coal mines regions and others. 

It is to Lauro Miiller jjrincipally that Brazil owes the starting- 
stream of investing capital inclined to come from the United States 
to Brazil for the benefit of both, the capitalist who will multiply his 
capital and Brazil that will develop its industries. Dr. Miiller is a 
hard worker and he supervises and investigates personally every- 
thing of interest running through his department. 

Though every one of the Secretaries of the Government have 
been attentive to the work of their departments, Dr Miiller has been 
particularly so. He does not confine himself to go to liis office, give 
orders and sign papers. He inspects railroads, examines mines, 
studies agriculture problems and is a tireless worker. 

Another characteristic of Dr. Muller's moral profile is the little 
importance he attaches to what the papers say about him, either in 
his favor or against him. And was a newspaper man himself one 
day. He is a clever orator ; we often heard him speaking in Con- 
gress. He despises theatrical effect in his speech. He is discreet and 
the delivery of his speech is slow and calm. He is, however fond of 
a little humorism which is the basis of a good practical sense. He 
was always listened to with considerable attention. 

As a Secretary he has been more a man of action than a man of 
words. When he took charge of his office instead of looking for his 
political friends and political bosses, he went to the technical centre 
of engineers and scientists where he had occasion to declare that 



— fi« — 

« in (he <><>iu'rnin(-nl he mould ninkc ('ii<^inc('rin^- irork n and this 
phrase became celebrated and %vith some reason because there were 
quite a number of civil engineers struggling for lack of work and the 
material progress that Dr. Midler has developped during his term 
of office brought work to the majority if not all of them. 

Secretary Miiller has done during the four j^ears of his admi- 
nistration 1002 to 1900 everything that could be expected from a 
good administrator of public affairs and a clever and wise man that 
he is. When he took charge of his Department he found the railway 
system almost paralyzed all through Brazil. lie went to work and 
not only gave new life to the lines in operation but created new 
ones. He built some 14 to 17.500 kilometres of new roads and there 
are contracts signed for the building of 5.000 more kilometres. 

But it was not only in this line that he developped his activity. 
He also looked after the mining districts. He contracted from the 
United States, Mr. J. C A\'hite, a mining engineer who made two 
ti'ips to Brazil for mining studies, S2)ecially the coal industry. Thus 
Secretary Miiller has promoted the industrial exploitation of the 
coal mines so rich and yet so abandoned in Brazil. He also reorgan- 
ised the Xew Brazilian Lloyd Steamship Company which was 
going to pieces. Xow that company is in the hands of the firm 
M. Buanpie & Co. The head of that firm Dr. Manoel Buartpie de 
Macedo is one of the most clever of the Brazilian captains of indus- 
try and now the Jjloyd is becoming a modern and powerful enter- 
prize devoted to the coastwise service and international navigation 
undci- tJK! Brazilian flag. 

Secretary Miiller also contracted the Rio Grande bar improve- 
ments, a problem which has been waiting for centuries to be solved. 
He also sohcd the other no less difficult problem of the internal 
communications whitli Matto Grosso, by means of a 1.200 kilometrts 
railway. He promoted yet the great achievements of the Harbor 
Works of Rio de .Jaiuuro, Bahia, Kio (irantle, Nit-toria, Kecife, 
I*ai-:i, l<'loi-iau()polis and Laguna. lie put an end to that ciulless 
coiiiplaint of unsurficiciu'y of water supply in Uio de .laneiro, 
tliiough canalisations from far away i-ivcrs. He soUed yet llu'i)i()l)- 
Iriii ol tlic supply of clcclric light and power for the iudustrics aiul 
city illumination, lie ordered tlic const luct ion olaiMisian wt'lls and 
penetration roads, a system of i)ul)lic works to i)ievent famine in 
tljo States that lack ii-rigation duiing the dry season, lie increased 
the federal Iclcgrapli lines uiorc than l.ixio kilometics. lie prouiolol 
the first industrial census ever taken in this republic and got 
intcroHtod in ev«'rything that contribul(^d towards makinji- Bi-a/.il 



— 67 — 

better known abroad. It is not necessary to write here the good 
results obtained there from. It suffices to mention the St, Louis 
Exposition where Brazil presented a beautiful exhibit. The country 
owes to Secretary Miiller the important improvements Rio de Janeiro 
is undei'going as the destruction of some of the hills, the prolonga- 
tion of the Mangue Canal with its two avenues, a pernument 
Museum, the Central avenue, the uniformisation of the width of the 
Central Eailway of Brazil tracks and many other improvements. 




Paulo de Frontix 



Paulo de Froxtin. — Andre-Gustavo-Paulo de Frontin was 
born in Rio de Janeiro in 1800. He was but 19 years old when he 



— 68 — 



graduated as a geographic engineer from the Rio I'olyteohnical Col- 
lege. One year afterwards lie was a professor of that same college. 
Later on he graduated as a Bachelor of Mathematics and Physical 
Sciences and Civil Engineering. In 1882 he obtained by competitive 
examination, which he passed with high distinction, the place of steam 
machinery iji-ofcssor at the Polyteclmical College. He was teaching 
at the same time philosophy at the Pedi-o II High School and me- 
chanics and astronomy at the National Gymnasium. He has i-ealizeil 
some most notable pieces of engineering work, railroads, water 
works, etc. Among this we must mention the Gold mines of Assu- 
rua, in Bahia, lU kilometres canalisation; the bringing down to Rio 
the waters of the Xerem and Mantiqueira rivers, for the capital 
water supply, work that made him a celebrated man; the Melhom- 
mcntos of linizil vaWw'ixy 150 kilometres that he studied, projected 
and built all alone in .5 year; the project of the port and docks of 
Ivio; the plan of modifications for the improvement of the sanitary 
conditions of Rio, opening avenues and throwing down hills, and 

many other works of im- 
portance. The opening of 
Avenida Central in Rio 
which was executed in 'J',' 
months perpetuated his 
name. He is a man of rare 
intelligence and phenomc 
nal capacity for work and 
is , without a doubt tlu' 
ablest engineer of South 
America. 




I'llANCISIO ItliAIIKI 
IH'iin ( 'fill l';ll ( 'olicuc 1 11 



Francisco Buwlho. 
He is one of the most uo 
(able civil engineers. lie 

was boi-n on tlic IS tli. 
.Iiil\ , IS 17 in S. .loaod'Kl- 
Kcy, in the State of Mi- 
nas. lie gradnalcd in IST I 
as a liachclor in Mathc- 
Miatii'sand I'liysical scien 
CCS, and Civil iMiginecr 
ing from the Kio de .la- 
S7:; he was a])])ointed chiel' cnginiMM- of 



— «9 — 

the Mucahc and Campos Canal. In 1874 he was appointed chief of 
the traction department of the Pedro 11 Railway. After that he has 
filled the positions of engineer of the Eaturite railway, first 
engineer of the celebrated contractor Gabrielli, engineer of the 
Pedro II railway prolongation, director of the new water supply 
works in Rio, engineer of the central railway of Brazil, director of 
the hydraulic section of the Public Works department, engineer in 
charge of the project for the construction of a Custom House in Juiz 
de Fora and director of the public works of the municipality at the 
same time, and afterwards held the same position in Rello Hori- 
zonte, where to they moved the State of Minas capital. Xow he is 
directing the Mangue canal works which is a complement to the 
Harbor works of Rio de Janeiro. Dr. Bicalho is one of the most 
notable professional men of Brazil. 



\ 



J. MuRTiNHO. — He is 
one of the best minds in 
Brazil. He was born in 
Cuyaba, Matto Grosso, in 
1848. He graduated in engi- 
neering, law and medicine. 
His notoriety is due to the 
latter aptitude. He has no 
rival in Rio that can come 
near him in Homeopathic 
treatment. He is one of the 
few foreigners who was ad- 
mitted to the group of the 
Hahnemanians , of New- 
York, and the only South 
American that has had that 
honor. He is a notable man 
also as a biologist and his 
knowledge of geometry is 
deep. Some years ago attract- 
ed by politics was Secretary of Public AVorks, later on Secretary of 
Treasury (1899-1902) where he introduced original theories of his 
own with the applause of European men, like J. Guyot and Herbert 
Spencer and European papers, like the Financial News, the Times, 
the Independance Beige, etc. To-day J. Murtinho is a Federal Sena- 
tor and as a statesman he enjoys in Brazil a great prestige. He is 
one of the liveliest intellectualities of to-day. 




.1. MURTIMIO 



— 70 — 



ViKiKA SoiTo. — Another strong member of the mental aristo- 
cracy of Brazil. Tie was horn in Kio and is professor of the Poly- 
technical College where he teaches political economy. He is a scien- 
tific man and one of the leaders in the present progressive move- ^ 
nu'iit in lira/il. He is director of the protectionist school and chief 
of one of the sections of the improvements that being executed to 
modernise the city of Rio. 




(\\UI,()S MoKIilUA. — 

Is one of the most nota- 
ble scientists of South 
America. He was born in 
Rio in 18()lt. There he 
studied, becoming promi- 
nent for his ajititude for 
natural history investi- 
gations. He is a Zoologist, 
an entomologist and he 
has devoted himself to 
patient studies on the 
classification and habits 
of Brazilian insects and 
liis collections arc disput- 
ed at high i)rices by 
the European specialists. 
From 18'.)5 to li»Ol he did 
study deeply Atlantic ich- 
thyology and his works 
have found a place in the 
Annals of the Rio Mu- 
scuiii. lie travelled thi-ough all the South in connnission with tlu> 
geologian engineci- White. Carlos iMoreira while only 1".' years ohl 
was already a draftsnum and shortly after prei)ai-aloi- of natural 
histoi-y of the I si. section of the National Museiiui of Kio, ol which 
he is (!ven to-day tlu; vicc-diicctor. I<'roiii his works we mention the 
following translated into other languages. 

(;<»MUIIII ir.oKS I'VUA O i'.OMIKClMKN'nt i»A IMNA ltltA/llllU\. 



Caui-os .MoiltlllA 



< Iriishucos (III lii-;i:ll I'liiirufosl i-.-iccos, v. .\ 1 of the Archives ol 
I lie Miiscii .\;i<it)ii:il (Id l\iii tie .hinciro. 



— 71 — 

Nota appendice a publica<^ao anterior, v. XII of the Archives of 
the Mil sou Nacional. 

Criistaceos da Poiita do Pharol em S. Francisco do Sal, Estado 
de S"^ Catharina, v. XII of the Archives of the Museu Nacional. 

Vermes Oligochetos do Brazil, v. XII of tlie Archives of the 
Miiseii Xacioneil. 

Uma espccie nova de Amphipodv Orcheotideo (jiie vive a 22^0 m. 
sobre o nivcl do mar, v. XII of the Archives of the Miiseii Nacional. 

Campanhos de pesca do (c Annie » Criistaceos ; estiidos prelimi- 
narcs. A a Lavoiira «, da Sociedade Nacional de Agriciiltura n°^ 1 
to 3 of 1903. 

Campanhos de pesca do « Annie » Criistaceos, \. XIII of the 
Archives of the Miiseii Nacional. 

Relatorio das exciirsoes ao Rio Branco em S. Paulo e ao Itatiay^a, 
V. XII of the Archives of the Miiseii Nacional. 

Contra os inimigos, (c Lavoura, » v. 2' serie ag'osto de iSgcj. 



THINKERS AND WRITERS 



For a large country like Brazil the list of its deep thinkers and 
writers is quite a long one and represents a gathering of intellec- 
tualities who do honor to South America and would constitute the 
motive for worthy pride should they belong to any Eui'opean nation. 

Keeping, -however, within the limits we mapped out for this 
book, we will only mention the facts and the men of to-day writing 
of nobody else but contemporary celebrities. 

RuY Bakbosa. — Of all the Brazilian litterary men, of all philo- 
sophers of the age, of all the great thinkers and authorities in law 
and statemanship, we can say without fear of making a mistake 
that Ruy Barbosa is in first place. This assertion of ours is perfectly 
useless, should this book be published to circulate only in Brazil, 
as everybody in this country knows he is second to none in the 
whole nation. He is , to be sure, a good specimen of intellectual 
superiority and the true type of the moral blooming of the social 
surroundings where he moves. 

It can be said about him, most appropriately, just the same that 
H. Taine said of a philosopher of his age, Mr. Royer-Collard : « As 



to kn()\vl(Hl<;i' or behavior he does not lack any natural acc-omplish- 
iiKMits wliifli confer tlio title of authority : he was horn a conciueror 
a (loiiiinalor of the mind of others ». 

\\e can speak of Ruy Baibosa intimately as we have had tlu' 
good fortune for some time past of enjoying- his pleasant sociabi- 
lity and we have been able to study that great difference that goes 
from the home intimacy to the public life at large. So we have been 
able to observe him closely, to sound his moral organisation, if we 
may be permitted to thus express it. And the result of those obser- 
vations is, that we believe, everj' day with stronger faith, in the 
predestination of the Brazilian people. 

Writing in the most impartial way 
of Ruy Barbosa, we can assure that he 
adds to the most astounding and decj) 
knowledge a moral nature affirmed 
by all the prestige of an exemplary 
behavior. He is a whole personality 
before the public — who often do not 
understand his intentions — just as 
they would before his own self, in his 
own home. He has that politeness and 
sensibility proper of the first phase of 
life in spite of his forty years contai't 
Avith society, which the multiplied 
role he has been called to perform in 
the country, as a lawyer, a senator, a 
statesman, and other capacities , has 
iUToi-ded him to oljserve it throui;li all 
its inuiginable features. With a gooil 
experience in journalism, i)olitics. coiiits, each one of tlu'iii ([uite 
sufficient to sjjoil the i)urest of naliires, Ku\ Barbosa is not only a 
learned man but a good and honest man as well. 

Ills knowledge is varied and he has shown it well in every 
l)rancli of Iniman activity : in mathenuitics (of which he has a 
nianiiscripl treatise), in medicinal science, in public, juivate and 
inlei national law, in histoi-y, religion, finances, strategics, diphv 
mucy, sanitai'v legislature, pedagogy, ])arliamentary s])eaking, and 
ollu'rs, 

A list of his works will speak better for the varietl cai)acity of 
this polygiMphei- and thinker : (Irimc u^uinst iiuliisli-iui jn-Dpctlw 
Hahia, 1S7I; Chief d/' I he ciishim I louse I nspeelors ilefeitse. Hahia, 
bST'.l ; l\()<lt;i \i;iiin:i's defense, IS.SO; I'he street iii-oloiii^itlioii, iwo 




lit t ItAIIIIUSA 



— :;{ — 

volumes (a treatise on disappropriations lor public us(;), Rio, 1887; 
Crime review, Rio, 1888; C. Monse^ur's mercy petition, Rio, 1888; 
The state of siege, its nature, its effects, its limits, Rio, 1892; 
Unconstitutional acts, etc., Rio, 1893; Religious liberty, Rio, 187G; 
The Pope and the Council, (translation and introduction), Rio 1877; 
Instruction reform, Rio, 1882; Primary Instruction reform, \H8'.^: 
Slaves emancipation, 1881; Lessons of things, 1S()(); Direct election, 
\SH; Castro Alves, Baliia, 1871; The Marquis de Pombal, 1882; 
Drawing- and industrial art, Rio, 1882; Jose Bonifacio, Sfio J*aulo, 
1877; The political year, 1887;— Swift — 1888 ; The Provisional 
Government, Rio, 1891; The servile element; lectures on slave 
freedom; the situation of slave freedom; commemoration of the j th. 
September law i83i ; The freedom of slavery in Brazil; Ilomag-e to 
the Dantas Ministry; Republican finances and })olitics, 1891; Letters 
from England, Rio, 189G; The conservative jtarty, Baliia, 1896; Visit 
to the native land, Baliia, 1895; Inverse Amnisty, Rio, 1897; Opinion 
on the Civil Code, Rio, 1902; Answer to the defenses, etc., Rio, 
1903, etc,, etc. 

But where we can better study the capacity of this great man is 
in his journalistic work, spread by the different dailies and maga- 
zines, the Diario da Bahia, Diario de Noticias, of Rio, Jornal do 
Brazil, and Imprensa where we worked with him in 1902. All this 
journalistic work constitutes a solid bibliography, which future 
generations, will surely collect and publish in a complete edition, as 
the best and most beautiful litterary monument received from the 
present age. 



Amaro Cavalcanti. — He is a Statesman, a financial writer an 
author and a jurist. He was born in Rio Grande do Xorte in 1849. 
When only 20 years old was a professor of languages aud founded 
the public library of Baturite. He graduated from the Albany Law 
School, of New-York. Later on he was principal of the Lyceum of 
Fortaleza, capital of Ceara State and Director of the Board of Educa- 
tion in the same city. From there he went to Rio where he has 
been a lawyer, a professor, a journalist, and a politician after the 
proclamation of the republic. Since then he has become a notable 
man. He was a Senator in the Constituent Congress after the pro- 
clamation and in the first ordinary legislative session. When his 
mandate ended he was appointed envoy extraprdinarj^ and plenipo- 
tentiary minister to the Plate Republics. Later on he was Secretary 
of Justice and Public Instruction, juridical counsellor of the Foreign 



— 74 — 



Relations Department, etc. He enjoys an excellent reputation all 
over Brazil. He published the following works : 

.1 Relifj^irto , Ceara , 
1.S7 1; -4 Mens Discipiilos, 
Ceara, 1875; Liuro Popu- 
lar, Ceara, 187U and Xew- 
^■()rk , 1881 : Kdiicacru) 
JJlciiicnlHmoH E. Unidos 
(la X. America , Ceara , 
1881 : Xoticia Chronolo- 
ii'icii (ht Kdiiciwrn) popular 
no lirazil (incomplete) , 
Ceara, 1883; Ensino mo- 
ral e rclig-iosonas Kscolas 
Piihlicas, Rio, 1881); Meio 
dc. (h'sciwoluer a inslruc- 
rao j)riniaria nos mmiici- 
pios riiraes , Rio , 1884; 
The lirazilian Lan<>-nag-e 
and its agg'liitination , 
Rio, \884 ; Finances [dn 
Hresil), Paris, 188<); Re- 
wnha I'^inanceira do ex- 
Inipcrio, Rio, 18'.t0; Pro- 
jeclo dc Constiluicrio dc 
urn Est ado, Rio, 18^.10; .1 
Rcforma Monetaria, \l\(), \S\^\; Politica c Einancas, Rio, 1892; () 
Mcio Circulanfe Xacional, Rio 1893; A Sitnacao Politica oil a inter- 
vengao do Govcrno Federal nos Estados da Uniao, Rio, 1893; Ele- 
mcntos de Einancas, Rio, 1896; Tributa(;rio Constitiicional, Rio, 1890 ; 
Regimen Federal iuo, Rio, 1900; Sobre a nnidade do direito {troccs- 
4.//a/ (Relatoiio ao Congresso .furidico Americano), Rio, 1900: Di- 
reito das obrigaroes (Relatorio sobre os arts. 1011-12:?7 do Proj. do 
Cod. Civ. Hrazik'iro), Rio, 1901; O Arbitramento (no direito inter- 
iiacioiial), Rio, 1901 ; Taxas Protecloras nas larif'as aduaneiras, Rio, 
VMi; Res])onsabilidade Ciuil do Estad, liio, \\K)o; and many other 
litterai-y, i)olilical, economical and other works. 




AmAHO r.AVAIXANTl 



Rak.\(» oo Rio Branio (,losc-Maria da Silva Raranhos) (.Sccrc/.-jrr 
of Foreign A /Jairs). It is a name known cslccincd and respected by 
two generations of Hra/ilians. 



— 75 



His father was one oi" the most illustrious statesmen of the Bra- 
zilian Empire, and from him his son inherited the highest qualities 
as a diplomat respected in Brazil as the ablest man in international 
questions. 

The Baron is 50 years old. He made his preparatory studies in 
the Pedro Segundo School Nvhere he studied with distinction until 
the 5th. year. He entered then the Silo Paulo F.aw College where he 
was graduated. He always revealed himself a n)an of advanced ideas 
fond ol' progress and work. He abhors all domestic petty ([uestions 
of the political parties and devotes himself entirely to litterature 
and sciences. 

He took his first prac- 
tical lessons in diplomacy 
with his father who was 
Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs and later President 
of the Cabinet at the time 
of the Empire. 

He was elected deputy 
to the Lower House by 
Matto Grosso province 
which his father was then 
representing in the Sena- 
te. He was a journalist 
and editor of a A Naciio » 
with Dr. Gusmao Lobo. 

When Admiral Grenf- 
fel died Barao do Rio 
Branco was appointed 
Consul General in Liver- 
pool, in his stead. 

While there he was sent by the Government to defend the inter- 
ests of Brazil in the Arbitration Tribunal at Washington. After that 
he was the stern defensor of Brazilian rights in the boundary ques- 
tion of Oyapock. Two extraordinary victories. 

The remarkable services rendered to the country in these two 
glorious missions and on his i-eturn to the country he received a 
public manifestation as few have taken place in Brazil. 

From Berna he went to Berlin as Envoy Extraordinarj^ and 
plenipotentiary^ Minister, from wiiich office he came to Rio as Secre- 
tary^ of Foreign affairs. In this high office he has rendered great ser- 
vices to the country. The acquisition of the Acre region, which was 




Barao de llio Braiico 



in dispute was the ono that proved his wisdom and line tact as a 
stateman. He also solved and is solving with equally ability, settled 
and pending (pieslions with Bolivia, Peru. 

During the short time of office, as Secretary of Foreign Affairs 
his work has shown many and good results in favor of Brazil acquir- 
ing for this country a large amount of international prestige as it is 
clearly proven by the creation of the North-American Embassy, in 
Rio de .laneiro, the concession of a cardinal, Rio de .Janeiro being 
the first South American capital to have one, the termination of all 
the boundary questions, the man\' treaties with the object of closer 
commercial and diplomatic relations as well as arbitration treaties, 
being worthy of special mention those with American nations. Bariio 
do Rio Branco is most justly had as the ablest stateman of South 
America having liold the office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs in 
this continent. 




Arthur Orlando. — 
He is a jurist, a writer, a 
news paper man. He was 
born in Recife in 1858, He 
graduated from the Law 
College of that city in 
1S81. His first work of 
note was the Philocriticu, 
188(), a 220 page volume. 
He has been the editor of 
the .loriiid do Recife, tlir 
Rcvistii Brnzilciru , tlic 
Prouinciu and at i)reseiit 
the Diuriodc Pernunduico 
having already represent- 
ed his State in the Fede- 
ral Congress in more 
than one legislature ses- 
sions. llispi'ineii)al works 
are, besides the ont> abo\ r 
mentioned : Men Albtiiu, 
1891 ; Propedeuticu Poli- 

tiei) Jiiridien; J-^nsuios de crilieu, I'.H) I ; iVopo.s luisnios, \V()~): Memo- 

ri:t :i() (loii^ress Lidino Aiiwrienno, 1<.>()5. 

Ai-thui- Oihiiido is ;iii oiMgiiial ihini^er he is a iiieniber of t he 

Iiitterar\ Ae:i(h'iii\ ol IJeeife, 



Altllll 11 OUI.ANDO 



— 77 — 




Syi.vio Komkko 



Another philosophic brain is Syi.vio 
KoAiEiio, who has distinguisheil him- 
self mainly by his analytical works on 
Brazilian mental evolution. lie wrote 
the History of the Braziliiui Liiicra- 
tiirc, which is a true monument of 
scientific criticism applied to ihe 
study of Brazilian litterature, under 
all its features. He possesses a spirit 
of action which fights and builds, that 
works and assembles, so that among 
Brazilians he has become the most 
noted ensign-bearer of that new flag 

of superior and clever nativism filled with pride for his country, his 
race and their history. He preaches peace, work, solidarity, haughti- 
ness, and confidence in the country's destiny. That spirit, which 
I will call — spirit of intellectual nationalism — dominates all the 
work of Sjdvio Romero, giving it a social and positive character, 
which distinguishes it so stronglj^ from that of any other Brazilian 
writer and philosopher. He is a true and sound polygrapher. He 
has written on jurisprudence, philosophy, art criticisms, ethno- 
graphy, history, litterary criticisms, politics, national folk-lore 
investigations, poetry, etc. These works, though apparently not 
associated, are, nevertheless constitutive parts of one only whole, 
needed implements of one single work, and w^ork of the greatest 
cohesion and homogeneity, broad work, deep and complete in its 
conception and in its object, animated all through by a live senti- 
ment, subsisting- on any of its pages as the atomic affinity in the 
smallest particle of any organism : it is the sentiment of the intellec- 
tual autonomy of the country. 

The following list gives a sample of the complexity and abun- 
dance of the intellectual w^ork of this learned man : Philosophy in 
Brazil, 1878; The Brazilian Litterature and Modern Criticism, 1880; 
Essays on Parliamentary Criticisms, 1883; Contemporaneous Litte- 
rature studies, 1884; Brazilian Ethnography, 1888; Xew Studies on 
contemporaneous litterature, 1897; Machado de Assis (study), 1897; 
Martins Penna (study), 1897; Luiz Mu rat {study), 1890; Valentim 
Magalhaes (study), 1895; Introduction to Brazilian Litterature s 
history, 1882; History of Brazilian Litterature, 1888; Brazilian 
History told by its heroes 'biog-rai)hies, 1880; Xational Lam History 



— 78 — 

(in preparation): Pojnihir S(>n<>s(>fBru-iL \8S-2: Pojnihir Son^s of 
linizil, 1SS:{; Studii's on BrnzUiiin popuhir songs, 188N; .1 trUkl 
liopnlur songs and siorics of linizil and Mr. Thcophilo Bragu, 18S7 : 
The Poriugiicsc clement in lirnzil , 1<.K)2; Parliumentarism and 
Pi-esidenliiilisni in the Brazilian Republic , 1893; Provocations and 
Debates (in tlie press); The Knolutionism and Positivism in Brazil. 
LS'.M: Law Philosophy Essays, lH\^o; End of Century songs, ]H':S: 
The last harp sounds, 1883; (Jaxias and the integrity of Brazil, l'.K)l. 



.loAc^uni Xaiuco. — Is another noted man, l)el()n<;in,<; also to tlic 
deep thinkers. He is as tliose wo have just written about a good 
orator. He is an altruist strnggler who distinguished himself most 

prominenily during the 
propagand for the slave 
freedom, lie never was 
and never will be a popu- 
lar man. His personal 
(pialities don 't make him 
very accessible to the 
masses. Tic is a polite and 
ii()l)le man. He is not a 
nobleman because of use- 
less and valueless titles, 
but because of his noble in- 
telligence and noble cha- 
racter, a nobility which 
separates men far moi'c 
than that of titles. The 
masses of the vicious and 
ignorant cannot make any 
alliance with t he superior 
types. A characteristic 
that shines as a star a- 
round t he moral profile of 
.loaiptim Nabuco is his 
patriotic gratitude i for 
the sake of the ohl slaves ) , to the crown that gave them freedom, 
.loatiuiiii \al»ueo iiexcr was a friend of the Imperial Court, but 
when the lira/ilian nuuiarchy effected, with the sacrifice of its own 
inslilut ions, the freedom of slavery this defender of the iinfortunale 
considered himself enshiNcd li\ liic j- r;il i I nde he ow ed foi' 1 iiat act 




.l<(.\(,)tlM \aU1 



— 79 — 

of grace and mercy devoting- to the new victims all the love that 
survived from the former. 

The recognizance of the oppressed race made him become a 
friend of the crown, but that ^^•as when he saw the royal family con- 
demned to exile. When, later on, the protected friends of the 
crown, turned their backs to the royal family to look for beneficial 
advantages in the new government, they found great reasons to 
criticise Joaquim Xabuco because he had accepted from the Republic 
a commission of patriotic responsibilities, representing the country 
as Minister to England without, however, repudiating his gratitude 
to the crown. They had forgotten that Xabuco, as every man who 
has reached a certain degree of superior i)erfccti()n, could not 
identify either his fatherland or mankind with this or that transitory 
form of government. For this great writer and philosopher a inter- 
est, love, zeal, patriotic ardor, must be directed to the national 
substance — the country. » He « would never establish a dilemma 
between monarchy and fatherland, because fatherland could have 
no rival. )> 

These quotations are from his own book « Minha formacao )> pu- 
blished in Kio in 1900. 

As a writer, J. Nabuco, observed through his works, presents 
himself as one of those advocates of virtue, of whom Emerson 
writes, and who in their apparent isolation, are yet so useful to the 
social community. 

He seems, in fact, to be isolated from his people, he speaks to 
them in a quite independent language without fear of displeasing 
them. 

(c Balmaccdn )>, « .i;; intervention », and the other books of his, 
look like a defiance to the times in which they were published. « I 
got used to consider the historian 's judgment, as a definite one, 
what is equivalent to saying a final one, and consequently the one we 
must have always in view. » This was written b^^ Joaquim Nabuco 
and added : « The judgment of the masses which elevates us to-day 
and lower us to-morrow, that represents only the dust of the road. » 
In full military dictatorship, when, in Rio de Janeiro, the multitude 
made display of their devotion to the military work , he went to 
the press to claim that « Paraguayan tyranny had been revived in 
Brazil at the point of the same bayonets that had put it down. » 

In his books transpire a little of that melancholj^ that Schopen- 
hauer classifies as sound. 

His books are not many but they are substantial ones : Balma- 
ceda, Rio, 1895; Minha For macrw, Rio, 1900; Um Estadista do Ini- 



80 



perio, tliree volumes, Rio; Camdes and The Lusiadas, Rio; Eleigoes 
Libcnu's, Rio, 18(58; Umn intcrvcnrrio, Rio, 1894. 




Mkllo Moraks 



Mello Moraks. — We will write 
about that active investigator of the 
past, a chronicler of popular traditions 
of Brazil — Mello Moraes Filho. — 
This poet and historian is a passion- 
ate lover of his fatherland, and he 
sees no better means of displaying 
these sentiments but singing in his 
verses its traditions shaken more and 
more every day by the growing euro- 
peanisation, spreaded out through the 
maritime cities and from there to the 
interior, with its new customs and 
its noisy iconoclast progress. In the middle of this transformation 
that drags everything and everybody, Mello Moraes is faithful to 
his affections sings his legends the primitive modes of popular life. 
He writes his chronicles with the colors of nostalgia, and in an 
effort that we are compelled to respect he speaks to us of the attrac- 
tions of the past, fixing his passing images, those shadows of other 
shadows. Mello Moraes' books will survive and our grandchildren 
will find ill them a sweeter pleasure than wc appreciate, « because 
in them lives the great soul of Brazil, because in them he sings and 
l)]ays, or groans and cries that mixture of enthusiasm and melan- 
choly, remembrances and courage, which is the Portuguese genius 
transformed in America. » 

This was written by Sylvio Romero in a preface to M. Moraes' 
book « Festas e Tiadicoes. )> 

Wc cannot give a complete list of Mello Mi)raes' works as a large 
number have been published in newspapers spreaded all over the 
counlr.x , yet wc can ])oint out : Cantos do lujnudor; ICduca<^'rio 
Cioicn; J'csius c 'I'lndirncs Poinilurcs do liruzil; Mythos c Pociuns; 
() Cnncionciro Pojnilur; (hirso dr Lillcrnliini lirnzilcini : P:u-nuso 
linizilciro : () Dr. Mello Monies; dinjciontiro dos <!ii^:tiios ; Oiindros 
<• ('.liroii'uits ; On cii^iuios no lintzil , Sciu-nulus c Snruos; dnncionciro 
J-'liiniiiiciisc : ()l)i-;is i>ocli<;is. WC do not include here a long nnd 
good collalioration in K io papers on ethnogiaphy, Bi'u/.ilian /o//r-/(»/-<', 
colonial chi'onicics. (lociiinciil s and iiiciiioii's. 



- 81 



Mello Moraes was born in Bahia, and is one of tlie most popular 
writers in Brazil. 




Macmado Dli Assis 



We will now speak of Maciiado de 
Assis, in wliose enormous literary ]u<>- 
gage we will find versus, novels, tlieati'e, 
and light stories. As it is well known he 
started by his verses, what was fai' fiom 
indicating the brain solidity of the gianls 
of the thought. What compels me to 
select a prominent place I'or this great 
spiritual pioneer, in my worship for the 
prominent leaders of the mental race, is 
the art with which he created, in his 
novels, Brazilian types of social charac- 
ter, as Carlos Maria, o Major Li<jucira, a Fernanda, o Palha, and 
others, which appear in his psychological novels Qnincas Borba, 
Braz Ciibas, etc. 

Machado de Assis was born in the city of E-io de Janeiro. 
Adding to the natural talent of a stylist, an instruction which he 
does not cease to -add knowledge to, each day that goes by, thus he 
became the prince of Brazilian literature. That fine humour Sterne 
and Lamb style, skeptical and calm, which goes through the philo- 
sophy of his books, it seems to me, makes part of his psychic consti- 
tution, translates a congenial propension. 

In the age of enthusiam , when he was but 20 years old, the con- 
temptuous rapture of the philosopher of the future, through the 
mouth of one of the personages he created , expressed himself this 
way in a poem of his entitled (( Pallida Elvira » : 

Depots de ter nprofiindado tiido, 
Planta, homeni , estrellus, iioites, dias, 
A chou esta U(;ao inesperada : 
Vein a saber que nao sabia nada. 

(After going deep intu everytliiiig, jilaiits, men, stars, iiiglits, days, lie met with an un- 
expected lesson : he eame to l<now tiial he knew nolliiiig.) 

It is the spontaneous melancholy, the skeptical witticism of 
Thackeray, the same philosophy of the Vanity Fair or of the Snobs 
Book, which had to be crystalised later on in the celebrated book of 
his Braz Cabas, and never more abandoned all his works accentuat- 
ing itself more and more with the age. 

For this very reason, just as it happens with the work of the 



— 82 — 

Calcutta writer amoiij; tlie Kuglislimen, tlie novels of this Brazilian 
humorist enjoy a high esteem in the Portuguese literary circles. 

The character of Machado de Assis' philosophy can better be ap- 
preciated in his novel liraz Ciibas — and it is a compound of a half 
liuinorisni, soniewliat ironic, which the reader devours with a dis- 
creet smile to the last line. We affirm as did a critic speaking- of 
Machado dc Assis that « against current opinion, the best chapters 
of his books are those in which he reveals his qualities as an obser- 
ver of customs, and as a psychologist, those (qualities in which he 
describes Brazilian life, customs and social habits. » Machado de 
Assis works are read in Brazil with an interest that does not cool 
off and that we can see by the successive editions that appear. He 
has written : Phnlenas (verses) Rio, 18()9; Varias Ilistorms; .Uc/7io- 
i-ins }H)sthumns <Ie Braz Ciibiis ; Qiiincas liorba ; Anwi-icaiias (ver- 
ses), 1805; Yaya (larcia; Chrysalidas (verses), ISiil; Pajjcis Avulsos; 
Helena; A mao e a liiva; Resiirreieao ; Cantos Fluininenses ; Ilislo- 
rias (la Meia Xoite; Deiiscs dc Casaca. For the stage: Caniinlio 
(la Porta (The way to the door); O Protocollo ; As Foreas Cauilinas; 
Debaixo <le Ruini Capa; O Espalhafato ; Quasi Ministro; Tii So, 
Tu, Puvo Amor (comedies); .1 Familia Bcnoiton (translation); Mon- 
tejoie (translation); Anjo dc Mcia Xoite (translation); Barbeiro 
(translation); Pipelet (translation); Supplicia de uina Miilher (tran- 
slation); As Bodas de Joanita; and several others. 




.1 aiH'iro 



Carlos de Laet. — He is another 
Brazilian whose name has a place of 
honor among the litei'ai-y men and 
])liiIos()phers, tliougli like Machado de 
Assis, he nuiUiplies his talent into 
fragments : critic, i)olemies, philoso- 
phy, travels, history. In his book, 
« Fill Minns, » Rio, IS'.M, (lie reader 
will gel acquainted with him \u (he 
ligiil of these different prisms of his 
tidenl. lie also piiltlislu'd .1 Iiiij)rcnsa 
( Ki'publii'an decade). Kio, IS'.i'.i; and 
several olliei' woiks of merit both in 
foi'iii and liasis. 

("arlos de Laet was born in Rio de 
he livis in a courageous struggle as a public teacher 
of literature, cai'ning that way his daily bread. 



('.AIM (IS Kl. l.AI I 



w her( 
cssor 



— 83 



His opinions are sentiments and his sentiments have compelh'd 
]iim to renounce many sources of revenue, as he reserves for hiniseir 
tlie right to criticise and lanoli a little at the events of to-dav. 




Oliveira Lima 



Oliveira Lima. — He belongs 
to the list of those who are at tlie 
same time writers and diplomats, 
and he knows how to take advanta- 
ge of the spare time he can dispose 
of after his diplomatic duties devot- 
ing himself to historical , social and 
political investigations the publica- 
tion of which has always been receiv- 
ed by the Brazilians with applause. 
His works are most consciencious , 
reveal great patience, are not limit- 
ed to literary or rhetorical preoc- 
cupations, they are written in a grave style though fluent and clear, 
the style of a man who is used to deal with loyalty and impartiality. 
It is this way he writes history.' 

Manoel de Oliveira Lima, was born in Pernambuco. He entered 
the diplomatic career in 1890 having been appointed Second Secre- 
tary of the Brazilian Legation in Lisbon and later on he was trans- 
ferred to the same position in Berlin. It was in 1892. 

When promoted to First Secretary he was sent to Washington in 
1896. From there he went to London 1899. After that he was charged 
with the affairs of the Legation in .Tapan. 

He published in 1901 , Rcconheciincnto do Impcrio, c Mcmorin, 
Hobre o descobrimcnto do Brazil; in 1894, the book a Pernambuco » 
— sen desenvolvimenio hi.storico ; in 189(3, Aspectos da littcratura 
colonial brazileira, and the pamphlet Sept ans de Repiiblique an 
Bresil; and in 1899 a thick volume — In the United States — political 
and social impressions. He has written for the Jornal do Recife, 
Jornal do Commercio, of Kio de .laneiro , Rev ista de Porta gal e 
Revista Brazileira, as well as m Jornal do Brazil and other papers. 
He is pul)lishing Secretario d'El-rey which it is said is an historic- 
al investigation woi'k of no little importance, as well as it is a liter- 
ary work of merit. 

In 1903 he published a book on social observations and studies 
in Japan, with the title « No Japao » and written by him during his 
stay in that countrv. 



— 84 




Assis Brazil 



Assis Brazil. — He is also a diplomat 
and a writer. He is an expert in everything 
he professes and cultivates. He is one ol" 
the best fencers in Brazil and is the best ' 
shot in the country. Nobody excels him as 
u marksman. At the same time he is also 
a diplomat of great ability and tact, as he 
proved to be in the recent Acre (piestion 
between Bolivia and Brazil. 

He has written on politics, law, i)oetry, 
as well as some works on industrial vul- 
garisation. Here is a list of his works : 
Chispas — a volume of verses of the youth, 
about 200 pages, Ilio Grande do Sul, 1877; 
O Op])nrtiinisino c a Revoliicao — public lecture delivered at the 
Club Republicauo Academico, about 40 pages, Sao Paulo, 18<S(): 
.1 Republica Federal, 304 pages, Rio, 1881. Several reprints of this 
work were issued for free distribution , by some republican clubs. 
The first one was of 10.000 copies, by order of the executive com- 
mittee of the Sao Paulo republican party ; History of (he Rio-(jran- 
dense Republic, one volume (preparatory edition), Rio, 1882; .1 Uni- 
dade Nacional, about 50 pages, public lecture delivered in Porto 
Alegre on the evening of March 15th,, 1883, Porto Alegrc, 188;>: 
Dais Discursos, delivered at the Rio Grande do Sul province Legis- 
lative Assembly, Porto Alegre, 1886, 153 pages; Assis Brazil aos 
Seus (loncidadaos (to his fellow citizens) Porto Alegre, 1891 (a manl- 
iest about tlie political events that followed General Dcodoro's 
roup d'elal on the I th. Xovembcr, 18111 ); Dciuorraria Rcpresriiln 
linn, do doIo <• do inodo de volar, Rio, IS".';!. This l)ook ^\as trauslat- 
(•(1 iiiio (be Spanish l)y Mr. Bartolome ]\litre e Vedia, Chief Kditoi- 
of L;i Xucion, of liiienos Ayres, in IDOI under the title « La Deino- 
rracin Representativa, del volo y del luodo de volar. The editiim has 
33U i)ages; Do C.overno l^residcncial no licpuhlica lirazilrii-a, ;i7(> 
pages, Lisbon, bS'.td; (Uillura dos ^'.-j/zj/uj-s, general notions of agri- 
cult tiic and special uolion on sonu' cultivations of pressing interest 
in lli'a/il, Lislxm, IS'.IS. This work was printed (Ui account oltlic 
Sociediiile Hrazileira para aniiiiarait da a^riciill ura , lor tree distri- 
l)ution in Ura/ij. This society is composed of lirazilians, the laigest 
niindxr lesidiiig outside of Hra/il and its seat being in I'aris. .\ssi^ 
llra/.il has been its president ever since il was louniled in \S\C,. 






— 85 — 

Among the proper jni-ists, we could cite many names of renown, 
because in Brazil the juridical-social sciences have many people 
devoted to their study and just now, some of the most vigorous 
talents, that have become ripe in the study of that speciality, form a 
numerous and clever group. But we will speak bvit of few. The most 
noted of them all by the variety of jurisprudence cxuesti(ms he has 
written about is Ruy Barbosa about whom we have already written. 
Ruy Barbosa has become better known as a philosopher, a writer, 
as a politician, it seems that the first place among specialistic jurists 
belongs to Conselheiro Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira, the author of 
« Direito das- Coisas e Dii-cHos do Familia » (Things and Family 
Laws) two books that are two monuments of juridical science and 
scientific method upon sjjecial branches of private law and which 
might have been signed by any of the highest foreign authorities on 
the subject of the present day. 

He was born in Minas Geraes, he began his political lite, at the 
time of the Empire, defending the Republic, engaging himself most 
earnestly during years in its propaganda. With reflection and juri- 
dical culture deadening his republican enthusiasm, he accepted some 
offices from the monarchical government, having acted several times 
as minister, deputy and senator. 

He has been charged with an international commission of great 
importance in Chili, and we believe he was Plenipotentiary Minister 
to the United States at the time of the proclamation of the Republic. 

As a deputj', as a senator, as a minister he always discharged 
most brilliantlj^ his duties, being a talented and competent man, as 
he proved to be. As president of the second Cabinet to which he 
belonged, being at the time the Minister of the Treasury, he wrote a 
report which was highly appreciated by the authorities in financial 
subjects. 

While in the discharge of the duties of these higli offices he 
revealed besides his juridical knowledge special competency in 
finances and literary studies. 

We remember yet how fortunate he used to be in his ironical 
attacks against his adversaries during parliamentary debates. 



Clovis Bevilaql'a. — It is the name of another jurist, who dis- 
tinguished himself by many books he wrote on jurisprudence, liter- 
ature, etc. Just because of his writing so many works, he was 
selected by the Government to write a Civil code for Brazil , task 
that he fulfilled most cleverly delivering it to the Brazilian Congress 



— 86 — 



that is (liscnssiiio- and improvinj;- the project of the code. He was 
l)orn in Ccaia and spent his youth among books and papers. He 
made his journalistic appearance in the State oi" Rio de Janeiro writ- 
ing lor scvei-al papers and establishing a newspaper a Aurora de 
(hiissnnirt. He was a pupil of the celebrated Tobias Barreto, and he 
inhei'ileil from this giant some oi" his mental audacity, some of his 

enumcipated spiritual na- 

,^- — : ~,^ ture , some of the solid 

criterion of that great 
Brazilian thinker. 

Clovis Bevilaqiia has 
^^^HBll^ published the following 

/ "' ^^ works : Philosophia Posi- 

kf„n ^y- . fl tiua, Kecife, 1884; Triuys 

|IP^ ^** |r^ (h) Desembargador Frei- 

tns, Recife, 1888; Licocs 
de Legislacno ConiparadH. 
Recife, 1890; Phrases e 
Phantasias, Recife, 189I: 
Ej)()cas e IndUndiialida- 
des, Bahia, 18<)5; Direito 
das obrig-aeoes , Bahia , 
18U5; Direito <Ia Faniilia, 
Recife, \8\)()\Jiiristas Phi- 
losophos , Recife , 1897 ; 
Esboeos e Frai>-meiitos . 
Bahia, 1896; Criiniiiolo- 
gia e Direito, Bahia , 189(i ; 
Jesus e OS Evangelhos 
(translation), Uecife, ISSC); Hospilalidade uo Passado, Recife, 1891; 
Esludos de Direilo e Eeououiia Pol idea, Recife, hSSt). 

Many jufisls shine as stars of the brightest in the l>ra/.ilian 
social sciences sky. W'e would like to write here a few lines about 
every one of (lieni, oi- at h'ast about the leading ones, but our s])ace 
is I'allici- narrow. Audrade l^Mgueira , Hulhoes de Carvalho , S;i 
\'i:iiina, HaiTadas, Sousa Kibeiro, Coelho Kodrigues, Duarte de 
A/.eve<lo, Candido de Oliveira, .loao JNIonteiro are some of their na- 
mes but there ai'c many more. As we said, however, we will end 
here the jurists section and will take another <lirectiou. 




(j.ovis Hkmi.aoua 



* 
♦ * 



— 87 — 



Josk-Caulos Koduigues. — Dr. .Josr-Carlos Ivodrigues is the 
cliiel" editoi- and pul)lisliei' of a Jornal do Commevcio », tlie leading- 
Rio daily, the best knoAvn and most powerful paper in Brazil. He is 
a self made man, with broad ideas and a determined character. He 
was born in Rio where he 
made his first studies. 
While quite young- yet he 
went to Xew-York where 
with energetic work and 
encyclopedical knowledge 
he founded the « Xooo 
Miinclo )) un illustrated 
Magazine printed in Por- 
tuguese devoted to com- 
merce, literature and fine 
arts and he thus rendered 
good services to his coun- 
try abroad. In 1890 he 
came back to Brazil and 
became the managing- 
editor of the « Jornal do 
Commercio ». With alive 
experience of affairs and 
commercial tact he gave 
a new impulse to that 
paper, opening a wider 
field of prosperity and giv- 
ing it a moral prestige as 

to its opinions. He has published quite a number of studies on reli- 
gious criticisms , finances and literature. Among the many great 
services that Jose-Carlos Rodrigues rendered his counti\v is the deal 
of re-j)urchase of railways which netted several millions profit in 
benefit of the National Treasury. Dr. Carlos Rodrigues is a man of 
progressive ideas and being, as he is, at the head of a great newspa- 
per, though somewhat conservative in its ideas, he has been a bene- 
ficial element in all generous and liberal movements. He is necessar- 
ily the president of all the civilising- undertakings, and progres- 
sive initiatives wicli have of late characterised the social and politic- 
al life of his fatherland. Another trait of his moral i^rofile is the 
generosity with which he contributes towards the support of charit- 
able institutions. He is a writer of merit and a consciencious one, 
and is to-day one of the most popular and esteemed men in the higher 
circles of Brazilian society. 




JoSE-CaIILOS IIODRIGUES 



— 88 — 

AiAiNDo GiANAHAUA. — Oiio <)f tlio iiiost Tiotablo Brazilian writ- 
ers, orator and journalist. lie was born in Mage, State of Rio, in 
1805. In 188." he was already a well known man in tlie Rio press, 
editing then the « Gnzeta dn Tnrde », where he worked for the free- 
dom of the slaves. In 1887 he founded the « Xovidades », which 
lasted but a few days. After that he was editor of « Correio do Po 
DO », the only republican paper then in Rio, the <c Jornal do Com- 
motio )), the « Rcpuhlica », the a Tribiinu » and to-day he is the 
editor of the « Pniz ». 

He has been a menibei- of Congress and has represented the go- 
vernment in several commissions abroad. As an orator he is one ol 
the most applauded ones. As a journalist, to-day, he is second to 
none, in the Brazilian press for the pi'ofuse variety of his knowled- 
ge, for his deep resources in polemics, for the brightness and vigor 
of his style concise and to the point, always at the side of liberal 
and i)atriotic ideals. He is the chief now in the cami)aigns in favor 
of the working classes, the tuberculosis as well as in the campaign 
against the parties enemies of public order. Alciudo Guanabara is 
the chief Editor of « O Palz », the great organ of the conservative 
and intellectual classes of Brazil. 




JOAO RlHKlRO. — He 

is a great thinker, a phi- 
lologer, a historian, a liter- 
ary critic , a poet and a 
journalist. His full name 
is .loao Ba})tista Kibeiro 
(Ic Andrade de Fernandes, 
and was born in 1800 in 
the city of Larangeiras. 
State of Sergipe. AVhen he 
was "Jl years old he went 
to Kio di' .laneiro where* 
he came immediately into 
prominiMU'C as a writer, 
lie is one of i)ropagators ot 
(Jerman culture in Bra/.il 
and a hachelor in social sciences, lie repi'esented Hra/il in the I)re> 
<len Conlei-ence (((discuss literary propcrtx in I'.HC) and in t he fcdlow - 
ing yeai- in a Congress held in London lor the organisation ol the 
inlcrnatioiial catalogue, lie is one ol' the Id memhers of the Rio Li- 



Joiiii Kihi'ii'd 



— 89 — 

tcM'iiry Academy and lias publislied tlio I'ollowing works : Tcnehrosa 
Lux, poem, Aracaju, INTO; Dins dc Sol, poetry, llio, 18<S1; Philolo- 
i>-icnl sliidics , Rio, 1<S85 and ll'OJ; ADcnn c (^yihnrn, poetry, Rio, 
[^^() ; Moi'pholo^'iu c (Jollocucrio dos pronoincs, Rio, 18(S('); (iiamiun- 
licii Portugiieza, Uio 1888 and 11)01 was in its 27tli. edition. This 
grammar is for the 1st year study. For the 2nd year he has one in 
its i;>th edition and lor the ;3rd in its r2th edition. Diccionario 
(jruniinulicul, Rio, 1881» and lUOt; .1 Inslriiccao Ihiblica, Rio, 18U0; 
VesHOi, 2nd edition of works mentioned above, 18U0, Rio; Ilisloria 
Antig-a, East and Greece, Rio, 1802; Auctorcs (lontcmpovaneoH, 
Rio, 181)1 and 181)5; Hisioria do /Jrar//, 1st and 2nd volume, 1900, 
Rio; O (A)racao, translation of the well known work of E. d'Amicis; 
Mcmoria dos siicccssos occoridos no (iyinnasio Xacional em kjoH, 
Rio, V,)0\\ Select a (^lassica, ^io, 1905; Pa}>inas Escolhidas (Acade- 
mia Bra/ileirade Lettras) Rio, 11)01, l^a^^inas dc Kstlwtica, Lisbon, 
IDO.'k 

Joao Ribeiro has been editor of several papers both in Rio and 
Sao Rank), such as « O Globo )>, « Ihiiz », a a Revista lirazilelra », 
etc. 




RocHA Po^NiBO. — This 
Brazilian historian is one 
of the ablest literary men 
in the country. He was 
born in the small town of 
Monetes in the Parana 
State in 1857. His first 
works were short stories, 
poetry, novels, published 
in the Parana and Rio pa- 
pers. He is living in Rio 
now. His best books are : 
Historia da America, Rio, 
1890; I'arami no Centc- 
nario, Rio, 1900; O Gran- 
de Problcma, Rio, 1902; 
Resiimo da Historia Ame- 
ricana, Rio, 1904 ; No Hos- 
picio, novel, Rio, 1904; 
Historia do Brazil, Rio, 2 volumes, 1905. 

Rocha Pombo is considered the best historian of the modern ge- 



ROCHA I'OMBO 



90 — 



nenition :iii<l hv is a journalist of no small merit. He writes for the 
« Cdircio (lit Munhu » a Uio daily of the opposition party. 




ViKGiLio Vakzea. — Is a 
writer. He was born in Ca- 
navieiras, Santa Catharina 
in 1864. He was brought up 
in G. "NMllinoton American 
School and afterwards in 
the Rio de Janeiro Navy 
College. He made several 
trips as mate in the Atlan- 
tic. Later on he was elected 
State Congressman and dis- 
trict-attorney in S. Jose. In 
his writings he became ce- 
lebrated for his inclination 
to select marine subjects, 
which helped him to become 
popular. He wrote the fol- 
lowing works : 

Tracos Aziics , i)oetry, 
Desterro , 1883 ; iropos e 
Phantasias with Sousa Cruz, 
short stories, 1885; Marcs c 
(lanipos, short-stories, 18il5; Rose-C.astle, novel, 181Ui; Cantos dc 
Amor, 1901 ; Suntn (hitharina, historical monography, 1000; .1 \oiou 
<lo Pahulino, midiWe age novel, I'.'Ol; () lirig'ue Flihiislciro, novel, 
l<.M»;i; (inribnliU in America, translation into Italian by Clcmonte 
Petti, I'.ioi; Ilislorias Riisiicas, short stories, i'.K)l. 



ViKGii.io Vakzea 



NiosToii Vi( roK. — He is a hard worker and a clever literary man. 
He was born in Parana. There he l)cgan to work as a journalist, 
pod, novel writer. Later on he began to write lor the Uio press and 
aftcM'wards in I'ai'is. His works are (juite original, beautiful phrases 
and lively ideas. As a novel writer Nestor Victor, is following with 
some success the |»sychological foiMu of analysis and social criti- 
eisMis, but he does not allow himself to be dragged by exaggerations 
of novels of gi\('ii schools. lie has written a good deal foi' newspa- 
p«!i's, and writes well, lie has succeeded to j)riul in book form the 



— 91 — 

following- works wliicli liave imposed thomselves to the modern cri- 
ticism : Si^-nos , short stories, Aminos, novel of observation; .1 
Ilora literature and art criticisms, Rio 1900; Transi'igura^'oes, ver- 
sos, 1V)04 ; Cruz e Souzu , mono<;i'aphy, Rio. 

We will now speak of 
the literary writers, the 
poets, novel writers, cri- 
tics, chroniclers and jour- 
nalists. 

Among the untired and 
witty scouts of history , 
philosophy and social 
sciences as well as the li- 
terary men of the poetry, 
of the I'hetoi-ic , there are 
a host of names, represent- 
ing the divulgers of know- 
ledge, the journalists, the 
writers who brought po- 
pularity to the events of 
the day , the notions 
brought from Europe by 
evei-y steamer. These wi'i- 
ters whom we see at the 
head of the Rio papers as 
well as those of the diffe- 
rent States are men of ta- 
lent and vast knowledge, 

and are in the majority authors of books with poetry, short stories, 
literary critic, theatrical plays, speeches, etc. Without wishing to 
go very deeply into any subject, they perform a most important role, 
giving to the masses of the population the spiritual daily bread, that 
speculative high science, on one hand, and poetical inanity on the 
other, cannot give. 

Araripe Junior, Barao de Loreto, Eunapio Deiro, J. Verissimo, 
are at the head of the list. 




Nestor Victou 



Medeiros e Albuquerque. — Strong, clever and emancipated 
mind, he is a true journalist of the age — an encyclopedia. — Like 
Beaumarchais he seems to like to boast himself of the fact that he 
was not born a nobleman, neither an abbot, a capitalist, nor any- 



— 92 — 




Mi:m.iK(is i: Ai.RuyuERQUE 



tliinj; beeauisc ho hates witli an intellectual and oompassive 

hatred , ^vitll equal dislike, the titles, the proud capital , the servi- 
lism. In a woi'd , Medciros e Albuquerque is a revolutionary soul 

checked by an analytical brain tliai 
linds pleasure? in lighting lornied opi- 
nions, be ^vhat they may, with science 
arms which he handles so cleverly. 
Though, young, Medeiros e Albuquer- 
que is one of the strongest minds oi 
Brazil. Through journalism he has 
paved his way in the road of life 
reaching the highest social and poli- 
tical positions without favors from 
any one. Unfortunately, politics, the 
eternal disturber , has overcharmed 
him, so that his wonderful assimila- 
tion and mental production cai)acitie> 
not finding the peace of the work desk, 
so favorable to the building up of great 
intellectual monuments, devote them- 
selves to journalism, and thus Medeiros e Albuquerque writes daily 
al)out local (luestions and subjects needing discussion or editorial 
presentation. 

Wi'ap|ted in this atmosphere he has not been able to publish but 
five or six books, dealing merely with literary subjects : poetrv 
and short stories or novels, while it is well known his comjit'- 
teney and authority to write on many subjects as philosophy, 
])sychiatry, psychology, legal-medicine, history, pedagogy, religious 
criticisms, international law, private constitutional law, and criti- 
cisms on literature and art, and Lord knows what else. About all 
these subjects he has written time and again in his daily journalistic 
\\(»ri< thai spi'cad and h)se so many teachiitgs that could be so niucli 
more beneficial in book form. 

His work in the daily pai)ers and magazines has a personal stamp 
lliat (lisiinguishcs it fi-om the olliei- writers. As a rule he does not 
show any prcililcction for a theme, an objective subject, he \\ I'ilo 
on a variety of topics, scientific, social oi- those of mere entertain- 
iiieiit lot- the reailcr, as it happens willi an hnmoristic chronich' 
thai he w rites weekly foi- k .1 Xoliciu. >> His style is clear, fluent, 
always rcspcclful towards the grammar, l»iii always joking about 
tin* giaiiiiiiarians. lie has no pit\- for tiie inipostor, ncNcr mind of 
what kind, but al the same time he is a friend of all thosi- who are 



— 93 — 

good. In the literary critic that he writes in the « Notlcia » he ma- 
kes of it a kind of i)ublic audience receiving the actors Avhith hisses 
or api)lauses according- to their merit, lie luitcs conventicmalism so 
much that he doesn 't admit it even in oraloi'v. It is cui'ious to see 
him in Congress. Each one of liis speeches, never mind liow animat- 
ed the debates may be, is simply a talk with his hearers : he substi- 
tutes natural eloquence for the rhetoric, the brilliance of speech for 
the novelty in ideas, in which, either w i-iting or speaking he is per- 
fectly original. 

At present, of all the editors writing steadily for Rio papers, 
none has won credit for a stronger and richer intellectual capacity 
than Medeiros e Albuquerque. He was born in Recife, began his 
career as a teacher of primary studies, in Rio, where he is to-day 
General-Director of Public Instruction, Federal Congressman, pro- 
fessor of the Fine Arts College, etc. He published : O Remorso, 
1888, a pamphlet on republicanism, the sale of which was ijerseculed 
by the police; Cancdcs da Dccadencia , verses, Rio, 1801 : Peccadoa, 
verses, 18*.>4; .4 Practical Man, novels and short stories, 180(5; Mae 
Tapiiia, stories; Os Protocollos Italianos, patriotic pamphlet, 1807. 
Besides these he has executed considerable newspaper work and has 
edited several papers : « O Tempo «, « O Figaro :» and others. To- 
day he writes for Rio, Sao Paulo and Para papers. 

A curious note : Brazil being the country of the poets, he is the 
only one whose name is in the legislature of the country as he wrote 
the « Hymno da Repiiblica m, which was decreed by the law under 
N° 171 of 20 th. January, 1870. 



Affoxso Celso. — He is an 
uutired literature worker and is 
still quite a young man , being a 
monarchist he has been set aside 
by politics and thus is that he is 
entirely devoted to his studies now. 
He can present a larger production 
than the majority of Brazilian liter- 
ary men of to-day. He was entirely 
devoted to his studies when the 
liberal party of the Empire involv- 
ed him in politics. With the repu- 
blican form of Government he re- 
turned to his studies. It seems that 




Affonso Ciaso 



— 94 — 

every evil is a beginning- of some good. We must explain our ex- 
pression that lie was set aside by politics. It was his noble scruple 
that made him abandon politics, fighting, encouraged by the impul- 
ses ol" filial devotion , the Kepublican Government that ordered his 
father's exile when he was the president of the Cabinet of the Impe- 
rial Government at the time of the proclamation of the republic. 

But, speaking of Affonso Celso, we must say that nearly every 
year he publishes a book, and as a rule, a good book : Some of these 
are a true success, as the one he wrote with the title : « Porqiic inc 
iifano do men Paiz. » (The reasons why I am prond of my father- 
land.) He also published : Vultos e Faetos ; Minha Filha; () Impera- 
dor no /•,".v/7/o; Lnpe ; Xotas e Fiecdes; Riinas de Ontr'ora, (versesi; 
Cm inoejado; (inerrilhas ; (j)ntradietas Monai-chicas; (iionanina; 
Assassinate) de (ientil de (lastro, a pam})hlct on politics; .1 Imila- 
eao de (Ihristo (Poetical translation of the famous book); Oito annos 
de parlanwnto, (historical and political memoirs). He has also writ- 
ten considerably in the newspapers both in Brazil and abroad. He is 
an excellent orator, earnest and deep, a man of advanced ideas and 
fighting convictions. He evidenced most firmly these qualities while 
in the I'arliament fighting wliith all the earnestness of his great soul 
for the freedom of the slaves. 



1 




I'llllS l>l. AlMllllA 



BiREs DE Almkida (Josc Kicar- 
do). — He is the type of those wri- 
ters who are always at their desks, 
in their studios, nobody knows him 
l)ersonally, and notwithstanding he 
his always before the public by 
means of his constant work , deep 
and varied work. 

He is a polygraph. He has ren- 
dered services with his brilliant 
work to the medical sciences, the 
stage, the i)octry, the statistics, of 
which he is a great w orixcr, t he plii- 
lologv, the history, (picstions of pu- 
l>iic iiistniction and ////// ijuanti. 
\ lie sluils liiiiiseil' up in Iiis libfarv, 
ill the morning, al night , an<l pcn'io- m 
(lically hut with the sih'iit regula- 
lilv ol' a sanil-clock, lie appears in 



— 95 — 

the columns of the a Jornfd do Commercio » where he has been a 
writer for the hist thirty years, ehicidating- tlie most vai'ied subjects, 
W'itli a number of informations and knowled<>'e whicli denote liis 
untired and investigating- patience, livery now and lh(ui lie presents 
at intervals between those journalistic works, almost mechanic by 
their persistence, some thick l)o()k of historical investigation and 
analysis, pedagogy, theatre and other subjects. 

Typically modest, backwards, or indifferent he produces, builds 
his extensive intellectual work, without even feeling or realizing 
that lie is doing it. He does not frecpient the centres of bohemia in 
Ouvidor Street, neither any of the mutual praise grou]). lie has not 
deserved from the critics but a polite tolerance and some flying- 
praises. 

Pires de Almeida was born in Rio de Janeiro. lie is a graduated 
from both the Medical and Law Colleges. From his many works we 
now remember : ///.sfo/'/a do Drama; L' Instruction Pulyluinc an 
Brcsil ; O Theatro no Brazil; Tiradentes ; A Edncarflo; A Fcsta dos 
Craneos ; Liberdadc , O Mnlato ; Scte dc Setcmbro ; O Trafico; Mar- 
tyres da Libcrdade ; Tcmpestades do Coracrw; Phrynca e Pasclioa 
{dvumaH) ; Retrotos a penna; Centenario do Sr. Semprcviva, Bapti- 
sado na cidade nova. 



CoELHo Xetto. — He was born 
in the State of Maranhao, (in the 
city of Caxias in 1864). Maranhao 
is well known as a State who has 
furnished a large and great contin- 
gent of literary talent, it is as they 
say — the eagles' nest. 

Coelho Netto came to the South 
and began his work writing- for 
newspapers and afterwards some 
books. He is a quick worker and 
no writer has in the same space of 

time sent more books to the printing press than he has. Each one 
of his works would suffice to establish the reputation of an author. 
He has books of all kinds : novels describing habits and customs, 
naturalistic novels, romances of all kinds, extravagant ones, histo- 
rical, psychological and so on. He has written comedies, tragedies, 
poetry, words for the music of operas, criticisms, history, entertain- 




CoELHO Netto 



— 96 — 

ill-; clironicles, lias written on oratoi-y, on education, on art criti- 
cisms, eti'. 

lie went to Sao Paulo in ISS.;, alter having- pul)lislied in tin- 
a (uizciinhn >> his I'irst literai'V essays. He wrote in Sao Paulo for 
several Academic i)ul)lications. From there he went to liecile, capi- 
tal ol' PernamSuco Stat'-, where he rrecjuented the first year of the 
Academy, came hack to Sao Paulo and devoted himself body and 
soul lo literature. He published a paper with the title of « Meridiu- 

no » which lived the life of a rose. Having taken part in tlie 

campaign in favor of the freedom of the slaves he was persecuted 
ami had to run away to Recife in INN.") where he i)assed his examina- 
tions of tlie 3rd year Law College course. It was his lot that he 
would never become a lawyer or a judge. He came to Rio de Janeiro 
and was invited by .Jose do Patrocinio to work in the « (iuzct:i da 
Tarde » and there he worked most actively. Later on he left this 
paper to establish one of his own « () I)ia », that lasted but a short 
while, and then he was invited to manage as editor the « Diario 
IlluslrHdo )). In this paper he started the publication of his novel 
« .1 liohemin » written day by day, « O Diario Illnsti-ado » had no 
resources, and though its editor was working ^\ ith earnestness he 
did not succeed in overcoming the great difficulty of public indiffe- 
rence. He was then invited by the « (lidadv do Rio », in the exc of 
the freedom of slavery. In that i)a])er he jjublished A tapcra, a great 
numlx'iof short stories, and began to write () Rei-Faniasma. In the 
<( Diario dc Xolicias » he edited a section .1 Fiiinar (smoking i and 
wrote Sunday stories. In 18U0 he married w ith Miss Maria Ciabriella 
Codho Mcllo. l"\)r a while he abandoiu'd news])ai)er work, and wa> 
appointed Sccrclary of the (Jovernmcnt of the Rio State, dui-ing 
the administration of Dr. Francisco Port(dla. On November 'Jord he 
went back (o ncwsjjapei- work, w ith () Paiz and in that pa])er he dex c- 
lupcd his actixity xxritinga daily chronicle, lUlliclrs Poslacs { Postal- 
cards), Sunday stories, and other ai'liclcs. In that paper he publish- 
ed also writing them dax' by day the folloxxing ronuinces : .1 ('.itpi- 
tal l'\'d('r;il ; Mir;i<>i'in : Inocrno cm /lor and Rci l';ii}t:isia;i. l-'iom 
that papci' he xvent lo the (Inzchi tic Xolicins xxhcrc he had a daily 
section under lh<; title of Fa<^iilhas besides articles on all to])ies and 
shoi-1 stories with Ihc lilies of (icorf^icas, exotic stories of the \lhitin 
d<- CdilKin, and t lie nmiances : O P.-iraiso: () Moiio: () Rnjnli <lo 
I'ciidjah and the no\cls ^r;,'-,/ ; On \'cllios:iA' I lie xdlu nn- published 
later on with the title of Scrlno. In another paper, the Rcpuhlica he 
puhlished. I CiiiKiiiisl.i. and in (he licnisht lirnzilcir;! he liegan 
O .l^'.(/(7/o |'rnrmcnl:i). lie xxmie the I'cio I /;/(>/•.' d I'a mat ic poem 



— 97 — 

and Saldiines both witli music by Lcopoldo Miguez ; Arlcmis, in one 
act, music by A. Nci)()muccn<), and IIoslui, also in ()n(^ act, ^music by 
Delgado de Carvallio. All these works wore ])ut on tho stage by the 
(A'litro Artistico, of which Coolho Nctto was one of the Tonnders. 
For the stage he wrote : Neve no Sol, (Snow in the Sun) play in four 
acts ; Ivonia and Ao liiar, one act plays; .Is estardes, lyric episodes, 
in one act and in verse; and the comedies : Dinbo em (hisa, O Rcli- 
cario, in three acts, and ()s Raios X and Fim de Raca, in one act. 
With Olavo Bilac he w^rote several school readers, Terra Fliimi- 
nense ; Coiitos Patrios ; Patria Brazileira and these books are 
adopted in the public schools. Coelho Netto wa-ote also a book 
Viag-em de iima familia ao Norte do Brazil. lie writes for « Correio 
da Manila », Rio daily, Estado de S. Paulo, A Revista Medica de 
S. Paulo, and Jornal de Noticias of Bahia. He is at present professor 
of literature of the National Gymnasium of Campinas. He is a 
member of the Academy of Letters (A literary institution admitting 
only 40 members representing the cream of Brazilian literary men. 
Besides the books we wrote of above he has yet : Rapsodias ; Balla- 
dilhas; Fructo Prohibido; America ; Inoerno em /lor; O Morto; A 
deacoberta da India; Ronmnceiro ; Lanterna Mag'ica; Seara de Ruth; 
A conquista; Por Monies c T^a//p.s-. Edited by Domingos de Magal- 
haes, he published Memoria on art, in the 2 nd volume of the Livro 
do Centenario, Viagem de unia familia ao Norte do Brazil; Fim de 
seculo; a bico de penna; {Ag-ua de Juventa; Ruinas; Bom Jesus da 
Malta). Edited by Delloz brothers, of Oporto, Portugal, he has 
Apolog-os, tales for children. He edited w^ith Paula Ney and Pardal 
Mallet a pamphlet a Meio ». He wrote for « .4 Vida Modcrna » and 
« A Bruxa » literary magazines. He was professor of Art History 
in the Fine Arts college for one year and editor of the debates in 
the Federal Senate. 

He is a literary Proteus. His style is pow^erful and brilliant, by 
the sweetness of its form, as well as for the opulence of its ^ ocabu- 
lary. In this particular excepting Buy Barbosa, no other literary 
man exceeds or even equals him. 

He is a true nabob of the vocabulary. 

Coelho Netto has w^ritten on every subject, of re omne scibile, hut 
the most solid base of his literary glory is the romance. 

Once we spoke about romancists w^e will mention some other 
names, but only the most populai- ones, as the space is rather limited 
to write about the whole family of those cultivating novel writing- 
literature. 



— 98 — 




Aluizio Azevedo 



We will incntion before any 
other Aliizio Azevedo, who like 
Coelho Xetto was also horn in 
Maranhiio. 

He differs entirely from Coelho 
Xetto because lie devotes himself 
to one single kind of fiction : 
'i'lie natural ronianee. He has i;iv- 
en his work a stamp of perfection 
which gives him the right to a 
place of honor among the other 
writers. His style is concise, neat 
an<l bright. He gives the jjrojx'r 
name to everything, withoutlook- 
ing for euphemisms , as others 
usually do. He is most minucious 
in details, and in his descriptions 
we have first the notion of the details of the accessories and after- 
wards the altogether. The great nnnit of his work lies mainly in this 
analytical predisi)Osition, which enables him to that descriptive fideli- 
ty and j)recisi()n so convenient in a romance that needs observation. 
He knows how to select his types in the local atmosphere and in 
preference in those classes less cosmopolitan. 

He has also written for the stage, though with not so much success 
as when writing novels. Here is a list, though incomplete, of his 
works : — Cma Ingrima de miilher, Maranhiio, 1870; () miihito, 1<S80 
(several editions); Mciuorius de urn condcmnudo, Rio, 1881 ; Myslc- 
rio (hi 'rijiicii, Rio, 188L*; C.usa de /V/j.s-.lo, Rio, 188;>; l^hilonicnn 
Hordes. Rio, ISN.;; O Coiujn, Rio, 188."); (> hoincin, Rio, 1887; <> Car- 
tiro, Rio, IS'.MI; (f Miilulo (drama), 188 1; Cusu de Ornlrs (comedy 
with Ai-lhur de Azevedo), Rio, 1882; Flor dr IJ: (operete, collabt)ra- 
tioii), l.ssj; Ph'doinrnn Ii()r}>es (ccmiedy in one act), Rio, 1881; 
\'rnrii<)s tjiic Ciiruni (comedy), Rio, 1885; O Cuborlo (drama), 1880; 
On Soiihndorrs (comedy in three acts), 1887; Frilzinuk (comical 
review, (•onal)()ration), Rio, 1887; Forn dr horns (short stories); 
Linro ih' iiiii;i so^;r:i, Kio, 1887; Deuuniios, Rio. 



Xwiii; MxKiiii-. II,. is aimtlier iioxcl writer w il li ;i lii'iii 

repuliilioii. Il is ;i mind (jiiiie (lilfei-eiit Iroiii Ahii/io Azevedo. lie is 
not inferior lo hini, in some points is even his superior, lie started! 
in Jirazil a reaeli.Hi against Zola's school, basing the observatioiij 



99 




novel on local forms, in which provincialism, the pcculiaritien of his 
community are introduced in the novel. Studying-, imdci- a Feature in 
which psychology and idealism do not repel each other, men and the 
people's habits and customs, he succeeded in creating- national types, 
national scenery, a naticmal work, in short, in his elaborated 
romances, written in a sound language, very rich and noted above 
all, by the propriety of its application, by the full measure oi" its 
vocabulary. His style, not having the 
unevenness of Coelho Netto's, is as bright 
and charming as his. His books denounce 
a careful attention in its writing and we 
do not notice a simple mistake not even 
a lapse, or an unapropriated term; much 
to the contrary he is fluent, exponta- 
neous in his narratives and in the 
exposition of his novel. 

As we say, Xavier Marques, is a 
contrast of Aluizio Azevedo, both in his 
physical as literary personalities. He 
never wished another scenery for his 
heroes but the normal moral atmos- 
phere. Vice, blood, aberrations find no 
room in his books, and he does not 

devote himself either to the idealistic kind and the honnetete of 
G. Ohnet's novels. He limits himself to fix simply the truth, which, 
in this, as in everything else, is always in a just term. He was born 
at Itaparica island, Baliia, and had no great trouble to isolate 
himself in literature as he isolated himself socially, as he isolated 
himself geographically is his province, and he never wanted to 
deviate himself from this programme. Xavier Marques each day has 
more readers and each day is read with more interest. The editions 
of his books sell out and this proves that the public is not such a bad 
critic as it seems. vSome of his books are destined to gain a reputa- 
tion even abroad as that delicate idyl Joanna e Joel. He started his 
intellectual life as editor of the « Jornal de Xoticias », in Eahia, and 
worked afterwards with Diario da Bahia, Diario de Noticia.s and 
A Bahia. He wrote : Thenias e ]'ariacdes (verses), 18S i ; Simj)les 
Hisiorias (short stories), 1886; Umafamilia Baliiana (romance), 1888; 
Bofo & Co, romance on habits and customs, 1897; Joanna e Joel, 
Bahia, 1899; Holocausto (romance), Bahia; Pz/u/ora/jja, historical 
I romance wdiich won the prize of the Historical Institute of Bahia, 
in 1900; O Sargento Pedro (episodes of the war of independence); 



Xavier MAuyuES 



— 100 — 



urpoador and M;tri;i Rosu. Tlicsc two hist books belong;- to a 
collecticm iiiidcr the luunc of « Pruicira » to which also beh)ni;s 
JouniiH c Joel, a series of stories of maritime and sea-shore life a 
poelieal woiid pieturesque and novel shown to us by X. :Mar(xues in 
Joanun c .loci. 



.1 I I.I A Lol'KS I)K AlMKH' \ 

— oeeui)ies one of the first 
])laees anionj^- Brazilian ro- 
iiianee writers, proving the 
tiutli of what Stael said to 
Napoleon : genius has no 
sex. In fact Julia Lopes de 
Almeida because of her in- 
ventive capacity, her talent 
to tell, her beautiful lani;ua- 
<;■(! rich in colors and attrac- 
tiveness, is one of the grea- 
test names among those who 
are elevating the fiction 
literature in Ilra/.il. 

She is a daughter of \'is- : 
conde and Visi-ondessa of j 
S. \alentiin and was born 
in Kio in 1<S(')'J and here she 
slarteil her studies. 

When she was hut 1'.' 
years old she was the cliirf 
ediloi- of the » (iazcla dc 
('.aiiijtinas >> and was writing ;: 
for other i)apei's. Slu' I hell i; 
ilinlo de Aiiueida, a jouniali-t 




Julia Loi'Es ui: Au!t:iDA 



made a li-ip to [•Inrope and inarrie( 
and literary man of repute. 

W riling consl;inl ly and freiiiu'iilly lo llic papers and niaga/ino, 
she saw Ju'r nanic respected niid applamled as an inleHcclual nolal'i 
lil,\' and she was at the same lime appicciated for her \iiinesasa 

iiolde mistress of her charming 1 le. 

NN'liiie she was yel a litllegirl iier golden dream was llie stage, 
bill family and IxioUs look dial away from Ikm- liead. llei'liooks 
lia\ e, lo l»e sure, ol)tained for iier l)el ler applall^^es and a lieltei' name 
ami repiilalion Mian llie stage, il may l>e less nois_\ . luil is also less 
epliemei al. 



— 101 — 

Xol long' Ago, a roreign writer of her sex, wiote in « Ln Miijcr », 
au Argentine niagaziiie, (( .Julia Lopes de Almeida has an e([uall.\' 
delicate mind and intelligence. She is kind, sweet, as the Iruit of 
her native country, to which she has robbed the juice and sugar 
taste, that emanate at one time irora her phrases and lier eyes. 

At the same time that she i'ecls that she is in love with litera- 
ture, and writing, enjoys, as she lun'sell" says — and that compared 
with me makes a sensible conti'ast, just as with our physical person, 
in which we are a live contrast — she takes care of her children 
with endless love, and surely from them she receives her l^'st con- 
ceptions. » 

She has published: — Trucos e Illiiininiiras (tales); A faniilui 
Mcdciros (romance i; .1 Vinva Simdcs (romance); Livro das Xoivas ; 
.1 Fallencia (romance); two editions; . I nc/a e^er/ia (short stories); 
Memorias do Martha, (novel); Ilistoria da nos.sa tci-ra; (Jontos In- 
fant is. This last one she wrote it with her sister Adelina Vieira also 
a writer, both in prose and verse, much appreciated in Brazil. 

AVe do not wish to cite all the romance writers of Brazil, neither 
would there be room for all of them if we were to write the remarks 
to which they would have a right. We must, however mention, Xestor 
Victor, a strong talent as a poet and novel \sriter, who has been writ- 
ing considerably in the newspapers. He has published with great 
success : Signos (a beautiful book of short stories), Rio 1807 ; Crnz e 
S'ozzca, (study on the poet Cruz e Souza); Amigos, Romance, Rio, 1900; 
A Hora, (criticisms), Rio, 1901. 

Other names worthy of mention in this branch are : Rodrigo Oc- 
tavio, the bright author of the Cabanos, and other books ; Inglez de 
Souza; Affonso Arinos; Graca Aranha; Garcia Redondo ; Euclydes 
Cunha; Leopoldo Freitas; Viveiros de Castro; Lucio de Mendonca 
and many othei'S. 

It is about time to write something about the stage, about the -play 
witers. This kind of literature has at present but few men who de- 
vote themselves to it seriously. Of those few some have their repu- 
tation established but others are just learning how to fly. Of the 
former the first one Arthur Azevedo, a native of Maranliao, who 
came while quite young to establish his residence in Rio de Janeiro. 
He first started his career as a journalist. He is one of the most ta- 
lented men of the present age and there is hardly any branch of lite- 
rature that he has not devoted himself to with brilliancy meeting 
always with success. But his strong-hold is the stage and to that he 
devotes himself body and soul. 



— 102 — 




Akthuk Azevedo 



He has wi-itten a large mimbcr of plays both in prose and verse, 
huinoristic chi-onicles, poetry, art criticisms, etc. He is a superior 
mind not accessible to the small egotistical passions. He is a loyal 

friend and a kind man, so kind that 
he would lift from the ground his 
enemy should he fall. 

His first theatrical essay was 
when he had 15 years of age. It was 
a comedy. The success of the play 
was such that he became immediate- 
ly a popular man, and his comedy 
has been produced ever since bj' 
every theatrical manager in Brazil. 
Its name is Amor por Anexins (Love 
by quibbles). 

No writer in South America has 
seen his name oftener in the posters 
and in the newspapers. 

He is also an inspired ijoet and 
dramatic critic of high compentenc3^ 

Here is a list of his principal w^orks, onlj^ the ijrincipal ones : — 
Comedies : — .1 joia; Liberato; Casa de Orates; Badcjo; Fantasnui 
nn Ahlcia; Industria c cclibato ; Fernando o engeitado. Reviews : — 
() Mandarini ; Bilontra; Mcrcurio ; Viagem ao Parnaso, Plays on 
habits and customs : — Vespera de Reis ; Os noioos. Comic Opera : — 
Donzella Theodora; Princeza dos Cajiieiros. Parodies : — Maria 
Angii; Mascolle ]iaRoca; Abel Ilelana; Casadinho de fresco; Amor 
ao pello; Dramas : — O Anio do mal; Diias irmas, Magic plays : — 
A Filha do Fogo and several others. Monologues : — Ilellar c Fa- 
g-iindes; () Alfacinha. Translations and adaptation: — Xinichc : 
Gilelle de Xarbone; Flor de Liz; Falca; Genro e Sogro ; Tres lH)(i- 
carios; (Uxjiielicol ; I)ia e noiie; Fillio de Coralia: Mascara de 
lironze; MiilliOres do Mercado; Perola Xegra; Proezas de liichclieu: 
Novels and short stories: — Contos ephemeros; Contos possiueis: 
etc., etc. 

Now we will speak of the Hrazilian poets, they are numbei'less 
and an nn<'ven lot. 

'I'licy (Mmipi'lse (;v('ry one in tlie country. One of tliem asked on- 
ce : II //(* is I here lli:il docs not ivrilc verses ivhen ao years old'.' And 
he was iilxinl right. Nearly every man is a poet in this fatherland of 
the oratois and poets, and nearly (ncry writer has start eil hiscareei- 
w lil i ii;; a lio(»k of poet ry . 



— lo:{ — 



Some of the poets, liowevcr, have elevated tlieraselves far above 
the multitude of verse makers, and among- those there are some great 
individualities who are real poets and from those superior personali- 
ties the critics give the first places to : 




Olavo Bilac 



Olavo Bilac. — Was born in Rio de 
Janeiro where he lives still to-day, devot- 
ing most of his time to journalism. He 
devotes himself entii'cly to literature and 
lives from it. He is a young, flexible, ex- 
pontaneous, delicate and genteel writer. 
He is a magnificent and charming spea- 
ker, he dominates the word spoken with 
great ability and in the delivery of his 
speeches one will notice the same fluent 
and expontaneous facility that he shows 
in his verses so sweet and so natural. 
His name is disputed by newspapers and 
magazine editors as a good advertise- 
ment for those who are lucky enough to 
secure his collaboration. He is one of the 
Editors of the « Gazeta de Noticias » and 

through its columns he fights daily with enthusiasm for all the good 
causes that may help the progress of Brazil. 

His chronicles run away systematically from grave subjects but 
selects any light theme more artistic in its slyle and at the same 
time more natural. This does not mean that in any way he avoids a 
subject never mind how grave if he deems it necessary to present 
his criticism that a moral lesson or a warning might be deducted 
from it, but never mind how circumspect the subject may be he will 
treat in such a light form so that he may use that soft but convinc- 
ing style that he so cleverly masters. 

He has published stories, verses, and text books. We are now 
going to give our readers one of his beautiful poems and we are 
sorry that pressing time to prepare this translation does not permit 
but to give, here a rough translation of it : 

MALDITA SEJAS... 

Se por vinte annos, iiesta fiirna esciira 
Deixei dormir a minha mahUqao , 
— Hoje, velha e cangada da amargura, 
Minh'alma se abririi como um uiilcao : 



— 104 — 

E, em torrentes de colern e loucnra , 
Sobre a tun cnbcc^a fervertio 
Vinte annos de agonia e de tortura , 
Vinle anno.s de silencio e solidiio .' 

Maid it a seja.s pelo Ideal perdido '. 
Pelo inal que fizeste sem querer ! 
Pelo amor que morreii sem ter nascida .' 

Pelas horas viuidas sem prazer '. 
Pela tristeza do que teiilio sido '. 
Pelo fulgor do que deixei de ser .' 

(CuRSKi) Mayest Thou Bk — If during twonty years, I allowed my curse to sleep in tliis 

dark den, — to-day, old and tired of that billerncss, my soul, like a vulcan, will huisl 
open : And then, twenty years of agony and torture, twenty years of silence and solitude, 
over thy head will pour boiling in a stream of passion and madness I ("-iirsed mayest thou 
be for the lost Ideal I h'or the evil thou hast done unwillingly ! For the love that died with- 
out ever having been born ! For the lively hours spent without any pleasure 1 For tlie 
sadness of what 1 have been ! For the splendour of that 1 could nut be !) 



Magalhaes de Azeredo. — A bright and a young poet is Maga- 
lliacs de Azeredo. He was born in Rio, in January, 1872. He was 
brotiglit up in Europe but finished his studies in Brazil. While yet a 
student in the Sao Paulo Law College was already the editor of the 
Esiado de Suo Pniilo. Later on in Rio he worked witli the « Giizcia 

de Xolicias ». In 1891 he was appointed 
Secretar3^ of the Brazilian Legation in 
Montevideo and from there he was trans- 
ferred in 189() for the same position in 
Rome. In January 1897 the Acadeniin 
Brazileirn elected him to be one of his 
10 members to which number the mem- 
bership is limited, just like in the French 
Academy. The books he has published 
•AVQ : Alma. Primitiva (story); Procclhi- 
i-ias (verses); lialladas e Plianiasias {wv- 
ses) ; Jose de Alencai- {Mndy): () Portu- 
gal no (A'nleiiavio das Indias. He has 
written very miicli in ne\vspai)ci-s and 
magazines, mainly in Jornal do (auh- 
merrio; Reuisia liia:ileii-a : Renisla Mo- 
deina, of I'ai-is; etc. lie is about to pn- 
l)lish ; — Iloineiis e Linros ; Poesias ; 
Asjieclos d:t llalia; Melaiicladias (story); O .S';</j/o (rt.mancc); liiisli- 




Magalhfics dc A/.crcdo 



— 105 — 

cas e Marinhas (verses); FAogio historico dc 1). J. (lon^-alocs de 
Magalhaes. 

Here we give now a sample of liis verses : 

A IJM POKTA 

Que o ten iiinor de Ideal no eiujienJto iiuo consistn 
De cultivar em ti somente o jnivo nrlisla. 
E o Homeii? Nuda vale; e diveitos nfto tern '! 
A verdade condiiz ao Bello e o Bella ao Bern. 
Segue essa lei : qnaijoia espleiuUda, lapida 
Tiia alma ; e nisso poe tal zelo e tanto ardor. 
Que eiitre as obras do ten espirito creador, 
A mais perfelta seja a tua j>rojjria vida. 

(To A P01.T. — May lliy lovo for llio lik'al not consist in tlje earnestness to make of yon 
only a simple artist. And the man? Is lie worth nothing? Truth leads to the Beautiful and the 
Beantifnl leads lo the Good. Follow thai law : lapidate thy soul just as if it were a splendid 
jewel; and do it with such zeal and such eagerness that, among the works of thy creative 
mind, the most ])erfect may be your own life). 




AuGusTO DE Lima. — Is one 
of the most noted poets of to- 
day, but lie is so modest and 
backwards that few know him 
personally. In oiir travels 
through the States I had the 
pleasure of meeting him in 
Bello Horizonte. He was intro- 
duced to me as a noble and fair 
spirit. We became good friends 
and to be sure I am not the 
least enthusiasmed of his ad- 
mirers. Augusto de Lima was 
born in Minas Geraes, where 
he is to-day the Director of 
the Public Archives. He is a 

member of the Rio Academy of Letters, but this will not give him a 
better reputation than his verses will. He photographs himself in 
his works. He is a learned and i)hilosophical poet, a little skeptical 
and a little melancholic. He has published but lew books. They 
are : Contemporaneas (verses), 1887; Synibolos (verses), 1892 and A 
Vida (poem) and several pamphlets, speeches and Brazilian History. 
The first work of Augusto Lima, Contemporaneas was published in 



Augusto de Lima 



— lOli — 

Rio and in it he revealed himseli" a true i)oet not only because of the 
form as by tlie.vi«;()iir ol' the tliought, novelty of ideas, and stronu, 
beauty of the eoueeption. He does not sing like tlie spring- poets 
foolish love affairs and fancy flirtations. His themes are luiman ami 
social and is just that that shows him quite different from the majori- 
ty of the Brazilian poets. In his book the Contemporaneas and for 
that matter the Symbolos each piece of poetry is a gem, not one 
single inferior production can be found among them. 

Here we give a sonnet from his book Symbolos, as a sample : 

RISO E P RAN TO 

Duus fraci'ues o g-rnnde todo hiunano 
encerra : iima (jiie ri, onlru que cliora. 
Diijilice monstru, contrantado Jano; 
tern iiiiina fare — a noite, e noiitra — a aurora 

Mas em seu seio eleriiameute mora, 
como o j)olypo no prof undo oceano, 
a dor (jue o riao menliroso eiiflora, 
a mesma dor que verte o pranto insane. 

Basta que riso ou lag^rima recume 

da contraccao de um musculo irritado, 

temos amor, jtezar, odio ou ciume. 

Nem semjire o riso e uma exjjressaode agrado, 
e as vezes quern niais chora se presume 
feliz, por parecer mais desgrarado. 

(Smilks and Tkaus — The {ircat liiiinaii whole oiich)ses two fractions : one lliat laiijihs. 
anollKM' lliat weeps. Douhle iiKiristcr, like .laims, wears on one eheek — nij-ht, and on Ihe 
oilier — (hiwn. lint in ils bosom, there lives lor ever, just like the |iolypii.s in the deep ocean. 
the pain thai the lying sniil<> enihellishes, the same pain shed by the maddeniiij'- tears. It 
sulliees that a siniU; or tear shall oo/e from the eontraetion of an irritated mnscle for us to 
ftMil love, regr(M, hatred or jealousy. It isn't always that the smile pleasantness expresses, 
and sometimes those who mo.st weeji happier seem to fei'l, for the thouj^ht of lookinj; tn 
othei's more unfortunate..) 



FoNTouRA Xavikr. — He is a poet and a writer of reputation. Ih' 
is to-day ('onsul (Jeneral of Bra/.il in Xcw \oy\i. city, lie was born 
in Kio (iiandc do Sill. He \\ riles well several languages and had tlir 
pleasiiiu" of seeing his best pit'ces of i)octry. translated, by pocis of 
renown like Bliss Carnian, \V. Wafson, and others, inlo other 
langiiagrs. lie Ims inililislied several works the most celebrated of 
which is the u (tpuhts >,, Poi-to Alegre, 1S81. He also published the 
A{-iii!t Ainrriiiiint, mIk! .\iiierican i-lagh;) ; the ]'ci)iis dc \Viislui\<i;tou ; 



— 107 



Es{r()i)hes a Baby Mcc : () F^a^-cm ; As Monliinhas; As (^aturatas 
do Niagara, Spleen de liaiidelaire ; and ICl Dorado de Poc; 




FONTOURA XaVIER 



As a sample of his high degree of fine humor we publish here one 
of his sonnets with its translation in prose. 



A MULHER DO PALHACO 



En ando triste, mudo, nlndnlinrio, 
Persegue-me a vistio de urn soiiho vago ; 
Tenho as triste::as tetricas de Mario, 
E as solidoes sinistras de Carthago. 

Nem saiba o mnndo... Tiibido sudario 
Envolva-ine a paixao que em mente afago... 
Vou em meio caminho do (Jalnario 
E desconheco a criiz que aos hombros trago .' 

Desconfio de algiiem. De loiiga data 
Canto entre as minlias relacoes ignotas 
A graca esculptiiral diima acrobata... 

Muita vez, a saida, dei-lhe o braco, 
E inda tenho presents as cambalhotas 
Que ella dava iia ausencia do palhaco !... 



— 108 — 

(TiiK Ci.owv 's wiiK. — I ;mi sad. iliimli, mclainliiplii-, iicrscriitcd Ity llic visidii ul" a 
vagin' (Ircain, I liavo llic liillor sailiicss of Mario and the sinislcr solitude uf C.arlliago. 
I doiil want till' world to know... Let an lieetie shroud wrap u|t the huinini" love 1 eai'ess 
ill my mind... 1 ami hall way to the calvary. .\nd ignoi-c the eross that my soulders hears I 

I suspeel .some one. For a long time I have had among my unknown aeciuainlanees. The 

seulptiiral graee of an acrobatic woman... — Often, going out, she left arm in arm with me, 
And 1 can still remendn-r thi" luiid)lings she gave when the clown was away :...j 




Mucio Teixi;ii{.v. — He 
is one ol' tlic Brazilian 
writers who lias worked 
tlic most. He was boi-ii in 
Porto Alegre, \HoS. AVlien 
he was hut '2\ years old 
he was Seei'etary of the 
Esj)ii-ito Santo jjrovince. 
Afterwards he went to Ye- 
ne/Aiela as Consul Gene- 
ral. He was editor of se- 
vei'al papers in l^ahia. 
Sao Panlo, Rio Grande, 
and Rio de Janeiro. Liv- 
ing- as he does hv his 
l)en he has quite a num- 
ber of ])rodiu'tions many 
of which have been trans- 
lated into other lan,i;iia- 
ges : 

Poetry : rocr.v 'I'rcinii- 
lus , 1 vol. : \ iolclus , 1 
vol.; Oiidns c Xiincny;, 1 vol.; Sombi'us c ^dhu-ocs, 1 vol.; \oiios 
idciu's, 1 \(»1.; I'lismus c Vibnu;ocs, 1 yol.; IIiii>()ni:in:is, 1 \<il.; 
Pocsins c P()ci)t:is, 1 xol. ; Cchijcs (in Spanish) 1 vol.; Iii:isili'iius y 
Lnzihuins, 1 vol.; I'ocsins dc Mucio 7'e/.vr//;(, '2 \(»ls. ; ('.;iinjt() Sunlo 
wilii 12 illustrations. 

I'oems : Cerebri) c ('.orm^rto, I vol.; /'/(//.s/o c M;u\^;iri<hi, I \(»l.; 
(Umlos cm (!;tnl()s, 1 vol.; ['in sou Inulor do Scciilo. 1 xoi. ; <) Inferno 
l*olilic:i, 1 \<)1.; () Tribuno lici, I \(>1.; () (iirnfn, 1 \(»1.; O.s niinnnnos, 
I \<»l.; <) Inconl'nh-nlcs, l\ol.; () Mest re de Sunt iniio, 1 \()1.; /'cf/z/e/ios 
jiocnnis de Cnniponnun- , 2 vols.; () Drnnm Ininersnl, 2 \()ls.; 
Mnlhcres do l^nnn^cUio, I vol.; \'er;i Ci-n:, Uciiig finished. 

Dramas : O J-'ilho </o linntjueiro , '> aels; AInnro o I'\ui:ijio, in 



.Micio Tkixkika 



— 109 — 

5 acts; .1 Flor de iim din, 1 acts, verses; Tcinpcsludcs monies, '.i acts; 
.1 virludc no crime, 5 acts; () Sobrinho pclo Tio, .'5 acts; Moiihiloo, 
."Jacts; (^himicn (JonJii<>-nl, 1 act, verse; (^Hridtidc, '.\ acts; 

Wofks in prose : Mcmorins di^-nns de //jc/jjo/v'.j, ■"') vols. ; .S'y/i- 
(liese historicH da Litenitiiru Brazileiia, o vols.; Foetus de Venezuelu, 
1 vol.; Poetus do Me\'i(:<), 1 vol.; Poetas dii liolioni, 1 vol.,- Poelus da 
America Lalina, 1 vol.; Poclas do Brazil, .'3 vols.; ]'ida e Ohras de 
dastro Alors, 1 vol.; a I\eoolii(;ao do Rio (irande do Siil em lS()'i, 
1 vol.; La administraccioii del Doctor Jiian I'ablo Jiojas l*aiil en 
Venezuela, 1 vol.; Ln aho en Venezuela, 1 vol.; () Brazil Marcial, 
syntliese liistoi-ica das guei-ras, i-evolucoes e revoltas, desde os 
Icmpos coloniacs ate a actualidade, com biograpliia e os retractos 
dos lieroes. (Historical resiimnm ol' wars and revolutions from 
Colonial times up to now, with biographies and pictures of the 
heroes, and others. 




Lucio DE Mexdoxca. — 
He is a judge and a poet. 
He was born in 185 1 , in 
the city of Rio. He stu- 
died in the S. Pauh) Law 
college. After his gradua- 
tion he devoted himself to 
journalism. He was also a 
poet, like all the students 
of his time were. He re- 
vealed great talents in his 
writings and soon made a 
name for himself in Sao 
Paulo which might have 
been of far more advan- 
tage for him if he had 

been writing in Rio. To-day Lucio de Mendonca is a member of the 
Federal supreme court and one of the 40 members of the Literary 
Academy. 

His books are a Xevoas Matutinas )), poetry; « Cancoes do 
Oiitomno », poetry; a Esbocos e Perfis », short stories 1889 ; « Ver- 
gastas )) ; a Haras de Bom tempo », Rio 1903. 

Lucio de Mendonca worked as a journalist in S. Paulo, Minas 
and Rio, writing for « Provincia de S. Paulo », « Gazeta de Noticias », 
« Estacao n, « Semana », and others. 



Lucio de Mendonca 



— 110 — 

Lui/. (JriMAKAEs iFillu)). lie was horn in Rio in 1877. He went to 
Eiir(»i)(' with liis fallicr wlio was a diplomatist. lie <>ra(luateil in l.s'.>7 
from the Coimbra I'niversity, in Portuoal. Rcturnino- to Kio was 
given tlie i)osition ol" PMitor of the « (jhz( la dc Xoticins ^>ii Rio daily. 
He wrote for nearly every one of the Rio dailies. He published 
seven volumes of poetry : Idyl has Chinczes, Ave Mnria, Unui Pngi- 
mi do Quo Vudis , and Pcdrns Prcciosas. These are the four best 
ones. The edition of his books are as a rule sold out. 




I.uiz (Miiinnrrics i Killidi. 

Liiiz (Jiiiinaraes (Kilho) is a (lii)h)iiiatist. He was the secretary of 
the Hrazilian Commission to the 'Jnd I'aii-Aiiierican Congress, 
Secretary of the Brazilian Legation in Montevideo and to-day he 
lioMs (he same place in Tokio. His verses have been tianslated into 
Spanish, l'"reneh and Swedish. 



liiiz Mdmindo. lie is a most clever wrilci- and a poet of no 
litth' merit, lie was l)orn in ivioon the "Jdth .1 une 1S7'.". 

In I.S*.lX he. published his first book (( Ximbos ». Since then he 



Ill — 



pnhlislicd another one « Tlinrybulos », in 1809; and a Turris 
Kbnrneaw in 1902. 

In 1899 lie founded a nuv 
gazinc « Revista Cont(Mnj)ora- 
nea » ol" \vliicli he is the chief 
editor. 

This magazine has in its 
staff of writers the best wri- 
ters of this generation : A. de 
Guimariies , B. Lo|ies , Luiz 
Guiniaraes Filho, Mangal)eira, 
Xestor Vietoi', Carvalho Ara- 
nha, liuiz Pistarini , Paulo Par- 
reto Azcvedo Cruz and others. 
It is published in Rio de Ja- 
neiro and has attained success 
as an artistic and literary ma- 
gazine. 

Luiz Edmundo is preparing 
now another book. This as all 
the others he has written are 
poetry. He is writing, however, 
his first essay in prose « Im- 
pressions of a trip to Central 
Europe. » 

He has written for eveiy daily and every magazine that has been 
published in Rio since 1897. 

Raymundo Corrka. — We do not in- 
tend to fill these pages with the names 
of that large host of Brazilian poets, as 
we wrote before. Their number is too 
large and should tliey devote the time 
spent in verses making to more useful 
exercises in agricultural , industrial or 
business pursuits much better it would 
be both for themselves and the commu- 
nity. But since we have mentioned a few 
of the cream, we can't leave outside the 
name of that most inspired poet Ray- 
mundo Correa. He is a true poet. He 
was born in Minas , and is at present 
judge in one of the Rio de Janeiro courts. 




Luiz Edmunuu 




Raymundo Corre\ 



112 



I 



He can't bo iinitaled in the perfection of the conception, the 
inventive <;enius and tlie melody of his verses. It is enough to read 
the sonnet below, a sonnet known by heart by every Brazilian from 
one end to the otlier of the country and in it you will see the great 
soul of the jioct : 

AS POM B AS 

I'.ie-se.T j)rimeirii /lonihit <les/>criufi{i... 

T'.'<e-.S(' oiitru nuiis... iiitiis niiirti... enifim dezeniis 
Dc jiombas luio se dos jtoinbiws, iijtenns 
Jiain, sanguiiieu e frescn, u niiiilrii-rndu. 

Et a tardc, qiiando u rii^idu iiortnda 
Sopra, ao.s j)Oiubae.s tie novo ellu.s seremis, 
Jiii/Iaiulo UN azan, tmrudindo as jjcnna.s 
VoUain todas em bando e em revoada. 

Tainbem dos curat^oes, onde aboloam, 
Os isonltos, iim jxjr iim, celeres voam, 
Como voam an pumbas do.s j)ombaes. 

Xo acul da adolesrcnria as azas snllam, 
Fog^em... mas aos jiombaes as /lombas txiltam. 
E dies aos corat^bes nao I'ollam mais .. 

(«Thk Dovks ». — Tlicre goes llie first dove tliat awoke... there goes another one... slill 
anotlier... well, dozens of doves lly from the dove-houses, wiien dawn, reddish and fresh, 
hardly begins to appear. — And at the sun-set, when the Northern strong winds blow, there 
they come again living bark in bands to the dove-houses, .so serene and eheerful moving 
their wings, shaking their fealh(!rs. — ^ Thus also, from the hearts, where the dreams are 
fastened, one by one, they swiftly fly, just as the doves do, from the dove-houses. — In the 
blue of the adolescency they spread I heir wings, they lly... but the doves return to the dove- 
houses, and (he di-canis never come back to the hearts.) 

AVe could yet mention other names of ])oets who have won a just ' 
notoriety as Lui/ Murat, Luiz Delphino; Lucio de Mendoura, 
Alberto de Oliveira, Mucio Teixeira, Joao Ribeiro, — who is also a : 
writer of no small reputation, but we have no space. 

We need now to review another feature of Hra/iliau talent. They' 
are the artists of to-(la3^ • 



n^ — 



MUSICIANS, PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS. 

This feature of Brazilian artislic life is not less brilliant llian the 
ones presented in previous seetions. AVere it not ihat our i)rooramme 
binds us to write only of tlu; men of to-day we would have much to 
wrile about great men, among- whom is one who won fame abroad as 
well as in the country. He is Carlos Gomes, the immortal author of 
« (jiinrtiny », opera that has been and will continue to be sung all 
over the civilized world. And he is not the only one of our dead 
notabilities. We had Miguez, the author of the a Sulduncs » Jose 
Mauricio, the great composer and others. 

But we will write only of the men of to-day, the space being- 
limited. 



Alberto Xepomucexo, — AVe owe the first place to the author of 
(( Artemis ». He is the onl^^ maestro now in South-America who 
deserves to inherit tlie glorj^ of Carlos Gomes. 

He was born in Fortaleza, Capital 
of Ceara, on the (3th July, 1804 and is 
a son of the great musician Victor Xe- 
pomuceno, well known here. With his 
family he went to Recife, the capital 
of Pernambuco, where he was much 
esteemed, devoting himself to music 
lessons being the most sought after 
professor in that city where he was 
the introducer of classic music. 

Under the direction of his father 
and obeying to self inclinations, Al- 
berto Xepomuceno, day bj^ day, accen- 
tuated more and more his artistic per- 
sonalit}^ and he kept on enlarging his 
circle of friends and admirers, succeed- 
ing at the age of 18, in substituting 

the maestro Euclides Fonseca, as director of the concerts at the 
Carlos Gomes Club till the time of the death of his father. 

He came then to Rio, without any protection and without 
resources. Here he lived and strengthened his artistic talent. Later 
on he went to Europe where he perfected himself. On his return he 




Alberto Nefohuckno 



— 114 — 

was appointofl <iri;an i>rofossor of the Musical Tnstituto, of Rio. and 
afterwards director of that Government establislinient. 

Among liis many compositions of true merit, and in which he 
reveals a prodigious fecundity of brain, wo note the RoimuiceH 
liruzik'iros a series the words of some of whose pieces were written 
by Juvenal Galeno; the opera El ret ra, a Greek subject translated in 
verse by ('hal)ault, and which was performed in Paris in the hall of 
Saint-Iiarbe des Champs; Syinplumics , he wrote a number for 
grand-orchestra; the Suite liresiliciinc, on national subjects; sever- 
al pieces for piano and singing; sacred pieces for orchestra. The 
words for his opera Artemis were written b}'^ Coelho Netto and the 
opera was sung with great success in the S. Pedro theatre in Rio. 
lie has just written two other operas, the Abnl and Riherto. The 
latter is going to be sung in Vienna. 



, Henrique Oswai.do. — He re]3rescnts a 

great personality in the artistic world at 

f^ ^l^P ^^ i least in South America. To give the bio- j 

/ graphical profile of Henricpie Oswaldo it is ' 

sufficient to give an account of the follow- 

) • li^!i;i ^'^» episode : Le Figaro, a French paper 

published in Paris opened a musical contest 

■^ in which (500 comi)osers from every country 

in the world took place, sending the pieces 

in sealing envelopes and without signature. 

IlKNRIOUE OSWALUO ^.^.^^^^ .^^j ^j^^^^ ,,^3^^) COUipOSitlOUS , tllC SClCC- 

ted one to receive the prize was Ilenri(iu6 
Oswaldo 's. Referring to the composition that Parisian paper wrote : 
We made allusion \esterday to the hesitations that seemed to pre- , 
vent our jury from delivering the prizes. As to the // neige ! (is the j 
composition of Henrique Oswaldo) , there was not the least discus- , 
sion about it. Only one vote and absolutely spontaneous! AVe remem- '. 
\)V.v yet that charming surjirise and flying and delicate artistic sen- , 
sat ion we felt when we first heard the composition of Heniitiuo '. 
Oswaldo. 

Sainl-Sat-ns, h'aure and Diemer, grouped together, for many . 
hours around the piano had already exhauste<l a good number of 
c/i/jo/.s ant] ilie session was al)out to end when Diemer getting hold 
casual of a i-oli of paper said : And if we should liy this one? It was 
the. // iici'^-c ! 

Tlieii, under the lingers of llie pianist, ihert; rose an extpiisiie mo- 




— Uh — 

lody, tlie intense poetry of wliieli with the beaiitil'iil sound of the swee 
and \vrai)])ing dreams evoked to the imagination something of a ])ale 
w inter landscape, tlie monotonous and sh)\v fall of the wliite snow 
flakes under the mysterious silence of the desert field, 'c Xoiis ctioiis 
comjuis I ') (We had been con(iuei'od) thus ends the pai'isian i)ai)er. 

ncnricpie Oswaldo was born in Rio in 1853. His father was J. -J. 
Oswaldo, a piano merchant in Sao Paulo, and his niothei' D. Carlota 
Cantagalli Oswaldo, was of Italian descent. 

Fi-om 1854 to 1870 Henrique Oswaldo lived in Sao Paulo, studied 
in the Episcopal Seminary, in Bart 's German Lyceum and I'eceived 
music lessons fi'om professor Girandon, considered then an excellent 
pianist. 

Fi'om there he went to Italy to imi)rove his musical studies in Flo- 
rence under the direction of imicsiro Grozzoni, ex-director of the 
Benetto Marcello Conservatory of Venice and professor of the Flo- 
rentine Musical Institute, and he was lead through mysteries and 
the secrets of harmony and counter-point. 

He has devoted himself mainly to the camarii music, an aristocra- 
tic and fine kind, having published : sonatas, concertos, inorceaiix 
diucrs for the piano, and symphonies for grand-orchestra, con- 
certs for string instruments. In all he wrote thirty different pieces. 
His music is elaborated with high care and is perfect in its minutest 
details, of broad inspiration , transparent, it reminds Beethoven's 
school. At present he is director of the Rio National Musical 
Institute. 



Meneleu Campos. — He succeeded 
Carlos Gomes in the Belem Conservato- 
ry, in the capital of Para state, and we 
cannot say that he does not honor the 
inheritance. He was born in that beauti- 
ful city and from his youth he revealed 
decided aptitude for music. His first 
teacher was Adelino do Nascimento, a 
violin virtuose of great fame in Brazil. 
Later on he went to Italy in 1891 , enter- 
ing Milan Conservatory, 

He has written music for piano, sing- 
ing , and orchestra. He has composed 
good many pieces, all of one thought and 

original one perfectly distinct, somewhat melancholic. And much ean 
be expected yet, from the author of Noitiirno of the romance T'amo 




Menellu Campos 



lift — 



He wrote miiiucttes and symplioiiies that give a i^weet and 
untranslatable sensation of ti-an(iuility, of broad and ti-ansi)ar('nt 
insi)iration. They are a language for the soul ingeniously I'xpressive 
and sweet, and the musical drawing and richness of accords show 
a noble and classic make up. Meneleu Campos cannot be imitated in 
these intermezzo pieces that he so ingeniotisly intercalates in liis 
greatest works. In his minucttcs and .syinphonics he sometimes hides, 
like Xai)omuceno the originality of i)opular themes, liandling and 
transmuting them so beautiful as he does in the Minintiirn dedicated 
to the Para ladies; sometime he throws himself to spontaneous stream 
of the ins])iration as he did in the Murclui Funcbrv, dedicated to the 
memory of Carlos Gomes, or yet in the (ionics, a thick, rich, har- 
monious music, in which we cannot say what is more- beantiful, if 
the beauty of the melody of thought, or the greatness of the harmo- 
nious checking. In our o})ini()u Meneleu (yampos is one of the nu)st 
inspired musicians of Bi-azil. 



Francisco Braga. — Here is another 
much a])plauded name. He is a man of a 
sympathie figure and he knew how to make 
room for himself in the arena of the struggle 
for life, having no other means of defence 
but is talent. 

He is a born musician and has vocation 
for that art. He prefers the orchestral mu- 
sic for his productions , having i)rodui'i'd 
and executing in i)ublic concerts some beau- 
tiful symphonic pieces, poems, ouvertures, 
episodes. H(^ was born in Kio de .Janeiro 
where he received liis musical education. 
He went also to Paris to continue his stu- 
dies under the direction of Massenet. 

He comi>osed in tluit city several i)ieces 
which were played in two concerts : ^,';h/- 
r//r'///,//' s.\ inplionic prelude; Pnysu^i' , symi)honic ])()t'm , both foi' 
orcliestra; Mnrionncltrs , gavotte (which is known all over the 
world); I'rirrc, Miiiiii-llo for ([uartc^ttc. lie i)roduced also while 
there: Lc Icnci- ; /•.'.v/./.sr .• I >c<l;tr!il ion : ('.linnsan ; Sri-cnndc loin- 
Ininc , for singing. Scherzo; Wtlsc n)iii:inti(inc : Mini: Mchtnro- 
li:t, for y'wwuK Hoiu;n\(c ; Clinnson </'.! ///<>////;(• , foi- NJoloncello ; and 
man\ ol licrs. 




I IIAM.ISCO iJllACA 



— 117 — 

In Germany he composed : Jiruzil, solemn mareli tor martial 
band: ^/a/'a/ja, symphonic poem tor orchestra; Aiibn(I(',iov quar- 
tetto ; Oh! si tc ninci ! ; Di'i-mc ns pchilas dc I'osa, romance for 
singing, and his first opera Jui)yra. 

In Dresden several of his pieces, which the musical critics 
referred to in the highest terms were executed in several public 
concerts in 1808. 

He is now awaiting the opportunity to put on the stage of the 
Imperial Theatre of Munich, his opera Jupyrii, which has already 
undergone the criticism of one of the first celebrities in Germany — 
the maestro Hermann Lev3\ This critic among other things said 
that his advice was : « do not strike out a single note from this 
opera )> — so perfectly identified with the ijoeni did he find it. 




Abdon Milanez 



MiLAXEz (Dr. Abdon Felinto). — 
Is perhaps the most popular of all 
the composers of popular music. 
His compositions are executed in 
every theatre of Brazil, as if he had 
jH-omised to himself not to do any- 
thing else but write music for all the 
audiences and all the people of the 
country. 

He was born 10 years ago , in 
Areias, a modest city of Parahyba 
State, which can be proud of having 
exported great artists for the other 
corners of the counti-y. He distin- 
guished himself as a railway civil engineer having been graduated 
in the Pol 3- technical College of Rio de Janeiro, in 1881, he was in 
office seveial times, as land inspector, director of the emigration 
service, in Europe, and other capacities. To-day he is a Congressman 
representing his native State in the Federal Congress. 

His notoriety, as it is natural , was acquired mainlj'^ by the 
inspiration of his theatrical compositions, which were always execut> 
ed with success. He had alreadj^ composed a large number of pieces 
that had become popular, when in 1886, his comic opera, in three 
acts Donzclla Theodora was sung in the Sant'Anna theatre in Rio. 
The music of this operette so light and original was received with 
groat applauses, and the success was complete. 

Encouraged by this triumph, and having become the idol of Bra- 



— 118 — 

zilian audiences, lie \vas inspired witli the full p«)\ver of liis noted 
humour and gaiety and wrote some quite original plays : Ilcroc ,i 
fovi^a, comic opera in three acts; .1 Dunui dc Ksinidns, t-oniic opera 
also in three acts; Moenia, lyric drama in one act; O linrbeirinlu) dc 
Seoilla, operette in three acts; the spectacular magic plays : Flor dc 
Maio; A Fada Azul; O Bico de Pajut<>ai(), all in three acts, and sever- 
al other plays. All of them met with great success all over Brazil 
some being performed hundreds of times and some pieces from these 
comic operas are most popular and are executed all over in concert 
halls and whistled in the streets as a live expression of the rare and 
of the people 's sentiments. 

With popular music, no comjjoser national or foreigner ever 
achieved such success in Brazil. 

He is for the Rio theatres what Planquette was for the Parisian 
ones for many years, and Abdon Milanez does not devote himself 
entirely to that light music. 

He also wrote for the Church and writing sacred music he un- 
dergoes such a transformation that one of his Tc-dcunis is the one 
most frequently heard in the Rio chuches. 

Here is a list of the musical works of this noted Brazilian ope- 
rette composer with the names of those wo wrote the words : Don- 
zella Theodora (o acts), Arthur Azevedo; Hcroc a Forca (3 acts), 
idem; -I Damn dc Espadas (3 acts), dr. Moreira Sampaio ; Barhci- 
rinho dc Scoiiha {'.i iH'ts), E. Garrido; Pintar o Padre (1 act), I). 
Castro Lopes; .1 Lotcria do Amor (3 acts); Coelho Xetto; Xinon (3 
acts), 1). Castro Lopes. Magicas — .1 Princcza Flor dc Maio (3 acts), 
E. Garrido; .4 Fada Aziil (3 acts), idem; () Bico dc Papagaio 
(3 acts), idem; A Cliauc do Inferno {'.i acts), D. Castro Lopes; ^ 
Mosca Aznl ('.', acts), Valentin Magalhaes. Reviews — O Zc Povinho 
(3 acts), dr. N'incente Reis; (^oincu I (3 ac(s) Arthur Azevedo. Opera 

— Priniizic (1 ac(j. Ilcilor j\Lihigu((i. I )raiiia w il 1 isic — Mocina 

(y> acis), ("oiichi ('oaracy. 

Abdoii Mihuicz has besides tliese p.lays composed a nunilier of 
songs, romances, daneiiig and military piei'CS, etc. Some have not 
been published but tliey all have; been often and often i)layed and are 
(|uite popular, w liicli cdiisl ilntes in a eci'laiii way the definite I'onse- 
cration ol (he nmsieiaiis. 



Caiu.os ok Mix^iiia. — lias a long list o1 ('(unposil ions and an 
(>|)era l\siiicr;ild;i. Hesides biiii we lia\c yet a niiinlxT oldtliers : 
ileiiri(|ue de Mesijiiila who lias emiiposed so iniieli music lor tlie 



119 — 




Carlos dk Mesquita 



stage, gay pieces in the Offenbacli style. Dclgado dc Carvalho a 
grave composer of liigli music wlio wrole a slioii op(M"a Ilosliii and 
anoilier one Mocnui botli ol' \n liicli ^^•el•e siiccessrully sung in Kio de 
Janeiro. There arc yet A. Vianna Pacheco, Earroso Xetto, Nicolino 
Milano and many others, ^^ilo 
are musicians of great merit 
sustaining the good name that 
in the world of Art Carh)s Go- 
mes won for Brazil. 

It is well known abroad 
that, outside of Europe, the 
only country that sncceeded in 
having an opera of its own 
performed all over the world 
in the leading cities, was Bra- 
zil with that famous and ma- 
gnificent Carlos Gomes' opera 
« Gucirany ». 

The cultivation of music as 
well as of other liberal arts is 
maintained with care. The go- 
vernment supports officially Music and Fine Arts institutes in llio 
de Janeiro, and some of the State Governments of this Rei)ublic fol- 
low the example, and this explains the number relatively large of 

good artists to be found in Bra- 
zil. In this regard no other South 
American country comes near 
this republic. 

V^^G will now speak of the Bra- 
zilian Sculptors : 

The place of honor belongs by 
right and in fact to Kodolpho 
Bernardelli , the celebrated 
sculptor who has populated with 
statues the capital of Brazil. The- 
re are here in Rio and elsewhere 
statues made by European artists 
of reputation, for large sums of 
, yet confronted with the work of this Brazilian they do not 
that preference and are not in anything superior. 




RoDOLPuo Bernardelli 



money 
justifv 



— 120 — 



Bcnardi'lli was bi)rii in IS.'/,' and in 1870 he entered the Fine Arts 
Academy ol" Rio. Three years hiler lie had executed his first work — 
Dnoitl, soon afterwards he sculptured a Saiidadc fin Tribii and 
A'csprcilH, both of which received prizes at the Philadelphia Exposi- 
tion. In 1870 he earned a prize annually given to the best student 
of llic Academy wliicli pi'ize consists in going to Europe to continue 
the studies at the i^overnment expenses. He stayed nine years in 
Europe perfecting himself and ])rodiieing. 

On his retuin he executed a monumental grouj) dhrisfo en n(lul- 
tcni, whicli belongs to the Academy, and the Fiucini which excited 
the art critics with enthusiasm. Later he sculptured ScHito Kstcnam, 
and three statues: O.sorio, Alencar and Duqiiv dc (Jaxius, all of 
which are to-day in Rio's public squares, all of them of bronze and 
two of them, those of Generals Alencar and Duque de Caxias, on 
horseback. His last work is that magnificent group in l)ronze, 
representing the discoverers of Brazil inaugurated during the festi- 
vals of the celebration of the fourth centenary of the discovery of 
Brazil. This work of art by itself is enough to give him the great 
name as an artist he has and so richly deserves. 

Bernardelli is fond of naturalism, 
in art; in his work he i)laces himself 
at the disposal of the plain truth and 
he doesn't deviate from this happen 
what it may: 

His statues are always a theme I'or 
discussion among the critics, whom, 
as it is usual, never agree in their 
opinions as to the artist. The scidptor 
doesn't i)ay any attention to them. If 
sucli an hero used to mount his liorsi' 
in a manner that was not correi't, he 
repiodnces him just so in the bronze; 
if another had his stomach distiMuled 
somewhat more than it is idealized by 
the standai'd fixed by tlu- legends for 
their idols, he cai'cs litlle lor that, he 
I'ounds the marble true to his model. 
And as to con\ cnidonalism, whiidi is 
a ci'iterion for the art of the crowds, 
that expands ilselT in repro\ a! ions, in strong criticisms in the news- 
pap(us — Ic jiiijiicr stm/J'ic loiil. 

Not w itiistanding all that, JJei-nardcHi has also his admirers. 




ll I'll i;n Mill 1 1 Clirislit V ii iultilicru 



121 



and, besides, nobody can rciuse his title as a genius affirmed by 
immortal bronze statues. 

The list of \vorks executed by this first of Brazilian sculptors is 
a long- one. Besides all these statues to be seen all ovei" the city in 
itspul)lic squares, there are numbci'lcss low rclier l)ns(s, nicdallions, 
and other works in bronze and marble sculi)tured by him. Of late he 
executed a statue of Ca/-/os' (ionics for Campinas and two others of 
Teixeira de Freltas and Mscoiidc dc Mciiia for Rio. 

In Brazil artistic circles Bernardelli is the 
most respected personality of all the artists in 
the country. He has imposed himself by his 
talent and if he is not a millionaire he can say 
as Emerson did : real i)i"ide is worth an inco- 
me of £ 1.50U. 



CoRRKA Lima. — This name is another 
document of Brazilian Fine Arts culture. Is 
a revelation and a promise. He has the sense 
of the beautiful and by energetic work has 
acquired the snvoir fnirc of the sculptor, who 
perpetuates himself, by periDetuating others 
in. his marble. 

The certificate of his genius was seen in the Bio Fine Arts Exhi- 




CoRREA Lima 




CoRitEA Lima. — Mater Dolorosa, belonging to llie Fine Arl.s Institute. 



122 — 



bition, where he exliibited liis bronze statue Pu>>c powerlnl in its 
natural expression. 

Correa Lima is one of (he most beautiful and best defined artis- 
* tic personalities of South America. Though quite young he has l)y 
himself acijuired the reputation of a superior artist. lie was a pui)il 
of Bernardelli nnd frecjuented the Fine Arts College in Rio. He was 
born in the State of liio, in the small city of S. Jofio Marcos, in 
1878. lie followed the full course of that college during three years 
and it was a surprise, not only for the public, but even for his college 
mates and professors, the exhibition of his work in marble « Kc- 
morso )) which won for him the jiri/.e of a trip to Europe at the 
expenses of the Government. AMiile in Rome he develoi)ed a fever- 
ish activity, producing among othci- works the (( Pi'isioijciro >> a 
great w ork in bi-onze, where he exhibited his independence and sell' 
individuality qualities, well evident in a more or less vivid manner, 
in all his works. 

In the Fine Arts expositions of IVKM, 1*.»02 and lOOo, in Rio, he 

won the first prizes with 
his works, Page, S. .louo 
Bnptisln, Rcmorso and the 
Pc'sviulor, and others. 

His chief work of art, 
the one which won for 
him the celebrated repu- 
tation he enjoys was that 
painful group Mater clolo- 
I'osu , a genial association 
of the classic art inspira- 
tions with tlu' prc()i'cui)a- 
tion of natural art, lull of 
emotions and truth. 



lilDOVU'O 1)KKNA. — 

lit' is also a young artist 
and his uaiiic is being 1 lie 
objci't of aiticles in I lie 
lei'hnical periodicals and 
daily pajxMs. 

lie is an arcliilcrt of 
talent, 'riic altar he l>uilt 




Liiiiovicd Hi UNA 



for llic llcnjaniin Constant clitiich is a real gem ol work in llicgo- 
thic style worthy of great i)iaise. 



— 128 — 

BiTTKNCOT-RT DA SiLVA. — The uiitired woi-kcr Direcloi- of tlie 
Arts and Trades Lyceum d(jes not need any better prool" ol' his tahmt 
than the Iront of the J^^xchangc Building. The ^vhole building is the 
])roduet of the purest Rcnnissiincc school, adding to the nobility of 
its lines, the elegance of the decorative details. 

In Sao Paulo the Brazilian architects fill that city \vi<h Ixiautiiul 
mansions, affirming Bi-a/.ilian advancement in arts. In the North we 
can mention : 

Hans Schleiaer, of Bahia. — He has had to struggle against the 
sraallness of the centre where he lives, yet succeeds in impi'cssing a 
sign of his renovating spirit in a few private buildings he has built 
up. Ilis best works are the residences of Messrs. J. Gama and Costa 
Santos in Mctoria and that of Mr. F. Hasselman in Victoria Square. 
He also built the large business house of Mr. Deoc. Alves at Prin- 
cezas Street, the City Hall in Sao Felix and several others. He has 
also worked in several cities of Germany where he now is. 




SousA Aguiar (Fran- 
cisco Marcellino). — This 
is , no doubt the best 
known of Brazilian archi- 
tects and he is as well a 
General belonging to the 
engineering company of 
the Federal- Army. He 
was born in Bahia. From 
his very youth he revealed 
notable qualities as a mi- 
litary man and an admi- 
nistrator. He was for mii- 
ny years the Chief of the 
Fire Department in Rio, 
which is one of the best 
in the world, there being- 
no equal to it anywhere 
else but in the United 
States. He was also at 
the head of the telegraph 
system of this conntry. In 
both of these offices he discharged his duties in a most clever way. 



SousA Aguiar 



— 124 — 

He is a highly educated man a cultured scientist and a linguist which 
is ol" great help to him while on commission in foreign lands, that he 
has done several times representing his .country with great advan- 
tage. He represented Brazil in the Chicago World's F'air and in the 
St-Louis Exposition. In tliis latter exposition, the Brazilian pavil- 
lion, as tlie American press said it, excelled those of all the other 
foreign nations. Sonsa Aguiar has "many aptitudes is a man of strong- 
character and superior mind. The feature that can most easily be 
appreciated by the people is his talent as an architect. He is now 
building a beautiful Palace for the Rio National Library, the Fire 
Department barracks, the St. Louis Exposition building which was 
brought from the United States. He has in project a building for the 
National Congress. We need not mention the Brazilian lUiilding at 
the Chicago World's Fair which was a fine building. 

Sousa Aguiar is in fact a great artist. His works are beautiful, 
original and up-to-date. 



I 




'rrciism 
i'olicc I 



Ramos i)e Azkvi;i)(). 
— (Francisco de Paula 
Ramos de Azevedo) is the 
most notable architect 
fi-om Siio Paulo of those 
living' tlicre to-day. He is 
an extraordinary artist. 
He has built souie 100 
Ixiildiugs bolli pultlie and 
private ones in the State 
_of Sao Paulo. We might 
say tliat it is to him that 
Sao Paulo owes its arelii- 
tectural transformation. 
Among tlie buildings he 
projt'eted and built we 
must mention \hc I'oly- 
lecliuieal college. perliai)s 
the nieesi in all Hiazil. 
He himself is a professor 
of ai'ehileelure. He also 
built the Secretary of 

\ 's l)uil<ling aixl the one of tlie Agriculture's Secretary. 

Iead(|narteis. Noi'uial enllege, I'ltideiite de Mm'aes Sehool. 



Hamos I)i: A/i;viim» 



— 125 — 

Municipality Palaoe in Campinas, tlio large huilding- of the Santos 
Docks Company in Rio, the Biuy School, the Military Hospital, both 
in Siio Paulo, and many line residences and some millionaires man- 
sions in Sao Paulo, In a word, he is the most enthusiastic jiromoter of 
(he intellectual and ai'tistic movement in Sao Paulo in the last few 
years. AVe had forgotten to mention the beautiful building of the 
Fine Arts and Trades Lyceum, of which he is the President and to 
the organisation of which he gave a practical character, transform- 
ing the Lyceum into many shop works lor artistic and industrial 
production. 

He is a good and patriotic man, clever and progressive in his 
ideas. He is also a philantropical man charitable and generous. He 
is to-day one of the most popular and respected men in Sao Paulo. 
Xot long ago a journalist writing about him said : « AVe know not 
a man in Siio Paulo with a better heart or a superior mind to his. » 




Oliveira Passos 



Oliveira Passos. — Son of the celebrated engineer and admi- 
nistrator Passos. He was born in Rio de Janeiro, but followed his 
studies in Germany where he was always distinguished as a good 
scholar. 



— 126 — 

Rctnniini;- to Hi-a/.il In- made liis career as an iii«lusirial man and 
an architect occupying; t()-<la.\- a prominent place among- liis 
colleagnes. 

In a competitive examination foi- the selection of i)laiis foi- tlie 
Mnnicii)al Tlieati-e his won tlie prize and were selected. 'I'he build- 
ing is iiearl,\' finished and with it he made a name. 




IIeitor de Mello. — 
He ^is a Brazilian archi- 
tect of recognised ability 
in the artistic circles of 
Rio. He is a son of the 
late celebrated admiral 
Custodio de Mello. This 
young but already well 
known architect was born 
in Rio in 1875 where he 
made his first studies. 
Afterwards he travelled a 
good deal in Europe and 
returned to Rio where he 
followed the Fine Arts 
College course, with high 
distinction graduating as 
an architect, a diploma 
not easily obtained in 
that college. 

IIeitor de Mello has 
ever since devoted him- 
self to his professional work with enthusiasm and has built some 
most beautiful buildings, as the Navy Infant r,\' barracks and many 
l)rivat(; mansions, being woi'thy of mention some beautiful liuildiui^s 
in the A venida Central. 

Ilcil i»i- de Mello ranks to-day w il ii l lie best of his class and is had 
as on(! of ihe al)lest . His works recommend him by its sii'oni; fealni'es 
that bring forth harmony, distinction and novelt\ . 



llinoK UK Mil. 1.0 



r.M l..\ l''i{i;rr.\s. "11 is name iseonneeled with (.';//j(/(7.<;(.M'lim cli 
in Ivio. (Iniuh-lnint is tlic ricbest and most arlislieally Imill cliiircli 
in Sonlli Amei'ica. 

J'iiiihi I'icihis ga\t' I lie plans and exeeult'd I lie arciiiteeture of its 



— 127 — 

interior. He also built the National Pi'inting Office building with a 
most original iVont, popular already, having been, as it has, in 
mostly every magazine published in the country. He built yet the 
Gonrnlncs Asyliiin at S. Christovam scpiare and other buildings. 

Let us now \vrite about IJra/.ilian artists — the i)ainters. 

Not many months ago Brazil lost his most celebrated artist whose 
renown did not limit itself to Brazil, Ix'ing universal. lie was living in 
Europe at the time of his death. His name was Pedro America. 



AuuELio DE FiGUEiREDO. — He is Pcdro Amerieo's brother and 
is also a painter. He is untired with his brush and most audacious 
in the coloi'ing, alive and bright in the whole make up. He cultivates 
with success historical themes. He paints with ease and on all sub- 
jects, landscape or any other. According to the art critics his best 
work is his painting Paulo e Francesca where the fundamental qua- 
lities of an artist are in evidence. 

Nearly every one of his paintings are in Rio in the hands of 
amateurs, in pul)lic buildings , a few in the Fine Arts College and a 
few others in Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. His two last paint- 
ings « .1 (lescoberta do Brazil « and « Um capitiilo da historia patria » 
are, one, in the President's palace, and the other in the House of 
Deputies where the congressmen meet. 




RoDOLPHO Amoedo. — One of the most fa- 
mous of the Brazilian artists, having, not- 
withstanding, devoted himself to a most dif- 
ficult kind of work — historical painting. This 
does not mean that he has not done some other 
kind of work because he has painted quite a 
number of landscapes , marine pictures and 
others, but history is his favorite style and in 
that line has produced far more than in all 
others. He belongs to the new generation and 
was born in Rio de Janeiro. 

His artistic education began at the Arts and Trades Lyceum, of 
Rio, continued at the old Fine Arts College and he perfected his 
studies in Europe, where he went at the government expenses, 
having received the prize offered yearly by the Fine Arts college. 

His paintings O Tamoyo, Mar aba and others representing 
Brazilian history subjects, belong to-day to the State Government 



RoDOLPHO Amoedo 



— 128 — 



arc stronj; ('vi<Ienc('s ol' liis prowei-riil inspiration and i);itri()lisiii as 
^vc'll as iruc woi'ks of art. I Morlc do Abel is another painting- with.] 
wliirli Uodolpht) A uioedo answered to the rlassic tendencies of his 
surroundings at the time he did that work. 




i(. Amukdo. — .1 nnmtrho ile PJtilelus; lu'loiiyini; lo Iho llin .Miisfiiiii. 

The best reputed of all his works, however, is .1 Xnrrucuo ile 
Pliilc'fns, eelebi-ated painting acquired also by the government for 
the colhM'tion of the State Museum. The softness of the lines, the 
relief of the figui-es, tb(> sublih^ jxjetic sentiment of the scene in this 
j)ainting, give altogellun' a real and harmonious coloring. This 
picture; is consichn-ed the gem of all those at the official Art (lallery. 
Rodolpho Aiiioedo is ininucious in the anatomic study of the 
figures, — as it imist l)c done in historical painting, — and he 
knows how to i)lacc them in position with artistic taste ami as a 
master will. He seems to possess the secret to do it with pcrfei-tion. 
Add to these virtues the complete cont loi of I he ln-iisii and paints 
for the soft marvels of the coloring and there remains explaiiuMl the 
success of this artistic celchrity, to-day professor of tin- Fine Arts 
Collei^c where he was once a student. 



Amom.i r akijiik as.-- ■ Honi in U io de .1 ;ineiro, h;id :is his teacher 
the celehrated (lernian landscape painter .lorgi' (irimni. l!ut it 



120 



seems that above his professor he loved this iiuirveHous nature of 
Brazil. He has abondoned a Ion*; time a<^() the sfyle of his teacher 
and created an independent individuality of his own. 'I'he landscape 
will however continue to be his 
love, his inspiration. At present it 
would be difficult to find a lands- 
cape artist so faithful, ^vith such 
adoration and care for the repro- 
duction in his pictures of the trees, 
the woods, the mountains, with 
such delicate coloring copying the 
charming pieces of sceneiy that 
nature in Brazil offers to the artist. 
He knows how to see his original 
and how to fix it in his painting. 

His monumental painting Scr- 
tanejas, is in one of the drawing- 
rooms of the President's palace. 
He has a large number of smaller 
paintings , which are disputed by 

the experts in art. They are , most all of them , pieces of Brazilian 
scenery. The painting .4 Derriibada, which was sold for a high price, 
is one of the most beautiful ones as it is the one — Yentania, — both 
of which will some day adorn some celebrated art gallery. Some of 
his beautiful paintings decorate the walls of the Court Room at the 
Rio de Janeiro Supreme Court. 




Antonio I'arreiras 



RoDOLPHO Chambellaxd. — Rodolpho Cliambelland is an artist 
of reputation, though he is quite a young man. He was born in Rio, 
and received his artistic education at the Xational Fine Arts College. 
He became popular by exhibiting paintings of Rio scenes at the 
Fine Arts College everj' year with greater success. One of these — 
« A'Sahida do Baile » (Leaving tlie ball) won for him the prize of 
one year's trip to Europe at the Governments expenses. Another 
canvas which won a great triumph for him was the « Ar Ijivre » 
(Bachantes em festa) exhibited at the annual Salon of Rio in 1904. 
According to a critic, who is not a very lenient one, what distin- 
guishes Cliambelland is the harmony of his compositions, always 
original, with excellent effect of light and dai'k light, the free move- 
ment of the figures, the landscape always broad and well illuminated, 
the happy perspectives, and the fine sky. which proves the neatness 



130 — 



of liis hrnsli, and the attention he pays to the minutest of details. 
Ro(h)lpho Chanihelland is besides all that a hard worker, producing 




ROIIOI.I'IIO Cll.V.MIIKI.I.AM) 



a good deal, appearing- in all exhibitions of fine arts, held .\ early << 
at the College where; he is always sure to win the best prizes though 
he has eonipetitors of great merit. 



IIiONUK^ii': 1^i;knaki)i:i,i,i. — Is ;ilso one of the most noted eulti- ^ 
vatoi's of ])ure art in Jira/il. At the service of a legitimate artistic! 
temperament lu; has a solid intellectual cultivation, and as a result 
of that we see the sujjeriority of his work anu)Ug which we recou)- 
UH'ud the ficsco paintings of the ceiling of the Musical Institute 
Mall. .\nu)ng his most a])plaud(Hl paintings is the 'r.-iinnlclhi , ii 
strong study on habits and cnstonis, of gay eoloring and in('|u-ehcn- 
sible execntion, M((lil;m<l<i, S)ii;i, l\iiiii;is cm l\;incll(i, nostalgic 
lanilsciipes, of soft coloiing. (!;is;is Hntiicns, I'rui.i ilc ('.oiincnhniiil, 
are delieate landscapes because of their subjects, but they were 
treated by a strong and warm l)i'usli, wliicli lea\t's in t he pici iii-c a 
bright impression ot lite, attracting and i)al|>i lat ing. 



— 131 



But landscape is not the only 
style in which H. Bernardelli re- 
veals himself as an artist and a 
creator. The intellectual history of 
Brazil has charms for him and in- 
spire him most enthusiastically. We 
see that in his paintings Jose Mmi- 
ricio deante do Rei whose pictures 
have the animation of real life ; o A- 
Icijadinho (the cripple) in our opi- 
nion to the latter in the disposition 
of the figures, in the cn.scmble and 
in the coloring ; the Extasc, that 
seems an introduction to the s^m- 
holism in painting. It is a revolu- 
tionary painting, under the view 
point of classic art, and is a docu- 
ment of the audacious soul of this Brazilian artist 




HiiNKiQUE Bernardelli 



Elyseu Viscoxti. — A student of the Xational Fine Arts College, 
studied also for some time in Europe. On his return he presented 
some paintings that made a name for him among the most noted 
artists. He tackles all subjects and every style. He has worked on 
oil paintings, water colors, jjastel, religious and historical subjects, 
landscape, decoration and others. 



Decio Yillares, artist of great merit ; Zcfcrino da Costa, sacred 
painter whose talent is in evidence in the (c plafond « of the « Cande- 
laria » church ; rc/;?ji>7'i/*//JC7-, the inspired son of Rio Grande State 
whose paintings are so minucious in detail, so carefully treated 
and so patiently finished. They have been all sold at high prices. 
./. Baptista and many others though not so popular as the above are 
all artists that contributed considerably towards the impulse Fine 
Arts have received in Brazil. 



STATES 



Historical, Geographical, Com:mercial and Administrative Data; 

Description of Cities and Places worthy of note, 

Churches, Monuments, etc. 



THE STATE OF THE AMAZON. 



Once finished, as it is, in the preceding pages, tlie review of the 
Brazilian intellectual world, we must now deal with the physical and 
political one in the complexity of their many aspects : — industries, 
commerce, public instruction, railroads, etc. What we are about to 
write, is the result of personal observation and study, during' our 
travels all over the country, going from city to city. We will begin 
by the Xothern States. At the extreme north, as the doorway of 
this great nation we have the Amazon State, well worthy of the 
grandeur of this beautiful country, being its northern boundary line. 




Dr. Constantino Xery, governor of Amazon Stale 



Just as Rio Grande does at the extreme South, the Amazon opens 
with a marvellous and exquisite majesty its frontier to the new- 
comers from all over the world. 

As to its frontiers, Brazil has really much to thank God for the 



— 13fi — 

generous way it was treated while the distribution of natural 
greatness was nuule among the people ol' this i)lanet. But this 
Amazon region has not as yet been exploited, only a small part of 
its territory and of its wonderful waters being dominated by man, 
bv tlie Hra/ilians, we miglit say, as the Europeans seldom go there. 
Every one of the explorers, scientists and travellers, who have pene- 
trated some of its thick roads., its endless rivers, come back 
astounded, and praise enthusiastically that infinite and calm wealth, 
that is waiting foi- the future generations, and spreading in flowing 




\)v Sii.vKuio NiiiY, cx-govonior of Ain;i/nii SinU 



stream, a variety of tilings, that cause the envy of men, tlii'ougli a 
teri-itory larger than the majority of the different kingdoms of the 
earth. Its enormous surface surpasses that of luigland, (Jernumy, 
France, Italy, Holland and Belgium put together. 

'IMiis ])arl of the Brazilian dominion, taking the name of a I'ivcr, 
th(! largest rivc^r in the world, rendered a poetic demonstration of 
homage to the most jxtwerful abyss of fresh water that there is on 
this planet. It is iuii)ossil)le for us to rejx'at lu-re what 1 1 iiiiiltoldt . 
Agassiz, (Jondreau, Osculati, Wallace, Castelnan and many others 
have said about tin; Amazon. The trip alone from Belem. the eapital 
of l*ara State, (o Manaos, t he capital of t he A mazon State, is in 
itself a pauoraiiia thai can't easily be forgotten. We made this trip 
once and we w ill iiexcr sloj) bringing to the eyes of our mind t he beau- 
tiful images of that magnificent scenery. On the olst of Jidy l'.K)-J, 



— 1:17 — 

on board of a sleainci- llying- at its stern tin; Brazilian Hag-, « O 
. 1 /;jji>"OcJ.s )), Nvc sailed i'roui Para, in the direction ol" Manaos. It was 
live o'clock in the afternoon and the weather was splendid bright 
and not too warm. 

We had to sail some *.•()() miles. A short section of that colossal 
river. 

The mute riverside landscajje is of itself perfectly charming-, but, 
bending- over the deck railing we were completely wrapped up in the 
contemplation of the whole scenery, a synthesis of unseen coloring 
and light changes. 








•iki^sy^S^^^: 



View of the town of Manaos. 



Until we reached the bay of Marajo, the steamer was crossing a 
large moving surface of pacific waters, shining and clear as a 
looking glass , from the bosom of which were brought forth green 
streams of a loving and solemn vegetation : gay and round islands, 
quite wet, as coming out of the bath, otliers symetric in their green 
dresses, but an even green, thick, without shades treated as if with 
brosse-carre. Those particles of tranquil land, are sown here and 
there but a little every where, and sometimes they appear at the 



— \m — 

right, sometimes at the left, looking sometimes as if they were 
encircling- the steamer, or floating anywhere as if suspended between 
the light and the moving waters. When the boat seems to advance 
towards one of them, and makes close by the contornation of the 
green silhouette, suddenly they divide themselves in two, and we 
then see that they were really two and not one. The vegetation so 
full of damp and bi-ight vigor, is understood in the inexplicable 
poem of its details, of its trunks and branches, of its epyphites and 







.Mai);i(j.s. — lldiiaido liilx'iiMs Avnim 



of its i)arasit('s. l>y(^ and l)ye the ishmds seem to disapi)ear, they 
hi(h' themselves from view. The boat runs swiftly and smoothly in 
large ti'aets of free sea, the sea-shore, the l)anks of the riviM-, are 
faraway, witli a grayish color brought by the wei fog llial rises 
between, and every! liing seems to soften in a \ asl and nielaneliolie 
Kilen<!e, in a solemn solitude of the spreaih'd tint waters. And this, 
not because the banks are desert. In a little while, when Iheiivei- 
becomes nai row er b\' the sudden eniei'sion of new islands — and 



— 139 — 

thev are numberless — we discover liere and there , si)ots argil 
color, noisy sounds in tlie harmonious neutral green of the trees. 
Thev are the houses : — A brick factory, a k burraca ». Going 
nearer we distinguish everything : — a defiant factory chimney. 
Sheds covered with reddish tiles, or a zinc root" house shining with 
the sun. When, through the thick islands, the boat reaches Marajo, 
the horizon runs again in circle, and a tired rest fluctuates upon 
the vast sheet of water; there are no waves, there is no noise, one 



.iim !!!! 



ggS!?"" 




Maiiiios. — State 's Treasury and Receiver's office 



would think we were before a picture of the geologic period of the 
dominant waters . 

The following day we ran early in the morning to the deck rail- 
ing, we wanted to see that sea-river, as very properly they call it 
there. The Marajo bay has been left behind, quite far now, and by 
this time, the steamer was sailing already through new islands, new 
groups of islands, through extensive corridors, now wide, then nar- 
row, in that great maze of the Amazon river. 



— ltd — 

A\li('n it li:ii)i)cns tluit tlie (( AUigoas » ruus soltly a Utile closer 
by one of those islands, what hai)i)ens at every moment, from the 
ship we can distinguish with full detail the different kinds of vege- 
tables which abound in the most variegated assortment of kinds, 
and tlie thin and tall gems of the mirilys and of the ussuhys arc 
swiftly remaining behind the boat. Some of the eehoes of that live 
symphony of the forest reach our ears. With such points of refe- 
rence we re-enter in the conscience of the speed and the road that 
has been covered, but the more we advance more waters appear to 
that requested vision. In the places where the i-iver becomes 
narrower, by the development of the islands si)readed all over, and 
which never allow us to see the true banks of the colossal river, a 
thick sheet of algas hixuriant and impenetrable, together with 
trunks and branches of enormous trees, ones intermingled with the 
others, close the waters in a longitudinal and endless line, opening 
every now and then the breathers of the muddj' igarapes, melan- 
cholic })ai'anas, of the fiivos in whose sinews divagates the gray and 
nostalgic magiiavy. 

Each division of that maze is visited by the inoniarias — as they 
call the small canoe boats used by the humble inhabitants of that 
region, busy in the fishing of the turtle, the tasty Jaraquy, the 
prime fish of the Amazon, the laciinarc, the acarao-assii, the pacii, 
oi- of the i)opular tambaqiiy. But the high road is the streamy river, 
always miuldy and dirty, in spite of the poets singing ])hautasti- 
cally its crystaline waters. It is that way that the unemi)eachcd and 
triumphal boats, large and small, go on in their pilgrimage, 
noui-ishing the ever growing commercial traffic of the Amazon 
States and neighboi-ing nations. 

From among the steamers we will refer to the i^-aiolas, steauu'rs 
of a peculiar type, appropriated for the sailing in those waters. 
They are wide open, well ventilated, flat bottom. They are auda- 
cious and their number is large. They run in all directions the 
vast hy(li"ograi)hic ni't of the ,Vmazon, carr\ ing lilV, and ci\ ilising 
activity of the commerce, under the national Hag, to the most 
hidden corners of the inhabited region. 

A large number of them belong to the Mauaos market, the 
nuijority, however, belong to firms of Belem, capital of Vava. 

'IMie Amazon, wc will repeat, is the great i-oad, the only road of 
those wetdthy and inunense regions to tlu^ inlei'coursc with the 
ci\ilisc(l world. There arc no i-ailways in the slate of Amazon, 
neither are tliere even any cari-iage roads. Thci'c is onl.\ , and that 
in excess, a lai-ge sea of fresh \\al<M-, noisy and rapid, which, with 



— 141 — 

its many affluents, forms the most complete and stupendous system 
of roads open to the communication fury of the commercial and 
industrial life of to-day, 

The peculiarity of locomotion in this system, are the gaiohis, 
the affirmation of a deep human initiative in the enterpr-i/.e of 
dominating- the aquatic desert, the first document of the ability of 
the Brazilians, the shipowners of Pai'u and Amazon, for the 
achieving of that conquest of a world which is yet closed, a conquest 
that represents the most daring- geographical feat of the century 
just ended. 




A Part of Eiluardu Kibeiro's Avenue 



That fleet, which has not as yet reached its possible develop- 
ment, is already this day the largest of the South-American conti- 
nent, and can only be compared to the other one that dominates in 
the north the other great river, the Mississipi. 

These boats navigate about 10.000 miles, transporting the great 
treasures of the Amazon — the rubber gathered in the many 
sering-aes and sent to the ports of Manaos and Para which export it 
to markets of the whole world. 

Xavigating in all directions , they take sometimes one, two, 



— 142 — 

three monllis, going' I'rom burnicn to hnrrncn at the docks or storage • 

houses of tlie principal pUices, unh)a(Ung their cargoes where the , 

owners of Ihc scring-acs get their provisions from so they can supply [ 

their men during the rubber harvest. Coming down they call at the | 

same places if it is time to receive the rubber already prepared. , 




' . ij. I, im.*jii 



Manaos. — Moiiiiinfiil ol oipciuii}; of Aiii;i/.(iiiii,s rivci' In the niln ii;iliiiii;il 1 r;iilt" 



These docks ai-c wooden l)ri(lgcs sonicliiucs willi :i huge wootU'U 
storage-room caUcd — harracAo — . 

As this name of huirucn or huirnciio given to these estal'lisli 
inents situated in Mie river-banks can induce to a false notion, we 



— 143 — 

will state right here that they are no tents, as the vvoi'd might ini])ly, 
but a shop and storage-house, some of them with a h()us(; for tin- 
proprietor's family just with the same comfort as the houses of 
fanners in Europe. In the Puriis and the Madeira rivers we can see 
many of these houses which would cause the envy even of residents 
of many a city. 

But the ^'•a/o/a,s do not do all the traffic of this river. Nearly 
every week a steamer goes from North to South of the country. 




Maiiaos. 



Piiljlic Martlet 



from Rio de Janeiro to Para, and from there to the Amazon. Calling 
at Ceara, Piauhy and Maranhao there is another line with a 
monthly steamer. Twenty English steamers are working, sometimes 
two and sometimes four a month, in this line, taking the Amazon 
rubber to the ports of New' York, Havre, Liverpool, Hamburg, 
Lisbon and Oporto. There is also a steamship company belonging 
to the Portuguese house Andresen which is engaged in the same 
trade to New York, Liverpool, Lisbon and Oporto. 



— \u — 

Thus is that the Amazon region is in rixMjui'nt and swilt contact 
with the principal European and American ports. 

Until a certain time, 1S()(), the Amazon river was not oi)en to the 
commerce of the world, but in that year an Emperor's decree opened 
it to the traffic of all flags, which, attracted by the wealth of that 
region, began to explore it, slowly at first, but in large scale after 
a while. 

Jn 1805, Agassi/, who visited the mighty river, wrote about it : 
<( In these waters, in which we met but two or three ships in six 
days, steamers and ships of all kinds will go up and down and life 
will animate these regions. » 

This pro^jhetic assertion was realized. To-day wc can't go up or 
down that river without meeting every short awhile some kind of 
boat, filled with people and loaded with cargo, running in all direc- 
tions. The local government spends annually l.'.tSO contos with 
subventions, in order to augment more and more the maritime 
activity of this region. 

Besides the Brazilian steamers, large and small ones, navigate 
these waters German, English and Italian transatlantic steamers, 
but it is right to say here that the majority arc Brazilian 
boats. 

To have an idea of the navigation traffic, we give here a tal)lc of 
the movement in Manaos port in I'.'Ol. 

ENTRIES 

Steamers 696 

Laiinclies 328 

Total I.O-2i 

SAILINGS 

Steamers "II 

Laiiiiclies lill 

Total I.Oi-J 

NATIONALITY OF THE BOATS : 
ENTRIES 

Brazilian !I0:5 

Enjilisji 101 

('itTiiiaii 11 

Italian !l 

Inllil I O-Jl 

S.MI.INC.S 

Rra/iii.in '.KM 

KiiUlisli 101 

riciniaii II 

Italian !• 

lulal l.Oi'-J 



— 145 — 

Tf Agassis could verify to-day the size of his prediction, he would 
liave no small sui-prise in looking- at these figures. 

This enormous develo})ui('nt of (he navigation in the Anuizonic 
basin is fed nuiinly by tlu? large i)roducing cai)acity of tin; two States. 
The rubber production is worked by national laborers. 




iMaii;i 



Ediiardi) llibciio's Aveimo — Commercial liouses 



The Rubber. — The rubber, sering-a, or gomnia elastica, is 
made of the juice of several trees of the Amazon valley as the sypho- 
nia clastic, sYj)honia cabuchii, Jatropa clastic, hevea g'uyanensis, 
syphonia raythidocarpa, etc., the most common being the best — 
t\\Q havca and the .syphonia clastic. They attribute to a catholic mis- 
sionary father Manoel da Esperanca the discovery of this substance 
of common use among Amazon inhabitants. He came to know it in 
his pilgrimages among tliose people and brought it to the knowledge 
of the civilised world. 

Later on, the astronomer La Condamine took it to France, pre- 
senting on this sul)ject, in 1745, a paper before the Paris Academy 



— ur, — 

of Sciences. Only later on the English thought about their India 
rubber. 

The \vay to gather or extract the juice ol the s('rin<>ueir!i has so 
often been described that we will not lake up the readers time 
with it. 

In the beginning the exploitation of that product was insigni- 
ficant; some 20 years ago, however, with Ihe multiplicity of indus- 
trial applications, increasing as it did, the demand in Kur()i)c and 
North America, the States of Para and Amazon began to develop 
in a large scale their fonest industry, and the export of scrii}<>n 
reached figures never dreamt of. 

A fact must be accentuated most emphatically : It is most exclu- 
sively to Brazilian labor that this conquest is due. It was the native 
laborei", mainly from the State of Ceara who penetrated more auda- \ 
ciously this mysterious solitude of the large rivers, establishing, I 
organizing the « scrin^'iics », the first base of the con(iuest for the | 
universal intercourse, for the exploitation of that wealthy i)roduct , 
of the mighty river I'cgion. j 

Some statistic data will reveal in a better and plainer manner ! 
the development attained : 

Rubber exported bij Para and Amazon States : j 

Years Kilogr. [ 

1858 a 1862 997.280 j 

I80;5al868 3.365.348 

1877 a 1881 12.280.o32 ' 

1887 a 188!) (three years) only the port of Maiiaos . 9.511. 9»i 

1890 a 1892 id. id. . II. 272.934 ; 

189:5 a 1895 id. id. . 27.671.456 

An interesting table for the verification of the productive pro- 
gress and energy of the Amazon State is the following official sta- 
tistic : 

Rubber export from the Port oi' Manaos : 

Aniios Tons. I Annus Tons. 

1880 374 I 1889 ll.iliS 

l«8l 307 : 1890 3 693 

IK82 430 1H9I 3.991 

1883 065 1892 3.812 

1884 1.013 1893 4.745 

«88o 1.462 1894 3.753 

1886 1.574 1895 5.4;« 

i>^«7 I.H8K 1H96 6.827 

IH«« 2.141 IH97 first si\ m.Milh-, . . . 1.285 

I'l'oiii t lial lime oil the picxhicl ion f(»Ilo\\s a constant ])rogr('ss. 



— 147 — 

According- to official declarations the production in the Amazon 
State alone in 1000 was n.5<Sl.,S,S0 kilgrs., in 1901, reached 
l(i.851.;343 kilgrs. of the three qualities, fine, sernmuby and cniicho. 

Vet, the reader must not be led by these figures 1o think that 
rubber is the only product of the exploitable wealth of the Amazon. 

In the following table, from a reliable publication, we will see a 
full variety of goods exploited at present by tlie Amazon people 
exported from the port of Manaos, In this table are excluded goods 
that come from neighboring countries, and pass in Manaos only in 
transit increasing its commerce. We will afterwards give a table 
of those goods in transit. 

Goods produced by the Amazon State in 1001. 

Enlcrinff S.iiling 

llie port from the port 

Rubber (dinaj) .... kilos 1 1. 893.237 9.087.179 

Rubber « sernambv » . . » 2.231.-433 1.873.547 

Rubber « caucho » . . . » 3.798.029 3.490.566 

Piraracii dried salted lish . » 489.8.">4 ,"54.3. 0.50 

Tobacco ), 57.852 — 

Copahjbaail » 7.594 9.182 

Ueer skiiis » 2.489 2.478 

Cattle skins » 3.35 1 155.077 

Cocoa )) 60.701 55.525 

Piassava „ 210.016 180.099 

Corn „ 1.750 _ 

CuaraiKi „ 678 678 

Jutahysica » 15.185 18.520 

Piixury „ 822 167 

Parseley « 405-' 260 

Precious shells . . . . » 82 ' 

Sheepskins » 6 1.628 

Pig skins » 14 

'"^l^'Jis » 1(9 180 

Garajuru j, 5 5 

Murure )> ^ 

Cumarii » 7 ^g 

Tucum » 40 

Birds featliers » .5900 98.-,fl 

^lixira tins 5053 251 

Butter litre 144 5.697 

Lumber lathes dozen 2.400 — 

Lumber boards .... moire 128.989 41.512 

Chestnuts heel. 57.969 57.666 

Due to this varied and valuable production the Amazon State 
'an already take the third place among the different States of 
Brazil that export the most, comes right after Sao Paulo and Kio 
le Janeiro in the following proportion : 



— UP. — 



Exports from thk princip 

Sfnt Paulo .... 
Hi(t tit' Jaiioiro (capital) 
.Vinazonas .... 

Para 

Bahia 



\L States of Brazil in 1001 
. . . .-oi:7G8.$.in:j 

. . . 1:j5:!>-2().«;72:} 

. ... !)0:OH."i.i;i"i." 

. . . 7U:0o-2S5!i7 

. . . GI:GH(;.*;7G4 



The total of exports and imports from and into the Amazon 
State in lliOM was lOO.OOo : OOO.sOOO. 




Maiiaits. — finnlfMi of llic GovtM-iior's l'nlaci>. — llic \\i>i mi 



'I'Ik! j-oods ill transit through Maiiaos, coniiii';- from l!()li\iaaii 
IN'ru ill IN'. 11 was ; 



Itiililiri' i< lina » . 
ill. '< l".\lra-liiia » 
ill. " S('i'ii;iniliv )) 
id. « Canrliii » . 

Piassa\a .... 

DiM'r .ski IKS. . . . 

Tiihai'iM) .... 

r.liili Icits .... 



KiiIi'IimI Sailing 

l>.Krr,SH(>' l>.8.i.i.««G"' 

7!l.l'!»!» 7!l. •_•!•!» 

.">!»i.l.l7'-'" .")!t'2.l!t.i'-''» 

Vt.'.Wi 1.-1. !M:i 

1':; -r.i 

1 7.. ';().->""' l7.."iG.V"» 

7G(1 TCd 



— 14.9 — 

The ])r()duc'ts of tlie Ania/on State expoi'ted in 1<S'.)1 paid to tlie 
State Treasury : 

Expurl diilics lo.207:460$529 

Taxes for MaiuKis rAchimgc. . . . 5I.i:.i00$6S7 
Storage li.";') 1 7$ 1 8^2 

The rubber exported during the year oi' I'JOl had the i'oHo wing- 
destination : 

Rubber 

<i Fine » « Sernaiiiby » « Cuuchu » 

Para 10o.I(j7-' 22.400 ir).r;78 

llio de Janeiro ... — — — 

Havre 600.180 94. .-."JG .■>ir;.r)76 

Liverpool.^ .... 0.772.556 607.4..''J8 1.05!). 037 

Hamburg 04.956 11.371 0.532 

New York 5 586.040 1.137.962 1.515.943 

9.987.179^ 1.873..547 3.490.566 

The Climate of the Amazon. — The Amazon is one of nine 
States of Brazil wliere there are Indians yet to-day. These primitive 
inhabitants of Brazil are disappearing at the proportion that the 
natives of Ceara and other Northern States penetrate into valleys 
and accessible forests. And this beneficial invasion grows larger 
every day. Then it is not true, as they nay, that the climate of this 
region prevents the existence and the extending of the population. 
Most assuredly this is not so. The expression — torrid region — 
doesn't mean anything but a geographical paradox for a long time. 
The (( unbearable heat of the tropics. » in w hat concerns that 
region washed by the great brazilian rivers in the northern part of 
the country, it is a legend, a fiction that remained from the stories 
told by the travellers of old, and that i)rovcs the truth of that French 
saying : A bean mentir qni vient de loin 

The heat in this region is neither in excess nor is it constant, we 
say that a result of our own experience having been there for a 
whole summer month. The great surface in evaporation, formed by 
several currents of water of that hydrographic system, the prevailing- 
winds during the summer season, besides other causes, explain the 
relative mildness of the climate and normal temperature, reasonably 
bearable of that region. 

The learned Maurj% whose statements on such subjects can't 
be but respected, assures that : « there is always there (in the Ama- 
zon) a pleasant weather, in spite of frequent showers in certain 
seascms. » 

By its turns, one of the men who treated with more seriousness 
the Amazon subjects wrote in a book which deserves the respect of 



150 



being considered authority : « The lieat is strong-, but never as in 
New-Vork, or even in I'oitugal or Spain where the men working in 
the fields are suffocated by it. » And liirthei- on he adds these words 
written by Herbert Smith wlio travelled through a large part of this 
i-egion : <( 1 went all through the Ama/.on during four years and never 
had a fever, yet 1 caught it in Ohio, in the United States where I 
was l)ut three days. It is about time to put an end to these fancy tra- 
ditions, it is about time to tell the truth, repealing firmly these false 




iMiinaus. — (lathcdi'ul cliurcli and Square 

notions, admitted and repeated, about the climati^ and health in 
these regions. 

TIh! Harao dc Marajo, n\1io registered tluMinonu'tric ()l)siM"va- 
tions, (luring scvci-al years, al)out tlie climatt- of Manaos, (thscrva- 
tions made w ith all care three times a day, asserts that hi' never 
()l)taiued annual averages of more than 'J()".;!ri oi- •_*()", ST what can, in 
no way, l)r coniparcd |o thai temperature that two yi'ars ago we had 
occasion to feel in Huenos-A\res, w hen the many eases of insolation 
caused the suspension of work in the stri'cls, men and animals fall- 
ing dea<l in the capital of the Argentine Republic. 



li 



— 151 — 

In the siunmor oi" h»Ol, in Now York in one single day died over 
100 j)e()i)le, because of tlie liigli degree of temperature. Manaos, as 
well as Belem, capital of Para State, is another patient victim ol" 
the terrific legends of the geographers who sit at their desks all the 
time, as insolation is unknown there. There is, to be sui-e, a summer 
season, and it is hot, but from that to the descriptions of certain 
bonlvviivd informants there is a world of difference. Dr. L. Cruls is 
right when he says : « The Amaz(m climate has been and is much 
injured. » 

In Manaos after the many improvements that ])lace has gone 
through, the malarial fevers are becoming more and more scarce every 
day, and the few cases that appear are far milder. The same fact is 
observed in other small cities of that State. As to the rivers, nothing- 
will affirm plainer their present sanitary conditions than the great 
number of rural establishments, the Storage houses, Stores, resi- 
dences, which appear everj^ day at the banks of the navigated rivers. 

We will yet present the testimony of a man who has spent ten 
years in that region and who resides and has business there. He 
wrote to us, not long ago thus : « The rivers I know in my constant 
travels as the Tarauaca, an affluent of the Jurua, (or Jurura, or 
Hyurua) and the Envira, affluent of Turauaca, as well as other 
smaller ones, affluents of the Jurua, enjoy a most healthy climate, 
and we notice there very few cases of malarial fevers and absolutely 
no cases ol' beri-beri. In the rivers Muru and Acuran, affluents of the 
Tarauaca, and in the Jurupary, Diabinho and other affluents of the 
Envira, when there ai)pear any cases of malarial fevers they are 
relatively mild and are easily cui-ed. 

Between tlie months of May and June and some years in July a 
metereological phenomenon takes place causing a cool season very 
well known to those living in that region. It consists this pheno- 
menon in a sudden fall of the temperature during three or four days 
in which the therm ometre accuses depressions worthy of a Euro- 
pean winter. But that is a passing thing, though sometimes repeated 
with persistence. Our friend Carlos A. Noli assures us that one year 
when he had to experience, in the Envira river, the disagreeable repe- 
tition of the cold phenomenon, he suffered afterwards a rigorous 
summer and his thermometre reached to 36 degrees in the shade. 
But what are those 36 degrees compared with the infernal summers 
in Buenos Ayrcs and New Ycu'k. 

We must now publish a few of our notes, jotted down during our 
travels, on the life of the residents in the banks of those rivers. 

Those who travel in the Amazcm and its tributaries will find in 



— 152 — 

the bunks, licrc and llicrc, some l)iiililin,i;s .s/n' _i,'7'/(r/7'N hnilt lacing 
tlic river, with their woofh'n bridges, and sonic small canoe, or inon- 
tiirin as they call it, alonosi<ic of it. 

It is tlie htirnicn of the nil)bci- nianiifacliircr " the srrin>^iti'ii-(> » 
'I'he bnildin.i; oi' the ])roi)rietoi's is all made ol' wood — and covered 
with pacliiiiba leaves. The paehiuba sometimes give trunks of 20 to 
25 feet in length and tliese eat in boards of some !."> to '2Tt eentinie- 
tr(;s thickness also are used for the walls of those l)ui!ilings. Many 
houses are covered with boards of tlie same i)acliiuba, othei's aie 
covered with zinc, as tlierc are very few tile factories and common 
til(!s are sold at very liigh prices. In the njjpcr .lurua, the cedar trees, 
so abundant in the neighboring woods substitute the palm trees ior 
such uses. The houses and bnrnuHs of the serinf>-iiciros who are 
poor, are oi-dinarily covered with straw, most always furnished by 
palm tree leaves, l)ut in i)reference by pacliiiil)a, nrucury, jacy or 
jarina. 

A\'e have been rather long writing- about the Jurua river and its 
affluents, because of its being one of the tiibutaries of the great 
basin, the one most noted our days, as the seat of an extraordinary 
productive power, attracting to it most energetically the sorin^uei- 
ros, the i-c^'ntdes (ambulant merchants going from place to place in 
small boats) the coinmis-voyn^^-curs, and even the tame iiulians, who, 
once in a while, rea])pear to do business. 

On the other hand, these details are good to document the [)ro- 
gress realized in those regions. Twenty years ago there were hardly 
10 houses in the .Im-na river and the Tarauaca, the most important 
of its affluents, wliose course was then almost unknown. Mven Harao 
(hi Mai-ajo.whom 1 have referred to as the leai-ucd geographei- of the 
Amazon, in IS'.m; wrote : « I can't say much about this rivei', Ixn-ausc 
as it hap})ens with so many others neither this one nor its tril)utaries 
have bccm ))roperly studied, it has hardly bci'u exploited by the 
nil)l)cr makers, and its botanical, zoological an<l mineral wealth has 
not Ixicn observed at all. 

Xothiug less than Hi) nations, or Indian tribes, with more or less 
odd iiauics, inhabited by that time tlie i)anks of the llyapur;i, and its 
alfliUMils, but a( the proportiou that the ent hiisiasl ic mill uiu-imil ii in{^) 
in\ aded t lie sol it ude of those I'cgions. spieading around t he ei \ ili/ed 



(•) Miihiiii iiiiiiiiiii is Die word willi wliidi Iln' Imliaiis (li:ilf civili/i'il il('sij;ri;ili' llif 
Kt<Niliiliii:il. :illii(liii|^ Id lli(> iioisr ol' the ciigiiirs 



- 153 — 

iiKin, full ol" aml)iti()ii, and thivKty for adventures, all those savage 
crowds run away hiding' themselves in the far away cornei's of the 
forest wiiei-e soon the invad(!rs will surely go to trouble them. 

Let us now see what these new landowners have done, and the 
inaiiner in whieh, Jurua with its suite of small rivers, contributes 
towards the country wealth. Here is a table of the production in 1901, 
in the prineii)al rivers exploited. 



RUBBKK « FINA » 



RUBISKR 
« SKRNAMltY )) 



RUitBCK 
« CAtCHO )) 



Lower Aiiiazuiias 
Uio BraiR'O . . 

)) lea Brazileii'o 

)) .liiriia . 

» Javary . . 

» Jiitaliy . . 

» JIadeira . . 

» Xegro . 

n Piiriis . . 

» Soliniues 



Kilops. 


Ivilogs. 


Kilogs. 


ui>.«20,5 


17.270 


495 


4..i43 


88.'i 


— 


I05.u:i8 


22.055 


16.529 


3.018.S61 


550.046,-' 


2.624.278 


447.956 


0.87.=) 


21.. 570 


2-2.142 


5.654 


214 


1.6IG.091 


294.285,3 


241.025 


568.."5,'i0 


146.6.57,3 


— 


4.128.274 


624.551 


556.060 


i.52.j.()75 


315.058 


160.999 


11.177.248,^ 


2.075.127,2 


5.600.968 



We have spoken about the Jurua, which is one of the newest 
fields of the rubber exploitation. We will now write about the (ddest 
of them the Purus. 

The exploitation of the Purus seringaes date awa}^ back, when 
the steamship service was introduced in the Amazonic bazin. 

A Brazilian who was an enterprizing genius and whose name often 
appears in connection with the history of the Brazilian progress of 
the last 50 years, Barao de Maua, was the initiator of the improved 
navigation in the king of I'ivers organizing a company under the 
name of « Companhia de Xauegacrw do Amazonas ». Tlie first 
steamers of this Company were called, Marajo, Rio Xeg-ro and 
Monarcha, and inaugurated their trips in 1852. 

It was the Brazilian flag that won the glory of being the first to 
bring the steamship navigation to those waters, as well as the glory 
of having established a regular traffic from port to port. But, as soon 
as the river was open to the commerce of the whole world, the 
Danes were the ones to initiate international relations with the 
Amazon. It w^as in 1874, on the 25th. march, that a sailing ship 
unfurling the Danish flag reached Manaos from Hamburg. In his 
book (c // Pae.se (/e//e Ainazzoni » Sant' Anna Nery said : « The 



- 15t — 

impulse had been given; and on April the ;!Olh loUowing an 
Knglish snuill steamer of .'/,)5 tons sailed iVom Liverpool and inaii- ' 
giiruled the stibsidied navigation, the promoter of that improvement 
having been liiitio dc Amorim, a Portuguese «. 

The Ania/onic colossal basin can easily be the rendcz-Dous place I 
for the mcetin"- of all the fleets of the whole world. It suffices to say ; 
that, accoi'ding to Maury, it has an area ol no less than 'J. 018. 180 i 
scpiare miles. K. Reclus gives ita surface of ."i.."/.!!. ()()() kilometres, i 
and Bludan 2.722.000 miles. We know of no other fluvial basin that i 
could be compared with this. « The Mississipi one wich is the i 
largest after the Amazon has only 984.000 square miles. The otlier : 
ones like the Plate, the Xile and the Ganges, are much inferior. 1 

Some of the colossal i-ivcrs which are affluents of the Anmzon, ' 
arc little b^' little, being travelled by the northern i)i<)neers — anil)M- , 
lant mei-chants and s('rin<>iicir()s — but they ai"e almost unexplored 
as yet. The Purus was the first exploited. 

The conquest history of this tributary of the Amazon, by itself one 
of the greatest streams of water of this planet, it is worth avhymn in 
honor of the enterprising capacity of the northern Brazilians. The 
Portuguese knew of its existence and some committees went through 
l)aii of its course. Later on the English audacious and broad minded, 
paid it a visit and studied it. The Spanish descendant nations of the 
ncigliborhood also timidly navigated somewhat through it. 

Bui, noiu' of them did anything in the way of calling to the civi- 
lised communion the wealth of that region. It was only some time 
aftei'wards that Manoel Urbano, one of the most finished types of 
the Amazonic persistency and audacity, made frequent trips exploit- 
ing tjic rubber, the wealth of Ihc forests a', the river banks and then 
lh(! active work of the natives of Ceara was trained to that wealthy 
and unexploitcd shores. Manoel Urbano at the head of natives of 
Pai'a, in large nuinlxMs, aiul later on at the head of nat i\ cs of Ceara, 
pcnelraled the i-iver in different directions in search of rubber, and 
in a short while there ai)pear numberless hurriuncs all along the 
livei- which were the beginning of the installation of small villages 
to-day transformed in beautiful cities, as Ho;i \ista. Arimary. Canu- 
lanui, Herury, Labrca, and others. Three millions of tons of merchan- 
dise, i)redomina1ing the rubber, descend each year, lo Manaos. Tho 
:ttilii<lilt)iH's tribe tlic liyiniriiuis, the most powerfiii of the Puriis, 
which were also in the Acre, the cuiKi liiiiiins who lived in the inte- 
rior, and the (:in:tin;iiys, so well known of (he scriiiiiiicims, all of 
the Ml were forced to hide lliemsclvcs in the deep intcriiu' alKUuh)ning 
t lie I'lirus ;iinl its vallcN's. 



— 155 — 

This curious river, united to the Amazon by no h'ss number of 
mouths tlian live, iorming- in its coui'se liundreds of lakes, is exploit- 
(h1 in all its coui'se, the sijringueiro has Ijccn iu cveiy inch of its 
lianks. The i)orts at which the steamers call are many and multiply 
themselves, and civilisation is going up penetrating in the affluents 
on both sides. The trip from Manaos to the U])per-Purus takes 
(iO days and over 50 steamers, all of them Brazilian , not counting 
the steamlaunches and small sailing boats, are sailing up and down 




Manaos. — A part of Eduardo Ribeiro's Avenue 



the river. This gives a good idea of the importance of the explora- 
tions that have been made. 

What makes the Purus river more noted is its tributary — the 
Acre river. 

It is untired civilising task the Cearense has for some years domi- 
nated the exploitation of these regions on the North-East of the 
Amazon, called Acre. This region was for a long time in dispute but 
was peacefully settled with Bolivia. 



— 15B — 

TIm' (iiit'stioii ncai-ly br()nj;lit rtl)<)nt ii wai- between Bolivia and 
Brazil, but thanks to the wisdom of Barao do Rio Braneo's diplo- 
raaey and to the patriotism of the Brazilians the Acre makes i)art 
to-dav <>r thr li'iiitni-y of Hra/.il. The exit of lliis (juestion owes 
much to riacido de Castro who, when Bolivia elaimed Aere as its 
territory, was at the head of the revolution on the Brazilian side, 
and Dr Sylverio Xery, governor of the Amazon. 

We referred above to the Cearenses that emigrate from their na- 
tive State to the Amazon region. And they do not form the whole of 
the total that immigrate into these two states Para and Amazon, 
niauy <;o from other northern stales. Many thousands of passengers 
enter the i)ort of Manaos _\eaily and the number is increasing all 
the time. In 18*.»7 the number of them was 20.<.K):>, but in ISUl it went 
up to l(S.'.t;il, more than the double, antl nearly all Brazilians. Tliai 
that immigration which is the rich seed of the Amazon grandeur, 
goes there to stick to its soil, work and flourish, it is proved by the 
figures that represent the acquisition of lands which have been pu- 
blished in official documents. 

Lands sold to Brazilian Workmen from ISOB to HKH) 

Years Anst sold Il.?veniie for the slalf 

1896 .... S15.217,t2-2 66:.^o0§2."i 

1897 .... 5().").")t),7!)() 8(;:0().",<i;i)()T 

1898 .... — r)'.l-2:.";!M,s()07 

1899 .... .">..-)8H.707,i:i9 :2M:()70.^().Mt 

1900 .... (•). 188.(5:27,7 1() i9."):7l(;,s(jl)0 

The data we print al)ove has a good deal of meaning, demonstrate 
the encM'gy with which (he jjrogress of that region is l»eing elalxt- 
rated. 

Taking the number of entries in the princi})al port of the state, 
and deducting those who remain there, the remaining, which con- 
stitute the great majority, entered the interior con(iuering the w ild 
forests, and consequently they will be ever so many eonti-ibutors 
towards the ti-ansformation and its prospeiity. 

lint we must show now, the numbei' of foreigneis and Hiazilian 
travcMeis who remained in Manaos, in its "Jii hotels . in the year IS'.'l. 

|{r:i/.ili:iiis ."i.lHiO 

Ainciicaiis .".I 

Arnciiliiu's 20 

.Vriliiaiis 7 

(icniKiiis 11 

Aiish'i.iiis 10 

Hi'luiaiis ■_>(» 

In Ill-inn "^'''" ■ • t>.089 



— 157 — 

broiijjiil over. . . 6. OKI) 

Bolivians 107 

Col<niil)iaiis H-2 

Frenclinioii :2!)K 

Spaniards -i75 

llnni^arians ^ 

EnjilishnitMi ."" 

Italians 7M7} 

pL-rnavians 100 

Porlugueso I.Ool 

Russians 165 

Suisses 9 

Dutcliiiien 4 

Uruguayans 10 

Total. . . O.iOi 

The large crowds of the newly arrived go at once to the interior 
and engage themselves in the promising task of extracting rubber 
from the trees. Seldom, very seldom, indeed, do they take with them 
their wives and children. What they most always have with them is 
the classic viola (a kind of guitar) which is the inseparable compa- 
nion of the native of Brazil. 

As we repeatedly have written, the natives of Ceara are the best 
and most numerous contributors for the populating of the Amazon 
and the progressive development of that region. The native of Ceara 
who leaves the Amazon does it only to come back a little later on. 
He repeats to-day with the same heroic tenacity, the role of the ban- 
(leirante from Sao Paulo in the history of the evolution of Brazil in 
tlie seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The political-social pheno- 
menon which took place in the south is now reproduced in the north. 
The scenery and the actors have been changed, but the nature but 
the human motion is the same, the history of each generation is no- 
thing else but the reflex of the agitations of the preceding ones. 

What explains sociologically si^eaking the predomination of the 
native of Ceara in the phenomenon of the migration of to-day is the 
famine of the constant and regular dry seasons to which is subject 
periodically a large portion of the State of Ceara, as well as of some 
neighboring states, consequently we have explained the moral phy- 
sionomy characteristic of the new populating element, whose lines 
of melancholy or hope transpire in their songs, in their activity at 
work, in their intimate customs and even in their vocabulary. 

In the names they give to their seringaes scarcely is there a name 
not suggesting a melancholic idea, or an aspiration of hope and im- 



— 158 — 

provement. In every nonk of the i-iver banks of those invaded re- 
<;ions, thai note signifies the prcsenee of the native ofCear;'i,or 
other norlliern 15i'a/iliaii. Tiie <Ie!ioiiiiiiat ions lUmifim i;(»o(l end), 
lion KspcrHn<;n (good hope), lAvriuncuto (delivranee (from evil), 
Xoou Sor/c (now h)t), lion Xonu (good news), and otliers which de- 
note e()nfi(h'nee, good augury, or these others : Dcscni^itno idesil- 
lusion), Dcixii Fiillar (kit them speak), Muhjiu'rcni^u (bad wislies, to 
wish unsueeess to others), Sobral, Kortaleza (tliese two are names of 
Ceara cities), sad and allusive to the things left behind, which are 
rei)eated, so often, here and lliei-e, are the wliole profound history of 
the soul of the native of Ceara, of the intelligent man, of the suf- 
ferer and the hero, and to whose irresistil)le audacity it is dui' the 
finding of the Amazonic hidden treasuries. 

When he finds himself in the i)lace he selected to start his life in 
tract of land hidden in the interior, — at the side of an i^^iiniiic, going 
to work (m his account, or for some one already established — he 
takes charge of so numy csirndas (roads), as many as he can exploit : 
Each c.s7/';K/a has generally from 100 to \~>i) isvrini>-iicir!is: rubber 
trees. 

Vov mei-eantile purposes each estrada is worth more or less l(K) 
or 500 milreis if the seringueiras arc well preserved. 

The Aoiudor, that is, the merchant in Manaos or IJelem (capital 
of Para) furnishes all the needed goods, material and food to the pro- 
prictoi- of llie .se/"//?ji,>tj/. This one sells them again to the working- 
man, on credit, to be paid at the time of the harvest thus remaining 
tied lip to the owner the newly arrived. It is easy to undei-stand 
what effoi-ts the patient workman has to employ to free himself 
eeoiU)mieally, and in the metamorphose of workman to propriettu", 
reap])ear some day in Manaos, or in Helem, or in his native Slate 
I'icli and ind(;pendent da/.zling with his i)rodigalit_\' lliose lu' left in 
the niiserv of the old native village. 

Those who (lei)art are in much larger number than those who 
come back, to be sure. Yet, life there is monotonous quite even in 
their cares for the work of cM'vy day, year in and year out - apjta- 
I'cnlly calm, filled with i)eace either in the houi-s he strikes the ti'ce 
t,o gather his i-ubbei-, or at their hours of leisure sjxMit at the door of 
the hni-nicit listening to tlii' songs, very long ami wvy sad ones, tlial 
the,\' are, aeeoinpanied hy llie melancliolie and ]»lainli\e soimtis of 
the sweet nioLi. II is 11 fe companion puis llie eiiild losh'cp singing 
some old song, after having gi\<Mi llir lillle one a lialli in llie rixer 
anil pill (III hliii Ills night shirt with strong perfiinie of the piripi 
liiKu la sceiileil plant alMiiidaiil In llie northern states). 



— 159 — 



On a sunny Saturday, it was the 2nd July, 1002, wlien \v(; wcro 
o-oing- througli tlic Breves narrows (wliicli, l)y the way, looked to nie 
quite broad) we began to diseover in the afternoon some mountains 
at the distanee and at our ri,L;lit. On one of those mountains is the 
city of Monte Alegre, belonging- to the Para State. 

Afterwards, a few leagues further ahead we saw the establishment 




Manaos. — Court of law Palace — Principal front 



known as the Cacaiial Grande, a vast plantation of coeoa which, as 
they told us, had just been acquired by a Paris diocolate factory. 
Then, on the other bank, we saw* the city of Santarem, near the spot 
where the confluence of the Tapajos river with the sea-river takes 
place. 

It is a beautiful scenery. The earthen dirty waters of the Amazon 
are filled with greenish spots which arc confounded and transform- 
ed into a voluminous stream, ample and deep, which is the Tapajos 



— 160 — 

river, one of tlie most Ijcuutirul rivers of the world. Pacifie and ' 

solemn, smooth and sliiiiin*;- like an emerald, the Tapajos enters j 

into tlie Amazon, witlionl mixinj; with those of the colossal river its , 

dark j;reen waters, absolutely clear if placed in a glass. | 

Six hours from that time, at night, we were passing in front of ; 

()l)i<l«is, at the right going up the river. This modest city which will ; 

be soon loi-tified, as it is the key to that Ama/onic ma/e, was deep i 

asleep in the silence of the night, under the mystery of that land- | 

scape deep with dai-kness, some lights, drawing the lines of the city, j 

throw their shade in the water trembling and darkish. ! 

The steamer goes straight on her way. AVhen she reaches nearer j 

any of the banks light-bugs follow the boat entering the cabins flying i 

around the electric lamps. , 

Sunday morning, at three o'clock, we had in sight two cocoa i 

plantations, which lend to the landscape a characteristic shade of ; 

green. This one of the many Amazonic treasuries is cultivated al- j 

most without any trouble spreads itself with exuberant ostentation j 

showing the wealth of that soil. There are even some varieties that j 

grow spontaneously without industrial work, as it happens with one \ 

known as the caciuninuia, which is to be found in the wild woods. ' 

The aspects of the banks are, in a general way, identical, perhaps j 

monotonous, specially after we see the first tracts, after one day's j 

sailing in the narrows, and then there is oidy real cnjoynieut when \ 

the steamer gets very near the shore, as often does. Then we distin- ! 

guish perfectly well the details : — that unending wall extended on ! 
either side of the boat, shows itself in a gigantic shape near us, 

spreading out lowaids the water thick and long branches of frondous ; 

trees, we see inflexil)le silvery white trunks brought forth amidst , 

the thick foliage, and a])i)ear above opening the upper bi-anehes like j 

an iiiiuieiise umbrella, some ligh' ihmI some green as if o\ cr t hem w ere | 

passing two seasons of the year at the same time. The palmtrei's i 

are also seen elevating their high trunks above all the other \(>ge- i 

tation, sometimes here and there isolated, sometinu's in groups. • 
Here, we see the uss;iliy loug and thin seeming rt'ady t(» burst 

with the first blow of tin; w iud, lh(u-e, the Incumri w i(h a solid tiunk | 

defying (everything. We find in one place the skeleton of the hniiiry l 

leafless and dry reddish as it' il were an old rusted iron frauie, in ' 
another place a group of trunks i)UudKMl ;il the i)asis as if they w anted 

mutually snpiM»i-t each other, and tall, \eiy tall, in perpendicular I 
line as if avoiding a drcadl'iil effoil in the sti-ugglc f(»r light, which 
they wauled to drink beyond, abo\ c the lop ol the si longest trees. 

And as life and death embrace each other e\ei'\ where, al ex'ery ' 



— 161 — 

<>reat distiinee wo see some dead tree fixed to the soil by brutish 
roots that can't be destroyed assuring its j)osition for a century. 
Shades that tliey are of a majesty, those majestic remains resist hall" 
di-owned in the steel net of cipos in a forest struggle, suspending 
from its naked arms a whole lot of parasites, gravatas, orchideas, 
and others. 

In the ocean of eternal and renewing foliage which grows in 
those valleys, covering the stones, filling empty places, those soli- 
tary trophies have in their dominating and silent impassibility a 
noisy expression of an unfinished struggle, permanent and persis- 
tent, formidable struggle, struggle that goes beyond death. This is 
the scenery in which everything agitates and everything seems 
immoable, in which everything makes a noise and everything seems 
dumb, everything exists and everything seems dead, living, growing, 
blooming, dying, renovating, each tree, each stone, each insect, each 
germ engaged in the renovating struggle of the fratricidal life, in 
which everything and everybodj^ find itself on the ground without 
attempting, 

sin saber qiiiza 

ni por que la inuerte da, 
ni por que pierde la vida. 

(without knowing also, neither the reason why the death gives, nor 
why loses life.) as was said by the inspired poet Nunez de Arce. 

At last, at 9 in the morning of the fourth August, we landed at 
Manaos, 

* 

Manaos. — Those who have never been in Manaos and have their 
heads filled with all kinds of untruths |»ublished by a lot of foreign 
books written on Brazil, telling all about the impossibility of inha- 
biting the tropics, the backwards condition of these countries, etc., 
etc., will surely be much surprised men when they see for the first 
time the capital of the Amazon. 

Nobody would imagine it in the condition it real is to-day, that 
modern city of Manaos. Why? Is it possible that after a 000 mile run 
through the heart of the South American deserts, with the most 
inaccessible and thick woods, there may exist a city like this one? 

To be sure it is possible. And not only it really exists, but pros- 
pers and grows every day, and then it is evident that the people wiio 
build it up, who nourish it with the vigor of the large cities, have 
done, to be sure, something worthy of note, their has been an im- 
portant one. 



— 162 — 

The capital oi' tlu* Amazon, seen as a whole, has the physiognomy 
of a city just built. 

To be true, it is a new city. It is built by an imuiense afl'luenl of 
the Amazon, the Rio Xegro, (Black river) thus called because of its 
(lark color, something- like coffee color, and no learned man as yet has 
been able to account for that explaining- the cause. It is situated in 
an ample bay of the river, offering thus to the navigation a safe port, 
'i'hey are nearly finishing the great harbor works whii-h will make 
of Manaos a landing place of first class. 

As he enters the city, the traveller finds himself in a (piitc large 
squai'e, treated with care, with a pretty garden, and its grounds 
somewhat inclined. In an angle at the other end of the square is the 
Cathedral, dominating the square, on an elevated gi-ound which is 
levelled to take away the inclination of the square, there being stair- 
way on both sides to enter from the lower })art of the square. From 
there, beautiful streets run in fi'ont and at both sides, all of them lined 
with buildings of modern construction, the business houses disj)lay- 
iiig pretty show windows in which the products of the world's arts 
and industries are exhibited. 

The area of the built part of the city grows larger every day, and 
as the topography of the place is somewhat inclined the inhabitants of 
Manaos, undertake daring- works, opening great cuts, filling in tracts 
of ground, putting down hills, attending to the sanitary conditions 
of shallow places, while the pi'ivate buildings keep on occupying the 
gi-ound thus compiered. The new streets, wide and in straight line 
give an asi)eet of fe;is(, a modern atmosphere to the new cai)ital. 
Amongst other streets, the following struck us most favorably : 
Municipal street, 30 metres wide, built on a ground that before was 
marshy, is one of the most beautiful streets of the north lined with 
fine buildings; .lose Clemente Street, Uemedios street, (^uinze de 
Xovembro Street and othei-s. Xone of these however cxcells Kduardo 
Kibeii'o Avenue wliicli i-eminded us of the Maio Avenue of Hucnos 
Ayres, tliougli it has not the fine buildings the latter has, it is well 
paved, and profusely. In the afterntxui and evening the liigli-life the 
wealthy pai't of the population walk \\\) and down l-'.duardo Kibeiro 
Axt'iiiic. Ill tlic diinking places they drink their vermouth and com- 
ment upon the c\(>nts of the day. The public buildings with their 
beauty and arcliitccture prove the excellent installation, the progres- 
si\(' slate of (lie city and newly born power of the Aiiiaztm metro- 
polis. We will mention some of them. 

h'oi- the new-comer, one of the things tliat at Ira els Ii is at I en! ion I ho 
most is the magniliccnl tlieaire llie » Amazonas », whose conslruc- 



— 1()3 — 

tioii luis just been Tiiiislied. It is built on ii ciiuseway all ol" mason 
work, and its dome of light colors raises itself above the whole city. 
The external lines are majestic, and while not obe^'ing to no special 
classic order of architecture is a ha])py conception, if though a little 
too able details. Inside this theatre is a beauty with all those 
rows of columns sup])orting the four floors of boxes yet they disturb 
somewhat the perspective of the whole. 

The foyer has no equal in all Brazil, it is large, light, surrounded 




Manaos. — S. Sebastiao 's Square and the Amazonas Theatre. 



by columns imitating rare marble and decorated with De-Aiigelis 
paintings of rare artistic value, as those that represent Cecy e Pery, 
Uni trecho da Selua Amazonica, (A piece of Amazonic landscape), 
the Siin-Set, and others. Between the paintings there are marble 
busts of the celebrities of modern theatre. The electrical installation 
of the theatre, can serve as a standard, and is worthy of note, as a 
work of art, the large lustre which illuminates the audience hall. 
The Palace of Justice, also lately inaugurated, is another orna- 



— 1«J: — 

luent of Manaos. It is liouKin stylo, its stairway made ol' brouzf and j 
marble leads to the large halls where the judges have their offices and , 
Court rooms. The parlour of the judge who pei'forms the marriages I 
could serve as a model foi- Rio de Janeiro, and is decorated with j 
furuitui-e of gothic style. The .Tury rooiu, the Supreme Court Hall . 
are severe in style and imposing and are all in accordance N\itli the 
external beauty of the building.- 

'{"lie rjyinuasium has a lordly as])cct. It was inaugui-atcd in ISSO 




.Maiiaus. — I'lic sahnpii nl Aiiiazoiias llifalrc 

fliiriiig tlic Adiuinistiat ion of Dr. l-li-ncsto Chaves, w lio w as ihcii 
the president of the [)i'o\ ince. 

The liuilding of K Institute) Hcujnuiin Conslaiit ^ wliirli w c \ isitei 
in all its dfpait ukmiIs, is placed at the end of ;i beaut ifiil garden 
'riiei'f tin y cdiu-atc young girls and tiicN arc ( rained by Sisters o 
Charily. 

'I'hc cat hcdiiil is a vast Icniple of siniph' architecture anil modes 
interior, all white. Tiie (dinrtdi is flooicfl wiili hiuilicr and has oi 
both sides sliuu' platfoi'ins, ( I/isbon style nias(tn worU in high relief 



M 



— 165 — 

wliercfrom tin; scimoiis arc prcaclied. This fliurch is under the 
saint iKunc of Our Lady of the ('()iu'e])t ion. 

One oi" the visits that h'ft on us the best impression, was the one 
\ve])aid to the police regiment l)arraeks, a hii'ge buihling two stories 
liigii lacing- the Oonstituieao Square. In the upper story are the 
fencing parh)rs, the Major-staff-room, the library, where we admir- 
ed a beautiful painting « Lihcrtaruo do Amnzoniis » (freedom of the 
ximazon), and in the lower floor are the spleeping rooms of the pri- 




Manaos. — Beiijaniiii Cdiistant's Institute 



vates companies, guns store rooms, and at the end the stables, 
tilled with splendid River-Plate horses. 

The Military regiment of Manaos is one of the best organisations 
of its kind in all Brazil. It is composed of two battalions of infantry, 
with 500 men each, and a detachment of 10 men cavaby. The infant- 
ry battalions are commanded l)y majors, who are officers of the 
regular army. Each battalion has a band of music not inferior to 
those of Rio de Janeiro. 

We must also speak, among the nice buidings of Manaos, of the 



— 166 — 

public miirkel, an elegant structure ol" iron and lumber by the river .. 
side. Wlien tliis building was erected, not manj' years ago, everybody ^ 
tliought its dimensions exaggerated and far beyond the necessities 
of Manaos. Now everybody complains that the market is altogether ( 
too small. The city grew much ciuickor than it was ever thought of. . 

'i'lu; same thing happened about the Sundudc ccmctcrv. Some | 
fifteen years ago tlic municipality designated that place for a grave- j 
yard. There were claims from all over to the effect that it was too far, ] 
that there were no means of conveyance and many other i)rotcsts. j 
To-day the cemetery is surrounded by buildings, the city growing ! 
up in that direction and it will be soon necessary to remove it from ! 
there. 

And as we have spoken about means of conveyance, we must i 
say that to-day lew cities in the North have so c()mi)letc a system of | 
tramways, except the City of Sao Paulo which has also a very good 
tramway system. There is also in Maiuios a regular service of cabs • 
and carriages. The Silo Paulo as well as the Manaos tramways are ! 
of American manufacture, large, comfortable, clean, and run through j 
the city in all directions. The main line in Sao Paulo is called | 
Avcnida-cinuilar, and surrounds the coutornation of that beautiful ; 
city, going over a beautiful bi'idge which crosses a stream (as strong, 
as some Juiropean rivers) which has escaped from the number thati 
have been filled in to build up streets and houses. j 

No visitor comes away without often repeating that trip, as well 
as the one that goes to Flores, a district a little way off filled yet of. 
thick and wild woods but threatened with the invasion of city 
buildings, lining with beautiful residences the road tliat is cutting; 
the forest. 

The bridge we rcfen-cd to above is called Cacliocira (iiaiulc, 
made of iiou, divided into thr(?e sections, and is an excellent point 
of view to ol)serve the magnificent snii-omiding i)anorania. Other; 
bridges and viaducts, as the Remedios and the C'achoi'iriidia, 
mounted on stone columns embellish other sections of Manaos. 

In fidiii of the (Jovernor's palace, which is a modesi building* 
the^N ha\(; l)uilt a pretty garden named licimhlic. where charming 
mominits can be s])ent . 

()n(' of the most noted things of tlie city is its si)lendid illumina- 
tion second to none in the whole l>ra/.il. The reader can have an 
idea of what that branch of j)ublie service is, knowing that r»J7 arc- 
ti;4hls, "J. ()()() candle jiowci- I'atdi, are lighted at a cost of ir.OconldS 
\carl V. 

This l-;ieetrie li^hi company furnishes also I .S()(» sixteen candle 



— 167 — 

power lights to private houses wliicli work sinee the coiiipany 
installation all over the eity. 

Tlie pumping- work of waters taken from the Ciichocirn Grnndc 
falls and plaeecl in the reservoirs built speeially for it in Moeo and 
Castelliana, is also made by eleetricity. The water is not as good as 
the Rio de Janeiro water but it is not much inferior and its disti-i- 
bution to the population is abundant. They furnish daily (lOOO.OOU 
litres and the State government spends annually with this branch of 
public service about 400 contos yearly. 




Part of Rio Acre 



By these simple notes we have printed here the reader can 
calculate the progress of the beautiful metropolis of the Rio Xegro. 
But this is not everything. Any of the improvements and services 
of a large European city can be found in that city, which is in the 
most hidden corners of this continent between the base of the Andes 
and the corridors of largest mass of fluvial waters in the whole 
world. The telephone and telegraph (either the subfluvial or the 
overland one that the State built at its expense until the frontier of 
Para), the newsi^apers, the libraries, an active commerce, everything 
indicates that civilisation installed in that region of the semi-cultiva- 
ted continent a new land mark of its evolution, 

With the colossal works that are being finished for the adaptation 
of its port to the requirements of the large international commerce 
of which Manaos is the centre in this jjart of America, it is impossi- 
ble to foresee the impulse this metropolis will receive as it had been 
impossible ;^0 years ago to foresee the present development it has 
attained. 



— Ifi8 — 

"SVhat Brazilians can be more proud of, is, tliat all the i)rogress is 
the work of themselves. Manaos is a product of Brazilian activity, 
faith and energ}'. It was disputed, conquered and enriched by 
Brazilian arms. To-day Manaos is a cosmopolitan city, as it is a 
centre of strong navigation and commerce, because the aliens look 
for it, conic to it with their work, industry, deep ambition. Hut the 
roots are energetically national, the work that circulates thi-ough 
the interior rivers, which discovers the hidden corners of the desert, 
which explores the wealth with tenacity, wliich transports to the 
solitude of the internal spots the seed of ideas and sentiments, is all 
the work of the patient native of the North of Brazil, with his incon- 
quered resistance, his strange customs, fine as gold, firm as steel. 
It is above all the work impelled by their trusting and ingenious 
soul, dreamy and strong, poetical and warlike that defies the storms 
of the Atlantic in a raft and penetrates the solitude of the interior 
without any other tools but his boat and a row. 

The dominion of the world will be, eternally, in any sense, of 
those who dominate the waters. 

Since Humboldt, many prophecies have been made as to the 
magnificent future which is reserved for the Amazonic region. 
Certainly, however, few of these prophets calculated that in the 
present generation the existence of a city like Manaos, right there at 
the month of Rio Negro should already be a reality. 

This phenomenon would be impossible 50 years ago, when the 
Amazon was not dominated yet. At that time, it represented nothing 
else for civilisation but a stupendous geographical marvel. Referring 
to it used to be said : « // is the ini<>hti('sl of rincis, » and every thing- 
had been said. The tri])S through its waters were cntcrprizcs consi- 
dered as dangerous as a voyage to the poles. From Para to the Kio 
Negro and back it meant then ten to twelve months. Those who 
made that trip, in small sailing boats or little canoes with rows used 
to be received with sky-rockets on their coming back. ^^'IH'n the 
steamer began to make these trips everything was changed. 

The sea-river was conquered and with it Manaos, then a simple 
group of small houses, just a stopping and resting place in the Kio 
Negro. From that time on it gathered strength, and grew up 
suddenly. 

After that tlu; Purus river was concjuered with several other 
affluents, and each victory against the savage nature of the continent. 
in those (rolossal roads, coii'csponded to a new impulse towards the 
pi-ogress of Manaos. 'I'he most recent of those \ ictories was the 
(h)iniiiion of llie .hinia, w ith its trihutaries, al>out which we wrote 



I 



— 169 — 

above. Over 5.000 tons ol" merchandise goes yearly to the <;reat 
capital augmenting- its world commercial intercourse with the wliolc 
world. But, what does that rc!i)resent in that infinite incognito world 
that is there defying man? Yavy little indeed. 

What does that matter? The steamer is there now and the 
natives of Xorthern Brazil will do the rest. On its turn the native of 
Amazon is also in a hurry to complete his work of civilisation. 




Bank of Rio Pums-Landscaiie at the lime of floods 



The administration of the last few governors has been as good as 
could be wished for and the Amazon has now entered an era of 
activity and work aided by an honest government. 

The governor of the State to-day, Dr. Constantino Xery is a 
brother of the last one who was Dr. Sylverio Nery, a perfect gentle- 
man, a militarv engineer, a broad minded man, a learned man and 



— 170 — 

animated by tlic inosl patriotic sentiments. He has re-established in 
the Amazon an honest ]H();^ramme, an orderly one in the ailministra- 
tion affairs. 

He made <;reat im]H'()vements in the financial conditions of the 
State and fi^avc quite an impulse to the commercial and industrial 
activity of Manaos. llis government marked an era of noted progress 
for the State. It suffices to remember his wise and intelligent inter- 
vention contributing towards the realisation of the colossal harbor 
works of Manaos and towards the supi)ort of the Hra/.ilians in the 




.Mani'ios. — « Ainii/dticiisc » ';\inri;isium 



Acre region dining the disputes with Holivia. On this subji-i-t it is 
not known yet liow much Brazil owes to tlic attentive aiul discreet 
action of Dr. Sylverio Nery's i)olitics, hut in time it will l>c known 
so that justice may be done to his ])atriotism and intelligence 

The cstahlisliing of schools, the inauguration of scvcimI pulilic 
estalilisliiiicnis , the tci-miiiat i(Ui of political pci-sccut ions , the 
recovering of the financial credit of the State, in a word, tlic decisive 
cut in the pi-aclice of ;il»uscs, w hich seem to exist unfortunalch- in 



— 171 — 

previous administrations, arc the titles that Dr. Sylvei-io lias to im- 
pose himself to the gratitude of his State and the respect of all tliosc 
who care for the welfare of the country, repudiating private inte- 
rests. 

He made quite a number of improvements and some of them 
of high importance. He inaugurated a Sanatorium in the most 
healthy spot of the State. 

On the 9th. February, 1901, he installed officially a Laboratory of 
Analysis for analytical chemistry, bromotalogy and texicology. As 
an annex to this Laboratory there is a small bactereological arsen- 
al, which is the beginning of the foundation of the respective 
laboratory. 

He also installed in a new building the City Hospital which was 
not in very good conditions in the old building. He inaugurated also 
a Model School to serve as a kind of normal colle'>-e, furnished with 
all the pedagogic material needed and prepared as well the esta- 
blishment of an agricultural school in Paracatuba. 

In 1903 there were in the State IGT Grammar schools, with a fre- 
quency of 5.911 students, but in this number is not included a large 
number of private schools. 

In Manaos there are 45 schools all of them in fine buildings 
nicely appointed with adequated pedagogic furniture. 



One of the beauties of Manaos is its port always animated , al- 
ways filled with boats , loading and unloading. We see there not 
only the small river boats, steam and electric launches, as the big- 
transatlantic steamers which stand still pefectly motionless so calm 
are the waters. In front is the quay with its enormous lifting ma- 
chinery ever busj" loading and unloading the lighters that come 
alongside. 

The constant movement of small boats, the whistles of the steam- 
ers and their echoing voices, the variety of colors of the flags un- 
furled in the masts, everything gives to the port of Manaos one of 
the happiest and most picturesque feature. As the city is built on 
ground slightly inclined, from man 3^ points of it we can enjoy the 
contemplation of the most beautiful panorama one could imagine, 
looking at the port and the active life that animates it from sun rise 
to sun set. 

Formerly just in the place where Manaos is to-day, there were 
two tribes of Indians — the Passes and the Manaos — the latter 



— 172 — 

liavinf;- f;iven tlic nainc to llio city. P^ven as far back as 1S:>0 a Brazi- 
lian writing on ilic i)riniitivc city, scat of the Rio Negro i)oi-i and 
district gave some very curious informations. Among other things 
he wrote that tlicrc were '2'.i'^ liouses, witli straw roofs, and even tlio 
governor 's i)ahicc! liad a roof made of the same material , as well as 
the soldiers barracks and nearly all the other public buildings. There 
was a small ship yard to build lighters and canoes. There were a 
lew i)rivate houses covered with earthen tiles, but they were very 




Munaos. — Public Scliool 



few. The ])owder magazines were roofed with the same material. 
There were two churches : Tlie Matriz, built by some C'arme- 
litas missionaries in 1H95 and another very small one of little im- 
portance. The i)opulati()n of (he city was ."MT nu'u ;nid .iJT women 
(white), 115 men and -150 women t nuuucliirosi — (chiUlren of l-lui-o- 
l)eans and negroes), T'.UI men antl l.(i|-,' women dark mulat toes. -J-,*.') 
iiini and |(.| wmncn slaves, 'J'Si men and JOii women, (mongrels or 
mixed ln-<'ed). 'IMie whole city hail but II small streets and one 
s(|uarc. That is jtist what Manaos was in ls:;o. 



— 178 - 

'I'o-day this l)Cciutiriil ciU' luis an iire;i of 10 scuuirc kildiiu'tres 
tind about (),00() liousos, in (he majority two story hi^h, villas, pala- 
ces, built on the ground wluH'e the extinct Indian tribes were. The 
streets are long and wide, with trees and well paved, going from 
one end to the other of the city, tearing the space through hills and 
rivers and from neither one of these two there is not the slightest 
vestige, except the openings and Ihe filled in placets. 'I'he commerce 
opens each day new houses, displays in the avenues luxury and 
comfort. The industries begin to appear here and there making 
noise with the machinery of the factories and darkening the sky 
with the clouds of smoke from their chimneys. We had occasion 
during our short stay in Manaos to visit factories of several products 
as ice, matches, electicity, incineration of the city garbage, parasols 
and umbellas, rubber goods and others, and we can affirm in the 
most convinced manner that we have great faith in the future possi- 
bilities of Manaos. 

Yet, it is not only in the capital that the admirable luxury of 
that true El-Dorado — the Amazon, — is displayed. Neither is it 
there only that we can see that conquering work transforming and 
civilising of the Brazilian race. Besides Manaos there are 20 other 
cities and villages, by the banks of those enormous rivers of that 
State and they show how much activity the inhabitants of the nor- 
thern States of Brazil have developed in that effort to perform the 
social work of civilisation in that region. 

The principal ones are Barcellos, Borba, Boa- Vista do Rio Branco, 
Humayata, Labrea, all of them with an active commerce ; Manicore, 
a very i^rogressive citj' founded in 1877, its budget being then about 
£30 and to-day is of over £ 20.000; Manes, Olivenca, Antimary, 
Caqueta, Teffe, Villa Bella, Silves, Serpa, Rio Branco and others 
are so many marks of civilisation spread through the territory of 
this colossal State of the Amazcm. We regret that the limited space 
of this book does not allow us to write about each one of these cities. 

If we could do so how much couldn't we write about the munici- 
pal district of Rio Branco, for instance. But about this place we 
cannot avoid writing a few lines even if for nothing else but to dis- 
pel from our readers' minds the erroneous idea people have to sup- 
pose that in the Amazon State there is only the forest industry. 

The valleys of Rio Branco intermingled with beautiful ridges of 
mountains until the frontier of Brazil with the English Guyana, are 
a magnificent field for cattle raising as well as for the cultivation 
of corn and wheat and we even go as far as stating they are probably 
better fitted for that than Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. 



— 174- — 

It is ciik'tihilcd ill one tliousuiul square leagues this beautiful 
region, proix'r tor catlle ruisiiig and dairy industries and yet at a 
distance relatively short from the capital. Were it not for the Water 
falls of Kio Bianco, the trip from Manaos to these valleys could be 
made in two days. A railway would resolve this problem, and not- 
withstanding the difficulties to be met in an enterprise of this kind, 
the local (iovernment is thinking seriously of building one. As to 
cattle raising, a i)arty competent to speak on the subject said that 




Manaos. 



Publii' School 



cattle can Ix; raised wild and the beef can compete with that of Kio 
(Jrandc and Kiver Plate. The only fault with the <>x is not crossing 
with supeiior i-aces and that can be easil\- remedied oiu-e that the 
Government should train iniungrati(Ui helping the eattle raisers. 
Th(^ inconvenient for the dairy industry is the cxccssixc length of 
the fai-m lands. Oidy oiu^ of them, kiu)wn as S. Marcos, occupies an 
areaof dozens of scpiarc leagues and can contain if necessary one 
hundi-ed thousand heads. Similar elements of greatness ai'c found in 
otlu'r niunici[)alities. 



— 175 



What ^^■e have written on Manaos is sufficient, we think for the 
reader to calcuhite the importance and progress of that vast tract 
of the Brazilian territory, to l)e sure one of the most prosperous 
federative entities of the Brazilian Republic. 



THE STATE OF PARA 



Of all the Northern States of Brazil, the State of Para is the most 
important as to its population, wealth, external commerce, and 
the progressive condition of its capital , the city of Belem. Even 




Belem. — Building of sc-liolar's gnnip on i>lie Baptista Campos place 



comparing it with all the other states of the Union, its present value 
and growing progress assure for it a superior and glorious place in 
the Federation. 

And yat, this is not one of the oldest states , neither did it dis- 



— 176 — 

in)se of, to altaiii its present development, ;iii.\- of tlie j;()vei-iiain('ntal 
advantages other States had either in the times of the sovereign 
nationality or in the colonial ages. 

Visited fioMi time to time by English, Dntcli, French and other j 
adventurers, who never could establish there a firm settlement of 
conquest , it was only in KJK), nearly three centuries ago, tliat a j 
Portuguese, the Commander Francisco ('aldeira Castello Braneo, , 
was sent from Maranhao to found a city in Beleni , tlic first founda- 
tions of whicli were placed in the ground in January of that year, ; 
as the chroniclers of that time assure us. , 

We n)ust count from tliat date the initiation of the national exis- . 
fence of this great Northern State. 1 

Until 1()40, however, Para had no political personality, it was a , 
part of the Maranhao government , but from that date on it was ; 
constituted a political district, perfectly aside, having concurred to ' 
that result not only the fact of the Dutch invasion in the Maranhao [ 
province, as well as the degree of material importance to which ; 
Belem had reached, and that can be ascertained by the document of . 
that time. 

Later on it was incorporated to the Maranhao government, but ■ 
it got independent by the end of the seventeenth century, though I 
with great struggle, considered as a province then and to-day a State ; 
under the new form of Government — a republic. — \ 

The great advancement of this Brazilian region, in the way of ' 
l)rogress, became more evident, however, just as it happened with ! 
the Anui/on, with the development of the making and exporting of ' 
rubber. So that if we look for a point of histoi'ical reference, to fix 
in a plain way, the initiation of that trajectory, just as it happens •' 
with the Amazon, we will have to adopt the date of July lUst., 18G7, • 
th(; happy date of the opening of the Amazon river to the interna- 
tional navigation, as the progress and prosperity starting point of ; 
the State of Amazon. 

Tin; rapid i)r()gi'ess of that region from that time till to-day can 
l)c seen by th(^ iiu-rcnise of its rcn'cnue. \\'hal Para was then, and 
what it is to-day can he seen by these figures : 

I'lof^icss of I he rcDcniic of the Slulc of l':ii;i cihtv fine ycurs. 

Vtarg Atci'ii^f III till- ti\i' >('ai's ■ 

IKU7 a IK()« .... ;27-t: ii'7g;ti()S 

IHTi a 1H7."> .... .'7S:t;(i.".§.~()7 

1H77 a IH7H . . . . 7s:i:'.t7()^7ti."i 

IHH-J a iHHTt .... 2.ri()-2:t-Jl.<;77t 

IHHC. a IHH7 .... ■J.7l.".:(i«f.$()MI 

lM!li» a IHJKI .... r..0()0:()ii(i5;0(m 

1«!»7 a IKilK .... l(.7(l:2r2.">ISI«l 



— 177 — 

This progress does not i-epresent an increase in the taxes, l)ut 
simply the increase of production, exjjorted from llie State. It is 
well known that the main importance of revenue is obtained hy the 
exportation taxes. 

The folk)\ving' tal)le will show that the importation of European 
and American industrial products kept pace with the cxpoi'tation 
progress : 

Importation ix the Port of Bklk.m. 



Years 

189-4 a U.j 
1893 a 90 
1890 a 97 

1897 a 98 

1898 a 99 



It is worth while, since we ar 



Valup of Ihe iinporlalion 

8.o06:.j08§non 

9.001 :887S0n0 

15.97:;:8i:i.S000 

I8.5ee:450§000 

21.502:7o4$000 



e dealing with figures, to register 



also the total revenue of the state in the laste decades : 

Rkvexue of the State of Para ix the last decades. 



Years 


Official value 


1831 .... 


2.291 :9o5|;9oD 


1801 .... 


. 5.000: H7S471 


1871 .... 


. 11. 790:40785 10 


1881 .... 


. 10.907.491^140 


1891 .... 


. 21.2,3.3:730§090 


1901 .... 


. 50.958:8308000 



As that revenue, as we have said , comes mainly from the exj)or- 
tation of the products of the State, it is natural that we should show 
the reader the figures of that exportation, and so much so because 
they prove a i^rogressive scale as seldom as been seen any where 
else. We will see then : 



Exportation of products exclusively from Para, exported 

BY the port of BeLEM. 



Years 






Value of exportation 


1858 848:.377$8e9 


1810 . . . 






1.25e:8.'i7$059 


ih:;i . . . 






1.98e:.^42SI75 


1801 . . . 






5.307:0.38$77."> 


1871 . . . 






9.548:29o§8iin 


I8S1 . . . 






ly.701:072$7(i0 


1891 . . . 






27.7:>.3:007.$00i 


1901 . . . 






90.052:597$000 



Just as it happens in the neighboring state the main factor of 
I progress , worthy of note, is the rubber which Para has in endless 
I quantities in the banks of those mighty rivers. 



— 178 — 

The large amounts of capilal and the hirge number of \vorking- ; 
men emi)loye(l in the extraction of (hat source of wealth grow larger 
day by day. 

To he sure, lliat const ilutes a disagreeable contingency to fix the i 
financial situation of the State, because any alteration in the value 
of (hat mei-chandise, in the buying markets, will make its effects in i 
the disturbing oscillations of the official revenue, robbing from the ' 
budget its necessary character of j)revision and method. 

Let us see what happened several years ago 189t> and 1897 when j 
the depression in the rubber prices caused a violent and uncomfor- j 
table condition of the whole economical and commercial life of ; 
Para i 

'J'he State however is exporting other products, as cocoa, which \ 
is largely produced in its territory, there being two harvests yearly, i 
chestnuts (Brazilian chestnuts), tobacco, oils, rosin, etc. 

No other State of Brazil , excepting tbe Federal capital, shows, 
such a maritime activity as Para does. Its geographical situation! 
iustifies that fact. It lias, with the port of Belem, the kev to the vast: 
noith. There is the natural meeting ot everything that is coming' 
down, — men and goods — from the beginning of those great rivers' 
already exploited and those to be exploited, so that , each one at its 
historical moment , will come to increase the relations of the! 
Belem Emporium. Not long ago, we heard a traveller expound' 
the strange thesis that the civilisation of Brazilian northern cities! 
is being dislocated from ^Slaranhao towards Belem and thence to; 
Manaos, so that each point of the scale of that march ^^ ill come back 
to i-uin suei'cssivcly, at (he pro})ortion its neighbor will gi'ow larger 
and rieluM". 

Only those; who look to i)henoniena of that kind ^uperfii-ially 
can admit such a conjecture. 

Bi;i,i;m. — I-light days sla.N' at this capital of (he Para Slate will 
suffice (o teach enough to the visitor to eiiahle him to see thcsi 
subjects in a hel tei' light. 

Let us open a map of the State, and we w ill immediately see thai 
(he pro\ ideul i;il jiosition of ileleni, in the place it was huilt, seem"C> 
for it cxcry possihility and ])rol)al)ility of a future similar to thai 
of thegicat historical metropolis. Belem is alri'ady today a power- 
ful city, grow ing rapidly, st i-o ugly and so far it has (inly >er\ ing it ^l^ 
organs of ajipropriat ion and nouiislnneni a \ei\, very small par' 
of its rixers, of its islands, relalixfly, compared with what can 1» 
jdaced in the field of exploitation in the future. 

(^Miilc olten w hen w c w cnt ihrough ihal capital, (piil e ecuUcnlct 



— 179 



looking at its active commercial movement, at its port filled with 
masts of ships and smoke-stacks of steamers we asked ourselves : 
"NVliat a capital will this one be when the ccmtinent island — Marajo 
— and the other small islands, the small and large rivers, everything 




Belem. — .Mudorn Cuban Buildings 



in full bloom of exploitation, populated and navigated, shall empty 
itself here, with those unknown fabulous treasuries, which are 
reserved for its opulence ! 

It is silly to imagine that the developement of Manaos will shake 
in the least the greatness of Belem, The former has its economical 



— 180 — 

role as the key to tlic rej;i(>ns it encloses, in that hei<;lit of the Ama- 
zon. l>ut Para will always be the natural outlet of everything exist- 
ing between the Toeantins, Xin<;u , Tapajoz and the other rivers, 
not to speak of the larger rivers. This on one hand, and on the / 
othei-, all that big number of islands, rivers and lakes, that are 
spi-ead towards the North and Northeast, belonging to tlu' lower j 
Amazon system. All of this large world relatively unexplored, which i 
could contain ;j00.000.000 people, and feed the whole of Kuropc, has 
and will always have as its natural head the city of Belem, which i 
will keep on growing at the proportion civilisation and industry will ; 
dominate those vast and mostly desertisd fields. > 

We can already place Belem at tlic side of the large cities of this I 
South American continent. According to the census of 1*.)02 it has jiL 
120. ()(>(> inhabitants, and the statistic data of the competent depart- 
ment i)ublished in a rei)ort written by the ex-governor. Dr. Paes dc 
Cai'valho, gave the number of inhabitants as nearly 'JlMhhi in IS'.'ii. 

l*0PrLAT10X OF THK ( ' 11 ^ OF BfI.FM. 

Years Iiiliahilanis 

1720 i.dOO 

1820 9.000 

1852 12.467 

\mO 40.080 

1882 00.122 

189(5 01.00.-) 

Yei, here it is the manner in which a well known historian des- 
cribed that c:t_\- in 1700 : « nobly built up and having sumptuous 
churches : Matriz and Misericordia, the large temi)les of the Nossa 
Senhora do Carmo, Merces, Redemp(;ao de Cai)tivos, Religiosos da 
Companhia, Capuchos de Santo Antonio, and Cajiella dc Santo 
Christo convents; barracks, beautiful residences, the fortress of|f 
Xossa Senhora das Merces, and the nu)uth of the bar, u])on the' 
rivei', with many pieces of good artillery of great ('alil»rc. of iron 

and l)ron/.c. " ('hiirchcs and fortresses, monks and soldiers how 

far away that age is! 

Hut let us leave the am-ient Peleiii , liie icadei- will leel more 
interested I'cading about the Helem of to-da_\ . 

\\ (■ had alreadx stopped a xcry short while, on our wax up, at , 
that eil_\', l)iit it was in .Xugiisl I'.'iO that we weiil tliere with the iil- 
O'litioii (»f ^toppiiii; there to examine it ami L;el ae(|iiainled v\ith it. 

Those who go from the S(»iilli, eiir\ilig the point where the Sll- 
riipy light house is, enters in the Par;i route, goes liiroiigh a majestic 
ii\er of silvci-y waters, vast as the sea, trancpiil and filled with pic- 



— liU — 

turc.stiiio and o-rocii islands. At ri,i;lil and Icl'l, oncn w(! pass Salinas 
city , where they liav(^ ])la('(Ml a li<;ht-h()use-b()at those; islands arc in 
hir^e number until we reach in i'l'ont ol" l^eleni. 

It is beautiful the aspeel ol" the port!.... The city ean't \cA-y well 
be seen from tbe outside, as it ^vas built in a re<;ion of plain and low 
gi-onnds very little above the level of the sea. 

This circumstance is in favor of the port, which prescmts itself, 
to the examination of the new comer before the citv does it. 




Belem. — Slatiio of llic ijisli()|i IVei (laetano Braiidao 



It is a forest of masts and smoke-stacks, steamers and boats of 
all shapes, large and small, black, gray, white or green, the majo- 
rity of them with the Brazilian flag, anchoied motionless by the 
city, and others alongside the docks and bridges. Among them we 
can see by their color the many steamers of the Companhia Ama- 
zonas, painted of light yellow, an original color which contrasts 
strikingly with the dark green of the waters. 

The movement, the noise of the whistles and lifting machinery, 
the running of the steamers arriving and sailing, all this gives to 
the port of Belem a characteristic aspect. 



— 182 — 

Tlic port is a tnni(|iiil liigoon, formed by the Para river, which is 
jotted down in the nuips with the luime Giiajara bay. It is liiie<l by 
thick woods wliieh at distance ai)i)ear as a grayisli green band. 

At the side, in the eontinent, is the eity, an extensive one, as j 
ample as Madrid or Lisbon, phiin and h'veUed with the neij4lib()riug 
woods, appearing only with more prominence the towers of the i 
cathedral or the roof of some one or other building a little higher, ; 

When we land we have a beautiful impression. The quay, where j 




IJelciii. — Froi ('ai'laiiD Braiuirui's Siinarc 



arc by the water side, the market, the Custom House, llie docks and 
storage houses of the Bra/.ilian Lloyd and Ama/oii steamship I'oui- 
l)anies, is lined by a magnificent bouh'vaid . pa\i'd with stone 
blocks, and the conimercial activity to be seen in that river side part 
of thtr city is \\ ondeiful. 'Vho (Juinze de Noveml)ro and .loao Alfredo 
streets whicli I'lm paralhU to llie ipiay , ai-c t hici-, coinmci'cial ai"to- 
lies, with hauUing houses, hixurious stores, iai'ge tliree and foui 
story huiidings, in genei'al sti'uelui"es of siujple architect un' . 
altogetlier I'ort iigiK'se styh' , l»iit _\ el a few ot them of motlerii 
slvh^ 



— 1«3 — 

Tlie most boautirul avenues ave, how cvei', in tluiti)art ol' the eity 
most recently built, and the buildings in them are of more artistic 
taste. They are all the work of the last twelye years. 

If the visitor takes a tramway ride in tlie (^ars that go to the 
distant suburbs as : Umarisal, S. Braz, Baptista Campos, Nazareth, 
Marco da Legua, he can then appreciate the extension of the city. 

The most central city districts are, just as in Rio or in Sao Panlo 
occupied by the stores and commercial storage houses. There the 
streets are narrower, although straight and clean, quite clean. Even 
in this business quarter, constantly modified by Ihe progress of the 
city there are squares which have no equal in all the other northern 
cities and we might say in all Brazil. 




The Square Frei Caetano Brandao, which some find quite sad, 
we found it poetical. It is one of the first to be visited when we arrive 
at Belem, attracted by the cathedral that is on it. 

There is in the centre of the garden of the square a monument 
with square basis, of white marble, with the brcmze statue of the 
Bishop I). Frei Caetano Brandao after whom the square was named. 
The bishop is with clerical robes and his face is full of expression. 
He must have had Just that venerable type, the good prelate, who so 
much loved that city, that he built the first hospital there for 
the poor. 

Let us have a look at the cathedral. It is a large, vast construc- 
tion, heavy and grave, just in the style of the Portuguese buildings 



— 184 — 

of the eighteenth century nvIkmi the tired stykM)!' I). Manoel time, 
had already disapix'arcd Iroin the mind of tlic ai-cliiteets. The I'ront 
oi" the chureli is imi)()sing- with the severity ol" its lines and parsi- 
nxmy of its oi-iiamental eiirves. It is composed of an ample face, the 
trunk of the building open wilh three main windows which let the 
light in, at the upper part, and some smaller ones for ventilation 
purposes as well as the light. They are disi)Osed, liowever, without 
any regard to the harmony of the external expression of the build- 
ing. In the ('(mlrc! ui)per part has what in church architecture the 
Portuguese call criijciro with two small decorative pyramidcs and 
to finish two towers, one on each side, souunvhat elegant, and 
everything is quite harmonious, the height of criiiciro and towers 
being pretty nearly the same. 

In the interior the cathedral was treated with great care and we 
see that it was a church huilt in the good times of i-eligious faith. It 
was built in 1771. ^'j 

The painter, the high relief carver, etc, they all disi)uted the l'irs€el 
place and as a result the interior work is of a most brilliant effect.^ 
There is perhaps a little exaggeration in the coloiing. The main altai 
is all of marble, the platforms for the preaching of sermons are o^ 
bronze, nicely bui-ilated, the great organ, the gas fixtures, the paint 
ings in the ceilings and walls of great artistic value, everything con! 
tributes to the beautiful effect of the wdiole. There are ten altars on 
both sides and two are of uuii'ble, with the images of Jesus' Heart 
and Mary's Heart. The sanctuary is one of the most important ones , 
in Brazil. 

On the other side of the square is a large two story building 
which used to be the War Arsenal and to-day is an hospital. Next to , 
it is another hospital called Bom Jesus dos Pobrcs (Good Jesus of ') 
the Poor) which was founded in 17.S7 by tlu' good nnuik l-'rci 
Caetano Brandao. 

On the bay side closing the s({iiarc we see a grim wall which has 
the damp api)earance of old ruins. It is in fact a ruin prescrxcd res- 
pectfully for its historical value. 

They call it the « (histcllo » (C'astlei. It was fiom Iheie lliai ilie 
defense; was made. It was there from tlu' xcry foundation of the city, 
saw its Itirtli, protected it in its days of weakness and now sleeps at 
the shade of its victoi-ious i)rogress. 

'I'he bishop's i)alace, a large mansion. Ihree storii's high, w itli 
windows all over and connected wilii liie left side of the Santo 
Alexandic 's church, occupies the oi)i)osite angle of the s(|nare, 
<-oucuiriiig thus to that sti'ong inq)ression of the whole. 



— 185 — 

Wo will now write about another important square ol' this capi- 
tal ol' th(^ I*ara State — the Praea da Tndependencia. — 

I^elem, just as all the othei" South Aniei'iean capitals has one — 
I'l-aca da Tndependencia. It is one of the most beautiful in Para 
which is equivalent to say one of the most beautiful in Brazil , as in 
no other capital of Brazil we find more eare and love for the city 
(gardens than in Belem. The inhabitants of Belem , judging by what 
we observed, love nature, love flowers. There the parks and public 
gardens are not enclosed, we do not see those heavy railings as we 
see in many cities. Everything is open in Para, the green lawns, the 




Belem. — Monument to General Gurjao, on the Independoucia place 



beautiful gardens are quite open, there are no railings around them 
and nobody ever steins on the grassy lawn, nobody cuts a flower. 

There is the reason why Belem can keep in perfect order the 
prettiest gardens in all Brazil. 

The garden at the Praca da Independencia is worthy of note. It 
IS divided in different sections, some kept as lawns, some as flower 
beds and some with short and delicate bushes intermingled with 
flower trees. The garden streets are well paved and there are ben- 
ches for the public to sit down. In the centre surrounded by a circle 



— 1!!() — 

ol' real palm trees there is a monuiueut ereetcd in honor of 
General Giirjao. 

Ill onr excursions through Brazilian cities we have noticed tliat 
the majority of the monuments have been erected in honor of mili- ( 
tary men. 

Tliere are Generals in bronze and marble, a little of it every- 
where, but Carlos Gomes the great late musician, with a single ! 
piece of music made Brazil better known of the whole world than 
all of those great warriors put together. So did Cayru, who led 
Brazilians by his hand to the advanced state in which they are 
to-day, by the opening of the Brazilian ports to the universal com- 
merce; Maua, tlie inti-oducer of the locomotive in Brazil; Gusmao, 
the inventor of the air ship ; the late princess daughter of the 
Emperor Pedro II who put an end to slavery in Brazil by the simple 
signing of her name to a decree ; and like these many other person- 
ages tied lo the national civilisation by celebrated deeds and they are 
forgotten l)y the public, and they have not even a line engraved in 
the base of the statues of the lucky soldiers that are in the jniblie 
squares. That is not just 

Our remarks, however, do not embrace Para, because if they 
erected that superb statue to the soldier who so richly deserved it 
and who died in a fight against the invading enemy, exclaiming : 
(( Soc how a BrnzilUui general dies I », they did not forget the other \ 
meritorious citizens, and they built statues in honor of Caetano 
BrandiTo, Sama Malcher and others. 

But speaking again of the monument of the i)raca Independencia 
we must say that it is of marble. In the basis are a fi'w steps with 
lions, one on each side. U})on this there is a scpiai-e trunk with a i, 
statue on each corner, then there is a cover with inscriptions and ^ 
on top General (iurjilo 's bronze statue. 

I'lider the esthetic point of view the monument is far from being 
reputed a work of art, it lacks unity of conceplion, yet it is much 
decorative and it harmonises well witli (he scjuare that ncetled rt 
monunienl like I hat one liigli and of iniposing ai)i)earance. 

The prara Indeix'iulencia is much frecinented, not onl\" bi'cause 
it is a central i)lace l)ut because of the buiUliugs that suri'ouml it. 
These are : 

The ( «o\ cniement palace, a noble mansion two sioi-ics high and 
with an cxli-a one in the centre body of the huiltlini;. willi a trian- 
gular Iront, l.~) w indons on each st<u-\. of siniph' ai'cliitcct urc . its 
interior decorated willi taste, and with a l)cautirnl and Itroad stair- 
way cnli'ancc of I/isIjou stone. Il is di\iih'd in two big halls where 



— 187 -f- 

tlie secretaries ol" the State have their departments. There is also an 
important bi'omatoh)oy hiboratory, excellent creation of President 
Augusto Montenegro. 

The building is Avell preserved, in spite ol" having been built in 
1776 and has telephone, telegrapli and electric light installations. 

Near it is the City Hall built in the Colonial times by order ol" the 
Marquis de Pombal. This building is also two stories high, paint- 
ed of blue on the outside, and very well decorated on the inside. In 
the Main Hall richly api)ointed is a beautiful painting i-epresenting 
the death of Carlos Gomes the immortal musician to whom Para 
soothed his last moments. In the same building is provisorily install- 
ed the local Legislative Assembly. The municipality of Belem is a 




Bek'in. — Palace ui llie Stales Governor 



model of honest clever and advanced administration. The present 
Maj^or, Senator Antonio Lemos, a true gentleman in his manners, is 
a wise and honest administrator, a man of an enterprising mind and 
a practical man. 

Belem owes him a good deal and his contribution towards the 
progress and transformation of the city doesn't admit of any doubt. 
As the Mayor of the city he has been wise in the two needed 
characteristics : he knows how to promote revenue, and knows how^ 
to apply it. 

Another central square beautifully decorated is the one named 
Vhconde de Rio Branco, formerly known as Merces. It is a little 



18!! — 



smaller tlian the olliors, but it is vci-y well taken care of, ami like 
the others lias no railinj^-. The moiiniiicnt in the centre oC this scjuare 
is ])i'(»l)al)lv the most artistic ol'ihc wiiole city. It is simple in its 
composition, is not ycry original, but harmonious and suggestive. 
Standing upon a marble l)asis oi" square form is the bronze statue of 
the great Brazilian i)atriot Jose da (iarna Malchei- in a noble l»ut 
natural position. In the principal face of the basis is the beautiful 
figure of a young girl with her knee upon the step in the position 
of one engraving the name of tlie hero. The monument is suriounded 
by an elegant railing. 

The new sijuare tliat the i)resent Mayor ordei'ed to be fixed with 




1{(;1l'iii. — iSiiiidiiig (il Un' I'licn .Miiiiit'i|i:il 



trees and a gard(;n is the one named Baptista Campos, and is one 
of the beauties of the modern part of the city. 

It was an enormous field quite abandoned in one of the t-ity 
corners where the grass grew with a vigor wortliy of troiiical fame. 
This was not long ago. The ma\-or Antonio Lt'mos transformed it in 
a little ])ara(lise, with fountains, little lakes with miniature islands, 
bi-idges, lawns, fiowci- Ix'ds, fane\ bushes an<l rai-e plants, well 
paved streets, a pei-fect paradise. Well invested the money spent in 
that jxiblic impro\ cmeiit . 

I " llie oilier end of IJeleni, bexond the line of city luiildings. 
the good tasle, or we woidd saA' IxMler llie enninion sense, of those in 
power, idealized a pnlilie re<-rea(ion nniipie in its kind in all Brazil 



— !«!> — 

wliat poiit'irms wliat we luivc suid bctoi'e, when we arrinnod that the 
l)o()i)lo ol' Para were the best h)vers of nature aiiioiij;- all others who 
live in the large eities of Bi-a/il. 

That publie plaee is a tract of ])riinitive I'oi-est bright in its 
vigorous structure of sc^cular trees spreading their long bi-anehes 
^^ith shady foliage. 

'IMie city grew up devouring the woods around that preceeded it, 
that were squeezing it. Later it gi-ew more, annihilated to spread 
itself, but reached the place called Marco da Legua; and finding 
that square of powerful trunks in rows* tight together in a som- 
bre way , as the last witnesses of a cataclysm , its destructive 
expansion stopped, admired and respected the mystery. Wanted to 




Buieni. — A part uf llie .Miiiiici|ial I'arii 



spare it. Spread its avenues by its margin, it went on growing, but 
closed that piece of wild woods that was there at the very beginning 
of the city ; encircled its four sizes with railing, opened streets to 
disclose the intense poetry of its bosom ; placed green houses, 
booths, cascades, fountains, all kinds of artistic embellishments here 
and there. Spread through its thick foliage many drops of white 
light from arc lamps. And then they named it (c o Bosque » and thus 
« The Woods » has the right to live for many years, who knows ! 

This marvellous piece of Amazonie woods, preserved with filial 
love by the municipality of Beleni, before the victorious expansion 
of its constructions, is a motive of pride for its inhabitants and of 



— lt»0 — 

praise to tlie ^vise ami honest mayor, Senator A.Lemos, from all the 
strangers who go tliere. 

The same we might say about the rigor with wliieh the precepts 
of good taste and hygiene are respected there, with regard to the 
arborisation not only ol" the avenues, but the streets as well. Among 
those we can cite Dezescis de Xonrnihro, Brnt^niira, S. .Icronymo, 
Indcpendencia and others. 

The ancient .S. Jose Street, to-day Dezescis de Xoi'einhro avenue, 
quite long and straight, has two rows oT imperial palm trees which 
give it a graceful aspect, and remind us of the Paysandu in 11 io de 
Janeiro. 




Belem. — IiHli'iic'iuk-inia Avriiue 



Longei' yel than the Avenue Dezeseis de Xonemheo are the 
Vjcautiful Avenues denominated ]irii'>imeu and IndeixMideueia ; the 
latter is 10 metres wide, with three side-walks between two rows of 
nuinf^ereirn trees, and electric light lamp posts in the centre. It costs 
a good deal of money to the municii)ality, but it is well worth the 
money spent. The former follows that one after a slight curve, and 
prolongs itself until the Bosijiie in the same ])ropoi-tions of the olhei* 
though it has not as yet been paved. Heauliful \illas and suninuT 
resiliences line both sides of this avenue which have also, like the 
other, two rows of ti-ees. All these iinpi'o\ cments ai'c the rcsidt of 
senator A. Lemos' efforts and he deserves all credit lor ilie many 
impiovenients and changes the city has undergone. 



— 191 — 

There are other squares we did not write aljout, some with gar- 
dens, others being fixed now, all oi" them illuminated with elcetric 
lights. We remember the names of these : Floriano Peixoto, crossed 
by l>raganea avenue, the Saldanha Marinho and Trindade in front of 
tlu^ ('hui'ch of the same name, embiillislicd with high palm trees, the 
.Fnsto Chei'iuont, ^vhere the chureh of Our Lady of Xa/.a-retb is and 
whieh is one of the nicest of the city. 

The heart of Belem, its very first S(|uare, howevei-, is the one 
where the « Pac » theatre is situated, in the most elevated part of 
the city. Formerly its name was Largo da Polvora, because it exist- 
ed there, in olden times , a i^owder storage house. Now with the 




Belem. — Republic Monument, on the Republic Square 



adoption of the new form of Government wanted also to have a 
Praea da Republica (Republic S(iuare) just as nearly every city in 
Brazil has and the historical Largo da Polvora was once more chris- 
tened. But the change was not onlj'^ in the name, it also greatly im- 
proved its appearance. 

They made a large garden, which can serve a standard for others 
m Brazil. There are powerful electric lamps. All visitors must not 
leave Belem without going to this garden. We would like to add 
that it is treated with all care and is extremelv clean. In the centre 



— li>2 — 

there is a l)('iintiriil in;ul)l(' iiioniiinent, \vitli bronze figures, to com- j 
iiicinorale the i)i-()chuiiati()n of the Repuhlic, and in the streets run- 
ning diagonally with wide si(h'\valks with benehes, there are always 
to be seen large crowds of people and carriages moving in all j 
directions. 'Iliey are going to the aristocratic districts, wide and 
well paved avenues ilhnninated by electric lights and adorned with i 
pretty trees. 

The main street of the square is filled with coffeehouses, drink- 
ing saloons, concert lialls and all kinds of places of amusements. 
The cafe « Pac », under the hotel of the same name, a beautiful i 
building, is alwaj^s filled with people not only inside, but also sitting ; 
at the tables placed on the sidewalk in front of the hotel. It is parti- | 
cularly so in the evening, when the scene animated by the music of 
orchestras in the places of amusements, the noisy voices of the news- 
hoys and the movement of passers-by. The life in the evening 
always earnest in cosmoj)olitan cities, finds there its field of action 
and a most animated one it is. We can hear the sweet sounds of 
music mingled with the noise of the carriages passing by, the mono- 
tonous wheeling of the tramways always filled with people and if 
there is any theatrical company in town there is the display of the 
high-life, ladies richly dressed, the multitude of the wealthy in 
luxurious apparel, expensive overcoats and cloaks, because in cer- 
tain seasons, the evenings in Bclem are not less cold than in Kio do 
Janeiro. The cafes we speak of above are establishments (juite dif- 
ferent from those of Rio, they are a kind of combination of Candy 
stores and barrooms. There are also in the stjuarc the Apollo cirt-us j 
and the carroussel Paz — the classic mciTy-^o-roiuKl and many ■ 
other places of amusements, where people gather always gay lend- 
ing to that district of Belem a j)eculiar feature. Among the flowery j 
and artistic bushes of the garden in the square is a beautiful foun- 
tain of bronze, making pendant with the luonumcnt of the Republic, 
which we referred to above. 

This one is conq)os(Hl of an elevated coluniu of white iiiarhle over 
an ample basis on the sides of which there are (H)lossal allegoric \ 
figures in bronze, and on the top of the column there is the stately ■ 
figure of a woman symbolizing the Brazilian repul)lie. Tliere are 
several steps at the basis, surroun<led by a pi'elt\ railing, also of , 
bronz(^ The avenues Indio dc lii;i-il, Xnzurctli, S. .liron\iiio nud 
Rcpuhliru, ^^hich start from the centre in the direction (»f the four 
carcliii;!! points of t lie city are profiisel\ illiiniiiialed . with ln'oad 
sidewalks, and I ramways running back and foith all day and night. 
The buildings lining these avenues are [)rctty ones, though here and 



— 133 — 

tlicre can be scon several stnu'tures maintaining- tlic I^ortuguese 
lieavy style ol' arcliitectnrc, iKU'ause llie Portuguese colony in Belem 
is quite a large one. We insist in praising the illumination of these 
avenues even because we can't say as much of the streets in the 
commercial part of the city which is most unsufficient. 

We must not finish the description of Republica Scpiare without 
referring to the building which completes the pers])ective, and 
which in its kind is one of the best in Latin America. We si)eak of 
the Paz theatre, a large structure of white marble, dominating the 




Belem. — « Da Paz » Tlicalre (afler ils restoration). 



gardens both at the front and back, appears to the visitor as an 
evocation of the Greek architecture of classic times. 

It has more or less a parallelogram , elevated on columns of 
corjmthian style, fine, even majestic, of fine lioz stone, with a trian- 
gular front, imposing through its simplicity. It has no needless 
details, no over ornamentation. The impression is gathered from the 
austere and harmonious whole which has an expression of tranquil 
grandeur and cannot be found in any other theatre in South 
America. 



— 194 — 

It was built during the rcij^n of the second emperor of Brazil. It 
belongs to the State Government, who lets it to national and 
foreign companies, taking care of it and improving it all the time. 
It does not lose value as to architeture in its interior. It has four 
rows of boxes, held on steel supports artistically decoi-ated. The 
plafond holds suspended from its centre a Ix^autiful electric light 
lustre and is decorated with valuable and artistic i)aintiiigs, jiainted 
by the famous artist De Angelis, and is exquisitely surrounded by 
high relief golden carvings. It is a theatre that honors the culture 
and importance of the city. 

The same can be said of the foyer with beautiful inlaid floor, 
artistic paintings and well appointed furniture. Besides, it has a 
complete installation of electric lights, with machinery of its own, 
and all other improvements of a modern theatre, as really there 
is none in Rio de .Janeiro. 

A Portuguese writer of repute visiting this square two years ago, 
said : « The Largo da Polvora shames our Avenida da Liberdade 
in Lisbon. It has three times its width, it has nothing of that forced 
and uneasy ai)pearance of that double row of simple houses of 
which the inhabitants of Lisbon become so proud, it has an immense 
statue of the Rcpublica in the centre, well made, loosening from its 
bronze animated cries of victory and it almost can't bi' distinguish- 
ed from the faces of the square. If they could place there the 
Triumpho Arch it would rivalize with the Champs Elysees. Through 
the street on the right, tramways, carriages and bicycles cross them- 
selves with liorseback riders and pedestrians in an animated confu- 
sion. On the asphalt of the broad sidewalks drinking places, bnissc- 
rics, serve their customers in small zinc tables on the sidewalk. 
They drink, speak, laugh, with joy and with life. The Universal 
Club with its windows wide open displays its hall aiid reading room, 
wher(5 the profuse electric light throws its rays upon the luxurious 
furniture and beautiful paintings. At the end of the entrance hall we 
guess a dining room by the snow-white covers on the small S(iuare 
tables, awaiting the members of the ditb w ho once in a w hilc enjoy 
a tete-a-tcte with their friends. And at tiic low verandahs the grace- 
ful h(!ads of I'ara's fair sex seem to wraj) in their jet black haii- a 
whole wave of smoke. Human voices, noises of striking balls at the 
billiai-d tabh^s, denounce> tlu^ billiard i-oom. Then further down in 
front of th(! central roiid-poinl is the majestic P:i/. theatre, dotnimit- 
ing the space with its ciicuhii- line of terraces and rails. Once in ;i 
while a eoiieert . ail Italian opera coiupany, a rare comic oi)cra 
eom|taii\ makes the I'a/ thealrc abandon its monunieiital sei-<Miitv. " 



— 19a 



Tlicre is no exaggerulion in the ('()l()rin<; and aiiiiiuition of this 
description made by this writer in the above lines. \\'e, onrselves, 
\vho have visited a respectable number of cities in Brazil and abroad 
experimented that strong impression of admiration and pleasure, 
when for the first time we were on one of those boulevards 
that, passing- by the large scjuare, show us the splendour of 
its unequalled perspective. It was in the evening of the 15th. 
August, 1902, and as this date is celebrated in Para, (for the reason 
of its integration to tlie Brazilian fatherland), there was special 
aspect of rejoicement and movement, which overflowed from the 
park and invaded the avenues in conjunction with that multitude 
of carriages and pedestrians coming from them to the centre. The 
superb theatre was open, and through the thick foliage of the trees, 
over its decorations, its monu- 
mental greek columns whiten- 
ed by the arc lights, we could 
feel the poetical inspiration as 
springing forth from an an- 
cient and noble sight. 

An act of justice, in spirit 
of fairness , compels us to 
repeat our praises , making 
known to the public, the name 
of that Brazilian who has 
c(mtributed the most towards 
the greatness and embellish- 
ment of the capital of Para , 
sparing no efforts, sacrificing 
everything , popularity, per- 
sonal interests and sometimes 
even his health, in his ambi- 
tion to Europeanize the beau- 
tiful city of Belem. This name 

is Antonio Lemos and its owner is popularly known as Senator 
Lemos. He is the mayor of the city to-day and its inhabitants owe 
him all the great recent improvements, its modernisation, its supe- 
riority, and he is well worthy of having his statue in one of the 
public squares. For many years Senator Lemos has mortgaged his 
activity to Para. Everybody recognizes and proclaims the services 
he has rendered to the city his patriotic collaboration, but in our 
opinion as a visitor of the cifc}^ we believe, nothing equals this great 
task he took on his shoulders, for some years past, and is realizing 




Belem. — The Cemeterv 



— 196 — 

with Icnucily, uuiking- the triuisl'i^iirulinii of llie old Belem city into 
this powerful and modern metropolis, wliicli is becoming- in all its 
leatures, appeai-anee and habits, quite European. 

From tlie theatre to the eliureh, the least it un\\' seem, there is 
not a great distance. A\'e want then, to write about some of the 
ehurehes since we have written about the theatre. 

In a small s(|uare where a beautiful gardeu has been arranged 
and where cabs and cai-riages for public hire are always to be seen, 
there is one of the city cliui'ches. It is tlu; Sunt' Anna cliurcli. niucli 
frecpiented by the people because of its position in the centre of the 
city. It was built in the eighteenth century, we believe in 17()1. It is 
simple in its exterior as it is inside. What we find worlliy of. notice 




■Inn. — I lie 



lllll'rii 



Our l.;iil\ <.| llir (.;iniii 



is t!ial in spile of bavin*;- been l)uill in olden times, il is not in the 
heavy style of those times. Its front, (|iiile siniph-, of straight lines, 
its two s(|uiii"e towers, ils modest dome, coxcred with glass to let 
the light in the iulerioi- oi the church, arc traits w oil h mentioning. 
In the interior besides the main aitai-, Ihci-e ai-c two others at the 
sides and in tli<; choir is a good organ. 

AnolIuM- chnrcii is tiie one of Our Lady of the Carmo. of coh)nial 
tinn-s. it is of ohi slyh- w it h a sliglil i(h'a of llalian arl. il ha-^ a 
curious stone fi-ont finisheil in Ki'.r.. Il has a w ing i)uilding on the 
right, facing the s(|uai'e, and w hicli formerly was the convent of that 
eongregalion. l»eh>nging (o the founders of the chni-(di. 



— 197 — 

In tlie s(j[iua'(', ;i large out', ciillcd Justo ( "hci'iuout, is aiiuthcr 
I'liurcli luuc'li spoken ol" in Pai-d. It is the one ol' Our Lady ol" Naza- 
retli, wore yearly they hold a traditional feast that lasts several 
days, in which the entire population of the city take part, with great 
joy and enthusiasm. The church was built recently, 1802, and has 
been enlarged in successive reforms, because the municipal author- 
ities, taking in great consideration the popular catholic sentiments 
of the inhabitants , surround of all care that church. It is quire 
curious to look at a department of the church where the sea-men 
for many years past come to bring presents offered to Our Lady of 
Nazareth in moments of danger. These are wax miniatures of boats 
and other objects of maritime life. That large collection of offerings, 
which, unfortunately, is being destroyed to make room for the new 
offerings that are arriving every day, forms an instructive and 
curious museum of nautical art, which, if collected by an intelligent 
amateur, would afford later on valuable information for the recon- 
struction of the history of Brazilian activity in maritime customs, 
in that part of the country. 

We could write j^et about other churches all of them with histo- 
rical value, as the one of Trindade , recently rebuilt, the S. Joao 
Baptista one, the Santo Alexandre, and others, but we have other 
important subjects to deal witli. 

Public Instruction. — We will start this department by accom- 
panying our reader to the celebrated museum of natural history and 
ethnography, named Museu Goeldi, a richly deserved homage on 
the part of the State Government to the name of a learned Swiss 
scientist who for many years is the director of that well known 
scientific institution. 

That homage serves at the same time to enoble the wise scientist 
and to prove the highly cultured spirit of justice of the Brazilians 
of the North, who thus show that they ki.iow how to recognize 
the merit of any one irrespective of nationality or any other 
condition. 

The Goeldi Museum is one of the most noted of Latin America. 
It has natural history collections classified with all the rigor, a rich 
anthropology and ethnographic department , preserved with all 
care, and in the zoological section, a really curious one, they 
exhibit live specimens, mainly of the Amazon, in cages, and the 
public are admitted free to see that exhibition twice a week. There 
is an horticultural-botanic department annexed to the museum, 
worthy of being visited for the careful selection and organisation of 



198 — 



the.catalogiu; ol" the greal vai'iety ol' phytological si)ccimons there 
planted both in tlie open air and hot liouses. 

The publications of the museum are disputed by tlie studious 
ehxss of the country and abroad, thanks to the abundance of infor- 
mation of investig-ation and studies that tliey contain. 

The public library of the State is one of the best organised in the 
country. It was founded on the 25th. February, 1871, by Dr. J. P. 
Machado Portella. 

The State governor Dr. August Montenegro in 1901 annexed 
to that public department, the public archives, and to-day under the 
direction of Arthur Vianna, a patient investigator and l)il)liogTapher, 
native of Para, the two departments are in the same building. \\"(' 
visited it in August of lOOJ. 

The library had 25.000 volumes, having a well organized cata- 
logue, and the ])Ooks well arranged in iron bookstands disposed in 
the rooms so as to receive lots of air and light, according to Ame- 
rican system, and not placed against the walls, lining them as it 
used to be done foi'merly. 

A publication of value Os 
Annncs <ln Bibliothecn e Ar- 
chivo Publico completes a se- 
ries of good services rendered 
to the public instruction by 
that excellent institution. 

We will now speak of an 
establishment of manual work, 
obeying to the orientation of 
modern educators and to the 
necessity of i)ractical teaching. 

Tt is the Lanro Sodi-e insti- 
tute installed in a splendid 
mansion , in the district of 
Marco (la Lcgna and which is 
one of the most elo(|ucnt])r()ofs 
of the scu'ionsncss and ])atrio- 
tism ollhc ( io\ (M-nmentof Para. 

liesides the !()(» Ijoarding 
pupils to whom the establish- 
ment furnishes instruction , 
lionsc, clothing, food and cvci-y 1 hing, it accepts yd loi i jtiipils who 
sh'cp outside and follow (he agricultural coursi-. 

The instruction adminislei-ed in the institute lias iwo gencial 




Belom. — hVoiit view (if ilic l.imni Soiliv 
iiislitiitc 



— 199 — 

courses : the primary, mid that ol" apjilication or professional. 

Tlie primary course is just the same as in the (Government Gram- 
mar scliools, and the application course is subdivided into industrial 
and agricultural courses. 

The industrial course comprises arts, trades and industries, pro- 
perly speaking. The agricultural course embraces the study of 
agriculture, in any of its branches, cattle raising- and daiiy indus- 
tries. 

The industrial courses are : book-binding- , compositors and 
printers work, graphic arts, stenography, painting-, decorating- of 
buildings, earpenting-, iron-smith work, boiler making, tin-smith 
work, shoemaker work, leather tanning- work, tailoring, electrical- 
telegraphy, joiner 's work, dyer 's work, and machinist work. 

The agricultui^al work which confers the diploma of Agricultural 
Regent, is a six year theoretical course accompanied by the school 
practical work in experimental fields, and laboratories, the student 
before receiving- his diploma being compelled to have one year prac- 
tice in an agricultural station, or in the same establishment. 

The Institute has !!• professors who teach : five of them the pri- 
mary course, equivalent to the grammar school, one gymnastics, one 
instrumental music, one French, one geography, one chronology and 
history, one arithmetics, one algebra and plain geometry, one geome- 
try in the space, one trigonometry and elementary mechanics, one 
physics and chemistry, one agriculture and industries, one zoologj', 
elementary botany and agriculture, geology and mineralogy, one 
geometric and free hand drawing, one mechanical and architectural 
drawing, one cultivation of trees and horticulture, one agricultural 
engineering, rural buildings, rural and forestry technology, one 
vegetal entomology and microscop3\ economy, countability and rural 
administration, and one animal hygiene, zootechny, and elements of 
pathology and siderotechny. 

Visiting this instruction establishment, one of the best in Brazil, 
we had occasion to see among other things, great quantity of 
school furniture manufactured there for the public schools. 

The local government doesn't buy any more furniture for its 
public school. Everything is furnished by this institute as it 
furnished all the uniforms for the state troops, etc. 

It completes the practical demonstrations of the utility of this 
institute a well organised band formed by its students. 

The Escola do Commercio , another institute of practical 
teaching, is also worthy of mention, and modeled after the Business 
Colleges of the United States. It was installed on the 13th may 1899. 



— 2<MI — 



The frcciiiency in tlic Kscola do Couiiiierfio is or was last xcar ol' 
•113 students. 

The fine arts study was not iiegloetfid in this state. There is a 
Conservatory named Carlos (ionies, dii-ected by the Hrazilian maes- 
tro Meneleu ('ami)ns, and this is a school w oi-thx- of all pi-aise. It 
is installed in a Government building, and the government spends 
witli this institution forty eontos yearly. When we visited this 
establishment the number ol" i)upils was loii. 

The Fine Arts Academy, founded by a nuinbei- of illustrious 
natives of Para, fond of arts, though it is a private; school, is render- 
ing high services to the artistic education of the population. There 
are 30 pupils in it. 



aprt L * ^ - T *• ■-•.^MMtSfS^' 




'i'herc are a nnmlx'r of other institutes devoted to inst iMU'lion. 
The nature of this book does nol allow us but to i-ilc I iieii' names. 
W c would lia\c lo w rite si^veral Noliimcs if \\c wanted to entci- into 
tJM' descrip(i(»n of all llic pul)!ic inst i-nc( ion insl it ules of rar;i and 
the other Stales of l>ra/il. 

W <■ will mention the (Jentil liitteneoiirt Institnle, devoted to the 
oi-phans and poor, and foi- it, a large building is ix'ing »'onstructed 
at th(! govei-iuneni 's expenses. 'I'he Orphcnihilo Purucnsc, also for 
the poor and orpiians. The Benjamin Constant Lyceum, an arts and 
trach's institnle, dcxotcd lo the w ork in^classes and i lie poor and 
mainlained by a private society. Institiilo Paes de ( ".ii\ allio , tiie 
exp(!ns«!s of which are made by the nainicipality. The Asylo de 



— 201 — 

Santo Antonio. () Scminario I'^piscopal, tor theologk-ul inslniclion, 
and others the names of which I can't remember now. 

Among the private establishments, receiving boarding pupils and 
outsiders , teaching primary and secondary instruction we can 
remember for boys : O Atheneu Paraanse, one of the best of private 
schools, disposing of an excellent board of professors ; the Collegio 
Minerva, an establishment with but four years existence, and is in 
excellent conditicms of prosperity; The ('ollegio Immacnlada Con- 




Bol(Mii. — Scliool group BiiiUliug of Nazareth 



cei^'ao with a branch in the Amazon State ; and the S. Jose, and Onze 
de Agosto Colleges. 

For girls there are many schools and colleges, among which we 
can remember : Collegio Perseveranca , under the direction of a 
normal school teacher D. Carlota Pistacchini; Collegio Yalmont, 
entrusted to anotlier normal school teacher D. Maria Yalmont; the 
Our Lady de Nazareth, Franco-Americano, Santa Clara, Internato 
Immacnlada conceicao, Collegio Lisbonense, S. Luiz Gonzaga and 
other establishments. 



— 202 — 

As to tlic piiiiuiry iiisiiiict ion or gnuiinuir srliools we giitluTcd 
the follow iiii; notes : 

In the eupitiil tlie schools arc gathered in groups, splendidly 
installed in government buildings. Kacli group, is composed of six 
or eight schools of both sexes. Are worthy of noti- those of the 
Kaptista ('ami)os squai'c , magnificent building, Too pupils, the 
Nazareth one with (JOO pupils and a splendid building. 

Dr. Amazonas de Figueiredo, secretary of the Para government, 
who is the president of the Public Instruction Department, is a man 
of advanced ideas, a liustler, just like an American, has been a 
powerful factor of the progress this branch of public work has had 
lately. We owe to his kindness and to the care he devotes to the 
public instrnction ])rol)lem all the iufoi'iuation we have gathen-d 
here and the following data : 

Para has to-day besides the groups, 577 isolated schools being : 

Kloni(Mitai> OIK'S 041 

(jitiii|ik'ni('iitary (iiics 36 

Tolal o77 

The elementary ones are thus divided : 

Siihiii-bs 30o 

1st class (villages) 90 

2n(l class (cities) 80 

.3nl class (capital) 60 

Total . . . . oH 

Besides these there are school gi-oups in the cities of Alemquer, 
(■inu(;a, Braganca, and Santarem. Sixteen elementary schools and 
eight c(nn])lementary ones, being divided in „* c(uuplementary and 
four elementary in eacdi gi-ouj). 

The school statistics of the State in the yeai-s lS'.t7, IS'JS and 18U'.» 
show ilic rollowing data excluding tht; ])upils of the sclu)ol groups 
in the c;ipil:il uiinihering 1.000 : 

III iHltT et.OTI 

In iKilK 'Hi.\)lH 

111 iHit'.t :u.or>G 

Para spends witli piiblit- instrnction about two tliousauil contos, 
gohl, and gives besides a subsidy for a jjcdagogic publication named 
.1 h^scoln which is the lie^t of its kind in South AnuM-ica. 



I 



— 208 — 

PruLic IIklp. — Other iiisLitutious tliiit give- proof of the i)ro- 
gress and greatness of Jielem are among the publie help ones, the 
following : 

The City Hospital, known as the Santa Casa da Misericordia, 
one of the best of Brazil, is an enormous building, pavillions system, 
isolated, but near one another w^ith different wards, disposed under 
a scientific view^ point around the Central building consisting of two 
tall structures. It is splendidly situated, in a position to receive the 
winds fresh breeze, and in its whole reminds one of the Bahia city 
hospital, facing the ample fields. 




Belem. — Asylum lor llie pour. Interior Garden and Refeetury ; Mens Side 



The Insane Asylum, is in the same conditions as the above, with 
regard to the make up and situation. It is a modern building, as it is 
modern, all the interior installation ordered from Europe by the 
present Governor. The vast construction, with Ihree prominent 
bodies, and its small dome, can be distinguished from among the 
neighboring buildings and gardens, as a monument raised by piet3' 
and science to relieve the misfortune of others. 

The Asylo de Mendicidade inaugurated in 1902, is one of the best 



2(li — 



\V(,' luivt! SL'cii. It is in the luiliuii Classic style, sober, elegant and 
cdsts one tliiiiisand and tlii-ee hundred contos. 

It is situated on the right hand side, kilometre 11 of the Bra- 
ganea railway, hetwoen Mareo da Legua and Sou/.a. The Asylo de 
Mendieidade has Tii ni. I'l-ont ?:.',()<> metres deptli, and oc<'ui)ies an 
area of ri.r)17j»i> square metres. 

Thi^ building- has three wings jx'rpendieular to the main build- 
ing. It has in the central wing accommodations foi' the Chapel, 
Pharmacy, Mess room for the employees, clothing storage rooms, 
pantry, kitchen, where there is an immense iron stove manufactu- 
red by the licrta firm of Rio Grande do Sul, sleeping rooms, bath 
tubs for the directors and employees. 

We will not say much about the other buildings as the Asylo 
1). Luiz I, belonging to a Portuguese association, and others. There 
is no space for it. 

Vet we can 't help it but to speak of some now under consti'uc- 
tion, and which when finished will constitute so many more improve- 
ments for the city of Belem. They 
are : The Penitentiary a large 
building ; the Arui)aro College, 
and the Exchange liuilding, all 
of nuiible on one of the sides of 
the Independencia Sijuare. These 
are works that will show the 
importance of the city. 

It woiihl be unjust not to men- 
tion here the New Market , biiili 
in- Senator A. Lemos. 

It is of iron and slate, and 
situated on tin; Boulevard da Ke- 
pul)lica in a place known as ]'cr 
(> Peso (see the weight). This is a 
traditional name that tlic inhabi- 
tants of l*ara have i)reser\ cd , 
while Senator Lemos does not 
reali/e his improvenicnts ])ro)ect in the rivei' side, t i-ansfoiming 
tJK^n things, places and names. 

'I'he new mai'ket was inaugurated in Decemlicf l'.K»l. It occiii)ies 
a surface (»f J.oiiS scpiare metres on a parallelogram of ;'.1"'n itT'". 
with towers im the corners, and doesn't alisolntel\ i-eseniltle t he 
other mark»•l^^ in the Soiit hei'ii.i- Stales, and worse yet tlie old Tar;! 
market, wliiidi is \i'\ up in Una 1.". dv NoMMuhro as a U'gilimate 




Sknaidu a. I.imks. — iiil('iHl:iiil 
Miiniiipiililv 



the lirli'iii 



— 205 — 

representative of old arcliifocJuru Uiougli it is (^iiite 1;ii\l;(; and (dean. 

The front measures I'", 10 until the superior lin(5S ol" the eornice 
which completes 8'", *ir> lor the total height ol' the building. 

There arc other markets in Belem, but none is frequented as 
this one, neither is there any with such a fine aspect. 

* 

Tnfe Commerce. — Once wc are speaking of markets it occurs to 
us to say something al)()ut the commerce of Belem. This ca])ital of 
Para State, everyone knows it, is a large commercial market. And 
it couldn't be otherwise if we are to considci- its geographical posi- 
tion. In the main streets of the active Inisiness district wc see 
magnificent stores, displaying large and beautiful show windows. 
A visible opulence testifies the power and the credit of the market. 
The merchants have, genei'ally, advanced ideas, but they all have 
the same complaints to make, which are heard from the commercial 
class, about the crisis, dull Inisiness, scarcity of money and all that 
kind of talk, just the same as in Rio, in Bahia, in S. Paulo, and yet 
the importation grows at large pace, and the volume of business in 
all branches becomes larger every day. It is an eternal custom 
inherited from the Portuguese, this one of complaining for ever of 
business. 

One who listens to a Brazilian lamenting national decadence, the 
crimes of the government, the adversities of every day or the bad 
condition of everything, the inferiority of the present, the bad 
business, would believe, that there is going to be a tremendous 
crisis, a serious misfortune threatening the nation. But after all the 
truth is that the country goes ahead. The figures take charge of 
speaking to us a language which is not so sad, and we become calm, 
in the end when we glance over them. 

This is the reason why we prefer to jot down those figures than 
listen to the complaints of those people. 

Until 1897 the banks of Para used to give a dividend of (3 and 7 
per cent, and does the reader want to know how man}- banks operate 
there, not including private banking houses? 

Here they are : 

BaiiKs. Capiliil. 

Do Para i:j.00n:000,$non 

Commercial do Para li.000:00n$000 

Norte do Para :2.0(lO:OnO.SOOO 

Belem do Para ^2.000:000^(100 

Do Credito Popular l.000:000$00() 

London & Brazilian Bank £1.500.000 

River Plate Bank £ I. .500. 000 



~ 20fi — 

Tlie shijjs wliicli c'n(erc(l tlic port of thai capital in ISSl were 
;!1 1 w itii J,'.". IS I tons (lisi)lac('nu.'nl. In 1801 there entered HIO sliips 
with 17*J.o(»(i tons displacement I Over the double increase in a 
decade. 

The importations which in 1881 gave a total of IG.'.K)? : 011.?0(X\ 
in I8'.M went up to ;j 1.740 : .jOoSOOD. 

A side of the commercial development grows the local industry, 
and though all the activity is devoted to the exploitation of the 
forests and its kindred industries, sawing mills etc., tliei'c begin to 
appear different factories. 



^IpTyTTVTSO^^J 




Holeiii. — .Maiisdicimi of (iciicriil (iiirj;i(p in llic SoliilMiii' Ccini'lcrx 



Some of llicsc arc installi'd in the capital itself, otlicrs in otiicr 
cities. The most imporlant are tlu^ ropes, shirts, rcad.\ made chjthing 
and paper ones, all of thcin working with steam, 'i'lici-c arc yet 
others manufacturing sanitary crockei-y, biscuits, candles, soa[). ii'i-. 
masses, cariMag(!s, sugar refineries and alcohol (list illcis. In Saula- 
icm and Hragam-a and oihci- cities there art' sawing mills, lime 
factories, small ship yards etc. 



— 207 — 

The transportation service, is made by cabs and cai-riaf^cs and 
horse cars, bnt the raiinicipality has already signed a contract to 
change the animal traction of the tramways for electricity. The old 
tramway company belonged to a Brazilian enterprize, and its cars 
not only run through the city, but go to the suburl)s like Marco da 
Legua and other places. 

One of those lines goes to Jose Bonifacio street where one of 
Beleni cemeteries is situated. 

Let us go in. They call it the Santa Isabel cemetery. It was inau- 
gurated in 1880, on the 15 th., August. 

When we visited it, there were lots of flowers. From the gate runs 
a wide street filled with trees crossed by narrower ones lined with 
marble stones with the conventional inscriptions — Here it is, — 
about which a writer once said to be the biggest of lies. The grave 
yard occupies 99.085 square metres in a part of the city looking 
towards the Guama river. It has a railing all around and small 
chapel in gotliic style is one of the most interesting we have seen. 

Inside in mute squares there are the rows of tombs. AVe noted 
one where Eusebio Martin's familj^ lies, having on top an angel white 
as snow. We noted yet another belonging to the Pacheco family in 
old style, but none had such a striking appearance as one at the 
right representing the Eyffel tower, in iron, with this simi)le word 
— perpetual. — 

The keeper couldn 't explain the meaning of it. There were quite 
a number of private monuments, some rich and artistic ones. 



The State troops. — The regiment of the State of Para is one 
of the best organized military bodies of Brazil. It is composed of 
two battalions of infantry with 1.000 men, a squadron of cavalry 
with 200 men and an auxiliary artillery company with 100 men. 

The uniforms are similar to those of the State troops in Bahia 
and they have modern guns and the horses are from the River Plate. 

The different companies under the command-iu-chief of a Fede- 
ral Army officer who is to-day Colonel Sergio Fontoura. We saw 
several fencing drills, rifle target-shooting and general manoeuvring 
drills, and we can assure that even in the regular ■a.vmy no better 
drilled men can be found than these State troops soldiers of Para. 

Besides this military force, charged with the police service of 
the whole state, the municipality maintains under the form of mili- 
tary organisation a fire company with 120 men, well disciplined. 



— 208 — 

Tlieii' miit'ornis are olof;aiil of tliick grayish clotli, llic material lor 
the lire ilc))aii incnl woi'k is execllent and they have a heautirul and 
adequate building lor their (quarters. It has two separate pavil- 
lions, eonneeted by a central areh quite pretty. This fire depart- 
ment eompanN' lias a band ol" musie that has won reputation all over 
the country, and is one of the prides of the eity whose ninnieipality 
spares no exi)enses to keep up its rej)utation. 

The narrow i)lan of this book prevents us from going into small 
er details about this Ix^autiful eity of Helem, to speak of its many 
and fine soeial elul)s, its police service, ])ublie hygiene, henefit asso- 
ciati(uis, its most important press, undoubtedly the most advanced 




Ty|ie of iTvolvor guns as used hv tiic Slate Mililarx llcj^iniciil at I'ar.i 



in the Xorth, having- as its leader the « Proviuvin » the best Xorthern 
paper not only for its make up but lor its influence and prestige. It 
would do honor even to a large European or American city. It lin-u- 
lutes all oNcr the country and no othei" provincial paper can rivali/.e 
with it. 

\'\n' the same reason \\ c abstain from writing al»ouI a niim- 
bt'r ol' inlei'ini' cities wortlix of mention, some just springing 
lip, olhei's already in lull (lc\ clopnu'iit . Opening an exception 
we will speak al)()iit two ol them. They are Hraganca and 
Santarem. The la( tei' as we said above is (uithc liglit l)aiikorthc 
Tapajo/ river, one of those Amazon tril)iilarics that cause wonder 
to the foreigiK!!-. It is tlic seat el' the. municipality of the same name. 



— 209 — 

it has pretty official and private buildiiif^s, a beautiful palace where 
the Municipal Council meets, as well as are held the Court sessions. 
It was built in 18(37 and is in the centre of Sao Sebastiiio S(|uare. 
There is also the municipal dock and storag'c house strongly built 
according- to the necessities of the local commerce, Ihe new market 
built in 1807, two catholic churches, one of which is quite large, 
named Our Lady of Conceica;). There is yet a theatre — the Vic- 
toria — situated in Rcpublica Scpiare. It was built in 18'.i5 by a i)ri- 




Belem. — Building of Aveiiiila Dooiloros sclioiar group 



vate association, that offered it unconditionally to the municipality. 
The production of Santarem is the cocoa, Brazilian chestnuts, fish, 
rubber, tobacco and cattle, all of which is produced with great abun- 
dance. It has among other agricultural and industrial establishments, 
steam sawing mills, lime and brick factories, and sugar cane brandy 
distillers, as well as shipyards well mounted for repairs in ships 
and steamers, and belonging to rich enterprizers. Due to these 
present conditions of development with large future possibilities, 
Santarem is an accessible and to-day much frequented port, not only 
by the steamers of regular lines calling there, but by those which run 



— 210 — 

up tlie Amazon iii long- trips witliout having to call there, but to 
Santarem tlie.v go after the many and abundant products it exports. 

When \vc visited that important interior city in July 1002 , its 
mayoi- was Mr, Raymundo E. Correa an intelligent and clever man 
and great worker ol" the local progress. 

The municipality of Bragan^a has as seat the city of the same 
name which will soon be connected with the capital of the State by 
railway, i)ai"tly constructed and already in operation. This is a great 
commercial municipality situated in the oceanic region of the State, 
and extending itself from tlie river (;^)ualipuru until the Boranonga 
river. 

11 is bounded in the North by the ocean, in the South by the Ourcm 
municii)ality, in the East by the Vizen municipality and in the West 
by the municipality of Matipurn. Besides those two rivers it has 
the Caete, Arumajo, Aturiahy, Imborahy, Peroba, Arahy, all navi- 
gated by small boats. It is one of the best municipalities from the 
agricultural stand point. Everywhere we can see sugarcane planta- 
tions, rice, beans, corn, tobacco, the latter being a source of wealth 
as it is considered as one of the best in Brazil. 

Cattle raising is carried on to considerable extent in this muni- 
cii)ality, where besides its immense fields all along the Xortli and 
^^'est, has magnificent marines by the seashore which can l)e used 
to advantage for that purpose. 

The seat of the municipality, the city of Braganca, is on the left 
side of the Caete river, on a tract of land slightly inclined. Two 
rivers that limit the city on the North, South and West, — Rio 
Grande and Riozinho — furnish the city with the best desirable 
water. 

The city has 11 streets and 13 lanes. Four of these streets, 
inchuling tlic N'isconde do Rio Hranco one, were lately paved and 
the sewag(i exits cimented. Five of the lanes uuderwent the same 
improveuient and that work keeps ou being done iu the other streets. 

It has six s(iuares called : Generalissimo Deodoro da Fronseca, 
S. Px'uedicto, Matriz, Rei)ublica, Conceiyiio and Santa Rosa de Li- 
ma. 'IMiey are all filled with trees. The Deodoro da Fronseca oue. 
where the municipal palace is, Republica and Conceiyiio have rows 
of beautiful innni^iicii-os trees. 

Tlu! S. hcneijicto, Rcpul)lica, Matriz and Deodoro da I*'onseea 
are surruuded by Ix-atitiful private l)nildini;s. 

Recently an aveiuie was opened, called Anguslo .Moutciu'gi'o, 
nn^isuring :»()() in leiiglh and 1 I in \\i<llli, Ix-giuniug at ixcpublica 
sipiare, and i-iidin^ in the ii\er iJi(t (Irande. Anotliei- aveuue is 



A 



— 211 — 

about to be opened, in a beautiful district and it will be called Sena- 
tor Lemos. That avenue will be crossed by the public; roads : Bacu- 
rytena, Campo de Cima, and Canipo de Baixo. 

For the loading and unloading of cargoes and landing of passen- 
gers, Braganca has four bridges, two in use, one being rebuilt and 
the other in construction. 

The municipal building (City Hall) has 22 metres front, 1>,5() in 
height and 30 metres deep. In it are the courts, the municipal 
council and the different departments of the same council in the 
upper floor and on the ground floor is the jail and the barracks. 
This building was erected in September 1901. 




Dr. Augusto Montenegro. — Governor of the Para State 



Besides the municipal building above mentioned, there are yet in 
the city the building of the public market and the pretty building of 
the school house « Correa de Freitas ». The city is illuminated by 
196 kerozene lamps of an improved model. 

In the municipality of Braganca the local Government established 
a colony under the name of Benjamin Constant, with national and 
Spanish workingmen. This colony was connected with the seashore 



— 212 — 

])y a laihvay nine kilometres long, Decouville system, and is pros- 
pering a good deal. '1' lie mayor of Braganga is Mr. Antonio Pedro 
da S. Pereira, to whose kindness we owe the information we 
gathered. 

This eity will improve a good deal more when the railway which 
runs in lull operation Ml kilometres shall reaeli there. 

i 

'JMic state of Para lias seriously attended to the colonisation pro- 
blem, being worthy of jDraise the interest the Gorvernor of the State, 
Dr. Montenegro has taken in this regard. Here is a list of the 
colonies already emancipated in the several municipalities of the 
Stale of Para. 



COLONIAL NUCLEUS 




Santa Rosa . . . . 
Kerreira I'eiiiia . . . 
Jose tie Alt'iicar. 
liilianga|ty . . . . 

Janctaina 

Benjamin Constant. . 
(Irarija-Aincrifa . . . 
A II nit a (iaribaldi . . 
.Marapanini . . . . 
Jambu-assii . . . . 
Santa Hila do Carana . 

Outt'iiu 

Monte Alegre . . . 
Acara 

Total. 



184 


155 1 


721 


96 


94 


482 


2-21 


221 


1.511 


i45 


143 , 


890 


138 


97 1 


555 


527 


442 i 


2.r)51 


50 


45 


270 


151 


130 


727 


158 


157 


925 


.-)77 


569 


1.980 


22 


(.1w> 


I.-.9 


U 


13 


tiH 


100 


97 


:i32 


30 


50 


181 



2.194 



1.995 11.312 



111 this moment Para disembarassed from that great commercial 
(k'picssion from 1V)00 to 1U02, re-enters an ei-a of activity. Its a<lmi- 
nistration has found the right man in Dr. Augusto Montenegro, llr 
is a clt'\ cr and w ell cducatcMl man, a patriot, niterpri/iiii; but calm, 
tolerant but ciici gctic. This illustrious Ura/.ilian gave to the govern- 
ment of that part of the Ivcpublic a new and sountl impulse, correct- 
ing what was to he corrected, awaking what was tliere to he 
created, clcMitiiig that way the name of the State of Para, in the 
giMicral opinion of the country and placing it in the place it had a 



— 213 — 

right to occiip}' I'or its social, political, economical and commercial 
importance. Tlianks to this able and discreet governor, the great 
northern State went through the events ofa tremendous financial cri- 
sis which the country suffered for over three years without feeling 
much of its bad effects, and now the wealthy State lias recuperated 
its traditional habits of work and productivity, and presents itself 
before the Federation as a model to be followed, and example to sti- 
mulate others. 

The following words with which Dr. Montenegro closed his mes- 
sage to the State Congress in 1902, explain better than any othei- 
document, the miracle of the excellent administration that saved Para 
fi-om the dangers and adversities, which have threatened it of late, 
placing it on the solid ground we found it on those days of our visit 
to that region : 

(( I have employed, he, said, my activit^^ in all the branches in 
which public service is divided. None of the administrative subjects 
have been neglected by me, as I understand that only order and me- 
thod can serve as guides to an administrator, in the midst of the 
complications of a government excessive difficulties brought about 
by a crisis which caused wonder to many and disturbed everybody. 

I have an unshakable faith that the way I traced for myself to 
follow is the only one which will lead us to the raising of the econo- 
mical and financial level of our State and I have confidence that the 
earnest efforts employed will soon be crowned by complete success. 

We must convince ourselves that this is an age of sacrifices, and 
our strict duty is to do them. Later on we will gather the fruit of the 
sound, modest and reflected and at the same time energetic and 
honest politics, that we are at present following. » 

We were eye witnesses of all sorts of results brought to the Para 
State through this benefit polities. The existing anarchy ceased, 
the disturbances that dreamt of dominating the streams of Belem 
ceased also. The laboring tranquility has been re-established, that 
tranquility that generates the public wealth and the welfare of the 
population. The commercial classes recommenced their work of the 
expansion of business, of the re-edification of the credit shaken by 
the late crisis. 

In short : Para by its constant progress, by the political and 
administrative order that presides to-day under the care of a young- 
patriot, learned and honest, as Dr. Montenegro is, occupies now a 
beautiful place at the head of the 20 States of the Brazilian federa- 
tion and everything indicates it will keep its place. 



214 — 



THE STATE OF MARANHAO. 



On a Monday of July, 1902, in the morning we were entering the 
bar of Marauhao on board of the « Pernambuco » of the Brazilian 
Lloyd company. 

At the entrance of the bar there is an ancient bulwark of circular 
form, the work of the Portuguese. The horizon around is lined with 
humble green hills. The city is at the bottom on the left, upon a hill. 
The port is not a favorable one, at least for a ship of deep 
draught. They told us, howevci', that l)ig ships have alreadj' entered 
there. 

What we saw was that the bottom was low. The color of the 
water indicates it. Thick spots delineate from side to side, the neu- 
tre green of the tranquil basin, marking the presence of large sand 
l)anks. The mud thickens with the time and the banks grow larger 
and spoil the port and narrow the canals. 

Our steamer could not penetrate, we 
anchored outside awaiting the high tide. 
From there we could see high ravines 
of red earth, cut straight down. In the 
anchorage there is some animation, there 
are several steamers unloading. A boat 
is starting. It l)elongs to the navigation 
line between S. Lui/. and Caxias. 
Later on our steamer went in. 
XoNV we can sec from near the city, 
that agglonjcratiou of buildings of all 
colors, rose, yellow, blue, white, all lean- 
ing against the mountain. Several 
chimneys let out clouds of smoke that 
dirty the pretty blue of the sky, sing the hynm of industrial labor. 
At the proportion grows nearer the city wc discover other fronts of 
houses, some large, some small, some grouped together, some isolat- 
ed, in the same attitude of going up the hill, sonu' coming down, 
some going up. 

'IMiis city was at one time the most important in the North of lira- 
zil, l)ut UelcMi, the capital of Para State, exceeded it in poi)ulation 
and wealth. It <li<l not exceed it, however, in the lov(> foi' the sciences 




Scniitor Ui;m:I)I(.to Lk.itk 



— ai5 — 

and literiiturc, wliicli the native of MarauliiTo keeps willi jealousy 
and pride, the just pride of i(s intelleetual traditions, that ^ave to the 
capital of the State the title of lira/ilian Athens, title disputed also 
by the State of Bahia. And — curious thing- — it isn't only in that, 
that S. Luiz, capital of Maranhao resembles Jiahia. Its streets and 




S. Luiz. — Tl)e Municipal AduiiiiisUaliou 



inclined plan, its large number of buildings of Portuguese style etc., 
bring recollections of Bahia, the old capital of Brazil, 

There are two capitals of Brazilian States which are not, properly 
said, in the State, that is placed in its continental territor3% but in an 
isolated fragment of it, inside of islands, which more or less geogra- 
phical belong to the State, but, after all, separated by the sea, such 




♦ s 



— :J17 — 

cities present (hat loeculiarity : lliey are insular capitals, heals sepa- 
rated from the bodies they dii-ect : one is Desterro, in the South, the 
other is S. Luiz in the North. 

Like Desterro, also, S. Liii/, lacks the aspects of modern capitals. 
It is, however, the most imi)ortant sea coast city between Recife and 
Belem. 

It was built by the French. A certain Mr. La Ravardiere, founded 
it in KUO and in honor of Louis the thirteenth gave it the name 
of S. Luiz, name it has preserved to this day. 

The city is placed on an uneven ground, with some places lower 
than others. We go up, as we land, b}^ a steep inclined street which 
leads to the Marnnhense avenue. At the left is the governor's palace 
and that of the municipality (the city hall), modest buildings, of the 
time of the Portuguese , and preserved by the administration that 
deems it wiser to invest the State money in schools, gymnasiums, 
etc., than in reforming old buildings. When the conditions of the 
public fonds are better the i-eform of the buildings will be made 
from top to the bottom. 

The governor's palace was formerly a convent. It is an enormous 
building with two floors, treated with care and clean. The main hall, 
decorated with sobriety and decency, is on the upper floor, and 
awaj' inside are the different departments of the Governor's office. 
In the front a large door opens showing the splendid stairway 
entrance of Portuguese marble. The stairway leads to the j^rivate 
office and the different departments of the Government. 

At the side of this building is the City Hall, also with two floors, 
with a front which doesn't display luxury but doesn't cause a bad 
impression to the visitor. We went through the whole building in 
August of 1902. The mayor of the city was Colonel Xuno Alvares da 
Cunha, a pleasant gentleman to whom the city owes great improve- 
ments. Everything we saw was praise worthy. In a part of this 
building is temporarilly installed the local legislature. 

The buildings in S. Luiz have noth ing characteristic, but the 
modern buildings, which are not now in small number, are modi- 
fying in a gaily yvay that tone of antiquity- of the active capital of 
Maranhao. 

The streets are paved and much cleaner than the streets of many 
a city in other States. A large number are of pleasant aspect, and 
unexpected, thanks to the inclination of the soil. 

The administration of the last years , has emploj^ed earnest 
efforts, which the natives of Maranhao must thank for. It ordered 
the transformation of the empty fields into gardens. 



— 218 — 

The licucdicto LciLc sqiuire, lor instaiice, though small is an 
expressive homage to the patiiot whose services to Maranhao can 
never he over compensated. It has a beautiful garden, and is really 
charming in its leal lire of park million. 

In front of the old Carmo convent Nvas also an empty square, 
abandoned, but to-day has been levelled and planted with pretty 
bushes and trees. They call it Joiio Lisboa square, in homage to the 
great Brazilian writer of that name. 




S. I.iii/. — Itt'iit'dicld Lt'ili' Siiiiai't' 



Aiiollicr s(|narc is tlic — Odorico Mcndcs — which prcst'uts the 
same charming asp(»ct. 

Our i)refcrcn('cs, liowevcr, go to the large and beautiful (MUiralvi's 
Dias s(|uarc. 

We \\ ill now make a lilMc opening : 

In (Im! South the s<|uares ai-c christcnt'il with nauics (»r generals 
and admirals. Tln'i-c in S. laii/ ( licy prefer 1 lie uanu's of i»()»'ls and 



— 219 — 

literary men. It is a little exteriorisation ol" the son! ol' lliose people. 
Ex-abiindancisL enim cordis os loquitur, (the mouth speaks of the 
one whose heart is full), says the book of books. 

But, going- back to oar subject, none ol' those city 's sc^uares pleas- 
ed me as much as the one dedicated to the celebrated poet. It is 
surrounded of palm trees, through which can be seen the figure of 
the poet that so much loved that city. 




S. Luiz. — Goni,alves Dias Momimoiit 



It is placed on an original marble column erected in the centre 
of the square, standing in the attitude of one who contemplates the 
sea. We said original column and will explain why : because it is 
different from all others of its kind, because the column instead of 
surrounded of acantho and oak leaves, has palms as we see in the 
egyptian constructions. It is a new type of column. But let us leave 
the troubadour where he is surrounded by his favorite palm trees, 
as he said in his verses 



— 220 — 

.\esse logiir solilario 

Sen fudario 
I)e ver o mar se recreia ; 
De o ver a tarde dormenie, 

Doceiiiente 
Suspirar na braiica areia 

(III tli:il Iniii'ly |ilace liis Intal lol liiids rcL-rcalion in (•oiilcmiplaliiig llic sea: in iodkiny 
al il in swccl sici'ii sij^liini; on llic while sand.) - 

Let us go on visiting the city. 

In one of the angles of the square they are finishing a pretty and 
large church of gotliic stj^le, which is going to be one of the deco- 
rations of the citv and \\ ill he called our Lad\- dos Renicdios. 




I 



-di^^^j^. 



-«^ 



S. I.ni/, — domes ile (lasli'u Avenue 



Cotilrasling willi Iho old streets, new streets ar(> hciug torn wide, 
witli rows of trees and they will sjx'ak in the riiture well deserxed 
l)ralses to tlii^ prescuit administration. 

Among them we mention the (Jonies de Castro Avenue, wide and 
level, with a nice display of illuminat itui and preltx ti-ees. 

Among lh(^ hnildings worthy of note we will eite tlieS. liUi/ 
theali-e, a large Imihling reeentlx rehiiill, with e;ii>;ieily to seal IdOi) 
people and nieel\ riirnished. 'The enrlain was painted l>y Coliva a 
seenographei- ol' repute in Kio de .laneiro. The inleiior has a fine 
UHj)ect un«l four rows of hoxcs. 



— 221 — 

In tlie broad vestibule we sec fine oil paintings, pictures of cele- 
brated writers and actors. 

The Campo de Ourique barracks, enormous building- is note woi-- 
thj^ because of its large proj^ortions, though it is not so for its arclii- 
tecture. 

The city is crossed by street railway lines, and though to-day the 
trams are drawn by animal traction, arrangements are being made 
to introduce electricity. There is a company supplying the water for 




S. Liiz. — Reading-room of tlie Public Library 

the city, conveniently sent through pipes, and another one furnish- 
ing hidro-carbonic gas for the illumination. 

* * 



According to statistics data of 1899, there were in the city 29 dry 
goods houses and groceries, 181 retail groceries, 5 hardware stores, 
6 grain exporters, (3 sugar export houses, 18 lumber yards, 22 shoe 
stores, 14 lime stores, 7 sewing-machines stores, H mineral waters, 
1 powder, 8 crockery, 3 bric-a-brac, 3 coal, 10 cigar stores, 2 billiard 



— 222 — 

rooms, 'io bakers, 1 1 sugar refineries, 2 livery stables, o book stores, 
I auctioneers, 5 licnior stores, 20 butchers, and 12 pork merchants. 
There are also, 7 private schools for boys, 5 for girls, 29 professors 
of languages and sciences, 3 of drawing, 2 of book-keeping, 11 of 
music, ~> civil engineers, 1<) i)Iiysicians, 2 dentists, 8 pharmacies, 
14 lawyers, solicitors, 35 compositors, 3(5 book-keepers, 1 ste- 
nographer, 23 tailor shops, 23 barber shops, 8 trunk manufactur- 
ers, 20 tinsmith shops, 26 shoemakers, 26 cabinetmakers, 21 dress- 
makers, 10 goldsmiths , 3 boiler makers, 4 stone-jewellers, 1 calker, 
1 watch makers, 7 ironsmiths, 1 images maker, 1 wooden-soled shoes 
manufacturers, 6 coopers, 5 music instruments manufacturers, 1 
matrasses maker, 1 sadler, 2 engravers, 3 undertakers, 2 hotels and 




S. l.iii/,. — S' Aiil(iiiini) s CImrcli and si|iiaro 



boariling houses, 3 pliotographers, 8 pi-in(iug offici's, 1 i)ian() tuners, 
1 gilder, 3 builders, 6 binders, 8 stevedores, 1 upholster, 2 iron foun- 
dries, 5 lighters owners, 12 boat owners, 2 shipyards and (juitc a 
number of factories. 



* 



Industry, Commerce, Navigation. — One thing that can't help 
being referred to by tlie visitoi- if he has lo sjicak al)()u( the city, is 
the number relatively lai-ge nf lactories workiug in S. Lui/. Cotton 
mills alon(i we counted six, and still there ar(i two other threading 
mills, one h'ad factory, oiu', crockiu-y, one matches, six rice, five 
olive oil factories, three alcoholic di'inUs distiUej's, one shoe, two 



— 223 — 

candle, two hat and two umbrella manufacturers, two factories of 
ladies liats, two chocolate, seven fire works, two hosiery, six soap 
and six vinegar factories, and two steam saw-mills, 

There are three l)anks in S. Luiz, and among- othci- entcjrjjrizes 
there are two railway companies and the navigation ones which 
carry to far away cities alongshore the proof of Maranhao's activity. 

They are the « Companhia Fluvial Maranliense », and the « Com- 
panhia de Navegaciio a Yapoi' ». 

The latter the most important one, is sul)si(lizcd by the fede- 
ral government, sends its steamers as far as Manaos and Rio de 




S. Luiz. — View of a Part uf the u rua do Sol « 



Janeiro, being the owner of the following steamers : Oriente, Occi- 
dent e , Colombo, Cabral , and Continente , lately received from 
Europe, and for the river navigation the tug-boats : Mearim, Gomes 
de Castro, Caxiense, Ypiranga and Maranhense, and 26 boats to be 
towed and seven lighters. 

The Companhia Fluvial Maranhense, subsidized by the State 
government with 36 contos yearly devotes itself altogether to the 
river navigation for which service it has five small steamers : 
Vianna, Victoria, Barao de Grajahii, Goncalues Dias and Lidador 
and eight lighters. 

The Grajahu river navigation not long ago considered impracti- 
cable, was inaugurated two years ago, by this company. These two 



— 224 — 

enterprizes, that luivu rciidcred so iiian\- useful services to tlie pro- 
gress of the State , sliow at tlie same time the aptitude of the 
natives of Maranliao, for business and industrial pursuits. 

We will now give a table of the enterprises established at present 
in Maranliao according to tin; information of Mr. Fram Pacheco : 

Local Enterprizes Capital realized 

Banco do Maraiihao - 1.3o0:000§00n 

Banco Criiiiiucrcio do Maranhao 1.551:."00Sii00 

Banco Hypotliecario e Commercial do Maranhao . . i.0"20:000S000 

Coni|iaiiliia Fabril Maranhcnse 1.700:OOn§(ion 

Ciiin|i;iiiliia Fia(;ao c Tecidos do Rio Anil I ..")7o:()it0.5;OOn 

Cdnipaiiliia de Navega(^ao a Vapor do Maranliao. . . {.."iOOiOOOgOOO 

(lomiianliia Fiarao e Tecidos Marenlicnso I.200:000§000 

Companliia Fiayao e Tecidos de Canliamo .... 900:0000000 

Companliia Manufactureira e Agricola do Maranhfio . 890:n00§fl00 

Companliia I iiiao CaxicMiso 8o0:000S000 

Companliia Progrosso Agricola 7."i:200S000 

Companliia (le lllnminarao a Gaz r)iO:000§000 

Companliia Imliislrial Caxionse .■iO0:O0OSO0O 

Cainpaiiliia (las Agiias S. Lni/. 4ti:000SO00 

Companliia Fluvial Maranhcnse 15(J:000§000 

Companliia FciTo Carril Maranliciiso i00:0n0§()00 

Comiianliia Santa Amelia (aniiga I.anilicios) .... ,"500:0O0S0OO 

Companliia de Seguros Maranliense 2r)0:000§000 

Campanliia Industrial Maranliense 2."^7:7i0S()0O 

Companliia Alliama 2I0:000,S<H)0 

Companliia Popular Segnradora i'(iO:000§00(t 

Companliia Fsiiia Caslello 1()0:000§0U0 

Companliia Fahrico de Ciiiimbo i.-iOiOOOSOOO 

Companliia de Segnros KsperaiK.a IOO:OnO§0(iO 

Companliia Teleplioniea iOiOOOSDOO 

Kiigeiilio d'Agiia, em Caxias ri.'iOindO^OOii 

Fmpre/a Tecelagem S. Lniz o()0:000§;000 

Empreza Fabrica de Phosplioros 270:000S000 

Fsiiia Henaseoiiea, em Pericnman i:i0:000S()()0 

Kmpre/.a Sanliaro, em Caxias 100:0(>0§00() 

i8.416:830$000 
As to railways there are two in Maranhao : 

I''roin Caxias to Cajazeiras. . . . 7'.» kilometres 
l''roni I'liigcnho Central to S. Pedro, it) kilometres 

The one fi-om Caxias to Araguaya is now being eojist rnettMl and 
will be 1S"J kilometres long. 



225 



PlIU.IC IxsTIilCTION AM) (J I'l/IT RK . — \\'(; will HOW l^ivc SOlllC 

inroriiKition on the institutes oT puljjie instruetion in tlie capital. 

Tlie first place l)elon<;s to the grand literary temple w Inch is its 
Public Libi-ary. It is installed in a (Jovernment building-, the halls 
are airy, roomy and well illuminated. They are tilled with wooden 
bookstands containing 10, 000 volumes carefully watched over by 
the librarian, Mr. Antonio Lobo, who organised its catalogue. lie is 
one of the most competent men in Brazil for this branch of woi-k, not 
only because of his scientific cultui-e, but because of his special 
knowledge on l)ibliogra]>hy and librarianshi}), so well in evidence^ in 
his work while directing that establishment. 




S. Luiz. — Part of the « rua dos Kemedios » 



One of the good innovations of the Maranhao Library, is the 
ladies section, where a special collection for them is to be found, 
consisting mainlj^ of vulgarisation books, fashion papers, books on 
art and household affairs, etc. 

Another institution we visited with great pleasure was the Model 
School, founded by Dr Benedicto Leite, Senator, political-chief and 
now governor of the State. We were there on a weekday, it was the 
4th. of Septembre 1902. The establishment was filled with pupils. They 
presented an appearance of contentment. The professors in the class 
rooms, taught them wise teachings of universal knowledge, handled 
the specimens of the natural history- cabinet', the complicated vases 
of the chemistry laboratory, while in other halls the pedagogy profcs- 



— 226 — 

sors gave lessons ol' things by the Froebel system, explaining solid 
bodies, its forms, etc., in a practical way showing the objects to the 
pupils. And one hundred heads of all shades, from the light blonde to 
the darkest brunette, attentive, with bright looks, accompanied the 
rythm of that grave ceremony, the most grave and most beautiful, 
of the State's performance of duties — to transmit ideas and notions 
to the young brains thirsty for knowledge. They all listened with at- 
tention and pleasure to the professors teachings. And how the State 
cares seriously for the mission it undertookjto perfoi-m ! It suffices 




l.;ii'LM' Miiiiiilaclorv of coHuii tissues i< .Mamil'aclnra C.axieiise » 



<o say that (lie diriu-tor of tliat establishment is a man of prominciu'C 
in i)oliti('s and in opposition to the government, but he was a compe- 
tent man, and tliat drawback was overlooked, as comi)ctency was the 
only i('(|iiircnicnl to be exacted from him to be entrusted with that 
position. 'I'liis is an institution that lionors Maranhao. It has i-abi- 
nets and laboratories for the study of natural history, physics, che- 
niisti-^W it has a pedagogic museum, gymnast ie apparatus, (modern 
gymnastic) sewing and ladies woi'ks section, ete. 

'I'lie nnisie school I'cccutly founded is a good institute ft)r artistic 
teaching and it is under the direi-tion of the maesti-o A, Kayol. 

i'ui)lic instruction is administered thi-ongh tlu' State by "JIT gram- 



— 227 — 

mar schools, and a few high schools, in the capital, as t lie .Mai-anhense 
Lyceum, Theological Seminary and others. 
There are in the ca^jital Hi private schools : 

For girls (j 

For boys 10 

Total. . .10 
which were frequented in 1902 by 1.085 scholars : 

Boys 180 

Girls 605 

Total. . . 1.085 




S. Luiz. — Da Misericordia Hospital 



The S. Luiz city is one of the Brazilian cities where the Portu- 
gaese element has established deeper roots. Just as Rio and Bahia 
it presents to the visitor in its buildings and many of its customs 
and even in the large number of negroes in relation to the total of 
population, just so many recollections not easily forgotten of the 
passage of the Portuguese colonist in those regions. Xot long ago 
J. Leitiio, a Portuguese journalist wrote : « In Maranhilo the vestige 
of our colonisation is recognised even by the vices of Portuguese 
language and by our provincialisms adopted by them. » 

Another foreigner observer, Mr. Temple, the English consul in 
his official report on the State of Maranhao wrote : (( There are in 
the interior a large number of Indians in their primitive state, at 



— 228 — 

the same time that the proportion of negroesinthe cities and civilis- 
ed si)Ots, due to the large importation of slaves in i)ast years, is 
pei-haps larger in Maranhno than in any other state of Brazil, 
('X('('i)ting Hahia. » 

The illnstrious wi'itcr Fram Paeheeo, who so hriliiantly edits in 
Maranhao the Renisla do Xorlc, eonimenting this remark of the 
J':ng]ish consul in his report, wrote in his turn the following para- 
graph , which corrohorates our assertion : «. The excess of negroes, 
stated by the English consul, is, unfortunately for us, true, 'i'his 
race, indolent and full of vices, though extremely affectionate, em- 
bodies the main drawback of the progress of this State as well as 
that of liahia, whereto even to-day a large number of negroes go. 
'i'hese two States need an earnest irrigation of white blood, if per 
chance they arc thinking of their future society. » 

Then, the representatives of European descent, the most apt, 
the most competent, emigrate, also go too in search of i)laces far 
away from Maranhao, like Para, Amazon, Rio and S. Paulo to deve- 
lop their activity. It is in that way that we see Arthur Azevedo, 
Coellio Xetto, Aluizio, Aarao Reis and many, many others are fil- 
ling with the l)rilliancy of their names the cultured life of the great 
centres. 

The same phenomenon happens in larger proportions in Hahia. 
A\'e went all through Brazil from North to South and did not find 
a city where in the group of prominent men there should not be at 
least one native of Bahia. In some places they monopolise the good 
situations and the most profitable professions, carrying thus the 
contribution of their talent and their activity, to the work of evo- 
lution and progress of the country, while their original i)rovince 
marches slowly in such a feeble i)aee that it seems stationary. 

'IMie remedy to count erbalani'e the inconveniences of this pheiu)- 
menon, would be, in ouroi)inion, and in that of the writer 1 refer- 
red to above, to increase iMiropean immigi-ation, to transfuse, into 
the race; weakened by African crossing, a regenerating current of 
Arian blood as Fram Pacheco very well said: The duty ol tliose who 
govern, each day more urgent, each day more needed, is, to j)romote 
a strong cun-enl of immigration from the people of latin civilisa- 
tion, and also the germanic oiu^ as well. The centre, the West, and 
the North of l>i'a/.il need, xcry much indeed, to he excnly distri- 
buted through a general plan, in comliinat ion witii tlie l"'edera! and 
t he diriei-cnl St at es govern men t s. » 

* * 



__ 225) 

The State li-oops consist of one infanli'v batuUioii \\illi KIO men 
commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel, and a detaclimcnt of 20 men 
cavalry. They liave fine uniforms, and maintain perfect discipline. 

S. Luiz is illuminated by hydro-carbonic gas, but soon will have 
electricity. 

VTe hope that under the wise direct administration of Govei-nor 
Dr Benedicto Leite, we will soon see Maranhao (juitc transformed 
and improved, occupying- an honoi'abl(! place among the coast cities. 
And we have so many more reasons for hoping so because we 
know^ that State has resources, large and numerous natural resour- 
ces to exist and grow larger and richer among the richest of thQ 
Brazilian States. 



THE STATES OF PIAUHY AND CEARA 



Really, we ought not to include Piauhy in the number of the 
maritime, or coast States. It has but a short extension of coast in 
proportion of its territorial surface, and even in proportion of its 
river banks having, as it has, the long and strong Parnahyba. 

Whoever looks at the map of Brazil will understand fully well 
what we mean : the Piauh^^ has the configuration of a bean shell, 
crossed by ridges of mountains, and the stem of which, inclined 
towards the Atlantic, is formed by that tract of coastland between 
Amarracao and the mouth of the Parnahyba. This short coastland is 
all that Piauhy can show to pretend to be included in the number of 
the maritime States of the Union. 

There is no large anchorage place — that of Amarracao being, 
we might say , devoid of any conditions of development. — So 
that , its true port, the actual organ of appropriation and outlet 
of the State, is its small city of Parnahyba, in the fluvial coast 
where also is Therezina. 

All the territorial body of Piauhy, is an interior region, just as 
Goyaz and Minas. 

Piauhy has not been able to follow the progress of the other 
maritime States, neither has it in the Federation the importance 
corresponding to its territorial extension, larger than that of Sao 
Paulo, Pernaml)uco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Ceara and 
others, just to cite only the most advanced, Piauhy being the eighth 
State of Bi-azil in the order of the total surface. 



— 230 — 

Its population, however, does not accompany the same propor- 
ti(m. In all the State there are only .'iSO.UOO inhabitants. Although 
the eighth in the list lor its size, is it the sixteenth for the density 
of its i)oj)ulation. 

The short shore of Piauhy ^vhic•h I went tlirough in I'.'d'J makes no 
difference with that between the North of Parahyba . liio (rrande, 
Ceara and South of Maranhiio. It is of one single physiognomy, low 
and melancholic, developed in extensive sheets of sand interrupted 
here and there at long spaces by small and poor carpets of that 
lickety vegetati(m of the sandy land. The sea is relatively low, filled 




Tlii'iT/.iiia. Aqiii(l;il)Mii Siiuari" and Oiialni t\v Sctciiibro Tlicatri,' 



with sand banks, and unsteady crowns, but the waters are of peculiar 
hues running all the full i-angc of the green color from the very 
lightest to the darki-sl. 

Tliat st retell of shoi'e l)elonging to Piauhy, is formed, almost 
eompletely, by the, roast Of an island called llha (Jrande, which 
closes, as il \\ ilh h cork, the narrow neck of the territory of Piauhy 
iiinicd to tlie ocean, and it is in it, a little further alieail towards the 
North, that the small bay called Tutoya, is to be found. This is a 
forced point where the coast navigation calls, and h:is heen for some 
lime dispuletl liy iwo States, MaianliHo and Piauli.\ . 

It is a small shell ei-e<l aiiclioi-age w ilh green and low banks, w licr«' 



— 231 — 

there are but a few hamlet k, and a lew stores and stoi-a^^c Ii()iis(!s. To 
be sure, before long- we will sec there a eoniinercial city, one of 
those generated and developed by the navigation. Modern elements 
for the blessed struggles of progress and civilisation. 

Where does its name, Piauliy, come from ? The hisloi-ical name, 
according to whattheoldhistoriansandgeographci-s wrote was Tiagui. 
Thus it was also written by the celebrated Sebastiao da Rocha Pitta. 

He describes, in that peculiar style of his whicli is a pleasui'e to 
translate, the very beginning of Piagui or Piauhy, a follows : 

(( By this time the extension of lands in which we had penetrated 



"1 




Tliereziiia. — S. Benctlictu's Church 



in the interior of this region was amplified still a little more than in 
1671 when it was discovered the places denominated Piagui, a large 
tract of land which is at ten degrees from the North , beyond the 
S. Francisco river towards Pernambuco in the continent of that 
province and not very far from Maranhao. It took the name of a 
river which was so poor that it ought not to have one to give awaj'. 
This river only runs when there is rain , and in summer dries up 
leaving a pool here and there. The same liapi)ens with six other lit- 
tle rivers which bath that region. These are, the Caninde, the Itaim, 
the S. Victor, the Piiti, the LongajeH and the Piraciiriica. They, 
however, through several ways, more or less contribute to the swel- 



— 2:i2 — 

ling- of the Parnaliyba, river, ^vhieh , with them, reaeh the opulent 
ocean in the coast of Maianhao. » 

The ex-provinee of Piauhy, aceording to the political statute 
agreed upon all over the republic, was organized as an Estate on the 
i;3th.()f June 1892, and divided its territory in ol municipalities, each 
with a mayor, a legislative council, 17 districts with 18 judges (the 
cai)ilal having two) 'W) wards and jJl judiciary districts : Amarante, 
Amariacao, Apparecida, Alto Longa, Barras, Bom Jesus, Burity 
dos Lopes, Belcm, Campos Salles, Campo Maior, Castello, Corrente, 
Floriano, Itaniaraty, Jaicos, Jurumenha, Ijivramento, Ociras, Par- 
nahyba , Parnagua , Patrocinio , Paulista, Peripery, Piracuruca, 
Picos, Porto Alegre, Regeneracao, Santa Philomena, S. Joao do 




Mew of a pari of the eilv of l'aiiiali>l)a 



Piaiiliy, S. IJaynuindo Nonnato, Santo Antonio de (Jill)ocs, There- 
zina (ca])italj, Uniao and \'alenca. 

Its i)rincii)al ])roducts and industries arc : cattle iof all kinds), 
cotton, grains, skins, dyeing estahlishincnls, tol»aci'o. sugar t-anc 
hi'andy, siigai', l)ii(ter, cheese, building lumber, carnalnil)a wax, 
manicoba and mangabeii-a-trees rubber, fowl, coj)ahyba oils, coitiMi 
seed, I'osins essences and others, 

'I'lic Stat(! Legistative Congress is composed of -j l iiicml)crs, serv- 
ing terms (if foiw years. It has four Congi-cssmcn and three sena- 
tors lo reprcseiil it in the Xalional ('ongi'css. 

its Capital is 'I'lierczina, situated on the i-iglil l)aiik of llie 
Parnahyha river. It is a small luil piclty eily, divided into bJ 
districts and two |i:iiislies, .\ini)ain and Our Lady das Dorcs. It 



— 233 — 

has a population of about 25.000 inhabitants, and was founded in 
185'2. It has about 2.000 liouses (not including- small hamlets), 
20 streets, Avide and straight, some with trees, seven large scpuires, 
three churches and several public buildings. 

Among- those the best are : The Government palace, State and 
Municipal legislature buildings. State troops barracks, Court House, 
Board of Health, Public Works, Lyceum, Official printing Office, 
Public ^Market, Jail, « (^uatro de Setcmbro )> theatre, Treasury, 
Post Office, Telegraph (in a private house), Kegulai- troops barracks, 
City Hospital, and two pretty cemeteries. 




Piauliy. — Cily of Parnaliyba , rua Grande 

There are : a cotton mill with 120 looms, in a building occupying 
an area of 500 metres, a steam foundry, a soap factory, one shelling 
and pressing cotton factory, a fluvial navigation steamship company, 
having- three steamers, there being also other private steamboats, 
one maritime insurance compan3% a Lyceum with all the privileges 
of the Xational Gj^mnasium and which is frequented by 400 students. 



The city of Parnahyba, which took the name of the principal 
river of the State, is to-day the most important city after the Capi- 
tal, onlj' as to its commerce which is developing on a large scale. It 
is situated on one of the banks of the Igaussu river, one of the 



— •234. — 

affluents of the Parnaliyba rivei-, lo kilometres away fi-oui the river 
and 80 from the Capital. It lias some pretty buildings, a good tele- 
phonic net, and, lik(! the Capital is illuminated with kerosene oil. 

Tiiei'e is a Custom House and Port Department, iind its popu- 
lation is of aI)out 10.000 inhabitants. 

In this cify amongst oth(;r good buildings, must be mentioned the 
Charity Hospital, maintained by a private civil association. Parna-' 
hyba, however, is not so young as Therezina and other cities of the 
State. It was already a village in 1761 and was officially installed on 
the 26th of August 1762. B,y a provincial law of the 16th of August 
1844 it became a city, much before the foundation of the capital. 

It has only one parish : Our Lady da Graca, whose image the 
natives of Parnaliyba adore in the church of the same name, a 
modest old temple, of no great value either as to its size or archi- 
tecture. The city is divided into three police precincts. 

Okikas. — If the above city is noted by its commerce, thanks to 
its position, between the capital and the external markets, Oeiras 
is noted by its historical past, its material advancement, and its 
population, the largest of the State, excepting Therezina, having 
about 20.000 inhabitants as per the 1902 census. It has had formerly 
the honors of Capital. 

.lust as Parnaliyba it is not one of the youngest cities. AVith the 
peculiar name of Mocha or Moxa, an indigene name, was already a 
village in June 1712, and in the year 1761 was elevated to city, the 
metropolis giving it the illustrious name of a noble Portuguese city — 
Oeiras, — which it has preserved until to-day, which is right. We 
see no reason why geogra])hical names should be changed with the 
feminine frivolity of changing fashion styles as it is done in South 
America. 

Regarding the foundation of that old city (ancient only in rela- 
tion to the Capital) we find in a noted chroniclei* of the colonial 

times the following interesting paragraph : cc it is a village 

that the extremely serene king I). .loao Vordered to be founded by 
Di". Vicente Leite Rijjado, Ouvidor do Maranhiio (ouvidor was an 
ancient official position) and the latter did so in 17 IS invocating Our 
Lady da N'icloria an<l Moxa tlit^ name of (he place where it was 
built. )> 

To-da,\' (>ciras is a jyicl urcsipu^ city witli the kind and calm pliy- 
siogiioiiiN of I hose interior cil ies, when the cosmopolitan fcrmenta- 
tioii has not as yet saturated its structure making l)ursl thrcMigh it 
th(! n()is(; of the sea-shore cities entirely mixed up, disturbed and 
clianged. 



— 235 — 

It is divided into ioiu- policial i)recincts : Oeiras, Sanio I^^iiacio, 
Terceiro and Quarto, all iorniing- one sinj^h; ])ai'ish, nani(;d Our Lady 
da A'ietoria, the same church of the foundation oT the city, the popu- 
lation of which as ])er the 18'.)2 census was 1'.>.<S50 inhabitants, to- 
day having- some 'J.'j.oOo. There are in tliis city 2689 houses, '.'> chur- 
ches and 7 schools. 

Amaraxte, — is the third city of the State. Its population is 
of 15.525 inhabitants, 7.012 men and 7.U13 women. It occupies the 
third place not only on account of its population, but l)ecause of its 
active commerce in the region of which it is the seat. It is situated at 
the bar of a small river called Mulato, and was elevated to the rank 
of city in August 1871. 

Yalexca. — There is also a city of this name in Piauhy, and 
though in its size and industrial importance may be quite at a 
distance from the city of the same name in Bahia, it is worthy of 
mention because its population by the last census is I3.7(>1 inhabi- 
tants. The last census was taken in 1900 and the above number 
includes the inhabitants of the surrouding municipalities of which 
Valenca is the seat. Situated on the bank of a small rivulet called 
Catinguinha, it had this name for a long time, but in October 1701 
was elevated to the rank of a village, and adopted the present name. 
It is at 42 leagues distance from Therezina and consequently it is 
easy to imagine how slow it will be in its development. It is divided 
into three districts, forming the parish of Xossa Senhora do O'. 
(Our Lady of the O'.) 

Marathoax. — It comprises three districts; parish (Our Lady 
of the Conception). Nossa Senhora da Conceicao das Barras de 
Marathoan. Population 12.384 inhabitants. 

Campo-Maior, — is one of the best cities of Piauhy, which, in 
truth, if we are to be exacting it, has only one city which deserves 
that classification — it is the Capital. — The others are nothing 
but groups of houses, with a larger or smaller number, without the 
least importance, and all of them with but little energy, contribu- 
ting but little to the development of the national production and 
wealth. 

Campo-Maior, being one of the best cities of Piauhy, has no more 
than 350 buildings worthy of the name, forming eight streets and two 
squares which have neither garden nor jDavement. In the surround- 



— 2:{fi — 

ing neigliborliood is a place called Gcnipapo where on the 'Joixl 
of Marcli, 1S2;> there Mas a friglitfnl encounter between Brazilians 
and the Portuguese colonial troops of the metropolis. 

The niunicii)ality of which Canipo-Maior is the seat, extends 
itself thiougli a tract of land generally level, covered, in a large 
poition of it, with cai'naiiba-trccs. From South to Xoi'tii it is bathed 
by the I>onga ii\er, which starts from there and after a 50 league 
course runs into the Parnahyba. In that Longa valley run the 
following tributaries belonging to the municipality : — Sorubim, 
Genipapo, Marathoan, Titaras, Riacho Fundo, Corrente, and others 
of smaller importance. Its climate is warm and dry, cooled by a 
most healthy constant ventilation. The soil is rich and fertile. 

At present lliey cultivate there : mandioca, corn, rice, beans, 
sugar cane, but these only for the maintainance of the population. 
There are mines in these regions l)ut they never were exploited. 
The principal industry is cattle raising, which is done in a lai-gc 
scale, but by slow and backward i^rocesses. Often in the dry season 
the dryness is such that it nearly exterminates the cattle which is the 
only fortune of the State. In this like in other municipalities for 
some years past there has been a rapid decrease in this industry, 
and if it keeps on like that it is easy to foresee its end, and this is 
due to the negligence of the population of the interior. Its com- 
merce, nearly all done w ith ^Nlaranhao and Parnahyba markets, is 
small, due to the lack of transportation facilities, which is all of it 
made by animals. Its exports are — cattle, skins, cheese and other 
dair}' products, and carnahuba-tree wax. This latter industry has 
been somewhat developed. The Campo-Maior city is situated "JO 
leagues at the east side of the Capital, on the banks of the Sorubim, 
in the centre of vast fields of an indescribable beauty. It is one of 
the oldest cities of Piauhy. 

Campos Sai.lks, — is a small and modest village. It is named 
after the last i)resident of Brazil and cousc(|ueutly of recent date. 

11 was a small place settled l)y a i)ro\iuciaI law in August IS."."!, 
under tluMiauie of Hatallia.lt was elevated to the rank of village 
in 18*,i") and, as we said above, in honor of President Camjjos Salles, 
whose term was 1898-1902, changed its name. 

This pretty village is situated at (lie Norlli of the Stale of Piauliy, 
and is Ixtiiud at the east l)\ tlie iimuicipalilies of Piraeuruea and 
Piripei-y, at the North by lluiitx dos Loix's, at I lie W Csl and South 
!>y Harr:is. It has a pleasant eliiiiatc. This !iiiiiiiei|)alit v is hallied by 
the LoMgn liver, which comes from the upper Louga municipality 



i 



— 2'M — 

and i-ims (lironoli the lumiicipulilics of (';ui)i)()-Mai()r, tlie Karras 
river which serves i)artly to separate tliis municipality Ironi tlic last 
one of the otliers and follows hy Harras do liono;', till the Parnahyba 
rivei-. The other one is the river Mattos which bathes (his munici- 
pality and runs to the Lon<;a river. The Piracuruea river is also an 
affluent of the Lon^a, runnin<-- into it in a place called Barra, sei-v- 
ing tliere as boundary line with Piracuruca municipality. 




Piauhy Types. — A co\v-koe|)ei" 



Xone of the rivers of the h)cality are navigable. The dry seasons 
scourge this municipality destroying its agriculture, tliougli in some 
places there are some strong springs of fresh water to wet large areas 
of land. At a distance of one or one and a half league fi'om this 
village are the places called Brejos de Cima, and Brejos de Baixo 
and S. La/aro, which, if regularly cultivated, and in any of them 
established an industrial concern for the manufacturine- of 
sugar and sugar cane brandy, would produce sufficiently, not 



238 



only to supply that district but the whole State. Its poi)uiation. 
however, just like the interior population of the other States laek 
activity. Campo-Maior lias also (!Xtensive territory filled with rieh 
woods, among- which are the followin<r varieties, yet none are 
exported : cedar, piquiseiro , pan d'arco , jacaranda, tacajuba, 
aroeira, violet, uniburana, tamboril, bacury and many others. 



THE STATE OF CEARA 



Ey the sea-shore in a stretch where it justifies the assertion of the 
great poet : — brave green seas — there is an enormous sheet of 
snow-white sands, a sad brightness of long shores, which arc tln^ 
coasts of old Iturema, to-day Ceara. 

It is a desolate immense sea-shore , spreading for leagues and 
leagues white sand, here lowly with slight ondulations, there in 
hilly form, horrible with all its barrenness. 

In that sandy band, surrounded by it, threatened each day by the 
approximation of its moving ondulations, men settled a group of 
houses in lOl'J, and it has resisted and grown, and to-day is Forta- 
leza, the Capital of one of the Brazilian States. 

Jt is not the Portuguese but the Dutch who are responsible for 
that bad selection of that spot for a city which has to defend itself 
from the sands. 

It may l)e that the port was the cause, the motive of its selection. 
It is possibly so. It maj' also be, that attlie time that Mathias Beck, 
the foundei- of the city, came there, the Ceara coast offered in that 
place a deep and sheltering bay, the ups and downs of sand which 
dance to-day so horribly by the music of the southern winds, may 
be that they were then firm, subjugated, pressed by the trium- 
phal vegetation of the mango and cocoanut trees. All these are 

guessings The reality of to-day is that the sea l)cats those sliorcs 

spreading the dust of those sands, so fine, l)ut so Itarrcu and so 
warm. The ti-ees dried up, its trunks <licd, tiic roots lia\ c disap- 
peared and in an extensive baud of the coast, between the ridge of 
mountains and the sea, dominates this arid, lyancn spot, um-on- 
sc-ious of th(! rcsi(hu's from the old i-ocks and the lliirstN sands lliat 
intimidate man and defy the ocean. 

Once hindcd, the visitoi' cannot sec liic city williout o\crconiing 
a kin<l of sand han-icr tliai separates it from the sea. lie goes over 
astrelcli which is not yi!t, i)roi)crly the city, goes up an inclined 



— 239 — 

streetlike plan, leaving- at the right a large building of military 
architecture, abandoned, but in perfect state of preservation, leaves 
also at the side the Sailors School and walking a few steps more 
he will be in a wide square filled with trees, and there the large 
cathedral is, with its cross aisle in the middle of the churchyard and 
surrounded by railing. i 

The city spreads itself beyond in a plan which is several metres 




Fortaloza. — I'ublic Market 



above the sea, with its streets, all straight and wide, clean and 
unobstructed. 

About 50.000 inhabitants live there. The buildings have nothing 
characteristic, but are well cared for, and in the majority tliej- are 
one floor houses. In the streets Formosa, Marechal Floriano and 
nearly all the others there are fine houses with upper stories. But 
it is in the suburbs of Benifica, Mororo, and others, all very health}'^ 
places, that the best buildings of modern architecture can be seen. 



* 



— 24U — 

Tlic t^encnil aspect of the eity is guy and pretty. To ii eertaiu 
extent Fortuleza contrasts wiili the other caj)itals of the cohmial 
times, \)y the synietrx' and alignenient of the streets whicli reminds 
one of a chcss-ljoard. 

As to the i)iihlic Ixiiidings, \vc can mention the foHowing which 
pleased us most : 

The public market, a new building of cast iron, built b\ the pre- 
sent mayor is one of the best in the North. 

It is a little largei- than the Manaos one, but is already becoming 
unsufficient for Fortaleza, and has the peculiarity, (we don't know 
if advantageous or incovenient), of being situated right in the centre 
of the city, and not on a corner as it happens in Manaos, Belem, 
Recife, Santos, Bello Horizonte, Porto Alegre and other cities. 

As to its construction , is perhaps the most ai'tistic of all of 
them, though not so large as any of them excepting the ^Manaos one. 

The Xormal College, inaugurated during the government of 
Colonel Bezenil, is an elegant two story, modern style building, 
facing the square from which it is separated by i-ailiug and an aris- 
tocratic gate. 

The Patrocinio Church, a beautiful catholic church, the fi-ont in 
one single body with a high tower at the centre. 

Sagrado Coracao church, near the Liberdade park, has also 
only one centre tower of squai'c basis, in the main body of the front 
and in Uoman style. 

Baturite Kail way station. It is formed by thi'ce different structu- 
res, the centre one being a greek })ortic on four columns. 

House of Deputies or Congress. It is a large two story building 
with a simple form, but not without art and noble aspect. 

Cily Hall building, is also a large two story building w ith six- 
windows and six doors looking and leading to the street in which it 
is built. A stpjare towerlike elevation with a clock and decora- 
tions in the upper part complete the main body of the building, (he 
iiit(M-ior installation of whicli h'aves nothing to be w islicd lor. 

The government Palace, which is also tlu' residence of the 
goxcrnor, as in Rio and in the otiier Stales, is a fine building 
looking ((» (lie small s(]uare where General 'i'iburcio's slatui' is. In 
its interior il is dccoraled with good taste and e\en somewhat 
lu\iii'i(»ns. 

The ('ily Hospital is an enormous buildiui; with windows all 
arotiiid, with onlv one i'looi- but well divid('(l and vci'v neat and 
<-lean in t lie inleiicu'. It has liygii'uic impro\ iMueni s which recom- 
mend il (o public appreciation and praise. 



— 241 — 

Til tlie centre ol" Mar(inez de Herval square, a (iiiile wide sciiiarc 
decorated witli fine trees and surroinided \)\ riiic l)iiildiiios , 
are tlie foundations ol" an enormous theatre now in (lie way of cons- 
truction and which hu'kily was not finislied. We say luckily because 
nevermind how magnificent a building they should i)ul up, il would 
never be worth the hygiene and esthetics of a city the scjuare that 
(m its account would be closed up. This mistake of obstructing the 
large city breathers, whicli are the squares, is a crime that we 
have seen commited in several cities of Brazil. Luckily they did not 
finish the theatre so that the beautiful Marquez de Herval square, 
is destined to be transformed some day into the favorite park of 




Forlaleza. — Building of the Municipal AdniinisUvitioii 



Fortaleza, and is awaiting tranquilly for a mayor who will do with 
it, what the present one did with the Ferreira square, which is 
to-day a beautiful garden named Sete de Setembro square. 

AVe will not forget the barracks of the 2nd infantry regiment, one 
of the best of its kind in the Xorth of Brazil , ^vhere is housed only a 
detachment of soldiers. It belongs to the Federal Government. 

The sight that made us feel happy was the Marine Apprenti- 
ces School installed, however, in a second class building. AVe were 
present at several fencing, marching, ship gymnastics and other 
drills, and we were quite pleased with the degree of technical in- 
struction given to its 170 pupils, who are being prepared, for the 
navy, by their present director Ijieutenant Commander Luiz Lopes 
da Cruz. 



— 242 — 

Descending- from that establishment, the rear part of which looks 
to the sea, lollows that extensive sandy road that margins the 
shore with a tramway line leading to the Custom House, a solid 
stone building always in activity, because, in spite of the bad port, 
Ceara's commerce gives a good income to the Federal Government. 

Among the public gardens of Fortaleza, Ave must cite the one 
called Liberdade, a charming spot; with its small lake and thick fo- 
liage of its little woods. It looked to us that the park had been somc- 




Forlalcza. — (Ivniiiaslii'-rooin of llic Marine A|i|in'iilicos Si-Iumi 



what neglected lately , there were to be seen weeds growing up in 
its streets and the ornamentation work was a little spoilt. They told 
us that the municipality having finished the works of the Scte de 
Setembro Square, was going to direct their attention to that poetic 
si)ol named <( Lil)erdade )>, They ought to los(> no time doin<;- that 
because that Ix-autiful hindscai)e is worth gohl. 

I u the oil KM- augh' of the city thci-c is also a pultlic ^ardt'ii hiid out 
ill three phius, deseeudiug, one after the othei- towards tlie sea. It is 
a pretty litlh- park though more exjjosed to the dust llian theotlier. 
Its streets cross oiu' auother pict ures(|uely aud liere and there some 
uiarl)h' (II' liron/.e gcxhless fixed on a enlumu. is walehiui; us thrdugii 



— 243 — 

the palm fans and over tlic red roses. One of (lie pr(itti(;st of tlie 
streets is the one called Avenida Caio Prado, having- in all its length 
stone benches in the shade of the trees inviting- one to rest a little. 
The vegetation, is live and green even if there is not a great variety 
of it. 

In the city squares there are two statues, the one of General 
Tiburcio and another of General Sampaio. The former as an artistic 
work is the best. It represents the hero in bronze, standing, on a 
square stone basis surrounded by a pretty metallic chain. 

One of the curiosities of Fortaleza which the new arrived sees 
immediately is the numerical superiority of the feminine element. 




Fortaleza. — Statue of General Tiburcio 



Generally the families are large, and wherever there is a gathering 
like public festival, the observer will at once notice that there are 
more ladies than gentlemen present. The periodical emigration ex- 
plains that, but the city has lost nothing- by that so far as its culture 
and progress are concerned. 

The gas, the telephone, the newspapers, the libraries, the several 
clubs, give to Fortaleza an animated and aristocratic physiognomy, 
which fits it very well in the role of Capital of the State. 

The physical appearance of the people, though the population has 
not, in the same degree of southern cities, received the crossing of 
European elements, is, we can affirm, beautiful and noble. 

The types of beauty are many, specially among women of white 
race. They dress with the correctness and elegance peculiar to the 



— 2U — 

European descendants, cultivate their minds in noted proportions 
and like the general type of Brazilian women are endowed with the 
iioblest virtues. The prevailing Iiabits and customs have the beauti- 
liil austerity of tlie cities not yet invaded hy the cosmopolitanism, 
abundant l)()tli in good and evil. 

* 

PunLic Instruction and Social Culturk, — A\'e will now give 
some information about public instruction : 

It is administered l>y several institutes of learning, both gram- 
mar and high schools. 




i"(irl;ikv.;i. — Normiil Collci'L' 



The Lyceum, just as the National (Jymnasium of Rio, has a I'om- 
plete course of the preparatory programme. Tlie Xormal ("ollege is 
exclusively devotetl to the training of teachers. 

I'he Lyceum in llHKi had itU) students and counting the different 
classes they fre(|uented the iuiiiib(M' is :'>().' enti'ies. 

Tlie Normal (U)llege had in I'.K);;, year in wliich we visited that 
institution, TjIS j)U])ils. 

I*i'i\ate instriiclion is administcicd by tlie I'lpiscopal Seminary, a 
college! established in Caninde , iiiuler (he ausi)ices of the monks, 
anotiicf in Lstevao mountain ((^)ui\ada) un(h'r the IJenediel ine 
monks and \>\ many edncalion establishments in the Capital . es|>e- 
cially those of lniniacuhi(hi Conceierio, difeetetl by ladies of the 
S. N'icente de Paulo Congregation, of Nossa Senhoia de Lourdcs, j)f 
raithenon ( 'ea reuse, of (he Cearense ( iymnasiuin, ol the Commercial 
School anil olhei's of smaller imi'oil ance. 



— 245 — 

Tlic ])ul)lic instruction at the oxjx'nse of the Sttit(i goN ('i-iiniciil 
is riirnislicd l"re(5 oi' cliarg'c by 'i.")!) chisscs, lliiis distrihiitcd : 

lu tli(! Capital -2\ 

in the citii's h:\ 

III the villai^cs Hi2 

III IIk' smaller places 70 

being' rre([nented tbns : 

III llie male scliouls 71 

III Hie feiaale seliools 711 

III llie male and I'einale schools . . 100 

The freqnentation ol" students in these schools was dui-ing- tlie 
last five years : 



Years 


StiidiMils 


18!)G . . . 


. . . 9.1^2-2 


1897 . . . 


. . . 9.9rj6 


1898 . . . 


. . . I0.;;72 


I8!l() . . . 


. . . in.. 179 


I'lOO . . . 


. . . II. .-or; 



The public library is in one of the State buildings, and is mu(di 
frequented. 

It has to-day 11.104 volumes, (i.092 are 1)ound and r).312 with 
paper cover. 

It is open from 9 a. m. till :> p. ni. 

Among the literary clubs and societies, which lend to Fortaleza 
the animation of their work, are the « Institnto do Ceara)), founded in 
1887 and which publishes a magazine known all over the country ; 
(c Centro Litterario », publishing another magazine the Irncenui, 
((Tadaria Spiritual » which imposed itself with its extravagant name, 
carried as a triumphant banner, by all talented young- men, all over 
Brazil ; a Academia Cearense » , which publishes for the last seven 
years a splendid magazine. 

Of the papers published in Ceara we will cite the following- : 

In the Capital : .1 Rcpublica, organ of the republican party, 
daily; — A Rcoisln do Iihstituio do Cciini, quarterly publicati<m; — 
Rcoistii da Aciideinia Cearense, monthly; — .1 Re for ma, fortnightly; 
— A Gazetina, weekly; — Ceara Xii, weekly. 

In Baturite : O Oitenta e Xoue, organ of the republican party, 
weekly; — O Miinieipio, republican paper, weekly. 

In RedQmpcao : .1 Redempeao, weekly. 

In Maranguape : O Maran^'iiape, weekly. 

In Aracaty : O Ja(]uard}e, weekly. 

In Sobral : .4 Ordem, weekly; — -I Cidade, weekly. 

In Crato : .1 Cidade do Crato, weekly. 

In Acarahu : .1 Cidade do Aearahii, weekly. 



— 246 — 

Navigation, Commercial and Industrial Activity. — Once we 
have spoken of the intellectual activity ol" Ceani, let us also write 
something- about its material activity, in the domains of commerce, 
industries and navigation. 

There are in the Ceara State besides hundreds of sugar cane, 
flour and other natural products factories, two cotton mills, the 
(( Ceara Industrial » and « Pompeu & Irmao », one in Aracaty, the 
other in Sobral. There are also two net factories, in the Capital, botli 
with steam power, three biscuit and mass factories, all in the Capi- 
tal, two oil factories, one in the Capital, the other in Maranguape, 
eight cigarettes factories, two of them moved by steam, one ice 
factory, three soap ones, several distilleries, sugar refineries, 
umbrella factories, coffee roasting works and caju wine distillerj^ 
hat factories, furniture ones and others. 

The city of Fortaleza ought to have a quay with apparatus to 
facilitate its cominei'cial relations. Let us see its export relations 
statistics : 

Official value of goods exported through the port of Fortaleza to 
foreign countries and ports of the Brazilian Union : 

Years Ollicial value 

1893 .'J.l.oTiririOS-iQo 

1894 i.484:4.">4$481 

1890 ().996:5o(5SioO 

189(5 :;..'! 1 0.8:2:i$751 

1897 7.1>ll:9l5Si0n 

1898 1 1 .(j9:i:800|GoG 

1899 l()..mi:ll.i$7-23 

I9n0 I1.2S9:78.-S$G40 

The Custom House revenue in the five years i)revious to the 
proclamation of liepublic was : 

Years Olluiiil value 

188.") I.07i:9ii$518 

188G 1.178:0rj3$r)38 

1887 1. 88 i: 809^828 

1888 1..47f):9.-;7.Si-20 

1889 1.72-2:589§i97 

In the five years from l<Si)() to 1900 (though a period of general 
business depression in Hrazil) the (/ustom House revenue was : 

Vrai'N Ollirlal valiie 

IH9() i.49i:797§rM() 

1K97 i.029:7G2$0G:; 

1898 .l.ri.^G: lG7$o9() 

1899 ....... .-).or.!l:G.".".SHin 

1900 .■>.!> lii:Gl2§GG.l 



— 247 



Railways, Water si i'I'ly, etc. — Ceani luis Uic following rail- 
wiiys built by the Federal Government : 

Ijiiturite Railway, connects the Capital to the city of Ilmnayata, 
2'.'? kilometres, rented to the civil engineer Alfredo Novis. 

Esti-ada de Ferro do Sobral , goes from Camocini to the intei-ioi- 
of the State, beyond Sobral, 210 kilometres. It is rented to the civil 
engineer J. T. Saboya e Silva. 

In the Capital there are tramways belonging to three enterprizes : 




Foi-taleza. — Square and slalion of llic Baliirite llailway^ 



the Ferro Carril do Ceara, the Ferro Carril do Outeiro , and the 
Ferro Carril de Porangaba, 

Several steamship companies, national and Enropean ones, main- 
tain communications between Fortaleza and external markets. 

The State troops consist of an infantry battalion, called — Batal- 
liilo de Seguranca do Ceara — with 23 officers, 348 privates and 12 
aids, forming a major-staff, a minor staff, and four companies. 
There is also a small cavalry company attached to one of the infan- 
try companies. 

All the police service of the Capital and in the interior is done by 
these troops. 



— 24^« 



Till-: wA'i'KK sri'i'i.v. — In order to remedy tlie frequent dry sea- 
sons wliicli bring serious consequences to the State, the Govern- 
ment i)hinned the building of an enormous reservoir, called Quixa- 
da, wliicli it is hoped, will render good services to the population. 

rnfoi-tunately they have not had the necessary perseverance in 
an attempt of this kind. When the winter sets in, the claims cease 
and the government suspends immediately the works, what makes 
one believe that such work is being done only to give work to the 
population during tiie dry season. 




Forlalcza. — Caio I'rado avt'iiuo 



The works recommenced in June, 1000, had a greater inqjulse in 
October of the same year in consequence of an extraordinary credit 
of l()(i:()(iO.S()()() to aid indirectly the poi)u]ation sulfering from the 
effects of the dry season, and they are still on. \Nhile the extraordi- 
luiry credit lastiid, i\n' committee succeeded in employing 1.700 men. 

The hydrograpliie liasin is constituted by the valleys of the rivers 
know II as \Crd(!, ('araeol, and Satia whifh, when joined logj'lher 
were caught l)y the central flow. 

This flow is al)oiil .") kilometi-es fidiii the city of C^uixada , \\hi»-h 
is served by ihc liatiiritr railway. 

Tnlil to-day the I<'ed(!i-al ( io\ crnment has s))eni on this resei'- 
voir nothing less than :{. l.S(t:".)(i|s(H)ii. There are other reserv«)irs 



— 249 — 

started; one in Baturite, tlie other in Marangiiape. None, however, 
has the proportions ol" that of (^uixada, which has represented seve- 
ral winters 50 million cubic; metres of water. 

We had the oppoi-t unity of hearing- conii)]aints from every one, 
as to the lack of comphnnentary works foi- irrij^ation jjurposes, 
without which, they told us, the reservoir will not he able to 
fulfil its object. 

There are in Ceara SO districts, 29 cities and 52 villag-es. The judi- 
ciary division consists of a c( Tribunal da Rela^iio », composed of seven 
« desembargadores » , including- the attorney general of the State. 
There are 31 districts with one judge each, and the (Uipital two, 72 




Forlali'za — Formosa sli'col 

judiciary districts, 40 of wdiich are served by substitute judges and 
213 police districts. 

The Budget of the State has grown gradually, for the last twelve 
years, the one of 1903 was of about 3.000 contos. The revenue and 
the expenses of the State are more or less equivalent. 



Punished by the dry seasons, periodically, Ceara sees itself each 
year abandoned by a great number of its active children, who emi- 
grate to the West and North of the country, cai'rying the progres- 
sive work of their arms to far away places. 

In 1877-1879 and in 1888-1889 the emigration from Ceara to the 
North and South of the country took wonderful proportions, being- 
estimated at 150.000 the number of natives of Ceara who left their 
native land running away before the calamities of the dry season. 



— 250 — 

There arc no exact notes Tor correct statistic data on cniii-ra- 
tion. It can be .)iHlf>ed only by the i)eoi)le leaving- the port in the 
Lh)yd Brazileiro Steamship Company, which statistics sliow the 
I'oHowing- results from 1892 to 1897. 

To I he To I he 

Veiii's South. North. 

1892 lo o9."> 

1895 l.TOri 7.")8(l 

I89.i 1.489 i.U7^ 

I89u --'.089 9.09-2 

1896 1.894 9. 680 

1897 1.787 ~.7,\-2 

Total. . . 9.0o4 o 1.506 

In 1900 a new dry season appeared in the interior of the State and 
the emigration received new impulse. The Lloyd steamers entered 
Fortaleza almost without any passengers, and sailed on with 
hundreds , sometimes over a thousand of those, natives of Ceara, 
driven out by famine , men who worked in the fields, of sound 
habits, thrifting and hard workers. 

Dui-ing that year sailed on their own account and at the expense 
of the governments of the Amazon and Para, ;J2. 0(V2 people and at 
the expense of the Federal Government 15.773, a total 17.8:jr). 

'I'his number does not include hundreds of them who sailed on 
their own account taking the steamer at Camocim. 

Notwithstanding this, the population of Ceai-a has not decreas- 
ed, and the State keeps on its place as one of the most i)oi)ulated 
States. 

A glance at the publications of the Statistics Deijartmeut, will 
explain this : Ceara is the part of Jirazil where the most beautiful 
cases of fecundity take place. It is not rare to find there a mariied 
couple with 12, 11 or even 10 children. 

Each blow of misfortune is followed by the natural compensation 
of a new favorable impulse. After the crisis of the dry season, there 
comes a period of wonderful abundance in which (he fields and the 
woods seem to bloom with earnest efforts with an ovei-production 
of everything. The crops grow enormous, the cattle multii)ly gene- 
rously, milk, chees(^ and butter reach the point of not ha\ in^- tpiota- 
tion in certain points. In the comi)etent departments the registry of 
births and marriages is such, that in one year only, they registered 
200 marriages jind al)oul 2(i(iO christenings. 

This myst(!rious rythm of gains and losses constitute the liistory 
of all IIh! vitality of (;ear:i, (he resistant and struggling lexer ol its 
children. 



251 



THE STATES OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE 
AND PARAHYBA 



The first atl'idavit of tho discoverj' and the Portuguese dominion 
in Brazil was the monuiiient erected on the Rio Grande do Xorte 
shoi'e on the place called Bahia Formosa, a small and poetic bay, at 
the South of Natal city in the district of Canguaretama. 

This monuiiient was placed there by the Portuguese Admiral 
Christovao Jacques in the year 1503. 

That stretch of coast of Rio Grande is the mother cell of the 
Portuguese dominion in America. We will then in a rapid glance, 
pass in review that sandy shore filled with sinuosities, near the 
Capital of that State. 

The coast of the Rio Grande State participates of the general 
character of that region : sand, always sand, now in downs and hills, 
then in infinite plains, and only from place to place interrupted by 
short stretches of poor vegetation, oi- some cocoa-nut trees as in 
Bahia and Pernambuco and a little scarcely towards the North. 

Those who come from Rio de Janeiro will appreciate all that 
landscape, as the most coast steamers always navigate close to the 
shore with land in sight. 

Those going down from Ceara i^ass near the Cayssara canal, 
passing between the island and firm land at the right, quite near as 
the canal is narrow\ The tiresome panorama continues : curves and 
inclined stretches becoming white a little above the water. The 
sandy shores extend themselves in vast white stretches towards the 
interior beyond, spotted here and there by some cocoa-nut trees. 

Here we are off Natal , in front but somewhat distant. Unless it 
is alight draught steamer it cannot go near the shore on that part. 
In front of the city is an enormous and long rock , which prevents 
the entry of large steamers. Yet this same rock forms a kind of 
protection breaking the strength of the sea waves, a kind of natural 
artificial port affording a tranquil anchorage place, quite calm. 

This reminds one much of the port of Recife. At the left of that 
colossal anchorage, near a seashore place called Morcego (bat) rests 
the valetudinarian of a fortress that was born with that settlement 
some 400 years ago and of which the gray shade detaches itself from 



tlie liori/on blue bottom, as u sciitrN', uiiiuovabh', ririned in its place by 
tlie ice oltlie centuries. Rocha Pitta's history of Portuguese America 
says : <( It is lounded Iiall' a league from its port (able to harbor all 
kinds of shipsjat the (niti'ance of which is the Santos Keys fortress, 
one of tlie best in P>i-azil as to situation, firmness, regularity and ai'til- 
lery, built on rocks of enormous size, with four towers. » Thus sjjoke 
Rocha Pitta al)oiit Xatal and its fortress, .this survivoi- of the hard 
wai' constructions of the metropolis, which to-day preserves yet the 
same name of Trez Reis Magos fortress. 

They placed on it a light house, with a fixed white light, whicli 
can be seen from a distance of 15 leagues. 'J'lius the light of the old 
fortress whicli in olden times served the jmrijose of preventing the 
navigation, serves now to protect it. 



■tt::^/*' 




Saiiltis llcis .M;ii>i)S Fortross ;il the ciitriiiici' of tlic Niil'al li;ii 



To-day Rio Grande do Xorte has about 300.001) inhabitants with 
;>(i municipalities and 3<) parishes and a surface of 57. IS5 scpiare 
metres. 

By the census taken in December I'.'OO the exai't population was 
•J7 1.317. 

'J'he names of tluj cities and villages of the Rio (irandc do Norte 
State are : 

Natal (ca[)ital), Macau, Mossoro, ('anguaretama, Parclhas, Maca- 
liyba, ('(^ara-Mirim, S. .lose de >ripil)u, .lardim, Caii'o, MaiMins, 
Assu, Apod_\-, Papai'v, (ioyaniulia, No\a ("ru/., Augicos, Santa Cru/.. 
Saiit'Anna dos Matlos, Ti-iumpho, Acary, Cuiraes-Novos , I'ort' 
Alegre, ('arauhas. Pan dos l>'erros, S. Miguel, Sei-ra Ncgra, Patu, 
Jjuiz (Jonies, Santo Antonio, ( 'iiile/eiras, S. (ioncalo, i-'lorcs. Ton- 



— 253 — 

ros, ]\rnriu, Poteiigv, Cnrinuitiiu, Arez, Taipii, Areiii Branca, Penha 
and otlica* snialler places. 

Of all those places, the one that seems destined to a more rapid 
devel()i)ment is Mossoro, the centi-e oi" the prosperous salt indus- 
try, \vhi('h is tlie principal industry of that region, and the one that 
hrings the largest revenue to the State, 

The production of salt in Rio (Jrande do Sul in tlie years of l.SC).") 
to IStU-) was ;!;j.(XK) alciueires, a little over 5.000 tons. In IIKKJ tliat 





Harbor and Citv of ]\atal 



production went up to 700.000 alqueires, or over 112.000 tons, nearly 
all exported to Southern ports. 

The Rio Grande Salines occupy enormous stretches of shore and 
arc a wealth much superior to all expectations. That is a just com- 
pensation of the local nature , because Rio Grande has not like the 
other Southern vStates that mild climate which makes agricultural 
progress so easy. That State suffers the destruction caused by long- 
summers which dry up tlie small rivers and burn its valleys. The 



— 254 — 

dry seasons repeat themselves periodieally prodneiiif:^ enormous 
damages to the population and being a drawback to the general i)ro- 
gress of the State. 

Tliis explains the paralization of certain local industries , among 
others that of the cultivation of sugar cane, the manufacturing of 
sugar, brandy etc., so old in the Rio Grande State in which that 
branch of industry has developed the most. Vet there are quitt' a lot 
of old factories which will present quite a large production when 
there is no dry season. 

Recently the Federal Governm(>nt undertook several public works, 
as water w'orks, railways, etc. to ti-y to neutralize the effects of that 
evil. 

Fortunately the spot where the Capital is, does not suffer from 
the bad results of the dry season, having been a good selection even 
if the port is not of easy access in comparison with the other sea- 
ports of the country. 

It was Jeronymo Albuquercpie who, after an agreement with the 
inhabitants of Rio-Grande on Christmas day of the year 1597, placed 
the foundation stone of the first building of the Capita! of the State. 
When that city progressed a little thej^ placed at its head as chief the 
Conde do Rio Grande and the province was elevated to the rank of 
Condado. The Count was D. Lopo Furtado de Mendon^a the first 
nobleman with a Brazilian title in the old colony. 

* 
* * 

The Capital. — Let us cast a glance over the Natal city of to-day. 

The bulk of the constructions in this city follow two different 
plans : one part extended itself through the lower part and is calhMl 
Ribeira, the other, called Bairro Alto (upper district) is occupying 
the upper part of the sandy elevation ui)on which .leronymo de 
Albuquerque^ had the fancy to settle the city. This sandy mountain 
has as boundary line the Potengy river, the sea-shore with its 
sandy ups and downs, which surround it in all its conference, the 
banks being 21 in number, the city remaining just like an island, 
WMlli th(! diffei-ence that on one side has the sea, on the other sandy 

bllHl. 

'JMie Cajiital comprises the following districts : Cidade Alta, 
Cidade Haixa , Cajnjjiranga and I'onte Negra , all the ])arisli of 
Nossa Scnhoi-a da A])rcsenta(;ao, having a population of IC. (».■")() inha- 
bitants, l)eing : 7.<.i(.)() males and 8.15(i femaU's. As can l»c easily seen 
this city is far t'l-oin having bad adcvclopment pioport ional (o its 
age. 



— 25B — 

There are some nice buildin<;s in it, as the Pahice where the 
State Congress meets, the Public Instruction Department, in Con- 
ccicao street, the Charity Hospital, which is also the barrracks ol' 
the police force in Silva Jardim street, the barracks of the '.ilih regi- 
ment Regular Federal troops, the Marine Appentices school, the 
Government Savings Bank, and other private buildings belonging 

to rich merchants. 

* 
* * 

Public Instruction, Police Force, Railways, etc. — About the 
public instruction Rio Grande has developed but little as it has done 




Natal . — Government Palace 



with nearly everything else. There are in the whole State but 92 
grammar school classes, while the population is about 300.000 inha- 
bitants. In the Capital there are some high schools among which is 
the Atheneii Xorte Rio Grandense. 

The following papers are published in Natal : 

Album (published by the literary group Frei Miguelino). 

Diario do Natal, daily paper. 

Gazeta do Commercio, daily paper, founded on the Isl of Octo- 
ber 1001, and is published by an association, having as its editor 
in chief Mr. Pedro Avelino. 

Oasis, the organ of the Gremio Literario. 



— 256 — 

Tribiina, periodical. 

Oiio dc Setembro, periodical. 

The i)oli('e loi-ce is foriiicd by a battalion with oOO privates com- 
luanded by a Lieutenant Colonel , the battalion beinj"- divided into 
four companies. It is infantry and they are armed with Comblain 
guns, 'i'hey do the police duty of the Capital and inteiior cities. 

As to railway service, all that- Rio Grande do Xorte has in tliat 
line is the Natal to Nova Cruz Railway, built with a guarantee of 
interest on the capital invested, furnished by the Federal Govern- 
ment and lately rented by the Federal Government from the (ii-cul 
]]'('stern of Brazil liuilwny. It runs over 121 kilometres of track. 




.Naliil. — ('.(inccirrio Slfcct 



Princh'al CrriKS and MrMciPALrriKs. — The cities worthy of 
special mention are among others the ones we are going to refer to, 
it ix'ing understood beforehand that Kio Cirande do Xorte has no 
city that can justly be called worthy of incnlioii. 

"^riie most important are; S. Jose de Mii)ibu, on the K'fl bank ol 
the Trahiry river, a little above the Rai)ary lake; Macao, at the 
right of the Assu river, in a peninsula foiiued by I lie same river, the 
Manoel (Jonealves strait and the island bay ; Assu, at the left sidi' 
of the I'ii-anlias river; .lai'dim at the left of the Sei-id<'» livcr. a eon- 
fhient (if t he T Iran lias river a lul ovci- ::i() leagues a l)o\(' t he eoufhuMU'e 
(tf Ae:inh;"i ri\cr with the Seridnone; Mossoro at the left ol the 



— 257 — 

Apody river, to wliicli it <^i\c!S its iiainc ;i little aljove the eon riiicnce 
of the Upaneiiia river \\ ith llu^ Moss()r(') rixer. 

MossoRo. — Is but a small city but promises g'l'eat future i)ossi- 
liilities. It has about 12.000 inhabitants, j^ood and hard workinj^- 
people, peaceful. The city is divided in three i)oliti('al pi-ecincts and 
one parish, Santa Luzia, name of a Saint to 1)e fouixl in a chiircli 
that has no special eharacteristie, but that can boast of l^eing- tluj 
oldest in those reaions. 




Mossoro. — Seis de Janeira Square 



Mossoro devotes itself to the salt industry. It is a pretty and 
industrious city, and we might consider it the first in the whole 
State. It is not inferior to the Capital in anything. If it has not poli- 
tical preeminence, it has the superiority of its active commerce, 
population, industry and buildings. It is 60 leagues away from the 
Capital and seven from the sea, on the left bank of the Apody, to- 
day, Mossoro river. 

In Mossoro the following periodicals are published : .1 Idea, the 
organ of the literary club ccDois de JulliO)) and Mossoroensc, illus- 
trated news paper, i)ublished twice a month. 

TouROs. — Among the four cities of 13.000 inhabitants, that the 
last census exhibited disputing with the Capital of the State the 
record of the density of population in the Rio Grande do Norte, this 
city of Touros (Bulls) in spite of its name is one of the most synipa- 
thic though it is not the most progressive. 

Ceara-merim. — It is a well built citv, with fine buildings, as 



are : the Jail, the Atheneum, the City Hall, the Market, the Ceme- 
tery and the Church which the principal one having no rival in this 
State and that of Parahyba, having its equal in the church of Pcnha, 
in Pernambuco, which is small in the length though larger in width. 

There are also some nice private buildings. There are yet three 
s(pmres named — Alegria, Mcrcado, and Matrix. This last (mo is 
ample and with trees and in it is the church and the Atheneum. The 
market is snuill, but neat and clean. There are 50 streets only one of 
which is paved. There are two districts — Ribeira and Cidade Alta. 

Compared with its territory, the State of Rio Grande do Xorte, is 
one of the States that has the longest coast extension, having three 




Mossoi'o. — Floros SU'ect j 

1 

ports for its external commerce, Natal, ^Mossort) and Macau, tliough 
all of them are of difficult access. 

All the imaginable wealth of the forest, of the soil, of the rivers 
and of tli(^ sca-slioi'cs are in Rio (Jrande do Xorte waiting for the 
i'liiropran arm, the immigrant and the capital, to develop, to raise 
tin; fortune and the progress of that region. On the other hand the 
climate is excellent, there are no ei)idemic diseases nor any evils 
that may shake the proverbial quietness of those i)eople. 



'i'lic l;i() (Jiaiidc do Ndiic, as the ucighb()ring States, is periodi- 
cally siil)j('<'t to dry seasons, « Several times i> — says a writci- 
has ravaged ()V(;r the Ajxxly river and all llic far interioi- of tlie 
State the terrible plienoiiieiiou of the (lr_\- seasons, the ioHowing 



— 255) — 

having been tlie most dreadful : they are those of IdOT, 1()02, 1710- 
1711, 1723-1724, which were extended from Bahia to Ceara, those of 
173(3-1738, 1744-1745, 1777-1778, in which the cattle of the State was 
reduced to the eighth part, and that of 1790-1793 called the great dry 
season. 

The same way that in Ceara, whose nature is analogous to that 
of this State, once the dry season period passes, there comes a period 
of compensative abundance. It is abundance and fortune without 
measure. 

The principal products of the State are : corn, beans, mandioca 
flour, cotton, sugar, skins, butter, vegetables, oils, rozin, carnauba, 
honey, brandy and building lumber. 



Mossoro. — Da JIatriz church and Sfjuare 

In those Kio Grande hills and mountains they have discovered 
vestiges of the existence of several kinds of minerals such as : iron, 
sulphur, saltpetre, chalk, and different stones. In one of the corners 
of the Italiu lake, or of the Apody near the mountain of the same 
name, has been seen for these last few years, a large quantity of a 
betuminous and inflammable substance, which produces a light simi- 
lar to the carnauba wax. They say that at leagues distance from the 
city there is a layer, where, among other curiosities a kind of crys- 
tal can be seen. We read about it that « the ground of this layer and 
its neighborhood is a kind reddish blue clay which exposed to the 
fire and diluted in water, becomes fine and soft so as to be moulded 
in any shape for the manufacture of crocker3^ This reddish blue soil 
is naturally cleaved in many places where a kind of light and very 



— 260 — 

fine mutter can be seen, that looks like looking-glass steel and 
which is awful hard to gather ». 

As to water, there are several mineral water springs which have 
not as yet been analysed. The best known of these are the ajt>»a.s 
ferrcas (iron waters). The use of these is good, generally, for the 
diseases that requii-e iron preparations. 

* 
* * 

Rio Grande do Xorte as to its manufacturing industries is just as 
backwards as Piauhy and Goyaz are. Worthy of mention there is 
only in its territory : a good cotton mill in the Capital ; a soaj) fac- 
tory and a saw mill next to it in a place known as Refoh's ; a prin- 
ting office, engraving shop and book-bindery in the Capital ; and a 
cigar factory also in the Capital. 

Its exijorts are still inferior to those of Piauhy notwithstanding 
the fact of having three ports to communicate w ith the exterior, or 
may be that, because of that, the volume of its external connnei'ce is 
so small, as one can see by the figures of the movement during the 
first eleven months of ll'Ol : 

Exports 40,5:fi07.S0(in 

Iniports .jol:i8o.$()n0 

But, we must not desi)air as to the future of the progress and 
wealth of this beautiful region. This territory has elements, every 
element of prosperity, by the varied [)r()ducing capacity of its val- 
leys, its most superb mountains as Borburema, .loao do Valle, Luiz 
(Jomes and others. Railways and Eurojjean blood is what Rio 
(Ji-ande do Xorte lacks to devcloj) its hilcnt wcaitli and pros{)crity. 



THE STATE OF PARAHYBA 



Sailing from Recife in the evening, we soon bid farewell to the 
two light houses : Santo Agostinho (a large unmovabic while light) 
and Picfio (changeable light white and red), and we awake in sight 
of Cubedello the seaport of Raiahylia, eai)i(al nl the Stale of the 
same nam(\ 

The shoi'e continues covered w itli trees and right there at tliO 
enti'anee of CalxMlcJio there is an extensixc plantation of Hahia 
Cocoa iiul trees. There is also a light house, linilt on a low plane 



— 2«1 — 

whicli in llic lii^li (iiU? i)r('S('iils a ciirioiis spcclaclc : uii ii'ou lower, 
liigli and solid without any basis in si<^lit bill the ni()vin<;' waves. Il 
is the J*edra Secca light liouse, 

CabedeUo is an old village without any olhei- inipoi-laneci l^iit tlie 
(me lent to it by the circumstance oi" being tin; landing- place of the 
State. It is connected with the Capital by a railway. A wooden 
bridge dock is there for the ships to come alongside. 



The road, of narrow track, goes through the woods describing 
curves, in an inclination sometimes quite steep, as Parahyba is 
quite away up and there are only 18 kilometres separating it from 
Cabedello. 




Paralivba. 



Das Merces (■Iiui'lIi and street 



The Capital is a small historical city, a poor one and as old as it 
is modest. It was built on the 5th of August 1585 by the Portuguese. 
Oh!... 1585... How w^ell we can see that by tlie first buildings, which 
we see as we reach the city. Its name is Parahyl)a, the name of the 
river that bathes its territorj^ and must have some 180.000 inhabi- 
tants. It was once called Frederikstad (Frederic city) while it was 
under the Dutch conquest. At another time during the same period 
it was also called Felipea, in honor of Felipe who reigned over 
the Spaniards when these latter dominated the Portuguese. 

Even to-day Parahyba is a small city divided in two halves quite 
unequal : one margins the anchorage at the river level , full of 
commercial storage houses etc., and its name is Varadoiro, the other 
going up-hill and ending on the top of the mountains wherefrom a 



— 2fi2 — 

beautiful panorama is displayed before our eyes : mountains green 
as they can be, enormous chay-pits, chimneys letting out a light white 
smoke from the sugar factories, spread here and there, nice small 
houses of delicious snow-white, and connecting this heterogeneous 
mass as a conducting wire, the Parahyl)a ri\ cr runs , making the 
contour of the reliefs, without waves, without noise until it loses 
itself in the hesitating gray of the horizon. 

The inclined street that connects the two districts, has at its 
riglit the Europe Hotel, a grim and dirty looking large building, and 
leads to another cleaner street called Baruo da Passagem, which 
runs straight lined by nice houses, following yet another one called 
Rua Nova and existing since IHof, the buildings, however, seeming 
to confirm the new name of the street. Walking a little further we 




l>:ii"ihvli:i. 



Old (•(Hivciit i)t' S. l"r;iiicis('(t 



are on the toj) of the main liill, where fine houses have been built. 
There is the old Cluii'ch, a large temple devoted to Nossa Senhora 
das Neves, which is the cathedral to-day. 

'IMiis cliurcli was built away back in ICi;;.") and tlie S. l^'raiuMseo 
(M)nvent, with its large church that has a characteristic front. Of the 
rcjligious constructions this one is the best in l*arahyba. It has a spar 
cious nave, at the sides dressed with mosaic, the entrance however 
is of a more modern stylw, and in tlie eentic there is o cross-aisle of 
iljerie mailjU', a eui-ious feature. Kven in the interior the I'hurch is 
worth looking at, as it is the Ordem Tcrceira C-hapel which was 
afterwards annexed to it. 

When th(^ Duti-h took possession of the city they fortified this 
convent and mad(! of it the (iovernor's residence. 



— 263 — 

To-day, liaving- lost its monks, tlioy made of the convent a school 
which is frequented by 200 boys who make tlieir preparatoi-y 
studies to enter tlie different Colleges and Universities. 

If we take the tramway that o()es to the beautiful subiii-b of 
Trinclieira where the extreme end of the city ccmfounds itself with 
the woods, we go througli a pretty square with a beautiful garden 
protected by iron railing. 

In front of this gai'den there is another construction with the 
charecteristics of respectability. It is an old convent and its church 
with a tower of undefined color, which is the color of the centuries. 

To-day the old building has an official function, being the gover- 
nor's palace. 




I'araliyba. — The governors palace. 

At the side of the church, is the Parahybano Lyceum where there 
are quite a number of classes in the two floors of the building. 

The best buildings are in the upper part of the city, but, in a rus- 
tic style square occupyng more or less the middle plan between the 
two cities, are the largest ones : the Post office, of fair size ; at the 
right, the theatre and in front of the Post Office the police barracks 
a large two story building. The Italian Benificent Association buil- 
ding, follow^ed by a row of small houses close the square, wdiicli has 
the name of Bento da Gama. The Treasury a good solid building is 
also in this square. 



Industry, Transportation, Public Instruction. — The prin- 
cipal industry of this State is the cultivation of sugar-cane, sugar 
manufacture, alcohol, etc. The number of sugar-cane farms and fac- 



— 264- — 

tories is •JO'.), working- most ol' lliciu by old processes. There are, ho- 
wever, some impoi-taiit factories : a cotton mill, two cotton shelling, 
fine cigars, one oil and one cinient, bricks and mosaic factories, etc. 

Regarding- the mineral ogical wealth of Parahyba, the experts 
speak most highly. They say that the nnderground of this region 
has extensive layers of coal, rich copper, lead, iron, gold and silver 
mines, important feldspars and precions stones. 

We can say about this State what can l)e said with all safety about 
the balance of the country — it is most wealthy. It is most wealthy 
but all the w^ealth and all the variety of its minerals remain tranquil 
in its layers, w'here from nobodj^ seems tempted to lift them. 




l':ir;ih\lta. — Fiscal Dclcijalioii 



As yet, what is IxMug developed is the agriculture, and a little 
the daii-y industry. The ground, in Parabyba is generally fertiU' antl 
adapted to all kinds of cultivation, and above all : mandioca, I'orn, 
ric(!, Ijcans, tobacco, sugar-cane and cotton. 

'i'iic sugar-cane and cotton furnish the largest part of tlu' State 
revenue. 

'( The devclopnicni olColTee and wlicat cult i\ at ion, as well as the 
extraction of i-ubl)cr I'rom the manicoba and mangalx'ii'a ti'ees, are 
cxpontancous products of tlic soil, and w ill in the future be a rich 
source of i)ul)lic wealth. 

Tlic toi)ogr:i])liic:il position of the Stale, the large e\tcnsi(ui of 
its clay pits and the lack of railways to connect Ihe agricultural I'c- 
gion, favor a good deal, in spile of all the zeal of the fiscalisalion, 
the exit of a great pari .d' the agricullui-al products of the State to 



— 265 — 

the iicigliboriiif;' ones, api)etii-in<;- in the exjx)!! statistics of the hitter 
as production of their own. » 

The railway of the State is called Esti-ada de Feri'o (Jondc d'Ku 
with a capital of (i.OOOrOOOSOOO with a g-narantee of 7 "^1,, interest and 
£ ()9.273 with a guarantee of 6 ^/o interest. This road connects Pai-a- 
hyba with the neighboring- States. 

The principal line, from Cabedello to Guarabira, is llii kilo- 
metres and the branch that goes from Entroncamento to Pilar mea- 
sures 25 kilometres. 

It was rented by the goverment to the enterprizc who built and 
inaugurated it in 1883. 

This railway with its branches has the following extension of 
trafic : 

kilometres 

Mninline (Parahyba lo Muluiigii) 76.000 

Branch (Pilar to Iiidepeiidencia 47.000 

Prolongation (Paraliyba to Cabedello) .... 18.000 
Branch (Mulungii to Alagoa Grande) 24.000 

Total. . . . le.'i.OOO 

We said above that sugar-cane was the principal cultivation of 
the Parahyba State. We liad better said it is the sugar-cane because 
since colonial times they have never tried any other. When the Dutch 
denominated this region Parahyba, they gave it as coat of arms 
three Hiigav loaves. That w^as the idea of that talented Prince of 
Nassau (whose beneficial dominion over that part of the country, it 
is a pity, was not prolonged), wlio in that way wanted to express 
the superiority of that product of Parahyba above all the other simi- 
lar product all over the world. To-day, with its primitive processes, 
with the humble large copj)er jjots it cannot prevent that even in 
Brazil that superiority will go over to othei- States who have adopted 
the modern manufacturing processes. 

And its three-sii gar-loaves coat-of-arms signifies nothing else but 
a beautiful historical allegoi\v. 

Yet, even with the decadence of a great industry, Parahyba 
succeeded in nine months, in 1903, to reach the following figures : 

Exports l..-55.i:779S600 

hnports 1.5.i7:76l.$09n 

In proportion to the conditions of the State, the dairy industry, 
in its different branches, is important, contributing with about one 
third of the State revenue. 

At intervals it is greatly diminished by the periodic dry seasons, 
beginning a new and prospering period when the regular winters 



— 266 — 

appear lurnisliing with its abundant production tlie neighboring 
State of Pernauibuco. 

Tlie public instruction is administered by 102 classes with a 
frequentation of l.UOO students. 

There are also in the Capital : a Normal School whicli is devoted 
to the training of teachers and the high school — Lyceu Parahybano 
— having the same rights as the National Gymnasium by decree 
2001 oT 1st. July, 1896. There are also the Model School and Marine 
Apprentices schools as well as a Public Library. 

The military force is constituted by a Safety Battalion with 200 
men commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The telephonic and telegraphic nets connect with Mamanguape , 
Areia, Lerraria, Bananeiros, Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova and 
Campina with an extension of 250 kilometres. 

Other cities of the State. — Besides Parahyba there ai-e other 
cities worth mention, though all of them are cities of third oi- fourth 
order. As yet they are small nucleus, destined to api)car later on in 
the list of the fine Brazilian cities, when the railway will afford 
them the miraculous vitality of their services, bringing them nearer 
the Capital, connecting them with the outside markets. 
Here are some of those small cities : 

Areia. — It is beautiful and well built, situated on one of Bor- 
burcma hills, 25 leagues away from the Capital, 700 metres above 
the sea level, a region with an European climate ; its streets are 
paved, some of them inclined but very neat, buildings of modern 
style, and pleasing aspect. It has a cathedral and another church, an 
hospital, a theatre, a garden, a public square and the jail. 

A i)art of the municii)ality is devoted to cattle raising, the other 
to agriculture with fertile fields, irrigated by little rivers. It consti- 
tutes the most powerful centre of sugar-cane cultivation in the 
interior of the State, counting more than 80 sugar factories. Its prin- 
cipal places are : Lagoa do Uemigio and Matta Limpa. In that city 
were born Aurelio de Figueiredo and Pedro Americo, two notabili- 
ties of the artistic w^orld. 

Mamanguape. — A city, seven miles away Ironi the sea and 12 
away from the Capital crossed by a little river where boats navigate. 

It has two ciiui-ches, a jail, and some j)retty private houses. It has 
a 'I'rcasiiry and Telegraph station. Its commerce is mainl\ with the 
market of Keeil'e. 

On the way from the C/aj)ital to MaMiangnape there an; vast tracts 



— 2fi7 — 

of man^abeiras , trees wliore rubber is extracted from. They say 
there is a large ealcareons cave, wliich is one of the finest tilings 
worth loolving at. 

Tliere are many sugar factories and they cultivate grain, tobacco, 
mandioca, and sugar-cane. 

Itahayanna. — It is situated at the right of the Parahyba river, 
15 leagues from the Capital and (>(i metres above the level of the sea. 

It i)roduces corn, mandioca and cotton, they manufacture cheese 
butter and prepare dried salted beef, which is sold principally in 
the neighljoring State of Pernambuco. 

Cajazkiras. — This city is situated 112 leagues at the west of 
the Capital and has 9.000 inhabitants. 

For its commercial activitj- and prosperity is considered one of 
the principal cities of the State. Its soil is adapted to the cultivation 
of grain, tobacco and specially cotton. 

This Parahyba State has ten cities : Parahyba (capital), Maman- 
guape , Guarabira, Itabayanna , Bananeiras , Campina Grande, 
Areia, Pombal, Souza and Cajazeiras. 

Tliere are thirty five municipalities : the Capital, Santa Rita, 
Espirito Santo, Pedras de Fogo, Mamanguape, Guarabira, Pilar, 
Areia, Serraria, Alagoa Grande, Itaba^'anna, Campina Grande, 
Natuba, Ingd, Cuite , Araruna, Soledade, S. Joao, Cabaceiras, 
Batalhao, Pombal, Catole do Rocha, Brejo da Cruz, Pianco, Con- 
ceiccio, Miserieordia, Princeza, Patos, Santa Luzia do Sabugy, 
Teixeira, Alagoa do Monteiro, Souza, S. Joao do Rio do Peixe, 
Cajazeiras and S. Jose de Piranhas. 

Sixteen districts : Capital, Mamanguape, Itabayanna, Guarabira, 
Bananeiras, Areia, Campina Grande, Alagoa do Monteiro, Catole 
do Rocha, Pombal, S. Jojio, Pianco, Patos, Souza, Borburema and 
Princeza. 



THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO 



The -Capital of Pernambuco about which we are going to write 
noAv is one of the most important sea-shore cities. It is the fourth 
as to its size, population and activity, of all Brazilian cities. Those 
preceding it being Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Baliia. 

There is a ridge running parallel to the cit^^ in the sea, in the 
form of a majestic and solid reef and it was that what very properly 



— 268 — 

giiv(; il the name ol' Recite. The eeiisiis oi' I'.MIO gave it u popuhitioii 
of ll;;. ()()() inliabitants. 

Few fancies of the prodigious nature of Brazil are comparable 
with the imposing and curious form of that platonic rock, placed as 
a break-water, a long strong wall against which the waves with all 
their furv doesn't succeed but in transforming in foam the water 
stream, all that portion of sea beats against it. 

What there is of artificial work in that break- water was the woi'k 
of the Dutch, those celebrated collaborators of the sea, already 
clever in the conquering science at that time. To crown their work 
they placed at its extreme end, a few metres above the sea level, a 




i{('ciri 



Interior aiiclioi'anc and tlic iialniai reel'. 



strong tower to be used as a light-house and which t-an be seen at 
JO uiiles distance. 

Seen from a great distance, the city seems buried in the water, 
W(} might say it looks like a large, marshy village, half floating, half 
sunk, whei'C we can discern the church lowers, thefactoi-y chiumeys 
and th(i Xavy Var<l tower. It is that scene thai the gri'at Hra/.iliau 
poet wauted to imi)ress in these verses : 

Suloe .' term formosii, oh '. Pernumbiun, 
Veiiezti iinii'iitiiiiii, IiiiiisjioiIikIii 
Itoitmtr sohre us iiiftiiis .' 



Mlail ! Iicaiitil'iil laiiil. oh ' I'l'i'iiaiiiliiii'd. Aniciirati Vcriirt', li'aiis|iiii'li'(l llnaliii^ cm llii 



— 269 — 

An impression of tlic first visit lo the city is expressed in llie iol- 
lowing- paragrapli of a true observer : 

« Those who on board of a transathmtic steamer, arrive Tor tlie 
first time at Pernambuco have the impression that the city of Recife 
raises itself from the sea growing larger and more beaiitilul at the 
proportion we grow nearer. 

This illusion, known by all those who have entered Recife In- 
sea, though produced by an effect of oj^tics, is however based on a 
true fact : the city of Recife, was, really in its greatest pari, con- 
quered from the sea. 

Those districts of the city full of movement, as the Recife (S. Frei 
Pedro Goncalves), Santo Antonio and S. Jose, and a good part of 
Boa- vista where places largely covered by marshy ground which the 
high-tides fed and the human work conquered by means of quays 
and filling in the ground, in order to architect the city of to-day 
which is already a beautiful city, but has all the elements to become 
still much nicer. » 

So that the city area is nothing else but a series of small penin- 
sulas and canals — happening that the oldest one of the districts, is 
positively an island. All this, however, connected, embodied b\' 
means of viaducts, built with more or less elegance over the mur- 
muring, bright and reflecting rivers. 

This peculiarity, proi^ortionating to the Recife, the most poetic 
and unforeseen panoramas, was the cause of it having received the 
popular name of Brazilian Venice. 

Its geographical position, on the other hand, having impressed 
on it an undisputable preeminence, assures for it also an auspicious 
future, on the day that its port shall become a forced point for inter- 
national navigation to touch on its w&y abi'oad as the shortest route 
between the European Continent and Brazil. 

Elisee Reclus, with all the weight of his authority said : « It is 
one of the commercial emporiums which seem destined to a great 
future. » 

It is said that it was founded in 1536 by Duarte Coelho. Later 
on in the seventeenth century it was embellished by Maurice of 
Nassau, a Dutchman, who instituted it the seat of the Dutch do- 
minion when they treated of the occupation of those conquerors in 
Pernambuco. 

Its port is then divided by the natural reef. The space between 
this reef and the city is called Lingueta, and only ships of middle 
draught can anchor there. The ships of deep draught remain beyond 
the reef. That anchorage is not sheltered and they call it Lamariio. 



— 270 — 

When the government will realize any of tdie existing- projects, 
(there is a French one, Foiunic and an English one, Hawkshawi, for 
the improvement of the port, Recife will become a city of capital 
imi)ortance, because, as E. Reclns said : « No point on the Brazilian 
coast has more importance from a strategic point of view. It is 
the advance point of the Republic and of all the Latin Ameiican Xcw 
World, for that matter. It will not be long in the future, when ways 
of direct communication will allow the line to the commerce to be- 
come shorter and Pernambuco will be the most frequented i)ort of 
all South America. » 



r^x 









- 4.'>> -f-aeuajfiia^»':-^. 




liecil'c. — \ ii'w (li I'riiiH" 



k" Mai'co sU'ccI 



But we have said enough about the port. Our reader, to bo sure, 
wants some notes on the city of to-day. ^\'c will please him. What is 
there in Recife to-day?... Everything that goes to make a large ca- 
pital : railways, tramways, hotels, theatres, arseiuils, superb chui-- 
ches, Academies, libraries, newsi)ai)('rs, clubs, factories, nici' resi- 
dences, in all the islands and suburbs, a constant nu)\cuicnt in tlu' 
streets, a joyful agitation of tlie active w<u-king i-lasscs, hcri' we 
liave the Recife of to-day. 

Let us see the princi])al sections of the city : 

Tlic Recife pi-ospcrity, and that of Santo Antonio, from (lie purely 



— 271 — 

esthetic point of view are not up to tlie district of JJoa-\'istii, and tlic 
new suburbs, lint, as in everything there is the hiw of compen- 
sations, they have a constant animation and splendid l)usiness 
liouses displaying- cliarniing- show-cases and windows. Tlie streest 
are uneven, ({uite so. If we see some wide and stiaiglit streets as 
Bariio de Victoi'ia, Imperatriz and a few others, which give a nice 
impression to the visitor, we see many others narrow, tortuous, 
regular lanes, lined with three and four story buildings, Portuguese 




Recife. — Estacao da E. P. de Caruaru 



Style with plain walls only disturbed in their simplicity by the mo- 
dest veranunhs and windows. The monotony of the constructions in 
these districts, are just like those of Baliia and Para, of all those 
places where the commerce has Portuguese roots and virtues. 

Just where we land, in the business district, is the building of 
the Commercial Association. It is a fine building, though without 
architectural style. It is situated in a place of the Lingueta which 
was conquered from the sea, a stretch that is prolonged as quay 
forming a pretty and pleasant boulevard. This building has two 
floors, has a library, a reading room with newspapers and maga- 



— 272 — 

zines, which is iiiik'Ii lr('(nienle(l, und above these is tlie nu-ctiii^ hall 
with the pictures ol' men, who have rendered services to tlie eoni- 
inerce, hanoino- Irom the walls. A\'hen we were there the president 
of the Association was Dr. Corbiniano da Fonseca Filho, an indus- 
trial who has a large soap and caudle factory in the Blum district. 

A little further ahead we see the pretty street called Cadeia which 
prolonos itself over a bridge called Hecife, paved with stone blocks, 
and wooden sidewalk on both sides; the centre for carriages and 
trucks, the sidewalks for footpads. Two stone arches of peculiar 
ornamentation give access to the extremities of this viaduct, one is 
called Santo Antonio, the other Conceicao. 

Following, always in straight line, another street of magnificent 
perspective is seen. It is the Dois de Marco street, also lined with 
large buildings two and three story high. The ground floors are oc- 
cupied by stores, whose show windows and sigus of all colors and 
dimentions lend to that artery of the city an European stamp. 

Crossing this street perpendicularly runs Inipei'ador street, a 
wide one ventilated by the fresh breeze with fine buildings on both 
sides. 

The aspect of that avenue is rigorously modern, not only by the 
buildings but by the movement of people and vehicles of all kinds, 
by its active commerce, by its brasseries filled with people, the 
beautiful fashion establishments with the display of a world of fine 
laces, feathers and other pretty futilities. 

The i)retty street Barilo da Victoria, we referred to above has 
also its C(mtinuation over a bridge, which is named Boa N'isfa, fi-om 
which looking to the portions of the city on the river side we enjoy 
a landscape that can't easily be forgotten. 

Beautiful panoramas they are those we can contenipiate from 
those bridges ! We see that the Capiberibe river returns as a new 
looking-glass does, the image and the coloring of all the buildings 
sto()[)ing over its Ijanks. The large buildings of the city, thanks to 
the strange topographical arrangement of Kecife avc lining the 
rivers. 

One of them, which we visited only owing to that circumstance 
was the House of Detention (the jail) l)iiilt liy the civil engineci- 
Jose Manoel Alves Ferreira. 

Leaving that section of the beautiful city lunning in another 
direction we run accross a typical iron and glass l)iiil(ling. It is the 
S. .lose Market. Twn enormous pa\ ilions with their icd roofs con- 
nected by a centi-a! gallery. Inside, bathed by tlie irradiation of tiie 
Kun, which jx-netrMtes by all sides, there mo\cs in all dii-ections like 



— 273 — 

busy bees a thick crowd of men and women, yoiino- and old, even 
boys and girls, and the grain, the vegetables, the l)eantirul tropical 
IVuit, everywhere, complete the picture of the large building, 'i'liere 
is another market, superior to this oue in architectural style. It is 
called the Derby. 

* 
* * 

Now we are before a church. Let us look at it, dear reader. 

It is one of the most beautiful in Brazil, though it is not so imjxjs- 
ing and so large as Candelaria, in Eio de Janeiro is, nor of so 
severe grandeur as the Collegio church of Bahia, nor of so elegant 




Recife. — The market of Derby 



architecture in its exterior as the Bello Horizonte and Curytiba 
cathedrals, nor so majestic in its height as the Nossa Senhora das 
Dores church of Porto Alegre, nor of so patient interior decoration 
as the historical S. Francisco church of Bahia. It is, however, most 
worthy of the fame it enjoys for its harmonious architectural style, 
based on the corynthian order in which every part of the church is 
moulded, from the simple front, in which predominates an Italian 
taste, till the elegant dome of the spheric section, ending at the top 
by an open lantern with a monumental image of Our Lady. 

Another church of those 43 in the city, which pleased us a good 
deal was the Boa Yista, unfortunately situated in a place that is not 
favorable to its perspective. It has a stone front in two bodies, one 
over the other, each one with its columns and two square towers 



— 274 — 

some 5<) metres high. The \vhole structure presents a noble appear- 
anee with many ornamental accessories which do not diminish its 
majestic aspect. 

We will now write about the Santa Izabcl theatre which is one of 
the fine buildings of the city, one of the best of Brazil, though of mo- 
dest proportions. It is not as rich in its interior as the Manaos thea- 
tre, and hasn't much less the architectural perfection in its exterior 
that the Belem theatre has, yet, it is a most pretty building and well 
worthy of the praises all visitors are i)rompt to make. The central 





Ik'cife. 



Suhiifl) i)f IJccilV :iiul Sctc (!<' Sctciiiliro Briilifi' 



bod\- ol the buikliug in the form of parallelogram is somewhat impos- 
ing on tlie outside, with two rows of windows having above them 
two rows of windows, (like ships port-holes), remind one even of 
a large ti-ansatlantic steannu*. Two different bodies complete the 
whole, auuexed to the two snuiller angles, I he frout one being 
decorated will) a portico and a terrace with columns. 

II was liuilt l)y llie I'' rcncli architect L. N'authicr and inaugurated 
on the ISth of May IS.")!), [devoured by a fire in Scplcinltcr ISti'.til was 
re-ei'eclcd 1)\ a l)iiildcr .lose Auguslo dc Ai-anjo, under the direction 
of the public works engineer I )r..losc Tibui-cio PiM'ciia do Magalh*ic>, 
and it \Nas reopeiu'd on the jdlli of Dccemher ISTd. 



— 275 — 

In the rebuilding- the primitive plan of the building- was enlai-gcd 
and has a sitting capacity for 1.000 persons. 

There is in Recife another theatre, that of the Club Dramatico, 
belonging to a private association, with a sitting ca])acity for 000. 

In the same square where the Santa Isabel theatre is to be found, 
there is the Governor's palace in the other angle. This palace is both 
the State Government seatand the Governor's residence, and is shad- 
ed by tall palm trees. As to its architecture this palace has nothing 




Recife. — Nossa Seiihora da Penha church 



worth while noting, it looks a little like the Pani State one, though not 
so large and not so pretty. It has, how ever, an historical interest, as 
it was erected on the foundations of the Prince of Nassau's palace. At 
present, after successive reforms, it has the external appearance of an 
old mansion residence of noble personages. It has two floors in three 
of the angles of the building, in the fourth angle, at the rear there 
are three floors and there is the Governor's residence. The front is 
painted of dark red, with a triangle in the centre at the top and 
faces the garden of the Republica Square. 

This is the finest square of the city. Recife in this regard did 



— 276 — 

not keej) in pace witli its iniiiorttinee and grandeur. Tl has but few 
squares, and those it has, liave (luite poor gardens. Von may run 
througli the whole city and you w ill not find one of those pretty 
parks as you find in Beleni, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro, perfum- 
ing the atmosphere with the balsamic sweet scent of their flowers. 

Another important building- is the Congress Palace, modern 
style with a semi-spheric dome, the shade of wliicli pi'ojccts iisclf in 
the looking glass of the river calm \>aters, as a large and trembling 
image. 

It is a fine building-, the foundation stone of which was plaeed on 
the 2nd of December 1870, and was finished on the JOth of Januar\ 
1876, under the direction and according- to the plans of the civil 
engineci- Dr. Jose Tiburcio Pereira de Magalhaes. 

A little further ahead, also in the pi'etty street that lines the 
river we see a large building-, the Crymnasium, possessing in its 
large size what lacks in elegance. 

At the end of the Imperador street is a white three stoiy high 
mansion, of sober architecture — it is the Town Hall. — The muni- 
cipality does not occupy the whole building. The second flooi- is the 
public library which has nothing to do with the municipal service. 

^\'e visited it with leisure and with all this patient crankness 
that makes of us a library-maniac. Everything was in perfect order. 
The books of which there are 20.000 volumes were in book-cases 
with glass-doors, quite protected from the dust and leaning- against 
the walls, according to the usages in olden times libraries. The 
books were nicely kept. The catalogue is nicely ananged. 

* * 

M'ithout feeling it we started treating pul)lic instruction subjects 
and as it desei'ves a separate chapter we now open it. 

The ol(l(;st and most respected institution in this line is the Law 
Co' lege. Not lia\ lug I hat famous I'cputalion I'oi- its glorious 1 radii ions, 
nobody will say by looking at this establisliniciil , thai this l»uilding 
is the nest and nursery whcM-efrom so many inlellectual eagles have 
raised ils fliglil carrying the IxMicficial influx of tlicir know ledge to 
(!very cornci- of I!ia/.il. 

Tlie Alls and Trades Lyceum is a most sympathetic institute of 
learning, ll owes ils existence to private initiative and ils expenses 
:irc made li\ the piodiu-t of siibsci'ipl ions of |)ri\ale eoni liltnl ion>. 
It IniN a liiiilding of its own, and a tine const rnci ion it is. wiili 



classes where lan<;nu<>-es , sciences, arts and ti-ades, industrial 
dra\vin<>- and other studies are taught free of charge both in day and 
evening classes. We were there a couple oT hours examining some 
curious anthropological, archeological and numisiuatic collections 
which form its interesting museum. 

This popular institute, based on the system of the establishments 
of its kind in Rahia and Rio de Janeiro, was iounded by the u Socic- 
dade dos Artistas Mechanicos e Liberaes », in the year l.SSl, the 
State Government contributing with a yearly' subsidy. 

The Ai-cheological Institute has a reputation wliicli has already 
reached beyond the State] boundary limits, it has si)i-ea(l all over the 




Kefife. — Loirislalivo ('.oii"ross and Gvniiia.simn biiildiiii's. 



country. It is in a small building of a most peculiar architectui-e, in 
which curve lines predominate, built at first for grammar schools 
and later on reserved for this institution. 

In the meetings Hall we saw a picture gallery with the portraits 
of historical perscniages, and notabilities of the ex-province. 

Charities Department. — The public buildings devoted to the 
service of public aid in Pernambuco are worthy of note. 

The D, Pedro II Hospital is the largest. It is a large three story 
building — it is the citj^ hospital. 

The foundation stone of the building was placed on the 25th of 
March 1847 and before it was finished on the 10th of March 1861 
began already' its charitable work of receiving patients to be treated. 

It has nine wards for men and foui- for women, steam washing 



— 278 — 

machinery, a chapel, flower and vegetable gardens, observation 
rooms for suspected diseases, livery stables, laboratories and every 
department needed in an institute of its kind. 

The Insane Asylum Ihouoh not as important as that of Para, or 
that of Sao Paulo, is yet one of the best in the whole country. 

The building is a modern one, situated at the Tamarindeira 
Square, a most pleasant and healthy spot. It has four pavilions, the 
central one being 1 15 metres awaj' from the ])ubli(' road, and is 
occupied by the administration of the institution, measuring 30 m. 50 
front by 22 m. 00 depth. The other two pavilions, are devoted to 
the habitation of the insane, and have their fronts a little further 
ahead than the central one and measure .'30 m. 50 front by 50 m. ()0 
depth. 




Recife. — Insane Asylum 



'V\\(', nuiin front is of doric style and of Lisbon stone with a 
stairway, a ])ortico and a garden in front. 

When we visited this noted asylum in October 1002 there were 
IJ insane i)atients from Pernambuco and neighboring States. 

.Just as the Insane Asylum, the Pooi- House, known as the Asylo 
de Mendicidade, is another document of the high interest that the 
Government of Pernambuco takes in the public aid services of its 
Capital. 

Tli('r(; are yet in Recife the asylums and hospitals, Magalhiies 
liastos, Lazaros, Santa Angela and othei's. 

I'riM.K Instruction. — Incidentally we have already si)oken of 
some public instinict ion establisliinents, as the (Jymnasium and the 
I.yeeuni. We will now write about the grammar schools. The diffe- 
rent nmnicipalil ies of rernainbueo sh;ii'e with the State (iovt'inmenl 



— 279 — 

llu^ cliarges of i)iil)lic ins! ruction. Just as it is done in lialiia, Miiias, 
Sao Paulo, and other States. 

The State maintains in its capital, Recife, 10 gi-annnar schools, 
two in each ward — being- one for each sex. 

The municipality in its turn supports 108 day schools and eight 
night ones. There are also about 30 private schools. 

Public schools in the State of Pekxambuco. 

In the capital : 

Day classes . . . . 108 
Night classes ... 8 
Private classes ... 30 140 

In the interior 381 

Total . . 527 

There are, besides this, many private schools, both grammar and 
high schools spread through the cities and villages of the interior. 
The State government has also the Colonia Orphanologica Isabel, 
(« Isabel )) orphanological colony), an important institute for orphan 
children. 

There are in Recife several libraries, the principal ones being : 
a Bibliotheca do Estado ; Bibliotheca da Faculdade de Direito; Bi- 
bliotheca do Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura ; Bibliotheca do Insti- 
tuto Archeologico. 

Nearly all the principal associations and learning institutions 
maintain libraries of more or less importance. 

The State Library has 30.000 volumes, the Gabinete Portuguez 
one 20.000; the Faculdade de Direito one 10.000, and that of the 
Archeological Institute 3.000 volumes. 

As to secondary and superior instruction there are also the follow- 
ing classes : 

a Associacao dos Empregados do Commercio)) night classes of lan- 
guages and other studies for book-keeping and commercial pursuits. 

Normal College, — with a a four year course for teachers. There 
is another school of this kind for the same purposes maintained by a 
private association. 

Engeneering College, founded by Dr. Barbosa Lima while Go- 
vernor of the State, installed in a fine building, modern style, with 
a physics and chemisti-y cabinet and laboratory. 

We must not close the Pernambnco section without writing 
about the magnificent press of its Capital. It is the State where 
journalism is the strongest and most advanced. In the Capital alone 
there are eight dailies, and some have won a reputation in all Bra- 



— 280 



zil, such as the Joinul do Recife published for the hist l."> yeai's; the 
Dinrio dc PernnDibuco, i)ublisbed since 1825; the Pvovinvia; the 
Estado; the Correio do Recife ; o Jornal Peqiieno, etc. In the interior 
we rarely lind a city of some importance without a newspaper. 



Indistuy ano (^OAr:\rERCE. — In spite of the largest part of l*er- 
nambuco's activity and wealth being trained towards agricultural 
industries, Just as it happens in nearly evcr^' State of Brazil, it would 
be a mistake to imagine that there is not either in the Capital or in 
other cities, an ever growing number of factories. 




IU*cil( 



(iniii|(rcssiiig colldii works dl \. Ncoscii rl ("," 



S])e;ikiiig oiil\- of important establishments there are in Ueeife 
and siildiihs (lie following factories : :> shoe ones, (5 cotton mills, 1 
oakum, '2i) cigars, 2 playing cards, 1 glassware, "J hats, 1 matches, 
•J perfujiiei-y, 1 i)owd(n-, (i soap, 10 furnitui'e, ;{ oil, I candles, 'J glo- 
ves, J bones coal, 7 ])icture fi-aines and looking glasses, 1 ice, 1 neck- 
ties, 1 i)aste l)oard, 1 biscuits, 1 wire nails. 1 cement, I l)rick, ii to- 
mato mass factories and 12 breweries and licpior distillers. 

As to its lUider industry, the nninufacture of sugai-. (he State 
not loud ago invested 1 1.000: ()ig;O00(^() to enlarge t lie instaUat ion of 
some lactories and inlfodnce new ])i'ocesses in t he prei)ai'at ion of 
sugar. 

in the State of I'ernanibuco there, art' to-da\ .iS steam and 



— 281 — 

liydi'aulic suo;ir liU'tories, and l.iJOO suoar factoi-ics working- l,y tlu; 
old processes, whieli give an avei^ige of l.",().0()0 tons of sugar eacli 
crop. 

Tlie total of the annual production of sugar-cane is estimated at 
nearly 3.000.000 tons. 

To-day none of the Brazilian States jjroduces bettei- (|ualiti('s of 
sugar nor cheaper ones than ]*ernainl)uco. 

On the other hand, its producing energy is astounding. The 
following table of sugar export by the port of Recife serves as a 
proof of the statements we made above. 

Map of the sugar produced in Pernamuuco in 7 years 1894-1901 (in bags of 75 kilos) 



MONTHS 


1894-1895 


1895-1896 


1896-1897 


1897-1898 


1898-1899 


1899-1900 


1900-1901 


September . . 


.^4.5-20 


13.542 


19.090 


12.285 


13.87S 


17.962 


7.450 


October . . . 


2.51.042 


78.258 


104.200 


117.445 


146.546 


1.53.711 


92.2.50 


November . . 


40.5.485 


2.58.784 


2.59.481 


279.944 


293.432 


511.549 


276.6.53 


December . . 


440.128 


249..550 


266.166 


291.129 


272.211 


554.667 


286.842 


January . . . 


4!)i.4l6 


547.6,59 


285.737 


206. 48 i 


241.817 


284.828 


354.286 


February . 


.552.. •in2 


.571.950 


219.288 


242.698 


191.0.58 


221.736 


295.160 


March . . . 


.502.680 


556.799 


148.981 


226.720 


127.025 


189.617 


2^8.729 


April. . . . 


206.975 


190.595 


97.871 


122.7.55 


84.847 


98.612 


158.739 


May .... 


144.625 


116.728 


47. .599 


116.415 


60.672 


67.1.57 


121.2.53 


.lune .... 


86.9.56 


75.975 


24..521 


.55.927 


19.148 


21.191 


68.510 


July .... 


.59.510 


55.. 542 


11.118 


19.565 


7.297 


6.983 


47.806 


August . . . 


9.782 


9.428 


6.254 


7.268 


3.152 


3.013 


56.353 




2.777.415 


2.062. .568 


1.488.106 


1.758.421 


1.461.980 


1.712.826 


1.974.013 



It isn't sugar alone that appears in the list of Pernambuco 
exports, there is also cotton, dried and salted skins, alcohol, 
brandy, oils, caruaiiba, mamona (of which castor oil is made), and 
rubber. All these articles are exported in smaller or larger quantities. 

The production of cotton, for instance, which is the second arti- 
cle in importance in the list as to quantity is quite large and the 
table below representing the port of Recife exports of that article in 
the decade 1891 to 1901 will give us an idea of it : 

Years Bales 

1891 a 1892 167.999 

1892 a 1895 512.112 

1895 a 1894 312.258 

1894 a 1893 193.667 

1895 a 1896 172.427 

The importation commerce of Pernambuco is large, exceeds even 



Years 


Bales 


1896 a 1897 . . . 


. . 169.867 


1897 a 1898 . . . 


. . 240.572 


1898 a 1899 . . . 


. . 133.579 


1899 a 1900 . . . 


. . 289.826 


1900 a 1901 . . . 


. . 358.925 



— 282 — 

its exports, wiiat is easily explained because the ])ort of Recife is a 
kind of intermediary of the imports of some of the small neighboring- 
States. 

In 1903 the international interchange of Pernambuco from 
January to November was : 



Exi.orts 2ri.998:571j 

Imports ■ . 34. 194:821 SOOO 

By the following list we will see that Pernambuco occupies a 
prominent place, being second to none but Rio de Janeiro as to the 
amount of its imports among the six States which import more than 
thej' export. By the last official statistics data during the first nine 
months of lUOl we see that those states imported : 

Federal Capital ioG.?! l:8r3IS000 

Pernambuco 54.I94:821S000 

Kio Grande do Sill 20.1 98:2-268000 

Maranhao 4.o29:.584S000 

Parahjba 1.547:77 1 $000 

Sergipe 5o0:GI9S000 

The port of Recife is one of the principal ones of Brazil, as to 
the entry and sailings movement in spite even of nothing having 
been done materially to adapt this port to the requirements of 
modern commerce. A committee of engineers which the Federal 
Government maintains there, and installed to-day in the old Xavy 
arsenal building, has made some dredging work in the })ort between 
the Lingueta and the light house to clear up the channel. 

* 
* * 

Police force, transportation, etc. — The police force of Per- 
nambuco, which used to have 2.000 men, was lately reduced. 

The map showing the expenses made with the State troops, 
during the year 190;M'.K)1 go up to 852:300S550. 

The above dncumcut was sent to the Slate; Congress by Di-. An 
tonio (ioncalvcs l^'ei-reira, governor of tin; State, with a message t)f 
wliicli \v(; extract(Hl the following paragraphs : 

(( It is thus that by tlic proposed reform presented, the State 
ti*oo])s will be reduced to l.:i();{ privates and 'My officers, distributed, 
according to the tabh^ approved, by a regiment of infant ry and a 
S(|ua(lr()U of caviilry, the former w itli I .'J II men and (he second with 
."/.I privates under the general coniniand of a eolonel who will liaxc 
full charge of the service. » 



— 283 — 

The city is crossed by the tracks of the « Companhia Ferro Carril 
Pernambncana, » which inaugurated its service on the 21stor Septem- 
ber 1871 with the Magdalena line. Then they started the AlTorgados 
one, on the 20th of November of the same year, Santo Amaro, on the 
14th of January, 1872, Capunga, (Muling in b^M-nandes Vieira, in the 
beginning of the square in which they plan the construction of the 
Aiiiorim i)ark, on 21st of September, 1872. The tramways are large, 
in good conditions, comfortable, and the general service is good. In 
lV)0;i this company carried 7.000.000 passengers in the different lines, 
which run over a total of 2.5 kilometres. 

Generally the tramway service is good though they adopt as yet 
animal traction. It is noticed by the visitors why such a beautiful 
and progressive city should not adopt electrical traction as nearly 
all tlie important cities of Brazil are doing. 

As to i-ailroads the State of Pernambuco has the following com- 
panies : 

Metres 

Estrada de Ferro do Recife a S. Francisco 124.739 

Estrada Sul de Pernambuco 19,i.908 

Estrada de Ribeirao a Bonito 26 

Estrada de Ferro de Cucaii 70 

Estrada de Ferro Santos Dias — 

Estrada de Ferro Central 178.900 

Estrada de Ferro do Recife ao Limoeiro (main Hne) . . . 82.976 

Estrada de Ferro de Carpina a Nazaretii (brancli) .... 15.069 

Estrada de Ferro de Nazaretli ao Pilar (branch) .... 84.240 

677.928 

Besides these the State has other railways connecting the Capital 
with the suburbs : 

« Estrada de Ferro Trilhos Urbanos do Recife a Dois » with a 
branch going to Varzea, the trains of which start from Republica 
scpiare. The line until Apipucos was inaugurated on the 5th of January 
186G. The branch that follows to Varzea separates itself from the 
main line at the Entroncamento, crosses Capunga, goes over the 
Lassarre bridge and thence through the new road near a place named 
Zumby, following up to Caxanga. 

From the entroncamento starts a new branch following by the 
Arrayal, which connects again to the main line in Monteiro. This 
railway belongs to an English Company : the Brazilian Street 
Railway; its track is 1™20 wide and has 26 kilometres extension. 

The (( Trilhos Urbanos do Recife a Olinda e Beberibe » Company 
has its main station at Rua Yisconde do Rio Branco (Aurora) at 
the South of Pedro II bridge. It is 12 kilometres long, its track is 



— 284 — 

r".>2 wide and belongs to a Brazilian eompany. The main station at 
Rua Anroia was open to the public in ISTo. 

For transportation and sea eoramunieations, Reeil'e supports a 
coastwise navigation conipan}' (besides other enterprizes that call 
there, belonging to o_ther States). It is the (cCorapanhiaPernambucana 
de Navegacao a Vapors founded in 185.'{ which has eight steamers for 
that service with 0.907 tons for cargo and accommodations for l.Kio 
first and second class passengers. 



Sundry notes ahout the city. — There are in Recife the follow- 
ing banks with the following capital : 

Banco de Pernambiico 8.0n0:000§000 

Banco Popular l.-'iOmOOOitdOO 

Banco Emissor 20.0nn.000.sn00 

Banco Oedito Heal I.OOO:OiiOSOO() 

The following banks have branch houses : 

The London and Brazilian Bank Ltd. 
The London and Kiver Philc Bank LicL 

There is also an agency of the Banco de Republica do Brazil , of 
Rio de Janeiro, and a new bank under the name of Banco do Recife 
with a capital of 2.000:00()$000 has just been founded. 

The city is illuminated by hydro-carbonic gas of which there is 
an excellent factory and gasometre in S. .Jose ward. It receives its 
water supi)ly through pipes and has a complete system of sewci'ag(\ 
It has ;m.5 sti-eets, 20 squares, 215 lanes and 07 alleys. 

In January of 1902 the city of Recife and suburbs had 2<>.ll7 
buildings, being 19.<S9.5 inhabited, 1(»9 under construction, and S;> in 
ruins. 

Of these buildings 1.092 didn't i)ay any taxation for the good 
reason of having legal exemption from it. 

Themunicii)al revenuecollected in 1902, amounted to 1 . 19,S:r)lS.i!9S."), 
which after adding the balance left from tin; previous year went up 

to i.20i.:m9$;{:{0. 

The poi)ulation of the city has increased thus : 

INK). . 2.").()()0 inhabitants. 
IS 12. . 72.000 » 

I.S72. . 97. .")()() )) 

I.S90. . |-J'.i.07l inhal)ilaiits incliidiii-;- Oliiuh, Mild the otitci- 
suburbs. 



28.) 



Other Citiks of Pkunambuco. — liesidcs Ilecile, one of the South 
American jewels, tlie Pernambuco State lias within its limits some 
very pretty cities, active nucleus of civilisati(m and progress, which 
the net of railways is little by little unitin<;-, so that they become 
homogeneous, let us put it that way, in the formaticm of that block 
of national soul and conscience, which is so rarefied and so uncon- 
scious once the sea-shore line is left to peneti-ate in the vast world 
of the west — the interior. 

Here are the names of those cities , whicli are spread here and 
there, some connected by the railway, others that will be so in some 
future date : 

Bczerros at the right of the Ipojuca river, at the North, near Serra 
Negra; Bom Jardiin, in a beautiful position at the right of the Tra- 
cnnhaem river, near the State of Parahyba do Xorte ; Brcjo (hi 
Madre de Dens, situated in a valley and just from this very circum- 
stance its name originates. The valley is formed by the Prata and 
Estrago hills. This city formerly was nothing but a large farm be- 
longing to the convent de S. Philippe Nery in Recife. Cnbo is another 
city at the right of Pirapama, crossed by the E. de E. do Recife a 
S. Erancisco railway ; Cariiam is in slightly inclined but healthy 
and dry ground, bathed by the Ipojuca river, and placed at its left. 
That river is cpiite strong in winter; E scad a, alao at the left of 
the Ipojuca river, high ground, many inhabitants, well mounted 
sugar factories and a railway station of the E. de E. do Recife ao 
S. Erancisco company, bathed by the Salgado and Goyta rivers 
which run near by; Garanhiins, in the centre of a hill top near the 
source of the Mundahii river ; Gloria de Goyta near the city of Pao 
d'Alho bathed by a little river of the same name, with sugar factories ; 
Goyanna between the rivers Tracunhaem and Capiberibe-mirim. 
24 kilometres from the coast with sugar-cane, coffee and tobacco 
agriculture; Gravata at the right of the Ipojuca river; Itambe at the 
extreme end of the State in front of the Pedras de Eogo village, well 
populated, with a magnificent climate and fertile ground; Jaboatao, 
at 18 kilometres west of the Capital, with a good climate, bathed by 
the river of the same name, connected with Recife by the E. de E. de 
Caruaru'; Limoeiro, at the left of Capiberibe river, it is a beautiful 
plain; Nazareth , w^ith 4.000 inhabitants at the right of the Tracun- 
haem river, in high ground, rocky and uneven connected with 
Recife by the E. de E. do Recife ao Limoeiro by the branch of its 
name ; Olinda, only (3 kilometres away from Recife, built on a hill 
bathed in the South bv the Beberibe river, in the Xorth by the Doce 



— 286 — 

river, in the East by the ocean, (It was formerly the capital of Pcr- 
nambnco, then one of the most oi)ulent and rich cities of Brazil) On the 
23rd of November, 18;31 the Dutch set fire to it. Among its build- 
ings worth while noting is : the Church (Se) ; the Seminary, an old 
college that belonged formerly to the Jesuits, the S. Francisco and 
Sao Bento convents well preserved; the Carrao convent in ruins, the 
Nuns Home; the terminal station of the E. de F. de Olinda, a large 
building where in olden times were sheltered the soldiers. It was the 
artillery barracks and to-daj'^ was reconstructed by the railway 
com])any. The City Hall bnilding; the market; the S. Pcdio Martyi-, 
the S. Pedro Novo, the Amparo, the S. Joao, the Misericordia, the 
Milagres and other churches. Olinda's water supply is furnished by 
the Santa Thereza Company, the water coming through ])ipcs from 
the Boberibe river. In the Varadouro there is a pretty bridge. 
Palnuires, at the left of the Una river, in the K. de F. do Recife ao 
S. Francisco; Pcsqueira, at the bottom, of the west side of Araruba 
hill where the Panema or Ii)anema river begins; Rio Forinoso, at 
the right of the river of the same name, near the sea coast, with 
8.000 inhabitants became celebrated in the days of struggle with 
the Dutch; Taqiiar('tin<>H, elevated to the rank of a city in 
1887; Timbaubii, but at a short distance from Pernambuco boundary 
line, separating it from Parahyba; Triumpho in the Baixa Verde 
mountain, cultivating largely coffee; Victoria, crossed by Natuba, a 
little river, situated at the left of the Tapocara river, in the F. dc F. 
do Recife a Caruaru , it was formerly the Santo Antao village. 
liarrciros, crossed by the Una and Cariman rivers, near the State of 
Alagoas; Scrinhacni, built on a hill at the right of the river of the 
same name; Bonito, at the left of the Madre de Deus river; A^ua 
Preta, at the left of Una river; Petrolina, on the banks of the 
S, Francisco river , and in front of ,Ioa/.eiro, in Bahia ; .Sa/^'v/c/zv) 
and Bom Conselho, at the bottom of Taboleiro hill, at the right of 
the Lava-pes little river, which divides it into two districts, connect- 
ed by two wooden bridges : Gamelleira, bathed by the Serinhfu in 
river. 

We persist in our opinion that this part of Brazilian fatherland 
will play a most important role in the progress and civilisation of 
the country. When we visited it, (hough wc heard repeated com- 
plaints against the dull business, against such or such stal)ility of 
local progress, we were convinced that wc can trust decidedly and 
confidentiall.x in the future of Pernambuco, without iucinring in tin' 
error of being oi)timist. Its principal cultivation, the sugarcane, is 
not threatening it, as the impatient ones i-ry. rcrnambuco has a 



— 287 — 

sure market in the IH or IS million consumers right in the coiinti'v. 
It suffices to close Brazilian markets to the alcohol, hrandy and 
sugar imported from foreign countries, to amplify by industrial ap- 
plications the use of the alcohol and the crisis of the State agricul- 
ture will be fought. To be sure that all must be preceded l)y 
the radical remodellati(m of the cultivation and manufacturing ])i'o- 
cesscs. Those l.HOO sugar plantations where sugar is nuinu fact u red 
by the old processes of large copper pans, have to be transformed 
into modern factories, or disappear from the regions where these 
new processes begin to be adopted. 

The agricultural evolution will have to accompany inevitably the 
general evolution. 

But what assures firmly the future of Pernambuco is its magni- 
ficent maritime situation between the two worlds, lucky position, 
nothing lacking to it, not even the proximity of good anchorage to 
help the access to the Recife one. 

In fact, among other bays which make the coast navigation so 
easy, we will cite the port of Tamandare , 120 kilometres south of 
the Capital, which is reputed one of the best, if not the best of the 
whole State. It is formed by a large baj'^ in the coast, between the 
bars of the Una and Formoso rivers, closed in the front by the reef. 
It has an easy entrance, a good anchorage with deep waters and 
sheltered from storms. 

The Federal Government instalJed there a (juarantinc station, 
modern style, of which the building nicely painted and clean we had 
to observe, even if against our wishes. The steamer in which we tra- 
velled going to Rio, called at Recife at a time when the}' reported 
the existence of the plague there. The steamer was sent to Taman- 
dare for disinfections and other annoyances, with whicli they perform 
all over the world the comedy of the official prophylatic theories. 
We gained by the visit. We got acquainted with one of the most 
beautiful anchorage places of Brazil. 



THE STATES OF ALAGOAS AND SERGIPE 



From Bahia to Maceio there are only 240 miles, and besides the 
traveller will have always in sight the low lands of the sea-coast, 
graceful in its curves, a little sandy, here and there, but fertile in 
the largest part of its extension , and always dressed by the woods 



— 288 — 

in which predominates tlie crown oi' the palm-trees, cocoa-nut trees 
in ondulating cultivations that have miles and miles of extension. 

The first time we reached the port of Maceio, was on a June 
morning- fresh and sweet, the diaphanous atiiiosphere left before our 
eyes the vision of an infinite field. At the left of those which from the 




*B8 




M;ic('i( 



Til.-; 



-lll-liniis»i 



sea look to the city, are awfully long plantations of cocoa-nut trees. 
The sann^ moving bottom, is like a frame to the white l)uildings 
affording a joyful and pleasant panoi-ama. 

The liiiildings are spread penetrating tlie green liioek and seem 
to be advancing in two dislini't columns, one low down lining thi' 
shore, the otliei- going u|» the hill, a i)ict urescpie and reddish hill, not 



— 289 — 

vor\' lii^li luiil which serves as basis lor the liglil-lionse. Several 
church-towers appear above tlie thick body ol" tlie l)niklingK h)oking- 
for a superior atmosphere, spotting- the screnily of (h(i sky transpa- 
rent blue. Towards the North and Xorth-east picturesque houses and 
hamlets of humble i)eople are lining the roads always gi-een with (he 
cocoa-nut trees till about a league's distance. 

When the steamer anchors, an enormous quantity of boats gather 
around i( , the boatmen shouting to offer transportation making a 
tremendous noise. In ten minutes everything is done and we are 
walking over the wooden bridges to enter the city. The landing 
place is a sea-shore called Jaragua, filled with small houses without 
any importance and large commercial houses, storage rooms, docks 
and warehouses and navigation companies agencies. A tramway 
takes the visitor to the centre of the city, passing by the Universal 
hotel, a small hotel at the left, and a large building, painted in rose 
color, at the right, a little above, this is the building where the 
State Government was for along time. After this we see commercial 
streets, squares, all filled of passing crowds of workmen, who consti- 
tute the main local activity. 

One of the peculiarities of Maceio is its light-house, erected in the 
centre of the buildings. All the other light-houses are surrounded 
by waves, this one is surrounded by houses. 



The city has some 37.000 inhabitants, four newspapers, several 
clubs , associations , etc. There are also factories, banks and elec- 
trical illumination. 

The general appearance of Maceio is pleasant. Elisee Reclus 
found it so, and said : « it is a most graceful city. » In fact there is 
nothing more picturesque than its agglomeration of white houses, 
framed inside the greenish cocoa nut trees and resting by the bright 
green looking-glass of its bay when the south winds don't revolt this 
one into brave waves. The city has progressed considerably in the 
last ten j'ears. 

They inaugurated the electrical illumination and erected fine 
buildings, both public and private. We will cite the Government's 
palace , inaugurated in 1903, a large building of solid construction, 
two pavillions of Italian style. 

The Casa de Detencao, (house of detention or jail) is another 
large and good public building of Maceio. It has a large central body 
with three floors and two side galleries with lots of square windows. 



— 290 — 



The railway station always lull of life and in a central locality is 

also interesting. 

The church, a large building with two towers at the sides, ol 
sober style, faces a public square with palm trees and other kinds 
Nvith a modest religious monument erected in the centre. 




iMaccio. — The <'.:illic(lr;il 



The ^^rcasm-y is one of the prettiest buildings in Maceio. U is 
(luite large, with three floors, based on a parallelogram , kept very 
clean and sun-ounded by a pretty ircm railing. 

Tlie h.iihlingoftlieuAssociacaodos Kmpregados do t\.mmercio » 
is also a three floor house, but it has not, however, the app.Mrance 
of the other building, being only noted because of its si/e. 



— 291 — 

There are some pretty and live streets, as Una do Coinmcrcio, 
Rua Uireita (straight street), whieli is somewhat curved and even 
tortuous, Rua Augusta, Rua Marecluil Floriano , wide and straight, 
Rua Xova and others. 

We didn't see any large square with garden as we see further at 
tlie Xorth. 

There was a large square, centrally located that could be trans- 
formed in a public garden, but was spoilt by erecting there a large 
building for a theatre, as they told us, and which can be seen j'et 
there in the middle of the square unfinished and grim looking, wait- 
ing for some clever mayor who will level the ground anew, deliver- 
ing that square to its natural function becoming a fresh breather in 
the middle of the citv. 



Railways and navigation. — There are two railway' enterprizes 
in this State : A Estrada de Ferro Piranhas a Jatoba, with 110 kilo- 
metres both the terminal places being on the banks of the S. Fran- 
cisco river. 

This railway connects two stretches of navigable rivers which 
are disconnected by the celebrated Paulo Alfonso falls. 

The Estrada de Ferro Central de Alagoas, running from Maceio 
to TTniao, with 88 kilometres and a branch to Vicosa city with 67 
kilometres. 

They are building a line from Uniao to Paquevira uniting this 
road with the Estrada de Ferro Sul de Pernambuco. 

There are also under study the following railways : Estrada de 
Ferro de Maceio a Leopoldina; Estrada de Ferro de Maceio a Paulo 
Affonso. 

The financial movement of the branch only of the Central de 
Alagoas railw^ay in the five years 1897 till 1001 was : 



VKAUS 


REVENLE 


EXPENSES ! BALANCE 

1 


1897 

1898 

1899 .-..•. 

1900 

1901 


I90:699S080 
28l:22(5§7(jn 
240:740Si.->n 
28l:l21S5oO 
506:1 27$ loO , 


I67:4()0§4I2 | 25:28980(58 
2I8:(J05$740 62:625S014 
180:527S988 ()0.il2Si42 
20o:in9SI55 7:i:7l2.S247 
249:960S556 oG:166S8l4 



The revenue of the whole road in 1003 was of about 000:O0OS000 
and the expense 720:000§000. 



— 292 — 

Besides, the State is crossed liy a lot of wagon roads and country 
roads, in its majority badly kept. 

In those roads the transjjortation is niado in waj^ons di-iven by 
oxen, and on horseback, just as generally hajjpens in all the interior 
of Brazil. 

As to the water communications the State is quite far from the 
progress it ought to have because .of its geographical configuration 
and extensive fluvial and marine coasts. The coastwise navigation^ 
is supi)orted mainly by the steamers of the Hahiana Company. Lloyd 




Macoio : do Cuinincrcio slroet 



HraziliMro and Pernainbucana Company, besides several small boats 
going u\) the S. Francisco river till the city of T*encdo. 

On that rivei- is a line of steamers running between Pcnedo city 
and the village of I'iranlias, and a section of the Coni])anliia Ter- 
nanibueana is unchn- work. 

On the Manguaba lake there is navigation l»et\\een the Capital and 
the city of Pilar, the steamers I'unning there Ixdong to the .> Coiu- 
l)anhia de Navega<;ao das Lagoas » with main office at Maccio. 

'I'liey are small jjaddli^ steamei's. of 1(H) to ITiO tons like those 
navigating between Ignape and the small fluvial cities of Sao Taulo. 



— 293 — 



Tlie port of the Ciipital, is visited by lar^e ear^o-boals, l)()lli F>ra- 
/ilian and European. Seldom a Nvcck ^oes 1).\- wiilioiit al least a 
iH)ui)lc of steamers calling- there. 



* 



Co:mmerce and industries. — While as lo its size this is one of 
the smallest, being, as it is, the 17tli. On flic list of the 20 States, Ala- 
goas can speak with piide of its pi'oduction and coinmcrcial aclivity. 




Maceio. — Principal railway station 



Its main industry is the sugar-cane cultivation and sugar manufac- 
ture. Once known the actual crises in which this product has hardly 
any value we can imagine that the State's Treasury is not becoming 
overrich with its main source of revenue, neither the commerce and 
industries of the country must feel very happy. 

Yet, work goes on Just the same, the factories whistles continue 
to be heard, the factory machinery makes the usual noise, and the 
industrious population keep on developing their activity. 

Tli(;re are in the State seven cotton mills all of them are moved by 
steam, three vegetable oil, eight cigar, several leather tanning, some 



— 294 — 

paper, soap, cordials, vinegar, shoes, brick, rice, lime factories 
besides 838 sugar making establishments by old processes. 

There are several modern sugar factories as that of Mr. Van- 
desmet, that of the Brothers Leao, in Utinga. 

The State has 18 cities, 15 villages distributed among 33 munici- 
palities. Of these cities we must mention Penedo which has a fluvial 
port, a most important one over tlie S. Francisco river of which it 
is the emporium. Unfortunately it can't harbor but middle draught 
ships. The small boats of five States, Minas, Bahia, Poriianibnco, 
Sergipe and Alagoas come there with their loads of cotton, sugar, 
leather, lumber, etc. 

Further on we will give some notes about the different cities of 
Alagoas. 

The production and commerce of those 18 cities and their respec- 
tive municipalities have developed a good deal these last few years, 
in spite of the low prices of their main merchandise — the sugar — 
and the fact of its agriculture being led, by old processes, by routine. 

Yet in the first six months of 1901, they exported 17.556.41)3 kilos 
of sugar 1.384.050 kilos of cotton. The total value of their commerce 
through the two ports of Maceio and Penedo was in nine months of 

that year : 

Exports 8..^29.8o8S900 

Imports 5.2l9.o35S330 

After the Parana and Amazonas States , Alagoas is the one of 
most recent organisation as to autonomic political personality, as 
the old capilania only was taken away from the Pcrnambuco pro- 
vince on the Kith of September 1817 and by the declaration of inde- 
jjendance on the 7th of September 1822 it was also considered a 
province; of the empire. 

W'itli the transition from tlu; (nnpirc into the republic in l>ra/il, 
on the 15th of November 189U, the old province took the denomina- 
tion of a State on the 11th of June 18U1 cmcc promulgated the State 
constitution and definitively constituted the autonomous State on 
the 1st of .July 1892, during the administration of the (iovci-nor. 
Major (iabino liesouro. 

TIk' area of the State is estimated at 28.5()() sepuxrc kilometres, 
having tlic foim of a rectangle, the })riucipal sidi' of whicli is in the 
month of the S. I-'i-ancisco rivci-. 

()ii the Athiutic its sea-shore has an extension of 2('il kihmictn's, 

\\\ its area wv. see it is one of the smalh'st Hraziliaii Slates, vet is 
larger liiaii many I'lupopcau intlfiiciidcnl count liis. I n conscMinrnff 
of its g('o;j,ra|)hical position it lias no vitv long inlcfioi' tci'rilory. 



— 295 — 

and that way, even from the farthest away points of its boundary 
lines with Pernambuco State,, we can go to a port on tlie S. Fran- 
cisco river, or on the sea-coast with a run ol" 32 leagues or 102 kilo- 
metres, maximum. 

The population of the State, according to the census taken on the 
31st of December 1<)00, was (>H).273, being 31<J. 137 males and 

333.000 females. 

* 

* * 




Maceio. — Tlie Marlyis Square 



Other cities of Alagoas. — After Maceio, the most important 
city of the Alagoas State, is Penedo , built on the banks of the S. 
Francisco river. It is in a very favorable position for its develop- 
ment. It was elevated to the class of village on the 23rd of April 1636, 
with the denomination of S. Francisco and to the class of city by 
the provincial law, decree n° 3 on the 18th of April 1812. It compri- 
ses the districts of Penedo, Mucambo , and Salome, parish of Nossa 
Senhora do Rosario do Penedo, created by provincial law , decree 
n° 7, on the 23rd April 1842. Its population is 18.421 inhabitants. 

The Federal Government has there a Custom House. Its princi- 
pal export product is sugar. It has three newspaj)ers : A Fe Christa, 



— 296 — 

catholic weekly ; O Siil dc .1/agoa.s, a commercial newspaper ; and 
O Trabalho wliicli is the i)aper with the largest circulation in the 
State, devoted to the interestol" the ajj'ricultural classes as well as 
commercial and industrial ones. 

The city of T?ene(lo is illuminated with kerosene oil, but there is a 
project to substitute that system by electricity. It has 1.U12 houses. 

Ai.AGOAs, — Tt is not of the cities of largest i)opulation. It has 
only l,").;!;)*) inhal)itants as per the census taken in lOOU, but it is 
ahead of the others by its wealth and production, consisting mainly of 
sugar, manufactured in 20 factories, grain plantations, and an ex- 
traordinary production of fruit. Its commerce is rather small and its 
industry of little account, excepting fishing which is largely can-ied 
on on the lake. Coffee is cultivated there in small scale. 

Atalaia. ^— Is quite an old city created between 17H2 and 17(i5. 
Formerly it had the denomination of Arraial dos Palmai-es. 

It comprises the districts of Atalaia, Ingazeira, Sapucaia, and 
Fazenda da Poranga, parish of Nossa Senhora das Brotas da Ata- 
laia. Poijulation (of the municipium) 28.420 inhabitants, being 12.8»)2 
males and 14.150 females. Their elements to earn a living are varied 
and the city seems to have entered a new life, with the im})ulse it 
received after the building of the railway branch line connecting it 
with Vi^osa. 

Sugar and cotton are the main sources of wealth, not speaking of 
the enormous production of grain. 

There are in the municipium 157 farms where they manufacture 
sugar. Many are partly in the municipium of Paraliyba , lately 
created. There are also important sugar factories, one of them worth 
more than 1.000:000$00 belonging to F. et G. Vandesmet. They also 
devote themselves to cattle raising. 

Camauagihk. — Or Passo de Camaragibe, was denominated vil- 
lage in June 1852 and city by i)rovincial law n". 842 on the 14 th 
of June 1880. It comprises the districts of Camaragibe, Matriz de 
Camaragibe and Soledade, parish of Xossa Senhora da Conccicao 
do Passo de Canuiragibe, created by a law, decree n". 117, on the 
Uth of .June bSttl. Its population is 22. ('»<)(') inhabitants. 

h is an industrious population and the Passo de Camaragibe is 
quite an active; place. There are 51 sugar manufacturing places, 
which shows that the sugar-cane agriculture is the largest resource 
of th(; locality. After it is tlu; cotton, numdioca, beans, .corn, i-icc 
and cocoa-niils, the latlcr foi-iniiig hcautiful forests on the sea shore. 
The (!xpoi4s arc, vegetables, building lumber, iiiainlainiug in good 
footing its internal eoinnu'rce. 



— 297 — 

MARA(J()(iY. — FoniHM-ly callctl ( Jiiiiiclla, when il was paiM ol' 
the Poi'to Calvo imiiiic'ij)iuni. It was ranked as a village by pi'oviii- 
eial law ii". 081 on the 21th oi" April 1<S75 with the name of Isal)el. ll 
was installed on the :2nd ol" Deeembcr of the same year, Tlien was 
denominated Maragogy by provincial law n", 7;>.'5, on the; .'!rd or.Iiinc 
1<S87. It comprises the districts of Maragogy , Hara (Jraiide, parish 
Sao IJento dc jNIaragogy created by i)rovincial law in Ai)ril IS.").",. 
This city is the seat of an essential agriciddiral iiHinicipiuin, having 
lo sugar factories. There are large fruit and vegetables [)lantations, 
and extensive i)lantations of cocoa-nut trc(^s. It has a regular coni- 
niercc, and its industiy limits itself to fishing and numufactui'ing 
sti'aw hats. 

PAL^rEiitA, — Installed by law n". 27 on the 12th of Marcdi \H:>H. 
Suppressed by law n". 43 on the 4tli of May 1845, and restaured by 
law n". 200 on the 2ord of June 1853. It became a city by law n". 
1007 on the 20th of August 1880. It comprises the districts of Pal- 
meira, Olhos d'Agua do Accyoli, Santa Cruz, Cabeceiros and (.'al- 
deiroes, parish Nossa Senhora do Amparo da Palmeiro dos Indios, 
created in 1798. Population 15.010 inhabitants. The resources of this 
city and its municipium consists in cattle raising, its commerce, 
which is s(>mewhat developed and its agriculture, producing large 
quantities of cotton, as well as sugar manufactured in 10 farm- 
houses, corn, beans and other vegetables. Its industry has only a few 
factories to shell cotton, tan skins and prepare salt and lime. 

S. Braz. — Village by provincial lawn". 1.050 on 28th of June 
1880. Separated from the Porto Real do Collegio. It comprises the 
districts Braz and Lagoa Comprida, parish S. Braz, created by 
provincial law n". 702 on the lOtli May 1875. Population, 0.373 inha- 
bitants. It lias considerable cultivation of cotton with factories to 
shell it and pack it in bales. It has also rice, maraona and corn 
plantations. 

This city raises and exports cattle, has factories to tan skins as 
well as soap factories. 

Santa LrziA. — A pretty small city, an industrial one, with 
15.000 inhabitants. Its municipium comprises 57 sugar factories, and 
that is its largest revenue. It has two cotton mills well mounted in 
Fernao-Yelho and Caclioeira, and one brick and tiles factory in 
Satuba. 

There are two other cotton mills under construction, one annexed 
to the Cachoeira one, and the other in Rio Largo, between that place 
and the branch line of the city of Vicosa. 

The Cachoeira cotton mill, says a newspaper, distributed in 1893 



— 298 — 

over 40 "/,, dividend to its stock-holders. Business in tliis district is 
becoming- prosperous, with the impulse received by the railway 
(c Uniiio )) and that branch that crosses the same raunicipium. 

Uniao. — ^^'as forniei'ly called Santa Maria, It is the head of a 
fertile municipiuni, the principal wealth of which lies in the large 
cotton plantations as well as those of niandioca, corn, beans and 
other vegetables all of which give life to its commerce already im- 
proved by the impulse it received with the A lagans Ruilwuy, which 
connects it with the Capital and soon will be the terminus of the 
Sul de Pernambuco railway branch, starting from Paquevira. It 




I'ilar. — View o)' oiio of llio |iriiici|i;il streets 



exports besides the above mentioned articles, the sugar manufactur- 
ed in seven factories, the tobacco in strings, leather, skins, brandy, 
cattle, pigs, etc. 

This city has a factory for the extraction of the mamona oil, cot- 
ton shelling, sawing lumber, preparation of mandioca fh)ur and 
other works, 

Tkaiim. — It is a pretty city with from 1'.'. (>(»<) to -JO.OOO iiiliahi- 
tants. It is the seat of an inipctrtant municipiuni of which the i)riiici- 
pal source of wealth is the cattle raising. It cultivates cotton and 
graiu aiul has several factories to shell cotton. 

Its coiuMU'.rcc is somewhat active and the dried salted hccf pic- 
j)arcd there is (exported in (|uilc hirge (luaiitities. 



— 299 — 

Traipu while village was called I'orlo da l-'ollia, l)y a pioN iiicial 
law of April 1835, installed on the 'iiid of August l<S;>S. It bccaiiic 
Traijiu by i^rovincial law n". oKi on the .'{Oth of April ISTO. 

Pilar. — AVith this name was installed in March 1<S72 the city, 
seat of a most industrial municipium, the elements of wealth of 
which, are varied and abundant. The principal one is the sugar ma- 
nufactured in 27 factories. Cattle raising, however is (juite limited. 
Its commerce is prosperous and the manufacturing industry has 




I'ilar. — Coinmercio Street 



grown considerably. It has four brandy distilling factories, one 
working by steam and in a large scale, two cigar factories, one 
cotton mill, tw^o shoe factories, and many others. 

Population, 15.313 inhabitants. In Pilar they publish an instruc- 
tive news magazine, the organ of the « Sociedade Fraternal dos 
Caixeiros do Pilar », under the title of Vinte de Jiilho. 

Porto Calvo. — This city has a relatively large population, 
having 30.000 inhabitants. Its largest resource is sugar manufactur- 
ed in 64 factories. Cattle raising is not done in a large scale. Its 
commerce also could very well have a good deal more life, if the 
natural resources this part of the State disposes of were better 
taken care of. Its industry also is not much developed. 

8. Luiz DO QuiTUNDE. — A pretty city with 18.26(3 inhabitants. 

The municipium has 78 sugar factories. They also export lum- 



— 300 — 

ber, cotton ami otlici- products, ainoii^ wliicli are cocoa-nuts, in larj^e 
(jiiantitics. It lias several alcohol and brandy distilling places, and 
lor a larger develoi)ment in this line, a factory is going to be esta- 
blished with a capital of 400 centos. They manufacture also bricks, 
tiles, etc. 

S. MiuuEL ni-: Campos, — This city \vith its munici])iuni has 
2U.o2(i inhabitants. 17 sugar mills, and i)roduces in a large scale cot- 
ton and many kinds of vegetables, which it expoits as well as it does 




I'liiilu-AH'dnsu falls, view ut llic [iriiiciiial \NaU'r-juin|i 

leather, skins and salt. There is hardly any industry , very little 
cattle raised. It is, however, about to inaugurate a large sugar 
factoi\v moved by steam. 

There are still other villages worthy of nu'utiou, as Campos. 
S. Luiz de Quitunde, Liiuoeii-o, Triumpho, Santa Lu/ia do N(»rte, 
raiahyl)a, S. .lose dc Lage, Anadia, Cururipe, Helmonte, etc. 



* 
* * 



We will not close tills chapter without speaking of Paulo Affon- 
so, the celciti-atcd falls. Two collossal watei- falls, shake the elei-ual 
silence of the woods, one at the North, the otiier at tlie Soutli. Tlu' 



— 301 — 

hitt(M" is the Snllo dus Sole Qncdiis Miimi) of the; S(!V(!ii I'^ills), al)()iii 
whit'li \vc will speak later on when we shall write about the Parana 
State, the former, is the Paulo ATfonso fall in the S. Franciseo 
river, and just in the boundary line of the Alagoas State. 

The S. Franciseo river, runniuj; with a speed of about a foot and 
a half a second, coming suddenly across a uiountain of basalts, in its 
violent stream, throws itself up, and pi-ecipitates itself down the 
rocks into the waters 150 feet below. <c The principal water jump, » 
says a Brazilian writer, « falls down forming a curve, at half way 
from the stone canal through which tlie waters run, impels the 
(iirrent north-ward against the waters on the other side of the 
stream, mixing, or as we might say, crushing themselves. When 
they meet each other we do not see the volume of (lie water in mass, 
we see but foam, steam, a fog, and in a dreadful jump, those revol- 
ting waters, all crushed into a fine spray fall into the abyss. 

This fall is 15 to 18 metres wide and passing through such a 
narrow channel becomes noted because of the impetuous violence of 
its current. 



THE STATE OF SERGIPE 



Seigipe is the smallest of Brazilian States, its area being only 
39.090 square kilometres. Yet, what it has less in territory, compar- 
ed with the other 19 States of the Brazilian union it has more in 
densitj^ of population. Even the total figures of population — 356.2(34 
inhabitants — is superior to those of Espirito Santo, 209.783; Santa 
Catharina, 283.769; Piauhy, 334.328; Goyaz, 255.395; Amazon, 
249.756; and Matto Grosso, 118.025. 

How many powerful people would dare to engage themselves in 
conquest war, to round the figures of its territory to those 39.090 
kilometres of the State of Sergipe ! 

Be as it may, the old province has to-day just as its sister States, 
perfect autonomy a political organisation identical to those of the 
most advanced and powerful States of the Republic. 

Sergipe has progressed industriously and usefully, sufficing to 
say — and for that there is nothing like figures — that, only in 1903, 
the production exported to the other Brazilian ports and Europe 
went up to 70.000:000^000. 

We also verified that Sergipe excelled many of the other States 
with its commerce. 



— 802 — 

Its capital, Aracaju, is a t-itv witli l*(>.()(H) inliabitants, but it is not 
very accessible because of the Cotinguiba bar. Were it favorably 
situated, by some large aud deep river, as Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, 
Recife, Belem, or even Maceio, we can well imagine what propor- 
tions of growtli it would take among the other Brazilian capitals. 

Even the way it is, almost hidden, without a fre(|uent and rapid 
navigation service, Aracaju is gi-owing. 'i'\v(;lve years ago it had a 
dreadful aspect, to-day it is a pleasure to i)ay it a visit : the number 




Aracajii. — A part of llic laii(lii)g-|pl:ice 



of l)iiil(liiigs increases, new and i)rctty ones arc goiiii;- up c\cry 
<lay, and the area of the city keeps on extending itself doiuinating 
the small farms and uncultivated fields of the suburbs. It was only 
in lUOl that the street paving work began, thanks to the energy of 
the i)atriotic (Jovcrnor, Olympio de C'ampos. 

When the visitor (mters Aracajii thinking he is going to see a 
city in a stat(^ of decadence, he finds himself agreeably surpri/.ed 
with the geiieial aspect of that Capital, its commerce, that life pecu- 
liar to :i i)laee growing up and destined to become great in liie fiilure. 

Among odiei- streets, all of which run straight , l)roatl and par- 
ralh'l , (lie lolictwing cause a splendid impression : Laranj«'iras , 



— 303 — 

Aurora, S. Christoviio, Japaratuba and Itaporaiiga, quite long ones 
offering a pretty perspective. 

Among the pubic squares are noted by its size, the one where the 
Matriz clinrcli is and the Palacio square, wliicli luis not as yet any 
garden, but embellislied witli imperial palm trees nicely planted in 
rows. 

Among the noted buildings we will cite : the Matriz cliurch, 
which has some originality in its front with two side towei-s, sup- 




Aracajii. — Aurora street 



ported on square base. These tow^ers have three floors facing the 
front. 

This church has the form of a parallelogram, and all its exterior 
obeys to an hybridism of the German ogive style with its heavy 
lines of colonial construction. 

At the front there are a few steps and a modest railing which 
give the three doors that give entrance to the church. 

The Government Palace is another fine two floor building, sur- 
rounded by large windows, and having in its front the Republic 
coat-of-arms. As to its architecture it is not worth much, but in its 
interior is decorated with decency and good taste. 



— 304 — 

■ In li-ont of lliis iiiomiinent is a larj>e, light building, facing the 
square willi colmniis of elassie order in front sei'ving as basis to a 
triangular (op. 'IMiis is the Palaee of the Legislative Assembly. 

'IMie charity hospital, a large building, all white, composed of 
two lateral structures, connected one to the other by a centre one 
serving of vestibule and entrance? to tlie hospital. 

The Noi'inal College, a modern building, of only one floor, s(iuaie 
but elegant, a double stairway giving access exteriorly to the main 
enti-ance, which is lined bv railing. 




Araciijii. — Malriz climcli 

'I'he Jail is a solid building with small windows which give to its 
exterior a characteristic aspect of the object for which it was built. 

'I'he cotton mill, the police barracks, the branch office of the 
Federal Treasury are, all of tluMU , buildings that contril)ute 
to tlie enilx'llisliment of Aracaju in conjunction with the large 
number of numsions, residences and business establishmcnis. 



Pi r.ijc iNsTKiCTioN, Poi.icK AND I'^iXAXCKs. — Thcrcbeiugin 
P>alii:i , (piite neai* tliis Slate, a numlx'i- of institutions devoted to su- 
perior grades of l'ul)lic 1 list rue t ion. w liicli are (piite aci'cssihle to the 



— 305 — 

people of Sergipe, it is evident that tliere is no necessity for l ho 
State Governement to make sacrifices In- more hixiiry keeping- 
academies and universities in Aracaju. In this Capital, however, 
there are schools to prepai-e the students for college. There is 
the Atheneu Sergipense, which had in 1<)(I0, 75 students; in 
1901, 08; and in 1902, 83, all of them pi-eparing themselves for 
examination which will admit them to the different colleges in the 
different States of the Republic. The Normal College had in 1902 
one hundred and four pupils. In Maroira, the Institute Cruz 
prepares boys for commercial pursuits. The latter establishment was 




Aracaju. — Prison Place 'and Buildings 



founded by a philantropist Mr. Joao R. da Cruz, an industrial man 
who bequested an annual income for its support. 

The Government also gives a subsidy to this establishment, and 
has in Estancia, Laranjeiras, Maroim and Propria High Schools 
teaching : national grammar, French, Arithmetic and book-keeping. 

As to Grammar schools, there are in the State, besides the Sale- 
sian and other private schools, 209 classes. Of these 4;> are for males, 
56 for females and 110 for both sexes, being 22 in the Capital, 55 in 
the cities, 44 in villages and 85 in smaller places. 

The frequentation in 1900 was 4.110 students and the number of 
matriculations was 0.167. In 1901 , the frequentation was 4.554, the 



— 306 — 

matriculation, (3.831. In 1003 tlu' matriculation went up to ijVX} and 
the irequentation was 6.130. 

'i'he police force is constituted b^' an infantry battalion, divided 
into three companies, with 100 men commanded by a major. 

The financial conditions of Sergipe are good. In 1001, Governor 
Olympio de Campos who has been a most clever and discreet politi- 
cal chief said in his message to the local legislators : 

(c Jt pleases me to declare to you that Sergipe is one of the States 
of the Union which is settled up to date regarding every one of its 
responsibilities , paying all its expenses with the ordinary revenue 
of its public administration sei'vices ». 

In 1903, Sergipe had unforeseen expenses, founding new schools, 
l)uilding bridges , improving roads in the interior of the State and 
in spite of that, discharged all its obligations, including the two last 
installments of the amortization of a loan it had raised in tlie « Hanco 
da Republica of Rio de Janeiro ». 

As to its municipal administration we may well praise the sjjiril 
of order presiding to the finances in that part of the country, and 
there is no municipality in the State that doesn't present a surplus 
at the close of its fiscal year, modest as it may be in some cases. 

The budget of this State is of about 1.800:000S000, revenue and 
expenses being about even. The following table is very interesting 
showing the constant growth of the revenue of the State in ten 
vears, 1800-1001 : 



1890 . 

1891 . 

1892 . 
189.1 . 
I8!»i. 
1 895 . 
189(5 . 
1897. 
18118 . 
IH!)!) . 

I '.too . 

1901 . 



54 1:891 $482 
ri9o:5(5.i|;996 
GG8:iG9$715 

I .o90:on2,«;8r)n 

I..V2():892,«!()ir) 
1.I07:801$-2()I 
l.tlJ):002<i!.w7 
l..")|{):.'ir)l.$ri)9 
2.ltr>:879,*;o.'):i 
l.77."i:l7I.SI95 
l.8,l():ir)9,$r)08 
l.(K)l:n8r>S90;) 



731: 551 $686 

605:548$2I8 

;i()i:86;)S2:ir) 

7.V2::i7l§;8i:i 

1 .n99:.'5:i-2§090 

l.550;5(i2S184 

!.()74:215S5I7 

1. 70 1: 1 -M,*; 129 

2.i2i:()9{.*;it8r) 

2.2ii:i;75().«;:il0 

i.7(iri:.".t)!»sor>() 

I.(i82:i:>9$l8(5 



* 
* * 



ruoDCi rioN , Imu'stkv AM) CoMMKiu'i';. — Sci-gi|)(> belongs to llie 
;i-oiip of (liosc nru/.ili:ni States wliicli devote t luMnselves to a mono- 



— 307 — 

culture, and when it so luippens, if the prtxhict of tluil inonocultin-e 
obtains liigh prices, nil is well, everything- is easy, hul if Dial ])i-o- 
duction is depreciated in its value, as it has happened with sugar 
and coffee, then the situation is a dreadful one. 

Sergipe cultivates sugar-cane in a projxjrtion (hat almost means 
exclusivism. The computation of the sugar-cane products and their 
official value in the ten years, ISOO-lDOl, was : sugar 202. til? tons, 
repiesenting the value of 5;>.796:483$995; brandy 10.057.85',) litres, 
representing the value of 2. 124:713$;}()7 ; alcohol lliJ.iilN, liti-es, 
representing the value of 7 1:.5(>1S0<SS; and melasses 225.178 litres, 
representing the value of 11:.531$00(); this shows a total of official 
value of 56.306:892$390, and the average sugar price was 201 reis per 
kilo. The weight of the sugar-cane corresponding to the 2(52. (i 17 tons 
of sugar exported, taking as a basis (3 "/„ of sugai-, is ecpiivalent to 
1.37().948 tons of cane. 

Sergipe has in several cities improved factories for the sugar 
manufacture. We will mention among them the Riachuelo one which 
belongs to the Assucareira Company of Rio de Janeiro, which has 
another factory in Botafogo, in the Federal Capital, moved by electri- 
city, having cost 5.000.000 francs and producing 18.000.000 kilos 
refined sugar yearly. 

The ccUsina Central do Riachuelo » is one of the best in Brazil, has 
a blanch railway to connect it with the main line, has improved 
machinery moved by steam and electricity, distilling apparatus, 
vaste sugar-cane plantations, and gi'inds annually 20.000.000 tons of 
sugar-cane, producing 3.360.000 kilos of sugar and 1.200 casks of 
sugar-cane brandy. 

The surplus of the local consumption is exported, not withont 
difficulty, because, as we -said above, very few steamers call at 
Aracajii. They manage, however, to export all its surplus by the 
three small ports of the State : Cotinguiba (Aracaju city) Rio Real 
(Estancia city) and Yasa Barris (S. Christovao eity). 

By the following map we will show the export figures during ten 
years, 1892-1901 : 

Map of the sugar exported from 1892 to 1901 



Years Kilogr. 

1892 .: ... . 16.475. -WO 

1893 16.8,39.38! 

1894 50.694.902 

1895 57.652.219 

1896 29.115.8.J7 



Years. Kilofjr. 

1897 20.050.479 

1898 59.4:i2.80n 

1899 l9.5o8.783 

1900 25.710.260 

1901 29.315.714 



Once we have written about the State exports, we must offer 



308 — 



data about the imi^orls. Unlortunatcly we have no dotamorc recent 
than 1899. We will give then the tables of the three years 1897-1809 : 

Sergipe exports from 1897 to 1899 



In 1891 



Direct iiii|i()i'lalioii 

Coastwise iinporlalion : 

Tlirouirii Estaiicia Ciistuni House 



l.297:094.$6r)3 
2.2I9:072.?040 
1. 007:0 12,«;849 



Tola!. 



4.o23:l79$o42 



In 181)8 : 



Direct iiii|i(irla(i()n [.136:3I2§664 



Coastwise ini|>ortalioii 
Thi'ougli Estancia Custom House 



Total 



In 1899 : 



Direct iniporlatiuii 

Coastwise iinportatioii . . . . 
Througli Estancia Custom House . 

Total. 



2.989: 46 U$440 
1.839:887$972 

5.965:662S076 



G7I:509SI68 
3.055:278.$ i65 
1.879: 127.S60.J 

6.083:7i5S286 



These figures show how quickly the State is growing, as its im- 
ports show, to a certain extent, its consumption, and consequently, 
its growth. It would be interesting to C()mi)are previous figures. 

We will take, for instance, the figures of the budgets of the 
State, during five years of a remote time and five years of a more 
recent period, and the striking difference will show us the i)r()gi ess 
attained : 



I 



YEARS 


REVKNUK 


KXI'E.NSES 


185.^-1856 . . . 
1856-1857 . . . 
18.57- 18,-8 . . . 
1858-185!) . . . 
1839-1840 . . . 


145:6:j9$218 

7.-):650§180 
14i:G76$.'ilo 
12!)::J45$013 
122:641 $937 


I4f):669S218 
74:951.?6iO 
145:2 i9g;701 
128:84G§7G(l 
125:308S4.ir) 








1895, 
18!)t . 
I81»:i , 

iH'ii; 

IK! 17 
1898 
I8!l!) 



l.()!)0:0()2iS8.50 
l..")2(>: !»2S;G15 
I.1(I7:802S274 
1.4i;i:(l02S;557 
1.31f>::)5l$M>9 
2.1l3:879$."i.')f) 
1. 77.";: 1 7 IS 195 



722::i71§!«i:; 
1.0!)9:5:)2,?0!)0 
I.;i:i0:.-i62$184 
l.G71:2i.5S:il7 
l.704:i:i.5Si29 
2.424:()!l4g;985 
2.2()."i:75GS:il0 



— 809 — 

Tlie above ligui-es arc (juite significant. 

But let us go back to the sugar production, wliicli wo were; deal- 
ing with before this retrospective digression, as S(M'gi|)c owes to it 
the growth of its public; wealth. 

We wrote about the sugar-cane facfoi-ies, some by old i)rocesses, 
some w ith improved machinery, some in the sugar-cane plantations 
farm-houses, some in the cities. We spoke of some with improved 
machinery which were being installed in order to increase the manu- 
factured quantities of sugar and cheapen the price of its production. 

We will now present a list of these farm-houses sugar factories, 
of all the diverse types, which are now in operation in the different 
cities and municipiums of the State : 

Sugar-Cane Factories now in operation 
IN THE State of Sergipe 



MUMCIPIUMS 



S. Chrislovao . 

Itaporanga . . 

Laraiijelras . . 

Riachuelo . . 

Maroim . . . 

Rosario . . . 
N.a S.a das Dores 

Capella . . . 

Pacatuba . . 

Villa Nova . . 

Rlachao . . . 

Espirito Santo . 
Divina Pastora . 

Itabaianinlia . 

Siriry. . . . 

Estancla . . . 

Araua . . . 
Itabaiana 

Villa Christ ina . 

Lagarto . . . 

Santo Amaro . 

Simao Dias . . 

Soccorro . . 

Santa Liizia. . 

S. Paulo . . . 

Japaratuba . . 

Propria . . . 

Boquim . . . 

Aquidaban . . 

Total. 



33 
2.5 
16 
32 

35 

6 



31 
1 

t3 
5 



2 
6 
3 

9 
6 
1 

27 

9 



276 



15 



10 

14 

17 

17 

7 

53 

19 

17 

47 

6 

24 

7 

1 

Ti 

10 

20 

1 
11 

24 



582 



11 
17 
39 
51 
17 
39 

6 
66 
16 
14 
19 
21 
38 
54 
52 
19 
50 

7 
27 

9 

7 

8 
19 
51 

1 
28 
15 
24 

8 

671 



— 310 — 

*rhe industry of the State of Sergipe , besides the OTl sugar fao- 
toi-ies has : 2 cotton mills, one in Araeaju employing 5(»0 work- 
men, the other one in ICstancia, with 3(50 workmen; 1 oil faetoi-y; 

1 rice and 2 soap factories in the Capital; 2 oil and soaj) fac- 
tories in Kstancia, and there ai-e a number of others of whicli we 
cannot give an accurate account for lack of data. In tlie municii)iums 
of Itabaiana and Xossa Senhora das Dores there are some cotton 
shelling ones; in the Capital there is a foundrj'^ and iron works of 
fair size; 1 mamona oil factory, 1 saw mill, 2 shoe and several cigar 
factories, 2 sugar refineries. In Estancia, there is a shoe factory, and 
iron works. In Laranjeiras and Maroini there is an iron foundry 
and a cigar factory. 

Other cities. — Besides Aracajii, thei-e are other cities in the 
State of Sergipe that are prospering : Maroim, Estancia, Laranjei- 
ras and Kiacliuelo are the principal ones. 

Estancia. — Is one of the best cities of Sergipe, divided into four 
districts : Estancia, Banco Alem da Ponte, Rio Branco and Rio Real, 
with 14.555 inhabitants according to the census of 1892. It has about 
2.000 houses and a church — Nossa Senhora de (iuadelupe, — w liicli 
is one of the nicest churches in the interior of the State. There is 
also the Commercial Club, the Uniao Caixciral clnb, both with fine 
buildings in the Mnte e (^uatro de Outubro S(|uare , the Charity 
Hospital, in the Hospital Street, 2 threading mills; 1 cigar factory: 

2 shoe factories; 2 oil and soap ones; 2 alcoholic drinks distilling 
works ; 3 hotels and a number of business houses. 

In Estancia the\' i)ublish .-1 Razuo a newspai)er of large circula- 
tion in all the State, 

LAitAN.JEiUAS. — Is a city of 11 to 12.000 inhabitants, and is the 
seat of the municipium with Itaporanga and Riachuelo. The latter 
and Laranjeiras arc constantly disputing (he si'at of the niunicipiuiii 
and have both alternatively had that honor. 

Its commerce is all made with Araeaju, l^stancia aud Maroim, 
l)y l)oats and canoes, and aniont lily trip of fluvial steaiui'rs w liich 
take tlie i)assengei-s from the i)ort of Sape, and (hence they go to 
Araeaju. It was village since March 1S73 and city by decree of 2oth 
of I )eeeml)er 1S70. 

To-day Lai-anjeii-as is the seat of t he MUinieipium, and tlitis lias 
tlie liouor of having as its gui'ists the judges, couiM clei-ks, district 
attorneys and other officitds. We believe, howi'ver, that its lai'gcst 



— Hll — 

advantages will come to it by tin; lai'gc; siigai- factory that some 
industrial men have built there, where; I'l-oni a short brancdi railway 
(the only one there) starts to connect it to the port of Sajx-. A nioni li- 
ly fluvial steamer comes to this port of Sape fi-om Artu-aju. 

Itabaianinha. — A small city with 'J.ooO inhabitants, or l(i.(Hi() if 
we include the neighboring districts Geru and Umbauba. 

It has a little commerce, many cattle ranches, sugar fa(;tories, 
which is tlie principal branch of agricultural industry in this terri- 
tory. It exports sugar to Kstancia and 'Pinib(') and furnishes the inte- 
rior of Babia with flour and sugar. They are now building there a 
telegraph line, and it is expected that the prolongation of the Timbo 
railway shall go through that municipium. The water reservoir built 
lately by the Government is one of the best public works of this State 
and protects it from any famine. 

The other cities, Maroim, Propria, Divina Pastora and a few 
more are yet beginning to develop and present nothing worthy of 
note as yet. 

THE STATE OF BAHIA 

Some 720 miles Noi'th of Rio de Janeiro is an immense gulf, deep 
and sheltered, at the eastern bank of which lies the city of Baliia, 
Capital of the State of the same name. It is the third city in all Brazil 
and one of the largest on the whole continent. The optical illusion of 
the sight around the bay is complete. Nothing disturbs it. The obser- 
ver embraces it all in a glance. 

It is not so pretty, neither is it so vast, (judging by what we see), 
as that of Rio de Janeiro. It doesn't present either those natural 
aspects in conflagration, those stupendous basalts, those curves and 
accidences; of a large ridge of mountains, like pieces of scenery, 
lining the entrance and the end of the other bay. 

The panorama is quite different : it is not astounding, it is seduc- 
ing, it doesn't dazzle our eyes, it invites us to contemplate it, it is 
not the scenery of a battle, it is a painting of a charming landscape. 

Every visitor has that pleasing sensation, looking at the whole 
sight of the city, with its port, and expresses it by exclamations that 
show his admiration. In fact, appreciating this sight, it is far more 
the picturesque of it than its greatness that produces fascination 
in that perspective of the Bahia bay. And the city, spread out in an 
amphitheatre, opening itself in a half circle to the observer, between 
the two blue hues of the waters and the sky, originates that im- 



— S12 — 

pression of a irtuisparent, liligree like Sevres ininiuture, a patient 
composition of endless little details engraved in the green inclina- 
tions of the mountain sides, a dreadful work of natural decoration, 
like so much lace embellishing the hills, under a large and sweet 
light that drops from above. 

The first foundation in this capital was placed in 1549 by Thome 
de Souza. It can boast of being the- oldest of all the Brazilian cities. 
It is most probable that its sister capitals will not envy that i)riniacy. 

For the visitor, when he has left at his right the Santo Antonio 
fortress, and on his way to the anchorage place, he reviews that 
multifarious spot of the city, spread from above upon the unmovable 
gulf, as an absurd cascade of houses, towers, colors and confused 
shapes, the sensation that his retina — that bearer of poetry — 
transmits to his soul, is one of those to last impressed on man's mind 
for a couple of generations. 

The two rows of buildings, embracing the mountain at the same 
time, at its basis and its vertex, advance in disorder to meet each 
other, — at least is that what we see from afar, — in the green decli- 
vity of the hillside, and pushing this way, pushing that way they 
engage themselves in the busy task of conquering it. 

Here, they get near each other, there , thej' separate again. It 
seems as if iron rails were tearing furi-ows in the mountain exposing 
its reddish flesh and its hard stony skeleton, with viaducts here and 
there and roads that look like stony belts. 

All this spectacle, which, after all, is nothing else but the history 
of the city growth, is displayed there, detail by detail, in a long 
panorama, that even in the configuration of the ground si)rings a 
new optical element to wrap the whole soul of those who contem- 
plate it. 

* 
* * 

Let us land. Now we can distinctly see, divided in two. that mass 
of buildings, one forming the <( down town », the other forming the 
<( iip-lown )). We must confess that as we enter the city a large part 
of the impression received vanishes. We jump on a small dock of the 
Navy Arsenal, wherefrom, through an old, unstylish gate, we are 
led into one of the oldest streets of the city. It is Kibcira street, 
which preserves its name from colonial tinu's and its buildings of 
real Portuguese style of construction. It is iu)t a very fine vestibule 
foi- such a iKihlr Capital. The street is souicw hat straight , but wvy 
narrow, (juitc; sliadcMl because of the tall buildings. It looks like a 
street in Oporto or in Toledo. A little fui-ther ahead, at the right is 



814- — 



tlie entraiu-e to ii small tunnel with a strong- smell of engine oil and 
steam. This tunnel leads to a mechanieal elevator, one of the con- 
veyances for the i)opulation to be transported between the two cities. 
Passing- that, the visitor finds himself in a better place, Alfan- 
dega street and after that, Prince/.as Imperiaes street, a large and 
p'rctty artery of the commercial part of the city with big buildings 
with four and five floors. That row of houses face also the front 
of tluMjuay and they are noted by their symetry and propoi-tions 
which dissimulate their modestv and architectural design. 




li:ilii;i. — ilic (ioveriiur's I'alacc 

They are large buildings occupied by agencies, banks and offices 
af all kinds, 'i'iicrc^ and in the neighboring- streets lies the nervous 
system of the commerce of Bahia. From them slart many side 
strec^ts and lanes, narrow streets crossing- in all directions, having 
Other narrow and toi-luous streets as the others but in a longitudi- 
nal direction from the basis of the hill, crossing in their course some 
small s(|uares as the one of the Tamarindeiros, filled with ti-ccs and 
the Ouro Scpiarc, not altogether i)aved. It is a perfect ma/.e for the 
n('\vl,\ arri \ cd. 

'JMiey do not,hing- but business, only business. So much so, that 
in tin; afternoon, — as Ihi're is not in (his disti-jct anv of tliosi' 



i 



— 315 — 

luxurious stores with show windows ;is (licrc arc, iu Ilio de JancMro 
and Sao Pauh), briglitly ilhiniinaled iu llie evonino', — as soon as it 
l)eeonies dark, every store is ch)sed, the sti-eets l^ecome almost (h!sert 
and in i)lace of the noise ol' the day time movement, there eomes a 
silenee enveloping those tall buildings and desert streets. 

All that immense multitude of peoph^ woi-king hard from sun to 
sun, immigrates at the sunset to the up Ininii districts, or to the sea- 
shores as Rio Vermelho, Earra, Itapagii)e, and tlie commereial 
district sinks into that silent sadness of a convent, wei'c it not for 
the electric railway that from time to tim(^ brings back to this 
district a little of its conscience, illuminating speedly on its way. 

By this low plane and always surrounding the mountain, there 
goes a road sowing the way with new buildings, new roads, ruins, 
and of docks buildings filled with merchandise, coal depots, all this 
intermingled with residence buildings, high buildings, old and new 
churches, till the free, airy part of the city, where wider streets 
appear like those of Mangueira, Jequitaya, Calcada and Dendezei- 
ros, and afterwards new squares, new streets and new disti-icts as 
those of Rome, Boa Viagem, Itapagipe and others, a sketch of an 
augmented Babel. 

Let us leave this district of which we will speak later on as the 
transportation means are easy and quick, everything served by elec- 
trical transportation. We will go back to our starting point, and we 
will go to the elevator. It is not quite inducing that trip through the 
interior of a high chimney, and a dark one as that. A box with space 
for 15 or 20 people, lifted by a steel-cable, lifts its passengers from 
down town and transports them to the top of the mountain, a parody 
to that diabolic scene of the Temptation of Jesus. 

This trip is made in a few minutes, and when the passenger gets 
out he finds himself in a pretty square, on the top of the city, where- 
from a beautiful panorama of the whole bay and the blue islands 
beyond is to be seen. 

In front we see a beautiful building — the municipal Palace — of 
some architectural value and a national relique. It is an inheritance 
from the metropolis. It was spoilt by the Dutch in 1030, afterwards 
repaired and recently rebuilt being added to it a four face tower with 
a clock ended by a piramid in sections. The principal face of the 
building has a pretty effect, open in arches on the square. There are 
in it several sections among which is a public library established by 
Mr. Paula Guimaraes when mayor of the city. 

The right side of that palace looks to a narrow street called 
Visconde de Rio Branco, the inclination angle of which, just like 



— 81(1 — 

that of the other streets of S. Jose district, is not one of the least 
interesting- curiosities of tlie okl city. 

Foi-iiiing an angle with the municipal Palace, there is another 
large building, also of historical origin, having been the residence 
of Portuguese governors and of all the presidents of the ex-provincc. 
It was rebuilt for the same purpose, but entirely built anew, cvery- 
tliing but the foundation having, been pulled down. In this palace 
is established the Government of the State , and another buil- 







liahiii. 



Miiiiicipal I'alaco 



ding, in Coi'icdor da Victoria is tlu^ one used as residence of the 
gov(!i'nors. 

l-'rom this scpuire run to the right and left sonic \vv\ narrow 
hiiics, odd years behind tlic age, as the Chili, M iscricordia and As- 
scmlth-a sti'ccls invariably lined l)y ])lain buihlings. The Chili street 
wliich runs in an inclined plan, ends in a bright and picturcsiiuc 
s(|iiar«' which is divided into two small gardens, in one of whicli, 
right in I'l'onl of S. .loao theatre, just al the sea side, is the statni' of 
Colombo on top of ;i pretty marble fountain. 

It is charming the situation of this public scpiarc, called Castro 



— 317 — 

Alves, some 50 metres above the bay witli a wall with railing and 
streets with benches. That part of the mountain, transformed into a 
fantastical stairway, whose degrees are the Montanha and Conccif;a() 
streets open in longitudinal direction in the hillside under the up- 
town part of the city. On the land side there are large buildings 
suri-ounding the square. They ai-e the Paris and Sul Americano 
hotels, the Diario da Bah in, a daily newspaper, a large building of a 
pretty but trivial style. 

If we take a tramway, (me of those crossing the town, to go to 
Graca, for instance, we have the opportunity to see (piitc a different 
section of the city. In this line the tramway-cars are driven hy mules 




^,:. '^ 



Bahia. — Palace in the Victoria Street, Governors' ix'sidence 



and it is not without difficulty that they go up the steep hill that 
separates Castro Alves square from that group of streets preceding 
the pi'etty public square called Picdade. Having gone up that tor- 
tuous neck called Carlos Gomes street and those that follow it, we 
are at Piedade. Excellent buildings, mixed up with some quite mo- 
dest ones, line the wide public square, the centre of which is a pretty 
garden surrounded by railing , with beautiful flowers and green 
grass, with a nice band-stand, and in the centre an artistic marble 
fountain having on top a native symbolism — an Indian stepping 
on a serpent. 

One of the sides of the square is formed by the Piedade Church, 
one of the prettiest ones in the North, with its polished dome, a mi- 
niature of that of Santa Maria del Fiore. In the other angle we see 
the pretty Senate building, of Italian style. Following in the tram- 



— 318 — 

way-car and leaving- at the right the Police Department Headquar- 
ters, we go through a pretty street not altogether straight , but all 
of it lined with line buildings, in which they insisted in following 
tlie Portuguese architectural style, however, here and there, appear 
some transformations under a preoccupation of more advanced uit. 
and the new and modern buildings are giving to the Pedro Luiz 
street the healthy and joyful aspect it presents. 

Further ahead is a charming public garden, the Passeio Publico, 
a sweet place to rest awhile sitting under the delicate perfume of the 
mango trees, with wideh- spreaded out bi-anches that prevent the 




Baliia. — St'iiale building 



sun light from shining upon the sandy ground of the garden 
streets. It is pleasant to walk under that ancient canopy that an old 
and noble count planted for us to enjoy, with all that perfunicd scent 
of the flowers flooding the atmosphere and the murmuring sounds of 
the foliage whispering a primitive but delicious symphony. 

The lawns and the foliage of the mango and other trees do not fill 
all the silence of the park, there is (luite a large spot covered with 
shining tiles forming a kind of terrace just a little above the level of 
the street, surrounded by a varandah with mythological marble 
looking upon a deep and ample hori/on. The straight and open jiers- 
pective, the inundating light, the picturescpu^ of the first jilan where 
the city begins to appear, the mute company of the wandering but- 
terflies showing us what is true hajjpiness in thcii lice flight, wi- 



— 819 — 

thoiit boundary lines and witlioul a time (able, — here; is a i)i('tiire 
wortliy of the envy of that king Louis of liavai-ia. 

In another open spot of the park, in a stretcli left \'vMi by tlic 
mango trees, the past generations commemorated Ihc anival of I). 
Joiio VI to Brazil, erecting an obelise in the shape of a pyramid 
made of Lisbon marble with 
an inscription engraved in gol- 
den letters. 

In the Afflictos square (cu- 
rious name given after a catho- 
lic church built there) ^vllere 
the Passeio Publico ends one 
of its sides, there are the thick 
walls of a large Portuguese 
fortress looking like a Bluidist 
church. This fort is now trans- 
formed into the barracks of 
the Police force, for which ser- 
vice the necessary adaptations 
were made. 

A tortuous inclined street 
paved with large stone blocks 
runs down following the lines 
of the inferioi' plan of the Pas- 
seio Publico almost masquera- 
ded by the irresistible vegeta- 
tion of the inclination and leads 

to the Gamboa fortress — a colonial fortification at the bottom of 
the mountain half hidden by the rolling waters. 




Baliia. — Moiuiinont of thelliaoliuolo siinaiT 



* 
* * 



From the S. Pedro fort square follows a bright street, quite a 
busy thoroughfare, passing by the Polytheama, and leading to ano- 
ther square, the best one in the Capital, formerly named X^ampo 
Grande. This square has a pretty garden decorated by a noble bronze 
and marble monument of large size and fine artistic expression, 
commemorating the historical event of Dais de Julho (the second 
of July) which sealed in Baliia the consummation of the national 
independence of Brazil. 

It is peculiar that in the Capital of Bahia there are no statues or 
monuments of an individual charactei-, (excepting the bust of Dr. 



— 320 



Paterson, an English pliilantropist, and a physician of a most chari- 
table disposition, devoting himself to take care of the poor). Be it 
due to chance or to consciem-ions deliberation, the fact remains tiiat 
all the monuments erected by the people of Bahia, in the squares of 
its pretty Capital , refer to some national fact and they represent 

allegories and symbolisms or 
^ some allusion in a collective 
and generic sense. 

This monument Dots de 
.Iitlho is eom])osed of a higli 
column corynthian style with 
the traditional Indian on top 
dominating the despotism, re- 
presented by a dragon. Colos- 
sal bronze figures represent- 
ing the big Brazilian rivers, 
with several other decorative 
accessories complete the mo- 
nument which is one of the 
nicest in Brazil. 

The square built upon an 
horizontal plan, has the shape 
of an irregular square and 
the space between the lateral 
streets is a pretty garden, quite 
large though not so beautiful as 
those of S. Paulo and Belem. 
There are some very fine buildings in the square, and the streets 
starting from it are elegant ones, with modern buildings. Among 
them the visitor must not forget the Corredor da N'ictoria, where 
there are pretty mansions, and it is the favorite residence street of 
the wealthiest part of the population. There is also the palace 
that is the private residence of the Governor. 

(jioing ahead we come across another square, without any garden 
as yet. There is the Church of Nossa Senhora da Victoria, wliieli, 
they say, was built in 1530, and further ahead yet we see Graca 
Square, notable because of the church that is there, belonging to the 
Benedictine monks, and which they say stands in the same place 
where they first formed (lie city in the sixteenth eeiitui-y. 

I'^rom there new streets start, as well as an inclined avenue lined 
with l)i'iglit houses with gardens and modern palaces. 

IJut, U)V us to conie to this place sd (piickly it was neeessury to 




Baliia. — The |)yi'aiiii(l of the Passeio I'liljlico 



— 321 — 

leave aside other parts of the city of no lessei- interest than tliis one. 
The Nazaretli district, with a large square, the garden ol" wliich is in 
way of construction. It is surrounded by fine comfortabhi residen- 
ces and has much to be seen. There is a trade school 'directed l)y 
Salezian priests and the Misericordia (the city hospital) which is 
one of the nicest of its kind in Brazil. 




Bahia. — National Indepeiidance Monument. Duke de Caxias Square 



On the other side, coming down through a valley, between the 
hills on which the city is built, we go through a long street, paved 
with little care. It is Rua da Valla (as that place was the bed of a 
ravine which had to be filled up). That way we reach a topogra- 
phical neck known as Baixa dos Sapateiros, a place of considerable 
transit. There, fare always people crossing in all directions. 

Every minute tramcars start in the direction of the four angles of 



— 322 — 

the city; from the market, which is situated in front, there comes a 
noisy crowd, joyful with a free and easy air through tlie many doors 
of the building ; the noise of wagons and trucks running in all direc- 
tions is heard all day long, here and there the newsboys cry out the 
names of the papers, and thus from sunrise to sunset, every day 
of the week except Sunday, this place is kept (juite alive and noisy. 
We take one of those tramcars( there are veiy few cabs and carria- 
ges) and we take a ride to see what is going on in the other part of 
the city. After half an hour of zig-zaggingwe are in an enormous field 




Haliia. — S. Bl'iiIo SUx'ct and Conveiil 



all covered with grass and surrounded by buildings on all sides. It 
is called Barbalho field. 

At one of the sides of this field, looking to the bay is the carcass 
of an olden times fortress, built in the ages in which it was iiulis- 
pensable to have the place lined with these protective structures. 

We will not attempt to describe the whole city with its mauy sec- 
tions and surrounding suburbs. Another volume like this one would 
be necessary for that 

Let us pay a visit to the buildings worth noting. 

Among the chui-ches , which are in gr(nit nuuiber, there is 
the S. l''rancis{M) on(^ of monolithic stvie of arcliiteclure both in its 



— 324 — 

front and in the other parts of the building, this being the peculiar 
style of the temples built by the Franciscan monks. In its exterior 
there is nothing worth admiring, and it suffices to say that it was 
built in 1713, an epoch of complete decadence of the building trade 
and artistic architecture among the Portuguese. In its interior, ho- 
wever, no lover of expontaneous art, visiting Bahia, must go away 
without paying a visit to this ehurcli,. Besides the cloister with those 
colored tiles, style of that time, with drawings of biblic episodes, 
just as in the City Hospital of Rio de Janeiro, there is the high relief 
work on the rich wood of the country, partly gilt covering the walls 
and ceiling of the church not only in its main nave but in the lateral 
chapels. 

That interior of the church, the whole of it, is an admirable mani- 
festation of art on the basis of a touching religious spirit, and even 
to-daj', those reliefs with flowerj- curves, coats-of-arms, angols heads, 
birds and spiral lines columns put in vibration all our nerves of 
aesthetic emotion. 

That valuable treasury of retrospective art was deplorably threa- 
tened with deterioration, when a group of German monks, all of 
whom are Brazilians to-day, took charge of the convent, andrestaur- 
ed it with care worthy of the gratitude that impels us to register 
here that fact. 

Another curious church, is the Collegio. It is a document of ilie 
degree attained by artistic architecture among the Jesuits ol' tlie 
Portuguese colonial times in Brazil. This church was built before 
1572 what is hard to believe. It was built by the Jesuits to serve as 
a college for them. That is the reason why even to-day the eliureh 
has that name, having once been elevated to the lioiioi* ol' Catluulral 
of the primate of all catholic Brazil. 

Its front, though of a turgid style, with wide lines and massive 
ornamentation, is imposing to a degree of making one's mind grow 
tori)id and listen to its old and rude tradition. This church is of 
stone and we can't deny a certain harmony in the whole of its struc- 
ture. In its interior, all the details of ornamentation, from the design 
of the main altar, to the work in the ceiling, perhaps tlie most 
curious of all we have seen in Brazil, are worthy of study and leave 
stupified those who have artistic vibrating soul. 

The Benedictine monks also built a pretty church — S. Sebas- 
tiao. — f*l(n'er nu^n they are, proven as it is by llie splendid 
location of all the convents they have built everywhere, the monks 
of S. Hento selected a spot of vei'_\' first order, within the city upon 
a central eminence. 



— 326 — 

It is a church all while, inside and outside, iVoni the cundor of 
the main altar marble to the Saints images, of snow-white Carrara 
marble, the two open towers supported by white pillars, and white, 
likewise, is the pompous dome which is the highest spot of the city. 

There are yet a large number of catholic churches, some large 

and well built, as the Matriz church, Sant'Annado Pilar, and others 

of smaller importance as to the point of view of ai-t, though noted 

by their historical value as the one of Nossa Senhoi-a da Ajuda 

which is the oldest of Bahia, and others. Those we mcmtion alcove 

ai-e the most important. 

* 
* * 




Baliia. — Fine Arts College 



Public Instruction. — The State of Baliia has been one of those 
which have better understood the responsibilities belonging to the 
title of State , given by the republican Constitution to the Brazilian 
provinces. It is thus that it deemed to be its duty to apply a good 
part of its income to the diffusion of Public Instruction. 

The budget of the ex-province appropriated about 600:000$000 for 
public instruction. In 1897 the State Government spent a little over 
L000:000$000, and at present it spends over 2.000:000^000, the 
State contributing with 1,800:000S000 and the municipalities with 
300.-000$000. 

In the State of Baliia the distribution of elementary teaching is 
in charge of the municipalities. The State, however, gives a subsidy 
of 800:000$000 to the poorer municipalities, thus contributing even 
with more tlian the double of what the municiijalities themselves 



— 326 — 

spend. About 1.000:000S000 are spent with different institutes : Gym- 
nasio da Baliia, Xoimal Institute, Law College, Normal Colleges 
Caetete and Barra , Agriculture Institute, Fine Arts Academy, 
Music Conservatory, and State elementary schools, and subsidies to 
the Polytechnical Institute and Lyceum of Arts and Trades. 

In the State there are to-day the following institutes of secon- 
dary and superior instruction : Medicine Academy, established by 
the impei'ial Government, and with a just reputation firmed by the 
notabilities that have come out of that college to follow the medical 
profession in other cities of Brazil. It is installed in a fine building, 
much better than the building of the medical college in the Capital 
of the Republic, it has magnificent laboratories, magnificent scien- 
tific material and good electric installation. 

The Fine Arts College, is a beautiful building, though situated 
in an inclined street. It has many students, it has a beautiful picture 
Gallery and sculpture exhibition , and a Music Conservatory is 
annexed to it. 

The Fine Arts College building is a large one, with three floors 
in the main bodies of the structure, and of Italian stj^le. 

After the Rio de Janeiro one, (capital of Brazil), the Bahia Col- 
lege is the oldest, and magnificent results have been obtained. 

The Law College was founded after the proclamation of the i-epu- 
blic. It is in a building of its own, of fine construction and nicely 
located. 

The Agricultural Institute was founded by the imperial govern- 
ment and is in the district of S. Bento de Lages not very far from 
the Capital, 

The Xoi-mal College is a large building. It prepares teachers of 
both sexes. The ti-aining is the very best, and it is quite common for 
those who receive degree there to be prefered for high pedagogic 
functions in other States. In its large building there are scientific 
cabinets and pedagogic museum, everything prepared with nicety 
and even somewhat luxuriously. Annexed to it is the kindergarten 
and complementary classes for practical training. 

There are two other establishments of this kind, somewhat more 
modest, in the cities of Caetete and Barra do Rio de Contas. 

'IMic B:ilii;i ( Jymnasium , is an institute just like the Natii)nal 
(iymnasiuni of Kio de .lanciro. It is in a beautiful building erected 
by the (^x-governor Liiiz N'ianna, in one of the city public scpiares. 
It hiis a good iiuiseuni and library. 

Tli(^ (ilymmisium S. Salvador, is a first class institute, hut is 
niaintain(Ml by pi-ivate people. We mention it liei-e bei-ause the exa- 



I 



— 827 — 

111 illations passed there have the same valiuj as if lliey were; imsscid 
in tlie National Gymnasium. It has a fine l)nilding of its own and 
has a good reputation. 

The Lyceum oi" Arts and 'l'rades,is an iustitute of which l>uliia is 
proud. It was fonnded by private initiative as the Itio and Recife 
ones. It has about 2.000 students, class rooms for languages and 
sciences , several workshops for practical training, an excellent 
librarj% picture Gallery, museum of architecture, a band of 
music, etc. 

There are yet other establishments of public instruction as tlie 
Archbishop Seminary, the Salezian College , the Santa There/.a 
Educandario, the two latter ones subsidized by the State, the Spen- 
cer College, the S. Joaquim College, the Sete de Septembro College, 
the S. Jose College and many other private establishments. 

Several libraries and reading rooms complete the instruction 
service in this State. The Medical Academy library has 15.000 volu- 
mes; the rich Public Library founded in 1811 by the Conde de 
Arcos, has 20.000 volumes ; the Municipal one, founded by I*aula 
Guimaraes when Mayor, has 14.000 volumes; the one of the Gremio 
Litterario has some 10.000 volumes ; that of the Gabinete Portuguez 
has 10.000 volumes; the Benedictines one, 5.000; the one of the 
Lyceum of Arts and Trades 12.000; the one of the German Club, 
3.000. There are many libraries all over the State. There is no city of 
any importance without having a library, most always belonging to 
private societies and Clubs, but open to the public. 

In short, there are in Bahia 56 Colleges , Academies , Gymna- 
siums, etc. and 951 Grammar schools thus distributed : 

Colleges for superior, technical and professional Instructoin . . li 

Secondai'v insUuiction colleges in the Capital ....... 33 

Colleges in the interior of the State 9 

Elementary schools (of the State 128 

» » (of the municipalities) 722 

Schools maintained by private individuals 9* 

Schools maintained by religious creeds propagandists . ... 7 

Total .... 1007 
Adding to this the number of private schools of the modest kind 
to be found here and there , in the interior, we will have a total of 
no less than 1.100 instruction establishments in the State. 

* 
* * 

Police force, land and sea transportation. — By the orga- 
nization of its public sei'vices Bahia occupies a first class place in 



— 328 — 

tlie Brazilian Federation. Its police force is, as the Para, Manaos, 
S. Piiulo and llio Grande do Snl ones, organized in such a manner 
that in normal times it fulfils the duty of maintainors of the public or- 
der, and in case of necessity, serves as reserve of the federal ai-niy. 

It is divided into four infantry battalions Nvith 2.000 men and a 
cavalry squadron with 300 men. They have Mauser and Comblain 
guns and Xordenfeld rapid fire guns. Their uniform is simple, of 
dark cloth, just like the one used by the Pcrnambuco police. The 
privates police the streets, armed with sword and the commander of 




Bahin. — KIcclrif' tr.iiii\v:i\ station 



the forces is a colonel. The regiment has two l)afracks , largo and 
nicely kept; one is in the Mouraria square* in iVonl of (he (Jeucial 
ll(!ad(piarters of the federal garrison, the other, near the Passeio 
Publico, is a magnificent tyjx' of a building of its kiml, lia\iiigiio 
better ones (ixccptiiig in Bello llori/ontt', S. I'aiilo, Porto Alegre 
and K io d(^ .laneiio. 

T1h5 ujiinieipality uiainlains a well organi/cid fire department. 

W'e will now write soinething about nu'ans of coniinnnicat ion. 

ilaliia, heing a State witli relatixclv inaii_\ cities ijias h'l.'i innnii-i- 
])iunis an<l about 10(» cities aiul villages), had the necessity ot a wide 
net of rail\\a_\s, l)ut unfortunately <loes not ))ossess it, as it hai)pens 



— 329 — 

all over Brazil where railways are never in the pi'ojxji-tions ol' tlie 
requireiuents of progress. 

In the Capital the tramway service is made hy several companies : 
the Linha Circular, the Trilhos Centraes, the Transportes Urbanos, 
the Ferro Carril Ondina (in way of construction) and the Carris 
electricos, which, as the name indicates is moved by electi-icity. All 
the principal districts and arteries of transit, are served by tram- 
cars, and a great lack of public cabs and carriages is noted. We 
can't very well understand this, considering that the population of 
the city according to the census taken in 1900 was 205. 81. 'i inhal)i- 
tants, and to-day, probably some 220.000. 

In compensation there is that curious construction ol" mechanic 
elevators, some through an inclined plan as the «. Ramos de (^uciroz» 
and the one of « Graca )>, others in vertical line, like the ones ol" 
Pilar, Taboao and Lacerda, all moved b^^ steam. These interesting 
works of art of which no other Brazilian capital had necessity (there 
being but a short inclined plan in Rio) , for its city transit, Bahia 
had to build that in large number because of its peculiar topograpliy. 

From the Capital starts an extensive railway till Joazeiro, a new 
city on the S. Francisco river banks, with branch lines running to 
Timbo, etc. We will now give a list of the railway lines running in 
this State. 

The capital is in communication with cities in the far awaj^ 
points of the bay and of the sea coast, by means of the steamers of 
the Bahiana Company, an old navigation enterprize maintained bj' 
Braziliau capitalists, and by sailing boats. These boats are another 
typical peculiarity of the local life of Bahia. They can never be con- 
founded with other types of naval construction as to their shape. 
They form a unique gender of their own. They are built in a some- 
what primitive style, in private ship-yards, of which there are a 
great number in the bay and little rivers of the interior. 

Another navigation enterprize, the « Viacao Central do Brazil », 
runs between Joazeiro and the cities of the States of Bahia and 
Minas on the banks of the S. Francisco river. It has eight or ten 
small steamers and the seat of the company is in Bahia. 

The commerce of the Capital, internal as external, is very active 
and one of the most important of Brazil. It is true that in its vast 
bay enter every daj^ large foreign transatlantic steamers, ships and 
steamers from everywhere , besides the national steamers engaged 
in the coastwise service. From there sail also for the North and 
South, as well as to the interior points in the bay, every day, the 
steamers of the Comjpanhia Bahiana. 



— 330 — 

The number of ships entering- that port during I'.'Ol was (VJd with 
8.000 passengers. The number of ships sailing was 020 w itli T.CtOo 
passengers. In 1003 entered (iSC) shi^is with 30.0<)5 passengers and 
sailed 071) witl) 33. 110 passengers. 

In this is not included the coastwise navigation w hii-h w us in 
the same year 706 ships with 14.957 passengers entering the bay, 
and 704 ships with 14.784 passengers sailing. 

Here is a list of railways existing to-day in the State of Bahia 
and their extensions in kilometres : 

Railway enlreprizes Kiloms. 

Bahia ao S. Francisco 576 

Ramal do Timbo 82 

Estrada de Ferro Centi-ai 320 

)) » Santo Aniaro 36 

Tram Road de Nazareth 99 

Estrada de Ferro Bahia e Minas .... 142 

Santo Antonio a Ainargosa 63 

Cent ro Oeste da Bahia 26 

S. Francisco a Feira (in construction) . . 65 



Total. . . 1.411 



* 



Hygiene and Chahities Department. — The hygiene and Cha- 
rities Department services have been largely imi)roved in Bahia 
dui-ing the last few years. 

The Central Board of Health lias several branch departments 
nicely established, as the isolation hospital, the disinfection depart- 
ment, and tlie vaccinia institute. 

The ])rohylaxy and disinfecti(m services are executed Just as in 
Ri() de Janeiro and S. Paulo, with first class material, of every des- 
crijjtion. There is a magazine published to disseminate every fort- 
night dcin()grai)hi(' statistics data, and all the information in relation 
with tlie sanitary conditions of the city. 

Bahia ('om])lctes its service of public aid, giving sultsidies to large 
establishments which render public aid both in the Capital and in the 
interior cities. 

We will mention some of them : 

The first worthy of mention is the Hospital da Misericordia, (city 
hosjiital) named also « Santa I/.abel liosi)ital », with a service id(Mi- 
tical to that of the Rio de .Janeiro city hospital. 

Thci'c is all conifort in this liospital as well as all the conditions 
recoiiimc.nded l)y science. It was built ten years ago, thanks princi- 
pally to a valuable inheritance willeil for that purpose by the Count 



— H31 — 

Pereini Marinlio, whose statue, in marble, is in the j)i(^Uy garden, 
right in front of the building. 

The Asylo de Mendieidade, (the poor house), is the most impo- 
sing and luxurious oi" all the poor houses in Bi-azil. 'I'hei-e is hardly 
any eity in Brazil tluxt has not buill a house for its poor, but none has 
done so well as Bahia in this regard. Bahia has built a palaee for its 
poor. It was built in a charming- sea-shore place called Boa Viagem, 
and is surrounded with gardens and marble. It is a white building 




Bahia. — Large Textile MaiiufaL-toiv da Boa Viagem 



with statues on top of it, and in fact, it looks more like a summer 
residence than anything else. 

The Asylo dos Lazaros, (the leprous hospital), is another institute 
of charity also receiving a subsidy from the State Governement. It 
is a large building in a pleasant district called Quinta, as it was 
there that the Jesuits had their recreation Quinta (farm). 

The Insane Asylum is not a building so large as the Rio one, 
neither is it so modern as the Para one, but is taken great care of. 
It is located in the beautiful sea-shore place. Boa Yiagem, and was 
inaugurated in 1874. 



332 — 



There are other hospitals and xVsyluras, as the Military Hospital, 
the Foundlin"' Asvhini, etc. 



* 



Prodlction , coAfMERCE AM) INDUSTRY. — Tlie questioii a loiirisl 
generally asks as he goes for the first time to a place is : What docn 
this pliicc produce'/ — But the visitor in Bahia ought to invert the 
oi-der and ask : What does Bahia not produce? 

In fact, just like in Rio Grande do 8ul, Bahia is a city which can 
supply itself \\ ithout outside aid, because of the rich variety of its 
culture and production. 

The soil rich , fertile , has everything all the otlier States of 
Brazil have. Gold? Yes, it has mines now being exploited — those 
of the Assurua and others which are going to be exploited, — and 
what is more, with Brazilian capital. Mangane? Of, course. It is 
not Minas alone that exports this rich mineral. Bahia is doing so. 
Last year exported some 40.000 tons to begin with. Diamonds? "NVliy 
not? In Bahia are the richest and most famous layers of dia- 
monds in America. Every one remembers the noise made about the 
discovery of some mines in Salobro, in the disti'ict of Cannavieiras. 
One of the cities of the State is called « Lavras Diamantinas, » 
(diamond exi)lorations,) because of occupying a certain region where 
they do nothing but search diamonds. Copper ? There is also 
copper in Bahia, and this State is to-day a competitor of Chili in the 
copper market. They have discovered an enormous layer of this 
metal. A Belgium syndicate was formed, so the papers say, to begin 
the exploitation of that treasury. The American consul, Mr. Tour- 
niss, not long ago wrote this in one of his reports, speaking of the 
layers of diamonds in Bahia : 

« The largest diamond carbonate ever found was discovered in 
the district of Lencoes, in 1<S05, in a mountain rock which liad been 
exi)loited some time before. It w'eiglied 3.150 carats and was sold by 
the miner for 80:000$ (at the exchange of that time being the cciuiva- 
lent to £ 1().000). One quarter of its price was paid to the owner of 
the concession for the exploilatiou of the ground where it was fouud. 
This ston(; changed hands and was at last bought by an exporter 
of the Cai)ital of Bahia for 121:000^0()() (eciuivalent to £ •,*."). 100 at the 
exchange of that time). It was sent to Paris whci't' it was tliviilcd 
into siiKilh'T stones, to bcconu' moi'c marketable. 

Another good find t(»ok i)la('c in I'.KH) , in another concession 
ground of the same owner. 'JMu; dianunul caibonale wciglu'd 'u~ 



— 333 — 

carats and was sold by the miner for 70:00(Ȥ000 (at the cxclian-^c ol' 
that time equivalent to £ 17.880), the miner, as in the preecdiii''- case 
liad to give one fourth of its price. The average size of the diamonds 
found is 6 carats. 

The diam(mds found in Paraguassii are not so clear neither so 
perfect as those of Cannovieiras but are reputed as having more 
brilliancy. They appear mixed up with .the carbonates and often 
contain small particles of non-crystalised coal what diminishes tlieir 
value. » 

Mr. Hen. Praguer, an engineer, wrote an article in a newsi)aper 
called ,1 Bahia, saying : 

(c Generous nature offered to Bahia extraordinary riches, coming 
from certain minerals which of all this world can only be had in 
Bahia, as there are the carbonates of the Chapada Diamantina, the 
rich sands of the Prado, the famous and celebrated taiiA of the bay, 
and finall}^ the soil and under-soil of the large and important city of 
Bahia with enormous depots of fuel, composed of anthracite and 
bituminous coal. » 

The failure of the company organised for the exploitation of 
kerosene oil in Marahu, failure that carried with it the loss of an 
enormous capital, gave cause to strong a spirit of prejudice among 
the capitalists of Bahia, so that, they have allowed the exploitation 
of the wealthy under-soil to fall in complete abandonment. 

The most recent of these exploitations is the one of the celebrat- 
ed monazitic sands discovered as prodigious wealth in the shores 
of the city of Prado at the southern part of the State. 

Let us say something about the vegetable wealth of the State. 
They are not inferior to the minerals in their wealth, The piassava, 
the cocoa-nuts, the rosin, the exquisite lumber, the cocoa, the to- 
bacco, the sugar-cane, the coffee, the grain, everything appears in 
the list of the exports of this State. 

During the first nine months of 1901 Bahia exported goods valued 
in about (i 1.000:0008000 and its imports were valued in about 
24.000:0008000. It occupies the fifth place in the list of the largest 
expoi'ting States of the country. 

S. Paulo (importation and exportation). . . .">76.060 

Federal Capital .510.657 

Aniazonas 99.900 

Para 99.800 

Bahia 86.700 



•.iU 



PUODLCTS EXl'OKTKl) 15V TIIK StATK OF BaHIA 

(In kilograms) 



Years 


Sugar 


Tohaoco 


Cocoa 


Coffee 


1891 


7.14^2.160 


26.-400.880 


:i.028.720 


9.499.620 


mm 


(3.118.25:; 


.11.8.W.852 


9.087.074 


25.792.9;jl 


1901 


8.770.-404 


34.612.511 


15 524.765 


25.281.980 



The other merchandises which, increase the total of the exports 
from Ealiia, though in a smaller scale have followed the same yearly 
ascendencj^ : 





Skins 


Piassava 


Rubber 


Minerals 


Years 


(one) 


(hales) 


(Arrobas) 
(lo kos. each) 


kilos 


1886 


171.524 


296.364 


5.457 


28.000 


1891 


212.858 


268.849 


2.359 


516.410 


1896 


256.999 


578.519 


3.742 


1.212.219 


1901 


507.584 


271.084 


52.865 


1.617.960 




General view of llie « Pitaiiga » sugar I'actory, in llie .Malta of S. .louo niuiiici|iinni 



As to manufacturing industries \\itli llic i'\('('i)ti()n of Kio. Sao 
Paulo and Rio Grande, no other State exceeds this one in nuuiher 
and importance of its factories. We will not speak of the cxliaclioji 
and forest industries (piassava, cocoa-nuts, etc), ncitlici- of tlic dairy 
industries, nor cattle raising-. The State is a lillh' backwards in tliis 
line, though tliey have just established ])raclical accliiuatatiou ins 
titutes — the model cattle raising farm, at the Calii , and the \ iiw 
expcriiiicntal school in .loa/ciro, — \v(^ will wfilc, however, altont 
tlui uuiimfacturing imliistries, though in a concise way. 

The sugar manufacturing industry is falling somewhat in Haliia, 



— 335 — 

though there are 1.800 manufacturing places by pi-iinitivi! ])i-()C(!sscs 
and ~I large steam ones. But sugar at the preseut low prices doesn't 
stimulate production, and farmers are p(;rlectly discouraged, and 
limit themselves to produce for the local consiim])li()ii. 

The sugar farms and factories in Bahia are, as a rule, factories 
of some importance, with improved apparatus. Among tliem we 
must mention : the one of S. Bento de Inhata, the chimney of whicli 
is 36 metres high and is the pride of Santo Amaro district. It grinds 
15.000.000 tons of sugar-cane each crop. It is owned by Mr. Pedro 
Alexandrino, and its water reservoir, has 200.000 s(puii'e metres, and 
is one of the beauties of the place always visited by the loiii-isls. 

The Pitanga sugar mill owned by the Barao de Assu da Torre , 
with a steam railway and large machinery has capacity to grind 
10.000.000 tons of sugar-cane. 

The Rio Fundo one owned by a companj^ grinds 30.000.000 tons, 
occupies large buildings, has its own railway and is located in 
Santo Amaro. 

The AUianga, also in Santo Amaro and owned by Sa Ribeiro 
et Co. grinds 1.5.000.000 tons sugar-cane ; it occupies gigantic build- 
ings, dominated by a 31 metre high chimney. 

The Conceicao sugar mill and alcohol distilling place owned by 
Dr. Jose Marcellino , Governor of the State, located in the Xazareth 
municipium, grinds 12.000.000 tons a j-ear. 

The Model distillery occupies a group of ample buildings, produc- 
ing 100.000 casks of brandy and alcohol. 

The sugar mills : Iguape, near the city of Cachoeira; B(mi Suc- 
cesso, Capimerim, Malembar, Carapia, Passagem, Elspei-anca, Mara- 
cangalha, Colonia and Botelho, all of them moved by steam, with 
railwaj'S and improved machinery and in Santo Amaro district. 
Pojuca, in Matta of Sao Joao ; Aratii, in Santo Antonio and Agua 
Comprida in the capital municipium , as well as several others, 
some belonging to farmers and some to companies with seat in 
Bahia, — are so many other factors towards the progress and indus- 
trial activity- of that section of Brazil. 

There are, besides this, other industries both in the Capital and 
other cities of the interior. There are 141 factories, large and small. 
Of these, 12 are threading mills, by steam, and 2 hydraulic ones, 12 
cigar and 6 cigarrette factories, 5 iron and bronze foundries, 2 ice, 
12 oil, 3 shirt, 5 candle, 3 chocolate, 3 locks, 2 artificial flowers, 
2 church ornamentations, 3 chemical products, 5 furniture, 4 car, 
2 glove, 3 paper boxes, 10 trunk, 6 broom, 3 grease, 13 soap, 6 perfu- 
mery, 1 confetti, 3 mineral, 3 biscuit, (5 coffee, 11 vinegar, 1 matches, 



— 336 — 

3 mncillage, 21 tile and l)rit'k, 11 lime, 1 piassava, 5 grain, 2 italian 
mass factories, 1 skin tanning ones, \ b^e^vel•ies, 1 eordials and other 
drinks distillers, 2 diamond lai)idating works and many others like 
saw mills, hags and nets, umbrellas, flags, blank hooks factories, 
ship yards, brick factories, foundries, preserve factories, vegetable 
coal, oils, shoes and other manufacturing concerns. 

Among the monuments of industrial initiative in Bahia, we must 
not forget the large manufacturing company, Emporio Industrial, at 
Boa Viagem sea-shore. It is one of the largest threading mills. It has 
about 2.000 workmen, and all the necessary institutes needed to 
better the condition of the workingmen : cooperative-stores and 
societies, schools, savings bank, houses, gardens, amusements. The 
founder of this small world, where all modern ideas of philantro- 
pists towards workmen are practiced, was Luiz Tarquinio, a Brazi- 
lian who died there not long ago. 

Another concern worthy of note, belongs to the director of the 
Banco da Bahia, Commendador Sousa Campos. It is composed of 
vast Salines at a short distance from the Capital, in a place called 
Margarida, with all requisites and modern European appliances for 
salt manufacturing. 

It is one of the largest South American industrial establishments, 
and its products meet ready sale. 

The great graphic arts establishment, Reis et Co, one of the best 
of its kind in Brazil, is another establishment worthy of being visit- 
ed. It is situated down town in the Capital. 

There is also the large furniture factory, Marcenaria Hra/.ihMra, 
the products of which can be compared favourably with those im- 
ported from Europe, being much superior to the latter as to the 
quality of the wood emplo^'ed. 



Otukk crriRs of Bahia. — Those who wish to make a corrci't 
judgment about the importance of the State of Bahia must not limit 
themselves to the examination of its large Capital. They must go to 
the interior, visit the cities si)read through the S. Francisco river 
valley, tliose hidden there by the river side as if forgotten and also 
those inteiiicd in the interioi- of the State. 

('A('noi:iKA. — In a low valley of Hie i'aragiuissu river, exlended 
Ihroiigli its icl'l iiank, I'lill of nice houses, churches and pretty shops 
and sloi-es. It has rA).000 inhabitants, (> public S(iuares, TA) s( rei'ts, 
connected by a railway with Sao Gon(;alvo de Campos, S. Felix, Cur- 



¥ 



— 337 — 

raliiilio and other places. It is also connected, by steamers sailing- 
daily, with the Capital. It has a colossal bridge, built on stone pillars 
and c(mnecting- it with S. Felix. It has a large threading mill, three 
cigar boxes factories and several others raanuiactnring mucillage, 
vinegar, soap, candles, distilling works, sugar refineries. It has yet 
good hotels, daily papers and other pei-iodicals, telegraph, tele- 
plume, clubs, libraries and a city hospital. 

S. Felix. — It is not as large as the one just mentioned, but has 
this peculiarity : it is, we might say, the whole of it a cigar factory. 
It is like some of those European cities that monopolise a certain 
industry. It got used to improve cigar manufacturing and does 
nothing else. Among all those large cigar factories there is one, 
which is the largest in South America. It is the property of Geraldo 
Danneman, whose products can be seen in every cigar store of the 
countr3\ 

The population of this place devote themselves to the cultivation 
of tobacco, its manufacture and exportation. Those who are not em- 
ployed in those large factories, as Danneman, Simas, Cardoso, Mi- 
Ihajes, Roedenburg and others, are at home working on their own 
account. 

The buildings of this busy city are not so pretty as those of its 
neighbor. It is also on the banks of the Paraguassii river stretching 
itself almost in one street only. The City Hall was planned by 
an architect of Bahia , Mr . H . Schlej^er , and is a beautiful 
building. 

Santo Amaro. — It is another city of about 85.000 inhabitants. 
The buildings show^ that formerly Santo Amaro was quite an impor- 
tant social centre full of enthusiasm and life. The city has the cu- 
rious feature of embracing the river, narrowing it between its streets 
filled with ancient style mansions, covered with colored tiles import- 
ed from Portugal, villas and other light cottages. A large church, 
the pride of that region, is standing in the Purifica(;ao square where 
also are the City Hospital and City Hall, solid and strong as every- 
thing that was formerly built with the first money earned with sugar 
cane plantations. 

In another square is the theatre, a building hardly worth men- 
tioning and the Poor House, with a school for girls founded in 1813. 
There are tramw^ays in the city, as well as water supply, railroad, 
hotels, factories, foundries, public illumination, everything that can 
give importance to a modern city. A few leagues away is the « Insti- 
tuto Bahiano de Agricultura » suj)ported by the State. 



— 338 — 

In the suburbs of Santo Amaro are some farms with beau- 
tiful panoramas, and tlirough the municipium there are saw-mills, 
sugar-factories, dislilling woi-ks, \vhere they work day and night, 
and others. 

Xazauktii , MAiiA(.o(;ii'E AM) AiiATinvPE. — Tliese are other 
growing cities, each of over 20,000 inhabitants, with factories, 
schools, clubs, newspapers, etc. ^They have daity comiiiunicalion 
with the city by steamers. 

Feira de Sant'Axxa. — Is built upon an esplanade of beautiful 
hori/on. Its landscape is the prettiest of the North of Brazil with its 




(liiriMliiiliu. — Dionysio Cenjueii'a Place. — Popular llnliday 



streets straight and wide as the Senhor dos Passos, and Direita 
streets. The fact of this Direita Street (straight street) being really 
a straight one surprised us. In neai'ly every city there is a thorough- 
fare with this name being generally the most tortuous street of the 
town. 

I( lias line private and i)ublic buildings. The City Hall, the (hea- 
ti-c, the Kailway Station, the magnifii-ent City Hospital and (Jirls 
Asyliiui. hs iiauii' \\asgi\en alter tliose colossal count ry fairs, cattle 
exchange, that used to be held thei'c befoi-c there was any railway. 
'I'en to twelve thousand heads of cattle conhl then l>e seen tlu'rt'. 
There are I'oui- steam factories antl other smaller ones manu- 
facturing \('getal»le oils, tobacco, soap, lopes. tiles ami other 
l)ro(lncls. 



— 339 — 

Tlie principal commerce oi' the city lias as basis tobacco and its 
preparation, there being- 13 business lionses by wholesale and H(> re- 
tail houses. It also exports hides, lumber, gfain, etc., in smaller 
scale. 

It is a city of much future, with < J 1.000 inhabitants according to 
the last census and dates, only fi-om the time of the political indei)en- 
(lence of Brazil. 

CuRRALiNHO. — Known also as Castro Alves, because ol" having 
been the birth-place of the great Brazilian poet of that name. It is 




Alagoiuhos. — Pago Municipal (square) 



also a city with a bright future, built on the top of the Sairirii 
mountains, and we must say, well built. It has 20 large streets, 
four public squares and fine houses. 

Alagoinhas. — Here is another city ow ing its existence to the 
locomotive. Formerly there was a kind of a hamlet with that name 
a short way from the place where this city is now. With the arrival 
of the railway-bridge of the Bahia to S. Francisco railway, there 
was formed a nucleus of houses, by and by a small hotel, a church, 
a school, later on business houses of certain importance and soon we 
saw formed a beautiful city to be added to the number of the 40 
Bahia State cities. 



— uo — 

Alagoinlias grows everj' year , and is already a good city of 
commercial activity. It has a public square, Paco Municipal, two 
railway stations , a large market , pretty churches , eight public 
schools, several clubs and hotels, soap-factories, brandy distilleries, 
soda-water works, leather tanning factory, a newspaper, etc. Its po- 
pulation is 32.276 according to the census taken in 1900. 

From there starts a railway to Timbo and the prolongation line 
to the S. Francisco river, crossing the cities of Bomfim, Serrinha 
until Joazeiro. 

The region crossed b}' this railway is most interesting wiih 
variegated and exquisite panoramas one after another. At the begin- 
ning endless tobacco plantations of small farmers intermingled with 
corn and other cereals. The road goes through two green bands, 
where the tobacco comes in line with small plants of one to two 
metres. Afterwards near Bomfim, formerly Villa Xova da Rainha, 
we enter a stony region in which predominates the Itauba mountain 
(an enormous stone) rich in the variety of stones among which arc 
the rosy ones, compact, which have already been utilized for monu- 
ment making in the Capital. A little further ahead is the city of : 

Bomfim. — This city has some 1.200 houses, 26 streets, o s(|uarcs 
and looks like a hamlet built by chance with cross and tortuous 
streets. Yet the houses are pretty and new, as the city is not an 
old one. 

Following the railway we find extensive open fields, with a pecu- 
liar vegetation, the cactus predominating. There is even a stretch 
of some kilometres of surface, where we can contemplate the impos- 
ing panorama of a forest of cactus, with thousands and thousands 
of specimens firmly standing up displaying their pretty green colors. 
The bottom of that picture is the naked body of the mountains in the 
neighborhood, a sad landscape with those broken lines of the nion- 
struous rocks. 

Skkui.vma. — Among tlu; i)laces that line the road before Hoinrim, 
some are of some importance, as (^ueimadas, Santa Luzia, etc. 
Serrinha is a city of right. xVs its name gives to understand it is 
located in a small mountain. Right at its entrance there is a pretty 
hotel, indicating that, being anew city, (it is another creation of 
the railway), v(iry littU; worth noting can be present. Its houses 
have as a rule only (n\(\ floor, only lately som(> being built with upper 
stories. The main i)ul)lie scpiare is the Prai;a Manoel N'ictoriuo. 

.loAzi'.iKo. — Alter the IJouifini slation, live hours of train lide. 
we sec; Jo:i/.eiro, on I he saii(l\ l)anks of t he S. l'"i-anciseo liNcr. and 



— 341 — 

where from a beautiful ])aii()i-anKi can he observed. In front of 
it is a city belonging- to rei-nanibuco State, tlic white houses of 
which, there at the bottom, give a strong relief to the small Fogo 
island (Fire island), situatiid between the two cities. Petrolina is the 
name of that little gem , connected to-day by a telegraphic wire, 
carried over-head by a high post on the island and tliat thus helps 
to unite the thought of two cities thai the river in vain tried to 
separate. 

Joazeiro has grown up considerably after the railway reached 
there. It has 22 wide streets running in the direction of the axle of 
the river, crossed by several other side streets and public squares. A 







Joazeiro. — The railway station of tlie line Baiiia to S. Francisco 



pretty building is the railway station of this city. The Cit^^ Hall is 
also a solid and large building. There are also two club houses, a 
librarj^ a music school, some churches, a small theatre, and several 
good commercial houses to give life to the city. The houses are of 
modern construction, and among them are some of noble aspect. 
The seat of the Yiacao Central do Brazil, — which takes charge of 
the navigation on the river and its affluents, — is a large house, 
not a very pretty one, painted white, a little ahead of the station, 
having annexed its repair shops. The street lining the river is full 
of business houses, but as it happens in every city of Brazil it is 
not overcrow^ded. 

Three or four kilometres from Joazeiro is a large establishment 
devoted to the experimental study of vines, directed by Dr. J. Sil- 
veira an entomologist and ethnologist of repute. 

All that region margined by salinitrous ground, produces 
excellent vines, with four crops a year, and the scientific establish- 



— 342 — 

ment has as its object to direct that new agricultural industry. 
The wheat and the vine prosper wonderful in this region. Lum- 
ber, cattle, apples, peaches, everything is produced there, promis- 
cuously with the ec^uatorial plants, so as to place in disorder those 
notions accumulated lor centuries about climatology. 

So that nothing be lacking, a lew leagues away from Joazeiro in a 
place called Sobradinho, the river arranged some high falls, and in 
the near future all the neighboring cities will have j^ower, light and 
heat without needing a single ton of fuel. 




ValeiK.a. — Larse toxtilo Fabr'u- : h 



>aiilus » 



Let us leave alone this region the future of whii'li is depending, 
as we said before, on the immigration, the iMiropean Mood and 
intelligence. 

We will give a jump back to the ('ai)ital and will lake a coastw isc 
steamer to visit the sea-side cities. ^\■(' will go fii-sl lo NaliMu-a, the 
industrial city as it is called. 

Valknta. — At seven kilonieties from the bay of I'inharc, on the 
hanks of a small river, the Ihiit, is one of the most intei-esting 
cities of liahia, — Valen^'a, — with Jl.'.ir.T inhahitants, -JJoo houses, 
81 larger Ixiildings, •-?(; sti'eets and :> i)uhlie s(|uares. with i)aveiiients 



— u-.i — 

and illuiniiKition, pailly electrical, partly with kerosene oil, two Iai-<;(; 
lactoiies, (threading- mills), two saw-niills, waler supply, newspa- 
])ers, telegraph, breweries, i'riiit-wine factoi-ies, soaj) ones, cordial 
distilleries, candle-factories, shii)-yards, and 10 school houses. 

Among its best buildings, Valenca can show the City Hall, the 
Amparo Church, of modern style, and the Hospital. It is connected 
with the Capital by a regular line of steamers and sailing vessels. 

Further down on the sea-coast there are a lot of cities witli 
bright future. In our opinion, this southern region has in its bosom 
the greatness of the Bahia State because of its natural treasuries. 

There are Prado with its monazitic sands, which, in one year 
alone paid 0()0:000S000 (about $ 2.700.000) of export duties to the State 
of Bahia; (^nrauellas, 291 miles from the Capital, the topography of 
which looks like a chess-board on account of the way the streets 
are disposed forming right angles. It has whale-oil and a railway 
that goes to Minas. Cannavieiras, a strong centre of the cocoa trade, 
built on big lumber stakes on account of the river floods, with fine 
houses, newspapers, hotels, clubs, a large number of business hou- 
ses, etc. etc. 

All the streets of Cannavieiras city are sandy. The buildings 
worth noting are : the City Hall and the Jail. It has a water supply 
by means of pumps moved by wind. 

The water is taken from the artesian wells and deposited in tanks 
with a total capacity of 70.500 litres. These pumps work constantly 
as the wind always blows in this region. 

Since the moment we enter the Pardo river we see on the left, 
immediately after the promontory south of the bar, the Peso river, 
which connects Cannavieiras with Belmonte, passing through the 
interior of the bar of the Peso. After this we see yet two other 
rivers on the same side, the Jacare and the Boi rivers. 

Ilheos. — Above Cannavieiras, going to Bahia we see a pretty 
and wide bay called Ilheos much smaller, however than the « Todos 
OS vSantos » one. 

It is in the southern part of the bay of Ilheos that runs the 
Cachoeira river on the left bank of which is the city of .S. Jorge ilos 
Ilheos, constructed partly on a peninsula, extented southwardly and 
ending at the Matriz hill with about BO metres of height. 

Ilheos is in the bosom of a beautiful inner bay, behind some rocks, 
like the Rapa and others, which make it as picturesque as it is shel- 
tered and adequated to navigation. This city was founded by Fran- 
cisco Romero, in 1530, which means to say that it is of the oldest in 
Brazil. In the last vears of the monarchy it had attained the maximum 



— :U4 — 

of its decadence, even llie Matri/ Church — S. Joi-ge — was in ruin. 
But the extensive cocoa plantations began to produce some twelve 
years ago. The old Tlheos lately began to feel younger, there came 
money, people, and everything was transformed. To-day it can com- 
pete with the best cities of the interior of Bahia. It has good hotels, 
stylish mansions, j)aved streets, an active commerce with large 
stores and luxurious show windows, modern newspapers, as the 
Gazetii de Ilheos , several factories of chocolate, cocoa, soap and 
others. Some of the near-by villages, as Tabocas, which 10 years ago 




Ilheos. — Panorama ol' a |)art ot tlic cil} 

were stopping-places for travelers, to-day present the'aspect of i-ities 
by themselves. 



It is ])elow Cannavieiras, between a i)art of Bahia and the Spirito 
Santo, that is to l)e found, a little way from the coast, the curious 
archipelago of polyperas rocks, dark and rough, by the typical nanu' 
ofAbrolhos. Some of these rock islands are visible fioui ;i great 
distance, the most vohiuiiuous being Santa Bai-bara, halfcox cred by 
rickety vegetation. On it they liuilt a Ix-aiii iful light-house. I'cw 
people live i?i this piece of ground h)st in t lie iniineusity of the ocean, 
and which the least noise of t lie li fe of I he cit ies, does not reach 



— S4B — 

noitlier I'roin any otliei- limnuii ('(uniiiunily. 'I'lic |)r(!S('ii1 keeper of 
tlie light-house lonesoinely lives so, with ti small group of people, Inr 
the last twenty yeai-s. Only once in tln'ce nionllis a coaslwise steamer 
goes to the island, carrying provisions and I'uel lor the liglit-lionse, 
whieli never stopped one single night from illiiiiiinating its silent 
and desert horizon. 

A number of sheep, goats and other animals, eoiiii)lete the group 
of the live population imprisoned in the Abrollios, whei'e days and 
nights slide without any alteration, well in harmony with the regu- 
lar but unconscient rotations of the light-house ai)i)aratus \\hieh ioi- 
the last 30 years lights the rocks without interruption. 

We referred to the Abrolhos on account of the light-house cele- 
brated to the navigation that there passes by. 

It is impossible for us to give an account of every city. The 
limited space of this book would not permit it. 

Those we have mentioned suffice to give an idea of the wealth 
of this large State. It continues to be at the head of the other States 
in many respects, and taking into consideration the \ariety of its 
production — being as Rio Grande do Sul and Minas, of the few 
States that do not deliver themselves to the contingent prosperity of 
monoculture — we have not to fear any crisis like those that have 
suffered Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and other States, not long ago. 

The secret, however, of its great prosperity entirely lies on a 
measure that its administrators have not, as yet, been willing to, or 
did not know how to realize, and that is : the introduction of large 
numbers of European immigrants into the lands of this rich State. 

When Bahia decides itself to adopt this measure and receives 
and disseminates in its beautiful territory some 500.000 immigrants, 
Bahia will then have established the basis of its true progress so 
vast and powerful, that we believe there is no other region in the 
whole of Brazil in a condition to equal it. 



THE STATES OF ESPIRITO SANTO AND 
RIO DE JANEIRO 



Between the two large cities of the Brazilian coast, one that was 
formerly the Capital of the country, — Bahia, — and another that 
is the Capital to-day, there is a sea-coast city which is the Capital of 
one of the 20 States of the Union. It is much more modest than any 
of the other tw^o, more modest even than many of the interior cities 



— 34fi — 

of tlic country in the S. Paulo, Bahia, Kio (Jrande do Sul or many 
of tlie other States. Yet its name may sound as Ixdon^iiij;- to a ••reat 
metropolis. 

Victoria is the name of that small city, Capital of one of the small- 
est States of the Union. — the State of Ksjjirito Santo, 

Sailing from Rio de Janeiro in son}e of those coastwise steamers 
that are in the habit of navigating nearer shore, in 20 or 21 hours 
we are in front of that city, which is not visible from the sea. We 
can only see it after peneti-ating into the port, behind a crown of 
jnonntains at the bottom of which is the citN. 



* 
* * 




N'icloria. 



Tlic .Moreno and I he cliancl of I'cnlia 



Entering the port, a little towards the east side of Villa Velha we 
see a large rock of conic shape, (which one would think is threatening 
to fill up the canal should it fall into it) and near this i-ock anothei" 
one just like it but a little taller — they ai'c the two inside marks of 
the estuary. This one is called Moreno and the former, ilic pi-etticst, 
they gave tlu^ name of Penha, and th(\v built on top of ii a small 
white chapel in tin; most ideal and poetical of sjiots. 

We read that the little convent of Penha was started in 1558 and 
finished in 1575, and it is not much to have spent ten years, cany- 
ing stone by stone, to a height of 120 metres, to build that church 
and its c(mvent, strongly enough to be able to resist, as they liaxc 
resisted, during centuries, to the rigor of the w(\)ther with its stiong 
winds on the sea-shore. 

When llic linirisl wishes to go up (he hill, he I'iuds a regular 
I'oad, i)ave(i with stones, in constant curves until the top where the 
chui'cli is all dressed in white with its stone fonudati(Ui finnlv fixed. 



— 347 — 

The bay of Espirito Santo is wide, perfectly serene and calm, we 
could not say it more appropriately in any other case, — ns in a 
lookin^-^-lass. 

The present Secretary of Public Works, I)r Lauro Midler, pro- 
moted the construction of harbor works which will comi)l(jtely 
transform this port at an expense of £ l.UOU.OOO. 

In a curve of this bay and on the side of a hill is the city of 
Victoria with its uneven buildings, its churches, its public garden, 
which can be seen from the anchorage place. Its quay is not a pretty 




Victoria. — A part of the city and anchorage 



one, but a large number of boats are always to be seen there for the 
service of the port. 

Xotwithstanding it is an old city, it has had lots of time to 
grow and acquire modern ideas. Numerous cities of the interior of 
S. Paulo, others of Minas and others of Bahia, not to speak about 
capitals like Manaos, Curytiba, Bello-Horizonte, Maceio, are far 
more advanced, better europeanized, more progressive than Victoria. 
AVliy so? It seems that it is the fate of the cities located in islands in 
the Brazilian coast, not to conquer their way in the road of progress 
as those on the continent. 

Yet the citj^ is not so very ugly. Seen from the anchorage place, 



— 348 — 

the distance sIioavs it as a poetic rcliel", presenting- itself as a picture 
for a drawing room, mild and tender, round, soft, half framed in the 
long- green of tlie mountains that have not the ronghness of other 
mountains, everything displayed in another inverted landscape in 
that blue reflector of the waters. 

The natural port is calm, sheltei-ed and vast as few are. The gay 
panorama of the mountains surrounding it, correspond perfectly 
well to the beauty and quietness of the bay. 

Victoria is a small city active and industrious, having seven 



mj»yp"!'-'». 




Victoria. — Aiiotlier pari ol'jtiie i-ity and aiuiKnagt' 



public s(piares, of which only one has a garden ; twenty odd streets 
extending themselves in a longitudinal direction of the anchorage 
line, crossed by other narrow and inclined side-streets, lined by 
houses which in the great majority are there since colonial times. 
There are, however, some of modern aspect. 

The palace of the Governor is the old convent, wliii'h, as in tlu' 
one of Parahyba, exhibits yet the church at the side. 

The houses are disposed in irregular squares or blocks, lining- 
streets disorderly arranged. They shelter under their roofs a popula- 
tion of some '.>.()()() inhabitants, being I. I-*:! males and \.~>~~ t'emali's, 
according to tlu^ census of lUO'J, only in (heeily proper. 1"',. Keelns in 
his l)0()k — () lira/.il — says ; 



— 349 — 

cc Reveral years ago, Victoria Nvliili; luiving vet but little? com- 
inercc, only small ships came to its bay. The improvement works 
made in the channel of the port wliich is over live oi- six metre deep 
permit the entrance even to the large transatlantic steamers. Its 
commerce grows to-day rai)idly and the immigrants land thei-(! by 
thousands. Hencel'orth Espirito Santa considers • itself indepen- 
dent from Rio de Janeiro as to its ultramarine relations ». 

In fact it is so. The agriculture of the State was backwards and 
weak, its commerce, consequently, could not be very pros])ci'ous. 
However, the immigrants came there from Poi-tugal, (Germany, 
Italy and Spain. They went to the interior, to the river banks. (Joffee 
began to appear in the market, in (jnantities growing larger every 
year, and everything was done. 

Victoria is already appearing in the list of the noted exporting 
ports, in a progressive march which can be observed in the follow- 
ing figures : 

Coffee exports by the port of victoria 

Yours. Kilogs. 

1892 1(i.67.3.3(52 

1893 21.703.109 

189-4 23.217.101 

1895 21.641.717 

1896 2.5.201.568 

1897 34.791.^88 

1898 33. -4 19. 90 1 

1.S99 27.379.764 

1900 23.649.222 

1901 41. •49.4.095 

And this progression can be maintained. Everything shows that, 
and it is hoped that the progression from now on will be much lar- 
ger. The habit of working is extending itself to wider circles in the 
interior, the railways will awake facilities of transportation and 
exchange, and above all, stronger than everything, it will assure 
progress to the fertility of the soil, acting by the entrance in the field 
of work the enormous areas conquered on the wild forests 

Espirito Santo has two railways : the Santo Eduardo to Cacho- 
eiro with an extension of 90 kilometres and the Sul do Espirito 
Santo with 80 kilometres in operation and 83 in construction. 

The road that goes to Cachoeiro, belongs to the Leopoldina 
Railway, crosses tracts of land most wealthy as well as thick woods 
and forests. 

Another railway quite extensive and which will mean the reali- 
sation of an old aspiration of the people of the Espirito Santo 



— 350 — 

State, is about to be built soon, according to information I'lirnished 
us by the Government itself in an official document. We refer to the 
following topic of the message of Governor Muniz Freiie read before 
the Legislative Assembly : 

« I must also inform you of the pleasing impression 1 have 
received by the i-ecent organisation of the « Companhia Victoria a 
Diamantina », which proposes to realize the concession renovated by 
art. 18, n" Kj of the Federal law n" 834 of Decembei- 30th. 1901, for 
the construction of a railway that, starting from Victoria and going 
through Pessanha, in Minas Geraes State, will go to Diamantina an 
important centre of the same State, with an extension of TOO kilo- 
metres. )) The works of this company have already started. 

Public Ixstkuction, police, production, commerce, etc. — The 
things that have reference to the public instruction of the inhabitants 
of Espirito Santo have not been neglected, though they could not 
have been treated as it would be expected to be treated in a State 
with such a brilliant future. A Central Department with its seat in 
Victoria, manages everything concerning public instruction under 
the direction of a General Director. The instruction given b^' the 
official institutes is divided into primary, — which is compulsory 
and free of charge, as it happens in all the other States of Brazil, — 
and secondary, distributed by the Normal College with 100 pupils, 
and several schools like the Atheneu Santos Pinto, the Collegio do 
Carmo, directed by Sisters of charity and installed in an old convent. 

For the elementary instruction there are in the State I'.K) schools 
in the Capital antl interior towns and villages. 

The police force of Espirito Santo is a modest battalion of infan- 
try, we might say a company, with 120 men, commanded by a major, 
3 captains, 3 1st. lieutenants, (i 2nd lieutenants and a small band oi 
music with 18 figures. 

As to the sanitary j)ublic services, public aid, statistics, etc., 
thei-e are only rudimentary departments very simple f(n- the organi- 
sation of a State. 

There is hardly any manufacturing industry wortli writing 
about ; there is one or other factory of soap, vinegar, beer and a few 
others. The great industry is the agriculture and of this there is 
only one important manifestation — the coffee cultivation. This docs 
not m(;an that l''.spirilo Santo docs not export oilier products, 
becausi^ it docs sugar, lumber and others, but excepting coffee all 
th(i others arc sent in vei'y small ([uantities. 'IMiei-e is consecjuently 
tlie monociill ure witb all of its inconveniences. 

It ap])ears liow(;\er, tluit a new element, will come to modify, 



— S5l — 

though slig-htly, the situation tliat circumstance l)rings al)out, and it 
is the discovery of nionazitic sand in tlu; sea-coast. The executive 
Chief of tlie State wrote thus about it : 

« As you know, it was only two yeai-s ago, in l.Sli.S, tliat the exis- 
tence of that source of wealth in the State was knon.w. rnfii then its 
existence was only known (m the coast of the Pi-ado nHinicipiuii., in 
the State of Bahia. From that time however it was (lisc()v(!red that 
we liave imi)ortant layers of those sands in Ean-a de S. Matheus, 
Guarapary and Benevente n. 



h-^ 



niwa^ " ^ 



#r^;pr^'i 



••;_ ''''l'Mli'Wf*.,':l(WfeF:»:::^|i, 



Caclioeiro de ItapLMiiorim. — Poaix of Ital)ira 



Principal cities. — Espirito Santo is not large, neither in terri- 
tory, nor population. The former is of 45.000 square kilometres, the 
latter is 209.000 inhabitants, less than there is to be found in any 
other large city of Rio, S. Paulo, Bahia. Under the circumstances 
how could there be any city of importance ? 

At all events we will see what can be ijresented as cities of rela- 
tive importance. 

Cachoeiro de Itapemerim — or only Itapemerim — is in first 
place, thanks to the new^ vigor given to it by the immigration that 
largeh' increased the number of its coffee plantations. 

It is the seat of a large agricultural municipium composed of : 
Conceicao, S. Gabriel do Moqui, S. Joao do Moqui, Castello, and 
S. Pedro do Cachoeiro districts. Their population was by the cen- 
sus taken ten years ago 5.000 inhabitants, and by last year census 
19.592 inhabitants. It is a picturesque city cut into two halves by 
the Itapemerim river on the banks of which it is built. 

A metallic bridge resting on stone pillars unites those two parts. 



352 — 



In the soutliern part ol" the city are tlie railway stations. The 
river makes a curve riglit where tlie city is, and the houses there, 
nearly all one floor buildings ol" the simplest architecture, are spying- 
at the sides supported on posts and pillars. On both sides are 
ample woods on the inclined plan, of a deep green whose greatness 
is being explored with the fall of the rich lumber pulled down b_\ the 
active immigrants. 

This city has progressed somewhat of late , inaugui-ated [its elec- 
trical illumination and has built some nice houses and chalets. 





jj. -t' 'i^s.air^f*^ 




Caclioeira dc Itapcincriin. — Soutliern |>arl of tlic ritv 



Not long ago it was connected with the Rio dc .Janeiro State and 
wlien they build the <S3 kilometres rails of the Sul do I^spirito Santo 
i-ailway which goes down to Victoria it will be connected by railway 
will) llie Capital of the Ivei)ublic. 

Among other newspapers they publish « () (^nchociruiu) >> wliieh 
is the oldest paper of the state. 

S. Matukus. — It has relatively little t'ommeicinl iuipoiianee. 
It is jiartly built on a little river with its stoui' quay and parilv in a 
small mountain. The river that serves of decoration to it and w liieh 
the city is named aftei- is a b(>auliful stream of clear and calm 
waters, its passage is always reproducing in front of tlu' tpiay the 
image of tlic; eitN' with its bigh ])alm-trees planted some ;>() years ago 



— 35:{ — 

in tlio down-town part of tlie city. Tliis part ol" tlic city is composed 
of two floor buildings, plain walls and Portuguese style. In the 
uptown part of the city arc also sevei-al two floor buildings. The 
city is illuminated with kerosene oil and is the seat of the munici- 
piuni of the same name created by law n"C) oh the JSth of Mai-eh l«:j."j. 
It is situated on the right bank at the mouth of the S. Matheus 
river, four leagues from the sea and from Villa da Barra, and 28" n. 
of Rio Doce, altitude 18°. 53'. 34". longitude .3". <•>'. 13". It is 40 lea- 
gues away from the Capital of the State. It comprises the district 
and parish of the same name with a ])opulation of T.Tfil inhabitants. 




Victiiria. — Local Scene, tlie Siesia 



Cachoeira de Santa Leopoldixa. — (Port of). It is the seat of 
a coffee municipium, where they are actively operating a renovation 
of customs and habits as well as the whole agricultural life of the 
State. To that city many Italian, German, Polish and other natio- 
nalities immigrants have gone of late. It is a small city and quite a 
simple one like all the others in this State. Its commerce, how^ever, 
considered its territory is quite active and prosperous. It is a city of 
some .5 or 6.000 inhabitants. Adding to it the neighboring districts 
of Jequitiba , Mangarahy and Santa Thereza, its population is 9.867 
according to the report of the statistics Department. 

Bexevexte. — This is a municipium of some future. At present 
has but little importance. It produces rice, sugar, coffee. This muni- 
cipium was created bj^ decree signed on the 1st of January 1759. It is 
14 leagues away from the Capital of the State. It comprises the dis- 
tricts Alto Benevente and Piuma parishes Nossa Senhora da Con- 
ceicao de Piuma. Its population was 14.638 inhabitants in 1892. 



— 354 — 

Other cities like Itubnponnn at the soutlR-i-u \r,xv\ of the State. 
EspirHo Siiiilo — as old as an ago, — Suntn (Iriiz, and several others, 
are spread here and there over the State. They have, however, 
but a relative intei-est lor publie knowledge. And why to cite thein? 
Cities, like so nuuiy hundreds ol' them sprt'ud through the vast ter- 
ritoi'.x' of Brazil, still growing, cities without anything paiticular 
about them, or as much as tliat terrace about which the Spanish 

poet wrote : 

Turn j)iirliriil;ir, 

Que en lloiucndo se moju 
Como los (lentils 

( So |)ccii!i;ir, tliat wlioii it niiiis gels wcl. jiisl like tl tlicrs ) 



THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO 



On account of its size and physical aspect the State of Rio de 
Janeiro is the most hilly of all the other States of the Union. 
Crossed by capricious i-idges of mountains, enormous lakes, it has a 
marvellous maritime Ijoundai-y Hue \\ here the most beautiful l)ays, re- 
fused by nature to the other States, were given to it with i)rodigality. 

In this respect this State is in striking contrast with its neigh- 
boring State — Minas. — This latter State has not the least commu- 
nication willi the sea. Uio has so many and large anchoi-agc places 
that it has no necessity to give commercial applicatiou to all of 
them. It concenti'ates all its maritime activity in the bay that lays 
l^etween the two twin capitals : Uio de .lani'iro. the Federal Capital, 
and Nictheroy, the Capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro, l^vei-y one 
of the great peculiarities that give fame and value to a tcrrilorx', this 
Stat(; got them heaped up upon it by naiiiic. It lias ilu' higiiest oro- 
grai)hic point, the Itatiaya: the largest and most marxcUous bay, 
(liuanabara, ithe Rio de .Janeiro bayi; the most curious elbow of 
land, o Cabo Vv\o, (the Frio ca])c;: the stupendous rock\- mountains, 
o ITio do Assucar, (Jaxca, {''rade de Macahc; nioiintains ol iini\ crsal 
fame for its picturesqueness, llic Mant icpu'ira, and os Orgfios. \\\c- 
ryfliing in this Stale contributes to a glorious destiny. And as il all 
was not sufficient, there came nicn adding to siicli great natural pos- 
sessions, tlicif iKilicnl and \alnal)lc work. Tlicx Imilt there one of 
thegrealesl com iiiereial metropolis of tlie world, tlie political iu'ad ()f 
liie w liole nation, extended through t lie \ alle\ s a w hole s\ stem of 



railways, installed on the toj) of Mk; iiioiintains, smiiiiicr rcsoi-ls 
being- so many other cities, where the wealthy inlialtilaiils i-esidc. 

Some by the sea-side, some in the interior places, some large, 
some small, there is quite a number ol" cities all through the State 
like Macahe, Araruama, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, Marica, Xictheroy, 
Ivio de Janeiro (Capital of the Republic), Mangaratiba, Angra, l*a- 
raty. These being the sea-side (mes. The leading cities oT tlu; moun- 
tains are Petropolis, Xova Friburgo and Theresopolis. 

The territory between Rio de Janeiro and tlie Ponta Negra, neai- 
Cabo Frio, where a large light-house is since ISHl, is high ground , 
formed by enormous stones, sometimes bare like I'ocky mountains, 
sometimes covered with green, lined with thick woods. Among these 
superb stone bodies we see Ponta Negra (Black ])oint), thus called 
because of the aspect and color of its elevation, on the top of which 
we see, from tlie distance at which the steamers pass by, a white? 
building, used as a semaphorical signal station. Away down on a 
sandy hill near Saquarema city is the church of Nossa Senhora de 
Nazareth, all white, like a sea-mew. 

The shores we see from there at the North, and which do not 
look at all like those of Rio Grande do Sul, are called Pernambuco. 
A little further ahead we see a fine stone body called Cabo Frio and 
there the coast seems to fold upon itself, abandoning its course from 
West to East, to follow North-East. 

The Rio de Janeiro is, as to its territorial extension, one of the 
shortest States of Brazil, but its population places it among the most 
important ones. It has over one million inhabitants. 

Owning to this relatively large population , Rio de Janeiro, com- 
pared with the other States , has developed very rapidly its agricul- 
ture, industry, transportation and commerce. Its extensive coffeeand 
sugar-cane plantations concentrated during the second half of the 
last century the base of the national public wealth in that region as 
they did in Bahia in the last century, and as they are doing in 
S. Paulo. Thus has been dislocated the economical-financial hege- 
mony, changing of seat, under circumstances, that as yet do not 
seem to characterise a superior law or a definite form. 

We only apprehend the material phenomenon : the dislocation 
of the economical centre of gravity which we believe later on will 
have to be taken from S. Paulo to the rubber States in the North. 

Once the sceptre of the country's agricultural wealth dislocated 
from Rio de Janeiro to S. Paulo, Rio began to exercise a very mo- 
dest influence in the destinies of the nation , and the whole of the 
State, in spite of its beautiful and some most important cities, seems 



— :}5G — 

to be supported by the life ol' the small disti'ict that makes part of 
its territor}^ from the geographical point of vi(nv, but independent 
and distinct as it has been reserved for the functions of acting as 
the head of the wliole country — tlie Federal District. 

Why it allowed itself to be thus supplanted by S. Paulo in that 
privileged condition, is something that apparently can't vc-ry well 
be explained. It was not inferior -in the richness of the soil, nei- 
ther in the density of the population , neither in the variety and 
excellency of the climate, neither even was it inferior in the geogra- 
phical situation , number of ports, proximity of a large market cen- 
tre, but much to the contrary, it had over S. Paulo all the natural 
advantages, and above all, it had great superiority in the advaiice- 
ment of jjolitical and social education of its land-owiicrs, as well as 
in the develo])Mient of two agricultui-al industi'ies, coffeij and sugar- 
cane, which was cultivating when S. I*aulo was but making ex])cri- 
ments with them in the North and Xorth-west i-egions, the marvel- 
lous West unknown at the time. 

The Capital of the State had always been Nictheroy, the twin city 
of the Capital of the Republic. In 1891, however, the local Govern- 
ment transferred the Capital of the State to the city of I*ctroi)olis. 
where it was but a short while, returning to Xictheroy in .luly 1*.U»H. 
Nictheroy c(?lebrated then joyfully the recovering of its hisioi-ical 
hegemony over the other cities of the State. 

President, or rather Govei'uor Bocayuva (in Brazil some States 
having the name of Governor, others President for the Executive 
(yhief of the State,) was the one who reinstalled thei-e the Cai)iial of 
Rio de Janeiro State, receiving the applauses of the entii-c ])opiila- 
tion of the State. 

Nictheroy is a small city l)uilt l)etween the i-idges of mountains 
that line the eastern side of the large bay. It participati's of the soul 
and moral economy of the neighboi'ing meti'opolis. Many of its inha- 
bitants have their business and exercise their activity in Rio, on the 
other side of the bay. It feels with Rio the same feelings as if it 
were a part of it, and (piite often an event in Rio has its repercution 
in Nictheroy (piicker than in the very suburbs of the i-ity. In fact, 
besides the telephone, telegraph and ])ost office service, there is a 
constant communication service by sti'am bc>ats (ferry boatsi i"un- 
ning day and night bc^twecm the two large cities on the banks of the 
Guanabara bay. This constitutes a synci-etism of life so intinuite, so 
mixed with one anotiier that hardlN' can he thought, siMting aside, 
tlic material sejjaration of the bay, tiie disiincliou tlial politit-al 
geography causes between the two cities. 



— 357 — 

The true difference, the only difference, rests in tlicir active life : 
Rio is a — whirlwind, — Nictheroy, — a resting; |)hi('c. TIk- asjjcct 
of life in the streets of Rio is like that of the great conunercial cen- 
tres full of activity, people in the streets do not walk, they run, 
— do not speak, hut cry. 

Nictheroy is just the inverse of it : there is an infinite quietness 
in the air as in everything. Its population moves about at ease in the 
quiet streets. There is a sound calm within the open city, without 
walls, without barriers, surrounded only by its sandy shoi-es, the 




Nichtheroy. — Tlie celebrated rock of Itapuca, and the beach of Icarahj 



most picturesque sea-shores surrounding a city — Icarahy, S. Lou- 
renco, etc. 

Nictheroy has 35.000 inhabitants, tramways, electric illumina- 
tion, newspapers, a large number of factories, ship-yards, etc. 

Icarahy. — Is most interesting : one of its monoliths, the indi- 
gene name of which was preserved, the — Itapuca — is a large, 
isolated stone, a monumental feature, half placed into the water, 
and the unmistakable beauty of which has already become celebrat- 
ed in the art magazines, photographic views taken by the tourists 
and post-cards. 



— 358 — 

Public instruction, police, means of communication. — In the 
Capital as Petiopolis, Campos and other cities of the State, arc 
excellent institutes of learning, some private, some belonging to the 
government. 

Among tlic latter we must mention the Fluminense Gymnasium, 
the Campos and the Xictlieroy Normal Colleges, the Campos Lyceum. 
Among the former we must mention : The Free Normal College, of 
Petropolis, the Lyceum, of the same city, the grand Salezian College 
maintained by priests in Santa Rosa, Nictheroy, and which is one of 
the most noted institutes of professional education in the country, 
and the Anchietu College, of Friburgo, directed by Jesuits, also repu- 
ted as one of the best institutes of learning in South America. 

As to the elementary instruction it is compulsoi-y and free of any 
charge all over the State. 

The State supports schools in Petropolis, Kezende , Xiclhcroy, 
Campos, Valenga and Barra Mansa, and about 600 grammar schools 
all over the State in buildings owned by the State. 

The police force of Rio de Janeiro State is constituted by an 
infantry regiment composed of two divisions, one militarized, an 
organisation identical to the Federal infantry, devoted to maiiitain- 
ancc of the authority and integrity of the State, the other a civil 
organisation, to furnish detachments to different points, to do the 
police service. Each division has 400 men. They have both Mauser 
guns. 

On account of its territorial extension, the State of Rio is the one 
having the easiest means of communication. Two large railw ays 
l)lace its interior cities and villages in contact with the exterior. 
These railways are the Leoi)()l(lina and the Centi-al do Rrazil. Besi- 
des these, other smaller railways connect two, three, or more cities 
within the State, as the Estrada de Ferro Cami)ista, the Estrada de 
Ferro de Theresopolis, the Estrada de T'erro Sapucahy. the I'niao 
Valeneiaiia, the Rio das Flores, the Bananal, the \'assourense and 
the Kio do Oui'o railway enterprizcs. The total extension of those 
railways is '2.'.'>'S> kiloinclres. 

I>esid(;s these, there are yet several stre(;t railway enterpi'izes in 
sonic of Ihc i)rincii)al cities, as Nictheroy, Campos, Vassouras, etc. 

()thcr cilics like S. .1 oiio da Barra, Campos, Macahe and oiIums 
have flii\ial uavigalioii eom))anies. 



I*i;tko1'oi,is. — The Slale of K io can boasl of possessing willi 
thai pp<'t ly <'i1y of i'el ropolis one of I he most interesl ing cities of the 



— 359 — 

X('\v World. Tn tlu; l)('<;iiini,)o' W was ti colony conijjoscd of 'J.()00 
Oermans, who came there in IN IT, to settle theiiisclvcs in groimds 
belonging to the impei'iiil crown. Later on developed into a city, 
havinobeeu during- tliree or four years Capital ol" (Ik; State. It is not 
so high as S. Paulo, Bello liori/onte oi- ("nrityba, as it is built in an 
esplanade ol" the Orgaos mountain, irA) meti-es above the sea level. 

The fact, however, of being- so near the Capital of the Republic, 
invested it with the prerogatives of a sanatorium and summer resort 
of Rio, and every summer the wealthy population of Rio, the diplo- 
mats and even the Executive Chief of the nation go to^that citv. 




Petropolis. — The Municipal Prefects Palace 



But it is not only on that account that Petropolis deserves the 
importance it enjoys among- the cities of the Rio State. It is also a 
pet in picturesqueness and construction. A very mild small river 
runs in curves like a serpent thi'ough the interior of the city and over 
it, are to be found many wooden and iron bridges, which contribute 
in a large measure to embellish the gracious physiognomy of the city. 
On the other hand, the wide and straight streets, with their rows of 
magnolias, ever blooming, light but magnificent buildings , palaces 
of varied ai'chitecture, form a beautiful panorama not to be found 
in any other city. 

The climate is charming. In winter it reminds one of Europe, 
it is quite, cold, and cold weather may be hated in England or Ame- 
rica, but is adored in tropical countries. 

The streets and public squares are illuminated by electric lights, 
incandescent lamps. There is an abundance of cabs and carriages to 
be hired in the streets, and a tramway company is about to be orga- 
nized to run street cars by electricity. 



— 360 — 

Everytliing- that a modern city may wish is there : telegraph, 
ne\NSj)apers , hotels, theatre, libraries, telephones. And better, 
there is an elegant society of what there is best in diplomatic and 
political circles in the Capital. 

Two railways connect this small paradize with the Capital of the 
Republic, and two other cities of the Rio State. In the suburbs of 
Petropolis are factories, threading, cotton and silk dairies, brewe- 
ries, etc. 

One season in the year, the rainy season, is monotonous and tire- 
some to be spent in Petropolis. The largest part of moneyed people 
who visit it, run away in a hurry at the first tidings of that season, 




Nova Fribui'go. — General view^of the Aucliieta Collegiu 



the winter. But , when the real summer begins, it is nice to see the 
life that day by day the streets of Petropolis acquire. TiUrge number 
of Rio families depart from Rio, to install themselves in the palaces 
and many hotels and boarding houses in the city until then aban- 
doned. Others, the merchants and capitalists, go up every evening 
to sleep there, only to return in the morning to Rio to engage them- 
selves in their daily labors. 

Petropolis has 40.000 inhabitants witli its suburbs. It is in the 
northern side of the mountains whicli incline themselves mildly 
towards the Parahyba valley. 

In its i)i'ivate l)iiildings we immediately note the predoniiiianci' 
of beauty and comfort of the aristocratic cities, tliough there arc also 
many Iminblc belonging to the first inhabitants of the colony. 

Among the public buildings there are some beautiful ones, it 
suffices to cite the City Hall, the best in the whole State, both on 
account of its si/e and stvlish architecture. 



— :iBi — 

Nova Fribukgo. — Or simply Kril)iir<;() is u city very iiiiicli like 
Petropolis as to its relations witli Kio. It is built in the noi-tlicrn 
inclination of the Mnr mountain in that part in whieli the mountain 
is known as Boa Vista (Fine View), allusion to Ihe horizon without 
rival that can be observed around it. 

It is not so new as Petropolis as it dates from ISI*.". 

Its Xova Friburg-o name originates from the faet of having- been 
founded by 1.700 Swisses belonging to a district of Switzerland 
named Friburg , who settled there that very year and stayed 
for many, many years, some abandoning the colony which little by 
little assimilated itself to the native element, and to-day is (piite a 



■W iX* ni^^^^^^^^T^^H^BSC^QSHBf 


i 






''§1 




. ,^| 




y/: 




jorMmbra^" 



Campos. — Quinze de Novembr street and Paraliyba river 

Brazilian city though many descendants from the settlers are still 
there. 

It lias not that aristocratic aspect of Petropolis, neither has it 
developed as much, but it has a beautiful climate, perhaps superior 
to the one of that city, as well as a natural circumstance highly 
pleasant, to which the country life of the suburbs give an exquisite 
relief. A railway and an audacious one, from the point of view of 
construction, conquering the mountain in strongly accentuated 
inclinations, connects this city with Nictheroy. 

Campos, is situated on the banks of the Paraliyba river, which at 
this point has a width of over 300 metres, it is nine leagues from the 
coast, and is a part of the Campos dos Goytacazes municipium which 
is at the extreme North of the State of Rio de Janeiro. 

As its name is indicating, it is a municipium formed by a vast 
plain w^hich extends itself to S. Joao da Barra on the eastern side 



— M2 — 

and to the Atlantic, on the otlier side. On the western side the 
f>'i'ounds ai'e nioi'e or less liilly , in sonu^ i)hices even nioiiiiiaiuous . 
like all over the Mnrihe valley. 

Two leagues from the city and on the right bank ol' the rrni-uhy 
rivei', it can be seen rising-, solitary in this vast plain, called hy the 
natives Goytaconiopi, that is, ('anii)os das Delicias (Delices field) the 
large hill Itaoca. 

The city ol" Campos has an extension ol' nearly three kilometres 
in front of the Parahyba river, and about two kilometres towards the 
interior. It has 3.680 houses, 38 streets, 8 public squares, and 
several lanes and cross streets. It is divided into two disti-icts. It 
was founded in 1()74 and elevated to the rank of eitv in is;;.". Its 




.,,..1 

Campos. — S. Salvador S(|iiarc 



level is (> '/•■ to 11 '/s metres above the sea and its poi)ulation ;!."). dOO 
inhabitants. 

it was th(! first of all Brazilian cities that adopted the electric 
light system of illumination and one of the first to adoi)t gas. Kven 
squares to-day it has these two systems of illumiualiou. 

The city presents a pretty aspect of neatness in the streets, some 
paved with stone blocks, other with irregular stones, its pul)lic 
squares hiuc fine; trees and some have even gai'dens. 

In S. Salvador scpiare is the beautiful i)uiltling of the City 
Jlall, one of tln^ Ix'st in the State, having at its right the Munici])al 
Ijibrary with ovei- ir).()(H) volumes, and the Xossa Senhora Mae dos 
Ilonieiis ha\ingat its lefl I lie lai'ge building of the ("ily Hospital 
where about 'J. 000 pat ients ai'c taken care of annually, some of t hem 
coming from the neighboring munieipiums, fr(un the States of Minas 



— 363 — 

and Espirito Santo ; the Grand ITotcl (i!asi)ar, the Post-Oltice, 
and other buildings. On the other side of tlie s(iuar(; is iIk- Matri/ 
eliurch, S. Salvador, the telegraph Station, the printing olTice ol" 
the Dinrio Popiihu-, a newspaper, and tlui beautiful buihling of the 
Associacao Commercial, several lawyers offices, etc. 

In a spot far away from the city , in tlie centre of spacious 
grounds, there is the Isolation Hospital, where those witli conta- 
gious diseases are kept. 




Campos. — Lyceum of Humanities and .Normal Sclio 



Besides a large number of grammar scliools kept by the State and 
municipality, private schools and night schools maintained by sever- 
al associations, as the Brazileira de Beneficencia, Uniao Artistica 
Benefieente, several mason lodges, the Macodronio Club, Working- 
men Centre and others, the city has three good institutes of learning 
rendering important services to public instruction and the population 
receiving it. They are : — the Lyceu de Humanidades, with its course 
corresponding to the Xational Gymnasium one ; the Lyceum Bitten- 
court da Sylva, of Arts and Trades, installed in a beautiful building 



— fiCA — 

of its own, expressly l)uilt lor that })uii)()S(', the beautiful arehitee- 
tui-e, and solidity of which presented a fine palace, where day and 
ni<;ht were classes, for both sexes, much frecpiented, and the Normal 
College insalled with the Lyeeu de llunianidades in the palace 
situated in the Pinheiro square. Each one of these three institutes 
has a fre(|uentati()n of over KK) students. 

Campos is a commei-cial and industrial centre of great movement 
and impoi-tance. There are in it two banking-houses: «o Banco Com- 
mercial H,ypotliecaiio de Campos » and the « Caixa Depositaria de 
Campos,)) a Commercial Association, three good hotels, many otheis 




('■;iiii|i()S. — Wiitcr reservoir 



of smaller importance, manj^ restaurants and drinking places, four 
music bands societies, a gas company, an electric light one, sewage 
woi-ks, water works, a good street i-ailway service, animal traction, 
going to the suburbs, and telephonic service. 

The city of Campos has 15 catholic churches, a presbylerian and 
a baptist one, and tliree masonic lodges. 

Its public market is plentiful, abundant, with goods of all kinds. 
In the slaughter house, in the lower part and away fiom the city, on 
the banks of the Parahyba river, they kill the cattle needed for the 
consumi)tion of the i)opulation, undei" the inspectioTi of the Cii.\ Hall 
])hysicians. There is yel a llieatre with a capacity of SOU seats the 
S. Sal\ ador theat re. 

Tlii'cc newspajiers are piiUlished in ('ampos, liu' Moiiilor Cuiii- 
/w'.s/.-/ one ot t lie oldest i)apei's in l>ra/.il, will) <il years of uninter- 
rupted pubTK-ily, \\\v (iiizctii ilo Pova, with 'Jd years existence, and 
the J)iuii() I'opiihir, besides other i)eriodicals like the Conihiitc and 



3fi« — 



the Idcul, lliis latter being tlie organ of the students ol' Campos, and 
the Aurora a literary monthly magazine. 

There are live railway stations with daily ti-ains starting and 
arriving there. There is also a fluvial navigation company with 
boats and steamers running to S. h'idelis, and S. Joao da Barra on 
the Pai-ahyba river. There is a solid iron bridge o lo metres long, 
connecting the city with the northern territory where a new city is 
being I'ormed, or the present one extended to, in that half league 
that goes between. 

The municipium of Campos has 08 sugar-factories, some of very 
first order. 

Macahe. — In relation to the cities of the Brazilian sea-coast 
cities, this one is a modern one. It was a village on the •J'.uh of Xo- 
vembre 1813 and became a city by the provincial law n" 'MM of April 
15th, 1846. 

The geographical situation of Macahe is magnificent , at the 
mouth of the river of the same name, in front of the Atlantic, having 
a federal Custom House there. 

The city itself is not large , it has not over 800 houses, anil by 
the last census has but 7.000 inhabitants. It has no monument of 
importance or building worth mentioning. 

Its suburbs, however , are populated and its inhabitants arc 
industrious. In all they constitute a population of 40.000 inhabitants. 
The agricultiii'c industry exploited there is the sugar-cane. There arc 
many sugar-factories among which is the (^uissama steam factory 
one of the most important in the whole continent. 

Macahe has railways connecting it with the Capital and the city 
of CamjXJS. 

Pakahyha do Sul. — Like the majority of the cities of the Rio 
State, Parahyba do Sul is anew city. It was made a vilhigc l)y law of 
Januai-y 15th, 1883 and elevated to city by provincial hiw n" [*'>:>:'>, of 
the L'Oth of December 1891. The population of the whole municipium, 
accoi-ding to the census taken in 181>0 was 27.351 .inhabitants, but, 
the city itself, has not over 9. 000 inhabitants in the three districts 
of Paiahyba do Sul, Braz and Kntrc Rios. 

Barka do riiiAiiv. — Is one of the cities witli Itcttcr funirc in tlic 
Rio (h; .liuuui'o State, not only becausi' it is the scat of an active 
and inilustrious municipium, but because of its comnuinication faci- 
lities with the Capital of tlu^ Rei)ublic as well as S. I'aulo and Miiias 
Slates. 

Barra do IMi-aliy was cli'valcd to the i-auk ofcit_\an(l scat of the 



— 367 — 

(lisirict by decree oi" the KKli of March l.S'.iO. TIic ciiy is hiiili in a 
naiTow valh'v cinbrucino- the I*irali\' and Paraliyl)a ihai iiicci ilirro. 
'Iliere are live bi-idges, three metal and two wocxh-ii ()n(;s. It is the 
most important phice on the line of (\;ntral of ISra/.il railway as all 
the lar<4e Minas and S. I'aiilo raiiiilicat ions arc crossin-^- tli(;re. 
Besides these railway lines there arc the works and main station 
of the Estrada de Ferro Sapncahy. 

The first house of this city was bnili in bs:,;; and the inan<;ura- 
tion of the Central Railway station (then Pedro II railway) took 
place on August 7th. 186 1. The City Hall is a large neat building. 

In this city are the barracks of the 2nd division of the ('ivil Po- 
lice of the State with 400 men under the command of a major. 

The commerce of Barra do Pirahy is active and in a relative large 
scale and tliei'e are also several industrial establishments : Xear 
the city is an important sugar-factory « Engenho Central Rio 
Bonito, » which at present is stopped. Within the city of Barra 
do Pirahy is a large machine shop for the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements, a sugar-factory, two lime ones, four tobacco 
works, a large distillery, a large leather tanning establishment, and 
others. Mendes, whicli is the most prosperous district of Barra do 
Pirahy has some of the most important industrial establishments of 
the State : The large Teutonia, de Preisse, Haussler & Co. brewery; 
the Companhia Itacolomy and a paper-factory directed by Dr. Felicio 
dos Santos. 

The Mendes district is becoming the refuge of the wealthy ])opu- 
lation of Rio. It is illuminated by electricity, has two newspapers, 
and is about to be separated ])olitically from Barra do Pirahy, to 
form an independent city. 

Among- the w orks of art worthy of note in Barra do Pirahy, 
we w^ill mention a metallic bridge 250 metres long, across the Para- 
liyba river, built in 1903 by the Estrada de Ferro Sapucahy. 

Rezexde. — Another interior city connected to the Capital of the 
Republic by the central of Brazil railway. It is dominated l)y the 
upper part of it called Mantiqueira. This is a coffee district, and 
prospers when that agricultural industry also prospers, and falls 
when the latter falls. It extends itself on the right bank of the Para- 
hyba river, on top of three hills, each one with a church, — Matriz, 
Rozario and Passos. — The panorama displayed before the eyes of 
the observer is one of the most beautiful in the whole . country. 
On the left bank of the river and in front of the city, are the 
Eliseos fields, where is the E. de F. Central of Brazil, connected 
with the city by a bridge. It comprises the parishes of Xossa 



— 36« — 

Senhora da Conceieao, S. Josr do Campo Bcllo, Bom Jesus do 
Ribeii'ao do Sant' Anna, Santo Antonio da Vavgem (irande and 
S, Vicente I''(;ri-(M'. 

Rezendc; lias no less tlian Id. <»()() inhabitants. It has two newsjja- 
pei-s and al)ont 2.000 liouses. 

Rezende has developed of late cattle raising- and the dairy indus- 
ti-ies. The farms of this mimicipinm are already sending cheese and 
butter to the Rio de Janeiro market. The budget of this district is 




\;iss(iiir;is. — \ icw nT ,i |i;ii'I of Ihc ril\ and llic BMi'fin i\t' .\iii|i;ir(i |i;iik 



11."): llS.^OOii from all sources of revenue, and the expenses ni'c equi- 
\alent to that. 

N'assoi KAs. — ()eeui)ies an intei'niediary location between the 
l*arali\l)a \ alley and mountains. It was foi-iiierly iiuieh more pros- 
perous than it is to-day. And considering its churches and l)uildings 
thatliiK^ its streets, the new comei' understands at once that N'asson- 
ras is a city that ])romised a good deal more than wher aceomi)lished. 
Il was (^'cclc'd in l.s;!:{ and was progressing so much that two years 
later, in 18;{r>, anothei- d(!ci-ee nuide it head of the district. \vi only 
was made a city in 1.S57. It has a p()i)ulat ion of TJ.OOO inhabitants. 



— 3GJ) — 

more or less. Tlie census of 1900 gave it '.ijiiiO, hcinn l.'.Q; uuilcs an. I 
4.710 females. 

Though it has lost mui-h ol" its opulence ol' o1(1(mi tim(;s, \assonras 
is yet one of the i)retticst cities of the Uio Stale. A short i-aihvay 
owned hy the municipality connects it willi the main line of the Cen- 
tral of Brazil railway which runs five kilometres away from this 
city. 'J'wo railways cross this muni(;ipium, benefiting a good deal 
Vassouras city. They are the « Central of Brazil Ifailway » and the 
« ^felhoramentos do Brazil ». 

The cultivation of this region is : coffee, sugar cane, tabacco 
and gi-ain. There is also a large matches-factory Serra do .]/;*rowned 
by Dr. Aarao Reis. There are two newspapers in the city : O Muni- 
cipio and the Vaasoiirense. 

The city is surrounded by farms, mostly coffee plantations. The 
budget shows a revenue of lll:555s000 3'^earl3\ 

* 
* * 

Barm Maiisa, a pretty city, Valenca Cantagallo, Paraty, Saqiia- 
lema, S. Joao Marcos, Capivary, Rio Claro, etc. are so many other 
cities about which we would like to write. Each one of them has 
something worthy writing about. It is impossibe, however, to enter 
into so many details and we will stop here as far as cities of the Rio 
State are concerned. 

As to the villages, many of them are as important as some of the 
cities, others are still progressing and developing, promising to be- 
come soon large centres of activity and commerce. 

Rio de Janeiro is one of the most noted and most cultured of the 
States of Brazil, but, owing to the sudden depression in the prices 
of its main export products — coffee and sugar — it has crossed a 
crisis these last few years, exposed to hori-ible contingencies of 
financial anormal violences. The last thi'ee years however has consi- 
derablv bettered its conditions. 



THE FEDERAL CAPITAL 



A tract of the State of Rio territory located l)etween two gigantic 
bays, — Angra dos Reis and Guanabara, — ever since the eighteenth 
century, has been the seat of the nation's government, with the 
name of — Municipio Xeutro (Neuter Municipium), — and, after the 



— 370 — 

Republic — Districto Fodeial (Federal District). Foi- the geography, 
however, it was, it is, and always will be known, as — IJio de Ja- 
neiro. 

Those who, coming down IVoin the Xoi'th, direct themselves to 
Guanabara bay, as soon as they leave behind Ponta Xcgra and Cubo 
Frio, which are GO miles away from Rio de Janeiro, will see at a 
short distance from the coast, always lofty and pictiirescpie, a series 
of islands, scattered here and there", some roun<l , some (piite bare, 
and others covered with green woods looking like floating forests. 




Dos Mincirds and Alliindcsi;! (iiuiys 



Two of them especially, attract very much the travellers' atten- 
tion : one, is Ilhu Rnzu (Flat Island), a large, flat rock, as its name 
indicates, divided into two lobules with an electric light-house built 
upon it , displaying a red and white light . 'I'lie other, is I'.sculnudu 
(arid-sterile) , located at the west side of Raza Island, a very small 
spherelike island, some six or seven meti-e high, with no vegeta- 
tion, what justifies its name. 

The Ra/.a Island is very mucli likeil l)y the passengers going to 
Rio, as it is the first landmark showing its entrance, and its light- 
house, the first sign of the civilisation that flourishes near by in the 
grand organism of tlie city. 

When the i)assengcr comes nearer the entrance of the bay, from 
board the steamer he sees, on the right, a series of dark mountains, 
coming towards the sea: it is the Itaypu point lined 1)\- ;i pretty group 
of little islands, known as ///;.( ilo l';ic and Illi;i thi M'lc ( l-'athcr 
Island and Mothei- Islaiulj. 



On the left, beyond, where the horizon is, \vriii)ped in deep blue, 
rises the phantastic figure of Gavea, with its liald head, constituted 
by a mass of polished rock. This strange profile of niountain will 
never more be effaced from the memory of the traveller, once he 
has set his eyes upon it. 

Further beyond, is the blunt peak of the Andarahy, of a soiiiI)rc 
blue. Then towards the interior, the Corcovado needle, that stonv 
line, here of naked i-ock , there covered with vegetation, accouii)u- 



y 




Hio. — Simla Ijizia cliiircli and plain. 



nies the coast as a lively guard in the contortions of a cataclysm 
that might have shaken everything, bringing up the mountain roots, 
giving life to the i-ocks and tlu^ woods. Indeed, the wliolc seems a 
lively one. One would say that everything is dancing before that 
infinite light i)Oured everywhere. The steamer is getting neariM- and 
the landscapes transform themselves. Nobody can conti'niplalc this 
scenery without being wrapped by the unlimited grandeur of tlic 
whoh' panorauia. None of tlu^ great writers or aiiists, natioiuil or fo- 
reigner, who have appreciated this unctiualled speiMai'le of tlie Uio 
entrance has been able to describe it cithci- with liis pen or his 
l)i'iish. 

.\t tlic hottoMi (»r those colossal uioiiutaiiis. ahiug slioi'c, there we 
se(! spread out light plains, uiore or less lexclled. whicli eiul in 
l)eauliful sea-shores, sonu'tiuies eoNcred with rocks souielinies willi 
S1U)W white sand. On the left is (uu- of those heaelies, ( 'opaealiaua , 



— 373 — 

wliic'li is already the beginnino- of the city, because Rio is a city 
tliat spreads itself out with districts all over, some towards the sea, 
others towards the curves, coiitemplatin<;- Xictheroj' on tlie other 
side of the bay, towards Caju, others towards the hills and still 
others accompanying the valley that lines the Central of Hi-a/il l{ail- 
way road, as if the whole Capital were pursuing tliem. Cpon a 
small light green rock, is the little white chapel Xossa Scnliora da 
Copacabana. On the beach a row of summer residences witli roofs 
covered with new tiles is seen in a beautiful display. And hardly 
we leave behind this flying landscape, and the Cotiindiibn island, 
then we sec on the left the great monolith , the PTio do Assiicur 




Rio. — General Osorio's statue 



(sugarloaf), enormous, conic shaped, isolated rock, which celebrates 

the interior sea-entrance of the bay, with its projection covering 

the channel's mouth. 

Looking at it one seems to hear the poet's voice when he referred 

to it in these verses : 

Audiiz colosso, 

Rolnisto veliulor, que no longe assombrn 

Os genios do oceaiio, e brada ao mnndo : 

— Em iiome do direito e da Jiisti(;a, 

Podeis entrar no teiuplo do fiituro, 

Sacrificar ao Deiis da liberdade ! 

(Daring colossus, strong watcher, that from afar frightens the Ocean's geniuses, and 
cries out to the whole world : — In nauie of Law and .Justice, you can enter the temple of 
tiie future, to sacrifice the God of Liberty !) 



— 374 — 

On the other side, the continental hand, extending- itself just like 
a peninsula, advanees as if to meet the Pao do Assucar rock and 
S. Joiio hill, forming- a kind of step to them. There, the seals nothing- 
but a nanow corridor, walled on both sides bv rough rocks. This 
strategic passage was modified by the building of foi-tresses on 
both sides. In spite of all, the corridor is dominated, Iroin the insi- 
de, by a colossal rock, llic Lagc Tortress. roofed witli steel, and 
walled with steel like an armoured slii]), \\ ith open si)accs here and 
there, through which the gun mouths watch as jif they were so many 
attentive eves. 




\\\i 



riir ('.;illii>(li':il nriil (Id (liii'iiin ('.liiirih 



Passing those narrows, on the right with llie Imbuhy and Santa 
Cruz fortresses, and on the left the S. Joao and MalU't ones, and, 
following- the channel, between Santa Cruz and Lage, tlu-ic we li:i\c 
the (iiianabara bay. On one side, at the West the grand Capital, not 
the whole in a lump, but in i)iei'es, appearing behind the curves of 
the sea-shoi-c and green hills. Only one ])art of it, the one lining 
the jxx'lical ciii-vcs of Hotafogo, Uussel and l-'lamcngo appc;ns in 
sight. 

Jn front, on the cast side, wc sec .1 iiniiiilia where is the llospit:d 
foi' epid(Mnic diseases. Aftei- that is the ehai-iiiiiig l»e;ieh ol lear;diy 
with its eelel)r;ite(| I'oeks, and riiilher alieatl is Nielheniy, the pretty 



— 375 



Capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro, lookin<;- towards Ihc oM pa,! 
of the metropolis. 

Between the two cities, but nearer Kio is a liltle island Willc^rai- 
gnon, Avhich is to-day the sailors barracks, and in 1555 was tln^ ini- 
tiation of the city when the daring filibuster, wbich gave it the 
name planted there the seed of the first seat of the city. 

The aspect of that anchorage place is charming for the new 
beauty of its perspectives, for the harmonious tone of the colouring, 
for the variety of the contrasts in the horizon outline. 

E. Reclus speaking of tliat beautiful spot which he visited, said : 



I 






.. M « J 






— ;»"Ul<!«llli.Wl|*jJlF 




Hio. — S. Pedro dc Alc:mlar;i Tlicalro 



« When the weather is fine, winni the abundant sunlight con- 
trasted by the shadow^s, illuminates under different forms and with 
changing hues the rocks, the grass and the woods, when successive 
plans becoming bluish by the distance, project themselves upon the 
blue horizon of the interior hills, as the Estrella hill and the row of 
obelises of the Orgaos ridge of mountains, the massive Rio offers a 
charming panorama by the beauty of the colouring and the indefinite 
diversity of aspects. When, notwithstanding is a heavy gray lead- 
like skj^ isolating the group of hills in front, and the clouds or the 
showers hiding the pointed pyramids, the walls in the horizon farther 
away, the landscape assumes the appearance of the polar i-egions : 
it looks to the observer as if he were approaching a Desolation 



— 370 - 

island, as in the Groonlander arcliipelaoocs or in Fire Land and 
asks liinisclf, liow is it that men conhl found in such a phice a hirge 
city like that, one of tlie most chui'niiiii;- of tlic X'liiverse. » 




Kid. — Fniiil ol' the ni'iij.'iinin ('.nnslant insliliilc 

Quite often on winter-mornings the foi;- tliat sh)\vly goes up 
forms tliiek sheets white at tlie basis and only sombre at the top, 
away up, detached from the e\en bottom of the sky. «;ivin»;' the idea 
of an inexplicable, subversion of all physical laws. On othei- occa- 
sions, the upper })oints disappear under a mass of heaxy fogs, and 




Itiii. — IriT.iic 111 I'.isscici I'uliliiii 



tlic iiili;il)it;iiils of the city, liial look to liic 'rijuc;! Iiill as if it were 
a Itaroiiicl re, say : 'rijiica has its caj) on, it is goiug to rain... And 
ill fact w lieu thai Iiappnis, it rains. 



— 377 — 

But normally the light i)rcvails, in all its toi-cc, showing llic 
pretty colouring of the vai-ions plans of the bay side, the ti-anspa- 
rence and brightness ol' everything, the bluish ether making mil- 
der and more poetical those rocks, and the woods whi( h drown 
their depressions and dress their bodies. 

The passenger steamers anchor a little nearer the city (piay, 
between a place called Poco (well), whei'e the Brazilian men-ot'-war 
are, and a small island in front of the Cnstom-IIouse and on which 
they erected a beaut iiul Iniilding of gothic style \\ Inch is used as tlie 
l)arracks or quarters of the Custom-House inspectors and is thus 
called Fiscal Island. It is a most pretty building. 




i'.io. 



Initial slalioii of liic ('.ciilral of lira/.ii Itailwav 



The space between tliat island and Ponta do Caju is completely 
taken uj) by ships of all nationalities , of all kinds , from the 
smallest vessels to the largest steamers, some coming and just 
anchoring, others preparing to sail and among them a numberless 
lot of lighters, tow-boats and launches, some propelled by steam, 
others, by gazoline and others even b^' kerosene, sailing here and 
there, some noiseless, some whistling and all with their flags aft. 

By the quay, alongside the wooden bridges a number of small 
steamers and sailing ships receive from the storage houses large 
quantities of coffee to be transported to Europe and the United 
States, and the thousand varieties of industries, the surplus of the 
metropolis commerce going to the coast ports. 

The forest of masts, chimneys, the stretched ropes, the noise of 



— 378 — 

voices of tlie hoisting' machinery, of steamship whistles, give to that 
part of the bay a characteristic feature. Indeed it is quite a contrast 
witli the vastness and profound silence of the waters elsewhere. 

l^ut it is not only the Rio de Janeiro, or Guanabara bay, that 
we see here, nor even only tjiat circle blue and wide which the 
steamboats take one liour to cross in its shortest dianietrc. 

Farther away from tliis part of the Capital and lllia das Coljras 
(snake island), is an intei-ior sea wide open, deep and pacific, w ith 











..'.i0§. 








/■•* 






.-^^^1 






-^ _a^M 






■|^H 


_ 




m 




.^A 










A 


^ 





-- c: 



Hill. — I'cdcriil Oapilal : Sca-shon' of l.ciiii' 



numerous small Ijiit charming islands , some poi)tdatcd , others 
occui)ied as commercial, storage places, others nvo industrial esta- 
blishments, souH^ small, sonu* as lai'gc as half of sonic kingdoms. 

'^rhe t(>rrit(»ry lorming the curved contour lines of this colossal 
gulph, the most hcautifid of all in this j)lanet, is the most important 
of all Hi'a/il as to the density of })o|)nlalion and iuimi)ei- ami variety 
of establishments. 

We will i'(!vie\\, however, only that part near t he gnlpli on the 
west side. 



— 379 — 

There we see the i)riiu*ipal military and civilian establishiiKmts 
of Brazil, the lai-gest factories, ship-yards, dry-docks, stora«>-c-liou- 
ses, the most earncsl coinmci-cial and iiidiislrial activit\- of the 
conntry. 

The Capitallias long ago overrun the limits with wliicli it was 
i'onnd by the time ol' Brazil's independence. The old part of it I'ornis 
one single district, and compared with the pi-esenl area of the city 
is just like the seed is towards the fruit. 




Ilio. 



Staluo of I). Pedro I. 



Considered by its frontier the city of Rio wonld be one of the lar- 
gest cities in the world. But we must allow for the enormous spaces 
that Santa Thereza, Corcovado and other hills occupy within its area. 

The buildings and the districts have been spread out in an hazar- 
dous way, through these accidencies of the soil. Some of the hills 
have been pulled down as the Senado one, others will be in future, 
but some never will be, and thus the city will keep on, filling with 
streets and new buildings, the large empty spaces uniting with hou- 



— 380 — 

ses the (liffcrciit disti-iets now only connoctcd by the street railway 
lines. 

W'liocver ^vishes to judge Rio l)y llie architectural \aliic of its 
buildings will not do it justiee, liio representing, as it does, such a 
large citw The greatest efforts of nmn in this metropolis have not 
been devoted to embellish tlie eity, but in preparing its foundation, 
if N\ (' may say so. AA'hat has been done in ojjenings, filling up. level- 
lings, has been gi'eat work. Millions of cubic metres of earth ha\ c 
been taken away from the hills. 

The extensive ])lain called Praia Formosa, \'illa ( Juaraiiy. etc. 




1 



Itio. — (Jiiiiize (Ic Novoiiil)!'!) S(|u;ii-i' aiid Itojinl nf Ti'.-idc liiiildiiii' 



is the work of an enterprise. There was the sea, small little islands, 
the names of which can still be seen on tlu' maps : ilha dos Meloes 
(Melons island), ilha das Mocas (\'oung girls islandi , eti*. Among 
othei's there were the marshy grounds of the Campo da Acclamacao. 
l''orMierly washerwomen were seen there , just in the sauu' place 
whci-e to-day is tlu; beautiful park with its artistii- grotio, little 
lakes, etc. 

The city in bS^-J had only ll.tHK) houses; in IS,")!) hail Ki.lKM); in 
l.SC.I had Jl.oOO; in ISSOhad ."O.OOO and to-day has about Sl.OOO. 

TIktc is not lung special to say about the imildiugs of Kiode 
.lancii-o. The houses of tlu^ new districts are couifortahlc, souu' of 
them of elegant architiu'ture and surrounded by gardens, hut those 
of the coiuuu'rcial districts, have only very slowly in'cn undeigoing 
some modificat i(»n , and if in one street oi' other appear some 



— :{!{! — 

nice buidiiigs, the niajoi-ity of IIkmii is an awl'iil sij^lit , iciniiMliii^ 
anti(inity, without any taste as to its oi-namcntation oi- arcliitecture. 

Tlie main hmdino' place is tlio Pliaronx (luay, which the nuinici- 
l)ality has now transl'ormed into a beauliiul and hir^c sciiiarc, willi a 
pretty garden, and a hii'ge bronze fountain. 

This square has as a pi-oh)n<>ati()n of it another smalhu- s(piai-(', 
where is at one side the Okl Court of the; Kinp(M-oi', to-(hiy trans- 
formed into the teh^gra])h (hipartmcMit. In the ('(;nti'e of tiie garden 




Rio. 



Seiiailur Daiilas Street 



of this smaller square is General Osorio's statue, beautiful work 
in bronze made by Bernardelli witli pretty lo\v relief at the basis. 

This square leads to Primeiro de Mareo Street, one of the main 
thoroughfares of Rio. There are some fine buildings in this street : 
the Exchange Building, the Post Office, the Banco do (\)mmer('io, 
the Supreme Court, and several other business and private houses. 
The transit both of carriages and trucks as well as of foot-paths in 
this street is vei-y lively. 



— :IR2 — 

It is from tliis wide but uneven street that start other narrow 
cross-streets lined with tall buildings, paved with stone blocks, 
filled with dust because of the lively transit. They all run towards 
the centre of the main part of the city, where is one of tlie finest 
parks of South Anun-ioa. 

Of all these cross-streets one, that is a regular thoroughfare, is 
tlie Ouvidor Street. This street is a deception to the visitois coming 
from tlie different i)rovinces of Brazil and who heard so much 
about it. 




Iii( 



l'"i'()iil (d' Ilic (i()ii(;il\t'.s dc Araiijo Asxlnin. in ('.;iin|Mi di' S, ('.lirislii\fii 



If you have never been in Rio, just imagine a street 6 '/.■ metres 
wide, beginning at the Quay and ending at S. Francisco Square, 
whci'e .lose Honifacio's statue is. The street looks just like a coi'ri- 
dor, lined with large and uneven buildings, some sjileinlid ones, 
otluu's of the worst kind, keeping in mind colonial architecture. The 
latter are fortunately in small number. The pavement is good, in the 
(•('Ml re paving stones, in the side-walks coloui-ed mosaic. Owing to llu> 
excessive transit and the narrowness of tlie sticets-earriages and 
horseback riders are not allowed to go thiough. Mxcrv luuise in this 
street has in its ground fhx)!' a store of sonu' kind and in the sliow 
windows are t he most \ aried disphiys of speci mens of national and 
foreign indiistrv. Tlie best tailoi's, dress-makers, jewelers, hi'ic-a- 
brac dealers, the; most luxurious stores of the town arc there. This 



— 383 — 



sireet is the rcndez-oous phu'c lor the high-life, the unemph)yed, the 
idlers, the politicians, the adventurers, the lawyei-s, the college hoys, 
all that floating- class that is the live foam of the large cities. 

This is one of the llio curiosities, tlie most (ixcpiisilc, tlic most 




iiio. — rill' Post Ollic'C ;iii(l Km-Ikiiii'c niiildiiii. 



individualised curiosity of Rio de Janeiro. To go there and not know 
Rua do Ouvidor, is impossible. 

Another thing that gives Ouvidor an exquisite feature is the 
Cafe. These houses devoted to the sale of demi-tasses of black coffee 
spread all over Brazil, in every city, occupy many ground floors in 
this street and here, more than anywhere else, they are a place of 
meeting and conversation. 



— 384 — 

To (•()nii)lele the noise of the street there ai'e tlie Music stores, 
where tliey try a piano every iniuute, there are tlie phonograpli sto- 
res, the bar-rooms with orchestra, and thus this all contributes to 
that noise of the streets that voices and laughs heard Ironi all sides, 
Iroin tlie crowds standing and chatting at the corners, and lioiu the 
lively tiiinsients who walk uj) and down the street. 

'I'he Ouvidor Street is also tin; forced witness of the stunqj-spca- 




Uio. — Town Hall 



kers, at the meetings, military i)arades, carnival feasts, rt'ligi»)ns 
demonstrations, etc. 

The first liini; we ci-ossi'd that strci't , some twelve years 
ago, we had just arrived from the province, and it causcil a deep 
im])ression in onr mind of shame and discouragement. And we 
nnch'islood llial lliere was a good deal to be done , for t he count ry 
to gel rid of (hose colonial buildings, and thai l»ack\\ards ai'tistic 
stat(; in which the eighteenth century h'ft il. W f understood the 
general abandonment of the old ilynasty ai the hour of its fall, by the 



— HKr, 



energetic necessity acting upon t\w. race, necessity ol" going ahead, 
of progressing, doing away with a system tliat was hringing IJi-azi- 
lians up accustomed to the contemplation ol" tliose antiquities, to 
teach democracy which is knocking tlie crowds one against the otlier. 




Ex-Presi(loiit Hodrigiies Alves (1902-1900) wlio inilialcd liic Ilio do Janeiro improvomoiils 



The Ouvidor Street we heard of in our native town, was indeed 
that narrow street lined with cohniial times buildings, heavy, filled 
with dust, insignificant both as to style and comfort. It was a decep- 
tion , an enormous deception ! 

A few years afterwards , in spite of the bad administration the 



— 386 



street was greatlj' modilied with some stone and marble buildings 
substituting the old colonial ones. 

The old district of the city, to-day entirelj" occupied by business 
houses, which give it the appeai-ance of a colossal bazaar, with all 



1 


^jpi ^- -M:' 




^^^ 


^H s^ ''.^^^^^^^Ir^^-^i 




^HH^^H 


B^^^^^-^. . 
















M/t/caric' 


^ 


« 



h' l'crcir;i l';iss(is, I'lclcel iif itin (Ic .l;iiii'iiii 



kinds of goods, cnibraces the centre shores from tlic Cnstoin House 
to llic cxtrcnic end of (jiaml)oa. 

Sonic raniifical ions of llic cily liavc I'Xtcndcd ronsidci-ahly, I'ni- 
l)racing areas in far awaN' phiccs, ai'ounil the interior hills antl the 
shores that line a stretch of the beautiful bav. 'The districts settled 



— B88 — 

in those curves are incomparable as to their bright beauty, ample open 
air, and they have in that transmarine picture, always moving, always 
new, an enjoj^ment as nowhere else can be had. With electric tram- 
way service the wealthy part of the population is transported to and 
from the new districts of the modern Capital, (ienerally the streets 
the cars go through are lined with fine houses with gardens. One of 
those shores, appreciated both by the natives and foreigners is the 
absolutely geometric curve dominated by two small hills at each one 




Kid. — 'I'lic .\.ili(iti;il I'riiHiiiy (Mlicc 



of till', e\t remit ics of tlu^ line. Tt is Botafogo. It is under the projec- 
tion of tlu; Corcovado hill, that sluixMulons rock, tlark gi'cy, dressed 
in rich vc^gef ;i( ion which wraps certain part of it , lea\ing hare (he 
soiilhern prism. 

Many of the newly arrived woiihl not hejieve that Hra/.ilian 
engineering shoiihl iia\(' dared to hiiihl a ph'asiii-e railway going u|) 
to 700 metres higli. 

Seen from one of tlie sides of the eiiive fornu'd hv the liav, the 



— 389 — 

perspective of Botafogo is splendid, nuifvellous; I he I»;"i() do Assucar 
lii 11 seems to take the entrance of the small little gulpli , pcrfccdy 
calm, as a piece of crystal, as. a polished emerald. At Uh; basis 
of this is a rose colour building of large proportions , half hidden 
— it is the Military College built between two blocks of th(^ group 
of rocks. On the opposite side is the original profile of Gavea. 

The Botafogo bay is lined by a beautiful avenue which extends 
itself full length with three different roads nicely i)avcd with pretty 
grass lawns and flower beds between and lining the street side and 
brightly illuminated with different rows of arc-lights. It is no doubt 
a charming shore, the prettiest public gai-den that could be ima- 
gined. 

But the population do not seem satisfied, they keep on multijjly- 
ing the fine mansions, the summer residences, and they are trans- 
forming the lands alongside the Leme, Copacabana and Ii)anema bea- 
ches into a large city, a beautiful summer resort. They have already 
good hotels, telephone, telegraph, gas, all conveniences to make it a 
comfortable place and the electric railway, trolley system, connects 
these three places, that look only one city, with tlie heart of Rio. 

While this prolongation of the city or formation of a new city in 
itself is being operated, the same is happening on the other side of 
the city alongside the road of the Central of Brazil Railway, each 
one of those nucleus formed being well worth the name of city. 

Large squares with gardens are reserving for the breathing of 
the great organism of the city, large open tracts of land, but not 
satisfied with their s^^ace, they have gone up the hills. 

These squares are not in so large a number as one would think 
considering the broad space of the city. Some of them, however, 
with their sizes and beauty, compensate well the shortness of the 
number. We will cite Dnque de Caxias square, in front of one of the 
finest churches of Rio. This one is not so extra large, but has a real 
beautiful garden, and in the centre of it, the Statue of Duque de 
Caxias on horseback, a bronze statue which speaks highly for the 
artistic work of the Brazilians. 

The Tiradentes Square, formerly called Rocio, is a small but 
pretty garden with a bronze statue of the first Emperor of Brazil 
which is a great work of art. 

The Passeio Publico is the most delicious place in Rio, for the 
beautifulness of the landscape having the pretty flowers on one side 
offering the sweet fragrance of their scent, and the sea on the other 
side leaving wide open room to blow over the fresh breeze. It has 
a fine terrace looking towards the bay. In the garden are good 



— 390 — 

specimens of a variety of trees, and some spots of it look like regular 
woods. There are lakes also crossed by bridges, nice lawns, every- 
thing to make it perfectly delightful. 

But what must we say then of Jardim Botanico, (Botanical (Jar- 
den)? There is not a foreigner, a tourist, even if only in Rio the few 
hours the steamer is in the bay sailing on the same day , that 
does not try to go to the Botanical (Jarden. It is supported by the 
government for the purpose of liohtnicul Rcsatrclics and AcclinjiitH- 




Thc l>nl\lcclinic;il ScIk 



lion l'!.\j)criincnis. The admission is free, and tliert' is a lint' of the 
trolley cars that passes by the door of the Clarden, so that there is 
nothing uncomfortable in making the trip. As soon as we enter, Nve 
see l)eaulifiil sti-eets lined with tropical trees. 'IMie I'oxal palm-trees 
(ureal ohiuriu I axcnne whicli ci'osses the garden rioin lliegatein 
(lianH^lrieal line, is a picture that we cannot easily forget . and it is 
already well known all over by photography. 

Another s(puire where a garden was latt'ly laid out is tlu' On/c de 



— 391 — 

Junho Square, named afler tlie ranioiis naval l)at11(> f()ii<;li< on tluu 
day by tlie Imperial navy against Uruguay. It is situated at tlie 
end of the Mangue canal, which runs tliroiigli <niite a long sti-ctch 
of the new part of the city, lined by two straight avenues, nicely 
paved with a row of superb palm-trees. 

The most beautiful, however, is the Pra^;a da Republica, (Repu- 
blic Square), a wide square transformed into a park enclosed l)y 
elegant railing. The area of this park was nicely divided into small 
little woods, grass valleys, small little rivers with ai-tilicial tiny 
islands and dominated by artistic bridges. There is also a pretty 
grotto with a beautiful cascade, which constitutes an attractiou not 
common in public squares and gardens. Several thousands of speci- 
mens of South American phytology are represented there in groups, 
and spread out, making up a prodigious landscaping architecture. 

A little farther ahead from this park is the enormous main sta- 
tion of the Central of Brazil Railway wich connects the Capital of the 
Republic with three different States, crossing forty cities and having 
a yearly revenue, of 35.000:000$000. 

Several other railways — The Lcopoldina, the Mi'lhonimcntos, 
the Rio cVOiiro, etc. — start from Rio to the interior; none, howe- 
ver, has the great role that the Central of Brazil performs in the 
intercourse life of the Capital. This railway transports fourteen thou- 
sand passengers a year, between the city and the suburbs. The ex- 
treme ends of this railway are Bello-Horizonte and S. Paulo. Presi- 
dent Campos Salles ordered the construction of the road in the 
direction of Curvello and President Rodrigues Alves intended to go 
beyond, towards S. Fi-ancisco river valley. 

The districts where the maritime commerce concentrates, Saude, 
Sacco do Alferes , etc., are the ugliest of the Capital : tortuous 
streets, narrow, lined wdth old, ugly houses, filled with dust, grains 
of coffee, and the transit through them obstructed by heavy trucks, 
filled up with big piles of coffee bags , and the crowds frequenting 
these streets are of the worst class, but during the day those who 
make all the noise are the drivers and workmen who run about, 
cursing and punishing the poor animals in a brutish way. 

A strong odour of coffee, overpowers all others. The nice and 
neat electric tramcars that make travelling so comfortable in other 
districts could not be used through these streets. To go through them 
in a carriage couldn't be done without running risk. There is, howe- 



392 — 



ver, a line of liorsecars, narrow track (CP60 wide) running tlirougli 
this district. 

Those who never knew this aspect of Ilio life, these dirty but ac- 
tive and hard working- districts, that greatness of work and com- 




Hio. — New Biiildint'S : Court (if Jiistici* 



merce in one of the largest masses of contemporaneous wealth, will 
not see it any more, as this primitive part of the city is disappearing, 
thanks to the harbour works that the present administration has 
started. 

We love (he active cities, tlic. luird working districts as wc abhor 



— 39:? — 

the phuHis of idle peace, iiiul we have a iij;lil lo feel so, as — chuciui 
pent, a son gre, disposer de son lunc. — But, wa will never ieel any 
l()n<»in<>s for the dusty districts ol" »Sau(le, Sacco do All'er(!s and 
others. Let them pull down all those old buildings. 

In the same case ai'c the districts of Castcllo hill , Pinlo , Xhcco 
and other hills where; the lowest classes gather. These; liills oughl 
to be thrown down, not only for the horrible houses, but to allow 
some fresh air in the city. 








Capital Federal : The Municipal Tiieatre 

The transfiguration of the Brazilian metropolis, initiated by Pre- 
sident Rodrigues Alves, will be work for a long time, because Rio is 
enormous in size, and everj^thing is to be done, in order that it may 
become the Capital of Brazil as it deserves to be, and as Brazilians 
would like to see it : that is, a city with gardens, wide open ave- 
nues, parks, bay-side drives , taking full advantage of the magnifi- 
cent position it is in. 

Rio de Janeiro, like all the other cosmopolitan cities has not an 
accentuated physiognomy, uniform and distinct. It is a monstruous 



— 391- — 

agglomeration of aspects, a gathering of cities, formed by its enor- 
mous districts, some plain, some mountainous, some hidden among 
the hills, others exposed by the sea-shore , or isolated in islands 
spread here and there in the bay. All these districts are populated by 
heterogeneous inhabitants, arriving fi'om all the States in the Union 




i;i(i 



(.l;is 



windows (I 



Mini 



III lliiMln 



and every conn I ry in the world, s[)cakingall the huigiiagcs inuigiiuihU', 
In the moniiiig when the electric cars, that work without intci-- 
ruj)tion, day and night, anixc from the extreme ends of the city, — 
Ciavea, Ipancma, l.cnn', Ucal (Jranck^/a, Hotafogo, etc. at (Uie of tlic 
central points of the city, Carioca Square, and there i'mpt_\ that 



— ."{gr, 



crowd ol early workers, we see u eurious sight : mhm, of all Ivpes 
white, negroes, mulatoes, indians, Kurnprans, a most phantastic 
auxtnre, landing there, taking all di.vetions, .nainlv the coMunereial 
streets, Urnguayana, Gonealves Dias, Sete de Scteinbro. And this 
movement continues until ten or eleven. After that it slackens 




Rio. — Glass windows of the Munic-ipal Tlieatre 



a little , beginning anew in the afternoon ever since three 
o'clock. Then the morning performance begins but in the other 
direction. From the streets coming from the city and landing at 
Carioca scxuare, comes a constant crowd of men and women , 
native and foreigner, looking for the cars to take them home. The 



— 396 — 

news-boys add to the life ol" tlie scene crying out the afternoon })a- 
pers : the Tribunn and the Xoticiii. 

In another square not far away, San Francisco w hich is another 
terminus of tramway-cars running to other districts, the same sce- 
nes as the Carioca ones, are reproduced. To that point come and 
start tramways from and to 23 different lines, all belonging to the 
S. Cliristovao line, with 00 kilometres of extension. There they 
bring every morning thousands of passengers from all points : Tiju- 
ca, Fabrica, Uruguay, S. Cliristovao, S. Januario, Itapagipe, Ale- 
gria, Ponta do Cajii, Pedregulho, Catumby, etc. 

The beautiful Tiradentes Square offers the same picture and in 
about the same pi'oi^ortions. Another large street railway concern, 
the Villa Isabel, empties its cars in that square and there receives 
in the afternoon all that large crowd of workers, business men rich 
and poor, working men of all classes who come from their day's 
labour. Over the Santa Thereza hills is another tramway line, 
also an electric and trolley line passing over the ai-ches of an old 
a(]ueduct, thus the passengers while crossing it go over the city 
streets with the houses below in wide open view, and it is interest- 
ing to look at the people and carriages below looking like minia- 
tures. But as to scenery what there is of unexcelled in Rio and 
purely local is the ascencion to the Corcovado mountain, ^^'c hardly 
feel going up, so softly the tramway runs. This line is a fine piece of 
engineering, as we said abovf . 

Indeed Dr. Passos found a way to plan that road, the cai-s start- 
ing right from the basis of the hill, at the end of Larangeiras street, 
and going up to the needle point, where, from an iron pavillion 
we see the whole map of the city with its.boundary lines : the capri- 
cious mountains, the lakes, the red spots of the groups of buildings, 
cut through by the streets, the towers and domes, as the sentries of 
tlu; different districts, the forest of active chimneys, giving the only 
sensation of life of the wholes, and at last, framiug the conlnscd 
painting of the city, some far away bluish hues of the ridge of 
mountains, here, pointy-like towards the air, there, in sweet 
i-ounding form, but everything far away, undistinguishable and 
confounded into a sea of light, a blue lucid sea. 

But this is not the only belvedere of the city. There, iu the first 
j)lains of th(5 Tijuea mountains, are; parks, natural ones, woods never 
trod upon, fine roads open and nicely kei)t by the nuuiieipaliiy, 
grottoes, cascades, and splendid summer hotels. An electric i-oad 
starting from Urugiuiy street takes the passengers and lonrisls to 
the first plain of the hill. There, carriages can be hired to go further 



— :J97 



up. The spectacle of that mysterious forest is channing and <M)ni- 
peiisates the discomfort of the louo- trip. 



* 



Considering- its political importance Rio de Janeiro has few large 

buildings. 

The Cxovernment Palace which is also the residence of the Presi- 




Capital Federal - Cnstnicliua of ti.e Passos street 

dent is located in Cattete street. Though inside magnificently deco- 
rated, its exterior is severe, and excessively heavy. It was lormerly a 
private residence. Its park, however, is worthy of a kmg s palace. 

The House of Congress can hardly be called a palace. It is enougli 
to say that it was the old jail in the colonial times. The Senate build- 
ing is a little better, but is in quite a distant district from the one 

where the Congress building is. , , • i hl-p -ill the 

The Police Barracks is a good building but simple like all tue 

colonial buildings with plain walls. 



— 35)8 



There are, liowever, some i)ii])lic buildings noted l)y llieii- aielii- 
tectnral beauty and richness of material used. I cite, lor instance, 
the Supreme Court, in Primeii-o de Marco Street, wliicli T referred 
to above. It is a beautiful rose color stone and marble building, of 
sumptuous architecture, not only in the nvIioIc, but sum])tuoirs' in 




Hio. — l''()iinl;iiii ill ihr .1 Cloi'i.'i » C.irdcn 



the ornani.MitulioH d, -tails, l.olh of l)ron/c and .nari.lc. as well as in 
the internal d.M-or:itions wIhmv there ar<' good specimens ..f painliug 
and sculpt ui-e \voi-k. 

The Stock Kxehang.- near this building is also a jtalaee ..f im- 
porlane(^ It n\ as ph.niied by;, i{,a/iliau archili'ct. Dr. liittencourt 



— 400 — 

da Silva, and is of Italian style. It is one of the finest buildings in 
town. 

The Candelaria church, unfortunately located in the middle of 
narrow streets, is a place the visitor has to see. Externally it is like 
one of those old European churches with a majestic dome painted 
white to symboli/.e purity. It was planned and built by Evaristo da 
Veiga a Brazilian engineer. It dominates all the commercial part of 
the city. The three bronze doors with relief work are a true woi-k 
of art. Inside it is the richest church of Latin-America, is all dressed 
with marble and in its beautiful ceiling and wall paintings and 
decorations, worked during twenty years the best reputed Brazilian 
artists. 

The National Printing Office is another pretty building. — desi- 
gned by Paula Freitas, a Brazilian architect. The same can be said 
of the Public Works Department which is one of the best in the city. 
The new Medical College not yet finished in the Praia da Saudade, 
in front of Pao do Assucar hill, will do honor to the city both for its 
size and magnificent front looking to the street that separates the 
building from the sea. 

The Mint, large building in Praca da Uepublica, imposing front 
with columns and broad stony stairway. There are some fine bron/e 
ornamentations. 

The City Hospital at Santa Luzia shore is the largest of its kind 
in all South America. Its portic of stone, is of Greek style, and gives 
a noble appearance to that numotonous symetric building. To have 
an idea of the size of this hospital it is sufficient to read the follow- 
ing figures showing the movement in that institution during 1«.I02- 
1903 : 

On the Isl ol'.liily 1902 tiKM-o wcro 1. 188 i.aliciils. 

During llu; year, .Inly Isl '0210 .Inne ;30lli O:}, cntcri'd . . i:{.72<.» patienls. 

Left the hospital during the same year 10.000 |ialienls. 

Died (luring the same year 2. 8;>o patients. 

Kemain(!d in lli(> llospilal lieing treated on .Jurie.'Mlh 1!»0:{. 1.102 patients. 

Besides this main City Hosi)ital, maintained by a charitable 
organisation there are, also maintained by the same organisation, the 
Santa Maria and S. .loao Haptista hospitals, in Botafogo; Nossa 
Senhora da Saiidc hospifal , (Jamboa; Nossa Scnliora do Socorro 
li()si)ital, I'oiila do Caju; Nossa Senhora das Dores hospital, Casca- 
dura. 'IMie number of i)atients in these hospitals averages Hot), being 
:irA) in the Sande district, 120 in the S. .loao Hai)tista and the balance. 

in the In'ginning of l'.io:{ llic total number of patients in charge 



— U)-> — 

of the institution WHS l.<)70 not counting- those in tlie wiirds of the 
different asylums it maintains. 

Anotlier building- worth mentioning is tlie Military scliool, a fine 
specimen of archilectui-e, elegant, nicely decorated, but with general 
sober lines as it is fit in an educational institute like this. 

It is located in an awfully quiet district, right at the side of the 
Babilonia hill which seems to frame it. 

Another place worthy of a visit is the old Emperor's Court at 




llio. — The .Mililiirv sriii 



S. Christovno, in tlic disti'ict of the same name. It was tlu' winter 
residence of the I<]mi)eroi', and the heaiit il'iil park around willi i)ietn- 
res(jue lak(;s, avenncs of choice ti'ces, fine lawns, cascades, etc. is 
now utilized b\- the National Museum which is installed there, with 
ethnographic, archeological and natuial scieiu'cs sections, 'i'he visi- 
tor will i)r()fit going in there, even if the modest external ai)i»eai"anee 
doesn't please him much with its poor architccturi'. 

Ivio de Janeiro has many scientilie establishments. One of iheni 
is the Public Lil)iai-y with ."{(Hi. 000 \-olumes not c(Uinliug tens of 
thousands of manusei-ipts, rare pictures, medals, precious docu- 
ments, in a modest building at Lapa S(puue, iMinning great risks of 



— 404- — 

a fire. Tlie Navy Museum wiiere an inteivstiiig collection of 
naval-military-history of the country relics is to be seen. The Navy 
Library also is a modest building. The Public Archives so precious 
to those devoted to the history of the country has a lai'ge number of 
precious documents. The Xational College of Fine Arts, opens an 
exception as to its external appearance, has a classical front, ^vith a 
majestic portico, looking to a small square in the centre of which is 
the statue of the celebrated Brazilian actor Joao Caetano. The buil- 
ding, however, is getting too small for the large number of paint- 
ings and marble works , which grows lai'ger every day. The 




Hid. — llic Aiiricnl Kiii|ii'riM\ lloidrnrc ;il |iicm'iiI : N.iliuiinl Miisi'iim 



Music Institute, wliicli is the institute of its l;ind willi tlie Ix'sl 
ol'lieial reputation in tlie Soiilli Auiei'iean eonlinent. It is a large 
building just at the side of I lie h'ine Arts l)uilding. On the outside 
lias a severe ])hysiogn()m_\\ In tlie interior it lias a eoneeri hall 
hall Ix'aiit il'ully decorated by Ilenriiiue Iternardeili, the l)i(>thei' 
of the celebrated sculptor. 'I'he organ of this institute is the largest 
in Sontii America and it was a doiniticui of tlie eeleltraled niiisician 
M igue/. 

Besides the colossal l*ul)lie iiibraiy, t here are many ot hers to 
support the intellect II al of Kio, such as t he i-'liiniincnsc Liluary with 



— 405 — 



00.000 volumes, in a large four story building in Rua Ouvidoi-; the 
Anny Library, which, like that of the Navy, also publishes a t(!cli- 
uical magazine, edited by the major-stalT; the Medical College and 
rolytcclinical Academy Schools with TO.OdOand lu.odo vohimes, r(;s- 




Rio. — Momiinenl of tlio discovorers of Brazil 



pectively ; the Senate Library which was founded by the late unfortu- 
nate Manuel Victorino, with 30.000 volumes; the Congress Library; 
the Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura Library (a Portuguese associa- 
tion) installed in one of the most beautiful buildings of the city in 
the D. Manoel historical style in Rua Luiz de Camoes near San 
Francisco Square; the Commerce Library with 10.000 volumes, 



— 40fi — 

installed lately in one of the halls of the Stock Exchange building- : 
the Munieii)ality Library; the Club Brazileiro Commercial Library; 
as well as those of Germania Club, the Associacao dos Empregados 
do Commercio one, and many other smaller ones. 

There is no improvement or industrial lienefit that this city of 
Rio does not enjoy : telephone, telegraph, over 100 periodical publi- 
cations, important daily papers among which we must mention the 
Jornal do Commercio, which is, for the material value of its daily 
edition, as well as for the solidity of its economical resources, one 
of the first journalistic enterprizes of South America. It was founded 
about seventy-five years ago. 

The city is illuminated by gas, having 1.5.000 lamps by the diffe- 
rent streets of the city and many of the sul)urbs. There is also a i)art 
of the city in the main part of it, illuminated by electricity. An 
English Company called a City improvement)) disposes of the sewage 
by a gallery system that throws it into the sea after being chemi- 
cally treated. 

The i)olice service is done by a brigade with 1.000 men command- 
ed by a Geneial, the police force being a military organisation. The 
l)ublic aid is exercised by the authoiities that maintain an Insane 
Asylum, a Poor House, a Plague Hospital, a Children Reformatoi-y 
and other establishments, and is also rendered by 40 private asso- 
ciations as the Irmandade da Candelaria, nmintaining Asylums and 
hospitals, the D. Pedro V, the Terceira Penitencia, the Carmo, and 
otlieis, most of them religious institutions. 

Rio de .Janeiro is proud, and has a right to be so, of its Charity 
institutions, its asylums, its hospitals, its refornmtories and found- 
ling institutions. Xo other city has them in so hirge a numbei- in 
relation to its size. 

It is woi-th visiting the Goncalves de Araujo Asylum in S. Clnis- 
tovao Square, the Lazaros Hospital, by a charming shore, in a tine 
building, the Reneficencia Portugueza, a\ ith large; wards sun-oinuU'tl 
by gardens in Santo Amaro Street, the Horn Pastor Asylum, 
the Unpi^otectcd Children, the S. Cornelio, the Koundling, the 
S. I<'i-ancisc(), the Invalidos, the S. .lose, the Old and I'nprotected, 
the S. Francisco de Paula, the S. Luiz, the Deaf and Diiml), the 
Blind, and dozens of other asylums. 

A vigorous trait of the Rio greatness is its nianufai-tiii'ing indus- 
tiies, to which we must add the official establishments which arc of 
industrial nature, such as the Military rifle, i)owder, cartridges and 
other war matei-ial factories, the government shipyards and stock 
of material for t lie na\\ . Sucli cstablislimcuts are as a rule bcNond 



— lo; 



the city limits, in islands in front of the city or in tlio most distant 
suburbs. 

The establishments of private industry, Iio\v(!ver, arc spread all ■ 
ov(!r, in the city and in the outskirts, in tlic coiniiicrcial streets as 



» 




Kio. — Statue of Buarque Maceilo 



Avcll as in the suburbs, and they represent all that variety of common 
industries. In the cities we see flat-iron factories, bone buttons, 
paper boxes , strings and ropes, playing-cards, card-board goods, 
cartridges, shot, and other factories. There are also breweries, 
cordial distilleries, canned goods factories, threading mills, disin- 



— 408 — 

fectants, neckties, stockings, soap, oils, candles, suspendors, caps, 
crockery, glass-ware and crystal-ware, perfumery, furniture, paper, 
matches, shirts, preserved fruit, woollen goods, wagons and trucks, 
and other factories. There are yet vinegar and soda-water works, 
pharmaceutical products, mosaic and tiles, safes and stoves works, 
book-binderies, cigar and cigarettes factories, fruit flour, iron 
bridges and galleries, hats, shoes, lace, nails, lead pipes, rubber 
coats, iron beds and chairs, wire "nets, medicinal soaps, acetylene 
gasometres, coffee improving machinery, sugar, matte (Brazilian tea) 
factories, rice and grain preparation Avorks, wooden boxes factories, 
corsets, clothing, chocolate, printing type, trunks and travellers 
material, rubber stamps and stencils, images, musical instruments, 
incandescent light veils, cars, brooms, cane baskets, wooden orna- 
mentations for buildings, wax candles, mica lamp chimneys, asphalt, 
artificial marble, hai-nesses, biscuits, shoeblacking, wall paper, 
picture frames, artificial flowers, leather tanning, jewelry , vege- 
table oils, scales, ice, thread, envelopes, brushes, flags, bicycles, 
umbrellas, fire works, tin boxes, cement « French » style and com- 
mon tiles, bricks, collars and other factories. 

We do not intend to make special references as to the banks, 
commercial enterprises , navigation companies , railway's , public 
works, insurances, etc. That would require a large volume, but the 
city almanacs, some as good as the best in Europe, like the Laemmert 
one, give detailed information about it. AVe will neither speak of 
the primary instruction, in charge of the municipality, of the many 
colleges and academies. AVe will, however, mention, the Xavy Col- 
lege, Pilots School, Medicine College, Polytechuical Academy, Law 
College, the Military College and other institutes, no doubt, of 
importance, but our limited space would not allow it. 



The tract of land where is the seat of the Federal Power, was 
since the foundation of the Brazilian nationality, reserved for thai 
function. There, have been accumulated, during the whole history of 
Brazil's independent life, and even much before that, the national 
official establishments, the barracks, the arsenals and ship-yards. 
There, was centralised the mental, artistic and intellectual direction 
of the country. To that Cai)ital run all the marine communications, 
and railways connect it with several States. S, Paulo, Miuas, Kio 
and Espirito Santo hav(; alrc^ady closed the circle af railways con- 
necting tlieui with the great nu^tro])olis. 'I'he road of the Central ol" 
iirazil Kailwa\- reaeliin<> the S. l''i'aneiseo Kiver, Haliia. Alai;t>as. 



— 4-10 — 

Pernambuco, Paraliy))a and Rio Grande do Norte, Nvliicli arc already 
connected, will complete the whole sj'stem. 

Soon we will see some southern connections. Parana and Rio 
Grande do Sul on one side, and Goya/ and Matto Grosso, on the 
other will thus unite themselves to the large net of railway system, 




Suliurlis dl' \\\i). — Tijuca hn'ost 



the centre of wliicli will al\\ ays 1)C the t'apital of the Kci)ul)lic, to 
which nature giving- it one of the most advantageous location in the 
l)lanet, assui'cd beforehand the destiny, the greatness of which, wc 
onl,\' can conj(U'turc to-day. 

'I'hc causes of great social phcnonicna arc numerous. l?ut ihcv 



— 412 — 



nover met in such a lar^t; numljcr to explain the supei-iority of a 
city over others of its time as they have done in Rio de Janeiro, 
since its orif»in, being- surrounded both by natural advantages and 
prodigalities of cluuu'c. 



* 

* * 



Until 1*J();> very little was done to improve in a satisfactory way 
the conditions of this great city of Rio dc .lanciro. though many 




Kio. 



TIk> Mint 



pi'omiiiciit Brazilians atlcmi)tcd to do it. W'c could cncu mention a 
good number of proj(Hits, c^ach one the most worthy of l)cing appri'- 
cialed, ])laniied by men of advanced ideas. Of all these the most 
noted were those of the laic vice-president Manocl \ii'torino, whicli 
would completely transform tlu' ohl city, shoiihl it l)c realised, those 
of Senatoi's 'Ih'ovao and Alvaro Macha(U), being also projects of wide 
sc()])e, the one of Dr. \iciia Souto, an engineer of iu)te in Kio, and 
so many others \\c do not now rcnicnilx'r. All (hcsc projects, how e- 



-- Hi — 

ver , were posti)()ned rrom time to time I'oi- several causes, and did 
iiotliiiig- else l)nt to activate the general anxiety of the population 
that every day claimed loudei- :ind louder the solution of that f)ld 
problem. 

When President Rodrigues Alves was elected and went into po- 
wer in 1U02, his first care was to select a man able to undertake 
that achievement. He appointed for the place of Public Works Se- 
cretarv. Senator Lauro Midler, an engineer, whose ideas on the 




Dr. tiMliiii'l .luni|U('ii':i, 



the constnictni's (it llie (liMilnil Avt'iuic 



subject were already known for a hmg tim(\ Once decided that the 
whole of work recpiired, ought not to burden the ordinary budget of 
the Government, a loan was raised of £8.000.000, abroad, spe- 
cially for those improvements, adding to this another home loanof 
£ 4.000.000 contracted by the Municii)ality of the City of Kio. 
With these two i-esources the Government l)egan the great imi)ro- 
vements which are ti-ansformiug altogether the City of Kio de 
Janeiro. 

The Secretary of Pul)lic Works after having studied in detail ;dl 
tlie |)rojectsand ideas until then in mind as to the sanitary imjjrove- 



415 



mentsand cnibellisliiDj^of UuM'ity, siil)iiii1 ted to President Kodiinnes 
Alves the, general plan oi' the works, which tlio Decree n" l.'.iii'.i on 
the l<Sth ol'Septenibcu-, lUlK! declared approved, giving- pow(!rlo desap- 
propriate all <>ronnds and houses needed lor such woi'ks, and a spe- 
cial fund was reserved to pay for the services. 




Tlie S. Francisco cliiii'di 



The main part of this plan was : 1st., the construction of a large 
commercial quay for the ships to come alongside, in an extension of 
3.500 metres ; 2nd, the construction of a large avenue parallel with 
this quay with 3.500 metres length and 40 metres wide ; 3rd, the 
rectification and prolongation to the sea of the interior canal known 



— 11 (5 — 

as (( Man^iie » in an extension of 3.000 metres lined by two avenues 
witli rows of ])alm-trees, illuminated by electrieity with 10 metres 
width each ; 1th, the elevation of the railroad-bed to a viaduct o metres 
above the street level, and construction of an avenue on the Fran- 
cisco Eugenio Street, straight until the Quinta da Boa Vista, the old 
residence of the late Emperor; 5th, enlargement of water supply for 
the city, taking in all the near by sources; Gth, general revision of 
sewage piping, improving all that service by adopting all modern 




)' l>t'l-\('lcliiii, Kiiniiiccr 



iiiipi'()V(Mnenl-s; 7th., the consti'iict ion of an avenue of 1 .S()() meti'es 
length and :>:{ wide; Sth, tin; throwing down of some hills in the i-ity 
and improving of the (juay, (railway, elect i-ic illununation, storage 
houses, etc.) and finally the enlarging of certain cross-st I'eels cros- 
sing the great Aocnid;! (Ivnlrul. 

On the other hand, the new Mayoi' of tlie city. X^^v. l-'rancisco 
J^assos, selected l)y the President to help and conijdete the work of 
his ScM'retary, l)i-. Laiiro Miillei', promoted the enlargement of other 
streets, the construction of a beautifid avenue — bay-siile tlrivc. 
along tlui riv(M' or bay front, with T.iHK) nu'tn^s hMigth and 35 nuMres 



— n: 



^vi(le, tlie substitnt(3 ol' tlu; old ])av(Mn('n( of (lie sd-ccts lor :isi)li;ili 
and other modern ones, and scvtiral other woi-ks to aid rmlx-Hisliiii;; 
the city, gardens, scliool houses, ete. 

The rejoicement of the p()i)uhition was unusual, the i:u<;iii(U'rs 
Ckib, noted association of teclmieal men, ordeied a bronze sij^n cast, 
with the name of Dr. Ro(h-ioues Alves, the President, and liis Public 
Works Secretary Dr. Lauro Midler, phicing it under great sob-iu- 
nity in the seat of their meetings, on tlie 2.Stli of September ]<»(»:{. 




Rio. — Pari (if llio New Avimhic 



With promptness the luirbour works were contracted with the 
Knglish firm Walker «& Co. of London on the "itith of Septeu)l)er, all 
the work, how^ever, to be directed by Brazilian technical men, under 
the charge of the noted engineer Francisco Biealho. 

Afterwards the different services were distributed, taking inin 
consideration the prompt execution of the work. Kngineer Souio 
took charge of the administration ; Dr. Manoel Maria, the general 
management of the service; Dr. Biealho, the chief, the woi-ks of the 



— 41» — 

Mangiie Canal, quite a complex work: Dr. Dcl-Veechio, has in 
charge the building oC the quay and all the hydraulic woiks: Dr. 
Frontin took charge of the Central Avenue. 

Dr. Midler was the author of that beautiful avenue, one of tlie 
prettiest sights of Rio de Janeiro. It was he who first had the idea 
of connecting the projected quay with the central streets in the com- 
mercial district by means of a large avenue and not by means of 




liio. — New IJiiiMiiigs 



tunnels as il was first thought when they considered tlie Ki<t projects 
of reform. 

On (lie Nth of March, I'.KH, l()oki)lacc, with great joy on the 
part of the i)opulation , the inauguration of the work of that ave- 
nue, in the presence of President Uodrigues Alves and other high 
officials. Then was placed the foundation stone of the buildings 
n" 2, 4 and (i of the new Avenue. All the Rio newsi)apers celebrated 
this dati^ and the public joined them in that celebration, speaking 
of nothing (ilse. 

As \\v. said al)OV(^, tin; idem of Ihc^ o[)eiiing of that street w as the 



— 420 — 



outcome of the iiec(>ssity of allowing- an ontlet lor the niovenient of 
the port, as the accumulation and crowding of traffic would he into- 
lei-able in the old narrow streets once the quay would be finished. 
The Central Avenue cost about 35.000 contos, owing to the high 




II II ■ I 




Uu). — Ni'w l!iiil(iiiij;s 

price for desai)i)roi)riating the buildings that had to be i)nlletl down. 
'Pheii' nmnbcr was (lOj, all of tlicni jjulled down in less than thi-c*' 
iiioiilhs. It was canicst woi-k and was done bv double teams ol 
worknu'u that substituteil (^ach oilier every morning ami <'\ening. 
'i'liei'e were about :>. ()()(» woi-knuMi. 



— \Jl — 

Tlie open region, taking- tlie massive of (In- buildings ol tin; old 
oity, had the length of 1.800 metres, and the width (.f7;j metres, being 
:« for the bed of the avenne and 20 on eatdi side for the mtw buil- 
dings. The plan is in perfect straight line, from sea to sea, which 
affords a beautiful perspective. 

The works run so quickly that on tlie loth of Xovembre I'MTj, 
twenty months afterwards the new street was inaugurated. Dr. Fron- 
tin executed with the greatest of successes Secretarv Midler's idea. 




Rid. — Now ljiiiltliiii>s 



The Avenida Central, which has just been finished, measures iV\)6 
metres from sea to sea. Has So metres width, being 11» for the pave- 
ment and- 7 for each of the sidewalks. The longitudinal profile of the 
Avenue is as follows : Level in the first 40 m. beginning in Rua do 
Acre (X.) ; it rises ^/i.ooo until Benedictinos street; follows level 
until General Camara Street : between this street and Hospicio rises 
\/i. 000 ; between Hospicio and Ouvidor is level; between Ouvidor 
and Sete de Setembro rises V i.ooo ; from Sete de Setembro to 



— 422 — 

Manoel de Carvallio rises ''/i.ooo ; remaining- level in all the exten- 
sion of the Municipal Theatre, where from at last lowers ''/i.ooo 
until Bay-Side Drive. 

The side walks have an inclination of 0"',lb, a little more than 2 % 
which is sufficient for the waters outlet. 

The pavement of the street bed forms a slight circle arch 0, "'32 
high in the centre. 




Ca|iiltil Federal. — Pavilion iri llie S. Louis' Exiiibilioii erected on tlie Central Avenue 



In the centre of the Avenue they planted .")3 Puo lirnzil trees, in 
flower beds 5 metre long and 2 wide, and at a distance of ;)3,'"33 from 
one to the other. The Klectric light posts with three lamps eaclt, 
are also in tlui centre and 55 in uuiuber, being at the same dis- 
tance of each other as the trees are. 

On the sidewalks they are also going to plant trees, IT.'i on tlic 
odd sid(! and Ido on the even side. There are also the gas illumi- 
nation ])osts 50 on (nich side. 

The ])uildings lining the Avenue are of tine arcliiteel ure, li:i\itiu' 



— J2:< — 

on an average 20 metres lieight, there being however a IVw, with 
10, oO, ()0 and even more. Tliosc ai-e buildings that would do honour 
to any lai-ge European eitv. 

Onee we have spoken of the Ceinlral A^(■nu(■, we must say soum- 
thing of the other one — A Avenida Beira Mar — (liiver-Side Diive 
or Bay-Side Avenue) projected after the Avenida Central, but 
nearly completed, 

This avenue has 7 kilometres in length, it is really a bay-side 
drive. It begins just where tlie Avenida Central ends, and follows 
along the river front througli the many curves of tlie city contour till 
Botafogo bay, a beautiful curve enclosed by the green frame of 
high hills. 

This beautiful work is due to the Mayor of tho city who is in an 
admirable way completing Dr. Miiller's system of improvements. 

Another improvement now in via of realisation is the extension 
of the Mangue canal. The works executed there are worthy of note. 
The canalization of the little rivers in this part of the city is made by 
means of a canal 3 kilometre long enclosed in stone walls crossed by 
metallic bridges, of artistic style. The old canal had but 1 '/s kilome- 
tre in length with 12 metres sections and only a little over 1"' 50 of 
depth. Xow^ it was extended to 3 kilometres, the section 20 metres, 
and depth 3 metres. As the ground through which it run was not 
very steady, they steadied it by means of posts 19 metres deep. The 
plan of the canal consists of two tangent lines forming almost a right 
angle, connected by a nice curve. This canal acts as an outlet for 
the rain waters as well as the waters of the small rivulets of that part 
of the city. It could not be used for navigation except of very small 
boats. 

Besides the Avenida Central there are many streets worth men- 
tioning, among which are : the Uriigiiayiina, 17 metres wide with fine 
buildings and asphalt pavement; the Assembled., also 17 metres wide 
probably prettier than the other , having a charming perspective 
upon the sea; the Carzoca Street between the square of the same 
name, at the end of Assemblea Street and Visconde do Rio Branco ; 
they are almost in straight line, and form altogether a road of over 
2.000 metres length ; the Floriaiw Street has 24 metres width and 
nearly 1.000 length, with its natural extension /lc7-e Street; the Treze 
dei\/a/o, 17 metres wide; the Passos Avenue, extension of the old 
Sacramento Street; the Inhauma with 30 metres width. All of them 
are paved with asphalt and were opened or widened at the sacrifice 
of 1200 old buildings that wxre pulled dow^n. Such is the energy with 
which in the last three years the habitation, sanitary conditions and 



— 424 — 

aesthetic problems of the Kio city have been taken care of. 

The buildings follow the same vigorous impulse. In 1003 there 
were 900 new buildings constructed in Rio and 400 reconstructions. 
In 1904 there were 1200 new buildings put up and 800 reconstruc- 
tions. Rio de Janciio had then 84.090 houses inhabited while in 1890 
only had llJVM. Tliis illustrates the pi-ogress of the last few years. 

.Just now the buildings, both private and i)ublic, in Rio, arc 
undergoino- a considerable ti-ansformation, and while there are to be 




Hid. — Ni'w l!nil(liii"s 



seen yet in many places houses of the colonial tyjx', all the new 
buildings are of the most modci'u designs, showing how the cily is 
becoming Kui'opean like and how the capital is growing in wealth. 
An)ong lh(^ new buildings we will mention a few, some finished al 
time ol' w riling, others, nearly finished, others just started : 

The Congress Palace, (he most notable one in all South Ameiiea. 
occupying 12.000 scpiare metres, in fi'ont of Tiradentcs Scjuai'c, sur- 
rounded 1)\' liio lintiico, r'o//.s7/7/z/c;"}(> and (ioincs 7'7t//'(' streets. Its 
cost is estimated al l.^.OOOiOOOSiOOO. 



— 425 — 



The Municipal Tl.eatre, with n.arblo front, bron.e decorations 
and a dome 1. metres high, vahied at :U)00:0(K.?(,„„ ],„il, l.v .Ih- 
Brazilian Architect, Oliveira Passos. 

The bnihling of the S. Paulo - Kio (irand,., a Hra.ilian Kail^^av 




lliu. — Aew BuildiJias 



concern, of gothic style, simulating a castle of middle age times, has 
SIX floors, 30 metres of height, estimated at 900:0t)0S000 built b\- 
the Brazilian architect, Silva Costa. It will be one of the beauties of 
the city. 

The Jardim Botanico Street Railway Co., French style, &2 metres 



— i2fi — 



front, 33 metres high, the eeiitre body with (i lloors, the side ones 
four. It will oeeupy a whole block, is divided by a gallery, in the 
style of the Passage Joffroy, in Paris, the Vittorio Emmanuele, in 
Milan, and Umberto Primo, in Turin. Its cost is estimated in 




Kid. — N<'\v ltiiil»liii}is 



2. 000 :()00$( )()(). its iircliitect is ("aminhoa and it is the property ol 
Brazilians. 

The Naval Club uew-elassic style , five story high iu the luain 
bodv and four in the side ones. Its ;ii-ehiteet is lUv/.i. It will l>e one 



— 427 — 

of the best buildings in the Avenida Central and its cost is cstiniatrd 
at 800:0008000. 

The Caixa de Aniortisaeao biiihlin<;-, ehissic styh', with a sei'ies 
of beautiful \\hite and rose marble eolumns, ^vith bronze tops. Its 
cost is estimated at 1.200:()00$000. Its architect is Gabiiel . I im(|iiein». 

The Joriial do liruzil building, n)ai"ble front, lai'ge and original 
dome, 50 metres high. Its architect is Mr. Berna, the i)roj)rietors 
are Brazilians. 




Rio. 



New Buildings 



The Jornal do Commercio building, seven floors, high tower, (TJ 
metres high, stone and marble front. Its cost is estimated at 
2.000:000S000, its owners, Brazilians. 

Palace of the Exhibition, the same building as the one repre- 
senting Brazil at the St. Louis Exhibition, 45 metres high, built by 
the Brazilian Architect Souza Aguiar. 

Guinle & Co. building, beautiful stone front, 8 floors 52 metres 
high, owned by Brazilians and its cost estimated at 1.000:0008000. 

Docas do Santos building, fine floors, built by the Brazilian Ar- 



— 12H — 

chitect Ramos Azevedo and owned by Brazilians. Its cost is estinuilcd 
at 1.200:000$000. 

Xational Librai-y, stone, marble and iron, five floors, 4~j metres 
high, built by the Brazilian architect Dr. Aguiar. Its cost is esti- 
mated at 3.000:000$000. 




Kio. — .\»'\v Huildiiij^s. — I lie iialiice of llii' diiilv |i.i|i('r : « (t .hiiiial do ('.(inmicrcid ». 



'I'he indication of nationality, wliich \\(^ have taken i)ains (o 
show, serves to iliusti-ate to those who do not know Rio ch^ Janeiro, 
the efficient contribution that native elements are l)ringing lownrds 
the developjueni and transl'ormation of Kio de Janeiro wlierelo- 
reign capital, intelligence and activity, will find a vast field to ope- 



-- 429 - 

1-ate ui)()ii, witli pi-ofitiiblc rosnlls l)y the adlicsioii :iiiil aid of tlic do- 
minant ideas anion*;- the nalives. 

We will not elose these few lines on the rapid i)ro^r(!ss Itio has 
nndergone during- the last few years without speaking of an ent(M-- 
prise we referred to above, which lias initiated its work and will he 
the most important of all lluMniprovemonts the groal ('ai)i(al is^nin^ 
to he presented witli. 

AVe refer to the Harbour work tlic main feal urc of t lie plans ('(.n 




|{i,,. — The New « li'('zt> do .Marco » Street 



ceived and being- executed by the present Secretary of public Works, 
Dr. Lauro Miiller. 

Though Rio possessed one of the largest and best anchorage places 
of the world, by the beauty, depth ami safety of the bay, its poi)u- 
lation has been longing for the last (U) years for these benefits en- 
joyed by nearly every sea-port city of the world — a dock system 
alongshore, that the ships might come alongside to load and unload. 

This was a general anxiety continually expressed, by every one, 



— i-w — 



but owing- to certain cii-cuiustances wliicli can all be reduced to this : 
lack of a resolute and broad minded government, — the plans and 
projects for the hai-bour works were being postponed from time to 
time in spite of their pressing need. The situation was just this when 




l^^rr^ ^ 



Itio. — Vi'W Hiiildiiii 



President liodriguesAlves invited to/ tlie place (»!' Tiiblic W'ork^ 
Secretary Dr. Lauro Midler. 

We will now give some detaihul information about this iinpr«>vc- 
ment now under way : 

The Rio dc; .laneii-o poiL improvements work comprisiis : 



i:i2 



FiusT. — T1h3 building' of ;i long stone (|niiy, with suiricicnt (l('])tli 
for ships and steamers of any draught coming alongside, with a 
large number of iron landing stairways attached to the (luay, fas- 
tening ])osts, double stone stairway at tlie curves. This (juay accor- 




Kid. — .Nc\N l!uil(liiij;s 

ding to the adopted ])i-()iecl goes from the extension ol S. ( 'liristo\ ;U) 
street to llic neiglilxu-liood of the Navy-N ard, eomprising tlif inner 
bays in front of the Mo(;as, Meloes, Saeco do Alfeics, (iamlioa ami 
Saude old islands and has ;{.r)(»() meti'cs in length. 



Sia'OM). - The filling of all tlic area conipiiscd between i1h' 



— 4-34 — 

future quay and the river front. In some places the distance between 
these two points is 2o() metres as it happens in the Saude inner hay, 
the deptli of tlie water varying between 1 and 7 metres. 

Third. — Dredging till 10 metres distance from the space destin- 
ed to th(^ setting of foundation caissons, and quay wall, and a band 




Hio. 



.New Ituildiii^s 



250 metres in width, forming the channel so thai ships can come 
alongside without any ti-oublc. 

Fourth. — TIk; oix'iiing of an avenue :ih)ngsi(h' the (luay, mea- 
suring 100 nu^tres in width , of wliicli S) metres are rescrvcii for 
i*ail way tracks, ;>5 metres lor tht; l)uiiding of imjjorts and exports 



435 — 



storage houses and administrations offices , and lo metivs iiicelv 
paved and with rows of trees for public thorouglifare. 

Fifth. — Construction of the quay, comprising- the most modern 
macliinery used for lioisting, h)ading and unh)ading tlie ships. Two 




Rio. — New Buildings. — OIliL-es of the daily \)i\\n'v : « o Paiz 



stations in convenient places with the necessarj' machinery to furnish 
electric power to the machinery and electric light for the illnmina- 
tion of the whole quay. 

Sixth. — Utility of the neighboring islands as deposits of inflam- 
mable goods, coal, and other port exactions, increasing its area 
if needed, filling up the space between them and near by i-ocks. 



— 436 — 

Tlie \vorks of Nvall building oomprising- the di-edgiiig and filling 
were contracted on the 'iltli of September 1 *.>();], by the govei-nniont 
with the well known house of C. H. "Walker & Co., of London. 

The work was inaugurated on the 29th of March, IVK)}, initiating 
on that day in front of Saude bay the service of dredging tlie i)oit. 
On the first days of January ]'.»() 1 the bottom of the bay has been 
duly di-odged all along the line of the 1st section of (|ua,\- measuring 




l!i(i. — .\i'\\ liiiildiiii^s 



."OO in(!ti'(?s and the contractors initiated the woi'k of the wail eon- 
structiou selling llie first aiissoii with the order niinil)t'r -]'.'>-. 

Uy llie end of April I'.Hi.j two sections of wall were* I'cady till the 
average tide height. On May 1st, in i)rcsence of His I^xcellency Prt'- 
sident Kodiigiies Alves, the Mayor of the City, the Members of the 
(Jabinet, Congressmen and Senators, high officials both ei\ il and 
military ones, business nu'ii and representatives of all classes, 
the inauguration of the (piay work took place, fixing on the external 
sid(; of tlu^ wallai)late coiniiieiiioiatiug this act. l''igui'e n" 1 shows 
the sections we spoke of. as well as the inaugiiiat ion plate attached 



— 437 — 

to the Stone containinjr the record of the ixoccedinjrs, ncwspaix-i-s 
of that day and several coins of the country. 

According- to the clause XIV of the contract all ilic work must 
be finished by June, 30th, 1<)10 obeying- to the following- progress : 

On the 30th of June, 19n() ;J00 iin'tn-s. 

» » » 15I0T ;iO() 

» » » 1908 «()(» „ 

» » » 1900 7fi() » 

» » » 1910 1(1(10 „ |,;,|;,|ic(; 

to make up the total of niiOO moln's. 




Rio. — Construct ion of the Canal do Mangue 



To determine the solid layer at the bottom where the foundation 
caissons have to be supported, which is a part of the construction 
system adopted, as well as for the calculation of the total volume of 
land to be excavated and recognizance of several layers of ground 
placed upon the solid one, many perforations were made in the direc- 
tion of the projected quay, and elsewhere in transversal direction, 
in some points becoming necessary to find out the inclination or 
profile of those layers. 



— 438 — 

The system of construction adoj)ted for the qua}' was, the com- 
pressed air one, bj^ means of caissons made of iron, identical to 
those used lately in the port of Antwerp. 

Two large floating- scaffolds, constituted by two pontoons attach- 
ed to each other by iron frames, carry suspended bj' two strong- 
steel chaims, the respective dryers, measuring 12 metres high, 25 




Kio. — Statuo of Viscdiinl do Itio Hraiici 



metres long, and (j.(')0 metres wide. Underneath these apparatus they 
introduce the ironra/.s.so/j.s or boxes which have the same dimensions, 
with the exception of the height which is only 2, '"50. By means of 
screws adapted to tlie internal walls of the dryer, ami holes in (lie 
caissons hel])e(l by rubber between these (wo pieces, a close attach- 
ment of the two is operated so that when it all sinks down into (he 



— 440 — 

water, the caisfion is water proof. When the lowering fails centri- 
fugal pumps are put to work moved by electricity. 

The caisson, the main part of the system of construction adoj)ted, 
is formed by strong cramp-irons solidly united and supported by 
steel beams 0,70 thick. The four outside faces are dressed by iron 
plates as well as the inside under the beams. The caisson is 
divided into two parts : one constituted by beams and empty spaces 




Hio. — New l{iiil(liiit;s 



left by the spaces of the cramp-irons, and the other slightly arclu'd 
or vault-like roof, open at the bottom, forming the « work chamber » 
where latei" on the working-men have to get in when charged of the 
excavation of the bottom and of the provocation for the penetration 
of the caissons through the layers at the bottom. For that reason, 
tlic roof of llic work cliainbci- lias four circular oi)cuings 0,7(t m. in 
dlametre, destined to receive the chiume\s t'oi- llie entranci' ol" tlic 
workmen and material. 

Protected by the first cliinmeys in t lie openings ol' the caisson's 



— 441 — 

roof, they immediately fill the upper part of the caisson with (•cinciit 
or rather beton, forming thus the plate or ground on wliicli tlic first 
stones of the ^vall have to be phu-ed. Then tlie masons l)egin ihc con 
structicm of the wall in the intci-ior of tlic (liycr, always suppoitcd 
by ropes and chains and at the proportion it grows llic dry(!r is lower- 
ed to relieve the cargo that chains and ropi^s supi)or(. When liic 
work reaches about t metres of height, they manoeuvre convenien- 
tly the floating scaffold by means of the eight anchors of the 
pontoons, and once in the alignement of the quay, they let the cais- 
son down, with the work already done on toj) of it loosening the 
dryer from everything that fastens it. During the sinking of the 
caisson into the water they always heigten the chimneys to avoid 
the entrance of water, so that when the caisson touches the bottom, 
these reach their utmost height. On this occasicm they adapt an 
apparatus, the machinery begins to work compressing the air in the 
work chamber. 

The workmen in groups of 12 to IS, who are relieved every eight 
houi's, descend to that compartment and, helped by syphons which 
expel what they excavate or dig at the proportion it gathers in the 
chamber, they provoke the descent of the caisson through the seve- 
ral layers of the bottom. 

Once reached the solid layer and this one being completely clean 
and levelled, it is immediately filled with cement concrete. When 
this operation is finished they continue the work of the wall till the 
height of the avei'age tide. They then loosen the screws that attached 
the caisson to the drj^er, they allow the water to enter the dryer and 
thus relieved, it is once more attached to the chains which suspend 
it again and thus is the apparatus ready for the construction of a 
new section of wall. Each section measures 23,50 metres in length. 

The w^ork to finish the wall on its upper part is done during low 
tides. 

Figure n° ^. — Shows Ihe caisson inside the water ready to be 
put in proper place under the dryer. 

Figure n° 5. — Shows the caisson in the act of entering under 
tlie dryer. 

Figure n° 6. — Shows one of the floating scaffolds with the dryer 
completely suspended , and the caisson already attached to its in- 
ferior part. 

Figure n" j. — Represents the hulk « Victor » of 25 tons used 
for several kinds of work. 

Figure n" 8. — Represents the two floating scaffolds and the 
hulk « Victor » working. 



— 442 — 

The work of the compressed air once started continues without 
interruption until the work chamber is completely filled with con- 
crete. It takes about 10 days of 24 hours. The digging in the interior 
of the caisson, is made according to the nature of the soil, by means 
of syphons which work by the same compressed air action, or by 
means of ordinary apparatus for such work, the diggings being taken 
out in buckets through the chimneys. When they find rock which 
needs to be partly levelled so that the caisson can be placed in pcr- 




Porl ol' Hio. — Killing up of Hit- Sea Zone 



feet horizontal level, they take the rock out in snuill stones, little by 
little, and they make it burst with very small charges of dynamite. 

Figure n" y. — Represents several sections of the quay with the 
intervals left between them, where the connections have to be 
filled in. 

Figure u" lo. — Represents a hoisting barge, used to place the 
stones on the wall and for prepai-alion of the concrete destined to 
that porlioii oT llic wall that goes up Iroin the average tide height. 



— u:i — 

Figure n" ii. — Shows the interior of a hur<;(' working in a con- 
nection of walls. 

The normal type of quay measures ^'"oO hi<;li of foundation. 
8"'80 from the top of caisson to the level of low tide, and :\"%() from 
there to the top, representing' a height of 1 !"".»( ). As to its width is 
6 metres on the caisson and 1:10 on the outside and 1:15 on the 
inside inclination up to the height of the low tide, from there up the 




I'oi-t ui" Piio. — Cuiislructiou of tlie .New (Juay. Cniiie-huat 



external inclination is 1:20 and after a cut of 0'»60 goes up in vertical 
line, the upper part of the quay measuring 3'"02 in width. 

The wall has holes placed at intervals of 100 metres to be used 
as outlets for the rain waters. On the top of the wall there will be 
an opening covered with iron to receive the canalisations for the 
light, water and power. 

Until the lotli of December 1905, the contractors had built lO sec- 
tions of quay representing 100 metres wall, up to the height of the 



f 



— 444 — 



average tide or T"20 above the lowest tide. The connections, with 
exception of 5 of tliem were all finished, and the part already con- 
cluded, with to}) part and all has an extension of '2~'> metres. 

All the si)ace comprised Ix'twocn the wall ;iii(l the bayside will 
he filled and levelled with earth taken away from the Senado Hill 
and sand from tiie bay. The Senado Hill will be all taken down and 
its ground levelled. The sand will eome from the dredging of the 
channel, sliouhl it be good enough to be used in filling in the ground 




I'orl of llio. — (Idiisli'iiclidii <il' llic .New (>u;i\ 



ac-(!ording to the Fiscalisalion Committee, other wise the sand will 
be taken from the bay sand-banks which this Committee may 
designate, until a depth of lo meti-es water in the average tides. 

The san<ls will be thrown into the inferior part and ui)on I hem 
the Senado Jlill earth will b(^ ])laeed up to the h'vel of the wall. 

l<'()i' the first sectioTi that must l)e ready on June ;'>(Mh, I'.HKi. 
the earth to fill in is heiiin taken I'roni the hills iii;hl in li-<uil and 



— ua — 

which formed the two islands — Mocns and Meldes wliich can fur- 
nish about 200,000 cubic metres. 

Figure n" 12 represents a part of the work werheas fi}>-urc n" j.V 
shows tlie disposition of the fastening posts. 

Figure 11" i^ rejjresents the two floating- scaffolds in front of the 
old Meloes island, the earth of which is being taken away to fill in 
the quay of the first section. On-the top of one of the hills is an old 




I'url (if Kill. — Cniisli'iii'tiiiii nf llic .New i^liiiiy 



house that serves as the office and residence of the l<'iscalisation 
(/ommlttee. 

Figure u" /."> shows one of (he places where fioin the earth to fill 
in tlie (luay is being taken out. 

The contractors to make the iicci'ssary ri'pairs in llu' di'i'dn ing 
boats and their aj)i)aratus, have two installations ; one on the other 
side of the bay, in Niethcroy, in a place called I'onta d:» Areia :in<l 
anotiier in lh(; ccnti'al jxiint of the woiks at Santa Harhaia ishiiid, 



— 147 — 

some GOO metres away from the shore. Tlie former belongs to the 
contractors, the latter belongs to the government but lent to tlu; 
contractors while the work of the building of the quay lasts. 

In Ponta da Ai-eia are several lepairing work-shops where small 
pieces of machinery are made. These shops are well mounted with 
locomotives and freight cars, hoisting machinery, i)laces for bai-ges, 
bridges, machine shops, stone cutters, machinery to break also smal- 




Port of Rio. — Construction of the New Quay. .Vnciioring place 



ler stones. There is a quarry back of this place which is exploited 
by the contractors. 

In Santa Barbara island are the stocks of cement, hardware of all 
descriptions, to make the caissons (or boxes for the foundation of 
each section of wall) and extra pieces for the scaffolds, etc. They are 
always at work in this island preparing new caissons. These when 
needed are taken to a place under a kind of bridge frame with 
pow^erful hoisting and suspending apparatus on the upper part, run 
by endless screws which take up the caissons, hoisting them up, 



— W8 — 

transporting them to the sea rolling over a track ; — and then they 
are towed until the place where the quay is being worked. 

Generally there are always four caissons in construction to be 
ready for service emergencies. 

Fi<>nrc' n" id shows the apparatus that hoists the caissons as we 
just explained. 

Fi^-iirc n" j- shows the quay on the loth of December of last year. 

It is useless to add that the general plan of the woi-ks, as it liap- 









I'(»r't ul' liid. - I'illiiii; ii|> i<\ llic Sr,i /. 



])(',MS witli \\()i'ks of this mitui-(! and magnitude is siiljjccl to modi- 
fications , uol only as to the alignment but as to the pioccss ol' 
construction, wliich may b(^ suggested by the progii'ss ol' the work. 

As a conipl(;incnl lo the woi-ks which arc being executed, (lu'y are 
proj(MMing, to iis(^ the ishinds in front of the (|nay. emi)raeed hy tlie 
great l)ay eontourning S. (Iirislovao shore till I'onta do Cajn, as 
dry-doeks, coal dei)ots, inflammable storage-houses, and other hnild- 
jngs needed in a first class commercial ixnt. 




I'dil III' l!i(). — Ciiiislniclioii ol llir New Diiav. — \ iow of llii- works in Dt'feniljL'i' I'.JO.j 



— ioO 



THE STATE OF S. PAULO 



The city of 8. Paulo, Capital of the State the same name, is 
built on an uneven ground between the Tiete river (which is its boun- 
darj' line in the Braz district), and the Tamandutehy, which, in 
capricious curves goes through this part of the town between it and 
the upper districts — Campos Elysios (750 metres above the sea 
level), Consolagao (800 m.j, Liberdade (779 m.), and Villa Mai'ianna 
(900 m.). 



J 




S. I'aul( 



Miisoiiiii (if Ipyi'uiiga 



Owing to those altitudes the passenger who goes from Santos or 
Rio to S. Paulo is surprised, to find an unforeseen temperature 
which requires gloves and an overcoat. So much the better. That in- 
vites the people to dress better. We do not see there as we see in Kit), 
Bahia or Recife, the tnu'kmen and hard working people on account 
of the Iropieal climate neglect their clothes, orprcsenting thi'mselves 
bare footed, with dirt\ lagged garments. 









1 r 



— u> — 

Seen from an npper position the city looks like a sea in all the 
greatness of its growing vitality expanding itseli. It lias the form of 
an irregular polygon, filled with squares, streets and avenues without 
anj' geometrical orientation just as Buenos-Ayres or Therezina, but 
forming blocks which give an idea of several cities connected with 
one another, bound the city exterior lines. From these grounds start 
towards the fields and hills located in front unfinished streets which 
ramify themselves going to new districts like Bom Retiro, Barra 
Funda, Villa Deodoro, Perdizes, Sant'Anna, etc., and which the 
electric railway, the telephone, illumination, and sewage net are 
incorporating gradually to the central nucleus, in an inflexible work 
of definite appropriation. 

In the districts near the Tiete are large and numerous 
stores, hotels, brassei-ies, workingmen houses, factories of all 
descriptions, storage houses, etc. A forest of chimneys throw from 
sunrise to sunset s])irals of smoke into the air crossed in all di- 
rections by electrical wires. In the streets is a confusion of 
vehicles , and men running here and there. There is the noise of 
human voices, the rattling of the wagon-wheels upon the pavement 
of the streets , the whistles of the factories all wrapped by dust- 
clouds which spread themselves all over. 

In the centre points boils all the effervescency of the brainy 
city : — the elegant high-life, the active intellectual men, the 
bankers, the lawyers, the multitude of the forum crowds, the gay 
W'Orld with its fashionable women, the high tone families in their 
carriages, the crowds of hasty ones and at last the multitude of the 
obscure, of the nameless, all of them circulating in the district of Rua 
Direita, Quinze de Novembro, S. Bento, Rosario Square and ajacent 
streets, etc. This cannot be called the centre of the city, as S. Paulo 
has extended itself so very much towards the new districts, where 
the buildings grow up every day with a richness of marvellous art 
and good taste. 

In these business streets the old style buildings, the big Tortu- 
gueK(! houses with jjlaiii walls are disai>i)earing under the victory of 
tli(; evolution of art. The assimilating capacity of the Brazilian race 
in contact with Italian genius, the Italian colony being one fifth of 
th(^ population, affirmed themselves in an undeniable demonstration. 

Many buildings now are planned and constructed by Bra/.ilians. 

It is useless to say that the streets we mentioned above are not 
the prettiest of S. Paulo, though they ])resent the most lively aspect. 



— 45H — 

either during the day or night time. The avenues and streets that aiv 
the prettiest because of tlieir buildings and perspective, are tiiose tliat 
belong to the new district of the Capital : the boulevard Hurchard, in 
the Conceicao district, where from the largest part of the city area 
can be obseived; the Paulista Avenue, open upon a lougiiudinal 
esplanade, above the other districts, is not as yet all built uj), but it 
already presents some very pretty palaces with different arcliitecio- 
nic styles surrounded by gardens, — they are magnificent mansions. 




S. I'atilu. — l.ariru ila 8r 



princely residences; — the Barao dc Piracicaba street, a kind of 
grove, straight and wide; the Glette street with magnificent build- 
ings, among which is the Sagrado Coracao church with a 40 metre 
tower with the image of Jesus on top in golden bronze, and it can be 
seen from nearly everywhere in the city; the Tiradentes, a pretty 
avenue of about two kilometres long, but very irregular in its width, 
lined by superb buildings, some of them large ones, like the Polytech- 
nical College, the vast Police Force barracks, the Model College and 
others, this street is crossed twice by the Tiete river; the Bambus 
(cane) grove, a wide street also lined with fine buildings; the Rangel 
Pestana Avenue, with a width of 25 metres, an extension of 



— 454 — 

1,580 metres and prolongated with the name of Aveni(hi da liitcn- 
dencia for another length of 1,500 metres and the same width. 

Among- the public squares we must mention in first place the one 
in front of the Luz Railway station, the enormous public garden, 
beautifully and most carefully treated, with a profusion of flowers 
pretty as dreams, and a pretty lake. This is the only municipal gar- 
den worthy of the name. 

The Rosario Square is not so wide as one would think because of 
its fame, but it is a centre and the principal centre of the Capital, 
surrounded by candy-stores , bar-rooms , cigar-stores and other 
shops. This is the place where the active population of the city have 
their rendez-voiis. This square and Quinze de Xovembro street are in 




S. Paulo. — Tlie lake of the Public Garden 



S. Paulo, just what S. Francisco Square and Rua Ouvidor arc in 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Another pretty and much wider square is the Republica one, 
dominated by the pretty building where the Normal College is. 
There are other squares like the Municipal, Paysandu, S. Fran- 
cisco, — with the statue of Jose Bonifacio, — tJoyanazes, Cai-nio 
and others, but lack the pretty gardens and arborization that cnibcl- 
Hsh so much the s([uares of Belem, Capital of the Para Stale. 

Excepting B(;llo llorizonte, no other Brazilian city has i)ublic 
buildings with such an architectonic beauty, none also presents 
such a large number of them. 

It is imi)OSsible to do ahonl S. Taiild, what we have done about 
the other cities we have spoken of in this l)o()k : — to describe niinu- 
ciously their churches, monuments and buildings worth mentioning. 



— 455 — 

Only in the first 12 years of the republican forni of j^ovcrniucnl , 
S. Paulo spent in new buildings for its Capital 2()0.(J()():()(KJ$()()0 ac- 
cording to official data. 

And what has been spent in public works like railways, sewerage, 
board of health, schools, etc., in the interior cities reaches an 
amount over 300. 000:0001000 in ten years. 

The general progress of the state represented by its splcndiil 
Capital and by the principal cities of the interior, in the volume of 
factories, farms, banks, large buildings, railways, etc., not only 
places S. Paulo in front of all the other States of the Republic J)ut 
its civilisation is over 20 years ahead. 




I 



S. Paulu. 



da Liiz Station. 



The city of S. Paulo had in 1850 about 30,000 inhabitants, in 1885 
had 15,000 inhabitants, by the census of 1890 it had 65,000 inhabitants 
and by the one of 1000 not less than 240,000. Its private buildings are 
of modern architecture, the Italian style predominating. In majo- 
rity are residences inhabited by one single family, there being very 
few houses where more than one family live together. 

In the modern part of the city, what means in the largest part of 
the city, the houses have their gardens at the side or in front. 

All the streets are illuminated by gas, 4.820 lamps, the central 
streets being illuminated by electric light, having 5.000 incandes- 
cent and 104 arc lights, and are all paved with stone l)locks. 

In 1904, S. Paulo had 25,000 buildings in the city with a first 
class water supply, the water dams and works being a monumen- 
tal work of art. The tramway service by electric traction, is the 



— tofi — 

best ill all Urazil owned b\' one oT the most poweriul eoinpanies in 
the eouutry — The Light and Powei" Company — an Anuiiean eon- 
cern. This eoini)any plaeed 17 1 kilometres of tracks in the eity and 
fui-nishes power to al most all the large factories of vS. I'aulo : — glass 
works, threading mills, breweries (the largest in the country), eigar 
factories, etc., with a total of <S,U(K> horse power. 

There are also tramways by animal traction, ami lw(^ steam ones, 
going to the suburbs, telephone service with over 1,(X)U suijsciibers. 




S. I'aulo. — (jovoniiiu'iil |t;ilace|(il' S. I'aul( 



telegraph, .'!0 newspapers: — dailies, weeklies, magazines, pcrindi- 
cals of all descriptions. 

Among its buildings worth noting are: llu' Ipyranga monument 
unequalled in the whole country for its dimensions and imposing 
arehiteetiire, the group of the Palaces of the different Secretaries of 
the Government whicb are beautiful buildings : the Agiicuhnic 
one in German style, the Treasury one, covering TOO scpiare metrics 
made by the lirazilian architect, Ramos A/evedo, the .lustice one, 
at the side of the Ciovernor's palace in roman-doric style also built l»y 
a Brazilian architect. 

The Luz Station is the most beautiful building of its kind in the 
whole South American continent. It is as large as it is pretty an»l has 



— 457 -- 

an elevated t(nvei-. It is made of red hi-icks ;ui<I tiles in the -(.thi,.. 
seotlish style. It is in I'l-ont of the public oai-d,.,), whieli is imirh 
like the Brussels park. We were told this station cost over 
l.000:000S00O. There is a constant movement ol' cabs and can-ia.i,n's 
about the main entrances. The aspect of this building' is one of those, 
that once impressed in the tiavellers mind, is not easily l'oro(,tt,.ii. 
Tlie Luz barracks, occupies a whole square, is illuminated l»y 
electric light, and this pretty architecture is a model of its kind. The 
ample Polytechnical College, with its beautiful front, wide, euoi-- 



™^,„.... _,..„. 




S. Paulu. — S. Beiito I'liicc. 



mous with its three distinct bodies of Koman style. The Luz school, 
the Normal College are true palaces, erected in honor of Art and 
public instruction. 

In no other South American city we find such a large numl)ei- of 
beautiful buildings devoted to public instruction. 

The churches are numerous, but only the modern ones present 
artistic effect. 

The public theatre, now being built will be in size and magnifi- 
cence well worthy of the other monuments of S. Paulo. Its cost was 
valued at ;j,000:OOOSOOO. It can be compared with the first theatres of 
liluiope. Its front, rich in decorations, in the structure of its whole. 



— 458 — 

is classic and can be classified as Louis XV style. As to its architec- 
ture, it preserves the traditions of the Italian classics by the sobriety 
of the lines of its whole. 

The i)lace for the musicians is placed below the level of the 
orchestra seats in the audience, according- to the system originated 
by Wagner. 

The orchestra seats capacity, is a little smaller than those of 
Euroi)ean first class theatres, as the Grand Opera of Paris and 
Vienna. 

The piogress of the scientific institutions, the culture of the cities 
and the pul)lic instruction in all the State is notably superior, aud 
in an elevated degree, to the progi'css of other sections of Bra/.il. 

The late L. Couty, biology professor at the Polytechnical Aca- 
demj^ of Rio, having promised some time ago that he would demons- 
trate the equality of the S. Paulo ex-province to the Buenos-Ayres 
province, wrote : 

« En purhint (In recensement de In jirooinre de Buenos- Aires , nous nous 
etions eng'age n faire voir que ceile province si fJorissante el si rapide au pro- 
gres avail son egale au Bresil, S Paulo; nous nous elions Irompe ; S. Paulo 
n'est pas seulement egale : ellc esl, a cerlains points de vue, sujjerieure a 
Buenos- Aires ». 

" Speyking of llie cx-iisus of (lie BiuMios-Ayros |iroviiico, wo were engaged in pn)- 
viiig lliat Hint province so lilooming and of sUcli a rajiid progress liad its equal in Bra- 
zil, S. I'aiilo. We were mistaken. S. Panlo is not oidy equal, it is from eerlain points 
of view sii|)erior to Buenos-Ayres ». 

lint, the speedy growth of S. Paulo is such that the economist 
who is surprised of it having multiplied six times its producing 
energy in :i() years, when Buenos-Ayres in the same period didn't sue" 
ceed to do any better than double it, added : « If the other provinces 
of Brazil had developed their work as S. Paulo did, that count iv 
would furnish to-day (1884) 10,000,000 bags of coffee instead of the 
5,000,000 it produces. » 

Well, it was not necessary for S. Paulo to wait another 20 years 
by itself, to attain that figure of agricidtural production, what liUi/ 
Couty didn't think possible to be obtained without the aid of the 
other twenty pi'o\ inces. 



1*1 r.i.K Instki ( rioN. — The Scientific Departments and Insti- 
tutes, the technical ones or mere theoretical ones, have an iniixn- 
tance in S. I*aido that they have not in any other part of the 
count v\ . 



— +59 — 

Its Polytet'lmical College is even superior to llial of Kio, by iIk; 
nuigniiieenee ol" its laboratories, by the practic-al cliaraclcr of its pro- 
grams of study and even by the imposing feature of the building 
itself. Its Agricultural Pratical Schools have no equal in tlie whole 
country, andsome of them such as the school of Batataes, are exclusive 
property of the municipality; its demonstration fields are so many 
other piactical schools, and have nothing to fear when compared 
with identical p:uropcan institutes. The Agricultural Institute is 
also one of the best establishments of its kind. As to the Botanical 




S^-H. ,^^^iT: 



.v--;^^S5*i.isH«^*5^ 



S. Paulo. — Polytediical College 



Garden it suffices to repeat these topics which Mr. Benjamin F. A. 
Lima not long ago wrote : 

(( S. Paulo is a lucky State. 

All of its scientific establishments, all of its hygienic institutes 
are a niceiiess of progress, with what there is of most perfect and 
modern in its kind. Thus, the Polytechnical Academy, the Isolation 
Hospital, the Vaccination Institute are witnesses of the great pro- 
gress of the State. 

We visited lately the Botanical Garden and while this establish- 
ment is but a section of the Geographical Commission, the works 
executed by Dr. Albert Loefgren are of extraordinary importance 



— I«0 — 

tor the BraziliaJi flora and sliow very well that it is under the 
direction of a learned man. 

The national and foreign plants nurseries, the hot-houses, the 
grafting of plants, everything is arranged with scientific orientation, 
offering the most methodic order in the several branches of cultiva- 
tion practiced there, and leaving a pleasant impression in the visitors 
mind even if he knows but little about botany. 

Setting aside the importance of the new institute, the kindness 
of its director and his family make a visit to that establishment most 
pleasant. 




S. Paulo. — « Prudente tie Moracsw Model school 



Its library is a repository of everything there is of best in that 
branch of natural sciences. 

The collections of insects both harmful and useful to agricultui-c. 
form already u large contingent of useful knowledge for the Kra/il- 
ian farmei's. 

Observations oi ulniosphcric conditions and soil lcnn)craturc ;tic 
made by registring apparatus carefully installed. 

The illustrious director initiated a series of microscopical obser- 
vations u])on the contexture of the best Bj'azilian lumber, a most 
interesting work. » 

It is enoiiiious what S. Paulo has achieved running the expenses 
of scicntifie depai'l ments and researches for the study of meteoro- 
logy, g(M>h)gy, l)()tany, geography of tlu^ S. Paulo State. It (^xeeeds 
the amount spent for this purpose l)y all the other States together. In 
S. Paulo sueii services obey to an official , methodic and efficient 
organisation. They ai'c services created and kei)t by the State. 

The lil)raries and ne\vspai)ers appear in eviM_\ eily. ine\iM\ 



- Mil - 

village iiiid every district ol' (he State. During I'.mi:; (tiily, ilic agricul- 
tural and industrial departments distributed some UHJ.OOo copies ol 
pamphlets , bulletins and eirculars containing practieal insinic 
tions for the public. In this State are 212 newspapers and periodi- 
cals. In proportion to the number of its inluibitants it is the state 
that reads and writes the most. One fifth of all the lira/iliau i)ress is 
within the boundary lines of S. Paulo Stale. No other has so niaii\ 
libraries or book stores. It is the largest l)ook market in the eouutrx 
after Rio de Janeiro, the Capital of Brazil. 

No other possesses such a large number of schools, i-elaliNcly to 



m 




.1.^i.;vr-. ;«K-HL' -i-f...^.. 



S. Paiilo. 



Normal School 



its population. Having only one third of the population of the State 
of Minas, it has nearly as many public schools as that State has. 

There were 2558 grammar schools in the State of S. Paulo during 
last year with .57.002 students. 

In each municipium tliei-e is besides those schools one high 
school with professional classes for each group of ten gran)mar 
schools. 

The buildings for the grammar schools in the interior are true 
monuments erected to public instruction. They are in Santos, 
Lorena, Piracicaba, Itapetininga, Amparo, Guaratingueta, Pinda- 
monhangaba and other places and they ought to serve as a stimula- 
tion for the other States. 

In the Capital there are the following establishments of instruc- 



4-(>2 



tion, i)rivale ami public- : J*]iui-ii)ucy (College, inaugurated on the 
nth of February 1890; the Aiixiliadoru Orphmi Asylum; the 
Christouiio Colombo Orphan Asylym; the D. Anna Rosn Institute; 
the Sa^^rndo (loracao Lyceum ; the Lyceum of Arts and trades ; the 
Seminnrlo das Kducandas : the (iymnasium ; the Model School, 
annexed to the Xormal Colle^-e : the Prudent de Moraes, in Ln/. ; the 
Maria Jose, in Bella Vista; and two other ones in Bra/, and Carnio. 



* 



Railways, navigation, etc. — Even in this regard S. Paulo is 
one of the first States of Brazil. Xot long ago a Brazilian writer 
said : « In the Brazilan federation the State in whieh private initia- 
tive got ahead of the one of the other States, as to the develoi)nient 
of their railways, is S. Paulo. » Notwithstanding, we must note that 
that movement which is the advance agent of the progress of the 
old province, took place, without precipitation, at the proportion 
that the farmers arms were extending the coffee plantations whieh 
cover vast tracts of land with their thick branch and foliage, as a 
proof of the fecundity of the Brazilian soil in that I'cgion. 

There are in this State 4.13() kilometres of railway, of wliich 
only 1.1 IC) kilometres are railways belonging to the Federal Govi'rn- 
ment. There are ."02 locomotives, 580 passenger-cars and (t.SS.I 
freight cars. 

There are in active construction oltl kilometres of railway tracks. 

Here is tin; general table of the railway lines in the State of Sao 
Paulo : 

General Table oe Railway Lines, Both Federal 
AND Belonging to the State , in S. Paulo 





DKSIO NATION 


KKIIKRAL 
CONl'.KSSION 


STATE 
CONCKSSION 


TOTAL 


Itiiiiniii^ 


li 

I.IK) 
1.878 


k 

.■>.0'20,llHt 

.■|t;,(Mio 

280,000 


k 

i . 1 :((). 10(1 


In ('.(iiisM 

Colli r;ict< 

:iiiil II 


Ill-linn 

il with slnilii's |)i-i>si-iili>(l 

il ()lrs('lilc(l .... 

Totals. . . 


.".ic.oon 
2.i:i8,oon 




2.fl0i 


:^.oi«,ioo 


O.lil 0.100 



liut till' following table furnished ns b\- .Mr. S. das Neves, a ci\il 
engineer, is a better proof of the value of the S. I'anlo railways : 



— ui — 





VKAR 1900 




INt;OMK liXPKVSKS ' IIAI AMI 

1 


5. Paulo Rail may . . 

Paulisia 

Sorocabana e It nana . . 

Araraquara 

Itatibense 

U. F. Campineiro . . . 
C. .\. Funileiisp .... 

Diiniont 

l{c'zeiide-Bo(>aina. . . . 

Bananal 

Dourado 

Mogyaiia 

Bragantina 


20.1 22:02 iSG80 

22.0I4:918$890 

9.675:;i41§780 

22rj:953S360 

144:GG7$530 

2.'i2:239S030 

73:322S()90 

22.-;: 1 80S 100 

49: 1088420 

G.'i:435SGuO 

18:.578$.^i20 

1 7.544:5488701 

376:5o2:Si50 


9.IGG:098SG0O 

8.93i:499S702 

G.GG9:98GS820 

177:456$600 

106:428S026 

2lo:9l4S.i24 

74:94«$990 

I5G:48GS300 

53:8978484 

Gl:8328G:i9 

20:9758850 

9.430:0578572 

295:816$79i 


l0.9:i5:il2G80K(l 

13.(180: 41 98 1K« 

5.G05::i;i489G0 

49;51G87G<) 

38:2398304 

3G;32485(i() 

Def. 1:G2G8900 

88:0938800 

Def. 4:7898004 

5:0008950 

Def. 8:5958330 

7.908:5118129 

80:7558558 


Total . . . 


70.5.S9:852S121 


54.755:8148859 


55.806:0338329 



These figures went away up in 1903 in the same roads, presenting 
the following totals : 

Incomes 84.293:6588280 

Expenses 31.998:0008695 



Balance 



52.295:6578585 



Besides its railways S. Paulo maintains some navigation li- 
nes : the Mogy-Guassu (60 kilometres); the Ribeira de Iguape 
(15 1 kilometres) ; the Piracicaba and Tiete rivers ones, not speaking 
of the steamers foi' the coastwise navigation, starting from Santos, 
the outlet of the State. 



* 
* * 



Police force and Charities Department. — The police force 
of S. Paulo is the best organized in the whole country. It is formed 
by a brigade composed of two infantry battalions, a cavalry com- 
pany, an organization of civic guardsmen, a firemen department, 
with a section of nurses for public aid and ambulance service in the 
Capital and two infantry battalions to do police duty in the interior. 

There are in all 5.000 men under the command of a colonel of the 
Federal army. 

The uniforms are first class ones, and they are armed with Mau- 
mser rifles. The civic guardsmen do their police duty gencrully unar- 



— u;i- — 

0(1 only boarino- tlx' police badge and by tlic selection of tbese 
men, and tlieii" good beliavior while discharging their duties, this 
organization enjoys moral authority towards the i)eople. 

lltlicic is a South Ameri<'an State or ju'ovince where Sanitary 
sciv ii-es and public aid are a reality, this State oT IS. Paulo is the 
one. Not long ago an Kalian ])ublication said about this brancli of 
public service : « The Slate ofS. Paulo has a sanitary service (ohich 
am he comjinrcd with that of any other country even of those aui- 
sidcred more advanced i). 

Theri! is a i)ei"manent corporation oi' Sanitary jjolicc, conijxjsed 
of physicians, well i)aid, inspectors and assistants, who keep a close 
watch in the C.'apital and princi])al cities. There is a Sanitary code 
regulating and deciding all the questions relating to public health. 
There arc several establishments installed like in Europe, as the 
Seroterapic Institute, the Bacteriological Institute, the Chemical 
and Broraatological Analysis Laboratory, the Isolation Hospital, 
the Demographic Hospital, the Central Disinfectory, the Pharma- 
ceutical Laboratory, the Pasteur Institute and others, placing thus 
S. Paulo the first on the list of the States having the best Sanitary 
organization. 

As to public aid, properly said, we must mention the following 
establishments not needing any details, as it is well known the care 
that presides the management of public services : Charity Hospital, 
Insane Asylum, hospitals in all the cities of the inte«-ior of the State, 
like : Bananal, Casa Branca, Campinas, Frfinca, Iguape. Guaratin- 
gueta , .Tacar^^hy, Lorena, Mogy das Cruzes, Pindamonhangaba, 
Piracicaba, S. Carlos do Pinhal, Santos, Silveiras, Taubatc, Itu. 

iNnusTitv, I'KODiu'TioN, ("o>rMF; KCE. — Tlic most advanced State of 
Brazil as to ils manufacturing indiistiics, I'xccpting llu' ('ai)italol" 
the Ivei)ubli(', is y(;t S. Paulo. Its factories multiply tlunnsclvcs in a 
progression and \ai'icty really I'cmarkablc. The number of fact(U*y 
bauds, men, women and children at present working in S. Paulo is 
more than no.UOO. 

There are factories of the most xai'ied industry, mostly movecl by 
steam, a considerable number l)y electricity, others l)y hydraulic 
power, etc. i^vei'Nthing is worth noting iVom the hirgc sugar I'acto- 
ries of I'ii-acicaba, Hal'fard, Mugcnio A rtagas, to those of mineral 
wat(M-s, wines, vinegar, ])erfumes, chocolate, starch, biscuits, l)ccr. 
preserves. In ilic li ne of glassware, crockery, cr\slals, bollles, etc., 



— t«r> — 

tlio maiiiifacturers of 8. Paulo imposed tliomsclvos to the iJiazilian 
markets by the superiority of their goods. The works in marble, 
tiles, pipes, enamel, bricks, canm)t be exceeded. There are several 
important cement factories, we will mention only, however, the 
Rodovalho one, the products of which have won fame. The threa- 
ding mills, cotton, silk and wool are imi)()rtant and there are also in 
the Capital two large coffee-bags factories known as Pciitcuda with 
about 1.000 hands. In this threading mills line there are : the Nossa 
Senhora da Ponte, in Sorocaba, with 500 hands; the Mooca; the 
Prudent, with 200 hands ; the Santa Rosalia, moved by electricity ; the 
S. Roque, with 500 hands ; the Del Acqua, in Osasco; the S. Hei-nar- 
do; the Reyman R. & Co., also in S. Bernardo; the Votorantin. in 
Sorocaba; the S. Martinho and others. Working in furniture we 
mention : the Santa Maria ; Laverias; Carlos Lohol & Co.; Kdward 
AValler, school furniture; Brothers Reffinotte, also school and 
domestic furniture; Antonio Masso, show-cases and closets; Almei- 
da Guedes and others. 

The breweries are : the Antartica Paulista, one of the most 
important in South America. Its buildings occupy 8.000 square 
metres and produces four million litres of beer. The Bavaria brewery 
is as important as the Antartica. 

It is not necessary to give account of the factories one by one, it 
suffices to give the names of the most important ones : One arainina 
threading mill, (the only one of its kind in South America); 1 glass 
lapidation; 1, soap and grease; 1, blank books; 2, looking-glasses 
and crystals; 1, toys; 2, shoe blacking; 7, shoes; 1, musical instru- 
ments, (adopted by all the bands in the State); 1, statues; 1, pianos; 

1, fruit flour; 5, book binderies; 1, nails; 5, leather tanning; 
5, sweets; 4, sugar refineries; 2, fine soap; 1, artificial flowers; 

2, chemical products; several, coffee roasting; 1, bronze foundry; 
1, bells and brass articles; 1, hats; 1, sanitary pipes and tiles; 

0, vegetable oils ; 2, flour mills; 1, slippers; 2, sawung mills; 1 , cement 
and crockery; several distilleries; 1, canned goods; 2, powder; ;i, 
agricultural implements; 1, matches; o, ready made clothing; 

1, glassware and bottles; 1, marble articles and lime; 1, children's 
food; 2, string and ropes; 4, gloves; 1, paper; 1 , priests apparel ; 

2, apparatus for water and sewerage; 2, pictures frames: 1, card- 
board ; 7, tinplate goods; 3, trunks; 1, lead pipes: 3, iron works; 
2, mineral waters; 6, men's clothing: <.», brooms; 1, baskets; ■{, food 
products; 1, awnings ; 6, matresses , 1, candles; 2, optical instru 
ments: 3, economical stoves; 3, straw or cane furniture ; 2 pulp 
making; 1, carbon sulphureto; 2, candy. All these factories are me- 



- ter, — 

clianical ones. There are many others, smaller ones, all through the 
different cities of the State. 

Coffee. — The great strength of S. Paulo rests on the powerful, 
ample basis of its agriculture, the productive energy of which has no 
l)arallcl in the United States of America. The w calthy i)roducti\ ity 
of the soil got for the coffee a reign , as it can never have in 
Asia, Africa, Central America, and even in some of the Brazilian 
States. 

S. i*auh) knew coffee half a century ago, but that cultivation 
began to receive impulse when the railways spread west-ward 
in 1825. 





CdlliH; lariii-lumse tii tlie wcsl ol' .s. l';mi(i 



The initiators of tliis concjuest were Brazilians , natives of 
S.Paulo, with which they gave a prominent place to Brazil in the 
woild interchange, assuring for it a kind of monopoly of ihat 
precious product. 

From that date the production is for ever increasing. The far 
mors, all Brazilians, in the beginning used the African slaves to 
woi-k lIicirgroiUHls. hi ISSS lli(> slaves were free and lliework Ix'gaii 
lo lie, doiH! hy I'iuropean immigiauts, niosl of llieiii llalians. The 
latter is a good inimigranl. 

A iJfa/.iiiaii, a iialive o\' llie M inas Stale, called I )iiiiionl . w enl 



> 1 



COFFEE EXPORTS 

FROM THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCING COUNTRIES 
Annual avera^^es by ihntisand baf^s wei^fliin^r do kilos puc/i 



BRAZIL 



AMERICAN COlMRUvS 



ASIA 



Java 





875 



r^ 



625 



IM^ 



500 



1350 



i50 




000 



675 



505 



I.X«HI'*W&^»nO 



825 



U5 



\. -"////'• 




3750 



1365 



990 



495 



635 



U 

60 




5080 



WOO 



1135 



400 



630 



n 

25 



375 



310 



U 



no 



U 

250 



Scale 1 mm to iu,ooo bags. 



away west in this State and there established the largest coffee 
plantation in the world. Others imitated him, though in more modest 
proportions, and to-day S. Paulo has 059.0(30.060 coffee trees of all 
ages. 

The area occupied is 300.4 1(3 alqueires and there arc yet, to be 
disposed of, in the farms that are being cultivated, 392. 115 alqueires 
of grounds appropriated for new -coffee plantations. This means, 
that without needing to come out of the region where coffee is culti- 
vated, within the limits of that part of the State already populated 
and served by the best means of transport, it disposes of grounds 
for the production of more than the double of what it produces to-day. 

From 1880-1881 to 1884-1885, or, from 1895-1896 to 1899-1900 the 
average annual production of Brazil increased from 5.900.000 to 
9.690.000 bags, while in Africa only increased from 125.000 to 225.000 
and in Venezuela Colombia, from 2,175.000 to 3.325.000. 

Santos exported an average of 1.755.000 yearly from 1880 to 1885 
and from 1895 to 1900 this average went to 6.020.000 bags (of 60 
kilos) with an estimate for the crop of 1905-1906 of 9.500.000 bags, 
the total computation of the whole Brazil being 13.125.000 bags, and 
of the whole world 16.125.000. No doubt these figures illustrate in a 
striking way the extraordinary coffee producing capacity of Brazil. 

The development and value of the S. I'aulo coffee production 
can be better demonstrated by the graphic exposition that we 
print here. 

It will show how the coffee exports through the port of Santos 
(not computing then the exports from Rio, Bahia and Mctoria) was 
increasing while those of the producing centres of Asia and Amciica 
remained stationary or diminished, crushed by the S. Paulo compe- 
tition. 

In spite of that increase of production and exportation of coffoo, 
tlic. Stale of S. Paulo, had yet tinu* and energy to send lo the markets 
several otlier products, some in large (|nantity like rice, sugar, 
tobacco and some grain. 

\V(; hear llie noise of the discontented and pessimists cursing the 
coffee, sj)eaking of iirisis, a curious crisis that sujjports lln' e(tst of 
monnmenfal works and feeds an ac^tive commerce. 

In 1900 S. Paulo exported products of its agriculture to the value 
of 26 1. 099:577$ 1 i;;. 

Do you want to know how niueh it ex]iorted in 1901 in the lieiglil 
of the crisis? 

The official \alue oi j^oods expoited by the p(Mt of Santos dui'in^ 



— Ki9 — 

1901 was 291.07 1:103$295. These exports Irom Sunlos conn- ivoiu 
different States in these proportions : 

■'>• Paulo i27f;.0(;():i>l«.sO().. 

Minas Goraes i:;.7-Jil:(i:;H.s;(;!)f) 

<'<»>'•'»/■ MH:ll.-,^(i(K) 

Other States 0(5:7 I5S000 

Total. . . 29l.974:l05S2fl5 
These figures would go over :300.000:000$0UU if we should add to 
them the not small amount of goods that go to Rio de .Janeiro 
instead of Santos by the Central of Brazil railway. 
xVnd the manufactured products? 

The principal port by which S. Paulo exports its goods is San- 
tos, one of the best of the coast because of its docks and appa- 
ratus for loading and unloading. 

During 1903 entered this pout : 



STEAM SHIPS 



.NATIONALITIES 



German . 

Austrian , 
Argentine. 

Brazilian . 

Belgian . 

French . , 
Spanish 
English 

Italian . . 

Russian , 



Total 



Quantity TONS REGISTER 1 CREW 



137 

15 

5 

303 

■i 

77 

18 

102 

oo 

1 



807 



280.726 

22.388 

3.773 

178.475 

8.906 

1.38.180 

32.569 

348.604 

117.885 

1.210 



1.132.716 



SAILING SHIPS 



German .... 
Americain. . . . 
Brazilian . . . . 

Danish 

'Spanish . . . . 
English . . . . 
Russian .... 
Swede-Norwegian . 
Pontoons .... 

Total 



3 

4 

42 

2 



1 

8 
124 



196 



2.357 
5.020 
2.814 

582 
2.681 
3.220 

578 
5.569 



5.886 

539 

105 

12.128 

152 

4.432 

1 .204 

6.986 

4.075 

9.1 



35.530 



•16 
55 

267 
19 
50 
77 
8 
81 



18.621 



603 



— +711 — 

The loa(lin<>; and unloading- of goods on the Santos quay, during 
that 3'ear was l.li7..S.">7 tons against TOO/.tri in lUOU. The Custom 
House revenue was : 

190") 30.o03:iiriS0()0 

inOi r.-2.9."io:Gins(inii 

VM) 5(i.82-4::«.iS(iOO 

Always increasing, always progressing ! 

The Brazilian flag during HX)3 had an increase oT ;><) ships, 
20.000 tons of goods more than the preceding year in the port ol 
Santos, 




S;mtos. — Hus|iil;il of S;uit;i ('.;is;i ili- Misericdrdiii 



TiiR iMMKiUATiox. — The cause of the groat development 
S. Paulo has had, is pi'incii)ally due to the immigralion of luirojx^iu 
blood which has activated its general ciiculat ion lately . Tliis great 
transfusion of l''m-opeiin hlood gave to tlic woik of S. Paulo a strong 
im])ulse. 

'^riie aspect of t lie ( 'apital of S. Pnulo is to a ceitain e\tenl tlic 
aspect of an l-lnropean city, with its types, customs ;ind coiiifoit. 

The sam<' happens llii'oiigli all the interior. 

From IS','7 to I'.IDO S. Paulo received no less ilum '.Ml'. ».•,';{() inmii 
grants from l-'.uropc. i ncliniiiit; l.".M.*,','r) t liird class passengei-s. Ahoul 
seven tenths of these wcr*' Italians. 



— 1-71 - 

(( On account of its tiM-ritoriul sm-race, no oilier i-c^ion in Soiiili 
xVmerica received so much immigration, » said Dr. Kugcnio Lciex re, 
of the S. Paulo Agriculture Department, and added : u The; Arg(!n- 
tine Republic with 2.885.620 scpiare kilometres of territory received 
from 1857 to 1899, only 2.504.391 immigrants, which is less than one 
per square kilometre, The State of S. Paulo during the same; time 
with a surface of 250.000 square kilometres received in jjioportion 
four times more than Argentine. » 

The efforts employed by S. Paulo to attract to its territory an 
efficient current of immigration from Euroj)e, were such that in 
1871 from a Budget of 1.500:000^000, it devoted an appropriation of 
r)00:000$000 to the immigration service alone. 

During the years 1865 to 1898 the entry of immigrants in groups 
of five years was as follows : 

Years Immigrants 

I860 lo 1869 1.160 

1870 » 1874 1. 273 

1873 » 1879 10.133 

1880 )) 1884 13.899 

1883 » 1889 168.289 

1890 » 1894 320.513 

1893 » 1899 420.296 

Until to-day the percentage of those who go away is 34 */- "/c 
The current of immigration is always in the increase, and the 

State does not spare sacrifices] to keep on increasing it. Let us see 

the statistics of 1900-1901. 

Immigrant passengers. 

Years. Entering. Sailing. 

1900 27.639 58.141 

1901 75.843 40.707 

Of these immigrants 11.693 in 1900 and 22.133 in 1901, came to 
S. Paulo at their own expense and this proves that the sacrifices the 
State has made could be dispensed with and the European immi- 
gration current will keep on coming of their own free will and at 
tlieir expense. 



The CrriES of the State of S. Pailo. — No other State pre- 
sents such a large number of beautiful cities as S. Paulo does. We 
can even say that some of its interior towns are moi-e advanced . far 
more so, than certain capitals of the States of Brazil. 

It has 22 cities illuminated by electricity and four by gas. 



— 472 — 

There are 25 places in the State with Water Works, l\)ur others 
^vith this department under way, placing the pipes under ground, 
three aniplilying tiieir service, and 11 with plans approved only, 
awaiting the arrival of the material which is furnished by the State. 

Have sewerage service : the Capital, Santos, Campinas, Arai'a- 
quara, Jahu, llibeirao Preto, Piracicaba, Itapira, liraganra, Monte- 
Mor, ten places in all. With sewerages initiated and working on its 
installation there are Rio Claro, Sorocaba, Pirassununga, Taul)at('', 
Limeira, and Amparo, six in all. With approved plans, eight : Espi- 




SjiiildS — 7 Selt'inlnd Sliicl 



rito Santo do Pinhal, (Juarctingueta, Lorena. Botucatii, Mogy da^ 
('ruses, S. .lose do Rio Pardo, Ca(;apava and Tietc. 

Mogy-Mirini has the works initiati'd but suspiMultHl for several 
years. 

The MKilerial of ghissy eroekery mass furnished by the State to 
the localities which are going to do this sanitary work, is all of 
home manufaef Mi'e, and in its largest i)art made in S. I'aulo. 

Nearly every one of the cities al)ove mentioned have i)ul)lie buihl- 
ings of first class, hospitals, railway stations, newspapers, thea- 
t I'cs, facl<»ries, etc. 

W'e will speak only of the most inii)oitanl ones. 



Santos. — Those who go ii-oiii liio Lo the South, always follow a 
sea-coast lull of curves, with several little bays, some of them destin- 
ed to perform a great role in the future, like Ubatuba, S. Sebastiao, 
all that coast shaded by high and uniform elevations of the Serra do 
Mar (sea ridge of mountains, which looks like an enormous wall de- 
fending the coast in all its extension till tlic flout of the Bertioga 
bar where a large tract of the continent, separated from it, opens 
with the name of Guaruja, a sheltered passage lined with small 




Santos. — Heals C.i'iilru Porliifjiiese building 



islands, at the bottom of which is Santos, the oi'4Mn of :i])]M-o])ria- 
tion and expropriation of all the S. Paulo State. 

Jt is its safety valve. 

It is not the largest city of the Slate, it is pei'haps ilic third, oi- 
fourth as to the nuuilxM- of inhabitants. As a city, and as to its 
urbane oi-ganization, its function of ln'ing an ontb't (»f the enoi-iiious 
j)i-o(ln<-tion of the S. Panlo State, it has won a great i iii|M»riauir 
before all the others. Besides, there are the hydraulie works built in 
its port, i)laeing it at the head of all othei- lii-azilian ports, as to the 
regularity of its coimnereial operations, cm do no W'ss than incirasr 
that importanee, so that, as to tlifhnll^ of iis woiM inicichange, 
Santos has Ijecoiiic one of Ihc mo-l noled |iorl-- of Soiilli Vuu'i'ifa. 



- I7r. — 

In Brazil is only second to liio dc Janeiro. It is S. Paulo's dooi- al 
the ocean. 

The city extends itself over plains with bcanlilul sea-slion^s like 
.rose Menino with beantiiul j-esidenees, pictiiresciiu! huihlings , a 
splendid hotel, which looks as if stolen from some beautiful Kiiro- 
pean summer resort. The oldest part of the city is the one between 
the docks and Quin/e de Xovembro Street. It is tortuous, filled with 
lanes as in the old cities. The new part of the city spreads itself 
towards the South, South-east and towards the enormous areas con- 
quered from the sea by the Erapreza das Docas, around the nice 
hill erowmed by the Nossa Senhora de Mont-Serrat church. 

In the business streets, especially Quinze de Novembro one, 
filled with banks, offices, stores, bar-rooms, is a whirlwind of 
human waves, running here and there, as the largest part of the 
business is done between the arrival and departure of the S. Paulo 
train, because the majority of merchants go to S. Paulo in the eve- 
ning, running away from the heat and the dust of Santos. 

From 10 in the morning to 4 in the afternoon is the most 
earnest activity, people do not run , they fly. The sweat dampens 
the collars, the converses are resumed to the exchange of monosyl- 
lables, as it is necessary that everything be finished before the last 
train starts. Every foreigner notices on the first days, this social 
aspects of the city impression, thus translated by a writer : — « the 
city has the appearance of a person just finishing and closing all 
his business for a long trip, for a rest, for a vacation, on the eve of 
a holyday season. There is not that business almost regulated and 
calm, of the Brazilian commercial markets. There everything is done 
in a hurry, in anxietj', in earnest , it must be a fever if it is not an- 
guish. 

Through the other streets work is disputed with the same eager- 
ness as in the Quinze de Novembro sti^eet. Heavy four wheel trucks 
run here and there overloaded with bags of coffee, and from the 
railway to the docks these wagons cross our way with all their haste 
and noise threatning running over us. At the door of the storage 
houses the horses have their rations of straw while the trucks are 
loaded. Herculean Portuguese and negroes, sweating, half naked, 
barefooted ^o about running in small but swift steps with one or 
two bags on their backs over their heads from the storage house to 
the truck at the sound of a singing tune monotonous and savage 
like. We hear the noise of the wooden shovels handling the coffee 
in the storage houses, » This is in the active centre of the city. Let 
us see the other places. 



On the Avay to that beautilul sea-sliore « Jose Meniiio » there are 
extended in parallel with each other two wide and long avenues, — 
Xebias and Anna Costa, with a length of nearly four kilometres, 
well paved and illuminated with carbonic gas like the rest of the 
cit3^ Pretty streets cross these avenues now only partlj^ built and 
which will in the future be gradually taking active part in the mo- 
vement of the central districts. IVamcars overloaded with passen- 
gers take to this region of rest the people that ended their duties, 
and come back running unceasclessly through the business streets, 
filled with noise of the wagon-wheels , ambulant venders and 




S. Vicente. 



Monuineiit of ll)e -ith century of Brazil, civclcd wIk-ic 
Martim AtTonso laiidod 



newsboys. There in that district move around busy in their work 
the anonymous workmen. 

The Kmpre/.a das Docas wliieh built the improvement of (he i)ort 
and nuide (lie sanitary rehabilitation of Santos, spoiled a little the 
beauty of their work, building ugly storage houses covered with /.inc 
in the entire front of the city, so that not only the city loses some- 
what in i(s appearance l)iit those stoi-age houses prevent the air from 
circulating in the streets that lead there. 

But as « every evil is the beginning of good », that so little com- 
fortable preeminence impelled the inhabitants of Santos to direct 



— 477 — 

their cares to the beautiful sea-shores : S. Vicente, Josc-Menino 
and Guam j a. 

The hitter is a sea-shore place in the style of tliose ol' tlie South 
of Europe. To go there from Santos we take a small launch and after 
a short sail, half an hour railway ride takes us to the most pictu- 
resque summer resort of South America. A sea-shore of wliite sand, 
pretty and long streets lined by chalets (wooden cottages) more or 
less of the same style, (Queen Anne cottag-es), the Casino, the large 
hotel with its wide verandah contemplating- the honest and dislant 




Santus. — S. Paulo railway staliou 



fury of the sea, that endless sea, and more pleasant than all that, the 
aristocratic circle of summer residents in light clothes - that is the 
pretty picture of that charming summer resort. 

From S. Paulo, from all over Brazil, families and tourists pay 
their visitto Guaruja the panorama of which begins to become cele- 
brated as those of European resorts in travellers albums, postal 
cards and magazines. 

That charming and bright place by the sea, with its light and 
beautiful cottages , surrounded by gardens , remind one of the 
most picturesque scenes of Switzerland. It has also all the poetry of 



— 1.7K — 

tropical i)laces and is most accessible. Excepting during the Sea- 
shore season when the houses are all taken and there is no room at 
the hotel, any one without incurring in large expenses can visit this 
pretty corner. And the place is well fi-equented. 

The other sea-shore places are not less interesting, and lor all 
of them are rapid and easy transportation facilities. To go to 
S. Vicente, that pleasant city, there is a railway service. It is located 




Campinas. — Railway Station 



atone hour ride from Santos and has a beauliful stone monument lo 
commemorate the discovery of Brazil. 

Santos is connected with S. Paulo by a powtu-fiil i;iilway, which 
had to overtake the difference of TOO metres over the Cubatao hill in 
a series of five inclined plans, cacli of tiu>ni filled with works 
of art, tunnels and viaducts. It was a marvellons feat of luodi'iii 
engineering and it was the initiative of N'iscondc dc Mana. 

When the train starts from the bottom of the hill, our first 
thought is that the monster cannot go up thai steep hill, which rises 
with all its majestic proportions filkMl willi al»ysscs of thicaicning 




r 



— isn — 

vegetation. But the train goes on, advances with a group of ears, the 
landscapes run away from us, tliere are endless banana plantations 
like rough lakes by the side of the train until the first station. Then 
begins the Uphill work until Ihc third stop. Then there is the fourth 
and tlie fifth until the top where from through a level road the train 
takes us to S. Paulo. It is a pretty scenery all along the road 
with houses, chui'ches, plantations, factory chimneys, monuments, 
woods, l^ridges over a river, all that variety of landscape that 
charms the eye of the traveller without tiring his brain. 

Campinas. — It was once the most important city of S. Paulo, 
that beautiful city of Campinas, and it still keeps one of the first 
places in the State. It was formerly called S. Carlos, and took the 
present name after the green fields that surround it. It was elevated 
to the rank of city in 1842. It is the seat oi" a most rich coffee dis- 
trict. According to census of twelve years ago there were 33.000 inha- 
bitants, to-day there must be lojOUO or more. A railway line con- 
nects it with the Capital of the State. It has a learned and cultured 
jjopulation, with several institutes of instruction. Its \\ide streets 
carefully swept, with magnificent gas illumination, are lined with pa- 
laces and fine nmnsions. A Brazilian writer wrote about it as follows: 
« But what is to be admired most there is the neatness of the streets, 
and even in the residences there is to be noted good hygienic 
conditions and cleanliness. The yards are cemented, they can be 
easily swept and washed, thus avoiding dirt and infiltrations, with 
all its bad consequences. 

^^'itll that sky of a perpetual blue, and a complete silence, the city 
has the aspect of a wealthy spot sheltering an opulent court. » 

It is probably due to that aristocratic appearance that they call 
it Princeza do Oeste (Princess of the West) and must be a real i)rin- 
cess the city that has the re(iuirements to ennoble it that Canipinas 
has. Were it not for S. Paulo, Campinas would be a splendid capital 
which would not lower its greatness. l']xeellent water, several 
newspapers, a nice (Jymnasium, three- libraries, (ramway service, 
are all elements of j)rogress to be fornuMl in Campinas. 

From among its best buildings we admired the S. Carlos theatre; 
the large vegetable market; the Com])aiihia Paulista railway station, of 
nornuin style, with a square tower at the side, ending in a pyramid, 
the main body of which having two floois and side galleries; the 
City Hall, of simple but noble lines; the Nossa Senhorada Coneeiciio 
chuich of Koman Stxle, imitating tlu^ (iloria Church in IJio, and 
oue of I lie largest aud liehest churches in Hra/.il , iu ;i pul>lic 
s(juai'e with four I'ows of trees carefully treated; the Correa de Mollo 



— 1-ni — 

School, anolhcf liiu; jxihlic l)iul(lin<;-, oT inodiM-n iigriciilttiri; ; (lie 
Slaiij^htci- lioiisc, one; of (he best of its kind in S. Paulo; the public 
garden and race track. Tlicsi! two are nnoiHi a \isit of the lou- 
risls as \v(dl as tlu^ l)uildini;- of the Lyceum of Arts and Ti-adcs and 
that of the Italian lieneficcnt Society, large an«l of coiinthian slylir 
with a ('(Mitral body and two wings. 

Ami'ako. — 'i'liis is one of the most progressive citi(!S in tlio 
conntrN'. It has ;5(). ()()() inhabitants with all modern imi)rovcm(}ntK 
which can give name to a ('apital. And this is the Capital, we may 
say it, of an opulent municipium. 




(lainpiiias. — faiiorania ol a part of the (lity. i:> Maio e Costa Agiiiar Street 



The agriculture which is the principal clement of life of this 
municipium consists in coffee. The export of this product in 1900 
was of 2;3.351.00o kilograms and the imjiort of goods in 1<S<)9 was 
10.512. 102 kilograms. 

^^'e were told in that city that its name — Araparo — (protection) 
came from an historical circumstance : several families (juitc 
poor, a certain day wont to that plac(^ looking for protecti(m and 
shelter that that rich and pretty spot could offer them. And there 
remained and prospered. It was a beautiful place. From the city on 
one side could be seen a ridge of mountains known as Caraquata, 
rich and fertile as Brazilian mountains generally are, and on the 



— 482 — 

otlier side the waters, tlic river, that as Father Bazan said, are lor 
tlie landscape what the (>yes are for tlie face. 

It is a new city. In 18"2S it was a simple hamlet. It became a city 
in 180."). 

It is 135 kilometres away from S. Faiilo. The hills surrounding 
it, all full of cultivation, are charming. Having progressed much in 
the last ten years it can present to the visitor some beautiful build- 
ings, as for instance : 

The parish-church , a structure preceded of four corinthian 
columns, ending in a front with a statue, two square towers and 
l)olygonal pyramids, a central door and three windows fill tlic front 
of the building, and in the towers are niches for statues. 




(".aiii|iiiias. — I.yccMini of Arts and Mainifactures 



The City Hall, a magnificent building has in its front rich 
columns, in the two floors and upon the acrotei-ia a little steeple 
with a clock and bells, symbolisms hM'l by tradition to the muni- 
ci]>alities. 

'Hat Am)>aro Hospital is one of the best wc have seen. Two 
Ivxiics of two stories each, connected l)y a central pa\ illion in f(»rm 
of portico, the entrance to which is made by a pretty stairway, all in 
the ionic style, is the exterior of the building; in the interior, as all 
mod(;rn liosi)itals, has wards ami)ly aired, full of light and with 
complete hygienic and anti-sceptic conditions. 

'I'hci'C! is a large and pi-etty school in a two story building, with 
two distinct bodies, gei'man style, with terraces and pa\ illions at 
the sides, forming all a beautiful whole. 



— 483 



The Joao Caetano theatre, with a pretty front, two floors, is a 
small but artistic theatre with 600 seats capacity. 

Tlie electric light works, are in a solid building. Tlicy i)ro\ ide 
the motive power for the electric lights of the city. 

Tlie street that pleased us most was Treze dc iMaio , wide, 
with nice buiklings, of Italian architecture, as well as business 
liouses. 




Caiiipinas. — CJiiurli (il .\. I), da Coiifeiran 

The public garden is pretty and good care is taken of, witli works 
of art, pavillions, etc. 

The city is connected witli the outside by means of the Mogyana 
railway. 

PiRACicABA. — It is on a river, as it happens with the majority 
of Brazilian cities. This river is nice and clear, with falls, the 
inliabitants taking full advantage of them. 

Its river is the motive power for the light and moving of Piraci- 



k 



— +ftt — 

cabu raotorics. Thus is tluit an industrial city. Its topo^i-apliy 
is regulai-, the buildin^^s are modern ones, it looks like a ehess- 
board. Its publie <;arden is very pretty. There is oreat animation 
and material proj^ress in the city. It must have :{.".<hki inhabitants. 
Ten years a^o when the last census was taken, it had l::.l'.M nial.'s 
and J-J.nTl lenuiles, not inebidin<; the i)o])ulation of Santa Mai ia 
district, \\hi(di really is not city. 

It has pretty buildings both i)ublic and private, as : 

The f'oraciio de Jesus'church, of Roman Style, in a large severe 




(iii;iralingiii'l;i. — View (t[ a jKirt of Hit' (lily aiirl [lurl 



body in two sections, with statues in the front. It has a classic and 
harmonious appearance. 

The Methodist clnu'ch. with its stcci)lc in llic form itf a coUossal 
scniry-box and surrounded b\ palm-ti'ces. 

The high school, new two story building, Italian style, with a 
fine gai'den and artistic railing in friuii. 

The gi'ammar school, a pretty liuilding of a solter and lianiio 
nious archileel ui-e, golhie style; it is a proof of the care and gene- 
rosity will) wliieli S. Paulo installs its institutes for instruction. 

I'iracicaha has ^ome notable factories, moxcd 1>\ steam and hy- 
draulic piiwer, llireadiug mills, hrewcries. (lislinerics, etc. \\ C cite 
a sugai- factory, ])rodueing annuall\ '.i(t,ti(i() i)ags of sugar of lio kil«)s 
(jacli. it is a large huilding with two chimneys. The d Arclhusinu » 



— 48B — 

is II cotton mill with all modern improvcmcnls with a valiiahlc pro- 
duction both because of the quantity and quality. 

GiARATixGUETA. — Thosc wlio travcl between S. J'aido and Rio 
see at the kilometre ii°30() of that line, a j^ay city, the houses of which 
lye reflected in the trembling crj^stal of the river watci-s. There is a 
long- red bridge over this river. This city isGuaratingueta, l)uilt in JtlH 
though it onlj' became in fact a city in 18M, two centuries afterwards. 

To-day "it is a most active commercial city as well as an indus- 
trial and agricultural one, with excellent ])iiblic l)iiii(liiigs and private 
houses. 




S. Joao da Boa vista. — Place of recreation 



It could not be otherwise considering the magnificent location 
where it is between two commercial emporiums, the two largest 
markets of Brazil — Rio and S. Paulo — and connected with V)()tli 
by railway. 

It has a beautiful climate at a height of 530 metres above the sea 
level, wrapped in extensive coffee plantations, another green sea, 
which grows larger every year around tlie city. 

Among its principal streets is Quinze de Novembro, wide, a little 
cm-ve, w ith nice private houses and commercial stores. 

Its City Hall is not worthy of note ; it is a solid tw o story struc- 
ture, with seven window s in the upper story and three in the lower 
one, and has a somewhat decorated front. 



— 486 — 

The church , the high tower of which can be seen from the train 
is one of the finest churches in the interior. Its market is a lively 
one and kept clean. The streets are wide and well illuminated. The 
movement and animation of the people, everything there gives the 
city the right to be called one of the first cities of S. Paulo. 

Its population grew rapidly. By the statistics of 10 years ago it 
had 1)0.000 inhabitants, to-day it has no less than J5.<X)0, of course, in 
all the mimicipium. 

SoRocABA. — S. Paulo having sijveral cities purely industrial 
ones, hardly will be able to present another like Sorocaba, excepting 
the Capital. Of its 30.000 inhabitants at least one tenth or about 
oOOO devote themselves to the factory work. Located in a large hole 
in the soil it takes advantage of its river, fiill of falls, known as «. tlw 
river that dig's holes » and uses it as motive power for the factories, 
cotton mills, etc. 

Its public garden is the most picturesque in the whole State. It 
has in the centre a pavillion or band-stand, country style but quite 
pretty. Its church has also a countr^iike aspect, old architecture, 
quite simple. We are not sure but we think it dates back the time 
Sorocaba was a village in 1600. 

Its streets somewhat tortuous, as those of all the old cities, are 
lined with nice private buildings and stores. 

Dr. Moreira Pinto twoy ears ago wrote about this city as follows: 

« Sorocaba is to-day transformed into an industrial city, business 
there now is taking a new turn, new houses built in large numbers 
show a live awaking. 

It has four threading mills, leather tanning works, brick factory, 
hats, shoes, and other factories, and these are the best proofs of the 
new economical feature of the municipiuui. 

Besides the lime uianufacture which is done in large scale, and 
preparation of marble at Dr. Nicolao \'ergueio's farm, there is 'the 
culture of vines and making of wine, the latter finding easy market. 

Yet, the business of Sorocaba preserves a more vast field 
than that of the boundary lines of the municipium. All that immense 
region at South-east of the State of S. Paulo until the frontiers of 
the I*arana State gets its supply from Sorocaba that is tiiulcnialilv 
the most inipoitant luarket ou this side of S. Paulo. '> 

It has a ('harity hospital, a fine ])ublic theatre, lu^wspaptu'^, ma- 
sonic lodges, the Sorocaba railway, water sui)ply, olectrieal illumi- 
nation, etc. 

It produces coffee iu gr(nit abuudauce. it exports eattU*. sugar, 
lime, etc. It i)roduces grain for the consumption of the wlu)le uumiei 



— 487 — 

pium and even exports a little to the neij^^liborhood. This district is 
no doubt rich in minerals and there is the Ipanema iron foundry, 
producing iron of a quality superior to that of the best foreign mi- 
nes. Before the discovery of this important layer whicli feeds that 
factory, several exploitations of gold and silver had been made in 
the Aracoyaba hill. The iron foundry is situated very near fhis<>ity, 
being connected with it by Uie Sorocaba raihvay which has a local 
station there. 

PiXDAMONHAXGABA. — When a long name like that is given in 
Brazil, Avhat is not uncommon, people generally say : — n the name 
is larger than the person ». In this case we cannot say that the name 
is larger than the city. Large as the name is, the city exceeds it, 
progressing with a speed that honors the S. Paulo State. It is also by 
the Central Railway of Brazil road, 170 kilometres from the Capital 
of the State. Just like Guaratingueta it is built on the banks of the 
Parahyba river. It has an excellent climate, 540 metres above the 
sea level , on an elevated ground opening the horizon of ridges of 
mountains. 

Its population is, perhaps about 25.000 inhabitants. The census 
of 1892 gave it 17.542 of which 8.744 males and 8.798 females. It was 
made a city by provincial law n" 17, the 3rd of April 1849. Its princi- 
pal products are : coffee, rice, beans, corn, sugar, brandy, hides and 
cattle. It comprises the Xossa Senhora do Bom Successo de Pinda- 
monliongaba church. Its Sete de Setembro street is pretty, though 
somewhat inclined, with a fine perspective with one and more 
floors. The Francisco Romeiro public square is most beautiful. 

LouEXA. — This city, as the previous one, is bathed by the waters 
of the Parahyba river, and in the !280th. kilometre of the Central of 
Brazil railway, not far, then, from Guaratingueta. From there starts 
the small railway now in construction to Campos do Jordao, where 
the War office built a military Sanatarium. 

Lorena has a charming panorama, has newspapers and good illu- 
mination. Its parish-church is pretty, middle age Italian style, 
with a high steeple and surrounded by palm trees. 

A building that awakes the attention of the tourist is the jail and 
police barracks , with wide lines Italian style without losing 
anything of its austerity and solidity. 

The school, however, has not the architectonic beauty of those 
of other cities of S. Paulo. It is a large building like a plain storage 
house, in the style of the houses in the old metropolis square and 
windows on all sides. A fine building in Lucena is its sugar factory, 



— 488 



two stories high, and in tlie main structure has a square chimney. 
Jahu. — By the Estrada Paulista railway at ]'2 hours ride li-om 
S. Pauh), there is Jahu. It is the seat of a coffee munieipium, a <;reat 
Ijroducer. Its City Hall is a square building with two floors, simple 
but elegant, with a stairway in its front, decorated with ionic style 
columns. Its market is pretty, but of quite a different type from 
other markets we see in the interior cities. It was built with stone 
and lime but of an architecture (juite presentable. 




Jaliii. — Muiiici|)al Cliainltor 



One, of its newspapers the Corrcio dc Jahu, not loni; ago aiririiu'tl 
that that munieipium is of all others of the State, the (mic where 
more work has been done lor the cause of public instiMuMiou. 

Not long ago it had only two schools, oue tor each sex, and now 
besides private colleges it has ;>:> schools with l.d'Jl pupils. 

.lahu has ten schools united in a group called " Or. I'adiia Salles ". 
foui- isolated, iiiaiiitaiiu'd by th(^ go\ crunieul , |:; iiiaiulained by the 
MHinieipalilx . a iiiglil school niaiulaiued by llie govenuiieut, an 
Italian school directed l>\ jjrofessoi- Diaferia, a cliiiii-li school main 
(aincHi by flic vicar , another night school installed in the mason 
lodge building, one maintained l»y the Presbyterian church, one just 



— 489 — 

founded, — « the Maternal » — for litllc j^irls Irom l\v(» to five yciirs 
old. 

There is a good school Tor boys under the denoiuiiuitioii ol' 
a Atheneii Ja/iHt'/7.sc », of \vhich Dr. Doniingos Magalliaes is the 
director; another one under the direction of Dr. (Jnljiicl I'upo: and 
another one for girls directed by the Sisters ol ('li;irit_\- of S.-loscph's 
church. 

Public instruction alone costs to the niunicii)alil> |.").<)0(is(M)O. 




Tauhate. — The Catheilral 



Araraquaua. — Pretty City, G40 metres above the sea level. It 
7as progressing very rapidly, when a few years ago, the yellow fever 
visited it in spite of its height and temperature. The population of 
that region got frightened and Araraquara lost a good deal thereby. 
It is at a 10 hour railway ride from S. Paulo. D is below the Piraci- 
caba river and near a high ridge of mountains full of vegetation m 
the 401 St. kilometre of the Santos railway. 

It has a public garden, which is charming and is the pride ot the 
inhabitants of that city, with artistic arborisation, full of small little 
avenues with benches, and a metal pavillion or music-stand. 

The Matriz church is somewhat modest, notwithstanding it does 
not look bad : it is composed of a sole structure, with a nice front, 
in the centre of which is a large clock. Elevating itself on the 



— t9U — 

front a little on the inside, tlierc is a square steeple ending in a 
pyramid. 

The eityof Araraquara is at the North-west of the Capital. It com- 
prises the S. Bento de Araraquara and Boa Esperanca parishes. Its 
inhabitants devote themselves to the cultivation of coffee, sugar- 
cane, catllc raising, as well as pigs, horses and sheep which is expor- 
ted, lis population, city and niunicii)iun), is of ;il.:!'J() inhabitants. 

Ivio Claho. — As its name indicates, Kio Claro is on the Ijanks 
of a clear and picturesque river, which geographically has the same 
name of Rio Claro. It is a new city. 

S. Paulo has them in large number, and besides it makes old 
cities become new. This is a city of 20.000 inhabitants. Its streets 
are straight and wide — a model. Its public squares are embel- 
lished by palm and other trees. It has a splendid temperature and 
fresh at its 620 metres above sea level. 

It is a cit}' truly Brazilian, as it was founded after the political 
independence of Brazil. 

It has splendid private and public buildings, factories, schools, 
colleges, newspapers and others. A newspaper man writing about 
Rio Claro, as a foreigner, noted at once this circumstance ^- the 
difference between the cities built by Brazilians and those inherited 
irom Portuguese colonial times. 

'I'liis newspaper man said : (( Cities like Rio Claro are beautiful, 
because in these interior cities that are all built by Brazilians, the 
creation is more perfect. Rio Claro, is a small city of the S. Paulo 
State, a new one, with but few inhabitants, and it was born already 
w ith a perfectly modern plant : The streets by numbers, like those 
of American cities, and illuminated by electricity, and this was done 
in six years ! » 

This speed in construction , seems to be a secret of the inhabi- 
tants of vS. Paulo. 

Rio Claro develops day by day, thanks to its acti\e eonmu'ree, 
the fertility of its soil, and the good habits of activity and w(Mk of 
its citizens. 

Besides all that it has the advantage of not being far from the 
Cai)ital, only 180 kilometres. It has two lailways : the Paulista and 
Rio Clarense railways. 

Taubate. — This is one of the largest cities of S. Paulo, only 
150 kilometi-es from its Capital. Iti is located l)et\\rrii a little river 
called Covrvu) and the \v,U bank of the rarahyl)a, (lie liiuinplial rix'cr 
that bathes a good number of [\\v best cities of (he S(a(e. 



— 491 — 

Tliis name of Tanbate, so they say, comes from the indian names 
/a/7a, which means, (hamlet), and itc , wliicli means (low,. Others 
are of opinion that it comes from Taybate or Itaboatr.... 

At the North of fjiis pretty city there is thfroii^Ii inclination of 
the Mantiqueira, the tops of which can be seen from many miles 
away. Its population is of :i( ).()()(» inhabitants, and comi)rises the, 
8. Francisco das Chagas do Tanbatc parish and surroundings. 

It has gas illumination, liamways, newspapers, hotels, clubs, etc. 
Its streets are in general wide and straigld , and thci-c arc :i7 of 




I 



Taubatc'. — Co([uoiros street 

them. It also has 12 public squares and several lanes. It has about 
2.500 houses, most of them only with the ground floor, but nice 
looking, several churches, schools, oil factories, threading mills, gas 
works, etc. This is Taubate a well known city. 

The most imj^ortant of the Churches is the Matriz a large build- 
ing, simple but sober, with two towers alike. 

It has excellent water, coming through pipes from the Manti- 
queira springs to supply the population. It passes under the 
Parahyba river bed. 

Besides the tramwaj^ service in the city, by animal traction, there 
is also a steam line connecting the city of Taubate with the poetical 
suburb — Tremembe, a little village of some 1.000 inhabitants. 



— 492 — 

Iguape. — We visited tliis t-ily in May of 1U03. It is located at 
the point of the sea-arm between the continent and the narrow sea- 
island, which is in fi-ont of it (juite flat and dressed with humble ve- 
getation. \\'li('n we enter the i)ort, and we look to the city, it seems 
smaller, much smaller than it really is. 

This is the Kniporiuni of the S. I'aiilo rice exj)orts. a most motlest 
emi)oriiiiii, indeed. As a ei(y, l^uape, has nothing worth noting-. It 
is a quiet group of houses of old style construction, above the i-oofs 
of M'hich majestically rise the two towers of the Bom .lesus 
clnirch, where they hold a popular festival every year, with the 
assistance of all that mullilude of people from the neighborhood that 
come there to join the city crowds. They have then a real fine time. 

Outside of those festivals the city is a quiet one, only awaken 
into activity with the arrivals of Lloyd steamers going there to load 
rice. 

In the port, so shaded and calm we saw several small steamers 
for the fluvial navigation. 

Cananea. — At the South of Iguape is another small city 
also a port where the Lloyd steamers call at, it is Cananea. It is 
built on a ravine a little above water. It has a few dozen of houses 
with dark, old roofs, some falling, quite abandoned. "We go up to the 
city by quite a steep i-oad, which leads to the public square where is 
the church — a modest church with only a tower at one side, all 
white. In front of it is a fountain, rose color, of simple archi- 
tecture, and square in foi-m. Some boats and eanoes, do the jxti't 
work, the bar of which, a little ahead of the Bom Abrigo island is 
an awful one, with a long i-eef. 

Among the other cities of this State we cannot helj) mention- 
ing: Pirassununga ; Uibeirao Preto, which has ver.x niiich progres- 
sed; S. Carlos do Pinhal ; S. Jose do Rio Pardo, seat of a very rich 
niuni(upium; Batataes; Braganca; Descalvado; Botucatu; Itu and 
several others. We must, however, maintain ourseht's within the 
plan of the book. These references and descriptions would go very 
far, should we sjjcak about every one of the cities. We will idose (his 
chapter right here. 



— 4-94- — 



THE STATE OF PARANA 



Tliat splendid region south ot llie S. l^iiulo State , from which 
jurisdiction it was detached in 1853 to form a new province, is per- 
haps the most beautiful sjjot in the South of Brazil, if not in the 
whole of South America. It was discovered and conquered by the 
Carijos Indian tribes in 1614. 

They used to call it Para-mi, or Marann ithni looks like lite sen), 
and the Brazilians called it then Purnnn. 

Romario Martins in its « Historia do. Parana )> wrote : 

« By that time the place of S. Vicente which was made village by 
Martim Affonso was already beginning to flourish. 




I>r. Vifcnlc MiicIkmIu. — (iuvcrrinr nT l';ir;in:i 



Its inhabitants hungry for imaginary sources of riches, moved 
around, evei-y where looking loi- those inexhaustible mines of i)rt^- 
eions nuitals. 

h]ne()urage(l, then , l)y the niiml)er and by the ideal of wealth, 
ei'owds of I'orl iigiiesc^ deeichMl to go to sea , in a soiithwai'd dii-ee- 
tion, following the coast -shores of Ararapira ami Siipt>i'agiiy , and 
aftc)- a little work they siu'ceeded in going through the bar of I*ara- 
nagua, in front of the beautiful i)anorama which made them sto]) in 
ecstacy. n 



— 49B — 

Of our sea-coast States, Parana, is, after Piaiihy, the one that 
has the smallest extension of coast, with only two ports : tlie bay of 
Paranagua, — the largest of all the southei-n bays — and that of 
Guaratuba, a small bay, us \et without any commercial importance. 
But its river fronts are enormous. We can say that its territory 
was indicated by the long- courses of those streams called Parana, 
Paranapanema and Iguassu, which give it the morphology of a true 

"1 




Piiic-lree, araiiearia lirasiliensis 



island. It would be so if its population did not vindicate, in a dis- 
pute, which is alread}^ a long time being discussed, the extensive 
fields north of Santa Catharina State, till the thick ridge of moun- 
tains named Fortuna which runs like an axle parallel to the Iguassu. 
Dr. Vincente Machado is the present governor of Parana, one of 
the most liberal minded politicians and one of the most patriotic 
Brazilians of the present generation. A patriot, not in the vain sense 
of declamations, but in a practical manner, as he occupies himself a 



— IOC. — 

good deal with material progress, publie order, public instruc- 
tion, and very little or nothing with election disputes and other 
political trifles. In a short period of public life, he has already 
rendered great services to Brazil, giving iiuj)ulse to the progress of 
Parana's civilisation. Curityba owes lo him its last improvements, as 
the water works, sewerages, pavements, etc. In the interioi- he has 
heli)ed commerce, colonisation, the local industries, public instruc- 
tion which are receiving the visible benefit of his good politics of 
woi'k and action, that he has exercised in his post of political chief 
in the Parana State. 

A small part of the territory of Parana is full of villages and 
cities, here and there, in a region, lying between the sea-shore and 
the Parana-piacaba ridge of mountains, and in the South between 
the Iguassu and the Esperanca and the Cavernoso mountains. The 
large remaining area, which represents four fifths of the surface of 
the State of Parana, is still almost unexploited. 

The pixe tree. — The aspect and mild climate of Parana, some- 
times cold, going uphill, make of that part of Brazil a privileged 
mansion. Its long and green fields are the sweetest fancy of Ameri- 
can nature. Saint-Hilaire used to say that : « they were Brazil's 
paradise. » AVhat, however gives to Pai'ana an unmistakable charac- 
teristic are its pine-tree woods. These are the first curious thing of. 
Parana. The /^//je-//('c, ariuicnriu brasiliciisis is the pride of the 
fields in Southern Brazil. It is the seal of its flora sovereignity over 
tlie other regions of the continent. It is the prettiest and most useful 
of the coniferous and after the palm-tree is the most suggestive 
specimen of ornamentation of all the flora individuals in South 
America. It is a fruit-tree, it is an architectural column, it is first 
class fuel, it i^roduces most useful rosin, it is the most beautiful 
shade-maker in the vast plains it dominates, and it is above all a 
pleasui'cto the observing traveller, never mind how little of tlie poet 
and ai-tist there may be in his soul. 

It participates of tlu^ intertro])ieal and northtuu pliytology 
characters, it is a iMiropean aud American tree at one and the 
same time. Botanist did well in calling it hrusilicnsis : (he tree, as 
the lira/ilian people, is from Anieriea, yet they are from l!iii-ope. 
Thei-e is no figure which will attract more tiie ti-avellers eye, than 
th(! original pi-ofile ()( nu :iriiiic;u-i:i, rememliering oiu' of tlu)se favo- 
I'ite motixcs caMcd :iii DoiiDrnu (\n'\\ art), .lust iMia_i;inea tall ami 
vertical i)iece of lumber as if it wert' a I'olumn worked l>y the most 
minucious artists. It rises fi-om the ground nakeil, in the fields to a 
height of 25 or ;i() metres where it supports a series of branches also 



— 497 — 



naked like the collossal stem, spreaded out, a little e.irv.'d upwards 
to the contrary ol" the European pine-tn^e, and endin- i„ ^lobc-s of 
dark green crispy leaves. It looks like a candelahrinn, sometimes the 
"stem divides itself into two and looks like (wo candelabnnns. i,po„ 
the same trunk. These are in small number. The other kin.) is tli.- 
common type and is found sometimes isolated, sometimes in groups, 
and sometimes in regular roi-(;sts of groups. 




Rocks of red stone of villa Velha 



Another curiosity of Parana are the .S'a/?j^af7^'r.s-, enormous o.strei- 
ras of ^vhicll there are only 71 in the Antonina municipium. They 
have the form of hills representing the work of many generaticms, 
as the kjkkninoddings from Denmark, they mark and illuminate the 
history of a prehistoric race in South America. 

In regard to those material documents of first life in Bra/.il, 
Dr. Ermelindo Leao a native of Parana, wrote : 

« The vestiges of human existence that we note in them, just as 
skeletons and pieces of vases, goods of polished stone, etc., make us 
believe that they were accumulated in the fishery season by the 
aborigines, in a long series of years. 



— 4-98 — 

And tlnis we oxi)lain ]iavin<^ now found rou«^li objects of si)linter- 
ed stones, then articles ol' polished ones, more perfect, by and by, 
craniums of ferocious aspect, later yet others much less accentuated 
as to the facial-cranium moipholooy attributiiiji- them to <;enerations 
left behind. )> 

huliistry has destroyed inercilessl,\' those monuments of Bra/i- 
lian paleonthology, which were not as lucky as those of the Lagoa 
Santa, (Saint Lake). They are-waitino- for investigators be it a 
Lund, be it a Brazilian, a lover of his past. The smnbiKjiiys give an 
excellent lime, and that is all we know as yet. 

A third curiosity of the Parana region, is the Villa Velhn (old vil- 
lage), which becomes popular through i)hot()graplis and engravings. 

What is after all that Villa Velhn ! 

The Villii LcZ/ja is a series of monoliths, or rather, an extensive 
series of rocks, reddishlike, named by the geologists as oUl red 
sandstone, of vulgar formation in some grounds, having over a kilo- 
metre of dej)th. As time and water destroyed the carsiablc part 
of the quarrj^ opening streets and regulai" squares, and the parts 
that remained standing at certain distance look like houses, walls, 
constructions in ruin. The low bushes covering the squares and 
enveloping somewhat the lower jjart of the quarry, give it the confi- 
guration of an abandoned city. In some places the stratifications 
rise to a height of over 100 metres, imitating towers and castles. 
I^ach street and each scpiare of those ruins has its name, or rather 
nicknames given by the people, who frecpiently visit that cuiious 
geological formation some 30 kilometres away from the the I'onta 
Grossa Station. 

Last but not the least, there is still another curiosity, the Setc 
Quedas cascades formed by the Parana river, near the place where 
used to be a celebrated Provinciu dc (luuyra, of the Spanish 
monks. According to this they also call this colossal water fall — 
Salto de Giiayrn (Ouayra jump). The Parana river, becoming thick- 
er with the llio (iraude and Paranahyba rivei's meets with a spiiu' 
of tlie Maracaju ridge of mountains, some .')00 metres of rocks upon 
which the whole river narrowing itself suddenly throws itsi'lf, witli 
a noise that can be heard some two leagues away. From the bottom 
where the waters fall, forming seven cataracts, an cnornu)us cloud 
rises. 

These great falls, which w c Ix-licxc ((» be the largest of the 
wli<»lc continent, having no sniall niiiiil>ci- of them, can only he 
com])arcd with those known by the name ol' I'anht Affonso in the 
S. I"'i'aneisc(» ri\ei', al»oiit whieli we w ii>le sev<'ral chapters ai)ove. 



499 — 



Unfortunately the trip to the Sulto dus sale Qiicdus, (seven lulls 
jump), is, and will be for some time to come a ])ainriil and (lilliriili 
one. This fact prevents tlie loiirists imd scientists, Iron. enj...vinj; 
that dec])ly emotional pleasni-c, wliicli is lur^oly increased Ijy llie 
fact of there beino- near the falls, the luins of some llieolof.ic;il 
temples devoted to the ccmversion of the Indians, known as .< rcdiir- 
cyes )), and destroyed, like the Guayra Province, by the hHiidcirmili's, 
(those carrying the flag), in 1631, the ruins of which can be seen 
tliere, in the desolation of dead cities. 




Tiie (k'vil'.s peak tiiiiiiel in (loidilliora do .Mar. — Parana l!ail\\a\ 



The trip from Kio de .Janeiro to Parana must be made by sea. 
The coast steamers make it in 24 hours, if it is a direct trip, or 
tvi'^o to three days if they call at the intermediary ports, according to 
the dela,y in the port of Santos and the small cities of Iguape and 
Cananea. Be' as it may it is a delightful trip made ierrc-H-terrc. 

The entrance of Paranagua bay is most charming. Three bars 
formed by the interposition of the Mel, (Honey), and Pcras , 
(Guns), islands give access to the calm anchorage place, amply 
illuminated by a cloudless sky. This port is to-day the vestibule 
of Parana State. Those who wish to admire its Capital, the pretty 



— 500 — 



Ciirit_\l)a, must l)egiii there, first visiting the port and llic old 
Paranaffiia city. 



* 
* * 



A ( i:i.i:iiKAii:i) kaii.koad. — On tlie iStli oT May I'.'ii:;, a jirctiy 
bad day, one ol' tliese grayish aftiu-noons, w ith a ceascdess small 
rain and cold temperalure, we "took the l.;!() p. m. train start- 
ing- from Paranagua to the Capital of the State. The Estrada de 
Ferro do Parana, (Parana Railway), whicdi has there a (juite poor 
station, is one of those things that tlie traveller congratulates him- 
self on coming across with in his travels. 

It is tlie woi'k of Brazilian engineering \\hi('h conccix (mI, plan- 
ned and built it through those convex mountains till the toj) where 
Curityba is. 

On that rainy afternoon, the landscape, all wrapjied in a sheet of 
clouds, cvei-y moment duller since tlu; time we left Paranagua, could 
not be observed as it ought to be, so that I dindn't notice but uninter- 
rupted succession of works of art that ai'e there in abundance to be 
admired, especially in the second plan of the road , from Morretes 
to Piraquara. 

From Morretes on begin to appear, sometimes isohited in the 
majesty of tlieir profile, sometimes in dominating groups, the 
specimens of that variety of pine-trees, which are, because of their 
ornamental power and industrial utility one of the signs of the 
infinite kindness of God towards the Parana soil. 

Starting from Morretes to the place where the road has a branch 
line, we can only see a stretcli of little houses here and there, ohl 
churches, somewhat indistinct because of tlie weathci'and thctli- 
tanee. 

A little before we had seen Alexandra, fornu'rly an Italians and 
Brazilians (;olony, to-day an industrious and growing village, l)y llie 
railway as a nest on the branches of the trees. 

The ti-ain goes on. Porto de CMma that a little while before was 
to be seen on the level with the road , is now below, and by and hy 
disappears behind a ra\ine. 

'I'hus we see now and again the same place, as that bright casca- 
de, th(! ]'ri> (h- \oii);i, (bride's veil), which, the first time we discoxcr 
far away up. lik<' a thin vein, a stony tear. an<l Iialf an houi' latei', 
after .',() lui'us tlirougli luniu'ls and viaducts, we see it near the 
li-ain with all the nois_\- greatness of its fall, which beats the massive 
dark (piarl/. mascai-achul l)y surrounding vegetation. 



— 501 



Oh! but that nasty litlh' i-ain How il spoils the -ladtics^ of 

these panoramas ! 

The train keeps on its speedy niarcli, goino Ihi-oiigli un.l n\ rr 
narrow edges, deep holes, mountain after moiiutain , the locomotive 
ciossing- all this through many tunnels and viaducts (piitc near one 
another. An unexpected river with loaming waters now on the right, 
the on the left of tlie track, appears and disappears, as a caprice, asf 
a defiance to the road wliose I)ridges wrap it a hoit ronsliicloi- sii:ikr 
— and overcome it going aliead. 








Curitvba. — Parana raihvav SUitioii. 



Sometimes the mountain opens itself into an abyss, or two sepa- 
rate hills, in front of one another, open a solution oi" continuity in 
then tortuous and inclined road, which the track describes, for many 
kilometres, when it comes across with one of those mammoth open- 
ing, a bridge connecting the two hills, one of those britlges that look 
pliantastic and that the dreadful genius of metallurgy devised and 
learnt how to put up, and upon it the train goes calm, strong and 
firm over the danger. 

One of these crazy fancies is the S. .loao bridge, a hard steel 
web thrown from a hill to the other on pillars 40 to 50 metres high. 

Another one is the Carvalho viaduct, (Carvalho being the name 



— 502 — 

of the Brazilian engineer who built it), painted red. It is a kind of 
verandah tied to the mountain side surrounding it in its curves, 
and leaning- over the valleys which describe their curves Ijelow. 
The dark and wet top of those trees of the vegetation is below those 
l)oin(s more mysterious still in its inferior silence. In one of these 
precipices, in the i'CAh kilometre, we saw a simple but an expressive 
monument , a l)lack iron cross, \vitli an nscription that could't be 
read — and they told me that it was in that place that they murder- 




f.iiiilvliji. — (loiii'iTss Cli.imlM'i-. 



ed liarao do Cerro A/.al and four companions, at tlic time ol (he la>i 
revolution, 

it is near that place I lial is tbc Pico do Diabo, one of the hill tiip>. 
(piilc i(Mi;4ii and I he hardness of w hicli had Itceii pcrfoi'atcd Iron) side 
(o side by one ol (he i-oad tunnels. The panoiania is cxciuisite. The 
rocks don)inate(l the \egetation, but this attem]>ls with energy I o 
w lap I hem. 1 1 looks like a convulsive jiictnic. Kocks and Alivssc> ' 
All in a giandeiir thai deadens our minds. 

l'"roni kiloinelre s:, on, (he multitude of araucarias increases. 
There they ai'c standing firm, noble. nielaneln>lic and there also 
appear ilie saw mills which wa;;e(l them a dreadriil war. Some <if 



— 503 — 

those saw mills, are establishments worlhy of note, inoveil In- slcuni 
and of quite large proportions. 

After several bridges, viaducts and It tunnels, —a string of 
daring art works — we are at Piraquara station on the top. 
From there on we meet but plains, large ones with irregular v(;ge- 
tation, the beautiful pine-tree always predominating, as tlie Parana 
diadem. Those plains prolong themselves till Curityba, where the 
train arrives in the evening already under the irradiation of th(> 



i}\ 




Curityba. — Ttie Governur's Palace 



electric lights which announce the traveller that he is in the i)re- 
sence of a modern Capital. 

This Estrada de Ferro do Parana Station, is a beautiful three floor 
building, painted yellow. It is as new as it is pretty. 

CiRiTYHA. — Those who know political geography of Brazil must 
have noticed that nearly every Capital of State is by the sea, either 
at the entrance of a bay or at the mouth or on the banks of a river 
bathing its territory. 

Three of the Capitals, are exception to this rule, and they are : 
S. Paulo, Bello Horizonte and Curityba, all of them being on high 
places that dominate the narrow band of the sea coast where are the 



- - 504 — 

commeic-iul polls. Tliest- tlircc capitals are between 80».i and *.t(K) 
metres above the sea level. 

S. Paulo and Curityba which, bei'ore Bello Horizonte was built, 
were the capitals with best aspect in the whole Brazil , presented, 
several points of analogy : Both oi' them have their organ ot" commor 
cial-eeonoiuic appropriation and exproi)riation, in the Atlantic coast, 
of which they are both separated by a chain of mountains which had 
to be overcome by railway. Both had to build their commercial 
vehicle realizing notable works oi" art to connect them with their 
l)orts. 

8. Paulo had its inclined plans installed to go up the ('ul)atao hills 
between Santos and the Capital; Curityba built its tunnel-bridge liin 
to cross the Sea Mountain between Paranagiia and Piraquara. Both 
are the most celebrated works of art in the construction of railways 
in all Brazil. The road Ifom Paiiiuagua to Curityba, however, is the 
most marvellous one, by its plan, its audacity in the viaducts it built, 
and by the novelty ol" the aspects of nature it envolves. 

We will now speak of (^'urityba, proper, if you like. While this 
Parana region was still only a district of the S. Paulo provim-c. 
Leodoro Ebano l*ereira founded a place at the foot of the Sea 
Mountain, giving it the name of Curityba. It did not take long for it 
to develoi) becoming a village in UWo. 

The whole of the city is gay. The pure air of the pine-trees that 
wi'ap it, the wide and clear horizon, the plain displaying itself in 
all directions, the modern feature of the houses, the daring feat of 
several constructions, the alignment of the streets, all of these are 
details that form the festivallike and ti-nder i>Iiysiogn()iny of 
Curityba. 

Considering the difference of relati\e si/e , this city is the 
S. Paulo of Parana. With its hard working poiuilation. luispitabh' 
antl clever, with its nnmufacturing activity, its intellectual cultiva- 
tion, its contribution towards progress and corresponding horii>r to 
the routiiu' processes — Curit\ ha charms the \isil(U' who remains 
with the impression that he is in a l-]uropeau city. An<l such an 
imi)ression will ne\<'r be forgotten by the traveller. 

Right in fronl of the railway station is an axcnuc of ;i bcnnlifnl 
effect too. which they call Liberty Street, where the State Congres> 
liuihling is, llic (Joveruor of the St;i(c imihling, severiil hotels, ;intl 
inipiiri.iiil |iii\;ilc Ikmiscs. It is il 1 iiin inal cd liy cicci ricity like the 
nuijority. 

Curitybii is a \( i\ modern cil,\ in lis de\ clopmiuil . Oidy in 
18(i;; it had but Si streets, L'.S'J houses (iniuibilable), aiul about 1(.K> in 



— 505 — 

conslructioii und ol' tliosc only -JiMiad upper stories. 'I'o-dii.N ( "iiri- 
tyba lias 156 streets, lour beiiutilul and large i)ublie s(iuan;s, nine 
smaller ones, iour boiileoards, not counting streets spreading them- 
selves to the suburbs increasing the expansion of the future nu(deus. 
Te streets of to-day are wide, lined with liouses on both sides 
and in all its length , there being but few empty lots among them. 




Ciii'ilvba. — .lose Boiiifacis sWecl. 



Many are straight, all of them plain, as the city is on an esplanade, 
the celebrated fields of Curityba. Among the principal streets we can 
cite Quinze de Novembro (the date of the proclamation of the Repu- 
blic, there being a street with this name in nearly every city of Bra- 
zil). This Quinze de Novembro street in Curityba is like its spine, 
it is extensive , straight, wdth large business houses,- newspapers 
offices. Post Office Department, Federal Telegraph , candy stores, 



— 506 — 

bar-rooms, etc. The movement and transit in this street, which do 
not cease till very late, fill the great artery of Ciirityba, lending to it 
a seducing feature. 

Xo man in Curityba has finished his days work if he has not had 
his quarter of an hour rendez-vous, to which the elegant part of the 
population, the business men, the politicians and literary men are 
used to. A peculiar thing-, however, there is not in this street, neither 
in the whole city, a coffee house, (one of those bar-rooms making the 
speciality of serving cups of coffee, to be seen in every coiner and in 
every city or village of Brazil). 

Those dreadful centres of conspirations of all nature, — those cof- 
fee houses — the Brazilian rendez-vous places, where reputations are 
made, unpopularities decreed, where criticism of all sorts is made, 
where they speak of science, art, business, are a regular pass-time 
which gives great life to Brazilian cities, but there is not one of them 
in Curityba. We find them, however, in Florianapolis a city much 
more inferior to Curityba in development and iniportance, and in 
Rio Grande, Pelotas, Porto Alegre, cities which are farther away 
than Curityba to partake of the habits of Rio and the other nor- 
thern cities of Brazil. 

Instead of those coffee houses, there are clubs and the lack of 
the former explains the frecpiency we always noted in the club- 
roonis, in Curityba. We visited every one of them^ and there is a 
good number of them. We were especially much pleased with the 
Curitybano club, with wide and well appointed rooms, a splendid 
library w itli 10.000 volumes. This is the oldest of the city, and the 
Casin.) Club, as important as the Curitybano and also having a good 
library. All of them give monthly parties in which the leading fami- 
lies of the city take part and the brightness of which wc can well 
imagine when we know that the fair sex of Parana are of the pret- 
tiest in all Bi'azil, tlumks to the superior Iransfusion of l';uroi)ean 
Vjlood (German, Italian and Polisli) that in strong propoiiion lias 
collaborated in the formation of 1 he ])oi)uhitions south of S. Panh> 
and Minas (Jeraes. 

Curitj'ba, more than any other lirazilian capital, picseiits tlie 
ethnic traits of the type of Brazil's future population : the whites, 
somewhat fair, with vertical lines , well lormcd, give life to the 
squares and eonnnereial streets with the activity characteristic of 
the race. 

A sphindid factor of work in Parana and eonse(|uently of the 
progr(;ss of its cities, are those (Jeiiuan atul Polish elements, 
collaborating towards a sound s[)iiit of work and order, the exolu- 



— 507 — 

tion of the colonies, the industry nud Liisincss. In ('iiiiiyl,:i, espe- 
cially, a large portion of the l>iisiness houses belong- to Germans, and 
in the signs are getting scarce the Almcidus, the Silons and the 
Fcriuuides (Portuguese names), to give jdace to tlH> Meyers, tlie 
Hauers, the Stahls, the Miillei-s, the Meissnei-s, tli.. Weisses,' and 
other Ger-man ones. 

He would be quite mistaken the one suj)p()sing iluu sneh signs 
behmg to loreign liouses. Nearly all of Iheni belong to natives of Bra- 
zil, s(ms oi- grand-chihli'en of (iermans, Poles and Italians, the 




Ciiiritvjja. — OHiics ot Hie lirnii.lose llaiici- *S: Dross 



Germans more especially fixing their residence in the country. In 
Curityba, in Ponta Grossa, in Paranagua, the best business houses 
belong to descendants of Germans. It is enough to cite the house 
.1. Hauer & Sons, a very well known firm whose commercial honse 
is a monument for Curityba. But this is not the only one. The match 
factory of Eisenbaen & Hurliman, one of the most important in 
South America, onl}^ in one year paid 1.000:000S000 of taxes. There 
are many others. 

Another peculiar aspect of Curityba is its unusual transit of eais 
and trucks. As the city is surrounded by hard working colonies. 



— 508 — 

every morning the farm-workmen come down to the city to bring 
tlieir products : they bring milk, cheese, butter, vegetables, fruit, 
and other products. A multitude of wagons and heavy trucks witli 
canvass covers, filled with goods, Bi-azilian tea (matte), or trunks of 
j)ine, come to the Capital. Some go to the railway station, some go 



t 



%4i 



"4( 







^:: 



<;iii-ilvlt;i. — The Calliulic Catlirdial 



fi'om street (o street, soinclimcs di-ivcu l>y counlry gir-ls w ho take 
cluirge of their business. 'I'hoiigh the types and customs arc \('t at 
the bottom entirely I>i-a/ilian, we note cci'tain I i-ails of dill'crciu'c 
between this and the uoi-thern cities. The sei-\ ant . the Iruckuian. 
the grocer, etc., are not Portuguese fi-om tlie continent or from the 
Poi'tugnese islands, as in I*ara, Santos or Kio, but Italians oi- l'ol(>s. 
("urityba of to-day is developing unceasingly. 



— 509 — 

Among its best buiidings nvc not(Ml : tl.<' ( 'utlic.lrul, .,f a iiu,„.<„is 
gothic style, a reproduction of (he Harcelone eatliedral. Ixiiltl.y tlie 
architect August Wenneck and inaugurated on the Ttli of SepteinbrT 
1893. 

In front of that clinicli is one of the most l)eaiil ifiil ( •milvlju 
s<|iiares, — the Praca Tiradenles, — whnv th,-y ivcciiily rrc<-icd u 
statue of the late president Floriano. 

Jn that square was formerly a jail, to-day it is a public square. 
Just where there used to be the ignominious pillory of the kings 
justice, in olden times, to-day ondidates the beautiful vegetation 
of the tree tops, and the perfunu' of the roses invites one to 




Curitybu. — Cliarity Hospital 



dream. He was right the prophet when he said : « When perfection 
arrives, imperfection ceases ». — Cum aiitem venerit quod perfec- 
tiiin etc. etc. 

Another public place which is very pleasant is the public garden, 
built in a place where the small river Belem, makes capricious but 
interesting curves. The painter of landscapes sketching that sweet 
type of garden, had no other art but to follow the local natural one, 
only using the details. The river that passed there had not to be 
bothered in its course, but was decorated and embellished by liglit 
bridges, and other fancies of the landscaping architecture. The 
public garden, has some .50.000 square metres, and is one of the 
prettiest in Southern cities, though, it is a little abandoned when I 
visited it. 



— 510 — 

But, going back to the noted buildings of the city we have : 
The Hospital de Caridade, an identical institution to the other 
city hospitals of the Brazilian capitals, it shelters and cures the poor 
sick without distinction as to where they come from. It is a large 
and beautiful building, the white structure of which is seen from 
many places in tlie city, because, while it was built at a distance, 
to-day the buildings have wrapped it, and iliat which was but a 
suburb of Curityba, to-day is its centre. It was founded by Silva 
Mauricy, a native of Parana, and inaugurated by the empeior 
Pedro II, in May 1880. 



.^ 



/ 



^a^sssss^^^/ 





C.iii'ilvl);!. — l'i'('slistt'r'i;iii <;iiiircli 



The Presbyterian church, in Matto Grosso street, is of a beautiful 
effect w'itli its front of scotch gothic style, grave and austere as a 
melody of reform. The trout of the l)uilding looks to a pretty little 
garden, protected by the classical and decoi-atcd irou railing. 

'i'lie Telegraph Stati(ui of the Federal (Jovernment is auot lici- 
pretty building in the Kiia (^iiin/.c. it has tlii-ee floors, and looks to 
that street . 

The liarracks of the tUh legimcnt artillery, largi' and solid, witli 
an imposing and artistic front looking to Praca da Kepublica. and 
is of middle age style. 



— 511 — 

The Orphan Asylniu, hir^c iind ol" a nice archUcchii-c, it was 
built by public subscription, and elTorts of its founder, Senator, 
Monsenhor Alberto Gonealves, whom the Municipality aided consi- 
derably in his philantropic work. Senatoi- Alberto (ioncalves is a 
prelate of the Brazilian Catholic Church, highly esleemed in Ki(. 
where he has been vice-president of tin; Federal Senate :uid bclov(;d 
by his fellow-men in "his State who elected him to the Senate, and in 
fact he would be to-day the (Governor of his State had he not (h-din- 
ed that honor. 





,— 




% 


•K 






? 


• •'«« 


m 


1 


1'^ ^ 


mr 


^> 


i 


w 




('<uritvba. — Police Ijarraeks 



The barracks of the State troops, inaugurated in 1898, is a large 
building in S. Jose Street, at one side of the city. The main front 
is decorated and is somewhat majestic. The interior is perfect, every 
department shows exemplary discipline and zeal. In the stables we 
saw some fine types of Parana horses , which do not seem in 
anything inferior to those imported from the River Plate. This is a 
good example to the northern States that neglect horse breeding. 

The State Congress has also a fine building, new and noble in its 
lines, Italian style, with a poetical little garden around. A stairway- 
separated from the street with railing of artistic iron, leads to the 
entrance of the building open in arches supported by columns of the 



— .-.12 — 

coriiitliiaii order. The buil(liii<; is painted on ilie outside and inside 
of ^•ris-pcrlc, color, Nvhieh brings it out in prominence from the grei*n 
eoh)r of the surrounding garden. In a word, it is pleasant to tlie eye. 
without being in disharmony witli the severe composition of a 
bnilding destined to its ol)jeet. It was inaugurated in l.S'.Xl. 

'V\n' Government palace also in the Liberty avenue, a little fui- 
tlier ahead tlian the Congress building, but on the other side, is not 
large. It is even smaller than that -of Santa Catharina, but it is in 
entire harmony with the official installations of its whole. It has a 
sober aspect, a su])erb fi-oiit, and inside is decorated w ith all care 
and good taste. 




('ill'il\li:i. 



DiiiT.-irk-, ,,i iiic i:;ii 



A characteristic of the official insiallation in Parana, is o that in 
its buildings there is nothing to criticise. 'I'hey do not rei)resent 
exaggerated expenses, but on the other hand they do not show nu'an- 
ness, oi' neglect of official denu'anoui'. 'Clu'v arc in pcrfi'ct accord 
witli tlie importance of the Capital and its pul)lie treasury, neither 
more nor less. 

The Guahyra theatre is another important l»uilding. li was alrea- 
dy there IxM'ore tlui last progressive impulses tlie State lias reeei\«'(l, 
but in I'.'OO was entirely I'cbuilt . giving it the featui-e it lias now. 
with a beautiful two floor front. 

'I'he Seminary is a lai-ge 1 )u i id ing erected by i lie ( "at! ioli<' Ui shop of 
that Diocese in adist riet of the city know n as IJatel, with at raniw a\ 
line running to that jdaee. This district lias fine pii\ate houses, 



— 513 — 

buildings o I' varied styles, hcaulilul lanns and a brewery, mi tbr 
terrace oi" which families meet who j^o tliei-e lor a walk, to listen 
to some music and drink beer. 

There are several churches, many business houses, private resi- 
dences, which would be worth mentioning here but the lear of 
making this chapter too long comi)els us to go ahead, treating of 
other subjects. 

Social Culture, Public Instiuction etc. — It would be diffi- 
cult to find in a city of the size of Curityba sncli an active centre of 




<'.uiit\li;i. — AsnIiimi oI N. I), da 1. 11/ I'ur liiDalics anil llic |i(mi|- 

intellectualities and men of fine culture as it is to be found there. 
The city by the general census of the country in lUOO had 1'.i.7.j5 
inhabitants, adding the populations of Xova Polonia and Taboao 
(2.998 and 3.509 respectively) Curityba ])resents a total of about 
55.000 inhabitants. 

The increase of population has been tlms : 

Years Iiiliahilanls 

1780 2.9.i9 

1873 11.7:50 

1890 ^-i.-joS 

1900 -iy.Too 

In that lot of 50.000 inhabitants we find scientists, writers, poets, 
journalists, who make Curityba a noted intellectual centre : Candido 
Abreu, the geagrapher; Sebastiiio Parana, the corographer: Ivoma- 
rio Martin, the untired polygrapher, director of the museum ; Xestor 



— 514 — 

Victor, the novel writer and poet: Emilio de Menezes, tlie siitirieal 
poet; Alfredo Ooellio ; Ismael Martins; Roclia Porabo, the historian ; 
Domingos Xasciraento ; Leoncio Correa; Armando Paiva ; Rieardo 
Lemos, E. Pernetta; Dario Vellozo; Silveira Xetto, Julio Pornetta; 
Nestor Castro; Pereira da Silva; Rieardo Lemos; J. Moraes; Kiieli- 
des Bandeira; Carvalho Aranha; Theodoro Rodrigues; Marianna 
Coclho; IJevocata de Mollo ; Julieta Monteiro ; and a dozen more, 
are names that produce echo oiitsnde, provino- tlie mental and litn-ary 
activity oi" Curityba. Many of them found the place too small for 
them and went to Rio and S. Paulo, carrying with them the snpe 
riority of the fame of the Parana State, that precious piece of the 
country. The local administration supports many institutes of puldic 
instruction like : 

The Paranaense Museum, one of the best in Brazil, tlioiiiili it has 
not as yet an adequate installation as those of Rio, Bclcm and 
S. Paulo. 

The Public library that we had the pleasure of seeing open to the 
public during the night, as those of Rio (irande do Sul and IJio de 
Janeiro. 

The Fine Arts Conservatory with a modest Musical Institute 
annexed. We visited that beautiful establishment and congratulated 
its directors for what we saw. ^^'e find there young ladies \\ ith real 
artistic vocation. The institute is directed by a lady and is going to 
have a building of its own at the State's expense. 

The Industry and Fine Arts College, for tlie study of liberal arts, 
was founded by i)ri\ate initiative of the professor Antonio Mariano 
de Lima, in 1800. 

Th(5 Gymnasium Paranaense, an institute of the sanu' kind as 
the Rio one where the examinations are officially recognized. 

The Normal College, the Theological Seminary, about 20 high 
schools, classes of many private associations, like the Historical 
Institute, the Archives, the clubs, with their libraries, etc. complete 
the organisation of thc^ intellectual apparatus in Cui-ityba. 

There are several papers published in this Capital, nice papers 
and with quite a circulation. Among them arc : O l\('i)iihlii'n, O 
Diiii'io (III Tarde, () Punimt clc. dailies. Among the weeklies and 
fortnightlies are: OOilodc l)czciiihi-i>, () I*ci-nili)n^o, () Supo, A 
(iiizclu l*()lsh:t, Jcriisiilcin, I) Esjthynf;;t\ Dcr Hcohuclili-r, and se\ cral 
othcM-s. 

As lo elementary instruction l*;ii'an:i is one of the most attentive 
and most generous St:ites. It maintains il.'i",' graninuu" schools lor a 



— 515 — 

population of 322.000 inhabitants. Tliis j^ivcs it :i pi-oniinciii pl;icc :i( 
the head of the other States of Brazil. 

Keeping the same proportion Minas ou«;hi (o Iiav(^ !.•-.'( h» scIi.„,1<, 
S. Paulo 2.700, Bahia 2.700 and Ternauibuco J.OOO. 

According to its population, we repeat, Parana is tlic Si;iic ijuit 
maintains the largest number of ])ublic schools. 

Going to another subje(!t, the police force of tlic l>;ii-;iii;i State is 
composed of 454 men forming RegiiiwuLo dc Sc^iintnru (Safety 
regiment), whose barracks is the building we spoke of. It is com- 
manded by a colonel of the Federal Army. They use Mauser rifles. 

The city has good hotels, tramways by animal traction, and 
around the city a number of colonies, Italian, German, Ilrazilian and 
Polish ones. In one of these colonies, known as Villa Colombo, is 
among other factories, a porcelain and fine crockery one", the real 
artistic products of which we had opportunity to see. 

The State of Parana, is the one that has adopted the best coloni- 
sation system, on a rational basis, distributing the immigrants with 
equality bj' the regions of its territory where the colonies raiglit 
grow and flourish, avoiding thus the mistake of the compact grouping 
of one simple nationality, as it happened in Santa Catharina, and, 
though in a smaller degree, in Rio Grande do Sul. Jn Parana are 
54 colonies, that, according to a magnificent topographic raaj) 
drawn by Br. Candido Abren, I notice are located among Brazilian 
population, near the railways or the rivers. Many of them are 
already villages or cities. We don't include the military colonies the 
expenses of which are covered by the Federal Government. 

To facilitate communications among them and its markets, 
Parana has railwaj^s, fluvial navigation on the interior rivers, and 
nice country roadways, the best in the country. 

Among these roadways there are two that had a just reputation 
and are to-day in decadence hurt fatally by the locomotive : the Gra- 
ciosa one, which connected Curityba with the sea, the Matto Grosso 
one, between the Capital and Serrinha. The railway came and they 
were abandoned. It is the fatal history of evolution everywhere. 

There are two railways running in Parana : the Paranagua to 
Ponta Grossa one, with 417 kilometres, and the S. Paulo-Rio Grande 
between Porto Uniao and Jaquariahyba, with :3()0 kilometres follow- 
ing the construction of the studied sections. 

The interior navigation is effected on the Iguassuand Xegro rivers, 



— 516 



by a large number of small steamers, from 100 to 200 tons, belongino; 
to c'ommei'C'ial firms and private citizens in Cui'ityba. 



* 
* * 



Industry, PuonicrioN and Commerce. — Kven as to iiulustiial 
activity, Parana, tliougli one of the smallest of the Union, is one 
of the most advanced. We might even say that there is no brancli ot 
industry of those that are exploited to-day in Brazil, that is not 
represented in Parana. Its principal industry is the preparation of 
Brazilian tea — matte — for export. Only in the municii)iiim of 
Curityba alone there are 25 factories, modern ones moved by steam. 
These factories are called c/j^>-c;?/?o.s-, the name that the farmers in 
the Northern States give to the factories where they make sugar in 
the sugar-cane plantations. The production of mntlc in these Curi- 
tyba factories is 25.000.000 kilos. Annexed to this there are other 
industries, an accessory of it, like the making of barrels, printing 
offices, lithographies, etc. After this we have the saw-mills, some 
moved by steam, some hydraulic;. The main bulk of lumber in these 
mills is pine, but they also handle enil)rya and other kinds of wood 
of Parana. There are also wine, soap, slioes , cigars, matches, 
neckties, hosieiy, cars, silk, trunk, crockery factories etc., etc. 

Curityba alone has : 18V) barrel factories, 83 shoe faetorii's, IS 
mechanic shops, 25 engenhos, Brazilian tea; 11 brick factoiies, 12 
leather tanning works; 11 breweries, 5 cordial distilleries, :i'.i rmni- 
tui'e factories, I) printing ofiiees, I lythographing i>lace, ;! mass I'aeto- 
ries, 1 ice factoi-y, 5 soda-water, 1 matehes, 1 neckties, J trunks, 
4 picture frames, 1 chocolate, 1 china pipes, 2 corsets, 1 liats, 
3 harnesses, 1 paper boxes, 1 glassware, 1 aluminium articles, 
2 playing cards, 2 tile factories. We do not mention small tin-sujitli 
works, coopers shops, iron-smiths, carpenters, etc. 

What we see in Curityba as to variety and power of its industrial 
activity — which is the most i)Ositive manit'estaticm of the social 
evolution in a certain i-egion — we also see it in (he otlu'r cities of 
that State, taking into consideration the resj^'ctive i)roporlions of 
each one. 

liut the princijjal merchandise which absorbs nearly all tli<' pro- 
ductive energies of Parana, is the inultc, (Brazilian tea), and ii is 
upon it that is based the strength of its maritime I'oiiimerce. Due to 
niiillc, l*arana is in tlu^ list of the States that are e\])orters. It 
exports, in fad, nuich more than it imports, as l'ai;i. S. raiilo. 
Amazonas and liahia. In the list of llic Slates that expoft the most. 



— 517 — 

Parana is in the seventh place of those 18 exporting States. 

Besides matte, Parana exports to foreign eoimtries aii<l otiier 
Brazilian States, lumber, fruit, matches, etc. Its port I'arauagua is 
the largest fruit exporter of the country to the River Plate. 

When the Brazilian Republic was proclaimed the Budgc^t of 
Parana \\ as 82(3:OOOeOOO and to-day it is l.(M)U:(X)0§U()(), not inrhiding 
the municipal revenues. The exports from the State tcm years ago, 
was :!.000:OUO§000, but in 1901 it went up to 1:>.8.j1:U(X»§00(» and in 



m*M^9rkw*. m» m9 ..jiruiim »9m 




Paranagua. — Da Praia Street and laiuliiig stugt 



PtO-J was over 1().000:000$000 all proceeding from agricultural and 
industrial wealth. 

Unfortunately, as to mineral wealth, in spite of marvellous things 
being said about the Parana soil, nothing has been done to take 
advantage of it. 



* 



Other citiks of Parana. — Besides the Capitul there are no 
other large cities in the State of Parana. In this respect Parana 
looks well like the Para and Amazon States. Take Curityba away 
from Parana and you will see how difficult it will be to find another 
capital. Let us see, however, the best cities : 



I 



— 518 — 

T'akaxagua. — Tlie second c-ity of the State, « is neat and ele- 
gant, its inhabitants are generous, sociable, and hospitable, expan- 
sive and hai'd workers. It is a city of commercial movement. Its 
municipiuni is very rich, and its soil produces with aljundauce the 
vegetables of that temperate region. » This was told us by an infor- 
mant who is authority on the subject, and we found it all so on the 
17th of March 1903, when we visited it for the first time. We have 
also to add something of what we saw. This old Paranagua (derivated 
from puranagiiii — bay, or sea bosom) is in the recess of a vast bay 
of calm aspect at the entrance of which we see a long low island, 
divided into two and covered with vegetation. In one of the sections 
is the light-house and in the inner side by the water is an old fortress 
about which a precious book gave us the following information : — 
« During the reign of D. Jose I, the famous chancellor Pombal, 
determined that the inhabitants shouhl l)uil(l the fortress at their 
own expenses. The poor fellows went to work to raise the money 
and built it, without saying a word, as such things were done at 
that time, that is, on the I'.'th of. January 17(17. Yet, in April 17r)<.t, 
when the forti'css w as finished the governor came there and ordered 
the following inserii)ti<)n to be engraxed on the beautiful stone walls, 
taking away from the people any co-operation in this woi"k altogether 
executed by the inhabitants of Paranagua and to whom exclusively 
its existence was due. And there remained the inscrii)tion engravi'd 
in the stone as a remembrance of colonial injustice. Here it is : 

177(1 

HtlNAMtO KM POKTt»;.\l. 

SIOKKMSSIMd SIMIOK l)0)l .l()SK I'K 

IMHIKI MANDOU KAZKK KSIA KIRTAIK/A 

ll.l.USTKISSIMO KCKI.I.KNTISSINC) S|;N 

iiuR DoM Luis Antomo hk Souza Hotkiik* 

MouuAO. SicNHon iiAvii.iA III; Ovki.iia Mokc; 

AiK) UK Matiikls, 1"iiiak(;o iik (Iasa UK Sua M 

ACKSTAUK C.OMMKMlADOK l>A K(»RTAI.K/.A l)K 

ViANA ('■OVKIiNADOH K C.AI'ITAd (IkNKUAK 
IlKSTA CiAI'ITASKV l)K Sa») I'AUKO N(» \\M» 

giiAuro IX) SKU (ItiNKitso in 17()!t. 

it is quite original (() note liow badly this insei'iption waswiil- 
l(Mi, tile spelling as well as the division of the syllaliles in the \vonl> 
tiial go o\ ('!• lo the next liiu' being all ^M•ong. Here is the tianslation : 

' 1770. Kcijiiiiii^ ill l'nrlnH;,| ||is Musi Scitiic l.unl hdiii .lost- ihc lirsl. Ihs illustrious 
Kxccll('ii(> Sciiliiii' Ddiii I, Ills Aiilitnio lie S()iiz;i Hiilollin M(iiii;i(i, Imil o\ the villiifrc OvtOli.i 
Morni'dii (Ic .M;illi(Mis, Ncdilcin.iii uf Mis Mnjrsfy ('.(iiirl, ('.iiiiii>ii(l:nli>i- df the riulrcss of Vi:iii.i. 
GnviMiior niiil (:ii|it:iiii (ii-iicr:il nj lliis |mii-| of S:iii I'miiIo oi-(lt>i-i>il this rortnvss to l)t> Iniill in 
llir fiiiiilh Vf.'ir III his CkimtiiiiiciiI I7(i!)j 



— 519 — 

From that lortress to the uuclioruge place is still a Ion- dislanci' 
and from the other side we see the iiha das Cobras (snake island), 
where the qnarantine place is. This is a lar^e qniof Ixiildin- hx.king 
as if it were abandoned. 

At last, at the end of the ample bay all filled with roeky p<nnts, 
shewing- that it is not so good an anchorage place as it looks, theic 
lies the city, half hidden, behind the trees somewhat faded in its green 
shade, as it happens with all the vegetation in the salt-pit banks. 
Paranagua is not, properly said, cm the bay but al the month of 
the Itibere I'iver. 




Antouiiia. — General View of the cilv 



The steamers with draught above the average cannot enter the 
channel in front of the cit^', so that its modest stone quay is of no 
use, as the passengers must disembark in boats, and the goods dis- 
charged in lighters which bring them to the quay in fifteen minutes. 

The city has no great importance. It is a group of houses, some 
with tipper stories, a good hospital, and some old churches. In front 
of the quay is a sad serenity like in a hamlet, and the point of sea 
half confounded with the river takes the feature of a mild lake, 
dead, where the vegetation and wdiite houses on the other bank 
reflect themselves in a trembling fidelity, like a picture. 



— mo — 

Ainoiij^ oilier iudustrial estiiblislimenls there is a good match 
liu'tory, not ol" the importance of the Curityba one. 

'IMiis city was ioiindcd in l~AM) by a «>roui) of dwellers of Canaiica. 
a I'ily of S. Paulo State. Later on llicrc was some woi'k in the 
mines goiiij; as far as slai'ting- a goM foundry, and lliat from jti,'; 

lo i7;;o. 

Antomna. — It was formerly culled (iuuntjiiiix :ih:i i lat fish l»a\;, 
beautiful indigene name tliat they changed in honor of the name of 
the i)rince 1). Antonio Nosso Senhor, as we read in the document 



w 




I'dil of .Morrc'tos on llio .Miiiii(li;i(|iiai'a 



\\lien it became a village in 17U7. It Ix'came a cily in isr»7 and is 
placed in ant)ther recess of Paranagua l)ay Ix-twcen the Miundia 
quara and (.'achoeira rivers. 

It is a city that once had more importance than it has to-da\ . 

The (iraciosa road gave it life, making it the outlet of all raran;i. 

TIk^ i-ailway, howt'vcr, took away the commei'ce fi-oui that diic'c- 
lion, and now il has to grow dependent upon its own resources. 

lis popnlalion, ipiitc select and hospitahic, luil \cr_\ palrit)lic 
and with local partialities doesnl exceed tl.riSd inhabitants, ii.'JlS 
mules an<l .'J.ofu' females. There are some good busim'ss houses, 
several ciiurcdics, aflirmiug the (dd dc\ I'lopuienI of the eitv, about 



— 522 — 

1.000 houses, niany with upper stories. This is Antonina u port 
where the Lloyd Brazileiro Steamers call at. 

MoKRKTKs. — A little further ahead is Morretes on the banks of 
the Xhundiaquara, and surrounded by pretty hills where the name 
comes from. It is quite hot there, and is delicious for those who liki 
strong emotions. The city is ai)parcntl_\- in decadency. Curityba kills 
it with its absorbing- progress and its inexorable railway. Tlic 
6.500 inhabitants of Morretes have to develop a most delicate energy 
if they don't like to see their pretty little city disappear. It is neces- 
sary that Morretes should not die. 

Yet it has been a great deal worse and weaker than it is to-day. 
Its 1900 census gave it 5.000 inhabitants and the last one (5.500. If it 
increases it is because it is not falling. It exports an cx(iuisitc 
brandy, m^iny bananas, oranges and other fruit. 

Ponta-Gkossa. — One morning we were starling from Curityba 
station in the Ponta Grossa 8 o'clock train. The landscape was quite 
new for my eyes of Northern Brazilian. 

Those who never went out of Rio de Janeiro and have only seen 
the strong aspects of the mountains crossed by the E. de F. Central 
can't have an idea, or imagine what these Parana fields are, with 
its pine-tree woods, its ondulations to obey to the same ihytni. its 
velvetlikc prairies with several shades of green whereby seldom a 
soft river slides like a slow transparent rosin tear. The railway 
extending itself through that region connecting cities and nucleus, 
where life begins now gaily for the fair hard working and pleased 
populations. The lethargic sadness made of la/iness and fatalism of 
the mixing breed of the Portuguese- African that we see in the 
interior of certain Northern States, run away frightened with the 
passage of the railway and there appear those groups of new genera- 
tion, those new colonies, villages and cities. This phenomenon of 
our ethnical-social metamorphosis has in the railway one of its most 
strong factors. This, however, is wiuil has liapi)cned in all America 
and everywhere. 

But, as we said, the train left (Jurityba in the morning. It was 
full. The lime of empty trains is past. And where are those who 
assured that that road would nevi'r give result? Last year it had a 
balance in its favor of 1.000:0(»0.*;0()0 and it has had one for a long 
time. 

We went on. Every now and then there was a stop, a station, 
there were great piles of merchandise, lumber, pine-tree trunks all 
pilled up on freight cars. Wealth in elaboration. The huulscapcs 



— 523 — 

iollow one iiuotlior with ti variety ol" details, hut witlioiit breaking 
tlie eontornatioii lines w liicli arcH lie seal of (liat unaltered nutiire. 
Long- fields witli cattle in the i)aHturage, hands of i-eddisii carlii 
bordering the savanna, pine-trees susi)ending a sweet dark green 
canopy over the endless valleys; near the trucks, little handets, 
covered with pine, cattle here and there, soniei inies lai'ge planta- 
tions of grain with ears bending over tli(! road, and th(! constant 
])ine-tree, the pine-tree straight and vertical, standiiig up erect, with 
its majestic appearance and its lop like a enp turned u|) towai'ds the 
sky, near and far, in front and behind, e\{'rywhere, as the origin. 




j^j«K^i''«*«i^.*'* ^.■■' 



l'(i|)iil;ir tvpL'S. — A lniskcl-iii.ilvcr fruni the iiileriur nl l';ii;iii. 



the cause, the end of all that scenery. 

At four o'clock we reached l^onta Grossa. It was in the afternoon 
of the 25th of March 1903. We went to an Italian hotel. 

Ponta Grossa has this name owing to the round thick ro(d< up<ui 
which it is built. It was a bad selection for a city. 

In 1871 it received the genteel name of Pitang-uy, but, we don't 
know why, right after they gave it the name of Ponta Grossa. Owing 
to its location <»47 metres above the sea-level it can be seen (iO kilo- 
metres away. That same circumstance brings to it disadvantages 
that are not to be envied. A large part of the year it is punished by 
the strong winds, raising clouds of red dust. 

The city of to-day is colossal compared with the small little one 
of 1880, and the cause of this increase was the railway. It is built 
on the top of the hill, but its streets and buildings rapidly covered 



the elevation and extend themselves throuj^h the plain, over an area 
each time larger. 

The streets have no pavements. Its illumination is kerosene oil. 
On the top of the hill they built a hii-ge ehureh of Roman style, not 
yet finished and the dome of which is seen from \cry far. 'Inhere an 
several houses with uppei' stories, modern style, good l)usiness hou- 
ses. 'J'hose with best as})eet are o.f th(! Teulo-Bi-azilians and (Jer- 
mans. In the small square where the ehureh is, is a quite mo- 
dest building, ugly, square, which is the market, with one door on 
each side, and six small half circle openings to take the place of 
windows. The S. Paulo-Rio Grande railway, which passes near by 
can be seen away down. It is a fine l)nil(ling. perhaps the best in the 
city. The building of the Parana railway is inferior to that. It is 
right at thfe entrance of Ppnta Grossa, painted lead-gray colour and 
rustic style. 

Xear the city is the large matte factory Santo Agostinho, well 
known in the South of the country as well as in Rio da Prata. 

Ponta Grossa has also its Club, the Pontagrossense Club, which 
is in a one floor building decorated with good taste. Its principal 
streets are : Santos Dumont, Quinze de Xovembro, Ribas. There is 
no great movement in Ponta (Jrossa, but it is not that that makes it 
nostalgic and oppressive : it is the sensation of isolation and exik', 
which instinctively invades our minds when we contemplate that 
even horizon, infinite, unique, which we see all around, nevei- mind 
which side we turn, a green sea of vegetation over which there 
seems to fluctuate islandlike, Ponta (Jrossa. 

Lai'A. — It is 893 metres above the sea-le\('i and enjoys deser- 
vingl_\' the fame of healthy city. 

There is a good deal of life in Lapa in tlic ciiliixation of wine, 
mandioca, beans, corn, etc. Lapa fniit is laiiious all oxer the State. 
It exj)orts iindtc, lumber, hides and cattle in large (|uantil.\ . 

It suffered a good deal with the civil war but it has reco\ cred 
now and is once more progressive and lively. 

Castuo. — Pretty city with 1 .tioo houses, and ll.:!77 inhabitants. 
5.728 males and ."),(• ID females, when according to the census of ten 
years ago it had i>ut;).(H)() inhabitants. We can see how it has grown. 
What must we at tribute it to ? To no other element l)ut the i-ailway. 

Castro, thdiigh more eh^valfd than I'onia (ii'ossa, as it i> 
'.•r>7 m(!(res aboxc the sea-level . has not the disadvantage of the 
dust and constant c_\clonical wind that sweeps the city, ("astro i> a 
pleasant city on the left l)ank of the N ajx) rivi'r, and is connected 



— 525 — 

with its Santa Cruz district l)y a lonjif wooden bridge, at tlio sido of 
wliicli is tlie elegant metallic, bridge belonging to the railway. TliiK 
bridge goes over an open space 80 metres wide and cost about 
800:000^00. 

The place where Castro is located was formerly a i-esidcnce of 
aborigenes. Tt is named after the king's minister McHo c Casli-o, the 
same who ordered every factory and every indtistiy in IJi a/.il, except 
thick cloth for the slaves, to be destroyed. We see that naming the 
streets alter heroes is a mania that dates awav back in Brazil. 




Castro. — S. Paiilo-Kii) Graniit? Hallway biidge uvor iln- li 



Castro has good colleges and schools, catholic and Intheran chur- 
ches, and some good buildings, which have been built of late, but 
in general are of that solid but not elegant style of the ancient 
times. Several lumber yards and suburbs decorate and extend the 
city which seemed to us be destined to a great future, especially 
when the S. Paulo-Rio Grande railway will realise its projected 
connection with the Sorocabana railway, in the S. Paulo frontier. 

GuARAPUAVA. — This is one of the highest cities of Brazil. It is 
1.095 metres above the sea-level. D. Joao VI ordered an exploitation, 
by missionaries, of the famous fields of Guarapuava in 1809, soon 
after his arrival in Brazil, and this expedition, directed by Frei Cha- 
gas, a native of Curityba, arrived at that place on the 17th of .June 



— 526 — 

1810. These fields, however, had been discovered on the 8th of Sep- 
tember 177-1 by lieutenant Candido Xavier de Almeida e Sousa, of 
Silo Paulo. Lately a good deal of business is converging to that 
place and the buildings multiply themselves , there ajjpearing new 
hotels, saw-mills, work-shops, and (iuarapuava is growing up. 

Tlu* city properly said has not over lU.OOO inhabitants but its 
municipiums are growing more populated every day, and altogether 
(the districts : Pinhao, Reserva, €am]io IJeal, Capanoma and 'i'licrc- 
zina) has over 21.U(X) inhabitants. 




• '■ii;ir';i|iii;iv;i. — (".iinic:ic;i jiirn|i,j.lipr(iri(i livci' 



Among the natural cui'iosities of the (iuarapuava muuicii)iuui we 
will menlioii tlu; two falls of the .lordao river some ."O kilometres 
away froiu the cily, of wliidi the most noted for its sizes, as foi- the 
beauty of the scenery is the ShUo do (hinici'uii (C'urueaca jumj) . 
Though it has not the stupendous greatness of the Salto do ( Ju;ili.\i;i. 
the .loidao river one is celebrated on account of its locution uuiid 
the fields and neai" a hill, fiom the (op of wliieli we can contempl:iie. 
tlje wliolc of that pictures(|ue and beautiful Snilo do (iurucih-u. 

('ami'() Laikjo. — This city is a niost i)ictures(|ue one and enjoys 
a delightful ciiMiate. It lias ]()()(» houses. It eomi)rises the Nossa 
Senhoi'a da IMe<lade de Cauipo Lai'go and S. iiUi/ do I'oruua pari- 



— 527 — 

shes. Its population is 10.0(58 inhabitants. The city is :j:; l<ilom.-trcs 
West of Curityba, with which it is connected by a cai-ria^c road call- 
ed Matto Grosso. It is inhabited since INI 1. In l.S-J(i it had a]r('a<ly a 
good cliurch, the Piedade one. In l.STO it was considcic.! a miinici- 
pium by law of the 2nd of April of the same year. 

Its exports of matte and lumber aw. worthy of note. 

TiBAGY. — It is the head of a rich miinicii)iiim, it is ii])on an 
extensive plain, somewhat elevated, in relation to the neighboi-ing 
grounds. It has g:ood water reservoirs and a climate worthy of envy. 
By its houses, yet a little scattei-ed and modest, runs the river it is 
named after. It has two churches, a catholic and a i)r()testant one, 
several schools, fine mattg factories, many cattle ranches, all near 
the city. 

Palmriuas. — By the Paran;'i railway, at the left going- to Ponta 
Grossa, on the top of the Campos Geraes mountains and by the river 
Ignassu. The houses extend themselves at the shade of a catholic 
church, the two towers of which, terminate in hemisphere form, 
painted blue. There are two other catholic churches and a ])rotestant 
one, eight schools, a masonic lodge, two clubs, and is surroundeil by 
colonial nucleus which supply it with everything it needs. It is the 
seat of a large municipiuni. The principal cultivations arc; the vine, 
corn, beans, rye, potataes and tobacco. In all the municipiuni includ- 
ing the seat there is : 1 physician, '2 lawyers, 12 cattle ranches 
farms, 3 saw mills, 2 matte factories, 1 flour mill, 8 wine distilleries, 
30 dry goods and fancy stores, 12 grocers and hardware stores, etc., 
3 butchers, 3 bakers, 1 billiard-room, 2 breweries, 3 brick factories, 
C horse shoers, 4 carpenters, 2 joiners, a tinware factory, 2 tailors, 
1 barber shop, 3 shoemakers and 1 hotel. 

Besides these, which are the principal ones, there are other 
villages and cities flourishing in the territory of the State which 
has 38 municipinms. 

A large part of Parana, however, is intact, ignored, and perhaps 
it is the richest part, covered with odorous forests of pine-trees, the 
providencial tree, the precious gift with which nature presented 
that State, as a token of affection and prodigality, to its hard 
working people and progressive development. 



— 528 — 



THE STATE OF SANTA CATHARINA 



The first attempts luade lo populate this region were, very natu- 
rally, undertaken by Spaniards who considered themselves possessors 
of all the region comprised between the Prata and Cananea rivers. 

Not only can we verify, by the studj' of the epoch, that this was 
the dominant orientation in the Court of Castella, favoring all the 
undertakings in that sense, but we also know that the dominion 
became effective making contracts for the colonisation of the 
S. Francisco and Santa Catharina rivers. 




l''liil'i:Mln|i(ilJs. Miililllllcill In till' |>:ill'inlir Vnlllllli-i'l's ill lilt- I'lllilic d:!!'!!)'!! 

The contract celebrated wilh .laynu; Kas(|iiiu is un important 
document to clear tliis ])oint. 

According to tliis cui'ions document, signed in Madrid on the 
:iOth of December 1557, Ras([uin had to establish on the sea-coast 
sevei-al sugar factories, as well as he ought to found foui- cities in 
the following order : 

Uii puclilo I'll III loslii (li'J Knisil. ih'iitvo ilc niicxtni (Irmiirriirioii, rii hi /mrle 
que dicen Sun-Frnnvisro. y olio Ircinlu h'^iitis inns urrihu /iticiii el rio ilc In I'lntii, 
(londe iliri'ii I'l Viiisii, i/iu- jior otro iionilirc si- llniiin rl Puerto dc Ins I'nlos; y t'li- 
Irundo en iicl rio de In 1*1 u In, eir. 



— o2» — 

(A Village on ,heB,..ilia„e,,as., „..,,.,..,....,,,,.,,,,, ,,,,,,,, „„. ,,„,, ^ ,.^^,, 

S^ i-rancsco and another thirl, leagues above towards ,1,,. hiver i-iale v „.ev"sav is 

the Viasa. wh.ch has the name of Puerto de los Patos (I,u.-ks ,.or,; and en.ering in ih^e river 
de La Plate (Plate River), etc. 

It was this Rasquin, the first, as far as w«. k.u.w nvIm, IkuI u 
regular establishment in Santa Catharina soil. These beantiful 
lands, to-day, with the limits of the old province, yet subject to the 
verification with Parana form a State, the sixth in the <,rder of the 
smallest of Brazilian States, having- all the rights that the largest 





strait of the isle of S. Catharina and fort S. Oruz 



have and enclosing in its 74,156 square kilometres of surface a very 
large number of natural wealth . 

The true founders of Santa Catharina however, were Francisco 
Diogo Velho and his sons. 

A Brazil writer said about it : 

(c Thus, then, in that abandoned and forgotten Santa Catharina 
soil, in 1050 appeared Francisco Dias Velho Monteiro (whom others 
call Francisco Diago) with four sons, victims of a dreadful wreck in 
the North point of the island called Jurie-Mirim. 

Being a religious man with great faith in Our Lady do Desterro, 
as soon as he saw himself safe, having escaped such a great disaster 
he built upon a hill, (which is to-day Quinze de Novembro) a little 



— 530 — 

eliapel, in adoration to the saint of that name, and the Capital of 
Santa Catharina — Desterro — was named after that fact. 

In the construction of the chapel and residences he Ijegan to 
build he was aided l)y the natives, who soon familiarized themselves 
with the customs and language of the Europeans, (juite astonished 
and surjjrised at the use of domestic objects they did not know. The 
houses were all built by the sea-shore, the first being called liini clou 
PiitoK (Ducks Street), afterward"s called Run do Princi])e (Prince 
Streetj, after the republic they named it Jose Veigii, and lately 
changed the name of that native of Santa Catharipa by that of 
Altino Correa. 

The island had once tlie name oi Patos, (Ducks), name of an abo- 
rigene tribe, which, with the carija Indians, and others, inhabited 
there. They devote themselves to fishing and sea-life. Perhaps it 
is an inheritance from those habits the inclination the natives of 
Santa Catharina have for the sea-life , having had among them illus- 
trious sailors, as Barao da Laguna and others. 

It is really worth admiring the calm and courage with which the 
inhabitants of the searshore in Santa Catharina defy the fury of the 
waves, now in small boats, narrow and flat canoes, by and bye in 
])retty yachts running the coastwise navigation of those ports. 

'I'hc State received large crowds of German immigrants who 
established themselves in a tract of land having no easy means of 
communication. The lack of direct contact with the natives preserv- 
ed among them, for a long time the language and customs of their 
fatherland, which only slowly become nationalized. 

The colonies with that attachment of preserving their native 
customs have risen the suspicions of the Rio de .laneiro press. The 
newspapers of the Capital do not want to listen to a word about the 
work and useful value of those colonies, and only see in them threats 
to the homogeneity of the Brazilian natioual coustihilion and even 
to the integrity of the Brazilian territory. 

There is notliiug, however, like a loeal exaniiuation to lorm a 
judgment upon sui'li alh'gations. If we leave Rio, go to Itajahy or 
S. Francisco, take a small fluvial steamer, one of those that go to 
.Joinville, oi' to Blumenau, examine everything in close observation, 
retaining \\ hat tliei-e is of good, aeeording to the prei'i'pt, \\<' will see 
if it is worth while or not to speak about the (icriiiun iluniicr and 
similar foolishnesses. 

It was that what we haxc <l(»ne. \\ C weni thei'e oiirsehcs in 
April, I'.Mi:;. 



— :,'M — 



Dksterro. — Istlie Capital of Santa (^idiaiina State, it is not in 
the territory of the State properly said, bnt in a lar-^c islan.l in from 
of it. The same case as in Maranliao and Kspirilo Santo. 

Wlien we go to this poi-t, we have to cross a long channel foim.-d 
by the Atlantic, a narrow lenoth of the ocean wliicli goes on getting 
nari-ower l)etween tlie continent and Die island, nntil it reaches i1m> 
minininni widtli of 100 fathoms in tlie place called JJslrcih, /Xurrows, 
between the city and a point of the continent prolonged b_\ it . 

The sail through this channel is most pictures(jue. At a certain 
place w^e see two small islands the Rutoncs ones, namc^ that docu- 
ments the passage of the Spaniards by that land. On the tight we see 
the old fortress Santa Cruz, with a white light -house. There at the 
shade of those walls were murdered, oi-, justice was eruclly done to 
them, several prisoners arrested in the city in 1<S<M by the 7th bat- 
talion commanded hy Moreira Cesar. 

The city is in an elbow of the large island, looking towards the 
continent. It occupies the flat parts, between the sea and tli<' moun- 
tain towards the inclination of which th(^ houses arc getting higher. 
The city is not a large one, neither is it ])]'etty. It is coinjxjsed of 
narrow streets, which run in ])arallel with the sea-shore and othci-s 
transversal ones, which start from the sea-side in dii'cction of the 
inclination of the small hills covered with woods wliicli frame in 
velvet green the whole city. 

Looking from the sea, the city is really pi-etty and divided into 
two distinct parts : the old city where is the commercial pait of the 
city, the hotels, the storage houses, with their wooden doi-ks (or 
bridges), and the Praia de Fora or the new city where are the fine 
white residences and small farms of the wealthy i)art of the ])opn- 
lation. 

We heard a good deal of German spoken here, as we lu^ai- l<'reiich 
in Rio, Italian in S. Paulo, Spanish in Southern cities, (iuuruny 
(one of the Indian languages of Brazil) in Corumba. Nothing, how- 
ever, either local aspirations or customs or anything else confii-med 
the apprehensions of those who spoke to us in Rio about national 
character disfigurement. We never saw people more patriotic, more 
intelligent, more enthusiastic over Brazil than the inhabitants of 
Santa Catharina. 

The largest number of the streets are paved, though not in a first 
class style. Some, however, like Altiiio Correa Street are paved with 
stone blocks. In the central part of the city is a pretty public 
garden, enclosed by an iron railing as they do in nearly every l^ra- 
zilian city. This is one of the prettiest and best taken care of garden 



— 532 — 

we have seen. Tt is quite artistii- as lothejdisposition and order of the 
flower beds, bushes, distribution of ornamental plants, etc. It has at 
one of the corners a pretty and light pavillion of painted iron and in 
the centre a monument in homage to the Volunteers of Para- 
guayan war. 

This is a stone monument with the names of the Santa Catharina 
volunteers who died in the war written on the different sides of 
the monument. On top is a pile of cannon l)alls in form of a 
pyramid. 




l'l()i'iaiiu)iulis. — I'.-iMoraiiiic view ui llie Cit) 



Generally, in l''l()rianoi)()lis the construction is of old arcliitci'- 
ture, pure colonial style, but they are now building some modern 
houses, elegant palaces, especially in Praia de Fora, Malto-(Jrosso 
(to-day Admirante Alvin) streets and in several others. 

That part of the population whicli constitute what is called 
])opular masses, is of good habits, good naturcd and hospitable. 'I'hc 
other classes composed of the rich, tlic learned, the politicians, the 
business men, the farmers, etc., do not diffci- in anything from the 
])ublic of other capitals. They all nuike good friends with strangers 
and foreigners. It is a population ojx'u to the cosmoi)olitun sociabi- 
lity, but very jealous of tjjeir national pm'sonality. There nobody 



— 5S3 — 

believes or cares [for whiii tliev say about tlic (;rnn;,n .lander, 
and Germans and Brazilians live in the best of harmony. Tlioro 
are no banks , neither fashionable dressmakers , nor jewelers , 
concert-halls, nor any of those luxurious exteriorities, so eoimnon 
in modern capitals, where the noise and i)omi)ons display of (-h^jrant 
life reigns supreme. Also, crime hardly exists there, neilhei- are there 
scandals, disorders, riots or great sickness. It is a simple and sound 
land in the bosom of Abraham. 




t tit 

^^ - * 

* ill j» 



■**-H»lV,„,. Mil Jf 




FloriaiuiiMiii,- 



Maie (iii\ L'liini' > l-'akac 



The Governor's palace , a large and noble mansion, looking to 
the Matriz square, (to-da^^ Almirante Goncalves square), is located 
at the side of the church. Inside it is full of good paintings, golden 
and high relief decorations, having a marble vestibule and stairway 
of sumptuous appearance. It is the newest and the best building of 
the city, with gardens on the sides and illuminated by acetylene gas. 
It has two floors and a beautiful front looking to the square. It is 
beautiful appointed and decorated with good taste and even luxury. 

The public market is a large building also of recent ccmstruction. 
rose color, which gives it a resemblance with that of Santos (though 
this one is much superior to it in size and architecture). It is a dou- 



— 534 — 

ble gallery on a parallelogram basis, with many doors, those of the 
interior looking to a yard neat and clean. All the building is cover- 
ed w ith zinc, at whose shade that multitude ol' buyers and venders 
move here and there. It is in the centre of the city by the sea-shore 
near the Custom-House. 

Wii found the Custom-House well installed, in a two story build- 
ing, in nothing having the mean aspect of those of Paranagua, 
Maceio, or Manaos. 

The City Hall is another good building, a solid one. If it is not 
of a noted architecture, yet is easily distinguished from the other old 



M^:- 




l*'lori;iii()|iolis. — Da Santa (lasa llns|iilal and licach nf Saccn dos linoes 



style l)uildiiigs with plain walls. It is loi-atcd at the corut-r of Tira- 
dentes street and its front looks to the Public ( Jarden. 

'J'he Charity Hosi)ital is upon a mountain and its snow-white 
structure pi'esents a mild r(dief upon that gi-een bottom, the deep 
green of the woods on tlie hill side. It was hiiiU in (lie same place 
where the old hospital was l)uilt, in the eighteenth century. Its fun 
damental stone was placed hy Petei- II in IS I.", as the latin insi'rip 
tioii over the doorway, right at (lie entiance shows it. 

It is diiticted i)y Sisters of ('harity, Irinris <Ui Piooiiivncin ( I'fo- 
vidence Sisters), both (Jermans and Hrazilians. hi the main hall w e 
saw a beautiful i)ainting, a true work of art, rejiresenting a specialist 



— 536 — 

on eye diseases operating a patient. Tlioii^h it has no .laic \hvy say 
it is one of the first works of tlie celobratcd lii-a/ilian paiiiK-r \ict..i- 
Meirelles. 

The Xossa Senhora do Destorro cIhucIi is a hir^c hnildinj; plac- 
ed at the bottom of a hill in front of tlu; jxiblic sipiaiv where there 
is a garden, with a pretty stairway to go up to. 

There is nothing worthy of note in the exterior of the church. 
It lias the form of a parallelogram, a ])lain front, .looking to the 




Kluriaiio|iolis. — Oatliudral 



Public Garden. The entrance and the corners of the front are of 
mason work. The basis and front is agood deal wider than the top and 
ends by two square towers. Internally besides the main altar, there 
are two others at the side and two small chapels. The choir is sup- 
ported by wooden columns of octogoual sections, painted blue. The 
walls are plain and white, withont pictures or golden decorations, 
everything modest and simple. There is a rich image of Xosso 
Senhor dos Passos. 

This image, according to w^hat tradition tells us was not destined 
to receive the catholic worship of the Santa Catharina people. It 



— 53fi — 

was sculptured in Bahia for Rio Grande do Snl, but the designs of 
Providence didn't want it so. 

It was in the year 1764 a boat sailed from Bahia to Rio Grande 
do Sul, carrying the artistic image. Reaching the bar, tlie sea 
was so strong that the boat could not venture to go in, and so 
looked for shelter in Desterro. A new attempt was made with the 
same result and still they tried a third time in vain, and the captain 
seeing in this the will ol' God wishing the image to remain in Des- 
terro left it there. 




Flonano|)()lis. — Tlie purt and CuimiiiMvial yuaiU-i' 



The city has other churches but all of fliciii willioiit any aiiistic 
value as to their architecture. 

Anothei" fine l)uilding is the Barracks ol" the Police loicc. It is a 
large building with two floors and two side \\ings w illi many w in- 
dows with iron railings. One of these wings is the jail. 

The military hospital, the theatre, the Api)rcntices School , aic 
other buildings of relative importance. None of them, liowcxcr, 
impress«;d iis as nincli as the factory of Mr. farios iloi'pkc, in a 
])lace called Santa Rita. It is a wire-nail factory, always active pro- 
ducing enough to exi>oi'l to the nortluM'n markets of l>ra/il. 

Th(^ city has some ix'antifnl places \vher(>froni charming lands 



— 537 — 

capes can be observed witli great enjo.viiu'nt, as Praiiiha. .losr. 
Mendcs, and the pretty place called Sncco dos Limdrs (LciiHms ha^., 
which is the lap of the sea-shore ujjon the blue and pacific water of 
the bay and there are no interjections of pleasure and ailinirat ion 
being- able to translate what the eyes can sec and enjoy, l-roni any 
high point of the city we find admirable i)crspectives of exentric 
relief and mild hues. 

The shores of Dcsterro are not muddy iis those <'ities with rivers, 
neither are they of plain sand as those of some places in the Atlantic, 
but are filled with stones large and small, standing here on the 
shore, there half sunk into the water, some rough and some ])olish- 
ed and some with a little vegetation springing fi-om tlieir corners. 




P'luriynopolis. — Esleves-Jiiiiior Street 



In the evening the city is sad, quiet and sleepy. 

For those who are in the habit of hearing the noise of the great 
centres, Desterro, is as its name indicates a perfect exile. There is 
complete silence in the city, discreet lights speak to us through the 
closed window-panes of that calm poetry of home which is a compen- 
sation and a treasury. There is no wordly life, neither the noise of 
the nights in a cosmopolitan city. One or other coffee-place and 
billiard-room may be open till ten o'clock. 

The kerosene oil lamps light the desert streets with a sleeping 
dull light and by moonlight they are economically put out. On 
the sea-shore the sea polishes the stones and rocks softly but 
eternally. 

Public Instruction, police force, industry and commerce. — 
Speaking of public instruction in the State we must cite the Arts and 



— 538 — 

Trades Lyeeuin. It has Kio pupils and occupies an appropriate 
building, having annexed a library with 5.000 volumes, and the 
Museum, which is there provisionally and has good socticmsof archio- 
logical curiosities, anatomic anomalies, important collections of 
mineralogy, numismatic, shells and Brazilian woods. 

The State has a Normal College, with 30 pupils; a Gymnasium; 
one Veterinary and Agriculture school in Blumenau; a Gymnasium 
in Tubanto, another in Laguna, at the expense of the municipalities. 

There are in the State, IDO grammar schools, maintained by the 
government, and 100 private ones. 

The State police force is formed by an infantry company with 
250 men Avith nice blue uniform and white belts and connnandcd by 
a Lieutenant Colonel. 

As to public transportation , there are several carriage roads in 
Santa Catharina, and two railways. One is the short railway 
Estreito to Palhoca, now under construction, the other is the 
1). Thereza Christina railway connecting a place called Minas, in 
the Tubarao Municipium, with the Imbituba and Laguna ports, 
serving these two cities and Tubaiao with 1 l(i kilometres of tracks. 

It is going to be extended till — Massiambu — a near sea-port to 
aid the exploitation of great mineral layers in Tubarao. 

Blumenau and Joinville, old Teuto-Brazilian colonies were 
made cities. We give below the i)opulation of these colonies 
in 1800 : 

Bluinenail Ur.i/.ilians l".'iei;;inr9 

Males 1-2.000 l.il'J 

1-eniaies II 901 \ ^\ ' 

Joinville 

Males 7.(i.i:j iOS 

Females (J.jOl -1\\ 

Tit bur ho 

Males 7. .till :il« 

Females 7. 053 AlH 

The production of these colonies as that of all the State is (piitc 
varied. Industry progresses actively and many of Santa Catharina 
products find mai-ket in Rio and S. Paulo competing with advantage 
with similar home and foreign products. 

Besid(>s the Rita Maria wire-nail factory, there are breweries, 
canned goods factories, cane goods, artificial flowers, soap, lurni- 
liire, carriages factories, dairies, vinegar and fruit wine distilleries, 
coopers works, threading mills, wooih'u slioi's faelo!-y. cordials, 
lime, matte factoi-ies, saw mills, brick w<u-ks,and others, estal)lished 
in the Capital and in the interior. 



— 539 — 

The tri}) to the cohdiieK is easy and (•f)iiir(irt;(l)h-. W lim <;uiii|; to 
Bhimenau we take in Rio tlie coast steamers eallin«; al Kajahy aiul 
in this city we are Iransierred to a small rivei--sleamer that j;oes up 
to Bhimenau. (Join--- to .loiiiville we take t lie steaiiie,rs calling al 
S. Francisco, transportation facilities to that city heinj;- easily 
found. 



Principal CITIES OK THK Statk. — Those who want to expr«!ss 
judgment on the value of Santa Catharina, on its jnonii.ss, on its 



,•«'*«*' 




BlmiKMKm. — Gigaiilic palm tn-c, palms 9 mclrcs jcni 



capacity for evolution, without seeing- hut the island and its Capital 
to be sure will make a mistake. It is necessary to go to the 
interior to know Santa Catharina, and of all the interior no region 
will show more evidence of economical puissance but these colonies 
the seat of wliicli is Blumenau. 

The little steamers going from Itajahu (o Blumenau take S to 
10 hours. When we arrive the panorama of the city is very pretty, 
though it has nothing of importance. It is a small city with L* I to 
25.000 inhabitants, most of them Brazilians, Germans descents who 
live there quite mixed with Brazilians, Italians and other nationa- 
lities. 

The port is a most picturesque one as in general every i)ort with 
a river the stream of which is not strong. The banks almost disap- 



— 540 — 

pear under the vegetation oi" ever green and weed. On tliei-iver wesee 
some yachts painted with gay eoh)rs, and two or three small steamers. 

From there we see the City Hall a nice two floor building with 
another story in the centre, German style, all white. The Mayor 
(or superintendent, as they call him there) was when we visited it, 
M. Alvius Schrader, a Brazilian German descent, and the president 
of the municipal council M. Francisco Margarido. 

The IT) de Xovembro street starts from this point neat and wide, 
crossing near by the Doctor "Blumenau street. Dr. Hermann Bhi- 
menau after whom the city was named was a German i)hilantr()pisi 
who over 50 years ago obtained a grant of lands from the Brazilian 




Blumenau. — .Muni(i|p;il ('.lianihcr 



governement, placed a few marks in his pocket and with a crowd of 
farmers went into the interior of Santa (Uitharina and founded this 
colon \' ill IS.")!). 

Dr. Blumenau was a generous man, tall, strong and a learned 
man, doctor in i)hilosophy, full of courage and humanitarian ideals, 

He did not pay much attention to money. His ambition was to free 
the negro slaves. He was vei\v sober in his habits, a foe of anything 
and everything dishonest. The I>ra/ilian government in ai)pointing 
him director of t lie colony did a wise measure. Many eonlos ])assed 
thi'ougli his hands l)iit when heh'lt his position was just as poor oi' 
as I'ich as when he first took it. 

in ISC)], tired and old, seeing his work (|iiitc ripe he was I hen 
in that age when tlie remembrances of the first years Imist fi'om all 



— 541 — 

sides of our thought — ho wanted to see his old fiitlici laiMl and unit 
back to Germany. His work had been completed tlic colony was 
emancipated. 

He lived there still fifteen years often i-cpeating : >> what a mistake 
i to have left my dear Blumenau ! » and he used to receive with great 
I demonstrations of contentment any aeciuaintance or friend who might 
I bring him some news of his colony, to-day a free and lividy city. 

Blumenau is always growing, its streets have fine arborization, 
J palms and other trees, new houses with artistic fronts, nice veran- 
1 dahs are built every day, here, we see a gothie church with its 
I tower, a catholic one, there, a protestant one, both of them pretty, 
and there are fine churches in this colony. Are worthy of note tlie 
Gaspar and Rodeio districts catholic churches. The Santo Antonio 
college is an important building with four floors, but as to its exter- 
nal beauty the S. Paulo college of German style is not inferior to 
it. Xotwithstanding, the commercial houses present models of archi- 
tectural construction which can be compared with advantage with 
the constructions of the old city. Even the residences of modest 
families are so neat outside, so well taken care of, are relatively so 
artistic, that it looks as if they could serve as model or standard to 
many expensive constructions in the large capitals. 

But that is not all. We take a little carriage and ride a little 
through those fine roads. We see large fields and pastures on both 
sides, fences, modest houses of the colonists showing in spite of 
their modesty comfort and abundance. None of them would sell you 
for love or money that house and lot maintained and enriched by 
their work, growing better year after j'car, and treated with a care 
that can hardly l^e believed. It is difficult to find an empty lot, and 
much more so because there are no discontented colonists there. 

Blumenau cultivates and produces everything : sugar cane, cof- 
fee, tobacco, grain, vegetables, cattle, etc. There are settled as 
small real estate owners, Brazilians, Germans, Italians, Poles, 
who are only distinguished by the language and preferences they 
devote to certain cultivations, while time and atmosphere did not 
complete the unifying work. Like this one, though in smaller scale, 
there are other colonies : Brusque, S. Bento, Rodeio, Aquidaban, 
Sao Paulo, Cedros and several others. None, howev(M- has the impor- 
tance of Blumenau. 

JoiNViLLE. — We will say a few words about that gem of Santa 
Catharina cities. It is probably the prettiest of the State. It has a 
population superior to that of the Capital and a much more progres- 



— 542 — 

sive aspect. Its buildings are modern ones, predominating those of 
German style, but not very large. The streets are wide and paved, 
and th(;y are kept with perfect cleanliness. Its fire department is 
worthy of a modern city. Its president of Municipal Council was 
Mr. Bernardo Enzmann when we were there. He is an active and 
energetic man who never feels tired, lie is always imi)roving public 
services and the administration of the city as well as the Mayor 
Mr. Procopio de Oliveira. There are many factories, several liotcls, 
l)ook-stores, printing offices, good newspapers, etc. 




Lii^ima. — I'iiiiornma ol' ;t |i;irl (»!' \\\v ciix 



After Petro])0]is it is the best city of (Jcrman oiii^in in South 
America. 

TuharAo. — On the banks of tlic river willi iliis name is 
Tubarao city connected to Laguna l)y a lailway the D. Thci-c/a 
Christina). It is a progressive city destined to a great future with 
the exploitation of the layers of coal existing in the ninnicipium 
now beginning to be worked up and they have verified they are the 
larg(;st of its kind in the whoh' world. 

S. I^'rancihco. — Is a picturesijue city, one of the oldest in the 
Stat(;, as it was a village already in Iddti. We were there and can 
write with conviction of the greatness and cxi'cllenev of its poii. 
certainly IIk; best, south of Santos, it is <*alled llabiionga l)a.\ ov 



— 543 — 

S. Francisco bay (as some call it). It is (|nitc dnop until near tlio sea 
and there sliips of deep drauo-ht can aiiclu.r. Son..- .,f tl.c few pocUh 
in the bay have buoys to point them out, allowing the navij^ators 
to keep away from them even at night. 

Through the south bar, called Aracpuu-y, the access is easy for 
small boats as yachts, launclies and canoes. It is much sought for 
especially by the boats coming f.oui Itapocu an<l Harm Nelha. 
vessels that bring flour, ],e:uis. starch, corn and other grains to tin' 
market. 




\) Bliiiiiennii. 



Foiirulpr (il tin- citv nf lii.-il iiaiiic 



Every inch of the territory of this municipium is fertile, and 
gives good returns to those working it. 

Before reaching Babi tonga bay, we were anchored some time 
before Gra^-as island, a high hill covered with thick woods. It is the 
largest of a group of picturesque islands near the coast. 

We left Gracas island at Oa. m. entering through the southern bar. 
Turning round to the left there is the green point, peninsular t)ne, 
on the hill of which is a light-house. AVe entered a little sea of free but 
clear waters bound at the right by the hill. The bay is like a looking- 
glass bright and iramoval)le. Several yachts are anchored there, others 



— 544 — 

slowly move by a weak breeze. The city is in the island, in 
front of the continent. We see some new buildings, and the houses 
constituting the city \vrap on both sides the hill quite green forming 
the spine of the city. On top of it we see the ruins of a construction 
abandoned before it was finished. It is a church of which we only 
see four naked walls, its paneloss windows like an empty cranium 
looking to the life which animates both the city and the port. 

The white of the houses violently strikes the sober green of the 
hill. Above the houses raises the old tower thin and tall, ending by a 
blue half sphere. This is the Matriz church built for 5:000sOO0 in the 
eighteenth century at the expense of the neighbors. To-day it would 
cost no less than 300:000$000. 

On the right, in a prominent place is the market, square, heavy, 
yellow, with a central door and six windows on each side. There is 
also the Commercio Hotel a two floor building, where the tourists 
stop. 

From this place starts a trans-Brazilian railway which is ])eing 
built by the S. Paulo Rio Grande Companj'^ between this port and 
Ignassu. 

Itajahy. — This city which we have already referred to, is a 
picturesque city located in a curve of the sea-coast and at the mouth 
of the Itajahy river, but of difficult access when the season of the 
southern storms comes on. 

The point of land situated a little before the city, which is called 
Cabe§udas, is an enormous series of rocks, on which they built a 
light-house, supported on an iron column. It is one of the ports 
with bigger commerce in the State and though it has only 15.000 
inhabitants, it presents the following commercial movement during 
the following nine years : 

Exportation 



Years 


Interior 


Exterior 


1892 . . 


l..")98.-2i6.840 


1 ").«()( (.000 


1894 . . 


1. 2(11. ilM. 1(1(1 


— 


189.^) . . 


1.218. 1?:;. 290 


— 


189U . . 


l.990.19;i.99() 


;»..■; 17.00(1 


I«!)7 . . 


i.9()9.7.';2.1H 


119.719.100 


IH!(« . . 


2.217. ir;9. 042 


l()2.."(i«.027 


1899 . . 


2.721.1 IK. 100 


:iri.9i8..ioo 


1900 . . 


i.8r..(iiri.iii 


S;i. 99.1.800 


1901 . . 


1.079.506.407 


174.01 7.880 



10.27 1.93t.3r>7 r;j59. 722.807 
r()l:il ill iiiiit' yi'ar.s. 10.831:0r;7SI()l 

.\iimi.il avi'i-agc. 1.870: 181iS;l2(> 



— r,4r, — 

Lagos. — This prosperous up-liill city, licad of a lidi catil.' rais- 
ing municipiimi, was founded by S. Paulo people in 177 1 and was 
formerly called Nossa Senliora dos Pra/.eres. It is SCKJ nieti-es al)ove 
the sea-level. 

It has now about 500 buildings, all iiiliabited b\ a i)()|)ulaii()n o)' 
about 1.000 people. 

It has some houses with upper stories of fine ai)peaianee. uiodern 
construction and four churches as old as the city. 

It has a fine market and a small theatre with a seating eajjacity 
for 500 people in a quite nice building. 

It has also a college directed by priests ot the I'raneiseau 
order, where modern methods arcadoptcnl. 

In the main scjuare of tlie city they initiated the construct idu ol' 
a church to be the Matriz of the city. They also inaugurated a large 
and elegant building all of it stone work which is the City JIall. 

This city has 10 streets, several lanes and cross-streets, and four 
public squares. 

The municipium has but five public schools supported by the 
State, a number unsufficient for the public instruction of the ])oor 
children who wish to frequent them. 

The municipium supports several other schools which are well 
frequented. 

Several private schools are spread in this region supported 
by the chiefs of households and they are not in small number. 

The wealth of the municipium is the cattle, which is far better 
than that of Rio Grande do Sul. They export annually from 20 to 
25.000 heads. There are enormous fields and endless forests. It only 
lacks hands and railroads — the problem in all Brazil. 

LaCjtUna. — A sea-coast city of large future ])ossibilities, for its 
business. It is a pity that its port cannot always allow the entrance 
of ships that run or call at this port. This city was founded by the 
sons of that Diogo or Dias Velho about whom we spoke above. 

Dias Velho Monteiro was killed by treason by the sailors of a 
Dutch ship who put into the harbor of Cannavieiras. His sons fled 
to the continent where they founded the place of Lagoa, to-day 
city of Laguna, the first point which was populated in the Sanla 
Catharina continent. 

Laguna is the Spanish for Lagoa (lake); it proves the historical 
occupation by the Spaniards in that part of the country. It is an 
active and commercial city. Its aspect is pleasant for the regularity 
of the buildings, and alignment of the streets. By the last census 
it has some 10.000 inhabitants. 



— 54fi — 

Tlirongli tlie Lagnna port mercliaiidises were exported from 18<i2 
to 19U1 as follows : 



Years 




Interior 


Exterior 


1892 




fi(i0.729.8Tri 


ir,.5.'i8.2.to 


1894 




847.704.u2:i 


30.678.200 


I89^i 




(io 1.749. 69:) 


27.357.200 


1896 




l.0ll.9;"J7.861 


."..66().200 


1897 




l.ri68.9IO.-)2:i 


I9u.068.iri0 


1898 




•2.069.470.94:; 


205.294.980 


1899 




t .9o0.:io;i.:i36 


298.801.600 


1900 




l.206..'i 10.860 


245.282.500 


1901 


Total. 


l.li>6.o-2i.l80 


— 




. 11.074.124.022 


1.045.486.870 




Total . 


.... 12.119:610^892 




Annual 


avoragc. . I.."}!! 


i:290.S099 



Ararangua. — Is a village that already deserved to become a 
city. In the same conditions are S. Sebastiiio do Tijucas on the 
banks of the river Tijucas, Brusque, on the banks of the river 
Itajahy-mirim, S. Bento, Bella Vista de Palmas, Uniao da Victoria, 
Nova Trento, Palho^a, Rio Xegro, Curytibanos, Campos Xovos and 
S. Miguel, cities that are being developed. 



THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL 



This is one of the most important States of Brazil. 

Leaving the hillj' lands of Santa Catharina southward , the sea- 
coast assumes quite a new feature. After those mountains of vege- 
tation mingled with dark quarries and thick woods, come low soa- 
coast lands with naked sandy shores, that seem not to cud any 
more. 

Shortly, sailing near the coast — what is only possible to be 
done by boats of short draught — we see the shores called Fernam- 
buco or Pernambuco , and afterwards the Mostardas, long white 
savannas lining the short sea-coast on the extended contiiuMit as a 
wall bt^tAvctui tlie ocean and the Lagoa dos Patos. 

'I'liis band of hind has a narrow solution of continuity, at tlio 
South, and that is the Kio (Jraiulc l)ar which gives access to the \ast 
lake. 

In that place precisely the coast is very h)w, but rcallx \ cry h)W 
aiul sandylikc. The .Mahiia light-house marks the pi-oxiniily ol the 



— 54.7 



bar. But tlie channel is so cin-vcd and lonj^, (ov.-r 10 kilometroH) that 
until we entei- the port Atalaia is always seen, thougli in seveial 
positions. To the right and left in the eliannel there are in:iny 
buoys, some witli bells, souk; wilb lights, other simple lliichuini 
huoys. The sea there isg-eneraljy louo-h and s(ddoin a sicamn- .-m.-rs 
without being violently rocked and it is always necessary to take a 
pilot aboard. At last within the anchorage place, th<' port shows it> 
beauty and the view of the city i)ays well for the discomfort of 
the trip. 

The State has a configui-ation of lines ])erfectly homogenioiis, 
assuming a rhomboidal form, only one of the angles being the P>ra/i- 
lian sea-coast, the other three being land fi-ontiers, thr largest i)ai't 




D>" Borges de .Medeiros. — l^reseril (rovonior of Rio Grando do Su! 



of which are boundary lines of foreign lands. This circumstance 
I'orapels the Federal Government to always have a considerable 
detachment of troops in this State. 

This is one of the most populated and most advanced States of 
Brazil. The European immigration goes there in large numbers, 
especially from Germany and Italy, thanks to the similarity of the 
climate and meteorologic analogies with certain portions of Euroj^e 
to which advantages we can add the one of the fertility of the soil. 
Its population is of over 1 .200.000 inhabitants. They are hard working 
lindustrious people, and would share a good portion of national 
jexports were it not the drawback of not having a good sea-port. 
! Its Capital which is developing very fast cannot be visited by 



— 548 - 

the large transatlantic steamers and even some of the middling siz 
steamers of the Lloyd Brazileiro get caught in the low tides whil 
crossing Lagoa dos Patos on their way to Porto Alegre. This ha 
haijpened to us when in May WOo we were going for the first tim 
to Porto Alegre. 




Gaiiiliu (losUiiiie 



Though the Rio Grande peojjle do not differ from the general 
Brazilian tyi)e, as we verified by self observation, as to their pliysi 
cal appearance and moral standards, they have, however, habits aiui 
customs in their field-life tliat arc not to be found in Pai-u, Haliia. 
or any othei- i)]ace of Brazil. 

Kvery hx-ality has its lit Me traditional habits, t hat can only hi 
adopted in that very locality, and ai'c forgotten or disa[)poai 



— 549 - 

with the first contact with the railway and especially wiiii the 
surroundings of city-life;. 

In these everything- loses its personality and pecidiai- cliaracte- 
risation, to be melted in the generalized and iinifoi-ni Brazilian type, 
with common ideals, common history, laws and language, — <f the 
infallible distinctive of national (diaracter, » — cpioling the o,\:u'[ 
expression of Mr. Dohne. This is what hajjpens in i;io (li-aiulr 
do Sul. 

But it causes an agreeable impression to \]\c hmrisl ;ind the oli- 
server to find a cow-boy in the interior of Bahia, a cnipirn (tin; man 
of the interior who never comes to the city) in the intei-ior of Sao 
Paulo, or a Rio Grande ^■niicho (cow-boy in the cattle i-anches 
of this State, Santa Catharina and even in Parana. 

The clothes are different but none of them have the i)eciiliar 
show'y dresses of the gaucho. 

This type — o gaucho — is in southern Brazil, just what the 
cow-boy is in the West, as far as his work goes and even a little as 
to some habits. 

He dresses bniirbiicha (a kind of wide trousers) tied at the feet 
at the side of the shoe, the ponche, a kind of cape or rather a wool- 
len shawl with an opening in the centre, through which he puts his 
head, the shawl resting on the shotilders, and wide brim felt and soft 
hats. The gaucho with his favorite clothes, his cow-boy habits, his 
/??a/^c (Brazilian tea) without sugar, and his popular songs, is the 
most chaiacteristic type of the interior of Brazil. 

* 

But let us w^rite about the physical aspect of the Rio Grande terri- 
tory. We have already said that its sea frontier is relatively ungra- 
teful — sandy and low — and had this peculiarity : it has not one 
single island (not being the rock in front of the Torre do Xorte). It 
has an extension of 950 miles. 

In compensation, the interior region, with immense fields and 
cattle ranches, with mountains, with enormous forests, is a nu)st 
wonderful world. It is in this mountain region, called as in Parana 
and Santa Catharina the regmo scrrnmi that abundant rain falls 
and mark better the four seasons of the year. 

A dreadful peculiarity is the strong breeze that blows, on the 
sea-coast during winter, it cuts like a knife , very cold, which in Rio 
Grande they call minuano, and in the United States they call cold 
wave. We had to try it, against our wishes both in April 188«t and 



— 550 — 

May 1903. These winds come from the Andes and even the natives 
suffer witli them. 

The Rio Grande do Sul being the State that is further south is 
the one having- the climate more similar to the European. 

Its three large cities are placed in the interior margin of Lagoa 
dos Patos, a true fresh water mediterranium, named after the 
indigene family that together with the Carijos and others popula- 
ted all tlie southern coast from Santa Catharina down. It is so wide 
that from one side of it we cannot see the other, having, so they 
affirm 9.000 square kilometres of surface. 

The city of Porto Alegre separated from the ocean l)\ a harrier 







■'^!^' 



I'mlu Alcijri-c 



isle 1)1 l'('(lr;is lir;iiic;is ;ill(l |Mi\V(li'r lM;ii;;i/ilii 



a few leagues long can only be readied after an extensive dun alter 
entering Rio Grande bar, and 'J I hours navigation northward 
through tliat lake. 

Porto Alegkk. — I'^or the loiirisi, however, llii^ enormous dis- 
tance is compensated by tl,ie extraordinary ])an()rainas of tliis trip : a 
most ample surface, ample and (ralm, of a grayish green evading hue 
with large spots, marking (he differences of bottom, or the lU'csem-e 
of sandy crowns that the steamer, steered by the pilot, traiupiilly 
avoids. This is the Lagoa dos Patos. 

A (juartcu" of an hour befori; i-eaehing the ( 'apital wc see in the riv(>r 
waters a gay island formed with enonn(»ns rocks half d(>eoiate(l with 
green trees, and if is in Ihal ishind that the Federal ( Jovermnent 
keeps their powder maga/iues. 

Th7'_\' call that pietnrescpu' spot Pedras Hrancas and. at least 
wlien we saw it, it was of a snow-wliile pretty as sihcr retlcct- 



— ool — 

ing- its bright whiteness under a nioniin- sun in May <.n tin- Nsalers 
below. 

Since then we begin to see the Capital wliieh is eovering simw 
low hills at the East of Gnahyba. In front a few islands and ramifi- 
cations of other rivers gather together there gaily and picturesquely. 
The buildings cover the hill side; as a cloak of vai-icgatcd colors, and 
come away down lining the quay and extending a border of storage 
houses and commercial docks upon the river waters running bright 
and clear. 

The nearest buildings can be distinguished at the cnlian.c of the 




Porto Alej^re. — Lower part of tlic city 



'port — they are the Menino Deus district — in an ample curve of 
sea-shore. On the right is the large barracks, all white, seeming to 
have its foundation sunk in the water. 

When our boat was at anchor, and during the legal formalities 
of custom house and board of health visits, we admired that char- 
ming panorama of the ('ity. It was beautiful ! ft reminds one of the 
scenery at Bahia, the buildings, however, being more modern ones. 

We see an the right, at a little distance, the large buildiugs of 
the Poorhouse with its white tower pointing towards the clear blue 
skj-. Further, some houses mingled vegetation covering the plain 
between the river and the hills. On a promontory somewhat elevated 
is concentred the bulk of the houses, dominated by the two high 
white towers of the Nossa Senhora das Dores Catholic Church. 



Surrounding- tlie massive body of buildings, there are some pu- 
blic squares and gardens, leaning towards the quay : one is the 
Harmon^' one, the other Alfaudega. We do not remember the names 
of the others. 

In this pari of the plain, almost near the water, is the majestic 
building of tlig municipality the front of which looks to the square 
on the land-side. 

Landing iwiir there, the visitor can see with pleasure this pretty 
building. Jt has two upper stories and ground floor. The principal 
body is a little inside, and crowned by a kind of tower, which used 




i'ulO 



.Miini<-i|i:il liiiililiii<. 



to be the distinctive characteristic used by all the City Halls and 
cliui'ches. The two side bodies are decorated with columns. 

A stone (juay dresses this part of the city connected with the 
anchorage place by several wooden bridges with their respective 
storage houses. Alongside these bridges are a lot of yachts, steamers 
and lighters, nuiking constant noise while loading and unloading, 
and that lends a lively tone to the port , lliougli in a smaller degree 
than is noticed at Rio (Jrande. 

Thei'C, near Ihe <|ua\-, is (lie ])iiblie niaiket. a birge, s(|uai'e, stoiu^ 
building divided into small business houses, and in the centre a vast 
yai'(l willi an oiMianienlal fountain completes the wliole. There is an 



— 5B3 — 

al)undance of fruit, dairy products, ve^etablos, fowl. rtr. Tl..- pricefi 
are a revelation to tJmse who .•„Mi<. lV,ui, l."i.,:,,i.l u.,„l.I not 1... I„die- 
ved in Belem or Manaos, so moderate an; they. 

Porto Alegrehas water in al,undan<-e. TIm- piil.lir illnnnnatiou is 
with hydro-earbon -as as in I'elotasand i:i„ (Jrandr an.l ll... privatr 
illumination of the houses is by electrieilx . 

The suburbs : Gloria, Navegantes at the Nnrtli, I'art.no,,, M,„„. 
hos de Vento, Floresta, ete., at the South , are j^rettv and all 
C(mneeted by tramway lines whiel. transp.,rl ii, one y.-ar about 
2.(500.000 passengers. 




Poi'lo Alegre. — 7 seteiiibro street 



The nicest public place of the city is the Park, where not many 
3^ears ago a general State Exhibition was held and where is to be 
seen a pretty summer theatre , several arcliitectonic pavilions of 
iron and wood, gardens, birds nurseries and menagerie, everything 
illuminated by electricity. This is the attraction place where the 
high-life of the town- meet. 

The public squares with gardens in the commercial i)art are vi'ry 
pleasant. There is the General Deodoio square where they built a 
statue of the Conde de Porto Alegre, the brave general native of 
Rio Grande. 

The Alfandega Square (Custom House Square), is named (bus 
because of the Custom House being near there. It is a drawing-ioom 
of the city. It is there that we await for the tramw ay, that we reail 



— 554 — 

the papers, that we take a little fresh air, and it is the thoroughfare 
for the circulating artery of the city, tlie Andradas Street. 

The General Marques square, is propably the largest but has no 
garden. 

The most central square, and one with a bad history is the Har- 
monia one, with benches, flow(;r-beds and ])lants. It was there that 
tlie prisoners convicted to death were executed. Even as near as the 
.'Jrd of November 1857 they executed there : Doraingos Baptista and 
Sergeant Felix, who in 18.53 killed, foi- the purpose of robbing him. 
Manoel Tavaies, a Portuguese, and they also executed then Floren- 
tino, a negro, who killed Antonio Soares Leao his mastei- in Belem. 
These were the last executions which took place in the Rio Grande 
capital. At present people walk around there gay and free, without 
remembering the sad celebrity of that sipiare. 

Among the prettiest streets of the Capital, the newly arrived 
cannot help noticing the Andradas street foi-merly called Praia 
Street. In fact this street runs parallel to the shore, (praia nieans 
sea-shore). It is a long street of uneven width, lined with nice 
houses, carefully paved, with mosaic sidewalks, and it is a lively 
thoroughfare. It is to Porto Alegre, what Ouvidor Street and Central 
Avenue are to Rio de Janeiro. In this street are cafes, brasseries, 
fashion establishments, jewelers, several newspaper offices, lawyers 
offices, agencies, etc. 

The Bragan^-a street is pretty, wide and somewhat inclined, lined 
with nice buildings. The Voluntarios daPatria street is quite a long 
one through which run the Navegantes line of tramways. This street 
has many factories, whose chimneys are their best ornament, and it 
lines the sea-shore. Generally the streets in Porto Alegre, are not 
straight, neither are they wide. Many like those of Deus Menino 
disti-ict ai-e tortuous forming both curved and broken lines. There 
are many iii)-hill streets, what is naturally the city being built up on 
a hill. It is not large like Bahia, Recife or Para. Its buildings are 
old and as ugly as those of Rio or Bahia, but there are many new 
buildings quite artistic in German and Italian styles which have lar- 
gely contributed towards the material evolution of Kio Grande do 
Sul. 

The jHiblic l)uildings reflect the progress of the city and tlic fol- 
lowing are the best of them. The Engineering College, a modern two 
floor building, near the Park. The Catholic Scmiuai'y also a fine 
building, "^rhe local Legislature building; (he Atheneuni ; the Normal 
College; the Medical College; the Public Library; the Government 
Palace; the Provisoi-y Palace, large square building of olden style; 



— 555 



the Charily Hospital, a large two lloc.i- l.iiiMino. painted yellow. I'..r- 
tuguese slyle, divided into two bodies, eoniieeted In a central Iroiil, 
and a modest eliureh, at the right end, the Iheutrt^ - S. I'edro, — 
fine Imilding but of little arehiteetnral vahK- the Provideneia i)ank: 
the Commereio and the English banks. The Insane As.vlnni; ilie Mi 
litary College, a large S(piare building, rose color al Hh; <'nd of a 
large square without any garden: the (Jerinan cliureli: the Catholic 
Catliedral, an old elinreh, wvy pretty inside. i)nl with iininiportaiil 
architectural style; tlu; Harraeks; llie <^ Jidio de Ca^tillio .. j.alace 
and luany private n)ansions. 




I'urlo Alcgre. — Sclioul (»l (;i\ il Eiij^iiicci's, Arts, and iiiatmlarlui'cs 



This city has a great coniniereial activity, gi-eat niovemenl of 
carriages and trucks, tramways, etc., many clui)s, first class newsi>a- 
pers, Federal and State telegrai)h, telephone company, hotels. Inchi- 
<ling the Pedras Brancas, Earra, Marianna IMiuentcl districts and 
islands in front, the population of I'orto Alegre is of To. 571, twelve 
years ago it was only of ~)'2. 121 inhabitants. This shows how it 
progresses. 

Yet this city is not one of the oldest in Hra/il. In I 7 TJ some H(» 
couples from the Portuguese islands went there to foun<l a colony. 
They were sent l)y the king 1). Joao V. This explains the nanu- of 
Porto dos Casaes (caseas means couples). It became a village in 
August 1803 and city in Novembre 182-2, with the title of Leal 
e valorosa cidade (Loyal and Brave cityi. This lith^ was given to ii 
in 1841. 



— 55fi — 

The great prosperity of Porto Alegre only began after the immi- 
gration brought to the State tlie vigor of their impulse. It is tlie same 
old story of the United States, Australia, Argentine, S. Paulo. 

From there railways start, fluvial steamers, telegraiih and mails. 
It is a oommereial and aetive eentre of first order. 




I'nrlii AI('i;r('. ,Iiil;<» dc ('.iistillids |il;ic 



PihIjIC Instruction, police force and transportation. — « On 
the literary and seientifie side )>, thus wrote K. Reclus, « Porto 
Alegre can be considered as a kind of ('ai)ital, thanks to its schools, 
colleges, newspai)ers. » There is in Porto Alegre besides the Military 
College, maintained by the Federal (Jovernment, the Fngine(>ring, 
Medicine, Pharmacy, Law and Tlieology Colleges, Xormal College, 
Gymnasium, sev(!ral schools for males and rcmales. and outside of 
the C^apital : a Lyceum for agi'iculture studies in Pelotas, ami anotlu'r 
in Ta({uary, etc., Pesides these thei'c are the district schools of 
Porto Alegre, Taipiara, Montenegro, Taijuai-y, Santa Maria. Santa 
Cruz, Rio Pardo, Livramento and Cni/. Alta, which had the frc- 
(juentation of 1.100 students in I'.HK). 

Vov the elementai'v instruct ion the State was »li\ided into seven 
districts, counling '.'Ci.") |)nl)lie schools thus dist I'lixilecl : 



— hhl — 

3r(l deffree : 

Tilled 171 

Vaciiiit 

'Jiid decree : 

iMlled |i|(j 

Vacaiil '■2 

Jst degree : 

tilled 07(3 

Vacant \ 

Total . . . m:, 




Tlie school population in U»0;} was moi-e or less 30.000 pupils, 
the Porto Alegre municipium alone having {5.()88. 

The Rio Grande do Sul State keeps a large body of troops : a 
brigade militarily organised, with ;} infantry battalions , a cavalry 
regiment, armed with modern rifles and well c(pii])ped, several pro- 
visory infantry and cavalry companies on the Uruguayan frontier to 
do police duty and protect it against conspirators who go over to 
the neighboring country for the organisation of political fights. 

The capital municipium maintains a battalion of guards, a kind 
of French g-endarmerie, with light blue uniforms which are one of 
the lively notes of the Porto Alegre streets. Each municipium in the 
other cities has, in the same way, a little company of guards. The fire 



— 558 — 

department forms another militarized company in the Capital. 

We spoke above of the Porto Alegre tramways. Thej- are driven 
by animal traction as those of Pelotas and Rio Grande. As to 
railways there, are the following' : the Porto Ale<>rt' to Uruouayaiui. 
038 kilouKitrcs long-, but only '•'>'[ in oijnratioii, till Cacequy, and tlir 
S. Gabriel l)rancli line, with 7(J kilometres. It starts l'i-r)in the right 
bank of the Taquury rivei- where is the main station, called « Mar- 
gem )) station. Yet there rnns between this place and the ('a])ital a 
daily line of steamers of the Gompanhia Fluvial. 

The Rio Grande to Bage railway, with J.s:; kilometres in opera- 
tion, going- through Pelotas. It will cross by and bye, in Gacecjiiy 
the Porto Alegre and Urnguayana railway. 

The Porto Alegre to Xova Hambugo railway with :!1 kilometres, 
going through S. Leopoldo city. The State Government is going to 
extend it till Caxias village, which will take al)out i;>0 kilometres, 
crossing the important municipiums of S. Leopoldo, S. Sebastiao do 
Cahy, S. Joao do Montenegro, Bento Gon^alves and Caxias, with a 
population of over 100. 00() iuliabitants, also serving tlie neigliboi-iug 
mnnici]>iums. 

Tlie Santa Maria to Itarare railway, with 2(V2 kilometi-es running- 
till Carajinho, lOo kilometi'c^s beyond the Cruz Alta city through 
which it goes, and soon it must reach Passo Fundo. 

The Quarahy to Itaqny railway, with ISO kilometres, crossing 
the ['ruguayana city. 

The small railway whicli starts from the Junccao (.Junction) 
station, crossing of the Rio Grande to Bage railwa\' with it. This 
line goes to the summer resort Villa Siqueira a sea-shore place, 
belonging- to the Yiacao Rio Grandense Company. 

There are several railways under project, as well as the plan of a 
canal from Tores to Porto Alegre, taking advantage of the immense 
series of lakes being along this shore. 

Of these roads one belongs to tlu! Federal Government, — the 
Porto Alegr(». to Urnguayana one — all tln^ others belong to private 
con(;ei'ns. Rio Grande do Sul has i-ailways running over a total t)f 
I .(ilo kilometres. 



Indusi'kv, Pkoi)1'i-tu>n ano Commkrce. — In relation to otlu'r 
States of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul has an advanced manufacturing- 
industry, not speaking of the dairy industry in which it is one of the 
first pioducing States. It exports dried salted beef in large tpiantities. 
What is wort h_\- of note is the variet\' of its manufacturing indnstries 



— B69 — 

either in the Capital or in oIIkm- cilies. We saw there fot ton mills, 
mateheH I'aetories, threading mills, hosiery, lurniture, luits, shoeH, 
combs, gloves, cigar, masses factories, canned goods works, glass- 
ware, arms, safes, soap, candles, carriages,, harnesses, lurxmi fue- 
tories, ready made clothing, pharmaceutical pi-odiicfs concrnis and 
many others. There are yet factories fo rule ])a|jei'. l»ook liinderics. 
printing offices, typographing estal)lislimriits mid ship-yaids lor iIm- 
building of small boats. 

The national wine is also maniifactui-ed in large scale, princi- 
])ally in the Italian colonies, lacking yet the convenient j)i-ei)aration 
to allow it to be exported. There are also, vinegar, cordials, and 
brandy distilleries as well as brc\veri(;s. 

The lard factories is an industry tlu^ repniation ol which is 
already made, and there arc (piite a numlxT of factories in this State. 

The cheese industry is large as well as the butter one, but only 
for local consumption. It seems, however, that these indnsti-ies are 
going to be largely developed. 

Excepting Rio and S. Paulo no State has its industries so n)ncli 
developed as Hio Grande do Sul. While it progr(;sses in these it does 
not, at the same time, neglect its agriculture. 

In the interior are large beans, mandioca, corn, i)()tatoes, rice 
plantations, and ^others, which not only furnish the Rio Grande 
market but are exported. Rio (Jrande do Sul, we might say, is the 
grain storage house of Brazil. 

Besides what it gives to the internal consumption, it sends to 
Rio, S. Paulo and Bahia the excess of the production of onions, 
cabbages, fruit, etc. 

Cattle begin to be exported. Until now it was hardly enough for 
the xarqiieadas (factories of xarqiie (c dried salted beef))), the hides 
and residuums to the European industries. As to the sheep industry, 
properly said, Rio Grande do Sul is the most advanced State, though 
the sheep are not so good there as of other places like Lages , 
Campos Novos, Curitybanos and others of the northern neighboring 
State. As to cattle the Santa Catharina ox is stouter and heavier 
having an average of 30 kilos more than the Rio Grande one. 

If we are not mistaken, however, both of them come from the 
same origin, the iberic cattle. We refer to the wild cattle because the 
product of recent crossing breed are from fine breeds that lately 
have been introduced in Santa Catharina and Rio Grande. 

Horses are also a source of wealth for Rio Grande, and the pro- 
ducts of horse breeding are the best of all Brazil. They are not hor- 



— 560 — 

ses of fine lines, tall ones, but of middle height, humble aspect, of 
great resistance to fatigue and of strong- muscle. 

For the military service , campaigns and marches through the 
roads, they are used by the Brazilian army in preference to the 
horses imported from the River Plate and Europe. 

It comes from the Portuguese (c Alemtejo )> province horses, 
introduced in Rio Grande by the Portuguese, its first colonists, to 
whom is due the country trucks, certain stories and popular le- 
gends, as well as the goats, dogs, sheep and other domestic animals 
to-day already modified and altered in Brazil. 

With such agricultural elements and dairy industries it is easily 
seen that this State must maintain an active work of exchange with 
the remittance of its surplus to the markets of othei- i)laces of Brazil 
and abroad, receiving from them what it lacks. 

The exports and imports of Rio Grande is made not only through 
these three large markets, Porto-Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande, 
but by the southern frontiers and those of Santa Catharina. There are 
no statistics to be depended upon, as to the volume of its interstate 
interchange, but there are some data as to the external commerce. 

About these the statistics show an importation much above the 
exports. Thus is that in 1901 , Rio Grande do Sul imported (only 
from January to Xovember) goods with the value of ■2().198:22tj§00u. 
and did not export over 12.129:076S000. 

According to the local statistics, the State has exported both for 
home and foreign markets goods with the following values from 
1897 to 1903 : 

Years Oiliiiul value 

1897 o->.93G:2:2oS000 

1898 32.rj83: 1298000 

1899 .•i4.09():8(H).Sn(i(l 

1900 .^i0.03-i:171$000 

1901 .■i4.l2«:9!2SnOO 

1902 .^Jl.492:487Sn00 

190.3 ■Jo.ll.3:300§000 

The exports of dried salted beef during the same period corres- 
ponds to the total of heads killed in the Pelotas, Bage, (^uaraliy and 
other xur(iiicu(lus (di'ic^d salted beef factories). 

Years Number of heads 

IH97-1898 574.901 

1K9H-1899 287.306 

1899-1900 297.090 

1900-1901 .->Gi.902 

191(1-1902 472.378 

* 
* * 



I 



— oCl — 

Rio Grande citiks. — Al'ler Porl.. Alcni-r, il,,. lidir^i mikI niur.- 
advanced city of tlie State is Polotas, whidi l).v (lie hist .••■nsiis has 
•J 1.000 inhabitants. Adding-, liowovnr, tlic popuhition ..f the other 
localities of the mnnicipimn (of whicli it is ihc scat; \\.-m,.| the 
luimber of l.-^.OOO inhabitants and by the census of I.S'.K) it liad hni 
12.000. Tbe growth liere was not so lai-g(; as in Toifo Alr-i-.. nn.i 
Rio Grande. 

In fact, placed as it is between these two nuelens of iirl)ane assimi- 
lation, one acting as political and indiisti-ial capital of the State, i he- 
other as its organ of interchange with the exterioi- , I'clntas, ft-ds 
its ninnicipium re([nested l)y the cent rifiii;al cuci-git's of radi one of 




I'.'lol.-is. — \i("\v ul' a |iai-| uf I III- rii\ 



them, and it is not withont a vovy strong resistance that it snccccds 
in not declining, in profit of any or both of the two. 

Pelotas was made a village in 1S;50, and a city in Deceniher IS:;."). 
In 1812 it was bnt a hamlet. 

It is 300 kilometres away from Porto Alegre and r)."),.") kilometres 
from Rio Grande by railway, and by sea only three hours in steanuM-s 
making ten knots an hour. 

It is not a river lined with woods as in the Noi-th of IJra/.il. in- 
even in the marvellous central region. It is a river of low hanks, 
dressed by bushes of light green showing that those are sandy 
grounds. The river-stream is not a strong one, and its watei-s are 
dark in some spots. The low banks allow the i)lains to be seen, 
extending beyond covered with canes and bushes. 

Here and there we see a xarqiienda (dried salted heef factoi-y) 
with its string of smoke, they grow in number as we neai- Pelotas. 



- - 5fi2 



Tlie city in on the left banks of S. Goncalvo river, not very far 
where it meets the lake waters. We land on a square by the river, 
through a wooden quay. The port is filled with small boats. The 
steamers do not come alongside the quay. To come ashore we hire a 
boat. Lots of catraeiro.s (boatmen) come alongside the ship as they 
do in Bahia and other ports. Thej'^ are generally Portuguese, in the 
Soutli, while in Pernambuco, Maranliao and Bahia thej' are negroes 
and mulatoes. This port is not so frequented neither is it so pretty 
as Rio (irrande. The city streets are wide, straight and long, cut in 
squares, modern style. The buildings have as a rule one floor as 
in Rio Grande, having more houses with upper stories tliau this one 




Pcliil: 



View of a Bci'f I'ailorv 



The c( l.^ Xovembro » sti-eet, is the liveliest of all. It lias nice 
two story buildings, business houses, with nice show-windows, 
coffee-houses, hotels, etc. At the left we see the new and i)retty 
building — the City Hall — the front of which looks to the Public 
Garden. — The Public Library, an institute which is the pride 
of Pelotas is also in that street and it is a model of oi-dci- tiiul neat- 
ness. It has 25.000 volumes. 

This aristocratic street pa\s well I'oi- the imprcssiou we ici'i'ixc 
entering the i)ort, as the i)art oT tiie city near the tinay (li)es not 
awake favoi'ahle im])i'essions al)out the city. 

'I'lu! region fi'om the garden u]) it compensates this impression. 
In all the hoi-i/on line every side the observer may look to, we si'c the 
chimneys emptying rolls of smoke towards the l)lue sk,\ and this 



i 



— 5(!:{ 



oives at once an idea of ihc iixlusi rial pow.r oi I'<-Ioi;is. 

The Tublie aarden, is of all Llie piihlic sqiiaics. ihr pn-tH.-^t aii<l 
most frequented. Large trees shade its nroiinds. if is s(|u:uv and lius 
nice bushes, flower-beds, fine jdants, benclies, lawns, and an arti- 
ficial grotto. 

Among- the nice public buildings we will mention the theatre, a 
large and elegant building ; the CUy Hospital, in certain points 
superior to the one of the Capital ; the pretty railway station ; the 
market in the central part of ihc city, a stone and lime, one fh.nr 
building, old style, surrounded by small grocery stores, and with a 
large door on each side of the building, dooi- that gives access to 
the internal light yard; the S. Francisco church, heavy Ixiildin- of 




I'f'lotiis. — l);i Misi'r'icortlia hiis|ijl,ii 



colonial architecture, but not altogetlier of bad api)earancc, looks to 
a pretty square, and has a portico witli ionic columns and two to- 
wers somewhat dark with j^ears. In its interior it has six altars, it 
is light, as are as a rule all the catholic cluirches. 

The city commerce is quite progressive. There is life in the 
streets. The newsboys offer the papers for sale. The horse-cars run 
through the streets. There are many public cabs and carriages, and 
their hire is not dear. For 3$000 (about one dollai-) they took us from 
Rua Quinzeto Tablnda (a vast esplanade whci-efrom you can sec 
5 to 6.000 heads of cattle in the pasture. For -JdOOO they go to the 
Pelotense Park, charming public place due to the initiative of a well 
known chemist and druggist. 

The city is illuminated by gas. Its streets are paved and the 
houses are elegant, unlikely many other cities of the country. 



— 50+ — 

Rio Grandk. — 'Plie third cify of Rio Grande do Sul is S. Rcdro 
do Rio Grande. We • were there in l.SUi. In 19Uo we had to go there- 
a second time and were quite surprised at the progress tlie eity had 
undergone. It took good advantage ol" that decade. Its port has each 
day more movement. It is a beauty. A well built stone quay, 
lines the city, and allows middle draught boats to come alongside to 
load and unload. In the anchorage place we see the transatlantic 
steamers. All the flags have places in this rcndcz-uoiis of interna- 
tional commerce. 

Rio Grande city has much enlarged its area and has open splen- 
did straight and wide streets. Its houses, genei-ally one flooi- ones. 




fiiii'i 





mmpn 







Uio (ii-aiule 



.Mai'c'clial I'ldiiaiio Slrcel 



are modest, l)u( a few public and pi-ivatc Ixiildings avo ariirniing the 
ti-ansfoi-niatiou power oT wealth in (lie physiognoui\- (»f llie cities of 
to-day. 

Certain striu^ts as (Jeneral I'Moriano one, are lined altogethei- 
with fin(^ buildings with uppei- stories and nice architecture. In this 
street w(^ can see the vai-iety and lichiu'ss of the Rio (Jrande com- 
merce. In the evening it is a pleasure to go out for a walk, by the 
light of the (c Auei- » gas-light, and look at the dry-goods and di'css- 
mak(;rs windows, to sec the coff(M'-houses lull of natives and stran- 
gers, tlu^ l)iHiard-rooms, the bi'eweri<>s, all ol I liese lively and gay 
as in th(i cosnu)politan eiti(!s. 



— 5fi5 — 

Public cabs uiid caiiiaocs imim liciv and llinc in all .liirrtions. 
loaded trucks o„ a„d ,.,„„(. ,„ .^„,, ,•,.,,,,, j,^^. ^^^^.^^.^ .^^^^j ^1^^^ n.-usboyK 

cry out the names of the city papers and latest news. An.l Nvliat K"od 
papers tills city lias. Some capitals of State hav.- not iu this srnsr 
anything that can be compared willi if. 

Another street of much life and moiv so dmin}- the day time is 
the Kiacliuelo street, along boiilconni abm-sidr il„. p,„t. i)aved 
with st(me blocks filled uith houses Nvitli upper stories on ..ne side 
as the other is the quay. There is the Custom-House . liie d..me of 
which can be seen above the i-oof of the other hons.-s. 




-l""'","""" ^'■ 



IT rr 
n r 



>^w 




I'lio GraiHle. — Mimicipalily "s S(|ii;iii 



There are quite a few other wide and well paved streets as N'inte 
e <^)uatro de Maio and others. 

Several public squares have gardens and works of ornamental art. 

As soon as we reach the city we see a garden in front of the 
Post Office. In it is a column , a monument to commemorate the 
freedom of the slaves, which, we believe to be the only monument 
in Brazil erected to celebrate this great national date. That vei-y 
pul)lic garden has a large fountain of great effect among the decora- 
tive vegetation that surrounds it. 

Another most beautiful square is the one called Tiradentes. It is 
a new one. It was not there when we paid our first visit to that 
city. It is a large one, surrounded by railing what neither increases 
nor diminishes its beaut3^ Inside is a kind of lake or rather a 
little river crossed here and there by bridges. Pretty swans populate 
this thin little thread of water. The lawns and flower beds present a 
charming display of colors. 



— 5«6 — 

At an angle of that hpaiiliful pul)lic garden, all surrounded by 
nice buildings, is the Benelicencia Portugueza, with a rose color 
front, manueline style, it is the pride of the district. A little farther 
ahead is the vSalvador protestant church, of superb scottish-gothic 
lines, surrounded by an artistic railing with a kind of a tower. 

Once we have spoken of those buildings, we must cite the City 
Hull, with two pavements and nice front of a sobei" and classic style. 
It is one of the best in the State." 

The Army Head (Quarters is next to that building and is also a 
fine two floor l)uilding, and looks to tlie garden of the square. It is 
a noble l)uilding with but little ornamentation. 

The church is a solid piece of heav}' architcM'turc, two towers and 
a fi ont with windows, of a type so common in the churches built in 
the eighteenth centuiy. Gomes Freirc in 17.>j ordered it to be erected 
on the foundation of the primitive church which had been destroyed 
by a fire, caused by lightning, (iomes Freire built the front and the 
main altai" and the people built the rest. 

The old church was then away from the village. 

There were then two chapels, the Sant'Aniui one, half a league 
away, and the Lapa, a wooden one. 

Besides the Matriz church and several others the city has the 
Bomfim church, new in style and construction, all white as an 
expression of purity. 

Few institutions honor so much a city as the Rio Grandense 
Libi-ary does. It is supported by an association of lovers of litera- 
ture. It is admired b^' all the visitoi-s. It is installed in a large 
though one floor building, owned by the association. It has large 
halls for reading rooms and 30,000 volumes. When we visited it, we 
noticed among the frequenters a numl)er of privates and petty offi- 
cers of the army, and we were glad to see them there at night, em- 
l)loying the best way they could have done their leisure liours. 

In II io (Jrande, as in Porto Alegre and Telotas, several nice 
pai)ers are published, of large size, modern features. There are two 
morning and four afternoon newsjnipers. Of the morning ones the 
Dinrio do Rio (irundc is the oldest of the State and excepting Joi- 
nal do Conunercio of Rio de Janeiro, it is the oldest in all lirazil. 
The « Artistu » one of the afternoon papers has no less than I'J 
yeai's of uiiint('ri"ii])l('d i)ul)li('ation. 'IMie Rio (iraiidc city is a city of 
much futui'c. I>y the census of IS'.K) its population was ICt.OOO inha- 
bitants. The last census gives it 22.000 not counting the subuibs 
(Porto Novo, Trahim and jVIangueira). With those would present at 
least ."'>().( )!)(>. ThcrilN' is on (lie l);iiik of llic channel fitrincd 1)\- the 



— 5fi7 — 

ocean about 12 kilometres away iVom the bar, aiul :'.:!(i kib.mctrfH 
away Iroin the Capital. It is built on a sandy and .|uit.- plain 
peninsula. 

Were it not for the port, we could not understand how man 
shoidd have selected such a centiv of threatninj,- sands to huild a 
city on. To be sure, an irrational and blind force presides the birth 
of cities in this continent. Those who see Kio (hande for the first 
time cannot help but think of the possibility of oiviiiH in or i-ather of 
being- smothered by those mountains of fine sand wbi(di surround it 
on all sides. 

S. Jose do Xorte. — Is a small city in front of the ])re('edin;; 
one. This one and Rio Grande form, each one on its side the ennui 
where the Lagoa dos Patos empties itself into the Atlantic ocean. 
Its soil is very sandy but it is very good for the cultivation of pota- 
toes, tomatoes and onions, of which it exports to Santos. 

Uruguay'axa. — Is one of the good cities of the Rio (irande State. 
It has 13. 038 inhabitants by the census of lOOO. It is (m the bank of 
an enormous river — the Uruguay. In front of it is the Argentine 
village Restanracion. The Commerce of Uruguayana grows very 
much just because it is in the frontier. It develo])ed a good deal 
after the inauguration of the railway connecting it with Alegrete. 

Soon we will be able to travel bj' railway between this city and 
the Capital, that is, 710 kilometres. The best buildings of Ifuguay- 
ana are : the Custom-House, the Carlos Gomes theatre, the large 
Matriz Church, the City Hall, the municipium Public School antl the 
Federal garrison barracks. 

Bagk. — This is a most picturesque city. It is bathed by a modest 
little river, after which the city was named. It is the most important 
city of the interior because of its location, because of its commerce 
and industry. Its main buildings are : The Charity Hospital in one 
of the suburbs, the Beneficencia Portugueza, the Beneficencia Ita- 
liana, the Matriz church, the City Hall, a beautiful theatre, the 
Nossa Senhora da Conceicilo church, the large barracks, tlie market, 
and the pretty railway Station. 

Bage was a hamlet in lS4(i, became a village in the same \ car, 
and city by law of 15 th December 1859. 

It is 528 kilometres away from the Capital and has 1::. K'.;: inha- 
bitants by the last census. 

SantAxxa do Livramexto. — Is at the west side of Bage. It is 
curious because it is the frontier more connected with a foreign na- 
tion. It suffices to sav that only one street separates it from the 



— 568 — 

neighboring- Uruguay republic, tlie houses on one side belonging to 
the Brazilian city and those ol' the opposite side belonging to 
Rivera an Oriental or Uruguayan city. During the constant civil 
wars in Ui'uguay, lAvrnmenlo justilies chiarly its name, treeing the 
refugees i'rom the viohnices the\' would suffer if tlicy couldn't escape 
so easily to a neuter teri'itory. 

They sa\' that the hills are very rich in uiincrals, (|iiitc easy lo Ix- 
exploited but remain intact. 

It has a good conimerce and the dairy industry is well dcvel()])ed. 
Among its best buildings we cite : the City, tlie Matriz clnircli, the 
Barracks, the ('hai'ity Hospital and the Theatre. 

It was a hamlet in 1848, became a village in 18."7 and city in ISTC). 

It is 701 kilometres away from the Capital and 225 kilometres 
away Irom I). Pedrito, 

Cruz Alta. — It is a city of about 5.000 inhabitants. It is 500 kilo- 
metres away from Porto Alegre. It is ceutrally located and is the seat 
of a municipium very rich of matte (Brazilian tea). It was but a vil- 
lage in 1850 and there were not over 60 houses, but to-day theie 
are over 200 for a population of 4.000 inhabitants. Tlic buildings 
worth noting ai'e : the City Hall, the Jail, the Railway station of the 
road connecting it with Porto Alegre, the Carlos Gomes theatre, the 
Matriz church, in which they are working and have been doing it for 
the last 40 years, the Municipal School, the cemetery and a public 
fountain . 

Built on a high hill, we can observe from there the most beautiful 
panoramas. 

Its climate is unexcelled as to health, and it suffices to say that 
weeks go by without one single death occui-ring. 

"Two newspapers of small size arc i)ublished there. 

S. (Jahrikl. — It is difficult to find a more pictures(iue small citx 
than this one. It is on the left bank of ai'iver — (he \'accacahy. It 
is a city with relative good commerce and a livel\' one and besides 
the river has a railway. 

It is the military centre of the State, and is served by the Kstra- 
da de Ferro Porto Alegre to Urugunyana (railway) (hat has a l)ran<']i 
line going there. It has S.OOI) inhabitants. 

It became city iu IS.50. 

It is 507 kilom(!tres away from Porto Alcgi'e by I'ailway. 

Its ])rincipal buildings ai'(^ : the CilA' Hall, (he Mali'iz Clnn(4i. the 
Rarracks and olhcis of sniallci' importance. 

AiJMiKKTK. — A pi'ctlN- cil_\- with 1 I . I.'IS inhaltitants Ity a i-cccnl 



I 



— 569 — 

Official rensus. Jt is on a hill „„ ,|,, |,.|( ImmU of tl,,. I l.in.j.uM.Mn 
river. 

Its principal huildinos arc: (he City Hall, the Mairi/ .•hur.-h. th- 
Charity Hospital, the I'd.-ral tro„ps barracks, an.! Ihr I'.Mto Al.- 
grc to Ui-iigayana railway slat ion. 

This city owes its orio-i,, t„ the Manpiis ,lr M^rrlr uho in Isi; 
<.r.lercd a church tube bnilt on the banks ..f (he !l,i,apnytan. uith 
(he name of Xossa Scnliora da Apparecida. 

Alcgretc has two nc^wspapcrs, Ik. (els. wine dis( illeiies. breweries 
and other factoi'ics. 

S. I.KOi'oijx). - it is one of (he pi-ettics( cities of i;i<. (iiande. 
It used to be an old European colony. It has a po]>ulation of I l.(»l.- 
inhabitaiits. It has wide and straight streets, carefully dean. Then! 
is no great movement in the city, especially to those who go from 
Porto Allegre, to which it is connected by one hour railway ride. 

It is on the left bank of Sinos river and at the North of the 
Capital. 

It is a calm city. It reminds one of Germany. Its niuniei[)iuni 
prospers because of its industry and developed agricuKurc. It has a 
nice church, the noted Jesuits College, the City Hall, (he Kiieipi. 
establishment and other nice buildings. 

S. Leopoldo owes its origin to a German colony that settled there 
in 1824. It is a city since 1864 and is 33 kilometres away from (he 
Capital. 

Its fame comes from an excellent high school — the S. Leopold 
College — directed by some Jesuits and which was C(mstituted an 
educational centre for the children of the wealthy families of these 
southern States. 

S. Lriz DE MosTARDAs. — It is an interesting village, placed on 
the sandy sea-coast, which is seen by those travelling in the South, 
near the Rio Grande de Sul coast. There is no traveller who doesn't 
know this Mostardas sea-shore. The village is behind the sand 
banks, seen from afar, looking like a flat shore. S. Moreii'a Alvcs — a 
Brazilian writer — says about this place : <( After passing by Solidao, 
S. Simao, etc., after crossing enormous sand-banks that ai'c to be 
seen all along the coast of this State, how surprised will not the 
traveller be, when he sees, far away, very far away, the tower of 
the Mostardas church ? 

Jaguarao. — It is a small city in front of Artigas, of the Oriental 
Republic, -having I'.OOO inhabitants. 

Among its public buildings it has : the City Hospital, small but 



— 570 — 

neat and in hygienic conditions, the Military Hospital, the Matrix 
church, etc. In the central part of Jaguarao we see a pretty square 
with a gai'den. The two clubs — the Jaguarense and Quinzc de 
Xovembro are the animation points in the small city. 

Jaguarao was a hamlet in 1<S1;>, it became a village in 1832 and 
city in 1855. 

It is 470 kilometres away from Porto Alegre. 

Many other villages and cities are growing up settled by tlus 
rivers. The Rio Grande is the only State that has its territory 
evenly filled with villages and cities. It has no large tracts of empty 
lands. The civilisation work impelled by the governments and haste- 
ned by European colonies goes ahead every day. Industry grows, 
business develops. Rio Grande do Sul is destined to i)lay an impor- 
tant role among the other States. 



THE STATE OF MINAS GERAES 



Minas is the medulla (or marrow bone) of Brazil. It is its heart 
not only in a geographical or material sense, but because the most 
energetic characteristics of nationality are tliei'c crystalised as woU 
as its faults and its best virtues. 

Thus Minas is a miniature of the great fatherland. It is as if hid- 
den by its proper mountains. Of all the other most important States 
is the only one having no maritime boundary lines. We might say 
that it selected this location in the interior of the continent (o keep 
better the enormous treasures hidden in its bosom. 

Of all the American countries, only five — United States, Mexico, 
Argentine, Peru, ('olombia — have a total population suj^erior to 
the one of this Brazilian province. 

What has originated these advantages, as wc must attril)utc to 
each fact a cause ? 

The climate? The excellency t)f its waters? The wealth of the 
territory ? 

All those factors together? It is most })r()l)ably that. In fact 
there is not a tract of Bi-azilian land disputing to the valleys and hills 
of Minas the reputation given to this State by natives and foreigners. 
It is a place woi-tliy of being the fii'st residence of man , as it was 
idealized by biblic poetry. 

In the State of Minas what doesn't hide gold, contains iron ; what 



— 571 

does not contain (.(,al, spreads diann.nds: - i,, a u..ni. Minus I.m. ;. 
treasury in every inch of ground in all its ri<-li i<MTii..ry. 

The physiognomy of the ground is very c.nnplcx and hrh-no 
geneous. It suffices to look to a map of that region. 

Thenortliern part of the State, the Nvi.h'st , is visil.K in.-lined 
towards the valley of Sao Franeiseo. not as a ph.in. hut in.-lined. 
filled with hills, now dispersed, by and bye in gi-onps. 

The south-east part more crossed by roa<is. in spite ofthe liills. in 






Dr. Joao Piiilieiin. — (iovt'iiior of the M:ilc of Miiias (ieraes 



continuous chains and irregular tops, presents itself more crowded 
with cities. The best cities of Minas are to be found there. 

In olden times, in the ages of difficulties, when there were no 

■ means of transportation but animal backs and the trucks pulled by 

i oxen, Minas Geraes saw gathering in the valleys of its hills a race 

that tore its stony bosom, removing earth and stone in such quantities 

that after centuries had elapsed they could see with wonder the 

ruins of such work. 

Eighty thousand miners tired themselves to death in a task 
of 100 years duration hunting the hidden veins, under the mountains. 



— 572 — 

• 

Thousands ol' kilos of pure <;()I(l were lorn from the hard (juart/. and 
sent to Lisbon. 

The kings of I'oitugal received gold in abundance, enough to get 
satisfied, but they never satiated their thirst for gold. Only one of 
them, Joao V, I'eeeived from the inexhaiistil)le bosom of Minas ac- 
cording to an histoi-ian : <f I'.iiKOOOMMJ criisudos, 100. (tOO gold coins, 
ol5 silver mai'cos, 21,500 gold marcos, 8.."j(Hi kilos gold dust, .'SIKI oi- 
lavos gold weight and 10 million crusados diamonds, not including 
the product of the taxes in the value of oiu' fifth of all the gold 
produced ! )) 

Accoi'ding to a calculation made l)y the Harao de Kschewege, in 
front ol" official documents « the quantity of diamonds taken from 




licllo lldi'izonli'. — Pai'ao|it'l)a Avoinic 



Minas Geraes until 1822 was 165.7(J0 ^/4 eighths, and it can be as- 
sured that the smuggled portion amounts to as much as this. » 

The whole province was like a gallery, a vast underground one, 
where at the sound of the tools, free men and slaves, in the same 
dust, the same pains, had to live that ungi-ateful life, at the king's 
governors' services as well as of any man with the slightest portion 
of2)ower. « Generally at that time Minas (Jeraes was avast conquest, 
simultaneously explored by all ranks of dominators, from the king, 
oiir nuisler, until the humblest of soldiers. To devour the i)ri/.e 
without rest or commiseration, such was the common object, and in 
that voracious anxiety it was not strange that one slu)uld invade tiie 
ground of his neighbor, and sometimes even tlie governors would pe- 
netrate th(^ king's dominions. When not even the kiiig was respet'ted 
imagine how the people were robbed, the por)i- people, willionl any 
giiarant(M's of rights, biii(l(>ned witli work, diit ies, tributes, without a 
I'ight to (Milei- coniplainls, mute, day and night always tcri'ori/i'd. » 



— 57:5 — 

To-day the oold isnol ,ni„(,,l l,y tl„' kin.n l.iil hy I he in.l.isiry i„:m. 
the private owner who can and wants to explore ii. Tlial t.-iritory 
half liidden, among the hills, is the open shop lor all the exiles (if 
the fortune, health and ])olities : to the first . turns into ;r„|,i and 
diamonds, as the safe of a n)illi„naire at .iescript i<.n : for i he "<■<•., nds, 
opens the 100 marvels of spring waters; and to the latter, the safety 
of a refuge twiee advantageous; for the peeuliarities of the vast soil 
and the system of laws and i)uhlie eustoms having tolerance as a 
hasis as well as fii-mness and seriousness 




It is singular. This populated territory of Brazil, notwithstan- 
ding its density of population of 5,9 per scpiare kilometre, w hen 
the general average is of not more than 2,1, has no large city. The 
cities of 50.000 and upwards are in States far less important than 
Minas Geraes. None of the Brazilian cities having over !(M».(mm) 
belong to Minas. 

But, the best cities in Minas are not the most populated ones, 
neither the most populated are the oldest. Ouro Preto, the famous 
Villa Rica of former times, was until lately the Capital of the power- 



— 57+ — 

fill State, wiiicli is woi-tli by itself, a respectable nation. Well, Ouro 
Preto, as a Capital was a deception for the visitor. Placed in the 
mountains it was a city without level, it looked more like a hidden 
place for animals than residence for men. 

To be sure the selection of such place was justified when they did 
it, because of the wealth of the place and that can be seen in the 

document of its installation. « supposed that did not find conv("- 

nient place, taking in consideration the wealth promised by the 

mines worked in these hills, the principal part of these mines it 

is resolved so to execute » What profits came out of that selection? 
Due perhaps to that improper localisation, Ouro Preto never liad 
the appearance of a Capital, as either of the ex-province or of the 
State deserved. 

The State constitution having prescribed the removal of the 
Capital to a place that detailed studies should determine , President 
Affonso Penna charged the ('ivil Engineer Aarao Reis, to plan and 
build a new Capital. 

On the 1st of March 1894 Dr. Aarao Reis installed himself in the 
unsheltered hamlet called Ciirral d'El-rey, the old name of Bello 
Horizonte, and with a large committee undertook the work. First 
of all a branch line of 14 kilometres track for a railway con- 
necting the place with the Central of Brazil railroad had to be built. 

The works began with such an activity that on the 4th of 
November of the next year licenses were given for private houses 
to be built. It is necessary to note that this was a mere little place a 
hamlet, and everything had to be done to make up the city that is 
there to-day. 

The natives of Minas Oeraes spent w ith the construction of the 
new Capital, including the branch railway to Bello Horizonte, 
33.073:000$00(). Of this -iU.rjIitkOOO.Siar) was treasury money and reve- 
nue collected by the building committee from the sale of grounds 
3.537 :00l)$2«<). Of this total we must deduct 2. 800: 000*000, amount 
for which the State sold to the Union tlie branch railway line, and 
2.000:000$00() amount spent with the building of houses of officials 
and public employees and which are mortgage to the State. When 
we visited Bello Horizonte foi- the first time in 1*.)03, it was already 
finished and in full period of enlargement. We were glad of it, as 
they had informed me of the Contrary. 

After crossing the (UK) kilometres of i-ailway that connects tiiis 
city to Rio de .Janeiro, at ten o'clock on a nice bright and sunny day, 
we arrived at the entrance of the branch line leading to the city, the 
station of which is of oi'igiiial architecture, immediately indicating 



— 67B — 

that we are going- to see new things. It is lij... tl... a.lvrrtis..„H-n. .„• 
poster m stone and lime about the next perlorniance t., appear. 

From this station called General Carncir.,, to lU-Wn 1I„. i/„„t,. is 
but half an hour railway ride and we ei.tei- the neu Capital by a 
pretty portico which is the Minas station. This is au ample huihli,.^r 
with a white tower reminding us of luiddle age times. This t„Nver 
elevates itself above the houses with a four dial dock. 

The station looks to a large square just finishing its ganh-n built 
by Mayor Bressane when we visited that city. From the t..wer we 





Bcllu Ildi'izoiili'. — Minus Slalioii, ol llic Kslraila ilc ht-nu (Ifiilial 



can see a fine picture. What an excellent selection of a place for a 
city of peace and liberty ! 

The whole city seems to rock itself in the balsamic breeze that 
softly blows suspense between the surrounding mountains as a web 
of light. Its streets run straight towards the green of the hills, with 
that eternal beauty of order, and so large, so symetric as if they had 
to let go through, all the people of this world together. These streets 
are lined bj^ new and graceful buildings which are being ccmstructed 
here and there. 

Dominating them, under an enormous terrace that is like the 
head of the city, we distinguish, lining the square, the white and 
rose color buildings, the Government palaces and several Depart- 



57fi — 



ments ol" tlie Adniinistnition. Coming down Irom tliere to tlic limit 
of the buildings, we see the bulky muss of light yellow of the police 
barracks, in a i)osition of sentry of the city. In the centre of this in a 
valley of a little river called Ai-i-adas, tlu^ (;ngineers made a park 
(juite wide and artistic. This was an idea applauded by all visiioi-s, 
for the way all curves of the river and accidences of the ground 
were taken advantage of to bring out in relief the garden. 

A street wider than all the others, the Affonso Penna Avenue, 
divides into sec^tions from one end to the other, in two ecjual ))arts, all 
the built region, and with its symetric rows of magnolias go to the 
meeting of the motintain sides which ga\(' name to tlic old liamlet, 
the Curral d'El-Rey mountain. 




A (Idilc (iT llic Soi'i'a ild ('.iirijil on tin' w;iv lu Oiiro I'ri'ln 



The t()pograi)hy of the i)lace where Hello llori/.ontc is slowly 
accidented composing itself of the valley wIum'c the primiti\(» liamlet 
was boi-n and died, and some hills, and souirounding mountain 
base. There engineering was previously engaged in correcting 
natui'c, filling in grounds, opening places, softening the lougli i)ai'ts 
of it without giving it the monotony of a plain without contrasts. 

This way IJello Horizonte has the i)hysiognomy of just centi-e 
among the hilly cities and i)lain ones sharing of the advantages of 
both these ty'i)es, without the cxaggeratif)ns of any cxt'lusivisui in 
one sense oi- other. 

The city is more oi- less in the altitude of S. I'aiilo city or 
Curityba, some SOO meti-(is above the see-level. l>ul ('urityl)a with 
its Kuropean cold, S. Paulo with its sudden changes of temperature 
cannot give an idea of the mild and unexpected <'limate of Hello 
Ilori/onte. 



— 577 — 

As to tlie public services they arc splcndi.!. Tlic ;ulM.,isaii<,n Jlic 
most rational and the most artistic of any Soulli AnM-riran .-iiv. TIm^ 
sewage, the water supply, 1]h> illnmiiKilion. tl.r rlrririr i, an.svuv. 
everything corres])ouds to flic id, -a ,,r ;, modnn Cupiial. 

The arborisation about which we canuot say loo murh is a mar- 
vel. The whole city gives us tlu; im])r(!ssion of a large garden. 
I At night the city is melancholic. It goes to sleep very early, as it 
is c(mvenient for a new city rcndly so young. Tin; illuminaiion is not 
profuse. It is far from that bi-ightness of Manaos and even certain 
sti'cets in S. Paulo. 



iW% 



pf' 




Bello Horizoiile. — Seiialc-Ilousc 



Only in Bahia street all lined with business houses, we notice 
some life up to ten o'clock at night, crowds of loungers and now and 
then a carriage going by. 

After that hour the tramways become scarce, the crowds arc 
dispersed, hardly one or other remains in the streets and cvi'n 
Bahia street is wrapped in comi)lete silence as if it were at sound 
sleep. The other streets look like the cloisters of a convent, wiih 
suspended lamps, here and there. If it rains there is one more ele- 
ment to put the city to sleep early. The streets that are not paved 
have a kind of reddish surface which does not absorb as (piickly as 
it receives the rainy water and makes a kind of stick\- and disagreea- 



— 578 — 

ble mud sticking to tlie shoes of those who have to go through. 
Luckily the tramways and public carriages save the situation. 

Excepting S. Paulo, no State has at present a better or more 
complete official installation than this city. 

The Palaces of the Government, Secretary of Interior, Agricul- 
tural Dejjartment etc, occupy a large square in Liberdade square. 
The first one with its small park looks to the front of the square 
entirely dominating it. 

It is an imposing building, with three fronts, the main one looking 
to the square being of a most beautiful effect. It is all of stone with 
a bust of the Republic, 

It has two stories. The ground one has the vestibule, the barracks 
for the guard. The upper story, the noble Hall in front, dining-room, 
library, office, private appartments of the governor, and side galle- 
ries in form of towers, round ones, with 7 metres diameter, surround- 
ed by seven windows decorated by columns of ionic style (fancy 
w'ork) and roof in half-sphere form with oil paintings decorations. 
It occupies a surface of 1.898 square metres, with 30,50 metres front, 
52 depth, and 20,50 height. 

An ample marble stairway leads the way up. It is a piece of 
artistic work. 

The walls are decorated, the ceiling has the allegory to Liberty, 
Order, Fraternity and Progress, and the whole is fine work in colors 
and gold. 

They told us that this building cost the State government about 
1.400:000^000. It was well spent money. It is the first building of its 
kind in all the States. The Palaces of the Government of S. Paulo, 
Petropolis, Bahia, which are new and large cannot be compared 
with it. Those of Florianopolis , Maceio and Curityba are new but 
have not that size. Those of Belem and Recife are large but heavy, 
ungraceful Portuguese colonial style, strong but ugly. 

The President or Governor of the Minas State is Dr. JoasPinheiio, 
one of the most noted of public men of the country. He is a captain 
of industry, very clever and active, he is a lawyer and literary man. 
He was elected by unanimous vote to the dignity of governor. He has 
held other official positions. He has been a member of the State 
Congress and Federal Senator, always acting with good judgment 
and devoted to his duties. He is a young man of progressive ideas 
and strong initiatives. 

In the same square where is the Governor's palace is the F*alaco 
of the Interior, a large building with three floors. 

Leaving the Liberty Sijuare at the side of this building is the 



— 579 



rFinanoe Department, large .,,,,1 i,„|,„si„«. „.,,.„ , „„ ,,„„i,., 

I on a small stairway. Th, sn,,,,,,! I ■ is „r i,- MM,. .,,,1 .l,,.' 

above are corintliian style. 

The three bodies of 'tl.e l.uil.lino, ,,,i„„,, ,„„. ,.„,.,, ^^,.,. ^^.^^ 

in such a way that tlio centre is a little insi.l.. TIm- sl:.i,•^^uv in this 

as well as in the other bnilding rests on an iron fra.n,.. with' artisti. 

supporters of beautiful effect. Inside it is d(.(.„rat,>,l in a sober sfvl. 

but ot o-ood taste. Tt cost 853:078§,),K) and ll.al of,!.,. h.,..ri<,r about' 

900;000$000. 

On the opposite side to the (iovernoi-s Palacr i. tin- A.-ricd)..- 



wjJsst'^. 




Bello Horizoiitc. — (iovoriior's Paliice 



ral Department, a little similar in its general lines to the one I just 
mentioned but in details obeys to the Toscane style and it is jjlea- 
sant. Like the other has in its fi'ont, thi-ee distinct bodies witli tlic 
centre one a little in. Like the other it also has three pavements. 

It has on the first floor, two windows on each of the side bodies. 
In the central bodj^ is a wide iron door of i)retty and of artistic 
design, with two smaller and narrow doors also of iron at the sides. 
On the second floor are two windows on the side bodies and five in 
the centre one. On the third floor, five in the centre, one on the sides. 
In the side bodies of the building are in relief the initials S. A. 

It is on the ground floor of that pretty building that the City 
Hall of Bello Horizonte is provisionally installed. 



— 580 — 

There wo saw beautiful oil paintings representing- views of that 
place in olden times, the seed of the great city. 

Other buildings worth looking at are the Bai-ra(^ks of tlie Police 
Force. Its front measures 112 m. 50 length. It has five different 
bodies. The central one has 28 metres and 15 m. height, two side 
ones are lower and two are towers at the extremities. On the 
gi-ound I'looi- at the left is the cavalry squadron and at the right 
the 1st company of the 1st infantry battalion. In the centre is the 
major staff and general headquarters, the guard rooms and jail and 
storage rooms. 




B(!llo Iloiizunte. — Home deparliueiit and Uevcmic 



On the superior i);ivemi'nt are tlie rooms and offii-es of the com- 
mander and secretai'ies, etc. i 

The stables are at the rear. We visited them with interest andj 
found them in fine oi'der. | 

\ext to this barracks is a target firing establishment. Both! 
civilians and military men can practise shooting tliere. j 

A little before the bai'racks is Santa Fj)higenia elinreh a pretty | 
cluireli ofgotliie style. i 

The ('it\' Hospital is a beautiful building though not so large as! 
the Pan'i, IJeeife, or Haliia ones and mueli less than the Kio de .lanei- 
ro one. it is a bnilding of a r;inr\- arcliiteclure , a niixt ure of tin' 



— 5R1 — 

j.(.tliic and classical licllenic styles. The main .Mil ran. •.■ is .,f st.,,,... 
The front lias a g-roiiiid l-JOmetres Ion-. .\1 the si.ie in .lilferrnt plans 
forming Avings are vast wards eight by thirty n.eti-es. Inside i^ ^,,.|I 
ventilated with curved ceilings and large windows. 

The central building has an upper story and has a very largr d.i-.r 
where ai-e going to be installed the chen.isti-y iaix.i-alcry. storage 
rooms, and employers rooms. 

The Eello Horizonte market has a severe aspect. Its licni |,a^ 




L' metres length by four width, and two sicU' wings nu'asnring 
22 metres by four each. 

^ In its front which looks to the Quatorze de Fevereiro square 
are two pretty towers 13 metres high by four length and by four 
width placed at the extremities. 

The building which cost 200:000$000 is covered with metal and 
surrounded by a sidewalk two metres wide, protected by an extend- 
ed roof. The floor is cimented. 

We must also mention : the fine church, Flemish style, called 



« Sagrado Coraoao de Jesus; tlie Gymnasio Mineiro in a fine build- 
ing near the Interior Department; the Law College, a fine build- 
ing ; the Federal Treasury Department Branch and Government 
Savings Bank, with its front in Scottish style without synietry but 
of beautiful effect; the Senate a large building but of little architec- 
tonic value; the State Congress; the Police Department, a most 
elegant and appropriated building; the Official Printing Office of 
aristocratic side, but without decoration; the Grand Hotel at the 
corner of two large streets, painted rose color and last but not the 
least the Matriz church now being finished — S. Jose — design of the 










MM f !? r^F^' ill j ti_X»-l '> 



Hello Horizonlc. — Barracks of the Public Force 

Brazilian architect Xascentes Coclho. It is of niodorn nuinucliiw 
style, 30 metres by (JO and the central Ur^er 10 metres high up to 

the cross. 

* 



PUHLIC InSTRIU'TION , TrANSI'OH TATION , CoM^tERCK. — Miuas 

(Jeraes recentl\' pr(!scnted the following about its schools statistics : 
From '>:>{) districts: iuiml)er of ])upils 52.655 being ;>1.501 males and 
•Jl.ir.l IciiKih-s. \v[ thei-e are 17.71.'. male children and 1 l,(vi;> fcnialf 
ones, or ;i total of ;!"J.;ir)(» children wlio <h> not receive :iny instruction. 
Receive instruction in State schools 1 1 .'.MS cliiidrcn, in private !inc>. 
1. IOC) and a( lionic .SlT). 



I 



— 583 — 



There are in the State 1.501 grammar schools. Of these 188 are in 
the city and 1.013 in the interior. There are 671 for males, <i4r) for 
females and 184 mixed. 

During- 1903 there were ^.S.OiiS pupils registered in the schools, 
ID.l'il males, 13.647 females. The fre<iuentation was iluis 1;{,I|;;. 
being 7.556 males and 5.557 females. 

There is a well known Miner Engineering College in Oino lM«'to 
which renders great services and 15 professional schools in other 
cities. 

In that very city is a magnificent Pharmacy College with 300 
pupils which enjoys a very good reputation all over the country. 
In the Capital the State maintains the Gymnasio Mineiro, Law 
College, several Normal colleges in interior cities. In Barbabaceiui 
is the Internato do Gj'^mnasio ( Boarding Gymnasium with 100 
pupils. It is a model institute. It has a library with lO.OCM) volumes 
and i.i Juiz de Fora is the Commerce Academy. 

We will not forget the Public library recently founded in Bello 
Horizonte with 15.000 volumes, a good start. At present there are in 
Minas 51 public libraries distributed by the principal cities. Of Nor- 
mal colleges we cite : Ouro Preto, Sahara, Juiz de Fora, Campanha, 
Diamantina, S. Joao d'El-Rey, Uberaba, Arassuahy and Montes 
Claros with from 150 to 200 pupils each. 

As to railways only one State is superior to Minas — it is 
S. Paulo. 

The ) ailway-net of the State of Minas in 1002 was 3.480 kilometres 
thus distributed : 

Minas railways Metres 

Leopoldina 8i2.15G 

Oeste de Minas .... ()84.000 

Sapucahy 371.000 

Bahia e Minas 233.800 

Muzambinho 94.895 

Cataguazes 48.180 

Joao Gomes a Piianga . . 26.564 

Paraopeba 12.000 2.3I21«,59:; 

Federal roads Metres 

Central do Brazil .... o74..')92 

Minas e Rio 147.000 

Muzambinho 144.000 

Mogjana 502.000 U67k.o92 

Total 3.480''. 187 

The State of Minas has spent until now with railways : 
In subsidies : 892:764$000. 



— 584 — 



Tn guarantees of intcirst 'J l.l():J:101S000 distributed hy tlic follow- 
ing- roads : 



l>cn|i()l(liiia. . . . 
Ocstc (te iMiiins . . 
Sapuoahy .... 
Miizainl)iiilMi . 
Jofid GoiiK's a l'iiaiii>a 



Jn loans 15.875:412$051 being : 

Sapncahv 

Miizanihiiilio . . . . 

Espii'ilo Saiil(j (■ Minns. 

'Jnlal. 



«.! 75:821 S-WJ 

7.0'2-2:95iS165 

H.il8:.'^2l$7io 

140:438S;84:i 

406:iooS67i 



Tcilal. . 2 i. 162: 1 01 $938 



(5.!)2n:OOOSOOO 
;i.Gi4:412S05l 
,-.oll:()00$nOO 

i:;.K7;K5l-2SO.-il 




IjcIIii llori/oiilc. I'lililu' mark 



It s])(!nl w itli the K. V. Haliia and Minas (i)ui'eliase, loan, eons- j 
truetion of extension till Tlieophilo Oltoni, studies till Arassiiali\l 
IC). I'.M :<S()7$7,S<S, Altogether 57.rj'J:2;ir)§777. 

Tlic total revenue of these State raih\ ays was in l.sS'.i, ;;.<is;{:'.»'.h),5; IS'J : 
in lUOU, <S.2i:i:057$:>r,': in 1<K)1 , I (i. •,'•_>•,' :(iNS;S-J IT and in 1 '.>(>:' . 
1:5.121 :50'J*()()0. 

Mr I Its 

'I'li-fiav llir cxlciisidii of i';iil\\;i\s ill (i|H'iali(iii is .".<518.277 

I'lciii^ sulisidi/cii i}\- wilii rdiiicssidii iiniii the Mali' .... 2. 310.(58;) 

Male r(iiiccssiiiii nr |ir(i|iri-lv iii llic I iiidii I.337..")i>2 

lutai 7.2!K).;k>1 



— 585 - 

Tlierc ;ir(.' now in coiistriiclioii doo kildinclrcs in scvnul lines, 
concessions li-oni tlic Stiiic an<l llic I'nioii. Only tin- ( '.■iili:il iJia/il 
liiilway is ubonl to inaugurate loo kilonicli-cs. 

• Thus by the close ol" this year r. IOC) the Mi nas Stale will >it its 
railways with an extension of ovei- I.OOO kilometres. 

The Police force ol' the State of Minas is constituted \,\ a Police 
Brigade composed of 1.(100 privates and loO officers, forming iliree 
infantry battalions and a cavaliy scjuadion all under the coniniuml 
of a colonel generally a regular army officer. 

The battali(ms have not an equal numl)cr of men. 'I'lnis is, thai 
the first has Ol'.i men in the bai-i-acks wc (lescril)ed above. iIm- 
second in the city of Ubcraba witli :iIO men, and tin- third in Dia- 
mantina with 350 men. Only the eomijany housecl in tlic ilello 
Horizonte barraeks has a band of musie. 

The cavalry squadron commanded by a captain has -Joo men. 

They don't all use the same rifle. They use Comblain. Mauser. 
Chassepot, etc. 

Xatural wealth, Industries, Manufacti:kixg. — None of the 
Brazilian States except Bahia disposes of so many natural resources 
and so valuable as Minas Geraes and none has had so deserving 
fame of the abundance and excellency of these resources as the 
laj^ers of the State of Minas. 

Gold and diamonds have been for a long time the principal 
wealth of Brazil. Recently, since some IH years ago they discovered 
enormous layers of manganese which were immediately placed 
under industrial exploitation as the^^ were by the Central Brazil 
railwa}^ road. 

In the Northern region of the State they recently discovered 
layers of precious stones and according to the official paper, it has 
increased much of late the exploitation of the toi)az, the anu'lhyst, 
the turmaline and other precious st(mes, which have been largely 
sought especially in the Bahia mai'kets. 

The quantities of gold extracted from Minas Geraes at the time 
of the Portuguese dominion seem incredible. It suffices to say that 
in the period from 1700 to 1820 the taxes or duties collected on that 
metal were 7.1o7,5 a. with a value of 53.529:750S000. « The gold 
extracted during that period amounted to 35.687,5 a. with a value of 
257.(i56:500$000, falling to the Ouro Preto district 22 "o, Sahara 23";„, 
Marianna 25 % and the balance divided by the other districts. »> 

From the message of Vice-president Costa Serra we transcribe a 



Hi-"' 



— 586 — 

table of gold exported by Minas Geraes with its official value dnr 
the years \S96 to 1001 : 



mg 





(iranimes 


li>-is 


1896. . 


1 .988.0-27 


:;..")97.i(;9.s2.">o 


I«'.)7. . 


. -2.253.^211 


7 ISS:(;8:iST()i 


i«y«. . 


5.090.2o:i 


|n.8|i;:072S82.'5 


1899. . 


. i. 192.414 


l5.(iH2:.-wl.Sit)7 


1900. . 


. 4. .■504.688 


l.").51I:;ilH,?5.")." 


1901. . 


4.012.221 


i(t.771:(i7l$HII 


Total. 


. 19..s21.2()9 


(JI.!0r,:G72.«;i:;i 



-: f 




Bt'llt) llul i/,tililc. — 1 Tuiil \U'\\ 111 III!' .Miiia.s (.MiiiiMMimi 

This does not inelude the gold-dust exj^oi'led duriug the same 
period. 

It is impossible in a book like this one to enter into details of 
information about the gold-mines being worked now. They are not so 
few that I n)ight give their list here with details. 

Among them, however, ihei-e is the Morro Vellio, directed by an 
able mine engineer Mr. Chalmers. This mine has all moderji 
apparatus and tools for its exploitation out of which excellent results 
have been obtained. 

Inexhaustiblk Manganesk Mines. — As to the exploitation of 



■ 



...V 

i 



— 587 — 

manganese oxides we may say that not even 1 "/„ of tlie known and 
discovered layers in this State is contrihuting towards the fortinu'of 
the country, because until now they only arc exploit in^^ those by the 
roads of the railway companies. Vet nothing is nioic int«M-osting than 
to look at the activity in the work of thos(^ hiy(!rs as we cnss that 
region in the Central of Hrazil trains. From the Laffayctc Station 
on principally in Mignel Kurnier wo had the oj)i)ortiiniiy to Ix- pre- 
sent to the shipping of enormous quantities of mineral in freight 
cars that were to carry it to Rio de Janeiro wherefrf)n) it \\:i< '" l-e 




Bello Horizonlo. — Tlio Law-Sfliuol 



forwarded to Europe or Xorth America. The State of Minas is becom- 
ing one of the large exporters of this important element of industry 
of mineral extraction. These figures indicate the progress it has 



had. 



Quantities of manganese transported by the Central 
OF Brazil railway 

Years Tons 

1900 92-fiOI 

1901 «^-J«^-J 

1902 111.542 

1903 «««>'0t> 

1904 21-.980 

190o :J46.000 



— 588 — 

It is opportune to publisli lierc^ some remarks made l)y tlie 
A noers- Bourse about the exploitation of manganese in Brazil ini- 
tiated in Minas with great success : 

(( Tlie manganese industry in Brazil, still quite recent, as it has 
only some twelve years of existence, promises to become the most 
sei'ious competitor of the manganese commerce. If they have delayed 
exploiting the layers of manganese in Brazil it is because, with the 
economical crisis conseiiuence of the forced circulation of papci- 




Minas. — Tlif ai(;;il lalls ol luinlius dc ('-;ii;iiii'<il;i iiii llic rnuilici' nf Minas and liin 



money, in this South American Republic, such brani'li d' imliisir.x 
was absolutely onerous. 

As it is known manganese is especially used by steel fac-torics, 
and melallurgic indusli"i(;s are not yet developed in Soiitli Anu'rica. 
It is, then, exclusively foi* expoi-t that wcciui base the exploitation 
of the numganese lay(U's. 

The first were discovered in ISSS by an engineei" eni])l()ye(l in 
the constfuction of llie Central Railway of iiiMzil near the Miguel 



— r.K«» — 



Buinici- station (State of Minas (ieraes). A Brazilian .iipitalist was 
the first to export manganese to Knoland and llic lUitcd Stall's 
and a series of analysis made in those counti-ics showed that the 
Brazilian mineral contains as an average ovei- .V, ■ ,, nl' niaiij,'aneHe. 
Xowhei-e in the world is a licdiei- mineral of this kind to he found. 
The Spanish mineral is the one that comes ncarei- toilie I'.razilian 
with an average of .").■{ ",,, of metal. 

liecently new layers of manganese; of consideral)le importance 
have been discovered in the intei-ior Hahia, and thei-e they have also 
initiated the exportation of that mineral. 

The mineral exported from Greece, Chili, Cuha and i'rance con- 
tains 52"/o of manganese. After these comes Caucasus with 'iV),,- 'i'he 
Brazilian mineral has also the advantage of not containing phos- 
phorus. 

It is not surprising then that under these circumstances the 
exports of the Brazilian mineral has increased in extraordinary pro- 
portions, growing from 6.785 tons in 1895 to over 120,00() tons in 
1903 only from the layers of Minas Geraes State. 

Brazil furnishes now 350,000 to 100.000 tons of this mineral to the 
universal market. » 

Besides the gold-mines, diamonds, already being exploited, many 
others, especially diamond ones are being bought in the Northern 
municipiums, which, as it is expected, will soon be lively centres of 
exploitation. 

Another characteristic of the mineral soil wealth is the value 
now attached to the reputation of its w^aters and summer resorts. 

They are in large number, those fountains in several States, 
some with an established reputation, principally the extensive 
vulcanic basin of Caldas, Lambary, Cambuquira, Caxaml)u, etc. and 
many others in larger number but not yet known. Lal(dy there has 
been a movement of interest about this hydro-mincM-al extraordinai-y 
wealth in the State of Minas. 

Several enterprises have been established. The recognizance of 
value of these waters is being, more rapid and more extensive. A 
regular propaganda made by these enterprises organizing attrac- 
tions to the visitors is calling more i)eople and making these places 
more valuable, especially Oaxambu, to-day known all over the coun- 
try for its excellent waters. 

Dairy industries. — Another element of wealth in Minas is the 
Dairy Industry and its respective exports. In the West and North 
east of this region there are vast fields for cattle raising. In the 
South, however, this industry is also explored. 



— 590 — 

Passes city in the South of Minas is one of the centres of the grea- 
test activity in cattle raising, country fairs are held there every j'ear. 
It is a beautiful sight the entrance of the cattle to the Passes fair 
the most lively in the South of Minas. 

« Tliis region is excellent for tlu; raising and faticning of the 
cattle coming from the interior of Minas, Goyaz and Malto Grosso. 
The surroundings of Passos are tlie largest contributors to the mar- 
kets of cattle. 

Having also fields for breeding and raising cattle, their conti-i- 
bution to the general production of the State is not small. 

The Passos Municipium buys to the people from the interioi" 
35.000 heads of cattle j^early. 

These are bought for an average price of 2,1()0:000S000. The num- 
ber of heads raised in the municipium is of about 14.000 representing 
a gross revenue of about 5G0:000S()00 annually. The ground I'cserved 
for this is 50.000 hectares. 

Yet the cattle exports has continually decreased as we see by the 
table below : 

Years oxen and cows Pigs 

1897 lo5.9-28 -2-2.488 

1898 151.648 — 

1899 15.;. "259 IT.^mI 

1901 127.124 21.171 

1902 122.295 19.242 

It is because the local consumption is increasing every year in 
Minas and in the future this State will impoi-t instead of exi)orting 
cattle. 

Meanwhile the dairj^ industry is increasing. 

In several places of the State there are many butter factories, 
with products of excellent quality exported in large quantities to 
neighboring States thus diminishing the Eui'opcan importation whii-h 
brings to the Brazilian markets adulterated ])roducts. 

To make an idea of the development this industry has had, il is 
enough to see the exports of butter from Minas to Rio de Janeiro, 
during 1903 came up to 247.886 kilos. 

The total of products of this State expt^'ted ai'cording to the offi- 
cial value was as follows : 

Yfurs Ollicial valin- 

1897 I8().:il7:2l4§00(l 

1898 I;j:).50(l:i91l§00n 

1899 I72.8I5:7."2S000 

1900. l8().8.M:ti(;i$(U)() 

1901 IS2.5ri(t;()08;j;0(l() 

1902 I8;;.USH:772S100 

1905 202. 5:it 1: 900^000 



— 591 — 

After Bahia, Minas Goraes is tl.o Brazilian Stale i)resontinK to- 
day a larger variety of exports. Here is a list of llic jr, prin.-ipal 
products exported by Minas by the order of its importanee in thr 

market : 

( -of fee, cattle, gold, i'lie(!se, I ohaeco. htu-on. lowl, niblxT. pigs, 
manganese, corn milk, cloths, lumhcr, horses, dry hi.lcs. h-aihcr, 
mules, potatoes, diamonds, beans, sugai-, hiandy, i-icc, salted skins. 

This State as to the variety of its products can he divided into 
five districts. The most impoitant in relation to the i)rodiicti<.n is 
the routli region, aftei- that the \vcst. then east, centre and nordi. 




Caxanil)U. — View ol' a part uf llic (lil> 



Manufacturing industries. — The manufacturing industries are 
not so varied in Minas as it is in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro 
or Sao Paulo, There are however, a large number of good factories, 
some of them as good as the best in the country. We mean the iron 
works. 

One is the Esperanca on the left of the Central of Brazil railway 
going to Bello Horizonte in a low place belonging to Itabira city. 
There is a group of houses dominated by a chimney. The grounds of 
the Esperanca factory cover a surface of 10.809.152 square metres 
and the mineral has a wealth of 65 to 09 % metallic iron. 



— 592 — 

Tlie factory not only sends iron to the market but nianiifaotures 
goods as grates, tubes, rods, axles, wagons, etc. 

It is 838 kilometres away from Kio and 18 from Bello Hoi-izonle. 
Its manager and owner is the young metallurgic engineer Dr. (^uei- 
roz, a Brazilian who has im])rovo(l these works very much. This 
factor^' supplies the iron for the wheels made in the woi-kshops of 
the Central of Brazil Railway. 

There is near the same Central road another iron factory known 
by the name of Wigg factory, founded by the Brazilian engineer 
Dr. Wigg the inventor of the first blast-furnace to ])rei)are ii'on 
in Brazil. 

While we travelled through Minas we heard many complains, 
quite just, from the industrious iron manufacturers against the 
heavy taxes imposed by the State government on an industry which 
is beginning. 

« The products » said Mr. Wigg, (c either from this factory or that 
other that I have suddenlj^ established under the name of Wigg are 
to-day overtaxed by the State most unjustly. » 

It was in Minas, in a place called Morro do Pilar that they 
founded the first iron factory in Brazil. 

The cotton mills are to be found in several cities of the interior, 
and import large quantities of cotton from the Xorth, while Minas 
could well cultivate and develop that product. There are also many 
butter and cheese factories, the principal market for which is Kio 
where the products have made a reputation putting out Europe and 
Argentine. 

One of the most noted factories of the country for the excellence 
of its products is one of Dr. Joiio Pinheiro exporting all kinds of 
sanitary crockery in nothing inferior to the French and Knglish 
one. 

There are also breweries, soap, (uindles, hats, shoes, food facto- 
ries and others existing in nearly all the cities of the State of Minas. 

An official document published the following list of these facto- 
ries in 1903 : 

Fac'toriks and W'oitKs IN I UK Stai'k ni' Minas 

CdIIcc lacldiifs , . I.<l7:} [ I'uinis HT 

Siigitr caiir wdiKs "l.H'A'i Taiiiiiii{^ "'• 

(Jol.l 1."! 

Iron til 

Diaiiioiul •} 

Ijiin' de|in.sil !••> 

('.rurkt'r\ I'"' 



» » » aniiiial Iractiitii . l(l.:iK() 

Mills 11.949 

Mandioca facloi'v 9(5(5 

Will' laciui'v 7i;{ 

Biill.T itH 



— B93 



Brewciii's . 
Taylors. . 
Shoes . . 
Siuldli'i-y . 
r.arriiij^cs . 



Bricks 1. 133 

Furniture Ijoy 

Iron [-22 

Threading mill ^^ 

Printing ollice l.iO 

Bakers ;;5(j 

There were also 19.590 col'lee r;iriiis, wilh 1 IS.:, I IiOiki 
which produced in 1903, 8.1:38:000 arrobus (one arrobc is i: 
about 30 pounds.); 5.832 farms of tobacco; 9.880 larins for 
pigs. 5.960 for dairy industries ; 7.628 sugar cane ; 2(i.6,s-j, 
846 fruit ; 150 vines and many small ones. 



t;7i 

f.lT 

371 

I-' 



plants 
» kilos, 
raising 
grain ; 



* 



BRT 



.-•~-3 




Uuro Preto to-day. — MoimnKMit of Tiradcnles in the Sijuare ol liic sjinn- ti.iini', 
and the old prison (rebuilt) 



Othi.:r cities of the State. — In spite of its large i)Oi)ulatiou 
which to-day must be 4.000.000 inhabitants, (by the census of 1900 
showed 3.594.471) the State has no large city with over 50.000 inha- 
bitants. It has, however, among its 117 cities, about six, at least, 
that could be capitals of States by the activity of their commerce 
and industrial progress, and material develoi)menl and cnltiirc 



— 594 — 

OuRO Preto. — An old city, a peaceful one. Its streets and hou- 
ses, seem to be rolling on \'illa Rica mountain \vliere its founders 
placed it 1.20(1 metres above sea-level. 

It is connected with Rio by the Central of Brazil Railway. In its 
six squares is everything tliere is in the horizontal plan, but tlie 5'2 
streets and lanes, go through tortuous and accidented jjlaces as if 
they were acrobats. 

The following words written by a writer who visited many Bra- 
zilian cities, show well the impression of the newiy arrived contem- 
plating the historical city of Ouro Preto : 

« Entering the city, I uncovered myself, as a sign of res])ect 




Ouro Pi'cloHo-dav. 



S. Jose Sired and the « casa dos cuulos » on the l)ai'k-i' round 



for its glorious traditions. Its melancholic aspect the bills upon 
wOiich it is built, its immense district of houses, quite old, the 
towers of the many clitirclies , the mountains , at one side the 
great bloi* Ilacolumi, all (hose historical buildings, all tluit proiluci'd 
in my mind an impression of respect aiul love for that legendary 
city. )) 

Ai'c intei'csting as aiil i([uit ies from colonial limes, its churches, 
very large ones, w ithout any graceful architecture ; the Santo Anto- 
nio Asylum, the Mineiro (^oHege ; the school of Mines ; th(M)uro 
Preto Gymnasium, the Normal College, the Pharmacy College, and 
otluu's. 



— 595 — 

We see among the buildings ol" rortiigiicsc origin ihr on.- iis.-.l as 
Treasury before the Capital was transferred to Bello !loii/.(»iit.'. at 
the end of Tiradentes street. Large building, two floors, and used 
to be known as Ca.sa dos cantos and at the time Oiiro Tn-to was tin- 
metropolis as Casa do Real contraclo d(> entradas. 




Old Ouro Preto. — The Thomas Gonzago liouse, in the middle of the 18th Century 



In a parlor of the ground floor under the main stairway was on.-.' 
arrested the poet Claudio Manoel, some day they found him hanging. 
Some say he committed suicide other say he was murdered. Tlie 
truth will probably never be known. 

The house where Marilia de Dirceu died, modest and ugly build- 
ing, notwithstanding the poet calling it a palace, is yet in good condi- 
tion. It is a low building suri-ounded with windows. Kvcry visit.n- ot 
Ouro Preto must try to know it and to do it, he needs but to follow 



— 596 — 

the itinerary indicated in the |■oll()^ving• verses written by tlie poet 
himself. 

Toma de Minus a estrarht 
\a Igreja nova, que fica 
Ao (lireito lado, e segue 
Sempre firme a Villa-Rica. 

Entra nessa grande terra, 
Passa uma formosn ponte, 
Passa segunda, a terceira, 
Teni uni palacio defronte. 

Kile tern ao pe da porta 
Uma rasgada Janella : 
E' da sala, aonde assiste 
A minha marilia bella. 

(Take the Miiias road at the place known as Igreja Nova (new churh) on the right and 
follow straight to Villa-Rica. Enter that great land, go over a beantiful bridge, go over the 
second, the third and there is a palace in front. It has near the door a quile wide window, 
the jiarlor one, where my beautiful Marilia is.) 




(Ilil Oiiro I'rclo. - Arriiitciluinic loiinl;iiii in llif ISIh ('..•iiliir'v, 
liMni'il ii'iiiiiisl till' Miirili.'i llnusc 



— 597 — 

In the same disiricl — Antonio Dias - llic visilor can set- the 
house where the poet lived and that was his own. It is in Claiidio 
Street (called Ouvidor Street in the XVIII ccnturyi in li-oni of tin- 
old market. It is a two floor buildin<;-, a vciy lar^c one, bnt not an 
elegant one. At that time it was onc^ of the Ix-si in ilic r'\\\. As ilic 
street is inclined, the front of tin; house has one; side talh-r than the 
other, but the Iniilding' is in good conditions as yet. 

Ouro Preto has, besides these historic precious n-lics. a magni- 
ficent monument erected in 1<S*.) I in honor of Tiradcntes, and which 
is one of the prettiest of its kind in Brazil. It is of stone and 
constituted by a tall obelise with bronze decorations wiili the statue 




01(1 Ouro Prelu. — The house where Marilia ile Diireu diet! 



of the Martyr Tiradentes on top measuring -J-'SO height, the whole 
monument measuring 19 metres. 

Besides these, there are yet other buildings of great historical 
and archiological interest. They give a poetical physiognomy te) the 
glorious ex- Villa Rica : undestructible bridges, old churches, foun- 
tains, cyclopic ruins of extinct mining. Of the fountains, it is worth 
mentioning the one near the garden of Marilia's house, because of 
its architectonic drawing and ornamental drawings of which we 
distinguish four faces, in stone. 

The city had 11,116 inhabitants in the two districts, Ouro Treto 
and S. Gongalo do Monte (census taken in 181)2.) Including, how- 
ever, all the districts of the municipium of Ouro Preto its p<.pulation 
is 65.383 inhabitants. It was founded in 16i»8, we might say on gold 



— 508 



ground. It was the Capital of Minas till 1897. With Sahara and 
Marianna completed the name of the three first villages created in 
the Minas Geraes territory in the year 1711. It was during two cen- 
turies the historical centre of Minas « the greatest centre of work 
and wealth of all the Brazil-colony, better known and spoken of 
in Portugal than Rio de Janeiro the seat of the sub-kingdom of 
Portuguese America )). 

Now, without the honors of Cai)ital, is like a mother that has 
siu'vived her children — sad and alone completely sunk in her 
thoughts and the echo|of her traditicms. 




.liiiz (l(^ Foni. 



Jui'v-Ilonsc and Piihlic I'i'isdii 



Ouro Preto has electrical illumination, water supply, newspa- 
pers, a mining Academy, good schools, hotels, city hospital, etc., 
libraries, several factories, and now is being gradually transformed 
into a progressive city, especially after the inauguration of its rail- 
way, a branch of the Central of Brazil Railway. 

Jui/ i)K I^'oKA. — It is the most important city of the Malta re- 
gion , connected with Kio by the Central railway. It has also the 
Piaii railway starting from there. It is an industrial city, illuminat- 
ed by electricity and having a lively'' commerce, water supply, etc. 

Among its factories we will mention : the Mascarenhas threading 
mill in a building with 12 windows in the main front and a fine chim- 
ney, the furnitui'c factory, a first class one, making r;is]iioiial)h' 



liirniture of Brazilian woods; the nail laclory prodiKin-i three 
tons of nails a day; the Mechaniea Mineira, occupyin};- T.-Soo s<|iiare 
metres , produces iron works (cast iron) , wagons , agricnltiirae 
implements, inaugurated in 1800; a shoe factory founded in ISO.'}, 
produces and exports shoes for the wliole North of Minas; l-iinpre/a 
Industrial is also a recent installation with improved machinery, 
it is a brick and tile factory, the building occupying an area of i.ti(H) 
square kilometres; the Construccao Mineira , an cntcrjjrisc of city 
and rural buildings and other factories of smaller importance. 

Juiz de Fora has large public, and private buildin;;s -s (he Banco 
de Credito Real, the Commerce Academy, the C. Andiade i<: ('o's 
palace, the large building where the Jury meets, having the jail in 




Juiz de Fora — Textile Fabric « Maseareiiiias » 



the rear, and many others. It has newspapers, hotels, telegraph, 
clubs, etc. Its population was 22.580 by the 1802 census, 12.131 males 
and 10.452 females. To-day it has 38.000 inhabitants (1002 census.) 

Uberaba. — It is the princess of the Minas triangle. It is the 
head of the district and destined to a great future when the INlo- 
gyana railway will extend its tracks to Goyaz. It is the seat of the 
Goyaz diocese, and there is the 2nd battali(m of the State. It has a 
normal college and 20 grammar schools, three newspapers, brewe- 
ries, cigar factories, cotton mills, soap factories, etc. 

Its population is about 30.000 inhabitants including the districts 
of Uberabinha, Alagoas, and Campo Formoso, that arc located at 
its sides. The Matriz Church (Cathedral of Goyaz diocese) is a large 
beautiful church, gothic style, design and plans of Ataliba Valle, a 
Brazilian architect, its front presents a homogeneous whole with 



— 600 — 

the central section which opens in a portico upon the stairway and 
prolongs itseir towcrlike to a height ol" :iO metres ending by an octo- 
gonal pyramid. A clironometric clock is placed in the front of the 
tower looking towards the wide square in which the chui-ch is loca- 
ted. The construction of this church began in 1818 and finished iu 
I88t). 

Other nice buildings are : 

The City Hall, if not elegant, is a solid building, located by 
the side of a pretty garden. It was built in 1837 at the expense of 
the inhabitants. It has two floors and five openings (windows and 
doors) on each. 




LljeiuLa. — SaiiUi Ca.Mi ilc Miserifordia (llnspilal 



S. Luiz theatre, large building, has nothing worthy of note as to 
its architecture, it is located at the Matriz Square and has (lOO seats. 

Uberabense College, is along building, on the top of a hill, and 
is directed by the bishoj). It has 100 pu])ils. 

The City Hospital built by an Italian m(mk, on :i hill. It was 
inaugurated in 1820, large building l)ut without architectonic style. 

Nossa Senhora das Dores (/ollege large two floor building, inau- 
gurated in 18<.'.'j, simple architecture, has some boarding ])upils and 
some outsiders, directed by French monks, 300 pupils. 

Siivcral clubs aud Iil('i"ai'\ aud recreation societies animate 
social life thcr(\ \\ C will cite the Sporl Club that l)uilt an eh-gant 
race track ; the VniTiit rhcrnlunsc niaiutainiug a baud and music 
chisscs ; (he Socicfhtdc I^spnhoLt, -.i nice biiihliug in a phicc calh'd 
b"'al>ricio, on a hill ; The I'^nililhiiizit Il:ili;in:i \\ itli fine i)uil(lini2 inau- 



— 601 — 

gurated on Scpicniljci-, -JOIli, I'.iol ; the Cicinio liiiicnliDi) .ui<\ 
others. 

Uberaba lately inslall('(l (•Ifctric illiiiiiiiiation. It luis ST sir«-fi>,, 
17 s<jiuircs, 1 incliiK^d streets, I.S'.il houses, seven eatliolir rlmr- 
clies, one proteslaiit luetliodisl (dinreli. 

S. JoAo D'KL-RF-n-. — On tlu; <Stli ol" Xoveiiiher 1 7 1:; < io\ crnor 
Balthazar da Silveira, a Poi-tiigiiese, arrive(l al llu! Ilio rias MoiMes 
place and \vitli the usual solemnities (devaled to the rank of a 





4^^, 



Uberaba. —The imiuicipal Ildiisr 



village changing its name lor that of S. Joao d'El-Rey which it has 
kept until to-day. 

Just like the majority of the colonial cities, in Minas territory, 
S. Joao d'El-Rey passed through three periods (luite distinct before 
reaching the present condition. Products of hypercsteny whieh the 
discovery of mines stimulated in the first half of tlu> X \' 1 1 1 century 
they grew up with the riches and the population that siura-famcs- 
auri crowded in the centre of those mountains. Afterwards when 
the nurseries and layers exhausted, they went down declining to 
the position of abandoned cities, dead cells in the nation "s orga- 



— 602 — 

nism, until the time when with the natural evolution oi" Minus the 
opening- of rapid communications by the appearance of railways 
began to reanimate, and that is the third phase of that cycle — call- 
ed gradually again to that commercial and industrial movement 
that means development and progress. 

S. Jose d'El-Rey is now in a phase of economical and commercial 
growth. The city is divided into two by means of a very small stream 
of water which empties itself in the Rio das Mortes (deaths river. 




ll|)oial)a. — (iatliolic oliiurli 



The two halves, have the names of S. Francisco and Matriz district, 
connected by three bridges, one jjrovided with railway material 
and two old ones built with stone and lime. The latter have a 
respectable ai)pearance, three enormous arches resting on tlie clear 
waters. 

On both sides of this str(>am the city lias a solid (|m;iv, recently 
l)uilt with i)aved sidewalks, beginning in the Oest of Minus ruilwuy 
station and ending near the City Hull some 1550 metres awuy from 
one anothei-. 

The CU\ Hull like neurh ul! the others in >Hnus Slute is stylish, 



— 604 — 

wide and square and has two I'loors. It is an inheritance received 
from the colonial architecture. It has, however, a liner appearance 
than the majority of them, on account of the ornamentation of its 
front, windows and iron verandahs. 

As a custom the jail occupies the ground floor humiliating the 
City Hall. Dreadful tradition roots ! But there is a mitigating con- 
trast : thej' installed above a public library with 16.000 volumes. 

The market, near })y, is a large building with plain front, unex- 




S. .loao del Rev. — S. Fi'aiicisco chuirli 



pressive, and it was inaugurated in 1893. A little further ahead of 
the railway station is the public theatre a good new and solid build- 
ing with 500 seats. 

S. Francisco church is the most noted building there and one of 
the most admired in Minas State. It is of stone, a kind of blue 
stone, abundant around the city. It is '2i meti-es widcT))} mcti-es long, 
and fi'om its basis to the cornice has o.'J metres height. Two cylin- 
dric towers, one on each side, end the fi'ont which has some noted 
high relief work in stone. It has six altars nicely worked in cai'ved 



— 605 — 

wood. Tt was Alcijndinho a pelel)ral('(l Brazilian artist of Ili<- Will 
. century whose lame will last long who built this church. 
I The Hospital is a two floor building; a tlireading mill and other 

buildings give a noble appearance to the city strikingly contrasting 

with the work of colonial times. 

Besides this, S. Joao d'El-iJey has Ihrcc newspapers, telegmph, 

post ot'lice, several factories, hotels, railway. It is surrounded by 

hills and at the end by a bright valley, the vegc^latiou of which IVa- 

mes the houses. 

The population of S. Joao d'El-lley by the census of 1892 was 

15.820 inhabitants, to-day must have over 25.000, as it lias much 

progressed the last few years. 

Marianna. — It is one of the oldest cities in Minas, founded one 
year after Villa Rica, and the first in that diocese. 

The creation of a new bishop diocese was motive for a great fes- 
tival on the 8th of December 1748 of which memory was kept in one 
of the pamphlets published at the time, one of the oldest of Brazilian 
press. It was called : a Academic prayei* of congratulations and 
thanksgiving for the most happy entrance of his Excellency D. Frei 
Manoel da Cruz, first bishop of Marianna diocese, made solemnly 
public in its Capital on the 28th of November 1718. » But that has no 
great material interest. What we want to know is what is the city 
to day. It is situated in the centre of the State, on the east-side of 
Ouro Preto and near Carmo river. While the whirlwind movement 
of mining was around Mirianna, it got rich and was notable. The 
beatic king D. Joao V, used to call it my most beloved city. But 
it went backwards , the noise of the axe and shovel ceased, the gold 
disappeared and the beloved city began to ruin itself. Now is reduced 
to 7.000 inhabitants, 4.329 males and 2.422 females according to the 
last census. 

In the suburbs they started the wine industry, cultivating vines 
with success. 

CuRVELLO. — In its direction runs the Central of Brazil railway 
now well advanced in its construction until the S. Francisco river. 

This city will be one of the most important commercial empo- 
riums of the centre of Minas, because of its privileged location in 
the crossing of the carriages roads, roads that on the East lead to 
Diamantina, on tlie North lead to Montes Claros and Januaria, on 
the West to the cities built by the affuents of the S. Francisco river. 
Evervthing contributes to make of it a centre of commercial exehan- 



— 606 — 

go wiiicli operate repercussion till tlie extremes Xortli and Xortlieast 
of the State. 

Besides being- commercial (yiirvello is also an industrial centre of 
considerable activity, tlie threading mills of the suburbs, the hat 
factories, leather tanning works, and pasture of cattle ranches are 
so many other elements of life and a foundation for prosperity on 
which it can base its bright future. 

Barbacena. — It is placed in the Mantiqueira mountains, just as 
if it|were from a high window contemplating the other cities of that 




City of Baibaoejia 



region. There from comes the rei:)utation of its fresh air, being con- 
sidered a natural Sanatorium. It became a city tn 1810. Situated at 
kilometi-e ;J79 of the Central of Brazil railway and 1.1.50 nunres 
above the sea-level. It is the city with the mildest climate in all the 
State of Minas and remarkable because of its commerce. It has 
excellent milk , good pastures grounds , neNvs])apers , telegraph, 
electric illumination, nice hotels, an insane asylum, schools, facto- 
ries and some buildings of good appearance as that of Dr. Rodolpho 
Abreu in tlie centre of an enormous garden. The jjopulation of the 
city is 27.409 inhabitants. 

Sete Lagoas. — A city with 1*J.()00 iuhahitauts, r(H'eived this 
nau](^ aft(;r the ncMghboriug lakes, it is located in the h»\\ part of a 



— fi07 — 

valley of the Velhns river (old women river) whicli ought lo Ix- call. -.I 
Gold river because of the quantity of this metal which this liver 
contains. Sete Lagoas is near the Central of Brazil railway. 

Sahara. — It was one of those ruins of city wliicli diil not resign 
itself to live its past. Sabai-a is located on the Central liailway load, 
it is the tired type of the cities of olden Minas : churches, low 
houses and houses with upper stories, up and down hill. It was once 
important, « the most important centre of exploitation of the inte- 




Barbacena. — Pomologic garden and House! of l)v. Uodolplio Abreu 



rior of Brazil, with regard to the physical, geological, meteoroligic 
and prehistoric geography, » 

On the other side of the mountain called Piedade, is the new- 
Capital of Minas. Sahara is as old as Ouro Preto and Marianna and 
as nostalgic as any of them. But now it is renewing with vigor. 

Cataguazes, — Its name comes from the Indian language (Caa- 
ata-giia, which means a valley of thick woodsj. It is one of the most 
prosperous of the cities in the Matta region. It has a good commerce 
and is very progressive. We must note that some fifty years ago, it 
was but a stopping place for the passers-by, a hamlet without impor- 



608 — 



tance. All the municipium is full of nice green plantations, coffee and 
grain. There from the impulse that pretty Cataguazes received in the 
way of progress. To-day has 1.081 houses and over 2.000 with those 
of the suburbs. It has some pretty public buildings as the Forum, 
the two banks, two coffee farms, a large theatre, (me of the best in 
that region, a church , several hotels, schools, newspapers, tele- 
graphs, etc. They are installing electric light system of Cataguazes, 
as well as a construction of a branch railway line, connecting it with 
S. Joao Nepomuceno, a pretty neighboring city. Cataguazes had 
some 8.000 inhabitants according to the census of 1890, but to-daj- 



I 




Panoramic view of tlio (jtv of Sabara 



must have the double, and it is llic one in llie Slalc of Minas with 
greatest future possibilities. 

Passos. — This city about which we s})oke above, had nothing 
to do with the transitory gi'catness of mining. Its importance is 
quite recent and came from the dairy industry. 

Passos is the seat of a good region. It had to progress, as its 
brancli of indiisti-y has been in full bloom. 

Are worthy of note : the cattle fairs held in this city every year. 

DiAMANTiNA. — It is named after the rich layers that were dis- 
covei'cd ther-e and produced as niucli as three aud fom* millions a 
year and are not as yet exhausted. It became a viUagc, iu October 



— «Oft — 

1.S21 iiiul city by proviiu-i;il hiw n" *•:; of dtli May l<s;;s. ||;is i-egiilar 
commercial relations directly with Sete La<;()as l.y the Central 
Railway of Brazil. It is the seat of a diocese with a hislicp. Has a 
seminary and some public and i>rivate instruction establishincnts. 
Its population is \2.\\ I inhabitants. It is an active city witli a hard 
working- population. It has <;reat future possibilities and sej-ms to 
be about lifting- itself rapidly from its modest situation. It has seve- 
ral threading- mills, three newsjjapeis, clubs, hotels (*tc. 




Gataguazes. — Ciediti) Real of Minas-Geraes Banks AgciuN 



Itajuba. — Picturesque city of 8000 inhabitants, gay, lively on 
the right bank of the Sapucah}' river. It is low, prolonging itself 
over the hill-side among the Mantigueira mountains one of which 
S. Joas is 805 metres above the sea-level. 

Its buildings are of no great importance. It has a City Hall, old 
and heav3' style ; the market 10 metres long; Santa Cecilia Theatre: 
the Matriz church, not pretty in its exterior and without towers. 
Itajuba is formed by five large squares, four smaller ones, 20 streets 
and 700 buildings. It has water supply, several factories, one lilirary 
with 8.000 volumes and a pretty public garden. 



— 610 — 

ExTRE Rios. — Small i)iotiiresque city. Its jjopnlation by the 
census of 18M2 was 3.787 males and 3.894 females. To-day ir has pro- 
bably some 10.000 inhabitants and rapidly develops its agriculTural 
production. 

But we must be excused the list with the names of the cities is 
rather long- and w^ould bore the reader. There arc one hundred and 
seventeen of them ! 













lialaguuzt's. — Imimi lniihliiiii 



612 — 



THE STATES OF MATTO GROSSO AND GOYAZ 



The two lai'gest States of Brazil are those that constitute their 
boundary lines with the othei* republics oi" this continent. Those 
States are so large that two, only two, form the whole of the fron- 
tier line, that is not on the ocean side and neither one of these two 
States has the density of population of over 0,1 per square kilometre. 

These two States are : The Amazon at the North and Matto 
Grosso at the South. About the former we have already written in 
the beginning of this section of the book, devoted to the 20 States 
that together with the Federal District form the Federative Kepu- 
blic of the United States of Brazil, and about the latter we will 
now" speak to close the last chapter of the book. One as the other 
also form the two largest territorial blocks of the Brazilian political 
division, the former being the largest and the latter the next one in 
size, of all the other States. Fro