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Copyright N°_ 


Breakfasts and Teas 


Compiled by 


Editor and Publisher of What to Eat, the National Food Magazine 
Superintendent of Food Exhibits at the St. Louis Worlds's Fair. 
Honorary Commissioner of Foods at the Jamestown Exposition. 



&<^<j to, '907 

Copyrighted 1907 


To Women Editors. 

In appreciation of the many favorable press notices 
and high editorial comment given to my previous ef- 
forts in the compilation of books on suggestions for 
entertaining and in the publication of my magazine, 
What To Eat, this book on "Breakfasts and Teas," 
is inscribed. Full well I realize the difficulties under 
which most Women Editors labor in their duty of 
suggesting new ideas for entertaining, and I hold a 
sincere appreciation for the good they perform in ele- 
vating the women of our country to a higher plain of 
civilization. When the woman is done with the 
school room and finds herself in the social whirl it is 
then she begins to see that she has another and very 
important course of learning to acquire and forthwith 
she submits herself to the tutorage of the editor of the 
woman's page. No school teacher of the world has 
such a large class to instruct as this woman editor. 
Her pupils are numbered by the thousands and tens 
of thousands and hundreds of thousands. The knowl- 
edge she must impart is not of the kind that has been 
set down by past generations and which once learned 
suffices as a supply for all future dispensations. It is 
a knowledge of the day, which is constantly changing 
and which must be gleaned each day for the lessons 
of the morrow. This little book embraces the latest 
information on the title it bears, and all herein con- 
tained, that may be of help to the woman editor, she 
is welcome to use if she will comply with the pub- 
lisher's rule of giving the proper credit to the volume. 

Publisher's Announcement. 

"Breakfast and Teas" is a companion book to that 
most interesting and helpful series of social works com- 
piled by Paul Pierce, publisher of What To Eat, the 
National Food Magazine, and the world's authority 
on all problems pertaining to the drawing room and the 
table. The other books are "Dinners and Luncheons," 
"Parties and Entertainments," "Suppers," and "Wed- 
dings and Wedding Celebrations." The contents of 
each volume are selected with especial regard for the 
extent of their helpfulness for the perplexed hostess. 
The instructions that are given will afford suggestions 
for all the different kinds of social functions the host 
or hostess ever will have occasion to give or to attend, 
and therefore all the volumes combined will furnish a 
veritable library for the person who entertains or who 
attends entertainments, and no person with a regard 
for correct social forms should fail to be supplied with 
all five of the books. In the directions special attention 
is given to the suggestions afforded for other kinds of 
entertainments, so that in each entertainment described 
the reader will find ideas for a dozen or more enter- 
tainments of a similar nature. 


Chapter I. Breakfasts at High Noon — Typical 
Breakfast Menu — Breakfast Decorations — Two 
Bride-Elect Breakfasts — Silver Wedding Day 
Breakfast — A Family Breakfast — Light Informal 

Chapter II. Two Bon Voyage Breakfasts — Who 
Takes the Cake? — Breakfast and Tea for Christ- 
mas or Thanksgiving. 

Chapter III. A Cuban Breakfast. 

Chapter IV. Spring and Autumn Breakfasts — April 
Breakfast — A Maypole Breakfast — May Break- 
fast — An Autumn Breakfast — A Musical Ro- 
mance — A Red Rose Breakfast — Chrysanthemum 
Breakfast — Pond Lily Breakfast — A Tulip 
Breakfast — A Grape Breakfast — Woman's Club 
Breakfast — Breakfast al Fresco. 

Chapter V. The Modern 'Five O'Clock' Tea— An 
Afternoon Tea — Telling Fortunes by Tea- 

Chapter VI. Scotch Teas — A Gypsy Tea Out of 

Chapter VII. Japanese Teas. 

Chapter VIII. Two Valentine Teas. 


Chapter IX. A Grandmother's Tea Party — An 
April Fool Tea — A Colonial Tea — Pretty Rose 
Tea — Omber Shades of Rose — A Bouquet Tea — 
Spring Planting — A High Tea — Book-Title Teas 
— Patriotic Tea — Debut Tea — Yellow Tea — A 
Candle-Light Tea— A Flower Tea— An Ex- 
change Tea — A Watermelon Tea. 

Chapter X. Unique Ideas for Teas — A Choco- 
latiere — A Kaffee Klatch — A "Rushing" Tea for 
Sorority — Sandwiches for Teas — Novelties in 
Tea Serving — Summer Porch Tea Parties. 


Breakfasts at High Noon, 
a very swell repast for a swagger set. 

By the operation of one of those laws of occult force, 
the power of which we feel while we are totally ig- 
norant of its rules, we fix upon the noonday as the time 
for some of our chief social functions. 

As a matter of fact we are at our best at this time of 
the day, both physically and mentally ; and we naturally 
choose it for our special entertainments and enjoyments. 

One of the chief of these is the noonday breakfast, 
which meets several social demands. It is the proper 
service for the return of nearly every obligation in the 
form of hospitality which may have been received by the 
giver during the closing season. 

This noonday breakfast very much resembles the 
morning breakfast of the French country-house in the 
variety of foods. This repast always is most attractive 
to an American because of its informality, and the viands 
are enticing. This morning breakfast of the Parisian 
is really like a little dinner, and that is what we wish to 
serve to meet all the varied obligations that are to be 
wiped out by an artistic and choice return entertain- 
ment, whether it be called luncheon or noonday break- 

^ When a luncheon or noonday breakfast by formal in- 
vitation is given, the service is identical with that of 
dinner a la Rnsse, and the bill of fare similar, although 

8 Breakfasts and Teas 

less extended ; but the pleasantest repasts are those 
where perfect service is secured without formality. 

First, the table: Lay it as carefully as for dinner and 
in much the same way, save that an embroidered or del- 
icately colored cloth may replace the white dinner linen ; 
under this cloth lay the usual thick one of felt or Canton 
flannel. The small dessert and fruit, flowers and rel- 
ishes, may form a part of the table decoration. Now 
that castors are seldom used, unless of fine old silver 
and ornamental form, place conveniently about the 
table salt, pepper, the oil and vinegar stand, and the 
table sauces in their original bottles set in silver holders, 
Olives, salted almonds, cheese-straws and sandwiches 
ma)' be put upon the table in pretty china, silver and 
glass ornamental dishes; in short, all save the hot dishes 
may form part of the ornamentation. Hot plates are 
required for all the food except the raw shell-fish, salad 
and dessert, and should be ready for immediate use, to- 
gether with a reserve of silver, or means for washing it. 
The coffee service may be laid before the hostess or 
upon the side table, at convenience; chocolate is sim- 
ilarly served, and is a favorite breakfast beverage, 
especially when it is made with eggs, after the Mexican 

Tea is not on the regulation breakfast list, but of 
course it may be served if it is desired. Cider, malt 
liquors, the lighter wines, and in summer the various 
"cups" or fruit punches are in order; the breakfast 
wines are sherry, hock or Rhine wine, sauterne and 
champagne; and when a variety is served the prefer- 

Breakfasts and Teas 9 

ence of each guest is ascertained by the attendant be- 
fore filling the glasses. 

Breakfast Menu. 

The following is an excellent bill of fare for a noon- 
day breakfast: 

Little Neck Clams 

Cold IV hie Soup 

Angels on Horseback 

Chicken Patties Newberg Lobster 

Green Peas with New Turnips 

Grape Fruit Sherbet 

Broiled Birds with Orange Salad 

White Custards 

Cannelons with Jelly 

Strawberries in Cream 

Black Coffee 

For a simple repast for a few persons, two relishes 
may be omitted, only one entree being served ; then the 
sherbet, the birds, and one desert, with coffee; this 
combination would make a most acceptable small 

Blue Point Oysters, as all small oysters are called, 
may be used in their season, in place of the clams. Both 
are of much dietetic value, the clams being the most 
stimulating and nutritious, and the oysters the most 
tonic and digestible. 

The cold wine soup is a valuable tonic nutrient ; and 
each dish possesses some special value of its own. 

Cold Wine Soup. 

Wash quarter of a pound of fine sago in cold water, 
put it over the fire in two quarts of cold water, and boil 

IO Breakfasts and Teas 

it gently until the grains are transparent; then dissolve 
with it half a pound of fine sugar, add a very little 
grated nutmeg, a dust of cayenne, and an even tea- 
spoonful of salt ; when the sugar is melted add a bottle 
of claret, and as much cold water as is required to make 
the soup of an agreeable creamy consistency; cool it 
before serving. 

Angels on Horseback. 

This is one of the gastronomic inspirations of Urbain 
Dubois, the chef of the great Emperor of Germany. 
Remove all bits of shell from fine oysters and lay them 
upon a clean towel ; cut as many slices of thin bacon, 
about the size of the oysters ; run them alternately upon 
bright metal skewers, dust them with cayenne, lay the 
skewers between the bars of a double-wire grid-iron, 
and broil the "angels" over a quick fire until the bacon 
begins to crisp ; then transfer the skewers to a hot dish 
garnished with lemon and parsley, or with cresses, and 
send at once to table. In serving, a skewerful of 
"angels" is laid upon a hot plate, and the eater removes 
them with a fork. The success of this dish depends 
upon the rapidity with which it is cooked and served. 

Chicken Patties. 

The housewife is advised to procure the cooked 
patty cases at the baker's shops, ready to be heated and 
filled with the following ragout. For a dozen patties 
remove the bones and skin from a pint bowlful of the 
white meat of cold boiled or roasted chicken, and cut 

Breakfasts and Teas II 

it into one-half inch pieces. Open a can of mushrooms, 
save the liquor, and cut the mushrooms about the size 
of the chicken ; put over the fire in a saucepan a table- 
spoonful each of butter and flour, stir them until they 
are smoothly blended ; then gradually stir in the mush- 
room liquor and enough milk to make a sauce which 
should be as thick as cream after it has boiled ; add the 
chicken and mushrooms, a palatable seasoning of salt 
and pepper; place the saucepan in a pan containing 
boiling salted water and keep hot until it is time to fill 
the hot patty cases and serve them. 

Green Peas with New Turnips. 

Peal about a dozen new turnips of medium size, boil 
them until tender in salted boiling water; meanwhile 
smoothly mix in a saucepan a tablespoonful each of 
butter and flour, and gradually stir in a pint of milk. 
Open a can of French peas, drain them, run cold water 
through them, draining again, and heat them in the 
sauce, seasoning them palatably with salt and white 
pepper. When the turnips are tender scoop a hollow 
in the center of each, fill it with peas, and arrange them 
upon the rest of the peas on a hot shallow dish. 

Typical Breakfast Menu. 

Here is a typical breakfast menu : Grape fruit, plain 
or prepared by removing the center and putting in it 
a spoonful of rum and a lump of sugar; some cereal 
with cream or fruit ; a chafing dish preparation, oysters 
in some way, mushrooms, or eggs, or a mixture on toast; 

12 Breakfasts and Teas 

hot bread of some kind, waffles, corn cakes, pancakes, 
flannel cakes, etc. ; coffee and coffee cake. 

Breakfast Decorations. 
The sunburst done in one color is a very popular de- 
sign for summer hostesses. Suppose one is giving a pond 
lily breakfast. In the center of the table have a cut 
glass bowl of the lilies. From beneath the bowl radiate 
long streamers of pale green ribbon ending at the plates 
of the guests with name cards decorated with the lilies 
cut out of watercolor paper. Half way between the 
bowl and the plate, the ribbon is knotted about a 
bouquet of the flowers or a bunch of maidenhair ferns 
which will become the corsage bouquet of the guest. 
Sometimes several strands of narrower ribbon are used 
giving more rays; a very pretty effect. Do not have 
artificial light at a summer breakfast. Garden flowers 
are all the rage, either one kind or several kinds mixed. 
Coreopsis, mignonette, featherfew, nasturtiums, lilies, 
sweet peas, geraniums, all the simple garden flowers are 
used now in place of the hothouse products. 

Breakfast to Bride-Elect. 
To a Bride. 

Happy is the bride whom the sun shines on, 

And happy to-day are you ; 
May all of the glad dreams you have dreamed 

In all of your life come true; 
May every good there is in life 

Step down from the years to you. 
There's nothing so sweet as a maid is sweet, 

On the day she becomes a bride*, 

Breakfasts and Teas 13 

Oh, the paths that ope to the dancing feet! 

Oh, the true love by her side ! 
Oh, the gray old world looks a glad old world, 

And it's fields of pleasure, wide. 

A breakfast for a bride-elect can be made very dainty 
and pretty by following out a pink color scheme, unless 
one prefers the more common scheme of white. Cover 
the table with the prettiest, whitest damask, and over 
this lay lace-trimmed or openwork doilies, with a foun- 
dation of pink satin underneath. For flowers have pink 
begonias (very pretty and effective), carnations, roses, 
azaleas or cyclamens. Arrange the flowers in a center 
basket with a large pink butterfly bow on the handle. 
Light the table with pink candles and shades in silver 
or china candlesticks. Have the place cards in heart 
shapes with pen and ink sketches or watercolors of 
brides, or tiny cupids. 

Mark the bride-elect's chair by a large bow of ribbon 
or a bouquet of pink flowers matching those on the 
table. If white flowers are used, lilies of the valley and 
hyacinths make a pretty bouquet, tied with white gauze 

Serve this menu : 

Grape Fruit with Rum and Cherries L 

Turkey Cutlets 

Stuffed Peppers {Serve on Heart-Shaped Pieces of Bread) 

Tiny Heart-Shaped Hot Rolls Peach Mangoes 

Sweetbread Salad in Tomato Cups on Lettuce Leaf 

Cheese Straws 

Ice Cream in Shape of Wedding Bells Filled with Candied 


Cocoanut Cake and Angel Food in Heart Shape 


14 Breakfasts and Teas 

A tiny bouquet of violets tied with gauze ribbon at 
each plate makes the table pretty and is a dainty 
souvenir for the guest. Sometimes the individual favors 
are tiny wicker hampers filled with fine flowers tied 
with white silk cord. 

For the Bride-Elect. 

A white breakfast is the daintiest and prettiest for the 
bride-elect. Have the table decorations in white. For 
the center have a large round basket of bride roses, and 
at each plate tiny French baskets filled with maidenhair 
fern and white pansies, or apple blossoms, for individual 
favors. Tie the handle of each basket with white 
gauze ribbon, looping thcbaskets together with the rib- 
bon forming a garland for the table. Serve strawberries 
in large white tulips or bride roses, and have the ices 
in form of wedding bells. For name cards have two 
wedding bells tied with white satin ribbons. 

Silver Wedding Day Breakfast. 

For the breakfast the table is crossed by a broad band 
of white carnations, sprinkled with diamond dust. Ar- 
ranged in billows over the table is silver gauze, silver 
candelabra, and all the handsome silver, which the 
hostess possesses. The menu is: 


Lobster Cutlets Tartar Sauce 

Cucumber Sandwiches 

Breast of Turkey, larded and broiled 

Green Peas Curent Jelly Hot Rolls 

Pear and Celery Salad, with German Cherries served 

Breakfasts and Teas 1 5 

in Hearts of Lettuce 

Caramel Ice Cream, with Pecan Meringue 

Old Madeira is served with the meat course, then Sauterne. 

A Family Breakfast. 

Grape Fruit with Cherries and Pineapple 

Creamed Fish 

New Potatoes with Sauce of Parsley and Drawn Butter 

Sliced Cucumbers Hot Biscuits 

Fried Chicken Asparagus on Toast 


Waffles and Maple Syrup 

Strawberry Shortcake, with Frozen Whipped Cream 


Light Informal Breakfast. 

First serve a fluffy egg omelet with Saratoga pota- 
toes, and fish and cheese sandwiches cut in hearts and 
rings. Next cucumber boats filled with cucumber and 
tomato salad mixed with sour cream dressing, resting 
on lettuce leaves. With this an innovation in. the 
shape of square ginger wafers. Place by each plate 
salted almonds and bread and butter on bread and 
butter plates. The last course is a popular New Eng- 
land combination, warm apple sauce and huckleberry 
muffins. Tea is the beverage. 

1 6 Breakfasts and Teas 


Two Bon Voyage Breakfasts. 

"I take my leave of you 

Shall not be long but I'll be here again." 


Use the national colors for decorations for a bon 
voyage breakfast. This will remind the guest of honor 
that "East, West, Hame's Best." Use blue and white 
hyacinths and red tulips, carnations or roses and tiny silk 
flags can be used for place cards. Carry out the same 
idea in the ices, candies, etc. One pretty floral decora- 
tion for a bon voyage breakfast is a ship and the place 
cards can have a tiny ocean steamer for decoration. Ask 
each guest to bring some little gift. Tie these with 
tissue paper and baby ribbon, leaving a long end of the 
ribbon. Make a little bag of flowered chintz or silk 
and place the gifts inside. Have cards labeled Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, etc., one for each day of the 
voyage. Slip the end of the ribbon through a card and 
leave the labeled ends of the ribbons sticking out of the 
top of the bag. This will give a little remembrance for 
each day on shipboard, a very pleasant remembrance 
too. A packet of ship letters each labeled a certain day, 
is another gift much prized by travelers. 

Have three tables, with six guests at a table with La 
France roses for decorations, and silver for all the 
courses laid at each cover. 

Breakfasts and Teas 17 

The guest cards are little circular marine water color 
sketches, no two alike. The menu is as follows: 

Grape Fruit with strawberries 

Salmon Croquettes Fried Mush Jelly 

Steamed Chicken Hot Rolls 

Shoestring Potatoes Coffee 

Vegetable Salad 

Wafers with Melted Cheese 

Molded Cherry Jelly with English Walnuts, served with 

Whipped Cream 

Sponge Cakes 

The grape fruit is served in halves with one large 
strawberry in the center of the fruit. The salmon cro- 
quettes are molded in pyramidal form, a bit of cress 
laid on the top, and the mush which has been made the 
night before is cut in cubes an inch square, dipped in 
eggs and cracker dust, then dropped in deep fat, the 
only way to fry mush a delicate brown and preserve its 
softness. A spoonful of current jelly completes a color 

Steamed Chicken. 

Grind with a food chopper the meat of two raw 
chickens and half a pound of pickled pork. Add a cup 
of sifted bread crumbs, half a cup of thick sweet cream, 
half a cup of butter, half a can of chopped mushrooms, 
a little minced parsley, salt and pepper. Mix thorough- 
ly with the hands and put into well greased timbale cups 
and steam three hours. 


Make a sauce for this by mixing the liquor of the 
mushrooms, half a cup of cream, the rest of the mush- 

1 8 Breakfasts and Teas 

rooms, chopped ; heat and thicken with half a cup of 
cracker dust. Serve very hot. 

Vegetable Salad. 

With the smallest sized potato scoop, cut out a pint 
of potato balls about the size of common marbles and 
boil in salted water until tender. Let them cool, and 
add a pint of the largest peas, three stalks of minced 
celery, a good sized cucumber cut fine, ten drops of 
onion juice. Salt and pepper any good cooked dressing, 
to which add two large spoonfuls of thick cream and 
two of olive oil. Serve on a lettuce leaf, pour over the 
dressing, and last of all put on the top of the salad three 
little balls of red pickled beet cut with the potato scoop, 
and half embedded in the dressing. 

Make a gelatine jelly, flavored with juice of two 
lemons and cherries. Serve with whipped cream, into 
which beat finely sifted crumbs of three macaroons. 

Who Takes the Cake? 

"Who takes the cake?" is a most merry-making 
scheme to assist in entertaining at a breakfast. The 
hostess provides upon slips of paper, what may be 
termed cake-conundrums. These are neatly written 
and wound upon coarse steel knitting needles into little 
rolls and tied with baby-ribbon to match the color 
scheme of the table. 

These are brought in just after serving the coffee 
and passed to the guests. The hostess announces that 
each is to guess the name of the cake suggested on her 

Breakfasts and Teas 19 

slip; adding, the one who gives the most correct an- 
swers wins the prize of a delicious cake. This should 
be exhibited. The hostess has a list of the answers, 
and when one misses the ''hit," she reads it aloud to 
the merriment of the crowd. For instance, one slip 
reads: Name the President's cake. The answer is 
(Election). The parenthesis must not appear on the 
slips. A list recently used, and very wittily selected, 
is given for suggestion : 

Name the Geologist's cake. (Mountain.) 

Name the Advertiser's cake. (Puff.) 

Name the Farmer's cake. (Corn.) 

Name the Tailor's cake. (Measure.) 

Name the Milliner's cake. (Ribbon.) 

Name the Devout cake. (Angel Food.) 

Name the Jeweler's cake. (Gold.) 

Name the Lover's cake. (Kisses.) 

Name the Author's cake. (Short cake.) 

Name the Pugilist's cake. (Pound.) 

Name the Office-seeker's cake. (Washington.) 

Name the Idler's cake. (Loaf.) 

Many others can be added by the clever hostess. 

Breakfast and Tea for Christmas or Thanksgiving. 


Oranges and Grapes 

Farina with Dates and Cream and Sugar 

Cricken Croquettes 

Oysters in Potato Balls 

Rice Muffins with Maple Syrup 

Coffee Chocolate with Whipped Cream 

20 Breakfasts and Teas 


Scalloped Oysters 

Turkey Salad 

Cheese Balls 

Bread and Butter Sandwiches 

Strawberry Trifle 

Gipsy Jelly with W hipped Cream 

Lemon Cocoanut Cake 

Meringues filled with Preserved Walnuts 

Tea Cocoa with Whipped Cream 

Oysters in Potato Balls. 
Cook the potatoes the day before. While hot mash 
them, season nicely with salt, paprika and a little celery 
salt. Add a generous lump of butter, and one or two 
lightly beaten eggs. Form into little balls with the 
hands floured. The next morning scoop out a hollow 
large enough to hold two or three nicely seasoned 
oysters, press over the part removed, egg and bread- 
crumb, and fry in a wire basket in deep hot fat. Drain 
a minute on unglazed paper, and serve at once. 

Rice Muffins. 
Sift together half a teaspoonful of salt, a heaping 
teaspoonful of baking powder, and two cupfuls of flour. 
Add two well-beaten eggs to one cupful of sweet milk, 
and stir into the flour, with one teaspoonful of melted 
butter and one cupful of dry boiled rice. Beat thor- 
oughly, and bake in buttered pans for thirty-five min- 
utes. Serve with maple syrup. 

Turkey Salad. 
Cut the cold turkey meat into dice and mix it with 
twice the quantity of diced celery and one cupful of 

Breakfasts and Teas 21 

broken walnut meats. Mix all well together and 
moisten with a good boiled dressing. Serve in a nest 
of bleached lettuce. 

Cheese Balls. 

Roll rich pastry out very thin, cut it into circles with 
a small tumbler, put two teaspoonfuls of grated cheese 
in the center of each, add a dash of cayenne and a tea- 
spoonful of finely chopped walnut meats, then draw the 
edges of the paste together over the cheese, pinching 
it well to form a little ball. Bake in a hot oven to a 
very pale brown. Before serving reheat in the oven. 

Strawberry Trifle. 

Cut one large stale sponge cake in horizontal slices 
the whole length of the loaf. They should be half an 
inch thick. Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff snow, 
divide it into two portions ; into one stir two level table- 
spoons of powdered sugar and one-half of a grated 
cocoanut; into the other stir the same amount of 
powdered sugar and one-half pound of sweet almonds 
blanched and pounded. Spread the slices of cake with 
these mixtures, half with the cocoanut and half with 
the almond, and replace them in their original form. 
The top crust should be cut off before slicing the cake 
as it is used for a lid. Hold the sliced cake firmly to- 
gether and with a sharp knife cut down deep enough 
to leave only an inch at the bottom, and take out the 
center, leaving walls only one inch thick. Soak the 
part removed in a bowl with one cupful of rich custard 

22 Breakfasts and Teas 

flavored with lemon. Rub it to a smooth batter, then 
whip unto it one cupful of cream which has been whip- 
ped to a dry stiff froth. Fill the cavity of the cake with 
alternate layers of this mixture and very rich preserved 
strawberries. Then put on the lid and ice with a frost- 
ing made with the whites of three eggs, one heaping 
cupful of powdered sugar and the juice of one lemon. 
Spread it smoothly over the sides and top of the cake, 
and keep in a very cold place until time to serve. Then 
place it on a silver or crystal dish, and put alternate 
spoonfuls of the whipped cream mixture and preserved 
strawberries around the base. 

Meringues Filled with Preserved Walnuts. 

Beat the whites of six eggs to a stiff firm snow, stir 
into it three-fourths of a pound of powdered sugar, 
flavor with a little lemon or rose water, and continue to 
beat until very light. Then drop them from a spoon, a 
little more than an inch apart, on well buttered paper, 
keeping them as nearly egg-shaped as possible. Place 
the paper on a half-inch board and bake in a slow oven 
until well dried out. Remove from the paper, scrape 
out the soft part from the underside, and before serv- 
ing fill with preserved walnuts and stick each two to- 
gether. The preserved walnuts are a very delicious 
sweet but one rarely met with. 

Breakfasts and Teas 23 


A Cuban Breakfast. 

The palm, of course, is the key note for decoration, 
as it is the characteristic plant of the tropics. But in 
order to be true to the scheme in mind, that is, to make 
your surroundings appear truly southern and create a 
local atmosphere, a marked difference should be made 
between the arrangement of our usual American inte- 
rior and the room which aims at the imitation of a 
Cuban home. Light and air are most important, the 
factors sine qua non, and the scene of the Almuerzo 
(breakfast) should not recall the hot house, the con- 
servatory, nor the dimly lighted, heavily curtained 
apartment of our northern dwellings. There should 
be space, plenty of windows, the fewest possible hang- 
ings, and these light in weight and color. 

For the mantel and table decorations dwarf palms 
are very effective, while larger ones of many varieties 
are appropriate for corners and other available places. 
Very pretty souvenirs can be made of small palm leaf 
fans. A Cuban landscape and the name of a guest are 
painted thereon, and tiny Cuban and American flags 
tied on the handle make a neat finish. 

As most of the dishes served will be new to the 
guests, it is advisable to have at each place a menu card 
where they may see how the dishes are called, that they 
may not only relish them knowingly but remember 
their excellence. 

24 Breakfasts and Teas 

The hour for breakfast is noon, although it may be 
taken as late as one o'clock. 

Here is a typical breakfast which can be easily re- 
produced with the material at our command. 

Olives Aeles Sausage 

Eggs in Revoltillo Boiled Rice 

Fried Plantains 
Fish in Escabeche New Potatoes 

Tenderloin Steak Lettuce Salad 

Guava Paste and Fresh Cheese 
Cocoanut Desert 
Fruit Coffee 

The olives should be served with cracked ice; the 
Aeles sausage (imported) in very thin slices. 

Eggs in Revoltillo. 

Fry in a little butter a good sized onion chopped 
fine; when brown, add three fresh tomatoes and one 
sweet green pepper cut into small bits. Salt to taste 
and let simmer until the tomatoes are quite cooked, 
then add six eggs which have been beaten. Stir while 
cooking and serve soft as you would scrambled eggs. 

Boiled Rice. 

Rice in Cuba is an indispensable article of food, and 
no meal is complete without it. There is no little art 
required in its preparation, and it is imperative that it 
should be dry and tender at once. Like most simple 
things, it has a certain knack to it. Having thorough- 
ly washed the rice, place it in a saucepan with three or 

Breakfasts and Teas 25 

four times the same quantity of water; salt generously 
and allow to boil until the grain is soft but not broken; 
drain off carefully all the water, cover the saucepan 
tightly and place at the back of the stove, where it will 
finish cooking slowly and become dry through the 
action of the steam. A small piece of lard added a few 
moments before serving glazes the rice and brings out 
its flavor. Each grain should stand apart from its 
neighbors. Some Cubans add a single kernel of garlic 
after removing the water. The quantity is so small 
that there is but a suspicion of a taste, and it gives this 
frugal dish a certain cachet. 

Fried Plantains 

are essential to every breakfast in the tropics, but they 
are not always obtainable here. A very good sub- 
stitute is the ordinary banana. It should not be over 
ripe. Fry until a rich brown in hot fat. These three 
dishes should be served at one course. 

Fish in Escabeche. 

Take three pounds of bonito or halibut in slices, fry 
and lay for several hours in a sauce made of half a pint 
of vinegar, in which the following ingredients have 
boiled for a few minutes: Three or four cloves, a bay 
leaf, a pinch of thyme, a kernel of garlic, a sliced onion, 
half a teaspoonful of coloring pepper, three table- 
spoonfuls of good salad oil and a few capers, olives and 
pickles. Hard boiled eggs may also be used for garn- 
ishing. It is eaten cold, and will keep, well covered in 

26 Breakfasts and Teas 

a stone jar, for weeks. (This dish is invaluable in 
summer.) Serve with new potatoes, boiled, over 
which a lump of butter and a tablespoonful of finely 
chopped parsley have been placed. 

Tenderloin Steak. 

The best restaurants in Habana prepare the steak as 
follows: Take a tender filet of beef, cut in cross sec- 
tions an inch and a half thick, wrap each piece in 
greased paper, and broil over a brisk fire. Remove the 
papers, add butter, salt, pepper and plenty of lemon 
juice — say the juice of two lemons for a whole filet. 
In Cuba they use the juice of the sour orange, but that 
is not to be had here. This is the creole style, and is 
simply a modification of the French way. If you want 
the steak a la espanola, it should be fried instead of 
broiled, and when well done each piece surmounted by 
a mojo. The mojo is a little mound consisting of 
onions and green peppers chopped very fine, and lemon 
juice added to the gravy. 

Guava paste is easily obtained from any importer, 
and it is the proper thing to eat it with fresh cream 
cheese or sliced Edam cheese. 

Cocoanut Dessert. 

This is purely a tropical dish, but Americans are 
very fond of it. Peel and grate a cocoanut; make a 
syrup out of four cups of sugar and two of water; 
when the syrup begins to thicken (when it has boiled 
about five minutes) throw in the grated cocoanut and 

Breakfasts and Teas 2*] 

cook on a moderate fire half an hour more; stir in the 
beaten yolks of three eggs and a wine glass full of 
sherry. Remove from the fire. 

The final point of your breakfast is the coffee, and 
in Cuban eyes the affair will be a success or a failure 
according to the quality of this supreme nectar. The 
berry should be the best obtainable ; freshly roasted, or 
at least the flavor refreshened by heating the grain in 
the oven a few minutes before using. Grind and per- 
colate at the last moment. Serve black and very strong, 
in very small cups. 

28 Breakfasts and Teas 


Spring and Autumn Breakfasts. 

The centerpiece is of moss and ferns with arbutus 
blossoms peeping out, with a border of green and 
white fairy lamps mushroom form. Miniature flower 
beds, marked off with tiny white shells are in each of 
the four corners of the table. In one lilies of the 
valley stand upright, narcissii are in another, white 
tulips in a third and white lilacs wired on a tiny bush 
make the fourth. The name cards have tiny photo- 
graphs of a farm with the name of the guests in gilt 
script. At each place is a tiny May basket of moss 
filled with arbutus, spring beauties, and wild violets, 
for a souvenir. The ice cream in flower forms is 
brought in in a spun sugar nest resting on twigs of 
pussy willows. The menu is a very simple one and in- 
cludes grape fruit, the center cut out and filled with a 
lump of sugar soaked in rum, cream of clams, shred- 
ded whitefish in shells with horseradish and cucum- 
bers, filet of beef with mushrooms, new potatoes, new 
asparagus, mint ice, squab on toast with shoestring 
potatoes, current jelly; salad of cucumbers, pecan nuts 
and lettuce with French dressing; ice cream, white 
cake, and black cake, coffee and cream de menthe. 

April Breakfast. 

April's lady wears the pussywillow for her flower, 
and this makes a delightful springlike motif for dec- 

Breakfasts and Teas 29 

oration. For the breakfast have round tables or one 
long table with twig baskets of pussywillows tied with 
bows of soft grasses, raffia dyed a silvery grey. The 
table is set with the old-fashioned willow pattern 
china, quaint Sheffield silver and is unmarked by any 
of the small dishes of sweets that fill breakfast tables. 
The name cards are decorated with sprays of pussy- 
willows in the upper left corner and miniatures of fa- 
mous women writers of this and the past decade taken 
from magazines: George Eliot, Miss Austen, Miss 
Mulock, Jean Ingelow, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 
Felicia Hemans, Louisa M. Alcott, Mrs. Humphrey 
Ward, Mrs. Burton Harrison, Mary E. Wilkins 
Freeman, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Margaret Deland. 
The menu is strawberries in little twig baskets with 
brown paper caps filled with sugar, planked fish with 
sliced cucumbers, deviled sweetbreads and mushrooms 
on toast squares, Saratoga potatoes, hot rolls, brandy 
peaches, waffles and hot syrup, coffee. 

A Maypole Breakfast. 
This breakfast is given the last week in May and 
can be copied by the summer hostess substituting dif- 
ferent flowers in season. The guests are seated at small 
tables, each table being decorated with a different kind 
of flower — the iris, marguerites, sweet peas, roses, 
mignonette, etc. Before each plate stands a tiny May- 
pole about the size of a lead pencil, wound with baby 
ribbon of different colors. These are souvenirs for 
each guest. For the first course have fresh straw- 
berries served with their leaves and blossoms. Then 

30 Breakfasts and Teas 

a cream of celery soup served in cups. Croutons are 
served with this. The soft shell crabs are served on a 
bed of water cress and radishes cut in fancy shapes. 
With them is served a thick mayonnaise on half a 
lemon ; and cucumbers with French dressing. The 
brown and white bread sandwiches are cut in the 
shape of palm leaves. Delicious orange sherbet is 
served in champagne glasses. Then comes broiled 
chicken with new potatoes, French peas and hot rolls. 
The fruit salad is served in head lettuce with square 
wafers accompanying. The ice cream is molded in 
the form of red and white apples, with a cluster of 
real apple blossoms laid on each plate. With this is 
served a white cake with whipped cream and French 

May Breakfast. 

Carry out the May basket idea for a breakfast. By 
searching the ten-cent stores one can find little imita- 
tion cut glass baskets with handles. Use a large cut 
glass basket or bowl with wire handle over the top for 
the center of the table and one of the smaller baskets 
filled with pansies, valley lilies or May flowers at each 
place. Or make a pretty crystal wreath a short dis- 
tance from the center by using crystal candlesticks 
with white candles and shades of glass beads, alter- 
nated by the little glass baskets filled with dainty 
flowers or maidenhair fern. Or use these baskets for 
green, white or pink bonbons. Another pretty May 
basket idea is to suspend little baskets of flowers from 
the back of each chair and use an immense basket of 

Breakfasts and Teas 31 

flowers for the center of the table. Suitable toasts for 
the name cards, which should be little flower baskets 
cut out of water color paper and decorated, would be 
sentences describing Mayday in various countries. Or, 
use sentiments of flowers. Here are some: 

The red rose: "I love you." The daisy: "There 
is no hope." Lily of the valley: "My heart withers 
in secret." The lilac: "You are my first love." 
Violets: "I am faithful." You will enjoy hunting 
for flower sentiments. 

For the menu serve: Tomato bisque, wafers; 
sweetbread croquettes, peas, new potatoes, creamed 
asparagus, lemon sherbet; spring salad (radishes, cu- 
cumbers, tomatoes, with French dressing on lettuce 
leaf), strawberries, served with hulls on and around 
a paper cup or mound of fine sugar; white cake with 
chocolate icing. 

An Autumn Breakfast. 

If one loves the reigning color, brown, give a 
brown breakfast in which all shades from seal to 
orange are used in pretty combination. A flat wreath 
of brown foliage extends inside the plate line. In the 
center of. the table is a pyramid made of the tiny 
artificial oranges, buds and blossoms that are shown in 
the milliners' windows. From this pyramid radiate 
streamers of light brown tulle in wavy lines across the 
table to the wreath at the edge. Yellow candles with 
autumn leaf shades in yellows and browns are placed 
inside the space between the center and the wreath. 

32 Breakfasts and Teas 

The name cards are placed inside little boxes dec- 
orated with pyrographic work and suitable for jewel 
boxes. The creamed lobster is served in cups covered 
with brown tissue paper, the browned chops, browned 
fried potatoes, and browned rice croquettes are served 
on plates decorated with a design of brown oak leaves 
and acorns. The ice cream is chocolate frozen in 
shape of large English walnuts and the little squares 
of white cake bear the design of a leaf in tiny choco- 
late candies. 

A Musical Romance. 
Have it for entertainment at breakfast with prizes 
for the one who answers best. Each question is an- 
swered by the name of a song. 


1. Who was the lover? 

2. Who was his sweetheart? 

3. In what country were they born? 

4. On what river was his home? 

5. What was his favorite state? 

6. Where did he first meet her? 

7. What part of the day was it? 

8. How was her hair arranged? 

9. What flower did he offer her? 

10. When did he propose to her? 

11. What did he say to her? 

12. What was her reply? 

13. When were they married ? 

14. Her maid of honor was from Scotland; what was 

her name? 

Breakfasts and Teas 33 

The best man was a soldier; who was he? 
When in the civil war did the groom and best 

man become acquainted? 
A little sister of the bride was flower girl; what 

was her name? 
In what church was the ceremony solemnized ? 
In the thoroughfares of what foreign city did 

they spend their honeymoon? 
What motto greeted them as they entered their 

new dwelling? 
Who did the bridegroom finally turn out to be? 


Ben Bolt. 

Sweet Marie. 


Suanne River. 

Maryland, My Maryland. 

Comin' Through the Rye. 

In the Gloaming. 

Her Golden Hair was Hanging Down her Back. 

Sweet Violets. 

After the Ball. 

Won't You Be My Sweetheart? 

If you Ain't Got No Money You Needn't Come 

In Springtime, Gentle Anne. 
Annie Laurie. 
Warrior Bold. 

While We Were Marching Through Georgia. 

34 Breakfasts and Teas 

1 8. Church Across The Way. 

19. Streets of Cairo. 

20. Home, Sweet Home. 

21. The Man That Broke The Bank at Monte 

The answers to the above should not be arbitrary. 
There are many songs that afford quite as good an- 
swers as those given above, and the score should credit 
anyone that makes a reply which fits the question. 

A Red Rose Breakfast. 

"I find earth not gray, but rosy, 
Heaven not grim, but fair of hue." 

Here is a pretty breakfast for the month of June. 

Have for the centerpiece a huge bowl of jacque- 
minot roses. Use long sprays of the leaves and 
arrange the flowers very loosely in the bowl. 

Have for the boutonnieres at each cover a bunch of 
red rose buds tied with scarlet ribbon. 

The place cards are also red roses cut to the re- 
quired shape from rough drawing paper and ap- 
propriately colored. 

Of course the red touch will be introduced as 
frequently as possible into the menu. Serve tomato 
soup, salmon salad and claret water ice. Cakes 
must be glazed in red, and the ice cream, served in 
artistic little baskets of spun sugar, to take the form 
of red roses. 

Have side dishes filled with pink coated almonds 
and candied rose petals. 

Breakfasts and Teas 35 

Then, during the dessert course, introduce what 
is called a Rose Shower. 

This will be on the order of the literary salads 
that were so popular some time ago, but it is newer. 

The idea is this: Cut from red tissue paper a 
couple of dozen little leaf shaped pieces to be crimped 
and creased and coaxed into representing rose petals. 
On each petal write a familiar quotation relating to 
the rose. 

These leaves are to be passed around the table, each 
guest taking one, and when done with it, passing it on. 

Prizes will be offered to the guests who are able to 
name the authors of the largest number of quotations. 

Here are some of the verses: 

That which we call a rose, 

By any other name would smell as sweet. 

— Shakespeare. 

But earthlier happy is the rose distilled 

Than that which, withering on the virgin thorn 

Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness. 

— Shakespeare. 

The rose is fairest when 'tis budding new; 
And hope is brightest when it dawns from fears. 
The rose is sweetest washed with morning dew, 
And love is loveliest when embalmed in tears. 


'Tis the last rose of summer 
Left blooming alone. 

— Moore. 

You may break, you may shatter the vase if you will, 
But the scent of the roses will hang round it still. 

— Moore. 

36 Breakfasts and Teas 

He wears the rose 
Of youth upon him. 

— Shakespeare. 
As though a rose should shut and be a bud again. 

— Keats. 

She wore a wreath of roses, 
That night when first we met. 

—T. II. Bayley. 

The rose that all are praising 
Is not the rose for me. 

—T. II. Bayley. 

Loveliest of lovely things are they 
On earth that soonest pass away. 
The rose that lives his little hour 
Is prized beyond the sculptured flower. 

— Bryant. 

Flowers of all hue and without thorn the rose. 

— Milton. 

A rosebud set with little wilful thorns, 

And sweet as English air could make her, she. 

— Tennyson. 

Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before thev be withered. 


Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, 
Old time is still a flying; 
And this same flower that smiles today, 
Tomorrow wille be dying. 

— Herrick. 

Their lips were four red roses on a stalk. 

— Shakespeare. 

And I will make thee beds of roses 
And a thousand fragrant posies. 

— Marlowe. 

Breakfasts and Teas 37 

These, of course, will be only about half enough, 
but the hostess can add others to them. 

The prize for the best list of answers should sug- 
gest roses in some way. 

Chrysanthemum Breakfast. 

The time ten o'clock. Invitations, to be on a large 
sized visiting card, this wise: 


At Home, 
Wednesday morning, November Seventh, 


ten o'clock, 

340 Street, 

Please reply. Breakfast. 

Enclose card in envelope to match. 

Have three schemes of color for decorations — 
white chrysanthemums for parlor, pink for library, 
and yellow for dining-room. 

Serve at small tables, with rich floral center pieces, 
and handsomely draped with Battenburg, or linen 
center piece and plate tumbler doylies. 

Place cards, two and one-half inches by six in size, 
should be decorated with a spray of chrysanthemums 
on a shaded background in water colors, leaving suf- 
ficient blank for a name and outlining the top card 
with cut edges of leaves. 

First Course. 
A small cluster of grapes served on dessert plates. 

38 Breakfasts and Teas 

Second Course. 

Baked apple — (Remove the core and fill with 
cooked oat meal; bake and serve with whipped cream 
over the whole.) 

Third Course. 

Chicken croquettes, scalloped potatoes, buttered 
rolls, celery, coffee. 

Fourth Course. 

Fruit and nut salad, served in small cups on a 
bread and butter plate, with a wafer. 

Fifth Course. 

Ice cream, in chocolate, pink and white layers; 
angel food, and pink and white layer cake. 
Have a dish of salted almonds on each table. 

Pond Lily Breakfast. 

White and green are the colors for a September 
breakfast. Have the dining room decorated with 
luxuriant ferns and dainty, fragrant water lilies, the 
fireplace banked with ferns, the lilies scattered care- 
lessly over the mantel. 

In the center of the table have a miniature rowboat 
heaped high with the lilies. For the souvenirs have 
very small oars which could afterwards be used for 
paper knives; besides clusters of lilies. 

Harp music is the most in harmony with our ideas 
of lilies and the lily naiads, so the soft strains will 
form a delightful accompaniment to the breakfast. 

Breakfasts and Teas 39 

This is the menu : 

Cream of Lettuce Soup 

Steamed White Fish Hollandise Sauce 

Potato Balls Maitre de Hotel Sauce 

Jellied Chicken 

Cauliflower, Creamed Asparagus 

Cheese Salad 

Metropolitan Ice Cream 

Small Cakes Niagara Grapes 


Cream of Lettuce Soup. 

Break the outer green leaves from two heads of 
lettuce. Place neatly together and with a sharp knife 
cut into shreds. Put them into one quart of white 
stock and simmer gently for half an hour. Press 
through a colander, return to the fire. Rub together 
one tablespoonful of butter and two of flour, add two 
tablespoonfuls of hot stock and rub smooth, add this 
to the soup, stirring constantly until it thickens. Add 
a level tablespoonful of grated onion, one cupful of 
cream and a seasoning of salt and white pepper. 

When ready to serve, beat the yolk of one egg 
lightly, pour into a tureen, turn the hot soup over it 
and add a heaping tablespoonful of finely chopped 

The fish is garnished with cress. 

Cheese Salad. 

Mash very fine the cold yolks of three hard-boiled 
eggs, and rub with them a coffee cupful of finely 

40 Breakfasts and Teas 

grated cheese, a teaspoonful of mustard, a saltspoon- 
ful of salt and one-half as much white pepper. When 
all are well mixed, add two tablespoonfuls each of 
oil and vinegar, alternately. Heap this upon fresh 
lettuce and garnish with the whites of eggs cut into 
rings, and a few tips of celery. Serve with hot but- 
tered crackers. 

The ice cream is served on lily leaves. The cakes 
are white, with green icing. 

This is the music selected : 

Solo— "To a Water Lily" McDowell 

Old Song— "Lily Dale" 

Vocal Solo— "Row Gently Here, My Gondolier". . .Schumann 

A Tulip Breakfast. 

A pretty idea is a tulip breakfast. The centerpiece 
is a large basket filled with tulips of different colors. 
A pretty course is strawberries served in real tulips 
lying on fancy plates with the stems tied with narrow 
ribbon the same shade as the tulip. The ice cream 
is served in shape of a tulip, and the salad is in a cup 
of green tissue paper imitating four tulip leaves. This 
is the plan for finding places. The name cards are 
decorated with tiny landscapes. On the back of the 
card is written the title of a song and the guest finds 
her own name in the title. For example a guest 
named Mamie will find her place by the words 
"Mamie, Come Kiss Your Honey Boy," one named 
Alice will find hers "Oh, Don't You Remember 
Sweet Alice, Ben Bolt;" Mollie in "Do You Love 
Me, Mollie Darling," etc. The menu is: 

Breakfasts and Teas 41 

Fruit Cup (Strawberries, Oranges, White Grapes with 

Whipped Cream) 

Bouillon, Wafers, Radishes 

Escalloped Fish, Wafers, Pickles 

Veal Loaf, Whipped Potatoes, Green Peas 

Hot Rolls, Pickles, Sherbet 

Fruit Salad, Wafers 

Ice Cream in Shape of Tulips, Strawberries 

Served in Real Tulips 

White Cake, Bon-bons 


A Grape Breakfast. 

May the juice of the grape enliven each soul, 
And good humor preside at the head of each bowl. 

Nothing could be prettier nor more appropriate 
for September than a grape breakfast. If possible, 
have the design of the lunch cloth in grapes, and use 
a pyramid of purple and white grapes for the center 
of the table. Lay perfect bunches of grapes tied with 
lavender ribbon on the cloth for decoration. Serve 
grapes in some fashion with each course, singly, in 
tiny bunches, or the leaves decorating the plates. 
Mold gelatine in a grape mold and color with grape 
juice. Use white grapes for the salad and grape juice 
to drink. Serve grape jelly with the meat course. 

Woman's Club Breakfast. 

Have the table of honor a round table with a large 
round basket of white flowers and everything corres- 
ponding in white. Use roses, carnations or any white 

42 Breakfasts and Teas 

flower you choose. Have oblong tables radiating 
from the center table with place for four on each side 
and two at the outer ends. This leaves no guest 
seated with her back to the honor table. Have the 
oblong tables decorated in pink. Have name cards 
with carnations thrust through the corner, at each 
plate. Make the breakfast a daylight affair, unless 
the day is a dark one. 

Serve chopped fresh sweet cherries sweetened and 
with a little rum or white wine poured over them ; let 
stand for several hours in the refrigerator and serve 
in stem glasses. Chicken croquettes molded in form 
of small chickens, or broiled chicken with water cress ; 
creamed potatoes, sliced cucumbers, hot rolls, spiced 
peaches served in champagne glasses; whole tomatoes 
stuffed with cooked cauliflower and nuts set on 
branch of cherry or strawberry leaves; cheese sand- 
wiches made very thin; ice cream molded in form of 
strawberries, small cakes frosted, (place half of a 
large strawberry on top of each piece of cake before 

Breakfast al Fresco. 
A breakfast al fresco is just the thing to entertain 
a party of young girls. Have the tables on the porch. 
At each plate have a cluster of flowers answering a 
conundrum. Give each girl a card containing the 
conundrum and ask her to find her place at the table 
by the flower answering the questions. These ques- 
tions will not be hard for a hostess to arrange and 
will of course depend on the flowers she can secure. 

Breakfasts and Teas 43 

Here are a few sample ones given at a recent break- 
fast: Who will attend our next entertainment? 
Phlox. What happened when Gladys lost her hat in 
the lake? A yellow rose (a yell arose). What 
paper gives the most help in decoration? Justicia 
(just tissue). What will the Far North do for you? 
Freesia. For what hour were you invited? Four 
o'clock. What is the handsomest woman in the 
world? American Beauty. Use pink and green for 
the color scheme and add a little touch of these two 
colors to everything served. Tie the skewers of the 
chops with pink and green ribbons and have the ice 
cream one layer of pistachio and one of strawberry. 

44 Breakfasts and Teas 


The Modern "Five O'clock." 

"A cup she designates as mine 
With motion of her dainty finger; 
The kettle boils — oh ! drink divine, 
In memory shall thy fragrance linger!" 

Although indebted to England for the afternoon 
tea, it is a very informal affair across the water. It 
doubtless originated in suburban homes, where dur- 
ing the hunting and holiday seasons, large and merry 
house-parties are entertained for weeks together. Re- 
turning late from driving or field sports the tired 
guests require some light refreshment before making 
their toilets for the evening dinner. The English 
hostess very sensibly meets this claim upon her hos- 
pitality by serving tea and biscuit in library or draw- 

From this small beginning comes the American 
"Five O'Clock," one of the prettiest of all social 
functions, and still smiled upon by Dame Fashion as 
a favorite method of entertaining. Decorative in 
character, it gives opportunity to display the treasures 
of porcelain, glass, silver, embroidered napery and all 
the lovely table-appointments that everywhere de- 
light the heart of woman. More exquisite than ever 
before are the little tea-tables — a succession of crescent 
shaped shelves, rising one above the other, two, three 
or four in number, as the taste inclines. Upon these, 
resting on cobwebs of linen or lace, are placed the 

Breakfasts and Teas 45 

priceless cups, tiny spoons, graceful caddy and all other 
articles necessary to the service. The silver caddy is 
now a thing of sentiment as well as use — one recently 
bestowed as a bridal gift bearing engraved upon it this 
little verse: 

"We sit and sip — the time flies fast, 
My cup needs filling, — project clever! 
She comes and I grown bold at last 
Say 'Darling, make my tea forever!'" 

In the future of married life, how sweet this re- 
minder of the past, when all the days were golden in 
the light of love, youth and hope! Another couplet 
pretty and suggestive is found in 

"A cup and a welcome for everyone, 
And a corner for you and me." 

Amid flowers and softly shaded lights sits the 
gracious woman who pours the liquid gold into the 
fragile cups, dispensing meanwhile, smiles and the 
bright charming small talk that is so necessary to the 
success of these occasions. A wise hostess selects for 
this important position the most brilliant, tactful 
woman within her circle of friends. The menu, al- 
though by no means regulated on the English house- 
party plan, should consist of trifles — sandwiches, 
wafers, fancy cakes, ices, and possibly a salad. 
Foreigners understand the value of the simple feast 
which makes frequent entertaining possible and a de- 
light rather than a burden. In America the menu, 
decorations, etc., grow more and more elaborate from 

46 Breakfasts and Teas 

the ambition of each successive hostess to out-do her 
neighbor, until the economy and beauty of simplicity 
is irretrievably lost in the greater expense, fatigue 
and crush of a more pretentions function. 

At the afternoon tea guests may come and go in 
street toilet, with or without a carriage in accord- 
ance with preference and pocketbook. However ele- 
gant the appointments and surroundings of this 
special function, the progresive hostess must re- 
member that her culture will be judged by the qual- 
ity of the beverage she serves. It is an age of luxury 
and refined taste in palate, as in other things, and tea 
is no longer tea, unless of a high grade and properly 
brewed. The woman who trusts her domestic affairs 
to a housekeeper, or in the event of attending to them 
herself, depends wholly for the excellence of an 
article upon the price she pays, is a very mistaken one. 
Without informing herself she may very naturally 
conclude that Russian or Caravan tea is cultivated, 
buds and blossoms in the land of the Czar, until later 
on, when her ignorance meets a downfall in some very 
embarrassing way. 

The high-class, fancy teas of China are prepared 
by special manipulation and for the use of wealthy 
families in the Celestial Empire and are therefore 
never exported to other countries. Russian tea-mer- 
chants, recognizing this, send shrewd buyers across 
the desert into China just at the season to secure the 
choicest pickings for future consumption by the no- 
bility of their own country. Of late years the "Five 

Breakfasts and Teas 47 

O'Clocks" and consequent craze for fine teas in Am- 
erica has tempted them to obtain a small quantity 
above the requirements of their titled patrons in 
Russia and this they export to the United States. If 
genuine, the name Russia or Caravan tea signifies the 
choicest and most expensive grade procurable the 
world over. It will be remembered that among the 
many gifts bestowed when in this country by its 
recent guest, Li Hung Chang, were beautifully orna- 
mented boxes and packages of this delicately flavored 
and fragrant tea. The high class grades from India 
and Ceylon, although not as costly as the Russian, 
may be used by the hostess of the modern "Five 
O'Clock" without risk to her reputation as a woman 
of culture. She will consent, however, 

"That tea boiled, 
Is tea spoiled," 

and avail herself of the pretty and convenient silver- 
ball, or the closely covered pot or cups in which these 
rare teas should never brew over three minutes. For 
the famous tea service of China and Japan, tiny cov- 
ered cups are always presented. 

The American hostess will regret when too late, 
the many advantages of the afternoon tea, alas! fool- 
ishly sacrificed upon the altar of her vanity to excel 
in the extravagance of hospitality. Even now ex- 
perience teaches that "a tea" means anything from its 
original intention of informal, pleasant social inter- 
course with light refreshments, to the function which 
includes hundreds of guests, who are entertained at 

48 Breakfasts and Teas 

a banquet presenting the most expensive achievements 
of florist and caterer. In repudiation of this is the 
strict code of etiquette requiring that "an invitation 
be worded to indicate truthfully the exact character 
of the hospitality it extends. Courtesy to guests com- 
pels this, that they may be able to conform in toilet 
to the occasion and thus avoid the mortification of be- 
ing under or over-dressed, the latter to be counted as 
much the greater misfortune." This from a very 
ancient book, it is true, but its lesson in good man- 
ners is none the less pertinent now than when written 
in the dead past. 

It remains with the hostess, whether one shall enjoy 
the pleasures and privileges of the pretty Five O'Clock. 
Whether in the line of elegance or simplicity, the tea 
Russian or Ceylon, it can be dainty, well served, and 
lovely with flowers of sweet gracibusness and cordial 
welcome. These united may be depended upon to make 
it the social success coveted by every woman who poses 
as a hostess, whether in cottage or palace ! 

Nowhere are the artistic instincts of a modern hostess 
more charmingly brought to bear than in the appoint- 
ments of her tea-table. To show individuality in this 
cosy afternoon ceremony, is an aim not difficult to reach. 

The Russian table should have a cloth with insertion 
bands of the strong Muscovite peasant lace that is 
brightened by red and blue threads in the pattern ; a tea 
caddy of niello work ; and a brass samovar, of course. 

Facilities for fitting out a Japanese tea-table can be 
found almost everywhere. The "correct" outfit con- 

Breakfasts and Teas 49 

sists of a low lacquered table, lotus-blossom cups — with 
covers and without handles — and a plump little teapot 
heated over an hibachi of glowing charcoal. It is not a 
Japanese custom to have the tea-table covered, but the 
famous embroiderers of Yokohama, having learned to 
cater to foreign tastes, now send out tea-cloths of the 
sheerest linen lawn, with the national bamboo richly 
worked in white linen floss above the broad hem-stitched 
hem. These are exquisitely dainty in appearance, but 
can be easily and successfully laundered — a very im- 
portant consideration. 

But the quaintest of all is the Dutch table, where 
the sugar basin is supported over the heads of chased 
silver female figures; the cream jug is in the form of a 
silver cow, and the beguiling Jamaica shows richly dark 
through a Black Forest spirit bottle. 

Cakes and wafers have lost favor at tea-tables. They 
have been replaced by little savories, which harmonize 
with the popular antique silver and china, by passing 
under their old-fashioned name of "whets;" for the 
afternoon tea, originally intended to be a light refresh- 
ment, had become a detriment to the dinner. Savories, 
on the contrary, are a whet to the appetite and clear the 
palate for the due appreciation of the dinner. Two or 
three different kinds are usually served. Anybody pos- 
sessed of a little cooking knowledge can arrange a 
variety of them at a minimum of trouble and expense, 
and in their variety lies half their charm. 

There are many kinds of fish, both preserved in oil 
and smoked, that may be used. These should be 

50 Breakfasts and Teas 

sprinkled with chopped fines herbes, placed upon thin 
slices of fresh bread — from which the crust has been 
carefully cut — rolled and served u en pyramide." 

Toasted crumpets, heavily buttered, spread with 
caviar upon which a little lemon juice has been squeezed 
and served hot, are considered a great delicacy at Eng- 
lish tea-tables. Another way of serving caviar is to 
spread it on thin bread and butter, which is then rolled 
up like tiny cigars. Russians declare, however, that 
the less done to caviar the better it will be, and to send 
it to the tea-table in its original jar, with an accompani- 
ment of fresh dry toast and quartered lemon, is the 
fashion preferred by connoisseurs. 

It takes a grand dame, so to speak, to give a tea. 
The vulgarian almost always overdoes it. She gets 
things to eat, while the woman who knows gets people, 
and doesn't care what they have to eat. There is 
nothing about a whole shop of provisions, while people 
who dress well, look well, talk well and behave well, 
make up that charming circle called Society. 

The tea table may be green and white. Palms, 
ferns, mignonette, mosses and clusters of leaves lend 
themselves to the nicest effects against the whites of 
the table-cloth and china. If color is preferred, there 
are tulips and daffodils of gorgeous beauty, and good 
for a week's wear. 

Nothing but white damask is used by gentlewomen. 
The woman who gives a tea never pours it. There 
are other things she can do to please her callers. Tea 
is usually served with candlelight, and to be a success 

Breakfasts and Teas 51 

need cost next to nothing, for nothing need be served 
that is substantial enough to dislocate the appetite for 
dinner. Some women serve an old fashioned beat bis- 
cuit, about the size of an English walnut, with the cup 
of tea. These biscuits are awfully good, but only the 
old mammies who have survived the War know how 
to make them, and there is where the old families have 
the advantage of the new people. Others serve brown 
sandwiches made of Boston brown bread and butter. 

More slices of lemon than cream jugs are used. 
Cream is something of a nuisance, and if people don't 
take lemon they can take tea as Li Hung Chang does. 
For a guest to have a preference and emphasize it, is 
downright rude. To be asked to a lady's house is 
glory enough for any one. The grumbler can go to a 
restaurant and take a cup and drink it up for a dime. 

An Afternoon Tea. 

Send out the invitation for an afternoon tea a week 
or ten days or even two weeks beforehand. Use visiting 
cards and below the name or in the lower left corner, 
the hours: 2 to 6, or any hours one chooses. On the 
top of the card or below the name write the name of 
the guest for whom the tea is given,, if it is an affair 
in honor of some guest. 

Decorate the rooms simply or elaborately as one 
chooses. For a small tea simply fill the vases with 
flowers, and make a special feature of the tea table 
in the dining room. Have a center basket of flowers 
and ferns tied with satin ribbons on the handle, 
or have cut glass vases at the corners. Use lighted 

52 Breakfasts and Teas 

candles, white, or the color of your flowers, if 
carrying out a certain color scheme in the dining- 
room. Pink, red or yellow are liked for this room 
as they are warm, bright colors. If the tea is given 
in spring or summer, green and white are liked. Have 
candles and shades match the color scheme and 
place silk or satin of the color used under the mats 
and doilies. On the table have cut glass or fine china 
dishes filled with candies, chocolates, salted nuts and 
candied fruits. Tea may be served from one end of the 
table and an ice from the other. Have a friend pour 
tea. Place before her the small cups, saucers, spoons. 
She fills the cups and hands them to the guests or to 
those assisting in the diningroom. The cream, sugar 
or slices of lemon are passed by assistants. Piles of 
plates are on the table by the one serving ice. The 
ice is served into a cut glass cup and placed on the 
plate with a spoon. Cakes are passed ; so are the bon- 
bons. Serve tea aqd chocolate or coffee. If one wish 
a more elaborate collation, pass assorted sandwiches, 
which are on plates on the table, or have a plate con- 
taining chicken salad on a lettuce leaf, olives and 
wafers. Waiters are best when the refreshments in- 
clude two or three courses. The ices may be brought 
in or served from the table and the coffee and tea 
served from the table. 

Ask from five to ten friends to assist in the parlors, 
to see that guests go to the dining-room and that 
strangers are introduced. Stand at the entrance or 
before a bank of palms in a window or corner and 

Breakfasts and Teas 53 

greet the guests. The guest or guests of honor stand 
with the hostess and she introduces them. A great 
many ladies do not wear gloves when receiving, but it 
is proper to wear them. It would seem that the hands 
would keep in better condition to shake hands with 
guests, if gloves were worn. 

Bank the mantels with ferns and flowers and cover 
the lights with pretty shades of tissue paper. Use pink 
or green and white in the parlors and red, yellow or 
pink in the dining-room. Serve a fruit punch from a 
table covered with a white cloth and trimmed with 
smilax, ferns and flowers. Use a large punch bowl 
and glass cups. Have a square block of- ice in the 
bowl. If a cut-glass punch bowl is used, care should 
be used lest the ice crack it. Temper the bowl by 
putting in cold water and adding a few bits of ice at 
a time until it is chilled. Do not put ice into a warm 
bowl or one that has not been thus tempered. 

If there is music have a string orchestra concealed 
behind palms in a corner of the hall or dining-room. 

Telling Fortunes by Teagrounds. 

First, the one whose fortune is to be told should 
drink a little of the tea while it is hot, and then turn 
out the rest, being careful not to turn out the grounds 
in doing so, and also not to look at them, as it is bad 

Then she must turn the cup over, so that no water 
remains, for drops of water in the teagrounds signify 

54 Breakfasts and Teas 

Next, she must turn the cup around slowly toward 
her three times, wishing the wish of her heart as she 
turns it. 

After this she must rest it a minute against the 
edge of a saucer — to court luck. 

Then the fortune-teller takes it and reads the for- 

Three small dots in a row stand for the wish. If 
near the top it will soon be realized. If at the bottom 
some time will elapse. 

If the grounds are bunched together it signifies that 
all will be well with the fortune-seeker, but if they 
are scattered it means much the reverse. 

A small speck near the top is a letter. A large 
speck, a photograph, or present of some kind, either 
one depending on the shape of the speck. 

The sticks are people — light or dark, short or tall, 
according to their color and length. A small one 
means a child. A thick one, a woman. 

If they lie crosswise they are enemiec. If straight 
up, intimate friends, or pleasant acquaintances to be 

If a large speck is near them, it means they are 
coming for a visit, bringing a valise or trunk. 

If there is a bottle shape near a stick it means a 
physician. If a book shape, a minister or lawyer. If 
many fine specks, a married man. 

The sticks with a bunch of grounds on their backs 
are bearers of bad news, or they will "say things" 
about you. 

A long line of grounds with no openings between 

Breakfasts and Teas 55 

foretells a journey by water. If openings, by rail. 

A large ring, closed, means an offer of marriage 
to an unmarried woman. To a married one, it means 
a fortunate undertaking. To a man, success in busi- 

A small ring is an invitation. 

Dust-like grounds bunched together at the bottom 
or side are a sum of money. 

A triangle signifies good luck, so does an anchor 
or a horseshoe. 

A half moon or star to married people means a 
paying investment. To unmarried, a new lover or 

A pyramid is extremely lucky. 

A square or oblong, new lands. 

Flowers, a present. 

Leaves, sickness and death. 

Fruit of any kind, health. 

A hand, warning, if the fingers are spread. If 
closed, an offer of friendship or marriage. 

A cross signifies trouble. Any musical instrument, 
a wedding. Bird, suit at law. Cat, deception. Dog, 
faithful friend. Horse, important news. Snake, an 
enemy. Turtle, long life. Rabbit, luck. House, 
offer of marriage, or a removal. Flag, some surprise 
or a journey to another country. 

A heart is the most propitious sign of all, as it 
means happiness, fidelity, long life, health and wealth. 

56 Breakfasts and Teas 


Scotch Tea. i. 

To give an odd function that is not a complete 
fizzle is a fine art. Easy enough it is for the hostess 
to plan an out-of-the-ordinary affair, but to have the 
party turn out a success is, as the Kiplingites are 
eternally quoted as saying, "quite another story." 

For music have the Highlander's bag-pipe, the door 
opened by a man in the striking garb of Scotland. 
For decoration use white heather and primroses. 

In the dining-room have the words "We'll take a 
cup o' kindness yet" in large letters and conspicuously 
framed in pine. Presiding at the table have young 
girls in Scottish costume who dispense the "cup o' 
kindness" from a silver teapot nestling in a "cosey"; (a 
padded cloth cover) to keep hot the favorite feminine 

The delectable dishes dear to the Highlander's heart 
are passed for the approval of feminine palates. These 
viands include scones, a sort of muffin made with flour, 
soda, sugar and water. These are split and filled with 
orange marmalade straight from Dundee and, as every- 
body knows, the best in the whole culinary world. 
Scones are baked on gridles, and are especially popular 
in the country houses of Scotland. 

Then there is a rich pastry called shortbread, made 
of butter, sugar and flour — no water — and beaten up; 
rolled out about an inch thick and baked in sheets. 

Breakfasts and Teas 57 

Shortbread is a great delicacy in Scotland. There are 
oat cakes also, a biscuit made of oatmeal, shortening 
and water. Two kinds of cake — black fruit cake and 
sultana cake, which is a pound cake containing sultana 
raisins — complete the course of Highland dainties. 

On the walls drape the striking plaids of Scotland, 
worked with the names of the different clans. 

In the reception-room have the words, "a wee 
drappie," framed in pine. The inscription should be 
over a table on which is served mulled wine from a 
silver pitcher kept in hot water. Even a white-ribboner 
would call mulled claret delicious or get a black mark 
from the recording angel for prevarication. 

"Better lo'ed ye canna be, 
Will ye no come back again." 

makes a last pleasing inscription over the entrance for 

the departing guest. 

Scotch Tea. 2. Followed by Supper. 
A Scotch day, modeled after a genuine party 
in "Bonnie Scotland," is a pleasing idea for the 
entertainment of a Lenten house party. From twelve 
to twenty-four guests are entertained, the ladies 
being asked to come at three o'clock and the gentlemen 
at half past six. As every woman, no matter what 
her condition in life, works industriously knitting or 
crocheting lace or embroidering, each guest brings her 
bit of handwork and the afternoon is spent in chatting 
while fair fingers ply the needles. At five o'clock the 
guests are invited to the dining-room where they are 
seated at a large table. 

58 Breakfasts and Teas 

At a typical Scotch tea the centerpiece is an oblong 
piece of satin in any preferred color edged with a ruffle 
of white lace. In the center of this is a tall vase hold- 
ing a miscellaneous bouquet, and at the corners of the 
centerpiece are small vases of similar design holding 
similar bouquets. All edibles are on the table at once, 
there is no removing of courses. The teacups, silver 
teapot with satin cosey, silver or china hot water 
pitcher and sugar and cream are placed in front of the 
hostess. The hostess asks the taste of the guest as to 
sugar and cream and fixes the tea herself. The maid 
passes the tea and then retires, and the service becomes 
informal, the guests assisting. At each place is a small 
tea plate, knife and spoon, but no napkins and none of 
the numberless dishes generally seen on American 
tables. No water glasses are placed on the table. In- 
stead there is a pitcher, carafe or siphon on the side- 
board or serving table, which is passed to the guest 
should he ask for water. The table is nicely balanced 
by dishes in pairs, there are two plates of butter, one 
fresh and one salted at either end of the table, two 
plates of bread, two plates of fancy cakes, two dishes of 
of bread, two plates of fancy cakes, two dishes of 
jelly, etc. The menu for the tea is white and 
graham bread and fresh and salted butter, tea, scones, 
strawberry jam, orange marmalade, fancy cakes, in- 
cluding macaroons, jelly cake made in two layers and 
called jelly sandwiches and sometimes tiny cold pan- 
cakes. The last course is fresh strawberries served 
on the stem with powdered sugar. 

Breakfasts and Teas 59 

The men arrive at half past six o'clock and are 
served tea in the library, smoking room or den. Pre- 
ceding the supper which is served at half past nine 
o'clock, the guests talk, play cards or have music. The 
supper table is arranged much as the tea-table save be- 
tween the small vases are small caridleholders with 
lighted candles. The host and hostess are at either end 
of the table and each serves a meat, the plates being 
passed by a maid and by the guests. There is a vege- 
table dish at each end of the table. The meats and 
vegetables are served on one plate, the only extra plate 
being the small bread and butter plate with the bread 
and butter knife laid across it. 

The maid removes the first course dishes and places 
a large bowl of strawberries and dessert saucers before 
the hostess whG serves strawberries, the maid and the 
guests passing the saucers. The guests hand the nuts, 
cheese, fresh fruits and other edibles about, doing away 
with the services of the maid. 

The supper menu includes a hot beef-steak and onion 
or other meat pie, cut by the hostess, hot fish, Finnan 
Haddie being a great favorite, cold tongue, mashed 
potatoes, cauliflower, celery, cheese, bottled pop, lemon- 
ade, white bread, graham bread, scones, fresh and salted 
butter, jellies and jams, marmalade. The second course 
is fresh strawberries, oranges, bananas, English walnuts. 

After supper cards, music and chatting fill in the 
hours until midnight and sometimes longer for the bon- 
nie Scots are typical night owls. 

60 Breakfasts and Teas 

A Gypsy Tea Out of Doors. 

A Gypsy tea is the occasion of entertainment of 
young men by young women, wherein the young men 
have nothing to do but come and be treated just as hos- 
pitably and courteously as is possible. The girls must 
do all the hard work, all the planning, all the in- 
viting and bear all the responsibilities of every kind. 
Twelve or more girls meet and appoint committees 
to attend to the necessary arrangements — one com- 
mittee to select a picnic ground, another to invite 
the young gentlemen whom they desire to attend, 
another to arrange for the music, and another to get 
the refreshments. All the other committees work 
under the directions of the committee on arrange- 
ments. A Gypsy tea always begins at twilight. The 
girls who are to select the picnic ground must ex- 
ercise much judgment in deciding on a convenient and 
picturesque location, and as dancing is always an at- 
tractive feature of such an outing, they should see that 
there is a suitable pavilion nearby. Then there must 
be a spot well adapted for a campfire, for a Gypsy tea 
would never be a success without a campfire burning in 
the twilight. Other essentials are a kettle and tripod. 
Three rough poles are made to form a tripod and the 
kettle is suspended from the vertex of the angles or the 
crossing point of the poles. Music, in which string in- 
struments figure most conspicuously, should be selected, 
as this lends itself best to the wierd effect which should 
be sought. Three or four pieces will generally be suffi- 
cient and they may consist of a violin, guitar, banjo 

Breakfasts and Teas 61 

and snare drum or the drum may be omitted if not con- 
venient. The committee appointed to gather the re- 
freshments must have the assistance of all the other 
women of the club, for its work is very arduous and 
necessitates great care and precaution and good judg- 
ment. Each girl must subscribe something to eat, and 
care should be taken that all the girls do not contribute 
cakes, pies and pickles. Get plenty of cold meats, sand- 
wiches and you might have some nuts of some kind or 
sweet potatoes or raw eggs or something to roast in 
the campfire. In a Gypsy tea the young women must 
all go to the grounds by themselves, unattended by the 
men and the men are to arrive in a body later; 
they have previously been informed of the exact 
location and hour when they will be expected. The 
young women should all wear Gypsy costumes and one 
must be a fortune teller or good at pretending that she 
can tell fortunes. If suitable arrangements can be 
made for their reaching the grounds without appearing 
too conspicuous they may wear the Gypsy costumes as 
outer garments en route. Otherwise each girl can slip 
on something easily divested, over the Gypsy dress and 
remove it at the picnic grounds before the young men 
arrive, donning it again before time to start home. 

Arrangements should be made for a vehicle to make 
the round of all the girl's homes on the day of the 
Gypsy tea to gather up the refreshments and take them 
to the picnic ground previously selected. 

On the day of the outing all the girls gather at an 
appointed place and go together to the grounds by such 

62 Breakfasts and Teas 

means of transportation as they deem best suited to 
the conditions. The vehicle containing the refresh- 
ments and other needful appendages may follow. 

On reaching the grounds the girls all get busy mak- 
ing the preparations and getting everything in excellent 
condition for the arrival of the boys. The tripods 
are arranged, the kettle is hung, the campfire is built, 
and the grounds are made to look artistic. 

When the men arrive just at the hour of sundown, 
everything is in readiness. The fire is burning 

brightly, the fortune teller is at her post, the kettle is 
steaming and the refreshments are spread on tablecloths 
laid on the grass. Then the tea is made and each 
man enjoys a dainty but toothsome repast. 

After tea the baskets and equipments are replaced 
in the wagon and the grounds cleared. The remainder 
of the evening may be spent in dancing, fortune telling 
and the like. 

Breakfasts and Teas 63 


A Japanese Tea. i. 

In Japan the hostess serves the tea from the table. 
There is a charcoal burner over which the water is 
kept lukewarm, not hot. The tea is powdered very 
fine. It is in the teapot or cups as the hostess chooses. 
The water is poured over it and off quickly for the tea 
in the cup is very weak and only straw-colored, not 
dark as we make it. It is drunk without cream or 
sugar. With it are served tiny wafer-like sweet cakes 
and dishes of bonbons are on the table, no nuts, just 
bonbons. Nothing is on the table save the tea equip- 
ment, tiny cups and saucers and dishes of sweets. As 
the water is only lukewarm one can easily have the five 
o'clock teakettle on the table (though that is not Japa- 
nese). As fast as the water boils pour into a pitcher 
and keep the kettle replenished, pouring into the cups 
from the pitcher. Or have the maids bring the water 
from the kitchen. In Japan the geisha girls are em- 
ployed in the public teahouses to entertain men visitors 
so "maids" will be a better term by which to call the 
young girls who help you. If one wishes to make their 
room Japanese, fill the vases with imitation peach or 
cherry blossoms, hang Japanese lanterns in doorways 
and Japanese banners, which can be made from paper 
napkins and bright red paper for a background. The 
incense sticks are very inexpensive and any large depart- 
ment store which deals in Japanese goods including the 
five and ten cent stores, keep them. 

64 Breakfasts and Teas 

Serve date sandwiches cut in shape of dominoes and 
dotted with currants, or nut or any sandwiches desired 
cut in this shape and so decorated, chocolate with whip- 
ped cream, strawberries arranged around a mound of 
powdered sugar, a spray of strawberry leaves and blos- 
soms laid on the plate, or any fresh berries. Serve small 
cakes domino shape covered with white icing, dotted 
with tiny chocolate candies representing the domino 
spots. Or if one wishes to serve ice cream with the 
berries have it moulded in a two quart can, then turned 
out on a round platter, making a column of ice cream. 
Surround with fresh berries at the base with a few 
large perfect berries on top. 

A Japanese Tea. 2. 

Instead of using the orthodox square at home cards, 
write the invitations on long, thin, narrow slips of 
paper, the lettering running from the bottom to the top 
and from right to left; a few queer birds, the sugges- 
tion of a lantern and a falling chrysanthemum splashed 
in carelessly in sepia, are very effective touches. The 
cherry-blossoms are used in decorating, which are sim- 
ply little, round, white paper petals with the edges dip- 
ped in red dye, fastened to boughs and put up every- 
where, as are also the fluffy chrysanthemums, dainty 
butterflies, and a profusion of cheap little fans. 

A huge Japanese umbrella hangs over the tea-table, 
at which four girls dressed in kimonas preside, while 
two others are in the drawing room. 

The kimonas, which are very easily made, are all dif- 
ferent in color, although a two-color scheme would, 

Breakfasts and Teas 65 

perhaps, be prettier — say white and yellow, or white 
and mauve, with chrysanthemums to correspond. 

The refreshments are, perhaps, the most novel part 
of the whole idea. Instead of the conventional salads, 
ices, cakes, etc., the guests are served with delicious tea, 
in the daintiest of Japanese cups, and hot buttered baps. 
During the afternoon have selections from "The 
Geisha," "The Mandarin," "The Little Tycoon," and 
"The Mikado." 

A Japanese Tea. 3. 

At a Japanese Tea, several small tables are used, 
set at intervals in the room; these are generally pre- 
sided over by the hostess and the ladies who receive 
with her, each being furnished with a tea service. They 
are laid in white damask or linen embroidered in a 
Japanese design, the center is occupied by a circular 
mound of red blossoms which symbolize the emblem 
of the Flowery Kingdom's flag, combining the national 
colors also red and white. 

In the middle of the mound, slightly elevated, there 
is placed a "Jinriki-sha," which is the riding vehicle 
of Japan, a two-wheeled affair resembling our modern 
dog-cart; it is drawn by a man in costume and seated 
in it is a woman, also in costume, holding above her 
and large enough to extend over the table, one of those 
grotesque paper umbrellas, which are as much a part 
of that country as its rice and tea. The edges of these 
are festooned with red and white flowers and hung with 
the smaller sized, globe shaped lanterns that are used 
profusely about the room also, for decorating and 

66 Breakfasts and Teas 

Candelabra likewise is used, and it should be of that 
quaint looking black material that is decidedly Oriental 
in appearance and is the latest thing in such bric-a-brac. 
White tapers with red shades show off to advantage 
above this dark fancifully wrought metal, shedding a 
softly subdued radiance, at once pretty and restful to 
the eye. 

The chrysanthemum, while not the national flower, 
is the imperial favorite and best beloved bloom of the 
people, therefore it is the proper one for decoration, 
united with potted plants, palms, vines, etc. All hues 
and kinds may be combined in the general adornment of 
room or rooms (the red and white being confined to 
the tables alone), for twining, banking or bouquets, 
just as fancy dictates, and the furnishings admit. The 
chrysanthemum, gorgeous in itself and lavishly em- 
ployed, makes a superb decoration, and if, for a back- 
ground, the walls, doors, windows, etc., are draped in 
Japanese tapestry goods, with friezes of the flowers, the 
result will prove singularly striking and beautiful. 

Of course, Japanese china is used, and as to the 
things to eat there can be offered thin sardine sand- 
wiches, delicate wafers, fruits, confections. This is 
merely a suggestion ; individuals use their own ideas, 
and at different places customs change. Ices served 
should be in oblong squares with round red centers to 
represent the flag of Japan. Souvenirs for guests, if 
any are given, ought to be small cups and saucers of 
the genuine ware or fac-simile in candy, tied with red 
and white ribbons. 

Breakfasts and Teas 67 


Two Valentine Teas. 

Here's to a cup of tea. It holds intoxication great for me. 

I find it makes me want to dare 
Do bold things right then and there ; 

To steal a kiss from Phyllis fair, as she pours tea. 

Pink is the color scheme; the invitations are written 
on rose-tinted cardboard, cut heart-shape and adorned 
with floral love-knots. The hostess can wear a pink 
gown and the rosy-hue effect is also carried out in the 
dining-room decorations. On a blank space of the wall 
have two hearts formed of pink carnations and smilax, 
and pierced by a gilded arrow. Beneath, on a pink 
cardboard, lettered in gold, have this verse: 

"Love always looks for love again ; 
If ever single it is twain, 
And till it finds its counterpart 
It bears about an aching heart." 

The long table, covered with snowy cloth, has the 
valentine idea in heart design used as much as possible 
in the decorations. The candles are pink and the paper 
shades in the shape of roses; pink bonbons bearing ap- 
propriate mottoes and tiny cakes covered with pink 
frosting, are in heart-shaped dishes; around the dishes 
are garlands of green, caught in a bow-knot with a 
narrow pink satin ribbon. In the center of the table is 
a large heart-shaped cake, fringed with smilax and pink 
roses, and on the top, pink figures numbered from one 

68 Breakfasts and Teas 

to sixteen. Before the cake is cut, a silver tray hold- 
ing corresponding numbers is passed, with the expla- 
nation that one of the pieces contains a tiny gold heart, 
and that the finder will surely succumb to Cupid's 
darts before another year. In another piece is a dime 
which will bring the lucky possessor success, wealth and 

The place-cards consist of heart shaped booklets 
with the name of the guest in gold, and an artistic 
sketch of Cupid equipped with bow and arrow. On 
the leaves are the following conundrums: 

What kind of a ship has two mates and no captain ? 

What is the difference between a mouse and a young 
woman? (One wishes to harm the cheese, the other to charm 
the he's.) 

The souvenirs are square cards, on which are quaint 
pen sketches, and rhymes, each peculiarly adapted 
to the one that receives it, and, of course, more or 
less personal. 

The ices are heart-shaped and the two maids who act 
as waitresses represent the Queen of Hearts, attired in 
dresses bedecked with hearts, and small crowns of 
hearts upon their heads. 

Have a heart hung from the chandelier, the guests 
in turn being placed about eight feet from it, then 
request them to hold the left hand over one eye, raise 
the right arm even with the heart, and keeping it in 
that position, walk rapidly straight ahead and hit it 
with a finger, striking horizontally. It is declared 
easy to do until tried. 

Breakfasts and Teas 69 

A Valentine Tea. 2. 

Here are some contests for a valentine tea. Call 
on each one for an impromptu valentine. Award a 
book of rhymes for the best. Turn down the lights 
and require each man to propose to his partner. Pre- 
pare red cardboard hearts and write fortunes on them 
with baking powder and water. Ask each guest to 
select a heart and hold it to the fire when the writing 
will appear. Provide a fish pond with comic valentines. 
Provide a long table, sheets of fancy paper, flowers, 
pictures, paste, scissors and watercolors and ask each 
to make an original valentine. The game of hearts, 
the auction of hearts and the auction of valentines are 
old but excellent ways of amusing a company. For the 
auction of hearts the girls are in a separate room and a 
clever auctioneer calls off their charms and merits and 
knocks them down to the highest bidder, who does 
not know who he has bought until all are sold. A 
fancy dress party, each girl representing a valentine, is 
a delightful entertainment for the evening. A small 
boy may be used for Cupid and blindfolded. He takes 
a man from one side of the room and presents him to a 
girl on the other side of the room. 

70 Breakfasts and Teas 


A Grandmother's Tea Party. 

One of the newest suggestions for an original hos- 
pitality is "A Grandmother's Tea Party." If you have 
an "at home" day, as every busy woman should, and 
you want to serve tea to your guests, offer it to them 
as it was offered fifty years or more ago. 

First of all, collect all of your antique table service. 
Every family has some dear old treasures of the kind — ■ 
tea cups, old linen, flower vases, silver epergns, etc. 

You probably have somewhere laid away a wonder- 
ful old damask cloth which dates back at least half a 
century. Cover the table with this and scatter over it 
a handful of carnations, allowing them to fall at 

The centerpiece will be in the form of a huge cake 
placed on a high glass dish. This confection might be 
resplendent in a design of blossoms and turtle-doves 
carried out in variously tinted icings as the old-time 
cakes so often were. 

On either side of the cake dish are placed tall epergns 
— veritable antique pieces built high with pyramids of 
fruit. Bonbons — they should be called sugar plums in 
this connection — must be old-fashioned sweets quaintly 
wrapped in fringed papers. 

Often the tall glass lamps will also be procurable 
in a pattern of fifty years ago. 

This will produce a thoroughly charming little table 

Breakfasts and Teas 71 

with a quaintness and a touch of femininity that every- 
one will enjoy. 

The woman who is looking for a new way to serve 
tea on her day at home couldn't do better than to at- 
tempt this. It is easy to do; it costs little, it is pretty; 
it is feminine. 

An April Fool Tea. 

Send invitations asking your guests to dress as fool- 
ish as possible. The hostesses costume can be combina- 
tions of several, as a decollete corsage, short walking 
skirt, one high-heeled slipper and one bedroom slipper, 
one side of her hair braided and hanging down and the 
other piled up high and decorated with feathers from 
the duster. Or she can dress as "Folly" with pointed 
black velvet bodice, white blouse, red and yellow 
striped skirts, pointed cap and wear a small black 
masque covering the upper part of the face, and carry 
a stick wound with red and yellow ribbon with tiny 
bells fastened by ribbons. If you care to take the 
trouble and the expense (though it need not be very 
great), you can construct a maze or labyrinth by which 
the guests approach your door. Make this of frames 
of wood covered with sheeting, newspapers or heavy 
cartridge paper, and make as many turns in it as you 
choose. When the front door is reached have it fly 
back and display the sign: "April Fool. Try the back 
door." If you have a side entrance you can have a 
similar sign and prolong the agony. Have a dummy 
hostess at the back door and direct the guests to one 

72 Breakfasts and Teas 

or two wrong rooms before they reach the right dress- 
ing room. 

Have a masked person standing at the door of the 
parlor as hostess. When the guest starts to shake 
hands, display the sign "April Fool, I am not the host- 
ess." Have two or three hostesses before the right one 
is reached. 

Have the room full of surprises in the way of dec- 
orations, cabbage heads and vegetables for bouquets, 
tin lanters for lights, a den for stuffed animals and 
similar fakes. 

No talking of any kind will be permitted for the 
first hour, though two or three notebooks and pencils 
can be displayed for those who feel they must express 
their thoughts. The examination of the "fool" cos- 
tumes will take place in deaf and dumb show. Give 
a bunch of onions tied with green calico for the worst 

Ring a big dinner bell at six o'clock and arrange 
one or two childish games to be played to fill in the 
time before tea or ask the guests to represent some 
noted character in pantomime, the others to guess 
which character is portrayed. 

For the tea pass cards numbered from one to ten 
and have the guests call for their supper by indicating 
four numbers — I, fork; 2, sandwich; 3, plate; 4, 
pickle; 5, napkin; 6, glass of water; 7, cup of coffee; 
8, cake; 9, spoon; 10, ice cream. 

For instance, a guest writing on his card 1, 3, 5> 6, 
would receive a fork, plate, napkin and glass of water 
for his supper. Have several waiters and put names 

Breakfasts and Teas 73 

on the lists so that all the articles may be brought in 
at once. After waiting until those who get articles of 
food try to eat them, for of course, the sandwiches, 
cake, pickles and ice cream must be "April Fool" ones 
made of sawdust, cotton and similar substances. Serve 
real sandwiches, coffee, cake and ice cream. 

A Colonial Tea. 

A delightful way to entertain six elderly lady friends 
would be to give a Colonial tea. Word the invitations 

"My Dear Madame: — Ye distinguished Honor of 
your Presence is requested Thursday, ye Second of 
October, from Three of ye Clock until ye early Candle- 
light, at Four Hundred and Seven, Sheridan Road, ye 

City of , ye State of , to meet your most 

Obedient and Humble Servant, Mistress ." 

Light the rooms with candlelight and decorate with 
nosegays of garden flowers and autumn leaves. Seat 
the guests at round tables. Have all the viands on the 
table at once. Let the menu be cold turkey, pressed 
chicken, cold tongue, tiny pocketbook rolls, jellies and 
preserves, gelatines, pound cake and fruit cake, hot tea 
and chocolate. Decorate the table with old-fashioned 
flowers in quaint vases. Women of that age generally 
prefer to bring their own needlework and visit, so have 
a brief program of old-fashioned music, or an interest- 
ing old-fashioned story read. 

Pretty Rose Tea. 

One of the most beautiful "rose" teas can be given 

74 Breakfasts and Teas 

if one has a rose garden. Hundreds of dozens of roses, 
white for the drawing-room, led for the hall and 
library, yellow for the music room and pink for the din- 
ing room can be used. The roses are placed in immense 
Oriental bowls on polished table tops. The tea table 
has an immense basket of pink and white roses in rare 
varieties and the surface of the table is covered with a 
smilax mat bordered with pink roses and tiny electric 
light bulbs looking like glow worms. The ice cream 
is in the shape of a pink cup with green handles filled 
with fruit the whole being of ice cream and very de- 
licious. With this is served little pink cakes and candy 
roses and chocolate with whipped cream. 

Omber Shades of Rose. 

A beautiful color effect can be secured for a tea by 
placing on a long table a series of French baskets of 
roses shading from American beauty to white. The 
basket at the lower end of the table is in the American 
beauty shade, the next basket of roses of a lighter 
shade, the third a deep pink, the fourth a pale pink 
and the fifth basket bride roses. Tied to these bas- 
kets are ribbons in the omber shades of rose. The 
candles between the baskets are the same shades as the 
different roses and the electric lights of the chandelier 
are hooded in rose like shades of varying hues. 

A Bouquet Tea. 

Let the invitations read somewhat in this way: 
"Will you take tea with us under the trees Tuesday 

Breakfasts and Teas 75 

afternoon at five o'clock? Please wear a bunch of 
roses. Hoping that we may have the pleasure of your 
company, believe me, Sincerely yours, 

The piazza is the most natural place for the guests 
to assemble, and after hats have been laid aside within 
doors, the four walls of the house may be left behind, 
and on the shaded piazza, made charming with a few 
bowls of roses, the Bouquet Game can be played, mak- 
ing a pleasant beginning to the party. This game is 
most suitable for a gathering not too large, as it some- 
what taxes the memory. The guests are placed at one 
side of the piazza in a long line and each is provided 
with a bouquet, holding a few less flowers than there are 
guests, that is: If there are fifteen guests, each should 
have a dozen flowers. Each person then takes the name 
of a flower and as the hostess calls the roll each says 
slowly and distinctly, "I am a pansy," "I am a rose," 
"a tulip," "a violet," as the case may be. The hostess 
writes these names down so that she may have them for 
reference. She may call the roll once again when this 
is done to freshen memories, and then until the end of 
the game no one, under any circumstances, may reveal 
her flower identity. Then one at a time, beginning 
at the right hand, each guest is called to the center fac- 
ing the line to be asked one question by every one In 
turn In the line. In her answers the one in the center 
must include the questioners' flower identity. No. 1, 
for instance, is "Lily" and asks the person in the center. 
"What animal do you like best?" He answers, "Tig- 
er-lily" and then Lily presents him with a flower. No. 

76 Breakfasts and Teas 

2 may be "Sunflower" and the one in the center can- 
not remember it, so when asked a question he says to 
sunflower or No. 2, "Weed I know you not" and gives 
Sunflower a flower, and so all down the line until the 
end when the one who has been in the center takes his 
place in the line and the next in turn comes out to the 
middle of the piazza to face the ranks and try his mem- 
ory. Of course many of the flower names can only be 
brought in awkwardly, but there is a chance for some 
cleverness and fun. 

The game makes merry fun if all enter into the 
spirit of it. If any one gets entirely out of flowers he 
drops out of the game. At the end prizes are given 
to the man and the girl having the largest number of 
flowers in their bouquets. 

Spring Planting. 

Spring Planting is another good contest: 

Plant the days of the year and what will come up ? — 

Plant a kiss and what? — (two lips) Tulips, 

Plant a girl's complexion and what? — Pinks. 

Plant tight shoes and what? — Acorn. 

Plant a millionaire and what? — (Astor) Aster. 

Plant a disciple of St. Paul and what? — Timothy. 

Plant a landing for boats and what? — Docks. 

Plant an unfortunate love affair and what? — Bleed- 
ing heart. 

Plant some cats and what? — Cat tails. 

Breakfasts and Teas 77 

Plant a government building and what? — Mint. 

Plant the author of "The Marble Faun" and 
what ? — Hawthorn. 

Plant a tramp and what? — (beat) Beet. 

Plant a dude and what? — Coxcomb. 

Plant something black and what? — Nightshade. 

Plant a vessel for holding liquid and what? — Pitch- 

Plant the signet of a king of Israel and what? 
Solomon's seal. 

Plant a fortune hunter and what? — (marry gold) 

Plant a little puppy and what? — Dogwood. 

Plant a happy love affair and what? — Hearts-ease. 

Plant a lover's request and what? — Forget-me-not. 

Plant a wise man and what? — Sage. 

An Israelite with the habit of traveling and what? — 
Wandering Jew. 

Plant a young lady on a foggy morning and what? — 

Plant an afternoon hour and what? Four o'clock. 

Plant a bird in old clothes and what? — Ragged 

Plant the unmarried man's bane and what? — Bache- 
lors buttons. 

Plant something neat and what? — Spruce. 

Plant a dainty piece of china and what? — Butter- 

Plant a cow and what? — Milkweed. 

78 Breakfasts and Teas 

Plant Solomon's sceptre and what? — Goldenrod. 

Plant a little boy and what? — Johnny-jump-up. 

Plant a young minister and what? — Jack-in-the- 

Plant a royal lady and what? — Queen-of-the- 

Then if the hostess has even a bit of a garden, a bell 
rung out under the trees calls the merry throng to par- 
take of old-fashioned "high tea" at little tables set 
where the afternoon shadows slant restfully, and with 
the birds' music about, the charm of out-of-doors will 
add flavor to the dainties. Tea biscuit, chicken salad 
and tea or chocolate, ices or frozen custard and sponge 
cake are most suitable. 

A High Tea. 

A High Tea is one of the most complimentary en- 
tertainments to which a hostess may invite her friends 
in the afternoon. The number of guests is limited, but 
the possibilities for decoration, daintiness and elegance 
are unlimited. The exact hour is written on the invi- 
tation, as High Tea at 4:00 o'clock (or 5:00 o'clock). 
The guests may number about twenty-four, but twelve 
or sixteen is a desirable number. They arrive exactly 
at the appointed hour. They are seated at small tables 
having places for four at each table. The menu is a 
little more substantial than for a reception. Here is a 
typical "High Tea" menu: 

Breakfasts and Teas 79 

Hot Bouillon 
Sweetbread and Mushroom Patties 

Tiny Pickles 

Creamed Chicken in Green Peppers 

Cauliflower Scalloped 

Hot Rolls Spiced Cherries 

Asparagus Salad 

Grated Parmesan Cheese 

Ice Cream in form of Fruits, Flowers, or any desired form 

Angel Food Coffee 

This menu, of course, may be varied. Clam cock- 
tail, grape fruit, a fruit cup or hot fruit soup may be 
served for the first course, croquettes, any sort of salad 
and ice cream or gelatines. 

An original embroidery contest to precede the tea 
is to secure the large pattern initials which come very 
inexpensive, getting the initial of each guest. Prepare 
oblong pieces of linen or lawn which will fold into en- 
velope shape, six by fourteen inches. Give each guest 
a piece of the linen and the pattern for her initial. She 
embroiders the initial in the corner or center of the 
flap to the "envelope" which is a stock and turnover 
case when finished. Each guest is given her turnover 
case to finish as a souvenir. Give prizes for the best 
initial, the one completed first and for the slowest. 

A Simple Menu for High Tea. 

For a high tea for ladies, serve first an oyster cock- 
tail in glasses, fruit punch or brandied peaches. Then 
serve sweetbread salad, with bread and butter sand- 
wiches. Frozen eggnog and fig cake are a change 
from the regulation ice cream. Follow by tea. 

80 Breakfasts and Teas 

A "Book-Title" Tea. i. 

The latest novelty in afternoon entertainments in 
England is what is called a "book-title" tea. Of 
course, this would be just as amusing in the evening, 
and any refreshments may be served that the hostess 

The guests are all expected to devise and wear some 
particular badge or ornament which indicates, more 
or less clearly, the title of some book, preferably works 
which are well known. 

The "badges" worn may be very clever and most 
tastefully executed. "Dodo" may be impersonated by 
showing a bar of music containing the two represen- 
tative notes of the tonic sol-fa method. "Little Men" 
is represented by a badge bearing the names of little 
great men, such as Napoleon, Lord Roberts, etc. 

A lady may wear around her neck fragments of 
china tied by a ribbon. This represents "The Break- 
Up of China," Lord Charles Beresford's book. Another 
lady, whose name is Alice, may wear a necklace of lit- 
tle mirrors, and this represents "Alice Through A 
Looking Glass." An ingenious design consists of a 
nickel coin, a photo of a donkey, another nickel coin, 
and a little bee, meaning "Nickolas Nickleby." A daisy 
stuck into a tiny miller's hat stands for "Daisy Miller," 
and the letters of the word olive twisted on a wire 
for "Oliver Twist." 

Two little gates, made of paste board and a jar, rep- 
resents "Gates Ajar," and a string of little dolls dressed 

Breakfasts and Teas 8 1 

as men, "All Sorts and Conditions of Men." There 
are many other interesting and ingenious designs. 

A Book Title Tea. 2. 

This is an original entertainment for a few friends. 
Have amusing pen and ink sketches handed around to- 
gether with a small note book and pencil for each 
guest. Explain that each sketch is supposed to repre- 
sent some well-known book and each guest is given an 
opportunity to put on his or her thinking cap and name 
the volume in his note book and pass the sketch on. 
This novel game affords no end of mirth and enjoyment 
and at a given time the hostess looks over the books and 
corrects them. 

The House of Seven Gables is very simple and easy 
to guess, it being simply a rough sketch of a house with 
seven gables. 

An Old-Fashioned Girl is represented by a girl of ye 
olden time in simple and quaint costume with a school 
bag on her arm. 

A small snow covered house is enough to suggest 
"Snow Bound" to many of the guests. 

The Lady and the Tiger ought not to puzzle any- 
one, it is a simple sketch of a lady-s head in one corner 
and a tiger in the other. 

On one card appears 15th of March, which seems 
more baffling than all the others. It proves to be 

A large letter A in vivid red of course represents 
"A Scarlet Letter." 

82 Breakfasts and Teas 

"Helen's Babies" is a sketch of two chubby boys in 
night robes. 

"Heavenly Twins" is represented by twin stars in 
the heavens. 

"Darkest Africa" needs nothing but the face of a 
darkey boy with mouth stretched from ear to ear. 

One of the sketches is a moonlight scene with ships 
going in opposite directions and is easily guessed to rep- 
resent "Ships that Pass in the Night." 

Anyone with originality can devise many other 
amusing and more difficult sketches. Prizes might be 
given to the one who guesses the largest number cor- 

Patriotic Tea. 

"While other constellations sink and fade, 
And Orient planets cool with dying fires, 
Columbia's brilliant star can not be stayed, 
And, heaven-drawn, towards higher arcs aspires; 
A Star of Destiny whose searching rays 
Light all the firmament's remotest ways." 

"That force which is largely responsible for the greatness 
and grandeur of the Republic is the woman behind the man 
behind the gun." 

Booklets with small silk flags mounted on the covers 
and bearing these quotations with tiny red, white and 
blue pencils attached make suitable favors for the guests 
at a high tea. For one contest give twenty minutes 
in which to write a list of words ending in "nation" 
as, carnation, condemnation, etc. For this prize give 
a red, white and blue streamer on which tiny flags of 

Breakfasts and Teas 83 

all nations are fastened. For a second contest allow a 
given length of time in which to write correctly the 
words of the American national anthem. A book con- 
taining a description of national music would make a 
suitable prize for this contest. Decorate the dining 
room with silk flags and red, white and blue bunting 
and in the center of the table have a blue vase filled 
with red and white hyacinths or carnations or roses. 
Have the ice cream frozen in form of a bust of Wash- 
ington on a shield in three colors. 

Debut Tea. 

The leading color in the refreshment room is yellow. 
The table has a beautiful lace cover and in the center 
is a large basket of yellow roses, the Golden Gate 
variety. Around the center are candles with yellow 
silk shades and a silver compote holding green glace 
grapes tied with yellow ribbon. The mantel is filled 
with ferns and a mass of yellow roses in the center. 
The electric lights at either side of the mantel have 
yellow silk shades. Instead of ice cream and cake, the 
menu for the afternoon tea is a delicious meringue filled 
with whipped cream and wine jelly, coffee and glace 

Yellow Tea. 

Yellow is a pretty color for a bridal tea given in June. 
Use scores of yellow candles in crystal candlesticks and 
candelabra and yellow roses in vases, baskets and wall 
pockets on window and book ledges, plate rails, book 
cases and hung in the doorways by yellow ribbons. An 

84 Breakfasts and Teas 

immense basket of yellow roses and ferns with a white 
cupid in the center is pretty in the center of the tea- 
table. Outside this basket have a border of individual 
crystal candlesticks with yellow tapers and small gold- 
en hearts attached to the tapers. The bonbons are yel- 
low hearts and all the refreshments are yellow and 
heart shaped. 

A Candlelight Tea. 

Illuminate the rooms with candles in different colors 
with shades to correspond, green and white in the par- 
lor, setting a row of candles in a straight line across the 
mantel and banking them with masses of feathery 
green. Use pink in the dining or supper room. Have 
a round table lighted by pink candles and pink shades 
in flower forms, placing the candles either in a pyra- 
mid in the center or in a wreath with Christmas green 
tied with broad pink ribbon, in the center. At each 
plate put a tiny Dresden candle stick (such as come in 
desk sets) with pink candles for favors. Serve hot 
bouillon, oyster and mushroom patties, tiny pickles, 
creamed chicken in green peppers, cauliflower au gratin, 
hot rolls, spiced cherries, asparagus salad, grated Par- 
mesan cheese, wafers, ice cream in form of pink candles 
with lighted tapers, Christmas cakes. 

A Flower Tea. 

For early September a flower tea is a most en- 
joyable affair and is easily arranged with little ex- 
pense. Have the invitations sent out at least a week 
before the event. 

Breakfasts and Teas 85 

The parlors should be tastefully arranged and dec- 
orated with flowers. Wild flowers are in abundance 
at this time and they are always bright and cheery. 

Let each guest, as she arrives, be presented with a 
bouquet of flowers, no two being alike. 

For amusement there is nothing better and more 
instructive than the following: 

Pass to each lady a sheet of paper with a pencil, the 
paper containing typewritten questions. Explain to 
the company that the contest is to last fifteen or twenty 
minutes as desired. 

The printed questions are to be answered by the 
name of flowers. 

Here are appropriate questions for the contest, with 
correct answers: 

What lady veils her face? Maid-of-the-Mist. 

Who is the sad lady? Ane-mone. 

What lady weeps for her love? Mourning-bride. 

Who is the bell of the family ? Bell-Flower. 

What untruthful lady shuns the land? False-Mer- 

What young lady is still the baby of the family? 
Virginia Creeper. 

What lady comes from the land where ladies bind 
their feet? Rose-of-China. 

Who is the neat lady? Prim-rose. 

After the given time expires let each guest sign her 
name to the paper she holds and exchange with her 
nearest neighbor. Then the fun begins as one rises 
and reads the questions and answers. 

86 Breakfasts and Teas 

Each lady should mark the paper she holds and in 
rotation they rise and give the number of correct an- 
swers, not mentioning the name on the paper. When 
it has been decided which paper holds the greatest num- 
ber of correct answers, the contestant's name is given 
as winner, and she is presented with a dainty souvenir, 
such as a flower vase, or a dainty painting of flowers. 
Other games and contests may follow, all suggestive of 
flower land. 

The afternoon-tea should be dainty and appropriate. 
A big doll, literally covered with flowers, makes a 
pretty center-piece for the table. Let ice lemonade be 
served, each glass having a sweet flower floating on its 
surface. The cakes should be in the form of flowers 
and the bonbons, flower candies. 

It is pretty to call each guest by the name of the 
flower given her when she arrives. 

If there is music after tea let a song of the flowers 
be rendered. 

An Exchange Tea. 

This style of party is intensely amusing, and will 
keep a large company interested for several hours of an 
evening or afternoon, as it is one continued round of 
mirth-provoking "sells," in which everybody is "sold." 
It is not so much in vogue for small affairs, where only 
a few guests are invited, but where a large crowd is to 
be entertained it is just the thing to furnish enjoyment 
and fun. 

This is how it is arranged. When requested to at- 
tend an exchange tea, each person, male and female, 

Breakfasts and Teas 87 

picks out from his belongings, personal or otherwise, 
such an article as he or she does not want, and 
after wrapping it well, takes it to the party. Of 
course, everybody desires to get rid of his parcel, and 
the exchange business waxes warm and furious as it 
progresses, for usually not one individual obtains any- 
thing which he wishes to keep, as a "pig in a poke" is 
scarcely ever a bargain. 

Constant exchanging is not compulsory, so that if by 
any lucky chance you have gotten rid of your own 
bundle, and become the proud possessor of another 
whose hidden treasures happen to suit you, then you 
are privileged to stop and hold on to your prize. Gen- 
erally speaking, however, the contents of the mysterious 
parcels are hardly ever desirable, which creates all the 
more excitement and enthusiastic bargaining, and in 
the end each one will be left with something ridiculous 
or utterly useless, upon his hands. 

And that's just where the fun comes in. 

Serve this menu: 

Cold Sliced Chicken, garnished with tiny Radishes and 

Hard-boiled Eggs 

Olives Nut Sandwiches 

Orange and Pineapple Salad Sweet Wafers 

Strawberry Ice Cream 

Iced Tea 

A Watermelon Tea. 

Ask a congenial party, being sure that all are fond of 
watermelon. Have the fruit on ice at least twenty-four 
hours before serving, and above all things give this af- 
fair when the temperature is up in the nineties if you 

88 Breakfasts and Teas 

want it fully appreciated. Have a sharp knife and cut 
the melons at the table (for it is such a decorative 
fruit), and use only white dishes and flowers. Let each 
guest count the seeds in the piece or pieces and give a 
souvenir to the one having the largest number. A 
pretty prize and appropriate is to procure a very small 
and symmetrical melon, cut off the end, hollow out and 
line with oiled paper, fill with bonbons and tie the end 
on with broad pink satin ribbon. 

If expense is no object, have a quartet of colored 
singers with banjos concealed and let them sing good 
old plantation songs for an hour or two, not forgetting 
"Den, oh, dat watermelon." Grape juice is a good 
drink to serve this party. Have the tumblers half filled 
with finely cracked ice. 

i. of a 

Breakfasts and Teas 89 


Unique Ideas for Tea. 
A Chocolatiere. 

A chocolatiere is a pretty affair. The decoration is 
an immense mound of bride roses in the center of the 
dining room table. The refreshments are baskets of 
chocolate ice cream filled with whipped cream. The 
cakes are chocolate squares. The candies are all choco- 
late and cream, and hot chocolate is served. Chocola- 
tieres are very popular entertainments for young girls 
and for matrons. They are given in the morning or 
afternoon. As nearly every woman loves chocolate, 
they are pretty certain to please the guests. 

A Kaffee Klatch. 

The kaffee klatsch is an afternoon affair where 
ladies meet and chat as they sew and are served a 
luncheon of German dishes — cold meats, salads, coffee- 
cake, pickles, coffee, etc. Each guest is given a bit of 
needle-work, button-holes to work, or a small doily to 
embroider and a prize is given for the best work. 

Have a number of tea towels, cheesecloth dusters, 
Canton flannel bags for brooms, silverware towels, 
etc., cut and ready to hem. When the ladies assemble, 
let them hem these as a gift for the bride (for whom 
the kaffee klatsch is given) to take home with her. 
Ask each to tell some of her first experiences in house- 
keeping, and at the close of the afternoon take a vote 
on the funniest experience, the cleverest in emergency 

go Breakfasts and Teas 

and the best told. To do this successfully, you will 
have to lead the conversation and not let the ladies 
know they are talking purposely. Another way is to 
assign topics as for a conversation party, giving such 
topics as: "My first attempt at making bread," "My 
first housecleaning," "Unexpected guests," "My first 
pie," etc. Or, ask each guest to write her first house- 
keeping experience (some funny incident) and bring 
it. Have the papers read aloud, but not the names. 
Let the guests guess whose the experiences are. Use 
this contest. 

What stitch is: 

Hard to live with? (Cross stitch.) 
A part of a cough? (Hemstitch.) 
A part of a window? (Blindstitch.) 
Is found on a fowl? (Featherstitch.) 
Is a fish and something everyone has? (Herring- 

Is made of many links? (Chainstitch.) 
Is not forward? (Backstitch.) 
Is useless without a key? (Lockstitch.) 
Repeats itself? (Over and over stitch.) 
For a prize for the best answers give a little leather 
sewing case fitted with needles and thread. 

A "Rushing" Tea for Sorority. 

Generally speaking, one will use their sorority colors 
in flowers and ribbons and their insignia cut from paste- 
board and covered with tissue paper of the desired 
color. A gigantic insignia would make a suitable wall 

Breakfasts and Teas 91 

decoration. Hang pennants of the colors everywhere, 
and if it is a musical sorority, work in the staff and 
notes in the decorations. These can be painted on 
cheap white muslin or paper and tacked about the walls. 
If one cares to learn a little musical yell, do so as a sur- 
prise. If the "rushing" is for new members, one can 
easily plan a series of funny tableaux picturing the new 
member in various incidents: Leaving home, or 
Breaking Home Ties"; Arriving at College; Crossing 
the Campus; Meeting the President; Meeting Her 
Roommate; Unpacking, etc. Insist upon the new 
members' answering each question to the tune of some 
college song, or else coach the old members to answer 
all questions by new members in this manner. Have a 
sorority of dolls dressed in the colors, each doll hold- 
ing a pennant, in the center of the table. Paint the 
staff and notes on the muslin tablecloth and make little 
paper drums to hold the salted nuts and bonbons. Serve 
grape juice, a salad of mixed fruits, sweet wafers and 

Sandwiches for Teas. 

The first requisite in the preparation of good sand- 
wiches is to have perfect bread in suitable condition. 
Either white, brown or entire wheat bread may be 
used, but it should be of close, even texture, and at 
least one day old. 

For very small, dainty sandwiches to be served at 
afternoon teas or breakfasts, the bread may be baked 
at home in baking-powder tins. These should be only 
half-filled, and allowed to rise before baking. The 

g2 Breakfasts and Teas 

butter should be softened by creaming, not melting, 
and spread smoothly on the bread before it is cut. Cut 
the slices as thin as possible, and when a variety is 
offered it is well to keep each kind of a different shape, 
as, for instance, circles of anchovy, triangles of chicken, 
ringers of game and squares of fruit butters. 

Flavored butters are much used in making sand- 
wiches, and are simply and easily prepared. Fresh, 
unsalted butter should be used. After creaming the 
butter, add the flavoring material, and beat until 
smooth and thoroughly blended. Caviare, anchovy, 
sardines, oysters, salmon, lobster, cheese, cress, chives, 
Chili, Chutney, olives, parsley, cucumbers, horseradish 
and paprika are all used for flavoring these various 

For afternoon teas, fruit and flower butters make 
delicious sandwiches. Of these the most popular are 
strawberry, pineapple, red raspberry and peach. Lemon 
butter mixed with fresh grated cocoanut is also a de- 
lectable sandwich filling, and cherry jelly with shav- 
ings of dried beef another. Butters flavored with rose 
or violet petals are very delicate and attractive, but, 
as may easily be imagined, find little favor with the 
sterner sex, who prefer their refreshments of a more 
substantial order. 

Anchovy Sandwiches — Rub the yolks of hard-boiled 
eggs to a paste, season to taste with anchovy essence, 
and add a few olives, stoned and chopped very fine. 
Spread this mixture on very thin slices of buttered bread 
and cut into dainty shapes. 

Breakfasts and Teas 93 

Caviare Sandwiches— Spread thinly-buttered bread 
with fresh caviare seasoned with lemon juice and on top 
of this lay a little minced lobster. Finish with another 
piece of buttered bread. 

Olive Sandwiches — Scald and cool twelve large 
olives, stone them, and chop very fine. Add one 
spoonful of mayonnaise dressing, and one teaspoonful 
of cracker dust; mix well, and spread on buttered 

Queen Sandwiches — Mince finely two parts of 
cooked chicken or game to one part of cooked tongue, 
and one part minced cooked mushrooms or truffles. 
Add seasoning and a little lemon juice, and place be- 
tween thin slices of buttered bread. 

Lobster Sandwiches — Pound two tablespoonfuls of 
lobster meat fine; add one tablespoonful of the coral, 
dried and mashed smooth, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, 
a dash of nutmeg, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of 
paprika, and two tablespoonfuls of soft butter. Mix 
all to a smooth paste and spread between thin bread 
and butter. 

Jelly Sandwiches — Mix a cupful of quince jelly with 
half a cupful of finely chopped hickory or pecan nuts, 
and spread on buttered bread. 

Date Sandwiches— Wash, dry and stone the dates, 
mash them to a pulp, and add an equal amount of finely 
chopped English walnut or pecan meats. Moisten 
slightly with lemon juice. Spread smoothly on thinly- 
sliced brown bread. 

94 Breakfasts and Teas 

Fig Sandwiches — Stem and chop very fine a sufficient 
number of figs. Add enough water to make of the 
consistency of marmalade, and simmer to a smooth 
paste. Flavor with a little lemon juice, and when cool 
spread on thin slices of buttered bread, and sprinkle 
thickly with finely chopped nuts. 

Fruit Sandwiches — Cut equal quantities of fine fresh 
figs, raisins and blanched almonds very small. Moisten 
with orange juice and spread on white bread and but- 

Beef Sandwiches — To two parts of chopped lean, 
rare beef, add one part of finely minced celery, salt, 
pepper, and a little made mustard. Place on a lettuce 
leaf between thin slices of bread and butter. 

Ginger and Orange Sandwiches — Soften Neufchatel 
cheese with a little butter or rich cream. Spread on 
white bread, cut in very thin slices, and cover with 
finely minced candied orange peel and preserved ginger. 
Place over another slice of bread. Candied lemon peel 
and preserved citron, finely minced, also make a de- 
licious sandwich filling. 

Novelties in Tea Serving. 

If you wish to vary the serving of your tea add three 
cloves to the lemon and sugar. Or a thin slice of apple 
added with sugar is delicious. In Sweden a piece of 
stick cinnamon is added by some to tea while it is 

Breakfasts and Teas 95 

Summer Porch Tea Parties. 

One of the prettiest decorations for a porch tea party 
is a hanger or pocket for flowers made by cutting pockets 
in large round pieces of bamboo, the rods being about 
three feet long. These pockets are filled with scarlet 
lilies and hung in the corners and on the posts of the 
porch. Hang Red Chinese lanterns in the open spaces 
and have red paper fans in Chinese jars on tables and 
ledges. The porch boxes along the railings can have 
their real contents almost concealed in ferns, and scarlet 
lilies stuck in amid the ferns. Across one corner the 
gay striped hammock, with its open meshes filled with 
wild cucumber and clematis vines fastened against the 
house, makes a background for the punch bowl. 
Orange ice and cream cake can be served on plates dec- 
orated with gold and white, with a bunch of daisies 
tied with pale green gauze ribbon on each plate. 

Summer Porch Tea Party. 2. 

A porch tea party given in the summer is a mosl 
enjoyable affair. The guests are seated on the porch 
which has immense jardinieres filled with garden 
flowers, and draperies of large American flags. The 
punchbowl is just inside the door in the hall. The 
guests bring their needlework and as they sew, one of 
the number reads a group of original stories. Follow- 
ing this have a little contest called The Menu. The 
prize for the correct list is a solid silver fork with a 
rose design. The refreshments are lemon sherbet, mac- 
aroons, sweet wafers, pecans and bonbons. 

96 Breakfasts and Teas 



The Capital of Portugal. 

An imitation reptile. 


A gentle English author. 

Found in the Orient. 

Boiled meats. 

Woman's chief weapon. 

A son of Noah. 


A Universal crown. . 

A part of Caesar's message and a male relative. 


A complete crush. 

Elevated felines. 

Lot's wife. 


Slang for stealing. 

To pound. 


What we don't want our creditors to do. 


What a historian delights in. 

Must be married at home. 


What a lover says to his sweetheart. 

Imitation agony. 

A sailor's harbor. 

Answers: Soups: Lisbon, mock turtle; Roasts: 
lamb, turkey; Boiled Meats: tongue, ham; Game: 
hare, venison; Relishes: jam, catsup, salt; Vege- 
tables: cabbage, beef ; Pudding: suet; Fruits: dates, 
canteloupe; Wines: Madeira, champagne, Port. 

AUG 3 1907